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Full text of "A peaceable and temperate plea for Pavls Presbyterie in Scotland : or, a modest and brotherly dispute of the government of the Church of Scotland, wherein, our discipline is demonstrated to be the true Apostolick way of divine truth, and the arguments on the contrary are friendly dissolved, the grounds of separation and the indepencie of particular Congregations in defence of Ecclesiaticall Presbyteries, Synods and Assemblies, are examined and tryed"














scs tflSW 

^h<yv^i£ "To ****«« . 







A modeft and Brotherly Difpnte of 

the government of the Church of 


Our Discipline is demonftrated to be 

the true Apoftolick way of divine Truth, and 

the Arguments on che contrary are friendly dif- 
folved, the grounds of Separation and the Indepen- 
cie of particular Congregations, in defence of 
"^s Ecclejiafticall presbyteries, Synods And 

*?£,' iiflcmbiitf, are examined and tryed. 

By Stinnett Rutherford Profeflbr of Divinity at Stint Andrews. 

P $ a x. 48.1 2. V/alhe about 2 ion, and goe round about hcr> 

ten. the Towers thereof, 
V B R . 13. CMarke jee Well her *B nlw*rks y confider her Tat- ^r 

faces, that jee may tell (it) to the generations following. •<$■ 


Printed for Iobntoartlet at the gndt-Cup nearcS* ^ato-gate, >r 6 4 j. ,2^ 



And truly Noble Lord, tarle 

of Lindfey Lord John Parbroth, 

/ &f one ot hb M i j ftics Honouiablc 
Privy Ccunccll. 

(jrace, Merry and Peace, &c. 

Ordering (my Lord) 
jo«r Lord(bips good 
minde and conflant fide- 
lity and care in advan- 
cing this bleffed Refor- 
mation % and lending both 
your /boulders to holdup 
the Kingdome of our L o R d ] r s u s, and ah 
fo your (incularreptt and reallaffeftiontothis 
famous Vniverfity, and the faculty of Divinity. 
in this Society y It bought it rather a matter of 
debt full necefiity, then of arbitrary election and 
tboife, that this little peece that pleadtth for 

A z the 

The Epiftlc Dedicatory. 

the Government of the Church of Scotland, 
fhould thrufi it felf through the thick and throng 
of many worthier monuments of Learning, un- 
der the honourable Patrociny of your Lord/bips 
name. 1 am not ignorant that: two blocks clofeth 
the pajfage tommy of greater parts and abilities 
then lam, to aide ( I mxy hay e leave to borrow 
the word) to the Preffes child-birth -travelling 
Ecc!cf.it.u. with no end of making many books, andthefe 
be the opinions of men, and the event of Prin- 
ting : Imiyfay of the former ^that Opinion is 
a Witch and a great I nchantreffe, while men 
call for Bookes, as nice banqueters call for du 
fas totheTable, for they make fuch wide oddes 
betwixt tatte-plcafant andgoodneffe ofmeat*, as; 
if they Were fwornetothe roofe of their mouth* 
rather then to health and life j fothat b is much 
more obvious to please few , and grattfe nonc^^ 
then to fat is fie ad. And for the event ^it is. not 
unlike dicing^ for it is doubt fome if Fame b&* 
notabUpri^e in writings and tf the game go^j 
not crojfe the Authors hatre. And fuch is our cor m 
ruptionfhai tbeayre or figures of * printed name 
is a peece of our felf^ and as our skin wherin our 
flejh md bones are kindly incbalmbercd, and fa 
were mofl tender of one penny breadth of this 

. bide 

The Epiftlc Dedicatory. 

bide ) or of letting one dreppe of blond of this 
kmde fall to the Earth, Notwitbfianding of 
thefe prejudices^ lbaVe, bowbeit mott unable % 
dared to appear e alfo in the Prejfe , to fay 
fomewbit in way of a peaceable defence of our 
Cburch-goVernment in Scotland. The pens 
of the worthy Reformers of tbeChriftian Chur- 
ches baye beene fo bleffed in the conjeience, if 
not in the evill eje of ewvy it felfe 9 that tbey 
have cleared the Scripture Way of the Go. 
vernment of Christ*- JQngdome to 
lye in a midline betwixt the Popes and Pre* 
lates lawlefie Church Monarchy > and the un- 
orderly conjufion of Democracie, It is not 
unknowne, the faroury perfume and honour ar 
ble name that this poore Church hath gained^ 
partly by the whole boafi of ProteflantWriters 
andancknt Father s> who have unanimoufly 
put downein \rint^ what wee have donc^ 
in prattice, according to our National! Oath> 
partly by the teftirnony of the bleffed Light s, 
anJfaitbfuH Witness of I e s u s. I might b^ 1 


name Reverend Beza, learned Brightman , *™&!'* m Am 
that manly and ttout IVitnefe of C h r i s t "^ f^ f ' 
Af* George Wifhart, the body of the Con- wpi©8>io* 
feflions of faith. And it & ^ weOmani^ 

The Epiftlc Dedicatory* 

/eft to the -world ( Sunne and Mocne being 
Witneffes) Tt>bat Prelates have attempted a- 
gm$ PresbyteriaU Go^vtrnement^ but one/aid 

%t*!> C 6?' €jr well > ' heleeve 1 esus to be a good man, 
and the Evangell blefled, becaufe Satan, 
malice and Perfecucours have done (o 
much againfl: them both with fire and 
tortures. What duft of late have they rau 
fed agiiinU it ? in Churchy State y Court ^ Par- 
liament , three Kingdomes, in Rome, in tbc~> 
heart of %jng and many o;btn 9 in Campo 
Marrio, in open field \ yea in the Sca f that 
the Set Ihould fyeake contrary to that (li!<z-> 

Cant* !©. °f l ^ e Pwpbtt, I travel! in birth, I bring 
up children, and nothing could be the reajon $ 
but they fav> the Woman looking f oorth as the 
morning, faire as the Moone , clearc as 
the Sunne, tcrribie as an Atmy with ban- 
ners, and when they law Mount Zon beau- 
tifull in (ltuation, they marvelled, they 
Iuh i wsre troubled and hailed away. . And what 
daring infoiency a this ? when the Prelate^ 
could not finde his Father £ and thought Jhame 
of his native Father Diotrcphcs, that one^> 

ufL t^the D.Hall and others have put him in the line 

Hriumc. r a ^ t i )c ^ Q$a r ^. 4 ^ and printed him an office* 




The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

jure divino, by divine right ; Vbeur Prede- 
ce fours vere content of the good old, jus hu- 
manum. Yet I hope, put the Prelate in the 
Calendar of veil- borne officers, baflard ishe 
if, yet manymuft die ere he be here. This 
boldneffe puttethmewmindeofthejafing^zm " • 
nova nifi oritur, vetusamittitur, except Pre- 
lates grow in new honour they loofe their old 
honour. But why may yve not hope that both 
they, their god father the Pope, and their 
god Mother Rome /bad loofe both ne^o and 
old. God hath fetched as broken a ship to 
land, and yet ibey will be of Divine Right : 
Is it not true that the Learned faid of necefiity? 
Neceffitati quodlibet tefum utile eft ? Any. 
clubbe is a j word good enough for poor e nece fi- 
fty, or then it is true, Neceflicas egentem 
mendacem facit : Neceffty turneth the poors 
m.ninalyary or which J rmher thinker Nc- 
ciflitasquod pofcit, nifi das, eripit. If you 
give not willingly to neceffity^hat it fuiteth, 
it muft take it by ftrong hand an J club-law. 
Christ hath fairely begun to his FniverJaB 
tonquefl Gird thy fword upon thy thigh pf4yj ^ 
©moft mighty • and blefied/ball aS ages to 
come call all thele Nobles ivbo hayejhauU 


The Epiftlc Dedicatory. 

ders to carry one Uone to the mfing of tht 
Wall of this Temple* and to build the Citie 
iicch, 4 *.jj. whofe name & the Lord is there. And in 
tbiscour[e (my Lord) hve y fiourijb and grow^ 
and Jehovah build you* fare hoxxk^hicb 
is the prayer of 

Your Lordfhips obliged fer- 
vant at all refpc&ive obe- 
dience in Christ 

Samuel Rutherfurd. 

§f>f.Sftf§2f ff Sf f § f ff f f f 

f^c^J^i ^ *c7& c|ic£i ^ t|j t|5i & rjfecf* -%> tl» Ja c|l* tSl 

To /itf Qhrifiian Trader. 

Am bold (reverend and Chri- 
ftian Reader,) to appeare in 
print to contribute my weake 
judgement for the govern- 
ment of the Church of Scot- 
land. In which fuite I have to 
(E4 doe with foes and friends.To 
the former I fpeake not now, 
I meane Prelates, Papiftsand haters of the truth, 
I doubt not but I am condemned in their books of 
both errours and crimes , my hope to prevaile 
with fuch is fmal! 5 if that be true, Damnati lingua 
vocem habet/vim non habtt, The tongue of the con- 
demned hath a noife of wards, but no power to 
perfwade, except this be alfotrue , Magna vis vc- 
ritatis % Truth may fwira, it cannot finke. But I 
fpeake to the godly, the lover of the Truth, the 
fufferer for Truth againft Anrichriftian Prelacy, 
(which is but fpilt Popery,or half-dyed Pjpiftry) 
who poflibly liketh not well of Presbyteriall go- 
vernment. And to fuch I am a debtor for love, 
chanty,honour,andall due refpeft in Chriftje- 
fus,and a feat and lodging in my heart and higheft 
(a ) efteemCc 

To the Reader. 

lhil.i 7 . 

cfteeme. And to thinke of all fuch is both, as the 
Apoftle faith, JWwr, meet. And aifo (if it be be- 
fidc the f iuth)an honeft and a : moft innocent error. 
Yea and to fay to every one in whom fas reverend 
Bum. Meet faith) there's aUquidCkriJli^ any ofChrifts 

HieT.soj>bwi. ncw Creation,as Ierom faid to a friend,?/^/ & quod 
pojjum debeoy & quodnon pofftmj owe to thee what 
I am able to doc, and more for thy good. And of 
thefe I humbly beg equity, charity, and unpartiall 
weighing of precious truth. I am grieved that this 
fhould bee put on mee which a Heathen laid on 
Senc* his friend, Amavit patriam qniafuam, non quia pa- 

triate, he loved his countrey becaufe his owne,not 
becaufe his countrey. Seeing it's weaknefle to 
overlovea Nationallfaith, becaufe Nationa!l,and 
not becaufe it's faith. Truth naked and (hipped of 
all fupervenient relations is love worthy. And 
there is as great caufe of fonow that all the Lords 
people fbould not mind one thing, andfing one 
Song, and joyne in one againfl the children of 
lob 16 i Babel, Neither fhould I feare that, ammo dolenti ni- 
hil oportet credere, forrow deferveth no faith, Since 
my witnefTe is in heaven, and my record on high, 
That I both love and difpute, I contradict and I 
. Phil.j.i^ reverence at once in this Treatife, and fhall hope, 
if any be otherwife minded, God fhall even re- 
vealc this unto them. And it is meet fo to doe,fince 
ourPhyfician Cbrift can well difference betwixt 
weakneffe and wickedneffe, and will not have us 
caft one ftraw, befo* e any whofe face is towards 
Heaven, co caufe them to ftumble. Xove hath a 
bofome and arraes to carry the weake Lamhes, 


To the Reader. 

and is a bridge over the River to keep the weake 
paflengerdry footed. Dearly beloved, let us all 
in one Spirit, one love, one afteftion, joyne to 
build the City that is named, The Lord is there. Excch**.^ 
O that our Lord would be pleafed to iufpend the 
Heaven and glory of fome, and that our Heaven 
might for a feafon be flayed ourof Heave n, fo we 
might live to fee two Sifters the Daughters of one 
Father,and of oncMo<her 9 ferttfalem who i? above, 
Britaine* Ifrael and Indah, England and Scotland 
comming together, weeping and asking the w^y 
to Sion, and cheir faces thitherward^fayingjOwe, 
let us joyne our fdves t$ the Lord in a perpetuall Co- 
venant that JhaJlvot be forgotten. And not that only 
(for why fhould the Glory of our Royal I and 
princely King, the plant of Renowns be confined 
within this narrow Ifleo Bntaine?) but that he 
would m^keuseye-wirneflVjof h'sla^Marn ge- 
glory onrarth, when he having caft the cuffed 
irilftore Bdylonv the S< a and fowne the land of 
graver Images with trmft* re, and defiio/ed 
Idols our of the earth, fhall be efpoufed on our 
elder Sifter the Church of the Jewes, and the ful- 
rtffecf rhe Pennies. O that Chnft would en- 
large h»s Love bed. And O what a honour to the 
fr rv ants of the Lord to btare up the taile of Chrift 
hisMifri^ge-rAbe-royall, in the day of our high 
and royall Solomons eftoufals. And what a lecond 
time-Heaven were it before eternities Heaven to 
have a bed in hischarior, vjh\ch\s bottomed xvith 
gold and paved and floured with Love for the daugh- 
ters of his laft married iemfaUrn, And who know- 

(a2j eth 

Te the Redder. 

eth but our Lord hath now entred on that glori- 
ous Marriagc-fait < Lctusbeleeve,waiton, love, 
follow truth and peace, be zealous for the Lord, 
and pray for the exalting of his Throne. And fo 

Tom in all revive love and obfervavce. 

S. R. 

* * 1 v v w v v > v y * y 

A Table of the Contents of the 
enfuing Treatife, 

Chap.t. Qusst.I. 

WHethtr the keyes of the Kingdome of Ckrifi be con- 
ferred by Chrift fe'ns a fan the multitude ofbelee- 
•vers^as upon the fir ft And proper fubjecl, or upon the Church* 
guides only f p. I. 

Chap. 2. Qvest.2. 

Whether or no form doe warrantably prove from Scrip. 
ture 9 that the power of the keyes is given to all the faithfully 

Chap. 3, QvEST.3. 

Whether or no the Church of beleevers in a Congregation 
be the fir ft Church, having the higheft power of jurisdi&ion 
within it felfe, and that independently, and a power above and 
tver the Slderfbip, to conftitute And ordaine them, and to cen- 
fure, depofe and excommunicato^ them in the cafe of corruption 
ef Doctrine 9 and fcandals of life and conversation? . p-30. 

Chap. 4. QvEST.4. 

Whether or no our brethren prove ftronglj that the £hu 

•fheleevers is the fir ft Church) having fupreame jurisdiction 

over the Slderfbip? p. 3 8 . 

Chap. 5. Qvest.?. 

Whether or no fome doe warrant ably affrme.tte power of 
(' 3) 

T Jl e Contents. 

the l?eyes to he originally and ejfentially in the Church ofbelce- 
vers, and in the Church- guides only, quoad excrcitium, 
and from the Church of bcleevers, 06 the MiftreffeWhom the 
guides are to (erve y and from -whom they have borrowed the 
Uj e of the keyes ? p. 5 2 . 

Chap/. Qvest.5. 

Whether Ckrisl hath left the aEluaR government of hii - 
Church to the multitude oj belccvtTi? p^3. 

Chap. 7. QvEST.7. 

If there be no true vifible Church in the NewTeftamcnt 
but only one Congregation meeting in one place, and no Pres- 
byttriaO, or representative Church as they call it? p.7 0. 

Chap, 8. Qvest.8. 

Whether or no our Saviour doth Warrant and allow a 
Church of Elders and Overfeers in theft words. Mat 1 8. Tell 
the Church? p-$3>85. 

Chap. p. Qvest.^. 

What members are necejfarily require i for the right and 
lawfull constitution of a true P olitic^e vifible Churc h 7 to the 
which ttv may joyn in Cjods worjhip ? p.^2. 

Chap. 10. Qv'est«to. 

Whether or ho it be lawfull to fepar ate from a true Church 

vifible^ for the corruptions of Teachers andwicltedneffi of Pa* 

fiors and profijfors : where faith u begotten by the preaching of 

profejfed truth ? p. 1 a O. 

Chap. 11. Qvest.ii. 

Whether or no fepar ation from a true Church, beeaufe of 
tbefama of the Profejfors, and mamfefi defence of fcandal$us 


The Concents, 

ptrfons can be f roved from Cjods word to be lawful! ? p. 1 49, 

Chap. 12. Qvest.I2. 

Whether cr no fome doe Warrant ably teach that Baptifme 
fiould be adminiflrated cnely to Infants borne of one, at Icaft 
of the neareft / are nts knorrne to be beleezers, and Who are to 
be admitted to the Lords Supper-? p. 1 64 . 

Chap.tj. QVEST.13. 

Whether or no every particular Congregation and Church 
hath of it felfe independent power from Chrift J-efus, to exer- 
cife the whole poWer of the keyes Without any fubjeblion to any 
fuperiour Ecclejiafticall iudicatorie ? p, 1 87 . 

Chap. 14. Qve ST.14. 

Whether or no the power JEcclepaflicall of Synods can be 
proved from the famous Councell holden at Jerusalem? Ads 
15. p.i?$>. 

