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Full text of "The Works of the Reverend George Whitefield, M.A., late of Pembroke-College, Oxford, and Chaplain to the Rt. Hon. the Countess of Huntingdon : containing all his sermons and tracts which have been alread published ; with a select collection of letters ... to which is prefixed, an account of his life, compiled from his original papers and letters"





Late of Pembroke-College, Oxford, 
And Chaplain to the Rt. Hon. the Countefs of Huntingdon, 



Which have been already publifhed : 


Written to his mod: intimate Friends, and Perfons of Diftindion, in 
England, Scotland, Ireland, and America, from the Year 1 734., to 
1770, including the whole Period of his Miniftry. 


Some other Pieces on Important Subjects, 

never before printed ; prepared by Himfelf for the Prefs, 
To which is prefixed. 

An ACCOUNT of his LIFE, 

Compiled from his Original Papers and Letters. 



^Printed for Edward and Charles Dilly, in the Poultry j 
and Mcfiis. Kincaid and Creech, at Edinburgh. 







A a 

[ 5 3 






My Lord^ 

I Need make no apology for troubling your Lordfhip with 
this. As your Lordfhip was pleafed to make me the chief 
fubjed matter of your laji Pajioral Letter^ I think it my 
duty to anfwer in the bell manner I can. 

Your Lordfhip is highly to be commended, for the care 
you have taken in watching over the fouls of thofe, who are 
committed to your Lordlhip*s charge. Lukewarmnefs and 
enthufiafm^ are the two rocks againfl which even Vi^ell-riiean- 
ing people are in danger of fplitting. All ought to be thank- 
ful to that pilot, who will teach them to fleer a fafe and mid- 
dle courfe. I v/ould gladly hope, that '* a zeal for God 
in the difcharge of your duty, and a hearty concern for the 
fafety of fouls," moved your Lordfhip to write. Thefe are 
the principles, I trufl, which now excite me, to dire£l this 
anfwer to your Lordfhip, And, blefTed be God, that I carl 
write with fomewhat of that love and meeknefs, which be- 
comes a difciple of JesUs Christ, and with all that humi- 
lity and reverence, vvhich is due from a prefbyter to a bifhop 
of the church of God. © 

A 1 . iuke- 


Lukewarmnefs anJ entliulivifm, n)y Lord, are ccrtiiinly the 
bane of true chriiliunity. I thaiilc your Loidlliip again for 
your kind cautions againil them. The only query is, " Whe- 
ther there was any cccuhon for your Lordlhip's warning the 
people of your diocefc, againfl; running into cither of thefe 
extremes, upon account of any thing, 1 have either fpokcn 
or written?" Your Lordfhip thinks there was, and quotes 
paflages out of n^y Journal to prove itj if it can be proved, 
I will aft: public pardon, both of your Lordfliip and ihcni, 
with all my heart. 

As for your LordfliJp's cautions againft lukewarmnefs, I am 
rot much concerned in them. You do not feem to point at 
me in partlcuhr; unlefs it is, where your Lordfliip (pag. lo.) 
inforiiis your people, '* That a diligent attendance on the 
duties of thoilation wherein Providence has placed them, is, in 
ihe flriclcft fenfe, the ferving of God." None but thofe, who 
condemn me unheard, can juflly charge me with affirming to 
the contrary. 

However, I beg leave to obferve, that your Lordfhip, 
(p. 8.) calls that a very imperfect ftate of chriilianity, which 
is no Jlaie of chrijVianiiy at all. St. Faul, writing to the Co- 
rinthiansy 2 Cor, chap. xiii. ver. 5, fays, '* Examine your- 
felves, whether ye be in the faith -, prove your ownftlves." 
And that they might have a certain rule, whereby to judge 
whether they were in the faith, truly fo called, or notj he 
immediately adds, *' Know ye not your ownfelves, how that 
Christ Jesus is in you, except ye be reprobates ? " So that, 
according to St. Paurs rule, " He that finds, he has hitherto 
contented himfelf with a bare bodily attendance upon the 
public worHiip of God, and with following his daily employ- 
ment on other days, and with abftaining from the more grofs 
and notorious a6fs of fin, and from doing any hurt or injury 
to his neighbour, and has reftcd finally upon thefe, as the 
whole of what chriftianity requires of him;*' is fo far from 
being in a very imperfed flate, as your Lordfhip is pleafed to 
afHrm, pag. 8. that he is in no ftate of chriftianity at alL 
No, my Lord, he is a reprobate, or, one who at prcfent is out 
of a ftate of falvation, nor can he ever have any aiTu ranee 
that he is in a ftate of falvation, till he knows that Jesus 
Christ 1$ in him, by the indwelling of his Holy Spirit. If 

I have 

t 7 ] 

I have miftaken your Lordftiip's exprefllon, I will freely beg 
your Lord(hip*s pardon. 

Another thing, my Lord, to me feems darkly exprefled, in 
pag. 1 8. (let not your Lordfhip be angry, for indeed 1 will 
endeavour to fpeak wiih all gcntlenefs and humility) : yout" 
Lord(hip*s words are thefe : " Nor need they any other evi- 
dence befides thofe good difpcfitions they fmd in their hearts, 
that the Holy Spirit of God co-operates with their honeft en- 
deavours to fubdue fin and grow in goodnefs." If by good 
difpofitions, your Lordfliip only means good h2cli?7atio?is or 
defires, I deny that to be a fufHcient evidence, that the Spirit 
of God co-operates with their honeft endeavours to fubdue 
fm and grow in goodnefs. For there is a great difference be- 
tween good defires and good habits : many have one, who 
never attain the other. Many have good defires to fubdue fm^ 
and yet, refling in thofe good defires, fin has always had do- 
minion over them. A perfon fick of a fever may defire to be 
in health, but that defire is not health itfelf. In like manner, 
many have good difpofitions, or defires to be good, but that is 
riot goodnefs itfelf. And confequently men need more evidence 
than good difpofitions, to prove to themfelves or others^ 
*' that the Holy Spirit of God co-'operates with their honeft 
tndeavours to fubdue fin.'* If by good difpofitions, your 
Lordfhip means good habits wrought in the heart by the Spi- 
rit of God, fuch as peace, love, joy, long-fuiFering, goodnefs^ 
truth, kc. I then agree a man needs no other evidence : (ot 
thefe are the proper and genuine fruits of the Spirit itfelf. 

Your Lordfhip immediately adds, '^ Nor that, perfevering 
in their courfe, and praying to God for his afuilance, and re- 
lying upon the merits of Christ for the paroon of all fuch 
fins, failings, and imperfedions, as are more or lefs unavoid- 
able in this mortal flate." I b^g leave to afk your Lordfhip, 
whether this does not favour too much of the common divinity. 
That we are to do fomcthing for ourfelves : or, in other 
\vords, that we have partly a righteoufnefs of our own, and 
that Jesus Christ is to make up the deficiencies of that 
righteoufnefs ? What elfe can your Lordfhip mean, by fay- 
ing. That we muft rely on the merits of Christ for the 
pafdon of '* all fuch fins as are more or lefs unavoidable in 
this mortal f^ate?'* Did Jzsus Christ conie into the world, 

A 4 my 

[ 8 ] 

tny Lord, only to fave us from the guilt of fucb fins, as are 
more or lefs unavoidable in this mortal :late? The fcriptures 
every where affirm, that man hath no righteoufnefs of his 
own, *' Hiat there is none righteous, no not one j — that all 
our righteoufnefs is as filthy rags /' and that Jesus Christ 
died, not only to fave us from the guilt of all fuch iins, fail- 
ino-s, and infirmities, as are more or lefs unavoidable in this 
mortal ftate, but from all wilful fms, and alfo from that ori- 
ginal corruption, which every man naturally engendered of the 
offspring of Jdam^ brings into the world with him. I hope 
I have not mifunderffood, or overftrained your Lordfhip's ex- 

I come now to your Lordfhip's caution againft enthuftaftn. 
. For that, I fuppofe, your Lordihip intended more particularly 
againft me. 

And here, my Lord, I beg leave to obferve. That, in my 
opinion, your Lordfliip has by no means been clear enough 
in your definition of the word enthufiafm. 

According to the fair rules of writing, was it not firfl: in- 
cumbent on your Lordihip to Tnew, that the word enthufiajl 
hud a good as well as a bad meaning : that it fignifics no more 
than a perfon in God, and confequently every chriftian, in the 
|)roper fenfe of the word, is an enthufiaft ? For St. Peter 
writes, " That to us are given exceeding great and precious 
promifes, that by thefe we might be partakers of the divine 

And our church fays, " If v.'e receive the facrament wor- 
thily, we are one with Christ, and Christ with us : we 
dwell in Christ, and Christ in us." For which fhe has 
fufficient warrant from our Lord's prayer, John xvii. 20, &c. 
*' Neither pray I for thefe alone, but for them alfo which 
fhall believe on me through their word ; that they all may be 
one, as thou. Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they alfo 
may be one in us, I in them, and they in me, that they mav 
be made perfect in one : that the love wherewith thou haft 
loved me, may be in them, and I in them." 

But indeed your Lordfliip's definition of enthufiafrn^ 
when examined, does not convey any ill idea at all. *^ En- 
thufiafm, is a ftrong perfuafion on the mind, that they 
are guided in an extraordinary manner, by immediate impulfes 


[ 9 ] 

and impreffions of the Spirit of God." Had your Lordfhip 
faid, a ftrong but grouyidkfs pe.rfunf,on^ that they arc guided in 
an extraordinary manner, it would have been to your Lord- 
Ihip's purpofe. But to affirm, without any reftriclion, that 
a ftrong perfuafion that we are guided in an extraordinary 
manner by immediate impulfes, is enthufiafm in the worft 
fenCe of the word, when your Lordfhip yourfelf fays, (p. 54.) 
" There is no doubt, but God, when he pleafes, can work 
upon the minds of men by extraordinary influences," to me 
feems a little inconfiftent. 

Your LordPnip proceeds thus : " And this is owing chiefly 
to the want of diftinguifhing aright between the ordinary and 
extraordinary operations of the Holy Spirit. The extraordi- 
nary operations were thofe, by which the apoftles and others, 
who were entrufted with the hrft propagation of the gofpel, 
were enabled to worlc miracles, and fpeak. with tongues, in 
teftimony, that their million and do6lrine were from God." 

I fuppofe, by extraordinary operations, your Lordfliip 
means the fame as being guided in an extraordinary manner, 
juft above. And if fo, according to your Lordfhip^s own de- 
finition, I am no enthufiaft. For I never did pretend to thefe 
extraordinary operations of working miracles, or fpeaking 
with tongues, in teftimony that my miinon and do(5\rine were 
from God 5 I only lay claim to the ordinary gifts and in- 
fluences of the Spirit, which your Lordfhip (pag. 20.) fays, 
'' Still continue :" and what need was there then, my Lord, 
that the people of your Lordfliip's diocefe fliould be cautioned 
againft enthufiafm upon my account ? * 

But your Lordfhip farther adds, " The ordinary gifts, 
however real and certain in themfelves, are no otherwife dif- 
cernible, than by their fruits and effecfs." Had your Lord- 
fhip faid, No otherwife difcernible to others^ than by their 
fruits and efte£ts, it would have been right : but if your 
Lordfhip means, they are no otherwife difcernible to ourfelves, 
in my opinion, it is wrong ; for it is pollible, my Lord, for 
a perfon to feel and difcern thefe ordinary gifts and influences 
of the Spirit in himfelf^ when there is no opportunity of dif- 
covering them to others. * 

For infl:ance, on fuppofition that your Lordfhip was aflifled 
by the blefTed Spirit, in writing your paftoral letter ; might 
not your Lordfhip be fenfible of an inward joy and compla- 

ccncy, wrought by that felf-fame Spirit, which was not then 
difcerniblc to others ? So is it pofiiblc for another to feel joy 
in the Holy Ghoft, with the refl of his fruits, which at that 
time may not be difcernible to others ; and which they, who 
have never experienced the like, may not believe, though a 
man declare it unto them. I hope, my Lord, thefe rcafonings 
carry with them thei^ own evidence. 

But to proceed : (pages 21, 22, 23, 24, 25.) your Lord- 
{hip has taken pains to colledl feveral paffages out of the pub- 
lic liturgy, to prove the do6trine of regeneration, or our new 
'birth, to be the dodrine of the Church of England. Your 
reafon for fo doing, appears (pag. 25.) " to arm your people 
a2;ainft any fuggefiions, as if our church were fo rcgardlefs 
of the do6lrine of regeneration and new birth, as if there were 
need for any member of it, to feek elfewhcre for a more fpiri- 
tual fervice." If this, my Lord, was intended to arm your 
people againft any fuch fuggefiions made by me ; indeed ycur 
Lord(hip does not do me juftice. As your Lordihip, I find, 
has done me the honour to perufe my Third Journal, your 
Lordfliip may remember this obfervation, (pag. 39.) that, 
after I had baptized an adult, I proved the neccflity of the- 
new birth, from the office of our church. 

In my fermon, upon the i?idive!ling of the Spirit of G0D5 
which I have made bold to fend to your Lordlhip with this 
letter, you will find, I have quoted the exprefiions of our own 
church offices, to prove the doiStrine of the new birth, as 
your LordQiip does in your paftoral letter. A4y conftant way 
of preaching is, firll, to prove my propofitions by fcripturc, 
and then to illuftraLt them by the articles and collcds of the 
church of England. Thofe that have heard me, can witnefs^ 
how often I have exhorted them to be conftant at the public 
fervice of the church. I attend on it myfelf, and would read 
the public liturgy every day, if your Lordfhip's clergy would 
give me leave. What further fatisfadion can your Lordfiiip 
require, that I do not fuggeil: to your Lordfhip's people, '' as 
if our church were regardlefs of the dodrine of regeneration, 
and new birth, and as if there were need for any member of 
it, to feek el fe where for a more fpiritual fervice." 

In the following paragraph, your Lordfl^iip has the fame 

infinuation, as ihou^^h I wanted to introduce extempore prayer^ 

n anil 

and to lay afiJe the public liturgy of our church. For after 
your Lordfhip had been fpeaking againit praying by the Spirit, 
and affirming that the fcripture no where tells u«, that prayer 
is the iinglc work of the Spirit, your Lordfhip fays to your 
people, " you have great reafon to be thankful to God, for a 
public fervice prepared to your hands." My Lord, I never 
faid to the contrary. But does not your Lordfhip feem to in- 
finuate at the fame time, that u-e are not to depend on the 
Spirit of God, to enable us to pray extempore, eithej in pub- 
lic or private? That prayer is not the fingle work of the 
Spirit, without any co-operation of our own, I readily confefs. 
But that the Spirit of God does affift true chriflians to pray 
extempore, now, as well as formerly, is undeniable, if the 
fcriptures be true. For what fays the Apoftle.? " We know 
not what to pray for, as we ought; but the Spirit itfelf helpeth 
our infirmities, and makcth intercefiion for us with groanings 
that cannot be uttered." And this is founded upon a general 
promife, made to all God's people, 7,achariah xii. lo. "I 
will pour upon the houfe of David, and upon the inhabitants 
o^ Jerufalem^ the Spirit of grace, and of fupplicaticn." And 
I believe, my Lord, we may appeal to the experience of all 
true chriftians, whether or no they did not find the Spirit of 
fupplication, ©r a power of praying without a form, increafe 
in proportion to the increafe of God's Grace or Holy Spiii: 
in their hearts. This is all, my Lord, that I pretend to: 
and where is the impropriety of this, when your Lordfnip 
confefles in the fame page, that '' the Spirit of God does par- 
ticularly aflift us, in a due performance of religious offices.'"* 

Further, as your Lordfliip feems to deny the immediate af- 
fiftance of the Holy Spirit, in our particular addrefles at the 
throne of Grace, fo your Lordfhip feems to deny it alfo in our 
particular adions. '^ In like manner, (you fay) we are firmly 
perfuadcd in general, that we live under the gracious influence 
of God's Holy Spirit, and that he both excites and enables 
us to do good. But that this or that thought or a£lion is an 
effe(5t of the fole motion, or immediate impul fc of the Spirit, 
without any co-operation of our own mind " — [My Lord, 
who ever arffimcd, that there was no co-operation of our own 
minds, together with the impulfe of the fpirit of God?] Your 
Lordfliip adds, " or that the Holy Spirit, and our natural con- 

r 12 ] 

ceptions, do refpcdllvely contribute to this or that thought or 
a6tion, in i'uch a meafure, or to Tuch a degree; thefe are 
thino-s we dare not fay." Indeed, my Lord, I do dare to fay 
them. For if there be any fuch thing as a paiticular provi^ 
dence, why may we not expeft particular diredion from 
God's Holy Spirit in particular cafes ? Does not oar churchy 
my Lord, teach us to pray, " that God's Holy Spirit may in 
all things direct and rule our hearts?" But your Lordfhip fays, 
we dare not fay this, becaufe our Saviour has told us, that we 
know no more of the working of the Spirit, than we know of 
the wind, from whence it cometh, and whither it gocth. 
Neither need we know any more of them : but you muft al^ 
luw, that we know as much. Cannot your Lordfhip feel the 
wind then? Does not your Lord flu p know when it makes any 
impreHion upon your body ? So eafy it is for a fpiritual man 
to know when the Holy Spirit makes an impreffion upon his 
foul. Without acknowledging this, all the expreflions of be- 
ino' led by the Spirit^ walking by the Spirit, and fuch like, mull 
be only fo many words without any real meaning. Your Lord^ 
iliip acknowledges, that the Holy Spirit does a6l in general^ 
and why not in the particular aiSlions of our lives alfo ? For, 
can the one be without the other ? Does it not frequently 
happen, my Lord, that the comfort and happinefs of our whole 
^ij/es, depend on one particular adion ? And where then, my 
Lord, is the abfurdity of faying, that the Holy Spirit may 
even, in the minuted circumftance, dire<Sl: and rule our hearts? 
I have been the more particular, my Lord, on this part of your 
Lordfnip's letter, becaufe if this be proved, many of youi* 
Lordfliip's objections againft my Journals, will fall to the 

Pau;e 27. Your Lordfhip has the following paragraphs 
" God forbid, that in this profane and degenerate agCj every 
thing that has an appearance of piety and devotion, (hould noC 
be confidered in the moft favourable light that it is capable of< 
But at the fame time, it is furely very proper, that men fhould 
be called upon for fome reafonable evidences of a divine Com-* 

I take it for granted^ that I am one of thofe men, whom 
your Lordfhip thinks fhould be called upon for fome reafon-* 
able evidence of a divine CGriwiiJfim^ 


[ 13 ] 

But, my Lord, what rcafonable evidence does your Lord- 
(hip require ? Did I not receive letters dimifTory from your 
Lordfhip's own hands to be ordained a pricfl? Did I not, when 
ordained deacon, affirm, " that I was inv/ardly moved by the 
Holy Ghoft, to take upon me that office and miniftration ?" 
Did not my Lord of Gloucrjler^ when he ordained me pried, 
fay unto me, *' Receive thou the Holy Ghofl now committed 
unto thee, by the impofition of our hands, in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghoft?'* And is 
not this, my Lord, a reafonable evidence that I a£l by a 
divine Commijjion? If this be not true, muft not all thofe 
whom 'your Lordfhip, or the other Biiliops ordain, a6l only 
by a human Commijjion? Nay, to ufe the words of Bifliop 
Burnet in his Pajioral Letter^ " muft not they vvlio are ordain- 
ed, lie not only unto man but unto God, by faying, they are 
inwardly moved by the Holy Spirit?" 

If your Lordfhip in any wife difputes my acting by a divine 
Commijjion, you difclaim your own divine right and authority^ 
iior can you poffibly avoid the dilemma, of either allowing my 
divine Commijjion, or denying your own. 

After your Lordfhip has infmuated a demand for the evi- 
dences of my divine Commijjion, immediately follows thefe 
words } " when they tell us of extraordinary communications 
they have with God." 

If by extraordinary communications, your Lordfhip means 
the extraordinary operations of the Holy Spirit, as working 
miracles, and fpeaking with tongues ; your Lordfliip may 
^fiure yourfelf, 1 never pretended to any fuch thing. \^^ by 
extraordinary communications, your Lordfhip means more af- 
fiftance and comforts from God, at fame times, than I have 
at others, (which is all I mean by extraordinary communica- 
tions) I own the charge ? And what is there, my Lord, extra- 
ordinary in that ? 

Again, your Lordfhip fays, (page 28.) '' When they talk 
in the language of thofe, who. have a Jpecial and inuncdiate 
7niJfion from God." 

And does your Lordfhip, and the refl of the Bifhops, ordain 
any, without obliging them firfl to give good proofs, that they 
have a fpecial call or immediate miffion from God to tlie 
work of the miniflry ? If ever you fo do, my Lord, do not 
your Lordfhips lay hands too fuddenly upon men ? 

r 14 ] 

Pa<Te 29, Your Lordflilp writes thus, «' When they pro- 
fefs to think and act under the immediate guidance of a divine 

And does not your Lordihip think and ad by the fame rule? 
Why, otherwife, does your Lordfhip pray when you adminifter 
the holy Communion, " that God would cleanfe the thoughts 
of our hearts by the infpiration of his Holy Spirit ?" 

Page •:^i. Your Lordfnip fays, '^ when they fpeak of their 
preaching and expounding, and the eftcdis of them, as the 
Jole work of a divine Power.'*' 

And would your LordOiip have me afcribe any, the leaft 
thing to niyfeir? The good that is done upon earth, doth not 
God do it himfelf ? Does not the Apoftle fay, " Not that we 
^re fufHcient of ourfelves to think any thing as of ourfelves, 
but our fufiiciency is of God ?" And where then, my Lord, 
is the abfurdity of afcribing the cffeds of expounding and 
preaching to the fole work of a divine Power ? 

Again, (page 33.) " When they boaft of fudden and fur- 
prizing efFecls as wrought by the Holy Ghojl^ in confequence 
of their preaching." 

Where, my Lord, is the enthufiafm of fuch a pretenfion ? 
Has your Loidfiiip been a preacher in the church of England^ 
for fo many years, and have you never feen any fudden or fur- 
prizing efFeds, conlcqucnt upon your Lordfhip's preaching ? 
Was this my cafe?, (liould I not have reafon to doubt, my 
Lord, whether I had any more tlian a bare human commiffi- 
on ? Or might I not take up the Prophet's lamentation, " O 
my leannels, my leannefs !" My Lord, the gofpel, like its 
author, is the fame yeftcrday, to-day, and for ever ; and, if 
preached as it ou^ht to be, will prick numbers to the heart, 
and extort the cry of the tremb.ing goaler, " What muft I 
do to be faved !" as furcly now, as it did fcventeen hundred 
years ago. 

Thefc then are the fudden and furprizing effeds, my Lord, 
I always defire to have, and I hear.ily pray God, your Lord- 
fliip and all your clergy may always fee Inch cfFeds in confe- 
quence of their prcacliing. 

CPage 34.) "• When they claim the fpirit 0^ prophecy .'' 

What I have faid about my fuccefs, God has been pleafecj 
to fulfil already. What 1 have fajd about fuiierings, they who 


[ 15 ] 

without caufe are my enemies are fulfilling daily. And as for 
the promifes mentioned in my Journal, I freely own there are 
fome par;icular promifes, which CjOD has fo ftrongly impreff- 
cd, and does flill imprefs on my heart, that I verily believe 
they will be fulfilled. 

(Page 35.) " When they fpcak of themselves in the 
language, and under the character of j-lpojiles of Chriji^ and 
even of Christ himfelf." 

If I am not to fpeak in an apoftollcal language, why did my 
Lord of Ghucejlcr give me an apoftolical commiliion, " vvhofe 
fins thou doft forgive, they are forgiven; and whofe fins thou 
doft retain, they are retained?" And I hope, my Lord, ufing 
the virords which Jesus Christ ufed, is not taking upon me 
the chara(5ler of Christ. 

(Page 36.) " When they profefs to plant and propagate a 
neiio Gojpel^ as unknown to the generality of minillers and 
people, in a chriftian country." 

'Tis true, my Lord, in one fenfe, mine is a new gofpel, 
and will be always unknown to the generalitv of minifters and 
people, even in a chriftian country, if your Lordlliip's cfergy 
follow your Lordfhip's diredions. For what fays your Lord- 
fhip, (page 46.) ♦' I h©pe, that when your minifters preach to 
/you of juft'ification by faith alone^ which is afi^erted in the 
flrongeft manner by our church, they explain it in fuch a 
manner, as to leave no doubt upon your minds, whether good 
works are a necefjary condition of your being juftified in the 
fight of God." 

But pray, my Lord, where has the fctipture made good 
works a necefTary condition of our being juilified in the fight 
of God? St. Faul fays, " by grace ye are faved, through 
faith, not of works, and that, leaft any man fhould boaft. 
For eternal life is the gift of God through Jesus Christ 
our Lord." Your Lordfhip exhorts your clergy to preach 
jufiif cation by faith alone^ and quotes the nth article of our 
church, which tells us, " we are juftified by faith only, and 
not for our own works or dcfervings." At the fame time, 
your Lordfhip bids them " explain it in fuch a manner, as to 
leave no doubt upon their minds, whether good works are a 
necefTary condition of their being juflified in the fight of 
Qop." Your Lordfhip, in my opinion, could not well be 


[ i6 ] 

guilty of a greater Inconfiflency. This, my Lord, is truly a 
TiriXJ Gofpel. I ain furc it is not what the Apoflles preached ; 
and it is as contrary to the doctrine of the church o{' England^ 
and the whole tenour of the gofpel, as light is contrary to 
darknefs. Had your Lordfliip infiftcd on your clergy's preach- 
ing up good works as a nccejfary fruit and confequence, inftead 
of a neccfiary condition of our being juftified, your Lordfhip 
would have ufcd your authority aright. For v/e are command- 
ed to fiiew forth or declare to others, that we have a true 
faith by our works. And the 12th article of our church fays, 
that "good works y^^/Z^xi; after juftiiication ;'* and how then, 
my Lord, are they a neccfiary condition of our jufiification .? 
No, my Lord, falvation (if the gofpel be true) is the free gift 
of God through Jesus Christ, f^aith is the means where- 
by that falvation is applied to our hearts, and good works are 
the neccfiary fruits and proof of that faith. 

l^his, my Lord, is the dodrine of Jesus Christ, this is 
the dodrine of the church of England^ and it is, becaufe the 
generality of the clergy of the church o^ England ^o not preach 
this do^rine, that I am refolvcd, God being my helper, to 
continue inftant in feafon and out of feafon, to declare it unto 
all men, let the confcquences, as to my own private perfon, 
be what they will. 

As for your Lordfliip's blaming me for rafhly cenfuring the 
clergy, for their praiSlice, none are concerned, but my indolenty 
iarthly-TiiUidcd^ pleafure-taking brethren^ (P^?^ 39*) -^^^^ furely, 
your Lordfhip v.ill not fland up in their defence. No, I hope 
your Lordfliip will not fail to rebuke them fharply. And as 
for your Lordfliip's fufpicions, page 50. (For your Lordfliip's 
fake I would not mention them) I hope my life and do(5lrine 
will always prove them to be groundlefs. 

Would time permit, I could now proceed to fatisfy your 
Lordfliip more particularly about the cafe of Mr. Benjcmi'm Se- 
ward: but as that is done in a letter fent to my Lord of Glou- 
cejler\ and as I am now to embark in a {t.'iN hours, I hope your 
Lordfhip will cxcufe me, if I only add my hearty prayers for 
your Lordfhip's temporal and eternal welfare, and fubfcribe 
myfelf, my Lord, 

Your Lordflnp's obedient, though 

unworthy fon and fervant, 

Blendon, Monday, Q^ jy^ 

Augc 13, 1739. 


C 17 ] 

The letter above mentioned, as fent to the Blftiop of Ghtr^ 
(ejier^ was occafioned by the Bifhop's acquainting Mr. White- 
ficld^ in a letter, " That he ought to preach only in that 
congregation to which he was lawfully appointed." This 
produced the following anfwer. 

My Lord^ 

I Thank your Lordfliip for your Lordflilp's kind letter. 
My frequent removes from place to place prevented my 
anfwering it fooner. I am greatly obliged to your Lordfliip, 
in that you are pkafed to watch over my foul, and to caution 
me againft a6ting contrary to the commiffion given me at or- 
dination. But if the commiffion we then receive, obliges us 
to preach no where but in that parifli which is committed to 
our care, then all perfons a6t contrary to their cDmcnifTion 
when they preach occafionally in any (Irange place : and con- 
fequently your Lordfhip equally offends, when you preach out 
of your own diocefe. As for inveighi«ng againft the clergy, 
(without a caufe) I deny the charge. What I fay, I am 
ready to make good whenever your Lordfhip pleafes. Let 
thofe that bring reports to your Lordfhip about my preaching, 
be brought face to face, and I am ready to give them an an- 
fwer. St. Faul exhorts Timothy^ " Not to receive an accufation 
againft an elder under two or three witnefTcs.'* And QwtnNico- 
de?nusQo\x\^ fay, *' The law fufFered no man to be condemned- 
unheard." I fhall only add, that I hope your Lordfhip will 
infped into the lives of your other clergy, and ccnfure them 
for being over-remifsy as much as you cenfure me for being 
ever-righteous. It is their falling from their articles, and not 
preaching the truth as it is in Jesus, that has excited the 
prefent zeal of (thofe whom they in derifion call) the Mciho- 
dift preachers. Dr. Stehbings fermon, (for which I thank your 
Lordfhip) confirms me more and more in my opinion, that f 
ought to be inflant in feafon and out of feafon. For to me, 
be feenis to know no more of the true nature of regenerarion, 
than Nicodemus did, when he came to Jesus by night. Your 
Lordfliip may obfcrvc, that he does not fpeak a word of origi- 
nal fin, or the dreadful confequences of our fall in Adaniy upon 
which the dodrine of the new birth is entirely founded. No : 
Vol. IV. B like 


[ i8 } 

like other polite preachers, he feems to think.in the very be- 
ginning of his difcourfe, that St. PauVs defcription of the 
wickednefs of the heathen is only to be referred to them of 
paft ag?s : whereas I affirm, we are all included as much un- 
der the guilt and confcquences of fin, as they were ; and if any 
man preach any other do6lrine, he fhall bear his punifliment, 
whofoever he be. Again, my Lord, the Do6lor entirely mi- 
flakes us, when \ye talk of the fer/ible operations of the 
Holy Ghoft. He underftands us juft as thofe carnal Jews 
underftood Jesus Christ, who, when our Lord talked of 
giving them that bread which came down from heaven, faid, 
*' How can this man give us his flefhtoeat?" Indeed I 
know not that we do ufe the vjox^ ferifible, when we are talk- 
ing of the operations of the Spirit of GoD. But if we do, 
we do not mean, that God's Spirit does manifeft itfelf to our 
fenfes, but that it may be perceived by the foul, as really as 
is any fenfible impreffion made upon the body. But to dif- 
prove this, the Do£tor brings our Lord's allufion to the wind 
in the third of St. John, which is one of the beft texts he 
could urge to prove it. For if the analogy of our Lord's 
difcourfe be carried on, v/e fhall find it amounts to thus much: 
that although the operations of the Spirit of God can no 
more be accounted for, than how the wind cometh and whi- 
ther it goeth ; yet may they be as eafily felt by the foul as the 
wind may be felt by the body. My Lord, indeed we fpeak 
what we know. But, fays the Doctor, " Thefe men have 
no proof to offer for their inward manifeftations." What 
proof, my Lord, does the Do6tor require ? Would he have us 
raife dead bodies ? Have we not done greater things than 
thefe ? I fpeak with all humility ; has not God by our mi- 
niftry raifed many dead fouls to a fpiritual life ? Verily, if 
men will not believe the evidence God has given that he fent 
us, neither would they believe though one rofe from the dead. 
Befides, my Lord, the Dodtor charges us with things to 
which we are entire flrangers, fuch as the denying men the 
ufe of God's creatures. Encouraging abfbinencc, prayer, &c. 
to the neglecSl of the duties of our ftations. Lord, lay not 
this fin to his charge ! Again, he fays, *' That I fuppofe 
Mr. Benjamin Sczvard to be a perfon believing in Christ, and 
biameiefs in his converfation, before what I call bis conver- 


[ 19 ] 

fion." But this k a direct untruth : for it was through the 
want of a living faith in Jesus Christ, which he now has, 
that he was not a chrlftian before, but a mere moral ift. Your 
Lordfliip knows that our article fays, *' Works done without 
the Spirit of God, and true faith in Jesus Christ, have the 
nature of fin." And fuch were all the works done by Mr. 
Benjamin Seiuardy lefjre the time mentioned in my Journal. 
Again, my Lord, the Do6tor reprefents, that as my opinion 
concerning quakcrs in general, which I only meant of thofe 
I had converfed with in particular. But the Do6lor, and 
the reft of my reverend brethren, are welcome to judge 
me as they pleafe. — Yet a little while, and we (hall all ap- 
pear before the great Shepherd of our fouls. There, there, 
my Lord, fhall it be determined, who are his true minifters, 
and who are only wolves in flieeps cloathing. Our Lord, 
I believe, will not be afliamed to confefs us publicly in that 
day. I pray God we all may approve ourfelves fuch faithful 
minifters of the New Teftament, that we may be able to lift 
up our heads with boldnefs. As for declining the work in 
which I am engaged, my blood runs chill at the very thoughts 
of it. I am as much convinced, it is my duty to a6t as I do, 
as that the fun {hines at noon-day. I can forefee the confe- 
quences very well. They have already in one fenfe thruft us 
cut of the fynagogues. By and by they will think it is doing 
God fervice to kill us. But, my Lord, if you and the reft 
of the bifhops caft us out, our great and common Mafter 
will take us up. Though all men fhould deny us, yet 
will not he. And however you may cenfure us as evil 
doers, and difturbers of the peace, yet if we do fufFer for our 
prefent way of ailing, your Lordflaip at the great day will 
find, that we fufFer only for righteoufnefs fake. In patience 
therefore do I pollefs my foul. I willingly tarry the Lord's 
leifure. In the mean while I (hall continually bear your 
Lordfhip's favours upon my heart, and endeavour to behave, 
fo as to fubfcribe myfelf, my Lord, 

Your Lordfhip's obedient Son, and obliged fervant, 
George Whitefield. 

B 2 




T O T H E 


O F 

E N G L A iSf D. 

, Written during the Voyage to Philadelphia^ ^739* 
and particularly recommended to thofe who had 
then lately formed themfelves into Religtous 
Societies in Scotland-. 


[ 23 ] 

LETTER, &c. 

My dear Brethren In Ohr'ijl^ 

THE Apoftle in his epiftle to the Hebrews^ chap. x. 23, 
exhorts them to hold faft the profelTion of their faith 
without wavering ; and foon after adds, as a moft efFedlual 
means to fo defirable an end, " Let us confider one another to 
provoke unto love, and to good works; not forfaking the 
aflembling of ourfelves together/' 

As chriftianity was not then the national religion, I fuppofe 
the aflemblies here intended, were not fuch as our public con- 
gregations, but rather little private focieties, or aflbciations. Or 
churches, as was the cuftom of the primitive chriftians, who, 
\te arc told, continued ftedfaftly in the Apoftle's dodlrrne, and 
in fellowfhip one with another. 

This was the Apoftle's exhortation to the chriftians of thofe 
times; and I am fully perfuaded there never was more occafion 
for renewing it, than the age wherein we live. 

Nothing hath of late more alarmed the enernies of the crofs 
of Christ, than the zeal that God hath ftlrred up in the 
hearts of many to put in pradice this apoftolical injunction. 
Balls, plays, horfe-races, and fuch like unchriftian and fatal 
entertainments, are countenanced and fupported by public au- 
thority. And few as yet have had courage to fpeak, preach, 
or write for the fupprefting them, fo plainly and publicly as 
they ought; but, if the children of God meet (as they are re» 
quired) to build up each other in their moft holy Faith, almofji: 
every ofte's mouth is opened againft them. Nay, with grief 
it muft be fpoken, even m.any of our mafters in Ifrael^ who 
ought to be patterns, and promote every good word and work, 
^re not content with countenancing the polite and fmful di- 

B J. verfio/is 

t 24 ] 

Verfions of the age by their prefence and approbation, but arc 
generally moft bitter in their inve£lives againft religious foci- 
eties. The former, though direcSlly contrary to our baptifmal 
vow, are. deemed innocent, if not ufeful, by them : the latter, 
they are continually crying down (efpecially if any lite or di- 
vine power be amongft them) as fchifmatical, feditious, and 
tending to deflroy the prefent eftabliihed conftitution. 

For thefe, and many fuch like reafons, I, as prefent with 
you in fpirit, though abfent in body, thought it my duty to 
put you in mind, zealoufly to peiTifl: in your obedience to 
the foremen tioned injun£lion once delivered to the faints ; 
and fo much the more, as in all probability the day of perfe- 
cution nearer and nearer approaches. 

God has given an harveft, and there has been a gathering 
in : a winnowing time will come. His fan is already in his 
hand. Yet a little while, and (if the work lately begun be 
carried on) I am perfuaded he will throughly purge his flour. 
The fhepherds muft firft be fmitten ; and next, endeavours 
will be ufcd to fcatter the fheep. The religious focieties 
Satan has undoubtedly defired to have, that he may fift them 
as wheat. My brethren, watch and pray one for another, 
that you may be enabled to ftand in fuch an hour of tempta- 
tion, and having done all, to ftand. 

Be not aftiamed of that wherein you ought to glory. Re- 
ligious fociety is of divine extradlion. As God made man, 
fo God faid, " It is not good that man (hould be alone : 1 
will make a help meet for him." Meet, as I take it, not 
merely for his body (man had hw corporal wants in paradife) 
but chiefly and primarily for his better part the foul, that he 
might have one to converfe with of his own fpecies, bone of 
his bone, and flelh of his flefti. 

It is true, man is now a fallen, but yet he is a focial crea- 
ture : and as the end of his coming into this world was to 
prepare for a better ; (o without doubt the chief end of fociety 
in general, and of religious fociety in particular, is, that we 
may be helps meet for each other in the great work of our 

Upon this account It was, that the firft chriftians fo fre- 
quently aficmbled themfelves together, when obliged to (hut 
the doors for fear of the Js'uus ; and their continuing in ftl- 


[ 25 ] 
lowfiiip with each other, was one main reafon why they con-» 
tinued ftedfaft in the apoftles do(flrine. 

Take then, my brethren, the primitive chriftians for your 
examples : their praif^ices are recorded for our learning. No 
power on earth can lawfully forbid or hinder your imitating 
them. In all fuch cafes we muft obey God rather than man ; 
other wife, we fo far deny our holy profellion, and are ene^ 
mies to the crofs of Christ : and though, becaufe you have 
got a little out of the formal way, fome blind zealots may 
brand you as fchifmatical ; yet if you fear God, and truTy 
honour the King, and are of the number of thofe who ara 
quiet in the land, there is no reafon can be urged againft your 
focieties, which will not equally hold good againft all aflem- 
bling together for religious purpofes. 

In this refpe61:, a private prelate has no more authority than 
a private prefbyter. If it be lawful for more than five to meet 
in a private veftry, it is equally lawful for more than five to 
meet in a private houfe ; as is the pra(?l:ice of fome of the fo- 
cieties who are under the government of thofe called the 
Twelve Stewards. If it be enquired of you, by what autho- 
rity you ufe fometimes to pray without a premeditated form of 
words ; you may enquire, " By what authority any ont 
reads the church forms, who is not commifTioned fo to do, and 
that in any place but in the church," where only they are ap- 
pointed to be read, and only by one fo commifHoned f If they 
reply, *' We have Dodtor IFoodivard^s form ;" you may an- 
fwer them with this queftion, " What difference is there, in 
refpe6l to others, between a perfon's reading a form, which 
few that hear it know beforehand, and a perfon's praying ex- 
tempore, as the Holy Spirit gives him utterance ?" If they 
laugh at the mention of " praying by the Spirit," brethren, 
I hope you know better. Stand faft therefore in the liberty 
wherewith Christ has made you free j and be not afraid, by 
fuch a pradice, to make innovations in the church, which 
docs not confine its members to forms, but within the church 
walls, nor even there altogether. In private afTemblies, 
fuch as yours, all are left to their liberty ; and therefore, as 
many as would hinder you in this, at once difcover their piti- 
able ignorance of that conftitution they pretend to promote, 


C 26 ] 

and an unhappy eftrangement from the fpiiit and privileges of 
the gofpel. 

How to improve your meetings, (o as bed to promote 
God's glory, and the good of your own fouls, ought to be 
your conftant and chief concern : for as chriftians in general, 
fo members of religious focieties in particular,, are as cities 
built upon a hill; and therefore it more highly concerns them 
to let their light fo (hine before men, that they feeing their 
, good works, may glorify eur Father v^^ho is in heaven. 

Not that a communion of perfecl: faints is to be expec9:ed 
here on earth : or that you ought to be immediately offended, 
if fome of your brethren fhould be overtaken with a fault. 
In this world, tares will be always fpringing up amongft the 
wheat. Many that are firft, will be laft, and the laft firft. 
Nay, it is well if fome, like Judas^ do not at length lay afide 
their profefnon, and openly betray our Mafter. 

To prevent this, you ought to be very cautious, my brethren, 
whom you admit into feMowfhip with you. Examine them 
again and again, not barely whether they receive the facra* 
ment, and go to church ; but whether they be in the faith. 
Set them upon proving their own felves ; and by no means 
receive them into your brotherhood, unlefs they can produce 
fufficient evidences of their having tailed the good word of 
life, and felt the powers of the world to come. This, fome 
may object, is not a very good way to increafe and multiply 
you as to number ; but it is the beft, the only way, to efta- 
blifh and increafe a communion of true faints. And fuch a 
fociety, confiding of a few folid chriftians, is far prefcrabl-e 
to one that is filled with a multitude of fuch as do not bring 
forth fruit unto holinefs, but have only the fig-leaves of an 
outward profefTion. Formal hypocrites will do any fociety 
more harm than good : and however they may endure for a 
while, and receive the word with joy ; yet, having no root in 
themfclves, in time of temptation they will fhamefully fall 

Next to your care about admitting others, I think it 
highly concerns you, whenever you ailenible, to remember the 
^<:f of meeting, yourfelves ; and then (to ufe the words of the 
wife fon of Sirach on another occafion) *' you will never do 
anufs." Now, the end of your meeting, brethren, is not that 
you may think yourfelves more holy than your neighbours, 


[ 27 ] 

much Jefs to form a fc6t or party, or promote a fchifm or fe- 
dition in the church or ftate. No : fuch thoughts, I truft, 
are far from you : for they are earthly, fenfual, devilifli. And, 
if ever fuch defigns (hould be fet on foot, 1 earneftly pray 
God the abettors of them may be deteded, and all their 
fchemes, though never fo plaufibly concerted, fall to the 
ground. The only end which, I hope, you all propofe by 
yoiir afTembling yourfelves together, is the fame for which you 
were redeemed, ** The renewing of your depraved natures, 
and promoting the hidden life of Jesus Christ in your 
fouls." Thefe terms, however fooliftinefs to others, I truft, 
my brethren, are not fo to you. I take it for granted, you 
are not only defirous of, but already in fome meafure blelTed 
with, a faving experimental knowledge of Jesus Christ in 
your hearts : for unlefs a man be born again from above, and 
made a partaker of the divine nature by the indwelling of 
GoD*s Holy Spirit, he can in no wife enter into the king- 
dom of heaven. Whoever denies this to be true in the moft 
literal, real, and abfolute fenfe of the words, knows nothing 
yet as he ought to know : for it is grounded on a felf-evident 
truth, that we are fallen from God in Adam, and mull be re- 
newed in the fpirit of our minds, ere we can be reftored to 
that blifsful communion with him, which is the free gift of 
God and eternal life. 

The only way to this, is faith in Jesus Christ ; faith in con- 
tradiftindtion to, though neceflarily productive of, good works, 
" I am the way, the truth, and the life : whofoever believeth 
on me, though he were dead, yet (hall he live," fays Christ 
himfelf. And I think it my bounden duty, to exhort you at 
this time, to contend earneftly for the dodlrine of JuJlificaUcn 
hy faith only, becaufe fo many blind guides are lately gone 
out into the world. My brethren, it is much to be feared 
that many of our prefent preachers are no better than dodlrinal 
papifts. And however this, to thofe who having eyes fee not, 
may be judged an uncharitable cenfure ; yet furely they can- 
not juftly blame me for want of candour, who confider, that 
one of the moft reputed orthodox prelates in the kingdom, in 
a late paftoral letter advifes his clergy, " So to explain the 
dodrine of juftification in the fight of God by faith only, as 
to make good works a nece0"ary condition." Such advice 
5 from 

[ 28 i 

from ^ Roman cardinal would be no more than we might ex- 


,pe<Sl ; but, coming from a bi/hop of the Church of England.^ 
is furprifing, and much to be Jamcnted. 

God forbid, my brethren, that you fhould fo learn Christ ! 
If the fchptures are true^ fuch a dodrine is abfolutely falfe. 
The lively oracles no where declare good works to* be a necef- 
fary condition of our juftification In the fight of God ; on the 
; contrary, they every where affirm, that '' Salvation is the 
free gift of God, through Jesus Christ our Lord : that 
we are faved by grace through faith ; and that it is not of 
. works, left any -man fliould boaft." No, my brethren, in the 
great myftery of man's redemption by Jesus Christ, boaft- 
jiig is entirely excluded. 

We muft not expc£t to be faved, or any way recommend 
ourfelves to God, by any or all the works of righteoufnefs 
which we have done, or fliall, or can do. The Lord 
Christ Is our righteoufnefsj-— our whole righteoutnefs : im- 
puted to us, inftead of our own. '' We are compleat in him," 
lays the fcripture. " We are accounted righteous before 
God, only for the merits of our Lord Jesus Christ, by 
faith," faith the eleventh article of our church. And If fo, 
how are good works, my brethren, a neceffary condition of 
our juftification in the fight of God ? The law indeed fays, 
*' Do this, and live :" but the gofpel brings us the glad tid- 
ings, that " Christ is the end of the law for righteoufnefs 
to every one that belleveth." Christ, by his facrifice, and 
perfe61: obedience, has every way fulfilled the law for us ; and 
God will not require to be paid twice. Christ bought our 
juftification with a great price, even with his own blood. It 
comes to us freely, without any regard to works pall, prefent, 
or to come. This is the conftant language of Christ and 
his apoftles ; and therefore, to ufe the words of the foremen- 
tioned article, " That we are juftificd by faith only, is a 
nioft wholefome dodtrine, and very full of comfort." Ob- 
ferve, my brethren, juftified by or through faith, and not for 
faith ; for faith is only a means or inftrument whereby the 
whole righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ is applied to the fin- 
ner*s foul : and whofoever does thus believe in his heart, fet- 
ting \.o his feal that God is true, may be aflured that his par- 
doa is fealed in heaven j notwithftandihg he has lived in an 


[ 29 ] 

open breach of God's commandments all his life-time before, 
"Believe, (fays the apoftle to the trembling jaylor,) and 
thou fhalt be faved ;'* " Whofoever bclieveth that Jesus is 
the Christ, is born of God." So that this faith will not 
be dead, idle or inavSlive : for 'tis not a faith of the head, or 
a bare allent to things credible as credible j the devils thus 
believe and tremble : but it is a faith of the heart, a living 
principle of new life, infufed into the foul by the fpirit of 
God, applying that inwardly, which was wrought for him 
outwardly by the obedience and death of Jesus Christ, and 
continually exciting the poffc(\^o}: of it to (hew it forth by his 
works; not as neceffary conditions, but as proofs of his ju- 
flification in God's fight ; and as fo many tokens of his gra- 
titude and love for what God has done for his foul. This is 
what the apoftle fliles a " Faith working by love." 

I cannot conclude this better than in the words of a truly 
evangelical writer now before me. " The law (fay ft thou) 
muft be obeyed." I anfwer, " Christ Jesus hath done 
that in his own perfon, and juftified me thereby ; and, for my 
own part, I will not labour now to fulfil the law for juftifica- 
tion, left I ftiould undervalue the merits of the man Christ 
Jesus, and what he hath done without me; and yet will I 
labour to fulfil, if pofTible, ten thoufand laws if there were 
fo many : and O let i; be out of love to my fweet Lord 
Jesus. For the love of Christ conftrains me." 

You fee, my brethren, this is a topic which I love to dwell 
•upon. A divine fire kindles in my heart, whilft I am mufing 
on, and writing to you about it : and I (hould here enlarge, 
but I muft haften to recommend to you another thing of un ^ 
fpeakable importance to the well-being of chriftian fociety, a 
fpirit of univ erf al love. Let not bigotry or party-zeal be fo 
much as once named amongft you ; for it bccometh not faints. 
Our Lord vi^as a ftranger to it. Whofoever did the will of 
his father, the fame was his brother, his fifter, his mother. 
Wherever he faw the marks of true faith, though in a centu- 
rion or a Syrophenicicvi^ who v^ere aliens to the commonwealth 
oi Ifrael, and ftrangers to the covenant of promife, how did 
he publifti and commend it I Be followers then of him, my 
brethren, as dear children ; and love all who love our Lord 


[ 30 ] 

Jesus in fincerity and truth, although they (hould not in all 
things follow with us. Pharifees and Sadducees, the felf- 
righteous and free-thinkers of this generation, all the chil- 
dren of the devil, whether rich or poor, high or low, how- 
ever they may differ in other refpeds, yet agree in one thing, 
even to confpire againft the Lord and againft his Christ. 
Why {hould not the children of Gop, notwithftanding their 
little differences, unite in one common intereft againft fpiri- 
tual wickednefTes in high places ? O that all who call them- 
felves chriftians, were thus minded f How fhould we fee the 
kingdom of Christ come with power, and Satan like light- 
ning fall from heaven ! From the beginning, it hath been 
his policy to divide chriftians into fe6ls and parties, hoping 
not only to weaken their intereft, but to make them thereby 
believe, that religion wholly confifts in being of this or that 
particular communion : and this fubtilty of that old ferpent 
hath fo prevailed, that though we all profefs to hold one 
Lord, one faith, one baptifm ; yet numbers look upon thofe 
"Vv'ho differ from them, and that only in externals, almoft as 
creatures of another fpecies, and forbid us with fuch even to 
eat. This was once the ftate of the Jewi/h^ as it is now of 
the chriftian church ; — but God fhewed his diflike of fuch a 
temper, by convincing Peter in a miraculous manner, that 
he was henceforward to call nothing common or unclean, but 
freely to converfe v/ith all who feared him and worked righte- 
oufnefs, for that all fuch were accepted of him. My brethren, 
be not you difobcdient to this heavenly vifion : for our fakes 
no doubt it was written, and for as many as the Lord our 
God ftiall call. The felf-righteous, and perhaps fome who 
are weak in faith, will cenfure and condemn your conduct 
(as the brethren did Peter) when they behold your free con- 
vcrfation in Christ : but Peter has furniftied you with an 
anfwer, *' Forafmuch as God hath given to them the like 
gift as to us, who believed on Jesus, what are we, that we 
ihould withftand God ?'* How dare we make a difference, 
when God has made none ?. How dare we not freely converfe 
with thofe who have received the Holy Ghoft, as well as 
we ?• 


C 31 3 

Further, my brethren, content not yourfclves with reading, 
finging and praying together -, but fet Tome time apart to con- 
fefs your faults and communicate your experiences one to 
another. For want of this (which I take to be one chief de- 
fign of private meetings) molt of the old focietes in London^ I 
fear, are funk into a dead formality, and have only a name to 
live. They meet on a fabbath evening, read a chapter, and 
fmgapfalmj but feldom, if ever, acquaint each other with 
the operations of God's fpirit upon their fouls ; notwithftand- 
ing this was the great end and intention of thofe who firft be- 
gan thefe focieties. Hence it is that they have only the form 
of godlinefs left amongft them, and continue utter ftrangers 
to the ftate of one another's hearts. How love, or the power 
of religion can fubfift in fuch a lukewarm and fuperficial 
way of proceeding, is very hard to conceive. My brethren, 
let not your coming together be thus altogether in vain, but 
plainly and freely tell one another what God has done for 
your fouls. To this end, you would do well, as others 
have done, to form yourfelves into )ittle companies of four 
or five each, and meet once a v/eek to tell each other what is 
in your hearts ; that you may then al fo pray for and comfort 
each other, as need fhall require. None but thofe that have 
experienced it can tell the unfpeakable advantages of fuch a 
union and communion of fouls. By this means, brotherly 
love will be excited and increafed amongft you, and you will 
learn to watch over one another for good. This will teach 
you the better how to pray, and to give thanks for each other 
in your private retirement, and happily prevent and deliver 
you from many fnares of the devil : for Satan loves that we 
ihould keep his temptations to ourfelves, but cares not fo 
much to meddle with thofe, who he knows will difcover his 
devices to their brethren. Befides, this is a moft effedual 
means for each to try the fincerity of his own heart, as well 
as another's. No one, I think, that truly loves his own foul, 
and his brethren as himfelf, will be (hy of opening his heart, 
in order to have their advice, reproof, admonition, and pray- 
ers, as occafions require. A fmcere perfon will efteem it one 
of the greateft bleflings ; nor do I know a better means in the 
world to keep hypocrify out from amongft you. Pharifees 


f 32 ] 

and unbelievers will pray, read, and fmg pfalms 5 buf none, 
fave an Ifraelite indeed, will endure to have his heart fearched 
out. " He that hath ears to hear, let him hear." 

Finally, my brethren, expe<Sl a large fhare of contempt; 
for Christ's fervants were always the world's fools. " As 
for this fe<5l or herefy, (faid the Jews to Paiil^) we know it 
is every where fpoken againft." And Paul himfelf, before con- 
verted, had authority from the chief priefts, to bring as many 
as he found of this way before them. Thus were the difci- 
plcs of the Lord treated in the infancy of the church ; and 
3s it was formerly, fo it is and will be now. In our days, 
to be a true chriftian, is really to become a fcandal. If you 
were of the world, the world would love its own ; but if 
you are not of the world, and Christ has chofen you out 
of the world, for this very caufe the world moft afTuredly 
will hate you. However it may feem ftrange to the natural 
man, yet there never was a true faint, who was not, like his 
Saviour, accounted befide himfelf. And they that v/ill live 
godly in Christ Jesus, muft to the end of time fufFer perfe- 
cution for his name's fake. 

But, God forbid, my brethren, that a little, nay, that 
all the contempt in the world, fhould anywife move you away 
from the ftedfaft profeflion of the hope of the gofpel. Our 
Lord was defpifed before us ; and you know the fervant 
muil not prefume to be above his matter. No ; it is fuiEci- 
entifhebe as his matter, ''Made perfe6t through fuffer- 
ings." Be ftedfatt: therefore, my brethren, quit yourfelves 
like men, be ttrong ; yea, <' Be ftrong in th6 Lord, and in 
the power of his might." Be not aftiamed of the gofpel of 
Christ, but follow your matter without the camp, bearing 
his facred reproach. When you are reviled, revile not again. 
Blefs, my brethren, and curfe not. Be fubjcdt to the higher 
power in all lawful things, and beware of all who would turn 
religion into fadlion. Remember agam and again, that the 
\papons of our warfare are not carnal ; and that it is our 
glory, when called to it, patiently to fuffer for the truth's 

Thus, my brethren, out of the fulnefs of my heart have I 

written unto you. Many of you I never yet faw, and per- 

6 haps 

r 33 ] 

haps never may fee in the flefti ; however, I love you in the 
bovi^els of Jesus Christ, and heartily befeech God to blcfs 
what I truft his fpirit has now enabled me to write unto 

You fee, my brethren, I have confined myfelf to fuch par- 
ticulars as relate to the improving your focieties, and making 
them truly chriftian. I hope you will in like mannex take 
heed to your ways in common life, and never give the adver- 
fary room juftly, to fpeak reproachfully of your condu£l. My 
brethren, the eyes of all men are upon you. Indeed it highly 
concerns you to walk exceedingly circumfpe(Sl towards thofe 
that are without. I am fure you will not be offended, if, 
out of love, I remind you to perform all relative duties with 
the utmoft cheerfulnefs, and with a fmgle eye to the glory of 
God. Let your obedience be conftant, univerfal and uni- 
form, founded on a living faith in Christ Jesus, that by 
well-doing you may put to filence the flanders of foolifti and 
evil men. Let your fpeech, and all your anions, manifeft 
whofe difciples you are.. Confefs your Lord publicly before 
men, and be not afraid to tell thofe that have ears to hear, 
what God has done for your fouls. It is good to keep clofe 
the fecrets of a king, but it is honourable to reveal the works 
of the Almighty. Above all things, my brethren, have fer- 
vent charity among yourfelves. Bear ye one another's bur- 
dens, and fo fulfil the law of Christ. Be pitiful, be cour- 
teous, be tender-hearted ; and let it be faid of you as of the 
primitive faints. See how thefe chriftians love one another. 
Fulfil all righteoufnefs, by conftantly attending on every 
ordinance of God. Ufe, but not abufe the means of grace, 
by refting on them ; knowing that " The kingdom of God 
is not meats and drinks, but righteoufnefs, peace, and joy 
in the Holy Ghoft.'* Think that day loft, wherein you do 
not make an advance in fome of thefe. The work of re^-sne- 
ration, though inftantaneous at firft, is progreffive afterwards. 
The feed fown in the heart muft be continually watered, 
otherwife it will not grow into a great tree. I pray GoX) 
therefore to fandlify you throughout, in fpirit, foul and body, 
and prcferve you blamelefs till the coming of our Lorp Jesi'S 
Christ with all his fai»ts, Then all tears (hall be wiped 
Vol. IV. C away 


. E 34 1 

away. from your -eyes, and we fhall fpend an endlefs eternity 
in finging praifes tp him that fitteth upon the throne, even 
unto the Lamb for ever and ever. Now unto Him that is 
able to keep you from falling, and to preferve you faultlefs 
before the prefence of his glory with exceeding joy, to the 
only wife God our Saviour^ be glory and majefty, dominion 
?.nd power, both now and ever. Amen I 






Maryland, Virginia, North and 


C zi ] 

L E t T E R, 

Savannah^ Jan, 23, 1740. 

AS I lately pafTed through your provinces, in my way 
hither, I Was fenfibly touched with a fellow-feeling of 
the miferies of the poor negroes. Could I have preached more 
frequently among you, I fhould have delivered my thoughts 
to you in my public difcourfes : but, as bufmefs here re- 
quired me to flop as little as poffible on the road, I have no 
other way to difcharge the concern which at prefent lies upon 
my heart, than by fending you this letter. How you will 
receive it, I know not ; whether you will accept it in love, 
or be offended with me, as the mafler of the damfel was with 
Paul for cafling the evil fpirit out of her, when he faw the 
hope of his gain was gone, is unceftain : but whatever be 
the event, I mufl inform you, in the meeknefs arid gentlenefs 
of Christ, that I think God has a quarrel with you, for 
your abufe of and cruelty to the j)oor negroes. Whether it 
be lawful for chriftians to buy flaves, and thereby encourage 
the nations from whence they are brought to be at perpetual 
war with each dther, I (hall not take upon m^ to determine ; 
but furc I am it is finful, when bought, to ufe them as bad 
as, nay worfe than brutes : and whatever particular excep- 
tions there may be, (as 1 would charitably hope there are 
fome) I fear the generality of you that own negroes, are liable 
to fuch a charge ; for your flaves, I believe, work as hard« 
if not harder, than the horfes whereon you ride. 

Thefe, after they have done their work, are fed and taken 
proper care of ; but many negroes, when wearied with labour 
in your plantations, have been obliged to grind their own 
corn after they return home. 

C 3 Your 

[ 33 3 

Your dogs are carefied and fondled at your tables ; but 
your flaves, who are frequently filled dogs or beafls, have not 
an equal privilege : they are fcarce permitted to pick up the 
crumbs which fall from their mafters tables ; nay, fome, as I 
have been informed by an eye-wltnefs, have been, upon the 
moil trifling provocation, cut with knives, and have had forks 
thrown intb their ^fcjli : not to mention what numbers ha\fe 
been given up to the inhuman ufage of cruel tafk-mafters, 
who by their unrelenting fcourges have ploughed upon their 
backs, and made long furrows, and at length brought them 
even to death itfelj^v ,.. . 

^Tis true, I hope,"* there are but few fuch monfters of bai:- 
barlty fulFered to fut{i{t amongft you : fome, I hear> ; have 
been lately executed ii; Virginia for killing flaves; and the 
laws are very fevere agaii^ft fuch v^ho. at' any time murder 

And perhaps it might be better for the poor creatures them- 
felves, to be hurried out of life, than to be made fo miferable 
as they, generally are in it» And indeed, confidering what 
ufage-they commonly ji;ie(?t,with, I have wondered, that we 
hav«,,not more inflanc-es of felf-murder among the negroes, 
ox that they hav^ not..n)or-e, frequen(;ly rifen up in arms againft 
tl)eir_ov/n.ers. F/V^/V/iZ; has. been onci^.'Sifi^,. Charles -Town more 
than once, threatned in this way^ 

An^ tftougb I heartily pray Qod, th,e-y may never be pfr- 
n^itted to get the upper, hand ; yet, (bould fuch a thing he^ 
permitted by providence, all good men muft acknowledge^ the 
jpdgment would bejuft. For is it not the higheft ingrajti-. 
tude, as well as cruelty, not to let your poor Haves enjoy. 
ipn>e frujts of their, labour ? ,^: ..,^' 

When palling alpng, whilfl I have viewed your planta- 
^ops. cicaiqj and cultivated, many fpacious houfes built, and 
the owners of them faring fumptuoufly every day, my blood 
has frequently almoft run cold within me, to confider how 
many of your flaves had neither convenient food to eat, 
jpior proper raiment to put on, notwithftanding moft of the 
comforts you enjoy, were folely owing to their indefatiga- 
ble labours. The fcripture fays, *' Thou flialt not muzzle 
the ox that trcadeth out the corn." Does God take care 
of oxen ? And will he not take care of the negroes alfo ? 
X Undoubtedly 

r 39 1 

Undoubtedly he will. " Go to now, ye rich men, weep 
and howl for your miferies that (hall come upon you." 
Behold the provifion of the poor negroes which have reaped 
down your fields, which is by you denied them, crieth, 
and the cries of therh who reaped, are entered into the ears of 
the Lord of Sabaoth. Wc have a remarkable inftance of 
God's taking cognifance, and avenging the quarrel, of poor 
Haves, 2 Sam. xxi. i. " Then there was a famine in the days 
of David, three years, year after year ; and David enquired 
of the Lord. And the Lord anfwered, It is for Saul and 
his bloody houfe, becaufe he flew the GibeonitesJ'^ Two 
things are here very remarkable ; firft, that thefe Gibeonites 
were only hewers of wood and dravvers of water, or, in other 
words, fiaves like yours. Secondly, that this plague was Tent 
by God, many years after the injury, the caufe of the plague, 
was committed. And for what end was this and fuch like 
examples recorded" in holy fcripture ? Without doubt for our 
learning, upon whonl the ends of the world are come : for 
God is the fame to-day, as he was yefterday, and will con- 
tinue the fame for ever. He does not rejccSl the prayer of the 
poor and deftitute, nor difregard the cry of the meaneft ne- 
groes : their blood which has been fpilt, for thefe many years 
in your refpe6tive provinces, will afcend up to heaven againft: 
you ; I wifh I could fay, it would fpeak better things than 
the blocd of AM. But this is not all. Enflaving or mifufing 
their bodies, comparatively fpeaking, would be an inconfider- 
able evil, was proper care taken of their fouls : but 1 have 
great reafon to believe, that moft of you on purpofe keep 
your negroes ignorant of chriftianity ; or otherwife, why are 
they permitted through your provinces openly to profane the 
Lord's day, by their dancing, piping, and fuch like? I 
know the general pretence for this negle6l of their fouls, isj 
that teaching them chriftianity would make them {)roud, and 
confequently unwilling to fubmit to flavery. But what a 
dreadful refleilion is this upon your holy religion ? What 
blafphemous notions muft thofe have, that make fuch ari 
objedion, of the precepts of chriftianity ! Do you find any 
one command in the gofpel, that has the leaft tendency td 
make people forget their relative duties ? Do you not read^ 
that fervants, and as many as are under the yoke of bond- 

C 4 age. 

[ 40 1 

age, are required to be fubje£l in all lawful things to their 
mafters, and that not only to the good and gentle, but 
alfo to the froward ? Nay, may not I appeal to your own 
hearts, whether deviating from the Jaws of Jesus Christ, 
is not the caufe of all the evils and miferies mankind now 
univerfally groan under, and of all the vices we find both 
in ourfelves and others ? Certainly it is. And therefore the 
reafon why fervants generally prove fo bad is, becaufe fo 
little care is taken to breed them up in the nurture and ad- 
monition of the Lord. But fome will be fo bold pcrhapj 
as to reply, " That a few of the negroes have been taught 
chriftianity, and notwithftanding have been remarkably worfe 
than others.'* But what chriftianity were they taught ? 
They were baptized, and taught to read and write : and this 
they may do, and much more, and yet be far from the 
kinsdom of God ; for there is a vaft difference between 
civilizing and chriftianizing a negroe. A black as well as a 
white man, may be civilized by outward reftraints, and after- 
wards break through thofe reftraints again ; but I challenge 
the world to produce a fingle inftance of a negroe's being 
made a thorough chriftlan, and thereby made a worfe fervant ; 
it cannot be. But further, if the teaching flaves chriftianity 
has fuch a bad influence upon their lives, why are you generally 
dcfirous of having your children taught ? Think you, they 
are any way better by nature, than the poor negroes ? No, 
in nowife-. Blacks are juft as much, and no more, conceived 
and born in fin, as white men are : both, if born and bred 
up here, I am perfuaded are naturally capable of the fame 
improvement. And as for the grown negroes, I am apt to 
think, whenever the gofpel is preached with power amongf^ 
them, that many will bo brought efFecl:ually home to God. 
Your prefent and paft bad ufage of them, however ill-de- 
figned, may thus far do them good, as to breiik their wills, 
increafe the fenfe of their natural mifery, and confequently 
better difpofe their minds to accept the redemption wrought 
out for them by the death and obedience of Jesus Christ. 
Not long fmce, God hath been pleafed to make fome of 
the negroes in New-EnglamU v^ftels of mercy; and fome, I 
hear, have been brought to cry out '' What fliall we do to 
be {lived?*' in the province of P.'njyivanla, Doubtlcfs there 
5 ^^ 

t 41 ] 

is a time, when the fulnefs of the Gentiles will come \n% 
and then, I believe, if not before, thefe defpifed flavcs 
will find the gofpel of Christ to be the power of God 
to their falvation, as well as we. But I know, all argu- 
ments to prove the neceflity of taking care of your negroes 
fouls, though never fo conclufive, will prove inefFe£lual, till 
you are convinced of the neceffity of fecuring the falvation 
of your own. That you yourfelves are not effectually con- 
vinced of this, I think is too notorious to want evidence. 
A general deadnefs as to divine things, and not to fay a 
general profanenefs, is difcernible both in paftfjs and people. 

Moft of you are without any teaching prieft. And what- 
ever quantity of rum there may be, yet I fear but very few 
bibles are annually imported into your different provinces. 
God has already begun to vifit for this, as well as for other 
wicked things. For near two years laft paft, he has been in 
a remarkable manner contending with the people of South-Ca- 
rolina : their houfes have been depopulated with the fmall 
pox and fever, and their own flaves have rifen up in arms 
againft them. Thefe judgments are undoubtedly fent abroad, 
not only that the inhabitants of that, but of oiher provinces, 
fliould learn righteoufnefs : and unlefs you all repent, you 
all muft in like manner expeft to perifn. God firft generally 
corrects us with whips : if that will not do, he muft cha- 
ftife us with fcorpions. A foreign enemy is now threatning 
to invade you -, and nothing will more provoke God, to give 
you up as a prey into their teeth, than impenitence and un- 
belief. Let thefe be removed, and the fons of violence fliall 
not be able to hurt you : no ; your oxen fhall be ftrong to 
labour ; there {hall be no decay of your people by epidemical 
ficknefs ; no leading away into captivity from abroad ; and 
no complaining in your ftreets at home. Your fons fhall 
grow up as young plants, and your daughters be as the 
poliflied corners of the temple : and, to fum up all blelTings 
in one, '' Then fhall the Lord be your God." That you 
may be the people who are in fuch a happy cafe, is the 
earneft prayer of, 

Your finccrc wc-11-wifher and fervant in Christ, 

G. fF. 





Presbyterian Perfuafion, 


Certain Scruples lately propofed, in proper 
Queries raifed on each Remark. 

i 45 3 
. A 

LETTER, ^c. 

My dear Friends y New-York^ Nov, i, 1 740. 

LAST night and this morning I read your queries and 
fcruples. Whether they were compiled by church- 
members, or minifters of the prefbyterian perfuafion, I fliall 
not take upon me to determine. I think I may fay with Da- 
'vid, though on another occafion, " JoaFs hand is in this." 
If your minifters were really the authors, and you only their 
reprefcntatives, they have not adled fimply. They had better 
have fpoken out. I (hould as readily have anfwered them as 
you. Solomon fays, " He that hateth reproof, is brutifh.'* And 
if I know any thing of my own heart, I (hould think myfclf 
obliged to any pne that convinces me of an error, either in 
principle or pra£tice. I therefore aflure you, that I ^o not 
find the leaft refentment ftirring in my foul againft thofe (who- 
ever they be) that propofed the queries, or againft the reverend 
preftjytery that advifed you to fend them to me in a public 
manner : no, I rejoice in it ; becaufe it gives me an opportu- 
nity of doing what my friends know I have for fome time 
propofed, the correding fome pafTages in my printed ferinons. 
I think it no dilhonour, to retracSt fome exprcftlons that for- 
merly dropped from my pen, before God was pleafed to give 
me a more clear knowledge of the doctrines of grace. St. 
Aujiiny I think, did fo before me. The Lord's dealing with 
me was fomewhat put of the common way. I can fay, to the 
honour of rich free diftinguiftiing grace, that I received the 
Spirit of adoption before I had converfed with one man, or 
lead a fingle book, on the dodtrine of '' Free juftification by 
the imputed righteoufnefs of jEsps Christ." No wonder 
then, that I was not fo clear in fome points at my firft fetting 
out in i\^ miniftry. Our Lord was pleafed to enlighten me 


[ 46 I 

by degrees; and I deHre your prayers, that his grace may 
Ihine more and more in my heart, till it breaks forth into per- 
fect day. 

But to come to the exceptionable pafTages in my fermons. 
You blame me for faying. 

Vol. il.^ page iw7; " That Adam was adorned with all the 
perfections of the Deity." It is a wrong expreflion : rwDuld 
correct it thus : " All the moral communicable perfedions of 
the Deity." Again, '' Man was the perfection of the morail 
and fnaterial world : let it iland thus : " The perfedlion of 
all the vifible world.'* 

Vol. II. page 22 and 23. " Waflies the guilt of fin away 
by the tears of a fincere repentance, joined with faith ifi the 
blood of Jesus Christ." This is falfe divinity : I would 
now alter it thus : " Recovers his former peace, by renewing 
his a(5ls of faith on the perfc6l righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ." 

Vol. 1, page 79. " And which alone can render any of 
our actions acceptable in God's fight." It fhould be, " And 
without which, any of our aClions cannot be acceptable in 
God's fight." 

Vol. I. page 16. *' Who vainly depend on their owrt 
righteoufnefs, and not on the righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ^ 
imputed to, and inherent in them, as neceflary for their eter- 
nal falvation," To avoid all miftakes, I would exprefs my- 
felf in this manner, " Who have neither Christ's righteouf- 
nefs imputed to them, for their juftification in the fight, nor 
holinefs wrought in their fouls as the confequence of that, in 
order to make them meet for the enjoyment of God." 

Vol. I. page 7. For, " To qualify us for being favingly 
in Christ," read, " To qualify us for living eternally with 

The feeming contradidtion in my fermon, Vol. II. p. 128. 
compared with p. 137. I think may be reconciled by that paf- 
fage of the Apoftle, " After you believed, you were fealed by 
the Spirit of promife." Your arguing on this head, p. 21. fec- 
tion vii. I think is not fo clear. Might you not as reafonabl/ 
have blamed JesUs Christ for faying to a dead man, " La^ 
zarus^ come forth ?" However, inftead of quickening Spirit^ 
vol. II. p. 137. let it be read, " fanClifying Spirit." 


C 47 ] 

Vol. II. p. 33. " The man Christ Jesus Is fplritually 
formed in your hearts." I would alter it thus, " That 
Christ is formed within you." 

Vol. I. p. 53. " The many fouls that are nouriflied 
weekly by the fpiritual body and blood of Jesus Christ by 
your means." Let it be altered for thefe words, <'_Nourifhed 
weekly at the Lord's fupper by your means. 

I fee no reafon to alter my explanation of the words, 
*' Baptizing them into the nature of the Father, Son, and 
HolyGholl;" and, "Christ fpiritually conceived in the 
heart of Eve ;" I mean no more by thefe expreffions than the 
Apoftle, when he fays, " Know ye not that Christ is in 
you, unlefs you be reprobates ?" And again, " No one can 
call Christ, Lord, but by the Holy Ghoft." And again, 
*' We are made partakers of a divine nature." Vol. II. p. 128. 
thefe words [in the Lord's prayer] may be left out : though, 
if the word name fignifies God's attributes, according to your 
own confeiTion, why may it not fignify his eilence ? What 
are God's attributes but God himfelf ? 

Vol. I. p. 14. After, " eflentlal ones too," infert, " if 
perfons are capable of performing them." 

Thefe, if I miflake not, are all the palTages in my fermons, 
which you obje61: againft. And now to convince you, that I 
am not afhamed to own my faults, I can inform you of other 
palTages as juftly exceptionable. In my fermon on jujlijjcationy 
I feem to affert univerfal redemption^ which I now abfolutely 
deny. In my almoft chrijlian^ I talk of ^'orks procuring us (o 
high a crown. In my fermon on the marh of the new-hirih, 
I fay, " We fhall endure to the end, ifzve continue fi. Thefe, 
and perhaps fome other palTages, though capable of a candid 
interpretation, I now dillike ; and in the next edition of my 
fermons, God willing, I propofe to alter them. In the mean 
while, I fhall be thankful to any that will point out my er- 
rors j and I promife, by divine alTiftance, they (hall have no 
reafon to fay, " That I am one who hates to be reformed." 
** Let the righteous fmite me, it fhall be a kind nefs ; and let 
him reprove me, and it fhall be an excellent oil, which fliall 
not break my head ; for yet my prayer alfo fhall be in their 


C 48 3 

As for your infinuating, that I countenance Mr. JVeJley in 
his errors, it is no fuch rhinp;. 'I prefaced Halylurton*s Me- 
moirs before I faw what Mu If^'eJIey had written ; and fince I 
have feen it, have more then once faid, " U I had known 
what Mr. WeJJey had written ^ I would not have prefaced Ha-" 
lyhurto7i at all. I do not underltand Mr. ll^ejley in his inter- 
pretation of thefe words, *' He that is born again of God, 
finneth not ;" and therefwe have torn off that part of his pre- 
face, out of feveral of thofe books which I have given away 
lately, and have acquainted him in what I think in this par- 
ticular he errs, by fundry letters. 

You wrong me, if you think I am an Aniinornian, For 
when I fay, *' God made no fecond covenant with Adam^* I 
mean no more than this : " God made no fecond covenant 
with Adam in his own perfon in behalf of his pofterity ; nor 
did man's acceptance in the fight of God, after the fall, de- 
pend, either wholly or in part, on his vorks, as before the 
fall.'* Whoever reads the author of The Whole Duty of Man ^ 
will find he thinks otherwife ; and I believe your friends in 
Scotland Will not thank you for defending that book, as you 
feemingly have done in your late queries. 

Your obje6lions, concerning my favourable opinion of fome 
particular quakers that I have converfed with ; and alfo about 
fome particular promifes, which I think have been made me, 
you may find fatlsfied in my " Anfwer to the Bifhop of Lon^ 
don's laft Paftoral Letter," and in a *^ Letter to the Bifhop of 

I am no friend to cafting lots ; but I believe, on extraordi- 
nary occafions, when things can be determined no other way, 
God, if appealed to, and waited on by prayer and fafting, 
will anfwer by lot now, as well as formerly. 

Do not condemn me for preaching extempore y and for faying, 
A I am helped often immediately in that exercife ; when thoufands 
can prove, as well as myfelf, that it has been fo. Neither 
fliould you cenfure me as one that would lay afide reading. 
I am of Bifhop Sanderfon's mind : " Study without prayer, is 
atheifm ; prayer without {ludy, prefumption." Blame not 
me, for the warmth of fome of my adherents, as you call 
them. One of your minifters knows, how fliarply 1 rebuked 
one of them for his warmth, at Forks-Manor. I am for loving 
;is brethren, and wifh all would copy after the lowly Jesus. 


[ 49 3 

But then I cannot difcommend thofe (fuppofing they do it In 
the fpirit of meeknef) who exclaim againft dry, faplefs, un- 
converted minKters. Such fureJy are the bane of the chrlftian 
church. But my other affairs will not permit mc to enlarge. 

Some of the latter part of your queries, for your own, and 
not my own fake, I (hall not mention. I hope I can fay with 
more fmcerity than Hazacl^ " Is your fervant a dc^g, that he 
fhould do" what you fuggeft ! But I pray God to forgive 
you. He knows my heart. My one defign is to bring poor 
fouls to Jesus Christ. I defire to avoid extremes, fo as not 
to be a bigot on the one hand, or confound order and decency 
on the other. And I could heartily wifh the reverend pref- 
bytery, when they advifed you to publifli your queries, had 
alfo cautioned you againft dipping your pen in fo much gall. 
Surely your infinuations are contrary to that charity, which 
hopeth and believeth all things for the beft. And I appeal to 
your own hearts, whether it was right, efpecially fince you 
heard the condant tenor of my preaching in America has been 
calviniftical^ to cenfure me as a Papift or Armimar.^ becaufe a 
few unguarded expreilions dropped from my pen, juft as I 
came from the univerfity of Oxford. Could Archbifhop Til- 
lot/on, or the Author of The Whole Duty of Man ^ fay fo ? But 
I have done. The LoRS be with you ! I am a poor frail 
creature. And as fuch 1 befcech you to pray for 

Your afFc6lionate friend and fervant, 
George White field. 

'Vol. IV. D A LF 




To the Reverend 


In Answer to his 




But when Peter was come to Antioch^ I withftood him 
tQ the Face^ hecaufe he was to be blamed. 

Gal. ii. ii. 

D 2 

■ ' t 53 1 



T O T H E 

Rev. Mr. John Wesley. 
'P R E F* A C £; 

TAm very well aware, what different effeSis the publijlnng this 
Letter again/} the dear Mr, WefleyV Bermon will produce. 
Many of my friends^ that are Jlreniious advocates for univerfal Re- 
demption, will immediately he offended. Many that are zealous 
on the other fide ^ will he much rejoiced. They that are luke-iuarm 
on both fides^ and are carried away with car?2al reafoning, will 
wijh this matter had never been brought under debate. The reafonS 
1 have giv^n at the beginni!Jg of the letter, I think are fiffcient to 
fatisfy all, of my conduSi herein, I defire therefore, that they who 
hold Ele(Slion would not triumph, or make a party on one hand ; 
(for I detefl any fuch thing) and that they who are prejudiced againfi 
that doSirine, be not too fnuch concerned or offended on the other. 
Known unto God are all his ways from the beginning of the world. 
The great day will difcover, why the Lord permits dear Mr, 
Wefley and me to be of a different way cf thinking. At prefenty 
ijhall ntake no enquiry into that matter, beyond the account which 
he has given of it himfelf in the following letter^ which I lately 
received from his own dear hands, 

D 3 My 

[ 54 3 

My dear Brother^ London, Aiiguft 9, 1740^ 

J Thank you for yours ^ May ihe l^tb. The cafe is quite plain. 
There are bigots both for predejiination and againjl it. God 
is fending a vieffage to thofe on either fide. But neither "will re- 
ceive it, unlcfs from one who is of their own opinion, Thereforey 
for a time you are fujfered to be of one opinion, and I of another. 
But luhen his time is comc^ God will do what man cannot, namely ^ 
make us both of one mind. Then perfecuiion will flame out, and 
it ivill be fcen whether we count our lives dear unto ourfdvcs, fo 
that we may finifl) our courfe ivith joy. I am^ my dear eft brother^ 

Ever yours, 

J. Wesley, 

Thus my honoured friend, I heartily pray God to haften the timcy 
for his being clearly enlightened into all the doSirines of divine reve- 
lation^ that we may thus- be clofely united in principle andjudgTnent^ 
as well as heart and affe^lion. And then if the Lord fJwuld call 
us to it, I care not if I go with him to prifon, or to death. For 
like Paul and Silas, / hope we fhallfing praifes to God, and count 
it our high eft. honour to fuffer for Chrift'sfake, and to lay down 
our lives for the brethren. 

Beihefda in Georgia^ Dec. 24, 1740. 
Reverend and very dear Brother , 

GOD only knows, what unfpeakable forrow of heart I 
have felt on your account, fince I left England laft. 
Whether it be my infirmity or not, I frankly confefs, that 
Jonah could not go with more reludance againft Nineveh, 
than I now take pen in hand to write againft you. Was na- 
ture to fpeak, I had rather die than do it ; and yet if I am 
faithful to God, and to my own and other's fouls, 1 muft not 
ftand neuter any longer. I am very apprehenfive, that our 
common adverfaries will rejoice to fee us differing among 
ourfelves. But what can I fay? The children of God are in 
danger of falling into error. Nay, numbers have been mifled, 
whom God has been pleafed to work upon by my miniflry, 
and a greater number are ftill calling aloud upon me, to (hew 
alfo my opinion ; I muft then ftiew, that I know no man 
afier the fiefh, and that I have no refped to pcrfons, any 


[ 55 ] 

further than is confiftent with my duty to ray Lord and 
Mafter, Jesus Christ. 

This letter, no doubt, will lofe me many friends : and for 
this caufe, perhaps God has laid this difficult tafk upon me, 
even to fee whether I am willing to forfake all for him, or 
not. From fuch confiderations as thcfe, I think it my duty 
to bear an humble teftimony, and earneftly to plead for the 
truths, which I am convinced, are clearly revealed in the 
word of God. In the defence whereof I muft ufe great plaln- 
nefs of fpeech, and treat my deareft friends upon earth with 
the greateft fimplicity, falthfulnefs and freedom, leaving the 
confequcnces of all to God. 

For fome time before, and efpecially fince my laft depar- 
ture from England, both in public and private, by preaching 
and printing, you have been propagating the dodlrine of uni^ 
verfal redemption. And when I remember, how Paul reproved 
Peter for his diffimulation, I fear I have been finfuUy filent 
too long. O then be not angry with me, dear and honoured 
Sir, if now I deliver my foul, by telling you, that I think 
in this you greatly err. 

'Tis not my defign to enter into a long debate on God^s 
decrees. I refer you to Dr. Edwards his Veritas Redux, which, 
1 think, is unanfwerable, except in a certain point, concern- 
ing a middle fort between ele£t and reprobate, which he him- 
felf in efFedl afterwards condemns. 

I fhall only make a few remarks upon your fermon, entitled 
Free-Grace. And before I enter upon the difcourfe itfelf, give 
me leave to take a little notice of what, in your preface, you 
term an indifpenfible obligation, to make it public to all the 
world. I muft own, that I always thought you were quite 
miftaken upon that head. The cafe (you know) ftands thus: 
When you was at Brijlol, I think you received a letter from a 
private hand, charging you with not preaching the gofpel, 
becaufe you did not preach up elecStion, Upon this you drew 
a lot : the anfwer was " preach and print J^ I have often 
queftioned, as I do nov/, whether in fo doing, you did not 
tempt the Lord, A due exercife of religious prudence, with- 
out a lot, would have dire£led you in that matter. Befides, I 
never heard t^at you enquired of God, whether or not elec- 
tion was a gofpel dodtrine? But I fear, taking it for granted, 

D 4 i« 

[ 56 1 

it was not, you only enquired, whether you {hould be filent, 
or preach and print againft it? However this be, the lot came 
out ^^ preach and print -y" accordingly you preached and printed 
againi't eledion. At my defire, you fupprelled the publifhing 
the fermon whilfl I was in England -, but foon font it into the 
world after my departure. O that you had kept it in ! How- 
ever, if that fermon was printed in anfwer to a lot, I am apt 
to think, one reafon, why God fliculd fo fufFer you to be 
deceived, was, that hereby a fpecial obligation might be laid 
upon me, faithfully to declare the fcripture do6lrine of elec- 
tion, that thus the Lor-d might give me a frcfli opportunity of 
feeing what was in my heart, and whether I would be true to 
his caufe or not ; as you could not but grant, he did once be- 
fore, by giving you fuch another lot at Deal, The morning 
I failed from Deal for Gibralier, you arrived from Georgia. In- 
ilead of giving me an opportunity to converfe with you, though 
the (hip was not far off the Ihorej you drew a lot, and im- 
mediately fet forwards to London. You left a letter behind 
you, in which were words to this effect. «< When I faw 
God, by the wind which was carrying you out, brought me 
in, I afked counfel of God. His anfwer you have enclofcd.'* 
This was a piece of paper, in which were written thefe words. 
*' Let him return to London.'" 

When 1 received this, I was fomewhat furprized. Here v/as 
a good man telling me, he had caft a lot, and that God would 
have me return to London. On the other hand, I knew m-y 
call \Y2^s to Georgia^ and that I had taken leave of London^ and 
could not juflly go from the foldiers, who were committed to 
my charge. I betook myfelf with a friend to prayer. That 
paffage in the firft book of Kings, chap. 13. was powerfully 
impreffed upon my foul, where we are told, " That the Pro- 
phet was flain by a lion, that v/as tempted to go back, (con- 
trary to God's exprefs order) upon another Prophet's telling 
him God would have him do fo." I wrote you word, that 1 
could not return to London. We failed immediately. Some 
months after, I received a letter from you at Georgia^ wherein 
you wrote words to this effecl. ''^ Though God never before 
gave m.e a wrong lot, yet, perhaps, he fuffered me to have fuch 
a lot at that time, to try what was in your heart." I fhould 
never have publifhed this private tranfadion to the world, "d-d 


[ 57 ] 

not the glory of God call me to it. It is plain you had a 
wrong lot given you here, and juftly, bccaufe you tempted 
God in drawing one. And thus I believe it is in the prclent 
cafe. And if fo, let not the children of God, who are mine 
and your intimate friends, and alfo advocates for iw'werfal re- 
demption^ think ihat dodlrine true, becaufe you preached it up 
in compliance with a lot given out from God. 

This, I think, may ferve as an anfv/er to that part of the 
preface, to your printed fcrmon, wherein you fay, " nothing 
but the ftrongeft conviilion, not only that what is here ad- 
vanced is the truth as it is in Jesus, but alfo that I am indif- 
penfibly obliged to declare this truth to all the world." That 
you believe what you have written to be truth, and that you 
honeftly aim at God's glory in writing, I do not in the leaft 
doubt. But then, honoured Sir, I cannot but think you have 
been much miftaken, in imagining that your tempting GcD, 
by cafting a lot in the manner you did, could lay you under 
an indifpenfible chlizcitio7i to any aflion, much lefs to publifh 
your fermon againft the do6lrine o{ prcdejlinaiion to life. 

I muft next obfcrve, that as you have been unhappy in print- 
ing at all, upon fuch an Imagmary warranty fo you have been 
as unhappy in the choice of your text. Honoured Sir, how 
could it enter into your heart, to chufe a text to difprove the 
doctrine of eledion, out of the 8th of the Rc??ians^ where this 
doctrine is fo plainly aflerted, thit once talking with a quaker 
upon this fubjedt, he had no other way of evading the force 
of the Apoflle's afTertion, than by faying, " I believe Paul 
was in the wrong." And another friend lately, who was once 
highly prejudiced againvt election, ingenuoufly ccnfefTed, " that 
he ufed to think St. Paul himfelf was miftaken, or that he was 
not truly tranflated." 

Indeed, honoured Sir, it is plain, beyond all contradi6liop5 
that St. Pr.ttly through the whole eighth of the P^oma?2S^ is 
fpcaking of the privileges of thofe only who are really in 
Christ. And let any unprejudiced perfon read what goes 
before, and what follows your text, and he muft confefs the 
word ALL only fignifics thofe that are in Christ; and the lat- 
r— tcr part of the text plainly proves, what, I find, dear Mr. 
V/cftey will, by no means, grant, I mean i\\Q fnol perfez'crance 
of the children of God. -'< He that fpared not his own Son, 


f 58 J 

l)Ut delivered him up for us all, (/. e, all Saints) how fliall he 
not with him alfo freely give us all things." Grace, in parti- 
cular, to enable us to perfevere, and every thing elfe neceflary 
to carry us home to our Father's heavenly kingdom. 

Had any one a mind to prove the docSlrlne of eleSlioriy as 
well as o^ final perseverance^ he could hardly wilh for a text 
more fit for his purpofe, than that which you have chofen to 
difprove it. One that docs not know you, would fufpedl you 
yourfelf was fenfible of this : for after the firft paragraph, I 
fcarce know whether you have mentioned it fo much as once, 
through your whole fermon. 

But your difcourfe, in my opinion, is as little to the pur- 
pofe as your text, and inftead of warping, does but more and 
more confirm me in the belief of the do(Slrine of God's eternal 

1 (hall not mention how illogically you have proceeded, 
riad you written clearly, you fhould firft, honoured Sir, have 
proved your propofition, " that God's grace is free to all," 
and then by way of inference, exclaimed againft what you call 
the horrible decree. But you knew that people (becaufe armi- 
nianifm^ of late, has fo much abounded among us) were ge- 
nerally prejudiced againft the do6lrine oi reprobation^ and there- 
fore thought if you kept up their diflike of that, you could 
overthrow the doctrine of election entirely. For, without 
doubt, the dodrine of election and reprobation muft ftand or 
fall together. 

But pafling by this, as alfo your equivocal definition of the 
word grace^ and your falfe definition of the word yr^^, and 
that I may be as fncrt as poffible, I frankly acknowledge, I 
believe the doctrine of reprobation, in this view, that God 
intends to give faving grace, through Jesus Christ, only to 
a certain number, and that the reft of mankind, after the fall 
of Adam, being juftly left of God to continue in fin, will at 
laft fuffer that eternal death, which is its proper wages. 

This is the cftablifned dodrine of fcripture, and acknow- 
ledged as fuch in the 17th article of the church of England^ 
as Biftiop Burnet himfelf confeftes ; yet dear Mr. JVeJley abfo- 
lutely denies it. 

But the moft important obje£lions, which you have urged 
againft ihi^ dodrine, as reafons why you rejedt it, being feri- 


[ 59 3 

oufly confidered, and faithfully tried by the word of GoP, 
will appear to be of no force at all. Let the matter be hum- 
bly and calmly reviewed, as to the following heads. 

Fiift, you fay, " if this be fo (/. e. if there be an eIe«5^ion) 
then is all preaching vain : it is needlefs to them that are elect- 
ed ; for they, whether with preaching or without, will infal- 
libly be fav€d. Therefore, the end of preaching to fave fouls 
is void, with regard to them. And it is ufelels to them that 
are not eleded ; for they cannot poflibly be faved; they, whe- 
ther with preaching or without, will infallibly be damned. 
The end of preaching is therefore void, with regard to them 
likewifc. So that in either cafe our preaching is vain, and 
your hearing alfo vain." Page lOth, paragraph the 9th. 

dear Sir, what kind of reafoning, or rather fophiftry fs 
this I Hath not God, who hath appointed falvation for a cer- 
tain number, appointed alfo the preaching of the word, as a 
means to bring them to it? Does any one hold ele6lion in any 
other fenfe ? And if fo, how is preaching needlefs to them that 
are cle£led ; when the gofpel is defigned by God himfelf, to 
be the power of God unto their eternal falvation ? And fince 
we know not who are eleiSi, and who reprobate, we are to 
preach promifcuoufly to all. For the word may be ufeful, 
even to the non- elect, in reftraining them from mucb wicked- 
nefs and fm. However, it is enough to excite to the utmoft 
diligence in preaching and hearing, when we confider, that by 
thefe means, fome, even as many as the Lord hath ordained 
to eternal life, (hall certainly be quickened and enabled to be- 
lieve. And who, that attends, efpecially with reveience and 
care, can tell but he may be found of that happy number ? 

Secondly, you fay, " that it, [the do6lrine of election and 
reprobation] directly tends to deliroy that hclinefs, which is 
the end of all the ordinances of God." For, (fays the dear 
miftaken Mr. JVeJley) " it wholly takes away thafe fiift mo- 
tives to follow after it, fo frequently propofed in fcripture. 
The hope of future reward, and fear of punifhment, the hope 
of heaven, and the fear of hell, &c." page i ith. 

1 thought^ that one who carries perfection to fuch an ex- 
alted pitch as dear Mr. IVeJley does, would know, that a true 
lover of the Lord Jesus Christ would ftrive to be holy for 
the fake of being holy, and work for Christ out of love an^ 


[ 6o ] 

gratitude, without any regard to the rewards of heaven, or 
fear of hell. You remember, dear Sir, what Scougal fays, 
*' Love's a more powerful motive that does them move." 
But pailing by this, and granting that rewards and punifh- 
ments (as they certainly are) may be motives from which a 
chriftian may be honeftly flirred up to a6t for God, how does 
the do6trine of ele61ion deftroy thefe motives ? Do not the 
ele6i: know that the more good works they do, the greater 
will be their reward ? And is not that encouragement enough 
to fet them upon, and caufe them to pcrfevere in working for 
Jesus Christ ? And how does the do6trine of election de- 
ftroy holinefs ? Whoever preached any other eledion, than 
what the Apoftle preached, when he faid, " Chofen through 
fan£lification of the Spirit?" Nay, is not holinefs made a 
mark of our ele6lion by all that preach it ? And how then 
can the doctrine of eleilion deftroy holinefs ? 

The inftance which you bring to iliultrate your ailertion, 
indeed, dear Sir, is quite impertinent. For you fay, ^'' If a 
fick man knows, that he muft unavoidably die or unavoidably 
recover, though he knows not which, it is not reafonabls tof 
take any phyfic at all,'* page 1 1. Dear Sir, what abfurd rea- 
foning is here ? Was you ever fick in your life ? U fo, did 
not the bare probability or poffibility of your recovering, 
though you knew it was unalterably fixed, that you muft live 
or die, encourage you to take phyfic ? For how did you knowy 
but that very phyfic might be the means God intended to 
rscover you by ? Juft thus it is as to the doiSlrine of ele6tian. 
I know that it is unalterably fixed, may one fay, that I muft 
be damned or faved ; but fince I know not which, for a cer- 
tainty, why ftiould I not ftrive, though at prefent in a flate 
of nature, fince I know not but this ftriving may be the means 
God has intended to blefs, in order to bring me into a ftate 
of grace ? Dear Sir, confider thefe things. Make an impar^ 
tial application, and then judge what little reafon you had to 
conclude the loth paragraph, page 12, in thefe words : " So 
diredlly does this dodrine tend to fliut the very gate of 
holinefs in general, to hinder unholy men from ever approach* 
ing thereto, or ftriving to enter in thereat." 

" As diredly," fay you paragraph 11, " does the docl:rine 
tend to deftroy feveral particular branches of holinefs, fuch a? 



meeknefs, love, &c." I ftiall fay little, dear Sir, in anfwer 
to this paragraph. Dear Mr. IVcJlcy perhaps has been dif- 
puting with Come warm narrow fpirited men that held eledion, 
»nd then infers, that their warmth and narrownefs of fpirit, 
was owing to their principles ? Bat does not dear Mr. JVejley 
know many dear children of God, who are predeftinarians, 
and yet are meek, lowly, pitiful, courteous, tender-hearted, 
kind, of a catholic fpirit, and hope to fee the moft vile and 
profligate of men converted ? And why ? becaufe they knowr 
God faved thcmfelves by an aft of his elefting love, and they 
know not but he may have eledled thofe who now feem to be 
the moft abandoned. But, dear Sir, we muft not judge of 
the truth of principles in general, nor of this of election in 
particular, entirely from the practice of fome that profefs to 
hold them. If fo, I am fure much might be faid againft your 
own. For I appeal to your own heart, whether or not you 
have not felt in yourfelf, or obferved in others, a narrow-fpi- 
litedncfs, and fome difunion of foul refpe6ling thofe that hold 
particular redemption. If fo, then according to your own 
rule, uni'verfal rede?npiion is wrongs becaufe it deftroys feveral 
branches of holinefs, fuch as meeknefs, love, &c. But not 
to infift upon this, I beg you would obfervc, that your infer 
rence is entirely fet afide by the force of the Apoftle's argu- 
ment, and the language which he exprefly ufes. Col. iii. 12, i-j. 
*' Put on, therefore, (as the eleft of God, holy and beloved) 
bowels of mercy, kindnefs, humblenefs of mind, meeknefs, 
iong-fuffering, forbearing one another, and forgiving one 
another, if any man have a quarrel againit any, even as 
Christ forgave you, fo alfo do ye." Here we fee that the 
Apoftle exhorts them to put on bowels of mercy, kindnefs, 
humblenefs of mind, meeknefs, long-fulTering, &c. upon this 
conhderation, namely, becaufe they were eleft of God. 
And all who have experimentally felt this doclrine in their 
hearts, feel that thefe graces are the genuine efFefts of their 
being elefted of God. 

But, perhaps dear Mr. /F^^y may be mifcaken in this 
point, and call that pafTion, which is only zeal for God's 
truths. You know, dear Sir, the Apoftle exhorts us to 
*' contend earneftly for the faith once delivered to the faints," 
and therefore you muft not condemn all that appear zealous for 


r 62 ] 

t^e do£^rIne of ele£lion, as narrow-rplrlted, or pcrfecutors, be- 
caufe they think it their duty to oppofe you. I am fure, I love 
you in the bowels of Jesus Christ, and think I could lay 
down my life for your fake ; but yet, dear Sir, I cannot help 
{Irenuoufly oppofing your errors upon this important fubje^l, 
becaufe I think you wiirmly, though not defignedly, oppofe 
the truth, as it is in Jesus. May the Lord remove the 
fcales of prejudice from off the eyes of your mind, and give 
you a zeal according to true chriflian knowledge ! 

Thirdly, fays your fermon, page 13, paragraph 12, " This 
doctrine tends to deflroy the comlorts of religion, the happi- 
nefs of chriftianity, &c." 

But how does Mr. Wejley know this, who never believed 
elecli®n ? I believe they who have experienced it, will agree 
with our 17th article, " That the godly confideration of pre- 
deflination, and eie£^ion in Christ, is full of fweet, pleafant, 
unfpeakabie comfort to godly perfons, and fuch as feel in 
thenifelves the working of the Spirit 'of Christ, mortifying 
the works of the flein, and their earthly members, and draw- 
ing their minds to high and heavenly things, as well becaufe 
jt does greatly eflablifh and confirm their faith of eternal faU 
vation, to be enjoyed through Christ, as becaufe it doth fer- 
vently kindle their love towards God, &c.'* This plainly 
ihews, that cur godly refcj-mers did not think election de- 
Uroyed holinefs, or the comforts of religion. As for my own 
j^-^rt. this doctrine is my daily fupport : I fhould utterly fmk 
under a dread of my impending trials, was I not firmly per- 
fuaded that God has chofen me in Christ from before the 
foundation of the world, and that now being effectually called, 
he will fufFer none to pluck me out of his almighty hand. 

You proceed thus : " This is evident as to all thofe who 
believe themfelves to be reprobate, or only fufpe£l or fear it ; 
all the great and precious promifes are loft to them 5 they af- 
ford them no ray of comfort." 

In anfwer to this, let me obferve, that none living, efpe- 
cially none who are defirous of falvation, can know that they 
are not of the number of God's ele£l. None, but the uncon- 
verted, can have any jufl reafon, fo much as to fear it. And 
would dear Mr. Wefley give comfort, or dare you apply the 
precious promifes of the gofpel, being children's bread, to men 


'[ 63 ] 

in a natural (late, while they continue fo ? God forbid ! 
What if the dodlrine of election and reprobation does put fome 
upon doubting ? So does that of regeneration. But, is not 
this doubting, a good means to put them upon fearching and 
ftriving ; and that ftriving, a good means to make their calling 
and their ele6lion fure. This is one reafon among many 
others, why I admire the do£lrine of election, and am con- 
vinced that it fliould have a place in gofpel miniftrations, and 
fhould be infifted on with faithfulnefs and care. It has a na- 
tural tendency to rouze the foul out of Its carnal fecurity. And 
therefore many carnal men cry out againft it. Whereas uni- 
verfal redemption is a notion fadly adapted to keep the foul in 
its lethargic ileepy condition, and therefore fo many natural 
men admire and applaud it. 

Your 13th, 14th, and 15th paragraphs come next to be 
confidered. '^ The witnefs of the Spirit, (you fay, para- 
graph 14, p. 14.) experience (hews to be much obftru6led 
by this do6trine," But, dear Sir, whofe experience ? Not 
your own ; for in your Journal, from your embarking for 
Georgia^ to your return to London^ page the laft, you fcem to 
acknowledge that you have it not, and therefore you are no 
competent judge in this matter. You muft mean then the 
experience of others. For you fay in the fame paragraph, 
<^ Even in thofe who have tafted of that good gift, who 
yet have foon loft it again, (I fuppofe you mean loft the 
fenfe of it again) and fallen back into doubts and fears and 
darknefs, even horrible darknefs that might be felt, he" 
Now, as to the darknefs of defertion, was not this the cafe of 
Jesus Christ himfelf, after he had received an unmeafurable 
un£lion of the Holy Ghoft ? Was not his foul exceeding 
forrowful, even unto death, in the garden ? And was he not 
furrounded with an horrible darknefs, even a darknefs that 
might be felt, when on the crofs he cryed out, " My 
God! My God! why haft thou forfaken me?" And 
that all his followers are liable to the fame, is it not evident 
from fcripture ? For, fays the Apoftle, *' He was tempted in 
all things like unto his brethren, that he might be able to 
fuccour thofe that are tempted." And is not their liablcnefs 
thereunto, confiftent with that conformity to him in fufFering, 
which his members are to bear ? Why then ihould perfons 
I falling 

[ H ] 

falling into darkncfs, after they have received the wltnefs of 
the Spirir, be any argument againft the do£lrine of eledion ? 
*' Yes, you fay, many, very many of thofe that hold it not, 
in all parts of the earth, have enjoyed the uninterrupted wit- 
nefs of the Spirit, the continual light of God's countenance, 
from the moment vi'herein they firft believed, for many 
months or years to this very day." But how does dear Mr. 
Wejley know this ? Has he confulted the experience of many, 
very many in all parts of the earth ? Or could he be fure of 
what he hath advanced without fufficient grounds, would it 
follow, that their being kept in this light, is owing to their 
not believing the do(51:rine of eledion ? No, this, according 
to the fentiments of our church, " greatly confirms and efta- 
biifhes a true chriftian's faith of eternal falvation throu2:h 
Christ," and is an anchor of hope, both fure and ftedfaft, 
when he walks in darknefs and fees no light ; as certainly he 
may, even after he hath received the witnefs of the Spirir, 
whatever you or others may unadvifedly aflert to the contrary. 
Then, to have refpe<S to God's everlafting covenant, and 
to throw himfelf. upon the free diftinguifhing love of that 
God, who changeth not, will make him lift up the hands 
that hang down, and flrengthen the feeble knees. But, with- 
out the belief of the dodrine of eledlion, and the immutability 
of the free love of God, I cannot fee how it is pofTible that 
any ftiould have a comfortable afTurance of eternal falvatii.ii. 
What could it fignify to a man,whofe confcience is thoroughly 
awakened, and who is warned in good earneft to feek delive- 
rance from the wrath to come, though he (liould be allured 
that all his paft fins are forgiven, and that he is now a child 
of God ; if notwithftanding this, he may hereafter become ai 
child of the devil, and be caft into hell at laft ? Could fuch 
an afTurance yield any folid lafting comfort to a perfon con- 
vinced of the corruption and treachery of his own heart, and 
of the malice, fubtilty, and power of Satan ? No ! that which 
alone deferves the name of a full afTurance of faith, is fuch an 
afTurance, as emboldens the believer, under the fenfe of his 
jnterefl in diftinguifhing love, to give the challenge to all his 
adverfaries, whether men or devils, and that with regard to 
all their future, as well as prefent attempts to deftroy ; faying 
Vvith the Apoflie, *' Who ihall lay any thing to the charge of 
7 God's 

[ 65 ] 

God's ele£t ? It is Gqd that juftifies ; who is he that cen- 
demns me? It is Christ that died : yea rather that is rifen 
again, who is even at the right hand of Gon, who alfo 
maketh interccfTion for me. Who fliall feparate me from the 
love of Christ ? (hall tribulation or diftrefs, or perfccution 
or famine, or nakednefs, or peril or fword ! Nay, in all thefe 
things I am more than conqueror, through him that loved me. 
For I am perfuaded, that neither death nor life, nor angels, 
nor principalities nor powers, nor tilings prefent, nor things 
to come, nor heighth nor depth, nor any other creature, fliall 
be able to feparate me from the love of God vv^hich is in 
Christ Jesus my Lord." 

This, dear Sir, is the triumphant language of every foul 
that has attained a full afliirance of faith. And this afiurance 
can only arife from a belief of God's eleding everlafling love. 
That many have an afiurance they are in Christ to-day, but 
take no thought for, or are not afiured they fliall be in ^him 
to-morrow, nay to all eternity, is rather their imperfe6lion 
and unhappinefs, than their privilege. I pray God to bring all 
fuch to a fenfe of his eternal love, that they may no longer 
build upon their own faithfulnefs, but on the unchangeable- 
nefs of that God, whofe gifts and callings are without repen-' 
tance. For thofe whom God has once juftified, he alfo will 
glorify. I obferved before, dear Sir, it is not always a fafe 
rule to judge of the truth of principles from people's pra6Lice« 
And therefore, fuppofing that all who hold univerfal redemp- 
tion in your way of explaining it, after they received faith, 
enjoyed the continual uninterrupted fight of God's counte- 
nance, it does not follow, that this is a fruit of their principle: 
for that I am fure has a natural tendency to keep the foul in 
darknef* for ever ; bccaufe the creature thereby is taught, that 
his being kept in a llate of falvation, is ovving to his own 
free will. And what a fandy foundation is that for a poor 
creature to build his hopes of perfeverance upon ? Every re- 
lapfe into fm, every furprize by temptation, muil tijrou' him 
" into doubts and fears, into horrible darknefs, even darknefs 
that may be felt." Hence it is, that the letters which have 
been lately fent mc by thofe who hold univerfal redemption^ 
arc dead and lifelefs, dry and inconfiitcnt, in comparifon of 
thofe I receive from pcrfons on the contrary fide. Thofe who 
Vol. IV. E ' ' fettle 

C 66 ] 

fettle in the univerfal fchemc, though they might begin in the 
Spirit, (whatever they may fay to the contrary) are ending in 
the Hefh, and building up a righteoufnefs founded on their 
own free will : whilft the others triumph in hopes of the glory 
of God, and build upon God's never-failing promife, and 
unchangeable love, even when his fenfible prefence is with- 
drawn from them. But I would not judge of the truth of 
cle6lion, by the experience of any particular perfons : if I did 
(O bear with me in this foolifhnefs of beading) I think I 
myfelf might glory in election. For thefe five or fix years I 
have received t^e witnefs of God's Spirit ; flnce that, blefled 
be God, I have not doubted a quarter of an hour of a faving 
intereft in Jesus Christ : but with grief and humble Ihame I 
do acknovv'ledge, 1 ha\e fallen into fm often fmcethat. Though 
I do not, dare not allow of any one tranfgrelTion, yet hitherto 
I have not been (nor do I expecSl that while I am in this pre- 
fent world I ever fhall be) able to live one day perfectly free 
from all defe6LS and fin. And fmce the fcriptures declare, 
" That there is not a juft man upon earth," no, not among 
thofe of the higheft attainments in grace, *' that doeth good 
and finneth not ;" we are fure that this will be the cafe of all 
the children of God. The univerfal experience and acknow- 
ledgment of this among the godly in every age, is abundantly 
fufficient to confute the error of thofe who hold in an abfolute 
fenfe, that after a man is born again he cannot commit fin ; efpe- 
cially, fmce the Holy Ghoft condemns the perfons who fay 
they have no fin, as deceiving themfelves, as being defi:itute 
of the truth, and making God a liar, i '^fohn i. 8, lo. I 
have been alfo in heavinefs through manifold temptations, and 
expe6t to be often fo before I die. Thus were the Apoftle:-; 
and primitive chrifiians themfelves. Thus was Luther^ that 
man of God, who, as faV as I can find, did not peremptorily, 
at leaft, hold cledion ; and the great fohn Artidt was in the 
utmoft perplexity but a quarter oF an hour before he died, and 
yet he was no predeftinarian. And if I mud fpeak freely, I 
believe your fighting fo fi:renuou{1v aeainll the doctrine of 
elciSlion, and pleading fo vehemently for a finlefs pcrfeclion, 
are among the reafons or culpable caufes, why you are kept 
-aut cf the liberties of the gofnelj aiid horn that full afilirance 
2 of 

X 6; ] 

of faitii which they enjoy, who have experimentally ta(ted;, 
and daily feed upon God's ele6ling, cvcrlafting love. 

But perhaps you may fay, that Luther and Arndt were no 
chriftians, at leaft very weak ones. I know you think meanly 
o^ Jhraham^ though he was eminently called the friend of 
God ; and, I believe, alfo of Davld^ the man after God's 
own heart. No wonder, therefore, that in a letter you fent 
me not long fmce, you fhould tell me, '^ that no baptift or 
prefbyterian writer vi^hom you have read, knew any thing of 
the liberties of Christ." What ! neither Bunyan^ Hcnryy 
Flauel^ Halyburton, nor any of the New-England and Scots di- 
vines. See, dear Sir, what Harrow fplritednefs and want of 
charity arifc from your principles, and then do not cry out 
a^ainft ele£tion any more on account of its beino; " deftruc- 
tive of meeknefs and love." 

Fourthly, I ftiall now proceed to another head. Says the 
dear Mr. TFef.e)\ page 15, paragraph 16, '' How uncomfort- 
able a thought is this, that thoufands and millions of men, 
without any preceding offence or fault oF theirs, were un- 
changeably doomed to everlafting burnings ? 

But who ever aflerted, that thoufands and millions of men, 
without any preceding ofience or fault of theirs, Vv'cre un- 
changeably doomed to everlaiting burnings? Bo not they 
who believe God^s dooming men to everlaning burning'-^, 
alfo believe, that God looked upon them as men {^i\\tl\ Iti 
Adam ? And that the decree which ordained the puniiliment, 
firft regarded the crime by v.'hich it vv'as defcrved ? How then 
are they doomed without any preceding fault? Surely Mr, 
Wcjley will own God's juilice, in imiputing Adorns fin to his 
pofterity ; and alfo, that afcer Adar-n fell, and his poderity in 
him, God might juftly have palled them all by, ivithout 
finding his own Son to be a faviour for anyone. Unlefs you 
heartily agree to both thefe points, you do not believe original 
fm aright. If you do own them,_^then you mud: acknowlcdjie 
the doclrine of ele(?iion and reprobation to be high'.y jufl: and 
reafonable. For if God might juftly impute Ad<nns fin to ?.\\y 
and afterwards have pafied by all, then he m>ight juftly pafs by 
SOMT. Tarn on the right hand, or on the left, you are re- 
duced to an inextricable dilemma. Arid, if you would be 
cotififtent, you muft either give up the doclnne of the im- 

K 2 mutation 

[ 68 ] 

putation of Jdam's fin, or receive the amiable doctrine of 
election, with a holy and righteous reprobation as its confe- 
qucnt. For "whether you can believe it or no, the w^ord of 
God abides faithful. " The ckdlion has obtained it, and 
the reft were blinded." 

Your 17th paragraph, page 16, I pafs over. What has 
been faid on paragraph the 9th and 10th, v/ith a little altera- 
tion will anfwer it. 1 Tnall only lay, it is the dodrine of 
election that moftly prefles me to abound in good works. I 
am made willing to fuffer all things for the elect's fake. This 
makes me to preach with comfort, becaufe 1 know falvation 
does not depend on man's free will, but the Lord makes 
willing in the day of his power, and can make ufc of me to 
brinff fome of his elect home, when and where he pleafcs. 

Fifthly, You fay, paragraph 18, page 17, " This doclrlne 
has a dire6l manifeft tendency to overthrow the whole chrif- 
tian religion. For, fay you, fuppofing that eternal unchange- 
able decree, one part of mankind m.uft be faved, though the 
ehrilllan revelation were not in being." 

