(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
See other formats

Full text of "The morning-exercise against popery, or, The principal errors of the Church of Rome detected and confuted : in a morning-lecture preached lately in Southwark"





•■•■. -4 

\ - 

-— * * 
















//-; ^ <^W^ 



' /Ssiijl/Uf &f . 

■y — : 





O F T H E 


Detected and Confuted, 

I N A 


Preached lately in $ V THW A RK: 

OS? S>;t>eral &ini1kms of t&e ©oCpel m o? neat 
V L O N D O N. 

R E 

7i *fa far, and to tojfmn.i if they fp eaK m according to this word it 
if bee mi t ■■':< no li^ht m tbem, \f,.$. 20. "-«•»,« 

Asa ^ * &■ «>as» JSiwsg 

VtiUffiJibrwflttre, , fhrihus fieri, diverfi (iyh no,i diverfafide Htm de ait* 
?m**rf. Auguflinus de Tr.ni ate. lib. 1 cap. 3. """" * ' w ^ 

Printed by ^. Afawrf/ f or 77,,,.. p Jr u mn \ at t j, e BiM _ , , _ 

London-Bridge 1675. 




4 - 


■ - 

To the READER. 

HOSE Famous Minifters of Chrift, Luther, tec % 
lanfthon, Calvin, Zuinglius, Bucer, and the reft of 
them, who juftly are ftiled Reformers of Religi- ^i^ 
on 5 did fay more againft Popery, than any of the 
Papifts have yet been able to give a fclid Anfvvcr to : 
And indeed it was by wife and uninterefted men judged, 
above a hundred years ago, a defperate Caufe , being fb 
much againft both Scripture and right Reafon. The Church 
of Rome, therefore, that it might uphold arid defend it 
felf, hath had recourfe unto Cruelty, policy, Sophifiry. 

As for their Cruelty, What place almoft is there that rings 
not of it? The Mxjfacreat Paris, the Ir if) Rebellion, the 
Gunpowder >Treafon , thofe Flames in which lb many were 
burned in the Perfecution under j^ Miry 5 do plainly (hew, 
That the Romijl) Seaji is the moft Cruel one that ever was, 
and is extreamly eager to tear in pieces all that refufe to 
worlhip him. Thofe many thoufands of Men, Women, and 
Children, who have been moft barbaroully butchered by 
Bloody Papifts in France, in Ireland, in Bohemia, in Pied" 
mont, in England 5 may inform all, what Arguments they 
ufe to promote their Religion , when once they have any 
Power in their hands } and what kind of dealing is to beex- 
pefted where Popery (hall prevail 5 unlefs there be afubjeft- 
ing of Bodies, Ejiate, Reafon, Senfe, Faith, and Conference 
alfb, unto their Tyranny and Vfurpation. 

And left thefe Liftances of Cruelty which I have mention- 
ed, fhould be extenuated, as making nothing againft Popery, 
becaule (everal of that Religion have condemned them^it will 
not be ami(s to add, That Thuanus, an Hiftorian of their own, BtfivfUtm lib, 
gives this information^ That the Pope when he heard of the^;^° 4> 
Maflacre, from his Legate at ?ark, read the Letter in the Con- Nuncio de tu« 
fiftory of Cardinals, and folemnly gave thanks to Almighty ^StaJS 
God for fo great a blejftng conferred upon the Roman See and rum quanta 
the Chrifiian World, It was alfo decreed, That a jubilee fhould teti . ti ? Ron }f 
be publiihed 5 the Caufes whereof, were to return than^ tdT&^mct 

c . c .. ' 1 dinalium Se- 

natu f ontihcii Legati lirens decretum eft, ut inde rccla Pontifex cum Cardinalibus ad B. Mmi 
coQcederet, & D. O. M. pro tanto beneficio Sedi Roman*, orbiq; Chnftiano collato, grarias 
ttta folenni ageret : & legs %«* fanmm. 

A 2 God 


The Epijlk to the Redder. 

God for destroying in France the Enemies of the Truth and of 
the Church&c. Sooti after,the PopeXent Cardinal Vrfih'm his 
Name to congratulate the King of France^ who in his journey 
through the Cities highly commended the Faith of thofe Citi- 
sens who had an hand in the Mailacre, and difiributedhis Ho- 
liness blejfings among then/. And at P^rar, being to periwade 
the reception of the Council of Trent^ endeavoured it with 
this Argument, That the memory of the late Action to be mag- 
nifi'ed in all Jges, at conducing to the glory of God^ and the 
dignity of the holy Roman Churchy might be> as it were y fealed 
by the approbation of the Holy Synod* 

If this Mailacre bq thus juftihed , commended, magnified, 
where there was alfo fo much Treachery ( for the Protefiants 
were invited to a Marriage between the Houfes of Valois and 
.*The number bourbon ? and then inthe dead of the night * many thoufands 
LinT^this °f them, without diftin&ionof Age or Sex, were butchered, 
Mailacre at fothat the Channels ran down with blood into theRiver\fure 
theTplaces, we ma y conclude, That the raoft horrid Murthers will be de- 
ameunted un- fended, as long as that which they call the Catholick^ Religion. 
*h Tand* * s f ^ ere ^y promoted. I grant indeed, there are fome good- 
natur'd Papi(ls which fay , They diilike luch bloody doings, 
whatever may be pretended for their judification ': But 'tis 
more than probable, that thefe very Gentlemen , (uppofing 
"the Pope had full Power to weild both Swords, if they fhould 
dare to talk againft his Cruelty, would prefently be cafl'd md 
feel the ftroke of his Swords> as Heretic^s. 
* , Policy is another prop of Popery. By Policy. I do not mean 

that Prudence in managing of State-affairs, which is joined 
with Integrity, Juftice, Honefty$ but that Craftineft and Sub- 
tilty, where no regard is had either to Truth or Confcience, 
, but any thing is done,though never fo much againft the Rules 
of Rjghteoufnefs, that carnal Ends may be brought about.The 
Pope having arrogated (iich Power to himfelf, that he can ab- 
fblve SubjeSs from their Oaths of Allegiance, can takeoff the 
obligation of Covenants and Promifes, and give Difpenfations 
to tranfgrefs the Laws of God j hereby a door, is opened to 
all Unrighteoufhefs, and Papijis may be allowed to diffemble, 
to lye, to be perjured, as long as 'tis for the Catholic^ Caufc. 
The Writings o£ Machiavelhzve been ftudied more throughly 
by many of the Roma/tifts ? that* the Scriptures of the Apoftles 


The Epijlle to the Reader. 

and Prophets. And thofe who have converted with the jfe- 
furts, and underftand theMyftery cfijefuitifm^ find them fuch 
exaft Aohitophcls, that they will counfel to any thing, though 
never (b ungodly,if it tend to the upholding of their Fadtion. 
Laftly,For their Sophijiry : In this refpeft their Schoolmen, 
who have endeavored to argue forP<?/?er^are famous.But when 
what they- (ay is duly weighed, it appears to be but Sophiftry, 
and no more. In the main points of Con trover fie between the 
Church o&Rome and us, their Arguments are atifwercd in the(e 
enfuing Sermons, the truth alio is confirmed by Scripture and 
Reafon, and then an Improvement made in order unto pra- 
ctice. This mixture of Polemical and Practical Divinity to- 
gether, 'tis hoped will be very ufeful. 

The Minifters who preached thele Leflrures, endeavoured 
to accommodate themfelves to the capacity even of ordinary 
Hearers : For the common people,confidering the Induftry of 
RomiJI) Emiffaries, are in great danger of being (educed^and 
this Book, through the bleffing of God, may be an Antidote. 
I could have wifhed that the Sermons had been delivered to 
me all together, that they might have been printed in better 
order, and (brted together according to the fubjedt-matter of 
them. But if the Reader pleafe to confult the Table at the 
beginning, he may read them in order if he be fb minded. 

To conclude: Since England was formerly fuch a Tribu- 
tary to the See of Rome^ and fuch vaft (urns of Money were 
carried yearly from Hence Thither $ we are not to doubt but 
the Pope looks upon us with* grief that he has loft at, 
and with an earneft defire to regain us* His Inftruments are 
more than ordinarily bufie to this End , infomuch that both 
King and Parliament have taken publicly notice of it. This 
Lecture therefore againft Popery ? is very (eafbnable 5 and if 
(which I earneftly beg) this Labour be made fiiccesful to 
reduce any of them who have been /educed, or to arm and 
defend the people againft one of the greatejl vifible Enemies 
that Chrift has in the world} I (hall exceedingly rejoice thst 
my Pulpit was fb much honoured by my Fathers and Bre- 
thren whea they preached in it, and that ever fuch a Projett 
againft popery came into my mind. 



The Thefes or Truths maintained in thefe Ser- 
mons againft the P A P It S. 

l.fTT* HE Scripture was written for the ufe of the Laity 
J and, fiould be tr (inflated into known Tongues, that they 
may underpaid it } and foould be heard and read by them. 
Text, i TXc/^5.27. Serm. 5. p. 105. 

II. The Scripture is a fufficient Rule of Chriflian Faith or 
Record of all necejjary Chriflian Doftrines, without any fup- 
plement of unwritten Tradition, as containing any neceffary 
matter of Faith 5 and is thus far fufficient for the decifion of 
Controverts. Text, 2 Thef. 2. 15, Serm. 6. p. 149. 

III. TheTejiimony of the Church is not the only nor the 
chief reafon of our believing the Scripture to be the IVord of 
God. Text, Luke 16.29. Serm. 10. p. 313. 

IV. There is no External, Supream, and Infallible Judg in 
■the Church of God, to whom all Christians are obliged to fub- 
tnit their Faith and Confcience in all matters of Religion. 
Text, Mat. 23. 8, 9, 10. Serm. 1, p. 1. 

V. There is no fuch Church injiituted by Chriji, as allchri* 
fiians joined to one meer Human Head, either Perfonal or Col* 
leUive : But Chrili is the only Vniverfal Head. Text, 1 Cor. 
12. 27, 28. Serm. 2. p. 25. 

VI. Kingr and Emperors are not rightful Subjects to tht 

?ope$ neither hath he Power, for pretended or real Herefie, to 

excommunicate and depofe them, nor to abfolve their Subje&s 

from their Oaths of Allegiance 5 but even the Clergy arefubjeU 

?to fecular Princes , and their Bodies and Eli at es under their 

Government. Text, ASs 26. 2. Serm. 3. p. 44. 

VII. The Pope of Rome is That Antichrili , and Man of 
Sin, fpoken of in the Apocalyps , and by the ApoBle PauL 
Text, 2 Thef 2. 3, 4, 5. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Serm.4. P- 80. 

VIII. The Proteftants didupon jull grounds feparatefrom 
the church of Rome. Text, Luk* 6. 2?. Serm. 14. p. 492. 

IX. The Lord Jefus , who is the only Foundation of his 
Church, is the preferver of its Duration, in fome meafure, vi- 

fibly throughout all ages. Text/ Mat. 16.18. Ser. 25. p.839. 

X. The Papifts dangeroufly corrupt holy Worflnp, by their 
finful Prayers to Saints and Angels. Text, #0^.10.14. Ser. 

15. p. 519. XII. Fnr* 

Xr. Purgatory is * gnundlefs and a, dangerous Doffrint. 
Text, i Cor. 3. 1 5. Serm. 24. p. 81 3. 

XH. No Sin is in its own nature Venial , but every Sin is 
deadly, anddefcrves eternal Damnation. Text, Rom. 6. 23. 
Serm. 8. p. 261. 

XIII. The Good Works of believers are not meritorious of 
eternal Salvation. Text, rfal.62. 12. Serm. II, 5 pag.401. 

XIV. There are not any work/ of Supererogation. Text,L#^e 
17. 10. Serm* 16. p. 548. 

XV. The Do&rine of Justification is dangeroufiy corrupted 
in the Roman church. Text, Rom. 3. 24. Serm. 12. p. 44 1„ 

XVI. 3 Tis not lawful to make Images of God, nor to wor- 
JJjip him as reprefented by an Image 5 nor to direB our worfiip 
to an Image as <* Medium 3 nor fcandaloujly to feemto worfiip 
Images, bf doing it corporally as idolaters do , though we pre- 
tend tokeep- our hearts to God. And the Papifts prefumptu- 
oujlj leave the fecond Commandment* out of the Decalogue* 
Text, Mat. 4. 10. Serm. 13. p. 458.. 

XVII.. Public^ Prayer ought not to be made in an wth^Kywn^ 
Tongue. Text, 1 Cor.\\.\ 5. Serm. 9. p. 295. 

XVIII. The Pope and his Clergy, by falfe prefnmptuons Par- 
dons and Indulgences, have heinoufly injured Chriji,the Church, 
and Souls of men. Text, Hei.1c.14. Serm. 19. p. 6jj. 

XIX. That Dottrineinthe Church of Rome which forbids^ 
to marry, is a wicked Doctrine. Text, 1 Tim. 4. 2* Serm. 17* 
p. 578. 

XX* The Papal Doctrine in denying the pojfibility of Ajfu- 
ranee, is falfe , and hath a dangerous tendency to destroy the 
true Peace and Comfort of fouls in the certain hopes of ever* 
Uiting happinefi. Text, 2 Pet. 1. 10. Serm. 18. p. 617.- 

XXI. Baptifm and the Lords Supper are the only Sacraments 
of the Covenant of Grace under the New Testament. Text, 
Prov. 30. 6. Serm. 20. 701. 

XXII. ihere is no juch thing as Tranfubitantiation in the 
Euchartli 5 and 'tis idolatry in the Papifts to worflip the confe- 
crated Bread, though they thinks 'tis turned into the Body of 
chriff. Text, 10^.11.23,24,25. Serm. 21. p. 729. 

XXIII ihe Papifts go prefumptmajly againli the Instituti- 
on of Chriff, and change and corrupt his Ordinance, and are 
injurioHs to the people ^ in denying the ufe of the Cup to them 


in the Lords Supper. Text, Mat. 26, 27, 28. Ser. 2 2. p. 760. 

XXIV. In the Mafs there is not a true and real Sacrifice of 
Qhritt himfelffor the fins of the Head and Living. Text, 
Heb. 10. 12. Ser. 23. p. 784. 

XXV. Popery is a Novelty^ and the Vroteli ant Religion was 
not only before Luther, but the fame that was taught by Christ 
and his ApoUls. Text. Jer. 6. id. Ser. 7. p. 165. 

READER, The fmaller Miftakes are left unto your Ingenuity to Correct ', the grofTer Errata are 
here amended. 


p.Age 5, I. 16, r.Maffer, J. 10, r. he, p, 17, J. i, r. of thee, p. 39, r. detefl, p. 81. r. 0^ oof, p. 62, 
J. 1$, r. Rev. 16. 13. p. 85, 1. 7, r. Grdfe'rUs, p. 8$, I. 38, add bringing in, p. p5, 1. 2, Vvinfingen- 
fis, p. 97, 1. 8, r. to, p. 98, r. }>ead, p. 99, 1. 27, r. he looks, p. 100, 1. 23, r. Officers, p. 102, 
1.6, r. flbf/V, I. 7. add £&£, I. 37, addbid publicl^and open, p. 106, 1. 30, r. turret, p. \c% 1. 27, r. p- 
iilis, p. iio,1. 25, r.Scrinh, p. 112, 1. 1, r. condonandi, p. 113, 1. 11, r. Tarqnin, p. 118, 1. 15, r. 
/i/f/? aw, p. 122, 1. 1, r. let, p. 141, 1. 13, r. r2 S. p. 152, 1. 37, r. readinejs, p. 155, 1, 3, r. /*/*&, 
|>.2d3, 1. 22, r. ingenioufly, p. 266, 1. 34, r. offender, p. 27.2, 1. 26, dele of, p. 292, 1. 16, r. w&if 
<s madnefi, p. 27$, L 26 , r. gold. f Page 404-, 1. 8, r. .actions, p. 405, marg. r. jfc 
frcedeii : & grat. I. 42, r. 07, p. 407, 1. 2,' r. injfat,'\. 25, r. dr ri 1. 36, r. Andradiiis,^. 408, 
I. 4, r. fentent. I. 15, marg. r. W£ condigno, & 1. 23, r. convention,}. 42, r. a^ro, 1. 44, r. t«6- 
7»j, p. 409, marg..]. $, r. vAvrj, p' 416. 1. 8, marg. r,.cot(ummando, p. 418, 1. 40, r. fib/ wi t$ 
vchhh it is, p. 421, 1. ult. r. jo. 2. Ep. 8. p. 422, 1. 2, r. 2. w*rf&, p. 425, dele othe, p. 426, marg. 
1. 13, r. tribuit, p. 442, 1. 16, r. 1 Co? - . 6. 11. p. 443, 1. 18, r. 1 Jo. 8.-9. marg. r. c> chfilii, p. 445. 
1. 16, add fr/at, p 447, marg. r. dominicm, p. 448, 1. 23, add grace, p. 449, 1. 3, r. retractation, p. 450. 
1. 17, r. dartyefs, p. 451, 1, 10, dele of, 1. 20, add or others, p. 452, 1. 1, add rre may get eternal life i 
p. 455, marg. dele r. 2. p. 456, I. 34, r jo fa' 1 , 1. 34. add or others for them, p. 459, I. 13, for pre- 
sently r. pretendedly, 1. 19, for making r. wording, p. 462, 1. 2, for will r. would, 1. 3, for part r. 
^ iff*, 1. 24, dele one of, 1. 32, for our works r. Civil vror-hip, p. 4^3, 1. 11, add alio, 1. 22, dele one 
«/,1. 23, for Proftrating r. proftration, p 466, i. 8, fcr how r. now, p. 463, 1. 16', for tranfparent r. 
tranfeendent, p.471, for lives r. ft^tfto .p. 475, 1. 2, for beffc r. hff, p. 483, 1 for alfo r. v;ho, ibid.ddc 
that, p. 489, I. 17, for may r. muff, p. 492. for fave r. firve, p. 494. for thus r. this, for as r. tkojup, 
495, marg*. r Antmames, p. 5 13, r. euQ&tpiloi, p. 521, .1. 29, r. intention, 1. 38, for your r. their, p. 
525, marg. r. Ecd-fia, for qui ';/, r. qmdm, p. 527,1. 34, for (corned r. fumed, p. 530,1. 13, r. vanity, 
p. 531, marg- r.funtforfmct,znd Quit & for •fail us eft, -p. 539. r. ukJitov, p. 547, 1. 14, r. *fe/, and 
add des, p. 548, marg. r. Jewclm* Pv §50, r/fe, marg. r. utilitas, p. 551, r. Mxtth.^ 22. p. $$2, r. 
yea rather, 
14, for w 
for fpiritu* 

dele 0/, p. 603 J/13, r" HctQUdv]at 9 p 6lt, 1 20, r. Alexanders, p. 613, 1.39, r. inceffuofis, p. 614, "1. 
30, r. Setters, I. 32, r, bhc^uil, in Tit. Ser. 18, r. Belkvzr his, p. 619, marg. 1. 14, r. */>p/. C>r. fetl. 
3, p. 6.23, 1 42, r eTi xctk£y, i$yccv p, 226, i. 13, for theirs r. ffe* P^ijfj, p. 627, 1. 41, r. ftngle, 
p. 630, 1. 13, r. as to, p. 632, 1. 38, for way r. Eye, p. 635, 1. 40, for thefe r. thofe, p. 640, l. 40, 
marg. r. incauto, p. 641, 1. 20, « /u.%1ct Ao>« p. 644, 1. 3, r. inartifiiale, p. 648, 1. 29, dele from £- 
Urntthjp 445, L25, dele Co >?. * Page 701, 1. 1,4, r. light, I.31, r. tender, p.705,1. i3,r. Sacraments, 
p. 708, 1. 20, r. vocati, 1. 44, r. emmwded, p. 710: 1. 27? r. rite, p. 711,1. 14, r. change, p. 714, 1. 
34, r. *fcf, p. 715. 1. ult. -dele md that through final Infidelity, p. 716, 1. 39, dele again, p. 72.0, J. 41, 
r. prevented, p. 723, 1. 6, that which. is included in the Parenthefs fliould have been fet in the Mar- 
gin, p. 725, 1. 26, r. coufd, p. 726, 1. 235 r. <# tf> - £ intaiid, p. 727, 1. 5, for their r. both, p. 784, 
for fpeaking r. freutyth, p. 788, dele for,and for in that r. a, p. 790, for it is r. he is, p. 791, for 
-was r. were, p. 795, for oJ from r. on, and dele in, p. 806, for at r. of, p. 808, dele to under ffmd, 
p. 814,1. 7,V. /Jw, p. 810, i. 16, for fttis r. jz»«, 1. ult. r. wafled, p. 818, 1. 15, r. r^^ p. 819, 
I. 2, r. laff, 1. 10, r. 2000, and 1. 32, r. defying, p. 828, 1. 32, r. jaftified for fanctified, p. 830, 1. 39, 
r* Doftor, p. 832, 1, ult, x. mouldring 7 p. 834, 1, 20, r. tKWH) P« 834, 1, 23, r. called day, p. 8375 k 
23, r. gone. 



»/»l '.:■*■ 


:?&> :V 

WiW p~<> VJAi J"r« 3>fjfl ^ ^a^^«*)'-*. 
£0 V^co:> / ; »^'i ••-'•', >^6 '.£■ 0^<i^6 M 

t-f:#-M- n 44 ; '4' : i *$ 

fi&f #f#l& 



y/ // . a notzdnfallible $ 


Mat. 23. 8, p, 10. Z>»* fo #o* j>? called Rabbi^ for one is your Ma$er, even 

Chrijt^ and all ye are Brethren, 
And call no man your Father upon the earthy for one is your Father which 

is in Heaven. 
Neither be ye called Makers •> for one is your Mafter y even Cbrifjt, 

HE But in the beginning of tjiefe words 
hath a manifeft refpecl: unto the forego- 
ing verfes, wherein our bleffed Saviour 
defcribes and cenfurcs the ambition and 
ufurpation of the Scribes and Pharifees. 
He tells you in the fifth verfe, AH their 
work/ they do to be feen of men \ not for 
the pleating of God, but for gaining of 
reputation amongft men \ not for the 
fatisfadion of their own Conferences, 
but for vain glory and oftentation. 
Ihey made broad their Phylacleries \ 
the Phyladteries were little fciowls of Parchment which the Jews 
did wear upon their arms, or upon their foreheads, wherein they writ 
fome parcels of the Law of God. How folidly grounded that practice 

T a > JL , A n0t n ° W examine : But the Scribes and Pharifees made 
thefePhvJadrerics larger and broader than the reft of the Jews, that 
they might gain that refpecl from the people by their outward garb, 
which they could not gain by any true and folid worth. It follows in 
the nxth verfe. 7hey love the uppermofl rooms at feajh, and the chief feats 
in the Synagogues; .and in the feventh verfe, and greetings in the Mar- 
kets and fa be called of men Kabbi 5 i, e . Mafter or Voter •, for fo the 
r TW es **** the word is doubled for the"' greater honour and 
Url J The y aflfe L ^d titles of honour, and the Jmifh Sanhedrim did 

^V° X u hefe W U P° n karned men > a » a the V obliged the 
People to give them thefe titles * and they had a faying, that he that 

B fahtetb 



Tops and Councils hot Infallible. Semi. I. 

f.ilutetb bis teacher M he doth another man^ and dcth not*caU him Rabbi 
provokes God to depart from Ifratl. 

But indeed there was a deeper and worfe deiign than this in it s 
they did not only aim, at fplendid and glorious titles, but they did 
ufuip Authority and Dominion over the Conferences of the People , 
whereof this was but a lign > as amongft us the Flag is a fign of the 
Dominion of the Seas, fo tins title was an indication and iigu of that 
Authority they ufurped over the people. Againft this leaven of the 
Scribes and Pharifees, our Saviour cautions them in the words read, 
Be ye not called Rabbi, call no man your Father upon earthy neither be ye 
called Mailers. The fame thing thrice repeated in various expreifions, 
to (hew the great importance and necejftty of this precept. But how is 
this to be underllood } Ianfwer, it is nor a prohibition concerning the 
7'fe of the name, but concerning the pra&dce rf the thing. You are not to 
underftand it thus, as if it were unlawful to call any man 'father, or 
Mafier, as the Quakers with fufKcknt weaknefs will underhand ir. Cer- 
tainly the Apofties beft underllood the meaning of their Lord' and Ma- 
iler j and for as much as we hind that they themfelves did give men 
thefe titles, we have warrant enough to ufe them, Ephef. 6. 4. Fa- 
thers provoke not your Children to wraths and left any man (hould have 
iuch. an Allegorical humour as to underftand it of fpiritual Fathers, 
they are called fathers of the flefh, Heb. 12. p. We have had fathers of our 
flcjb. And fo fervants muf; obey in all things their Majiers according to the 
^/^,Col.3.2 2.nay more,it is not unlawful to call teachers by thefe names', 
it is not unlawful tQci[\Teachzts,Mafters ) 'DoclorsJlabbies,i 0^.4.15. For 
though you have ten thoufandinftru&ers in Chrifi, yet have you not many Fa- 
theirs, fur in Chrijl Jefiu I have begotten you through theGofpel: I am your 
Father, your fpiritual Father, and the title of Mafier (eP//«tVx<tAcO an- 
fwers to Rabbi in the Hebrew, as the learned know, and plainly appears 
from Job. 20. 16. Jefus faid unto her Mary, Jhe turned her j elf about 
andfaid^ Rabboni ! a word of the fame fignirrcation with R«*&£i,which 
i'S as much as to fay Mafier. This name I fay, is commonly given to 
Teachers and Minifiersof the Gofpel => he fent fome Apofiles, andfome 
teachers or Mafier 7, «T/JWxaAKo and fo St. Faul calls himfelf <£*/*?**;«*, 
a teacher, a Mafier \a Voftor of the Gentiles, 

What then is here forbidden ? 

Anf Two things. CO He forbids a vain and ambitious arTecTration 
of fuch titles of honour as thefe. (2) And principally he forbids 
that Authority and Dominion over the Confciences of men which thefe 
titles do import. I (hall fay nothing to the former, the latter is that F 
mull difcourfe of at this time. And to this purpofe, and that you may 
the better underftand the mind of our bleffed Saviour in thefe words* 
you muft know that the Scribes and Pharifees did arrogate to them-. 
Selves this Authority over the people, the felf-fame Power which the 
Popifn teachers at this day ufurp ever their people. This was their do- 

Serm. I. Tope and Councils net Infallible. 

drine, That trte People were obliged to believe all their Do&rine.%and 
to practife all their Injunctions. Tiiefe are the very words of the Jewifh 
lalmud, which is as it were their Bible. All the words of our Rabbin? 
are to be believed, and received^ as the very words of the living God. And 
in another place, IVe owe the fame faith to all which the Rabbins teach in 
their homilies, which we give to the Law of Mofes. Nay they went fo far 
as to fay, fas Rabbi Solomon an eminent Doctor of theirs faith upon 
Veut. 17. II.) Thou fljalt not depart from the words of the wife. 
i.e. their leachers, though they tell thee that thy right hand \f thy Ujt, and 
thy left hand k thy right \ and in another place, he that dijfents from kit 
Teachers, is as bad as he that difflntsfrom the Divine Majejiy > and h e . th rt 
believes the words of the wife, it is as if he did believe God himfelf. Nay 
they went higher, My Son attend rather to the words of the Scribes than /* 
the words of the Law. 

Now by this you may clearly undcrftand what our Saviour aims a% 
and why he prelTeth this point with fo much vehemency ; you fte the 
very life and foul of Religion was (truck at by this intolerable llfuipa- 
tion. Therefore our Saviour faith, call no man Rabbi, cat' no man jfonr 
Father upon earth $ let none of my Difciples or Apoftles ever ufurp tl is 
Authority-} and if any of them mould be fo arrogant as to do it, Ijt 
no man give this title to them-, that is, acknowhdg not this Authority 
to be in them ; own no man for your Father or Mafter on Earth, ex- 
cept my fclf or your Father in Heaven. 

From the words thus explained I gather this Doctrine. 

Dodt. Ibert is no external, fupream and infusible Judg id the Church 
of God) to whom all Cbriflians are obliged to fubmit their Faith and Covfci- 
ences, in all matters of Religion. 

This was the point that I was defired to difcourfe of at this time \ 
and I do it the more willingly, becaufe in the whole body of Popery, 
the oppofite Dodtrineto this is the heart of it. This is Artkulus jiantk, 
vel cadentis Fapifmi ; Popery will cither Hand or fall by the truth or 
falfhood of this AfTertion. It is ufual with Papifls confidently to invite 
us to the debate of this Doctrine, concerning the fupream and infallible 
Judg of Controverfies > this they all acknowledg, ftrikes at the root \ 
and we do but nibble at the branches, unlefs we flrike at this. 

Now that you may the better understand this Difcourfe, I muft 
acquaint you with the Doctrine of the Papifls in this particular. They 
are not content with Chrift the Judg in Heaven, and the holy Scri- 
ptures the Judg upon Earth > but they mufl have another Judg, 3. 
viilble Judg i like the Ifraelites they mud have a vifible God to go be* 
fore them, though it be but a Calf. They fay d) that an external and 
vifible Judg of all matters of Religion upon Earth is abfolutely necefTa- 
xy > and this Judg they fay is the Church, by which they underfiand 

B 2 the 

Pope and Councils not Infallible. Serm. I, 

the Governours of the Church, either the Pope, as fome of them fay,or 
as others, a General Council, or the Pope and a Council together, as 
thofe that would feem wifer than the reft pretend. 

(2) They fay, this fupream Judg is infallible ^ he can neither be de- 
ceived himfelf, nor deceive them that flick to him, and are taught by 

(3 ) They fay it is the duty of every particular Chriftian intirely and 
unrefervedly to fubmit his Faith and Confcience to the conduct and 
guidance of this Judg, to believe whatever he teacheth, and to pracTrife 
whatever he commands, according to that known and often mentioned 
and never to be forgotten AfTertion of Bellarmine, T>e Pontifice Rom. I.4. 
cap. 5. in fine. If, faith he, the Tope could or fhouldfo far err, as to command 
thepratlice of vice, and to forbid vertuous actions, the Church were hound to 
helieve vices to he good, and vertues to be had. This is plain dealing > and 
I cannot but adore the wife and wonderful Providence of God, that 
fhould give up a perfon of fuch wifdom and learning as Bellarmine, to 
difcoverthe true and the defperate confequences of this principle, that 
all men that have a care of their. Souls might avoid 2nd abhor it. 

This is the fum of their Doctrine*, and they further add, that .this 
Doctrine of the Churches fupream and infallible Authority, as it is of 
more weight and importance, fo it is, and in all reafon ought to be 
more evident and demonftrable than any other Chriftian Doctrine what- 
soever, as a learned Doctor of the Romijh Church exprefly affirms, I 
♦mean Creffy in his Exomologefis ; whether this be fo or no we (hall by 
and by difcem. And againft this bold and wicked AfTertion I have laid 
down this Proportion, There is no external fupream, infallible Judg in 
the Church cfGod,to whom all Chrifiians are obliged to fubmit their Faith 
and Confciences in all matters of Religion. That which I am now plea- 
ding for is, that you may preferve the greatelt treafure you have in the 
world, even your Confciences, againft the horrible Ufurpations of 
wicked and unreafonable men. Ifhall not ufe multitudes of Arguments 
to confute the Popifh Affcrtion, but a few, and thofe fuch as may con- 
vince the Confcience of any perfon, who will not (hut his eyes againft 
the light. 

Arg. 1. This Authority which they pretend to is a greater Authority 
than the Apoftles themfelves did ever claim, or exercife in- the Church 
of God \ as plainly appears from 2 Cor. 1.24. Not that we have domi- 
nion over your Faith. I do not underftand what dominion over a mans 
Faith can be, if this that they pretend to be not fo. God himfelf can 
fcarce be imagined to have a greater dominion over any mans Faith 
than this, that a man be obliged to believe every thing which God faith 
without examination, and praclife whatfoever he commands*, and 
this the Pope lays claim to, as you have heard, and it is notoriouHy 
known •, by which alone you may fufficiently difcem who is that Man 
of Sin prophefied of, 2^2,4, Who oppofeth and exaheth himfelf 


Serm. I. Pope and Councils not Infallible. 

above all that U called God, or that if worshipped', fo that he ai Godfittcth in 
the lemple of God, (hewing himfelf that be h'God. This was our bleflLd 
Saviours fole Prerogative, Acl.$.22. Mofes truly ftid unto the Fathers, 
a Prophet frail the Lord your God raife up unto yiu of your brethren like un- 
to me, himjhaU ye bear, in all things whitfoever he fo all fay unto you. 
So (hat this is the hcighth of ChriJts honour \ and the truth is, it might 
well be faid of Chrilr, we may fafcly relie upon and hear Chrift in all 
things whatfoever-hc fhould fay to us j this was very agreeable to ihe 
nature and perfon of Chrift, one in whom were all the treafures of wif- 
dom andh+iowledg, one in whom thefulnefs of the Godhead dwelt bodily, one 
that was Godmanifijledin theflejh : I fay, we may fafely relie upon fuch 
a perfon j but that this fhould be faid of a weak and wicked man,fuch 
as themfelves confefs many of their Popes to have been, that we fhould 
hear whatever he fays^ this is fuch a ftupendious ufurpation, that I 
can never think of it with horror enough. The holy Apoftles thought 
it good manners to keep adiftancefrom their Lord and maker, they ne- 
ver durft arrogate fuch an abfolute and unlimited Authority to them- 
felves. Witncfs that evident place, Gal. 1.8, p. though we or an Angel 
from heaven preach any other Gofpel unto you than that which we have prea- 
ched unto you, let him be accurfed. And as I faid before, fo fay I now a- 
gain, If any man ( be what he will, the Pope or a Council, or any com- 
pany of men, for ubi lex mn difiinguit, non eft dijiinguendum , God 
makes no difference or exception here* neither muft we ) preach any other 
Gofpel unto you than that you have received, let him be. accurfed. And do 
you not think this would be another Gofpel if any man fhould fay, that 
vices were vertues, and fins, duties, and confequently that unbelief and 
impenitency were Gofpel-duries, would not this be another Gofpel ? 
and you fee. they allow this Authority to the Pope. If the Pope teach fo, 
you are bound to believe fo > but this was not Saint Pauls mind, 'though 
we or an Angel from Heaven preach any other Gofpd^ do not only disbe- 
lieve him, butcurfehim to his face j it may be he will curie you, and 
pronounce an Anathema againft you, and roar with his Bulls againft 
you; but regard not that, the curfe cauflefs fnall not come, Prov. 26.2. 
but the curfe fhall reft upon himfelf. 

Arg. 2. Such an Authority as they pretend to, is contrary to that 
command of the trial of Dodtrines, which is laid upon all Chriftians s 
tor if there be an infallible judg to whom I ought to fubmit my Faith 
and Conference in all matters of Religion, what need I try Dodrrins ? 
certainly there is no room left for it C and therefore the Papi Its laying 
down that AfTertion, they do with very good fenfe collecl: this Con- 
clufion from it, That you owe an imp'icite Faith to all their Doclrins, 
and blind obelience to all their commands } it is Bellar 'mines AlTertion, 
AChrijUan, faith he, Jbould receive all the V^trins of the Church without 
J»y examination. Now let us fee whether this bt the mind of God or 
no j i{ it be, than they are in the right •, if not, than it is an abomina- 


Tope and i wicils not Infallible. Serm. I. 

ble Usurpation. If we confult the holy Scriptures, we (hall find that no 
Chriflian is to offer to God a blind facririce, but a reafonable fervice. 
I ret. 3.15. Be ready always to glue an. anfwtr to every man that asketh ym 
a reafon 0^ the hope that is inyou- It is not the Colliers reafon will ferve 
the turn, nor the Colliers Faith, to believe he knows not why •, this is 
not to give a reafon of our hope, ijoh.^.i. Teloved^ believe not every 
Spirit (that is every teacher that pretends to be led by the fpiritj but try 
tyefpirits whether they are of God, becaufe many falfe Prophets are gone out 
into the world. God hath given us fufficient warning, that there fhould 
be a great and a general defection amongfr PrcfeiTors,yea amongft the 
Preachers of the Gofpel, 1 Tim. 4. 1. Now the Spirit fpeakjth exprefly, 
taat in the latter times fome Jhall depart from the faiths giving heed to fe. 
dating fpirits, and Doctrines of Vevils. A dr. 2C. 30. Alf> of yrnr own 
■} elves Jhall men arife, fpeakjng pervnfe things to draw away T)/fiples after 
them,&c. 2 Pet. 2. 1,2. But there were falfe Pnpbtts a IJo amongft the 
people, even m there fc all be falf: Teachers among you, who privily Jhall bring 
in dimnabU herefies, even denying- the Lord that bought them, and many 
fbalfoll'jw their pernicious wayr. Well now, what is the remedy again ft 
this doleful dikafe > be not furprized when you fee various and con- 
trary opinions in the Church \ h is no more than was foretold by all 
the Apoftles. But now what (hall Chrifrians do in this diftreiTed condi- 
tion and contradiction of opinions ? what was the remedy prefcri bed 
m cafe of falfe Prophets of old ) and what is the remedy in cafe of falfe 
Teachers now? Why it is trial. Chriftians are commanded to try them. 
Tnere were two ways propofed to try the Prophets of old ; the one 
was by the event. Deut. 18. 2 1, 2 2. And if thou f*y in thine heart, how 
fhil we know the word which the Lord hath not fpoh^n, when the Prophet 
Jpea^pth in the name of the Lbrd. if the thing follow n% nor come to pafs y 
that is the thing which the Lord hath not fpoken \ but the Prophet hathjpo- 
ken itp*efumpimmfly~ thou (halt not be afraid of him. And the other way 
of trial was by the Scripture, Ifa. 8.20. To the Law and to the Teftimony, 
iftbyfpea}^ not according to this word, it i< becaufe there tf m light in 
them \ and Ver.i5. Bind up the Tejtimony, pal the Law anong my Difci- 
phs. And Verfl 18^ ip, Behold I and the Children whom the Lord bath gi- 
ven me areforpgns and for wonders in Jfrad, and when tbtyjhati fry un- 
to you, f-ek^unto them that have familiar fpirits, and unto wizards, that 
peep, and thst mutter, Jhall nit a people feek unto their God ? for the living 
to the dead? The way to difcover thele delulions is to enquire, and that 
is by the Law and by the Teftimony, and this the people were obli- 
ged to. And fo this is the remedy prefcribed in the New Teftament \ I 
need inftance but in that place, \Thf.< > .2\. Prove all things, hold fail 
that which is good. Prove all things, who is this that is rfquired to do 
it } it may be it is the Pope, it may be it is a general Council, and they 
indeed mud prove all things ', no, read the fir ft verfe of the for ft Chap- 
ter, Paul andSylvanvS) and Timothem unto the Church of the Theffahnians 

Serm. I. Pope and Cawcils /■ ; J Infallible. 

in God our Father } the Members of the Church, thefe are here com- 
manded to prove all dung'-, and hold fall: that which is good. The 
fame perfons are obliged to prove all things, who are obliged fa bold 
fjji that which is good : and lince it isconfeiTed the latter claufe belongs 
to the people, fo mull the former alfo. Contider three things. 
( i.) Christians have Ability to try things with. (2.) They have a 
Rule to try things by. And ( 3. ) They have a Promife of difcovery, 
and I think more is not necefTary, 

Frrft, Chriltians have Ability to try things with, they have reafon- 
able faculties, they are capable of judging between things that differ > 
the A pottle fpeaks to the Church of the Corinthians •■> 1 Cor. 10. 15. 
Ifpea'^as to wife men > judgye what I fay. Chriltians, as well as Mini- 
Hers, have the Spirit of God which enables them to judg of fpiritual 
things. 2 Cor. 2. 15. He that U fpiritual (that is, he that hath the Spi- 
rit of God ) judgeth all things. He is capable of judging between 
DocTrine and Doctrine, between Precept and Precept, between Pra- 
ctice and Practice s and upon the warrant of this Text, and many 
ethers , I dare affirm, that a ferious, godly, difcreet Chriflian, is a 
more competent judge of many divine Tiuths, than the greateft Scho- 
lar in the World, that wants the direction of the Spirit of God : add 
to this what our Saviour faith, John 10. 4, 5. and remember he fpeaks 
not of the Shepherds, but of the Sheep •, myjheep bear my voice, and 
they fJJow me 5 a ft ranger they will not follow, but will fly from him : fir 
they ktiotp not the voice of ftr angers. You fee rhe Sheep are indued by 
God with faculties, they can diitinguifti between Ghritt and a Stranger, 
between Chriii and Anti-chritt. 

Secondly, Chriltians have a certain Rule to try things by, and that is 
the holy Scriptures, to which Chriii commanded the Jews to bring all 
his doctrines, Joh. 5. 2p. Search the Scriptures. Acts 17. it. Thefi 
were more noble than thofe in Iheffzlonica, in that they received the word 
mth all readinefs of mind, and fear cbed the Scriptures dayly whether thoje 
things were fo. 2 Per. I. 19. We have alfo a more fare word of Propbefy 
( the Prophecies of the OldTeftament compared with the events and 
doctrines of the New ) wbereunto yon do well that yon take heed, as ttnto 
a light that fhineth in a darlt^ place. Pray ob fer ve, 1. Who writes this, 
it is Peter, he from whom the Pope claims all the power he hath , and 
yet Peter faith, you do well to take heed to the Scriptures. I know 
the Popes are grown wifer fince, they have corrected Pfter •, they fay, 
People do ill to take heed to the Scriptures 5 they fay' 
it is the fountain of all herefie, for people to ftudy the Scripture : our 
Saviour faid.it was the fountain of all error that men did not undcittand 
the Scriptures ; Ton err,becaufe youtyow not the Scriptures. Matt. 22. 25?: 
The Pope faith, Men err becaufe they will know and read the Scrip- 
tures 2. To whom he writes this, look upon the endorfementof his 
kpmIe:.Perad venture he writes thus to hisSiiccftffors$ ; No, but to- 

- tbetni 


Pope <wd Cpncils not Infallible, Scrovl, 

them that have obtained like /Vicious faith with us, p. J. of this chap- 

Mir&fyi Chriftians have a prcmife of difcovery upon Trial \ 2 Prov. 
4. 5. If thou feekejt her ( that is wifdom ) as fiver , and fearchefi for 
her as fir hid treafures, then fhalt thou underhand the fear of the Lord 
and find the hnowledg of Gods Joh. 7. 17. If any man will do his will he 
fio all hyow of the doUrine whether it he of God, or whether I fpeak of my 

Arg.%, Againft the Supremacy and the infallible Authority of the 

Pope is taken from the danger of following falfe guides. People may 

fin in following their guides and teachers-, this the Papifts deny 5 they 

fay that People are obliged to believe their Teachers, and if they do fo, 

they are freedom fin and danger; and if their Dodrine fce true, it 

muft. needs be fo. This is thatlmuftnow briefly examine, as that 

.which alone will decide the whole controverfy i when Aaron taught the 

people to worihipthe golden calf, and proclaim'd, tomorrow is a feaff 

unto the Lord, £^^.52.5. Did the people fin in obeying Aarons 

doclrine, and complying with his precepts, or did they not > I think 

nothing is more plain, than that they did fin in it : verf.31. And Mofes 

returned unto the Lord, andfaid, Oh I this -people hath finned a great jin. 

Not only Aaron finned in teaching this doArine, but the people finned 

in believing this docrrine .: and in Verf^^. And the Lord plagued the 

people becanfe they made the calfe which Aaron made, or, as the words 

may very well be interpreted, be caufe they worshipped the calfe, orjacri- 

ficed to the calfe, which Aaron Made, 

So you fee plainly, the people finned, and were plagued becaufe 
they followed the Doclrine of Aaron : and fo in Ifa. 3.12. my peo- 
ple, they which lead thee, caufe thee to err, by their corrupt doclrines 
and finful practices ;> and yet this did not at all excufe them : for 
Ifa. 24. 1, 2, 3. Behold, the Lord ma^eth the earth ( that is, the Land ) 
empty, and triahgtb it waft, and turneth it upftde down, and fatter eth 
abroad the inhabitants thereof \ and it fhall be, as with the people, fo with 
the prieft) as with the fervant fo with his majier, as with the leader fo 
with the follower : The Priefi: fhall be punifhed forely for mifguiding 
the people, and the people fhall bepuriifhed for following them. To 
come lower, to thePriefis and Rulers of the Church in our blelTed 
Saviours times the chief Priefi and the great Council at Jerufalem then 
were, as the Papifts confefs, the fupreme and infallible Judges" of all 
the matters of Religion, as the Pope at leaft with a general Council 
pretends to be at this day. Thefe infallible Judges, are called blind 
guides, Matt. 23.16. Woe unto you blind guides -, they were univerfally 
enemies to Chrill; John 7* 48. Have any of the Rulers or of thePha- 
n fees believed on him? They accounted Chrift an impofrory Matt. 27. 
63. The very words of their great Council are thefe, Sir, weremem- 
far that that deceiver faii^ while he was yit alive \ after three days I will 


Serm. I. Tope and Council .not Infallible. f ■ 

rifeagain\ thefe were the men that (lured up the people againft Chrift. 
Mitt. 27. 20. But the chief Priefts and Elders perfwaded the multitude, 
that t'jey jhould Ml^Barrabaf, and d.ftroy Jefus. You fee nothing is more, 
plain i no adverfary can be fo impudent as to deny this, that the high 
Priefts and the great Council of the Jews did unanimouily agree in 
preaching this Doctrine, that Chrift was a deceiver. Now the quefticn 
is, whether the people did well in believing this Doctrine, or nor. 
Certainly if the Popifh Doctrine be true, the' people did well in follow- 
ing the high Priefts direction, and fo the Papifts affirm , they are the 
words of Bccanus, in his Manual of Contr over fie s, The whole people of 
the Jews, in the matters of Religion were bound to follow what the high 
Prieft faid, and the greatcft of their Divines, even Bellar mine exprcily 
fays, that the people were bound to ftand to the high Priefts judgment > 
whatfoever fsntence he jhould deliver. Now we fay, they did (in in be- 
lieving their Teachers •, let us both hear what Chrift fays, and no more 
need be faid againft this abominable AfTertion, nor for the deciding of 
this queftion, and eftablifhing you againft this Doctrine. What can 
be more plain than that paifage of our Saviours, M*tt. 15. 14? Let 
them alone, they be blind leaders of the blind, and if the blind lead the 
blind, both (hall fall into the ditch. You fee, he that follows a blind lead- 
er is punifhed as well as he that leads him, both fall into the Ditch. 
And Alls 3. 17. When the Apoftle was Preaching to the Jews, I wot, 
fays he, that through ignorance you did it, (that is, you crucified Chrilt,) 
at did alfo your rulers. Ignorance it was in the Priefts, and ignorance 
it was in the people i and the people, fay the Papifts, are excu fable, be- 
caufe they were bound to follow the Priefts \ but did this make it no 
fin in the people? Let us hear what Saint Peter fays, AUs 2. 23. Hiw, 
being delivered by the determinate counfel andforehjtowledg of God you havt 
takgn, and by wicked hands have crucified and fain : Neither Gods de- 
cree, nor the high Priefts mifguidance did at all excufe them from that 
wicked act s and as they faid, His blood be upon us and our children, fo 
we fee that fad Curfe is upon them to this day } Wrath U come upon them 
to the Httermoft, as the Apoftle fays, 1 Tbef.2. 1 6. And if we fearch this 
matter a little further, it will more evidently appear, and indeed afford 
another undeniable Argument to confirm this Truth. Here were two 
contrary Authorities, God and Chrift in his name on the one fide, and 
the Authority of the Church on the other fide. Chrift commands the \ 

Jews to believe in him, John 6.2$, when they asked him, What fluU 
we do that we may wori^ the works of God? What does God require of 
us? Jefus anfweredand faid unto them, this if thewor\of God, that 
yon believe on him whom he hath fent : and the great Doctrine, you 
know, Preached by Chrift, was, Repent and believe the Go/pels and 
Chrift tells them, Joh.^.^6. He that believeth on the S on hath ever lajiing ft 
life, and he that believeth not the Son, fhal not fee life, but the wrath of 
God abidetb on him. And the Arguments our Saviour brings to prove 

C him- 

10 Tope and Councils not Infallible. Serm. I. 

himfelf to be the Melius, and to' oblige them to believe, they are prin- 
cipally two. The hrft is the works he did, Job. 5. 3 6. The work* that 1 
do bear witnefs of me, that the Father bath fent me. And the fecond is 
the Scriptures, verf.39. of that Chapter, Search the Scriptures, for in them 
ye thin\ye have eternal life, and they are they which tefiifie of me \ and 
in verf.46. Had ye believed Mofes, ye would have believed me, for be wrote 
of me ; this for the one fide. On the other fide irands the Authority of 
the Church, the Supreamand Infallible Judg of Controverfies, as the 
Fapifis fay thefe were ', The chief Vriejls and Elders, and all the Council, 
fought falfe witnefs againjv Jefne, to put him to death, Mat. 26, 5^. and 
vsrf.6%. the high Prieft pronounceth, he hath fpiken blafphemy, what 
further need have we of witneffes, behold now yon have heard bis blafphemy, 
1vb.1t thinly ye ? and the reft confent to his fentence*, verf. 66. and they 
anfivered and faid, he is guilty of death. And the Jews had agreed already 
that if any man did conffs that he was Chrifi, be Jhould be put out of the 
Synagogue, Job. p. 2 2 . 

Now then the queftion lies here, whether the Jews were obliged to 
believe Chrifi in this cafe, or whether they were obliged to believe the 
High Prieft and Sanhedrim,and the Church of the Jews. And methinks 
the very mentioning of it (hould prefently determine it in all your 
thoughts *, it is fo prodigious a thing that the Church (hould fet up it 
felf in oppofition to Chrift, that no man can hear it without tingling 
earf. Saint Peter hath decided it, Ail. 5. 29. Then Peter and the other 
Apojvles answered andfaid, we ought to obey God rather than many we 
ought to believe God rather than man. Can any man that hath the un- 
derftanding of a man in him, or the Confcience of a Chriftian, think 
that the people of the Jews^ that the Difciples and Apoftles of our 
Lord did fm in believing in him, becaufeit was contrary to the com- 
mand of the High Prieft and Church of the Jews ? Can any man think 
their Unbelief was their duty > or that the Authority of the Church 
could make void the command of God ? or that the Jews did but their 
duty in believing Chrift to be a deceiver' Thefe are ftupendious and 
prodigious aflfertions } and yet all thefe and many more muft be digefted, 
or elfe they muft part with their fundamental Doctrine. And juft as the 
cafe of the Jews was then, fo is our cafe now S for example, God clear- 
ly and plainly commands me, as plainly as words can exprefs it, Ex9d. 
20. 4, 5. Thoujhalt not ma\e unto thee -any graven linage, or any lih^emfs 
of any thing that is in Heaven above, .or thai is in the Earth beneath^ or 
that is in the water under the Earth, thou (halt not bow dirvn thy felf to 
them., nor ferve them. And Mat. 4. \o. fays our Saviour, It is written, 
thou fljalt worjhip the Lord thy G id, and him only foalt thou ferve. The 
Church of Rome comes and teaches us a quite contrary dodrrine 5 they 
lay, thou (halt worjhip graven Images, and Saints, <*nd Angels, and nH 
Godoxly\ the queftion is, which of thefe two we muft believe, and 
whofe command we ought to obey? whether the Children muft obev 


Serm. T. Tope and Councrff not Infallible. 1 1 

God their Father, or the Church their Mother > whether I muft' be- 
lieve the Word of God, which is confeft to be fo by the Papifts them- 
felves, or the word of man,Vhich they vainly pretend to be the Word 
of God? let the i Joh.^.p. determine this Controvcrfie, if we receive 
the witnefs of man, the witnefs of God is greater. The witnefs of God 
certainly ought to be preferred before the witnefs of man > add to this 
Mat. 1 5. 6, Ken have made the commandment of God of none effetl by your 
Traditions. And verfp. in vain do they worfhip me, teaching for Voftrines 
the commandments of men ; and tell me what is it to make void the com- 
mandments of God by mens Traditions,if this be not ? 

Arg. 4. andlafi. Againft this Doctrine is from the want of a Divine 
Appointment and Promife ; we muft remember the queftion our Savi- 
our puts, LuJ^. 12. 14. Man,who made me a judg or a divider over you ? 
And that paiTage, Heb. 5. 4. No man takgth this honour to himfelf, but he 
that was called of God as was Aaron. If there be fuch a Soveraign and In- 
fallible Judg as the Tap ills pretend there is, and the Pope be he, this 
Tudg ought in all reafon to produce his commiflion , and fliew 
his letters patents for it. It is confeited on all hands that man is 01 
himfclf a vain and foolifli creature, full of ignorance, apt to eiror, that 
loves darknefs rat.her than light •> Men of low degree are vanity , and 
men of high degree are a lye, Pfal. 62. p. the minds of all men do need 
renovation, or clfe they are not capable ofdifcerning Divine things. 
Now if any man pretend to an exemption from the common infirmities 
and corruptions of humane nature, this man ought to produce his 
writ of priviledg, and to (hew wherein, and how he hath fuch an ex- 
emption. Certainly if any pretends to be infallibly guided by God in all 
things, he can claim it only from the grace of God, and by vertue or. 
Gods Promife j but fuch Prcmife there is none. I acknowkdg the Pa- 
pifts pretend they have fuch a promife, that I (hall next examine. And 
here are two things to be enquired into : (1) To whom this cornmiifi- 
on and promife is given, and this is the foundation of all the reft ; for 
though it mould appear, that God had made a Promife of infallible 
guidance to fome perfon or perfons •, yet unle(s it plainly appear to 
whom that promife is made, no man can lay claim to it, or have any 
benefit by it. 

Now let us enquire to whom this Promife is made *, the Papifts fay, 
it is made to the Church * but,fay I, what do they mean by the Church ? 
fay they, it is to the Governours of the Church ; but go a little further, 
and what do they mean by the Governours of the Church ? and herein 
they mo(t horribly break into pieces > this Doctrine they fay, as you 
have heard, is of more importance than any Doctrine whatioever,and 
fo ought to be proved with the greater evidence, than any other. But 
when we come to examine it, their evidences are fo obfeure and inevi- 
dent that they are not fufficient to convince their own Brethren h It be- 
longs fay fome of them to the Pope, to the BiQiop of fame \ fay others, 

C 2 no, 

IS Tope and Counsels not Infallible* Serm. L 

no, it belongs to a General Council, and thefe opinions are quite con- 
trary one to another » and this difference is not only amongft obfcure 
and private perfons, but their greateft DoAors j there rs Univerfity a- 
gainft Univerfity, City againft City, Kingdom againft Kingdom. So 
that till they be agreed, to whom this Promife is made, they can make 
no benefit of the claim, nor are we obliged to follow them. 

2. Where this Grant and Promife is? the Papifts anfwer, it is con- 
tained in the holy Scriptures » and here they mufter up fome Promifes 
as they call them, that confer this priviledg either upon the Pope, or a 
General Council *, and this I (hall briefly examine. Only in general ob- 
ferve three things. 

Tm More clear and exprefs Promifes than any they pretend to did 
not fecure the Church of God formerly from error , and therefore it i s 
a vain thing for them to expect it now. I will deal fo charitably with 
our adverfaries, becaufe they want proofs as to help the infirmity of 
their caufe. We will fuppofe there were fuch a text as this, In the 
Church of Rome pull my name be for ever \ fure they would defire no more 
than this \ they would fay, it is plain from hence that the Church of 
Rome is infallible. But I fay, if there were fo plain a proof, yet that 
would not be fufricient to prove it infallible, or to fecure the Church 
from Error, and that I will prove by a plain inftance. God fpeaks con- 
cerning the Temple of Jerufalem, 2 Chron. 7. 16, Tor now I have cho- 
fen and fanftified thi* houfe which thou haji built , to put my name there 
for ever, and mine eyes, and my heart fljall be there perpetually. You fee, 
here is the fame Promife which I fuppofed made to Jerufakm > but 
how far this was from fecuring the Church of Jerufilem, the high 
Priefts and his Brethren from Error and Apofhcy,doth fufficiently ap- 
pear from thofe frequent and grievous complaints of the Prophets,con- 
cerning the univerfal depravation of that Church, and particularly of 
the Priefts of it, from the in fiances of the grofs errors and miCcarriages 
of the High Priefts and others, and particularly it is put out of all dis- 
pute by that fatal and damnable Error of that Church in the condemna- 
tion of Chrift. 

2. Gods Promife of leading them into all truth is fufpended upon 
certain conditions. The Spirit of truth you know is only promifed to 
them that ask him, Lukj 11. 13. How much more (hall your heavenly fa- 
ther give the holy Spirit to them that as\ him \ and it is fuppofed that they 
mu ft ask aright \ for you ail^and receive not^ becaufe you ask^amift, Jam. 
4.3. and in the place forementioned,7^.7.i7. If any man will do his wilt, 
he jhall hjiow the Vofirine, ivh ether it be of God, or whether I fpea\of my 
felfy where you fee the knowing of the Doctrine of Chrift is fufpended 
upon the doing of Gods will. Now then for as much as the Church of 
Rome hath apparently broken the condition God requires, as no man 
that reads their own Hiftorians can doubt, no wonder if God accor- 
ding to his commination in that cafe, make them ta kgow his breach of 
Fromife, 3. The 

Serm. I. Pope and Councils not Infallible* 1 3 

3. The Promifes which they pretend to are fo dark and obfcure that 
they do not convince many of their own Brethren \ therefore it is a ri- 
diculous thing to think they mould convince Proteftants. For inftance, 
I told you they were horribly divided in that fundamental Doctrine of 
the Infallible Judg, that fome place this Infallibility in the Pope, and 
others in the Council. Now whereas the Promifes they pretend to are 
of two forts, fome pretend this Infallible Authority to be in the Pope, 
and fome in a General Council. Thofe that fay it is in the Pope,do both 
(light and difpute againft thofe arguments that are brought to prove it 
to be in the Council, and on the contrary thofe that believe the Infalli- 
bility to be in the Council, defpife and confute thofe Arguments which 
arc brought for the Infallibility of the Pope. This being premifed, I 
come particularly, but briefly (becaufe I have difcu fTed them elfe where) 
to the Promifes pretended for this ufurped Authority. Firft for the 
Pope, and then for the Council. 

For the Pope they tell us this ftoryj That Saint Feter was made by 
Chrift the Supreamand Infallible Judg of all Matters and Controveriies 
of Religion, and that Peters SuccelTors, the Popes and Bifhops of Rome 
are invefted with the fame Authority and Priviledg^and this they fay, is 
evident from Scripture, and hath been owned by the Church of God 
in all ages from Chrifts time till Lathers days : this is the Romifh Legend, 
to which I anfwer i this Doctrine hath no foundation in Scripture i 
the places they alledg for it are principally two. 

1. Their firft place is Mat. 16* 18. And I fay alfo unto thee, that thou 
art Feter, and upon thti rocl^ I will build my Church, and the gates of hell 
fhall not prevail againft it. Therefore Feter, and confequently all his Suc- 
celTors the Popes, are the Rock upon which the Church is built -•> and 
therefore have the Supream and Infallible Judgment, to whom all pcr- 
fons muft fubmit their Faith and Practice. 

Anf. 1. It is plain enough, that it is not Peters Perfon, but Feters Do- 
ctrine which our Saviour doth here fpeak of. Peter had made a glori- 
ous confelfion, verf. 16. thou art Chrift the Son of the living God, and 
verf.iy. Jefits anfwer ed and faid unto him, bleffed art thou Simon Bar- 
Jonas \ for flefh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father 
which U in Heaven. And for a further confirmation of this Truth,he adds, 
I fay unto thee, thou art Feter, (he mentions Feters name by way of allu- 
fion), and upon thk RocJ^, that is, this Confeffion made and delivered 
by thee, I will build my Church, and the gates of hell Jhall not prevail a- 
gainft it. 

2. If it were Feters perfon, and if he were called a Rock, and a Foun- 
dation of the Church, yet all this will not prove him to be infallible, 
much lefs his SuccefTors. The proper and primary Foundation of the 
Church Feter was not > witnefs that evident place* 1 Cor. 3. n. For 0- 
tber foundation can no man lay than that is laid which is Jefm Chrift \ in a 
fccondary and Mkufterial fenfe Feter was a Foundation, and fo were all 


14. Vope and Ceuncils not Infallible, Serm. I. 

the reft of the Apoftles-, 2 Epbef. 2. 20. Ton are built upon the founda- 
tion of the -Applies and Prophets v i*e. upon the Do&rine delivered by 
the Apoilles and Prophets not upon their Perfons (for then the Pro- 
phets could never have come in for a (hare), and therefore in like man- 
ner ("if you will allow Scripture to be its own interpreter) when Peter 
is called a Rock or Foundation, it is not his Ferfon, but his Doctrine 
to which that title belongs. Rev. it. 14. The wall of the City ("the new 
Jerufakm, the Church of Godj had twelve foundations, and in them the 
names of the twelve Apofiles of the Lamb. Here is no prerogative of Pe- 
ter, but all are equally foundations. 

3« The Promife of Infallibility doth not belong to Peter, but unto 
the Church, the gates of bell f jail not prevail againji it \ prevail againlt 
what or whom ? againil: the Church", it is not the Rock upon which 
the Church is built, but the Church which is built upon that Rock, un- 
to which that fccuiity is prcmifed •, he doth not fay, the gates of hill 
(hall not prevail againji thee, much left doth he fay, the gates of hell 
(hall not prevail againft thy SuccciTors to the end of the world •, but 
the gates of belljhall not prevail againil the Church. So that though Peter 
dies, and all his SuccelTors mould prove fas a great number of the Popes 
have done) Apoftates frcm the Faith. yet frill the Church remains built 
upon the Rock. , 

4. This Promife is made to the true, invillble and fincere ProfeiTors 
cf the Gofpel-Church j this is evident from the accomplishment of the 
Promife. The Promife is, the gates of hell (J-jall not prevail againji the 
Church •, and it is manifeit the gates of hell did. and do prevail again.fi: 
all other perfons except the iincere Profeffors of the Gofpcl i therefore 
thofe perfons that are laid to be Infallible, and fecure againft all danger, 
are only the true and inviiible members of the Church. 

2. The other place is, Luk* 22.31, 32. And the Lord fa id, Simon, 
Simon, behold Satan hath dt fired to have you. thai be may fi ft you AS rvbeatj 
but I have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not : therefore, fay they, Peter 
did not err in thc'Faith, and confequenrly the Popesjns SuccelTors, can- 
not err ", but alas, v-hat vain and ridiculous Arguments are theft ? No- 
thing is more evident, than that this Promife, or Prayer rather of 
Chrili doth not concern any Infallibility in the Doclrine of Faith, but 
his eltablifhment in the grace of Faith V it you coniider Peter was not fo 
much miftaken in his judgment, the opinion cf Peter concerning Chrill 
was not changed, it was not fo much an error of his mind as an error 
in his practice. Peter was afraid of furfering, and llavifh fear made him 
fpeak againft his own Confcience, when he faid, Ihriovo not the man\ 
and his mifcarriage was in his tongue, not in his judgment ', fo that it is 
plain it was the grace of Faith that was there fhaken, and not the Do- 
clrine of Faith, and therefore no Infallibility can be pretended from it. 
And here I might defift, but for more abundant confutation of this ab- 
furd and abominable Do&rine, I (hall (hew that as they cannot prove it 


Serm. I. Pope and Councils not Infallible. 15 

from Scripture, we can difprove it from Scripture. I hope I fhall make 
it plain from Scripture, that the Doctrine of Peters In fallibility and Su- 
pream Authority in the Church of God was not received after Chrifts 
death ; for this I (hall offer two Arguments. 

1. That Peter no where challengeth this pewer. 

2. The Apoftles no where give it him =, therefore it is an intolerable 
arrogance that his Succeffors fhould claim it. 

1. Peter did not challenge it. Itisobfervable, that in the Gofpel of 
M*ri^, which the learned believe was indited by Peters direction, there 
is not fo much as a repetition of that famous Text, Ikon art Peter , and 
on this rochj. will build my Church, Veter durft not have omitted it, if it 
had been fo fundamental a Doctrine as the Papifts would have it. And 
afterward Peter writes two Epiftles, and there is not one fyllable in ei- 
ther ot them concerning this Authority-, but fomemay poflihly fay, 
this was Peters modefty, that he would not take it to himfclf. But cer- 
tainly Peter durft not excrcife his modefty to the impeachment of his 
HJelity^and the concealment of fo neceffary and important a Truth, but 
he would and ought to have done as Paul did, who when his Autho- 
rity wasoppofed by falfe Teachers, he aflferts and vindicates, and (as 
himfclf exprefTeth it) tnagnifieth his office, Rom. 11. 13. and fo no 
doubt Peter would and mould have done had he really had that Su- 
pream Power which the Papifts for their own fakes would faften upon 
him s and becaufe he did not, it is a great prefumption he had it nor. 

2. The other Apoftles no where give this honour to Peter, but rather 
by their practices fhew thcmfelves to be of a contrary opinion-, which I 
think will be fufhciently evident to all fober difcrcet and diiinterelTed 
perfons from two places of Scriptures, which methinks might fuffice for 
the determination of this ControverfTe. 

The one is, Ad. 15. where Imuft firft remind you that at this time 
our bleflcd Saviour was dead, and Saint Peter by the Doctrine of the . 
Papifts, was fuppofed to be in the actual exercife of his Headfhip over 
the Church, to be the Supream and Infallible Judg of all Controversies } 
and if they faytrue. he was believed and known to be foby all the rett 
of the Apoftles, and all the Chriftians of that 3ge -, whether it were fo 
or no we fhall fee by this Chapter. A controverlie arifeth in the Church", 
wel^what do they do for the resolution of it ? Act. 15. 1,2. They <jj?tp ■ 
to Jcrufalemfo the Apples and Elders about thvf\]^tdH. Why did they 
not go to Peter if he were the 1 Infallible judg ? it wi£ a vain and frivo- - 
lous thing to call them all together, if Peter clone might deteiminc it. . 
But it may be thefe were the Chriftians at Aniioch, and they did not 
well r.nderftand Peters Supremacy and Infallibility, ' but the Church of 
Jerusalem underftood it better -, well, let us examine that too, in verf.6, . 
the Apples and Elders ' c ante together to consider of 'this matter 5 Saint Peter ■ 
was no more confuted with 'ban the reft : in the 7. verf. Peter fpake in 
the AfTerably 3 and delivers his opinion, verf K fio, Now there fore , why 

>emt> 1 

I $ Pope and Councils not InfullibU. Serm.I. 

tempt ye God to put a yoke upon the nec\pf the Vifciples, which neither our 
fathers nor we were able to bear ? the yoke of the Ceremonial Law is 
wholly to be taken off from the necks of Chriftians, and no burden 
fhonld be laid upon them. After him James comes and delivers another 
opinion, different from Peters^ verf. ip,2 0. My fentence is,that we trou- 
ble not them which from among the Gentiles are turned to God, but that we 
write unto them, that they abjlain from pollutions of Idols, and from forni- 
cation, and from things fir angled, and from blood \ as if he had faid,I am 
not altogether of Meters mind, I would not have all thefe things whol- 
ly and on a fudden difcharged. It is but meet that fome refpedt and 
tendernefs (hould be (hewn to the believing Jews, and that we mould 
become all things to all men that we may fave fome; and therefore it is 
fit we (hould a little comply with the Jews, not to impofe Circumcifion, 
but to abjlain from pollutions of idols, and from for nication,and from things 
flrangled, and from blood. And the manner of his expreflion here is very 
obfervabkj My fentence is, A/» •>« *?«?», Wherefore I thus determine 
and conclude.Re doth not fay,according to the prefent itile of the Roma- 
nijls, and as he ought to have done, if their Do&rine were true, I do 
in all humility prefent my opinion to the Vicar of Chrifi, the Prince of the 
Apofiles, the Supream and Infallible Judg of this and all other Controverfies^ 
to whom I freely and fully fubmit my thoughts and judgment j but barely 
relates part of Peters difcourfe, and then concludes with a kind of de- 
finitive fentence. And which is further confiderable, this great Coun- 
cil prefers James his opinion before P^r/,and the Decree runs in James 
his words, verf. 2.9. That ye ubfiainfrom meats offered to idols, and from 
blood, and from things fir angled, -and from fornication, from which if ye 
keep your felves r yefhalldo well. Can any man in his right fenfes imagine 
that things would have been thus managed if Peter had been the Su- 
pream and Infallible Judg of all Controversies ? Yet further,the Decree 
runs not in Peters name as now it doth in the Popes name, but in all 
their names \ Verf. 2$. The Apofiles and Elder s^and Brethren, fend gree- 
ting unto the Brethren which are of the Gentiles in Ant iocb, and Syria,and 
Cilicia$ and. verf. 28. itfeemed good to the holy Ghofi, and to us, to lay 
wponyou no greater burthen than thefe neceffary things \ and AH. 16. 4. 
They delivered them the Decrees for to keep, that were ordained by the Apo- 
files and Elders that were at Jerufalem. It is ridiculous and incredible to 
think that there (hould not in all this ftory be one word of Peters pre- 
heminence, if he were at that time what they vainly pretend him to be, 
the Supream Head of the whole Church, and the Infallible Judg of all 

Another place of Scripture no lefs evident Ls the fecond Chapter 
of Saint Pauls Epiftle to the Galatians, where there are divers remark- 
able palTages; verf. 7 . The Gofpel of the Vncircttmcifion was committed to 
me ( faith St. Paul) as the Gofpel of the Circumcifion was committed to Peter. 
Bow ? what ftrange news is this ? I though* all the Gofpel of Chrift, 


Serin, I* Toft and Councils not Infallible* 17 

whether Circumcifion or llncircumcifion had been committed to ffter^ 
and not any to Paul, but in fubordination to Peter, fo fays the Pope, 
(b fay thePapifts at this day: Circumcifion and llncircumcifion, Jews 
and Gentiles, all committed to Peter; this is anew difcovcry ! Saint 
Paul though rapt up into the Third Heaven, he knew nothing of this : 
Perad venture whileft he was in Heaven, the decree for Peters Supremacy 
and Infallibility was enacted upon earth, and fo he loft the knowlcdg of 
that Myftery. Howfoever he found nothing of it in Heaven, and we 
can find nothing of it upon Earth, and therefore it muft needs come 
from a third place, and what that is, I leave to you to judg. He adds 
furthe", verf. a. When James, Cephas, and John, who feemed to he piU 
lars (he ipeaksof them all alike, allFxOcks and Fillais ) perceived tie 
grace which was given unto me, they gaze to me and Barnabas the right 
hand of feVewfoip \ andi'fr/Tu. When Peter came to Antivch, J nrith[hoi 
htm to the face, becaxfe he was to be blamed. What ? the Infallible Judg 
to be blamed } this is nonfence : the Infallible Judg to feduce and mif- 
lead them that followed him? This he did, fays Saint Paul; And 
therefore it is a very nonfenfical opinion to think that at this time he 
owned Peter to be theSupream and Infallible Judg of all Controverfics. 
Obferve further, how fleightly he fpeaks of all j-he Apoflles, and that 
promifcuoufly, without any refervatisn for Peter^ verf. 6, Thofi who 
feemed to be Jomewhat^ whatfoever th°y were it mah x eth no matter to 
me ( God accept eth no mans perfon ) fir they, who feemed to be fime- < 
what in conference aided nothing to me : Peter is no more to me 
than another man, nor than Jtmes, nor John, and all the ApofVes. 
J received the Gofpel immediately from Chrift , and He that 
wrought effeUuaVy in Pet;r to the Apollkjhip of the Cirumafon, the fame 
wm mighty in me towards the Gentiles, verf. 8. Can any man living 
think, that confiders what he believes, that the Apoitle would have 
fpoke thus, and that all the Apoftles would have dealt thus, if they had 
known and believed, that Peter had been at this infiant the Supream In- 
fallible Judg, to whom all were obliged to fubmif. But further, if all 
that is faid concerning Peter had been true, and if the ailedgcd pro- 
rnifes did indeed belong to Peter, and did make him an Infallible Judg 
of all Confroverfies \ yet what is this to the Pope, who is a perfon of 
a quite different chandler > Which that yon may underftand a little, 
I (hall in brict prefent to you the qualify of thofe perfons, who they 
fay, are Infallible Judges of all Controverfies. I (hall not mention a 
word out of any Protellant Author, but out of their own writings. 
The Popes Library- keeper, Platina, confe/feth concerning divers of 
the popes, as is notorious, that they were, horn in nm portent *, mongers 
fif men $ and elfe where he confeffeth, that there were Eighteen Popes fu~~ 
ttfflvffy, one after another that wereMagicivis, and in covenant with the 
T>e Can any man living think that fuch perfons were infallibly 
guided by the Spirit of God that had. made a league with the Devil ? 

D and 


1 8" Pope and Councils not Infallible. Serm. L 

zndGenebrard^ a violent and virulent Papifr, confeffeth that the Popes 
for a hundred and fifty years together after the Apoflks were Apofjtat.es, not 
Apolhlical^ and our country-man Stapleton, an eminent man among!! 
thePapifts, faith, Imn'l acknowledge J thinly there were fcarce any fns 
except that of Herefy y of which the Popes and Bifhops of Rome were not 
guilty. And, it is notoriously known that many of them were Adulter- 
ers, and many of them Sodomites, and many of them bloody and cru- 
el men, and guilty of all forts of Wicked nefs. I need fay no more, 
but (hall leave it to you to judg how incredible a thing it is, thatper- 
fo.ns of fuch a character as this, fhould be the Supreme and Infallible 
Judges of all Controverts. How can it be imagined, that fuch a per-' 
fon fhould be the foundation of the Church, that is not fomuch as a 
true member of the Church ? Or how can that Promife •, The gates of 
bell JbaU not prevail againfi thee^ belong to that man that hath made a 
covenant with Hell it felf, or that is a bondflaveof the Devil? How 
can any infamous wicked wretch make claim to thofe Promifes which 
Chrift made to the holy and bleifed Apoftles ? How can it be imagined 
that that mans Faith is fecured, all whofe other Graces are ruined and 
come to nothing > you fhall find that Faith and a good Confcience go to- 
gether; i Tim. j, 19. Holding faith and a good confcience, which fame 
having put away , concerning faith h*ve ma\e foipwrac}^ How can any 
mans Faith live, when all his other Graces are confeffed to be dead? 
And you know what Saint James faith, Chap. 2. verf. 20. Faith with- 
out works is dead. How can that man pretend to be infallibly guided 
by the Spirit of God, that hath not the Spirit of God in him? It is 
expreily faid of fuch fenfual and brutifh men, as many of the Popes are 
acknowledged to have been, that they have not the Spirit of God. 
We have it under the hand of one of the Apoftlcs, Jude verf. 19. 
Senfual, not having the fpirit. Which alfo appears ( and it is very re- 
markable that it doth Co) from that very Text which they bring to 
prove the Infallibility of Councils* John 14. 16, 17. I will pray the 
father , and he Jhallgive you another comforter, that he may abide with yon 
for ever, even the fpirit of truth whom the world ( that is, as is evident, 
the wicked men of the World ) cannot receive, becaufe it feethbim not, 
neither kyowetk him: the World hath not the Spirit of God, becaufe 
they have not feen nor known God. Now, who thofe men are that 
have not feen nor known God, you may learn from another place 4 
1 John 3.6. Woofoever abideth in him, that is, in God, or in Chrift, 
ftnneth not, whofoever finneth hath not feen him, neither kpown him *, that 
is, whofoever doth fell himfelf to fin, whofoever alloweth himfelf in 
the cuftomary practice of fin, for of fuch only that phrafe is meant, 
otherwife the fame Apoftle fays, If we fay we have no fin, we deceive 
our fives, and the truth is not in us, and There is not a jufi man on earth 
that doth good and ftnneth not, Ecclef. J. 20. But the meaning is, hethat 
Jives in a conftant courfe of fin, this man hath not feen God, ngr 


Scrm. I. Pope and Councils not Infallible* 1 9 

known him, and therefore hath not the Spirit of God \ and therefore 
away with that impudent Doctrine that pretends the infallible Guidance 
of the Spirit, to him that hath not fo much as the common Graces of 
the Spirit of God. 

By this time I hope it fufficiently appeareth that the Doctrine of 
the Popes Supreme and Infallible Authority hath no foundation in 
Scriptures I fhould now proceed to (hew that this Doctrine was not 
owned by the Ancient Church fucceeding theApoftles: But becaufe 
ihis would of it felf require a large difcourfe, and hath been abundant- 
ly demonftrated by others, and I have elfewhere fpoken fomething to 
it, I (hall at prefent wholly forbear it. I thought to (hew you that as 
it was not owned by the Scripture, fo neither was it owned by thetirft 
and pureft Churches. 

For the fecond Particular, the Supremacy and Infallibility of Coun- 
cils, feparate from the Pope, it is fo little owned by our Englifh Papifts, 
that I (hall not need to fpend many words about it. The places of 
Scripture which they alledg for it, are principally thefe three. 

The rirft, Matt. 18. 20. Where two or three are gathered together in 
my name, there am I in the midji of them. A mo ft ridiculous proof! 
for all that this Text proves, is the fpecial and gracious Prefence of 
Chrift: Chrifts gracious Prefence is one thing, infallible Guidance is 
another thing; if that Prefence of Chrifts makes all thofe infallible 
which have it, it is not only the Pope, or a General Council, but all 
Councils, and all aftemblies of Chrillians are Infallible. Further this 
Promife is fufpended upon that condition of being gathered together 
in Chrifts name, that is, by Chrifts command and commiifion, feeking 
his honour and glory, being guided by his Rule, and acting according 
to his Will '■> all which is included in that phrafe of being gathered in 
Chrijh name : It is true he that doth all this is Infallible, but the queftion 
is, whether they do this, nay, it is abundantly evident they do it 

Another place is, John 16. 13. When the fpirit of truth is come, he 
rvrll guide you into all truth. To that I (hall need only to fay this, that 
this Promife is made to the Apoftles alone, and it is made to every* Apo- 
flle. Pray obferve it, it was not only made to Peter, but to all the 
Apoftles, and to every Apoftle : whereas one Apoftle went one- way, 
and another another way, one preached to the Jews, another to the 
Gentiles, God did promife that he would direct all thefe in Preaching 
the Doctrine of the Gofpel, that they Inould be led into all necelfary 
truths, and this was neeeffary to be done in laying the foundation of 
the Chriftian Church : But what is this to the Pope or General Coun- 
cil? He doth not fay, that theApoftles (hall be Infallible only when 
they are gathered together, but every oneafunder; otherwife all thofe 
Churches which were converted by the Preaching of any fingle Apoftle 
C which was thecaic of molt Churches in the World ) had no certain 

D 2 and 

oo Pcpe artel Councils not Infallible. Serm. L 

and infallible foundation for their Faith. And confequently , if this 
Priviledgbe extended to the SucceiTors of the Apoflles, then not only 
the Pope is Infallible, but all and every other Succeffor of any one of 
the A pottles is Infallible* fo that either it proves the Infallibility of di- 
vers particular perfons , or elfe it doth not prove the Infallibility cf 
Councils. Another place is, AU. 15.28. ¥ or it fumed good to the Holy 
1 Ghoft, and to us, to lay no other burthen upon you. A molt impertinent 
Allegation j this is only a Declaration of the prefent cafe, and no Pro- 
mife for the future. It is true, he fays, this Council was guided by the 
Holy Ghoft, and fo they were, but does not fay all other Councils (hall. 
It is notorioufly known that many Councils there were that were Arri- 
ans, and others that were Erroneous in other points \ and the Papiits 
themfdves confefs that many Councils have Erred, efpecially thofe 
Councils that have undertaken to cenfureand condemn the Popes, and 
to fet up their own Authority above them. Thefe, they fay, were not 
led by the Holy Gholt, but fas they fay expreily of the famous Council 
of Carthage for that very reafon) adted by the inftigation of the Devil. 
So that it feems all General Councils are not Infallible, but fuch as they 
pkafe, or fuch as pleaie them*, the relt muit feek their fortunes,and (rufc 
for themfclves. As for this Council, A3*i 5. it is confelTed they were In- 
fallible. But doth it therefore follow, that becaufe this Council all the 
Members whereof were holy men, and divers of them holy Apoftle-, 
fevery one^of which was Infallible^ were Infallibly guided by the Holy 
Gholt in this Controverfie, that therefore a General Council, confi/Hng 
fbmetimes (for ought appears to the contrary) wholly of wicked men 
without the Spirit of God,(hould be Infallibly guided in all Controver- 
lies > There is no man of common fenfe but fees an evident difparity in 
the cafe. 

I know there is one thing they further pretend, that though it be 
true, the Pope is not Infallible of himfelf, nor the Council alone, yet 
both together are Infallible *, The Decrees of the Pope confirmed by a 
General Council are Infallible. Two things only I (hall fay to this. 

1. This is butafhufrlng evafion againft their own Confciences, be- 
caufe it is notoriouily known, and the Popifh Doctors unanimoufly con- 
fefs it, that this fuppofed Infallibility is lodged either in the Pope, or in 
the Council > They will not allow of a mixt Infallibility, that the Pope 
(hould conltitute one part,and the Council another. Bellarmine fays, rhat 
Li fallibility dies net lye partly in the Pope, and partly in the C&uncil, but it 
is wholly in the Pope, and in the Council, fo far and no further than tiny 
cleave t) the Pope; and fays another, St apt. The Council adds no Infallibility 
to the Pope \ it is he alone that is Infallible. And on the other fide, thofe 
that place the Infallibility hrthe Council do as expreily aftrrni 1 , It 'is mi 
partly in the Pope, and partly in the Council, but wholly in the Ctmncil, and 
in the Pope no further than he (iic!>s to the'Council. Which having fully 
proved dfewiure out- of their own Authors, I ; (hall here omit. Ey 


germ, I. Pope and Councils not I/f Ullilk. ' M 

which it is evident enough, that this is only an artihee to deceive ih* 
ignorant and injudicious people, but is not fatisfadtoiy to their own 

2. If this were truest would do them no good, becaufe it doth not 
reach the prefent (late of the Church -, for at this time there is no Gene- 
ral Council in the Church", the Fope is now the only Head of the 
Church amonglt them > fo that either the Fope alone is the Infallible 
Judg, or there is none at this day. If it be fa id, they have betides the 
Popes Authority, the Decrees and Writings of the Councils, that will 
do them no good •, for they all fay, there is .1 neceifity of a living Infalli- 
ble Judg, and they fay of the Scripture, that it is but a dead letter, and 
that no Writings can determine Controverfies : Co that there being now 
no Head of the Church belide the Pope , either he is Infallible or there 
is none fuch in their Church at this day, and therefore I may conclude, 
that no particular perfon or company of men now is,or can be, the Su- 
pream Judg of the Church, to whom all Chrillians are bound to fub- 
mit their Faith and' Confciences. Khali conclude all with tv\o practical 

i. Leirn from hence whit infinite caule you have to blefs God that 
hath delivered and prefer ved you from Popery, and what need you have 
continually to pray, and to ufe all lawful endeavours that this Iron- 
yoke may never be put upon you. The Popi(h teachers do by their 
people, as the Phililiims did by Sampfoa^ put out their eyes, and make 
them grind in their mill. Papifts mutt fee by their Teachers eyes, and. 
are obliged to believe whatever they teach them. I have been informed 
by an Englifb Merchant , fometimes re riding in Spain, that being in 
fo.ne Conference concerning Pveligion, with a Spaniard of note there 
and his intimate Acquaintance, he ufed thefe Expreflions with Tears h\ 
his Eyes j " You People of England are happy,you have liberty to fee 
4 with your own eyes.and co examine the Docliine delivered to you, 
c upon which your eveilalting life depends •, but lays rK, We dare not 
' fry, our Souls are our own,but we are bound to believe whatever our 
a Teachers tell us,though it be never fo unreafonable or ridiculous. It is • 
doubtlefs a dreadful thing for a man to fee the Inquifition on the one 
hand, and damnation on the other hand. Therefore let us blefs God 
that hitherto hath delivered us, and hath prevented in fome good mea- 
Cure the hopes and expectations cf Papi/ts. Under Hand I befeech you, 
and conlider your Priviledg •, WeMiniiiers do not impofe upon you^ 
and tell you, you mult believe all we fay, though it would be for our 
interelttodolbi but we fay with the Apoflle, We fpea\ unto wif. > men, 
ytd^yevehatwefay, We commend you as St. Paul did the Btrtans, 
.Acl.\-]. for fearching the Scriptures, whether thefe Do&rines we 
teach be true or no. It is a great evidence of the truth of the Froteftant 
Doctrine, that it is not afraidof the Light, it defircs nothing more than 
to be tried j and it is no lefs an evidence of the falfhood of Popery, that 


Hi Pope and Councils not Infallible. Serm. h 

they dread nothing more than the Light. You know what our Saviour 
fays, Job. 3. 20, 2 1. Every one that doth evil batetb the light, neither 
cometb to the light, left h'x deeds fhould be reproved, but be that doth truth 
cometb to the light that b\$ deeds may b'e made manifest, that they are wrought 
in God. God hath given you Talents,we command you to ufe your Ta- 
lents, they command you to wrap them in a napkin. God hath gi- 
ven you light, The Sprit of a man U the Candle of the Lord\ we com- 
mand you to fee by that Light, they command you to hide it under a 
bufhel. Pity blind Papifts, pray for them, and rejoyce in the goodnefs of 
God towards you, and fee what caufe you have to be fervent in prayer, 
that God may never fufler Popery to recover its ftanding in thefe King- 

2, For as much as there is no perfon upon Earth that can infallibly 
guide you to Salvation, it concerns you to have the greater care of your 
; own Salvation. You will fay what (hall we do > I (hall only give you 
thefe three Directions, and Co conclude. Do but thefe three things, and 
you need not be troubled that you have no Infallible Judg to fecure you 
in your way. 

I. Study the holy Scriptures,- let the Pope forbid you to do it, it is 
no matter, it is fufficient for us, that (Thrift commands vou to do it 
fob. 5.3P, Search the Scriptures, fir in them ye thinly ye' have eternal life j 
ye thinly, and ye think right, you muft not take that for a term of di- 
minution* ; no more than when the Apoltle faith, / thinkj have iheffu 
rit of God, 1 Cor. 7. But the meaning is.you judg, and you judg atfght 
in it ', Job. 20. 3 1. Tbefe things are written that you might believe, that 
■ Jefm vi the Chri[i the Son of God, and that believing ye might have life 
through bis name. The Word is written, and blefted be God you have 
it before your eyes, it is not hid nor locked up from you, as among ft 
the miferable Papifts •, but the Book is open, and you may read it,and 
may by Gods bleiling upon your own induftry and the ufe of thofe 
, helps which his gracious Providence affords you, incompetent mea- 
fure underftand it. I (hall only mention that one place, and methinks the 
• very reading of it (hould put this difputc quite out of doors, 2 Tim. 3. 
14, &c. But continue thou in the things which thou baft learned, and baft 
been affured of, knowing of whom thou haft learned them, and that from a 
child tbm ha\\ kyawn the holy Scriptures, -which are able to make thee wife 
unto Salvation, through Faith which U in Cb^ift Jefus. 

2. Pray fervently for the Guidance of Gods Spirit \ and for your en- 
couragement know that God hath not left you without Promiies,& thofe 
much more clear than thofe which thePapifts produce for their Diana 
of Infallibility. In general this, Job. 16. 23. JVhatfoever ye fhall as\^ the 
Father in my name, he will give it you. And left any fhould think this - 
Promife is confined to the Apoftles, our Saviour adds, Job. [7.20,21. 
Neither pray I for thefe alone, but for them aljo which jh^U believe on me 
through their word. That they all may be one^ &c. Another clear and com- 

Scrm. L Pope and Councils not Infallible. 23 

fortable Promife to this purpofe you have Lul^ 1 1. 13. Ify: then being 
evil, Izviowbowto give good gifts unto your Children, bore much more fljali 
your Heavenly Father give the holy Spirit to thofe that asl{ t him? Whence 
I may venture to draw this Conclufion, That an holy and humble Chri- 
ftian iincercly asking the conduct of the holy Spirit, hath better affu- 
rance of his Infallible Guidance in all Truths neceflary to Salvation, 
than an ungodly Pope that either doth not ask it, or asks amifs, feeing 
fuch a perfon hath no intereft in Chrifr, in whom alone all the Promifes 
are Tea and Amen, 2 Cor. 1. 20. And therefore let no Chrifiian perplex 
himfelf with fuch anxious thoughts as thefe, What ifhall I do under the 
various and contradictory Opinions that are amongft us?I want wifclom 
todifcem. St.Jawes tells you what you mould do, Jam. i.^.Jfany man 
lacl^ wifdomjet him asl^ofGod, who gives to all men (mark that ) liberally, 
and upbraidetb not, and it fhall he given him. And therefore in (his cafe 
beg Counfel from God. There is not the weakeft, nor the moll ignorant 
C'cacme amongft you, but if you faithfully and diligently fcek direction 
from God, you may confidently expect it. Pray to God as David did, 
Pfal. 2 5. 5. Lead me in thy Truth, and teach me \ for thou art the God of 
my Salvation, on thee do 1 wait all the day. And Pfal. 43. 3. Oh fend out 
thy Light and thy 'Truth, Id them lead me, and bring me unto thy holy hill. 
And as David did beg this of God, fo he promifeth it to himfelf, and 
fo may every ilncere Chriftian, Pfal. 73. 24. Jhoujhalt guide me with 
thy counfel, and afterwards receive me to glory. God is the fame God {till, 
and as able and as willing to direcl: you as ever he was, and as faithful - 
in keeping his Promife as ever, as ready to hear as you are willing to 
ask. You have it under Gods hand, Lul^. 11. 10. As\and you fhall 're- 
ceive, Jeel^ and you ft> all find, \noc\ and it fhall be opened to you. What 
need more be faid to encourage the Faith and the Hope of all that fear 

3. If you would difcern and hold fall the Truth,love and pra&ife it. 
The beft way to be certainly guided into the way of Truth, is to Uvq jap 
to it. Of this we have evident alTurance in that forementioned place, 
Joh.J. ij. If any man wi 11 do his will, befljjUkjtowoftbeDotlrine, whe- 
ther it be of God, or whether Ifpeal> of my fe If. Certainly a good Confci- 
ence is the beft prefervative of a mans Faith -, and therefore when once 
men put away a good Confcience, the next news is, they make fhip- 
wrack of their Faith, 1 Tim. 1.19. Holding faith and a good confcieuce. y 
which fo me having put away, concerning faith have made (hipwrack : an 
eminent i nitance you have, 2 Thef.2. 10, 1 1, 12. Becaufe they received 
not the love of the truth that they might be faved, for this caufe God fhall 
fend them {hong delufions^ that they (hould believe a lie, that they all might 
be damned who believed not the Truth, but hadpleafure in unrighteoufnefs. 
A Text that needs no other Comment but the Examples of this Gens- • 
ration. Papifts brag much of the many Profelytes they have gained a- 
mongft us. For my part I am not at all furprized with it. When I con- 
fid er 

7 4 Tope and Councils not Infallible, Serm, I 

fider fuch Texts as this and the righteous and tremendous Judgments 
of God, I rather wonder they do not flow in to them in far greater nun> 
bers. Nor can I believe that any wife man will think they have any 
greauaufeof triumph in their Profelytes, if he will but make a little 
enquiry, and get a true Charader of the generality of them. He that 
knows their Morals will never wonder at the change of their Religion 
It is noflrange thing if a diffolute Proteftant turn a zealous Papift I 
or i\ the righteous God (hake thofe out of his lap, and out of the Prol 
teftant Church who were but rotten members of it B 

I conclude all with that excellent advice, z Pet.$ 9 ij^ ig. Xe t h erea! 
fore, fohved feting ye know thfe things before, beware led ye alfo beina led 
away by the error of the wicked, fall from your own ftedfafaefc but grow in 
Grace, and in th? knowkdg of our Lord and Saviour Jefw Cbrijf, 

'"' ■ "- 1 ' HHUJUl. i H.JlJl l>!Jl«m ' m W UmW.IHt-Jj l ilJ. Ill — I IL I IHniiHiiirummni, I, 


^"j^*^ .* !txJ&> £& < *m h gjr * wh jh m ^mf '. < v ^^w*^ U. mto > i3 > M0Wi* *9aam/m m * &Mj ■ m. *. i inr i i i . jL 





CHRIST, and not the POPE, Uni 
verfal Head of the Church. 

I Cor. 12. 27, 28. Now ye are the body of Chriji, and niem* 

hers in particular. 
And God hath fit fo me in the Church, firfi Apojiles, 8cc. 

Oil R appointed Work at this time is to determine^ Whether 
there be fitch a Church of Chrifts Inftitut ion, as confifteth 
all Christians United orSubjefted to any one meer humaneHead, 
Perfonal or Cofottive > Or, Whether there be any Vniverfal 
Head or Govcrnour of the whole Church on Earthy befides, and under Je- 
fusChrift? Which I deny. And when I have fully opened the [uefti- 
on, I (hall prove the Negative both from this Text, and feveral oth 
Texts and Arguments. 

Of all the Controverfies between us and the Papifts, this is the firft 
and greateft : We firft deny that there is any fuch Head : And fecondly, 
That the Pope is fuch a Head. 

The Papifts, as knowing the impoflibility of finding any fair pre- 
tence of afcribing the Internal ads of Chrifts Office to the Pope, are 
forced to diftinguifh, a Mediatorial Head of vital influx to the Church 
Regenerate, from a Political Governing Head of the Chux oh-vifible for 
Congregate ). And they confefs that Chriit only is the firft •> but fay , 
that under Chrift, the Pope is, as his Vicegerent, the fecond : But' 
we maintain the Negative as to both : And if there be no fuch Head, 
there is no Church that is fo Headed. Two things in this word afe 
meant in our denial. Firft, There is no fuch Conjlitutive Head, who 
is to the llniverfal Church a Conftitutive, EfTential part \ as is a King 
in a Kingdom, a Mafter in a Family, and the Pars Imperans, in ever} 
Political Society. Secondly, There is no fjch Governing Head, having. 
Power and Obligation to make Uni verfal Laws, and tojuug andExe* 
cute Univerfally. 

There are three ways of Divine Inftitution which we here exclude, 

irft,God harh inftituted no fuch Head orChurch by the. Law of Nature. 

Secondly, Nor by Chrift himfelf, immediately determining it in his 

E humane 

2$ Chr/Ji^ and not the Pope, Serm. IT. 

humane Nature on earth. Thirdly, Nor by the Revelation or deter. 
mination of his Spirit in his Apoftles or any other Authorized and In- 
fallible lnfpired perfons : And befides thefe three, we know no other 
fort of Iniiitufion of God, to come into queftion. 

Our queftion medleth not with the Heads or Governours of 
Kingdoms, nor of particular Churches, but only of the Univerfal 

Arg, i. From Nature, common llcafon and Experience, anon pojp, 
ad non tjje : No mortal man, or Collective body of men, is capable of 
being a Conftitutive and Governing-Head of all theChurch on Earth : 
Therefore there is no fuch Head. 

F/V/f, No ilngle perfon is capable of it. To prove which, confider 
but, i. IVJjata Man is. 2. What fuch a man would have to do. 
• F/r/r", A Man is a poor finite creature, confined to one place at once, 
not able to eompafs the Earth, nor know all its Countrcys, much Ids 
Inhabitants : Not able to take notice of all the actions of the fons of 
men throughout the World j nor to receive fuch fatisfaclory informa- 
tion concerning them, as may inable him to judg them jufily : Nor is 
he capable of taking coguifance of one of many Millions of Caufes 
that would belong to fuch a ]udg. And Man is a poor Worm, un- 
able to procure any due execution of Univerfal Laws, and to reprefs 
the Rebellion of RehTters* and to defend theChurch againft its ene- 
mies. And man is fo bad a creature, that he that is tried in fo great 
a work as the Government of all the Wcrld, and tried by fo great temp- 
rations as mull needs arife in fuch an undertaking, will but become 
C according to the courfe of ordinary changes; the worit, and {o 
rhe mo ft odious of men : So that it is a wonder that Man mould be- 
come fo ignorant, as to think that any one mortal Man is capable of 
Ruling all the World, or all the Chrifiians in the World* 

Secondly ^ But confider what fuch a Head mull have to do, ard 
there will remain no difficulty in the Cafe. 1. He that undertaketh the 
Univerfal Government, undertaketh to make Univerfal Laws, and to 
exercife Supream Power in Judging and Executing according to thofe 
Law?. And he that maketh Univerfal Laws in things unchangeable, 
mi'ft fdppofe that Chrift hath not done it himfdf already, which is 
faifc : And in things changeable, hemuft be fufficiently acquainted with 
the (rate of all the Nations in the World , and the different Cafes 
which require divert! fication both as to Time and Place : which a Man 
of many Thoufand miles diftance is uncapable of 

And as to ]udgm?nc and Execution. 1 . As to Perfons, it is to be cx- 
creifed upon individuals. 2. As to-Caufess it is r. Either Judging who 
is fit or unfit for the Sacred Miniftry, as to Ordination} or 2. Who is 
fit or unfit for Chriftian Communion. And that in reflect, 1.T0 
Knowtedg and Faith, or Ignorance, Unbelief or Heretic, Or 2. To a 
Pious and Honeft, or a Criminal Converfaei on. 


Scrm. IL ' Vnivcrfal Head of the Church. 27 

Firfc Kingdoms or Cities are not either fo be taken into, or caft 
out c i that Church of Chrilt, for the Faith or the Faults of any part of 
them. Baptifm bilongeth to Individuals-, and to Cities and King- 
doms no orherwife than as conrifting of fuch Individuals : It is the: 
Faithful and their Seed that are to be baptized 5 God -never Authorized 
any to baptize Kingdoms cr Cities becaufe the King or Magiftrates be- 

And the fame muft be faid of Excommunications \ Kingdoms cr 
Cities are not to be Unchurched, or Interdicted Gods wcifhip, becaufe 
of the tin of Kings and Magiftrates : ( Though Cvch inhumane and un- 
chriftian kind ot Difcipline hath ( upon ihc Venetians and many other 
Countries ) been exercifed by the Pope ) \ God faith, that the Soul 
that Gnneth (hall dye, and not the Son for the Fathers tin, which he is 
not guil'y of. 

Secondly, And if this be fo, it is eafie fo discern whether one Man 
can fo Govern all the World. 1. He that ordaineth Minifters, muft 
try them, that he may truly judg of their furrkiency. 2. He that bap- 
ti/eth the Adult, muft try their Knowkdg and Faith, that he may 
truly judg of their Capacity. 3. He that will ji fily judg any aecufed 
of Hcrche or wicked living, mutt hear the WitnelTcs, and hear the 
Peifcn, and understand the circumitarxes oftheCaufe: And before 
he Exccmn unicate any, he mutt not only know him to be Criminal, 
but alio Impenitent; and therefore muft with Evidence, Love and 
Paricnce, endeavour tirtt to bring him to Repentance. The like know- 
ledg is neaffary to a juft Abfoluticn. And what can one Man do in any 
of this, for all the World ? / 

Object. He can do it per alios, though not per fe : He can fend forth men 
to do it. The King cannot Govern bit Kingdom by him ft If only^ without 
Offccrs •> hut by them he can. 

J> ft?. 1. What other men do, he doth not: To fay he doth it 
per alios, is but a deceitful phraie, and maketh not their work to be his. 
That which he doth, is not to Preach, and Baptize, and Excommuni- 
cate, and Abfulve by them, but to bid them doit, orlicenfe them \ yet 
if he fent them all to do it as his Servants Authorized by him to do it 
in his name and (lead, it might be called morally his Act : but it is not 
fo. The Office of a Bifhcp or Presbyter, is of Divine Inftitution, and 
their work defcribed by the Word of God \ and the Office and Work 
is their own \ and they themfelves are accountable for it to their chief 
Paflcr, J< fus Chrift. 2. The work of an Eccletla flick Pafior is per- 
gonal, even the exercife of his own skill, and not only the command- 
ing of another to do it. If fetting others on the work were all that's 
necefTary, there needed no Bifhop or Paftor to be fuch a Head i a 
Prince were fitter ; David and Salomon could command the Prk!:s acd 

E 2 Le- 

28 Chrift^andHottheTope^ Serm. II. 

Levites to do their Office, and could place and difplace them h and fo 
many Chriftian Kings : But as it is not the proper Office of a Fhyfici- 
an, Surgeon, Printer^ Architect, &c to Licenle Phyficians, Surgeons, 
Printers, e?r. or to fet them on work} fo neither of a Bi(hop or Paftor 
to licenfe or command fuch : And for Ordination, it may be done 
without a Pope *, or elfe how is the Pope ordained or confecrated him- 
felk g. The Office of the Apoftles was not only to fend other men to 
convert the World, and fettle the Churches, and govern them, but firft 
to labour in all this themfelves, and then to ordain others to go along 
with them as their helpers, and to govern the particular Churches > 
which is not the fame thing, as only to fet other men on work. 4. A 
Kings Office confifteth fo much in Power,to appoint Officers under him 
to their feveral Provinces and Works, as that therein it greatly dirTereth 
from a Pallors, which is like to a Phyficians, or a Philofophers 5 and more 
confifteth in the exercife of perfonal skill and overfight. 5. But if all 
this hitherto faid were nothing, it is moft certain that no King is capa- 
ble of governing all the World : And if the Paftoral Office required no 
more perfonal skill and exercife thereof than the Regal \ yet all thae 
would follow were but this, that as a King by himfelf and his Officers, 
can govern a Kingdom, but not all the World, fo is it to be faid of any. 
paftor', though indeed the. latter is much lefs pofliblc. 

The Impofiibilities are notorious at this day. 1. The Pope doth 
not fomuch as know a very great part of the World, what Inhabitants 
it hath, or of what Religion. 2. Much of the World is fo remote 
from him that his Meflengers mud be many years in going, and all in- 
formations as long in being fent to him. 3. The patfage is fo hazardous 
and difficult that they are not likely by Sea and Land- to efcape all the 
dangers in the way. 4. Many Princes Countries muft be paft through 
thac are enemies to Chriftians, and infrequent Wars with us, and one 
another, and therefore will not fuffer fuch paffage and intercourfe as 
the Government of the remoteft parts require. 5. There are many 
Countries that underftand no Language which the Popes EmilTaries 
can fpeak. 6. There are many Chriftian Countries at this day which 
the Pope lately was not known to, nor ever fo much as required their 
Subjection :o him, by reafon of their incapacity of Converfe. When 
Oviedo would have made the Abajftns believe that Subjection to the 
Pope was neceflary to their Salvation, the Emperours Mother pofed 
him by that Queftion, Why G)d nor the Pope ever told them Jo till now^ 
and why thty never before heard of the Popes claim? To which the poor 
man had no better an anfwer to give, Than that inacceiliblenefs and di- 
fiance hindered it, as Godigpw himfelf reciteth the D'ifcourfe. Which is 
no left than a plain confeffion of what I am proving, that no one man 
k 'capable of governing all the World : When fo great an Empire as 
that oiJk-'fi-i (efpeciaily in its former grandeur) was fo for out of the 


Scrm. II. liniverfal Head of the Church. 

Papal reach, as that for To many hundred years he could never fo much 
as know them, and fend a Governour to them, nor any Mcffcngers to 
claim their Obedience \ no wonder if much more of the World be fur- 
ther out of the reach of his Notice and Jurifdiction. 
Arg.i. And as no (ingle natural Perfon,fo much more no Collective Per- 
fon or Company is capable to be an liniverfal Governour. For all the 
forefaid difticulties will be yet greater to them, than to one. There is 
none but an liniverfal Council that can be fuppofed to make fuch a 
Claim i which Council mult be one Civil Perftn, or Collective, and 
therefore be in one place, and manage this Government by Confent: 
But r. That place where they meet will be as diftant from the Antipodes 
as Rome is, and they will have as far to fend and receive information. 
2. The collecting of a true liniverfal Council, as I (hall (hew anon, is 
not only difficult, but never to be done. 3. One man may do more in 
a day, than a Parliament, much more a Council of all the Chriftian 
World, Can do in many Days or Weeks j there are fo many to fpeak, 
debate, and to receive fatisfadlion. 4. And feuds and difagreemfcnts 
will be yet a greater hinderance: So that where there is a Natural Inca- 
pacity, there can be no liniverfal Governours But both Pope and Coun- 
cil" have a Natural Incapacity.Therefore neither of them can be an lini- 
verfal Governour. 

Arg. 2. From the filence of the Creed and Scripture concerning fuch 
an liniverfal Head; If Chrift had inftituted any Vicaricus,Univerfal Go- 
vernour, and confequently a Church fo conftituted, it would have been 
plainly revealed in the Creed, or Sacred Scriptures: But there is no fuch 
thing plainly revealed f nor darkly neither) in the Creed or Sacred Scri- 
ptures. Therefore there was no fuch inftituted by Chrift. 

The Major is proved, in that they commonly confefs that all Funda- 
mentals or points of common necedity are plainly revealed in the Creed, 
or Sacred Scriptures s and they aiTert that an liniverfal Governour, and 
a Church fo conftituted, is a Fundamental, and a point of common ne- 
ceflity to be believed: Therefore if Chrift had inftituted any fuch, it 
mult needs have been in the Creed, or Scriptures. No man can imagine 
that if the reft of the matters of Divine Faith muft themfclves be recei- 
ved from the believed Authority of fuch a Head or Church , Chrift: 
would not plainly make known the Authority of fuch a Head and 
Church: But this is , the foundation of the Papifts Faith. 

And that there is no fuch thing contained in the Creed or Sacred 
Scriptures, the Impartial reading of them is enough to prove : The 
Crcrd mentioneth the Holy Catholick and Apoftolkk Church as Ode* # 

but faith not a word of Rome, or the Pope, or a Council, or any Ur.i- 
verfal Governour of this Church, befides Jefus Chrift. 

The Sicred Scriptures mention no fuch neither \ iri^ only Peter that 
N pretended by the Papifts to be there endued with K ch a Fower. But 
i. There Is no word that fpeaks fuch a thing , the confutation of their 



50 drifted not the rope} Serm. IL 

" vain Collections, from Tn es Petrtts, &c. and Pa fee oves'mets, &c, I have 
made elfvyheie, and in this fhoit Exercitaticn neither need ncr may re- 
cite if. 

2. It belcrgeth (o the Univeifal Governour to make Univeifal Laws 
for the Church j but no Scripture tells us of any more that Peter did in 
this Legislation, then James or Panl^ or ether Apoftles. 

3. Itbelongeth to the Univeifal Governour to give Authority to all 
the reft, and to fettle all Inferiour Orders and Officers*, but no Sciip- 
ture mentioneth any fuch thing of Peter, but the contrary, viz. Dea- 
cons were inftituted by the Apoftles jointly* none of the red of the 
Twelve received his Power from Ptter\ Paul took Silas, and Barnabas 
took M*r^ with him, and ?j#/made Timothy, Tints, and others Evan- 
geliits without Peter, or any Authority received from him \ and the A- 
poftles ordained Elders in every Church which they planted without 
Peter, J&.i ^.23. Tit.1.5, &c. 

Ob'. Th:y bad their power from Chril b fore he afc ended .and fj needed 
not receive it from Peter, 

A f Either Peter was made the Univeifal Governour before Chiiits 
Afccfltlon or not ,• if not, then Chrift perfonally fetled no frch Monar- 
chy •, yea.then he fetled confrar'ily 3n Arif^ocracy, or equality of Power 
in many, that is, in all the Apoftles j and is it credible that he fetled 
one form of Government at fi-rft, and charged it fo quickly after > And 
then the Chinches were after Chiifs Afcenfion p'anrcd and fetled by 
fuch as had no Power from Fetcr, and fo the Succethon is not from him 
as the Head. And then all the Texts pretended by them fas Pape oves, 
&c.) are by them forfaken. But if Piter was made Monarch before - 
Chrifts Afcenfion then the other Apoftles mud before be under Chrift 
and him. and as the Church had -two Heads at once, a Prime and a Vi- 
carious, fo the reft urn ft have their Power from both. At leaft after 
ChriPiS Afcenfion all the Apoftles would fall under the Government of 
Peter, and fo from thence mull hold their Power from him, which 
they never did. 

4. It belongeth to the Unwcrfal Governour to be the known de- 
c'aied Center of the Churches common Unity ■> to whom accordingly 
in cafe of Divifions they fhould have recourfe throughout all the 
WGild. But it was not fo concerning Peter } We read of many fad 
Contentions, in the Churches of Corinth^ Galitia, Colffe. &c. yea of 
Rome it felf, Rom, 14.^15. and many fad Heretics, Crimes and Brea- 
ches in the Seven Afian Churches, Rev, 2. & ?, and yet not a word to 
refer them to Peter for their healing, nor one reproof for their rebelli- 
on againft him as Univerfal Governour, nor one perfwafion to unite 
all in him ! Nay he himfelf, who 2 Pet. 2. doth write fharply againft 
Hcreiies, never mentioneth any fuch remedy. 

5. Ard 

S?rm. II. Vniverfd Head of the Church. 3 1- 

5. And it b:lo.ig:ch to tfn Univerfi! Head and Governour (0 rebuke, 
all culpable Liferiours, and to receive appeals in cafes of difficulty. Bit 
norijof all this is laid of Peter, but contrarily that Paul withfr.ood.him 
to the face, becaafe he walked not uprightly, and was to be blamed, 
GjL 2. ib that the cafe in S:ripture is plain againft them. 

'Afg*$. From the contrary AfTertionsin the Holy Scriptures. The 
Scriptures are not only illent as to the Inftitution of any fuch Univerfal 
Governour or Church, but they fpca't againft it: Therefore there was 
no flich Inftitution of Chrift. 

And here I mutt come up to my Text , and from it and others bring 
in feveral Scripture-Arguments. 

Note here i.That the Unity of the Church, and the nature and rea- 
fons of it, are mod largely and expreily handled in this Chapter. 2. That 
this Church is called the Body of Chrift, but not of Peter or the Pope*, 
and that its Unity is placed in one Spirit, one Lord, and one God, Feffif, 
6, 7, 11,12,13. and not in one Vicarious Head. 3. That all "Belie* 
vers are numbred with the Members, even Apoftles themfelves exprefly, 
as contradiitincl from the Head in whom they are united. Apofiles are 
called here, Members in particular, fet by God in the Church, even the 
ftrjt rank or' Members, and Prophets next. If Peter then was the llni- 
verfal Head, it was not as an Apoftle > for the Apoftles were but the 
noble ft Members in particular. 

ArgA. If Chrift be here deferibed as the only Head, and Apoftles- 
bat as particular Members, then no Apoftle was an llniverfal Gover- 
nour or Head: BlU rhe Antecedent is plain in the Text, &c. 

And indeed Eellarvzine is forced to maintain that the Pope fuccce- 
deth not Peter as an Apoftle, but as the Vicarious Head* of the Church > 
by which he confeffeth that Peter was not fuch a Head as an- -Apoftle. Bu$ 
Paul here deferibing the whole Body, mentioneth no part but Chriil< 
th: Head, and Apoftles and others varioully gifted and placed, as parti- 
ciriar Members. So that here is no Office above Apoftolical in which the 
Pope can fucceed Peter. 

Ar£. II. The fame evidence is vifible in "Epbef. 4. where Paid vehe- 
mently endeavouring the Ephefians Unity, reckoneth up only thefcr 
ftven NeceflTaries in which it muff be founded : 1. One B)'Jy 'of Chrift),. 
2. One Spirit. 3. One Hope of our Calling- (Grace and Glory ). 4. One-. 
Lord C J.efus Chrift). 5. One Faith (The Belief of the Gofpel\ 6. One* 
Baptifin (and Baprifmal Covenant}. 7. One God and Father of all, abor? 
all, through > all and in all), veif. 3, 4, 5,6* Andin all the Members who- 
muifinthefe feven be united, he placeth diveriity, and numbercth A- 
pottles, Prophets and Paftors with the reft, as being bur" particular 
Members of the Body. And then hedefcribeth the Body that is thus to* 
be united, the ends and benefits of their concord^ and. the, fubordinate 

means v 

£2 Chritl, and not the Pope, Serm.IL 

; means, toverf. id. In which he calleth them the Body of Chrift (only 
and not of the Pope ) which muft come to a perfect man, in the Unity 
cf Faith 3nd Knowledg of Chrift, and not be toiTed with every wind 
of Dodhine, but grow up in him in all things which is the Head, 
Chrift ; From whom the whole body fitly conjoyned and compared ( not by 
another Head but ) by that which every joynt fupplyetb, according to 
theeffedu.il working in the me a fare of every part, ma^eth increase of the 
body to the edifying of it felf in love. There could never have been an 
opener door, for Paul to have brought in the mention of an Univerfal 
Vicarious Governour at, if he had known of any fuch j than the oc- 
caiions and Subjedr here in hand. But here is ftill none but Chrift the 
Head, and Apoftles and others as the particular Members. 

Arg. III. Yet more exprefly in i Cor. 1.3. When the Corinthians 
were inclined to factions \ fome would have United in Paul, and fome 
in Apollo, and fome in Cephas or Peter, and fome would have appro- 
priated Chrift to themfelves. And how doth Paul feek to heal this 
Schifm ? Not by telling them that indeed they muft all Unite in Peter 
as the Univerfal Head or Monarch , but that Chrift is not divided 
(and therefore he muft be their common Center ) and that the reft 
were but his Minifters by whom they believed, and were not crucified 
for them, nor were they Baptized into their name \ and that they (hew- 
ed themfelves Carnal by thefe contentions, in fetting up one above ano- 
ther, when Paul, Apollo, and Cephas, were alike theirs, and Minifters 
of Chrift, and Stewards of his Myfteries } Cap. 3.3-522. & 4.1. So that 
here Peter is not only not mentioned as the Head and Center of Church- 
Unity, when his Name was in queftion, and the Cafe required it, ( had 
it been true ) but alfo exprefly and by Name excluded from any fuch 
Office, and thofe fharply taxed that would fo have thought of him, 
nay, that thought yet lower of him *, for indeed there is no probabili- 
ty that any of the Corinthians dreamt" of his Univerfal Government, 
but only fome preferred him as a more excellent Teacher before all o* 
thers, in a fiding way. 

Arg. IV. When Peter himfelf jnftrudreth the Paftors of the Church 
in their duty, 1 . He taketh no higher title to himfelf than an Apoftle and 
Servant of Jefus Chrift, and an Elder, and a Witnefs of his fufterings, 
and a partaker x)f the Glory that (hall be revealed. 2. And he tells them 
that they muft not oveifee the Hod!; as Lords, but as Examples , which 
is inconfiftent with their opinion, who take his Univerfal Government, 
to be eftential to the Church, and necelTary to Salvation to be be- 

Arg.V. In Matt. 20. We find it put by way of petition to Chrift, 
to determine who fhould be greateftj viz. thai James and John might 


Serm. II. Vniverfal Head of the Church. ' 5 3 

be next him in his Kingdom > and Peter with the reft of the Ten were 
offended at it: yet Chrift is fo far from telling them that either they, 
or Peter fhall have fuch honour, that he contrarily concluded^, verf 
25. Sec. Ye kjtow that the Princes of the Gentiles exercife dominion over 
them, and they that are great exercife authority upon them \ but it fhall not 
be fo among you : But whofoever will be great among you, let him be your 
minificr^ and rvbofoever will be chief among you, let him be your fervant. 
Even in this, not telling them who fhall be the Man, but leaving it to 
them by humility and fervice to merit all that preeminenee which he 
alloweth of. 

Arg. 4. The Fourth chief Argument is fetcht from theNon-confift- 
ence of fuch an Univerfal Head with the Office and Prerogative of 

To havelnftituted an Univerfal Head andGovernour, would have 
been the making of another Chrift, or at leaft the communicating of 
part of the EiTence of Chrifts Office and Prerogative \ But Chiift did 
never make another Chrift, nor communicate any part of the EflTence 
of his Office or Prerogative : Therefore Chrift did never Inftitute an 
Univerfal Head and Governour. 

The firft Proportion is proved by the true definition or defcription 
of Chrifts Office, which containeth his Univerfal Kingdom, as well as 
his Univerfal Propriety and Priefthood. That Chrift is the Owner and 
the Ruler of all, is believed by all that believe him to be the Chrift > 
For this end, he both dyed, rop, and revived, that he might be Lord of 
the dead and of the living, Row. 14. p. And the Univerfality of fome 
parts of his Prieftly Office are acknowledged , and of the reft, as to 
thofe who are capable of the Benefits. He is the Owner of all the 
World: And he is the Ruler of all, de jure, & de fatto, in divers 
manners and degrees, though only the faithful obey him to Salvation : 
And his Sacrifice had not only a fufficiency for all, butalfo erTi&ually 
procured the common Grace and Benefits which are actually given to 
all. And 1. It is confelTed by all fober perfons, that Chrift hath not 
given to any under him an Univerfal Propriety. If any Parafite of 
the Pope fo talk, the reft dare, not own it. To be the Lord or Owner 
of all things and Perfons is proper to Chrift : If the Pope be his Vica- 
rious Proprietary , Kings and Perfons are at his will and mercy , 
and he need not to be beholden to any Prince for Tribute^ for all Lands 
and Monies in the World are his : But this is the proper Prerogative of 
Chrift. And there is no Mediator that ofTereth himfelf a Sacrifice for 
the fins of the World, or meriteth for all men, or all believers, but 
Jefus Chrift. 

The Minor is undeniable : Chrift by vertue of his Univerfal Power, 
hath communicated a Ministerial Limited Subordinate Power to men, 
overfeveral parts of his Church or Kingdom, but not Univerfal over 

F - all : 

34 Clriji^ andtiotthePope^ Serm. II. 

all s which needeth no other proof, than to know that Authority and 
Obligation concur in conftituring every fuch Office : And if any one 
Apoille had been Obliged to Rule, yea, or to Teach all the World, he 
had been obliged to an impoilibility. Therefore even the Apoftles all 
together had but an Indefinite obligation, and. not an llniverfal as to all 
the World} no, nor to all the Churches: For if e.g. Philip their 
Deacon, or his converted Eunuch, or Jofeph, or Nathaniel, or any 
other Preacher did convert any Countrey, or gather any Churches far 
off from the reach of any Apoftle, no Apoftle was bound to Teach or 
Rule that Church j much lefs aay one of them to Teach and Rule all 
the World, 

And i. If Chrift have not made an Univerfal Sub proprietor, it's 
not like that he hath made an Univerfal Rector. 2. If Chrift have not 
made an Univerfal Teacher, 3. Nor an Univerfal Prieft •> by the fame 
Reafon we may conclude, that the Univerfal Kingdom is incommuni* 
cable. 4. And as to the Kingdom it felf, t. The Univerfal Legifla- 
tion is already performed by Chrift, and therefore not left to Man. 
2. Vniverfal, Forcible Government is committed to no Man: All 
Pow T er in Heaven and Earth is given to Chrift > and he committeth the 
Sword to Kings and Magiftrates, and the Word to Minifters with 
the Keys of the Church •, But Chrift never made an Univerfal King or 
Magiftrate under him,to Govern all the World by the Sword:Therefore 
we as well may conclude, that he never made an Univerfal Paftor, or 
Church- Monarch ; one part of his proper Kingdom being no more 
communicable than the other. 3. And Univerfal ProteUion, which is 
another kind of Kingly Office, is not communicated to any. The 
Pope cannot Protect all the World, or all the Church =, To that all 
the reft of Chrifts Office, being as to the Vniverfality confelTcd incom- 
municable, it will follow that Government muft be fo alfo : I fay, As 
to Vniverfality, as forefeeing that they will object, that it is Incommu- 
nicable as to Primacy of Power , but not as to Vniverfality \ which 
therefore I have proved, though in this ftrait I muft not ftand to An- 
fwer their frivolous Objections. 

And here you may perceive, why Proteftants fay that the Pope is 
Antichrift, even becaufe he traiterouily ufurpeth , and arrogateth, 
that which is EiTcntial to Chrifts own Office, by making himfelf an ll- 
niverfal Head to Chrifts Body, and Governour of hk Kingdom, on a 
falfe preteace of Chrifts delegation. 

Object. A King mzy make a Vice -King, er Lieutenant, without parting 
with any of his Royalty or Prerogatives, 

Anfw, 1. It is not the Name of a Viceroy, but the Thing that is in 
queftion. A King may call a Subject his Viceroy, and may make him 
his chief Magiftrate over fome part of his Empire that isdiftant from 


Serm. II. Vniverfal Head of the Church. s 35 

him, yea or over the whole : But if he give him the abfolute Legifljtive, 
and Judicial Power over all his Kingdom, he parteth with his Royal- 
ty, and maketh that man King. 2. But fuppofe it were oth<:rwife,thc 
rcafon of the difference in the cafe is evident. A King is but a Man, and 
fo is his Viceroy, and one is as capable of Ruling as the other. But 
Univerfal Government is fomewhat above the capacity of any mecr 
Man, and none but God and our Redeemer is capable of it : There- 
fore if Chrift will make an Univerfal Head and Governour of the 
World or Church, hemuft make him another Chrift, or a God j or clfe 
he doth not make him capable. 

Arg. 5. A negatione effeftut ad negationem effettionis. There never was 
fuch an Univerfal Vicarious Head of Chrifts Body : Therefore he ne- 
ver instituted fuch. 

Nothing but the Antecedent here needs proof. 

I (hall confider (for the proof of the Antecedent) i.Of the Church in 
the time when the Scripture was written : 2. And of the Church till 
the days of Conftantine : 3. And of the Church till the llfurpation of 
theTitle of Univerfal Head:4. And of the Church fince then to this day. 

1. In Scripture-times I have proved already, that neither Peter nor 
any other did govern cheUniverfal Church, in Ordination, Legiilati- 
on, Judgment, Appeals, &c. 

2. Till Conftantines time there is not the lead probability of any fuch 
thing in Church-Hiftory; which I will not be beholden to any man to 
grant me who is acquainted with the Records of Antiquity,nor do I fear 
a denial from any thing but Fadtion,or blind Partiality, fuch as Baronius^ 
and other Flatterers of the Pope were byalTed by. For whereas the chief 
Claim of the Pope is from his Prefidency in Councils, till Conftantines 
days there never was fuch a thing as a General Council in the World 
(unlefs you will call Chrifts Family and Apoilles fuch J. And he that 
can prove the Pope to have been till then the Governour of all the 
World, or all the Chriftians in the World, will fetch his proofs (nei- 
ther from Scripture nor true Hiftory, but) from fomewhat unknown to 
other Mortals. 

3. And w 7 ere Men but Impartial in the ftudying of~Church-Hiflory, 
I would not be beholden to any Manjeadily to acknowledg all that 
follows : 1. That Conftantine and his SuccelTors were far from being 
Rulers of all the World j having but one Empire, which though great> 
the "Maps will tell you was (mall in comparifon of all the Earth. 2 .That 
the Bifhop of Rome was to the Empire but as the Arch-Bi(liop of Can- 
terbury is to England* a Biihop who by that Emperour had a Primacy 
given him in his Empire : For what Power had he to fettle a Head to 
the reft of the World? 3. That whereas his Prefidency in General 
Councils was his chief pretence for his Univerfal Power,even that Pre- 
fidency was unconftant, and varied as the Emperour pleafed. 4. That 

F 2 tho 


3 $ Chrijl, and not the Pope, Serm.II, 

thofe General Councils were called General but in reference to one Prin- 
cipality or Empire> fas the Scots called their AflTemblies General) anc i 
were no llniverfal Councils reprefenting all the Churches in the World. 
For T.They were called long by the Emperouri And what Power had 
the R* man Empcrour to call together the Bilhops of. all the World ? 
2. The Subfcriptions of the Bimops as recorded even in Biniiis, Surm^ 
Nicol'mm, Crab, will fatisrie any man that doth not by Fadion hinder 
his own fatisfadion : And though the name of one Johannes PerfidU in 
the Council of Nice, and fome fuch Inftances in others, feem great Ob- 
jedions^o fome Men, I let them go, as-knowing that there is no end 
of difputingwith thofe Men that can make a Mountain, of an Atome. 
There was a City called Perfif j and it was then ufual to place a Bifhop 
at..- the Borders of Perfia, Scythia, &e. and to call him by the Title of 
the Neighbour Country which he was defired to take care of.I have oft 
enough in other Writings proved^ that the Councils were but Imperial 
(fuppofing that fome few under Pagans, that affeded the Countenance 
of the Roman Greatnefs, who were Neighbours, did rarely joyn them- 
felves): And that Reynerius confelTeth, that the Armenians and other 
Churches converted by the Apoftles,weie not under theBiftiop o[Rome; 
And that Tbeodoret giveth the Reafon why the Bifhop of Nifibis was at 
the Council of -Nice, becaufe Nifibis was then under the 'Roman Empire: 
And that the Abaffines, the Persians, Indians, outer Armenians, and 
many other Countries of ChrifHans without the Empire, were not re- 
prefented in the Councils, nor ever fubjeded themfelves to the Pope of 

4. And even fince the days of Boniface who obtained of Phocas the 
Name of llniverfal Bifhop, theChrifiian World was never under him.: 
For 1. The Gr^Church hath ever fince refilled the Claim. 2. The 
laid Abaffines, Armenians, Indians, and many others never fubjecftcd 
themfelves to him. 3. He hath captivated his profeiTed Subjeds by fo 
much cruel force, as that he is uncapable of knowing who. are his- real 
Subjeds by confent : And we have by experience reafon to think, that 
in all Popifh Countries it is not-one of many that is a Papill under-- 
ilandingly, and at the heart, but moft either know not what Popery \$ H 
or filently go on with their Neighbours to avoid the obloquy and fuf- 
fcring, which elfe they muft undergo. 4. Dr. Yield (ot the Church)^ 
and Bimop Morton (\n his Apolog.) have fully proved > That till Luther* 
time, abundance of the Dodors of each Age, though they renounced 
not the Roman Communion, were againft their Opinions •> and that 
there is fcarce any Dodrine of the Protectants, which men of their 
own Communion held not. All which fully (hew that the Univerfaf 
Church did never acknowledgor receive this pretended llniverfal Head. 
5. To all which I may add, That alt the Gwi^Church (when far larger 
than the Latin) did ever hold the Primacy in the Empire to be Jure 
bumano only \ which is notorious in the exprefs words of the Council 

' at 

Scrm . II.' Vntvtrfal Head of the Church. 3 7 

ztCbalcedon y and in that the Patriarch of Conll antinople contended for 
the Primacy, which he could never have done had he taken it to be of 
Gods Inftitution : For Constantinople being comparatively a novel 
Church, had no pretence to a Primacy as Jure Vivino. All which I 
have further proved elfwhere. 

Of all the Arguments brought for the Popes Univerfal Government 
I know but Two, that to a confidering Man are worthy a Confu- 

The firft is from pretended Poffeftlon : Chrift ruleth his Church not 
only Preceptively but Eventually defatlo, according to the great defign. 
of his Office, (elfe he mould be but a Nominal King himfelftj But 
Chrift hath Eventually, or defafio ruled his Church by the Pope and his 
Prelates thefe Thoufand years at leaft, if not from the beginning ; 
Therefore he Inftituted this fort of Government (or elfe his own P^egi-- 
ment and Defign is fruftrate). 

Anf. 1. As to the Major ; the Church of Chrift hath obedient and 
difobedient ProfelTors s Good andBad,Piety and Sin are in the Church- 
Vifible. The Goodnefs and Piety, and Obedience is according to his 
Decree and Purpofe ; but fo is not the Sin. And Chrifts own Go- 
vernment obtaineth its ends, ia the Salvation of his Eledt, and in fo 
much reftraint and order as he keepeth up among the reft. 2. Elfe this 
Argument would prove as much that Idolatry and Heathenifm were 
better than the Jews Religion, before Chrifts Incarnation : For Jitdta 
was a very little fpot of the World, and defaUo Heathenifm did pof- 
fefs moft of the reft. 3. Yea it would prove all fin to be of Gods ap- 
pointment, if we might argue zfado ad jut. 

2. But the Minor is not true : It is accounted by the beft Geogra- 
phers to be but about a third or fourth part of the Chriftian World 
that are Papifts at this day, when the decay of the Eaftern Churches, 
and the lofs of Nubia, and a great part of the Abajfine Empire,^, hath 
much diminifhed it. I may therefore turn this Argument better againft 
them, and fay that Chrift never did de fatto rule his Church, or the 
greateft part of it by an Univerfal Governour, nor permit it fo to 
be ruled : Therefore this never was his Defign : Though indeed his 
Will de debito muft be known by his Laws, and not by Events. 

The fecond Argument is : Though an Univerfal Head be not of Di- 
vine Inftitution, why may not the Bifhopsof the Churches fet.up fuch 
a one over them all by confent (or Princes at leaft) ? And why may not - 
an Univerfal Church be Inftituted by Man 5 as well as a National or Pro- 
vincial Church > 

Anf. 1. Is the Government of Chrifts Church a matter of fo fmall 
moment, and is the Soveraign Head no more concerned in it, but to 
leave it to Men to fet up what Government they will ? Undoubtedly it 


3" Chrift, and not the Pope, Serm. IL 

is the Prerogative of the Soveraign to appoint his own Officers: And 
he that doth it ufurpeth his Prerogative. 2. What men are they that 
pretend to fuch Power > were they themfelves the Officers of Chrift, in 
any ftate of Inftituted Government ? If nof, then (1) Chrift hath made 
no Subordinate Government * (2) Then he made no Apoftles, &c. 
f3)Then he did not the part of a Soveraign*, (4) Then thefe Men that 
made the new Government were no Minilters of his,nor had any Pow- 
er from him to doit. But if they themfelves be Chrifts Inftituted Offi- 
cers ■» then 1. Chrift did Institute certain Officers, and confequently a 
ftate of Government. 2. Then let thefe Minilters of his prove if 
they can that ever he commiiiioned them to alter that ftate of Govern- 
men which he fir ft Inftituted-, 3, If they cannot, let them confefs that 
it is a Trayterous Ufurpation. 4. Either it is a Government Univer- 
fally needful to the Church, or not: If not, why talk you of it > 
If yea,who made you either greater or wifer, or better than Chrift > 
that you can find out and fettle an Univerfal Government, which 
he had not the power, the wifdom or the goodnefs to Inftitute* 

5. By his Inftituting particular Churches, and their Overfeers or El- 
ders, and Wqrfhipand Difcipline, he (hewed us that he took fuch a 
Church-fettlcment fGr his own Work : And if (o^ what made him 
do it imperfectly > and how come you to be able to do it better > 

6. The World hath had lamentable experience thefe Thirteen hundred 
years and more, to how ill efteds Men have altered Chrifts Inftituti- 
ons, and to what proud Contentions, Schifms, Perfections, and other 
Calamitics 3 their Alterations have tended. 7. But (to fpeak fully to 
the cafe) we grant that as Chrifts Ordinances, Doclrine, Wor(hip 
and Difcipline, are diftinguifhed from the meer Circumftances of 
them, (called the Circa Sacra) -, fo when Chrift hath Inftituted Offi- 
cers for his own Work, Men may for edification make Officers for 
their Work •, that is, thefe Circumftances (fuch as are Church-War- 
dens, Sextons, Door-keepers, and many the like). But will any man 
of brains and Chriftianity hence conclude, that Men may fet up an 
Officer for Chrift, above all the Officers of his own Inftitution,and em- 
powered to over- rule them all, yea and to Silence them, Sufpend them, 
Excommunicate them,and be a Monarch over them all?If Chrift would 
have had fuch a one, he was as wife and able to do it hjmfelf as any of 
his Minifters are. 8. And it is God that muft blefs the Labours of 
his Officers : And he hath no-where promifed to blefs any but his 
own. p. And if Men may make the Papacy, Men may pull it down 
again when reafon requirethit. And it will go harder with the Pope, 
than either pious Gerfon (de auferibilitate Papz)^ or Learned Card. 
Nic. Cufanus (de Concordia)^ do affirm, it may. 10. But if it be but 
by Mens confent, that we muft have a Pope, let thofe have none 
that do not confent : And then moll: of the Chriftian W r orld will 
be without him. 


■Serrti. II. Vniverfal Head of the Chnrch. 39 

ThisControreifie about an Univerfal Vicarious Head and Gover- 
nonr, being the true fum of the difference between the Papifts and 
Protefunts, were we not now retrained, (hould be much larglier hand- 
led, and fuller proofs of all that we aflert annexed. But our neceilitatcd 
brevity (hall conclude with thefe few Ufcs. 