CHAp.15. Qvest.I?. 

Whether ornoe by other valid Arguments from CjodsWerd 
the lawfulnejfe of Synods and Ajfemblies can be concluded f 

Chap. 16. Qvest.i£. 


Whether or no it can be demonft rated from gods Wordjhat 
aft particular Congregations have of and within themfelves 
full, power of Church-difcipline Without any fubieclion to 
Presbyteries, Synods, and higher Church- Ajfemblies? where 
alfo the quefiion about publike prophecy ing of fuch gifted men 
44 are not in office^ dijchffcdagainft the tenent ofSeparatiflsf 

Chap. 17. QyBST.17. 

JVhsthtr or ttofomedoi warrant Mi teach that no m*n 


The Contents, 

hath HP aft or all power to preach and administer the Sacraments 
*$ a Poft or Without the hounds of his oVtnc Congregation, 
Jndfrom whence effentiaflj is the calling of a UWinifler from 
the^Presbjtery, or from the people? p. 260, 

Chap.i8. Qvest.i8. 

Cert awe Quares or doubts following upon the 'DoElrlne 
of independent Congregations? p. 272. 

Chap. 19. Qvest.ip. 

^Doubts generally feeming to oppofe Presbyteriall {overn* 
merit difcajfed and loofed, as anent ruling, £ friers, Deacons, 
Widows, the power of Kings in matters £eclefiaftick^p.22o^ 

Chap. 20. Qvest.20. 

Whether or no the government of the Church a/Scotland can 
be demonftrate from the clear e tcftimonics of Gods Word ? 

3 06 


Chapter I. 

^Whether the power of the Keyes of the Quest 
Kingdome of C h r i s f, be conferred, 
upon the multitude of believers, as upon 
the firft and proper fubjed, or upon 
the Church-guides? 

He Queftionis not underftood 
of that Royall and Kingly po- 
wer of excellency andlndefen- 
detwie t c?\\z& at I pewer y which is 
only in Chrift lefw, but of the 
fupreme Mi nifteriall power, 
( as all expand it , Bucanus , 
CartVrright, Amefiw , Parkgr) 
that is given to the Church. 
By the Keyes wee underftand 
rot the Monarchicall power of Teaching, fupreme denning 
Articles of faith, and judging the Scriptures, as the Jcfditts 
of Rhemes doe dreame, Vulc*ne y not Cbrift made thefc 
Keyes. We deny not what Bellarmine faith, that the keyes 
fignifie a Princedome in Scripture,is the key otD/tzids houje 
promifedto£/w^'/w.Tbi$key Chrifi onlykeepeav. fty- 

B feftome 

Matth 28. if* 
luean. loc. 4* 
q. 2. 

C*Tttfright a- 
gaiaft whitpft, 
xAmef. Engbfll 
puritanifroe,p 9. 
Parlor depolit. 
Ecclenaft. lib.j. 

£fay 22. 15,21. 

hom. 2^ 

The power of the Keyes tn the Elder jlrp, Chap, i . 

gr«X#r.iib.4.E. l oTio ™ and[ Gregory both %> tna t the care of the whole 
piftji. Chriflian Church was committed to P*^r, which proveth 

hb't^ca^w'!! not his Princedome, but only his miniftsri ill power, given 
comment, m to all the Apoftles, as well as to him : but the Metaphor is 
SiSiIjoc. 42. borrowed from a Steward j or Mafler-houfehold, who hath 
4 1. the keyes of the houle given to 1 im, to open and fhut doores, 

rjnwovcrf^.n. at ni . s pleafiire, as £*&#*, 5***** whitakgr explaine it well, 
» f e-5 • and it is the power of preaching and governing given to the 

guides of the Church, as fervants to open and (hut Heavens 
doorc to believers, or impenitent perfons. 

If wee rightly proceed , thefe dift factions are to bee 
pjtmi &**#!*■• *• There isapoVftr phyftcall, and a power moralhf the 
co dc Ktckf. au- Keyes, 

l c$Z***1j 2 - ^po^'er popular of the Keyes that belongeth todl, 
m aliofui'jeftive and a poWer authoritative that belongeth to the Guides only . 
% t7%Vu- 3 ■ ^he poVrer of the Keyes is in faris! , as in the formall 
father. \. ut tn fu/jetl «nd fount ame \ 2. In the Qhwch of believers 9 as in 
exemp o. the final/ objetl, feeing all this power is for the Church. 3 . Jn 

the Guides ', asintheexemflrr caufc reprefenting the Churchy 
GerCon denote- dtweJdytheirnageisinthegUffc, and learning in t he book?, 
itat. Eccief.con- and this Pctrus de AlliaavzWGcrfon hath the like, 
fidcr ' l ! ' 4, The Keyes may be though t to be given'. Mat. 1 6. to Pe- 

te?, as Prince and King of the Apofiles^as Papifls fay, or, 2. /is. 
Vctcv.reprefenteth the Church of believers , as fome fay, or, 
3 j As bearing the per f on of (fhurch guides, as we foal I demon' 
■ . fir at e^ God ml lint. 

tmjrurfuxtir* ft a- ■* _. . <* , . ,. 

ratio, ix, 5 . There is a power ordinary, and a power extraordinary, 
ve) ffptijis d e - $ j-[ lc Xcjes may be thought to be conferred by Chriftjim- 
j5m io"a, 23*. mediately y cither I y the imme diction of (thrifts free donation- 
M«.»g, 1 8, i 9 . and gift, or by the mmcd>ation of fimple defgnatien : in the for- 
mer refpett the l^cyes were given by ChriB once to the Apo files • 
f\l Domi^Arcu! andftill to the Worlds end, to the Church guides, immediately 
Spai ? t Ac r nib. without the Qhurchcs po^cr intervening : in the later resell 
c*'!?.* r ./ "\ ' Chrift glveth the keyes mediately , by. the popular. confent and 
Pftfr.'jfc poiit. ( UTltonof the Church of believers , W'ho doe un ier Christ de- 
7^c. f acAi^;un. f gne andeboofe t ht sperfon rat her than that perfov^homisr a- 
a er o!caLccicr. thcr than John, for the 'ficreddffice of Xvectdingth Keyes, nei- 
c * 7 ' • they 

Cteip i 

hot mthe fJMultituck. 

ther is any man new defied immediately bj £7r//?, AS the Jpo- 
files were. 

7. Then Vre may Well difiinguijh in this queftiovt thefe foure, 
I. Power phyjicall. 2. P after mora//, 3. 'power of order, 
andjarifdifiion. 4 The ufe and cxercife of that power. 

Wee are to obferve, that it hath beene a noble and grave 
'Queftion betwixt the Church of Rome, and the Vniverfitie 
of Paris (asSpalato, and Robert Parker with others have 
obferved) whether C hrift huh given the power of the keyes 
immediately to all the faithful! , and by them to the Paftours 
and Doftors , as the Parifians hold (Co teachcth <*s4lm<tin, 
loan. Cfrfajor y gerfonmd Occam) or if Chrifthath given die 
keyes immediately to the Church guides, as we maintaine 
from Gods Word. The miftake hath beene* that lbme Do- 
ctors believe that the power of the keyes, feeing it is Tor the 
good of the whole Church ,muft have (ome common fui> 
ject, viz. the univerfall Church, in which it muft for orders 
cauie firft refide, before it be given to certaine guides ; But 
neither Scripture, nature, nor reafon requirethfuchafhif- 
ting of the keyes from hand to hand, feeing Chrift can keep 
them , and immediately put them in their truft, whom he 
lik eth beft. Hence for the determination of the Qucftion. 

I, Conclufion. The phyficall power of the keyes is given 
to men as they are profeflbrs , that is ,men, and not Angels 
are capable of that power ;for when they are made members 
ef the vifible Church,they are differenced both from Angels 
and Infidels, as Pagans and Tnrkes y for Angels according to 
Chrifts humble love and deepe wiiedonie, are not upon the 
lift to be ornce bearers in his houfe : but this is not formally a 
power of the keyes, but a popular power about the keyes, 
whereby popular conlent maybe given to the key-bearers, 
for their election. 

I I. (fondafion\ There is a power popular, but not autho- 
ritative; a power of private Chriftians (not an orficiall po- 
wer of charge) given to the vifi; le profellbrs to make choife 
of their owne office- bearers: thele againft whom we now 
difpute, brethren, reverend , learned and holy , doe con- 
found and take for one and the fame, the power cf electing 

B 2 

Gerftn. dcaufer 
loan. Ma\oi jn 
Mar. \6. 
Occam 1. 1. p. I. 
n. 6. 

1 Conclu(?or\ 




The power of the Kejes in the Elderfhy, Chap. 

^ejuinat 12* C[. 

or choofing officers, and the power of Ordination. And 
they make election of Elders (which by Gods Word is 
due to all the taithfull ) an acT: of jurrfdiclion, whereas it 
is a private and popular acl: , flowing from that fpirit of 
grace in believers, and from the light of Caving faith, and a 
grace that they call, gratia gratjtm faciens , grace whereby 
iiT" l wee are accepted to CoJ , as vdquinas ipeaketh , for it 

IS&m. 1 " is that Heavenly inftincl of Believers, whereby thy try 
iohmo.8, 2". all things , and kee^e thc.t Vvkich is good , and whereby 
Htb.j 14. ^ e J tr J f ^ e (P rits (even of Officebearers) Whether they 

he of God } or not, and know the voice ef the Shepheard y 
from the voice of a fir anger # and Lave their fenfes exerci. 
fed to difcerne good and evil L I denie not , but there is a 
twofold power of election of guides , one proper to belie- 
vers , which is , as I have described it , their choofing of 
Officers, De jure, and fhould flow* from this difcerning in - 
ftincT of faving grace in believers : there is an other power 
of eh clio l , De fatto y that floweth from a common grace 
of difcerning in vifible profeflbrs , both is fiifficient for Ec- 
clefiafticall choofing of guides, yet both is but popular , not 
authoritative ; but power of authoritative jurisdiction, is 
gratia gratis data, a common grace given to many,thatarar 
never converted nor faved ; yea the office of a publike guide 
to lave others, is given to a man that is never laved himielfe, 
and requireth fome indowments of governing , that arc 
not required in all the faithfull , as is cleared by Paul,i Ti- 
iTim.3-2,3,4,5 mothj 3. Therefore Cjerfon will have us to difference be- 
uerfon dc aufcr. twixt thefe two, a Paftour ad utititatem, and a Paftour ad 
3/i"Sdepote. witrtewy and a called Paftour, and a called Chriftian Pa- 
>aica & cccief. ftour. And sAlmawe proveth well, tnat the calling to a 
* '*' Church-office, is not founded upon faving faith and cha- 

ritie. This power of choofing is a power about the keyes, 
but not a power of the keyes. a. It is common to all be- 
lievers, who are not to take Paftours as the market goeth, 
upon a blinde hearefay , but officiall authorise is given to 
Demas,znd lndas^ and fuch men often 3. It is given to 

^o^aSSft womcntotr y tne Spirits, yet women have not authoritic, 
c «s p ca again ^^ ^ tQ yf^pg authorise over men in the Church. 

Chap. i. not in the CMultitudt, 

I defire in the fcare of God that this may be confidercd by 

William Heft, Henry ?aob, and the Author of Presbyteriall Htn n Tac ' b 9°- 

^ J J t l tv • /> -n \ vemm by free 

Government exaimrkrd,rorour Divines, (as D anew) gwe con c cm of the 
the calling of \ nurchauides to the Presbyterie, and the people p : 7p- 

1 . P . ^.^ * ~ rr r ..rr i \ • i_ Prtibyterull''o- 

approba*-o:ito the people rry/»* a ltterenceth betwixt trie vemmentcxami- 
yji^^fnentot EUeis, and the conient of people ; and Bu- ncd,^.,^, P 
xtr judiciouily diftinguifheth power from authoritie; T^^in iTi- 
AndLMartjr, Calvin, Beza, Zningl'iHi, Viretus y Luther, mo r thy c 5-22 - f 
io the Fathers, TertullLm, i jprtan, <*Ambrofe, Chryfo- p."^."".™. 
dome. In this meaning , faid zAuquftine, the keyes were i* 8 ?- . xt 
given in Peter to the whole Church, io our Divines are to ,*. n^tejt 
be expounded, when they lay the power is in the Church, J^/JJJJ c ~~ 
and the exerciie of the power in the guides, for that pc- >»>** wi' 
wer which is in the Church of believers, is popular, not au- f'J^/J^jJJJJl 
thoritative. >»*. 

III. Conclufion. The phyficall power of the keyes is ** ATt v in « Cor - 
in all profeiTors, as our firft C onclufion faith. 2. The fe» f*M» inftta* 
prcme morall power in £hrift lefus , formally and inde- JA^g ift g 
pendently, To me e u given all poWer in Heaven and Earth, & cbnfef.5.34. 
CMattheft 28. 18. this inchideth the power of working **«*'"* ****• 
miradesjby the hands of his Apoftles,all,as well as the power vmrnt diaidgo, 
of the keyes , and is communicated to the Church not for- £* a e voca 
mally, but in the effed. 3. Power morall, about the Minirtr. P . 3 ^ 5 " 
keyes, as is (aid in 2. Conclufion, is gi\en to all the faith- ^etfom^c 
full. 4- The exerciie of the keyes to preach, andadmini- bis require r 


fterthe feales of Grace, Tb open and ftiut Heaven by the ^ft"*"' 4 " 2 E 
keyes, is given to the Rulers in fome things, as they are ^tmhef 
fcattered and fingle men,as to preach, and adminifter the Sa- c ^ 9 *' in Wat 
craments, without confent in i'peciall to every fingular ^u^jt. 
ad : in fome things, as to exercifc power of Jurif- 3 Condu/Ion * 
didion , the exercifc , and the power is given to a 
communitie, not to one, Vnitaii , n n urn, as G erf on 
obferveth from tsiugtift'-ne , and tAugufline from the 
word, CAUtthew the Sixteenth , for the Church not one <?„/•„, d cp oteft< 
fingle man hath power of Dikipline : if one Paftour ccdef. confide. 
bimlelfe alone fhould Excommunicate , the Excommu- X Ui *ni nt . 
nication were null, both in the court of C h r i s t* M *" h f£; 
and his Church, if a Paftour fhould baptize againft the ^htfViii 

B 3 Churches 

Con cW» flop • 

The power of the Keyes in the Elderjhip, Chap. i. 

Churches minde, the Baptifmc were valid, bowbek there 
were an crrour in the facT, for power of jurifdielion is given 
to the members of the Church fcattered, tanqmm fuije&§ 
cfillim mater i All <$• potentially ill remote power, and not for- 
mally, but as they are met in a Synod in Chriits name. 5. The 
power of the keyes is given to the Church of believers two 
wayes. 1 . As to the end y or the finall db jecT: of the keyes : 
and this we acknowledge as truth, for thrift gave officers 
for the Church , as his intended end , Hee gave fometo bee 
tsfpoftles , &c. for the perfe cling of tie Sair.ts , for the 
Worke of the U\>tinifterlc , for the edifying of the Body 
of fchmft. But 2. The power of the Keyes is not given 
to believers as to the formall fuhjccT, that they may 
authoritatively make and ordainc officers Hence the, 

I V. Conclufion y is this. When the Church ftandeth of 
believers, only as contradiftinguimed from her guides, it 
is then totum homogenenm, a body confiding of alike parts, 
w Vk re trie denomination of the whole is given to the parts; 
as ev ry part of water is water, fo every three believe rs of 
fiv c hundred believers, is a Church o believers. Now if a 
C hurch fhould be in a remote Ifland, not confeciate with 
other ( hurches, and yet wanting guides , our brethren lay 
in this cafe, th- power of the Keyes mould beefeeneto 
bee in believers, and they might choofe and ordainc truir 
ovvne officers I grant they have great Schoolemen to lay 
dVpnzdiucul v/ i tn them, as %Almaine and Oc am y and the Schoolc o^ 
c-9-ad i-si ar- Ps.ris, who fay, if all the Ca>d; rials rverede,d y the faithfii 1 1 
p!ft^% mi l ht Md Jlciild choofe the Tope. Syliefter in fumma, verba. 
n*iUnt <hg*t>*4 excommunicato g.nu.i fmb, Trie Romane clergie mould 
filuSSjfSSn have the power of chooling the Pope in that cafe. Buf 
tHgerc (papum) Cajetan. Tern 1 . Episl Tratlat. 1. V fqftez. in ^.part. 
'ZZZiuJX* Thomas Tom. 3. Vijput. 244. r*>.j 30. 31. doe bet- 
W*i** *i*£<*- ter fay in that cafe, the power of choofing fhould be in the 
IVivejiXim vcl! hands of a i jenerall Councell, and that by divine right:Then 
cKco.n-y. :i- :• by their mindc fupreme povv^ro; the keyes by divine right • 
Si'TMi^r*' is in the hands of Church guides. But great Scho lemen 
v*frin j pdifp. fay, that the keyes by a miracle and extraordinary might re- 
main in the body of the faithful!. But I fay in this cafe Nccefsl- 


Chap. i. W ik the CMtih'itnAc. 7 

tj is an unbooked and fraught) ; Lawyer ,and God extraordinarily 
ihould fiipp'V the want oi ordination , as he can doe the de- 
feel <rf fecond cauit s: fo that if God lend fome paftonrs to a 
congregation that wei eiinwili ng to chooie their owne El- 
derfhip, Pali burs might crdaine themf elves Pallors in that 
caie to theie people, and ( od fhould fuppJy their want of 
popular election, and this is alls good to prove election to be 
in-the hands of Church guides (which both our brethren 
and wee deny) as the other cafe is to prove the power of 
the keyes to h* in the mnhitude. But. we arc now difputc- 
ins about the power of the keyes in a Church minifkriall, 
which is totum he erogcrcum^ where the whole giveth not 
a denomination to the part, as every part of a rn:n 
is not a man, a Church made up of onhy believers is 7 „ >nKf , ,. Ul 
not Chrifts organ icall body ; where there are eyes, tares, and p,^.d>.cccUj. c .8 
hands. and feet , as is mcaned, Rom. 12. and 1 CV. 12. for 
aH are here an eye of believers, and all of collateral! and e- 
quall authoritie , neither is there here an eye or nn hand 
in a minifteriaU fun&ion above a fooce. But wee now di- 
fpute about the keyes of a minifteriaU Church , 2^ Junius 
fiitbjtnadeupof integral! parts of zt&t$t$bxi and &*#&«*> 
$pL oi Shepheards and Sheepe. 