But, dear Sir, how does that follow ? Since it Is only by 
the chriftian revelation that v/c are acquainted with God's 
defian of faving his church by the death of his Son. Yea, it 
is fettled in the everlafting covenant, that this falvation fhall 
be applied to the ele(51 through the knowledge and faith of 
him. As the prophet fays, Ifaiah WW. 11. "By his knovf- 
ledge (hall my righteous fervant juftify many." How then 
has the dodlrine of election a dire61: tendency to overthrow 
the whole chriftian revelation ? Who ever thought, that 
God's declaration to AW//;, that f cd-time and harveft fhould 
r<ever ceafe, could afford an argument for the neglecl of 
plowing or fowing? Or that the unchangeable purpofe of 
God, that harvcft Pnould not fail, rendered, the heat of the 
fun, or the influence of the heavenly bodies unneceffary to 
produce it ? No more does God's abfolute purpofe of faving 
his chofen, preclude the necelTiry of the gofpel revelation, or 
the ufc of any of the means through which he has determined 
the decree fliall take elFecf. Nor will the right underflanding, 
or the reverent belief of God's decree, ever allov/ or fuffer a 
chiifrian in any c::fc to feparatc the means from the .end, or 


[ 69 ] 

the end from the means. And fincc \vc arc faivgiit hv the re- 
velation itfelf, that tliis was intended and given by God as a 
means of brin<nng home his cle6t. we therefore receive it with 
joy, prize it h!:;hly, ufe it in faith, and endeavour to fpread 
it through ail the world, in the full adurancc, that wherever 
God fends it, fooncr or later, it (hall be favingly ufeful to all 
the ele£l within its call. Hov/ then, in holding this doctrine, 
do wc join witli modern unbelievers, in making the chriftian 
revelation unneceflary ? No, dear Sir, you miihike. Inndels 
of all kinds are on your fide of the queftion. Deifts, Arian?, 
Socinians, arraign God's fovereignty, and {land up for uni- 
verfal redemption. I pray God, that dear Mr. JP'eJley?> fermon, 
as it has grieved the hearts of many of God's children, ,may 
not alfo ftrengthen the hands of many of his mod avowed 
enemies I Here I could almoft lie down and weep. " O tell 
it not in Gath ! Publifh it not in the flreets oi Jfkelouy left the 
daughters of the uncircumcifed rejoice, left the fons of unbe- 
lief (liould triumph ! " 

Further, you fay, page i8, paragraph 19, <' This docSlrine 
makes revelation contradict itfelf." For inftance, fay you, 
" The afTertors of this doClrine interpret that text of fcripture, 
"Jacob have I loved, but Efau have I hated, as implying that 
God, in a literal fenfe, hated Efaii and all the reprobates 
from eternity !" And, when confidered as fallen in Adam^ 
were they not objects of his hatred ? And might not God, 
of his own good pleafure, love or fhew mercy to yacch and the 
ele(St, and yet at the fame time do the reprobate no wrong \ 
But you fay, *' God is love." And cannot God be love, 
unlcfs he fhews the fime mercy to all ? 

Again, fays dear Mr. IVeJlty^ " They infer from that text, 
I will have mercy on whom I will have m.ercy, that God is 
mercy only to fome men, viz. the elecSl ; and that he has 
mercy for thofc only, flatly contrary to which is the whole 
tenor of the fcripture, as is that exprcfs declaration in parti- 
cular. The Lord is loving to every man, and his mercv is 
over all his works." And fo it is, but not his faving mercy. 
God is loving to every man : he fends his rain upon the evil 
and upon the good. But you fay, " God is no rcfpeiSlcr of 
perfons." No ! For every one, whether Jew or GentilRy that 
believcth on Jesus, and wbrketh righteoufnefs, is accepted 

t 3 of 

[ 70 } 

of him: " But he that believeth no-t -fhall be damned." For 
God is no refpetSler of perfons, upon the account of any out- 
ward condition or circumfiance in life whatever; nor does 
the do6hine of election in the lead fuppofe him to be fo. But 
as the fovereign Lord of all, who is debtor to none, he has 
a right to do what he will with his own, and to difpenfe his 
favours to what objeds he fees fit, merely at his pleafure. 
And his fupreme right herein, is clearly and llrongly afTerted 
in thofe pafHiges of fcripture, where he fays, " I Vv'iil have 
mercy on whom I will have mercy, and have companion on 
whom I will have- coiiipaiTion," Rom. ix. 15. Exod. xxxiii. 19. 

Further, in page 19, you reprefent us as inferring from the 
text, " The children not being yet born, neither having done 
good or evil, that the purpofe of God, according to ele6lion, 
jnJJ^ht {land : not of works, but of him that calleth. It was 
faid unto her {unto Rebecca)^ The elder fhall ferve the younger j 
that our predeftination to life no ways depends on the fore- 
knovi/lcdge of God." But who infers this, dear Sir ? For 
if foreknowledge fignifies approbation, as it does in feveral 
parts of fcripture, then we confefs that predeftination and 
cle£^ion do depend on God's fore-knowledge. But if by 
God's fore-knovvledge, you underftand Golfs fore-feeing 
fome good works dons by his creatures as the foundation or 
leafon of chufmg them, and therefore eledling them, then we 
fay, that in this fenfe, predeftination does not any way de- 
pend on God's fore-knowledge. But I referred you, at the 
beginning of this letter, to Dr. Edwards's Veritas Redux^ which 
I recommended to you alfo in a late letter, with Elijha Cole 
on God's Sovereignty. Be pleafed to read thefe, and alfo the 
excellent fermons of Mr. Cooper^ of Bo^on in New- England, 
vvhich I alfo fent you, and I doubt not but you will fee all 
your cbjeiflions anfwered. Though I would obferve, that 
after all our reading on both fides the queftion, we fhall never 
in this life be able to fearch out God's decrees to pcrfedion. 
No, we muft humbly aiore what we cannot comprehend, and 
with the great Apoftle at the end of our enquiries cry out, 
*' O the depth, &c." or with our Lord, when he was ad- 
miring God's fovereign ty^ *^' Even io Falher, for fo it feemetU 
good in thy Gght.'* 


[ 7t ] 

However, it may not be amifs to take notice, that If thofe 
texts, " God willeth that none fliould pcrifli," " I have no 
pleafure in him that dieth," and Cuch like, be taken in their 
firicf^eft fenfe, then no one will be damned. 

But here's the diftindlion. God taketh no pleafure In the 
death of Tinners, fo as to delight fimply in their death ; but he 
delights to magnify his juftice, by inflicling the puniflimcnt 
which their iniquities have deferved. As a righteous judge 
who takes no pleafure in condemning a criminal, may yet 
juftly command him to be executed, that law and juftice may 
be fatisfied, even though it be in his povv^er to procure him a 

I would hint farther, that you unjuftly charge the do6lrIne 
of reprobation with blafphemy, whereas the dodrine of uni- 
verfal redemption, as you fet it forth, is really the higheft 
reproach upon the dignity of the Son of God, and the merit 
of his blood. Confider whether it be not rather blafphemy 
to fay as you do, page 20, " Christ not only died for thofe 
that are faved, but alfo for thofe that perifh." The text you 
have mifapplied to glofs over this, fee explained by Ridgefyy 
^dwards^ Henry ; and I purpofely omit anfwering your texts 
myfelf, that you may be brought to read fuch treatifes, which, 
under God, would fhew you your error. You cannot make 
good the afTertion, " That Christ died for them that pe- 
rifh," without holding (as Peter Boehkr.y one of the Moravian 
brethren, in order to make out univerfal redemption, lately 
frankly confefTed in a letter) " That all the damned fouls 
would hereafter be brought out of hell." I cannot think 
Mr. Wejley is thus minded. And yet without this can be 
proved, univerfal redemption, taken in a literal fenfe, falls en- 
tirely to the ground. For how can all be univerfally re- 
deemed, if all are not finally faved ? 

Dear Sir, for Jesus Christ's fake, confider how you 
difhonour God by denying eledion. You plainly make fal- 
vation depend not on GoD'syr^^-^r^f^, but on mzn^s free-will', 
and if thus, it is more than probable, Jesus Christ would 
not have had the fatisfadtion of feeing the fruit of his death in 
the eternal falvation of one foul. Our preaching v/ould then 
b« vain, and all invitations for people to believe in him, 
would alfo be in vain. 

E 4 But 

C 72 ] 

But, blcffcd hz G0D5 our Lord knew for whom he died. 
There was an eternal compadl between the Father an,d the 
Son. A certain number was then given him, as the purch^fe 
and reward of his obedience and dc^th. For thefe he prayed, 
yo/m xvii. and not for the world. For thefe, and thefe only, 
he is now interceding, and with their I'alvation he vvill be fully 

I purpofe'y omit making any further particular remarks on 
the fevergl laft pages of your fermon. Indeed had not your 
name, dear Sir, been prefixed to the fermon, I could not have 
been fo uncharitable as to think you were the author of fuch 
fophiftry. You beg the queftion, in faying, " That God has 
declared, (notwithilanding you own, I fuppofe, fomc will be 
damned) that he will fave all," i. e. every individual perfon. 
You take it for granted (for folid proof you have none) that 
God is unjufl-, if he pafles by any, and then you exclaim 
againil the horrible decree : and yet, as I before hinted, in 
hpldin^r the do^riiine of original lin, you profcfs to believe 
that he might juiHy have pafTed by all. 

Dear, dear Sir, O be not offended ! For Christ's fake 
be not rafli ! Give yourfeif to reading. Study the covenant 
pf orace. Down with your carnal reafoning. Be a little child ; 
and then, inRcad of pawning your falvation, as you have 
done in a late hymn book, if the do£lrine of univerjal redemp^ 
t;m be not true ; inftead of talking o^ fmlefs perftciion^ as you 
have done in the preface to that hymn book, and making 
man's falvation to depend on his ovv'n free-will^ as you have 
in this fermon ; you will compofe an hymn in praife of fove- 
reign dillinguifliipg love. You will caution believers againft 
flriving to work a perfe£^ion out of their own hearts, and print 
another fermon the reverfe of this, and entitle it free- grace 
indeed. Free, becaufe not free to all ; but free, becaufeGoD 
may withhold or give it to whom and when he pleafes. 

Till you do this, I muft doubt whether or not you know 
yourfelf. In the mean while, I cannot but blame you for 
cenfuring the clergy of our church for not keeping to their 
articles, when you yourfelf by your principles, pofitively deny 
the 9th, loth, and 17th. Dear Sir, thefe things ought not 
fo to be. God knows my heart, as I told you before, fo I 
declare again, nothing but a hngle regard to the honour of 
7 Christ 

C 73 ] 

Christ has forced this letter from mc. J love and honour 
you for his fake ; and when I come to judgment, Vv'ili thanlc 
you before men and angels, for what you have, under God, 
done for my foul. 

There, I am perfuaded, I fiiall fee dear Mr. lVe/I/;y con- 
vinced of elecUon and everlafting love. And it often fills me 
with pleafure, to think how 1 Ihall behold you cailin<^ your 
crown down at the feet of the Lamb, and as it were filled 
with a holy blufliing for oppofing the divine fovereignty in 
the manner you have done. 

But I hope the Lord will fliew you this before you go 
hence. O how do I long for that day ! If the Lord fhould 
be p'eafed to make ufe of this letter for that purpofe, it would 
abundantly rejoice the heart of, dear'and honoured Sir, 

Your afFedlionate, though unworthy brother 

and fervant in Christ, 

George Wh i t e f i e l d. 





O F T H E 

Remarkable Work of GOD 

I N 



Some Remarks on a late Pamphlet, entitled, 
*' T^be State of Religion in New^England, fince 
the Reverend Mr. George Whitefield'j Arrival 

In a Letter to a Minister of the Church 
of Scotland. 

[ 77 3 


CambuJJang^ Auguji 31, 1742. 
Reverend and dear Slry 

IHave read the pamphlet entitled, ^' The State of Religion m 
'New-England^ fince the Reverend Mr. George JVlntefiehV^ 
arrival there, in a letter from a gentleman in New-England 
to his friend in Glafgozu.'' I think the contents no way an- 
fwer the title page. It rather ought to be intitled, The State 
cf Religion falfely Jlated. For I am perfuaded, fome things 
are therein afTerted, without fufficient evidence to prove them, 
and many more things falfely rcprefented, and fet in a wrong 
lio;ht : the defiorn of the pamohlet itfelf is bafe and wicked. 
It is intended, if pofTible, to eclipfe the late great and glorious 
work, begun and carried on for fome time in New- England y 
to invalidate the teftimonies that have been given of it, and 
thereby of confequcnce to bring a reproach upon, and to 
hinder the fpreading of a like glorious work, which God of 
his infinite mercy ha? for fome time been carrying on in 
this land. Give me leave to fend you a few obfervations 
upon this anonymous pamphlet. I call it anonymou^y becaufe 
the publi{her has not thought proper to put down the 
name of the writer cf the firfl: letter Mr. J. M, at length, 
which I think he was bound in duty to, do. The publillier 
indeed, in the advertifement prefixed to the letter, tells 
us, " The reader m.ay depend upon it, that the fol- 
lowino; letter is [renuine, from a eentleman who hath alwavs 
had a good character for found underilanding, integrity, fo- 
briety of manners, piety ; and, notwithftanding his engage- 
ments in fccular affairs, has never been an unconcerned fpec- 
tator of any thing that might aftcct the ftate of religion/* 
Eut I muit beg the publifher's pardon, if I tell him, that I 
sm one of thofe readers who cannot depend upon all this, 
merely up-on his defiring mc to do fo. For really there is 


X 78 ] 

one thing in the letter v/hich makes me flircwdly rurpe<^^ 
that the letter itfelf is not genuine, at lead that there has 
been Ibme additions made to it fince it came to Scotland. For 
the fuppofed writer of this letter, page 15, fays, *' In the 
preface to the fermon puhliflied by Mr. Edivards of Nor- 
thajupiouy which I fee is reprinted among you." Now hovf 
this gentleman could fee at Bojhn., May 24, that Mr. Edwards\ 
fermon was reprinted in Scotland^ which was not done till 
the June following, I know not. If it be faid, that by the 
words among you he means in Britain^ I fee that the printed 
advertifement in the London Weekly Hijhry^ of the publication 
of Mr. Edwards's fermon in England^ is dated yk% i, and 
fays, " This day is publifhed.'* I myfelf was one that was 
chiefly concerned in publilhing of it. I fent the firft copy to 
Scotlandy and to my certain knowledge it was never publifhed 
m Britain x\\\ May I. Is it probable that people at BoJioH 
{hould know of this Alay 24? What a chara6^er this gentle- 
man ha^ always had for " found iinderftanding, integrity, 
fobriety of manners and piety," I will not take upon me to 
determine, nor does the publiflier give us opportunity to 
know what character the gentleman really has had, fince he 
does not publifn his name : but however that be, I fear he 
has forfeited his good character *' for found underftanding, 
intec^rity and piety," by writing this letter. And though 
he may not be altogether an " unconcerned fpe^lator of any 
thing that might affeft religion," yet I fear he has been (o 
taken up with *' his engagements in fecular aftairs," that he 
hath not given himfelf fufFicient time to enquire into matter? 
of fadl, but has heard with others ears, and feen with other? 
eyes, and has not -imfelf attended as he ought, to the one 
thing needful. 

He fays \h the beginning of his letter, page the 3d, '* I 
am forry you have had fuch accounts of perfons, and things, 
tranfmitted you from this country, as you mention in your 
letter ; they are far from being true, and muft come from men 
of narrow minds, and great bigotry, or from fuch as bnfely 
sfle^i: popularity, or from well-meaning weak chriftians, of 
little knowledge of human nature, or the hiftory of man- 
kind." What accounts this gentleman refers to I know not. 
If he means the accounts in the Weekly Hijlory^ as I fuppofe 


t 79 ] 

he docs i I think this gentleman is fadly miftaken. Mofl 
of the accounts were tranfmitted by the honourable Mr, 
JVilliard^ fecretary of the .province. The Rev, Dr. Colman^ 
the Rev. Mr. Cooper^ the Rev. Mr. Prince : perfons I am in- 
timately acquainted with, and who are by no means " Men 
of narrow minds, great bigotry, or little knowledge of hu- 
man nature, or the hiftory of mankind : but have defervedly 
had a good character for found underftanding, integrity, fo- 
briety of manners and piety:" Some of thefe were honoured 
feveral years ago with degrees, by the univerfity of Glafgow^ 
upon recommendation from the Honourable fociety at Edin- 
hurgh for Propagating Chriftian Knowledge ; of which fociety 
feveral of the moft intelligent gentlemen in the nation are 
members : fuch honours were done to Meflrs. Colman^ Prince^ 
and Cooper. 

Now whether they^ or this anonymous tvriter, are to be mofl 
credited, I leave any reafonable man to judge. Indeed he 
boldly aflerts, " That thefe accounts are not true :" but what 
proofs does he bring of the falfity of them ? None at all. Let 
us but know who this writer is, I am perfuaded my honoured 
friends at Bojlon, will foon bring him to the teft of thefe af- 

He goes on thus " Indeed feme perfons of very good fenfe 
were once inclined to think God was doing wonders in this 
place." {Bojlsn) And I am perfuaded thefe very fame perfons 
have not altered their opinion yet, but a61:ually believe that 
God has done wonders ; if turning people from darknefs to 
light, and making them new creatures, is doing wonders. 

" But that was a time when a fuperftitious panic ran very 
high, and bore down every body that was not well fixed and 
eftablifiied ; either by a natural fteadinefs of temper, or by 
ftrong reafoning and reflections. But as foon as the paffions 
of the people fubiided, and men could coolly and calmly con- 
fider, almoftevery one of but tolerable fenfe and underftand- 
ing in religious matters, in great meafure changed their opi- 
nions of the fpirit that prevailed here, and had been raifed by 
Wbiteficld and Tennent^ 

What had been raifed by Mr. IVhitefield and Tennent P 
God forbid ! that either Mr. Tennent or I ihould afcribe any 
of that work to ourfdvcs. No, it was raifed by the Holy 


[ So ] 

Spirit of Gob. It was no fuperjiitious pomc^ but a plentlfirl 
cffufion of the Holy Ghoft. It's true, it did run high ; glory be 
to God for it ! and did bear down every body, except thofe 
who would not fubmit to the Redeemer's fccpter, throuorh 
felf-righteoufnefs and unbelief; which I am afraid this writer 
terms, natural fleadinefs of temper, ftrong reafoning and re- 
fle£tion. Nor is it true that " Almoft every one of but tolera- 
ble underllanding in religious matters, in a great meafure have 
changed their opinions of the fpirit that prevailed at that time." 
No, dear Sir, they yet believe it to be a glorious work cf God, 
as is evident from the late writings of fome of thefe eminent 
minifters in New-England^ juft mentioned. 

What the writer fays of me in the following paragraph, 
page 4th, is not worthy notice. He is welcome to make as 
free with my chara6^er as he plcafes, and I freely forgive him. 
However I thank him for doing me the juftice to fay, " That 
I colleclcd money for the Orphoji-houfe in Georgia,''' It was 
not then /or myfclf\ nor docs he charge me with embezzelling 
the 5 or 600 /. He could not do ih'ss jujlly^ becaufe before 
the writing of this letter, an account came to Bojhn how I 
had expended it. And as for being " A bold and importu- 
nate beggar," I acknowledge I learned that from the wife 
Man, who tells me, " Whatever thou findeft in thy hand to 
do, do it with all thy might ;" and from the apoftle Paul., who 
in the fecond epiftle to the Corinthlansy chap. viii. 9. fliews 
hlmfelf to be the moft bold, infmuating and importunate beg- 
gar for pious ufes, that I ever yet met with. 

I think I am much obliged to the writer, for what he fays 
concerning me in this refpe»5l. But I wifh he had not made 
fo free with the charafter of my honoured friends. He cries 
out againft flander in others, and at the fame time, through 
the whole letter, he is guilty of the moft palpable flander him- 
felf. He is pretty favourable to the Rev. Mr. Wehh., and the 
Rev. Mr. Cooper of Bojhru He only calls them, page the 
7th, " Two great admirers o'ilVhit e field 2,Vid. Tennenty flaming 
zealots for ccrt?i\n favourite opinions and tenets." And fo in- 
deed they are, blelll-d champions, I know them well, (oi- cer- 
tain favourite opinions, and tenets of the church of Scotland -y 
fuch as original fiii, the imputed righteoufnefs of Christ, 


[ Si ] 

cictSlIon, and other glorious gofpel truths. But as for Mr. 
Tennent^ he feems quite angry with him. 

Never was a man more wrongfully reprefcntcd. This let- 
ter-writer fays, " He has often heard, that Mr. Tcnneiit had 
always been remarkable in the Jcrfeys^ for his uncharitable 
and divifive courfes." But does the hearing of this, prove 
the truth of it. I have the happinefs of being pcrfonally and 
very intimately acquainted with Mr. Tennent. I fcarce know 
a man of a more catholic fpirit. '' He is a man of no learn- 
ing." His writings prove the contrary. Flis antagonifts a- 
broad dare not fay they have found him fo. " His great bufincfa 
in his fermons is either to puzzle, or to fright the hearers, but 
cfpecially the laft, which he did by roaring out, and bellow- 
ing hell and damnation, devils, and all the dreadful words he 
could think of." Indeed, to the honour of the grace of God 
be it fpoken, he is a fon of thunder, efpecially in his applica- 
tion, and when he is preaching the law; at fuch times, un- 
der him, people cannot eafily fleep : but withal, he is a work- 
man that needs not be afhamed, and is taught of God rightly 
to divide the word of truth. As for puzzling his hearers, I 
fear that Mr. A. M. thinks he did fo, hecau/e he generally 
infifts much on the new births imputed righteoufnefs^ divine faith^ 
and the other peculiar doiSlrines of the gofpel. Thefe things 
are all foolilhnefs to the natural man, and puzzled Nicodemut 
himfelf, when difcourfed with by our blefied Lord, 'John \\u 
9. *' Nicodemus anfwered and faid unto him, how can thefe 
things be ?" Again, '^ minifters in general, he calls carnal, 
unconverted, blind-leaders of the blind, rational, moral, dry, 
hufky preachers, that were leading the people to hell." I fupr- 
pofe Mr. Tennent faid, '* That carnal blind preachers who 
preach morality without due regard to gofpel grace and mo- 
tives j who do not preach juftification by faith, and regene- 
ration, they who do not preach Christ as all in all, were 
blind-leaders of the blind, and were leading the people to 
hell." But it is abfurd to fuppofe he thought that all mini- 
iters in general were fuch. 1 know a great body of mini- 
fters, of whom he thinks moft highly. But, '^ He exhorted 
people to leave them, and to go about exhorting one another, 
and telling their experiences." This I cannot believe is truly 
teprefented ; for I have now a letter by me publifhed by Mr. 
Vol. IV. F , TcnnenU 

[ 82 ] 

7'irfneni^ againfl: perfons going abo'Jt in the charni9ier of ex- 
horters ; but if they only exhorted chriflians not to forfakc 
the aflembling of themfelves together, to provoke one another 
to love, and good works, and to tell one another what God 
had done for their fouls, he did no more than what evei y gof- 
pel minifler fhould do. He fays, " He was followed by all 
forts of people." This I think was a proof that he was of a 
catholic fpirit, and not of a divifive uncharitable temper. ** As 
much as If' kitejield yNzs" And I pray God he may be fol- 
lowed a thoufand times more. '* And by many preferred to 
him." Very juftiy. " He was mod: cenforious and uncha- 
ritable ; every one that was not exa£tly of his mind he damn'd 
without mercy." This is calumny indeed. I knov/ many 
minillers who do not think as Mr. Tenneni does in all refpeds ; 
whom he notwithflanding highly values. But I fuppofe the 
•writer was angry with him, bccaufe he pronounced all in a 
{iate of condemnation that were not born again, and that did 
not believe in, and lay hold on the imputed righteoufnefs of 
Jesus Christ. His mailer authorizes him to pronounce 
fuch a fentence, " He that believeth not {hall be damn'd." 

Again, " His fernaons were fometimes as confufed and 
fcnfelefs as you can imagine." It is well they were not al- 
ways fo. " He feemed to have a particular quarrel with rea- 
fon, learning and morality J for he feldom iinifhed a fermon 
without faying fomething againft them." Never I believe, 
but when thefe things are magnified to the prejudice of divine 
revelation, illumination, or of Christ's imputed righteouf- 
nefs : for Mr. Tcnnent is a folid, learned, rational, and not 
only a moral, but true holy man. The Rev. DocStor Cohnan^ 
in a letter to me publiflied in the firft weekly paper printed 
at GlafgoiUy writes thus of him : " We received him juft 
as we did you, as an angel of Christ. He was abundant 
and fervent in labours, and God has been pleafed to own 
his labours with abundant fuccefs." The honourable and 
truly pious Secretary If'iliiarcl^ writes thus : " There has been 
fo evidently the finger of God in diredling you into this pro- 
vince, and after your departure, the Rev. Mr. Tennent^ through 
your carneft and importunate requeft to him, and in the won- 
derful fuccefs that has attended both his and your miniftry, 
as alfo the labours of ourx)vvn minifters for fome months paft ; 
I that 

[ 83 ] 

that many who like not the work, are fauiy put to It, to 
keep their eyes ihut againO: the evidences thereof.'* 

The Rev. Mr. Cooper^ in a letter printed in the Weekly HI" 
Jiory^ No. 2d, (which the printer has miftaken for Colman^) 
calls him, " Dear Mr. Tennent. He came," fays he, '* in 
the fulnefs of the blefling of the gofpel indeed. He was with 
us feveral months. Many thoufands were awakened, and I 
believe many truly converted. There is quite another face of 
religion in this town, as well as in many places in the coun- 
try. Many minifters as well as people are greatly quickened* 
BlefTsd be God, who put it into your heart to move him to 
come, and inclined his heart to come, and help us." I could 
bring a cloud of witnefles to teftiry the falfenefs of thecharadler 
given to Mr. Gilbert Tennent by this letter-writer. The ac- 
count which he gives of himfelf to me in a letter publifhed in 
. the fVeekly Hijlory^ No. is admirably fweet : his book, in- 
titled, The Prefumptuous Sinner detccfed, and his many printed 
fermons, and his preface to his deceafed brother*s treatife upon 
the Neiv Birth, which is now in the country (and which I 
would recommend) (hew him to be a man of great learnings 
folidity, and piety. And I am not without fome diftant 
hopes, that the people of Scotland will have an opportunity of 
hearing him ere long, and then they may judge for them- 

After fuch a falfe and fcandalous character given of that 
great man of God Mr. Gilbert Tennent, I think I may juftly 
fufpe6l the truth of all that this writer fays in the fubfequent 
part of the letter. From fuch a letter-writer as this, what 
truth can we expe<Si: ? 

The writer himfelf gives me leave to fpeak In this manner. 
For he feems to make the validity of what follows, to depend 
on the character he gave of me and Mr. Tennent, page the 
6th, " From fuch men as thefe [JVhitefield znA Tennent) and 
fuch doctrines and ways of preaching as theirs, what fruit can 
you expe£t" ? Now all he fays about me is, *' That I col- 
leded in New- England 5 or 600/. fterling for the Orphan- 
houfe in Georgia : that I was a bold and importunate beg- 
gar," &c. This could have no influence upon the people's 
minds, to raife a bad fpirit among the people. And as for 
the charader he gives of Mr. Tennent, I have proved it to be 

F 2 abfolutely 

[ S4 ] 

abfolutely falfe : confequcntly, whatever he builds upon the 
foundation of A4r. Tentient's biiJ ch.arailier, amounts to no- 
thing at all, fincc he has not proved the chara6ter given oF 
him to be true. 

But fuppofe Mr. Tenncnt was tlie man he is reprefented to 
be, does it therefore follow that all die great and glorious 
work carried on in Neiv- England y by other minifters, avid in 
other places where Mr. Tennent and 1 never were, is enthuji- 
afm and delujhn f By no means j and yet this is the whole 
drift of the pamphlet. 

Surely the writer knows not what fpirit he is of. In the 6, 
7, 8, 9, and lOth pages, he reprelents things in a moft ridi- 
culous drefs, and talces upon him to condemn all the converts, 
to a man, (though he could not polTibly be acquainted with 
the hundredth part of them,) as " Self-conceited, fuperlti- 
tious, enthufiaftic, cenforious, flandereus." At the fame 
time he feems to ridicule the concern which the people were 
under when they were brought to cry out, " V/hat ihall we 
do to be faved." He laughs at thern Tor aflcing one another 
" Mow do you feel ? have you ktn Christ?" He boldly af- 
ferts, that *' the boafted converts, not one in a hundred ex- 
cepted, make religion eonhil, in the feeling of inward impul- 
fes, impreffions, and in an inexplicable faith, joys, extafies, 
hearing of fermons, and fuch like." In fliorr, he by this 
and the whole drift of his letter, feems to me to be far from 
deferving the chara61:er given of him, in the advertifement 
affixed to the title-page of the pamphlet. 

Page the iith, he falls foul of Mr. Moorhead, and fpeaks 
almoft as freely of him as of Mr. Tennent. I cannot fay 1 was 
very intimate with Mr. Moorhead when at Bojlon : but the 
letters that have lately come from him, and from others con- 
cernino- him, befpeak him to be a man of a good fpirit, and one 
whom God has blefled with abundant fuccefs. And I have 
great reafon to believe that he is a man not over credu- 
lous : becaufe I have heard from his friends here, that he 
did not overmuch favour the work of God that was at 
Northampton in Neiv-England fome years ago, and therefore 
probably, would not readily favour the late work in BoJIon 
and other parts, had he not fafHcient evidence that it was a 
work of God, 


[ 8; ] 

Page 14th, The letter writer takes upon him to afTcrt, 
" That a pamphlet publiflied in Scotland^ intitled, Chr'tjl riding 
in the Chariot of Salvation^ is fluffed with abominable lies." 
As a proof of it, he urges, " That the ftudents in Bojlon^ got 
nothing by IVhitefield and Tennmt but enthufiafm^ pride, a con- 
tempt of their betters, 5:c." What they got by me I know 
not 3 but I have great reafon to believe they got fomething 
that was good, under God, by Mr. Tennent ; for Dr. CohnaUy 
in a letter to me, which was printed in the Glafgoiv Weekly Hi- 
Jiory^ No. I, writes, "At C^^wZir/V/^^ the college -is entirely 
changed ; the fludents are full of God, will I hope come out 
bleffings in their gcneiation, and I trull are fo now to each 
other. Many of them are now, we think, truly born again, 
and feveral of them happy inftruments of converfion to their 
fellows. The voice of prayer and praife fills their chambers 5 
and fincerity, fervency, and joy, with ferioufnefs of heart, 
fit vifibly on their faces. I was told yefterday that not {tv(i{\ 
of a hundced remain unaffected. I know how the good tidings 
of this will affecSl and pleafe you. God give you like joy 
every where in the fruit of your labours.'* 

And the honourable Secretary Williard about the fame time 
writes to me thus : " But that which forebodes a more laR- 
ing advantage, is the new face of things at the college, where 
the impreffions of religion have been, and flill are very ge- 
neral, and many in a judgment of charity brought home to 
Christ j and divers gentlemen's fons, that were fent there 
only for a more polite education, are now fo full of zeal for 
the caufe of Christ, and of love, to fouls, as to devote 
themfelves entirely to the ftudies of divinity." 

In the fame page h^ would fain tax Mr. Gilbert Tennent 
with a lie ; for it vv'as he wrote the account in the JFcckly Hi- 
Jiory^ No. i. Says he, *' It is faid, when Mr. Gilbert Tennent 
preached 2X Marhlehead 2,x\^ Char les-Tc von ^ his voice had like 
to have been drowned with their outcries." But he mif- 
takes, it is not faid fo : for I have fearched narrowly into 
the pamphlet and weekly hiftory, and find no mention of an 
outcry, but only a great (hock given at Marhlehead. It was 
at Portfmouth» Mr. Gilbert Tennejit writing to his brother fays, 
" That there were at Portf mouth and Charles -Town^ in time 
of fermon, fuch outcries that his voice had like to have been 

F 3 drowned/* 

[ 86 ] 

drowned." I think Mr. Temient is the beft judge of what he 
heard with his own ears. Mr. A. M.'s living near Charles- 
^oxun^ and having never heard a word of this from the minifter 
with whom he frequently converied, is no proof it was not fo. 
It might have been fo, and yet not come into the miniftcr's 
mind to tell Mr. A, M, of it. 

In the fame page, he finds fault with the accounts given of 
fome young children " who talked of the things of God as 
W. they were people of 70 or 80 years. Alas ! how eafily are 
mankind deceived ! How fond are they to impofe on thcm- 
lelves and others ! Some of thefc I have converfed with :" 
but did he converfe with all, or with thefe mentioned in the 
pamphlet? If not, how can he urge this as another lie in the 
pamphlet? I take Mr. Ahercromby^ who fent the account of the 
children, and who is a preacher of good charafler, to be a 
better judge of the matter than Mr. A. M. But this anony- 
mous letter- writer, feems refolved to condemn every thing m 
the grofs. Indeed he fpeaks favourably cf the church of Eng- 
land. " I muft do juilice, fays he, to the church of England^' 
page 16. " There are three congregations of that way in 
Bojlon : they all live in love and peace ; their minifters fpeak 
againfl enthufiafm and bigotry every day; not above three or 
four at moft, of fome thoufands that are of the cpifcopal pcr- 
fuafion, are taken with this new-light (as they call it); they 
all, fays he, {land faft to the church, and their numbers in- 
creafe very faft." 

One would imagine, by this, Mr. A. M. is a church of 
England man, and it fliould feem a bigoted one too : and then 
no wonder he fpeaks againft the new-light. Their minifteri 
I believe do pre^ich againft what I fear he terms enthufiafm, 
*' The powerful feeling operations of the Holy Ghofl:." But 
I cannot think they preach fo much againft bigotry. For in 
a conference I held with all three of thofe minifters in Bojlon^ 
the head of them, to prove that we ought all to be of the 
church of £a^/.v«^, brought this text, ** That they may be 
all one, even as thou O father and I are one." They alfert 
buy tifmal regeneration^ dejiy perfeverance, and free juftification 
by faith without works, and feem to think of Mr. Gilbert 
Tenmnt ]u{i as this letter-writer does. No wonder then he is 
fo friendly to them, 


r §7 ] 

But why Hioiild I fay more? it woulJ be endlefs, as well as 
take up too much of my precious time to be more particular in. 
my obfervations upon Mr. A. M.'s letter. There are fome 
matters of fa61: mentioned in it, fuch as " a blind lad's preach- 
ing in Conneoiicut^ page 12. Mr. D 's manner of preach- 
ing in a hot day, page 13," and fome other th ngs, which 
I cannot take upon me to make replies to, and which, if true, 
will by no means prove the late work of God in New-EncJand 
to be only enthufiafm and deluPiOn. Ere long I hope to fee 
Boflon. Then I will endeavour to fend an impartial account. 
Indeed Mr. A. M. page 17. feems not to care for my return to 
Bojhn. But I hope to have a profperous journey to them in 
fome months, by the will of God, and fee how tli-ey do. 

In the mean while, give me leave to obferve, that the pub- 
lifhers of this pamphlet (for I believe there are more than one 
concerned in it) have almoft faved me the trouble, and have 
taken an efFe^lual way to confute themfelvcs. For they have 
annexed to this letter, an " Appendix, containing proofs for 
the fadls in the foregoing letter, extracted from fermons preach- 
ed by fome of the moft eminent minifters in New- Englandy 
lately printed at BoJlcnJ* But thefe extra<5ls by no means 
contain proofs of all the fadls recorded in the foregoing letter, 
confequently all the fads in the letter which are not proved 
by thele extracts, we have reafon to doubt of. I have not an 
opportunity of getting all the fermons of the reverend minif- 
ters mentioned in the title page : but it grieved me, when I 
faw extraiSls taken out of their writings to prove, that ihe 
work lately begun and carried on in New-EngUind was enthu- 
fiafm and dclufion. This was the chief reafon of my writing 
you this letter; it will grieve them to hear that their writings 
have been ufed to fo bad a purpofe. The compilers of the 
pamphlet have dealt with their fermons^ as the devil dealt with 
the fcripture, when he tempied our Lord in the wildernefs ; 
I mean, marred and wholly mifapplied them, l^he publifliers 
fiile them, at the head of the appendix, fome of the moft emi- 
nent minifters in 1^ cvj- England \ and depend much upon their 
authority, to prove the fads of Mr. A. M\ letter. And I 
xiefire no other authority than thefe very eminent minifters 
feiinons, out of which the extrads are taken, to prove that the 
work lately begun and carried on in New-EngUmd is not cn- 

F 4 thufiafcn 

[ 88 ] 

thufiafm and delufion, but a great and marvellous work of the 
Spirit of God. 

The compilers, indeed, in order to make the v/orld believe 
they had been impartial, have publifhed a fentence or two, 
wherein Dr. Cohnan has written favourably of the Orphan- 
houfe in Gc^rgia^ and fays, " the order of it is admirable, &c." 
but this ii only a difguife. For they have been far from ading 
fair in this refpecl. The Doctor complains in the P. S. of 
that letter, page a^. that " fome of my friends have made 
too free vvirh my letters in printing only part of them, and 
mixing them with parts of others without diOinclion." I think 
it is my duty to take all the blame from ofl:' my friends, upon 
myfelf, as to printing only parts of his letters ; for I was the 
pnly perfon concerned ; but as for mixing them with others, 
without diflindlion, I know nothing of it. The letters were 
fei;t to me from the Doclor. I thought it would be improper 
to pubJifh any other parts of the Doctor's letters than what 
refpjcled the fu^ccefs of the glorious goipe], and that I thought 
he would gladly have publiihed : but if the Doctor found 
fault with my friends; 1 am fure he juftly may blame thefe 
con}pi]ers v.'ho have publiflied only part of this letter of his. 
One would have thought they fl^iould have taken a caution 
from this very P. S. But they were afraid, as it would feem, 
pf the contends of it; for a friend who has feen and read the 
whole letter, fends me the following extr^ict out of it. ^< I 
hope we are retrenching our fuperfiuity and luxury; our 
young people have thrown by much of their finery and gaiety, 
and feem to have eye and heart on things fpiritual and heaven- 
ly ; and if God build them up into families, with their pre- 
fcnt prudent pious difpofitions, it promifes greatly for the 
next generation, that glory will dwell in our land, and his 
work appear to children's children." And in that very part of 
it they have printed, the Doctor fays enough to overthrow 
the whole defign of the pamphlet, p^ge 42. " All this not- 
withflanding, there has been a great and glorious work of 
God going on among us, from the day of Mr. IVhitefieWz 
vifit to us.'* I have a fermon of the Doctor's now before me, 
intitled, " The word cfGoT) mngmfiedhy h'lm^'* preached April 
11^ i'j4-2j wherein his teitimony is humbly given for the great 
and wondfous work of pop's grace manifefl in many parts of 


[ S9 ] 

the land." The hfl: paragraph oF that fcrmon begins thus, 
" I clofc vvit!^ giving gh)ry to God, for the great and good 
work of his grace which he hath fo vifibly begun, fpread, and 
is carrying on in every part almofl: of our provinces.'* Tiiis 
very fermon I believe has been in the hands of the compilers 
of this pamphlet. How then could they be fo bare-faced, and 
io injurious, to the good man's charadkr, as to print any part 
of his letter, to fubferve fo ba(e a defign ? 1 believe they will 
not have ihe Doctor's thanks for this. 

The like treatment they have given the Rev. Mr. Turd/, 
another of the eminent m.inifters, from whom they have taken 
extradls to prove the fads of A4r. J. M.'s letter. I am per- 
fuaded Mr. Turell will be much concerned to find any part of 
his fermon tlius mifufed ; and hov7 the compilers of this pam- 
phlet could dare to make this ufe of his writing, I cannot 
imagine; for, in the very nrft page of the preface to that vtry 
fcrmon, out of which they have taken their extradh^, he fpcaks 
of hiiyifelf " as one of the friends and zealous promoters of 
the good work :" nay he begins his preface with thefc wor'ls, 
*' the occailon of my publifiiing this brief dirc^iion to my 
people, is partly to vindicate my character, which has been 
injured by a report fpread, that of a zealous promoter of the 
glorious work of God's grace and Spirit appearing, I am be- 
come an oppofer :" which (hews, that Mr. Turcll v»'Ould not 
care to be reprefented as an oppofer of that work, and con- 
fequently would not chufe, that his writings fhould be pro- 
duced to prove the principal facts in this letter of A. M.'z, 
who would reprefent the whcde as enthufiafm and delufion. 

What opinion Mr. Turell had of perfons of this gentleman's 
fpirit, is evident from the fourth page of the fame preface, which 
the compilers of the pamphlet could not but fee. His words 
are thefe, " As for the profane triuinphs of the oppofers, (of 
fuch I mean) who attribute the Vv-hole of this glorious fcene 
to the devil, or wild enthufiafm, a heated imagination, He. 
I detefr their opinion, though I am far from judging their ftatc. 
I am confident that of the many that I have difcourfed with 
under the common imprefTions (two or three excepted) they 
have been all wrou2;ht upon in a way agreeable to the golpel: 
and juft as I fhould have defired fome years ago. And I niufl 
teflify. ro the glory of God, and his fovercign rich grace, that 

I do 

[ 90 ] 

I do behold the diftlnguifhing marks of God's fpirit on many. 
Mv brethren, let us pray for the prefervation, revival, progrcfs, 
and univerfal fpread thereof." In page 14. of his dirtclions, 
he fays, "^ 1 charitably believe, fome fcoies in th;s place have 
been fcrioufly wrought upon; and the far greater part of theni 
have declared, God has made me the happy inftrument of their 
awakening." And, page lo, fays he, " the names cnVhite- 
field and Temient (though liable to err) I have once and a^ain 
mentioned to you v^^ith honour ; they have been railed Dy 
God to do abundance of good." Hov/ does this agree wuh 
the account Mr. J. M. gives of the fpirit raifed by us, and 
with that fcandalous character he gives of Mr. Tenncnt in par- 
ticular; and when thefe quotations are parts alio of one of the 
treatifes, out of which one of the extracts mentioned in the 
appendix is taken, and are written by one of thofe eminent 
minifters whofe writings are referred to, to prove the princi- 
pal fa£ts recorded in Mr. A. Al.'s letter. 

But what furpiifes me moft of all is, that they fhould ex- 
U^€i any thing from Mr. Parfons to prove Mr. A. M*s mat- 
ters of hdi. Indeed, in the paflage cited from him, page 41 
of the pamphlet, to ufe the words in the Glafgow Weekly 
H'tftory^ No. 35. I fee only a warning againft raCily con- 
cluding pcrfons to be in a converted Itate; becaufe, fome who 
have been thus well judged of do afterwards fall away into 
errors, or appear to.be deluded, or turn out impoflors ; and 
the warning enforced by an inftancc, and indeed but by one 
inftance, of a perfon who was a vifionary, Mr. Farjom\ cau- 
tion to others againft concluding too rafhly that people are 
converted, is a prefumption, that he is cautious in that matter 
himfelf; yet in this very fermon of Mr. Parfom\^ out of which 
the extradls mentioned in the appendix are taken, he fays, 
page 44, " I hope not lefs than an hundred and fifty fouls 
are converted in about nine months paft :" though his parifh 
is fm.all, confiiVmg only of 120 families. I could heartily wilh 
that the whole fermon was printed ; it is dire6lly levelled in 
many parts of it againft perfons of Mr. A. M.'s fpirit and 
fentiments, and is intended as a needful caution for thofc 
lately converted, to avoid extremes, and take care to wallc 
connftcnlly. He has all along been a great promoter of this 
work : in a letter dated Decanher 16, 1 741, to T>x* Co/many 

[ 9' ] 

and which is printed in the Weekly Hijiory^ he mentions a 
moft wonderful efFufion of the Holy Ghoft in his conf^rega- 
tion. In that letter he makes an honourable mention of Mr. 
Tennent: " I have rcafon, fays he, to bicfs the Lord that he 
fent him for our help; and indeed by an enquiry fince, I find 
his labours were blefled to give a more general fhoclc than' 
appeared at the very time." 

The other eminent minifters fermons I have not yet met 
with : but I have great reafon to believe they have been treated 
in the fame manner: the time would fail me, dear Sir, to fend 
you all the vouchers that might be produced for the glorious 
work in Ndiv- England Mefirs. JVcbb^ Cocper and Prince^ in a 
preface to a fermon by Mr. A^^Gregor^ a prefbyterian minifter, 
and which I hope alfo will be reprinted, fpeak nobly of it. 
Mr. Edijuards\ fermon I think is moft admirable, and anfwers 
all the objections that Mr. A. M. or others can make againfl: 
it. In fhort, if any work had all marks of a divine fignature, 
this undoubtedly has. 

When I confider how Mr. A. M. (o quarrels with it, and 
endeavours to reprefent it in fo ridiculous a light, I cannot but 
wifh he may confider Rom. viii. 7. i Cor, ii. 14. " The carnal 
mind is enmity againft GoD; and the natural man difcerneth 
not the things of the fpirit of God, becaufe they are fpiritually 
difcerned." The fum of the matter feems to be this; there 
has been a great and marvellous work in New-England : but, 
as it (hould feem, by the imprudences of fome, and the over- 
boiling zeal of others, fome irregularities have been com- 
mitted in feveral places, which Mr. tennent himfclf, in a 
letter to Mr. ParfonS:, printed in the Bofion Gazette^ has 
borne his teftimony againft, as ftrongly as any of thefe emi- 
nent minifters. This, dear Sir, is nothing but what is com- 
mon. It was fo in Old-England fome few years ago. Many 
young perfons there, ran out before they were called : others 
were guilty of great imprudences. I checked them in the 
ftricltft manner myfelf, and found as they grew acquainted 
with the Lord Jesus, and their own hearts, the intempe- 
rance of their zeal abated ; and they became truly humble 
walkers with God. After a gathering, there will always be 
a fifting time : and the church is generally ftiaken before it is 
fcttled. But muft the whole work of God be condemned as 


[ 9^ 3 

enthufiafm nnd delufion becaufe of ibme dlforcler ? No, I wifli 
with all my Toul, that thofe who extraded from Mr. Parfons, 
hnd obferved what he fays, page 41, and 42. *' It is very much 
10 be feared, fdys he, (Ipcaking to perfons who cried dov/n the 
whole work of God beeaufe of the itrprudences and mifcar- 
riiif^es of a few) " that you are ftrangers to the fan(Slifying in- 
fluences of the Holy Ghoft, when you can fo eafily pafs over 
ths table of the rich dainties which God fpreads for his own 
children, which while they feaft upon, their "fouls are drawn 
out in livers of pleafure and love^ and like the crow, light 
upon, and greedily pick up, every bit of filthy carrion you 
can meet wiih." 

Dear Sir, as I allow you to publiPn my letter ; out of com- 
panion to the compilers and publifliers of the pamphlet, \ 
cannot but exprefs my concern, that they may ferioufiy con- 
iidcr, whether this mentioned by Mr* Parfons be not directly 
their cafe. And that they may take heed left the God of this 
world may have blinded their eyes : llnce they had this and 
the other fermons before them, they muft fm againft light and 
knovvkdgc in publifoing fuch a traif. And therefore, to ufe 
the words of Mr. Parfons in his fermon, page 42. '' It is not 
poihble that you iliould be innocent, but on the contrary 
plunge yourfelves under amazing guilt, by fuch a dreadful 
corjduct. V/hilft you (land amazed at the rings of the wheels, 
as things too high and dreadful for you ; whillt you know not 
what to make of the clFuiions of the Holy Spirit, but are 
blundering; at every thino^ aniifs : when God is working a 
work of his a{l:oni{liin<'- crace beioie your eyes which vou will 
not believe; beware kil tliat come upon you, which is fpokcn 
of in the prophets, " Behold, ye dcfpifers, and wonder and 
periTn!" Dear im.mortal fouls', 1 befeech and perfuade you, by 
the mercies of God and the aftonidiing love of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, that you would not facriiice the operations of 
the blefled Spirit to your own prejudice, by means of our im- 
perfeci:ions : I befeech and charge you by the coming of the 
great Jehovah in the word of his grace, that you do not 
defpife his glorious name, and the riches of his mercy, nov/ 
offered to 30U. I charge ajid admojiiPn you by the dignity 
and worth of your immortal fouls ; by the powerful imprefli- 
ons of an ap'proaching change; by the certain tremendous 
7 appearing 

t 93 J 

appearing of the Great Judge ; by the inexprelTihle a2;onies of 
hell, and inconceivable joys of an everlaPcing heaven, that 
you do no longer rejc(5l, nor once more cavil :igainft the glo- 
rious intereft and kingdom of the blclTcd Jpsus triumphing at 
this day, and inviting the miferablc {laves of the dcvi', to be- 
come the happy fubje£is of it. I warn and charge you be- 
fore the great God, and the Lord Jfr^us Christ, and the 
holy Angels, upon your peril, that you tal;e diligent heed to 
thefe things. And if you reje^l to hear, if you dare rejcdl-, or 
boldly defpife the admonition, remember you iire anfwerable 
at the great tribunal, and muft expecl a molt fearful fliare 
of torments among the damned world, for fuch unlpeakable 

Thus fpeaks this great and good man : my heart warmed^ 
dear Sir, whilfl: I was reading his difcourfe ; it is ciofe, fuc- 
cincSt and powerful : how could the publirners^ after reading 
fuch a dreadful warning, print any thing out of his fermon^ 
to prove the work in Neiv-En^land^ to be cnthufiafm? I would 
heartily join with him and the other miniftcrj in Nclu- England^ 
was I there, in bearing a faithful teftimony againft any thing 
that I might judge to be inconfulent with the precious rules of 
the holy fcriptures. At the fame time I pray, that even the 
minifters themfelves may a£l with the fjme caution they re- 
commend to their people, and then I doubt not but we fliall 
fee a happy end put to what may now be irregular or dif- 
orderly. The dear Redeemer has afTured us, *' that the gates 
of hell (liall never prevail againft his church." He will caufe 
that ail things Ihall work together for her good. The wrath 
of man fliall turn to his praifc, and the remainder of it fliall 
he reftrain ; he v.'ill b;;ing order out of confufion, and the 
church (hall be more than conqueror through his love. I will 
therefore conclude this long letter, with the words of the 
pfalmift in the fecond pfalm. 

Why rage the heathen ? and vain things^ 

Why do the people mind ? 
2. Kings of the earth do let themfelves. 

And Princes are combin'd 
To plot againft the Lord, and his 

Anointed, faying thu?^ 


C 94 ] 

3. Let us afunder break their bands. 

And caft their cords from us. 

4. He that in heaven fits, (liall laugh : 

The Lord (hall fcorn them all. 

5. Then fhall he fpeak to them in wrath. 

In rage he vex them (hall. 

6. Yet notwithftanding I have him 

To be my King appointed. 
And over Sion, my holy hill, 
I have him King anointed. 

Upon this afiurance, I reft in peace, and am, reverend and 
dear Sir, in the kingdom and patience of Jesus, 

Your affedionatc and obliged friend, 

brother and fervant, 

By way of P. S. to this letter, give me leave to fend you 
a copy of the preface to Mr. McGregor's fermon, to which I 
have referred in my letter, and which is figned by three emi- 
nent minifters of ^^(?«. Dzitdi^ Bofioriyjan. 12, 1742. This 
will give you a clear infight into what body of do6lrines is 
profefTed and taught by the promoters of this work : how 
far they are from bigotry, and alfo may explain how the 
remaining violent oppofers of thofe doctrines came to be fo 
much exafperated. 

The Preface to Mr. M'Gregor*s Sermon. 

A S all the proteftant churches in Europe^ both Eplfcopalian 
and Prejhyterian^ happily agreed at the time of the Re- 
formation in the fcripture dodrines of grace, as appears by 
the publifhed harmony of their confeflions; in particular, the 
church o^ Scotland in 156c, the church o^ England m 1562-3, 
and the church of Ireland in i6i6 ; fo it muft be owned that 
the Prefbyterians have generally perfevered in a fteady adhe- 
rence to the original do(Slrines of the Reformation, to the pre- 
fent day. 

And as the AfTembly's (horter catechifm has been all along 
agreeable to the known principles of the New- England 
churches, and has been generally received and taught in 


[95 3 

them, as a fyflem of cliridlaii do6lrine agreeable to the Holy 
Scriptures, wherein they happily unite ; it is a great pleafure 
to us, that our Prefoyterian brethren who come from Ireland 
are generally with us in thefe important points, as alfo in the 
particular doctrines of experimental piety arifmg from them, 
and the wondrous work of God agreeable to them, at this 
day making its triumphant progrefs through the land; all now 
happily combining to illuftratc and confirm each other in fo 
glaring and ftrong a manner as is irrefiftible to ferious and 
unprejudiced beholders ; and has already forced many men of 
clear minds, ftrong powers, confiderable knowledge, and firmly 
riveted in Arminian and Socinian tenets, to give them all up 
at once, and yield to the adorable fovereignty and irrefiftibi- 
lity of the Divine Spirit in his faving operations on the fouls 
of men. 

For to fee on the one hand, fuch men as thefe, fome of 
them of licentious lives, long inured in a courfe of vices, and 
of high fpirits, coming to the preaching of the word, fome 
only out of curiofity, others with a flrong antipathy and meer 
defign to get matter of cavilling and banter; all at once, 'u\ 
oppofition to their inward enmity, refolutions and refiftances, 
to fall under an unexpected and hated power; to have all the 
ftrength of their refolution and refiftance taken away; to have 
fuch an inward view of the horrid wickednefs not only of their 
lives, but alfo of their hearts, with their exceeding great and 
immediate danger of eternal mifery, as has amazed their fouls 
and thrown them into diftrefs unutterable, yea forced them to 
cry out in the afTemblies with the greatefl: agonies : and then 
in two or three days, and fometimes fooncr, to have fuch un- 
expe<Sled and raifed views of the infinite grace and love of 
God in Christ, as have enabled them to believe in him, 
lifted them at once out of their diftrefTes, filled their hearts 
with admiration, and joy unfpeakable, and full of glory, 
breaking forth in their (hining countenance and tranfporting 
voices to the furprife of thofe about them : and to fee them 
kindling up at once, into a flame of love and praife to God, 
an utter deteftation of their former courfes and vicious habits, 
yea by fuch a deteftation the very power of thofe habits at 
once receive a mortal wound: in fhort, to fee their high fpirits 
on a fudden humbled, their hard hearts made tender, their 


[ ■96 ] 

averfion from the Holy God now turned into n powerful an^ 
prevailing bent to contemplate upon him as revealed in 
Christ, to labour to be like him in holinefs, to pleafe and 
honour him by an univerfal and glad conformity, to his will 
and nature, and promote his holy kingdom in all about them; 
loving them, forgiving them, a(king forgivenefs of them, 
abounding in a6ls of juftice and charity, in a meek and con- 
defcending carriage towards the meancft, and afpiring after 
higher fan£lity. 

And to fee other gentlemen of the like knowledge, parts 
and principles, and of fobcr, juft and religious lives, as far 
as their m.eer rcafon with outward revelation are able to carry 
them, and prcpoffelTcd againft this work as imagined enthu« 
fiafm, yet at once furprizingly to find thcmfeives intirely 
dcftitute of that inv^'ard fandiity, and fupreme love to God^ 
and holinefs, which the gofpcl teaches as abfolutely needful 
to fee the kingdom of grace and glory ; to find themfelves 
no more than conceited Pharifces, who had been working 
out a righteoufnefs of their owh for juftification ; and to have 
a clear difcovery of their inward enmity to Christ, and the 
nature and way of redemption by him, with the native 
vilenefs of their hearts and lives, they had never feen before^ 
in fliort, to find themfelves yet unrenewed in the fpirit of 
their minds, and under the heavy ~vtrath and curfe of God 5 
to open into the clear difcovery of their pad delufions 5 to find 
the hardnefs of their hearts^ the blindnefs of their minds^ 
and their utter impotence to convert themfelves, or believe 
in Christ 5 to lofe all their former confidence, give up theif 
beloved fchemes, fee themfelves undone and helplels^ and fink 
into a o-r^'^t diftrefs : and then Gondemnine; themfelves a3 
guilty wretches, humbly lying at the foot of abfolute and 
fovereign Grace, and looking up to Christ the only Me- 
diator to reconcile them to the glorious God, to juflify themi 
wholly by his own mod perfe£l righteoulnefs, and to en- 
lighten, quicken, fan6lify, dwell in, and govern them by his 
Almighty Spirit; and there to wait, till they find a new and 
mighty life and power ccfne into their fouls, enabling them 
to embrace, trufi: in, and love this divine Redeemer, rejoice 
with fatisfaftion in him, and perform every kind of duty both 
to God and man with pleafure, and with quite another frame 
and fpirit than before. 


r 91 ] 

Such great and fudden turns as thefe, are as evident dc- 
monftration as we can pofTibly conceive of the truth of the 
infpired fcriptures, and in particular of thofe fcripture doc- 
trines, of the fovereign and vi(Slorious grace of Christ, 
received and taught among us : vi^e fee with our eye, that 
when he rideth forth on the word of truth, conquering and 
to conquer, his right-hand teaches terrible things. He makes 
his arrows fo fharp and piercing in the hearts of his ftouteft 
enemies, as oblige them to fall down under him ; and when 
the day of his power comes on any people, he makes the 
moft obftinate to be moft gladly willing and obedient to him. 
And the(e principles of grace ^ and thefe worh of Goi>^ do moft 
invincibly confirm each other. 

And though it muft be owned with forrow, that fome 
few who fee thefe wondrous works continue unconvinced, 
yet this is no more ftrange than that fome of the moft 
learned and religious men, as were the Scribes and Pharifees, 
who faw the wondrous works of Christ on earth, yet con- 
tinued unconvinced that they were the works of God, yea 
purfued him with unrelenting enmity and violence. However, 
it is a reviving confolation to us, that as this work furpriz- 
ingly goes on from town to town, it goes on more and more 
to filence the moft fierce oppofers : though mighty oppofiti- 
ons rife at firft, it bears them down before it, and our more 
mighty Saviour feems refolved to go on ftill from conquer- 
ing to conquer. 

In vain do its remaining enemies attempt to brand it with 
the name enthufiafm. For this is like the gentile Ro?nans 
branding the fewijh religion with the hated name of fuper- 
flition ; and if this work is truly enthufiafm, then we have 
been wholly miftaken in the meaning of the word : and what 
they call enthufiafm, is a glorious and blefled work of God, 
moft powerfully and fuddenly changing the very hearts and 
lives of men 5 making them in a great degree like to Christ 
in love, and righteoufnefs, and holinefs, and meeknefs, and 
humility; filling their hearts with holy joy, and their mouths 
with praifes. 

But we muft remit the remaining oppofers to the law and 

teftimony of God himfelf in the infpired oracles ; as doth 

our reverend and dear brother the author of the following 

Vol. IV. G valuable 


[ 98 ] 

valuable fermon. And wc arc glad on this occafion to join 
our teftimony with him, both to the fame dodrines of grace,, 
and to the wondrous work of God agreeable to them; as alfo 
to declare our great fatisfadlion to fee him and others of our 
faid prefoyterian brethren concurring with us in them ; with 
our apprehenfion that our uniting in thefe important points, 
is fuch a powerful band of union in chriftian love and fellow- 
{liip, as fhould overcome the remains of every kind of pre- 
judice that may yet fubfift among our people : and our earncft 
wifiies, that with a tender and meek forbearance of each 
other in different fentiments about church order and govern- 
ment, we may all unite in maintaining and promoting thefe 
more excellent and momentous points of grace, and vital 

Thomas Prince, 
'^ojion^ Jan. 12, 1742, John Webb, 

William CoofeRo 





Occafion, Procefs, a72d liliie, 

Of a Late 



Assize held at Gloucester, March 3, 1743* 


Some of the People called Methodists, Plaintiffs, 


Certain Perfons of the Town of Minc^in-Hampton, 
in the faid County, Defendants, 

I N A 


And ivben the toivn-clerk had appe^Jied th^ feopk, he faid, Te men c/'Ephefus, ivhaf 
man is thire that knoiveth net hozv that the city of the Epbefians is a ivorjhipper of 
the great goddefs Diana, and of the image 'which fell dcivnfrom Jupiter. Seeing then 
that theje things cannot be fpoher. agaivft, ye ought to be quiet, and to do nothing raply. 
For ye ha-ve brought hither thrfe Ken, 'zvbi.h are neither robbers of churches, nor yet 
hlafphtrr.ers of your g'.ddefs. Wherefore if DeTiet/ius, and the craftfmen ivhich arc 
ivith bin:, have s matter agairf any man, the laiv is open, and there are deputies 5 let 
them implead one ar other. Bui if ye enquire aiy thing concerning other matters., it Jhaii 
be determined in a la-ioful affembly. For ive are in danger to be called in qveftion for 
this days uproar ^ there being no caufe ivhcrchy ive may give an account of this ccvcourfe. 

Arts xix. 35^ — 40, 

G 2 

C loi ] 

A B R I E F 


My dear Friend^ London^ March 12, 1744. 

ON Thurfday evening I came hither from the Gloucejier 
aflizes, where I have been engaged in a trial between 
fome of thofe who are called Method ifts, and fome violent 
rioters. Perhaps this news may a little ftartle you, and put 
you upon enquiry (as it hath done fome others) « How we 
came to go to law with our adverfaries, when it is our 
avowed principle to fufFer patiently for the truth's fake ? " I 
will tell you, my dear friend : though perhaps there is nothing 
in the world more abufed than the law, and there are very few 
that go to law out of a proper principle ; yet we hold, that 
there is a proper ufe of it, and the law is good, when ufed 
lawfully. Whether or know we have ufed it lawfully in the 
prefent cafe, I fhall leave my friend to judge, after I have told 

him the motives that induced us to engage in it. The 

Methodifts, you know, are every where accounted enthufiafts, 
in the worft fenfe of the word ; but though they are accounted 
fuch, yet they would not be enthufiafts in reality. Now we 
look upon it to be one fpecies of enthufiafm, to expert to at- 
tain an end, without making ufe of proper means. We alfo 
think, that believers fliould be very careful not to be fond of 
fuffering perfecution, when they may avoid it, by making 
application to the high powers. We are likewife of opinion, 
that good chriftians will be good fubje(£ts, and confequently it 
is their duty, as much as in them lies, to put a ftop to every 
thing, in a rightful way, that may prove deftru6live to the 
king or the government under which they live. Chriftian 
minifters, in particular, we think, ought to confider the weak- 
nefs of people's grace, and, In pity to precious fouls, do what 
they can to remove every thing out of the way, that may dif- 
G 3 courage 

[ 102 ] 

courage or prevent poor people's hearing the cverlailing .of. 
peL Ihefc confidcrations, my dear Irlend, for fomc Time 
paft, have led me to examine v/haher the Methodljh in sene- 
ral (and I myfelf in particular) have a^ed the part of .ood 
fubjeas, and judicious chriHian miniders, in fo loiio- ne4a 
ing to make an application to the fuperior courts, ai^d putting 
in execution the wholefome laws of the land, in order to pre 
vent thofe many dreadful outrages which have been committed 
agamft us. I need not dcfccnd to particulars. Ou'- JVceJdv 
Hljlory IS full of them ; and before that came out, feveral of 
our brethren, both in Eughnd -a^^ Wules^ have received much 
damage from time to time, and been frequently In great ha 
zard of their lives. Wiltfnlre has been very rcnunkable for 
mobbmg and abufing the Methodifts ; and, for about ten 
months laft part, it has alfo prevailed very much in Glouce/fer^ 
Jlnre, efpeciaily at Hampton, where our friend Mr. ^.W has 
a dwelling-houfe, and has been much bleffed to many peopl'^ 
This difpleafed the grand enemy of fouls, who ftined up 
many of the bafer fort, privately encouraged bv fome of a 
higher rank, to come from time to time, in great numbers 
with a low-bell and horn, to befct the houfe, and beat and 
abufe the people. About the beginning of July laft their 
oppofition feemed to rife to the higheft. For feveral days 
they afTernbkd in great bodies, broke the windows, and mob- 
bed the people to fuch a degree, that many expe^ed to be 
mii;-deied, and hid themfelves in holes and corners, to avoid 
the rage, of their advcifaries. Once, when I was there, they 
continued from four in the afternoon till midnight, -rioting 
giving loud huzzas, cafting dirt upon the hearers, and making' 
proclamations, " That no Anabaptills, Prefbyterians, &c 
fhould preach there, upon pain of being firft put into a'fkin-' 
pit, and afterwards into a brook." At another time they 
pulled one or two v/omen down the flairs by the hair of their 
heads. And on the loth o^ July they came, to the number of • 
near a hundred, in their ufual way, with a low-bell and horn 
about five in the afternoon, forced into Mr. Ada7ns\ houfe' 
and demanded him down the flairs whereon he was preaching^ 
took him oat of his houfe, and threw him into a fkin-pit full 
of noifome things and ftagnated water. One of our friends, 
named Williams, alking them, " If they were not afliamed to 
7 fervc 

r 103 3 

ferve an innocent man (o ? " they put him Into the fame 
pit twice, and afterwards beat him, and dragged him along 
the kennel. Mr. Mams quietly returned home, and betook 
hlmfclf to prayer, and exhorted the people to rejoice in fufFer- 
ing for the fake of the gofpel. In about half an hour, they 
came to the houfe again, dragged him dov/n the flairs, and 
led him away a mile and a half to a place called Bcuni-brooky 
and then threw him in. A ftander-by, fearing he might be 
drowned, jumped in and pulled him out j whereupon another of 
the rioters immediately puflied him into the pool a fecond time, 
and cut his leg aofainft a ftone, fo that he went lame for near a 
fortnight. Both the conftable and jufllces were applied to, 
but refufed to a6l ; and feemed rather to countenance the 
mobbing, hoping thereby Methodifm (as they called it) v/ould 
be put a flop to, at lead at Hampton, For a feafon they 
gained their end. There was no preaching for fome time, 
the people fearing to afltmblc on account of the violence of 
the mob. Upon my return to town, I advifed with my 
friends what to do. We knew we wanted to exercife no re- 
venge againft the rioters, and yet we thought it wrong that 
the gofpel ihould be flopped by fuch perfons, when the go- 
vernment under which wt lived countenanced no fuch thing 3 
and alfo, that it was abfurd to thank God for wholefome 
laws, if they were not to be made ufe of. We knew very 
well, that an Apoftle had told lis, that magiflrates were or- 
dained for the puniflimcnt of evil doers ; and that they bear 
not the fword in vain. We were alfo fearful, that if any of 
our brethren fliould be murdered by future riotings (as in all 
probability they might), we fliould be acceflary to their death, 
if we negle£lcd to tie up the rioters hands, which was all we 
defired to do. Befides, we could not look upon this as allowed 
perfecution, fince it was not countenanced by the laws of the 
land, and we might have redrefs from thefe rioters and inferior 
magiflrates, by appealing to dtfar^ whofe real friends and 
loyal fubjcdts we judged ourfelves not to be, if we fuffered 
his laws to be publicly trampled under foot by fuch notorious 
rioting; and which, though begun againft the Methodifts^ 
might terminate in open rebellion againft King George, For 
thefe and fuch like reafons, we thought it our duty to move 
for an information in the King's'Ben:h againft five of the ring- 

G 4 leaders. 

[ 104 ] 

le;^(Iers, and fixed upon the riot which they made on Sunday^ 
July 10, when they put Mr. Adams and lf^illia?ns into the 
fkin-pic and brook. But before this was done, I wrote a let- 
ter to one whom they called Captain, defiring him to inform 
kis aflbciates, " That if they would acknowledge their fault, 
pay for curing a boy's arm, which w^as broken the night I 
was there, and mend the windows of Mr. Adams's houfe, we 
would readily pafs all by ; but if they perfifted in their refo- 
lutions to riot, we thought it our duty to prevent their doing, 
and others receiving, further damage, by moving for an in- 
formation againft them in the King's-Bench.^* I alfo fent a 
copy of this letter to a minifter of the town, and to a juftice 
of the peace, with a letter to each from myfelf : but all in 
vain. The rioters fent me a moft infolent anfwer, wrote me 
word, " They were in high fpirits, and were refolved there 
fliould be no more preaching in Hampton*'* Finding them 
irreclaimable, we moved the next term for a rule of court in 
the King's- Bench to lodge an information againft five of the 
ring-leaders, for the outrage committed, violence offered, and 
damage done to Mr. Adams and IFilliams, on Sunday, July lO. 
The rioters were apprized of it, appeared by their council, 
and prayed the rule might be enlarged till the next term. It 
was granted. In the mean while they continued mobbing, 
broke into Mr. Adams's houfe one Saturday night at eleven 
o'clock, when there was no preaching, made thofe that were 
in bed get up, and fearched the oven, cellar, and every corner 
of the houfe, to fee whether they could find any Methodifts. 
Some time after, they threw another young man into a mud- 
pit three times fucceffively, and abufed the people in a dread- 
ful manner. The next term came on. We proved our accu- 
fations by twenty-fix affidavits ; and the defendants making 
no reply, the rule was made abfolute, and an information 
filed againft them. To this they pleaded not guilty ; 
and, according to the method in the crown-office, the caufe 

was referred to the affize held at Gloucejier^ March 3d. • 

Thither I went, and on Tuefday morning laft the trial came 
on. It was given out by fome, " That the Methodifts were 
to lofe the caufe, whether right or wrong." And I believe 
the Defendants depended much on a fuppofition, that the 
gentlemen and jury would be prejudiced againft us. We 


t 105 ] 

were eafy, knowing that our Saviour had the hearts of all In 
his hands. Being aware of the great confequences of gaining 
or lofing this trial, both in refpedt to us and the nation, we 
kept a day of fading and prayer through all the focieties both 
in England and Wales, Our Scotch friends alfo joined with usi 
and chearfully committed our caufe into his hands by whom 
kings reign and princes decree juftice. We had about thirty 
witnefles to prove the riot and fads laid down in the informa- 
tion. Our council opened the caufe (as I heard, being 
not prefent when the trial begun) with much folidity and 
found reafoning: they fhewed, " That rioters were not to 
be reformers ; and that his Majefty had no where put the reins 
of government into the hands of mobbers, or made them judge 
or jury." One ©f them in particular, with great gravity re- 
minded the gentlemen on the jury of the advice of Gamaliel^ a 
dodor of the law, recorded ASis v. 38, 39. '' Refrain from 
thefc men, and let them alone \ for if this council, or this 
work, be of men, it will come to nought : but if it be of 
God, ye cannot overthrow it, left haply ye be found even 
to fight againll: God." Our witnefles were then called. I 
came into court when the fecond witnefs was examinino-, 
Mr. Adams and four more (three of which were not called 
Methodifts) fo clearly proved both the riot and the fads laid 
to the charge of the Defendants, that the Judge was of opi- 
nion there needed no other evidence. The council for the 
Defendants then rofe, and exerted a good deal of oratory, 
and I think faid all that could well be faid, to make the beft 
of a bad matter. One urged, " That we were enthufiafts, 
and our principles and practices had fuch a tendency to infed 
and hurt the peopW, that it was right, in his opinion, for anyi 
private perfon to ftand up and put a ftop to us ; and whoever 
did To, was a friend to his country." He ftrove to influence 
the jury, by telling them, " That if a verdid was given 
againft the Defendants, it would cofl: them two hundred 
pounds : that the Defendants rioting was not premeditated ; 
but, that coming to hear Mr. Adams^ and being offended at 
his dodtrinc, a fudden quarrel arofe, and thereby the unhapp^ 
men were led into the prefent fray, which he could have 
wifhed had not happened \ but however it did not amount to 

a riot. 

[ 106 3 

a riot, but only an ajfault'' Their other council then in- 
formed the jury, " That they would undertake to prove that 
the Methodifts began the tumult iirfl." He was pleafed alfo 
to mention me by name, and acquainted the court, " That 
Mr. Whitefield had been travelling from common to common, 
making the people cry, and then picking their pockets. Under 
pretence of colleifling money for the colony of Georgia \ and 
knowing that GlouccJierJJj'ire was a populous country, he at 
laft came there. That he had now feveral curates, of which 
Mr. Adams was one, who in his preaching had found fault 
with the proceedings of the clergy, and faid if che people went 
to hear them, they would be damned. He added, that there 
had lately been fuch mobbing in Staff or djhire^ that a regiment 
of foldiers was fcnt down to fupprefs them j infinuating that 
the Methodifls were the authors. That we had now another 
caufe of a like nature depending in JViltJhire\ and that we 
were not of that mild pacific fpirit, as vvc would pretend 

to be." This, and much more to the f^ime purpofe, 

though foreign to the matter in hand, pleafed many of the 
auditors, who exprefled their fatisfacStion in hearing the Me- 
thodifts in general, and me in particular, thus hifhed, by fre- 
quent laughing. The eyes of all were upon me. Our Saviour 
kept me quite eafy. 1 thought of that verfe of Ho 


. Hie miirus ahencus ejlo^ 

Nil confcire ftbi^ nulla pallefcere culpa. 

Tertullush accufing Paul came alfo to my mind, and I looked 
upon myfelf as highly honoured in having fuch things fpoken 
againft me falfly for Christ's great name's fake. To prove 
what the Defendants council had infmuated, they called up 
a young man, who was brother to one of the Defendants, and, 
one of the mob. He fwore point blank, '' That Mr. Adains 
faid, if people went to church, they would be damned ; and 
if they would come to him, he would carry them to Jesus 
Christ. He fwore alfo, that the pool in which Mr. Adams 
was thrown, was no deeper than half way up his legs. He 
faid firft, that there were about ten of them that came to the 
houfe of Mr. Ada?ns ; and then he fwore that there were about 
threefcorc. He faid, there was a low-bell, and that one of 


[ 107 ] 

the Defendants diJ afk Mr. Jdams to come down off the ftalrj, 
but that none of them wenc up to him ; upon which 
Mr. Adams willingly obeyed, went with them brifkly along 
the ftreet, and, as he v/ould have rrprefentcd it, put himfclf 
into the fkin-pit and pool, and To came out again." He {\\\\ 
alfo fome other things ; but through his whole evidence ap- 
peared fo flagrantly falfe, that one of the counfellors faid, " It 
was enough to make his hair ftand an end." The Judge 
himfelf wiflied, " He had had fo much religion as to fear an 
oath." So he went down in difgrace. Their fccond evidence 
was an aged woman, mother to one of the defendants. She 
fwore, *' That her fon did go up the flairs to Mr. Aaams^ 
and that Mr. Adams tore her fon's coat, and would hav« 
broken his neck down flairs." But fhe talked fo faft, and her 
evidence was fo palpably falfe, that fiie was fent away in as 
much difgrace as the other. Their third and laft evidenc« 
was father to one who was in the mob, though not one of 
the defendants. The chief he had to fay was, " That when 
Mr. Adams was coming from the pool, one met him, and faid, 
" Brother, how do you do?" Upon which he anfwered, 
" That he had received no damage, but had been in the pool, 
and came out again." So that all their evidences, however 
contrary one to .another, yet corroborated ours, and proved 
the riot out of their own mouths. The book was then e-iven 
to a juftice of the peace, who had formerly taken up Mr. Cen- 
nickj for preaching near Siroudy and had lately given many 
fignal proofs that he was no friend to the Mcthodifts. But 
he intending to fpeak only about their characters, and the 
council and Judge looking upon that as quite impertinent to 

the matter in hand, he was not admitted as an evidence. » 

Upon this, his Lordfliip, with great candour and impartiality, 
fummed up the evidence, and told the jury, " That he 
thought they (hould bring all the Defendants in guilty ; for 
our evidences had fufficiently proved the whole of the informa- 
tion, and alfo that the riot was premeditated." He faid, 
*' That, in his opinion, the chief of the Defendants evidence 
was incredible j and that, fuppofing the Methodifts were he- 
terodox, (as perhaps they might be) it belonged to the eccle- 
fiaftical government to call them to an account ; that they 


[ io8 ] 

were fubjecfts, and rioters were not to be their reformers."— 
He alfo reminded them of the dreadful ill confequences of 
rioting at any time, much more at fuch a critical time as this j 
that rioting was the fore-runner of, and might end in, rebel- 
lion ; that it was felony, without benefit of clergy, to pull 
down a meeting-houfe ; and, for all as he knew, it was high- 
treafon to pull down even a bawdy-houfe. That this informa- 
tion came from the Ktrig's-Bejuh; that his Majefty's juftices 
there thought they had fufRcient reafon to grant it -, that the 
matters contained in it had been evidently proved before them, 
and confequently they fhould bring all the Defendants in 

Upon this the jury were defired to confider of their verdi£^. 
There feemed to be fome little demur amongft them. His 
Lordfhip perceiving it, informed them, " They had nothing 
to do with the damages, (that was to be referred to the King's- 
Bench) they were only to confider whether the Defendants 
were guilty or not." Whereupon, in a few minutes, they 
gave a verdict for the profecutors, and brought in all the De- 
fendants, '* guilty of the whole information lodged againft 
them." I then retired to my lodgings, kneeled down, and 
gave thanks, with fome friends, to our all-conquering Em- 
manuel. Afterwards I went to the inn, prayed, and re- 
turned thanks with the witnelTes, exhorted them to behave 
with meeknefs and humility to their adverfaries, and after 
they had taken proper refrefhment fent them home rejoicing. 
In the evening I preached on thofe words of the Pfalmift, 
*' By this I know, that thou favoureft me, fmce thou haft 
not fufFered mine enemy to triumph over me." God was 
pleafed to enlarge my heart much. I was very happy with 
my friends afterwards, and the next morning fet out 
for London^ where we have had a blefled thankfgiving fea- 
fon, and from whence I take the firft opportunity of fend- 
ing you as many particulars of the occafion, progrefs, and 
iflue of our trial, as I can well recollecSt. What report his 
Lordfhip will be pleafed to make of the cafe, and how the 
Defendants will be dealt with, cannot be known till next 
term ; when I know I fhall apprize you of it, as alfo of our 

behaviour towards them. In the mean while let me entreat 


£ 109 ] 

you to give thanks to the blefled Jesus in our behalf, and 
to pray that his word may have free courfe, may run and be 
glorified, and a flop be put to all fuch rebellious proceedings. 
I remain. Sir, 

Your very afFedionate friend, and humble fervant, 

George White field. 

*^* For more particulars of this affair, fee Vol. II. Let- 
ters 526, 527, 529, 545, 549, and 550. 


A N 


T O 

The First Part of an Anonymous 
Pamphlet, entitled, '^ Obfervations upon 
** the Condudt and Behaviour of a certain 
*< Sed: ufually diftinguiihed by the Name of 
l^ Methodists." 

I N A 


t o 

The Right Reverend the BISHOP of 
L O ND O N, and the other Right Reverend 
the BISHOPS concerned in the Publication 

J^alfe TVitneffcs did rife up ; ihcy laid to my Charge Things that I 
knew not, Pfal. xxx.v. ii. 

[ "3 3 


Londo72y May 22^ I744* 
Reverend Str^ 

I Have read your expoftulatory letter, and thank you for pre- 
fixing your name. Had the author of the obfervations 
been fo ingenuous, he would have faved you and me fome 
trouble j but as he hath not, and the pamphlet was publiflied 
in fuch a way, I cannot think myfelf juftly chargeable with 
ill-manners or cenforioufncfs, for treating him and their 
Lordftiips concerned, in the manner 1 have done. Our Sa- 
viour dealt always very plainly with the rulers of the Jewijb 
Church ; and when one was offended, and faid, '' Mafter, 
thus fayingj thou reproacheft us alfo," he was fo far from re- 
canting, that he faid, '« And woe unto you alfo ye lawyers." 
In the fame fpirit, the proto-martyr Stephen addreffed himfelf 
to the jew'i/h Sanhedrim, and faid unto them, " Ye ftiff- 
tiecked and uncircumcifed in hearts and ears, ye do always 
refift the Holy Ghoft 5 as your fathers did, fo do ye." And 
however fhocklng^ Rev. Sir, it may appear to you, (page 
43d of your letter) for us to urge our Lord's example and 
his blefled apoftles, yet I think it quite confident for a mini- 
fter, who has received an apoftolical commiflion at his ordi- 
nation, *' Receive thou the Holy Ghoft now committed unto 
thee by the impofition of our hands, &c,'* to make ufe of the 
example of our Lord and his apoftles, in vindication of his 
Cpnduct ; becaufe Christ left us an example, that we might 
follow his fteps ; and we are called to be followers of the 
apoftles, as they were of Jesus Christ. I know not how 
to give flattering titles, and therefore muft ftand tp it, that 
Vol. IV. H they 


I "4 ] 

they are U\it wltnefTes, however dignified or diftinguifhed, 
and lay to my charge a thing that I know not, who tax me 
with being an open defer of govermnent^ for preaching in the 
fields. Neither do I think I have wronged the author of the 
obfervations at all, by infinuating, " That the defign and 
fcope of this pamphlet was to reprefent the proceedings of the 
Mcthodifts as dangerous to the church and ftate, in order to 
procure an a6l of parliament againft them, or oblige them to 
fecure^therhfelve^ by turning diflenters." That this was his 
drifr, (at leaft that he intended to move the government a- 
gainftthe Methodifts in general, and me in partitular) I think 
appears, quite plain from a little two-penny paper lately pu- 
blished, (I fuppofe by the fame anonymous author) wherein 
he declares, " That though Mr. Whheficld has pleaded in be- 
half of the Methodifts, that they are an harmlefs and loyal 
people, yet ift. He cannot polTibly be fuppofed to know all 
the perfons, or even one tenth part of thofe prefent at his 
meetings of 30, 50, or 86000. — 2d. When he appoints or 
holds a meeting, all people are at liberty to come, and to 
carry on fuch purpofes as they think proper. — 3d. Such a 
free and fafe refort for great multitudes to one place, fubjedl 
to no controul or examination, is doubtlefs a great opportu- 
nity put into the hands of feditious perfons to raife diftur- 
bances.'* He adds, " How confiftently with the aft of tole- 
ration, or with what fafety to the public, thefe field-preach- 
ings may be continued, let the world judge." If this be not 
intended to move the government againft me, furely there 
was never a motion made againft: any man living ; but with 
what little ftiew of true reafoning I need not mention. Let 
the world judge. 

Here lies the point. Rev. Sir : the generality of the clergy 
are offended in their hearts, that his majefty is fo mild to- 
•vvards his harmlefs and loyal people the Methodifts. They 
have denied the Methodift preachers the ufe of their churches, 
and think, if field-preaching was put a ftop to, Methodifm, 
as they term it, would be lefs extenfive. But were they to 
giiin their point, and the preachers to be bound, yet perhaps 
after all they would find themfelves miftaken, for the word of 
CtOD would not be bound And I remember a faying of the 
then Lord Chancellor to that holy martyr Bradford.^ " Thou 
6 haft 

t "5 1 

haft done more hurt (as he called it) by thy letters and ex- 
hortations fince thou haft been in prifon, than thou ever didft 
before." However this be, field- preaching is at prefent the 
clergy's eye-fore. Hence they raife a clamour that it is un- 
lawful. We deny it. We fay the a£l: of toleration urged 
againft us is nothing to the purpofe, for we are true members 
of the eftabliihed church ; and that if we were not {quod magna 
mercentcr Jtrida) yet the trial of Medc 2indi Pen is an adjudged 
cafe. But ftill, if you or any other perfon pleafc to move for 
ah information againft me, for preaching in a field, or a 
ftreet, though I purpofe to go abroad fliortly, yet I fhall think 
it my duty to ftay fome time, to make a legal defence. But 
if not, henceforward whatever queftions may be put to me in 
print, about the lawfulnefs of field-preaching, they will lie 

Not that I think it is barely field-preaching that gives the 
generality of the clergy fuch offence. No, it is the dodlrine 
that I preach there, that is the grand caufc of their contend- 
ing with me. You are pleafed, Rev. Sir, to fay (Page 39th) 
** That I have revived the old Cahinijlical difpiites concerning 
predeftination, &c." (I fijppofe you mean juftification by 
faith alone, the imputed righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ, 
man's utter inability to turn to God, or to do good works, 
he.) " Which you fay had happily flept for fo many years." 
But if this be my ftiame, I glory in it. For what is this but 
reviving the efTential articles of the Church of England^ which 
undoubtedly are Calviniftical, and which, by your own con- 
feflion, have happily flept for fo many years ? This is tod 
true. But however you may count this a happinefs, yet iri 
my opinion it is one of the greateft judgments that has befallen 
our nation. And if it had not been for the remnant of free- 
grace, diftenting minifters, (ftiled by the ailthor of the obfer- 
vations, difTentirig teachers) and the little flock of the Me- 
thodift preachers, that the Lord Jesus has raifcd up and pre- 
ferved amongft us, many of the efTential doctrines of the ar- 
ticles of the Church o^ England might have, as you term it, 
happily flept many years more. 

Thefe, Rev. Sir, are the real fentiments of my heart. I 

think they are founded on truth and fobernefs. And if \Oy 

blame me not, as yoii do (page 2ift) for comparing the 

H 2 Church 

[ ii6 ] 

Church o[ EfigknJy as it now lubfifts, to Tikahy JJjip. For is it 
not too evident that flie is not only leaky, but t^2\\^ fmk'ing^ 
when feveral of the Right Reverend the Bifliops, and a pre- 
bendary of Bt. PauTs^ can openly plead for u'orks being a con- 
dition of our juflification in the fight of God? This was 
the particular charge my Lord of London gave his clergy In 
his laft paftoral letter, ** So to explain the do»5lrine of juftl- 
fication by faith alone, as not to exclude good works from be- 
ing a condition of our juftification." Was the great apoftle 
of the Gentiles now living, what anathema's would he pro- 
nounce againft fuch yudalzing do6lrine ? Was Luther on 
earth, how would he thunder againft fuch a charge ? For he 
calls juftification by faith alone, ar tt cuius Jiantts out cadcntis 
ecchfics. This is the great fundamental point in which we 
differ from the church of Rome, This is the grand point of 
contention between the generality of the eftabiifiied clergy, 
and the Methodift preachers: we plead for free juftification 
in the fight of God, by faith alone, in the imputed righte- 
oufnefsbf Jesus Christ, without any regard to works paft, 
pre fen t, or to come. You {BcIIarmhe like) are for mak- 
ing your works, conditions (pagt 17th) j " And joining 
your honeft, though imperfe£t endeavours to ferve and pleafe 
vour Maker, with a hearty truft and confidence in his ever- 
lafting mercies," (page 42.) You fay, (page 58th) we are 
very far from building wholly on our morality j'* we fay, our 
morality is not to be built on at all, but that " Christ is 
the end of the law for righteoufnefs to every one that belle- 
veth." This, you think, is one of my errors. But if it be 
an error, it is a fcriptural error j and fo plainly taught in the 
eleventh article of our church, that he that runs may read ; 
and however you may blame me for infmuating, '* That fome 
of the clergy may adhere to his majefty only for his prefer- 
ments, and confcquently not appear altogether fo hearty in a 
time of danger ;" yet I cannot think it an inftance of hard- 
judging at all. For if perfons can deliberately fubfcribe to 
the doctrines of juftification by faith alone, and other articles 
that are purely Ctilvini/iical, yet fo explain them away as 
plainly to prove they fcarce believe a word of them, I fhould 
not wonder if they turned Jacobites^ or went over to the pre- 

[ 117 ] 

tender, whenever they faw it fuited their worldly interefl fo 
to do. 

That I am not alone in my opinion, give me leave. Rev. 
Sir, to tranfcribe a paflage I lately met with in the latter end 
of a book, entitled, The Honeycomb of Free JujVificaiion^ written 
by one Mr. Eatoji^ A. M. of Trinity College in Catnbridge^ 
printed at London in the year 1642. 

" Free juflification was firft enjoined to be diligently 
*' taught, for the reformation of the church, by King Henry 
VIII. but was by King Edward VI. and Queen EHxalcthy 
principally eftabliflicd by parlian^ent, and Tingled out from all 
the reft of the cfl:ablifl;ied articles of religion ; and reduced in- 
to fcrmons and homilies to be (after the people's fight of their 
loft eftate, and woeful mifery by fm) principally taught^ and 
chiefly known and underftood of all the fubje6ts and com- 
mons of the land, for thefe four caufes. 

ift. '' Bccaufe it is the only immediate caufe and means of 
our peace with God. For being juftified by faith we have 
peace with God, Rom. v. i. and our afTurance of free falva- 
tion by Jesus Christ, and is therefore called thejuftifica- 
tion of life, Rom. v. 18. " For whom God juftifieth, them 
he alfo glorifieth," Rom. viii. 30. 

2d. " Becaufc it is the ordinance of God (quite contrary 
to the judgment of popifli carnal reafon) that powerfully cau- 
feth people to leave their fms, and live a true fandified and 
godly life. Tiius ii. Ii to 15. Ro}n. 5th and 6th chapter. 

3d. " Becaufe it is the chief caufc and means to difcover 
and fupprcfs the Rom'ifo antichrift, popery, Sec. and all other 
fuperftitions, fe6ls, errors and fchifms out of the land ; and to 
eftablifh unity, peace and concord in matters of religion, and 
of aflurance of free falvation, and makes every man to keep in 
a lawful vocation, and to do it profitably in love. Gal. v. 13. 

4th. '^ To diredl minifters opSoxocTsTt' to go with a right 
foot to the truth of the gofpel, Gal. ii. 14. in found preach- 
ing, and pure declaring of the word of God, by true faith of 
free juftification, becaufe (faith the eftablifhed docflrinc of our 
church) fincere preachers ever were, and ever fliall be but a 
few; and their preaching of God's word moft fincere in the 
beginning, by procefs of time waxeth lefs and lefs pure, and 
after is corrupt, and laft of all quite laid down, and left ofF; 
H 3 becaufc 

I Jr8 ] 

bccaufe free juftification is a dodlrine hardly learned in a 
church, and foon loll again, Gal. i. 6. and yet is the true 
ftrength, happinefs and Tafety of the whole land, Ifaiah Ixl'i, 

Hereupon, the 5th part of the fermon againft difobedience 
and rebellion, eftabliflied by Queen Elizabeth, teacheth the 
commons, that fuch bifliops or ecclefiaftical perfons, as by 
pride and ambitious rule, do by terms of error, fchifm, or 
herefy, hinder this main light of GoD*s word from the people, 
are the chicfeji iraytors in the land : and the 6th and laft part 
largely teacheih, that fuch fubjeds and commons to whom 
through ignorance of God's word, this light of righteoufnefs, 
and this fun of underftanding doth not fhine, although they 
may brag, as did fometimcs the Jeivijh clergy and people, 
that they cannot lack knowledge, yet are fuch by their blind 
dead faith, traytors to GoD, traytors to their king, traytors 
to their own fouls and bodies, and traytors to the whole 
land and country." 

^ Thus writes that good man Mr. Eaton, I leave you. Rev. 
Sir, to make what ufe of it you pleafe. You fee we have 
human as well as divine authority on our fide. And yet we 
are looked upon as erroneous, and are accordingly denied the 
churches : and what for ? even for preaching up the dodrine 
of juflification by faith alone; for which the g^lorious martyrs 
of the Church of England burnt in Sjjiithfield. If this be not 
like Ncro*s fett;ng Ro?ne on fire, and then charging it upon 
the chriftians, I know not what is. 

This is really. Rev. Sir, the truth of the cafe. However, 
we are willing to frequent the church, and receive the holy fa- 
crament, if the clergy pleafe to give us leave. This I think we 
may do, without being guilty of the inconfiftency you charge 
us with (page 29th), becaufe in the 26th article of our church 
we are taught, "Although in the vifible church the evil be 
ever mingled with the good, and fometime the evil have chief 
authority in the miniftration of the word and facraments : 
yet, forafmuch as they do not the fame in their own name, 
but in Christ's, and do minifter by his commiffion and au- 
thority, we may ufe their miniftry, both in hearing the word 
of God, and in receiving of the facraments : neither is the 
fffciSi: gf Christ's ordinance taken away by their wicked- 


• [ "9 ] 

nefs, nor the grace of God's gifts diminilhed frorn.fuch, 
as by faith, and rightly do receive the facraments miniftered 
unto them, which be effc(5lual, becaufe of Christ's infti- 
tution and promifc, although they be miniftered by evil men." 
This I think a fuflficient vindication, for the mcthodifts keeping 
in the church. But if fome cannot go thus far, nor bear 
to hear the doctrine of juftification by faith alone continually 
preached againft, the preachers muft thank themfelves if 
any entirely defert the church, and run to meeting-houfcs 
or elfewhere, to get food for their fouls. For I am pcr- 
fuaded, if the do6trine of juftification by faith alone be 
banifhed from our pulpits, people may attend to their lives 
end, and yet never have the whole counfel of God (as you 
think they may, page 50.) declared unto them. 

I could enlarge upon this point, and alfo anfwer the charge 
of enthufiafm which you bring againft me in feveral parts of 
your letter. But I willingly omit it, becaufe I fhall htive 
occafion to write more explicitly on thefe points in my fecond 
anfwer to the Obfervations : I have fome reafons for deferring 
it at prefent. But I affure you. Rev. Sir, you muft not ex- 
pect me to treat that anonymous author with IcG jufticc than 
in my laft. For however worthy perhaps he may be in your 
fight, 1 think I fhall prove him to be no better than an 
unfkilful flandering fophifter; and if a clergyman, an un- 
orthodox blind guide. 

As for the irregularities I have been guilty of, in curtailing 
the liturgy, or not ufmg the common-prayer \h the field?, 
he, I think it needlefs to make any apology, till 1 am called 
thereto in a judicial way by my ccclcfiaftical fupcrlors. They 
have flaws and courts. In and by thofc, ccclefiaftics are to 
be judged ; and I am ready to make a proper defence, as I 
mentioned in my anfwer to the firft part of the obfervations, 
whenever it (hall be required at my hands. Only I would 
beg leave to obferve, that by calling extempore prayer, extcm- 
poti;e effufkonsj you caft a flur upon the whole body of diflen* 
ters, and on many of the reformed churches abroad. And 
as the free grace diflenters have helped to keep up the Calvi^ 
nijlical difputes, which you fay have happily flept in the efla- 
bliftied church for fo many years ; was it not for his Ma- 
jefty's great kindnefs, and the lenity of his government, they 

H 4 would 

[ t20 ] 
Would meet with no better treatment than the poor Mcthodlfts 
do now. 

Indeed you fay (page 41 ft) " We do not oppofe or deny 
the true fcripture doctrine concerning thefe points, v'lt. Free 
juflification, the new birtb, and the in-dwelling of the fpirit) 
but only your account and explication of them.'* Give me 
leave therefore. Rev. Sir, if you are pleafed to favour me with 
another letter, to let me know how you explain thefe mpor- 
tant points, or what you can find inconfiftent with fcripture, 
or the articles of the church of Englayid^ in thofe difcourfes 
which I have publifhed, and in which I have endeavoured to 
treat on thefe points in an explicit manner. 

I would obferve to you, that I wifh every non-refident 
minifter in England^ could give as good an account of their 
non-refidence, as I can of my abfer.ce from Savannah. To 
fatisfy you, Rev. Sir, I will acquaint you with the whole. 
When 1 firft went abroad, I was appointed to be minifter of 
Frederica. But upon my arrival in Geoygia^ fiiKaing there was 
no minifler at Savannah^ and no place of worfhip at Fredencay 
by the advice of magiflrates and people, I continued at Savanr 
nahy teaching publicly, and from houfe to houfe, and cate- 
chifing the children day by day, during the whole time of my 
iirft continuance in Georgia-, except about a fortnight in 
■which I went to Frederica to vifit the people, and to fee ab'jut 
building a church, for which I had given fifty pounds out of 
fome money 1 had collected, and of which I have given a 
public account. About four months after, I came owr to 
England to receive prieft's orders, and colle£l: money for build- 
ing an Orphan-houfe. At the requeft: of many, the honou- 
rable truftees prefented me to the living of Savannah, I ac- 
cepted it, but refufed the ftipend of fifty pounds per annum, 
which they generoufly offered me. Neither did I put them to 
any expence during my ftay in England, where I thought it 
my duty to abide, till I had colledied a fufEcient fum where- 
with I might begin the Orphan-houfe, though I fhould have 
left England fooner, had I not been prevented by the embargo. 
However, I was more eafy becaufe the honourable truftees, 
I knew had fent over another minifter, who arrived foon after 
I left the culony. Upon my fecond arrival at Georgia, find- 
ing the care of the Orphan-houfe, and the care of the parifh, 


[ "I ] 

too great a tafk for me, I immeJlatcly wrote over to the ho- 
nourable truftees to provide another minifler. In the mean 
while, as moft of my parifhioners were in debt, or ready to 
leave the colony for want of being employed, and as I believed, 
that ereding an Orphan-houfe would be the bcft thine; I could 
do for them and their poftcrity, I thought it my duty, from 
time to time, to anfwer the invitations that were fent me to 
preach Christ Jesus in feveral parts Qi America^ and to 
make more colledions towards carrying on the Orphan-houfe. 
The Lord ftirred up many to be ready to diflribute and 
willing to communicate on this occafion. 1 always came 
home furnifhcd with provifions and money, moft of which 
was expended among the people, and by this means the nor- 
thern part of the colony almoft entirely fubfifted for a cond- 
derable time. This was aflerted, not very long ago, before 
the houfe of commons. And now, Sir, judge you whether 
my non-refidence, was any thing like the non-refidents of moft 
of the Englijh clergy. When I was abfent from my pa- 
rifhioners, I vi^as not loitering or living at eafe, but preach- 
ing and begging for them and theirs : and when I returned, 
it was not to fleece my flock, and then go and I'pend it upon 
my lufls, or lay it up for a fortune for myfelf and relations. 
No : freely as I had received, freely I gave : and " there- 
fore when the ear heard me, then it bleiled me ; and when 
the eye faw me, it gave witnefs to me : becaufe I delivered 
the poor that cried, and the fatherlefs, and him that had 
none to help him. The bleiling of him that was ready to 
perifh came upon me ; and I caufed the widow's heart to fing 
for joy." I am become a fool in glorying. But you have 
compelled me. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus 
Christ knoweth that I lie not. I fought not theirs, but 
them. And however you may judge me, (page 20th) as 
though I chofc this itinerant way of preaching for the fake 
of Profit-^ yet I alTure you the lafl day will prove that you 
and all like-minded are quite miftaken. I choofe a voluntary 
poverty. The love of God and the good of fouls is my only 
aim. The manner of my call to my prefent way of a£ling, 
if the Lord gives me freedom, fhall be the fuhjc6l of a fu- 
ture tra6l. I fend you this fliort letter, to convince you that 
I am really willing to 2've an anfwer of the hope that is iu 

[ 122 ] 

me, with mcaknefs and fear. I {hall only add, If you do 
not like the example of Gal/io (page 27th) I would humbly 
recommend to you the advice of Gamaliel, " Refrain from 
thefe men, and let them alone : for if this council, or this 
work be of men, it will come to nought : but if it be of God, 
ye cannot overthrow it, left haply ye be found even to fight 
againft God." I am, Rev. Sir, 

Your afFi^clionatc brother and fervant, 

George Whitefield,. 

A N 

[ 125 1 


To the Right Reverend 

The BiiLop of London, ^c. 

My Lordsy London, March 1744. 

TH E Apoflle Peter exhorts us, *' to be ready to give an 
anfwer to every one that afketh us a reafon of the 
hope that is in us, virith meeknefs and fear." And if this is 
to be our condu£l towards every one, much more are we 
bound to behave thus to thofe who are overfeers of the church 
of God, and confequently are invefted with an authority to 
require an anfwer at our hands. 

A dcfire of complying with this apoftolical injun£lIon, in- 
duced me, my Lords, about five weeks ago, to publifh an 
* Advertifement, wherein I defired an open publication of 
feveral anonymous papers, entitled, Obfervations upon the con* 
duSi and behaviour of a certain feSi^ ufually dijlinguijhed by the 

» Whereas fome anonymous papers againft the people called Methodifii 
in general, and myfelf and friends in particular, have been for fome 
weeks printed in a large edition, and handed about and read in the re« 
ligious focieties of the cities of London and li^eji7mnj}er, and given into 
the hands of many private perfons, with ftrifl injunftions to lend them 
to no one, nor let them go out of their hands to any ; and wherea<?, 
after having accidentally had the hafty perufal of them, I find many 
queries of great importance concerning me, and my conduft, contained 
therein ; and as it appears that one paper has little or no connexion with 
another, and a copy, when applied for, was refufed me, and I know not 
how foon I may embark for Georgia j I am therefore obliged hereby to 
defire a fpeedy open publication of the aforefaid papers, in order that a 
candid, impartial anfwer may be made thereto by me, 
London J Jan. 26, 1744.. George WlitefeU, 


[ 126 ] 

name of Methodijls, Papers, which, upon enquiry, I found 
had been printed Tome confiderable time, had been read in 
the focieties of London and We/i?mu/}er^ and handed about in a 
private manner to particular friends, with {{Y\€t orders to part 
with them to no one. What could be the meaning of fuch a 
procedure, I know not. But this I know, however fuch a 
clandeftine way of ailing, may favour of the wifdom of the 
ferpent, it does not befpeak that harmlefnefs of the dove, which 
our Saviour in an efpecial manner recommends to his minif- 

Who the real author of thefe papers may be, t am not yet 
able for a certainty, to find out. But 1 had reafon to believe, 
that my Lord o^ London was concerned in compofing or re- 
vifing them. That I might not be miftaken, after the pub- 
lication of the advertifement, I wrote his Lordfhip a letter*, 
wherein I defired to know, whether his Lordfhip was the au- 
thor of this paper or not, and alfo defired a copy. His Lord^ 
Ihip was pleafed to fend word by my friend^ who carried the 
letter, that " I fhould hear from him." Hitherto his Lord- 
Ihip has not favoured me with an anfwer. Only fome time 
ago, one Mr. Owen^ a printer, in Amen-Corncr^ Paier-nojier 
Roxu^ who is printer to my Lord of London ^ left a letter f for 

* My Lord, London, Teh. i. 1744. 

Simplicity becomes the followers of Jcfus ChriJ}, and therefore I think 
it my duty to trouble your Lordfliip with, thefe few lines, I fuppofe your 
Lordfliip has leen the advertifement pubiilhed by me, about four days 
ago, concerning fome anonymous papers, which have been handed about 
in the focieties for fome confiderable time. As I think It my duty to 
anfwer them, I fliould be glad to be informed whether the report be true^ 
that your Lordfhip compofed them, that I may the better know to whonfi 
I may dlreft my anfwer. A fight alfo of one of the copiesj if in your 
Lordftiip's keeping, would much oblige, my Lord, 

Your Lordlliip's moft obliged, dutiful fon and fervant, 

George Whitejieldi 

P. S. The benrer will bring your Lorddifp's anfwer; or if your 
Lordihip pleafe to favour me with a line, be pleafed to direft for me, to 
be left with Mr. J. Sjms, Sic, 

t Sir, Feb. 3. 1744' 

My name is O^ven. I am a printer in Ame7t-Corner ; and I waited 
upon you to let you know, that I have had orders ftom fevcral of the 


C 127 ] 

me, wherein he Informed me, that he had orders from Several 
OF THE Bishops to print the Ohfervatlons on the condu£l and 
behaviour of the Methodijh (with some few Additions) 
for their ule 5 and when the impreflion was finifhcd, 1 fliould 
have a copy. Why my Lord of London^ or the fcvcral other 
Bifliops concerned, fliould conceal their names, or why a 
copy fliould be denied me, fo long after the papers had been 
printed, I leave the world to judge. I cannot think fuch a 
way of proceeding can gain your Lordfliips any credit from 
the public, or any thanks from the other Bifliops who have 
not interefted tbemfelves in this affair, and who, I believe, 
are more noble, than to countenance the publication of any 
fuch performance. 

It is a weighty thing with me, my Lords, to have infinua- 
tions made, or queries put to me, in refpedl to my practice 
and dodlrine, in fuch a public manner, by perfons that are 
placed at the head of the church. It is true, your Lordfliips 
have not put queries to me in your own names ; but as the 
author has concealed his, and thefe papers are printed by your 
Lordfliips orders, you have thereby adopted them for your 
ov/n ; confequently, I am put under a neccflity of directing 
this letter as I have done. And I can aflure your Lordfliips, 
that with great deference to the dignity of your office, after 
earneft prayer, with I truft fome degree of humility, and un- 
feigned fimplicity of heart, I now fit down to perform my 
promife, to give a candid and impartial anfwer to the fore- 
mentioned papers, which were fent me laft week, (collcdted 
into a pamphlet) by Mr. Oiuen\ and I fuppofe, by your Lord- 
fliips order. 

I never yet was, and hope never fliall be fo far left to lean 
to my own undcrftanding, as to fancy myfclf infallible. Youn j| 
as 1 am, I know too much of the devices of Satan, and of the 
defperate wickednefs and deceitfuinefs of my own heart; not 
to be fenfible, that I am a man of like paffions with others, 
and confequently may have fometimes miftaken nature for 

Biftiops, to print f^r their ufe, fuch numbers of the Ohfer<vations upon 
the conduSl and beha-viour of the Methodijls^ (with fome few additioii?) 
as they have refpe6lively befpoken. And I will not fail to wait upon 
you with one copy, as foon as the impreflion is finiOied. I am, Sir, 

Yo'ir mod obedient, &c. 


t I2S 1 
grace, imagination for revelation, and the fire of my own 
temper, for the pure and facred flame of holy zeal, which 
conieth from God's altar. — If therefore, upon perufmo- the 
pamphlet, I find that I have been blameable in any refpe^t (as 
in all probability I may) I will not only confcfs it, but return 
hearty thanks both to the compiler and your Lordfhips, though 

Indeed, it is but of little confequence to the merits of the 
caufe to know who the author is. Only thus much may be 
faid, your Lordfhips yourfelves being judges, it is not quite 
fair to give (labs in the dark; and it is fome fatisfa£^ion to the 
perfon attacked, to know who and what his antagonifts are, 
that he may know the better how to deal with them. But 
fmce that cannot be granted, it may be more' to the pur- 
pofe, to confider the matters contained in the pamphlet, and 
to anfwcr for myfelf, fo far as I am concerned. 

It is entitled, Obfervations vpon the condu6l and behaviour (/. e, 
upon the condu6l and condu6l) of a certain JeH^^ ufually difiin- 
guijhedby the name of Methodi/is. I think the title ought rather 
to run thus, — Mifreprefentations of the condu5i and principles, 
of ?nany orthodox, tvell- meaning minijlers, and members of the 
church ^^y England, and loyal fuhj e 51 s to his Mnjefly King George, 
FALSELY TERMED A Sect, and ufually dijlinguijhed, otJT of 
CONTEMPT, by the name of Methodists. This title, my 
Lords, would jufl: anfwer the contents. For the principles as 
well as conduct of the Method ifts are ft ruck at, and greatly 
mifreprefcntcd in this pamphlet. And the Methodifts are no 
fe^l, no feparatifts from the eftablifhed church, neither do they 
call people from her communion. Befides, the author ought 
to have added, A new edition, with feveral alterations, additions 
and corre^lions; for otherwife the world is made to believe, that 
this is the felf-fame compcfition which was handed about fome 
months ago, and of which I had a hafty reading. Whereas 
there are feveral things omitted, fome things added, and divers 
alterations made in this new edition ; fo that the title-page is 
not only injudicious, but falfe and fcandalous. 

And if the title-page is fo bad, I fear the deftgn and fcope of 

the pamphlet itfelf is much worfe. For is it not to reprefent 

the proceedings of the Methodifts as dangerous to the church 

and ftate, in order to procure an adb of parliament againft 

\ them. 

[ 129 1 

fthem, or oblige them to ("ecure themfelves by turning dif* 
fenters ? 

But is not fuch a motion, at fuch a feafon as this, both 
uncharitable and unfeafonable ? Is not the adminiftration 
engaged enough already in other affairs, without troubling 
themfelves with the Methodifts P Or who would now advife 
them to bring farther guilt upon the nation, by perfecuting 
feme of the prefcnt government's mod hearty friends ? I fay, 
my Lords, the prefent government's nToft hearty friends. For 
though the Methodifts (as the world calls them) difagrce in 
fome particulars, yet I dare venture to aflirm, that to a man 
they all agree in this, to love and honour the king. For my 
own part, I profefs myfelf a zealous friend to his prefent 
Majefty King George^ and the prefent adminiftration. Where- 
ever I go, I think it my duty to pray for, and to preach up 
obedience to him, and all that are fet in authority under him, 
in the moft explicit manner. And I believe, (liould it ever 
come to the trial, the poor defpifed Methodids, who love his 
Majefty out o'i principle^ would cleave' clofe to him in the moft 
imminent danger, when others that adhere to him, only for 
preferments^ perhaps might not appear altogether fo hearty. 
My Lords, 1 have now been a preacher above feven years, 
and for thefe fix years paft, have been called to acl in a very 
public way. Your Lordfliips muft have heard of the very 
great numbers that have attended me : fometimes feveral of 
the nobility, and now and then, even fome of the clergy have 
been prefent. Did they ever hear me fpeak a difloyal word ? 
Are there not thoufends can teftify, how fervently and fre- 
quently I pray for his Majefty King George^ his royal cff- 
fpring, and the prefent government ? Yes, my Lords, they 
can. And I truft^ through the divine affiftance, I fhbuld be 
enabled to do f©, though furrounded with popifh enemies^ 
and in danger of dying for it as foon as my prayer was ended. 
This, my Lords, as far as I am acquainted with them, is the 
prefent temper of my friends, as Well as myfelf. And may I 
not then appeal to your Lordfhips, whether it be not the in- 
tereft of the adminiftration to encourage fuch perforts, or at 
Jcaft to let them alone ? Gallio^ on a like occafion, thought it 
his wifdom to a6t thus. " For when the yews made infur- 
redlion with on^ accord againft Paul^ and brought him to the 
Vol. IV. ' 1 jud^- 


judgment-feat, faying, this fellow perfuadeth'rhen to worfiifJ 
God contrary to the law ; he faid unto the JriVs^ if it were ^ 
matter of wrong or wicked Icwdnefs, O ye Jeivs^ reafon 
would that I fhould bear with you. But if it be a queftion 
of words and names, and of your law, look ye to it, for I 
will be no judge of fuch matters." Nay, he was fo far from 
approving of their motion, that he drove them from the judg- 

My Lords, I know of no law of the ftate that we have 
broken, and therefore we have not incurred the difpleafure of 
the civil power. If your Lordfhips apprehend that we are 
liable to ecclefiafticsl cenfures, we are ready to make a pro- 
per defence whenever called to it by our eccleflaftical fupe- 
riors. As for myfelf, your Lordfhips very weU know that I 
am a Batchelor of Arts, have taken the oaths, fubfcribed to 
the articles, and have been twice regularly ordained. In this 
charadter I have aded both at home and abroad, and know of 
no law of our government which prohibits my preaching in 
any field, barn, ilreet, or out-houfe whatfoever. 

It is true, one or two of my friends, who preach as I do^y 
were bred diflenters, and had been licenfed, and preached in li- 
cenfed places before my acquaintance with them ; and one or two 
of the houfes where the Methodifts meet, have, without my 
knowledge, been licenfed fince ; and therefore the author of 
the pamphlet is quite miftaken in his firji paragraph (as well 
as the title page and defign of his pamphlet) wherein he de- 
clares, that " it does not appear that any of the preachers 
among the Methodifls have qualified themfelves and the places 
(it would have been better Englijh if he had faid, qualified 
themfelves, and licenfed the places) of their afibmbling, ac- 
cording to the a(Sl of toleration ; which a6l warrants feparatc 
afiemblies for the worfhip of God, that before were unlavv- 
£ul." I wifli the author had taken a little more care to inform 
himfelf before he publifhed the pamphlet. He would not 
then have been guilty of fo many egregious miftakes, or 
without caufe have condemned the innocent, as he hath done. 
However, in the general, he is right, — for, as yet, we fee no 
fufficient reafon to leave the church of England., and turn dif- 
fenters ; neither will we do it till we are thruft out. When 
a (hip is leaky, prudent failors, that value the cargo, will not 


r »30 

leave It to fink, but rather continue in It fo long as they can^ 
to help pump out the water. I leave the author, my Lords, 
to make the application. 

But whether the Methodifts arc church-men or di (Tenters, 
the ads of King Charles II. referred to, pag. 3. paragraph i. 
and pag. 4, paragraph 2. make nothing againft them, neither 
do they prove the Methodifts to be violaters of the ftatute 
law, by their being field-preachers. And what the author (o 
peremptorily affirms, pag. 4. paragraph 3. (and which, by 
the way, is one of the feiu additions made in this, which wa3 
not in the laft edition) is diredly falfe. For he fays, that 
" it has not been known, that a DifTcnting teacher of any 
denomination whatever, has thought himfclf warranted under 
the a6t of toleration, to preach in fields or ftreets." It may 
not, indeed, be known to the author ; but I know, my Lords, 
two of the moft eminent among the Diilenting minifters, who 
have thought themfelves warranted^ if not by the a6l of to- 
leration, yet by the laws of the land, to preach out of doors ; 
and accordingly, when the houfe would not contain the peo- 
ple, they have preached in a field or orchard, and near the 
common high-way. My Lords, I have been perufing all the 
acls of King Charles II. wherein the word field Is mentioned, 
and find they are intended " to fupprefs feditious convcnticlesy 
for promoting further, and more proper, fpeedy remedies 
againft the growing and dangerous practices of feditious fcBa- 
ries, and other difioyal perfons^ who, under pretence of tender 
confciences, have, or may, at their meetings contrive infurrec^ 
lions (as late experience hath (hewn)". Thefe, my Lords, 
are the preambles of the a6ts. Thefe are the only field-' 
meetings I can find that are prohibited. And how, my Lords, 
can fuch a£ls be applied to the Methodifts ? Does not fuch 
an application imply a charge againft the Methodifts, as 
though they were feditious fe(5laries, difloyal perfons, who, 
under pretence of tender confciencies, have, or may contrive 
infurredions ? Has any late experience (hewn this? No, 
my Lords, and I hope no future experience ever will. How 
then can your Lordfhips, with a fafe confclence, encourage 
fuch a pamphlet, or befpeak any number of Mr. Oiven^ in 
order, as may be fuppofed, that they ftiould be difperfed among 
your Lordftiips clergy? Wdl might the author conceal his 

I 2 name. 

name. A more notorious libel has not been publifhed. I anf 
apt to believe, that Mr. Owen the printer is oF my mind' alio ;• 
for he has taken care in the title-page, rtot to let the world 
know where, or by whom, this pamphlet was printed. It 
comes into public like a child dropt, that no body cares to 
own. And, indeed, who can be blamed for difowning fuch 
a libel ? For how, my Lords, does it appear by thefe acb", 
what the author fo confidently allerts, page 4, paragraph 2, 
'' that this new fe6t of Methodifts have broken through all 
thefe provlfions and rellraints, neither regarding the penalties 
of the laws, which ftand in full force againft them, nor em- 
bracing the protedlion which the a6b of toleration might give 
them, in cafe they complied with the conditions of it ?" How 
can he immediately add, " and if this be not an open defiance 
to government, it is hard to fay what is ? " iVlay I not more 
juftly fay, if this be not an open defamation, and open defiance 
of all rules of charity, it is hard to fay what is ? Might he 
not as well tax the Methodifts with high treafon ? Father, 
forgive him ! Lord Jesus, lay not this fin to his charge ! 