I. Learn hence to hate the Devilifh fin of Pride, and fear it in your 
filves, left there (hould be more of it than you have yet obferved : For 
the Pope and his Prelates, are naturally fuch Sons of Adam as our 
(elves : And if Pride in them may rife to fuch a height, as to make them 
in this fo mad, as to think poor Man hath Capacity, and Right, and - 
Obligation to Govern all the World, or all the Chrifliaws in the World, 
and thereby to become the plagues of the Earth, ancl the troublersof 
all Chriftian States and Churches, have not we.allcaufe to fear it in 
our felvcs ? Though it have not Temptation or Advantage to work fo 
publickly and mifchievoufly as theirs, alas, it is the fame Sin which 
caufeth men to overvalue their own V nderftandingt^ their Goodnefs^ or 
their Greatnefs : It is the fame Sin which fetteth fome Preachers on 
contriving, and hunting for preferment, and others for popular ap- 
plaufe, and which maketh men Write, and Preach, and Talk againft - 
things which they underftand not, and againft men better than them- \ 
(elves, and todefiroy Love and Concord, and tear the Churches, and 
harden the ungodly in the contempt of all Religion ; yea, and to pro- 
ceed impenitently in all this, while fome think that their zeal for Order 

and Obedience, and others, that their zeal for Truth and Godlinefs, 
will warrant them in all this. It's an old Proverb, that all men -are 
born with a Pope in their Bellies : And he is a Conquerour, aud a Saint 
indeed, that hath truely overcome his Pride , which conquereth marry 
that can Preach and Talk againft it : And many that cry out of Popery, . 
and Papal pride, do too little detedr, and fear, and mortifk, the fame . 
pernicious evil in themfelves. 

II. Learn hence to underftand the Grand Difference between thePro- 
teftants and the Papifts : It is not firft, Whether the Pope be the Man 
that Chrift hath made his Univerfal Vicar, and Governour of all the 
World? But firft, Whether there be any fuel Inftituted by Chrift or 
not ? For if they once prove that there is any fuch, we will cenfefs 
that no other can put in fo fair a claim for it as the Pope. The quefti- • 
on is not, firft, Whether the Church of Rome be the true Catholick 
Church?But firh\Whether there be any fuch thing of Chrifts Inilitution, 
as an Univerfal Church, Headed by a Vicarious Head, under Chrift? - 
We deny the Being of fuch a Head, and fuch a Church.-. 

III. Therefore take heed of thofe di r puters that cry up the Catholick : 
Church, as fuppofing it to have an UniverfaLHead befides Chrift ( ei- - 
♦her Pope or Council ) as if this mud be a granted thing * and then all . 
that we have to do with the Pope, is but to bound and moderate him 1 

in , 

4° ■ thrift, and not the Tepe, Serin, If. 

in his Government : Thcfe men fay, We are againft the abufes of the 
Court of Rome, but not againft the Church of Rome, But that which 
a Proteftant juftly denyeth is, That there is any'fuch Univerfal Head and 
Church at all, as the Papifts do aflert. 

IV. And hence obferve in what fence it is, that Divines fay, that 
Rome is not a true Church, nor Papifts as fuch members of the Church 
of Chrift j we all confefs that thofe called Papifts, who practically hold 
the EiTentials of Chriftianity , and truely believe in Chrift the true 
Head, are all parts of the true Catholick Church, which hath no Head 
indeed but Chrift. But we maintain that the Pope was never made by 
Chrift, the Governour of the Univerfal Church i and that their pre- 
tended Catholick Church, contlfting of the Pope as fuch a Head, and 
°f his Subjects 'as fuch, is a Traiterous Combination, and no true 
Church of Jefus Chrift : That Policy was never Inftituted by him. 
And in this fenfe all Proteftants are agreed, while fome fay that Rome is 
a true Church, and others fay that it is not : They mean thus the fame 

V. And hence you may perceive why they take the Pope to be Anti- 
chrift : Becaufe he ufurpeth part of the Prerogative and Kingdom of 
Chrift, without his Inftitution, and againft his Laws ; by making him- 
felf the Governour of all the World or Church, he maketh him as ano- 
ther Chrift: Ashe would be a Traytor to the King, who would ufurp 
the Univerfal Government of his Kingdoms, as to Legislation, Judg- 
ment, and Executions, though he fhould falfly pretend the Kings Com- 
mifiionfor it. 

VI. Take heed of a Flefhly, and Worldly Religion. A Flefhly, and 
Worldly Heart, and Life, lyeth under fhame, and remorfeof Confci- 
ence, till the Devil bring in the defenfative of a Flefhly, and Worldly 
Religion : For Nature, Reafon and Experience tell men, that all 
things below are vanity, in comparifon of everlafting things*, and 
therefore the Devil hath no fuch way, to keep his polTeffion of fuch 
Souls in peace, as by making them a Religion fuitable to their Worldly 
minds and interefts : And then they will im againft God as by his own 
Authority, and vilitie his Servants, yea, and burn them as by his own 
Command,and fight againft Chrift as by his own Commi (lion. & in nomi- 
ne domini incipit omne malum, as the old Proverb is,taken from the Papal 
Style, Religion is fo excellent, and necefTary, that nothing can fo fuc- 

-cesfully prevail in the minds of men againft it, as that which cometh 
in its own garb and name. What men on Earth do Satan more fervice 
than men of a Flefhly and Worldly Religion ? Who by the power of 
Carnality, firft make themfelves, and next, would make others be- 
lieve, that their own Worldly Intereft is the true Intereft of Chrift, 
and the Catholick Church \ and when they have made their own Carnal 
Wills and Irtterejl, the means of the Churches Peace and Concord ( fuch 
as they will allow it ) then cry up the great names, of Government, 


Serm. II. Vmverfal Head of the Church. 4.1 

Obedience, Order, Unity, Concord and Peace, and cry down all that 
is againtt them, as Confufion, Rebellion, or Schifrrr, when all figni- 
ricth no more, but that they are proud and worldly, and have got the 
upper ground , and fo may name things to their own advantage. 
When Sin becometh a Religion, it conquereth the Light, and quieteth 
Confcicnce, in the moft odious adions, and moft malignant oppofitions 
of the Truth. I cannot more flgniHcantly fpeak my fenfe, than in 
the words of our feriousPoet, Mr. George Herbert, in his Church Mili- 
tant, p. 188, i8p, 190.. 

" Sin being not able to extirpate quite 

M The Churches here, bravely refoWd one night 

cc Jo be a Church -man too and wear a Miter, dec. ! 

But it is too long to be Tranfcribed. 

If the Archbifhop of Canterbury fhould tell all the World, that no 
Man can be a true Chriftian, or be faved, that believeth not in him, and 
becometh not his obedient Subject, and fhould fend out men to Preach 
this on the pretence of Unity, Obedience, and Peace h Would not all 
the World deride this, as a worldly prefumptuous kind of Religion > ]uft 
fuch is Popery, which faith the fame of one that the Roman Emperour 
made the chief Bifhop in his own Principality •, and now when that 
Empire, is diffclved, claimeth the Government of all Chriftian Kings 
and People in the whole World. Is it not a wonder of ftupidity *, 
that fuch a Religion, is not derided, and defpifed by all mankind that 
have the ufe of Reafon ? 

VII. Laftly, Take heed of hafty trufting fair pretences, when fo ab- 
furdathing, and great a mifchief, as the Papal Univerial Government, 
may have fuch good words to promote it, zsVuity, Concord, Obedience, 
&c. And fo many deceived perfons to entertain it. 

Queft. What it the mifchief of this pretended Headjhtp ? 

Anfo. Firfl, It conftituteth a Humane Universal Church: whofe 
name deceivcth men, and keepeth the Divine Catholick Church to ma- 
ny unknown. 

Secondly, This Humane Church is let up above, and againft the trwe 
Univerfal Church of Chrift ', and arrogateth Power to deprefs, abufe, 
and perfecute the Churches that Chrift hath Inftituted. 

Ihirdly^ Hereupon it introd uceth a Humane Religion, which is as in- 
jurious to the Religion inftituted by Chrift. 

Fourthly , It cheateth Millions of Souls, by making them believe 
that 'they are good Chriftians, becaufe they are Subjects to the Brmop 
of Rome, which they call, being of the right Church. • 

G Fifthly, 

42 Chr'iJi^andnotthe?ope y Serm. II. 

Fifthly, It becometh the Grand Engine of dividing Chriftians, and 
deftroyingLove, and railing Bloody Perfections, and hindering Uni- 
• ty which they ciy up. For when Chrift hath made the terms of Chri- 
ftian Concord to be few and eaiie, and fuch as all Chriftians are agreed 
in, Concord is hereby accordingly made eafie : But when an Ufurper 
will come and add his Forgeries, and impoilible Terms, which Chri- 
ftians neither do, nor ever did agree in, what more effectual and per- 
nicious art could have been ufed, to divide the Churches ? If nothing 
but Allegiance to the King be required to the Concord of his King- 
doms, all Loyal Subjects would be as one : But if a Subject will Hep 
up and fay, you fhall alfo fwear to me, as the Univerfal Viceroy, or 
have no Peace, when he proveth no fuch Power, and the Subjects take 
it to be Treafon to be Sworn to him without the Kings command^ 
Would not this fet all the Kingdom together by the ears ? 

Sixthly, And then, when men are polTiiTed with this falfe opinion, 
that all Chriftians muft be united in fubjectien to the Pope, it will 
pervert the minds of the very lovers of Unity and Peace, and harden 
them in the guilt of wicked Perfecution, as if it were their duty as 
the friends of Unity, to root out all thofe as enemies to it, who refufe 
their falfe and traiterous means. 

Seventhly, And I may add that the poor Pope himfelf is hereby made 
the mod miferable of mortal men, while he undertaketh thePailoral 
charge of millions and myriads, even of many Kingdoms and Empires, 
which he never can nor will perform, and fo muft anfwer for betraying 
and deceiving all thefe Souls. 

Q^eft. "But if there he no fuch thing as an Vniverfil Church, Headed 
and Governed by a Vicarious Head under Chrift, What is the trueVniverfal 
Church, and what is its true Government f 

Anjtv. Fir(i , The Univerfal Church on Earth , is all Chriftians 
Headed only by Chrift, as havirg the fole power and capacity, of Uni- 
verfal Legillation, Judgment, Execution, and Protection. 

Secondly, The true Government is this i i. All forcible Government 
bytheSword, evenabout matters in Religion, belongeth to Kings and 
Magistrates only, in their feveral dominions. 

Secondly, The Power of the Word , and Church-Keys ( to judg 
who (hall be in the Communion of the Church ) belongeth to the Bi- 
fhopsor Paftorsof the particular Churches refpectively. 

'thirdly, Thefe Bimops or Pallors being obliged to as much Concord 
as they can attain, are bound to hold correfpondence with one another 
by Delegates, Letters, or Synods, as far as the End (Church-Con- 
cord) doth make necelTary. 

Fourthly., If they offend and abufe their Office, they are under the 
Government of the Magiftate, who may chaftife them. 


Serm. If. Vniverfal Head of the Church. 45 

Fifthly, If the Paftor be an Infidel, or Enemy, and will not 
do his duty, Cyprian long ago told us, that the people muft obey 
God before a wicked Paftor > and as he hath no power to force tbem^ 
fo they are not bound to confent, to (in againft God, or betray the 
Church and their own Souls, for the will or intereft of unfaithful 

Sixthly, And when all is done, we mud never dream of attaining 
in this World a perfect Unity and Peace , nor till we come where 
Knowledg, Love, and Holinefs, are all perfect : of which, fee more 
in my fmall popular Treatife called CathoUc\Vnity, 

G 2: SERM 



. 2. 


rightful /y Sub;cas to the POPE. 


Adc. 26. 2. / thinks *ny felf happy King. Agrippa 3 becauje I 
fiat/ anfvoer fir my felf this day before thee, &c. 

I ^ Hough I cannot this day aflume to my felf that happinefs the 
I Apoflle did, that he did Apologize before a King .who was 

expert in all the Cuftoms of the Jervs^ verf. 3-, Yet (I do 
-JL. fuppofe) I may account my felf happy, that I am to Apo- . 
Jogize for Kings and Emperours, who do know, and haveaffumed to 
themfelves their Pvoyal Prerogatives granted to them from the King of 
Kings by whom they reign, confirmed to them by him who is fet upon 
the Holy Hill of Zion 5 and infringed, eluded, or ufurped by a Pre- 
tended Vicegerent, whofe Right and Reafon in his Pretences are no 
greater than his Humility or Modefty in the claim and exercife of his 
Fower. "Whileft I treat of this important Affair, I hope yon that are 
my Auditors will do me reafon to hear me -patiently ', and I humbly fub- 
mit the Difcourfe tothofe facred Peifons whofe caufe needeth nc more, 
or greater Advocates than have already appear'd in it : And if the im- 
modeft reftlefnefs of incroachers do occaHon a neceflary Apology for 
this Caufe, it deferveth a much better than now is by others dcfire,not 
his own choice, put upon it. If there be any thing lefs becoming the 
greatnefs of the Caufe, and the excellency of the Perfons, and fas I 


Serm. III. - Kings and Emperours^ not 45 

forefee it will be) not worthy the favourable acceptance of the mcaneft 
Prince *, yet I humbly pray the favourable interpretation, and gracious 
pardon of all that my own weaknefs hath rcndrcd defective*, and a 
condefcending acceptance of what the fhength of Reafon, the refer. t- 
merrtofDuty, the obligation of Oaths, the dictates of Nature, the 
Command of God, and a vowed Loyalty to my Great and Gracious 
Soveraign, have in this (To much his) Caufe. better performed. With • 
this defired candor and hoped favour I return to my Work, which ly- 
eth in the Text I have lead, becaufe in that either dire&ly or confe- 
quentially lieth this Thefis. 

Kings and Emperours are not rightful Subjects to the Pope, neither 
hathheFower for pretended or real Herefie to Excommmnicate and 
Depofe them, nor to Abfolvc their Subjects from their Oaths of Alle- 
giance •> but even the Clergy are (ubjecl to Secular Princes, and their 
Bodies and Eftates under their Government. 

In which Thefis (I obferve) two different fort of Proportions, the fir(l 
Negative, the other Tofitive* and thefe kind of Proportions in the 
Schools are differently treated, for the Pofitives are to be proved by 
the Opponent, the Negative to be defended by the Refpondent 5 fo 
fhould Rome if the Pope would carry his Caufe, prove his own Right, 
which he can as eafily now as ever i and with jult fuch Arguments as 
formerly make good > whileft immodefl Claims, forcible Vfurpations, en- TheSumm 
fldved Councils, citations of treasonable Decretals^ appellations to f editions f t ] lc p pcs 
Canon-Law, blafphemous appropriation of Omnipotency, ftlfdefigning flat- Right, and its 
teries, and vowed obedience to the Pope againji Nature, Reafon and Reli* Proofs. 
gion \ Whileit thefe are accounted good proofs, what Romanics will 
think the Pope an 11 fur per ? or his Wars againft the Emperour Re- 
bellion? May all Chriitian Kings enjoy their undoubted Rights, and 
keep in the undifturbed PofTeflion of them until fuch Arguments of 
weak and fenflefs become ftrong and reafonable, his Roman Holinefs will 
fcarce think the reverfion worth his/thanks, if it be bequeathed him, 
or worthy of his hope if it be promifed him on fuch Terms, and on 
better I truft he will never have it. This Negative part of the Poiltion 
(for reafons kept to my felf) I do caft into the latter part of my Dif- 
courfe, The Pofitive Pofition, viz. The Clergy are fubjeil to Secular Prin- 
ces, and their Bodies and Eflates under their Government^ I put in the fir ft 
place, and (hall firft handle if,whenoe the Negative Proportions will as 
confequences follow and take their own place. Now here it is ne- 
cefTary I 

1. Explain the Terms which are here ufed, and fiate the Thefis. Method of the 

2. Confirm the Thefis fo ftated. Difcouife. 

3. Difcover the Doclrine and Dodors who avow the contrary. * 

4. Give you their Reafons, and an Anfwer to them. 

5. Prefent you with fome Corollaries from the Difccurfe. 

Se8. 1. 

'a6 Kings and Emperonrs not Serm. III. 

who meant Sett. I. The firft Term to be explained is Clergy, which admits of 
by Clergy in both a Scriptural fenfe,and an Ecclefiaftical fenfe : in the Scripture-fenfe 

s^'^tureand lt ^ ot ^ la y lt ^ out t0 ^ uc ^ extcnt as ^ ar exceedeth the meaning of it 

Ecekfwftick in Ecclefiaftical fenfe,as is evident from the ufe of the word *^?©">both 

Writers. in the *01d Teftament,and in the*New,where it comprehendeth all the 

* Deut 40.20. People that are in the Congregation of the Lord, thus the Laity are 

wax dwni >tto)?©-, the Inheritance of the Lord. But the favour of Rome is not fo 

K&ov sy*™' g rC at toward the people, as to underftand them a part of thofe whom 

Deut. 0. 29. they do afTerf exempted from the Secular Government, it were too im- 

'* yu ov\oi Mot mode/t to fpoil Princes of all their Subje&s.* In the Ecclefiaftical fenfe^s 

ex $ kmj?©~ it hath been taker* for many hundred years in all fort of Writers,*/* the 

&i, 1 Pet. 5.3^ ' Atts of Councils, in the Controverfies of Difputants, in the Narrative f of 

elms aut jw Historians- and now in the common language of both Proteftants and 

foww *«* Pref- Papifts it is retrained to men in Ecckiiaihcal Office by Ordination and 

lyteros,fid gn- Dedication to Divine Miniftrations, called by the Church of England, 

gm qui cinque as we jj as by Papifts (*Sacerdotes) Priefis } Co whom Rome vindicates a 

f°jV .^jff freedom from the Government of the Secular Power : In brief I under- 

Erafm. in be. ^ an ^ here by Clergy, thefe laft mentioned, and all Religious Perfons r 

So VatablM & (of which multitudes are fwarming under the Papacy) fuch as Abbots, 

Groiius ex- Triors, Monkf, Friers, J if nits, &c. together with their Feminine Vota«< 

plain the xks,Abbeffes, Nuns, &c. All thefe whether jointly, or a-part confrdered, 

*°Non negmus are tne perfons I underftand by Clergy. Thefe are, 

appellation?™ iftam antiquum efj'e & ante mult a, Specula in Ecclefia obtinuijje. Pp. Salm. Thef. Theol. 

* Ver Sacer dotes inUlligimus Novi Tejtamenti miniftros prafertim Ecck^Anti\lites,quosantiquiVatres y 
quia non civjli Miquo Jed [zero munere [ungunlm, Sacer dotes appellarunt, Davenant. Determ. q. 1 $. 

Sett. II. Subject, i.e. Not only Defatlo, becaufe the Power of the Se- 
cular Prince is fo formidable that they do not, becaufe they dare not, 
deny him obedience 5 to which Henry the Eighth might well afcribe the 
moft of the good behaviour of the Papiftical Religious whom he fub- 
verted, but de Jure they are fubjedted ■, God, Nature, Gratitude, Oathf^ 
Religion, and necejpry Conftitutions of humane Laws have fubje&ed 
them. In the words of the Apoftle, Rom. 13. 5. IVherefore they muft 
needs be fubyeB, not only for wrath, but for Conscience fake. That is fas 
Mn Solo f<x».* Qrotius wellParaphrafeth it) not only out of fear of punifhment which the 
mttu ?* . • Lap threatnethjbut out ef Conscience, becaufe Chrijt hath commanded it. 
iidquh chri* The Subjection we fpeak of then is a voluntary, free, cheerful and 
fas id praiepit. dutiful Obedience which is due to the Civil Magiftrate, and not an 
Grot, in loc. enforced Subjection i It is the refult of Law, Confcience, and Love, 
not only the refult of Fear and Compulfion. It is our Duty, and the 
Magi (hates Due. 

ftrtaiy y ali and Se ^' 111, ^e next term to be explained is Secular Prime s\vAie:xt by 
Princes are tne wa Y note, That Primes are properly Secular, their Dignity, Power, 
Secular. aid Government is (quoad Ortgmem /in its rife Divine ■-> the P&wers that 



Serm. III. rightful Subje&s to the rope. 47 

are, are of God, but (quo adob)ei\a) as to the things they dotage cog* 
nifance of, they are (though not folely, yet) Primarily Secular. And 
(quoad extcrnam formam) as to the manner of pomp and date which 
may render the Government more Awful, 'tis and juftly is, ordered 
and determined (prout fapienti* princip'u vifnm (ft) as fee met h good to whence it fs 
1 he wifdem of the Prince, and io is Secular. But what through the that we mult 
Royal favour ef jome good Princes , and more through the Ambition n °w diflin- 
and Vfurpations of Popijh Ecclefiaftickj, who have inverted themfelves pJjnc^SL^ 
with Principalities, and a Power equal with the Princes of this World*, jg r andEccle- 
It is become neceffiry we Jhould dityinguifh Princes into Secular and Eccleft- {. ailicul. 
afiical : The Secular being thofe Princes which we will call now Tem- 
poral and Civil ', The Ecckiiaftical fuchas the Pope, his Cardinals, and w ho thefe 
fome Bi(hops,fuchas the Spiritual Electors in the Empire,$Y. To which arc * 
Inferiour Clergy do with lefs fcruple acknowledge and pay their ready 
Subjections behde which I doubt not to afiert, fand hope I (hall be able 
to prove) they do owe a Subjection, and Obedience to the Temporal, 
Civil, i.e. Secular Prince } of which a word or two, <that we may not 
miiiake,or be miftaken. Now this term Prince may be tafyn either 1. In Princes per- 

refati to the Perfon \ or 2 . In refpell to the Office •, In the rirfi: fenfe it re- ( ° mXl ] con{[ : 
r 1 ^ • r 1 r> r ■ • ' «ra j i 1 dered,or with 

terreth to Governments in a imgle Perlon, as in Kingdoms, in the lat- re f pec \ t0 t ^ e 

ter it referreth to Government, managed by a State or Council, as of Government. 
old in the Roman Commonwealth i> or now in the Commonwealths of Ecclefaflicks 
Venice, Genoa, or the Dutch, Neither ofthtfe may be excluded, where rightful Sub- 
the Clergy are Subjects to a King, as in France, or Spain, they are M n ar ^hs iner 
his rightful Subjects : Where they are under a Commonwealth they are Common- 
Subjec-b to the Secular Power ••> i.e, they owe Subjection to the Supream wealths, as 
Civil Magiltrate-, as to their perpetual honour, and to the good ex- J vas excellent- 
ample of all Chrifrendom, the MuhYious Republick of Venice ^^^yjcrttd 
both the proud Pope Paul the Fifth, and the flubborn Clergy of their by the vim- 
State to learn and acknowledg,GT/c$7«p of>Hv) out of fear of the Ma- toj sgainfr 
giftrates Power, when they would not (fid rtiv cm^fwiv) out of fenfe ?aul the $tiu 
of their own Duty. Against I leave this, a Prince may be confidired ei- 
ther with refpedr. to Subjects that, 

Firfl, Are born Subjetls'to whom the Supream Magiftrate is Native Princes and 
Prince •, to whom they owe fealty, and allegiance, whether they have fhorn Sub;e6s Natu- 
it, or not : Their Oathftrengthens a former, but createth not their firlt p^uaj ^' 
obligation to Allegiance. This is coeval with their Perfons, and is 
Natural. Or, 

Secondly, Princes may be confidered with refpeel to SubjeCfs that are Each may be 
fuch, occafwnally, and Pro tempore, as when either neceffary occaiiqns, Tooccafonally 
invite or call men into a forreign Princes Countreys, or when an aiBfc anc * tempo- 
trary choice out of curiofity, or the hke,bringeth men into a forreign J^t S a ^? Cr " 
jurifdiclion : The cafe of Merchants, Students, and Travellers . Hcnts and 
whileft they are in thofe Countreys, they are in Confcience bound by Travellers a- 
the julT known Laws of that Land > and if they tranfgrefs thofe Laws, broad - 


48 Rightful SnhjcUs to the V ope. Serm.IIL 

to the forfeiture of State, Limb, or Life* the favour of the Prince 
may fave the Criminal; But there is no benefit of Clergy can exempt 
him from the Jurifdidtion of the Prince, or refcue him from the execu^ 
tionof the Law, by their Minifters of Juftice. 

Fourth Term Sett. IV. The next thing to be explained is, How their Bodies are, 
explained, the faid to be, under Government of the Civil or Secular Trince. In fhort 
Perfonsof Ec- c heir Pcrfonsare 

fubieft'toW Flr & Both liahle *°. Ane ^ Reftralnts > Imprifonments, and Coer- 

ftraints of c * on > ^ there [hall be ajulicaufe, orfufpicion of juft caufe. 

Law. Secondly, And obnoxious to the fentence of the J t aw, according to the 

Sentence of nature of their offence, jo as either to lofe Life, or Limb, or fufTer by 

^r^rrfmps Stri P es , 0r Stigmatizing, or Exile, or lofs of Liberty, or any like 

* corporal Penalty. 

Common fer- 'thirdly, What perfonal (ervices the community of the lay-Subjeds 

vices for pub- z ?z bound to do for their Cpuntrey and their Prince, the Clergy are 

lick good in b ounc J t0 ^ though ufually exempt from it through the favour of their 
extream exi- ^ . . i • /r* .1 j V k • « • 

^encfcs. Prm.ce .) and in an urgent necellity, on the command or their Prince, 

they may be obliged \ and ought to afford their Ailiitance. ( As in 
czie of an Invafion to Arm, or in an affault of a City to defend it, or 
in the danger of his Prince's Perfon to refcue him with the Labour,. 
Courage, and Hazard of his own Life) That Clergy-man, who in a 
florin would not obey the Pilots order, and take his turn at the Pump^ 
to fave the Veffel, and Goods, with his own Life and the Life of 
others » were as unworthy of a room in the Ship, as other lading, 
that is call over-board to prevent a danger, from its weight. 

'rh Terra Sett, V. TbeEAates of the Clergy^ are next to be confidered, and. 

explained, E- tnat ; n divers refpedb. 

faites of Cler- n r f^ "their inheritances from their Fathers, do not by the Sons being a 
hereditary CUrgyVUn, become free from the common burthens, which. Authority lay- 
Subjects as o- eth on the Publick or generality of the Subjects for defraying publick 
therinheri- charges. 

* ance , s ." . Secondly, The Lands andEfiates of their preferments of what fort (b- 

charseable Cver 5 are ' m u ke manner chargeable, if the Magiflrate judgeth it neceffary 
for" publick and equal : And in fuch cafe they ought to obey as readily as other men, 
good. when their Prince with advice and confent of fuch Counfel as can duely. 

impofe it on others, have impofed it on them. 
Social may be Thirdly, The Ejlatcs of EcclefiajUcal Societies are under the Govern- 
limited, tax- ment of the Secular Authority, as well as the Eftates of Lay-Societies 
cd, regulated. anc { Corporations, to limit their increaie by gifts, as by our Statute of 
Eenencianes ^j ortma j n : j enquire and compel them, to imploy them to the uf> 
(bended or &bipb they were given, as by commiifion of charitable ufes. 
deprived on Fourthly, The Ejiates of Clergy-men which are [beneficia &c.) given as 

male-admini- encouragement to them,and reward of their labour 3 and duties difcharged » 
ftration. ar * 


Serm. III. rightful SnbjeEts to the Tope* «49 

are fo tinder the Civil Magiftrate's Government, that be may ejett and 
remove the negligent, and incorrigible male-adminiftrators in that Office, 
as in other cafes of male-adminiltration. Though it may be moll con- 
venient to do this by Clergy-men, as Co-adjutors in the procefs; yet 
the Authoritative determination deriveth it felf from the fupreme Ma- 
giftrate, who as He judgeth the Offender unworthy of the Truft of 
fuch an Office, fo may difpoiTefs him of the Beneiit and Eftate belong- 
ing to it. 

Fifthly, The Ejlates fo fallen from the one, may by the Power which juftly s ucn £ft aces 
took them away, he adjudged to another, who may better difcharge the may be con- 
Office, and dejerve the Benefice. And in this cafe the Clergy-man mull fared ono- 
be fubjed, though poifibly an error may be in the judgment paffed, ? e [j S j V r° 
and no legal way be left for his relief-) as fell out in the deprivation of cnar t ~ ne 
the Proteitant Minifters by Queen Mary. truft. 

Sixthly, The Eflates of Clergy-men are forfeitable on crimes of high na- Eftates of 
ture, as well as other mens Ejlates. Treafon, of which ( with or with- Clergy-men, 
out leave from Rome, I fay J a Clergy- man may be guilty, will forfeit G °ther m n T 
his eftate, and the Prince may ( on conviction at leaft ) feize it. 

St&. 6. I come to the laft Term to be opened, Are under their Go- Sixth Term 
vemment'j where I do remind you, that we fpeak^ now of matter ^/opened under 
Right, not of matter of F aft feparate from Right : Their Perfons, and f/ > ^ nme ? t ' 
Eftates, ought to be under the Government of the fecular Prince, asnotWy/Lfft? 
their Rightful Lord and Governour. Now Government, 

Firff, Is for Protection and defence: Governours are fhields of the Protection of 
Earth, and Heirs of reftraint, a praife to them that do well, and they Government, 
watch over their people as Sheepherds : whence the Poet rightly called Clergy impor* 
his Prince iroi[M9a,\ctav : And here, in this part, none do with fuch c j a ^ ey 
importunate clamors, and immodeft injunctions expeel: a (hare, as the 
dilloyal Shavelins > as if the fecular Arm were framed to the Body-Po- *; Gre in shave- 
litick, only to defend thePeifons and Eftates of Ecclefiafticks, and to^ s d *£ e im " 
offend all others. 

Secondly, Is Directive > and this, fome of them will indeed allow Directive Go- 
the fecular Magiftrate over the Clergy } but ere the Magiftrate can get vernmental- 
clear of them with this fmall allowance of his right, it fares with him J° w d by 
as they fay, it doth with thofe who receive money of Witches, or this allowance 
the Devil, when they come to ufe it, 'tis vanifht or turned into wither- vani/neth 
ed leaves. For, when to be 

Thirdly, The Coercive Power of the Civil Magiftrate in Governing ^ xer .^ fe£ f over 
them, they with more Wit than good manners, or dutifulnefs, endea- coercive^G o ' 
vourtowreftfrom the Magiftrate ', and when he hath parted with the vernment,this 
Power of punifhing the ill-natur'd difobedience of the Clergy, he muft the Popifti 
content himfelf with fuch ameafure of obfervance, as may no whit in- cle rgy reject, 
fringe the Clergie's Immunities, and Rights of Holy-mother, which 
you may be allured their difcretion will make lefs, than their good 

H Na- 

5* Kings and Emperours^ not Serm. HI. 

Directive Nature would feem to allow : Indeed a Directive Power without Co- 
ercivePower erc i ve ? ls an Engine to pull down the honour of a Prince, and to ex- 
an Engine to a ^ the (tubborn humour of every Male-contented Subject, a fit Project 
debafe Sove- for Rome } and fome brain-lick Millenarie, who in his hot ntdreameth 
rcignty. of a Crown for himfelf on Earth. But our Thefts intends to Subject 

the Clergy of Rome ( for our own, they readily acknowledg it, and 
live ) in a fubjection to the directive Government of the Chriftian Ma- 
gistrate, as the Rule of their Duty, -and to the Coercive Government 
as the juit Rule of punifhment for neglect of their duties. 
Civil Govern- Fourthly, Where the Government fecular is not Chriftian, yet in all juft 
ra en £ though ay ,J lawful commands, the Clergy is fubjetl to the Directive Power of U% 
hath both a ' anc ^ in comm ^ n ^ s un)i$ and unlawful, their Perfons and Elates are under 
Power Direct- the Coercive Power, though it mould be exercifed to the highefi degree of 
ive and Coer- Perfection : And I do not remember befide Prayers, Supplications, 
ewe over the patience, and Tears, any remedy left them for the la(t relief, but an 
ergy# honeft, peaceable and juftiriable flight from their rage, and crueltyv 

I added this over and above, feeing our Ihefis fpeaksof Objection to 
The Summary Princes, who are fuppofed Chriftians^ and not Heathens. Summarily 
jf t th ? The ^ s then the Clergy, who by the Pope and his Law are exempt from the 
jurifdiction of the fecular Prince in all cafes, arefo far from a due. and 
rightful claim to fuch exemption, that in all cafes Civil and Criminal, 
and EcclefiafHcal, they are both as to their Perfons and Eftates, fubject 
to the Directive and Coercive Power of the Secular Prince, be he a 
Chriftian, or Heathen Magiftrate > in fo much, that the Clergy owe 
him an Active obedience in the due andlawfuiexercife of his Directive 
Power : and in the undue exercife thereof, the Clergy as others owe 
him a Pailive obedience, and- neither may reliit by force, or appeal 
from him to a Forreigner, to evade or null his Coercive Power. 

The ftate of the Pofition thus laid down, I come to the fecond thing 
2. General propofed. viz. To prove that the Clergy are fubject to the. Secular 
Thefoproved. Prince, &c. And fo 

St. Paul knew i. Firlt, I argue from tbelext, a Majore ad Minus *, St. Pdul was a 
K ,°^ e> ^ Qr Clergyman, fitter to be trufted with fnch an exemption from obedience t& 
fuch exempt *^ e ^ fm ^ at Trine?, than any of our Prefent Clergy: . And if any fuch Pri- 
tion,therefore viledg had been given by Chrift, or had been inherent in the Office, 
there was he would have known it, claimed it, and flood on it > But St. Paul 
none for him. knew none fuch, flood not upon any fuch Priviledg : Therefore furely 
there is none fuch inherent in the Clergy, or annexed to the Clergy* 
Rom. 1. 1. & i think there is not much doubt to be made, whether i. He were a 
Clergy-man, who had his commiffion from God and Chrift, without 
the ceremonies with which men do ordain to that Office. Or 2. Whe- 
Afts 2$. 25,8: ther he were concerned to plead his Priviledg if he had any * for it was" 
& 26. pi. a ^ a f e t ^ at toucht his Life, wherein he now. was engaged. Or 3. Whe^ 
ther he might heboid on account of his Innocency to claim his Privi- 
ledg, flnce his judges determined be had done nothing worthy of Death 


Serm. III. Rightful SubjeUs to the Tope. 5 1 

or of Bonds, Afr. 26.51. Had one of our Roman Priefts been thus A-fdme quefti- 
feized, imprifoned, impleaded, and endangered •, wefliould foonhave oncl whether 
heard him, excepting to the jurifdiclionof the Court, and appealing ^j" e a yf^ar of 
from an Incompetent Judg, and (huffling off the Procefs with irrpor- $ t p ettrj be a 
tunate clamours, that he was a Spiritual Man, and not to be call' d to breach of Al- 
account by a Temporal Power. But here you find nothing of fuch ankg iancc t0 a 
appeal, which cannot be imputed to the Nefcience of the Apoftle who p^j£"? but 
was infpired by the Infallible Spirit : He would have known it if there f ocn [ c [ w m^ 
had been any fuch exemption, nor may it with colour of Reafon be (aid. amRufitt know- 
he would not make ufc of his Priviledg, and that he did relax of his wna t he ™uft 
Right. * For 1. This would be fuppofed agaiefl all Reafon, 1. Hisjf 1 ^ ^^ 
Lite was then in que/Hon. 2. He was a Man would make ufe of his magc t0 H> 2# 
Priviledges, as when he pleaded himfelf a Roman, 3. He (hould have & bore it out 
aflerted his Priviledg, that hem his teilimony, fu-cceeding E ecleila flick sop *e Autho- 
might firmly prove theirs, though he could not have gotten clear oi r "J ^ urbax 
their hands. 4. His filence in the Cafe hath done the Church m-nch c jj f Rome . 
wrong, which date the Immunities, fome Centuries later than Paul's and of Vaf- 
time. 5. Whereas, Had he been as Zealous, and Wife as our Roman ckal$. then P. 
Pricfts now are ; He had been more faithful to his Trull, and we had ™" *"&'** 
more clearly proved our Right. Farther yet, 6. It feemeth little fto rt / w "and'his 
of a culpable dillimulation, that he (hould count, or profefs to coum inflexible op- 
himfelf happy that he was to anfwer before a Secular Prince. Nothing portion to hj 
can be imagined more unbefeeming him who was fet for the defence of 2 who pro- 
theGofpel, than fuch tame and foft Cowardifeas he was guilty of on ^ wasK* 
the fuppolltion of thefe pretended exempts. No, St. Paul wot Id ne Native Lord 
vet have betrayed the Preachers of the Gofpel, and the Religious in and Sovereign 
all ages fucceedings but have at leaft owned his Right to the Privikd; Mantis on re- 
( if there had been any fuch, ) before Feftuf, who was under the Ro- *E*. ^vitnefs 
manCffar, Governour of Judea; and fo Judg in Paul's Cafe, though tu de and^re- 
Agrippa was but an honourable Auditor. hellions hu- 

moar agjinfl: 
his Prince and Eenefactor,who found Tho. Becfyt moft refolute to exempt the Clergy, though guilty 
of Murthers, from the judgment of the Secular Prince ; that he might preferve the ufurped 
Priviledges of the Church, when Reafon, Law, and Gods own Word required jull execution on 
fuch crimes proved againft the Clergy. 

And of later years, the like bred a quarrel betwixt the Serene Republick of Venice, and Paid 
the fifth. 

* It is Bellaminfs Evafion, and Suart\ approves it, qui dicit Vanhm non jure fed facto Ctfarem 
*ppelia{fe.-~-Nam jurifditfiene exemprn em utiq; jnre divino fed quia alia ratiouc nonpotirat inhnicorun: i*» 
fidias Evil are. 

I conclude therefore this Argument, the Clergy of this prefent Age, 
.and of Ages paft are as much under the Secular Government as was St, 
Paul; But he was fo much under it, that he accounted himfelf happy, 
that he might have a candid hearing before the Secular Power, and 
could find no Priviledg to exempt himfelf : Therefore neither have our 
prefent Clergy any fuch Priviledg of exemption, and flumld-acknow- 

H 2 ledg 

52 Kings and Emperours, not Serm. III. 

ledg it a happinefs to defend a juft caufe before an Impartial Judg, and 
no wrong to be adjudged to a deferved correction for any crime con- 
demned by the righteous Laws of their Sovereign Prince. 

2. What was juft and right, and ought to be owned by St. Paul a 
Clergy-man in the point of fubjection to the Secular Power, that is juft 
right,6c ought to be owned in the point of fubjedtion to the Secular Au- 
thority now by the Clergy.This Propoiition I think will need no proof 
and if it (hould we (hall meet with due place for it.But S.PW owned this 
*Riftei\ibunil Subjection as what was juft, right, and which ought to be. Now this 
c<efms vacat Propoiition is almoft in exprefs terms in that, Att. 25.10. Ifland before 
quod Procure- C£fars judgment-feat* $ (Which Phrafe comprehendeth the whole mat-- 
tor habebat no- t er of his Subjection) where I ought to be judged, which paiTage exclu- 
'dtflTtflrts' ^ et ^ an y j"ft exception*, I ft and at Ctfars judgment feat; defatto, he 
Grot, in loc. WM now before the Supream Authority Civil*, and left any (hould fur- 
*As Bcllarmine mife that he did tacitely repine at it, or that we argue a fatto ad jus ; It 
and Suin^frc. is added by Saint Paul, Where I ought to be judged. I know fome (ay that 

fion^who are St * Paul ^ n0t this as w ^ at waS °^ right t0 ^ e e ' but wIiat was 
by Profeflion then moft fafe to be done, and becaufe he could not otherwife efcape 

and would the hands of the Jews'^To which I Anfwer, 

gladly be in 

Pra&ice fons of Belial, i.e. without a Superiour) affirm Paulum von jure fed fafto Martm ap^ 

*•</'#. . 

(1.) That the word (f"j may in fome places be fo taken to denote 

what muft in a cafe be done, without refpedt to duenefs and right •, but 

from this it may be fo taken [to the Jefuits,M#/r' be fo takgn\ is too weak 

an inference. 

ff*' 1 1'- 1 ?' (2) The Greek «N* in the New Teftament doth in moft places denote 

$hv! and €A " t,iat wn ' lcn 0L1 g nt ex debito, jtijhqne ordine, to be done, and fo the Mu(l 

Mat.' 18. 53. is a Moral Afar/rrefjlting from the duene(sof the thing, and that this is 

vutilto £ ffi fo the places cited in. the Margent will prove. And yet farther we fay, 

Mat. 23. 23. TetvTet '4£h ircwfcu'-, and fo cap. 24. 6. & 2$. 26. and five times in St.Marfc And 
St. Lu^e whofe phrafe is moft near the pure Greeks doph ufe it Nineteen times, of which I think 
not one but requireth, or beft beareth the Interpretation, juxta dibitum & ex jure. And when 
he ufeth it in the Afts,o( 24, or 25 places, fcarce two will bear other fenfe than what comports 
with the duenefs of Office, or comelinefs of order ,or fuch like iffuing into a Moral Muft, which is 
the fame with Duty, and which is rightly expreft by we ought. 

1 Cor. 8. 2. (^) Since St.TauJ is moft competent Judg of his own.meaning,we'l 

scNk }y v ®*i view how he doth ordinarily rake this <T& Rom. 1. 27. Receiving- 

<vvuya.t. recompenje of their errour (tiP J«j which was meet, z.f.juit and due 

1 Cor. 15. 25. to them. And Rom. 8. 26. We know not what to pray for as we ought y 

£h yet? du- &<*3-' «T«. And Rom. 12.3. I fay to every man not to thinly 

1w fan' 

Mvhv '^nd"2 Cor.2.3. dqfav %^h ^\ yjupav ;andc.$.io. S/Jui< <t>&M$ct)§nmi $£ ; and Ephef. 
6. 20. a>{ (T« pts hahtiffeLt. So Col. 4. 4. and 1 Thef. 4. 1. nus cP« tpZ$ mexTrd^Hv. And in 
his Epiftlcs to Timothy, to Titw, and to the Hebrews, he ftill fo ufeth the word f£ of which we 
aaw do treat. 

r \* 


Serm. III. rightful Stihje&f to the rope. 53 

f«-*£ J^ ) above what he ought , &c. And fo in other his Epiftles his 
7J <f wr, or his M*/* is what is right and ought,** debito & jujio return 
ordine not what muft of neceflity be done. And this had fo patted in 
the Text if it had not been To much againft the Priviledg of thefe Ro- 
man Clergy, who cannot now bear the plain and literal meaning of this 
Word of God,becaufe they will not keep in the place to which the Word 

(4) The Apoftle could not without fin of a high nature according 

to the Doctrine of the Church of Rome thus appeal to a Secular Judg ; So Tafebal 

and now think with your felves whether to gratifie the Jefuits and chargeth King 

Clergv of Rome we (hall make the Apoftle guilty in fo high a nature, ^^S^j^ 

and tranfgreiling his own rule, by doing evil that good may come of that he gav ' e 

it j the judgment for which fin flumbers not. not honour to 

St. Peter, nor 
to the Lord, becaufe no Appeals came to Rome, i.e. Pope. Tho. Bec^et by way of Penance fufpen- 
ded himfelf from Prieltly function for confenting once that Priefts ftiould be tried by Secular Pow- 
er for Robberies, Murthers, &c. And he calls the Royal Decrees of the King and Parliament at 
ClmndonJEoi trying fuch crimes of the Clergy ,wicked devices, Baron, ad. Ann. 1167. Seot.26. 

(5) So by this Glofs we (hall fairly make every refolute (not to call 

them obftinate) Prieft that refu fed to own the Supream Power of his Such a Sainc 
Soveraign Prince, and chofe rather to die condemned according to and Martyr 
juft Laws againft Traytors,. and fo died a flout and brave Martyr for was rho.Bec^a 
the Truth and the Church', When Paul through weaknefs of courage, in difpoiltioa 
or crafty drifts betrays the juft Rights of the Church, which afperfion ^o^ghrpitv 
you do as much abhor I know as becomes good Chriftians. Let them 'twas) he ne- 
for ever remain Traytors to their Prince, who avow Appeals from him ver was 
to an alien pretended Superiour j St. Paul would not out of defign do brought to k- 
it, he was too honeft, he knew he could not of right do fo, though p 1 trial for 
hisPerfonand Caufe were Ecclefiaftical, his Supream Secular Prince ble ^raftices 
ought have the hearing of it, Ifiand (faith he; at Ctfars Judgment- SucJl w 
feat where I ought to be judged. Exmew , Mid- 

dlemere, and 
Nidigatt executed for denying the Supremacy in Hen. 2. time,and Bifhop Fi[her,and alfo Sir Thomas 
Moor, with many others, who facrinced their lives for a forreign ufurper againft their Natural 



(6) Laftly, what-evcr weaknefs or obfeurity may be in my arguing 
from the Text, yet I am fure the Text doth more plainly and more 
irrefragably aiTert C£fars Jurifdidtion over this eminent Ecclefiaftick 
than all the Texts jDroduced to that end do prove the exemption of 
the Clergy from the Civil Magiftrates Judgment, or their Subjection 
to the Pope. I cannot renounce common fenfe at fo eafie a rate as to 
fay Chrift faid thrice to Peter, feed, &c. therefore the Pope is the Su- 
pream Judg of Ecclefiaftick Perfons and Caufes in the whole Churchy 
or if I wete fo eaiie an Arguer I mould through the frailty of clear 


54 Kings and Emperours^ not Serm. Ill, 

fenfemore readily make this Heretical Conclufion, All Clergy-men in- 
feriour to Saint Paul ought to own their Subjection to the Civil Au- 
thority without appeal rrom the Supream Power of their Prince*, be- 
cauie St. Paul owned it his duty, and C^fars right by that Confeifion, I 
ft and before C ^fars Judgment-feat where I ought to be judged. If the Ro- 
tnanijh be of his opinion, who when he was told that it was the Do- 
dtrine of St. Paul, which was afferted in oppofition to his Tenet, made 
a quick reply, I am not of Pauls mind, I (hall not take my felf bound 
to reconcile them to his opinionuf we cannot have their company here- 
in, we fhall not much want it whileft we have fuch good company as 
St. Paul and Czfar. In next place, 

Thirdly, 1 argue Clergy-men, Bodies and Eftates are as other Sub- 

Sm d Scr?p°- ^ S Unc * er " le Government of the Secular Prince ; Thus, Ihey who are 
mrc included in the Community^ on whom the Word of God chargeth SubjetHoa 

to Princes as a duty^ are under the Government ef the Prince. None can 
doubt this who doubt not that all is duty which the Divine Law char- 
geth on us in our places. But now the Clergy are included in the Commu- 
nity , which is apparent by that univerfal Propofition of the Apoftle in 
Rom. 13. 1. Let every foul be jubjeft to the higher Powers. It isnowex- 
ArgHtiiis quam ploded f though pretending to Origen as to the Author; that this is 
» t^'Mod meant °- 7 tiie Animal, not Spiritual man, i.e. the Clergy-man. Time 
' J • ' was when fuch a glofs patted current with fome whofe Intereft it 

was the Scripture fhould be elided , rather than plain duty under- 
ftood \ and theafpiring ambition of Papal Clergy nipt in the bud. Now 
. it is clear, that the Apoftle retaineth the Hebrew Dialed, Every foul, i.e. 

dixit * proTmni ever ^ man ' ^° tiiat e * tner our P a P a ^ Clergy muft difclaim their kindred 
homine. Erafm. with Mankind , or elfe with their whole Family be fubjeft to the 
unufaHijque. Prince, 
Vatablus. Om- 
uls anlma pro qmvis bamhe. -In utroque Tefiamento, Gen.14.21. Give me the Perfons. Angl. Donne moi 
lis Perfonnes, Gall Ao* fioi t6v< "Av<P&{. The Seventy-two fo rendring the Heb. ilJBZn ^*? \T\ 
'Animas Perforins inteliigit & homines capthos. In the fenfe $23 is taken, Gen. 46. i$j 18, 22, 2$, 
26, & 27. Exed. 1. $.■ Chap. -12.4. chap. 15. 19. Lev.$,2. & 20.6. Numb. 1$. 25, 2<5. And many 
. other places roo long to be cited out of the Old Teflament, in imitation whereof the New Tene- 
ment fo fgeaketh; ^#.2.41.^43. chap. 3. 23. chap. 7. 14, chap. 2^. 37. Rom. 2. 9. iFeter 

The Perfons of the Clergy are comprifed in that (*£** 4w) k* 
every foul; their Eftates in the 6. ve rf Render ^tribute to whom tri- 
bute it due. And that you may know to whom Tribute is due, the Apo- 
ftle telleth you, it is tohim that beareth the Sword, who hath Power 
•Civil, and Secular, verj.$. 

Neither would I advile Boniface to thru ft in here fwaggering with 
his two Swordsj for here is not room for him, the place is dellgned for 
one who hath but one Sword, and who came honeftly by it, and can 
give a good account thereof as he is the Minitter of God, a terrour to 
*hofe that do evil, and revenger to execute wrath, not to excommu- 

Serffl . 111. Rightful SuhjeUs to the Tope. $ 5 

nicatc. In a word this place doth fo peremptorily fubjed all Perfons to 
the Civil Power, that I muft needs though fomewhat related to the 
Qlergy, profefs the Text makes equal Subjection our duty ^ and gra- 
titude to the favour of our Prince maketh our Exemptions (whatever 
they arcj at once our Priviledges above our Neighbours > and our debts 
to our Prince. 

Fourthly, The ApoftleS*. Paul diretteth Titus to peach Obedience and ? oun \ x scrlp- 
Subjecffion due to Principalities and Magiftrates from Chriftians with- ture Proof. 
out any exctptim of 'Perfons. Tit. 3.1. Nay,if you enquire who they are 
that Titm mitftput in mind to be fobjett, you cannot refer it to other than 
fuck perfons as by St. /^//direction were committed to h'vs care and teach- 
/ag.among which you will cap.i.tind the Clergy-Elders^ver.^^ffi^Tvi^h 
andBiJhops, ver.6. iwicKQirct* Thefe are fome of thofe whom Titus muft 
put in mind to obey Magiftrates., How. much doth the Papal Clergy 
need fuch a Monitor to cool their fervours to their Ecclefiaftical Immu- 
nities, and to kindle their decayed zeal for Obedience to the Civil 
Powers. Whence I thus reafbn, Thofe that Titm is commanded to mind 
of their Obedience to Magiftrates, were of right under the Govern- 
ment of the Magi ftrate •, . But Presbyters and Bifhops, i.e. Clergy-men 
were fome of thofe who were to be fo minded by him : Therefore they 
ajre of Right under the Government of the Civil Magiftrate. This is 
the Theopolitua of St. PanL But left you fhould doubt he had not good 
will enough to the SuccelTors and Clients of St. Peter, out of an old 
quarrel that fell out between him and St. Pf/er,when the Doctor of the 
Gentiles was fo bold with the Prince of Apoftles,that he did charge him 
with dillimulation, a very fmall and d war fifh fault in St. Peter, and 
hugely improved in his SuccefTors. Who knows whether a fpice of this 
old grudg were not ftrew'd on the injunctions of Obedience, and 
Snbjeclion to the Civil Power? But what was St. Peters opinion in 
the cafe > 

Fifthly, St. Peter then in Epift. 1. chap.2. 13, 14, 1^,16 -verfes, doth FiftruScripture 
very- unluckily for his SuccefTors and their Clergy fall into the. fame Proof., 
drain of Subjecting the Clergy as well as others', for he doth without 
exception require of all Chriftians that they fuhmit them fives \ i.e. their 
Perfons, and by con fequence their. Eftates, to every Ordinance of Man, 
whether to the King, &c. How unhappily forgetful washe of his Vicar 1 
not one word of him and his Supremacy but all referved intire to 
the King, and Inferiour Magiftrates fent.by the King, .to whom all 
Chriftians within his Dominions are to fubmit themfelvc:s. . 

But in thofe days Chriftians were under Perfection, and it would 
not have been prudence to have publifhed their Paviledges, and to 
have exempted the Clergv, It feems Rome hath long underftood by - 
unwritten Verities and Apoftolical Tradirionviuc fAer thought one , 
thing, and wrote another. But the. fpite is, he. doth Cathedra, deter-- 
oaice this wheie eeitainly^ he is. Infallible i iince hu SuccefTors in after- - 

5 6 , Kings and Emperours^tot Serm. III. 

ages claim the Infallible Priviledg in vertue of that firft Grant made 
to Peters who in practice did once what his SucceiTors do very often 
without impair of their Infallibility err (in genere morum) as to pra- 
ctice, but cannot in Doctrine. Well, fure Peter did thus direct pru- 
dentially, and temporifing ! not fb, his Reafons do as it falls out ak 
fure us he did own it as a perpetual Doctrine and Rule i fori. It is 
for the Lords fake, hetf.ify And this farther, 2. is the will of the 
Lord •, and 3. that by fo doing they might ftop the mouths of the foo- 
lifh and ignorant ; who among the Heathens were ready to charge the 
Christians without any ground given, with that, which on juft reafons 
from the feditious and rebellious practices of well-nigh a thoufand 
years contefting with the Civil Supream Power, Rome hath given the 
foolifh Hereticks to object againft them, but in the words of Royal 
mouth, Their Faith id fatlion, and their Religion Rebellion. 
Sixth Scrip- Now to all thefe add we in the fixth place this Scripture- Argument', 
That the Clergy whether ordinary Priefts, or the High -Prieft s, or Prophets, 
once were and that (]urc) of right fubjett to the Government of the Secular 
Power ,and were bound to appear and give account of tb em f elves to the Civil 
Power in cafe they were accufed and fummoned. So when Ahimelech and 
the Prieits that dwelt at Nob were accufed and fummoned to give ac- 
count of themfelves, and what they had done for David ; they obey 
and appear before Saul their King, 1 Sam. 22. 1 1. Who indeed did as 
cruelly and tyrannically adjudg them to death as they had dutifully and 
readily obey'd his Summons. But now fure if there had been any Pri- 
viledg of exemption, fome one or other among thofe fourfcore and five 
Priefts would have known it, and pleaded it before they had been (b 
unmercifully Butchered •, but here is not one word of all this, no ex- 
ception to the Judg as incompetent, no deprivation, and degradation 
from the Priefthood, in order to reduce them to the Secular and Lay- 
•flate: No delivering them by the Ecclefiaftick State into the hands of 
the Secular Power •, in which and fuch like formalities the Romijh Prieft 
Cifatany time he be fo unbefriended and unhappy) is ftript of his 
Clerical Immunities, and delivered over to the Civil Sword. It is a 
Riddle Rome will hardly unfold with dexterity, that Eighty-five Priefts 
mould have neither knowledg of fuch a Priviledg, nor courage to plead 
it for faving their life. I need not advifea Seminary Prieft apprehended 
and in danger of condemnation, tofeek a Precedent at Nob, he knows 
he (hall lofe his labour ', it is Rome only that (haves the head, and then 
as facred forbids Kings to meddle with it. Yet left the Tyranny oiSaul 
whom the Scripture notes for this, or the meannefs of the fufferers 
mould any whit invalidate the inftance,let us lock a little lower where 
we find Abiatbar deprived of thePrieftly Office by Solomon, 1 King. 2. 
2<5, 27. Who commanded that he fhould get him to Anathoth, ver.2d. and 
thmfl him from being Prieft before the Lord, vcr. 27. The chief Priefts a- 


Serm. III. rightful Subjects to the Pope. 57 

mong the Hebrews as they were put in by the Kings, fo for grievras faults 

they mig-ht be put out, or punifht with death by the Kin^s, fir they were ^^^^' ty - 

Subjecls, and while the King fat the High Pricjl flood. So Grotim on the ^ 4™ » 

place. gibus inftotnt- 

bxntar •, iti 

ab iifdem gravi ex culpa, deftitui imo & nmte punhi pctsrmt. Erant mm (ibditi idioq-, jedenie 
Rege ftabat fimmus Sicerdos : Hug. Grot, in loc. SoGrotim took it for granted that Ahime itch was 
High-Prieft, to whom Sado^ fucceeded High-Pried, i chron. 29.22. 

Now the Cafe is altered at Rome, and hath been long fince. Abiathar 
came and (on his appearance) received fentence of Judgment from his An.Dom.583. 
Sotferaign : But Sergiut the firfl was of a more unyielding mettal, and 
though the Emperour Juftinian the J econd fcnt fox him to Constantinople, 
to anfwer for his Difobedience to his Soveraign, who required him to 
receive the Canons of the Council of Trulh; yet this Pope found Parti- 
sans among his fellow-Subjects, who had lefs manners than to obey their 
Emperour, and more love to the Pope than to let him take fo danger- 
ous a Journey, and he good man would not be fo unkind as to go a- zacharias Pro- 
gainft the will of thofe who offered violence to the extraordinary Pur- to spatharw* 
fuivant that fummoncd him. Nay men of lefs Authority have taken on 
them to refufe Obedience to the Summons of their Soveraign. Thus Anno n^* 
Thomas Bechgt though a greater Saint than Sergiw, yet of a lower rank £* * ere a " 
in Power refu fed to appear before King Henry II. and his Council of Anno ' II02t 
Nobles at Notrhampton. Nor was Anfelrns carriage much more duti- 
ful to his Soveraign King Henry I. to whom he refu fed to do Homage 
as was required and had been performed by his PredeceiTors. 

By thefe Inftances it appears that both ordinary Priefts, nay the High- 
Prieft himfelf among the Jtvps, were under the coercive Government 
of the Kings of Ifrael, whofe Authority the Prophets, though by extra- 
ordinary call they may with reafon be thought in fome refped: above the 
High-Prieft, fubmitted unto without appeal to a Superiour. or excepti- 
on to the incompetency of their Judgment. So did the Prophet fubmit 
to Afa, 2 Chron. 16. 10. and patiently did bear the hafty judgment of 
his angry Soveraign *, no noife here of an appeal, no mention made of 
Immunities, of his Office, or Priviledg of the Clergy. The Seer doth 
not f what once the Servant of Philip the Macedonian King did) appeal 
from Afa a good King in a bad humour, to Afa a better Judg in a good 
humour. How would an Anfelm, a Beckgt, a Brandelino Valdemarino,ot 
Scipio Saraceno have huft and he&or'd his Prince for fuch ufage as Ha- 
nani from Aja, or Jeremiah from Zedekiah and his Princes, 7^.38.5,6. 
found. But thofe great Clerks (To let me call the Prophets.) pretended 
to no fuch exemption in thofe days, and yet Jeremiah had fo ample 
commiffion that the Pope defireth no more to be granted him of Kings 
and Princes.and thinks this enough to fet him above them all whileft he 
offers a violence to that Text, (Jer. i.ie. I have fet thee over the Nati- 
ons, and over the Kingdoms of the Earth.) Great as the violence he offers 

I to 

58 Kings and EmperoHrs, not Scrm. HI. 

to the Emperours Crown and Sovereign Dignity. But it admits a plea 
whether to his excufe in part or to his greater (name, let the Impartial 
Judg without violence to both the Text and Frinces, he had loft his 
longing, for neither do freely grant the Popes that Supremacy they 
mull have, or they mifcarry, though I think it was not the denial here- 
Tope Join, ^ of was the caufe of the mifcarriage of the Female Pope S though both 
*7 NT SCa f d mocncr aRC * k rat too CI <^o jguefs, for I find not a word of this Popes 
aftorVavow'd Nieces or Nephews) died in the Child-bearing: Yet be it or better or 
by mere than -worfe for our own Clergy, or the fhavelings of Kome\ the Secular Au- 
6€cy Authors thority did once govern the Clergy in the Church of the Jews \ and. 
of the Popiih or Ji nar y Priefts, the High-Prieft and Prophets themfelves fubmitted 
Dr.'p^SlJJJ to it> whence our obedient and learned Clergy have example to their 
and BhndiU dutifulnefs, and the Papal Clergy a reproof of their diiloyalty *, and 
witnefs. our Thefts hath a good evidence of its truth *, which I (hall now endea- 

vour to prove by Come farther Reafons ( though I think enough to make 
out the truth hath been already delivered )perhaps Reafon may convince, 
fome who are not willing to fee the truth in Scripture-precedents. 

Reaf, i. The Clergy are fubjed: to the Government Secular^ or elfe 
one. of thefe two things will follow, viz. 

i . Either each Clergy-man it a Soveraign, and under no Law and Go- . 
ffoiwSirnis vernment, which no fober man ever yet dreamt of for this were, to make . 
that a com- every.of them a God, or a King: Orelfe ? 
mon Prieft is 
as much better than a King, as a Man is better than a Bead. Chimarz p. ^7. a. 

2. That they are by a Subordination of Perfons of their own profejfion, 
Subjetls and Vaffals to a Supream Ecclefiaftical Independent, or abfolute 
Power without, or above, or a gainft the Civil Power -■> which as no Loyal 
heart would, wiuh, fo no Royal Crowned head fhould endure } .for fuch 
confederations as I (hall now offer to the Readers confideration. 

1. This were to ma\e either a native fubjeel equal to his Soveraign 
Prince, or to render, a considerable body of bis People Subjects to aforreigner j 
which appears thus: If the body of the Clergy fand the orders of the 
prefeffed Religious) be only fubject and under the fole Government of 
one of their own ProfelGcn > and whoever is a native this perfon is,and 
hisSucceffors will bef when advanced to the Supremacy and Ecclefiaftical 
Sovereignty.) fet up in. a power Independent on his Prince, and uncon- 
troulable by his Prince, and fo of a fubjedt be made a Soveraign over 
the Clergy, whofe obedience will be withdrawn from the Prince to the 
Ecclefiaftical head, and Supream ;. or,If this Perfon, who is fuppofed 
Ecclefiaftical Soveraign, and who ought to govern ihe Religious and 
the Clergy, be a forreigner, then he that by birth and blood is a Gran- 
ger to the Prince becomes by this means the Lord and Soveraign over 


Serai. III. rightful Subjects to the Pvpe. 59 

the whole body of the Clergy and Religious,which in many Countrys is *n Ergiand I 
no fmall part of the people, S6»3 

third Priefts 
Religious', Ring James obferves it in his Apology, ttnum Gallia Kegnum habit ultra, 300000. howi- 
Kummilliaquafub obtentu cliricattis, monacbams, [iwftionifaue Ecclefiajlica jugum Regis txeujfi runt. 
P.Molin. De Monach. Temp. Pontif. Roman, c. 18. 

2. This would leffen all the Princes and Sovereigns of the world in. three 
things effential to the very being and ft ability, as well as to the Glory and 
Grandeur of their Kingly Thrsnes and Majefty •, It would lefTcn their Free* 
dam and liberty in making Laws for their whole Kingdom, and ere they 
can rcfolve on that Ordinance which they do apprehend will be for 
univerfal good of their Kingdom, they muft enquire of the Ecclef^ 
aftkal Exempts whether fuch a Law would not violate the Ecclefiafli- 
cal liberty, and ask them leave to make it, or elfe they (hall be taught 
as Anfelm and Beckft would teach their Soveraigns, or as Faul the fifth 
taught the Duke of Savoy, and the State of Genoua, and would fain 
have taught the State of Venice, but they proved itubborn Scholars, 
and enforced that prefuming tutor to forgo the Lecture. 

Next it would lejfen their Authority in commanding obedience to Laws 
made^tht Exempt Clergy would undoubtedly firlt coni1der,whcther the 
Obedience required were not an infraction of their Immunities/and how 
far it intrenched on the liberty of the Church,and when this is brought 
to an ilTue who does not fee that the General priviledge pretended un- 
tie th the (Vinculum necejfarig & debit* obfervantix) bond of a neceiTa- 
ry Obedience which is due of Right to the Magifirate, and leaves the 
Exempt to the free determination, whether of good nature and volun- ~ mntu w. •_ 
tary choice he will comply with his Prince, or whether Prudence will 'cidligatim 
not rather determine to (ecu re their pretended P»viledg,and deny ihttnm coattivk 
to their Prince, which fthey pretend J he hath no right to command. At fid diruiha.. 
mod by this means Obedience which by God and Nature is made the ^™2 r ? 1, ^ 
Prince his due, and the Clergy-mans debts is by a fraudulent pretext xit^oft^the ' 
reduced to an uncertain and arbitrary benevolence. Here hence will third par of 
enfue, The lejjening of the Power which Jhould execute Laws made, and their Subjects 

be. All this I have faid is evident from an undeniable inftance of livipgs,K./<M». 
Paul <$tb. who better informed, or bolder refolved, told the Venetians EpiO:. to Vru 
He would not endure them to judg Ecclefiaftical Perfons who are not Subje&s t/^Qrv o? the 
unto Princes, and whom they cannot chajiife though they be Rebellious. By (Wrrds he- 

this Piinces may fee how little Power that Indulgent Father the Pope twe«.n V.P.$tb 

and VenitianSy 
Anno \6c$. Vxiil $th. envying the Soveraign Authority that was given to the Vemthis by God, 
Nature, and the liberality of Emperours and Popes, as foon as he had afumed the Papacy he be- 
gan to fearch out for ways to fubvert it. U Cardinal. part,2. lib.i, pag.127. 

I 2 would 

go Mttgs dftd Emperburs, not Serm. III. 

would leave in their hands, who in Criminal cafes of higheft nature 
will fo boldly deny them all power t© judg Ecclefiafticks. Certainly by 
the fame juftice he taketh away power of judging by Laws Civil, he 
will alfo (when timeferveth, and with equal rightj deny them a power 
to make Law? to regulate the Obedience of the Ecclefiafticks,or if there 
be fome daring Prince will venture to make the Law, the Pope, or 
who-ever fhall be fupposM the abfolute Severaign over the Clergy,, 
mall by the injured Clergy have timely notice to interpofe a Prohibi- 
tion that the Obedience be not exacted, nor a non- Obedience to fuch 
Laws puniflit. And what will remain to fuch a Prince but a Title and 
Name, lefTened to fuch a degree, That he muft owe the Peace of his 
Kingdom, the Reverence of his Royal Dignity ,the Safety of his Perfon, 
and the Succellion of his Posterity to the arbitrary will of every Cler- 
gy-man, or at leaft of the Ecclefiaftical Prince. . 

2. Reaf They that are by the Word of God bound to pray for the Se- 
cular Prince as for a Soveraign under whofe Tower and Authority they do 
live and en)oy the quiet and profperity of their life, are certainly under the 
Government of the Secular Prince, both as to their Perfons or Bodies, and as 
to thtir Eftates or Goods, which have no fmall (hare in the peace and quiet 
that they fhould defire to enjoy. I think little doubt can be made of this 
Propofition, or any thing contained in it *, for it fpeaketh not of Pray- 
ers which (ex dehito Charitatvs) out of Chriftian charity we ought to 
make for all men, and fpecially for men in great Power who through a 
juft favour may much advantage the Church of God. But we fpeak of 
Prayers that are to be made for particular Rulers under whom we ei- 
ther were born, or by Gods over-ruling Providence are for prefent de- 
termined. Now the Scripture doth thus direcT, i 1im.2+ 1, 2. I exhort 
therefore f faith St. Paul) that firfi of all Supplications^ &;. be made for 
* ffa&KAxS, all men, for Kings, &c. * In which words you have a Canon of the 
&c * Sl e cut Im ~ Apoftle directing and commanding Timothy, and in him obliging Bi- 
mat^mandata mo P s t0 P ra Y ^ or a ^> ^ or Kings and all in t Authority over us,that un- 
dare p<ejidib'M der their Government our life may be peaceable and quiet to our felves, 
fclibant, ita whileft our Perfons are defended from violence of the cruel, and our 
p aulas m Ti- £ft a tes are defended from the injuries of opprefTbrs. Which certainly is 
Tadat Enifco- a benefit as we enjoy in the place of our abode, fo by the Government 
pis, Kug.Grot. of the place where we abide : And this feems to be comprifed in that 
in ioc. of (Eufebim * citing) Vionyfius, without ceafing we pray for your Kingdom 

[■ Jer. 27. 17, t fj at i t mJ y a yij e unfha'ken^ in the ftability whereof our affairs will a- 

the^riS^fo bide ftable and fafe ' Now who feeS n0t that this needs muft be in tha 
fitbmit to the State or Kingdom where thofe live who are bound thus to Pray > 


of the King of Babylon,znd he enjoyns them to pray for the Government and Governors, c:2$.v.i: 
and *}th. So that put thefe together they make up the Proof that Clergy are bound to pray 
for the Civil Government as that they ought tofubmit their necks to. 

* £/ wi*«V vVig Tntfitkf ihiiat <xV]aj> o'Taf dfdMVTQ' ftctiAWi ) irfMX<>tM$* i 

This - 

Serm. III. Rightful SubjeSs to the Pope. 6i 

This Text then requireth thofe that pray to look on thofe Kings 
and Magiftrates which in the Apoitles words are /2aV/A«* x} kvC&fyfi, 
for whom they pray, as Kings over them, as their Rulers, and fo con- 
fcquently they muft acknowledg themfelves the Ruled or Subjedfo,ac- 
cording to the rule,That Relates do mutually fuppofe each other. In a ^i aU [ e m . 
word or two that the Clergy muft pray for Kings, and for thofe that are tuo pmmt* 
in Authority,is certain enough from the comprehenfive words of the 
Text: But for what Kings, &c. if for forreign, how much more for 
their own ? If for their own then is it only that they may give good 
counfels, and by them direct the Clergy > This hath very little availed 
with refoluteand turbulent Clergy-men, and can as little contribute to 
quieting the life of the difturbed as it can reftrain, punifli, and by co- 
ercive Power chaftife the difturbers, which if it be (by an ill chance as 
often it hath been) found to proceed from the Clergy, alas the Prince is 
left helplefs, and the Laity is left hopelefs. And we had need to have 
another manner of addrefs, viz. That all Men and Kings, and all in 
Authority mould pray for the Clergy, that they may be good-natur'd, 
wife and thankful to God for their Immunities, that they may abufe 
none of their Immunities to the diiturbance of the Prince or Laity, and : 
fo had we need the Text be changed. 

Reaf.3. The Clergy are bound to give an Exemplary Obedience 
and Fidelity to their King, that by their Example the People who are 
committed to them for Inftru&ion may be induced to and fetled in i 
their Obedience and Allegiance s but fuch an Example is not given, 
but rather a contrary example of difobedience, difrefped", and contu- 
macy, by a pretended exemption of the Clergy > they are not then ex- 
empt, but ought to be in body and ftate, or goods under the Civil Go- 
vernment* Thusbriefly,they that by God are commanded to give Ex- 
emplary Obedience to CiviJ Government, are as to their Perfons and 
Goods under the Civil Government •, But the Clergy are fo comman- 
ded: Therefore they are under it. The Major Proportion can admit ne 
doubt jfor fuch a command from God makes our Obedience due to fuch 
a Government, the only difpute can be whether God hath commanded 
the Clergy to give" example of fuch Obedience now ? Thus I prove it> 
God commands them Exemplary doing what is to be done for the 
Lords fake, and what is to be done for Confcience fake-, the Clergy 
more than others are bound by their Profeilion to let the World 
know that they are Confcientious, and that they ad for the Lords fake: 
But now Obedience to Civil Magiftrates is fo commanded for the Lords ; 
fake, 1 Pet, 2.13. and ir is commanded for Confcience too, £001.13. 5. 
That the Clergy are comprehended in thofe general commands, as I 
have already proved, fo now I fay to confirm it, That where the Scri- - 
pture doth not, they cannot except themfelves. 

Obedience to the Civil Government is every-where but at Rome, and 
in her appendant Schools a Moral vettue, and a neceflary Ingredient to 

make . 

62 King* and Emperours not Serm. HL 

make an honeft and vertuous man. And therefore the Loyal Moralifts, 
the wife Law-givers, with beft warrant of Reafon and Religion always 
required it in all Subjects, only Rome,( where it matters not how much 
blind obedience to the Pope, or how little Religion toward God they 
find in their Clergy J,taketh care that their Clergy be not mancipated to 
the ftrict Rules of Political vertues,left of good Citizens and obedient 
Subje<3;s, they fhould infenfibly lapfe into a dilTerviceablenefs to the 
Papal Tyranny. But we mult, guided by Reafon and Scripture, acknow- 
ledg Allegiance a very great vertue, wherein (as in other vertues) the 
Reformed Clergy are bound to be Enfamples to their flocks. 

~Reaf. 4. Ibey rvbo do defend their Perfons and their Good* by the 
Authority a-zd Power of the Civil Government, ought in all equity and rea~ 
fin to bear and profefs true Allegiance to the Governours and Govern- 
ment. The right which is done for them in fuch cafes obligeth them 
to this duty, and the benefit from Governours to the Governed is a 
molt jult reafon for Obedience from the Subject to the Prince. The 
Apoftle St. Peter intimates this as one ground of Obedience, 1 Pet. 2. 
13, 14.. Be ye fubjM,&c. Why > becaufi Governours are €/* wfiMttv x«t- 
xoToiav, appointed to restrain the injurious, and opprefhve by judging 
condemning and punching their injufuce. They are alfo *'? tTratvop *Aya~ 
SoGoicov, for the praife of thofe that do rvelk Protecling, rewarding, and 
praifing them. The benefit we enjoy fhould in reafon bind us to the 
obedience and fubmiiiion we owe our Governours. 

By this Argument St. Paul preft the Chriftians at Rome to Obedience, 
Rom. 13.3. For Rulers are not a terrour to good rvorkj, but to the evil, &c. 
Do good andihnufhilt have praife of the fame, fo verf. \th. Ihe Ruhr is 
the Minifier of Gidfor good, Sec. therefore beyefubject. And this is the 
Prophets reafon, Pray for the Peace of the City, &cc. But it's Babilon ; 
true, but in the Peace thereof you ft) all enjoy peace, Jer. 29. 1. with ver. 7. 
So then the Argument holds good in the Prophets and Apoflles Logicl; j 
They who enjoy the benefits of a Government mult be obedient to the 
Government. And I would fain know what will become of all the 
pleas which the Romanics make for the Prchcminence of Clergy-men,if 
this foundation be not folid and good - , the great benefits the Laity reap 
from the counfel and labours of the Clergy, they judg reafon enough 
for the Laity's .Subjection to them. In a word to fpeak Reafon with 
Impartiality in the cafe, Let thofe that are benefited, be fubmiltive to 
and obfervant of thofe by whom they are benefited, then the common 
people 8c all the Laity will duly obferve in Spiritual cafes the counfel 6c 
authority of their Spiritual Glides, and the Clergy in Civil and Secu- 
lar Cafes will be left where Chrift and St. Peter did leave them under 
the -Civil and Secular Prince to be governed by him. There is indeed 
Bineficia torft- a difpute whether the Right cf Governing be originally in the Be- 
xwti jus & jo- ne ^^ or bscaufe of the Benefit he befiows, or on fome other ac- 
faclori. count j but there is no difpute, nor will it admit any, whether the 

' Bene- 


Serm. Ill; right fid Subje&s to the Pope. 65 

Beneficiary be bound to his Benefaclor, and ought for that very Btmpcixj.-t 
caufe to obferve and obey him. pSuUM T " 

Fifthly, What Priviledges and exemptions for their Ferfons or Eftates, ^,w-. ^ ^ 
from common or public^ burthens and fervices the Clergy do enjoy, they do ftcium jure di* 
en]>y through the favour of their Prince or Governour, who pleafeth to re- bitum commo- 
mit to them, what there may he fome reafon to perfwade, hut no Law 7 or vtnAl * 
Right to command from the Prince: Who as at fir ft he favv Reafon to 
grant that favour, fo will ( I believe ) continue it until he fee a fuffi* 
cient caufe to recal his own Grant *, which future caufe may ( by con- 
jecture from what already hath been adted in our view ) fooneft arife 
from an ufurping Ingratitude ( the hereditary infirmity of the Papal lUui ^ hmU 
See ) which never giveth to any, what it can by fraud or force keep to pontificiom fa 
it felf: as the Grave and Impartial Author of the Council of Ttent TfJrJZiJ 
v/cll obferveth, on the Pompatick and Ridiculous Act of Paul the ^ m ^ & q iiQ d 
Fourth ', giving the Kingly Title over Ireland to Queen Mary, who jn(tis domtnk 
had derived it from her Father, and her Brother, and had affumed it to aufem mqiu- 
her felf at her firft coming to the Crown. Such Legerdemain hath*' 7 /' ■ ;'?£* 
long pail at F^ome, coined with the imprels of gratituce or bounty, ConCt xridtntl 
and when it hath cheated Kings and Piinces, into a degree that a- /. 5. 
wakens their refentments and juft indiguation ,* they will refume the 
exorbitant Grants of Piiviledges, and teach the Papal Clergy to ufe 
more manners, and acknowledg that none of their Immunities granted 
by Princes, were intended to make them Piinces fellows, or Rebels c lend rebel— 
again ft them without £uilt, or fear of anfwering at their Secular Tudi- ll ° l \ **£** 

a j 1 !• n 11 r 1 b ^i >n- ,x, ,j n w non W crimen- 

catures. And when this (hall come to pals, the Chriftian World fhall yu ma jeftatis 9 
underftand the miftake of the Canonifts in their Law-, which aiTert, quia ntn eft 
That the Clergy, and all their Goods, are by Divine right free from the pbditm Regi. 
Power of Secular Princes. Againft which 1 (hall now eppofe no other EmS&Apmi. ' 
Authority than the Conception of Bellarmine, one, as any other, able to C fal!j£cltrbia. 
fay as much for, and as refolved to yield no more than he ntfifT needs EdiL-Aetntrj. - 
in the Caufe of the Eccleilaftick liberty, who confelTeth ( UK dechrici*. ZttiUtu 
c 28.) Jhat not one word can be produced fr cm the Word of God, by ^ ric K r . on 
which this exemption of the Clergy can be proved. And therefore hence I K*;// ^mhi • 
fhall briefly argue. They who owe their exemption of Body and v # 'lito 1 modo 
Goods from Perfonal fervices and tribute to the Power of their Secular traht ad fru- 
Prince •<> though by fuch favour they are actually free, yet originally l *™ magiftrb* 
they were fubjedr to him, and of Right they full are : and if the Prince ^jj^ff L iltr 
fee caufe to require it of them, they are. bound to ferve him with their u 2? ' 
Eodies and Eftates, which is certainly to be under their Government. Ckrici&eo- • 
What the favour of the Prince granted once to any of his Subjects is riim _ bon* eti- • 

as encouragement to their obedience, not as fecurity to their difobedr- ™- 3™ 4nfr* 

i i • n i r ii . • Iwera {wt ipo- ■ 

ence, granted and it mult be for common good : but when once rt teffate fecufari* - 


Eo>u cUricoviim \:int & merits debent eft's ab mnibtts Principm tm:mornmtribHtislib;r.:, j>-;c?o+tic::. 
& txtvtptia ifta humano jure non itvm htrodutla <ft ? fwp< 5\ 


64. Kings and Emperoursi not Serfn.IIL 

proveth a Univerfal, Publick inconvenience ormifchief it ought to be 
reverfed. Now Ecclefiaftick Perfons do owe their Immunities from 
perfonal Services and Tributes to the favour of their Secular Prince : 
Therefore their Perfons and Goods are under their Government. If this 
do not appear evident, I would have a Papift tell me", What had been 
the Cafe of the Clergy, if fuch Immunities had never been Granted ? 
Had they not been under the Civil Magiftrate? What ifneceffity a- 
waken the Civil Magiftrate, and he feethin point of prudence andfafe- 
ty, that thefe Exemptions and Immunities may not be continued, and 
fo by a Law revokes them, Doth not the Clergy thereby return to their 
priftine Subjection ? Ecclefiaftical Immunities for the Bodies and Goods 
of the Eccleilafticks are introduced, Jure humano, by the Law of Man* 
if no fuch Law had been made, or on juft caufe hereafter (hail bexe- 
peal'd, no fuch Exemption had ever been, or elfe had been nulPd 
though once granted', if nofuchjExemptionhad -been granted, then 
had thefe Eccleiiafticks been equally fubje& with the non-exempt % and 
as much bound to obey the Civil Government as the Lays. 

Sixthly, Ihe Clergy m fuch are in the effential cmftiiution ef their Of- 
fice 7 and as to the Immunities that are neccffarily appendant to it, or flowing 
from it, wholly of a different nature, vh. Spiritual ', and therefore cannot 
in Keafon claim Immunities which are in their nature Secular and Civil : 
Such are thefe we have been difcourfing of. Now, every one may 
foon know, that the Priviledges of every rank of men, are fuitabk to 
the Nature of that Office or Relation wherein they ftand ; fo Civil Of- 
fices have the Immunities which are Civil, and Spiritual Offices are in- 
veiled with Spiritual Immunities ; as it is not a Priviledg due to a 
Chriftian as Chriftian, to be exempt from the Coercive Power (if the 
Civil Magiftrate, fo neither is the Priviledg of the Clergy by vertueof 
their Office fo great as to advance them above the Power of the Prince : 
God who knew what Priviledges were fltteft for each Order of men, 
would fure have told us that the Clergy fhould be free from the Go- 
vernment of the Civil Magiftrate, if he had either made or intended an 
Exemption in all Civil Cafes mould be a Priviledg to Ecclefiaftick Per- 
Lib. de citric;* fons. But Bellarmine himfelf confeiTeth, that there is not one Word of 
cap. i&iSnUum q & proving fuch Immunities due to the Clergy. It were a great dif- 
pottfi proferri or( j €r ^ an ^ w ould bring in a confufion upon the Univerfe to allow fuch 
ifU^exwptio a mixture', for why is not the Irrational creature raifed to thePrivi- 
tonfimetur. ledges of the Humane Nature ? Whatanfwer would a Shaveling give 
me to the queftion ? Or why is the Humane Nature determined to a Sa- 
tisfaction, with Priviledges below the Angelical? Is it not becaufe 
their Natures are different ? Well, why is this a fatisfadrory account 
of different Priviledges in different Ranks of Natural Beings, and 
may not be alike fatisfadrory, in the different kinds of Moral and Po- 
litical Beings and Orders ? Thefe are as different as the other. It were 
a monfuo.is birth mould a bruit bring forth fomewhat half bruit and 


Serffl. ttt; rightful SnbjcSs to the Tope. 6 5 

half Man, and I do not yet fee any lefs than monfter in this i that the »J«J«* 
Indelible Characters of Priefthood mould ftamp a Licence of Immuni-P^ r ™ ? G ^ 
ties in Secular affairs: Such mifliaperi births K<m»* may perhaps little ver nment and 
wonder at and fofter, but wc muft do with them as our Laws, enquire made the 
out the offender, and condemn all that are proved guilty : So may Temporal 
the Fathers of this mithapen brat fpeed when-cver they are taken ipS^JJ^ 
their Treafons, on the confidence that their Indelible Character pro- trary t0 ' thc 
tects them from the ftrokc cf thc Secular Sword. cuftom of fo 

7. Reaf They who rvere bom Native Subjeclr, and by Frieftbood or many ages. U 
Orders, enter not on any Relation that doth neceflarily and jujiifiably abolijh ^f K °" 
that former Relation* thefe though fo ordained^ remain Sub) etts to their 
Natural Prince, and owe him obedience ft ill. This Proportion furely 
none in their wits will deny h . for the Native Subject is both as io Per- 
fonandEftate under the Government of his Native Prince, and con- 
tinues fo until fomewhat do (jure) by right, not only (exconfequenti) 
by confequence, abolifh that primeval bond, which with his fwadling 
bands, Nature and God put upon him. Now then, one of thefe two 
muft be aiTerted by the exempt Clergy : 

1. Either that they were never born Subjects, and fo were in dif- 
ferent fenfe from the Apoftle born free. If they like not this, fay 

2. Or elfe though born Subjects, their Holy Orders have nulled that mum Gattix 
natural Allegiance, and defeated the Prince of fo many Subjects as have r J mm h *^l 
been made Clerks. If this be the Cafe, VominummUlU 

quce [lib obtcntu 
clerlcatus & mcMMhaim fxnllionifo Ecclc[iijlic<e jugam Regis txwjjeruiiti alkma--, a Rege [ummum Vrin- 
cipem agnojeunt non modo h Spiritualtim [ed & in Timporzlibm. P. au Moul. dt Temp, Montr* P. R* 
cap. 18. 

I would enquire whence is this corroding quality in the IndelibleChar- 
acter, to eat out what is engraven fo deep in our Natures by the God of 
Order and Nature ? Certainly Chrift and his Apoftles never fo temper- 
ed it : But Rome who found the bonds of Allegiance were fetters on 
them, retraining them from their refolved Ufurpations, and hindring 
their growing Ambition, refolve what-ever comes on't * Thefe Bonds 
muft be broken, and thefe Cords muft be caft off ( to allude to that, 
ffal. 2. ) and it muft be done by fome curious engine too, for elfc the 
noife of it would give an Allarm; In one word, The Grace of God 
in Chrift to his Church, hath been fo far from abolifhing any, that it 
hath mightily fortified on all the bonds of Natural and juft necelTary 
Relations, in all forts of men, Civil, and Sacred, and commands Ec- 
clefiaftical Perfons as well as Civil, to obferve the juft Laws of thofe 
P,rinces r to whom Nature had before made them Subjects. It is not 
Chrift's Canon, but the Canon of Antichrift, which to make good 
Clerks fpoils good Citizens. Had the truth in this been as confident 
with Papal defigns, as the diftinct duties of a good Subject, and Sa- 
ri cred 

66 > Kings attd Emperours^ not Scrm. III. 

cred Perfon are confi/tent in one Perfon, I had neither troubled you 
and my felf, nor had they troubled the World with this Controverfy > 
It were time for Princes to command no more Priefts mould be made, 
until Rome, or whoelfe do pretend the fame Prerogative, had learnt to 
prefer ve a Loyal and good Citizen, while they make an Eccleilaftical 
Officer : might my motion be heard, they only fhould confer Orders 
on Subjects who had learnt this skill. 

Eighthly, And hftly, were this a Truth, That the Clergy were both 
as to Bodies and Eftates not under the Government of the Civil Magi- 
strate, How could the Primitive Chriftians, the Martyred Bijbops, the per*- 
fecuted Clergy, avow it to the World, that Chrijlianity did not teach" any 
thing definitive or dangerous to Commonwealths and Civil Governments? 
How great an impudence would it be in it felf to deny > Or how great- 
ly would it have been to the fhame of the fuffering Ghriftians, if that 
their adverfaries could charge on them, that they profefTed a Religion 
which dire&Iy fpoiPd the Magiftrate of his Coercive Power over their 
Friefts, and Indirectly, i. e. in ordine ad ffiritualia, in relation to fpiri- 
tuals, fpoiled him of his Coercive Power over the reft of his Subjects* 
He derided Julianas Sarcafne had been but a Retaliation to them,if they had been fo 
the Chriftians principled and perfwaded. Might he not with fome colour of Reafon; 
te rob'd with plead, You have fpoil'd me of Supreme Authority over Sacred Perfons 
he would 1 ** their Bodiesand Elates, as too Holy to be commanded by the polluted 
»iake their hands of Secular Princes : And I judg the Perfons of Priefts and ChrN 
journey to ftians too Holy to meddle with the polluting things of this World, and 
Heaven more w ii]^ i n ordine ad ft iritualia^ free them from thofe cares and bufinelTes ? 
ca£ eC * ite and Had there been a proof made before any one Tribunal of the Roman 
Emperours , that the Chriftian Religion had publiflied , maintained, 
and pradtifed fuch a Propofition j the impartial World would foon 
have puird off the mask, and fhew'd undeniably that thofe pretended 
Martyrs were not condemned for the profeflion of their fpeculative o^ 
pinions, or the owning of the Truth of the Hiftory of Chrift : but 
that thefe pretended Martyrs were real and avowed Traytors, enemies 
toC^pr, to the Civil Government, and dangerous ufurpers on the 
Supreme Authority of the Prince. Such Martyrs indeed may now bfe 
talkt of mRome> but what impartial Judg will not condemn the Trea- 
fonablenefs of the crime which deferved, and the Impudence of the 
Plea which defends the fufferers, who died for dtfloyal rejection of 
their Native Prince, and traiterous fubje&ing themfelves to the Power . 
of a Forreigner, enemy to him in whofe Kingdom they do flouriftv or . 
might flour ifli > 

Now after fo much Reafon pleaded for the fubjec*rion of the Clergy 
in Civil Caufes to the Civil Magiftrate, it may perhaps feem to fome in- 
credible, that any Doctrine by any Do&or (hould be avowed contrary 
hereunto > can there be fuch an unreafonable opinion entertain'd, or 
maintained by any > The next thing propofedfor to be treated^ will plain 


Serm. III. rightful Subjetts to the Tope. 6*7 

enough Jhew both who are the Teachers, and what is that they "Teach in thU 
print : Wherein I will be brief, and but name particulars, the Church ?. General 
of Rome hath ( excepting, fome few ) in all places where they ^^^S 
barefaced owned this, and Strongly contend for it : That neither the Goods t ^ e clergy 
nor the Perfons of their Clergy, or Religious, were under any Coadt from the Go- 
ive Power of the Civil Magiftrate. Indeed fome Perfons of the Ro- vernment of 
man Communion as Loyal, as Learned, do difclaim fuch exemptions Secular Prin- 
and Immunities, content with the favour of their Sovereign j to xheChurch 
whom they are ready to acknowledg they owe their Immunities what- ( Fomi genc- 
cver they are, above the Immunities that their fellow-Subjecls enjoy rally, 
for their Perfons or Goods : Nay, whole Churches and Seignories 
that we rightly account Popifh, as the French, the Venetians, do accord 
with the Proteftant Churches, in the juft oppofition of fuch unlimited 
and abfolute Immunities for the Clergy, and maintain the Sovereign 
Authority of the Prince over the Perfons and Eitates of the Ecclefi- Ammadwcr- 
afticks. Or in the Words of a Perfon of Honour who hath lately fonsupon Fa- 
fpoken to this cafe on the by. God be thanked that fenfleJsVfurpation and naticifmFana- 
exemption of the Clergy from the common Juftice of Nations, U pretty well tically i^P**- 
out of countenance, and fince the Republic 1 ^ of Venice fo notorioufly hafled ££> & ^' nd y ^ 
¥zu\tbe fifth in thai very pointy other Kings and Princes have chaftifed imputation 
their own Clergy for tranfzendent Crimes, without askjng leave of hit Holi- refuted and 
nefs, or treating them in any ether manner than they do their ordinary ma- retorted, by 
lefaftors. This is the Cafe now, but time was when the Pope and the s *^' P' H3- 
Clergy would not fo eafily have forgone their llfurpations, and Princes 
how great foever, (hould have hardly exercifed fuch an undoubted 
Right: And time will come again (if ever the Pope can attain to a ^ common 
Power that may encourage him to revive his pretended Right ) when Prieft is 2s 
he will exempt the Clergy from the jurifdiclion of Secular Princes, and rr' ucn be . tter 
refume all fheCaufes which concern the Perfons or Eftates of Clergy- tIian ^ in ^ 
men into his own hand, and determine them as proper only for his better' than a 
Cognifance. Nor do I furmifc more than I have ground for ; it was Eeaft: Nay, 
fome ages pair, the humour of the Pope and his adherents, and frill is as much as 

their aim, as will be evident tothofe who can and will confult at lei- Go< ? Almigh- 
r ty doth excel 

lure * a Prieft, fo 

much doth a 
Prieft excel a King. Stxniflatts Orichmtti in chimera, fol. 97. cited by H. F<nr/:V, p. 37. 

Firft, The treatifes of fome modern Jefuits excellent SchoUars, yet J worn 
fupporters of the Popedome, and very zealous fticklers for the Immunities 
of the Clergy •, as refolute Souldiers who defend the outworks, for the 
greater fafeguard or* the City. So Bellarmine in his BooJ^ de ckricis, a- 
vows, The Clergy by Divine Right, free from the Authority of the 
Secular Princes. And Emanuel Sa. tells you what he thought in the 
Cafe, when he gives you a Jefuitical i.e. an impudent andtreafonabU 
Keafon y why a Clergy-Man cannot be guilty of Treafon ; viz, Bccaufe 

K 2 the 

68' Kings and Ewpemirs> not Serm.TIL 

-onfenTri!?' the Cler £y- Man is not the Prince hisSubjed*. So in the Colen and 
r^ ia *ooe Antwer P editions of his Book. 

clericus. Edit. Secondly, The Conjlitutions of fome Councils \ nor vs it to be wondered 

Colonienf. & at, thztfince Popes got ufurped Power in their hands, they can by the Ec- 

Antwcrp. clefiaftical Diet afTume what Immunities may for future elhblifh their 

Hierarchy, and confirm what hath been ufurped with much profit and 

advantage to their Church and Caufe. 

Thirdly, '-The Decretals of 'Popes ( which is as valid an Authority, 

Superioribus as the Ordinance- of a Profperous Rebel, determining himfelf and his 

menfibus ad confederates Innocent Perfons and Loyal Subjects; and their Bulls, 

Apoftdic *fe- am0ng Which that ° f Pm1 the Fifth - a £ ainfi the Dllke and Rep^blick of 
dis audienci- Venice, as it is late fo may fuffice,. being backt with Nine or Ten Pre- 
am pervenit cedents of other Popes, in like Cafes. Wherem of late it came to our 
Ducem &Se- ear, that theVu\e and Council of Venice have enatted dhtrs Decrees con* 
m J4P ^f 1 " traryto the Liberty and Immunity Ecclefiaftick^ and repugnant to the Sa- 

torum ^i- cred Canons and General Councils, and to the Conjlitutions of the Roman 

verfa decre- Popes.-— And the J aid Vukg and Council have Imprifoned and detained in 

ta . — Zc-Prifon, Scipio Sarracenus, and Brandelino V3ldemarino, Perfons in ~Ec- 

clefiaftica?. li- clefiafiicl^dignity, for certain Crimes by them committed : All which it d.one 

rnuScatlVon- Wlt ^ P retence ? *&** '** w lawful for them ( Duke and Senate ) to do 

traria, turn. * We things. 


Gonciliis & facris canonibus, nee mm Romanorum Pontirlcum conftitutionibus repugnantia ftatu- 

iuc Eofdem Ducem & Senatum. 

Et Senatum Scipionem Sarracenum Canonicum Vicentinum & Brandalinum Valdemarinum Fo- 

rojulienfem Abbatem Perfonam in dignitate Ecclefiaftica conftitutum ob qu#dam crimina— - 

commiik canceri mancipaffe & mancipatos detinuiffe fub prattextu quod eis haec facer e lice-, 


Here you have the Act of thellluftrious Duke and State fecretly tra- 
duced as an unjuftiriable A&, and the Power ( by which they do it ), 
reprefented to the World as an llfurpation prejudicial to the Church-ex- 
emptions. The Crimes of the Perfons were notorioufly foul, efpecially 
of the Abbot, viz. Sorcery, Rapes, Inceft.and many Murthers which the 
Qurdam P a p a * foftnefs terms, certain pretended crimes ( as was reported) by them 
pratenfc cri- committed, for which, as well they deferved, they were Imprifon'd : But 
mina— - per TnePremiffes being prejudicial to the Rights of th€ Apoftolical See, and to 
dies ut dice- our Authority ( faith Pope Paul the Fifth) and Jo the Priviledges of the 
°nWa"" C ° m " ^^fons-Ecclefiaftic}^ and for that they overthrow the Liberty and Immunity 

Cumq;pr<2- °f the Church. 
miila-— fedi , 

Apodolica?, noflr* Autoritati, & Ecclefiarum Juribus, & Ecclefauicarum perfbnarum privHe- 

%m prajudicium inferant, ipfamq, libertatem & imniunitatem Ecclefiafticam tollanc. 


His Holinefs good man I could not bear it, and therefore after much 
ado becomes to tell us what he will do, and with what good examples 


Serm. HI. rightful Subjects to the rope. 69 

and warrant for it in thefe words, and with the great names of Ten Nosquinul- 
Popes. JFe who by no means ought to endure that the Ecclefiaftical Liberty lo Pafto ferrc 
and Immunity, or our Authority and the Authority of the Apoftolick, See ^^^ 
fhonld be violated and contemned, following the example of moji General libcrtas & Ira . 
Councils, and offrefh memory the examples of &c. And other Popes our munitas , no- 
Predecejfours, who have revoked the lil$ Statutes publijh't againjt the Ec- ftraq-, & fedis 
clefiaftick. Liberty, as ftatutes which in jujUce were Null, Invalid and not ^^^ 
Ratified, and who have decreed and declared that they w ere Null, Invalid, lemr & con . 

and tf no force. temnatur, In- 

hxrentcs plu- 
rimorum General] urn Conciliorum decretis, ac veftigirs Re. Me. Innocent. ^Honorii; 5. Gregorh: 
v. Alex and. 4. Clem. ^Martini. 4. Bonlf. 7-&9» Martini. 5. Nlcolal. $. Et Aliorum R. P* prxde- 
ceiTorum Noftrorum qui (irate Statuta alias contra libertatem Ecclefiaft icam edita tanquam ipfo 
jure nulla, invalida & irrita revocarunt, ac nulla invalida & irrita decreverunt & declara- 
mnt. — 

In a little Paragraph you fee how much lefs the Pope makes of the 

Authority of free Princes, and how he doth pronounce that his Prede- 

ceflours and General Councils have in like Cafes aflerted the Ecclefiaiti- 

cal Immunities', and a Sovereign Prince may not punifh Rapes, and 

Murthers in a Perfon who is dignified with the Orders of the Church, 

if he doth, though they are Nullities in themfelves, they (hall be ( as 

in this cafe they were ) declared a-new from Rome Nullities. On Ma- Habita currt 

ture deliberation with our venerable Brethren the Cardinals of the Holy \^^ ^ 

Church of Rome, with their confent and Council, ( though the forefaid ftris S. K. E. 

Decrees, Edifts, and Commands, were in Law it f elf Null, Invalid^ and Cardinalibus 

Void) by thefe Prefents we do decree and declare notwitkflanding a-new, maturacon- 

that they were and are Null, Invalid^ and Void, of no force or moment •, f ulratIone de 
\ . , J . j 1 1 r - ' r 1 5 lpforum con- 

And that none are bound to the observing of them. fy- lo & a (T en f u 

f licet fupra- 
difta decreta &: edifta, & Mandata ipfo jure nulla, invalida, & irrita fmt } ea nihnominus ipfo 
jure adhuc de novo nulla, invalida & irrita, nulliufq*, roboris & momenti fuiffe & effe & nemi- 
nem ad illorum obfervantiam teneri per praefentes decernimus & declaramus. 

Excellently fpoken ! and like the SuccefTor of an humble Fiflier- 
man ! Though the Duke of Venice may marry the Adriatic^ with- 
out a licenfe from Rome, He may not imprifon a murtherous Abbot 
without the hazard of Joflng his Principality, Who would not wifh to 
be a Denifonof Rome, it a Conclave.of the Purple Fathers may reverie "-. 
a Law which was made to reftrein the enormous violences of Clergy- 
man ? Companionate Fathers that prefer the fafety of their (Ingle- Sons 
to the fafety of whole Kingdoms \ 

By this you feejefuites, Cardinals, the Confiftory, the Popes fuc- c vn0( j us f e * 
cefiTivcly, and General Councils ( if there be truth in the Pope's Bull ) c^res Pre- 
cipes admo- 

nuit — , nee permifTuros ut officiates Ecclefia: & perfonanrm Ecclefiaflicanitn Ioi- 

munitatesi violent &c. Concil, Trident. Sett 25, cap, 20. 


70 Kings and Emperours not Serm. IIL 

exempt the Clergy from the Coadlive Power of a Civil Magiftrate a- 
gainit Nature, Reafon, and Religion. How far they would allow the 
Dire&ive Power if time favoured them, I give you leave to guefs from 
the late inftance of Pope Urban, 1632. and Pope Innocent the Tenth > 
This latter interpofing between the French King, requiring Cardinal de 
Ketz to renounce his Title or pretence to the Archbifhoprick of Tariff 
Hiftory of rev ^ v ' n § tne °ld Maxime , Jbst Princes ought not to be fufferedto meddle 
Management an Ecckfiajiical affairs, this being to put their Sichje too boldly in another 
of Cardinal man's harveft : The former refufing to admit Ferdinand 2. his Enabafc 
Mayrine. fadour extraordinary which was Cardinal Pafman, for avoiding (^as the 
l m ' 6 1 ' ?**"* excellent Hiftorian &apt. Nani reports it ) to admit fttcban Embjffadour, 
" Hiftory of he dUedged, that a Cardinal honoured with the Furple and a Holy CharaCx- 
Vmce. lib. 9. er'could not be employed in the fervict of Secular Princes, 
pag. 359. "This is plain dealing however, and fo far Princes $re obliged *, that 

?they will (peak their minds fometimes freely. Now I fee if Clergy- 
men offend the Laws, Princes are ill-natur'd topunifh, becaufe Clergy- 
men owe them obedience to Directive Laws > And if they employ them 
in a matter unwelcome to hisHolinefs, the Princes make too bold with 
them that bear the Imprefs of a Holy Character ; fo precarious muft 
the Rule of Princes be over an exempted Clergy. Yet, What Reafon 
may be fuppofed for this ? Certainly fo great a Priviledg cannot in Rea- 
fon be pretended by wife and honeft men, to be warranted by light and 
trivial Arguments. 
4. General. Two forts of Arguments I ufually meet with urged •, Firfr, Drawn 
The Reafons, ab Indecoro, from the unfcemlinefs of fubjc&ing the Clergy to the Go* 
for exemp- vernment of the Civil Magiftrate, and this hath three indecencies in it > 

JSiikk 0010 " of which by and by - 

The Second drawn a Jure, from their Right to be exempted, and this 
alfo is threefold, of which ere long. Mean time return we to the firfr. 
1. Ab Me- It is., fay the Fapal Orators, a very unfeemly thing that the Clergy 
coro. (hould befo fubjedted. For my part if there be an Indecency in it, I 

could be glad the Indecency were removed, I fhould think fomc ad van* 
tage would thereby accrew to the Reformed Clergy j but without 
Spectacles of the Papal make, ' we (hall never be able to defcry the Inde- 
_ cencies ; let us borrow Cardinal Bd'armin's and with them look how 
unhandfome it is. 
That Shep- Fir ft, Ibat the Shepherd fhould be under the Government of the Sheep, 
herds be un- Thj s is a clear Cafe : But the mifchief is, Similitudes are no Demon/tra- 
der their f' lQns . ^ Qr Jq^ t k e Scripture forbear to caU Kings Shepherds, and per- 
Anfwer. ^ a P s °^ tner than the Prieft is called fo > and the Argument is retorted 
Clergy-men are in Seculars and Civil matters to a Man ( except fome few 
crafty Foxes among them ) Sheep, the Prince is their Slnpherd, It U 
undecent that the Sheep fhould be exempt from the Shepherds Government : 
Therefoie undecent the Clergy be exempt from the Civil Magiftrate, fo 
we difoufs the iiii 


Serm; III. rightful Snbje&s to the Tope. yi 

2. It is an; Indecency that brrvboto diy governeth as the Clergy -man Indecent that 
from the Fulph in confeffun, or giving gbotfly counfil to the Prince^ fhould ' 1C vvno 
to morrow be cited before bit tribunal , and be judged there. Very JjJ ea n.oy]d th?S 

good! ^ morrow be 

2. An Indecency I confefs there is that a Clergy-man fhould by any mif- judged by 
demeanor dejerve r#:But as the Fathers in the Council of Trent fometitne them lie 
argued to their advantage : Cuftoms manners and humours alter, and ^f ache( ^ to : 
what was handfome of old becomes unhandfome now \ and beftdes, indecent in 
Countrys dif?er,nothing more graceful thin to be mounted on a white the cafe. 
Afs among the Jews \ but the Pope would refent it as an high affront it Indecencies as 
hisCatholick Majefty fhould by a ftrange activity (like the Trahfub- men fanc y- 
ftantiating ad: of the Prieft) turn the white Neapolitan Courfer into an 

Afs for the Tribute due to his Holinefs for the Kingdom of Naples, and 
fend it for him to ride on. In a word all we heretical Proteftants fand a No Proteftaat 
great many of the good Catholicks of all Countrys) fancy to our felves, ^ a " fee tms 
That it is very meet to fee a Clergy-man preaching to his Prince from ^J* p£pjft s . 
the Word of God, whrleft he is dutiful and loyal ^ and to fee him im- can't fee it. 
prifon'dand executed for his Treafons when he is guilty, if this be aa 
unlucky cuftom among us, let the Clergy be fas the Proteftant will be) 
loyal, or keep out of places where are practiced fuch unhandfome cu- 
ftoms and laws, as to hang, murthering and fellonious Priefts in the 
common fafhion of other Rogues without leave asltf of the Pope. 

3. A third Indecency is,that the Clergy who are fervants of God and J. nclecent ™^ 
facred perfons, mould be judgM by the Vaflals of the World, and the Goctbe f uh _ 
impure hands of Laymen. A mighty abfurdity if well confidered! ject to Vaflafc 

I never knew the full weight of this Argument before I had metof the World., 
with the information that Staniflam Oricborius gave me, That every com- 
mon Friefi does M much excel a King Ma beaji does excel a man. Now .Anfwer'd- 
by this Rule it were as much pity to fee a King judg, condemn, and 
caufe to be hang'd, or headed a Prtelt, as it would be to fee a Horfe, or 
Afs by an ufurped power turn -upon and execute his Mailer and driver. 
In a word when I fee the ufurping beaft Co ufe a man I will endeavour * 
to prevent the abfurdity: But if ever it be my lot to fee or hear a 
Soveraign Prince judg, condemn, and put to death a fhaveling, and 
one of Romes Confecrated Priefts, Cor one of a more reformed pro- 
feffion) under the guilt of capital crimes, I fhould deiire the Father 
to excufe me untill I faw as clearly as Stanifljur 6id+ The Prieft was • 
the man, and the King the beaft*, and ere that will be, my help will : 
ftand him in as much ftead as a pardon doth- after the Criminal is 
hanged. Laftly I wonder Kings will endure fuch abfurdities when they > 
might prevent it j let Rome make their Prieft lefs, and account Kings ■ 
greater, or if this fuperlative Greatnefs be eflential to the Priefthood, 
Ihumbly fubmit the refolution, whether it were not fitter fuch a Prieft- - 
hood (hould be abolifht than all Kings be thus made AlTes, fand with- - 
out impair of their Intelk&uals, and. without the .exemplary miracle .. 


jz - Kings md Ewperours^not Serm. HI. 

wrought on a proud Heathen, only by the pride and ingratitude of a 
Papal Clergy, be thus turn'da-grazing with beads. 

This is the fum of Bellarmines three Arguments, from the Indecency 

The Reafon °f tne tmn g-» an ^ this all the Anfwer I think them worthy of i ilnce his 

why the pleas Eminency bath fet up fuch fear-crows, and would fright us with them, 

are flighted in let us have liberty to deride them as men would the bug-bears that Chil- 

therrt r en *~ et llp * - better Arguments for the caufe could (of this, or any 

other kindj have been produced, the learned Cardinal would have 

urged them, and then a better anfwer might have been "given. But a 

puff will better blow away a feather than a mighty engin, and all the 

colt and labour would be loft that were beftow'd to bring Cannon, 

Spade, Mattocks and Engineers to overthrow a poor hutt, or cottage. 

From thefe pafs we to the fecond fort of Arguments. 

A Jure T>ivino, faith the Canonift, by Divine Right \- but the Canoniji 
2. Sor^f who faith it bath the wit to let w fee^tbe Text^ for he takes not himfelf 
Dlvim, .'. bound in duty to cite it,and we deferve not the kindnefs that he fliould 
Anfwer. do more than he thinks himfelf obliged unto : Others of the fraternity 

dilTent and think they have reafon to pretend the Immunities to be 
A Jure miria- Jure Humano; and until they agree how the Clergy among them came 
no anfvvered. by thefe Immunities we (hall not think it breach of charity or good 
manners to tell them, we wifh they came honeftly by fo rich a Commo- 
dity $ certainly Chrift never gave it them, nor do the more modeft pre- 
tend his gift, they are content with the collation by Popes Decretals 
firft, or next by favour of General Councils , ever lince the Papal 
Power grew too great for Kings and Emperours *, ever iTnce the one 
durft net contemn, and the other was Co hardy as to denounce Excom- 
munications againft infringers of the Immunities Ecclefiaftical. Theie 
two will prove their Right to thefe Immunities in any place, and at any 
time where Power and Jnjuftice are too great to be called to account: 
And as good Right they have to thefe Immunities as the Pope 
and Councils could give them, and I hope you will believe the 
Pope and his Councils would not fail to invert their fwom ValTals with 
power enough to difturb the Civil power, and leiTen it, that the Mo- 
narchy of the Papal Church might more fpeedily and fafely be aggran- 
dized i they have thefe Priviledges indeed from the Ringleaders in the 
Confpiracy to ftrengthen it againft the juft Authority and Soveraignty 
of Priuces. And now you clearly fee how honeftly they come by it, 
ask their fellows whether they be thieves ? 

But a third Plea is from the Favour of Princes they enjoy thefe Im- 
munities. True, the more is their ingratitude and fhame, they abufe 
that favour to the leffening of their Prince *, who hath too often had 
many occafions given him to repent his Grant,to reftrainhis favour, and 
to teach the unthankful Clergy more duty, by requiring more. What the 
Prince giveth they enjoy without our envy, or complaint \ let them 
keep within thofe bounds, and I will not difturb them. Finally to con- 

Serm. III. rightful Snbjetts to the Tope. " : 

elude this point, now the Clergy Tin all places of the world where 'the' 
Prince is ChriftianJ) enjoy many confiderable Immunities Jure Humsno^ 
which Immunities they never had Right to claim, till the Prince had 
Will to give •, And which they may not expect to enjoy,when either 
abufe of them provokes the Prince to revoke thcm,or emergent incon- 
veniencies perfwade him to diminim or null. them. What is fo granted, 
is neither Immutable in its Conftitution, nor ever intended to the pub- 
lick prejudice of the Prince and State*, nor can it exalt the Clergy into 
a (late of abfolutencfs and non-fubjeclion to the Prince-, or if you 
would imagin a foft Prince fhould fo inadvertently, and in a tranfport of 
7eal to the Clergy and Church, grant them fuch a Priviledg(as the K0- 
ntan Clergy right or wrong will pretend unto) yet good Statifts and 
belt Reafon will tell them,that the Grant being made to the prejudice of 
the Crown,it is neither good nature nor manners, nor juftice to require 
it of their Prince, whofe honour and dignity they are bound to con- 
ferve s Errante clave, the Infallible Decrees are null, fay fome Romanics* 
Errante Sceptro, Civil Grants to Subjects become Nullities. And fuch 
are the uncontroulable Immunities of the unfubje&ed Roman Clergy, 
to whom Princes had been lefskind had they forefeen what ufe would be 
made of their Royal favours, and to whom they are not lefs equal and 
ju(t,thoughfor their Crowns and Honour more refolved and prudent,in 
recalling the ungovernable Ecclefiafticks to that Subjection, which they 
ought in equal degrees and readinefs with other Subjects give unto 
their Prince, whether by afliftances from their Eftates,or by their Per- 
fonsi both being, as our TheGs averreth, under the Government of the 
Civil or Secular Prince. 

After fo prolix Difcourie on the pofitive part of our Pofltion* I 
come to a briefer handling of the Negative parts of it, which was 
the fifth and laft thing I propofed in the method of our proceeding* 
And fo, 

i, Confe&. The bigbefl Tower and Authority Ecclefiaftical^ m fucb^U 5. General. 
lower than the Soveraign and Supream in all Matters Civil and Secular in 
rvbat man or body of men Jo ever it be pretendeded de jure to beyr vi 6c fraude 
it be found by Vfurpation to be. This follows from the former fuppo- 
iltions as they have been proved, and is evident enough in it felf: If the 
Clergy as to Eodies and Eftates be under the Civil Government, then it 
follows they are not as Clergy-men Soveraign, for he is no Soveraign in 
the fame refpect wherein he is under anothers Authority* thefe are in- 
confiftent:for Soveraignty and Supremacy fet the Perfon in whom they 
are, above all within the limits of his Jurifdiclion *, but Ecclefiaftical 
dignity, or the holy Character, leaves the Perfon on whoa) it is impreft, 
under the Subjection he was in before. 

L It 

74 Kings and Emperours^ not Serm. HI. 

GiroUmo Gr+ j r i s poffible f though the cafe hath feldom happened) that a Sove- 
nal, was b rai & n P f lnce mav be a Clergy-man, or he that hath a right to a Sove- 
with the qua- rAI 'gnty may fucceed in" his Right after he hath-entred Holy Orders*, yet 
licy of Sovc- tne Powers are diftindl,and the Civil ufually moft efteem'd and retained 
raign, as while the other is laid by; as in Rome it fometimes happens among the 
Mo UCe °^ Ponces of the Red Hat, when of a Cardinal they are well pleas'd to be- 
Cxfdi,:'.p,n 1 2 com - Duke or Prince in Hereditary Principalities, defcending on them 
/>. 151. " by the death of the former Heirs. A Soveraignty I know is annexed to 

of 'Poland, and how little they owe to their Holy Orders, and the Priviledg of 

Miurhlo Son Clergy ftated, Jure Diving or indeed Jure Eeclefiaftico. And notwith- 

to the D. of (landing any fuch intervenient occurrence it ftill holds a truth, No 

Savoy, re- Clergy-man as fuch ? and in vertue of his Holy Orders is, or can be Jure, 

Lady / f ° r * and of Ri & ht a Soverai g n and Supream, but is ftill under the Secular 
Wife.' Prince, and his Government in matters Civil. 

Cafar Borgia 

fecond Cardinal, murther'd his Brother, turn'd Soldier, was made General of the Church Armies;' 
received in dowry the Dutchy of Vahn^i •, and that by Marriage he might perpetuate the Duke- 
dom in his FamilyJ guefs that this Duke de VaUntinois quitted his Cardinals Cap in time of A. 
lexander the tfltfe, who entred the Popedom 1492, and continued to 1502. Such like Metamorpho- 
f,s you meet with in the Match of the Cardinal Camillo, Nephew to Innocent the lotk. An.i6$$, or 
3654. So Church-dignities were exchanged for Secular advantages with a Wife. Such like occa- 
f?on infpir'd a PafTion into Famphilio towards Donna Aldobrandina Princefs of Koffano and Heirefs of 
the Family,Vvho out-weigh'd all the Cardinals Ecclefiaftick concerns,though ftie married not this- 
her lover: As the Managements of Cardinal Mazarine, Tom,_i. ■part.2,.p.']$ i &c, 

2. Confe<ft. Were the Tope (what his flatterers fay he is, and his In- 
fallibility confirms) the Supream Ecckfiaftical Perfon and Head to thatftu- 
pendous body of Ecclefiafticks fand were this proved his Right by a 
better title than ever it was, or ever it will be), yet ftill. this cannot raife 
him to the dignity of Soveraign over Secular Princes or Kings. 

For be *he Power whatever it is for its eminency, ftill it is an Eccle- 
iiaftical Power, and the Perfon in whom it is inverted derives it to him- 
felf not immediately and virtute Perfon*^ but mediate & virtute officii* or 
indeed Jure Ecclefu concejfo by a Right granted to the Churchy and by 
the Church to be convey'd on a fit Perfbm and fo the Perfon chofen by 
Thus Adrian the Church, receives not what Power his boundlefs ambition can grafp, 
tfb was re- b u t w hat Power the Church can beftow,which hath been proved to be 
bQk f irf f on ^ a P° wer in^riour to the Secular Power in all Secular affairs. It is a 
between n^j-Turc Rule in all. Cafes, Nihil dat quod in Je non habet. Therefore well 
and 1 197. did Sancfo brother of Alphonfm the Jth. proclaims to the world the ri- 
ff. FBwlis diculous Nothing the Pope gave him, proclaiming hiniy if he would 
Preface to con q»jer it, King of Egypt* and what his refentments were of fuch an 
ropiCh^Trea- idle conceit, when in requital of his Holinefs bounty he commanded 
fons,&c p.36. him to he proclaimed Caliph o^Brndas, on the fame condition of con- 

Serm. III. Rightful Subjefts to the Pope. 75 

quering it. In brieftthe Pope, pretended Head of the S tate Ecclefiaftick 
de fatio^ is now a free Prince as he is Pope, and hath a Secular Power 
annexed to his Ecclefiaftical Office. But if Confiantine's Grant,and fome < 
other Princes bounty be a forgery, it is eafie to fay how their HolinefTes 
came by», and how honeftly they continue the poffelCon of fuch Power: 
And if prefcription of time and pofTelfion will not bar a Soveraign 
Prince his claim, there may arife fome brisk Prince in the Empire who 
may ftart a better title to thofe Dominions, and reduce the Pope to the 
Primitive decorum of Bifhop of the fir ft See •, requiring him to be con- 
tent with what Immunities the Imperial Council (hall judg fit to allow 
him, fince in all likelihood they will be more than were ever given by 
Chrift to St. Peter^znd his real or pretended Succeflbrs. Let him whileft 
he can,retain his Temporal Soveraignty, and within his own Dominions 
be above all Perfons in all Caufes j yet this doth not flow out of his 
Ecclefiaftick Office immediately, diredrly, and per fe, as he is Bifhop, 
which is an order wholly of different nature to Secular Power and Mat- 
ters. And therefore were he Univerfal Bifhop, yet his power would be 
but the power of a Bifhop, that is in Spirituals - , and the engin of their 
own making cannot draw in Temporals in ordine ad Spiritualia. That 
was,as the Huntfmans dog in his younger days,nimble and hold-faft, but 
the Cur is now old, and his teeth worn out, and every free Prince now 
will (hake him off. They are weary of the cheat, and I hope will not 
let an llfurper indirefte & confequenter, take out of their hands that 
which God, Nature, Grace and Reafon, have direU'e & neceffario entru- 
fted in their hands. 

^.Confett. The Clergy being proved in Body and Eftate as to Civil 
affairs under the Government of the Secular Prince*, No Clergy-man of 
what degree foever be be, nor any body of Clergy* men combined together^ an 
abfolve the Subjefis of any Prince or free State from their Oaths of Allegi- 
ance. And if it be -pretended, he or they may do fo, the pretence vs wicked > 
and if the pretended Power be executed, the Subjett notwithfianding ti as 
much bound as ever, nay fomewhat more bound on this occafton, becaufe the 
Prince U in an apparent danger s out of which to refcue him,every good 
Subject ought to contribute his affiftance for his Princes fafety. The 
Excommunication, or the menace of an approaching Excommunication 
from fuch a proud pretender,may be juft reafon why Princes (hould re- 
quire renew'd afTurance of their Subje&s Allegiance, and why Subjects 
mould give new inftances of their conftant duty, but it can be no rea- 
fon why Subjects (hould think themfelves free from their Obedience 
and Oaths. The condition of Princes through the multitude and weight 
of their affairs is of all mens the moft uneatie, when it is (the moft it can 
be) eafed by a ready and univerfal Obedience in the Subject, but how 
miferable would it be on fuppofition that their Kingdoms were at the 

L 2 difjpo* 

76 Kings and Empronrs, not Serm. III. 

difpofal of a forreigner ! How unfaithful are our Hiftorians, or how 
(hamdefs hath the encroaching pride of the Pope and the Papal Clergy 
been ! either they who write the (lories of Ages pa ft have mod injuri- 
©ufly dealt with their own and other fucceeding Ages, or the Papal 
power hath with might and main fet it felf to ruin the Regal and Impe- 
rial Power. Now what will become of the Maxim which pleaded 
itifly for the Ecclefiaftical power ? 'Tis retorted thus : All Authority 
appointed of God, is by him entrufted with Power and Authority fuffi- 
cient to conferve it felf, and effect its proper ends: But if a Bi(hop,who 
is a Subject, may depofe the Prince, and releafe thefworn Allegiance,the 
Power of the Prince is not fufficient to prefer ve it felf among Subject 
If the Bifhop be a forreigner, as the Pope is to all Princes, who doth 
excommunicate, and depofe, and releafe Subjects, then the Princes 
Power is not iufficiently qualified to preferve it felf againft (hangers 
and ufurping enemies. 

In brief', Thofe that are Papal Bifhops, and were born Subjects, are 
equally with other Subjects, natural Leige-men to their Prince; for 
we have proved that the dignity of Bifhops doth not exalt them above 
the condition of Subjects : Now it is certain Subjects cannot abfolve 
their fellow Subjects ', none can loofe the bond which doth as muchtye 
himfelf as another^ nor can Rebellion acquit Rebellion in a Su bjedh. 
Thofe Bifhops who being forreigners to a Prince, are always to be 
■watcht as fufpicious, and moltly to be oppos'd as enemies, though Bi- 
fhops (as Popes are accounted ) can never be thought perfons to be in- 
truded with a Power over Kings and Princes, whom they treat with 
no other kindnels than a man doth one whom he refolveth to overthrow 
or humble with the firft opportunity;So that as it is not in the Dignity 
and Office it felf,to convey an uncontroulable Power to a native Subject 
in any cafe over his Soveraign, fo neither is it in the Office to convey 
fuch a power to a forreigner > and both are a weakening of the Civil 
power to a degree of impotence that cannotdefend its Subjects, or pre- 
serve it felf, or attain the neceflary ends of Government. 

4. Confett* If the Dignity of the Clergy be not fufficient to advance 
the Clergy-man high enough above the Civil Magiftrate fas hath been 
proved) in Civil Matters 5 7hen were the Tope Vniverfal Bifhop, and bad 
he rightful Power to Excommunicate ( which yet is not proved by any of 
his parafites, nor yielded by any ProteftanOijv* could he not deprive the 
Prince or King^fo excommunicated,of his Dominions in part or whole. 

For in this cafe the Pope muft act as a Bifhop-, and this Officers it is 
a Spiritual Office, and the Rules of it are Spiritual, fo the effects and 
ends of it are alfo Spiritual, and ought to keep within thefe limits and 
bounds j but now, when (after admonition and intreaties prove vain) 
the Univerfal Bifhop fhould Excommunicate,he hath gone to the utmoft 


Serm. III. Rightful Subjctts to the Tope. 77 

that his Rule dire&s, or his Authority can enable him to \ the Bepofing 
of a Ring, the giving his Kingdom to any that have the hardinefs to at- 
tempt, and the fuccfft to gain it \ as it is wholly of a Secular nature, fo 
it is wholly forreign to the Office of any Bifhop. And it hath brought 
thegreateit confufion, wars, bloodfhed, and defolation into the Chri- 
Jlian World \ that by this we might guefs from whom this ufurped 
Power comes, iince we know there have been fuch direful effects of it, 
and thefe effects the natural and proper effects of fuch unjuft pretences. 
The Cenfure of the Church is an execution of a Spiritual Power, and 
was never appointed to leap fo prodigioufly high as with its foot to 
kick down the Crowns of Kings and free Frinces \ this (tranfitus de ge- 
nere ad genw) skipping from a juft execution of Eccleliaitical Power, 
into the Ufurpation of a boundlefs Power in Affairs Secular over Prin- 
ces and Kings, is the moft infolent and intolerable preemption \ and 
which gives Gods Vicegerents in Civils, a juftifiable plea to hate and 
oppofe the pride and deligns of the Papal Clergy, who by this means 
have with a kind hand given their inferiour Clergy fo happy a lift, that 
the meaneft perfon in Holy Orders among them, is Jure & virtute Officii, stani flatus 0- - 
a better man than his Prince, whom he exceeds as much as a man ex- richo)itis. 
ceeds a bead, or God exceeds the Prieft, if you'l believe their flatterers. 
Amongft whom the Learned Cardinal Bellarmine (mifimployed in the v e p ntifice 
Office of Mailer of the Ceremonies) does fet Kings below Bifhops 5 /#.i. ca$.j* 
Priefts, and Deacons too : fo glorious is this Roman Church, that 
Kings like our droffie bodies , ions of the earth, fall fhort of the 
Church-men as much as the body falls fhort of the Soul. Bravely 
fpoken ! what pity is it that every Ecclefraftical Sacred Head hath not an Bellam.de Ui* - 
eftate and revenues to maintain his Grandeur as much in Magnificence c **-> cap.8. 
above Kings as their Office hath fet them : if fuch tranfcendent Ho- 
nour be the erTecl: of Papal Ordination, our King and Parliament have 
reafon to continue the Prohibition againft the Subje&s of this Kingdom 
going beyond the Seas to take Orders. It is not fafe to have Subjects fo 
advanced, and I do not wonder that Rebellion in a Clergy-man of the 
Roman Mint is become fo fmall a Peccadillo, or rather thin'd into an in- 
vifible mift, and though the Prieft be vifible in the Rebellion and Trea- 
fon, neither the Traytor, nor Rebel can be feen or found : alas good 
men and precious! the world unkindly owneth not their Excellency, and 
they by natural propenfities (flowing from their conftitutive principles J 
do innocently afpire to a ftate equal to their Orders, which blind Here- 
ticks nick-name Rebellion, and jealous Princes brand as Treafon, and : 
fo the innocent Clergy f when they have the luck to be taken in it) are 
condemned and executed for Traytors. But the comfort is the enlight- 
ned Confiftory at Rome can fee and diftinguifh the Clergy-man quoad > 
fubjiantiam, innocent, nay meritorious *, it is the Prince or State which 
miitook him, and under the feparate accidents "and form of a Traytor 

t bloodily 

78 Kings and EwprourS) not Serm. III. 

bloodily cut off the mans head. Dull Souls that will not be informed 
in the myftery of Tranfubftantiating Rebels as well as bread. Well,how- 
e're it is that their Clergy mud being judged by a fevere Secular Judg 
die (fub forma perduellium) in the unhandfome drefs of Traytors-, yet 
by the molt indulgent hands of his Roman Holinefs, the World (hall be 
informed of the error, and in compenfation for the hard ufage they 
met with be made as fubftantial and real Saints as ever the Pope made 
any : fo may Garnet be executed at Tyburn, but be St. Henry at Rome y 
and thofe that were Beautifeu'smd fetthe World on fire, and threat- 
Tied more prodigious Calamities to the World, are made Stars of great 
light and glory in the Roman heaven. Such unintelligible Do&rines,and 
fuch intolerable practices have attended the licentious frisk of the Bi- 
ifiop of Rome when t^S^s ^r*> he excommunicates and makes Kings 
and Princes his prey ,and lin&tf\i kwv, feizeth and devoureth the prey, 
and is thus become jxe&wjTg x* i V-*i&'-> Chimera real : Which may not be 
too feverely imputed to levity in me, fince really I could not tell what 
Many have t0 ma ^ e °f hi m > f° r in his Fore-parts I rind the mouth of a Man, and 
compar'd it hear the words of a Father in admonitions, but when I have looked 
(Rome) to the down to the feet I fee the Paws of: a Lion, and his Talons always bloo- 
Monky that jy witH the prey under his feet torn to pieces, or deeply wounded } So I 

l^L 1 ™^ ^ c ^ ear ly fee him in the Profpedt hiftory gives of him, their own GloiTary 
y oung ones to j. . *• , . , J •* 

death, for juft reprefents him not much more to his advantage : 

fo do the 

Church-men who embrace every one with a Paternal affection, but in thofe embraces they that 

receive them find their ruin. Jl NipotifnOy par. i. I. i. p.$2. 

clement.Vmxm. p a pa fiupor Mmdi 

Glol. v. Papa, Nee Vein es, nee homo, quafi neuter es inter nlrum que. 

So of a well-conftituted Officer as Chrilt and Peter left him fif 
you'l believe them) he is made a mifhapen Moniter, and the won- 
der of the World ', and now in the unjuft claim of the Father of 
Lies draws deceived profelytes to worlhip him , (hewing them the 
Kingdoms of the World, and the Glory of them, with promiie that 
as they merit by their good fervice to the Apoftolick-Chair, he .will 
give them a right, and when they can they may take polfeilion of 
his gift, for unto him pertain all theie things, and to whomfoever he 
willhegiveth therru and I afTure you it is neither Jure Divino, nor 
Jure Humano, but quafi Neutro, i.e. Jure Inferno. 

5. Confetl. Hence it follows, That Emperours, Kings, Princes and 
free States, are not Rightful Subjefts to the Pope, or to any other fingle Ec- 
clefiaftkal Perfon, nor to any body of the Clergy-men , neither in Synods 
with Presbyterians^ or in Convocations with Epifcopal, n&r in pretended 
General Councils with Papifis, nor in the Confiftory pr Conclave with the 
Cardinals and Pope colletted together. He that defined the Office in his 



Serm. III. Rightful Subje&s to the Tope. 79 

Church hath left thefe Officers under the Obedience of the Civil Ma- 
giftrate in all Civil Matters which concern the Government of their 
Eftatcs and Perfbns, In which caufe fo many have appeared, and fo 
clearly vindicated the Pvoyal Prerogatives and Soveraign Authority of 
Kings} not only Proteftant Writers, but among the Papifts themfelvcs 
many very learned Pens have afferted the Supream and Soveraign 
Power of free States, that it is become in mod Countrys a ridiculous 
Claim the Pope maketh, or any of his VafTals flatter him with,Thar 
their Prince is a Vaflal- and Subjedt to his Holinefs s and that is 
now become as long fince it fhould have been, a Trayterous Tenet and 
worthy of death,whichfwas in theheighth of Popifh Tyranny a necef- 
fary principle of the Papal Religion. How ill-natur'd foever the Chil- 
dren of that Church have proved,abridging their Father of his Power > 
I will not now enquires but might a (hanger to the Father and his 
Children fpeak a few words indifferently to both, I would adventure 
to fay, it had been juftice and honefty in the Ghoftly Father to have left 
his Children the Power and Authority which he gave them, who faid 
the Magifrrates were gods, and- then the Primitive kindnefs of Kings 
like ConftjHtine the Great would have enfured the favours and obfer- 
vances of Princes to the Clergy: But fince the Papal Infallibility hath 
almoft reduced this affair to this hard choice, Either that we mull have 
no Pope and Exempt Clergy, or no free and Soveraign Mbnarchs, I 
am eafily inclined to believe, the Secular Princes will rather chufe that 
the Ecclcfiafticks mould pan with their Immunities than that Princes 
(hould part with their Soveraignty >and how great a part of the Chriili- 
an Work! would joyn with them is not hard to guefs. The Soveraignty 
of the Pope is an Article of the Popes political Faith,but I verily think he 
hath more wit and care of his Soul than to make itan article of his Chri- 
ftian Faith : And if he will venture his foul,and the fonls of his fheepon 
gage that he may keep his prefent Grandeur, I am well fatisfied that he 
is not my fhepherd, and I am not a little glad-that there are fo many 
Papifts that do not make this an Article of their Faith. Free States 
and Kingdoms do know that Supream Soveraignty is not effentialto 
Cbrifts Vicar, Paters Succeflbr, orUniverfal Bifhop, that Exemptions 
of the Clergy are favours of the Prince and not natural and necelTary 
properties of the Office j and which is ill news for Ramejuve well con- 
itdered the diftindlion between being of Communion with the Church 
Gatholick, and with the Pope as fir ft Btmop, and being in fubje&ion 
to the Pope as to a Soveraign. They now are skilled in the Method of 
obferving the Church, and oppofing the Court of Rome. And though I 
know not what may (per Togtyile) come to pafs among men, and ; what 
King may make himfelf againlt all Pvight a Subject to the Pope, . 
yet I am fare no King or Emperour can ever be rightfully 
the fubjccl: of, the Pope, who at molt is hut Bifhop of the firf? 

ser worn 



The POPE of ROME is 


2 Thefo. 3,4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Let no man deceive you by 
any means, for that day ft all not come, except there come afal- 
ling awayfirfl, and that man of fm be revealed, the fon of per- 

4. Who oppofeth and exalteth himfelf above all that ts called 
Cod, or that is worflnpped : fo that he, as God, fttteth in the 
temple of God, fi hewing himfelf that he is God, 

5. Remember ye not, that when I was yet with you, J told 
you thefe things. 

6. And now ye know what withholdeth, that he might be re- 
vealed in his time. 

7. For the my fiery of iniquity doth already works only he who 
now letteth, will let, until he be taken out of the way. 

8. And then pall that wicked be revealed,whom the Lordflull 
confume with the fpirit of his mouth, andfhall dejlroy with the 
brightnefs of his coming : 

9. Even him whofe coming is after the working ofSatanjvith 
all power 1 and (igns and lying wonders, 

1 g. And with all deceivablenefs of unrighteoufnefs in them 
thatperifi : becaufe they received not the love of the truth, that 
they might befaved. 

WE will firft give you an Account of the Apoftles writing here 
fo fully concerning Antichrift, and fo proceed to handling 
the Words. The reafon of his falling on this fubjedfc here, 
was upon the preaching of fome among them, who told 
them, that the coming of the Lord to judgment would be very fud- 


5erm. IV. Tie rope of Rome is Artiohrift. 8r 

denly, in that age and time in which they lived, upon which report 
they were in a very great fear and dread, V. 2. They were fhaken in 
mind, and this terrour and confternation of Spirit there is e*prefTed 
under a double Metaphor. 1. From a Sea-ftorm that tears theVetfel 
from the Anchor and Harbour \ fo much the word <r&Mvblnv«a here ufed 
doth import, which comes from ™'a«< which fignifies a Tempeft at Sea. 
2. By 6p3®- taken from Souldiers, who by- a panick feararifing among 
them, puts them into a diforder and confufion, fo that they have nei- 
ther head, nor heart, nor hand to ad: in a due manner ; So it was with 
the Iheffalonians, by reafon of falfe Teachers, who by their blafts and 
ftorms of falfe Dodrines, Eph. 4. 14. (hake men from their ftedfaft- 
nefs : they were at prefent under great diftradion and fear, from the 
falfe Teachers who did delude them j 1. By a pretence to an extraor- 
dinary Spirit, orVifions, and Revelations. 2. By Word and Preach- 
ing. 3. By Letter as from Paul, by which works they did exceed- 
ingly deceive them => and perfwaded them to believe that the end of the 
World was at hand. 