V. Ccnclufion. The office bearers of the Church have the y Conciufio» 
power of tlie Keyes and their office immediately from 
Chrift, by the immediation of free gift: they have their of- 
fices from the Church, by the mediation of orderly defolia- 
tion ; feeing it ; s the C! urch which defigneth iiich a man 
to fuch an office, therefore it is laid, Efh 4. 11. He c gave 
feme to be Affiles for the £ hurc h, heiaith nor, to tl e Church , 
as if the faith full by an innate and received power from 
Chrift, didordaine by authoritie Vdnifters as their fcrvants 
ana 1 Deputies, for all the authoritie is < hrifts, not thj belie- 
vers. I grant what is given for the Church, in fome fenfe, is 
laid to be given to the Church, as ChryfoFlome fa id, The c*tjpn> Ac fa- 
gift of bpptifmeis given to the -whole Church, ! in the po- cc,do1 >* 
werof baptifingisnotgiventoall the believers , as to the 

This Cor.cluf.on I prove-i T/.a: is not to be holden which 


The fower of the Keyes in the Elder (hip, Char, i 

js not written,as our brethren hoi J. So Be ft, Tr avers, Par- 


churches far, Amef. CM. Iacob y {o&\{oTheodoret,Cyritl, Aueuftire, 
Vrfdc dird' Ambrofejout it is neither exprefly ,nor by good confequence 
¥«t«i l ' 'lit* * n <5cr H :>tures » no P r ecept, no promife, where all the kithfull 
ecddU.V P c 4,V hy bands on men for the Mimfteric, as Titus, Paul, and the 
v^/Frcfhuuc Presbytcric doe, i Timothy ^ 14.. or where all thefaith- 
iafo'^g.wcrnm. full doe binde and loofe , and receive witnefles judi- 
tmu ■ Cl2i ^y againft Elders, as Peter m&Timotby have authori- 
al j. ' ,n ' tytodoe. 

c J rill i n 2c > ? ni l: 2 - drqument. If the word fay that the power of the 

Kmbrof.in i Cor. Keyes is given to certainc felecT: perlons, and not to ail oehe- 

Tcor 1 x. 28. vers ' l ^ cn * s not t* 1 * 8 P°wer given to all believers: but the 

Eph. 4 u- word faith the former, er. The Aflumpnon is thus proved, 

iiSzo'v'ii ii If thefe Offices that effentially include both the power and 

2 j. the exerciie of the Keyes, be given to fome fclecT: perfons 

2 Ar°gttmem. anc * not to a ^ tnc faithrull, tnen arc not tnc Keyes given to all 
caiv\n in loo the faithfull: but the Lord gave the office of Apoftles, Pro- 
»!*&&£ P h ets, &c to fome only. And God hath fet fome in the 
officium, cuieos C/wr&f then not all) firft, Apoftles , fecondarily , Prophets, 
sliL^bZ's thirdly,Teachers,&t. And hee gave fome to be Apoftles (not 
or bis ceded* all) and feme Prophets, &c. Are all Apoftles} The major 
mimftros decer- j s pro^becaufe to bean Apoftlc,aPaftor,tf*. i? to have 

a power given by Chrift to ufc the keyes by preaching, bind- 

3 Argument. m o and looilng,by cenfures,as an Apoftlc," Paftor. &c. This 
po^eftate" 1 ^" cannot be anfwered, feeing there mud be another power to 
patre miflui c ft. binde and loofe in Paftours, and Elders , ti.an is in all belie- 
cJf e VZ ° c C om- vers, women, believing children, and many believers unapt 

ES? ,iW ^ to govern?. 

com. a V 3 Argument. To whomfocver Chrift givcth the power 

chryfift. Apofto- Q f t ^ e Keyes, to them he gave a minifteriall fpirit by way of 

loi conftmut hie . . J ' p . . r / ' / 

lcgaros fnos & lpeciall ambaiiagr to remit and to retame fins, as the Ambal- 

oSiub- 12- i« lac * ors °^ GodiriChrifrsftead, and them he ft nt,as the fa- 

ifan'ca- ss- & the fent him,as is clea-e in the Scripture, As th Father fent 

Cyprian de urn- m » f fend I you* &c. He breat'edon them and faid ', receive 

taic Ecclcl* pro- ' •> . ./ ' » ' 

pc inuium Mit- the Holy Cjhosl 1 whofoever finnes ye remit thej are remitted. 
tit h.eCinquiunr; Jn which' words, oxrDmn&.Calinu.Bullinrer, Mu. cuius \ 
mnipo:c ate A- Beza> yea a id Papitts,: ajetan,Toletus y teaLh that Chriit here 
convcmcbTc. !mri ^UiiWuguiatchis.Difdpks to preach and exerciie the cen- 


Chap, i notintht CWultttude. p 

fares of the Church: foalfo C] r rf l Zhrj[ofiome y CypriA*. But 
this minifteriall fpirit, ££W/r gave not to all the faithruil, 
but only to the Apoftles, for he fent not Mary Uyfxgd;- 
lene and Cleopb.u in this place, as M.Smith faith, and why? 
becaxfeit is gathered from Luk.24.3 3,34,:6. IhztMAgda- 
tern andffleophas vere there y ( faith he) ?rAf « £ hriftfaid y As 
my father fent me fo fend fyou,T here fore Mary alfo.and Clc- M. !Wri 
^p/;^ received a minifteriall fewer of the keyes , aR as Well [^'; 
ms the Apoftles. I aniwer , but this place is all one with zg^Cx m . *»«-- 
Ma:.2%. 18,19. where they are commanded to preach 
and baptize, which is not lawfull en. 1 Cor. 14. 

1 Tim. 2 . And it is all one with the Comntiflion/^/rfr^i 6 
14. which is reftruted to the eleven. Another weakc 
ground he hath, that the eleven Vtereuot make Apoftles^ until!: 
Chrift s Afcenfion, esftt.2* When the fpirit tt 'as fent •, andumill 
he led captivitie aptive, Ephef.q. u. but this power Was gi- 
Vtn to Ail t'r.e D ifciples before his afcenfion. Anfwcr, a high- 
er meafure of the Spirit was powred on the Apoftles at 
Chrifts Afccnnon.and by vertue of his Afcenfion, he ordai- 
ned Apoftles, Epb.$. n. but will it follow, none were 
made Apoftks-untiil he afcended ? if this were good, by.. 
vertue of his death, wee obtaine forgivenefle of finnes, by 
his afcending to heaven, w T c alfo afcend. But hence it fol- 
loweth not, that there is no forgivencfle of finnes while 
Chrift die, and that there is no afcending to heaven of the 
fpirits of the Patriarchs and Fathers , while Chrift afcen- 
ded, 2 » That the Apoftles were called, and received Apo- 
ftlclhip from Chrift in the dayes of his rleuSjbefore his death, 
isclcare, Mattb,\oa y 3. and that they went cut, and prea- 
ched, andcaftoutdivels. A fecond exception there is of 
fome, who fay, a concionAll or preaching poller of forgiv- 
neffe of finite s is ret given to all, to whom a loofing from fins 
by Church ce«[ures is given , as is clear e in our Ruling Elders, 
who have not power to forgive finnes by preachings yet k*Vt re- 
wer to for give, binde And loofe, by Church-cenfures. Aniwer, 
We may diftinguifh where the law diftinguifhetb, for how- %&*****• 
bcit the power of preaching be not given formally to rule- 
wgEldcrS; yet it is effectually in the fruit given to them, m 

C the 

I o The power of the Kejcs in the Elderjhip, Chap. 

the judiciall and authoritative applicatiou in the cxternall 

u£ fi z U L%u ni ' court of Chrifts Church, but believers, as believers only, 

Tarty dc Poiit. have neither power to preach formally, nor yet effectively 

JryS'in LevitJ. to a PPty judicially the threatnings of the word in dilcipline, 

9- to the judiciall correction of delinquents ; now the keyes in 

H*z f c*° milin the word, and the keyes in the difcipline, are the fame keyes 

jiafi. morau. 1 4 of Chrifts kingdome, as Arm fins obferveth, . and the keyes of 

Fauft i- j c°»T the word are the keyes of the kingdome, committed to all, 

-Bed*, in i Pet- 5 • either formally or effectively, to whom the keyes of difci- 

rBett Churches .. i_ t_ r \ ^ \ 

p i ca< pane are given, buttneyare never given$to tingle believers 

Jacob q»v<r. p. w ho cannot lawfully preach. Therefore fingle believers are 
Rolinfon luftific not the fab jccT: of the keyes. 

Smith paraidi ^ Argument. Such power of the keyes , without the 
^Argument! 53 which the Church of Chrift isperfecl, and complete for 
government, isfuperrluous, and fo not of Divine, but of hu- 
mane Ordination. But the Church is complete and perfecl: 
in its government, in that there are in it believers, Paftours^ 
Dottors, Elders, and Deacons, fiippofc no power of the 
keyes, be in the communitie of believers. The propofition 
is Prfr^/ ; fo reafon the Fathers, Cyrill, (/bryfoflome, ?$*• 
fil. Augttsline, Bedax io William *B eft , M lacob ,M Rob in- 
foru I prove the Affumption- The Elderftiip have no over- 
sight in the Lord, and there is no neceflitie or excrcife of the 
keyes, as Elders, if all believers have a minifteriall power to 
bind and looie : as M. Smith and others, teach : and if all e- 
parkcr de poiit. difie by the keyes, as Parker faith, and judicially cen(ure,cx- 
Enj;iift 3 puri«- communicate, andordaine, or depofe their rulers, as the 
m(»e,9. Engli/b Pftritanifme, and authors of the presbytery exami- 

vcrn. examined" ned doe prove, from i CV. 5. and Guide to Z ion. Tor ten 
p^ i i.rear. i,2, 3 believers being nothing but believers by Divine right , or 
frf-si.p.i.K?' als well the governing Church without the Eldcrfhip, as 
Mat. 16. having them, iuppofe all the Elders were believers. Where 

alfo there be t wentie times three believers, they have all in 
their o wne families the power of the keyes, and io there arc 
twenty Churches, complete and independent within them- 
felves, joyncd in t wentie neighbour families, all under ono 
covenant with God y and flying all knownefins. Now when 
Chriftiaith, If thj brother off$ndthee y andobfiinatelj rejuje 


Chap. i. not in the CM altitude- j j 

to he^re , tell the Church. Which of the twenty three fhall 
the Brother wronged have recourfe unto? (tell the Church) 
as reafon would fay, muft bee fome \ ifible Church, Senat or 
judicatorie, but all thefe twenty threes met within their 
houfes are independent Churches, i^they be believers as we 
fuppofe, 2nd ail vifibie Churches. Shall wee thinkc that 
Chrift hath left a grieved brother to a blind,7V7//i* Church} 
and yet who can know this Church > for all have alike inte- 
reft in Chrift, which of the twenty threes bee the Church 
that Chrift meaned in thefe words, Tell the Church, by this 
.doclrine none can dreame. 

5 Argument. The multitude <of believers hath either 5 . Argument- 
this power of the keyes from Chrift, and from heaven ; or 
from the earth, and from men: for I thinkc our brethren 
will not dreame of any ecclefiaftick positive law , not war- 
ranted in Cods word, for a third, for this Papifts teach.This 
is drifts argument for John 'Baftiiis minifterie. If from 
Chrift and Heaven, it is cither from the law of nature, or 
from lomc divine pofitive law : from nature it is not For 
i . the power is not naturall, but fupernaturall, reaching a 
fupematurall end, the gathering of the Saints, Eph 4.1 1,12. 
neither is this power foch, as can have nature for its Author, 
as Aim in faith, feeing it is above natures reach And lb al- ^ l ^ in ****h. 
ib faith And.DuvdimsN happily they fay, it is from good rrftaV cockftn 
confequence natural!, tor becaufe of the claime and mtereft maniws^nftkui- 
that the faithfuU have in Chrift, Chrifts keyes are given to- kills. 
thern,as God giving Chrift, he giveth all other things with ?^ // '"^ n2 2 i ; 
Chrift I Anfwtr.. This maketh no man, but a believer, defu.11. ponuf. 
yea no gifted paftour capable of the keyes, except hee have tiad * * «H -p- * • 
faith in Chrift, which we (hall hereafter refute, as contrary Rom . 8 . 32 . 
to Scripture. 'Neither can it bee from anypofaive law, or 
grant, or promife in the new Teftamen: , that all the mem- 
bers of the C hurch fhall be Princes, Rulers, Commanders, KomTi *?!?' 
that Chrift hath k ft none to be over other in the Lord. If this 
be from men,it is a humane ordinance,ani cannot ftan J. See 
what BelLrminc faith to this purpofc. 

6. Argument . The power of the Keyes is ether * Argument,. 
given to the believers as believers , or as they are fuch 

C 2. whom 

1 2 The fewer of the Keyes in tht Elderjhip y Chap, i . 

wbome God gitteth for government, fele&ed from amongft 
I others, if the later be faid, we have our intent , and the keyes 

muft be given immediately to fome felecTcd guides : If the 
keyes be given to believers , as they are fuch , and under this 
reduplication, Then i. All believing women and children 
have authorise in the Lord over the congregation, which, 
Duvaiitus ii.to. as Vuvall'tus faith, is not to be admitted, for quod convenit 
a.tua. 4 - de » *»lo convenit &1* ?w™ • Yea, 2. iaith TauHt apes, If the 
%™in™ 1 Dioce • t mer °f r ^ h e J es An ^ tucking bad beene given to all believers, 
try a 1 1 q , j concl alljhould have beene made F aft ours and D ottours, though not 
p'/r^dc poiit. to continue fo in exercifing the power. And fo all muft have 
cccicfi. \'c.<\. the power of feeing , as the Church eyes and Watchmen, 
.wTmincdfpT 3 '. and all the power of hearing, as the Church eares, and cer- 
i Cor. i». 17.14 tainely, the fecondad: muft proceed from the cflenceand 
firft aeT, as moving muft proceed from a living foule , to 
laugh from a reafbnable foule, fo to excommunicate judici- 
ally, to judge, correct, caft out, bind andloofe, (all which 
Parker and others prove to agree to believers from Uvlat* 
tbewiZ. and 1 Corinth. 5.) muft flow from aminifteriall 
principle, and fo all muft bee eyes, and eares, which is a- 
gainft the varietie of the gifts of the fpirit. If the whole bo- 
dy were an eye, where Were the hearing , if the Whole Were hea- 
ring, where were the fmelling? r.14. for the Whole body is 
not one. member , but many , yea , a collection of many 
k -umene Hence, -]. ^Argument. That is not to be admitted which 

Kcbr3.1V overturr>tth the order eftabliihed by Chrift of comman- 

\ TfaZ' m \ z ding, and obeying^, and which everteth the integrall mem- 
Excikj 3*. 7 17 bers and parts of a vilible poiitike minifterialJ body of Chrift, 
u?*'\t* f *** ^ ut t0 §* YCt h~ power of the keyes to all, and every one, o- 
aco'r^oo' 3 verturneththis order of Chrifts, Ergo, This doctrine is not 
Aa* ?g ! 4 to ^ e admitted.The Major is undenyable.I prove the Minor. 
j cor., 1 , 1 The minifteriall Church is divided,as Junius faith, in Sheepc- 
1 T*m 4 ' W heards,ani fbck,fo:nc are **&&&** and tyv&>v ivTvtpom 
Mark 1 2.2 Overfeers and Watchmen, others , fuch as arc tojubmit ando- 

Mat^it ty l fomQZTQ Watchmen, then they have fomc that they 

1 cor.V 9 ic- watch over : Some Shepheards, ergo, they muft have Sheep: 
i!fi£&.t?' ^mtjfmiMfidmiH Chrifts ftea4 : Ergo, They have fome 




net in the ^Multitude. 