Though the reign, my Lords, of King Charles IL wherein 
the a6ts before referred to were made, was not the moft mild 
and moderate in religious matters, yet your Lordfliips very 
well know the famous trial of Aleck and Penn ; and, after the 
jury had been confined a long time, they brought them in, 
guUty only of fpeaking in Gracechurch-ftreet, And if Quakers 
met with fo much lenity under the reign of King Charles^ 
what liberty of preaching in fields, and elfewhere, may not 
the loyal minifters and members of the church of England^ 
nay, proteftant Diflenting teachers alfo, expc6l under the 
more gentle and moderate reign of his prcfent Majefty King 
George^ who, as I have been informed, has declared, " there 
fhall be no perfecution in his days." May the crown long 
finiriOi on his royal head, and a popifh Pretender never be 
permitted to fit upon the Englifi throne ! To this, I believe, 
all the Methodifts will heartily fay, Amen^ and Jmen, 

That the Methodiils, in general, are members of the EJia- 
hUJhed Church, the author of the pamphlet himfelf confeiTcs. 
For, page 4, paragraph 4. afcer he has, without proof, charged 
them with making open mroads upon the national conftitu- 
tion ; he adds, that '* thefe teachers and their followers affect 


{ ^33 1 

to be thought members of the national church." And his 
following words prove 'that they not only affed it, but are 
members of the Eftabliftied Church in reality : for, fays he, 
•' and do accordingly join in communion with it." And it 
appears, paragraph 6. that fome of the Methodifts communi- 
cate every Lord's-day. What better proof can they give of 
their beicig members of the Church of England F It would be 
well if all her members gave a like proof. But then, fays our 
author, page 4, paragraph 4, they do it in a manner that is 
*' very irregular, and contrary to the diredions laid down in 
the rubriclc before the communion, which is eftabliflied by 
the a6l of uniformity.** (Here is another correction in this 
new edition.) In the copy that I read, it was *' contrary to 
the directions laid down in our great rule, the a6l of unifor- 
mity." I am glad the author found out his miftake, in put- 
ting the a£t of uniformity, for the rubrick. I hope the next 
edition will come out more correct ftill. This rubrick, fays 
he, diredts as follows : page 4, paragraph 4 : "So many as 
intend to be partakers of the holy communion, (hall fignify 
their names to the curate, at lead, fome time the day before/* 
And, for not doing this, the new fc6l of Mcthodifts, parag. 5. 
page 6. is charged not only with breaking through, but 
'' notcrioufly defpifing thefe wholfome rules." But how un- 
juft is fuch a charge ? When I read it, it put me in mind of 
•what the poor perfecuted officers of the children of ///W faid 
to Pharaohy Exod. v. 15, 16. " Wherefore dealeft thou thus 
with thy fervants ? There is no ftraw given unto thy fervants. 
They fay unto us, Make brick, and behold thy fervants are 
beaten, but the fault is in thy own people." For, my Lords, 
is it n(>t the bufinefs of the clergy to fee this rubrick put in 
execution ? And is it not the duty of the church-ivardeni^ 
according to the 28th canon, quoted by our author, page 5, 
paragraph 4, " to mark whether any ftrangers come often, 
and commonly from other parifhs to their churches, and to 
fliew the minifters of them." But, my Lords, where is this 
rubrick or canon obferved, or infifted on by the minifters or 
church- wardens through England, Ireland, Wales, or his Ma-- 
jefty's town of Berwick u^on Tweed, except now and then, 
when they entertain a grudge againft fome particular Me* 
thodifts ? Thefe, my Lords, would rejoice to fee, that mi- 

I 3 i^. liters 

[ 134 ] 

jiiders and church-wardens would do their duty in this parti- 
cular. For many of them have been fo offended by the clergy's 
promifcuoufly and carelefly admitting all forts of people to the 
communion, that if it had not been for me, they would have 
left the church only upon this account. We would therefore 
humbly recommend' it to your Lordfhips, that you, and the 
reft of the Right Reverend the Bifhops, would in^ift upon 
curates and churph-wardens putting this, and all other fuch 
wholefome laws and rubricks into execution. That which is 
holy would not then be given unto dogs, nor fo many open 
and notorious evil-livers take the facred fymbols of our 
Lord's mod blefled bady and blood into their unhallowed 
bands and mouths. The Methodifts wifh your Lordfliips 
profperity in this much wifhed-fpr, though long negleded 
part of reformation, in the name of the Lord. 

At the fame time, my Lords, I would not fay any thing 
that might any way encourage diforders , neither would I per- 
fuade the Methodifls to leave their own parifh-churches wher^ 
the facrament is adminiflered there. On the contrary, I would 
have them take the author's advice, page 6, paragraph 6, *' If 
particular perfons are difpofed to receive weekly, v/hen the fa- 
crament is not adminiflered at their own parifti-church, to re- 
pair privately to the church neareft their own, where the fa- 
crament is adminiflered every Lord's-day, having firft fignified 
their names to the minifter, as the rubrick direds." This, I 
believe, they will readily comply with. For I cmnot think 
with this author (in the fame paragraph), that the reafon of 
their coming in fuch numbers is, that they may have the 
*' vain pleafure of appearing together in a body, and as a 
diftind fe<5l." We would rather, according to the rules of 
that charity which hopeth all things for the bcft, believe that 
they come together in fuch companies to animate and encou- 
rage one another. Dr. Horneck^ I remember, in his account 
of the primitive chrilUans, remarks, that " where you faw 
one chrjftian, you might generally fee more." And h it not 
delightful, my Lords, to behold a communion table crouded .? 
Do not fuch as complain of it, difcover fomething of the fpirit 
of thofe Pharifccs^ who were angry when fo many people 
brought their lick to be healed by our Lord Jesus on the 
fabbath-day ? For 1 cannot think; that the minifters c-omplain 


r ^zs 3 

of thi's, only on account of their being hereby «^ put under the 
difficulty (paragraph 5, page 6.) either of rcjcding great 
numbers as unknown to them, or adminifteiing the facrament 
to great numbers, of whom they have no knowledge," becaufc 
it is too notorious that hundreds receive the biefTed facra- 
ment, both in London and other places, where there are no 
Methodifts, whom the minifter knows little or nothing at all 
about, and takes no pains to enquire after. O that the Au- 
thor's mentioning this, may be a means of ftirring up the 
clergy to approve themfelves good Jljephcrds^ by feeking, as 
much as in them lies, to know the ftate of all that come to 
the holy communion ! Glad am I, my Lords, to find that 
the author, in this edition, hath left out the complaint which 
was in the copy I firft read, of fuch crowds coming to receive 
the facramentj " becaufe the minifters who are afternoon- 
lecSlurers, were thereby put under the hardfliip of not having 
time for necefiary reft and refrefkment, between morning and 
evening duties. For might not our Lord fay unto them, 
'^ You ilothful fcrvants, cannot you labour for me one day in 
a week ? Cannot you lofe one meal to feed my lambs, with- 
out complaining of it as an hardfhip ?" Surely none can make 
Tuch a complaint, but fuch ^' whofe god is their belly, whofe 
glory is their fhame, who mind earthly things." But I need 
not mention this, becaufe the Author himfelf feems afhamcd 
of it. 

And indeed this, as well as the other obje£lIons againft the 
Methodifts, arc fo trivial, and the ac^ts referred to as difcoun- 
tenancing their field-preaching, fo impertinent, that the Au- 
thor, without the lead; degree of a prophetic fpirit, might 
eafily forefee, paragraph 8, page 8, " that this, and every 
other fuch complaint againft the Methodifls, would be cen- 
fured not only by them, (but by every impartial perfon) as a 
difcouragement to piety and devotion, and particularly a re- 
ligious obfervation of the Lord's-day." Nay, my Lords, he 
might have forefeen that it would be cenfured as a wicked, 
falfe, and ill-defigning libel. For is it not wicked, to rcpre- 
fent innocent and loyal perfons as open defers cf government^ 
page 4, paragraph 2, and making open inroads upon the national 
cQtijTitution^ (paragraph 4.) without bringing any real proofs 
^f either r 

[ 136 ] 

I am not, my Lords, of the Author's opinion, paragraph 8, 
page 8, " that this flander (of his being a libeller) is efFcc^ 
tually confuted, by looking back to the ftate of the feveral 
religious focieties in London and Wejlminjhr for many years 
part." This will only ferve to increafe every unprejudiced 
perfon's cenfure of this performance, and more efFe£^ually^ 
without the leaft degree of flander, prove it a notorious libel. For 
wherein do the Mcthodift focieties tranfgrefs the laws of church 
or ftate, any more than the focieties in London and IVeflm'tnJler ? 
^' Do the particular members of each fociety (paragraph 8. 
page 8.) attend the public duties of the day, together with 
their neighbours, as the laws of church and ftate dired?'* 
Do not the members of the Methodift focieties the fame I 
" Have the members of the religious focieties in London and 
Wejlmhifter (as the Author mentions in the fame paragraph) 
^Ifo (by private agreements among themfelves) their evening 
meetings, to employ the remainder of the day in ferious con- 
verfation, and in reading good books, &c." Have not the 
members of the Methodift focieties liberty to enter into a like 
private agreement among themfelves ? " Have the members 
of the London focieties behaved with modefty and decencyj> 
without any violation of public order and regularity ?" So 
have ours, my Lords, as all muft confefs who have been pre- 
fent when our focieties met. 

And therefore, my Lords, if thefe London focieties, as our 
Author fays, paragraph 8, page 8. have received no difcou- 
ragement% but, on the contrary, have been countenanced and 
encouraged by the bifiiops and clergy \ why do not the Me- 
thodifts meet with the fame treatment ? Are they not as 
loyal fubje6ls ? If the one read a prayer^ may not the other 
■pray extempore ? Does any law of God or man forbid it ? If 
the one meet in a vefiry^ or private houfe, may not the other 
meet in a Foundery or Tabernacle ? Are not your Lordftiips,^ 
therefore, reduced to this dilemma, either to encourage both 
or neither? or at leaft give the world better reafons than the 
A,uthor of this pamphlet has, why your Lordftiips (hould 
countenance and encourage the one, and fo ftrenuoufly dif- 
countenance and difcourage the Qthcr, 

For my own part, my liOrds, I kjiow of no reafon why 
they are difcpunteiiancedj excent this, '' Tlse Methodift fo- 

[ 137 ]" 

cieties (as they are called) are more for the power of godH- 
nefs than thofe other focicties of London and IVtJhmvJicr'^ \ 
afljjre your Lordfliips, I have not been altogether a ftranger 
to thefe focieties. I ufed to meet with Tome of ihem fre- 
quently, and have more than once preached their quarterly 
fermon at BQiv-church, Some, who before had only the form 
of godlinefs, our Saviour was fincc pleafed to call effedually 
by his grace. But when they began to talk feelingly and ex- 
perimentally of the new-birth, free juftification, and the in-, 
dwelling of the Spirit of God in believeri' hearts, they were 
foon Jooked upon as righteous over-much, and accordingly 
were caft cut by their felf-righteous brethren. Thefe were 
the late extr.ivagances, my Lords, into which the Author 
(juft at the conclulion of his firft part) fays, that fome have 
been unhappily mifled ; and this, my Lords, was the firft rife 
of the focieties which the Methodifts now frequent. O that 
he and all who oppofe them, had been mifled into the like 
extravagances ! I mean a real experience of the new-birth, 
and the righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ imputed and applied 
to their fouls by faith, through the operation of the eternal 
Spirit ! For without this they cannot enter into the kingdom 
of heaven. Thefe things, my Lords, the firft inembers of 
the religious focieties in London and iVeJlininJler were no 
ftrangers to. Nay, their being mifled into what the Author 
calls the Methodifts late extravagancies, was the rife of their 
focieties, as well as ours ; and they met for the very fame 
ends, and I believe in the very fame fpirit as the Methodifts 
now do. For a proof of this, 1 would refer the Author to 
Pr. Woodward\ account of the rife and progrcfs of the reli- 
gious focieties in the city of London^ Sec. My Lords, I have 
been reading over this ftcond chapter, and in reading it, could 
fcarce refrain weeping, when I confidercd how blind the au- 
thor of this pamphlet muft be, not to difcern, that the firft 
religious focieties anfwered, as to their fpirit, experience, and 
ends of meeting, to the Methodiit focieties, as face aniwers 
to face in the water. Let him not, therefore, mention the 
predeceflbrs of the prcfent London focieties (the laft words of 
the firft part) as though that would ftrengthen his caufe. In- 
deed, my Lords, it weakens it much. For, was it pofliblc for 
thefe predecefturs to rife from the dtad, and examine our 


[ 135 J 

principles and pra£tices, and thofe of the prefcnt religious fo-* 
cieties of London and Wejlmlnjier^ I belieye they would utterly 
difown them, and turn Methodifts too. 

And why, my Lords, Ihould the Author be fo averfe to 
field-'pr caching ? Has not our Saviour given a fandion to this' 
way of preaching ? Was not the beft fermon that was ever 
preached, delivered on a mount ? Pid not our glorious Em- 
manuel (after he was thruft out of the fynsgogucs) preach 
from a fhip, in a wildernefs, $cc. ? Did not the Apoftles, af- 
ter his afcenfion, preach mfchools^ public markets^ and fuch like 
places of refort and concourfe ? And can we copy after 
better examples ? If it be Hiid, " that the world was then 
heathe^," I anfwer, and am perfuaded your Lordfliips will 
agree with nie in this, that there are thoufands and ten thou- 
sands in his Majefty's dominions, as ignorant of true and un- 
dehled religion, as ever the heathens were ? And are not 
perfons who dare venture out, and (hew fuch poor fouls the 
way to heaven, real friends both to church and flate ? And 
why then, my Lords, ihould the civil power be applied to in 
order to quell and fupprefs them ? Or a pamphlet encou- 
raged by feveral of the Right Reverend the BiJIoops^ which is 
pianifeftly calculated for that purpofe ? I would hunibly afl: 
your Lordfhips, whether it would not be more becoming 
your Lordfhips characters, to put your clergy on pleaching 
againft revelling, cock-fighting, and fuch like, than to move 
the government againft thofe, who out of love to God and 
precious fouls, put their lives in their hand, and preach unto 
fuch revellers, repentance towards God, and faith towards 
our Lord Jesus ? What if the Methodifts, " by public ad- 
vertiiements do invite the rabble ?" (as our Author is pleafed 
to write, page 4, paragraph 2.) Is not the fame done by 
other clergy, and even by your Lordftiips, when you preach 
charity fermons ? But, my Lords, what does the Author 
mean by the rabble F I fuppofe, the oommop people. If fo, 
thefe are they who always heard the bieflcd Je^US gladly. It 
was chiefly the poor, my Lords, the o'/^?^oi^ the turba, the 
mob, the multitude, thefe people, who, the fcribes and pha- 
rifees faid, knew not the law, and were accurfed ; thefe were 
they that were evangelized, had the gofpel preached unto 
them, and received the Spirit of God's dear Son. Not many 


I" '39 1 

iTiigbtyj not many noble are called, fays the Apoftle. indoSli 
rapiunt ccelmuy dum nos cum do^rina dejcendhnus in Gehcnnam^ 
fays one of the fathers. And therefore, my Lords, fuppofing 
we ^o advertife the rabble, and none but fuch make up our 
auditories, (which is quite falfe) if this be the Mcthodifts 
ifhame, tl}ey may glory in it. For thefe rabble, my Lords, 
have precious and immortal fouls, for which the dear Re- 
deemer fhed his precious blood, as well as the great and rich. 
Thefe, my Lords, are the' publicans and harlots that enter 
into the kingdom of heaven, whilft felf- righteous formal pro- 
feflbrs reje(5l it. To fhew fuch poor fmners the way to God, 
to preach to them the power of Christ's re furred ion, and to 
pluck them as firebrands out of the burning, the iVlethodifl 
preachers go out into the highways and hedges. If this is to 
be vile, by the help of my God, I fhall be more vile ; nei- 
ther count I my life dear unto my felf, fo that I may finiQi my 
courfe with joy, and be made inftrumental in turning any of 
this rabble to righteoufnefs. And more efpecially do I think 
it my duty to invite, and preach to this rabble in all places, 
where providence (hall fend me, at this feafon ; that I may 
warn them againft the dreadful efFeils of popifh principles, 
and exhort thern to exert their utmoft endeavours to keep out 
a popifh Pretender from ever fitting upon the Englijh throne. 
In acting thus, I humbly apprehend, I can do moft fervice 
to the caufe of the bleiled Jesus, to his prefent Majefty King 
George^ to my fellow- fubjecSls, and the government under 
which I live. And however fuch kind of preachers may be 
every where fpoken againfl now, yet I doubt not but at the 
great decifive day, they will be received with an Euge hene^ 
and Ihine as flars in the firmament for ever and ever : whilft 
thofe, who have only *' divined for hire, have fed themfelvcs, 
and not the flock, and lorded it over God's heritage," per- 
haps, may pay dear for their preferm.ent, and rife to everlaft- 
ing contempt. Pardon me, my Lords, for exprefHng myfelf 
here with fome degree of warmth. I mufl own it gives me 
concern, to fee fome of the clergy (Irain at a gnat and fwal- 
1.DW a camel, and attempt to pull the mote out of our eyes, 
before they have pulled the beam out of their own. Is it not 
ridiculous, my Lords, even in the eyes of vvordly men, and 
does it not render the Author of this pamphlet, julUy liable to 


[ 140 ] 

contempt, to charge the Methodifts with breaking canons 
and rubricks, which is really not their faults ; when at the 
fanae time he knows, that the generality of the clergy fo 
notorioufly break both canons and rubricks, and that too 
in the moft important articles, fuch as not catechising, 
PLURALITIES, NON-RESIDENCE, &c. cvcry day themfelves ? 
With what face can he do it ? Is not this like Nero's fetting 
Kome on nrc, and then charging it upon the chriftians ? May 
not *' phyfician heal thyfelf,*' be immediately retorted on 
him i* 

But I have done. I would not bring a railing accufation 
againft any. Neither would I, my Lords, when giving a 
reafon of the hope that is in me, do it any other way than with 
meeknefs and fear. I would therefore now proceed to an- 
fwer the other parts of the pamphlet ; but I {hall referve that 
for another letter, which, God willing, fhall be publiftied 
in a ihort time. In the mean while, I humbly recommend 
this to the divine blefling, and to your Lordfhips confidera^ 
tions^ and beg leave to fubfcribe myfelf, my Lords, 

Your Lordfhips moft obedient fon and fervant, 

George Whitefield, 

A N 



Rev^ Thomas Church, M. A< 

Vicar of Battersea, and Prebendary of 
St. Paul's ; 



T O H I S 

Serious and Expoftulatory Letter 

T O T H E 

Rev"^. George Whitefield, 

On Occafion of his late Letter to the Bifhop 
of London, and other Bifliops. 



T O 

The Second Part of an Anonymous 
Pamphlet, entitled, " Obfervatlons upon 
** the Conduct and Behaviour of a certain 
" Sedl, ufually diftinguifhed by the Name of 
*' Met hodist s :" 

I N A 


T O 

The Right Reverend the BISHOP of. 
LONDON, and the other the Right Reverend 
the Bishops concerned in the Publication 

Mj hearts defire and prayer to Got) for Tfrael Is, that they nrighf he faved. 
For I bear them record, that they ha-ve a zeal for GoD, but not accord- 
ing to knoivledge. For they be'm^ ignorant of GodV right eoufnefs, and 
going about to eftahlijh their onvn right eoufnefs, ha-je not fuhmitted thcm- 
febves unto the righteoufnefs of God. Roitv. x. i, 2, 3. 

i '43 1 



Right Rev. the Bifhop of LoxNDon, &^c. 

On hoard the JVdlmlngton^ Capt. Darling, bound from Plymouth 
to Pifcataqua in New- England^ ^i^g^J^ 25, 1 744. 

My Lordsy 

I Troubled your Lordfhips with a letter fome time ago. I 
now proceed, according to my promife, to anfwer the re^ 
mainder of the anonymous pamphlet entitled, Obfervations upon 
the Condu^ and Behaviour of a certain SeH ufually dijlinguijhed 
by the Name of Methodijls, The author opens the fecond part 
with this preface : *' Befides the many Irregularities which 
are juftly charged upon thefe itinerant preachers as violations 
of the laws gf church and ftate; it may be proper to enquire, 
whether the doSirines they teach, or thofe lengths they run, 
beyond what is pra^lifed among our religious focieties, or in 
any other chriftian church, be a fervice or diflervice to relig]- 
gion ? to which purpofe, the following Queries are fubmitted 
to confideration." It is here taken for granted, that the 
Methodifts (termed by our author, either out of contempt, 
or by way of periphrafis, theje itinerant preachers) are juftly 
charged with many Irregularities, which amount to violations 
of the laws of church and ftate. But how has the author 
proved, what he here takes for granted ? I humbly apprehend 
not at all. For has it not appeared in my anfwer to the 
f.rft part of his obfervations, that neither the acl: of tolera- 
tion, nor that of Charles lid, any way afpecls the Mctho- 
difls, as being loyal fubje6ls to his majefty King Geroge^ and 
and members of the Church of England? How then have 
they been juftly charged with violations of the laws of the 
ftate ? And has it not been equally made to 3nL>ear, that the 
2 irrco-ularity 

[ '4+ ] 

irregularity the author fays the Methodlfls have been guilty 
of, in coniing to other parifh churches to receive the facra- 
nient, is owing to the negligence of your Lordfliip's clergy 
and church- wardens ? How then have they been juflly charged 
with violations of the laws of the church ? But may vfc not 
fuppofe by his fpeaking fo conrernptuoufly of thefe itinerant 
preachers, that itinerant preaching itfelf, is one of the many 
irregularities and violations of the laws of the church at leaft, 
if not of the ftate, which according to this author arejuftly 
charged upon thefe itinerant preachers ? His eighth query, 
page nth (which for method fake I would here beg leave to 
make fome remarks upon) befpeaks as much. For he herein 
fubmits it to the confideration of the publick, " Whether, 
in a chriftian nation, where the inftrudion and edification of 
the people is provided for, by placing minifi-ers in certain di* 
J]ricis^ to whom the care of the (ouls within thofe diftricts 
is regularly committed ; it can be for the fervice of religion, 
that itinerant preachers rurt up and down from place to place, 
and from county to county, drawing after them confufed mul- 
titudes of people ? an evil which our church has wifely pro- 
vided againft, fays our author, in the ordination of a priefi-, 
by expicfly limiting the exercife of powers conferred upon him, 
of preaching the w'ord of God, and adminiftring the holy 
facraments, to the congregation where he fhall be lawfully ap- 
pointed thereunto." Here indeed is a heinous irregularity 
charged upon thefe itinerant preachers, even a violation of 
the commifTion given them wheo they were ordained prieflsj 
but with what juftice, I would refer to your Lordfliips confi- 
4eration. For if the commiffion given us, when ordained 
priefts, abfolutely prohibits us to preach any where but to the 
congregation where v^e (hall be lawfully appointed therunto, 
will it not prove too much ? and has not the author, in endea- 
vouring to reproach us, unwarily reproached your Lordfhips 
alfo ? for are not your Lordfhips then equally irregular, 
equally violators of the laws of the church, whenever you 
preach (though it be never fo feldom) out of your Lordfhips 
refped^ivediocefTes \ And does not this commiiTion, thus ftridly 
taken, abfolutely forbid any prefbyters whatfoever preaching 
any where befides in their own particular congregations? 
a:id ii (o, are not all miniflers that exchange pulpits equally 
6 irregular. 

[ 145 1 

irregular, at leaft as really violators of their ord'nntion coirimif- 
fion, as tbefc itinerant preachers ? 

Our author in the following paragraph under the forcmen- 
tioned query tells us, *' That the bifliops indeed r.ud alfo our 
two univerlitics have power to grant liceufes to prcr:cb, of a 
larger extent, to fuch clergymen as they judge proper; who, 
in virtue thereof may, if they chufe, travel from place to 
place as itinerants. But then the church has provided in that 
cafe [Can. 50), that neither the minifter, church-v/ardens, 
nor any other ofRccrs of the church fhall fuffer any man to 
preach within the churches and chapels, but fuch as by (bow- 
ing their licence to preach, fliall appear'unto them to be fu^ 
ficiently authorized thereunto." What thefe licences for iti- 
nerant preaching are to which the author here refers, is not 
certa-n. Does he not feem to mean the common licences 
which your Lordfliips give the clergy, when they take upon 
them holy orders? Are not thefe the licences which the 
church-wardens examine ? And what is the end of thefe li- 
cences ? Was it ever heard before that they were to qualify 
perfons to be itinerant preachers ? Is not the plain end of them, 
to fatisfy the church-wardens that the perfons who offer their 
fervice have had a regular ordination, and are fuHiciently au- 
thorifed to preach ? And does not the author know that thefe 
licences now are little regarded ? Do not our letters of orders 
anfwer the fame end to all Intents and purpofe ? Were they 
not judged fufficient at our firft fetting out into the miniftry ? 
And after all, what is it that the minifters and church-wardens 
can do to perfons that have not thefe licences : Why they are 
not to fufFer them to preach luithin their churches and chapels ? 
but have they any power, my Lords, to hinder them from 
preaching without their churches or chapels ? No, blelied be 
GoD) their power is limited within : hitherto can they go, 
and no further. And therefore fuppofing thefe itinerant 
preacher?, thou2:h they have no licenfes, do not preach within 
any chuKhes or chapels, unlefs with the minifters or church- 
wardens confent, how arc they juftly charged with violating a 
law of the church, though they (tiould preach without doors 
to as great multitudes as (hall be inclined to hear them ? 

He proceeds in the 3d paragraph under this 8:h query to 
write thus : " The practice of licenfing itinerant preachers 

Vol. IV, K was 


[ 146 ] 

vvas occafioiied by the low talents of many Incumbents in the 
more early days oF the reformation, whofe abilities carried 
them no farther than to the reading of homilies ; a defect 
which has long been remedied by a liberal education of fuffi- 
cient numbers of perfons for the miniflry, who regularly per- 
form the oiBce of preaching, as well as other duties, in the 
pariihes committed to their care. And if the forcmentioned 
dek€i did flill continue, as God be thanked it does not, 
it would be ill iupplied by our modern itinerants, who make 
it their principal employ, wherever they go, to iiiflil into 
the people a few favourite tenets of their own ; and this, with 
fuch diligence and zeal as if the whole of chriftianity depended 
upon them, and all efforts towards the true chriflian life, 
without a belief of thofe tenets, were vain and ineffedua!." 

But, my Lords, what can this author mean by writing thus I 
for fuppofing the pra61:ice of itinerant preaching was prim.arily 
occafuned by the low talents of many incumbents in the more 
early days of the reformation, does it therefore follow, that 
there can be no other juft caufe affigned for itinerant preach- 
ing now ? What if the generality of the prefent incumbents 
depart from the good old doflrines that were prea,ched in the 
more early days of the reformation, and notwithllanding their 
liberal education, make no other ufe of their learning but to 
explain away the articles and homilies, which they have fub- 
fcribed in the grammatical and literal fcnfc ? Is it not necef- 
fary, in order to keep up the doctrines, and thereby the real 
dignity of the church, that either the clergy thus degenerated, 
Ihould be obliged to read the homilies as formerly, and to 
preach confiftently therewith ; or that thofe who do hold the 
doclrines of the reformation, (liould go about from place to 
place, and from county to county, nay from pole to pole, if 
their fphere of a6lion extended fo far, to dirc61: poor fouls that 
are every-where ready to perifh for lack, of knowledge, into 
the right way which leadeth unto life ? That this is the cafe be- 
tween the cftabliflied clergy and thefe itinerant preachers, will 
appear prefently ; and hov/ then can this author charge them 
with making it their principal employ, wherever they go, to 
inftil into the people z few favour it e tenets of their own ? Has 
the author followed them wherever they have preached, that 
he afTcrts this fo confidently concerning them ? Xs it not to bs 


[ H7 ] 

Wlfhed that he had at leafl taken care to have been better irl- 
formed ? for then he would have favcd himfclf from the guilt 
of a notorious flander. Is It not evident to all who hear them^ 
that the favourite tenets which the itinerant preachers make 
it their principal employ to inllil into people's minds wherever 
they go, are the great doBvines of the reformation^ homilies and 
articles of the church ? fuch as " Man's bringing into the 
world with him a corruption which renders him liable to 
God's wrath and eternal damnation : That the condition of 
man after the fall ol Adarn^ is fuch that he cannpt turn ana 
prepare himfelf, by his own natural Ilrength and good works, 
to faith and calling upon God : That we are accounted 
righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ by faith, and not for our own works 
or defervings : That they are to be accurfed, who prefume 
ts^ fay, that every man {hall be faved by the law or fe6l which 
he profefieth, fo that he be diligent to frame his life accord- 
ing to that law, and the light of nature." Thefe, my Lords, 
are fome of the favourite tenets of thefe itinerant preachers. 
Their others arc like unto them. Can thefe, my Lords, be 
properly called their own ? Or ought it not to be the princi- 
pal employ of every true miniftcr, vv'herever he goes, to inftil 
fuch tenets, and that too with the utmoft diligence and zeal, 
into the people's minds ? Does not a great part of chrifcianity 
depend on them ? And are not all pretenfions to a true chrif- 
tian life, without a belief of thefe tenets, vain arid ineffectual ? 
May not thefe itinerant preachers therefore complain unto 
your Lordfhips of this anonymous author, as M pJAhcfjcih 
complained to David of treacherous Ziba ? Doubdefs he hath. 
flandered them. And wherefore does he fpeak fo contemp- 
tuoufly of itinerant preachers ? Is it not an amiable and ho- 
nourable characSler ? And may I not take the freedom ©f ac- 
quainting your Lordfnips, that if all tne Right Reverend the 
Bifhops did their duty, (efpecially my Lord o^ Lofzdcm^ whofe 
<Jiocefs is of fuch a vaft extent) they would aH.Jcf them long 
fmce4iave commenced itinerant preachers too ? 

Biit to return to an examination of the other part of ths 
jluthor's preface. After he has taken it for granted, that 
ftiany irregularities are juftly charged upon tnefe itinerant 
jjreachers,' as '' Violations of the laws of church and flate,"' 

K 5; h^ 

[ 148 ] 

he adds, '^ It may be proper to enquire, whether the do£^rInes 
they teach, and thofc lengths they run beyond what is prac- 
tifed among our religious Ibcieties, or in any other chriftian 
church, be a fervice or difTcrvice to religion." The religi- 
ous Tocieties or any other chriftian church ! What, does our 
author make the religious focieties a church ? This is going 
further than the Methodifts, whom he is pleafed to ftile 
only a fcft. But if the religious focieties, my Lords, be 
a church, may it not be proper to enquire how their 
do£trines or pra6lices came to be fet up as a rule and ftan- 
dard for oth^s to go by, fo that perfons doing fervice or 
dilTervice to religion muft be judged of according as they de- 
viate from or adhere to the religious focieties either in doc- 
trine or practice ? Or fuppofing the religious focieties were to 
be a ftandard for others to go by, was it not incumbent on the 
author to give the public a fiiort fummary and account of their 
do6^rines and pra6tices ? For otherwife how can the world 
pofTibly judge whether the Methodifts do deviate from them ; 
or if fo, whether they do thereby fervice or diflervice to reli- 
gion ? Indeed, this author has told us in his firft part, how the 
relio-ious focieties behave on Sundays ; but he has no where 
acquainted us with the principles they hold, or how they be- 
have on other days. And till he does, I vi'ill venture to affirm, 
that unlefs thefe itinerants teach other dodrines than the pre- 
fent religious focieties generally hold, and run greater lengths 
in chriftianity than the generality of them, it is to be feared, 
now run, they will be in great danger of never arriving at 
*' the mark for the prize of their high-calling in Christ 
Jesus their Lord." 

I have been the more particular, my Lord, in the exami- 
nation of the preface, becaufe the author, by annexing thefe 
words, " to which purpofe the following queries are fub- 
mittcd to confideration," feems to lay it down as the ground- 
work and foundation of all the fubfequent queries. And if 
the foundation be fo weak and fandy, how flight and fuper- 
ficial muft be the faperftru6i:ure ? 

I fuppofc your Lordfliips will readily grant, that it is the 
"bounden duty of every regular and fair writer (efpecially when 
he is charging others with irregularities as violations of the 
laws of church and ftate) to take care that he does not violate 
the laws of chriftian charity. Or if he puts queries to the 


[ H9 ] 

public concerning any perfons, ought he not to take heed 
that thofc queries are founded upon truth, and that the charges 
therein exhibited are really matter of fa6l ? But our author 
has notorioufly negle£lcd this fundamental rule, and thereby 
not only caft a lading blot and odium upon his own chara£ler, 
if his name was known, but alfo hath done reJl hurt to the 
caufe he would defend. The query already examined con- 
cerning ///;7^r^«/ /)r^<2r/;/w^, wherein he has charged the Me- 
thodifts with inftilling into people a few favourite tenets of 
their own, fufUciently demonftrates this. But this is not all ; 
feveral of the other queries now coming under confideration 
are by no means founded on truth, and contain charges againd 
thefe itinerants, whereby they are as much wronged and un- 
juftly vilified as ever Stephen was, when the Jeivs fuborned 
men who faid, " We have heard him fpeak blafphemous 
words zgdXwik.' Mcfes and againft God, this holy place and the 

To prove this, we need only examine the two queries which 
immediately follow the preface. 

^ery I/?. " Whether notions in religion may not be 
heightened to fuch extremes, as to lead fome into a difregard 
©f religion itfelf through defpair of attaining fuch exalted 
heights F and whether others, who have imbibed thofe notions, 
may not be led by them into a difregard and difefteem of the 
common duties and offices of life, to fuch a degree at Icafl as 
is inconfiftent with that attention to them, and that diligence 
in them, which providence has made necefTary to the well- 
being of private families and public focieties, and which 
chriftianity does not only require in all flations and in all 
conditions, but declares at the fame time (C^/. iii. 22. Ephejl 
5. 6.) that the performance even of the lowed offices in life, 
as unto God (whofe providence has placed people in their 
feveral flations) is truly ferving Christ, and will not fail of 
its reward in the next world." 

^ei'y 2. " Whether the enemy of mankind may not 
find his account in their carrying chriftianity, which was de- 
figned for a rule to all ftations and all conditions, to fuch 
heights as make it fairly practicable by a very few iii cornpa- 
rifon^ or rather by none r" 

His 5th and 6th queries, page the loth, are like unto them. 

They run thus, " Whether thofe exalied flraias in religion, 

K 3 and 

[ I5P ] 

an^ an Imagination of being dready in 2ijlaic of pcrfeSilon^ aiC 
not apt to lead men to fpiritual pride, and to a contempt of 
their fellow- chriitians; while they confider them as only going 
on in what they account the low and imperfecl: way, (/. e. as 
growing in grace and goodnefs only by degrees) ? And again, 
" whether the fame exalted flrains and notions do not tend to 
weaken the natural and civil relations among men, by leading 
the infeiiors, into whoie heads thofe notions are infufed, to 
^ diftfteem of their fuperiors ; while they confider them as 
in a much lozver d'ljpenfation than themfelves ; though thofe 
fuperiors are otherwife fobcr and good men, and regular at- 
tendants on the ordinances ot religion r" 

Here agam it is fuppoftd, that thefe itinerant preachers cither 
imagine themfehes to be in a ftate of perfection, or at leaft 
teach others to imagine th ;i they are; an4 that the confe- 
quence of tni:., '- a weakning the natural and civil relations 
among men, by icad-ng them to a difefteem of their fellow- 
chriftians, and fuperjor^, who are fuppofed to be in a lower 
fiifpenfation than thcmfelves. 

Heavy charges, my Lords, thcTe are irdted ! But what evi- 
dence does our author produce to prove them ? Why really 
iione at a)). For here is no quotxtion at the bottom of either 
of thefe queries from any ot their writings ; fo that we cannot 
tcir v/hether they arc levelled againft thefe itinerant preachers 
in general, or any one of ihem in particular. And therefore 
the Prebendary of iS/. PauFs^ who has been pleafed to reply 
to my firft letter, in vindication of this author, has done 
wrong in aSrming, " That under each query there is fome 
quotation either from my journals or other writings, Vv'hereon 
it is founded." But there is no fach thing under thefe four, 
wherein luch heavy charges are included. And therefore may 
I not argue, as the author does upon another occafion in his 
firft part, page 8ih, that 'till {o\\\t proof does appear^ the 
prefumptioa muft be that he has none ? 

In the niean while_, I dare challenge this author, and the 
whole world, to produce any paffage out of my writings, 
wherein 1 hiive taught any other chriflianity, than what, 
through the aids of the Blefled Spirit, is practicable by all per- 
Ions in all conditions ; or that I ever preached otherwife than 
^- l^hat the performance even of the loweil offices of life as 
7 ^^'? 

[ 15' ] 

unto God, whofc providence has placed people In their feveral 
ftations, is truly a Icrving of Christ, and will not fail of its 
reward (though not of debt, yet of grace) in the next world.'* 
Neither did 1 ever imagine that I had attained, or was already 
perfect, or taught pcrfons to imagine that they were fo : no, 
I expect to carry a body of fia and death about with me as 
long as I live, and confcfs from my inmoft foul, that I am 
the chief of Tinners, and lefs than the kaft of all faints : I an\ 
fo far from thinking that an imagination that we are already 
in a Rate of perfection, is only apt to lead men into fi^iritual 
pride, that I condemn it as the very quinteflence and higheft 
degree of it. And the more we are conformed to the divine 
image, the more exaiSt I believe we fhall be in keeping up our 
natural and civil relations amono- men, in giving; all honour 
to whom honour is due, and in lowlinefs of mind elleeming 
each other better than ourfelves. And if fo, my Lords, may 
not the author, for thus charging thefe itinerants in general 
without diftindlion, bejuflly ftiled a libeller? And how will 
he undertake to prove, that any one of thefe itineranc preach- 
ers in particular, carries chriftianity to any greater heighth 
than he himfelf does, query 13th, page 16, wherein fpeak- 
ing of the Holy Spirit, he has th(jfe words, '' Whofe pecu- 
liar office it is, to feafon the heart with humility, and to 
root out of it the feeds (what is that but the very inbeing?) 
of pride and vain-glory." 

Is he not very irregular in writing thus at random ; nay, 
does he not hereby himfelf openly violate the laws both of 
church and {late ? 

It is true, our author would appear an advocate for both ; 
but does not his third query^ page 9th, plainly prove him a real 
friend to neither; efpecially the latter? He there afks, " whe- 
ther in particular, the carrying the doiStrine of j unification by 
faith alone to fuch a heighth, as not to allow, that a careful 
fmcere obfervance of moral duties is fo much as a condition of 
our acceptance with God, and of our being juftified in his 
fight J whether this I fay, does not naturally lead people to a 
difregard of thofe duties, and a low cfteem of them; o.r rather 
to think them no part of the chriftian religion ? " It is plain 
from hence, that one of thefe extremes t3 which thefe itine- 
rants exalt chriflianity, and whereby it's queried, whether they 

K 4 c^o 

[ 152 ] 

do fervice or dilkrvice to rej'gion, '' is their carrying the 
dcifb ine of juftificaiion by faith alone to fuch a height, as not 
to allow tl;at a careful ?ncl finceic obi'er\ance of moral duties 
i^ i'o much as a cor.diticm of our acceptance with Gop, and 
^■' • i ing juftificd in his fight." Ou: author it feems is for 
aiiv>ti.ci way of falvation, query ^th^ page loth, v'lz^ " for iTien*s 
gradually working out their own lalvacion, by their own ho- 
iicft endeavours, and through the ordinary afliflances of God's 
grace; wMch a. humble reliance tipon the merits of Christ for 
the pardon of their fms and the acceptance of their fincere, 
though imperfedl: fervices." This is our common divinity. 
This is what my Lord of London in his laft paftoral letter 
againft iuke-warmnefis and enthufiafm, exhorted his clergy tp. 
preach. Bat how contrary is all this to the articles and ho- 
milies of our church ? For what fays the i \ih article? " "^Ye 
are accounted righteous before God, only for the merit of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ by faith, and not for our 
own works or defervings. Wherefore that v/e are juftified 
by faith only is a moil: vvholfome doclrine, and very full of 
comfort, as more largely is expreffed in the homily of juftifi- 

And if both the article and homily of the Church of Eng^ 
/^/Tiexprcily declare, that we are juftified before (or in the 
fight of) God, by faith, and faith only, how can *' a care- 
ful and fmcerc cbfervance of moral duties be a condition, 
ray Lords, of our acceptance with God, and of our being 
judified in his fight ?" And if the dodrine of being juftified 
by faith only be a wholfome do£lrine, and very full of com- 
fort, how can this author in the latter part of this query now 
before us, enquire, ''' whether preaching this doitrine does 
not naturally lead people to a difregard of moral duties, and a 
low efteem of them ; or rather to think them no part of the 
chriftian religion ?" Does he confider, that in writing thus, he 
directly fymbol:zes with the infidel, Ram. vi. \. who is inirodu- 
ced after th.^ apoftle had been infilling at large on this dociriiie 
of juiliification by faith only, as fptaking like our author, 
^' Snail wc fin then that grace may abound ?" The apoille 
immediately rejects the motion with a me gcfioiio \ and fo reply 
thefe itinerants, my Lords, " God forbid." For v/hat fays 
the iiihy article of our Church I " Albeit that good works, 


[ 153 ] 

which are the fruits of faith, and follow after juftification, 
cannot put away fins, and endure the fevcrity of God's judg- 
ment ; yet are they pleafing and acceptable to God in 
Christ, and do fpring out neceflarily of a true and lively 
faith, infomuch that by them a lively faith, may be as evi- 
dently known, as a tree difcerned by the fruit ?" And do we 
then by preaching the dotSlrine of juftification by faith only, 
naturally lead people to a difregard of moral duties and a low 
efteem of them, much lefs to think them no part of the 
chriflian religion ? Do we not rather eftablifh them, by layino- 
a foundation whereon true moral duties can only be built, fo 
as to be acceptable in the fight of God ? for what fays our 
J 2th article ? "Works done before the grace of Christ, 
and the infplration of his Spirit, are not pleafant to God, for 
as much as they fpring not of faith in Jesus Christ, nei- 
ther do they make men meet to receive grace, or (as the fchool 
authors fay) deferve grace of congruity ; yea rather, for that 
they are not done as God hath willed and commanded them 
to be done, we doubt not but they have the nature oF fin." 

To this query our author annexes the following obferva- 
tion. " The words of the pious and judicious Mr. Chillin'^^ 
zuortb are very material to this purpofe : For my part, fays he, 
I do heartily wiih that by public authority it were fo ordered, 
that no man fhould ever preach or print this doctrine, that 
faith alone juftifies, unlefs he joins this together with it, that 
univerfal obedience is neceflary to falvation." What pietv 
and judgment Mr. Chillingworih rftight be remarkable for, I 
know not ; but if by " univerfal obedience being necefjary to 
falvation," he means what our author does (or otherwife this 
quotation is nothing to the purpofe) juftification in the fight 
of God, then Mr. CA////?7^Lt;i7rY/;'s writing after this manner 
is a fpecimen neither of his piety or judgment ; becaufc the 
quite contrary dodlrine is contained in our articles, and efta- 
blifhed by public authority. So that to wifh for juftification 
by faith alone to be put down by public authority, what is it 
in effccl: but to wilh for the utter fubverfion of the erand doc- 
trine of the reformation ? Perhaps it may not be impcriinent, 
or a vain repetition, if I here beg leave to tranfcribe a palTage 
(which I lately printed in my anfv/er to the Prebendary of 
St. Paul"^) out of the Honeycomb of Free f ujlificatlon^ written 


[154 ] 

by one Mr. Eato??^ or Trinity College in Cambridge, printed at 
London in the year 1642, " Free juftification was firft enjoined 
to be diligently taught, for the reformation of the church, by 
King Henry VIII. but was by King Edward VJ. and Queen 
Elizabeth, principally cfl^iblifhed by parliament, and fmgled out 
from all the reft of the eftabiinii;d articles of religion ; and 
reduced into fernions and homilies, to be (after the people's 
light of their loft eftate, and woetul mifcry by (in) principally 
taught, and chiefly known and underftood of all the (ubjeds 
and commons of the land, for thefe four caufes. 

ift. " Becaufe it is the only immediate caufe and means of 
our peace with God. For being juftificd by faith we have 
peace with God, Ro??i. v. i. and our aflurance of free falva- 
tion by Jesus Christ, and is therefore called the juftifica- 
tion of life, Rof^. V. 18. " For whom God juftificth, them 
he alfo glorifieth," Rem. viii. 30. 

3d. " Becaufe it is the chiefeft caufe and means todifcover 
and fupprefs the Rom'ijh antichrift, popery, &c. and all other 
fuperftitions, fc<Sls, errors and fchifms out of the land \ and to 
eftablifh unity, peace and concord in matters of religion, and 
of aflurance of free falvation, and makes every man to keep in 
a lawful vocation, and to do it profitably in love. Gal. v. 13. 

4th. " To dire6l minifters, o^^o^a^iiv, to go with a right 
foot to the truth of the gofpel, GaL ii. 14. in found preaching, 
and pure declaring of the word of God, by a true faith of 
free juftification, becaufe (faith the eftabliihed doiE^rine of our 
church) ftncere preachers ever were, and ever fliall be but a 
few; and their preaching of God's word, moft ftncere m the 
beginning, by procefs of time waxeth lefs and lefs pure, and 
after is corrupt, and laft of all quite laid down, and left off; 
becaufe free juftification is a doilrine hardly learned in a 
church, and foon loft again, Gal. i. 6. and yet is the true 
ftrength, happinefs and fafety of the whole land, IJaiah Ixii. 

'' Hereupon, the 5th part of the fermon againft difobedience 
and rebellion, eftabliftied by Queen Elizabeth, teacneth the 
tommons, that fuch blfliops or ecclefiaftical perfons, as by 
pride and ambitious rule, do by terms of error, fchifm, or 
kerefy, hinder this main light of God'^ word (rom the people, 


[ T55 1 

are the chlcfej} traytors in the hind : and the 6th and lad part 
l^irgely teachcth, that fuch fubjecis and commons to whom, 
through ignorance of Clod's word, this light of rightcoufnefs, 
and this fun of- underllanding doth not fhine, although they 
may brag, as did fometimes the yeivij}) clergy and people, 
that they cannot lack knowledge, yet are fuch by their blind 
dead faith, traytors to God, traytors to their king, tractors 
to their own fouls and bodies, and traytors to the whole 
land and country." 

Thus far Mr. Eaton. And whether he or Mr. Chilling^ 
worth wrote with raotl: piety and ii:dgment on this head, I 
leave to the author's coniideration. And at the fame time ap- 
peal to your Lordfliips, whether the Mcihodifts, by prcachmg 
up the doctrine of //v/i'//7tY///5;2 hy faith alovp^ carry chriflianity 
to an exrrrme ? or, whether or not this author, by making 
moral duties a condition of our acceptance with God, and of 
our being juftificd in his fight, is not himfelf guilty of ^.n irre- 
gularity which amounts to a violation of the laws both of 
church and flate ? 

May not this alfo, my Lords, ferve as an anfwer to our 
author's loth query ^ page 1 2th. " Whether it be for the fer- 
vice of religion, to diicourage people from reading Archbidion 
Tillotfon'6 Sermons and the Whole Duty of Man? to whom 
cur Methodifts might have added many more of our beft 
\vriters after fhe reftoration. For, all thcfe (together with 
explaining the whole work of our redemption by Christ) 
endeavoured to turn the minds of people to the pra£iice of 
moral duties, and to cure them of that madnefs and enthufi- 
afm into which they had been led by the Antinomian doc- 
trines, and others of the like tendency, during the times of 
anarchy and confufion ?" Undoubtedly ; for are they not both 
wrong in their foundation ? The latter indeed lays no founda- 
tion by juftifying faith at all, and therefore may be more 
properly termed Half the Duty of Man \ and the former, like 
our author, contrary to the laws of church and ftate, makes 
good works a condition of our acceptance with God, and of 
our being juflified in his fight. And though I might have 
fpared my borro-jued comparifon of putting the Archbifliop on 
^ level with Mabm^t^ (for which I afk the public pardon 


C 155 ] 

though perhaps even this confeilion may be turned to my re- 
proach) yet I can by no means agree with our author in this 
fame query^ page \^th^ that cither his Grace, or the author of 
the M'hole Duty of Ma?i^ explained the whole work of our re- 
demption by Christ. For how can that be poffibly done, 
without explaining the doctrine of juftification by faith alone? 
And therefore, whatever good the Archbifhop, and many ' 
other of our befb writers after the Refloration (as this au- 
thor ftiles them) might defign by endeavouring " to turn the 
minds of people to the practice of moral duties, and to cure 
them of that madnefs and enthufiafn into which they had 
been led by the Antinomian do£lrines, and others of the like 
tendency, during the times of anarchy and confufion,** may I 
not appeal to your Lordlhips, whether that of the Poet be not 
too applicable to his Grace, to the Author of the Whole Duty 
of Many and to writers of that ftamp : 

Incidit in fyllam^ qui vult vitare CharibdinP 

For, is there no way, my Lords, of turning people's minds 
to the practice of moral duties, without turning their minds 
from the dodrine of juftification by faith alone, without 
which, moral duties cannot be acceptable to God at all ? 
What is this, my Lords, but, Pharoah like, to command 
God's Ifrael to make brick without giving thera flraw ? And 
fuppofing it be tiiic, that tho people before the reftoration had 
been led into madnefs and enthufiafm, by Antinomian doc- 
trines, v/as there no other way, my Lords, of curing them of 
this madnefs, but by preaching down the moft fundamental 
article of the church of England^ and fo by preaching up the 
do(5lrine of juftification in the fight of Gob, partly by works, 
and partly by faiih^ bring them half way to the church of 
Rome? Do not thefe itinerants, my Lords, by laying down 
faith as the foundation, and building the fuperftruclure of 
•univerfal obedience as the fruit of it thereon, keep a proper 
medium, and take the moft effe(?i:ual method of preferving 
people from Antinomianifm on the one hand, or madnefs and 
enthufiafm, anarchy and confufion on the other ? And is not 
this, my Lords, the conftant tenor of their fermons ? Do 
they not firft labour to bring people to a real faith in Christ 
as the Lord their righteoufnefs, and then exhort thofe that 


[ 157 1 

believe, to be careful to maintain and {hew forth their faith, 
by a conftant uniform perfoimance of all manner of good 
works ? 

How difengenuous then is this Author's c^th query^ page 12. 
" Whether it does not favour of felf-fufficiency and prefump- 
tion, when a few young heads, without any colour of a divine 
commifTion, fet up their own fchemes, as the great ftandard 
of chriftianity : and, how can it be reconciled to chriftian 
humility, prudence, or charity, to indulge their own notions 
to fuch a degree, as to perplex, unhinge, terrify, and diftradl 
the minds of multitudes of people, who have lived from their 
infancy under a gofpel miniftry, and in the regular exercife of 
a gofpel worfhip j and all this, by perfuading them, that they 
have never yet heard the true gofpel, nor been inftructcd in 
the true way of falvation before : and that they neither are, 
nor can be true chriftians, but by adhering to their do^irimi 
and difcipUne^ and embracing chriftianity upon their fchemes ? 
All the while, for the fake of thofe fchemes, and in purfuancc 
of them, violating the wholefome rules, which the powers 
Spiritual and temporal have wifely and pioufly eftablifhed, for 
the prefervation of peace and order in the church." 

Here he charges thefe itinerants (though without proof, as 
he had done in the preceding one) with ''^Jetting up their own 
fchemes^ as the great Jiandard of chrijlianity^^ and with telling 
people that they neither are, nor can be true chriftians, but 
by adhering to their doctrines and difcipline, and embracing 
chriftianity upon their fchemes." Is not this calumny all 
over ? For where has this author made it appear, that the 
Methodifts preach contrary to the articles of the eftablifhed 
church ? Or how does he or can he prove, that they affirm, 
*' People neither are, nor can be true chriftians, without ad- 
hering to their difcipline?" Where are any quotations to 
this purpofe in his obfervations ? Is not this, my Lords, all 
gratii diSlum? And therefore, to ufe fome of his own words, 
*^ Does it not favour of felf-fufficiency and prefumption, and 
can it be reconciled to chriftian humility, prudence, or cha- 
rity," to indulge his prejudice againft any perfons living t3 
fuch a degree, as to lay things to their charge which they 
never thought of or faid ? For do not thefe itinerants freely 
converfe with perfons of all «ommunions ? Have I not in 


r 158 ] 

particular communicated with the church of Scotland^ and 
preached among the churches in New-England P Do not the 
generality of the clergy cry out againft me as a latitudinarian, 
and look upon me for fo doing, as the bigotted Jews did on 
Peter^ for going unto the uncircumcifed Gentiles ; though I 
fay as he did, " Can any man forbid me to converfe with 
and communicate with thofe who have received the Holy 
Ghoft as well as we ?" Are not thefe notorious matters of 
fad ? And how then can this author infinuate, that thefe 
itinerants tell people, that they neither are, nor can be chrif- 
tians without adhering to their difcipline ? 

But further, how fcornfully does he fpeak of thefe itine- 
rants ? He ftiles them a few young heads. And how unwarily 
has he thereby fhewed his ignorance of the lively oracles of 
God ? For has he never read what David faith, Pfal. viii. 2, 
*' Out of the mouths of babes and fucklinfrs haft thou or^ 
dained llrength, becaufe of thine enemies, that thou mighteft 
ftill the enemy and avenger?" Or that of the Apoftle, 
I Cor. I. 27, 28. *' But God hath chofen the foolifh things 
of this world to confound the wife; and God hath chofen 
the weak things of this world to confound the things which 
are mighty; and bafe things of the world, and things which 
are defpifed, hath God chofen, yea and things that are not^ 
to bring to nought things which are ?" How prefumptuoufiy 
does he alfo tax thefe few young heads in this fame query, 
"with ading " without any colour of a divine ccmmijfonf For 
have not feveral of thefe young heads received a commiiTioii 
from your Lordfliips ? And does not the fuccefs they have 
met with, as alfo their being flrengthened to flem and fur- 
mount fuch a torrent of oppofition, afford fome colour at leaft, 
that they have a6ted by a divine comimiffion indeed ? For 
how could a few young heads, my Lords, or any men what- 
foever, do fuch things, unlefs God was with them ? 

But our Author, it feems, looks upon what they call fuc- 
cefs, in a different light, and therefore, in this qth ^uery^ fur- 
ther afks, " How it can be reconciled to chriiVian humility,- 
prudence, or charity, to indulge their own notions to fuch a 
degree, as to perplex, unhinge, terrify, and diftra6l the minds 
of multitudes of people, who have Jived from their infancy 
under a gofpel miniftry, and in the regular cxercife of a gof-' 

[ 159 ] 

pel vvorfhip ; and all this, by periuading them, that they have 
never yet heard the true gofpel, nor been inftrudlcd in the 
true way of ialvation before." To prove this particular part 
of the QiJery, he refers to paflages which my Lord of London 
was pleafed to extrad out of my third Journal fome years ago, 
fuch as, *' I offered Jesus Christ freely to them ; — I think: 
TVales is excellently well prepared for the gofpel of Christ ; 
— Received news of the wonderful piogrefs of the gofpel in 
York/hire, under the miniftry of my dear brother Ingham ; — I 
v/as refrefhed by a great packet of letters, giving me an ac- 
count of the fuccefs of the gofpel ;— A moft comfortable pac- 
ket of letters, giving me an account of the fuccefs of the gof- 
pel." But how do all thefe paflages, my Lords, put all together, 
afl-'ord the leaft fliadow of a proof of what this Author here 
lays to thefe itinerants charge ? Or how can ofiering Christ 
freely, and hearing and writing of the fuccefs of the gofpel, 
be interpreted as perplexing, unhinging, terrifying, and di- 
ftrading the minds of multitudes of people, &c. ? Is not 
this, my Lords, like the other proofs he brings againft 
thefe itinerants in fome other refpeds ? And may I not ven- 
ture to affirm now, whatever I did fome years ago, that if the 
Right Reverend the Bifliops, and Reverend the Clergy, hold 
the fame principles with this anonymous Author, then the 
generality of the poor people of England^ however regular 
they may have been from their infancy in the exercife of a 
gofpel worfliip, never yet lived under a gofpel miniflry, have 
never yet heard the true gofpel, or been inftruded in the true 
way of falvation. For how can that be, when t\\^ fundamental 
dodrine of the gofpel, I mean jufiification by faith alone in 
the fight of God, mufl be 'neceflarily every where preached 
down ? Does not Luther call this, Ar t\ cuius Jl anils aut cadenth- 
ecdeficB ? And is there any thing, my Lords, {o very irrecon- 
cilable to chriftian humility, prudence, or charity, for a fev/ 
young heads, who do hold this do(5lrine, (feeing thofe who 
feem pillars, and are the aged heads of the churchy are fo much 
out of order) to venture out and preach this do61:rine to as 
great multitudes of people as will give them the hearing ? 
And fuppofing fome of thcfc multitudes (hould be unhinged, 
terriiied, diftracled, or diftuibed a little, is it not better they 
fl:iould be thus unhino;ed from off their falfe foundation here, 


[ i6o ] 

than by building upon their own works, and going about to 
eftablifli a righteoufnefs of their own, endanger their eternal 
falvation hereafter? 

The diftrading people's minds to fuch a degree as to occa- 
fion fudden roarings, agonies, fcreamings, tremblings, drop- 
ping-down, ravings, and fuch like, is by no means the great 
end propofcd by thefe itinerants preaching, much lefs was it 
ever urged by them as an ejfential mark of the co-operation of 
the Spirit of God, And therefore, my Lords, is not our Au- 
thor very unfair in ftating his 4//; ^ery, page 10, as he has 
done : " Whether a due and regular attendance on the pub- 
lic offices of religion, paid by good men in a ferious and com- 
pofed way, does not better anfwer the true ends of devotion, 
and is not a better evidence of the co-operation of the Holy- 
Spirit, than thofe fudden agonies, roarings and fcreamings, 
tremblings, droppings-down, ravings and madneflcs, into 
which their hearers have been caft ; according to the relations 
given of them in the Journals referred to ?" Would not one 
imagine by this Query, that thcfe itinerants laid down fuch 
things as fcreamings, tremblings, &c. as efiential marks of 
the co-operations of the Holy Spirit ? But can any fuch 
thing be proved ? Are they not looked upon by thefe itine- 
rants themfelves, as extraordinary things, proceeding generally 
f^rom foul-diftrefs, and (bmetimes it m^y be from the agency 
of the evil fpirit, who labours to drive poor fouls into defpair? 
Does not this appear from the relation given of them in one 
of the Journals referred to ? Are there not many relations of 
the co-operation of the Spirit in the fame Journal, where no 
fuch bodily effe61s are fo much as hinted at ? And does not 
this give ground to fufpecl, that " the due and regular at- 
tendance on the public offices of religion, paid by (what our 
Author calls) good men, in a ferious and compofed way," is 
little better than a dead formal attendance on outward ordi- 
nances, which a man may continue in all his life-time, and 
be all the while far from the kingdom of God ? Did 
ever any one before hear this urged as an evidence of the 
co-operation of the Spirit? Or would any one think, that 
the Author of the obfervations ever read the relations that are 
given of the converfion of feveral in the holy fcriptures ? For 
may we not fuppofe, my Lords, that many were caft into 
3 fudden 

[ Iff. ] 

fudden agonies and fcreamings, /t^s II. 37. when «' the^r 
were pricked to the heart, and faid unto Petej- and the reft of 
the apoftles, Men and brethren, what (hall we do to be faved ? ** 
Or what would this Author think of the cohverfion of the 
Jailor, Jols x. 29, 30. " who [prang iriy and came tremhling 
and fell down hehre Paul 2Lnd Silas-, and brought them our, 
and faid. Sirs, what muft I do to be faved ?" Or what would 
he think oi Paul^ who tremhling and ejlonifo^d^ Acls'xx, 6. faid, 
*' Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ?" and was afterwards, 
ver. 9, " three days without fight, and neither did eat nor 
drink ?" Is it not to be feared, that if this Author had been 
feated upon the bench, and heard this Apoftle give an account 
of his own converfion, he would have joined with Feflus in 
crying out with a loud voice, '^ Paul^ much learning hath 
made thee mad ? " And are not all thefe things, and what- 
ever elfe is recorded in the book of God, written for our 
learning \ Is not God the fame yefterday, to-day, for ever ? 
And may he not now, as well as formerly, reveal his arm and 
difplay his power in bringing finners home to himfelf asyz/^^^«^ 
and iri/iantaneoujly as in the firft planting of the gofpel church ? 

But it feems, by ^tery 7, page 10, that Our Author doubts 
whether there be any fuch thing as a fudden and tji/lanidncou's 
change. For he there enquires, " Whether a gradual im- 
provernent in grace and gcodnefs, is not a better foundation 
of comfort, and of an affurance of a gofpel new birth, thait 
that which is founded on the dodrine of a fudden and inftnn- 
taneous change ; which, if there be any fuch things is not eafi!y 
diftinguiflied from fancy and imagination ; the workings 
whereof we may well fuppofe to be more ftrong and powerful, 
while the pesfon confiders himfelf in the ftate of one who Is 
admitted as a candidate for fuch a change, and Is taught in 
due time to expect it ? " Here it is to be obfcrved, th^t after 
telling of a fudden and Inftantaneous change, he adds, '' if 
there be any fuch thing.'* What, rhy Lords, docs this Au- 
thor profefs himfelf an advocate for the church of England^, 
and yet fay, " If there be any fvjch thing as a fudden inftan-i 
taneous change r " Does he not hereby lay an ax to the very 
root of the baptiOnal ofHce ? For if the child be actually re- 
generated by the Holy GhoH:, when the miniftcr fprinkles 
water upon him In the name of the blclTcd Trinity, doe? It 

Vol. IV. L no5 


[ '62 ] 

not follow, that if any change at all be wrought in the cbiM 
at that time, it muft be fudden and inftantaneous ? And does 
he then fay, '* If there be any fuch thing ?" And do your 
Lordfliips afTent thereto ? With what reafon then are thefe 
itinerants upbraided for talking of a fudden^ wjiantoneous 
change^ upon which the very efTence of baptifmal regeneration, 
that Diana of the prefent clergy^ entirely depends ? 

Befides, with what confidence or rules of fair reafoning can 
be here enquire, '*^ Whether a gradual improvement in grace 
and goodnefs, is not a better foundation of comfort, and of an 
aflurance of a gofpel new-birth, than that which is founded 
on the docSlrine of a fudden and inftantaneous change; which, 
if there be any fuch thing, is not eafily diftinguifbed from 
fancy and imagination ; the working whereof we may well 
fuppofe to be more ftrong and powerful, while the perfon 
. confiders himfelf in the ftate of one who is admitted as a can- 
didate for fuch a change, and is taught in due time to expe(St 
it ?" 

However unintelligible the latter part of this Query may be, 
does not the former part of it.feem to imply, that thefe itine- 
rants found the aflurance of the gofpel new-birth on this fud- 
den and inflantaneous change wrought on their hearers under 
their fermons, excluftve of a gradual improvement in grace and 
goodnefs afterwards ! But is not this mere flander ? For 
however they may humbly hope, that Sinners, when deeply 
imprefTed, may be fuddenly and effectually wrought upon, 
yet how can it be proved that they reckon them real converts, 
till they fee them bring forth the fruits of the Spirit, in doing 
juftly, loving mercy, and walking humbly with their God ? 
Or if this was not the cafe, does not the author himfelf, if he 
holds baptifmal regeneration, found his comfort on the doc- 
trine of a fudden and inftantaneous change ? And do not the 
greateft part of the poor fouls now in England^ go on fecure 
that they fliall be eternally happy, and yet have no better 
foundation of comfort, and aftlirance of a gofpel new-birth, 
than that which is founded on the do6trine of a fudden and 
inftantaneous change wrought upon thenl in baptifm I 

Is not our Author, my Lords, alfo in this Query, guilty of 
another egregious miftake ! For the foundation of comfort 
which thefe itinerants lay and depend on is, the compleat and 


r -<^3 ] 

all-fujficient righieoufnefs ^/ jESU3,'-and the new birth or chan^^e 
wrought in the heart, is by them looked upon only as an evi- 
dmce that the perfons thus changed, have indeed Q;otten a 
foundation on this rock of ages, and confequently a fare and 
certain hope of a rcfurredion to eternal life. And is not all 
this, my Lords, eafily diftinguiflied from fancy and ima-nna- 
tion ? And does not our Author lead people to a wrono- 
foundation for comfort, by dire(Si:ing them to look for it from 
" a gradual improvement in grace and goodnefs?" For, 
what fays the Apoftle, 1 Cd?r. iii. ii. '^ Other foundation 
can no man lay than that is laid, which is Christ Jesus," — 
" who (as he fpeaks in the firft chapter of the fcime epillle, 
ver. 30.) is made unto us of God, wifdom, figHteoufnefti, 
fan6lification and redemption ?" 

This foundation, as well as this fudden and infL-antaneous 
change, whether wrought in or after baptifm, our Author, it 
is to be feared, is too great a ftranger to : at leaft, he gives 
too great evidence, that he has made but little improvement 
in grace and goodnefs ; for he afks in his i \th ^lery^ page 13, 
*' Whether, the frame of human ndture fairly confidercd, 
the Author of the IVhole Duty of Man ^ did not do better fervice 
to religion, in laying down rules to keep recreations of all 
kinds within the bounds of innocence, than they who now 
cenfure him, and abfolutely deny that recreations of any kind, 
tonfidered as fuch, are or can be innocent r " 

What rules the Author of the Whole Duty of Man may- 
have laid down to keep recreations of all kinds within the 
bounds of innocence, it may be heedlefs here to enquire. Is 
it not fufficient, my Lords, to mention, that the holy fcrip- 
tures (wherein the whole duty of man, and that too in refpecl 
both to faith and practice, is fully and really taught) lay down 
one golden univerfal rule for recreations and every thing elfe, 
that " Whether we eat or drink, or whatfoever we do, we 
muft do all to the glory of God ?" Whatever recreations 
people take to the glory of God, thefe itinerants, my Lords, 
think are quite allowable : but if they are made ufe of mcerly 
for felf-pleafing, and not to GoD*s glory, nor to fit us for his 
fervice, they do affirm, that all fuch recreations neither are nor 
can be innocent. And if the Author of the Whole Duty of Man^ 
or any other Author whatfoever, hath fet any other bounds, or 

L 2 fixed 

t 164 ] 

fixed any other rule, however fairly he may have confidered 
the frame of human nature, is it not evident, that he ha.s not 
faiilv confidered the frame and nature of true chriftianity ? 
For does not that, my Lords, turn our whole lives into one 
continued facrifice to God ? And if v/e fairly confider the 
frame of human nature, how weak and frail it is, and how 
eafily diverted from purfuing our one great end, are not thofe 
the f^reateft friends to religion, who caution people againfl 
leading themfelvcs into temptations, or making ufe of any re- 
creation that may put them out of a fpiritual frame, and unfit 
them for the fervice of God ? Is this going any further than 
the Apoftle did, who fo flricSlly cautions chriftians " not to 
Trieve the Spirit of God, whereby they arc fealed to the day 
of redemption ?" 

Our Author, under this head, has referred to a paflage out 
of one of my Journals, wherein I gave an account of my 
being in fomc polite company at Maryland^ who were difpofed 
10 cards ; and alfo a pallage out of my letter from New- Brunf- 
I'jick, occafioned, if I miftake not, by meeting a man who 
thought it allowable to play at cards in the Cbrijlnias holiday?, 
from the liberty given him by the Author of the Jfhole Duty 
cf Man. And will our Author allow playing at cards to be 
a lawful recreation for a chriftian ? Is this one of the recrea- 
tions of all kinds which may be kept within the bounds of in- 
nocence ? Is it not a kind of cafting lots ? Has it not the 
appearance of evil ? Will he not hear the church ? And what 
fays the 75th canon ? " No ecclefiaftical perfon fhall at any 
time, other than for their honcft neceflities, refort to any ta- 
verns or alehoufes, neither fnall they board or lodge in any 
fuch places. Furthermore, they fliall not give themfelves to 
any bafe or fervile labour, or to drinking or riot, fpending their 
time idly by day or by night, playing. at dice .^ cards, or tables, or 
■any other imlauuful game : but at all times convenient, they fliall 
hear or read fomewhat of the holy fcriptures, or fhall occupy 
themfelves with fome other honcft fludy or exercife, always 
doing the things which fhall appertain to honefty, and endea- 
vouring to profit the church of God, having always in mind 
that they ought to excel all others in purity of life, and fhould 
be examples to the people to live well and chriftianly, under 
pain of CGclifiaftical ccnfures to be inflided with feverity, ac- 


f 1% ] 

cording to the qualities of their offences." An excellent 
canon this ! And may I not argue horn it thus ? Either 
this canon is founded upon the word of God, or it is not : 
if it be not, why is it not abrogated ? if it be, why is it not 
put in pra6lice ? Why do the clergy encourage frequenting 
of taverns, alehoufes, and gaming by their ov/n example ? 
Are not fuch practices in this canon fuppofcd to be quite con- 
trary to the purity of life and excellency of example whicli 
may be juftly required from them? And if fuch things are 
unfeemly in a ckrgymaii^ are they not in a degree equally un- 
feemly in laymen^ whofe privilege as well as duty it is, to be 
*' holy in all manner of converfation and godlinefs," and who 
are univerfally commanded " to fliine as lights in the world 
amidft a crooked and perverfe generation ? '* 

My Lords, might it not reafonably have been hoped, tha^ 
your Lordfhips were too well acquainted with real and inward 
religion, to think that a foul born of God, and made partaker 
of a divine nature, can (loop (o low, and aft fo unlike itfelf, 
as to fcek for recreation in gaming ? Does not the glorious 
and plenteous redemption, that great, inexpreffibly great and 
prefent falvaticn, which the great High-prieft and Apoftle of 
our profeffion has purchafed for us by ihedding his dear heart's 
blood, and whereby v/e are redeemed from this prefent evil 
world, fet us above fuch trifling things as thefe, fuppofing 
they were not direftly fmful ? Are not chriftians " kings 
and priefl:s unto God ?" And is it not as much beneath the 
dignity of their heaven-born fpirits, to ftoop to fo low an 
amufement as gaming of any kind, as ever it was beneath the. 
dignity of the Roman Emperor to fpend his time in the amufe- 
ment of catching flies ? Does not our Author, therefore, my 
Lords, by writing thus, ftrike at the very vitals of religion, 
and prove too plainly that he is a ftranger to the power of the 
dear Redeemer's rcfurreftion ? Need we, therefore, wonder at 
his \7.th ^ucry^ P^S^ '2, wherein he enquires, " V/hcthcr the 
ftrong expreiTions which are found in their printed Journals, 
of extraordinary preferices of GoD, direfting and affifliiug them 
in a more immediate manner, do not need fome teflimonies of 
a divine miflion, to clear them from the charge of enthufiafm?" 
Under this query our Author has alfo mentioned feveral paf- 
Txges of my Journals, extrafted by my Lord of London^ \tx 

h 3 hi* 

[ i66 3 

his lajl: pa floral Idler again ft lukevv^armnefs and enthufi^rm^ 
and has alfo been at great pains to extract many more out qf 
my four laft Journals, which have been printed fmce, and 
which, according to our Author, are more full of enthufiafm, 
if pOiTible, than the three firft ? But does not this Author 
forget, that I anfwered his Lordfl:iip's letter, and proved, that 
his I.ordfliip was miftaken in his definition of enthufiafm ; 
and that, according tp his definition, I was no enthufiajl ? Did 
I not alfo prove, that the propofitions on which his Lordfhip's 
quotations were founded were falfe ? Has his Lordfhip, or 
any one for himj been pleafed to make any reply to that an- 
fwcr ? Not as I have heard of. And .therefore, was it not 
incumbent upon this Author, my Lords, to have difproved or 
invalidated my anfvver to his Lordfhip's letter, before he could 
honourably mention the pafTages referred to therein, to prove 
me an enthufiafi: \ But paiTing by this, with the other many 
tr regular hies which are juftly charged upon this anonymous Au- 
thor^ if he afks '^ whether the ftrong expreiTions which are 
found in ihe'ir printed Journals (I fuppofe he would have faid 
his printed Journals, for I find under this Query no Journals 
referred to but mine) of extraordinary prefences of GoD di- 
're6i:ing and aliifting them in a more immediate rnanner, do 
not need fomc tettimonies of a divine milTion, to clear them from 
the charge of enthufiafm ?" I would afk this Author again, 
" What teftimonies he would have?" Can he bring any 
proof againd the m^attcrs of fact recorded in thcfe Journals ?. 
Or will he venture to affirm, that I did not feel the divine 
prefence in an extraordinary manner, that is, more at one 
time than another ? Or that I have not been dire6led in a 
more immediate manner, at certain times, when waiting upon 
God ? Were not fuch-like queries put by the heathens to 
the primitive chriflians ? And was not their anfwer, Monflrare 
7uqi>eo^ fmtio iantwn ? I would further afk, what this Author 
means by a divine milTion ? Did not my Lord of Gloucejler 
(for I muft again repeat it) give me an apoflolical one, when 
he faid, " Receive thou the Holy Ghoft by the impofition of 
our hands ?" And can it be enthufiafm, or is there any thing 
extraordinary in fitying, that I felt more of the influences of 
this Holy Ghofl:, and was affifted in a more immediate manner 
m my adminiftrations at one time, than another ? Or is it 


[ '^7 ] 

not more extraordinary (only indeed that it has been a good 
while too too common) that the Right Reverend the Bifhops 
(hould take upon them to confer the Holy Ghoft, and the 
Reverend the Clergy profeis they are inv/ardjy moved by it, 
and yet charge every exprefTion they meet with, wherein his 
bleficd influences are fpoken of as felt and experienced, with 
being downright enthufiafm ? But what fhall v/e fay ? " The 
natural man difcerneth not the things of the Spirit : they are 
fooliflinefs unto him, neither can he underlland them : becaufe 
they are fpiritually difcerned." What if fome of the expref- 
fions, my Lords, in the Journals are (trong ? Does that 
prove them enthufiaftical ? Or what if feeling the prefence 
of God, and being dire£led in a more immediate manner, be 
fomething extraordinary to our Author, does it therefore fol- 
low that it is fo to others ? Or is this Author like minded 
with the Right Reverend the Bifhop and the Reverend the 
Clergy of the diocefe of Litchfield and Coventry^ who reckon 
the indwelling, and inward witnefling of, as alfo praying and 
preaching by the Spirit, among the kar'tfmata^ the miraculous 
gifts conferred on the primitive church, and which have long 
fince ceafed ? If fo, no wonder that the expreffions referred 
to are ftrong and extraordinary to him. But, my Lords, may 
I not beg leave to tell this Author, that thefe itinerant 
preachers have not fo learnt Christ ? No, they believe that 
Jesus is the fame yefterday, to-day, and for ever : and that 
he is faithful, who hath faid to his Apoftles, and in them to 
all fucceeding truly chriflian minifters, *' Lo, I am with you 
always, even to the end of the world.'* Confequently they be- 
lieve the Comforter will abide with them for ever, witneflino- 
with their fpirits that they are children of God j leading 
them by a diligent fearch of the holy fcriptures into all truth ; 
guiding them together with the word, the voice of friends and 
Providence, in all circumftances by his counfel ; giving them 
utterance when called to fpeak to the people from God, and 
helping their infirmities, and aflifting them in prayer when 
called to fpcak to God for the people. Liwardly moved by 
this Spirit, and not by any hopes of human grandeur or pre- 
ferment, thefc itinerants, my Lords, firfl took on them the 
adminiflration of the church j and his ble/led influences they 
have from time to time happily experienced, as thoufands 

L 4 v.'hofe 

[ i68 ] 

^hofe eyes have been opened to difcern fpiritrual things, can 
tellify. And being without caufe denied the ufe of their bre*» 
threns pulpits, and having obtained help from God, they con- 
tinue to this day, witnciHng both to finall and great the grand 
docflrines of the Reformation, jujlificatlon by faith alone in the 
imputed righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ, and the neceflity of 
t\\Q ind%vellir]g of the Spirit in order to be made meet to be par?* 
takers of the heavenly inheritance, among all them that are 
i'ancStitied. In doing thus they know of no *' wholefome rules, 
wifely and pioufly eftablifhed by the powers fpiritual and tem- 
poral," ^4ery gib, page 12. which they have violated : or 
ihould they be commanded by the whole bench of BKhops tp 
(peak no more of this docSrine,— they have an anfwer ready, 
" We cannot but fpeak the things that we know." We take 
this to be an ungodly admonition ; and therefore, whether it 
be right in the fight of God, to obey man rather than Gon, 
judge ye." And though for fo doing, they ftiould be mobbed, 
as they frequently have been, and though God be not the 
author of confufion or tumult, as our Author would have it, 
page 12, yet they know of one who was mobbed himfelf upon 
a like account, and commanded Ti?nothy to approve himfelf a 
minifter of God in tumults. Being fenfible of the indolence 
and unorthodoxy of the generality of the clergy, they think 
they are fufficiently warranted by the example of the Prophets 
of the Old, and of Jesus Christ and his Apoftles in the 
Ncw-Teftament, (vi'hatfoever our Author may fay, ^ery %th 
page II.) to bear a faithful teftimony againft them. And 
being called by the Providence of God abroad, after their 
unworthy labours had been bleffed at home, they have judged 
3t meet, right, and their bounden duty, from time to time, to 
pubjifh accounts of what God had done for their own and 
other people's fouls ; which, though defpifed by fome, and 
efteemed enthufiaftical by others, have been owned to the in^ 
ilru6lion and edification of thoufands. But whether this may 
be properly called '* open and public boafting, unbecoming 
the modefty and felf-denial of a minifter of the gofpel, cfpe- 
cially one who would be thought to carry on his miniftry un- 
der the immediate guidance of the blefied Spirit,'' (as our Aur- 
thor intimates in his laft ^ery of this 2d Part) ; or whether 
they were wrUten with a fingle eye to the Redeemer's glory, 


[ 1^9 ] 

they are willing to leave to the determination of that God, to 
whom all hearts are open, all defires are known, and from 
whom no fecrets are hid. I coul.d here enlarge 5 but having 
detained your Lordlhips too long already, I am. 

Your Lordflilps moft obedient fon and fervant, 

George Whitefield, 




Upon a late 

Charge againft Enthusiasm, 

Delivered by 

The Right Reverend Father in Gop, Richard, Lord 
Bilhop of Litchfield and Coventry^ to the Reverend 
the Clergy in the feveral parts of the Diocefs of 
Litchfield and Coventry^ in a Triennial Vifttation of 
the fame in 1741 ; and publiilied at their requefl: in 
the prefent Year 1744. 

|n a L E T T E R to the Rev. the Clergy 
of that Diocefs. 

Matth. xi. 25, 26. At that time Jefus anfwered and fa'ul, I thank 
thee^ O Father^ Lord of Heaven and Earthy hccaufe that thou 
hajl hid ihefe things from the wife and prudent^ and haft revealed 
them unto huhes. Even fo^ Father^ for fo it feemed good in thy 

[ 173 1 
T O 

The Reverend the Clergy 

Of the Diocefs of 

Litchfield and Coventry. 

On Board the JVilm'tngton^ Captain Darlings 
Sept. 20, I744« 

Reverend Breihreriy 

AS you profefs to know the fcriptures, I need not inform 
you, that the charaaer o^ young Elihu fliines in the 32d 
chapter of the book of Job with a fuperior luftre, above that 
of his other three friends who came to converfe with him. 
The humility and modefty wherewith he firft addrefTes him- 
felf to them is peculiarly amiable. " I am young, fays he, 
and ye are very old, wherefore I was afraid, and durft not 
fhew you my opinion. 1 faid. Days fliould fpeak, and mul- 
titude of years fhould teach wifdom." But knowing by ex- 
perience, that " great men are not always wife, neither do 
the aged underftand judgment, he faid, Hearken unto me, 
and I alfo will fhew my opinion.'' And that they might 
not cenfure him for rafhnefs in fpeaking, he affures them, 
verfes ii, and 12. .that he had well weighed the matter be- 
fore he broke filence. " Behold, I waited for your words; 
I gave ear to your reafons, whilft you fearched out what to 
fay. Yea, I attended unto you ; and behold there was none 
of you that convinced Job, or that anfwered his words." And 
that they might not be offended at his plain fpeaking, or ex- 
pea that he would be over-awed from delivering his foul, 
by their fuperiority in age, learning, or circumllances of life, 

C 174 ] 
in the two laft verfes of the chapter, he boldly, but honeftiy 
tells them what they were to expetSt from him. " Let me 
not, I pray you, accept any man's perfon, neither let me 
give flattering titles unto man, for I know not t® give flat- 
tering titles : In fo doing my Maker would foon take me 
away." And it is very remarkable, that though we are told 
this young man's wrath was kindled againft Job and his three 
friends, verfes 2 and 3. and though (as it appears from the 
enfuing chapters) he fpoke very clofe and cutting things, 
yet at the end of the book, we find no blame laid on him 
by the great heart-fearching GoD ; whereas the other three 
are feverely reproved, and commanded to apply to Job for 
the benefit of his prayers. 

Animated by, and willing to copy after fo bright an ex- 
ample, I now fit down to write you this letter ; in which I 
would beg leave to make fome remarks on your Right Reve- 
rend Dioce fan's late charge agairij} enthufiafm. Had I conti- 
nued in my native country, I fhould have taken the freedom 
to have written to his Lordfhip himfelf; but as I heard that 
he was very aged, and probably before this could reach 
England^ might be called to give up his account to the great 
Shepherd and Bifhop of fouls, I thought it moft advifable to 
direft this letter to 'you, at whofe requeft, as appears by the 
title-page, this charge was printed. 

It is not my defign to enter upon a critical examination of 
every paragraph. I would obferve in general, that his Lord- 
fhip's main defign, from the beginning to the end of it, is, 
to prove " that the indwelling and inward witnefiing of the 
Spirit in believers hearts (if there were ever any fuch things 
at allj as alfo praying and preaching by the Spirit, are all the 
extraordinary gifts and operations of the Holy Ghoft, belong- 
ing only to the apoftolical and primitive times, and confe- 
quently all pretenfions to fuch favours in thefe laft days are 
vain and enthufiaftical." In order to evince this, his Lord- 
fhip fele£ls feveral paflliges of holy writ, which, in his opi- 
nion, are mifapplied by thofe whom his Lordfhip is pleafed 
to ftile modern enthufiojls^ and undertakes to fhew, page i ith,- 
*' that they are to be interpreted chiefly, if not only, of the 
flate of the apoftolical and primitive church, and that the^ 
y^X'j little - if at all, relate to the prefent ftate of chriftians." 
2 Whether 

[ 175 ] 

Whether or not his Lordfhip hath fucceeded in his under- 
taking, will beft appear by a candid and impartial review 

The firft attempt of this nature which we meet with in his 
Lordfhip's charge, is page the 12th. His words are thefe : 
** That I may proceed in a regular manner, with regard to 
thofe paflages of fcripture that I (hall rele6t on this occafion, 
I chufe to begin with the original promife of the Spirit, as 
made by our Lord, a little before he left the world. It occurs 
in the 14th and i6th chapters of St. Johns gofpel ; in which 
he ufes thefe words : " When the Spirit of truth is come, 
(whom Christ had juft before promifed to fend from the 
Father, chapter 14th, verfe i6th) he will guide you into all 
truth, and he will (hew you things to come." And again, 
*' the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghoft, whom the Father 
will fend in my name, he fhall teach you all things, and 
bring all things to your remembrance whatfoever I have faid 
unto you." It is very clear (proceeds his Lordfliip) from the 
bare recital of thefe words, that as they were fpoken to 
the apoflles, fo they peculiarly belong to the apoftles them^ 
felves, or to the infpired perfons in the primitive church. 

But granting that thefe words do belong peculiarly to the 
apoftles, does it therefore follow, that they do not at all be- 
long to their fucceftbrs, or in common to all believers upon 
whom the ends of the world are come ? Were not the apoftles 
then reprefentatives of the whole church ? And may not what 
was fpoken to them, in a proper degree be faid to be fpokeri 
to us and to our children, and to as many as the Lord ouc 
God fliall call? Does not his Lordfhip confefs, page 13th, 
*' that in one of thefe pafTages it is added, that the Father 
will give you another comforter, that he may abide with you 
for ever?" And does not his Lordfliip allow, page 14th, 
*' that in the largeft fenfe in which this may be underftooJ, 
it is fynonymous with Christ's promife to his difciples at 
his afcenfion, that he would be with them alwap^ even to 
the end of the world ;" that is, as himfelf explains it, " by 
the perpetual prefence of the Holy Spirit, as the guardian of 
his church 'till the end of the world ?" But how can Christ 
be with his church by the perpetual prefence of his Spirit, or, 
how can the Holy Spirit " be the guardian of his church 'till 


[ 17^ ] 

the end of the world," unlefs it is by opening and bringing 
all things to our remembrance, whatfoever Jesus hath faid 
to us in his revealed will, guiding us thereby into all truth, 
and teaching us all things necefiary to eternal falvation ? 

This promife, it is true, as his Lordfhip obferves, page the 
15th, " was fulfilled in a moft folemn manner by the defcent 
of the Holy Spirit on the Apoflles, and others with them, at 
the feaft of Pentecofl, that is recorded fo particularly in the 
fecond chapter of the ABs of the Apoftles." And it is as true, 
(as his Lordfhip intimates page i6th) " that St. Peter makes 
an application of the prophecy of Joel^ to the miraculous 
cfFulion of the Spirit on that memorable occafion. 

But does not his Lordfhip by intimating, that this promlfe 
of our Lord was wholly compleated on the day of Pentecoft, 
prove too much ? for does it not then follow, that no one 
after the day of Pentecoft was to cxped the Holy Ghoft to 
bring all things to their remembrance, to teach them all 
things, and fhew them things to come ? How then could this 
promife be fulfilled in the apoftle Paul^ who was converted 
fome time after ? or how could this remain in the primitive 
church in the infpired perfons, or abide with the church for 
ever to the end of the world ? And fuppofing the apoftle Peter 
-does make an application of the prophecy of ^oel to the mira- 
culous efFufion of the Spirit on the day of Pentecoft, A^s the 
2d, verfes i6th, 17th, ^c, does it therefore follow, that this 
promife of our Saviour extends no farther than that day? 
Does he any where intimate any fuch thing through his whole 
difcourfe ? Or is it any new thing for prophecies to have 
feveral fulfilments ? Is not that prophecy, '* Out of Egypt 
have I called my fon," which was originally fpoken concern- 
ing GoD^s Ifraely applied by the evangelift Maithevj^ chap. 2di 
verfe I5tb, to the Son of God himfelf ? And therefore grant-^ 
ing that this promife was in an extraordinary degree fulfilled 
in the day of Pentecoft, how does it follow, that it is not 
now, and will be in an ordinary way, fulfilling to the end of 
the world ? And confequently, may not this promife of our 
Lord be pleaded by all his difciples, for the indwelling of his 
blefTed Spirit, and his inward teaching, by the inftrumentality 
of his revealed will, noiv as well as formerly (efpecially fince 
his Lordfhip, page 15th, clears us from prete^iding to the 
I operations 

C ^11 ] 

operations of the miraculous kind) without being. cenfured for 
fo doing as modern enihufiajls. 

But this inward teaching and Indwelling of the Spirit, his 
Lordfliip will by no means allow even the primitive chriltians 
to have had in common, and therefore, page 35th (which I 
come to next, for method's fake) he comments upon another 
remarkable fcripture, that, in his Lordfhip's opinion, ' has 
been mifapplied to later ages, and indeed to the prefent times, 
by feveral enthufiafts, but was really peculiar to the times of 
the apoilles/ It occurs, fays his Lordfhip, page Hid. in the 
lirfl epiftle of St. John^ chap. ii. verfe loth, 27th. " But ye 
have an uncftlon from the Holy One, and ye know all thinc^s. 
But the anointing which ye have received of him, abideth in 
you : but as the fame anointing teacheth you all things, and 
is truth, a:nd is no lie 5 and even as it hath taught you, ve 
fhall abide in him." 

This unSiion from the Holy One, and this ano'vniing^ his 
Lordfliip, in five or fix pages, labours to prove was fome ex- 
traordinary gift refiding in fome particular infpired perfons, 
and not in the believers in general to whom the apoflle wrottj. 
But with what fhadow of argument does his Lordfhip reafon 
thus ? For though it be certain (as his Lordilup mtimates 
page 37th) " that there were feveral fuch infpired teachers 
among the firft chriflians, who were endowed with various 
gifts of the Spirit, and among them v/ith the grft of prayer, 
and preaching, and revelation of the true ienle of the pro- 
phetical parts of the Old Teftament j" yet how does it appear, 
that thefe infpired teachers are the particular pcrfons referred 
to by the Apoftle in this pafTage ? If that was the cafe, would 
not the epiftle i'tfelf more properly have been dircded to them, 
as having the overfight of the flock ? Or is it not probable at 
leaft, that the Apoltle w^ould have had fomething to {^i^ tc* 
them, as well as to the " little children, young men, and 
fathers," vcrfes lith, i3tb, to whom he writes {o particu- 
larly ? And is it not evident from the whole context, that this 
unction from the Holy One was not an extraordinary gift re- 
fiding in any particular infpired perfon, ^ut the indwelling of 
the Spirit, believers in general, whereby they had an experi- 
mental proof, that Jesus was indeed the Christ, and there- 
fore needed not that any man fiiould teach them, that is. 

Vol. IV. M further 


[ J7S ] 

further teach them, for the Apoflle writes unto them as know-* 
ing perCons, vcrfe 12th, ^t. Is not this interpretation quite 
confiilent with the whole icope of the Apoftle in this epiftle, 
which was to comfort himfL-lf, and believers in general, now 
fo many antichrifts were abroad, that (fmce Jesus Christ 
bad declared, Matih. xxiv. 24. that the ele£l could not be 
finally deceived) they having a proof of their e]e6lion by re- 
ceiving this uniSlion from above, this indwelling of the Holy 
Ghoft in their hearts, were now enabled, in a way far fuperior 
to, though net entirely exclufive of human teaching, to guard 
againft the fed ucers of the day ? And confequcntly, may not 
the indwelling of the Spirit be infifted upon now, as the pri- 
vilege of all real chriftians, without their being juttly ftiled 
for fo doing, modern enthufiafts. 

Again, is not his Lordfliip greatly miftaken in his explana- 
tion of the \tl\\ verfe of the 8th of Romans^ ■" The Spirit itfclf 
beareth witnefs with our fpirit, that we are the children of 
God." " l^his pafiage, fays his Lordfliip, page i8th, as it 
*' is connc£i:ed with the preceding one, relates to the general 
" adoption of chriftians, or their becoming the fons of God, 
" inilead of the yews^ who were then rejected by God, and 
" had loft that title. But what was the ground of this prefe- 
'^ rence that was given to chriftians ? It was plainly the gifts 
" of the Spirit, which they had, and which the Jews had not. 
*' That Spirit then, which by its gifts enabled the Apoftles and 
** other chriftians to work miracles of various kinds, was a 
" demonftration, that God was in them of a truth, and that 
*' their religion was owned by him in oppofition to that of the 
*' Jews^ whom he had deferted in a judicial manner." The 
conclufion his Lordfhip draws from thefe premifes, we have 
page the 20th.- " That the fore- mentioned tefiimony of the 
•*' Spirit^ attended with the teftimony of our own fpirit, /. e. 
*' the confcioufnefs of the fincerity and good lives of private 
" chriilians, was the public teftimony of the miraculous gifts 
*' of the Spirit which God had conferred on the Apoftles, and 
" many of the firft chriftians; and which (hewed that they 
*' and their brethren were the true church of God, and not 
'' the Jews. And this was a plain criterion in the firft great 
*' controverfy, namely, to which of thofe two churches men 
*' were obliged to adhere in commvinion. And confequently, 

« this 

r 179 ] 

*' this wltnefs of the Spirit, which (iicws that we chriftlans 
" are the Tons of God, cannot pofTibly be applied to the 
*' mere private teflimony of the Spirit given to our own 
*' cenfcienccs, to prove that we, or private chriflians, arc 
*' the Tons of God and heirs of falvation, as is pretended 
*' by modern enthufiafts." 

Bat does not his Lordfiiip here argue from a miftaken fup- 
pofition, that the Apoftle, in the 8th of the Rowans^ is fpeak- 
ing of the miraculous power our Lord gave to his hrft Apoftlcs 
to work miracles, in confirmation that their do(5i:rine was of 
God ? Is there any fuch thing fo much as hinted at through 
the whole chapter ? Is not the whole fcope of it to fhew the 
privileges of thofe, who " being juftified by faith" alone, 
chap. 5th, " have peace with God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ ?" Does not the Apoftle therefore at the firft verfe 
fay, " That there is no condemnation to them who are in 
Christ Jesus ?" Does he not fay, verfe the 9th, that " the 
Spirit of God dwelt in them ?" Does not his Lordfhip allow, 
page 16, ^t. That the Apoftle in this and the preceding 
verfes treats of that ^^ fpiriiiial principle in chriftians which 
enables them to mortify the deeds of the body, and overcome 
carnal inclinations ?" And what fhadow of a reafon can be 
given to prove that the hmQ fpiriiual principle is not fpoken of 
in verfe i6th, as bearing witnefs with believer's fpirits that 
they were the children of God ? Is it not Hiid, verfe 15th, to 
be fomething that they had received ? " But ye have received 
the fpirit of adoption, whereby ye cry Abba, Father.'* And 
is not the obvious fenfe of thefe verfes put together plainly this, 
*' That true believers, thofe who are chriltians indeed, have 
*' the Spirit of God dwelling in them, verfe gth ; are led by 
*' this Spirit, verfe 14th ; have gotten an inward witnefs from 
'' this fame Spiiit, that they are God's children, and there- 
*' fore need not be brought into bondage, and fear, left God 
*' would rejecSt them, but may have free accefs, and with a 
*' full allurance of faith, and a holy child-like fimplicity, draw 
'* near unto him, crying Abba, Father ?" 

His Lordftiip, to prove that this is not the fenfe of this 
pafTage, but that the tcftimony of the Spirit here fpoken of, is 
a public gift of working miracles, refers, pa?-e 19th, to Gala- 
iians iii, 2. where the Apoftle puts this qutftion to them : 

M 2 " Received 

r iso ] 

<' Received ye the Spirit, (i. e. according to his LorJftiip, the 
*' power of working miracles) by the works of the law, or by 
«' the hearing of faith ?'' which (fays his Lordfiiip) the fame 
Apoftle prefently after explains, when he fays at vcrfe 5th, 
*' He therefore that miniflereth to you the Spirit, and worketh 
*« miracles among you, doth he it by the works of the law, 
*' or by the hearing of faith ?" But is not here a plain anti- 
thefis between adminiftring the Spirit and working miracles ? 
Do they not evidently imply two diftincl: things ? And can it 
be fuppofed, that the Spirit which the Apoftle afks, veffe 2d, 
*' Whether they had received by the works of the law, or the 
hearing of faith," was a power to perform fuch miracles, at 
leaft that only ? Would it not then follow, fince he declares 
in the 8th of the Romans^ " that if any man have not the 
Spirit of Christ he is none of his," that either all believers 
did receive his Spirit in his miraculous gifts, or that no one 
3S a believer that has them not ? And doth not the Apoftle 
in this very epiftle make it appear, that the Spirit here fpoken 
of is not this miraculous outward tcftimony ? For what fays 
he, Gal'iv. 6. " And becaufe ye are fons, God hath fent 
forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts (whereby it is 
plain the Spirit was received into the heart) crying, Abba, 
Father ?" And does not this quite clear up that pafTage of 
Romans, ch. viii. ver. 15. about the witneffing Spirit and the 
Spirit of adoption, Wz. that believers (befides feeing the miracles 
which the Apoftles wrought) had an inward tejiimony oi the 
Holy Ghoft, he making an inward application of the merits 
of Christ to their fouls, and giving them an inward tefti- 
inony that they were indeed the adopted fons of Gcd, and 
therefore in a holy confidence they might cry, Abba, Father? 
Is there any thing forced in this interpretation? And confe- 
quently (notwithftariding what appears to the contrary from 
his Lordftiip's ejfplanation) may not perfons aflert, that there 
5s fuch a thing as a witnefs or teftimony of the Spirit given to 
our own confciences, to prove that private chriftians are the 
Sons of God and heirs of falvation, without being ceiifured 
for fo doing as modern enthufrafts ? 

May I not likewife venture to affirm, that his Lordfiiip is 
equally miftaken in his interpretation of the 26th and 27th 
verfes of the fame chapter, which runs thus : " Likewife the 

*' Spirit 

[ iSi ] 

*« spirit alfo helpeth our infirmities : for vvc know not what 
*' we {hould pray for as we ought, but the Spirit itfclf maketh 
'' interceiHon for us with groanings which cannot be uttered. 
«' And he that fcarcheth the heart, knoweth what is the mind 
*' of the Spirit, becaufe he maketh interceiTion for the faints 
*' according to the will of God :" 

The Spirit here fpoken of, according to his Lordfliip, was 
the Spirit acting in the wfplrcd perfon, who in the apofrolical 
age, fays his Lordfliip, page 24th, " had the gift of prayer, 
'• and interceded for the whole congregation ; fo that what 
'' is here faid of the Spirit, is hy an eafy figure transferred to 
'* the fpiritual or infpired perfon, who prayed in that capacity, 
" for the whole chriftian afTenibly. It is he that maketh in- 
" terceflion with God for private chriflians, with vehement 
and inexprefTible groanings or fighs." But however eafy it 
may be to find out a figure to transfer what is here faid of the 
Spirit, to the fpiritual or infpired perfon, yet how will it be 
eafy to find a figure to interpret this of the fpiritual or infpired 
perfon at all ? For has it not already been fhewn, that this 
whole chapter is no where fpeaking of any fuch fpiritual in- 
fpired perfon, but of the Spirit of God dwelling in all be- 
lievers ? 

HisLordfiiip goes on, page ibid, to comment upon the 27th 
verfe: " And he that fearcheth the hearts, knoweth what is 
the mind of the fpirit, (i. e. of the fpiritual or infpired perfon) 
becaufe he makeih intercefiion for the faints according to 
the will of God." That is, fays his Lordfhip, " God knows 
the intentions of the fpiritual perfon, and judges of the ve- 
hemence of his defires in prayer for the whole aflembly, for 
whom he makes intercefiion, with regard to the immediate 
fubjedl of affliction ; literally indeed, according to God [kata 
Tbeon) or relatively to him, but by conftrucStion, conforma- 
bly to the Will of God j namely, that in a moft f-^rvent man- 
ner, the perfon that has the infpired gift of prayer, v.'hich 
he ufes for the benefit of the whole afiembly, he, I fay, leaves 
it entirely to God, whether it be beft that chriftians fhould 
fuffer afflidlions for the gofpel, or be delivered from them. 
And fuch an intention of his prayer cannot but be highly ac- 
ceptable to God, who fearches his heart, and approves of 
(uch an adl of profound refignation to his will." 

M 3 Thus 

f l82 ] 

Thus far bis Lordfhip. But where is there through the 
whole chapter any mention made of an ajfemhly^ or of any 
fbh kual mfpircd prjon praying In its behalf? Does it not re- 
quire a, very profound underltandlng to fearch it out? Is it 
liot more agreeable to the whole fcope of the apoftle in this 
chapter, to believe, that this fpirit here mentioned as helping 
infirmities, or dit'treiFes, and alTifting in prayer, is the com- 
mon privilege of all believers ? Is he not faid to make inter- 
cefTion for the faints in general ? And does not his Lordfhip, 
page 22d, in effect own this ? For what fays his Lordfhip I 
*' Now on this occafion, he, the apoflle, adds another proof 
of the truth of chriftianity, and that chriflians are the adopted 
jfons of God, and more efpecially with regard to their fulier- 
ings at that time, for the fake of^ their religion, fays he, verfc 
26th. Likewife the Spirit alfo, (or rather even^ kai) helpeth 
out infirmities (or our diftreflefs, for the word JJiheneiais fig- 
nines both.) And then he mentions in what inf^ances he 
does fo, viz. in prayers to God about bearing afflidions, 
or being delivered from them 5 and which of thefe two is moft 
profitable for us, the Spirit knows better than we oufelves, 
and therefore inflru(5ls chriftians how to pray with regard to 
their fuiferings. We know not, fays he, what we fhould 
pray for as we ought; that is, whether it be befl for us to 
bear affiidtlons, or to be delivered from them according to 
our natural inclinations." And after writing thus, how in- 
confiilent is it in his Lordfliip to fay, that this is done by the 
Spirit aci:lng in the infpired perfon only, v;ho made intercef- 
fion for the whole aflembly ? Is not the quite contrary, I 
could almoft fay, felf-evidcnt ? And how then can thofe who, 
from this pallage of the 8th oi i\\Q Roma7u^ humbly claim the 
gift and grace of prayer now, as well as formerly, for fo do- 
ing, be juftly termed modern enthufiafls. 

May we not further enquire, whether his Lordfhlp's inter- 
pretation of the 4th and 5th verfes of the 2d' chapter of the 
iirfl epiftle to the Corinthians be found and confident ? The 
words are thefe, page 27th. " And my fpeech and my preach- 
ing were not with the enticing words of man's wifdom, but 
in demonflration of the Spirit and of pov/er, that your faith 
fhould not fland in the wifdom of men, but in the power of 
God," As to the former part of thefe words, " My fpeech 

■ ' ' ' ■ ' ' an4 

L «83 ] 

and my preaching were not with the enticing words of man's 
wirdom," his LorJfhip feems to agree with the interpretation 
put upon them by thofe whom he is pleafed to term enthufi- 
alls ; but the latter, " The demonflration of the Spirit and 
of power," his Lordfhip, in pages 29th, 30th, 31 ft, and 
32d, would fain fhcw, means no more, than that the Apoftle 
proved Jesus to be the Meiliah by proofs out of the piophe- 
cies of the Old Teftament, and evinced the truth of chriltia- 
nity by performing miracles." 

And fuppofing this may be one fenfe of the words, yet 
if this be the fole meaning of the Apoftle's expreflion, would 
it not have better become fuch a fcholar as Paul was, to have 
faid, *' He came to them in the demonftration of the fcriptures, 
rather than of the Spirit r" Can any parallel pafiagc be pro- 
duced, where the word Spirit is thus put for the fcriptures ? 
And therefore, by the demonftration of the Spirit, may we not 
underftand, that the Spirit of God himfelf, whilit the Apoftle 
was preaching, wrought a demonftrative convi^iion in the 
fouls of his hearers, not only that what he fpake was of God, 
but alio that he v/as alHfted in fpeaking by the Spirit of God ? 
Does not this agree with what he fays, 2d epiftle Cor» iii. 2, 
3. " Ye are our epiftle, written in our hearts, known and 
read of all men : forafmuch as yc arc manifcftly declared to be 
the epiftle of Christ miniftered by us, written not with ink, 
but with the Spirit of the living God, not in tables of ftone, 
but in fleflily tables of the heart." And though it fliould be 
allowed that the word Dunamis (as his Lordiliip obferves, 
page 30th) " in its ordinary fenfe in the New Teftament, 
muft fignify the power exerted in miraculous operations :'* 
yet how is it foreign to the Apoftle's purpofe to interpret it 
alfo of a divine power or energy, which ordinailly attended 
the word preached by him j I mean fuch a power as accom- 
panied the word when the Lord opened the heart of Lydia^ 
and when fo many were pricked to the heart, and made to cry 
out, '' Men and brethren, what fhall we do to be favcd r'* 
Does not the word Dujiawis feem to carry this fenfe with it, 
2 Cor, iv. 7. ? " But we have this treafure in earthen vcflels, 
that the excellency of the power [Duitameos) may be of God, 
and not of men." And is not Apollos faid to be [Dimatos eiir 
^raphais) mighty, or powerful, in the fcriptures, tliough ws 

hi 4 dQ. 

[ i84 ] 

do not hear that he perfoi med any miracles at all ? And though 
his Lordfhip is pleafed to fay, page ibid. " For by this power 
of God here fpoken of, that it is a power to work miracles 
appears exprefly, from the immediately following verfe, in 
which Is liffigned the reafon for ufing this method of proving 
cbridianity to be true, '^ that your faith fiiould not ftand in 
the wifdom of men, but in the power of God :" yet v/ill it 
not equiilly hold good, that their faith flood not in the wif- 
dom of men, but in the power ofXjOP ? If by the power we 
underftand a divine power attending the word preached in 
convincing the confcience, and changing the hearts of men, 
exclufive or befides a power of working miracles. 

His Lordfiiip in the fame page proceeds thus. '' By the 
power of God therefore muft necefiarily be underflood the 
miraculous operations performed by Jesus Christ and his 
Apoilles, as a divine teftimony of their authority." He goes 
on in the 7th, loth, and following verfcs, to explain this 
f' demonftration of the Spirit and of power j" and tells us^ 
^' That this wifdom of God is a myftery, or wifdom formerly 
hidden from the world, which was couched in the types and 
prophecies of the Mefliah in the Old Teftament, under the 
title of the Laiv of Mofes^ the Pfalms^ and all the prophets that 
were actually fulfilled in Jesus Christ. For, fays he, ' the ' 
Spirit fearcheth all things, even the deep things of God. Now? 
we have not received the fpirit of the world, (viz. of oratory 
and philofophy) but the fpirit which is of God, that we might 
know the things that are freely given to us of God.* l^hat 
is, that we might learn of the Spirit the true meaning of thofe 
writings which he di6lated himfclf, and which none but the 
Spirit of God could know, fmce the gofpel is the contrivance 
of God alone for man's falvation ; and the benefits of it are , 
freely and of his mere grace conferred upon us." 

But in all thefe palfages, where is there a fhadow of a 
proof, that by the word power^ the Apoflle meant only that 
he worked miracles among them ? Is there any fuch thing fo 
much as hinted at in thofe verfcs ? Or what greater reaf(.n is 
there to infer from hence, that the demonftration of the Spi- 
rit means no more than proving Christ to be the MciEah, 
from the books of the Old Teftament ? 

7 .His 

[ iS5 ] 

His Lordflilp goes on, page 31ft, to comment upon the 
13th verfe of the ift Cor. 2d. thus : " The apoftle adds, 
< Which things alfo we fpeak not in the words which man's 
wifdom teacheth, (viz. as before by oratory and philofophy) 
but which the Holy Ghoft teacheth ; comparing fpiritual 
things with fpiritual.' From which laft pafTage it appears that 
the words which the Holy Ghoft is faid to teach, muft be 
prophetical revelations made of Jesus Christ in the Old Te- 
ftament, which were clearly discovered to the Apoftles, and 
explained by them to the world by the fame Holy Spirit, that 
perfectly knew thofc deep or myfterious things of God in the 
holy fcriptures, which related to and were fulfilled in Jesus 
Christ ; and whofe expofitions of his dodlrine were au- 
thorized by the miracles they wrought in confirmation 
of it." 

But fuppofing this be in part true, have not the words a 
further meaning ? And by " Words which the Holy Ghoft 
teacheth," may we not underftand, words which the Holy 
Ghoft did immediately put into this and other Apoftles 
minds whilft they were preachiiig, fpeaking, or writing ? 
Was there not fuch aftiftance promifed to the Apoftles ? Did 
they not fpeak as the Spirit gave them utterance ? And fince 
Jesus Christ has promifed in an efpecial manner to be with 
his minifters, even to the end of the world, may they not 
humbly claim the divine influence to afiift them in a degree 
in preaching now, as well as formerly, by bringing to their re- 
membrance the words and things he had taught them in the 
holy fcriptures before, and fo opening a door of utterance to 
them, without being, for fo doing, juftly ftiled modern enthu- 

His Lordfhip, in order to give a fan6lion to thefe his feve- 
ral interpretations, quotes ChryfoJlo?n^ Origen, and Jthanafius : 
but does his Lordftiip deal candidly or fimply in this matter ? 
For though they may in fomc refpeits agree with his Lord- 
fhip's literal interpretation, do they not give a fpiritual one 
alfo ? Does not his Lordfhip himfelf, page 42d, citing the 
authority of Jthana/ius, ih2.t great light of the chriftian church, 
in effecSl confefs this ? Does he not fay, that he interprets the 
nn^ion of the Holy One not merely of divine grace ? But does it 


[ iS6 ] 

therefore follow that he did not interpret It at all of divine 
grace ? Nay, does it not follow, that he did interpret it of 
the divine grace of the Spirit of God dwellino- in all 
believers, as well at leait as of the miraculous gifts of the Spi- 
rit ? Does not Ignatius^ one of the moil early writers, ftile 
himfelf Theophoros^ and the people to whom he writes Theopho- 
rci? And can it he fuppofed, that Origen in particular, (who 
his Lordlliip profefTes again and again, in his treatifes ao-ainiT: 
JVoolj^on^ to be fuch a fpiritual interpreter of fcripture,) has 
in thefe paflages fo tenacioully cleaved to the literal interpre- 
tation, as utlerly to deny the indwelling and inward witnefs 
of the Spirit ? Is not this entirely oppofite to the whole tenor 
of his writings, as well as the writings of the moft ancient 
fathers ? And has not his Lordfhip, out of his great zeal 
againft enthufiafm, by writing thus, unwarily run into an ex- 
treme ? And as he juftly charged the infamous JVoolJlon with 
fticlcing too clofe to the fpirit, and not minding the letter, 
has he not in this performance fo clofely adhered to the letter, 
and fo fadly negle6ted the fpirit, as almoft totally (if his in- 
terpretations be true) to exclude the Holy Ghoft in his ope- 
rations, fmce the primitive times, out of the chriftian 
world I 

Is not this matter of fa£l ? Arc not thefe words of truth and 
fobernefs ? Be not angry therefore, but bear with me a little, 
if like Elihu^ " I fpeak that I may refrefh myfelf. For be- 
hold my belly is as wine which hath no vent, it is ready to' 
burft like new bottles." Let his Lordfliip write what he pleafes 
to the contrary, " there is a Spirit in man, and a holy Spi- 
rit in believers, .and an ordinary infpiration of the Almighty, 
which nov/, as well as formerly, giveth them fpiritual under- 
ftanding." But fuppofing it was not fo, and all his Lord- 
Ihip's gloffes upon the forementioned paffages, were as right as 
in my opinion they are wrong, could you. Reverend Brethren, 
(I appeal to your confciences) in your own hearts even wifli that 
they were fo ? If you fhould anfwer. Yes, (as your requeuing 
his Lordfhip to print this charge, gives me too great reafon 
to think you would,) " Tell in it not Gath^ publifh it 
not in the ftreets of Ajcahn^ left the daughters of the Phil'if- 
//«^; rejoice, left the daughters of the uncircumcifed triumph/' 


[ i87 ] 

For if this be the c^e, in what a poor benighted condition 
has the Lord Jesus left his church in thcfe laft days ? And 
what avails it to have his do<5lrincs and divine milTion evinced 
formerly by gifts and miracles, if we are deprived of the in- 
ward teachings and indwelling of the Holy Spirit? It is true, 
his Lordfhip does talk here and there of the Blefled Spirit, ar,d 
of his ordinary influences : but what are his ordinary o,.era- 
tions, if he is neither to dwell in us, nor to give us an inward 
teftimony in our hearts, that we are born of God ? What 
fio;nifies talking of his affiftances, and at the fame time declare, 
that they can neither be inwardly felt, or perceived, nor be- 
lievers hefuPernaturaily afiured thereby of their falvation ? Or 
if we are to expe6l no operations of the Spirit that are fuper- 
natural, as his Lordfliip again and again intimates, what arc 
the natural operations that we are to look for ? Or can there 
polTibly be any operation of the Holy Spirit which is not fu- 
pernatural ? What can deifts and the whole tribe of unbe- 
lievers wifa for more than-tuch do£lrine ? Does nbt his Lord- 
fhip, by writing thus, greatly hurt the ciiufe he would defend ; 
and out of a zeal to prove chriftianity no cnthufiafm, unwit- 
tingly run into that fault which he would throw upon thefe 
againft whom his charge is levelled, page ad ; I mean, " does 
*' he not ?.€t in concert with infidelity againft our eftablifhed 
*' religion, our great common falvation r" How muft the 
church of ^5;?2t? alfo glory in fuch a charge ? Is it not after 
their ov/n heart? Is not the denying the Vv^itnefs of the Spi- 
rit in believers hearts, one of the main pillars of Popery F Are 
not papilb kept in fiavery, and taught to trud to the abfolii- 
tion of their prieft ; becaufe it was one of the determinations 
of the council of Trent, that none can here below attain from 
the Spirit a certainty of their being finally faved ? His Lord- 
fliip has done well in fignalizing himfelf by writing againd 
the papifts and infidels. But what will it avail, or how can 
.his Lordfliip flatter himfelf that the efiorts of the latter, page 
2d, '■^ have been fuTjicieutly cppofed :'' fmce by writing againft 
the witnefs of the spirit, he fo nearly fymbolizes with the one, 
and by crying down all fupernatural operations of the Holy 
Ghoft, joins hands with the other? Befides, '' If there are 
'.'• no proofs of the truth of our religion by the inward tefli- 

*;^ vcj^vi^j of the Spirit, as his Lordfiiip af?.rms', pa^e 52d. or 

4C ^>yeii 

C i88 ] 

*^ even by the infallible application of the feveral marks of 
*' truth in it by the Floly Spirit, to the minds of men, and 
*' his making fo ftrong and violent an impreflion on them, as 
*' to form {horrefco referem) a new unintelligible fort of divine 
*' faith, page 53." how fhall we diftinguifh true and divine 
faith, from that which is falfe and barely hiftorical ? Are not 
the devils capable of fuch a faith ? Nay, have they not as 
real faith as chriftians themfelves, if there be no other faith 
but what is wrought by external revelation and outward mi- 
racles ? Do they not thus believe and tremble ? And can it 
be fuppofed, that all the miracles that the Apoftles wrought, 
and the glorious fermons that they were enabled to preach, 
were only to fnew people what communion they were to be 
of? Is not this bringing the gofpel down to a mere hiftory, 
which one may read of the exploits of an Alexander ; and 
making faith to be a bare afient of the underftanding, which 
a perfon may have, and yet be no more benefited by the death 
of Christ, than ^imon Magus was in believing that he was 
crucified ? 