Whence we obferve, 1. That falfe Teachers do ufe all p^ffible means 
d/td diligence, to prevail with perfons to believe their falfe Votlrines. 

2 . Falfe Teachers do fo far prevail with many, that they rent and tear 
them as with a tempejl now wind, and put them into a confer nation of Spi- 
rit as by a panick, fear Jo M that they can neither keep to the Truth jior att ac- 
cording to it. 

In the Words you have, 1. The Revelation of the greateft Enemy 
that ever was againfl Chrift and his Church, in the third verf and the 
eighth. 2. You have a full and large Defcription of that Enemy, by fe- 
vcral circumftances of time, place, &c. As alfo by feveral Characters 
and Names, by which this Enemy may be known from all other Ene- 
mies of Chrift that ever were, or mould be in the World. I (hall 
wholly wave their opinion, who contrary to the whole ftream of In- 
terpreters, do take the meaning of this place to be concerning Chrifts 
Coming to deftroy Jerufalem, and them that crucified Chrift > and the 
Apoftacy to be the Chriftians breaking off compliance with the impeni- 
tent J ews ) and departing from them to t\\z Gentiles : and the Man of Sin 
here defcribed they take to be Simon Magus, together with the Gncfticks. 
But that this cannot be fo meant, is plain, from the Seafon of entring of 
the Man of Sin, &c. who was to be revealed, and upon his Revelation, 
there would follow an Apoftacy from the Faith before Chriits Coming 
to judgment. That which did fo terrifie xhzTheffahnians w r as this d 
that Chrift's fecond Coming was at hand s then the Apoftle tells them, 
that there was to be a great Apoftacy upon the Revelation of the Man 
of Sin, which was to be many years, fome Hundreds of years after this. 
As for Simon Magus and the Gno(lic\s , they were revealed before 
the writing of this Epiftle *, Hugo Grot. Dr. Hammond, &c. This Ene- 
my is fet forth as if he were a fingle perfon, but it is'not fo to be taken 

M in 

82 the Toft of Rome is Antichrijl. Serm. IV. 

in this place j for it is frequent in Scripture to fet forth a Body Politick, 
or a Kingdom, or State, by a particular Perfon or Individuum. In 
Van. 7. 1, 2,3,d^c. there be four Kingdoms, or Monarchies, which 
were in a Succeffion one after another in the World, deciphered by four- 
great Beads, which are interpreted to be four Kingdoms, verf. 17. or 
four Kings * and the fourth Bea(t is called the fourth Kingdom, ver. 23^ 
And the vulgar Tranflation renders verf. 17. four Kingdoms : So that 
each Bead ilgnifieth a multitude of men in a Succeffion, under one 
Government for feveral Ages ', and fo confequently the Head and Horns 
fjgnifie the Power, and Sovereignty, of fuch a Kingdom for a long 
time in a Succeffion. 

So we find, Rev. 12. 1, the date of the Primitive Apoftolical Church 
fet forth by a Woman in travel s and verf. d. 14, by a Woman in 
the Wildernefs. So Rev. 13. 11. the two-horned Beaft, which is the 
fame with the falfe Prophet , Rev. 10. i^^ and ip, 20, and 20. 10, 
cloth not fignifie a iingle Perfon, or a fucceilion of fingle Perfons 
( fuppofe the Popes ) but a Body of Deceivers under one Head or Go- 
vernment. It is generally agreed on by Proteftant Writers, That the 
Pope as Head of that Antichriftian (late which is here defcribed, is 
pointed at in this place 5 or that the Papacy, Head and Members, in a 
Succeffion making up one Body Politick, is that Monfter which they 
call Antichrift. It is on all hands agreed on, That where-ever we find 
all thefe Characters, together with the Circumftances fet down in the 
Text, to concenter, that muft be The Antichrill,who was to be brought 
forth into the World before the fecond coming of Chrift. He tells us 
of One to come, a ftrange One, a mcnftrous One, fuch a One as ne- 
ver was before \ and that you may not be miftaken in this Prodigious 
One, he gives us the lively portraiture of him. 
The firft Let us now defcend to the particulars as they lye in the Text. 
Character by 1. Antichrift is defcribed by the Apofiacy which fhould arife in 
which hnn- t h e church upon the coming of this Moniler : He is an Apoftate, 
forth is the anc * ^ e cau ^" e °^ an Apoftacy: there was to be h 'Ator&eiA, a very great 
grand' Apo- Apoftacy before his full Revelation, verf. %. Apoftacy is taken i. Po- 
ftacy which litically, fo fome take it for a falling from the Roman Empire. 2. Ec- 
fkould attend clefiaftically, to fall from the Church or True Religion. 3. Figurative- 
*•" 1y, the Subject for the Ad juncl, meaning the chief in Place and Power, 

that caufeth others to fall away \ as 1 Tim. 4. 1. There (hall be an 
Apoftacy, there (hall be fuch as fhall fall away, and caufe others fo to 

In the two latter fenfes it is taken here > for the Ecclefiaftical Hierar- 
chy, fet out by the Lamb with two Horns, Rev. 13. n . is the grand 
Apoftate and a caufe of the great Apoftacy of many, bycaufing by 
force and fraud to worfhip the Beaft and his Image, verf. 12,13,^. 
The time of this Apoftacy is a fpecial mark of Antichrft's riling, 
1 Tim. 4. 1, 2, 3. This Apoftacy was to be in the latter times of the 


Serm. IV. The Pop* of Rome is Antichrijl: 83 

fourth Monarchy, fet out by Fourty two Months, and One thoufand 
two hundred and Sixty days, Rev. 1 1. 2, 3. and chap. 13. 5. The A- 
poftacy of the Church from the Rule of Faith and Worfhip, by fpiritual 
Fornication is a ilgnal note of Antichrift, or the Antichriftian State, of 
which the Pope is the Head ', and his proper See is Babylon the Metropo- 
lis : And the Body which was to be ordered by this falfe Prophet as its 
fuprcmeHead, was, and is, the Beaft of Rome, with Seven Heads and 
Ten Horns, and Ten Crowns on his Horns. Rev. 13. 1. This Apofta- 
cy as to the time, is upon the rifing of the Antichriftian Papal State, 
when thofe Doclrines of Demons , and forbidding Marriage and 
Meats , which are peculiar to the Church of Rome , came into the 
Church i the old Pagan Rom an. Empire was broken to pieces, and had 
its deadly wound, which afterwards was healed by the two-Horned 
Beaft , Rev. 13. 12. Framed into a likely Image of the former Pagan 
Beaft, by reafon of which, the vifible Worfhip of Chrift in the Church 
gradually was calf out, and the fpiritual Fornication of Saints and An- 
gels, Pvdicks, Images, and fuchlike, which is renewed Gentilifm and re- 
fined Paganifm, came up gradually into the Church of Rome. 

The Revelation of the Man of Sin doth appear by his rifing gradu- 
ally, and the time of his rifing will appear by the Apoftacy from the Rule 
of Faith, Worfhip, and Manners % io that if we can find the Defecti- 
on of the Church, we know one chief Character of Antichrift. Some 
begin the Apoftacy from the Primitive purity about 396. Many Popi(h 
crrours come into the Church. Wolph. in Centenar. Jerom. 3570. com- 
plains of the Avarice and Corruption of the Clergy, and ot the prohi- 
bition of Marriage and Meats. And Augullin 3^9. complains how the 
Church was fallen from her Purity. Wolphim in his Epiftle, and in his 
Book, Ah. ypo. and 400. brings in a large Catalogue of errours crepe 
into the Church, by which the times of the grand Apoftacy may be 
known : And it pleafed God tofpeak in a wonderful way from Heaven 
in thofc times, by prodigious Comets, An. 383, ' and 389. Alfted. 
CbroH. Comet. Thus was the Man of Sin gradually revealed, and the 
Apoftacy did gradually proceed. Indeed the Pope could not yet (hew 
himfelf in the full exercife of his Power in the Roman Empire, for the 
Civil Power of the Roman Empire would not bear fuch a competition 
as the Hierarchy of Rome \ and therefore the Roman Empire which is a 
Civil State, was to be taken out of the way, verf. d, 7, 8. It was to be 
removed from the Seventh Head, the Old Roman Beaft, as it was a 
Civil Government, and placed fomewhere elfe, i. e. on the Pope or 
Ecclefiaftical Hierarchy , which ufurps the Power of both Swords. 
This could not be done before the deadly wound was given to the Ce- 
farian family, which the idolatrous blafphemous Bead: was to fucceed : 
This is the Beaft which carrieth the Whore, Rev. 17.3. which could^ 
not be done till the Imperial Sovereign Power of Rome was broken, 
and tranflated to the Pope > then the Man of Sin was more fully reveal- 
Mi 2 ed, 

$4 7$K Pop* of Rome is Antichriji. Serm. IV. 


ed. Upon this ground, Je torn when he heard of the taking of Rome- 
by Alericws King of the Goths , expected the coming of Antichrift, 
Epifi. ad Agerncbiam, §hti tenebit f faith he) dt media fit & non intellige- 
rnut Anticbriflum appropinquate ? He that letteth' is removed, and {hall 
we not know that Antichrift is nigh? So in prtfat. /. 8. in Ezecb. pafci- 
tnr anima & oblivifcitur^ &.c. 

. Some ftate the beginning of the Apoftacy, and the Revelation of 
the Man of Sin higher, fome lower, but they agree in the main, That 
this Apoftacy was by the Pope, and upon the fall of the Roman Empire : 
Some will have his Revelation. to be about the time of King Pepin^ and 
CharkmaiHi It is true the Papacy then came to a great height, but the 
Church was very corrupt in Dodrrine, Worfhip, Difcipline, and Man- 
ners, and polluted with fpiritual Fornication after Saints, and Angels, 
and Images^ ckc, long before that time. So that we may infer, that if 
the Apoftacy came irv with the Pope or Papacy, as this did rife to a 
height, fo did the Apoftacy from the Truth, then this Character doth 
agree to the Pope, by which he may be known to -be The Anti- 
2. The fe- 2. Tlve Second Character, by which the Pope is fet forth, fo as to be 
cond charact- known to be Antichrifh l.Hc is,o&p0?aK»-©- im ct^etfTtaiy h $ ©- 7ns avc*-* 
er is the fpe- ^ iah v . 3. #VTtKlwv®-> v. 4. b avqia.®-, v. 8. The Man of Sin, the Son 
ficn'fican^ex- °^P^rxlition : By an Hebrew phrafe expreiling one that is a Superlative 
preflions ap- fupereminent finner, impietath corypbxus^ as fet. Molin. phrafeth him v 
plied to And- As we fay a Man of Blood, for a Man thirfting after Blood, or a cruel 
d*nft> bloody Man. The Son of Perdition, perditiftmus^ One (by an He- 

braifm) fet upon deftruclion of others b the moft flagitious profli- 
gate Sinner, the moft inhuman cruel Deftroyer, to whom the titles of 
ApoHyon, and Abaddon do moft properly belong ■> He is actively an& 
pailively the Son of Perdition, Rev.ij.%. and ip.20. He is the great- 
deftroyer of Souls, verf. 12. He is the MTtKttyL%v®"-> the great Enemy* 
of air Enemies of Chrift, though he is not called by the name of The 
Antichrift', yet here is a word with the Article prefixed to it, which' 
carrieth the like importance with it. He is the worft and greateft Ene- 
my of Chrift, who under a pretence of friendfhtp and love to Chrift, 
doth ufurp and undermine his Offices ', He appears like a Lamb in his 
deportment, and (peaks like a Dragon, Rev. 13.11. 2. The Papacy is of 
all other Bodies Politick the worft, being fet out with fuch expreili- 
ons as have the greateft Emfbafis in them 5 It would be too great a 
buiinefs for a Sermon to give you an account of their Tyranny, Cruel- 
ty, Luxury, Rapacioufnefs, Avarice, Blafphcmy, Whoredom, Spiri- 
tual and Corporal ', all the Abominations of the Three former Monar- 
chies do meet in this Fourth, of which the Papacy is the lair edition, 
Rev. 13,2. That Beaft fet out there is the Roman Empire, as Papal not 
Pagan, as appears by the Crowns on the Horns : But the Pagan Em- 
pire had the Crowns on the Heads, £^.12.3. Now that wickednefs 


Serin, IV. The Pope of Rome k Antichrift. 8$ 

in which fhofe former Empires did excel did meet in the Papal, Rev. 
13.2. and therefore it is let out by the Lions mouth , the feet of the 
Bear, and the Leopard. He is fet out in his Type, Van. n. 28, 
jo, 31, 32. Or, he himfdf is kt forth C as lome think ) 
wholly againft the Covenant, expreffing an indignation againft it wkh 
all his might, fetting himfett againft the Sanctuary and daily Sacrifice. 
Gruteriis and others underftand it of Antichrift, and not of Antlochw. 
The Scripture when it cxpreffeth a perfon or thing in a iignal way, 
doth it by an affixed article as here, or by an abitraft : Here the arti- 
cle ftieweth an eminence of wickednefs •, fo the abftract, Cant. 1. 4. 
Heb. upripbtnrffesjzy which righteous perfons are fet forth} fo a proud 
perfon is fet out by pride, Jer. 50. 3. we render it, you moft proud ! 
So fin for a great finner, Prov.13.6. So the Man of Sin iignifics the moft 
Sinful Man. 

He is called the & *vonos> v. 8. That wicked one^ the moft lawlefs one,, 
breaking all bounds and bands, and cafting away the cords of Chrift, 
as they, Pfal. 2.3. that will not come under the yoke of Chrift, nor 
ftoop to his Scepter, that will not that Chriit mould reign, as Lul^ ip. 
14. This boundlefs lawlefs one is therefore -fet' out by a moft unruly 
Beaft, Rev. 13. 1,2, 8cc. and by the Whore of Babylon, Rev. 17.1,2,3, 
&c. riding the Beaft and making the Kings to commit Fornication, 
with her, and making the Inhabitants of the Earth drunk with the. 
Wine of her Fornication •> This is the Mother of Harlots and abomi- 
nations, drunk with the blood of the Saints and Martyrs, v. 5,6. This 
the lawlefs one is the Antichriftian ftate, the Man of Sin under ano- 
ther notion. Lawlefs, $ avo^Q-, as to Scripture,fo in point of Doctrine, 
Wor(hip, Government, and Manners ; as to Humane Laws and Pow- 
eis, being above them alh as to Oaths of Allegiance, &c. as to Ex- 
emption of his Clergy, and fuch like. 

If thefe Epithetes which the Holy Ghoft gives to Antichrift, do all 
belong to the Pope or Papacy, then he may be juftly thought to be de- 
fcribed in this place. 

3. The third particular by which Antichrift is fet out is the place, , >Is the Jace 
2.4. he (Ttteth in the Temple of God \ there he exercifeth his Jurif- where he fit- 
didtion and Tyranny, and (hews himfelf God, i.e. in the Church, the eth and refi- 
placeofthe vifible external Worftnp of God, which is called the out- d ?*!V. % 
ward Court, Rev. II. 2. which is trod under foot by the Draconizinp- jj !t,;,u?iat* 
beaft,or Papacy,protaning the whole Worlhtp or God, and a new Gen- p r0 vcs the 
tilifm i therefore the outward Court is caft out, and forbid to be mea- Pope to he. 
fured in regard that lawlefs Monfter hath brake all bands, and will not Antichrift 
come under any Laws and Rules of Chrift, therefore they and their ^ r s 
Worftnp are caft out. The place where he fits is called, vaU , the Tern- $ e e Dr. whi- 

ehsmier, Pet.Molhu Junius, &c. that write of Antichrft, and prove the Pope to be the Antichrift, 
from this place. 


86 The Pope of Rome is Antichriji. Serm\ IV. 

pkor Houfe of Gods Worftiip. So it is faid of the King of Babylon, 
That he rv ill fit on the Mount of the Congregation, Ifa. 14. 13. i.e. 
Mount Sion, the place of Gods Refidcnce and Worfhip : So here the 
K.of Babylon he takes upon him to fit in the Tcmple,or Church of God, 
which is called, vctU> Epbcf. 2.21. 1 Cur, 3. rd. 2 Cor. 6. 16. Some 
will have it for the Temple of Jerufalem, that mull be the Seat of Anti- 
chrift, which is in the power of the Tur^ but this cannot be,in regard 
the other Characters will not fuit with the Turfy, but do fall in 
fuitably with the Pope. And fo Jerom takes the notion of v*U> in 
§ht£ft. ad Algefiam , and Augufl. de Civit. Dei, c. 19. he faith, Re- 
8w did fejfarum in Templnm Dei, &i rfo v&h t« 8e»> fo the Greek '-> 
Tanqnam ipfe fit Templum Vei quod eft Ecclcfia : As we fay in amicum, 
i.e. velut amicus. This may very well agree with the Papacy, who 
. pretend to be the Holy Catholick and the only True Church. So then 
the Pope fits in the midft of his Holy Catholick Church of Rome, exer- 
ciiing his Tyrannical Power over the people of God, fo that Mahome- 
*takf. cannot be the Church, they wholly renounce the name of the 
Church of Chrift. 

But bow can the Antichriftian Synagogue where Satans throne tijbe cated 
the Temple of God <* 

Refp. The Scripture fpeaketh of things as they once were, though 
they do not continue fo to be •, ' and fpeaks it of perfons as they are in 
pretence and oatward profeilion, though they be not fuch as they pre- 
tend to be. Abigail is called the Wife of Nabal when he was dead,i Sam. 
30. 5. And Simon the Leper though he were healed, Mat. 26.6. fo the 
City that was a Harlot is called the faithful City, Ifa.i. 2 1. It was cal- 
led the holy Cityffoh.\.2 r. where they worChipped.lt was called the holy 
place, Mat. 24. 15. till the Defolarion by Vefpafim \ and Mat. 27. 53. 
the holy City y though they had turned the Houfe of God into a den of 
thieves, Mat. 21.1%. and the City was a bloody City that fylled the 
Prophets, Mat. 23. 37. B:f]des fometime the Scripture fpeaks of it 
quoad 'op inionem homhium^ as they are reputed by men, 2 Chron.2%. 23. 
They Jacrijiced to the gods of Damafcus that they would help tbems they 
are called gods on that account ; fo Jxdg. 10. 13,14. This'Charadter 
doth very well agree to the Pope, or Papacy, to prove it to be the 
Antichriftian -ftate here fet forth. 
The Fourth 4.He is fet forth by Self- exaltation : J^^Wa* \iri<iruvi& K%yoy.ivov 
Character is Mv\ and not only above all that have the title of gods as the Civil 
his Self-cxal- Magiftrates, P/*/. 82.1,6. Which have the title of gods by virtue of 
tation. the Authority that "God hath inverted 'them withal, 7^.10.34,35. 

But alfo above the true God, by taking on him to do more than God 
himfelf « <?iC&vn&> quicquid eft Auguftum y whatfocver is held worthy 
the higheil degree of Civil Reverence zs is the Majefty of Kings. He at 
God } he takes on him the Honour due to God himfelf, and will be a-, 
dored by the higheft Power upon Earth. He that does all this muft 


Serm. IV. 1 he Pope of Rome is Ant i chrift. 87 

needs be the Antichrift, but fuch things doth the Pope", kt him look 
to the conclufion. 

Molift. in Vale. c.6. (hews how the Pope is called God, how they plead 
that he ought Co to be, whereof feveral of their own Writers, especi- 
ally out of the Gloffa Extravagant. cum Inter. Which hath thefe words,Cn»- 
dere dominum Veum nofirum Papam, conditorem dill* DecretalU^ & ifiius y 
fie nonpotuijfe ftatuere ut ftatuit, hareticum cenferetur. It is Heretical to 
believe our Lord God the Pope the maker of the faid Decretal not to 
have power to Decree as he hath decreed. And Bellarm. /.i. de Pontif. 
fafth/fpeaking of the Popes Supremacy ) Ecclefia feclufo etiamChrijh unum 
caput habere debet, The Church (fecluding ChriftJ ought to have one 
Head > this is the Pope which is Oecumenical Bifhop. So they attribute 
the Offices and Excellencies of Chrift to the Pope. They fay, He is the 
Father of all Chriftians, which belongs to Chrift, Ifa. p. 7. That he is 
the Teacher of the Church,and the Spoufe of the Church, the Founda- 
tion of Faith, the Lord of Lords, the chief Corner-ftone, univerfal 
Judg and Infallible", who is to judg all others, but to be judged of 
none. Thefe all belong to Chrift alone, and he that thus exalts him- 
felf, and arrogates thefe things to himfelf muft needs be AntichrinV 
Philip de Nicolai de Antichrifio, fhews how the POpe taking all thefe 
Titles to himfelf, provcth that he is Anfichrift. As alfo the ProteftanC 
Divines generally prove him to be Antichrift by this Character. 

Some go further in this Argument, and fhew how the Pope 
takes on him to do more than God. It is frequent among . 
their Divines and Canonifts to fay, Paparn p^JJe difpenfare contra Apojlc~ - 
lum & contra vetus Teftamentum. That the Pope can difpenfe againft the 
Apoftles, and againft the Old Teftament. That the Pope can make new 
Simbols. That he can difpenfe with things forbidden of God. Bel. 
£4. de Penitent, c. 1 3 . faith, Indulgently faciunt, ut pro ik poenti qi£ no- 
bit per indulgent its condonantur ', non teneamur prjecepto illo^de faciendk dig- 
nit pxnitentie frudibm\ That as to thofe penalties from which we 
are freed by Indulgences, we are not bound to bring forth fruits wor- 
thy of repentance. Nay he goes further, L/&.4. de fummo Pont.Cy. Si 
Papa erraret pr£cipiendo vitia, vel prohibendo virtutes, ttneretur Ecclefia 
credere vilia ejfe bona, & virtutes malaf^ nifi vellet contra confeientiam 
peccsre\ If the Pope (hould err fo as to command vices, and forbid 
virtues, the Church would be bound to believe vices to be good and 
virtues to be evil, unlefs (lie will fm againft Confcience. 

Thus blafphemoufly do they fpeak of the Supereminence of the 
Pope above God himfelf \ and as for all Civil Powers he is abfolutely 
free from them, and much above them all, Vid.text. Vecret. di\\. p6. 
c. 7. Satis evidenter odenditur a fecnlari potejiate non folvi prorfiis nee li- 
gari Pontificem poffejittem conjiat a Conflantino Veum appr-Uatum, cum nee 
Dewn ab hominibm jitdicari manifcliumfitj Since the Pope is god, there- 
fore he cannot either be bound, or loofed by men. Their words are in 
the body of the Canon-Law fet forth by the command of Gregory 15. 

An-, . 

88 The Pope of Rome is Antichrist. Sera. IV. 

An.\ 5p i ."From this it appears that the Pope is above Scripture,Coun- 
"cils, Princes, and all Powers upon Earth, upon the account of his Di- 
* viniry It is common amongtt them at leaft to equalize the Popes De- 
crees to the Holy Scripture -, and that the Popes Decretals are to be ac- 
counted Canonical-, and that the Popes Determinations are to be pre- 
ferred above the Scripture} with many fuch like blafphemies.- See D<r- 
cret, cum ghffli ed, Tug. Ann. i 5 10. Viji.19. &c.6, ~Dift.^o. And which 
is worft of all, they aifert the Scriptures are inferiour to the Popes 
Decrees. Vt fidem non facere, neq$ neceffttatem credendi inducere queant, 
m{x Papa per canonizationem qnam vocant, ivs autboritatem prim imper- 
tiat, Decret. 1,2. tit. 23. de prefumptionibus^ cbap.j. That the Scrip- 
tures have no Authority foas to procure belief of them, unlefs they can 
befirft canonized by the Pope. It is no wonder though the Pope utter- 
cth fuch Blafphemies, fince he is the Head of -that Idolatrous Beaft full 
of Blafphemies, Rev, 13. 5,6. 

Since they will have the Pope to be fuch a Supream Head to the 
Church militant, as Chr ift Qudadinflnxitm interiorem, fo he qnoad in- 
flaxum exteriorem VaUrin£& fidei, Bel. 1,2. de ConciU autboritate, c, 15. 
Since they will have him not only to be equal with Chrift, but above 
him j he being able to redeem Souls out of Purgatory, which Chrift 
never did, and is affirmed by them : Job, Turrecremata and others that 
licenfed the Revelations of Bridget, they let go that paiTage in that 
Book, Bonus 'Gregoriw oratione fua, etiam injidelem C£farem elevavit ad 
altiorem gridum. By whFch it appears that the Pope hath done that 
which Chrift never did} and that the Popes Charity is larger than 
Chrifts, who prayed not for the World, Job, 17.6* but the Pope prays 
for the Damned. Since I fay, they will have their Pope with all thefe 
prodigious Blafphemies, fince they will have their Lord God the Pope 
thus lifting up his Head above Lucifer, let them have Him, and believe 
his Lies and Impofturesifince they reject the Truth whereby they migbt 
befived, let them believe his Lies that they maybe damned, v. 10 Ii. 
§jti Satanam non edit amet tun dogmata Papa, 
The Fifth f.Anticbrift is fet forth by the remnvens probibens,by the taking that which 
Character by hindr^d out of the way ; the tl kat$xw> v. 6. and 3 %&T\yj* v w yXtr^ 
which Anti- yl vn7(Ui Vt j n There was fomething that hindred the Revelation of 
■Known Is the ^ ie ^ an °^ ^ l1 ^ which was to be removed. The Man of Sin could not 
taking out of be brought forth into the World till the Roman Empire was taken out 
the way that of the way, then that wicked One the Pope did rife up to that height, 
which hinder- t j ien Antichriftdid appear in his colours. There is a great confent a- 
mong the Ancients as to this thing ; and Jerome was fo clear and con- 
fident in this thing, that as foon as he heard of the taking of Rome by 
Alarich^ he prefently expected the coming of Antichrift. SccTertul, A4, 
de Refxr. r.24. Ambrof, in Comment, in Ezek. Cbryfoft. Com. in he. Augui. 
/.ip. deCiv.Vei, c.20. Among the Ancients they were fo 'confident of 
this thing that the Church did pray in her Liturgy, That the Roman 


Serm. IV. The Pope of Rome is Antichrist. 89 

Empire might ftand long, that fo Antichrifts coming might be long \ 
lertullian Apolog. 0.32.39. So that the Roman Empire or Emperour, 
who was then in polTeffion of that Power Imperial , kept 
out that Papal power which grew out of irs Ruins. Harex*?, i* 
the fame as Poffidere, I Cor. 7. 30. otdyo^ovru, a\ ^ Kttrixovte* 
the Roman Empire being broken into Ten Kingdoms brought in Anti- 
chrift s fo lertuU £4. de Refurred. 0-24. Paul did not exprcfs the Roman 
Empire by name left he mould bring a Perfecution upon the Church. 
Jerom adAlgafiam, qu.w. Pet. in Molin. Vale, (hews in feveral Inftances 
how the Roman Emperours did keep the Bifhop of Rome from growing 
to that height, as he did upon their being removed out of the way. 

Others take it to be meant oi the Roman Emperour himfelf, and not 
of the Roman Empire at all; for the Roman is not taken out of the way. 
but ftandsontwolegs, viz. the Empire of Turk/, and the Empire of 
Germany. It was the Emperour himfelf,which was Conftantine the Great, 
who removed to Conjlantinople^ then the ?3 h,atIx°v was taken away, 
The Grandeur of the Emperour and of Antichrift could not ftand to- 
gether. AiToon as the Emperour departed from Rome^ Antichrift began 
to be revealed. For when all the Biftiops in the Chriftian World did 
meet at the Council of Nice^ the Bifhop of Rome ( though requefted 
by a Letter ) came not, he pretended old age, and the weaknefs of 
his Body ; But Bellarmine telleth us the true reafbn was, it was not 
meet the Head (hou Id follow the Members, but rather that the Mem- 
bers fhould follow the Head \ and if the Emperour were prefent, it is 
likely he would fit above the Pope, which was not meet, he being the 
Spiritual Heads therefore he did abfent himfelf. Cotton on 1 J oh. 2.18. 
Though they differ as to the Emperour and Empire, to be that which 
hindred, yet they agree as to the Pope, that herofe to his height upon 
the removal of the one or the other out of the way. 

•6. By the notion of a Myftery, as it ftands in oppotition to the My- 6. By the 
flery of Godlincfs, v.7. the Apoftle following the Hebrew way of ex- Myftery of 
preftion, fMv^tov th* dvo^iai, i.e. VoUrina improba vel Myfterinm im- In / < 3 u f ! t ^ 
probum, a wicked Do&rine or Myftery; for the whole Religion of^nd h£ 
Popery as to Faith and Worfhip is fo contrived by them as may moft rife and reign, 
conduce to the fuftaining and advancement of the Popes Power,and the 
gain and profit of the Clergy •, There we rind that to be written in the 
forehead of the Whore, (Rev. 17. 5. ) pvrfipov, as a principal part of 
her Name. Such is the hellifh contrivance of the whole Body of the 
Religion of the Papacy, (in which Satan never (hewed himfelf fo no- 
torious an Impoftor, and Angel of Darknefs. though under the appear- 
ance of an Angel of Light) that it gained upon the whole' World ex- 
ceedingly by the Pope, Satans Vicar, fet forth by the Lamb with two 
Homs, Rev. 13. n. who hath prevailed with all forts of men to re- 
ceive the Mark of the Eeaft, and bow to his Image i v.i 2, 13,14. The 
Religion of Antichrift is carried on in a fubtle cunning way, elfe it 

N could 

9Q The Pope <rf Rome is Antichrift. Serm. IV. 

could not be calkd a Myftery,ar,d a Myftery of Iniquity under the pre- 
tence of Godlinefs \ the great fa&ors in this Myftery are faid to be fe- 
ducers that fpeak Lies in hypocrifie, i Tim. 4. 1, 2. who have f*$f ?»*/*> 
a form of piety, which is the mantle to cover, the blacked abominations 
2 Tim. 3. 1, 5. And Peter fpeaking of fuch Myftical Villanies, 2 Pet. 
2. 1 2,3. tells us how privily they mould' bring in damnable Here- 
fies under the colour of truth. The Religion of Popery which is meer- 
ly to advance the honour and grandeur, profit and intereft of the Pope 
and his Hierarchy, under a pretence of fetting up the name and ho- 
nour ofChrift, have by their Myftical art, and cunning fair plaufible 
' deportment , undermined and overthrown the Religion of Chrift 
up and down the World. Cbamiev I.16. c.S. treating about Antichrift 
and (hewing how by their cunning, Hereiles are made fubfervient to 
him \ faith thus, Htc veto ft aliqua eft Antichrijii nota \ dicam audatter 
aut nullum ejfe Antichriftum, aut Epifiopum Horn, eum effe : This is a fpe- 
. cial note of Antichrift \ Tie fpeak boldly, That either there is no Anti- 
chrift, or the Bimop of Rome is he. 
7. By the 7, gj the manner of his comings v. p, 10. his coming, *>. after he [ s 

manner ^of reveaIed ) an ^ ^ iat which hindred is taken out of the way > his coming 
his coming, together with the influences that it had on the World, and fuch as pe- 
rifh. Hecometh k&t msyHM.n %*tclv£, ' ue , Satan will put'forth his 
utmoft skill in working Miracles by Antichrift. 2. \v ndm JWV« > *5 
<rni/.H0Jt, /. e. his power to work after a wonderful manner, which 
God is pleafed fometime to grant even to the worft of men. He (hall 
work Signs or Miracles, for Signs are taken fo here. 3, Omm po- 
tential it is to be taken for varia potentia^ox a power to work varioufly. 
4. T%«<r/ 4 fiu ^**> an Hebraifm, according to the letter prodigivs menda- 
city lying wonders, or wonderful lies. 5. $ sv sraVa *Wt» «£ ciftKiat, 
tv pro piTA vel <M, with all decehablenefs of unrighteoufnefs j there is a 
double Hebraifm faith Pifcator, Vnm in fignificatioue Synecdochica vo- 
eabuli injuftitU pr$ falfitate Jen mendacio •, alter in ufu nominti ejufdem, 
qmd^cum jltbflantivum fit, bic vim habet epitbeti. Under the name of 
unrighteoufnefs is covered all manner of falfhood and lies, by which 
they do deceive many, and would deceive the very Elecl: if they could, 
Mat. 24. 24. Then 5. w*f > w * w wAaw, for mh&n h\\y*t<n> U. \n$- 
jxf&Vi HypaJlage Heb. We render ftrong delufionpx the delufion of Anti- 
cbrift working ftrongly, fpecially coming under a Judicial tradition from 
• God. This Advent or coming of Antichrift here mentioned is not ta be 
referred to his firft Revelation only, but to his full Revelation, when 
his. Kingdom and Government (hall be fet up in its fplendor and 

He Jh all come with aU the power of Satan. Satan is raoft famous 
for two things, he is Mor'dax &bomicida, Joh. 8,44. for he is an adver- 
fary to Divine Authority,and Mans Salvation ; and both thefe are emi- 
nently feen in the Pope/or he hath brought in falfe Doclrmes,falfe Wor- 

Serm. IV. The Pope of Rome is Antichr/jl. 91 

(hip, and a falfe Religion into the Church •, and by this means he is the 
great murderer of Souls 5 for they are damned that follow his Delufions, 
as appears in the Text. Satan (hews himfelf a lyar when he puts men 
on a ralfe Idolatrous Worfhipinftead of a true*, fo all Idolaters are ly- 
ars Rom. 1.25. They changed the truth of God into a lie, &c. and there- 
fore Idols are called lies, Amos 2. 4. fo Idolaters are faid, to m?ke lies 
their refuge, M under falfhood to hide themselves. But Satan never did 
impofe fuch a lye on the World as in the Idolatrous WoruYip of Rome \ 
there Idolaters and Lyars are put together, Rev. 21. 8. and 27. he that 
worketh abymination and a lye, they are put together *, and Chap. 22. 
15. Idolaters and makers of lyes are put together again. v 

Cum omni potentia -, fome take it of the power of both Swords, Ec- 
clcilaftical and Secular, which the Pope claims, but it rather refpe&eth 
that faculty and power which the Pope the two Homed-Beaft, Rev. 13. 
i2,\^,&c. doth pretend to, and whereby he doth work Wonders : 
The Signs and Wonders here fpoken of, are the ways and means, and 
weapons which Satan ufeth by Antichrift to deceive perfons to their 
deftrucliom this was the way which Satan took by Jannes and Jambres 
to deceive Fharaob and the Egyptians, 2 Tim. 3.8. thefe were a kind 
of types of Seducers which were to come in thefe laft times. 

That this may appear to be a Character of Antichrift, the Papifts 
.themfelve? do grant that Antichrift is to be confirmed with Signs and 
Wonders, Snare z Apol. lih.i. a J. num. 12. Bellarm. de Tout. Ram. 1. 3 . 
c.i 5. Sanders de Antichrifio, Vem. ip, 20, 21,22. If then the Popes 
coming be by Signs and lying Wonders, then he will come under that 
mark of Antichrift by their own con fe (lions. 

That Miracles have been at the firft promulgation of the Scripture is 
mod true for the confirmation of the DivineAuthorityof it,& increafing 
a belief of the Doctrine of Chrift 5 but after that the Gofpel is promul- 
gated, there is no further ufe of Miracles : And therefore when the 
Scripture doth fpeak of Miracles and Miracle-mongers as here ; and 
Mar. 13.22. and Rev. 13.13. Mat.j.22. it is to be underftood of falfe 
Chrifts and falfe Prophets, who (hall come in the name of Chrift, and 
(hall pretend to marvelous things in his name, and (hall deceive many, 
and this is here brought in as a fpecial mark of Antichrift. 

That this Mark is fulfilled in the Papacy, doth appear from them- 
felves, whoboaft very much of their Miracles, and the advancement 
of their Religion,and the confirmation of it by Miracles. The Legends 
of their Saints are full of Miracles, of St.Vominick, St. Francis, Saint 
Benedict, and the Images of the Virgin Mary, and other Saints in their 
Calendars fuch Miracles are called lying Miracles : 1. Becaufe they 
are for the confirmation of falfe Dodtrincs, of Tranfubfhntiation, 
Purgatory, Invocation of Saints, Adoration of.Iroages, and Relicks, 
See. Prayers for the Dead, and the Popes Supremacy, &c. a. Becaufe 
many of them are things meerly feigned to be done which were never 

N 2 donc 5 


g2 TfiePope of Rome if Antichrift. Serm. IV. 

done, or if they were done, they have been brought about by the meer 
artifice of Satan, who is able to do things beyond the reach of men, 
by which he deceives ruch as will be deceived. 3. From the end of 
thefe Miracles which is to deceive men, Mar. 13.22. and here in the 
Text they are framed by feducers for fedudtion, and fuch as will not 
receive the truth wifh that love of it : v.i. They came with aU deceiva- ■ 
blenefs of unrighteoufnejs in them that perifh. 

Their own Authors have fet down multitudes of Miracles : Baron. 
in his Annals : The conformities of St. Francis^ the Golden Legend of 
Jacobus de Voragine, the Sermons of Dormi fecure, the Hiitory of our 
Lady by Lipfius, and BeUarm. de Officio TrincipU, I. 3. with feveral o- 
thers. So that by all this you fee this note will agree to the Antichriftian 
Hate of the Papacy. 
8. By his far g. He is fet out by his fatal ruin, and utter deftru&ion, v.8. Here be 
tal Ruin. two p arts f tn j s verfe. 1. The fir ft looks back on the verfe before, which 
fpeaks of the time of Antichrifts coming upon the removal of what 
hindred', this we have done with. But 2. this latter part points at the 
ruin of Antichrift, and how he (ball be deftroyed. The former part 
had refpeel to our Inftru&ion* the latter is for our Confolation in the-, 
downfall of fo great and publick an Enemy. 

He fets down the principal efficient caufe of his ruin, and that is 
Ghrift at his coming : when Chrift comes to Cct up his Kingdom, and . 
to take to him his great Power and Reign, then he will deftroy And- . 
chrift j Van. 2. 44. #7.14,28. fpecially under the fifth, fixth, and ] 
feventh Vials, Rev. 16. from p. 10. to the end. You have the deftru&i- 
on of the Whore, chap. 18. the overthrow of the Beaft and falfe Pro- 
phet, ch.ip. from 17. to the end •, then you have the binding of Satan 
and the reign of the Saints on the Earth, ch. 20. 1, 2, &c 

2. You have the infirumental caufe, the fpirit of his mouth. Here be 
two words to be cenfidered, 1. x Mct^»ffAh con\nmere\ which notes his - 
gradual confumption by the preaching of the Gofpel, Ifa. 1 1. 4. this is 
the Sword out of his mouthy Rev. ip. 15. By this Sword Chrift doth 
finite the Nations ^ his confumption is gradual as was his rifing, which 
was under the Trumpets, and his fall is under the Vials : the Preachers . 
of the Gofpel have been wafting, wounding and confuming him, fpeci- 
ally fince the Angels with open mouth did declare againft him, Rev. 
14. <5, 7, 8, 9. The Mjniiters of the Gofpel fince the Reformation be- 
gan, have difcovered the Whoredoms, Impoftures, and falfe Do&rines 
of Rome, and the danger of having communion with Rome, and the 
defperate condition of fuch as will not feparate from her, v.$ y io. Ma- 
ny a deadly wound have they given to Antichrift \ fo that he hath been 
wafting like a Snail, as Pfal. 58. 8. till he fnall come to nothing •, not 
by might, nor by power, Rev. 4. 5, 7. but by the Word which he hath 
pretended to rife by,he (hall be deftroyed. 2. Here is x,*T&zyn<r&h which 
notes his utter deft ruction, by the brightnefs of Chrifts coming, when 


Serm. IV. The fope of Rome is Antichrijl. 93 

he (hall come to take to him his great Power, at the founding of the 
feventh Trumpet, Rev. 11. 15. The Text mull be confidarcd under a 
double Capacity* i,As to his Eccleiiaftical ftate,and in his Spiritual Ca- 
pacity as he is fct forth under the notion of a Whore, and falfe Prophet, 
and fo (hall be confumed by the preaching of the Word,and the Sword 
of the Spirit*, and this hath been doing thefemany years, and the work 
is (till carrying on by the Minifters of the Word. 2. He raufi be con- 
iidered in his Politick Secular Capacity, confuting of feveral Kingdoms 
under one fupream Head, which is the Pope •, fo he is fet out by the no- 
tion of the Beaft, Rev. 11. 7. & ch. 13. 1, 2,3. which Bead, the 
Whore, i.e. the Eccleflaftical Hierarchy of Rome rideth, Rev. 17.3. yet 
they both together make up but one Antichrift, as the Horfe and Man 
both together makes up but one Horfeman. Now Antichrift as to his 
Secular Capacity,he (hall be deftroyed with another Sword, Rev. 13.10. 
He that kjUetb with thefword JbaU be killed with thefword. So that the ut- 
ter confumption both of the Beaft and Whore fhall be upon the little 
(tones riling into a great Mountain, which fhall fmite the Image on his 
ket^ and fhall break it to pieces, Van. 2. 34,35. This little ftoneis the 
Kingdom of Chrift, which hath been but Regnum LapidU hitherto, but 
then fhall be Regnum Monti?. 

Perhaps it will be faid,That the deftrudHon of Antichrift(as hath been 
fhewed) can be no mark of Antichrift,by which he may be known,for all 
Enemies fhall be deftroyed by Chrift and by his Word. 

It is true that Chrift will deftroy all his Enemies by his Word which 
cometh out of his mouth, Rev. ip, 15, Sin and the Devil are continu- - 
ally deftroying by the Word * but iince Antichrift is fet forth as. the 
greateft enemy that ever was,and fince the xAntichriftian ftateof it as it is 
in the Ecclefiaftical Hierarchy of Rome, together with the Beaft, Rev. 1 3 . . 
1, 2,&c. are the laft edition of the Fourth Monarchy, and it is on its 
Jaft legs in this ftate ? and it hath moft oppofed the Kingdom of Chrift 
beyond any others therefore the deftrudtion of this State as to the re- 
markabknefs of it fhall go beyond all other States and Kingdoms in the 
World. And therefore it is,that the Vials are prepared for this Enemy in 
a more fpecial manner beyond all others, Rev. 15. 1,2, &c. and cb.16. 
the feven Angels with the feven Vials pour them forth upon the Beafr, 
or fomething of the Beaft. Thus much hath been made good in the 
Papacy in a great meafure already, which may appear by the confeflion 
of Bell jt mine, who telleth us, (Lib.Vont.de Rom. 3. c.21.) That the 
Lutheran Herelle polTelTed almoft all Germany J)enmarl^, Norway, Suevi a ^ 
Gothia, Hitngaria, Vannonia, France, England, Scotland, Volonia, Bo- 
hemia, and Helvetia, and is got over the Alps into Italy. From his con- 
felhon you may perceive what a Confumption there hath been made of 
Antichrift. 9- EyMsFot 

p. Antichrift may be known by his Followers, and the Livery which Retinae, and 
they wear, the black marks and brands upon then: backs, iv io, 11,12. their Live 


94 The Tape of Rome is Antichrift. Serm. IV. 

Here is a damned crew,the Retinue and Followers of Antichrift,having 
this fpecial mark on them, that they be fuch'as (hall perifh. Their Fio- 
perties are i. Negative, Ihey received not the love of the truth that they 
might be faved. 2. Affirmative, they have plea fare in nvrigbteoufnefr. 
3. They are fet forth by fome paffive Properties which are penalties, 
1. Internal, v. 11. ftrong delufions to believe a lye. 2. Eternal, v. 12. 
Damnation ; here be the black marks of Reprobation, by which Anti- 
chrifts Retinue and Followers are fet forth. We do not rind that any 
party of men are under more dreadful marks of Gods hatred than Anti- 
chrifts Followers. See Rev. 13. 8. there they be fet out by the Stigma 
of Reprobation, as perfons left out of the Book of Life. And chap.iJ c . 
p, 10, 1 1. Ibey that rvorjhip the Beaji^ and receive bU mar]^ in their fore- 
bead, and in their hand, they jhall drinh^of the wine of the wrath cfGod, 
&c. and be tormented with fire and brim{ione, &c. And chap. 17. 8. there 
the admirers of the Bead are fuch as are left out of the Book of Life : 
The fame perfons are defcribed here by Paul. 4. They are fet forth by 
a fpecial ad: of God in a way of juft Judgment toward them •> i.e. his 
fending ftrong Delufions to believe lies, by a Judicial Tradition, and 
giving of them up to a fpirit of falfhood to their eternal perdition. All 
thefe which are followers of Antichrift, that wonder after the Beaft,and 
receive his mark, and bow to his Image, who clofe with Popifh falfe 
Doclrines inftead of the true.*, the Holy Spirit exprelTeth them by 
Ik % iH%Avio, 7/.10. i.e. Pertinac iter oblatum repudiarunt\ eft Meiafis,Bezo„ 
They are fuch as wilfully rejedt the true Dodrrine and Worfhip of 
Chrift, and pertinacioufly adhere to the falfe Do&rine, and the Idola- 
trous WorChip of the Pope : And moreover they pleafe themfelvcs much 
in thofe falfe ways of unrighreoufnefs, which are moll: deftruc/tive to 
Souls, and moftdifpleafing to God. 

From all this it appears that the Pope is Antichrift. Indeed if but 
fome one or few Particulars did meet on the Pope or Papacy, we could 
not. argue from them that he were the Antichrift, but when they all 
meet in the Papacy, and generally by common confent of Orthodox 
Writers they faften thefe marks upon the Pope, he will never be able by 
all the skill he hath to efcape the vengeance of God which will follow 
him.. on that account. Dr. TVhitahgr writing againft Antichrift, and 
proving the Pope to be the Antichrift, he names many eminent and 
learned men that have underftood this place, and thofe others in Daniel 
and the Revelation, of the Pope. He tells us of Wicklife (who declared 
the Pope to be Antichrift) who wzspio feculo dcUijftmus. And Luther af- 
firms in his Writings the Pope to be Antichrift : He faith he is potijfimus 
Antichri[his, and that abomination of Defolation that ftands in the Holy 
place. Papa iVe eft Antichrift us, cum fit fpecialU procurator Diaboli, &c 
Non folum fimplex ilia perfona, fed mult it udo pap arum a tempore defeclionis 
Ecclefi£ :> CardinaliumJLpifcoporHm, & fuorum complurium aliorum,ed Anti- 
chrifti perfona compofita, monjlrofa, &c. Catalog. Tellium Verit. He adds 


Serm. IV. The Pope of Rome is Antichrift. 95 

that he was a man, Spiritu Propbetico.& dono interpretandi Scripturis pre- 
dttus admirabtli. Then followed Feter Martyr,Bucer,BuUingerMdaniton, 
Brcntim, Calvin, Oecolampad'M, Mufculm, Beza, Gualter, lUyricus, Da- 
Hits, Junius, Gabriel Porvxol, Philip Morney, George Pacardus in Ve- 
fcriptione Antichrist, Catalogs Tejiium Veritatis^ Rivet, Crakentborp, 
TiUnw, Cbamier, Bifhop VJher in a Letter to Archbifhop Laud, 1635. 
All agree in this Thefis, That the Pope is Antichrift. And Zanchy 
though he differed fomewhat from his Brethren in this point, yet he 
faith in his Mifcellanies, Regnum Pap£, non nego effe Regnum Anticbrijli. 
And he thinks that the Pope is pointed in 2 Tbcf, 2. As for our EngUJh 
men we have many that have publickly tcftified the Pope to be Antichrift, 
as Mr. Fox in his Martyr logy hath noted. The learned Martyr Walter 
Brute maintained it in a large Difcourfe. Richard JVimbleton in a Sermon 
preached at Pauls Crofs 1389. Sir Geofry Chancer in his Plow-mans 
Tale. Lucifer s Letters to the Prelats of England, fuppofed to be writ- 
fen by Wiham Srvinderly Martyr. JFiUiam Tyndal a godly Martyr in his 
Obedience ofaCbrifiian man. The Author of a very Cbrijlian Bifhop and 
a counterfeit Bifhop, 1538. John Bale Bifhop of Ofyris in his Image of 
both Churches, <& templorum iUuftriam Britannia. Mr. Latimer, Mr. 
Bilney, Mr. Rogers, Sletterdon and others, Martyrs. JFiUiam Abbey Bi- 
drop of Exeter in his poor mans Library. Bifhop Jervd in his Defence 
of the Apology of the Church of England. Mr. iba. Beacon in his A&s 
ofChriftand Antichrift, and Mr. Fox in his Meditations on the Apoca- 
lypfis. Mr. Brigbtman on the Apocalypfis. Bifhop Bilfon in his Book of 
Chriftian Subjection, and llnchriftian Rebellion. Dr. Robert Abbot Bi- 
fhop of Sarum,Dr. George Vownbam Bifhop of Derry,Dr.Beard, DxJViUet, 
Dr. Ful\, Dr. Sutcliffe, Dr. Shar*, Mr. Squire, in their fe vera 1 Trea- 
tifes concerning Antichrift: Archbifhop Cranmer did avow publickly ** auc * e^i- 
the Pope to be Antichrift : Archbifhop Parker and Grindal avowed the dem credo ' 
fame: Archbifhop JFbitgifi when he Commenced Doctor at the Divi- juftum^iTe 
nity-Act i^6p, publickly maintained in the Schools, that Papa eft We bonunvjjci 
Antichri[ius : And Archbifhop Abbot afferted the fame, with many o- Cu! Pa P a notti 
thersef our Enzlift) Divines, who have generally held and declared the l% dct man> * 
Pope to U Antichrift. _ ikSf'"" 

I might add the Convocation in Ireland 1615, the Parliament of 
England 3 Jacobin the Synod of Gape in France, feveral Statutes of i5 
R.2.c.<$\ 25 Hen.S. c. 19, 20,21,28. Hen.S. c. 10.37. Hen.%.17. they 
tacitcly define t-he Pope to be the Antichrift. Then our Book of Homi- 
lies, fecond part in the S-ermon for JFbitefunday; and in the fixth Ser* 
mon againft wilful Rebellion determine the Pope to be Antichrift. The 
£ockof Common-Prayer for the Fifth of November^ ftileth the Pope: 
Papifis, and Jefuits a Babylvnifh, Antichriftian Seel; The Author of the 
Book called Eufbius Captivus, who declared againft the Pope as the 
Antichrift to his face, when he was brought before him to be- arraig- 
ned. ArchufiHS de crttt Antichrifti, Philip Nicolai, Chriftopber. Perec 


o6 • The Tope of Rome is Antichrift. Serm.IV. 

Tetter, &c. have faftened the title of Antichrift on the Pope. We find 
in ftory feveral times loud out-crys of the birth of Antichrift,- and ftill 
their eyes were upon the Pope. An: 1106. Prepergentti tells us that 
Pope Pafcbalps was going a Journey into France there to hold a Coun- 
cil, and he heard in his Journey, that it was the common report that 
Antichrift was born 5, whereupon he ftops his Journey and ftaid at Flo- 
rence, but afterwards he went his Journey, defpifing the report, as co- 
ming from contemptible fellows : Though Baronhts tells us, They were 
perfons of no ordinary note who did report it. See Bernard Epift. 56. 
ad Gaud, fridum. Carnoteus, Epift. Sabellic. Ennead. 9. c.4. tells us of 
Prodigies that appeared about that time in the Heavens, a Camel of vaft 
magnitude, and in the Sea which over-Rowed the more an hundred 
paces : thereupon it was that the Bifhop of Florence faid, that Antichrift 
was born then in the year 1 120: There was a Treatife fet forth in the 
name of fome faithful fervants of Chrift concerning An tichrift,in which 
all perfons are awakened to confider of Antichrift, which was manifeft 
in their age in the Pope and Papacy •, thereupon many did feparate from 
the Church of -Rome. : See Bernard Horn, 65, 66, in Cant. Between the 
year 1 160, and 1 170, the world being awakened as with a publick He- 
rald founding a Trumpet about Aritichrifts then appearing.caufed a very 
great feparation of the Waldenfes and Albigenfes from the Church of 
Rome. By all thefe Teftimonies it appears what a general agreement 
there is and hath been among all that have had a favour of the true Re- 
. ligion upon their hearts - , they have ftill agreed in this, though they have 
differed in other points, That the Pope is Antichrift. 

From what hath been faid there be feveral things may be drawn by 
way of Inference, for our practice and inftrudtion. 

1 Infer: From what hath been faid we may fee a reafon of the mi- 
ftakes of fome in their proving the Man of Sin to be the Antichri(t,and 
the Pope to be the fvlan of Sin, from fome places which do not fo pro- 
perly belong to it.They have thought the fame Antichrift to be pointed 
at in Johns Epiftles, 1 Job* 2:18,22. and 1 Job. 4. 3. and 2 Job. 7. 
as here in Pauls Epiftle to the ^heffalomans :Some think the fame Anti- 
chrift to be fet forth by Jobn, as by Daniel, and Paul, and by Jobn in 
the Revelations, who deciphers Antichrift under the notion of a Beaft, 
and a Whore, and a falfe Prophet. The Antichrift pointed at by Jobn 
in his Epiftles hath relation rather to the prediction of Chrift, Mat. 24. 
11, 23, 24. Mir. 13.21, 22. Tbere Jh all arije falfe Cbrifts^&c. We have 
not the name Antichrift but only in Jobn y indeed we have avtikiumoi 
v.\. a word equivalent; Jobn fpeaks of an Antichrift who was then in 
the World, and one prophefied of by Chrift to come fpeedily into the 
World. But Paul writes of one who was wholly to come into the 
World, and for whofe coming there were great obftacles to.be removed 


Serm. IV. The Pope of Rome is Antichrift. 97 

firft. The Antichrifts coming in John is immediately upon a time which 
is called i^ath «£#> i Job. 2.18. And we know that fTnce he is come, it 
is the laft hour or laft time. This cannot refer to the lafr time which re- 
fpecleth the coming of Chrift to judg the World : This laft hour doth 
refer to the Jewim iiate, of which the laft glafs or hour was now running 
and their rural defolation was at hand. Then there were feveral who did 
pretend to be Chrift, and to come in his name $ there was Simon Migte^ 
and Carpocrates, and the Gnojiicks, of whom they were the heads which 
did pretend to Miracles, and Entbnfiafms, and did feduce many. Theft be 
the Antichrifts John fpeaks of in his Epiftles, which were to appear, at 
the Coming of the Lord to Judgment •, I do not mean his laft Coming to 
the judgment of the World, but of his Coming to the final deftru&ion 
of Jerujakm, and the Jewifh Polity and Nation by Fejpafian: of which 
Coming Paul fpeaks, Heb. 10. 25. That was the day approaching in 
which Chrilt came to deft roy that people : It is mentioned by James 5. 
7, 8. which did draw nigh, for then the Lord Jefus was coming againft 
Jeriifilem. From the mifunderftanding of thefe places, and mifapply- 
ing them to Wrong purpofes, hath arifen the mifapprehenfions of the 
Pope's being Antichrift \ for though feveral things in thofe places in 
John's Epiftles do agree to the Papacy, yet the proper defcription of 
Antichrift is to be looked after in Pauls Epiftle to the TbeJJalonians^ &c. 
and in the Revelation, and in Daniel. 

2 Infer. If the Pope be The Antichrift fet forth by thofe bloody cha- 
racters ( as hath been feen )\ if this Body Politick, Head and Members, 
be the Antichriftian ftate, and this ftate is the Papacy, then it cannot 
be the true Church : It is true, Antichrift, Head and Members, are the 
counterfeit of the true Church, and of Chrift the Head, and therefore 
they cannot be the true Church. The Scripture ftill lets out the Anti- 
chriftian ftate in a flat oppofttion to the true,yet ftill under a pretence and 
colour of Faith in, and Love to Chrift : For Antichriftianifm is, myftica 
impietM, pietatit nomine palliata : A myftical impiety, under the cloke of 
piety } fo the Glofs. The falfe Church whereof the Pope is the Head, 
is fet forth by a double Beaft, Rev. 13. 1,2, — 11,12. Both which to- 
gether make up one Catholick Roman Papal Church, the number of 
wliofe name is 666, verf. 18. And the true Church, whereof Chrift is 
the Head, is fet forth by 144000, chap. 14. i. the Square-root being 
12. built on 12 Apoftles : But 25 is the Square-root of 666, and there Mr. Potter in 
is a Fraction in the Root, and one more too there in the Square-root j his 666. 
to let us know, that though the Antichriftian Church may feem as fair 
to fuch as look on it with human eyes, and 666, runs as handfomly as 
144 s but the former is the number of a Man, the whole Church and 
her Religion, being made up of additions and inventions of men. The 
number 666, denotes the Apoftacy of the Church from the Standard 
of Truth. The Square-root of the Apoftolick Church being 12, and fo 
the Apoftacy lies generally in additions tathe Root and Foundation of 

O ths 

9% The Tope of Rome is Antichrifi. Serm. IV. 

the Christian Religion •> they do not reft fatisfied in fundamentals of the 
Chriftian Religion delivered by the 12 Apoftles. The falfe Church is 
fet forth by the Whore, who pretends to be the Spoufe of Chrift, but 
is oppofite to the Virgin-company,Rex;.i4.4. that follow the Lamb. The 
Ecclefiaftical ftate of Rome, or Hierarchy, is fet forth by the falfe Pro- 
phet , Rev. 16. 13, &c. ip. 20. &20. 10. in a flat oppofition to the 
two Prophets, Rev. 1 1. 10. which are the fame with two WitnefTes, 
and two Olive-trees, and two Candlefticks, verf.%,^. Thefe reprefent 
the true Miniftry of Chriit which did prophefie, verf.6. till they fi- 
niflied their Testimony, z^r/T 7. Now whereas it is faid that they are a 
true Church, veritate entitatif, but not Moris \ they- yield the Caufe, 
becaufe the queftion is not whether they be true and real men and wo- 
men which are members of the Church of Rome ; but whether they be 
members rightly qualified, as to their moral, and fupernatural Princi- 
ples which makes them a true Church ? 

How can that be a true Church, whofc Head is the Man of Sin, &. 
who hath all thofe black and hellifh characters belonging to him? Such a 
Church cannot be founded on the 12 Apoftles-, Therefore that cannot 
be a true Church, which hath the. Abaddon and Apollyon for the Heads. 
How can that be a true Church, which is fo oppofite to the true Church 
both Head and Members ? 

3. Inference. If the Papal An tichriftian ftate, be fuch a Body, Head 
and Members ( as hath been (hewed ) then we may hence learn, 
i. our Danger, 2. our Duty. 1. Our Danger if we continue in that 
Church. It muft needs be a very dangerous thing for any to continue 
a member of that Church, or to have Communion with her : Such are 
under the energetical Influence and Seduction of Satan, and the Judicial 
Tradition of God, that fince they reject the truth in the love of it, they 
are given up to believe a lye, that they may be damned. They are un- 
der themoft dreadful commination, Rev. 14. 9, 10, 11. They are a peo- 
ple marked out for utter deftruction, as being rejected by him, Rev. 13. 
8, and 17. 8. 2. We may learn our Duty to make hafte out of that 
Church. All fuch as keep up Communion with Rome^kt them hearken 
to that Call, Rev. 18. 4. Come out of her, &c. The Argument is taken 
from the Danger s this feparation is no Schifm, it being a feparation 
from that Church, which is Apoftatized from the Faith, and Truth of 
Chrift. As foon as ever the people of God came to be awakened, and that 
the light of the Gofpel began to fpring forth, they prefently faw their 
danger if they continued in that Church, and immediately performed 
their duty, and departed from her. 

4. Inference. If the Papal Antichriftian ftate be fuch a Body as hath 
been (hewed, then it fhould be ferioufly confidered, how any living 
and dying in the Faith and Religion of that Church can be faved, 
Rev. id. 3. Every living Soul died in that Sea of Ordinances ( as fome 
take it J of that Church, which is as the Blood of a dead man\ as it 


Serm. IV. The Tope of Rome is Antichrift. 99 

was ( Exod. 7. 17, 18. ) when the Pvivers were turned into Blood, all 
the Fi(h died. The whole Religion of the Antichriftian Church is made 
up of falfe Doctrines, idolatrous Worfhip, fuperftitious Ceremonies, 
Traditions, and Inventions of men, by which they make void the Law 
of God, Matt. 15. 6. and fubvert the Truth of the Gofpel. How any 
( holding their Religion as it is fo formed by the Man of Sin ) can be 
laved in it, I cannot fee. In all the defcription of the Man of Sin, the 
Son of Perdition, there is nothing that hath any tendency to Salvation : 
Look on the Church of Rome and her Hierarchy as (he is fet forth by the 
Spirit of God, and it is ftill let forth in the mod black and odious co- 
lours of a Beaft with feven Heads and ten Horns, and by a Beaft with 
two Horns like a Lamb, but fpeaks like a Dragon ; Rev. 13. 1,2, & 1 1, 
12, &c. And by the great Whore that rideth the Beaft, Rev. 17. 1,2, 
and 5,<5. Here is nothing but mifchief and ruine to Souls from this 
Church, as fet out by thofe Types, as alfo under the notion of a falfe 
Prophet, and Seducer of the Souls of people to their Perdition. Some 
of the Church of Rome have much doubted, whether the Pope and 
Cardinals C which are the Head and Pillars of their Church ) fhall any 
of them be faved* Boccatius brings in a Monk faying thus : Tapcts & 
Cardinales, & Epifcopos nm pervenire ad falutem per dotlrinam iftam y 
qttam palamvidemw, eos fervares fed aliam habere penes je, quam clan- 
culum obfervant, nee alivs facile communicant : quidpotuit verius dici^ eos 
per iftam, qu£ illis eft in uftt y non pojje firvari. Boccatius himfelf, looks 
on the Pope, and Cardinals, and Bifhops, according to the Doctrine 
they held forth to the World, as perfons which (hall never be faved •, 
unlefs as the Monk faith, they have fome other Doctrine which they 
keep to themfelves, in which they look for Salvation : He on all their 
Religion to be a meer Shew and Pageantry, and refined Paganifm. 
l'ie propound but an Argument or two to confirm this Inference. 

1. They which lay the main ftrefs of their Religion, on the rotten 
foundation of thellniverfal Headfhip of thePope,and do believe it as an 
Article of their Faith, they cannot build their eternal Salvation upon 
fuch a weak foundation ', there being no other foundation but that 
which is laid, Chrift Jefus, 1 Cor. 3. 11, 12. But fo do they of the 
Church of Rome^ they built their Religion on this foundation of the 
Headfhip of the Pope, to whom they give what peculiarly belongs to 
Chrift, with Supremacy, Soveraignty, Univerfality, and Infallibility. 
They which rob Chrift of his Crown and Jewels, and put them on the 
Popes triple Crown for him to wear, and lay the greateft weight 
on this bufTnefs, they cannot be-faved while they reft there •, But fo do 
the Papills : Therefore. &c. the Tope fits in the temple of God, as God y 
2 Thefi 2. 4. and he is believed to have thofe excellencies which belong 
to Chrift. BeUarmine faith, The Pope is the llniverfal Spoufe of the 
Church: And Augnft. Beroius faith, He is is the foundation of Faith, 

O 2 the 

j C0 The Top^ of Rome is Anttchrijl.' Serm. IV. 

the Caufc of Caufes, and Lord of Lords. And Baldus faith, He is the 
living fountain of all righteoufhefs, &c. 

2. They which believe as an Article of their Religion , that the 
Church, or the Head of it is above the Scripture fas hath been fhewn 
before, and by my Brethren in their difcourfes ) they cannot be faved 
in that way > becaufe no Man can know certainly, where his Salvation 
is to be had, fince it is (by their Tenets) in the Power of the Pope, to 
alter or add, as he (hall think fit. The Pope fet out by the tWG-Korned 
N Bead, that fpeaks like a Dragon, Rev. 13. 1 1, Z7*a h the fame with the 
falfe Prophet, he takes to him the Authority of Chrift, and more than 
Chrift doth exercife, to make new Articles of Faith, to kt up a new 
Worfhip in the Church, and to impofe it upon all upon pain of death, 
banifhment, excommunication, Rev. 13. n, 12, i$^&c. This Beaft 
which reprefents the Hierarchy of Rome, exercifeth all the Power of 
the fir ft Beaft, verf. 12. which was given him by the Dragon : verf. 4. 
So that he isSatans Lieutenant and Vicar-General, efpecially in taking 
fuch a Power and Authority above the Scripture *, and this muft be be- 
lieved as an Article of their Faith. Let fuch confider, how they can be 
faved in that Religion. 

3. That Church which is caft off of God and muft not be meafured 
as refuting to come under the Rule of the Word, is fuch which none 
can be faved in •> But fuch is the Church of Rome, Rev. 1 1. 2,3. There 
is that Church ( u e. Head and Members, and all the Offices, and Or- 
dinances, Inftitutions, Doctrine, Worihip and Government ) are all 
caft out, as falfe, as having no Authority, or the Stamp of Chrift upon 
them : Though they will plead anlntereft in Chrift, asM*^. 7. 22. yet - 
Chrift will utterly difown them •, though they will cry the Temple of 
the Lord, the Temple of the Lord, &c. yet they are caft out, and given 
to the Gentiles to be troden under foot by the Gentiles. In regard that 
Home having Apoftatized from the Religion , and pure Worihip of 
Chrift, hath brought into the Church and publick Worfhip thereof, 
Pagan Idolatry under new names, of worshipping of Angels, and 
Saints, or Demons, 1 Tim. 4. 1, 2. That Church which is thus caft off 
of God, and his pure Worfhip is caft off by them, as being like the 
Man of Sin, or being the Man of Sin, Head and Members j I do no*t 
fee how Salvation is to be had in that Church as fuch, thus difallowed 
by God, as you have heard : Therefore it is that the Churches of 
Chrift have caft her orT\ and as Bifhop White in his anfwer to the Jefuir, 
faith, we have caft off the Pope, and his Teaching, for no other Caufe, 
but that we.are allured he is Antichrift, and his Faith is Herefie. If 
their whole Church and Worfhip be caft out by God, as being under 
no Scripture-Rule \ then the true Religion, true Faith, true Worfhip, 
are not to be looked for in them, and by confequence, the Salvation of 
Souls is not to be expected from them. 

5, Infer 

Serm. IV. The Pope of Rome is Antichrijl. ici 

5. Infer. If the Pope or the Ecclefiafiical Hierarchy of Home, be (hat 
Antichriftian (late which you have heard fet forth, and there is a My- 
ilery of Iniquity in their Religion and Worfhip, and they are under 
(uch black marks of reprobation, that do joyn with them in Communi- 
on, then it is fit that all Chrillians (hould be acquainted with the My- 
fiery of Iniquity in fome mcafurc, and (hould (tudy^asthe grounds of 
the true Chrif.Un Religion, 10 the feeming pretences, and falfe princi- 
ples, and abominable practices of the Antichrillian Religion. 

1. Wefhould be acquainted with them, kit we be deceived through 
ignorance, and overtaken with the devices of Satan \ which Paul men- 
tioneth, 2 Cor. 2. 1 1. and that we may be delivered from being plun- 
ged in the deeps of Satan, fpoken of Rev. 2.24. Are not the Nations 
deceived by them? Rev. 20. 3. Doth not the World worfhip the Dra- 
gon, and bow to the Image of theBeatt, or receive his Mark, or have 
the name of the Beaft, or the number of his Name ? Rev. 13.3,4,15, 
16, 17. Do not the Kings of the earth commit Fornication with the 
Whore ? And are not the Inhabiters of the earth Drunk with the Wine 
of her fornication? Rev. 17.2. And all this becaufe they do not 
know the iropoltures of that Church in their Religion. Surely the 
Spirit of God would not have fet out this Church under the notion 
of the Man of Sin, and thofe feveral Beafts in the Revelations and 
elfewhere > but that it was intended we (hould know them to avoid 
them. How exprefs and punctual is Taxi, in fetting forth the Apollacy 
of the latter times ? 1 Tim. 4. 1, 2, 3. He fets out both the way of their 
deceits and the initruments. i. He tells us of feducing Spirits., 2. The 
Doctrine of Devils. 3. They fpeak lies in hypocrify. 4. They are 
under a feared Ccnfcience, and care not what they fay or do, to pro- 
mote the Holy Catholick Church of Rome, as they call her. 

2. W T e (hould itudy their Myfteries, elfe ( if we (hould be called to 
furTer ) we dial) not be able tofurTer on a clear, and comfortable ac- 
count, as they Rev. 1 1. 7. and chap. 13.7. They furTered becaufe they 
would not comply with the Man of Sin, in his Religion and Wormip, 
nor conform to them, nor have Communion with them, as they did, 
Rev. 13. 3, 4, 14, 1 5. Thofe in verf.j. furTered on that account. 

3. We mull know thofe things, elfe we (hall not be able to joyn in 
the Triumphant Song of Mofes and the Lamb, upon the pouring forth 
the Vials on this Antichriftian ftate. They onlyftandon the Sea of Glafs^ 
having the Harps God, and fin g the, Song of Mofes, and which have 
gotten the v ill ory over the Be a ji, and over hU Image, and over his mar}^ y 
and over the number of hps Name, Rev. 15.2. they are perfons well feen 
in the deceits and impoituies of that Church. 

4. The Saints and Martyrs could not have born fo noble a Teftimony 
agatnft the Man of Sin , in following the Lamb wherever he went, 

&ev. 14. 3 i 4. And were and are at open defiance againft them, declaring 
their detection of their Religion and Worftiip, verf. 8. p> io» 

un- - 

102 The Tope of Rome is Antichrift. , Serm. IV. 

unlefs they did well know what they did. Indeed thePapifts tell us 
we need not fearch into thofe things. The Rbemijis in their Annota- 
tions, on Afts 1.7. fay it is not needful to fearch into the times of An- 
tichrift, &c. But Dr. Ful\ anfwereth them, that it is necefTary for us 
to know the coming of Antichrift as God-hath revealed him. But the 
Minifters of Antichrift would have no enquiry made of him, left they 
mould be found in See of Rome, the Weftern Babylon \ They would 
have us be ignorant of this point, and keep us in the dark, left we 
mould fee their frauds. Bellarmine de pontif. Rom.in prtfat. calls that 
point of the Pope, fummam reiCbriftiane, the very fum of the whole 
bufinefs of a Chriftian : And Malvei-ida de Anticbriflo, faith, he ftudied 
that one point twelve years. They count it a point moft worthy to be 
ftudied, but they would keep the World in d^rknefs and ignorance > 
left if their Impofturcs fhould be detected, they would be abhorred, 
and their whole Religion being found to be a mere Delufion, it would 
bean Execration. And that will come to pafs, by the difcovery of fur- 
ther light of the Gofpel, by which the prodigious enormities of that 
Church, and the pudenda of the Whore will be made manifeft to all the 
World 1 that ( I fay ) will come to pafs which is prophefied of, Rev. 
17, 16. The ten horns --foali bate the whore, and make her de folate, and 
nailed, andjhalleatherflejh, and burn her with fire. They (hall Cart her 
as the mother of abominations i as a common f trumpet throughout 

6. If the Papacy, the Hierarchy of Rome, of which the Pope is the 
Head, be fuch as hath been defcribed by Paul, then there can be no 
peace with Rome, no Communion with Rome : How can there be Peace 
faid Jehu to J or am, 2 Kings p. 22. as long as the Whoredoms of Jeze- 
bel are fomany ? What peace can there be with that Church which is 
the Mother of Harlots, and abominations of the earth? Rev, 17.5. 
What peace can there be with that Body Politick, which is the greatefr 
enemy of Jefus Chrift upon earth ? What peace can there be between 
the followers of the Beaft, Rev. 13. 3,4, 15, 16, Sec, and us adorers 
and admirers, and the followers of the Lamb? Rev. 14. 1, 2,3,4. They 
are flatly oppofite the one to the other, the one having the mark of the 
Beaft in their right hand and foreheads •, the other the name of the Fa- 
ther, and of the Lamb. (To fome Copies have it ) written in their 
foreheads, who did own and publifh defiance to each other : So that 
we mayfay as it is^ 2 Cor. 6. 16. What agreement hath the Temple of 
God with Idols? And verf.i^. 15. What Communion hath light with 
darknefs, Chrift and Beliak Chriftians and Antichriftians, Truth and 
FaKhood, the Church of Rome with the Proteftant Churches together > 
Biftiop Hall in his Book, No Peace with Rome, faith, Sooner may God 
create a new Rome, than reform the old. There was a reconciliation 
attempted by the Emperours, Ferdinand, and Maximilian > and Caf- 


Seim IV. lie Tope of Kowe is Antickrijt. 103 

finder by their appointment drew a Projed, in which he (lie wed his Ada CoUoeft 
judgment, but without fuccefs. Conftdtat. Cajfindri. It is faid, that at R*tisb$n. An. 
a meeting at Regenfpnrgb, there was an agreement made touching Free- J*JJ^ ^ 
will, Original Sin, J unification, Faith, Merits, Difpenfations, the Mafs, r dd pacts, pr*. 

&c. but this held not. fat. 

The chief 
faftours of the Church of Rome, are bitcerly fee againft all reconciliation. See B*//*ra. jfr Gr<#. & 
lib.irbit. He faith, that we embrace this opinion fo much the more willingly, by how much it 
difplcafeth our adverfarics, and efpecially Calvin. And Mildonat. in c. 6. job. was fo much ab- 
horring from the Religion of the Proteitants maintained by Calvi^ that he faith, That though 
what lie held was the fame opinion with Auflin and others of the Fathers, yet he rejected it be- 
caufe it was held hy Cilvin. 

7. If thefe things be fo concerning the Papacy as hath been faid.then 
there is matter of admiration and gratitude to all fuch whom God hath 
delivered from compliance with or conformity to, or Communion with 
that Church, of which the Pope, which is the Man of Sin, the Son of 
Perdition, is the Hcad,n>bofe coming rt after the workjng of Sjtan&:. v.p, 
Whofe MemberV:?re under his powerful Sedu<ftion,and~the judicial Tra- 
dition of -God to believe a lie to their own eternal damnation, v. 10,11, 
12. Their condition muft needs be moll dangerous, who are. Mem- 
bers of that Church > and therefore it is the greater mercy to he faved'; 
from that Seduction which thoufands are under, whofe Names are not 
written in the Lambs booh^ of life, Rev. 13.8. & 17. 8.. They are under 
the black notes of Reprobation : To be faved from being of their Com- 
munion who worfhip the Bead, or his Image, and to be. of that com- 
pany of the Hundred forty-four thoufand who are Virgins, and follow-- 
the Lamb where ever he goes, is worthy of eternal Praifes. When we 
find fuch as are under the Seduction of the Man of Sin, the falfe 
Prophet, and the Whore, to be under the moft fearful comminations 
from God, Rev. 14.P, 10, 11. how they that drink of the Wrath of 
God, and in the pretence of the. Lord and his holy Angels for ever and 
ever \ Is it not matter of very great admiration and praifes, that wt 
(hould be faved from their fin, and (o delivered from their plagues. 

8- If the Church of 'Rome, of which the Pope is the Head, be fuch a> 
Body, fo corrupt and abominable as hath been (hewed, then it is dan- 
gerous and pernicious, to retain any relick of the Man of Sin, that 
falfe, erroneous, idolatrous Church, in Doctrine, Worfnip, or Go- 
vernment, which they have pretended to be according to the Word of~ 
God, but have wrefted the Scriptures to. their own deftrudtion, as 2 
Pet. 3. \6. It is dangerous to retain fuch cuftoms and. ufages in. the. 
Church, whereby we may Symbolize with Rome, How fatal feveral. 
things have been to the publick peace of the Church, which have beca's 
derived from Antichrift is too well known, from the diviflons, conten- 
tions, and perfections which have continued to this day. By thefe 
very means, the Papacy together with their Religion, have had a party, 



i j^ the Tope of Rome is Atttichrijl. Serm. IV; 

and kept up an intereit among the Proteftant Churches, and alfo a fa- 
vourable refpeft among many, who have had a fecret affection for the 
Pope and his Religion. Such will not have it that the Pope is Anti- 
chrift s and they will needs have it that the Church of Raw* is a true 
Church : And that (he is the Mother-Church, and that we ought to re- 
turn to our Mother, with fuch like. What was the caufe that the Book 
of Articles of the Church of Ireland was called in, but becaufe they 
declare the Pope to be Antichrift, and the Church of Rome to be no true 
Church, and that the Lords day was wholly to be fan&ified. So Mon- 
tague in his Apello adC<efirem. faid, The Pope or Bifhop of Rome, per- 
fonally is not The Antichrift, nor yet the Eifhops of Rome Succeffively. 
Dr. Heylin in his anfwer to Burton, maintaineththat the Pope is not An- 
tichrift. Chriflopher Dove, and Robert Shelford were of the fame mind. 

p. Hence it follows that theProteftant Churches are unjuftly charged 
with Schifm in departing from Rome : the Papifts charge us with Schifm 
becaufe we depart from them,and will not holdCommunion with themj 
though there was the moft juft caufe of this departure from them, i . In 
regard they are heretical in their Dodhine, and obfiinately perfift in it, 
againft all convictions to the contrary, for there have been attempts 
made to have healed Babylon, but (he would not be healed, Jer. 51. 8,p. 
therefore for fake her. Him that is an Heretic}^ re) M^&c. lit, 3.10. 
2. When a Church becomes idolatrous in her Worfhip, as 2 Cor. 11. 16. 
then it is a duty to depart from them that depart from the Truth: upon 
Jeroboams defection and the peoples with him from the true Worlbip of 
God, there was a departure from them, by fuch as fet their hearts to feek 
the Lord God oilfrael. The Church of Rome became moil: corrupt and 
abominable in her Worfhip, elfefhe had not been fet out by the Whore 
riding the Bead, Rev.ij. 3. 3. When a Church becomes bloody, and 
tyrannical, and perfecuting her Members to the death, then there is j.uft 
caufe of departing from them. Look on the Church of Rome fet fortfi by 
the firft and fecond Bcaft, Rev. 13 . 1, 2,— 1 i,&c. both which mafte up 
one Antichrift ^ fee how cruel and bloody that Church is : So whejYit 
is fet out by the Whore, Rev. 17. 5, 6. drunk with the blood of Sajnts, 
there is fignified a juft caufe of departure from her. 4. When a Church, 
groweth wholly corrupt and debauched in her Morals, very vicious and 
fcandalous in the lives of Governours and Members, then depart, 2 Tim. 
3. V"5, there ip abominations,or thereabout,fpoken cf,of which many 
(hould be guilty, from fuch turn away \ though they had a form of God- 
linefs, fince they did deny the power of it. Lie make no apology that I 
have put your patience fo much to it, but this, That the Man of Sin, with 
whom I have had to do, is the moft unruly Bcaft that ever was, and bath 
put the whole World into a diforder and confufion. And though I have 
cxercifed your patience while I have been Preaching on this Bead \ yet I 
wifh and pray that your patience may not be put to it by this Beaft, as 
Rev. 13.7. But if it fhould pleafe God to let loofe this Beaft upon you, 
my prayer is, that it may be faid of you, as it was of them, verf. 10. Be- 
hold the Faith and Patience of the Saints. SERM. 

I I 

« — . ■ - ■ 

S M 

The SCRIPTURE to be read by the 

Common People. 

THE Controverfie before us is, Whether the Scriptures are 
to be read and heard, of, and by the Lay-people ? and whe- 
ther they are to be tranilated into the Vulgar Tongues ? 
the Papitts deny, we affirm. My buiinefs will lye in three 

I. That the People are to hear and read the Scriptures. 

II. That therefore the Scripture is:the Word of God was written for 
them, and to them. 

III. Therefore it is to be tranflated into Vulgar Tongues. 

The firft is an exprefs Precept h the fecond is a reafon to prove the 
fir ft-, the third is an Inference from both. 

And ferioufly when I have been mufing upon this que/Hon, I profels 
heartily I have been furprized with amazement, how fuch a Contro- 
verfie fhould arife amongft Chriftians rif Chriftians). Might not a man 
as well difpute whether a Carpenter mould have his Line and Rule to 
work by ? or a Soldier wear his Sword in the mid A of Enemies ? Shall 
I queftion whether the Air be neceffary fox Breath, ox Bread for Life, 
or the Light of the Sun for our Secular Affairs ? Sure enough the Word 
of God is all this, aMinod perfect, a Sword moll vidtorious^ Air 
mod fragrant, Food molt wholfome, and Light moit clear *, the Word 
of an Angel prccifely confidered, is no ground for Faith, nor Rule for 
life, duty, and worfhip. The Word of God read and heard (faith our 
Church) is fo great a good, that the benefits arifingtherehence are inex- 
preffible, unconceivable } the Bible (faith that painful, pious, learned Bi- 
fhop Hooper) Why, (faith he) God in Heaven, and the King in Earth hath 
not a greater friend than the Bible, in his Epiftle Dedicatory to King 
Edward the Sixth. But Khali fay no more of thefe, nor of any Prote- 
ftants, becaufe they are parties, and therefore their Teftimony,though 
mofi true,is not proper. This W T ord is for the Soul, and is not the Soul 
more than Life ;> this light is to give the knowledg of the Glory of God 

P in 

io6 The Scriptures to he read by the Common-People. Serm.V. 

in the face of Jefus ChrifU and is not this infinitely beyond all our natu- 
ral and civil concerns ? all thefe things here below, cither within us or 
without us arc fhort-lived and vexation, but this makes a Man wife, 
and that to Salvation,and that through the Knowledg of and Faith in 
our Lord Jefus.And aftef all this and much more that might be faid con- 
cerning this treafury of all Wifdom and Knowledg,fhall it beaqueflion 
. whether the People fo highly concerned in thefe things , (hall they hear 
or read the Scripture?this is to me is wonderful-, But the quefHcm is put 
beyond all queftion as to our adverfaries, 'tis defined, determined by 
the Council (sls they call it J of Trent in the negative, that the Lay* peo- 
ple Hull not read, or hear the Scriptures read, no, nor have a Bible in 
the Vulgar Tongue under great Penalties - , nay, the Prieft reads it not in 
their publick Worfhip. The words are thefe, Si quti legere ant habere 
pr gfumpferit ; If any (hall prefume to read or have a Bible*, what then ? 
why, the penalty is this, abfolutionem peccatcrum percipere non pojfet •, he 
may not,nay he cannot,be abfolved from his fins,they exclude fuch a man- 
from remiiEon of his finsj it feems the reading of the Bible is a fin un* 
pardonable.The people are taught to believe, That what the Pope binds 
on Earth is bound in Heaven j fure then (I judg this muft be the fence 
of the Canon, (viz ) If a man that reads the Scripture, or hath a Bible 
in his Houfe comes to confeilion and is abfolved, that Abfolution is in- 
valid *, he is not fubjetlum capaxjne doth ponere obicem, there is a bar lies 
in his way to hinder his Abfolution, and that bar is his reading or ha- 
ving the holy Bible. My reafon is this, though he had a thoufand Bi- 
bles, and did confefs it to the Prieft as his fault, he would abfolve him, 
and the Abfolution would (land good* fo that to have a Bible and read 
it, puts a man into the flate of Damnation, and no man can read 
the Scriptures but under the greateft penalty, fc. under the pain of 
Damnation. By this Trent Conciliabulum, Conventicle, yon fee,Wo be 
to the Bible, and all the friends thereof} Bened. Furret in his Preface to 
the Index, Lib. Prob.& expurg.tdls us, that Mifericordi* erga Dei librum 
ntillm locus eft ■■> There is no place of mercy left to the Book of God: Men 
fly from the Gofpel (faith he) in the Italian or Spanijh Tongue, Pefte 
citim, fafter than they would run from the plague of Peftilence. 

But you will fay the Councils prohibition of the Bible is with a limi- 
tation, viz. If you have a Bible without a licenfe from the Bifhopv 
they do not forbid licenfed men the reading, and therefore wrong them 

I anfwer, 'tis true they do (peak to that purpofe, I will not wrong 
them; but give me leave to do the truth and you right by telling you, 
that their pretence of a licenfe is a very flam^ a meer gullery , an abo- 
minable cheats as I (hall fnew you in its place. 

Further, that this Book may not fpread abroad, theH/gh-Prieft and 
Elders in this Council ftraitly charge and command all Book-fellers and 
all Dealers in Books, that they fell not or any other way part with any 


Scrm. V. The Scriptures to be read by the Common-People. 1 07 

one of thefe Books to any perfon upon the forfeiture of the price of the 
faid Books, and to undergo all other punifhment according to the arbi- 
trium, will and pleafure of the Bifhop. I confefs this is drawn up very 
cunningly with much craft, as indeed all their Doctrines are expreffed 
with artifice and fubtilty. But if you read the Mandate of the Archbi- 
ihop of Toledo by the Authority otPaul the fifth, there the punifhment 
is this, fc. For the firjitime hejhallhe punifbed, fufpenfbne Officii, fufpen- 
fwnfrom hit Office, lofs of his trade for two years, banifhment twelve miles 
from the Town, ubi Bibliopolium habuit, for two years, and fined izoo 
Ducats , MiHe ducentorum Ducatcrum multta puniendus '-> this fcr the firft 
fault. But for the fecond time, ft reeidat, then ihcpunijhment to be dou- 
ble d, and othir pinifhments, ex Inquifitoris arbitrio eroganda, according 
to the will of the lnquiftor •, and all this, Si qui* habere aut emere vel ven- 
dere aufit •, if any dare befo hardy as to have, or buy, or fell a Bible, And 
thofe Traders that are not fo skilful as to underftand the Catalogue of 
Books prohibited, mud either take a man of skjUinto their Shop, oxjhut 
up their Shop-windows; for whofoever fhall offend in this cafe, though 
per negUUum, or ignorantiam, a pcena, nulla ratione exemptum />/', though 
they offend through negUVt or unskjlfulnefs JhaU not be exempted from punijb- 
ment upon any account whatfoever. And Paul the fifth by his Breve fub 
annulo ?j]catorvi dated at Borne, 1612, forbids all perfons, Ne legant 
aut teneant, that they (hould not read or hgep thofe Books under the punifh- 
ment of the greater Ex communication, and. other Cenfures \ but bring them 
by, a certain day to be prefixed by the holy lnquiiitor General, into the 
holy Office of the Inquifition *, and accordingly the faid Inquifitor in his 
Pontificalibus fpecifies in his Mandate this to be done within ninty days, 
all Books prohibited in the Index to be brought into the Office: Now a- 
mongft the Books in the Index, which are prohibited by Pontifical 
Authority, the Bible is the fpecial BooJ^ forbidden. And to make all fure 
as much as may be by men and others, there are towards a hundred of 
Latin Verfions of the Bible prohibited in this. Catalogue -■> and to be 
yet more fure that the Bible of all Books may not efcape, this lnquiii- 
tor General by the Popes Authority doth call in not only Books 
prohibited in the Index, but Librum aut hbros in Regulis Generalibus 
comprehends; Bool^or Books comprehended in the General Rules. Now the 
four-th Geneial Rule Cobferve I pray) is made folely againft the Bible in 
any vulgar Tongue, they are not to be endured j nay againft any parts 
of it, as fuppoie fome of Davids Pfalms, or fome of Pauls Epiftles > 
nay, whether they be printed, or written, j?z^ excufa, five manufcripta\ 
nay, ^\\ Summaries or brief heads of the Bible ', my.flttaHtumvti hijiorica, 
although it be a Compendium of the Hiftorical parts of it, all is for- 
bidden. And if any man of what calling or dignity foever, be he Bifhop 
or Patriarch, be he Marqwfs or Duke, (where is the Tradefman or Far- 
mer,or Gentleman now ?j if any of thefe fhall dare the contrary, they 
are retells to our Mandate, immorigeri, difobedient to holy Church, and 

P 2 (hall 

\ o3 *?he Siripiure to he read by the Common-People. Serm. V, 

fhall be fufpect of Heretical pravity ; and I promife you that is a fair 
way to the Inquifition *, i.e. the lofs of liberty, pains of the body 5 for- 
feiture of goods, and lofs of life ut plurimum. 

Objecl:. But whatever you fay^ the Council doth permit reading the Bible 
. in the Vulgar Tongue, provide d yott have a licenfe. 

An fo. I told you before, this licenfe was a meer blind, a fallacy, a 
flam : But becauie I am in hand with my Author.and to ftay your fto- 
machs till I come to handle this in its due place, for prefent I will only 
tell you this, (viz.) , That Pope, Paul the fifth in his Breve lately quoted 
doth recal all fuch Licenfes. I will give you the fum of it, it begins 
thus, Ad futuramrei memoriam; Since as we underhand the Licenfes of 
reading the Bookj of Heretickj, orBooksfufpetledofHerefie, or Books o- 
therwife prohibited and condemned, /'there comes in the Bible) ; ob- 
tained under certain pretences^ do too much increafe in the Kingdoms of 
Spain, (in Kegnis Hifpaniarum), and underftanding, that there is more 
danger to the unlearned than profit to the learned, by, and from the [aid Li- 
cenfes^ we therefore upon whom the burden of watching over the Lords 
fiochjs incumbent, being willing to provide afeafonable remedy, and walking 
in the fteps of our PredecefTbrs Popes of Rome Cmark that for anon), 
we do annul, caffe, revoke, Irritamus & viribus penitus evacuamus , 
utterly makf void all fuch Licenfes, Faculties and Grants, and by the te- 
nour of thefe prefents we do decife and declare the fame to be caffate, void 
and null, eafque nemihi fujfragari pojfej granted by whomfoever, whether 
our Predeceffors, our Selves, our Penitentiary. Ordinaries, orBifhops whom- 
foever, and granted to what per fons foever, whether Abbots, Patriarchs 
Marqueffes, Du\es, or any other perfons Ecclefiaflicl^,or Mundane--, qua- 
cunque autoritate fulgeant, whether they have had their Licenfe by 
Letters Apo{fokcal, in form of a Breve under the Seal, or any other pe- 
culiar way to make the Licenfe firm and lafting, we revoke and annul 
all to the utmoft. 

No n obftanttbus conftitutionibus, Ordinauonibus Apoftolicvs, any Con* 
ftitutions and Ordinations Apoftolical to the contrary in any wife notwith- 
standing, under the pains and cenfures of the Church to the higheji \ 6c in- 
vocato (1 opus eft brachio feculari, {i.e. under the penalty of a Jayl^ a 
Dungeon,a Faggot)-, and we command Att>Archbifhops. &c; to take care 
that thefe ourLetters be forthwith pub lifbed in allProvinces,C?ties,Di#ceJfesh 
abftfue alia requifitione els defuper facienda, i.e. without demur-ring,difpu- 
ting, demanding why or wherefore. Here is fure work, not a crevife, 
a chink left unftopped. Do you not fee what care here is taken to fap- 
prefs all Licenfes, nay though under the Popes Seal> See what a roar- 
ing Bull here is, and what is your Licenfe now,Tpray> a Fig-leaf. In 
the midft of this Bceve his Holinefs gives a Mandamus to the Inquifitor- 
General, the Archbi(hop of Toledo to profecute this Breve to the ut- 
ir.o'i, not to fufTer any perfon though never fo great to have or keep, or 
seaclor buy, or fell a Bible \ v;hich accordingly he did execute,as before. 


Scrra V. The Scripture to be read by the Comnron-Tcoplc. I cj 

For other Books I am not concerned, for baftardly patches added to 
the Fathers, which are many. and cafhations of them, which are grofc; 
if 1 could 1 may not meddle with that affair. I only take notice of the 
Index Expurg. how thefe Fathers of Rome blot out, and command to be 
blotted out the fayingsofthe Ancient Fathers as they are placed in 
the Indexes xmd£ either by the Interpreters, or the Pubfimers of them : 
As for inftance, in Athanafius fet forth Grxco'-latin \ in the Index there 
was fet down thus, Scripture facr£ etiamplebi &Magijlratibm cognojeeud^^ 
Deh.itur. i.e. The Holy Scriptures are to be known even of the Com- 
mon-people,and the Magiftratesib^ot that out lay they: Agzm,Scriptura 
facra ita cl.tr a efi ut quifque, &c. The Holy Scripture U fo plain that any one 
may underjiand-Mot that out.Five morefayings there are about the fuffici* 
encyof the Scriptures,and that they only are to be heard; Dele ant ur,b\ot 
them all out s thefe Sentences will puzzle young Students, confirm the 
Hereticks : But indeed the true reafon is they will difcover our wieked- 
nefs and heretics. So they deal with St. Auftins wosks,Bafile£ ex Officina 
Eroben. tnrgatorium non inveniri in Scriptura \ Purgatory not to be tound 
in the Scripture •, Debater, let it be expunged fay they \ and good rea- 
fon, for fuch paflfages will make your Kitchin cold. And fpecial order 
is given by thefe Fathers that care be taken to blot out atifaebpajfages , . 
Ex quocunque alio indict : fpecially 4th, Edit, there named, & ex aliis (I- 
milibus-, and Lib. 2. deBaptxont. Donat. there is thisfhort palTage, Non 
efi in Evangelio \ there is no fuch thing in the Gofpel, Dele, blot it out. 
So they ferve Chryfofiom, Bafile£ ex Off.c. Erob. 1558, Sine Scriptura ni- 
hil ajferendumj Scripture Divine omnibus, volentibus pervi.e & facile s^ 
Scriptitrarum Ietlio omnibus : Scriptures continere omnia, Scriptures legere, 
omnibus ctiani-, with fome others, as Apoftchrum Doclrina facilvs & omni- 
bus pervia : i.e. The Scriptures are plain to the willing^ they are to be read 
cf all, even Artificers, the Scriptures contain all things necejfary, and the 
like*, away with thefe fays Holy Mother Church, blot them out every 
one, and good reafon, for open that door once, .then, farewell all. Hi- 
therto we have had two Ads of the Pope and his Council, one to call 
in the Bibles condemned that were abroad •, the other to prevent their 
going abroad for the future, but all too late : Alas this would not do, 
therefore they take two other courfes ', the fir ft was this, The holy Sy- 
nod decreeth that no man dare (audeat) io interpret or expound Scripture 
in another fenfe, fave *W,quam fan cla mater Ecclefia tenuit, which holy 
Mother- Church hath holden, and doth holds whofe right it is Ycuias eft J to 
rchom it belongs to judg of the interpretation of the holy ScriptHre:a\though 
fuch interpretations were never uttered before,they that (hall oppofe this 
let them be declared by the Ordinaries, and punijhed according to the Sta- 
tutes. So that if the Popeffor he is the Church, as you muft know) (hall 
aflrrrrfj 4 y ob.ti: \6. E :ipe oves^titt feed }riy Sheep ^ if he (hall fay that 
the meaning of that text is this','' that by thefe words our Lord Chrift 
gave to Feter an Univerfal Beadfhip over the Church, and in ordine ad 


II o Th Scriptures to be read by the Cpmmon-feop'h. Serm, V. 

fpiritualia^a Sovereignty ahfolute over all Kings to plant and pluck up, 
and that all this Power is given to the Pope as Peters Succeflbrj why 
then you are to believe it, you muft not take any other fenfe,though this 
be non-fenfe and never heard of before, that is all one. 

So the fecond Council of Nice , quoted and approved by the Council 
ot Treat, countenanced by the Legats and Lies of Adrian the firft, 
proves Images to be wor(hipped,thus, No man lights a candles and puts 
it under a bit/he I, therefore the holy Images are to be placed upon the Al- 
tars', res inconfcquens & riftt digna, (aid Car olus Magnus. But what is 
that, let it be never fo ridiculous and worthy to be hilled at -, you may 
not dare to take any other fenfe, you may not quarrel at the Inference, 
though it be monftroufly irrational \ if you do, they have two Swords, 
and with one they will cut you off from the Church, and with the other, 
fc: the Secular, they will cut you off from the Earths for the Church 
faith,That is the meaning of Ecce duo g/W;/,Behold here are two Swords ', 
the one (hall unchriftian you, and the other (hall unman you. 

The fecond courfe the Council hath taken to help thcmfelves, is thisi 
They have added to the Holy Bible fdefpairing of any relief there) the 
Apocrypha, and make Tohim and Judith, and the two Maccabees, with 
the reft of the Stories of Bell and the Dragon, a Rule for Faith and Life, 
and whofoever (hall not take them for the Word of God, Sacred and 
Canonical, they curfe him, let him be Anathema } they fend a man to 
Hell, if he refufe Toby. They have alfo ftitched or patched to the Holy 
Bible their Traditions under.the name of Apoflrtical, containing mat- 
ters appertaining t? Faith and Life ', and thefe Traditions ( which are in 
fcrinik pettork Pap.e), under lock and key in the Popes breaft, they com- 
mand under the pain of Anathema to be received pari PhtatU affetlu & 
reverentia, with an equal pious affection and reverence as we receive 
the Word of God. Oh horrible ! 

The firft of thefe courfes, viz. to oblige men to underhand Scrip- 
tures as'the Church \ i,e. the Pope expounds them, this is a reproach 
to the reafbn of Mankind > Bubalum eum ejje non hominem, it degrades 
men into brutes. The fecond goes higher, and is a reproach to the 
Soveraignty, Goodnefs, Wifdom, Faithfulnefs of our Lord Jefus.They 
do by this means horribly reproach the Apoftles \ for if the Administra- 
tion of the Sacrament under one kind, and Invocation of Saints, Me- 
rit of works, W r or(hip in an unknown Tongue, with others > if thefe 
be Traditions as their learned men fay, and if their Traditions be Apo- 
ftolical from the mouth of Chrift, and dictates of the bleffed Spirit as 
the Council faith-, Oh then what an ugly and black reproach is here caft 
upon the Apoftles : nay, it is a moft prodigious blafphemy againft the 
Lord Chrift, and his holy Spirit, that the Apoftles (hould teach, and 
praftife, and write one thing to the Churches, and after whifper the 
clean contrary to fome others who (hould convey it by word of mouth 
to pofterity. 


Scrm. V. The Scriptures to be raad by the Cotnmon-Veople. Ill 

Any man fees that thsfefour points of Faith which they would prove 
by Tradition are diredtly contrary to what the Apoltles preached and 
pradtifed, and wrote to the Churches. But this is not my bufinefs, I 
only touch upon this. 

But perhaps you will demand upon what reafon the Council did thus 
telte? I Anfwtr, they tell you, fc cum experiment!) manifefium ft, 'tis 
manifeft by experience th it the fuffcrance of the Bible in the vulgar tongue, 
doth more barm than good through mens rafhn?fs\ Ergo rpe firbid it : A 
doughty reafon, no qucftion of it ! as if fome Souldiers raftily abufing 
their weapons, therefore the General mould command, and that upon 
grievous penalties, and that when they are faced by their deadly ene- 
mies, all the Army to be difarmed. Should a Proteftant decree againft 
Prayer, becaufe Prayers of Papifts are blafphemous } or againft the ufe 
of the Lords Supper, becaufe the Mafs is Impious and Idolatrous? 
What decrees were thefe > Mull: Gods appointment beanulled, becaufe 
of mensabufe } Why did they not decree that men fhould be prohibit- 
ed the ufe of the light of the Sun by day, and Moon by night, becaufe 
thieves and others abufe it? Doubtlefs fuch Decrees had not been fo ir- 
rational and mifchievous as this j for that light is for my body, for the 
face and converfe with man, for my Secular affairs, and but for a time: 
but the light of the Scriptures (which they forbid with a curfe) is for 
my Soul, for the face of jefus, for Spiritual concerns, and for Eternity.- 
The truth of the cafe is this, the experience of the Council was of that 
kind which Demetrius and the Craftfmen feared vvou Id be theirs} if Paul 
be fiffered, down goes Diana, and our Market is fpoiled. I will tell you* 
as briefly and as fully as I can the (lory of this experience. 

About the year 1516, the Friars are fent by Leo 10*/?. .abroad- with? 

their Pardons to- raife money for his Holinefs, Indulgences for horrid: 

Sins are fold at eatie rates. Into Germany come the Friars, Luther f who - 

had fome years before quitted the ftudy of the Law, and applied him- 

(elf to the clofe and daily ftudy of" the Scriptures, .and had been blefTcd 

with fome tafte of the Rjghteoufnefs of Jefus Ghrilt, unexpectedly be- 

gan to Air again it thefe Pardon-mongers yyet at firft very mildly, not: 

limply againft the thing, but againft the impudence and covetoufr.efs- 

of the Friars: the Friars fcomfully and publickly traduce Luther, he 

takesheart, and begins to difpute, write and preach again ft them - , this 

fpark thus blown faddenly becomes a great flame. The Pope begins to 

ftorm, and writes about this aflair to Cardinal Cajetan •, Cajetan difputes 

Luther^nd quotes againft him the Bull oiCkment the fixth, which runs? 

thus, JfWfr*f,una guttula, one drop of the Bh?d ofChriji had beenfuffici* 

ent for Redemption, and fir earns of Blood came from bis Body\ all that Blood 

which was over and above, Chrift had depofited as a precious treafure in the- 

handof Vctex^Claviger fthe Keyrkeeper of Heaven/ and to his SuccefTorj 

to be difpenfed, (i.e, to be fold^to Penitents •, and fo^i-kewife the fur~ 

plufage of the. Merits of the. Virgin hhry, and all the Saints, Jayqtm* 

1 1 ; 2 The Scripture to be read by the Common-? eopk. Serai. V. 

iuexhaufta condonandi materia, an inexhauftible ftore-houfe of Pardons.hu- ' 
tber rclels the Bull by Scripture \j Frederick^ of Saxony (hews him favour, 
the Univerfity of JVitiemberg defends him 5 Fredericf^thc Duke.of Saxo- 
ny lends him Cajetans Letter j Luther intreats the Controverfie may be 
decided in Germany •, the Emperour fummoned him upon fafe conduct 
to appear at VForms; accordingly he appears, there in the Imperial Af- 
iembly, and after in the Lodgings of an Archbifhop before tome other 
Princes-, he humbly but vehemently offers himfelf to be tried by the 
Scriptures, or evident Reafon *, he is banifhed Germany, and appeals to a 
General Council j the Pope fears a Council as the fhadow of death. All 
this and much more was done in five years, it was day-light all abroad 
in feveral places by this time-, the Gofpel had difpelled the darknefs of 
Popery without any great noife or buflle. The Council of Trent con- 
vened not till the year 1546, about thirty years after the Preaching of 
the Gofpel began, and was carried on by men of renown, for learning, 
piety and pains j the Council prohibits the Bible ob temeritatem^ for 
therajhnejs of men , but doth not tell us what men, nor in what. Our 
excellent and learned Tranflators in their Epift. Dedicat. to King 
James fay, that they expect to be maligned for their wor\^ by the Papifts^ 
becauje they defrre to keep the people in ignorance and darhnefs. Dr. White 
in his defence, cap. 51. faith, That from mens rajhnefs they difhoneftly^ 
naymoft difhoneftly, conclude the utter fup pre Jpng of the Scriptures, not that 
they care bow they are ufed, (for never any men u fed them fo vilely as 
themfelves,either in applying, reviling, or corrupting of them^,but be- 
cause they are mad at the Bible which difcovers their herefie. 

And if ever they get power again,°tis probable f they may learn more 
wit by their experience, and Ro/w^-Papal may ferve the Book of God, 
as Howf-Pagan ferved the Oracles of the Sybils heretofore - , namely, take 
it out of their Popim World, and chain it fa(t in the Vatican, there to 
beinfpe&ed only by a few Confidents, and to be expounded as the 
Pope pleafeth. Origen faid of old that the reading of the Scriptures rvaf 
the torment of the Devil ; fure it torments fome body elfe of later years, 
but in Origens time it was not fo •, the Bible burns the Devil, and the 
Pope burns the Bible.- 

Thus we have feen the Council biting fore, but not opening much =, 
that is left to their Dodtors,whofe clamours have been loud and impor- 
tunate, and their tongues fet on fire from beneath againft this holy 
Word from that day to this. They that do evil hate the light, the thief 
curfeth the Candle, the Malefactor would difpatch his Judg ; the de- 
fign of thefe Doctors is to make the moft found and fully perfect Scrip- 
ture to be as the people at the . Pool of Bethefda, halt, blind, lame, wi- 
thered. Alb. Pigh. a prime man (I promifeyonj gives this advice, They 
fhould (declamitare) often dxclrim againft the Scripture, and that Kheto- 
rick artifew, w$h Rhetorical artifices and flourishes complain of their 
difficulty, darkle fs,fhorinefs,lamenefs^ imVerfeClions, blemijhes ', on t'other 


Serm.V. The Scripture to be read by tne Common-People. 113 

fide they ftiould ftrenuoufly contend for the necejfuy, authority, certainty, 
-perfection, clearnefs, of Traditions unwritten i and then 5 «^ negotio, no 
doubt they JhaU e a fly carry the day. And what Pighim advifed his fel- 
lows to do, he pradtifed himfelf fufficiently. Andradim a great ftckler 
in the Council, and a daring-man, takes the fame courfe, and good 
reafom for he confefTeth, That many and weighty points too of their Reli- 
gion would reel and Ihggerjfthey were notfupported by Traditio ///.Orthod. 

Explic. lib. 2. 

Canm a confiderable man Bifhop of the Canaries tells his fellows, 
That there is more force andflrength to confute Heretickj in Traditions, tbw 
in the Scripture. And after that he had wrefkd the Fathers, compared 
his adversaries to the Devil, quoting Scripture, alkdged Plato and 
Farguin to juftifie their practice, fpit his venom into the face of the Bi- 
ble, and urged a non-fenfical argument, viz.Dzbo legem, I will put my 
Law in their hearts > Ergo, there are Traditions. I fay after this fluff he 
tells us the reafon of it, Jguorfum had (faith he) nempejmnem ftrme dif- 
putJtionem^&c.thzt well-nigh all difputation with Heretickf k to be decided 
rather by Tradition than Scripture : Lib.3. Com. loc.c.3. That is,in plain 
Englijh, we mud refolve our Faith and Practice in the things of God 
into the Popes breaft, rather than into the word of Jefus Chrift. 

So likewife Briflow teaching his Scholar how to grapple with the 
Proteftants, teacheth him thus. That he muRfirft get the proud Hereticks 
out of thp weaj^andfalfe caflle of only Scripture, (do you not obferve his 
reverence? he calls the Scripture weak and falfe, Os durum & impium!) 
and bring him into the plain field of Traditions, and then the cowards will 
runh i.e. fet the Pope in the Throne, and Chrift at his Foot-ftool, and 
then no doubt of the victory. For you muft know the Pope hath the 
plenitude of all Power,to mint and ftamp Traditions, to allow Miracles, 
and to expound Councils and Fathers as he pleafeth, and then all is our 
own. Briflow ult. Mot. 

lam weary of this, it wereendlefs to repeat. their Blafphemies in ad- 
vancing the Papacy, and abufing Scripture. I will name but one Doctor 
more,when I have told you a Story out of a good Author. About the 
year 1523, feven years after Luther began to preach, they were fo mad 
againft the Scriptures, and fo vexed at the light, that they burned two 
Auftin Friars at Bruffels, only for this^ that they preferred the Scriptures 
above the Popes Decrees. There appears nothing elfe in the Hiftory, Cum 
in eo perfiflerent, damnatifunt capitis & exufli *, Sleidan. Commen. lib.4. 
Send men out of the World in fiery flames, becaufe they will prefer 
Chrift the Lord above the Pope! this is fomewhat hard. 

^ The Doctor ( I meanj is Cofier the Jefuit, he in his Encbir. cap.i. di- 
vides Gods Word into three Pa*rts:The firft Part is that which be wrote 
himfelf in the two Tables. The fecond Part that which he commanded to 
be wrote by other s^the Old and New Teftament. 1*he third Vatt,tbat which 
he neither wrote himfelf \ nor rehear fed to others % but left it to them to do 

Q^ them- 

1 14 The Scriptures to be redd by the Common-People. Serm.V. 

themfelves, as Traditions, the Pepes Decrees, and the Decrees of Councils, 
And he makes this Application of his Diftincl-ion, that many things of 
Faith are wanting in the Wo former, (Very good, it feems God by him- 
felf, and by his Prophets and Apoftles gives out his mind defe&ivelyj •> 
neither would Chrift have hti Church depend upon them ; (Oh horrible da- 
ringnefs^)! The latter ( faith hej viz. the Traditions and Popes Decrees are 
the beft Scripture, the Judg of Controverts, the Expofitor of the Bible,and 
that whereupon we mufi wholly depend.Thzt is,blot out the Sun,and fet up a 
linking Farthing-candle, this is the defign. However you may obferve 
in a few words a great deal of blafphemy, and fome honefty : the Blaf- 
phemy lies in thefe particulars. 1, That God hath revealed his Will 
(hort and framing*, a horrid reproach to the glory of his Wifdom and 
Mercy! 2. That the Lord Chrift would not have us truft to his Word*, 
a molt vile reproach to his Care and Faithfulnefs over his own Houfc ! 
3. That mufty, dufty Traditions, and the Fopes Decrees are the Word 
of God. 4. That the Decrees of men, of whom fome have been Ne- 
gromancers, Converfers with the Devil, Poyf oners, Murtherers, Adulterers, 
nay Traytors, Blood-fuppers, Ignorant, arej the Rule of Faith : The 
Honefty is in this, that he joyns hand in hand, together Traditions and 
Popes Decrees, and well they may, for they are brethren, and have 
one and the fame Parent. 2. In that he confeffeth that Traditions 
were not rehearfed or delivered from God by word of mouth > and 
therefore the Council of Trent put a fad and miferable blind and cheat 
upon Princes and People, while they fay that Traditions were either 
fpoken by Chrift, or dictated by the Holy Ghoft. 

Left any man mould fay that thefe Do dors were private men,which 
is their common and laft fhift, I will (hut up all with their new Creed* 
Know then, that Paul the ^tb. fet forth a Creed of his own, confifting 
of Twelve Articles, added to the Twelve of the Creed, called the A- 
poftks •> out of which I (hall take only three, proper to my bufineis. 
The title of it is,The public \profejfton of the Orthodox faith to be uniformly 
dferved and prof fed. The fir ft Article is, The Apofiolich^andEcclefiaftical 
Traditions^ and other Obfervances and Conftitutions of that Church do 7 
firmly admit and em! race. 

2. Art. Alfi'ilse Sacred Scripture? do I admit according to that fenfe 
which our Mother tfje Church hath holden, and doth hold, whofe right it is" 
to judg cf the true fence and interpretation of the Scripturen 

3. Art*. I do vow and [wear true obedience to the Blfh op of Rome, and 
*\1 other things likewifi do lundoubtingly receive and confefs, which are deli- 
mred, defined and declared by thefacred Canons and General Councils, efpe- 
ciallythe holy Council of Trent •- and withal I condemn, rejeel and accurfe 
aU things that are contrary hereunto > and all Herefies whatfoever condem- 
ned, r-ejefted, and accurfedby the Church. And this true Catholick Faith 
J will maintain inviolate to the laftgafpi and I will tafy care ofthofe which 
fiat be under me y orjucb as IjhaU have charge over in my cattingfo be holden r 


Sertn. V. The Scriptures to be read by the Common-Tcople. 115 

tattght or preached to the uttermofl of my power ; thU Ipromife, vow and 
[wear. So God be help me, and his holy Gofp^l. 

Thus the Bow is bent, and the Arrow upon the firing to' (hoot 
through the heart of the Scripture, the foundations of the Prophets and 
Apoftles muft be caft down, or clfe Babel will fall \ there is the origin* 
of thefe and fuch like out-ragious reproaches upon the Oracles of the 
blelTed God: Pafs over to the Ides of Cbittim, go to Kedar\ Did ever 
any Nation do this to their Oracles ? Did the Pagans ever do fuch indig- 
nities to the dictates of their Vruides ? or their Brachmans Z or the 
Turk* to their Alcboran ? 

This Controverfie then, whether the People of God mould read and 
hear the Word of God, ('which would make a man wonder that ever 
fuch a queftion fhould be moved,the duty being fo folemnly enjoyned, 
the practice of It fo neceflary, the fruit of it fo profitable, which made 
David wifer than his Enemies, than his Teachers, than the Aged, better 
to him than all treafttres, fvoetter than the honey-comb.) I fay this Con- 
troverfie fhall through Gods affiftance difcufs and deliver you my 
thoughts upon it from the 1 JheJJl 5.27. that is my Text. 

1 ThelT 5.27. I charge yon by the Lord that tkk Epijlle be 
read te ^Lthe holy Brethren. 

THis Text is a Constitution Scriptural, one of the true Canons of 
the Apoftles, directly oppofite to the Constitutions of the Pope, 
and the Canons of the Council of Trent,z$ we (hall fee by and by. It may 
be refolved into thefe parts ^ 

1. An Injunction to a Duty, that is Reading, thatitberead. 

2. Thefubject or matter to be read, that is, this Epiftle. And by 
the fame reafon all the reftibr the wit of all the Jefuits in the World can- 
not frame an Objection againft the Reading of any,which may not be as 
well made againft the reading of this one. 

. 3. The Object or Parties to whom,the holy Brethren, i.e. the People. 

4. The Extent, to all, all the holy Brethren. 

5. The Solemnity of this Injunction, Icbargeyou, not I befeech, or 
intreat, or I exhort, fas fometimes he doth), but I charge ^and that 
not (imply a bare charge, but the higheft that can be, and the only time 
that ever Paul did give this which is fo high, that none can be higher. 
He doth indeed charge Timothy folemnly, 1 Tim. 6. 13. but there it is, 
before Wt/opto fit*, in the pre fence of God; but in my Text it is tip 
Kue/op, i.e. vn rh Kv$tov> by the Lord h there it is ira&yyiface, prtcipfa, 
I charge, I command; but "here it is, ofx/£#, I charge, I adjure > ot K K a "> 
isjnramento obftringo j it hath the force of an Oath 3 and that undo* the 

Q_2 curfe, 

i j£ ' The Scripture to be read by the Commm-Vedple. Serm. V; 

curfe, I adjure thee^ f faith the High Pried) to our Lord Chrift, Mat. 16. 
6%. Ih^i^a <rip I adjure thee bythe living God tell us * implying an Exe- 
cration in cafe of fpeaking falfly. The Apoftle Paul doth not deal with 
them in this place, obfecrando, as the Latins ufed to do, per Veos Deaf- 
que omnes, as fome think*, (yet even in that fehfe the words had been 
very vehement, and in cafe of failure of not reading would import ven- 
geance on them for it), but here he deals execrando^ his charge hath the 
form of an Oath, obliging under pain of the curfe, and fo Dr. Ham- 
m$nd renders it: ^v^n in Hiphi\ is literally and critically to make 
fwearf.0 adjure *, and is expreiTed by Pauls • ogxi%a o . j Tbejp$.2j,l bind 
you under the curfe of God that this Epiftle be read. The Law con- - 
cerning this we have Numb. 5.21. where we have not limply an Exe- - 
oration, but there we have the Oath of Execration : Thus he upon 
Mat. 26. note 1. 

The Text thus explained^ methinksj among fober men mould quick- 
ly decide the Controverfie-,For whether we mould obey the Lord Chriny 
or the Council of Trent ? Whether we mould believe Paul the Apoftle . 
fpeaking by the Holy Ghoft, or Paul the Pope fpeaking by a pack of 
Parafitesjudg ye : Which curfe of the two mould we dread, this of God 
in the Text, or that of Man at Trent ? Surely there is no difficulty to 
determine this point. 

The words thus opened will to our bufinefs afford us three Obferva- 
bles •> 1. The ftate of the feries of Popes or Antichrift. • 2. His Cha- 
rafter. 3. His Confutation. h 

1. Hisflatevsafiateaccurfed; I offer my proof thus^They that do 
not read the Scriptures to the People in the vulgar Tongue, according 
to the duty of their Office,nor furTer the people to read themfelves *, nay, 
that do prohibit them to have a Bible, and that by a fevere Law under a 
grievous penalty *, theft for fo doing are bound under the curfe of God j 
But Antichrift doth all this : Therefore the ftate of Antichrift is a cur- 
fed (late. The Propofition or Major is the Text,the Truth of God* the 
AfTumption is notorious, the Practice of Rome or Antichrift: The Con- 
clufion is regular andnatural. 

Add to this the wo our Lord Jefus denounceth againft the Scribes 
and Pharifees, Mat, 23.13. becaufe they did Jhut up the Kingdom of 
Heaven. toolbar? ay the key of fytowledg. Luk. 1 1. 52. They neither went 
in themf elves jtoi •fuffered thofe that were entring to go in \ yet theft never 
fuppreiTed the Bible in their own Tongue, much lefs prohibited the 
reading of it by the People > neither did the Scribes omit the reading 
of it to the People. The Argument holds from the lefs to the greater j 
in both theft the Scribes w^re Saints in comparifon to the Popifh Doct- 
ors, and the non-expounding by far a lefs fin than the prohibition, and 
that by a Law under grievous penalty, nay death it felf, as it will ap- 
pear anon, 

2» # Here we have the marks of Antichrift, Van. 7. 24. (for it cannot 

■ with 

Serna. V. The Scripture to be read by the Com»ion-Teople\ 117 

with truth and fenfe be underftood of any other), faith of him, Hefiatl 
think to change times and laws^ fc. of the mofi High. Paul giveth this 
mark of him, He (hall not only exalt himfelf above all Auguftnefs, 
(2*£**7/« ffi$<t<&> Auguilus fc. C£far, Act. 2 5. 2 1. ) not only above the 
Emperour and Princes, but 2 Tbef. 2. 4. Jhews himfelf as Gbd, fc. iff 
changing Laws Divine, and making new Laws, new Creeds to bind the 
Confcience » this mark is viilble in many particulars. But to my bull- 
nefs,thus •, The Lord Chrift commands the people to fearch the Scripture, 
the Pope commands no, no fuch matter. Cbriji commands them to 
fearch Mofts and the Prophets, the Old Teftament > the Pops forbids 
them to fearch cither Old, or New. Chrift faith, In them you tbink^ to 
have eternal life ; the Pope.faith the" contrary, There is more dagger of 
eternal death. Chrift gives this reafon, they tefiifie of me •-> the Pope 
faith, No, they are very ^ri^and obfeure, very fhort and difaive,x\\zxo.- 
fore no competent witnefs. Chrift faith, Let my word dwell in you richly *, 
the Pope faith, No, not dwell, no not in your Houfes. Chrift faith, 
teaching and admonifhing one another \ the Pope faith, Brabling and per- 
verting one another. Chrift faith, Whatever you ds> in word or deed, do it 
according to my word \ the Pope faith, Do my word, obferve our De- 
crees, or elfelwill burn you. Chrift commands in my Text that this Epi- - 
Ale be read •, the Pope commands the contr?.ry,No reading, Chrift faith, „ 
To all the Brethren ', the Pope faith, No, not to any Lord, or D«%, or 
Prince i, (Francifcus Encjenas as learned a man as Spain afforded, was im- 
prifoned fifteen Months, expecting death every day, but marvelouily % 
delivered - , only for prefenting the New Teftament in Spanijh to the 
Etnperoift Charles the Fifth;. Chrift faith, I charge you to read i the 
Pope faith, I charge you, you do not read. Chrift faith, I charge youun- 
der my curfe ? the Pope faith, I charge you not to do it, under the curfe of 
the Church. Chrift faith, I charge you under the pain of Hell-fire •, the 
Pope faith, I charge you do not under the pain of Hell, and the Stake 
in Smithfield too. 

Thus you fee his mark, and 'tis the fame in many other Particulars ; • 
as for inftance, Chrift commands in the Supper, T>rin\ye all of this » the 
Pope prohibits it, Not a man of ' youjhall drink a drop $ but that is ex- • 
centrical, now it is thebuilnefs of another. 

3. Here we have the Confutation of the Popifh Doctrine and Practice^ 

and this arifeth out of the Premifes thus : If the Lord Chrift frequently 

commands the reading of the Scriptures by the People, and folemnly 

charged the reading of them to the People, then Popifh Doctrine and 

Practice is falfe,"and wicked : But Chrift doth do fo i Therefore their - 

Doctrine is falfe, and their Practice wicked. On the other fide-, If the 

Premifes be true that Chrift hath commanded and charged this, then 

the Doctrine and Practice of the Proteftants is holy, juft and good i 

But Chrift hath fo done-.Therefore their Practice rs good.Obferve from 

hence,That Popery is not only an addition to the Doctrine of Chrift fas 


II 8 The Scriptures to be read by the CoMMcn-Tedple. Seim V. 

fome pretend^ but an Oppofition, a flat Oppofition to if,and where it is an 
addition^ as in the great bufinefs of Juftihcation by the Righteoufnefsof 
Chrift alone, there the addition is a dejlrutfion •, 'tis fuch an addition as 

• Agrippina made to the Meat of Claudius C£Jar^ fuch an addition as dc- 
firoys Religion, and poyfons the Soul. So thelnvocating of God, Me- 
rim & Interceflione, by the Merits and Interceffiori of Saints, and the 
formal Invocation of Saints and Angels, requeuing their opem & auxi- 
I'mm, ( very large words, and the very words of the Council}, entrea- 
ting their help and ajjiftance s is not a bare addition, but horrid Blafphe- 
my and palpable Idolatry : For which things fake our famous Engli/h 
Divines have held the Church of Rome to be no more a true Church, 
than a Murder efs and a Whore can be a true Subjett, and- a true Wife s a 
Metaphyllcal verity is an idle whimfey in Moral concerns. And they 
have held alio, That a man living and dying a full Papift could not be 
faved > every one, faith he, may be laved from Popery, that is not the 
bufinefs, but whether he may be faved in it ? they fay, No. 

In oppofition to thePopifh Do&rine this day, I have three things 
fas I have told you^ to aiTert. u That the Scriptures are to be read 
by, and to the People of Chrift. 2. That therefore the Scripture is 
Scripture, the Word of God was therefore written. 3. That it is to 
be f rarrfhted into the Moiher-tongue. The fir ft is a plain Duty and 
conftant Practice. The 2d. is a Reafon to prove if. The laft is a mani- 
feft Inference from them both 5 For if the Word of God were therefore 
written that it might be read to and by the People, then it follows of 
• courfe, that it is lawful, honourable, neceffary to be tranflated 5 for 
if the Shell be not broken, how can we come to the Kernel.? if the 
Trumpet give an uncertain found who (hall prepare himfelf to the Bat- 
tel ? if the Stone be not removed from the Wells mouth, how (hall the 
Maidens draw Water ? 

1. Of the fir ft, Col. 4. id. When this Epifile k read amengfi you jaufe 
it to be read in the Church of the Laod'iceans , and thziye read alfo the 
Epifile of Laodicea, Ephef. 3. 4. Whereby when you read ye may under- 
stand my knowledg in the Myftery of Chri(i. This Epiftle fit is very pro- 
bable^) was written to all the Churches of Afia^ as that to Corinth was 

* to all the Churches of Acbgia^ and it is likely the Epiftle to the Laodi- 
ceans f being one of thefe Churches ) was the fame with this to Ephefm: 
If any would fee more of it, he may confultDr. VJhers Annals, ad annum 
Chrifti 64. or Dr. Hammond upon Col. 4. n. a. All that we get by it, is 
no more than what we had reafon to believe before for the fubftance : 
ft. That this Epiftle was communicated to all the Churches of Afia > 
only it feems very probable that this Epiftle was inferibed to the feve- 
ral Churches by name, one by one. Now thefe two Texts throw Da- 
gon upon the threfhold : For obferve i.the Apoftle'takes it for granted, 
that they would read it •, nay, he commands them to take care that o- 
<hers may read, and that they read his Epiftle written to others. 2. He 


Serm. V. The Scripture* to be nad by the Common-People. 1 19 

takes them for men of underftanding,hedoth not look on them as brutes. 
3. Not only understanding more obvious Truths, but even the Myftery 
of Chrift \ he doth not tell them, thefe are hard, obfcure, they are not 
for, the vulgar, the rabble, the lay people, in whom there is not mens, 
confilium, or ratio, but a meer BeSua multorum capitum, a many-headed, 
and a mad-beaded Be afl. 4. He doth yield orfubmit his own under- 
standing of that Myftery to the difcerning of thefe Epheftans. The 
third Text (hall be that of James in the Council ztjerufalem, A dr. 15. 
21. For Mo jes of old bath them that preach him, being read inthelSy&a- 
gogue every Sabbath-day : This was the old pradtife from ancient times, 
andjiittit, faith James. Again Atl. 13. 15. After the reading of the Law 
andtbe Prophets, the Ruler fent to Paul •, it being thecuftom of the Jew* 
ifh Doctors after reading to expound fome Scripture for the inftru&i- 
on of the People > fo the Ruler fent to Paul and RirnabM, and Paul prea- 
ched, one would think this might fuffice. 

The Teftimony of fuch a Council, the univerfal, ancient pradrife of 
the Jews in their Worfhip, pra&ifedby our Lord Jefus, Lu\. $.16. He 
went into the Synagogue as his cuftdme was oh the Sabbath-day, andjiocd 
up for to read. Again, the Lord Jefus often in his anfwers- to their 
queftions appeals to their own reading » very often this is his pradttfe ; 
tor inftancc, in the cafe of Divorce,M?Mp.3,4. Have ye not read that he 
which made them in the beginnin/,made them male and female} Andagain,for 
this caufe a man Jhallforfike father and mother, and they twain (hall be ons-: 
flejh. So when the Children cried, Hfanna, Have ye not read, faith he, 
out of the mouths of babes, &c. Mat. 21.16. and v. 42. Did ye never read in 
the Scriptures, the fijne which the builders refufed? and have ye not read 
in the Scripture fo much as this, JFljat David did when he was hungry, 
Luk. 6. 3. how he eat. the /h?w-bread, and they that were with him ? And 
have ye not read in the Law how. the Prieft prophane the 'Temple, and tfre, 
blamflefs? Mat.12.5. Very frequently he quotes the Scripture, but 
mentions not the Prophet nor the Section, they were fo well acquain- 
ted by reading, and hearing it read,tfiey knew very well the TextvThs 
Sadducees put a cafe out of the Scripture, M>fes faith if a man die^&c.hs 
tells t\\Qm,They err, not knowing the Scripture '•> anfwers their argument 
out of the Scripture, appeals to their own reading, Have ye nctre^d 
(faith he) that which was fpoken unto yon by God, lam the God of Ahra-* 
bam,8cc. Mat.2t.-3, 32. Pray obferve God fpake that to MfesCrtf- 
teen hundred years before they were born », and Chrift faith, God 
(poke it to them,then it did concern them to know it > then they ought- 
to ufe the means, then they ought to read, Have ye not read what God- 
fpaki to yon?%o when he fpeaks of the abomination (landing in the hcly 
place fpoken of by Daniel the. Prophet ; he doth not beat them off and 
tell them it is dark and difficult, no, but diredtly the contrary,, Lit him 
• thatreadeth, nnderftand, faith he, Mat. 24. 15*. And fa. is the. Wevela*- 
iiott f and furs Vaniel's Prophesy, and Johm Revelation asfi.tta. dirftcui-*- 

1 2c The Scripture to be read by the Common-? etple. Serm.V; 

tell pieces in the holy Bible), he is fo far from affrighting his People 
from reading of it as a thing unfit or dangerous, that he begins the Re- 
velation with a Bleffing to the Reader, Blejfed is he that readetb,Rzv.i.$, 
Yea, but every one cannot read > why then, Blejfed are they that hear - y 
but why read and hear ? why, that they may uuderftand and keep the Jay - 
ingsofthirBook^: the fealed Book with feven Seals is opened, and in 
the little Book the time determined is exprelTed by days, months, and 
years, and in every of thefe things there is an agreement to a tittle, we 
know not indeed where to commence •, and I think it is falix nefcientia, 
a profitable nefcience \ .but fure the Book is profitable. 

I wonder with what face the Jesuits otRbemes in their Preface on 
their Annotations, could fcurriloufly feoff at the Hereticks for reading 
the Revelation j did they fet themielves on purpofe againft the Tefti- 
mony of Jefus Chrift ? They (the Proteftants.) read, and to fee out of pride 
of heart, and we know what fpirit they vaunt \ the Cantica canticorum, the 
Romans and the Apoealyps. Oh ye Jefuits what makes you to rage and 
revile, what harm thefe Books do to you! I guefs this is the reafon,the 
Canticles in a Heavenly way treats of the near Union of the Church t© 
Jefus Chrift, and her daily Communion with him by Faith, Love, Blef- 
iing, Prayer, Meditation and Obedience to him. Doth this offend you ? 
But why I wonder do you mention the Romans, as if it were fo great 
a fault for the People of God to read the Romans, avaun' impudence 
joyned with fpight and malice! had you no more difefetion but to tell 
the World in print, That, that Epiftle did torment you ? The truth is, 
that Epiftle heweth Popery all to pieces ; their mincing Original fin, 
their curfed diftindrion of fins into Venial and Mortal, ( which one di- 
flindtion ruins more Souls than any one in the World, and brings them 
in more gain than any otherj, their Juftifkation by Works, their Do- 
ctrine of Apoftacy, Election conditional, with the reft are all confuted 
and confounded by that Epiftle. 

Befides in 'Pauls numerous Salutations of the Saints at Rome in the'16. 
chap, he never mentions Feter, nof any-where elfe in the Epiftle. never 
mentions his care over them, or pains amongft them, nor their refpe<ft 
or duty to him*, a fhrewd fufpicion,and it is no way fit the People mould 
know fo much. 

For the Revelation every one knows the reafon why they cannot a- 
bide that Book to be known and read-, for there is defcribed the great 
Whore, intoxicating Princes, and the Inhabitants of the Earth with 
the Wine of her Fornications '■> the City is fo plainly defcribed to be 
Rome, that every Reader prefently underftands it of the Papacy. And 
well they may, for the attempts of learned men to appl^he Revelation 
to Rome- Pagan are lighter than vanity j and the attempts of the Jefuits 
to accommodate it to an Antkbrift at Rome, three years and a half be- 
fore the end of the World, is molt fabulous and ridiculous > and yet a 
horrible cheat in France, Spain, and Italy, and other places, where 


Serm. V. The Scripture to be read by the Common-Veople. 1 2 1 

the Papifts dwell, that Chymerical Antichrift goes for currant. 

But to proceed, there are Scriptures yet behind, and they are prin- 
cipal ones,none beyond them*, perhaps you think what needs you prove 
it any more, it is as clear as the Sun ? I anfwer, I have told you my 
thoughts have been the fame ; I have wondred how our Divines could 
be fo copious, fo laborious, £o exact in a point fo plain, till I contidered 
that it is one of the main points of greateft moment *, let this be for a 
wonder to us, that the Popes, the Councils, Cardinals, Doctors, men 
of parts, convenienced with all helps of Libraries, Arts, Languages, 
(hould cither be fo blind, or blinded as not to fee it, or elfc fo daring as 
to deny it, or elfe fo defperate, ("this is the cafe J as tooth and nail, by 
all means, flattery, fallacy, force, wreftings, perverting Scriptures, Fa- 
thers, Councils, to oppofe it, to difparage, to blafpheme it, and all to 
rob the People of God of it, and to make merchandife of their Souls ■■> 
for that is the meaning of that Text, Rev. 18. 13. 

The rirft is that of Chrift, Job. 5. 39. Search the Scriptures \ the 
Context tells you that Jefus had healed the Cripple that lay at the Pool, 
the Jews cavil at him for carrying his bed, v. 10. he defends himfelf by 
the Command of him that cured him, v.i 1 . he comes and tells them, f. 
the Jews, that it was Jefus which made him whole,:/. 15. Upon this the 
Jews fought to kill ]efus, v. 16. Upon this jefus began to preach to 
them, v, 18. to thelaft v. and in this 3^. v. he commands and exhorts 
them to fearch the Scriptures, as if he had faid,you will not believe me, 
though you fee my works,and I would not have you believe the Scribes 
to whom you give too much credence, between us both believe your 
own eyes, fearch the Scriptures. Mofes and the Prophets wrote of me. 
There is the firft. 