Traitcif. ftkn/in 
anfwer to the ar- 
ticles of dtvif.p. 

Smith parallels 
cenfnres and ob- 
servations p,6tf. 
Col. 4.. 17. 
Stnytkib.p 6j? 

to whom they carry the Embafoge, Her aids, tpitnejfes, Stew- 
ards, Fathers, Saviours, Sowers, Reapers, builders, then 
they muft have, a People, Houfe, Sonncs, Ground, &c. up- 
on whom they cxercife their native operations. But if all 
have power of the keyes, and po wer to edifie by binding and 
loofing, all (hould be Ovcrfeers , Watchmen, Sheepheards, 
Ambafiadors, and if sll were Fathers, where were the Sons? 
What a worke would this be, that allChriftians muft leave 
their trading, husbandry, arts, fayling, and ovcrfee the 
Church, and judge and determine Church matters betwixt 
brother and brother. So Francis Iohnfon teatonGth : Matter 
Smith anfwereth two things to this. 1 • The Elders ( faith 
he) Jball obey the voice of the Church, in things commanded bj 
God, and all the Saints are to obey the Elders in things com* 
mandedby Cod, and thefe may Well ft and together. Ianfwer, 
If we fpeake of divers kindes of obedience, :t is true , peo- 
ple is to obey the Paftours and Elders ufing the keyes , here 
the ftieepe obey the Shephcards, and this is the obedience 
that Chrift hath eftablifthed in his houfe, and the Elders as 
Archlppus, are to heare the flock admonifhing, no comman- 
ding as Watchmen, Fathers, Paftours by the power of the 
keyes, that they Would take heed to the mimfterie, Which they 
have received of the Lord, and this is but private admonition, 
that one man 5 one woman , may give to their Paftours- 
Now one man is not the Church bearing the keyes, but this 
opinion makcth Archippus and all the faitbf till at Coioffe to 
bearc the keyes, and command by power of the keyes, fo 
that all are Fathers, Paftours ; Paftours by one and the fame 
power of the keyes. His fecond anfvver is. &4U are not ru- 
lers : An tmorporatipn may make a Major and Sheriffs, and 
yet the incorporation is not a Major or Sheriffei So the Church 
may make Mirivfters, and yet the Church it ftlfe is not proper- 
ly an Elder, or a Deacon. Anfwer , It is not alike , An in- 
corporation hath a priviledge, but not any princely or magi- 
fteriallauthoritieto create a Major, but the Saints have the 
regall po weF of the keyes from Chrift , not only to make 
Elders, but alfo to judge authoritatively with cocquall po- 
wer with the Elden;by your dodrine, if the whole inhabi- 

C 3 tants 

1 4 The power of the Keyes in the Elder flip, Chap. I. 

tants of a citic may make a Major, and fct themfdves down 
in the Bench, as collaterall Judges with the Major, then 
all the inhabitants indeed were Majors , as all the Saints in 
Corinth did judicially excommunicate , why are they not 
then all Elders and Paftour*? Shew us any authoritiethat Pa- 
ftours h3ve in governing, w hich the meaneft of the congre- 
gation hath not? And this maketh all Minifters, and all, to 
be Watchmen, Fathers, Overfeers. This I take to have 
Ttuui .Je puj.ic. becne the errotir of Ter tuition, who will have Chrift to 

have left all Chriftians with alike power. 
8 Argnmcnr. g Argument. if there be a peculiar authoritie in Paftors 

over the flock, that is not in the flock , Then the keyes are 
iCoriij.Vo, not both in the Paftours , and the people : but thefirftis 
Kcv. 2 . v. 1 4,*o. f^ij i n Scripture, ervo, The later muft alio be laid. I prove 
contra, m. -int. the Minor. What t * til yefhat I come to you irtth a roa y or in 
ikdominb.to.il. / g7Ut orinthe Sfititofmeekneflct alio. Therefore L "to rite 
thefe things being abfen^ left hino prefent I fhould ufe fiarp- 
nejfe, according to the poWer that the Lord hath given me y to 
edificatiw, and not to detfrutlion. Hence it is that the Angels 
of the iev:_ M hurchesin ayffia are rebuked for not excre- 
ting dilcipline againft Iezabel, and the holders of the Do- 
ctrine of Bala m: which proveth the Angels had the keyes, ^ 
els all iifafe had beene rebuked. Now that every one of C * 
rinth hath the power of Pauls Rod, and his power given 
for edification,is mod ridiculous. So Becanus the Jcfuite.- 
i tl *». CaQ every believer fay to a Church, SI all J come to yon with 

the Rod t Yet if all have the keyes, as the tub jed, all hav e 
the Rod alto. 
9. frgumc m. P- ^.That which Chrift will have to be a minifteriall po- 
tlr 'V 5 ' wer * n r ^ c rnem bcrsof his Church, to the ex: rciie theror 

tky 6o" 6 'io, 1 13 Chrift giveth competent and anfwerable gifts to the foreiaid 
^ 2 ; ■ eftjcT. But God neither giveth,nor hath promi(ed,nor requi- 

Kxod!tw,ii. rern anfwerabie girts for ufing the keyes in all believers, 
txck' "-' . Therefore Chrift vvillcth no minifteriall power of the keyes 
i«h.4o**iV 2, to be in all the members ofthe church. The proportion I 
*ft-9- 1 7- prove i . God proinifeth gifts to the priefthood ofthe Dew 

leftament. As i. Diligence, Efaj 6\. T'at grangers 
Jhall ftand and feed their flocks. 2. Zeale , Efay 62. That 


C hap. i . not in the mtuUitnJc. 1 5 

they {ball never give tie Lord reft. 3. That they Jhall be cha- 
tted With fatvatiin. < 2. When God fcndcth UW#/« , %$*%&*' 
Ifaiah , Ieremiah, he giveth them gifts and abilities for the £*° d ; J- «• ««■ 
calling. So (as the Treatift of Difcipline obferveth) it is oft Efa y V, 4 ,%. 
faid, The ^ftrit of the Lord came upon him , and he judged If- Efayjtf.ia 
r/*/. So alio other places for this. 3. They arc condemned fi * r c t 5 Vj 4 7,8- 
who take on them a calling, and lay, Thus faith the Lordy •**.*$•▼•*&* 
and yet the Lordfent tkem not, neither fpake he ttthem, as in * 7 
Ifaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel. 4 Where the Lord giveth 
a calling or power, fuch as the keyes of his Kingdomc, the 
not improving and putting the Lords Talent to the bank, is 
a finfull digging of the Lords Talent in the earth. Hence 
I deiire to know from Gods word, thefe fourc things, 1. If 
the power or the keyes be given by Chrift to all the faith- 
full, this power is a minifteriall calling. Where is there a pro- 
mile for light, prudence for government, to goe out and in 
before the Lords people, made to every one of the Lords 
people? 2. Where is the tongue promiied to them all in 
judgement, that none ftiallrefift, and the confolations pro- 
mised to them, in the difcharge of this power of the keyes ? 

3. Where is the Spirit of the Lord commingupon them 
all , and every one , that they may judge the people . ? 

4. Where are the believers condemned for ufurping the 
keyes, and becaufe being ignorant they cannot difcharge 
that calling ? Where is the carelefle governing of all and e- 
very one of the raithfuU rebuked in the word of God , as a 
digging of the Lords talent in the earth? I adde two things 
to continue this. 1. Our Divines deputing againft the 
great P0/>f,the Bifhop of R ome, and againft the little 7>ope y 
the Prelate his god- (on, and rlrft torn, c ome out of the Popes 
loynes, as Calvin, £ezt, Ifinius^Zanch^HSySadce^ Parens , 
I r fine, fVhstaker, Reynold, and ssfmefws , Raines, Parker* 
Didoclavius, <&c. They prove , if fuch power of the keyes 
and plenitude of order, and j tirifdiftion, were in thefe two 
creatures, the Pope and the Prelate, the wifedomeof Chrift 
in his Word, ihould have fet downe the canons for the regu- 
lating of the power, befides the canons that concerneth all 
•ther Bifhops or Pafours, tor the heads or Monarchs dutie 


T <5 The f over of the Keyes in the Elderfhip, Chap. x m 

in the common wealth, is carefully fet downe in Ac word ,' 
as what a man the King fhouldbe; but the word hath no 
canons for the power of the keyes, and the regulating of 
that power, in all and every believer , man and woman. 

2. If God fet downe a Canon, and requires abilities in the 
Church guides, as Elders labouring in the word and dofrrine, 
and governing, and in Deacons, that, he requireth not in all 
believers* then the power of the keyes is not in the Church 
guides, *nd in all believers alfo, but the former is faid, I Tim, 

3 . for it is required in a Minifter that his power of the keyes 
\ com' * may ke faid to be of God, that hzjbould rule his mne houfe 
i p«.s,i,* Welly elfchoto Jhould he hm uhwnu ^take care to governe the 
I -rim'^^ll Church of Cjod f One may be a believer, and yet this is not 
*tipi 4.1,2,3 required of him, as he is a believer, an Elder fhouldnotbea 

Lord over the flock, it is required of a Steward, that hee bet 
faithfully a Steward, that he ordaine Elders, and thefe men 
of good re fort) that he receive not an accufation againft an El- 
der : Now I hope, thefe are not required of believers, as be* 
lieversjneither were the Epiftles to Timothy and Titus writ- 
ten fo much to thefe men, as believers ; as to them as holy 
Eiders, and Pattours: And yet if the power of the keyes bee 
common to all the faithfull, thefe Epiftles are written to all 
believers, primely to men, and believing children, how they 
fhould ufe the keyes, ordaine Elders, receive Witneffes, go- 
lob .?.»7 verne the Church. TteareBretloren^ fee thisandconftderit 
for jour good, 

io. Argument. That which maketh the government 
of Gods houie Democraticall and popular , is not to bee 
taught : but this Opinion is fuch , as I hope to prove 

ii. Argument. If the power of Ae keyes he given to 
t*tw ac poiit.i. believers, as believers, Thenall, and only believers, have the 
l**>' power of the keyes s £l**d convenit -&1 "<urw convenit 

(uf]i<>-ftnku<, That which agreeth to any thing reduplicative, 
and for this formallrealbn, it agreeth to that fubjeel only; 
But all and only believers have not the powerof the keyes. 
for the Major, /V^rteachcth, The keyes were given u Pe* 
ter, as a believer > not as an A fettle. I prove the Aflumpti* 

Chap, i not in the ^Multitude. 17 

on. The believers three or foure may be excommunicated, 
and that juftly, in which cafe they remainc believers, and 
yet being no members of the Church , cannot have the po- 
wer of the key es : alfomany have the power of the keyes, 
yea, and arc paftours, that arc not believers : ?s Chrift faith, 
Have not I chofen you twelve, aud yet one of yon is ;>Divell? 
Many will fay to me in that day, Lord, we have ysophefied in iohrt*.7». 
thy name, and in thy name caft out D ivels, &c> and yet they u **-7- ** 2 5- 
arc workers of iniquity , neverknowneof Chrift as his elcd. ? •"■«*Wl 
So fome enemies to Paul and wicked men, Ph'vL 1 . Haters 
of the Gofpell , and yet preached it, in fuch fort that Paul 
rejoycedthat Chrift was preached. Now if they bee not 
believers that are paftours, their paftorall a&s of baptizing 
and adminiftring the Sacraments are null, feeing they have 
no power of the keyes, many (Kail doubt if they have 
bcene baptized , becaufc they may happily doubt, yea, too 
juftly doubt of the beliefc, and fo of the paftours power of 
the keyes. Yea, fix or ten profeffors and vifible Saints are 
an independent congregation, and fo have the power of the 
Keyes to appoint an Eldcriliip, to Excommunicate , and yet 
thefe ten may be faithleffc hyppocrites:hence all their acTs of 
the keyes arc null. It is kno wne,ho w Aufiin,ferome ans for the ^Multitudes power Cha p. 2 . 

finaliter, that is, all arc for you, avd tend to your falvati- 
on. 2. All are yours infruttu; in the fruit that God brin- 
gethoutof all, 7>aul or A folio their minifterie, out of life 
and death, that is, faith, comfort, falvation arc yours, this 
is true, But all are jours, futyeEtive, inhafive, formaliter $ All 
are yours formally and in poffeflion it is falfe, for then ycc 
ihould be all earthly Kings, all Paftours to preach and admi* 
nifter the Sacraments. 2. Chrift and the premifes are 
made to,one finglc believer , and that a woman, a childe, 
but a (ingle woman is not the Church , having power to 
bind and loofe in heaven. 3. The promife of binding and 
loofing is made to the faithful!, that is, for their good and 
edifying, but Hot to them as the fubjeel , for in that place it 
is laid, The world, life i and death are yours, how can the 
world be in tne faithful] as in the fub/eft ? They doe not 
poffefle all the world:how is death in them as the fub jecl,ex- 
cept they be dead? 
r*rker dc polk. £. They rcafon thus. Chrift hath given in gift Paftors to 
'* ,c ' 8 the Church. Ergo, He hath given them the authorise of Pa- 

fiorsfor Godmocketh not his Churehjo give them gifts where* 
of they are not capable. Hence Parker inferrcth, that the 
power of the keyesisin the believers immediately y and in 
the Rulers at the fecond hand \ and borrowed from them. 

Anfwer. Firft, I retort the Argument. Chrift hath gi- 
ven the a&uall exercifeofthekeyes, the preaching of the 
Word , and the adminiitration of the Sacraments to the 
Church of believers: will it hence follow, thatbelicvcrs,be- 
caulc they are believers, are capable of the exercife of the 
keyes. This is againft Parker himfelfe. 2. Chrift hath gi- 
ven Paftours to the Church (in gift) that is, to the Church 
as the Subjeft , and first difpofer of thefe offices , it is mod 
falfe, for the Rulers of the Church or Presbytcrie is the 
firft fubjeel:, and thefe who authoritatively under Chrift 
doe ordame paftours, the Church of believers doth only e- 
lecland die them by a popular confenu Chrift hath gi- 
ven Paftours (in gift) to the Church , that is for the Chur- 
ches good and edification : hence it followeth not that be- 
lievers arc uncapable of Paftours in the way and manner that 


Chap. 2 , of the Keyes diffolved. 2 j 

they arc given to them. God mocketh not Ifrael, when he 
giveth to them David, as their King, but :t folio weth not 
the people are the firft iub jedt of the Kingly power. 