But further; fuppofing his Lordftiip had (hewn, that every 
one of thofe palfages he has commented upon, had been mif- 
applied by modern enthufiafts ; yet are there not befides a 
great cloud of wltnefies to be fetched from the lively oracles, 
to prove that the vidweUing^ and inward whncfs of the Spirit, 
are tlie privileges of all believers ? Will you permit me to in- 
ftance only in a few ? What think you of that paflage in Si, 
Johns gofpel, chap. vii. 37, 38, 39. " In the laft day, that 
great day of the feaft, Jesus ftood up and cried, faying. If 
any man thiril, let him come unto me and drink. He that 
believeth on me, as the fcripture hath fpoken, out of his 
belly fliall flow rivers of living waters. But this fpake he of 
the Spirit, v/hich they that believe on him ihould receive ?" 
How, I pray you, are we to underftand that petition of our 
Lord for his difciples, juft before his paffion, in the fame 
evangelift, chap. xvii. 20, 21. " Neither pray I for thefe 
alone, but for them alfo which (hall believe on me through 
their Vv^ord : that they all may be one, as thou. Father, art in 
me, and I in»thee; that they alfo may be one:" And again, 
yerfes 22, 23. *' That they all may be one, even as we are 
one, I in them, and thou in me, ihat they may be made per- 


[ iSp ] 

fe£l in one ?" How vwuld you explain that quefllon of the 
Apoftle's.to the Corinthians, (a church famous for its gifts 
above any church under heaven) " Know ye not that Christ 
is in you, unlefs you be reprobates ?" How do you explain 
that aflertion of the evangelift Johriy in his ift epift. v. lo. 
*' He that believeth hath the vvitnefs in himfelf?" Or that 
of the Apoftle Pdul to the Ephefians, chap. i. 13, 19. And 
again, chap. iv. 30 ? How do you interpret that paflage, 2 
C^r. xvi. 16? Or what fay you to that exhortation of St. 
yucley verfe 20. " But ye, beloved, building up yourfelves in 
your moft holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghoft, keep your- 
felves in the love of God ?" Can any of thefe paflages, with 
any manner of confiftency, be interpreted of the miraculous 
gifts of the Holy Ghoft, or be confined to the primitive 
church ? Do they not fpeak of an indv/elling v/itneffing fpi- 
rit, which all believers in all ages have a right to expert, till 
time (hall be no more .? 

And now, my Reverend Brethren, if thefe things be (o^ 
may not that queftion beveryjuftly put to you, which our 
Lord on a like occafion afked Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jevjs : 
*' Are ye mafters o^ JfraelF Are ye minifters of the Church 
*' of England^ and know not thefe things ?" What has his 
Lordfhip been doing fo many years, in profelling to confer 
the Holy Ghoft by impofition of hands on fo many mini- 
fters, faying unto them, " JReceive the Holy Ghoft by impo- 
fition of our hands," if there are none of thofe afliftances 
from the Blefted Spirit to be expeded now, which were con- 
ferred when our Saviour firft fpoke thefe words to his difciples ? 
How can his Lordftiip in confcience make ufe of the ordina- 
tion office ? Or how could you, before many witnefles, pub- 
licly confefs that you were inwardly moved by the Holy 
Ghoft to take upon you the adminiftration of the church ? 
when you openly deny him in his moft powerful, and as to 
believers, in his common operations. Should you not trem- 
ble to think, how much this looks like belying the Holy 
Ghoft, and adling the dreadful crime o'i Ananias and Sapphira 
over again, or lying not only unto man, but unto God ? 
And why are you fo zealous for the church, and continually 
crying out, " The' temple of the Lord, the temple of the 


[ I90 ] 

LoRd," and yet trample her offices, collects arid articles In 
cfFe(5l under your feet ? With what confiflency can you ufe 
the baptifmal office, and rolemny fay unto God, " We yield 
thee hearty thanks, moft merciful Father, that it hath pleafed 
'' thee to regenerate this infant with thy Holy Spirit j" and 
yet agree with his Lordfhip, page 6i, in aflerting, " to that 
*' fedral rite of baptifm is annexed the preventing or prepa- 
^' ratory grace of God, as is likewife (on a due improvement) 
that of the affifting kind ?" Is this all that is implied in the 
baptifmal office ? And is regeneration no more than this ? What 
a miferable condition then are thofe in, who have only their 
baptifmal regeneration to depend on ? For who is there that 
has improved, nay v/ho is there that has not fumed away this 
preparatory grace ? Is not this direclly contrary to the whole 
baptifmal office ? And are not thofe to be reckoned friends 
to mankind, who bid them look for a better regeneration 
than this amounts to ? Again, with what propriety can his 
Lordfhip, in the office of confirmation, pray unto God to 
give the perfons to be confirmed " the Spirit of vi'ifdom and 
" undeftanding, the Spirit of counfel and ghoftly ftrength ?" 
Or how can minifters in general, in the colle6l for TVhit-fun^ 
day^ fay, " Grant us by the fame Spirit to have a right judg- 
*' ment in all things, and evermore to rejoice in his holy com- 
*' forts V Why are the paiTages, wherein thefe bleffings are 
promifed to the firft Apoftles, appointed to be read at this 
feftival, if we are not in our degree to expe6l the fame mer- 
cies ? And if thefe things are not to be inwardly felt ^ and we 
are not to be fupernaturally adlired of our falvation, wherefore 
do you make ufe of thofe words in the vifitation of the fick ? 
*' The Almighty Lord, who is a mofl ftrong tower to all 
*' them that put their truft in him, to whom all things 
*' in heaven, in earth, and under the earth, do bow and obey, 
" be now and evermore thy defence, and make thee know 
*' andy^f/, that there is none other name under heaven given 
" to man, in v/hom and through whom thou mayeft receive 
" health and falvation, but only the name of our Lord Jesus 
Christ :" Or with what propriety can you fubfcribe to the 
17th article, wherein we are told, " That the godly conli- 
** deration of predcftination, and our election in Christ, is 

o " full 

[• '91 ] 

*' full of fweet, pleafant, and unfpcakable comfort to godly 
*' perfons, and fuch 2.s feel in themfelves the v/orking oi the 
*' Spirit of Christ ?'* And if there be no fuch thino- as in- 
fpiration at all, how can you, confident with jonv princi- 
ples, uic the church coUedt before the communion office, and 
pray *' Almighty God to cleanfe the thoughts of our hearts 
*' by the itifpiration of his Holy Spirit ?" Or how can you 
agree with the 13th article, which affirms, '' That works 
*' done before the grace of Christ, and the infpiration of the 
" Spirit, are not pleafant to God ?'* Are not all thefe things 
againft you ? Do they not all concur to prove, that you are 
the betrayers of that church which you would pretend to de- 
fend ? Alas, what ftrangers muft you be to a life hid with 
Christ in God, and the blefTed fruits of the Spirit, fuch as 
love, joy, peace, long-fuffering, gentlenefs, goodnefs, faith, 
meeknefs, temperance ; when you know of no other firft- fruits 
of the Spirit, than the miraculous gifts of the Holy Ghoft con- 
ferred on Tome particular perfons in the primitive church, 
which a man might have, fo as to prophefy and caft out devils 
in the name of Christ, and yet be commanded to depart 
from him in the laft day ? How miferable muft the" congre- 
gations be, of which you are made overfeers ? And how little 
of the divine prefence muft you have felt in your adminiftra- 
tions, that utterly deny the fpirit of prayer, and the Spirit's 
helping you to preach with power, and confider them as things 
that have long fince ceafed ? Is not this the reafon why 
you preach as did the fcribes, and not with any divine pathos 
and authority, and fee fo little good effect of your fcrmons ? 
Have not your principles a direcl' tendency to lull poor fouls 
afleep ? For if they are not to look for the fupernatural ope- 
rations of the Spirit of God, or any inv/ard feeling or per- 
ceptions of this Spirit, may not all that are baptized, and not 
notorioufly wicked, flatter themfelves that they are chriftians 
indeed ? But is not this the very quintelTence of Pharifaifm ? 
Is not this the dark, benighted ftate the great Apoftle 
of the Gentiles confefTes he was in, before he was expe- 
rimentally acquainted v/ith Christ, or knew or felt the 
power of his refurre6lion ? Is not this a prophefying falfely, 
to fay unto people, " Peace, peace," when there is no true 


[ 192 ] 

folid fcrlptural ground for peace ? And are not you then pro^ 
perJy the perfons his Lordfhip fpeaks of, page ift, as '' be- 
*' traying whole multitudes into an unreafonable prefumption 
*' of their falvation ?" For is it not the higheft prefumptionj 
for any to Wope to be faved without the indwelling of the 
Spirit, fmce the Apoftle declares, in the moft awful manner, 
** If any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of 
his ?" Is it not high time for fomebody to rouze the fleepy 
world out of this ftate, though it fhould coft them fome me- 
lancholy thoughts ? May they not juftly defpond and defpair 
too of being faved in fuch a condition ? For how can tney 
poiTibly be good chrlftians, or indeed chriftians at all, unlcfs 
they fome time or other feel the Spirit of God in their hearts ? 
Or how can any juftly be fliled enthufiaftical pretenders to 
immediate infpiration and new revelation, page 3d, who only 
claim what is promifed in the will of God already revealed, 
and exhort all to add diligence to make their calling and elec- 
tion fure ? And why fhould that great man of God, Dr. 
Oweuy be fo particularly mentioned by his Lordfhip, page 
15th'? Has there a more folid critical learned divine appeared 
for many ages in the chriflian world ? Being dead, doth he 
not yet fpeak P Do not his works praife him ? Or fuppofing 
he was an enthufiaft, as his Lordihip calls him, hoyv can he 
be a modern one ? Has he not been dead now above fifty 
years ? And why is he mentioned with an b'^. ? Would 
his Lordfhip have us underftand Dr. Goodwin^ Mr. Baxter^ 
and writers of the Puritan ftamp ? But in reproaching themj 
does not his Lordfiiip equally brand Archbilhop Ufher^ Bifhop' 
Hall^ Bifhcp Davenant^ Bifhop Hopkins^ and others, nay alt 
the godly reformers and martyrs, and the compilers of our 
articles, homilies, and liturgy alfo? Were they not equally 
enthufiaftical with thofe, which his Lordfhip in this charge 
would condemn ; and may I not therefore fay, if they were 
enthufiafts, would to God you were not only almoft, but 
altogether fuch as thuy were ? Has not his Lordfhip unde- 
fignedly put an honour upon the Methodijis^ by joining them" 
in fuch company ? Might not his Lordfhip eafily forefee,- 
that fuch a procedure as this, would rather increafe than di- 
minifh the progrefs of MethodiTm, which his Lordfhip feems 


... t ^9^ J 

to have unwittingly prophefied of three years ago, when thb 
charge was firft delivered ? See margin of p. 60. For what 
in an human way can have a more natural tendency to 
ftrengthen the Methodifts hands, than their having a public: 
occafion to fhew, that they preach up the great dodrines of 
the reformation, and are thruft out of the fynagogues for no 
other reafon, than becaufe they preach articles of faith, to 
which they have fubfcribed, as the expreflion is in the literal 
and grammatical fenfe ? 

O my reverend brethren, my" heart is in pain for you : In- 
deed I could weep over you. Surely you are not all of his 
Lordfhip's mind. And yet the title-page of this Charge feems 
at leaft to imply, that it was printed at the requefl of the ge-» 
nerality of you. O be not angry if I entreat you, if there be 
any confolation in Christ, or fellowfliip of the Spirit, to 
think of thefe things, and lay them to heart. Remember, I 
befeech you, remember the good confeflion you made before 
many witnefles, when you profeffed that you were inwardly 
moved by the Holy Ghoft to take upon you the adminiftration 
of the church. And confider with yourfelves, what a horrid 
prevarication It muft be in the fight of God and man, to fub-j 
fcribe to articles in the literal and grammatical fenfe, v/hich 
you do not believe? Reflecl on what is fpoken by the Pro-r 
phet, '' They have run, and I have not fent them, therefore 
(hall they not profit this people at all." Think what a dread- 
ful thing it is to preach an unknown, an unfelt Christ j and 
how awful it will be to have the blood of thoufands required 
at your hands at the great day ? As you have received an 
apoflolical commiflion, labour after an apoftolical fpirit. And 
do not fet yourfelves to oppofe or run down his blelTed opera- 
tions in others, becaufe you do not feel them in yourfelves. 
Beware of thus doing defpite to the Spirit of grace : and be 
not like the Pharifees, who '' neither entered into the king- 
dom of God themfelves, and thofe that were entering in they 
hindered." Seek you after a rightcoufnefs which exceeds 
theirs. Call to mind, I befeech you, that ye are the lights of 
the world. If therefore that light which is in you be darknefs, 
how great muft that darknefs be ? " Ye are the fait of the 
earth ; but if the fait hath loft its favour, wherewith ftiall it 
be faked ? It is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be caft 

Vol. IV. N ^ out 


t 194 ] 

out and to be trodden under foot of men. God feems novV 
about to rife to fhake terribly the earth. We hear of wars 
and rumours of wars. O let your loins be girt, your lamps 
trimmed, and be ye like unto fervants that are waiting for the 
brideo-room : that if he fhould come at the fecond or third 
watch, he may find you fo doing. Smite not your fellow-fer- 
vants ; but rather take ye GamoUcFs advice : " Refrain from 
thefe men, and let them alone. For if this counfel or work 
be of men, it will come to nought ; but if it be of God, ye 
cannot overthrow it,left haply ye be found to fight againflGoD." 
The harveft is great, very great, and fouls are every where 
perifhing for lack of knowledge. Why fhould the labourers 
be fo few ? Think of that awful faying of the angel of the 
Lord, " Curfe ye Meroz^ curfe ye bitterly the inhabitants 
thereof, becaufe they came not to the help of the Lord, to 
the help of the Lord againft the mighty." Shew that you 
love Christ above all things, by feeding his lambs and his 
fheep ; by being inftant in feafon and out of feafon. That fo 
when the great Shepherd and Bifhop of fouls fhall appear, you 
may give up your accounts with joy, and not with grief. 

Suffer me alfo (as undoubtedly you requefled his Lordfhip 
to publifh this charge for their inftruilion) to give a word of 
exhortation to your Parljhi oners. You fee, Sirs, that I have 
ufed great plainnefs of fpeech in my remarks upon this charge 
of your Right Reverend Diocefan. Do not without examina- 
tion contradict and blafpheme, but be noble, as the Bereans 
were, and " fearch the fcriptures whether thefe things be fo 
or not : to the law, and to the teftimony." Let that deter- 
mine who are the feducers, who are the enthufiafts, and the 
enemies to the Church ; thofe who preach up the do6f;rine of 
juftification by faith alone in the imputed righteoufnefs of 
Jesus Christ, and the indwelling and witnefling of the 
Spirit ; or thofe who tell you, that they were the miraculous 
gifts of the Holy Ghofl, and not to be expe6led in thefe laft 
days. Say not within yourfelves, " We have Jesus for our 
faviour, we have been born again in baptifm, we are mem- 
bers of the Church of England,, we do nobody any harm, we 
will do what we can, and Jesus Christ will do the reft ;" 
but feck ye after a better righteoufnefs than your own, even 
that " righteoufnefs which is by faith -" and earneflly prefs 
% after 

t 195 ] 

after that indwelling of the Spirit, and that true inward holi- 
nefs and purity of heart, without which no man living fliall fee 
the Lord. Get acquainted with the collecls, homilies, articles 
and old writers of that Church v^^hereof you profefs yourfelvC3 
members, and let not ignorance be the mother of your devo- 
tion. Remember that " God is a fpirit, and they that wor- 
fhip him muft worfhip him in fpirit and in truth.'* See that 
your zeal be according to knowledge: and count not thofe to 
be troublers of Jjracl^ nor like the mifguided Jl-ws, irritated 
thereto by the high priefts, raife mobs againft them, as turners 
of the world upfide down, who out of love to your fouls, have 
put their lives in God's hands, and fliew unto you the true 
way of eternal falvation. Place not holinefs in outward build- 
ings, nor reject the gofpel becaufe preached to you in the 
£elds, in the ftreets and^ lanes of the city. See, hear, and 
judge for yourfelves, and beware left that come upon you 
which is fpoken by a Prophet : " Behold, ye defpifers, and 
wonder and perifh : for I work a work in your days, which a 
man fhall not believe, though one declare it unto him." 

As for thofe among you, who in derifion are termed Metho- 
dijis^ be you thankful to that God, v/ho I truft has made you 
wife unto everlafling falvation, and given you not only to be- 
lieve on the Lord Jesus, but alfo to fufFer for his name. You 
have lately been enabled joyfully to bear the fpoiling of your 
goods *. Think it not ftrange, if you (hould hereafter be 
called to refift unto blood. Fear not the faces of men, 
neither be afraid of their revilings. Having believed on the 
Lord Jesus, with your hearts, in fpite of all oppofition from 
men and devils, make confeffion of him with your mouths 
unto eternal falvation. Contend earncftJy for the faith once 
delivered to the faints, and fealed by the blood of your mar- 
tyrs : at the fame time, '' be ready to give a rcafon of the 
hope that is in you with meekncfs and fear." Jf you were of 
the world, the world would love its own ; but becaufe you 
are not of the world, but the Lord Jesus hath chofen and 
redeemed you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. 
Follow him therefore chearfully without the camp, bearing 

* N. B. The Methodifts in Stafford/hire were mobbed the Shrove^ 
Tuefday before, and plundered of their fubftance to the amount of ks^n 
hundred pounds fterling. 

N 2 his 

E 196 ] 

his reproach. The more you are afHicled, ttie more you (hall 
multiply and grow. For verily no man hath loii: houfes or 
lands for Christ's fake, and the gofpcl, who ihall not receive 
a hundred-fold in thii life with periecutioii, and in the world 
to come life everlasting. Perfecution is your privilege : it is a 
badge of your difcipleihip : it is every chriftians lot in fome 
dep-ree or other. Only be ye careful to give no juft ofFence, 
either to ^eiv or Gentile^ or the church of God. And as you 
profefs to have received the Holy Gholt in his fandifying 
gifts and graces, and to have the Spirit of God dwelling in 
you, be ye ftudious to bririg forth the fruits of the Spirit in 
your lives ; that all who are acquainted with you may take 
knowled^^e that you have been v/ith Jesus. Call no man 
niaftcr but Christ. Follow others only as they are follov.'ers 
of him. Be fond of no name but that of Christian. Be- 
ware of making parties, or calling down fire from heaven to 
confume your adverfaries. " Blefs them that curfe you, and 
pray for them that defpitefully ufe you." Labour to diine in 
common life, by a due confcientious difcharge of all reiiltve?; 
duties, and ftudy to adorn the gofpel of our Lord in all 
things. Y'i you are good chriftiar.s, you will fear God, and 
for his fake honour the Lling. Be thankful for the many 
blellings you enjoy under the government of his prefent Ma- 
3«e{l:y King George^ and continue to pray to Him, by whom 
kings reign, and princes decree jufticc, to keep a pop'ijh Pre- 
tender from, ever fitting on the Englijh throne. Be cloathed 
with humility : and always count yourfelvcs beginners in re- 
li'^ion. Let it be vour meat and drink to do and fuffer the 
v/ill of your Mailer, and forgetting the things which are be- 
hind, reach forward to the things which are before, and never 
ceafe ftriving, till you are filled with all the fulnefs of God, 
Determine to know nothing but Jesus, and him crucified. 
Remember his agony and bloody fwear, his fliameful crofs 
and paflion. Chearfully pledge him in his bitter cup, and as 
he was, fo be ye in this v^orld. Think of his laft and new 
comm.andment, and " love one another v.'ith a pure heart 
fervently i" looking and preparing for that blellld hour, when 
he fl:iall come and call you to fit down with him at the mar- 
riage-fcafl in the realms of light and love, v/here the wicked 


[ ^91 J 

(li;ill ceafe from trvoubling, and where your weary fouls fiiall 
be at refh 

Finally, I would drop a word to you, who have been lately 
called out into the highways and hedges, and have been ho- 
noured as inuiuments to compel many poor finncrs to com.e 
in. Againft you, my brethren, his Lordlhrp's charge feems to 
be particularly ]:vJ!ed. But I am perfuadetl you will be no- 
thing terrified thereby, fince you know, I believe, by happy 
experience, what it is to have the hidden myfterles of the 
kingdom of God opened to your foul?, and to have the Com- 
forter come and abide with you. You have often felt his 
bleiled influences, wh.lft you have been praying to that God 
whom you ferve, dealing out the bread of life m his name to 
the people. Ye are highly favoured. Having believed, yc 
fpeak, and in your degree can fay with our Saviour, " We 
fpeak the thing-; that we knov/." God, who hath commanded 
tj^|Leht to fnine out of darknefs, hath fhone into your hearts 
wWfhe light of the glorious gofpel. Put not therefore this 
light under a bufhcl, but preach the word ; " Be ye inftant in 
feafon and out of feafon ; rebuke, reprove, exhort with all 
long-fufFering and do^rine. Do the office of evangelifts, and 
make full proof of your miniftry." And whilft others are 
calling for miracles from you, to prove that you are fealcd 
and fent by the Spirit, do you labour after the converfion of 
precious fouls as feals of your miffion, who {liall be your joy 
and crown of rejoicing in the day of the Lord Jesus. 
Whilft others arc approving themfelves minifters of Christ, ' 
by dignities and great preferments, do you approve yourfelves 
as the minifters of God in much patience^ kc. See 2 Cor. vi. 
4 — 8. Set the glorious company of the Apoftles, the goodly 
fellowfhip of the Prophets, and the noble army of martyrs al- 
ways before you. O think how abundandant they v/ere in 
labours, in ftripes above meafure, in deaths oft, and how they 
rejoiced when they were counted worthy to fuffer fhame for 
Jesus Christ's fake. Above all, look ye unco Jesus the 
author an 1 finiflier of your faith ; confider him who endured 
fuch contradiction of fmners againft himfelf, left ye be weary 
and faint in your minds. Arc you efteemed mad ? So was he. 
Are you termed deceivers of the people ? So was he. Arc ye 
N 3 looked 

[ 198 ] 

looked upon as a£luated by an evil fplrit ? He was called Beel- 
zebub^ the very chief of the devils. Are ye thruft out of the 
fynagogucs ? So was he. Do rnen hunt for your precious 
lives ? So they did for his. The Jews fought often to kill 
him, but they could not, becaufe his hour was not yet come; 
and fo it fhall b3 with you. You are immortal till your work 
is done. The witnefTes fhall not be flain till their teftimony 
is finifhed. Set your faces therefore as flints: let your brows 
be harder than adamant : fear not the faces of men, left God 
confound you before them. Give not place to thofe who op- 
pofe the operations of the Spirit, no not for an hour. Go ye 
forth in the flrength of the Lord, making mention of his 
righteoufnefs, 'and his only. Remember that blefTcd promife, 
*' Lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the world.'* 
Jesus is the fame now as he was yeflerday. And if you are 
really thruft out into the harveft by Jesus, he will give you 
a mouth and wifdom, which all your adverfaries fliall not be 
able to refift. You fee how dreadfully the fcriptures are in- 
terpreted. Give yourfelves therefore to reading. Search the 
fcriptures. But above all things, pray that ye may be taught 
of God : without which, notwithftanding all critical and 
human learning, you will never be fcribes well inftru£led to 
the kingdom of heaven. Continue to go out into the high- 
ways and hedges. Confider what m.ultitudes there are around 
you every where, ready to perifh for lack of knowledge. And 
though your enemies, for want of arguments, fhould fo far 
prevail, as to bring you before governors for fo doing, fear 
not, for it fhall be given you, as well as unto the firft preachers 
of the everlafting gofpel, what ye fhall fpeak. O men, greatly 
beloved, my heart is enlarged towards you. Give me leave 
to fay unto you, as the angel did to Daniel^ '* Be ftrong," 
yea be ftrong : quit yourfelves like men : put on the whole 
armour of God. And then, though you fhould be caft into 
a den of lions, that God whom you ferve, is able, and will 
deliver you. Though aiBi^Sled, deftitute, tormented here on 
earth, verily great fhall be your reward in heaven. 

And now, my reverend brethren^ to whom this letter is par- 
ticularly infcribed, what fhall I fay more ? I commend it, 
and you, to the great God, and to the word of his grace, 


I ^99 1 

which Is able to build you up, and give you an inheritance 
among all them that arc (an(Stified. I have written to you out 
of the fulnefs of my heart ; and praying that God may give us 
a right judgment in all things, I beg leave to fubfcribe myfelf, 
(though the chief of fmners, and lefs than the leail of all 

Your afre^lionate younger brother, and fellow-fervant 

in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, 

George Whitefield. 

N 4 A L E T- 


T O 

The Reverend the President, and Pro- 
fessors, Tutors, and Hebrew In- 
structor, of Harvard-College 


In Answer to 


Publiihed by them againll: the 

Reverend Mr. George White field, 
and his Condud. 

% Cor. vi. 8, 9, lo, ii, it.-^As dccebvers, and yet true] as U7tknon.vn, 
and yet ivell kno^jn : as dying, and behold, 'we li^je j as chajlencd, and 
not killed; as forronvfid, yet always rejoicing-, as poor, yet jnaking 
many rich j as halving nothing, and yet poJJ'eJJlng all things. O ye Corin- 
thians, our mouth is open unto you, our heart is enlarged. Ye are not 
fraitened in us, but ye are Jlraitcncd in your own bozvels. 

[ 203 ] 


Bojlon^ January 2^., 1 745. 
Reverend and honoured Gentlemen^ 

WHEN the great Apcftle of the Gentiles was accufed 
before the Governor of Ccefarea^ Acls xxiv. by Ter- 
tullus, (employed for that purpofe by Ananias the high-priell, 
and the Elders) as " a peftilent fellow, a mover of fedition 
among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of 
the fed of the Nazarenes^'^ he thought it his duty (being 
beckoned to by the Governor) to anfwer for himfelf 5 and in 
his anfwer proved, that he was in no wife guilty of the thino-s 
that were laid to his charge. You, Gentlemen, feem to view 
me in the fame light, wherein Terttdlus, Ananias, and the El- 
ders viewed Paul; and accordingly have thought proper to 
publifh a teftimony againft me and my conduct, wherein you 
have undertaken to prove, page 4, that " I am an cnthufiafl, 
a cenforious, uncharitable pcrfon, and a deluder of the peo- 
ple.'* Will you give me leave, fmce I think the great Go- 
vernor of the church beckons to me by his providence fo to 
do, without minutely criticifmg upon the diction and method 
of your teftimony, to anfwer for myfelf, and in the fpirit of 
meeknefs examine the proofs you bring to make good your 
charges againft me. 

" By an enihufiaji (you fay, page 4.) we mean one that 
a£ls, either according to dreams^ or fome fuddcn impuljes and 
imprejfions upon his mind, which he fondly imagines to be 
from the Spirit of God, perfuading and inclining him thereby 
to fuch and fuch a61:ions, though he hath no proof that fuch 
perfuafions or impreftions are from the Holy Spirit." This 
definition of an enthuilaft, (whether exadly right or not) 


[ 204 ] 
you are pleafcJ to apply to mc ; and accordingly at the bottom 
of the aforenientioncd page you aflfert, that I am " a man 
that conduds himielt according to his dreams, or fome ridicu- 
lous and unaccountable impulles and imprellions on his mind," 
and " that this is Mr. IVhitcfieWs manner, is evident both 
by his life, his Journals and his fermons.'* " From thefe 
pieces (you add, page 5.) it is very evident that he uied to 
govern himielf by his dreams : one inftance of this we have in 
his life, page 12. ' Near this time I dreamed that 1 was to 
fee God on mount Sinai. This made a great imprelTion upon 
me.' Another like inftance we have, p. 39, 40. ' I prayed 
that God would open a door to vifit the prifoners. Qj^iickly 
after, I dreamed that one of the prifoners came to be inftru6led 
by me : the dream was imprefTed much upon my heart : in 
the morning I went to the door of the goal.' Once more, a 
like inftance we have, p. 43. ' 1 dreamed I was talking with 
the Bifhop ; and that he gave me feme gold, which chinked 
in my hands:' and, p. 44. ' The guineas chinking in my 
hand, put me in mind of my dream." Now, fay you in the 
next paragraph, " if v/e confider thefe inftances, we muft 
fuppofe him conducting himfeif by dreams.^^ But, Gentlemen, 
how will thefe premifes admit of fuch a conclufion ? In writ- 
ing a brief account of God's dealings with me from my in- 
fancy to the time of my ordination, I have mentioned three 
particular dreams ; but how does this prove, that I condu^ 
myfelf (I fuppofe you mean in the general courfe of my life) 
by dreams ; or that this denominates me an enthufiaft, who 
(according to your definition) acts according to dreams or 
*' fome fudden impulfes and imprellions upon his mind, which 
he fondly imagines to be from the Spirit of God, perfuading 
and inclining him thereby to fuch and fuch aclions, though 
he hath no proof that fuch perfuafions or imprefTions (I hum- 
bly apprehend to make up the fenfe there fnouid be added, or 
drcarns) are from the Holy Spirit ?" May not a perfon, in a 
fevv' inftances of his life, have fome remarkable dream?, which 
may be explained by fubfequent providences, without being an 
enthufiaft, or juftly termed one that aiSts or condudls and go- 
verns himfeif according to dreams ? 

Befides, ought you not to have quoted the paflages as they 

ftand in my life, and then every one muft fee, I was far from 

7 ^^^''Z 

[ 205 ] 
atSling according to dreams, even in thcfe Indances. The jflrfl: 
I mentioned becaufe it was a means under (iOd of awakenino- 
me in fbme degree, as I fuppofe hath been the cafe of many ; 
and is this a conducting of myfelf by a dream ? As for the 
fccond, the cafe was thus : as I ufed to vifit the prifoners at 
Oxford^ fo upon my coming to GlouccJ}cr^ my compaflion for 
the poor pri loners there, and the hopes I had of being fer- 
viceable to them, inclined me to vifit them alfo; for which 
reafon I prayed moft earneftly, that God would open a door 
for me to vlfit them ; quickly after I dreamed that one of the 
prifoners came to be inftru(fl:ed by me : the dream was im- 
prefTed much upon my heart. In the morning I went to the 
door of the goal. This dream was no furiher a reafon of my 
going thither, .than as it was a means of exciting me to pur- 
I'ue the reafonable inclination I had before. And fubfequent 
providences made me afterwards judge, that God directed 
the dream for that purpofe. As to the third, I was fo far 
from being condu6^ed by it, that as I h^ve faid in the account 
I gave of it, which. Gentlemen, you vv(^ld have done weil to 
have obferved, I always checked the impreffion it made upon, 
rne. Thefe are the only dreams I think that are mentioned 
in any of my writings ; and all thefe are in the account of 
my life : though you are pleafed to fay, p. 5, " From thefe 
pieces [namely my Life, Journals, and Sermons] it is very 
evident that he ufed to govern hinifelf by dreams." 

" As plain it is, (you add, page th'id.) that he ufually go- 
" verned himfelf by fome fuddeti hr.pulfes and miprejjions on 
'' his mind, and we have one inftiince that may fatisfy \i^^ 
*' that his firft fetting out upon his itinerant bufinefs, was 
" from an enthufiaftic turn. Journal from London to Gibral" 
*' tar^ p. 3, he fays, ' He will not mention the reafons that 
*' perfuaded him it v^^as the divine will that he (hould go 
'^ abroad, becaufe they might not be deemed good reafons by 
" another ;' but faith, ' He was as much bent as ever to go, 
" though ftrongly folicited to the contrary, hav ing afked di- 
" redtion from heaven about it for a year and hal!." And 
does not this prove, Gentlemen, that I aded cautioujly in the 
affair, and took time to confider of the ftep I was about to 
take ? and confcquently was not governed herein by fome 
fudden impulfe or impreilion on my mind, and without con- 


[ 206 ] 

fulting PrcviJence, continuing inftant in prayer, and con- 
ferring vviih friends on the occafion, for the fpaee of a year 
and half, as you well obferve ? And what if I did not men- 
tion " the reafons that perfuaded me it was the divine will 
that I fhould go abroad, becaufe they might not be deemed 
good reafons by another." Does it therefore follow, that I 
was governed in the afi'air by impulfes and imprelTions, or 
that 1 had no good reafons to give? Befides, Gentlemen, 
how does it appear that this pailage refers to my firft fetting 
out upon my itinerant bufinefs ? I think I mention only 
going abroad to Georgia^ v/hither I was then bound, and 
where I intended to fettle. At this time I had no thought of 
being an itinerant. It did not appear to be my duty to fet out 
upon that bufinefs, for a confiderable time afterwards. How 
I was induced at length to fet out upon it, I may give an ac- 
" count of in a future trait ; but till that be publiihed, how caa 
any one fairly determine " whether my firft fetting out upon 
this itinerant bufinefs, was from an enthufiaflical turn or 

" Other inflanccs (you fay, page ibtd.) there are, wherein 
^' he (hews it to be his cuftom to attribute any common turn 
of his mind to a motion of the Holy Spirit upon him, with- 
*' out any more reafon than any man may, any recolle61:ions 
*' of his memory, or fudden fuggeftion of his own underltand- 
*' ing. Such a one you have, Journal from Gibraltar to Sa- 
" vannah^ p. 3. 'I went to bed with unufual thoughts and 
*' convi^iions that God would do fome great things at Gihral- 
** tary But, Gentlemen, if i fay, I went to bed with un- 
ufual thoughts and convictions, how is this an inflance of 
*' my attributing any common turn of my mind to a motion 
*' of the Holy Spirit.'* You endeavour to prove it further, 
p. 6. by a fecond pafiage taken out of another Journal from 
Savannah to England^ p. 22. where it is faid, " That the leflbn 
*' before he left Savannah, being St. Paul's (hipwreck : and 
*' that before his leaving Charles-Town^ being the firft of 
*' yonah^ made fuch a deep impreffion upon him, that he 
** wrote to his friend to acquaint him, he was apprehenfive 
*' he fliould have a dangerous voyage ; and it happening to 
" be bad weather accordingly, he fays, ' God hath now 
" ihewed me wherefore he gave thofe previous notices." 


[ 207 ] 
But, Gentlemen, how is this an inftance of my attributing 
any common turn of my mind to a motion of the Holy Spirit ? 
Was it a comrnon turn of my mind to have Paul's fliipwreck 
and the firft of Jotiah powerfully prefied upon me ? I do not 
know that it was. But you are pleafed to draw this further 
inference from the quotation, page ibid, " So that every fcrip- 
" ture that came to his view, was received as the hath-kol of 
'* the Jewi^ and he plainly fhews himfelf as much direded 
*« by this way of finding out the will of God as he calls it, 
*' as the old heathens were by t\i€u fortes Homerias Virgiiiau^J^ 
But how does this prove, that every fcripture that came to ray 
view, was received as the hath-kol^ Sec, I think I mentioned 
only the firft of JojirJj, and the xxviith of Jc^s : but you fay 
of this, (my receiving every fcripture that came to my view 
as the baih-hl) we have a very full inftance, fame Journal, 
p. 38, where you '' have a particular application of the words 
" which appeared upon the Dodor's firft openin^^ the Com- 
*' mon-Prayer, < The Lord hath vifited and redeemed his 
" people." But how is this a very full inftance, v^hen thefe 
words did not appear to my view at all, but to the Doctor's ? 
It was he that was reading, not I ; only as you are pleafed 
to exprefs yourfelves, " I wifely obferved that fo it was, for 
^« about eight o'clock the men faw land." Was there any 
thing unwife in fuch an obfervation ? Or was there any thing 
enthufiaftical in faying, that God had vifited and redeemed 
his people, when after we had been pinched with hunger, and 
almoft ftarved, he was pleafed to give us a fi^rht of land ? 

You proceed, p. 6, to lay fomething more to my charge : 
«' Sometimes he fpeaks as if he had communications diredly 
" from the Spirit of God." And is it a crime for a believer, 
and a minif^er of Jesus, to fpeak of his having communica- 
tions diredly from the Spirit of God ? I thought that was 
no new thing to the minifters and people in Nciu-E?igland^ 
efpecially fmce fuch a remarkable revival of religion has been 
vouchfafed unto them. How are believers fealed ; or how is 
the divine life begun and carried on, if there be no fuch 
thing as having divine communications direclly from the Spi- 
rit of God ? 

Again, (page ibid.) you bring a frefh accufatlon againft 
me. ^* Sometimesj and indeed very frequently, he (in a moft 

'' cnthufiaftic 

[ 2g8 ] 

*' cnthufiadlc manner) applies even the hiflorlcal parts of 
'' fcriptiire particularly to himfclf, and his ovv^i affairs; and 
. " this manner he endeavours particularly to vindicate, Ser- 
" man on Searching the Scriptures, p. 246. of his Sermons : ' It 
*' is this application of the hiTiorical parts of fcripture, when 
'' we are reading, that muft render them profitable to us;' 
*' and appeals to the experience of the chriftian, that if he 
*' hath fo confulted the word of God, he has not been plainly 
*' directed how to a£f, as though he had confulted the Urt?n 
*' and the Thimmum. For in this plain and full manner he 
*' fays, p. 38. of his life ; ' The Holy Spirit hath from time 
*' to time let him into the knowledge of divine things, ^nd 
*' hath directed him in the minuteft circumilances.' And, 
*' no doubt, hence it is, that he fays, forementioned fermon, 
** p. 247, ' That God, at all times, circumilances, and 
*' places, though never fo minute, never fo particular, will, 
*« if we diligently feek the afliftance of his Holy Spirit, apply 
'' general things to our hearts.' Which, though it may be 
*' true in fome meafure as to the doctrinal and preceptive parts 
*' of fcripture, yet it is evidently enthufiaftic to fay fo as to 
*' the hiftorical parts of it." But, however the faying fo may 
appear evidently enthufiafticai to you. Gentlemen, after ma- 
turely weighing the cafe, it does not appear in that light to 
me : fordoes not the Apoitle tell Timothy, 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17. 
" That all fcripture (therein, undoubtedly, including the hif- 
toricai as well as dodrinal and preceptive parts) is given by 
infpiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, 
for corre6tion and inftru^flion in righteoufnefs, to m.ake the 
man of God perfedf, thoroughly furnifhed to every good 
work." And does not the fame Apoflle, fpcaking of fcripture 
hiftories, fay, i Cor, x. 11. " Now all thefc things happened 
unto them for enfamples, and they are written for our admo- 
nition, upon whom the ends of the.vvorld are come.'' And if 
it be evidently enthufiafticai thus to apply the hiftorical parts 
of fcripture to our own cafes in private, is it not equally en- 
thufiafticai to preach upon and apply the hiftorical parts of 
fcripture to particular cafes or perfons in public ? And fur- 
ther, if it is evidently enthufiafticai to apply the hiftorical parts 
of fcripture to ourfelves and to our affairs, then fuppofing 
fuch words as thcfe, *' Go in peace. Be whole of thy plague. 


[ 209 1 

Son be of good chear i" or that hiltorical paflage in Jotm vIL 37. 
fliould be applied to a particular foul in deep diftrels, (as no 
doubt they have often been) muft not that foul reject them 
entirely for delufions ? AnJ if fo, how many that are real 
believers, muft be brought into unfpeakable bor.dage ? 

Page 8, you go on thus : " To nxntion but one inftancc 
" more, though we are not of luch letter-learned as d-ny, 
'' that there is fuch an union of believers to Christ, whcrebv 
*' they are one in him, as the Father and he are one, as the 
" Evangelift fpealcs, or rather the Spirit of God by him ; 
'' yet fo letter-learned we are, as to fay, that the palTage in 

" Mr. TV d\ fermon of the indzveUing of the Spitit^ p. 311. 

*' contains the true fpirit of enthufiafm, where he fay^, ' 7'o 
talk of any having the Spirit of God vywhoui feeling of ir, 
is really to deny the thing.' Upon which we fay, that the 
believer may have a fatisfaction, that he hath the affiftance 
of the Spirit of God wiih him in fo continual and re'i^ular 
a manner, that he may be faid to dwell in. him, and yet 
" have no feeling of it." But, Gentlemen, is not this in ef- 
fecSl: to deny the indwelling of the Spirit .? For how is it pof- 
fible that the believer can have a fatisfa<Slion, that he hath the 
afliftance of the Spirit of God with him in fo continued and 
regular a manner, that he may be faid to dwell in him, and 
yet the believer have no feeling of it ? For my part 1 cannot 
comprehend it. 1 could as foon believe the do61rine of iran- 
fubjlantiation^ and therefore cannot retrad what you are pleafed • 
to fay contains the true fpirit of enthufiafm, " To talk of 
*' any having the Spirit of God without feehng it, is really 
'' to deny the thing." The reafon you give why the Spirit of 
God may dwell in a believer, and yet the believer himfclf 
have no feeling of it ; in my apprehenfion carries no proof 
and convi6^ion with it at all. I think you reafon thus, page ib. 
'' The metaphor is much too grofs to exprefs (however full) 
" this fati>fa(51:ion of the mind, and has led fome to take the ex- 
" preflion literally, and hath (we fear) given great fat!-fi{5tion 
" to many an enthufiaft among us fmce the year 1:40, from 
" the fvvelling of their breads and ftomachs in their religious 
" agitations, which they have thought to h^ feeling the Spirit^ 
" in its operations on them." 'Who thcfe enthufiafl:?, and. 
what thefe religious agitations are which you are pleafed to 
Vol. IV. O mention 


r 210 ] 

mention, I cannot tell : neither do I know by whom this 
metaphor of t'celing the Spirit, has been mifundcrftood, or 
taken in too grofs a (cniQ. But fuch a way of fpeaking and 
writing is very common amongfl: the mofl: eminent divines, as 
well as in the articles of the Church o( England. In her 17th 
article {he fpeaks thus : " As the godly confideration of pre- 
^' deftination and our election in Christ is full of fweet, 
*' pleafant, and unfpeakable comfort to godly perfons, and fuch 
" zs feelin themf elves \.\\t working of the Spirit of Christ, &c." 
Mr. Guthrie^ in his Trial of a faving Intcrejl in Christ, p. log. 
and which ufed to be Dr. Owens Fade mecum^ hath this re- 
markable paragraph : '' 1 fpeak with the experience of many 
*' faints, and I hope according to fcripture, if I fay there is 
" a communication of the Spirit of God which is let out to 
" fome of his people fometimes, that is fomewhat befide, if 
" not beyond, that witneiling of a fonfhip fpoken of before, 
*' It is a glorious manifeflation of God unto the foul, fhed- 
*< ding abroad God's love in the heart. It is a thing better 
<' felt than fpoken of : it is no audible voice, but it is a flafh 
" of glory filling the foul with God, as he is life, light, 
" love, and liberty, countervailing that audible voice, ' O 
^' man greatly beloved,* Dan. x. 19. putting a man in a 
" tranfport with this on his heart, ' It is good to be here,' 
" as Maith. xvii. 5. It is that which went out from Christ 
" to Mary^ when he but mentioned her name, fohn xx. 16. 
" ' Jesus faith unto her, Mary: (he turneth herfelf and faith 
*' unto him, Rabboni, which is to fay, Mafter.' He had 
*' fpoken fome words to her before, and fhe underftood 
** not that it was he ; but when he uttereth this one 
word, Mary^ there was fome admirable divine conveyance 
'* and manifeftation made out unto her heart, by which Ihe 
was fo fatisfyingly filled, that there was no place for argu- 
ing and difputing whether or no that was Cft^rist, and 
if ihe had any intereft in him. That manifeflation made 
faith to itfelf ; and did purchafc credit and truft to itfelf, 
^'^ and v/as equivalent with, ' Thus faith the Lord.' This is 
*' fuch a glance of glory, that it may in the higheft fenfe be 
*' called the earnefl:, or lirft fruits of the inheritance, Eph. i. 14. 
" for it is a felt arm-full of the holy God." Worthy Mr. 
Maxtery in hi^ Gihlas Sihianus^ p. 40. fpeal^n^ of the danjjer 

[ 2U 1 

of minillers preaching an unknown and unfelt Christ, writes 
thus : " O Sirs, all your preaching and perfuading of others, 
*' will be but dreaming and triflin^'^; hypocrify, till the work 
*' be thoroughly done upon yourielves. How can you kz 
*' yourfelvcs day and night to a work, that your carnal hearts 
" are averfe from ? How can you call out with ferious fcr- 
" vour upon poor fuiners, with importunate folicitations, to 
*' take heed of fin, and to fee themieives to a holy life, that 
*' never felt yourfelvcs the evil of fin, or the worth of holi- 
" nefs ? I tell you, theie things are never well known till 
" they -dTcfclt, nor well felt till pojjejjed : and he that feeleth 
" them not himfelf, is not fo 1 ke to ipeak feelingly to others, 
'' nor to help others to the feeling of them." Thus wrote 
Mr. Guthrie and Mr. Baxter : and even the Reverend Prefident 
himfelf, in his fermon before the convention. May 28, 1741, 
p. 34. hath thefe words ; '* Not but that the faints may/m'this 
" very fenfibly, and it is a joy unfpeakable and full of glory." 

But if fuch a way of writing difpleafes you now, and you are 
of the opinion, '* That a believer may have a fatisfa^lion, that 
" he hath the affiftance of the Spirit of God with him, in fo 
*' continual and regular a manner, that he may be faid to 
" dwell in him, and yet have no feeling of it," I cannot 
wonder. Gentlemen, that my writings are ofFenflve ; be- 
caufe, as you obferve at the end of this paragraph p. 8, my 
compofitions are, and I hope always will be, full of thefe 

You clofe your proofs of my being an enthnjioft^ with thefe 
words, " The whole tends to perfu:ide the world (and it has 
*' dojie fo with refpe£^ to many) that Mr. JV. hath as fami- 
^' liar a converle and communion with God, as any of the 
*' Prophets and Apoftles, and fuch, as we all acknowledge to 
*' have bven under the infpiration of the Holy Ghoft." What 
tendency my writings m.ay have to make people think (o 
highly of me, I cannot determine : but this I affirm, that I 
would not have undertaken to preach the gofpel for ten thou- 
fand worlds, had 1 not been fully perfuaded that I had a de- 
gree of that Spirit, and was admitted to a degree of that holy 
and familiar converfe and communion with God, which the 
Prophets and Apoillcs were favoured with, in common with 
all believers. And if thi> had not bce]i the cafe, {hould I not, 

O 2 . Gentlemen, 

[ 2'2 I 

Gentlemen, have lied to God as well as unto man^ when I 
declared at my ordination, that " I was inwardly moved by 
'*• the Holy Ghoft," who, I believe, according to Christ's 
promife, will be with every faithful minifter (and fo as to be 
felt too) even to the end of the world. 

" As a natural confcq,uence of the heat of enthufiafm, by 
^' which (you are pleafed to fay) he was fo evidently aded 5 
in a following paragraph,, p. 8. you fay, " In the next place, 
" we Icoic upon Mr. White field as an uncharitable^ censorious y. 
" and fI':ir>chrous inan^"* habitually fuch^ for that is the idea 
your v.'ords feem to convey. But, Gentlemen, does it follow 
that Ftter could properly be ftiled a curfmg, fwcaring man,, 
becaufe with oaths and curfes he denied his Lord ? Or could 
Davidy that man after God's own heart, be properly fliled a 
murdering adulterous man,, becaufe he committed adultery 
With ^Baibjhobay and murdered her hufband Uriah P Or, can 
a believer be ftiled properly an hypocrite, becaufe he has yet 
got a great deal of hypocrify remaining in his heart? I fup- 
pofe, by no means. No more, according to my apprehenfions, 
can any man be juftly called an uncharitable, cenforious, and 
flanderous man, if he be not habitually fo ; fuppoling it ftiould 
be proved either from his writings or condudl, that he may 
have been fomevvhat rafh or uncharitable in his judgment 
paffed upon fome particular perfons or things. 

But how, Gentlemen, do you prove this charge, That I 
am an uncharitable, flanderous man ? Why, p. 9. " From 
*' his monjhous refieclions upon the great and good Archbifhop 
*' Tillotfon^ (as Dr. Increafe Mather ftiles him) comparing his 
*' fermons to the conjunng books which the Apoftle per- 
*' fuaded the people to deftroy." But this, I humbly appre- 
hend, does not prove that I caft refle61ions, which you call 
Tnonftrous^ upon Archbifiiop Tilkifon as to his perfonal charac- 
ter, but only his books, which Dr. Increafe Mather himfelf, 
as I have been informed by the Reverend Mr. Gee^ who was 
brought up under his rniniftry, and directed by him in his 
ftudics,. conftantly warned the ftudents againft. And by the 
way, I cannot but obferve, that this holy venerable man of 
God, Dr. Increafe Mather^ if we may credit the writer of his 
life, dealt as much in impreflions and inward feelings, as the 
perfon againft whom you are oleafcd to publifh this teftimony. 


r 213 ] 

And though he might call the Archbifhop a great and good 
man for his eminency in ftation, and great generofity and 
moderation towards the Dillenters, yet I believe he never 
-called him a great and good divine \ nor do I think he would 

blame nie for what 1 have laid concerning Mr. G «, and 

Mr. H ;:. 

But that which affords you the greateft occafion to denomi- 
nate me a cenforious, uncharitable, and flanderous man, and 
which I apprehend chiefly ftirs up your refentmeut againfl: me 
is, to makeufe of your own exprelTion, p. 9. " IVIy reproath- 
'' ful refledions upon the Society which is immediately under 
■'^ our care." I think the refledions are thefe : '' And as far 
*' ,as I could gather from fome v^^ho well knew the flate of it, 
*' [the College] not far fuperior to our Univerfiues in piety 
*' and true godljnefs. Tutors neglecl to pray v^ith, and ex- 
" amine the hearts of the pupils ; difcipline is at too low an 
"*' ebb 5 bad books are become fafhionable among them ; T/7- 
*' lotfon and Clarke are read, inftead of Shepard^ Stoddard, and 
" fuch like evangelical writers." And, Gentlemen, were 
not thefe things fo at the time when I wrote ? Wherein then, 
in writing thus, have I flandered Harvard Colhge P But then 
you fay, p. 10, he goes further ftill, when he fays, p. 96, 
both of Ta/e Ccllege, as well as ours : " As (or the Univcrfities, 
*' I believe it may be faid. Their light is now become -dark- 
*' nefs, darknefs that may be felt." And muft it not be fo, 
when tutors neglect to pray with, and examine the hearts of 
the pupils, &c. And this is all I meant. For 1 had no idea 
of reprefenting the Colleges in fuch a deplorable flate of im- 
morality and irreligion, as you, Gentlemen, in your teftimony, 
feem to objed. I meant no more, tb.an what the Reverend 
Prefident meant, when fpeaking of the degeneracy of the 
times, in his fcrmon at the annual convention of minifters. 
May 28, 1 741, he add.-, " But, alas! how is the gold become 
*' dim, and the mod fine gold changed I We have loO: our 
*' firft love : and though religion is (till in fafaion with us, 
*' yet it is evident, that the power of it is greatly decayed." 
'However, I am forry, I publifoed my private information?, 
though from credible pcrfons, concerning the colleges, to the 
world : and allure you, that I fliould be glad to find, the Re- 
verend Prefident was not miftaken when he undertook, froin 

O 3 hi* 

[ 2^4 ] 

his own examination of things, feven months after, to '^ afTure 
*' that venerJibie audience on the day of the convention, that 
" their ibciety hath not deferved the afperfions which have of 
'^ late been nnade upon it, cither as to the principles there pre- 
'^ valent, or the books there read :" and affnre you further, 
that what he adds is true in refpe6l of me, " That fuch as 
" have given out a difadvantageous report of us, have done it 
*' in a godly jealoufy for the churches of Christ, which are 
*' fupplied from us.*' I would blefs God, and at the fame 
time, 1 would afk pardon for the miftake, if I was miftaken 
therein ; for I unfeignedly wifh your profperity, and there- 
fore was as willing to publifli the reformation in the College, 
as ever I was to fpeak of its declenfion. From thence may 
there always proceed thofe {treams, which may make glad the 
city of cur God ! 

Tu proceed : again you fay, p. ii. *' We think it highly 
'' proper to bear our teftimony againft Mr. Wh\tefield^ as wc 
" look upon him to be a deluder of the people. And here we 
^' mean more efpecially, as to the colle<!lions of money, 
'' which, when here before, by an extraordinary mendicant 
^' faculty, he almoft extorted from the people." Extorted 
from the people ? How, Gentlemen, could that be, when it 
was a public contribution ? I never heard the people them- 
felves make any fuch objection. Nor did I ever fee people, in 
all appearance, ofFer more willingly : they feemed to be thofe 
chearful givers, whom God declares he approves of. You go 
en to prove mc a deluder thus ; " As the argument he then 
'' uied was, ' The fupport and education of his dear lambs a^ 
" the Orphan-houfe,' who (he told us, he hoped) might, in 
'^ time, preach the gofpel to us and to our children ; fo it is 
*' not to be doubted, that the people were greatly encouraged 
" to give him largely of their fubiiance, fuppofing they were 
*' to be under the immediate tuition and inftru6tion of him- 
^' (elfy as he then made them to believe 5 and had not this 
" been their thought, it is, to us, without all peradventure, 
*^ they would never have been perfuaded to any confiderable 
'* contribution upon that head ; and this notwithitanding, he 
<^' hath fcarce ktn them for thcfe four years." But how does 
all this prove me a deluder of the people ? For c^n it be 
ftrovedj that wh::t was colIe£led, vvas not made qfe of for the 


r 215 ] 

fupport and education of the dear lambs at the Orphan-houfe ? 
Or did I promife that any of thefe dear lambs ftiould come in 
four years time to preach in Nezv- England P Or did I in the 
Jeaft intimate that I had a defign to be always refident at the 
Orphan-houfc ? And if by various and unexpefted interpo- 
fltions of Providence, 1 have been prevented feeing them thefe 
four years, can I help that ? " And befides, you fay, he hath 
<' left the care of them vi^ith a perfon, whom the contributors 
*' know nothing of." I fuppofe, Gentlemen, you mean Mr. 
Barber, But do thefe contributors know nothing of him ? 
Did I not mention him publicly at the time of colleding, as 
one of their own countrymen, and one bred up in one of their 
own colleges ? Was he not with me in perfon ? And did I 
not again and again declare, that he was to be intruded with 
the education and fpiritual concerns of the children and fa- 
mily ? AiTurediy I did. But you add, " And we ourfelves 
" have reafon to believe that he is little better than a Qi^iaker." 
What reafon. Gentlemen, you may have thus to judge of 
him, I cannot tell, but I have great reafon to believe he is a 
thorough Calvinift, and a dear man of God, much acquainted 
with the divine life, and fweetly taught rightly to divide the 
word of truth. I heartily wifh all that had the care of youth, 
were like-minded, whatever name you are pjeafed to give h-m. 

But you fay, " Furthermore, the account which Mr. /"/^ . 

" hath given the world of his difburfements of the feveral 
contributions, for the ufe of his Orphan-houfe, (wherein 
there are feveral large articles, and fome of about a thou- 
fand pounds our currency charged in a very fummary way, 
' For fundries,' no mention being made therein what the 
" fum was expended for, nor to whom it was paid) is by no 
" means fatisfadory." Would you not, Gentlemen, have 
done well to have faid, by no means fatisfadory to us ? For, 
I am well perfuadcd moft of the contributors depended on my 
veracity, and would have been fatisfied as to themfelvcs, 
though I had given no account of the difburfements at all. 
Befides, Gentlemen, did you ever fee an account of that na- 
ture more particular ? Is that of the Society for propagating 
the gofpel more fo ? Or would you yourfelves. Gentlemen, 
be more particular, fuppofing an account of what has been 

O 4 received 

■[ 2,6 ] 

received and difburfed for Harvard-College, fliould ever be re- 
quired at your hands ? 

The manner of my preaching you fecm, p. 12. " as much 
" to diilike, and bound to bear a teftimony againft, as the man 
*« himfelf.'* And why ? becaufe it is extempore preaching. 
This, to ufe your own words, p. ibid, " We think by no 
'' means proper ; for that it is impoflible that any man fhould 
'' be able to manage any argument with that flrength, or 
" any inftruclion with that clearnefs in an extempore man- 
«' ner, as he may v^ith fludy and meditation." But, Gentle- 
men, does extempore preaching exclude ftudy and meditation ? 
Ti?noihy, I believe, was an extempore preacher, and yet the 
Apofde advifes him to give himfelf to reading; : and I am of 
Luther s opinion, that ftudy, prayer, meditation, and tempta- 
tion, are necefTary for a minifter of Christ. Now you fay, 

*' Mr. W evidently (hows, that he would have us believe 

*' his difcourfes are extempore." And fo they are, if yon 
mean that they are not written down, and that I preach with- 
out notes : but they are not extempore^ if you think that I 
preach always without ftudy and meditation. Indeed, Gen^ 
tlemen; I love to ftudy, and delight to meditate, when I have 
opportunity, and yet would go into the pulpit by no means 
depending on my ftudy and meditation, but on the blefTed 
Spirit of God, who I believe nov/, as well as formerly, fre- 
quently gives his minifters utterance, and enables them to 
preach with fuch wifdom, that all their adverfaries are not 
able, to gainfay or refift. This, I think, is fo far from being 
a lazy inanner of preaching, and the preacher in doing thus, is 
fo far from offering that which coft him nothings as you objeil:^ 
page Ihid, that I have generally obferved, extempore preachers 
are the moft fervent, laborious preachers, and I believe (at 
leaft I fpeak for myfclf who have tried both ways) that it 
cofts them as much, if not more clofe and folemn thought, as 
v-jtW as faith and confidence in God, as preaching by notes. 
And however you are pleaied to add, page ihid. that this v;ay 
of preaching ^'- Is little inftrudive to the mind, ftill lefs co- 
^' gent to the reafonable powers," yet, I believe it is the 
preaching which God hath much honoured, and has been 
frequently attended with very great fuccefs in many ages of 
^he ehriftian church* And if we may pray, I fee no reafon 
6 wl^y 

[ 217 ] 

why we may not preach extempore. 'I'hc rafliners of fome of 
my exprefiions, as well as the dangerous errors, which you are 
pjeafcd to fay, p. 13, have been vented in my extempore dif- 
courfes, I humbly apprehend, are no fufiicicnt objedions 
againft extempore preaching itfelf ; becaufe we often fee, that 
thofe who preach by notes, and write too, as may be fuppofed^ 
with ftudv and meditation, are guilty of as rafli exprefiions, 
and vent as dangerous errors, as thofe who, you fay, preach 
either without fludy or meditation. What the dangerous 
errors are, that have been vented in my extempore difcourfes, 
you have not thought proper to fpecify, unlefs it be that once 
or twice through miftake I faid, " That Christ loves un- 
*' regenerate Tinners with a love of complacency ; nay, and 
*' that God loves fmners as Tinners." Thefe were indeed 
unguarded exprefiions ; but I recalled it publicly as foon as I 
was made fenlible of my miilake : and I think too before your 
teftimony againft me was publiihed. Were thefe my fettltd 
principles, i would agree with you in your enlargement upon 
it, p. 13, " Which, if it be not an unguarded expreflion, 
*' muft be a thoufand times worfe ; for we cannot look upon 
*' it as much lefs than blafphemy, and fhows him to be 
*' ilronger in the Antinc?nian fcheme^ than moft of the profef- 
^' fors of that herefy themfelves." But as it v/as only a lapfus 
Ungues^ and the whole current of my preaching and writing 
was, and is directly contrary to fuch principles, I would not 
have you. Gentlemen, by thus reprefcnting me as an Antino- 
mian, enroll yourfelves in the number of thofe " that make a 
man an ofTender for a word, and lay a fnare for them that 
fpeak in the gate." Indeed, Gentlemen, I utterly deteft Jn- 
l'inomia?iifm^ both in principle and pradtice. And though you 
are pleaftd to fay, " That it is not unlikely, and that it is to 
" be fufpecied, (that I am an Antinomian) becaufe the ex- 
<' preflion was repeated ; and when he was taxed with it by 
«' a certain gentleman, he made no retraclion :" yet I did, I 
I thought, what amounted to it : for when he told me of my 
miftake, (if we underftand the fame gentleman) I bowed and 
thanked hmi for his kind int'ormation : as I would willingly 
do all, who at any time are fo kind as to com.e in the fpirit of 
meekfiefs, to tell me of my faults, and freely converfe with 
pie face to face, 


[ 2'8 ] 

Laflly, you are pleafed to fay, page ibid. " We think it 
*< our duty to bear our flrongeft tcftimony againft that itinc- 
*' rant way of preaching, which this Gentleman was the firfl 
*^ promoter of among us, and ftill delights to continue in." 
Now by an itinerant preacher (you fay) " We underftand 
*' one that hath no peculiar charge of his own, but goes about 
*' from country to country, or from town to town, in any 
" country^ and ftands ready to preach to any congregation 

*' that fliall call him to it : and fuch a one is Mr. ^V ." 

I own the charge ; and am willing to put the cafe on the 
fame iffue as you do, p- 14 : " Indeed if there were any thing 
'* leading to this manner of management, in the directions 
*' and inftrudlions given cither by our Saviour or his Apoflles, 
*' we ought to be filent, and fo would a man of any modefty ; 
*' if (on the other hand) there be nothing in the New-Tefta^ 
" ment leading to it. And furely (you add) Mr. I V 
*' will not have the face to pretend he a6ls now as an evange- 
" ///?." But indeed, Gentlemen, I do, if by an evangelift 
you mean, what the fcripture I prefume means, " One who 
" hath no particular charge of his own, but goes about from 
** country to country, or from town to town, in any country, 
" and ftands ready to preach to any congregation that fhall 
" call him to it." For does not that general commiffion given 
by our Lord to his Apoftles, '' Go ye into all the world, 
and preach the gofpel to every creature," authorize the mini- 
fters of Chuist, " even to the end of the world," to preach 
the gofpel in any town and country, though not of their own 
head, yet whenever or wherever Providence fhould open a door, 
even though it fhould be in a place " where ojfficers are al- 
*^ ready fettled, and the gofpel is fully and faithfully preached." 
This, I humbly apprehend, is every gofpel minifter's indifput-» 
able privilege, and therefore cannot judge that it is being 
wife above what is written, to give it as my opinion, as you 
fay I have done, p. 14. " That itinerant preaching may be 
*' very convenient for the furtherance of the good of the 
" churches, if it were under a good regulation." For itine- 
rant preaching is certainly founded upon the word of God, 
and has been agreeably approved of, and prailifed by many 
good men, with great and happy fuccefs both in ancient and 
later times ? Was not the reformation begun and carried on 


[ 219 ] 

by itinerant preaching? Were not Knox^ TVekh^ JVifiari^ and 
thofe holy men of God, feveral of the good old puritans, itine- 
rant preachers ? Are not itinerants font forth by the focieties 
for propagating the goipel and promoting chriflian knowledgs 
both in England, Scotland and Denmark? And did not holy 
Mr. Baxter in his appendix to his Gildas Salviamts or Re- 
forined Pojhr, in conjunction with others, earneltly and with 
weighty reafons recommend itinerant preaching, even where 
the gofpel was fully and faithfully preached, in 1657? Which 
is exprelled in the following terms : 

*^ To the Reverend and faithful Miniflers of Qw^i^t in the 
feveral Counties of this Land^ and the Gentlemen and other 
natives of each County, now inhabiting the City ^London, 

*' Reverend and beloved Brethren^ 
'T^HE whole defign and bufinefs of this difcourfe, being 
the propagation of the gofpel, and the faving of men's 
fouls, I have thought it not unmeet to acquaint you with 
another work to that end, which we have fet on foot in this 
county, and to propound it to your confideration, and humbly 
invite you to an univerfal imitation. You know, I doubt not, 
the great inequality in minifterial abilities, and that many 
places have minifters that are not qualified with convincing, 
lively, awakening gifts : fome mufl be tolerated in the neccf- 
fity of the church, that are not likely to do any great matters 
towards the converfion of ignorant, fenfual, worldly men: 
2nd fome that are learned, able men, and fitted for controver- 
• fies, may yet be unfit to deal v/ith thofe of the lower fort. I 
fuppofe if yo'j perafe the v/hole miniftry of a county, you will 
not find fo many and fjch lively, convincing preachers as we 
could wifh. And I take it for granted, that you are fenfible 
of the weight of eternal things, and of the worth of fouh ; 
and that you will judge it a very defirable thing that every 
man fhould be employed according to his gifts, and the gofpel 
in its light and power fnould be made as common, as po/Tible 
we can : upon thefe and many the like confiderations, the 
minifters in this county refolved to chufe out four of the mod 
lively, yet fober, peaceable, orthodox men, and defire thern 


[ 220 ] 
once a month to have ihcir own congregations^ to the afTiftance 
of fome other, and to beftow their labour in the places where 
they thought there was moft need ; and as we were refolving 
upon this work, the natives of this county, inhabiting the 
city of London^ having a cuftom of fcafting together once a 
year, and having at their feaft colledlcd fome monies by con- 
tribution, for the maintaining of a weekly le£iure in this coun- 
ty, (bcfides other good works) did (by their ftewards) defirc 
us to fet up the faid ledlure, and to difpofc of the faid monies 
in order thereto: and thtir judgments upon confultation did 
correfpond with our defign* So that the faid money, being 
fufEcient to fatisfy another, that (hall in their abfence preach 
in their own places, we employ it accordingly, and have pre- 
vailed with fome brethren to undertake this work. 

I propound to your confideration, Reverend Brethren^ and to 
you, the natives of each county, in London^ whether the fame 
work may not tend much to the edification of the church, and 
the welfare of fouls, if you will be pleafed fpeedily and effec- 
tually to fet it on foot through the land ? Whether it may 
not, by God's blefiing, be a likely means to illuminate the 
ignorant, and awaken the fecure, and countermine feducers, 
and hinder the ill fuccefs of Satan s itinerants, and win over 
many fouls to Christ, and ftablifti many weak ones in the 
faith ? And not doubting but your judgments will approve of 
the defi2;n, I humbly move, that you will pleafe to contribute 
your faculties to the work ; that the Londoners of each county 
will be pleafed to manifeft their benevolence to this end, and 
commit the monies to the hands of the mofl faithful, orthodox 
minifters, and that they will readily and felf-denyingly under- 
take the work. 

I hope the Gentlemen, natives of this county, will be 
pleafed to pardon my publifhing their example, feeing my 
end is only the promoting of men's falvation, and the common 
good . 

And that you mr-y more fully underftand the fcope of our 
defign, I fhall annex the letters directed to the feveral mi- 
nillers of the county, which the lecturers fend to the minifters 
of the place, and receive his anTvycr, before th«y prefume to 
preach in any congregation." 

«' To 

[ 221 3 

*' To all the reft of the Minifters of the Gofpel in this Cuunty\ our 
Reverend and beloved Brethren^ grace and peace in cur LoR» 
Jesus Christ, 

" Reverend Brethren^ 

'TpHE communication of the heavenly evangelical light, for 
the glory of our Redeemer, in the converfion, edification 
and falvation of men's fouls, is that which we are bound to by 
many obligations, as chrillians, and as minifters of Christ, 
for his church, and therefore muft needs be folicitous thereof: 
and it is that which the fpirit of grace, where it abidcth, 
doth proportionably difpofe the heart to defire : by convidians 
of the excellency and neceffity of this work, and of our own 
duty in order thereto, and by the excitation of undeferved 
grace, our hearts are carried out to long after a more general 
and efFeclual illumination and faving converfion of the inha- 
bitants of this county in which we live : which while we were 
but entering upon a confultation to promote, it plcafed God 
(without our knowledge of it) to put the fame thoughts into 
the hearts of others. The natives of this County of JVorcefter 
who dwell in London^ meeting at a feaft, (as is their yearly 
ufe) colleded a fum of money for the fetting of eight poor 
boys to trades, and towards the maintaining of a weekly lec- 
ture, and have committed the execution of this laft, to our 
care : and upon confultation with their ftewards, and among 
ourfelves, both they and we arc fatisfied, that a moveable leP.ure 
on 'the Lord's-day is the likelieit way for the improvement 
of their charity, to the attainment of their ends. For, ift, 
many people through poverty cannot, and many through neg- 
ligence will not come to a week day's lecture: experience 
telleth us, that fuch are ufually attended but little by thofc 
that have the greateft need : 2dly, and thus the benefit may 
extend to more, than if it were fixed in one place. 

We have therefore defired our reverend :ind dear brethren, 
Mr. Andrew Triftrain^ minifter at 67."?;/, Mr. Henry Oafand^ 


C 222 ] 
mlnifter at Bnvdley, and Mr. Thcmas Biildwin^ niinifter at 
Wolverly^ and Mr. Jofeph Trebky minifter at Church Lench^ to 
undertake this work, and that each of them will be plcafcd 
every fourth Lord's-day to preach twice in thofe places, wheie 
they fliall judge their labours to be moft neceflary : and as v^e 
doubt not but their own congregations will fo far confent for 
the good of others ; fo do we hereby requeft of you our bre^ 
thren, that when any of them fliall ofFcr their labours for your 
congregations, in preaching the faid lecture, you will receive 
them, and to your power further them in the work. For as 
we have no thoughts of obtruding their help upon you, with- 
out your confent, fo we cannot but undoubtedly expedl, that 
men fearing God, and defiring their people's evcrlafting good^ 
will chearfully and gratefully entertain fuch aififlance. And 
we hope, that none will think it needlefs, or take it as an 
accufing the miniftry of infufficicncy : for the Lord doth 
varioufly beftow his gifts : all that are upright are not equally 
fitted for the work: and many that ^re learned, judicious, and 
more able to teach the riper fort, are yet lefs able to con- 
defcend to the ignorant, and fo convincingly and fervently to 
rouze up the fecure, as fome that are below them in other 
qualifications : and many that are able in both refpe£ls, have 
a barren people; and the ableft ha^e found by experience that 
God hath fometimes bleft the labours of a ftranger to do that, 
which their ov/n hath not done. We befeech you therefore 
interpret not this as an accufation of any, w^hich proceedeth 
from the charity of our worthy country-men in London, and 
from the earned: defires of them and us, to further the falva- 
tion of as many as we can. And that you may have no jea- 
loufies of the perfons deputed to this work; we afTurc you 
that they are approved men, orthodox, fobcr, peaceable, and 
of upright lives, happily qualified for their minifterial work, 
and zealous and induftrious therein ; and fo far from being 
likely to fow any errors or caufe divifions, or to draw the 
hearts of people from their own faithful Paftors, that they 
will be forward to afiift you againft any fuch diftempers in 
your flocks. Not doubting therefore, but as you {^i\Q. the 
fame Mafter, and are under the fame obligations as we, fo 
as many as are heartily addi<5lcd to his fervice, will readily 


[ 223 ] 
promote fo hopeful a work, we commend you and youi* 
labours to the bleffing of the Lord. 

Your brethren and fellow-labourers in the work of 
the gofpel. 

In the name and at the defire of the miniftcrs of 
this aflociation. 
Evejham. Richard Baxter^ John Rorqflon^ Jarv'ts Bryant* 

In the name of the miniftcrs of this afTociation. 

Giles Collier^ George HopkinSy John Dolphin,^* 

This is and (hall be my endeavour, and was fo when I 
was here laft, my confcience alfo bearing me witnefs in the 
Holy Ghoft, notwithftanding fome of my expreffions have 
been made to fpeak things, and convey ideas wliich I never 
intended. And therefore, Gentlemen, judge ye, whether you 
have faid right in p. nth, " And now is it poflible, that 
'' we {hould not look ujion him (Mr. W.) as the blameablc 
" caufe of all the quarrels on the account of religion, which 
'* the churches are now engaged in : and this not only on ac- 
*' count of his own behaviour, but alfo as the coming of thofe 
*' hot men afterwards (who together with the exhorters that 
" accom.panied them, cultivated the fame uncharitable dif- 
" pofitions in our churches) was wholly owing to his Influence 
" and example ?" Is this. Gentlemen, a fair way of arguing? 
Is it not enough for me to anfwer for myfelf, without having 
the faults of others that came after me, laid to my charge alfo? 
Did not the papifts as juftly, who charged Luther with all the 
imprudencies of his adherents, and the confufions that attend- 
ed the reformation ? Befides, I do not underftand, who you 
mean by thofe hot men. Surely you do not include the reve- 
rend Mr. Tenne?2t. GoD did make me an inftrument of fend- 
ing him to New-England, I thank him for it, as I believe 
feveral of Harvard College^ many minifler?, and thoufands of 
the common people, in the feveral parts of New-England^ will 
be found to do, through the ages of eternity. As for others, 
I knew nothing of their coming, neither do I well know who 
you mean, and confequently can he no more juftly charged 
with their mifcondu6l, than the ftrft founder of Harvard Co!- 

C 224 ] 

le<re can be charged with all the bad principles and praclice^ 
which any of the members of that fociety have been guilty of, 
jince his deceafe. That Mr. Tennent^ labours and mine v/erc 
remarkably bltfTcd, the reverend Mr. Prefident himfelf teftified 
in the forc-mennoi.ed fermon, page 23, wherein are thefe 
words : " Indeed thofe two pious and valuable men of God, who 
*' have been lately labouring more abundantly among us, have 
*' been greatly inftrumentai in the hands of God, to revive 
" this blefled work; and many, no doubt, have been favingly 
" converted from the error of their ways, many more have 
*' been convi£led, and all have been in fome meafure roufed 
*' from their lethargy." And even in this teflimony, you are 
all pleafed to fay, page 3, that " by a certain faculty which 
*' he hath of raifmg the paffions, he hath been a means of 
" roufing many from their ftupidity, and fetting them on 
** thinking, whereby feme may have been made really better." 
And if thefe things are fo ; if many have been roufed from 
their ftupidity, and made really better ; if the blefied work of 
God was revived, and there is no doubt but many have been 
favingly converted from the error of their ways, many more 
convicted, and all in fome meafure roufed from their lethargy; 
is it to be wondered at, that many of the people (liould be 
{Irongly attached to fuch an inftrument, though it fhould be 
moft evident (as you fay, p. ibid,) " that he hath not any fu- 
*' perior talent at inflrudling the mind, or fhevving the force 
'' and energy of thofe arguments for a religious life, which. 
*' are diredted to in the everlafting gofpel r" For, is it not 
natural for people to love their fpiritual Father? Would not 
the Galatians have plucked out even their own eyes, and have 
given them to Paul? And is it not the bounden duty of all 
that love Jesus, to love thofe who labour in the word and 
dodrine, and are made greatly inftrumentai in the hands of 
God to revive his blefled work amongft them? And fuppofing 
that they have not any fuperior talent at inftrutSting the mind, 
&c. ought they not the more to thank and adore the fove- 
reignty of their heavenly Father, who fends by whom he will 
itn6^ and chufes the weak things of this world to confound 
the ftrong, and hides thofe things from the wife and prudent, 
which he is pleafed to reveal unto babes? 


[ 225 ] 

Gentlemen, I profefs myfelf a Calvimji as to principle, and 
preach no other doiStrines than thofe which your pious anccf- 
tors, and the founders of Harvard College^ preached lonw be- 
fore \ was born. And I am come to New- England^ with no 
intention to meddle with, much Icfs to deftroy the order of the 
Neiu-England churches, or turn out the generality of their 
niinirters, or re-fettle thcra with miniilers from En^Iand^ Scot- 
/and, and Ireland, as hath been hinted in a late letter written 
by the. reverend Mr. Ciapy Keclor of Tale-Collegc : fuch a 
thought never entered my heart ; neither, as I know of, has 
my preaching the leaft tendency thereunto. I am determined 
to know nothing among you, but Jesus Christ and him 
crucified. I have no intention of fetting up a party for myfelf, 
or to ftir up people againft their Paftors. Had not illnefs pre- 
vented, I had fome weeks ago departed out of thefe coafts. 
But as it is not a fcafon of the year for me to undertake a 
very long journey, and I have reafon to think the great God 
daily blefles my poor labours, I think it my duty to comply 
with the invitations that are fent me; and, as I am enabled, 
to be inflant in feafon and out of feafon, and to preach amon<>- 
poor finners the unfearchable riches of Jesus Christ. This 
indeed I delight in. It is my meat and my drink. I efteem 
it more than my neceflary food. This I think 1 may do, as 
a minifter of the King of kings, and a fubje^f^ to his prefent 
Majefty King George, upon whofe royal head I pray GoD^ 
the crown may long flourifii. And as I have a right to preach, 
fo I humbly apprehend the people, as chrlftians, as men, and 
Neiv- England men in particular, have a right to invite and 
hear. If pulpits fhould be fhut, blefled be God ! the fields 
are open, and I can go without the camp, bearino- the Re- 
deem.er's facred reproach : this I am ufed to, and glory in ; 
believing that if I fufler for it, I {hall fuffer for righteoufnefs 
fake. At the fame time I defire to be humbled, and afk public 
pardon for any rafn word I have dropped, or any thing I have 
written or done amifs. This leads me a'fo to afk forgiveneffj. 
Gentlemen, if I have done you or your fociety, in my journal, 
any wrong. Be pleafed to accept unfeigned thanks for all 
tokens of refped you (liewcd me when here lafl. And if you 
have injured me in the tcflimony you have published againft 

Vol. IV. P „,e 


C «2{S ] 
me and my condu£l- (as I think, to fay no more, you really 
have) it is already forgiven without afking, by Gentlemen 

Your affectionate humble fervant, 

G. W. 

P. ^. I have been- obliged to be very brief, on account 
of the variety of bufinefs in which I am necefTarilv eno-an-ed. 
and my daily calls to preach the everlafting gofpel. 



N A 



The Enthufiafm of Methodists 
and Papists compared ; 


Several Miftakes in fome Parts of my pall Writings 
and Condu6l are acknowledged, and iny prefent 
Sentiments concerning the Methodists ex- 

1 N A 


Out of the eater came forth meat. Judges xiv. 4. 

P 2 

£ 229 3 




I Have perufed your anonymous Pamphlet i and though upon 
fome accounts it does not deferve an anfvver, yet, as it 
may ferve a good purpofe, and be a means of re£}ifying foirKi 
miftakes, I fhall trouble you with a few remarks upon it. 

Who, or what you are, the world is left to guefs. If a 
clergyman, you have done well to conceal yourfclf, the whole 
ftrainofyour performance difcovering a levity unbecoming 
fuch a character. You yourfeif feem confcious of its need- 
ing, an apology: for in your preface, after having juft hinted 
at the " extravagant freaks of Mcthodifm^'' you add, " And 
'^ if in proving it, I am fometimes guilty of a levity of expref- 
*' fion, 'tis to be hoped fome allowance will be made, in con- 
*' fideration of the nature of the fubjdl, it bein^ no eafy mat- 
** ter to keep one's countenance, and be fteadily ferlous, where 
" others are ridiculous." Afiure yourfeif, Sir, I lliall make 
all the allowance you can reafonably defire ; but at the fame 
time muft obferve to you, that if others are ridiculous^ that is 
no reafoa why you fhould make yourfeif fo ; and if recover- 
ing the perfons concerned out of their extravagant freaks, be 
only a remote defign of your compofition, you have unhappily 
fixed upon a moft improbable, inefFedual remedy ; I mean, 
irreligious banter. 

However this be, your principal defign Is obvious, " As a 
** caution to all Proteftants, to draw a comparifon between 
•' the wild and pernicious Ei^thusiasms of fome of the moft 
*' efhinent Saints in the Popijh co?n?nunion^ and thofe of the Me- 
*' thodijis in our own country :" And who thofe eminent 
'* faints are you fpecify, page 9 feet. 2. *' the mof} wild, and 
*' extravagant, the moil ridiculous ftrolling, fanatical, deli* 
** rious, and mifchievous of all the faints in the Romifo com- 
P 3 munion," 

[ 2^0 ] 

*^ munlon." For otherwife, you fay, " the parallel would not 
*' hold, but come oft' defe61ive ; the whole condu(5l of the Me- 
" thodifts (not any one branch, it fcems, to be excepted) be 
" Ing but a counter-part of the mofl wild fanaticifm of the moft 
'• abominable communion,'* in its moft corrupt ages. Vid, 
Pref. This is avowedly your principal defign (which though 
I think fcmcwhat too reftraincd to anfwer exactly to your 
title page) muft be acknowledged to be a very expedient one ; 
if, beftdcs cautioning prctcftants, you intended, at the fame 
time, to cxpofc the Methodifti^, and to have them looked upon 
and treated as Papifts. 

How you have fucccedcd in this attempt, will appear when 
we come to examine the parallel you have drawn between 
them. To this I (hall confine myfelf, and confequently, on 
purpofe, omit making any direct reply to the account you 
give of the Moniarjjh ; it being not only quite foreign to the 
title page and principal defign of your tra(5l (as you fay, 
" they arofe in the fecond century, before popery had a be- 
" ino;,") but at the beft very precarious, being not founded 
upon writings of their own, which, as you inform us, are long 
fmce loft. 

To come then to your more dire6l comparifon between 
pGpiJI) and methodijUcal enthufiafts : " From a commiferation 
*' or horror, ariftng from the grievous corruptions of the 
*' v/orld, perhaps from a real motive of fmcere piety, they 
" both fet out with warm pretences to reformation :" page 
10. fe61:. 2. And is not this commendable, whether in Me- 
thodifts or in Papifts ? Or ought any one, think you, to take 
upon him holy orders, and witnefs that good confeftion be- 
fore many witneftes, " That he is inwardly moved thereto by 
" the Holy Ghoft," without having a real motive of ftncere 
piety, and a warm intention at leaft (if that be what you mean 
by a pretence) to promote, as much as in him lies, a real re- 
formation ? If by pretence, you would have us underftand a 
mere hypocritical pretence, you arc then guilty of a felf-con- 
tradidion : for hov/ can pretence and reality be reconciled ? 
Which of the two was the cafe of the Methodifts at their firft 
fetting out, if you pleafe, we will leave to the great day, to 
be determined by Kim who is appointed to be judge of quick 
and dead j to vvhooi alone all hearts are open, all defires 


C 231 ] 

known, and from whom no fecrets are hid. Actions are coo-- 
nizable by us, and not intentions. Let us lee how your pa- 
rallel holds good in refpecSt to thefe. 

" For the better advancement of their purpofcs, both, 
'« commonly (you fay, page ii. fedion 4.) begin their ad-' 
" ventures with field preaching. In which particular, though 
" the pradice of the Methodifts be notorious, it may not b3 
*' amifs to produce fome of their own words, were it only for 
*' the fake of the comparifon.'* But, good Sir, ought any 
one, merely for the fake of njaking a comparifon, (though 
ever fo juft) to exceed the bounds of truth, which you have 
here confelTedly done ? For what words have you produced, 
or indeed can you produce, to prove that the Methodifts be- 
gan their adventures with field^preaching ? If we may believe 
your own words, is not the quite contrary notorious ? For, 
fea. 5. page 15. you tell us, " That after the Methodifts 
*' had traduced the clergy, as long as they were permitted to 
'' do it, in their own churches and pulpits, they fet about 
*' this pious work of defamation more heartily in the fields." 

Here then your parallel fails at firft fetting out, you your- 
felf being judge. And here I would difmifs this article, being 
founded on a miftake, was it not proper to take notice of a 
curfory remark or two, which you have thought proper to 
make upon it. You afk, page 14. " How comes Mr. White- 
^^ field to fiy, there was never any fuch thing as field-preach- 
*' ing before ? Was it from the mere vanity of being thought 
*' the founder of it ? Or was he ignorant of the pra6lice feve- 
*' ral years ago, and even in our own nation ?" I thank you. 
Sir, for informing me better, and am glad to find that field- 
preaching was pradtifed in our nation feveral years ago. Why 
then fuch a noifc about it now I 

From what degrees of vanity my exprefting myfelf In that 
manner might proceed, I cannot now remember : but if, as 
you infinuate, page 33. " It is eafy to forefee there is to be 
" fome future calendar or legend of the faints y' (I prefumc yon 
V[\f3in,Mcthodi/l faints) I care not if the following article be 
be inferted concerning me. " Such a day the Reverend 
*' George Whitefield^ having had an univerfity education, and 
" been regularly ordained deacon and prieft of the Church of 
<« England^ and invited to preach in moft churches of the cities 

P 4 "of 

[ 23^ 1 

<« of Gloucejier^ Brijloly Weflminjler and London^ in the laft 
*' of which places he colleded near a thoufand pounds for the 
•* charity children, being caulelclly denied the further ufe of 
** the churches, becaufe he preachi d up the neceility of the 
" new birth, and juftincation in the fight of God by faith 
*' alone in the imputed righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ, bef^an 
*' to preach the fame do6lrines in the fields.^' 

This is the real truth : and whether I was the founder- or 
reviver of fuch field-preaching in this nation, need I be 
afliamed, merely becaufe St. Peter o{ Verona^ St. Nicholas of 
No/afcoy St. Anthony o^ Padua ^ and St. Ignatius were field- 
preachers before me ? Can you recollect no earlier, or more 
unexceptionable field-preachers than thefe ? What do you 
think of Jesus Christ and his Apoftles ? Were they not 
field-preachers ? Was not the bell: fcrmon that was ever deli- 
vered, delivered from a Mount t Was not another very ex- 
cellent one preaclied from a place called Mars-Hill? And did 
not Peter and "John preach above feventeen hundred years a2;o 
in Solorno7i's Porch^ and elfewhere, though the clergy of that 
generation commanded them to fpeak no more in the name 
of Jesus? Thefe were the perfons that I had in view, when 
I begun my adventures of field-preaching. Animated by their 
example, when caufelefly thruft out, 1 took the field ; and if 
this be my fliame, I glory in it: for, (to make ufe of the 
words of the late great Colonel Gardiner^ when he once looked 
upon the fpot where this adventure was carried on ; and C> 
that I may fpeak it with a becoming humility, " I am per- 
*' fuaded it will be faid at the great day of this and that man, 
*« that they were brought to God there." 

Another of your curfory remarks on field- preaching, is this ; 
*' Have not the Methodift preachers, as well as St. Anthony^ 
*' been attended with 2ijiurdy fet of followers, as their guards, 
*' armed v;ith clubs under their cloaths, menacing and terri- 
*' fying fuch as iliould dare to fpeak lightly of their apoftle r" 
You add, " I have heard it often aflirmed." And fo might 
the heathens have faid, that they heard it often i^rmed, 
*' that when the primitive chriftians received the blelTed fa- 
*' cramcnt, the ; killed a youno: child, and then fucked its 
*' blood.'* Bui. "as that any reafon why they fhould believe 
it .'' It is true indeed, fome of the Methodift preachers have 


[ 233 ] 

more than once been attended with a /lurdy fct of followers 
armed with clubs and other weapons, not 3s tht^ir guards, 
but oppofcrs, and perlccutors ; and who have not only me- 
naced and terrified, but adtually abufed and boat many of 
thofe, who came to hear him, whom you, 1 fuppofe, would 
call their apoflie. Both Methodift preachers and Methodift 
hearers too, for want of better arguments, have often felt the 
weight of fuch irrefiftible power^ which, literally fpealcMig, 
hath ftruck many of them dumb ; and I verily believe, had it 
not been for fome fuperior iiivifible guard, muft have ftruck 
them dead. Thefe are all the fturdy fet of armed followers, 
that the Methodifts know of. Other guards, bcfides thofe 
common to all chriftians, they defire none. And whatever 
you may unkindly infinuate, about my being aware of a tur- 
bulent fpirit, a fighting enthufiafm amongft them, becaufc 
I faid, " I dread nothing more than the falfc zeal of my 
*' friends in a fufFering hour ;" I think many years experience 
may convince the world, that the weapons of their warfare, 
like thofe of their blefied Redeemer and his apoftles, have tiot 
been carnal : but thanks be to (jOD, however you may ridi- 
cule his irrefiftible power, they have, through him, been 
mighty to the pulling down of Satan'i Ihong-holds, in many 
a fturdy finner's heart. 

But to return to the church, where in reality the Me- 
thodift adventures were begun. Section 5th, page 15, you 
tell the world, *' that after they had traduced the clergy, as 
** long as they were permitted to do it, in their own churches 
*' and pulpits, in order to feduce their flocks, and collect a 
" ftaring rabble, (pretty language this, Sir,) they fet about 
** this pious work oi defamation mere heartily in the fields." 
I was reading further, expe£ling to find your parallel. But 
I fee it is wanting. Are the Methodifts then originals in 
this particular ? Or could you, among all the hiftories of your 
eminent faints, find no inftances of St. Anthony 's,^ St. Francis'sy 
and St. Ignatius's carrying on this pious work of defamation 
in their days ? Will you fuffer me to fupply the deficiencv, 
by laying before you fome examples, which, though of an 
earlier date, may, by unprejudiced perfons, be efteemed as 
fuitable, as any of a popifii extraction ? In the New Tefta- 
ment, (a book you feem to have laid afide, or at leaft little 


[ 234 ] 

adverted to, when writing your pamphlet) we are informed^ 
That when John Bapti/i^ " Taw many of the Pharifees and 
'' Sadducees com.e to his baptifm, he laid unto them, O gene- 
*' ration of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the 
*' wrath to come ?" The fame book tells us, that St. Stephen 
being full of the Holy Ghojl^ and within a few moments of his 
deaih, faid to the whole Jcwijl) fanhedrim, '' Ye ftifF-necked 
'' a^id uncircumcifed in hearts and ear?, ye do always refift 
•' the Holy Ghofl: ; as your fathers did, fo do ye." And our 
.Lord Jesus Christ himfelf, the maftcr of both thefe, in 
one chapter denounces no lefs than thirteen woes againft the 
Icribcs and pharifees, whofe chief power of doing good, and 
promoting the common falvation, he well knew, depended 
upon their character, as much as any clergy in any age of 
the church whatfoever. Not that I would be underflood by 
this to inhnuate, that all which the Methoditt preachers 
have fpoken againft the clergy, was fpoken in the fame Spi- 
rit, or with the like divine authority, as our Lord, his 
harbinger, and his protomartyr, fpoke. That would be car- 
rying the parallel too far indeed. There is generally much^ 
too much feverity in our firtt zeal. At lead there was* in 
mine. All I would therefore infer is this, that what fome 
(not to fay you, Sir,) may term '' Gall of bitternefs and 
" black art of calumny," may be nothing but an honcfl te- 
ftimony againft the corruptions of a degenerate church, and 
may, without any degree of wickednefs, be fuppofed to 
come from the " Spirit and power given from God." If we 
deny this, not only Ija'iah^ Jeremiah, and almoft all the pro- 
phets, but likewife Jesus Christ and his Apoftles, muft 
be looked upon by us, (as I fuppofe they were by the men 
in whofe day they lived) as great jlandercrs^ and dealing 
much in this black art of calumny and defamation. 

But, if the Aicthodills have been fo much to blame, for 
carrying on this pious work of defamation, in the church and 
their journals ; will that authorife you in pra^tifing the fame 
hiack art in your pam.phlet ? Give me leave (fmce you have 
taken that liberty with mc) to gather fome of your flowers 
en this Gccsfion. 

" This dangerous and prcfumptuous fevSl ; ftroling predi- 
cants ; itinerant enthufialh ; methoJiftical enthufiafts 3" with 


[ 235 ] 
many other flowers of a like nature, though not of a very 
fcriptural fcent, may be picked ofF almoft every page of youf 
performance. Upon the reviews of which, I fuppofe you 
will own, that you are at Jeaft even with the Methodifts* 
Only it muft be allowed, there is this difference; you are tak- 
ing u'p a trade, which they, as far as I know to the contrary, 
have for fome time laid down. 

And why muft you difturb the dead on this occafion? Were 
there not flowers enough to be gathered out of Mr. Wejley^ 
Journal and mine, without calling up Mr. Seivard's ghoft (as 
you have in efFedt done, by quoting his Journal) in order to 
terrify your readers ? Good man ! He has long fince entered 
into his reft, and confequently cannot now anfwer for himfelf. 
Permit me to fpeak a word or two in behalf of my deceafed 
friend. He was certainly a ferious warm chriftian, but (like 
his fellow-traveller) in the heat of his zeal, fpoke and wrote 
fome unguarded things. His and my treatment of Archbifiiop 
Tillotfon^ was by far too fevere. We condemned his ftate, 
when we ought only in a candid manner, (which I would do 
again if called to it) to have mentioned what we judged wrong 
in his dodirines. I do not juftify it. I condemn myfelf m.oft 
heartily, and aik pardon for it ; as, I believe, he would do, 
was he now alive. But then, do not you ftill go on. Sir, to 
imitate us in our faults : Let the furviving Methodifts anfwer 
for themfelves : let Seward and Tillotfon lie undifturbed. And 
if you think me blameworthy (as I certainly was) to write fo 
difrefpe^tful of the one ; why fhould you, by making an ill- 
natured quotation, rake as it were into the very allies of the 
dead, only for the poor gratification of digging up a flower, 
to blacken the memory of the other ? 

But to proceed. For feveral pages, you go on Imitating iis 
in this fame picus work of defamation. If you can bear to read 
your own words, I will tranfcribe a few of them : feci. 6. p. 1 7. 
" But though thefe ftrolling predicants have allured fome 
'' itching ears, and drawn them afide by calumniating their 
*' proper paftors, they have {'qi\{c enough to know the itch 
" will go off, and tlieir trade not continue long, unlefs they 
" can produce fomething novel or uncommon ; what the 
" wandering fheep have not been ufed to in their churches. 
" Therefore th?y muft find out, or rather revive fuch pecu- 

" liaritic^. 

t 236 ] 

<* llarities, as have formally attended enthufiafms, and are 
*' moft likely to captivate the vulgar. Hence their" — Bat 
hold, Sir ; — and before you run yourfelf quite out of breath^ 
I inrreat you to flop a little, whilft I put to you one or two 
queftions. Believe you thcle things of the Methodifls ? I 
fuppofe you believe them : otherwife. Why afTert them fo 
ftrongly ? How then can you put even a perhaps to your fup- 
pofition of their ^* fctting out with a real motive of fmcere 
*' piety ?" Had not you beft alter the title of your book, or 
at leaft make fome addition to it? Let it run thus : " The 
" enthulialm and impojhure of the A'lethodifls and Papifts 
*' compared." For furely, unlefs pcrfons were arrived at a 
very high degree of impofture, they could not purpofely (as 
you feem to infer they did) defign thefe things. 

By your leave, we will examine the evidence you produce 
in proof of thefe bold allertions : '' The firil ncceflary point 
*' for drawing followers, is to put on a fandifud oppeara?ue, 
*' by a demure look, and precife behaviour, in difcouife or 
*' filence, in apparel and food ; and other marks of external 
*' piety." Seft. 7. page 18. Again, ie«5t. 8, page 20. " At 
*' firft, the Methodifts, as a fceiv cf humility^ made it a point 
*^ not to ride, either on horfeback or in a coach, though oc- 
*' cafionally, and for conveniency-fake, they have fincc 
*' thought proper to deviate from their rule." Well, Sir, 
you fee then they are not altogether incorrigible. Let them 
alone; and who knows but for their convcniency-fake, and 
it may be from a deeper knowledge of the v/orld, of them- 
felves, and of GoD, they may be reformed in fome other par- 
ticulars ? 

Upon the fame account, you fay, feci. 9, page /^/V* 

fine cloaths and rich furniture fland abfokitely condemned 4" 
(not by me, it feems, for I find no quotations out of my 
Journals annexed) " But oh ! (as a part or confcqucnce of 
" this) how good and faint-like it is^ to go dirty, ragged, 
" and flovenly I And hov/ pioufly did Mr. Uh'Uefidd therc- 
" fore take care of the outward man ! My apparel was 
** mean, &c." Scft. 10. page 21. Really, Sir, whilft I read 
this part of your performance, I could not help thinking, 
that a perfon of your turn of mind, would have been apt to 
have joined with thofe naiighry boys, v/ho, when they faw 
c that 

[ ^37 1 

that demure, rough-, hairy, flovenly enthufiaft, called Elijah, 
followed after him, and cried, " Go up, thou bald pate, go.** 
Or, if you had lived in John Baptiji's time, and feen him 
come preaching in ihe wildcrnefs, wiih a camel-hair garment, 
and a leathern girdle about his loins ; efpecially if you had 
heard, that his meat was only locufts and wild honey; would 
you not have been tempted, think you, to give in your verdicl 
amongfl: thofe who faid, " He had a devil?" Know you 
not, that th'jfe are extremes which young awakened perfons 
are apt to run into when under a fcnfe of fm, and influenced 
by what the Apoftle calls the /pit it of bondage ? Do I not 
mention them as fuch ? And are they not things which of 
thcmfelves fall off, when perfons are brought into the com- 
forts of religion, and have received the fpirit of adoption^ 
whereby they cry, Abba, Father ? But I (hall leave you at 
prefent, to make as merry as you will with the fanclified ap- 
pearances, and dirty ragged cloaths of thefe enthufiaftical Me- 
thodifts. Let us pafs on to your iith fe£lion, page 22. 
" Of this nature likewife, is their utter condemnation of ^11 
** recreation^ in every kind and degree. Mr. Whiiefield la- 
** ments," (indeed I do. Sir, even now I am grow^ older) 
*' that in his younger days he was not convinced of the abfo- 
*' lute unl^wfulnefs of playing at cards, and of reading and 
" feeing plays." And if you are in advanced years, and a 
clergyman too, and are not convinced of the unlawfulnefs of 
cards, and can find time from your other ftudies and duties of 
your calling, to fee or read fuch plays as the generality of ours 
are, I think you ought to lament it too. For what fays our 
church in her 75th canon ? *' No ecckfiaftical perfons 
*' fhall at any time, other than for their honefb neccflities, 
*' refort to any taverm or alehoufes ; neither fhall they board 
*' or lodge in any fuch places. Furthermore, they fnall not 
*' give themfelves to any bafe or fervile labour, or to drinking 
" or riot^ fpcnding their time idly by day or night, playing 
*' at dice^ cards, or tables, or any other unlavjful game ; but at 
f' all times convenient, they (hall hear or read fomewhat of 
** the Holy Scriptures, or fliall occupy themfelves with fome 
<' other honeft ftudy or exercife, always doing the things 
*' which fhall appertain to honefty, and endeavouring to profit 
♦* the church of. God; having aUvay; in mind, that they 

*^ ought 

[ 238 ] 

<* ought to excel all others in purity of life, and fiiould be 
*' examples to the people to live well and chriftianl}', under 
*' pain of ecclefiaftical cenfures to be inflidled with feverity, 
*' according to the qualities of their ofiences." O when 
fhall this once be ! 

In your 'i2th"feift, page ^4. you gg on to rally thefe en- 
thufiaftical Methodifts for x\\t\x fe-ming contempt of money. And 
again, fc£t. 13. page 26. you fay, " Another bait to catch 
*' admirers, a?id very common among enthufiafts, is a reftlefs 
*' impatience and infatiable thirft of ira^jeUing^ and undertak- 
*' ing dangerous voyages for the converfion of infidels', together 
** with a declared contempt of all dangers, pains, and fufFer- 
** ings." And then, after drawing your ufual comparifon be- 
tweeen thefe enthufiaftical Methodifts and popifh faints, you 
make this judicious remark, " The windmill is indeed in all 
<« their heads." 

Had I a mind to return your falfe and low wit, I might 
reply, " There is a greater windmill in thine own ;" but at 
prefent, I am too ferious to make fport with my own deceiv- 
ings. Surely, Sir, you forget yourfelf, or you never would 
write thtts at random : for is there any thing, that the blefTeU 
Author of our religion more recommends to his difciples, than 
to *' take heed and beware of covetoufnefs," and to " take 
heed, left ait any time their hearts fhould be overcharged with 
furfeiting and drunkennefs, or the cares of this life ?" What 
faid St. Peter ? '' Silver and gold have I none." What fays 
St. Paid? " But thou, O man of God, flee thefe things." 
And in refpeft to contempt, and fufFeriHgs for the gofpel, does 
not our Lord command us to expert, to prepare for, and re- 
joice in them ? Nay, does he not bid us to leap for joy, and 
be exceeding glad, when we^have all manner of evil fpoken 
againft us falfely for his name's fake ? In obedience to this 
command, did net the great Apoftle of the Gentiles declare, 
that he took pleafure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necejli- 
ties, in perfecutions, in diftrefies for Christ's fake ? Did he 
not, like his Lord, go about doing good ? Was he not filled 
with a holy reftlefs impatience and infatiable thirft of travet- 
ling^ and undertaking dangerous voyages for the converfion of 
inndels ? And had he not a declared contempt of all dangers, 
pains, and fufFerings, ^Yhen^ like a true chriftian hero^ he faid 

3 ^« 

[ 2^9 ] 

to his mourning friends, " What mean ye to weep and break 
my heart ? I am ready not only to be bound, but to die alfo 
, for the Lord Jesus ?" Dare you, Sir, call the Apoftlcs en- 
thufiafts ? Or think you all this v/as only a ha'it to catch ad- 
mirers ? And yet, what havfe you done lefs, by aflcrting, 
that an infatiable thirft of travelling, &c. is very common 
among enthufiafts? I add, among our Lord and his Apo- 
ftles alfo : and can we copy after more unexceptionable ex- 
amples ? 

'' But the Methodifls contempt of money is only 2^ fccming 
^' contempt .''* That is more than you know. Here you are 
again invading the divine prerogative. The great day will 
deterniine this. In the mean while, I would obferve to you, 
that whatever can be produced out of any of my writinos, to 
prove that I have defired, or prayed for ill urage,'pe'ffecutTon, 
martyrdom, death, &c. I retra6l it with all my heart, as' pro- 
ceeding from the overflov;ings of an irregular, though well- 
meant zeal. However it might be with me formerly, I now 
find myfelf no ways difpofed to fay with Petcr^ " Though 
all men deny thee, yet will not L" Alas I alas ! we know 
not what feathers' we fhall be, when tofTed in the wind of 
temptation ! Sufferings for the caufe and crofs of Christ, 
will come faft enough of themfelves, without our praying for 
them. But (hould the MethoJifts be called even to die for 
the caufe in which they are embarked, as I am verily per- 
fuaded it is the caufe of God, fo I doubt not but fuffcrincr 
grace will be given for fufFering times, and the Spirit of 
Christ and of glory will reft upon the fufFerers fouls. 
■ But it is time to follow you to your 14th fccf. page 31. 
" The pious cruelty oi corporal feverities^ or mortification by 
*' tormenting the fiefh, is another common method of gain- 
*' in:::: a reputation for fandity. Such as long and rigorous 
*' faftings, gafhing and flaying the body with fcourgcs, 
" armed with rowels and fharp tags, and rolling naked in 
" thorns and thiftles." But thefe laft particulars, you f-;v, 
" Our own difctplinmians cannot, in any tolerable mcafurc, 
*' pretend to come up to." What occafion was there then 
for mentioning them ? Only to caft a popular odium upon 
thefe enthufiaftical Methodifts. Hoc eft ttrugo mera. " How- 
*' ever, fomeihing of this kind we have from their own rcla- 

'' tion." 

f ^40 ] 

«' tlon." And fomething of this kind we have in the Evan- 
geiift's relation of the life of Jesus o^ Nazareth -^ who, as we 
are informed, before he came out into his public miniflry, 
underwent a long and rigorous falling, even of forty days an4 
forty nights. And fomething of this kind we have in the re-» 
lation that difciplinarian the Apoftle P^w/ gives of himfelf; 
for he tells us he was in faftings often. It is true he does con- 
demn (as you obferve, p. 33.) that a<p^a,^ia aci(j.ct]oi, the not 
fparing of the body, as ufelefs and fuperftitious, when done 
in order to recommend us to the favour of God, or put in 
the place, or joined with the merits of Jesus Christ. Yet 
elfewhere^ he informs us, that he made it his common pra£lic<» 
to keep bis body under, (uVcyr/c'^ &;) and bring it into fubjec- 
tion : and think you all this was only to " gain a reputation 
" for fan6lity ?" If you will believe himfelf, it was for a 
nobler and more important end, " Left while he preached to 
*' others, he himfelf fhould be a caft-away." And how do 
you know but thcfe Methodifts might, at their firft fetting 
out, have ufed, and even now may ufe abftinence for the fame 
purpofe ? Nay, that this very motive led them into fome ex- 
tremes in it, which however muft be efteemed an error of the 
right fide ? Why will you (lili perfift in taking the keys out 
of the hands of Omnifcience, and prefumptuoufly judge the 
intentions of people's hearts ? If we had a mind to imitate 
you in this ralh way of j 'edging, might not we fufpecf}:, (as 
your paniplilet came out in that fealon) that in order to 
wound our church governors through the fides of the Metho- 
J^ifts, you intended this part of your pamphlet as a burlefque 
upon them, for enjoining fuch a lofig and I'lgorous fcijling^ as 
that of forty days, commonly called Lent P 

I fliould now proceed,, in order, to the examination of your 
15th, 16th, and 17th fedtions ; but as thefc, together with th«» 
the 19th, wholly refer to Mr. IVejley^ I fliall leave you to his 
corredlion, if he thinks proper to take you in hand. However, 
there is fomething fo extraordinary in your 17th fcciion, that, 
I think, it calls for a curfory remark. '' But, previous to 
" this elevated flate, that we may not wander too far from 
** the faints progrefs, comes their convcrfion^ which, as an- 
" other inftance of fanatical peculiarities, they reprefent as 
" fudden and Injlantaneouiy' luilaiitaneous converfron, a 


t ni ] 

fisnatical peculiarity ! I prefume inftantaneous regenefatioii 
inuft be a fanatical peculiarity alfo* What then becomes of 
that Dia?ja of the prefent age, baptiffnal regeneration ? Which 
muft be inftantaneous, and tb»it always too, if every child is 
really regenerated when baptized ? 

But this only by the by. In your i8th fediion, page 43. 
you return to me. ** After thefe fudden converfiom^ ufually 
*' they receive their affurances of falvation j and thefe (as al fa 
*' the proofs of their converfion) are certainly knou'n, heard^ 
** feen or felt ; they can afcertain the particular time and 
*^ place of their receiving them ; as fo many feals of the Spi- 
«' rit." Thefe you call, page 44. " Prefumpiuous irnagina^ 
*' iionsJ* Is aflurance of faith then, in your opinion, a pre- 
fumptuous imagination ? For you not only ridicule thfe Me- 
thodifts way of exprefling it, which in feveral refpeds may 
have been unguarded 3 nor are you content with afterting^ 
that fome who really had not this afTurance, have prefumptu- 
oufly imagined they had it, which we readily grant ; for there 
is counterfeit as well as current coin : but you feem to ex- 
plode the thing itfelf. And yet you intend in this pamphletj 
to draw a parallel htt\N^tn the Methodifts and Papifts. Gould 
you give a greater proof of your fymbolizing with the Papifts 
yourfelf ? Or need you be informed, that one grand article 
of the council of Trent is this, " That there is no fuch thing 
*' as a perfon's knowing that his fins are forgiven him, or bc- 
** ing aflured of his falvation 3" and that with good reafon : 
for if there be fuch a thing as being aflured of the forgivenefs 
of our fms by the internal teftimony, whether mediate or im- 
mediate, of the Spirit of God j and if a perfon ought to be 
fatisfied only with that, then how could the people be brought 
to believe in, and truft to the mere external verbal ahfoluiion of 
opriejl? Our church, on the contrary^ in One of her hortii- 
liesj fays, that a true faith *' is a fure truft and confidence 
*' in God, that by the merits of Christ, his fins are for- 
*' given, and he reconciled to the favour of God." And 
that the Scriptures every where promife to believers, a fure 
and internal witnefs from the Spirit of God, to witnefs with 
their fpirits that they are his children, is fo evident, that he 
who runs may read. What fays our Lord ? '' He that be- 
Jieveth in me, out of his belly fhall flow rivers of living water." 

V^oL. IV. (^ Thlj 


f 242 i 

This Tpakc he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him 
ihould receive." What fays St. Paul? " Becaufe ye are fons, 
*' God hath fent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, 
" crying, Abba, Father. Tk-e Spirit itfelf beareth witnefs 
" with our Spirit, that we are the children of God." Saith 
another, " He that believeth hath the witnefs in himfelf." 
And a third exhorts all " to give diligence to make their 
calling and ekftion fure." Art thou a mafter in Ifrael^?^ pro- 
teftant minifter, and a minifter of the Church of England^ and 
knoweft not thefe things ? 

But to come nearer to a clofe. Your 20th fe61:ion is in- 
troduced thus: " And where will thefe bold enthufiaftsy?^/)^"' 
I anfwer for one, in order to relieve both myfelf and you, even 
here^ Sir. And without giving you the trouble of taking a 
flight after us to heaven, from whence, you fay, page 48. 
'' Thefe methodiftical enthufiafts have taken the facred light 
*' and fire, in order to compafs effectually their own, and 
*' others delufion," I will freely and readily acknowledge, 
that you and others have had too much occafion for reflcclion, 
by feveral things that have been unwarily dropped up and down 
in my Journals. 

Thefe, you inform us in your preface, are what you have 
chiefly confulted. In this you have ailed wifely enough for 
your purpofe , though whether candidly or not, I will leave 
you and the world to judge, fmce there were later writings 
of mine, which might as eafily have been procured. My 
Journals were fome of my mofl: early performances^ wrote too 
in the very heights of my firfl; popularity (which is apt to make 
the fl:rongeft head run giddy) in the midft of which, perfon§ 
very often do things, which after-experience and riper judg- 
ment teach them to correct and amend. 

This is true, however, in refpedt to myfelf; and, to con- 
vince you that this is the real language of my heart, and not 
extorted from me by your pamphlet, I will lay before you an 
extract of a letter v/ritten by me to a worthy friend in Souths 
Carolina^ in my late return from Bermudas^ and publifhed, 
with very little alteration, in Scotland months ago *. 

* Vide the Letter at full length, vol. il. p. 143, 


;[ 243 3 

On hoard the Brlgg Betfey^ June 24, I749. 
*' Reverend Sir, 
i— vrESTERDAY I made an end of revifing all my 
Journals. BlefTed be God for letting me have lelfurs 
to do it. 1 purpole to have a new edition before I fee America. 
Alas! alas! in how many things have I judged, and a£lcd 
wrong ! I have been too rafli and hafty in giving charaiSlers 
both of places and perfons. Being fond of fcriprure lan- 
guage, I have often ufed a ftyle too apoflolical, and at the 
fame time I have been too bitter in my zeal, wild-fire has 
been mixed with it; and I find that I have frequently written 
and fpoken too much in my own fpirir, when I thought I was 
writing and fpeaking entirely by the alliilance of the Spirit 
of God. I have likewife too much made impreflions, with- 
out the written word, my rule of a61ing ; and too foon, and 
too explicitly, publiftied what had better been kept in longer, 
or left to have been told after my death. By thefe things, I 
have given fome wrong touches to God's ark, hurt the blefled 
caufe I would defend, and ftirred up needlefs oppofition. This 
has humbled me much fince I have been on board, and made 
rne think of a faying of Mr. Henry's, " Jofepb had more honejly 
" than he had policy, or he never would have told his dreams.'* 
At the fame time, I cannot but blefs, and praife, and mag- 
nify that good and gracious God, who imparted to me ^o 
much of his holy fire, and carried me, a poor weak youth, 
through fuch a torrent both of popularity and contempt, and 
fet fo many feals to my unworthy miniftrations. I blefs him 
for ripening my judgment a little more, for giving me to fee, 
confefs, and 1 hope in fome degree to corre61: and amend fome 
of its miftakes. I thank God for giving me grace to embark 
in fuch a blefled caufe, and pray him to give me flrength to 
.hold on, and increale in zeal and Jove to the end. Thus, 
dear Sir, I have unburdened my heart to you. I look upon 
you to be my F'ldus Achates, and therefore deal thus freely. 
If I have time and freedom before we land, I think to begin 
and write a fliort account of what has happened for thefe {qm^ix 
years laft paft; and when I get on £l:iorc, God willing, I 
parpofe to revife and correal the firft part of my lifc.'^ 

Q^ 2 This 

[ 244 1 

This I am now about, and when finlfhed, fhall fend it 
into the world, I hope in a more unexceptionable drefs; 
though I am fully fatisfied before-hand, that write or fpealc 
of the things of God as unexceptionably as may be, they will 
be always cfteemed foolifiinefs by the natural man, becaufe 
they can only be fpiritualjy difcerned. However, the way of 
duty is the way of fafety. Let me but be found in that, 
and I can then chearfully leave the confequences with God, 
In the mean while, I thank you. Sir, for pointing out to me 
a very wrong expreflion in the lafl part of my life. My words 
are thefe ; " I could no longer walk on foot as ufual ; but 
'' was conftrained to go in a coach, to avoid the Hofannas of 
*' the m.ultitude." Your remark runs thus, fe£l:. 8. page 20. 
*' Very profane^ unlefs it be a falfe print for huzxa's" I could 
wifh it had been foj but the word was my own ; and though 
not intended to convey a profane idea^ was very wrong and 
unguarded, and I defire may be buried in oblivion, unlefs you, 
or fome other kind perfon, are pleafed to remind me of it, 
in order to lay me low before God and man. 