Thefecond is that of the Bertans, That they fearcbed the Scriptures 
daily whether tbefe things were fo j and they are highly commended for 
it by the bleifed Spirit, they were more noble \ fAh the poor Rbemijls), 
yet they had their bell: wits, and did their bell endeavours, and many 
a year they were a contriving their AnnotationsJ,ho w are they confoun- 
ded and puzzled here ! fomething they would fecm to fay 5 but 'tis worfe 
than nothing, becaufeit is nothing to the purpofe •, and indeed what 
can be faid ; a man had need to have a fpecial faculty in railing and cart- 
ing mifts before fo clear a light i for this Text avows three things 
which are the very ftate of the Controveriie. 1. That the Scriptures 
were in the vulgar Tongue. 2. That as they were in their own 
Tongue,fo the Laity had them in their own hands. 3. That they did 
read them, and heard them read -, there was nothing of any Imperial 
or Pontifical Power to hinder them, no Monks nor Friars to difcourage 
them and impeach them too. The queftion being thus cleared ^ add to 
this,. ere abundantly the practice of thefe Bertans which was fearch ing* 
and that daily,f/>f/£ Scriptures, for which they are commended, and that 
by God hiiufclf for fo fearching •> and any fober man would think it 

R impoihble 

122 The Scriptures to be read by the Common-People. Serm. V. 

impofllble for any to gam-fay it h left the people whofe Souls are preci- 
ous and immortal in other Countrys enjoy the fame priviledges as the 
Berxans had, and rhen if they do not read and hear, and fearch, their 
deftrudtJon will lie at their own doors but if they be debarred and die 
in their fins through ignorance, if they perifh for want of knowledg, 
their blood will be required elfewhere. Wo be to the Parifh-Priefts, wo 
be to the Bifhops, wo to the Prelates, faid one of their own. 

The third andlaftis that of Mofes in the year of releafe,JDe«f. 3.11,12, 
i^Jfloen all IJrael is gathered togetber,men,women,cbildren^fervants, all the 
grangers within the gates ', thou Jhalt read tbi* Law before them in their bear* 
ing. I fay nothing of the King, who is commanded to have a Copy of 
the Law, and to read therein all the days of bis life, Deut. 17. 19. Nor 
of Jojhua the Captain-General, the Law, the Bool^of the Law Jhall not de- 
part out of thy mmth, but thou (halt meditate therein day and nighty Jofti. 
i . 8. Nor the Chamberlain of the Queen who was reading in hii Chariot 
the Booj^of Ifaiah, Acl\ 8. Nor Peters exhorting the Twelve Tribes to 
take heed to walk according to the Scriptures as a light, and a more 
fure word of Prophefie, than any particular voice from Heaven, though 
that was moft furealfo, 2 Pet. 1. 19. Nor Pauls bidding Believers to 
try all things, 1 Thef. 5. 19. which trial muft be by a Rule, which is the 
Word of Chrift, with which Rule they muft be well acquainted, or elfe 
they will be but forry triers. Thefe and many others I muft pafs over, 
and defire you to confider what you heard. The adverfaries to this 
truth know all this full well, but what care they for Mofes ? tell them 
xhntMfes took the blood and fprinkled the Altar, and read the Boo]^ of 
the Covenant in the Audience of the People, Exod.24. 6~,j. What care 
they for Mofes precept or praclice,or threatning ? for why, they aflert 
that Papa poteft difpenfare contra Mfen \ if you argue from the Apoftles, 
why then, Papa poteji difpenfare contra Paulum. To be fhort, a learned 
Frenchman (no Hvgenot) tells us, Dr. Gloffatour upon the Canon- Law 
avowed by the Rota in Rime, affirms that the Pope may difpenfe againft 
the Apijile^ again}} the Old lejiament, againft the four Evangelijis, againft 
the Law of 'God; Review of the Counc. "Trent, lib. 5. cap. 3. To what 
purpofe mould I fturT my Difcourfe with Quotations, Papa poteft, the 
Pope can difpenfe, when we fee he doth do it, and it is fo determined by 
the Council with an Anathema to the gain-fayer in the bufinefs of Mar- 
riage, Can. 3. de Matrimonio, Siquis dixerit Ecclefiam nm poffe difpen- 
fare in nonnullvs, &c. If anyfhaU affirm the Church cannot difpenfe in fome 
things forbidden about Marriage in Leviticus, let him be accurfed. If a 
man reply that thefe Marriages were abominable among the Heathen be- 
fore Mofes was born, and for thefe (ins God caft them out,and therefore 
they were fins againft the light of Nature \ and by that reafon the Pope 
cannot difpenfe : pifh^ the Anfwer is eafie, Papa poteft difpenfare contra 
Rationed, the Pope can difpenfe againft Reafon. If you reply that Paul 
did deliver to Satan the Corinthian /or one of thefe Marriages prohibi- 
ted i 

Serm. V. The Scriptures to be read by the Common-People. 123 

ted \ the Anfwer x^Paulw nonpotuit, Viu\ could notdifpenfe, but Peter 
could. Thus you fee there is no defending of Popery in this and o~ 
thcr Controverfies,but by fetting the Pope above God.The damned An- 
gels would be as God > but here is one that adts Superiority over ChriiT, 
who U God over all, bleffedfor ever, Rom. 9.5. 

The fecond Point to be di feu fled is this,That the Bible bad never been 
but for the ufe of the people of God s God therefore commanded the 
Dodhines, Precepts, Promifes, Providences, Proprieties to be written 
for them; and therefore they are to read it, and to hear it read \ nay 
more as they were written for the People > fo by Gods appointment 
they were written to the People: therefore the People are not to be de- 
barred from the reading, and hearing of them. A man that denies thefe 
Arguments muft be (to refrefh my felf with J. C/'s language), the firft- 
horn of impudence and non-fenfcality. The two Antecedents I (hall prove 
by parts ', the firft is proved by Rom. 15. 4: Whatfoever things were 
written before time were written for our learning \ and the bed learning 
too in the World, that we all through patience and comfort of the Scrips 
tnres might have hope j for our learning, mine and yours, ye Saints at 
Rome, Tent-makers, Artificers, Men, Women, Old, Youngs for your 
Learning, Faith, Hope, Patience, waiting upon God, keeping his ways, 
and comfort in fo doing, ftrength, courage to do, to fufter ^ and what- 
foever things Doctrinal, Preceptive, PromilTory, Hiftorical, all written, 
all writ ten for yon, for your learning : Ergo, fure they may read them, 
and hear them. The next is Job. 20. 3 1. But thefe are written that ye 
might believe that Jefus vs the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing ye 
might have life through h'tf name. This Gofpel was the laft written (out 
Books tell us) upon the requefl of fome Afian Presbyters for the good 
of the Churches. And againftfhe Ebionites^ and Ctrinthians, and fuch 
like who denied the Deity and fatisfadtion of our Lord Jefus 5 fure it 
was written for the Churches (and fo to all,to the end^and it was writ- 
ten for their Knowledg of, Faith in, and Salvation by our Lord ]efus : 
thefe are exprefly in the Text. So again, 1 Job. 5. what a Chapter 
have, we there, fofublimeand heavenly! yet in the 12. he tells us that 
thefe things are written to Believers, to all Believers, that they might 
know that they have eternal life,v.i$. And fo begins his Epiltle chap. 1. 
when he had fpoken fomething of their fellowfhip with the Father, and 
his Son Jefus Chrift, Thefe things (Taith he) I write unto you that your joy 
may be fuU, v. 4. Cbap.2. 12. 1 write to you little Children • > v.\2 to you fa- 
thers, ymng men, v. 13. The Epiftle is high, yet very plain jit treats of 
the BlelTed Trinity, Communion with the Father, and his Son Jefus 
Chrift, cleanfing by his Blood from all Sin, Remillion of Sins through 
his name, the teachings and witnefs of the holy Spirit, and treats of 
thefe things fo, that writing of them to aH forts for their good, toge- 
ther with the Doctrines written, is abundantly able to confound the 
Remans, and Poland adverfaries abroad and at home. 

R 2 What 

1 1 4 The Scripture to be read by the Cotumm-Veoph. Serin. V. 

What need I mention any more, that of the King, Vent. 17. ip. he 
inuft write a copy of the Law, and it mull be with him, that he may 
learn to fear the Lord his God, and to keep all thofe words of thofe fiatutes t& 
do them. Jvjhnah muft have the Book that he may obfirve thofe precepts 
and profper, Jofh. 1. 8, £. It were endlefs to name all > I will form the 
Argument, and go to the next. 

Thus it runs *, The Truths which God appointed to be written on 
purpofethat the People might read and hear for their Learning, In- 
iirudion, Faith, Obedience, Comfort, Joy i thefe Truths the People 
ought to. read and hear j But the Bible is the Eook wherein thefe Truths* 
are written for that purpofe : therefore they are to read and hear the 
Bible read one to another. 

But -ily, as they were written for them- fo they were written to them, 
not to the Clergy, but the People efpecially. Rev. 2. 30. the Seven 
Epiftl.es to the Seven Churches written to them for their good : What 
tboufeefl, write in a Book^ and fend it to the Seven Churches in Afia } faith 
the Lord Chrift to John, Rev. 1. 1 1. So Jude v.i. So Peter his fecond 
Epiftle, I write unto you, in both which I flir up your minds by way of 
remembrance. Thus he writes to them and for them, 2 Epili.c.$. v. 1,2. 
So Paul^ to the Saints at Rome, to them at ; Corinth \to the faithful, in 
Ckrill Jefiis at Ephefus. So in the reft as every Child knows. Now 
when God gives his Truth by Infpiration,and appoints it to be written, 
as profitable to conviction, to conversion, to inftrudHon in righteouf- 
nefs, that his People may be throughly furnifhed to every good work 
and word > what audacioufnefs, what wickednefs is it for any finful 
man to interpofe and hinder this, and that by a Law, and that under a 
curfe> Shall fome mighty Prince flgnifie his Will to the People under 
him of the greateft concernment in the World for their advantage, and 
fhall any man ftand up and forbid them to read it, or hear it read, and 
punifh them with death for having.a tranfeript in their houfes > Search, 
and look into- ftories whether .fuch a thing.; was ever, done under Hear 
ven. Ambrofe faith that Scriptura eft Epiftola Vei ad creaturas h and be- 
hold here is one that opens his mouth againft Heaven, . and eftablKheth; 
wickednefs by a Decree, exprefly forbidding all men of all degree to, 
read or keep this letter. J&not this he to whom the Dragon gave his, 
Power, his Seat, and great Authority? to whom was given a mouth, 
{peaking great words and blafphemies,- and to continue two and forty 
months, Revel. 13. W r ell, the Argument is this, . They to whom God, 
appoints the Scriptures to be. written they are to read and hear, them* 
tead^But the Scriptures were thus written to the People; Therefore they . 
are to read them. 

The. next thing is-to evidence our AfTertion by the judgment of the 1 
Ancient Fathers •» but that feems needlefs, for their own do confefs that 
the Fathers to a man were of our perfwafion and practice. Claud* Ef- 
tenexm. a learned man. tells us of. himfelf, Equidem in Paribus Ortho-, 


Serm. V. the Scripture to be read by the Ctntvion-Tcdple. 125 

doxls per Dei gratiar,?,&c. Truly, faith he,by the Grace of God I have been 

converfant in the Orthodox Fathers, and marvel very much (non potui 

non mirari), that the cuftom of reading Scriptures by the People mould 

now be accounted capital 2nd peftilent, which to the Ancient Orthodox 

Fathers fee med fo commodious and profit able, Efpen. Com. in "lit. c t t.pag. 

266. If it be (aid, That this Eifhop was before the Council of Trent, 

and that poliibly if he had been in that Convocation he would have 

teen of am mer mind. There were learned men there more excellent, 

that might havfc better informed him. To this I anfwer, I will give 

you one inftance for all, a little after that Council, and it is worth your 


About the year 1 560, Bifhop Jewel preaching at Pauls-Crofs, before 
a very great and Venerable Affembly makes this offer, That if any man 
alive, or men whatsoever of the Popifh iide, could prove by any one 
plain fentence out of Scriptures, or Fathers, ancient Dodors, or General 
Councils, for the firft fix hundred years, any one of the feven and twen- 
ty Articles, which he there rehearfed, he would then yield and fubmit. 
Among thefe Articles the fifteenth concerns our bufmefs i it runs thus, 
If any one can prove by Scriptures, Fathers, Votlors, Councils, for the firti 
fix hundred years, that the <Lay -people were forbidden to read the word of 
God inthiir own ton^pe, I trill yield and fubmit. Great difcourfe ('you 
mult thinkj arofe upon this among all forts s for fuch a man ("indeed in- 
comparable) to make fuch an offer fo feemingly daring, in fuch a place 
fo publiek, in fuch a way as in a publick Ordinance of God, before fuch 
an Affembly fo folemn and learned, great difcourfe there was no doubt. 
Some few months after he comes into the fame place, and remembers 
(he Audience of t his proffer wftn a great deal of Christian humility^ and- 
modeftly tells them, It was not vainglory or J "elf confidence ffor what 
was he > ) but the vindication of Truth,the Glory of Chrift, and the Sal- 
vation of Souls that had engaged him in this bufinefs. Then and there 
he repeated the fame Articles, and renewed the fame proffer. Whifper- 
ings, cenfurings, railings there were great (tore in private concerning 
ham, but no man makes an attempt to anfwer him. The Bifhops Apo- 
logy for the Church of England is printed, and tranflated into feveial 
Languages, difperfed abroad in France and Spain,z\)d other parts. One* 
of the many notable home-learned paffages I have tranferibed to our-- 
purpofe. If we be Hen ticks (as they would have us called) and they be- 
Catholic]^, why do they not convince and mafter us by the Divim Scriptures,-. 
as Catholick Fathers have always done > Why do they not lay before us* 
how we have gone away from Chr.i\\, from the Prophets and Apofiles, and 
from the Holy Fathers? why are they afraid of this,\\hy ft icl^t hey at this ? - 
1 pray yctt what manner of men be they which fear the judgment of Gods t 
ward? that are afraid of the holy -Scriptures > and do prefer before them 
eir own dieams. and cold inventions ? and to- maintain theip-cnvi %ra- » 
>o'!s, have defaced, and c.rrriftted. now thefe many hundred years* thz* 

Ordi^ ' 

1 26 The Scriptures to be read by the Comwon-Teople. Serm. V. 

'Ordinances of Cbrift and the Apoftles. This is fomewhat clofe and warm. 
Well, but (till here is a great (ilence * Dr. Cole date Dean of fouls) a 
man reputed learned, enters into a Letter-combate with him ', the Bi- 
fhop begs of him to give one Father,one Scripture, one Doctor. Geod 
Mr. Dr. (faith he) do net deceive the People their Souls be precious. The Dr. 
fends him back a taunt, a quibble,but never a word of Scripture,Coun- 
cil, or Father: he pretends he was afraid of forfeiting his recognifance; 
No, no, freplys the Bifhop) there is no fear of that, why (hould you 
fear the forfeit of your recognifance more for quoting Auftin and Chry* 
fojlom^ than for quoting Horace, and Virgil. At laft about five years 
after out comes Dr. Harding and his fellows, and when he and they 
(for you may be fure the main ftrength of Rome was engaged in this 
quarrel) come to make their reply to this fifteenth Article, the words 
arethefe, I will read them to you in their own expreilions^ That tlie 
Lay-people were then forbidden to read the Scriptures in their own longne, I 
find it not. This is honeft however, but then the next claufe is knavifh, 
Neither do I find they were commanded to read. Anf, The Fathers did 
not take upon them to command, but they prefTed the Command of 
Chrifbthat claufe was impertinent on purpofe to beguile theReader.The 
Fathers did exhort the People vehemently for reading, and rebuked 
them fharply for not reading. Give me a roll of Parchment as long as 
my arm, of the ordinary bredth, and I dare undertake a man (hall fill 
it full within and without with the Sayings of the Fathers to our pur- 
pofe in a (hort time, indeed the work is done already to our hands ', 
our Reverend Fathers have wrought hard with great judgment and fuc- 
cefs, we have (or might have) entred upon therr labours. Is it not a 
fault amongft us that we make no more ufe of fo fhining lights, I 
will name a few. Bifhop Jewel in his R?ply and Defence. Morton in his 
Appeal. Whita]^er deSc'riptura. Dr. White his way and defence. Cart- 
wright on Rhem. Pref. the Renowned Du Pleffts, and the great Chamier. 
What an abundance of Sayings of the Fathers have they quoted for the 
Peoples reading and hearing of the Scriptures within this hundred years 
and upward ! and none hath adventured to gain-lay them therein>that I 
know. But you will fay, Do not the learned Papifts (Tor there are lear- 
ned menamongft them) give fome anfwer to the Scriptures you quote, 
and the old Dcdlors too > I anfwer,there be four Queflions I have to 
fpeak to, before we come to fpeak fomething of tranflating the Scrip- 
tures j and this Queftion (hall be the firft, the fecond is, What Artifices 
they do ufe to bring People out of conceit with the Scriptures-, the 
third is, What Objections they ufually bring againft us > the la(t,What 
may be the deiign in all this. And I (hall here make ufe of the Fa- 

Firft then, What have they to fay? I anfwer,to that Scripture, which 
is a principal one, J oh. j. 39. Search the Scriptures, they would fain 
have it to be the Indicative Mood, not the Imperative, to be a practice, not 


Serai. V. The Scriptures to be read by the Common-Veople. 1 7 J 

a precept. Poor menlthey would get little by this if it were fo, for, this 
pra&ice was lawful and commendable, and then Chrift appeals to the 
Scriptures in which they were pra&ifed, to which they did pretend > 
their own Dr. Bilhop Efpenccem thinks it a very great fhamc, that the 
Jews did pra&ife themfelvcs, and train up their Children in the know- 
ledgof the Scriptures, and Chriftians did neglect it. Yea, but they 
would willingly (hift it orT from being a Command, for then it is ftill 
binding, and People that have any fenfe of God, and their Souls, and 
any thoughts of another World will conceive it is their Duty, let all the 
Popes in the World fay what they will to the contrary. This is that 
which pincheth,therefore they would by any (hift or wriggle put it off 
from being a Commands but it will not be. The Fathers take the words 
in the Imperative, Vtinam omnes facer emus, Would to God riewouldaU 
do that which ii written. Search the Scriptures ; Origen in Ifa. Hom.2. 
tKtKivffif t$luraTt> he commands us, Search the Scriptures, Athanaf. 
Tom„2. pa^.2\%.Com. 1*jtq\yi cMw, when a Commandment is given let 
us obey our Lord. Bafil y Chryfjiom the fame, fo Iheopbylatl his follow- 
er the fame, M*etwv &<»* JWwrcui teaching of them how they might 
have the Word of God abiding in them: he faith, Search the Scriptures, 
Ibtopb.in loc. There needs no mores for Janfenim doth contefs it, 
Community quidemaccipitnr tit ft imperativi modi, 'tis commonly taken 
for a Command.'Non dicit legite,he doth not fay read, but fearclv, Non ha* 
ant Mm fed omnes, not this or that, but all the Scriptures, Law and Pro- 
phets, Cone. c.%6. in loc. So doth Maldjnate, Iheophylatl, Augujline, & 
omnes opinor prater Cyritum graves author es. All grave Authors I fup- 
pofe, except Cyril, take thefe words for a Command, In eo enim v'vs 
Tejimonii & gratia OrationU confijiit. Why fo, ad fuas ipforum Scriptu- 
re mittit\ Chrift fends t he m to their own Bibles, In quibm omnem ill/ glo- 
riamfuam collocabant, of which they chiefly gloried. As if he ihould fay, 
Quandoquidem tantum Scriptures tribuitufince you afcribefo much to the 
Scriptures, that in them you thinl^to have eternal life, fearch the Scrip-, 
tures, and all things do well agree, they teftifie of me. Cbryfjft. & Eu- 
tbymiut bene adnotarunt non dicit legite fed fcrutamini, Maldon. in loc. So 
that this Text doth ftand for a Commmand from Chrift, and the coun- 
termand ftands (among others) for a brand of Antichrift. But foft, 
not Co hafty, Stapkton and others fay, Chrift there fpeaks to the Scribes 
and Pharifees.and thev were to fearch the Scriptures by their Off.ce; This 
they prove by ^.33. Ton fent unto John ; now the Scribes and Pharifees 
fent unto John, therefore to them he fpeaks. Anf The Chapter fpeaks 
not a word of the Scribes and Pharifees, but of the Jews', betides, the 
Scribes and Pharifees did not fend unto John but the Jews. The Text 
is exprefs, Job. 1. 19. 'The Jews fent Priejis and Lezites from Jerufalem 
to John. 

As to the Fathers urging the Bible upon the People, they fay, 5 Tis 
true-, but fay they (SixmSenenfis,and others). Pains difpw far unt, in- 


128 The Scripture to be read by theComwon-Teople. Serm. V. 

dulferunt libertatem, AmJ. Out upon it,a meer forgery to cheat the fim- 
Y)\e,Venia& indulgentia locum non habit ubi non pr£cejferit probib it io ^That 
isCbamiers Anfwer,an Indulgence doth prefuppofe a Prohibition. How 
could the Fatbers indulge tbat that was never forbidden ? Was the -rea- 
ding or hearing of the Bible ever forbid by the Fathers or Chriftian 
Magiftrates in their time > Indeed Antiocbw did burn it, and Julhn 
fcorTed at it, and Vioclefun did burn it alfo •, but of Chriftians never any 
did fo, the defiroyersand prohibiten of Scriptures are of another forf, 
they do like the Pagan Princes, Antiochus and Viockftan. 

But they plead the Fathers j They fay the Fathers (as Jerom and An- 
(tin) fay the Scriptures are obfeure and hard to be understood ^ and 
from thence infer, That in the judgment of the Fathers the Lay-people 
mould not meddle with them. Anf. 5 Tis true,moft of them urge this, 
but very fophiftically, and indeed wickedly. Austin faith that the 
Scripture like a familiar friend fpeaketh thofe things it containeth to 
the heart, Vottorum & Indo&omm, of the Learned, and the Unlearned, 
Epifl.3. The Scriptures are eafie to be underftood, and expo'ed to the 
capacity of every Servant, Plowman, Artificer j fo Cbryfofiome, Cyril, 
Jerom, Ifidore, and indeed all to the fame purpofe. True they fay fas we 
do), That there are fome things obfeure to ftir up diligence, frequency, 
prayer. Some Scriptures are dark, therefore Chriftians muft pray more, 
and read more attentively, diligently s that is the Inference of the Fa- 
thers*, Therefore they muft not read at all} that is the Inference of the 
Jefuits. What fophiftry, how bald is this, fit to be hiflcd out of the 
company of rational men. Chryfjiome is moft earneft upon all forts, Ar- 
tificers, Tradefmen, Men, Women, Young, Old, to be much in Rea- 
ding and Hearing, anfwers all their fhifts, tells them that they have 
more need than others, than Students, than Monks, becaufe they are 
in the midft of many temptations. Our Divines cite him much, the Com- 
piler of our Homilies, quotes fcarce any Father befides. What fay the 
Jefuits to this > why fome fay, He dealt like a Pulpit-man, not lil\e a 
Reader in a T)es^ like an Orator, not a Vifputant. Others, He was a 
vehement man. Others, Thar he fpake Hyperbolically \ that is, He 
fpake more than was needful. Whereas the truth is, The Angels would 
fooner want words wherewith to commend, than the Bible want worth 
to commend it felf. Put of all men the Rbemifls are moft impudent, 
who would make as if 'Chryfjiome were fo vehement only or mainly to 
take People off from Cards and Dice, and Stage-plays *, whereas Cbry- 
foftomes great bufinefs is to take them from their excufes of their Fami- 
lies, Trades, Callings; Rbemifts Preface to their Annotations, with 
Cartrvriqhts Anfwer, fee there at large. To conclude this, the Fathers 
fpeak of the Scriptures according to the Scripture •, viz,. That they are 
a Light, a Lamp •, a Light that jlrineib, that they give Vnderjtanding to 
the fimple ; If men fpeak not according to thtm it is becaufe there is no 
light in them, yet thefe men reject all. Some few are conftrained 10 


Serm. V. The Scripture to be read by the Common-People. 129 

confefs that in points generally to be believed the Scriptures are pjain i 
but yet they will not yield at any hand that they (hall come into the 
hands of the People, you (hall hear their rcafoos by and by. 

The fecond Queilion is, what Artifices their Learned Men do ufe to 
debafe the Scriptures, that the Peopled may have a vile eftcctn of the«1 3 
brine, them to difdain and loath them? I anfwer, many ways by Word 
and Deed ; firit by Word, Shall I fay they difparage them ? Sirre e- 
nongh, they blafphemc, they call them a dead Letter, a dumb Judg, 
Theologian Atramentariam, Inken Divinity j (do you hear* ye Quakers 
who were your Tutour ) a Lesbian Rule, a Nofe of Wax without the Pope 
( faith Car, Hofiuf ) they have no more Authority thanJEfops Fables, non 
plus Authoritatis quam iEfopi Fabulas : Here is a Rabfhakfy whom the 
Babylonijb King hath preferred to a Red-Hat to blafpheme the Living 
Godi the fame man compares David's Pfalms to B<*/W*/,witha verfe out 
of Horace, Scribimm indoVxi do8iq;PoematapajJim; which the excellent 
Bi(hop Englifheth thus, we write BaUadesTag and Rag. Dr. White in the 
way tells us that Perefim faid,that he thought verily it was the Devils in- 
vention to permit the people to read the Bible •, Is not this enough to fcare 
and affright poor fouls from touching it, or attending to it ? Martin. 
Pen fins deTrad. p. 44. And Thyrr£us faith, that he knew certain Hus- 
bandmen pojftjfed of the Devil, becaufe being but Husbandmen they were 
able to difco>irfe of the Scriptures : Thyrr£us de Demoniac, c.21. Ibef. 
257. Methinks here I have an idea of a Frier Preaching, that Reading 
Scripture U the way to be pojfeffed of the Devil. 

2. By Deeds and Practice, and that many ways. 

1. Tkey cry tip the good of Ignorance > they tell us it is more re- 
vpirdable to be ignorant than knowing, they require no knowledg of the 
things we pray for : The Jefuites tell us after a long harangue in Tome 
things impertinent, and in others very falfe, that devout People may, 
and ought, in their ancient right, ft ill ufe their Latin Prayers, Beads, 
and Primars as ever before, notwithiianding what Paul faith, in the 
1 Cor. 14. And that they doubt not but it is acceptable to God, and 
available in all their necejjities ; nay more, that they pray with great confu- 
tation of fpirit, and with as great devotion and affection, nay often* 
times more than they that Pray in the Vulgar Tongue. Well, and. what 
Prayers be thefe > Why they be Prayers, Pfalms, and holy W r ords : 
They are the Pater Nojier, the Ave Maria, the Creed, Our Ladies Mat. 
tins, and the Letanies, and the like : Oh! the impudence of men, that 
have made their Faces harder than a Rock, to Print fuch things as thefe: 
Rhem. Annot. on the 1 Cor. 14. So alfo they, require no ability to pro- 
fefs their Faith, if they were to fuffer for it* if a Catholick called before 
the Commiffimers, bath courage to fay Yam a Catholic}^, he dtfendetb him- 
fe If Sufficiently ( though he can fay no more ) and that I will dye a Ca- 
tbolitkji But what if the Commiiiioners ask him a reafon of his Faith, 
he anfwers enough, by telling them that the Church can give them a rea- 

S fon 

13c The Scriptures to be read by the Common-People. Serm.V. 

fon of all their demands , Rhem. Annot. Luke 12. 1 r. They fay that Ig- 
norance in moft things, is heft of all r — to kaow nothing is to kjion? all 
things. H ofi us. 

. 2. They cry up to the skies an Implicite Faith C tlais is diftinct from 
the other, though near a-kin ) this is the Colliers Faith, and doth 
wonders. The Story is, the Collier was fick, and being at the point 
of death, he was tempted of the Devil what his Faith was ; the Col- 
lier anfwered, I believe and dye in the Faith of Chrijh Church : Being 
demanded by the Devil, what the Faith of the Church was, that Faith 
( quoth he ) that I believe in \ and thus clearly bafled and non-plu{Tcd 
the Devil. He put him to flight faid Staphylw, I fhould not have be- 
lieved this Story ( faith my Author ) upon the report of fuch a bafe 
companion zsStapbylns; but when I faw the fame conceit fet forth as 
gravely by Learneder Cle ardes than that renegate (foBifhop Jewel 
calls him )$ then I conceived that the Colliers Faith was Canonized for 
thePapifts Creed: Thefe learned men were no lefs than Alb.Pigbw^ 
Hierarch. lib. 1. cap. 5. />. 38. and Ho fins cont. Proleg. Brentii, lib. 3. 
p. 136. with two other confiderable men. Dr. Cole (hall conclude this, 
with what he did once conclude the convocation at JVeflminfier, in the 
beginning of Queen Elizabeth : The Story in fhort is this. A Difpu- 
tation is appointed by the Council at JFeftminfter ("faith Fuller in his Hi* 
ftory ]; Nine Popifh Bimops and Doctors on that fide j Eight Prote- 
ftant Doctors on the other fide, Sr. Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper, Mo- 
deratour : The rirft queftion was about fervice in an unknown Tongue, 
the firftDay paiTed with the Protectants *, the fecond Day theFopifh 
Bifhops and Doctors fell to cavilling againft the order agreed on: 
( Alas what mould they do, they could not now, Petere argument* ex 
officinti camificum \) They fell to faucinefs as well as diforder, the meet- 
ing is ditfblved, Dr. CoAfftands up and tells that honourable AfTembly, 
thus with a loud voice, Itellyou ( faith he ) that Ignorance vs the Mother 
of devotion : So faid the Valentinians of old > as Irtneus tells us, that the 
Ignorance of Truth is knowledg, lib. 2. c. 19. 

3. They have one trick more to debafe the Scriptures, and dull the 
edge of peoples affections to them, fome of their Doctors write moll 
unworthy things of the Bible, as before*, thefe they applaud, thacfo 
they may inftil ilily and infenfibly into the minds of men by their Au- 
thority, a very coarfe efteem of the Word of God : As for example, 
Catbirinus reftifkth of Cardinal Cajetan, that he denied the laft chapter 
rf St. Mark fome panels of St. Luke, the Epijile to the Hebrews , the 
Epiflle of James, the fecond Epiftle of Peter, the fecond and third E- 
piiiles 0/John, and x\\t Epiftle of Jude* this Man they applaud very 
highly, call him the incomparable Divine, fill their people wkh high 
admirations of him, and then publifh in their Books thefe things •, and 
fc infill hydrops an evil opinion of the Scriptures : And if the Pro- 
teftants object this to them, they put it off, faying, he was but a pri- 


Scim V. The Scriptures to be read by the Cowwon-TcopU. 131 

vate DoCtor, what is that to their Church. The Priefts and Frier? tell 
the people what Hfius and others their admired men fay of the Scrip- 
tures, a darh^ lame, mute, dumb, firry Boo\\ and all this to diiparage 
the Holy Truth of God, and to keep poor Soul? in Ignorance, which 
they do by this means, both Pried and People. Their very Priefts un- 
derhand not their own Mafs-Books *■> A Young Man within thefe three 
Months, entered into Difcourfe with fome Priefts at Malaga, in Spain, 
he faluted them in Latin, and propofed fome Queftions in Latin to 
them, they underftood never a Word. Archbifhop Spotfwood tells us 
in his Hiftory of Scotland^ that the Cardinal perfecuted men in Angus, 
for reading the New-left ament : And 'tis faid the Ignorance of thefe 
times was fo great, that even the Priefts did thinks that tbeNew-Teft.i- 
ment was one of Martin Luthers Books, H. Se. ad annum 1544.. He tells 
us alfo of a great contention among the Church-men, whether the Pj- 
terNofler might be faid to the Saints > it was brought to the Univeriity, 
they, fome of the Doctors faid it might be faid to God formrtiter, to 
the Saints materialiter \ to God principaliter, to the Saints minus prin- 
cipaliter; to God capiendo (Irifte, to Saints capiendo large: The Doct- 
ors meet feveral times, and not agreeing, it was referred to a Provin- 
cial Synod to be decided. When the Synod convened, the queftion 
was agitated again, at laft it was refolved that the Pater Nofter might be 
faid to faints. Hi f. Scot. Anno 1 553. 'Tis impoffible to conceive what 
a thick fogg, and mi ft of ignorance and darknefs was upon the Souls or. 
the people j I will mention but one Story from Dr. White upon his 
own experience, it is this \ he faw and learned ( dwelling among 
them ) how they faid their Prayers •> the Creed thus, Creezum zuum 
Vatrttm onitentem creatorum ejus anicum Dominum noli rum qui cum fins 
Virgini Mari£ crixus fix us Douche Til at i. and fo on, to Eccli Catholi re- 
miffeme peccaturum communiorum, ohliviorum bitamax\d turnam again. 
It would make a mans heart tremble C faith my Author ) at their moft 
horrid ignorance*, yet to hear them pronounce their Prayer it moves 
laughter, and lconfefs upon this account I durft not Preach it : In him 
you mav fee a great deal more of this pitiful fturf, The way to the True 
Church, in the Preface to the Reader. The Jefuit in his Anfwer calls 
him to an account for this ; but in his Defence he tells the Jefuit that is 
the cafe of the better fort as well as the poor, they are all ignorant, and 
fay their Prayers much at one rate, and this faith he I will ftand to, if 
all the Seminaries in England had it in chafe : My experience of fome 
C faith he ) allows me to fpeak that the Ignorance is general. Defence 
C.12. He asked an Ancient W r oman what Jefus Chrift was \ She told 
him (he could not tell, but fure it was fame good thing, it would not 
have been with the Lady elfe in her Creed \ but no more. 

4. Laftly, They take this way to put down the Scriptures, fin by 
deftroying and burning them, and thofe that love them : I will give 
three or four inftances, thefirft, King Henry the Eighth writes to the 

S 2 French 

x 2 2 The Scripture to be read by the Common-People. Serm. V. 

French King for Licence to Print the Bible in EngUjh in Park, becaufe 
there was liore of Paper and good Workmen, as alfo to Bonner then 
Leiger in France to further it j this was by the means of Cromwell, at 
great charges it is effected !> but by the means of Gardiner and his 
fellows feized and burned openly in the Maulbert place in Park, 2500 
Bibles burned at one fire. See Fox his Martyr, there is much more to 
this purpofe. 

Upon the perfecution of the Duke of Guife againft the Protectants, 
it Amiens all the Bibles, Tejiaments, P falters, were fought for and 
openly burnt, at Troys the Bibles were all rent and torn in pieces, zt Ad- 
gees they openly burnt the Bibles in the Market-place i one fair gilt 
Bible was hung upon an Halberd, and carried in Proceflion, the Papifts 
laying, Behold, Truth hanged, theTruihof the Hugenots, the Truth 
of all the Devils, with much collected by Mr. Clarh^ in his Martyr qL 
In Ireland (* within memory ) the Bible was, dragged, kennelled, cut, 
torn, ftampt upon. Bifhop Jewel tells of a Martyr in Q; M. pleaded 
the Scripture before the Bifhop in his own defence > the Bi(hop turning 
to a Juftice faid, nay, it he prates of the Bible, we (hall never have 
done", habemus Legem, we have a Law (faidhe) and by our Law he 
ought to die. Rep. to Cole. John Porter a young Man, reads in the 
Bible fet up in Pauls by Bonner in the Lord Cromwell's time:, when Cram- 
well was dead, Bonner fends for him, accufes him for expounding the 
Bible to the people, Porter denies any fuch thing , Bonner fends him to 
Newgate where he is loaded with Irons, hands and leggs, and a Collar 
of Iron about his neck, by a friends means to the Keeper he is fomewhat 
eafed, and put among the Felons, whom he reproves, and inftrucls, 
being well acquainted with the Scriptures > he is complained of, the 
Bifhop commands him into the Dungeon, 'tis thought he was put into 
the Engine called the Devil in the Neck : In the night he was heard to 
groan fadly, in the morning found dead. 

A poor Bookfeller in Avignion was burned to Afhes, for fet ting to fale 
Tome French Bibles, his defence worthy the reading, his queftions ut- 
terly filencing the Bifhop of Aix, with the reft of the Prelates •, they 
gnafhed upon him with their Teeth, and cried, To the fire prefently : He 
was led to his execution with two Bibles about his neck, one hanging 
before , the other behind, as (hewing the caufe of his condemna- 
tion } fo the good Man and the Bibles were burnt together. Fox 
Mar. H. 8. 

A Woman of Sanfiy in France, was accufed by her Servant for ha- 
ving a Bible in her Houfe, in reading whereof was her whole delight > 
the Maid Servant complains of this to the Jefuites, the Jefuites complain 
to the Judges, (he was apprehended, and imprifoned •■> the Judges told 
her, if (he would confefs upon the Scaffold that (he had broken the 
Law, and caft her Bible into the fire, (he fhould have her life : We 
would have you (faidtheyj imagtn it to be but Paper, and you may 


Serm, V. The Scripture to be read by the Common-People. *33 

buy another, only throw this into the fire to give the Jefuites content, 
thus they laboured to perfwadc her for the fpace of two hours : What 
aCcandal (hall J give f aid (he to the People to burns Gods BookJ No certain* 
h 1 will never do it\ 1 will rather hum my Body than my Bible : Upon this 
foe was committed dote Prifcner, fed with bread and water, at laft 
condemned to be fet upon the Scaffold, her Bible burnt before her face | 
her felf to be ftranglcd, her body to be dragged through the Streets to 
adunghil, which was accordingly done. 

A Woman in Ireland required by Fit zPatrick^iolroYnhcv Bible, She 
told him that me would rather die than burn her Bible •, whereupon 
the Sabbath day morning after this, She and her Husband were cruelly 
murthered : But themurtherer, tormented in Confcience, and dogged 
fas he conceived ) and haunted with apparitions of them, with in- 
ward honour pined away. Cla. Mar. Fran. Ireland. 

There is no end of thefe fad Stories, Dr. Story (hall conclude > Thou • 
prateft ( faid he to a Martyr ) of the Bible, bibble, babble, all is bib- - 
ble babble, thou {halt prate at a Stake. So much of the fecond Qje- 

The Third is this , What Objections do they make againft reading, 
and having Scripture ? They are men of Learning, fome of them give 
fome Reafon for their proceedings. 

Anfw. They do fo, and you (hall hear them fairly propofed, I will 
not wrong them. 

The firft is this} Caft not holy things to D/>£J\ nor Pearls before Swine; 
therefore the People mufr not have the uCc of Bibles. Anfwer, Verily 
this Argument is fo horribly injurious to the wKdom and Mercy of 
God, and fo inhuman and barbarous to the rationality of Man, that 
one would think it were rather flanderoufly and defignedly impofed 
upon them, then propofed by them; But it is notorioufly true in all 
their Books : Harding and his fellows ailed g it in their Afwer to Bilhop 
Jewel. Hofius doth the fame alfo. The jefuites in their Preface to the 
Rhem. Annot. but more fubtilly and ilily 5 and are rebuked fufficiently 
by Mr. Car. Salmeron and Cojierus gives the fame reafon why the Peo- 
ple are not to know the Church-Traditions, they muft be kept lockt 
and fafe in the Popes Bread \ the Pope is not to let the people know 
Traditions, or at leaft doth jjot, becaufe Holy things muft- not be 
thrown to Dogs. Canus doth [he fame, and becaufe he fpeaks out, I 
will write his words, Si Apoftoli quibus formvs facramenta ejfent confici- 
enda, quibufq-y ritibus adminiflranda, aliaq, id genus religions fecreta paffvn 
vulgo tradidiffent, quidejjet aliud q'uam adverfits Chrifti legem fantlum dare 
canibus & inter por cos fpargere marparitas } imo quid ejfet aliud quam om- 
nia myfterii Chri\\ian<e FLedighnis abolere}nec enim my\\erium eft quod adpo- 
pnlares aures (ffcrtur, Hxc itaq\ -prima rath eft cur Apoftoli que dam fine 
fenpto tradidernnt > nempe, ne.-aut ab etbnicis irriderentur facra noftra ant 


1 34 the Scriptures to be read by the Cowmon-Veoplc. Serm. V. 

vulgo ctiam fidelhim venirent in contemptum : The long and fhott is this, 
That the Apoftles did by word of mouth deliver the^fecrtts of the Gofpel tc 
fame men, and did not write and preach the whole of Faith and Duty to 
the Churches ■>> for if they had done fo, they had gone againfi the Com- T 
mand of Chnft, who faith, Give not holy things to Vogs, and caft not 
Tearls before Swine i> Can. Lib. 3. c. 3. com. Loc. Thus the poor Peo- 
ple whofe Souls are immortal and precious, the People that are the 
Church of God, for whom Chriit died to redeem with his Blood, for 
whom, and to whom the Scriptures were on fet-purpofe written, mud 
have nothing } not the Scriptures, becaufe holy things mull not be giv- 
en to Dogs, nor Traditions ( which alfo contain matters of Faith and 
Worfhip ) becaufe Pearls muft not be caft to Swine. 

Mr. Hording and they with him tell us, that whereas the Hebrew 
Letters had no Vowels, the Seventy Elders only could read, and the 
people were kept from reading of it, as it is thought by the fpecial Pro- 
vidence of God, that precious (tones (hould not be caft before Swine, 
'Reply to the fifteenth Article^ a notorious daring unt-Tuth, for whether 
they had points or not is not to the queftion ^ iure enough the people 
could Read, for they were expreily commanded to Wiite the Words of 
the Law: Veut. n. And they could Write a Bill of Divorce. Taulus 
Fagius faith , from the Kabbinr, that through the whole Countrey eve- 
ry Town had a School, and that in Jernfalem there were fome hun- 
dreds of Schools ; And in fo many Schools was there no Scholar did 
know his Letters ? For him to fay they could not Read, and that by a 
fpecial Providence they were kept from it, and that, becaufe holy 
things mould not be caft to Dogs ; What daring men are thefe ? But 
the truth is, they will adventure upon anything to ferve their own 
turn, by keeping the people in midnight doleful Darknefs. 

Their fecond Obedtion is, The People will pervert the Scriptures, 
therefore they are juftly prohibited > the good Old Gentleman out of 
his Fatherhood, takes away the Knife out of his Childrens hands, they 
will abuiethemfel.ves and cut their fingers. 

Anjw. This Objection is an Hundred year old,and Thirty to boot,and 
every-where among their Bifhops 3nd Jefuites to be found , but I flood 
amaied to read it of late, in a reply to Dr. S. It feems they think it is a 
very marp Argument : Alas, one of the .Martyrs in QjW. broke the edge 
of it, indeed batter'd it all to pieces. The Story in fhort is this} Stephen 
Gratwkh con vented before Dr. iFatfon Bifhop otlFincbejler, in St. Maries 
Overies in Southward tells the Bifhop of his cruelty, in taking away the 
New Tsftament from him, which he had for the health of his Soul, 
which all men ought to have for their Souls comfort', and fo he did 
treat them more like brute beafts, than Chriftian men : No ( quoth the 
Bifhop ) we will ufe yon as we will ufe the Child h for if the Child will 
hurt himfelf with the Knife, we will take away the Knife from him : 


Serm. V. The Scriptures to be read by the Common-People. 135 

So bcciufe you will damn your Soul with (he Bible, you ftull not v have 
ir. My Lord quoth Gratwick, , this is a fimple Argument to maintain 
and cover year tin, are not you afhamed to make the Word the cauie of 
our damnation ? But if your Argument be good, you may take away 
from us our Meat and Drink, becaufc fome men do abufe them - , and 
you may make an Argument to take away all other mercies as well as 
the Scriptures : My Lords, quoth IFincbeJhr, we lofe time, this fellow 
is perverfe, he fpeaks nothing but Sophiftry, we (hall get no advantage 

linft him. Have at ye now, Wilt thou recant > I will pronounce 
fentence. There, there it is. Who (hall /land before this Argu- 
ment ? 

But if perverting Scriptures, be any reafon for the non- reading of 
tlumv then of all men in the World, the Popes, Cardinals, Priefls, 
Jefuites, fhould be prohibited *, of all men they fhould never touch a 
Bible, inftances are many : I will prefent you with a few. Dr. Harding 
and the Lovainifts with him argue thus s The Son of Man came not to 
delhr y, but to feek and fave that which is \ Ergo, in the Sacrament the 
Accidents of Bread and Wine remain without their Subjects. The Axe 
may not boaft himfelf agiinft him that lifteth it up* Ergo, no Man may 
dafeto judgthePope, if he leads thoufands of Souls to Hell i no Man 
may mutter, or fay, Do mine cm i? a facts. To the pure all things are 
pure, to the unclean all things are unclean i Ergo, It is not lawful for 
Prielts to Marry. Give not Holy things to Dogs, Ergo, Prayers mull- 
be in a ftrange Tongue the people do not underftand. I will fprinkle 
clean Water upon you-, Ergo, the Pried muft fprinkle the people with 
Holy Water. Chrift faid, Without me ye can do nothing ', Ergo, the 
Bi(l*op alone muft confecrate the Church. ?aul faith, the Rock was 
Chrift i Ergo, the Altar muft be of Stone. The Earth is the Lords., 
the round World, and all that dwell therein \ Ergo, the Ho ft "or Sacra- 
mental Bread muft be round. God made the Sun to rule the day, and 
the Moon the Night ', Ergo, the Dignity of the Pope is Fifty fix times 
bigger then the Emperours Dignity. The Thief upon the Crofs, re- 
pented himfelf of his Life } Ergo, the Pried at Mafs muft fetch a iTgh T 
and knock his Bread. Judas killed Chrift ', Ergo, the Prieft, muft ki(s 
the Altar. Take the Money in the mouth of the Fifh, and pay for. me. 
and thees Ergo, the Pope is the Head of the Church. Babylon is a 
Cup of Gold in the hand of the Lord \ Ergo, the Chalice muft he of 
Silver or Gold. Thus I have given you a full dozen of inftances, of 
their horrible abufing of the Scripture ; and if it were ferviceable 1 
could furnifh you with a dozen more, the greateft abufers of the 
Scripture that ever were, and the greateft blafphemers that ever were, 
in applying that to ignorant finful men, which is peculiar to the Lord 
Jefus: As the Pope is the Light that cometh into the World',and the Am— 
bafladours of Sicilie thus fupplieate the Pope Tu qui tollif peccata mundl, 
Oh thou that takeft away the Sins of the World have mercy upon us \ 


i%6 The Scripture to he read by the tommon-Teople. Serm. V. 

Oh thou that takeft away the fins of the World, Dona nobis pacem, 
Grant us thy peace. And thefe Cwith much more that might be added; 
Ifaythefe illogical non-fenfical inferences, and blafphemous applica- 
tions are afferted, by Bifhop Jewel at Pauls Crofs > and Chemnitim. 

3. They Object, That the Reading of the Scriptures or hearing them 
read breeds Herefie, Therefore they ought not to have the ufe of them: 
This Objection is common amongft all their writers > the Council of 
Trent ( as was above faid ) faith that the Scripture do more harm than 
good •, what harm they do not tell, though they did refolve to pro- 
hibit them, and did fpightfully fpeak againit them *, yet in their Decree 
they durft fay no more than that they did harm in general, and they 
could not for (hameand policy fay lefs, for then they had not mention- 
ed any pretence for their prohibition : Why did not they fpeak out and 
name the harm they did, by whom, in what Countrey, to whom, in 
what particulars > And all their ground is experience, cum experiment!) 
manifeftum ft \ But whofe experience is this > None fure, but their own 
they found and felt, and feared more would follow, that the Scriptures 
had difcovered to the World their Tyranny, Herefie, and Idolatry, their 
Pride, Covetoufnefs, Filthinefs, and innumerable Villanies : This was 
the experience, and this is the rife of their rage and enmity, and con- 
tinueth fo to this day amongft feme of them it may be feared to fpiteful 
perfecution againft knowledg. 

Wo be to our Parifh Priefts, wo be to our Bifhops, wo be to our 
Prelates, faid a Learned Man of their own? yea, wo be to them in- 
deed, they have not only taken away the Key of Knowledg, but they 
reproach it to be the key cf Herefie : Hercticks f faith Dr. Harding and 
his complices ) fuck in the venom of Herefie out of the Scriptures y 
■Ergo^ if the people read the Scriptures, they will prove Hereticks. 
This is the common cry of them all, and Bifhop Jewel (hall anfwer 
them all, theconclufion is this ^ every Man may read the Jefuites and 
Priefts Books, but Gods Book they may not read •, every Man may 
read the Jefuites and Priefts Eooks without danger, but the Book of 
God they cannot read without danger \ would you know the reafon 
( faith he J > the Reafon is this, Gods Book is full of Truth, and their 
Books are full of Lies. 

The Scripture breeds Herefie, even as much as Light breeds Dark- 
nefs, or Phyfick Difeafes ', yea, but men do pervert them ! that is an- 
swered before : Yea, but -now Heretics are abroad, therefore it is not 
fife ! And were there not Tradition-mongers and Herefies in Chrifts 
time f Were not falfe Teachers very many and in very many points, 
and thofe very dan-gerous and deftrucYivein the Apoftles time? Were 
there not fome that denied therefurredionof the body, andturnedall 
into an Allegory, of a rifing within us, then as well as now ? And of 


Serra. V. The Scripture to be read by the Common-People. 1 3 7 

late the Familifts and Quakers? Did not fome deny the Deity of our 
Lord Jcfus, the Ebionites and others then,as well as the Socinians now > 
Did not fome let go the Head Chrift and introduce a wicked practice of 
Worfhipping of Angels,through the pretence of Humility, Holding not 
the bead, Col. 2. Were there none that did overthrow the foundation, 
(if making Chrift of none erTedr. will overthrow the Foundation then 
fure they did It) by Juftifkation by Works as a Iefs principal caufe. 
Certainly there were all thefeand others, yet the Apoftles did never 
forbid the People reading Scriptures, for fear they might be infected. 
As if an Antidote mould caufe or occation, (if you will have it Co) I 
fay occaiion an infedrion i the Apoftles did the contrary-, John bids 
them Try the fpirits '■> and Taxi bids them Try all things j and J tide ex- 
horts them To contend earneftly for the faith delivered once to the Saints ; 
Tak^e unto them the fword of the fpirit which is the word of God, Ephef. 
6. 17. 

It is to little boot to light up a Candle where the Sun fhines } what 
fhould I name the Fathers, were there not Hereiies in their times > 
Doth not Irenjeus, and after him Epipbanius name them in numbers 
eighty? doth not Auftinzhev them and others.reckon up about eighty? 
Did they now forbid the People to read and fearch the Scripures > The 
clean contrary every one knows that knows any thing of them. Nay, 
they chide them becaufc they were not skilful : The Manicbees and He- 
retickj deceive the fimple, but if we had bur fenfes exercifed to difcern good 
and evil, we might e aft ly refute them ; howfhal! we have our fenfes but by 
the ufe of the Scriptures and frequent hearing. Chryfoft. Hom.%. ad Heb. : 
Nothing can deceive thofe that fearch the Scriptures t for they are a light. 
Theoph. de L^zaro. *<P*v i%vV« ec<f,ij&$au, which Joining the thief is dif- 
covered i • xxIttm* (pAiAraa x) tudmra*. We nrnfi read the Scriptures^ 
omni i\udio^that we may be skilful exchangers ftrapezit^J to difcern be- 
tween Gold and Copper. So Hierome long before Theophyl. MaUeo Scrip- 
turarum, &c. that we beat out the brains of Her e fie s with the mallet of the 
Scriptures, idem. It were tedious to tyth the Quotations of the Fa- 
thers to this purpofe. The Scripture breeds Hereiies •, Nay,(aith Iremus 
1450 years fince to the mad, fantaftick Valentinians\ Hsc omnia contulit, 
Scc.The Ignorance of the word of God is the caufe of all tbefe Herefies. This 
the holy learned Father pithily difcourfeth in many Chapters,L/'&.4. efpe- 
cially from the 11th. to the ijtb. to confound the Marci&nites, Carpocra- 
tians and other Gnofticl^s, That // wm the fame God and Father Almighty 
Maker of the World then and now, and the fame Lord Jefus the Saviour 
both now and then.That Abraham was faved by faith in Chrift. Nemo cogno- 
fcit filium nifi pater, nemo cognofcit pitremnifi fit ins & quibufcunq\ filing 
revelaverit : revelaverit enim non folum in futurum ditlum eft, qua ft tunc 
inceperit verbum revelare Patrem cumde Maria natus,fcd communiier per 
tjtumtempus pofitum eft 1 ab initio enim fi litis afftftens . fuo Plafmati reve- 
lat omnibus Patrem, quibus vnlt & qmd vnlt & qnemadmedum vnlt Pater 

T & 

138 The Scriptures to be read by the Common-People. Serm.V. 

& propter hoc in omnibus & ptr omnia unus Veus Paterjmus filius,& unus 
fpirituSj una fides & una JjIus omnibus credentibns in eum. Cap. 14. 
Propbeta cum ergo ejjet Abraham & videret infpritu diem adventusTDomini 
& P affronts difpufitionem, per quern ipfe & omnes frmiliter ut ipfe credidit^ 
credunt Veofilvari inciperent, vebementer exultavit, novit, quod Deo be- 
neplacuit fUmmfimm dileUum & unigenitum prsftare facrificium in noftram 
redemptionem, nb.4. c.13. 

And he faith alio before, That the accurfed Hereticks Gnoflicks of all 
forts and names, did beget their Herefies and fpread them from the 
ignorance of. the Scripture, H£c omnia contulit e'vs ignorantia Scriptura- 
rum & difpofitionvs Dei: fc. in the Scriptures', Nos autem & caufam dif- 
ferentia Jfframentorum, & rurfum unit at em & confonantiam ipforum, in 
bis qu£ deinceps futur a funt refer emus, I.3 012. 

But laftly, If the Scriptures muft not be read by the People, becaule 
they will prevert them, and engender Herefies, then of all the men in 
the World, Learned men, the Clergy, Popes, Cardinals, Jefuits, 
Priefts, Academicks , Minifters mould not read them, for he muft be 
a great ftranger in Hiftory, Primitive and Modern, and in common 
experience. Who doth not know,that thefe men in all ages have been 
the broachers of Errors and Herefies, the falfe Apoftles, the Minifters 
of Satan? the Gnofticks their Ring-leaders were they not learned ? 
Arrius, Pelagins, Pbotinus, Macedonius, and the reft i they were either 
Presbyters or Bifhops. Come to our times, look into Poland and Tran- 
fylvania w T ithin ihefe eighty years paft, the SocinuJJesJlnde L^e/zW, and 
"Nephew Fauftus, Crellius, Smakitts, Volkglius, and the reft > the Mini- 
fters of Tranfylvania were they Lay-people } Who did expound the 
ninth of Ifaiab and applied it to Hezehiab ? and the 53 Ifaiab and ap- 
ply it to Jeremiah? or the fifth of Micab, and apply it to Zorobabel? 
Who invented fuch a trick as to fay thefe Texts might be applied to 
Jefus Chrift, and ought to be [q *, modo eminertiori, a villainous trick in 
it felf,and very apt to deceive young Students > Who are thofe that af- 
firm, publickly affirm , That Abraham was not faved by Faith in 
Chrift ? are they Lay-men, they would take it very hainouily if a man 
fhould not fay that they w T ere learned men, admirable and incompara- 
ble men. Did the People in Holland revive and vent Pelagianifm?Do the 
People in England contrary to the Scriptures and the Doctrine of the 
Church vent Pbotinianifm or Pelagianifm ? I have reafon to believe that 
brain- ftck Quakerifm did not arife from the People, but from learned 
Seducers, that have a myftery amongft them to do any thing, or fpread 
any faltity, fo it be for the advance of the Catholiek caufe. Sabbataria- 
nifmfos the Saturdays Sabbath. Antifabbatarianifm againft the Lords- 
day, Jure Divino. Anabaptifm hath rifen from and been fupported 
by men of Learning, 

The fourth and laft Objection they snake, or that I (hall name, is the 


Serm. V. The Scriptures to be read by the Common- People. 139 

obfeurity of the Scriptures. The Scriptures are obfeure and dark.thcre- 
fore the Lay-people (lull not read them. Thisalfo is a common thred- 
bare baffled Argument, how do they prove the Antecedent? Why, 
7 here are fame things dark, and hard to be underftoodin Pauls Epiftles. 

Anf. Though there be fome few dark places in Paul and other Scrip- 
tures, yet generally they are plain, and there is nothing dark in thofe 
few places that concerns Faith and Holinefs •, but the fame is abundant- 
ly plain in other Texts \ fome places are obfeure, moft places are plain 
and facilc:Enr0,thc People mull read none at all \ this is the proper but 
moil abfurd Inference of the Jefuits. Some Texts are fomewhat dark, 
therefore the people (hould read the oftner, pray the more, compare 
Text with Text, confult and confer the more, be well skilled and fee- 
led in the Doctrines of Faith and Practice in plainer places the more. 
Thcfe Inferences are proper and natural, but that they (hould not read 
at all is fuch a wild doltifh non fequitur, that nothing can be more. 

David faith, That they are a Light, a Lamp, that they enlighten the eyes^ 
give undemanding to the fimple : Yet how little was there of the Bible in 
Davids times, no more but the five Books of Mofes, and two or three 
other Books,and thefe raoftly Hiftorical •, what a light and glory mining 
is there now by the Accellion of Solomon, the Hiftory of the Kings, the 
Prophets, Evangeli(t$,Apoftles ? and yet (hall bold men reproach them, 
and fay, They are dark ? 'Twill be tedious to yon and me to quote Fa- 
thers in this Point j take two or three - , Vniverft Scripture & Prophetic* 
& Evangelic*, fhnt in aperto •, & fine ambiguitate & fimiliter ab omnibus 
audiri poffunt : Prophets and Apoftles are without ambiguity , arid 
may be heaid '"underftood,) of all. Ireti£us lib.2. c.4.6. He difcourfeth 
againft the Valentinians, and the other Gno^iickj, who would pick out 
a myitica! meaning where it never was i and if that they met with any 
number, what wild work would they make with it' for their fantaftick 
JEones;vni\c\\ at the rate as the Papifts out of Tape oves collect the Popes 
Supremacy , and out of the Eighth Pfalm, Thou haft put all things under 
\m feet : i'c, Subpedibm Pontiftcvs Romani, under the Popes feet. Pecora 
campi i The beafts of the field •, that is, Men on earth, the fifh of the 
Sea*, that is, Souls in Purgatory. Volucres c£li , the birds of Heaven \ 
that is, the Souls in Heaven Canonized by the Pope, Go to, faith Ire,i*us 
to the Gnoftickf,wuh your wild notions : So fay we to our Ad verfaries, 
Scriptur* in aperto funt j The fenfe of the Scriptures is plain enough.So 
Clem. Alexand. perfwades the Heathen to leave their Fables, which are 
much like the Popifh Legends i and their Sfatues which they worfhip- 
ped with uncouth Ceremonies, like the Popifh Images j and invites 
them to Heavenly knowledg in the Prophets and Apoftles. Audite qui 
ejtis longe, qui eftls prope, nullvs celatnm eft verbum, lux communis innotefcit 
omnibus^ nulm eft in verbo CimmeriM _• The word is evident, the light 
fhineth, there is no darknefs in the word j Clem. Alexand. Orat. adhort. 
aaCentes. Whatfoever things are neceiTary are manifeft in the Scrip- 

T 2 turesj 

1 40 The Scripture to be read by the Common-People. Serm. V; 

tares \ Chryjoft. Dr. Prideaux in the Chair was wont to tell us, that 
Scriptura eft obfcura in aliquibus cognofcendis a Theologo. Sed non eft ob- 
fcura in credendvs & agendis a Chriftiano : If the Scriptures be hid they 
are hid indeed to the Learned Papifts. How do they write and deter- 
mine contrary to one another > How plain is Pighius in the Point of 
Juftification, and the Imputation of Chrifts Righteoufnefs, as alfo 
Gropper and the Divines of Colen^ and long before them Aquinas alfo? 
How dark and ignorant, and (huffing is the Council of Trent in that 
great Point ? Canus tells us that Cornelius Mus the Biihop of Bit onto did 
affirm in the Council of Trent, That Chriji in the Supper did not offer Sa- 
crifice : Chtiftum in cxnci corpus fuum & fanguinem fuum non obtulijfe ;. 
Cririft did not offer up his Body and Blood at the Supper. A mo ft un-. 
doubted Truth,and that that throws.theMafs with all its attendants up- 
on the face, it gives a deadly blow to almoft all of Popery ', and this. 
Cornelius was not alone in this point. But what fay the Fathers to it ? 
Canus tells us, That jure a Patribus & univerfis Theologls explofus eft. 
Cornelius and his opinion was juftly exploded and caft out by the Fathers y 
and all the Divines in the Council. They decree the contrary, and curfe 
the gain- fay zi.Canus undertaks to confute him,but indeed his Arguments 
are very watry and childifh, Can.in Com.hc.L12.c12.. There is fcarce an 
Article in which they do agree among themfelves,no not in the Point of 
the Popes Supremacy. Men receive not the Truth in the love of it,arid 
God juftly lets them wander in the dark and believe a lie h the darknefs 
is not in the Sun, but the eye is bleared and dim, the fault is not in the 
Object but in the faculty ■•> the Scripture is light, but we are dark. 

Qbje£h But they do not prohibit men to read ft they have a Licenfe. 

Anf. I told you before that this was a meer flam > and ifmen might 
have a Licenfe, yet it is and would be a meer Innovation, and a piece of 
Tyranny : But it is a very cheat, the Licenfes I have proved already are 
forbidden by Paul the 5. For the further difcovery of this,let us obferve 
what Clement the Eighth tells. us in his obfervation upon this Decree of 
the Council •, It is to be obferved (faith he) concerning this Rule of 
Pius the dfth. That no nen> power is granted to Bijhops or Inquifiiors to licenfe 
the buying, reading, or l^eping the Bible in the vulgar tongue. Seeing hi- . 
therto by the Commandment and Practice of the holy Roman and uni- 
verfal Inquifition, all fuch power of granting Licenfes hath been taken , 
from them j that whatfoever the.Pope and his Crew (faith Dr. White.) . 
might make a (hew of to blind the eyes of the World, yet in very deed , 
tiny meant no fuch thing as a Licenfe at ail. 

Ledefiman hath written a Tract about this Qucftion, and he well un- [ 
derftoc?d their fenfe; he tells us, ghtamvvs aliquis bono animo.&c. Al- 
though r faith he) any man with an honeft mind (hall defire a Licenfe,, 
and fhall pretend that he defires it for Devotion, and the profit of his 
Soul: Si fe die at peter e bono animo \ yet that of our Saviour may be. 
anfvvered to him, Mat, 1 9. Ton m\ you bjiow not ivhat^ u k a fallacious 

devotion r 

Serm. V. The Scripture to be read by the C#mMon-Teople. . 141 

devotion j a Zeal, but not according to kpoxvledg \ or rather it U a fpirit of 
divifton and error at all adventures ; Concedenium non eft \ no Licenfe is 
t> be granted. Nay more fand fomewhat dangerous too) Radix iftiws 
petitions eft berefis \ Herefie is the rife and root of fnch a requcft \ 'tis 
berefis interior 5 therefore they crave a Licenfe to read, becaufe they are 
fick of an inward herefie, (quia b£refi interiori labor 'ant ,) becaufe" they 
think the thing is necelTary i and it ought to be fo, at leaft it is more e x- 
pedient, and the contrary not to be lawful, Lib. de Led. S. S. Ling, vern. 
So that it fecms 'tis inward herefie for a man to defire leave to read the 
Bible. 'Tis inward herefie to think that the Council of Trent hath done 
any thing inexpedient in forbidding people to read under pain of non- 
abfolution, or the Book-feller to fell under fuch a Penalty. In the Taxa 
Cam. Apoftol. a man may buy an Indulgence for Incefl under 12 d. But 
if a man fell a Bible it is no lefs m 11 1ft than 1200. Duckets. The no- 
ble Morney (hall conclude this, Prifci patres.&c. the Ancient Fathers did 
chide the People for not reading •, the Council doth curfe them if they 
do read. Then, before the Art of Printing, Bibles were fcarce and dear, 
now they might have plenty and cheap. They laboured to open the 
eyes of the People of God } thefe endeavour to put them our, and to 
keep them in ignorance all their days. And now I pray judg what is be- 
come of your Licenfe ? 

Gjueft.tbe. qtb. and laft. What Defign have the Papifts in all this ? 
Why do they thus vilifie, difparage,prohibit the Scriptures, when their 
Decrees are (amanifeftly repugnant to and confuted by Scriptures, the 
Old Fathers, and univerfal Praftice, and evident Reafon •, fure they 
have fome end that moves them to it. 

Anf Yes, they have divers. Firft, They reproach the Scriptures as 
lame and inefficient, that they may advance their own Traditions : 
Traditions are not additions to the Word, faith Canus, §htin potjsfunt 
Verba Divina non aliter ac ilia qu£ facrti librti Script a funt : Lib.%. Com. 
he. cap, nit. So Hofius, Banues, Bellarmine, Cofter, Alpbonf. a Caftro, with . 
all the Herd fpeak at this rate h and indeed it is time for the Pope to 
make a new Bible, for the Bib-le of God is his enemy, and therefore 
they are Enemies to it => That* it, for it never fpeakj good if me. The: 
Pope mud beget Traditions, and the Jefuits to cozen the PeopJe rmut, 
name them Apoftolical. 

The Monks of Hilde brands breeding were kept back from the Scrip-- 
tures,to the end that their rude wits might be nourifhed with the husks 
of Devils,which are the cuftoraes of humane Traditions, (Siliquis T>£- 
moniorum qutjunt confuetudines,) that being accuAomed to fuch filth 
they might not tafte how fweet the Lord was. Bifhop VJher out ci" 
Waltram. Anfw. to Malonc. Hildebrand was a fittool for fuch a work, 
a Murderer, a Poy finer 0$ fever al Topes, a Necromancer, converfed with 
tbe'Devil, threw the Hh$ into the fire becaufe it would not anfwer his 
demands; as the Oracles were wont to. do, SqqBAc, Eng.Vot* This 


142 The Scriptures to be read by the Comtnon-Veopk. Scrm. V. 

was the man that trampled Scripture, and advanced Traditions : And 
fo it came down from hand to hand, from Monks to Friars, from them 
to Priefts and Bifhops \ hence came the ungodly. practice of keeping 
the Common-People from reading Scriptures, that they might be 
drawn to humane Traditions, llfher ibid. 

The fecond Reafon is to maintain their Pride, the Bifhops date, the 
Priefts imperioufnefs, to be accounted fome great ones i to be called 
Rabbi, and Magijier nofter, they keep away the Scriptures that the 
People may depend upoia them. I fear (fahhErafmits) that the People 
mult nihil attingere, that is in plain Englifh, Be fots and flocks, and 
brutes. 1 he reafon and ground of this is not fo much the danger the 
People may run into by knowledg/that is a forry but wicked pretence,J 
fed/hi refpeUu, they keep the People in ignorance r more than Indians^) 
upon their own account* viz. that they may be looked upon as Oracles^ 
that the People may refort to them as Oracles, and may ask them what 
is the meaning of this, or that, and they in a proud Magifterial way 
may anfwer, llnderfland thus, (fie fenti, fie loquere,) fpeak thus. To 
maintain their Pride and Statelinefs they make the People brutes to be 
led by the nofe, and not Men to be matters of Reafon. 

The third Reafon may be this, If the light comes in,the moth eaten, 
braided ware w 7 ill eafily be difcovered ^ therefore you mull keep the 
Shop dark, if the People have the Scriptures they will quickly defer t 
us. Of all men to this purpofe commend me to Petrus Sutor, Cum multa 
palam traduntur obfervanda : Whereas many thing are openly taught to be 
obferved, which are not to be had exprefly in holy Scriptures, will not the 
fimple people ( Idiot £ h&c animadvert entes,) obferving thefe thing quick- 
ly murmur and complain ? Will they not alfo eafily be with-drawn from 
the Ordinances of the Church when they fhall find there if no Jueh thing 
contai^d in the word of Chrifi ? Pet. Sut. deTralat Bibli£ cap. 22. In- 
deed here is the nail upon the head -, or rather the fow by the right 

Dr. Harding gives this as one Reafon why the People muft not have 
the Bible : fc. They will defpife and make the Simplicity of thmChurch 
and of all thofe things which the Church ufeth as pap and mi\ to murifh 
her tender Babes withal: Hard. Rep, art. 1 5. That is, they will defpife 
that which God would have them defpife } fc falfe Worfhip. The 
People by the light of the Scriptures will defpife the an tick, mimick 
poflures, geftures, veftures in their fuperfiitious idolatrous Worfhip in 
an unknown Tongues therefore w*e will take a courfe, they (hall not 
have them : They will fee and know our Aves and Credo's to be no 
Prayers, our Ladies Letany, and Prayers to Saints, to be old Paganifm 
revived 5 They will efpy many a hole in, our coat, they will contemn 
holy Church, and defpife her pap ; and wefhall be made a fcorn. Indeed 
here is the ringer upon the fore, down goes Diana, In fhort, Bilhop - 
Jewel anfwers Harding thus : The People defpife nothing but what 


Serm. V. The Scriptures to be read by the Comwon-Teople. 1 43 

fhould be defpifed, for they defpife nothing but Stiperftition and Ido- 
htry : ibid. But thefe are but private Doctors, therefore let us fee 
what the Pope himfelf faith in the cafe, there is a very confiderable paf- 
fage to this purpofe, and I rind it quoted by Dr. S tilling fleet, and Dr. 
Moulin, The Story is this : 

The Bifhops meet at Bononia to confult with the then Pope, Paul 
the third,how the Dignity of the Roman Sec might be upheld, for now 
it began tototter:They offer many ways,at laft they came to that which 
they thought the weightieft of all h and therefore did propofe lad: which 
was this : viz. That by all means as little of the GofpeLtspcjfible might be, 
might be read in the Cities of his Jurifdiction, but efpecially us little at 
poffible could be in the vulgar Tongue ', and that little that was in the Mafs 
Jbjuld be f efficient, and that it mould not be permitted to any mortal 
man to read more j for as long as mm were contented with thai little, things 
wentweH y but quite otherwife fince more was commonly read. For this 
in (hort, is that Book (mark that) which above all others haver ai fed thefe 
temptjts and whirlwinds with which we are almoft carried away j and in 
truth whofoever diligently confiders it and compares it with what is 
done in our Churches, will find them very contrary to each other, and our 
Doctrines not only to be different from it, but repugnant to it. 

A very honefr, true and ingenuous confeiiion $ and indeed it is no 
hard matter to (hew to every man, even the meaneft capacity, how that 
their Doctrines fnot only their Practices,) but their very Doctrines are 
not only different but repugnant to the Sacraments, Lords-Prayer, the 
Creed, and the Ten Commandments : Here, here is the true reafon for 
which they do vilirie Scripture, the People are Lozch, they might med- 
dle with their Meafures and Diftaffs \ they will vent Herefies, they are not 
fit, they will cut their fingers, the holy Father would fufferthem to harm 
themfelves't he will chew their meat firft, and then they (hall have their 
pap and milk, Thefe and fuch like are meer pretences, the true caufe is 
rendred by thefe Bifhops here at Bononia. This meeting fas I guefsj was 
about twenty years after Luther, that man of God, fas he is called) be- 
gan to preach, and fome year? before the Council cf "Trent began, and 
the Council out-did their advice, for they advifed as little of the Go- 
fpel to be read as might be, in the vulgar Tongue*, but the Council- 
decrees they (hall have none at all, neither poor nor rich, neither man 
or woman, neither Prince nor Peafant, neither Clerk nor Lay-man mall 
read it or have it in the Mother-tongue v as if the fear of Cain in fome 
fort were upon them, that whofoever met them with a Bible fliould 
kill them. So much for this. 

Nowlaflly to the third Point in this Controverile to be debated •, 
viz. That the Scriptures are to be translated into vulgar Tongues, into 
the Peoples Language h for we have proved already they are to read 
and hear them, and that therefore they were written by Divine ap- 
pointment for them, and to them ? therefore they ought, to be tranila- 


1 44. The Scripture to be read by the Common- People. Serm. V. 

ted. For what am I the better for the Www-Bible, I know never a 
word > what would you be the better for a Welfk one, unlefs there be 
an Interpreter? Methinks the gift of Tongues, Aft. 2. fhould convince 
anyone-, gifts are for others, for the work of the Minijiry, that the 
Body may be edified, Eph. 4. by the gifts of Tongues did fo many Na- 
tions ', fome of Africa ,fome of Aft a, fome of Europe, hear the Apoftles 
fpeak the wonderful things of God in their own Language in which 
they were born. This was extraordinary as to the attainment, fince 
skill in the Languages hath been attained by ordinary means in the ufe 
of ftudy and prayer ^ and fo by Translations People have known by 
reading, hearing the great Myftery of Jefus, and Salvation by him in 
their own Tongue *, In gifts both ways,extraordinary then, upon a fud- 
den without -their ftudy, and gifts ordinary attained by means, fince 
God according to his Infinite Wifdom and Mercy made known his 
Will, his Grace for mans Salvation. So that I may fay of tranflating 
the Word, what Kent igem a Bifhop in Wales about the year 550, was 
wont to fay of Preaching •, viz. ihey that are againft Preaching Gods 
word, envy the Salvation of Mankind. So they that hinder tranilating fill 
, Hell. 

VlphilM tranflated the Bible about thirteen hundred years fince into 
the Gothifh Tongue, he invented the Characters \ tranflated on purpofe 
that the Barbarous might learn the Myfteries and Truth of God, Vt 
diftercnteloquiaVei. Many, very many of the Goths were converted, 
and were Martyred by Athanaricm , becaufe they forfook the Religion 
of their Fathers, ft. Paganifm 5 they did embrace death for Chrift, Socr. 
Eccl. Hift. A4. 0,27. 

Si.Hierom tranflated the Scriptures into the Dalmath\ Tongue,B^r- 
mine and Harding would fee m to doubt of it. Hofws and Alpbonfxs a 
Caftro do both acknowledg it ', and 'tis no wonder, for Hierome him- 
felf faith he did fo, in his Epifi. ad Sophronium, Hominibus lingu£ me& 
dedi \ and when Sophronius defired him to tranflate the Pfalms into 
Latin moft accurately, becaufe he would tranflate them into Greeks, he 
advifeth him there was no need ^ and quotes that of the Poet, In Syhas 
ne Ugna feras \ that is in Englijh^ Carry not coals to Newcaftle, or, caft 
not water into the Sea , there werefo many Translations into the Greeks 
that it would be fupernumerary. Ibid. 

The fame Hierom tells us that at the Burial of Paula, fuch Compa- 
nies came to the Solemnities out of the Cities of Pakfline as paffed a- 
gain, and that they did fing Pfalms orderly, People of feveral Nations, 
Hehr£o, Grjcco^ Syro, Latino Sermone, in Hebrew^ Gree^ SyriacJ^, and 
Latin } ad Euftoch. de Epitap % Paul*. 

They that have Tranflated the Hebrew into Greeks, Numerari pofjunt, 
may be numbered, they were many", but they that Tranflated it into 
Latin are numberkfs, Latlni auttm mlio modo : Auftindfe DoU.Cbrift. 
Ub.i. c.i i # 


Serrn.V. The Scripture to be read by the Common-People. 145 

Bafil affirms that Translations were made into the Paleftine, Theb&ne, 
Phoenician, Arabick, and Lybian Tongues, in Epift. ad Neocefar. Chry- 
joftome the fame \ Iftdore faith into all Chriltian Tongues,^? EccleJ. Ojjic. 
cap. 10. 

What fhould I fpeak of Aquila, Theodotion, Symmachus, Origen, o* 
the Syriaci^ of the New Teftament, which is very ancient > Tome afcribe 
it to Ma)\, for it is fo evident that Alphonfus a Caftro doth confefs it, 
Fatemur fjcros libros olim in lingua m vulgar em fniffe tranjlatos, We con- 
fefs that of old time the holy Books were tr an fitted into the vulgar tongue. 
I humbly conceive it is remarkable (fure I am to me it is fo; that God 
gave to Jeremy what the Jews fhould fay when they were in Babylon y 
not in the Hebrew, but in the Chaldec Tongue, for that Tongue the 
Babylonians fpoke, and not the Hebrew, and fo the Babylonians might 
underftand what they faid to them, Jer. 10. 11. Thus fhaWyef >y unto 
themjhe Gods that have not made the Heavens and the Earth, tbiyjhall pe» 
riflj, &c. 'Tis in Chaldee there, that is the Original. And fo likewife 
Daniel expounds Nebuchadnezzar s dream to him in the Chaldee Tongue, 
and feveral Chapters in him are in Chaldee \ fo that here Chaldee is the 
Original. Ihavemufed fometimes why Daniel in writing the Histori- 
cal part of his Book did not write it in Hebrew, feeing the things were 
paft and gone before he wrote, why mould he hiftonrie thofe great paf- 
fages in the Chaldee as he fpoke them, and not in Hebrew, unlefs it be 
this, that God would have us from hence obferve, That it is his will 
that men (hould know their own concerns in their own Tongue, that 
they themfelves might read and hear : What an irrational,bloody, abo- 
minable thing then is it in the Council of Trent to forbid the Tranfla* 
ting of the Scriptures on purpofe to keep poor and yet immortal Souls 
in ignorance •> there are none do thus that I know, but the Tur}^, the 
Grand Mufties at Rome and Conjiantinople in this are agreed. The Tur- 
kj(h Religion framed to fhed much blood, (ad fundendum fanguinem 
facia) dclighteth much in Rites and Ceremonies, and commands belief 
moil imperioully without any liberty to enquire what or why : Unde li» 
brorum quos fandros habent lectio plebi interdict eft, whence it is that 
the People are forbid to read their (holy) Book/, which very thing U a pre- 
fent and manifiji to^en of iniquity, H. G. de ver. Rel. 1.(5. 

But let us go a little further in this. Eufebius in his Pr£p. Evang. /. 15* 
inclines to judg that Mofes was Tranilated into Greeks before the Perfian 
Monarchy. Numenius a Pythagorean Philofopher faid of Plato,xhzt what 
Plato wrote of God and the World,he ftole it out of Mofes, (thus when 
thieves fall out, &c.) and what is Plato but Mofes turned into good GreekJ 
But whether there were any Tranflation then, or whether they learned 
of the Jews with whom they did much and long converfe, f which is 
the more probable way of the two,J I mean the prime Philofopher 
Pythagoras, after him nigh ipo years Plato, and then Arijinle with o- 
tners, I do not determine ; But fure I am (though men love to cry up 

V the(e 

146 The Scriptures to be redd by the Common-People. Serm.V. 

thefe and negledt Mofis) that they were proud puddling Plagiaries or 

Ptolomy Pbiladelphus caufed the Hebrew to be tranilated into Greeks, 
and received it with great Veneration when he heard the Law read in a 
Tongue he understood ; fee at large Jofephus Jew. Antiq. lib. 12. c.1,3. 
other Tranflations there were that went under the name of the Septu- 
agint -•> this the Eunuch was reading in his Chariot, AIL 8. Luke fers it 
down according as it is in the Greeks T ran flat ion, and not in the Heb. 
Original. Philip expounds to him, and God blelTeth, the Eunuch be- 
lieves in Jefus, is baptized, goes on his way rejoycing, a good Argu- 
ment for Tranflation ^ yet that Tranflation of that Text which the 
Eunuch was in reading was nothing accurate,??* his humiliation bit judg- 
ment was takgn ajvay $ it is, he was taken from pri fin or reftraint, and from 
judgment. Let us now fee a little what our Adverfaries do object againft 
us in this cafe. Fir ft they fay, 

Obj. Ibis Iflwd hath continued in the Faith this 1300 years without 
Bibles till of late. 

Anf. Very falfe, Conftantine commanded the Bible to be written and 
fent abroad into all Countrys, Kingdoms, Nations of his Dominions s 
whereof England^ov rather Britain was one. Adelftane King of England 
caufed the Bible to be Tranilated into the Englijh Tongue. Beda almoft 
a thoufand years ilnce Tranilated the Gofpd of St.. John into Englijh. 
Bifhop Jewel,Jobn TreviJ aJFullerfi.H.Beda faith,F/w Nations didconverfe 
with one Truth,eneBible,Britons,Engli{h.Pi^s.Seots,Latins.Hjec Infula qun- 
que gentium Unguis unam eandemque fcrutatur veritatis fcientiam^ Bed. 
lib. 1. Ecclef.Hift. Cedman Tranflated the Hiftory of the Creation, the 
Departure from Egypt, the Entrance into Canaan, the Birth, Death, 
Refurrection and Afceniion of Chrift, the Glory of Heaven, the Pains 
of Hell : DeDctlrina Apofiolorum^de terror e futuri Judicii, de ali'vs plu- 
tirnvs Scriptur* HiflorOsimultorum animi ad contemptum fxculi & ad appe± 
titum vit£ ccelefti* accenji fuere, Bed. Ecclef.Hift. (according to mine,,) 
lib. 4. c. 24. many men were mortified and made heavenly thereby, by 
Cedmans Tranflation. Suppofe they had none, what then, fliould they 
never have? time was they were Gentiles and Pagans, (hould they con- 
tinue fo ? 

Obj. 2. Tour Tranflations are faulty, Harding, Rhemifts. 

Anfw. This is faid a thoufand times but nev«r proved, an untruth 
joyned with flander, fo Jewel-) afpiteful lie, fo Cartwright an fwers the 
Jefuits *, Shew themffaith he). T>xMartin did attempt it,but was laught 
at for his folly by his friend : The words may be fhort, but the fenfeis 

Obj. 3. What f be Scripture Tranflated into a Barbarous Tongue \ 

Anf This makes a noife, Barbarous, barbarous, Vulgar Tongues, 
for Hoftlers, Tapfters, Sempfters, idle, loofe, fenfual, brutal men, this 
is their Rhetorick i but indeed it is a very rancorous, croaking noife* 


Serm. V. the Scriptures to be read by the Common-VeopU. 1 47 

Barbara lingua eft qu£ nefcit landare Vominum, Bed. The Bible in any 
Language is holy, and the Language is hcly that knows how to wor- 
Ihip God, and blefs Jefus. What were the Canaanites ? what was Terab, 
Nab or, Abraham, before God called him? When Abraham came 'into 
Canaan was not the Hebrew the Language of Heathens? was not 
the Greeks a Pagan Tongue > If Ikjtow net the meaning of the voice I [hall 
be a Barbarian to bim, and he to me, 1 Cor. 14. II. Pant calls every 
Tongue barbarous that is not underftood, and ib all the Prayers of the 
Papiits are barbarous, becaufe they are not underftood by the People. 

To conclude, they allow no Tranflation but the old Latin, this the 
Council makes authentical, prefers above the Original-, it hath been 
mended feveral times, but yet crawls with many very great faults, a- 
gainft their knowledg on purpofe to defend their Errors and Idolatries. 
I refer to Chemnit. Exam. 1 part. deScr. Our learned Bifhop Mortons 
Appeal, Lib. 4. c.18. Seft.3. there it may be found. 

Take an Infrance or two in Gen. 3. 15; He fhall hmife the Serpents 
bead ; Co the Hebrew, Co the Seventy Tranilate it. So the learned Pa- 
pills do acknowledg it* Yet in the lajft Edition kt forth by Clement the 
Eighth, the vulgar Latin read it, She > fc. the Virgin Mary, She (hzt 
breakjhe Serpents head. And this though it be a manifelt, nay a confef- 
fed corruption of the Text, yet is ftill referved by them, and no man 
in Writing, Preaching, Disputing, muft dare to ufe any other but this - , 
and this they do againii knowledg, on purpofe to keep up their blafphe- 
mous, Idolatrous Worfhip; Here is their Reformation. 

So in Exod. 34. 29, 30. they read thus, Ihtyfawb'vs face horned: 
Heb. fhining, as we read it > hereupon they picture Mofes with a pair 
of Homs,for which the Jews do horribly curfe the Chriltians^as though 
they thought Mofis to be a Devil. 

So Heb. 11. 2i. they read it, Jacob worfhipped the top of his rod\ 
adoravit faftigium virg£ ; whereas in the Greeks it is, He worshipped upon 
his ftaff, at or upon bit flajf. And this is confeffed by their own men, 
Gr£ce fuper faftigium ', fc. nixus baculo ejtK*-> Sa.jef. in loc. Though our 
Tianilatorsdealt honeftly,putting leaning in a dirTerentCharadter,becaufe 
it is not in the Greeks How do they cry out of Falhties ! no man can 
think what a Air the Image-mongers make for their Idolatry by this cor- 
rupt Tranflation of their Vulgar, that Ja^ob w or pipped his ftaff \; they 
catch at any forry thing for advantage. So in their own Annotations 
upon Mat. 2. the Wifemen that came from the Eaft, they impudently 
and foolifhly call them the three Kings of Colen \ and how their Bodies . 
were tranflated thither on purpofe to keep the old trade of Pilgrimage 
and Prayers for the fake of Offerings > they durft not let the Bible go 
abroad without a keeper, their frothy foolifh falfe Notes. 

Well, let us feriouily confider what a rich mercy we have that we . 
have it in liberty, purity,fafety in our Mother- tongue. How do Hierom, 
Auftin, and the reft of the Fathers, Lutber, Calvin, and our own Re- 

V 2 formers * 

1 48 °?he Scripture to be read by the Common-People. Serm. V. 

formers ftrain for Expreflions to fet forth their Excellency, let us ne* 
be dull and ftupid \ let us abhor Popery that will maintain their King- 
dom of Darknefs, though it be in darknefe of Souls , the ready way to 
everlafting darknefs. 

Let us pray frequently for the life and fafety- of him that is Supream, 
and thofe that are fubordinate under him> Affure your felves thefe are 
matters of near concernment. 

Let us pray that God would blail: Popery, that God would preferve 
us from if, if that fhould for our Gofpel-fins prevail,you muft lofe your 
Bibles, perhaps your Bodies too, unlefs you will adventure to lofe the 
Truth, and your Souls : allure your felves they have waded through 
the blood of men to deftroy the Word of God,and will do fo ftill j their 
ftrongeft arguments are Swords and Stakes, 

Laftly, by Hearing, Reading, Praying, Meditation, let every one 
of us labour to be expert in the Word, Apollos was mighty in the Scrip- 
tures. To fUr up your hearts, conlider thefe Particulars : 1 ; The Au- 
thor^ it is infinitely the belt, the mod holy, only wife God \ i 7im. 3, 
v.laft. 2'Pet.i.vJaft. it is feven times repeated in the feven Epiftles, 
Rev.2.%. cb. what the Spirit, the Spirit of Glory, of Holinefs, the Spirit 
of Truth faith to the Churches. 2. The matter* it is our Lord Jefus: 
here are the treafures, all treafures, of Wifdom, Divine Wifdom and 
Knowledge here are the Commands of God, full, plain, pure, ever- 
lafting i here are the Promifes exceeding great, free, precious Promifes, 
Yea and Amen in Chrift ', here are the Works of Gods Creation and 
Providence, which the Philofophers knew not. $. The Office of it, 
it is to inftrudt, to give underftanding, to convince of Sin, of Hell, of 
Jefus, 'tis to breed and encreafe Holinefs, Peace of Confcience. Laftly 
the end,to make us wife unto Salvation,through Faith in Chri/t Jefus; fc 




d^ wfi**^ i/lu^h^ 


The Scripture is a fufficient Rule of Chrifti- 
an Faith, or a Record of all necefTary 
Chriftian Do&rines, without any fupple-* 
ment of unwritten Traditions, as con* 
taining any neceflary matter of Faith, and 
is thus far fufficient for the decifion of all 

2The£ 2. 15. Therefore Brethren (land fajl and hold th& 
traditions which ye have been t aught % whether by word 7 
or our Epijile. 

THe Apoftle after he had comfor ted the Ttrejfalonians, he e #- 
hortetb them to Conftancy in the Truth, whatever Tempta- 
tions they had to the contrary. The Comforts he propoun- 
ded to them were taken, 1. From their Eleclion, ver.13. 
2(y. From that Vocation, ver.14. His Exhortation is to Perfeverance : 
Therefore, Brethren^&c. . 

In the words obferve, 1. The Illative particle [Therefore"} becaufe 
God hath cho fen ,you and called you, and given you iuch advantages a* 
gainft Error and Seduction. 

2. The Duty inferred, raxm, (land fajl '■> it is a Military word, you 
have the fame in other places, 1 Cor. \6.i%. Watch ye> ftand ye faji^&c: 
Jtyhef.6. 14. Stand therefore, having your, loynj girt about with- truthi 
The word intimateth Peifeverance. 

3, The 

150 _ The Scripture fujficient Serm. VI. 

3, The means of Perfeverance, Hold the Iradithns which you have 
been taught, whether by word or our Epiftle, 

Where obferve, 1. The^tf; 2. The Objeft. 

1. The AH, K§ATfiT%, hold with ftrong hand ', the word implieth a 
a forcible holding againft aiTaul ts 3 whether of Error or Perfecution. The 
Theffalonians were aiTaulted in both kinds *, the Heathens perfecuted 
them, andfome were gone abroad that began the My fiery of Iniquity, 
and were ready to pervert them. 

2. The Objeft 3 which is propounded, 1. By a common and general 
term, the > Traditions which you have been taught. 2. By a Distribution, 
Whether by word or our YLpiftle. 

I. The common and general term, \the Tn hi which ye have 
been taught^ there are two forts of Traditions, Humane and Divine \ 

1. Humane Traditions are certain External Obfervances inftituted 
by men, and delivered from hand to hand, from Progenitours to their 
Pofterity •, thefe'may be either be fides or contrary to the Word of God : 
1. Befide the Word 5 as the Inftitutions of the Family of the Kechabites^ 
in the obfervance of which from Father to Son, they were fo exadt and 
punctual, that God produceth their Example to fhame the difobedience 
of his People, Jer. 35. 6,j. Jonadab the Son of Rechab our Father com- 
manded m faying, Ye pall drin\no wine, nor build houfes, nor plant Vine- 
yards, &c. 2. Contrary to the Word of God •, fuch as were thofe of the 
Pharifees, Mat, 15.2. Why tranfgrtfs ye the Commandment oj God by your 
Tradition? Humane inventions in Religion are contrary to and deitru- 
dlive of Divine Laws. 

2. Traditions Divine are either Heavenly Dodrins revealed 
by God , or Inftitutions and Ordinances appointed by him 
for {the ufe of , the Church. Thefe are the Rule and Ground 

. of our Faith, Worffljip and Obedience. The whole Do&rine of the Gofpel is 
a Tradition delivered and conveyed to us by fit MelTengers, fuch as 
the A pottles were j 1 Cor. 1 1. 2. Now I praife you Brethren, that ye re- 
member tne in all things, and kjep the Ordinances, Marg. Traditions, as I 
delivered them to you. So that holding the Traditions is nothing elfe 
but Perfeverance in Apoftolical Doctrine. 

II.The Diftribution;! 'hat no cheats might be put upon them under any 
pretence > therefore, he h\xh,Whether by word, or our Epiftle s that is, by 
word of mouth when prefent.or by Epiftle when abfent. And he faith, not 
Epiftles, but Epiftle s asalluding to the former wrote unto them : They 
were bound to yield toboth alike credence and obedience s for whether 
in fpeakjng or writing,the Apoftolical Authority was the fame. To im- 
prove this Verfe for yourj^eneht, I (hall lay down federal Propofitions. 
1 . That whatever ajfurance we have of Gods prefervlng m in the truth, yet 
we are bound to ufe> diligence and caution \ for the Apoftle had faid, That 
God had chofen and called them to the belief of the truth \ and yet faith, 
Therefore Brethren ftandfaft. Firft, Reafon will tell us. That when we 


Serm. VI. without unwritten Traditions: 1 5 1 

intend an End we mult ufe the Mftftf/.othcrwife the bare intention and 
defire would fuffice, and to the accomplishing cf any effect, we need 
no more than to will it % and then the iluggard would be the wifeft 
man in the world ^ who is fulfof Wifhings and Wouldings, though 
his hands refufe to labour 5 But common experience fheweth that the 
End cannot he obtained without a diligent ufe of the means, Prov. 13.4. 
The foul of the jluggard defreth and bath nothing but the foul of the dili* 
gent/hall be made fat \ that is, rewarded with the intended benefit. 

2. The bufinefs in hand is, Whether Gods Election, Calling,or Pro- 
mife doth Co fecure the End to us, as that we need not be fo careful in 
the diligent ufe of Means. Such a notion or conceit there may be in 
the hearts of men, therefore let us attack it a little by thefe Confident 


1. Gods Decree is both of Ends and Means i for all his Purpofes arc 
executed by fit means. He that bath chofen us to Salvation, bringeth it 
about by the belief of the Truth and Sanftification of the Spirit, 2 Thef. . 
2. 13. And without Faith and Holinefs no man (hall feeGod,and efcape 
condemnation. God had allured Paul, Tbattherefoouldbenolofsofany 
mans life among them except of the Ship, Act. 27. 22. And yet afterward 
verf.$x. Paul telleth them, Except thefe abide in the Ship ye cannotbefa- 
ved. How could that AiTurance given to Paid from God, and Pauls 
Caution to the Mariners fland together? Doth the purpofeof God* 
depend upon the uncertain will and actions of men? I anfwer not as 
a caufe, from whence it receiveth its force and ftrength, but as a means 
appointed alfo by God to the execution of his Decree 3 for by the fame 
Decree God appointeth the event what he will do, and the means by 
which he will have it to be done s and the Lord revealing by his Word 
this conjunction of Ends and Means, there is a neceffity of Duty lying 
upon man to ufe thefe Means and not to expect the End without them, 
God intended to fave all in the Ship, and yet the Mariners muft abide . 
in the Ship ■> therefore what God hath joined together let no man fepz- 
rate : If we feparate thefe things God doth not change his Counfel, but, 
we pervert his order to our own deftruction. 

2/)'. God that hath bidden us to believe bU Promifes, hath forbidden 
us to tempt hk Providence, Mat. 4. 7, Now wc tempt God, when we de- 
fire him to give an extraordinary proof of his care over us, when or* 
dinary Means wifl ferve the turn, or be ufeful to us. 

3/y. Though the Means fecm to have no connexion with the End \ , 
yet if God hath in joined them for that End, we mult ufe them. As in 
the inftance of Naaman, God was refolved to cure him-, but Naaman. 
mu(t take his prefcribed way s though againft his own fancy and con- 
ceit, 2 King, 5. 10. W.iPro in Jordan feven times, and thy flefh JhaU come 
again unto thee, and then (hah be clean. Compare verf, 13, If the Prophet 
bad bidden thee to do fme greater thing, &c. So Job. 13. 6, 7: Peter 
muft fubmit to be wafhed, though he could not fee the benefit of it. So 

142 , The Scripture fuffichnt Serm. VI. 

Job. p. ($,7. the blind man mull fubmit to have his eyes anointed with 
clay, and wajb in the Pool of Siloams though the Clay feemed to put 
out his eyes rather than cure them •, and the Pool could not wafh away 
his blindnefs \ but Means appointed by God muft be ufed, whatever 
improbabilities are apprehended by us. 

4. That when Gods Will is exprefly declared concerning the Event 
yet he will have the Means ufed $ as for inftance, 2 King.20. 5,6, 7. 
God was abfolutely refolved to add fifteen years more to Hezekjabs life 
yet he muft take a lump of Figs and lay it on the boil: Which plainly 
fheweth that no promife on Gods part, nor affurance on ours hindreth 
the ufe of Means, God will work by them, not without them. 

5. In Spiritual things AiTurance of the Event is an encouragement to 
induflry, not a pretence to Jloth, 1 Joh. 2.27,28. Yeajhal! abide in bim \ 
and now, Little children abide in bim. The promife of Perfeverance doth 
incourage us to ufe endeavours that we may perfevere, and quicken di* 
ligence rather than nourish fe cur ity, or open a gap to carnal liberty, 1 Cor, 
p. 2(5. I run not as one tbat is uncertain ••> we are the more earneft, be- 
caufe we are allured the Means (hall not be unefle&ual. 

2. Prop: Our duty vs to (land f aft in the Faitb of Cbrift^ and prof effton of 
Godlintfs ,whatever Temptations we have to tbe contrary. [Stand fafi" be- 
ing a Military word, it alludeth to a Soldiers keeping his ground •, and 
is oppofed to two things, 1. A cowardly flight; 2. A treacherous re- 

1. A cowardly flight, implieth our being overcome in tbe evil-day,by 
the many afflictions that befal us for the Truths fake, Epbef.6.i$, 
Wherefore take to you tbe whole armor of God, that you may be able to 
withjiand in the evil-day, that after you have done all things ye mayftand. 
Their Temptation was the many troubles and perfecutions that befal 
them, called there the evil day. Their defence lay in the whole armor of 
God, which is there made of fix pieces, the Girdle of Truth or Sincerity, 
which is a ftrength to us as a girdle to the loyns ; the breaftplate of 
Rigbteoufnefs, or an holy inclination and deilre to perform our Duty to 
God in all things •, and the Shield of Faith, or a ftedfaft adhering to the 
Truths of the Gofpel, whether delivered in a way of command, promife 
or threatning •> the Helmet of Hope, or a certain and delirous expecta- 
tion of the promifed Glory, the jhoo of the preparation of tbe Go/pel of 
peace, which is a headinefs to endure all Encounters for Chrifts fake, 
who hath made our Peace with God j and the Sword of tbe Spirit which 
is tbe Word of God : Now if we take this armor and ufe it in our Con- 
flicts, what doth it ferve for ? to witbftand and ftand $ the fir ft is the 
act of a Soldier, the fecond is the pofture ofc a Conqueror •, here is whb- 
ftanding till the Field be won, and then ftanding when the day of evil 
is over. Here we make our way to heaven by conflict and conqueft,and 
hereafter we triumph. 

2. A 

Serrn. VI. without unwritten Traditions. 153 

2. A treacherous revolt, or yielding to the enemy by complying with 
thofe things' which are againft the Intereft of Chrift and his Kingdom 
for advantage fake, 2 T/;«, 4, 10. Dcmas hath f&rfakgn us and loved the 
prefent world. Backfliders in heart are the worft fort of Apollatcs, fuch 
as loie their aife&ion to God, and delight in his ways, and cfleem of 
his glorious recompences, for a little pleafurc, profit, or pomp of li- 
vings Sell the birth-right for one morfel of meat, Heb. 12. 1 5, \6. Some 
fail in their understandings, but moil mifcarry by the perverfe inclina- 
tion of their wills', they are carnal, worldly Hypocrites that never tho- 
roughly mortified the fleflily mind > prize things as they are commodi- 
ous to the rle(h, and will favethem from fufferings. The byafs of fuch 
mens hearts doth eafily prevail againft the light of their underftan- 

3. Prop. The means of landing fa{t vs by holding the Traditions which 
were taught by the holy Jpo'iles. Here I will prove, 1. That the Do- 
ctrine of Chriftianity taught by the Apoftles is a Tradition. 2. That 
holding this Tradition by ftrong hand, when others wenld wreft it 
from us, is the means of our Perfeverance. 

1. That the Dotlrine of Cbriftianity is a Tradition. I prove it by two 
Arguments j firft, Matters not evident by the light of mture^nor im- 
mediately revealed to us by God mud be either an Invention or a Tradi- 
tion ; an Invention is fomething in Religion not evident by natural 
light, nor agreeable to found reafon, but is fome cunningly devifed fa- 
ble, invented by one or more, and obtruded by various artifices upon 
the Belief of the World. Inventions in this kind were mans difeafe., 
not his remedy, Ecclef. 7. 2 p. God made man upright but they fought out 
many Inventions. As when the Philofophers fat abrood upon Religion, a 
goodly Cbym<era it was they hatched and brought forth ! Rom.1.21,22. 
*ihey became vain in tkeir imaginations, and their foolifh heart was darken- 
ed, and prof fling them fe Ives to be wife they became fools. Thefe Inventions 
little became the nature of God. Nor were they profitable toman, for 
ftill the great fore oi nature w r as unhealed which is a fear of deatb,znd 
the righteous wrath of God, Rom. 1.32. fo that neither mans com- 
fort nor duty was well provided for : furely the Gofpel is none of this 
fort *, not an Invention of man, but a Revelation of God; and a Revela- 
tion not made to its in perfon, but brought out of the bojom.of God by 
Jefus Chrift, and by him manifefted to chofen witneiTcs, who might 
publith this Myftery and Secret to others. Well then, flnce the Gofpel is 
not an Invention, it is a Tradition, or a delivery of the Truth upon the 
Teftimony of one that came from God to inftrudt the World,or reduce 
it to hirmnot an Invention of m'an,but a Secret brought out of the bofcra 
of God, by our Lord jefus Chrift : Therefore 'tis faid, Hf^.2.3,4. How • 
JhaV we efcape ij we neghtl fo great Salvation, firfl fpoken by the Lord 
himfJf, and then confirmed to us by them that heard him, the Lord bearing 

X them 

154 The Scripture fnffictent Serm. VL 

them- witnefs,&o. Chrift delivered it to the Apoftles, and the Apoftles 
delivered it to others, 2 Tim.2.2. Thofe things which thou baft heard from, 
me among many witnejfes, ths fame commit thou to faithful m;n, whofhall 
he able to teach others alfe.The Apoftles received the Gofpel from Chrift, 
and the Churches, and Minifters from the Apoftles, and then delivered 
it down to others until it came to us \ which is the means of our be- 
lieving the Truth, and confeiling the Name of Chrift. This Teftimony 
delivered and conveyed to us by the molt credible Means , and which: 
we have no reafon to doubt of 5 is as binding as if we had heard Chrift 
and his Apoftles in perfon: for we have their word in writing, though 
we did not hear them preach and publifh it with the lively voice, their 
Authority is the fame delivered either way. And that thefe are their 
Writings, appeareth by the conftant Tradition of the Church, an.d the 
acknowledgment of Friends and Enemies, who ft ill appeal to them as a 
public}^ authentic^ Record, and as they have been attefted by the Church r 
they have been owned by God, and bleiTed by him to the converting 
and fanclifying of many Souls, throughout all fucceifions of Ages •;■ 
And by this Tradition Chriftianity hath held up the head againft all' 
encounters of time, and the perfections of adverfe Powers have not 
fuppreiTed it •, nor the difputes of enemies filenced the profeflion of it: 
But from age to age it hath been received and tranfmitted to future . 
Generations^ though fometime.s at a very dear rate. And this is bin^ 
ding to us though we faw not the Perfons and Miracles by- which they- 
confirmed their MeiTage, and heard not the firft report. Yet the Vni~ 
verfal Tradition having handed it to us is a fufficient ground of'Faith* 
and fo we believe through their word, and are concerned in Chrifts Pray- 
ers, J'oh. 17. 20. for with them and their Succeflbrs (as to thefe necef- 
fary things; Chrift hath promifed to be. to the end of the world, Mat* 
28. 20. 

2/y. My next Argument is, Becaufe Chriftian Religion muft needs 
be a Tradition, partly becaufe matter of fad is the foundation of it, and 
it is in it k\i matter of faith : 1. Becaufe it is built upon matter of fall ^ 
that the Son of God came from God to bring, us to God y that is to 
fay, appeared in Humane nature, inftrudted the World by his VoUrine 
and Example, and at length died for finners, confirming, both in life and 
death the truth of bk Miffion, by fuch unqueftionable Miracles as mew- 
ed him to be the Son of God, and the Saviour of the Worlds Now ar 
Teftimony,Tradition,or Report is necefTary in matters of faU, which 
of necedity muft be confined to fome determinate time and place. It 
was not fit that Chrift fhould be always working Miracles^ always dyr 
log, always riling and afcending, in every place, and in the view of 
every man ', but thefe things were to be once done in -one place of the 
World, in the ilght of fome particular and competent WitneiTes ; But 
becaufe the knowledg of them concerned all the reft of the World, they 
were, by them to be attefted. to others *, matters offaU can only be pro- 


Serai. VI. without unwritten Traditions: •• 155 

vedby credible witntffes, and this was the great Office put upon the 
Apoftles, All. 1.8.21,22. and ^#.2. 32. ^#.3.15. All, 10. 3^,40,41. 
2. As it is ratfffer 0/" Fail \ or the Dodtrine built upon this matter of 
Fall. We cannot properly be (aid to believe a thing but upon report 
and teftimony : I may know a thing by fenfe or reafon, but I cannot ta- 
lieve k but as it is affirmed or brought to me by credible Teftimony. 
As we are faid to fee thofe things which we perceive by the eye, or the 
fenfe of feeing, and to know thofe things which we receive by reafon, 
or fore demonftration , fo we are faid to believe thofe things which are 
brought to us by valuable teftimony, tradition, and report. As for in- 
ftance if any one ask you, Do you believe the Sun fhineth at Noon- 
day ? You will anfwer, I do not believe it hut fee it: So if any one ask 
you, Do you believe that twice two make four, and twice three make 
fix? You will fay I do not believe it but kyiorvit, becaufe certain and 
evident reafon telleth me, that two is the half of four, and three of 
iix, and every whok confifteth of two halfs or moyeties ; But if he 
(hould ask you, Do you believe that the Sun is bigger than the Earth ? 
You will fay I believe it , for though your Eye doth not difcover it, 
nor doth an ignorant man know any certain demonftration of it} yet 
having the authority of learned men, who are competent judges in the 
cafe, you judg it a ra(h and foolifh obftinacy not to believe it. Apply 
it now to t\>e tnyjieries of Godlincfs revealed in the Gofpel, they cannot 
be feen with the Eye, for they are invifiblej nor found out and com- 
prehended by any Humane Underftanding, becaufe they exceed the 
reach of mans Reafon, and depend upon the love and arbitrary will 
of God, Joh. 3. id. Yet you believe them, becaufe God hath revea- 
led them to the Prophets and Apoftles •, and God being Truth and Wif- 
dom it felf, cannot deceive, or be deceived h and therefore you be- 
lieve them with the certainty of Divine Faith, and do no more doubt 
of them than you do of thofe things which you fee with your eyes, 
and know and underftand by a fure Demonftration. The fenfe of feeing 
may be deceived,and Humane Reafon may errs but 'tis impoflible God 
(hould deceive or be deceived. It often-times falleth out that men do 
prefer the authority and report of a man whom they judg to be wife 
and good before their own fenfe and reafon J as for inftance, that man 
who by his eye judgeth the Sun to be lefs than the Earth, yet doth 
not obftinately Hand in his opinion , when he heareth a knowing 
and skilful Fhilofopher alTert the contrary ; Now if ree receive the wit- 
nefs of men the rvitnefs of God is greater, 1 Joh. 5. p. And this Tefti- 
mony of God is brought to us by his authorized Meffengers as the • 
ground of Faith ••> and what is that but Tradition. We believe in God 
by hearing of him, and we hear hy a Preacher, Rom. 10.14. Ordinary 
Preachers declare his mind to us, but the Extraordinary confirm it>thc 
common Preachers give us notice, but Cbrift and his Ap&ftles give us 
tjfurancc * and by their Teftimony and Tradition our Faith is ulti- 
mitely refolved into the Veracity of God. X 2 2/y. That 

i*$- \ Tie Scripinre fnjficievt Serm. VI. , 

2 ly. That holding this Tradition is the great means of ftandingfaft 
in the Faith of Chrift, and the Confeifion of his Name. For in the 
Word of God delivered by Chrift and his Apoftles, there U fure dirt. 
Uion to walk by \ and fare promijes to build upon. For whatever they 
made known of Chrift was not afable } but a certain truth j for they had 
the" teftimony of Senfe, 2 Pet, 1. 16, ij. 1 Job. 1. 1,2, 3, 4. and fo 
could plead both the authority of his command, and the certainty of his 
Promife, and that with uncontrollable evidence i and without this Reve- 
lation there can be neither Faith nor Obedience, nor fure expectation of 
Happinefs. For we cannot trttjl God for what he hath not promifed, 
nor obey God in what he hath not commanded i nor in our difficulties 
and diftrefTes exfieft happinefs from him without his warrant and aiTu- 
rance. But by this Doctrine delivered to us we have all that belongeth 
to Faith, Obedience and Happinefs •> and beyond that the Creature can 
defire no more. 1. There can be no Faith till we have a fure Teftimo- 
ny of Gods Revelation ; for Faith is a believing fuch things as God hath 
reveakd^hecaufe he hath revealed them. 3 Tis not Faith but fancy, to be- 
lieve fuch things as God hath never revealed', nor is it Trnji and a regu- 
lar Confidence to think, that he will certainly give us what he hath ne- 
ver promifed ", this were to lay us open to all manner of delufion : 
And therefore we are never upon fure and ftable ground , but by 
flicking to fuch a Tradition as may juftly intitle it felf to God. 2. Nor 
Obedience h for Obedience is a doing what God hath commanded becaufe 
be hath commanded it. The fundamental reafon of Obedience is the fight 
of Gods will, 1 Thef. 4. 3. 1 Tbef. 5. 18. 1 JP^.2.15. To do what God 
never commanded, or not to doit upon that account but for other 
reafons is not Obedience, and in difficult cafes the Soul can never be 
held to its duty, till we are perfwaded that fo is Gods Will concerning 
us. Now to know his Will concerning us , we are often bidden to 
fearch the Scriptures, but never bidden to confult with the Church to 
know what unwritten Traditions (he hath in her keeping to inftrudfc us 
In our Duty. 3. No certain expe&ation of Happinefs. We are never fafe 
till we know by what Rule Chrift will judg us, that is, reward otpunijb 
men at the laft day : Now he will judg us according to the Gofpel y 
Rom. 2, 16. 1 Thef 1.8. Obey the Gofpel, and you have a perfect 
Rule to guide you to Happinefs *, but if you neglect this great Salva-. 
tion, or be unfaithful in the profeffion of it a this Word condemneth 
you, and God will ratifie the fentence of it» 

• 4. Prop. Thai wbileflthe Apoftles were in being, there were two ways-- 
ef delivering the Truth, and that is by word of mouth and writing. So in 
the Text, Whether by word, or our Epiftle. The Apoftles went up and 
down and preached Chrift every- where '•> that needeth no proof, unkfs 
you would have me to produce the whole Book of the Alls of the Afe- 
jiles : But they did not preach only but mite>znd both by the inftinct of 


Serin. VI. without unrcrittm Trtditions. 157 

the holy Spirit, who guided their Journies, and moved them to write 
Epifiles: For being often abfent from Churches newly planted, and He- 
reftes ariling, 01 fome Contentions, which could not be avoided among 
weak Chritiians, God over-ruled ihefe Occafions for the prork of the 
Church in after-Ages. Upon one occahon or another they faw a ne- 
cdfity to write ivcLyxn* tx av * Jade 3. It was needful for me to write 
unto you. As in the Old Teftament God himfelf delivered the Law with 
grent Majefty and terrour, and afterward caufed the fame to be writ- 
ten in Tables of Stone for the conusant ufe of his People. And the Pro- 
phets hiRitttered their Prophecies, and then wrote them : So the Apo- 
ftles hrft preached Evangelical Dodrine, and then configned it to wri- 
ting for the ufe of all Ages. And though all things delivered by them 
were not delivered in one Sermon,or one Epillle;yet by degrees the Canon 
of the New Teftament was constituted and made perfedl by the Wri- 
tings of the Evangeli[is and Apojiles. 

5. Prop: lhat now when they are long fince gone to God, and we can- 
not receive from them the VoUrine of Life by word of mouth, we muftjiicf^ 
to the Scriptures or written word. 1. Becaufe we are taught to do fo by 
Cbrift and his Apoftles. Chrift always appealeth to the Writings of the 
Old Teftament, both againft Traditions, which he condemneth, Mat, 
15.2. and againft pretended Revelations, Luk. 16. 31. If they hear not 
Mofes and the Prophets, neither will they be perfwaded to repent, if one 
jhould come from the dead. And the Apoftles (till have recourfe to this 
proof, Att. 26. 22. Witnefftng no other things than the Prophets and Mo- 
fes did fty Jhould come to pafs: And when they pleaded they were eye and 
ear-wimeffes, and fo their Teftimony was valuable; yet they fay ye 
have @i$xiili&v Xoyov,a furer word ofProphefie whereuntvyefhall do well t& 
takg heed, 2 Pet. 1. 19. Now how can we do better than to imitate 
thefe great Examples? 2. Becaufe thefe things were written for our 
fakes, 1 Job. 1.4.. Thefe things write we unto you, that your joy may he 
full. The Apoftles being to leave the World, did know the flipper inefs 
of mans memory, and the danger of corrupting Chriftian Dodfrine, if 
there were not a (lire Authentick Record left. Therefore they wrote,and 
fo fully, that nothing is wanting to compleat our joy and happinefs. . 
3..Becaufe the Scriptures are perfeft»The perfection of Scripture is known 
by its end, and intended ufe, which is to give us a knowledg of thofe 
things which concern our Faith, Duty 2nd 'Happinefs. 1. Our Faith 
inCbrift. If there be enough written for that end, we need not un- 
written Traditions to.compleat our Rule : Now St. John telleth us he. . 
might have written more things, But thefe things are written that ye 
might believe in the Son of God, and have life through his name, Joh. 2c» - 
30,31. Certainly nothing is wanting to beget a Faith in Chrift', the 
Objecl is fufficiently propounded, the Warrant or Claim is laid down 
in the New Covenant, and the Lie our agt me nts to believe- are cftuirand 

ftrottg* ;. 

j 58 The Scripture fufficierft Serm. VI. 

ftrong. What would men have more > Co that here is a perfect Rule, 
perfect in its kjnd, and for its proper ufe. 2. For our Duty \ that U 
furriciently provided for. The Apoftle telleth us, That the Grace of God, 
take it Obje&ivelyfot the Grace of the Gofpel, or Subjectively for Grace 
in our heznsfeachetb #/:if you mean Objective Grate, it prefcribeth, di- 
refietbj if of Subjective Grace, it perfvvaderh and exciteth what to do , 
to live foberly, righteoufly, godly, in the prefent w)rld, Tit. 2. 12. There 
are all the Branches of Mans Duty enumerated: Sobriety relateth to felf- 
governmenf, Righteoufly to our carriage towards our Neighbour \ 
Godly to our commerce and communion with God. Now in the Word 
of God what is there wanting, t,hat belongeth either to Worlhip, or 
Juftice, or perfonal Holinefs ? therefore certainly we need no other 
Rule s for it layeth down whatfoever Men are bound to do in all Ages 
and Places of the World, and in whatfoever circumftances God (hall put 
them : And fo it is fit to be the Law of the Vniverfal King and Law- 
giver •, yea it is Co perfect, that whatever other way is fet up, it prefent- 
ly dafheth againft thofe notions that we have or fliould have of God 
and his Service, and Worfhip ; or it infringetb or pervertetb the liberty 
and nature of man. 3. For our Happineis^that Doctrine and Inftitu- 
tion, which is able to make us wife unto Salvation, is enough for us>but 
fo the holy Scriptures are faid to do, 2 Jim. 3. 15. lb on baft k>iown 
the holy Scriptures which are abU to make thee wife unto S alv ation, through 
the faith which U inCbrijl Jefus. Nay afterward, verf 17. The man of 
God vs by them made perfetl, and thoroughly furnifhed to every good wor^. 
If the Scriptures do thoroughly direct Men to know God in Chvift, 
and lave their own Souls,why fhould we look any further ? Now they 
do not only furnifh every private Chriftian with this knowledge but 
the man of God, who is to inftruct others, he needeth look no fur- 
ther, but is furnifhed out of the Scripture with all things necelTary to 
difcharge his Office. Therefore here we fix and reft, we have a fuffi- 
cient Rule, and a full Record of all neceflary Chriftian Doctrines. 

Vfe 1. The life of all is \ Let us not feek another Rule than the 
Word of God. Papifts cry up Unwritten Traditions to be received 
with equal refpecl and reverence, as we receive the hory Scriptures? but 
you Brethren, ftandfaft, holding the Apoftolical Tradition : you can- 
not have it by word of mouth from them now \ therefore you muft 
(tick to what is written, or elfe you cannot preferve your felves from 
the frauds and irnpoftures of Antichrift. Thefe Apoftolical Writings 
have been received in all ages and times of the Church from the begin- 
ning > and all Vifputes among Chriftians have been tried by them:None 
were allowed good or fincere Chriftians who doubted of the truth of 
them. But becaufe we have to do with a People that will facrifice all 
to the honour and intereft of their Church «, and knowing they are not 
able to ftand before the light of Scriptures, have to the no little preju- 

Serm. VI. without unwritten Traditions. 159 

dice of the Chriftian Caufe done all that they can to weaken the Autho- 
rity ^ Sufficiency and Perfpicttityot them, that we might have no Religi- 
on without the Teftimony and Recommendation of their Church ; 
therefore I (hall refume the matter and declare it afrefli. 

r. Mankind lying in darknefs, and in the fhadow of death, it was 
necefTary that one way or another God mould reveal his mind to 
them, that we may know, what belonged! to our Duty and Happinefs^ 
for our chief goad and lift end. Being altered by fin,we ftrangely miltakc 
things and put light for darknejs,an& darkyefs for light, good for evil,ar\d 
evil for go *d\ weighing all things in the ballance of the flefh which we. 
feek to pleafe. We contound both the names and natures of things, and 
wander in a maze of a thoutand perplexities-} therefore God in pity to 
Mankind hath given us a fure direction in. his Word, which vs a limp 
unto our fat, and a. light unto our paths, Ffal. 1 j^>. 105. Mark the words 
of Light and Lamps the ufe of a Lamp is by night, and in the day we. 
have the Light of the Sun ', whether it be day or night with us, here we, 
are taught how to carry our felves. Mark again the words of?^//> 
and Feet, the one figuifieth our way and general courfe, the other all 
our particular atlhns\ fo far as Religion is concerned in them, we have 
directions in the Word about them. Befides- Mans condition is fuch 
that he needeth a Supernatural Remedy by a Redeemer, which depending 
upon the meer Love and free Grace of God cannot befound out -by Na- 
tural light left to usi for that only can judg of things necefTary ,but not of 
fuch things as depend upon the. meer pleafure of God : Therefore a. 
Divine Revelation there muit be. 

2. Since it is neceifary that God fhould fome way or another -reveal 
his mind to bis People »« it muft be done by Oracles, Vifions, Dreams, ol 
by extraordinary Mongers, who by word of mouth might convey it 
to us} or elfe by writing, and by. ordinary teachers, whofe lips maypre- 
ferve hftowledg in the Church. The former ways might furrlce, while 
God faw rit to reveal but a few Truths, and fuch as did not burden the 
Memory ^ and men were long-lived and of great fimplicity r and. the 
Church was confined within a fmall compafs of ground, and not liabh 
to fo many miferks-and changes as now in the latter ages : But when 
once God had fpoken to us by his Son,.thefe extraordinary ways-ceafed, 
Heb, 1.1,2. God who at fundry times and in divers manners fpa^e in tim<" 
paft unto ths Fathers by the Prophets, hath in thefe U{1 times fpoken u-nio m 
by hisSon.ks formerly God didfpeak woKvT§Qi*0s,]r\ divers manners,that is 
tofay,by Vi{ions 5 Oracles,Dreams^c.fo croAt/^5p^,at fundry times,by fe- 
veral ileps & degrees he acquainted the World with the Truths neceflV 
ry for man to know * delivering them out by portions,x\ot all together at 
once,till he came who had the fpirit without meafih,]oh.$ .34^theProphets 
to whom God revealed himfelf before by Vifions,Oracles, Dreams,or 
the Coming of the Spirit upon them had the Spirit c.<if.l7?«> by mea^ 
fare^ to, fit them fot fome £*r*«#&r crrand^or meffage^ on .which God 


i $c The Scripture fuflicient Serm. VL 

fcnt them. But when God Cent his Son out of his bofom to reveal the 
whole Dcdhine of Faith at once, and to declare his Fathers Will ' with 
full authority and power, he fixed and clofed up the Rule of Faith. So 
'twas not fit that after him there fhould come any Extraordinary Nun- 
tio^s and Embaffadours from Heaven, or any other fhould be owned as 
Infallible Meffengers *, but fuch as he immediately lent abroad in the 
World to Difciple the Nations: Therefore all former extraordinary 
Ways ceafed, and we are left to the ordinary Rule fratcd by ChrifL 

3. Being left to the ordinary Rule it was neceflary it mould be taught 
not only by word of mouth, but committed to writing s forChriitis 
afcended into Heaven, and the Apoftles do not live for ever : And we 
have no men now that are immediately and divinely infpired •, and or- 
dinary Paftors and Teachers cannot make new Articles of Faith, but 
do only build on the Apples foundation, 1 Cor. 3. 10. or that divinely 
infpired Dotlrine which they delivered to the Church. Yea, that Do- 
ftrine cannot well be preierved from oblivion and corruption without 
Writing^therefore God accounted this the fafeft way. Thofe things that 
are only delivered by word of mouth, or from hand to hand,may eafily 
be changed, corrupted, or utterly loft. Certainly if you eonfider mans 
fl'th, treachery, levity, and the many vile afeUions which may eafily in- 
duce him to extinguijh or corrupt the Truth which is contrary to them - , 
you will fee that it is necefTary that there fhould be a fure Authentic}^ 
Record, by which Truth and Error might be tried and diftinguifhed. 
Ye&, that the Church which is difperfed throughout the World might 
hive truth at hand, and particular Believers have this Doclrine ever by 
them for their comfort and ufe\ it being the property of a blefTed man 
to delight in the Law of God, and to exercife hirnfelf therein day and night, 
PJal.1.2. In fhort, while the Apoftles were living 'twas good to take the 
Tradition from their mouth ; but now they are dead, we take it from 
their Writings. Surely if God faw fome Writing necefTary when thofe 
extraordinary ways (we fpake of before) were in ufe, and the Church of 
the Old Teftament was in a much quieter Hate than the Church of the 
New. I fay,if fome Writing were necefTary then, it is more necefTary 
now i, for the ChrifHan Church is more expofed to dreadful ftorms of% 
perfection, the deceits of Heretichs of all forts, efpecially to the frauds of 
Anti&hrift, which we are forewarned of in this Chapter s and are de- 
tected and difcovered by their contrariety to the written word. 

4. This Truth being written,it is both afafe and a full Rule for us to 
walk by > it is 2. fife Rule becaufe it is written by the Apoftles and Evan- 
gelifts, holy men moved by the Holy G l> oft. The Apoflles did not lofe their 
Infallibility when they committed what they preached to Writing j the 
fame Spirit that affified them in delivering the Do&'rine by word of 
mouth, affifled them alfo when they delivered it by writing : and it 
is afidlandfujjicient Rule, becaufe it containeth all things which are ne- 
cefTary for Men to believe and do in order to eternal life. Let them name 


Serm. VI. without unwritten Traditions. 161 

let them name what is neceflary beyond what is recommended there, or 
may be deduced from thence : yea it doth contain not only all the Effen- 
tial but alfo the Integral parts of the Chriitian Religion', and therefore 
nothing can be any part of our Religion which is not there. The di- 
rection of old was, If*. 8. 20. To the Law and to the Teftimony\ if they 
fpea\not according to this word, it vs becaufe there ii no light in them. 
Every thing was then tried by Mofes and the Prophets, and every thing 
muft be now tried by the Prophets and Apples, which is our foundation of 
Faith, JVor/hip, and Obedience, Eph. 2. 20. 

5. That which we blame in the Papifts is, That they cry up a pri- 
vate, unproved, unwritten Tradition of their own, as of equal Authority 
with this fafe and full Rule which is contained in the Written Word of 
God. Their crime and fault may be confidered partly with refpect to 
the Ob)eU and Matter, That thefe Traditions are not indifferent Cuftoms^ 
but Ejf.ntial Points, necefTary to Faith and Chriftian PraUices and fo 
though a Chriftian be never fo thorough and found in his Obedience 
to the Word of God, and true to the Baptifmal Covenant, yet if he fub- 
mitteth not to thefe Unwritten Traditions, he wants fome Point ne- 
cefTary to Faith and Praflice, and fo to Life Eternal •, which is contrary 
to Mark^ 16. 16, He that believeth and vs Baptized Jhall befaved, and he 
that believeth not (hall be damned: And Joh. 17. 3. This is life eternal, to 
hjtorv thee the only true God* and Jefm Chrifi whom thou baft fent: Partly 
as to the Subjett,zs they make their »wn faction to be the only keepers of 
thefe things, and that nothing is to be owned as Apoftolical Tradition, 
but what is delivered as fuch by their Authority '■> which is to leave the 
Church to the Tyranny and Ufurpation of a corrupt Faction, to declare 
for Apoftolical Tradition any thing which ferveth their Ends and In- 
terefts, and for which no true Hiftorical evidence is produced. Now the 
unjuft and fraudulent Practices which they have ufed to promote this 
Ufurpation over the Churches of Chrift, render them of all men moft 
unrit to be trufted in this kind i partly with refpect to the manner, they 
will have thefe things to be received Pari reverentia & putatvs affeCtn s 
With the fame reverence and pious affection with which we receive 
the holy Scriptures \ and fo mans pofi is fet by Gods, and unproved Tra- 
ditions equalled with VoUrins of Faith: their opinion is bad enough, but 
their prahice is worfe, for there they (hew they value thefe things more 
than the Scriptures •, as Superftition always aboundeth in its own 
things. Did ever any of their Doctors fay the fame things of Traditi- 
ons which they take the boldnefs to fay of Scripture } Did they ever 
call them Pen andlnfyorn, or Parchment Divinity, a Nofe of Wax,a dumb 
Rule, an obfeure and ambiguous Vottrine : Thefe Blafphemies they vent 
boldly againft the Scripture, but did they ever fpeak thus of Traditi- 
ons? and again their common People are a thoufand times better in- 
truded in their Traditions than in the Votlrine of Salvation '•> they 
skill more of Lent, and Ember-week/, &c. than they truly underftand 

Y the 

jga The Scripture fujftcient Serm.VL 

the Dcxftrine of Mans mifery and remedy : And call you this equal re- 
verence and pious affeftion to the Scriptures and Traditions? Partly becaufe 
they would never give us a perfect Catalogue of Unwritten Traditions 
ncceflfary to be obferved by all Chriftians > it may be left they fhould 
amaze the People with the multitude of them, or elfe that the People 
may not know how many of their Do&rins are deftitute of Scripture- 
proof, and [o they plainly be difcovered to be impofers on the belief of 
the Chriflian World. 

6. Though we blame this in Papifts, yet we rejecl not aE Tradition : 
i. Becaufe Scripture it felf is a Tradition, as we proved before, and 
is conveyed to us by the moft credible means, which we have no reafon 
to doubt of - , the Scriptures of the OldTeftament were prelerved by the 
Jews, to whom were committed the Oracles of God, Rom. 3. 2. And 
Protefiants receive all the Books which they admitted into their Canon. 
And for the Books of the New Tefiament the Chriftian Church hath re- 
ceived them as the Writings of thofe whofe Names they bear, and by 
the confiantVniverfal Tradition of the Church they are tranfmitted to 
us i and we have no more reafon to doubt of them, than we do of 
Statutes and Laws made by Kings and Parliaments, who lived long 
before we had a being. Yea, we may be much more confident .as the 
matter is of greater weight and confequence, and thefe Writings have 
the fignature and (tamp of Gods Spirit on them, and have been blerTed 
by God to the converting and fendtifying of many Souls •> and have 
been delivered down to us by a fucceffion of Believers unto this very 
day: and by them Chriftianity hath been preferved in the World not- 
withstanding the wickednefs of it \ and hath held up head againft all 
the encounters of time. The perfections of ad verfe Powers, have not 
fuppreffed it, nor the difputes of Enemies filenced the Profeffion of it i 
but (till from age to age Gods Truth is received and tranfmitted to 

2. Becaufe the proof of Chriftianity depending upon matter of Facl:, 
chiefly Chrifts rifing from the dead, it can only be proved by a Tefti- 
mony, which in fo extraordinary a cafe muft be made valuable and au- 
thorized to the World by the Miracles accompanying it. Now the no- 
tice of thefe things is brought to us by Tradition, which being un- 
queftionable, giveth us as good ground of Faith as it did to them that 
lived in the Apoftles time, and heard their Dodrine, and faw their Mi- 
racles. Gods wonderful works were never intended for the benefit of 
that Age only in which they were done, but for the benefit alfo of thofe 
that fhould hear of them by any credible means whatfoever, Pp/. 145.4, 
Joel 1.3. PpiL 78. 3, 4, 5,6, 7. Thefe things were told them thatthey 
might fet their hope in God, &c, 

3. Becaufe there are fome Do6hins drawn by juft confequence from 
Scripture, but are the more confirmed to us when they are backed with 
eonflait Church-ufage and practice ; as Baptifm of Infants, Lords-day, 
Singng of Pialms in our Publick Worfhip, &c. 4. Be- 

Serm. VI. without unwritten traditions. 163 

4. Becaufe there are certain words which are not found in Scripture 
indeed, yet agreeable thereunto, and are very ufeful to difcover the 
frauds of Hereticks, as Trinity, Divine Providence, Confubftantial Procef- 
fton of the Holy Ghoft, Satisfaction, &c % 

5. We reject not all Church-Hiftory, or the Records of ancient Wri- 
ters concerning the Providences of God in their days, in owning the 
Gofpel, which make much for our inftru&ion in manners, and arc 
helps to encourage us to put our truft in God. 

6. Ther© are certain Vfages and innocent Cuftoms, or Circumflances 
common or facred, and other actions, which we defpife not but ac- 
knowledg and receive as far as their own variable nature and condition 
requireth, not rejecting them becaufe anciently practifed •, nor regar- 
ding them when the general Law of Edification requireth the omiflion 
of them. But that which we deteft is,That the Traditions of Men fhould 
be made equal in Dignity and Authority with the exprefs Revelation 
of God : Yea, that manifeft Corruptions and Ufurpations as making 
Rome the Miftrefs of other Churches \ and fuperinducing the Pope as the 
Head of the Vniverfal vifible Church, and the Viear of Chrifi without his 
leave and anointment \ and fuch-like other Points mould be obtruded 
upon the World as Apoftolical Traditions, and to be received with like 
Religious reverence as we do Articles of Faith fet down in Scripture : 
This is that we cannot fufficiently abhor as apparently falfe and deftru- 
<Sive to Chriftianity. 

The Proportions drawn out of the Text in this Sermon are thefe. 
i. Whatever afTurance we have of Gods prefer ving us in the Truth, 
yet we are bound to ufe diligence and caution. 

2. Our diligence and caution is to be imployed about this, that wc 
may ftand faft in the Faith of Chrift, and the profertion and practice of 

3. That the means of Handing faft in the Faith of Chrifi, and the 
profeiEon and practice of Godlinefs is by holding the Traditions which 
were taught by the Holy Apoftles* 

4. That while the Apoftles were in being there were two ways of 
delivering the Truth by word of mouth, and Writing. 

5. That now when they are long fince gone to God, and we can- 
not receive from them the Doctrine of life by word of mouth ; We 
mult ftick to the Scriptures or Written Word. 

Y2 SER- 


„ ■ i - ■' «■■! 


Popery is a Novelty, and the Proteftants 
Religion was not only before Luther, but 
the fame that was taught by Chrift and 
his Apoftles. 

Jer. 6. 1 6. Thus faith the Lord, fland ye in the way and fee, 
and ask^ for the old paths , where is the good way± and 
walk^ therein, and ye fiall find reji for your Souls : But 
they faid, we will not walk^ therein. 

A LI Men in this World having for their Conftituent parts a 'fa) Vvyaeup 
Mortal Body (a), and an Immortal Soul, are parting out of H . &*?*s°. v 
this Life into another : Out of this, becaufe of the Mor- y }ff "in^erra'" 
tality (b) of the Body; into another, becaufe of the Immor* orimur, & in 
tality of the Soui. And all both good and bad are daily and hourly tra- terra moYi- 
velling to an everlafiing and unchangeable ftate,whofe Bodies (hall be mur > )f eve r- 
quickly turned into lifelefs dull, and their Souls enter into Heaven or unc j^rumus 
Hell, and be with God or Devil (c\ in Joy or Torment, when they affampti. 
come to their Journeys end i and according to the way they now walk ifirmrdin fefi 
in, fo it will be wirh them for ever : Thofe that walk in the way chalk- St - ^rtin* 
ed out by God, at the ead of this Life fhaU have the end of their Faith, (^f J?* ™° r rs 
and Hope and Holinefs, the Salvation of their Souls - , but thofe that requiem, me* 
walk after the flefh, and in the ways of fin, (hall find Hell to be at the lior propter 
end of their walk. Therefore it is of Infinite concernment to all, to ob- "ovjtatem, 
ferve and do what is prefcribed in the Text , in which are contained ^Scumai^ 
thefe Farts following. tem . Mala 

mors.m mundi amiflfione, pejor in carnis feparatione, peflima in vermis ignifque duplici con- 
trmone. idmEpift. 105. 