9 Parker reafoneth thus, ibid. The power fpoken of, Mat. ob.9 
l6 % and\%.Jho*ldbeap$lyedto all the Church, and to Chrifts ***»*- 
friends ; not to his enemies, there is no ecclefiaftick pofter in he- 
retikes, andSchifmatikes. What is the caufe, (feeing both he* 
retikes , and alfo believers doe exercife the poVver of the keyes) 
that the keyes are given to the one, that is to believers , as to 
the end) and not to heretics ? Surely as Cyprian faith, be* 
caufe the authoritie is given principally to believers at to the 
end, and to them principally, and to others fee onJUrily, as they 
are efteemed parts of the Church 6f believers , and have 
their authoritie derived from believers. Anjwer. The po- 
wer fpoken of Mat. 1 6* 1 8. is given to the vifiblc gover- 
ning Ghurch, whether they be believers, or hypocrites pro- 
viding they be Paftours and Elders called lawfully by the 
presby terie, and chofen by the people, and the power of 
the keyes is given to the elderfhip, that hath the oversight of 
the flocke, in the Lord, 1 ThejfaL 5. as to the fubjccT, 
but yet this power is given to the Church of believers to 
gather the 121 in to Chrift;, and for the reprobate to cleare 
Gods juftice, and to make them inexcufable 3 and there is 
no rcafon to a*ke a caufe , JYhy both believers and heretics 
exercife the poVver of the Keyes, feeing (fhrifi gave this power 
to believers y and not to kerctikes , for I fay Chrift hath given 
the power of the keyes to both, when he giftefh both with 
abilitietodifcharge the places , and giveth them authoritie 
m his Church ; And k is a falfc ground , and not farre from 
Anabaptifme , that there is not Ecclefiaslicall power in he* 
retikes andSchifmatikes. Indus , and all called Paftors, and 
Elders (fuppofethey be before God, but plaiftered hypocrites 
and covered Wolves) have no leflc the power of the keyes, 
as is -cleare, CMattheV? 7. 22, 23. Philippians 1. 1 6. then 
Taulor Peter. Andalfoit istalie, that Rulers have their 
authoritie from believers, they have the' 1 offices byway 
of ordination from Chrift and the Presbytcrie, and by 
way of popular election and defignation from profeffors 

E <ar 

2 6 Arguments for the Mult; fades fewer Chap. 2 # 

of the Church , bee partly believers, partly unbelievers. 
to ob. io. M. Smith reafoncth thus. Chrift gave the power of 
Smith paral.pag. n n ^\ n g att d hofmg, Mat. 1 8 i not to tlx Presbytery, but to Di- 
fciples and Brethren , becaufe , verf. 15.17. //* Difciples 
move a queflion concerning the Kin^dome of Heaven , and 
Chrift ttweheth that little ones, that is,*Brethren and Difciples 
Arc net to be offended, bat' to be (ought W hen they are loft, v.\%. 
he teaches the duties of admonition in the decrees thereof, for the 
winning of brethren : Hefpeaketh of Brethren and D ijciples^ 
attributing to them power of binditg andloojing, v. 19 promi- 
fing the beating of their prayers, if they be but ttvo or three,v.2i. 
27. teaching them remiffi on of offences private , untofeventy 
times feven times, 
iuk it. (Lsfnftoer. All this depend eth upon this Argument. If 

Wa:.?- i sv tne w hole icope and intent aime at Difciples and Brethren, 

then power of binding and loofing is given to brethren , 
which connexion is moftfalfe, andloofe : Chrift fpeak- 
eth to believers of the power of the minifteriall Church, or 
Preaching, Baptizing, Ergo, Hee givcth to thefe bee fpeak- 
. eth unto, and to all bretbren,powcr to bindc, andloofe, and 
preach, and baptize : This doth not follow, for io a power 
to pretch and baptize is given to believing women. Chrifl: 
fpeaketh to his Difciples as Difciples, of the dominion of the 
Kings and Princes of the Gentiles, of falfe Prophets, Wolves 
in Sheep-skins, ergo, he giveth to his Dtfciplcs a power to 
be Kings, and a warrant to be falfe Teachers, it folio we th no 
wayes. 2." By a brother, v. 1 5 . is not meant a true believer, 
but a t rother in profeifion, elfe we are not to labour to gain, 
by this text, unbelieving brethren, and^to complainc to the 
Church of their obftinacie , or to forgive them private of- 
fences done againft us to leventie times feven times, which 
isagainft the courfe ot the Text. 3. By this glofle, little 
Bairnes , which are not to be offended,are brethren, which 
Joave power to binde andloofe, and preach and baptize, which 
isabfurd. 4. It is cieare,by the Church here is meant a 
Societie different from the faithkill and brethren, that hee 
fpeaketh of : for he will have 1 he offended brother to rebuke 
tefoie two or three brethren in private, and if the offender 


Chap. 2 ef the Keyesdiffelvtd. 27 

hearc not (tell the Church) Now three believers, to whom 
the matter is already told, is a Church to Mafter £mith; Smitkd*. 
for fo he faith in that fame place, Then Ghrift biddeth tell 
the matter to the Church, before the Church fceare of it. 
5 . Neither dcth the hearing of prayers prove a minifteriall 
Church, feeing Godhcarcth the prayers of one believer in 
thePrifon, or the Whales belly : but it is the docTrineof 
thefe, with whom we now reafor^that fix, profeffing Chrift, 
being vifible Saints (who may beunfeene Divelsii heart, 
and fo neither Brethren , Difciples , nor little ones ) are an 
independent vifible Church , having power to binde and 
loofe : and therefore fuppofe Chrift Ipake herc,to his Difci- 
ples and believers, of the Churches power in excommunica- 
tion , it is a weake collection, that therefore all Difciples 
have power to binde and loofe : And thefe words, verfe 1 8. 
Whatfoever ye (find on earth, &c. muft be meant only of the 
Apoftles, and of the Churcb,verfei8. yea, and it muft ex- 
clude Peter and his offending brother , fuppofe they were 
both believers, becaufe parties, by the Law of nature and 
Nations, cannot be Judges. But fomc fay that thefe words, 
(jVh.xt ye Shall binde en earth /ball be bound in heaven) have re- 
ference to a friz ate for giving, an (gaining of a convinged bro- 
ther before witneffes, verf. 15. <>s4nd a brother in private 
Jbwldforgrve another to feventle times feven times , a 1 . 2 2. 
Therefore private brethren may binde and loofe. aAnftver, 
H* private brother can binde on earth, for then one bro- 
ther might excommunicate, for thefe words, whatfoe- 
ver ye bind on earthy (jre is a ratifying in heaven, ofthejen- 
tence of excommunication , verfe 17. 2. Binding in pri- 
vate muft be a not fo rgiving of private wrongs , which is a 
finfull binding, and forbidden, verfe 2a. and MatthcV? ,6 ,14, 
And rather cannot be ratified in heaven, as Ecclefiaftick bin- 
ding and loofing is, verfe 1 8. exprefly made good and valid 
in heaven. 

1 1. Smith rcafoneth thus. If he Covenant is made with the * u P b - 
Chwrch.andfo the promifts of the covenant , bat curfing them S ™ h p * rai ' 
that curfe the Church, and bleffing them that blejfe the Church, 
Gen. 1 2.3. and remifsion of fimes, Which is apart of the blef- 

E 2 fing, 

2 8 ^.Arguments for the Multitudes power Chap * 2 » 

fing , are given to believers, as a fart of the Covenant, Rom. 4. 
7.8. Therefore a poster of binding and loo fing from fin muft be 
given, to the Church as the covenant is given to her. Anfwer. 
The covenant is given to one believing woman, ergo , by 
this reafon alfo power to baptize, for Smith faith, page 5 1 . 
By one and the fame po)fcer doth the Church preach, pray, ba~ 
ptizje, excommunicate, abfolve. Butthisisabfurd. 2. Cur- 
ling and bleffing, Genef. 1 2 . and remiffion of fins, Mom. 4. 
is not the private believers cnrGng and remiflion,but Gods or 
the minifters publikely and authoritatively as fent of God. 
ob> , 2 And fo it is a vainc collection. 

12. Smith rcafoncth. To whom fhrift is given diretlly 
andimmediate/j, as Kingytpriefi, and Prophet , Vntothem 
all other things ^cith £hrift are given, Rom. 8. 32* ssfndfo 
the Saints are made Kings , Priefts, and Prophets to God to for- 
give bind and loofe. But Chri ft is given to all belie vers, and 
fo the power of binding and loo fing to all believers. Anfwer. 
Te whom Chrift is given fubje&ively and formally, as their 
gifted Redeemer to dwell into them by faith, To them - 
all things are given either fubje&ively, as the perfonall ble£ 
fings of the covenant, a new heart, remiflion of finnes,per- 
feverance in grace, or objectively, and finaliter, for their good, 
other wayes, if one manner of giving be undcrftood in both* 
it ftiould follow that all the believers were temporal! Kings 
and Princes, which is moft falfe: for tcmporall princedomes 
are given for their good, but not perfonally to themfelvcs: 
So the power of the kcyes is given for. their falvatkm, but 
:or- j 2 , 1 7. 29 not to all believers perfonally. It is in vaine to reafon from, 
the privilcdges or believers as believers, to inferre that all 
Ecclefiaftick priviledges are perfonally given alfo to belie- 
vers, for then uSould all be Apoftles, all Teachers, all the 
whole body fliouldbe zneje, and where then fliould bee 
the hearing ? And this man taketh away all neceffitie of a. 
calling by the Church to thejninifteric,as doethe Arminians.. 
%nd Secinians. Neither cap^^maintaine that there is a 
twofold power of the kcyes, oncrSmote belonging to men, 
as Chriftians: another nearer, that is ecclerlafticall, and gi- 
ven orderly by the Church: for he and his followers will, 


— — 1 ■ . Ifc. 

Chnp. 2 . of the Keyes diffolved. 2 * 

have all believers, becaufc they are believers in a *i/ib/c 
Church actually to cenfure,]bind, loofc, abfolvc, excommu- 

13. Thus reafoneth Smith ?nd fo Parker. TheSpoufe 
hath porr er 'immediately from the husband, the body from the 
head without any intermediating poVcer. Ergo, The believers 
have power of binding without the mediation of Elders, A>;~ 
fwer. All companions halt either in one leggc, or other: 

Every like halteth , and the argument prefuppoieth a falf- Snith 

hood,that the power of binding and loofing is in the Church cb.' 1 1 53 ' 

of believers mediately or immediately, which we deny, it ^r% dc r 

isonly in the minifteriall Church and conveyed from Chrift cerd.V 7> . 

totheSpoufe as to the o 1 • jed and cnd,in the fruits and effects. *%""' in Mat * 

14 They laftly ailed ge Fathers, Chryfoftome faith, The gratia* 7 .q. 1. 

power of baptizing is given to the Church. So Hierome. The l ^' ima - u j a l 

Whole Church hath judiciarie power over the guides. So CrAti- ecci. c.7. rat. 4. 

an, Hugo a Santlo ViBo^ Aquinas, Cjerfon, Councell of Con* ^J?™*'* 

fiance y $y4lmaine for this coteth ^AugufHne. Anftoer. Wee *Ambr*fi. in pfa. 

are not fub jecl to ^//»^»* or ^r>» in this queftion , they j^tJ^SSJ 

be otherwife expounded. What is given for the Church, dicitar. 

is faid to be given to the Church in the ftile of Fathers : So ?"**%!„££. 

doe Ambrofe,Orlgen>Beda, Chryfoftome fay. What was gi- defiackra re- 

ven to Peter was given to all faithfull Paftors. And wee g^^ST 

know that Chrjfo(tom$ deny eth the power of baptizing to Lombard. 1. 4 - d. 

anybuttoPaftours. fa f; h> habec . 

15. They alfoadde this. He that may promife eternal/ life mnis ecdefia 

to a private believer, and denounce wrath on an unbeliever, hath c j* Jf p7"»bytcri£ 

power to open and Jhut heaven, *But a private believer V?ho soNiius tor the 

Should exhort his brother , Heb. 3.13. teach and admonifh, J^^JSK. 

Col. 3 16. Comfort him, 1 Thef. 5.11. may promife life to a and the Confef. 

believer, denounce wrath to an Unbeliever. Ergo, He may open °J l ^ and^hc 

and Jhut heaven, for the word is the Key. coafeff. of *•'"• 

tAnfwer. One private Chriftian may ufe the key toward M£ ^ the 

another this way, but thefeaxnot the keyes ecclefiaflically church of bc- 

and formally that arc givedtfA Church, feeing one man j^iT'as *> t£ 

is not the Church:But o^j l Wyes materially ufed in a pri- end. 2 . as to 

vatcway, as a common fetvant at command of the Lord of theconfemcrsin 
the hoafe may ufe the keyes and give bread to the barnes, but 
m* \ E 3 it- 

3 o The Church of Bel ievers Chap . 3 . 

it folte weth not hence, that the keyes are given to him au- 
thoritatively as to the Steward by fpeciall office , becaufe 
this fervant of charitie ufeth the keyes, or rather th?.t which 
is in place of the keyes, which is the word in a private way. 


Chapter II I. 

£Htf. 2. Whether or no the Church of believers in a 
srCe« M fu^; Congregation y be the firft Church, ha- 
tr*m arbkrarfs" ving the higheft power of junfdi&ion 

umverfam cccle- • i • • n r 1 1 i 1 1 

D a e o/Sces* within it lelie , and that independently 3 

aancT boctI ** and power above and over their Elder- 

^t( h oT e mmc fliipjtoconftitute and ordaine them by 

«c*tcr»A P ofto°- an intrinfecall power received from Je- 

^tcS e ji g andt lus Chriftj and by that lame power to 

m ****** cenlute and depofe them, when they be- 

c*g in- Gai. come fcandalous in life, or corrupt in do- 


He determination of this qucftion, fo neare of blood 
and kindred to the former two , is of much force to 

cleare many doubts in this fubjecl. Hence I propound thefc 

following diftin&ions, as Ycry confiderable. 

I • A Church independent is twofold, either a Church of belie- 
vers in a congregation , having originally the power of the 
keyes within themfelves , t ^pak e or unmake their officers . 
2. Or an Elder Jhip of ' on^ Miration, Including the con- 
gregation that may from awq> Jta/l fewer, Vtitboutfub- 
ordinatron to Synods provinciauor nationally c$ercife allju- 
r 1 fashion. This queftiotkis of the former indefendent Church. 

Chap. 3. not the firji independent Church. 31 

i.tA Church is conftderedtwo wayes, 1 . As totam effentialc, 
this is a myfticaU Church, confifting of only believers , or of 
perfons, as prof effing faith, a Church of faithfully of Saints, 
2 t The Chur ch is considered as totum integrale, made up of 
officers, and a flock, this Amef. cals an inflituted Church, 
others aLMiniHerLdl Churchy as we ccnfidir Johiv** a be- 
liever, or John, as an Elder, ormin'fter of a Chweh. 
3 . There is a twofold. 'Trimacie anfwerable to this, One whereby Frimitas myftica 
a number of believers is the fir si mjfticall body of Chrisl, ^^cTdtl 
immediately united to Chrift , as a myflica/l body to the aftica feu miai- 
head. This U a my flic att or Chriftian prim;.cy ; or (to fpeak^ cna £ e 
fo)firslnejfe or principality . ^imefi, medulla 

3 There is another primacy or prjnclpalitie mi nifteriall,wher- icaplV*.* 
by fuch a number of men are the fir ft fubjefh of the keyes, ha- 
ving power of binding andlaofmvflrft and immediately from 
Chrift, as U proved, Ch, 1. 4. 
. 2 . Chrift hath a twofoldinftuence,as head upon the fe two bodies, 
one influence of f fecial I and faving grace upon the Church of 
believers ; An other common influence ^communicating to ike 
minifteriall body the power of the keyes and gifts which hec Eph.4. 1 1 . 1 2. . 
gave to men, to be Paftours,ind Teachers, and Elders, when 
he afcended on high, and lea capt'witie captive. Neither d* 
they looke right on ti is queftion, who will have the power of 
the keyes an ejfentiall propertie of the Church of believers, 
for there is no reciprocation here, .betwixt the propertie and 
thefubftU ; feeing the power of the keyes is in many that an 
unbelievers, and not of Chrisls myftlc all body. Many war- 
rant ably preach Chrift to others, and fealc the covenant to 
ethers, who are unfavedmen : remember the builders of the 
Arke\ andmany are Chrifts my fticall body , that have not the 
power of the keyes : tAli believers are not Elders having po- 
ster of order. 

Hence our 1 * Contiufton. If wee fpeake of a Chriftian f^*;**£ 
primacie and eminency pfi^Ae, the Church of believers Aa.20.28- 
fincerely proreinug ttjgjii^phd believing is the only hrft J^, 1 .'^, 5 ' 
true vifible Church. i^^rceflencc and definition of a cal- Mad i 9 * . 
led and effectually tranilated company agreeth to them, and 
they are thctaUgpf CJod 2. BeCaujfe the promiies made 
P* "'."" • to 

j2 The Church of Believers Cbap.j. 

to the redeemed, faved and walhen Church bclongeth to 
them ; they are properly the Church builded on the rock, the 
loved and redeemed Ipoufc of Chrift. 2. This Church is 
Eph.2. *2. the true body of Chrift, which (hall infallibly bee glorified 

1 Cor. 1 2. w j t h t h c h cac [ thrift. The rainifteriali Church is his body 

alfo , on which hce hath an influence beftowing upon them 
common gifts : but not a body which (hall infallibly be glo- 
rified, but in fo far as they are true members of the Church 
of believers. And here obferve, our brethren have no caufe 
to ob jecl: to us, that there is not a place in ail the old or new 
Teftamcnt, where the word (Church) fignifieth only the 
presbyterie or Elder (hip (the contrary whereof, God wil- 
ling, I (hall (hew ) but I defire that they will produce a 
place in either the old or new Teftament, where the word 
Church fignifieth a governing multitude , or a minifteriall 
compsny of ohely believers having power and ufeof the 
keyes: yet this muft be fhewed in this diipute,if their prin- 
ciples ftand good. 