A review of all this, together with my having dropped fome 
too flrong expreffions concerning ahfolute reprobation ; and more 
efpecially, my mentioning Mr. Wejlefs cafting a lot on a pri- 
vate occafion, known only to God and ourfelvcs, have put 
me to great pain. Speaking of this laft, you fay, page 75. 
*' A more judicious fenWnent^ perhaps, never dropt from Mr. 
•' JVhitefield's pen." I believe. Sir, the advice given was right 
and good j but then it was wrong in me to publifh a private 
tranfadion to the world ; and very ill judged, to think the 
glory of God could be promoted by unneceflarily expofing 
my friend. For this I have afked both God and him pardon 
years ago. And though I believe both have forgiven me, 
yet I believe I fl:iall never be able to forgive myfelf. As it 
was a public fault, I think it fliould be publicly acknowledged; 
and I thank a kind providence for giving me this opportunity 
of doing it. 

As for the letters^ out of which you, and the author of the 
'' Obfervations on the conduit and behaviour of the Metha- 
dijh^^ have taken fo many extraile, I acknowledge that many 
things in them were very exceptionable, though good in the 

main ; 

[ 245 J 

main ; and therefore they have been fupprefTcd fome time. 
CoJIing lois^ I do not now approve of^ nor have I for rcveraV 
years J neither do I think it a fafe way (though praaifed,^ I 
doubt not, by many good men) to make a lottery of th pip- 
iures^ by dipping into them upon every occafion. 

And now, Sir, I am fomewhat prepared to hear what fol- 
lows in your 48th page. " Nothing lefs than infpirationSy 
" revelations, illuminations, and all the extraordinary and im- 
*' mediate adions of all the perfons in x.\\t facredT/wity, will 
<« ferve their turn. So that now every flafh of zeal and devo- 
" tion ; every wild pretenfion, fcheme, tenet, and over-bear> 
" ing dilate; impulfes, impreffions, feelings, impetuous 
<« tranfports and raptures ; intoxicating vapours, and fumes 
*' of imagination ; phantoms of a crazy brain, he. all are 
<« afcribed, with an amazing prefumption, to the extraordi- 
*' nary interpofition of heaven fetting its feal to their mif- 
♦' fion." 

Judge you now, Sir, whether I am one of thofe, of whom 
you are pleafed to fpeak thus, page 49. " In (hort, what- 
"ever they think, fay, or do, is from God ; and whatever 
" oppofeth, and ftands in their way, is from the Devil." No, 
Sir, my miftakes have been too many, and my blunders too 
frequent, to make me fet up for infallibility. I came foon 
into the world; I have carried high fail, whilil running 
through a whole torrent of popularity and contempt; and, by 
this means, have fometimes been in danger of overletting. 
But many and frequent as my miftakes have been, or may be, 
as I have no part to a£l:, if I know any thing of my heart, 
but to promote God's glory, and the good of fouls, as foon 
as I am made fenfible of them, they ihall be publicly acknow- 
ledged and retracted. 

At the fame time, I fliould lie againft reafon, fcripture, and 
above fourteen years experience, if I denied, that God has 
been pleafed, from time to time, to vouchfafe me conifortahle 
affijlance and fupports \ or that a great and glorious work (if 
the converfion of fouls may be termed fo) has been begun, and 
is now carrying on in thefe, and feveral other parts of the 
world, by the inftrumentality of thofe whom you ftile enthu- 
fiaftical Methodifts. 

0^2 . Indeed, 

[ 246 ] 

Indeed, the Ingenious author of the *' Confiderations upon 
«' the converfion and apoftlefhip of St. Paul^' fpeaking of the 
enthufiafm that appears not only in the lives of fome enthu- 
fiaftical heretics, but even fome of the methodifts now, ven- 
tures to fay, that " all the divine communications, illumina- 
" tions, and extacies to which they have pretended, evidently 
•^ rprung from much felf-conceir, working together with the 
*' vapours of melancholy upon a v/arm imagination." That 
the mentioning thefe divine communications fo freely to the 
world, mi^ht be mixed with fome degrees of unobferved vani- 
ty, or want of caution, may be probable. But roundly to 
ailcrt, that all their communications were only pretended^ and 
fprung from no other fources but felf-conceit, vapours of me- 
lancholy, and a warm imagination, is I think unbecoming fo 
young a convert as ihat author, is a blemifti to his performance, 
and a miftake which, I truft, he himfelf will be happily con- 
vinced of, when he comes to experience more of the power 
of that Redeemer's rcfurrection, which the Apoftle, of whofe 
converfiun he in the main fo excellently treats, longed fo 
much to know. 

Without running fuch lengths in judging others, or need- 
lefsly fearing to be accounted enthufiafts or methodifts our- 
felves ; when writing in defence of chriftianity, I think we 
may rationally allov/, that there may be much light and 
afnftance given from God, though at the fame time fome- 
thing of our own imaginations may poflibly be blended with 

This I take to be true with rerpe6l to the Methodifts. 
That imagination h^s mixed itfelf with the work, cannot be 
denied ; and is no more than what muft neceflarily be expell- 
ed ; for whoever faw fire without fome fmoke ? but that the 
work itfelf is of God j and as good Biftiop Lat'uner faid, when 
the papifts laid a lighted faggot at Dr. Ridley's feet, fo we 
jnay venture to afHrm, " a candle is lighted in England 
(through the inftrumentality of the Methodifts,) which will 
not c afily be put out." 

The do(?fcrines which they chiefly infift upon, are the great 

doflrines of the reformation : " That man is very far gone 

^^ Irom original righieoufnefs. That he cannot turn and pre- 

3 ^^ pare 

[ 247 ] 
« pare himfelf by his own natural flrcngth and good works 
*' to faith and calling upon God. That we are accounted 
*' righteous before God, only for the merit of our Lord and 
*^ Saviour Jesus Christ, by faith, and not for our own 
*' works or defervings. That albeit good works, which are 
*' fruits of faith, and follow after juftification, cannot put 
*' away our fins, and endure the fevcrity of God's judgment j 
*' yet are they pleafing and acceptable to God in Christ, 
*' and do fpring out neceflarily of a true and lively faith; 
*' infomuch that by them a lively faith may be evidently 
*' known, as a tree is difcerned by its fruits." Thefe are 
dodrines as diametrically oppofite to the church of Romc^ as 
light to darknefs. They are the very do6lrines, for which 
Ridley^ Latimer^ Cranmer, and fo many of our firft reformers 
were burned at the ftake. And I will venture to fay, are 
doiSlrines which, when attended with a divine energy, and 
preached with power, " without taking to their afliftance the 
*' feveral arts of management and craft,'' always have, and al- 
ways will, maugre all oppofition, make their way through the 
world, however weak the inftruments that deliver them may 
be, and whatever offences and divifions about fome non-ejfen" 
iials may arife among themfelves. 

Thefe are things which always did, and always will happen 
in the pureft ages of the church. Raul and Barnabas were 
permitted not only to fall out, but to feparate from each other, 
merely on account of a difpute that arofe about taking with 
them one John, whofe furname was Mark. And yet this wai 
over-ruled for the furtherance of the gofpel. There was an 
inceftuous perfon in the church of Corinth^ when under even a 
truly apoftolical infpedion. And to what heights the conten- 
tions arofe between Luther^ Calvin^ and ZivingliuSy at the firft 
dawnings of the reformation, about predeftination aiid the 
facrament ; and that of Bifliop Cranmer, Ridley, and Hooper, 
many years after, about the veftments, is too notorious to be 
mentioned. It muft needs be, that fuch offences come, whilfl 
good men carry about with them the remainders of indwelling 
fm, prejudices of education, blindnefs in their undcrflandings, 
and have an artful enemy always near at hand, and always ready 
to blow up the coals of contention, in order to raife a fmoke, 

Q^ 4 whereby 

[ 248 ] 

ivhereby he may blacken or blemifti the work of God. The 
blefled Jesus wifely permits fuch things, to cure us of fpirituai 
pride, to remind us of the necelTity of looking to himfelf, to 
teach us to ceafe from man, by convincing us, that the beft 
of men are but men at the befl, to inure us to long-fuffering 
and forbearance one towards another, to excite in us a more 
eager defire after heaven, where thefe diforders will be at an 
end, and for a more glorious difplay of his infinite wifdom 
and power at the day of judgment j when he will convince the 
wondering world, that in fpite of all the fubtlety, malice, and 
rage of his enemies, together with the weakneiles, blindnefles, 
and jarrings of bis friends, he has fully accomplifhed that 
glorious work, for which he came to fhed his blood j I mean 
the renewal of a multitude of fouls, which no man can 
number, out of every nation, language, and tongue, by 
making them partakers of his righteoufnefs, and, through the 
powerful operations of his blefled Spirit, bringing them back 
to, and re-inftamping upon them that divine image, in which 
they were originally createjd. 

To awaken a drowfy world to a fenfe of this, to roufe them 
out of their formality, as well as profanenefs, and put them 
upon feeking after a prefent and great falvation, to point oqt 
to them a glorious reft, which not only remains for the people 
of God hereafter, but which by a living faith the very chief 
of fmners may enter into even here, and without which the 
mod: blazing profeilion is nothing worth j is, as far as I knov/, 
the one things the grand and common point, in which all the 
Methodifts endeavours do center. 

This is what fome of all denominations want to be reminded 
of; and to ftir them up to feek after the life and power of go4- 
linefs, that they may be chriftians not only in word and profef- 
fion, but in fpirit and in truth, is, and, through Jesus Christ 
ftrengthening me, fhall be the one fole bufmefs of my life. 
*' As for all thofe (as one exprefles it) who are for clipping 
*' the wings of the myftic dove, and for conlining the power 
*' and Spirit of God within the bounds of human c/lablifimentSy 
*' I am well aware of what oppofition I muft continue to meet 
" with from that quarter. But blefled be God, there are 
^' fome few amongfl; us that are men of greater latitude, who 

• • cai^ 

[ 249 ] 

" can think, and dare fpeak, more worthily of God's fovc- 
?' reignty, and acknowledge a work to be his, thou<?h it be 
*' not according to the exad meafure of canonical fitnefs.''^ 
Amongft thefe, I fliall be fure to find hearty friends and well- 
wifliers. And if by others of more confined principles, I am 
for this accounted an enthufiaft, papift, or any thing elfe, they 
pr you are very welcome to confer that, or any other title, 
ispon. Sir, 

Your very hymble fervant. 



Expoftulatory Letter, 



Count Zinzendorff, 


JLord Advocate of the U n i t a s F r a t r u m, 

Ofoolijh GalatianSy who hath bewitched you ? Gal. iii. i. 

[ 253 ] 

A N 

Expoftulatory Letter, 

London^ Jpril 2^i IJSZ' 
My Lord, 

ALTHOUGH I am perfuaded, that nothing hath a 
greater tendency to ftrengthen the hands of infidels, 
than too frequent altercations between the profeflbrs of 
chriftianity ; yet there are certain occafions, wherein the ne- 
ceflary defence of the principles of our holy religion, as well 
as the pradtice of it, renders public remonftrances of the 
greateft ufe and importance. The facred pages afford us 
many examples of this nature. When Aaron was prevailed 
on by the Ifraelites, to make a golden calf, and ofFer facrifice 
to it, what an holy indignation did Mofes exprefs againft him 
and them ? When Peter and Barjiabas were carried away 
with the diffimulation of the Jews^ how openly did the Apo- 
ftle Paul withftand them to the face, and reprove them before 
all, '' Becaufe they were to be blamed?" And when this 
fame Apoftle faw the churches of Corinth and Galatia in dan- 
ger of being drawn away from the fimplicity of the gofpel, 
what a fervent teftimony did he bear againft the authors and 
abettors of fuch a dcftrudlive fcheme ? 

I mention thefe inftances, my Lord, becaufe I hope they 
will ferve as a fufficient apology for my troubling your Lord- 
fhip with this letter. For thefe many years paft, have I been 
a filent, and I truft I can fay, an impartial obferver of the 
progrefs and efFedls of Moravianifm^ both in England and 
America ; but fuch (hocking things have been lately brought 
to our ears, and offences have fwelled to fuch an enormous bulk, 
that a real regard for my king and my country, and, if I am 
not greatly miftaken, a difinterefted love for the ever-blefTed 
Jesus, that King of kings, and the church which he hatli 
1 purchafed 

[ 254 1 
jjurchafed with his own blood, will not fufFtr me to be filent 
anv longer. 

Pardon me, therefore, my Lord, if at length, though with 
great regret, as the Searcher of hearts knows, I am coji- 
ftrained to inform your Lordfnip, that you, together with 
fome of your leading brethren, have been unhappily inftrumen- 
tal in mlfguldino; rnany real, fimple, honeft^hearted chnflians ;. 
of dijhrjfing, if not totnlly nuin'wg numerous families, and, in- 
troducing a whole y^-frr^^*? of fuperftitious, not to fay idolatrous 
fopperies, into the EugUjh nation. 

For my own parr, my Lord, notwithftanding the folio that 
was publifhed (i prefume under your Lordinip*3 direction) 
about three years ago, I am as much at. a loTs as ever, to know 
what were the principles and ufages of the ancient Moravian 
church ; but if fhe was originally attired in the fame garb, in 
v/hich (lie hath appeared of late amongft many true-hearted 
though deluded proteflants, fhe is not that fimple, apoflolical 
church the Englijh brethren were made to believe about twelve 
years ago. Sure I am, that we can find no traces of many of 
her prefcnt pra6Lices in the yet more ancient, I mean the pri- 
mitive churches, and which we all know were really under an 
immediate and truly apoftolical infped;on. 

Will your Lordfliip be pleafed to give me leave to defcend 
to a few particulars? Pray, my Lord, what inftances have 
we of the firft chriftians walking round the graves of their 
deceafed friends on Eajler-day, attended with hautboys, trum- 
pets, french-horns, violins, and other kinds of mufjcal inftru- 
ments ? Or where have we the leaft mention made of plcSlures 
of particular perfons being brought into the firft chriltian af- 
femblies, and of candles being placed behind them, in order 
to give a tranfparent view of the figures ? Where was it ever 
known, that the pidure of the Apoftle Faul, reprefenting 
him handing a gentleman and lady up to the fide of Jesus 
Christ, was ever introduced into the primitive love-feafts ? 
Or do we ever hear, my Lord, of incenfe, or fomething like 
it, being burnt for him, in order to perfume the room before 
he made his entrance among the brethren ? Or can it be fup- 
pofed that he, who, together with Barnabas, fo eagerly repelled 
the Lycaonians, when they brought oxen and garlands in order 
to facrifice unto them, v/ould ever have fufTcred fuch things to 

[ ^55 ] 
be done for him, without exprelTing his abhorrence and de- 
teftation of them ? And yet your Lordfhip knows both thefe 
have been done for you, and fufFcred by you, without your 
having (hewn, as far as I can hear, the leaft diflike *. 

Again, my Lord, I beg leave to enquire, whether we hear 
any thing in fcripture of eldiefles or deaconeflls of the apo- 
ftolical churches feating themfclves* before a table, covered 
with artificial flowers, and againft that, a little altar furrounded 
with wax tapers, on which flood a crofs, compofed either of 
mock or real diamonds, or other glittering ftones ? And yet 
your Lordfhip mufl be fenfible this was done in Fetter-lane 
chapel, for Mrs. Hannah Niifchman^ the prefent general eldrefs 
of your congregation, with this addition, that all the fiflers 
were feated, cloathed in white, and v^'iih Ger?nan caps; the 
organ alfo illuminated with three pyramids of wax tapers, 
each of which was tied with a red ribbon ; and over the head 
of the general Eldrefs, was placed her own picture, and over 
that [horrefco refer em) the picture of the Son of God. A 
goodly fight this, my Lord, for a company of EugUjh pro- 
teftants to behold ! Alas ! to what a long feries of childifh 
^and fuperftitious devotions, and unfcriptural impofitions, muft 
they have been habituated, before they could fit filent and 
tame fpedlators of fuch an antichriflian fcene. Surely, had 
Gideon^ though but an Old Teftament faint, been prefent, he 
would have rifen and pulled down this, as he formerly did hi# 
father's altar. Or had even that meek nrian Mojes been there, 
I cannot help thinking, but he would iiave addrefied your 
Lordfhip, partly at leafl, in the words with which he addrefTed 
his brother Aaron^ '' What did this people unto thee, that 

* I might here take notice of the married women's being ordered to 
wear blue knots, the Tingle women pink, and tbofe that are juft mar- 
riageable, pink and white ; the widows that are paft child-bearing, to 
wear white, and thofe that are not fo, blue and white knots ; and alfo 
of the epifcopal knot of Mrs. Hannah Nitfchman, (who is, I am informed, 
the prefent general Eldrefs pf the congregation) which is fometimes of 
a purple, and fometimes of a rofe colour. Thefe, with mnny other 
fanciful things, might be confidered j but my mind at prefent is too full 
of concern to dwell upon any thing but what more immediately ftrikes 
at the welfare of fociety, and what hath a ftill more fatal tendency to 
draw away unwary fouls from the fimplicity of the gofjiel. Would to 
God I could with a faf« confcience be excufed even from this ! 

" thou 

[ 256 ] 
** tilou haft introduced fuch fuperflitious cuftoms among 
" them*?" 

But this is not all : I have another queftion to propofe to 
your Lordfhip. Pray, my Lord, did any of the Apojiles or 
leaders of the primitive churches, ever ufurp an authority, 
not only over people's confciences, but their properties alfo ? 
Or draw in the members of their refpe^live congregations to 
difpofe of whole patrimonies at once, or to be bound for 
thoufands of pounds more than they well knew they were 
worth ? And yet your Lordfhip knows this has been 
done again and again, in order to ferve the purpofes of the 
brethren for feveral years laft paft ; and that too, at, or very 
near the time, when, in order to procure an a6l in their favour 
to go abroad, (which now appears to be rather a fcheme to 
fettle at home) they boafted to an EngliJJ} parliament, how 
immenfely rich they were f. 


* A like fcene to this was exhibited by the fingle bretbren, in a room 
of their houfe at Hatton Garden. One of them, who helped to furnifh 
it, gave me the following account. Tiie floor was covered with fand 
and mofs, and in the middle of it, was paved a ftar of different co- 
loured pebbles, upon that was placed a gilded dove, which fpouted water 
out of its mouth into a velTel prepared for its reception, which was cu- 
rioufly decked with artificial leaves and flags j the room was hung with 
mofs and fliells ; the Count, his fon, and fon-in-law, in honour of 
whom all this was done, with Mrs. Hannah tiitfchman^ and Mr. Peter 
Boehlery and fome other labourers, were prefent. Thefe were feated 
under an alcove, fupported by columns made of pafteboard, and over 
their heads was painted an oval, in imitation of marble, containing the 
cyphers of Count Zi}ize)idorff''s family. Upon a fide-table, was a little 
altar covered with fliells, and on each fide of the altar was a bloody 
heart, out of, or near which proceeded flames. The room was illumi- 
nated with wax tapers, and muficians placed in an adjacent apartment, 
while the company performed their devotions, and regaled themfelves 
with fweet-meats, coffee, tea, and wine. After this the labourers de- 
parted, and the fingle brethren were admitted in. I am told, that moft, 
if not all of thefe leading perfons were preferif alfo at the celebration of 
Mrs. Hannah Nitfchman''s birth-day. 

f M. Rimius, aullc counfellor to the late King of Pru//Ia, in a trea- 
tife he lately puhllflied, I think makes it plainly appear, that the agents 
for the Mora'vian affairs, have mifinformed the parliament in feveral re- 
fpcfls, and upon the whole, treated that auguft body little better thart 
the Cibeonitijh ambafladors once treated Jojhuaj the captain of the 


[ 257 1 

Your Lordflilp cannot but be fenfible, that at this prcfent 
time you ftand indebted to fundry perfons to the value of forty 
thoufand pounds fieri in g ; and unlefs fome of your brethren 
had at^reed to ftay fix years for about twenty thoufand poundsj 
due to them ; (though after the expiration of that term, as 
they have no fecurity, in all probability they will bejuft 
where they are now) and if the other creditors alfo, upon 

Lord's hoft. To this I refer tlie reader. It Is written with great caa- 
dour, and contains fuch inconteftable proofs of the many dangeious 
principles and pra(5lices of the leading hrethrenj that nuift, I think, con- 
(Irain all that read it to (ay, ** My foul, come not thou into theii feciet, 
*' and to their aflTembly, mine honour be not thou united." 

I fuppofe it v/as a conicioufnefs of this, that induced Mr. Cnjfart, one 
of the Count's chief agents, to fuggeft to Mr. L:rrde fome time before its 
publication, that it would be as good As three hundrett pounds in U\i 
way, if Mr. Rimius''s hook. coUld be fuppreflfed. This looks bad; but 
I think it was ftill worfe in another of the brethren roundly to affirm, in 
order to quiet fome who were diffatisfied by reading this book, " that 
*♦ the author of the above-mentioned treatife, was one that perfonated 
*• Mr. Rmiusy and that the whole was lies." Now they cannot but 
know, that this gentleman refides in Oxenden-J}reety and addreflcd his 
book to his Grace the Lord Archbifhop of Canterbury^ by permifRon, and 
that he proves almoft every word he fay6, from the brethren's own writ- 
ings. The above-mentioned brother was pleafed to add, ** that the real 
*' M. Rimius was a friend, and therefore would not write againft them.'* 
I anfwer, that I verily believe he therefore wrote, as GoD knows I do, 
becaufe he is 2ifrie?id j or to ufe his own words, *' from a ftrift regard 
«* to truth, juftice, and the public good." And I think, if i iftead of 
adding fm to fin, by continuing ftill to mifguide, enflave, and put out 
the eyes of raany of God's deaj- children, who, I am perfuaded, know riO 
more of their fecret myfteries and intended purpofes, than thofe who ne- 
ver heard of them at all, it would fliew a much better fpirit in the leading 
brethren, either publicly to refute, or ingenuoufly confefs, and aipend 
the things laid to their charge. This is what GoD and the world may 
juftly require at their hands, and without this, I cannot fee how they 
can expeft any future bleffing from above ; fince the wifeft of men hath 
told us, '* He that covereth his fins Ihall not profper, but whofo con- 
** fefTeth and forfaketh them fhall have mercy." Grant us all this mercy, 
heavenly Father, for thy dear Son's fake ! / 

As I am not perfonally acquainted with Mr. Rimius^ 1 take this oppor- 
tunity of informing him, that it is the dcfire of many, the L;i'tin appen- 
dices may be trandated into Englijhy and the vvhoJe printed in a final| 
edition, in order to make it more extenfively i:f*ful. 

Vol. IV. R confideratioa 

[ 258 ] 
confideration of fome bonds given, and mortgages made * for* 
principal and intereft, had not agreed to Hay four years, for 
twenty one thoufand pounds more, many of the Englijh bre- 
thren, who, out of 1 know not what kind of infatuation, 
have not only given their all, but have been bound for thou- 
fands more than they are able to pay, muft either have imme- 
diately become bankrupts, and thereby the creditors perhaps, 
not have had a (hilling in the pound, or have been obliged 
to fhut up their fliops, go to prifon, or be turned out into 
the wide world, to the utter ruin of themfelves and fa- 

The diftrefs and anguifh of mind that hundreds have been 
involved in upon this very account, is, I believe, unfpeak- 
able f . And the bare refledion upon it, whilft I am writing, 
makes my heart almoft to bleed within me. Who, who, but 

* The buildings in Yorhjh'irc^ Bedfon^Jblre^ Sec. Befides this, there are 
foipe thoufands due to others upon bond, and many thoufands to a par- 
ticular gentleman, for which the Count has mortgaged one of the Ger^ 
man fettlements j I think it is Marienburg. 

f Since my writing this, I have been told of a very fingular expedi- 
ent made ufe of by Mr. Peter Boehlery one of the brethren's bifliops, 
in order to ftrengthen the faith, and to raife the drooping fpirits of ?/Ir. 
William Bell, who hath been unhappily drawn in (with feveral others) to 
be one of their agents. It was this : It being M.r. BclPs birth«>day, he 
was fent for from his houfe in Ne'uil's- alley ^ Fetter-larte ; but for a while, 
having had fome words with Mr. Boehlery he refufed to come j at length 
he complied, and was introduced Into a hall, in the fame alley, where 
was placed an artificial mountain, which, upon fmging a particular. verfe, 
was made to fall down, and then behind it was difcovered an illumina- 
tion, reprefenting Jesus Christ and Mr. Bell, fating very near, or 
embracing each other j and out of tl.e clouds was alfo reprefented plenty 
of money falling round Mr. Bell ^nd the Saviour. This ftory appeared 
to me fo incredible at the firft hearing, that, though I could not doubt 
the veracity of the relator, yet fearing he might be mifinformed, I fent 
for him again, and he affured me, that Mr. Bell told this ftory himfelf 
fome time ago in company, and a perfon of good reputation of tliat com- 
pany related it to an acquaintance of mine. May GoD grant him and 
all others who have been undefignedly concerned, a more fure and ftable 
prop fpr their faith, even his own word, in which he caufes his people 
to truft ! then, and not till then, even upon the greateft emergency, 
they may without any fanciful reprcfentations, boldly fay, " Who art 
" thou, O great mountain ? before the Lord Jesus, our all conquer- 
** ing Zerubbabeli thou ftialt become a plain." 

I themfelves. 

f 259 3 

themfelves, my Lord, can tell the late perplexity of thelf 
minds^ who have been already arrefted, or obliged to break 
off their refpe£live partnerfhips ? Or what words can exprefd 
the Q-reat concern, which Mr. Freeman and Mr. Thomas Gracs 
muft have been neceflarily under, when they found that bills 
had been drawn in their name, unknown to them, to the 
value of forty-eight thoufand pounds?* And how pitiable, 
my Lord, muft the prefeht circumftanccs of young Mr. 
Rhodes hc^ who, to ftop a little of the above-mentioned gap^ 
was prevailed on, (your Lordfhip knows by whom,) about 
eighteen months ago, to fell his eftate of above four hundred 
pounds a year, and went or was fent ofF very lately, as I 
am aflured, to France^ (leaving a deftitute mother behind him) 
and only with twenty-five pounds, for the payment of which 
he left his watchj bureau, horfe and faddle ? f 

Thefe are but a few inftances, my Lord, amongft rhany, 
indeed too too many, that might be given. The brethren's 
agents, and thofe concerned with them, can beft tell what 
horrid equivocations, untruths and low artifices have been 
ufed, to procure money, at high intereft, wherever it was 
to be had, in order to keep up the brethren's credit ; and irt 
that poor lame manfier, it hath been kept up for a confiderable 

* This Mr. Grace told me himfelf in public company ; he and Mr, 
Freeman do live in T'hrogmorton-jireet, 

f The cafe of this Mr. Rhodes is very fmgular. He was of mean birth 
and occupation, but upon the unexpeded falling of many lives, became 
fuddenly poffeiTed of an el!iate of above four hundred pounds a year ; and 
to ferve the brethren, after many importunities, he was induced to dii- 
pofe of it. Mr. Lee the banker purchafed it, and Meflrs. Freeman and 
Grace received fix thoufand pounds of the money towards what was due 
to them : befides this, Mr. Rhodes was bound for many thoufands more. 
This made liim very uneafy, and fearing the confequence, he one after- 
noon, about ten weeks ago, ftole an interview with two fingle brethren, 
aind befeeched them, for Christ's fake, to let him have twenty-five 
pounds, for the payment of which he left them his watch, bureau, horfe 
and faddle. He then took his leave, faying, in all probability he fhould 
never fee them any more, and having nothing to fpare to leave behind 
for his poor mother, (who I hear is fince dead) was content to fend he? 
a few parting lilies : fince he has b^en gone, the horfe, watch, bureau 
and faddle were fold for twenty-feven pounds three fliillings j fo that the 
young man has the balance in bank. GoD grant, that this may prove 
the laft perfon th'at may be impofed on in this way I 
s-: R 2 time. 

[ 26o ] 

time. Was the whole fcene to be opened, I believe every 
one would be of opinion, that fuch an ecclefiaftical projedl, 
never was heard of before, in any part of his Majefty's domi- 

Of this, my Lord, the Royal-Exchange hath long fmce 
rung ; and if the fame part hath been adled abroad, * how 
many families muft have been ruined there, and how many 
more may be yet ruined, in order to fill up the prefent 
Englijh chafm ; and confequently, what loads of guilt muft 
needs lie at the door of fomebody ? Surely, the Lord of all 
Lords, whofe eyes are like a flame of fire, and who requires 
truth in the inward parts, will one day or other vifit for thefe 
things, by bringing to light the hidden things of darknefs, 
and thereby making manifeft the counfels of the heart. 

I need not inform your Lordfkip, that Babels are generally 
fuffered to be built pretty high, before God comes down to 
confound the language of the builders. If knaves are employed 
(as commonly they are) God's honour is concerjied to dif- 
cover them. And if any of his own children are undefjgnedly 
drawn in, (which is frequently the cafe) he, who hath pro- 
mifed not to fuiFer them to be tempted above what they are 
able to bear, will in mercy, fome way or other, rebuke the 
tempter, and make a way for them to efcape. It is true, 
this, in public concerns, may fometimes expofe them to a 
little worldly contempt, and for a while they m;:y feem- 
ingly be crufiied under the rubbiih of the fallen fabric, but 
even fhis fhall work together for their good ; and happy will 
it be for them, if after all, they at length learn this impor- 
tant leflbn, " That it is dangerous, upon any pretence what- 
*' foever, to go from the written word, or give up their 
** confciences to the guidance of any man, or body of men 
** under heaven." This, your Lordftiip well knows, is what 
weak and unftablc fouls are too apt to do ; and artful and 
defigning men, who are fond of power, efpecially if natu- 
rally they are of an ambitious turn of mind, eafily catch 
at the pleafing bait. But honefty, my Lord,, will be found 

"* It appears too plain from Mr. Rlmius that this hath been the cafe. 
And no wonder, fince he quotes this affertion of the Count's from his own 
writings, ** The oeconomifts of the fociety may fay to a young rich 
*• man, either giv« us ail thou haft, \>r get thee gone,'* 

3 •• 

[ 26l ] 

to be the beft policy after all ; and therefore, God forbid 
that any who call themfelves the followers of the Lamb, 
fhould glory in any thing fave the crofs of Christ. 

At prefent, I fiiall add no more, but carneftly fay amen^ 
to that part of the brethren's litany, however exceptionable 
in other refpeds, ''^ From untimely projects, and from un- 
" happily becoming great, keep us our good Lord and 
God !" And I as heartily pray, that the glorious Jesus may 
profper all that is rights and give grace to correal- and 
amend all that is wrong, among all his people of all de- 
nominations, I fubfcribe myfelf, my Lord, 

Your Lofdfhip's moft obedient humble fervant, 

George Whitefield. 





T O 

Perfons of all Denominations, 


Alarm of an Intended I nva s i o Nj 
in the Year 1756. 

I alfo will Jheiu my Opimon, Job xxxii. lO, 



[ 2^5 ] 


A D D R E S S, ^r. 

Men^ Brethren^ and Fathers, 

THOUGH fo many alarming warnings, pathetic exhor- 
tations, and fuitable clirc6lions, have already been given 
both from the prefs and pulpit, by v^^ay of preparatives to our 
late public day of humiliation ; yet fhould one, who is lefs 
than the leaft of all his brethren, now that folemnity is over, 
prefume to trouble his dear countrymen with a J])ort addrefsy 
by way of fupplement to what hath already been offered ; it 
is to be hoped, none will be fo unkii^d as to look upon it as 
altogether fuperfluous and needlefs, much Icfs, be fo unge- 
nerous as to cenfure it as proceeding from the pride and 
naughtinefs of his heart. But fhould this be the cafe, I {hall 
make no other apology (as I think there needs no other) than 
that which David the youngeit of the fons of ytjje made long 
ago upon a like occafion>, '' Is there not a caufe ?" 

An infulting, enraged, and perfidious enemy is now ad- 
vancing nearer and nearer to the BritiJI) borders. Not con- 
tent with invading and ravaging our rightful Sovere gn K jig 
Georges dominions in America^ our popifh advcrfaries have 
now the ambition to attempt, at leaft to threaten, an invafion 
of England itfelf; hoping, no doubt, thereby, not on'iy to 
throw us into confuiion at home, but alfo to divert us lom 
more efFeciually defeating their malicious deiigns abroad. That 
fuch a defign (however chimerical it may feem) is now ac- 
tually on foot, the royal proclamation lately ilTued forth, renders 
indifputable. Which proclamation, as it plainly befpeaks his 
Majefty's paternal care, doth at the fame time loudlv call upon 
all his faithful and loving fubjeils, not only to ftand upoii 
their guard, but alfo to exert their utmoft efiurts, in dcpund- 


r 266 ] 

ance on divine prote«Slion, to prevent aad render aboruve fuch 
an unjuft and daring enteiprize. 

BlelTed be God ! as a profeffing, though finful people, we 
have lately taken one effedual ftep towards bringing about 
fuch a falutary end. 

In obedience to a call from the throne, we have been 
humbling ourfelves in the mofl public and folemn manner be- 
fore the moll high God. And it is to be hoped, that the 
many tears which were that day flied, and the thoufands and 
thoufands of prayers that were then offered up, have Jong fmce 
been regarded by, and entered into the ears of the Lord of 
Sabbaoth. Infidels may perhaps laugh, and make rhemfelves 
merry with fuch an infinuation ; but ferious people (and to 
fuch in a more peculiar manner is this addrefs dirc6lcd) will 
account it no ways enthufiaftic to affirm, that folemn humilia- 
tions, whether performed by public communities in general, 
or individuals in particular, have always met with fuch a 
divine acceptance, as to obtain at leaft a reprieve from, if not 
a total removal of, the threatened evil. The deferring of an 
impending judgment, only upon the hypocritical, but public 
humiliation of a wicked Jhab-, The mature and providential 
deliverance of the Jewifi people from the cruel plot of an 
ambitious Ha?na?i^ for which queen EJiher^ Afordecai, and the 
other diilrefTed Jnvs fought fo earnellly by public fafting and 
prayer : And what is yet more, the total and entire fufpen- 
fion of the deftru6lion of Nineveh^ that exceeding great city, 
(though fo peremptorily denounced) upon the fafting, pray- 
ing, and repenting of the king, nobles and commons, at the 
preaching of Jonah, Thefe, not to mention many more that 
might be adduced from facred ftory, are mod pregnant, and, 
at the fame time, very encouraging proofs, that they that 
humble themfelves, fhall in God's due time be exalted; and 
therefore, as a nation, we may boldly infer, that the righteous 
Lord, who delights to fhew himfelf ftrong in behalf of ihofe 
who are of an upright heart, will favour, plead, and vindicate 
our righteous caufe, 

I am vfry fcnfible, that artful infmuations have been in- 
duftrioufly publifhed, in order to lay all the blame of this war 
upon us. But bold afTertions and folid proofs are two difle- 
fent things 5 for it is plain, beyond all contradidion, that the 


[ 2^7 ] 

French^ fond of rivalling us both at home and abroad, have 
moft unjuftly invaded his Majefty's dominions in America \ 
and have alfo, by the moft vile artifices and lies, been endea- 
vourinjr to draw the fix nations of Indians from our intcreft; 
in fliort, almoft all their proceedings ever fmce the late treaty 
of Jix la Chapelle^ have been little elfe than preparations for, 
or a tacit declaration of war. But he that fitteth in heaven, 
as we may humbly hope, laughs them to fcorn j and, as he 
once defeated the counfcl of Achitophcl^ and came down to 
confound the language of thofe afpiring projedors who would 
fain have built a tower, the top of which fhould reach even to 
heaven; fo we truft (whatever dark providences may inter- 
vene) that he will in the end fruftratc the devices of our ad- 
verfary's moft fubtlc politicians, and fpeak confufion to all 
their projed^s ; who, by aiming at univerfal monarchy, arc 
more than attempting to eredl: a fecond Babel. 

I have heard, or read fomewhere of a Turkijh General, 
who, being called to engage with a chriftian army that had 
broken through the moft folemn ties, flood up at the head 
of his troops, and then drawing the treaty which they had 
broken, out of his bofom, and holding it up in the air, thus 
addrefled the throne of heaven : *' O almighty Being, if thou 
** art, as they fay, thou art, thefe chrlftians God, thou loveft 
<* what is right, and hateft perfidy ; look down therefore and 
" behold this treaty which they have broken ; and, as thou 
*' canft not favour what is wrong, render their arms, O God, 
'* fuccefslefs, and make mine victorious.'* He ended j im- 
mediately the fword was drawn. The two parties vigoroufly 
engaged, and the perfidious chriftlans were beaten off the 
field. Thus may our proteflant Generals, or at Icaft their 
Chaplains, deal with our enemy's forces, in rcfpccl: to the 
treaty of Aix la Cbapelle. They, not we, have broken it. 
They, not we, have been the aggrelTors : an-d therefore, not- 
withftanding we are looked upon as heretics^ and they fight 
under the banner of one who ftiles himfelf His mojl Chri/iinn 
Alajcjiy; a righteous God, we truft, in anfwer to prayer, will 
humble France^ and make the Britijh arms both by Tea and 
land, more than conquerors through his love. It is true (and 
God knows with grief of heart I fpeak it) praying is b :<:ome 
too unfaftiionablc amongft our people in general, and ;:mong 


[ 268 ] 

our military men in particular ; but wherein the piety^ and 
confequently the true policy, of fuch a proceedure confifts, I 
belieye will be very difficult to determine. If we have recourfe 
to Rollins ancient hiftory, I believe we fhall find, that neither 
Darius^ Cyrus, Alexander, nor indeed fcarce any of the Egyptian^ 
Grecian, Perfian, or Roman Generals, ever undertook any ha- 
zardous enterprize, without making fome public acknowledg- 
ment of a deity. And if we confult that hijiory of hijloriesy 
that too much neglected book (as Sir Richard Steel exprefles 
himfelf) emphatically called the Scriptures, we may always 
remark, that thofe heroic worthies, who by faith fubdued 
kingdoms, and put to flight the armies of the aliens, were men 
of prayer as well as men of valour. And if our refcarches 
defcend down to our own annals, we fhall foon be fatisfied, 
that the Britijh arms were never more formidable, than when 
our foldiers went forth in the ftrength of the LoRp; and with 
a bible in one hand, and a fword in the other, chearfully fought 
under his banner who hath condefcended to flilc himfelf ** a 
man of war." 

Such an appellation as this, methinks, may fufficientjy juf- 
tify the lawfulnefs of bearing arms, and drawing the fwor(;l in 
defence of our civil and religious liberties. For if God him- 
felf is pleafed to ftile himfelf a man of war, furely in a juft and 
righteous caufe (fuch as the Britijh war at prefent is) we may 
as lawfully draw our fwords, in order to defend ourfelves 
againft our common and public enemy, as a civil magistrate 
may fit on a bench, and condemn a public robber to death. 
Our excellent reformers, fenfible of this, in the thirty-fecond 
article of our church, after having declared " that the laws 
" of the realm may punifh chriftian men with death for 
*' heinous offences 3 immediately fubjoins, *' that it is lawful 
*' for chriftian men, at the commandment of the magiftrate, 
*' to wear weapons and ferve in the wars." And therefore, 
what Bifhop Saunderfon fays of ftudy, may be likewife faid of 
fighting : " fighting without prayer is atheifm,- and prayer 
" without fighting is prefumption." And I would be the 
more particular on this point, becaufe through 2. fatal fcrupu- 
hfity againft bearing arms, even in a defenfive war, his Ma- 
jefty hath been, and is not yet out of danger of lofing that 
large, cxtenfive, and but lately moft flourifhing province of 


C 2% ] 

Fenfyhanta^ the very centre and garden of all North /Jmerica, 
But whilft I fee fuch very fcrupulous perfons grafping at every 
degree of worldly power, and by all the arts of worldly policy 
labouring to monopolize, and retain in their own hands all 
parts both of the legiflative and executive branches of civil 
government ; to fpeak in the mildeft terms, we may honcftly 
affirm, that they certainly a£l: a moft inconfiftent, and if not 
prevented here at home, to thoufands of their neighbours, I 
fear a very fatal part. For, fay what we will to the contrary, 
if we fearch to the bottom of things, we may foon be con- 
vinced, that civil magiftracy and defenfive war muft ftanJ or 
fall together. Both are built upon the fame bafis ; and ther» 
cannot be fo much as one fmgle argument urged to eftablifh 
the one, which doth not at the fame time corroborate and 
confirm the other. 

Far be it from me, who profefs myfelf a difciple and minifter 
of the Prince of peace, to found a trumpet for war: but when 
the trumpet is already founded by a perfidious enemy, and our 
king, our country, our civil and religious liberties, are all, as 
it were, lying at flake, did we not at fuch a feafon lend our 
purfes, our tongues, our arms, as well as our prayers, in de- 
fence of them, fliould we not juftly incur that curfe which an 
infpired Deborah^ when under the immediate influence of the 
Holy Spirit, once uttered, '♦ Curfe ye MeroZy curfe ye bit- 
terly the inhabitants thereof, becaufe they came not to the 
help of the Lord, to the help of the Lord againft the 
inighty ?" Known unto God, and God alone, are all our 
hearts. Daily and repeated experience convinceth us, that the 
greateft talkers are not always the greatell doers. How there- 
fore any of us may behave when put to the trial, the trial it* 
felf can only prove. But, for my own part, whatever my 
future conduit may be, (and I know it will be downright 
cowardly, if left to myfelf) yet, upon the matureft delibera- 
tion, I am at prefent fo fully convinced of the jultice of the 
BritJJJ) caufe, that fuppofing it (hould be faid of me, as It is 
of ZwingliuSy " Cecldit in pralio^ He fell in battle;" I hope, 
if whilft the filver cords of life were loofing, and I ftiould be 
attended by any who may be bewailing mine, as the frisnds 
^f Zwingltus did his misfortune, I fhould like him cry out, 
*' Ecqtddhsc infortumi? Is this a misfortune ?'* And not only 

[ 270 ] 

To, but with my expiring breath add, as he did, " O faujlufh 
inforiunium! O happy misfortune!" For, furely, it is far more 
preferable to die, though by a popifh fword, and be carried 
from the din and noife of war by angels into Abrahams bofom, 
than to be fuffered to furvive, only to drag on a wearifome 
life, and to be a mournful fpedator, and daily bewailer of 
one's country's ruin. 

Awful and tremendous are the judgments that have lately 
'been abroad. Twice hath the earth on which this great me- 
tropolis (lands, unable, as it were, any longer to fuftain the 
weight of its inhabitants fins, been made to tremble and tottet 
under us. Since that, how amazingly hath the ftiock been 
extended ! Africa^ (nor hath America itfelf been exempted) 
hath in a moft deftru6i;ive manner felt its dire effeds. And 
what a dreadful confumption it hath made in various parts of 
^pain^ and, in a more efpecial manner, at Lijhon^ the metro- 
polis o^ Portugal^ is beyond conception, and beyond the power 
of the moft mafterly pen to defcribe. It is to be queflioned^ 
whether the like hath ever been heard of fmce the deluge. 
Surely nothing was Vv'anting to figure out, and realize to that 
diftrelTed people the horror of the laft day, but the found of 
the trump, and the a£lual appearance of the great Judge of 
quick and dead. But awful and tremendous as fuch phaeno- 
menas of nature may be; yet, if we confider the confequences 
of things, was even the like judgment to befal us, (which may 
God avert !) it would be but a fmall one, in comparifon of out 
hearing that a French army, accompanied with a popifh Pre- 
tender, and thoufands oi Rcm'ijb priefts, was fuffered to inVade,- 
fubdye, and deflroy the bodies and fubftance, and, as the ne- 
cefTary confequences of both thefe, to blind, deceive, and ty- 
rannize over the fouls and confciciices of the people belonging 
to this happy ifle. 

God forbid, that I fliouJd give flattering titles to any; for 
in fo doing, I (hould provoke him to take away my foul. But 
furely we muft have eyes that fee not, and cars that hear not, 
as well as hearts that do not underftand, if we do not know, 
and fee, and feel, that in refpedl: to our civil and religious 
liberties, we arc undoubtedly the freeft people under heaven. 
And I dare appeal to the mofl ungrateful and malicious male- 
content, to produce any sera in the Br'iujh annah," wherein 


[ 271 ] 

Nve have enjoyed fuch a continued feries of civil and rellglouj 
liberty, as we have been favoured with for thefe twenty-eight 
years laft paft, under the mild and gentle adminiftration of our 
dread and rightful Sovereign Kirg George. Surely he hath 
been a nuriing father to people of all denominations ; and 
however he may be denied it, yet he may, without a compli- 
ment, jultly claim from the prefenr, as well as future ages, the 
deferved title of George the Great. But notwithftanding 
this, fuch is the degeneracy of human nature, it mufl necef- 
farily be expected, that, in a nation grown wanton with liberty 
like ours, there are a great multitude of unhappy perfons, who 
being men of lax principles, loofc lives, an.d brckcn fortunes, 
will be fo abandoned, as to break through all reftraints of 
gratitude, loyalty and religion ; and, like Cataline and his 
wicked confederates, be fond of joining in any change of go- 
vernment, whereby they may entertain the moft diftant prof- 
pe£l: of bettering their fortunes, and gratifying their ambition, 
though it be at the expence of their country's blood. This 
hath been, and no doubt flill continues to be, the fate of all 
civil governments in the world, and confequently is no more 
than what we may expect, in times of tumult and danger, 
will be adted over again in our own land by men of fuch cor- 
rupt minds. But how any ferious and judicious, much lefs 
religious and devout perfon, can be fo flupid to all principles 
of (eU'-intereft, and fo dead even to all maxims of common 
fenfe, as to prefer a French to an EngUJh government ; or a 
^opifi) Pretender.^ born, nurfed, and bred up in all the arbitrary 
and deftruclive principles of the court and church of Rome^ 
to the preknt protejiant fuccfjfion fettled in the illuftrious line 
of Hanover^ muft- be imputed to nothing clfe but an awful 

Hear ye, (if there be any into whofe hands this addrefs may 
fall, that are defirous of fuch a cliange) not to dwell entirely 
upon the many innumerable civil or temporal lofies we (liould 
fuftain : hear ye, I fay, the mild and gentle language of one 
or his Mofl Chriftian Majefty's late declarations concerning 

" Being informed, that there have fprung up, and ftill arc 
fprlnging up, daily in our realm, a great number of preachers, 
whofe fcle bufmefs is to flir up the people to rebellion, and 


t 272 ] 

to difTuade them from the pradice of the Roman catholic an^ 
apoftolic religion ; wc do command that all preachers, who 
Ihall call aflemblies, preach in them, or difcharge any othei* 
fundion, be put to death j the puniftiment appointed by the 
declaration in July 1686, for the minifter of the pretended re- 
formed religion, which we would not, for the future, have 
any one efleem a mere threatening, which will not b^ put in 
execution. We do likewife forbid our fubje6ts to receive the 
faid minifters or preachers, to conceal, aid, or aflifl: them, or 
have, diredly or indiredly, any intercourfc or correfpondence 
with them. We farther enjoin all thofe, who fliall know any 
of the faid preachers, to inform againft them to the ofBcers of 
the refpe6^ive places 5 the whole under pain, in cafe of tref- 
pafs, of being condemned to the gallies for life, if men; and^ 
if women, of being (horn, and fhut up the remainder of their 
days in fuch places as our judges fhall think expedient; and 
whether they be men or women, under pain of confifca- 

After perufing this, read, read alfo, I befeech you, the 
(hocking accounts of the horrid butcheries, and cruel murders 
committed on the bodies of many of our fellow-fubjedls in 
Jmerica^ by the hands o{ favage Indians^ inftigated thereto by 
more i\\z.n favage popijh priejls.'^ And if this be the beginning, 
what may we fuppofe the end will be, (hould a French power, 
or popifli Pretender, be permitted to fubdue either us or them? 
Speak, Smithfield^ fpeak, and by thy dumb, but very perfuafive 
oratory, declare to all that pafs by and over thee^ how many 
Englijh proteftant martyrs thou haft feen burnt to death in the 
reign of a cruel popifh Ql.ieen, to whom the prefent Pretender 
to the Br'iUjh throne at leaft claims a kind of a diftant kindred ? 
Speak Ireland^ fpeak, and tell if thou canft, how many thou- 
fands, and tens of thoufands of innocent unprovoking pro- 
teftants were maffacred in cold blood by the hands of cruel 
papifts within thy borders, about a century ago ? Nay, fpeak 
Faris^ fpeak, (for though popifli, on this occafion we will ad- 
mit thy evidence) and fay, how many thoufands of proteftants 
were once flaughtered, on purpofe, as it were, to ferve up as a 
bloody deflert, to grace the folemnity of a marriage-feaft. But 

* See a pamphlet, intitled, A brief Vienu of the ConduSi 0/ J»enfylvanigyi 
for the Year 1755* 


[ 273 } 

\S^hy go we back to fuch diiiant aeras? Speak, Langiicdoc^ fpeak, 
and tell if thou canft, how many proteftant minidcrs have been 
lately executed ; how many more of their hearers have been 
dragooned and fent to the galliesj and how many hundreds 
are now, in confequence of the above-mentioned edicl^, lyincy 
in prifons, and fait bound in mifery and iron, for no other 
crime than that unpardonable one in the Rcmi/h church, 
** hearing and preaching the pure gofpel of the meek and 
lowly Jesus." 

AvA think you, my dear countrymen, that Rome^ glutted 
as it were with proteftant blood, will now reft fatisfied, and 
fay, *' I have enough !*' No, on the contrary, having, through 
the good hand of God upon us, been kept {o long fafting, we 
may reafonably fuppofe, that the popifh priefts are only grown 
more voracious, and (like fo many hungry and ravenous wolves 
purfuing the harmlefs and innocent flocks of fheep) will witK 
double eagernefs purfue after, feize upon, and devour their 
Wifhed-for proteftant prey ; and, attended with their bloody 
red-coats, thofe gallic inftruments of reformation, who know 
they muft cither fight or die, will neceftarily breathe out no- 
thing but threatening and flaughter, and carry along with 
them defolation and deftru^tion in all its various fliapes and 
tortures, go where they will. 

But I humbly hope, vile as we are, a gracious, long-fufFer- 
ing and merciful God, will not fuffer us to fall into their 
blood-thirfty and cruel hands. He hath formerly moft re- 
markably interpofed in England'^ favour ; and why Ihould we 
in the leaft doubt, but that he will again reveal his omnipo- 
tent arm, and make our extremity to be his opportunity, to 
help and defend us, againft fuch threatening and unjuft in- 
vaders ? Invincible as the Spanijh armada was fuppofed to be, 
and all-powerful as the Pope, under whofe broad feal they 
a6led, might boaft he was in heaven or hell, it is plain he 
had no power over the water. " For thou didft blow, C) 
Lord, with thy wind, and the enemy was fcattcrcd." And 
is not this God the fame now as he was yefterday ? And 
will he not continue the fame for ever .? Of whom then 
(hould the inhabitants of Great Britain be afraid ? Blefll-d be 
God, if we look to fecond caufes, we have a glorious fleer, 
brave admirals, a well-difciplined army, experienced oiTirers, 
Vol. IV. S and, 


[ 274 ] . 

und, if occafion fliould require, thoufanJs and thoufands of 
hearty voluntirrs, with a Royal Hero^ who hath once beer^ 
made happily iriftrurnental to fave his country fiom impend- 
ing ruin, if not Majefty itfelf prepared to head them. And 
if by failing from as well as for fin, and by flying, through a 
living faith, to the merits of a dying, rifen, afcended and in- 
terceding Mediator, we can but make God our friend, we 
need not fear what France and Rome^ and Hell^ with all their 
united force, can do unto, or plot againft us. The way of duty 
is the way of fafety, And if we are but found in the due ufe 
c\ proper means, we may confidently leave the iiTue and event 
ef things with God. Be that event what it will (and I truft 
it will be a profperous one) we have a divine authority to fay 
unto the righteous, it fhall be well with them. God's own 
people, amidft all the wars and rumours of wars, may reft fe- 
cure J for they not only dwell under the fhadow of the moft 
High, but have his own royal word for it, that all things fhali 
work together for their good. And not only fo, but they may 
be fully afTured, that all the malicious efforts and defigns of 
men and devils fliall be fo far from obftrucling, that, on the 
contrary, through the fure, though fecret hand of an ever- 
watchful, over-ruling, and omnipotent providence, they (liall 
at prefcnt, (howbeit they think not fo) be made not only to 
fubferve the prefent further enlargement of his interefts, who, 
in fpight of all the ftrivings of the potfherds of the earth, will 
hold the balance of UNIVERSAL monarchy in his own hands; 
but at lafl fliall terminate in the full and compleat eftablifh- 
inent and perfection of that bleffed kingdom, whofc law is 
truth, whofe king is love, and whofe duration is eternity, 
fiat! Fiat! Amen and Amen. 


T O T H E 


On Behalf of 

The Rev. Samuel C l a r k e's Edition 
of the Bible. 

S 2 


t 277 ] 


WHEN Philip the Evangelift was commanded by the 
Holy Spirit, to go near and join himfelf to the cha- 
t\ot oi 2. man of Ethiopia y and found him reading £y^/^j the 
prophet, we are told, ASis viii. ver. 30. that he introduced 
himfelf with this queftion, '' Underftandeft thou what thou 
readeft ?" The Ethiopia?!^ though an euauch, a perfon of 
great authority under Queen Candace^ inftead of being offended 
at this feeming impertinence, mildly anfwered, verfe 31. 
" How can T, except fome man guide me ?" And as a proof 
of his willingnefs to be guided, he defires Philip that he would 
come up and fit with him. Upon which, as we are further 
informed, ver. 35. '' Philip opened his mouth and began at the 
«« fame fcripture," which the eunuch was then providentially 
reading, " and preached unto him Jesus." An inftrucSlive 
paflage this ! Not merely as it fhews us, that the greateft pcr- 
fonages ought not to think themfelves above perufmg God's 
lively oracles ; but alfo as it points out to us that teachable 
and child-like difpofition, with which all ought to come to 
the reading of them ; as well as the care which the Holy Spi- 
rit of God takes, to furni(h fuch as have a mind to do his 
will, with proper inftru6lors, that they may know it. " The 
*' meek will he guide in his way." 

Now what the Evangelift Philip was then to this devout 
Ethiopian j that, fpi ritual and gofpel commentators are to us 
now. For though the grand lines of our chriftian faith and 
practice, are written in fuch plain and legible charaders, 
*' that he who runs may read j" yet if we duly fcarch the 
fcriptures, we {hall find many things both in the Old and 
New Teftament, into the due knowledge of which, we have 
need of fome men, or of fome good men's works, to guide us. 
Various and abundant are the helps of this kind, with which 
the prefent age and people of this land are favoured ; but 
S 3 amongit 

[ 278 ] 

amongO: them all, In my poor opinion, next to holy Mr, 
Matheiv Henry s incomparable comment upon the Bible; the 
'^G.v&xcn^ Samuel Clarke's Old and New Teftament with anno- 
tations, feem to be the bcft calculated for univerfal edifica- 
tion. For they contain, though a fhort, yet (generally fpeak- 
ing) a full and fpiritual interpretation of the moft difficult 
words and phrafes. A great many parallel fcriptures, bc^th as 
to matter and v/ords, are moft judicioufly infertcd. To this 
is added, an analyfis, or the contents not only of near every 
book and chapter, but of almoft every verfe of every chapter 
in the whole Bible : and yet the notes and references are fo 
difpofed in the manner of printing^that the reader, if he hath 
no time for a further enquiry, may read the bare text without 
any interruption, or if but little time, he may almoft with a 
fingle glance, fee the meaning of any particular word, phrafe, 
or pafTage, as he goes along. It muft be confefTed, indeed, 
that in the former editions, a few expreffions in the explana- 
tory notes feemed not fo unexceptionable ; but then it muft 
be obferved, that they were but few, and thofe in this edition, 
as I am informed, are for the moft part corre^Sled. It may be, 
that the curious and very critical reader may meet with fome 
few that may have efcaped prefent notice. But alas ! if we 
forbear reading any book or comment, 'till we meet with one 
that will fuit every taftc and is liable to no exception, I fear 
we muft never read at all. The beft of mens books, as well 
as the beft of men, are but men and the books of men, at the 
bcft : it is the peculiar property of thy life, and of thy book, 
O blcfled Jesus ! to be exempt from all real impcrfe6\ions. 
Happy they who both in their writings and ccadu£t come 
neareft to thy divine copy, and moft blefi'ed example ! 

If it fhould now be enquired who this Reverend Samuel 
Clarke might be ? JMuft I tell thee ? He was one of the many 
wcithies who were ejected by the black Bartholoineiv acl. But 
let not this ftartle thee^ courteous reader ; for thou wilt here 
find no difputes about church government, no controverfy 
about rites or ceremonies ; but (as far as I am capable of 
judging) the mind of the ever-blelTed God, opened and ex- 
plained in a manner equally necefiary and uft^al for all feri- 
ous- chriftians of all denominations. As fuch, I have fpoken 
of it, both from the pulpit, and in private converfation, many 


r 279 ] 

years ago ; and If any thing I have faid, hath been, or (liaii 
be, in the leaft inftrumental in promoting its prefent publica- 
tion, or future ufcfulnefs, whatever exceptions may be made 
by perfons of different fcntiments, I fhall look upon it as an 
honour conferred upon me, by our great and common 

At the fame time, I muft confefs, it gave me pleafure about 
a year ago, to find this very book recommended in the ftrongcft 
manner, in the fecond volume of Dr. Cala7ny\ lives. His 
words are thefe, " I cannot forbear here adding a particular 
account of the Bible which he publifhed. He firft formed 
the defign in his younger years, in the univerfity ; and made 
it the work of his molt retired leifure, and folemn thouohts. 
It ripened with years and experience, and was the rcfult of 
great reading and confideration, both of the bed practical 
writers and the mcft celebrated criticks. It is a work of 
great exadtnefs and judgment ; commonly fixes on the true 
fenfe of the place ; diligently obfervcs the conneclion of 
things ; freely reprefents the principal matters that occcur 5 
and contains the fullefl account of parallel places, of any other 
extant. He was fo happy in this performance, as to obtain 
the concurring teflimony of two great and excellent men, who 
\vere thought to have different fcntiments of fome points of 
religion •, viz. Dr. Owen and Mr. Baxter in their refpe6uve 
epiflles before the quarto edition of the New Teftament. The 
words of the former are remarkable. " But this I muft fay, 
" that to the befl of my underftanding, he has made his choice 
*' of the efpecial fenfe which he gives of the word, in all 
places^ with great diligence and judgment. And it is evi- 
dent, that in the whole, he has fo carefully and conflantly 
attended to the analogy of faith, that the reader may fafely 
trufl: to him, without fear of being led into the fnare of any 
error, or unfound opinion.'* The words of the latter are, 
*' And I efpecially commend it as orthodox, in explaining 
** thofe texts which meddle with juftification, remiffion of nn, 
** with faith and works, and fuch great and practical points of 
" doctrine ; fo that the reader need not fear the corrupting his 
*' underftanding, by any fecret infinuation of errors, or dan- 
*' gerous mixture of private, and unfound opinions." Since 
both of them, herein freely cxprcficd their proper fentiments, 
S 4 it 

[ 28o ] 

it is Tcarce conceivable how there could be any very important 
dilierence remaining between them. But be it as it will as 
to that J this was in a manner the work of Mr. Clarke's life, 
y-nd bears the lively fignaturcs of his exa(Si: learning, fingular 
piety, and indefatigable induilry j and has been valued by 
good judges of difrerent fentiments and perfuafions, confider- 
ing the brevity of the parts, and intirenefs of the whole, as 
the bc(i: llngle boolc upon the Bible in the world. 

To thefe may be ad.Jed the joint opinions of Dr. Bates zn^ 
Mr. Hovj^ vA\o thus expreiTt-d themfelves. " Having feri- 
" oufly perufed this laborious work, we cannot but judge, the 
*' ufefulnefs will anfwer the author's great induftry ; whofe ex- 
*' cellent fkill hath with that concifenefs, and yet clearnefs, 
*' given the mind of God in the facred oracles of the New 
*' Teftament, that we cannot doubt, but God will render it 
*' ferviceable, to the edifying of confcientious and humble 
^■''readers, in knowledge, faith and obedience." If it fliould 
be obje61ed that thefe were DifTcnters, Dr. Calamy adds, to 
our author's honour, " that his annotations on the Bible were 
" fo highly valued by fome of the m.oft eminent of the clergy 
*' of the Church of England, that one of the learned body de- 
*' clared them to be fo ufeful (efpecially that part that con- 
*' talned parallel fcriptures) that he could not compofe his 
*' fermons without them. Another faid, that if they could not 
*' be had under fifty pounds, he w^ould give that fum rather 
" than not have them. And one of the highefl rank thought 
jit to recommend them to young divines, at their ordina- 
« tion." 

In refpe6L to Mr. Clarke's perfonal chara6ler. Dr. Calamy 
further informs us that, " He was a man of very confidera- 
*' ble learning ; a good critic ; efpecially in the fcriptures ; a 
*' great textuary, an excellent preacher ; a great enemy of fu- 
*« perftition and bigotry : yet zealous for unaffecSled piety. He 
*' was one of great moderation, both in his principles and 
•' temper, lived uiefully, and in much eflecm j and in his 
*' Lift hours had great peace and ferenity." After fuch enco- 
miums from fuch tall cedars in our Lebanon, any further re- 
commendation from one of fo fmall a growth, or fuch a 
fhrub as I am, can be but of little weight. I fhall therefore 
<}etain the intelligent and religious leader no longer, than 


[ 28i 1 

whilft I fubjoin my hearty prayers, that whether he or I, of 
any other chrifllan of any denomination, read this or any 
other comment, or the pure fcriptures, without any comment, 
that we may in fuch wife read, mark, learn, and inwardly di- 
geft them ; that by patit^nce aid comfort of God's holy word, 
we may embrace, and ever hold fall the blefled hope of ever- 
lafting life, which he hath given us in our Saviour Jesus 

Chriftian reader. 

Thine in our common Lord, 

George White field. 

London^ O^.ouer i, 17CQ, ^ 

O B S E R- 




In a Book lately publifhed, and intitled, 

*^ The Doctrine of Grace ; or. The Office and 
Operations of the Holy Spirit vindicated from 
the Infults of Infidelity, and the Abufes of Fana- 
ticifm. By William Lord Bifhop of GlouceJlcr'\ 

In a LETTER to a Friend. 

Truth is never more grojly ahujed^ nor its Advocates more dif- 
honoured^ than zvhen they employ the foohfo Arts of Sophijiry^ 
Buffoonery^ and Scurrility in its Defence, 

Eiiliop of Glouceftei's Preface. 

i 285 ] 


My dear Friend^ 

WHEN the great St. Faul, in his cpiftle to the ^^. 
mans^ hud a mind to lay a folid foundation for the 
grand diftinguifliing dodrines of the gofpel, I need not inform 
you, that, like a wife mafter-builder, he took care to dig deep 
into the corruption of human nature : and after having given 
us a lively portraiture of the univcrfal depravity of the Gentile 
world, he proceeded, in a moft mafterly manner, to bring 
jdovi'n the proud thoughts and high imaginations of the {€[{- 
righteous and [. rmal Pharifees ; by proving, to a demonftra- 
tion, that the JcwiJI) profefibrs, notwiihftanding all their pe- 
culiar advantages of external revelation, circumcifion, near 
affinity to Abraham, and fuch-hke, were all equally included 
under fm, were all equally guilty before God, had all equally 
fallen fhort of his glory, confequently were all upon an equal 
level with the reft of mankind, and ftood as much in need of 
^he free grace of God in Christ Jesus, and the faniflifying 
operations of his Holy Spirit, as the moft favage barbarian, 
or difputing Greek. This was a6ting like as did the forerun- 
ner or harbinger of our bleffed Lord ; for, when he favsr 
inany of the Sadducees and Pharifees (the infidels and profef- 
fors of that age) corning to his baptifm, difregarding as it 
were the former, in a very pungent, and what fome would 
term, a very unpolite manner, he thus addrefleth himfelf to 
the latter : " O generation of vipers, who hath warned you 
to flee from the wrath to come ? And think not to fay within 
yourfelves, We have Abraham for our father ; for I fay unto 
you, God is able of thefe ftoncs to raife up children unto 
Abraham'' But Vv'hy fpeak I of a6ling like the forerunner ? 
1 (hould rather have faid, this was imitating our common 
JrfORD himfwlf, who. in his glorious and divine fermon, (when, 


[ 286 ] 

to ufe the words of the fcraphic Hcrvey^ '* a mount v/as his 
" pulpit, and the heavens were his founding-board") cm- 
ploys himfelf chiefly in dete(5ling the falfe glofles and corrupt 
interpretaiions of the then maftcrs of Ifrael ; withal adding 
this cutting afilrtion, " Unlefs your righteoufnefs exceeds 
the righteoufnefs cf the fcribes and pharifees, ye fhall in no 
cafe enter into the kingdom of heaven." 

What a pity is it, my dear friend, that our modern defenders 
of chriftianity, in their elaborate and undoubtedly well-n)eant 
treatifes, have not been more fludious to copy after fuch 
bright and unerring examples ! Many of thefe trails I know 
you have read ; and am perfuaded, out of your ufual candour, 
you v/ill do them fo much juftice as to acknowledge, that, in 
refpctSt to the outworks of religion, fuch as clearing up the 
prophecies of the Old, and vindicating the miracles of the 
New Teftament, againtt the attacks of infidels and free- 
thinkers, they have Ihewn themfelves, as far as bare human 
learning, added to external revelation, can carry them, to be 
mafters of ftrong reafoning, nervous language, and conclufive 
arguments. But then, as I have often heard you lament, one 
thing they feem to lack, a deeper and more ej(perimental 
knowledge of themfelves, and of Jesus Christ. Hence it 
is, that when they come to touch upon the internals and vitals 
of chriftianity, they are quite grappled, and write fo unguard- 
edly of the all-powerful influences of the Holy Ghoft, as to 
fink us into a (late of doivv.right formality ; which, if the Apo- 
ftle Paul may be our judge, we have need as much to be cau- 
tioned againfl-, as of fanaticifm, fuperftition, or infidelity it- 
iclf: for in his fecond epiftle to Timothy^ after giving us a 
dreadful account of the abounding of wicked men in the laft 
perilous tim^es, fuch as " lovers of their own fclves, covetous, 
boafters, proud, blafphemers, difobedient to parents, unthank- 
ful, unholy, without natural afi:e6tion, truce-breakers, falfe- 
accufers, incontinent, fierce, defpifers of thofe that are good, 
traitors, heady, high-minded, lovers of pleafure more than 
lovers of God ;" he brings up the rear in this awful manner, 
" Having a form of godlinefs, but denying the power thereof, 
from fuch, turn away j" and to ufe the words of cur Lord, 
'' Publicans and harlots enter into the kingdom of God he- 
fore them." 

2 Soirry 

[ 2S7 3 

Sorry am T to fend you word, that a v/rlter of this unhappy 
fiamp now lies upon my table : a writer, who, ahhou^h iie 
entitles his book, " The Offices and Operations of the Holy 
*' Ghoil vindicated from the Infults of Infidelity and Abufes 
" of Fanaticifm," yet, in his great zeal againft the latter, and 
to the no firiail encouragement of the former, as far as per- 
verted reafon ai.d difguifed fophiftry could carry him, hath, 
in effect, robbed the church of Christ of its promifed Com- 
forter ; and thereby left us, upon whom the ends of the world 
are come, without any fupernatural influence or divine ope- 
rations whatfoever. Often have I heard you obferve, that 
there never was an age in which the flewards of the myfteries 
of Christ were more loudly called upon to vindicate the 
ofnces and operations of the Holy Spirit, than this wherein 
we live. And, for my own part, 1 cannot help thinking, 
that the moft accomplifhed and duly qualified perfon in the 
univerfe, could he write or fpeak fo extenfively, that the 
whole world might hear or read him, could not poffibly ex- 
prefs his love to mankind in general, and to the church of 
God, purchafed with his own blood, in particular, in a more 
necefiary, commendable, and ufeful way, than by declaring, 
upon the houfe-top, that the Holy GhoO:, like its almighty 
Purchafer, is the fame to-day as he was yefterday ; that he is 
now, as well as formerly, in the ufe of all inftituted means, 
appointed to convince the world of fin, of rig^hteoufnefs, and 
judgment j to lead them into all truth, by fpiritually opening 
their underftandings, that they may underftand the fcriptures; 
and to renew a clean heart and right fpirit within them here, 
in order that they may be thereby prepared for the full enjoy- 
ment of a triune, and ever-blcffed God hereafter. This you 
will judge, my dear friend, is what anyone might have rea- 
fonably expedled to have met with, in a book bearing fuch a 
promifing title. But alas, how was I difappointed ! And 
how will you be equally furprifed, when 1 tell you, that upon 
perufing the book itfclf, I found that the author, inftead of 
vindicating or aficrting, rather denies and ridicules the fland- 
ing and unalterable operations of the Holy Ghoft. For, hav- 
ing ingenioufly taken a great deal of learned pains agalnfl the 
infinuations of Dodor Middkim^ to prove that there once 
was a Holy Ghoft ; and that he did once actually defcend 


[ 2S8 ] 

upon the ApoPJes, on the day of Pentecofl ; and further, 
that he did once infpire the facred writers to fettle the canon 
of fcripture ; he then, in order to tear up fuperftition, and 
what he calls fanaticifm, by the roots, takes infinitely greater 
pains (as well he might, being a moft arduous tafk indeed) 
ta iliew, that what true believers, in all ages, have always' 
looked upon to be the J? ending and ordinary operations of the 
Spirit, " Such as manifeil: themfelves in grace and knowledge, 
'* and which adminifter aid in fpiritual diftrefies, are to be 
*' acconnted and called miraculous^ as much as thofe which 
*' extended outwards, in the gift of healing, and the relief 
*' of other corporeal infirmities." And thefe " miraculous 
*' powers (he adds) being now, upon the perfect eftablifh- 
** ment of chrilManity, totally withdrawn^ it coniequently 
*' muft be fuperilitious and fanatical to look for, or pretend 
" to be pofTefTed of, any of thofe operations which manifeil 
*' thcmfelves in grace and knowledge, and which adminifter 
*' aid in fpiritual diftrefTes." Pages 75, 82, 83, o6lavo edi- 
tion. Strange adertions thefe, you will Aiy, for a vindicator 
of the offices and operations of the Holy Ghofl, againft the 
infults of infidelity,, and the abufes of fanaticifm ! Alas ! 
what could a Middleton fay more ? Nay, I could almoft add, 
v/here hath he exprefsly faid fo much ? But if it be fuperfti- 
tion to look for, if it be fanaticifm to feek after, and not reft 
till we are a6tually and experimentally pofllfled of, the fuper- 
natural influences of the Blefi'cd Spirit, manifefting themfelves 
in grace and divine knowledge, and affording aid in fpiritual 
diftrcfies, then may you and I, my dear friend, become more 
and more fuperftitious and fanatical every day ! For I am 
perfuaded, that without fuch divine manifeftations as exceed 
the powers of humanity, were we to be figned with the fign 
of the crofs in baptifm, a thoufand times over, we could 
never fuccefsfully fight under Christ's banner againfl fin, 
the world, and the devil, and confequently not fo much as 
truly commence, much Icfs continue to be, his faithful fer- 
vants and foldicrs even to the end of our lives. 

Surely, was the Apofi:le Paul to rife from the dead, and 

read over, or hear of fuch flrange pofitions, his fpirit, as onte 

at Athens^ would again be flirred in him ; to fee a writer thus 

attem-pting to crc6l an altar for the public worfhip of an un- 

6 known 

I 2S9 3 

known God : I Tay, an unknown God. For how Is it pofS- 
ble, in the very nature of the thing, for us, who are by nature 
carnal and fold under Tin, ever to worfliip God, who is a fpi- 
rit, in fpirit and in truth, without fome inward manifefta- 
tions of grace and fpiriiual knowledge, fuperadded to the 
light of external revelation, to enable us fo to do ? For, td 
apply what this Apoflle obferves upon a like occafion, " he is 
not a real chriftian, who is only one outwardly j but he alone 
is a true chriftian, who is one inwardly, whofe baptifm is that 
of the heart, in the fpirit, and not merely of the water, whofc 
praifc is not of man, but of God.'* And yet (would you 
think it ?) this writer is fo unwary as to attempt to prefs this 
very Apoftle, that true affertor of the do£trine of grace, that 
genuine, irrefragable vindicator of the ofHces and operations 
of the Holy Spirit, into his miftaken fervice. Never, I be- 
lieve, were the faint and the fcholar, the gentleman and the 
chriftian, more fweetly blended together, than in the charac- 
ter and writings of this favourite of heaven. How often, my 
dear friend, in our more retired moments, when converfmg 
together concerning the lively oracles of God, have you 
called upon me to take notice of this truly great man's perti- 
nent and powerful preaching before F^Iix the governor, as 
well as his inexpreflibly polite and perfuafive addrefs to King 
Jgrippa F And how have you again and again read over to 
me, and made remarks upon, thofe ftriking images, and thofe 
divine characSteriftics, which this accompliftied mafter of hu- 
man and divine rhetoric lays before us, in the xiiith chapter 
of his firft epiftle to the Corinthians^ of that moft excellent 
grace charity, or the love of God ? A grace fo abfolutely 
neceflary to the chriftian life, that without it, to ufe the in- 
imitable language of this infpired writer, " Though we had 
a miraculous faith, fo as to remove mountains, nay though 
we fhould give all our goods to feed the poor, and even our 
bodies to be burnt, it would profit us nothing." A grace 
that never faileth, but a facred fomething of which we fhall 
eternally remain pofllfted, and be increafing in, even when 
faith fhall end in the vifion, and hope in the endlefs fruition 
of the ever-blefled God. O my dear friend, how frequently 
have our hearts burned within us, under the glowing warmth 
of fuch an animating profpedt ? And yet, incredible as it 
Vol. IV, T may 


[ 290 ] 

may feem to you, 1 aiTure you, that this very chapter is 
fingled out by our haplefs Author, to prove, " That fuper- 
" natural manifeftations of grace and knowledge, and fpiri- 
" tual aids in fpiritual diitrefles, vi^ere the miraculous gifts of 
*' the primitive church, and were totally withdrawn on its 
" perfe(5l eftablifliment." Surely a more pertinent one could 
not be rele6led out of the whole New Teftamcnt, to prove di- 
recSlly the contrary. For let any man impartially examine the 
glorious infeparable properties and concomitants of this divine 
grace and gift, charity, recorded in this chapter, can he 
then make the leaft doubt, whether any perfon living, can 
poflibly be pofleffed of this moft excellent gift, without thofe 
very fupernatural manifeflations of grace and knowledge, and 
thofe divine influences of the Holy Spirit exceeding the 
powers of humanity, which this unhappy writer would fain 
perfuade us are now abated or totally withdrawn. ." Charity 
(fays our Apodle) fuffcreth long, and is kind ; charity envieth 
not; charity vaunteth not itfelf, is not puffed up, feeketh 
not her own, is not eafily provoked, thinketh no evil, re- 
joiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth In the truth, beareth all 
things, hopeth all things, endureth all things." Now can 
human reafon, with all its heights j can calm philofophy, 
with all its depths ; or moral fuafion, with all its infinuating 
arts ; fo much as pretend to kindle, much lefs to maintain 
and blow up into a fettled habitual flame of holy fire, fuch a 
fpark as this in the human heart ? Sooner might one attempt 
to extinguifli the mofi: rapid and devouring flames, by reading 
a ledure upon the benefit of cold water; or reach out one's 
prefumptuous hand to create a new heaven and a new earth ; 
than to dream of extinguilhing thofe innate, fiery paffions of 
envy, felfiflinefs, or malice, v»^hich this charity or love of God 
is here faid to militate againft ; or, to work or- form the foul 
into any of thofe divine tempers here fpoken of, as the ge- 
nuine efFe61:s and fruits of the love of God. No, my dear 
friend, thefe are flowers not to be gathered in nature's garden. 
They are exotics ; planted originally in heaven, and in the 
great work of the new birth, are tranfplanted by the Holy 
Ghoft, not only into the hearts of the firft Apoftles, or pri- 
mitive chriftians, but into the hearts of all true believers, 
even to the end of the world. For doubtlefs of all fuch 


[ 291 ] 

St. Paul fpeaks, when he fays, " Tribulation worketh pa- 
tience, patience experience, experience hope, and hope maketh 
not afliamed, becaufe the love of God is fhed abroad in our 
hearts by the Holy Ghoft which is given unto us." And 
hence, doubtlefs, it is, that we were all in general, dirc£lcd 
in one of the collects of our church, to " pray to that Lord 
*' who hath taught us, that all our doings v;ithout charity, 
" are nothing worth, that he would fend the Holy Ghoft, 
" and pour into our hearts that nioft excellent gift of charity." 
So that, according to our reformers, fupernatural influence 
and manifeftations of grace and knowledge, are fo far from 
being totally withdrawn, that, in the end of this very colledt, 
they teach us to confefs, that " without them," or, which 
is the fame, without the love of God poured into the heart 
by the Holy Ghoi3:, " whofoever liveth, is counted dead be- 
fore him." But, if we will believe our Author, charity fig- 
nifies little more than the outward eftablifhment of the chrif- 
tian church, and confequently, that the Apoftle means no 
more in this chapter than to fhew us, " That prophecies, 
*' myfleries, knowledge," (z. e. according to this writer, all 
fupernatural knowledge) " were to ceafe when chriftianity 
*' arrived to a perfc6l eftablifhment." Page 82. — Nay, 
fcorning to tread in the fteps of TVhithy^ Hammond^ Burkii^ 
and every confiftent fpiritual expofitor of holy writ, our new 
commentator, out of his paradoxical genius, labours to prove, 
that when the great Apoftle afferts, that " charity never fails," 
and therefore hath the preference over faith and hope, he 
means nothing lefs than to aflert its eternal duration, and that 
confequently his true meaning hath hitherto efcaped every un- 
wary reader but himfelf, pages 75, 6, 7. Confclous, no 
doubt, of this fingularity, and juftly aware of its needing 
fome apology, he very properly adds, page 82. that fuch an 
uncommon interpretation " inftruds the unwary reader, with 
*' what caution and application he ftiould come to the ftudy 
*' of that profound reafoning with which all St. Paul's 
*' epiftles abound." And may I not, at leaft with as great 
propriety fubjoin, that this may alfo inftrudt every unwary rea- 
der, with what caution he fhould come to the ftudy of that 
profound reafoning with which this treatife abounds ? fo very 
profound, that I believe it exceeds the powers of humanity to 

T 2 fathom 

[ 292 ] 

fathom Its depths, (o far as to draw out of it any true, con- 
fiftent interpretation of the Apoftle's reafoning on this chapter 
at all. 

I might here add, my dear friend, fome other fpecimens of 
our Author's manner of explaining fcriptur^, by his fiiie hu- 
man reafon : for inflance, * Keeping t)urfelves unfpotted 
from the world, he fays, page 157, fignifies only our ufmg 
the means of grace.' And again, when the Apoftle informs 
us, Epbef. V. 9. " that the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodnefs, 
righteoufnefs, and truth," he tells us, that *' truth refers to 
'' chriftian do6bine, goodnefs to chrlllian pradiice, and by 
*' righteoufnefs is meant, the condu£l of the whole to parti- 
*' culars, and confiih in that equal gentlenefs of government, 
*' where church-authority is made to coincide with the 
*^ private rights of confcience ; and this refers to chriftian 
" difcipline * ;'* with feveral fuch like inftances, which even 
the moft unwary reader, without much ftudy or application, 
may meet with, fcattered up and down this Author's perform- 
ance ; but this would be too great a digreflion. Indeed I 
fhould not have dwelt fo long even upon this extraordinary 
interpretation of the thirteenth chapter of the firfl epiftle to 
the Corinthians^ had not the writer himfelf called it, this decifwe 
P<lir^g^i and given it as his opinion, page 76, " That this is 
'' the Only exprefs declaration recorded in fcripture, to prove, 
'' that all fupernaturai knowledge or divine influence was 
** to ceafe, when chriftianity was perfcdly eftabliflied, or the 
^' world arrived at a perfe(5t chriftian Hate." But every day's 
experience, "nay this Author's very book, proving beyond a 
doubt, that chriftianity is not as yet thus perfed^ly eftabliflied ; 
we may yet, according to his own principles, expe£l divine 
manifeftations of grace and knowledge, and fpiritual aids un- 
der fpiritual diftrefles, without juftly incurring the imputation 
either of fuperftition or fanaticifm. 

But to proceed. However profound and unintelligible our 
Author's comments may be, yet, when he comes to (hew the 
reafonablencfs and fitnefs of an abatement or total withdraw- 

* How much more pertinent is Mr. ClarPs interpretation ? Accord- 
ins^ to him, *' Goodnefs is an inclination to do good to others, truth is 
freedom from hypocrify and diflimulation, righteoufnefs is juft dealing."" 


[ 293 ] 

ing of divine influence in thefelaft days, (but woe to the chrlf- 
tian world if he fucceeds in his unhallowed attempt !) he 
fpeaks intelligibly enough. " On the Spirit's firfl: defcent 
*' upon the Apoftles, he found their minds rude and unin- 
*' formed, ftrangers to all celeftial knowledge, prejudiced in 
*' favour of a carnal law, and utterly averfe to the dictates of 
*^ the everlafting gofpel. The minds of thefe he illuminated, 
*^ and, by degrees, led into all truths neceflary for the profef- 
*' fors of the faith to know, or for the propagators of it to 
*' teach." — True. — " Secondly, the nature and genius of 
*' the gofpel were fo averfe to all the religious inftitutions of 
" the world, that the whole ftrength of human prejudices 
" was fet in oppofition to it. To overcome the obftinacy and 
*' violence of thofe prejudices, nothing lefs than the power 
" of the Holy One was fufficient." — Good. — '' And, thirdly 
*' and laftly, There was a time when the powers of this world 
*' were combined together for its deftrucStion. At fuch a pe- 
*' riodj nothing but fuperior aid from above, could fupport 
'^ humanity in fuftaining fo great a conflidi as that which the 
*' holy martyrs encountered with joy and rapture, the horrors 
*' of death and torment." — Excellent. — But what follows? 
— According to our Author, 

Tempora mutantnr^ nos et mutamur in tilts, 

" But nov^^,*' (a dreadful but it is !) the profeflion of chrif- 
" tianity is attended with eafe and honour ;" and we are now, 
it feems, fo far from being " rude and uninformed, and ut- 
" terly averfe to the dictates of the everlafting gofpel, that 
'' whatever there may be of prejudice, it draws another way. 
*' Confequently, a rule of faith being now eftabliflied, the 
*' convi6tion which the weight of human teftimony, and the 
** conclufions of human reafon afford us of its truth, are 
abundantly fufficient to fupport us in our religious perfe- 
verance ; and therefore it muft certainly be a great mark of 
fanaticifm, to expedl fuch divine communications, as 
though no fuch rule of faith was eftabliflied ; and alfo as 
" highly prefumptuous or fanatical to imagine, that rule to 
" be fo obfcure, as to need the further affiftance of the Holy 
" Spirit to explain his own meaning." Pages 85, 86, 87, 88. 
This, you will fay, my dear friend, is g'^nng pretty far ; and 

T 3 indeed. 

[ 294 ] 

indeed, fuppofing matters to be as this writer reprefents them, 
I do not fee what great need we have of any eftabliflied rule 
at all, at leaft in refpedl to pradlice, fmce corrupt nature is 
abundantly fufiicicnt of itfelF, to help us to perfevcre in a 
religion attended with eafe and honour. And I verily believe, 
that the Deifts throw afide this rule of faith entirely, not 
barely on account of a deficiency in argument to fupport its 
authenticity, but becaufe, they daily fee fo many who profefs 
to hold this cftabliflied, felf-denying rule of faith with their 
lips, perfcvering all their lives long*in nothing elfe but an 
endlefs and infatiable purfuit after worldly eafe and honour. 
But what a total ignorance of human nature, and of the true 
unalterable genius of the everlafting gofpel, doth our Author's 
arguing difcover ? For fuppofing, my dear friend, that this 
or any other writer fhould undertake to prove, that the ancient 
Creeks and Romans were born with fickly, difordered, and 
crazy bodies, but that we, in modern days, being made of a 
firmer mould, and being blefi^ed with the eftablifhed rules of 
Galen and Hippocrates^ need now no further aiBftance from 
any prefent phyfician, either to explain or apply thofe rules 
to our prefent ails and corporeal diilrefles ; though we could 
not, without the help of fome linguift fuperior to ourfelves, fo 
much as underftand the language in which thofe authors 
wrote. Suppofing, I fay, any one was to take it into his 
head to write in this manner, would he not be juftly deemed 
a dreaming enthufiaft or real fanatic ? And yet this would 
be jufl: as rational as to infinuate, with our Author, that we 
-v;ho are born in thefe laft days, have lefs depravity in our na- 
tures, lefs enmity to, and lefs prejudice againft the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and lefs need of the divine teachings of the 
Blefi'ed Spirit to help us to underftand the true fpiritual 
meaning of the holy fcriptures, than thofe who were born in 
the firft ages of the gofpel. For as it was formerly, fo it, is now, 
the natural man difcerncth not the things of the Spirit ; and 
why? " Becaufe they can only be fpiritually difcerned." 
But when is it that we mud believe this Author ? For, p. 73. 
he talks of " fome of the firft chriftians, who were in the 
" happy circumftance of being found innocent, when they 
" were led into the pradice of all virtue by the Holy Spirit." 
And what occafion for that, if found innocent ? But how 


[295 ] 

innocent did the Holy Spirit find them ? Doubtlefs, jufl ns 
innocent as it finds us, " Conceived and born in fin." Hav- 
ing in our flefti, our depraved nature, no good thing ; bring- 
ing into the world with us a corruption, wiiich renders us liable 
to God's wrath and eternal damnation ; with a carnal mind, 
which is enmity againft God, and a heart, the thoughts and 
imaginations of which, are declared to be only evil, and that 
continually ; and whofe native and habitual language, thouah 
born and educated under a chriftian difpcnfation, is identically 
the fame as that of the jfeivs, " We will not have the Lord 
Jesus to reign over us." This, and this alone, my dear 
friend, is all the innocence that every man, naturally the oftV 
fpring of y/<:A7W, whether born in the antideluvian, patriarchal, 
mofaic, apoftolic, or prefent age, can boaft of. And if this 
be matter of fadl, (and who that knows himfelf can deny it ?) 
it is fo far from being fuperftitious or fanatical to allert the ab- 
folute neceffity of a divine influence, or a power fuperior to 
that of humanity ; that it is a mod irrefragable argument for 
its continuance without the lead abatement, or withdrawino- 
whatfoever. Daily experience proves, that without fuch a 
power, our underftandings cannot be enlightened, our wills 
fubdued, our prejudices and enmity overcome, our afFe^iions 
turned into a proper channel, or, in fliort, any one individual 
of the apollate fallen race of Jdam be faved. And if fo, what 
becomes of our Author's arguments, to fliew the fitnefs of an 
abatement or total withdrawing of divine influence in thefe 
gofpel days ? Might he not with as great confiftency, have 
undertaken to {hew, the fitnefs of an abatement or total with- 
drawing of the irradiating light and genial warmth of the na- 
tural fun ? For, as the earth on which we tread, {lands as 
much in need now of the abiding influence of the genial rays 
of that great luminary, in order to produce, keep up, and 
complete the vegetative life in grafs, fruits, plants, and flowers, 
as it did in any preceding age of the world ; fo our earthly 
hearts do now, and always will ftand in as much need of the 
quickening, enlivening, transforming influences of the Spirit 
of Jesus Christ, that glorious fun of rightcoufnefs, as the 
hearts of the firft apoflles : if not to make us preachers, yet ■ 
to make us chriftians, by beginning, carrying on, and corn- 
pleating that holinefs in the heart and life of every believer in 

T 4 every 

[ 2()6 ] 

every age, without which no man living fiiall fee the LoK.n. 
And the fcriptures are fo far irom encouraging us to plead for 
a diminution of divine influence in thefe lafl days of the gof- 
pel, becaufean external rule of faith is thereby eftabliflied, that 
on the contrary, we are encouraged by this very eftabiifhed 
rule to expe6l, hope, long, and pray for larger and more ex- 
tenfive fhowers of divine influence than any former age hath 
ever yet experienced. For, are we not therein taught to pray, 
*' That we piay be filled with all the fulnefs of God," and 
to wait for a glorious epocha, " When the earth fhall be 
filled with the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover 
the feas ? " Do not all the faints on eanh, and all the fpirits of 
juft men made perfect in heaven ; nay, all the angels and 
archangels about the throne of the Moft High Gop, night 
and day, join in this united cry, Lord Jesus, thus let thy 
kino;dom come ! 

But, by this time, my dear friend, I imagine you would be 
glad to know againll whom thefe bruta fubnina^ this unicrip- 
tural artillery is levelled. Our Author fhall inform you : 
*' All modern pretenders to divine influence in general j" and 
you may be aflfured " the poor Methodijls (thofe fcourges an^i 
eye-fores of formal, felf-righteous, letter-learned profeflbrs) in 
particular." To expofe, and fet thefe off in a ridiculous light, 
(a method that 'Julian^ after all his various tortures, found 
mofl: eftedual) this writer runs from Dan to Beerjheba y gives 
us quotation upon quotation out of the Rev. Mr., .John Wejley% 
Journals ; and to ufe his own fimile upon another occafion, 
by a kind oi Egyptian hufbandry, draws together whole droves 
of obfcene animals, of his own formation, who rulli in fu- 
rioufly, and then trample the Journals, and this fe(St, already 
every-where fpoken againft, under their feet. In reading this 
part of his work, I could not help thinking of the Papifts 
dreflfing yohn Hufs in a cap of painted devils, before they de- 
livered him up to the fecular arm. For our Author calls the 
Rev. Mr. John Wejley^ " Paltry mimick, fpiritual empiric, 
'' fpiritual martialifl:, meek ^poftle, new adventurer." The 
Methodifts, according to him, are " modern apoftles, the 
*' faints, n^ miflTionaries, illuminated do6lors, this fe(£l: of 
*' fanatics. Methodifm itfelf is modern faintihip. Mr. Law 
• " begat it, and Count Zinzendorff ioc\it(\ t\iQ cradle 3 and the 


t 297 i 

idevll himfelf Is man- mid wife to their new birth." And yet 
this is the man, my dear friend, who in his preface to this 
very book, lays it down, as an invariable maxim, " That 
" truth is never fo grofsly injured, or its advocates fo diflio- 
*' noured, as when they employ the foolifh arts of fophiftr)^, 
*' buffoonery, and perfonal abufe in its defence." By thy 
own pen thou (halt be tried, thou haplefs, miftaken advocate 
of the cbriftian caufe. Nay, not content with dreffing up this 
meek apoftie, this fpiritual empiric, thefe new miflionaries, 
in bear-lkins, in order to throw them out to be bated by an 
ill-natured world, he proceeds to rake up the very afties of 
the dead ; and, like the Witch oi Endor^ as far as in him lies, 
attempts to bring up and difquiet the ghofts of one of the moft 
venerable fets of men that ever lived upon the earth ; I mean 
the good old Puritans : " For thefe, (fays our Author) wha 
'' nov/ go under the name of Methodifts, in the days of our 
*' fore-fathers, under the firm reign of Queen Elizabeth^ were 
" called Precifians ; but then, as a precious metal which had 
*' undergone its trial in the fire, and left all its drofs, the fe61:, 
^' with great propriety, changed its name," (a very likely 
** thing, to give themfelves a nick-game, indeed) from Pre- 
*' cifian to Puritan. Then, in the weak and diftra6led times 
*' of Charles the FirJ}, it ventured to throw off the m.afk, and 
" under the new name of Independant, became the chief 
" agent of all the dreadful diforders which terminated that 
*' unhappy reign." So that according to this Author's heral- 
dic, genealogical fidtion, " Methodifm is the younger daughter 
'* to Independancy, and now a Methodift is an apoftolic In- 
** dependant;" (God grant he may always deferve fuch a 
glorious appellation) " But an Independant was then a Ma^ 
" hometan Methodift." Pages 142, 143, 144. What ! an 
Independant a Mahometan Methodift ? What ! the learned 
Dr. Oiven^ the great Dr. Goodwin^ the amiable Mr. Hovue^ and 
thofe glorious worthies who iirft planted the New-E?igland 
churches, Mahometan Methodifts ! Would to God, that 
not only this writer, but all who now profefs to preach 
Christ in this land, were not only almoft, but altogether 
fuch Mahometan Methodifts, in refpedl: to th^<do£lrine of di- 
vine influence, as they were ! For I will venture to affirm, 
that if it had not been for fuch Mahometan Methodifts, and 
i their 

[ 298 ] 
their rucceiTors, the free-grace difTentcrs, we (hould fome years 
ago, have been in danger of finking into Mahometan Metho- 
difm indeed ; I mean, into a chriftianity deftitute of any di- 
vine influence manifefting itfeif in grace and knowledge, and 
void of any fpiritual aid in fpiritual diftrefles. But from fuch 
a chriltianity, good Lord deliver this happy land ! The de- 
fjgn our author had in view in drawing fuch a parallel, is 
eafily feen through. Doubtiefs, to expofe the prefent Metho- 
difts to the jcaloufy of the civil government. For, fays he, 
p. 142, " We fee methodifm at prefent under a well efta- 
*' blilhed government, where it is obliged to wear a lefs au- 
*' dacious look. To know its true character, we fhould fee 
*' it in all its fortunes." And doth this writer then, in order 
to gratify a finful curiofity of feeing methodifm in all its for- 
tunes, dcfire to have the pleafure of feeing the weak and di- 
ftraded limes of Charles the firft brought back again ! Or 
dares he infmuate, that becaufe, as he immediately adds, our 
country hath been produ6live of every flrange thing, " that 
*' we are in the Icaft danger now of any fuch diftrading turn, 
*' fince we have a King upon the throne, who in his firlt moft 
*' gracious ipeech to both houies of parliament, declared, he 
*' would preferve the ait of toleration inviolable ? And that 
*' being the cafe, blefTed be God, we are in no danger of any 
*' return of fuch weak and diftrafted times, either from the 
" apoftolic independants, Mahometan Methodifts, or any 
*^ religious {q6\. or party whatfoever.'* My dear friend, " if 
*' this is not gibetting up names with unregenerate malice, to 
*' everlafting infamy," I know not what is. But it happens 
in this, as in fimilar cafes, whilft men are thus bufy in gibbet- 
ing up the names of others, they unwittingly, like Hamariy 
when preparing a gallows for that apoftolic Independent, that 
Mahometan Methodift, Mordecaiy all the while are only ere6t- 
ing a gibbet for their own. 

But, methinks, I fee you now begin to be impatient to know, 
(and indeed I have neither inclination nor leifure at prefent to 
purfue our author any further) who this can be that takes fuch 
gigantic ftrides ? I afllire you, he is 2iperfe^ Goliah in the reti- 
nue of human learning. Will you guefs .? — Perhaps Dr, 

T r oi Norwich s — no — he is dead. Certainly not a church- 
man ? Yes j a member, a minifter, a dignitary, a bifhop of the 


C 299 ] 

church of England; — and, to keep you no longer in fufpence, 
it is no lefs a man than Dr. Warhurton^ the author of " The 
" Divine Legation of Mofes^' and now William Lord Bijhop of 
Gloucejler. I know you are ready to fay, " Tell it not in 
*.' Gath^ publiih it not in the ftreets of AfcaknS' But, my 
dear friend, what can be done ? His Lordlhip hath publifhed 
jthimfelf: nay, his book hath juft gone through a fecond 
imprefiion ; and that you may fee and judge for yourfelf, 
whether I have wronged his Lordfhip or not, (as it is not 
very weighty) I have fent you the book itfelf. Upon the pe- 
rufal, I am perfuaded you will at leaft be thus far of my opi- 
nion, that however decus et tutamen is always the motto en- 
graven upon a hijhop's mitre^ it is not always moft certain, 
though his Lordfhip fays it is, p. 202, that they are written 
in every prelate's hreaji ? And how can this prelate in parti- 
cular, be faid to be the ornament and fafcguard of the Church 
o( England? when his principles are as dire6tly contrary to the 
offices of that church, over which he is by divine permiHion 
made overfeer, as light is contrary to darknefs. You know, 
my dear friend, what our minifters are taught to fay when 
they baptize : " I befeech you to call upon God the Father, 
*' through our Lord Jesus Christ, that of his bounteous 
*' goodnefs he will grant to this child that thing which by 
*' nature he cannot have." But what fays his Lordfhip? 
'' All influence exceeding the /)(j^^r of humanity^ is miracu- 
*' lous, and therefore to abate or be totally withdrawn, now 
*' the church is perfcdiy eftablifhed." What fay they when 
they catechife ? " My good child, know this, that thou art 
" not able to do thefe things of thyfelf, nor to walk in the 
'' commands of God, and to ferve him without his fpecial 
*' grace'' But what fays his Lordfhip ? " A rule of faith be- 
*' ing now eftablifhed, the conviction which the weight of 
'' human tefiimony^ and the conclufions o^ human reafon afford, 
*' are abundantly fufficient to fupport us in our religious per- 
*' feverance." What fays his Lordfhip himfelf, when he 
confirms children thus catechifed ? " Strengthen them, we 
" befeech thee, O Lord, with the Holy Ghofl, the Com- 
«' forter, and daily increafe in them thy manifold gifts of 
*' grace, the fpirit of wifdom and underflanding, the fpirit 
<« of counfel and ghoflly ftrength." But what fays his Lord- 

r 300 ] 

(liip, wlien he fpeaks his own fentiments ? <« All aids in fpi- 
«' ritual diilrefles, as well hs thofe which adminiftered help in 
<' corporeal difeafes, are now abated or totally withdrawn." 
What fays his Lorufhip when he ordains ? " Dofl thou truft 
*' that thou art inwardly moved by the Holy Gholl ? then^. 
*^ receive thou the Holy Ghoft." 

Come^ Holy GhoJI^ our fouls infptre^ 

And lighten with celejiial fire : 

Thou the anointing Spirit art, 

IV ho dojl thy f even- fold gifts impart, 

Thy blejfed un£lion from above ^ 

Is comfort^ life^ and power of love ; 

Enable with perpetual lights 

The dulnefs of our blinded fight. 

What fays his Lord (hip when pronouncing the bleiTing ? 
*' The peace of God, which pafleth all underftanding, keep 
*' your hearts and minds in the knowledge and love of God." 
But what fays his Lordfhip when retired to his ftudy ? " All 
*' fupernatural influence, manifefting itfelf in grace and know- 
*' ledge, is miraculous, and therefore to ceafe under a perfe6l 
« eftabliftiment." — What fays ? — But I check myfelf ; for 
the time would fail me, was I to urge all thofe quotations 
that might be produced out of the articles, homilies, and pub- 
lic offices, to confront and invalidate the whole tenor and 
foundation of his Lordfliip's performance. But how it is 
confident with that wifdom which is from above, (and by 
which his Lordlhip attempts to arraign, try, and condemn 
the Reverend Mr. John TVefiey) to fubfcribe to, and make 
ufc of public offices, in the church, and then as publicly deny 
and contradiiSl them in the prefs, I leave to his Lord/hip's 
more calm and deliberate confideration. Sure I am, if 
weighed in the fame balance, his Lordiliip would be found 
equally wanting, at lead:. Indeed, during the whole trial, 
I could fcarcely refrain breaking out into the language of 
the eunuch of Qrieen Candacc^ to Philip the evangelift, 
*' Speaketh the prophet this of himfelf, or of fome other 
" man ?'* I hope, my dear friend, you know me better than 
to fufpedt I thus retort upon his Lordlhip, in order to throw 
duft in your eyes to prevent your feeing what his Lardfliip 


t 301 ] 

may juftly except againft, in the conduft of the Methcdlfls 
in general, or in the journals of the Reverend Mr. John Wejley 
in particular. Whatever that indefatigable labourer may 
think of his, you know I have long fince publicly acknow- 
ledged, that there were, and doubtlefs, though now fent 
forth in a more corre(!l: attire, there are yet, many exception- 
able pojfages in my journals. And I hope it will be one of the 
conftant employments of my declining years, to humble my- 
felf daily before the Moft High God, for the innumerable 
mixtures of corruption which have blended themfelvcs with 
my feeble, but, I truft, fmcere endeavours, whether from the 
prefs or pulpit, to promoie the Redeemer's glory, and the 
eternal welfare of precious and immortal fouls. And, I afTure 
you, that if his Lordfhip had contented himfelf with pointing 
out, or even ridiculing any fuch blemifhes or imprudencies, 
or yet flill more important miftakes, in my own, or any of 
the Methodifts condu(Sl: or performances, I fhould have ftood 
intirely filcnt. But when I obferved his Lordfhip, through 
almoft his whole book, not only wantonly throwing about 
the arrows and firebrands of fcurrility, buffoonery, and per- 
fonal abufe, but, at the fame time, on account of fome un- 
guarded exprellions and indifcretions of a particular fet of 
honeft, though fallible, men, taking occafion to wound, 
vilify, and totally deny the all-powerful, {landing operations 
of the Bleffed Spirit, by which alone, his Lordfhip or any 
other man living can be fandified and fealed to the day of 
eternal redemption, I muft own that I was conftrained to vent 
myfelf to you, as a dear, and intimate friend, in the manner 
I have done. Make what ufe of it you pleafe ; perhaps here- 
after I may trouble you with fome further remarks. 

At prefent, you know I am on the road to Scotland^ in or- 
der to embark for America. And therefore I would now only 
obfervc to you further, that the unguarded unwary method 
made ufe of by his Lordfhip to flop, will rather ferve to in- 
€reafe and eftablifh, what he is pleafed to term a k6i of fana- 
tics. The more judicious Bifhop Burnet^ (as I heard an 
acute advocate once obferve,) in the general affembly of the 
Church of Scotland^ prefcribed a much better (and indeed the 
only effedual and truly apoflolic) way to flop the progrefs of 
the puritan miniflers, when complained againil by fome of 


[ 302 ] 

the clergy, for breaking into and preaching in their parochial 
charges ; " Out-live, out-labour, out-preach them," faid his 
Lordfhip. And that- the Reverend Mr. John Wejley himfelf 
(that famed leader of the Methodifts) and every Methodift 
preacher in England m-Ziy be thus outed and intirely annihilated, 
is, and fhali be, the hearty prayer of one, who, though lefs 
than the leaft of them all, begs leave to fubfcribe himfelf, ia 
great hafte, but greater love and cfleem. 

Yours moft afFedlionately, 

In a never-failing Emmanuel^ 

George Whitefield, 

A R E C O M- 




O F 

Mr. J O H N B U N Y A N. 

C 3^5 1 

Recommendatory Preface to the 
Works of Mr. John Bun van. 

Cbrift'ian Reader^ 

IF fuch thou art in reallt)'^, or if only a bare outward profef- 
for, thou needeft not be informed, that the all-gracious 
Emmanuel^ in the days of his flefli, after he had given us a 
glorious difplay of the divine fovereignty in difpenfing the 
everlafiing gofpel, broke forth into thefe emphatic words, 
*' I thank thee, Holy Father, Lord of heaven and earth, 
*' that thou haft hid thefe things from the wife and prudent, 
*' and haft revealed them unto babes. Even fo, Father, 
*' for fo it feemed good in thy fight.'* Agreeable to this, 
fays the great Apoftle of the Gentiles^ " God hath' chofen 
*' the foolifh things of this world to confound the wife : and 
** God hath chofen the weak things of the world, to con- 
*' found the things which are mighty ; and bafe things of the 
*' world', and things which are defpifed hath God chofen, 
" yea, and things that are not, to bring to nought thin<:s 
*' that are.'* And why ? That no flefh fhould glory in his 

Perhaps, next to the firft publifticrs of the gofpel of the 
blefied God, thefe fayings were never more ftrongly exem- 
plified in any finglc individual (at leaft in this, or the laft cen- 
tury) than in the converfion, miniftry and writings of that 
eminent fervant of Jesus Christ, Mr, John Bunyan, who 
was of the mcaneft occupation, and a notorious fabbath- 
breaker, drunkard, fwearer, blafphemer, S:c. by habitual 
pracflice : And vet. through rich, free, fovcreign, diftinguifti- 

VoL. IV. ^ ' U ir.g 


[ 3o6 3 

ing grace, he was choftn, called, and afterwards formed, by 
the all-powerful operations of the Holy Ghoft, to be a fcribe 
ready inftru£led to the kingdom of God. The two volumes 
of his works formerly publifhed ; with the great fuccefs that 
attended them in pulling down Satan's ftrong-holds in finners 
hearts, when fent forth in fmall detached parties, are preg- 
nant proofs of this. Some of them have gone through a 
great variety of editions. His Pilgrims Progrefs in particular, 
hath been tranflated into various languages, and to this day 
is read with the greateft pleafure, not only by the truly feri- 
ous, of divers religious perfuafions, but likewife by thofe, to 
whom pleafure is the end of reading. Surely it is an original, 
and we may fay of it, to ufe the words of the great Dodlor Good- 
win in his preface to the epiftle to the Ephefmns^ that it fmells 
of the prifon. It was written v/hen the author was confined 
in Bedford-goal, And minifters never write or preach fo well 
as when under the crofs : the fpirit of Christ and of glory 
then refts upon them. 

It was this, no doubt, that made the Puritans of the laft 
century fuch burning and (hining lights. When caft out by 
the black Bartholomew- a£l^ and driven from their refpc61:ive 
charges to preach in barns and fields, in the highways and 
hedges, they in an efpecial manner wrote and preached as 
men having authority. Though dead, by their writings they 
yet fpeak : a peculiar un^lion attends them to this very hour ; 
and for thefe thirty years paft I have remarked, that the more, 
true and vital religion hath revived either at home or abroad, 
the more the good old puritanical writings, or the authors of 
a like ftamp who lived and died in communion of the church 
of England^ have been called for. Among thefe may be juftly 
reckoned thofe great luminaries, Bifhop Jewels UJher-, An- 
drewsy Hall^ Rey?iolds^ Hopkins ^ JVilkinSy Edwards^ who, 
notwithftanding a difFerence of judgment in refpecl: to out- 
ward church-government, all agreed (as their printed works 
manifeRly evince) in afTerting and defending the grand efTen- 
tial truths for which the Puritans, though matters of an in- 
ferior nature were urged as a pretext, chiefly fufFered, and 
were ejected. The impartial Doctor Hodges therefore (late 

provoft of Oriel College in Oxford) in his elaborate treatife in- 

[ so? ] 

titled Elihti^ hath done himfelf honour in faying, that *< the 
*' old Puritans and Prefbyterians in general-, till a divifioii 
*' happened lately among them, dcferve praife for their fteady 
*' and firm adherence to the, principal and fundamental doc- 
** trines of chriftianity." Their works ftill praife them in the 
gates ; and without pretending to a fpiric of prophecv, we 
may venture to affirm, that they will live and flourifh, when 
more modern performances, of a contrary caft, notwithftand- 
ing their gaudy and tinfelled trappings, will languifli and die 
in the efteem of thofe, whofe underflandings are opened to 
difcern what com.es neareft to the fcripture (landdrd. 

This confideration, hath induced me to preface the prefent 
large and elegant edition of the Reverend Mr. John Bunyans 
works ; which, with the unparalleled commentary of the good 
Mr. Mattheiu Henry^ the pious and pra£^ical writings of the 
excellent Mr. Flavel, and the critical and judicious commen- 
taries and tradls of the accurate Doc^tor Oiuen, I hear are en- 
<]uired after, and bought up, more and more every day. The 
laft forementioned worthy, though himfelf fo great a fcholar^ 
and for fome time chancellor of one of our moft famous uni- 
verfities, as I have been credibly informed, attended on the 
fermons, and countenanced the minifterial labours of our 
Reverend author ; when, by reafon of his being unfkilled in 
the learned languages, and a few differences in leffer matters 
(as will 2tlways be the cafe in this mixed ftate of things) he 
was lightly efteemed by fome of lefs enlarged fentiments. 
But this, I muft own, more particularly endears Mr. Bunyan 
to my heart ; he was of a catholic fpirit, the want of water- 
adult hapt'ifm with this man of God, was no bar to outward 
chriftian communion. And I am perfuaded, that if, like him, 
we were more deeply and experimentally baptized into the be- 
nign and gracious influences of the bleffed Spirit, we fhould 
be lefs baptized into the waters of ftrife, about circumftantials 
and non-effentials. For being thereby rooted and ground<:d 
in the love of God, we fhould neceffarily be conftraincj 
to think, and let think, bear with and forbear one another 
in love; and without faying *' I am o^ Paul, Jp:lbs, of 
Cephas^'' hive but one ^nand, laudable, difintcrefted ftrife, 
namely, who ihould live, preach and exalc the ever-loving, alto- 

U 2 gtther 

' [ 3o8 3 

gcthcr lovely Jesus moft. That thefe volumes may be blefl to 
beget, promote and increafe fuch divine fruits of real and 
undcfiled religion in the hearts, lips and lives of readers, 
of all ranks and denominations, is the eaineft prayer of, 

Chriftian reader. 

Thy fouFs well-wifher in our common Lord, 

George Whitefield. 

London^ Jan, 3, 1767. 




Reverend Dr. DURE L L, 

Vi c E - C H A N c E L L G R of the IJ.tiiverrity of 



A late EXPULSION of Six Students 
from Edmund-Hall. 

Tea, and 'why e^en of your/elves judge ys nat <nxfhat h right ? 

Liike joL 57« 

Judge righteous judgment* John vii. 24. 


[ 311 ] 


T O T H E 

Reverend Dr. D u r e l l. 

Reverend Sir y London^ April 12^ 1768. 

YOU being a Mafter of Ifrael^ and placed at the head of 
one of the moft renowned feats of learning in the world, 
need not be informed, that the miflion of the Holy Ghoft is 
the one grand promife of the new, as the coming of Jesus 
Christ was the great promife of the Old Teftament difpen- 
fation. " I will pray the Father, (fays our blefled Lord 
to his almoft difconfolate Difciples) and he ihall give you 
another Comforter." And again, " It is expedient for you, that 
I go away; for if I go not av/ay, the Comforter will not come 
unto you ; but if I depart (it being the purchafe of his all- 
atoning blood, and defigned to be the immediate fruit and 
proof of the reality of his refurre£lion, and fubfequent afcen- 
fion into heaven) I will fend him unto you." And that they 
might know, that this Comforter was not to be confined to, 
or monopolized by them, but was to be of ftanding general 
ufe, he immediately gives them intimations of the defign and 
nature of his office ; and therefore adds, " and when he is 
come, he will convince the world of fm, and of righteoufnefs, 
and of judgment." 

A ftrange, and till then unheard of, promife, this ! Such 
as a Confucius^ Zoroaftcr^ or any other fi£litious uninfpired 
prophet or lawgiver never dreamt of. A promife, which none 
but oncj who was God over all, could dare to make; a pro- 

U 4 mife. 

[ 312 ] 

iriilc, vrhich none but one, who was God over all, could 
pollibly fulfil. 

Agreeable to this promife, he having afcended up on high, 
led captivity captive, and received this gift for men, the divine 
Paraclete, this Holy Ghoft, " on the day of Pentecoft, came 
down from heaven like a rufhing mighty wind ; and there 
appeared cloven tongues, like as of iire, and fat upon each 

/of the Apoftles." The effe6ls were immediate and vifible j 
poor, illiterate fifhermen, inftantaneoufiv commenced fcholars, 
preachers, orators. And well they might ; for, being filled 
with the Holy Ghoft, as the Spirit gave them utterance, they 
began to fpeak with other tongues the wonderful things of 

But what was all this divine apparatus, this divine preach- 
ing, this divine oratory intended for? The following verfes 
inform us : thp hearers of thofe wonderful thjngs, the fpec- 
tators of this tranfcendently amazing fcene, <* v^ere pricked 
to the heart, and were made to cry out, Men and brethren, 
what fhall we do? And the fame day were added to this infant 
church about three ihoufand fouls." Here were proofs, fub- 
Hantiaj, inconteftable proofs, of the reality of the refurre6liori 
and afcenfion, and likewife of the efficacy of the all-powerful 
intercelTion of their once crucified, but now exalted Lord; 
not only fubfiantial and inconteftable, but at the fame time 
entirely fuitable to the nature of his miflion, who in the days 
pf his fiefh, by his dodlrines and miracles declared, that his 
only defign m coming into qur world, was to fave finners. 