Z 1. The 

166 Popery a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

I. The Duties that are enjoined, and they are two. Firft, to ash^ and 
enquire after the right way that leads to Reft and Happinefs s a Meta- 
(7) Similitu- phor (d') taken from a Man that is upon his Journey, and not well ac- 
itafo. /«*/"£ ^nted with the way to his intended place, ftands ftill and asketh, 
Faci'te uc via- Which is my way to fuch a Town, I am bound and bent for fuch a 
tores folent, Country ? and if I miftake my way, I lofe my felf, my labour and my 
U 4 dubitant » buiinefs :> and being directed doth needfully obferve what is faid unto 
qua eundiim ^ u anc j care f u ]iy remembers the marks that are told him,by which he 
(0 -I^N^n might conclude that he is in his direct and ready way. Sirs, this is 
JllDTuV" your cafe, you are bound for Heaven, you would all be happy when 

Et iiiterro- Y ou die, anc * *( y 0H m ^ a K e J mr ^ty, y oH lofe your felves, your Souls and 
gate, (Jiib. a- Bodies too, and God and Cbrift, and Happinefs, and all, and that for ever: 
lios fapienti- Stand' then,and earneftly enquire (e), whichJsyour way, and diligently 
ores. Va.ub.iti obferve what are the Marks whereby you might know that you are 

Hzi^iU * n tne roa< ^ t0 a BlerTed, Glorious Life : and thefe in the Text are two.. 

Antiquis per Ffrfti It is the old Way > Seek not out new paths to Heaven, keep in 

as iverunt the old Way that all the Millions of Saints now happy in the enjoyment 

Abraham, Ja- of their God, went in: If you would get to the place where they be, 

cb.jfac* Grot.. y 0U mu ft. g t h e f ame wa y they did, xhe old Way that Abraham, and 

' IJaac, and Jacob went > the old W T ay that Mofes and David, Peter and 
Paul, and aM the holy, humble, and believing, penitent People of God 
did go. 
^? T n rc J S Secondly, It is the good Way as well as old\ for though Goodnefs was 
o&caiii, Jude before Wickednefs, yet every way that is old is not good (f)\ there 
z\ ii. i Job. is the old Way of Swearing and Lying, and Drxnkgnnefs •, there is the 
3.12. G^.4.8. old Way of Hypocrifie, Impenitency, and Vnbelief } the old Way of 
and the old Whoredom, and hating Holinefs : This hath been the old. Way, but a 
7m\ G pn2X<. kad one, and that leads to Damnation: If you be in this Way and 
but the way of hold on in this Way, and go forwards, and do not turn, and that 
Sin, though quichjy too, you will be in everlafting torments, and that quickly too. 
never (bold Stand then and fee that your Way be the good and the old Way. 
ito* tD HcU " Secondly, (g) The next Duty in the Text enjoined, is to rvolkjn this 
(£) *ntrl")Sl ^ a y ^ ot ^ and good,when you have found ir,for if a man have the moft 
Per Metapho- exa # knowledg of his Way,& (hall fit down,and fhall fit down or Hand 
ram de vita, ftill, and not walk in it, he will never ccme to the place that Way doth 
moribus, & lead unto. The Way is pointed out by God himfeJf unto you } get up 
aftionibus. then, arife and wajk therein, and that with haft and fpeed > your Way 
Proptoa^no^n ^ to a long Eternity, the night of Death is coming upon you, be daily 
pofte externa jogging on, do not loyter in your way •, time goeth'on^herefore fodo 
ari cul- you. 

pam populi, jj. j n theText there is by what Authority (h)you are thm ftrillty en- 
quati errors j n y ne ^ t0 as fc for, and walk in the good old Way ; that is, by Divine 
nfam fans fo- Autltority. [Thus faith the Lord, ft and ye in the ways andfte,and as\,&c.~] 
perq-,admoni- It is the Lord that made thee, that doth thus command thee *, it is that 

rasa Deo fue- Lord that doth preferve thee, in whom thou doll: live, and move, and 
tat, cttv.. ha£ 

Serm. VII. f of try a Novelty. 167 

haft thy being, that hath kept thee out of Hell all this while*, thou haft 
been going in the wrong way, and running in the paths that lead to 
deftru&ion and damnation > it is that Lord that can damn thee, when 
he will,and that can inflict the punifhments and plagues upon thee, that 
are due unto thee,for thy fin againft him '•> that could this day and hour 
cart thy Body to the duft, and thy Soul to Devils, that doth command 
thee to (land and fee,whither thou art going •, he feeth the way wherein «A 
thou art walking, and out of pity to thee, calleth after thee, faying, ^ 
Poor Sinner ! why art thou fofwift,and makeft fuch hafte in the way of 
Sin ? Why doft thou run with fo much fpced to a place of torment, as 
if thou couldeft not get thither lure enough, or foon enough \ where- 
as the Way thou walked in (except thou turn) will bring thee to eternal 
mifery, furely and quickly too ? Oh ftand and fee, whither thou art go- 
inglftand and fee that at the end of this thy finful walk thou wilt come 
unto a lake of burning Brimftone j to a doleful Dungeon, to a place of 
torment, and of utter darknefs ! Oh fiand and fee, and look about thee 
if thou canft behold any that are going to eternal Happinefs walking in 
that way and road that thou art daily travelling in ! I therefore charge 
thee upon pain of evcrlafiing torment, as thou loveft thy Soul, or ever 
would ft be received unto everlafting joy and happinefs, go not on, 
turn back again > thou art out of thy way to Teft and glory, ftand 
then and a. c k, for the good old way and walk therein. 

3. Here is tbeincouragement propounded, to ftir you up to ask for, ,~ ^„«. 
and walk in the good old way, and that is (i) reft for your Souls. Reft V-fjnQ 
infomemeafure, and from fome things for the prefent, and reft per- CDJ-tfSr? 
fedr and perpetual in Heaven hereafter for ever. Oh what ails the Ions $tt"i 

of men to be fo mad upon their lufts and ways of fin, that though God Subito motes, 
doth threaten them with everlafting, reftlefs, and [hereafter] remedi- [ onc r It f ? t ?\ ,vo " 
lefs torments, will yet go on in the way that leads them thither ! and t ranfitive,rno- 
though God promiktha place and ftate of reft, and love, and life, if rit, vorutavit, 
they will turn their hearts and feet unto the ways that would bring P^ antiphra- 
them to it, will notwithftanding keep their finful courfe ! which brings ~ n > quicvit \ 
to the next part in the words. - -T.2.\(l?\% 

4. 7be Obflinacy and wilful rebellion of Sinners, and their refolute pur- Scbindler; 

pofe to the contrary (k). God commands you to walk in a good way,but (k) Hie figm- 

you will not s he promifeth you reft and happinefs, if you will, but hcat Pr ?P'" i P ( i a 

yet you will not * and doth threaten you with death and hell, and yet ^'jS 

you will not. Oh the hardnefs of your hearts ! Oh the ftubbornnefs of quo minus 

your wills ! how great is it, when the Precepts, nor the Promifes, nor fruerentur re- 

the threatnings of the great, eternal God, will not make you bend, nor bus P r °fp e " s » 

bow, nor buckle to his revealed Will ! It is your own Will that will faS^ 110 

undo you, if you perifh. It is your Will that is the great enemy and re- fpome fiiHTe 

. mifcroSj quia 

Deus propofuerat illis felicem (latum, ted comemptam foitfe hanc gratiam ab ipfo, idque pern- 
water, nam hoc fonant verba, ubi dicunt, non ambulabiavus, cdv'nu 

2 2 bel 

i6B Toper j a Novelty* Serm.Vfl, 

bclagairi.fi: the bleiTed God, againft his holy Law and Ways-, do not , 
plead and fay, thou canfl not walk in the good old Way, when the rea- 
(on is rather, becaufe thou wilt not.. It is not fo much your Impotency, 
as your obftinacy that you do not leave your flnful, and your wicked 
ways. You can forbear to f wear ,but you will not v you can leave your 
. drunkennefs, who compels you, who doth conftrain and force you > 

DefnSSrub- y0U can ^ ut w *'l not (lj ' w ^° P utS t,ne CU P ^° °^ cen t0 tn Y rnout h but 
firahitimquid f hine own hand, commanded fo to do by thy own will } Who turns 
de potentia thy tongue to curfe and to blafpheme the holy name of God but thy 
reprobati — . own w j]j > y^^q compels thy feet to carry thee to a Whore-houfe > 
Unde hcet a- j-^ t ^ Qu nQt vo j Llritar i]y mov e thitherward, and thou goefl, not be- 
poiTit gratiam caufe thou canfi not forbear, but becaufe thou milt not forbear to go > 
adipifci, qui Moreover, as thou cm ft leave many of thy wicked ways, if thou wilt, 
reprobatur a fo thou can ft fet upon abetter cqurfe of lite if thou wile. Thou canft: 
^°A ""^c S° to ^ ermons if t ^ ou wilt,and thou canft confider of what thou hear- 
peccatum e ^ ^ tnou w ^ c * anc * tnou can ^ f a ^ down upon thy knees and pray to 
vel illudlaba- God if thou wilt i who doth hinder thee but thine own will? And 
tur, ex ejus if thou wilt not do what thou C3nft, is it not a plain cafe that thou 
libero arbitrio wou ]d e ft not do more, though thou couldeft ? .Do not plead that thou 
imdeTme-^ canft not, till thou haft done the beft that thou canft do, which yet 
rito fibi im- unto this day thou never haft done. If thou wert now a dying.czn{\ thou - 
puratur in fay, thou haft done thy beft, and the mod that thou couldeft do to leave 
cv\$zm.Aquin. t | ie way of fin, and to .walk in abetter way? thy own Confciencc.. 

f Art!i. H ' wouU condemn tnce > and tel1 thee that thou haft nor - The da V IS haft - 

ning when it (hall be roundly told thee, in thy ear, thou mighrefthave 
been holy and fo happy, but thou wouldft not. Thou waft called to 
come to Chrift that thou mi-ghteft have lived, but thou wouldft not. . 
Thou waft exhorted to ask for, and walk in the good old way j but 
the reafon, why thou didjl not, was becaufe thou wouldefi not. And how, 
defervedly are they damned, that are wilful in their ways^ and are re- 
fohed that in the good way they will not walk. 

The Text according to thefe Parts contained in it, would .afford fo - 
many Doctrines, which would yield matter for many P radical Ser- 
mons, but muft all be omitted, becaufe lam limited to endeavour to 
make good this Polition, viz. That Popery is a Novelty , and the P rote- 
jlants Religion was not only before Luther, but the fame that was taught by 
Chrifl, and hi* Apples. 

For the more clear and diftind proceeding in the handling of this 
After tion, I fnall caft what I have to fay (and can bring into one Ser- 
mon) into tins Method: 

Pirft, I fbaUpremife fame certain Proportions for the better ftating of the 
matter in ban Jo 

Secondly, 1 will give you a parallel or cornparipm of the DoUrines taught • 
' by the Prophet t^ Chrift, .qH$ib\i Apofvks, the iJoUrines of- the ProiefiantH 
&rRt f'fmed Churches, mi the Vo&ri/ies of" the- Papijis -, by which you 


Serra. VII. Popery a Novelty. \6$ 

may cafily difcern, that ours is the old and true, but theirs a new and 
falfe Religion. 

Thirdly, I will fhtw you that the fame Religion and Voftrine profejfcd 
and owned by the Protejlants was fairer Chrift and his Apoftles; btfcre 
Lu ther,f •*»£/**, *nd received by many. 

Fourthly, / will give yw an account of fame of the material^ effenlial 
Point j of Popery., when tb r y firft fprunp up in the Churchy and when fir ji 
made Articles of Faith, with fitch jinftnefs that they (hould be accounted 
Heretick* that did not pr f fs to believe them, but would oppofe them •, that 
by their original and rife, you miy rightly conclude that the charge of 
Novelty laid upon the Popifh Religion is a juft charge. 

Fifthly, I will make fome Practical Application of the whole. 

The hrft part of the Method propounded contains thefe Eight Pro- 

Firft Proportion. 

That the ordinary way in which lojl finnerf ftnce the Fall of Adam have 
been recovered and rejiorfd to Life and Salvation, as to the Ejfentials of the 
Covenant of Grace, in all ages hath been one and the fame (m;. For f.%)Ea quippe 
though God hath at fundry times and in divers manners revealed his fides juftos _ 
Will unto his Church, yet the Covenant of Grace rcaft out to fallen fervavit am £ 
man as a plank after fhipwrack) under various external Difpenfations, SosN.f.^Me- 
hath been the fame; under the Law adminiftred by Promifes ,Prophefies, diatoris Dei fe 
Sacrifices and Circumcifion, the Pajchal Lamb, and other Types and Ordi- hominis Jefu 
nances delivered to the People of the Jews(n), all pointing at Chrift to Chriftl4ug.de 
come \ under the Gofpel bv the Preaching of the Word, and Adminijhati- Y ' ai ™-& «*»•■ 
on of the Sacraments. Baptifm. ai'd the Lords- Supper, which is done in H eb. I; I; . 
Commemoration of the Death of Chrift, already paft. This way hath «nroAt^€p«* £ 
been the fame to Heaven all along through Chrift, fuccelhvely from ^^vT^jay 
Adam to our days', and will be the fame to the end of the World; which '*\. Q } m ^} .. 

■ ' * veri SacrirtPii 

we might learn from the excellent Harmony, per feci: agreement betwixt mu i t jp]j c ia 
the Doctrine of Mofes, the Prophets, and Chrift and his Apoftles; for variaq-, fgna 
thefe declaring the whole counfel of God Aft. 18. 27. did yet preach erant facrifi- 
no new Doctrine concerning Chrift and Salvation by him, but what £ia prifca 
Mofes and the Pi ophets did fay, and that alfo in reference to the Gen- ^j™ 1 ^ 
tiles, as well as to the Jews, Aft. 26.22, 23. To believe on Chrift, to num pcr mu ^ 
love God above all, to repent, and mortifie Sin, to be fanclihed and ta flguraretur, 
renewed after the Image of God, to be obedient to the Will of Gocj. tanquam ver- 
hathbeen the good way from of old. The new charge in outward Ad- ^ s ™* ltis res 
miniftrations made by Chrift, and the Apoftles did not make a New lit W^feftj!^ 
way to Heaven, though the old Difpenfations then did ceafc, and give dio multum 
place to thofe appointed by Chrift, which with the Doctrines of the oommendatur 
Apoftles are retained in the Reformed Church, but are depraved, cor- Au 4 : f e chit: 
rupted and departed from by the Church of Romt^s will appear by the v "\ rr 1 * 
parallel of Doclrines. / • 


l jo Popery a Novelty. Serm. VIL 

Second Proportion. 
Antiquity is not a msr\ of a true Church s a Church of a long (landing 
and continuance fucceifively from age to age might be a falfe Church : 
(o) Secunda The Church of Rome contrary to allreafon makes Antiquity a mark (o\ 
nota Ecclefiae whereby a true Church might be known \ and contrary to all Hiflory 
eft antiquitas; brags of her own Antiquity. But that which is a diftinguiftung mark 
Ecclelia^uam t0 difference one tmD S ^ rom another mud be found in (p) one kindjn ai 
adverfarii Pa- of that kind, only in that hjnd, and yet always in it ; as a man hath two 
pifticam vo- feet, but thereby cannot be diftinguimed from fome other Creatures, 
c<tnt, eft ilia becaufe this is common to birds as well as men : So to be skilful in Mu- 

ch : ftT*nfti- ^ ls P r0 P er on ^y to man > but not fo^nd in every man, and therefore 
tuit, & proin- no mark to know a man by, for one that is no Mufkian is a true and 
de vetuftior real man,as well as he that is : So alfo there might be fomething proper 
omnibus fe- to one kind of beings, and only to that kind, and to every one of that 
^ s IJ} 1 ^' kind, but not always * as Laughter to Mankind only, and to every 
l conciL&Ecclef, onQ -> but not always s for though no Creature can laugh but Man, yet 
/•4. c.$. one is as true and real Man when he doth not ufe that adfion, as when 

. jPoor / m he doth. Again, though Man only is endued with Learning of Arts 
convenit foli an( 3 Sciences amongft living Creatures, yet to fay this is a mark of a 
alicui fpeciei, Man, were to fay that molt Men in the \yorld were no Mens for the 
omnibufq-, il- mo ft are ll0 t fo learned, and the Men that are now learned, were not 
liuslndividuis a ] wavs f 0? anG | y et } ia j tnen tnc trLie anc j rea j nature of Men. But if 

Tres notarum vou hh a Man * iatn a P ower or faculty to laugh, you then give a plain 
conditiones mark to diftinguim him from all others, becaufe this power is proper 
ponif, fyUtrifj. to Mankind only to every one of Mankind, only, and always \ and therefore 
i. Debent effe fa $ b e j n g a property of Mankind^and infeparable from any of that kind, 
connnmies! a difference to diftinguifh man from all other living Creatures might b: 
debent efie. taken from thence, befides the conftitutive fpecihcal difference. 
2. Notiores,ea 

re cujus funt notsc, alioqui non funt nota?, fed ignota?. $. Sunt infeparabiles a vera Eccleila. Dt 
Concil. & Ecclef. Lib,^ cap. 2. 

By this plain familiar inftance the common and unlearned people, (to 
whofe capacity the defign is to accommodate this Sermon j might under- 
fiand fomething of the nature of a mark, whereby one thing might be 
known from another, and applying this' to the bufinefs in hand might 
make a judgment, that the PopiOi braggings of Antiquity, (alone con- 
fidered) will fall (hort of a demonstration, or evidence, that the Church 
of Rome is the only true Church, that hereby (he cannot prove her felf 
to be a true Churchy and that upon thefe two Grounds or Reafons. 

1. Becaufe Antiquity is ftp arable from a true Churchy as the Church of 
God in Adams days was a true Church, and yet it was not then an an- 
cient Church, when it firfi began \ and the Chriftian Church in the 
.Apoftlesdays was a true Christian Church, and yet it was not then an 
ancient Chriftian Church, no more than &n Infant newly born might be 
faid to be an old man, and yet it is a true man, though not old. 
.2. Becaufe Antiquity is not only feparable from a true Church, but 


Serm. VII. Vopcry a Novelty. 171 

is alfo common to other things now as well as to a trne Church > yea,it might 
be fpoken of the Synagogue of Satan, for as much as Satan hath had his 
followers in the World for many thoufand years i and there have been 
many wicked and ungodly focieties of men, far more ancient than the 
Church of Rome, or any Pope the Head thereof. So that the Antiquity 
that the Church of Rome boafts of (but hath noO cannot prove it to 
be the true Church of Chrift, any more than the Synagogue of Satan. 
And that Antiquity, that indeed (he hath, together with her Spiritual 
fornication may evidence her to be an old bar lot, but not the true Church* 
for when (he faith, (he is fo old as to be the Mother of all other Chur- 
ches, we can name fome Churches that (lie would have to be her Daugh- 
ters to be more ancient than the Church of Rome ; but it is abfurd to- 
fay the Mother is younger than any of the Daughters. 

Third Propcfition* 

As Antiquity is not a mark of a true Church, fo neither is Ami* 
qttity a note of true VMrine^ for although all trath is more ancient than 
error (error being a corruption of truth) yet every Doctrine that is 
old, or of many hundred (q years (landing is not therefore true > for (q) Quodcim- 
there are old errors, and oldherefies, yea fuch as are more ancient than 4 ue . adverfus 
thofe that are peopzrly-and formally Popi(h Errors. There are the old Er- ventatem fa-*- 
rors and Herelies of Cerinthus, Ebhn, Arriits, and many more, of a f^efis etiam* 
fooner and- more early original, than the main Doctrines of Popery, vetns confue-.- 
that are eiTential to that Religion » and if we judg of Doctrines meerly tudo.Tertul. dt> 
by Antiquity, many Herefieshave the precedency before Popery. Since f"£, J^/*3*. .. 
then Wickednefs and Error can plead Antiquity of many Ages; it is 
plain that Antiquity U a praife or difpnije, according to* the nature of tbe- 
thing of which it k fpoken '-, if it be good, the older, the hitter j . if it be bad,, 
the older, the worfer\ continuance in Sin being an aggravation of it \, 
as an old Swearer, an old Drunkard or Idolater is worfethan one that 
hath lately taken up fuch wicked practices. Antiquity of Doctrine and (r) Cbnfoem-.: 
Worfhip without truth and purity being but (r) grey-headed Error 4? fine veri " 
and Sin, it fellows that the longer the Church of Rome hath embraced tate '. vct JJ flas ' 
fach Worfhip, and taught fuch Doctrines, (he. is not fo venerable for cypr. Efiftl ad.l 
her Antiquity, as vile for her Iniquity, P/mpmm*: 

Fourth Propofition. 

Some of the Popijh Vo&rines, and fome parts of Popijh Wcrfhip are older ^ 
and of a longer jianding than fome other be* Rome was not built in 
one day Y and the body and -fyfteme of popifh Doctrine, as now it is 
held, was not finiuSed in one age. Popery came in by degrees, and 
Antichril* did rife to this height as now he is in in, (rep by ftcp. - The \^L\ ™*£„ 
(s) Queftion propounded by the Papifts to be refolved by the Prote- tione religio— 

nis temper 
ifta fex demonftrari poffunt. 1. Au&or ejus. 2. Dogma aliqnod novum. 3. Tempus qno"» 
cxpit. 4. Locus ubi caepit. $. Qpis earn oppugnaverit. 6. Exigims aliquis caettis.vnde paulatim 
aliis accedentibus, c*peric Nihil autem horvim de nobis oftendere podunt, (fub. Haxeticii)j 
Itllam* d( CmiU & Ecclffylib,^ ca?.$. 


xyt Popery a Novettju Serm. VII. 

Hants, faying, Who was the fir jlPope that brought in their Religion? and 
who was the fir^ that made all the Innovations we complain of? is ridicu- 
lous and abfurd, fuppohng that to be introduced into the Church by 
one man, in one age, which was brought in gradually, by many men, 
in many ages. 

Fifth Fr op opt ion, 
Thofe things that are effential to our Religion, are owned hy the Papifts 
themfelves \ for they do profefs to own the Scripture to be the Word of 
God, and that it is certainly true •, but do add their own Traditions, 
things not contained in the Scripture, yet neceffary to Salvation, which 
we cannot receive. They own Chriji to be the Head of the Church, and fo 
do we i but they add and fay, That the Pope is the Head of the Univer- 
sal Church alfo, but (b do not we. They own Baptifm and the Lords- 
Supper, fo do we \ but they add five Sacraments more, whieh we deny. 
They own that there is an Heaven and an Hdl, as well as we, but they 

"^ ndo°ea *" use tfetC ^ at C ^ ere was a P lace diitinft ^ vom hoth, in which the Souls of 
func fnnplic*- Believers were before Chrifts death. And that there is a Purgatory, 
tcr neceffaria and a place for the Souls of Infants, dijUncl from Heaven and Hell, all 
Apoiiolos which we do deny. They own the Merits ofChri[l, and fo do wc > but 
coniuevifte they add their own Merits, which we deny ■> and fo in other Points. 
dkare^D^ ^° t ^ at tn e Controvert betwixt us and them is not, Whether what 
co, ilia omnia vve hold -be true and old,for that is granted by the Papifts themfelvesff J, 
Scripta efte ab as to the effential parts of our Religion, but about what they have in- 
Apoflolis,quae vented, and added to the true Religion. All our Religion is contained 
neceiforia^fe * n ^ 1£ Scnptnre, a ^d what is there, we own, and nothing elfe as ne- 
qu* ipfl pa- ce *f ar y r ° Salvation. The fum of our Religion is comprehended in the 
lam omnibus Ten Commandments \ Creed, and Lords-Prayer, which the Papifts alfo do 
vulgo prxdi- confefs and own. So that our Religion is pall difpute, and is in aman- 
C dt~VnT'jyf' ner & rantec * t0 us : But whether the Popifh Doctrines as fuch, be true 
Lib. a. cap'.ii, an ^ °ld> ls the very Controverfie betwixt us and them. 

Sixth Proportion. 
From the former follows this, That there are more things effential to 
the Popifh Religion as fuch then there are to our Religion. .They do own 
our EiTentials, but we deny theirs. Thofe in which we and they do a- 
gree, are acknowledged by both to bs true and old => thofe in which 
vve differ from them, we truly fay are New. 

Seventh Prop fit ion. 
The Reformation of the Church doth not confjl in bringing in of New 
things, but in cafling them out^ and paring- them off : It is a grofs mhiake 
that in the Reformation, in and fince Luthers time, the Church hath 
brought in new Doctrines, and rejected the old: But ( which is the 
truth^) hath caft away the new, and retaineth the old. Gold and drofs 
were mixed together, the jewel of Truth was hid under the filth of 
corrupt Doctrines, our Reformers kept the Jewel and the Gold, and 
cait the drofs and filth away. The Reception of the oldDottrine^ and the 


Serm. VII. Toper y a. Novelty. 173 

Rejection of the New is that which made the Reformation. And if the 
Church of Rome would own what is in the Scripture, and no more, as 
neceiTary to Salvation, and would cut off the New, which they have 
added to the Old, we and they mould be of the fame Religion. Our 
Religion was perfedt and compkat before the Doctrine and the Wor- 
(hip of the Church of Rome, (as now it is) were in being •, and if you 
give a Coat to a Man, and he afterwards put fome pieces to it , long 
after it was a Coat, if you ask a Mendicant, or a Beggar in the ftreet, 
he may tell you, that is the New part which was put to it, after it was 
a per fed Coat. 

Eight Propofition. 

To kttow which U the Old Religion and the New, we mufl kgep to the 
Word (u) of God, as the rule and tefl thereof. What is not in the Word (u) Si ad <Ai- 
of God, no way, neither exprefly, nor by juft, immediate, neceffary con- vm . x traclltt " 
fequence i and yet is made neceffary to Salvation is certainly a New Re- originem ' re- 
ligion \ though it hath been taught many hundred years. Thus all vertamur, 
falfe gods though long fince ferved and worfhipped are called New ceflat error 
gods, that newly came up, ~Deut. 32. 17. The Old Religion then muft hnmanus. 
be examined by trie Old Rule, the Holy Scriptures ; fo that to deter- ^l**' 1 
mine this, we need not run to the Canons of the Church, the Councils of 
Men, to the Decrees of the Pope, to the Writings of the Fathers, which 
are all fallible, and of later Handing than the Word of God, as being 
before any fuch Councils, Canons, Confutations and Writings of Men, (ince 
the Apoftles time. When therefore the Papifts ask you, Where was 
your Religion before Luther > you might confidently anfwer, Where 
their Religion never was, nor will be found * and that is, in the holy 
Scriptures, which was long before Luther was, or the Tope either. But 
if you ask them, Where was their Religion in the Apoftles times, andjeve- 
ral hundred years after Chrift, you will put them hard to it to (hew you, 
nay they cannot do it. 

The fecond General Head in the Method propofed, is to give you 
a parallel of Dodhines taught by the Prophets, Cbriji, and his Apoftles ; 
by the Protejiants or Reformed Church *, by the Papifis or the Church of 
Rome. The firft (hall be laid down in the very words of Scripture. The 
iecond out of the publicly Confefftons of faith of the Reformed Church in 
England, and beyond the Seas. The Third out of the Writings and De- 
cretals of the Popes, Councils, Cardinals, and other Doctors approved by 
the Church of Rome. By all which the Three Things contained in this 
Pofition will be made manifeft. Firft, That the Dotlrine of Protejiants is 
the fame, that was taught by Chrift and his Apoftles, Secondly, That 
therefore it was long before Luther. Thirdly, That the Dottrine of the 
Church of Rome, differing from, and being contrary to the Docirine of 
Chrift and his Apoftles mnft be a very Novelty. But here I have not time 
nor room to make this Comparifon in all points of differing Docirine 
betwixt us and thern^ but (hall make choice of fome out of many, but 

A a enough 

1 74 Popery a Novefty. • Serm. VIL 

enough eo prove the thing atferted. A Parallel of the Dodrines of 
Prophets, Chrift and his Apoftles, the Protectants and Papifts. 

I. Concerning the perfection and fufficiency of the Scripture unto Sal- 

I. The Doctrine of the Prophets, Chrift and Apoftles concerning 
this Point : 

Deut. 12.32. Whatfoever things I command yon, obferve u doit, thou 
{halt not add thereto, nor diminijh from it. Pfal. ip. 7. The Law of the 
Lord is per f eft, converting the Soul. Joh. 20.31. But thefe are written, 
that ye might believe that Jefus U the Chrift, the Son of God, and that be- 
lievingyou might have life through his name. Gal. 1. 8. But though we or 
an Angel from Heaven preach any other Gofpel unto yeu^ than that which 
we have preached unto you, let him he accurfed. p. As If id be fore, fo fay 
I now again, if any man preach, any other Gofpel to you, than that yjtu have 
received, let him be accurfed. 2 Tim. 3 . 15. And that from a- child thou 
haft known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make thee wife unto SaU 
vation, through faith which U in Chrifi Jefus. i6\. All Scripture is given 
by Lffpiration of God, and is profitable for Doclrine, for reproof fir corre- 
ction, for inftruclion in righteoufnefs. 17. That the man of God may be 
per f eft, throughly furnijhed unto all good worlds. Rev. 22.18., Verltejli- 
fie unto every man that bearttb the words of the Prophefie of this- Bool^, if 
any man fh ill add unto thefe things, God jh all add unto him the plagues that 
are written in this Bo ok^ 19. And if any man Jhall take away from the 
words of the Bool^ of this Prophefie, God Jhall take away his part out of the 
Bool^ of Life, and out of the holy City, and from the things, which are 
written in this Boo\. 

II. The Doclrine of theReformecT Churches concerning the Perfecti- 
on and Sufficiency of the Scripture unto Salvation. 

(w) Church of ( w ) The holy Scripture containeth all things necejfaryfor Salvation \ fb 
Engl. Artie. 6. t y^ whatfoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to he 
required of ' any man, that it fhouldbe believed as an Article of the Faith jr 
be thought requifite and necejfary to Salvation. 
i (x) It is not lawful fir the Church to ordain any thing, that is contrary to 
•*J Artie, 2o»Q ^ s jp orc l : a^ i t 0U gyt not t0 decree anything againft the fame, fo be- 

fides the fame ought it not to enforce any thing to be believed for neceffity of 

The whole Counjet of God concerning all things necejfary fir his own Glory, 

mans Salvation, Faith and Life, U either exprejlyfet down in Scripture,or 

(y) Affemb. by good and necejfary confequence may be deduced from Scripture } unto 

Confeflion of w hich nothing at any time is to be added, whether, by new Revelations of the 

Faith - Spirit, or Traditions of men (y). 

The Canonical Scripture, or the Word of God delivered by the HolyGboft, 


Serm. VII* Popery a 'Novelty. 175 

and by the Prophets and Apoftles propounded to the world U the mofl perfect W Confcfiio: 
and ancient Philofopby^ doth alone perfeffly contain all fiety^ all rule of J? clv r er * s >. nta< 
life ( 2). ' 

The Reformed Church in France thus (<*)• " Whereas the Word ( a ) quum 
' of God is the fumm of all Truth, containing whatfoever is requifite Verbum Dei 
'to the Worfhip of God and our Salvation jwe affirm that it is not law- *? opinis ve- 
:c ful for Men or Angels either to add any thing to it, or take away any com piemen 1 / * 
c thing from it,nor to change any thing at all therein ; from whence it q^icquid ad 
c follows, that it is not lawful to fet, either Antiquity, or Cuftom, or a cultum Dei & 
'Multitude, or Humane Wifdom, Opinions, Decrees, Councils, or telutem no- 
c Vifions, or Miracles, in oppofition to Divine Scripture •, but rather ^Seqthom!" 
' that all things ought to be examined and tried according to this Rule, hibus, neque 

"and what is prefcribed therein. ipils etiam 

Angelis fas 
effe dicimus quicquam ei yerbo adjicere, vel detrahere, vel quicquam prorfus in eo immutare : 
Ex hoc autem efficitur, neque antiquitatem, confuetudines, neq-, multitudinem, neq-, Humanam 
Sapicnriam, neq; Judicia, neq-, EdiAa vel Decreta ulla, neq-, Concilia,neqi Vif!ones,neq;Miracula ? 
Scripturae illi Divina? opponere licere:Sed potius omnia ad ejus regulam & prafcriptum examinari 
& exigi oportere, Gallic, Confef. in Syntag. ConfeJ. p. 78. 

The Belgick, Cocfelfion thus (b). " We believe that the Holy Scrip- 0>) Crcdimus 
" ture doth peifeftly contain the Will of God, and that whatfoever is g^urimT 
c neceflary to be believed by men, for the obtaining of Salvation, is jjei volunra'- 

c fufficrently (aught therein. For when it is forbidden that any tern perfecte 

fiiould add to it, or take away from it, thereby is abundantly de- complect i, & 
monftrated, that the Dodrrine thereof is mod perfect, ajid every g^™* u; 
way compleat. fcrotein con- ' 

di necefTe eft, in ilia fufFcienter edoceri.' — Quum enim vetitum ft,ne quis Dei verbo quicquam 
addar, aut detrahat, fatis eo ipfo demonftratur, Doctrinam illius perfect tffimam, omnibufque 
modis confunimatam elTe. Be/g. Eccltj. Confef Syntag. p.131. 

Wmember. Confef. U) "That all Dodrrine -ncceiTary to be known (c)lnhzc 

c by us in order to true and eternal Salvation is not contained in the Scn P rura no « 

1 Scripture is fooner faid than proved. To add no more, by thefe it ncm Do ^ r j. " 

is evident that in this point the Reformed Churches do not only agree nam, nobis ad 

among themfelves, but alfo with the Prophets and Apoftles, teaching v eram & per- 

herein the fame Dodrrine that Chrift and they did, which was the thing P etuam faJu - 

•— — videturfacilius poffe dici, quam probari* wittmb. Confef. Syntag. pig. 130. 

III. The Dodhine of the Papifts concerning the Perfection and Suf- 
ficiency of the Scripture, fdi'sa f 
The Council of Trent declared (d) 9 "That the Dodrrine of the Go- aa-TridS- 

r . . . . tina fvnedus- 

perfpiciens hanc ventatem [Evangelii] & difciplinam contineri in libris Scriptis, & fnc Scripto 

Tradmonibus Omnes libros tarn veteris quam Novi Teftamcnti Nee non Tradi- 

"? n " !P( as ' tum ac * fidem, turn ad mores pertmentes, Pari pietatis affectu ac reveren- 

tia fufcipic & veneratur. ConciL Trident. Seff. 4. 

A a 2 « (pel 




17^ Popery a Noveltj. Serm. VIL 

" fpclis contained in the Written Word, and in Unwritten Traditions, 
li and that they did receive and honour the Unwritten Traditions, whe- 
" thcr appertaining to Faith, or Manners, with the fame reverence and 
" holy affe&ion, as they did all the Books of the Old and New Tefta- 

0) Et revera The Canon Law ^ aitn ( e \ " Tnat men <*o witn f uc h reverence re- 
tanta revcren- " fp e & tne Apoftolical Seat of Rome^ that they rather defire to know the 
tia apicera 'ancient Inftitution of Chriftian Religion from the Popes mouth, than 
P r ^. fatar ^P^ " from the holy Scriptures and they only enquire what is his pleafure, 

omn« fufci- " and acc0rdin S t0 if > thc Y 0rdcr thdr Life and Converfation. Again, 

ciunx. lit "(f) tnat tne [Popes] Decretal Epijilei are to be numbred with Canonical 

antiquam cc Scripture. 

Chriftian se 

Beligionis inftitutionem magis ab ore pra?ceflbris ejus, quam a facris paginis, & paternis Tri- 

^itionibus expetant : illius velle, illius nelle tantum explorant, ut ad ejus arbitrium fuam con- 

verfationem & ipfi remittant, aut intendant. Corp.jur. Canon. Djfi. 40. fi Papa in Jnnot. 

(f) Incer Canonical Scripturas Decretales Epiftolaj connumerantur. Corp. juris Canon* V$. 19; 
wp. 6, 

Dr. Standijh in his Book againft Englifh Bibles faith, u Take from 
ct them the Englifh damnable Tranflations, and let them learn to give 

as much credit, to that which is not exprefled, as to that which is 

exprefled in the Scripture. 
feJMulta per- CO Melcbior Canus writeth, " That many things belong to Chriftian 
tinerefdocet] " Faith and Doctrine, which are neither plainly nor obfeurely contained 
adChriftiano-"inholy Scripture. And he doth give particular Inftances, "That 
rum fidem & « t h e help of the holy Martyrs (hould be craved by Prayer, and their 
quae ncTaper- " Memories celebrated, and their Images worfliipped, and fuch-like,is 
te, nee ob- " not taught in the holy Scripture, and yet the Catholick Church doth 
fcure,in facris " as firmly hold thefe and many fuch-like Doctrines as if they were writ- 

literis conti- « ten m holy Scripture. Again he fays, "There is more efficacy for 

!5 en a ur ' " confutation of Hereticks in Tradition, than in Scripture. Again, 

Martyrum " Almoft all Difputations with Hereticks (hould be referred to the Tra- 
auxilium pre- " ditions received from our fore-fathers. 
cibus implo- 

randum, eorumque memorias celebrandas, Imagines venerandas efle, in Sacrificio Euchariftiz 
iimul cum corpore fanguinem facerdotibus efle, & conficienrlum, & fumendum, &c. Sacrat liter* 
nufquam forte tradiderunt. At ejufmodi atq*, alia pleraq-, id genus, ita flrmitcr Ecclefia Catholica 
rctinet, ut ft facris codicibus fuiflent inferipta: Mtlcb. Can. he. Tbeolog. Lib.$. cap.%. Adde, quod 
ad confiitandos Hxreticos major vis in Traditione, quam in Scriptura eft. — Quorfum base tarn 
longo Sermone repetita ? Nempe lit inrelligas, non modo adverfum hxreticos plus habere Tradi- 
tioncm,quam Scripouram virium,fed etiam omnem ferme cum hxreticis difputatioHem ad Tradi- 
tioncs a majoribus acceptas efle referendam : ibid. 

(b) Mukoque (h) Cardinal Hofim fpeaks out, faying, " The greateft part of the 

maxima pars 

Evangelii perrenit ad nos Tradition^ jjerexigwa Uteris eft Mandata; Nofius confef. Fid. Cathol. 



Serm.VII. Tepery * Novelty. 177 

<c Gofpel is come to us by Tradition, very little of it is committed to 

" Writing. 

By this, Reader, thou maift plainly perceive that the Doctrine of the 
Papifts in this, is exprefly contrary to the Doctrine of the Prophets, 
Chrift, and his Apoftles, and that the Doftrine of the Proteftants is the 
very fame with the Doftrine of Chrift and the Apoftles: compare them 
together, and thou will fee the agreement of the one, and the contra- 
riety of the other, to the Doctrine of Scripture, and conclude that the 
Doctrine of the Reformed Church is the old and true, but the Doftrine 
of the Church of Rome , is both new and falfe Doftrine '•> And that 
what the RJbemifts on Gal. 1.8. fayjf is great pity and fhame that fo many 
follow Luther and Calvin, and fuch other lewd Fellows into a new Gofpel > 
is more true of, and better applied to the followers of the Popifti Do- 
lors, or of the Rhemi(ts themfelves*, who on 2 T;«, 3. 16. fay, Ihe 
Heretichs upon thU commendation of holy Scriptures, pretend (veryfimply in 
goodfooth) that therefore nothing vs neeejfary to Juflice and Salvation hut 
Scriptures. And on J oh. 21. 25. few things an written ofCbrtftsAfif 
and Dodrine in comparifon of that which he did and fpakf, and yet the He- 
retickj **>$ needs have all in Scripture. Whereas the Evangelift faith not, 
That any thing is omitted of his Doftrine, but of his Afts: For 
though he fpake more words than be expreffed, yet all the Doctrines 
that he uttered in thofe words, is contained in the Scriptures of the 
Old and New Teftament. The Apoftles preached nothing but that 
which was contained in the Scriptures, Aft. ij. 11. & 26. 22. Rom. 
1.2. FnlJ^in loc. 

II. Of Reading of the Scripture. 

I. The Doftrine of the Prophets,Chrift, and Apoftles concerning the 
common Peoples reading and knowing of the Scripture. 

Deut. 31. 12, Gather the people together, men, and women, and chil- 
dren, and thy granger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that • 
they may learn and fear the Lord your God, and ohferve to do all the words of 
this Law. 1 3 . And that their children which have not hftown any thing, 
may hear and learn to fear the Lordyour God, as long as ye live in the Land. 
Jofh. 8. 3 J. Ihere was not a word of all that Mofes commanded, which Jo- 
mua read not before all the Congregation of Jfrael, with the women and the - 
little ones, and the grangers that were converfant among them. Pfal. 1 . 2 . 
His delight is in the Law of the Lord, andjnhis Law doth he meditate day 
and night. Aft. 8.28.— — IVas returning and fitting in his Chariot read > 
Ifaias the Prophet. Joh. 5.32. Search the Scriptures, for in them ye thinks 
ye have eternal life, and they are they which teftifie of me. Aft. 17, 11. 
And the fe were more noble than thofe in ThefJalonica, in that they received 
the w»rd with all readme fs of 'mind, and fe arched the Scriptures daily, wbe- - 
ther thofe things were fo. Ephef. 3 . 4. Whereby when ye read ye may uiu 

derftand . 

i?8 Tcpery a, Novelty. Serm.VII. 

derftand my kjtowhdg in the myftery of Cbrift, Col. 3.16. Let the word 
of God dwell in you richly in all wifdom: 1 Thef. 527. I charge you by 
the Lord that this Epijile he read unto all the holy Brethren. 2 Tim. 3.15: 

And that from a child thou haft hyown the holy Scriptures. Rev. 1,3. 

Bhffed vs he that readeth and they that hear the words of this Fropbefie, and 
\eep thofe things that are written therein. 

II. The Doctrine of the Protectants and Reformed Churches con- 
cerning the Peoples reading and knowing of the Scriptures. 

■ Becaufe the Original Tongues are not known to all the People of 
c God, who have right unto, and intereft in the Scriptures, and are 
c commanded in the fear of God to read and fearch them,therefore they 

' are to be Tranflated. All forts of People are bound to read it 

j^The Word of God] apart by themfelves, and with their Families. 

(J) Omnibus ^ " j t j s ] aw f u j f or a ]j men pr ivately at home- to read the holy 

facras hteras « s • t 
pnvatim le- cc .. . r 
gere domi, & Jigion.- 

r £ s c Scriptures, and by Inftrudtions to edirie one another in the true Re- 

mftruendo 2- 

dificare mutuum in vera Religione liceat. QonftU Htlvet. cap. 22. 

III. The Doctrine of the Papifts concerning the Peoples having, or 
reading of the Scripture. 
(k) Cum ex- (lp " whereas experience teacheth, that if the Bible be every- where 
manSfeflum ' WIt hout difference, permitted in the vulgar Tongue, through mens 
fit, fifacra Bi- " u nadvifednefs, more hurt than good doth arife thereby, in this point 
blia vulgari c ^t the judgment of the Bifhop, or Inquiiitor be followed { that with 
lingua paflim cc the advice of the Parijfh-Prieft, or ConfelTor, they may grant the rea- 
(ine difarimr- w j j n g f fa %\\>\ c ^ Tranflated by Catholick Authors, in the vulgar 
tur, plus inde " ^ an g UJ g e , to fuch as they fnall underftand, can take no hurt by fuch 
ob hominum c reading, but increafe of Faith and Godlineff. The which Licenfe let 
temeritatem, c them have in writing. And. if any prefume without fuch Licenfe ci- 
detrimenti, cc fa r t0 reac j or nave j^ unkfs they rirft deliver up their Bibles to the 

us oririVac in " Qt^W? tnev ma y not nave tnc P ar d° n of their (ins. And the Book- 
parte judi- ''fellers, that without fuch Licenfe, (hall fell, or any way afford Bibles 
cio Epifcopi, "in the vulgar Language, (hall forfeit the price of the Books, to be 
aut Inquifito- "converted by the Bifhop to pious ufes, and be liable to fuch other pe- 
cum confiiio* " na l^ es according to the quality of the offence, as the'Bifliop (hall 
Parochi,vd " think meet. 

Bibliorum, a Catholicis aucToribiis verforum, lecTionem in vulgari lingua eis concedere poffint, 
quos intellexerint, ex hujufmodi leftione non damnum, fed f dei atqj pietatis augmentum capere 
polTe, quam facultatera in Scriptis kabeant. Qui autem abfq-, tali faculrate ea legcre, aut habere, 
prxfumpfennt, nifi prius Bibliis Ordinario redditis, peccatorum abfolutionem percipere non pof- 
fint. Bibliopole vero, qui pr^dictam facultatem non habenti, Biblia Idiomate vulgari conferipta 
vendiderint, vel alio quovis modo conceffenin, librorum pretiuni, in ufus pios ab Epifcopo con- 
vertendum, amittant, aliifque pa^nis pro delicti qualitate. e/ufdem Epifcopi arbitrio fubjaceant. 
index. Lib. prohib. Rcg^L^. 




Serm. Vir. ropery a Novelty. 1 79 

Though this is not agreeable to the Doctrine of Chrift and his Apo- 
ftks that men mult not read the Scripture without a Licenfe from men, 
for fo what is-ibi&ly commanded by God 7 would be at the pleafure of 
others, whether God be obeyed or no, and fome liberty by Pope ?ius 
the Fourth doth teem to be granted for the reading of the Bible, to 
whom they pleafe, yet it is taken away fully by. Pope Clement the Eighth, 
mhisObfervation of this before alledged Rule, in thefe words. . 

(I) cc It is to be obferved concerning this Rule of Tins the Fourth, vercendum eft 
that by this Imprellion and Edition, no new Power is granted to Bi- circa fupra 
(hops, or Inquifitors, or Superiors, to licenfe the buying, reading, fcriptam 
'or keeping the Bible in the vulgar Tongue, feeing hitherto by the <l uarta m R. e - 
" command and practice cf the holy Roman, and Univerfal Inquiiition, yap aPit rS 
c the power of granting fjch Licenfes, to read or keep Bibles in the nullam per" 
'vulgar Language, or any parts of the holy Ser/pture, as well of the hanclmpreffi- 
c New as cf the Old Te(tament,or any fums or Hiitorical Abridgments °. ncm & Ed i- 
" of the fame, in any vulgar Language, hath been taken from them > novo'tribu" 
" which inviolably is to be obferved. facultatem E- 

pifcopis, vel 
InquiMtoribus, aut Regularium Superioribus, concedendi Licentiam emeHdi,legendi,aut retinendi 
fiiblia vulgari Lingua edita, cum hactenus mandato & ufu fanct* Romans & univerfalis Tnquifiti- 
onis fublata eis fuerit facultas concedendi hujufmodi Licentias legendi, vel retinendi Eiblia virl- 
garia, aut alias Sacra? Scripture tam novi, quam veteris Teflamenti partes quavis vulgari Lingua 
editas: ac infuper fummaria & compendia etiam Hiftorica eorundum Bibliorum, feu Librorum 
Sacra; Scripture, quocunque vulgari Idiomate conferipta : quod quideai inviolate fervandum eft, . 
Ind, Ub.fTobib, Ob^trvxt. circa. Ktg. 4.. 

Cm) Cardinal Betiarntine to the fame purp.ofe teacheth, <c That the 0") Populus 
' People would get not only no good but much hurt from the Scrip- non folum non-. 
" cures i for they would ealily take occauon of erring, both in Doft- ^^^1 
' rines of Faith, and in Precepts concerning Life and Manners. tuns, fed eti- 

am caperet 
detrimentum : Acciperet enim faeillime occafionem errandi, turn in Doftrina fidei, turn :a m»- 
ceptis.vitae & morum. EdUv. de Vitb. D:i. Ub.i. ca},\% 

VtreftM f quoted by Dr. While) faith, " Shaft no bounds be fef to po» 
pul3r, rude, and carnal men > Shall old men, before they have put off 
the rjJth or their mind, and young men that yet fpeak like children, be 
admitted- to read the Scripture ? I fuppofe verily ''and my opinion 
tails me not) this Ordinance under the pretence of Piety, wasin-ven- 
' ted by the Devi!. 

The Kbemijh Tranflators fti their Preface write in thefe words.. 
" Which Tranflatkm we do nor publifh upon Erroneous opinion of ne-- 
ceffity, that the holy Scriptures fhould always be in our Mother-- 
''tongue, or that they ought,- orwere ordained of God to be read in- 
' differently of all.-:— —Or that we generally and- -abfolutely deemed if 
'more convenient in it felf, and more agreeable to Gods Word and 
"Honour, oiediricuion of the Faith to have them turned into vulgar. 

" Tongues 





iSo Voptry a Novelty* Serm. VII. 

" Tonguts, than to be kept and ftudicd only in the Ecclefiaftical learned 
tc Languages. — —-The wife will not regard what fome wilful People do 
"mutter, That the Scriptures are made for all men \ and that it is of 
" envy that the Priefts do keep the holy Book from them : Which fug- 
geftion cometh of the fame Serpent that feduced our firft Parents, who 
perfwaded them that God had forbidden them that tree of Knowledg, 
left they (hould be as cunning as himfelf, and like unto the Higheit; 
" No, no, the Church doth it to keep them from blind ignorant pre- 
cc fumption, and from that which the Apoftle calls, Knowledg, falfly (b 
cc called, and not to bar them from the true Knowledg of Chrift.— — — 
* c She knoweth how to do it without cafting the holy "to Dogs, or 
" pearls to Hogs. 

Bravely faid ! O the excellent art of the Mother- Church, that by 
keeping of her Sons and Daughters ignorant of the Word or God (the 
means of Knowledg) keeps them from blindnefsand ignorance ! Who 
ever thought that to keep People in ignorance had been the way to 
keep them from it > What pretty conceit is this that they bar the People 
from knowing the Scripture, and yet do not bar them from the Know- 
ledg of Chrift > When Chrift bids us Search the Scriptures, for they are 
they that teftifie of him, 

III. Of Religious Worjbip in a fytown 'tongue, 

I. The Dodtrine of the Scripture concerning this Point. 
I Cor. 1 4. 2 . He that fpeafytb in an unknown tongue Jpeafytb not to 
men^ but to God, for no man underftandetb him > howbeit in the fpirit be 

fpeakgth myfjieries. Read ver. 3,4,5,6,7,8, 9. So likfwife ye except y e 

utter by t)ye tongue words eafie to be underftood, bow Jh all it be kgown what is 
fpoken ? for ye (ball fpea\unto the air. v. 1 1 . If I know not the meaning of 
the voice, I (ball be to him that fpeakgth a Barbarian, and he that fpeakgth 
(ball be a Barbarian unto me. 14. For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my 
fpirit prayeth, but my undemanding is unfruitful. 16. Elfe when thou 
{halt blefs with the fpirit, how JhaU he that occupieth the room of the unlearned, 
fay Amen, at thy giving of thanks, feeing he underftandetb not what thou fay- 
eft, 18. 1 tban\my God 1 fpeakwith tongues more than you all, 19. Tet 
tn the Church I had rather fpeaf^five words with my underftanding, that by 
my voice I might teach others aljo, than ten thoufand words in an unknown 
tongue. Read alfovm 22,25,24, 25,26,27,28. 

II. The Do&rine of the Reformed Churches concerning Religious 

I Wor(hip in a known Tongue. 

{VJAng.Artic. (n) "It is a thing plainly repugnant to the Word of God, and the 

24. " cuftom of the Primitive Church,to have publick Prayer in the Church, 

" or to minifter Sacraments in a Tongue not underftood by, the 


(0) Becaufe 

Serm.VIL Topery a Novelty. 181 

Co) " Becaufe the Original Tongues are not known to all the Peo- (o) Affemb. 
ct pie, who have right unto, and intereft in the Scriptures, and are com- c °nfcf. 
" manded in the fear of God to read and fcarch them, therefore they are 
cc to be Tranflated into the vulgar Language of every Nation unto 
" which they comt, that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, 
" they might Worfhip him in an acceptable manner.-- 

(p) <l Let all things in the Church be done decently and in order, fl- (p)Omnia do 

"nally let all things be done to edifications therefore let all ftrange center & or- 

* Tongues keep tilence in the holv AlTemblies •, let all things be utter- g^fa \". 

" ed in the vulgar Tongue, which is underftood of all men in the com- n j a demq^ fi- 

" pany. ant ad a?diii- 

cationem, ta- 
ceant ergo omnes peregrine linguae in caetibus facris : omnia proponantur lingua vulgari, qua co 
in loco ab hominibusin caetu intelligatur. Confef.Hdvet. can. 22. 

(q) "Contrary to the exprefs command of the Holy Ghoft, in the (<l) Contra 
" Church all things are faid and fung in a language which the People do ^s^nft^ 1 * 
" not underftand. prxcepTumaa 

ea omnia di- 
cuntur & canuntur lingua, quam populus non intelligit. Confef. Argentinmf. cap. 21. 

(r) cc What hath been already faid concerning the ufe of a Language (r) Quod jam 
" known to the common People, is to be underftood not only in finging dictum eft de 
" of Pfalms , but alfo of all the parts of the Ecclefiaftica! Miniftry ; ^ J; 1 ^ 
" for as Sermons and Prayers ought to be in a Tongue known unto the i nt elligendum 
u Church, fo alfo mould the Sacraments be difpenfed in a known Lan- eft non tan- 
lt guage - 5 for though it be lawful for the fake of the Learned fometimes turn de canm 
u to ufe a ftrange Tongue, yet the confent of the Univerfal Church re~ Pf^lmorum, 
4C quires [proves this] that the neceflary feivkes of the Church fhould omnibus par- 
" be done in the Mother-tongue. tibus Ecclefi- 

aftici Minifte- 
rii. Sicut enim coneiones & precationes lingua Ecclefia? nota habendar funt, ita & Sacramenta. 
noto Sermone difpenfaoda funt. Etfi enim licebit aliquoties peregrina lingua propter hud'ofos uti, 
tamen confenfus Catholicae Ecclefiae hoc exigit, ut necefiaria Minifteria Eccielias ftant Sermone 
vernaculo. Coif if. nitttmb. de horis Canon. 

(f) "Our [Minifters] ufe all diligent endeavours that they may ^Noftri om- 

tcach in the Church and preach the Word of the Gofpel , without nem operam 

" mixture of Humane Traditions h do read the very Gofpds and other nav * nt ' " c 

' Scriptures in the Churches in the vulgar Tongue, and after do inter- gelii" \#mer^ 

" pret them" to, the People. miv.um Hu- 

' ■ " x t manis Tradi- 

tionibus, in Eccleiia clocenat ac pra?dicent,proinde ipfa Evangelia,nec non alias Scripturas, Lingua 
▼ulgari in Templis legunt ', ac ita demum populo interpretantur. Covfef.bobimic. Artie. io.^ 

III. The Dodtrine of the Papifts concerning publick Religious Wor- 
(hip in a known Tongue. 

B b " Although 


1 82 T&pery a 'Novelty. Serm. Vlfc 

(e; Etfi MiiTa a) tc Although the Mafs containeth much infhudtion of the People, 

dnfatTopulT " yet the Falhers thought it not .expedient that it (hould be every- 

fidehs erudi- " where celebrated in the vulgar Tongue. 

tionem : non 

tamen expedire vifum eft Patribus, ut vulgari paflim lingua celebraretur. ConciU Trident. Sef. 22. 

(«) Expert ( u ) « Experience teaching us wc have learned, what hath been the 

ft n "d'diamus " ^ tult °^ t ^* s ' tnat ^* vmc Service in many places Tranflated into the 

quid frudus. "Mother-tongues is faid, 1 1. is fo far that Piety (hould be encreafed,that 

ea res attule- ;c it is much diminifhed thereby. 

rit, quod in 

plerifque locis officia Divina, in linguam vernaculam ad verbum tranflata decantcntur. Tantum 

abeft, ut acceflerit ad Pietatem aliquid plus, ut etiam diminutum eiTe videatur. HQfua de Sacra 

virnacule Ugtndo* 





The Rhemffls Divines on 1 Cor. 14. thus : c; We do not doubt but 
it is acceptable to God, and available in all neceffities, and more a- 
greeable to the ufe of all Chriitian People ever flnce their Converlloa 
to pray in Latin than in the Vulgar, though every one in particular 
" underllandeth not what he faith : So it is plain that fuch pray with as 
great confolation of fpirit, with as little tedioafhefs, with as great 
devotion and arTedtion, and fometimes more than the other, (fuch of 
their own Church that learn their Pater-Nofter in their vulgar Tongue) 
" and always more than any Schifmatick or Heretick [Protefiants] in 

"his own Language. — There is a Reverence and Majefty in the 

" Churches Tongue dedicated in our Saviours Crofs, and giveth more 
"force and valour to them [Prayers] faid in the Churches obedience, 
than to others. — —The fpecial ufe of them [Prayers J is to offer our 
*' hearts, defires and wants to God, and to fhew that we hang on him 
" in all things, and this every Catholick doth for his condition, whether 
he understand the words of his Prayer or not. — —It is enough that 
they can tell, this holy Orifon to be appointed to us,to call upon God 
in all our defires, more than this is not neceiTary 5 and the Tranflati- 
on of fuch holy things often breedeth manifold danger and irreve- 
rence in the Vulgar (as to think God is the Author of Sin, when they 
" read Lead us not into temptation} and- feldom any edification at all.. To 
^ conclude, forpraying either publickly or privately in Latin, which is 
"the common Sacred Tor>gue of the greateft part of the Chriitian 
c< World, this is thought by the wifeft and godlielt to be moft expedi- 
ent, and is certainly feen to be nothing repugnant to St. Paul, 

Reader, View over again 1 Cor. 14. and wonder at this Popifh in— 
folcnce, to fay, This is nothing repugnant to St. Pd<4*- 

IV. Of the Authority of the fcripture. 

I. Th- Doctrine of the Apofiles concerning the Authority of the 




Serm. VII. t of try a Novelty. 183 

Scripture, that it doth not depend upon the Tcftimony of Men. 

2 Pet. 1. 10. IV e have alfo a more fure word of Propbefie, whereunio 

ye do well that ye tak^e heed, as unto a light thatfhinetb in a dar\ place* — - 

2 1 . Holy men of God fpaf^e as they were 'moved by the holy Gbofi. 2 Tim. 3. 

1*5. All Scripture U given by infpiration from God. 1 Joh. 5. p. If we 

receive the witnefs of men, the witnefs of God is greater, 1 The(. 2.13. Te 

received the word of God which ye heard of us, not as the word of men, 

hut as (it is in truth) the word of God t 

II. The Doctrine of the Proteftants, or Reformed Churches concer- 
ning the Authority of the Scripture. 

(»O cc The Authority of holy Scripture, for which it ought to be (y) Affcmb. 
" believed and obeyed, dependeth not upon the Teftimony ot any Man ConfeiT. 
" or Church, but wholly upon God (who is truth it felf) the Author 
cc thereof '•> and therefore it is to be received becaufe it is the Word of 

(x) " We believe without wavering all things which are contained (Y) omnia 
cc in the Scriptures, not fo much becaufe the Church alloweth and re- qu* Canoni- 
t; ceivcth them for Canonical, as for that the Holy Ghoil beareth wit- *j* **£|f ™*[ 
" nefs to our Confciences that they come from God, and have proof omn ] "aibica- 
a thereof in themfclves. tione credi- 

mus •, idque 
non tam, quod Ecclefia eos pro hujufmodi recipiat & approbet, quam imprimis quod Spiritus 
fanftus in cordibus noftris teftetur a Deo perfecios e{Te,comprobationemq, ejus in feipfis habeant. 
Ce>jcjJ. Btlg. Artie* 5. 

(y) * We believe and confefs that the Canonical Scriptures of the (j) Crcdimus 

" Prophets and Apoftles, of Old and New Teftament , be the true & confitcniur 

u Word of God, and have Sufficient Authority ftom themfelves, and Scr] P turas Ca- 

"-not from men i for God himfelf fpake unto the Fathers, Prophets mrn Prophc- 

cc and Apoitles, and doth yet fpeak unto us by the holy Scriptures. tarum & A- 

utriufq; Teftamenti ipfum ?erum effe Verbum Dei : & authoritatem furficienrem ex femetipfs, 
non ex hominibus habere. Nam Deus ipfe loquutus eft Patribus, Prophetis & Apoftolis, & loqui- 
tur adhuc nobis per Scripturas fan&as. Conftf. Helvet. cap.i. 

(z Weacknowledg thefe Books to be Canonical, that is, we re- CO Hoslibros 
: ceive them as the Rule of our Faith, and that not only frcm the com- a £; ^cimus 

cc mon cwfent of the Chuich, but much rather from the TeiVimony and l!f :S an T" 

cc • -j ' r* r r 1 i_ 1 o • • cos, ]d elt,ut 

inward periwalion ot the holy Spirit. fldcinoitrse 

„ , , , ., . normam & 

Regulam habemus *, idq; non tantum ex communi Eccleila? confenfu, fed etiam muito magis ex 
Teftimonio, & intrinfeca Spiritus fancti perfuafione. Cotfzjj'. Gallic. Art. 4. 

" As w; do believe and confefs that the Word of God doth (uf- 
" ficienrjy inftrudJ, and make the man of God peifecl. So we do affirm 
"and freely profeft, that its Authority is from God, and doth not de- 

B b 2 pend 

184 Poperj a Novelty. Serm.VH. 

fa) Sicut ere- " P en ^ u P on Men 0r Angels. We therefore afFerr, that they which fay, 
diiriws & con- tt The Scripture hath no other Authority, but what it receiveth from 
fitemur Scrip- cc the Church > are Blafphemers againlt God, and wrong the true 
turas Dei fuf- « church, which always heareth and obeyeth the voice of her Bride- 
ftruo^&ho- "g r00m ancJ Paftor, but never challengeth to her felfa power to be 
minem'Dei " tne Miftrefs over it. (a) 

reddere ita ; ejus authoriutem a Deo efle, & nee ab homine vel Angelo pendere affirmamus & 
profkemur. Aflerimns itaq; quod qui dicunt Scripturam non aliam habere authoritatem, fed cam 
quam ab Ecclefia accepit, funt in Deum blafphemi, & vera? Ecclefi* injuriam faciunt, qu« Temper 
audit, & voci fponf* & Paftoris fui obfequitur, nunquam autem magiftram agere fibi arrogat. 
Confeff. Scotican. Art.i$. 

(h) Quod a (fr) « Forafmuch as the holy Scriptures were given and infpired by 
SaCTaScripT " God himrdf > [ for this caufe Specially] that they might be underftood 

turs tradita: "°f a ^ tne Y are reac * m our Churches in the vulgar Tongue. 

& infpirsta?, 

Hancq-, ob caufam pqtiflimum, ut ab omnibus inteHigantur, eas Ecclefiis noftns, lingua vulgar!, 

«. [noitri omnesj Legunt & recitant.... -Confejf. Bohemlc, Art.i. 

III. The Do&rine of the Papifts concerning the Authority of the 

(c) Creditum (c) Cardinal Bofius Frefident in the Council of Irent^ faith, "To 
eftEcclefia? " a sk, Whether more credit fhould be given to the Scripture or the 

'Scrip^urarum- " Cnurc h * ls t0 as ^ Whether more credit (hould be given to the Holy 
pratfdio. . — cc Ghoft, fpeaking by the mouth of the Church, or to the Holy Ghoft 
Teftimonio " fpeaking in the Scripture by the Writings of the Prophets and Apo- 
Ecclefiaj fi cc ftles The C k urc h [ s t0 t> e believed without the Authority of the 

ct°u n r autorT " Scriptures. If Authority be not granted to the Teftimony of the 

tas, nulla erit " Church, the Writings of the Evangelifts would be of no Authority, 

eorum, quae 

Scripta funt ab Evangeliftis autoritas. Hofius Confejf. Fid, Cath. cap. 15. 

Hermanns fpeaks moft contemptuouily of the holy Scriptures infpired 
by the glorious God > faying, " When the Authority of the Church 
C1 leaveth the Scriptures, they then are of no more account then JEfops 

(d) Figh.de (d) Pighius treads in the Heps of the reft, concluding, "That all the 
away. ub.i. "Authority which the Scripture hath with us, dependeth ofneceffity 
£ f p : 2 MIh r " on the Church. 

il] ilr Am W And fo doth Canus alTerting, "That we are not bound to take 
lib.z.cap.2. " the Scriptures for Scripture without the Authority of the Church. 
cc And fo do many more, whofe fayings we have not room to infert. 

V. Of 

Sera. VII. Tepery a Novelty. 185 

V. Of the Judg of Controverfes and expounding Scriptures. 

I. The Doctrine of Chrift and his Apoftles concerning the Judg of 
Controveriks and expounding Scriptures. 

Mat. 22 . 29. J ejus anfwered andfaid unto them ("in the Controvcrfie 
about the RefurrectionJ ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the 
power of God. 31. But its touching the Refurreciion of the Dead, have 
ye not READ that which was fpokfn unto you by God, faying, 32. 1 am 
the God of Abraham, &e. Act. 18.28. For he mightily convinced the Jews t 
and that publicity, Jhewing by the Scriptures that Jeftts was the Chrift. Act. 
17.2. And Paul as his manner was, went in unto them, and three Sabbath- 
days rea fined with them out of the Scriptures. 3. Opening and alledging 
that the Chrift muft needs have fujfered^ andrifin again from the dead, and 
that this Jefus whom I preach unto you is the Chrift. See A&s 26.22.& 

13. 33- 

The Apoftle teacheth that the Scripture muft not be expounded ac- 
cording to any private" interpretation, 1 Pet.1.20. and fuch is any Ex- 
poiltion that is not according to the Analogy of Faith, which muft be 
carefully heeded in Scripture-interpretation, according to the Apoftles 
Doctrine. Rom. 12. 6. 

II. The Doctrine of the Proteftants and Reformed Churches con- 
cerning the Judg of Controverfies and expounding Scripture. 

(f) " The Supream Judg by which all Controverfies of Religion (f) Ajfanb; 
cc are to be determined,and all Decrees of Councils, opinions of ancient Contei1, 

a Writers, Doctrines of Men and private Spirits are to be examined, 
1C and in whofe fentence we are to reft, can be no other but the holy 
" fpirit (peaking in the Scripture. 

(g) " We hold no other Judg in matters of Faith than God himfelf, ~ - ^ 
u declaring by the holy Scriptures what is true, and what is falfe, what Velvet, cap. 2. 
" ought to be embraced, and what to be avoided. ty) Atfemb. 

(h) " The Infallible Rule of Interpretation of Scripture is the Scrip- ConfeiT. 
cc ture it felf, and therefore when there is a Queftion about the true and (0 ConfefC 
"full fenfe of any Scripture, it muft befearched and known by other jg^d^notis^ 
" places of Scripture that fpeak more clearly. Ecclcfe 

(i) " We acknowledg that Interpretation of Scripture only to be (O ConfefT. 
" orthodox and genuine, which is fetcht from the Scriptures them- Helvet. cap.2. 
" felves. So other Churches in their Confeifions. (h,) t^ber^de 

facra Scripm- 
III. The Doctrine of the Papifts concerning the Judg of Controver- tura, & de. 
fies and expounding Scripture. Ecclefia. 

(0 The Council of Trent decreed, " That none fhould interpret the ^^l£* 

ras contra eum fenfum, quern tenuit, & tenet fanfta mater Ecclefia, cujus eft judicare de rerc 
fenfa & interpretatione Scripturarum faaftarmn ■ interpretari audeat. ConciLTrid. Sefa, 


1 81 T apery a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

"holy Scripture contrary to the meaning which the holy Mother- 
" Church, (to whom it doth belong to judg of the true fence and inter- 

cc pretation of Scripture ) hath held and doth hold. 

Qm) Corpus (m) " For as much as the holy Church of Rome is fet up to the 

jur. Can. Dift. " whole world for a glafs or example, whatfoever (he determineth, or 
if. c. enim- "ordaineth, ought by all perpetually and invincibly to be obferved. 
vero ' So their Canon Law. 

Others of them to the fame purpofe : " All power to interpret Scri- 
pture, and reveal the hidden Myfteries of our Religion, is given 
from Heaven to the Popes and their Councils. We are bound to ftand 
to the judgment of the Pope, rather than to the judgment of all the 



cc World befides. 

" We do conitantly avouch all the Popes that are rightly elected to 


be Chrifts Vicars, — *and to have the higheft power in the Catholick 
Church, and that we are bound to obey him in all things pertaining 

to Faith and Religion : All Catholick men muft neceffarily fubmit 

their judgment and opinions, either in expounding the Scripture, or 
H other wife to the cenfure of the Apoftolick Seat •, and God hath bound 
"his Church to hear the chief Pallor in all Points, £Thus Andradm^ 
Alvarus FeUgius, Simancba. Whites way to the Church, ^.37.] 

Bellarmine flicks fo clofe to the judgment of the Pope, that he had 

as good fay, That if the Pope fay that black is white, or white black, 

that darknefs is light, or that light is darknefs, we muft believe it, be- 

caufehis Infallible Holinefs faith it, as fay what he doth in thefe words. 

(n) To prove ( n ) cc If the Pope did err commanding Vices and forbidding Virtues, 

the pope can- cc ^ (^[ lurc j 1 fa ou \& be bound to believe, that Vices are good, and 

noe err, he u- cc Tr . ., . r n 1 j r • a r -~ 

fechthis/te- Virtues evl S unlets (he would iin againlt conicience. 

ment. Si au- Is not this a notable faying, fpoken like a Cardinal ? 

tern Papa er- 

raret prxcipiendo vitio, prohibendo virtutes, tetieretur Ecelefia credere vitia eFe bona, & vir- 

tutes malas, nifi vellet contra confeientiam peccare -ac ne forte contra conTcientiam agat, te- 

netur credere bonum elTe quod ille praxipit, malum quod ille prohibet. Bell, de Vont. lib.^. ap.$. 

% . , " r *j^ theKuleor ratth, as the raith ot the Church is the Kuie or bcripti 
(pi Gregor.de - -.-. . - rrr , . , . r • r 1 r» • 1 

va^ent.Analyf. (p ' Ana Gregory ot Valence puts in his laying tor the ropes judgment. 

fidei,lib,8 c.i. " In the Roman Bilhop refideth that full Authority of the Church, when 

(a) Corpus u he pleafeth to determine matters of Faith 3 whether he doth it with a 

ftinl C]a o Dl " r Coundl > or without. 

Si Pao^° Yea, the Canon-Law fets him lip for fuch an uncontroulable Judg, 

" That if the Pope by his negligence or remifsnefsin his work, (q) be 

c found unprofitable to himfdfor others; or if he fhould draw with him 

tc innumerable Souls by heaps or troops to hell, yet might no mortal 

; man be fo bold or prefumptuous to reprove him, becaufe he is the 

cc judg of all, (,0 be judged by none. 

VI. Of 


Serm.VII. Popery a Novelty. 187 

Yl. Of the Head of the Vniverftl Church 

I. The Doctrine of Chrift and his Apoftles concerning (he Head of 
the Univerfal Church. 

Mat.23.8. But be not ye called Rabbi, for one is your Mafter even Chrifh^ 
and a } J ye are brethren. Ephef. 1.22. And hath put all things nndtr his 
feet, and gave him to be the Hi ad over all things tj the Church. 23. Which 
is his body, thefulmfs of him thatfilieth all in all. Ephef. 5.23. Cbrijt is 
the head of the Church, and he is the Savimr of the body. Col. f. I 8» 
Andhe f Chrift - is the head tf the body, the Church, 1 Cor. 12.28. And 
God hath fet fome in the Church, firji Apoftles, ficondarily Prophets, thirdly 
Teachers, &c. Epheii 4* II. And he gave fome Apojiks^and fome Paftors 
and leachcrs* 

. Reader, obferve in thefe places where the Apoftie gives an Enumera- 
tion of Church-Officers, here is no mention of a Vicar of Chrift, or of 
any mortal mm being the Head under Chrift, of all the Churches of 
Chrift in the World, and is it likely that he would have omitted the 
chtefeft and moft principal Officer, that is elTential to the Church, if 
there had been any fuch } I can rind feveral Officers mentioned, but no 
Univerfal (though fecondaryj Head, if I have over- looked him, and 
thou rindeftany fuch, dome the kindnefs to come, or fend, and tell me 
that thou haft found him in the Apoftles Catalogue » which I could not 
fee mentioned neither exprejly, nor redullively.s not exprefly, that is*- 
plains not redudHvely, for to which of thefe (hould he be reduced ? to 
the Prophets? let me hear his Prophelies, and when any of them have 
been fulfilled : Befides, I know not that he pretends thereto. To be an 
Apoftie } Apoftles went up and down to preach the Gofpel, and were, 
not fixed to any particular State, which is-not the cafe of the Bifhop 
of Rome. To the number of Teachers, and Paftors > this is below the. 
Pope to be ranked amongft fuch, for he is the Paftor of Paftors. Befides 
in the Catalogue there are many Paftors, but I fee not one to be the 
chief and head of all the reft, and of the whole Univerfal Church. So. 
that in the Catalogue of the Apoftie there is no fuch thing, but is a.. 
non-ens, a meer Chimera, a fiction. 

IT. The Doctrine of the Protefhnts, or Reformed Churches con- 
cerning the Head of the Univerfal Church. 

h There is no other Head of the Church, but the Lord Jefus Chrift, 
'' nor can the Pope of Rome in any fenfe be Head thereof y all true Pa- 
yors in what place foever they be placed, have the fame and equal' 
Authority among themfelves, given unto them under Jefus Chrift,the. 
only Head,, and the chief, and alone Univerfal Bilhop : And there- - 
c fore it is not lawful for any Church to challenge unto it felf, Domi— 

i; nicn . 


1 88 Tdpery a Novelty. Serm. VII; 

" nion or Soveraignty over any other Church.- — -The Bifhop of Rome 
"hath no more Jurifdiction over the Church of God, than the reft of 
' K the Patriarchs, either of Alexandria or Antiocb have. 
(0 Confeff. T° this Dodrrine (r) fubfcribe the Churches of Helvetia, Scotland^ 
Helvet.cap.17. 2kfe'*5 Wittemberr, Bohemia^ &c. 
Confeff. Scoti- 

cana Art. 16. de Ecclella. ConfefT. Belgic. Art. 29. Confeff. Wittemb. de fummo Pontifice. ConfefC 
Bohemic. Art. 8. 

III. The Doctrine of the Papifts concerning the Head of the 
O) Corpus, ( s ) " The Canon Law makes the Church of Rome higher than all o- 

icret v*nl C ' 2 thers b y the Head *' a ^ming the Church of Rome to be the Head and 
Qs7. cap. ' " Prince of all Nations •, the mother of Faith *, that it had this Headmip 
Eeati.diftinct. <c not from the Apoftles but from the Lord himfelf, and hath the emi- 
22.C. Romana " nency of power over the ilniverfal Church, and the whole flock of 

r^m fl p?hnt " Chriftian P eo P Ie > thc Hin S e and Head of a11 Churches, as the door 
turn habet. & "' dotn turn upon, the Hinge?, fo all Churches by Gods appointment 
glof. diftinct. (but where I wonder) "are governed by the Authority of this holy 
22. c. Non. & <; Seat '<, the firft of all other Seats, without fpot or blemifh,or any fuch 

6nafDiftin c C c thing * ^ Thats a Ioud one -l The Miftrefsof all other Churches, a 
2i.c.quamus! " B^k and fpe&acle unto all men, to be followed in all things (he ap- 
i)id. c.Deniqi <c pointeth. '" Againft which Church of Rome whofoever fpeaketh any 
diftinct. 1 p. c. ,c evil, or endeavours to take away her Privilcdg is forthwith an Here- 

enimvero. « t j c k . an d w hofo (hall refufe obedience to the Apoftolick Seat, is an 

Diltin. 22. c. cc 11 •_„ ■ „ y . fir, 

omncs.Diicin. Idolater > a Witch, and Pagan. 

81. p. Greg.7. Reader, thefe are high and fwelling words, but the beft on it, js, it 

c. fi qui. is falfe Dodrrine. 

(O.Catechif. (t) The Roman Cat ecbifm propounds the Queftion, IVhatrve are to 

EKpo^Svmb f bink,°f the BiJhop of Rome ? and anfwereth, the account and unanimom 

Apoft. opinion of all the Fathers, (Oh horrible falfhood ! ) concerning him n?af 9 

that this vifible Head was necejfary to the conftituting and freferving of the 

Vnity of the Church. 

Reader, thou mould know that this is a great caufe of divifion, not 

of union > for many Churches have feparated from them, and continue 

without communion with them for this, as well as for other Rea- 


^ BeUarmine lays down this AfTertion j (u) The ?ope is immediately ap- 

d e Condi?' P oint ^ b Cbrift, (but I wonder where) the Paftor and Head, not only of 
autorit. lib. 2: a ^ funicular Churches, but alfo of the whole Vniverfal Church tafyn toge- 
taf.i$i ther. But this is their fo well known DoCfoine by all, that I need quote 

no more that do atfert it. 

VII. Of Infallibility. 

1. The Do&rine of the Apoftles concerning the Fallibility of Chur- 
ches and Paftors. 1 Cor. 

Scrm.Vir. Popery a Novelty. \ By 

I Cor. 13. 12. For nm> we fee through a gbfi darkjy. Now Ihjiow 

hut in part. Gal. 2. 11. But when I came to Antioch I withjlwd him 
(Peter the Popes pretended PrcdecefTbr) becaufe he was to be blamed, 
' v and yet his Succcffor mult not be blamed) though through his negli- 
gence he (hould draw many to Hell, as before is (hewn.) Vcr. 12. For 
before that certain came from James, he f Peter J did eat with the Gentiles \ 
but when they were comejhe with-drew, andfeparjtfd bimfelf fearing them 
which were of the Circumcifidn. 1 4. But when I faw that they walked not 
tfprhhtfy according to the truth of the Gnfpel, I fid unto Peter before them 
all &c. Reader, from hence thou ifealft learn that the Succeflbr fo called, 
claimeth a greater Priviledg than his fuppofed predeceiTor had, for 
Vettr did err,but the Pope ("torfoothj cannot i yet Papifts call this Text 
a roue;h'Scripture, for it fo puzleth them that they know not how to 
anfwer it, Rom.i 1.18, ip, 20, 2 1. turn to it, ver, 22. Behold therefore 
the (Toidneft andfeverity of God \ on them fthe Church of the Jews) which 
/ tfeveritf ; but towards thee (the Gentile 2nd Church of Rome amonglt 
them 5 goodnejsjftbou continue in his goodnefs. (as (he- \\ii\\r\ot)\otherwije 
thou jh alt be cut off. ( Where then is her Infallibility) > Revel'* 18.2. Ba- 
bylon the (rreat is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of Devils, 
(and yet cannot err, no more may Devils), and the hold of every foul fpi- 
rit, fand yet boafts fhe is without fpot) and a cage of every unclean and 
hurtful birds (and yet is the holy Mother-Church, all this is hard to 
be reconciled.) Read alfo the fecond and third Chapters of the Revela- 
tion, w hat is faid of the Seven Churches *, and then look for good proof 
that Infallibility is fetled by Chrift upon the Church of Rome, above all 
other Churches,before thou believeft any fuch Priviledg to be granted 

t0 IU O) Church 

of Engl. Arr. 

II. The Doctrine of the Protectants and Reformed Churches con- 19. 
cerning the Fallibility of Churches. W *f&3\ 

(w) * As the Church of Jerufalem, Alexandria, and Antioch have v«. 3" Erefe- 
" erred ', fo alfo the Church of Rome hath erred s not only in their living fa.Confef. Sa- 

" and manner of Ceremonies,butalfo in matters of Faith. (x) When xon.de Ecclef. 

IC General Councils are gathered together ( forafmuch as they be an Af- Confef. wit- 
fcC fcmbly of men,whereof all be not governed with the Spirit and Word £ mb ^' de 

c of God) they may err, and fometime have erred> even in things per- ^ catechif. 

c tainingunto God. Hereunto agree many other Churches in their Trident, in 

Confeifions. (y) Expof. Symb. 

Apoft. de Ec- 

III. The Dodhine of the Papifts concerning Infallibility of the Teft.f&em'ift. 
Church. Annot. on 

r z) " They teach that the vifible Church whofe Re&or is the Pope 1 Tim.i.i$.& 
c of Rome, never hath erred, never can err. f^v \V j 24 * 

(a) Bellarmine affirmeth, " 1. That the Pope when he teacheth the Jkm,.Ponti£ 
whole Church can in no cafe err in things appertaining to Faith, iib.4. cap.a " 

Cc a Z>Not 

190 Popery a Novelty. Serm.VIL 

CO Ibid.lib.4. c (h) 2. Not only the Pope of Rome, but the particular Church of 

^'J'i v\ R ( »ne cannot err in Faith. " (c) 2. The Pope of Rom: cannot err, 

^L § not only in Decrees of Faith, but alio not in Precepts of Manners, 

C/yibid.Iib.4. -' which are prefcribtrd to the whole Church, and are neceiTaiy to Salva- 

dap.<5. ' tion, or in thofe things which in themfelves are good or evil. 

u (d) 4. It is probably and pioully to be believed, that the Pope, not 

only as Pope, cannot err, but as a particular per Ton cannot be an He- 

* retiek. (This is a foul miitake, for feveral Pope? have been Heretkks 

; in the judgments of fome of their Popes, Co that fome of them mull 

(c) Idem, de " needs err, either Tome of them in being Hereticks, or others of them 

Ecclcf.milit. a i n faying they were, if they were not J " By pertinacioully believing 

hb.3. cap.14. « an y tfi j fl g t j iaf | s f a if ejCOntrar y t0 tne faith. 5. Saith he, (e) "Our 

c opinion is, That the Church cannot abfolutely err, neither in things 
"abfolutely necefTary, nor in other things, which (he propoundeth to 
" be believed or done by us, whether they be expreily contained in the 

(f) Idem, de " Scriptures, or not. 6. (f) In thefe two things, all the Catholicks 

lib.4. cap.2. " ^° a g ree 5 fa That the Pope with his General Council cannot err in 
cc making Decrees of Faith, or general Precepts of Manners. 2. That 
'■} the Pope alone, or with his particular Council determining any thing 
c in a doubtful matter, whether he may err or not, ought to be obeyed. 
" by all the faithful. [A goodly Agreement \~\ 
(Y) Catholici (g) Becanitf gives the opinion of the Papi/ts, faying, 1.." That the 
tria docent, c Church is the Judg of Con trover lies.. 2. That the Rule by which 
&c. Becan. " tne church doth determine Controverfies, or give its definitive fen- 
farTs '* tence ' is not the Scripture only, but the Scripture and Tradixion to- 

"gether. 3. That the Church according to the Rule (of Scripture and 
Tradition) pronounceth fentence either by the Pope, the Paftor of the. 
Church, or by a Council approved by the Pope, and both ways in- 

(h) Pigh. lib. (b) Figbiw alfo puts in his Judgment," That the Pope cannot any way. 
4. Hier. Eccl. " bean Heretick, nor publickly teach Herefie, though he alone deter- 
cap. 8; " m i ae any matter. 

But Reader, not with Aanding all this confidence of Infallibility, whe- 
ther of Pop:, or Councils, or both, they are proved to have erred 
from the Hiftorical Narratives of their own Writers* B&ronim acknow- 
(ijSpond&n. ledgeth that Pope Uonorlm (i) was counted an Heretick, joyning .with- 
Epitom.Baro. tne UmoibcUtcs^ or thofe that denied two Wills in Chriit > and by their 
?|; Genebr. own G en *brard (kj ; and by the Rhemifts, though fome of them go one. 
Chron. lib. 3. way, mi fome another to falve the Infallibility, yet in vain, when he 
pag.484. was condemned by : (l) a General Council, and- anathematized, with fix 

COConcil; more holding the fame Herefie, and this when the Legats of Pope 
6°aaT:TTur. dgatho were pre fen t y whofe Epiftles to Sergius^ &c. were produced 
Tom.2.p.9p2. and read in the Council, and judged Heretical, deitru&ive to. Mens 
r . c . . Souls and condemned to be prefently burnt, and fo they were. 
GondLp.591' Their own Baronim alfo gives an account of the Barbarous actings 
6io 7 612, ' of 

Serm. VII. r&pery a Novelty. 191 

of Pope Stephen (ni) the Seventh, fcalled the Sixth) towards the dead (*») Ita furore 
body ot Formofus his PrcdecefTor, tor taking it out of the Sepulchre, ^ 1 CH ^°™ 
ict it clothed in its Tontificalibus in the Pontiricial feat, and after he had re ij ccreC) f cc [ 
derided it, took oft' its Veflments, and cut off three fingers, and call quod cxzftu- 
it info the River Tiber ; and all that Formofus had ordained, he degra- ans rabies 
ded and ordained them again. This Pope (faith the Author) gathering fuadcr St, u* 
a Synod approved his inhumane taCt, which was condemned again by E p tmm Baton. 
Pope John the Ninth, as he had made void the Decrees of Formofus. pat. 2.^.247. 
And thus they can Decree, and others refcind and decree the contrary, 
and ad: worfe than Heathens, and yet not err any of them, in Faith 
or Manners, which to any mans reafon feemeth very flrange. 

(n Beiides, MarceUinus was an Idolater; (0) Liberius an Arrian \ (^ jpf e Mar- 
Siricmfialixtus^Leo the p,and VafcbalU condemned Minifters Marriage. cdlinusadSa- 
Jobn the XXII held, That the Souls of the Wicked (hould not be pu- ^jjj" ^ 
nimed tiil the day of Judgment. John the XXIII. denied the Souls Ira- cr $f C a rc '"| 
mortality. John the Eleventh kept for his Paramour a famous Strum- q UC d & fecit, 
pet called Marozia. John the Thirteenth at Dice called to the Devil Cqran^. Concil. 
ror help, and drank an Health to him s lay with his own Mother,and pi*l*- 
his Fathers Concubine \ ordained Deacons in a Stable •, for Money (°) Libenum 
made Boys Bithops-, committed Inceft with two of his Sifters j at laft exfui^n hare- 
being found in the ad of Adultery, was ilain by the Womans Hus- t i cam ' pravi- 

band. tatem fub- 

fcripfifte, afe- 
rit Hieronimusiteftantur id ipfum alii quoque antiqui Scriptores \ ac deniq; Ipfe Liberius Scriptis 
Uteris ad, &c. Spondxn. Epitom. Baron, in Ann. 357. 

(p) Pope Sylvefter the fecond was a Conjurer =, He enquiring of the , . Sy r vc Q rm 
Devil how long he (hould live ? was anfwered, Till he jhould fay Mafs s/cundum^Ben^ 
in Jerufalem \ in the Lent after as he was faying Mafs in the Chappel of dictum 9. Gre- 
Saint-C™//, he fuddenly fell tick, and remembring that that Chappel gorium 6. Gn- 
was called Jerufalem, he perceived how he was cotuened by the Devil. gwiMi-Wu* 
Before he died, he bequeathed his Soul to the Devil, and commanded ^no cardikk- 
his Cardinals, That after his death theyjhmld cut his body in pieces and fo u s . Sjlvtjftr 2; 
bury him. (q) Pope Hildebrand was a Conjurer, and enquiring of the inter ipfamor- 
Hoft f which they fay is the Body of Chrift), for an anfwer againft the jj» Jgjf^JJ. 
Emperour, becaufe it would not fpeak, be threw it into the fire and burnt -^{f '£ ^ 
it. For many WickednelTes he was Depofed and Banifhed. Pope Lc<? gum fibi ab- 
the Tenth, pleafed with the great Summs of Money which he had got fcindifv quas 
by Indulgences, faid to Cardinal Bemba, See what abundance of wealth Sjtmftcattdt 
we have gotten by this Fable of Chrift. And when he lay upon his death- £S32Si^ 
bed, the fame Cardinal reheaifing a Text of Scripture to htm, he re- (q)HiUebr*m 
plied, Array with thefe Babies concerning Chrift. Pope Nicolas the firft d^ (qui Grc- 

goriits 7.) 
Confecratam Eitcharifliam in igntm projecit, Confuhns V/emonts contra Umicivn 4. Imp. Beno Cardi* 
nafis, qui & plura de hoc& aliis Romanis ?onltf. miranda narrat y qua mllm hifloriwxm tup PLiti*<* % 
ntc qnijq*m alius prodidit. Vidt. Iliyric; Catal. pag.219, 22o > 221, 223, &c: 

C c 2 for- 

1 92 Tcptry a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

forbade Marriage to the Clergy , faying, It was more honeft to have to d<s 

with many Women privately, than openly to take one Wife. John the XXIV. 

wasaccufed before the Council of Conjhnce for Herefie, Simony, Murder^ 

Poyfonings, Adulteries, and Sodomy <, which being made good againft 

(y) Laurent, him he was Depofed and Imprifoned/r) Pope Eugenius the Fourth was 

5uri. Concil. Depofed by the General Council at Bafil, for being a Simoniji, and guilty 

Tom. 4. pag. QJ'Yerjnry, being a Schifmaticl^, and an obfiinate Heretic}^ It would 

f/Wide.Luit- ma ^ e a * ar S e B°°k t0 8* ve an ac c° urit of the failings of Popes in mat- 
prand.lib.s.c. ters both of Life and Faith i but I have but little room allowed. Take 
13: & Earon. two general Exprdbons of their own Authors,and then judg. (s) What 
Annal. ad An. ffc €n n , as the face of the holy Roman Church ? How exceeding filthy, when 

dan — -Ex* 1 " ^ Je mo ft Patent, and yet the mofi fordid Whores did rule at Rome ? -and 

quibusvideas their Lovers thruft in Peter 5 / Chair ? ,(t) Another fixt enough to the 
fediiTimam Popiili Religion, acknowledged that in this one thing that age was un- 
hujus tempo- happy, that for near one hundred and fifty years about fifty Pcpes did wholly 
ris Lcclelia? - ^ atpa yf rom t y e virtue of their Ancefiers, being rather ApotaUical £irre- 

em ac } ail gular] and Apoflatical than Apoftolicah 

912. And as the Church (if thereby underflood the Pope) hath failed, fo 

(t) Genebrar. alfo if taken for General Councils hath alio failed, as is plain by this 
in Seculum Infallible Argument, in that feveral General Councils ratified by Popes 
decimum. In- nave decreed things contradictory, and that in matters of Faithv and 
hoc feculum fome of them muft neceflarily err, except contradictions can be rccon- 
exhauftum ciled, and both parts be true, which is impoilible. For example, the 
hominibus in- General Council of Conftance and of Bajil have fully afTertcd that a Qe- 
genio & Do- rcra ] Council is above the Pope, and is to be judged by them, and by 
five^edam 5 ( bcm may be depofed i in thefe words, Nat one of the skilful did ever 
claris princi- doubt but that the Tope was fub)eft to the judgment of a General Council, in 
pibus & Pon- things that concern Faith \ and that he cannot without their confent dijfolve 
tiheibus, in or remove a General Council, yea and that this is an article of Faith, m which 
deniuri me- ^ without defiruclion <f Salvation cannot be denied, and that the Council is 
moria pofte- above the Tope, de ride, and that it cannot be removed without their own 
ritatis geilum confent, and that he is an Heretic]^ that vs again}} thefe things. Thus the 
f iC ; . Ho £ ^° Council of Bafil,o\vnQd by Pope Eugenius. And the Council otConjlance 
inuhcui- ^ confirmed by Pope Martin the Fifth, being perfonally prefent 
Ecctef a effet m ltt And 3 ec another General Council at the (w) Lateran under Julu 
— f ne ullo us the fecond, and Leo the tenth, exprefly decree on the contrary that 
bono fere Ton- 

tifice. — Hoc vero u 10 infelix, quod per annos fere 150, Pontifices circiter 50, a Johanne (cl- 

. licet S, qui Nicolao, & Adriano 2, fanctis fucceiTit, ad Leonem 9, ufq, a virtute majorum pror- 

iu'z defccerintjApotafiici, Apofraticive potius quam Apoftolici, e tanto Pontificum numero,quinq-, 

modo,& fatis tenuittrjaitdantur- &c. Gembrard, Chronol. lib 4. fag. $$2,553. (u) Primo definitur 

quod generalis Synodus in fpiritu fanclo legitime congregata, generale Concilium faciens, Eccle- 

f?am militantem repr&fenrans, poteftatem a Chrifio immediate habet, cui quilibet cujufcunqne 

flatus, etiamfi Papalis exifiat, obedire tenemr in his qua? pertinent ad f.dem & ad extirpatio- 

^nem fchifmatum, & ad gcheralem reformationem Ecclefias in capite & in membris. Secundo, 

V,tclarat qucd qulcuriq; cujufcunq; dignitatis,^ etiamfi Papalis exiilat, qui mandatis aut praxep- 

tis hujus tenet as Syncni, & cujufcunq-, alterius Concilii generalis .*— — Obedire contumaciter con- 

tempfcrit, nifi ref pucrit, condigna? pcenitentix fubjiciatur Sc'debite puniatur. Tertio, declarat 


Scrra. VII. Popery a Novelty. 193 

quod ipfum generate Concilium pro pmniffis, eaque concernentibus Congregatum fine ipfius 
confenfu, per nullum, qiiavis automate, etiamfi Papali dignitatc prafulgent, diftolvi, transferri, 

aut ad aliud tempus prorogari poteft. H*c tria funt veritatcs fidei Catholica?,— quibus 

pertinaciter rtpugnans eft cenfendus ha?reticus.~ (w) Cum etiam folum Romanum Pontifcem, 
xyro tempore cxiftentcm, tanquam authoritatem fuper omnia concilia habcntem, conciliorum in- 
dicendorum, transferendorum, ac diffolvendorum plenum jus & poteftatem habere, ex — Con- 
ciliorum confeifione manifefte conftet. Laurent. SmxIus, Concih Tom. 4. pag.62%. There was but one 
in all the Council, but gave his placet hereunto, that would not recede from the determination of 
the Council of Bafil : ibid. fag. 684. 

the Pope is above a General Council \ till thefe two can be true, both 
of them, the Pope is above a General Council, and the Pope is not a- 
bove a General Council, the Infallibility of their Church (arid that even 
in a fundamental Point thereofj is laid in the duft. Let them chufe 
which iide they will, one did err. 

VIII. Of the Catholic}^ Church. 

I. The Doclrine of the Apoftles concerning the Catholick or Univer- 
fal Church. 

1 Cor. 1.2. Vnto the Church of God which U at Corinth, with atl 

that in every place call upon the name of Jefus Chrijiour Lord, both theirs 
and ours. 1 Cor. 12. 13. For by one fpirit, we are all baptized into one 
body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or freehand have 
been all made drinl^ into one fpirit. Rev. 7. p. After this 1 beheld, and 
lo a great multitude which no man could number, of all Nations and kin- 
dreds, and people, and tongues, flood before the Throne, and before the 

Limb. -See alfo Epbef 1. 10, 22. Ail. 2.39. Ephef 2. Iy. &* 3. 15. - 

Ad. 2. 47. Mat. 28. if?. Mar. 16.1 y All.2.21. Rom. 1.16. Gal.^^i. 
AB. 13. 35?. Rom. 10. 4. Lttkt 13. 28. Act. 10. 35. 

Reader, obferve that thefe Scriptures fpeak of the Church, under 
Chrift the Head thereof, (making no mention of owning of, or being 
joyned to, any mortal man, as their viiible Headj in which Church, 
(not limited or confined to the Church of Rome) there is Salvation. 

II. The Doclrine of the Proteft ants concerning the Catholick or 11- 
niverfal Church. 

" The Catholick or Univerfal Church which is invifible, confifts of 
"the whole number of the Eledfr that have been, are, or (hall be ga- 
thered into one, under Chrift the Head thereof, and is the Spoufe, the 
" Body, the fulnefs of him that fllleth all in all. 

The villble Church which is alfo Catholick or Univerfal under the 
Gofpel , fnot confined to one Nation, as before under the Law) (*")Corjf.GaH; 
c conliits of all thofe throughout the World, that profefs the true Re- art. 27, 28: 
"Iigion, together with their Children, and is the Kingdom of the Conf. Helve*.' 



■ Igia, Wittmberg, &c. 

1^4 Popery a Novelty. Serm.VII. 

III. The DocVme of the Papiits concerning the Catholick or Uni- 
verfal Church. 
(y) Catechif. (y) The Trent Catechifm maketh that the only Church that is under 
Rom.inSymb. ^ p p Ci excluding all others that fubmic not to him as the Vicar of 
F^Conci?. 1, Chrifh the fame in a General Council made it necefTary to Salvation, 
Lateran.abro- (*0 to be fubjed: to the Pope of Rome •, by Lto the tenth : Pope fius 
gat.pray.Mat. the fecond approved this Doctrine \ [" I came (a) to the fountain of 
fan&. Bull' « Truth, which the holy Doctors, — —with one voice fay, That he can- 

tem^ertper-" not ^ ** ved that noldetn not tne Unitv °f the nol y Church of Rome s 
L li " and that all thofe virtues are maimed to him that refufeth to obey 


Quern fancti " the Pope of Rome, though he lie in fackcloth and afties, and fad and 

doftores, cc pray both day and night, and feem in other things to fulfil the Law 

voxXfabari " of God -"" ~ We learncd that the °^ Catholick and Apoftolical Church 
non poffcjqui " ^°^ R° me ) ls tne Mother of all the Faithful, out of which there is no 

fanft* Roma- "Salvation. 

nx Ecclefiae 

non tenet unitatem *, omnefq} illas virtutes mancas efleei, qui (iimmo Pontifici obedire recufae> 

quamvis in facco & cinere jacens, dies & noftes jejunet, & oret, & in ceteris videatur legem im- 

plere, didicimus unam Ecclefiam Catholicam & Apoftolicam ffubaud. Romanarn) cfle ma- 

trem omnium fidelium, extra quam non invenitur falus.~ — ~ Plus 2. Bui. Retra&ationum apud 
LwzM, Surlitm, ConclU Tom. 4. pag.$o6. 


But Reader, doit thou think that God will damn any holy, humble 
and believing perfons, becaufe they are not fubjecl to the Pope ? hath 
God any where made fuch fubjedrion to him a condition of Salvation ? 
let them (hew it if they can. Or are there no fuch perfons in the World 
that are holy and believing, that do not fubmit unto the Pope ? There 
are many thoufands that know themfelves better than his Infallible Ho- 
linefs can know them, that know that to be a falfhood. 

Neither doth Bttfjrmine vary from them in his definition of the 
(b) Bellar.de church ; (b) " That it is a company of men knit together in the pro- 

ub d cap.2 ' " fdfion gF the fame Chriftian Faith, and communion of the fame Sa- 
craments, under the Government of lawful Payors, efpecially of the 
x< Bimop of Row^Chrifts Vicar upon Earth. From whence it might be 
"eafily gathered (Taith hej who do belong to the Church, and who 
" do not. There are three parts fas he goeth on) of this definition of 
"the Church. 1. Profeflion of the true Faith. 2. Communion of 
" the Sacraments. 3. Subjection to the Pope of Rome the lawful Pa- 
" ftor. By the firft all Infidels, Turks, Pagans, Hereticks and Apoftates 
u are excluded from the Church. By the fecond, Catechumens and Ex- 
" communicated perfons be excluded. By the third, all Schifrna ticks 
" that have the Word and Sacraments, but do not fubmit to the law- 
"fulPaftor, fthePope); but all others though they be Reprobates, 
" wicked and ungodly are included in the Church. 

Mark this, good Reader, whether this founds like the ApoftJes Do- 
&rine before laid down> if men be never fo good, and holy, though 


Serm. VII. Popery a Novelty. 195 

converted, and believe, if they do not fubmit to the Pope as the Uni- 
vcrfal Head, they are no Members of Chrifts Church,nor can be favech 
and if they be wicked and ungodly, if they own the Pope they are in- 
cluded in the Church. Oh what an odious Religion is that, which damns 
all the Chriftians in the world befides themfelves ! O what wretched 
diflembling is this-, to call their Church the nioft holy Church without 
fpot or wrinkle or any fuch thing > when the word might be and are 
owned as Members thereof, if they profefs fubjection to the Pope ! but 
however by this the Head and Members are conformable, and let them 
go together. 

I X. Of Juftification: 
L The Doctrine of the Apoftles concerning Juftification* 
Rom. 4. 5. Now to him tbatvootketh not, but beiieveth on him, that ju- 
(lifietb the ungodly, bis faith i* counted for right e oufne fis . 6. Even as Da- 
vid difcribetb the bleffednep of the man unto whom God imputeth righteoup 
nefs without works, 7. Saying, Blejfed are they whofe iniquities are for- 
given, and whop fins are covered. 8„ Bit {fid is the man to whom the Lord* 
will net impute fin. 2 Cor. 5. ip. Not imputing their trefpaffes unto tbem. 
2 1. For he hath made him to be fin for us, who knew no fin, that we might 
be made the tigbteoufiufs of God in him. Rom. 3.22. Even the rigbte- 
oufnep of God, which if by faith of Jefits Chrift, unto all, and upon all that- 
do believe. 2 4. Being juftified freely by his grace, through the Redemption 
that is in Chriji fefur. See vet. 25, 28. and Tit. 3. 5,7. Rom. 5. 17, 18, 
jo. Gal. 2 . 1 6. Phil. 3. 0. Ail. 13.38,32. Ephp.2. 8, p. 

II. The Doctrine of theProteftants concerning Juftification. 
We are accounted righteous before God, only for the Merit of our 

Lord and Saviour Jefus Chrift by Faith, and not for our own works ftyconfeC 
'anddefervings. Helvet. 1.4.1$, 

" Thofe whom God effectually calleth, he alfo freely ju ft i fie rh i not J _?• ca P A 5> 
1 by infufing rightcoufnefs into them, but by pardoning their fins, and 6 7 lemic,ca Pv 
L by accounting and accepting their per fens as righteous j not for any Gatart. 12.22; 
c thing wrought in them, or done by. them, but for Chrifts fake alone. Auguft. art. 4.* 
w Imputing the Obedience and Satisfaction of Chrift unto them, they *- * 6 r 
" receiving and reiting on Him, and his Rightcoufnefs by Faith, which ^ g; art * 22/ > 3 
•'Faith they have, not of themfelves, it is the gift of God. wittenvberg: 

To this Doctrine confent the (c) Reformed Churches in Helvetia, art. $. 
B-jbenti.t. France, Belgia, &c. Bafil arte*? 

III. The Doctripe of the Papifts concerning Juftification. , nracft fola ^ ' 

1 (d) Juftification is not only the forgivenefs of fin, but alfo the peccatorum.-'" 

reraiflTjo,fea&: : 
San&ificatio. & renovatiainterioris hominis per vokmtariam fufceptionem gratia? & donorum, *>"-<;, 
unica formalis caufa ejus eft juftitia Dei. &c. qua videlicet, afreo donati, renovamur fpiritu men- - 
rs noftrs, &c. Si quis dixerit homine* juftiftcari vel fola imputatione juftitia? Chrifti, vel fola i 
peccatorum remiffione, exclufa gratia, Sc charitate, qua in cordibus eorum per-Spiritum fanctum 
dimindatur,atq; illis inhsreat, aut etiarn gratiara qua juftirtcamur> efietantumfavorem Dei, ana?. 
thema fit. Concil. Trident. Sejf.6. Sanfli-. 

jo§ Vofery 4 Novelty* Serm. VII, 

<c Salification and Renovation of the inward man by a voluntary Suf. 
"ception of graceand gifts, whereby a man of unjuft is made juSt, and 
" of an enemy is made a friend, that he might be an heir according to 
" the hope of eternal life.- — -The only formal caufe of Justification is 
"the Righteoufnefs of God,not wherewith he himfelf is righteous,but 
" whereby he makes us righteous > namely, by which, being given to 
"us by him, we are renewed in the fpirit of our mind, and not only 
" reputed, but are, and are truly called righteous, receiving Righteoufc 
"nefsinour felves, every one according to his meafure, which the 
" holy Spirit imparteth to each, as he will, according to every ones 
cc own difpofition, and co- working.-- — If any one (hall fay that a man 
"is juftified by thefole Imputation of the Righteoufnefs of ChriSLor in 
cc the fole remiilion of Sin, excluding Grace and Charity, which is fhed 
"abroad in their hearts by the holy Spirit, and is inherent in him, or 
<c that the Grace whereby we are juitified is only the favour of God, lee 
"him beaccurfed; 

Reader, by this Council thou maift fee, how the PapiSts do confound 
Justification, and San edification together, and place it in our inherent 
Righteoufnefs i though thefe are not Separated, that any Should be ju- 
stified that are not fanclified, penitent, and believing, yet they ure care- 
fully to be distinguished. 

X. Of Merit of good Work/ 1 

I. The Doctrine of Prophets, Chriil, and his ApoSrles. 

Ifa. 64. 6* AH our righteoufneffei are as filthy rags. Job 22. 2: Can a 
man be profitable unto God? 3. If it any gain to him that thou mafyft 
thy way perfect? ]°^3 5'7* V t^ 014 be righteous what givefjt thou unto 
bim? or what receiveth he of thy band? Luk. 17. 10. We are unprofi* 
table fervants^ we have done that which was our duty to do, Rom. 8.18. 
Fsr 1 reckon that the fujferings of this prefent time are mt worthy to be 
compared with the glory that Jball be revealed in us. Alfo Pfal. 130. 5. 
€^143.2. Rom. 4.2, /\.^,6. 1 Cor. 4.7. Eph.2.9. 

II. The Doctrine of the ProteStants. 

(e) ConfefT. " ^ e cannot by our beSt Works merit pardon of Sin, or Eternal Life 
. wittemb. de " at tne nar, d of God, by reafon of the great disproportion that is be- 
bonis open- " tween them and the Glory to come,and the infinite distance that there 
hus. " i s between us and God, whom by them we can neither profit,nor fatis- 

Bohem. art.7- « ^ e f or ( | ie ^ oi f our f ormer c m5 but when we have done all we 

g, can, we have done but our duty, and are unprofitable Servants \ and 

AuguSt, art.4. " becaufe as good they proceed from his Spirit,yet as they are wrought 
& 20. tc by u § 5 they are defiled and mixed with fo much weaknefs and imper- 

Bd Vet 'rt C l6 ' " fe&* on > tnat f * iev ca " not endure the feverity of Gods judgment. To 
Arpentinenf. tn * s Do&rine the Reformed Churches do fubferibe, (e) 
cap. to. III. The Dodhine of the Papifts. 

" If any one Shall fay, That the good Works of a justified perfon are 






Serm. VII. papery a Novelty. ' 1 97 

* fo the gifts of God, that they may not alfo be the good Merits of him ffj S j qu j s 

Cc that is juftif1ed,or that he that is juftiried,doth not by the good works dixerit homi- 

" which hedoth,by the Grace of God and Merit ofChrift (of whom he £m jufltfeati 

"is a living Member; truly merit increafe of grace, eternal life, and (if ^"^Xia 

" he depart in a ftate of Grace) the enjoyment thereof,and moreover alfo Deij ut noil 

" increafe of Glory, let him be accurfed. (f) fmt etiam 

bona jpflus 
juftificati merita, aut ipfum juftificatum bonis operibus, e^r. non vcre mereri augmentum gra- 
tia?, yitam xternam & ipilus vita? aeterna?, &c. confecutionem, atq-, etiam gloria? augmentum, 
anathema fit. ConciL Trid. SeJJ. 6, 

"Mens works proceeding from Grace deferve or merit Heaven.— — 

c If the joy of Heaven be retribution, repayment , hire-wages for 

<c works, then works -can be no other but the value, defert, prke, 

" worth and merit of the fame. The word Reward in Latin or Greeks 

c is the very ftipend that the hired Workman (g) or Journey-man (g) Rhemifts 
'covenanted! to have of him, whofe work he doth, and is a thing e- on l Cor » 3- 8 « 
qually and juiHy anfwering to the time and weight of his travels and 
works, rather than a free-gift, &c (h) it is mod clear to all not ( h ) Rhem. on 

* blinded in pride and contention,that good Works are meritorious,and Heb * 6 ' I0 * 
the very caufe of Salvation. 

(0 The Heavenly Bleflednefs which the Scripture calls the Reward (h Andrad. 
of the Juft, is not given of God gratis and freely, but is due to their orth - c *&?™' 

' Works. Yea God hath fet forth Heaven to fale for our Works. 

1 Ck) Far be it from us that the righteous mould look for eternal life, (kj Dean of 
c as a poor man doth for his alms, for it is much more honour for them Lovan Expli. 
" as victors and triumphers to polTefs it, as the garland which by their ^^T^t q 
1 labour they have deferved. (I) Although the reflauration of Mankind (ij Bayus^e 
1 be afcribed to the Merits of Chrift,' yet it * s not for Chrilts Merits Merit, ope- 
1 that our Works are rewarded with eternal life '•> neither doth God, rum hb.i.c.?. 

* when he gives the Reward, look towards Chrifts deaf h,but only to the 
c firft inllitution of Mankind, wherein by the Law of nature it was 
'appointed that in the juft judgment of God, obedience mould be re- 
warded with life, as difobedience is with death. 

(m) c A fupernatural Work proceeding from Grace, within it felf fa; Suarez. 

* and of its own nature, hath a proportion and condignity with the Toi "* I 'i nT,1 °' 
^Reward,and a fufricient value to be worth thefame.The Reward there- \*'& 1, ?*£'*' 
^ fore is not given for Chrifts Merit, It muft not be denied but our & oportct;' 

'Merits are true Merits, fo that the Works of the godly proceeding 
from Grace, have of themfelves an inward worthinefs, and are pro- 
c portionable to the Reward, &c. 

The Papifts in this Point are not all of a mind, but many of them ' 
fwell with horrible pride, and think themfelves do deferve Heaven as 
well as a Journey-man doth his Wages, and cannot be brought to ftoop 
fo low, as to receive the higheft happinefs as the free gift of God. 

Dd XT. Of 

198 * Popery a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

XI. Of Wor]q of Supererogation. 

I. The Do&rine of the Scripture. 

Nehem. 13,22. And I commanded the Levites that tbeyfhould eleanfe 

themfelves. Remember me my God, concerning this alfo, and fp are me 

according to the greatnefs of thy mercies. Luk. 17. 10. Gal. 5. 17. 

II. The Doctrine of the Proteftants. 

" Voluntary Works,befides, over and above Gods Commandments, 
<c which they call Works of Supererogation , cannot be taught wkh- 
"outarrogancy and impiety, for by them men do declare that they do 
<c not only render unto God as much as they are bound to do, but that 
" they do more for his fake, than of bounden duty is required, whereas 
w Chrift faith plainly, When ye have done all that are commanded you, fay 
we are unprofitable fervants. 

(n) ConfefT. Againit fuch Works are the Reformed (n) Churches alfo in Helvetia, 

Helvetic. 16. France, Saxony, &c. 

^Ym"' 20 ' UL The Dodrine of the Paptfs. 

Sax. art. 3.17. - ' (°) The fallings and fatisla&ory deeds of one man, be available 
Baf:l. art.io. 'toothers* yea, and holy Saints, and other vertuous perfons may in 
Belg. art.12. "meafureand proportion of other mens neceffities and defervings allot 
(0) Rhcmifts • unto them, as well the Supererogation of their Spiritual Works, as 
on 2 . . 4. cc t fa fe t ^ at ^ abound in worldly goods may give Alms of their Su- 
cc periiuities, to them which are in neceifity. Again, they expound 
1 Cor. p. id. u But now preaching not only as enjoined me, but alfo 
as of Love and Charity, and freely without putting any man to coll, 
and that voluntarily and of very defire to fave my Hearers,I fhall have 
cc my reward of God, yea, and a reward of Supererogation, which is 
" given to them that of abundant Charity do more in the fervice of God 
" than theybe commanded. 

But Reader, though a man might have more Money than he doth 
need, yet thou (halt not find a man that hath more Grace than he doth 
need, and he that cannot fatisrie for himfelf cannot impart fatisfa&ion 
to another-, for none can give what they have not 5 and if we do 
what is no way commanded, w 7 e might hear, Who hath required this 
at your hands? and though Faul was not burdenfome to the Corin- 
thians, yet he received from other Churches to do them fervice. 
So that all that is faid falls fhort to prove Works of Supererogation : 
Let proud Papifts boafl of doing more, while thou goeft to thy knees 
to lament, that when thou halt done thy moft and beft, haft done lefs 
than is commanded. 

• « 

XII. Of Religions Worfhip. 
I. The Dodrrine of Chrift and his Apoftles, that Religious Worfhip 
is due only to God. 

Mat. 4.10. Thoujhalt worfhip the Lord thy God, and him only.fljalt thou 
ferve. Col. 2.18. Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary 



Serm.VIL Popery a Novelty. l$} 

humility and worfhipping of Angels. Rev. i p. i o. And I fell si his feet^ to 
worjhip bim, and be faid unto me, fee thou do it not \ 1 am thy fSow-fer- 
vantf-+'Wr(hipGod. Scealfo Rev. 22. 8,£. Act. 10.25. AsVazxwas 
curing in, Cornelius met him and fell down at hvs feet and rvorfhipped him. 
2 6. But Peter tool^ bim up, faying (tand up, 1 my felf alfo am a man. 
Read alfo ^tf.14. 13,14,15,1s. Rom.ic.i^. 

II. The Do&rine of the Proteltants. (p)Confcft. 

" (p) Religious Worfhip is to be given to God, the Father, Son,and HelvCL Ct ^ 
"HolyGhoir, and to him alone, and not to Angels, Saints, or any o- Gall. art. 24. 

ct ther creature. The acceptable way of Worshipping the true Gcd, Belgic.art.25. 

"isinftitutcd by himfclf, and fo limited to his own revealed Will, that ^S^V; 
" he may not be Worfhipped according to the imaginations 'and devices s axon de in- 
ct of men, or the fuggettions of Satan, under any viiible reprefentati- vocation.^, 
"ons, or any other way not preferibed in the holy Scripture. In this 
the Reformed Churches do agree in their publick Confeilions. A fana^Svno- 

III. The Doclrine of the Papifts concerning Religious Worfhip given dus J ibtt8 
to Saints, and their Reliqucs, and to Images. Epifcopis, & 

((]) " The holy Synod of Trent doth command all Bimops and o- ceteris do- 

tc the confent of the holy Fathers, ( this is failfe tooj and Decrees of ex Be Apofto- 
61 facred Councils, f which yet have decreed againit it J that they firfl hex Ecdefla? 
"of all diligently.inftrudt the faithful concerning the Interceffion and ™™? $ -JT 1 " 
ct Invocation of Saints, the honour of Reliqucs, and the lawful ufe of fiianae Reli- 
" Imager, teaching them that the Saints! reigning together with Chrift, gionis tempo- 
" do offer their Prayers to God for men, and that it is good and pro- ri b us recep- 
cc ritable, humbly kneeling to call upon them", and to run to their ™™\^aG- 
"Prayers, help and aid; for the benefits to be obtained from God confenfonem 
c ' through his Son Jefus Chrift our Lord,who is our only Redeemer and & facrorum 

decreta, imprimis de Sanctorum IntercefTione, Invocatione,Reliquiarum honore 8t legitimo Ima- 
ginum ufu,fideles diligenter iuftruant, docentes cos, Santos urn cumChriflo regnantes, orationes 
fuas pro honiinibus Deo offerrc, bonutn atque utile eFe fimpliciter eos invocare, & ob beneflcia 
impetranda % Deo per filiuin ejus, &c. ad eorum orationes, opem, auxiliumq-, confugcre; illos 
vero qui negant fanctos aterna felicitate in ccelo fruentes, invocandos e(Te, aut qui aHerunt, vel 
illos pro hominibus non orare, vel eorum, ut pro nobis etiam fingulis orent, Invocationem eiTe 
Jdoiolatriam, vel a^ugnare cum vcrbo Dei, adverfariq-, honori unius Mediatoris Dei & hominum 
Jefu Chrifti, vel uultum efre, in ccelo regnantibus voce, vel mente fupplicare, -impie fentire : 
Sanctorum quoqi Martyrum, &: aliorum cum Chriilo viventium fanfta corpora qua? viva membra 
Chrjfti fuerint, &: templum Spiritws fancti,.ab ipfo ad seternam vitam fufcitanda, & glorifkanda, 
a fidelibus reneranda erTe, per qua? multa beneficia a Deo hominibus prajftantur •, ita ut arfirman- 
t« fanctorum Reliquiis venerationem atq; honorem non deberi, vel eas, aliaq, facra monumenta 
a fidelibus inutiliter honorari, atq^ eorum opis impetranda? caufa fanctorum memorias ftuftra fre- 
quentari, danwandos ete, prout jampridem eos damnavit, & nunc etiam damnat Ecclefa. Ima- 
gines porro, Chrifti, Deipara? Virginis & aliorum Sanctorum, in templis prafertim habendas 
& retinendas , eifque debitum honorem & venerationem impertieEdam. coicil. triitnU 
Self. 25. 

Dd 2 "Saviour > 






2eo Popery a Nweltj. Serffl. VII, 

Saviour*, and that they are of a wicked opinion that fay, that the 
Saints enjoying eternal happinefs in Heaven are not to be called up- 
' on i or who do affirm, either that they do not pray for men, or that 
to pray to them, that they would pray "for us, yea each one particu- 
larly^ Idolatry, or contrary to the Word of God, or againft the ho- 
nour of Jefus, the one Mediator of God and Men; or that it is 
a foolifh thing to make humble requeft in words, or in our 
minds to thofe that are reigning in Heaven. Moreover, 
" that the facred bodies of the holy Martyrs and others 
u living with Chrift, which were living Members of Chrift, and the 
cc Temple of the Holy Ghoft, which (hall be raifed by him to eternal life 
and be glorified, are to be worfhipped by Believers, by which God 
beftoweth many benefits on men. So that whofoever mall fay, that 
'Veneration and Honour is not due to theReliques of the Saints, or 
u that thefe and other facred Monuments are without profit honour- 
ed [worfhipped! by the faithful \ and that for the gaining of their 
cc help the memory of Saints in vain is folemnized, are utterly to b2 
condemned, even as the Church hath long condemned them, and 
doth now condemn them. Moreover, the Images of Chrift, the Vir- 
gin Mary, and of other Saints are efpecially to be had and kept in 
; Churches, and due honour and Veneration to be given to them. 

Again, (C It is beyond all doubt , that Believers according to the 
" cuftom always received in the Carholick Church fhould give to the 
"holy Sacrament, the Worfhip of Latvia, f Higheft Worfhip) which is 
" due to the true God. ConciL Indent. Sejf.i $. cap.*}. 

The Popifh Doctors maintain of Images in general, that they ought 
t© be worfhipped with the fame Adoration as the thing reprefented by 
the Image. So Aquinas. The fame reverence is given to the Image of 
Chrift as to Chrift himfelf. Since therefore Chrift is worfhipped with 
Adoration of Latria (Higheft Worfhip due to God) it follows that his 
Image ought to be worfhipped with Adoration of Latria (or Higheft 
Worfhip due to God J 

XIII. Of Tranfubftantiation. 

I. The Doctrine of Chrift and his Apoftles, that after Confecration 
in the Lords Supper there is real Bread and Wine. 

Mat. 26. 2t5, 27. Luk.22. ip, 20. 1 Cor. 11.23. The Lord Jefw the 
fame night in which he was betrayed took^ bread. 24. And when be had 

given thanks hetook^ the cup— -faying, Ihti cup U the New 1c$ament 

in my Blood. Mark Reader, after the bletfing it is called Bread. 26. As 
often as ye eat this bread, drink^ this cup* 27. Whofoever Jhall* eat this 

bread. 28. Examine and eat of that bread. 1 Cor.io.it5. The bread 

which we break}* it not the communion of the body of Chrifl. Adfr.20.7. Ihey 
came together to brea\bread % 1 1 . And had broken bread. 

II. The Dodtrine of the ProteftantSi 
" Tranfubftantiation Cor the change of the fubftance of Bread and 

" Wine) in the Supper of the Lord cannot be proved by holy writ* 


Serm. VIL Popery a Novelty. 201 

? but is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the (^Qorf.Udv. 

" nature of a Sacrament, and hath given cccafions to many Superltit'i- ,# arc ^ 2,& 2 * 

"ons, and Idolatries, and is repugnant to very fen fe and reafon. CA9 ' £ e £ u / 

Which reafons have moved all the Reformed Churches againft the Do- char.Eafil.art. 

drine of Tranfubftantion. (r) . 6. Scotican. 

III. The Doclrine of the Papifts. art - 2U 

(j) ^ If any (hall deny the Body and Blood, together with the Soul 0) Si quis ne- 

"and Divinity of our Lord Jefus Chrift, and fo whole Chrift to be ^^e™* 

"truly, really and fubftantially contained in the mod holy Sacrament chariftise Sa- 

"of the Eucharift (Lords Supper) but (hall fay, it is there only as in a cramento 

"fign, either figuratively or virtually, let him be accurfed. If any contineri, 

" (hall fay,that the fubftance of Bread and Wine together with the Body I C r C Ln CaIl - er ' 

c and Blood of our Lord Jefus Chrift, doth remain in the Sacrament of i ltC r corpus & 

'' the holy Eucharift, and (hall deny that wonderful and lingular con- fanguinem, 

" verfion of the whole fubftance of the Bread into his Body, and of un a cum ani- 

" the whole fubftance of the Wine into bis Blood Cthe figures of Bread ma &divini- 

c and Wine only remaining) which Converfion £change] the Catholick &. Ct s f •*' 

1 Church doth mod fitly call Tranfubftantiation, let him be accurfed. dixerit in Sa~ 

crafanfto Eu- 
chariltii Sacramento remancre fubitantiam panis & vini, &c. negaveritq; mirabilem illam & fm- 
gularcm convcrfionem totius fubftantiaz panis in corpus, & totius fubftantiae. vini in (anguinem, &c 
Covcil. Tridtnt. SejJ'.ij. Can. i, 2. 

XI V. Of Receiving both kjnds,. 

I. The DocTrine of Chrift and his Apoftles, that thofe that have the 
Bread fhould alfo have the Cup. 

Mark 14. 22, 23, 24. Luk. 22. i£, 20. 1 Cor. 10. id. dp 11.24* 

XjJ^, eat^ 25. its oft as ye drin\ it. -2d. eat this bread^and drink^, 

this cup — 27. (hall eat this bread and drink^ this cup^—fo let him eat — 

and drink^of this cup. 29. for he that eateth and drinkgtb. 

II. The Doctrine of the Proteftants. 

The cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the Lay-people , for (t) Confer. 
c both the parts of the Lords Sacrament, by Chrifts Ordinance and Helv.i.art. 22--. 
c ^ Commandment,ought to be mmiftred to all Chriftian men alike. That |. ?' C,2I; 
"the People are to receive the Wine alfo/is the Gonfellion of Refoimed GalK^, a&? 
Churches in Helvetia^ Bohemia^ France^ &c. (t) ♦ Wifcembcap* 

III. The Doctrine of the Papifts. 19. Belg". art.- 
The Council of Covjiince decreed, " (u) That though Chrift admini- ** S **P*- de 

" fired, this Sacrament in both kinds to his Difciples, * and in the Primi- ^uft T^ 
five Church it was alfo accordingly received by Believers under both mifra, a?t.j,2, 
kinds [Bread and Wine,^ hoc tamen nm obftante, fnotwithftanding Of) ConciL 

^Chrifts Inftitution, and the example of the Primitive Church) the Conftan:.. 

"Lay-people (hall have the bread only. Others that pertinaciouflv I? ° 
affirm otherwife are to be expelled as Hereticks. Alfo we command 
upon pain of Excommunication that no Presbyter adminifter it to 
the people under both kinds of Bread and Wine, The Council of 




202 Taper j a Novelty, Serm. VII. 

(w) Condi, Trent to the fame purpofe did decree, The taking away the Cup from 

TrldiHt.Sejr.2i the p^p}^ („) notwithstanding Chrifts Inftitution, and admini- 

uh h 2 > $• ft ra tion of it in both kinds, Ci having a power to alter and change, fo 

" that they keep the fubftance of the Sacrament, as they judg molt pro* 

fcC fitable for the receivers*, and though they confefs the Primitive 

Church received both, yet the Church of Rome for grand and juft 

reafons hath approved and decreed the Peoples taking of it in one 

" kind only. 

XV. Oftbs Sacrifice of the Mafs. 

I. The Dodlrine of the Apoftle Paul. 

Heb. p. 22. And almoft all things are by the Law purged with blood, 

and without fhedding of blood there is no remiffwn. 2$. N&ryet that he 

Jh mid offer himfe If often, as the high Prieft cntreth into the holy place every 

year with the blood of others. 2 6. (For then muft be have often Offered 

fynce the foundation of the world) but now once in the end of the world hath 

he appeared to put away fins by the facrifice of himfelf 28. So Chrifl 

w,ts once offered to bear the fins cf many.--- w-Heb. 10. 11. And every 

Prieft ftandeth daily miniftrin? and offering oftentimes the fame fa orifices, 

which can never take away fins. 12. But this man after he had offered 

one facrifice for fins, for ever fate down on the right hand of God. 14. For 

by one offering he hath per filed for ever them that are janclifitd. 18. Now 

where remifjion of thefe is, there is no more offering for fin\ Read alfo Heb. 


II. The Dodfrine of the Proteftants. 

Confef.Helvet. " The offering cf -Chrift once made.is that perfect Redemption, Pro- 
1. art. 22. & 2. " pitiation, and Satisfaction for all the fins of the whole World, both 
Ba^Uart. 6. original and a6rual, and there is no other fatisfaclion for fin, but that 
Saxon, art. 14. Cc alone. Wherefore the Sacrifices of MaiTes, in the which it was eom- 
Belg. art. 55. "monly faid that the Prieft did offer Chrift for the quick and dead, to 
Wictemb.c.19 « nave reminjon of pain or guilt, were blafpherr.cus fables, and dan- 

Bohcm. c. 15. u g Crons deceits. This is the Doclrine of all Reformed Churches a- 

Auguitan. ae » . _ . r ... r , . , - 

Miffa art.13. painft the lacrihceot the Mais, (x) • 

III. The Dodrine of the Pa pi ft s. 

(a) Si quis (y) " Ifcny {hall fay that in the Mafs a true and proper facrifice is 

dixerit, in " not offered to God, let him beaccuifed. If any trial i fay in thofe 
Mifianon of- " wor d s (do this in remembrance of me) Chuft did not inftitute his 
rum& pro- 6 * A pottles to be Prieft?, or that he did not orcfain, ih -cy and other 
prium facrifi- cc Priefts (hould offer his body and blood, let him be accurfed. 


Anathema fit. Si quis dixerit, illis verbis, hoc facite in meam Commemorationem, Chriftum 
non inftituivle Apoftolos facerdotes 5 aut non ordinate, ut. ipfi aliiqi facerdotes overrent corpus 
& fanguinera fuum, Anathema fit. Si quis dixerit, Mifa? facriflciun: tantum eiTe laudis & grati- 
aruin ac'tionis, &c. non autem propitiarorium - y vcl foli prodefe fumenti, neq:, pro vivis & de- 
&in#is, pro peccatis, poenis, fatisfadionibus, & aliis neceifitatibus oiterri deberc, anathema fit. 

ConciL 'Tridmt.Siff.22. cU Sacrifc. Miffa, Can. 1, 2, 3. 

c, Jf 



Serm.VII. Popery a Novelty. 203 

If any (hall fay the Sacrifice of Mafs is only of praife and thankf- 
giving, or a bare Commemoration of the Sacrifice of Clirift upon the 
u Crofs, and not a Propitiatory Sacrifice, or that it profits him alone 
" that takes it, and ought not to be offered for quick and dead,for fins, 
" punifiSments and fatisfa&ions, and other neceliities, let him be accur- 


So in that part of the Mafs called the Oifertory,the Priefi: faith," Holy 
ct Father, Eternal and Almighty God, receive this Immaculate Hofr, 
M which I thine unworthy fervant, offer unto thee my true and living 
cc God, for my innumerable fins, and offences and neglects, and for all 
cc them that (land here about, and alfo for all faithful Chriftians, both 
c * living and dead, that it may profit -me and them unto Salvation, into 
<c eternal life. Amen. 

Again, in the Mafs-book the Priefi: prayeth: "We befeech thee,there- 
fore moft merciful Father through Jejus Chrift thy Son our Lord, and i 
c do ask of thee that thou wilt accept, and blefs thefe + gifts^ thefe + 
prefents , thefe ho+ly Sacrifices immaculate , efpeciall'y thofc 

: which we offer unto thee for thy holy Catholick Church, and 

1 all them that a (lift here, for themfelves and for all theirs, for the 

'Redemption of th:ir Souls, and for the hope of their Salvation. 

' Which Oblation, thou, O God, vouchfafe in all things to make blefc 
w fed + Afcript, + Reafonable + and acceptable* that it may be made 

' unto us the Bo+dy and Blood + of thy mod beloved Son. We pre- - 

c fent to thy excellent Majefty of thy gifts and things given, a pure + 
c Hoft, a holy + Hofr, an Immaculate + Hoft, the holy Bread + of eternal 

life, and the Cup + of eternal Salvation. We humbly pray thee,Al- 

mighty God, command that thefe things be carried by the hands of . 
c thy holy Angels on thy Altar on high, into the prefence of thy Di- 
' vineMajefty, that we all who of the Partici+pation of thine Altar < 
[kjffes here the Altar ,] have taken the holy Bo+dv and Blood + of thy 
c Son, may be filled with all Heavenly BlefHings and Grace, — -And 
then the Priefi Jor the Dead prays, " Be mindful alfo, O Lord, of thy 
1 Men-fervants, and Women-fervants, \_naming their names that are 
deceajed, for whom friends or kindred vemld have Mafs^l " who have pre- 
c cceded us with the fign of the Faith, and who ileep in a deep of 
" peace. 

View and confider this little piece which I have tranferibed, Reader, 
for thy fake, out of the Mafs-book. and then judg whether there be 
any fuch thing concerning the Lords-Supper in the Scripture ', and 
whether thefe be not new Doctrines and Devices. . 

XVI. Of Worjbipping the Hj(1. 
I. The Do&rine of the Scripture concerning the Lords-Supper, 
where it is treated of, containeth nothing for the worfhippingof it > as 
te1t.26.26j.~j. Mar. 14.22,23,24. 1 Cor.11.2 4,2 5,2 6,2 7,28,2^. 

II. The L 



204 Popery a Novelty. Serm.VII. 

II. The Doctrine of the Proteftants. 
ftj ConfeiT. . "The worfhipping the Elements, the lifting them up, or carrying 
Saxade cafna " tJiem ab ? u . t *° r Adoration, and the referving of them for any precen- 
Dom. wit- ' ^ ec * Religious ufe, are all contrary to the nature of this Sacrament, 
tetnb. de Eu- Cc and to the Initiation of Chrilt. So fay other Reformed Churches in 
charift. Bafil; their publicJ^Confeffjonj of faith, (z) 
art. 6. IIL -r; he Do ft rine of the Pap ift s . 

' (<*) C; Itis beyond all doubt that the faithful, according to the cu- 

itlqidubitan- " ftom always rcceived in the Catholick Church[T^ U poorly begun of a 
di locus re- k*Mpd Council,) "may give in veneration the Worfhip of Latris^ 
linquitur,quin [Higheft Worfhip'] " which is due to God, to this holy Sacrament *, for 
omnes Chri- ,fc it is not the lefs to be adored, becaufe it was appointed by the Lord to 
fti fideles^pro cc ^ rece j vec j . f or we Relieve that the fame God is prefent in it,whom 
tholica Eccle- *'' ^ e eterna ^ Father, bringing into the world, faith, And let at! the An- 
te Temper ' get* °f God tcorfhip him. 
recepto, la- 
triae cultum, qui vero .Deo debetur, huic fanftiiTmio facramento in veneratione exhibeant, &c. 

(&) Concil. Moreover the holy Synod doth declare 4 (b) "That with very great 

Trident. SetT. -^c j^ e ] jgj on anc | piety of the Church was this cufiorn brought in, that 

3. cap.$. - cc every year upon fome peculiar holy-day, this high and venerable Sa- • 

u crament with lingular Veneration and Solemnity mould be celebrated; 

" and that it fhould in Procellions, reverently with honour and worfhip 

ct be carried about through the ways and publick places. 

XVII. Of Auricular Confffvn. 

I. The Doctrine of Chrift and his Apoftles concerning Confeffion 
of Sin. 

LH^.17.3,4. Jam^.16. 1 Joh.i.p. SeealfoPr0p.28.13. P/4/.3 2.5^. 
and 51.4, 5,,7> P, J 4- I n a ^ which places there is Confeffion of Sin to 
God, to the party wronged by us, and to oneanothenbut not a word 
of fecret Confeffion of all our Sins in the ears of the Pried, 

II. The Doctrine of the Proteitants. 

Cc) ConfePT. C ^ s cverv man is bound to make private Confeffion of his Sins to 

Helvetic. 14. <c God, praying for the pardon thereof, upon which and the forfaking 
Argencinenf. " of them he (hall find mercy ', fo he that fcandalizeth his brother,or the 
S 2 °c n^fr " " Church °f God, ought to be willing by a private or publick Confef- 
Saxon. de ' ' ^ on anc * f° rrow *° r ms h'n, to declare his Repentance to thofe that are 
Pcermentia.' " offended, who are therefore to be reconciled,and in love to receive him. 
Wittcmb. de So other Reformed Churches, (c) 
ConfeiTione. m The Do&rine of the Papifts. 