11. Conclufion. A multitude of believers fincerely pro-, 

feflingthejfaitbjisthefirftvifiblemyfticall Church, becaufe 

the definition of a vifible myfticall Church agrecth to them, 

being redeemed profeflfors of the Gofpell. So the faints at 

C olo $ € ? C ortnt hy Philippi, as not including their guides,is a 

true uifiblc Church. Before I come to the third conclufion, 

I mull (lie w what our brethren hold anent this prefent que- 

'£»£. puritan ifm ■ ftion. The Englijb puritanifme holdeth every Congregation or 

«»iiw*z.#H,p. ^§* m bti e of true believer s % joy ning together according to tU 

7 • Tea . 11 • order of the G off ell in the true yrorjbip of god, to be a true vi- 

wcieVi JxJTir fo le CbHnh.And that this name is unproperly given to Synods 

itfi ' churches or Affemblies ( of office-bearers) fo alfo the Cjuide to Zim. 

ll^ktt/n' P " r & mj ? kcth the Church oK believers in any particular 
congregation, to be the higkeFi and mo ft fupreme £ hurch in 
major itie and power of jurifditlion above tl eir owne Elder Jhip, 
or Presbyterie, having power tM^dnc or depofe them, above all 
Synods of P aft ours and ElJeW^ Wktfliam Befl , citeth and 
approveth the mind of the EngluhXhurch(as he calLeth it) 
at Frankeford\ the CMinislers and Seniors fever ally and 
]oyntly,Jljall have no authority to make any manner of decrees or 


Chap. 2 . rot the fir ft ind pendent Church . 5 ^ 

ordinances to hind the congregation , or any member thereof 
but fall execute fuck ordinances, as Shall be made by thee en* 
gregation, and to them delivered. Hooker againft Target, The j 
which had compleap and p erf eel MiniVters , before any Clajfer Difcourfeof 
hadpetoer to call:hofe Minifters , they have authorise above troab! «- Fr *-< 
the CMinifters But a particular congregttionhad perfetl and L7£ again ft 
compleat Minifters, perfectly avd compleatly called before any ^'"i"^ 
Qafies. To this agreeth the confeilicn of faith, of the urv Apofepc of 
jultly called ErbKnifts, that every £ hriftLm congregation, fej^J^SS 
yea two or three fequeftred from the whole , hath power from /»r4Ait.a; m< 
Christ of cleHion, ordination, depoption, excommunication of ^Ti^^^lt 
the Elders or Office-bearers fet over them. And exprcfly ii.j.arg**. 
M. P&I&j a man othervvayes or an excellent fpirit for holi- ^^^5^ 
nefle and learning faith, That the fupremacie of Ecclefiasli- qi'am'iaVonrec- 
c all power is in the Church of believers , contradiftinpuifbed r,t : in c T? gr !r 

r n § J j tt S gatiooe fiueha.n. 

from thetr guides, Paul and Apollo. uribiprobat. 

Here we fee our brethrens minde cleare, Ten or twenty 2EJ*5J!J^ 
believers in a congregation nave from Chrift, 1. The fir "t.™" 1 ' 
preme power of the^keyes. a. They are the fupremeft and T hc / eparari *' 

• . 1 /i>-m t 1 n r\ r% 1 ,-*. 1 third petition to 

higheft Church on earth. 3. Above Paitours and Elders, k. ramesfirft 
even convened in a Synod in Chrifts name. 4. Some few P° F ' tion - 
believers cloathed with no ecclefiafticall office mayordai c 
Paflours, and Elders, deprive and excommunicate them. 
5. Give ordinances and lawes to the Elderfhip. 6. When 
Synods or affemblics of office-bearers are met in aflemblies, 
and cannot agree in their canons , the matter is to be refer- 
red by appeale or reference to a company of believers cloa- 
thed with no ecclefafticall function, as to the mod fupreme 
ecclefiarticall judicatory on earth. Thefc are points unknown 
to Scripture, which our brethren hold. 

Hence out third conclufion. The Church of believers in 
eminence and primacie of Chriftian dignitie is above the 
Church minifteriall as minifteriall, 1. In dignitie. i.Sta- 
bilitie. 3 . Caufalitie. In dignitie. 1 , Becaufe the Church 
or believers is the redeemed aiwfcconquefted purchafe of our 
Lord Jefus, but all the officebearers , or the ininiftcriall 
Churches of Paftours and Elders on earth, ?rc not his redee- 
med ones, in fo far as thev are no more but officers and n ;ini- 

F fters 


The Church of Believers 



(lers of the houfc , except they be believers, and fo they tall 
in to the redeemed Church which is a better world, than to 
be naked pulpit-men. 2 . In ftabilitie, becaufe the advocation 
or' Chrift that the gates of hell Jkali not prevaile againft the 
Church of believers, and thepromifesof the Covenant for 
perfeverance ftandeth good for them : But no fuch promifes 
of ftabilitie are made to naked Church guides, but if they 
guide well, they fare the better; only common gifts are 
promifed to them which cannot take them to heaven. 3 . In 
caufalitie,the Church of believers are luperiour , and a- 
bovc the Church of Church-guides, becaufe Rulers and Of- 
ficers are fervants and meanes imployed by Chrift for the 
Church of believers, as for the cnd y office-bearers are for be- 
lievers, as the meanes for the end, but believers are not for 
office-bearers. Medicine is for our health, and meate for our 
life, and the end is the caufc, and fo excellenter than the 
meanes, becaufe of thefc three reipecls, and of the ncceflity 
of confent of believers in all acts of Government. Chrifts 
kingdome being a willing people. The Fathers, Tertnllian y 
Origen, Cyprian, Chryfoftomc, ^AuguUine^ Epiphanins, Ie» 
rome y Cyrill, Hi/arie, and our late Divines, Junim, Chem- 
nitius, Martyr Calvin^ Beza 3 fVillet, F*tlk*> Bucer , and our 
brethren Haines and Amef doe afcribe a iuperioritie, and fo 
an authoritie to believers , as to the fountaine and caufe of 
jurif dicftion above Minifters, and give the exercife of juris- 
diction only to officers, not becaufe officers have not the po- 
wer, afw ell as the exercife, but becaufe the being and o- 
peration of officers is all for the Church. Cjerfon alio in this 
iubjectetfi the Fope,(md we every Paftour, fuppone he were 
a double Lord Prelate) to the Church, that is, to the Councell 
or Afcmblie of the Church, and that in a fourefold refped : 
1 . liatione indevuibilitatis, becaufe the ports of hell fhallnot 
prevaile againft the Church, but the Pope or the Paftour is a 
man ; may nod and totter. 2. Ratione rcgulabilitatii^ be- 
caufe the Church in a Synod-may regulate and line the Pope 
or paftor when he crooketh , becaufe hec is not effentially a 
right line. 3 . lUtiozc mhltipHcltatisJdZcaufe the Church con- 
tained] in jt the Pop:s, or Paftours power, but the Pope or 


Tcrtul.apohc 5 5 
Ortg in 1. horn. 7 
CyprA.dc pai'to 
c 1 ;• 

~4nguft.de doffc. 
Chrift- 1. 1 -c 18. 
Eptphnn. contr. 

Huron. ad Gal. 5? 

j o- 

Cyrill.in loh.Zo 



Iun.h fing.de CC- 


.fchemmt. Cvam- 

concil. Trident- 

Mart jr. in Cor, $ 

C*lvin. Com- 

mcur-ini-Cor- j- 


Fuii^ againft 
Khcmilt. 1 Cor- 

WiUst fy nop f. pa- 
pa" cone ?.q t« 


~Amef. medulla. 

I.2.C- J2-chci"-27 
C,erfon.dc porcHy 

Chap. $ not the firjl independent Church. 


Paftour containeth not in his bofome the Churches power. p 

4. Ratione oMigMttxth , becaufcthe Church may appoint /«M-fing.dee<* 

lawes to oblige both Popeand Paftour, ' but the Pope or Paftor clcf ' c '* ,to ' * 

cannot oblige the Church.Novv as the Church of believers is a- 

bovc the Church guides in Chriftian dignitie aud excellency of 

grace : for afmuch as the faving grace of faith is more excel- 

lent,than the common graces of the power of the keyes,yct in 

an other refpefl the Church guides are a Church minifteriall in 

authorltic and jurifdi&ion above the believers- Therefore funi- 

us faith, the Paftour and the flock are in divers relations,above, 

anj inferiour to one another. 

Hence , i . Every one of thefe two Churches, arc firft and 
higheft each in their ownc kind, The Church of believers is 
the higheft and moft fuprcme Church (I fpeake of a Chriftian 
fupremacie and dignitie) in the one kinde. Alio a minifteriall 
Church is the higheft and moft fupreme Church in its kind,to 
wit, in a minifteriall authoritie. But that which we prove is, 
that we ice not in Go Js word a Church of fole believers that is 
a governing and minifteriall Church having the keyes and po- 
wer and cxercife of jurifdiclion over the Elder/hip and 
Church-guides whatever our brethren fay on the contrary. 

Our firft Argument is, Becaufe fuch a Church , in name or 
thing is not in the old and new Teftament. Therefore this in- 
dependent Church to us is nothing, for the Antecedent we re- 
quire precept, promife,or practice, for fuch a Church. 

a We have proved that the power of the keyes is no wayes 
given to fole believers. ergo y farre lerfecan the exercife of that 
power be in them over their guides, except we eftablifh a po- 
pular government, where all the members of the Church have 
the power of the keyes and doe adively ufe them, and judge, 
ordainc,confttuite,defpofc,and excommunicate their rulers. 

3- Every lawfujl power of jurif diclion is regulated by pre- 
cepts in Gods word, But this power in believers over their 
guides is not fo regulated j for Gods word giveth precepts to 
regulate the Kings power to his fubjecls, that he play not the Deur. 
Tyrant, the Mafters power to his fervants, that he deale equal- y-\ 
ly with the rrv the parents power over the children that they Ephd 
provoke thm not to irrath, ,and foin all la wfull powers that are 
of God, But in no place hath God laid , Ye th^t ere theflotke 




17 i$-l S , 


36 The Church of Believers Chap.j, 

andfhctpe over fee i nd governe your fheepheards y nor hath he /aid, 
je that arefheep, children ,fonnes oftke houfe, ufeyour fotoer over 
jour /hep I cards fathers in God, flerrards in Chritts honfeVeith 
moderation nndlonganimitie and )Xifedome* nor hath he [aid, yee 
fons, (lockj *nd people of Cjcd, feede, governe, and rule thefe that 
are your fathers in God , ar.dhave the over fight over you in the 
Lord } nota& lords over the Lords inheritance, but as good examples 
to the flock* ', yet this mufi be in Scripture ', if this power be of God. 
♦.Argument. 4 Jf the Eldcrlliipand Church-guides be rulers and gover- 

nors taking care of the houfe of Cjod, 1 Tim. 3, 4, 5. Such as 
rule well tie people, 1 Tim 5.17. fuch as mutt rule mtith dili~ 
gence y Rom 12.8. and feed the flock jf (jod, not as lords ever 
(jods inh ritancc, taking the over fight not by constraint, 1 Pet f . 
2. fuch as are over the people in the Lord, 1 The/. 5. 1 2, fuch as 
rule ever the people and the believers , hatching for their foules, 
and mufi give an account to (jod therefore, HeF.13. 1 7. 1 8. Then 
have the Elders by divine right a jurifdidion over the Lords 
people in the Lord, and 1$ the Elders in authorise and jurifdi- 
dftori are above the people And fo by no reafon can the peo- 
ple be over their overfeers iu the Lord^nd command , watch, 
take care for their foules. They lay divers wayes one may bee 
both a Sbcepheard and a Sheep, the King as King is above the 
Paftour, and the Paftour being a man owes fub/edion and obe- 
dience to the King. Againe, as the King is a member of the 
Church, he is toheafe and obey the paftor as the meffenger of 
Lord of hfts, according to that (he that heareth you 9 heareth 
me) and fo may it be here. But I aniwer. The cafe is no way 
like 5 for our brethren make the paftours and the flock to bee 
over one another,and fubjed one to another, with one and the 
fame kinde of fubjedion. I grant sArchippus is over the Colof- 
fians to command them in the Lord, but the Colofsians are not 
in the fame power of jurifdidion over Archippns , they may 
only admonifhhim to fulfill his Minifterie, but. they have no 
authoritative power of jurifdidion to command, to deprive,, 
to excommunicate: but by this learning, ten Elders with the 
content of ten believers may excommunicate ten believers, 
and thefe fame ten believers may excommunicate thefe ten 
Elders, and his ten believers, for there is an independent 
C hurch of believers on both fides : hence fonnes and fervants 


Chap 2. not the first independent church. 37 

may excommunicate thofe that arc over them in the Lord, and 
watch for their foules. 

5 . That ever in a constitute Church,except where God cal- 
leth extraordinarily, paftours were ordained paftours by a mul- 5 Argnm«. 
titude, that arc nor pallors nor Elder*, but only believers and h\tT.i.6*' 
private Chriftians, is not to be read in the word of God ; for *a ■ *?*f 
every where in the word, where paftours and elders are crca- ! rial*, a* 
ted/there are they ordained by paftours ; neither find we ever * Tim - *• :> 
• Apoftles or paftours to be tried and found true or falfe, an d not RcvriAU . 1 4. 
differed to teach by the fole believers, but by the Angels of the ' 5- l ^ v - 2o 
Churches.Ir believers being only believers may ordaine paftors, 
and may againe depofe and excommunicate, which are the 
higheft acb of jurifdicrioiyhen may they preach and baptize 
not beiug called Mmifters,then may the Sacraments be admi 
niftrate where there are no paftours, which is abfurd to the^e- 
paratifts themfelves. 

6 If the whole eldcrfhip in a congregation erre and com- c ' A z* n *- ]: - 
mit fcandalous fins,to whom fhall we complaine?not to them- 
ielvesi for they are parties to be judged : nor to a Synod, for . 
independent congregations acknowledge no authoritie of 
Clafles and Synods: then to the C hurcb. What is that? To the 
believers : Then Chnft Mat. 1 8. intended to ereft no mini- 
ftcriall Church a: all,yea tne minifterie by no place in Scripture 
have power ofjuriiaivflion.Ifnot by this place Mat. 1 8. for 
Mat. 16. thzkeyes were given,and t re binding and I ofng(hkh 
our brethrenjto the Church buildedupon the r^.but this was 
the Church of believers, not the Church of Minifters : Hence 
have we caufe to doubt, whether our brethren acknowledge a 
minifterie which hath received theteyes from Chrift if theie 
two prime places faile them,whereas Fathers>DocT:ors^;oun- . 
eels, our Divines Protcftants and Lutherans, popith Writers, 
Schoolemen,Canonifts,cafuifts, acknowledge the keyes to bee 
given to the Apofties in thefe places : This doctrine will hnde 
too great favour with the Anabaptifts denying the power and 
authoritie and neceflitieof the Churches calling to^thc Mm i- 
fters of the new Teftament. 

7 What if the women and believing children bethegrea- -.Argimcnt. 
ter part,(halithey be the Church, Mat.i 8. which hath the 
power ofthekcyes/uppofe the whole Elder fliip and graveft 

F 3 Chr> 

3 8 lAigumentsfor the independency of the Chap. 4. 

Chriftians be on the contrary fide. Butttic Elders with them 
being but three or fourc believers gathered together in Chrifts 
name, have alfb the power of the keyes , and are effentially a 
truevifible Churcb, and yet are overfwayed by the manifefi: 
and moft ignorant. 
Argument. 8 When a qucftion cannot be determined by three belie- 

vers (viz,, a complainer and three believing brethren) who are 
witneffes, Mat . 18 v. 16. 17.) which to onr brethren is a 
Church having power of the keyes) then Chrift comman- 
ded! to tell the Church which hath power to bind and loofe, 
that is, the Elders. When the Difciples and two Apoftles can- 
not determine the queftion about circumcifion , and the 
Church of Antloch cannot determine it, the practice or the 
Apoftles was to refer the decifion to Apoftles and Elders,^#. 
1 All. 1 6.4. This doctrine faith the contrary,when 
matters cannot be determined by Elders and Miniftcr, the 
matter is to be referred to the company of private believers,as ' 
to the Principarand fole fupreme Church buildedon the rock, 
which only properly and principally and effentially hath the 
keyes. And this is contrary to Apoftolick order. 

Chap. IV, 

£&P' +• Whether or no our brethren prove ftrongly, 
that the Church of believers is the fall 
Church, having fupreme jurifdidtion a- 
bove the Elderfhip. 

M After Parker ofgeodmemorte, toprove'that the Church of 
believers is above and (uperiour to the miniflerial Church 
t^.^l°f^^f^^^^ i.Retfoneththus. The member and 
ris i$. pars in the part is inferiour in authoritieto the body, and the whole. But 
m'inu/mmajorc! g^des are members of the Church of believers : Therefore guides 
Gcrfon. are inferiour to the Church of believers : So faith the law, The 

M7tlu yl 7 ? 'oi. ? art * cmttmtiin the rvhole.So CjcrfonM the fathers ofBafiff, 
pate. 2.I.4.C. j 2. as tAZneas Silvius cited by Morton, prove the Pope to be infcri- 
eur t9 a Generall Councell, and thit kemufi be judged bj them. 
tAnfvf. We deny not,but the guides as guides arc inferiour to 


Chip. 4- Church of Believers d/jfohed. ig 

* believers , inferiour in Chriftian dignitie and e minency , and 
this in as far as the guides arc believers ; for one believer is in- 
feriour to ten believers, becaufe a part of a Church of believers 
is inferiour to t he whole: but hence is not proved , that the 
guides every way that are in authoritie and jiirifdiftion are in- 
feriour to believers. The eye as a part is inferiour to rhe whole 
body, but as indued with the excellent facultie of feeing is no: 
inferiour to the whole body. 2. P v ulers as RuWs are not parts, 
nor members of a Congregation confifting only of believers, 
for in lo tar as they are Rulers, they are members of a Presby- 
teriall Church, and fo they are inferiour in dignitie and autho- 
ritie to the whole. The Pope is a part and a bafe part of the 
minifteriall Church,but it folio weth not hence, that the bo dy 
or coramunitie of believers may cenfure him : neither may e- 
very whole,or every body exercife jurifdiclion over the mem- 
bers: for then every familie of believers might excommuni- 
cate the matter of the family, ten believers might excommu- 
nicate five. Every body that hath authoritie,andis a free incor- 
poration within it felfe may cenfure every member, tut as a 
company of believers cannot ordaine, fo neither can they de- 
pofe or excommunicate a Minifter. 