Upon this rock, namely, " an experimental manifeftation 
and application of his divinity to the renewed heart," (which 
flefli and blood, human reafon, vain philofophy, moral fuafion, 
or any, or all barely ejiternal evidence whatfpever, cannot re- 
veal) hath he built, doth he now build, and will continue to 
build his church'; and therefore it is, that the gates, neither 
>/ the power nor policy of hell, ftiall ever be able to prevail 
againft it. By the influence of this almighty Agent, hath he 
promif^d to be with his n^inifters and ptjople, even to the end 
of the world. And agreeable to this, hath taught us daily to 
pray, that his kingdqm may come; which being to be begun, 
carried on and completed, by one continued emanation of 
divine influence communicated to believers in the ufe of all 


[ 3'3 ] 

appointed means, can alone enable us to do God's will ort 
earth, with any degree of that unanimity, chearfulnefs, uni- 
verfality and perfeverance, as it is done by the holy Angels 
above. And as this is the daily united prayer of the whole 
catholic church, however diftrelTed or difpcrfed, and however 
varying as to circumftantials and non-elTentials, over the whole 
earth J it followeth, that every addition of any individual mo- 
nument of divine mercy, out of every nation, languaf^e, or 
tongue, muft be looked upon in part, as an anfwer to the 
daily prayer of every individual believer under heaven. 

Hence, no doubt, it is, that as the angels are fent forth to 
be miniftring fpirits, to minifter to thofe who {hall be heirs of 
falvation, that there is faid to be " joy in heaven over every 
finner that repenteth." And as there is joy in heaven, fo ia 
proportion as men rife into the nature of angels, will there be 
joy alfo upon the fame account amongft good men on earth. 
Accordingly, the lively oracles inform us, that ^' when the 
Apoftles and Brethren which were in Judea heard that the 
Gentiles alfo had received the word of God, they glorified 
him, faying, then hath God alfo to the Gentiles granted re- 
pentance unto life.'* 

And conformably to this, we are told, that *' when Bar^ 
nabas came to Jntioch^ and faw the grace of God, he was 
glad." And why ? Becaufe he was a good man, and full of 
the Holy Ghofl and of faith. And as the fame caufe will al- 
ways be produdive of the lame efFedl, perfons endued with 
the fame benign and godlike difpofition with this good man, 
will always be glad when they fee or hear of any fcriptural 
marks, or pra6^ical evidences of true and undefiled religion, 
wrought in, or appearing upon any fubje£^ of divine grace 
whatfoever. And this joy muft necefTarily rife, in proportion 
as fuch fubjed^s, either by their abilities, or circumftances, 
and fituation in life, promife more important and extenfive 
ufefulnefs in the world and church of God. 

No wonder therefore, reverend Sir, that it hath gladdened 
the hearts of many, and afforded matter of uncommon joy 
and thankfgiving to the Father of mercies and God of all 
ccnfolatjon, to hear, that for fome time paft there hath been 
a more than common reli2;ious concern and zeal for promoting 
their own and others falvation, among fome oi ihe fans of the 


[ 3H ] 

Prophets, What a pleafing profped hath hereby been opened 
of a future blelTing to the rifing generation ! A blefling, which 
we well hoped, would be not lefs f^ilutary and beneficial to the 
moral, than the new crufe of fait was to part of the natural 
world, which the Prophet EUJha^ when complaint was made 
that the water was naught and the ground barren, caft into 
the fpring of waters, with a " thus faith the Lord, there 
fhall not be from thence, any more dearth or barren land : 
fo the waters were healed unto this day." 

But alas ! how is this general joy damped, and the pleafmg 
profpe£l almoft totally eclipfed, by a late melancholy fcene 
exhibited in that very place, from whence, as from a fountain, 
many of their preachers frequently and exprefly pray, that 
pure ftreams may for ever flow, to water the city of the living 
God? You need not be told, reverend Sir, what place I mean; 
it was the famous univerfity of Oxford. Nor need I mention 
the fccne exhibited ; it was a tribunal, a vifitatorial tribunal, 
erected in Edmund-Hall -y fix pious ftudents, who promifed to 
be the fait of the earth, and lights of the world, entire friends 
to the doctrines and liturgy of our church, by a citation pre- 
vioufly fixed upon the college door, were fummoned to appear 
before this tribunal. They did appear ; and, as fome were 
pleafed to term it, were tried, convi6led, and to clofe the 
fcene, in the chapel of the fame hall, confecrated and fet 
apart for nobler purpofes, had the fentence of expulfion pub- 
licly read and pronounced againft them. 

So fevere a fentence, in an age when almoft every kind of 
proper difcipline is held with fo lax a rein, hath naturally ex- 
cited a curiofity in all that have heard of it, to inquire, of 
what notable crime thefe delinquents may have been guilty, 
to deferve fuch uncommonly rigorous treatment. But how 
will their curiofity be turned into indignation, when they are 
told, that they were thus rigoroufly handled for doing no evil 
at all, and that " no fault could be found in them, fave in 
the law of their God ?" 

It is true indeed, one article of impeachment was, '^ that 
fome of them were of trades before they entered into the uni- 
verfity." But what evil or crime v/orthy of expulfion cari 
there be in that ? To be called from any, though the meaneft 
mechanic employ, to the lludy of the liberal arts, where a 


[ z-^s ] 

natural genius hath been given, was never yet looked upon as 
a reproach to, or diminution of, any great and public charac- 
ter whatfoever. Profane hifiory affords us a variety of examples 
of the greateft heroes, who have been fetched even from the 
plough, to command armies, and who performed the greateft 
exploits for their country's good. And if we examine facred 
hijlory^ we fhall find, that even David, after he was anointed 
king, looked back with fweet complacence to the rock from 
whence he was hewn, and is not afhamed to leave it upon re- 
cord, that " God took him away from the flieep-folds, as he 
was following the ewes great with young ones;" and as though 
he loved to repeat it, " he took him, (fays he) that he might 
feed Jacob his people, and Ifrael his inheritance.'* 

But why fpeak I of David f When Jesus of Nazareth^ 
David's Lord, and David's King, had for his reputed father 
a carpenter, and in all probability, as it was a common pro- 
verb among the Jews, that " he who did not teach his fon a 
trade, taught him to be a thief;" he worked at the trade of a 
carpenter himfelf ? For this, indeed, he v/as reproached and 
maligned ; " Is not this, faid they, the carpenter's fon? Nay, 
is not this the carpenter?" But who were thofe maligners ? 
The greateft enemies to the power of godlinefs which the world 
ever faw, the Scribes and Pharifees ; that " generation of vi- 
pers," as John the Baptiji calls them, who upon every occafion 
were fpitting out their venom, and fliooting forth their arrows, 
even bitter words, againft that Son of man, even that Son of 
God, who, todifplay his fovereignty, and confound the wif- 
dom of the worldly wife, chofe poor fifliermen to be his 
Apoftles ; and whofe chief of the Apoftles, though bred up at 
the feet of Gajnaliel, both before and after his call to the apof- 
tlefhip, laboured with his own hands, and worked at the trade 
of a tent-maker. 

If from fuch exalted and more diftant, we defcend to more 
modern and inferior charadlers, we fliall find, that very late, 
not to fay our prefent times, furnifh us with inftances of fome, 
even of our dignitaries, who have been called from trades that 
tended to help and feed the body, not only to higher employs 
of a fpiritual nature, but even to prefide over thofe that are 
entrufted with the cure of fouls. And who knows but fome 
of thefe young fludents, though originally mechanics, if they 


f .1"6 ] 

had been fuffercd to have purfued their {ludies, might have 
either climbed after them to fome preferment in the church, 
or been advanced to fome office in that univerfity from which 
they are now expelled ? One of the prefent reverend and 
worthy Prodlors, we are told, was formerly a Lieutenant in 
the army; and as fuch a military employ was no impediment 
to his being a minlfter or Pro61or, it may be prefumed, that 
being formerly of trades could have been no juft impediment 
to thefe young men becoming, in procefs of time, true gofpel 
minifters and good foldiers of Jesus Christ. 

Their being accuftomed to prayer, whether with or with- 
out a form, I humbly apprehend, would by no means difqua- 
Jify them for the private or public difcharge of any part of 
tbeir minifterial fundion. " In that day, that gofpel-day, 
(thefe laft days wherein we live) faith the great God, I will 
pour out a Spirit of grace and a Spirit of fupplication upon the 
houfe of Davidy and upon the inhabitants of JerufakmJ' And 
the Apoftle Paid fpeaks of it as the common privilege of all 
believers, that " the Holy Spirit helps their infirmities, and 
maketh intercefTion for them with groanings which cannot be 
/^ uttered." Forms of prayer, certainly, have their ufe ; and 
take it altogether, our Englijh liturgy is, without doubt, one 
of the moft excellent eilablifhed forms of public prayer in the 
world : but then, as no form, in the very nature of the thing, 
can pofTibly fuit every particular cafe, it is to be feared that 
many muft never pray, at leaft for the particular things they 
moft ftand in need of, if they are fo to be tied up to their 
forms, that they cannot vary from them, or ufe free prayer at 

The great Bifhop Wilklm therefore wifely wrote an excel- 
lent treatife on the benefit and importance of this kind of 
prayer : and could our univerfity-youth be trained up to ufe 
proper extempore prayer, both before and after fermon;in the 
c>pinJon of all good judges, it would be as commendable, as 
that ftrange cuftom of putting off our auditories with what is 
called the bidding prayer -, in which there is not one petition 
for a ble/Ting upon the following fermon, and fcarce any thing 
mentioned, but what hath been prayed for over and over again, 
in the preceding common fervice of our church. 

But fi>ppohng fuch libertv fhould bs denied in public, as, 


[ z^i ] 

blefTed be GoD it is not, furely we may be allowed, at lead: 
it cannot be deemed finful, to ufe free prayer in our fccret, or 
private focial exercifcs of devotion. If fo, what fmners, what 
great finners muft they have been, who prayed, and that too 
out of neceffity, in an extempore way, before any forms of 
prayer WTre or could be printed or heard of? The prayers 
we read of in fcripture, the prayers which opened and fliut 
heaven, the efFecSlual, fervent, energetic prayers of thofe righ- 
teous and holy men of old, which availed fo much with God, 
were all of an extempore nature. And I am apt to believe, 
if not only our ftudents and minifters, but private chriftians, 
were born from above, and taught of God, as thofe wreftlers 
with God were, they would not want forms of prayer, though 
we have fuch a variety of them, any more than they did. 

The fick, the lame, the blind, the lepers that came to our 
Lord for healing, wanted no book to teach them how to ex- 
prefs their wants. Though fome were only poor beggars, and 
others, as the felf-righteous Scribes and Pharifees fupercilioufly 
chofe to term them, *' Gentile dogs," yet, confcious of their 
wants, and having a heart-felt fenfe of their diftrefs, " out 
of the abundance of their hearts their mouths fpake;" and 
the companionate Emmanuel^ who came tt) heal our fickneiTes 
and bear our infirmities, fent them away with a " Go in 
peace, thy faith hath made thee whole : be it unto thee even 
as thou wilt." 

How unlike, yea how very unlike fuch a blefled difrHiflion, 
is the treatment thefe young ftudents have lately met with at 
Edmund'Hall? who, amongft other crimes of a like nature, 
were expelled for tifing extempore prayer. A crime not fo much 
as mentioned in any of our law-books ; a crime, for which, 
in this laft century at leaft, no one hath ever been called to 
the bar of any public court of judicature; and a crime, for 
which, it is to be hoped, no ftudcnt will ever hereafter be 
fummoned to appear and hear himfclf expelled, at the bar of 
any of the reverend Do6tois of divinity, or heads of houfcs in 
the univerfity of Oxford. But fliould any be fo infatuated as 
to determine, Jehu-Wke^ to drive on thus furioufly ; as judg- 
ment hath unhappily begun, as it were, at the very houfe of 
God, it is to be hoped, that as fome have been expelled for 
ixternpore proxiur^ we fhali h?ar of feme few others of a con- 
2 trary 

[ 5'i^ ] 

trary flamp, being expelled for rxt/mp»rf Jxve,irinry which bv 
;ill impartial judges muft undoubtedly be AcknowicJged to be 
the greater ciime of the two. 

Singing, conipoi'mg, or reading hymns con^poieJ bv others, 
and doing this in company, Teems to be as little criminal, as 
praving extempore. When the lalt words of D.ivid are about 
to be recorded, he is not only rtiled, *^ the fon of y^/P, ths 
nian who was raifed up on high, the anointed of the GoD of 
%v.\*-/' but the grand title of being *' the hvcet Pfalmift of 
i •.::.," brings up the re.;r. And ** to tc.ich and adnionifh 
one another in pjalnif:, and hymns, and fpiritual fongs," is 
as truly a fcriptural command, as " thou lh;ilt love the Lord 
thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy foul, and with 
all thv iVcngth, and thy neighbour as thvfelf." 

When EiijLM the Prophet was about to prophefy before two 
kings, he called for a minftrel, on which he played, to footh 
his ruffled paflions, and prepare his heart the better for the 
reception of the Holy Spirit. And were the fons of the Pro- 
phets more frequently to entertain themfelves thus, I believe 
it would be as fuitable to the minifterial character, and recom- 
mend them as much, perhaps more, to all ferious chriftians, 
thin their tripping up their heels, fkipping and dancing at the 
mufic of a ball-room, or playing even a firft n.idle at a concert. 
And was the vcic^ c/jpiritucl meisdy more frequently heard by 
thcfe who come occalionally to vifit our colleges, it might be 
as much to the holiosr of the univerfity, as the more common 
and too, too frequent nolfe of hex and di:c^ at the unlawful 
games of hazard and back-gammon. 

Popifh countries, popifh feminaries, think it no fbame, no 
difgrace to be heard finging the high praifes of their God in 
their convents, their houfes, or e\en in their ftreets ; and why 
proteftants in general, and proreftant ftudents in particular, 
Ihould be any more afhamed of, or rellrained from the free 
exercife of fuch ads of devotion, either alone, or in private 
f.^cieties, no good reafon can be given ; unlefs it be proved to 
be good reafoning to aflert, that " Proteftants ought to be 
" lefs devout than Papifts." We muft confcfj, that Papifts, 
though thev take this liberty' of Tinging and chanting privately 
and publiclv themfelves, yet deny this liberty of confcience 
to our proieftant aflemblics j thofe attcnJnig divine worfiiip 


[ 3'9 ] 
at our ambafladors chapels not excepted. But for Proteilants 

to difufe it themrelveb, and at the fame; time lay a-j it were a 
fpiritual embargo upon their ff-llow Protcfiants, nay punifh 
and expel them for fo doing, is very unaccountable. 

What fpirit then muft thofe be of, Reverend Sir, who have 
lately joined in pronouncing the fentence of expulfion againft 
fix religious ftudents, not only for having been of trades, and 
praying extempore, but for reading and finging hymns alfo ? 
His Royal Highnefs the late Duke of Cumberland, wai of a 
very different difpofition, for v/hen abroad in Germany^ in one 
of our htc wars, (as I wa> informed by a ptrfon then on 
guard) hearing cne evening, as he wss paffing by, a com- 
pany of foldiers Tinging at feme little diftance in a cave, lie 
af^ced the centlnel what noife that was ; and being anfwered, 
that fome devout foldiers were Tinging hymns; inftead of cit- 
ing them to appear before their officers, ordering them to the 
whipping poft, or commanding them to be drummed out of 
the regiment ; acting like himfelf, he only pleaTmgly replied, 
* Are they fo r Let them go on then, and be as merry ai 
*' as they can." In this he^cted wifely; for he knew, and 
found by repeated experience, as did other commanding offi- 
cers, that Tinging, nay, and praying extempore too, in thefe 
private focieties, did not hinder, but rather f.tted and animated 
thefe devout foldiers to engage, and to fight their country's 
battles in the field. And it may be prefumed, that if thefe 
ftudents had not been expelled for finging hyrant,and praying 
extempore, they certainly would not have been lefs, but in all 
probability much better prepared for handling the Twcrd of the ^ 
Spirit, the word of God, and fighting therewith, either from 
the prefs or the pulpit, the battles of the Lord of hofts. 

To fee or hear fuch divine exercifes treated with reproach, 
and fpoken of with contempt by common and open blaf- 
phemers, is bad ; but that any who came on pu^pofe to be 
trained up for the facred work of the miniftry, (hould be look- 
ed on as criminal, and expelled an univerfity for being fome- 
times employed in them, is too fad a proof, net only that 
*' our gold is become dim, and our fine gold changed, but 
that our very foundations are out of courfe." What then 
mufl the righteous do ? 

What indeed, but weep and lament * And weep and lament 
6 indeed 

t 320 3 

indeed they muft, efpccialJy when they hear further, thaf 
meeting in a religious fociety^ giving a word of exhortation, or 
expounding and commenting a little now and then upon fomc 
portion of fcripture, are not the leaft of the accufations for 
which fome of thefe young worthies had the fentence of ex- 
pulfion pronounced againft them. 

It is recorded in the Old Teftament, that in a degenerate 
age, " thofe that feared the Lord fpake often one to another; 
that the Lord hearkened and heard, and that a book of re- 
membrance was written before him for thofe that feared the 
Lord, and thought on his name : and they fliall be mine ini 
that day, faith the Lord, when I make up my jewels ; and 
I will fpare them as a man fpareth his own fon that ferveth 
him." Thus it was in the Old Teftament times. Nor are 
fuch meetings mentioned with lefs approbation in the new ; 
for therein, in order that we may hold the profeffion of our 
faith without wavering, we are commanded to " confider one 
another, to provoke unto love and to good works ; n6t for- 
faking the afTembling ourfelves together, but exhorting one 
another, and fo much the more, as we fee the day approach- 
ing." Nay, one immediate confequence of that grand efFufion 
of the Holy Ghcft on the day of Pentecoft, we are told, was 
this, that " they who gladly received the word, and were 
baptized, continued ftedfall: in the Apoftles dodrinc, in fel- 
lowfhip, in breaking of bread, and in prayer." This is a 
fhort, but withal a full and blefted account of the firft truly 
apoftolic primitive church ; and we may venture to affirm, 
that as we are more or lefs partakers of a true apoftolic pri- 
mitive fpirit, fuch kind of religious, fellowftiip-meetings, will 
in proportion increafe or decreafe among us. To talk there- 
fore, or write, or preach againft, or by private perfuafion or 
open violence to oppofe, or endeavour to fupprefs, and dif- 
countenance fuch kind of religious focieties, is flying, as it 
were, in the very face of the fcriptures of truth, and of the 
Holy Ghoft himfelf. 

In all charters granted by the crown, wherein authority is 
given to bodies corporate to ena£l: laws, it is always with this 
limitation, " that no laws ftiall be enafl^d by fuch bodies 
corporate, contrary to the laws of the realm." And as the 
fcriptures are our grand Codex Legum and Magna Charia^ in 


[ 3^1 ] 

rcfpe^l to our religious principles and pra£lices ; what affront 
mufl: wc put upon our country in general, and the church of 
England in particular, even by barely imagining, that any lavir 
now exifts which prohibits her members from frequenting fuch 
focieties as have the divine authority and fuperfcription, fo ap- 
parently ftamped upon them? 

The private meetings that are in any wife deemed and 
denounced illegal^ are fuch, and fuch only, as are feditious, 
and compofed of feditious perfons; who aflbciate, indeed under 
a pretence of religion, but in reality to plot againft the ftate. 
The fooner any that can be convi6i:ed of this, are made to 
forfake the aflembling themfelves together, the better; and 
though compofed of a threefold^ three hundred fold, nay a 
three thoufand fold cord, no matter if, like the cords where- 
with the Fhll'ijlhies bound SampfoTi^ they were immediately 
broken. But as nothing of this nature can with the lead 
"fhadow of truth be objecTled againft the meetings and focieties 
frequented by thefe ftudents, but quite the contrary urged in 
their favour; if fcripture and the pra6licc of the primitive 
chriftians are to be our guides, they ought not only to be per- 
mitted, but be countenanced and encouraged by every true 
lover of our church and nation. 

And fuppofing, that in any fuch religious fociety one of 
them fhould venture now and then to drop a Word of exhorta- 
tion, or even attempt in a fmall degree to open, expound, or 
enlarge upon fome practical text of fcripture, how can even 
this be looked upon as illegal, much lefs finful, or worthy of 
expulfion ? v/hcn, I could almoft fay, it is a necefTary prepa- 
ration for the future fervice of the fan^uary. To be " apt 
to teach,'* is one indlfpenfable qualification required by fcrip- 
ture in a Bifhop and Prefbyter. But how can this aptnefs or 
an habit of teaching be acquired, without the exercife of pre- 
vious acls? Or what bufinefs is there in the world, even from 
the loweft mechanic, to the higheft profeffion amongft us, 
(except that of divinity) v/herein pupils^ clerks, nay common 
apprentices, are not by previous cxercifes trained up for a 
complete proficiency in their refped^ive callings and occupa- 
tions ? 

Our all- wife Mafter, we know, fent his Difciples on flinrC 
excurfions, before he gave them the more e.xtcnfivc commif- 

VoL. IV. X lion 


[ ^22 ] 

fion to go into all the world : and were our ftudents In gene- 
ral, under proper limitations, to be thus exercifed and employ- 
ed, while they are keeping terms at the univerfity, or among 
their poor neighbours in the country, when they return home 
in time of vacation, they would not turn out fuch meer no- 
vices, or make fuch awkward figures, as too many raw crea- 
tures do, when they make their firft appearance in the pulpit. 
I remember, above thirty years ago, after fome young ftudents 
had been vifiting the Tick and imprifoned, and had been giving 
a word of exhortation in a private houfe, that upon meeting 
the ordinary and minifter of the parifli in their return to col- 
lege, they frankly told him what they had been doing ; upon 
which, he turned to them, and faid, " God blefs you ; I 
wifii we had more fuch young curates/' A milder, and there- 
fore a more chrijiian fentence this, than that of a late expulfion 
for the very fame fuppofed crimes and mifdemeanors. 

As for the reports of thefe young ftudents being accufed or 
condemned, for barely being acquainted with, or the occa- 
fional vifitors of fome of the moft laborious, pains-taking, 
worthy parifh-minifters in England^ it is almoft altogether in- 
credible. And yet the ftanders-by, as well as the fuppofed 
culprits themfelves, we are informed, aver this to be real 
matter of fad : attended with this melancholy aggravation, 
that they were hifled at, pufl:ied about, and treated in a man- 
ner that the vileft criminal is not allowed to be treated, either 
at the Qld-BaUyy or any court of juftice in the kingdom. We 
are likewife told, that a copy of their indi6lment was afked 
for, but denied them ; and not only fo, but that one, from 
whofe polite behaviour in the worldly walk, better things 
might have been expe6led, was heard to fay, as he came out 
of chapel, to their grand accufer, after fentence of expulfion 
was pronounced, that " he would have the thanks of the 
whole univerfity for that day's work." 

Pudet haec opprohr'ia nobis 

Et did ptuijjj^ et non potuijfe refelli. 

What thanks, reverend Sir, he may meet with from the 
whole univerfity, I know not; but one thing 1 know, that he 
will receive no thanks for that day^'s work from the innu- 
merable company of angels, the general afiembly of the firft- 


[ 3^-3 3 

born, which are written in heaven, or from God the judge 
of all, in that day when Jesus, the Mediator of the new 
covenant fliall come in his own glory, in the glory of the 
Father, and his holy angels, and gather in his ele6t from all 
the four corners of the world. 

But, reverend Sir, may we not prefume to hope, that this 
voluntary fpeaker for the whole univerfity, whoever he be, it 
maketh no matter to me, was fomewhat out, and miftakcn in 
his calculation. For it feems, not above three or four doc- 
tors, if fo many, were prefent, at lead fat as judges at this ex- 
traordinary tribunal. The worthy Provo/t of ^^eens, (and 
undoubtedly many other worthy heads of houfes were and 
are like-minded) was for prescribing more lenient methods ; 
and all are glad to hear, that thefe young ftudents worthy 
principal, who muft necelTarily be fuppofed to be the bed 
judge of their principles, practices, and qualifications, boldly 
Hood up in their defence, alTerted their innocence, confronted 
their accufers, and brought in books to vindicate both their 
principles and conduct. But how this worthy principal, as 
well as the pupils, were treated, is beit known to thofe Vvho 
had an adive hand in all. 

However, as the Holy Ghoft hath left it upon record, to 
the honour of NUodefnuSy that he Hood up in defence of our 
Lord before the whole JewiJJ) fanhedrim, and was not con- 
fentinor to his death \ fo wherever this a6l of expulfion is re- 
corded (and recorded it will be, even to lateft pofterity) it will 
be mentioned to the honour of DocSlor Dixon, (and for add- 
ing thus he will have the thanks of all moderate, ferious^ 
fober-minded chriftians in the three kingdoms) that he had no 
hand in, but did all he poiTibly could to prevent thefe young 
mens expulfion. An expulfion for articles of impeachment to 
v/hich indeed the accufed pleaded guilty ; but for articles 
which (wherever hereafter they may be called to minifter in 
holy things) will be their beft teftimonial ; and their expulfion 
for holding and confeffing thofe articles, the ftrongeft letters 
of recommendation. 

How thefe young worthies are now to be difpofed of, or 
how they will diipofe of themfelves, as it was not fo much as 
hinted that they had the leaft connection with me, is not my 
bufinefs to inquire. But furely fuch an expulfion. as this, 

X 2, cannot: 

[ 3H ] 

cannot deter them from purfuing their preparations for their 
minifterial calling : friends they cannot want, becaufe " he is 
faithful who hath promifed, that whofoever forfaketh father or 
mother, houfes or lands, for his fake or the gofpers, he fliall 
have an hundred fold in this life, with perfecution, and in the 
world to come life c verlafting." But if any a£t fo daftardly, 
as to make unfcriptural conceffions, or be terrified by unfcrip- 
tural, and therefore mere hruta fuhn'ina^ if they were of trades 
before, the fooncr they return again to their trades the better: 
for it is to be feared, fuch cowards would only make a trade 
of the miniflry if they were admitted into the church, and the 
fewer of fuch kind of tradefmen our church is troubled with, 
the fafer fhe will be. 

But what a mercy is it, reverend Sir, that we live under a 
free government, under a King whofe royal grandfather re- 
peatedly declared (and he was as good as his word through a 
long and glorious reign) that there fliould be no perfecution in 
his time ; under a King who in his firft mofl gracious and 
never to be forgotten fpeech from the throne, gave his people 
the flrongefl afTurances " that it was his flxt purpofe, as the 
befl means to draw down the divine favour on his reign, to 
countenance and encourage the practice of true religion and 
virtue, and maintain the toleration inviolable/' 

That both fludents and common people will be in danger 
of being tempted by fuch violent proceedings, to put them- 
felves under the a6t of toleration, may eafily be forefeen : and 
it may as eafily be guefled, how fuch treatment will neceflarily 
difcoura^^e ferious people from fending their fons to the uni- 
verfity, at leaft to the univerfity of Oxford-^ and at the fame 
time will furnifh them with a new argument for entering their 
youth in fome of our diiTenting academies, where they will 
be in no danger, it is prefumcd, of being expelled for finging 
hymns, fpeaking a little now and then in a religious (ociety, 
or ufing extempore prayer. 

Alas! alas! in what a difadvantageous point of light, muft 
all concerned in fuch an extraordinary ftretch of univerlity- 
difcipline fland, among all foreign univerfities whatfocver ? 
In what point of light it will be viev/ed by our eccleiiailical 
fuperiors at home, a very little time will difcover. Nay, it 
is to be feared, th; difcovery is made already ; for by a letter 


[ 325 ] 

dated (o lately as Afarch 29, it appears that a certain venera- 
ble fociety " on account of fome circumftances that have 
lately happened (probably the circumftances of a late expul- 
fion) are under a neceflity of coming to a rcfolution, to ac- 
cept of no recommendation for perfons to go abroad as mif- 
fionaries, but fuch as have had a literary education, and have 
been bred up with a defign to dedicate themfelves to the mi- 
niftry." This refolution feems to be taken, in order the 
better to prevent any of thefe caft-outs, or any other laymen, 
however otherwife well qualified and recommended, from ap- 
plying to the fociety for holy orders, that they may be em- 
ployed and fent abroad as milTionaries. But to what a fad 
dilemma will many ferious perfons be hereby reduced ? They 
muft not, by fuch refolutions it feems, be allowed to be lay- 
preachers, and yet if fent by their friends to the univerfity to 
purfue their ftudies, in order that they may be regularly and 
epifcopally ordained, if they fing hymns, pray extempore, or 
give a word of exhortation in a religious fociety, though en- 
tirely made up of the members of the eftablifhed church, they 
mull be ipfo fado expelled for fo doing. O iempota ! O rnores ! 
If matters proceed in this channel, of what ftamp. Reverend 
Sir, may we not fuppofe, our future mifTionaries to the iflands 
and continent will be ? To my certain knowledge, a',1 of them 
are not looked upon as very burning and (hining lights already. 
But if what little light of true religion fome may have, is to 
be thus damped by adls of expulfion before they leave the 
univerfity, and even this little light, as far as lies in the power 
of man, is to be thus turned into total darknefs, how great 
muft that darknefs be ! Surely it muft be worfe than Egyptian 
darknefs ; a darknefs that will be moft deplorably felt by all 
true lovers of our common falvation both at home and 

You need not be apprized. Reverend Sir, that a defign 
for the eftablifhment of epifcopacy in our iflands and planta- 
tions, hath been long upon the tapis ; and that it hath been, 
in part at leaft, the fubje£l of annual fermons for feveral 
years laft paft. No longer ago than in the year 1766, the 
prefent Biftiop oi La}jdaff\n^\^t^ upon the neceffity and ex- 
pediency of it in the moft explicit manner; nay, his Lord- 
(hip carries the matter fo far, as to alTure U3 that this point, 

X 3 tie 

[ 326 ] 

the eflahViJhment of epifcopacy^ being obtained, ** the American 
*' church will go out of its infant ftate ; be able to ftand upon 
" its own legs, and without foreign help fupport and fpread 
*' itfelf ; and then this fociety will have been brought to the 
*' happy ifTue intended." Whether thefe aflertions of his 
Lordjfhip, when weighed in a proper balance, will not in 
fome degree be found wanting, is not for me to determine. 
But fuppofing the reafoning to be juft, and his Lordfhip's af- 
fcrtions true, then I fear it will follow, that a fociety, which 
fince its firft inftitution hath been looked upon as a fociety 
for propagating the Gofpel, hath been all the while rather a 
fociety for propagating Epifcopacy in foreign parts : and if fo, and 
if it ever fhould appear, that our Right Reverend Archbifhops 
and Bifliops do in the leaft countenance and encourage the 
unfcriptural proceedings at Edmund-Hall, how muft it increafe 
the prejudices of our colonifts, both in the iflands and on the 
continent, againft the eftablifhment of epifcopacy I That per- 
fons of all ranks, from ^lehec down to the two Fioridas, are at 
this time prejudiced, and more than prejudiced againft it, is 
very notorious ; but how will the very thought of the intro- 
dudlion of Lords Bifiops even make them fhudder ? if their 
Lordfhips fhould think proper to countenance the expulfion 
of fuch worthy and truly religious ftudents, whilft thofe who 
have no religion at all perhaps, may not only meet with coun- 
tenance, but approbation and applaufe. 

Befides, if fuch proceedings (houid be continued, (which 
God forbid !) what little credit may we fuppofe will hereafter 
be given to future univerfty-tefimonialsy that the bearers of 
them have behaved ftudioufly, foberly, and pioufly ; and ho\v 
muft we in time be put under a difagreeable neceffity of having 
a new, or at leaft of altering fome part of our prefent moft 
excellent ordination-office ? As it now ftands, one of the 
queftions propofed to every candidate for holy orders runs 
thus : " Do you truft that you are inwardly moved by the 
'« holy ghoft ?" But if all ftudents are to be expelled that fing 
hymns, pray extempore, attend upon, or expound a verfe 
now and then in, a religious church o^ England {oQiziy, fliould ' 
it not rather, Reverend Sir, be worded thus, namely, " Do 
^' ye truft that yc are not inwardly moved by the Holy 

" Ghoft 

[ 327 1 

*' Ghofl to take upon you the office and admlnlftratlon of the 
*^ church?" 

You will excufe this freedom, Reverend Sir. 

Agitur de vita et fangu'ine turni. 

Love to God, love to mankind in general, and love to that 
univerfity, that ahna mater where I had the honour of being 
educated, and, what is infinitely more, where I had the hap- 
pinefs of receiving the witnefs of the Spirit of God in my 
heart, all together conftrain me. 

The news of thefe young mens expulfion hath made, and 
will make the ears of all who have heard, or fliall hear of it, 
to tingle : and therefore if fome do not fpeak, and ufe great 
plainnefs of fpeech too, the very flones would, as it were, 
cry out againft us. In refpe61: to myfelf. Reverend Sir, I 
hope, that in taking the freedom of troubling you with this, 
I do not juftly incur the cenfure of acting as a bufy-body in 
other mens matters. For, whatever other pretences may be 
made, fuch as difqualification in refpe(5l to learning, age, the 
being of trades, he. See. &c. [Nugts triCizque calender) it is 
notorious and obvious to all intelligent perfons, that the grand 
caufe of thefe young mens expulfion was this, namely, that 
they were either real or reputed Methodists. An honour 
this indeed, unwittingly put on Methodifts, whoever or what- 
ever they be ; fmce fcarce any now-a days can pray extem- 
pore, fing hymns, go to church or meeting, and abound in 
other adls of <levotion, but they muft be immediately dubbed 
Methodifts. I fay, dubbed Methodifts ; for it is not a name 
given to them by themfelves, but was impofed on them by fome 
of their fellow ftudents and cot^mporaries in ihe univerfity. 

I take it for granted, Reverend Sir, that you need not be 
apprized that 1 am one of thefe Methodifts; and blefted be 
God I have had the honour of being one of them for about 
thirty-five years. If this is to be vile, may I be more vile ! 
If this be my ftiame, upon the moft mature and ferious re- 
flection I really glory in it. But then, left any more inno- 
cent youths ftiould hereafter fufl?er barely for the imputation 
of a nick-name, give me leave fimply and honcftly to inform 
you, Reverend Sir, and through you the whole univerfity, 
what not barely a reputed, but a real 2vIcthodift ib : *' He is 

X 4 " one 

t 328 •] 

*^ one of thofe whom God haih chofcn In Christ out of 
"mankind, to bring them by Christ to evcrlalling falva- 
" tion, as veHcls made to honour ; wherefore they, who be 
" endued with fo excellent a benefit of God, are called ac- 
" cording to God's purpofe by his fpirit working in due fea- 
" fon : they, through grace, obey the calling; they bejuf- 
" tified freely ; and made the fons of God by adoption : they 
" are conformed to the image of his only begotten Son Jesus 
"Christ; they walk religioufly In good works; and at 
" length, by God's mercy, they attain everlafting felicity.'* 
This is the true portrait of a Methodift, drawn at full length, 
drawn to the very life, and that too not by an ignorant 
modern dauber, but by thofe good old fkilful fcriptural limners, 
Cranmer^ Latimer^ Ridley^ in the xviith article of our church ; 
an article that deferves to be written in letters of gold j and 
yet, for holding of this very article in its literal grammatical 
lenfe, agreeable to his fubfcription at the time of matricula- 
tion, one of thefe young ftudents, as we have been informed, 
was expelled. If our information be wrong in this or any 
other refpecSl, the nation may foon be fet right by an authen- 
tic publication of the whole judicial proceedings. 

If you fhould defire. Reverend Sir, a definition of Metho- 
difm itfelf, as well as of a Methodiil, you may eafily be gra- 
tified. It is no more nor lefs than " faith working by love. 
" A holy method of living and dying, to the glory of God." 
It is an univerfal morality, founded upon the love of God 
(bed abroad in the heart by the Holy Ghofl : or, to keep to 
the exa6> terms made ufe of in the lad colle6l of our excellent 
liturgy, it is " theVrace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love 
of God, and the fellowfhip of the Holy Ghoft ;" which we 
cannot go to church or chapel on Sundays^ holidays, or other 
common days, without praying, not that it may be driven 
from, but be with us all evermore. 

If this be enthufiafm, the true Methodifls confcfs them- 
felves to be enthuuafts. But then, they humbly apprehend, 
that they cannot with any juil propriety of fpeech be termed 
modern enthufiafls ; for it is an enthufiafm which our blefled 
Lord earneflly infifls upon, in that prayer which he put up 
when he was about to take his farev»el of his difciples, and 
which is a pattern of that all-prevailing Intercciljon which 


[ 329 ] 
He Is now making at the right hand of God, and demands 
that all his difciplcs may be poflelFed of; " Father, I will 
" that thofe whom thou hafl given me, may be with me 
•' where I am ; that they may be one with me, even as thou, 
♦' O Father, and I are one : I in them, and they in me, 
*' that they all may be made perfect in one." An enthufi- 
afm, with which Peter and Joh)! were fired, when Annas 
the high-prieft, and Caiaphas^ and John^ and Alexander^ and 
as many as were of the kindred of the high-priefl, feeing 
their boldnefs, and perceiving that they were unlearned and 
ignorant men, marvelled, and took knowledge of them that 
they had been with Jesus. An enthufiafm, with which the 
proto-martyr Stephen was filled, when he cried, " Ye flifF- 
'^ necked and uncircumcifed in heart and ears, ye do always 
*' refift the Holy Ghoft." An enthufiafm, which Ignatius 
fuppofed by fome to be one of thofe little children which the 
Lord Jesus took up in his arms, was abforbed in, when he 
ftiles himfelf« Z'^tfr^r ^ God ; and for witneffing of which 
good confcfHon, in order to cure him of this enthufiafm, he 
was ordered by Trajan^ the Roman emperor, to be thrown to 
the lions. An enthufiafm, for which Cranmer, Ridley, and 
Latimer^ thofe glorious lights of the reformation, thofe excel- 
lent compilers of our liturgy, articles, and homilies, were 
burnt alive near Baliol college. And, to mention but one 
more, too too recent an example, an enthufiafm, for being 
only a little tinctured with which, fix ftudents, on March nth, 
in the year of our Lord 1768, were publicly expelled in 
Edmund- Hall chapel. 

But think you, Reverend Sir, that this is the way to flop 
the progrefs of this enthufiafm ? Or rather, may we not ima- 
gine that this very a£l of expulfion will be a means of further-!- 
ing and promoting its progrefs far and near ? To fpeak my 
own thoughts, I am fully perfuaded, that if fuch unfcripturai 
methods of flopping this enthufiafm be purfued further, it 
will be only like cutting off the Lyrnean head 3 inflead of one, 
^n hundred will fpring up. 

Indeed, if the picture of modern enthufiafis, drawn up and 

prefented to the public by your Right Reverend Diocefan, 

be a jufl: and proper one, fuppofing at the fame time the Me- 

thodiils are thereby referred to, no matter how foon they are 

5 bani^cd 

[ 330 ] 
banifiieiJ out of the unlverfity, and out of the church alfo : 
for his Lordfliip is pieafed to tell us " that they a6t in direct 
** oppofuion to the perverfe pharifees of old j thefe afcribed 
" the works of the Holy Ghoft to Beelzebub ; and it is no. 
'' uncommon thing for thefe modern enthufiafts, adds his 
*' Lordfhip, to afcribe the works of Beelzebub to the Holy 
" Spirit." Surely his Lordfliip, by thefe modern enthufiafls, 
cannot mean thofe who apply for holy orders, and profefs 
before men and angels, that " they are inwardly moved by 
" the Holy Ghoft, to take upon them the office and admini- 
'' ftration of the church ;'* when the fearcher of hearts knows 
that they are moved only by fecular views and worldly hopes 
of preferment. This is afcribing the works of Beelzebub to the 
Spirit of God v.'ith a witnefs : or, to ufe the words of a no 
lefs learned, though lefs cenforious prelate ; I mean the mo- 
derate Bifliop Burnet^ '* it is a committing the horrid crime 
" of Ananias and Sapphira over again ; it is lying, not only 
'* unto man, but unto God." 

This is a modern kind of enthufiafm. Reverend Sir, which 
the true old Methodifts always did, and I truft always will 
abjure, deteft and abhor. If worldly church preferments 
had been their aim, fome of them at leaft might have had 
worldly ladders enough let down to them to climb up by : 
but having received a kind of apoftolical commifTion at their 
ordination, when thofe who profefs themfelves lifieal fuccejjors 
of the Apoftles, faid unto them, " Receive ye the Holy 
<' Ghoft now committed unto you by the impofition of our 
" hands :" they would fain keep up and maintain fomething 
of the dignity of an apoftolic character ; and therefore, with- 
out ever fo much as defigning to enter into any political ca- 
bals, or civil or church fa£lions whatfoever, without turning 
to the right hand or the left, or troubling the world with fo 
much as one fmgle fermon or pamphlet, on the bare exter- 
nals of religion ; they have endeavoured to have but one thing 
in view, namely, to determine to think of nothing, to know 
nothing, and to preach of nothing but Jesus Christ, and 
him crucified ; to fpend and be fpent for the good of fouls, 
and to glory in nothing fave in the crofs of Christ, by 
whom the world is crucified unto them and they unto the 



[ 331 ] 

It is true, by thinking and a6ling thus, the Methodifts 
have been, and it is prefumed always will be, characd and 
condemned by men of corrupt minds, as thiulcing and aclino- 
irregularly and diforderly: but as fuch a charge, in the very 
nature of the thing, fuppofes a deviation from fome fettled 
landing rule, they would humbly afk, wherein the irregula- 
rity and diforderlinefs of this way of ailing and thinking 
doth fpecifically confift ? Is it irregular and diforderly to be 
" inftant in feafon and out of feafon?" Is it irregular and 
diforderly to do what every Bifhop at the very time of our 
being ordained priefls pofitively tells us pertaineth to their 
office, " to feek after the children of God, fcattered abroad 
*' in this naughty world ?" Is it irregular and diforderly after 
we have eftablifhed the truth of what we deliver in our fer- 
mons by fcripture proofs, further to confirm and illuftrate 
them by repeated and particular quotations, taken from the 
liturgy, articles, and homilies of our eflabliflied church? Is 
it irregular and diforderly to fill her pews, to croud her com- 
munion tables, and to recommend a frequent and conflant 
devout attendance upon her public offices and ferviccs ? Or 
fuppofmg they fhould, merely by caprice or prejudice, be de- 
nied the privilege of preaching within the church, can it be 
juftly termed irregular or diforderly, at leaft can it poffibly be 
looked upon as criminal, to preach the fame truths, to make 
ufe of the fame kind of illuftrations, to repeat the felf-famc 
recommendations without the church walls, in the fields, or 
any other place whatfoever ? 

The late candid Bifnop of ZzW/«, lam pofitive, did not 
think fuch a way of acting altogether fo very criminal : for 
in a charge given to his clergy fome years before his tranfla- 
tion to the fee of Saiijbury^ he told them to this effect, " that 
" they were not to look upon themfelves as minifters of a 
*' a Plato^ a Pythagoras^ or any other heathen philofopher, con- 
" fequently they were not to entertain their auditories with 
*' mere moral harangues ; but that they were to confider them- 
*' felves as minifters of Jesus Christ; and therefore if 
*' they would not preach the gofpel in the church, they could 
*' not be juftly angry if the poor people went out to hear it 
*' in a field.'* A charge this, truly worthy of a fober-minded, 
fnoderate, wife Bifhop of the Church qi England, Yox even 

6 in 

[ 3i^ 1 

in a<£ting thus ftcmingly irregular and diforderly, thefe mo- 
dern enthufiads only copy after the greatcil: and brightefl: ex- 
amples the world ever faw, and whofe examples it is more 
than criminal not to follow or copy after. Our blefled Lord, 
when denied the ufe of the fynagogues, on feeing the multi- 
tude, went up and chofe a mountain for his pulpit, and the 
heavens for his founding board. At other times he fat by 
the fca-fide, nay, went into a fliip and preached, whilft the 
whole multitude ftood on the fliore. When Peter and Johfiy 
that this kind of enthufiafm might fpread no further among 
the people, were ftraitly threatened and commanded that they 
lliould thenceforth fpealc at all to no man In Christ's name, 
they calmly yet boldly replied unto their threatners and com- 
manders, " Wheiher it be right in the fight of God, to 
*' hearken unto you, more than unto God, judge ye : for 
*' we cannot but fpeak the things which we have feen and 
•' heard," A certain woman, named Lyd'id^ a feller of purple, 
had her heart opened when the great apoftle of the Gentiles v^zs 
preaching and praying by a river-fide -, and Dionyjiids the Are- 
epagitCy a woman named Damaris, and others, believed, and 
clave unto the fame Apoftle, from the time they heard him 
preach in the midft o^ Areopagus, or Mars-hilL And we 
may fuppofe he was not lefs fuccefsful when he was 
obliged by the angry Jews to preach in the fchool of one 

I believe you will agree. Reverend Sir, that the venerable 
Fox and Bradford did not appear lefs v^enerable for preaching 
Tit Pauls- crofs', neither did I ever hear that Bifhop Z^//Wr 
was looked upon as degrading his epifgopal charadler, when 
he ufed to preach in Cotton-Garden Wejijninfier^ and King 
Edward the fixih, that Jofiah of his age, with feme of his 
court, looked out at the palace window to hear him. And 
I hereby appeal to the whole univerfity, whether the Reverend 
Doctors of divinity, heads of houfes, graduates or under-gra- 
liuates, ever looked upon it as criminal, or beneath the dig- 
nity of their place and ftation, to fit oat in the open air 
on St. y In Baptifl's day, to hear a m.after of arts preach 
from the ftone pulpit in Maudlhig- College yard ; though, for 
fear it may be they (hould give further fandlion to field- 

[ 333 ] 
preachings they have lately thought proper to adjourn into 
the chapel ? 

You know, Reverend Sir, who it was, that when thofe 
who were bidden in a regular way refufed to come to the 
wedding-fupper, without afking any one's leave for To doing, 
fent forth fome irregulars into the lanes and ftreets of the city, 
into the highways and hedges, with that glorious encouraging 
commifTion, not by fines and imprifonments, not by threats 
and expulfions, not by killing the body for the good of the 
foul, but by filling their mouths with gofpcl arguments, 
backed with the all-powerful energy of the Holy Ghoft, to 
compel poor, wandering, weary, heavy laden finners to come 
in. Armed with this panoply divine, and, as they think, 
authorifed by the fame Lord, fome few of us continue to 
this day, amongft fmall and great, high and low, rich and 
poor, in church or chapel, in commons, flreets, fields, when- 
foever or wherefoever divine providence opens a door, " to 
. " teftify repentance towards God and faith in our Lord 
*' Jesus Christ ;" and this not from contempt of, or in 
<' oppofition to the godly admonitions of our ecclefiaftical fupe- 
riors, but becaufe " the love of Christ condralneth us ;" 
and we think that a wo, a dreadful wo, awaits us if we 
preach not the gofpel. Not that we are enemies to a decent 
or even epifcopal confecration, or fetting apart churches and 
chapels for divine an 1 holy worfhip : but we are more indif- 
ferent about the reputed outward facility of places, becaufe 
our Lord, with great folemnity, fald unto the woman of 
Samaria^ *' Woman, believe me, the hour cometh when ye 
'* (hall neither in this mountain, nor yet at yerufaleniy worftiip 
*' the Father : but the hour cometh, and now is, when the 
*' true worfl;iippers fliall woifhip the Father in Spirit and 
'' in truth." flence we infer, that every place is then,, and 
only then properly called holy, when like the ground around 
the burning bufli, it is made holy by the divine prefence of 
Him who fpake to Mofes out of the bufh j or like mount Ta- 
bor^ which by the Apollle Peter is called, by way of empha- 
fis, the holy mount, becaufe himfelf and James and Johny 
not only had upon that mount a vifible outward manifeftation, 
but alfo a bleffed inward heart-felt I'enfe of the Redeemer's 
excellent glory. It was undoubtedly this which mude Peter 


[ 334- ] 
to break out into that exclamation : '' Mader, it is good for 
*' us to be here." And it was this that warmed, and not 
only warmed, but conftrained the enraptured Patriarch Ja- 
cob, when he had only the ground for his bed, the ftones for 
his pillow, and the open firmament for his curtains and fur- 
r.iture, to break, forth into that extatic language, " How 
*' dreadful is this place ! this is no other than the houfe of 
" God, this is the gate of heaven." 

If then. Reverend Sir, for this and fuch like things we 
are accounted irregular and diforderly, we are truly forry for 
it: forry, but not upon our own accounts, having ihe tefti- 
mony of a good confcience that we a«5t with a fingle eye, and 
in direcl conformity to the authority of the word of God : 
but we are forry, barely on account of our impeachers and 
condemners, efpecially for thofe, who being fet apart for the 
minifterial office, and loaded with ecclafiaftical preferments, 
preach very feldoin, or not at all ; or, if they do preach now 
and then, preach only as though they were barely reading 
wall-leclures, and feldom or ever fo much as mention or quote 
the homilies of our church, though they have fubfcribed to 
an article which fays, that " they contain godly and whole- 
*' fome do6lrine, and which judges them to be read in 
" churches by the minifters diligently and diftindlly, that 
*' they may be underftood of the people." It is to be feared, 
that it is owing to fuch irregularity and diforder as this, 
that when our people hear of our articles or homilies quoted 
by fome few in the pulpit, that they are ready to cry out, 
*' What new doctrine is this ? Thou bringeft certain ftrange 
things to our ears :" At lead if it is not fo at home, I am 
fure it is abroad. Hence it was that about three years ago, 
after I had been preaching to a very large auditory in one of 
the nioft polite places on the continent o^ America^ and in 
preaching, as is my ufual cuftom, had ftrongly been recom- 
mending the book of homilies, numbers were ftirred up to 
go to the ftores to purchafe them : but upon enquiring after 
the book of homilies, the florekeeper, furprized at the novelty 
of the word homilies^ begged leave to know what muflins 
they meant, and whether they were not hummims. 

What a pity therefore is it, Reverend Sir, that the book 
of homilies, which ought to be in every hand, and as com- 
mon as our common prayer books, fliould never yet have 


[ 335 ] 

found a place in the large catalogue of books given away by 
the truly laudable fociety for promoting chriftian knowledge, 
though founded foon after the glorious revolution. If this 
be not remedied fome way or another, we fliall very foon be- 
come diforderly indeed : our pulpits will ftill continue to 
contradi6t our reading-defks, and we fliall never have the ho- 
nour of being flilcd regular and orderly, till, regardlefs of 
fubfcriptions, oaths, rubrics, and ordination-ofEces theni- 
felves, our practices give the lie to our profefTions, and wc 
feek the fleece not the flock, and " preach ourfelves, and not 
Christ Jesus the Lord." 

Dead formalifts, and proud felf-righteous bigots, may 
loudly exclaim and cry out, " the temple of the Lord, 
" the temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord are 
" we !'* They may not only cry out, but alfo caft out; and 
thinking they thereby do God fervice, though moft notori- 
oufly deficient in their own moral condudl, may plead con- 
fcience, and fay, " Let the Lord be glorified.*' But to 
fuch as thefe our Lord once faid, " Ye are they that jufli fy 
" yourfelves before men, but God knoweth your hearts." 
Like the chief priefts, and the fcribes and pharifees of old, 
they may plead their law ; for the breach of which, thefe 
irregulars, as they imagine, ought to be condemned and f^f- 
fer ; nay, a time may come when they may be permitted to 
enforce their clamorous accufations, by urging, as their 
godly predeceflbrs once did againft our JVIader, that *' we 
" found thefe fellows perverting the nation, and forbidding 
to give tribute unto Cafar : but Pi/ate knew tbat for envy 
" they delivered Him." And though they could plead their 
loyalty, and fay, " If thou let this man go, thou art not 
" C^/ar's friend, we have no king but Ccc/ar ;'' yet both our 
Lord and his Apoftles rendered themfelves, and ftri£tly 
taught all that heard them, to " render unto Cafarihc things 
" that are C^r's, and unto God the things that are God's." 
Fain would the Methodifts copy after fuch glorioufly divine 
examples : and bleflfed be God, after a trial of near forty 
years, upon the moft fcvcre fcrutiny, their loyalty cannot 
be juftly fo much as once called in queftion : for, as they 
fear God, fo they dearly iove and honour their King, the r 
rightful fovereign King George ; and have been, and conti- 
nue to be, ftcady, invariable frieuJs to the p ot'^tant fuccef- 


[ 33^ ] 

fion in tke illuftrious houfe o^ Hanover. And if fo, fuppofing 
thefe Methodids fliould be convi(5ted of ailing fomewhat irre- 
gular, fince it is only the irregularity of preaching and re- 
commending unfeigned love to God, and, for his great 
name fake, undifTembled, difmterefted loyalty to their King j 
is it not the intereft as well as duty of civil government, if 
not to encourage, yet not to oppofe them ? For it is certainly 
a moft inconteftable truth, that every additional profelyte to 
true Mcthodifm, is an additional loyal fubject to King George 
the Third y whom, with his royal moft amiable confer t, our 
gracious Qj.ieen Charlotte^ the Methodids with one united 
voice earneftly pray, God long to continue to be a nurfmg 
father and nurfing mother to our church, and people of every 
denomination whatfoever. 

Every body is loudly complaining of the badnefs of our 
times, and the degeneracy of our morals. Sinners now pro- 
claim their fm like Sodomy and the nation hath fuffered more 
than 7x fecond deluge by an innundation of every fm, and every 
kind of corruption that was ever committed or pra6lifed under 
heaven : ^' The whole head is fick, the whole heart faint ; 
from the crown of the head to the fole of our feet, we are full 
of wounds and bruifes, and putrifying fores." Shall there no 
man be found then to ftand in the gap ? None dare to attempt 
at leaft to ftcrn the impetuous torrent ? None venture to go 
out with their lives in their hand, and cry to a profane, care- 
lefs, bufy world, " Ho I every one that thirfteth, come ye to 
the waters." Can any confiderate, much more can any real 
good man be fo cruel, as even to wifh that the gofpel fhould be 
confined either to church or meeting, when there are fo many 
thoufands and tens of thoufands, who as to fpiritual things, 
know not their right hand from their left, and who never go 
either to church or meeting at all ? If fome are called to be 
fettled miniftcrs (and may the great Head of the church fill 
all our parifh-churches and meeting-houfes with true evan- 
gelical pafto'rs !) may not others be called out to be itinerants ? 
Have there not been prefbyters at large, even from the earliefl; 
times of chriftianity ? And if fome of a more inferior rank 
and order fhould be qualified, and thruft forth by the great 
Lord of the harveft, when the harveft is fo great, and the 
labourers lb few, who fl:iall dare to fay to Him, " What doft 


I 337 3 

thou ?" Shall our eye be evil becaufe he is good ? If Ifcuah 
Xvas a courtier, was not the Prophet Jmos a hercl'fman ? In 
the (lays of Mofe^^ when the Ifraelites were under a mors 
immediate divine theocracy, news was brought him, and that 
too even by a Jofjua^ that Eldad and Mcdad were prophtTying 
in the camp, without his licence or his ordination ; what doth 
this meek man of God fay ? *' Envieft thou for my fake ? 
XVould to God all the Lord's people were prophets." And 
in the days of our Lord himfelf, his beloved difciple Jolm^ 
before his heart was more enlarged by divine love, faid unto 
himj " Mafter, we faw one calling out devils in thy name, 
and he followeth not with us, and we forbad him, bccaufe he 
followcth not with us." But what faid Jesus, that ^ood 
Shepherd and Bifliop of fouls .? " Forbid him not." 

Such inftances, fuch ftriking inflances as thefe, mcthinks, 

fhould make good men careful not to give way to a narrow, 

felnfh, bigotted fpirit ; and caution them againft joining with 

the world in fmiting their fellow-fervants, by crying down 

or fpeaking ilightingly and reproachfully of a method of 

.preaching and ading, which, maugre all oppofition, for thefe 

thirty years laft paft hath been blcfled and owned of God to 

the converting of thoufands ; not to a bare name, fedl, or 

party, or merely to head or notional knowledge, but *' from 

darknefs unto light, from the power of Satan unto God j" 

from holding the mere form, to the true abiding poffeffion and 

pra6lice of true fcriptural godlinefs, in heartj lip, and life. 

But if good or bad men nowdiflike, and therefore oppofe fuch 

an irregular way of ading, they may be told to their comfort, 

.that their uneafmefs on this account, in all probability, will 

not be of long continuance j for few will choofe to bid, or 

offer themfelves candidates for fuch airy pluralities : to go thus 

without the camp, bearing all manner of reproach ; to become 

in this manner j " Spedacles to GoD, to angels, and to mcnj'* 

to facrifice not only our natural, but fpiritual afledions and 

connexions, and to part from thofe who are as dear to them 

as their own fouls, in order to pafs the Atlaniic^ and bear the 

colds and heats of foreign climes ; thefe are fuch uninviting 

things to corrupt nature, that if we will have but a littlepa- 

tience till a few old weary heads arc laid in the filent grave, 

^ Vol. IV. y ihefe 


r 33S ] 

thefe uncommon gofpel-meteors, tbefe field -phenomenas, that 
feldom appear in the latitude of England^ fcarce above once in 
a century, without the help of any coercive means, will of 
themfelves foon difappear. They begin to be pretty well in 
difrepute already : yet a little while, and in all human pro- 
bability they will quite vanifh away. But though I am nei- 
ther a prophet, nor the fon of a prophet, I am greatly miftaken, 
if in the Redeemer's own good time and way, fome fpiritual 
phoenix will not hereafter arife, fome bleffed gofpel-inftrument 
be raifed, that fhall make the devil and his three-fold army, 
*' The luft of the flefh, the luft of the eye, and the pride of 
life," to fly before the found of the gofpel trumpet. 

I have dwelt the longer upon this particular. Reverend Sir, 
becaufe the prefent learned Biihop of Gloucefter^ in his late 
volume, intitled, *' The Dodrine of Grace," is pleafed to 
obferve more than once, that he finds fault not fo much with 
the matter, as the manner of the Methodifts preaching. But 
if by the manner^ his Lordfhip would have us to underftand, 
not their manner of preaching in the field, but the manner of 
their delivery, whether in the church or field, I would hum- 
bly afk his Lordftiip, if he ever heard any of them preach ? 
If nor, doth our law condemn any man, or any fet of men, 
unheard ? And I would humbly enquire further of his Lord- 
fhip, and all others whom it may concern, how they would 
have them or any others to preach ? 

I remember the great Doctor Delany^ when I had the ho- 
nour of being with him, many years ago, at the Right Re- 
verend Dr. Boulier^s^ then Lord Primate of Ireland, among 
other hints proper for a young preacher, gave me to under- 
ftand, that whenever he went up into a pulpit, he defired to 
look upon it as the laft time he (hould ever preach, or the laft 
time that the people fhould ever hear him. O that all 
preachers, whether within or without doors, however digni- 
fied or diftlnguifhed, went always up into their refpe(Slive pul- 
pits thus imprefied ! They would then preach, as ApelUs 
once faid he painted, for Eternity. They would then acSt the 
; part of true gofpel chriftian orators, and not only calmly and 
cobly inform the underftanding, but by perfuafive pathetic ad- 
drefs, endeavour to move the affedlion?, and warm the heart. 


[ 339 1 

To a£l other wife, befpeaks a fad ignorance of human nature^ 
Riid fuch an inexcufeable indolence and indifference in the 
preacher, as muil conftrain the hearers, 'whether they will of 
nor, to fufpedl, that the preacher, let him be who he wil!^ 
only deals in the falfe commerce of unfelt truths. 

Were our lawyers, our counfellors, or our players to a£l: 
thus, bot^h the bar and the ftage would foon be deferted ; and 
therefore the anfwer of Mr. Betterton^ to a worthy prelate, 
when he afkcd him, " How it came to pafs that the clero-y^ 
*' who fpoke of things real, affedled the people fo little, and 
*' the players, who fpoke of things barely imaginary, affected 
" them fo much," is worthy of lading regard. '* My Lordj 
" fays Mr. Betterton^ I can affign but one reafon, which isj 
*' we players fpeak of things imaginary as though they were 
*' real, and too many of the clergy fpeak of things real as 
*' though they were imaginary." Thus it was in his, and 
all know it is too much the cafe in our time : hence it is, 
that even on our moft important occafions, the worthy gen- 
tlemen concerned in our public charities, generally find them-* 
felves more obliged to the muficians than the preachers, for 
the largenefs of their coliedions : and hence, no doubt it isj 
that upon our moil folemn anniverfaries, after long previous 
notice hath been given, when fome even of our Lords Spiri- 
tual do preach, perhaps not two Lords temporal come to hear 

Sorry am I, Reverend Sir, to find fo true, what a celebrated 
orator, in one of his leflures delivered, (if I am not miftaken^ 
in the Univerfity of Oxford) takes the liberty of fayingj 
" That it is to be feared this is too much the ftate of the pul- 
«' pit-elocution in general, in the Church of Efiglcind : on 
<' which account, there never was perhaps a religious kSt 
" upon earth, whofe hearts v/ere fo little engaged in the acS^ 
" of public worihip, as the members of that church. To 
<« be pleafed, we muft feel, and we are pleafed with feeling. 
The Preibyterians are moved ; the Methodifts are moved ; 
they go to their meetings and tabernacles with delight ; 
the very Q^iakcrs are moved ; fantaftical and extravagant 
as the language of their emotions is, yet dill they arc 
moved by it, and they love their form of worfhip for that 
Y 3; ^« reafon ; 


t 340 i 

«* reafon : whilft much the greater part of the members of 
" the Church of EnfrlancL are either baniflied from it through 
*' difguft, or relu6lantly attend the fervice as a dilagrceable 
" duty." Thus far Mr. SkerUan. 

But why go I to the bar or ftage to fetch vouchers in de- 
fence of earneftnefs in heart and a61ion, when fpeaking for 
the moft High GoD, and ofTfcring falvation to precious and 
;immortal fouls, for whom the ever-adorable Mediator flied 
his precious blood. You know. Reverend Sir, the character 
given of Bucolfpheru^j one of the Reformers, Vividus vultuSy 
v'lvkli ocul'iy vi'vidjs manuSf dcnique omnia viv'^da. You have 
alfo heard of a Prophet who was commanded by the Lord 
God himfelf, to fmite with his hand, and (lamp with his foot ; 
and gofpcl-minifters in general are commanded to " cry aloud, 
and fpare not, and to lift up their voices like trumpets." But 
why refer I even to Reformers or Prophets ? Rather let me 
mention the God and Saviour of all, even our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; on whofe manner of preaching, the multitudes that 
followed him, when he came down from the mount, made 
this juft obfervation, that " He fpake as one having authority, 
and not as the fcribes," And after his refurrecSi-ion, when 
beginning at Mofes and all the Prophets, he expounded unto 
them in all the fcriptures the things concerning himfelf^ 
the two difciples at Emmaus faid one to another, *' Did not 
our hearts burn within us while he talked with us by the 
way, and while he opened to us the fcriptures ?" And I be- 
lieve we may venture to affirm, that if preachers in general 
fpake and opened the fcriptures more under the influence and 
energy of his blefied Spirit, whether in confecrated or uncon- 
fecrated ground, within or without doors, they would find 
their hearers hearts in a degree would burn within them 

But I have done.— You will be fo good. Reverend Sir, as 
to pardon not only the freedom but prolixity of this. I have 
already mentioned my motives for writing; and therefore 
Ihall now clofe with the advice given upon a fimilar occalion 
to ah ecclchaftical council by Gamaliel^ a do6^or of law, and 
had in reputation among all the people : " And now I fay 
unto you, refrain frora thcfe men, and let them alone ; for 


C 341 3 

if this counfel or work be of men, it will come to nought ; 
but if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it : left haply ye be 
found to fight againft God." To this God, and the word 
of his grace, I nioft humbly recommend you and the whole 
Univerfity ; and earneftly praying, that all at all times may 
have a right judgment given them in all things, I beg leave to 
fubfcribe myfelf, Reverend Sir, 

Your willing fervant for Christ's fake, 

George Whitefield* 

Y 3 I^BSl^R- 


O N 

Select Passages of Scripture, 


Catechetical Q^u e s t i o n s. 
Begun, March 12, 1738. 


C 345 ] 


Select Passages of Scripture. 



8. Q. jj/'HT would not Jesus Christ JIjcw Herod a 
7niracle ? 
A. Becaufe in all probability, it was only to fatisfy his 
curiofity that he defired to fee one. 

Q. What may we learn from Ker od*j never having feen 
Christ before? 

A. That Christ was no friend to courts ; that pomp 
and greatnefs keep thoufands from Jesus Christ \ and 
that we ought therefore rather to thank God for our be- 
ing in a lower eflate. 
12. Q: What may we learn from the friendjl:ip made between 
Pilate and Herod, by the death ^/^ Christ ? 

A, That Jew and Gentile, by Christ's death, were 
to be united together in one body : Herod being a Jew, 
and Pontius Pilate a Gentile. 
x8. Q^ When do we as thefe feivs did? 

A. When we prefer our fins, (which are robbers, be- 
caufe they rob us of God's favour) to our Saviour's 
26. Q^ What may we learn from Simon the Cyrenians bearing 
the crofs ? 

A. That they who would follow Christ, muft fol- 
low him by the way of the crofs. 
31. CX What is the meaning of this verfe ? 

A, A good man in fcripture is compared to a green 
fruitful tree, (See Pfalm \{\.) and wicked men to chafF, 
and are rcprefented alfo by a barren fig-tree : the mean- 
ing of the verfe therefore feems to be this : If they do this 
to me, who am a good man, how will God deal with 
that wicked people the Tews ? 

32- Qi 

r 346 i 


32. Q, J^^y w^^ Christ crucified with the thieves ? 

A. To fulfill this faying, " And he was numbered 
with the tranfgreflbrs." Jfa, liii. 12. 
Q_ IVhy between them f 

A, As though he was the unworthieft and bafeft of the 
34. Q^ IVlmt may ive learn from hence ? 

A. To pray for our moft bitter enemies. 

38. Qi ^^hy zuas the fuperfcriptlon wriiten in Hebrew, Greek, 
and Latin ? 

A, To fhew that Jesus Christ was to be the Saviour 
of all nations, tribes, and lanorua^res. 

39. Qi JVhat may we learn from the behaviour of the impeni^ 
tent thief? 

A. That for the generality, thofe who live all their 
lives in fm, die hardened. 

40. Qi What may %ve learn from the behaviour of the penitent 
thief ^ and Christ' j behaviour toivards him P 

A. That there is mercy for the worft of finners, 
through Christ the Saviour. 

Q. Jlfay u'icked ?ncn draw any reafons from hence^ i^ 
defer their repentance till a death- bed? 

A. No, by no means. 

Q, Why ? 

A* Becaufe probably this thief had never heard of 
Christ before. 2d]y, He might not have been fo notori- 
ous a Tinner as is imagined, though drawn in by furprize 
or temptation to commit the crime for which he fufFered. 
3dly, God converted him, to honour his Son's death, 
that he might in the very sgonies thereof triumph over 
the devil. 4thly, Becaufe he gave uncommon inftances 
of his faith: he calls Christ, "Lord," when his own 
difciples had forfook him, when the High-priefl, fcribes^ 
and rulers were deriding him, and his own divinity under 
an eclipfe : none of which circumftances are applicable 
to a wilfully wicked man, that defers repentance till he 
comes to die. 
44. Qi What is thefixth hour ? 

A, Twelve at noon. 

Q. What 

[ 347 3 


Q^ JVJmt the C)th ? 

A, Three in ihe afternoon. 
45 • Q: J^^^^i ^^^^ '^^^ '^'^'^^ of the temple P 

A. A curtain that parted the two places, where the 
Jews and Gentiles worfhipped. 

Q^ Why was it rent in twain ? 

A. Becaufe by the death of Christ, the partition wall 
between Jew and Gentile was to be broken down. 
46. Q: Why did ChrIST cry luiih a loud voice F 

A. To fhew that he died full of vigour. 

Q. Jf^hat 7noy we learn from his calling God, Father? 

A. That we are to acknowledge God to be our father, 
though under the fevereft difpenfations of his providence. 
51. Qj, What learn you from hence? 

A. That we muft not follow a multitude to do evil. 
53. Q^ Why luas it remarked, that Qhkist* s grave ivas heivn 
out of a reck ? 

A. Becaufe then it could not be faid, that his difciples 
digged under, and Hole it away. 

Qi Why that he was laid in a grave^ where never man 
before was laid ? 

A. Becaufe then if any one's body did rife, it muft be 
that of the Lord Jesus. 
56. Q:, What may ive learn from the laft part of this verfe ? 

A. That even the moft civil offices due to our neareft 
friends, ought not to hinder us, if poiTiblc, from keepiog 
the fabbath-day holy. 


I. Q. What may we learn from this fir Jl verfe ? 

A. That we fliould rife early in the morning on the 
Lord's-day, and offer him the fplces and odours of praife 
and thankfgiving. 
4. Q^ What is meant by the two men ? 

A. Two angels in the fhape of men. 
7. Q. JVljy miift the Son of Man be crucified? 

A, Becaufe we had deferved to be accurfed by God ; 
and crucifixion being an accurfed death, (for it is written, 
*' curfed is every one that hangeth upon a tree") he be- 
came a curfe for us. 

[ 348 ] 


II. Q: TVhai may we learn from the difclpks not lellevlng the 
women s report f 

A. That we ought more firmly to believe the truth of 
our blefied Lord's rcfurredion, fince his own difcipks 
were the laft who gave credit to it. 
14. Q^ What may we learn from heme ? 

A, That chriftians ought to talk of good things as 
they walk together. 
17. Q^ What from hence ? 

A. That Jesus Christ takes notice of the convcrfa- 
tion, and more efpecially of the griefs of his people. 
26. Q^ Why mufl Christ rfe again and enter into glory ? 

A, To allure us God was fatisfied for our fins ; that he 
was no impoftor or cheat ; and to afTure us of the refur.- 
re6^ion of our bodies after death. 

Q^ Why mufl he rife the third day ? 

A. Becaufe if he had continued longer, the body muft 
have feen corruption ; and then the prophecy would not 
have been fulfilled, which fays, that " God's Holy One 
was not to fee corruption." Nor would he have fulfilled 
the type of fonah. 

28. Q^ What may we learn from CHRlST'i firfi refufing ts 
go in P 

A. That in fmall matters, though we may at firft re- 
fufe a thing, yet we may afterwards, without forfeiting 
our v/ords, comply therewith ; it being fuppofed, that 
we promifed on the fuppofition we had no better reafon 
to the contrary. 

29. Qi What may we learn from hence ? 

A, That we fiiould, when evening comes on, conftrain 
Christ by our prayers, to tarry with and watch over us 
all night, 
■"qo. Q^ What may we learn from hence ? 

A. That we fnould never prcfume to eat, without firft 
afking a blefling. 
'31. Q: What may we learn from Christ'j vanijhing fo foon 
out of their fight f 

A. That the fpiritual vifits of Jesus Christ in this 
life, are but of a fhort continuance ; which fnould kt us 
upon preparing for that place, where we fliall fee and be 
with Him to all ctciniiv, without interruption. 

6 ' 3^' a 

t 349 ] 


36. Q^ Jf^^at may we learn from CnKisT^f faying to his dif- 
c'lples^ " Peace be to yoit^'' though they had cdlfo lately for f 00k 
him ? 

A. That we ought never to upbraid thofe who have 
offended us, when they give marks of repentance ; and 
alfo, this fhould encourage finners to hope for bleinngs 
from Jesus Christ, though they have finned af^ainft 
45. Q; What may we learn from hence ? 

A. That it is impoflible to underftand the fcripture.^, 
without the illumination of the Spirit of Jesus Christ : 
«' For the natural man difcerneth not the things of the 

Q. Ought we therefore to pray before zve read the fcrip^ 
tures ? 

A. Yes, by all means. 
49. Qi What is meant by the promife of the Father ? 

A. The Holy Ghoft, which was to come upon the 
Apoftles at the feaO: of Pentecofl. 
SZ' Qi ^'^hat is meant by their being continually in the temple f 
A, That they were there at ail hours of public prayer. 
Q: What jhould we learn from thence ? 
A* That we ought to go and do likevvife. 

JOHN, Chap. I. 

Q. Who was the author of this gofpel? 

A. John^ the difciple whom Jesus loved. 

Q. Why did he write it ? 

A. To confound the herefy of Ebion and Ceri?ithuSy 
who denied the divinity of our blefTcd Lord : and there- 
fore, through the whole gofpel we find he takes all op- 
portunities of proving, that Jesus Christ was very God 
of very God ; another thing he had in view when he 
wrote it, was to fupply what was wanting in the other 
Evangelifts ; therefore he chiefly relates to us thofe par- 
ticulars which the other Evangelifts had omitted. 

■ ^ (^ What 

[ 350 ] 


Q^ lyhat may we learn from God'/ permitting fame of 
the Evangelijis to leave out what the others put in, and again 
fotne injcrting what others have left out ? 

A. That God would hereby oblige us to read all ; and 
alfo to exercife our underftanding, that by comparing 
fpiritual things with fpiritual, we might find out the 
I , CX JFho is meant hy the Word ? 

A, Jesus Christ. 

Q^ Is there any proof in this verfe, that Jesus CkrisT 
is God ? 

A. Yes : '' And the Word was God." 

Qi Why was it necejfary that Jesus our Saviour fiould be 

A. Becaufe it was impoHible for any creature to fatisfy 
for our fins. 

3. Qi Is here any proof of the Divinity <?/' Christ ? 

A, Yes : becaufe the work of creation is afcribed to 

4. Q^ Is there any proof of it in this verfe ? 

A. Yes : *' In him was life." For whofoever has 
life in or of himfelf, muft be God. 

5. Q^ Who is meant hy the word " lighi.^* 

A. Jesus Christ, who came to enlighten us, by re- 
vealing God's will to us. 

Q^ What mean you hy the word '* darknefs f" 
A. The dark minds of men. 
3 1. Q; PFbat is meant by the word " own?'* 

A. The Jews, who were God's peculiar people. 

1 3. Qj, Can you paraphrafe this verfe ? 

A, Which were born not of blood, /. e. not by any 
natural generation ; nor of the will of the flefh, nor of 
the will of man, /. e. not by human adoption, but of 
God, or by the free grace and power of God only. 

14. Q^ What does the Evangelijl aUude to here? 

A. The tabernacle, with the (hekinah, or glorious 

appearance that ufed to be in it ; which were types of 

Jesus Christ-: the former reprefenting his humanity, 

the latter his divinity refiding or abiding in it. It is 

I therefore 

[ 351 ] 


therefore faicl In the margin of fome bibles, *' Taber- 
nacled ^^mongft us," plainly alluding to the Jcwifh ta- 
bernacle in the wildernefs. 
J 6, Q^ JP'hat mean you by thefe words ^ ** Grace for grace f"* 

A, That Christ came to give us grace, that we micrht 
get more of It : or rather it (hould be rendered, " Grace 
upon grace." For Jesus Christ came to purchafc for 
us not only a fufficiency, but an abundance of grace. 
41, Q. What may we learn from hence? 

A. That when we arc converted ourfelves, we fhould 
endeavour to bring others, efpecially our own relations, 
to the knowledge of Jesus Christ. 

Q. What may we learn from thefe vjords^ " //^ have 
found the Mcjf ah r' 

A. That young converts are very apt to think they 
have apprehended Christ, whereas they are rather ap- 
prehended by him. 
49. Q^ What may we learn from Nathaniel'j behaviour^ and 
Christ'j anfwer ? 

A, That a child-like fimpliclty, is the beft preparative 
for the reception of divine truth. 
51. Q. When was this fulfilled F 

A, Ads I. when his difciples favtr him carried up Into 
heaven; and it will be more fully accompliflied, when 
Jesus Christ (hall come to judgment in the glory of 
his Father, with his holy angels, to be admired by his 

C H A P. IT. 

2. Q. What may we learn from Christ'j Icing at the mar" 
riage in Can a ? 

A. That it is an honourable {late, olherwife he would 
not have been prefent at it. 

Q; JFhat ?nay we learn from thefe people's calling Christ 
io the marriaoe F 

A. That thofe who are about to enter on a marriage 
ftate, ought above all things, by prayer to invite Jesus 
Christ, it being for want of that we have fo few happy 


[ 35^ 3 


3. Qi IFhai may we learn from the hlejjed Virghii acquaint'* 
ing Christ that they wanted wine ? 

A. That it is good^ when we go to poor, people's 
houfes, to fee what they want ; and if we cannot relieve 
them ourfelves, to apply to others, efpecially to Jesus 
Christ, to grant them what they want. 

4. Qi ^Vhat may we learn from Chris tV anfwer to his 
mother ? 

A, That in fome meafure fhe was to be blamed, for 
making fo free with our Saviour ; that our relations, 
even our parents, ought not to be regarded, when they 
would hinder us in religion ; and that it can never be 
prefumed, that the Virgin has fuch power ever our Lord, 
as the Church of Kome fuppofes, now he is in heaven^ 
fmce he faid to her upon this occafion, " Woman, what 
have I to do with thee," when he was on earth. 

Q^ May It not be fuppofcd^ that Christ had Jhewn fome 
miracle before he entered on his public mini/fry P 

A, There is great reafon to think he had, or otherwife 
it is hardly to be imagined, fhe fliould fo readily apply to 
him to work a miracle on this occafion, or bid the fer- 
vants to take fuch notice of his orders. 

Q^ TVhat is tneant by Christ'j fay ing ^ " Mine hour is 
not yet come .^" 

A. Mine hour for working this miracle is not yet 
come ; the wine being not quite, though very near out, 
as the original word fignifies : our extremity is Christ's 

5. Q: ^hat may we learn from this verfe? 

A. That what the Virgin faid to thefe fcrvants, we 
fhould think f:iid to ourfelves \ and whatfoever ChrisI* 
faith unto us, we m.uft do. 

6, Q. May there any thing be gathered from this vcrfe^ to 
confirm the truth of our Saviour's miracle P 

A. Yes : the watering-pots being made ufe of by the 
Jews, to purify or wafli themfelves, as they came in and 
out, as the Papifts now make ufe of their ridiculous holy- 
water ; it was plain nothing but water ufed to be put in 
them, and being made of ftone, fuppofing wine had 


t 353 1 


formerly been put in them, no tln£lure of It could rem'oirt 
to colour tlie v/ater that Jesus Christ commanded ta 
be put in ; which could not be faid, had they been made 
of wood. 
7. Q: ^^""'^^ '^^'^^'^ ^% ''^^ Jesus hid to fill the Water pots f 

A, The fcrvants of the houfe. 

(T What may ive learn froin that ? 

A. It confirms the miracle ; fince he did not employ 
his own dilciplcs, but the fervants of the houfe, who were 
entire ftrangers, therefore could not be fuppofcd to join 

in a cheat. 

Q^ IPljat may zve learn from the fervants filling ^-^<^' '^(/- 
Jels up to the brim P 

A. That therefore no wine could poflibly be put in to 
colour the vvatcf) or mix with it. 
S. Q; What is meant by the governor of the fe oft ? 

A. It alludes to a cuftom among the Jews, who at 
their entertainments ufed to chufe one particular perfoii 
in the company^ to prefide over the reft for that time, in 
order to prevent diforder and excefs, 
9. Qi ^^^h ^^ ^^ remarked^ that the Governor kneiv not from 
whence it luas ? 

A» Becaufe then he could have fto hand in it^ therefore 
his teftimony could be the more relied on. 

Q. What fpiritual meaning is under this ?mracle P 

A, The wine reprefents the Spirit, which Jesus 
Christ pours into the hearts of true believers ; but 
though the comforts of the Holy Ghoft, with which they 
are filled, are exceeding rich here, yet thofe in heaven will 
fo far furpafs them, that when we come there, wc fliall 
have reafon to fay with the Governor of the feaft, " JeSus 
Christ has kept his good wine until now." 
13. Q^ Why is it fo often remarked^ that Jesus ivent up to 
Jerufalem to the poffover? 

A. To teach us how careful he was to fubmit to every 
ordinance of God, and to {(tt us an example to follow 
his fteps. Never, therefore, if pofiible, be abfent front 
the gofpel paflover, the facramcnt or memorial of his ovrn 
blefled body and blood. 
Vol. IV. Z^ H- ^i 


[ 354 T 

14. Q:. -^^'t; came thefe tradfemen to he in the temple ? 

A. There was a command from God, that all the 
males ftiould appear before him at Jerufalem three timas 
in a year, (of which the feaft of the paflbver was one) 
and that none was to appear before him empty. Now it 
being inconvenient to bring cattle, &c. fo many miles as 
fome of them were diflant from the temple, thefe per- 
fons fat here with oxen, &c. to fell to thofe who came 
up to 'Jerufalem to worfhip and offer facrifice. 

Q. Was not this a plaufible pretence ? 

A. Yes ; but our blefied Lord's refenting it in this 
manner, fhews us how jealous he is of the honour of his 
houfe, and how he refents the leaft mifbehaviour in the 
public fervice of the church. 

Q. JVas it not a bold thi?ig of J Esvs Christ /^ venture 
hlmfelf ainong fuch a company of perfons ? 

A, No doubt of it ; and therefore fome have thought, 
that this was the greateft miracle Christ performed ; 
and by this our Lord would fliew thofe in power, that 
if they will be zealous in reforming abufes, and go out 
in the name and ftrength of God, they know not what 
great fuccefs they may meet with. 
16. Q: What may we learn from Christ'j faying to them 
that fold doves ^ " take thefe things hence f " 

A. That our zeal ought to be according to knowledge ; 
that we (hould pray for that wifdom which dwells with 
prudence ; and, more efpecially, be very cautious how 
we ad in works of reformation ; as Christ here did 
not loofe the doves and let them fly about the temple 
(which would have occafioned a confufion) but ordered 
thofe that fold them, to take them thence. 

Q^ When do vjc ??iake the houfe of GoD a houfe of Mer- 
chandife ? 

A. When we go on purpofe to feem religious, in order 
to get bufmefs j and when we talk with others, or let 
our own thoughts run on worldly things at public wor- 
25. Q^ What may we learn from the Evangelijis faying ^ that 
Jesus knew what ivas in man ? 

A, That 


[ 355 ] 

J, That Jesus Christ therefore was God, It being 
impolTiblc for any one but God to know what is in 


1. Q. TJ^jat may zue remark from Nicodemus'j coming u 
Christ ? 

A. That it is a good thing to fee rulers come to Jesus 
Christ ; and though not many mighty, not many 
noble are called, yet fome are. 

2. Q. Why did Nicodemus come by night ? 
A. For fear of man. 

Qi What may we learn hence P 

A. That when religion is out of fafhion, there will be 
many Nicodemites. 

Q. Is net the fear of man common to all converts ? 

A, Yes ; but where the heart is upright towards God, 
it wears ofF daily. 
J. Q; What do you learn from Christ'j anfwer? 

A. That it is not fufficient to have an hiftorical fal:h 
of Christ, without being born again from above. 

Q. What is it to he horn again from above ? 

A. It is to have a principle of new life implanted in 
our hearts by the holy Spirit, which life muft be evi- 
denced by a man's bringing forth the fruits of the Spi- 

Q; Why cannot a man fe the kingdom of God unlefs he 
be born again ? 

A, If by the kingdom of God, be underftood to mean 
the kingdom of grace, then it is plain an unregenerate 
man cannot fee it; or cannot underftand its doc^trincs, 
becaufe they arc fpiritually difcerned. But if by the 
kingdom of God, be meant the kingdom of glory ; 
then, unlefs a man be born again he cannot fee it, be- 
caufe we being impure by nature, except we are renewed, 
we cannot dwell with a pure and holy God. 
;. Q^ Does not this verfe urge the ahfolute necejfity of water 
baptifm f 

Z 2 A, Yes, 

[ 3Se ] 


J. Yc?, where It may be had ; but how God will 
deal with perfons unbaptizcd we cannot tell. What 
have we to do to judge thofe that are without ? 
10. • Q: What learn you from ih'is verfe? 

A. That it is a Ihame for minillers to pretend to teach 
others, who are not taught of God themfelves. 
13. Q^ What karn ycu from thefe zv^rds, " The Son of j?ian 
which is in heaven f" 

J. That Jesus Christ is Geo, fince he declares he 
was then in heaven, though difcourfing at that time with 
Nicodemusy which could not be, unlcfs he was God. 


4. Q:. ^"^h ^'^^ift Christ needs go through Samaria ? 

As Becaufe there was a woman to be converted there. 
Q^ What learn you from thence ? 

A, That where God has got people to be called, he 
will find means to bring them to himfelf. 
6. Q; What may you ohferve from ChristV being weary ? 

A. That he was truly man. 
7» Q: J^kiit learn you from Christ'j fo'^ng " Give me to 
drink r 

A. That our blefled Lord underwent much fatigue \i\ 
going about to preach to fmners. And that we ought 
not to be afliamed to beg, when providence reduces us 
to an indigent life, or to prefling circumftanccs. 
9. Q^ How can it be faid that the Jews had no dealing zvith 
the Samaritans, zvhen in the foregoing verfe we are told^ 
the difciples were gone to buy food? 

A. They might do fome few good offices to, but had 
no general commerce with each other. 
ID. Q; What may we learn from Ci-lRlST'i introducing re- 
ligious talk by afking for a little water ? 

A. That we ouo;ht to fpiritualize every thing we meet 
with, and take all proper opportunities to introduce re- 
ligious converfatjon wherever v;e are. 
14. Q; What does Q\i9.i^T mean by ** the ivatar he fould 

A The 

[ zsi 3 


A. The holy Spirit. 

(^ IVhy is the holy Spirit reprefented hy ivnter P 

A, Bccaufe, as water wafhes away the filth of" the body, 
fo the holy Spirit clcanfes the pollution of the foul ; and 
as water refreflies the thirfty, fo do the comforts of the 
Holy Ghoft refrefti the fpiritual man. 

Q^ IVhat may we learn from ihefe words ^ *-' Jhall be in 
him a well^ ilfc. f 

A. That where God has begun a good work, he will 
carry it on to the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
15. Q^ What may you learn f rem this verfe f 

A. That we ftiould pray to Christ, as this woman 
did, and beg him to give us his holy Spirit, that we may 
not apply to outward things for comfort. 
20. Q:. ^^hy did the woman mention this to Christ ? 

A. Becaufe, there was a difpute between the Samari- 
tans and Jews^ which was the proper place of worfliip, 
yerufalem or mount Gerizim. And from hence arofe fuch 
an enmity between them, that they would have no deal- 
ings with one another. 

23. Q^ JVhat is the meaning of this verfe? 

A, That now Jesus Christ was come, God's wor- 
fllip could not be confined to any particular place, but 
perfons might every where lift up holy hands to God. 

24. Qi Jyhen may we be faid to worjhip God in fpirit and 
in truth ? 

A. When we are inward with him in our worfliip, 
and not only honour him with our lips, but with our 
afFecSlions and lives. 

26. Q,. IVhat may zve learn from Christ'j revealing hmfelf 
fo freely to the zvo?nan P 

A. That he will as freely and fpiritually reveal hini- 
felf to every believing heart. 

27. Q:. IFhat may zve learn, from the dife'.ples wandering that 
he talked with a woman P 

A. That men, efpecially minifters, ought not too freely 
to converfe with perfons of that fex. . 

28. Qi lyhat learn you from the woman leaving her water-pot 
to go into the city P 

Z 3 A That 

[ 358 ] 


J. That we fhould leave our worldly bufinefs, rather 
than neglect at proper times to attend on the means of 
29. Q; Did not ike woman tell an untruth here ? 

A. No, for Christ might have told her all. How- 
ever, as Christ had revealed to her the greateft fecret 
of her life, (he might eafily infer that he could tell her 
every thing elfe. 
32. Q; What may we learn from this anfwer ? 

A, That we ought, after the example of our mafter, 
to forego our ordinary meals fometimcs for the fake of 
doing good. And we may alfo learn, that a true chrif- 
tian has meat to eat, fpiritual comforts, which the 
world knows not of: a fir anger intermeddleth not with 
his joys. 
34* Q: What learn zve hence ? < 

A. That it ought to be our meat and drink,, or as 
much pleafure and our conftant bufinefs to do the will of 
God, as to fupply our bodies with proper food. 
35. Q^ What does Christ mean when he bids his difciples 
<' to lift up their eyes f " 

A. In all probability, he pointed to the Samaritans 
whom he faw crowding over the fields, coming to hear 
his do£lrinc. 
38. Q: What does Christ mean by this ? 

A, That the prophets had prepared the way for his 
coming, by their prophecies, which made the difciples 
work far more eaiy. 
41. Q. What learn you from hence ? 

A. That though there are many external proofs of the 
divinity of Christ's do£lrine, yet his own words or 
his docSlrine beft explains itfelf: the divine image and 
fuperfcription being written on every precept and line 
of it. 
47. Q: What learn we from the Nobleinans coming to Christ 
about hisftckfon? 

A, That parents fhould apply to Christ for their 
fick children, and that afflidions fhould drive us to 

5 48. Q; JVherein 

[ 359 1 


48. Qi JFheretn was this Nobleman to be blamed? 

A. In that he confined Christ's power to his bodily 
prefence. Therefore to convince him of his frailty, and 
to ftrengthen his faith, Christ cured his Ton at a 
52. Q; TVhat is meant by the fevcnih hour ? 

A. One in the afternoon. 
53* Q: ^^^^' learn we frofu this verfe ? 

A, That bodily diftempers are all cured by the power 
of Christ, and that thofe who are now recovered from, 
ficknefs, are raifed up as certainly though not fo vifibly 
by him, as was the Nobleman*s fon. 


6. Q: What learn you from Christ*; ajking this qiicjilon ? 
'' Wilt thou he made whole f* 
A. That he will know our wants from ourfelves. 
%, Q. What learn you from Christ's bidding him to take up 
his bed and walk ? 

A. That though Christ is the firft mover in recover- 
ing us from our natural and fpiritual impotcncy, yet we 
muft concur in the ufe of means. 
9. Qi What learn you from Christ^ s doing fo many works 
on the Sabbath P 

A. That doing good, is a proper way of fandtifylng 
the Sabbath. 
1 3* Q: What learn you ^^ Chris t'j conveying himf elf from the 
multitude F 

A. That we fhould do good, but endeavour at the 
fame time to avoid the praife of man. 
14. Q^ What learn you from Christ's fnding the man that 
was healed, in the temple P 

A. That it is good to fee people, after they are reco- 
vered from their ficknefs, going to the temple to return 
thanks unto God. 
Q^ What learn you from the latter part of ibis verfeP 
A. That ficknefs is often fent as a punifliment for fin. 
That if we do not mend when God chaftifes us with 
Z 4 whips. 

t 3&) ] 


whifv^, or light affli6lions, we mud expe61: to be pha? 
ftifed with fco'pions, or greater trials. 
J 3. Qi What ham you from the latter part of this verfe ? 

A. That the Jeivs thought, though the Arians deny it, 
that Jesus Christ believed and made himfelf to be very 

35. Q^ What learn you hence F 

A, That people generally like a good minifter for a 
little while, but afterwards familiarity breeds contempt, 
41. Q. What learn you hence .^ and in the ^.^th verfe ? 

A. That we fliould feelc that honour only which 
Cometh from God, as alfo that it is impcffible to be a 
phrillian, if vve feek to pleafe the world. 


2. Q^ What do you learn from hence? 

A. That it is too common, for people to follow a mi- 
nifter through curiofity, more thap to be edified by his 

5. Q, What learn you from Christ being folicitous for the 
feeding of hii hearers bodies f 

A. That the body is to be taken c.ire of, and that 
Chri,st is as careful for us nov/ he is in heaven, as be 
was for the multitude when on earth. That minifters 
after his example, fnould do all the good they can to 
the bodies of men, to convince them they have a love 
for, and to open a way for giving good advice to, thejr 

6. Q:, What karn you from this verfe P 

A. That the reafon why Christ brings us into 
ftraits, is to prove us, whether we will truft in him or 
9. (^ IVhat gather ycu from the words c/ Philip, '' I^hat 
" are thsfe among fo many f * 

A. Vhat when we look only upon outward mean<;, no 
vv^onder that our faith fail us. 
J 2. C^^ What learn you from Christ bidding them ^^ Ga- 
ther lip the frogmenis that remained f'' 

2 12. A. That 

[ 3^1 ] 


J. That we ought to be frugal, ihough not coveteous ; 
and that they will certainly have much to anfwer tor, 
who wafte their whole eftates in gaming. 

14. Q. TVhat karn you from the latter part of this verfe ? 

A. That the certainty and greatnefs of our Saviour's 
miracles, is an undoubted proof that he was the true 
MefTiah, fince GoD \yould never fo vifibly fet his feal 
to an impoftor. 

15. Q^ IVhy did Christ depart to a mountain f 

A. To teach chriftians, and particularly minifter?, to 
fly worldly honours ; and alfo to fet us an example, that 
when we are befet with temptations of that kind, it is 
beft to retire alone^ to pray to God to be delivered from 
the evil of it. 

26. Q^ What learn you from what Qhkist here faid to the 
people ? 

A. That he knows from what principles and motives 
we come to hear the word of God ; therefore we oughc 
to take heed how we hear. 

^T^, Q^ Have the papijls any grounds from hence for their doc-- 
trine of tranfubjlantiation F 

A. No; for Christ tells us in the 63d verfe, that the 
iiefti profiteth nothing, and that his words are fpirit and 
life; i. e. they are not to be underftood in a carnal but 
fpiritual fenfe ; and frequently by interpreting them liter- 
ally, men do greatly err. 


I. Q; IFhat learn you frc?n Qukist's walking no more in 
Judea zvhen the J'^vjs fought to kill him ? 

A. That it is our duty, not to expofe ourfelves to 
nt-'edlefs dangers ; and when we are perfecuted at one 
place, to flee to another, when the glory of God and the 
good of the church do not require our flaying. 
7 Q: What learn you from hence ? 

A, That minifters muft expedl to be accounted the 
enemies of mankind, if th?y are faithful to reprove them, 
aud tell ihem the truth. 

Q^ What 

[ 362 ] 


12. Qi lyhai learn you from the difftrent opinions men had of 
Christ ? 

A. That every chrlftian, cfpecially every minifter, muft 
expe£l to be varioufly thought of, and fometimes to be 
accounted deceivers of the people. 

37. Qi ^^% did Christ ^rjf out thus on the laji day of the 

A, Becaufe on that day, they ufed to go and draw 
water and bring it up to the temple, faying thefe words 
of Ifaiah, " And thty fhall draw water out of the wells 
*' of falvation." Jesus Christ feeing them therefore 
do this, took occafion to difcourfe of the holy Spirit un- 
der the fimilitude of water. 

39- Qi ^^h ^^'^^ ^^^ *^^^ ^'^b ^^°fi g^'^^^9 till Jesus 
Christ was giorifed P 

J. Becaufe till then he was himfelf on earth, and had 
not taken on him the kingly office, nor pleaded the me- 
rits of his death before his heavenly Father, by which 
he purchafed that invaluable bleffing for us. 

50. Q^ What learn you from the holdnefs <?/ Nicodemus, in 
cvjning Christ before the Jewifh Sanhedrim^ though at 
firji he came to him by night P 

J, That where there is true grace, the fear of man 
will wear ofF daily. 

II. Q. TVhy would 7iot Christ condemn the woman caught 
in adultery P 

A. Not becaufe he approved of her fin, but becaufe it 
did not belong to him as a prophet, to be the judge of 
fuch matters. 
9. Q; TVhat learn you fro772 the perfons bei?ig convi^ed from 
their own confciences, and going out one by one F 

A. That wicked men need no other accufer but their 
own confciences 5 and that it is abfurd to condemn and 
be inveterate againft another, for a crime we have been, 
or are guilty of ourfelves. 

Q^ Is it to be fuppcfcd that all this woman s acctfers had 
ban guilty of adultery P 

A, Perhaps 

[ z^z ] 


A. Perhaps not in the very a6t, but guilty of heart- 
adultery, as our Saviour explained it in the 5th oi Mat- 
6. Q; How did the Jews intend to enfnare our blejfed Lord, 
by bring' ng this woman before him P 

J. They wanted to impeach him, either as fevere if 
he ordered hereto be ftoned, or as one that gave licenfc 
to fin, if he forgave her. 
Q^ l^hat may we fiippofe Christ wrote when he Jiooped 

down f 
J. It is prefumption to give the lead guefs, fince God 
has not thought proper to reveal it to us. 

Q. IVhat may we learn from Christ* sjiooping down^ as 
though be heard them not ? 

A. That we ought to be unwilling to hear, and not 
take pleafure in hearing of our neighbour's faults. 
12. Q: How can it be faid, that Jesus ihen fpake again unto 
thm, when it is faid before, that they went out one by one P 

A. Some have fuppofed, that the difcourfe which fol- 
lows at this verfe, was at another ime ; but if the word 
then fhould confine it to the prefent time, it may be 
reconciled thus.- We may fuppofe where Christ was 
fitting, there was a vacant place to which the fcribes and 
pharifees brought the woman, and in which Christ 
might ftand alone with her. Now thefe being convicted 
one by one, (for it feems plain that Christ fpoke only 
to them verfe 7th) they might go out ; while fuch as were 
there before the fcribes and pharifees came might re- 
main ; and to them Christ proceeded with his dif- 
courfe, and fpalce again on the point which he did, be- 
fore he was interrupted. 
31. Q. ^^hat learn you from our Saviour* s difcourfe with the 
Jews who believed on him P 

A. That young converts ought to be exhorted to con- 
tinue in well doing ; and that perfeverancc only can de- 
nominate us true difciples. 
39' Q: ^^hat learn you hence P 

A. That this is the language of all mere profeflbrs : 
they fay, we have Christ for our Saviour ; but if they 
were Christ's difciples they would do the works of 


[ 3^4 ] 


Christ ; for in vain wc call him " Lord, Lord," if 
we do not the things that he fays. 
48. Q; What learn you from hence? 

A. That if Christ who was innocence itfelf was 
called a devil, much more will the members of his 

56. Q^ What ham you hence ? 

A, That if Abrahain rejoiced at a di (lance to fee 
Christ's day, much more ought we to rejoice and 
give thanks, who enjoy it as prefcnt. 

57. Q^ Doe'^ it appear from hence that Christ was fifty 
years old? 

A. No, for it is plain he was not above thirty-four 
when he was crucified ; but we muft confider that people 
in luch cafes generally fpeak within compafs ; and be- 
fides, our Lord being a man of forrovvs and acquainted 
with grief, he niight look older by far than he really 
was. ^ 

58. Q^ What learn you from hence? 

A. That Jesus Christ is God, fince he takes that 
title to himfelf, which God himfelf made ufe of when 
He fent Mofes to Pharaoh^ Excdus iii. 

C H A P. IX. 

2. Q^ Wtjat learn you from this queflion, put by our hlcfjcd 
LoRD'i Difciples to him ? 

A. That they believed either the tranfmigration, or 
pre-exiftence of fouls; for otherwife how could a man fin 
before he was born ? 

3. Q^ lyhat learn you from Christ'^ anfwcr? 

A. That all our infirmities and bodily affli6lions, 
though we may not think {o^ arc ordained by God for 
our gof d, and his glory. 

5, Q^ Should every chrifiian he able to fay thus for himfelf ? 
A. Yes, for we arc commanded to let our light ihine 

before men. 

6. (-^ ll'ljy did Christ put clay on the man' s eyes? 

A. To flicw the vanity of a tradition of the JaviJJi 


[ 365 ] 


church, that it was unlawful to make clay on the Sab- 
bath-day; as alfo to fliew, that God fometimes works 
by the moft unlikely means; and to reprefent the cafe of 
young converts, who before they come to feel the com- 
forts of the Floly Ghofr, by fpiritual defcrtion and temp- 
tations have as it were their eyes put out. 
7. Q^ IVhy did Christ fend the man to waJJj himfelf ? 

A, To make trial* of his obedience; and farther to 
teach us, that if we will recover our fpiritual fight, we 
muft be workers togt^ther with God, in the appointed 
9. Q^ What learn tve from the mari s faying^ ^^ I am he P" 

A. That we fhould not be afliamed to confefs that we 
have been healed by Jesus Christ. 

Q^ What may we learn from Christ V being kind to 
beggars P 

A, That we alfo ought to be kind to them. 

16. Q, What learn you from this firjl anfwer of the Pha^ 
rifees P 

A. That ill-will fpeaks well of no man. 

17. Q^ JVhat learn you from the beggar* s anfwer P 

A, That we fhould not fear man, when called to tef- 
tify of Jesus Christ. 

18. Q; What learn you from the Phartfees being willing to 
have fo many evidences of this faci P 

A. That they were unwilling it fhould be true ; but 
there being fo many evidences of it, was a great proof 
of the truth of the miracle. 
22. Qi What learn you from this verfeP 

A, That too many men dare not fpeak and pradice 
what they know of Jesus Christ and his ways, for 
fear of lofing their reputation, or fome other temporal 
24. Q; What learn you from thcfe luords^ " give God the 
praife P" 

A. That God fhould have all the glory of any mercies 
we receive ; but here it was fpoken hypocritically, 
31, Q^ What learn you hence P 

A, A good lefTon, and that wc cannot expcfl to have 


[ 366 ] 


our prayer anfwered whilft we continue In fin; but if we 
fcrve God to the beft of our power, we may be fure we 
ihall be regarded by him : for the efFedlual fervent prayer 
of a righteous man avaiieth much. 
34. Q^ What learn yoii hejice ? 

A, That proud men cannot bear to be taught by any 
of their inferiors. 
35* Q:. What learn you from Christ^ s feeking and finding 
this beggar when he tuas caji out P 

A. That when our father, mother, and the world for- 
fakcth us, the Lord will take us up. And that the chief 
time for Christ to reveal himfelf to us, is, when we are 
caft out by men. 
37* Q: ^^^'^^ learn we from Chris t'j making this open dif 
covery of himfelf F 

A. That he will moft freely communicate himfelf to 
all thofe who are willing to receive him. 
38. Q^ What learn you from hence? 

A. That Jesus Christ is GbD ; for otherwifc it is not 
to be imagined he would have fufFered the man to wor- 
Ihip him. 
41. Q; What learn you hence? 

A, That wilful ignorance is a damning fin, 


20. Q; What learn you from this verfe? 

A, That if they called the Matter of the houfe Beek 
zebub, much more will they thofe of his houfhold. 
Christ's children were always the world's fools. 
22. Q^ What learn you from hence? ^ 

A. That as Jesus was prefent at the feaft of dedica- 
tion, which was purely of human inftitution, i Macca- 
bcesy 4th and 9th, therefore we may conform to things 
indifferent in themfelves, though only of human appoint- 
30. Q^ Dofs not this verfe prove Christ to be God ? 

A. The Jews thought fo, by their immediately taking 
up flones to ftone him. 

34. Q: ^^^ 

[ 367 ] 


34. Q:. Hoiv does our Saviour argue in this and the following 

verjes ? 

A. It is what logicians call an argument ad hominem^ 
when you confute or confound a perfon from fomething 
which he himfelf fays or grants. It is alfo an argument 
a minori ad majus^ when you prove a greater thing from 
the lefs. The procefs of the argument runs thus : If you 
call magiftrates, gods, to whom the word of God only 
came, how much more ought you to own me to be God, 
and not to be angry with me for calling myfelf fo, or 
the Son of God, who (liew by my works, that I dwell 
in my Father and my Father in me ? 


3. Qi What learn you hence ? 

A, That it is not our piety will exempt us from fick- 
nefs and other calamities of life, fmce he v/hom Christ 
loved, was fick : That when any of our relations are fick, 
we fhould apply, as thefe fitters did, to Jesus Christ to 
heal them : That it is a peculiar encouragement to pray, 
when we know thofe for whom we pray, are beloved of 
Christ : And that in all our addreffes to God, both 
for ourfelves and others, we ought to mention rather his 
love to us, than ours to him, for we love God becaufc 
he firft loved us ; and our love is fo little, that it is not 
worth fpeaking of. 

6. Q: What learn you hence ? 

A, That God's continuing his rod upon us, is no cer- 
tain fign of his difpleafure ; nay that it is rather a token 
of his love, fmce Christ knew that Lazarus was fick, 
and yet abode two days before he went to his deliver- 

7. Q: What may we learn from Christ*/ going to Judea 
again ? 

A, That though we have met with perfecution in a 

place, yet when God calls us thither again, we muft 

anfwer, « Lo, we come;" for the way of duty is the way 

of fafety, 

8. Q, Did 

[ 368 ] 

8. Q. Did not this argue a fear in the Difcipks ? 

A. Yes ; and from hence we may learn that we Ought 
to beware of our carnal relations, who will difluade us 
from doing our duty, if difficulties attend it, as thefe Dif- 
ciples did Christ. 
0, 10. Qi What is the meaning of thefe verfes? 

A, The meaning of them feems to be this : There is a 
certain time appointed by my Father for me to do my 
work, in, and in that time I (hall be as fafe from danger, 
as a man that walketh by day is from falling ; but when 
that time is over, I fhall be taken by them, as a man 
falls when he walks in the dark. 
II. Q: Was not La%arus aSitially dead? why then does Christ 
fay, " he fleepeth ? '' 

A, Becaufe death is but as a fleep to a good man ; for, 
as fleep frees us from the labour of the day, fo does death 
free good men from the troubles of life. 

Q^ What learn you from Christ'j calling Lazarus his 

A, That he loves us as dear as himfelf ; for a friend 
is faid to be as dear to a man as his own foul : " And 
thy friend which is as thy own foul." 
1 6. Q: What learn you from this faying ^Thomas ? 

A. That in times of difficulty, it is the chriftians duty 
to encourage, exhort, and provoke one another to keep 
clofe to Christ. 
l8. Qi How ?nuch are i^ furlongs? 

A. Two miles. 
jQ. Q^ What learn you hence ? 

A, That it is the duty of chriftians to vifit their 
friends ; particularly at the death of their relations, and 
to comfort them with the hopes of feeing them again; 
raifed in glory. 
2C. Qi Why did U2.Tyfttf}ill? ■ 

A, Probably out of humility, thinking hcrfelf unworthy 
to go, till Christ called her. 
21. Qi Didyi2.x\\\2,fievj faith in faying thus? 

A. Yes ; but (he exprefled a weaknefs in it, fmce (h@ 
confined Christ's power to his bodily prefence. 

22. Qi Doei 

[ 3^9 ] 


22. Q^ Does not this verfe Ukewlfe prove the weahnefi of her 

A. Yes; for fhe feems to look upon Christ not as 
God, but as a Prophet only a6ling under him. 
24. Q^ What learn you hence ? 

A^ That the Jews believed the dodrine of the refur- 
redion, though that as well as other dodrines is brought 
to a fuller light by the gofpel. 
25 ; 26. Q^ What is the meaning of thefe two verfes? 

A. They may be underftood two ways : that though a 
perfon be dead in fin, yet he fhall live a fpiritual life, if 
he believes in Christ ; and 2dly, that a true believer, 
though worms deftroy his body, {hall yet in his flefh fee 

Q^ What may we learn from Christ'^ afking Martha 
the queflion at the latter end of the 16th verfe ? 

A. That it is good when we are reading the fcripturc 
dodrines, particularly the dodlrines of the refurre6lion, 
and the new birth, to afk ourfelves^ whether we believe 
them or not. 

28. Q; Did Christ call Mary ? 

A, Not as we hear of, though he might and did pro» 
bably ; charity will incline us to thinks ftie did not tell 
an untruth. 

29. Q^ What learn you from hence? 

A, That this {hews Mary fat flill, only becaufe Christ 
did not call her ; and alfo, that we {hould imitate her 
behaviour ; when Christ calls us to repentance, we 
{hould arife quickly, and come unto him. 
32. Q; Was not here the like weaknefs in MaryV faith as in 
her fifters f 

A. Yes, they both confined his power to his bodily 
34. Q^ Was it confijlent with Christ'j innocent reftgnation 
to he troubled? 

A. Yes, as he was troubled ; for it was a trouble that 

did not difcompofe him : fome therefore have reprcfentcd 

it by a glafs of pure cryftal water, v.'hich, though fhaken, 

Vol. iV. A a is 


[ 370 ] 


is not muddy. And In the murgin it Is faid, *' Christ 
troubled himfelf." 
35 • Q: ^^% did ]es\}s weep ? 

A, Probably, on feeing and confidering what havoc 
fin had made, to fliow fympathy for the alHided relati- 
ons ; but more particularly tor the hardnefs of the peo- 
ple's hearts, who he knew would not be converted, 
though he was about to fhew them fo great a miracle. 
36. Q; JVhat learn you heme ? 

A, That if the Jews faid, ** Behold how he loved 
him," when he fhed only a few tears, well may we fay, 
*' Behold how he loved us," when he fhed his precious 
blood for us. 
27. Q; IVkat learn you hence? 

A, That ill-will fpeaks well of nothing. 
39. Q^ What learn you from Martha's y^;/;?^, "Lord, ly 
this time hejlinketh ? 

A. That looking upon human improbabilities, is a 
great weakener of our faith- ; when Peter began to fear, 
he began to fink. 
41. Q: 1^0 we hear that Christ prayed audibly at this 
iifne ? 

A. No J but he did it fecretly, to teach us, that it is 
poiTible to pray though we do not fpeak. For the Spirit 
maketh IntcrccfTiGn for us, with groanings that cannot 
be uttered. 
46. Q^ IVhat learn you hence? 

A. The folly of our modern unbelievers, who would 
defire a repetition of miracles, to convince them of the 
truth of the chrift an religion; whereas it is to be doubt- 
ed, whether they would be convinced by them or not, 
fmce here were fome who faw this great miracle of the 
refurredlion of Lazarus^ and would not believe. *' If 
ye believe not Mfes'2ind the Prophets, neither v/ill y© 
believe though one rofe from the dead." 
55' Qc What learn you hence? 

A. That btfoie the chriftian paflbver, the Lord's fup- 
pry, chriiVians ought to fludy to prepare themfelves by 
prayer ;ijid c:<aniir:v;::on. 


[ 37« ] 

CHAP. xri. 


2 . Q. Jf'ljat learn ycufrom Marth Ksfervhig^ though Christ 
before this had condemned her too great folicitude F 

J. That religion does not call us from our common 
bufinefs, but teaches us to follow it, with a proper prin- 
ciple, obedience to God ; and that too not at the ex- 
pence of the one thing needful. 
5. Q^ IFhat learn you hence ? 

A. That all who fpeak well, are not faints, though it is 
beft to judge charitably of all. 
8. Q^ What learn ytu hence ? 

A, That if Christ was not to be with us always, then 
he is not bodily prefent at the mafs, as the Romifi church 

39. Q^ Did the Prophets foretelling their hardnefs of heart, lay 
the Jews under a necejfity of not believing F 

A. No more than our knowing the fun will rife to- 
morrow, obliges the fun to rife. The Prophet foreknew 
by the Spirit of God that it would be fo, therefore fore- 
told it. 

40. Q^ Does God harden any one's heart ? 

A, Not till they have hardened their own hearts : thus 
Pharaoh firft hardened his own heart, and then it is faid 
God hardened it. 
42,43. Q. What learn you hence ? 

A. That a fear of contempt, &c. &c. keeps many 
well-difpofed people from confefling Christ before men; 
and that we can never be chriftians, till we are content 
only with that honour and praife which cometh from 


10. Q^ What is the meaning of this verfe F 

A. It feems to be this. He that is once really convert- 
ed, needs not that juftification and fandification, v/liich 
other fmners want; but yet fhould mourn over his daily 
fins, and daily feek to have them wafhcd away by the 
blood of Christ. 

A 2 14. Q, Ought 

[ 372 ] 


14. Q:, Ought we to make a rite of ibis, and really wajh one 
another s feet ? 

A. Some have thought fo; but if we do what is meant 
by this condefcenfion of our bleflcd Lord, fubmit to the 
loweft offices for the benefit of one another, it feems to 
be fufficient. 

26. Q:. What learn you from Christ'j giving Judas a fop? 
A, That thofe are not always the greateft favourites of 

heaven, to whom God gives outward bleffings. And 
alfo, that after our Saviour's fop, if we are not better 
we fhall be the worfe ; if we do not improve our ad- 
vantages and ferve our Mafter, we fhall betray him. 

27. Q: Did Christ's faying unto Judas, " What thou doejl 
do quickly^'' lay him under an obligation to do it ? 

A. By no means ; the meaning of it is this. If thou 
art refolved to betray me, the fooner the better. 
34. Q: Why is the loving one another, a new covimandment P 

A, Becaufe it is to proceed from a new motive, and 
meafure ; even Christ's love towards us. 
38. Qj, What learn you hence? 

A. That when we make any refolutions, they ought 
to be made in the name and ftrength of God ; other- 
wife he muft in pity let us fall, to convince us of our 


26. Q; What learn you hence ? 

A, That it is one of the peculiar offices of the Holy 
Ghoft, to bring to our remembrance what ChrIst has 
told us. And this every fmcere chriftian knows by ex^ 
30. Q^ What learn you hence ? 

A, That the lefs corruption we have in our hearts, the 
lefs power will the devil have over us. 


[ 373 ] 


2. Q: JVhat learn you hence P 

A, That every unprofitable fervant, and all mere pro- 
fefling chriftians, will perifli; and that thofe who are true 
chriftians muft expe6l afflidions and trials to prepare 
them for greater fervices. 
9. Q^ What learn you hence ? 