(d) Conc'l ^ " ^ et ever y one both Men aRC * Women truly make Confeffion of 

Lateran. 1 Van. " a ^ t ^ ie * r $ ms ar ^ ea ^ once a Y ear t0 tne ^ r own Priefy or fome other, 
si. " having leave firft frpm their own Prieft,elfe he can neither abfolvc nor 

iC bind him, « 

CO The 

9crm.VIL topcrf a Nwcltj, 205 

(e) "Theuniverfal Church to the great profit of Souls doth keep Q) Undc i«i 
ct thecuftom of ConfeKion in that holy and molt acceptable time of Lent, £ cc ""^ verfa m 
cc which alfo this holy Synod doth moll highly approve and receive, as ingentianima- 
cc pioufly, and with good caufc to be retained. rum fidclium 

fructu, obfer- 
vatur mos ille falutaris,facro illo & maxime acccptabi-li tempore <3uadragefma.',quc!n morum,#r. 
Concil. Trident. Sijf.14. cap.$. 

(f) "If any fhall deny Sacramental Confeffion, either to be inftitu- (f) si qui s ne- 
sted, or to be necefTary to Salvation by Divine right i or (hall fay the gavcritCon- 

cc manner of making fecret Confeffion to the Prltft alone, is not in- * e fl- one m Sa- 

"ftituted and commanded by Chrift, but is an humane invention, let velinftitutam' 
" him be accurfed. , vel ad falu- 

tem neceflari- 
am effe jure divino, &c. ConciL Tr/dent; SfjJ. 14. can. 6, 

(g) " If any (hall fay that in the Sacrament of Penance it is not necef- ^ si - 
cc fary to remiiiion of lin, and that by Divine right, to confefs all, and dixerit h 
ct every mortal fin,that one can by all due diligent premeditation call to Sacramento 
" remembrance, even thofe that are fecret fins, and againft the laft pre. V^^cmix 

c cept of the Decalogue, and the very circumftances which alter the peccatorum^ 

" kinds of fin,- let him be accurfed. necefTarium 

non efTe jure 
Divioo confiteri, omnia & fingula peccata mortalia, &c. Concil. Trid. Scjf.14. Can^. 

XVIII. Of Penitential SatUfaUion, 

I. The Doctrine of the Scripture. 

Ezek. 1 6. 6 1 . Then {halt thou remember thy ways and be ajbamed.— — 

62. Andl will eftablifh my Covenant with thee, 63. That thou, mayeft 

remember and be confounded, and never open thy mouth any more, becaufe of 
thyjhame, when lam pacified towards thee, for all that thou baft done, faith 
the Lord, And 36. 31, Te Jh all loath your felves in your own fight. 32. Not 
for your fakes do I thU. — •'-Be ajhamed and confounded for your own ways. 
See Hof. 14. 2, 4. 

II. The Doctrine of the Proteftants. 

1 Although Repentance be not to be refied in as any fatisfa&ion for CO Auguft.de 
"Sin,or any caufe of the pardon thereof, which is the a& of Gods free Confetfone. 
* Grace in ChrifH yet is it of fuch neceffity to all Sinners, that none pJ£f"tione & 
''might expeel: pardon without it. So other Churches, (h) artic.de Sa- 

III. The Dodtrine of (he Papifis. tisfaftione. 
(i) " If any (hall fay, that the whole punifhment together with the wi F^rub. de 

^ guilt, is always remitted by God, and that the fatisfadion of the ^^^ e - 

cc penitent is no other than the Faith whereby he apprehendeth Chrift Trident. 

* to have fatisfied for him, let him be accurfed. Sell. 14. Can. 

(kj " If any (hall fay, That God is not fatisfied for fins, as to tern- I2 * . 

<c poral punifhment, through the Merits of Chrift, by the punifhments C^f^Lr 

" «„U' u u 'n-i-Li.ii 1/-1 • 1 Indent, ocli. 

wnicn he inflicts, and we patiently bear, or by iuch as are enjoyned I4 Cao , 3 

E e "by 

Xo6 Popery a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

cc by. the Prieft, nor by thofe that we voluntarily put our felves unto 
s nor by Failings, Prayers, Almes-dceds, and other works of Piety 
tC and that therefore the bed Repentance is only a new life, let him be* 
" accurfed., 

Trl{ent nC Sefr. (l) " lf ™Y && { *Y > That the Satisfactions whereby Penitents 
14.Can.14. #tC thtOKgh Jefus Chrift do redeem Sins, are not the Worship of God 
tc but the Traditions of men, thwarting the Dodhine of the Grace* 
" and true Worihip of God, and the benefits of the death of Chrift let 
c - him be ace ur fed. 

XIX. Of Venial Sifts. 

I. The Doctrine of Chrift and his Apoftles. 

Mat. 12.3d. 1 fay unto you that every idle word that men Jhall fpa\ , 
they jhaU give account thereof in the day of judgment. Rom. 6. 23. For 
the wages of fin is death. See Rom, 5. |2„and Ifa. 5 j. 7, 

II. The Dodlrine of the Proteftants. 

(m) Confer. a As ^^ ^ nQ fin f Q f ma n but [ t <3 e f crV es damnation, Co there is no 

4. Saxon, de * in 1° g reat 5 tnat lt can bring damnation upon thole that truly re- 
difcrimine "pent. So other Churches alfo. (m) 
peccatorum. H[. The Do&rine of the Papifts. 

" Some Sins are venial, neither offering injury to God,nor deferving 

"Hell, nor binding us to be forry for them, but may be forgiven by 

'knocking of the breft, (n) going into a Church, receiving holy 

(«) Aquin. " water, or the Bifhops bleiling, or crofting ones felf, or by any work 

par.g. Qucfl. cc of Charity, though we never think actually of them. (0) Thofe 

(I) Bdla-rm. " ^ ns which in their own nature are not contrary to the love of God, 

Tom. 3. de* 'and our Neighbour, as idle words, immoderate- laughing, thofe fins 

amiftione gra- " that are not perfectly voluntary ,as fudden motions of anger, &c. and 

xix. Lib.i.c.3. <■<- are - m tr [ v [a\ things, as flealing of an half-peny, &e. are venial fins* 

" that is, do not turn us from God, and are eafily expiated, like unto 

Idem. ibid. " a f|fght hurt, which doth not endanger life, and is eafily cured. 

cap. 2* 

XX. Of thefiate of Men after Death. 

I. The Dodtrine of the Scripture concerning the ftate of Men after 

Luk. 23. 43 . Verily I fay unto thee^ ihti day (halt thox be with me in 
Paradife. - Hcb, 1 2 .2 3 . And to thefpirits of ju(t men made perfeft. 2 Con 
5. f . For we know that if our earthly houfe of 'this. Tabernacle were diffol- 
ved^ we have a building of God, 8. Willing rather to be ahfentfrom the 
body and to he prefent with the Lord. Phil r . 2 3 . Having a deftre to de- 
part and to he with Cbrifii See alfo Mat. 7. 13, 14. Job.3.1%. Lu\. 16.23, 
24. where and in other places, the Scriptures fpeak of two ways, one 
leading to. deftru&ion, the other to life. Two forts of men, fome that 
do not believe, and they are damned, fome that do, and they are faved, 
no third. 

IL The 

Serm._Vir. ropery a Novelty. 207 

IT. The Do&rine of the Proteftants, 

tc The Bodies of men after death return to duft, and fee corruption, 
cc but their Souls (which neither die nor fieep) having an Immortal fub- 
" fiftence, immediately return to God, who gave them. The Souls of 
'' the Righteous being then made perfect in Holinefs, are received into 
" the higheft Heavens, where they behold the face of God in light and 
tc glory, waiting for the full Redemption of their Bodies \ and the Souls 
<c of the Wicked are caft into Hcil, where they remain in torments and / 
" utter darknefs, referved to the Judgment of the great Dc;y: Befides ^clv 2"^^ 
"thefetwo places for Souls fcpaiated from their Bodies, the Scripture Gall.ait, 24.' 
<c acknowledged} none. So the Reformed Churches alfo (p) in Helvetia, Saxon; art.u; 
France, Saxony, &e. (p) Auguft.art. 1 1. 

III. The Dodrine of the Papifts. - Wuremberg; 

(q) " If any (hall fay that after the Grace of Juitifkation received, (J) concil. 
c the offence is fo forgiven to every penitent Sinner, and guilt of eter- Trident.Sef.rf.- 
x nal punifliment fo removed, that there remains no guilt of tempor:/: Can.30. &De- 
c punifhment to be fuffered, either in this life, or the life to ccme in <*et. de^Pur- 
"Purgatorv, let him be accurfed. * ' ei " 5 * 

By this Parallel of Doctrines you may eafily judg that ours is the 
old Religion , and the Religion of the Papifts (wherein they 
differ from us), is a new Religion '■> for they that do own, profefs and 
hold to the fame Do&rines and Worfhip that were taught by Chrift 
himfclf and his Apoftles, and no other fas to EfTentials at leaft) are of 
the old Religion '■> and thofe that forfaking and corrupting the Doct- 
rine and Wor(hip taught by Chrift and his Apoftles, maintain and hold 
Doctrines not contained in the Scripture, but rifenup ilnce and con- 
trary to it, are of a new Religion 1 , But theProteftantsdo the flrft, and 
the Papifts do the laft,as appeareth by the Parallel of Do&rines; There- 
fore the Proteftants are of the old Religion, and the Papifts of a new 
One. For that Religion which doth agree with theoldeft, and the only 
Rule is the oldeft and only Religion •, and if the Papifts will keep to the 
firft and ancient Rule, the Word of God, they muft be of our Religion-, 
if they will not, but add or diminifti, they will never anfwer to the 
charge of Novelty laid upon them. 

So that their infulting and ridiculous Queftion fo often ufed, even 
till it is become odious and doth naufeate, Where was your Religion be- 
fore Luther? f which is the fecond part of my Task),is plainly and fully 
refolved in the Scriptures, and in the Primitive Churches. And me- 
thinks learned Papifts fhould blufh and be afhamed, (that have or can 
read the Writings of the Fathers,and determinations of ancient Coun- 
cils,) to propound fuch a Queftion -<, but they do it to amufe the com- 
mon People that cannot read Gree\ and Latin Authors , and are not 
acquainted with theHiftory of the Church v whileft I am perfwaded 
they themfelves know better, and could refolve this queftion them- 
felves, if they would read indifferently and judg impaitially. But the 

Ee 2 * People 

2o8 Papery a Novelty. • Serm. VII. 

People that cannot read the Fathers, Councils, &c. might be abun- 
dantly fatisfied, that our Religion is the old Religion, becaufe found 
in, and founded upon the Word of God * for all the Books in the 
World muft give place to the holy, fure, infallible Word of the raoft true 
and faithful God. 

But though we (hew our Doctrines in the Scripture, yet the Quefti- 
on, Where was our Religion before Luther? (who began the Reformation 
in the year 1517O is put to beget jealouries in the People, that for ma- 
ny hundred years before him,our Doctrine and Religion was not taught 
nor profefled j and therefore call for a Catalogue of fuch as have taught 
our Doctrines fiom the Apoftles time fucceffively to the time of Luther > 
as they pretend they can do theirs *, and would bear the People in hand 
that the Church as now Reformed, and the Doctrines now received by 
them, are new and upftart things, and have not been (Ince the Apoftles 
times, or before Luther * the eontrary whereof, that there have been 
fuch Doctrines, and a Church owning them in all ages llnce they were 
preached by the Apoftles, will appear by tw r o Heads of Arguments* the, 
one taken a priori^ that fuch a Church cannot, (hall not ceafe, but al- 
ways be in fome-part or other of the World \ the other a pofteriori^hat 
it hath not ceafed, but hath always actually been, and therefore before 

The firft, That it cannot, (hall not ceafe to be, taken a priori ftands 
firm upon thefe two grounds ;, Firft, upon the promife of Chrift^ that is 
of Infallible Verity ; Chrift hath promifed that the true Church which ? 
is built upon the Doctrine of the Scripture, and is conformed there- 
into mould continue always, and not fail : That the Reformed Chur- 
ches are built upon the Doctrine of the Scriptures, and are conformed 
thereunto, appeareth from the Parallel of Doctrines before laid down. . 
So that there is evidence from the Promife of Chrift, that the Church 
holding fuch Doctrines as the Reformed Churches do, did continue, 
could not fail* and there our Church and Religion was before Luther. 

Secondly*, Vponthe ReUtian between Chriji and hU Church h Chrift is 
the only Headoi the Church,and theChureh the Body of Chrift. Chrift 
is the King of his Church, and the Church fubject to Chrift; Chrift is 
the Husband and Bridegroom of the Church,and the Church the Wife and 
Spoufe of Chrift * ftich a Church then could. not ceafe to be, elfe there 
would have been foma time in which Chrift would have been an' Head 
without any body upon Earth, a King without Subjects, an Husband and 
Bridegroom, without a Wife or Spoufe j all which are abfard, as to fay a 
Man is a Father that hath no Child. But in this the Controverfle doth 
not lie betwixt-jis, but which Church is this Body, Subjects, and 
Spoufe of Chrift, which by virtue of Chrifts promife and relation to 
him, could no'c &il or. ceafe to be, theirs, or fuch asithe Reformed Chur- 
ches are.There is this ground famong- others) on our fide. That Church 
which owneth. Chrift to be hcrpnly-Hsad, Husband and. K^ng, and no 


Scrm. VIT. Popery a 'Novelty. 209 

other which owneth and profefleth fubjection to the Laws of Chrift, 
and no other as neceflary to Salvation, and worfhippeth the true God 
according to the Scripture, and no other, is the Body, Spoufe and Sub- 
jects of Chrift, that could not ceafe to be in any ages But fuch Chur- 
ches as the Reformed are,do own Chrift to be their only Head, Husband 
and King, and no other, and profefs fubjection to the Laws of Chrift, 
and no other as neceflary to Salvation, and "worfhip God according t© 
the Rules contained in the Scripture, and no other. All which the Ro- 
man Church as Papal doth not do •, for they own another Head be- 
tides Chrift, as neceflary to Salvation, and profefs Subjection to tha 
Laws of another, befides the Laws of Chrift, and that equally with 
them, yea before them, though diftinct from, and contrary thereunto, 
and give Religious Worfhip to others befides the true God, and fo 
plays the Whore and Harlot y that we might conclude, that fuch Chur- 
ches as the Reformed arc, and not as Papal, are the Body, Subjects and 
Spoufe of Chrift, which could not ceafe in any age to be, fince the 
Apoftles times, and there our Religion was, and Church too b:fore 

The fecond evidence that there have been the fame Doctrines, ne- 
ceflary to Salvation, taught all along fince the Apoftles fucceilively to 
Luthers times, is a poller iori, from the Writings of Men, and Hiftoiies 
of the Church, even fuch as are abundantly fatisfactory to us and un- 
deniable by our adverfaries,that our Doctrines are not fo late as Luther. 
I had here prepared feveral things to be inferted concerning the Succef- 
fion of the Church from the Primitive times, to the age in which we 
live 1 , but becaufe I would not have this Difcourfe to fwell above the 
bounds of a Sermon, and underftanding that there is a Reverend Bro- 
ther defired to treat of that particularly, to which I do refer you, I here 
omit them > yet the frequent demmd of Papifts, asking, JVhere rvM your 
Religion before Luther? and that part of this prefent Pofition, That it 
was before Luther, will not fufrer a total filence herein. Though this .is 
no real prejudice to the Truth of our Doctrine.or Religion, if we could 
not give a Catalogue of names that did hold and profefs them in all ages, 
fo long as we find them in the Scripture, nor could they for want there- 
- of be juftly charged, either with falfity or novelty ; for wh^t is in the 
Word of God is true and old, and what is not contained therein and 
made neceflary to Salvation, is falfe and new, though of many hun- 
dred years ftanding. That this is unreafonably required by the Papifts, 
no hurt to our Religion, as to the Verity and Antiquity of it, nor no 
caufe of Humbling to the common People, familiarly aflaultcd in this 

point, and all becaufe not neceflary to be known, will appear by thefe 

things following. 

1. It is not neceffary to prove our felves to be men to* give an accotmt of all 

the names of all the men that have lived before us, no, nor of anj of tltem. 

It is Efficient hereunto that we can prove we have the fame Eflential 


2io Popery a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

Conftitutive parts of Men as o^i TrtdicelTors had > that we have fuch 
* Bodies and fuch Souls a:, they bad, is a proot we are real M*n as they 
were, though we know nor the names of all the Intermediate perfons 
fuccefGvely by whom we have received our Beings from them : would 
not you laugh at one that would perfwade you, you are no Men, or 
that the Humane nature is a new thing, becaufe you cannet give a Cata- 
logue of the names of Men jem Adim, or from Noah, from one age 
to another ? or would it not be fufficicnt proof of your Manhood that 
you have the fame Identity of Nature as Adam 01 Noah, and Men of 
former ages had ? So here; fo long as we can tell and are fure we own 
and believe the fame Dodrines that rhe Apoftles did, we are fure we 
are of the fame Religion as they were, though we could not give the 
names of the perfons that have from time to time profeiTed the fame, 
this is as if one fhould fay Melcbizedek did not fucceed his Progenitors, 
becaufe his Genealogy cannot be given. Ridiculous! 

2. It Is not neceffary to tyow tbe falfnefs of any T'oftrine that we fbould 
kpow the names of the Heretickj that have handed them down from one age 
to another s but we know them to befalfe, by their being contrary to 
the Scripture. 

3 . We ktiow that the dilates of the Law pf nature are good and true, and 
ibat we have fuch a haw though we cannot give an account of the name of 
our Anceftors from whom we have received them. 

4. A man might be an exa8 artificer , though he be not able to mention 
the names of tbofe that have been in all ages, that profeffed the fame occupa- 
tion from tbe times of tbofe that did firfi invent them. So a man might be 
a good ChrifUan, and of the true Religion, and be ignorant of the 
many thoufands Chriftians that have been before him. 

5. Without this knowlt dp a man might love God, repent, believe and be 
faved, therefore not neceffary to true Doctrine, Religion or Salvation > 
elfe every unlearned Believer mull: be acquainted with all the Hifrories 
of the Church,and Fathers,and ProfelTors before him,which is impoffible. 

6. If a man did know this, yet be might be damned, if a man could 
tell all the Writers,Preachers, Doctors and Councils that have lived this 
Sixteen hundred years he might go to Hell at laft. God will condemn 
men for being ignorant of the ElTential Points in Chrifrianity contained 
in the Scripture, and if they do not believe, nor are converted^ but not 
for being unacquainted with the Hiftories of the Church, and names of 
thofe that did prpfefs the true Religion in the ages before them. 

7. Tbe Scripture never denieth that to be a true Church, that cannot, and 
becaufe it cannot fhew tbe fuccejfton thereof by Hiftories and Humane 

8: The Scripture doth never fend us to Hiftories, Councils and Fathers to 
judg of true Do&rwe and Religion by, but to the Word of God. Where in 
Scripture are ProfelTors or Minifters either commanded to ftudy, and 
be fo converfant in all Hiftories, Councils and Antiquities as to be able 


Scrm VII. ropery a Novelty. til 

to give a Catalogue, who have taught or owned the true Doctrine in 

ages before them? 

D p. Ifhat deceitful dealing is this ? to deny the People the reading of 
the Scripture and acquaintance with them, and in fuch things com- 
mend Ignorance as the Mother of Devotion, and will yet call upon 
them to fay, Who taught your Doctrines before Luther f as if it were 
more material to know who taught them,than to know therm or to be 
more skilled in the Writings of Men, than in the Word of God. 

io. Tljey call for that from w on our fart , which they cannot give them- 
fih es for tbemfelves on their part. You ask, Who taught your Do&rines 
from the Apoftles times? and we retort your Qaefton,and who taught 
all your Dodrines from the Apoftles times > We know you can never 
(hew them. So that if we could not, yet we were even with yon. I 
know you pretend a large Catalogue of Popes '>, but yet you are greatly 
puzzled to give their Succeffion, when there have been feveral Popes to- 
gether, and they that then lived could not know which was the right. 
B.it it you could give a Succeffion of Perfons, it profits nothing without 
a Succeffion of true ~Dottrine\ if you could mew a Succeffion defafto, you 
can (hew none de jure. That may be actual that may not be lawful. A\ 
thief may actually fucceed a true PoffefTor, and a Tyrant and Ufurper 
a lawful Prince, but not lawfully ^ this is llfurpation not legitimate 
Succeffion. We might fay therefore to your People as you do to ours. 
Is it fafe for you to continue in that Religion, of which you can give 
no account who have taught your Doctrines from the Apoftles times ? - 
for you cannot, no, nor your Doctors neither, no, though they call a 
Council and fearch all Records and Writings of men, as fhall be (hewn 
in the next General Head of this Sermon. 

Yet this is not faid, as if we doubted of our caufe, if it were to be 
tried by the Writings of the ancient Fathers, or as if we could not 
mentioa multitudes before Luther that have taught and owned our 
Doctrines •, for there are many great Volumns and Cart-loads of Books ■■■ 
in which our Doctrines are to be found. To give a large rehearfal of 
their words on oat fide would be an endlefs work, and not to be crou- 
ded into a piece of one Sermon: yet a few fhall be picked out of many r 
fufficient to (hew that our Doctrines, in which we do oppofe the Do- 
ctrines of the Church of Rome have been taught of old. 

What was the Doctrine in the firit hundred year from rhe Birth of 
Chrift is beft underftood from the holy Scripture •, and this is that Age 
and the Writings of the Apoftles are thofe Writings, by which the 
Writings of all other Ages mud be examined, as their fureft Rule, and ' 
that our Doctrines are there contained, and not the Doctrines of the 
Papifts as fuch i fee the Parallel before. 

In the Writings of the Fathers that lived in the fecond hundredth year t 
we have many Teftimonies. 
In this Age the Bi(hop of Rome had not that Power as now they 

chal- .- 

2U Toptry a, Novelty, Serm. VII. 

challenge, as appears from a Letter of Eleutheriw Bifhop of Rome to 
(r) Fox. A#s Lucim King of England (r), who had fent to the Bifhop for the Roman 
& Mon.Vol.i. Laws, as they were framed in Religion, to whom is fent an anfwer by 
P« i$9- Eleutherim, Ye require of us the Roman Laws, and the Emperours to be 
fent over to you. The Roman Laws and the Emperours we may ever re- 
prove, but the Law of God we may not* Ye have received of late through 
Gods mercy in the Realm of Brittany the Law and Faith of Gbrifi, ye have 
•with you within the Realm, both the parts of the Scripture, out of them by 
Gods Grace with the Council of your Realm takf ye a Law, and by that Law 
(through Gods fufferance) rule your Kingdom of Britain , for you be Gods 

Vicar in your Kingdom. Afterwards, whofe Vicar you he in the Realm, 

From whence is clear, that this Bifhop of Rome (i) challenged not the 
Supremacy over England, but acknowledg'd the King to be Supream 
Governour in his own Kingdom. (2) That he acknowledged the Per- 
fection of Scripture for life and manners, when Laws fhould be taken 
from thence for the Government of a Kingdom. (3 ) That England re- 
ceived the Gofpel early, and not fo late from the Church of Rome as 
fomeof them boaft, nor at all firft from them but from the Grecians of 
^138; the Eaft-Church W, as fome think. 

Particulars would be abundance, but Brevity is one part of my task 

in this prefent matter', I muft therefore take up with a Teftimony or two 

<%Mren.adver. of the Dodtrine taught in this Age. (t) Irentus teftifieth that the fame 

haeref. lib. 5. Truths of Apoftolical Doctrine were in this Age. (u) And that the 

l (u) Eufeb C 2 Church that was planted through a great part of the World,even to the 
Ecclef. Hift: en d °f t ^ e Earth, by the Apoftles and their Difciples,received the fame 
lib.3.c.24. Faith that is contained in that which is called the Apoftles Creed-, and 
he gives -a Summary of Doctrines to the fame purpofe as in that Creed 
is contained. 
a^ud E |ufeb Unto'thefe times (w) Egefippus that lived in this Age, declareth that 
Eccl. Hift.* ^ Church of God remained a pure and uncorrupted Virgin.— — M or e* 
Iib.4. C.21. over the fame witnefs gives a general Teftimony of the Doctrine in this 

Age, coming to Rome he met with many Bifhops, of one mind and 

Doctrine, faith, The Church of Corinth remains in the pure and right 
Rule of Dodtrine, and was comforted very much with their Doctrine. 

Being come to Rome I ftaid there till Anicetm was (tailed Bifhop, in 

all the Succeilion, and in every one of their Cities, it is no otherwife 
than the Law and Prophets, and the Lord himfelf did preach. 

After the Apoftles many taught our Doctrines long before Luther: 
having but little room, I muft take up with the fewer Heads of Do- 
ctrine, and fewer Teftimonies under each Doctrine-, I had begun to 
give a Catalogue in every hundred year fince Chrift, but that being 
too large for this place, I laid it by, and give Inftances in thefe few 

I. The 



Scrrn. V II. Jlftfb * \ Novdly. - , , y 

I. The Perfection and Sufficiency of the Scripture to Salvation taught 
long before Luther, 

(x ) Juftin Martyr^wko lived in the fecend hundredth year after Chrift, fx) JirftV Mar. 

iteth, That the true Religion it contained in the writings of the Pro- * n Trypn. & 
phets and Apoftles, who have taught all things neciffary for us to knows we arcn * 
are not commanded to give credit to the Traditions and Doctrines of men, but 
ihofe Vottnnes which were pnhlfhcd by the Prophets^ and Chriji hnnfelf de- 
livered \ all things are to !■ ought to the Scripture, and from thence are (y) ^'P^^ 
arguments and pro< : ftchui, fir if a man he never fo often asked, J*;** Jjjjj 

bow many doth two times two ma\e r he wilijiil! fiy) four;, fo a ChrijUan bo Dei & Spi- 
difcourfing with others will always aHedg the Scripture, (y) And IrentUs, ritu ejus di- 

" The Scriptures are perfect as fpoken and dictated from the Word of #£• Ir ™- ad- 
«o i juvc«;,:». ' ver.ha?r. lib. 2. 

"Godand his Spirit, cap 47 

So Tfr/w//w«/a;An.Dom.2oo,e^c.writes, " I adore the fulnefs of the ^' Idoro 

cC Scriptures. --Let Hermogenes (hew that it is written, if it be not Scripture ple- 

u written, let him fear that wo appointed for thofe that add, or dimi'- mtudinem — 
"nifh. In another place, thus, (a) " We have the Apoftles of the ^ c p a t t um T efre> 
ct Lord for our Authors; which never brought in any thing at their ^^1 1S ^ 
" own will, but what Doctrine they had from Chrift, they faithfully cinatf non eft 
" delivered to the Nations | wherefore if an Angel from Heaven mould Scriptum, ti- 

ct preach otherwife to us, we would pronounce him accurfed. To "l? 1 .^ il^ 

(b) this Objection [the Apoflles did not know alitor if they did, they did ^Sh^ 
rtot deliver alf] he replieth, "That both ways fuch reproach Chrift as tibus deftina- 
" if he had Cent Apoftles either unskilful, or unfaithful.— —Again, " In turn. TertnL 
" matters of Faith, men muft argue no other way than from the Scrip- a& y er»Hermogi 
" tures. In mort, he lays down the Doctrines of this Age in a Confef- qI^^u }?* 
fion of Faith, agreeable to (that which is called) the Apoftles Creed, mus authored 
and faith, They are not doubted of by any amongft us, but Hereticks. qui nee ipfi 
In the like manner fpeaketh Origen, (c) that lived alfo in this Age, of r ^icquam ex 
the Perfection of the Scripture : " In the two Teftaments every word fuo srbitrio, 
" that appertaineth to God may be required and difcuiTed,and all know- r^t, elege- 6 " 
" ledg of things out of them may be underftood •> but if any thing do rant'; fed ac- 
" remain, which the holy Scripture doth not determine, no other third ceptam a 
" Scripture ought to be received for to authorize any knowledg. And c j} r ift° Difci- 
rnore in other places *s and a large Confeffion of Faith alfo by him,and *„™ t f^ m 
Gregory Neocjejar, containing the Doctrines that we hold, (d) bus affignave- 

nint. Itaque 
etiatnfi Angelus de coelis ahter Evangehzaret, anathema diceretur a Liobis. Idem de Prsic. Ha?retV 

(6) Solent dicere,— non omnia Apoftolos fcifle, omnia quidem Apoftolos fcifle, fed nori 

omnia omnibus tradidiffe j in utroq^ Chriitum reprehenfioni fubjicientes, qui aut minus inftru- 
etos, aut parum fimplices Apoftolos miferit. Ibid. Aliunde fuadere non poffent de rebus fidei nili 
ex Uteris fidei. ibid, (c) Id. ibid. Origin: in Levit. Hom.'$. Torn. 1. * Hom.2. in Hhrtmiam. 
(d) Magdeburg. Cent 3. p. 34,3 5. 

(e) Hierome that died An. 420. thus, " Whatfoever we affirm, we (0 Hieron: 
% ought to prove out of the holy Scriptures, the fpeakcrs words have in p &« 99: 

F f not 

2i4 Popery a Novelty. Serin. VII. 

"not fo much Authority as the Lords Command. 
(7) Nihil, • vel (f) Ambrofe alfo who was born about the year 333, is of the 
cautionis gra- f ame judgment. " We ought to add nothing, ho, not for caution to 
nos deberaus Gods Command \ for if thou doft add,or dimini(h,it is a prevaricating 
mandaro. Si " of the Command *■> the pure and ilmpje form of the Command is to 

quidenimvel " be kept. Nothing therefore, feem it never fo good, ought to be 

addas, vel de- « ac y e j (0 ^ — -Therefore we ought not to add to or take away from 
ricatio quae- ''the Commands of God. And he is more large which I cannot (for 
dam videtur brevity) tranferibe. (g) Again, he faith, " Who (hall fpeak where the 
cile mandati, " Scripture is filent > Anguine (born ^.355.) fubferibes the fame 
pura enim & Dodrrine. (h) " In thofe things which are laid down plainly in the 
datfforma^" "Scripture, all thofe things are found which belong to Faith, or di- 

fervanda. — ■> "redtion of life. (i) " Let us not hear, this I fay, this you fay, but 

Nihil vel quod <c let us hear,this faith the Lord $ there is Gods Book, to whofe Autho- 
b° num vi <j e " *rity we on both fides confent, believe, there let us feek the Church, 

Si —Doc™ tC therc Jet us difcufs our cau ^ e - Let tno ^ e things be taken from amongft 
ighur nos c us which we quote, or alledg one againft another, but not from the 
prafentis le- " Divine Canonical Books 5 tor I will not, that the holy Church be de- 
ctionis feries " monftrated from the Documents of Men, but from the Oracles of 

Sf^div!^ " God - A g ain > " Read us thefe thin gs out of the Law,out of the Pro- 
ms debcre " phets, or Pfalms, or Gofpel, or the Apoftles Epiftles > read ye, and 

mandatis,neq-, c we believe. Again, our Lord Jefus himfelf did rather judg that his 

adderc. Ambr. " Difciples fhould be confirmed by the Teftimony of the Law and 
r °d : r'.ap it " P r0 P nets « Thefe be the proofs , foundation, and ftrength of our 

fe) Sanctis' "caufe. Again, "Let no man ask me my opinion, but let us hear- 

Scripturis non " ken to the Scripture, and fubmit our petty reafonings to the Word 

loquentihus, " of God. We walk much fafer according to the Scripture > Con* 

r^ S ^ u £ tur * w troveiiles are to be determined by the Scripture.- Again, Iinfert 

Gent. ,1.2. c.z. " tne °P*nion of Ambrofe^ Jerome^&c. not for that thou (houldft think 
' .. " that the fenfe of any man is to be followed as the Authority of Cano- 

aperteinScri- Cc nical Scripture. Auguftine hath abundance more (in many places) of 
ptura pofita tc fuch-like Doctrine^and he was above a thoufand years before Luther. 

tur ilia omnia,qua? continent fidem morefq*, vlvendi.Aug.de Docl. Chrifl.Tow.$. L.2.C.9. (J) Non a&- 
diamus,h$cdico,h£c dicis,fed audiamus,haec die t dominus.Sunt certelibriDominici,quorumautori- 
tati,utriqj confentimus.utriq^credimus, — Ibi quaeramus Ecclefiamjbi difcutiamus caufam noftram; 
auferantur ilia de medio.qu* adverfus nos invicem,non ex divinis Canonicis libris,fcd aliunde reci- 
tamus \ quia nolo humanis documents, fed divinis oraculis fanctam Ecclef am demonftrari. idem 
de unit at. Ecc/ef. cap. 2. L eg it e nobis haec de Lege, de Prophetis, de Pfalmis, de ipfo Evangelio, 
de Apoftolicis literis } Legite & credimus. Idem. ibid. cap. 6. Ipfe dominus Jefus difcipulos tefti- 
moniis Legis & Prophetarum confirmandos ef!e magis judicavit. Hsec funt caute noftrse documen- 
ts, hac fundamenta, he firmamenta. Idem. Ibid, cap.16. Nemo ex me quadrat fententiam meam, 
fed potius audiamus oracula, noftrafq} ratiunculas divinis fummitramus afifatibus. Augufi. de Mor. 
EccLCath. cap.q.Tom.i. Per Scripturas Divinas multo tutius ambulatur. Controverfa ex eadem 
Scriptura terminetur. id. de ToJ. cbrifl. cap.S. Sententias Ambrofi, Hieronymi, &c. non ob hoc 
interponere volui, ut cujufquam hominis fenfura tanquam Scriptura? Canonic^ auftoritatem fequen- 
dum arbitreris. Id. Eptfi. 112. 


Serm. VII. Popery a Novelty. 251 

Chryfojhme alfo, that lived in the fame age, and died about the year 
407, taught the fame Dodhine fo long before Luther, in this point, as 
the Reformed Churches now do.Thus he writes: (\)" Would it not be (JO J 1 ^' # 
u an abfurd and prepofterous thing, that when we have to do with men ^t^) %e M - 
" in matters or money, we believe them not.but count it after them i but ^rav t*n *• 
" when we are to judg of things, we are fimply drawn into their cpi- )*&", tied- 
cc nions s and that when we have the Law of God for an exadfr ru!e,ba- W H» *?> *f™' 
lance and fquare of all things. Wherefore I befecch and ihtreat you all, £g T0 ^^!Ife? 
" that ye matter not, what one or another thinks of thefe things j bur mm , <£p /* 
u that ye would confult the holy Scriptures concerning them. In ano- T&r.y[x&]G>v 
ther place thus : (I) " Thefe things which are in the holy Scripture are fyvjZ ^'** 
" clear and right ^ whatfoever is necelTary, is manifeft therein. Many f*^* reu J 
more Teftimonies we might have from this Author, and others quoted J^L^a/f'^- 
in the Margent, (m) but Brevity forbids the tranferibing of their aj<: ^tav'I* 
words. To conclude this particular take the Teilimony of a Council, «V'£« lyybv 
(n) wherein are many witneihng together, that the Scripture is fo per- ***"/»* »* 
red: that nothing is to be added to it. Ambrcfe faid, "Anathema to * a » ,,A* 

LC i • 1 111 I • i o • 1 r • 1 yPMU.QVCL Xa 

him, that addeth any thing to the Scripture, or taketh from it, and y, A yoy<t, icov 
x all theBifhops faid, let him beaccurfed. And their own Canon Law, $&cov ri^a? 
(0) reciting the words of Cyprian, That the Scripture mull be followed, 7 ^ ^0" 
arid not Cuftom or Traditions* "IfChrift only is to be heard, jvt ^j^J^ * 
<c ought not to regard what any one before us thought was to be done •, J*/^ *&£? 
u but what Chrifl: that was before all did ; neither ought we to follow rav v/ffi> d- 
u the cuftom of men, but the truth of God ■-, when as the Lord hath ?W«* ^ 1? 
"faid by the Prophet Jfaias, In vain do they rvorfhip me, teaching the ^l*' % r *~ 
u commands and doftrine of men. And again, (p) u It is not lawful for ^/^^T 
u the Emperour, or any other pcrfon pioufly difpofed, to prefume any ^^ $/ 
f thing againtt the Divine precepts, nor to do any thing that is con- pwSr tavJ* 
" trary co the Rules of the Evangelifts, Prophets, or Apoftles. Then *>***!* wvp- 
their Writings muft be perfect, or we (hall often be at a lofs for chr^Horrr 
want of a Rule to direct us. All thefc and multitudes more taught this 12. in 2 Cor*, 
long before Luther. fij Tavta 

l-A tW £■*&>» jfettpvy ^ivaxjuofj^r) ts )y ttvAytvaxTKO^ivi]. Idem. Tom. 1.398. H* Wa %*$% 
vtltfaylftip tKaMcfji^. Tdem. pag, 114. vide ctiam pag. 217.428. T& (jty 'Zvy.qwa rout y^dr 
$o~e fi^t&ojj Tdtfl afob7?ict'&n@JiMHv. Bafil. Mag. in Moral, lib. Sum. 72.cap.i. Vide ctiam 
eundem. Sum. So. cap. 22 . & Homil. de Confef. fidei. & paiTim. (n) Concil. Aquileien. Surius. 
Tom. 1. de Concil. p. 477. (0) Corp. Jur. Can. Diftinct. 8. c. fj Solus. (?) Ibid. Diftinft. 10. 
c. non licet. 

II: Thai the Teople ought to read the Scripiure.and therefore ought it to 
be tranflatcd into vulgar Tongues^ rvdi a Veftrine taught long before 

F f 2 By 

21 o # Popery a Novelty. Serm. VIL* 

fyj ;Ax«<r«7« u B y Chryfpflome, (q) " Let the Word of God dwell in you richly, he 

o>o/ irfi *6cr- ... doth not fay,only let it dwell in you, but in great abundance. Hear 

(AiKoi^yv- "this ye worldly men, that have Wives and Children, how he com- 
rade* Xa rral- ic it . ,' » ~ . 11 „.'. . . UUUI 



«ar« paA/ra your Souls. Ignorance of the Scriptures is the caufe of all evils. We 
sJJS^f ' &° to war w * tn out our weapons, how then can we be fafe } &c. 
K*t*K cl7&£< l n another place he inftru&ed the People, " That when they went from 
*H&t Itv- ' the Congregation to their Houfes, they fhould take their Bibles and 
y&\ *Wc«J <l call their Wives and Children to participate of the Difcourfe of the 
Wf **$* " things that were faid. And in another place, he exhorts them dili- 
W^7e"^§ entI y t0 attend the readin g °f the holy Scripture, "Not only when 
^xaA^waV "they came to the AfTembly, but at home to take the* Sacred Scrip- 
Is* 0/ &cf]i- "tures into their hands, and this he doth by an argument drawn from 
xl/ ty >C\&&i « tne g reat p ro ft t t ha.t they may receive thereby. Elfewhere he alfo 
^!w* - T»* P " " mentionetn that the Syrians, Egyptians, Indians, Terfians, Ethiopians 
4uy?fc. T«to an< ^ multitudes more, had the Doctrines of the Scripture tranflated 
Wjr/«y, <uti- into their own Tongues. 

9V 7G>y Kflt- 



Chryfoft. in Coloff. Homil. 9. Item in Mat. Homil. 2. in Mat. Horn. 5. to this purpofe alfo, de 
Lazar. Horn. 3. in Genef. Homil. 29. In Johan. Homil. 1. , 

fi loa^ch % ^ e ^ e a ^° ^ y ^ a * nt ^ u ^ u ^ He -> ( r )- " Jt * s come t0 P a ^ s that the 
Iib.a'cap^.' " Scripture,wherewith fo many difeafes of mens wills are holpen,pro- . 
c< ceeding from one Tongue which fitly might be difperfed through 
c the world, being fpread far and wide by means of the divers Lan- . 
c guages whereinto it is. tranflated, is thus made known to Nations 
for their Salvation, the which when they read, they defire nothing 
t\Cc but to attain, to the mind of him that wrote it, and fo to the 
' will of God, according to which we believe fuch men fpake. 
(sj Hof. de To the new Dodbine of Hofius Prefident 00 at the Council of Trent, 

verb DC1 * hat a V^ff*™ fitter fir Women than a Bible \ ' We will oppofe (t) the : 
(t) Theodo- Teftimony of Theodoret of the old practice in the Church in this point : 
m.de curand: " You (hall every where fee thefe Paints of our Faith to be known and 
Grcco. atfeft. " understood, not only by fuch as are teachers in the Church,but even 
lib. 5. cc f Coblers,and Smiths, and Webftcrs, and all kind of Artificers i yea 

" all our Women, not they only which are Book-learned, but they 
" alfo that get their living with their Needle, yea Maid-fervants, and 
" waiting Women \ and not Citizens only but Husbandmen of the 
" Country are very skilful in thefe things \ yea, you may hear among 
"our Ditchers, and Neat-heards, and Wood-fetters difcourfing of the 
"Trinity and Creation, &?, 

III. That 

Scrm. VIL Popery a Novelty. * 1 7 

III. Tbat Religion* Worfhip was net to be given to Images, or Reliques 
of Saints wm taught long before Luther. 

When Polycarpus furTered, the envious Perfecutors not willing that 
his Body (hould be honourably buried, as the Chriftians were delirous 
to do, they moved the Proconful not to deliver to the Chriftians the 
Body'of Polycarp, left they leaving Chrift, fall a worfhipping of himv 
concerning which the Church of Smyrna (for I have not room for cita- 
tions of particular perfons) in their (*) Epiftle to the Church at Pbilo- 00 Eufeb. 
milium, &c faid, This theyfaid, being ignorant of this that rve can never ^T^T^ 

forfakf Chrift, and tbat we can worjhip no otber \ for we worjhip Cbrift 

as tbe Son of God, the Martyrs rve love as Difciples and fohwers of the 


O) About the time of Sylvefter fir ft, who was Ann. 3 14. a Council M Pwcuit, 

was fofar from worshipping of Images that they would not have any g^^ ^fle 
Pictures in the Churches,left that which is worshipped or adored mould non debere . 
be painted on Walls. Alfo about the year 700, a Synod at Confianti- n c quod coli- 
nople (whom the Greekj call the Seventh,) did not only condemn tbe tur, autAdo- 
rrorfbip of Images, but alfo Images tbemfehes, and tbat tbey jbouldbe cafi ra ^Yd<Tin- 
out of Churches, (x) Gregory Eifhop of N£oc£farea (not the antient of "fJJ* ^7." 
that title, but another fince him), wrote a Book againft Images, which %nber, can.%6. 
was read and approved by this Council, and inferted into the Syno- (x) Illiric. 
dical Adts as a common Decree s in which Book there are Testimonies Cat . al - Teft ' 
of Scripture and Fathers againft the Idolatry of Images , and that they Vent.pag.73> 
would not allow any Image or Picture of Chrift, but Anathematized 
them that (hould draw his Effigies in material colours. Can. 8,p, 10, 
it, 12, 13. and determined that there was one only Image appointed 
by Chrift, to wit, the BlelTed Bread and wine in the Eucharift [Lords 
Supper! which reprefent to us the Body and Blood of Chrift. The 
Second Nicene Synod was againft this, and for Images, and a Synod 
at Francfort againft the Second Nicene Council and their Images. 

Pezelins gives us this account, That Leo the third,Emperour, called a 
Synod about the year 730, in which it was controverted, whether 
Images were to be worshipped, &c. the ilTue whereof was that the 
Fathers then prefent, (except only Germanus, and therefore refigned, 
and one Anaftafw was chofen in his rocmj condemned and fubferibed, . 
That worfhipping of Images and Relicks was meer Idolatry, contrary 
to the Scripture - , and the Interceffion of Saints a Fable. TheEmperour ■ 
put the Decrees of the Synod into execution, commanded the Images 
to be brought into the midft of the City and burned \ and the Pictures 
on Walls to be whited over, and fo defaced \ and did write to Pope 
Gregory the third, (according to fome, the fecond) and commanded 
him, as he would keep in his favour, to do the like. After him his 
Son Conftantinus, called Copronym us, out of his zeal called a Synod at 
Byzwtium, Ann. 754. which is called the Seventh General Council, 
where were prefent 338 Fathers, where the Queftion being difcufled. 


2i8 Tcptry a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

Whether it were lawful i hat. Images (hould [To much as j be in Chur- 
ches; who receiving the Decrees of the firtt and fecond Councils of 
Conllantinople, Ephefus, Nice^ Chalcedon ; did determine with one con- 
fent, that all Images (hould as abominations be call away. Fezel. & 
Lampad. Mellific Hiftor. par.3 . p*g-3 7 -A 1 * 

IV. That Invocation of Angels and Saints U unlawful was taught long 
before Luther, 

By the Council of Laodkea which was about the year 364, accor- 
ding to Caranza, who relating the Canon I am to produce, tor \_An- 
gelos"] reads twice \_AnguUs~\ to evade the force of the Councils Canon, 
which he could not Hand before, for which tricks of Legerdemain 
their TranQations are little to be truikd to ••> let us take it in the Greeks 

tiVOA Xj *y/«r 

Church of xv&ov Yi^av 'l«tf-S/ ffcirov* ih ifov ^ O-gio ^ HfahoheLTfeicL T§oftih$iv, Concil. 

£od, and go Laodic. Can. 3 5. Codice Canonum EcclcT. univerf. Can. 13^. " 

and call upon 

Angels, and gather Afiemblies, which are forbidden j if therefore any fhall be found giving 

himfelfto this fecret Idolatry, let him be accurfed, becaufe he hath forfaken our Lord Jefus 

C hrift, the Son of God, and hath approached to Idolatry. 

The Papifts are fo humble that they will go to God, by having rc- 
courfe to Saints, to intercede for them 5 this we diflike. Who taught 
the contrary before Luther ? Multitudes. One of which becaufe it is fo 
{x) Solent ta- pat, I will tranferibe \ (z) Ambroje above a thoufand years ago con- 
men pudore demned fuch that vScdfucha miferable excufe^ in thsit they thinkji go to 
pafli negledi q £ fry tbefe, as men go to a King by his Nobles. Go to^ is any man fo mad 
utTcxcufad- or f° unmin ^l H l °f hi* Salvation as to give the Kings honour to a Courtier i 
one, dicentes which if any do^ are they not right eoufly condemned as guilty oflreajon? 
per iftospovTe and yet thefe do not thinly tbemftlves to be guilty^ which give the honour of 
ire ad Deum, $y e name v j 'God unto a creature^ and firfikjn? the Lord they adore their 
\\ ^vy rve- f e ^ ori? T ervants: ^or therefore do men go to the King by tribunes or Offxers^ 
nitur ad Re- becaufe the King is but a man^ and kvioweth not to whom to commit thefiate 
gem. Age, of the Commonwealth ; but to procure the favour of God* (from whom no- 
nunquid tarn thing is hid^ for he hrioweth the works of all men) xve need no fpobefman.hut 
demens eft a £ evmt m ^ nc [ ^ j or where fever fuch a one fa all fpea\ unto him^ he will 

falutis fuse im- **fi*ir him. 
memor 5 ut ho- 

norificentiam Regis vendicet Comiti, cum de hac re fi qui etiam tractare fuerint invent], jure 
ut rei damnentur Majeftatis ? & ifci fe non putant reos, qui honorem nominis Dei deferunt crea- 
ture, & reli&o domino confer vos adorant. Nam ideo ad Regem perTribunos aut Comites 

ltur, quia homo uriq^ eft Rex, & nefcit quibus debeat Rempublicam credere. Ad Deum autem 
(quern utiq*, nihillatet, omnium enim merita novit) promerendum furfragatore non opus eft/ed 
tnente devota. Ubicunque enim talis locurutus foent ei, refpondebit illi, Ambrof, in Roman, a. 

V. that 

Serm. VII. Popery a Novelty. 219 

V. That there are but two -places for the Souls of men after death^ and 

confequently no Purgatory was taught long before Luther. 
(a) Augujiine, born above a thoufand years before Luther, taught, (Y) Augufl.de 
" That there is no middle place for any, he muft needs be with the pec. Merit. & 
"Devil that is not with Chrift. (b) Again, "The Catholick Faith ™j^f 
" refting upon Divine Authority, believes the tirft place the Kingdom of k ue ft. Erang. 
" Heaven i and theftcond, Hell •, a third we are wholly ignorant ot. iib.2. cap.38. 
(c) Again, what Abraham faith to the Rich man in Luke, " That the CO Idem - . at * 
"Righteous though they would, cannot go to the place where the Macc d- Epuu- 
" Wicked are tdYmented > what doth it mean, but that the godly can ™° 
"afford no help of mercy, though they would, to thofe that be fhut 
" up in prifon after this life, that they (hould come out from thence, 
" and that through the unchangeablenefs of Gods Judgment. Again, 
" There is no place for the amending of our ways but in this life j for 
" after this life every one (hall receive according to what he feeketh 
u after in this ', therefore the love of Mankind doth conilrain us to in- 
" tercede for ilnners, left by pimifhrnent they fo end this life, that there 
"life being ended, their punifhment never end. (d) Another, " What- 00 Olympi-- 
"foever ftate or condition, whether good or bad, a man is taken in °? or l ir \ Vv. 
tc when he dieth, fo muft he abide for ever, for he (hall either reft in 
cc eternal happinefs with the Saints and the Lord Chrift, or (hall be tor- 
"mented in darknefs with the Wicked and the Devil. This cannot be 
Purgatory, for the Papifts do not fay that the Wicked, or the Devils be 
in Purgatory but in Hell. 

VI. That the Marriage of Mimflers wjs lawful, was taught long before 


Long before indeed \ for it is the fixth of the(fuppofed) x^poftolical 
Canons,owned by the Church o(Rome in thefe words/e)Let not a Bifhop (7) Cararrz. 
or a Preslyter upon pretence of Religion put away bti Wife \ but if he do Jet Sum. ConciT.' 
him be excommunicated, if he full perfifi therein, let him be depofed. P* *4 # 

(f) The Council at Ancyra alfo did decree, That fuch as in their Ordi- 00 Concil. 
nation did declare their purpofefor te marry, if they did fo, (hnuld continue Ancyran.Can* 1 
in their Ministry, (g) Another Council about the year 300 decreed, ^°- ^ 1C S "\ 
That if any (hould judg, that be ought not to partake of the Oblation from c i e £ ufl i ve rfJ* 
a married Presbyter, let him beacewfed. And the hrft General Council Can. 30. 
at Nice that had this under debate after Paphnuuw had delivered hisOOCodex 
judgment about it, did leave it at every Minifiers liberty to marry, or Can ' K cc{ fi[' , 
not marry as they (hould fee caufc, fh) which the Romanes Canon ^"^Concil. 321 ' 
Law doth alfo ftt down. Likewife this is fully ftated in the i'ixth Gene- Gangrcns, 
ral Council, lhat the lawful Marriages of holy men jhould be valid, but Can. 4.- 
wbofoever is fund diligent (hould no way be kindred from that office, be- W Corpjur? 
caufc of living with hU lawful Wife. Then f re if any (haU pre fume contrary ?^t5^ 
to the Apoftles Rules to deprive any Presbyters or Deacons, of communion Synodus. 
with their lawful Wifes, let him be depofed. Well faid Council ! and if 


830 Topery u Novelty. Serm. VII. 

this could have been put into execution, the Pope would have been 
(f) Jus Canon, down long before now,or mended his tyrannical dealings; and yet this 
Vyn- £. r * m ' ftands in their (i) Canon Law,and they a6r quite contrary to it ^ here 
quondam in C ' ^ n B ^° m a nyCouncils,and fo many ancient lathers in all thtfe Councils 
Roman. I nee ^ not look for more, to tell you who taught this Dodtrine before 


W E?V xj ^^' Communion in both hjnds was taught long before Luther. 

a{IQ- 7o7< Ignatius^ (k^) One bread U broken to all, and one cup diftrihuted 

vtamv t *$W to all. And by Juftin Martyr, (/J They give to every one that is prefent of 
diujy w no- t j Je coH j~ ecrate d Bread and Wine, as Cbrijl commanded them. And by Cypri- 

otoiifttvmn- an ( m ^ ^ 1VP ^ rQe i nv i fe f ^ em t0 ^ed their blood for Cbrijl in the Con- 
$n. Igmt.zdfefionof his name, if when they Jet forth to fight for him, we deny them 
Fhilad. f his blood ? how pal! we fit them for the cup of Martyrdom, if before we 
tO, A//p*a , 'J' admit them not by right of communion, to drink, of the Lords cup in bis 
^aejhav y.i- ^ mrc ^° ? ^ n another place thus, (n) Becaufe fome men out of ignorance, 
l&kaQeiv ^ or fimplicity in fantlifying the cup of the Lord, and minijtring it to the Peo- 
cuxap/rnBu'- pie, do not that which Cbrijl the Injlituter thereof did and taught, I thought 
7% *P f T® y ^ it both matter of Religion and necefjity to acquaint you herewith by Letters 
olV A.^ v **l that if any be held in that error, the lioht of truth being now difcovered to 
n&fifcoK&v ' 0im - ) vt might return unto the root and beginning of our Lords Inflituti- 
l»iiTcLh%<u on,&c. Fully and plainly by Chryfoftom (o) "That the People have as 
tt ^ 70 l i }'*\ " good a title to the Cup as the Miniiter/ometimes and in fome things 
C * 1 2 in* fine. " tnerc * s n0 difference between the People and the Prieft, as in the par- 
(■m) Cyprian. tc ticipation of the dreadful Myfteries ; for all are equally admitted unto 
Epift. 54 : " them. In the time of the old Law,it was not lawful for the People to 
O). Cyprian. « eat f thofe things of which the Prieiis did eat ^ but it is not fo now, 
fK l ^\ 6 1'' ct f° r °ne body is offered to all,and one Cup. 

*k \ £t* Imuftthrufiin the Dodtrine of Leo the Great, who was a Bifhop of 
Tvsew uiTi- Rome, Ann. 440. and yet did count it Sacriledg, not to have the Cup 
X«V ©V (xel«- received by the People.He faith thus,fpeaking of the Manicbees^p)" And 
X*iyd§iyf> "when to cover their Infidelity they dare be prefent at our Mylteries, 
*XKd* V &) " tne Y * ocarr y themfelves at the Communion of the Sacrament, that 

tv ffvpAv?*' " tne y ma y tne more ^ e] y ne kid> tne y take tne Bod y °f chrift 

%*f\±i> j£ to- " with their unworthy mouths, but they altogether decline the drink- 
1*$iov tf. " i n g of the Blood of our Redemption *•> which I would have you to 
Cluyfo^in a k n0W t h at tne f e kind of men by this mark being made manifeft,who(e 
Ig> ' " Sacrilegious fimulation when difcovered, let them be marked,and by 

Q>) Cumq-, ad " Priefily Authority be driven from the fociety of the Saints, &c. 
tegendum in- 

fidehtatem fuam noftris audcant interefTe Myfteriis, ita in Sacramentorum Communione fe tem- 
perant, ut interdum tutius lateant j ore indigno Chrifii corpus accipiunt ; Sanguinem autem Rc- 
demtionis noftra? haurire omnino declinant. Quod ideo veftram volumus fcire fanclitarem, uc 
▼obis hujufcemodi homines, & his manifeftentur indicris, & quorum deprthenfa fuerit Sacrikga 
fimulatio, notati & proditi, a Sandorum focietate, Sacerdotali auroritate pellantur, &c, iwi. 
dt Quadragtf. Serm, 4. 


Scr m. VII. T'p*ry * Novcltj. 2 2 1 

Becaufe in Councils there are many witneiTes at once, let us hear 
them. The Council at Ancyra, though lv.it Provincial fyet as Caranzi 
faith was confirmed by the General Council at Nice J was according to 
Caranzi his Computation in the year of our Lord 308, did decree. 
Can. 2. That Deacons that had facrificed to Idols, Jh mid not deliver the 
Bread nor the Cup in the Sacrament. Whence it appears that in that age 
the Cup was given as well as the Bread. And the Council at Neo-cs- 
farea confirmed alfoby the Nicate Council, (To Caranza) Can. 13. did 
decree, Ihat the Country Pritfis in the preface of the Bifhop, or Presbyters 
of the City, Jhould not give the Bread, nor reach the Cup, but if they were 
ahfent they alone Jhould do it. At the General Council at Chalcedon con- 
(ifting'of 630 Fathers, the Seventh accufation brought againft lb a (q ^ c ^' d 
Bimopof Edvffa was, That there was not Efficient quantity of Wine pro- Su riuin,Tom. 
vided that thofe that did adminifler wcr? contained to go to the taverns 2 . AcL io. 
for more. But what need this complant, if the People were not to drink 
as well as to eat ^ this being a General Council, it feems that through 
the whole Church the Cup was given to the Laity j this was about 
the year 451. in the time of Leo the firm In the third Toletan Council 
it was decreed that through all the Churches of Spain and Galliciajhzt 
the Creed fhould be repeated with a loud voice, and the People make pro fef- 
fion of their Faith, before they receive the Body and Blood of Chrifi. At the . f T .- 

Council of llerda, it was decreed, That the Clergy that deliver Chrifis £™ C1 - l:l ™£ 
Body an d Blood, Jh^uld abjfainfrom all mens blood, even of their enemies. Magdeburg. 
One more Teftimony of one of their Bifiiops of Rome, full and good Cent.5.p.4<57. 
Protectant Docarrine, which T find in their Decretals. The Dodfrrine 
oiGelaftus (r) who was Bifhop of RomefCor as yet there were no Popes * r + comperi- 
properly as now they ufe the word,) Ann. 4^2. thus, We have found mus autem, 
that certain having received a portion of the facred body, abfiain from t he quod quidam 
Cup of his facred Blood, (being intangled with 1 kjiow not what fuperftiti- fumpta tatI _ 
on) let them either receive the whole Sacrament, or elfe let them be wholly tummo ."° . 
excluded from receiving, becaufe the divifon of one and the felffame My- portione a 
fiery can't be without grievous Sacriledg. Well faid Gelafius ! ye Papifts Calice facri 
that ask who preached our Do&rine before Luther ? in this point I fay cruoris abfti- 
Gelafius^ Bifhop of Rome i and he taught of old that the not partaking ne ^ t - c ^. 1 
in both kinds s is i. Superftition i 2. a maiming or halfing of the Sa- (quoniam 10 
crament; 3. that it is grand Sacriledg. Was your Bifhop in his Chair nefcio qua 
when he did thus determine i and yet will ye neither believe that he fuperftitione 
did err, nor yet give the cup to the People, though he did infallibly j*°F entur ob " 
di&ate this to be a duty. Surely he did err in faying fo, or you do err fatcin iSacra- 
in not doing fo. menta perci- 

piant, aut ab 
integris arceantur, quia divifio unius ejufdemq-, Myfterii fine grandi Sacrilegio non poteft pro- 
venire. Corpus jur. Cm. Deer it. pars 3. Dtfhci. 3, c. Comperimus autem. 

VIII. Ihat in the Lords Supper after Confecration there U true and real 
Bread, and true and real Wine, was a Doctrine' taught by many long before 
Luther. G g By 

222 Toper y a "Novelty. Serra. VII 

(<) Hoc eft By leriullian, (s) " Chrift taking the Bread and diftributing it to his 

corpus meum, « Difcipl£S ^ madc it his Body, faying, Ibk u my Body , that * (mark, 
porisraei.Tt-'f. ' l ^* s ^ a figure of my Body. By Attgufiine^ (*) who bringeth in our Sa- 
4dv.Marc.l4* viour fpeaking after this manner, u Ye (hall not eat this Body which. 
(t) Non hoc c ye fee, nor drink that Blood which they (hall (bed that will crucifie 
corpus quod c me : I have commended a certain Sacrament unto you, that beings 
duca^urreftts ' Spiritually underftood will quicken you. By GelsjiUf, (n) fayipg, 
& bibiruri " The Sacraments which we receive of the Body and Blood of Chrift, 
ilium fangui- " are a Divine Thing, by means whereof we are made partakers of the. 
nem,quem fa- * Divine Nature, and yet the fubftance or nature of Bread and Wine. 

me crucirl? U1 " ^ ot ^ not cea ^ e t0 ^ e ' an( * m( ^ ee ^ tne image and the iimilitude of the. 
gent- Sacra- "Body and Blood of Chrift are celebrated in the action of the. 
mentum ali- " Myfteries. 
quod vobis 

commendavi: Spiritualiter intellechirn, viviflcabk vos. An gift, in Pfal. £8. Qt) Certa Sacra-. 

menra qua! fumimus corporis & fanguinis Chrifti divina res eft, -& tamen eiTe non definit fub- 

ilantia vel natura panis & vini. , Gelaji. de duib. Natur. in Chrift. contra Eaiychen. 

(tv) Si ergo By Ambrofe^ (&) cc How can that which is Bread by Confecration 

tanta vis eft "be the Body of Chrift? by the words of Chrift : What words of 
D mTnMefu " Chrift * ^Y which all things were made •, the Lord commanded and 
ut incipient **" tne Heaven was made i the Lord commanded.and the Earth, and the 
efic qua? non- 1 ' Sea was made. Seeft thou then how powerful is the W r ord of Chrift ? 
erant-, quanto - c if therefore there be fuch vertue in the W r ords of our Lord to make 
magis 9F ra ~ u thofe thing> that were not, to begin to be, how much more power- 
SINT QUM " ^ ' ls h ,s Word, that they remain the fame they were, and yet be 
ER/\NT & in " changed into another thing ? 
aliad commu- 

tentur ? . ^Tu ipfe eras, fed eras vetus creatura, poftcaquam confecratus es, nova creatura etfe 

caepifti. — Sed forte dicis, fpeciem fanguinis non video. Sed habet fmiiiitudinem. — -Simi- 
litudinem precioii fanguinis bibis. Ambrof. de Sacram, lib.$. cap.$. edit.(miU) Paris, 152^ 

This Author doth acknowledga change, but not a Tranfubftantia- 
ting change, for he expreily faith, They be what they were. It was 
Bread and W T ine before, and therefore though fet apart for holy ufe, 
yet not changed into another nature. So as to fubftance, to ceafe to be 
what they were. And he giveth inftance in our felves, when converted 
there is a change, of old are made new creatures, but not by being 
changed into a new fubftance, but our Souls fet upon right Objects, 
&c. And when the Objection is made, But I do not fee Blood in kind. 
He rcplkth, But it hath the likenefs or fimilitude of it y and thou 
drinkcft that which hath the refemblance of the precious Blood of 
Chrift. This was taught then above a thoufand years before Luther 
by this Father. And fo it was by Cbryfojieme alfo, (x) Who faith, "If 
£0 Chryfoft. " j t j^ p~ r j| otiS f0 p Ut t | ie f e fiaHowcd VtiTels to private ufe, in which Is 
in Mat Tom. « nQt ^ ^ fiod of chri(} but the Myftery ot his Bo dy is contained 

pour. «*. , . * p * -i 

Mora. 11. therein,how much more, wc. 

IX. That 

Sertn. VII, Popery <i Novelty. 223 

IX. That the Bijhdp of Rome n\ts not the VniverfA Head of the Catho- 
lic^ Church, nor the Judg in whofe definitive fntcnce all were 
bound to acquiefce was taught long before LiHher. 

Inthcfecond hundredth year after Chrift, there were fix Councils, 
"Provincial only, the caufe whereof was the difference about the Feaft 
cfEajier; hen.ats (y) Prefident of the Synod in France did write to (0 Eufcb. 
Vitior then Bifhop of Rome, and fharply reprehended him for going Hiftor. EcclcC 
about to fever from the Unity in Communion all the Churches of Afu \ \ 6 ^^^ 
which pleafed not all the Bifhops. So Fufibim. In the year 418 was ^ ap ^ 
the fixth Council of Carthage, which retiited three Popes one after an- 
other. About the year 450 the Council of Chalcedon withstood Leo 
then Bifhop of Rome in the queflion of Supremacy. 

IUyricus upon his word affirmeth that he faw an Epiftle of the Ei- 
(hops of France and Germany 'written by Aventinus his own hand) to 
AnallapM Bifhop of Rome, and others of his Complices, the ftfm 
whereof was, To admonifh the Fope and thofe Bifhops of Italy that 
ftded with him, to let them alone, and not proceed to exercife their Tyranny 
over them, The whole Epiftle is to be found in IUyricus, Catal. Te\i. 
Verit.pag. 41. 

The Bifhops alfo of Bclgia about the year %6o, did conteft with the 
Pope, whofe Epiftle to Pope Nicolas the tirft is taken by Il'yricns out of 
Aventinusjn the clofe of which EpifUe they declare that for the Caufes 
before mentioned : (z) "They would not ftand to his Decrees, nor (x) Hifce dc 
" hear his voice, nor fear his thundring Bulls. Thou condemned them caufs, cum 

* that obey not the Decrees of the Senate. We alTault thee with fjf j^" ^ 

" thine own weapon that defpifeft the Decree of our I^prd God, — ne q UC e diftis* 

the holy Spirit is the Author of all the Churches which are fpread both tuis ftamus, 
" far and near =, the City of our God, whefe free Denizons we are, is ne( 3^ vocem 
" greater than that City which by the holy Prophets is called Babylon, tuam a SPofci- 

" —which exalts her felfto Heaven, and doth falfly glory that fhe buUas"^? 38 

tc never hath erred nor can err. truaq; tua ti- 

Biennis ; tu 
cos qui Senatus Confulris non parent, impietatis condemhas.- — Ncs tuo te enfe jugulamus, qui 

ediflum Forr/mi Dei noftri confpuis, Spiritus fanftus autor eft omnium Ecclef;aruni 3 qua lon- 

ghT.me & Jatjffime terrarum orbis porrigitur. Civitas Dei noftri, cujus municipes fum us, major eft 

urbe, qua? Babylonia a facris vatibus appellatur, qua? coelo fe aquat, neq^ unquam fe errafie, 

aut errare pofte mendacicer gloriatur. Iilyric. Catal, 7eft. vtrit. (ex Aventin.) pag.2o. 

Indovicw the Emperour, Son of Charles the Great, and the Nobles 
and Clergy in his time did not own the Bifhop of Rome to have that 
Headfhip and Power as now they claim and ufurp, when by his Autho- 
rity, without any mention of the Pope, heaffembled rfeveral Councils', 
bciides others he called four feveral Synods fcr the Reformation o{ the 
Church of France, viz. at Mentz, at Far'n, at Lions \ and at Tholoufe, 
to enquire what was held anfwerable or contrary to the revealed Will 
of God, and wherein they departed from the holy Scripture. He was 

G g 2 fo 

224 Fopery a Novelty. Serm.VH;. 

Co famous for the Churches good procured by him, that Platim be- 
wailing the mod horrible wickednefs of the Popes and their Clergy in 

Catal p 8% ^ s ^ s > ^ at ^ e cr J^^ out ' ^ Ludovice, utinam nunc viveres. O Ludo-. 

vicus I wifh thou vvert now alive, (a) 
ctmur^a ^ Hincmar Archbimop of Rbemes openly publifhed, * c That it was 
q^Proceres Uuot ^ aw ^ u l for the Inferiour Bilhops upon any publick or general oc- 
regni affirma- " cation to confult the Pope, unlefs they had firftadvifed thereof with 
re, inqnit, ilia " their own Archbifhops * that it was needkfs for Archbifreps to ex- 
nova & mau- « p e( ^. refokuions from the See of Rome concerning fuch things that are 
PapaVdit^bi " a l reac ty fentenced in holy Scripture, in the Councils, Canons and De- 
de jure Reg- c crees of the Church. And expounded thofe words, Tu es Petriu ,thou 
norum judi- " art Peter, thus » Upon this fure and folid ConfeiBon of Faith which 
cia fumere, C6 t ] 10u t^ft. rrau}fc, will I build my Church. And as touching the Power 
^"J ^^ cc of binding and looting he did write to the Pope himfelf, Leo the J^tb. 
pum & regera c . That that Power was paffed and derived from St. Peter, and from the 
die, &c.Hinc- cc reft of the Apoflles to all the chief Heads of the Church v and that 
mar. apud " §t # Peters Priviledg took place only where men judg according to the 
pfitf Cin ' 9 ' " ec I ult y of St- Peter, and is of force wherefoever that equity is ufed. 
Monet ponti- H Luther had now been born, (as he was not for many hundred years 
ficem ne tarn after J this would have been called Luther s Do&rine. 
temere ex- 

communicationes pra?cipiat: — — Sed patiatur cau(as diligenti«s in fuis Provinces cognofci, Sc 
juxta Canenes dijudicari. Hincmar. Magd. ce.».$. p.524.. Luithperr Otgarius, Guntherus Colonien- 
£s, Thetgondus, Treverenfis, & alii Epifcopi Belgici graviter tyrannidem Rom. Pont, redargu- 
unt. Magd. Cent. 9. p.338. item Ecclefise Grxcorum, & Imperatores contra Papain, vide Mag. con- 
tur.p. 340, 34 r. 

Likewife wh#n Leo the fourth encroached upon the Church of Ger- 
many, Luitbpert Archbifliop of Mence writing to Lewis King of Germa- 
ny, fpeaksmuch againlt the Pope, faying, : That the Churches Head 
"did ake, and if fpeedy remedy were not taken,it would quickly diftil 
"upon the Members. 

About this time 854,'the Church of Rome hid a fore mifcarriage,when 

Pope John alias not being like to other Males, was great with Child 

by his, rather her fervant,and going to the Lateran fell in pieces, a good 
device to provide for fucceffien, the Pope brings forth a Child •, but 
fince that time they have made a hole in Saint Peters Chair,that when a 

new Pope fits down, the Puny Deacon mrght fearch of what before 

the one Body of the Romifh Church had two Heads, the one vilible,the 
other invifible, but now the Head of that Church had two Bodies, ard 
both viilble. 
fa) Amulfbm Arnulpbks in a Synod held at Rbemes, (c) noted the Pope to be Anti- 
his Oration at cHrill: i faying, u What. O Reverend Fathers, what I fay think yo« 
*Ma%b St ant " him t0 be > which fitteth thus in a lofty Throne, in Puiple Robes, 3nd 
16^.486,487', <; glittering Gold > Certainly, if he'be void of Charity, H ft al and puffed 
488,43$.' ■ " up only with knowkdg, he is Antichrilt, fitting in the Temple of 

, * ' "Godi 

Serm.Vir. ropery a Novelty. 2*5 

" God \ but if he want both Charity and Knowlcdg,rhan he is an Idoi j 

" and to leek to him for anfwer is to enquire of Marble (tones. . 

(d) Tbeopbylacl Archbimop of the B«k*r/**/,ex poinding thefe word?, l^uTls: 
[Vpon this Koei rritl I build my CWo7 : ]made no mention of the Pope of & j oh / 20# 
Rome, faying, '"That Confcifion that Peter made (hould become the 
-foundation of the Faithful, in fuch fort that every man that would 
" build the houfe mult nccefiarily put this Ccnfeffion for his Foundati- 
on. Of the Power of the Keys he faid, t: Though it were only faid 

" to Peter, To thee will I give, &c yet that Power was once given to all 
u the Apoftlcs when hefaid, JVhnfe fint ye remit, Jhall be remitted. 

Famous is the Hiitory ofOtbo. (e) who aflembled a great Synod in f?J Magd.Cen- 
the Church of St. Ftterzt Rome, of Archbimops, and Bifhops in Rome, ?^' * & 
from MiVain, Ravenna, Germany., and France j to which Pope John the ^ &c> 
thirteenth would not ccmc, to whom a Letter was fent by the Empe- 
perour, that he would make his appearance to anfwer to the things of 
which he was accufed.f and thev were very (f) many and very hainousj (f) Johannes 
to which Letter he returned this anfwer \ " I hear fay you mean to create ^ J e ^ tJ °" 
"another Pope, which if you do, I Excommunicate you by the Om- quam or | ri(> 
" nipotentGod, that you have no Power to Ordain any, nor to defer nibusvacabar, 
M brate the Mafs- When this Letter was reading comes in the Archbi- & multa alia 

(hop of Invert- and other Bifhops of Lorrain, Liguria, and Mmihi, auHitu mdig- 
. \ . r • « 1 riir- j ^ ■ j r #. ( lv a na de eo di- 

with whofe advice and counfel the Emperour and Synod lent this An- cuntur> 

fwer, " That they made light of his Excommunication, and they would caran%, Sum. 
"return it upon himfclfj for when Jndtf had become a Murderer, he Concil. pag. 

u could tye none but himfelf, ftrangling himfclf with an Halter.- 787. 

Otho Depofed Pope John, and took into his hands the nominating and c " Jio ^ b ^h 
making of Popes afterwards. As yet Emperonrs were not come to \ n f oht cr [ m '^ 

wait bare-foot at the Popes Palace, nor to hold their Stirrups. nibus, honii- 

cjdii, perjurii, 
Sacrilegii, Inceftus, a-liorumq-, ncfandorum fcelerQm 3 &c. Laitprand.afud Ban*, in Spond. Epicom; 
in annum 563. 

(g) When the Pope Ann. 996, fent a Cardinal into France to Confe- c i) Glaber. 
crate a Church there jhe Prelates of France hearing of it, "Judged it to HSj"^ 
cc be Sacrilegious prefumption proceeding from blind Ambition, that he £ aront Anna- 
"fliould tranfgrefs Apoftolical and Canonical Orders, efpecially being les, Ann.cp; 
confirmed by many Authorities. 

(h) Gregory The feventh ftri&ly forbidding Pricfts to Marry, writeth ry\ Adverts 
to the Princes of Germany, That they would not frequent the MaiTes of HildcbranM 

("quo magna feveritate Sacerdotum conjugiv.m damnabat'per uaiverfum Chriftianum orbem) in- 
tremuic tota fad jo clcricorum ; hominem plane hareticum, & vefani dogmatis efle clamitans. 
Ututclmu V0I.2. Generat.36. apud Magd. Cent.u^ p.339. Quod Sacerdotibus connubiis interdixit 
Rildeb. Pontifex, plerifq; Epifcopis novum dogma, omnium maxime peftifera harrefs, quae un- 
quam Chriftianum perturbaiTet Regnum, vifa eft. Quamobrem Italia?, Germanise, Gallia? Pontifi- 
ccs ; « > i %aitiebl contra pietatem Chriftianam,verbis, fa&is agere, facere decernunt^ eundem am- 
bitus, ha>refeos,impietatis, Sacrilegii condemnaric. Avtkt. lib. 5. Annal. lllyrh. Catal, «: Ifthg* cent 
11. pag. 389. ' Married 


226 Popery a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

Married Priefts : But yet the Bifhops in Germany did refufe to yield to 
this Decree, or to depofe thofe Priefts that were Married, defending 
themfelves by the Authority of the Scripture, ancient Councils^ and the 
Primitive Church '•> adding thereunto, That the Commandment of God y 
and humane necejpty did dire&ly oppugn the Popes Decree. They long 
continued to detend their Liberty, infomuch that feeing neither Reafon, 
nor Prayer, nor Difputation would ferve the turn; the Clergy confut- 
ing together what to do,fome advifed,not to return again to the Synod, 
others to return and thruft out the Archbifhop from his Seat, and give 
him due puni(hment of Death for his defervings, that by the exam- 
ple of him othersroight be warned hereafter never to attempt that thing 
any more to the prejudice of the Church,and the rightful Liberty of Mi- 
nifters. The Archbifhop fpake them fair,and bid them be of good hope, 
he would fend again to Hildebrand fthe Pope) and -they mould have 
what would content their minds *, willing them in the mean time to con- 
tinue as they had done in their Cure and Miniftry. The next year the 
Pope fent Bifhop Curienfis as< Legate to the Archbifhop of Mentz.znd af- 
fembled again a Council, where the Clergy were commanded under 
pain of the Popes Curfe to renounce their Wives.or their Livings. The 
Clergy ftill defended their Caufe with great ccnftancy, in the end it 
brake forth into a Tumult, that the Legate and Archbifhop hardly e- 
fcaped with their lives. After this the Churches would chufe their Mi- 
nifters themfelves, and not fend them to. the Bifhops fthe enemies of 
Minifters Marriagej to be confirmed and inducled, but put them to 
their Office without knowledg or leave of the Bifhop. 

The Pope did write alfo about this matter to Otho Bifhop of Conftance, 

but this Bifhop would neither feparate thofe that were Married from 

their Wives, nor yet forbid them to Marry that were Unmarried. 

(i) So the (i) The Clergy of France did ftoutly oppofe the Popes Ball for the 

Clergy of Excommunicating of Married Priefts that would not Divorce their 

* r % ia ir m*" Wi ves > declaring their Reafons from the Word of God, from Councils^ 

Vol i pas. from the neccffity ofNature^nd refdved to lofe theirBene fee slather than Jut 

227* -away their reives \ faying moreover Jf Married Priefts would not fleafe the 

Pope, he muft call to Angels from Heaven to ferve the Churches, But if thefe 

Clergy-men would not be at the Popes beck, neither would the Angels 

in Heaven, I know not what other Angels may be. 

In the Popes proceeding againft Henry the Emperour, he was oppofed 
by the Council at Wormes, in which were the Bifhops not only of Saxo- 
(J() inland** ^ but of all the whole Empire of the Germans.who did agree and cor- 
facerdos, lite- c j U( j e U p 0n ^ depoilng of Hildebrand, and Roulandus (j^) was lent to 
ris deferens, Rome, who in the name of the Council commanded the Pope to yield up 
abfqi omni his Seat, 

honore, tibi (Hildeb. compellans, inquitj Imperator,— — & Italise, Gallia?, Germaniaeq; Epifcopi, 
pra?cipiunt, utte, munere quod aftu, pecunia, gratia occupafti,abdices. Non enim verus paftor, 
neq, pater, neq-, Pontifex es, fed fur, lupus, latro & tyrannus. [Brave QGW^XQUsReKlandX^Avwtin* 
Iib.5. An. Magd.Cent.n. p.425. .' This 

Serm.VIi. Popery a Novelty. 227 

This fame Fope was again judged and condemned by another Coun- 
cil held at Brixia, where were divers Bifhops of Italy, Lombardy and 
Germany, in which Condemnation is recited amongft other things, his 
V flipping Authority over the Empcrour , and taking away and forbidding 
the Marriage of Priejis. 

Towards the end of the thoufandth year (when there was again two 
Popes at once, Vrbane and Clement the third J William Rufm King (I) of rj^ VoXt A # s 
England would furTcr no appeal from England to the Pope of Rome, as it & Mon. Vol.i. 
was not lawful to do frcm the time of William the Conquerour. And p«24 2 » 
when Anfdm Archbifhop of Canterbury Appealed to Home, the King 
charged him with Treafon for fo doing ; All the Bifhops of the Realm, 
flood on the Kings fide againft Anfelm ; though Anfelm pleaded hard, 
faying, Should I forfwear Saint Peter, I jhould deny Chriji. But all the 
icit of the Bifhops difowned any Appeal from England fo Rome. 

(m) About the year 1 105, two famous Bifhops of Mentz recorded (V) ^fts & 
to be very virtuous and well-difpofed, were cruelly and tyrannoufly dealt Mon, Vol. 1. 
with by the Pope/their Names were Henry and Chrijhan)^Henry would P* 2 54» 
make no Appeal to the Pope, but (aid, 1 appeal to the Lord Jefus Chriji^ 
as to the moji high and juji J udg, and cite you ("the two Cardinals that had 
done him wrong; before his Judgment, there to anfiver me before the high 
Judg. Whereunto they fcoffingly faid, Go you before firft^ and vpe will 
follow after. Not long after the fame Henry died, whereof the two per- 
fecting Cardinals having intelligence, faid one to another jedingly, Be- 
hold, he vs gone before, and we muli follow after according to our promife. A 
little after they both died in one day, the one voided out all his Entrails 
into the draug'ht;the other gnawing off the fingers off his hands, 8c fpit- 
ting them out of his mouth Tall deformed in devouring himfelQ died. 

How the Clergy were againft the Popes Decrees that they (hould 
put away their Wives, or lofe their Livings, we might learn from a 
large Copy of Verfes made by an Englifh Author, concerning Pope 
Calixtut, for this. 

bone Calixte, nunc omn'vs clerM odit te, 

§heondam Presbyter i poterant uxoribus uti, 00 Afts & : 

Hjc defiruxijii^ pojlquam tu Papa fuifli,&c. Won * 2 5 5 * 

fO' About this time the Bifhop of Florence did teach and preach 
that Antiehrift was now manifeft, for which Pope Pafchalis did burn (V) Ibid. 2^4, 
his Books. 

At this time alfo Hiftorians mention two more famous Preachers,Ger- 
hardus and Vulcinus Navarenfis, (p) who did earneltly labour and 
preach againft the Church of Rome, defending and maintaining that (?) Hlyri 
Pnyer was not more holy in one place than in another , That the Prpe was ( - acaIcy S* 
Auticbrijfci That the Clergy and Prelates of Rome were Rejeds, and (he the 
very Whore of Babylon fpoken of in * u ? Revdjtions. Thefe two brought 
thirty more with them into En?land,who by the King and Prelates were 
all burnt in the forehead,and fo driven out of the Realm, and after that 
were llain by the Pope. At 

72% Poperjf a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

(q) Fox. Ads A t this time alfo in the City oillwloufe (q Jthere were a great multitude 
& ^° n ' V of Men and Women whom the Popes Commiilioners did perfecute and 
condemn for Hereticks j of whom fome were fcourged naked, fome 
chafed away. One of the Articles they maintained was that the Bread in 
the Sacrament after Confecration was not the very Body of the 
Illyric Cat. In Germany alfo Robert Abbot of Vuits preached againft the Popes 

Jurifdi&ion as to Temporal Domnion, interpreted that place, Thou art 
Peter, and upon this Rocl^will I build my Church, to be underftood con- 
cerning Chrift, &c* 
(r) Petr. Clu- (r) Befides thefe there was Peter Brnis, Ann. 1 126, and after him his 
niacenf. lib.i. Difciple Henry, Ann. 1147, in France drew many Provinces from the 
Epift. i.& 2. Church of Kome, preached againft Tranfubjiantiation, tbe Sacrifice of the 
Mzff) Suffrages and Oblations for the Dead, Purgatory, worjhippinrr f 
Images, Invocation of Saints, fingle life of Pricjis.Pilgrimages,fuperfluous 
holy -days, Confer ation of Waier, Gyl, Frankjncenfe^ &c. The Pope and 
his Prelates they called Primes of Sodom, tbe Church of 'Rome they ter- 
med Babylon, the mother of fornication and confufron. This Peter Brtivs 
preached the Word of God among the People of Iholoufe for the fpace 
of twenty years with great commendation 2nd at laft was burned. 

I mull but name Hmorius Bifhop of Augujla, who fet out the Ini- 
quity and W T ickednefs of the Church of Rome to the life *, recited large- 
ly by Uu-pUff. Mift. of Iniq. p.2p4- 

And Nordbertus, Ann. 1125, that protefied to Bernard, That Anti- 
chrift he knew certainly would be revealed in this prefent Generation. 
(s)Joh.Sarif And jWw of SarUbury (s) who vihting the Pope, was asked by him, 
bur. in Volicr. what men thought of the Pope, and of the Reman Church, who told 
lib.d. cap. 24. him to his face, They fay the Pope is a burden to all, and -almoft in- 
■DH-plefoif. to ie r able. And much more. 

Did the Papifts never hear of the Waldenfes, or have they not been 
vexed with their Doctrine before Luther was born, that they ask where 
was our Doctrine and Religion before Luther ? 

Did the Council of Conftance condemn the Doctrines of TVickJiffe and 
Hufs as Erroneous,and was there fuch a noife about them, and yet did 
not the Church of Rawf hear of our Doctrines (then owned by themj 
v before Luther ? they can never make us believe it. 

ncs has fe&as ^ et Riinerius a Frier writing of the IValdenps, or Pauperes de Lug- 
qux adhuc duno fatisne them, who faith, fc Among all the Seels that are or ever 
Hint, vel fue- 

runt, non eft pcrnitioiior Ecclefia? quam Leoniftarum ; & hoc tribus de cauf s \ prima eft, quia 
eft diuturnior, aliqui enim dicunt, quod duiayit a tempore Sylveftri ; aliqui a tempore Apofto- 
lorum. Secunda, quia eft generalior, fere enim nulla eft terra, in qua ha:c fecla non f:t. Tertia, 
quia cum alia; omnes S?&£ immanitate Blafphemiarum in Deuni, audientibus horrorem inducunt, 
hxc magnam habet fpeciem pietatis, eo quod coram hominibus jufte vivant, & bene omnia de 
Deo credant, & omnes articuios qui in Symbolo continentur, folum modo Romanam Ecclcfam 
blafphemant & clerum, cui multitudo Laicorum facilis eft ad credendum* Raiw, covt. hctr. c.^.4. 

" will 

Serm. VII. Popery a Novcltj. 22 t, 

"will be, none can be more pernicious to the Church of God (he 
" means the Church of Rome) than that of Lions. And he giveth thefe 
three Reafons, (1) " Becaufe it hath continued a longer time than any, 
" fomc fay that it hath been ever imce the time of Sylvejhr, others fay 
" from the times of the Apoftles. (.2) Becaufe it is more general, tor 
" there is not almoft any Coimtry whereintp this Sedl hath not crept. 
"(3) Becaufe all others procure horrour by their Blafphemies againft 
" Gods this of the Lyonijh hath a great appearance of Piety,in as much 
"as they live uprightly before men, and put their truft in God in all 
"things, and obferve all the articles of the Creed, only they blafpheme 
<# the Church of Rome, and hold it in contempt, and therein they are 
"eafily believed by the People. A fair Confeilion of a Papift. So that 
you fee, they can tell, if they lift, where and when, and by whom our 
Doctrines were taught before Luther^ but they ufe this Qjeftion to be- 
guile the ignorant People, Where wm your Religion before Luther ? 

And Jacobus of Riberia acknowledged that the Waldenfes had con- 
tinued a long time. The fir ft place (faith he) they lived in was in Nar- 
bonne in France^ud in theDiocefsot Albie^ Rhodes, Cabors,&c. and at 
that time there was little or no eftimation of fuch as were called Priefts, 
Bifhopsand Miniftcrs of the Church •> for being very fimple and ignor- 
ant almoft of all things, it was very ealie for them through the excel- 
lency of their Learning and Dodrrine to get unto themfelves the grea- 
teft credit among the People i and for as much as the Waldenfes difpu- 
ted more fubtilly than all others, were often admitted by the Priefts to 
teach openly, not for that they approved their opinions, but becaufe 
they were not comparable to them in wit. In fo great honour was the 
Seel of thefe men that they were both exempted from all Charges and 
Impofltions, and obtained more benefits by the Wills and Teftaments 
of the Dead than the Priefts. 

Rainerius faith of them, that they had Tranflated the Old and New 
Teftament into the Vulgar Tongue, they teach and learn it fo well, that 
I have feen and heard (faith he) a Country Clown recite 'job word by 
word, and divers others that could perfectly deliver all the New Tefta- 

The Doclrines that thefe Waldenfes taught before Luther^ are the 
fame that the Reformed Churches do now hold j (1) As that only the 
holy Scripture is to be believed in matters of Salvation. (2) That all 
things are contained in holy Scripture, neceiTary to Salvation, and no- 
thing to be admitted in Religion, but what only is commanded in the 
Word of God. (3) That there is one only Mediator, other Saints 
in no wife to be made Mediators, or to be Invocated. (4) That there 
is no Purgatory. (5) That MaiTes fung for the Dead are wicked. 
(6) All mens Traditions to be reje&ed, at leaft not to be reputed as 
neceiTary to Salvation. (7) That differences of Meats. (8) Variety 
of Degrees and Orders of Priefts, Friers, Monks and Nuns. (9) And 

H h fuper- 

lyo Pdpery a Novelty. ." Serm. VIL 

/EoeasSylvi- fuperfluous holy days. (jo) And Peregrinations with ali the rable- 
as, , Eohennca mtm Q f Rites and Ceremonies brought in by man are to be abolifhed. 
WalderV.um Cl l ) Tnat lhe Supremacy of the Pope ufurping above all Churches,and 
dognuabus. Kings $c Emperors is to be denied, f 12 ) That the Communion in both 
Fox A«!ts & kinds is neceflary to all People/ 13 )That the Church of Rome is very&z- 
Mon Vol. 1. bykn^nd the Pope Antichrift,and the fountain of aH'other/r^That the 
pag-2?9>3 C0 - Popes Pardons and Indulgences are to be rejected. C15) That the 
Marriage of Ministers is lawful, and fuch-like. Their Doctrines are 
related by JEnm Sylvius afterwards Pope, none of their belt friends. 
But the Englijh Reader might find them in the Book of xMartyrs. Lu- 
ther lived and began the Reformation after the year 1 500, thefe prea- 
ched this Dodrine before the year 1200 j look and fee our Doctrine 
was before Lutber. 

In the year 1200, &c. it would be endlefs to give an account of 
particular Doctors, that did oppofe the Dodfrine of the Church of 
Rome, and did maintain the Doctrines we receive. 

I might mention Almarkus a Dc&or of Park that fu/Fered Martyr- 
CO Avent. °* crn *° r withstanding Altars, Images, Invocation of Saints, and Tran- 
iib.7. p. 54k fubttantiation. 

Alfo Everard(u) an Archbifhop in Germany, in an AlTembly of Bi- 
ihops at Regenfpurge gave his judgment of the Bifhop of Rome. " Hilde- 
a brand ffajd he) under colour of Religion laid the foundation of the 

" Kingdom of Antichrift. Thefe Priefts of Babylon will reign alone 

cc they can bear no equal, they will never reft, till they have trampled 
" all thiwgs under their feet, and fit in the Temple of God, and be ex- 
"alted above all that isWor(hipped:He which is theServant of Servants 
"coveteth to be Lord of Lords,as if he were God v his Brethrens ceun- 
* fels, yea, and the counfel of his Matter he defpifeth. He fpeaks great 
u things as if he were God s in his breft he cafteth new devices where- 
" by to raife a Kingdom to himfelf^ hechangeth Laws and c.onfirms 
4 his own j he defileth, plucketh down, fpeileth, deceiveth, mnrderetk 
"Thus that child of Perdition (whom they ufe to call Antichrift) in 
" whofe forehead is written,the name ofBlafphemy, I AM GOD', I 
"cannot Err j fitteth in the Temple of God and beareth rule far and 
"near. Was this Luther, that fpeaks fo like him againft the Pope? 
no, one born long before him, or elfe the Papiils would go too nigh to 
" fay, This Do&or had learned this from Luther. 

The Preachers in Sweden publickly taught that the Pope and his Bi- 
fhops wereHereticks. It would be too long to give account, 'how the 
Pope was oppofed by Fredericl^the Second; and by John King of Eng- 
land a great while, though at I a ft he delivered the Kingdom of England 
and Ireland to the Pope, and Farmed them of him for a Thoufand 
Marks per annum', and afterward was poyfoned by a Monk', and' 
though he made this Refignation of thefe Kingdoms for himfeJf, 
and his Heirs for ever to the Pope, yet his Son and SueceiTor Henry 


Scrm.VII. Popery a Novelty. 231 

the Third made great Oppofition againd: •, as did the Lords and No- (*) Vox kfo 
blesinhis Fathers days, and have left a Lamentation upon record of ^ Mo n . y o!.r. 
that fad of King John, (w) Jfin/Zthca] 

Ann. Domini 
1220, acerrime infectatur Sacefdotes fui temporis, dicens, in eis nihil pietatis ac erudkionis 
comparere, fed pocius diabolicas turpitudines, omnium fpurcitiarum ac vitiorum monflruofita- 
tem, eoruin peccata non fimpliciter peccata effe, fed peccatorum monftra terribiIi{fima,cos non 
Ecclefiam, fed Eabylonem, Agyptum ac Sodomam effe j Pradatos non aedir'care Ecclefam, fed 
deftruerc, ac Deo illuderc, eoscum aliis Sacerdotibus prophanare ac polluere corpus Chrifti,&c. 
Lib. dt c»lLtione Bwficiorim* 

But the Hiiiory of the Waldenfts now fpread far and near ftands like 
a Beacon on an Hill that all that do not (hut their eyes have clear light 
to fee that our Doctrines were taught in abundance of places before 
Luther, thefe continued in Vauphine, Languedoc^ and Gmenne, and iu 
all thofe Mountains which reach from the Alpes to the Yyrentan. They 
had fpread themfelves into Germany, where were a great many of their 
Preachers who at the found of a Bell preached in a publick place, "That 
" the Pope was an Heretick, his Prelates feducers, that they had no 
"Power to bind and loofe, or to interdict the ufe of Sacraments, and 
" told them that though they had not come, God would have raifed 
"up others, even of the very (tones, for to enlighten the Church by 
" their Preaching, rather than he would have furfcred Faith utterly to 
"have perifhed. 

By this time they Ordained Preachers in Spain, which preached the 
fame Doctrine with them, and in Lombardy much multiplied. Yea in 
one only Valley called Camonica they had ten Schools. Another faith, 
that their little Rivers frreamed fo far as to the Kingdom of Sicily, and 
the only reafon of their futferings is faid to be becaufe they withdrew 
the fheep from the keeping of Saint Peter, and departed from the Ro- 
man Church. Do not you yet fee where any were that owned and 
preached our Doctrines before Luther ? Go then to JacJ^ Vpland (x) ( X ) vox A&s 
written by Geofry Chaucer, and anfwer his QuetUons , and ask this Mom Vol.i. 
queftion no more for fhame. 

From the year 1300 the bloody Perfections and the great Sufferings 
of multitudes for the true Doctrine and oppofition to the .Church of 
Rome do prove what is fought after, except they imprifoncd and burnt 
fomany, they know not for what. For Satan (according to feme) be- 
ing bound at the end of the firft Ten Perfecutions,and remaining bound 
a thoufand years, was now let loofeagain.Do they ask (till, Where was 
our Doctrine before Luther ? why, where Perfecution was raifed by 
Papilts before Luther ; for why were fo rrnny Imprifoncd,. B mimed 
and Burnt, if they did not look upon them as Hercticks, and whom 
they fo call isnotorioufly known. Was not Conradus Hager Imprifoned 
for preaching again ft the Mafs, Johannes de Cafiilone, and Frawifcus de 
Arcatura, were they not burnt, and Hjybulus Martyred, and Johannes 

Hh 2 de 

232 Popery a Novelty. Serai. VIL 

de Rupefaffa Impiifoned for certain Prophefies againft the Fope> Did 
not Militrius a Bohemian preach that Andchrift was come, and was he 
not Excommunicated for the fame > Was not Occam Excommunicated, 
and his Books prohibited becaufe they difpleafed the Pope? 

Brufhius relates that fix and thirty Citizens of Maguntia were burned 
(y) Vox. Acts for following the Doctrine of the Waldenfes, (y) affirming the Pope to 
U Mon. Vol.i. b e the great Antichrift. Alfo Majfeus recordeth of one hundred and 
P a g- $5°» forty in the Province of Narbon were put to the fire for not receiving 
the Decretals of Rome, befides them that fuffered at Paris to the nun> 
ber of twenty four, and after them four hundred burned for Hereticks. 
(%) Acts & (z> Was not Matthias Parifienfis before Luther that writ that the Pope 
Mon. Vol. 1. was Antichrift) And was there not an old ancient Writing called the 
<*22 2 ' Prayer and Complaint of the PWwjjz, containing many things againft the 

Church of Rome f and Nicolas Orem before the Pope preached againft 

Was not John JVickJiffe before Luther ? and did not he maintain the 
Doctrines that the Reformed Church now holdeth? and.a great com- 
pany of valiant defenders of the fame truths, twenty-five articles of 
(Y) Acts & Wickliffe you may read in the Book of Martyrs, (a) And may we not 
k6q.' Yea 45! le a ™ fomething by the (b) Laws then made in England that many here 
Articles of did oppofe the Church of Rome ; as Ann. 5. Rich. 2. In the year 1380, 
wicQiffcon- we re ad of a great number called evil perfons going about from Town 
demned in t0 Town preaching to the People divers Sermons containing Herefie 
IFconftancl. anc * notorious Errors (foPapiftscall our. Doctrines) to the emblemifh- 
Suyms in Con- ing of the holy Church. 
eil.Tom. 3. 

p. 790. (J?) Acts & Mon. V0I.1. beginning in the proteftation to the Church of England. Had 
the Council of ' Confiance fo much ado with the Articles of Hufs and Jerome, who were charged 
with Articles againft the Church of Rome, and condemned and burnt by- the Council, and yet do 
Papifts know none that taught our Doctrine before Lather ? 

And were there not many WitneiTes againft Popim Doctrines and 

Afterters of ours from the year 1400? as JobnBadby, Nicolas laylet,* 

Richard Wavftaff, Michael Scrivener, William Smith, Sec, Jihv Hufs, 

Jerome of Prague ; but why do I mention particular names, when there 

were a great number of faithful Bohemians not to be reckoned, and 

many other places. The Bohemians in this age, near to labour Caftle af- 

(c) cochlens fembled themfelves together to the number of thirty thoufand , and 

iib.4. ex £:>\- having three hundred Tables elected in the fields for that purpofe, they 

^T^.Prote- received the- Sacrament in both kinds, (c) 

ftant. evid. j n t ^ e Statute Ann. 2. llen.q.. In the year 1402 in England there (d) 
f'd) Ads & were man V Poachers of true Doctrine, which thofe times called new 
Mon. Vol. 1. Doctrines and Heretical, contrary to the Faith and determination of 
Proteftat. to the holy Church, [Rome foriboth.J It is recorded in the year 1422, 
the Church of tnat Henry Chichefly Archbifhop of Canterbury did write to Pope Martin 
iLngUni. ^ £f ( k t j iat { fe IC wcre f Q man y | n -England infected with the Hereiie 


Serm. VII. Popery a Novelty, 23 J 

of Jftckjiff and H*/i that without force of an Army they could not be 

Befides all thefe that have preached and owned our Doctrine long 
•ago, wc might fend fuch Papifts as ask, Where was ywr DoUrine befon 
L*ther , to the Churches in other parts of the Woild, as to the Greekj y 
the Muscovites, the Melchites or Syrians, the Armenians, the Jacobite/^ 
the Cophti, or Egyptian Chriftians , the Abajfmes and others , who 
though too corrupt in many things, yet do agree with the Reformed 
Churches in many Points wherein they with us differ from the Church 
of Rome, as is witnefled by David Chytre us, who travelled amongft 
many of them, and from his perfonal knowledg and converting with 
many that were amongft them > and by Letters from others, gives an 
account of the ftate of feveral Churches ; and by the confeffion of Faith 
in the Eaftern Churches, compofed by Crytopulus Patriarch of Confian- 
tinople, and others, as alfo by the confeffion of Papifts themfelves. 
1 .Thefe Churches do deny the Popes Supremacy,that he is Head of the 
Church, and never did fubmit unto him as llniverfal Headstheir words 
are, It xvm never heard in the Catholic^ Church, that a mortal man, fiib- 
jeit to a thoufandfins fhould be called the Head of the Church ; but the Head 
of the Catbo\i\Cburtb it Jefus Ckrift. And much more they in their ( e j £/• $ 
Confeffion fay. (e) W£e t*^S 

kKHJi6&vSpG><BOV SvifloV $ (JLVeltU§ *(JLttp]idl{ '(VOX** M$**MV *iyi&di T* SKKhtKTtCL<> &c. Confcf. 

fidei, Eccl. Orient, per Crytopulm, cap. 23. Item David Cbytram de ftatu Ecclefix, pag.21. PratuL 
Elencb. ha?ret. lib.7. p.202. Idem p.228. 

The Grecians account Chrifts Vicar the Pope and the Latins, excom- 
municate perfons,Pr<i^o/»/. Of this opinion are the Mtfcovites,- the Ar- 
menians, &c. 

2. Thefe Churches agree with us in rejecting the Apocryphal Book f . 
from the number of Canonical Scriptures, (f) Qfe Ecclef. 

3. They give the Sacrament in both kinds ; they fay of neceffity they orient, per" 

ift communicate in both kinds, fo that if any take it under one kind, oltop, cap. 7; 

although a Lay-man, he is faid to fin, becaufe they fay he doth againft (&) Prattol. 

E/ienc. iicCreTi 

Chrifts command. SoPrateolus, All partake of both kinds, the Bread 

p. 202. 

and the Cup, whether Eccleilaftical, or Lay-perfons, Men and Wo- Mtjiy** 1 3 * 
men. (g) navjis httji- 

f * ^Af TA>V 

yuMUKif. Confef. fid. Ecclef. Orient, cap.9. 

4; They turn not the Sacrament into a Sacrifice offered for the quick 00 Ex Litur " 

and dead, fum&'naf"- 

5.They have no private MafTes,thefe both are teftified by Cbytrtus. (g) ti^nibus^o^ 

rninurn fide dignorum conftat, nee miffas privatas abfq*, communicantibus ab eis celebrari folere, 
necullam in eorem canone, facrificii corporis & fanguinis Chrifti pro redemptione vivorum fe 
mortuorum oblati, mentionem fieri, &c. David Chytr. de ftatu Ecclef. p. 14. 

£. The 


2 34 Popery a tfovelty. Serm.VII. 

lm >AM$n 6. The Do&rineof Tranfubitantiation is not received amongft them 
** wZ** f ^ ey C0n ^ s a tru ^ * nc * rcal Prefence in the Lords-Supper, but fuch I 

^T4L«V^ 0neasFaitho ^ ereth ' nGtfuclias thedcvifed.Tranfubftantiation vainly 

ijm-5 ag/s-S teacheth. (i) 


'fd.4l*jiari{* &c. ^yril Patriarch. Conftant. cap. 17. p.6o. 

(kj Confef. 7* T^y admit not the feven Popifh Sacraments, they own properly 

fldei Eccl. o- but three, Baptifm, the Lords-Supper and Penance, (k) 

rient per QtU 

top. cap. 5. #V 'Sytu rd *$$ 9tf\ti&<iM dvctyHsu* ^v^nexA TftA] fccttfiieiicL) kqiwvia ^ 


(I) Confef. 8. They admit Minifters Marriage. (I) 

Orfem ?/"' ^" T ^ e y ^^ P ur g atGr y* Ix W true tne ^V^ Church do believe that 

& David 'chy- tnere * s a P^ ace diftind from- Heaven 3nd Hell, where fome departed 

trans de flat. Souls are lodged for a while > their opinion is, That thofe -that lived 

Eccl. p. 14. holily, and died in the Lord go immediately to Heaven, and the wicked 

that die without repentance go preftntly to Hell '-> but fuch as are con- 

verted'at the end of their life are in another place 5 in a middle condition 

and for thefe thev pray, but yet they do not call this Purgatory. So 

CbytrjzHs. And in their Confetfion they utterly deny Popifh Purgatory 

for they affirm the punimment of fuch departed Souls that are neither in 

(rri) t\\yH Heaven nor in Hell, vs not material, (m) neither by fire ', nor by any other 

Toivov m \k- matter, but only from the affifiion and anguijh of their own Consciences re* 

KhnviA tUu membring then what they did amifs while they were in this world. How- 

twvav -to/- evertne y be far from the truth, yet they be far alfo from Purgatory 

>XftW>«T ^ re * yox Afphottfuf faith, That it is one of the molt known Errors of 

Zv h§yAviKuv, the Grecians and Armenians ,that they teach no place or Purgatory. &c. 

f/W fid TUpO* 

fj.yf]i f\ CfcMiKj OTTOlAi *V t?A)fO A fad cT/fi£ fal^lCO* Xj AVIAl >? W ffUVH^^iaf (SVfX^AthiffAf 

Tx\olS CM <& [Al(JLVYHfKi&At T&V Off A CV T<W K0(S{JLO) (Jib )£1 KoyoV (JW^i Officii iW^L^AV. ConfeiT. 

eadem cap. 20. Unus ex notifTimis erroribus Gracorum & Armenorum eft, quo docent nullum 
eiTe Purgatorium locum, &c. Alphonf. adver. hzref. lib. 12. p. 18 8. 

10. Though the Greeks dote too much upon Images of Saints, yet 
(n) Oi^ $ fle- tne Y dirTer much from Papilis in this point ', for they areagainft making 
vh tov acre- any Image of God which the Pap : fls do in the li'kenefs of an old man \ 
eix&tfovjilv and to other Images they give irt^hj honour, but neither the Worfhip 
<foay>Ag\ m- of i atria nor Bulla: (No, fay they i God forbid, for thefe are only to 

£«„--.-- AJV be 8 lven t0 G ° d# (*) 

dyiAis eJnofft - 

fy l\y.h Tlw K&ffMtffOM AKW&y.iV : *KA7§di7lHfo « fvhlKh, CLKAyi) AVlOJi $ Qgp ufaa 

*ryefa*Giv» Confefl. fid. Eccl Orient, per critop. cap.i 5. 

:ii. They carry not the Sacrament in proceilion about the ftreets, 
(as the Papifts do to be worfhipped by them that meet itj except they 


Serm.VIf. ropery d Novelty. 2 35 

fend it to the fifikv for fay they it was not given to be carried about the M 'Ou <fcr 
fhcets, butrcligioully to be received for the reraiiiion of fins, accor- J f ^*^ ^" 
ding to the Word of God. (o) pvJJ!7fU 

«M' W (JLOVOV 07CLV K0(JLi^i\cU &< OtKOV VO(TXvlo<> OTl V v/l&fcfl «U«y 7*7o fr* *ft*$i$\))cU </W 

%S *Ka}h£v, &»? U& ivXttfrcoi (xfiixalcu h< &<piftP dfjcafliSy, rp Te £ $i<mo\iKa, p«//*7*. Con- 
fell. fcd. Eccl. Orient, per eundem cap. 9. 

12. They hold the perfection and fufrlciency of the Scripture, that (pYHr&A- 
ir is Sacriledft to add any thine to it, or take away from it, and contra- 7 tet M?w 
didt thofe that do. (fj IkkwU &i 1 

t*< TOivToy 77 7o^aV}ct{> ihiyx* x) H.*ltL<pcti$£ . Confeii. fid. Eccl, Orient. cap.7: 

13. Concerning the marks of the true Catholick and Apoftolical 

Church they greatly differ from the Church of Rowe > the Confellion (?) Thaflh 
mentions four, and the laft they fay mod: ftrefs upon, wherein they $ 9tt.$if&\*9 
teach the fame wirh us, namely that it faithfully and llncerely keep the •* K * W *' I< * 
Word of God, which God hath given to us by his Prophets and % t rSf xfifi- 
Apoitles. (q) Kas *&&*.&- 

Q£cy fifiA 9s3$ «J(^6To «T/* X wpowffi *j ^nr'tKar. ConfeiT. fid. Eccl. Orient, cap. 7* . 

14. They do not define the Catholick Church as the Romamfis do, 
by making it eiTential to fubmit to any one man as the Head of the 
whole, but the whole company of fuch as arc found in the Dodf. rine of 
Chrift, every-where difperfed, but knit together by the bond of the. 
Spirit is the Catholick Church. Cotifeffleadem cap.j. 

By all this fReader) laid down in as little room as I could, thou maift 
fee, the harfh and uncharitable fpirit of the Romanijlj, to unchurch all 
thefc, who do profefs that they keep to all the Do&rines of the rlrft 
General Councils, - r) in which efTeritial Doctrines were ratified as ap- ^., «e^. ta ' -j^ 
pears by their Creeds, containing the Articles of the Chriftian Faith, £p&tug o/xs-- 
(but the Mofcovites condemn and curfe the Romans as forfakers of the ptvutde 2u- 
Primitive Church, and breaking of the feven General Synods.; As alio !^J* J**** 
thou maift fee their impudence in asking where our Church 3nd Dod- ^f^°^ &t 
rines were before 1 .utheip; where there have been fo many Churches ^kwwjw* / 
ever (mcc the Apoitles times that have ( though not without many cor- %j0d \M%a»- ■ 
ruptionsin many things, yet J hHd to the effential Doctrines of Chri- T0 T*/*S «£«.-- 
ftian Religion, and have not received thefe Dodhines of the Church ot fj£'^°^ ' 
Rome, which is but a little Church in comparifon of all the refUmonglt ca « : l ^ &q£ j 
whom our Religion was before Luther. feptera' Sync- - 

dorura Grae- 
carutn. Scripts Bafilii, Chryfoftomi, Famafceni, eorumq; traditiones tanquam di.ina oracula 1 
araplectantur, ad eaq^.de fide & Religione ipforum fcifcitantes remittunt, ex Uteris Coujizntm. add 
Viv. Chytr. de ftatu Ecclef. p^i. 


2 $6 Popery a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

Having made appear that the Dodtrines of the Reformed Churches 
are the fame that were taught by Chrift and his Apoftles, and that 'by 
many after them long before Luther $ the next thing is to demonftrate 
that Popery it a Novelty \ this follows indeed by juit and good confe- 
quence from what hath hitherto been faid in the former parts of the 
method firft propofed to fpeak of this Portion in •> for two fuch Do- 
dfrines as are fo contrary, yea fo contradictory, cannot both be true, 
and equally old ;> for Truth mud be before Error. But yet that Popery 
had not its being till many hundred years fas now framed ) after Chrift, 
I (hall pick out fome of the chief and moft material Points of Popery, 
fandifthefe fall the other cannot ftand) and give an account of the 
time when they fir ft came in i the reft whofe rife and original as to the 
particular time is more uncertain, though clear enough that they were 
not from the beginning, nor long, long after* will not need fuch large 
infifting on •> and yet in all I muft endeavour Brevity, which is a task 
that lyeth upon me, and pincheth me hard all along in fuch a copious 
fubjed: as this Pofition is. 

Firft, I fir all begin at the head, ( which is indeed the head and heart 
of Popery) which though by that Age it hath, gray hairs are upon it, 
yet in comparifon of true Antiquity indeed, it will appear that their 
-head is both raw and green -and if the head be young the whole body 
cannot be olds and the Witneffes to give in their Teftimony of the mi- 
nority of the Pope as Head of the Church as now claimed, are at hand, 
even fix feveral Councils, which have fo polled this head, and dipt his 
beard, that it looketh very young, and bear his age marvelloufly well, 
for look upon him in the glafs of true Hiftory and no man will believe 
that he is fo old as he brags to be. 

Firft, my firft Catalogue of WitnefTes con G ft s of three hundred and 
eighteen grave ancient Fathers affembled in the firft General Council 
fthat ever was fince the Apoftles timcs.J at Nice, in the. year of our 
Lord 325. In reading over the Canons of this Council, I fix upon two, 
which are fully and dire&ly againft the Popes Univerfal Soveraignty and 
Dominion above all other Churches ', the one is againft Excommunicate 
perfons Appeal in any Diocefs unto remote Churches > or being har- 
boured or received by them in thefe words. 

Concerning perfons Excommunicated, whether they be of the Cler- 
(s) Tli@jt 7$v gy or the Laity, (s) Let th'afentence be obferved by the Bifhops of every 
&Miv*v{\Tav Province, according to the Canon, which faith, That thofe which are ca$ 
y, wc ^tl a H' out by fome, jhati not be admitted by others. This Canon clips the Power 
S? a &re, 0I ~ r ^ e P°P e 5 an ^ ta ^ es a wa Y h* s Jurifdiclion over other Churches i and 
%f Li K&i*3 was fo under flood of old is plain, becaufe when fome were Excomnau- 

TAyyiivaVy xs&h iff tad* Ikathiv wtifyjAV Imewwruv xp*1«Va> w yvtoyw y7i rev xap'ova 
tqv J tayo^iv f o¥TA, r*i v$* sTi$<w &Bi8Aw$f j^j ^V Mfav nn vrfork&cu. Codex 

Can. Ecclef, Univerf. Can.$. 



Serm.VII. Popery a Novelty. 237 

nicatcd in Afric\, and did run to, and were entertained by the Bifhop 
of Rome, the Cotineil in Africi^ did hold irregular, and did write to 
the Pope fo too, and alkdged this Canon of the Council of Nice, that 
he ought not to admit them whom they had Excommunicated* of" which 
more when I ecme to that Council. 

The other Canon in this Council runs, (t) Let the ancient cupms > ob- ftjrdclo'^cuA 
tain [continue in force] which are in Egypt, Libya and Pentap Ik, that (J;* >^]ht», 
the Bifhop of Alexandria have power [authority, the Government] of ah Te ^ °J «>**- 
tbefe \ becaufe alfo the Bifhop of Rome bath the fame cuftom. Likewjfe alfo ™^ A/Ct ,-' 
in Antioch, and in other Provinces, let the_ Churches have their Dignities, ^ H) ^ fg 7 ^ 
fPriviledges, Prerogatives] pnfirvtd, [fecured] to them.--— *-— From c* «At&tp- 
thus much of this Canon we eaiily learn. Firft, that the Bifhop oiRome <?"* Www 
had not Univerfal Jurifdiclion over all the Churches, becaufe the Bi- J2J£f25 
(hop of Alexandria was to have the fame Power, [i&wiai] Authority, Ifa^ZfJl : 
over thofe parts, and the Bifhop of Antioch in thofe parts, and otheis ikhM £ T £ 
in other Provinces, as the Bifhop of Rome had in thofe part?, which ^ tj f«m9_ 
could not be if the Bifhop of Rome were Univerfal, and they Provinci- c™™*™ ra- 
al underlings, for there is not like Power, Authority, or Equality in an ll^lj^ 
Univerfal and Provincial Bifhop according to their own Do&rine. Se- 3 ^^71 7 luj 
condly, we as eatlly fee, that what Power the Pope had, is not by this *ArnbxH&v, 
Council bottomed upon, and derived from the holy Scriptures, or fuc- *> =* t**s *** 
ceifion from Peter, but grounded only upon cuftom j, not a word is here K ™* t^x 1 ' 
of any Divine right to that power or place in which he then was, which Cha tJ^t&aji 
was far inferior to what he claimeth and ufurpeth now. For the firft Taut ejcxxgrf- 
three hundred year then, an Univerfal Head was a non-ens, not rifen, «<* — Codex 
nor acknowledged in the Church of God. Very good. 5j ai ?^ E f cc !? r ' 

Secondly ^he next Catalogue of WitnefTes againft the Univerfal Sove- ^ # 
raignty of the Bifhop of Rsme, hath in it one hundred and fifty Fathers, 
aiTembled at Constantinople fwhich Caranzs faith, is one of the four Caranz.p.20©; 
principal Councils, and next after the Council of Nice, whofe Authori- 
ty is already alledged,) about the year three hundred eighty three, (So 
Codex Canonum,) Thefe in their firft Canon did ratirie and confirm what 
was done in the Nicene Council,and would have it to be obferved with- * H y j* *^* 
out violation. Moreover (m) they did Decree, Ibat no Bifhop of any Di- ^mWrciy 
ocefs jhould go to any Churches beyond their own bounds, to meddle with hmtnicvrzs 
them, nor confound or 'mingle Churches, but according to the Canons, the 7e "i \z&att' 
Bifhop of Alexandria (bould govern what belongs to Egypt j and the Bifhops *** *** A , 3} * l ~ 
nfthe Eafi only the Ea\}, reserving the Priviledges, [Dignities] by the Ca- J^^jvT 
wnsof the Council of Nice to the Church of Antioch \ and the Btjhops ef wyy£n9 t%* 

etMefc j£l 7«< K&vbvctt Tap (jfy ttKizdLvJp^di #foVx0fl">P Tec If cuyvTlp poVop 0lMP0pJ*p ; 

238 Fopery a Novelty* Serm. VII, 

the Afian Viocefs, Jhould govern the Allan Viocefs only. And the Bifhops of 

the Viocefs rf Pom us, what appertaineth to that Diecejs only •> and Jo the 

Bijhops of Thrace, Jhould in Thrace. And that no Bifhop of any Viocefs 

jhould go except he be called to Ordination, or any other Church-difpenfati- 

ons. This Canon above written concerning Vtoceffes, being kept, it is mani- 

■ fefithxt thofe things which appertain to each Provinse, foould be ordered by 

the Synod of that Province (if they had faid, All, by the Bifhop of Rome 

thellniverfal Head, it would have made their hearts to leap within 

them, and made his Holineis fmile *, but alas! they carried it quite an- 

other way, by the Synod of the Province.) according to the determinate 

( w ) c * W @f j s p f the Nicene Council.— — (w) And in the next Canon they Decreed 

Tmvrbhi&t ^at the Bijbop of Conftantinople, for as much as it is new Rome, fhould 

I'TTiffKo^ov have the badges of honour next to the Bifhop of Rome. From this General 

%XM ?& Council we learn, -nrfl, That they vote againft any one being Univerfal 

wzurGtia, <f ^ He^ •, becaufe, fecondly, every Bifhop was to govern in his own Dio- 

toT^ y>y.K ce ^> anc * n0 other was to meddle, except defired, with any Ecclefiafti- 

%mUtLC7roy> cal matters in anothers Province. Thirdly, that the Bifhop of Conftan~ 

fia. to %vcu tmople is made equal with the Bifhop of Rome^ fave that his Worfhip 

*$\ v4 \bid. ^ Ifhould have faid Lordfhip, but that they will not think high enough, 

&m*i66. ali- but * cannot help it, thefe two Councils forbid me to fay Head,} fhould 

ur Can. 3.. fit in the firft place, or before the other, which yet he might have done, 

without Univerfal Jurifdid:ion» Fourthly, we learn that this honour 

that they either had was not bottomed upon Divine Right, but becaufe 

they were Bifhops in the Imperial Cities => but here is not a word, thou* 

art Peter, &c. Peters Succeffbr, &c. Apoftolical Seat, &c. All this is 

very good evidence that the Pope is not fo old as to reach to the times of 

this Council neither. 

Thirdly, the next Catalogue of Witneffes that yet the Bifhop of 

Rome was not Univerfal Head confifxs of two hundred Fathers, afTemb- 

!ed in a General Council at Ephefus in the year 43 1, ( fo Codex. Canon.) 

Or as others 434, or thereabouts. This Council is fo full, that I wonder 

how the Papifts Co many of them as have fet forth fo many Volums of 

Councils could with patience write what fo much made againft them, 

(x) V&py\A.& a nc [ y C t ^ on j n their error challenging Headfhip from the Apoftles 

va& t«« t»- t j mes# T ne Canon declareth the occafion of its Conftitwtion, in this 

&lff{X iK £ manner, (x) Rcginus our fellow Bifhop, and beloved of God, together with 

. &c. Codex. Can. Ecclef.Univerf. Can. 17 8. aliter Concil. Ephef. Can.S. 


Serm.VII. Popery a Novelty. 239 

the holy Bithopf of the Province of Cyprus, Zenon and Evagrius 3 have de- 
clared to w a new thing, contrary to Ecclefiaftical Laws, and Canons of the 
bnlv F atherj, and that which reacheth [concerneth] the liberty of all\where- 
forefmce common difeafes need the greater medicine, for M much as they do 
the more harm, the ancient cufiom not being followed > to wit (this new 
thing was) that the Bifhop of pttitioch had Ordained fome in Cyprus, as 
fome eminent for Religion coming to the holy Synod have both by writing and 
by their own words informed •, (wherefore it is decreed that J the Frefidents 
of the holy Churches in Cyprus fh all have thjf, without detriment and viola- 
tion of their right, according to the Canons of the holy Fathers, and the an- 
cient cuftom, themfehesto Ordain godly Bijhops ', and this alfoJhaU be ob- 
ftrved in other Vioctffes and Provinces every where f hat no Bijhop draw un- 
der bis Subjettion any other-Province, which was not bis from the beginning, 
or his Predeceffors j and if any Bijhop hath made fuch invafion, and by vio- 
I at ion \ ox wrong] made it jitbjett to him, he Jh at again reftore it; that 
the Canons of the Fathers be not tranfgreffed, lefi under pretence of Priefi- 
hoodthe arrogance [ox fwelling pride] of worldly power creep in unawares, 
and we infenfibly and by little and little lofe that liberty which Jefus Chrifl 
our Lord, the Redeemer of Mankind, hath purchafed for its with his own 
Blood, and given freely to us. It feemeth good therefore to this holy and 
general Synod, that the Rights which they have had from the beginning be 
fecured to every Province, pure and inviolable, according to the ancient cu- 
fiom s every Metropolitan having liberty to take a copy of the Ads for his 
own fecurity. And if any one Jhall take a Copy cmtrary in any thing 
to what is now determined, it pleafed aU the holy and Vniverfal Synod 
that it Jhould be void. Thus far this General Council unanimouily 
voted againft one Bifhops medling with , encroaching upon the Pro- 
vinces of others j calling it a new thing, &c. How then was one Bifhop 
owned as Head over all the reft. 

Fourthly, another Catalogue of fix hundred and thirty (Co Caranza,) 
aflembled in a General Council at Chalcedon in the year 45 1 therein their 
firft Canon ratifie and confirm all the Canons of the former Councils,fo 
that by the vote of thefe, they to this year are again ft the Primacy and 
Soveraignty of any one Bi(hop. In another Canon they determined, 
(y) lb at if any Clergy man had any difference with his own, or another r y \ E j j^ *> 
Bijhop, it Jhould be tried by the Synod of the Province \ but if there were yo^eiKh 
any controverfie betwixt a Bijhop, or Clergy-man^ and the Metropolitan of &esiyi J -*%X H 
the Province, he or theyjhonldgo to the Viocefan or to the fat of the Royal J&* * l f lGr> 
City of Conftantinople, and there have it tried. So then Appeals to Rome "^cwHrna- 
hereby are cut orTi and the fame is ratified again in another Canon of KQ ^ Q p m*g 

«oAi©$ Sfoycv, xi W avtu fiKati&a. Codex Can. Ecclef. lluiverf. Can. 187. item Can. 
195. ^ ■ 

I i 2 the 

240 Popery a Novelty, Serm. VH. 

(vjJdJfA the fame Council. Again, they (z decreed, 7hat the Church of Con- 
0"p«0-£«a a- funtinople fljould have equal priviledges with Rome, that as the Fathers 
•f Y*m '(June before them had given the Priviledg to elder Rome, becaufe it had the Em- 
JyicoTATco P lTe -> f° being moved by the fame reafon they gave the fame priviledges to 
ty'ovco iv\o- Constantinople, new Rome, thinking it reafon that the City which vs b$- 
yas xpiwje* noured with the Empire and Senate Jfauld be alikg advanced with old 
IrVh'wi^- Rome > in dfekfiffrkil matters. From whence it plainly follows, firft, 
Kcivaudu^ tnat what priviledg or precedency was given to Rome, was not by rea- 
irpioCtJav t? Ton of Peters fuppofed Chair, but becaufe it was honoured with Em- 
vrpicCyTie* f p.; re ^ fo that in the judgment -of the Ancients he had-no Divine Right. 
$** lKi /[ P a ~ Secondly, that /the Bifhop of Conftantinople was equal with the Bi (hop 
toT* I&xxw07- °^ R° me ,n *M things, as alfo were the Metropolitans of the Afian, 
as-ncoii 4 &s ThracianD'ioccCs, and of Pontic, then at this time he was not yet Uni- 
Ixelvnv y.iy& yer(al Bifhop. 

*wi&m Fifthly. Another Evidence in this caufe is the Council held at Antioch 

CodcT^a'ti. ' ln c ^ £ Y ear 34 T -> ( *° C°d ex Canon.) the occafion whereof was this : In 
Ecclef. Uni- the rime of Julius the firft, (a) Bifhop of Rome in the Eailern Church 
verf. Can.2O0. feveral Bifhops were Depofed for divers caufes by their Synods j which 
^ £/ #- ^5" Bifhops went to Rome, acquainted Julius with their whole Eftate and 
7 capit&c- Troub!e ' 7«//'» writeth ro the Bifhops of the Eaft, telling them, Ibey 
& 26. Socrat. had done very ill to determine and conclude any thing againft: thofe Bifhops 
Jib.2. cap. n. without h'n privity. Which when they received, took the correction of 
Julius for a contumely, or flander, they fummon a Council at Antioch, 
there aflbon as they had affembled together, devifed an Epiftle by uni- 
form confent of them all, wherein they bitterly inveigh againft Julius, 
and fignifie withal, That if any were banifhed the Church,and Excommu- 
nicated by their Decree and Cenfure, it were not h'vs part to intermeddle, 
(b) 'E/ t?< nor to fit in judgment upon their Jentence, And did then Decree, (b) That 
\<7n<swn& if any Bifhop Jhould be accufed^ and the matter could not be determined by 
stj rl(Ttv t § jj^ the. Bifhops of the Province, fime pronouncing the accufed to be innocent, 0- 
vciTo* tvHTdLtfytt* to be guilty, for the taking up oj the whole Controverfie, the Metropo- 
cvy-CaJn <ifeX litan fhmld call others to judg from the neighbouring Province, and what 
% T * { l * !pa \ fhonld be fo determined jhould ftand firm. And in the next Canon, they 
vnv t»j 4v th j -j rafjfig^ ^at if any Bifhop was accufed, and condemned by aU the Bi- 
%iG*k'KM> $j fo°P s °f f ^ e P roz 'i nce -) an ^ ^-jhould with one' confent pronounce Sentence a- 
pXv dQ£w r gainji him i be Jhould no more be tried by any other. But the fentence of 

xpnvv\xs> fy tUu ciy.'ptfCnTiistv <PuthvovTa; > ro (ZtCauaecu avv toU *? iTr&rilctt to nrnti' 
trcLtJL<ivov> Codex Can. Ecclef. Univerf. Can 93. E/ tU i-ar/V^o-w©- it*) thtiv iyy.K\\[j.dL<st ha- 

TtiyOf)YI&eif-> Xff$&n XfiTO Taj/J^P 7$f iV Ty Z.'B&^xJLdL 6h(jKQ'BMV> 1?cLl>}i{ T6 aVfAQaVQl \AdJt 

mcC\ civrlti i&viyacizi/ *\%p r p, ifvlov wmWi 'R&i iritis ^iKai^i^rcu > ctM^* yXvnv {SiCaxcp 
vlut ai)(j.(pcoyov >ffi &7 «? "iTTA^yju/ ZhaKhistov cJ'&Qtpa.o'iV' Codex Can. Ecclef. Univerf. Can- 
94. tpud Caranz. & Surium, Concil Anticciien. Can, ^14^ 15. . 

Serm. VII. Popery a Novelty. : 241 

the Bijhofs of the Province Jhouldbe to al! purprfes valid. Clearly do they 
take away all Appeals to Rome, as the matter of the Canons, and the 
occation fif making of them doth fully dernonftr3te. And this Council 
was confirmed in the fixth General Conftantinopolitan Synod held in 
Irnl and by Pope VionyfiM, and fo harh the Authority of a General 
Council and Pope too, therefore with the Papifls themfelves fhould be 
authentick. Caranz. Sum. Concil. p.165. Euftb. libq. czp.24, (^25. Su- 
rius ConciL Tom. 1 . pag.j,$9. 

Sixthly. Another full Evidence that the Bifhop ot Rome was not 
owned as Univerfal Head is the flout oppofition made againft it fin 
their early afpiring after it; by iwo hundred and ftventeen Fathers affem- 
bled, (Augnftine being one, and Aurelim Prelident^ in the year 4ip, . 
(fo Codex Can. Ecclefi* African*.) The Controverfie then was this. 
Aphrim a Prielt in Africa, was for his fcandalous life Excommunicated, 
in an African Synod, hereupon he fled to the Bifhop o£Rome 7 who ab- 
folved him, and commanded him to be reftored to his place i and So- 
zimws Bi(hop of Rome to juliifie this, claimed a right to receive Appeals 
from all parts of the World, and for proof thereof pretended a certain 
Canon of the Nicene Council that did give it him h the Council not fin- 
ding any fuch Canon in the Decrees of the Fathers at Nice, fent away 
Letters and MefTengers to the Bifhop of Conjiantinople, Alexandria and . 
Antiochy that they would fend to them the A&s of the Nicene Council, 
2 a ft clofed and fealed up, becaufe they could not find a Canon which 
was alledged by the Legats of the Bifhop of Rome, from thefe they re- 
ceived feveral Copies, all agreeing, but in none of them what Sozimus 
had affirmed to be in them, that he was (hamefully by all the Council 
convinced of forgery, that he did greatly err, they all proved i for the 
Copies taken out of the Originals by Cyril of Alexandria, and by A tti- 
cut of Conjiantinople, &c. had no fuch thing in them >_ and the whole 
Council writing to Boniface, fin which Letter they call Sozimm a man 
of unhappy memory,; defired him to repel thofe that made him their 
refuge, both becaufe there is no fuch conftitution of the Fathers, which . 
hath at any time fo much derogated from the Authority of their Chur- 
ches, as alfo becaufe the Nicene Council hath apparently left the order- 
ing of all Infcriours to the judgment of their Metropolitan, and had - 
determined that all matters of Controverfie mould receive their finajl 
decition in the place where they began i for how can a Judgment given , 
beyond the Seas be good, where WitnelTes neceiTarily required in fuch 
cafes, cannot be prefent, either in regard of their fex, or age, or fome 
other Impediment. — Becaufe it is granted "to every one to appeal to the 
Councils of their own'Provinces, or to an Univerfal Council.-- — Un- 
kU there mould beany one that can think that our God can infpire a 
juftiee of trial into any One man, and deny it to innumerable Priefts 
that are aflembled in Council ; and much more thefe Letters of the 
Council to Boniface, of Cyril of Alexandria, to the Council, and of At- 


*?£2 Topery a Novelty* Serm. Vllv 

tieus of Constantinople to the fame, and the Copies of the Nicene Coun- 
cil lent to them, and the Epiftle of the Council to Pope Celeftine, are in 
the end ot Codex Canon. Ecclef. African, and in Surius Tom. i.p.^SS.&c,, 
Thus much for their Letters,now for the Canons of the African Church 
againft the Headfhip of the Bifhop of Rome. In the \g. Canon, If any 
Btfloop be accufed, the accufr fhould bring hit caufe before the Primate of 
the Province. On. 23. That no Bifhop (houldgo beyond the Sea, nnlefs 
t ' ^ e ^ a ^ t ^ e con f ent °f *b e Bffivp of the firjl feat of every Province. Can.28. 

nlicrz ^Vlfsi ^ Jt ^ res h teTS CO Deacons, and others, if they have complaint againfi 
<n?iisC\JTi&i their Bfops, the neighbouring Btjh'fsjhould hear them, and if they would 
xj 0/ JWo- appeal from them, itfhonld not be to the judgments of any beyond the Sea 
voit qoikqi- but to the Primates of their own Provinces, or to a General Council, as was 
■ m ' 1 f!f *"" decreed before concerning Bijhops, as for tbofi that Jhall appeal beyond the 
tv din '4y&- Sea, none Jball receive them into Communion in Africk^ So alfo Canon 

<?iv ourtaui, 125 

J'ivli [ip rjf 'Ape**? fi^a'ffttr «? KOiyuvltw. Codex Can. Ecclef. African. Can.28. 

So far we fee that the Church of God did curb and retrain the ambi- 
tion of the Bifhop of Rome, and (toutiy flood againft the invading en- 
deavours of afpiring Antichrift. Yet will I add one more, ( and fo let 
the Councils pafs for this head i that is, againft the Univerfal Headland 
that is of a Council at Conjlantinople, in the time of Agatho Bifhop of 
Rome, which was about the year 673, or as others <58i, who did 
(manly fnub ("the pretended Mother, that is to give Laws to all others) 
by making a Law to reach as far, and to bind the Church of Rome, fay- 
ing, (d) For as much as we uvderfland that in the City of Rome in time of 
(d) £uoniam Lent, they f aft upon the Sabbath-days, contrary to the cujhm of the Church 
jntelleximus j t m w d ecree d in this Synod, that alfo in the Church of Rome, that Canon 
rum civitate fl 01 ^ ^ s °f f orce without violation, which j ait h, if any of the Clergy Jhall be 
m fanciis found failing on the Lords-day or Sabbath, except one and that only, let him 
quadrigefima? be depofed, but if he be of the Laity, let him be Excommunicated. This the 
lejuniis ^n e- church of Rome in the heighth of their pride would hardly brook, but 
;U;,i«ti./nr*> y° a f ee as f ar as tms tlmQ reacheth, many Councils knew no fuch thine 
ter Ecclefia- *san Univerfal Head, but oppofed the hrlt appearance ot it. 

fticam confue- 

tudinem traditam ; fanfta? Synodo vifum eft, ut in Romanorum quoque Ecclefia inconcufse 
vires habeat Canon qui dicit : Si quis clericus inventus fuerit in fanfto dominico vel Sabba- 
ttio jejunans, pmer unum & folum, deponatur, fin autem Laicus, fegregetur. Surim in Con- 
oil. Tom.2. p.i 048. Condi. VU Constant. Cam $5. refer • antm ad Canon. Apoflol.66. 