SeconJly,ZW%rreafoneththuSi Every meane is inferiour r ar j^, x6 . ar°. 
% to the end, but £ hurch guides are meanes ordained of Cbriflfor dc P c ^ ,c - 
tke £hurch of belie vers > and the gathering of the Saints as Gods D 
intended en. I. Therf ore (^hurch guides are inferiour to the Church 
of believers, and fubje # thereunto. $0 Paxil Cor. 11. proveth 
the Woman to be fubje & to the man, becaufe the Woman is for the 
man. Anf\\ From this is only conciuded,that Rulers are infe- 
riour in dignitie to the believers, which is neither quelHoned 
nor denyed by us : but it is not hence proved, that believers 
have majoritie of jurifdiclion above the overfeers , or that c- 
verfeers borrow the power of the kcyes from the believers as 
from the firfl: fubjech The woman is inferiour in dignitie to 
the man,and the man more excellent, but the man (iuppofe he 
be the end)hath not ajurifditlion or Lordly poYrer tv:r the Wo- 
fWrf*.Chrift the mediator is for the Churches falvation as or 
the end, it folio weth not that the Church hith a jiirifdidijn 
over Chrift. The good Angels are miriiftring ipirirs for the 
good of the hcires of falvation, Heb. 1 . 1 4. it f oilo vcth not 


40 ^Arguments for thcindcfcndenck of the Chap. 2. 

by good Logick, that the heires of falvation have power of ju- 
risdiction over the good Angels. 
1 A^umtnt. Thirdly, Tarker rcafoneth thus from the dignitic of the 
5^r»/rAfoI. Church. Jf the Church bee a Miftreffe, Spoufe, and Mother , 
pa- c t i- 4- c- 14- then her guides must befubjeEl to her, as fervants and formes. So 
Bergenfis in the councell ciBafill. So Whit taker, proveth the 
Pope to befubjetl to the Church as his Cft f other. tAvfwe. The 
Church of iole believers is not the Spoufe and mother of the 
Church guides, but the minifteriall Church of Paftours and 
ciders is Jgueenc OHot her, that begetteth the fonncs of Zion to 
God, and lb all the authoritative power that the mother hath 
GaU.ip. it is frcm the Fathers and Paftcurs , that ^beget children to 
God ; Other wayes one private Chriftian that is a meanes of 
begeiting a paftour to the faith of Chrift hath power of ju- 
rifdiclion over the Paftour, which no wife man willaverre, 
when Divines fubjeel the Pope to a generall Councell, they 
make him with good reafon inferiour to a minifteriall Church. 
Fourthly, Parker reafoneth thus. If Chrift communicate a 
vrhittak^r. greater mcafure and a more immediate pre fence of his fp'irit to 
the Church of believers, than to the overfeers. Then the mo ft 
fupreme power of jurifditlion is given to the believers, and not to 
the overfeers. Sotvhittaker. where there is m. joritie of power, 
there is majoritie of affi Fiance of the Holy Spirit ruling the 
Church ; many eyes fee more than one. ( J will be with you to the 
end of the World) is promijed to the Church. So our D ivines rea- 
(onagainft the Pope. Cjreater is the Temple than the gold tl at 
fan clifieth the Temple, the altar than the facrifice . The faithfull 
cannot fall away , the guides, except they be believers may fall a- 
way, neither is there a promife of falvation, remifftonofjinnes 
made to the guides, which is made to the Church of believers % An f. 
If the wayes of Cbrifts prcfence with the believer, and with 
the overfeers were one and the fame, the argument would fay 
fome thing, but they are of divers kindes. Therefore I deny 
this ( Where Chrift is more immediately prefent, there is the more 
fupreme power of the keyes, or there is thepo'Wer of the kiyes more 
principally) for it is a caption a non caufa: for Chrifts prcfence 
by faith is not the caufe of the power of the kcj cs Saving 
grace is not the cauie why God giveth common gifts ; for 
then a holier paftor fbould be more effentiajly a Paftor. 'Baptif- 


Chap. 4 . church of Believers Jifjolved. 4 r 

. — T — — ; 

me admwiftrat, by him mould bec more effentially baptifme, 
then the baptifme adminiftrcd by % lefle holy or a prophane pa- 
ftour, this is the errour of the Ddnatlfts to hang the worthi- 
nefleof Gods ordinances upon the worthincfle of the inftrii- 
ments, one baptifme is not more eflentialiy baptifme than an- 
other : Whatever be the goodncfle or badncfle oi: the Mini- 
iter, the power of the keyes eflentialiy is oneandthefamein 
all. God doth more aflift and more abundantly blcfle one mans 
minifterie than another, but the difference there is in the ef- 
fects and manner of working, not in the offence and nature of 
the keyes, as we fay a man of thirty ycares is more and grea- 
ter of ftaturc and a bigger man than a child of fo ure years old, 
but a man of thirty yeares- is not more eflentialiy a reafbnable 
creature than a child of fbure yeares old, for the nature of 
man is alike eflentialiy in both. The good nefleof God and his 
good plcafure is the caufe why Gcd giveth the power of 
the keyes to fome perfbnsandnotto otheriome, the grace 
arid holinefle of a man is not the caufe. It is dangerous to a- 
vcrre that the power of the keyes is more or leflc inpcrfbns, 
^cording as they are more or iefle fan&ificd'and graced of 
God, for then Mary CMagdalene hath more power of the 
keyes, and hath more eccleiiaftick authoritie than Iudas y or a- 
ny unbelieving Pall our duely called of Chrift, and his Church. 
And therefore it is a fickly coniequence to reafon from the 
cxceilencie of the promilesof grace and themeafure of holi- 
neflcto th^ power of the keyes, or the meafure o f the power 
of the keyes. Oar Divines reaion well from a greater majoritic 
of grace and light paftorall, or of gifts paftorall or ccckfiaftick 
to inferre the majoritie of power of jurifdiclion, and of this 
fpeaketh tvhit taker and our Divines, There is a greater mea- 
fure of the Spirit of prophecy and of grace minifteriall , pro- 
mifed to the whole reprefentative Church of Chrift, con- 
vened in a Councell Oecumcnick, than to one man, the Pope, 
or to a fropher, and they give, but doe not grant that the I' ope 
is a Prophet , when they hold him to be a thiefe or a robb 
Hence they prove well the T^ope to be inferiour in power o 
jurifdiftiontoagenerall councell of Paftours and Elders. %M 

G is 

K^irqurnMsfor the indqwdtnck $f the Chap 4. 

is utterly falfc that th£y fay , -where there is ntort fiabilitie of 
arace and holineffe , there u more am horltie and ecclefiafticai 
nove.r, When both the (injecls are not capable of ecclefia- 
ftick power, now thefubje&s arefo tere, the Elderfhip is a 
fubject capable of the key'es,but the comrnunifie or believers 
that arc private €hriftians,and no more, are not capable of this 
power, and they beg the queftion who reafon with us in this 
argument. It is foule rcaioning to fay, the [new is whiter than a 
'Raven, becaufe there is more of cold qualities elementarie in 
the fn© w,nor in the Raven becaufe tfee Raven is not white at 
-op. 1 l £\.Artftotle taught us long fince at the Schoolcs that the com- 
parative degree could not beafcribedto thefubjetts of whom the 
fofttize degree is ^w^.Becaufe a Raven is not white, it is ri+ 
uitie to prove that fnow is whiter than a Raven. Belie- 
vers are not capable of the keyes remaining only believers, 
except God freely call them to the Minifteriall ftate. Belie- 
vers ( I grant jhave authorise of grace to be Kings and Prieft$ 
to God (for grace hath with it heavenly Mafeftic and authori- 
se) bu: they have not authoritie officially or power ccclefia- 
Itick, they want both power of order and jurifdi&ion,except 
they be called Paftours and Elders, but then they arc belie- 
vers and iorrrewbat more. But if they want power of jurifdi- 
clion, their power as members of the congregation is chri- 
ilian, popular, private , not authoritativ e, . not a power of the 
keyes. Grace, true and laving addeth a faire luftre to the po- 
wer of the keyeSj and doth gracioufly.qualifie and adorn that 
power, but where there is no power of the keyes in fimple 
believers it cannot adorne it 1 to pleafe and embrouder a 
w icked laan is not Chrift. W hat is the power of believers 
Ihallbedeclaredhereafter, if God permit. 

4, P^r^diiputeththus. The Church- guides muft be fub* 

v*rker ib. arg.j? jell to the cenfures of the Church of believers, thereof they are 

OV'' 7 '^ members t Tk 

e Calofsiatss mu&fay to Arehippus , take heed to 
• that thou liai} recti ved of the Lord. So Ambrofe 

ificciuius ui.i the mini ft trie thai thou l;aft recei ved of the Lord. §0 Ambrofe 



SSffiT ° r "" *hinkeiti ^ 1 he rulers, even the Emperours honour to beefub~ 
Jmr? * J " jettjoibeC' uYch.. tfdztia*. caHeth the Emferourhimjclfe a 

Chap. 4. church fif Believers d'tffolved. 4 j 

Jheepe of the fiocke> andfubjetl to the tribunal!, as BelUrmlne 
grant*th/indthat(teB the Churck)bindeth Peter>,xndthebighefi &««.?• *.e.»| 
ruler. So Barrow, Every member is bound to the ed feat ion, fer- hZ{U*, orac ad 
vice,and utilitie of the whole body commanded to reprove his £ '; la ^ m ^ c P on - 
brother, to bind their fins by the "toord of Cjod, c ven their Prin- "± 
ces Vtith chaines } to admomjb Archippus,yea, though an Afofile ^[^^ covtr 
or Angellf reached an other Cj of pell to pronounce him occur fed, church p \<* 
Anfw. That the Prelate fhould be above the Church, and ex- 
empted from the lawes and cenfures of the Church, whereof 
he is a Prelate , is molt unjuft , and this worthy Parker 
proveth unanfwerably. Emperours being paftours are un- 
der the hwes of Jefus Chrift the highcft lawgiver, and fo 
Ambrofe anji N04Janz.cn fay well But hence is not pro- 
ved , becaufe the Cellofsians are as private Christians to 
admonim or ruhuke their paftour Archippus. Therefore the 
body of believers have the power of the kcyes to depofe and 
excommunicate,and confequently to ordainc and lay hands 
on pa flours, which is commanded and commended only to 
fuchasto Timothy and Titus, and in them to the Elders T 

Tit. u, 


and Presbyterie,and that (tell the Church) doejih bind Peter 1 Tim 4 ! 1 4. 
and oblige all Paftors and Rulers, tobelyable to the lawes 
and cenfures of the Church, but by the word Church is not 
meancd the Church of believers ; but the Elderfhipof all 
incorporations^eccleilaftick, refpec'tive of congregationsj 
presbyteries and Synods ,' as God willing I (hall make 

3. BarroWes Scriptures are moft corruptly wrefted, for 
Iofeph a prince did bind in fetters the Senators of ^gather- 
fore a private believer hath the keyes of the Kingdome of 
heaven to flaut and open. What reafon is there here ? An 
Apoftle ©r Angell preacb in g another Gofpellisaccurfed, 
it fotloweth not. Therefore a private believer , fuppone a 
woman who is no lefle than a man, bound to the edification . 
fervice and utilitie of the whole body, is to excommunicate 
an Apoftle,or an Angell who fhall preach an other Gofpell. 
The keves fhall be too common, if all private Chriftians may 
put to their hand, and ui e them, becaufe they are to teach,ad- 

G 2 monifh 

4 \ ^Arguments fur t he indcpwdtncie of the Chap 4. 

monisb, rebuke, comfort, andedifie one another inn private 
and popular way : any may lee, it is one thing for one mem- 
ber of the body to help one another by exhorting and rebu- 
king (which is a vvorke of common chnritie) and for palrors 
publikely as the amhafladors of Chrift Jcfus, to ufe the keyes 
by publike preaching of the Gofpell (which is a worke of 
his pafrorali charge) yea thefe two differ as an ad: of obedi- • 
ence to the law of nature and common cnaritie, and an afr 
of obedience to a divine poiirive law. 

5 . Parker realbneth thus. Coatlive jurifdittion as ex- 
Obieft, communication, is a meane of edification, that the fpirit may 
befavedin the day cf the Lord, \ Corinthians 5. 4. Note 
tic Joules of guides (Parser faith the joules of Prelates ) 
fhallbee, in a worfe cafe , than the foules of the flocke , if 
they bee not fub]ebl to a particular Church, as Corinth : for 
they want that meane of edification Which others have . Some 
fay Synods are to take orckr with paftor.rs, and not tlie Church 
ef 'Believers ; But Papists anf Veer, The Bifiopis to be jud- 
. gedby the nArchbifhop or Patriarch, .if they fball fc.wdaloufly 
finne, then they are to be left to the' Pope , atid the Cjenerall 
Coptncc-ll, which cannot be had. ^AnfW^rr. I deny not but 
every paftour is fiibjccl: mfome things to the Eldermip of 
the congregation, where he is, and if he were not ly able to. 
lawes or cenfure, heewere a pope, but in the matter that 
deferveth deprivation he is only to be cenfuredby the Pres- 
e . uf byterieand Synods, for a number of believers, nayanutr.- 
a"m eft" dfgnita- ber of Ruling Elders cannor deprive him, becaufe they can* 
tcm contcrre cu- not orc Jaine a paftour : for thclaw faith well , It t6 one ps- 
?n tril a * Vterofthe keyes to ordajne and to exaut berate and deprive: But 

no word of God will warranty number of, believers to cen- 
fureecdefiaftically their-paitor, not becaufe hec is their pa- , 
ltor and they his flocke ( for fothc Eldcrirupor hisowne 
congregation might not eccleiiafticaily ceniure him , which 
I judge to be falic) but becaufe the Church of folc believers 
Jiath not the power of the keyes , and tluy have not power 
to ceniure any other believer , except in a private way, as 
fellow members of that fame body : but in a conftitute. 


Chap. 4. Church of Believers diffolvcd. 4 j 

Church, aColledgc of paftors and Elders o^Iy hath po-ver 
to deprive or excommunicate a paftour, and there remaincrli 
C h R 1 s t s way of edification , that hec bee in this 
cafe cenfured by Synods. But yce will iay, this is the P*- 
pifts anfwer. I anfwer, it is not, for they will have the 
paftour cenfured by the Prelate, the Prelate by the Arch- 
Prelate, which we deny as Antichriftian, tor all are to be by 
the Church. But Synods may crre/Then Sppcile to a grea- 
ter Synod, for united force is ftronger. But they alfo (yen 
will fay J may errr , I anfwer, and the Congregation of fole 
beleevcrs is not free from error, but tin's doctrine of our bre- 
thren fhalj refclve all government in thehandsof the people, 
as iinhehigheftandmoftfoveraigne ju icature ; which is to 
make all Paftors, all overleets, all judges. 