A, That the world hates chriftians on accouijt of their 
conformity to Christ ; therefore if chriftians will be 
conformed to Christ, it is impoffible for them to avoid 
22. Q. What is meant hy thai exprcjjion^ '* they had not had 

A. They would not have had fo great fin ; or no fin 
at all in comparifon of what they will have now. 

A a 3 L AlV 


O R, A N 


T O 



Holiness of Heart and Life: 


An Attempt to render Mr. LawV Serious Call vnovQ 
ufeful to the Children of God, by excluding what- 
ever is not truly Evangelical, and illuftrating the 
fubjedl more fully from the Holy Scriptures. 

He hath chofen us in H'lm before the foundation of the worldy that 
we Jhould be holy and ivithout blame before Hhn in love, 

Ephef. i. 4. 

A a 4 

£ 377 ] 


Address to all Christians 


Holiness of Heart and Lite. 


^he Nature and Extent of Chr'i/iian Devotion, 

Christian devotion, fignlfies a life given or ckvoted 
to God ; he confequently, and he alone, is the devout 
man^ who lives no longer to his own will, or after the way and 
fpirit of the world, but to the fole will of God \ vvho con- 
fiders God in every thing; who makes all the parts of his 
common life, as well as his more immediate religious exercifes, 
parts of piety, by doing every thing in the name of Jesus 
Christ, and under fuch rules as are conducive to promote 
God's glory. 

Reafon and fcripture plainly evince the truth of this. For 
as there is but *' one God and Father of us all," whofe 
glory gives light and life to every thing that lives ; whofe pre- 
fence tills all places, whofe power fupports all beings, whofe 
providence ruleth all events ; fo every thing that lives, whe- 
ther in heaven or earthy whether they be thrones or principa- 
lities, men or angels, they are all bound, by the laws of their 
creation, to live wholly to the praife and glory of this one 
God and Father of them all. 

* By Letter 640, Vol, II. p. 144. it appears that this tra6\ was writ- 
tfn about '^une 1748. 


C 5/8 ] 

We readily acknowledge, that God alone Is to be the rule 
and meafure of our prayers ; that in them we are to look 
wholly unto him, and ad wholly for him ; that we are only 
to pray in fuch a manner, and for fuch things, and with fuch 
ends as are fuitable to his glory. 

Now let any one but find out the reafon why he is to be 
thus ftridly pious in his prayers, and he will find the fame, 
as flrong a reafon, why he is to be as ftridly pious in all the 
other parts of his life : for were it not our flridt duty to live 
by reafon, and to devote all the adiions of our lives to God ; 
were it not abfolutely necefiary, and our higheft privilege to 
walk before him in wifdom and holinefs, and all heavenly 
converfation, doing every thing in his name, and for his glory, 
there would be no excellency and wifdom in the mofl hea- 
venly prayers. Nay, fuch prayers would be abfurdities, they. 
would be like praying for wings, when it was no part of our 
duty to fly. 

Again, we readily acknowledge, that Clergymen mufl live 
wholly unto God in one particular way, in the exercife of 
holy offices \ in the miniflration of prayers and facraments, and 
a zealous diftribution of fpiritual things : but men of other 
employments, are in their particular ways as much obliged to 
a6l as the fervants of God, and to live wholly unto him in 
their feveral callings. For as all chriftians are by their bap- 
tifm devoted to God, and made profeflbrs of holinefs ; fo are 
they all in their feveral callings, to live as holy and heavenly 
perfons ; doing every thing in common I'lfe^ only in fuch a 
manner as it may be received by God, as a fervice done to him. 
Further, it will be readily acknowledged on all fides, that 
angels, whether they are principalities or powers, mufi: all 
with one fpirit, live wholly to the praife and glory of the one 
God and Father of them all ; and that it is not allowable for, 
or becoming them, to a6l below the dignity of their proper 
ftate. And is not a devout life, and a wife ufe of our pro- 
per condition, as much the duly of all chrijiians^ as it is the 
duty of a?2gels and celcflial beings ? Our blefTed Saviour has 
cleared up this point, by making this petition a conftant part 
of all our prayers, " Thy will be done on earth, as it is in 
heaven." A plain proof, that the obedience of chrijiiam, is to 
^i?iitate at Icaft the obedience of angels j and that rational be- 

I 379 1 

ipo-s on earth, are to be wholly devoted unto God, in llks 
manner as rational beings in heaven are devoted to him. 

Thefe are not fpcculative flights, or imaginary notions, but 
are plain and undeniable truths, founded in the very nature of 
rational beings, and upon the infallible teftimony of the lively 
oracles of Gop. 

It is but barely complying with that apoftolical precept, 
5' Whether ye eat or drink, or whatfoever ye do, do all to 
the glory of God." For no one can come near the do6trinc 
of this pafTage, but he that propofes to himfelf to do every 
thing in this life, as a fervant of God ; to live by reafon in 
every thing that he does ; and to make the wifdom and holi- 
nefs of the gofpel, and the glory of God, the rule and mea- 
fure of his defiring and ufmg every gift of God. 

Eating is one of the loweft a6lions of our lives ; it is com- 
mon to us with mere animals : yet we fee, that this text, as 
well as by the pradlice of chriftians in all ages, has turned 
this ordinary allien of an animal life, into an acl of piety to 
God, by making every meal to begin and end with devotion. 

Some remains of this cuftom are yet to be feen in moft 
chriftian families ; but indeed it is now generally fo performed, 
as to look more like a mockery upon devotion, than any fo- 
lemn application of the mind unto God. Hovi^ever, thefe 
very remains, fuch as they are, are proofs, that religion has 
formerly belonged to this, and confequently to every other 
part of common life. 

But to return. The fame Apoftle, in his epiftle to the 
flpheftanSy commands fervants " to be obedient to their 
mafters in finglenefs of heart, as unto Christ ; not with eye 
fervice, as men-pleafers, but as the fervants of Christ, doing 
the will of God from the heart : with good-will doing fervice 
as unto the Lord, and not unto men.'* This paflage fufii- 
ciently fhews, that all chriftians are to live wholly unto God, 
in every (late and condition of life, doing the work of their 
common calling in fuch a manner, and for fuch ends, as to 
make it a part of their devotion or fervice to God. For if 
poor Jlaves are not to comply with their bufmefs as men- 
pleafers; if they are to look wholly unto God in all their 
anions, and ferve in fmglenefs of heart, as unto the Lord ; 
furely men of other employments and conditions, muft be as 
2 much 

I 3S0 ] 

much obliged to go through their bufinefs with the fame fin- 
gkneTs of heart, not as pleafing the vanity of their own minds, 
nor as gratifying their own lelfifli, worldly paflions, but as the 
fervants of God in all that they have to do. To deny this, 
would be as abfurd, as to make it necefl'ary for one man to be 
more jufl or faithful than another. 

To clofe thefe arguments founded on reafon and fcripture. 
Our be in (> indilpenfably obliged to devote our lives to God, 
is very evident from that glorious paflage of the Apoftle, 
wherein he declares that " Christ died and rofe again, that 
we fhouid henceforth not live unto ourfelves, but unto him 
that died for us ; that we are not our own, but bought with 
a price," emphatically i'o called, and that we fhould " there- 
fo!' trlorify God in our fouls and bodies which are his." 

If then we defire to live as rational creatures, if we would 
not add heathen lives to chriltian prayers, if we would perform 
otir baptifmal vow, and do God's will on earth as it is done 
in heaven; if we would comply with the whole will of God, 
and anfwer the end of our bleffed Lord's birth, death, refur- 
re<Stion, and afcenfion, v/e muft live wholly to God, and 
Kiake his glory the fole rule and meafure of our ading in every 
employment of life. 

For want of knowing, or at loafi: of confidering this, we 
fee fuch a mixture of ridicule in the lives of many people. 
You fie them ftridl as to fome times and places of devotion ; 
but when the fervice of the church is over, they are like thofe 
who feldom or never come there. In their way of life, their 
manner of fpcndtng boih time and money, in their cares and 
fears, in thtir pleafures and indulgences, in their labours and 
^iverfions, thty are like the reft of the world. This makes 
the locfe pan of the world generally make a jeft of thofe that 
3ve thus feemingly devout; not altogether it may be becaufe 
they are rc'oJly devoted to God, but becaufe they appear to 
have no other devotion, but that of occafional prayers. 

Julius is very fearful of miffing prayers ; all the parifh 
fuppofe Julius to be fick, if he is not at church. But if you 
afk hi it:, why he fpends the reft of his time by humour or 
chance? Why he is bufy at all balls and aflemblics ? Why he 
gives himfeU up to an idle goffipping converfation ? If you 
afk him, why he never puts his converfaiion, his time, and 


[ 3Si 3 

fortune, under the rules of religion ? Julius has no more to 
fay for himfelf, than the moft dilorderly perfon. For he that 
lives in fuch a courfe of idlenefs and folly, lives no more ac- 
cording to the religion of Jesus Cpirist, than he who livea 
in gluttony and intemperance. 

Our blcdcd Saviour and his Apoflles did not fpcnd their 
whole miniftry in recommending the duties of public and pri- 
vate prayers; though by their example and precepts they re- 
commended and enforced both ; but it is worthy our ob(erva- 
tion, that after they had laid down a lively faith in God's 
mercy through Jesus Christ, as the foundatir,n, they were 
chiefly taken up in delivering docliines which relate to com- 
mon life. For they call upon us *' to rejiounce the world, (o 
as not to be conformed to it : To fear none of its evils, to 
reject its joys, and have no value for its happinefs ; To be 
as 72eiv-born babes ^ that aie born into a new ft ate of things ; to 
Vive zs pilgrims, in fpiritual watching, in holy fear, and hea- 
venly afpirations after another life: To take up our daily 
crofs, to deny ourfelves, to profefs the bkllednefs of holy 
mourning, and poverty of fpirit : To reject: the luft of the 
flefh, the lufl of the eye, and the pride of life, fo as not to 
follow or be led by them : To take no anxious thought for 
the morrow ; to live in the profoundeft ftate of humility ; to 
rejoice in worldly fufFerings and injuries, when it pleafes God 
to bring them upon us ; to forgive and blefs our enemies, and 
to love mankind in the fame manner, though not degree, as 
God loves them. In (hort, to give up our whole hearts and 
affedions to God, even a God in Christ, and to ftrive to 
enter through the flrait gate of a found converfion into a life 
of eternal glory.'* 

This is the common dcvotioyt, which our blefild Saviour and 
his Apoftles taught, in order to make it the common life of 
ail chriftians. But yet, though it is thus plain, that this, and 
this alone, is true chriftianity, yet it is as plain, that there is 
little or nothing of this to be found, not only among profefTed 
rakes, but even among the better and more fober fort of peo- 
ple. You may fee them often at public worfhip, and the 
Lord's table, and hear them talking of grace and religion, 
and iind them pleafed with orthodox preachers; but loc>k into 
their lives, and you fee them juft the fume fort of people as 
5 others 

t 382 ] 

Others are, who make no pretences to devotion at all. So that 
the difference that you find between them, fccms to be only 
the difference of" natural tempers, or the effed of a polite and 
civilized education. 

Leo has a great deal of good nature, has kept what they call 
good company, hates every thing that is falfe and bafe, is very 
generous and brave to his friends, but has concerned himfelf 
io litde with religion, that he hardly knows the difference be- 
tween a Jew and a chriftian. 

Eufebiusy on the other hand, has had early impreflions of re- 
liaion, fometimcs prays extempore, and buys books of devo- 
tion, and receives the bleffed facrament once a month. He 
can talk of all the do6lrines of grace, is acquainted with the 
true ftate of the controverfy between the CalviniJIs and Arml- 
riians^ knows all the feafts and fafls of the church, and the 
names of moft men that have been eminent for piety. You 
never hear him fwear, or make a loofe jeft, and when he talks 
of religion, he talks of it, as a matter of the laft concern. 

Here you fee, that one perfon has religion enough, accord* 
jno" to the way of the world, to be reckoned a pious chrijiian \ 
and the other is fo far from all appearance of religion, that he 
may fairly be reckoned an heathen ; and yet if you look into 
their common life, you will find Eufebius and Leo exa£^ly 
alike; feeking, ufmg, and enjoying, all that can be gotten in 
this world, in the fame manner, and for the fame ends, even 
to pleafe thcmfelves, without any prevailing habitual regard to 
the glory of God. You will find that riches, profperity, 
pleafures, indulgences, ftate, equipage, and honour, are juft 
as much the happinefs of Eufebius^ as they are of Leo', 

And muft not all v.^ho are capable of any reflcftion, readily 
acknowledge, that this is generally the {late even of Vv^hat we 
commonly term devout people^ whether men or women ? You 
may fee them different from fome others, as to times and places 
of worfhip, receiving the facrament, and with a dodrinal 
knowledge of the form of found words; but ufually like the 
reft of the world in all the other parts of their lives. Is it not 
notorious, that christians are now not only like other men in 
their frailties and infirmities, (this might be in fome degree 
excufable, fince the fcriptures inform us, that Elijah was a 
man of like paffii>ns with others) but are they not like hea- 

[ ssj ] 

tbcns, in all the main and chief articles of their lives ? Do 
they not enjoy the world, and live eve/y day with the fame 
indulgence as they did who knew not God, nor of any hap- 
pinefs in another life ? 

And yet, if chriftianity has not changed a man's mind and 
temper, with relation to thefe things, what can we fay that 
it has done for him ? For if the doctrines of chrilVianity were 
univerfally practifed, they would make a man as different from 
other people, as to all worldly tempers, fcnfual pleafures, and 
the pride of life, as a wife man is different from an ideot; and 
it would be almoft as eafy a thing to know a true profefTor of 
chriftianity, by his outward courfe of life, as it is now difficult 
to find any body that lives it. 


Perjons free from the necefftties of labour and employments^ are to 
confider thernf elves as devoted to God In a higher degree, 

AS it has been proved in the foregoing chapter, that all 
profeflbrs of chriftianity, do lie under manifoid obliga- 
tions to live a life wholly devoted unto God ; fo thofe who 
have no particular employment^ but have their time and fortune 
at their own difpofal, are under ftill greater obligations of 
living wholly unto God in all their a6fions. 

They are thofe, of whom '* much will be required, be- 
caufe much is given unto them.'* 

A Jlave can only live unto God in one particular way ; that 
is, by religious patience and fubmiflion in his ftate of ilavcry ; 
but all ways of holy living, all inftances, and all kinds of vir- 
tue lie open to thofe, who are mafters of themfelves, of their 
time, and their fortune. 

You are no labourer or tradefman ; you are neither Tnerchant 
Dor foldltr ; (hould you not therefore confider yourfelf, as 
placed in a ftate, in fome degree like that of good angels, 
who are fent into the world as miniftring fpirits, for the gene- 
ral good of mankind, to afTift, protc^)., and minifter for them 
who (hall be heirs of falvaticn ? 


[ 38+ ] 

Had you, Serena, been obliged by the neceffities of life, td 
v^afh cloaths for youi;^ maintenance, or to wait upon fome 
miftrefs, that demanded all your labour, it would then be 
your duty to ferve and glorify God, by fuch humility, obe- 
dience, and faithfulnefs, as might adorn that ftate, and im- 
prove that one talent to its greateft height : but as God hath 
given you five talents ; as he hath placed you above the necef- 
.iities of life ; as he hath left you in the hands of yourfelf, in 
the happy liberty of chufing the moft exalted ways of religion ; 
fo it is now your duty and privilege to turn your five talents 
into five more; to fet no bounds to your love and gratitude 
to the bountiful Author of fo many bleffings ; and to confider 
how your time, leifure, health, and fortune, may be made fo 
many happy means of improving your fellow-creatures in the 
ways of God, and of advancing yourfelf, through grace, at 
laft to the greateft heights of eternal glory. 

This, Serena^ is indeed your profefiion : and the reafon of 
this will appear very plain, if you would only confider, that' 
your eftate is as much the gift of God, as your eyes or hands ; 
and is therefore no more to be buried or thrown away at plea- 
fure, than you are to put out your eyes, or throw away your 
limbs as you pleafe. 

But bcfides thefe confiderations, there are feveral other 
great and important reafons, why all chriftians in general, and 
fuch as I am now fpeaking of in particular, {hould be religi- 
oully exa£l in the ufe of their fortunes for the glory of God. 

For the manner of ufing our money, and fpending our 
eftate, enters fo far into the bufinefs of every day, that our 
common life muft necefiarily be much of the fame nature as 
our common v/ay of fpending our eftate. If we wafte it, we 
do not wafte a trifle, that fignifies little; but we wafte that 
which might be made as eyes to the blind, as a hufband to 
the widow, as a father to the orphan ; and which, if given in 
faith, and out of love to Jesus Christ, would greatly in- 
creafe our reward in a future ftate. " Make to your (elves 
friends (fays our Saviour) of the mammon of unrighteoufnefs, 
that when you fail, they may receive you into everlafting ha- 
bitations." What ftili adds weight to thcfe arguments, is this, 
if we wafte our money, and do not improve our fortunes foe 
the glory of God, and the good of our fellow-creatures, we 


[ 385 ] 

are not only guilty of wafting a talent which God has given 
us, ^nd making that ufelefs which might be To powerful a 
means of doing good, but we turn this ufeful talent into a 
powerful means of corrupting ourfelves. For fo far as it Is 
rpent wrong, fo far it is fpent in the fupport of fome wfonor 
temper, in gratifying fome vain and unreafonable defircs, in con- 
forming to thofe fafliions, and that pride of the world, which 
as reafonable men and chriftians we are obliged to renounce. 
If therefore, you do not fpend your money in doing good to 
others, you muft: fpend it to the hurt of yourfelf. And you 
will a6l like a man that refufes to give that as a cordial to 
a Tick friend, though he could not drink it himfelf, without 
not only inflaming, but corrupting his whole mafs of blood. 

It may be worth our while to purfue this thought a little 
further. For as we are now difcourfing about people in the 
polite world, and of good fortunes, who we may fuppofe do 
not live in grofs fms, but only in the indifcreet and dangerous 
ufe of things innocent and lawful in themfelves, fo it is more 
difficult to make fuch people at all fenfible of the danger d( 
fuch a life. 

A gentleman that fpcnds great part of his eftate in fport?, 
and a woman that lays out all her fortune upon herfelf, can 
hardly be perfuaded, that the fpirit of religion cannot fubfift 
in fuch a way of life. Much lefs will they be eafily con- 
vinced, that fuch a turn of mind, however they may live free 
from debaucheries, and be friends of religion, fo far as to 
praife, fprak well of, and admire it in their imaginations, will 
give a bad turn to their whole way of life. But it is certainly 

A vvoman^ for inftancc, that loves drefs, who thinks no cx> 
pence too great to beflow upon the adorning of her perfon, 
cannot flop there. For that fingle temper draws a thoufand 
other follies along with it; and will render the v/hole courfe 
of her life, her bufmefs, her convcrfation, her hope?, her fear?, 
her taftc, her pleafures, and diverfions, all fuitablc to it. On 
the contrary, a lady who is habituully dead to the things of the 
world, and has devoted her time and fortune to GoD ; fuch a 
one will let her whole life be a continued ferie? of good 2(^ii- 
ens, as may benefit her own and others foulv, and confequently 
adorn the golpcl of her L(;RD :md Saviour Je:us Christ. 

Vol. IV. Eb " H,:/j, 


C 386 ] 

Fldvi^y and ATiranda^ are two maiden fifler?, that have each 
of them two hundred pounds a year. They buried their father 
twenty years ago, and have fmce that time fpent their eflate as 
they pleafed* 

Flav'ta has been the wonder of all her friends, for her excel- 
lent management, in making fo furprizing a figure with io 
moderate a fortune. Several ladies that have twice her for- 
tune, are not able to be always fo genteel, and fo conftant at 
all places of what fhe calls innocent pleafure and expence. She 
has every thing in the fafhion, and is in every place where there 
is any diverfion. Flavia is very orthodox ; fhe talks warmly 
.againft heretics znd fchifmatics, is generally at church, and ofttn 
at the facrament. She once commended a fermon that was 
againft the pride and vanity of drefs, and thought it was very 
juft againft Luanda^ whom fhe takes to be a great deal finer 
than fhe need to be. Should any one aik Flavia to do fome- 
thing in charity j if (he likes the perfon who makes the propo- 
fal, or happens to be in a right temper, fhe will tofs him half a 
crown or a crown, and tell him, that if he knew what a /sng 
miikfier^s bill (he had juft received^ he would think it a great 
deal for her to give. A quarter of a year after this, fhe hears 
a fermon upon the neceiTity of charity ; {he thinks the man 
preaches well, that it is a very proper fubje6i:, and that people 
want much to be put in mind of it ; but fhe applies nothing 
to herfelf, becaufe flie remembers that fhe gave a crown fome 
time ago, when fhe could fo ill fpare it. 

As for poor people, ftie will admit of no complaints from 
them ; ihe is very pofitive they are all cheats and liars, and 
will fay any thing to get relief, and therefore it muft be a fin 
to encourage them in their evil ways. 

You would think that Flavia had the tendercft confcicnce 
in the world, if you v/as to fee how fcrupulous and appre- 
henfive (he is of the guilt and danger of giving amifs. 

She buys all books of wit and humour, and has made an 
expcnfive colledlion of all our Er.gli/b Poets ; for ftie fays, one 
cannot have a true id\t of any of them, without being very 
converfant with all. 

She will fcmetimcs read a book of pie(y, if it is a fhort one, 
and if it is much commended for Itilc and language, and fhe 
can tell where to borrow it. 


t m i 

Pldvia Is very idle, and yet very fond of fine work : this 
hiakes her very often fit working in bed until noon, and will 
be told many a long ftory before flie is up; fo that f need 
not tell you, that her morning devotions ate not always 
rightly performed » 

Flavia would be a miracle of piety, if fhe was but half fo 
careful of her foul, as fhe is of her body. The rifino- of a 
pimple in her face, or the (ling of a gnat, will make her keep 
her room two or three days ; and fhe thinks they are very ra(h 
people, that do not take cdre of things in time. This rhakes 
her fo over careful of her health, that fhe never thinks fhe is 
well enough j and fo over indulgent, that fhe never can be 
rfeally well. So that it cofts her a great deal in fleeping 
draughts, and waking draughts, in fpirits for the hejid, in 
drops for the nervesj in cordials for the Itomach, and in 
faiFron for her tea. 

If you yjK\t Flavia oh the Lord's day^ you will always 
meet good company ; you will know what is doing in the 
world, and who is meant by every name that is in it. You 
^Viil hear what plays were adled that week, and which is the 
finefl fong in the opera ; who was intolerable at the laft af- 
fembly, and what games are mofl in fa(hion. Flavia thinks 
they are Aibcijls who play at cards on the Sunday ; but flie will 
tell you the nicety of all the games, what cards fhe held, how 
fhp played them, and the hiflory of all that happened at play, 
as foon as fhe cdmes from church. If you would know who 
i» rude and ill-natured, who is vain and foppifh, who lives 
too high, and who is in debt ; if you would know what is 
the quarrel at a certain houfe, or who and who are in love ; 
if you vvould know how late Belinda comes home at night, 
what cldaths fhe has bought, how fhe loves compliments, and 
v^^hat a long ftory fhe told at fuch a place; if you would 
know how crofs Lucius is to his wife, and what ill-narured 
things he fays to her, when no body hears him ; if you would 
know how they hate one another in their hearts, though they 
appear fo kind in public ; you muft vifit Flavia on the Sunday. 
But ftill, fhe has fo great a regard for the holinefs of the 
Sunday^ that fhe has turned a poor old widow out of her Jioufe, 
as a prophane wretch, for having been found once mending 
her cloaths on the S^'Jiday night. 

B b 2 Thus 

f 3S8 ] 

l^hds lives FIrwia ', and If (he lives ten y^ars longer, (lie 
will have fpent about fifteen hundred and fixty Sundays after 
this manner ; and Hie will have worn about two hundred dif- 
ferent fuits of cloaths. Out of the fe //;/>/)) yean of her life, 
fifteen of them will have been difpofed of in bed ; and of the 
remaining ^/^m, 2^q\x\ fourteen of them will have been con- 
fumed in eating, drinking, drefling, vifiting, converfation, 
reading and hearing plays and romances, and attending at 
opera's, afTemblies, balls and diverfions. For you may reckon 
all the time (he is up, to be thus fpent, except about an 
hour and a half, that is difpofed of at church, moft Sundays 
in 'the year. With great management, and under mighty, 
rules of ceconomy, (he will have fpent y/A* thoufand pounds 
upon herfelf, except fome few (hillings, crowns or half crowns, 
that have gone from her in accidental charities. 

I (liall not take upon me to fay, that it is impoiTible for 
Flavia ever to be faved ; but thus much muft be faid, that 
fhe has no grounds from fcripture to think (he is at prefent 
in the way of falvation. For her whole life is in dired oppo- 
fition to all thofe tempers and pradices, which the gofpel 
has made neceflary to falvation. 

If you was to hear her fay, that (lie had lived all her life 
like Anna the prophetefs, " who departed not from the temple, 
" but ferved God with fadings and prayers night and day,"you 
would look upon her as very extravagant ; and yet this would 
be no greater an extravagance, than for her to fay, that fhe 
had been " ftrivlng to enter in at the flrait gate," or making 
any one do6triae or precept of the gofpel, a rule of her 


She may as well fay, that (he lived with our Saviour when 
he was upon earth, as that (lie has lived in imitation of him, 
or made it any part of her care to live in fuch tempers, as he 
required of all thofe that would be his difciples. She may as 
truly fay, that (he has every day waped the Saints fcet^ as 
that (he has lived in chriftian humility and poverty of fplrit ; 
and as reafonably think, that (lie has taught a charity fchool, 
as that (he has lived in works of charity. She hath as much 
reafon to think, that (he has been a centincl in an army, as 
that (lie has lived in watching and felf-denial. And it may 
gs fairly be faid, that (lie had lived by the labour of ho*- hands, 
6 as 


[ 389 ] 

as that flie had given all diligence to make her calling and 
election fure. 

Now though the irregular trifling fpirit of this chara£ler, 
belongs I hope but to few people, yet many may here learn 
fome inftrudion from it, and perhaps fee fomeihin3 of their 
own fpirit in it. 

But not fo -M/r^n^^ (the fider oi Flavia) \ flie is a fobcr 
realbnable chriftian. As Toon as (he was miftrefs of her time 
and fortune, it was her firft thought, how (he might befl: 
fulfil every thing that God required of her in the ufe of 
them, and how fhe might make the beft and happieft ufe of 
this fhort life. She depends upon the truth of what our 
blefTed Lord hath faid, " that there is but one thing needful,'* 
and therefore makes her whole life but one continual labour 
after it. She has but one reafon for doing or not doing, for 
liking or not liking any thing, and that is the will of God. 
She is not fo weak, as to pretend to add, what is frequently 
falfely called the fine lady^ to the true chriftian ; Miranda 
thinks too well, to be taken with the found of fuch filly 
words 5 {he has renounced the world, to follow Christ i« 
the exercife of humility, charity, devotion, abftinence, and 
heavenly affections 5 and that is Mirandas fine breeding. 

Whilft (he was under her mother, (he was forced to live 
in ceremony, to fit up late at night, to be in the folly of 
every fafhion, and always vifiting on Sundays ; to go patched, 
and loaded with a burden of finery^ to the holy facrament ; 
to be in every polite converfation ; to hear prophanenefs at the 
play-houfe, and wanton fongs and love intrigues at the opera ; 
to dance at public places, that fops and rakes might admire 
the finenefs of her (hape, and the beauty of her motions. The 
remembrance of this way of life is very grievous to her, and 
makes her exceeding careful to give evidences of her unfeigned 
repentance, by a contrary behaviour. 

Miranda docs not divide her duty between GoD, her- 
nei<'hbour, and herfelf ; but (he confiders all as due to God, 
and fo does every thing in his name and for his fake. This 
makes her confider her fortune as the gift of God, that is 
to be ufed as is every thing that belongs to God, for the 
wife and reafonable ends of a chriftian and holy life : her 
fortune therefore is divided between herfelf and the poor, 

B b 3 and 

r 390 ] 

and (he has only her reafonable part of relief from it. For 
ilie thinks it the fame folly to indulge herfelf in needlefs, vair^ 
cxpences, as to give to other people to fpend in the fanqe 

This h the fp'irh o( A^iranda, and thus file ufes the gifts 
of God. If you was to fee her, you would wonder who it 
was that was fo furprizing and unaffectedly neat and clean ; 
for every thing about her refembles tht purity of her foul, 
and (he is always clean without, becaufe flie always ftudies 
to be pure within. 

Every morning fees her early at her prayers ; fhe rejoice§ 
in the beginning of every day, becaufe it begins all her pious 
rules of holy living, and brings the frefh pleafure of repeating 
them. She feems to be as a guardian angel to thofe that dwell 
about her, with her watchings and prayers bleffing the place 
where {he dwells, and making interceiTion with God for thofe 
that are afleep. 

Her devotions have had fome intervals, and fhe has had 
reafon to think that God hath anfwered feveral of her private 
prayers, before the light hath entered into her fifler*s room. 
Miranda does not know what it is to have a dull half-day j^ 
the returns of her hours of prayer, and her religious exerci fes, 
come too often to let any confiderable part of time lie heavy 
upon her hands. 

When you fee her at work, you fee the fame wifdom that 
governs all her other adions ; file is either doing fomething 
that is neceflary for herfelf, or necelTary for others, who want 
to be alliited. Her wife and pious mind neither wants the 
amufement, nor can bear with the folly of idle and im- 
pertinent work ; (lie can admit of no fuch folly as this in 
the day, becaufe flie is to call herfelf to an account for all her 
actions in her fecret retirement at night. 

At her table flie lives ftridly by this rule of holy fcripture, 
*' whether ye eat or drink, or whatfoever ye do, do all to 
*' the glory of God." This makes her begin and end every 
meal, as (he begins and ends every day, with acls of devo- 
tion : Hilt does not indeed weigh her meat in a pair of fcales, 
but ihe weighs it in a much better balance ; fo much as 
gives a proper flrength to her body, and renders it able and 
willing to obey the foul, is Miranda's meal. 


[ 39' ] 

The holy fcriptures, efpccially of the New Teftament, are 
her daily ftudy. When fhe has this in her hand, fhe fuppofes 
herfelf at the feet of our Saviour and his apoftlcs, and receives 
their facred words with as much attention and reverence, as 
if flie faw their pcrfons, and knew that they were juft come 
from heaven, on purpofe to teach her the way that leads to 
it. Nor does (he content herfelf barely wich reading the 
fcriptures j but in reading, conftantly calls her eye upon her- 
felf, and tries herfelf by every doclrine that is there, becaufe 
fhe thinks this is the only pollible way to be ready for her 
trial at the laft: day. 

Books alfo of devotion, and efpecially fuch as enter into 
the heart of religion, and defcribe the imvard boUnefs of the 
chriftian life, have fuch a large place in her clofet, that fhe 
is fometimes afraid that fhe lays out too much money in them, 
becaufe fhe cannot forbear buying all the practical books of 
any note. But of all human writings, the lives of pious per^ 
(ons^ and eminent faints, are her greatefl delight. In thefe 
fhe fearches as for hidden treafure, hoping to find fome fecret 
of holy living, fome uncommon degree of piety, which fhe 
may make her own. By this means, Miranda has her head 
and heart flored with all the principles of wifdom and holinefs, 
and if you are in her company, when fhe thinks proper to talk, 
you muft be made wifer and better, whether you will or 

To relate her charity, would be to relate the hiflory of 
every day for twenty years paft. She has fet up near twenty 
poor tradefmen who had failed in their bufinefs, and faved as 
many from failing. She has educated feveral poor children, 
that were picked up in the ftreets, and put them in a way of 
honcft employment. As foon as any labourer is confined at 
home with ficknefs, fhe fends to him, till he recovers, twice 
the value of his wages, that he may have one part to give to 
his family as ufual, and the other to provide things conveni^ 
ent for his ficknefs. 

If a family feems too l^rge to be fupported by the labour 

of thofe in it that can work, fhe pays their rent, and gives 

them fomething yearly towards their cloathing. By this 

means there are many poor families which live in a comfort- 

B b 4 able 

[ 392 ] 

able manner, and are from year to year blclTing her in their 

If there is any poor man or woman, that is more than or- 
dinarily wicked and reprobate, Miranda has her eye upon 
them, and if (he can difcover that they are in any great ftreights 
or affliction, fhe gives them fpecdy relief. She has this care 
for this fort of people, not only becaufe flie once faved a 
very profligate perfon from being carried to prifon, who im- 
mediately became a true penitent, but becaufe (he believes 
that a tendernefs of afFedion towards the moft abandoned fm- 
ners, is every where reprefented in the gofpel as the higheft 
inftance of a divine and godlike foul. 

Miranda once pafTed by a houfe, where the man and his 
wife were curfmg and fvvearing at one another in a moft 
dreadful manner, and three children crying about them 5 this 
fight fo much affeded her companionate mind, that (he went 
the next day, and even bought the three children, that they 
might not be ruined by living with fuch wicked parents. 
They now live with Miranda^ are blefled with her care and 
prayers, and all the good works that fhe can do for them. 
They hear her talk, they fee her live, and join with her in 
pfalms and prayers. The eldefl of them has already been an 
inftrument of converting his parents from their wicked Jife, 
and fhews a turn of mind fo remarkably pious, that Miranda 
intends him for holy orders ; that being thus faved himfelf, 
he may be zealous in the falvation of fouls, and do to other 
miferable objects, as (lie has done to him. 

Miranda is a conftant relief to poor people in their misfor- 
tunes and accidents 5 for there are fometimes little misfortunes 
that happen to them, which of themfelves they could never 
be able to overcome : the death of a cow, or a horfe, or fome 
little robbery, would keep them in diftrefs all their lives. She 
does not fufter them to lie grieving under fuch accidents a$ 
thefe. She immediately gives them the full value of their 
lofs, and makes ufe of it as a means of raifmg their minds 
towards GoD. 

She has a great tendernefs for old people that are grown 
paft their labour. The parifh allowance [Miranda fays) to 
fuch people, is very feldom a comfortable maintenance. For 
this reafon, they are the conftant objedts of her care 5 ftie 


[ 393 ] 

adds fo much to their allowance, as fomcwhat exceeds the 
wages they got when they v/ere young. This flie does to com- 
fort them under the infi) mities of their age, that being free 
from trouble and diftrefs they may ferve God in peace and 
tranquillity of mind. She has generally a large number of this 
kind, who by her charities, and exhortations to holinefs, 
fpend their laft days in great piety and devotion. 

il(f/r^«^^ never wants compaffion even to coimmn heggars\ 
efpecially thofe that are old or fick, or full of fores, and that 
"want eyes or limbs. ATiranda confidcrs that Lazarus was a 
common beggar, that notwithflanding he was the care of an- 
gels, and carried into Abraham^ bofom. She confiders that 
our blefTed Saviour and his apoftles, v/ere kind to beggars ; 
that they fpoke comfortably to them, healed their difeafes, 
and reftored eyes and limbs to the lame and blind. She there- 
fore hears their complaints with tendernefs, and never bids 
them go to the place from whence they came, or tells them 
that fhe cannot relieve them becaufe they may be cheats, or 
that they are ftrangers ; but fhe relieves them for that very 
reafon becaufe they are flrangers ; and though fhe cannot, 
like our Saviour and his Apoftles, work miracles for their re- 
lief, yet {he remembers the words of our Lord, " I was a 
ftranger and ye took me in," and can fay with St. Peter, 
^- fuch as I have, give I unto you, in the name of Jesus of 
" Nazarethr 

It may be, fays Miranda^ that I may fometimes give to 
thofe who do not de.ferve it. But where, fays fhe, has the 
fcripture made merit to be the rule or meafure of my charity ? 
On the contrary, does not the fcripture fpeak on this wife, 
'' if thine enemy hunger, feed him ; if he thirft, give him 
*' drink." And if I am to love and do good to my worft 
enemies, furely I am not to deny alms to poor beggars, whom 
I neither know to be bad people, nor any way my enemies ? 
Does not God make his fun to rife on the evil and on the 
good ? Is not this the very goodnefs that is recommended to 
us in fcripture ? that by imitating it, " we may be children 
'' of our father who is in heaven, who fendeth rain on the 
" juft and the unjuft." 

Perhaps you will reply, " By this means I encourage people 
*' to be beggars." But may not the fame objedion be mude 


[ 394 ] 
againft all kinds of charities, for they may encourage people 
to depend upon them ? May not the fame be faid a!2;ainfl: for- 
i^iving our enemies, cloathing the naked, or giving medicines 
to the fick ? for in fo doing we may encourage people to da 
us hurt or ncgle«Sl themfelves, and be carelef^ of their health. 
Such thoughtlefs objections, fays Miranda^ I once urged my- 
ielf, when in a ilatc of unregeneracy : but fince the love of 
God has dwelt in me, and enlarged my heart, I have been 
filled with bowels of compafTion ; and as I daily pray for all, 
fo far as I can, I give to all. And 1 cannot refufe an alms 
to thofe, whom I pray God to blefs, and whorji I wifh to 
be partakers of eternal glory. I look on thofe who come to 
afk my alms, as fo many friends and benefa6tors, that come 
to do me a greater good than they can receive from me ; that 
come to exalt my graces, and be witnefTes of my charity ; to 
be monuments of my love, and put it in my power of proving 
the truth of that glorious declaration *' It is more blcflcd to 
give than to receive." 

This is the fpirit, and this Is the life of the devout Mi- 
randa \ and if (he lives ten years longer, (he will have fpent 
fix- thoufand pounds in charity; for that which flie allows 
herfelf, may fairly be reckoned amongft her alms. 

When fhe dies, Ihe muft fliine amongft Apoftles, faints 
and martyrs, fhe muft ftand amongft the firft fervants of 
God, and be glorious amongft thofe that have fought the 
good fight, and finiftied their courfe with joy. 

*' He that h^th ears to hear let him hear,'* 


4n enquiry Into the firft and chief reafon, why the generality of 
chrijUans fall fo far fiort of the holinefs and devotion of chri^ 

SINCE chriftian devotion is nothing lefs than a life wholly 
devoted unto God, and perfons who are free from the 
neceffities of labour and employments, are to confider them- 
felves as devoted to God in a higher degree; it may now 
reafonably be enquired, how it comes to pafs, that the lives 
even of the moral and better fort of people, are in general 

[ 395 ] 

' fo dlrCc^ly cont«rary to the principles of chrlfllanity ? J an- 
fwer, becaufe the generality of thofe that call thcmfclves 
chriftians, are deftitute of a true living faith in Jesus 
Christ ; for want of which they never efle^tually intended 
to pleafe God in all the a«5lions of life, as the happieft and 
beft thing in the world. 

To be partaker of fuch a faith, is every where reprefented 
in fcripture, as a fundamental and neceflary part of true 
piety. For without a living faith in the righteoufnefs of 
Jesus Christ, our perfons cannot be juftified, and confe- 
quently none of our perforniances acceptable in the fight of 
God. It is this faith that enables us to overcome the world, 
and to devote ourfelves without referve to promote the glory 
of Him, who has loved and given himfelf for us. And there- 
fore it is purely for want of fuch a faith, that you fee fuch 
a mixture of fin and folly in the lives even of the better fort 
of people : It is for want of this faith, that you fee clergymen 
given to pride, and covetoufnefs, and worldly enjoyments : 
It is for want of fuch a faith that you fee women who profefs 
devotion, yet living in all the folly, and vanity of drefs, waft- 
ing their time in idlenefs and pleafures, and in all fuch in- 
ftances of ftate and equipage as their eftate v;^ill reach. Let 
but a woman feel her heart full of this faiih^ and fhe will 
no more defire to fhlne at balls and afTemblies, or to make 
a figure among thofe that are moft finely drefTed, than fhe 
will defire to dance upon a rope to pleafe fpe(5tators. For 
fhe will then know that the one is as far from the true 
nature, wifdom, and excellency of the chriftian fpirit, as is 
the other. 

Let a clergyman be but thus pious, and he will converfe as 
if he had been brought up by an Apoftle ; he will no more 
think and talk of nohle preferment^ than of nchle eatings or a 
glorious chariot. He will no more complain of the frowns of 
the world, or a fmall cure, or the want of a patron, thaa 
he will complain of the want of a laced coat, or of a run- 
ning horfe. Let him but have fuch a faith in love for God, 
as will conftrain him to make it his bufincfs to ftudy to pleafe 
God in all his actions, as the happieft and beft thing in the 
^orld, ?ind then he will know, that there is nothing noMd 
in a clergyman, but burning zeal for the falvation of fouls ; 


nor any thing poor in his profeilion but idknefs and a worldly 

Further, let a tradefman but have fuch a faith, and it will 
make him 2i faint in his fhop ; his every day bufinefs will be 
a courfe of v/ife and reafonable adions, made holy to God, 
by flowing from faith, proceeding from love, and by being 
done in obedience to his will and pleafure. He will there- 
fore not chiefly confider, what arts or methods or application 
will fooneft malce him greater and richer than his brethren, 
that he may remove from a fliop, to a life of ftate and pleafure j 
but he will chiefly confider, what arts, what methods, and 
what application can make worldly buflnefs moft conducive 
to God's glory, and his neighbour's good ; and confequently 
make a life of trade, to be a life of holinefs, devotion, and 
undillembled piety. 

It was this faith that made the primitive chrl/iians fuch 
eminent inftances of religion \ and that made the goodly 
fellowfhip of the faints in all ages, and all the glorious 
army of confeflTors and martyrs. And if we will flop and afk 
ourfelves, why we are not as pious as the primitive chriftians, 
and faints of old were ? our own hearts muft tell us, that it 
is becaufe we never yet perhaps earneftly fought after, and 
confequently were never really made partakers of, that pre- 
aous faith, whereby they were conftrained to intend to pleafe 
God in all their actions, as the bell and happieft thing in 
the world. 

Here then let us judge ourfelves fmcerely ; let us not vainly 
content ourfelves with the common diforders of our lives, 
the vanity of our expences, the folly of our diverfions, the 
pride of our habits, the idlenefs of our lives, and the waft- 
ing of our time ; fancying that thefe are only fuch imperfec- 
tions as we neceflTiirily fall into, through the unavoidable 
weaknefs and frailty of our nature ; but let us be aflured that 
thefe habitual diforders of our common life, are fo many de- 
mpnftrable proofs, that we never yet truly accepted of the 
Lord Jesus and his righteoufnefs by a living faith, and 
never really intended, as a proof and evidence of fuch a faith, 
to pleafe God in all the adions of our life, as the beft thing 

ki the world. 


[ 397 ] 

Though th'ys be a matter that we can eafily pafs over at 
prefent, whilft the health of our bodies, the pafTions of our 
minds, the noife, and hurry, and pleafures, and bufinefs of 
the world, lead us on with " eyes that fee nor, and ears that 
" hear not ;'* yet at death, it will fet itfelf before us in a 
dreadful magnitude ; it will haunt us like a difmal ghoft, and 
our confciences will never let us take our eyes from it, unlefs 
they are feared as with a red hot iron, and God fliall have 
given us over to a reprobate mind. 

Penitens was a bufy notable tradefman, and very profper- 
ous in his dealings j but died in the thirty-fifth year of his 

A little before his death, when the doiStors had given him 
over, fome of his neighbours came one evening to fee him j 
at which time he fpake thus to them. 

" I fee, (fays he) my friends, the tender concern you 
have for me, by the grief that appears in your countenances, 
and I know the thoughts that you now have of mc. You 
think how melancholy a cafe it is, to fee fo young a man, 
and in fuch flourifning bufmefs, delivered up to death. And 
perhapSy had I vifited any of you in my conditfon, I Hiould 
have had the fame thoughts of you. But now, my friends, 
my thoughts are no more like your thoughts, than my con- 
dition is like yours. It is no trouble to me now to think 
that I am to die young, or before I have raifed an eftate, 
Thefe things are funk into fuch tnere nothings^ that I have no 
name little enough to call them by. For if in a few days, 
or hours, I am to leave this carcafe to be buried in the earth, 
and to find myfelf either for ever happy in the favour of God, 
or ejternally feparated from all light and peace; can any 
words fufficiently exprefs the littlenefs of every thing elfe ? 

Is there any dream, like the dream of i:fe, which amufes 
us with the negle6l and ^difrcgard of thefe things ? Is there 
any folly like the folly of our manly flatc, which is too wife 
and bufy to be at leifure for thefe reflections ? 

When we confider death as a mifcry, we generally think 
of it as a miferable feparation from the enjoyments of this 
life. We feldom mourn over an old man that dies rich, but 
we lament the young, that are taken away in the progrcfs 
of their fortunes. You yourfelvcs look upon me with pity, 


r 398 1 

tiot th'At you think I am going unprepared to meet the Juc^gc 
of quick and dead, but that I am to leave a profperous trade 
in the flower of my life. 

This is the wifdom of our manly thoughts. And yet what 
folly of the fillicft children, is fo great as this? For what is 
there miferable or dreadful in death, but the confequences of* 
it? When a man is dead, what does any thing fignify to him, 
but the ftate he is then in? 

Our poor friend Lepidus^ you know died as he was dreffing 
himfelf for a feaft; do you think it is now part of his trouble, 
that he did not live till that entertainment Was over ? Feafts, 
and bufmefs, and pleafures and enjoyments, feem great things 
to us, whilft we think of nothing elfe j but as foon as we add 
death to them, they all fiiik into littlenefs not to be expreffed j 
and the foul that is feparated from the body, no more laments 
the lofs of bufmefs, than the lofing of a feaft. 

If I am now going to the joys of God, could there be any 
reafon to grieve, that this happened to me before I was forty 
years of age. Can it be a fad thing to go to heaven, before I 
have made a few more bargains, or ftood a little longer behind 
a counter ? 

And if I am to go amongft loft fpirits, could there be any 
reafon to be content, that this did not happen to me till I was 
old and full of riches. 

If good angels were ready to receive my foul, could it be 
any grief to me that I was dying on a poor bed in a garret ? 

And if God has delivered me up to evil fpirits, to be dragged 
by them to places of torment, could it be any comfort to me, 
that they found me upon a bed of ftate ? When you are as 
near death as I am, you will know, that all the different ftates 
of life, whether of youth or age, riches or poverty, greatnefs or 
meannefs, fignify no more to you, than whether you die in a 
poor or ftately apartment. 

The sreatnefs of the thinf^s which follow death, makes all 
that goes before it fink into nothing. 

Now, ihzi judgment is the next thing which I look for, and 
£VerlaJ}'i7ig happimfs or mifery is come fo near to me, all the en- 
joyments and profperities of life feem as vain and infignlficant, 
and to have no more to do with my happinefs, than the cloaths 

that I wore when I was a little child. 


[ 399 ] 

W^hat n (Irange thing ! that a little health, or the poor 
bufmefs of a (hop, fhould keep us (o Icnfclefs of thefe great 
things that are coming fo hH upon us! 

Juft as you came into my chamber, I was thinking with 
myfelf, what numbers of fouls there are in the world, in my 
condition at this very time, furprized with a fummons to the 
other world : fome taken from their Ihops and farms, others 
from their fports and pleafures ; thefe at fuits at law, thofe at 
gaming-tables; fome on the road, others at their own fire-fides; 
and all feized at an hour when they thought nothing of it; 
frighted at the approach of death ; confounded at the vanity 
of all their labours, defigns, and projeds; aftoniflied at the 
folly of their paft lives, and not knowing which way to turn 
their thoughts, to find any comfort. Their confciences flying 
in their faces, bringing all their fins to remembrance, torment- 
ing them with the dccpeft convictions of their own folly, pre- 
fenting them with the fight of the angry Judge, and the worm 
that never dies, the fire that is never quenched, the gates of 
hell, the powers of darknefs, and the bitter pains of eternal 

O my friends ! blefs God that you arc not of this number ; 
and take this along with you, that there is nothing but a real 
faith in the Lord Jesus, and a life of true piety, or a death 
of great ftupidity, that can keep oft' thefe appreheafions. 

Had I now a thoufand worlds, I would give them all for 
one moment's fcriptural aflurance that I had really received the 
TvORD Jesus by a living faith into my heart, and for one year's 
more continuance in life, that I might evidence the fincerity 
of that faith, by prefenting unto God, one year of fuch devo- 
tion and good works, as I am perfuaded I have hitherto never 

Perhaps, when you confidcr that I have lived free from 
fcandal and debauchery, and in the communion of the church, 
you wonder to fee me fo full of remorfc and frlf-condemnation 
at the approach of death. 

But alas ! what a poor thing Is it, to have lived .only free 
from murder, theft, and adultery, which is all that I can fay 
of myfelf. VVas not the flothful fervant, that is condemned in 
the ^ofpel, thus negatively good ? And did not the Saviour o^ 
mankind tell the young man who led a more blamelefs anti 
moral life than I have done, that vet one thing he lacked. 

[ 400 ] 

But the thing that now furprizes mc above all wonders, isi 
this, that till of late I never was convinced of that reigning 
foul-deftroying fin of unbelief j and that I was out of a ftate 
of falvation, notwithftanding my negative goodnefs, my feem- 
ingly ftritSl morality, and attendance on public wor{l:»ip and 
the holy facramcnt. It never entered into my head or heart, 
that the righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ alone, could recom- 
mend me to the favour of a fm avenging God, and that I mull 
be born again of God, and have Christ formed in my heart, 
before I could have any well-grounded aflurance that I was a 
chriftian indeed, or have any folid foundation whereon I might 
build the fuperfi:ru(5l:ure of a truly holy and pious life. 

Alas! I thou(>.ht I had faith in Christ, becaufe I was born 
in a chriilian country, and faid in my creed, that '' 1 believed 
on Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord." I thought I was 
certainly regenerate and born again, and v/as a real chriftian, 
becaufe I was baptized when I was young, and received the 
holy facrament in my adult age. But alas ! little did I con- 
fider that faith is fomething more than the world generally 
thinks of; a work of the heart, and not merely of the head, 
and that 1 muft know and feel that there is no other name 
given under heaven vv'hereby I can be faved, but that of Jesus 

It is true indeed, you have frequently fecn me at church anti 
the facrament ; but alas, you little think what remorfe of 
confcience I now feel for fo frequently faying, " the remem- 
brance of our fins is grievous unto us, and the burden of them 
is intolerable," when I never experienced the meaning of them 
in all my life. You have alfo feen me join with the minifter 
when he faid, *' we do not approach thy table trufting on our 
own ri(ihteoufnefs ;" but all this while I was utterly ignorant 
of God's righteoufnefs, which is by faith in Christ Jesus, 
and was going about to eftablifh a righteoufnefs of my own. 
It is true indeed, I have kept the fafts and feafts of the church, 
and have called Christ, Lord, Lord; but little did I thinky 
that no one could call Christ truly Lord, but by the Ho^y 
Ghoft. I have attended upon ordinations, and heard the 
Bifhop afk the candidates, " whether they w^re called by the 
Holy Ghofl i" 1 have ferioufly attended to the minifter, when 
ke exhorted us to pray for true repentance and God's holy 

Spirit > 

D 401 ] 

Spirit; but alas, Inever enquired whether I myfelf had re- 
ceived the Holy Ghoft to fandify and purify my heart, and 
worked a true evangelical repentance in my foul. I have prayed 
in rhc litany that I might bring forth the fruits of the Spirit, 
but alas, my whole life has been nothing but a dead life, a 
round of duties, and model of performances, without any living 
faith for their foundation. I have profelTed myfclf a member 
of the cluirch of England; I have cried out, " The temple of 
the Lord, the temple of the Lord," and in my zeal have 
exclaimed againft DifTcnters 5 but little did I think, that I was 
ignorant all this while of moft of her eflential articles, and that 
fiiy practice, as well as the want of a real experience of a work 
of regeneration and true converfion, when I was ufin^: her 
offices, and reading her homilies, gave my confcicnce the 

O my friends ! a form of godlinefs without the power, and 
dead morality not founded on a living faith in the Lord Jesus 
Christ, is fuch a dreadful delufion, fo contrary to the lively 
oracles of God, that did not I know (though alas how late !) 
that the righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ was revealed in them, 
and that there was mercy to be found with God, if we venture 
by a real faith on that righteoufnefs, though at the eleventh 
hour, I muit now ilnk into total defpair. 

Pcmtens was here going on, but had his mouth flopped by a 
convulfion, which never fufFered him to fpeak any more. He 
lay convulfcd about twelve hours, and then gave up the 

Now if every reader would imagine this Penitens to have; 
been fome particular acquaintance or relation of his, and 
fancy that he faw and heard all which is here defcribed ; that 
he ftood by his bed-fide when his poor friend lay in fuch 
diftrefs and agony, lamenting the want of a living faith in 
Jesus Christ, as the caufe of a dead, lifelcfs, indcvout life : 
if befides this, he fhould confidcr, how often he hinifelf miu;l*t 
have been furprized in the fame formal dead Ifate, and made 
an example to the reft of the world ; this double reflcdion, 
both upon the diftrefs of his friend, and the goodnefs of that 
God, which ought to have led him to repentar.ce, would in 
all likelihood fet him upon feeking and earneRly praying for 
fuch a faith, of which PaiUens felt himfelf void, and condrain 

Vol. IV. Cc him 


[ 402 ] 

him to let the Lord have no reft, till he fhould be pleafed to 
apply the righteoufnefs of his dear Son to his fin-fick foul, and 
enable him henceforward to ftudy, out of love, to glorify him 
in all the adions of his future life, as the beft and happieft 
thing in the world. 

This therefore being fo ufeful a meditation, I fhall here 
leave the reader, I hope, ferioufly engaged in it. 


Sh^wingy how the fear of he'uig fingular^ and making the world 
their rule of aci'ion^ ii a fecond great caufe^ why jo few devots 
themfehes to God. 

ANOTHER caufe why (o few devote themfelves to 
God, is a fear of contempt from the world, and their 
making its modes and cuftoms the general rule of all their ac- 

The hiftory of the gofpel is chiefly the hiftory of ChrHt's 
conqueft over the world. And the number of true chriftians, 
is only the number of thofe who following the Spirit of 
Christ, have lived, and do live, contrary to this fpirit of the 

*' Whofoever is born of God, (fays the apoftle) overcometh 
the world. Set your affedlions on things above, and not on 
things on the earth j for ye are dead, and your life is hid with 
Christ in God." 

This is the language of the whole New Teftament ; this 
is the mark of real chriftianity. We are to be dead to the 
fpirit and temper of the world, and live a new life in the Spirit 
of Jesus Christ. 

It was this, that made Saint Paul fo paflionately exprefs 
himfelf, *' God forbid, that I (liould glory, fave in the crofs 
of our Lord Jesus Christ.** But why does he glory ? bc- 
caufe his chriftian profefiion had called him to the honour of 
fufFering for Christ, and of dying to the world, under re- 
proach and contempt, as the Lord Jesus had died upon the 
crofs. Hence he immediately adds, " by whom the world is 
Qrucilied unto me, and I unto the world." 


[ 403 ] 

Thu9 was the crofs ©f Christ, in Saint Paul's time^ the 
glory of chriftians. For he elfewhere afierts, fpcaking of 
chriilians in general, that they are " to fufFer, to be crucifietj^ 
to die, and to rife with Christ;" or elfe his crucifixion, and 
death, and refurre61ion, will profit them nothing* As to his 
fufferings, fays he, *' if we fuiTer with him, we (hall alfo rei^ri 
with him." As to his crucifixion and death, " Knowing that 
our. old man is crucified with him. If we are dead with 
Christ, we believe that we (hall alfo live with him." And 
then as to the refurredion of Christ, fays he, *' If ye be rifen 
with Christ, feelc thofe things which are above." From all 
which texts it plainly appears, that our blefled Lord not only 
died and rofe again in our ftead, and as our federal head and 
reprefentative, but that alfo if we are chriftians indeed, we are 
to be conformed to all he did and fufFered for us. 

It was for this reafon, that the holy Jesus faid of his Difci- 
ples, and of all true believers, *' they are not of this world, as 
I am not of this world." Becaufe, all true believers conform- 
ing to the fuflrerings, crucifixion, death, and refurrecStion ©f 
CHrist, live no longer after the fpirit and temper of this 
world, but " their life is hid with Christ in God." 

How high this life is placed above the ways of the world, is 
wonderfully defcribed by Saint Peiul^ in thefe words : " Where- 
fore, henceforth know we no man after the flefli; yea, though 
we have known Christ after the flefh; yet henceforth know 
we him no more. Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is 
a new creature ; old things are pafl'ed away -, behold, all things 
are become new." 

He that feels the force and fpirit of thefe words, can hardly 
bear any human interpretation of them. " Henceforth, 5:c." 
that is, fince the death and refurredion of Christ, the ftate of 
chriftianity is become fo glorious a ftate, that we do not even 
confider Christ himfclf as in the flcfli upon earth, but as a 
God of glory in heaven ; we know and confider ourfclves not 
barely as men in the flefh, but as fellow members of a new 
fociety, that are to have all our hearts, our tenjpcrs and con- 
verfation in heaven. 

Saint John plainly declares thus much : " They are of the 
world, therefore fpeak they of the world, and the world hearerh 
ihem ; lie ore of God." This is hi? dei'crinrion of the fol- 

C c 2 lov^el5 

[ 404 1 
lowers of Christ -, and it is proof enough, that no people are 
to be reckoned chriftians in reality, who in their hearts and 
tempers belong to this world. 

Saint P^ul takes it for a certainty fo well known to chrifti- 
ans, that they are no longer to be confidered as living in this 
world, that he thus argues from it, as from an undeniable 
principle, concerning the abolifliing the rites of the Jewijh 
law : " Wherefore, if ye be dead with Christ from the ru- 
diments of the world, why as though living in the world, are 
ye fubjecSl to ordinances?" Here could be no argument in this, 
but in the Apoftle's taking it for undeniable, that chriftians 
knew, their profeffion required them to have done with all the 
tempers and paffions of this world, and to live as citizens of 
the New Jerufa/em, and to have their convcrfation in heaven. 

Our blefled Lord himfelf has fully determined this point, 
in thefe words, " They are not of this world, as I am not 
of this world." This is the ftate of chriftianity with regard 
to this world. If you are not thus out of and contrary to the 
world, you want the diftinguifhing m.ark of chriftianity : You 
do not belong to Christ, but by being out of the world as 
he was out of it. 

We may deceive ourfelves, if we pleafc, with vain and 
foftening comments upon thefe words ; but they are and will 
be underftood in their ftrft fimplicity and plainnefs, by every 
one who reads them in the fame fpirit that our bleiTed Lord 
fpoke them. And to underftand them in any lower and lefs 
fignificant meaning, is to let carnal wifdom explain away that 
doctrine, by which itfelf was to be dcftroyed. 

But notwithftanding the clearnefs and plainnefs of thefe 
do61:rines, which teach us thus to renounce the world, yet 
what a great part of chriftians do live and die flaves to the 
cuftoms and temper of the world. 

How many people fwell with pride and vanity for fuch 
things as they would not know how to value at all ? but that 
they are admired in the world. 

Would a man take ten years more drudgery in buftnefs to 
add two horfes more to his coach, but that he knows, the 
world moft of all admires a coach and fix ? 

To abound in wealth, to have fine houfes and rich cloaths, 
to be attended with fplends)r and equipage, to be btautiful in 


r 405 J ■ 

our perfons, to have titles of dignity, to be above our fcllow- 
creatiircs, to commaiul the bovv's and obeifance of other peo- 
ple, to be looked on with admiration, to purine our enemies 
with revenge, to fubdue all that oppofe us, to fet ourfelves in 
as much fplcndor as we can, to live highly and magnificently, 
to eat and drink, and delight ourfelves in the moft coftly man- 
ner; thefe are the great, the honourable, the dcfirable things, 
to which the fpirit of the world turns the eyes of all people ; 
and many a one is afraid of (landing flill, and not engaging in 
the purfuit of thcfc things, led the lame world fhould take him 
for 2ifooL 

Many a man would often drop a refentment, and forgive 
an affront, but that he is afraid the world would not forgive 

How many would pra6lice chriftian temperance and fobriety 
in its utmoft extent, were it not for the ccnfure which the 
world pafTes upon fuch a life ? 

Thus do the impreilions which we have received from living 
in the world enflave our minds, fo that we dare not attempt 
to be eminent in the fight of God, and holy angels, for fear 
of being little in the eyes of the world. 

You will perhaps fay, that the world is now become chrif- 
tian, at leaft that part of it where we Jive; and therefore the 
world is not now to be confidered in that ftate of oppofition 
to chriftianity, as when it was heathen. 

It is granted, the world no\A' profefieth chriftianity. But 
will any one fay, that this chriftian world is of the fpirit of 
Christ? are its general tempers the tempers of Christ? are 
the pajfUons of fenfuality, felf-love, pride, covetoufnefs, ambi- 
tion, and vain-glory, lefs contrary to the fpirit of the gofpe], 
now they are amongft chriftians, than when they were among 
heathens ? Or will you fay, that the tempers and paflions of 
the heathen world are loft and gone ? 

The world is fully defcribed to our hands by Saint 'John, 
'< All that is in the world, the luft of the flefh, the luft of the 
eyes, and the pride of life," &c. Now will you fay, that this 
world is become chriftian? But if all this ItiJl fubfifts, then 
the fame world is now in being, and the fame enemy to 
chriftianity that was in Saint JohrC^ days. 

C c 3 Hiid 

[ 4o6 ] 

Had you lived with our Saviour, as his true difclple, you 
had then been hated as he v/zs ; and if you now live in his 
rpirit, the world will be the fame enemy to you now, that it 
was to him then. 

'' If ye were of the world, (faith our blefled Lord) the 
world would love it* own ; but becaufe ye are not of the 
world, but I have chofen you out of the world, therefore the 
world hateth you." 

We are apt to lofe the true meaning of thefe words, by 
confidering them only as an hi/iorical defcription of fomething 
that was the ftate of our Saviour and his difciples at that time. 
But this is reading the fcripture as a ^/W /^//^r ; for they as 
exadly defcribe the flate of true chriftians in this, and all 
other times, to the end of the world. 

For as true chr'ijUaniiy is nothing elfc but the fplrlt of 
Christ, fo whether that fpirit appear in the perfon of 
Christ himfejf, or in his apoftles, or followers in any age, 
it is the fame thing : whoever hath his fpirit, will be hated, 
defpifcd, and condemned by the world, as he was. For the 
world will always love its own, and none but its own : this 
is as certain and unchangeable, as the contrariety between 
light and darknefs. 

When the holy Jesus faith, <« If the world hate you," he 
does not add by way of confolatlon, that it may feme time or 
other ceafe its hatred, or that it will not always hate them; 
but he only gives this as a reafon for their bearing it, " You 
know that it hated me, before it hated you :" fignifying, that 
it was he, or his fpirit, that by reafon of its contrariety to the 
world, was then, and always would be hated by it. 

Whether, therefore, the world outwardly profefleth, or 
openly perfecuteth chriftianity, it is dill in the fame ftate of 
contrariety to the true fpirit and holinefs of the gofpel. 

And indeed the world, by profeffing chriftianity, is fo fap 
from being a lefs dangerous enemy than it was before, that it 
has by its favour deftroyed more chriftians, than ever it di4 
by the moft violent pcrfecution^ 

It Is a greater and more dangerous enemy, becaufe it has 
greater power over chriftians by its favours, riches, honours, 
rewards, and protedions, than it h^d by the fire and fury of 
its perfecutions, 

[ 407 ] 

It is a more dangerous enemy, by having loft its appear- 
ance of enmity. And the change that the world has under- 
gone, has only altered its methods, but not lefTencd its power 
of deftroying religion. 

Chriftians had nothing to fear from the heathen worU^ but 
the lofs of their lives j but the world become a friend, makes 
it difficult for them to fave their religion. 

How many consciences are kept at quiet, upon no other 
foundation, but becaufe they fin under the authority of the 
chrijlian world? How many direflions of the gofpel lie by 
unregarded, and how unconcernedly do particular perfon^ 
read them ? for no other reafon, but becaufe they feem unre- 
garded by the chriftian world. So that there is hardly any 
poffibility of faving yourfelf from the prefent world, but by 
confidering it as the fame wicked enemy to all true holinefs, 
as it is reprefented in the fcriptures ; and by affuring yourfelF, 
that it is as dangerous to conform to its tempers and palTions, 
now it is chrillian, as when it was heathen. 

From this quarter, therefore, arifes a great obftru£lion to a 
really devout life, becaufe it cannot fubfift in any perfon, but 
fo far as he is dead to the world. And though human pru- 
dence feems to talk mighty wifely about the neceffity of avoid- 
ing particularities^ yet he that dares not be fo weak as to be 
particular, will be often obliged to avoid the moft fubftantial 
duties of chriftian piety, 


Shewing that the education which men generally receive in their 
youthy makes a devout life difficult to he pra£li[ed ; and the fpi- 
rit of a better education reprefented in the charauler o/* Pa tern us. 

ANOTHER obftru£lIon to a devout life, arifes from 
our education. Wc are all of us, for the moft part, 
corruptly educated, and then fent to take our courfe in a cor- 
rupt world : fo that it is no wonder, if examples of true piety 
are fo feldom feen. 

Numbers are undone by being born and bred in families 
that have no religion ; where they are made vicious and irre- 
gular, becoming like thofc with whom they firft lived. 

C c 4 But 

[ 4°8 ] 

But this Is not the thing I now mean ; the education that- 
I here intend, is fuch aa children generally receive from vir- 
tuous and ("ober parents, and learned tutors and governors. 

The hill: temper thai we try to awaken in them is pride: 
as dangerous a paflion as that of lu/i. We ftir them up to 
vain thoughts of thcmfclves, and do every thing we can to 
puff up their minds with a fenfe of their own abilities. 

Whatever way of life we intend them for, we apply to the 
fire and vanity of their minds ; and exhort them to every thing 
from corrupt motives. We ftir theiii up to ai5lion from prin- 
ciples of ftrife and ambition ; from glory, envy, and a defire 
of di{lin£lion, that they may overtop all others, and {hiqe 
above their neighbours in the world. Nay, we repeat and 
inculcate thefe motives upon them, till they think it a part of 
their duty to be proud, envious, and vain-glorious of their 
own accomplidiments. 

If children are intended for holy orders^ we fct before them 
fome eminent orator, whofe fine preaching has madp him the 
admiration of the age, and carried him through all the dignities 
^nd preferments of the church. We encourage them to have 
thefe honours in their eye, and to expedt the reward pf thpir 
iludies from them. 

If the youth is intended for a trade^ we bid him look at all 
t:he rich men pf the fame trade, and to confider how many ^re 
carried about in their {lately coaches, who began \\\ th? fapne 
low degree as he now does. We awak:en his ambition, and 
endeavour to give his mind a right turn, by often telling him 
how very rich fuch and fuch a tradefman died. 

If he is to be a lazuyer^ then we fet great counfellors, lords, 
judges, arid chancellors, before his eyes. We tell him what 
great fees, and great applaufe, attend fine pleading ; we exhort 
him to take fire at thefe things, and to be content with nothing 
lefs than the higheft honours of the long robe. 

7'hat this is the ;iature of our befl education, is too plain to 
need any proof j and yet after afl this, we complain of the 
effe6ls of pride j we wonder to fee grown men acSted and 
governed by ambition, envy, fcorn, and a defire of glory ; 
not confidcring, that they were all the time of their youth, 
called upon to all their adipn and induHry upon the fame 

, How 

[ 409 ] 

Ffow dry and poor muft the doftiincs of fclf-dcnia], and 
deadnefs to the world, found to a youth, that has been fpurred 
)jp to all his induftry, by ambition, envy, and a defire of o^Iory 
and diftin^lion ? And if he is not to z£i by thefe principles 
when he is a man, why do we call him to adt by them in his 
youth F 

I know it is faid in defence of this method of education • 
that ambition, and a defire of glory, are neceflary to excite 
young people to induftry ; and that if we were to prefs upon 
them the doctrines of felf-denial, and renunciation of the 
world, we fhould deje6t their minds, and fink them intodul- 
nefs and idlenefs. 

But fuch objedors do not confider, that this reafon, if it 
has any ftrength, is full as flrong againft preffing the like doc- 
trines upon grown men, left we fhould dejecSt their minds, and 
fink them into dulnefs and idlenefs. 

For v/ho does not fee, that middle-aged men want as much 
the afTiftance of pride, ambition, and vain-glory, to fpur them 
up to action and induftry, as do children ? And it is very 
certain, that the precepts of humility are more contrary to the 
defigns of fuch men, and more grievous to their minds, when 
they are preficd upon them, than they are to the minds of 
young perfons. 

But further : could fuch obje(5lors think, that if any chil- 
dren had been educated by our blciled Lord, or his Apoftles, 
that their minds would have been funk into dulnefs and idle- 
nefs ? Or could they think, that fuch children would not 
have been trained up in the profoundeft principles of felf-de- 
nial and true devotion ? Can they hy^ that our bleffed Lord, 
who, confidering him in his human nature, was the moid 
devout, felf-denying man that ever was on earth, was 
hindered by his devotion from doing the greateft example of 
worthy and glorious actions that ever were done by man ? 
Can they fay, that his Apoftles, who lived in the fame fpirit 
of their Mafter, did therefore ceafe to be laborious and adlivc 
inftruments of doing good to all the world ? 

A few fuch reflccStions as thefe, are fufficient to expofe all 
the poor pretences for an education in pride and ambition. 

Paternus lived about two hundred years ago; he had 

but one fon, whom he educated himlielf, in his own houfe. 

5 As 

[ 410 3 

As they were fining together in the garden, when the child 
was te7i years olj, Paternus thus addrelled him. 

*' The little time that you have been in the world, my child, 
you have fpent v/holly with me ; and my love and tendernefs 
to you, has made you look upon rne as your only friend and 
benefactor, and the caufe of all the comfort and pleafure that 
you enjoy. Your heart, I know, would be ready to break 
with grief, if you thought this was the laft day that I ihould 
live with you. 

But, my child, though you now think yourfelf mighty 
happy, becaufe you have hold of my hand, you are now in the 
hands, and under the tender care of a much greater father and 
friend than I am, whofe love to you is far greater than mine, 
and from whom you receive fuch bleflings as no mortal can 

That God, virhom you have feen me daily to worfbip ; 
whom I daily call upon to blefs both you and me, and all 
mankind ; whofe wondrous a6ls are recorded in thofe fcrip- 
tures which you conftantly read ; that God, who created the 
heavens and the earth ; who brought a flood upon the old 
world ; who faved Noah in the ark ; who was the God of 
Abraham^ Ifaac^ and Jacob ; whom Job blefled and praifed in 
the greateft afRidions j who delivered the IJraelites out of the 
hands of the Egyptians ; who was, the proteclor of righteous 
Jofeph^ Mofes, Jojhua, and holy Daniel ; who fent fo many 
prophets into the world; and who fent his Son Jesus Christ 
to redeem mankind : this God, who has done all thefe 
great things ; who has created the many millions of men, 
that lived and died before you was born ; with whom the fpi- 
fits of good men that are departed this life, now live ; whom 
infinite numbers of angels now worfbip in heaven ; this great 
God, who is the creator of worlds, of angels, and men, is 
your loving father and friend, your good creator and nourifher 5 
from whom, and not from me, you received your being ten 
years ago, at the time that I planted that little elm which you 
there fee. 

I myfelf am not half the age of this /Jjady oak under which 
we fit ; many of our fathers have fat under its boughs ; we 
have all of us called it ours in our turn ; it ftands, and drops 
i-ts majlers^ as it drops its leaves, 

6 You 

[ 4'i ] 

You (ce, my Con, this wide and large firmament over our 
beads, where the fun and moon, and all tiiey?tfrj, appear in 
their turn : if you was to be carried up to any of thefe bodies, 
vou would difcover others as much above you, as the ftars are 
above this earib. Were you to go up or down, eaft or weft, 
north or fouth, you would find the fame height without any 
top, and the fame depth without any bottom. 

And yet, my child, (o great is Ggd, that all thefe bodies 
added together, are but as a grain of fand in his fight. Ne- 
verthelefs, you are as much the care of this great God and 
Father of all worlds, and of all fpirits^ as if there were no 
creature for him to love and protect but you alone. He num- 
bers the hairs of your head, watches over you fleeping and 
waking, and has preferved you from a thoufand dangers, of 
which neither you nor I know any thing. 

How poor my power is, and how little I am able to do for 
you, you have often feen. Your late ficknefs has fliewn you 
how little I could do for you in that ftate ; and the frequent 
pains of your head are plain proofs, that I have no power to 
remove them. 

I can bring you food and medicines, but have no power to 
turn them into your relief and nourifhment : it is God alone 
that can do this for you. 

Therefore, my child, fear, and worfhip, and love God. 
Secure an intereft in his favour, by feeking after a living faith 
in Jesus Christ his dearly beloved Son ; and then He, who 
blefled my father before I was born, will blefs you when I 
am dead. 

I ftiall in a fhort time die, and leave you to God and your- 
felf; and as I know that my Redeemer liveth, and truft that 
God has forgiven me my fins, I (hall go to my dear Saviour 
Christ Jesus, and live amongft patriarchs and prophets, 
faints and martyrs, and wait for your fafe arrival at the fame 

Therefore^ my child, meditate on thefe great things, and 
your foul, through the influences of God's blelfed Spirit, will 
foon grow great and noble, by fo meditating upon them. 

Let your thoughts often leave thefe gardens, thefe fields, 
and farms, to contemplate upon God, and Christ, and hea- 
ven, to meditate upon angels and the fpirits of good men 
living in light and glory. 


[ 412 ] 

As you have been ufed to look to me in all yourtKSiiions, and 
have been afraid to do any thing unlefs you firft knew my will ; 
fo let it now be a rule of your life, to look up to God, even a 
God in Christ, in all your anions ; to do every thing in his 
icar, and to abftain trom every thing that is not according to 
his will. 

God keepeth a book of life, wherein all the actions of all 
men are written ; and when you die, my child, this book will 
be laid open before men and angels 5 and according as your 
actions are there found to have been done in, and proceeded 
ifom a living faith in Jesus Christ, you will either be re- 
ceived into the happinefs of thofe holy men who have died in 
faith, or be turned away among thofe wicked fpirits, thofe hy- 
pocrites and unbelievers, that are never to fee God any more. 

Never forget this book, my fon, for it muft be opened, you 
muft fee it, and you muft be tried by it according to the deeds 
done in the body, whether they have been good, or whether 
they have been evil. 

But above all, my child, learn of Jesus Christ to be 
meek and lowly in heart, and never do any thin^ through 
ftrifeor vain-glory. Refift, therefore, and look up to Christ 
for a conquell: over every thought o^ felf-pride :{nd fAf-tiifiinC'- 
tiGn', and accullom yourfelf to rejoice in all the excellencies 
and perfections of your fellow- creatures, and pray and ftudy 
that you may be as glad to fee any of their good a6^ions, as 
your own. For as God is as well pleafed with their well- 
doings, as with yours ; fo you ought to defire, that every thing 
that is wife, and holy, and good, may be performed in as high 
a manner by other people, as by yourfelf. 

When I am dead, my fon, you will be mafler of all my 
efiate, wiiich will be a great deal more than the necellities of 
one family require. As you are, therefore, to be charitable 
to the.fouls of men, and wifh them the fame .happinefs with 
youtftlf, in heaven, fo be charitable to their bodies, and 
endeavour to make them as happy as you can upon earth. 

Study to have your heart filled with the love of God, and' 
the love of your neighbour, and then be contented to be no 
deeper a fchalar, no finer a gentlerr,an, than thefe tempers 
will make you. I am teaching you Latin and Greeks not that 
you fhould dcfire to be a great critic, a fine poet, or an elo- 

[ 4.3 ] 

quent orator; but, that you may at- proper times look: Into 
the hiftory of paft ages, and learn the methods (f God's pro- 
vidence over the world ; and that by readini^ the writings of 
the ancient fages, you may fee how wifdom and virtue have 
-been the praile of great men of all ages, and fortify your mind 
by their wife fayings. 

Avoid all fuperfluous fhcws of finery and equipage, and let 
your houfe be furnilhed with moderate convcnicncies. Do 
not confider what your eftate can afford, but what right reafon 
and religion require. 

Let your drefs be decent, clean, and modtfl: -, and as to 
your meat and drink, in them obferve the highdl rules of 
chriftian temperance and fobriety ; confider your body only as 
the fervant and minifter of your foul ; and only fo nourifn it, 
as it may beft perform an humble and obedient fervice to it. 

But, my fon, obferve as a principal thing, and which I (hall 
remind you of as long as I live with you, Ihie and defpife all 
human glory \ it is nothing elfe but human folly. Love hu- 
mility in all its inftances, pra6tife it in all its parts ; conde* 
fcend to all the weaknefs and infirmities of your fellow-crea- 
tures, cover their frailties, love their excellencies, encourage 
their virtues, relieve their wants, rejoice in their profperities, 
compafTionate their diflrefs, receive their friendfhip, overlook 
their unkindnefs, forgive their m^ilice, be a fervant of fervants, 
and condefcend to do the loweft offices to the loweft of man- 

Afpire after nothing but an interefl in the righteoufnefs of 
Jesus Christ ; and as a confcquence of that, your own 
purity and perfection. Remember, my dear child, remember, 
that there is but one man in the world, with whom you are 
to have perpetual contention, and whom you {hould be always 
{Iriving to exceed, and that is yourfclf. 

The time of pradifing thefe precepts, my fon, will foon be 
over with you j the world will foon flip through your hands, 
or rather you will foon flip through it. It fcems but the other 
day, fince I received the fame inftrudtions from my dear father, 
that I am now leaving with you. And the God that gave 
me ears to hear, and a heart to receive what my father la:d 
unto me, will, I hope, give you grace to love and follow the 
fame inltruclions." 

Thus did Patcrr.us educate his fon. 


[ 414 ] 

Can any one think, that fuch an education as this would 
weaken and deject the minds of young people, and deprive the 
world of any worthy and reafonable labours ? 

So far therefrom, that there is nothing fo likely to enoble 
and exalt the mind, and prepare it for the moll heroical exer- 
cife of all virtues. And fatal experience every day evinces, 
that a contrary way of educating youth, is no fmall hindrance 
to their devoting themfelves entirely to God, and living up 
to the flrideft rules of the blefled and everlafting gofpel. 

An education which is not wholly intent upon this, is as 
iTiuch befide the point, as an art of phyfic that had little or no 
regard to the reftoration of health : or rather, it is like ad- 
miniftering poifon inftead of phyfic. 

For as the only end of the phyfician, is to reftore nature to 
its own ftate ; fo the only end of education is, to reftore our 
rational nature to its proper ftate. And as phyfic may juftly 
be called the art of reftoring health, fo education fl:ould be 
confidered in no other light, than as the art of recovering man 
to the ufe of reafon and religion. 

The youths that attended upon Pythagoras^ Socratesy Plato, 
and Epi£ietusy were thus educated. And fmce chriftianity 
hath, as it were, new created the moral and religious ivorld^ and 
fet every thing that is reafonable, wife, holy, and defirable, in 
its true point of light 5 one may reafonably exped, that the 
education of youth fhould be as much bettered by chriftianity, 
as the faith and do6lrines or religion are amended by it. 

But fmce our modern education is not of this kind, a de- 
ficiency in fuch an effential point, may be juftly afTigned as one 
great reafon why many men find it fo exceedingly difficult t© 
devote themfelves wholly unto God. 


[ 415 ] 


Sbiwing hoiv the method of educating daughters^ makes It difficult 
for the?n to enter into the fpirit of chrijiiaiiity j how mifcrahly 
they are injured and ahufed by fuch an education ; and the fpirit 
of a better education reprefented in the chara^cr ^/Eufebia. 

THAT turn of mind which is taught and encouraged in 
the education of daughters^ makes it exceed in o- difficult: 
for them to enter into fuch a fenfe and pradice of true devo- 
tion, as the fpirit of chriftianity requires. 

For if it were a virtue in a woman, to be proud and vain in 
berfelf, and fond of the world ; we could hardly ufe better 
means to raife thefe paflions, than thofe that are now ufed in 
their education. 

Matilda is a fine woman, of good breeding, great fenfe, and 
has a great deal of regard for religion : Ihe has three daugh- 
ters, educated by herfelf ; fhe will truft them to no one elfe, 
nor at any fchool, for fear they (hould Jcarn any thing ill. She 
ilays with the dancing-majler all the time he is with them 
becaufe {he will hear every thing that is faid to them. She 
has heard them read the fcriptures fo often, that they can re- 
peat great part of them without book ; and there is fcarce a 
good book of devotion, but you may find it in their clofets. 

Her daughters fee her great zeal for religion, but then they 
fee an equal earneftnefs for all forts of finery. They are 
afraid to meet her, if they have mifled the church ; but then 
they are more afraid to fee her, if they are not -laced as ftiait 
as they can poffibly be. 

Matilda is fo intent upon all the arts of improving their 
drejs^ that fhe has fome new fancy almoft every day, and 
leaves no ornament untryed, from the richefl jewel to the 
pooreft flower. She is fo nice and critical in her judgment, 
and fo fenfiblc of the fmalleft error, that her maid is often 
forced to drefs and undrefs her daughters three or four times 
a day, before flie can be fatisfied with it. 

As to the patchings (he referves that to herfclf ; for fhe fays, 
if they are not ftuck on with judgment^ they are rather a pre- 
judice, than an advantage to the face. 


[• 4>6 ] 

'The children fee To plainly the temper of their mother, thaf 
they even aftldl to be more pleafed with dicTs, than they really 
are, merely to gain her favour. 

They faw the eldeft fifter once brought to her tears, and 
her pcrvcrfenefs feverely reprimanded, for prefuming to fay^ 
that file thought it was better to cover the neck., than to go lb 
far naked as the modern drefs requires. 

She flints them in their meals, and is very fcrupulous of 
what they eat and drink ; and tells them how many fine 
lliapes fhe has feen fpoiled in her time, for want of fuch care. 
If a p'unple rifcs in their faces, {lie is in a great fright, and 
they themfelves are as afraid to fee her with it, as if they had 
committed fome great fin. 

Whenever they begin to look fanguine and healthy, (he 
calls in the affiftance of the doSior ; and if phyfic and iffues 
will keep the complexion from inclining to coarf; or ruddy^ 
fhe thinks them well employed. 

By this means they are pale, fickly, infirm creatures, va- 
poured through want of fpirits, crying at the fmalleft acci- 
dents, fwooning away at any thing that frightens them, and 
hardly able to bear the weight of their befl cloaths.' 

The eldeft daughter lived as long as (he could under this 
difcipline, and died in the twentieth year of her age. When 
fhe was opened, it appeared, that her ribs had grown into 
her liver, and that her other entrails were much hurt, by being 
crufhed together with her ftays, which her mother had ordered 
to be twitched fo ftrait, that it often brought tears into hcf 
eyes, whilft the maid was drefling her. 

Her youngeft daughter is run away with a gameller, a man 
of great beauty, and who, in drelHng and dancing, has no 

Matilda fays, fhe fliould die with grief at this accident, but 
that her confcience tells her, (lie has contributed nothing to 
it herfelf. She appeals to their clofets and their books of de- 
votion, to teftify what care fhe has taken to eftablifti her chil- 
dren in a life of folid piety and devotion. 

Now, though I do not intend to fay, that no daughters are 
brought up in a better way than this (for I hope many are) 
yet thus much, I believe, may be faid, that the much greater 
part of them are not brought up fo well, or accullomed to fo 
much religion, as in the prcfent inftance. 


[ 417 ] 

Their minds are turned as nnuch to the care of heauty and 
drcfs, and the indulgence of vain dcfires, as in the prefent cafe, 
without having fuch rules of devotion to ftand againft it. So 
that if folid piety is much wanted in that fex, it is the plain 
and natural confequence of a vain and corrupt education. H 
they are o»'ien too ready to receive the firft fops, beaux, and 
fine dancers for their hufbajids j it is no wonder they fhould 
like that in men, which they have been taught to admire in 
themfclves. And if they are often feen to lofe that little re- 
gard to religion, that they were taught in their youth, it is no 
more to be wondered at, than to fee a little flower choaked 
and killed amongft rank weeds. 


Perfonal pride, aff'edlation, a delight in beauty, and fond- 
nefs of finery, are tempers that muft kill all religion in the 
foul, or be killed by it ; they can no more thrive together 
than health and ficknefs. 

But how poflible it is to bring up daughters in a more ex- 
cellent way, let the following character declare. 

Eufebia is a pious widow, well born, and well bred, and 
has a good eftate for five daughters, whom file lo\es not only 
as her natural, but alfo as her fpiritual children ; and they re- 
verence her as their fpiritual mother, with an affecHon equal 
to that of the fondeft friends. 

*' My children, (fays fhe) your dear father was an humble, 
watchful, truly devout man. Whilft his ficknefs would fufFer 
him to talk with me, his difcourfe was chiefly about your 
education. He knew the ruins that a wrong education made 
in our fex ; and therefore conjured me with the tendercft ex- 
preffions, to renounce t\\t faJJnonable ways of educating daugh- 
ters, and to bring you all up in the moft unafFedted inftances 
of a truly chriftian and devout life. 

When your father died, I was much pitied by my friends, 
as having all the care of a family, and the management of an 
eftate fallen upon me. But my own grief was founded on 
another principle ; I was grieved to fee myfelf deprived of fo 
faithful a friend, and that fuch an em.inent example of real 
devoticjn, fhould be taken from the eyes of his children, be- 
fore they were of an age to love and folloV/ it. But as to 
worldly cares, v/hich my friends thought lay fo heavy upon 
me, they are moft- of them of our own making, and fall away 
as foon as we begin to kn:w curfehcs. 

Vol. IV. ^ D'd For 


[ 4i8 ] 

' For this reafon, all my difcourfe with you, has been to ac- 
cjuaint you with ydurfelvcs, and to accuftom you to fuch books 
of devotion, as may bcil inftruCt you in this greateft of all 

You would think it hard, not to know the family into 
which you was born, what anceftors you were defcended from, 
and what eftate was to come to you. But, my children, you 
may know all this with exai^nefs, and yet be as ignorant of 
yourfelves, as a man that (hould take himfelf to be wax, and 
therefore dared not to let the fun (liine upon him. 

In order to know yourfclvcs aright, you muft confider your- 
felvcs as fo many fallen embodied fpirits, conceived and born 
in fin, and that your lives began in a ftate of corruption and 
diforder, full of tempers and paiiions, that blind and darken 
the reafon of your minds, ai>d incline you to that which is 

Your bodies are not only poor and perifhing like your 
cloaths, but they are as tnfe£led chaths^ that fill you with ill 
diilempers, which opprefs the foul with fickly appetites, and 
vain envyings. 

Hence all of us are like two beings, that have as it were 
two hearts within us : with the one, we fee, tafte, and ad- 
mire reafon, purity, and holinefs ; with the other we incline 
to pride, vanity, and fenfual delights. 

This internal war we always feel within us more or lefs ; 
and if you would know the one thing ncceffary to you and all 
the world, it is this, to preferve, ftrengthcn, and perfect all 
that is rational, holy, and divine in our nature, and by the 
a:irirtance of the bleficd Spirit of God, to mortify and fubdue 
all that vanity, pride, and fenfualitv, which fprings from the 
corruption of our ftatc. 

Whilil you live thus, you live like yourfelves, and v;hat is 
more, lilce chriilians ; but whenever you are more intent 
upon adorning your pcrfons, than u:^'.n perfe£ling your fouls, 
you are much more beiide yourielves, than he, that had rather 
have a laced coat, than an healthful body. 

Never confider yourielves, therefore, as perfons that are to 
be fee n, admired, and courted by men j but as poor /inner s, 
that are to be v/isfhcd in the blood of the Lamb of God, and 
accepted through his all-fuflicient rightfou fnef?, received by 
faith, and to be laved from the foilici of a miferabie world, 


I 4^9 j 

and made meet for heaven by the powerful operations of his 
bieOcd Spirit. 

Thefe confitlerations have made me thinlc it my duty to 
teach you nothing that was dangerous for you to learn. I 
have kept you from every thing that might betray you into 
weaknefs and folly, or make you think any thing fine, but a 
fine mind 'i any thing happy, but an inteicfl In the fiwour of 
CiOD, through Jesus Christ ; or any thing dcfirable, but 
his love (bed abroad in the heart, and to do all the good you 
poilibly can to your fellow-creatures. 

Inftead of the vain, immodeit entertainment of plays and 
cperas^ I have taught you to delight in pious reading and re- 
ligious converfation. What mufic, dancing, and diverfions 
are to the people of the world, that holy meditation, fervent 
prayers, and other ads of devotion, have been to you. Inft-ad 
of forced fhapes, patched faces, and affeded motions, I have 
taught you to conceal your bodies with modiifi garments^ and 
to let the world have nothing to view of you, but the plain- 
iiefs and finccrity, the humility and unafFedednefs of all your 

You know, my children, that a fmgle ftate frees from 
worldly cares and troubles, and gives a woman an opportunity 
of caring only how (he may pleafe the Lord ; but as I look 
upon you all to be fo many great bleffings of a married ftate; 
fo I leave it to your choice, cither to do as I have done, or to 
continue in a virgin (late. Only let me remind you, if you 
intend to marry, let the time never come till you find a man 
that has thofe graces, which you are afpiring after yourfelvcs; 
who is likely to be a friend to all your virtues, and with 
whom it is better to live, than to want the benefit of his 

Avoid therefore the converfation of what the world calls 
fine-bred fops ^ and beaux ; for they are the fhame of their own 
fex, and ought to be the abhorrence of yours. 

If evil fpeaking, fcandai, or backbiting, be the converfa- 
tion where you happen to be, keep your hearts to yourfelvcs ; 
and if you have no opportuniiy to reprove or turn the ftrcam 
of fuch converfation into a proper channel, retire as foon as 
you can. 

Love and reverence poor people \ as for many reafons, fo 
particularly for this, bccaufe our blcflsJ Saviour was one of 

D d 2 the 

[ 42^0 ] 
the number. Vifit and converle with them frequently : yoii 
will often find fimplicity, innocence, patience, fortitude, and 
great piety amongft them ; and where they are not fo, your 
good example may amend them. For this caufe, you know 
I hdvc divided part of my eftate already amongft you, that 
you each may be charitable out of your own ftoclc, and take 
it in your turns to provide for the poor and fick of the pa- 

Whether married or unmarried, confider yourfelves as mo- 
thers and fifters, as friends and relations ta all that want your 
afliflance ; and never allow yourfelves to be idle, whilft 
others want any thing that your hands can make for them. 

1 have brought you up to all kinds of labour, that are pro- 
per for women, as fowing, knitting, fpinning, and all other 
parts of houfewifery ; not merely for your amufement, and 
that you may know how to direct your fervants ; but that 
you may be ferviceable to yourfelves and others, and be faved 
from thofe temptations which attend an idle life. I muft 
therefore repeat lo you, my daughters, what I have often 
reminded you of before, that I had rather fee you reduced to 
the neceiTity of maintaining yourfelves by your own hands, 
than to have riches to excufe yourfelves from labour. Never 
therefore confider your labour merely as an amufement to 
get rid of your time, and fo may be as trifling as you pleafe ; 
but confider it as fomething that is to be ferviceable to your- 
felves and others, that is to ferve fome fober ends of life, 
to fave and redeem your time, and make it turn to your ac- 
count, when the works of all people (liall be tried by fire. 

What would you think of the wifdom of him, that fhould 
employ his time in diftilling of waters, and making liquors 
which no body could ufe, merely to amufe himfelf with the 
variety of their colour and clearnefs ; when with lefs labour 
and expence, he might fatisfy the wants of thofe who have 
nothino; to drink ? And yet he would be as wifely employed, 
as thofe that are amufing themfelves with fuch tedious works 
as they neither need, nor hardly know how to ufe when they 
are finifhed ; when with lefs labour and expence they might 
be doing as much good, as he that is cloathing the naked, 
or vifiting-the fick. Be glad therefore to know the wants 
of the pooreft people, and think it not beneath you, to let 
your hands be employed in making fuch mean and ordinary 


[ 4it 1 

things for them, as their necefTitles require. Thus Dcrcns 
was employed, who is mentioned with fo much honour in 
holy writ ; and hy fo doing, you will behave like true dif- 
ciples of that Lord and Mafter, " who came into the world 
*' not to be miniftered unto, but to minifter." 

In fhort, my dear children, ftrive to do every thing that 
is praife- worthy, but do nothing in order to be piaifed ; nor 
think of any reward of all your works of faith and labours of 
love, till Jesus Christ cometh with all his holy angels. 
Think, my children, that -the foul of your good father, now 
with God, fpeaks to you through my mouth ; and let the 
double defire of your father who is gone, and of me who aoji 
with you, above all, let the mercies of Gop in Christ 
Jesus, prevail upon you to love God with all your fouls, to 
ftudy your own perfection, to praitife humility, and to do 
all the good you can to all your fellow-creatures, efpecially 
to thofe who are of the houfhold of faith, till it fhall plcafe 
God to call you to another life. 

Thus did the pious widow educate her daughters. The 
ffirit of this education fpeaks fo plainly for itfelf, that, I hope, 
I need fay nothing in its juftiiication. If we could fee it in 
life, as well as read of it in books, the v/orld would foon find 
the happy effects. 

There is nothing more defirable for the common good of 
all the world, than that v/e might fee it. For though women 
do not carry on the trade and bufmefs of the world, yet as 
they are mothers and mijirejps of families, they have for fome 
time the care of the education of their children of both forts, 
and are ^ntrufted with that which is of the greatefl confe- 
quence to human life. For as the health and ftrength, or 
weaknefs of our bodies, is very much owing to their me- 
thods of treating us when we are young; fo the foundnefs or 
folly of our minds, arc not lefs owing to thofe firft tempers 
and ways of thinking, which we eagerly received from the 
love, tendcrnefs, authority and conftant converfation of our 

Is it not then much to be lamented, that this fex, on whom 
fo much depends, who have the firfl: fornung of our bodies 
and our minds, are not only educated in pride, but in the 
filliefl and moft contemptible part of it ? 

P d 3 They 

r 422 ] 

They are hot fufFered to difpute with us the proud prizes 
of arts and fciences,- of learning and eloqence, in which I 
have much fufpicion they would often prove our fuperiors ; 
but we turn them over to the ftudy of beauty and drefs, and 
the whole world confpire to make them to think of nothing 
elfe. Fathers and mothers, friends isnd relations, fcem to 
have no other wi(h towards the little girl, but that fne may 
have 2ifair fkin, 2ifinejhape, drefs welly and dance to admira- 

And what makes this matter the more to be lamented, 
is this. That women are not only fpoiled by this education, 
but we fpoil that part of the world, which would othcrwifc 
furnifh the moft inftances of an eminent and exalted piety. 
The Church has formerly had eminent faints in that fex ; and 
it may reafonably be thought, that it is purely owing to their 
poor and vain education, that this honour of their fex is for 
the molt part confined to former ages. 

The corruption of the world indulges them in great vanity, 
and mankind feem to confider ihem in no other view, than 
zs ^o n\2i\-\y painted idols, that are to allure and gratify their 
paffions ; fo that if many women are vain, light, gew-gaw 
creatures, they have this to fay in excufe of themfelves, that 
they are not only fuch as their education has made them, but 
fuch as the generality of the world allow them to be. 

Some indeed are pleafed to fay, that women are natural!/ 
of little and vain mindsj and confequcntly their trifling vain 
behaviour is owing foltly to that; but this I look upon to be 
as falfe and unreafonable, as to fay, that butchers are natu- 
rallv cruel : for as their cruelty is not ov^^ing to their natures, 
but to their way of life, which has changed their natures ; 
{o whatever littlenefs and vanity is to be obfcrved in the minds 
of women, it is like the cruelty of butchers, a temper that 
is wrought into them by that life which they are taught 
and accudomed to lead. At leaft thus much muft be faid, 
that we cannot juflly charge any thing upon their nature, till 
we take care that it is not perverted by their education. 

But fuppofmg it were true, that they were thus naturally 
vain and light, then how much more blameable is that edu- 
cation, which feems contrived to firengthcn and increafe the 
folly and weaknefs of their minds ? For if it were a virtue in 
r women 

[ 433 ] 

women to be prouJ, and vain, and indevout, we could hardly 
take better means to raife thefe bad things in them, than thofc 
which are now ufed in their education. 

Some people that judge haftil^', will perhaps fay, I have 
been exerciling too great a feverity againft the fex. But 
more reafonabh pcrfons will eafily obferve, that I entirely 
fpare the fex, and only arraign th-ir education ; that, I pro- 
fefs, I cannot fpare ; but the only reafon is, becaufe it is 
their greatcft enemy, becaufe it deprives the world of fo many 
bkflings, and the church of fo many faints as might reafo- 
nably be expe6led from perfons, formed by their natural tem- 
per to all goodnefs and tcndcrnefs, and fitted, by the clear- 
nefs and brightnefs of their minds, to contemplate, love and 
admire every thing that is holy, virtuous, and divine. 


Shewingy how true devotion fills our lives with the greatcji peace 
and happinejs that can he enjoyed in this world, 

SOAIE people perhaps may object, that by thus living 
wholly unto God, and introducing a regard to his glory 
in all that we do, too great a reftraint. will be put upon hu- 
man nature ; and that by thus depriving ourfelves of fo many 
feemingly innocent pleafures, as fuch a way of life would 
hinder us from purluing, we (liall render our lives dull, un- 
eafy, and melancholy. 

But this objedion is entirely groundlefs. Forchrifiian de- 
votion requires us to renounce no ways of lite, wherein we 
can act reaibnably, and offer what we do to the glory of God. 
All ways of life, all fatisfadions and enjoyments that are within 
thefe bounds, are no ways denied by the llricfteft rules of 
leal devotion. And will you think that your life mufl be 
uncomfortable^ unleis you may difpleafe God, be fools and 
mad, and act contrary to that reafon and wifdom which He 
has implanted in you ? 

As for thofe fatisfadions which we dare not offer to a holy 
God, which are only invented by the folly and corruption 
of the world, which inflame our paflions, and link our fouls 

D d 4 into 

[ 424 1 

into grofTr.efs and fenfuality, and thereby render us unmeef 
ior communion with God here, and the eternal enjoyment of 
Him hereafter, furely it can be no uncomfortable ftate of 
life, to be refcued by religion from fuch murderers both of 
our fouls and bodies. 

Let us fuppofe a perfpn deflltutc of that knowledge whicl^ 
we have from our fenfes, placed fomewhere alone by him- 
felf, in the midft of a variety of things which he did not know 
how to ufe ; that he has by him bread, wine, gold-duft, iron 
chains, gravel, garments, and fire. Let it be fuppofed, that 
he had no knowledge of the right ufe of thefe things, nor 
any direcSlion from his fenfes how to quench his thirft, or 
fatisfy his hunger, or make any ufe of the things about him. 
Let it be fuppofed, that in his drought he puts gold duft into 
his eyes ; when his eyes fmart, he puts wine into his ears j 
that in his hunger, he puts gravel in his mouth : that in 
pain, he loads himfelf with the iron chains ; that feeling 
cold, he puts his feet in the water ; that being frighted at 
the fire, he runs away from it j and that being weary, he 
makes a feat of his bread. Let it be fuppofed, that through 
his ignorance of the right ufe of the things that are about 
him, he will vainly torment himfelf whilft he lives ; and at 
laft die, blinded with duft, choaked with gravel, and loaded 
with irons. Let it be fuppofed, that Ibme good being came 
to him, and fhewed him the nature and ufe of all the things 
that were about him, and gave him fuch ftri61: rules of ufing 
them, as would certainly, if obferved, make him the hap- 
pier for all that he had, and deliver him from the pains of 
hunger, and thirft, and cold ; could you with any reafon 
afiirm, that thofe ftricl rules of uhng the things that were 
about him, had rendered that poor man's life dull and un- 
comfortable ? 

Now this is, in fome meafure, a reprefentation of the Jiri(^ 
rules of religion ; they relieve our ignorance, fave us froni 
tormenting ourfelves, and teach us to ufe every thing about 
us, not only to the glory of God, but to our own proper ad- 

If religion commands us to live wholly unto God, and to 
do all to his glory, it is becaufe every other way of life i§ 


[ 425 ] 
living wholly againfi: ourfelvcs, and will end In our own Diamc 
and confufion. 

Would you fee how happy they are, who live according 
to their own wills, and who cannot fubmit to the dull and 
melancholy bufincfs of a life devoted unto (jOD, look at 
Flatus ; Flatus is rich and in health, yet always uneafy, and 
always fearching after happinefs. 

At his firft fetting out in life, fine cloaths was his delight ; 
his enquiry was only after the bed taylors and peruke-makers, 
and he had no thoughts of excelling in any thing but drefs. 
He fpared no expence, but carried every nicety to its greateft 
height. But this happinefs not anfwering his expectation, 
he left off his brocades^ put on a plain coat, railed at fops and 
beaus, and gave himfelf up to gaming with great eagernefs. 

This new pleafure fatisfied him for fome time : he envied 
no other way of life. But being by the fate o^ play drawn 
into a duel^ where he narrowly efcaped his death, he left off 
the dlce^ and fought for happinefs no longer amongft the 

The next thing that feized his wandering imagination, was 
the diver/tons of the town ; and for more than a twelvemonth, 
you heard him talk of nothing but ladles, drawing-rooms, 
birth- nights, plays, balls, and affemblies. But growing Tick 
of thefe, he had recourfe to hard drinking. Here he had 
many a merry night, and met with ftronger joys than any 
he had felt before. Here he had thoughts of fetting up 
his ftaff, and looking out no farther; but unluckily falling 
into 2. /every he grew angry at all ftrong liquors, and took 
his leave of the happinefs of being drunk. 

The next attempt after happinefs, carried him into the 
field. For two or three years nothing made him fo happy as 
hunting ; he entered upon it with all his foul, and leaped more 
hedges and ditches than had ever been known in fo fhort a 
time. You never faw him but in a green coat ; he was the 
envy of all that blew the horn^ and always fpoke to his dogs 
in great propriety of language. If you met him at home in 
a bad day, you would hear him blow his horn, and be en- 
tertained with the furprizing accidents of the laft noble chace. 
No fooner had Flatus outdone all the world in the breed and 
education of his dogs, built nevy kennels, neyir ftables, and 
6 t>ought 

[ 42« ] 

hought 71 new huntipg-featy but he immediateiy got fight of 
another happinefs, hated the fenfelefs noife and hurry of hunt- 
ing, gave away his dogs, and was for fome time after deep 
in the pleafures of building. 

Now he invents new kinds of dove-cotes^ and has fuch con- 
trivances in his barns and ftables, as were never feen before : 
he wonders at the dulnefs of the old builders, is wholly bent 
upon the improvement of archite^urey and will hardly hang a 
door in the ordinary way. He tells his friends, that he never 
was fo delighted in any thing in his life; that he has more 
happinefs amongft his brick and mortar^ than ever he had at 
court ; and that he is contriving how to have fome little matter 
to do that way as long as he lives. 

The next year he leaves his houfe iinfiniflied, complains to 
every body o^ ?nafons 2.uA carpenters^ and devotes himfelf wholly 
to the happinefs of nW/>/^/ about. After this, you can never 
lee him but on horfcback, and fo highly delighted with this 
new way of life, that he would tell you, give him but his 
horje and a clean country to ride in, and you might take all the 
reft to yourfelf. A variety of new faddles and bridles, and a 
great change of horfes, added much to the pleafure of this 
new way of life. But however, after fon.e time having tired 
both himfelf and his horfes, the happieft thing he could think 
of next, was to go abroad and njifit foreign countries \ and there, 
indeed, the happinefs exceeded his imagination, and he was 
only uneafy that he had begun fo fine a life no fooner. The 
next month he returned home, unable to btar any longer the 
impertinence o\ foreigners. 

After this, he was a ^xe2Xfludent for one whole year ; he 
was up early and late at his Italian grammar^ that he might 
have the happinefs of underftanding the cpera^ whenever he 
fhould hear one, and not be like thofe unreafonable people,, 
that are pleafed with they don't know what. 

Flatus is now at a full ftand, and is doing what he ne- 
ver did in his life before, he Is rcafoning and reflecting with 
himfelf. He lof^js feveral days, in coniidering v/hich of his 
caft-ofFways of life he (hould try again. 

But here a new projed comes in to his relief. He is now 
living upon herbs, and running about the country, to get 


[ 427 ] 

hinnrelFinto :is good wind tls any running footman \a the king- 

I have been thus circumftantial in To many foolifh parti- 
culars of this kind of life, becaufe I hope, that every parti- 
cular folly that you here fee and read of, will naturally turn 
itfelf into an argument for the wifdom and happinefs of a re- 
ligious life. 

Bur you will perhaps fay, that the ridiculous, reftlefs life 
of FlatuSy is not the common ftate of thofe, who refign them- 
felves up to live by their own humour, and neglecSl the ftricl 
rules of religion ; and that therefore it is not ,fo great an ar- 
gument of the happinefs of a religious life, as I would make 

I anfwer, that I am afraid it is one of the mo{\: general cha- 
racers in life; and that few people can read it, without fee- 
ing fomething in it which belongs to them. But let it be 
granted, that the generality of people are not of fuch reftlefs^ 
fickle tempers as Flatus ; the difference is only this. Flatus 
is continually changing and trying fomething new, but others 
are conicnt with fome one ftate; they do not leave gamint^^ 
and then fall to hunting ; but they have fo much ileadinefs in 
their tempers, that fome feck after no other happinefs, but 
that of heaping up riches ; others grow old in the fports of the 
field ; and others are content to drmk themfelves to death, 
without the leaft enquiry after any other happinefs. 

Now is there any thing more happy or reafonable in fuch 
a life as this, than in the life o^ Flatus f Is it not as great 
and defirable, as wife and har>py, to be conflantly changing 
from one thing to another, as to be nothing elfe but a ga- 
therer of money, a hunter, a gamefter, or a drunkard all 
your life ? Shall religion be looked upon as a burden, or as 
a dull and melancholy ftate, for calling men from fuch a hap- 
pinefs as this ? 

But turn your eyes now another way, and let the glorious 
joys, the exquihte happinefs o( Feliciana, teach you hov/ 
miferable, and how dull they muil needs be, and what a 
delufion they are in, whole hearts are not wholly devoted 
unto God. 

If you was to live with Feliciana but one half year, you 
would fee all the happinefs that (he is :o have as long as (he 
lives. She has no more to come, but the poor repetition of 


[ 428 ] 

that which could never have pleafed once, but through a 
wrong turn of mind, and war^ of thought. 

She is to be again drefled fine, and keep her vifiting days. 
She is again to change the colours of her cloaths, again to 
have a new head, and again put patches on her face. She 
is again to fee who a6ts beft at the play-houfe, and who fmgs 
fineft at the opera. She is again to make ten vifits in a day, 
and be ten times in a day trying to talk artfully, eafily, and 
politely about nothing. 

3he is to be again delighted with fome new fafhion ; and 
again angry at the change of fome old one. She is to be 
again at cards and gaming at midnight, and again in bed 
^t noon. She is to be again pleafed with hypocritical com- 
pliments, and again difturbed with imaginary affronts. She is 
to be again pleafed with her good luck at gaming, and again 
tormented with the lofs of her money. 

She is again to prepare herfelf for a birth night, and again 
fee the town full of good company. She is again to hear the 
cabals and intrigues of the town, again to have fecret intelli- 
gence of private amours, and early notice of marriages, quar- 
rels, and partings. 

If you fee her come out of her chariot more brifkly than 
ufual, converfe with more fpirit, and feem fuller of joy than 
ihe was laft week, it is becaufe there is fome furprizing new 
drefs, or new diverfion juft come to town. 

Thefe are all the fubftantial and regular parts of Feliciana s 
happinefs ; and {lie never knew a pleafant day in her life, 
but it was owing to fome one or more of thefe things. 

It is for this happinefs, that (he has been always deaf to 
the reafonings of religion ; and if you look into the world, 
and obferve the lives of thofe women, whom no arguments 
can prevail on to live wholly unto God ; you will find moft 
of them to be fuch, as lofe all the comforts of religion, with- 
out gaining the tenth part of Feliciana's happinefs. They 
are fuch as fpend their time and fortunes only in mimicking 
the plcafures of richer people ; and rather look and long after, 
than enjoy thofe delufions, which are only to be purchafed by 
confiderable fortunes. 

Nor does a life only of fuch vanity and fenfuality as that 
of Flatus or Feliciana's, but even the moft regular kind of 
life, that :s not governed hy ^reat devotion, fufficiently (hews 


[ 429 ] 

how dull and uncomfortable their lives muft needs be, who 
arc not wholly devoted unto God. 

OSfavius is a learned, ingenious man, well verfed in moft 
parts of literature, and no ftranger to any kingdom in Europe, 
The other day, being juft recovered from a lingering fever, 
he thus addrefled his friends. 

" My glafs, fays he, is almofl run out^ and your eyes fee 
how many marks of age and death I bear about me : But I 
plainly feel myfelf finking away fafter than any flanders by 
do imagine. I fully believe, that one year more will conclude 
my reckoning." 

The attention of his friends was much raifed by fuch a de- 
claration, expeding to hear fomething truly excellent from fo 
learned a man, who had but a year longer to live ; when 
O^avius proceeded in this manner : " For thefe reafons, my 
friends, I have left off all taverns, the wine of thofe places is 
not good enough for me in this decay of nature. I muft nov7 
be nice in what I drink ; I cannot pretend to do as I have 
done; and therefore am refolved to furnifh my own cellar 
with a little of the very beft, though it coft me ever fo much. 

I muft alfo tell you, my friends, that age forces a man to 
be wife in many other refpeds, and makes us change many 
of our opinions and practices. 

You knov/ how much I have liked a large acquaintance ; I 
now condemn it as an error. Three or four chearful, divert- 
ing companions, is all that I now defire ; becaufe I find, that 
in my prefent infirmities, if I am left alone, or to grave com- 
pany, I am not fo eafy to myfelf." 

A few days after O^avius had made this declaration to his 
friends, he relapfed into his former illnefs, and was committed 
to a nurfe, who clofed his eyes before his frefh parcel of wine 
came in. 

Young Engenius^ who was prefent at this difcourfe, went 
home a new man, with full refolutions of devoting himfelf to 
God. '^ I never, fays Eugenius^ was fo deeply afFe(5led with 
the wifdom and importance of religion, as when I faw how 
poorly and meanly the learned Ociavius was to leave the world, 
through the want of it. 

How often had I envied his ^reat learning, his fkill in 
languages, his knowledge of antiquity, his addrefs, and fine 


t 430 ] 

manner of exprcffing himfelf upon all fubje£ls ! But uhen I 
faw how poorly it all ended, what was to be the laft year of 
fuch a life, and how foolifhly the mafter of all thefe accom- 
plifhments was then forced to talk, I was then convinced that 
there muft be nothing fo happy and comfortable as a life of 
true devotion ; nor any thing io poor and comfortlefs, as death 
without it.'* 

Look now at that condition of life, which draws the envy 
of all eyes. 

Ncgut'ius is a temperate honeft man : he ferved his time under 
a mailer of great trade, but has by his own management made 
it a more confiderable bufmefs than ever it was before. For 
thirty years paft, he has written fifty or fixty letters in a week, 
and is bufy in correfponding with all parts of Europe. The 
general good of trade feems to Negotius to be the general good 
of life; whomfoever he admires, whatever he commends, or 
condemns, either in church or flate, is admired, commended, 
or condemned, with fome regard to trade. 

As money is continually pouring in upon him, fo he often 
lets it go in various kinds of expence and generofity, and 
fometimes in ways of charity. 

Negotius is always ready to join in any public contribution : 
Jf a purfe is making at any place where he happens to be, 
4^'hethe^ it be to buy a plate for a horfe-race, or to redeem a 
prifoner out of jail, you are always fure of having fomething 
from him. 

He has given a fine ring of bells to a church in the country; 
and there is much expedation, that he will fome time or other 
make a more beautiful front to the market-houfe, than has yet 
been feen in any place. For it Is the generous fpirit ok' Negotius 
to do nothing in a mean way. 

The generality of people, when they think of happinef?, 
think upon Negotius^ in whofe life every inflance of happinefs 
is fuppofed to meet ; fober, prudent, rich, profperous, gene- 
lous, and as the world thinks, charitable. 

Let us now then look at this condition in another, but truer 

Let it be fuppofed, that this fame Negotius was a painful, 
laborious man, every day deep in a variety of affairs ; that 
he neither drank, nor was debauched ; but was fober and re- 

[43' ] 

gular In bis bufinefs. Let it be fuppofed that he grew old in 
this courfe of trading; and that the end and defign of all this 
labour, care, and application to bufinefs, was only that h- 
might die poileflcd of more than a hundred thoufand pair of 
boots and fpurs, and as many great-coats. Now if this was 
really the cafe, I believe it would be readily granted, that a 
life of fuch bufinefs was as poor and ridiculous, as any that 
can be invented. But it would puzzle any one to fliew, that 
a man that has fpent all his time and thoughts in bufinefs and 
hurry, that he might die, as it is faid, worth a hundred thou- 
fand pounds, is any whit wifer than he, who has taken the 
fame pains to have as many pair cf boots and fpurs when he 
leaves the world. 

For if when he has gotten his hundred thoufand pound?, 
or all his boots, his foul is to go to his own place, as every 
foul needs muft that has not clofed with Jesus Christ, and 
is not born again of God; how can we fay, that he who has 
worn out his life in raifing an hundred thoufand pounds, has 
a(£led a wifer part for himfelf, however his money may profit 
others, than he who has had the fume care to provide a 
hundred thoufand pair of boots and fpurs, and as many great 
coats ? 