Serra. VII. Popery a Novelty. 243 

To thefe Evidences fetched from Councils I (hall add farther the 
exprelTed judgment of two of their own Bifhops, PrcdeceiTors of him, 
that firft got the title of Univerfal Hc^d^Pelagius and Gregory the Great, 
which two did fo exceedingly inveigh againft this title, God in his Pro- 
vidence fo ordering it, that the following Popes might be condemned 
out of the mouths of their PredecetTors j whofe fharpnefs of fpeich 
againlt this U fur pat ion, wa? cccafioned by John Bifhop of Constanti- 
nople, furnamed the F after, who did aiTume to himfelf the title of Uni- 
verfal Bifhop about the year <)8o.about which time Velaiius the fecond 
being Bithop of Rome, did write to all the Bifhops aflembled at Constan- 
tinople in a Synod called by John the Bi(hop of that Seat, fey in g, u That 
" they ought not to acknowledg John as Univerfal Bifhop, unlefs tliey 
"purpofed to depart awav trom the Communion of all other Bifhops : 
Moreover, faying, (e) ? Let no Patriarch ufe to profane a Title, for if^^^ 
" the chief Patriarch thoald be called Univerfal, the name of a Patri- yniverfalitatis 
" arch (houlJ be taken away thereby from all others -, but God forbid vocabulo un- 
"it mould ever enter into the heart of a Chriltian to aiTume any thing qium utatur, 
" unto himfelf, whereby the honour of his Brethren mould be debafed. gjj^JJJ^ 
u For this caufe Lin my Epi files never call any by that name,for fear left nivcrfalis^li- * 
by giving him more than is his due, 1 might feem to take away that c j tuI% p at riar- 
which of right belongeth to him. For the Devil our adverfary goeth charum no- 
about like a roaring Lion, exercifing his rage upon the humble and ™ cn ceteris 
"meek-hearted, and feeking to devour now, not the (heep-coats, but jSj^JJJ!^ 

" the very principal members cf the Church. For he (of reborn be i^ x y^ ^rf. 

writes) "cometh near unto him of whom it is written, Ibis vs be which quam mente, 
"* King over all the children of Pride : Which words I fpeak with grief ]l0c f-bi vel 
a of mind,feeing our brother and fellow- Bimop Jobnjn defpight fwHj^XT 
bit reafns againft this Htad.) " of the Commandment of our Saviour, unc j e hooo..' 
"the Precepts of the Ape files, and Canons of the Church, by this rem fratruirr • 
" haughty name, to make himfelf his (Antkhritts) forerunner. and here- lucrum irrmu- 
* by John goeth about (marl^ReaderJ to attribute to himfelf all thofe m ; erc J* 
"things which belong properly to the Head himfelf, that is, Chriit i, paPre^vldea? 5 
"and by the llfurpariun ot this Pompous Title, to bring under his tur, fcc* /** 

" Subjection all the Members of Chrift. And that they ought to be- Cag. v;fl.$c.? r 

" ware left this temptation of Satan prevail over them, and that they Nidlus patri— 
" neither give nor take this Title of Univerfal Bifhop. arcjarum, 

This is a large Teftimony againft, and a full condemnation of both ' tj 
Name apd Office of Univerfal Bimcp,and this by a BifLcp cf Rome, be- 
fore his SuccetTor had ufurped thefame.And I might ; nfer,either that the 
following Bifhops of Rome do greatly err in taking to themfelves this 
Name and Office, or elfe this Bilhop of Rome was fJIible and did err in 
a matter of Faith^made now by them neceffary to Salvation) let them 
choofe which they will (for one they muAj their Principles arc woun- 
ded by it. 

After this Felagau (tot the Ufurper was not immediately after himj). 



244 Top cry a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

fucceeded Gregory called tbeGreat^ about the year 590, at which time 
John the fourth of Confkantimpfc did (till perfift in claiming and main- 
taining his Title of Univerfal Bifhop > at which Gregory being much 
grieved and offended,writes to Conflantia the Emprefs againft it : " Call- 
" ing the exaltation of one man a defiling of that time, (marl^ bis rea- 

({[dee^ be denied by the ex- 

patienter fe- "altation of one mzntfermetb it tbe crooked name of UniverfalC/^andtan 
ratur, quate- "unfurTerable thing, and that by this arrogancy and pride is portended 
nus defpectis « that the time of Antichrilt is now at hand } and that John imitated 
omnibus,pra> « ^^ ^Lucifer) w h making light of that happinefs which he had in 
& coepifco- " common with the other Angels, would needs afpire to a Angularity a- 
pusmeusfo- c bove all the reft. A nd to tbe Emper 'our writing faith, Ci That all thofe 
lus conetur cc who have read the Gofpel know well that Peter (mar\ Reader,) is not 
appcllari |- " called the Univerfal Apoftle, and yet behold, my fellow-Pric-ft John 
n harems 6 " ^ ee ^eth to be called the Univerfal Bifhop. I am now forced to cry out, 
fuperbia quid cc Oh the times ! and Oh the manners of men ! Europe is now expofed 
aliudnifi pro- cc for a prey to the Barbarian, and yet the Priefts who mould lie along 
pinqua jam « j n tne d u ft upon the pavement, weeping and rolling themfelves in 
Antichril 1^ " a fhes, J fee k after names of vanity > and boalt themfelves of their 
fignatur ? quia " new-found (this is a Novelty in the judgment of a Bijhop of Rome,^) and 
ilium videli- " prophane Titles. And in oppofltion to this prick of John he was the 
cet imitatur, fi r ft Bifliop of Rome that took this Title, the Servant of Servants, which 
qui fp re ^ !£ Title his SucceiTors in feigned humility ilill tife, though they ufurp the 
Angelorum Title °f Univerfal Bifliop, in oppofition to which he did fo ftile himfelf 
legionibus, ad and in exceifive pride have added to themfelves fince many pompous 

culmen cona- Appellations. Again, faith the fame Roman Bifliop, " Now the King 

tus eft fingu- « f p r jde is at the eates,and which I dread to fpeak, an Armv of Priefts 
rumpere — - '' anc * Bilhops (lands ready to receive him h calls it afuperflitious and 

Undeper om- "haughty name cf Univerfal Bifliop. Never may fuch foolery befal 

nipotentem cc us; call an Univerfal Bifliop (very true,)zv\ Univerfal Enemy. And 
dominum ro- again, "I fpeak it boldly, that whofoever calleth himfelf, or defireth 

f effrl P tem' 1S " t0 be caIled h Y others > the Univerfal Bifhop, is in his Elation of mind, 
pora permit- u the forerunner of Antichriit, becaufe that in like Pride he preferreth 
tatis unius " himfelf before others; Like, I fay, for as that wicked One would feem 
hominis elati- cc as God, above all men,fo will this Man exalt himfelf above all Bifliops. 
^ e u ^ a u ^ n ' He plainly faith, "That none of the Biihops of Rome did ever afliime 
perverfo vo " ^at word of Singularity, &c. £. nd this fame Gregory writing to John 
cabulo ulium 

quoquo modo praebeatls afTenfum, Sec, Oregor. Msg. nd Confront* M.4. .E^.34; Cunctis Evar* 
gelium Scientibus liquet,— quod Vetrm Univerfalis Apoilolus non vocatur, & vir fancriifimus 
confacerdo5 meus Johannes vocari Univerfalis Epifcopus conatur 5 exclamare compellor, ac dicere, 

O temporal O mores !— & tatnen Sacerdotes,— —yanitatis fibi nomina expetunt, & Novis 

sc prophanis vocabulis gloriantur, &c,« Nullus Romawum Pontificum unquam hoc fngulari- 

tads vocabulurn afTumfit, nee uti confenfit, fee Quis eft ifte, qui contra ftatuta Evangelica, 
contra Canonum decrets, Novum fibi ufurpare nomen praefumit? Idm, ibid, ad. Mamtim* 
Xfifr. $2, 



Serin.- VII. Popery a Novvltj. 24$ 

otConJfontirtople, (g) deals roundly and plainly with him, faying, u \Yhcn ( g ) q u \ ctiiin 
L thou waft called to the Oftice of a Bifhop, thou faidft, That thou wert indignum tc 
not worthy to be called a Bifhop, and now thou woiildcft have none a C J- C fatckans, 

Bifhop but thy felf. What wilt thou anfvtcr unto Chrift, who is ac ^- u r p C c C r bo f ° 

u the true Head of the Univerfal Church, in that day of Judgment, fee- vocabulo ap- 
"ingrhat by this name of Univerfal thou feekeft to enthral all the Mem- pellari con- 
ct bers of his Body unto thy felf? whom do ft thou imitate kerein fave fentjas,—^- 
' only htm, who in contempt or thofc Legions or Angels, which were y . c ; ]o j c _ 
l " his fellows, fought to mount aloft ro the top of Singularity, where he CU rionis aft- 

* might be fubjedt. to none, and all others fubjed unto him ? ringam: fancti 

ante legem, 
fanfti fub lege, fancti Tub gratia, omncs hi perficientes corpus domini, in membris funt Ecclef x 
conftituti, & nemo fe unquam Univerfalem vocare voluit, &c. Idem ibid, ad JdhanSConfiantinop, 

Efift. j8. 

But did not he raife all this ftir, and make all this oppofition becaufe 
Johi had prevented him becaufe he had not this name and title himfelf, 
(h) fince as he is faid to be the befi of all the Bi '(heps of Rome that came < h ) Nu "^ d 
after him, fo the rverll of all that were before him. Let alone what his heart pfiff nTie d _ 
and end was, and hear what he faith, writing to JLulogius Bifhop of mine propri- 
Alexandria^ (i) " You have been careful to advertife me, that you for- am caufam 
'bear now to write unto any by thofe proud names which do fpring • j nc J- 0? " un- 
1 meerly from the root of vanity, and }et fpeaking to me, you fay [as j q e u m j n £ r i an i 
c you commanded ],Let me I pray you hear no more of this word com- vindico ? & 
c mand •> for I know well enough what I am,and what you are > in de- non magis 
c ' gree you are my Brethren.and in manners you are my Fathers : where- cau f am . ornm- 
fore I commanded you nothing, only I advifed you, what I thought g^aufam U- 
fittctl to be done i and yet I do not find that you have perfectly ob- niverfalis Ec- 
: ferved that which I dehred to leave deepeft graven in your remem- clefla? ? idem 
c brance =, for I told you, that- you (hould not write in any fuch manner a£i Maurit. 
1 either to me, or to any other, and yet in the very Preface of your Epi- ,\\ 1 indicare 
1 He, you call me by that name of pride and vanity, Univerfal Pope Wcftra beati- 
c which I would entreat you to forbear hereafter,feeing that your felves tudo fmduit, 
1 lofe, whatfoever you give unduly to another. For my part I feek to &c - Namdixi 

* encreafe in Virtues, and not in vanity of Titles *, that addeth nothing "^ ™fa u ^' 
" to my honour, which I fee taken from my Brethren v my honour is alteri tale ali- 
: the honour of the Univerfal Church =, and the found vigor of my Bre- quid fcribere 

1 thren.--— For if yon call me Univerfal Pope, you deny your felves to debcre,& ecce 
"be that which indeed you are, in that you call me Univerfal. But £ f^ tlone 

6 God forbid, let us rather put far from us thefe words, which do puffq uanrac i' me . 

' up to pride and vanity, and woundeth Charity to the death. ipfum qui 

prohibui , di- 
rexiftis, fuperba? appellations verbum, Univerfalem me Papam dicentes, imprimere curaftis.' 
Quod peto dulciflima mihi fanftitas veftra ultra non faciat, &c. Idem Epift. lib.']. Fpiit.^o. ug. 
criam ejufdem de eodem Epiftolarum, Lib.4. Et>i(l. 26. & Ub.6. Epift. 5. & 24. & 28. & 30. 
& 31. 

Kk ' This 



2J r% Popery a Novelty. Serm. VII»- 

This is that Gregory, Bifhop of Rome that was fo vehement in his 
writing againft the name and office of Univerfal Bifhop, that after his 
death the Romanifts would have burnt his Works had not one Peter a 
Deacon retrained them by affirming to them, That he often faw the 
Holy Ghoft in the form of a Dove titting upon the head of Gregory 
while he was writing of them. This is that Gregory that fo ear near- 
ly cried down an Univerfal Bifhop, that Pope Gregory the 13th. could 
not anfwer but by giving this Gregory the flat lie. Plejfeus. 

But what follows from that learned Authoritative confutation? but 
that the Bifhop of Rome is fallible and imy err ; for if Gregory the Great 
did ("peak truth, then Gregory the thirteenth did fpeak falfe, in faying his 
Doctrine was a lie. If Gregory the thirteenth did fpeak true, in faying 
the other did lie and that in a matter of Faith made neceiTary to Salvati- 
on, then did Gregory the Great greatly err, in a matter that concerned 
the Univerfal Church. Let them take which they will, their Infallibility 
lyeth in theduft i for it will much puzzle his Holinefs to reconcile the 
parts of a contradiction. Let him try his skill that both Gregories might 
in this be found true. 

I have borrowed fome Paper to be a little the larger in this,both from 
Councils, and in tranferibing the words of thefe two, i; Becaufe this 
is the Main HEAD and Hinge of our Controverfies. 2. Becaufe tbefi 
two were their own, and yet againft them. 3. Becaufe it makes it plain 
that to fix hundred years the Bifhop of Rome was not Univerfal Head, for 
at that time it was declaimed by themfelves, as you fee. 4. Becaufe the 
Engl/Jh Reader that underftandeth not Latin Authors, might be fatisfied 
from their own mouths that Univerfal Soveraignty of the Bifhop of 
Rome is not fo old as to come up fo high as fix hundred years after 


But when was this Title firft afTumed > and by whom was it firft con- 
ferred upon the Bifhop of Rom*, to be called Univerfal ? that you 
might know when and how he got up into the Chair. 

You have been told before that Gregory the Great did write Letters 
to Maurice the Emperour in the Controverfie betwixt him and John of 
Conflantinople about the name Univerfal. This Emperour Maurice falling 
into diflike among the Soldiers, one Phocas a Centurion made himfelf 
Captain of thofe that did mutiny, and was afterwards by them pro- 
claimed Emperour } Maurice feeing this fted away with his Wife and 
Children. Phocas was Crowned, and purfueth after his own Mafle* 
Maurice, overtakes him, flew his Wife and Children, or fome of them 
before his eyes, and afterwards caufed him to be murdered alfo. Mark 
that this PhocM was a vile Traitor, and a Murderer of fuch an excel- 
lent Emperour and virtuous Man, as Hiftorians fay, that Maurice was. 
A while after that Phocas was Emperour, Gregory that was Bifhop of 
Rome and oppofed the Title of Univerfal Head, departed out of this 

life, and Sabinitn a malicious detractor of Gregory and his Works fuc- 

/ cei^4 

Serm. Vir. ropery a Novelty. ' 247 

cecded him, and continued Bifhop of Rome fcarce two years.after whom 
fuccccded Boniface the third, about the year fix hundred and five, who 
lived not ('as Tome fay J above eight moneths, or as others but a year, 
after he was Bifhop of Rome; but in that time he obtained what he aim 
cd at ; for the Murther committed by Pbocat upon the Empercur Mau- 
rice, being not approved of by the Bifhop of Confi amino] ie, he fedefng 
to eftablifh hia.fclf in the Empire f gotten by blood, by the Frkndfhip 
of the Bifhop of Rome, Boniface making great offers of his fervice to 
Phocas, took this opportunity to defire of him that he and bis Succcf- 
fors after him, fhould be called Univerfal Head of all the Churches of 
Chrift, and that the Church of Rome thence forward fhould have the 
prcheminence, and be Head of all other Churches ; this murdering 
PhoCM, and this afpiring Boniface agreeing to help one another, the Bi- (h) Qvo tem- 
fhop to ftrcngthen htm in his Empire got by Rebellion •, the Emperour P°re intercef- 
Pbosas quickly grants that he fhould be the Univerfal and head-Bifhop j™^* m 
over ali Chriftian Churches. And this is acknowledged by their own 6)^0^^ 

Hiftorians. (kj eundem Tho- 

cam In: p. atq-, 
Cyriacum Conflsntinofolitdnm. * Hinc igitur in Cyriacum T-bocas exacerbatus in ejus odium Im- 
pcriali edi&o fancivit, nomen Univerfalis decere Romanam rantum modo Ecclef am, tanquam 
qu« caput, efle omnium Ecclefiarum,folique convenire Romano Pontifici \ non autem Epifcopo 
CoijidntinopolitaiOy qui fibi illud Ufurpare praefumeret. Quod quidem hunc Bonifaciuw Papain 
tertium ab Imperatore Vhocx obtinuitte, cum Anaflifius Bibliothecarius, turn Paultts diaconus tra- 
dunt. Spondan, Epitom. Baron. Annul* in Annum 606, 

From all w T hich you clearly fee, firft, that it was not till after the fixtb 
hundred year from Chrift that the Bifhop of Rome had this Title con- 
ferred upon him. Secondly, that he came not to it by divine right, not 
made fo by God, nor called and cbofen to it by a General Council of Fathers^ 
but by a 7raytor and a Murderer. The Pope giving his help to keep 
the llfurper in the Saddle, by way of requital this wicked and Tyran- 
nical Emperour lifts the Pope up into the Chair. A couple well (Oh no 
mifchievoufiv) met to do Offices for each other, but both eminently in- 
jurious to others by their Ufurpations, the one in the State, the other 
in the Church. 

As his Name and Office of Univerfal Bifhop is new, fo are thofe o- 
ther accumulative, pompous, and feme of them blafphemous Titles.not 
fit to be given to any mortal man. For of old it was not (o, fat Peter 
whofe SuccelTor he pretends to be had no fuch Names nor Titles, but 
ftiled himfelf a fellow Presbyter, 1 Pef.5.1. (I) And the Canons of the (Q*liri r <? 
African Church of old were that the Bifhop of the firfi Seat fthat was •oW? w J »*•&*- 
Rome ) fhould not be called Prince cf Priefis, or head-Priefi^ or any fuch h\e <$** ******" 
name, but only the Bifhop of the firfi Seat. Car.tnza (m) in his Annotati- %Zi'%^yov 
on upon this Canon, faith, That the African Church could not give #/ U^df h 

w TtivjoffOToir Ti 'BroTi, tLfatt povov fBttKo&ov <r &ttoTy\< &*See/>^. Codex Canon, EcclcG 
Atm. Can. $9. (m) Caranz. Sum. Concil. Carthag.3. Can.2$. 

Kk 2 : Laws 

248 Popery d Novelty. Serra. VII. 

Laws to the Univerfal Church, and therefore by this Canon nekher did 
nor could forbid the calling of the Eifhop of ilow^Prince of Priefts, &c. 
But they could Decree, That they would never call him fo, nor own 
him for fuch, which (hews that by them he was not fo advanced. But 
(i) Nee eti- their own Canon Law («) forbids that the Bifhop of Rome fbould be call- 
amRomanus e d Univerfal. And the fixth Council at Confiantinople (0) ratifying the 
PontifcxUm- vj LXree f the 150 Fathers formerly afiembled in that Cicy, and of the 
appellandus. ^3° fibers affembled at Cbalcedon, did alfo agree with them and de- 
Viftijift. 99. c. cree,That the Bifhop ot Confiantinople (hould have equal Friviledg with 
nee eti am. the Bifhop of Rome, and have equal Power in all Ecclefiaftical matters 
00 s :^ l!i l L in with him, only that he be the fecond fo the Bifhop of Rome, and after 
^pa&ioA*.' theBimop of Confiantinople, the Bifhop of Alexandria (hould have the 
Concil*. con- next Seat, and next to him, the Eifhop of Antiocb, and next to him 
(funtiuop. Can. the Bifhop of Jerusalem, By all which appears that the Bifhop of Reme 
S 6 ' was not Head of all the reft, the Prince of Priefts, but that all the re- 

fpecl that he had above the reft, was to fit down in the firft Seat,which 
is nothing at all to his Univerfal Jurifdidtion, and then he had not thole 
JusCanonic.i. Titles that now are given to him. 1. As Head over ail Priefts, as a 
Dift.0.c.ego. King is over his Judges. 2 . The Vicar of Saint Peters though now 
C * ivir^T' they fay not the Vicar of ?^r properly, but Vicar of Ch rift properly 
2! lurh cl-' and Succeffor of Peter. 3. Molt mighty Prieft. 4. That he hath all 
non. pars 2. Laws in the cheft of his breft. 5. Chief Magiftrate cf the whole 
cauf.25.qued* World. 6. That his Sacerdotal dignity as far excelleth Kings and Em- 
1. c. null. perours, as Gold excelleth Lead. 7. That all the Earth is his-Diocefs 
Ponttex^qui and he the 0rdinar Y of ^ men, having the Authority of the King of 
jura omnia in all Kings upon Subjects. That he is all in all, and above all. 8. If thofe 
Scrinio pect- things that I do, be faid to be done not of man but of God, what can 
? TIS ^ cen " you make of me but a God > and the Prelates of the Church being ao. 
__SextI' countec * °f Confiantine for Gods, I being above all Prelates by this rea- 
Decree P. Bo- fon am above all Gods. 
r.ifac. 8. c. li- 
cet. <. Decret. lib.6. Bonifas. 8. in Proa?mio. 6. Diftinct. p5. c. duo. 7. Gk>f. inc.n. queft. 
3. fi mimicus. 8. Decret. de Tranflat. Epifc, cap. quanto. 

Likewife the Power of the Pope over General Councils is a new 
Power, it was not fo of old ; he had not the P0w.11 0^ calling Councils, 
but it did belong to, and was done by Civil Magiftrat( s.The hrft Gene- 
ral Council of Ki-e was aftembled by the Authority of Confiantine the 
Great j the Second at Confiantinople was called by Theodofuu the elder i 
the Third at Epbepu by Iheodofm the younger \ the Fourth at Cbalcedon 
by Valeriiinian and Martian, &c. Hiftorians tell us that when once the 
fp) Eeclef. Emperours began to be Chriftians,from that time forward the Church- 
Hift. lib. 5. affairs depended upon them, and the greateft Councils were alTembled, 

teTcaran*; anc * *° ^ are > 2t their appointment. (?) So Socrates. And the Counr 
Sum.Concil. c ^ 0I ~ Comiance, ( which Caranza (q) faith was General, and in the time 
p. 824, £25. of Pope John 24, which was after the year 1400, mark how lately, 


Serm.VlI. Popery a Novelty. 249 

and did depofe three Popes, Gregory nth, Alexander $tb, John 2\th.) M Primodc- 
and again in the Council of Bafil, which began in the year 143 i/maik ^—qTod 
itill how lately ), in both thefe it was decreed, (rj That a Synod bath its ipfa ' pote ft a . 
power immediately from Cbrift, which every one of what \\ate foever or digni- tern a Chrifto 
*y he be ', yea, even the Pope himjelf ought to be obedient, which if they be immediate 
not, but Jhali contumaciously contemn the Decrees, Statutes, and Ordinances y^^. 1 ^ U1 ~ 
of the Council, except he repent Jh all fuffer condign punifhment, though it be cunqucTatGs 
the Pope himfelf And this Council of Con\Unce was confirmed by Pope vel dignitatis, 
Martin the fifth, Seff. 45. and the other at Bafil by Pope Nicolas theetiamfi Papa- 
hfrh lis exiftat > °" 

By all this it doth appear that the main efTential point of Popery is a tur &c ConCm 
meer Novelty, having not its original till after the fixth hundred vear cor!jlan.Sefa$. 
after Chrin\ and not got up to its full power till feveral hundred years & cone. Bafil, 
after this. So that I may fas Voetim doth) confidently affirm, that in S jj}'\ & l6 ' 
the firft fix hundred years, there was NO CHURCH, NO ONE^ Ig ' 
LY A PAPIST. What is then become of the ANTIQUITY of PO- 
PERY ? and this I bottom upon this foundation, becaufe there cannot 
be fo much as one [Formal] Papifr, where the Eftentials of Popery 
are not ; as where the EfTentials of a man are not, there is no man a- 
(ftually exigent, but the Pope as Univerfal Head is the EfTential part of 
the Popifh Religion, without which (according to their Dodlrinejthe 
Church is no Church, nor any one a Member thereof that doth not 
own him and fubmit unto him. Therefore the Pope not being till after 
the fixth hundredth year, fo long there was not one Papift - (formally 
and properlyj in the whole World. ( s ) Syrians 

This being the main Pillar of Poperyl have infifted the longer to prove primus Sacer- 
the Novelty of it i for this falling, the whole Fabrick tumbleth down: dot ibus & DI- 
as therefore it is not neceflary that I (fiould be fo large in the refr, fo for t cr° annum la- 
want of more room and paper I muft be confirained to contradt and lutis 388. 
but name what follows. conjugio in- 

Secondly. The forbidding of Miniflers Marriage vs a tneer Novelty, For terdixic,— -- 
as their own (s) Authors fay, Syricim Bifliop of Rome that lived about "^amm Gre- 
the ye^ar 388, was the firft that did forbid it ; yet it was not then re- g 0Y a 7j ^ nn# 
ceived and practiced as a duty for them to abitain from Marriage, but 1074, connu- 
liberty of Marrying was never denied them till Gregory the 7. came to^mm adimi 
be Pope in the 1074, who yet was refitted, .as one that brought in a occidentaH- S 
new cuftom, never received before, and the Bilhops of Italy, (t) Ger- b us potuic. 
many and France met together, and for this decreed that he had done Polyd. VirgAi 
againit Chriftian piety, and depofed him, tor that among other things J*J**fe Yir * 
he had divorced Men and their Wives, denying fuch as had their Uw -J^ %u/ifc 
ful Wives to be Prietts *, when yet at the fame time he admitted to the cen t. 1It - ^ 
Altars,whoremongers, Adulters and Inceftuous perfons* Bettar- 389. 

v 250 Popery a Novelty. Serm. VII. 

Ttt)%4uh.2dd. Bellarmine himfelf and other (u) Popifh Doctors do grant, yea he 
ii ci^oTf P roves ^ Arguments that by the Law of God it is not forbidden that 
cul. Tom. P i! Minifters fhould Marry, and that for many hundred years the Church 
Traft.27. So- of Rome permitted Gm^Priefts to have and dwell with their Wives, 
tus lib. 7. de Thirdly. That Religion* worjhipping of Images hath not been of eld in 

Juititia Q.6. the Church of God, nor received and owned by Councils (for what parti- 
art. 2. in Be/lav? ' 1 r 11 • t ^l* i t • 1 . '„ 
de cleric, lib. ar P er * ons an<a hereticks in this point have done is not in this Ccn- 

1. cap.18. troveriie fo much to be minded) norprattifed in the Church for fome hun- 
dred years after Cbrifc there U faffcient evidence. Bifhop VJher in his An- 
fwer to the Jefuits Challenge, iaith, It might well be concluded that 
Images were brought into the Church partly by lewd Hereticks, partly 
by fimple Chriftians newly converted from Paganifm. The Gnoftick 
Hereticks had Images, fome painted in Colours, others framed of Gold 
and Silver, and other matter, which they faid were the reprefentations 
(vo)TLnkY. I °* thrift, made under Pontius Pilite^ when he was converfant here a* 
Hift.1.7. cj8. mori g men ' a nd though Eufbiits (t*>) makes mention of the Images of 
Paul and Peter, and of Cbrili, yet there be calls it an Heathenifhct/ftom* 
( JConc'I But they were fo far from worfhipping them in the Primitive times, 
BUbertin. ' r h at a Council (x) of ancient fathers did decree about the year 325 
That Piclures ought not be in the Church , left that which is worfbipped or 
adored /hould be painted on walls. Which Law made by this Council fet 
(y) Ilia lex Melchior Canus (y) the Papift in fuch an heat, that he alone would con- 
dent imprU "d demn all t ^ em not only of imprudency but impiety lor fo doing, for 
verum etiam' ^ e P oor man cou Id -not other wife anfwer it. 

impie,a Con- In the firft four General Councils there is nothing for the worfhip- 
cUio Elibertln§ ping of Images, which reached to the year 451, and yet if they had 
Iat n e [}-^ been of that opinion they had had occaiion from what was done in the 
chiibas cams %-Hbertine Council, being about the fame time that the Nicene Council 
loc. Th'eolog. was , a nd before the other three. 

lib.$. cap.4. And it fhould feem that they were not woi (hipped in the Church of 

concluf.4. Rome it felf for fix hundred years after Chrifr, by the Epiftle of Gregory 

ftjlndico du- ^ Q re3t ioSerenus Bifhop of/a) Mar ft il ] es, who had broken down Ima- 
dum ad nos , , \ . . . , ' , , . , r ill,<x 

pervenifTe & es ' anc * ca " tnem out or his Church, when he perceived (cme to be- 
quod fraterni- gin to dote upon them too much, whom though be reproves for breaking of 
tasveftraqupf- themyet him he commends for h'vs Zealjhat nothing made with h an dj fhould ■ 

dam Imigin- / ?en?or jjj}pp e d. .you ought to reflrain the people from worjhipping of them 

alVc^m^eaf- f ^ at ^ugh the people might have had them, whereby to gather the lyiow- 
dem Ecciefiae ledgof the Hiftcry, but might not fin in worjhipping the Vitture. Judg if it 
Imagines con- were likely that at that time Religious Worthip was given to Images at 
freg.it at( 3 ue Kome^whcn the Bifhop thereof condemned it for a Onful thing,and com- 
cu^dernze- men ^s others for being againft it. And though Cardinal Bellarmine 
lum vos, ne was of opinion, 7b at it is lawful to piclure God in the Church in tbejhape 
quid manu fa- 
ctum adorari poflitJiabuifTe laudavimus. Tua fraternitas,— ab earum adoratu populum pro- 

hibere debuit j — & populus in Piftnra? adoratione minime peccaret. Grtg,Mag*fyif. lib.j. Ep.icp. 


Scrrn. VIF. ropery a Novelty. 351 

of a mJ'rt, and the Holy Ghoft in the firm of a Uove, yet a greater and one 

more ancient than he was againft it, namely, Pope Gregory the fecond, 

(a) whofe Epillle is related by Paroniut upon the year 72 5, whence it fa) Cur tan- 

feems there was no fuch Pi dure in the Church of Rome at that time, for jem patrem 

faith that Pope, In the Church Cod it not reprefented before mens ey?i, and mjn ^ U ]^ U 

that the Father of our Lord Jefiit Chriji is not drawn in colours Jbecaufe Gods fubjicimus ac 

nature cannot be painted «tf, or put in fight. pingimus ? 

Moreover at a Council of 228 Fathers held at Conftantinople in the quomam quis 
l r \ 11 j jl u „ r * ' lit non novi- 

ycar 754, they were (olemnly condemned •, and when they were let up r - mus Dc - que 

by the fecond Council at Nice in the year 7 87, were degraded again of natura fpett- 
their honour by the Council of Francjort in the year 7^4. anti proponi 

(b) Durant purpofely fets himfelf to give us all the Councils that n ? n poreft ac 
have approved the v[c and veneration of Images ^ and faith, the firfi K?^^ , j 
that did was the fixth Council at Conftantinople (which was in the time ^ib; p „\ 
of Pope Agatbo about the year 673 ), and quotes the 83, but it is the ; j c , .«. 
82 Canon, 1 c) where the Pidure of Chrift is commanded to be made in e c j no f^ r j f nr 
the ftupe of a Man, but turning to the place I rind plainly that this ftarhominis 
Canon doth not at all command any Worfhip to be given to if, but charatferem 
only as Hiitorical, that is nothing to the Popi(h caufe of worfhipping of ^niSi&ae™^ 
them. Another (faitfrhe) is a fecond Nicene Council, which yet was ce p S p rov ^te- 
787 years after Chriif, fo that this might pafs for a Novelty. ri'agno llatul 

jubemusj ut 
per ipfum vcrbi Dei humiliationem inente comprehendentes, ad memoriam quoque ejus in carne 
converfationis, ejufque paifionis, & falutaris mortis dtducamur, ejufque quae ex eo facia eft nuuv 
do Redemptions. Cow. Con\lint. yi.C2n.S2. 

Fourthly. The Vo&rine of '^Purgatory, by the confeilion of Papiils them- (d) Nemo 
fdves is ranked among the Novelties brought into the Church j for one ce " e dubicat 
of them faith, (d) N? true Believer non? doubts of -Purgatory, whereof not- an p u f £at0 JjL 
vpith\\anding among the ancient there it very little cr no mention at all. The urn f t,de quo 
Greeks alf to this day d) not believe that there it a Purgatory => let who will tamen apud 
read the Commentaries of the ancient Greeks, and fg fir at 1 fee^ hejhjU Prifcos, nulla 
find very rare fpeech of Purgitory^ or none at all. And the Latins did not all ^a-^" 3 ?'^ 
of them together receive the truth of this matter. but by little and little i nei- irentio- Ctd 
tber indeed wot the faith either of Purgatory or Pardons fo needful in the & Gnrcis ad. 
Primitive Church, at now it is. Thus far a Papift, and an ingenuous one nuRC **%S : 
too, which is rare to find, that will without Partiality fpeak the truth. ?' non 5 lt 
Which BiHarmine doth not ufe to do, for he faith quite contrary, That Scc.Job/vS^f, 
all the Fathers (e) bo b Greek and Latin have conflantly taught from the apud Polya*' 
Afojlles times that there is a Purgatory. And this Cardinal is in fuch a Virg.di i;-c\nt.. 
heat for Purgatory-fire, that he faith, That it is a VoUrine of Faith, fo *' fr f* s ilh -%- 
that he that dnh not believe it, (hall never come to it, (no harm if he do f/rmiar de- 
not,l fuppofe it is no defirable thing to be in pains no lefs tl-un the pains Purgat. lib.i;. 
of Hell, though (horter,J but (hall be always tormented in the flames of cap, 15. 
Hell. But the beft of it is, that it is but a Cardinal, not the Scripture 
that faith fo. But I will fet another Papift upon BeUarmines back, and 


25 2 . Popery a Novelty. Semi. VII. 

(0 "Alphorf. ^^ding betwixt the two let him fliitt for himfelf, and get out as well 
caftrol adverf. as he can, they are the words of Alphonfm •, (f) Concerning Purgatory 
ha?ref. lib 8. there is altnoft no mention made by the Ancients, efpecially the Greek Writers, 
titul. Indul- f or whkh roafon to this very day the Greeks m not btUeve that there is a Pur- 

TTT kli de£ at0 *y.' * C * s true C ^ at man V °f c ^ e Fathers fpeak of a Purging- rire,both 
civitat. Dei, ln tn ^ s We, and after, but by the Purging- tire .in this lite they under- 
I1b.22.cap.15. Hand afflictions. So Augufiine, (g) We confefs that in this life there are 

(th) Quia au- Purgatory pains, ai lofs of friends, and the calamities of this life. So 

thoris noltn a jf of a Purging-fire after this life, through which they make all Saints 
p^umus hoc Co P a ^ s ' hy wn i cn n *e th^Y underhand, the laft day of Judgment i but 
jam cceleftis the Popifh Purgatory is another thing, not invented in the days of Gre- 
muneris ha- gory the firfr, who did write in the end of the fixth age, faying, (h) 
benms,ut cum ]$ ecau f e ^ are redeemed by the Grace of our Creator, fo much we have of 
ftr^habitati- ^ eavenl y gifi* rfff when me are with- drawn from the habitation ofourflejh, 
one fubtrahi- we are prefently brought to the heavenly recompence. And though in the 
mur, moxad Writing of this Pope there is fome mention of Purgatory for fmaller 
coeleftia pra- c,j ns ^ y et j t ; s n0t tne f ame tnat t j ie p 3 pift s now affcrtj for in his Dia- 

G^ U ?^ Bafhs ^ in R ivers » and 

Tob 20. Wind ', and it was firft bottomed upon Viteons and Revelations,and fain- 

(i) GregorXih. ed' Stories of departed Souls appearing to others in this life, two of 
4. Dialog.cap. which I had Tranflated.but I rind they are top large for want of room) 
st J F 1 t0 k e iofei ted '-> the one is to be found in (ij Qtegorks Works, the other 
Hiilor. lib. <'. m (Kl Bedes Hiftory in the year 671, and both in the Magdeburgenfes. 
cap. 13. But above 200 years after thefe pretended Vifions,the Council of A- 

(t)Magdebuu quifgran (m) do (hew that this was not a general received Dodtrine,who 
Centur.<5* pag. fh ew now men are p Un i mec } a ft er this lite i, for they fum up all the pu- 

69 *'£nTl'nL n * lmments inflicted by God for fin to this life, and they mention two 
(mi Capit. A- ways, but the third (fay they , after this life, is very fearful and terrible, 
quifgran. Cone, which by the moji juft judgment of God Jh all be executed, when he /hall fay, 
ad Papinum depart from me ye curfed into ever la/ting fire, prepared for the Devil and bis 
MifUib.i.cap. j^ e i f% ^nd vet f urt her, to difcover the Novelty of Purgatory, that it 
Bifhop ufher. was above a thoufand years but the opinion of fome particular men,and 
Anfw. tojef. not an article of Faith generally received s the faying of Otto Frigenfts 
Chall. p. i77« (n) writing in the year of our Lord 1 146, giveth evidence: his words 
(n) EtTe apud k e tne f e < « j| 3at tnere j s j n g c jj a pj 3ce f p ur g a tory, wherein fuch as 

PurTtodum 11 " are t0 k e f avec * are either only troubled with darknefs or de- 
in quo falvan- " coded with the fire of Expiation, SOME do AFFIRM, (mar\ 
di vel tcne- Reader), all did not teach fo, nor the moff j " Nor, faith he, many, but 
bristahtum " fome only. 

afficiantur^vel pif t hly. That the Popes Indulgences are a meer Novelty, that the Church 
igne deco °f God ^ or man Y hundred years knew nothing of > we need look no 
quantur,QUI- further evidence than the plain confeffion of Papiiis themfelveSjamongft 
SDAMafTerunt. V \hom 1 find Alphonfus making plain and full eonfeiiion, about thefe 
ottiyTrig. Xih. i n( j u ]gcnces and Popes Pardons, faying, u 7hat of at the matters treated 
apud eundem*. °J * n ' ; * whole Book^, there U not one that the Scripture is more ftlent in, w>\ 

Serm. VII. Popery a Novelty. -53 

one that the ancient WriUrsfpeaJ^ lefs of ( o) Though he would not have (o) Intcr om _ 
them therefore to he flighted, bee aufi the ufi ef them hath heen hut lately re- n J s rcs d e 
ceived hecaufe Cmark what he laith,J many things are kpown to pojterity^ quibus in hoc 
which the ancient Writers were altogether ignorant of. What need we rvo.n- opere difpu- 
der then, if this be fo in the matter of Indulgences, that awmg the Ancients "ft "j^ „,* 
there U no mention of them at all? really this did me good to read, for I rjUS apcrtc fa- 
love and like that men mould be ingenuous, and fpeak the plain truth. cr£ literae 
Yet when I read further, and faw that he doth acknowlcdg nothing for prodidermt,& 
it in the Scripture, nor in the ancient Fathers-, yet that thofethat/W light ^X^crlp- 
by them, or defpife them, Jfrould be judged heretic kj, I thought 'twas too tores ^jxe- 
much heat in him. This Papift makes no attempt at all to go higher rint, neq-, ta- 
than Pope Gregory the fir ft, in the latter end of the fixth age, when The menhac oc- 
fatth) It iffaid that he granted fome Indulgences \ and from thence he ca ^" e ^ ^ 
Hides as far as the Lateran Council,* which was in the year of our Lord drflffdulgen- 
1 2 i 5, (fo Caranzt, ) and from thence to the Council of Confiance un- tise J quod ea- 
der Pope John 24, which was after the year of our Lord 1 400. So late* rum u(us i n 
and this is all the Antiquity that he doth pretend unto, from whofe con- EccIe ^ :a Vldc " 
feiiion we might fafely place this among the young Doctrines and pra- ccptus : quo- 
dices held and ufed in the Church of Rome* niam multa 

But let us try another of them whofe bufinefs in his Book is to give funt pofterio- 
the firlt rife, and beginning of things, (p) Fie alfo attempts not to rife Ylhus not ^. 
higher than the fixth hundredth year, to the former Gregory-, but there a"f Scriptures 
he rinds little to fatten upon, and therefore fleps prefently back to Boni- prorfus igno- 

■face the 8, who he faith was the fir ft that brought in the Popilh Jubilee, raverunt 

when he give Pardons to thofe that viilted the Apoftles Temples,in the Q^ d er §° 
year i3oo,which Jubilee he commanded mould be oblerved every hun- S^nc^o'dam 
dredth year. But when fifty years were almoft expired, Pope Clement contigeritde 
the fixth ordained this Jubilee mould be every Fifty year, for as much Indulgentiis, 
as mans age would not reach the hundredth year. Laftly, Pope Sixtus ut a P ud P r ^" 
the fourth if about 1471 J or as my pre fen t Aathor 1475, brought it to de^mentio* 

every 2 5. year ; and then (I pray thee Reader mark) the life of Pardons, £ t f, pro 

which thy call Indulgences, began to be famrus, which Pardons for what Indulgentia- 
cJufe^ or by what authority they were brought in, or what they be good for, ruiri approba- 
cl tab trouble our Modern Divines to (hew. Reader, is not this a plain I 10 " 6 

cafe? can we'deffre clearer evidence of the Novelty of the Popes Par- t^ftimonimn 
dons, by which he beguiles fo many Souls^nd gets fo much money in- apertumdefit, 

% tamen qui 

contemmt, hzcreticus merico cenfeatur, &c. Alphorf. de Caflro advsr.haref.llb.2. thai. lulu 'lentiaz 

(p)B : u oftavus.- primus omnium Jv.bilcum retulit, anno qui fuir Mccc falutis humanar, 

quo pxr.; rum remiflfionem iis prsftabat, qui limina Apoftolorum viiitafient Idem autetu 

Pontifex Jubilewn ccnteilmo quo^*, anno fcrvari mandavit. Quinquagefimo poll inftante anno 

Clemens foetus fanxit Jubileum quinquagefmo quoque anno, cum a?tss hominis vix Tubileum ilium 
centum annorum attingere potiit — — Poflremo Sixtus ejus appellations quartus jubileum ad vi- 
getirrmm quemque anr.um reduxit, pri'mufque celcbravit, qui fuit annus McccclXX V falutis, ac ita 
. veniarum quas rndulgentias vocant, jam turn ufus Celebris eilecaepi*-, qua? qua de caufa, quavc «:x 
authoring iatrodu&a: fuerint, aut quantum valere videantur, noftri recentiores Theologi ea de re 
cgregie I.-.boranf, ego vero originero, quod mei eft muncris, quaritans, non reperio ante fuife, 
quod fciam, quam divus Gregorm ad (uas ftationes id pramii propofuerit. Volidor, VtiziU At In* 
•■:nt. rmm Ub-%. cap,i. L 1 to 

2 54, Popery a Novelty. Serm.VIL 

(v) Mulcos to ms (rea ^f^ 5 a nd being fo much in the dark'himfelf, he cbnfults anc- 
forcaiTe movet ther to feek relief^ and the third faith/*?) It maybe many will put no great 
Indulgpntiis trufl to thefe Indulgences, becaufe their uje U but lately come into the Church 
c\ % "fS U ^' ** f° f mn ^ but a little while ago, to whom I fay, it U not certain 

quod earum **b° fi r fi began them f^nd he can, doth, go no higher than the fixth hun- 
ufus in Eecle- dred year, and then he fpeaks Sparingly,) there was SOME ufe oftbem, 
fia vidcatur and doubtingly, for he gathers it only by conftquence. But this PopiQi Au- 
re centior, & thor whom before we cited, " coRfeiling the Novelty of Purgatory, doth 
roTpud Chri- aIfo himfelf conclude, from thence follows the Novelty of Po pirn Par- 
ftianos reper- dons * for faith he, (r) As Jong as there was no fear of Purgatory no man 
tus, quibus fought Indulgences, for all the account of Indulgence depends on Purgatory. 
ego refpon- If ym deny Purgatory, what need of Indulgences?. Indulgences began -after 
conftare ^cTo men Wcre f r ^ Jte ^ with the pains of Purgatory* Thus out of the mouths 
primum tradi of 'thefe three Witnefles of their own we might let this pafs for one of 
cseperint, fuic the younger fort, and fet it amongft its fellows, 
tamcn, uon- 

riullus earum ufus, utaiunt, apud Romanos vemftiffimus, quod ex ftationibus intelligi potcft.— 
(r) Quamdiu nulla fuerat de Purgatorie cura, nemo qu£flrit Indulgcntias, nam ex illo pendet 
omnis Indulgentiarum exiftimatio. Si tcllas Purgatoriirai, quorfum Indulgentiis opus erit ? Ca?pe- 
runt igitur Indulge tiae, poftquam ad purgatorii cruciatus aliquandiu trcpidatum eft. Johan,. 
Roffen. in Lather, ibid. 

6. The like I may conclude of Prayer for the dead; for if Purgatory be 
but a late device, and Indulgences granted for their deliverance be but 
late, prayer for them to be delivered out of Purgatory, (which is fup- 
pofed in the manner of the Papifts prayers for departed Souls) cannot be 
of a longer (landing, as their Bifhop before quoted did rightly argue. 

What might be alledged for the Antiquity of praying tor the Dead, 
ufed indeed in the Church formerly, is nothing to the Pcpifti prayers 
ufed now \ for it is mod evident, that they did not pray in relation to 
their being in Furgatory which they underflood not, nor do their 
prayers exprefs any fuch thing, but rather the contrary of their being 
at reft, which they could not have in Purgatory \ therefore whaffoe- 
ver prayers they were, or to what end, is not my work at prefent to 
enquire, till they be proved to be fuch as Popifh prayers for the Dead 
be, their piaying in this fort for them will itand /till among the youn- 
1 ger practices of the Church ot Rome. 

7. As for the Novelty of praying to Saints , ^ardinal T)u-?cr?on fa man 
that would have found it, if there ha<i been asy fuch practice in the 

^lfof^Po 10 - Prirn * five Churches) doth freely acknowledg (as Moiintus that traced 
ry, pag-gasl^ him in his Book affirmetrv that as in the holy Scriptures there U neither 
command nor example for the Invocation of Saints-, fo likgivife iit the wri- 
tings of the Fathers, thit have written before the firti four Councils f which 
brings us to the year 45 1.) no trace U to be found of tbatlnvocatiin. The 
dittin&ion betwixt the' Saints IntercerBon,and the Iovocation of Saints 
ihould be carefully heededjforwh ether the Saints in Heaven pray for 


Serm.VIf. Popery a Novelty. 255 

the Church on Earth, and whether the Church on Earth might pray to (0 mar. dc 
the Saints in Heaven, are widely differing s that in the fir ft ages it was ™J?" "** 

accounted Idolatry to invocate Angels was determined in the 3 5 Canon ^ 'Atybonf.de 
of the Laodicean Council before quoted. c&$yb adver. 

8. To Jhew the Novelty of Tranfubftantiation ; that the fubftance of hxrcf. tit.Eu- 
the Bread "is not turned into the fubftancc of the flefh of Chrift, I need f™l\^f' 
not ftand long: for Scotns doth it for me, who faith, tbst tbp was not a chriflu^poft 
Voftrine of Faith before the Latcran Council, which wm in the year 12 1 5, cxnam infti- 
(s) Which Behrmine taketh notice of and is offended at, and helps the tuerit,fc fuis 
matter as well as he can, in mentioning one Council, (and he names no .IP" 1 * 5 a< ?~ 
more, which he would have done doubtlefs if any had /been) and fub ut ' l( ! 
that is a Council at Rome under Gregory the 7, who was Pope in the year fpecie panis& 
1073 s fo that with Bellarmines grave admonition of Scotus^xx. was above vim hocvenc- 
a thoufand years before that was madeaDodrrine of Faith in the Roman rabiie Sacra- 
Church it felt (t) But Alpbonfuszs to Councils rifes no higher than ^" t ™ m ^f 
the Lateran, according as Scotns did. in primkiva 

p. The denying of the Cup to the People might be reckoned with the reft. EccJefia hu- 
for ameer Novelty, having its rife in the Council of Confiance which be- JufaiodiSacra- 
gan in the year 1414, and there needs no other evidence, that this is an pjf r " c t " ni v -? 1 " 
Innovation, than the very words of the Canon, whereby it is denied to i^ us ^ u _ 
the People, which are, (u) Although Chrijl did adminifierthk Sacrament traq-, fpecie, 
in both kjnds^ and though in the Primitive Church the People did receive it tamen hxc 

in both kinds, yet this cuihm israthnally introduced, tbatlhe People (hall co ? ru etudo ad 

only takf the Bread, and we command under pain of Excommunication ]j qua pcr j cu j" a 

that no Presbyter give it to the People nnder both ijnds of Bread and Wine. & fcandala,eft 
See Reader^tnough Chrift appointed both, though the Primitive times rationabiliter 
obferved both, .yetthefe fay they-fliall have but one,any thing in Chrifts mtrodncta, 
command, and the Churches practice for fo many hundred years to the ^tiTtan- 
contrary notwithstanding 5 for this it was called defervedly by one Con- ntmmodo f«b 
cilium Non-obftantienfe, inftead of Conjhntienfe. ftecie panis 

The practice of the Church of Rome decreed by this Council is but rafeipiatur, 
two hundred and odd years Handing 5 and yet after this the Council or ^%\t rc J l fr 
Bap I granted the ufe of the Cup to the Bohemians ; and again the Cdun- ,;- D-cret. 
cil ot Trent denied if, fo that Popifh Councils can fay and unlay, do and GngJX Iib.3; 
undo, and that in matters of Faith, where diffenters mull beHereticks. tic.41.cap.10. 
and yet cannot err, and that's pity. W Primus 

10. The Adoration of the Sacrament was after the VcUrine nf Tranf/tb- \onek\lcr) 
ft ant 1 at ion 5 for the reafbn of their worlhipping of it, is becaufc it is qui fan^os 
changed into Chrifts Body and Blood;, the .fir ft then being new, the o- legator Cane- 

11. The practice of the Popes canonizing of Saints U a new in: 
the confeffton of Bellarmine himfelf (x) who acknow led g that the firtt fed'' hi 

Pope that he ever read of was Leoihc third,8oo years after Chrift. And 
the fame Cardinal faith, That no Saints might be pub. In vacated 

LI 2 thai l 

25 6 Popery a Novelty. Serm.VH. 

that are not Canonized by the Pope,put both together, and it will make 
a.clear confequence, that Invocation of Saints at leaft publickly was not 
for 800 years after Chrift, the Papifts themfelves being ConfefTors. 

But whither do I tend ? to run over all Particulars controverted be- 
twixt us and them would fooner fwell into a Volumn, than be contain- 
ed in a Sermom I can therefore but name fome other Points, and let it 
be (hewn that for five, fix, feven hundred,yea fome for a thoufand years 
after Ghrift, that they were generally owned or received in the Church 
of Chrift, fuch as thefe added to the former. 

1 2 . The Infallibility of the Bifhop of Rome. 

13. That the Church of Rome is the only Church, founded by God 
himfelf,or that the Church of Rome is the Catholick Church. 

14. That there is no Salvation out of the Roman Church. 

1 5. That all that the Church of Rome delivers is to be believed,whe- 
ther it be written in the Word of God or no. 

1 tf.That the Pope or Ch. of R. hath Power 8c Authority to make Do6fc- 
rinsof FaithmeceiTary toSalvation,that are not contained in theScripture. 

17. That the Pope of Rome alone, or his Council alone, or Pope and 
Council together are the Judg of Controverfies,to whom Appeals from 
all the Churches mttftbsinade, and all bound to acquiefce in their, or 
his Determinations. 

18. That the Pope of Rome might judg all but be judged by none,nor 
be blamed though he leads Souls by troops to Hell. 

19: That the Pope of Rome hath Temporal JurifdicSion over Prin- 
ces, Kings and Emperours, todepofe them from their Thrones, difpofe 
of their Crowns, and abfolve their Subjects from their Oaths of Alle- 
giance to their lawful Princes. 

20. That the Pope of Rome hath Authority to difpenfe with the 

Law of God, to make that lawful which God forbids, and that evil 

which God commands. 

2 1. That the Power of calling General Councils is inherent in the Pope. 

22. That the Pope by himfelf, or Legats ought to be Prefident in 

fuch Councils. 

2 3, That all that General Councils do determine without his Autho- 
ritative Ratification, is of no force, but void. 

24. That theScripture is imperfect and inefficient, containing in it 
not all things tfeceffary to Salvation,nor for the refuting of all Hettfies. 
2 5. That it is not lawful to interpret Scripture contrary to the fenfe 
of the Church of Rome. 

26. That rrae Church .doth not depend upon the Scripture, but the 
Authority of the Scripture, even quoad aw, upon the teftimony cf the 
Church of Rome. 
27. That the Scripture ought not to be Tranflated into the Vulg.Tong. 

28. That the common People are to be debarred from reading oft 
• Scriptures except they have a Licenfe from the Bifhop. 

29. That the publick Service and Prayers in the Churchcught to be 
in an unknown Tongue,. 30. That 


Serm.VII. Popery a Novelty. 257 

30. That there are feven proper Sacraments, Baptifm, Confirmation, 
Lords-Supper, Penance, Extream Unction, Matrimony, Ordination: 
Or that there are eight Sacraments of Order, as the Order of Porters, 
Readers, Exorcifts, Servitors, Sub-Deacons, Deacons, Presbyters and 
Bifhops \ to make indeed fourteen or fifteen Sacraments. 

si. That the Sacrament of Confirmation is more worthy than the 
Sacrament of Baptifm, and is to be had in greater reverence, and accor- 
dingly to be done only by a Bifhop, when Baptifm by a Presbyter. 

3 2 . That private Mattes are lawful, and in them both Clergy and 
Laity to be deprived both of the Bread and Wine, except the Pried that 
makes it, by the reft only to be feen. 

33. That the Eucharift when it is fent unto the Sick is to be adored 
by all that meet it, and thofe that do not, to be accounted Hereticks,and 
to be perfecuted with Fire and Sword. 

34. That it is a Sacrifice for the Quick and Dead, for obtaining not 
only Spiritual but Temporal Bleilings, to be offered to God for Health, 
fuceefs in Battels, for their Horfes and their Hogs. 

35. That a juftified perfon may truly and properly make -fatisfaclioa 
to God for the guilt of puniQiment, which remains to be expiated after 
the fault is remitted. 

3<5. That the fatisfa&ory Works of the Saints may be communicated 
and applied to others, or that there are Works of Supererogation. 

37. That Abfolution by a Prieft is fo neceffary to Salvation,that per- 
fons believing in Chrift are damned if they die before they be abfolved 
by a Pried. 

38. That the Confirmation of Bifhops, and Inftitution of Arch-Bi- 
{hops by the Pall is to be fought by the Pope of Rome, from all parts 
and quarters of the World,'without which they are no fuch Officers, and 
cannot without Sacriledg execute their Office. 

3p. That in Baptifm there is an Implicite Vow of Obedience to the 
Pope of Rome. 
40. That the Decret. Epift. are to be reckoned amongft Can. Scripture. . 

4.1. That the Bifhop of Rome if he be Canonically ordained,whatfo- 
ever he were, is undoubtedly made holy by the Merits of St. Peter. 

42. That every tranfgretiion of the Law deferveth not death, but 
that there are many fins of themfelves and in their own nature venial 
and deferving pardon, that the Blood of Chrift is not neceffary to wafh. 
them a»way,b«t may be done away with holy W T ater, knocking the breft, 
and by the Bifhops bleifing. 

43. That Clergy-men are exempted from the Jurifdiclion of Tem- 
poral Lords in things Civil and Criminal, and that the Civil Judg can- 
not punifh Ecclefiaftical perfon?, 

44-That the Rebellion of a Clergy-man againft the King is not Trca- 

fon,or that it is meritorious to killPrincesExcommunicated by the Pope; 

45. That good Works in themfelves have a proportioned condigni- 

with the reward^ and are meritorious from their inward worthinefs, 


358 Popery a Novelty. Serm. VII: 

to be worth the reward,as a Journey-man is of his wages for his labour. 
Paptfts themfelvs do acknowledg that the firft beginning of fome of their 
Dodtrines they cannot tell, and to fear ch for the year when every No- 
velty was introduced is needlefs, all thefe that are named, are not in 
Scriptu.re,nor in the Primitive Church, fome not for 4, 5, fome not for 
^,7,8, p, 12 hundred years,that I might conclude that Popery is a very 
Novelty, and doth vainly and fallly boaft of its Antiquity. 

l.Vfi. 1. Is Popery a new Way, and the Religion of Protectants 
the aM Religion taught by Chrift and his Apoftles, then this is a fafe 
Way y and a fafe Religion i in it you may be justified, fandtified, and 
furcly faved. Ic is the old Way that Paul, and Peter, and Believers in the 
Primitive times obtained an everlafling Kingdom and Crown. Be not 
•frighted with the uncharitable and groundlefs Dodfrine of the Papifts, 
that out of their Church there is no Salvation. 2 ♦ Then it i< the vriftfi Way \ 
the folly of men (hews it felf in the new Wa s of Pi pery, and wherein 
they profefs themfelves to be wife, they are bee im< \cA%$ but in the old 
Way is manifeft the manifold Wifdom of God. $. Then it is thepurefi 
Way\ the nearer the Fountain the purer are the Str« arW* the nearer 
the Copy the fairer is the Writings the Church or Rome cloth vainly 
glory in Titles of Holinefs *, the mofi holy Pop*.* the holy Church, the 
multitude of Hi ly Days , holy Kites and Ceremonies, &c. that is holy and 
pure, that is confonant to the holy and pure Word of God. If you are to 
travel you would go the cleaneft way •> you are travelling to an everlafl- 
ing itate.the old Way of Faith in Chrift. Repentance for Sin >in ward Ho- 
linefs and new Obedience taught in the Retormed Churches,agreeable to 
the Do&rine of Chrift and his Apcrftles, is the cleaneft Way that you can 
go in-,to keep a clean and pure Heart,a clean and pure Confcience,to have 
a clean and pure Conversation. 4. It is the neat eft Way j if you leave 
this Way, the further you go, the more you are out of your Way. You 
go about, you rnuit back again,or you go on to a place where there is no 
reft night nor day,but the (moke of their torment afcendcth for ever and 
ever. 5. Then it is the moil comfortable andmofi pleafant Way\ all the 
Ways of Wifdom are Ways of pleafantnefs, and all her Paths are peace. 
It might be ftrowed with outward tioubles,briars and thorns may be in 
this Way, but there is inward peace, and inward joy, and folid, fure and 
Jarring comfort to be found in it. 6 Then it is the mly Way \ The Way 
of Faith in Chrift, the Way of Regeneration and Holinefs, the Way of 
new Obedience and Perfeverance therein is the old Way to Heaven, and 
there is no other. If you will choofe new Ways your felves, or walk in 
new W r ays chalked out by othcrs,contrary to the good oldWay,you will 
lofe Gid and Chvift.and your Souls for ever. « 

II Vfi. 1 , Get a right understanding of the greatnejs of your mercy \ that 
you were not fiorn \n times and places of Popery, that you have Mini- 
fters to teach you il\c good old Way. &c rVjagiftrates to defend you there- 
in > -ihat you are nor icd at a Stake for not receiving new Popifh Do- 
firinesjthat you have Eibles^nd not burned for having of them. Know 


Scrra. VII. Top try a Novelty. 259 

your mercy. 2.BleJsGfd for this mercy, when you underftandhow great it isjndeed uhen 
you rightly know it,and duly weigh it, you will blefs God that you were not brought 
up in Poplm darknefs and Idolatry, that you wcre*pt brought up to worfhip Images, 
pray to Saints, c&v.but God alonc.3. Pray to God for n? continuing of this ntercy to yo i d* 
to f$gr children after yov$thit Popery might never return,but the Generations to come 
might be taught the Proteftant Religion, that is, the good old Way "to Heaven. That 
your children ^and children* children might enjoy the Bible, and have the old Truths of 
God preached to them.For their fakes pray much, ^.Thtn wa'\in this good oil tvaj •, if 
you fee the Way to Happinefsand not walk in it.you will fall fhort of it. You might 
be Proteftants in opinion,and yet be for ever damned. A drunken Proteftant. a who- 
ring Proteftant, a (wearing, impenitent, unbelieving Proteftant, fhall not be faved, 
becaufe in opinion he is a Proteftant. You might refufe to commit Idolatry in 
bowing to, and worshipping of Images, and yet go to Hell for making an Idol of 
your Money, and over-loving of the World. You might renounce the Pope as 
Head, and in judgaient own Chrift,as only Head of his Church,and yet be damned 
for not believing on him, choofing of him before all, nor loving him above all'. 

Let all old corrupt things be done away •, As (1) your old }g»oran:e. (2") Your 
e!a s y Qi) Your old je!f-!ove. (4) Your old falfe peace. ($J Your old en- 

mi: God and HoJinefs. (5) You mart be cut off from toe oldfiic\. In a 

word. an but name a few of many that might be faid for the practical Improve- 

ment of j crucne the old man,deftroy the body of Sin. For to keep your 

pld h< ind yet think to go to Heaven is to look for a new Way of Salvation* 

Let all things be new, none can walk in the old Way but who are new Creatures. 
Qi) Your Underflandings muft be new ; new valuations of Chrift. (2) Your Wills 
new v new Elections of Chrift. (i) Your Affections new. 1. New Love to God,to 
Chrift, his Ways, his People, his Precepts. 2. N;w Defires; Oh that I had God 
for my F^.iher, Chrift for my Lord and Saviour, Grace as aPledg of Glory. t,.::.w 
Sorrows, for walking in a way of Sin fo long, neglefting Chrift fo long, Swearing 
fo much, Praying fo little. 4. New Delights. $. Nsw Hatred. (4) A: Affections 
new, fo your Ends muft be new, Go.is Glory. $. New cam to ge% keep a good. 
Confcience, to live holy, die happily and to be faved eternally. 

Except youjDe thus made new, you might know the good old Way, but you 
cannot walk in it \ which if you do not, wo, wo, a thoufand woes to you for ever. A 
Damned Proteftant ! How ! a Damned Proteftant 1 that was tokl which was the 
good old and only Way, that lived under the conftant, plain and powerful ■ irk- 
ing of the fame Doctrines that Chrift himfelf and his Apoftles did deliver. I pro- 
fefc your cafe will be worfer, and your torments will be greater, than the Heathen 
who might fay, Urd we never bad a. Bible, never heard of chrB,nor p/~ i -z r ty of sol- 
vation ; no Minifters were fent to as, no Gofpel pr t ached t9 us. Yea, worfer will be your 
cafe, and greater will be your damnation than of many amongft the Papifts rkat 
have not been fo plainly taught, fo frequently vilirucfed, fo faithfully warned, fo *4f- 

}ty inert ated as you have been. You are not told, that IgnwAnct u tb of 

Devotion, as they be, you are not kept from reading of the Scripture, as they be, 
but are pretfed, urged and exhorted to it. You have not publick Worfhip in an 
unknown Tongue, but by plain Language are you warned of Hell, commanded in 
the name o( God to forfake your old wicked ways ; how eft have you been per- 
fwaded to come to Chrift, who is the Way, the Truth, and the Life! How long 
hath God waited ? and will you on in your wicked ways ftill ; in your eld courfe 
Gf Profanenefs and Lying, and Sabbath-breaking ? in your old courfe of carelefs 
Deleft of God, and Chrift, and your own Immortal Souls ? that's, an old Way in- 
deed, hut it is not the good old Way. If you will go on, take your courfe, if you 
will not rum to the good Path, take what falls. But know that the Way of Sin 
leideth directly unto Hell. Proceed a little further, go on a little longer, and 
thou wilt drop into a bottomlefs pit, and be a damned wretoflf and take up thy 
everlafting lodgings wich the od Dragon, wiirh the old Serpen ; and canft thou 

here have reft ? Reft 1 how canft thou under the heavy load of Gods wrath ? 
Reft 1 how canft thou under the ftrokes of an angry, provoked and revenging God? 


26o ?$pery a Novelty. Serm.VII. 

Thou canft not reft upon a bed of Down,when thy Confcience is feared,& God anTicl 
thee with the Stone or Plague, pr Burning Vive r,though all thy friends be round about 
thee,adminiftringCordials & Comforts to thee. And canft thou reft in a bed of flames, 
in a burning fiery furnace,in a place more; dreadful and more hot than is a veflelfull of 
boiling Lead, and burning Brimftone ; when thy Confcience fhall be awakened, the 
Worm gnawing within thee, the Devils round about thee, and an angry God above 
thee, and not one nigh thee to pity or relieve thee? For Gods fake,Sirs,and for your 
SOulsfake,as ever you would -avoid endlefs,& eaflefs,& remedilefs torments hereafter, 
walk in the good old Way of Faith and Holinefs, Repentance ^nd new Obedience now. 
And if you would now walk in- this good old Way, you. mall (ij be taken into 
a Hew Covenant. (2) And have new employment, better, more noble, more" profit- 
able, more pleafant than ever yet you were engaged in. (%) You fhall be taken 
'into new Relations to be the Sons of God, the Daughters of God, the Servants, Peo- 
ple and Friends of God. (4) You fhall become a new Habitation for Father, Son, 
and Holy Spirit. ( 5) You will have ground of comfort when ydU come to die .Death 
is the old Way into another World } and if you walk in the good old Way while 
you live, you may be comforted, if you can appeal 1:0 God, having the witnefs of 
a good Confcience, and fay, Now Lord remember how I have walked before thee in the 
good path with an upright heart. And then (6) you mall enter into ,the New Jerufa- 
lem where you fhall have (1) Univerfal, total Reft. (2) Seafonable Reft. (3) E- 
ternal, and (4) Delightful Reft ; And that (i} from Sin, from the reigning, and 
conflicting power of Sin, from the guilt and in-dwelling of Sin. (2) Reft 
from the Temptations of Satamhe fhall never trouble nor difquict you more. Com- 
miiiion of Sin is now a burden to you, and temptation to Sin is now a burden to 
you, but the good old Way will bring to reft from both. (3") Reft from all Aifciicli- 
ovs from God upon your Bodies j now Sicknefs is a burden that makes you to be 
reftlefs,but then you fhall have an aking Head no more ,paiiied Bowels, a fick Heart no 
more for ever. Q\.) Reft from all Troubles from men,no more imprifoned/perfecutedj 
reft from all their flanders and reproaches, &c. (5) Reft from all thofe holy Duties that 
are now as a means to bring you to this Reft. You fhall reft from Repentings and 
Mournings for Sin, from all the pains that now you are at to mortifie corruption ; 
though not from loving of God, delighting in God, and admiring of his Love, nay 
this your Love fhall be one part of your Reft. (6) Reft from all doubts and fears^znd 
)ealoufies of heart. Now you doubt, doth God love me ? do I love God ? is Chrift 
mme, and am I his? will God fave me ? pardon me? fometimes (thou faift) I hope 
he will, and that doth lighten my heart y fometimes I fear he will not, and that's a 
burden.Oh it is an heavy burden to my Soul,under which I cannot reft. But this good 
old Way will brmg thee to a reft where thou fhalt doubt no more,and fear no more. 
Canft thou doubt,whether it be day,when thou feeft the Sun doth fhine ? orthat fire 
is hot, when. thou feeft it burn,and feeleft it doth warm thy hand?no more fhalt thou 
doubt,when thoucomeft to the end of thy walk in the good old Way, whether God 
doth love thee, when thou fhalt bcfilled with his Love, and feel rhat he doth love 
thee, and fee to what a bleiTed place of reft, and peace, of fife, of light and joy, his 
Love hath brought thee to. (7) Reft from all T>?[mions j God fhall no more frown,no 
more depart, or withdraw from thee for ever. (8) Reft from all thy worldly labour* 
and employments-, when thou haft now wearied thy felf in thy calling all the day, thou 
takeft thy reft at night, and oh how fweet is reft when thou art weary; but 
when the day returns thy labour alfo doth return, and thy noble Soul by mean and 
low imployment (yet thy duty while thou art here} one in making Brichs, another 
P 'ins, one in working in wood^nother in SHI^oy Sifotr and Gnld^oor employment for 
. a Rational Som\by reafon whereof God hath few of thy thoughts, little of thy delight 
and love^and doth diftraft thee often in thy holy duties-, but this Way will bring thee 
to a Reft from all thefeywhen God fhall have all thy thoughts,delight and love. Stand 
then & fee which Ifche good old Way. Nay you do fee which is it, God hath fhewed 
it unto you,it is chalked,marked outiefore you^Reft you are promifed,and Reft you 
fhall find in walking in jr,But let none of you fay in words,or heart,by your practice, 
we will not walk therein,left you come unto a place of torment,where you NEVER 
fhall have REST. SERMON 




No Sin Venial. 


ROMANS 6.23. 
The Wages of Sin ^ is Death. 

IT was a Cenfure more true than fmart, which a late learned Pen, pj ft or p r ^ {m 
publickly in this expreffion pronounced againft Popery, Roma- anxLcft, 
na Reli?io in quantum differt a noftra , e\\ mera Impofiura : *Ibe 
(now ^Roman Religion(as it differs from ours)vs a meer Cbeat,Juggle, 
or rkind of) Religious Legerdemain. And herein the Impofture of that 
Pveligion eminently appears, in that under the Varnifti of Cbriftian,moh\ 
of it feems calculated only for hooking in of worldly gained promoting 
of fecular advantage.What Rp. Senboufe (the CambridgCbryfoftom of his 
time) faith in his Sermon upon Afts 19. 28, concerning Demetrius and 
his Fellow Crafts-men,their crying of, Great is tbe Diana oftbeEpbeftans\ 
tbe Sbrines of Diana caufing their Shrieks fir Diana, and tbeir great Gain 
by ber, racing up tbeir great Cry for ber r {hewed tbere was dolus in Idolo, 
deceit in tbeir Contention for tbe Idol } may as truly be faid of the Romifh Gen. 44- ir > 
Demetrius, the Pope and the Popifh Priefts, their e3ger out-cry in the l?'. .'. ., 
Defence of the Points of Popery, it being not Chrift but Mammon, not a bf q . ar ™° 
Piety but Money, not God but Gold, that ingagcth them in their advan- Romana Curia 
cing of their Doctrines and Devotions. As Saint Ambrofe fpake of dedat;Ipfa 
Benjamins Sack , Sacco foluto apparuit argent urn , when tbe Sack, was manuum lm- 
hsfed, tbe Silver appeared ', refolve the molt of their Theology into that rkuVsanorf 1 " 
whereof 'tis Conitituted,and Silver ("Gain T mean) will be found to be dona venduiv 
the chief Element of its Conftitution. Of this their own Writers are tur, nee pec- 
fitteft WitneiTes, whom I have cited in their own words ', for proving c ^orum venia 
of this my Accufation. Mneas Silvius fafterwards Pope) informs us, SmSiScwv?' 
That tbe Roman Court gives nothing without Silver \ It fells (faith he) <j£ntas SilVi 
tbe Impofition of Hands, tbe Gifts of tbe Holy Gbojt , nir'vs Pardon of Sin Ep. $6* 

M m given 

2^2 No Shi Venial. Serm. VIII. 

Venalia nobis given to any but fuch m are weU-Monied. A Poet of their own faith, 
Templa.Sa- j*^ ^y t \ nm ^ Temples, PrUfts, Altars, Prayers, yea Heaven, and 
roialftcra" ^od bubfilfc are all ft to Sale fir Mmey, and that Rome gives Trifles 
Corona:, ignis, and tikes Gild. Another relates, That Romana permutath auri cum 
thura, preccs , plumbo. The Roman change, of Lead fir Gold, w as grown into a Proverb, 
Coelum eft ve- Q. /t jy $ one y Tei gns at Rome ( thus fpeaks another J and mal^s that lawful 
MaxiuA z* f° r % ^ e ^ ? ^kb is unUwfulfir the Poor \ and fas he goes onj lay down 
?i quid Roma but Money, and then that which was forbidden before as an heinous wickgd- 
dabit, nugas ntfs, (hall n^w le difpenfd with, and made no fin \ but without Money ^ 
dabic, accipic there m H no Difpetijation : and fas my Author Claudius Efpenfius mourn- 
dat^eu^Ro- ^ty F r0cec< ^0 x ' ioe VKe && e $ e€m great eft js to want Money •, and to have 
ma? 'nunc fo- nothing, % the greateft piece of Barbarity among them j and (as that plain- 
la pecuni3 dealing Papift adds) to heighten their abomination, they allow their very 
regnat.B. A/i?- Clergy-men to dwtll with Whores and Harlots, and to beget Ba\lards for a 
tun. Eclog. 5. cnta - m q- JX which they do not only receive of the Adulterous, but even of 
In pro b' f '~' e G* nt * nem a >td Innocent perfons^ atiedging fir this, that even thefe might 
urn jamdu- have taken Whores aljq if they had pieafed. I blufh to tranflate what he 
dum ajbiit Ro- adds, namely, That Baftards, Thieves, Adulterers, perjured Perfons, are 
rnana permu- not only abjolvedfir Money, but admitted to all Dignities and Spiritual Be- 
tio, p.umbi ne fi ces • an d fir Money, Vifpenfations are granted fir Murders, though of 
auro. Dura. Presbyters, Fathers, Mothers, Brothers, Sifters, yea of Wives, nay, fir Witch- 
dt Sic, £;.;;/>;. crafi, Lie eft with the nearejl ofhjn ; and (which is moft amazing )/6>r un- 
1. 1. c. 6. cleannefs, Contra naturam cum Brutis, for the f not-to-be-named J Sin ef 
Regina rerum Beftiality. And Rivet tells us in his Caitigation of Pefra-Sancla the Je- 
pecunia, divi- r H - f jfj at there came to his hands a Book, written by one TofTanus Dehvs 
tibus licitum J . ■ j x-n'^ v -r - u • l 1 o l ' 

facit qucd in P nHte ^ 15-0. at Paris, Cum Frivilegio, where in fol. 38, are taxed at a 

pauperibus eft certain Rate^all Abfolutions in the Court of Rome fir murdering of Brethren 
illicitura. and Sifters, Fathers, Mothers, Wives, and for the carnal Itriowledg of a 
Claud. Efpr.s. j\J ayu Sifter or Mother, pro eo qui Sororem,Matrem carnaJiter cognovit. . in his 
l^Efr^adTit 37 P a £ c °^ s 7 e f lilU vapulans. Chemnitius in his Ex amen concerning 
Si fpes reful- ' the Point of Indulgences, gives us a Copy cf Verfes written over the 
ferit nummi, Altar in a Popifti Cathedral, of which Verfes when I read them in 
quod interdi- Chemnitius, I could hardly fay whether they more proved my forego- 
"riE* ' n S Accufation of, or provoked my juft indignation againft Popery , that 
f^ 8c impune. Majier-piece of painted Atheijm. All the Verfes oi' that pitiful piece of 
Quod vetatur, Poetry, are too many to fet down, fome of them are thefe : 
numerata pe- IJt tibi fit pxn£ venia fit aprrta crnmena, 

euni3 Difpen- Hie ditnr exponi Paradifus venditioni, 

nuHun^f t • Hlc f* ljr t> e ' &*•> '» C% 1 ° fa tuafdts, 

peccatum ma- Pro folo nummo gaudeb'vs in £there fummo] 

jus, quam 

nummis carere, uc Hie apud HoraHum £:. 2. Credidit ingens pauperiem vitium •, Se ut alter,/. 5. 
nunc ft Earbaries grandis habere nihil. Taya non excipit Presbyrericidas, paricidas, macricidas, 
inceftos, deniq; Contr* x*t«rm cam Brutis, &c. Efpn. in Tit. p. mihi 4-8, 4-0. Si nihil numera- 
•^ris, indifpenfarus manes^ Id — Clericos cum pellicibus cohabirare, liberofq; procreare fmunr, 
accepto ab eis quotannis cerco cenfu, atque adeo alicubi a continentibusj habeant, aiunt fi velinr. 


Serm.Vm. No Sin Venial 26*3 

Thefum whereof, and the reft, is but this, Lay down your Monty, and 
doubt not of getting up to Glory, The Romifh Jeroboam, I mean the 
Pope, fets up the two Calves of his golden Faith and Worfhip to preferve 
to himfclf his carnal Kingdom \ of which Faith and Worfhip,the grea- 
test part is purely fubfervient to the Popes, either Coffer or Kitchin, and 
of which Kingdom, more truly than of War, Money may be faid to be 
the Soul and Sinews. If their Dodrines may be witnefles to prove 
fo clear an accufation, I might produce a far greater number than is 
needful to make up an ordinary J ury^by mentioning thofe of Auricular 
Confejfton, Pilgrimages, Penance, Images, Prayers for the Dead, Indul- 
gences, Purgatory \ Sacrifice of the Mafs, Mtrits, Holinefs of places, breaks 
ing faith with Heretickj, the Popes Superiority over Princes, difpenfation 
rvitb Oaths \ and this before us, of Venial Sin. All thefe arrows, it they 
were not leveVd at the marj^of Gain, yet fure I am, they moft exadtly 
hit and center in it(ftrange they mould meet fo unitedly if (hot at rovers )y 
if you confult the generality of their Doctrines, moil of the Queftions 
in the Popijh Catechifm, may eaflly be reduced to this one, What (hall we 
get for our Paunches and Purfes } A Catechifm not compos'd by Peter the 
Popes pretended Predeceflbr (who though he faid, Silver and Geld have 
I none \ yet alio faid, thy Money perijh with thee) \ but by Judas rxisbag- 

bearing pattern, in that queftion of his for betraying of Chriit, §1^^ 

dabiivs .? What will you give me} 'Twas ingenu©uily fpoken by a late 
Poet, when he thus vcrfify'd > 

An Petrus Rom£ fuerit.fub judice lis eft 

Simonem Rom£ nemo fuiffe negat. 
We are not fure that Peter ever fat 

It Rome, but Simon did, w'are fure of that. ^ os <}ocemus 

Simon, that Simon who barter'd and chaffer'd for the Spirit withMoney, communi 
is conltant Refident at Rome,whex* fome hundreds of years,in many thou- confenfu, pec- 
fandsof B3rgains,he hath been as fuccesful in felling to fools, as ever was cata q u * d «n, 
his Predeceflbr infuccesfulin his attempt to buy of the A pottles. Among homfnem ncm 
all their Doctrines of this earthen and muddy complexion, we (hall this reddere mor- 
day, more particularly produce this of Venial Sin, principally both/?* tis zterna?re- 
up, and Jhor'd up, that the pretended puniihment of thofe in Purgatory, um ^d tarn 
may be bought off by money; and that without any beholdingnejs to temporalis 011 
the blood of Cbritl, provided the Purfe will but bleed freely, as drawn Be liar, e.t' dt 
by Romifh Priefts, the common Purfe4eeches, or religious Cnt-purfes of Pec. Vm. 
the Chri(tian World \ and from hence it was,that Sins, by Papifls call'd Nos "nanimi 
pardonable, have been rather termed fahable, vemlia not vtmalia^viiih conienfu 
a very fmall and venial alteration of the word venial. q U |^ mlUr- 

I wonder not therefore that Bellarmine in his firft Chapter of Venial min:<s affirmac 
Sin, thus fets out, We teach (faith Bellarmine) by common confnt, That cotnmuni 
there are fome Sins which of their own nature, do not render a man guilty of °° n r^ ^°" 
eternal death, but only of temporal p unify <nent. To which Expredion or his." S£ ;; t £ t 
Orthodox^/;,\-/thus reply s.Nvs una nimi con fenfu negamm iflud quodftdter- fca, c.i. 

M m 2 minus 

9^4 M> &*# ^iniit. Serm. VIII. 

minus affrmat, communi confenfu doceri. We (Proteftants) deny with an 
unanimous confent,that which Bellarmine^rw/ is taught (among them) 
with common confent. My Work this day, is to declare my Concurrence 
with our Protectant Divines, in their denial and detefting the blafphe- 
mous Doctrine of Venial Sin. Only I cannot but mention as an en- 
couraging entrance into this approaching Employment, the warinefs of 
BeUarmines Expreifion, in thefe words, Communi confenfu. docemw \ we 
teach by common confentfox he could not fay fas Dr. Ames his Anfwerer) 
Qua ratione we teach our Dodhine herein with unanimous confent. For "(as Medina- 
difhnguatur an aiT ; nent Paptft confeffetrO the Popijh Voftars are infinitely at odds ', and 
male a morta- difagree among themfelves in finding out, how a Venial and a Mortal Sin 
li, non una differ. 3 Tis true the black Regiment, or rather the forlorn Adventu- 
eft fententia rers of the Antichriftian Army, ftrike home, and fpeak out for their Ge- 
Doftorum,fed nera j ^ Pope,and his Caufe in this Point. Bellarmine tells us,That fome 
finitumBoct- Sins are fo far from deferving eternal punifhment^ that God cannot punish 
ores. Medin. in them eternally without injufiice. Gregory de Valentia faith, That Venial 
i, 2. fl.88. a.i. Sin may be remitted without any infufwn of Grace. Sonnius ft lie Papift I 
raean;, That they deprve pardon. Althonfus a Caftro, That Peccatum ve- 
niale non valet privare gratia j Sin Venial cannot deprive of grace. And 
that wretched Andradius(the worft of the Crew),with his more devout 
Cum multi ex brother Bonaventure alferts,That for Venial Sins we do not Co much as need 
hacvita mi- R e p en tance. The Provincial Council of Meniz, dictate, lhat many de- 
fibus quidem P art *^** ^ife, free from Mortal Sins, and for lighter Sins they (hall never he 
ctiminibus damned \ and that it can hardly be underftood how God Jhould bejufl, Jhould 
immunes s le- he punifb any for Venial Sins -with eternal punifhment. And that Con- 
vionbus ta- e il' mm Senoncnfe declare?, lhat he who dies involved in Venial Sins (z- 
masis impli- mon g which it particularly mentions idle words, of which Chrift faith, 
cams, quorum We mufi give an account, and by which wejhall be condemned, Mat. 12.3 7.) 
tamen nemo, though he be unfit for Heaven, yet neither is it fit he Jhould go to Hell, as be- 
fore ob plura, fa- a partaker of Grace, but is to be purged by the fire of Purgatory, out of 
Vl e d^^a* w hich he is to be delivered by the prayers of the living ; and that whofoever 
quotidiana, thinkj otherwife, is guilty of the Lutheran, Wiclevian and Waldenfian He- 
damnationem retical pravity. 

aternam fuft- As f or that Council (if we may fo call the Conventicle) of Trent, it re- 
l ne -ji c •' n i° n quires that all Bifhops fhould ta\e care, that Prayers and the Sacrifices of the 
mveniri pof- Mifr, Jhould be devoutly offered for the dead, and accurately performed to 
fet, quomodo free them from the punifhment of Venial Sin. The fame 1 rent- A ffemb\y 
Deus (qui eft 

in cmnibus & erga omnes jufuifimusj non injnflus videretur, ft non poft hanc vitam, per tempo- 
rales & non aeternas poenas, omnium compenfatio expectarctur. Bin. Tom, 9. c.46. p. mibi 322. 
Cum peccati tantum venialis reus, repente nonnunquam intereat, de omni verbo etiam otiofo 
rationem redditurus, nee illi pateat aditus ad Cceleftem Hierufalem, in quam nihil intrat co-in- 
quinarum; nee item Gehenna? fubjaceat, quippe qui gratia? ft particeps, ac posna? tantum tem- 
poralis debitor; ft ut primum purgetur ex iis qui geffit in corpore, falvus tandem aliquar.do fu- 
turus, f'c tamen quaf per ignem. Bin'. Tem.9. f.mihi 198. Curent Epifcopi ut fdelium vivorum 
furfragia, mrKaram fcilicet facrirxia, oraticnes, elcemofyna?, aliaque pietatis opera qua 5 pro fideli- 
bus defunftis fieri confueveruntj pie & devote font. Bin. Tom, 9. SefJ.2$. Cone, Trid, p. mihi-^9 & 
*-f.i4., c.j. f, mihi 389. clearly.' 

torn. VIII. Afo Sim Venial 265, 

clearly difcovers that they hold, that 'tis not neceiTary to confefs Venial 
Sins. 'Tis true therefore ras I faid),that thofe bored flavcs of the Pope, 
thus tearingly exprefs themfelves in the aiTerting of Venial Sin. But 
yet 'twas honeftly faid by Bellarmine however, That this Doctrine of 
the Veniality of Sin, is taught Tin the Antichriilian Synagogue.) only 
with a common Cnot an unanimous) confent. For the Iearncdft of the 
Papifts, as Vega, Altifftidorenfis, Almain, Azoriiu, Durand, Fijher of 
JxKbeiier, (who loft his Head for his maintaining the Popes Headfhip) 
but efpeciilly Gerfon Chancellor' of Park, liberally afTert that all *Si« it 
mortiferom or deadly, and that none is Venial, or deferving of Pardon : 
To all which I add that for the firft feven hundred years after Chrift, 
the Doctrine of Venial Sin was never taught by any Father, ox ~Doflor,ox 
maintained in any Council. Nor can Bctlarmine, after his ltricteft iearch 
into the Fathers nor could he, nor dares he name one of them that ever 
us'd the very name or word of Venial Sin. This being premifed as an 
encouragement to our conflict, namely that the heft Soldiers of the Ene- 
mies Army, are come over to our fide fa llgn of their enfuing over- 
throw,) you may take up the truth of this Doctrine concerning Venial 
Sin, either in an aitirmitive or negative Proportion (which you pleafej : 
If in an Affirmative, receive it thus s Every Sin is of its own nature morti- The main 
ferous and deadly, deferving eternal punijhment. If in a Negative, take Point. 
it thus \ Nj Sin defervespardjn-, or thus,Ni? Sin is exempted from deferving 
eternal death ■> or ('as 'tis ufually expreftj, No Sin is Venial in its own 
nature. In the difcuifing this great Truth, I (hall (God willing) did 

f 1. Explication. 
By way of^ 2. Confirmation 
(.3. Application, 
I. In the Explication I (hall proceed by way of 

1. Concefftm, or granting what is not to be deny'd. 

2. By way of Negation, or denial of what is not to be granted^ 

that by "both, the queftion may be cleared, by being freed 
from the/gr of Popifi Objections. Nullum eft 

1. For the rirft way of Explication, viz. of Conceffion, I grant, peccatum cu- 

I. AH private offences of man arrainjl man, have a pardon from man due J u W uam in 
"fo them \ and that 5 ris Co, the Scriptures fully difcover, Ephef. 4.32. ale# ' chimkr 
Col.%. 13. Rom. i2^&% in requiring mutual forgivenefs. 'Tis well ex- Panflr. de pec. 
preft by Chamier, Ihere's no fin of any againil m, hut is Venial. But how vtnfjnibi 182; 
weak is BeHarmines argument from hence, to prove that VenialSins do Eadeni r 2ti°- 
not hinder God from loving us. If all offences (faith he) diffolve the "'^^^ 
love of Gad, by the fame rcafon Jhmld they diffolve love and friendjhip be- m i nus Deurrz 

trveen man and man\ hut this they da not, therefore, &c, teneri peccata 

hominibus re- 
mittere quia homines inimicos fuos diligere debenc, & injuria ipfis quoad vindittain condooarCi 
Ones, fcdfar. Lm. i-. V<n, [;:. p. 11. 

I .an- 

■266 No Sin Venial. . Serin. VIII. 

Non eft a> I anfwer \ The confequence is not only falfe,but blafphemous, for the 
quum, homi- f av our of God, and the reafons for which that is preferved or diffolved 
neTofficia **- are n0t t0 *> e P arai leld witn the friendfhip of man, and the reafons for 
quari officiis which this is either maintain'd or deftroy'd. Nor are the Offices of 
hominum in man to man to be equaliz'd with the Duties of man to God and To nei- 
Deutn,itaque ther the offences. To make this plain, I argue, 
tXpSe I- From Popifh Principles. 

nullum eft 2 ' From undeniable Realon. 

peccatum cu- i. From Popifh Principles. For, 

jufquam in i« Do they not conftantly declare, That though a man,be he never 

ale^Tuiomi- fo hi & h > he neit her doth nor mould inflift great punishments upon his 
num in Deum inferiors for light and fmall offences,yet that God .inflicls grievous tor- 
nullum veni- ments upon his Children for the leaft, even Venial Sins, even the tor- 
ale j multa ments of Purgatory, not lefs than thofe of Hell, but only in duration 
Ha%fisfaten- (^ Y ou ^ bc\kve Bellarmine;) the leaft whereof (as Aquinas tells us,) is 
tlbus Papiftis. greater than the greateft in this life? 

cham.Panjir. 2. Do not the Papifls grant that there are many kinds of offences 
dtptc.Ven. id. which do not deftroy Humane friendfhip (nor oughtj which yet exclude 
from Gods love ? As when a man out of a good intention of helping 
or benefiting his friend, proves hurtful or offenfive to him> this excludes 
not a man. from his friends favour i but when a man out of a zealous 
intention to pleafe God, doth offend him (as Paul did who thought be 
did God good fir vice in perfecuting the Church), he doth with Paul in 
that cafe, immortally, and deferve exclufion from the favour of God. 

2. I argue from undeniable reafon : The fum whereof is this \Man 
offended by man hath caufes to continue ftill his love to man which 
God offended hath not. 
, i. Man by the bond of a Precept^ is bound to forgive man* but God 

is not capable of fuch a bond. 

2. Man offended, is a finite creature, and therefore offences againft 
him, are comparatively JmaV and inconfi durables but offences againft God 
are againft an infinite Majefty, and therefore infinite. 

3. Offences againft Man are mutual, the offended to day, may be the 
offender to morrow ; but God never can wrong his Creature, no, though 
be hurts it j What iniquity have your fathers found in me ? Jer, 2.11. 

4. Man offended may be,and perhaps hath been benefited by the Man 
offending., but to God no good of ours can extend. 

5. A man offended, oft warns not the offendor that he fhould not of- 
fend or wrong him, but God hath a thonf and times admonifht, exhorted 
tntreated, threatned &gainft offending of him. 

Second 2. I grant, though all Sins deferve eternal punimment, and though 

ConceiJion. n o Sins are Venial, yet that all Sins are not equal^ nor do they deferve equal 

ptnijhment. The Papifts would willingly faften this Stoical dotage 

upon us, of holding the equality of Sin fas did the Jovinianifts of old) 

in requital for our maintaining the damnablenefs of all Sin y but what 

' - . . , . they 

Scrm. VIII. No Sin Venial. 2 6j 

they fay herein of us,is ameer (landering of us. This Calumny Vurx- In eo cilvi- 

us in his Eighth Book againtt our famous IVhitakgr ( §>jantum tinmen!) "^.pcccara 

hathcaft upon learned Calvin, That he held all Sins were equals becaufe J""^} on J^ 

be held all were mortal. The like alfo faith GautierM in his Chronological mortalia, & 

Table of the fourth Age, where fpeaking of the Jovinianifls their ma- xternis digna 

king all Sins equalhe impudently tells u$,Calvins Votfrine is conformable fuppliciis 

tntbofe who held all Sins equal, becaufe it maker them all mortal. But blef- ^ r ^ Cf /^ 

fed Calvin both purgeth bimfelf from the Calumny, and confutes the whit.ih. Llb.B. 

srgument on which 'tis grounded, in the third Book of his lnftitutions, Non parum 

cap,\, by this invincible anfver\ Scio (faith he) quam inique Votlr in am conformis eft 

tt'tiram calumnientur^ &c. I know how uniuitly the Papifts calumniate our ? . rina , a ~ 
-J ~ . i r- t, i- »■«•"■■■ 11 it r vmi, nolentis 

Doftrtne; they J ay. By our mating au Sins mortal and damn able, we Jet up audire pecca- 

the P iradox of the Stoicks, of the equality of Sins ; but (faith he) the very ta venialiaXed 
Doctrine of the Papijis themfelves will fully clear us j for I demand omnia defini- 
oftbem,Vo they not ackyowledg that among thofe Sins they call Mortal, there 5, ns mo ^ha. 
U an inequality, and that one Mortal Sin is greater than another, and there- ebron. fee. Ati. 
ftre they cannot charge me with making all Sins equal, becaufe I hold they Scio quam 
are al! Mortal. How is then the Doctrine of Equality of Sins, more to be inique Do&- 
fathered upon Calvin,t\\zt\ upon the Papifts themfelves ? 'Tis our con- nn * m na " c 
ftent Dodtrine,That Sins and their punifhments are «tf^«j/,though all iumnientur." 
Sins are Mortal, We teach, Though all Sins deferve eternal punifhment, Dicunt enim . 
yet not the fame degree of eternal punifhment, but fome a hffer degree paradoxum 
than others. Though all Sins deferve a punifhment extenfwely infinite, e,ie Stoico- 
yet not intensively equal. We agree to that old expreflion of a mi- catorum ^f" 
tins ardent nonnulli; the flames of Hell {lull be Iefs torturing to fome, qualitate. Sed 
than to others =, for fome,it will be more tolerable at the day of judgment fuo ipforura 
than for others'^ fome are beaten with more, others with fewer jiripes,. Luk. ore ? nu ^° *|e* 
12. 47, 48. As among the Jews there were feveral degrees of capital ^ 10 convin "' 
punifhment for feveral offences, fo are there in Hell feveral degrees of Quscro enim, 
punifhment futed to the degrees of Sin. Of which truth the words of annon inter 
Chrift, Mat. 5. 22, are a clear proof, which tell us of the punifhment ea ipfa pecc^- 
inflicled by the Judgment, which was the Confeffm fingularum Civitatum, |"j* ^ mor * , 
the AfTembly belonging to every City, confining of three and twenty, ^y a jj ma '_ 
by whom the punifhment inflicted was (according to the be(t Writers jus agnofcant 
bjfling with the Sword, In the fame Scripture next we read of the pu- ^ 0D igitur 
nifhment inflicted by the Councilor Sanedrim confining of feventy EI- P roriIlus %-' 
ders,for greater offences, which punifhment was Stoning, And laftly, there ^? e pecca^a 
is mentioned the punifhment of TUwa r?rt/?©-> call'd Hell- fire, which was qua? ilmul 
by the old Idolaters exercifed upon their Infants,w\\o were facririced in mortalia funt». 
the Valley of Hinnom : Chriit by the fimilitudc of thefe Earthly punifh- c *^?j?tf4»$* 
ments which paffed one another in fharpnefs 8c feverity,fetting forth the '**' * l 2' 

K&erc eft 
eonfevTus 23, rirum {: ngularum civitatum j fummus autem ille Synedrion focatur. Kf i<sig>s poena 1 
ufaatiiftma erat gladius. Cum autem fupra lapidationem, nulla poena in ufu T udaico evict, qn^fi*'- 
vit Chriflus aliunde nomen horrendi cruciatus, qui & gladiuaa & lapidationem excedcret, [ciU ■ 
Gibtnn* ignis. Grot, in loc. 


268 No Sin Venial. Serm. VIII. 

degrees ofpunithments,in the place of the damned.This will yet be clea- 
rer, if we duly confider the cafe to which Chrift is fpeaking, concern- 
ed, Grot, in j n g w hj c h we ma y t h us underftand Chrift expreffing himfelf : Hereto- 

Tres iracun- f ore tnm ^ ave ^ eeH deter^d from murdering others, becauje the Law com- 
dlx fpecies mauds that murtherers Jhould he cut off by the fword •, But I would have 
totidem facit you ta\e heed of anger, hecaufe that is to he punijht in the next world as Je- 
homicidn nerely as murder is punifht in this. But if any to his amer^ (hall add eviU 
hoc lethales fp ea fy n £> ^ e P a ^ be punijht with a greater punijhment *, as Stoning is a grea- 
omnes coram ter than that by the Sword. And if his evil-fpeaking be very grievous and 
Deo, licet im- hainous, he fhall fnffer more exquifite torments , fuch as thofe fuftained who 
panter. Dav. lvere y urn t in the Valley 0/Hinnom. See Grctius ori the place. And hereby 

tv^/VT L°1 K ;r Bellarmines Cavil is anfwered, who to prove that all Sins are not Mor- 
Bellar. at amij. iir- >n • t n 1 

Grat.p.90,91. t2 h ar >d deserving eternal pumlhment in Hell, argues thus} Here are 

Nonfolumqui f f a i f h he) tw> Temporal punishments lefs than that of Hell-fir e\andbecaufe 
occidic, reus k e fa only guilty of HcU-fire.wbo breads cut into fuch an outragious anger 
d d CC1 0t " 1S ^ t0 ca ^ 1 ^ brother [oo\,therefore the ether degrees of anger are Venial Sins, 
nem fed qui as behtg only threatned with Temporal puni foments. But this erroneous 
irafcitur fine Sophijier perverts the true fenfe of this Text, not considering that the 
causa fratri true import thereof is this, That all the three degrees of anger here rren- 
fxo. Inn. /.2. t j one d by caw Saviour, are totidem homicidia, fo many murders fas Pa- 
Tres'hi era- reus fp ca k.O and that the three degrees of punifhment expreiTed here,are 
dus fupplicii three degrees unitts fpecie p<zn£*of one punifrment in hind and nature^ 
poenam flgni- which is eternal punifhment in Belt; and that a lefs degree of toimentin 
ncant Gfhen- jj^jj j s llri deritood by the Judgment, than by the word Council, and a 
"7.T17 ' lefs by 0*»«7 than by HeU-fir.e, and that all the three degrees of punim- 
Per C.onfli- ment here expreiTed by Chrifr, equally intend the punijhment of the dam- 
um,capitalem ned in Hell, though not in equality of punifhment to be inmcled on the 
peenam intel- offenders. Thus Irenms of 'eld interpreted this Text; Nor only (faith 
Iigitjper civi- ^ e ^ ^ y e g u jity ofkjUiKgto damnation, who kjlls his brother, but even he 
poenam fern- w ^° ** angry with him withsut a caufe. So Saint Anflin dt verbJ)omini\ 
piter nam ani- Om Mes cruciibuntur, fd minus ill e, minus illes All fhall be tormented, 
ma? mortem v though fome more, fome kCs. Thus alio Btrradius and Maldonat, Bel- 
Mtelhgit. tannines ftWow-^ddits, (though not greater Sophiflers, yet better Ex- 
urn qui irafci- p°h*tors than Bellarmine) interpret this Text, ingenuoufly confeiEsg,- 
tur,&eum qui That by Judgment and Council as well as by Hell fire ,the eternal death of 
fratrem fuum the Soul is to be underftood, though with a gradual difference of the 
lev - c ^^ m punifhment. 

aDoellat^ea- 3' ^^ &M Conce/fion is this, Though no Sin be venial. but every Sin 
dem inferni djtjervts eternal deaths yet no Sin of its own nature neceffarily and infallibly 
poena, non ea~ damns, but the Sin againjj the Holy Ghojl. All other Sins may polfibiy be 
dum pcenae pardoned, Mat. 12.31. every Sin that admits of Repentance, is par- 
» r m^ocet ^ donable. All Sins are remifible Jeclnfi finafa mp<xmte/!U& r'efpefiu, which 
Maldon. in are not followed with final impenitence ,/ as is that again ft the H4y 
Mgt. 5. 22. Ghofi. Other Sins make a rn^n liable to death, this pertinacicufy opp fite 
to the terms of life. This is Wat Sin unto death mentioned 1 Joh.^.j6. 1 7. 


Serm.VIIT, Vo siH **#*'• ^ 

And hereby the argument of Eaily the Jcfuite for Venial Sin is obviated, 
who from this Scripture, which mentions a Sin not unto death, and a fin 
that is unto death \ argues, that feme Sins are of their own nature venial, 
and not deferving death, though other Sins are mortal, and ^deferve 
de3th. TistrueSt. JFo/^diftinguifheth between a Sin nut unto death; 
and a Sin unto death s but by both cxpreillons.he intends Sins morbiferous 
in their own nature ,and fucn as deferve eternal death. By the Sin not unto 
death, he undcrftands a Sin notwithstanding which, a man may avoid 
eternal death, and may be pardoned though it defrves eternil death > 
and by a Sin unto death he intends a Sin which whofoever commits, can 
never he pardoned, and therefore can never efcape eternal death^nd hence 
he would not have fuch a Sinner as commits it, frayed for. And that 
by the Sin not unto death he doth not mean a venial Sin that deferzrs not 
death, is plain from this very Text, where the Apoftle faith, lhat life 
fl;allhepven fir them that have not fin" d unto death,by the prayers of the 
faithfuljbut I defire to know why life fhould be given for him that fins not 
unto deatbjt his Sins were veni-il <k did not at all deferve death. Certainly 
the fin which the Apoftle calls a fin not unto death,had meritorioully taken 
away the life oftbeSoul,and fo cannot be accounted venial, but in fome 
kind mortal I and 'tis as plain from the Text, that by the Sin which is 
unto death, the Apoftle means not a Sin which is mortal, or only defer- 
ving <kath 7 as diftinguifht from Venial Sin', becaufe the Apoftle forbids 
the praying for him that commits that fin which is unto death. Now if the 
Apoftle forbids praying for him whofe Sin is mortal, as only deferving 
death, then it would unavoidably follow that none mould be frayed for 
that commit mortal Sins or Sin's deferving death, but only they who. 
commit Venial Sins \ which is contrary to Chrifrs, both Precept and 
Example, who both commands us to pray for Perfecuters, (and no Pa- 
pift can deny that Terfecution is a Mortal Sin.) and did himfelf, as alio 
did after him that BlefTed Martyr Stephen. pray for his Perfecuters. And 
(b clearly true is this, that Bartbolomtus Petrus a Papift, and ProfeiTor of 
Voway, in his Continuation of E/rw*j\s Comment on the Epiftles, on a d mortem 
i Job. 5. 16. ingenuoufly confefTeth, That by a Sin not unto death is to dicitur Apo 
be underitood, a Sin from which a man may arife by repentance, and that ftolo, quod eft 
by a Sin unto death, we are to underhand a Sin from which a man can mortale qui-_ 
never arife by repentance. And that a Mortal Sin may be faid to be not f^:^ p ^ I_ 
unto death, he illuftrates by the fpeech of Chriji concerning Lazarus's nitentia.Vide- 
Sicknefs. %h'vs Sickyefs (faith Chi iftj h not unto deaths namely,becaufe bitur hoc mi- 
Lazams was to be recall'd to life, and fo a Sin not unto death, is a Sin rum a l icu i> 
from which,and from death by which,a man may be recall'd h as a Sin ^ m d ordain 
unto death is a Sin from which,and from death by which, a man cannot m0 rtale dica* 

tur non ad 
mortem cfTe •, fed memirmTe debet quod falvator Jom.w. dieebar, irifirmitss hasc non eft ad 
roertcm, cum tamen Xjz^r^ex eit mficmitate mortuus fuerfo f:c in propofito peccatum mortaie, 
ius vera pcenitcntia agitur, non eft ad mortem. Bartb. Pet. in 1 fob. 5. 16. 

N n b? 

2J&- No Sin Venial. Serm. VTO. 

Comp&ratio b £ recall'd. Thus al fo Lorinus and JujUnian both Jefuits expound this 

hxc inter ; place of John > exprefly and fully. 

fit, intelligendo de peccato,non vcnialiXcd mortali. Loth, in he: Feccatum non ad mortem; 
non poteft peccatum fignificare veniale, cum enim dicat Johannes* Oranti pro peccato non ad 
mortem dandam efle vitam, plane indicat hoc peccatum non ad mortem, fpiritualem vitam adi- 
mere, quod fi fpirituali vita deftituitur qui 
tur, necefte eft. Juftin. in loo. 

qui peccat non ad mortem, mortifero fcelere obilringa- 

The fourth 

Rom. 8; i. 

Vcnialia di- 

4. My fourth Conecdion is this 5 Though no Sin be Venial in itrown 
nature^ and deferving of p*rdon\ yet this hinders not but that Sin is Venial 
by an extrinfick^cauje, namely, the grace and mercy of God in Chrifi. Though 
Venial Sins fas the Papifts call them) in themfelves are Mortal^ yet Mor- 
tal Sins through Grace are Venial. All the Sins of the Elett, and of thofe 
in xhtfiate of Grace, are, though in themfelves damnable, yet pardoned 
through Grace, and not damning. There vs no condemnation to them (faith 
the Apoftle) that are in Chrifi Jefus. Though the leafi Sin makes us guil- 
ty of damnation if God mould deal with us ftriftly, and fecundum legis 
rigorem, according to the rigour of the Law j yet the greatefl cannot 
cuntur pecca- c ff c Q t ^' ls guiltinefs of damnation, where mercy through Chrifi is con- 
non quod per ^ er '^ upon the molt unworthy. Sins in themfelves unworthy of par- 
fc venia dig- don, are Venial to the guilty, ex benignitate judicis, by the goodnefs of 
aa fuat. Sunt the Judg, and remiilible to the debtor, ex liber alit ate Creditors, by the 
bounty of the Creditor. Though ex peccati natura, every Sin excludes 
from Salvation* yet ex mifericordia Dei, no Sin doth fo. Though Sin 
be not exempted from defert of punimment, quia vindicari non debet \ 
yet 'tis exempted, quia Dens vindicare nolit. Though not becaufe it 
ought not to be punifhed, yet becaufe God through Chrifi will not pu- 
nifh it. 

And hence, 1. It folio ws,that as all the Sins of Reprobates are dead- 
ly, not only ex mtrito, becaufe of their merit \ but alfo ex eventu^znd in 
the event , becaufe no Sin is Venial in it felf, but only by Gods mercy \ 
So like wife, 2. That the reafon why the Sins of the Regenerate exclude 
them not from the favour of God, is not from their own nature, but 
meerly from Gods mercy^W Sins deferving that exclufion. Yea, 3. Hence 
it follows, that though damnation be actually inflicted upon Jomeiot 
their Sins, viz. Unbelievers^ ex remifjion and falvation may be beitow'd 
upon others, notwithstanding they have committed thofe very Sins for 
whkh others are damned. To Unbelievers Whoredom is damning, and 
excludes them from the Kingdom of God, Ephef. 5. 5 •, and yet Davids 
Adultery excluded not him from that Kingdom. The murdering of 
Chrifi was imputed to Judas and Pilate^nd yet not to thofe A8.2. 23, 
38. who flew Chrifi with wicked hands,whom Peter wills to repent, and 
be baptized, for the remiflion of fins. God pardoned Davids Adultery 
with Batbjbeba, but might not Antonies with Cleopatra j Lots Inceft 


ex benigtri 
tate judicis, 
debitori ex 
creditoris li- 
Rivet. Tr. 4. 

ft. *3- 

Serm.VIIL No Sin Venial 271 

was, Herods might not be forgiven. Solomons Idolatry was, and Jero- 
boams might not be remitted. Yea hence I fear not to aflfert, that gre a- 
ter Sins may be pardon' d to fome, when fmaller may damn others: An 
idle word may deftroy 0«?,when Murder and Adultery may not another. 

And this fully anfwers Bellarmines Argument for the Venialify of Sin. 
*Tis this, If all Sins be Mortal of their oven nature, and only Venial to Be- 
lievers, becaufe of their Faith'-, then all Sins /hould be Mortal to Unbelievers, 
and Venial to Believers:But this (faith \\t)Ujalfe^ that all Sins of Unbelie- 
vers Jhould be Mortal^and at! Sins of Believers Venialfor if they be Venial ta 
Believers, then much more are they fotoVnbelievers, But why fo, O Car- 
dinal > Becaufe ( faith he) the Sins of Believers are more grievous and 
hainoits than the Sins of Unbelievers, as being committed againft more 
light and love. Now this Argument is eafily anfwer'd by my fourth 
Concellion. 'Tis not falfe that Sins though fmaller in genere pecc^ti, in 
the kand of Sin, (hould be Mortal to Unbelievers, and greater Sins Ve- 
nial to Believers \ for as they are Mortal to both of their own nature, fo 
by accident, through the mercy of God, pardoning to Believers both 
their fmaller and greater Sins, their Sins become Venial in the events 
which accident being deficient to Unbelievers in their finning , Nequa- 
qttam eorum peecata facit venialia, fed utfunt fimt mortalia \ It makes 
not their Sins Venial,but leaves them Of they are in themfelves Mortal, as Fideles gravi- 
learncd Tarem in anfwer to Bellarmine. We grant (as Gerard expref- us P^ ccantes > 
feth it), that the pardoned Sins of Believers are more hainous than thofe peccanti er g 
of Unbelievers > but hence it cannot be infer'd, that fome Sins of Vn- mulro imgis 
believers are Venial: For that the Sins of Believers are Venial, 'tis not venialiter 
from the nature of their Sins, but from the meer Grace of God par- P e f can J m ^' 

« cleles levius 

doning, and not imputing their Sins', and therefore to all Unbelievers p ecca ' nres . fc 
their Sins remain fuch as they are of their own nature, that \s,Mortal or Btllir minus. 
MortiferoUf. This alfo Hops the mouth of that defperateor defpairing Refpondet 
Papift Cotton, who thus argues, to hold that all Sins deferve eternal pit- P *> W5 « &*pc- 
nijhment, and that none can live without Sin, if the ready way to drive e ^ j nte ]i e ^ 
men to the precipice of defpair, efpecially when dying (he (hould have U m per fe,ve- 
faid s 'Tis the ready way to drive the Priefts , thofe filly rum eft ex 
Quacks, into defp3ir of purging the Purfe with the pill of Purgato- accidentia 
ry) : But the anfwer is eafie,This Argument only becomes thof: quibus J^ordlam Dd 
Deimifericordia efl ignota^ (as Chamier fpeaks), who are Grangers to V enS delentis 

non levia tan- 
mm,fed omnia peecata fidelium refipifcentiunr, quod accidens cum in peccatis inrldelium deficiat, 
ncquaquam ea venalia facie, fed mortalia Unit, ur funt fua natura omnia eorum peecata. Pareui 
contr.BeU.de amiJf.Grat.c.ii.Ccrtixm eft renatos per peecata mortalia contra confeientiam commirTa, 
gravius Deum offendere quam infideles, quibus tantum cognitionis lumen, ac tantus benefciorum 
divinorum cumulus non obtigiti fed ex eo nondum inferri poteft, qua?dam peecata infldelium efie 
fua natura venidia-,quod enim rn renatis quxdam fat venialia, id non eft a natura peccatorum, 
fed ex fola Dei miferentis, & peecata non imputantis gratia. Ergo in non-renatis & inridelibus, 
omnia omnino peecata funt & manent talia, qualia funt ex natura fua, hoc eft, mortalia. Gerh. 
he. Com. de pec. aft. j>. 306. 

N n 2 . the 

2yi No Sin Venial Serm.VTlL 

the mercy of God in Chrift, and will not truft to it for Salvation. 'Tis 
not the fmalnefs of Sin,but the greatness of Chrift, that faves us. This 
pitiful Papift draws a damnable conclufion from a Divine principle. The 
principle is, No fin k Venial •, therefore (faith hej defpair •, but therefore 
lay we, believe, go out to Chriji for free remilfion through his blood 
whereby all Sin Mortal in its nature, is Venial to the Believer. And let 
me tell thee (O thou blind Papift) though thou finncit much in making 
Sin finally yet thou (inneft more in making my Saviour fo. I (hall con- 
clude this fourth Conceffion, with manifeiling the confent herein of the 
Peccato non learnedeft of the Fapifts with our Proteftant Divines. Aquinas faith 
debetur poena 'Eternity of punifhment U due to every Sin of the wire generate, ratione con- 
aterna rati- ditionvs fubjetti, in refpedt of the Itate of him that commits it, who wants 
vftatis^fed™" *^ at Grace whereby Sin vs only remitted. And Cajetan upon thofe words 
ratione con- °f Aquinas, tells us,that Grace is the only fountain whence floweth remiffion 
ditionis Tub- of Sin, and nothing maketb Sin venial or remijftblefiut to be in Graces and 
K«i ? fcilicet t fo at nothing makjtb Sin irremijfible and not venial, but the being out of a 

^maJfS-^5 °f Grace ' an ^ that which maketh Sin Vsnial or not Venial js the [late 
venitur, per °f tbefubjefi wherein Hvs found. For if we refpecl the nature of Sin as 'tis 
quam folum in it felf, it will remain (without grace) eternally in (lain and guilt 
fit remifHo anc j fo w |i| fubjecl: the Sinner to eternal punifhment, and' is mortal. So 
'i^Qa o!!™' that remiffibility or irremifjibilityof Sins twtji not be confidered according to- 
Art. $.'ad i. *be fins tbemfe Ives, hit according to thefuhjefts beingyr not being in theftate 
p. mibl 275. of Grace. Fifher Bihhop of Kochejhr, though a moft bitter adverfary to 
Sola gratia ell Luther, yet concerning the Vtniality of Sin, he thus fpeaks to Luther ± 

remltffon™ ^ n ***** *^ at *** H ** Venial h ^ n merc y of God, I am, Luther, wholly of thy 
pcense. Re- mind. Azorius conkftcth^that the remijjion of Venial Sin k of a free and 
miflfibilitas, fupernatural benefit, and afforded to none that are not in a fiate of Grace. 
& irremiffibi- 

litas tam culpa? quam poena? attenduntur penes {latum fubjecti, fcil. efTe in gratia vel non, flatui 
gratis convenit remiffibilitas polltive, flatui vero culpa? extra gratiam convenit irremiftibiHtas 
poftive. 'Cajet. in loc. praditl. p. mlhl 27$. Quod peccatuni veniale folum ex mifericordia Dei 
veniale fit, hoc ego tecum, Luthere, fentio. Contra Luther. Art., 32. Venialis remhTio peccati 
gratuitum & fupernaturale eft beneflcium Dei, nemini extra gratiam Dei conftituto peccatum 
veniale dimittitur. A%or. I \. c.xo. Mifi quia eft ab homine jufto Dei gratia & charitate prxdito 
commifum, perpetuo puniretur. A\or. l.$. c.$. 

Thus far are our Concefjhns concerning the Veniality of Sin or our 
zd. Branch, of granting wnat is " oc to De denied, which was the ftrfi part of my Ex- 
Explhat. plication} I come now to the fecond Branch of Explication, which is to 
Agnofcimus be by way of Negation, or denial of what is not to be granted, 
quorundam yj iat w hich I peremptorily deny is this, What any Sins are exempted 

quod dicitur f rom ^ e f e / vin ^ eter}tal punifhment, upon the account of any imaginary, or 
de alieno imaginable fmalnefs or levity of Sin. 

corio funt -'Tis ingeniouily expreft by Learned Rivet m his Cathohcns Ortho- 

libewles, flul- 

titiam debitorum qui adverfus credjtorem fuum, judicium proferunt in propria causa, Certe reua- 
qui coram judicefuo culpam extenuat, cum res tota judici perfpecla eft, imprudenter valde fe ge- 
nt, nee minus flulec facie, qui debitum fuum vel negat, vel minuit apud cum quiconvincere po- 
reft & cogerc. RhitJm.conir. Tr. quart, j^^.13, doxus* 

Serm. VIII. No Sin Venial. 2 j^ 

dsxus, againft Baity the Jefuite upon this occafion, That there are fame 
who de alieuo corio flint liberates, cut large thongs out of an Hide that's 
none of their own. That Che means J of Gods mercy, who meafure Gods 
judgment according to their own rules and like foolifh debtors will he 
judges of their own caufe againft their Creditor. 7 hat guilty Male- 
faftdr (faith he gravely) is unwife, who extenuates his fault before his 
Judg, to whom hk whole caufe U \nown\ nor vs it kfs imprudent to di- 
minifh our Sins before that God , who can both convincere & cogere, con- 
vince us of our debts, and compel us to make Jattifafiion. BeUarmine then 
and his Complices are none of the wifeft or honeftcft, who dictate to 
us,that fome Sins are fo light and little, that they deferve no eternal pu- 
nifhmcnt,but are Vtnial \ i. Some ingenere fuo, in their kind of Sin, as 
when the Will is carried out to that, which contains in it felf a hand of 
inordination indeed, but yet fuch as is not contrary either to the love of God 
or eur Neighbour, as an officious lie, or an idle word \ and that, 2. Some Sins 
are Venial ex imperfeftione'operis, by the imperfection of the nwrj^rand thefe 
(faith BeUarmine) are of two forts s I. Some 3re Venial ex furreptione, ^Id.BelUr. I.r. 
by their unexpected fiealtb and creeping into the Soul, and thefe are/W- ^ e am ifGrat. 
den motions o) lulls, anger, revenge, &c* which get into the mind before ^' ^' 
reafoncan deliberate, whether they are to be admitted omo\ and fo they 
are not perfeUe voluntaria, have not the full con fent of the Will 2. Other- 
Sins are Venial by the imperfeUion of the matter, ex parvitate materiz y 
which are committed in a light and fmall matter ■> as the flealing of an 
half-peny , which neither hurts our Neighbour, nor deftroys Love. 
Againft thefe we oppofe, T\\tt there's no Sin but deferves eternal punifh- 
tnent.per propriam naturam & inirinfecam rationem, by its own proper Vid: Mdk>. m- 
and in trin fecal nature. As the leaft drop cf water is water, as truly as ^ 2 '^ 88,a "J" 
the whole Sea, fo the leaft Sin is as truly Sin as the greatefH and the Durand^q.^.' ' 
leaft Sin according to the rigour of the Law deferves an everlafting pc- Dicendum 
nalty. The imperfection of Sin as to degree, takes not away from it c ^ uc docue- 
either the reafm of Sin, or the merit of penalty, as Medina, Azorm^ v ^^ > '''- Yan< ^ liS% 
Durand,3ind others confefs. Azorius tells us from Durand, Vega,Ca]etan\ yt a "ven'ale 
That the Law of God forbids Venial Sins,even all Sin both great and fhial\ peccatum eft 
and that rhe Arguments of the Proteftants prove,that Venial Sin is a- Tdidem con- 
ga inft theLaw ofGod.To which I add, that it implys a grofs contradi&ion. tra . Ie S em ^ci, 
to fay that the leaft Sin fhouldbefaid to be a £i^and yet to be Venial and Icx^cTd* 3 
deferve pardon h for if it deferves pardon, thex\'z\Co freedom from punifh- hibct & gra- 
ment, and if- freedom from pumfkment^ then it hath v.o guilty and if it V13 - &Ievja,id-- 
have no guilt, then it is no Sin. Moft true is that fpeech of Alien- W * adverfa* 

ft J ?£, in his Lexicon Tbeoloricum s Nullum peccatum habet rationcm ad m J™ ar ^"' 
j • j o o- jr t menf a com- 

merendam veniam, imopotius demeretur \ bin as bin cannot dijerve to be probarunt. 

pardoned, but it deferves nst to be pardoned. Nor can BeUarmine with bis Apr, infljfor, 

Sophiftry prove, that the fmaU Sins before mention'd, are in their na- l 'f c -%- 

U\:e Venial: 5 Tis little kfs than blafphemy what he dictates concern- s^Tit mc 

ing a Sin Venial, ex genere fho, as an idle word y an officious lie y &c. that catum. 


274 N* $ in ^cfjial Serm. VIII 

it is not againft zperfett and a rigorous Law ^ that the Law which forbids 
it,is not perfedtty <i LawMd hath notperfedlly rationem legys : But this is 
falfe f to fay no worfej : For that Law truly binds the Conicience to 
■perform it, and therefore 'tis truly a Law \ and that it truly binds the 
Confcience,is clear, both bccaufe it is made by bint who hath jus leges con- 
dendi^a right of making Laws, and alfo becaufc it hath afanttUn,* threat, 
viz. the giving an account i and condemnation alfo, Mut. 12.31. And 
when Bellarmine argues that Sins which he calls venial ex furreptione, by 
S eot'oncm ^ ea hh into the Soul unawares, are not perfe.dt.ly voluntary y and there- 
exiftimamus f° re a *e venial , 1. 'Tis acutely obferved by the learned Chamier, That 
opponi, non a fin may be by furreption, or inconfiderateneS, and yet it may be voluntary 
voluntati, fed <j/y^ furreption not being properly oppofed to voluntarin-fs, but to election, 
?J *9 d * l ?**V> when upon weighing of circumjiances a thing is chofen \ for it often falls out, 
oni cum om- ^ at f ^ e w $ ** carried to a thing, though by a fudden and inconftderate mo- 
nibus cognitis, Hon, as Peter denyd Chriji with his w ill, though fudden ly, and inconfide- 
penfitatifque rately, and yet thereby Peter committed a mortal fin : And though a Sin of 
•arcumltan- f UTre ption be not voluntary in the higheft degree,yetis it with a true and 
gitur denique-, proper confent, fas Ames fpeaks). 2. Eut befides, the nature of Sin, 
nam faepe ac- its formate or that wherein it conlifts, is not its voluntarinefi,but its tranf- 
cidit ut motu greffton of the Law. The Law 0/the Creator, not the will of the creature, 
fubitaneo, & j s t ^ Q £ u ] e f r jght andwrong. Voluntarin.fi aggravates, but involunta- 
vduntas^pfa rinef excufeth not Sin. 3.'Tis excellently obferved by the learned Dave- 
ad aliquid fe- nant, That may be faid ta.be voluntary, not only which is committed with an 
ratur •, uc vo exprtfi and aUual witiingnefi, but that which vs not kindred by the will 
luntate Vttms when it is bound to hinder it •, but the will is bound to command its reafon, 
? e ^itane* C & t ^ at ^fl j0u ^ be wakeful and watchful, tojupprtfiaVtbe motions of inordinate 
peccavit ta- conmpi fence . 4. Further, doth not the Law prohibit and condemn all 
men etiam affeclions and motions^ whether deliberate or by furreption and indelibe- 
mortaliter : ratc^aud hence it was, ? . That holy Paul complaining of the Sin that dwelt 
Itaque & hacc jn ^^ Rom.7. ip. was affiled, not only for the deliberate motions offw, 
farreptionem hut alfo for thofe that were indeliberate .and involuntary ^ and would he 
fiunt, volunta- have mourned under them, if they had not been finful? To conclude 
ria funt, ideo- this, Doth not, iixthly, the furreption and indeliberatejr>a/i#g of depra- 
que& pecca- yec j mo tionsinto the Soul, proceed a pravitate damnabili, from a dam- 
quasi pecca- nable *nd depraved principle of nature > muff it not then be finfwl and de- 
ta. chamier praved alfo > 
I. 6, c. 10. 

Eft voluntarium non quidem in fummo gradu, fed vero & proprio confenfu, Ames-, Bellarm. Enerv: 
de pic. ven.pag. mihi 16. Voluntarium reputatur, non modo quod expreffa & actuali voluntatc 
committitur,fed quod ab ipfa voluntate non impeditur, quando tenetur impedire. Tenetur autera 
voluntas imperare rationi,ut pervigil fit in comprimendis omnibus inordinate concupifcentiae mo* 
tibus. Davenant Q. 31. Veterm. p, mibi^^^. 

And when Bellarmine argues for the Veniality of Sin from thtparvitat 
water U,iht fmalnefl and fliqhtnefi of the matter in which Sin is commit- 
ted^ the dealing of an half-penny, or a pennytf wim he had remembred, 


9erm.VIir. N& Sin Venial. 275 

That according to this Dodhine, if Bellarmine fhould flea! a Feny from 
his poor Neighbour ten thoufand fevera) times, he fhould not yet after 
al!,commit a Mortal Sim fince if the Healing of one penny be but a venial vid. Varum 
Sin, ten thoufand Venial Sins cannot make up or amount to one Mortal Molin*m rn 
Sin. BeGdes,the fmalnefs of the matter in which a fin is committed, is n /^ Sicij ~ 
fofar from extenuating, that it often aggravates the fin committed i ^ m * 
as *cis a greater fin to murder a man for Sixpence than for an hundred 
pounds, to deny my ftarving Friend a peny-Loaf, than twenty Seam 
of Wheat s and thus Divines commonly aggravate Adams Sin by his 
breaking the Command of God in fo fmall a matter as was the forbid- 
den fruit '. And whereas Belhrmine tells us that the ftealing of an half- 
peny or a peny is not againft the Ljw, becaufe ( faith he) Lex non di- 
ferte probibet fur turn oboli, Ike Law doth not exprefly mention any prohibi- 
tion of ftealing an hilfpeny or a peny. What if I fhould ask Cardinal Ro- 
bert, whether the Law any where exprefly forbids the ftealing or a that- - 
fand pounds > and whether the ftealing of fuch a Sum is therefore not' 
againft the Law, becaufe the Law exprefly forbids it not } Doth not the 
general prohibition of Theft contain under it, all the kinds of Theft ? 
Doth not this Command, Thou fhalt not [leal, forbid the ftealing of any* 
thing that is anothers, whether the thing be great or fmall ? even as the 
Law forbidding Adultery, forbids that Sin with any Woman, noble or 
ignoble, rich erpoor, bond or free. In the overthrow of Jericho it was not t * ^ 
exprefly forbidden to fteal a Babilonijh Garment, or two hundred Shekels ^ # 2 j • . 
of Silver,or a Wedg of ' Gold^nd yet becaufe of the general prohibition A- 
chan dyed for ftealing that Garment, the two hundred Shekels of Silver, 
and the Wedg of God. Befides, that which violates one apex or tittle 
of the Law, breaks the Law and offends God. How deeply holy Ah* 
ftin was humbled for ftealing of an Apple, though ftoln when he was a 
Child, appears by his Confeilions. Surely in Bellarmines Divinity, A- 
dams taking but an Apple, and that from his Wife, was but a Venial 
fault. In Military Difcipline, a Souldier is hang'd for ftealing of a Tri- 
fle, or of what is of a very inconfiderable value. The ftealing of the 
leafi thing is againft zgreat both Command and Commander. And where- 
as Bellarmine argues, that the ftealing of fo fnjall a thing as an half peny t 
hurts mt our Neighbour, and therefore 'tis Venial and not forbidden h 
3 Its anfwered, the Law forbids not only the hurting of our Neighbour, 
in forbidding to Steal, but it forbids the violation of Juftice too. The 
Law forbids inward luft, but how doth inward luji hurt our Neigh- *J°^ S ^- 
bour > God in his Commands refpeds his own purity as well as our m 0rta iiy*jft 
Neighbours utility. Further, 'tis evident that the veniality of a Sin felling their 
committed againft our Neighbour, cannot be gathered from its not Brother, 
hurting him * '•> for in many Cafes even Bellarmine will grant that a fin f JF*^JP 
againft our Neighbour is damnable^ though it hurt not cyr Neighbour him he ^$ 
at all, yea thougn it prove very profitable and advantageous to him.Takc highly advan*. 
an inftance in this true Stojy. A worthy Phyfician 5 fome years fince, ccd, 


276 N& Sin Venial Serm. VII JT; 

v Jd.7kf. Stdfr had a fcmale'Patient under Cure.to whom her leud Husband full gave the 
<nf.de pC'veru p ou ] Dif ea fe}and foon after,he gave her alfoa draughtofrankPoifon to kill 
rette^dicitur, ner ' 5 ^ lU tne P°y^ on meeting with the Diftemper,by its violent operation 
hujufmodi ' overcame the Difeafe, and cured the Woman : According to Bellar mines 
peccata non Divinity, he (hould not, by giving her the poyfon, have linned mortally 
pugnare cum becaufehe was not only.by his murtherous endeavours, not hurtful but 
veVTnon ex- 6 " ver y beneficial to his Wife. Still I follow Bellarmine, urging this Argu- 
peftorant, auc ment,That the Healing fo fmalla thing oppoftth not Charity to man^or Love 
expugnant to God. I anfvver,though a fmall Theft do not expeftorare or expwnare 
chantatem charitatem(as Doctor Davenant expreffeth it ) deftroys not Love 8c Cha- 
dtsedpug^" rit ^ f EC k dodi pugnare cum ilia prrfetta char it ate^ oppofe that perfect 
nant tamen Love and Charity which the Law rcquireth > and it arifeth from that 
cum ilia per- inordinate lu\\ which the Law forbids,' and which is contrary both to 
fetfa charita- rn e Lqf and Love which the Law requireth. I'add herein lyes the 
im Tra™ If* £ reat mJi ^ e of Beilarmine in this point j in'that he judgeth of the na- 
oriuntur ab ture of mortal Sin by the exiinUim of charity, whereas it conflils in any 
ilia inordina- ftvervwg or declination from the Law of God, and Charity. And when 
ta concupif- BeUarmine argues, That prtcepta de minimis non funt pr-ipric prxcepta \ 
centra qua? eft Commands concerning the leafi things^ are not properly Commands : Befides 
legi divinae tnat ^ a nfwer I have formerly given, as to proving thofe Commands 
contraria. aremoft truly Commands,! cannot but here fubjoyn that fmart Fxpref- 
Vivznant. ubi fion of Gerard^vho tells Bellarmine t thus atguitig- $W«fe himfelf tvas deHci- 
-fift' . v e nt in this Piece 0/BeIhrmines Sophijhy^ and thai Satan could not more 

adverfarii ll )ecim fly b' ive covered his temptation to the eating the forbidden Fruity than 
quod peccati by faying^TuJh jhis isbnt a little Command, about a trifle, an Apple \ and 
naturam mor- indeed 'til properly no Command at all. And truly I mould (ay^That Bellar- 
tiferam ex fo- m j }Je lT! |g| lt hive, taught Satan in this point, were it not that I look 

charitatis "di- u P on ^ ltn ln tnis ^ an ^ * n c ^ e 8 reate ^ P arr °f ms Polemicks as taught, 
judicant, cum even to an high degree of proficiency, by that Schwl-Nhjler, both of 
ilia in quali- himfelf and his blackeji Society, I mean that of the Jefuits. As wild and 
bet declinati- wcz \ i is that Argument which Bellarmine grounds on that of Lnh. 12. 
te& tae^di- 5?* 7hou fh alt not depart thence JiU thou haii paid t,^ Lit mite. Lo; here 
vina feexe- ffeith Bellarmine) the laft mite can intend nothing bu fome finally venial 
rat. id. ibid, fin to be expiated in the Prifon of Purgatory. But this bold Sophifter per-* 
Gerard loc. verts this Text,and plays too faucily wirh a im^Terious and fever e Scrip- 
de^-'ec l9 * ture * For ^y ^ ie tffitehe or farthing wemuft' not underftandyw/, but 
Serpentina tne twnijbments dne to fins, and the mhuitifimas partes poenarum^ the 
diaholi p'ri- fmalleft parts of punimment in Hell. Thus the learncdfl of, even Po- 

masvos homi- p£(h Expofitors, expound that place j ksBrugenfuzn&Janfenw, who 

nes deciDien- * ,.f..r 

ris caiiiditas, 

non poterat fpeciofiori fchemate pingi atque velari, qua m quod primordialis ilia lex de non come- 
dendo arboris vetita? ihiftu, £z pra?ceptuni, de re minima ac proinde non perfede, & in rigorc 
pra?ceptum, cujus tranfgreff.o magnopere a Deo cu-retur. for* depec. ML c. 19. proprfin. Eicini 

inus )mitix rigor* Brngwf. m Mat* $. 24 

Serm. VIII. 

No Sin VcnurL 



make, and that truly, the meaning thereof to be this, Xhonfhah in the 
fxffering \of ittrnal punifhment, potnx l^ere extreme, quanta cxhibct e:Ur 
mm juftitU rigor \ Ihoujhah undergo the extremity and rigor of pun t 

fromjuflice: So that the Prifbn there mentioned, ir. 58. is not meant of 
Purgatory, but of Hell (as Tcrtuh'ian cxprclly faith ) and utter darkjttp fas Scrm. Dotn. 
Augufline) and the payment of the tali mite of farthteg fas / J ine inWo.tt. 1. 1. 
expounds it ) imports as much, as nihil relinquetur impmiium 1 No part 
cf the pttnijhment jhali he abated, but the wicked [hall be there pun idl- 
ed (as he expreiTeth it) ufque ad f*cem y to the drinking fhe laft drop 
and dregs of the Cup ox Gods wrath. 'Tis but a wretched (hi ft of 
Bellarmine, when he tells us that his venial or fefler fins, are not contra, 
but only prater legem, not againd, but only hefides the Law j by which 
didindtion, this blafphemous Sophiiter not only falls foul upon Andrew l. 4. dejuftif. 
de Vega, and other Papids, (whom he very roundly reproves for grant- c. 14. 
ing that venial fins are properly againfl the Law, telling them, That up- 
on that Principle, they can never rnantain the pojftbility of a pirficl impletion 
of the Law, becaufc (as he faith) they can never get off cleverly from \* 
that Scripture,^ that offends in one it guilty of all) ; but which is worfc, j am . j. i ; 
he audacioufly wounds the puriiy and perfection of the Divine Law, to videndum eft 
(hekcr his venial fins. Further fas that learned Baronim obfervesj jjlis quid re- 
were thefe venial CimW fins oi~ Bellarmine only befides, and not againfl the ^j"^ 11 ^! 
Law, we ought not to call them fins, but indifferent aclions, and foac- £> dicenti 
count them lawful ; for that which is forbidden by no Law is lawful, quicunque to- 
And further, if this Do&rine were true, he that abdains from Venial tarn legem 
fins,(hould do a work not of precept 9 but of counfel only, znd fo offuper- off™T Criar * m 
erogatjon^ihc Papids teaching that every good work not commanded by j n uno f a ^ U5 
God, is a work of fupererogation : But how abfurd would this be to eft omnium 
iay, That by abdaining from a fin,a man'doth a work of fupererogation. reu s. Bellar. 
I (hall only add that Cenfure pad upon Bellarmine by Votlor Featlyjxho ^ J#f- h 4» 
faith, That here Bellarmine for faying fome Sins are not againft -but only i ar ^ m j e p ec; 
befides the Law, may well be accounted to be befides himfelf. And as for ven. p, $9. 
Cotton xhzt proud Papid, who tells us there is no proportion- between eter- 
nal death. and an idle word^nd therefore an idle word is*ltof to befbfeverely 
pnnifht i JL answer, That as the great and righteous Judg of Sin and Sin* 
ners, is fitter to judg of the proportion between the leaft Sin and eter- 
nal puxi/hment, than any we'ak and guilty Malefactor h So, the will of 
God forbidding any Sin under an eternal penalty, is a fufficient reafon 
of that penalty, and' makes the pnnidiment proportionable to the deme- 
rit of the Sin. I (hall only chaftife the intolerable infolence of this 
Popeling by asking him one quedion, and 'tis but this, What proportion 
U there between eternal death, and the eating a morfel ofFleJh in Lent, or 
a Womans fpinning a Yard of Thread on an holy day. If you Papids for- 
bid thefe under pain of damnation (as you do), and that meerly becaufe 
the Church appoints it Co, ye blind Hypocrites, may not divine prohibi- 
tion be allowed to make a proportion between a Sin, and eternal pu- 

O nifhment, 

2.7 8 : ? ' - ' -Sb$fo/X&h3l Scx\m.X 7 UI; 

Not: affera^ riiffimfcaf^asswtfil] as^diat which is^ Hunine, yea Diabolical > in the latter, 
rnusftareras; f which. expretlions I?am.not too fevere, as long as we hold, i 7*/«.. 
Wnfn^.nvnc i/M43..fo be Canonical. The fum.of all is but this \ The fmlnefs of Sin 
quod voIunius, a ' re r s not the nature thereof. Its nature (lands in this, that 'us againjl. 
& quomodo the Law: If it be nit prohibited, 5 cis no Sin > If.it be, 'tis dannablebc 
volumus pro it greater or (mailer. I conclude this whole firft part of my Difcourfe, 
IwXrentes * ts £- x P ucat ory part, with that holy and excellent advice of Ss.Auftin, 
hocgrave,hoc^- 2 * contr. Don Hum. Nm afferamnus ftateras dohfas i &c. Let m. 
leve eft, fed not bring deceitful RjUanccs to weigh in them what we will, and haw* we will. 
affcramus di- according to our own pie a fare, faying, this Pi 'heavy 5 this it r light j. but let uf 
ram d/scr^ f**^ a &* vine ^ dance tut of the holy Scriptures, and in them.let us weigh 
turis fanftis mr Sins, or rather let Uf jndg of them a* they are there Weighed... 
fc in ilia ap- I have faid what Iintended as to the Explication of this great Truth* 
pendamus the denial of Venial Sin, both as to Conation and Negation > I proceed 
peccata vcl t0 t ^ r ecoH d Branch of my Difcourfe about this Point, and that is 

rnino appenfa the Confirmation ot it. 

recognofca- And my firft, and more immediately. Scriptural Argument (hall be 

mus. Coit.Dih this ; 

nat. 1.6. 

2d, Parts ^ffr I# N-o Fault is Venial in it felf, that deferves eternal death :; 

But every Sin deferves eternal death ; 
Therefore no Sin in it felf is Venial. 

The firft Proportion or mx)or is granted by the Papifts, who tell us 
that the nature of Sins Venialityfi&nds In its #0fdeferving eternal death* 
a-ad therefore no Sin is Venial that deferves eternal death. 

The minor or fecond Propofition, viz. that every Sin deferves eternal, 
death, lihall -clearly prove by Scriptures and reafon. 

i. By Scriptures > and I (halt name three. The firft is that which I 
named for my Text, Rom. 6.2$. The wages of Sin is death. The fe- 
cond is, Ezef^ 18.4. The foul that finneth fh all die. The third is that of 
T>eut. 27. 2 6. Curfed be be that continues not in all the words of this Law y 
€tc. To thefe Scriptures Betlarmine anfwers, but very miferably. 

To that of Rom* 6. 23. The wages of Sin is death' \ BeVdrmine an- 
fwers,That when Paul faith, The wages of Sin is death ; 'tis only meant 
ef Mortal Sin, and thus is he to be underftood, The wages of Mortal Sin 
is death. But I anfwer, with as good, reafon,- in all the places of Scrip- 
ture, wherein we are dehorted from Sin, he. may ca ft this jhameful 
glofs upon them, and fay, that we are in them, dehorted not from all 
1 fet. 3. 11. ££, ^ Lat on |y fc om M ar t a [ sin *, as when the Scripture faith, efchew evil i : 

Belltrmine may add this g!ofs, and fay, we are not forbidden to fhun all 
1 The£$, 22. ev -^ ^ ut on ^ kivui ev ii t And fo when Paul faith, abftain from all ap- 
pearance of evil > that is,as Bellarmine expounds it, a b (hi n from all ap- 
Rom. 12. $. pearance of Mortal evil* and Ram. 12.9. aUoor that which is evil \ 
i.e. Mortal evil j yea. when we pray to \>z delivered from evil, that; with! 
Beffirmines comment y is only Mortal evil, not all fin. But further I would 


Serni.VHL Wo «/» mrihil 379 

ask any'Papift, only thcfe two eafie qucflions, i.Wkatiisihcimoanmg ef 
thtfe words, #0*1.6.23. [^^ w^/ <»/ fm is death?] The Papiff will an- 
fwer,bythefe words,theApoftlemcans£that\S/« dcftrves dejth. ~]Lct, Bene- Scmpiterni 
did jujiinian the Jcfuit upon Kom.6.2^ fpeak for all, who.givesat thus, cmciatus pcc- 
by the dtfert of fin \tternal pumfo me nts are hiflitted.i.l demand, What is the catl , merKO 
meaning of this word [mertal] when Bellarmtne thus expounds this Bf ^ e a t *£ ^ 
Text,the wages of [mortal] Sin is death? All the Papifts with Behrmine Rom^. juyi. 
readily anfwer, that the meaning of z mortal Sin, is aSitf that dtfsrves 
death. Now, Reader,be pleas'd to add to the Apoftles Propofition tht 
wages of fin is death, that is, Sin deftrves death, BeHarmines lixpotition, 
the wages of [mortal] Sin is death i That is, of a Sin that dtferves death, 
and Pauls Proportion will be turn'd into a grofs Tautology,znd be made 
to fpeak thus, Sin deferveth death that dtferveth death \ a wretched de- 
pravation of the facred Text, whereby they (hew that rather than they 
will renounce a grofs error,they will make the diyinely-infpired Apoftie, 
to fpeak grofs non-fenfe. Belldes, 'tis evident that in this iixth Chap- 
ter to the Romans, the Apoftledchorts the converted Romans from all 
Sini particularly, v.2. God forbid that we fhould continue in fxn \ and Iww 
Jhallwelive any longer therein. Now will any dare fo wretchedly to in* 
terpret Paul^ as to fay that the Ghriftians are here dehorted only from 
fame Sins, and not from all ? If any would offer fo to expound the 
Apoftle, I would inftantly flop his mouth by two Arguments taken. 
from theContext^wherein the ApoftledifTwadesfrom Sinv.3 : 1. By a . 
reafon taken from being baptized into the death of Chrifts now when wc 
are fo baptized, is not all Sin wafht away and deilroyed } And z. the 
Apottlc ufeth another reafon to difTwade from continuing in Sin, and 
that is, the confideration of their former yielding themfelvesto Sin ^ 
Whence he argues, They ought now as much to ferve Righteouptcfs as 
formerly they had ferved Sin, v.19 > whence 'twill follow, That as they 
had formerly ferved not only greater but fmaller Sins, fo now they 
ought to caft off the latter as well as the former.even all Sin whatfoever, 
Now if Paul by thefe two Arguments dehorts from all Stn^ why fhould 
he not then do fo by this next Argument, viz,, the ijfue of Sin, the wa- 
ges of Sin is death ? 

As to that place of Ezek. 18.4. The foul that finneth,it Jhatl die* 
BeUarmine anfwers, The Prophet only intends that thieat againft Mor- 
tal Sins, grievous and hainous abominations, not again ft JlnaHer Sins 
which he calls Venial. But he abufeth the Scripture, for the Prophet 
there fetting down the (landing rule of Divine Juftice, that none fhould 
die but for his own SinF, makes no exception of lejfer Sins from being 
within the compafs of that Commutation, not faying the Soul that grie- 
voufty fins, but the Soul that/**/, fhall die, Vniverfe didnm eft, 'tis unw 
vcrfally expreft as Parens notes > but to put all cut of doubt, that kffer 
as well as greater fins, are threatned to be punifht with death by the Pro- 
phet, 'tis phinfrom the ^i.verf* of that Chapter, where the Prophet 

Ooa plainly 

280 No Sin Venial ' Serm. VIIL 

plainly declares his meaning to be of Sin in general without any rejfri- 
clion->Caft away from yju (faith he) ALLyour tranfgrefftons ,and make you a 
new hearty for why will ye die ? All Sins therefore which oppofed a 
new hearty are they commanded to call away, and are here clearly dif- 
covered to be deadly. 

To that place of Vent. 27. 16. Curfed be be that confirmeth not all the 
words ■■■[ this Law to do them; Bellarmine ftill gives the old anfwer : By 
the words of this Law f faith hej are not meant the words of the whole 
Law; as if God had threatned a curfe againlt all Sins in general, but 
only of Mortal Sins, fome grojfir Sins of Murder, htcejl, Idolatry^ & c . 
But this is a curjed glofs put upon a Divine curfe \ for the words here 
ufed, the words of this Law, are the fame with thofe of Verfe the Sth. 
where the very fame expreiiion the words of this La»>,intend the words 
of the whole Law \ and evident it is that here all thofe Sins are intended 
which are oppofed to Legal Right eoujnefs, Do this and live i but fuch 
are all Sins in general. But the Apofile whom I ever took for a better 
Expofuor of Scripture than either Bellarmine or the Pope, leaves no place 
for difpute in this matter, who Gal. 3. 10. citing this very place of 
Deuteronomy, denounceth the Curfe,n©t againft thofe that commit fome 
grofs Sins again ft fome part of the Law, but againlt thofe that continue 
not in all things that are written in the book^ of thb Law *, i.e. thofe that 
commit any Sin whatever. 

Thus I have made good by Scripture this Proportion, "viz. Every 
Sin deferves eternal death. I (hall now proceed to prove it by two Rea- 
fms \ the firft whereof is this: 

Every Tranfgreffion of the Law deferves eternal death \ 
Every Sin is a Tranfgreffion of the Law: 
Therefore every Sin deferves eternal death. 

The fecund Proportion, or minor, That every Sin U the tranfgreffion of 
he Law. } is conta'in'd in the exprefs words of Scripture, 1 Job. 3. 4. 
where Sin is call'd the tranfgreffion of the Law, from which every Sin is 
a fwerving, and thence hath its both nature and name alfo j and his 
g: J by the leamedit among the Papifrs, that all Sins, even Venial 
- -:nft the Law \ fo Durand, Gcrfn, Vega, Jzorim, Cijeta;^ with 
others; And Augutins old definition .of Sin, that 'tis dictum, factum 
concupitnm contra legem \ that Sin it that which is either faid, done, or 
difrdagahijl the Law, falls in with them, or rather they with it ; and 
therefore BeUarmines dliYmCxion of fome Sins that are only prater, be- 
fide, and not contra, againji the Law is grofly falfe> for if all Sins are/Ir- 
Iden by, all Sins are contrary to, the Law. 

The mi)or otfirjl Propofition,That every tranfgrefn-: of the Law de- 
ferves eternal death, ismofr certain : But I prove it thu<. 

Whatever deferves the Curfe of the Liw, deferves eternal death '■> but 
every Tranfgreffion of the Law deferves the Curfe of the Lin : There- 
fore every Tranfgreilion of the Law deferves eternal death. 


Serm.VIII. No Sin Venial 281 

The major or firft Propofition cannot be deny'd unkfs we will hold 
that the Curfe of the Law, only contains temporal evils, which is horrid- 
ly falfe, for if that were true, then Chrift hath not delivered us from 
eternal death by delivering us from the Curfe of the Law. 

The minor or fecond Propofition, That every Tranfgrefton of the Law 
deferves the Curfe of the Law, I prove from that clear and full Scripture. 
Gal. 2. 10. Curfed is every one that continues not in all things that are 
written in the Boot^ of the Law to do them. According to the rigor of the 
Law, the leaft breach thereof makes us curfed, and this was the Laws 
unfupportable burden,that when we were bound to do ^things in the 
Law, and were unable to do them, we were yet, curfed for not doing 


2. MyT^c^reafon to prove that every Sin deferves eternal death 

is this i 

That which deferves an infinite punifhment deferves eternal death > 
but every.Sin deferves an infinite punifhment : Therefore every Sin de- 
ferves eternal death. 

The major or firft Propofition is deny'd by none, there being no in- 
finity of punifhment mention'd^r imagin 5 d,but in that cali'd in Scrip- 
ture eternal death. 

The minor or fecond' Propofition, that every Sin deferves an infinite 
punifhment, I thus prove : 

If Chrifthld down an infinite price to redeem lis from every Sin^ then 
every Sin deferves an infinite punifhment 9 but Chrift laid down an 
infinite price to redeem us from every Sin : 

Therefore every Sin deferves an infinite punifhment. 

The confequence is evident, That if Chrift laid down an infinite price . 
fcr every Sin, - then every Sin deferves an infinite punifhment, becaufe 
it had been an unjuft exacting of punifhment upon Chrift, had there 
been required of him the laying down of an infinite price fox a finite 
evil^ that required only a finite punifhment to be inflicted for it. 

The minor or fecond Propofition, viz. That Chrift laid down an in- 
finite price to redeem us from every Sln^ is undeniable by thofe that will < 
neither deny Scriptures nor Catechifms : For that Chrift redcem'd us 
by an [infinite price^ hath not only the confent, but 'tis the ground of 
the comfort of all Chriftians. Infinitas perfont facit infinitatempre- 
tii, an infinite perfon made the price of infinite value. And that Chrift ■ 
laid down this infinite price for all Sins, is with the like confent and 
comfort embraced by all that believe the Scriptures aright, which a- 
bound in Texts that exprefs it, Tfal. 130. ult. He frail redeem IJrael 
fromatl.his iniquities. 1 Joh.1.7.1'^ blood, of jChriji ckanfeth from all Sin. 
Tit. 2. 14. He gave him ft If that he might redeem m from all iniquity. 
Hence Hf. 1 4. 2. 'twas a prayer of Faith, Takj? away all iniquity s and 
1/^ 53.10. ihe Lord hath laid upon him the iniquity of us all \ and J oh. 
i. if* r Ihe Lamb of God that tak^s away the fin of the World > and Mat. 

I. 2 I* 



life Sin >VavU} t 

Sqrm. ViXi, 

%t #&, >$S&1biU ffiwJfy people j rem* their fins \ from every Sin, and every 
Sin ; pe*fe&Jy, 

,%di Arg> 

My fecond Argument to. prove that no Simis venial, is this : 
Whatfoever is contrary to the loving of God with the whole hearty is 
pot Venial but Mortiferous •, 
JBut every Sin is contrary to the loving of God with our whole heart: 
Therefore every Sin is Mortal, .and fo not Venial, 
The firjt Proportion or majar is undeniable>becaufe he that laves not 
God with his whole heart, fins againft the exprefs words of thexom- 
mand, AZ/f.2 2. 37. And the loving. God with all the hearty iscalPd the 
great command, and is prefer'd before the love of our neighbour by Chri[l 
Mat. 2:2. 38, 3p. Since therefore there are many commands of love to 
our neighbour, which cannot be violated but we rnuft needs Sin mor* 
tallyfas the Papift? grant .),'•* will evidently follow,Thata tranfgreilion of 
the command o» loving God with all the heart, muft nee'ds he 4 MartaJ 

Thc-./w-W. Proportion or minor, That every Sin oppofeth the loving 
of God with all the heart, and that whoever lins, loves not God with 
all the heart, is as true as the former. 

Bellirmine therefore dares not here anfvver by .denying this truth ab- 
folutely s but by a lame and lamentable diftinclion, he anfwers her€, 
That to love God with all the heart, may be taken two ways : 

1. To love God fointirely and perfectly as that nothing is prefer*. d 
before Gods love > and this love of God ( faith Bellarmine) is both the 
meaning of the command, and fuch alone alfo which Venial Sins do" 
not oppofe. 

2. To love God fo perfectly as that a. man is (o.whoVy taken up witla 
the love.of God, that no fnful and vicious thought at any time can 
creep or fteal into a perfons heart : But f faith Bellarmine) fuch a love of 
God as/^i/, is not commanded in this life, and this love of God he con- 
feifeth is oppos'd by Venial Sins. For anfwer to this impious diitin&ion 
of Bellarmine, 'tis both moll falfe and frivolous. 

1. As he tells us that 'tis not neceiTary to the love of God with all the 
foul, that all vicious thoughts be hindred from admiflton into a man ; 
for this is clearly oppos'd not only by St. Au\\in of old, but by others, 
Diiiges Deum even Papifts of late. St. Auftin tells us, That to love God with all the 
extotoeorde, t j je g on ^ ^ tQ con f er a llthe life, thoughts and underflanding upon him, from 
ma & ex totd w ^ om we ^ ilve them all, and to fujfer n$ part of the life to give way to be 
mente •, i.e. willing to enjoy any thing elfe, but whatfoever elfe comes into tlye mind to be 
omnes cogi- 

tationes, omncm vitam, & omncm intellccrhm in ilium conferas, a quo habes ca ipfa quit con- 
fers. Quum autem ait toto corde, totS anima, tota menre, nuRam vitac rtoftra? partem reliquit, 
qua? vacare debet, & <juafi locum dare, ut alia re relit fniii fed quicqutd aliud diligendum Tenerk 
in animum, illuc rapiatur quo totius dikclionis. impetus currit. A*g*$+ lib.u ds VqcIl Cbri^ 
cap, 22. 


Non Praelati- 

Non Admifii 

Serm. VI 11.7 WlUfMt ^ 

/<«W is- to be carried thither. Vitior exprefTeth irtrius^ &mmK$*rtFmmTMXtt' 
burn with f ht a love to Gad, tbafnathing Jhottld creep into any -faculty noMtfjcrv 
cftheS>ul, that either diminish love to God, or carries tt a >ty neither J^jgJJ" 
r//& ifa/i-//* excellently thus, onM^.22. IntheVnd.rftmding no'fton monftrati uc 
H /<?£«• A/>/or Erwrs iV/fc? ^// nothing is to be willed contrary t)G)d. in ' pitiil prorfns- 
//»f R^ofc memory nothing is to be remembred whereby we m iy the lefs in ulUm ani- 
thinkofbim. ^*;>/.»thusalfo-, A man mu ft fi love God, ^^^^^™^' 
Mrf, Mtofubjetibhifelftobim, and follow the rule of his Comm and- ^ fuam t%> 
ments in all. things, y for wbatfocver is contrary to bis Law, is contrary to bis ^ DcuTT1 ^i- 
Love. letfionem di- 

minuat aut 

aHo transferat. VLl.'m Mar.i2.ln httt]lcd.u nullam relinquas errori locum: In vofonrate nihil vdiV 
iltt contrarium, in memoria tua nihil reminifcens quo minus dc illo fentias. Arfelm in Mat.22. tit 
dc ratione charitat*is,qu6d homo fie diligat Deum,utvelit fe in omnibus ei fubjiccrc,& rcgulam prx- - 
ceptorum ejus in omnibus fequi, quicquid enim contrariatur prarceptis ejus, trontrariacur chantax.. 
Tbofth 2da. 7da. Q.24. Art.12. 

Alvarez, exprefly oppofeth Bettarmhte in thefe words => To Live God Diligcre De- - 
is- to admit nothing into the heart contrary to God. Theophylatl mod fully j urn eft nihil 
To love God with all the heart is to cleave to him with all the parts and fa- } n corde dk 
cnlties of the Soul \ to give our fe Ives wholly to God, and to fthj {t the nit- . 


tritive, fenfitive, and rational ftculty to his love. Now according to um a d m it- 
thefe Explications of the Love of God, the haft Sits ( which Papiftsterc- Alvxee^ 
oil Venial) are contrary to it \ for in them there's not a pleafing ofLhh.6.AeAu*;- 
God in aH things, not a forfikjng of all things contrary to his Will ; yea in £'^' *' 
thefe Venial Sins there's an admiffan of a contrary and unlawful 'Ildvt °^ AyavrSiy ior- 
the Creature into the. heart, and not a total fubjetling thereof to^iyi^Z- 
God. > x««'™1 0<crl * : 

TO «T/ct T<*>^ 

S«£, £ xaroT#ilHv» a£ 7& 3p**i/xw', x) t^k */?9>!TWK, xj fictfonriKM ftntwfvYapap - tti -, 
*>**•» «& $€*• Theophil, in Mat. 22. 

Butfecondly, in every Venial Sin,^ there's the preferring of fomethlng . 
h'efore--God^ and therefore a manifett tranfgrejftng of the Law cf loving 
God. As to a formal and explicite preferring the Creature before God, 
fo as to account the Creature a more excellent Good than God is, this 
all thofe do not, that Jive in the groiTeft and moft mortal wickednefTcs, 
fas the Papifts acknowledge ibr men may live even in the h'airious Sin 
of Perfecution:, and yet think thereby they ferve and let up God: But. 
as to a virtual and interpretative preferring the Creature before God , 
this men do in the leaft Sinv they carrying themfel ves ft); as if the Crea- 
ture were to be prefer'd before God, they fearing not for the love of" 
the Creature to offend God, and injurioufly to his Jnfrice, to break his 
Commandments. And how may a man be fiid to fhevv by his cirruge, 
more refpeft to the Creature than to God; if not by breakirg the Corn^ 
mands of God and contemning bfc will for the Creature. To (nun the 
dint of this Aniwer,the Papilis are forced to this wretched fotft> which % 


280 No Sin Venial ' Serm.VIIL 

plainly declares his meaning to be of Sin in general without any reflri- 
&ion\Caft away from you (faith he) ALL your tranfgreffions,and make you a 
new hearty for why will ye die ? All Sins therefore which oppofed a 
new hearty are they commanded to call away, and are here clearly dif. 
covered to be deadly. ' , 

To that place of Vent. 27. 26. Citrfed be he that confirmeth not all the 
words of this Law to do them\ Bellarmine ftill gives the old anfwer : Ey 
the words of this Law ( faith hejare not meant the words of the whole 
Law ■■> as if God had threatned a curfe againft all Sins in general, but 
only of Mortal Sins, fome grojfer Sins of Murder, btceft, Idolatry, &c. 
But this is a cur Jed glofs put upon a Divine curfe •, for the words here 
ufed, the words of this Law, are the fame with thofe of Verfe the Stb. 
where the very fame expreilion the words of this L<u»?,intend the words 
of the whole Law *, and evident it is that here all thofe Sins are intended 
which are oppofed to Legal Right eoujnefs, Do this and live i but fuch 
are all Sins in general. But the Apoftle whom I ever took for a better 
Expofitor of Scripture than either Bellarmine or the Pope, leaves no place 
for difpute in this matter, who: Gal. 3. 10. citing this very place of 
Deuteronomy, ;denounceth the Curfe,n©t againft thofe that commit fome 
grofs Sins again ft fome part of the Law, but againft thofe that continue 
not in all things that are written in the boo\ of the Law \ i.e. thofe that 
commit any Sin whatever. 

Thus I have made good by Scripture this Proportion, "viz. Every 
Sin deferves eternal death. I (hall now proceed to prove it by two Rea- 
Jons \ the firft whereof is this: 

Every Tranfgrellion of the Law deferves eternal death \ 
Every Sin is a Tranfgreffion of the Law: 
Therefore every Sin deferves eternal death. ( 
'Thefecond Proportion, or minor, That every Sin U the tranfgreffion of 
theLaw^ is contam'd in the exprefs words of Scripture, 1 Job. 3.4. 
where Sin is calPd the tranfgreffion of the Law, from which every Sin is 
a fwcrving, dnd -thence hath its both nature and name alfo} and 'tis 
granted by the learnedft among the Papifts, that all Sins, even Venial 
ziz^giifift the Law-) fo Vurand, Gerfn, Vega, Azorim, Cajelan, with 
others; And Auguftins old definition of Sin, that 'tis dictum, factum 
ip concupitnm contra legem ;, that Sin is that which v$ either j aid, done y or 

defrd againft the Law, falls in with them, or rather they with it ; and 
therefore Bellarmines dli\ in dtion of fome Sins that are cn\y prtter, be- 
ftie, and not contra, againft the Law is grofly falfe> for if all Sins are/^r- 
bidden by, all Sins are contrary to, the Law. 

The major ox firft Propofition,That every tranfgreffion o£ the Law de- 
ferves eternal death, is moll certain : But I prove it thus. 

Whatever deferves the Curje of the Law, deferves eternal death y buc 
every Tranfgreiiion of the Law deferves the Curfe of the Law : There- 
fore every Tranfgreffion of the Law deferves eternal death. 

" < - The N 

Serm.VIII. No Sin Venial 281 

The mtforot firft Propofition cannot be deny'd unkfs we will hold 
that the Curfe of the Law, only contains temporal evils, which is horrid- 
ly falfei for if that were true, then Chrift hath not delivered us from 
eternal death by delivering us from the Curfe of the Law. 

The minor or fecond Propofition, That every Tranfgrejfion of the Law 
deferves the Curfe of the Law, I prove from that clear and full Scripture. 
Gal. 3.10. Curfed is every one that continues not in all things that are 
written in the Boo\, of the Law to do them. According to the rigor of the 
Law, the leaft breach thereof makes us curfed, and this was the Laws 
unfupportable burden,that when we were bound to do *tf things in the 
Law, and were unable to do them, we were yet, curfed for not doing 


2. My/fcWreafon to prove that every Sin deferves eternal death 

is this i 

That which deferves an infinite punifhment deferves eternal death > 
but every Sin deferves an infinite punifhment : Therefore every Sin de- 
ferves eternal death. 

The major or firft: Propofition is deny'd by none, there being no in- 
finity of punifhment mention'd-pr imagin'd,but in that call'd in Scrip- 
ture eternal death. 

The minor or fecond' Propofition, that every Sin deferves an infinite 
punifliment, I thus prove : 

If Chrift laid down an infinite price to redeem lis from every Sin, then 
every Sin deferves an infinite punifhment; but Chrift laid down an 
infinite price to redeem us from every Sin : 

Therefore every Sin deferves an infinite punifhment. 

The confequenceis evident, That if Chrift laid down an infinite price . 
fcr every Sin, - then every Sin deferves an infinite punifhment, becaufe 
it had been an unjuft exacting of punifhment upon Chrift, had there 
been required of him the laying down of an infinite price Cox a finite 
evil, that required only a finite punifliment to be infliclred for it. 

The minor or fecond Propofition, viz. That Chrift laid down an in- 
finite price to redeem us from every Sin, is undeniable by thofe that will . 
neither deny Scriptures nor Catechifms : For that Chrift redeem'd us 
by aw [infinite price, hath not only the confent, but 'tis the ground of 
the comfort of all Chriftians. Infinitas perfont facit infinitatempre- 
tii, an infinite perfon made the price of infinite value. And that Chrift 
laid down this infinite price Cot all Sins, is with the like confent and 
comfort embraced by all that believe the Scriptures aright, which a- 
bound in Texts that exprefs it, P/H130. w/f. He ftnll redeem Ifrael 
from allhU inlquuies. 1 Joh.1.7. 7&£ Mood ofjChrift ckanfeth from all Sin., 
Tit. 2. 14. He gave himftlf that he might redeem its from all iniquity. 
Hence Hf 1 4. 2. 'twas a prayer of Faith, Takf away all iniquity ', and 
If a. 53. .10. The Lord hath laid upon him the iniquity of us alls and Job, 
1. 1£, 7ty Lamb of God thxt takgs away the fin of the World > and bUt. 

I. 2 f. 

?2* me&fr&Mktt. SentJ.VIXT, 

&:£&• >&&fhill}fiv2.kti people frcm-thejr fins > from every Sin, aad.every 

,%d. Arg> My fecond Argument to. prove that no Sinds venial, is this : 

Whatfoever is contrary to the loving of God with the whole hearty is 
pot Venial but Mortiferous \ 
.But every Sin is contrary to the loving of God with out whale heart: 
Therefore every Sin is Mortal, and fo not Venial. 
The firfl Proportion or may* is undeniablevbecaufe he that laves not 
God with hk whde heart, fins againft the exprefs words of the.com- 
mand, hlat.,22. 37. And the loving God with all the heart, iscalPd the 
great command, and is prefer'd before the love of our neighbour by Cbrifi 
Mat. 2:2. 38, 3 p. Since therefore there are many commands of love to 
our neighbour, which cannot be violated but we rou/t needs Sin raor* 
tallyfas the Papift* grant ^'twill evidently fol!ow,Thata tranfgreilion of 
the command of loving God with all the heart, mutt needs he .a MoitaJ 

The/^WPropofition or minor, That every Sin oppofeth the loving 
of God with all the heart, and that whoever tins, loves not God with 
all the heart, is as true as the former. 

Bellarmine therefore dares not here anfwer by denying this truth ab- 
fulutely \ but by a lame and lamentable didindion, he anfwers here, 
That to love God with all the heart, may be taken two ways : 
Non Prxlati- 1. To love God fo intirely and perfectly as that nothing is prefer^d 
one. before Gods love, and this love of God f faith Bellarmine) is both the 

meaning of the command, and fuch alone alfo which Venial Sins do 
not oppofe. 
Non Admifll- 2 . To love God fo perfectly as that a. man is (owboFy taken up witla 
the love. of God, that no finful and vicious thought at any time can 
creep or fteal into a perfons heart : But flaith Bellarmine) fuch a love of 
God as this, is not commanded in this life, and this love of God he con- 
feiTeth is oppos'd by Venial Sins. For anfwer to this impious diitin&ion 
of Bellarmine, 'tis both molt falfe and frivolous. 

1. As he tells us that 'tis not nccefTary to the love of God with all the 
foul, that all vicious thoughts be hindred from admiffton into a man $ 
for this is clearly oppos'd not only by St.Aujlin of old, but by others, 
Diiiges Deum even Papifts of late. St. Aufiin tells us, That to love God with all the 
extotocorde, t j je g on ^ ^ tQ COfi fe r a lltbe life, thoughts and undemanding upon him, from 
ma & ex totS whom we have them all, and to fnffcr no part of the life to give way to bt 
mente •, i.e. willing to enjoy any thing elfe, but whatfoever elfe comes into tix mind to be 
omnes cogi- . 

tationes, omnem vitam, & omnem intellecrhm in ilium conferas, a quo habes ca ipfa qua? con- 
fers. Quum autem ait toto corde, totd anima, tota menre, nuftam vksc rjoftra? partem reliquir, 
qua? vacare debet, & <juafi locum d*re, ut aJin re relit fruij fed quicquid aliud diligendum Tcnerk 
in animum, illuc rapiatur quo totius dileftiorus impetus curat. A*grf* llb.\ % ds Dtftv. Cbrip* 
cap. 22. 


Sernr. Vlfl." KoSftrVwvdl. ?*T 

Iwed, is to be carried thither. Vsfior exprefTeth ir rfius-* ; &M*&jfofffl i WmwtM' 
bttrnwith p hn a lave to God, that nothing Jkould creep into any faculty tant^Dci v 
of the S ml, that either diminifhethlove to God, or carries it a ty neither jR^^JJjJ* 
dp. Anfelncxcc\\cni\y thus, on Mat, 22. In the V nd'erft inding no fthce JJXa^uV 
*f /<?£«• Uft for Error* in the JFiU nothing U to be willed contrary t>G)d '# nihil prorfns- 
/&f R7.^/c* memory nithing is to be remembred whereby we may the lefs in utlam ani- 
thin\ofbim. Aqxbt* thus alfo •, A man mull p love God, if with all the ^(iculmcm^ 
heart, as tofubjelt himfelf to him, and follow the rule of his Commmd- 7 "o d 7uam tv- 
ments in all. things., for whatfoever H contrary to hi* Law, is contrary to hi* g a p cuni ^i- 
],ove. « leftionem di- 

minuac aut 
aHo transferat. F/77.in Jtajajfi imelleftu nullum relinqwas crrori locum: In votanrate nihil rclis- 
illi contrarium, in memoria tua nihil reminifcens quo minus dc illo fentias. Atfelm in Mat.22. Eft 
de ratione charitatis,quod homo fie diligat Dcum,ut velit fe in omnibus ei fub)icere,& regulam prx-- 
ceptorum ejus in omnibus fequi, <juicquid enim contrariatur prxceptis ejus, contrariacur charicaxi.-; 
Ibom. sJa. id*. ^24. Art. 12. 

Alvarez , exprefly oppofeth Betfar mine in thefe words ^ To love G*d piiigcre Fe- - 
is- to admit nothing into the heart contrary to Gid. Ibeopbylaft moft fully \ urn eft nihil 
To love God with all the heart is to cleave to him with all the parts and fa- j n corde di- 
cnlties of the Soul \ to give Qiir plves wholly to God, and to fob) it the ****!"* dlle< ? ic " 
tritive, pnfitive, and rational ficulty to his love. Now according to um ac j ni i t _ 
thefe Explications of the Love of God 5 the hall ■ Sins ( which Papiftsterc. Alvarey 
oil Venial) are contrary to it h for in them there's not a pleafing o/lab.S. de Aux;- 
God in all things, not a forfafyug of all things contrary to his Will j yea in ** v >G rgt; &hh - 
thefe Venial Sins there's an admifftsn 6f a contrary and unlawful 'J$&vc ^^J^^y 7 ^ 
the Creature into the heart, and not a total fubjetling thereof to ^«a^ 5ao^u- 

God. ■■ ya$ > t»]o *?i-' 

TO cf let WW 

'dyttwn tS, $6k. Theophil. in Mac. 22. 

But,fecondly, in every Venial Sin,< there's the preferring of forne thing . 
before God, and therefore a manifeft tranfgreftng of the Law of 'loving 
God. Astoa/or^u/ and explicite preferring the Creature before God, 
fo as to account the Creature a more excellent Good than God is, this , 
all thofe do not, thatlivein the groiTeft and moft mortal wicked neffes,. 
fas the Papifts acknowledge ibr men may live even in the h'airious Sin 
of Perfection- and yet think thereby they ferve and fet up God^ But, 
as tea virtttalznd interpretative preferring the Creature before God , 
this men do in theleaft Sinv they carrying them fclvesfo,« as if the Crea- 
ture were to be prefer 'd before God, they fearing not for the love of.: 
the Creature to offend God, and injurioufty to his Juftice, to break his 
Commandments. And how may a man be fa-id to fhew by his cjrrugs, 
more refped to the Creature than to God; if not by breaking the Chin* 
mands • of God and contemning hit will for the Creature. To fnun the: 
dint of this Anfwer, the Papiits are forced to this wretched ibift 3 which ^ 

284 No Sm Venial. Serai. VIIL 

is to anfweri That he who fins Venially, prefers not]the Creature before 
- God, becaufe he knows that Venial Sins will not diiTolve that knot 
of love and friendfhip between God and him. But what a pittiful ex- 
cufeis this for Venial Sin, 'fin.ce (as Raronius well obferves, fag. ic6. de 
fee. ven.) They who commit Venial Sins, thinking thefe Sins will not 
diiTolve the favour of (iod, either think fuch Sins arc fo light and 
flight that they dejerve not the diiTolution of Gods favour-, or they 
think though they do defer ve that diflblution, yet that God will deal 
fo gracioufly with them, as that for fuch Sins, he will not exclude them 
from his favour: If they think that they do not deferve the difTolutioa 
of Gods favour, they grofly err, yea grievoufly fin againft God, by judg- 
ing their Sins to be light and little, and by a bold fixing of limits to 
Gods Juftice 5 as if God could not juftly punifh their Sins with that 
penalty which he tells us they deferve : But if they think that their Sins 
do deferve the difTolving of Gods favour, and that it is meerly from 
the Grace of God that they who commit them, are not excluded from 
it i the*» it follows,That they for the love of the Creature offending God 
by thefe Sins, prefer the Creature before God and his favour i for who- 
mever for any Creature, dares do that which may juftly exclude him 
from Gods favour, doth prefer the Creature before the favour of God : 
Nor doth their knowledg that thefe Sins do not exclude them from the 
favour of God, when' yet they will commit them, extenuate or excufe 
their contempt of Gods favour, of which they are guilty, but con- 
trarily it aggravates that contempt jflnce though they know 'tis by Gods 
Grace and favour that their fmaller Sins do not exclude them from his 
Love and Mercy, yet they abufe the Clemency and Goodnefs of God 
to a licentioufnefs in Sin, which is almoft the higheft contempt of Di- 
vine favour.jmaginable. 
Arg. 3, My- third Argument to prove, That no Sin is Venial, or deferving to 

be pardon'd, fhali be drawn from the nature of far don \ whence I thus 

An opinion that overthrows the nature ol Gods fardoning of Sin is 
impious and erroneous > But this opinion that fome Sins are Venial and 
deferve to be pardoned, doth thus overthrow the nature of Gods fardon- 
ing of Sin: 

Therefore this opinion is impious and erroneous. 
The major otfirfi Propofition is evident. 

The minor or fecond Propofition I prove thus : If pardoning of Sin 
defigns an"a& of free Grace and favour, in pardoning, \vhich God ac- 
cording to (iri& juftice^might not have done ; and if the Dodrine of Sins 
VeniAity and deferving to be pardoned,makes pardoning^an attofjufijee 
fo that God cannot but in juftice do ir^ then the opinion of Sins Veni- 
ality overthrows the DocSrine of Divine pardon : 

But the pardoning of Sin defigns aira-ft of free Grace and favour 
which God rnigkt not, have done urilefs he had-pteafd; and the Doftfine ' 


Serm.VIir. X* &* Venial. 285 

of Sins Veniality makes the pardoning of Sin an a<ft of Juftice which 
God ctftftfo* but do •, therefore the Popifh Do&rine of Venial Sin,o\cx~ 
throws the Do&rine of Divine pardon. 

The Major or firfi Propoiltion is evident, and will be granted by all. 

The Minor oxfecond I prove thus in both its parts. As to its firft 
part, 'tis moft manifeft that pardon defigns an zdi of free Grace and fa- 
vour s 'tis needlefs to multiply Scriptures ( which to do were moft eafie) 
in fo clear a point \ Epbef. 1. 7. Forgivenefs of fin according to b'vs grace. Mif er j cor d!j 
TfaL 5 1 . 1 . According to thy mercy blot out my tranfgrefliotu . 1 Tim. 1 . 1 3 . donatus fum- 
I obtained mercy, (faith pardoned Paul. ) B ^ a * 

For the fecond part of the Minor, that the Doctrine of the Papifts a- 
bout the Veniality of Sin, makes the pardoning of Sin an ad of jufiice, 
which God cannot but do if he will do juftly, is no flander call upon 
the Papifts in this Point. J pray let them be judg'd in this cafe, by their # 
own confeilions. The Council ofMentz profelTeth fas we heard) That ^Tom. 9. 
they cannot under ftand bow Godjhould be ju[i,ifbepunijh any for Venial Sins 
with eternal punishment. Sonnius, thePapiftl mean, tells us that Venial 
Sin is Venia dignum, Venial Sin is worthy of pardon. And Bellarmine, 
That they bold with a general confent, that Venial Sins m*ke not a man - . - « 
guilty of eternal death \ and he afTerts with intolerable blafphemy, That pun j re p ecc j. 
Godjhouldbeunjuflifhepunifht Venial Sins eternally ; juftice requiring a ta venialia 
forbearance to punijh that offence which deferves not punijhment. From all poena sterna: 
which it follows, that Divine pardon is fo far from being an a6t of free Lib.i.di Ami]]: 
Grace in the account of a Papift,that when he recites hlsPater Nofterjt his r ' c * ^ 
Devotions agree with his Do&rines, he may rather fay, Lord pay us, 
than forgive us our debts. 

My fourth Argument (hall be taken from Cbrifl bis rejetfing of this 4, ^rgi 
Fharifaical depravation of the Law of God, that fome commands of the 
Law, and fome Sins againft thofe commands are fofmall and flight that 
God will not require a perfect fulfilling of the Law,as to leffer and fmal- 
ler commands, nor the neceifary avoiding offuch Sins as are againft 
thofe fmaller commands. The words ofChriftare thefe, Mat. 5. 18. 
Till Heaven and Earth pafs away, one jot or one tittle fhall in no wife pa/} 
from the Law, till all be fulfiWd. The Lord Chn(i by thefe words, where- 
in he fhcws 'tis impoilible that any thing in the Law, though accounted 
never fo finally fliould pafs from it, but all rauft be fulfilPd with a per- 
fect Satisfaction, oppofeth the Tharijeer, who taking it for granted,that 
there was neceffarily required to righteoufnefs and life, a perfefi fulfil- 
ling of the Law, and yet finding that it was impofftble to keep the minu* 
tifsimalegis, as to abftain from all finful inward motions in the mind 
and heart, from every idle word, &c, to have fuch a perfect conformi- 
ty to the Law,that there mould be no lulling contrary to it, coyned this 
di(tinftion,that fome of the commands of the Law were/W/,amd fome 
great $ and though none could in thofe little commands againft finful 
motions of the heart, perfectly fatisfie the Law, yet if he kept the great 

P p Command- 

2§S No Sin Vernal Serm. VIII; 

Commandments of the Law, concerning outward a&rand works of the 
Law,he mould be jutt before God',fJnce thofe Commands of fifth things 
were but little Commands, and therefore would not condemn arnan 
for tranfgreihng of them. provided that he perform'd the external works 
commanded in thofe great Commands, Now Chrifl vehemently denies 
Ghriftus for- that there are any commands of the havp fo fm all and minute, as that God' 
trmme negat j^^/^. no t m uch regard them, or of which in the flablifhing the righteoxfnefs- 
mandata in °f ^ e ^ an> b ( f 0re God,a man fhould give no account for the breaking of them, 
lege ita mi- but God would account him righteous whether he obflrved them or no. And 
nuta, qua?. therefore to (hew the necefiity of fulfilling the Law in the moft perfech 
Deus non and exa& manner, Chrill aiTures, there fhould not pafs from the Law 
™nr!!m S^fm one jot or tittle thereof that mould not be fulfiPcUnot a jot, the leafi letter. 
quamvis non not a tittle, the leaft point, but was Jo highly accounted or by God,tnat 
impleantur, before they fhould pafs away without being fulnTd, Heaven and Earth 
non fit haben- fyouldpafs away. So that there was required to the fulfilling of the Law, 
ftataenda ** ^ at a11 tmn & s in it, even to the leaft apex or tittle,(hou\d be fulfill'd. To 
juftitia legis which Dodlrine of Chrifl: agrees that otMofes and Faul,Gal.^.io. who 
coram Deo: denounced a Curfe not only againft thofe who continued not in thtgreat 
lit itaq-, per- things, but in all things written in the Law: And of James 2.10. who faith, 
feaiiTimam jfhofoeverfhaH keep the whole Law* %&d yet offend in one, (hall be guilty cf 
onem, necef- a ^ » ar >d this one is here to be taken for any one. As Lu\. 1 5. 2. If he 
&riam. efte have an hundred (beep and lofe one, that is, any one. §0 Mat, 10.42. WbQ- 
, Chriflusoften- fever Jh all give a cup of cold water to one, that is, to any one of the lead 
da -!? C U r Um Believers, &c. So that unum, ane, is equivalent to quodlibet, ashere,<?tff 
r* 1 apicem" ) ot or tltt ^ e °f inc Law, that tetany one jot or tittle of the Lawjbatinot 
cadere pro- pafs away, but mufi befulfiVd, 
mmtiat, quod 

non fit neceffe impleri. chmnit. r.$i. Harm. ^.337. mihi. Cujus praeftantiffima Commentaria in 
hunc locum opto itf infpiciant leftores. & perlegant. 

5. Arg. My fifth Argument is taken from that macula, or (tain, or filth, that 

every Sin, even the leafi and lightefl, leaves behind it. This ftain left 
Negari non behind the commiffion of every Sin, is by feveral confidered feveral 
poteft homi- ways : Either as zn'habitual averfion from God > or as an habitual difcon- 
nem vere ma- fortuity to the Law of God > or as the impairing of inherent Grace, (the 
nere pollutum ^ eaut y f tne Soul), and the weakning of its a£ts '•> or as a greater habi- 
Venuh^quod tuc ^ c anG * inclination to Sin j In regard of fome, or all of thefe left up- 
femel com- on the Soul"" after the commiffion of any Sin, 'tis faid, that Sin defiles 
mifit,donec ab and pollute s, Mat. 15. 11,18. Rev. 22.11. and that every Sin is a fpot, 
eo ^uitificeturj -fcphef. 5. 27. and filthinefs, 2 Cor. 7; 1. Jam. 1. 12. Ezf^.24.13. Ezek- 
peccato 1 veni- 3 6i2 5* anc * when 1 a man repents of Sin, and hath Sin pardoned to 
ali juftificatur, him, he is faid to be wafht and cleanfed, 1 Cor. 6. 11. 2 Cor.j.i. Ezef{. 
vere dicitur 36.25-, 33. And becaufe we are faid to be cleanfed, 1 Job. 1.7. from all 
ab eo emun- sin, therefore *tf Sins, even fuchas Papifts call Venial, leave a fpot and 
U\a 2d*^ ^ am U V 0U r ^ e ^ nner i cven as Vafquez the Jefuit confefTeth. Now fince 
P//P.139. c.4. there's this ftain and defilement befals us after every Sin, there follows 


Serm.VIIL No Sin Venial 287 

an exclusion for all Sin, from the Kingdom of Heaven^ into which no unclean 

thing jhall enter, Rev. 21.27. and that Exclutlon Bellarmine tells us, is Lib.i.deaarif. 

proper ro Mortal Sins', and indeed that which excludes from Heaven, Grat. cap.$; 

mud needs deferve eternal death, and fo be Mortal, And that this Ex- 

elufion is not to all, perpetual, 'tis not froirr the nature of Sin, nor from 

the cleanfing virtue of any Purgatory ~fire y but meerly of God in Chritt 

pardoning and purifying. 

My fixth Argument is taken from the Power of God, judly to forbid 6. Arg. 
the lead Sin under the pain of an eternal penalty. Now if God can judly 
prohibit the lead Sins, under an eternal penalty, then may he judly punifh 
thofe Sins prohibited, with that eternal penalty. And that God may pro- 
hibit the lead Sinunder an eternal penalty, is evident, not only becaufe 
the Will of God forbidding any Sin under an eternal penalty, is a fuf* 
ficent reafon of that penalty, and makes the punifhment proportionable 
to the demerit of the Sim but becaufe God hath aUuaVy prohibited un- 
der pain of eternal punilhment, things in themfelves lawful and indif- 
ferent, as abdinence from feveral kinds of Meats, Blood, &c. and 
therefore furely he may forbid all Sin under that penalty: Yea God in 
the Covenant of J^rj^jmade with ^*£r>»,a£tually prohibited all Sin under 
the penalty of eternal death : Which is evident, becaufe if God promised 
eternal life to Adam, upon condition of perfeti Obedience, certainly the 
commiilion of the leafl Sin would have made Adam liable to eternal 
death; for he that performs not the condition prefcrib'd in the Cove- 
nant, cannot obtain the reward, but contrarily deferves the punifh- 
ment appointed againd thofe who violate the Covenant •, But if Adam 
had committed the lead Sin, he had not performed the condition pre- 
fcrib'd in the Covenant, which was perfect O-bedience^ therefore he had 
deferved the penahy appointed againd the violators of the Covenant. 
And if the Covenant of W r orks bound not Adam to avoid every Sin for 
the efcaping of eternal death, then it bound him (as the Covenant of 
Grace binds us) to repent of Sin for the efcaping of eternaJ death, there 
being no remiflien of any Sin, or avoiding of eternal punifhment for it 
without repentance : But under the Covenant of Works there was no 
Obligation to repentance for Sin ; for if there had been any Obligation 
to repentance for Sin, there mud have been a pronaife of pardon upon 
repentance ", but that's falie, becaufe the promife of pardon belongs only 
to the Covenant of Grace , pardon being only bedow'd through 

Seventhly, I argue from the Typical remifion of Sins in the Old Tefla- 7. Arg. 

ment •, for they were then commanded to offer Sacrifices, not only tor 

greater and more enormous offences, but for their lejfer Sins, as thofe of 

"infirmity and ignorance, which the Papifts call and account Venial. As is 

evident from Levit. 4. 2, 12, 13, &c. and Lev. 5. 17. Now thofe Sacri- 

Pp 2 fices 

*S8 No Sin Venial Serm.VIlL 

Synopf. pur. fices refpedTed that only Sacrifice of Cbrift, by which at our Sins are ex- 
TheoI.de pec. pfated, as Chrift was made a curfefor us that he might deliver us from the 
**$?** curfe, Gal. 3. 13; And from this f faith the learned WaUus), Invite 
demonftratur , 'tis invincibly demonftrated, That every Sin of it fdf [$ , 


8. Arg. Eightly, I argue from the infinity o/m/thatis in every Sin, to its. 

dtffert of an infinite punifhment. That every Sin is an infinite evil 3 is mod 
certain ^ I mean not that 'tis infinite intenfive, as to it felf or bulk, fas I 
may fay) for as the Sinner is but finite, fo Sin is a privation but of a 
finite reUitude; and if every Sin were infinite iR its intenftvenefs, all Sins 
would be equal. But yet two ways Sin is infinite: 1. Objective, becaufe 
committed againft an infinite Majefty. 2. Extenfive, and in refped of 
its duration, becaufe its flain and defilement teftfor ever, in regard of the 
Sinner, who cannot of himfelf repent. In like manner there's an infinite 
punifhment due to Sin, CI mean not a punifhment infinite tntenfwhs for a 
finite Creature cannot be capable of an infinite torture > but yet an in- 
finite punifhment is due to Sinjtwo ways.as Sin was faid to be two ways 
infinite : 1. A punifhment is due to Sin, infinite Objeclive, by the Sin- 
ners being deprived of that infinite good, againft whom he hath here 
offended, and whom he hath here neglected and defpifed. 2. A pu- 
ni(hment infinite extenfive, in refpedfc of its duration for ever, becaufe the 
ftain contracted from Sin commited in this life, endures for ever i and 
therefore the wicked who continue for ever/^i,filthy and unclean,con- 
tinue for ever pet Confortio indigni, unworthy of ever having Communi- 
on with God. §£ui nunquam definit effe mains, nunquam definit effe mifer fe. 
he that never ceaieth to be evil, never ceafeth to be miferable. The molt 
Venial fault therefore,being an infinite fault, deferves an infinite punifh- 
ment. That 'tis an infinite fault, 'tis plain, becaufe 'tis againft the infi* 
nite Majefty of the Law-giver, and becaufe its flain of it felf, and withr 
out the mercy of God 3 endures for ever. 

pi Arg. Ninthly, That all Sins, even fuch as Papifls czMVenial Sins, deferve 

an eternal puHfhment is evident, becaufe the leaji Sins of Reprobates, 
idle wurJjjball he punift with eternal punifhment. That thofe leaf! Sins 
fhall'.be punifht eternally js plain from Ato.i 2.3 6,37. Every idle word that- 
menfhalifpe, L they {ball give account thereof in the day of judgment ; for 
by thy words'ibou Jhalt be)ufiifiea.,and by thy words thoufhalt be condemned. 
This condemnation here mentioned by Chrift, plainly imports an' eternal 
■punifhment y for in the day of Judgment there will be no condemnation 
to a temporal punifhment. And that therefore the leaft Sins deferve eter- 
nal punifhment is evident, becaufe other wife the punifhment which fhall 
be inflicted for thefe $ins,would not be jufl, and proportionable to theijr 

i . " Nor can the fapifts fluun the force of this Argument, by faying. That 


Serra.VIII. No sin Vernal. 289 

'tis meerly by accident that Venial Sins arc punifht with eternal death, not 
in regard of tkemfelves,but becaufe of the condition of the fub)eU of thefe 
Venial Sins \ which Sins by accident in Reprobates cannot be repented 
of, becaufe they are joined with Mortal Sins that exclude Grace necef- 
iary to repentance : This pittiful fhift (I fay J will not at all help the Pa- 
piftss for thefe fmaller Sins ( which they call Venial) are of and by them- 
fe Ives the caufeof condemnation to an eternal punifhment, as is evident 
from this place, Mat. 12. 36, 37. where Chriji proves that an account 
lTiall be given of every idle word, becaufe by our words we Jhall be con- 
demned •<> by which exprellion he manifeftly fhews,that thefe idle words 
of which he fpake,though Papifts count them Venial^ie, yet of tbemfelves 
a Efficient caufe of condemnation to eternal punifhment ; and befides, if it 
bQuvjttji (zsBeUarminc blafphemoufly fpeaks,) to punifb Venial Sins with 
eternal death, becaufe they deferve it not j and if a Venial Sin by its con- 
junction with a Mortal Sin in a Reprobate, is not made greater or de- 
serving of a greater punifhment, but retains the fame nature that it had 
befbre,it will then unavoidably follow,(if of it felf and in its own nature 
k defrves not eternal punifhment,that as 'tis in a reprobate joined with 
a Mortal SinXit cannot deferve eternal punifhment,and by confequence,it 
is not punifht with an eternal punifhment •, for if it were, God mould pu- 
ni(h Sins beyond their defert. Nor can the Papifts come off (as Baronim 
well obferves) by faying, Though a Venial Sin by a conjunction with 
Mortal Sin,is not made more grievous and hainous, yet it is more durable 
by that conjun&ion > as having thereby an eternal duration of that {tain 
which follows it, becaufe without repentance, which by a Mortal Sin 
is hundred, there's no taking away of that (lain. This fubterfuge (I 
fay ) is very infufficient ; for the faults in Reprobates, which Papifts call 
Venial, either in tbemfelves do, crdowfl* deferve eternal death •> if they 
do not deferve eternal death, then they arepunifhed beyond their deferr, 
( which is blafphemy to fayj, If they do deferve eternal death, then that 
defert of eternal death is founded in the hainoufnefs of the faults tbem- 
felves i and eternal death is inflicted, not alone for the duration of the 
jtain of thofe Sins, but for the demerit of the offences tbemfelves ', to 
which the Scripture exprefly agrees,which teftiftes, that eternal punifh- 
ment in the day of Judgment, (hall be inflicted for thofe things done in 
the body. 2 Cor. f.io. (0^^.25.42,43. And hence *twas that Scotiis^ 
Biel, Vega, and Medina, becaufe they favv that if Venial Sins were pu- 
nifht eternally, they mould be Co punifht becaufe of what they were in 
tbemfelves, and : '« their own nature, and by the demerit of the offence, 
labour to put ©fl all, by afferting, that the punifhment wherewith the 
Damned in ■}!»!! art punifht for Venial Sins , isnot^rW, but temporal, Scot.mAXent; 
and thai itfha:' ajJength have an end, though their punifhment inflicted diftinft. 21, 
on them for Mortal Sins fhall laft for ever : But others of their own Fra- <*»• *• 
ternity, condemn this juftly. for an abfurd opinion, particularly their 


2^0 No Sin Vernal Serm. VIIL 

Si vera fit great Vafqucz the Jefuit, thus confuting it ; If (faith he) the opinion of 
lententia Scotus be true, viz. Jhatthe Venial Sins of Reprobates JhaJl not be punijht 

pofie noTora- in W**™^ > lt *>MM°*>-> That rve may pray for thofe in Hell, that they 
re pro iis qui ma V be freed from the punishment due to their. Venial Sins, if that punijh- 
fu-nt in infer- me*nt after tbey have fuffered long enough, be by God to be takgn off, 
no, ut citius 

folvantur a peena . debita pro his peccatis^ £quidem ilia tandem, poftquam fatis paflum fit, a Deo 
. dimittenda eft. P*gfo in la. 2d*. Dify. 141. c.2. 

10. Arg % Laftly, I argue from the ridiculous abjttrdity of the Doctrine o^Veni- 

ality of Sin, to the evmneoufnefs of it. The way,fay the Papijis, how Sins 

Venial come to be expiated and removed, is either in this life, or in the 

next; In this life by,) printing with holy Water, CojifeQion to a Priefl. jbeat- 

ingthe Breajl, Whipping* fay'wg the Lords-Prayer, Crojfmg, eating no Flefb, 

Confiteor, giving to the Church, &c. In the next life Venial Sins are only expiated 

to, con- by the molt torturing flames of Purgatory, greater than any tortures 

Conteror,oro; nere * n this life, yea as tormenting as Hell-rire, fetting afide its duration 

Signor, edo, fas the Papifts fayj and oft to be endured many hundreds of years. I 

dono,per hxc demand then, If in this life a Venial Sin may be expiated with a toy, as 

Veniaha po- fp r j n k]j n g with holy Water, and Cr oiling, or the doing that which oft 

is, and always mould be done with cheerful nefs,- as giving Alms, and 

yet in the next world it requires fo many years of torturing flames to 

expiate it \ what is the reajon of this difference of the ways of expiating 

Venial Sin, that here it may be done with a fport, and there it requires 

fuch long and inexprejfible tortures in hre a thoufand times hotter than 

any here in this world, and as grievous as the torments of Hell ? To 

this queftion the Papifls anfwer, The Sinner is in the fault, who did 

At ego rur- not by fo light and eafie a way, expiate his Sin while here he livedo here 

fus qua?ro •, he neglected his duty, and therefore there he (marts for it. But then I 

iftud pecca- demand again, was that neglect of doing his duty in this world a Mortal 

turn fitne g^ Qr was - f a y enia i $j n > jf a Mortal or damnable Sin, it mould have 

Veniale'? Si carry 'd the offender to Hells if a Venial Si a,, the difficulty again returns, 

Mortale, in Why may it not be expiated as ealily as other Venial Sins are ? 


non venit-, fi Veniale, cur non eodem jure cenfetur quo reliqua Venialia. 1 Sadtel de vera peccat. 

remif. p. mihi 60$. 

Non refert an Having now produced what I judg'd fufficient for Confirmation of this 
uno quis ex- -Yruth againfi: the Veniality of Sin, I could add many Allegations out of 
caw t beati- me Fathers, which abundantly teftitic their confent with Proteftants,in 
tudine, an a this point. As our of Jerome who hath thefe words in quintum at Galat, 
pluribus, cum It matters not whether a man be excluded from hleffedmfs by one Sin, or by 
omnia firnili- more fi nce a U a H}^ exclude. Out of Nazianzen, Every Sin is the death of 
Hhmf'w Tat f ^ e S° 1{ 1* Out of Auqufiine efpecially, befides what I have formerly men- 

Gxlit. Hct(rA dy.of\itL SAvafjot $ri 4>tot»k* Nazianz. in Orat. Funeb. in Mort. patris. Peccata 
parva fi contra nos collefta iWrint, ita nos oopriment,ficut unum aliquod grande peccatum. Quid 
intereft ad naufragium, utrumuno grandi flu&u navis obruatur, an paulatim fubrepens aqua, na* 
cm fubmergat. ^.Ep.108. tioned 

SermVIII. AV Sin Venial 291 

tioned in this Difcourfe, who Epifi. 108. faith, 0//r /////? S}ns i if ga- 
thered together againjl us, will preftus down as much as one great Sin. What 
difference is there bet w ten a Sbipwrack^caufed by one great Wave, and by 
the Water that finks the Ship, which comes into it by little and little. The 
fame Father, trail. 12. in Job. fpeaks thus, Little Sins neglecled, deftroy Minuta pecca- 
as well of great ones. But to avoid needlefs prolixity, I (hall but very ta " nc ghg a »- 
briefly difpatch this whole Difcourfe, with but naming the Heads of Traflf, i2.i*-- 
thofe many Inferences from it, which have taken- me up much time elfe- Job, 
where. And thefe Inferences might be, 

1. Speculative, and Controverfal. 

2. Practical. 3 J. General,. 

~ m , r Application,- 

Firft, For Controverfal Inferences, " 

I. Vi every Sin, even Venial, be damnable, as breaking the Law (as I# 
hath been proved; and none can live without them (as Papilts confefs) 

'tis clear then, that now none can in this life perfectly "keep the Law, 

Secondly, If no Sins be Venial^ but all mortiferous and damnable, and 2. 

make us guilty of Eternal Death, then down falls merit ex condigno, 

Merit by the worthinefs of 3ny works 5 tor to be guilty of death, and to 

dejerve eternal Life, cannot ftand together. 

Thirdly, Furgatoryis but a Fable, if no Sins be Venial s Why fhould ^ 

that Fire burn^ if it be not purgative } or rather, how can it burn, if it 

have no Fewel> 

II. The Pradtical Inferences, which are many, I (hall but name. 
Firft, If every Sin be damnable and mortiferous *, then Sin k of a 

very hainous Nature. There's more malignity in an idle Word, and 
Injuftice againft God in a vain thought, than that all the World can ex- 
piate, more weight in it, than all the ftrength of Angels are able to 

Secondly, If the haft Sins are mortiferous, What then are the greateft? 2 ^ 
If a Grain preffeth tc/Hell > If an Atom can weigh down like a Moun- 
tain \ What then can a Mountain do > If whifpering Sins fpeak fo loudv 
What then do crying ones , Bloody Oaths, Adultery, Murder, Oppref- 
fion ? 

Thirdly, If every fingle Sin be damnable, What then are all our Sins ? g 
Millions of Sins, Sins of all our Ages, Conditions, Places that ever we 
lived in, Relations } If all were fas Saint Auftin fpeaks) Contra nos Col- 
letla^ gathered into cne heap againit us, what an heaven-reaching moim- - 
tain would they make ? 

Fourthly, If every Sin be damnable and mortiferous, God is to be )u- 4^. 
ftjfitd in the greatefi temporal feverities which he inflicts upon us. As God 
never punimeth fo feverely here, but he can pmijh morei Co he never here 
punilheth fo feverely, but we deferoe mor and greater feverities. 
Pains, Flames, Sword, PefUlences, thofe tonftirt infolefcentU generis hi - 



3?2 No Sin rental. , Serm.VIII; 

mawfhote mowings down of fo many Millions,are all fhort of damnation 
deferved by Sin, God is to be juftified in fending fuch Judgments, as 
the Fire of London, and the Tempeft lately in Vtrecht. 

5« Fifthly, They who inftigate others to Sin are damnable and mortiferous 

Enemies to Souls. They draw to an Eternal Punishment. Soul-Mur- 
der is the greateft, and Soul-Murderers moft referable the Devil in 
carriage^ and (hall in condemnation. How deeply dyed are thofe Sins 
and Sinners that are dipt in the Blood of Souls ! 

6* Sixthly, 'lis no Cowardife to fear Sin. Of all fear, that of Sin is mod 

juftifiable. D Tis not magnanimity but madnefa not valour, but fool-har- 
dinefs, to be bold to Sin. Surely, the boldnefs of Sinners, fince Sin de- 
fer ves Eternal Death, is not from want of danger^ but difceming. 

7* Seventhly, How excufable are Minivers and all Chriftian Monitors 

that warn againfl Sin. They bid you take heed of damnation. To 
warnsgainft which with thegreateft,is the mercifuUeft feverity. 

&• Eighthly, How madly finful U it to be merry in Sin ! to make a mock, of 

it ! What's this but to J 'port with Poyfon, and to recreate our felves with 
damnation? If here men are counted to play before us, when they are 
finning, 'twill be bittermfl in the end. There's no Folly fo great as to be 
pleafed with the Sport that Fools make us, nor are any Fools like thofe 
that dance to damnation. 

g t Ninthly, V nconceiv ably great U the patience of God toward Sinners, efpe- 

ch\\y great ones: Gods patience difcovers it felf eminently, in that he 
fpares damnable Sins, though he pes them, hates them infinitely more 
than we can do, is able to punifh them every moment, is infinitely the 
Sinners Superior, yea feeks to prevent their punifhment by warning, 
intreaties, threats, counfels •, yea, puts forth daily A els of mercy and 
bounty towards thofe who (In damnably > yea, he waits, and is long- 
furTering oftfeores, and hundreds of years, though this waiting fhews 
(not that he will always fpare,but) that we mould now repent. 
jo. Tenthly, 9 fis our Intereft to be holy betimes \ 'tis good, that as 

much as may be of that which is fo damnable , mould be prevented. 
Shouldft thou be converted in old age, 'twill be thy extream forrow that 
it was fo late, though thy happinefs it was at all. Early repentance maizes 
an eafu Death bed, and makes joyful the lad Stage of our journey unto 


Eternal Joyes. 
i.Parvitas Eleventhly, No fmahxfi of fin fhonld occafim boldnefl to commit it, 

materia ag~ i. In fome Cafes, the fnalnejl of the inducement to Sin, the flightnefs 
gravat. of the matter of thy Sin, aggravates the offence. To deny a Friend a 

%l?? v *: n ' Cup of Water, is a greater unkindnefs than to deny him a thoufand 
tur. pounds ; What, wilt thou nana with (jod for a trifle jmci damn thy Soul 

g. Parvaviatn for &toy? wilt thou prefer &peny before God and Glory? 2. Small 
mumum ad 'sins are more diffeultlyfiwnned s A fetal! bone of a Fifh eafiiy gets in* 
ma !!r a " o to i\\<t Throaf, and 'tis hard to avoid it ; And 3. SmaU Sins difpefe to 
niulta ftint ut£ reater "'> trie Wimbic mskes way ior the Auger. 4. bvts m<sny i though 
umm grandc finally 

Serm.VIir. Xt.Sin VenUl *& 

fmall, are a? one great ones An heap of Sands preffeth to death as well 
as a Sow of Lead h A Ship may fink by JFuter corning in at a Lea\, drop 
by drop, as well as when overwhelmed with a great Wave. As Auftin 


Twelfehly, I note, The great reafon why Chrili 'Should be dear to us. f 2, 

Thou canft not he without him, no not for thy little, thyleafi Sins, and 
thofe of dayly incurfion. Oh ! that* this Doctrine might make you and me 
prize Chrift morels long as we live. Becaufe the Eeit cannot live without 
JhtaBSins, neither can they live without a great Saviour jnone of us can 
live without thefe fmaller Sins, fas the very Papifts grantj but oh that 
we may take a wifercourfe to get pardon of them, than they do, by our 
looking upon Godspity through Chrifts Blood, as out only Turgatory. 
The I haripes (of old; faw that we could not live without breaking 
the Law in fmaller things'fas we have (hewn before) but let us more fhi- 
dy than they did, Gods defign in giving a Law which fain-Man is not 
able to keep. The Apoftle tells us Gods defign herein ', He aimed at 
Chrt^ Rom. 10. 4. who was intended by God as his end in giving 
fuch a Law which fain-Man could not keep; namely, that Sinners might 
feek after his Righteoufnefs, by feeing their own inability to keep it. 
How much do we want Chrift at every turn, for our fmalleft inadverten- 
cies, impertinent, wandring thoughts, in the adjacent defedfo and 
defilements of our holy things! Lord, I want thy Blood, as often as I 
fetch my breath ! 

Laftly, I infer the happinefl of Believer s under the Covenant of Grace, tylt, 
Exrigore Legit, the lead: Sins damn, and none of us but every day and in 
every duty, commit them j but here's the Comfort, we are delivered 
through Chrift, from that damnation which we deferve for all thofe 
unavoidable<lefe&s and evils, that attend the Beft in their heft obferving 
the Law of God ; we being loofed under the Covenant of Grace, from 
that rigid exjftion of the Law, which fuffers no Sin to go without Eter- 
nal punifiimerAt, and delivered by Chrift from the -necejfity ofaperfittand 
'exaHfulftUin^the Law ofGod^ under pain of damnation* 'Tis true, the 
Law ftill commands, even Believers, perfect obedience, and 'tis a Sin in 
Believers under the Covenant of Grace, that they do not obey the Law 
of God to the utmoft perfection thereof; but here's our happinlfs,that 
Chrift hath obtained, that the imperfection of our Obedience {hall not 
iambus, but that out\£nperfe<5r. Obedience to the Law, (hall through 
him be accepted^ If inched there were only the Law and no Chrift, no 
Obedience but that which is abfoluiely perfeel, could be entertained by 
God ; but now, though by m the Law, perfedt Obedience be required, yet 
by Grace. imperftdfrf if fincerej Obedience is accepted;, For under the C0- 
venant of Grace, ftriftly and precifely un^er pain of damnation^ roe are only 
obliged to that meafure of obedience whicu kfujftble by the help of Grjtf' y av\d 
hence it is, that Chrifls Yoke is called eafie, which cannot be understood Mat. 11. eIcL 
of the Law in its rigor, but as mitigated by the Covenant cf Grace : 

<L<^ That 

294 No #? Vernal. Serro. VIII. 

That Yoke would not be cafie but intolerable , if it propounded no hope 
of Salvation, but under thar impojfible condition of perfedfc Obedience 
to the Law. And i Job. 5. 3. Hit commands are not grievous ; but fo 
they would be ? if their exactions were rigorous in requiring perfect O- 
bedience under pain of damnation^ us that cannot perform it : But for 
ever bleffed be God,that though our beft Obedience be imperfeftjet the 
perfeel Obedience of Chrift imputed to us, fupplies the dejeel of ours v 
yca,that our imperfect Obedience doth not only not damn us (though 
the imperfection (hereof deferves damnation according to the rigor of 
the Law) but that it is ordained fo be the way to our Salvation b I mean 
not its imperfection, but it, notwithstanding its imperfection. Reader, 
if thou art a Believer, till thy Love, to Jefus Chrift, prompts thee to a 
more futable Ejaculation, accept of this for a Concluiion of this whole 
Difcourfe. A faving 'Eternity ^(Father of Mercy) will be fhort enough to 
fraife thee for Him, who hath delivered us from thofe many millions of Sins, 
the lea(i whereof deferve a dahtning Eternity : Dear* Lord J^fus^ who haft 
faved us from the leaji Sin that ever we had or did. help us to ferve thee 
with the great eft Love , that our Souls can either admit or exprefl. And 
as (through Grace y the guilt of the leaji Sinfhali not lye upon w \ fo neither let 
the Love of the leajhSinlodg within us. Thou who baji'jnade our J unification 
perfecl^dayly perfect what our Sanclification wants. And never {Lord) let 
us put limits to our thankful returns^ for thofe fatijfyingfufferings of thine^ 
thai kjtew no Bounds, no Meajure, 



, u • 


- — - 


Publick Prayer fhould Jbe in a Known 


i COR 14. 15. 

I will Pray with the 'Spirit, and will fray with Vn- 

. derjianding alfo. 

THe Spirit of God forefeeing, That in the latter dayes there * 

would be an Apoftacy and departure from the Faith > and 
that impious and corrupt Doctrines, would be publifhed by 
Men of corrupt minds \ hath fo compiled the holy Scriptures, 
that from thence even thofe Errors which arofe long after the times of 
?he Apoftlesmay be detected and confuted. With very good reafon, 
did lertullian fay, Adoro Scripture plenitudinem, I adore the fulnefi of the Lib. adv. Her- 
Scripture The Perfection and Sufficiency of it muft needs be granted m °gea. cap* 
by all that underftand it, and that will believe the Teftimony, which 22 ' 
it gives concerning it felf. 'Tis*prohtable *p3* ftftinuLkietv, nrpU 'ihty- 
X*i> for Voftrine and reproof. It ferves to inform and open the Eyes of 
the Ignorant, it ferves to flop the Mouths of Gain-fayers. Hence we 
may be furnifhed with both OrTenflve and Defence Weapons : and 
the Armour which is fetched from it, is iYilcd *& q^ka tk $u\U ; Jbe 
Armour or the Weapons of Light ,Rcm.i 3. 12. And truly Sin and Error 
being but difcovered, that very difcovery, will have a great influence 
unto the mortification of the one;, and our prefer vation from the con- 
tagion of the' other; 

I do not at all wonder that the Church of Rome fhould take away* 
the Key of Knowledge Open but that Door \ and that Command would 
more generally be obeyed, which you read Rom. 18. 4. Come out of her 
*»} people, that ye he not partakers of her Sifts, that ye receive not of her 

Q^q 2 Thgues. 

296 ?MicJ^?r*yer fhould be in & known Tongue. Serai, IX. 

• Plagues. The Popifh leaders are very much againft the Scriptures being 
known, becaufe it makes fo much againft them, and fpeaks fo plainly 
againft their Doctrines*, ^and they are jealous left their own men upon 
ferious reading and confideVation might be brought to fay, Aut hoc non 
eft Evangelium, aut nos non fumus Evangelic* > Either this is not the Go- 
fpel, or we are not Gofpellers. Either this Word erf" God is not true, or 
ii it be true, then Popery is a mcer falfhood. 

That there is fuch a great difagreement between the Scripture and 
Popery, jnight eafily be made manifeft in all the Points or Controverile* 
between the liomijh Church and Ours > we having departed from them 
upon this very fcore, becaufe they have reje&ed the \Vord of God \ and 
left that Faith which was once delivered to the Saints. 

But the Point now to be infused on, is, The Language or Tongue, in 
which Prayer t}ut is^ubl^^mght to he made. 

Hew near a kin is MymJS Babylon unto Babel of old in the Land of 
Shinzr ! We read that there»the afpiring builders Language wm confoun* 
ded, and they did not underfland one another s fpeech, Gen. 1*1.7. and this 
Confufion ftopt the building of that Tower. which was defigned to 
reach Heaven. In the Devotions of thtHomijh Church,the Prieft fpeaks 
bur>the People underftand not what is fpok;en„and^hrs is an impediment 
unto the Peoples Edification ? fo that their Devotions reach not Hea- 
ven, but are only afpeahjng into the air, 1 Cor. \\.?. and are as little re- 
garded by God, as they are underftood by themfelves. The Proteftant 
, Churches, on the other fide, are for Prayer in a known Tongue* and 

good warrant they have from the Apoftlehimfelf, who fays, I mil fray 
with the undetflanding \ and that in the Church he had rather Jpeal^ five 
words, i.e. a few words with his undemanding, that by his voice he might 
teach ethers alf>, than ten thoufand words in an unhriow:i tongue.. 

The Text informs us of the*Apoftles practice > which he propofes, 
furely not that we mould diilike it an"d refufe to follow him but for our 
imitation." Three things are here to be confiderM. 

.1. Wha^s meant by Prayer? It muft be underftood concerning publicly 

. . . . Prayer, or Prayer with others *> for the Apoftle in this Chapter where 

precibiulee- tne Text ^ es * s delivering a Decency an f Order, which was to be obfer- 

rct, videri ved in the Pnblick AlTemblies i he fuppofes feveral perfons to be pre- 

poITeta fuo fent, that might anfwer Amen to the Supplications and Thankfgivings 

gift of Pray?r which the Spirit beftows. This Exposition I find in Cbry- 
1 Epift. ad fijhnie, rr&S wnv' petit , 7*] 67 tJ y&m<s\j.&Ti. * Extraordinary abilities of 
Corinth. Prophecying and Preying were given after Chrlfts Afcenfion, and the 

Million of theHoly Ghoft ', and the end of all was the Churches In- 
creafe and Edification. Here 'tis not amifs to add, That by comparing 
mother places with this, we muft grant, that praying in the Spirit, com- 


Serm. IX: Publick, Prayer Jhonld be in a known Tongue. 

prebends a great deal more than the bare gift of utterance in this duty, 
whether extraordinary in an unknown, or more ordinary in a known 
Language. To pray in the Holy Ghoft, implys, and that chiefly, the 
having our infirmities helped by the Spirit of God s our Graces quick- 
ned =, our afTe&ions and deiires raifcd unto that firength and fervency \ 
unto which the Lord for his Son our Advocates fake has promifed fa- 

3. What it meant by Vndcrftanding ? This mufmot be referred to the 
Vnderjianding of the Apojile ; for 'tis difficult to fuppofe that He at any 
time did net underfland what himfelf did fpeak. But it -relates fa the 
Understanding of otherjs asvcrf.19. I had rather fpeaj^five words with 
my underjianding,that by my %oice I might teach others alp. To teach with 
the Undemanding, in the Apofties fenfe, is to accommodate what we 
fay to the Underlhnding anc^ Capacity of thofe, whom we teach. In like 
manner to pray with the Vnderdmding j is to pray fo,as that thofe whom. 
we pray with, may apprehend what we beg for at the throne of Grace, 
^nd for what we return thanks unto God, elfe how is it poiiible they 
Ihould be edified > 

Upon the words thus opened I build this Thefts- which I am to main- 
tain: That Public^ Prayer U not to be made in an unknown tongue,but in fuch 
a Language as U uttderftood by the common People.- In Publick Prayer I in- 
clude Confeflions of Sin, Petitions for Grace and Mercy, Intercellions 
for others, and giving of Thanks i which are uttered in the hearing of 
the Congregation : and I affirm,That all fuch Publick Worthip and Ser- 
vice is to be performed in fuch a Tongue as the Congregation is ac- 
quainted with. Hearken to the Apoille, 1 Cor. 14.16, 17. Elfe when 
tboujhilt blcfs with the Spirit, howjhall he that, occupieth the room of the 
unlearned, fay Amen at thy giving of Thanks, feeing he underftandtth not 
whft thoujayeii ? for thou verily givefi Thankj well, but the other u not edi* 
fed. Chryfoftome upon thefe words fpeaks thus, )ha>Tlw jh *<tiKov x4y«. 
By the man unlearned the Apoftle means the Lay-man •, even he muit 
underftand the words that are fpoken in Prayer, that thereby he may 
be edified. 

In the handling of this Thefts \ 

Firft, I (hall give you the 'judgment of the Church of Rome in the 

Secondly, Produce arguments to prove that Public^ Prayer ought not 
\o be made in an unsown Language. 

Thirdly, I fhall make it manifeit, that Antiquity U utterly againft the 
Papifts in this bufwefs. 

Fourthly, Ifhal! anfwer the Objections of the Romifh "DeUors '-, and fhew 
the weaknefs of their Arguments, which they urge for their Latin, and 
by the People not underftood, Service. 

Fifthly, I (hall difcover the Myjlery > of iniquity in this Papal Dodrrine, 
which preaches upwind encourages to an ignorant Devotion.. 



2g/8 . Public^ Prayer fiould be in a Known Tongue. Serm. IX* 

Sixthly, Conclude with a Practical Application! 
In the firft place I am to give you the judgment of. the Church of 
'Rome, And that they indeed hold that Publick Prayer may be made in* 
a Language that the People underftand not ; appears two ways. 

i. By their general Prattice« Their Mafs-Book is in Latin, their Di- 
vine Servicc,and Offices, as they call them, are performed in the Latin 
Tongue. But this is certain, that the Latin Tongue is not now the Mo- 
ther-Tongue of any Nation under Heaven. In former ages indeed 'twas 
fpoken in Italy. But that Nation has been fo often invaded and over- 
run by forreign enemies,efpecially by the Goths and Vandals ■> that there 
has been a great alteration in their Language;, the prefent Italian being 
vaftly. different from that Language which the Romans of old ufed. But 
though Latin be not underftood by the common People, yet in Italy and 
Spain, and Germany^ and France^ and otjier places, where the Pope 
governs and is obeyed, the Publick Service is Latin ; and to teach, that 
the People fhould underftand what they pray for ', is declaim'd againlt as a 
piece of Hereile. , 

2. 'Tis not only the Practice of that Church to have Latin Prayers, 
nor the opinion only of fome private Do&ors, nor the judgment of a 
provincial or National Synod that thus it ought to be i but'that very 
Councii-of T«»*i which they (though without reafon) call Holy and 
Oecumenical, or General, does determine, that Prayer need not be 
made in a Vulgar Language. The words of the Council are thefe, Sef- 
fio. 2 2. capit.2 2. 

Etfi Miff a magnam contineat populi fidelif eruditionem, non tamen ex- 
pedire vifum eji Patribus ut vnlgari lingua paffvn celebraretur. Though the 
Mafr do contain a great deal of inftruVuonfor the faithful people, yet it did 
mtfeem expedient to thefe Fathers that it Jhould be every where celebrated 
in a vulgar tongue, 

Indeect afterward they command that the Paftors expwant aliquidjzx- 
pound (brnething, but finctfometbingts only mention'd, and not what, 
nor how much, and to be fure not all$ we may well fay, Hoc aliquid nihil 
eft\ This fomething is as good as nothing.- Moreover the ninth Ca- 
non runs thus: 

Siquis dix.rit lingua tantum vnlgari Miff am celebrari debere^ Anathema 

fit. JVho fever (hall fay that the MjJs ought to be celebrated only in a vulvar 

language, Ut him be accurfed. Yo how a Pop4fh Council determines 

that publick Prayer need not be in 'a-khowa Tongue, and thunder* 

out an Anathema sgainft thofe who are otherwife minded. 

In the ftcond place follow the Arguments againfl the Papiils, which 
prove that Publick Prayer ought not to be made in a Language un- 
known to the People. 

i. When Prayer is made in an unknown Tongue., the Name of God 
is taken in vain. .Aquinas (peaks of four ways of taking Gods Name : 
I. Ad difti confirmationem, when we call God to witnefs the truth of 


Serm. IX. TubDcJ^ Prayer fiottld be in a Known Tongue. 293 

what has been fpoken. 2. Ad San&ificationem, to thefanclifying and 
fiparating of a thing to an ufe that is holy '■>' thus the water in Baptifrn 
is feparated to a Sacramental ufe, by the Name of the Father, Son a'nd 
Holy Ghoft. 3. Ad opens completionem , \into the peiforming of any 
work which we undertake. Th\Q±David went forth againlt Golub in 
the* Name of the Lord of Hofls" wnofe Armies that proud Giant had 
• defied. 4 Ad confejftonem & invocationem, when we make confeihon 
of Gods Name before others, or call upon his Name our fclvts. 

Now when thus in Prayer we take the Name of God into our mouths 
we muft remember the third Commandment, and how the Great Law- 
giver has exprefly fignified, that be will not boldtbe tranfgrejfjrs gxilt- 
lefs. Tis the Hrft Petition in the Lords-Prayer, Hallowed be thy Name : 
But how can thofe that underftand nut the words of Frayer, hallow 
Gods Name ? How can their hearts and their words go together > and 
it they don't, the Worfhip is vain. Mat. 15. 8, p. Ibis people drarvetb' 
nigh to me with tbeir mouth, and honour etb me with their lips, but their 
he art is far from me \ and in vain do they worfhip me. The People in La~ 
tin Prayers underftand not when Sin is confeited,nor when Pardon and 
Grace are asked,nor when praife is offered : How then can their hearts 
be fuitably arleded ? It follows therefore that the Lords Name is taken, 
and an Ordinance ufed in vain. Certainly the end ot-Oral Prayer is not 
attained in the Church of Rome. The reafon of*ufing words in this duty 
is that others may underftand, and join with us, and alfo that our own 
thoughts and hearts by the words may be kept more clofe to God, and 
intent upon his fervice •> but in both thefe regards Latin Prayers to thofe 
that underftand not Latin are juft as good as^none at all. 

2. Prayer in an unknown Tongue is ignorant Wosfhip. The Sama- 
ritans were blamed by Chrift for worshipping tbey ktiew wt w/^Joh.4.22. 
And he fpeaks by way of reprchention to his Difciples, Te know not wbat 
ye afkj So that not only the Objedfr of Prayer rhuft be known, but like- 
wife the matter which we pray for. But in both' thefe regards the poor 
Papifts are miferably ignorant. Their Idolatry plainly (hews they have, 
not right conceptions of the Godhead. How like are they to the Hea- 
then Romans of old, who before their Converfton to the Chriftian Faith., 
cbanged the glory of the incorruptible God into- an image made Uhf unto'cor- 
rnptible man, Rom. 1. 2 1 . which is an evident Argument,*^ tbey are be- 
come vain in tbeir imaginations, and that tbeir foohfh hearts are dxrkried^ 
wr.23. The Papifts multiply Altars indeed, but upon all their Altars 
this Infcription may be written, which was upon the Altar at Athens, 
Ayvcos-ro eia>, They are dedicated to a God tbey hfiow not. 

And as they know not the God they pray to, fo neither do they un- 
derftand what they pfav for. And what is ignorant Worfhip if this be 
nor., To mal\e unknown ¥ray?rs to an unsown God? Surely 'tis the will 
of God, we mould underftand what wepray , but the Papifts are witt- 
ingly, ignorant, and it abundantly d'ftkes them, if fo much time is but 


SCO fublickiVrayer fioutdbe in a known Tongue. Serm. IX. 

wafted in their Devotions, and fo many words are but pronounced, 
though they underftand thofe<words no more than a Parrot does the 
meaning of thofe words of ours which it has learned to imitate. 

3. How can fuch Prayers* as are made in an unknown Tongue, be 
made in Faith? and yet Faith is fo n^elTary an ingredient in Prayer, that 
the Apoftle /ticks not to fay, Let nofVjat man, who asks not in Fakb, 
thinly that he jball receive any thing of the Lord^ Jam. 1.7. Wemuft be- 
lieve that what we ask is according to the Will ot God j to this end "the 
Word which is the declaration of Gods Will ought to abide in us. Job; 
15.7. If ye abide in me and my avords -abide in you^ ye Jball as\ trfyat ye 
tvift^and it Jball be done unto yon. There mull alfo in Prayer be'a relyance 
upon the Promifesof God, all which are lea and Amen in Cbrijh But 
how can we either believe that we ask according to the Will of God s 
or rclie upon thofe Piomifes which God hath made, if we know not 
what we pray ? 

Faith in Prayer, which is true, always prefuppofes knowledg *, How 
Jball they caU on bim (fays the A pottle) in vehom tbey have not believed ? and 
howjlo all they believe in bim of rrbotn tbey have not heard? Rom. 10* 14. 
He that underftands not the Tongue in which the Prayers are made,can- 
not certainly tell whether the Lord be pre i fed or blafphemed ', whether 
Grace be implored, or liberty beg'd to continue in wickednefs : Nay he 
cannot tell whether God-be prayed to at all. Hew then (hall a man in 
Faith be able to join'in fuch manner of "Supplications? And as this un- 
known Tongue is an impediment to Faith, fo when what is' asked is" not 
underftood.How can the Delires be lively ? Ignoti nulla cttpido: The Un- 
derstanding muftapprefcencj the evil before that evil can be heartily de- 
precated; and be^onvincciof the good before the W r ill is brought to 
embrace it. 

4. The deiign of Prayer, is not to work any change in God with 
whom there is not the leaft vaiiablenefs, neither fhadow of turning} 
but a. change in us \ that by Prayer we may be the better difpofed for 
the reception of what we ask. But how can Prayer which is riot un- 
derstood be here available? When this Duty is rightly performed, it 
tends to the making of us more feniible of our guilt and vilenefs, cur 
needinefvand infurriciency •, and to the fetting of a greater edge upon 
our affections, towards thofe Spiritual and Eternal Bleffings which are 
promiicd in the New Covenant. \ and by thisjneans we are made more 
meet for the accomplifhment of thofe Promifes. But Prayer in an un- 
known Tongue leaves Men as it found rhem. And they tiiuft needs 
continue under their deadnefs, their hearts being firaitned and alienated 
from -God through the blindnefitbat is in them, 

5. Though ro fpeak in an unknown Tongue was in the firil age of tie 
Chriftian Church a Miraculous Gitc, and ferved much tor the confirmati- 
on of the Chrifiian Faith. Yet unlefs there wtrt an interpret, of 
SO unknown Tongue was not permitted in the Publick Worftiip of God. 

i Cqv. 

Scrm. IX. Cublich^ Prajcrfljould be in a known Tongue \ 301, 

1 Cor. 14. 28. If there be no interpreter, let him l^eep fiUnce in the Churchy 
andlethimfpeahjohimfelf and to God. Surely then it plainly follows, 
that Prayer with the Unlearned fhould not now be made in Lit in, fmce 
skill in that Language is not now an extraordinary Gift, but gained by 
ordinary inftru&ion and induftry.; and the ufe of it in Prayer with 
thofe that know not the meaning of it, tends not to confirm Chriflia- 
nity , but to hinder true Devotion. 

6. The ufe of an unknown Tongue in the Lords Service is exprefly 
denied to be unto Edification. The Apoftle gives this general Rule, Let 
all things be done to edifying, 1 Cor. 14. 26. and v.ij. he before exprefly 
fays, That the Unlearned vs not edified by Worship in a Language which 
he does not underftand,though the Prayers or Praifes be never fo excel- 
lent. The Papifts indeed that are devout in their way, may pofGbly 
irnagin they are edified by their L^/i^fcrayers ^ but they would do 
well to confider, that the Apoftle fpeaks very plainly, That an unknown 
tongue U not to Edification s and it concerns them likewife to fufpeel: 
their own hearts, which are fo deceitful, and to fear left Satan by de- 
lufory Affections, and a falfe Peace, impofe upon them. But kt us fup- 
pofe that they are really arretted at their Devotions j> certainly np thanks 
at all to the Prayer, the meaning of which they are utterly ignorant 

Well then, (ince Prayer is to be unto Edification, itmuft be fuch as 
may be underftood by the People. The Spiritual benefit and advantage 
of their Souls is to be regarded in all Publick Adminiftrations. The A- 
poftles had indeed the gift of Tongues in the day of Pentecoft j but, 
which is very much to be marked, It was not that they might fpeak^ in an 
unknown, hut in a tyiown Language to the People. Therefore you read, 
that thofe Parthians and Medes, and Elamites, and the reft of them did 
fay, We do hear every one in the longue wherein vpe were horn, the wonder- 
ful worlds of God, Act. 2. 8, 12. 

I might farther add, That it is repugnant to the very nature of Pub- 
lick Prayer,that it fhould be in an unknown Tongue. For the People all 
the while if they are at any, are at their private Devotions, though in the 
Publick AfTembly* while the Prieft in Latin is confeiling Sin, the Peo- 
ples hearts may be giving thanks for Mercy •, while the Prieft is asking 
for one kind of Bleiling,the Peoples Affections may be carried out after 
another. Thus there is not that agreeing together in what they ask, which 
Chrift fpeaks ofj> and which is neceffary in Publick Prayer. 

7. The Apoftle having delivered this Dcclrine,that Prayer and Praife 
fliould be in a known Tongue.adds at the clofe of the Chapter > not on- 
ly, That he taught the fame in all Churches of the Saints \ but alio. If any 
man thinly himf elf to be a Prophet, or fpiritual, let him ac\nowledg, that 
the things which I write unto you are the Commandments of the Lord, 
1 Cor. 14. 37. So much for the Arguments againft Prayer in an un- 
known Tongue. 

R r In 

302 Vnblick. Prayer fiould be in a kpoxxn Tongue. Serin. IX. 

In the third place lam to manifeft, That Antiquity is utterly againft 
the Church of Rome in this matter : the Papilts talk much of' the 
Fatners indeed \ but how drfobedient they are to them, and how much 
they dilTent from them, may "moil eafily be evinced. 

And beeanfe the Council of Trent hath Anathematized all that are 
againft the Popilh Latin Prayers, I will fuppofe another Council, and 
ieveral of the molt eminent, and ancient Fathers Members of it ; and 
that I may deal the more fairly with our Adverfaries,l will fuppofe Come 
or their own moil noted and famous Do&ors,admitted into this Coun- 
cil i and that yet it may be the more regarded, I (hall fuppofe the Apo- 
Jtle Paul himfelf to be the Prelldent of it. " ~ ' 

The Fathers whom I (hall mention are fufiin Martyr, Origenfyprian, 
Ambroje, Auguftine, Hierome Eafil, and Cbryfoftome. 

The Quefiion to be debafflr, is, JVhether Prayer is to be made in a 
known, or in an unknown Tongue ? Let the Fathers fpeak in order. 

tfi/}'*ASt/j7? yipzTcui £ t r& &n>y.viifJL0vlvi/.d,7a, $j ^s'ohap ii7ct a-vy^z^ATA, mSy 
ypofmdy dpayiyuirKiTau (jLiygit-iyy^H. ^EitattavjahIik & APAytpujKop]^, 
*> T|»egra»< J to) Ao>« tIu) uzditriw £ Tfojanff/y f ffi kaKup T<tTap y.ty.r\aia>i 

KGISITCU , gT«Tfit A\t?dL^.i&A KOtpTl TCtp]tf #J WX** WZfX'BOuiV, *} T 'AVg A yXv 'UV 

Vp.6) V $ \vyj\$ cl$7qs r x$*t<t>i$tttu )y o!V(§h K&l TfQ2S"&>f IV%A{ lyt.oieoc j£ \vyA- 

eisias o?ti fv'ycLtJus dv]o a,P£Ti(jLi?Hj xj o \a)s £u®tf/xe7 hiya>p to dy.luj. 

On the day commonly called Sunday, AJJemblies are made of Citizens and 
Countrymen, and the writings of the Apojiles and Prophets are read : The 
Reader giving over, the Minuter makes an Exhortation to the People, per- 
fvading to the imitation and practice of thofe good things that are propounded. 
After this we rife ali.andpour out Prayers, and Bread and IFine are brought 
forth \ and the Minifier to the uttermofi of bis ability^ does Jend forth Prayers 
and Praifes unto God. and the People give their con fnt, faying, Amen. 

Behold the-Scriptures read even to Citizens, nay ^o Country-People, 
and Prayers made which they did underftand, and fay Amen to. 

Origen mav fpeak next£ib.%>Contra Cel/um pdgfmibi) 402. Oi K n t&d 
™v yjtrtAvap »efe hf 70,1$ Selctts yfAQAis Ktiy.ivlit op'ouAffi xj TtrttyfA on \nr\ 
TO 8s« yjoov\eu \v*\<JAt cvx&if* &>ti oi pip \»Suns ifat)PiKo7{> 01 £% ^a^aaoi pa- 
jua/Aoj; \ >y %7g>i ixcts-ot ilata tUi> sat/] a JiateKTor tvfttTAt <3«w x} Cfxpfi av]qv 

COS JvPATAI 3 Xj 'Sr*(THJ cT/CtAiV.7a KVQlQi TUP AGO *VAQ~tH flAKlKT* XvyO'^ip CdV 

jfouoL T4m Cbfi\tians in their Prayers ufe not the very words ('he means the 
Words in the GisigthaTjl of the Scriptures => but they that are Greeks do ufe 
the Greek^ Tongue, and thofe that are Romans the Roman Tongue j and Jo 
every one according to his Dialed, does Pray unto God, and praifs him accor- 
ding to hU ability, and He that is the Lord of every Language, does hear the 
Prayers which are put up to Him in every Language. 

Cyprian De Or at. Domin. pag. (mihij $09. fpeaks thus : 


Scrm. IX. Tublick^rrayerJImtld be in a kpawn tongue: 305 

Aliter.Oratc quam docuit Chrijlus, non igmrantia fila eff z fed & culpa \ 
quando ipfe pofuerit & dixerit, rejicitU mandatum Dei ut Tradit'nnem 
vejlram fiatuatU. 

To Pray otberwife than Chriil has tJKght, if not only ignorance, hut * 
great fault fc for Ice has exprefly fiid, Te rejected the Command of God, that 
ye may eftablifhywr own Tradition. Now where has Chnit taught the 
-ufeof an unknown Tongue in Prayer ? 'tis but Routes Invention and 
•Tradition, and that not ot a very long (landing. 

Ambrofe may be heard in the next place, in 1. ad Corinth, c. 14. 

Si utique ad jedificandam Ecclefiam convenittf, ea debentdin qu£ intelli- 
gent audientes : nam quid prodtfi nt quit linguk loqnatur quam plus fsit, 
ut qui audit nihil proficiat ? . vi\ 

If ye come togetbir to edifie the Cburc^tbofe things ought to, bejp^en that 
the bearers may underhand; for what qjj * he profit the People, who jpeakj in 
an unsown Tongue to them? And afterwards the fame Father adds > 
There were fome , of the Hebrews efpecialy\ that ufed the Syriack, and the 
Hebrew Tongue in their Services } but thefe aimed at their .own. glory and 
commendation, not at the Peoples benefit. Though the H^rew. Tongue 
was that in which God of ord'utter'd the Law upon Mount S/Jw/.that 
which Mofes and the Prophets ufed > though the Syriacl^ was that La 
which our Lord himfelf fpake while he was upon Earth \ yet Ambrofe 
blames thofe that prayed in thefe Languages with thofe People who did' 
not undirftand them. After Ambrofe, let us hear Augufiine^ Enarrat. in 
Pfalmum 18. 

Intelligere debemut, ut humaud ratione non quafi- avium voce cantemw'y 
hleruU, Pfittaci, Corvi r Pic£ , & bujufmodi volucres fepe docentur ah. 
homiriibws finare qu£ nefciunt : fcienter vera cantare non avi fed homini 
divin'd voluntate concejfum eft. 

We ought to underjiand what we pray fir, that we may not like Birds , 
but lik^e men, fing unto Gad. For Blackbirds and Parrots, and Crows , and 
Pies, and fucb kjnd of Fowls, are taught to found forth what they under- 
fiand not : But to fing ("which certainly in the Pfalms of David includes 
Prayer and PratfingJ with urtder (landing, is granted not to a Bird, but to a 
Man through the good pleafure ofG>d. 

From this Fathers words you may perceive, that the not-underftood 
Prayer of a Papift is likened unto the prating of a Pye, or Parrot. 

Hierom,\vho was famous for his skill in Languages, and was himfelf a 
Presbyter of the Ancient Church in Rome, yet fpeaks after this man- 
ner, Prtfat. in Epifi. ad Galatas. 

In Ecclefw Vrb'vs Romas quafi tonitru Coelefle audimus Populum reboan- 
tern, Amen. In the Churches of the City 0/Rome, the Voice of the People 
was like Heavenly Thunder, when they anfwered almi, Amen, at the end 
of the Prayers which they put. up unto God. ^ 

The People underflood, and gave their confent unto the Prayers 
which were uted in thofe days ; but the prefent Church cSRome, Heu 

R r 2 quantum 

'-. .'. 

304 Tublick. Prayer fiouU be in a known tongue. Serm. IX. 

quantum mutatur ab itih ! Alas, how much is it altered from what it 
once was ! 

Again the fame Hierom fpeaks, Subfinem Comment, in Epiji. adGa- 

§)uod ant em Amen confenjum fignificet audient'vs & fit fignaculum verita* 

t'ks ad Corinthios />r/wtf nos docet, in qua Paulus ait,Cxterum ft benedixerit 

'Spiritu, qnifupplet locum idiot£, quomodo dicet Amen fuptr tua benedi- 

Uione, qttoniam quidem nefcit quid dicas : ex quo ofiendit non poffe idioten 

refpondere Verum effe quod dicitur, nifi intellexerit quod docet ur. 

Amen fignifies the confent of the bearer, and U a fealing of the Truth : 
Paul fays, Jf thou blefl with the Spirit, how (hall he that occupieth the room 
of the unlearned fay Amen at thy giving of thankj , jeeing he under •- 
ftandeth not what thou fayeft ? mkereby he declares. That the unlearned 
Man cannot anfwer^ that that rvlmb U fpoken U true } fince he does not un~ 
derjiand it. 

Great Bafil, his mind you may know concerning the propofed Que- 
ftion, Homil. in Pfalmum 28. Having complained before that the Chil- 
dren of Men do not in His Temple give glory unto God, he adds } 

\yt rcS GVivyLdLThA-*^]* M *} ^ vat Let thy Tongue fmg, and let thy Mind 
fe arch the meaning of what U fpoken, that according to the Apftle , thou 
may eft flng with the Spirit, and fing with understanding alfo. 

Chryfoftom agrees with the forementioned Fathers fully, Aoy. as in 
I Epiftm ad Corinth. 

'l^iarlui rh te'tKoy hiy**^ tPefavvei £v\fo * (au^av ZyyAdLV <s®s\iAv*v r \<t>' ) qtm 
tI d^iui «V«V juw fvvc&Tca. Ta^e notice, fays he, how the Apoftle does always 
feel^ the Churches Edification. By the unlearned Man, Paul means the 
Layman, and Shews how this unlearned Perfon does fit/lain a very great Ufi^ 
when Prayers are made infucha Language^ m he through want of under - 
ftan-ditig ,'<" mt able to fay Amen to them, 

I (hail add unto thefe parlages of the Fathers, a Conftitution of the 
Emperor Juftman, Emperors of old were reverenced by the Church, 
though now the Pope endeavours to Lord it over them. The Confti-- 
tation i? this JoveL Conjiit. 123. 

Jubemus c ines Epiioopos, &c. We command that all Bifhops and 
Pteshyters do celebrate the Holy Oblation, and Prayers uftdin Holy Baptifm; 
- not fyejlj'tg hvp, but with a clear Voice which may be heard by the People, 
that thereby the Minds of the People may be ftirred up with greater Vevoti^ 
on in uttering ih.e Praifes of the Lord God. And for this is cited t Cor. 
x 4. H>w JhaP the Vnlewned fay Amen^ if he does not nnderjland what if 
fpoken? And • htn iffo'ilows,. Jfth? Priefts negletl thefe things, the Judg- 
ment of God ayid'Chriil will fall on them ••, neither will we^ (ays the Empe- 
w ror, when we know it, reft and leave it unrevenged. 

But now let us hear the Rcmifh Doctors themfelves fpeakingto the 

Queftion. in Hand. 


crm. IX; Public^ Prayer Jhonld be in a. known Tongue. 

Cardinal Cajetan, Comment in i Epift. ad Corinth, c. 14. has thefe 
wordsi Ex hac Pauli Vctlrina habetnr, quod melius eft adedificationem Ec- 
cUfie, orationes publicas, qu£ audiente Populo dicuntur, did lingua commit- 
ni Clericls, & Populo , quam diet Latins. 

From this VcLlrine of the Apoftle Paul it follows, lb. it it is better f§00e 
edification of the Church, that the publicly Prayers which the People hear, 
Jhould be made in that Language which both the Priefis and People under* 
ftand, than that they jhould be made in Latin. 

Here I cannot chufe but cry out, Magna eft Veritas, great is Truth, 
and it will prevail ! Behold a Cardinal of the Romifh Church, fpeaks 
as plainly againft the Council of Trent-, as any whom they nickname 
Hereticks can. 

The next Romifh Author is Nicolas de Lira, who gloffing upon 
the fame Chapter, fpeaks to the fame purpefe. 

Si Populus intelligat orationem five beneditlionem Sacerdotis j melius re- 
ducitur in Deum & devotius refpondet, Amen. 

If the People underhand the Prayer or Thanksgiving which is performed 
by the Prieft, their minds wi§ be brought the better and nearer unto God y 
and with greater devoutnefitbey wiU anfwer, Amen, 

The third Romiili Doctor, (hall be the Angelical fas he is called^ and 
highly-magnified Thomas Aquinas, Commentar. in 1 Epiftolam ad Corinth, 
cap. 14. His words are thefe y 

Plus lucratur qui or at & intelligit ; nam reficitur^ & quantum ad in telle* 
Hum, & quantum ad ajfefium. 

He gains mofi who -prays and tmderftands the words wbich he fpeaks^ for 
he is edified both as to his undemanding, and alfo as to hU affedions. 

Again he faith., Melius e[\ ut lingua qu£ bene die it, etiam interpretetur\ 
omnis enimfermo bonus eft ad edificationem fidei. 

°Tis befi that the Tongue which bleffes, Jhould interpret'-, for good words 
Jhould be fpoken to the edification of faith. 

Here we may with reafon fay, Bene quidem fcripffti Thoma. 
Thomas thou haft written what is agreeable to Truth. 
Thus the Fathers and the Popifh Dodlors themfelves have deliver'd 
their opinions, and al! are for praying in a known Language. 

Nay I have read, and 'tis acknowledged by a Jefuit, Azoriits Inft. lib. . 
8. cap. 26, ex JEn. Sylv. That above fix hundred years ago, when the 
Pope did deliberate and confult whether he fhould grant unto the Bobe- . 
mians the ufe of the Vulgar Tongue in their publick Devotions •, there 
was heard a voice from Heaven, faying, Omnis lingua confiteatur ei \ v 
Let every tongue confefs unto God. 

But now at laft let us be determined by the Apoftle Paulfhc fuppofed 
Prefident of the Council, and his mind I (hall give you in this Par a- -^ 
phrafe upon his own words. J^* 

I than\my Cod Ifpea^ with Tongues more than you all'-, but I had ra~ 
ther fpeah^five words to be underftood by, and to edifie thefe that hear me, 

than , 


906 Vithlic\Trttyer foould be in * Known Tongue Serm. IX* 

thin ten thoufand words in an unknown Tongue, If the Trumpet give an un- 
certain founds who (ball prepare hi mi "elf to the battel? and if I pray ^ and 
tb'fe tbat are prefent undtrftand net the meaning of the voice, bowjhalltbey 
wrjjl le with God? bowjhall they defend tbentf elves againji tbe ajfaults of the 
4 Bw^ bow (hall they join in begging for Grace to overcome him? lam 
an Jtpojlle, and not a Barbarian, and 1 would net fpea\ words into tbe air^ 
but fo at to benefit tbem tbat bear me. I am unwilling the Publicly Worfhip 
of God (hould be expifed to tbe contempt and fcorn of Infilels ; or tbat they 
fijould cenfure it to be only tbe raving of mad-men, becaufe they know not tbe 
meaning of the words that are ufed. Our God is not tbe God of confufion, but 
requires a reasonable Service, and thefe commands concerning Prayer and 
Praifmifo as to be underftood, are bis commands. Every one who. is indeed 
fpiritual will be thus perfwaded : jbey xcho are otberwife minded are wil- 
lingly ignorant. 

You fee I have proved the Proteftant Doctrine out of the Fathers * 
nay, 'tis granted by Popifh Authors of very great name i and how plain- 
ly the Apoftle is on our tide, do but read and judg. 

Let the Papilts now for fh a me ceafe their bragging of Antiquity. 
'Twas certainly the manner of the elder and purer times to pray in a 
known Language. Thus prayed the Apoftles, thus prayed our Lord 
Jefus, thus prailed the Heavenly Holt at Chrifis Nativity, in fueh 
words as the very Shepherds underftood, Glory be to God in tbe Higbejl, 
en Earth peace, good-will towards men. Thus the Prophets prayed, and 
David the fweet-Singer oilfrael\ all his Pftlms we^e written in Hebrew, 
the Jews Mother-tongue. Thus fang Deborah and T>aral^, thus Mojes 
and the Ifraelites after their Miraculous Deliverance out of Egypt, and 
Pharaohs overthrow in the mighty Waters. Nay I mult add, there was 
a time when there was but one Language in the whole World > before 
the building of Babel, and then there was no unknown Tongue to pray 
in. In the days of Enos the Son of Setb the Grand-child of Adam, 'tis 
faid, Men began to call upon tbe Name of tbe Lord, Gen. 4. 16. And this 
muftof necetfity have been done in a Language which none were ig- 
norant of. Surely then the Proteihnt Religion in this regard muft be 
acknowledged of fufficient Antiquity, fince 'tis as old as the old World, 
fince 'twas before the flood of Noah. 

Jn the fourth place I (hall anfwer the Popifh Arguments to defend 
their Caufe > and (hall not fear to produce the very ftrongeft which I 
have met withal. 

1. 'Tis Objected That the Apoftle does not fpeak in 1 Cor. ^.concer- 
ning the ordinary Divine Service,but concerning Spiritual Songs,which 
by an extraordinary Gift were utter'd, 
_ Anf. The Apottle does mention Prayer as well as giving of Thanks $ 
^t and there is as much reafon .that the ordinary Service (hould be under- 
ftood, as the extraordinary > becaufe that which is ordinarily ufed, (hould 
by all means be to Education. 

2. 'Tis 

Serm. IX. Pnbllck^ Prayer \JI)onld be in a Knorvn tongue. Soy 

2. 'Tis Objected, That Prayer in an unknown Tongue is not con-^^* kib.2.^ 
demned, but Prayer in a known Tongue only preferred. Capiti? D ° !> 

Anfw. Firjl^ Suppofe this, why does the Church of Koine pray after 
the worfe, and not alter the better manner of the two ? Secondly, I 
fay 'tis condemned by the Apoftle as not being for Edification > for he 
that could (peak in a Tongue, if he could not interpret, nor any Inter- 
preter prefent, was commanded to keep fi knee in the Ajjembly. 

3. 'Tis Objected, That of old the Inftruclion and Edification of tin Id. ibid. 
People was neceflary, and the ufe of Prayer was, that they might be 
InftruCted and Ediried : But now the end of Prayer is not fo much 

<, the Peoples Inltrucffion and Edification, as the yielding to God tha,t 
Worftiip which is due to him. 

Anfo. Fir ft, The Apoftles were as- careful that God might have his 
Worlhip, as the Papifts, nay a great deal more careful. Secondly, Dif- 
join not Gods Wormip and the Peoples Edification ', for he is belt Wor- 
fhipped infpirit and in truth. And the more the mind underftands, and 
the heart of the Worfhipper is afTedred, God is the more honoured, and 
the better pleafed. 

4,'Tis Obje&ed,Tnat Prayer is- not made to the People but unto God, 
and he underftands all Tongues alike y and 'tis fufficient that the Lord 
"underftands what is prayed, though the People are ignorant. And this 
BtUamine does illuftrate by afimilitude. If a Courtier, fays he, mould . " *~ 

petition for a Country-man in Latin to a King, the Country-man might 
be benefited by the Latin Petition of the Courtier, though he mould 
not underftand a word; of it. 

Anfiv. i. It might have been (aid, That God underftands all , 
Tongues alike in the Apoftles days as well as now •■> the Lord being 
then and novv.and always, equally Omnifcient. 2. The life of Prayer is 
not to inform the God we pray to, For he kjiows what things rve have 
wed of before we asJ^, Mat- 6, 8. but to make our felves more fenfible 
of our needs, and confequently more meet to be fupplied j but how can 
this be if Prayer be lockt up in an. unknown Dialed > 3. As for Bellar- 
mines Similitude, it will not hold. For the God of Heaven is not like 
the Kings on Earth, who will hear Petitions made by Favourites for 
perfons that make no addrefs themfelves : But He requires, That every 
particular perfon fhouldask if he will receive, and underftand what he 
prays for ', and that he fhould have fuitable arTtdlions to the matter of 
his Petitions, if he will be heard and anfwered. Add alfo, That if a 
King mould forbid Petitions. in a ftrange Language, and fhould com- 
mand that Petitioners fhould ufe a Tongue they underftand, that with 
the greater earneftnefs they may beg what they need s to fnch an one a 
Latin Petition would not be fo acceptable i But God has forbid the ufe. 
of an unknown Tongue : Therefore we may conclude, That the Popifr^ 
Lttin Prayers in an Auditory which underftand them not, are to very 
little purpofe. The People muji feek^andkyock^zs well as the Piieft, elfe 


gc8 Tublick^Vrdyerfoould be in a kttdwn Tongue. Serm. IX. 

they Jh all not find^ elfe it will not be opened unto them, Mat. 7. 7. 

In the fifth place I am to difcover the tendency of, and Myftery of 
Iniquity in this Papal Dodfrine, which encourages to Prayer in an un- 
known Tongue, and teaches People to be contented with an ignorant 

1. It gratifies exceedingly the lazy difpofition of -Men, who natu- 
rally like a liberty to reft in opere operato, in the work done, and cannot 
endure to be urged to the more difficult part of Religion, which lies in 
a conflict with wandring thoughts in duty ', in watching over, and ta- 
king pains with the heart, that it may be intent, confiderate and afFe^ 
ftionate in its applications unto God. I know the Papifts boaft of their 
aufterities in their Devotions j but thefe are external things, and who 
has required them at their hands ? And I may with good reafon affirm, 
That one quarter of an hour fpent in Prayer,where the very heart is en- 
gaged, and underftands what 'tis doing, and feeks the Lord with its 

. whole defire, will be to better purpofe than all the Prayers by rote that 
are, or can be faid by a blind Papift, though he (hould live to the age 
of Metlmfelah. 

2. This Dodlriae is a notable device to keep the People ignorant,and 
to make them more dependent upon the Priefthood > and hereby they 
hope more eafily to rule them. Thefe cruel Guides, as they take away 
the Bible from the People, which is the great means of Knowledge fo 
they will not fuffer them to cry for Knowledg, fo as to know what they 
cry. What a faithful fervant is the Pope unto the Prince of Darknefs ! 
and what quiet poiTeilion does the ftrong man armed keep while the 
Gofpel is hid , and men pray for they know not what,and confequently 
obtain nothing! 

3. Many Prayers may well be made in Latin meerly through fhame. 
When I read the Scripture, I conclude thePapiftsare afraid of the Light 
which (bines from thence, left it overthrow their black Kingdom ; and 
when I read the foolifh, nay blafphemous Prayers, which are made in the 
Church of Rome, I conclude they are afhimed the meaning of them 
mould be known. Thus they pray to the Virgin Miry. 

San&a Maria, ~ \lt ® Saint Mary, 

@'Ag totum orb em iUuminas. Jj \ Who Ml enlighten the whole world, 
&ht£ tuos fervientes exalt as* K JftWb-i doji exalt thy fervant j : . 

Ittuminxtrix cordium. ft* jj Who doji illuminate hearts. 

Fons mifericordiz. \ /( Who art the fountain of mercy. 

Ab omm malo libera nos Domina. # \From all evil good hidy deliver ht. 

To Saint Dorothy" they pray thus : 


San&a Dorothea, 7 KO holy Dorothy, 

Cor mttndum in me ere a* $ I A clean heart create in me. 


Serm. X. VnhUck Prayer Jbould be in a known Tongue. $09 

Saint Agnes is prayed unto to keep them in the Faith \ and Saint Georqt 
to five them from their Sins, that they may teft in Heaven with the Blefed 
for ever. Thefe Latin Prayers in plain Enghjb are moft wicked Blafphe- 
mies; and both Gods work and honour, which is peculiar to hirafelf, 
and dear to him, is (to the provoking of him to jealoufie) afcribed ani 
imparted to the Creature, 

la the laft place I come to the Application. 


Blefs the Lord that the Day-fpring from on high htth vifited this 
land of your Nativity, and that Popifh darknefs is fo much difpelled. 
How thankful were the Ifraelites, think you, for that Light which (hined 
fo clear in Gojhen, when Egypt was plagued with Darknefs, that was fo 
hideous and palpable > Neighbouring Regions, moft of them are blin- 
ded by Rome and Hell > and fee not the things which you fee, hear not 
the things which you hear. You are inftru&ed to whom Prayer is be di- 
rected, unto God > and in whofe Name, in the Name of Chrift, whofe 
Mediation and Interceffion is always prevalent. Supplications are made 
in a Tongue which you underftand > that you may be the more affect- 
ed with what you pray for, and confequently have gracious returns to 
your Prayers from the God of all Grace. What caufe is here of Thanks- 
giving that Publick Adminiftrations are fo much more agreeable unto 
Ghrifts Inftitution* than the Adminiftrations of the Church of Romt. 

Prayers being poured forth with fo much fervency ,and in fuch word* 
as all, even the meaneft,underftand v the Scriptures being read in a Lari- - 
guage which you know, fo as that the Book of God is not a fealed Book 
to you h Sermons being preached with fo much plainnefs and power. 
Finally, Sacraments being adminiftred,fo as that you may know how to . 
improve thefe Seals of the New Covenant, to the ftrengthning of your- 
Faith, the inflaming of your Love, and the increale of all manner of 
Grace : All this may well caufe you to cry out with David, Pfal. 84.1. 
How amiable are thy Tabernacles^ Lord of Hofts. And one thing have^l: 
defired of the Lord^ that will J fee}^ after, that I may dwell in the bottfe of 
the Lord all the days of my life to behold the beauty of the Lord, and to in- 
quire in hit Temple, Pfal. 27. 4. 


If highly concerns you to fear and to pray againft theireturn of Po- 
pifh blindnefs. While Satan and his Angels are bufie and induftrious to . 
extinguifh the light of the Word, while Rome does join with Hell to- 
this end, that this Land may be again overfpread with Ignorance, Ido- 
litry^upeifUu-^Will-Worlhip s 'tis your wifdom and duty, while they ^ 
are plotting, to be counterworking by your Prayers. Oh cry unto the 
Lord tofccure his own Honour, and your Priviledges, againft thefe 
Enemies, which are fo great invaders of both. Beg with the greateft 

S f earr.cft- 

%lo THhlick^VrdyerJhonldbein a kpown Tongue. Serm. IX, 

earneftnefs, (and truly earneft begging was never yet denied) that the 
Gofpel may continue, and a^ypiritual way of Worftnp according to the 
direction of the Gofpeh and that Komes Emiffaries may never make 
Merchandize of your Souls, or the Souls of your Pofterity. 

Let the blind 2eal of the Papifts make you more frequent in your ac- 
ceffes to the Throne of Grace : Though they Worfhip ignorantly, yet 
how much do they Wor(hip ? as SuperfUtion is wont to urge men to 
abundant labour. But you that fee more reafon to pray than they, and 
have more encouragement from God , than ever they underftood , 
fhould be fhamed and quickned unto this Duty. The Papifts indeed, 
if they underftood themfelves, might well be difheartned, becaufe their 
Worfhip is Will-worfhip, not of Gods appointment, but their own In- 
vention. But you fhould- abound in Devotion, for God will not be 
fought in vain as long as you leek him in his own way, and^ar labour 
Jhati not be in vain in the Lord, i Cor. 15.58. 



Takeheed of Diftra&ion in Prayer, and not-minding what you ask 
or what you are doing, when at the Mercy-Seat. 'Tis great hypo- 
crifie to be prefent only in body at the Sanctuary j the heart inthemean 
while running away after pleafures, covetoufnefs, vanity •, and this'ex- 
ceedingly provokes the Lord to jealoufie, and are you ftronger than He <* 
1 Cor. 10.22. Pray, what's the difference between a Papift that under- 
fta&ds not b >and a tarnal Proteft ant that minds not a word of what is fpo- 
ken in Prayer? • Or if there be any difference the Proteftant is in the 
worfecafej becaufe having the means oi Edification, he is the more 
without Apology, that heis not edified. 

Content not your felves with bare underftanding the words of 
Prayer.but know the Lord you pray to } be acquainted with his Power 
and Truth, and how he keeps Mercy for thoufands, and particularly for 
you, it youare fenfible of your fin and mifery, and are willing that from 
both He mould deliver you. Underftand alfo the worth of what you ask, 
that Spiritual and Eternal Bleifings being highly valued, your defires 
after them may be vehement, and you may wrefile with the greater 
itrength and refolution till you have obtained them. 

Let 11 ndei (landing and Faith in this duty of Prayer be join'd toge- 
ther. The Popifh implicite Faith, to believe as the Church believes,that 
is,to believe they know not what, is a wretched piece of carelefnefs and 
.prefumption, and a mad venturing of the Soul, which is fo precious,up- 
on an empty found and title. But do you fearch the Scriptures,enquire 
what God hasfpoken > and firmly believe his words which are fo faith- 
ful and worthy o{ all acceptation. Let your Faith in Prayer be ftrong i> 
and be fully perfvvaded. that having fach Promifesas God has made, and 


Serm. IX. Public^ Prayer fljould be in a kit own "tongue. %H 

engaged himfelf to make good , and fuch an Advocate in Heaven as 
Chriit the Righteous > what you ask according to the Will of God (hall 
in no wife be denied. In a word know your duty and do it,and then con- 
clude, As certainly as God if , Co certainly be will be a rewarder of them that 
diligently feej^him^ Heb. 1 1. 6. 

TbomafMertwutEpiCc. Vunelfn. Apdl. Cathol. Patik. Lib'. 1. Car/. 31. 
De Vernac. precibus, pag.ioS. Non eft igitur quod in bac caufa, leftor^ 
hdttucinerti'-, neq^ enim te fugit Hoi prlmo antiquitatem novitati : Secnndo^dt- 
votionem fantlam & divinam, c&cjc & fanatic* fuperftitioni : r tertio, anim£ 
confolationem fpiritualem, rigid* ftupiditati : S^irto, infantU prndenti- 
sm : Shinto, torpori confenfum : Sextb, fiftit & ^ementitU pertculU comme- 
dapene iufinita: Septipio^facrofapUamdeniq^SpiritwiffinUi fapientiam^ 
human* ftultit it ac te merit at i anteponere. ■ 

There is therefore, Reader , no room for a miffake in thk caufofvr than canfi 
not hut kpoivjhat the Protectants prefer , 1 . Antiquity before Novelty: 2 . Ho- 
ly and divineVevotion before blindC^nd properly fo called JfanatickJSuper- 
flit ion : 3. 7 he fpiritnal comfort of the Soul^ before rigid ftupidity : 4. Pru- 
dence before childifhnefs : 5. Confent before cardefhefs : 6, Almoft infinite, 
advantages before feigned and imaginary dangers : 7. 1bje boly veifdom oftbs 
Spirit of God, before the folly and rajhnefs of men. 


m — ■! i' ■ 

Sfs SEE 

1 mi ■ » ■— Baa»afe»fc«fc« *T > f7 

;u \ 

■ i i» 


The Teftimony of the Church is not 
the only, nor the chief reafbn, of our 
believing the Scripture to be the Word 

Of God. / J^; $~^4^> 

LUKE 1 6. 29. 

They have Mofes and the Prophets , let them hear 

AS everlafting BlcfTedncfs fmens greateft and moft defiraMc 
Good J is that which God only can befto w,and the Way to it 
that which He only can difcover : (Who knows the Lords 
mind like himfelf ? Who is fo Cure a Guide in the Way,as He 
who is himfelf the End ? Nature can neither dired us to, nor fit us for 
a Supernatural Happinefs.) So it is not only our intereft to feek it, but 
likewife to fee,Whether what pretends to be the Rule of our walking,in 
order to our obtaining of it, be indeed the right one ; which we can no 
otherwife be allured of, than by feeing that it be fuch a one as is given 
vis by him to whom alone it belongs to prefcribe us the Way, and who 
being infinitely good, as well as infinitely wife,will no more deceive us, 
than he can be himfelf deceived. Now the holy Scripture of the Old, 
and New Teftament, is that which we profefs to own as the Rule of our 
Faithand Life, in relation to our future Glory. It is then the wifdom of 
every Chriftian to enquire upon what account he receives this Rule,why 
he believes it, and fubmits to it, whether he bp perfwaded that it is of 
God, by God himfelf, or only by men v for if he can find indeed that 
he receives it upon the Authority of God,he may be fecure cf the Truth, 
and Sufficiency ot it > but if only on that of Men, they being liable to 


Scrra. X. Concerning the Authority of the Scripture. 3 1 3 

miftakes may lead him into Error, and fo he can never be fure that what 
he owns as his Rule, is indeed the right one, and of Gods own pre- 
fcribing : Or admit it really be fo, yet if it be not received on right 
grounds, he will be expofed to innumerable fears, and fTudruations,and 
never walk comfortably, nor conftantly in his way, when he doubts 
whether it be the right, or a wrong one : The fuperftru&ure cannot be 
better than the foundatiomand a well-ordered and comfortable Conver- 
fation will never be the efTed: of an ill-grounded Belief. It is good 
therefore in the beginning of our Courfe to be fecure of our way, to fee 
both what we believe, and why j left otherwife, we be either forced 
to go back, orelfeuponas light grounds fwerve from the way, as we 
were at firft perfwaded to engage in it. Our great enquiry then in this 
Difcourfe will be, Vpon what account we believe the Scripture to be the 
Word of God? whether upon the Authority of God, or the Church i which 
I ground upon thtfe words, 'they have Mofes and the Prophets, let them 
hear them. 

In this Parable, whereof thefe words are a part, we have an account 
of the different eftates of a wicked man "Dives , and a good man 
Lazarus, both in this life, and the other. In this life Dives had hi* good 
things , the whole of his happinefs,all the portion he was ever to enjoy » 
and Lazarus had hti evil things, all the forrow and mifery he was ever to 
endure. And in the other life, we have Lazarus in Abrahams Bofom, a 
place and ftate of reft, entered into peace * and Dives in Hell, a ftate of Ifa. $7. i* 
mifery, and place of torments; where finding fo great a change, and 
being deeply affected with his now woful condition, he is (though in 
vain) defirous, if not of releafe, as defpah tag of that, yet at leaft of a 
little eafe > and therefore addrefling himfelf to Abraham, he entreats him 
that Lazarus might be fent to dip but even the tip of his finger in water^ 
and coelhis tongue ; but this is denied him as impoffible, ver. 26. Seeing 
that would not do, he defires, however, his torments might not be en- 
creafed by his Brethrens coming to him, whom we may fuppofe to have 
been his fellow-finntrs, and partakers with him in his riot,end luxury ; 
Or, if you will believe fo much charity to be among the Damned, his re- 
queft is, That Lazarm might be fent to them to admonifh them for their 
good, that fo they might be brought to a timely Repentance, e're they 
came to an untimely end, and then to endlefs torments. But this is de- 
nied him too as altogether needlefs, and unprofitable, ver.$ 5^ and he is 
told, That God had made fufficient Provifion for mem, given them the 
moft effectual means, whereby they might be brought to Repentance, 
in that he had given them his Written Word, Mops and the Prophets, by 
whofe Writings if they were not perfwaded to Repent.a Miracle would 
not perfwade thetrx, Lizarus rifing from the Dead would no more be 
believed, than Mofes and the Prophets, whofe Writings were among 
them \ and therefore to them Abraham fends them as a means fuffickftt 
for the end, pretended at leaft by Dives to be aimed at. they have Mofes 


gr4 Concerning the Authority of" the Scripture. Serm. X. 

and the Prophets Jet them bear them y As if he had faid, The Will of. God 
concerning thy Brechrens duty, and the Truth of God concerning future 
rewards as the great motives to it, are clearly enough laid, down in the 
Scripture^ and if they believe not thefe things, and are not perfwaded 
to Repentance upon the Authority of God in his Word, much lefs will 
they be moved by the Te/limony of one coming from the Dead. Hence 
I inter, lb it tbe Holy Scripture, or Written Word of God. k fuffcient in it 
felf, and mojl tjfellually able to convince men of tbe truth of tbafe things 
which ate contained in it. It was fo then, why not now?* Mofes and the 
Prophets were fo, why are not the ApoflJes and Evangelifts ? is all the 
whole Scripture grown 0/n/ Teftament* and fo old as to be decayed $ 
when,and by what means did it lofe that Life and Power,that Authority 
and Efficacy it fometimes had > it had formerly more virtue to convince 
men than a Miracle it felf, and now belike it hath lefs than a Council* 
it could have done more, than a man^from tbe dead^ and now it can do 
lefs than a dead man, a finful Pope ! (for his Holinefs of Rome may be 
very wicked, the Papifts themfelves being Judges). 

From the former Propofition it will undeniably follow , Tbat tbe 
Scripture U fufficient in it j elf to convince men of its own "Divinenefs, or its 
being it felf tbe Word of God, tbat being one truth it dotb fo ojten affert : 
The General muft comprehend the Particular,and. therefore if the Scrip- 
ture be fufficient to fatisfie the minds of men as to all that it affirms to be 
truth, it muft needs be able to fatisfie them as to this too, that the whole 
of it is the Word of God. 

But this our Adverfaries will not allow, and therefore inftead of 
taking it for granted, or refting on this fiiagle proof, we muft here put 
it to the Queftion, From whence tbe. Scripture bath its Authority ? er up- 
on what grounds we are to believe it to he the Word of God? If you will 
give the Papifts leave to anfwer, they will prefently tell you, Vpon the 
fole Authority of the Church, or, becaufe the Church declares it to be the 
Word of God, and that without the determination of the Church, it hath 
Surdif. apud very little Authority, or weight in it, and you are no more bound to believe 
chxmiir. the Gofpel 0/Mathew, than tbe Hiftory of Livy ; Nay, one fays plainly, 

That but for tbe Church, you are no more bound to believe the Scripture 
than Efops Fables y and you may be fure the Man was in earneft, when 
you do but confider how many incredible things another of them .(at- 
ledged at large by our learned Wbita^er) mufterc up out of the Scrip- 
ture, which he would fain perfwadethe World would never be believ- 
ed, if the Church did not interpofe her Teftimony \ and yet as broad 
as the Blafphemy mentioned is, another of the fame Party minceth the 
Matter, and lays, the Words might be pioufly fpoh^n\ And if a private 
Dodror of the Church of Rome m3y thus tranfubftantiate Blafphemy in* 
to Piety, or make that pa fs for Pious^ which is really Blafpbemous , I 
fee no reafon why a Pope might not add his Authority, and make it 
Canonical too. But that we may give, the beft Account of the Confn> 
veriie before us ; 1, Something 


Serm. X* Concerning the Authority $f the Stricture. $ * $ 

i. Some things muft be premifed by way of Explication/or the bet- 
ter underftanding of Terms. 

2. The State of the Queftion muft be laid down. 

3. The Truth confirmed. 

4. Popi(h Objections anfwered. 

5. Some Application made. 

1. For Explication of Terras, let us fee, 

1. What we mean by the Scripture, By that therefore is underftood 
the Word of God, declaring his mind concerning mens Happinefs and 

Duty, or teaching us what we are to believe concerning God, and r ^ 

how we are to obey him,as it was at firft revealed by^himfelf to the Apo- 
itles and Prophets, and by them delivered by word of mouth, and af- 
terward for the perpetuity and ufefulnefs of it, committed to Writing 
as we now have it, in the Books of the Old and Ner» Teftament : So that 
the Word of God, and the Scripture are the fame materially, and differ on- 
ly in this, That the Word of God doth* not in it felf imply its being writ- 
ten, nor exclude it, but may be confidered indifferently as to either ', 
whereas the Scripture fignifies the fame Word, only with the addition 
©fits being committed to Writing. 

2. What is meant by Authority, when we enquire, whence the Scrip- camirodeVet* 
ture hath its Authority. Authority in this Builnefs is a Power of Com- bo Dei. 
manding or Perfwading, or (as fome phrafe it) Convincing, arillng 

Trom fome Excellency in the Thing or Perfon vefted with fuch Autho- 
rity. Whatever hath Authority defafto, fo far forth hath efteem and 
lionour, or reverence yielded to it, as whatever hath Authority de jure 
hath fuch efteem or honour of due belonging to it, and anfwering it 
as its correlate > and both the one and the other is founded on fome Ex- 
cellency, fometimes of Nature (both in Perfons and Things,) (ometimes 
of Office and Dignity, fometimes of Knowledg, fometimes ofVertue 
and Manners,fometimes of Prudence (as in Perfons >) according to each 
of which a fuitable refpedfc and honour is due to the Authority there- 
from arillng \ and as any Man excels in any of thefe, fo he hath Au- 
thority in that, though he may not in other Things. Thus he that 
excels in the knowledg of the Law , may have Authority in that, 
though he may have none in Pbyficl^ot Divinity, in which he may not 
excel: and an honeft Man, that excels in Morality, may on that ac- 
count have the Authority of a Witneft^ though not of a Judfr. Now 
when we fpeak of the Authority of the Scripture, and ask from whence 
it hath it? we do but enquire, Whence it is, that the Scripture per- 
fwades, convinces, or binds us to believe it, or commands ustoafTent 
to it, as the Word God ? or whereon its Power of fo doirg is found- 
ed > whether it be not fome Excellency inherent in it lelf, or whether it 
be only fomething forrein and extrinfecal to it > 

3. What we mean by Faith, when it is demanded, Why we believe 
the Scripture to be the Word of God > Faith, fo far as it concerns the 

* underftanding 


3*6 Concerning the AutJjority of the Scripture* Serm. X; 

understanding (Tor in forae Afis of Faith the Will bears part) is an a£ 
fent yielded to fomething propofed under the appearance fat leaft) of 
Truth, built upon the Teltimony of another » and therefore according 
as the Teftimony is, for the fake of which we believe any thing ac- 
cordingly will our Faith be : If it be the Teftimony of a Man or Men 
our Faith will be an humane Faith •, but if the Teftimony be Divine or 
we believe a thing becaufe God himfelf aiTerts it, we call it a Divine 
Faith. Only we muft remember, that a truly Divine Faith hath always 
God for its Author ; fo that three things concutf to the producing the 
ObjcAum] A& of fuch a Faith. I. The Truth believed, which is the Objed of 

Obkftum for- lU 2 * Thc Teflimon y of God c °ncerng that Truth, which is the For- 
m i Ct mal Reafon, and Ground of this Faith. 3. The Efficiency of God 

producing it, or working it in the Mind. Now when we fpeak of 
believing the Scripture to be the Word of Cod, we fpeak of a Divine 
Faith : A man may upon the Credit of his Parents, of his Minifies 
of a particular Church, or of the Church Catholick (if fuch a Teftimo- 
ny can be had; believe the Scripturi to be the Word of God > but thc 
queftion will be, what kind of Faith that is, whether fuch a one as God 
requires him to receive the Scripture with > 

4. What we underftand by the Church in the Queftion: The Church 
may be taken either for the Univerfality of Believers in all places of thc 
World, fo as to comprehend private Saints, as well as publick Officers 
People as well as Paftors, and thofe of former ages as weH as the