It would be endlefs to multiply examples of this kind, to 
fhew how little is \oi\., and how greatly they are miftaken, 
who imagine they fhould render themfelves dull and comfort* 
lefs by introducing a ftridl piety into evrry condition of human 

Examples of great piety are not now common in the world; 
but the mifery and folly of worldly men, and vain and trifling 
women, is what meets your eyes in every place ; and you need 
not look far to fee, how poorly, how vainly men dream away 
their lives for want of real devotion. 

This is the reafon that I have laid before you (o many 
characters of the vanity of a worldly life, to teach you to 
make fome benefit of the corruption of the age, and that yon 
may be made wife, though not by the fight of what piety 
is, yet by leeing v^hat mifery and folly reign where piety is 

To meditate upon the perfection of the divine attributes, 
to contemplate the love of God in Christ, th« glories of 


[ 432 ] 
heaven, the joys of faints and angels, living for ever In the 
brightnefs and glory of the divine prefencej thefe are the me- 
ditations of fouls advanced in piety, and not fo fuited to every 

But to fee and confider the emptlnefs and error of all 
worldly happinefs; to fee the grofTnefs of fenfuality, the poor- 
nefs of pride, the ftupidity of covetoufnefs, the vanity of drefs, 
the delufion of honour, the blindnefs of our paffions, the un- 
certainty of our lives, and the Ihortnefs of all worldly pro- 
\c8.s ; thefe are meditations which are fuited to all capacities^ 
and fitted to ftrike all minds : This is that " wifdom that 
crieth, and putteth forth her voice in the ftrcets," that ftandeth 
at all our doors, that appealeth to all our fenfes, teaching us 
in every thing, and every where, by all that we fee, and all 
that we hear, by births and burials, by ficknefs and healthy 
by life and death, by pains and poverty, by mifery and vanity^ 
and by all the changes and chances of life; that there is no- 
thing elfe for man to look after, no other end in nature for 
him to drive at, but a happinefs, which is only to be found 
in a life devoted /o God. 

CHAP. Vllt. 

Shewing the excellency and greainefs of a devout fpirii, and prov- 
ing that a contrary [pirii^ is an indication of great ignorance and 

I Have now finifhed what was intended ; I have explained 
the nature of chrijiian devotion^ and fhewn that it belongs 
to all orders, and more efpecially to thofe whofe fortunes fet 
them above the common level of mankind. I have endea- 
voured to point out to you, the chief caufes of the general in- 
devotion of the profefTing chriftian world ; and have fhewn in 
various charalfersy how poor, how miferable they live, who 
are flrangers to a life wholly devoted to God. I fhall only 
add a word or two by way of conclufion, to prove that fer- 
vent devotion is the noblefl temper of the greatefl and noblefl 
fouls; and that a want of devotion, wherever it is, either 
ampngft the learned or unlearned, is founded in grofs igno- 

[ 433 ] 
ranee, and in the greatcft blindnefs and infenfibility that can 
happen to a rational creature. 

And here, I fuppofe it will be granted on all hands, that it 
is a fign of a great and noble mind for a man to be full of 
reverence and duty to his parents, to have the trucft love and 
honour for his friend, and to excel in the higheft inftances of 
gratitude to his benefatSlor. Are not thefe tempers, in the 
higheft degree, figns of the moft exalted and perfe6l minds ? 

And yet what is devotion, but the higheft exercife of thefe 
tempers, of duty, reverence, love, honour, and gratitude, to the 
amiable, glorious />^r^«/, friend and benefactor of all mankind? 
So long, therefore, as duty to parents, love to friends, and 
gratitude to benefacStors, are thought great and honourable 
tempers; devotion, which is nothing elfe but duty, love, and 
gratitude to God, muft have the chief place amongft our 
higheft virtues. 

Again; we know how our blefied Lord a£led in a human 
body; it was " his meat and drink to do the will of his Father 
which is in heaven." And if any number of heavenly fpirits 
were to leave their habitations in the light of God, and be 
for a while united to human bodies, they would certainly tend 
towards God in all their actions, and be as heavenly as they 
could, in a ftate of flefli and blood. 

They would adl: in this manner, becaufe they know that 
God is the only good of all fpirits ; and that whether they 
were in the body or out of the body, in heaven or on earth, 
they muft have &\txy degree of their greatnefs and happinefs 
from God alone. All human fpirits therefore, the more ex- 
alted they are, and the more they know their divine original, 
and the nearer they come to heavenly fpirits, by fo much the 
more will they live to God in all their aclions, aud make their 
whole life a ftate of devotion. 

A devout man makes a true ufe of his reafon ; he {^t^ 
through the vanity of the world, difcovers the corruption of 
his nature, and the blindnefs of his pafTions. He lives by a 
law which is not vifible to vulgar eyes ; he enters into the 
world oi fpirits \ he compares the greateft things, fets eternity 
againft time; and chufes rather to be forever great in the 
prefence of God when he dies, than to have the greateft fl^are 
of worldly pleafures whilft he lives. There is nothing, there- 

VoL. IV. E e fore, 


[ 434 1 

fore, that fliews fo great a genius, nothing that To raifes u3 
above vulgar fpirits, nothing that fo plainly declares ^n heroic 
greatnefs of mind, as great and fervent devotion. 

When you fuppofe a man to be a faint, or all devotion, you 
have railed him as much above all other conditions of life, as 
a philoy/pher is above an animal. 

The greateft fpirits of the heathen world, fuch as Pythagoras j 
Socrates, Plato, Epi^etus, and Marcus Antoninus, owed all their 
greatnefs to fomething they pofl'efled, that refemblcd devotion. 
Their wifdom and deep contemplations, tended only to delivei 
men from the vanity of the world, and the flavery of bodily 
paflions ; and had they been endowed with the revelation of 
Jesus Christ, they might have juftly been ftiled great and 
devout men. For their main end of living, feemed to be, 
that they might z€t as fpirits that came from God, and were 
foon to return to him. 

But to proceed : Courage and bravery are words of a great 
found, and feem to fignify an heroic fpirit j but yet humility, 
which feems to be the loweft, meanefl part of devotion, is a 
more certain argument of a noble and courageous mind. A 
man that dares be poor and contemptible in the eyes of the 
world, to approve himfelf to Jesus Christ; that refifts and 
rejects all human glory, that oppofes the clamour of his paf- 
fions, that meekly puts up all injuries and wrongs, and dares 
itay for his reward, till the invifible hand of God gives to 
every one their proper places, endures a much greater trial, 
and exerts a nobler fortitude, than he that is bold and daring 
in the fire of battle. For the boldnefs of a foldier, if he is 
a flranger to devotion, is rather weaknefs than fortitude ; it 
is at beft but mad paflion, and heated fpirits, and has no more 
true valour in it, than the fury of a tyger. For as we cannot 
lift up a hand, or ftir a foot, but by a power that is lent us 
from God ; fo bold anions that are not direfted by the laws 
of God, and done with a regard to his glory, arc no more 
true bravery, than fedate malice is chriftian patience. 

Farther ; That part of devotion which exprefTes itfelf in 
forrowful confeffions, and penitential tears of a broken and 
contrite heart, which wjth fome feems likewife another of the 
pooreft and meaneft things ; is notwithftanding an indication 
©f the moft great and noble mind. For who does not acknow- 

[ 435 ] 

IteJge it an inftance of an ingenuous, generous and brave 
mind, to acknowledge a fault, and afk pardon for any oifence? 
Are not the finefl: and nioft improved minds the moft remark- 
able for this excellent temper? Is it not alio allowed, that the 
ingenuity and excellency of a man's fpirit is much {hewn, 
when his forrow and indignation at hlmfelf, rifes in pro- 
portion to the folly or his crime, and the goodnefs and f-rcat- 
nefs of the perfon he has offended ? Now if thefe thino-s arb 
fo, then the greater aiw man's mind is, the more he will hi 
difpofed to proftrate himfelf, and confefs his faults before 
God, in all the humbleil a6ls and exprefTions of repentance. 
And the greater the ingenuity, the gcnerofity, judgment, and 
penetration of his mind is, the more will he exercife and in- 
dulge a paflionate, tender fenfe of GoD*s juft difpleafure ; and 
the more he knows of the greatnefs, the goodnefs, and per- 
fedlion of the divine nature, the fuller of fliam.e and confufion 
he will be at his own fins and ingratitude. 

From all which confiderations, it plainly appear?, that de- 
votion is a true elevation of the foul, and that a lively fenfc 
of honour, and great knov/ledge of ourfclvesj are the bed 
natural helps that devotion haih. Aiid if this does not prove, 
that great devotion is the nobIe_^ temper of the greateft and ncL'c;/^ 
fculsy we have not an argument to prove, that there is any 
fuch thing as a wife man or a fool. 

On the other hand, it will as evidently appear that a want 
of devotion, wherever it is, among the learned or unlearned, 
is founded on grofs ignorance, and the greateft blindnefs and 
infenfibility that can happen to a rational creature. 

People indeed of fine parts and learning, or of great know- 
ledge in worldly matters, may perhaps think it hard to have 
their want of devotion charged upon their ignorance; but if 
they will be content to be tried by reafon and fcripture, ir 
may foon be made appear. For were not our LoRD and his 
apoftles, eminent inftances of great and exalted devotion ? 
And if we will grant, (as all profeffed chriftians muft grant) 
that their devotion was founded on a true knowledge cf the 
nature of devotion, the nature of God, and the nature of 
man ; then it is plain, that all thofe who are infenfible of 
devotion, neither know God, themfelves, nor devotion. 

Fray how comes it to pafs, that mofl people have recourfs 
E e 2 t^ 

[ 436 ] 

to devotion, when they are under ficknefs, diflrcfs, or in fear 
of death ? Is it not, becaufe this ftate fhews them more the 
want of God, and their own weaknefs, than they perceive at 
other times ? And if devotion at thefe feafons, is the efFedl: of 
a better knowledge of God, and ourfelves, then the negledl 
and want of it at other times muft be always owing to igno- 
rance. Ignorance did I fay ? Yes, undoubtedly, and that the 
tno^ J})ameful ignorance: for it is an ignorance of thofe things, 
which are molt efiential to us as rational creatures ; I mean 
our relation to God, and the obligations we lie under to live 
wholly to his glory. 

If a Judge had fine Ikill in painting, archite(Slure, and 
mufic, but at the fame time had grofs and confufed notions 
of equity, and a poor, dull apprehenfion of the value of juftice, 
who would fcruple to reckon him a poor ignorant Judge ? If 
a Bifhop fhould be a man of great addrefs and fkill in the 
art of preferment, and of a quick underftanding how to raife 
and enrich his family in the v/orld, but fiiould have no tafte 
or fenfe of the maxims and principles of the faints and fathers 
of the church ; if he did not conceive the holy nature, and 
great obligations of his calling;, and judge it better to be 
crucified to the world, than to live idly in pomp and fplendor; 
who would fcruple to charge fuch a Bilhop with want of 
underftanding ? 

But now, if a Judge is to be reckoned ignorant, nay 
fhamefuily fo, if he does not feel and perceive the value and 
worth of juftice ; if a Bifhop is to be looked upon as void 
of underftanding, if he is more experienced in other things, 
than in the exalted virtues of his apoftolical calling; then 
all common chriftians are to be looked upon as more or lefs 
fliamefully ignorant, as they are more or lefs ignorant of 
thofe great things, which are the common, and ought to be 
the greateft concern of all chriOians, 

If a man had eyes that could fee beyond the ftars, or pierce 
into the heart of the earth, but could not fee the things that 
were before him, or difcern any thing that was ferviceabte to 
him, we fliould reckon that he had but a very bad fight. 
And if another had ears that received founds from the world 
in the moon, but could hear nothing that v/as faid or done 
upon earth, we ftiould look upon him to be as bad as deaf. 

5 I" 

[ 437 ] 

In like manner, If a man has a memory that can retain a 
great many things -, if he has a wit that is fharp and acute in 
arts and fciences, or an imagination that can wander ac^ree- 
ably in fidions ; but has a dull, poor apprehcnfion of his 
duty and relation to God, of the value of piety, or the worth 
of an intereft in the righteoufnefs of Jesus Christ, he may 
very juftly be reckoned to have a very bad underftandino-. 
He is but I'ke the man that can only fee or hear fuch thinfTs 
as are of no benefit to him. 

If an human fpirit fhould imagine fome mighty Prince to be 
greater than God, we fhould take it for a poor, ignorant 
creature; all people would acknowledge fuch an imagination 
to be the height of ftupidity : But if this fame human fpirit 
fhould think it better to be devoted to fome mighty Prince, 
than to be devoted to God, would not this be a greater proof 
of a poor, ignorant, and blinded nature ? 

Yet this is what all people do, who think any thing 
greater, better, or wifer, than a devout life. So that which 
way foever we confider this matter, it plainly appears, that 
devotion is an inftance of great jucfgment, and of an 
elevated nature; and the want of devotion is a certain 
proof of the moft fhameful ignorance, and want of under- 

Would you therefore not incur the imputation of the 
higheft folly, and moft fhameful ignorance; would you be 
poflefled of the nobleft and moft exalted judgment; would 
you avoid the fenfelefs ar.d vexatious miferies that attend a 
vain, fenfual, and "mdevout life; would you ad like a rational 
and redeemed creature; would you enjoy folid peace and hap- 
pinefs here, and have a well grounded hope and afTurance of 
being invefted with eternal joy and comrort in the blifsful 
fruition of the glorious and ever-blefted God hereaftf r ; let it 
be your higheft concern henceforward, to aflc, feek, and 
knock at the door of divine grace, till you obtain a true 
living faith in the righteoufnefs of the once humbled but now 
exalted Redeemer, and as a proof of that, to devcte yourfelf 
entirely, without referve, to his honour, and do all the good 
you poflibly can to all your fellow-creatures, for his great 
name's fake, 

E c 3 PRE- 


To a New Edition of the 


As intended to have been publidied by 
Mr. White FIELD. 

E e 4 

[ 441 ] 


To a New E d i t i o n of the 


As intended to have been piiblifhed by- 
Mr. Whitefield. 

THE word Homily fignifies a fermon. Confequently the 
book of homilies, implies a book of fermons. Parti- 
cularly that book, which was compofed by thofe great refor- 
mers, Cranmer^ Ridley^ Latimer^ Hooper^ and others, in the 
beginning of the reign of that Jojhh of his age, Ediuard the 
ftxth. It was again republifhed, after the (hort interval of 
bloody Marys, government, in the reign of Qi^ieen EHzabethy 
and continued interwoven with our ecclefiaflical conftitution, 
under her immediate fuccefibr King James the firft. Even 
to this very day, the thirty-ninth article of our church runs 
thus : " The fecond book of Homilies, the feveral titles 
*' whereof we have joined under this article, doth contain a 
*' godly and wholefome do61rine, and neceflary for thefe 
*' times ; as doth the former book of Homilies, which were fet 
*<^ forth in the time o^ Edward the fixth ; and therefore we 
*<^ judge them to be read in churches by the minifters, diligently 
^' and diftindlly, that they may be underftanded of by the 
*' people." 

Such are the exprefs words of our 39th article; and yet, 
though we fubfcribe this article, which enjoins thefe Homilies 
to be read in our churches by the minifters diligently and di- 
ftindly, this is f© far from being our pradicc, that almoft 


[ 442 ] 
for time immemorial, at lead in our days, they are feldom 
if ever read at all. What reafon can be afligned for fuch 
regled, I will not take upon me to determine : furely it 
cannot be, that our clergy look upon this book, as contain- 
ing ungodly or unwholfome dodrine ; for why then do they 
fubfcnbe to the diligent and frequent reading of it ? Neither 
can it be fuppofed that they fo much as imagine, that this 
godly and wholefome do6lrine is lefs neceflary for the prefent 
age, than for that in which it was firft publifhed. But how- 
ever it is, if we acl confidently, the fubfcribers to our articles 
feem not to be left at their liberty to ufe or difufe them ; they 
being judged to be read, as much now as formerly, in 
churches by the minifters diligently and diftindly. For if 
l.^may be fufFcred to give my opinion, the dreadful igno- 
rance, as to the fundamentals of our holy religion, that almoft 
every where abounds amongft the members of our efta- 
blilhed church, is chiefly owing to our negledl of preach- 
ing and putting into their hands the grand dodrines of the Re-^ 
formation, contained m thefe Homilies and our other do£lrinal 
articles. And hence undoubtedly it is, that they become 
fuch an eafy prey to popifh emiflaries, who lie in wait to de- 
ceive. For thefe reafons, in order to contribute my poor 
mite towards putting a {rep to the growth of this common 
and almoft epidemical evil, I have fele£led a few of the moft 
efiential Homilies, with a fuitable colle6l and a hymn to each, 
at a very fmall price, on purpofe for the inftrudion and edi- 
fication of the poorer fort, who are generally chiefly attacked 
by the partizans of the F^omifo communion. 

The church of Scothmd, called our fifter church, hath 
herein fet us an example ; and I could wilii, that in this par- 
ticular we would endeavour to copy after it. Her confeilions, 
of faith, and dircdory, are printed fo frequently and fo cheap, 
that they are almoft in every hand ; and fo conftantly ex- 
plained and infifted upon in the ininifters ftated parochial 
vifitations, that perhaps (tho* no doubt even iharc^ there is an 
awful degeneracy) their commonalty, in refpe^l to doiStrinal 
points, are fome of the moft knowing in the world. Would 
to GcD the fame could be faid of the Church of England pro- 
fcftbrs, either at home or abroad ! The darknefs, the grofs 
and thick darknefs of thofe at home, is fo notorious, that it is 


[ 443 ] 

tvery where fecn, felt, and compldiiicd of, by thofe that 
have eyes to fee and ears to ear. What a pity is it therefore, 
that this book of Homilies is not jud-cd proper, and in- 
hrted on to be read in churches, by minifters diligently and 
diftintStly, that they may be underftood by the people now, 
as well as at the firft davvnings of the Reformation. And 
what a further pity is it, that among the various books re- 
commended and given away by the worthy focieties for pro- 
moting chriftian knowledge, and propagating the gofpel in 
foreign parts, the book of Homilies, containing fuch godly 
and whokfome doiflrinc diligently and diftimSfly to be read, 
fhould never find a place in their catalogue; though both 
thefe focieties have been eftablifhed fo long as foon after the 
glorious and happy revolution. 

If our focieties at home, or mllTionaries abroad, fliould 
urge in excufe for their not reading or difperling this book 
of Homilies, that its language and di6lion is too antique 
and obfolete; I humbly apprehend, they might with equal 
propriety make the fame objei^ion againft the ufe of, and 
difperling the book oi' Corn won Prayer. For both were com- 
piled by the fame great luminaries of our Church, and that 
too at the very felf fame important sera of the Reformation. 
Both contain the fame godly and wholefome do^^rine, and 
both are equally adapted to inftruct the ignorant, and at the 
fame ti/ce to raife and elevate the devout and fimple heart. 
And therefore fince the one is conitantly to be read in the 
de(k, why (hould not the other be diligently and diftindHy 
read and enforced from the pulpit ? Would to God that 
this was our univerfal praftice : for then our daily or weekly 
worfliippers and hearers, would not only be taught the firft 
principles and do6lrincs of Christ, in a language fuitablc 
to their capacities ; but, which alas ! alas I hath been too 
too long the cafe of the dcfk and pulpit, thefe would not (o 
frequently and fo wretchedly oppofe and contradict each 
other. Heterodoxy and mere heathen morality would then 
be no longer our famous declamatory topics, or thofe be 
deemed and caft out as enthufiafts, madmen, troublers of 
Jjrael, fetrers forth of ftrange doctrines, and turners of the 
world and church upfide down, who after the ftri£left and 
mofl impartial examination, mult be confeired to adhere n.oft 
4 ikadily 

[ 444 ] 
jReaJlIy to the Homilies, Articles, and Liturgy of the Church 
oi England ; and who at the fame time endeavour to adorn 
her godly and wholefome doctrines therein contained, (as 
being in their judgments the doclrines of their Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ) with a fuitablc life and converfa- 

If this is to be vile, God grant they may be more v'jle \ 
If this be enthufiafm, God grant it an univerfal flow ! For 
the confequence I know will be, that not only our own, but 
every proteftant reformed church, would then not only be a 
common barrier againft popery and prophanenefs, but would 
fliine as bright as the fun, be as fair as the moon, and terri- 
ble like an army with banners. That this may be our happy 
cafe, is the hearty prayer of, 

Chriftian reader. 

Thy, kc. 
George Whitefield. 


T) LESS ED Lord, who haO: caufed all holy fcriptures to 
be written for our learning ; grant that we may in fuch 
wife hear them, read, mark, learn, and inwardly digeft them, 
that by pntience and comfort of thy holy word, we may em- 
brace and ever hold faft the blefled hope of everlafting life, 
which thou haft given us in our Saviour Jesus Christ. 
Amen ! 

* The Homily on the Holy Scriptures. 

Come^ Holy Ghcjl^ our hearts injpire^ 

Let us thy injiuence prove ; 
Source of the old prophetic fire ^ 

Fountain of life and love. 

Come^ Holy Ghcjl (for mov'd by Thee^ 

Thy holy prophds fpoke) 
Unlock the truth ^ thyfelf the kcy^ 

Unfcal the facred book. 

• A feparate edition, with the Homilies here felciftcd, is Intended to 

be publifhed. 


[ 445 ] 

Expand thy wings, prolific dove^ 
Brood o'er our nature's night ; 

On our diforder'dfpirits move. 
And let there noiv be light, 

God through Himfelfive then Jh all knoiv^ 

Jf thou within us fijine ; 
And found with all thy faints below ^ 

The depths of love divine 


A LMIGHTY and everlafting God, who hateft: nothing 
that thou haft made, and doft forgive the fms of all them 
that are penitent ; create and make in us new and contrite 
hearts, that we worthily lamenting our fms, and acknowledg- 
ing our wretchednefs, may obtain of thee the God of all mercy, 
perfe£l remifTion and forgivenefs, through Jesus Christ our 
Lord. Amen ! 

TURN thou us, O good Lord, and fo fhall we be 
tarned. Be favourable, O Lord, be favourable to thy 
people, who turn to thee in weeping, fafting and praying ; for 
thou art a merciful God, full of compafiion, long-lufFering, 
and of great pity. Thou fpareft, when we deferve punifh- 
ment, and in thy wrath thinkelt up >n mercy. Spare thy 
people, good Lord, fpare them, and let not thine heritage 
be brought to confuiion. Hear us, O Lord, for thy mercy 
is great, and after the multitude of thy mercies look upon us, 
through the merits and mediation of thy blefled Son Jesus 
Christ our Lord. Amen ! 

The Homily on the Mifery of Mankind. 

Lord, we are vile, conceived in fin. 
And born unholy and unclean ; 
Sprung from the man^ whofe guilty fall 
Corrupts the race, and taints us all. 


[ 446 ] 

Soon as we draw our infant breathy 
^The feeds offm grow up for death ; 
T'hy law demands a perfcH hearty 
But zve're defSd in evry part. 

Behold, zve fall hefon thy fuce^ 
Our only refuge is thy grace ; 
1^0 outward forms can tnahe us cleany 
The leprofy lies deep zuithin, 

Jesus, cur God, thy blood along 
Hath power fufpcuni to atone \ 
Lord, let us hear thy pardoning voicr. 
-jind tnake our doivncnji Ixarts rejoice. 


A LMIGHTY God, father of our Lord Jesus Christs, 
maker of all things, judge of all men ; we acknovvleJge 
and bewail our manifold fins and wickednei's, which we fro(n 
time to time moft grievoufly have committed, by thought, 
word and deed, againft thy divine Msjefty, provoking moH: 
juftly thy wrath and indignation againft us. We do earneilly 
repent, and are heartily forry for thefe our mifdoings; the 
remembrance of them is grievous unto us ; the burden of them 
is intolerable. Have mercy upon us, have mercy upon us, 
mod merciful Father ; for thy Son our Lord Jesus Christ's 
fake, forgive us all that is paf>, and grant that we may ever 
hereafter ferve and pleafe thee in newnels of life, to the 
honour and glory of thy name, through Jesus Christ oi>r 
Lord. Amen ! 

The Homily on the Salvation of Mankird. 

Buryd in flmdows of the nighty 
fVe lie, 'till Christ rejlores the light ^ 
tVifdom defends to heal the blind. 
And (hacc the darknefs of the mind^ 

[ 447 ] 

hoft guihy fouls are drown d in iears^ 
'Till the atoning blood appears ; 
Then they awake from deep dljhefs^ 
Andfng the Lord our righteoufnefs . 

Jesus beholds where Satan reigns^ 
Binding his JJave^ in heavy chains ; 
He fts the prisoner frecy and breaks 
The iron bondage from our nc:ks. 

Poor helplcfs worms in Thee poffefs 
Grace^ wifdcm^ power and righteoufiefs : 
Thou art our mighty All j may we 
Give our whole f elves ^ Lord, to Thee ! 


A L MIGHTY and everlafting God, who haft given unto 
us thy fervants, grace, by the confeffion of a true faith 
to acknowledge the glory of the eternal Trinity, and in the 
power of the divine Majefty to worfhip the Uiiity j we befeech 
thee,' that thou wouldft keep us ^ztdhik. in this faith, and 
evermore defend us from all adverfities, who livell and reigned 
©ne God, world without end. Amen ! 

The Homily on Faith. 

Not all the blood of heajls^ 

On Jewifti altars fJairiy 
Could give the guilty confcience peace ^ 

Or waff away thejlain. 

But Christ, the heavnJy Lamby 

Takes ail our fins away ; 
A facrifce of nobler name^ 

And richer blood than they. 

My faith would lay her hand 

On that dear head of thine^ 
JJ^'pih like a peyiitent I /land. 
And there confefs ?ny firt* 


t 44S ] 

Afyfoul looks back to fee 
The burdens thou didjl bear^ 

When hanging on the cur fed tree^ 
And hops her guilt was there. 

Believing^ we rejoice 

To fee the curfe remove ; 
We blefs the Lamb with chearful voice^ 
Andfaig his bleeding love. 


T ORDj we pray thee, that thy grace may always preve.nt 
and follow us ; and make us continually to be given to 
all good works, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen ! 

GRANT, we befeech thee, Almighty God, that the 

words which we have heard this day with our outward ears^ 
may through thy grace be fo grafted inwardly in our hearts, 
that they may bring forth in us the fruit of good living, to 
the honour and praife of thy name^ through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. Amen ! 

The Homily on Good Works. 

Zion'^ a garden zvaWd around^ 
Chofen^ and made peculiar ground ; 
A little Jpot enclosed by grace^ 
Out of the vj or Id's wide wildernefs. 

Like fpicy trees, believers fland^ 
Planted hy an Almighty hand -^ 
And all the fprings in Zion fioiv^ 
To make the rich plantation grow. 

Awake, O heavenly wind, and come^ 
Blow on thy garden of perfume ; 
Spirit divine, defend, and breathe 
A gracious gale on plants beneath, 


I 449 ] 

Make thou our fp'ices flow abroad, 
J grateful tncenfe to our God ; 
Let faith and love and joy appear^ 
And every grace be a6live here. 


A LMIGHTY God, unto whom all hearts arc open, all 
defires known, and from whom no fecrets arc hid ; 
cleanfe the thoughts of our hearts by the infpiration of thy 
Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, and worthily 
magnify thy holy Name, through Christ our LoR». 
Amen I 

O LORDj who haft taught us, that all our doings without 
tharity are nothing worth ; fend thy Holy Ghofl:, and pour 
into our hearts that moft excellent gift of charity, the very 
bond of peace and of all virtues, without which, whofoever 
ii^eth is counted dead before thee. Grant this, for thy only 
Son Jesus Christ's fake. Amen \ 

The Homily on Charity. 

Cotne^ deareji Lord, defcend and dwelly 

By faith and love, in ev^?y breaji \ 
Then foall ive knoiv^ and tajle, and feel ^ 

The joy $ that cannot be exprefs'd, 

Come^ fill our hearts with inward fir engtb.y 

Make our enlarged fouls pojfcfs 
And learn the height^ and breadth and length 

Of thine unmeafurable grace, ^ 

Now to the God whofe poiver can da 
Aiore than our thoughts or wifhes knoWy 
Be everlajVing honours done. 
By all the ihurc^, through CKrist his S'^n ! 

Vol. IV. Ff VII. 


[ 45^ ] 


A LMIGHTYGoD, who haft given us thy only be- 
^^ gotten Son to take our nature upon Him, and as at 
this time to be born of a pure virgin ; grant that we be- 
ing regenerate and made thy children by adoption and grace^ 
may daily be renewed by thy Holy Spirit, through our Lori> 
Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with thee and the 
fame Spirit, ever one Goi>j world without end. Amen ! 

The Homily for the Nativity, &Co 

Father^ cur hearts we lift 

Up to thy gracious throne, 
Jnd hiefs thee for the precious gifl 

Of thine incarnate Son. 
The gift unfpeakable 

We thankfully receive. 
And to the world thy goodnefs tell t 

Oh may we to thee live I * 

Jesus, the Holy Child, 

Doth by his birth declare. 
That God and man are reconcird^ 

And one in Him ive are. 
Salvation, through his name. 

To loji mankind is givn. 
And loud his infant cries proclaim^ 

A peace 'twixt earth and heaven. 

A peace on earth he brings, 

IVlnch never more fh all end; 
The Lord of hofts, the King of kingSy 

Declares himfelf our friend ; 
AJJitmes our flejh and blood. 

Angels the wonder fcan. 
The everlajling Son of Go'Dy 

The tnortal Son of man. 

O may we all receive 

The nevj-born Prince of P^ace^ 
5 And " 

[ 451 ] 

And rmekly in bis Spirit livfy 
And in his love increaje ! 

^Till He convey us home^ 
Cry ev*ry foul aloud. 

Come, thou dcftre of nations, come^^ 
And take us all to God » 


■Vir E are chiefly bound to praiie thee for thy Son Jesus 
Christ our Lord : for he is the very Pafchal Lamb, 
which was offered for us, and hath taken away the fin of the 
world J who by his death hath deftroyed death, and by his 
rifing to life again, hath reftorcd to us everlafting life. There- 
fore with angels and archangels, and with all the company 
of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious name, ever- 
more praifing thee and faying. Holy, holy, holy. Lord God 
of iiofts, heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Glory be 
to thee, O Lord moft high. Amen ! 

The Homily for Good Friday, 

Te that pafs by, behold the Man, 

The man of griefs condemn d for you ; 

The Lamb of G on for /inner s flain, 
JVecplng to Calvary purfue. 

His facred Linihs they Ji retch, they tear j 

With nails they fajien to the wood 
His facred Limbs, exposed and bare^ 

Or only cover'' d with his blood. 

See there I his temples crown d with thorns^ 

His bleeding hands extended luide. 
His Jlr earning feet transfixt and torn^ 

The fountain guflnng from his fide. 

Oh thou dear fuffering ^on of God, 

How doth thy heart to /inner s move ! 
Help us to catch thy precious blood. 

Help us, ij) ta/ie thy dying love, 

F f 2 ' Tl)e 

[ 452 ] 

The earib could to her centre quahe^ 

ConvulC d vjhilfl her creator dyd-y 
O may our inmojl nature Jhake^ 

And bow^ with Jesus crucify d ! 

At thy lajl gajpy the graves difplayd 

Their horrors to the upper /kit s ; 
O that our fouls might hurjl the ftjade. 

And, quicken d by thy death, arife ! 

The rocks could feel thy powerful deaths 

And tremble, and afunder part j 
O rend ivith thy expiring breath 

The harder marble of our heart / 


A LMIGHTY God, who through thine only begotten 
Son Jesus Christ, hath overcome death, and opened 
unto us the gate of everlafting Life ; we humbly befeech thee, 
that as by thy fpecial grace preventing us, thou doft put 
into our minds good defires ; fo by thy continual help we 
may bring the fame to good efFeft, through Jesus Christ 
our Lord, who liveih and reigneth with thee and the Holy 
Ghofl, ever one God, world without end. Amen ! 

The Homily for the Refurreflion. 

Blefs*d morning, wh'ofe firjl dawning rays 

Beheld our rifmg God ; 
That f aw him triumph o'er the dufi^ 

And leave his lajl abode ! 

In the cold prifon of a tornh^ 

The dead Redeemer lay ; 
'Till the revolving fkies had brought 

The third, th' appointed day. 

Hell and the grave unite their force 

To hold our God in vain ; 
The fleeping conqueror arofe. 

And bur ft their feeble chain, 


[ 453 ] 
To thy great name^ Almighty Lord, 

Thefe facred hours zve pay ; 
And loud Hofannas pall procla'un. 

The triumph of the day„ 

Salvation and immortal praife 

To our vi^orious King ; 
Let heav'^n^ and earthy and rocks ^ ctij fea^y 

With glad Hofannas ring. 


f^ OD, who as at this time didft teach the hearts of thy 
faithful people, by (ending to them the light of thy Holy 
Spirit; grant us by the fame Spirit to have a right judg- 
ment in all things, and evermore to rejoice in his holy com- 
fort, through the merits of Christ Jesus our Saviour, who 
liveth and reigneth with thee, in the unity of the fame Spi- 
rit, one God, world without end. Amen ! 

Homily on Whitfunday, 

IT is very meet, right, and our bounden duty, that we 
fhould at all times, and in all places, give thanks unto thee, 
O Lord, Holy Father, Almighty, everlafting God, through 
Jesus Christ our Lord, according to whofe mod true 
promife, the Holy Ghoft came down as at thi.s time from hea- 
ven with a fudden great found, as it had been a mighty wind, 
Jn the likenefs of fiery tongues, lighting upon the Apollles, 
to teach them, and to lead them into all truth, giving them 
both the gift of divers languages, and alfo boldnefs with fer- 
vent zeal, conftantly to preach the gofpel to all nations, 
whereby we have been brought out of darknefs and error into 
the clear light and true knowledge- of thee, and of thy Son 
Jesus Christ. Therefore with angels and archangels, 
and with all the company of heaven, we laud and magnify 
thy glorious name, evermore praiung thee and faying, Holy, 
holy, holy, Lord God of Hofts, heaven and earth are full 
of thy glory. Glory be to thee, O ho^^i^. moft .high. 
Amen ! 

r f 3 Cr.at.r 

[ 454 ] 

Creator Spirit, by whofe aid. 

The world's foundat I oris firjl were laid*. 

Come, vifit evry waiting mind, 

Co?ne pour thy joys on human-kind ^ 

From fin and forroiu fet us free. 

And make us temples worthy thee. 

O fource of uncreated heat^ 
The Father'' s promised paraclete / 
Thrice holy fount, immortal fire. 
Our hearts luith heavenly love infpire | 
Come end thy f acred unSlion bring, 
ToJancJify us, while we fmg» 

Create all new, our wills controul. 
Subdue the rebel in our foul j 
Chafe from our minds th^ infernal foe. 
And peace, the fruit of faith, bejhw ; 
And UJl again we go aflray, 
Proteii and guide us in thy way. 

Immortal honours, endlefs fame. 

Attend th' Almighty Father^ s name\ 

The Saviour Son be glorified, 

IVho for lofi Alans redemption dyd ; 

And equal adoration be. 

Eternal Comforter, to thse ! 



O N 



I 457 ] 


J Prayer for one defirlng and Jeeking afur the Ncw-B 



LESS ED Jesus, thou haft told us in thy gofpel, that 
unlefs a man be born again of the Spirit, and his righte- 
oufnefs exceed the outward righteoufnefs of the fcribes and 
pharifees, he cannot in anywife enter into the kingdom 
of God. Grant me therefore, I befeech thee, this true 
circumcifion of the heart ; and fend down thy blefied Spirit 
to work in me that inward holincfs, which alone can make 
me meet to partake of the heavenly inheritance with the; 
faints in light. 

Create in me, I befeech thee, a new heart, and renew a 
right fpirit within me. For of whom fhall I feek for fuccour 
but of thee, O Lord, with whom alone this is poflible ? 
Lord, if thou wilt, thou canft make me whole I O fay unto 
my foul, as thou didft once unto the poor leper, I will, be 
thou renewed. Have campalfion on me, O Lord, as thou 
once hadft on blind Bartimeus, who fat by the way-fide beg- 

Lord, thou knovvcft all things, thou knowcft what I would 
have thee to do. Grant, Lord, that I may receive my fight; 
for I am conceived and born in Sin ; my whole head is Tick, 
my whole heart is faint ; from the crown of my head to the fole 
of my feet, I am fall of wounds and bruifes, and putrifying 
fores ; and yet I fee it not. O awaken me, though it be 
with thunder, to a fenfible feeling of the corruptions of my 
fallen nature ; and for thy mercies fake, fufFer me no longer 
to fit in darknefs, and the fhadow of death. 

O prick me, prick me to the heart ! Dart down a ray of 
that all-quickening light, which ftruck thy fervanc Saul to 
the ground ; and make me cry out with the trembling jailor, 
« What (hall I do to be faved V\ 

3 Lord 

[ 458 ] 

Lord, behold I pray, and blufli, and am confounded that 
I never prayed on this wife before. 

But I have looked upon myfelf as rich, not confidering that 
I was poor, and blind, and naked. I have trailed to my 
own righteouftiefs. I flattered myfelf I was whole, and there- 
fore blindly thought I had no need of thee, O great phyfi- 
cian of fouls, to heal my ficknefs. 

But being now convinced by thy free mercy, that my own 
righteoufnefs is as filthy rags ; and that he is only a true 
chiiftian who is one inwardly ; behold with ftrong cryings 
and tears, and groanings that cannot be uttered, I befeech 
thee to vifit me with thy free Spirit, and fay unto thefe dry 
bones. Live. 

I confefs, O Lord, that thy grace is thy own, and that 
thv Spirit.bloweth where he lifteth. And waft thou to deal 
with me after my deferts, and reward me according to my 
wicked neffes, I had long fmce been given over to a reprobate 
mind, and bad my confcience feared as with a red-hot iron. 

But, O Lord, fince, by fparing me fo long, thou haft 
fhewn that thou wouldft not the death of a fmner ; and fince 
thou haft promifcd, that thou wilt give thy holy Spirit to 
thofe that afk, I hope thy goodnefs and long-fufFering is in- 
tended to lead me to repentance, and that thou wilt not turn 
away thy face from me. 

Thou feeft, O Lord, thou feeft, that with the utmoft 
earneftnefs and humility of foul, I afk thy holy Spirit o|" thee, 
and am refolved in confidence of thy promife, who canft not 
lye, to feek and knock, till I find a door of mercy opened 
unto me. 

Lord, fave me, or I perifh ; vifit, O vifit me with thy fal- 
vation. Lighten mine eyes that I fleep not in death. O let 
me no longer continue a ftranger to myfelf, but quicken me, 
quicken me with thy free Spirit, that I may know myfelf, 
even as I am known. 

Behold, here I am. Let me do or fufFer what fcemeth good 
in thy fight, only renew me by thy Spirit in my mind, and 
make me a partaker of the divine nature. So fhail I praife 
thee all the days of my life, and give thee thanks for ever 
in the glories of thy king<lom, O moft adorable Redeemer ; 


[ 459 ] 
^o wViom, with the Father, and the Holy Ghoft, be afcrlbed 
all honour and praifc, now and for evermore* Amen, 

A Prayer for one newly azvakrned to a Se?ife of the 
Divine Life, 

O Almighty and everlafting Father, who in the begin- 
ning fpake and it was done, faying, ** Let there be 
light, and there was light ;** O moft adorable Redeemer, 
y9ho, when A(:fam had eaten the forbidden fruit, waft re- 
vealed as the feed of the woman, and didft in the ful- 
nefs of time die an accurfed death to fave us from the guilt 
and power of our fms, and thereby break the ferpent's head ; 
P biefTed and eternal Spirit, who didft once move upon 
the face of the great deep, who didft overfiiadow the bleftcd 
virgin, who didft defcend on the Son of God at his baptifm, 
and didft come down after his afcenfion in fiery tongues upon 
the heads of each of his apoftles j O ho^y, bleffed, and glo- 
rious Trinity, three pcrfons and one (tod, by whofe joint 
confultation we were firft made, and into whole name we 
have been again baptized ; Accept my humble and hearty 
facrifice of praife and thankfgiving, for calling me out of 
darknefs into thy marvelous light: for quickening ms when 
dead in trefpafles and fins, and moving on the face of my 
polluted and difordered foul. 

Thou haft promifed, O Lord, that thou wilt not quench 
the fmoaking flax, or break the bruiled reed. And thou 
haft told us, that thy Holy Spirit ftiould be in us as a well 
of water fpringing up unio eternal life. Finilh therefore, I 
befecch thee, the good work begun in my foul, and now 
thou haft called me, never let me lie down again in fm. 

Thou feeft, O Lord, the good feed fown in my heart, is 
but as yet as a very fmall grain of muftard-feed, O con- 
tinue to water, with the dew of thy heavenly bleffing, what 
thy own right-hand hath planted, and it (hall become a 
great tree. 

Thou haft touched tlie eye of my mind by thy divine power, 
and I fee men as trees v/alking. Let thy holy Spirit, by his 
blefted influences, more and more remove the remaining fcales, 
*till I at length fee all things clearly. 


[ 4Go ] 

With {hame and confufion of face, O Lord, I confef*;, 
1 am unworthy of this and all other thy mercies. For I 
have long fince done defpite to the Spirit of grace, crucified 
the Son of God afrefli, and put him to open fhame. But do 
thou, who art rich in mercy to all that call upon thee, in 
faithfulnefs forgive me what is paft, and grant I may from 
henceforward work out my falvation with fear and trembling, 
fmce thou haft fo gracioufly wrought in me both to will and 
to do, after thy good pleafure. 

I know, O Lord, that now thou haft begun to deliver me 
out of my natural, and v^orfe than Egyptian bondage, I muft 
expctSl to pafs through a barren and dry wildernefs, that there 
are lions in the way, that the fons of Jnak are to be grappled 
with, before I attain to the true fabbath of the foul. 

But thou, angel of the everlafting covenant, who didft 
fend thy miniftring fpirits to refcue righteous Lot^ who ledeft 
thy fheep by the hands of Mofes and Jaron, and didft ap- 
pear in a vifion to Jnanias^ commanding him to go and lay 
his hands upon thy fervant Saul \ fend me always a faithful 
and experienced paftor, who may lead me by the hand, and 
keep me from lingring in my fpiritual Sodom^ by his prudent 
dirciSlions under thee ; and preferve me from the fnares and 
fury of my fpiritual adverfaries, which othcrwife may overtake 
and deftroy my foul. 

O make me teachable like a little child. Convert my foul 
and bring it low. Grant I may be willing to learn what 
things J ought to do, and aUb may have power faithfully to 
fulfil the fame. 

Strengthen me, I befeech thee, by the holy Spirit, to cilt 
off a right-hand, to pluck out a right-eye, to lay afide every 
weight, efpecially the fm that doth moft eafily befet me ; to 
forfake father and mother, brethren and fifters, yea, and my 
own life alfo, rather than not be thy difciple. 

O fufFer me not to deceive my own foul by a partial refor- 
mation. Search me and try me, and examine my heart, and 
let no fecret unmortified luft or paflion ever keep me from 
life everlafting. 

Lord, I am not my own : Thou haft bought me with 
the price of thy Son's moft precious blood. 


t 461 ] 

Thou haft often required, and lo ! I now give thee my 
heart, to the beft of my knowledge, without fecretly keeping 
back the leaft part. For whom have 1 in heaven but thee, 
and what is there on earth that I can defire in comparifon of 
thee ! 

O mould me into thy own moft blefTcd image, my Lord 
and my God. Fill me with thy grace here, fit me for thy 
glory hereafter. Even fo, Lord Jesus. Amen, and Amen. 

A Prayer for one under spiritual Defertion. 

OEVER blefled and moft compaflfonate Redeemer, 
who waft in all things tempted like as we are, fin 
only excepted. O thou lover of fouls, who in the days of 
thy flefti didft offer up ftrong cries and tears, and waft heard 
in that thou fearedft. O thou reftorer of mankind, who waft 
in fuch an agony in the garden, that thou didft fweat great 
drops of blood, falling to the ground. O thou Almighty 
High-Prieft, who, when through the eternal Spirit thou waft 
about to make thy foul an offering for fin, waft deferted 
of thy Father, and didft cry out, in the bitternefs of thy 
foul, " My God, my God, why haft thou forfaken me.'* 
O thou, who now fitteft at the right-hand of the Father, 
continually to make interceflion for us, look down, I be- 
feech thee, upon me, thy unworthy fervant ; for thou haft 
turned away thy face, and lo I I am troubled ; thou haft 
taken oft' my chariot- wheels, and I drive heavily; thou haft 
permitted a cloud to overfliadow me, and an horrible daiknefs, 
fearfulnefs, and dread to ovcrwhshn me, fo that my fpirlc 
would utterly fink within me, did I not believe thou wouldft 
yet turn again and vifit me. 

Father, if it be poffible, rerpove this horrible darknefs ; 
but if my foul cannot be made perfedt without it, thy ho!y, 
thy blefled will be done. 

Lo here I am ! Deal with me as it feemeth good in thy 
fight. Only let thy grace be fufHcient for me ; and in the 
midft of my agonies fend down, I befeech thee, an angel 
from heaven to ftrengthen me. 

Lord, thou knoweft that Satan hath defired to have me, that 
he may fift me as wheat : O grant that my faith fail not. 


t 4^2 1 

SufFerj O fufFer him not to gee an advantage over me, for 
thou art not ignorant of his. devices. O let him not fo pre- 
vail againft me, as to make me entertain hard thoughts of 
ihee, my moil loving Mafter^ and compailionate Redeemer, 
For I know, thou of very faithfulnefs haft caufed me thus to 
be troubled^ and do{i afflict me for no other reafon, but to 
make me partaker of thy holinefs. 

Give mcj O give me the fbield of faith, and enable me 
to repel all the fiery blafphemous thoughts, which that 
wicked one Ihallj at any time, dart into my mind. Let 
me drive them off, as carefully as Jbraham did the birds 
that came to devour his facrifice. And oh ! let him never 
tempt me to think, thou wih impute them to me for fin. 

Lord, thou only knoweft th-e prefent drynefs and barren- 
nefs of my foul, and how liable I am to be tempted to {ret 
againft thee, and to feek pleafure in the creature when I can 
lind no'fenfible fatisfa6lion in thee, my great Redeemer, who 
art GoDj blefled for ever. 

But, I befeech thee, keep my foul quiet and compofed, 
and for thy mercy's fake, enable me only to take pleafure in 
thee, and to fit down folitary in the bitternefs of my foul, 
and patiently wait till I can draw comfort from thee, the 
fountain of living waters, rather than hew out to myfelf 
broken ciftern&i that will hold no water^ 

Never, never let me fall out with any of thy ordinances^ 
or think I do not pleafe thee in my holy duties, becaufe I 
have no inward fenfible pleafure in them myfelf. 

Enable me to walk by faith, and not by fight, and to 
feek thee in the ufe of all appointed means, though it be 
forrowing J being affured, that^ after three days I fhall find 
thee in the temple ; or that thou vvilt make thyfelf knowii 
tmto me, by breaking of bread, or in fome other way. 

Lord, 1 believe (help thou my unbelief) that I am now 
talking with thee, as certainly as A^ary was, when thoii 
didft converfe with her at the fepulchre ; though fhe knev^ 
it not. In thy due time reveal thyfelf again to me, as thoii 
didft to her, and let me hear the voice of my beloved. 

Thou haft promifed, thou wilt not fufFer us to be tempted 
above what we are able to bear, but wilt, with the tempta- 
tion, make a way for us to efcape, that we may be able to 


t 463 3 

bear it. Fulfil, O Lord, this thy promife ! And after I 
have fuftered a while, ftrengthen, eftablifh, fettle, and vifit 
me, as thou didft thy fervant Jl?raham, when he returned 
from the flaughter of the five Kings. 

Lord, lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon me; 
reftore to me the joy of thy falvation ; and when my heart is 
duly prepared, and humbled by thefe inward trials, grant me 
a feeling pofTeflion of thee, my God, for the fake of thy dear 
Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Jm^n^ Jimen, 

A Prayer for one under the Difpkafure of Relatltns, for heing 

BLESSED Lord, who haft commanded us to call upon 
thee in the time of trouble, and thou wilt deliver us ; 
and haft always (hewn thyfelf to be a God hearing praver, 
mighty and willing to fave 5 hear me now, I pray thee, when 
I call upon thee, for trouble is at hand. 

Thou feeft, O Lord, how many of my brethren, accord- 
ing to the flefti, perfecute me for thy name's fake; fo that 
I muft renounce them, or decline openly profefling thee be- 
fore men. 

But God forbid I fliould love father or moth<!r, brethren 
or ftfters, more than thee, and thereby prove myfelf not 
worthy of thee. No ! I have long fince given thee my foul 
and my body; fo, lo ! I now freely give thee my friends alfo. 

I now find by experience, that as it was formerly, fo it is 
now. They that are born after the flefli, do perfecute thofe 
that are born after the fpirit. Thou cameft not to fend peace 
on earth, but a fword. And unlefs a man forfake all that he 
hath, he cannot be thy difciple. 

Lo \ I come to perform this part of thy will, O my GoD; 
being afTured., that whofoever forfaketh father or mother, bre- 
thren or fifters, houfes or lands, for thy fake, or the gofpel, fhalF 
receive a hundred-fold in this prefent life, with perfecution, 
and in the world to come life everlafting. 

I truft, O Lord, it is for thy fake alone, that I now make 
an offering of the favour of my friends to thee ; for thou 
knoweft, O Lord, how continually they cry out agamft 


E 464 ] 

n^e, though I am doing no more than thy holy word ftridly 
requires me to do. 

But do thou, O blefled Saviour, who faidft unto Peter, 
" Get thee behind me Satan," enable me to flop my ears to 
their falfc infinuations, charm they never fo fweetly ; for they 
favour not the things that be of God, but tha things that 
be of men. And unlcfs, O Lord, thou doft help, they will 
be an ofFence unto me, and caufe me to deny the Lord that 
bought me. 

Far be it from me, O Lord, to be furprized, becauTe Of 
thofe oiTences ; for thou haft long fince denounced woe againft 
the world becaufe of ofFences ; and I find it is needful for 
my foul, that fuch offences fliould come, to try what is in 
my heart; and to try whether I love thee in deed and in 

Bleffed, therefore, for ever bleiTed be thy holy name, that 
I am accounted worthy to fuffer for thy name's fake. O let 
me rejoice, and be exceeding glad, that my reward fhall be 
great in heaven. 

let me never regard any of their threatnings ; for when 
my father and mother forfake me, thou, O Lord, I ari 
affured, wilt take me up. 

Take me, O take me into the arms of thy mercy ; for 
henceforward know I no man after the flefh ; and whofoever 
doth the will of my heavenly Father, the fame fhall be my 
brother, and fitter, and mother. 

1 know^ O Lord, I know that this will expofe me to the 
derifion and perfecution of thofe that are round about me. 
But do thou, who didft feek for the poor beggar, after he 
was caft out by the Jewifl} council, and didft reveal thyfeif 
unto him, reveal thyfeif to me alfo, when my name is caft 
out as evil by my friends and the world. Though they curfe, 
yet blefs thou me, O Lord, and enable me, I moft humbly 
befeech thee, to pray for them, even when they mofl defpite- 
fuUy ufe me, and perfecute me. " Father, forgive them, for 
they know not what they do." 

It is owing, O Lord, to thy free mercy alone, that I 
have in any meafure been enlightened to know thee and the 
power of thy refurredion, O let the fame grace be fufHcien^t 


[ 4% ] 

for them alfo, and make thy almighty power to be kilovv'rt 
in their converfion. 

Thou didft once, O blefTed Saviour, magnify thy goodnefsi 
in turning thy fcrvant Paul^ from a bitter perfecutori, to be 
a zealous preacher of thy gofpel ; aid madeft the trembling 
jailor cry out, even to thole vvhofe feet he had hurt in the 
ftocks, " Sirs, what (hall I do to be faved r*' 

Look down, therefore, I befecch thee, in pity and com- 
pailion, on thofe of my own houfhold ; and after I am con- 
verted myfelf, make me or fome other perfon ilnftrumental to 
ftrengthen thefe my weak brethren ; that though we are now 
divided amongfl: ouifelves, two againll: three, and three againfl 
two,^ yet we may at laft, all with one heart and one mouth, 
glorify thee, O Lord ; that thou mayeft come and abide with 
us, and love us as thou didfl; Lazarus*, Mary^ and her fifter 
Martha, Grant this, O Saviour, for thy infinite merits fake J 
Ameti and Amen. 


A Prayer for one entrujled iviih the Education cf Children, 
Deareft Jesus, who gathered thy lambs into thy bofom. 

and didfl folemnly command thy fervant Peter^ to feed 
them ; grant I may fliew that I love thee more than all things^ 
by doing as thou haft commanded him. 

Lord, who am I, or what is in me, that thou fiinuld thus 
put honour upon me, in making me any way inftrumental to 
the preparing fouls for thee ? O thou blelled Saviour, I have 
finned againft heaven, and am no more worthy to be called thy 
fon, much lefs to be employed in the fervice of thy children. 

But fince thou haft been pleafed in me, to fliew forth all thy 
mercy, and haft called itie by thy good providence to this 
blefTed work, grant I may always remember, that the little 
Bock committed to my charge, are bought with the price of 
thy own moft precious blood. And let it, therefore, be my 
meat and drink, to feed them with the finccre milk of thy 
word, that they may grow thereby. 

To this end, 1 befeech thee of thy free grace, firft to con- 
vert my own foul, and caufe me to become like a little child, 
that from an experimental knowledge of my own corruptions, 
I may have my fpiritual fenfcs exercifed, to difccrn the fiift 
emotions of evil that may at any time arife in their hearts. 

Vol. IV. G g Ogive 


[ 466 ] 

O give hic, i befeech thee, a difcernlng fpirlt, that I may 
fearch, and try, and examine the difltrent tempers of their 
finfick fouls ; and, like a fkilful phyfician, apply healing or 
corrofive medicines, as their refpcciivc maladies may require. 
Gracious Jesus, let punifhing be always my fWange work; 
and, if it be poffible, grant that they may be all drawn to 
their duty, as 1 would be drawn rnyfelf, by the cords of love. 
And when I am obliged to correct them, grant it may not he 
to (hew my authority, or gratify a corrupt pnflion, but purely 
out of the fame motive from which thou doft correct us, to 
make them partakers of thy holinefs. 

O ! keep me, I befeech thee, from being angry without a 
caufe : Permit me not raflily to be provoked by the infirmities 
and pervcrfenefs of their infant years; but grant I may fhew 
all long-fufTering towards them : And by exercifing fuch 
frequent acls of patience and forbearance, grant I myfeif may 
Jearn the meeknefs and gentlenefs of Christ. 

O thou, who didft teach thy difciples how to pray, pour 
down, I befeech thee, the Spirit of grace and (application 
into their hearts, that at all times, and in all places, they 
may both defire and know how to call upon thee by fervent 

Father, into thy hands I commend my own and their 
fpirits : Look down from heaven, the habitation of thy hoU- 
iKfs, and blefs them from thy holy hill. 

Keep them, O keep them unfpoited from the world; grant 
they may fly youthful lufls, and remember thee, their Crea- 
tor, in the days of their youth. Train them up, I befeech thee, 
in the way wherein they fhould go; and when they are old, 
let them not depart from it. 

O thou, who didfl fancStify Jeremiah from the womb, and 
calledfl young Samuel betimes, to wear a lingen ephod before 
thee, fanftify their whole fpirits, fouls and bodies, and pre- 
ferve them blamelefs, till the fecond coming of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

O thou, who didft endue Solomon with grace, to chufe 
wifdom before riches and honour; incline their hearts to make 
the fame choice of thee, their only good; and may they always 
renounce and triumph over the luft of the flefli, the lull of the 
eye, and the pride of life. 


[ 46? 3 

Finally, do thou, O blefltd Jesus, who at twelve years olJ 
ivalt found in the ttMiiplc, fitting among the Do<51ors, borh 
hearing and afking them queftions, grant, that thele childreh 
may love to tread the coufts of thy houfc, aod have their ears 
opened betimes, to receive the difcipline of wifdom, that f >, 
if it be thy good pleafure, to prolong the time of their pil- 
grimage, here on earth, they m^y fhine as lights in the world ; 
or, if thou feed it beft, to bring down their flrength in their 
journcy, and to fliorten their days, they may be early fitted 
by purity of heart, to fing eternal Hdllalujah's to thee, the 
Father, and the Holy Gholl, in the kingdom of heaven for 
ever. Grant this, O Father, for thy dear Soil's fake, JiZbtrs 
Christ our Lord. Amen^ Amen. 

A Prayer for a P erf on in Want, 

O All-powerful and gracious Goi), who dldft bring wafer 
out of a rock for the children of Ifrael^ and water 
but of a jaw-bone to fuflain a thirfty Scmfon-, who hadfl 
compaflion upon Hagnr when fhe was ready to periil:, vvh,> 
fenteft ravens to feed Elijah^ and doft feed the young ravens 
who daily call upon thee, behold mCj O Lord, who now 
cry unto thee in great diftrefs. 

I confefs, O Lord, I am unrworthy of the crumbs which 
fall from any rich man's table. Waft ihou to deal wiih m.e 
according to my defcrts, I fliould now be lifting up my eyes 
in torments. But in the midft of judgment, remember mercy. 
Thou, O Lord, art the preferver of the body. Thou haft 
declared, that godlrnefs has the promife of the life that now 
is, and that if we feek firft the kingdom of God and hi>; 
righteoufnefs, food and raiment (hall be added unto us, Fulbl 
thefe promifes in me thy unworthy ferVant. 

I behold the lillies of the field, they toil not, ncrther do they 
fpin; wilt thou not feed me? Lord, I believe; O help my 
tmbelief! I am afhamed that 1 have fo little faith. Lord 
Jesus, thou Son of David, I believe that thou wilt help me. 
Only give rhe patience to wait till the hour appointed for 
helping fne, is fully come. I know, in thy due time, tliou 
wilt turn my watef into v/ine, and richly fupply all my vvants. 
Patiently let me tany thy leifure. Never let me fret ag^inft 

G g "i thee. 

[ 46S ] 

thee, my liORD. Though I am poor, let me not be tempted 
to fteal i but flrengthen me, I bcfccch thee, againfl: Satan's 
idlauhs. Let me know, that man doth not live by bread 
alone, but by every v/ord that proceedeth out of the mouth 
of thee, my God. Though poor as Lazarus^ yet, when I 
die, let me be carried by angels into Abrahams bofom. And 
however thou mayeft be pleafed to deal with my body. Lord, 
feed my foul, I befeech thee, with that bread which cometh 
down from heaven. Though poor in this world, O let me 
be rich in faith. Suffer me not to ftagger at thy promifes 
through unbelief. Let the poverty of my body be a means 
of humbling my proud heart. O let me not be afliamed of 
my lov^ efcate, fince thou, O Lord, didft not difdain to let 
women minifter to thee of their fubftance, and hadft not 
where to lay thy head. Help me to fanclify thee my Lord 
God in my heart, and bring me fafe at lafl to thy heavenly 
kingdom, through Jesus Christ, my only Advocate and 
Redeemer. Amen, 

A Prayer before Birighg of Pfalms, 

O Almighty God, who out of the mrtiths of babes and 
facklings haft perfeded praife, open our mouths, that 
our lips may (hew forth thy praifc. Let our fouls be filled as 
with marrow and fatnefs, and out of the abundance of our 
hearts, let our mouths fpeak. Enable us to fmg with the 
fpirit, as well as with the underftanding, and to make melody 
in our hearts unto thee, O Lord. O let us rejoice in thee 
evermore, and help us to fhew forth our thank fulnefs not 
only with our lips, but in our lives ; and from praifmg thee 
here, Lord grant we may, at the hour of death, be tranflaied 
to join with angels and archangels, and the fpirits of juft men' 
made perfe6f, to praife thee eternally hereafter. Even fo. 
Lord Jesus, Arnen and Ameri. 

A Prayer for One before he goes to his Labour, 

O All-gracious, and evcr-blefTed Lord God, who, when 
thou hadft placed the firft man in the garden of ErUn^ 
didft command him to drefs it, and after he had eaten the for- 
bidden fruit, didft impofe tliis as a part of the divine carfe 


[ 4% ] 

upon him, that he fliould cat his bread by the fweat of h's 
brows: O mofl adorable Jesus, who thyfelf didft work at the 
trade of a carpenter, and had by an Apoftle, commanded all 
to abide in the vocation wherewith they are calhd by thee O 
profper thou my handy-work. 

Behol'^, in obedience to thy command, I now o-o forth to 
labour for the meat which perifheth. O let me do it with a 
fingle eye to thy glory, and fuffer me never to ioroet to fecure 
that meat which endureth to everlafting life. Let me not be 
fo cumbered about the many things of this life, as to ne?>lc6l 
the one thing needful. O let me walk with thee all the day 
long ; and though my body be on earth. Lord let my heart 
and afFecSlionsbc fixed on thee in heaven, and prefc^rve me, Imoft 
humbly befeech thee, in my going out and coming in, from this 
time forth and for evermore. Do thou, who didft appear to 
the difciples when they were fifliing and mending their nets, 
manifefl: thyfelf unto me, when employed in the bufinefs of 
my lawful calling. Do thou, who calledft Matthevu from 
the receipt of cuftom, call me efFe6lually by thy grace. Grant, 
O Lord, that I may not fland any of my time idle, but be 
continually improving my talent, that whether I live, I mar 
live unto thee, or whether 1 die, I may die unto thee, O 
Lord; fo that wheiher living or dying, I may be thine. O 
never let me be like the unjuft fteward, afhamed to dig. SufPer 
me not to be {lothful in bufinefs, but grant I may be alwavs 
fervent in fpirit, fcrving thee, O Lord. Lift up my hands 
when they hang down ; ftrengthen, O ftrengthen my feeble 
knees, let not the fun burn me by day, nor the moon hurt 
ms by night. Provide for me to-day, and keep me from being 
folicitoufly careful for the morrow : and afrer the labour of 
this troublefome world is over, tranflate me, Q Lord, toge- 
ther with all thy faithful fervants, to that happy place, where 
>ve fliall enjoy an everlafting reft, with thee O Father, with 
thee O Son, and with thee O Holy Ghoft ; to whom, as three 
pcrfons, but one God, be afcribed, as is moft due, by angels, 
and archangels, cherubim and feraphim, by things on heaven, 
and things on earth, all honour, power, might, majefty and 
dominion, now and for evermore. Amen and Amen, 

G g 3 A Prayfr 

[ 470 ] 

A Froyer for a Rich Man. 

O Sovereign anJ all-bountiful Lord God, who makefl: 
poor, and makeft rich, and doft govern all things both 
in heaven and earth, accept my unfeigned facrifice of praife 
and thaiikfgivin^, for giving me all things richly to enjoy. 
'\Vhat am I, O Lord, what is in me, that I Ihould have 
bread- enough and to fpare, whijft fo many ape ready to perifli 
with hunger ? Not my merit, O Lord, hut thy mercy j not 
my forefight, but thy fovereign good-will and pleafure has 
made me thus to difl'er from, and hath exalted me above my 
brethren. O let not my profperity deftroy me ; but as thuu 
haft made me rich in this world's goods, for thy infinite 
mercy's fake, make me rich towards thee, rich in faith and 
good works. Suffer m.e not, O Lord, to fay unto gold, thou 
art my hope, or unto the fine gold, thou art my confidence. 
Let m.e not truft in uncertain riches, but in thee, the ever- 
living GcD. Let me not lay up for myfelf treafures on earth, 
where moth and ruft do corrupt, and where thieves break 
through and (leal ; but grant I may lay up treafures in heaven, 
where neither m.oth and ruft do corrupt, nor thieves break 
through and fteal. 

I know, O Lord, that this is impofTible with man, and 
that it is eiifier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than 
for a rich rpan to enter into thy kingdom. But, Abba, Father, 
all things are poftible with thee ! Enable me, therefore, by 
the all-fufHciency of thy grace, to fell all things in affeclion, 
to deny myftlf, take up my crofs, and follow thee every day. 
Give me that faith which overconieth the world. Grant that 
I may not indulge myfelf in the liift of the eye, and the pride 
of life, or make provifion for the flcfli to fulfil the luft thereof. 
Lord, let me be given to ho'"pital!ry. When thy difciplc^ 
a.'-e fick, incline nie, O Lord, to go to fee them ; when they 
are in prifon, grant I may not be aftiamed to vifit them ; when 
they are ftrangers, may I take them in ; when naked, may 
\ cloath them ; when hungry, may I feed thdu ; when thirfty, 
may I give them drink ; may 1 be eyes to the blind, and feet 
to the lame, a father to the fatherlefs, and caufe the widow's 
heart to leap for joy. May I be a follower of thee, O lowly 
Jesus,- who though thou waft rich, yet for our fakes didft be- 
*'■"'' ■• ' come 

C 47« ] 

come poor, and cameft not to be miniftered unto, but to mi- 
nifter. O let me ever remember thy words, and count it 
more blelTcd to give than to receive. And, as I am like* a city 
built upon a hill, grant that my light may To Ihine before 
men, that they feeing my good works, may glorify my Father 
which is in heaven. Let my affections, O Lord, be fet on 
things above, and not on things of the earth. Let my conver- 
falion be in heaven, and grant I may ufe the world, as thou<^h I 
ufed it not. Make me a faithful fteward of thv manifoU ^ifts, 

God, and grant I may not make friends of the accur.'ed 
mammon of unrighteoufnefs, that when my natural life fails, 
thy bleflt'd angels may carry me into everlafting habitations, and 

1 may receive that bleffed fenteiice, " Well done, thou good 
and faithful fervant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." Or, 
if thou pleafell, O Lord, for my trial, to order that my 
riches fhould take thcmfelves wings, and Hy away, errant I 
may learn how to want, as well as how to abound, and fay^ 
with thy fervant y^Z*, " The Lord hath given, the Lord 
hath taken away : bleffed be the name of the Lord." Hav- 
ing nothing, may I learn to poffefs all things in thee; and in 
whatfoever ftate I am, make me therewith content. May I 
always behave as a ftranger and pilgrim upon earth, and when 
my appointed time is come, may I not need, like the rich 
fool in thegofpel, to have my foul required of me, but chear- 
fully give up the ghoft, and be tranflated to join with Abra- 
ham^ IfaaCy and Jacobs and all the other fpirits of juft men 
made perfe6l, to praife thee for ever and ever. Grant this, 
O Father, for thy dear Son's fake Jesus Christ our Lord. 
J/neuj and Ainm, 

A Prayer for a Servant, 

OThou high and lofty one, who inhabited eternitv, vet 
art pleafed to dvvell with the humble heart : O blcffcd 
Jesus, who haft made of one blood, all nations under heaven, 
with whom there is no refpcct of perfons, and who in the 
days of thy flcfli didft go down to heal a centurion's fick fer- 
vant ; have mercy, I bcfeech thee, on mc, even me, alfo a 
poor fervant. Stretch forth the ri-ht hand of thy pov.'cr, to 
heal all thedifeafes of my fm-f;ck foul, and enable me by thy 
Holy Spirit, faithfully to difcharge the fevera] duti-s of thnt 
vocation, whereto I am called by thee. Give mc grace, I 

[ 47^ ] 
^nofc humbly befecch thee, to obey my mafter, according to 
the flefii, in all thmgs -, not with eye-fervice, as a man- 
pleafer, but with finglenefs of heart, as unto Christ ; know- 
ing, that whatfoever any man doth, the fame he (hall receive 
of the Lord, whether he be bond or free. 

Make my obedience to my mailer on earth, like that which 
the holy angels pay to thee in heaven. When I am com- 
pianded to go, may 1 go j when I am required to come, may 
I come -y whatfoever I am bid to do agreeable to thy will, may 
I do it heartilyj as unto the Lord, and not unto men. But 
if at any time, O Lord, to try what is in my heart, thou 
fhouldil permit me to be tempted to do any wickednefs, O give 
ir.e grace, as thou didft Jcfa^h^ patiently to fubmit to a piifon, 
and t) death itfelf, rather than fin againft thee, my God ; 
knowing that it is thank-worthy, if a man for confcience to-» 
wards God, endure grief, fuffeiing wrongfully. Enable me, 
O Lord, to fhew good fidelity in all things committed to my 
^har"-e. Do thou, who bleffedfl Abrahams (crvant, when he 
went to take a wife for his mafter's fon Ijoac^ fo blefs me in 
all my mafter*s bufinefs, that he may fee, as Potiphar did, that 
%\\t Lord maketh all that I do to profper in my hands. 

Keep, O Lord, alfo the door of my lips, that I oflend at 
no time with my tongue ; let a falfe tongue be far froni me, 
and let me never lie unto my mafter, as Gehaz'i did. O let no 
i'uch unfaithfulnefs cleave unto me j led: by being a partaker 
with him in his crime, I partake alfo in his puniihment. 
Bridle alfo my tongue from ever anfwering again : may all 
fullennefs and peeviflinefs of temper be put away from me, 
with ail pafiion : may I learn of thee, O holy Jesus, to be 
meek and lowly in heart ; O make me patient of reproof, 
willin^'- to be taught, and fubjedl with all fear and godly re- 
verence, not only to the good and gentle, but alfo to the fro- 
ward. Or if ever, through the weaknefs of the flefli, I fhould 
pffend in this point, as Hagar did againft Sarah^ enable me, 
\ befcech thee, immediately to repent and to return again to 
my obedience. Grant alfo, O Lord, I may behave holily 
and unblameably to my fellow-fervants : let no corrupt com- 
munication, nor foolifli talking or jeRing, which is not con- 
venient, at any time come out of my mouth, but rather 
giving of thanks ; may our converfation be always feafoned 
- v^'itl^ 

C 473 ] 

with the fait of thy holy word, and fuch as may tend to the 
edifying one another. 

Endue us all with that charity, which hideth a multitude 
of faults ; and if ever, O Lord, thy glory fhouid call me to 
bring up an ill report to my mader againft any of my fellow- 
fervants, which, I befeech thee, of thy mercies, I may never 
have occafion to do ; grant it may be done with gentlenefs 
and compaflion, not to infmuate myfelf into my mafler's fa- 
vour, but to prevent them finning againft thee, and thereby 
ruining, their own fouls. Keep us, we befeech thee, from 
jftriving among ourfelves, as AbrahaTus and Lot's herdfmen 
did, about any of the concerns of this life -, but grant we may 
be always provoking each other to love and to good works. 
Preferve us, we befeech thee, from envying one another^ 
either the favour of our mafter, or any bleiling whatfoever. 
JvCt us not feek our own, but each our brother's welfare, as 
members of the fame body, as difciples of the fame Lord, 
When one of us fufFers, let all fuffer ; when one rejoices, let 
all of us rejoice with him. Make us pitiful and tender-hearted 
to each other ; and if at any time we fhouid have a quarrel, 
enable us, O Lord, immediately to forgive one another, 
even as thou, God, for Christ's fake, haft forgiven us. 

Finally, O Lord, endue us with a deep humility, that 
we may in brotherly love prefer one another, and in lowlinefs 
of mind each of us efteem his brother better than himfelf. O 
hear all our prayers for our mafter, and grant that he and his 
houfliold may faithfully ferve thee, our Lord. Q make him 
as devout as Cornelius.^ and us, like the foldiers that waited 
upon him, devout alfo. That thus adorning thy holy gofpel 
in all things, we may, at thy fecond coming to judge the 
world, be rewarded according as we have improved the diffe- 
rent talents which we have received from thee, O glorious 
Redeemer, who liveft and reigneft with the Father and the 
Holy Ghoftj ever one God, world without end. Jmen^ 

4 Prayer for a poor Ncgroe. 

O Righteous Father, who haft made of one blood all na- 
tions under heaven, and with whom there is no refpedl 
or pcrfons^ look down from heaven on me a miferable finner. 


C 474 1 

And as thou hadfl once compafTion on the eunuch of the 
Queen of Candace^ a ncgroe like myfelf, O Lord, let thy 
mercy be fhewn in like manner upon me. O fend feme one 
to teach me the faving knowledge of Jesus Christ. Behold 
1 am foolifh ; Lord, make me wife unto falvation. Lord, I 
am poor, do thoq enrich me by thy Spirit. Lord, I am 
mifurable in myfelf, O make me happy in thee. Lord, I am 
naked, O cloath my poor foul with the righteoufnefs of thy 
beloved fon Jesus. BlefTed be thy name, for bringing me 
over into a chriftian country. O Lord, let me not come in 
vain. Make me willing in the day of thy power, and for thy 
mercy's fake, reveal thy dear Son in me. Shew me what it is 
to be born again of thy Spirit, and let Jesus be my wifdom, 
righteoufnefs, fandtification, and redemption. Let me know, 
O Father of lights, how I have died in Adam^ and how I muft 
be made alive in Christ. Make me contented with my 
condition, knowing, O Lord, that thou haft placed me in 
it. Let me never be tempted to rebel againft my mafler or 
miftrefs ; and enable me to be obedient not only to the good 
and gentle, but alfo to the froward. Lord, keep the door of 
my lips, that I may not ofFend with my tongue. Keep my 
hands from picking and flea'ing, and fufFer me not to behave 
unfeemly on the LoRD's-day. Blefs my mafter and miftrefs, 
and my labours for their fake. Blefs the Governor, and all 
that bear rule in this province, and grant that we may live 
under them in all godlincfs and honefty. Have mercy on my 
poor countrymen : Lord, fuffer them no longer to fit in 
darknefs, and in the ftiadow of death. Arife, thou Son 
of Righteoufnefs, arife with healing under thy wings. 
Lighten our darknefs, we befeech thee, O Lord, and let us 
know the truth as it is in Jesus. Grant I may be truly con- 
verted myfelf, and then, if it be thy blefTcd will, enable me, 
O Lord, to ftrengthen my poor brethren. O take us poor 
negroes for thine inheritance, and blefs all thofe who endea- 
vour to teach us thy will. Profper, O Lord, the work of 
their hands upon them, O profper thou their handy-work. 
Grant they may turn ihcufands and ten thouf^inds of us to 
righteoufnefs, and fliine as the flars in the firmament for ever 
and ever. May we be their joy and crown of rejoicing in the 
day (Jf the Lord Jesu?, and join with them for ever and ever 

[ 475 1 

in fin?ine pralfes to thee, O Father, Son, and Holy Ghoft, 
to whom, as three perfbn?, but one God, 1 dcllrc to give all 
praife, now and for evermore. Even fo Lord Jesus, Amen^ 
and Amen. 

A Prayer for a Perfon before he goes a 'journey, 

GOD o^i Abraham., God of Ifaae^ and God of Jadsb^ 
who leddcft the people through a wildernefs by a cloud 
by dav, and a pillar of fire by night ; and didft guide the wife 
men, on their journey tojerufalem.^ by a ftar in the eaftj give 
thy angels charge concerning me thy unworthy fervant, that 
I may not fo much as hurt my foot again it a ftone. Keep 
me, O God, keep me on my journey, and fuffer me not to 
fall among robbers. Jesus, thou good Samaritan, take care 
of, fupport, defend, and provide for me. Behold, I go out 
by the diredion of thy providence ; Lord, therefore, let thy 
prefence go along with me, and thy Spirit fpeak to my foul, 
when I am journeying alone by the way-fide. O let me knov7 
that I am not alone, becaufe my heavenly Father is with me. 
Keep me from evil company, or, if it be thy will I (hould 
meet with any, give me courage and freedom, O Lord, to 
difcourfe of the things concernij;ig the kingdom of God. 
And O that thou wouldfl: let me meet with Tome of thy own 
dear children ! O that thou wouldfl: be with us, as with 
the difciples at Ernmaus., and caufe our hearts mutually to 
burn with love towards thee, and one another ! Provide for 
me proper refrefliment, and wherever 1 lodge, be thou con- 
ftrained, O God, for thy own name's fake, to lodge with 
me. Teach me, whether at home or abroad, to behave as a 
Granger and pilgrim upon earth. Prcferve my houfliold and 
friends in my abfcnce, and grant that I may return to them 
again in peace. Enable me patiently to take up every crofs 
that may be put in my wny. Let me not be weary and faint 
in my mind. Make, O Lord, right paths for my feet, 
enable me to hold out to the end of the race fet before me, 
and, after the journey of this life, tranflate me to that blclTcd 
place, where the wicked one will ccafe from troubling, and 
my weary fnul enjoy an everiaPiing reft wich thee, O Father, 
Son, and blelTed Spirit; to v/hom, as three pcrfons, but one 
God, be afcribed all pofTible power, might, majefly, and do- 

piinicn, now and for evermore. Aiticn, 

o A Prayer 

[ 47^ ] 

A Fr oyer for a Perfon at the Beginnlfjg of a Sicknefs» 

O Almighty and everlafting God, with whom alone are 
the ilTues of life and death, who doft wound and doft 
heal, who killeft and makeft alive, who bringeft down to the 
grave, and lifteft up again, and hail commanded us to call 
upon thee in the time of trouble, and thou wilt deliver us, 
ftretch forth, I befeech thee, the right hand of thy majefty on 
bic^h, and fave me from the power of this prefent ficknefs, 
which otherwife will deflroy my life. Have compaffion on 
me, as thou hadft on Peter\ wife's mother, when (he lay fick 
of a fever. Rebuke my diftemper, and grant it may leave me* 
Speak the word, O Lord, and thy fcrvant (hall be whole. 
It is but for thee to fay, Go, and it (hall go : for I believe. 
Lord, that thou art 'the fame yefterday, to-day, and for ever. 
Jesus, thou fon o^ David ^ have mercy upon rne. By thine 
agony and bloody fweat, by thy crofs and paflion, by thy 
precious death and burial, by thy glorious refurre^lion and 
afcenfion, and by the coming of the Holy Ghoft, good Lord 
deliver me from my prefent approaching illnefs. Behold, to 
thee I fly for fuccour. In obedience to thee, do I give place 
to the phyfician. But I know that I may wafte all my fubftance^ 
and {hall not grow better, but rather the worfe, unlefs thou, 
O great Phyfician, who, in the days of thy flefli, didft give 
fight to the blind, and reftore ftrcngth to the lame, and didft 
cure the woman of the bloody iflue, doft alfo recover me from 
my ficknefs. Do thou, therefore, who didft blefs a bunch of 
figs to the recovery of Hezekiah^ fandtify the means that fhall 
be made ufe of to my recovery. O let me not, like Afa^ feek 
only to the phyfician, but depend on thee, O Lord, for a 
bleffing. Or, if the decree be gone forth that I muft die, 
grant, O Lord, I may fet my houfe and heart in order, and 
though thou killeft me, let me put my truft in thee. Luo 
thy hands I commend my fpirit : though worms deftroy my 
body, yet grant, that in my flefh I may fee thee my God. 

If it be thy will, let this ficknefs not be unto death, but 
fpare me yet a little longer, that I may recover my fpiritual 
ftrength before I go hence, and am no more feen. If thou 
feeft it beft, let this afHiclipn immediately pafs from me. Ne- 


[ 477 ] 

verthelefs, not as I will, but thy will be done. Only fweetcn 
ir, O Lord, with a fenfe of thy love, and ftrengthen mc 
with thy mighty power in the inner man. Let thy grace be 
fufHcient for me. Magnify thy ftrength in my weaknefs, and 
under the (hadow of thy almighty wings, let my foul take 
refuge till this day of thy vifitation be overpaft. Shew me, 
O Lord, wherefore thou contendeft with me. For I know 
of very faithful nefs thou haft caufed me to be thus troubled. 
Miike thou my bed in my ficknefs, and let thy rod as well 
as thy ftaff, comfort me. Li patience, grant I may pofTefs 
my foul. And though this afjliclion at prefent be not joyous, 
but giievous; yet grant, O Lord, I may be fo exercifed 
thereby, that it may bring forth in me the peaceable fruits of 
righteoufnefs. Let tribulation, O Lord, work patience, pa- 
tience experience, experience hope, even that hope which 
maketh not afhamed, and whereby thy love, O God, may be 
filed abroad in my heart. Give me, O Lord, in this, and 
in every thing to give thanks, and enable me to fufFer, as well 
as to do thy will, even like the angels in heaven. O ! for 
thine infinite mercy's fake, let not Satan get any advan- 
tage over me, by tempting me to charge thee fooliflily. Let 
3iot fuch a wretch as I am, ever complain for this puniflimenC 
<r)f my fm, knowing that I receive the due reward of my 
crimes. O fufFer me not to cry out with wicked Cain^ *' My 
'* punifliment is greater than 1 can bear i'* but let me fan^tify 
thee the Lord God in my heart, and rejoice in this tribu- 
lation, knowing that whom thou loveft thou chaftencft, and 
fcourgeft every fon whom thou receiveft. Blefied be thy name 
G Lord, that thou haft not yet given me over to a reprobate 
tr.ind. Bleflcd be thy name, that thou haft not curfcd 
Jne, as I moft juftly defcrve, as thou didft the barren fig- 
tree. Blefied be thy nafne, that thou ftill doft condefcend 
to dig and dung round me. O purge, purge me for thy 
mercy's fake, and grant that I may henceforward bring forth 
fruit unto thee. O let me not forget this day of my vifitation; 
and if it be thy good plcafurc, that I fliall not die, but live, 
grant that I may ccnftantly declare thy works, O Lord. 
iVhenever I am cleanfed, let me immediately return and give 
thanks. With thy fcrvant Hezekiu}?^ may I go up into thy 
houfe, O LoRDj and pav thee my vow>, which I now make 
I lyhilft 

[ 478 j 

whilft I am in trouble. Suffer nie to fin no more, lefl: a worfc 
evil bef'al me : and as thou waft pleafcd to reveal thyfelf" in 
the temple to the poor man, whom thou didft cure in the 
days of thy fleih, be pleafed, tor thy mercy's fake, to reveal 
thyfelf to me. 1 hen fliall I fliew forth my ihankfulncfs, not 
only with my lips, but with my life^ by giving myfelf up to 
thy fervice, who didft die for our fins, and rife again for our 
juftification ; to whom with the Father, and the Holy Ghoft, 
be all honour and glory, now and for ever. Amen, 

A Prayer for a Woman lately married to a lelicving Hufband. 

EVERLASTING Father, who didft make Eve out of 
the rib o{ Adam^ and didft give her to him to vvifc, ac- 
cept my thanks for calling me to the marriage-ftatc, and blef- 
fmg me with a hufband fearing thee. O, for thy mercy's fake, 
niakc me a help meet for him. Grant, as ^arah called Ahra- 
ham^ fo I may call and honour him as my lord. Let me al- 
ways remember, I am the weaker veflei, that man was firft; 
made, and not woman, and fuffer me not at any time to ufurp 
authority over him, O let me always take heed to reverence, 
and be in fubjedion to my hufband ; and let not my adorning 
be the outward adorning of plaiting the hair, or of wearing of 
gold, or of putting on fine apparel, but let it be the hidderi 
man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the 
ornament of a meek and quiet fpirit, which is in the fight of 
thee, my God, of great price. O let me be grave, difcreet, 
chafte, a keeper at home. Suffer me not to be a bufy-body, 
or to wander about from houfe to houfe. Keep me from be- 
ino- a tatler, fpeaking the things which I ought not. And if 
thou doft blefs me with children, Lord, teach me to guidfe 
them in the right way, and manage my houfe with fuch 
meeknefs and wifdom, that I may give no occafion to the 
adverfary to fpeak reproachfully. Though in the marriage- 
ftate, enable me, O Lord, to ferve thee without diftraclion, 
and let me never be fo cumbered about the many things of 
this life, as Ko negledt the one thing needful. May I with 
Mary^ continually fit at thy feet, and fearn of thee, O Jisus,' 
to be meek and lowly in heart. Keep me from being a fnare 
to my hufband. Make me willing to pai't with him whenfo- 
cver thou ftialt call him from me. Into thy hands, O Loud,. 

1 com- 

[ 479 J 

J commend both our fpirits, fouls and bodies. O famf^ify us 
throuc^hout, and let our feed be bleflcd. O let our marriacrc- 
bed be undefiled, and give us to live together as heirs of the 
grace of God, that our prayers be not hindered. Help us to 
love one another, like thee and thy church. Give us freedom 
to pray with and for each other, and grant I may be the 
glory of my hufband, as the church is the glory of thee my 
Saviour. Hear me, O Lord, hear me, according to the 
multitude of thy mercies in Jesus my Redeemer ; to whom, 
with the Father, and the Holy Ghoft, I defire here and here- 
after to afcribe all power, might, majefly, and dominion, for 
ever and ever. Anwiy and Amen, 

A Prayer for a Man^ convinced that it h his Duty to marry ^ fjf- 
Dlrcoiion in the Choice of a Wife. 

O Almighty, ever-living God, who, after thou hadft made 
all things out of nothing, and man after thy own divine 
image, didft fay, " It is not good that man fliould be alone, I 
will make him an help meet for him j" look down, O Lord, 
on the work of thine own hands, and hearken to the voice of 
my humble requeft. O Lord, chufe a help meet for me. Thou 
Lord, art acquainted with my wants. Thou didft once 
chufe a Rebecca for rfaac. Thou art the fan^e to-day as thou 
waft yefterday. Blefs me, even me alfo, in like manner, O 
my Saviour, Suffer me not, O Lord, co be unequally yoked 
with an unbeliever. O l.et me not be in the number of the 
fons of God, who faw the daughters of men, that they were 
fair, and took them wives of all which they chofe. Lord^ 
do thou chufe for me, and direct me to a child of thine own, 
adorned with a meek and quiet fpirit. O fufler me not to fail 
by the hand of a woman. For, Lord, thou knoweft I dcfirc 
to take a wife, not for luft, but uprightly j therefore, merci 
fully ordain, that I may have one after thy own heart. W^iieu 
I marry, let it be only in and for thee, O Lord. Let not 
luft or paiTion pervert or blind my eyes ; but. Loud, give me 
to watch unto prayer, and let thy providence point out the 
perfon thou haft appointed for me. Thou didft direcl: Aura- 
ham's fervant; Lord, for thv mercy's iake, dirct5^ mc. Be- 
hold, 1 call thee, O blelTed Jesus -o my majiirigc, Direct 

[ 48o ] 

me alfo, \v!ien I confult my friend?, thy dlfclples. O blefs 
their advice unto me in this important change of my life, and 
let all know my marriage is of thee, my God, All which I 
humbly beg in thy name, and through thy merits, O blefTed 
Lamb of God, thou heavenly bridegroom of thy church, to 
whom, with the f'ather, and the Holy Ghol}, be all honour 
and glory, now and for evermore. Amsn, and A/r.en, 

A Prayer for a TVomafiy defirlng Dire5lion of God, rfter an 
Offer of Marriage is tnade to her, 

FOUNTAIN of light and life, who haft promifed to 
hear the petitions of them that afk in thy dear Son's 
name, look down on me thy poor handmaid, and anfwer my 
requeft, for thy infinite mercy's fake. Lord Jesus, thou 
knoweft all things, thou knoweil that I love thee, and defire 
only to live unto thee. Shew me, O Lord, fhew me, fur thy 
mercy's fake, what thou wouldeft have m.e to do. 1 fee, O 
Lord, the advantages of a finale life, and that I can now 
care only for the things of the Lord, and ferve thee without: 
diftraclion. If thou feed: this Hate belt for my foul, O give me 
power over my own will, and never fuffer me to know man. 
But fmce thou haft declared that " Marriage is honourable in 
all i" if thou feeft that ftate beft for me, LorDj ftiew me 
whom thou haft chofen for me. Behold, thy handmaid is now 
invited to the marriage-ftate, and thou alone knoweft the 
heart of him who offers to be my hufband. O fuffer me not 
to deceive my own foul j watch, O Lord, watch over and 
influence my deceitful heart. O let me fee the tokens of thy 
will) before I give a determinate anfwer. Suffer me not to 
fay, I will go with him, until I plainly fee this propofal is of 
thee, my GoI>. Influence my relations hearts, as thou didft 
influence the hearts of Rebecca s friends 5 and if it be thy will 
1 {hould be joined with this thy fervant, O let me love him 
only in thee, and for thee^ to the glory of thy great jnamc ^ 
and the falvation of both our immortal fouls, through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. Even io^ Lord Jesus, Jmeriyaiid Amen* 

4 Prayer 

[ 48i ] 

A Prayer for Perfons in a Storm at Sea* 

DEAREST Lord, and all-powerful Redeemer, who 
waft praying on the mountain, whilft thy difciple^ 
were toiling and rowing all night, and the wind was contrary; 
who didft alfo appear by night to thy fervant Paul in a fliip- 
wreck, faying, ** Fear not, Paul^ for God has given thee 
all the fouls that fail with theej" mercifully look upon us, 
who are now expofed to the fame danger, Say unto our fouls, 
** It is I ; be not afraid:" and to the winds, " Peace, be 
flili;" and immediately there fhall be a great calm. 

Save, Lord, or we perifh ; for the waves rage horribly. 
Thou haft fent forth thy word, and the waters flow. O let 
not the deep (hut her mouth upon us, and fuffer not the wa- 
ter-floods to fwallow us up I 

We know, O Lord, for what caufe this evil is come upon 
us. We have not feared thee, the God of heaven, who 
madeft the fea and dry land, as we ought* Therefore we 
are exceedingly afraid, left thou fhouldft not deliver us in this 
needful time of trouble. 

But O thou who didft once hear Jonah^ when he cried unto 
thee out of the belly of the flfti, though he was fleeing from 
thy prefence, hear us alfo for thy mercy*s fake. For thou 
haft caft us into the deep, into the midft of the feas, the floods 
are compafling us about, and thy billows and waves are paflincr 
over us. Save our lives from deftru6lion, O Lord our God, 
and let us yet lift up our hands unto thee in thy holy temple. 

But if the decree be gone forth, that our bodies muft novf 
perifh and fee corruption, thy blefl^ed will be done. Only 
grant, O Lord, that our fouls may be precious in thy fight, 
and that we may be preferved from the ftorm of thy everlaft- 
ing anger j fo that when the voice of the archangel fhall 
found, and the trump of GoD command the fea to give up 
its dead, we may rife to life immortal, through him who 
liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghoft, one God, 
now and for ever, Amen^ and Amen* 

Vol. IV. Hh AThanhf 


[ 4S2 ] 

A Thankfpving for a fafe Arrival after a Vcyage. 

ALMIGHTY and gracious Lord God, who art goocl^ 
and doeft good, who fendeft thy rain on the juft and 
on the unjuft, and caufeft thy fun to (nine on the evil and on 
the good ; we thy unworthy fervants humbly beieech thee, 
that thou wouldft open our lips, and enlarge our hearts, to 
fhew forth thy praife, for letting us fee thy wonders in the 
deep, and for leading us through the fea, as on dry land, and 
bringing qs to the haven where we would be. 

O do thou, who didft infpire Mofa and the children of 
Jfrael to fing a fong unto thee, when thou-broughtefl: them 
up cut of the Red-fea, open our lips, O Lord, that our 
mouths may fhew forth thy praife : for thou art our ftrength 
and our fong, and art become our falvation. Thy right hand 
is become glorious in power. Who is like unto thee, O God, 
glorious in holinefs, fearful in praifes, doing wonders ? Praife 
the Lord, O our fouls, and may all thdt is within us praife 
his holy name. • , 

We have {t&xi thy paths in the great waters, and thy pro- 
vidence and power hath alone preferved us, otherwife the 
d^ep had long fmce overwhelmed us, and the waters gone 
over our fouls. It is thy arm, O Lord, alone hath brought 
Us this falvation. O that we may therefore praife thee for thy 
goodnefs, and declare the wonders that thou haft fhewn to us, 
the unworthl'eft of the children of men. 

Lord, let us never be unmindful of thy manifold mercies, 
hut enable us to pay rhee the vows we made thee when we 
were in trouble. O keep us, keep us, we belbech thee, un- 
fpottcd from the world into which thou art fending u?. Grant 
we may not turn thy grace into wantonnefs, but hencefor- 
ward walk fo holy, and unblameably in all manner of conver- 
fation and godlinefs, that after we have pailcd the waves of 
this troublefome world, we may arrive at the haven of eternal 
reft, which thou hail prepared for all that love our LoRC 
Jesus in fincerity. Grant this, O Father, for thy dear Son's 
iake Jesus Christ our Saviour. Arnen^ and Auwu 

A Prater 

C 4H ] 

A Prayer fcr a SaJbr. 

OThou God of the fea and dry land, who In thy fliengtlt 
lettcft faft the mountains, and art girded about witll 
power, who cbfpeft the wincis in thy fift, and holdcft the 
waters in the hollow of thy hand, who deckelt thyfelf with 
Jight, as with a garment, who fpreadcft out the heavens like 
a curtain, V/ho telleft the number of the flats, and calleft them 
all by their names, who haft fet bounds td the fta which it 
cannot pafs,"and haft faid, Hitherto fiiall ye come and no far- 
ther, and here ftiall your proud waves be ftayed : O thou, 
who haft made Pleiades, Orion, and JrHurus, who layeft the 
beams of thy chambers in the waters, who makeft the clouds 
thy chariot, and walkeft on the wings of the wind : O thou 
almighty JehovAH, w'ho haft called me by thy providerice to 
go down to the fea in fliips, and to occupy my bufmefs in the 
great waters j grant, that as I daily fee, fo I may daily admire 
thy wonders in the deep, and learn from ftormS and winds to 
obey thy word. They go, O Lord, when thou biddeft them 
go ; they come, wh^n thou commandeft them to come. But 
I have broken all thy commands : thou haft commanded me 
(o go often, but alas ! I go not. Thou requireft me to come 
and draw near unto thee in prayer, but alas ! I come hot. Or 
if I do pray unto thee at fuch time as a ftorm comes upon me, 
yet my devotion ceafes with the ftorm, it is but like a morn- 
ing cloud, and as the early dew that pafleth away. 

Lord, I blufti and am confounded, vt'hcn I corifider how 
often thou haft magnified tHy power in my prefervation, and 
yet that I could continue fo ungrateful. Thou haft often 
heard me when I have cried unto thee, vvhen I have been 
ftaggering to and fro, and been at my wit's end, when the 
waves went up to the heavens, and dovvn to the hell beneath, 
and my foul hath fainted for very trouble : but I have forgot- 
ten to praife thee, O Lord, for thy goodnefs, and to thank 
thee for the wonders thou haft fhewn to me, the uuworthieft 
of the fons of men. 

Thou waft with Noah in the ark, and his little faniiily ; O 
do thou vouchfafe to guide and protect me. Thou waft with 
jQjjahj when he cried unto thee out of the belly of hell 5 hear 

H h 2 mc 

[ 484 ] 

mc alfo, now I cry unto thee out of the great deep. I would 
not behave more wifely in the things of this life, than in the 
things which belong to my everlafting peace. Let me not be 
fo careful to fhun a fhipwreck, and never fear making (hip- 
wreck of faith and a good confcience. Let me not be fo care- 
ful to eye my compafs, and yet feldom eye thy moft holy word, 
which alone can guide me through this world to the haven of 
everlafting reft. Let me not every day be folicitous to be at 
my wiftied-for port, and never defire to fee and enjoy thee. 
Let me not daily improve every wind, and continually neglect 
thofe glorious opportunities, which I enjoy of fitting myfelf 
for thee. Let me not fear a ftorm, and yet never fear that 
fiery tempeft, which will ere long come upon the wicked, 
from thy prefence. 

Keep me, O God, from impatience, when the winds and 
feas are contrary. Grant me a lively perfuafion, that thy 
providence ruleth all things ; that thou intendeft every thing 
for my good, and enable me therefore patiently to tarry thy 
leifure, and to give thee thanks for all things that befal me, 
fmcc it is thy will in Christ Jesus concerning me. Let 
me not complain of the weather, fmce that is tacitly com- 
plaining of thee, my God. 

Keep, O Lord, I befeech thee, the door of my lips, that 
I may not offend thee with my tongue. O put away fwearing j 
far from me, and let me no longer, as I have done, cloath 
myfelf with curftng as with raiment, left, as I delight in 
curfmg, it (hould happen unto me, and as I loved not bleffing, 
fo it may be far from me. 

O let me no longer deceive my own foul, by thinking it 
impoffible thus to offend thee with my tongue. All things are 
pofTiblc with thee, my God I Purify, therefore, I befeech 
thee, my heart : create in me a new heart j renew a right 
fpirit within mc : for out of the abundant wickednefs con- 
tained therein, my mouth hath fo often uttered profane things. 

Keep me, O Lord, I befeech thee, unfpotted in my con- 
verfation, and let not the evil communications, to which I am 
daily expofed, corrupt my good manners. O let me never 
have fellowftiip with the unfruitful works of darknefs, but 
rather give me courage to reprove them ; and, as my life is 
always in thy hand, O let me not forget thy law. 

c Grant 

t 485 ] 

Grant, O Lord, that the crolTes I meet with, may not 
increafe, but rather break my paflions. Let me, in the hours 
of watching, watch unto prayer, and teach me to enduro 
hardnefs like a good foldier of Jesus Christ. 

Keep me, O Lord, from loving unrighteous gain, and 
grant I may render unto Cafar the things that are Cafar%y 
and pay tribute to whom tribute is due: knowing that money 
unjuftly gotten, is but laid up to the owner's hurt, and that 
hereafter it will pierce me through with many forrows, and 
eat my flefh as doth fire. May my one bufinefs be to lay up 
treafures in heaven, and to fecure an intereft in thee, O blefTed 
Jesus, who liveft and reigneft with the Father and the Holy 
Ghoft, one God, blelTed for evermore. Amen^ and Amtn, 

H b 3 ^-^^ 

[ 486 ] 

T'he Pic us Soul lo?tguig for Heaven* 

LORD ! how have I loved the habitation of thy houff, 
and the place where thine honour dwellcth. O glori- 
ous fi-at ; tiic rcfidcnce and the workman(hip of the great, the 
mighty God : let mc continue, let me incx'^eafc in this love 
of thee more and more. 

Let this weary pilgrimage be fpent In advancing daily to- 
ward thee, and may the breathing of my foul after thee, fanc- 
■tify and comfort the labours of each day, and refrefli my 
waking thoughts by night. 

Let my heart be aiwa^'s where my trcafure is already ; and 
in this dry and defolatc wildernefs, may I feel no other thirft, 
than that of arriving at my heavenly Can(ian^ and par- 
taking in the fociety and the joys of th^t happy people, who 
have the Lord for their God. 

O may that God who made m.e, poflefs me in his holy 
temple ! Not that I dare prcfume to hope for thy beauty and 
blifs upon the account of any deferts of my ov»?n ; but yet, 
the humbleft fenfe of my own unworthinefs will not fink me 
into defpair of it, when I reflect upon the blood of Him who 
died to purchafe this manfjon for me. Let but his merits be ap- 
plied to me ; let his interceilions afiifr my want of worth, and 
then I am fafe ; for thofe merits cannot be overbalanced by 
my fins, nor were, or can thofe prayers be ever oiFered up 
to God in vain. 

For my own part, I confefs with Oiame and forrow, that I 
have gone aftray like a fhccp that is loft, drawn out my 
wandringS and my miferies to a great length, and am call 
out of the fight of my God, into the blindnefs and darknefs 
pf a fpiritual banifliment. In this forlorn eftate I fadly be- 
wail the wretchednefs of my captivity, and fing mournful 
fongs when I remember thee, O Jerufalem. As yet I am at 
an uncomfortable diftance, and at beft my feet ftand only in 
the outer courts of Sion, The beauties of the fancluary are 
behind the veil, and kept hid from my longing eyes ; but I 
am full of hope, that the builder of this fanctuary, and the 
I ^ gracious 

[ 487 ] 
gracious fhepherd of fouls, will carry me in upon his fhoulders, 
that I may there rejoice with that gladnefs unfpeakable, 
which all thofe happy faints feel, who are already admitted 
into the prefence of their God and Saviour ; the Saviour who 
hath opened his royal palace to all believers, by abolifliing the 
enmity in his flefli, and reconciling all things in heaven and 
earth by his own blood. 

He is our peace, who hath made both one, and broken 
down the middle wall of partition, promifing to give us the 
fame degree of happinefs in his own due time, which is already 
enjoyed in thee. For thus he hath declared, that they who 
are worthy to obtain that world and the refurrccStion from the 
dead, (hall be equal unto the angels. O 'JcrnJaUm^ the 
eternal habitation of the eternal God! may'ft thou be the 
fecond darling of my foul, and only he be preferred before 
thee in my afFedlion, who filed his blood to make me wort.'iy of 
thee. Be thou the joy and comfort of my languifliing mind> 
my great fupport in hardfliips and diftreflcs ; may the remem- 
brance of thee be ever fweet, and the mention of thy name 
a holy means to drive away all forrow from my foul. 

An Ad ofPralfc, 

BLESS the Lord, O my foul, and all that Is wi:hin mq 
blefs his holy name. Blefs the Lord, O my foul, and 
forget not all his benefits. O praife the Lord, all ye w^orks 
of his, in all places of his dominions ^ praife the Lord, Q 
my foul. 

Let us magnify that great God, whom angels praife^ 
whom dominions adore, whom powers fall down and tremble 
before; whofe excellent glory cherubim and fcraphim pro- 
claim with loud inceflant voices : let us bear a part in this 
heavenly fong, and together with angels and archangels, and 
all the company of heaven, laud and magnify that glorious 
name ; let us tune our voices with theirs, and though we 
cannot reach their pitch, yet will we exert the utmoft of our 
fkill and power, in this tribute to the fame common Lord ; 
and fay with them, as poor mortals are able. Holy, holy, 
holy, Lord God of Hoits j heaven and earth are full of thy 
glory ; glory be to thee, O Lord moll high, 

H h 4 Fo<( 

t 488 ] 
For thefe are the happy fpirits, who ofFer a facriflce of pure 
praife before the throne of God continually, who are ever 
wrapt in the contemplations of his perfe£lions ; and fee them, 
not like us through a glafs darkly, but near at hand, and face 
to face. 

What tongue can exprefs, what thought conceive, the 
admirable beauty, the exa6l order, the numberlefs multitude 
of this heavenly hoft ? The inexhauftible fource of joy fprlng- 
ing from the beatific vifion ; the fervent love which minifters 
delight without torment ; the ever-growing defire, which 
rifes with their fatisfa6lions, and the grateful fatisfa£lions, 
which crown that defire ; a defire always eager, and never 
uneafy, always full, and never cloyed : the blelTednefs derived 
down to them, by their infeparable union to the fountain of 
all blifs ; the light communicated to them from the original 
light ; tne happy change into an immutable nature, by feeing 
the immutable God as he is, and being transformed into the 
likenefs of him they fee ? 

But, how, alas ! fhould we hope to comprehend the divi- 
nity and blifs of angels fo far above us, when we feel ourfelves 
unable to find out the nature and perfe6tion of our very foul 
within us ? What fort of being muft this be, which infpires 
a lump of dead flefli with life and a6livity, and yet, when 
raoft defirous fo to do, cannot confine its thoughts to holy 
€xercifes ? What a mixture of power and impotence is here ? 
How great, and yet how poor and little is this principle, 
which dives into the fecrets of the moft high, fearches the 
deep things of God, and expands itfelf to celeftial obje£ls, 
■At the fame time that it is forced to employ its talent in the 
invention of ufeful arts, and to ferve the neceflities of a mor- 
tal life ? What fort of creature is this, that knows fo much 
of other things, and fo little of itfelf; fo ingenious in matters 
abroad, fo perfectly in the dark to what is done at home ? 
Specious but very difputable notions have indeed been 
advanced concerning the origin of our foul ; but all we 
know of it, amounts at laft to this ; that it is an intellectual 
Spirit, created by the Almighty power of its divine maker, 
endued with fuch an immortality as he was pleafed to qualify 
it for ; enlivening and fuftaining a body fubje£t to change, 
corruption, and deaih, and Jiable to all the unequal afFedions 


[ 489 ] 

of fear and joy, and every turbulent paflion, that in their 
turns exalt and deprefs, enlarge or contratSt its power. 

And what an amazing thing is this now ! The more wc 
attend to it, the more we {hall find ourfelves loft in wonder. 
When we read, or fpeak, or write of God, the great creator 
of the univerfe, we can diftinguifti ourfelves clearly and di- 
ftindtly, though at the fame time his perfections be too vaft, 
for our words to exprefs, or our minds to comprehend ; the 
fubje<5t, not of an adequate conception, but of an awful 

But when we defcend lower, and treat of angels and created 
fpirits, of fouls united to bodies, and beings of the fame 
level with, or a condition inferior to our own ; we are not 
able to fupport our ideas with proofs fo inconteftable ; and 
find it impradicable to fatisfy ourfelves or others in the en- 
quiries concerning them. 

Why then (hould we, to fo very little purpofe, hover un- 
certainly about thefe lower regions, and fpend our time and 
pains in groping in the dark ? No, let our minds rather en- 
large their thoughts, and take a nobler range ; let them 
leave all created objects behind, and run, and mount, and 
fly aloft : and, taking faith to the affiftance of reafon, fix 
their eyes, with the utmoft intenfenefs our nature will bear, 
upon the Creator, the Univerfal Caufe. 

Yes, I will make a ladder, like that of Jacobus, reaching 
from earth to heaven, and as by rounds, go up from my 
body to my foul, from my own foul to that eternal Spirit 
that made it ; who fuftains, prefervcs it always with me, 
about me, above me ; thus fkipping over all the intermediate 
ftages of beings, and re-uniting my own foul to Him from 
whom it came, and in whofe image it was created. 

Whatever bodily eyes can difcern, whatever leaves im- 
preflions upon my imaginative faculty, (hall be refolutely fet 
out of the way, as a hinderance to that more abftracled con-» 
templation, which my mind is defirous to indulge. 

A pure and fjmple ad^ of the underftanding, is that which 
muft carry me up, and boldly foar at once to the Creator of 
angels, and fouls, and of all things. 

And happy is that foul, which, refufing to be detained by 
low and viler objects, dire^s its flight to the nobleft and moft 


[ 490 ] 

exalted, and, like the eagle, builds its nefi: in the top of ths 
rocks, and keeps its eye fteady upon the Sun of righteoufnefs ; 
for no beauty is fo charming, no pleafure fo tranfporting, as 
that with which our eyes and mind are feafted, when our 
greedy fight and eager affections are determined to our God 
and Saviour, as to their only proper center ; when, by a 
wondrous myftical, but true and fpiritual act of vifion, we 
fee him who is invifible ; behold a light far different from 
this which chears our fenfes, and tafte a pleafure infinitely 
Iweeter than any this world and its joys can afford j for this is 
a fhort and infincere pleafure ; this is a dim and feeble light, 
confined to a narrow fpace, always in motion from us, and 
in few hours put out by conftant returns of darknefs : thefe 
are enjoyments which the great Creator hath diftributed to 
brutes, nay, to the vileft of infedls, in common with man- 
kind ; and therefore let us thirft and afpire after fuch as are 
truly divine •, for what even fwine and worms fliare with us, 
cannot deferve the name of light and pleafure, but, in com- 
parifon of thofe more refined, are to be efteemed no better 
than pain and night. 

Now to God the Father, 5cc, 


[ 491 3 




JNSJVER to the B'ljljop of London's Loft Paji oral Letter. 

page 5- 
4 Letter to the Religious Societies £/* England. — P- 23 

J Letter to the Inhabitants (j/^ Maryland, Virginia, North and 
South-Carolina. — — — P' 3"^ 

J Letter to fome Church -Meinhcrs of the Prejhyterian Perfuafio7i^ 
in Anfwer to certain Scruples lately propofcd^ in proper Queries 
raifed on each Remark* — - — — p. 4 c 

A Letter to the Rev. Mr. John Wefley ; In Anfwer to his Ser- 
nion, entitled^ Free- Grace. — — P* 53 

A Vindication an4 Confirmation of the Remarkable Work of Gon 
/« New-Erigland. Being fome Remarks on a late Pamphlet y 
entitled^ " The State of Religion in'Sew-'^nghnd, fnce thg 
Rev. Air. George Whiteficld'i Arrival there. In a Letter to 
a Minijlcr of the Church of Scoiland. • ■ P* 77 

A brief Account of the Occafim.^ Proccfs^ and IJfue^ of a late Trial 
at tl}€ Ajfize held at Glouccftcr, March 3, 1743. between 


[ 492 1 
fame of the People called Methodtjh^ Plaintiffs^ and certain 
Perfons of the Town tf/'Minchin-Hampton, in the f aid County^ 
Defendants* — — — — p. lOI 

An Anfwer to the Firjl Pari of an Anonymous Pamphlet^ entitled^ 
*' Obfervations upon the ConduSi and Behaviour of a certain 
" SeSi^ ufually dijlingwjhed by the Name of Methodijls" In 
a Letter to the Right Reverend the Bijhap of London, and the 
ether Right Reverend the Bijhops concerned in the Publication 
thereof — — — — P* II3 

J Letter to the Reverend Thomas Church, M. A, Vicar of 
Battcrfea, and Prebendary of St. Paul's ; in Anfwer to his Se- 
rious and Expoflulatory Letter to the Rev. George Whitefield, 
on Occafton of his late Letter to the BiJl)op of London, and 
other Bijhops, — — — — P« 125 

An Anfwer to the Second Part of an Anonymous Pamphlet^ en* 
titled., *' Obfervations upon the Conduct and Behaviour of a 
*' certain SeSl^ ufually difiinguijhed by the Name of Metho* 
*' d'tjis'^ In a fecond Letter to the Right Reverend the Bijhop 
of London, and the other the Right Reverend the Bijhops con- 
cerned in the Publication thereof — — P* '43 

Some Remarks upon a late Charge againff Enthuftafmy delivered 
by the Right Reverend Father in God, Richard, Lord Bijhop 
tf/" Litchfield and Coventry, to the Reverend the Cler^ in the 
fever al Parts of the Diocefe of Litchfield and Coventry, in a 
Triennial Vfttaiion of the fame in 1741 j and publijhed at their 
Requefi in the prefent Tear^ 1 744. In a Letter to the Reverend 
the Clergy of that Diocefe. — — P* ^73 

A Letter to the Reverend the Prefideni and Profeffors^ Tutors and 
Hebrew- In/lru^ or., of Harvard-College, in Cambridge. In 
Anfwer to a Tejlimony publijhed by them againji the Reverend 
Mr. George Whitefield, and his Condu£l, — p. 203 


[ 493 ] 

Remarks on a Pamphlet^ efititled, " The Enthufiafm of Method'yls 
*' and Popijls compared;'^ wherein [ever al M'lftakes in fome 
Paris of my pa/} JVritings andConduSi are acknowledged^ and my 
prefent Senii??ients concerning the Mcthodi/ii explained. In a 
Letter to the Author, — — — p. 229 

An Expojiulatory Letter, addrejfed to Nicholas Lewis, Count 
ZinzendorfF, and Lord Advocate of the Unitas Fratrum, 


A Short Addrefs to Perfons of all Denominations ; occafioned by the 
Alarm of an intended I nvafton, in the Tear 1756. p. 265 

A Preface to the Serious Reader^ on Behalf of the Rev. Samuel 
Clarke'i Edition of the Bible, — — V' '^11 

Ohfervations on fame Fatal Mi/lakes, in a Book lately publijhedy 
and entitled, *' The Do^rine of Grace ; or. The Office and 
*' Operations of the Holy Spirit vindicated from the Infults of 
" Infidelity, and the Abufes of Fanaticifm.'' By William, Lord 
Bijhop ^Gloucefler. — — — p. 285 

A Recommendatory Preface to the IVorks of Mr. John Bunyan. 

P- 305 

A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Durell, Vice-chancellor of the Univerfity 
of Oxford . Occaftoned by a late Expulfion of Six Students from 
Edmund- Hall, — — .,— p. 3n 

Ohfervations on Sele£i Pajfages of Scripture, turned into Catechetical 
^ejiions — — — — P» 345 

Law Gofpelized: or. An Addrefs to all Chrijlians, concerning Ha- 
linefs of Heart and Life : Being an Attempt to render Mr, 
Law'j Serious Call more ufeful to the Children of God, by ex- 
cluding whatever is not truly Evangelical, and illujirating 
the Subje^ more fully from the holy Scriptures. — P- 377 


[ 494 ] 

Preface to a New Edition of the Homilies ; as intended to have 

.bee?2pubiifm'd ly Mr, Whkefidd, — — F- 41^ 


For one defiring and feeking after the New-Birth. — p.-457 

For one newly awakened to a Senfe of the Divine Life, p. 45 <) 

For one under Spiritual Deferiion. — — p. 46 1 
For one under the Difpleafure of Relations fir being Religious, 

p. 463. 

For one entrufed with the Education of Children, p. 465 

For a P erf on in IVant, — — — * P- 467 

Before Singirg of Pfalms. . — — — p. 468 

For one before he z^es to his Labour -— — ibid. 

For a Rich Man. — — - — ■ P- 470 

For a Servant. — — — - — p. 471 

For a Poor Negroe. — — — P* 473 

For a Perfon before he goes a fourney — — P- 475 

For a Perfon at the Beginning of a Sicknefs. — p. 476 

For a Woman lately married to a believing Hufljand, p. 478 

For a Man^ convinced that it is his Duty to mairy^ for DircSIion 

in the Choice of a Wife, — — — p. 479! 

For a Woman drfiring Dire^Jon of GcTi^ after an Offer rf Mar- 

is 77iadc to her, — - — — - — P.4S0 

For Perfons in a Storm at Sea. — — — p. 481 

A Thankfgivir.g for a fafe Arrival after a Voyage. p. 482 

A Prayer fir a Sail jr. — — — P* 4i>3 

^he Pious Sou! lovging fir Heaven. — * — p. 4^^ 

An Acl ofPraife, ^ — — p. 4^7 

END of the F o u P. T ri V 1 M e^