•6. Parker reaioneth from the neccflary defence of the objefl.- 
Church. Ever j f articular (f Lurch is an Armk,a Ship., a body, K , cl .„,, )a>l nh 
1 Cor.i 2 .Therefore when they are near e danger - 3 thejt have rower l.z.c.i*. 
to take crdcr v. irh a drttr.ken Pilot, and put him from ti 1 rttd 'er, ^'J^*f q lifo 
and t take order Wiii: at r, annom (f apt aim jvnd to purge out the 
filth andexcre?ncnts of the body. Sopoliticians y as Keckerm?n, 
Hottomanusy^ a kicked Magi fir ate is to be depofed y ifno other 
remedy can be found, So Gerfon. Anfvv. It is one thing what a Gtrfa 
multitude may doe in a defperate cafe of neceflity, when o- ° 
vcrfcers will not by their authority remove a wolfe and a falfe 
teacher, extremis morbis cxtrcma remedia ; Hardd'j cafes and 
defperate have need of defperate cures. But it is an o her cafe 
when in a conftitute Church, there is a government of Chi i;l 
cllablifhed, for there are two things to bee confidercd here. 
1 . A popular, but withill a private f ubitra&ion and fepnrati- 
on from the Miniftery of a knowne Wolfe and feducer, and 
this the Law of nature will warraud, than licet ttttela inculpa- SatxvU Licer ... 
tJLuti as Parker faith from Saravia. So the fon may fave him- tcU mcuipau 
fclfe by a juft defence in fleeing from his madde father, or his ^fXcwkrw 
diftra&ed friend comming to kill him. Now this defence is depow Bequii 
not an authoritative act, nor adl judiciall of authorise, but an 
acl .naturall that is common to any private pcrfon, yea to all 
without the true Church as well as within to take that care fa 

G 3 extreme 

46 Arguments for the independcncfcf the Chap. 4 

extreme neceffity, for the fafety of their foules, that they 
would doe for the fafetie of their bodies. 2. Thequcftienis 
whether the community of beleevers may doe this, that is, 
whether they by the power of the keyes given them by Jefus 
Chrifl: may deprive and excommunicate the Paftor, betauic 
the Law of Nature in fome caies may warrant a private fepa- 
ration from a corrupt miniftery. 3 . The cafe is not a like here 
as in a free Common -wealth, for a free Common- Wealth 
containeth, Ordincs reani, the eftates that have nomotheticke 
iuniu S Brutus q. povycr, and they not only by the Law of Nature may ufc jutta 
3 , tuteia y a neceflary defence of the: rlifcs from a Tyrants fury, 

'!Xi!h"r?ofo. J * but aifo by the Law of Nations may authoritatively repreffe 
1 ?. and limite him as is proved by Junius Urutus, Bucherius y Al- 

SfinT'^X ^ tbufius, Htnonius. Therefore Henning, Amiftus, do well di- 
ifiidori 9 . QinguiQi betweene flebem & <NfMi> populum, for indeed the 
o^.cunt. e multitude excluding the States, or the bafe of the people can 
^n7*<>. poiit.i. 1 h arc (iy ^ ave an other Law againft a Tyrant, then the Law of 
I'Utl dc rcpub. Nature, but the Common-wealth including the eftates of a 
c 8 " na- ^ rec kingdome,hath an authoritative. So Ifiodor, Origen 3 Ari- 

uJammuhiwdw flotle, Plato^Tit. Livius, Plutarch, and that of the Councell 
pf Mrci in' °^ % a fl> ^ m va ^ et re g min > qttamrex, the Kingdome is more 
jtgid' c in princ worth than the King, (as Silvius citeth,) is approved by all : 
c c ft*c!ncTr dC but tne multitude of fole belecvcrs, have not the keyes at all 
tfafiienf. 1 1 . and therefore they can doe no other thing, but ufe a necertary 
g w /8».«nfid.4 defence of their foules. And what Keckerman and Hottentot* 
iaith is not againft us* Alfo Cjerfon in name of the Parifians, 
going to the Councell of Pifan, faith a Councell may be gathe- 
red frith out the Tope (Without the guides) of the Church) two 
way c$,£haritative, when Charity rdgncth 2 . Author it a- 
tivc, when the cafe of the Churches ruine requircth that a 
Councell fhould bee, and if the Pope (and Paftors,) refafe 
to convene; and the neceffary defence of ioules is the like 

7 . No power is given to Pafiors abfolutelj, but to edification, 

/w<7 7 .ul>. and fo upon condition, and therefore if the condition ceafe, tht 

power ceafeth : But Ja y yec, It ceafeth ; What then f it follow* 


Chap. 4. Church of Bclkvers dtffolved* 47 

eth not they Jhouldbe deprived, by the Church, but by the Synod : 
ye*, but you wn'd fay, it followetb, for the power is not given for 
the edification of the Synod, and not for their defirutlion,butfor 
the edification of the Church, and thU deslroyeth the Church. 
ts4lfo Synods cannot alwayes bee had. 

Anfw. Ir the power bee abufed wholly, itceafethand 
the Paftor before God, in for inter no, hath lofed his power ; 
If it bee abufed in one or two ads, it is not lofed, elfe a King 
doing againft j idgment and juftice,and a Paftor doing agaiiift 
pietie Should leave ofFto be a King, and Paftor ; which is hard 
to affirm. 2. The power authoritative,is given by the Presby- 
tery for the edification of the Church principally, and for the 
adifying of Synods and Eldermips, Secondarily, but hence it 
followeth not that this power fnould bee taken away by the 
Church of fole beleevers. Object. Synods (faith hec) cannot 
bee had ordinarily. tAnfr. So neither publike preaching at 
ibmc times; It followeth not therefore that publike preach- 
ing is nor a meane of edifying, becaufe through accident, 
and iniquitie of time the publike preaching cannot be had. 

8 Parker ireafoneti) from the fiability of the Church. where 3 , j r . 
there i* mo-re flabilitie, there is mere authority , as our Divines 
reafon, proving the Pope to be infmonr to the C dunce H. 1 . zsf 
Church cannot be gathered in the name of Christ, b v t there is 
the power of Chrifi, 1 Cor. 5. 4. Match 18, But a Church may 
be, And Was cwftitute atfirft, faith Sa~avia, without El ers and Smmt 
Paftors. 2 .The (fhurch hath ecc left alii eke au hority, When the 
overfeers are abfent^ as in the re-formed Churches ,or when by he- 
re fie rhey. lofe their authority, the authority of the ovcrfters, de- 
pen deth on the ^burch ,butth authority of the Church dependcth Mort*n % 
not on the overfeers. 3; PPhen't he Paftor is dead, the (fhurch 
keepeth /till her authorities when the Pope is dead ( faith Bellar- &N*r*M • 
mine) the keyes remaine in Chrifis hands , and he gh eth them to 
the next P ope : Behold fleeing keyes (faith Morton.) zAn r , 
A minifteriall Church is never gathered in Chrifts name, while 
there be a minifterie, bnfcffe yon would fay, Peter is a man be- 
fore he be a reafonable crea ture which is a contradict bn,1bme 
few beleevers may mcetetogether, but they cannot preach, 


48 ^Argnmmsfor the independency of the Chap.4. 

baptize, cenfure, while Chrifts power of the keyesbcc given 
them,except by an extraordinary power from I.C. 2. What 
if a Church of belcevers bee by order of nature, before there 
be overfeers ? Yet have they not the keyes while Chri s t 
call fome of their number out to give them the Keyes, for 
there was no power of the Keyes of the New Tcftament, 
while Chrift gave it to John Baptist, and called the twelve 
Diicipl.es ; elfe their calling to bee Apoftles fhould not bee a 
conferring on them the Keyes, which is falfe : for when, 
CMatth. ic. t , 5 . they are lent out with power to prcacb,he 
gave them the Keyes, and yet they were a Church of Diici- 
plcs before, and firft called to faith, and then to the Keyes, and 
to the Apoftlcfoip. 2 . The Church of beleevers have no au- 
thority Ecclefiaftieall, nor power of the Keyes, if all the Pa- 
yors on earth were removed from the Church by Death, and 
in that cafe the Keyes fliould indeed bee only in Chrifbhand, 
and, the cafe being extraordinary, Chrift behoved extraordi- 
narily ,tolupply the want of ordination, which Timothy, Ti- 
tus, and other Elders doth ordinarily give, for the Church of 
beleevers could not give that which they have not, and yet 
*B diamines Keyes are fleeing Keyss, for he hath no caufe to 
fay, when the Pope dictb; The Keyes flee to Heaven,for there 
are living many thoufand Paftors and Elders who have the 
Keyes fuppone the Vope died,and never lived again. 

. objea- IC * P ar ke r reafoneth thus , IfVetevftandup i zAc~lsi. in 

figne of reverence (asfland'mg is in Scripture, Numbers. 1 6.9. 
1 v hro. Ip.n. Ezec.44. 11. John 3.19.) before the multi- 
tude of belie vers, then he Acknowledged their authority above his ; 
*B ntV cter did the former, AcT:s 2 , Anfn\ This argument con- 
cluded not the power of the Keyes to bee in the multitude : 
There is Authority of grace in a multitude profefling the 
Truth but not power of the Keyes, and certainely wede- 
nie not (imply, but beleevers are farre above all overfeers. 
But thequeftion nowisof fuperioritie and honour of jurii- 

.II Tarker 

Chap-4. Church of Beleevers dij[cl<vtd. 49 

II. If nothing nrnfl be done in a Church without the Obiett.u. 
common conjent of believes, then beleevers have jurifdi- J^^ST* 
ttion above their over-fetrs ; but the firmer is true, Atl ticioj toK>«« 
15. AH. 1. ? mny adde what the} e of the Separation fy. f>r™i'P**h 
The faith jull had knowledge and conjent in elections, Alt, 
1. 15, 23, 26. Act. 6, 2, 3, 5. and 14, 23. and 15.23 
2 5 . For hearing and deciding Ecclejiafticall contreverfies % 
Aft. 11. 2,18. and 1 5. 2,22. and 21. 18. 22. firVcri- 
tin^ gener all letters. All, 15. 25. fir fending (ome to 
build other Churches, Act. 11.22. fir fending the benc- 
volen'.e cj * Brethren to other Churches, I Cor.\6. 3. and 
2 Cor.%.19. for excommunication, 1 (for, 5. Afat.iS. 
Anf. if this be a good Argument, All publike Church 
bufnejfe it to be dine bj knowledge and confent of belee- 
vers, and cannot be done by their over-feers alone, Tber- 
fore the faith full have jxr if diction over the over feers, 

tAnfw. We will borrow the Argument (and give 
it back againe) for us; no publike bufinefle is to be 
done without the knowledge and confent of Elder- 
fhip. Ergo, The Elderfhip hath the junldiflion.2.1 hat 2,^c,*/?/:cu?- 
all be done by their confent, I grant, but with thefe Nettm-ji^gm* 
diftin&ions, 1. Their quiet and tacite confent, for there "ZltZufL ,c£ 
is not required an exprcfle confent by word of mouth /«/» <£* r °i* tit 
of all the multitude fas of women} fpeaking in the ^JSSST 
Church, for they fhculd give reafons of their confent, +dm** 
if an expreiTe confent be required. 2 Confenr of ma- 
nyeft, not all, els the Churches deed fhould bind rone 
abfent. 3. A confent popular, not judiciall, els they 
are all made Judges. 4. Their privity is thought a 
confent ; how could fix thoufand that our Bretheren 
make an independent Church in the Apoftles time all 
fpeake, 2. All judge in Excommunication. 3. All 
reafon,difpute, propone, anfwer, as Judges muft doe; 
heere grave Beza, our Divines Calvwe, Buccr, Bullin- 
ger, Melantlon, Beza, Bucan, Parens, Rivetus,Sibran- 

dui, Junius, Treleat'nu , the fathers Cyprianjerome, Au- 
gufline, Nazjanzen, Chryfoflome, Ambrose , Tkodoret> 

TheophjUtl require all to be done, confentiente plebe. 

H But 

5 o Arguments fer the Indefenienzy eftbe Chap./j.. 

But my Bretheren, what if there he a d'feorj, and 

beleevers deny confent. In a matter of Excomnm- 

PaiensVrfin,qaen n j ca tion Zeppcrus, Zanchhu. Beza, 'BucanHs, Parent 

f arech 8 s art*. t . . ' ' , . . , . . ' . 

pas 47* stvidi. thinxe the Elder; hip Ihonld not excommunicate. 2, But 
^if'^fJr 9 ™ - v ^ at ^^ 1C contagion of the not excommunicated lea- 
jlYjf7railllfiindi ven the whole lump ? I fee not how believers have 
£«>/»**, »Mrf*- a nC g a tivc confe4it. 3. If the matter be a point of. 
ts, ' wc ere ' ncceflary truth to be determined, and the Paftours and 
Elders in the Lord and from his Word command it 
as a neceffiry truth to be obeyed, but the Bclecvcrs con- 
fent not, 1 a f ke whither or not that which Watch- 
men command from Gods Word and authoritatively 
and judicially in his flame, ought not to ftand as an 
obliging Mandat and Canon, even when the Beleevers 
gain-fay? Our Bretheren fry, the Mandat tyetk and ob- 
lige th materially and in it felftjmt not ecclejtxflically^ be^ 
canfe beleevers doe not confent^ it hath not the force of a 
Canon^ feeing they have the keyes, Anf But this Canon 
( Arrianifms is Herefte) we fuppofe is all one both ma- 
terially and Ecclefiaftically , according to that ( Hce 
that heareth jou, heareth me ) and fo it tyeth being de- 
termined by Paftours with others Synodically convee- 
ned. Shall it oblige the one way Ecclefiaftically be- 
ing preached, and not the other way being Synodi- 
cally determined, becaufe the people confenteth not? 
Certainly if power cf preaching be a power of the 
keyes, all that are filent to that which is preached give 
a content to what is preached, for filcnce at the hea- 
ring of a vow, when it is lawfull to fpeake is a con- 
fenr, Numb. 30.W.14. Now it is lawfull to any mem- 
ber of the Congregation, to fpeake againft what is 
unfomd in Doctrine publickly delivered, {o icbefpo- 
ken timoufly : Hence it mud follow that whit tyeth 
ani obligeth as -an aft of the keyes in preaching, ty- 
eth alfo when determined by the Eldcr(hip, fuppofe 
all the Congregation doc not judge and determine ju- 
dicially : I may fay that by our Bretherens grounds, 
preaching is 3 pubhek Ecclefialtick ad of the keyes, 


Chap. 4* Church of Believers diffolved. 5 1 

and of the whole Church, for the Church preachcth 
ly her Pafteur, as by her mouth and fervant receiving 
authority, and the keyes to preach from the Church. 
Therfbre all mud give their content to what is prea- 
ched, els it is not the Word of God or to be judged 
2nd reputed to tye us to faith and obedience, no kfle 
then publick a&s of the Church, and this were Grange, 
to fay, the word preaching is not the w r ord obliging 
cccleliaftically, except all believers women and chil- 
dren confirme it by their confent and &ffragcs ju-p 

1 2 . Parker reafoneth thus. If Peter render an account P l Mr gff tm 
to the particular (fhurch of believers at Jerufalcm, of his GratUn, Deer, 
toting With the uncircumcifid, and of What may he judged J art a,c,a ' q 7#c * 
fcahdaloHS, then the judicial! power of cen faring Church- Ccrftndeauforib. 
guides is in the hands of the people ; But this Peter the £* fl cTuVches 
Apoftle did AH, n. not (as Gratian faith) ut doctor p]ca,pas!.78. 
manfuetudinis, but, as Ferus faith, ex officio. And as ^TaVfluffe 
Gerfon faith, non ex humili condefcenfione, fedexde- pciicEcdci, p./j. 
bito & obligatione, not of Humility, but of duty. So {££*£?& 
reafoneth Beft alfo. So Almain faith, 'Tope Nicolas/zid 
to Lctharins, except he Would abftainefom the company 
of Ids excommunicated Where , he Would cowp/aine to the 
(fhurch y he faid not, he Would take order With him him- Occam. Dialog, 
felfe, as beina above a CouncelL When Symmachus the , D 5,pai . eic **5 

n jJm-i r 1 t J J s* m . Papa d* necjjstate 

rope contended With jo me, he gathered a £ ouncell, and ftiiau tewtmfi 

they iudoed the matter : If two 'Topes contend for a ''ope- *?'&?) f l & rai " 

1 J /r - 1 a j • \ u ^ 11 1 [""Mum mutnr 

dime (Jatth Almaine ) a generalt C ouncell is to deter- apud fttfafc*, 
mine. t roU:ttr **«- 

tisftifw. The Major is not true, Teter is to purge 
him felfe before any one brother cff:nded of a fcandall, 
and farre more before the Church : Yea, the necetfi- 
ty of his falvation, and fo the law of nature forbid- 
ding to cffcnd the weake, willeth him to purge bim- 
felfe, if he were a Tope (faith Occam) now one of- 
fended brother is not a church, and fo the Superiori- 
ty cf jurisdiction in believers is not hence concluded. 
2. He purged hiaiklk before the Apoftles and Brtthertn, 

H 2 ver. 

52 Both the power Andexercife Gbap.yl 

ver 1. and not before the Brethren onely. 3. If he 
had done wrong,hc was obliged to confeffe his fcandall 
before one offended believer, and alfo before all the 
Church, but that proovcth not jurifdiclion in the be- 

Obiett.l$. 13. Taul rebuketh Peter before the Church *f Anti- 

och, ergo.That Church 0/Antioch might iudge Peter, 

Anf The fame anfwerfufriceth. 2. It is not proved 
that in the prefence of Believers only Taul did rebuke 
him from this Text. 

ObieEt.14. 14* Chrift immediately and Without the mediation of 

the Church ( faith Parker) communicateth himfelfe to be- 
leevers, ergo Jhe communicateth his power alfo immediately to 
his Church, 

Anf It followcth not, becaufe he communicateth 
not his power of the keyes to the Church of belie- 
vers, either mediately or immediately, becaufe he giveth 
it not to them at all. 

, ; r ' 

Chap. V. 

Qjvhether or no fome doe Vearranmbly teach, that the 
power of the Keyes id ejfentially and originally in the 
Church of Belcevers, and in the Church- guides only at 
the fecond hand, and in the by, quoad exercitium, Jo as 
the Church of "Believers fhould be the miftrejfe delega* 
ting the keyes by an imbred and kindly authority, and 
the Church-guides as her proper ferv ants and dele gats do 
borrow tfo ufe and exercife of the keyes fiom the fore- 
faid Church of Believers ? 

THe tenent of thefe, with whom we now difpute is 
that all the power of the keyes is given by Chrift 
to the multitude of Believers, as to the firft fountaine, 
and that this power is derived and gefted by the mul- 

Chip. 5* efthe Keyes w the Eldtrfoip. 53 

multitude of believers to fuch and fuch perfons to be 
ufed and cxerciled by them, as the fervants both cf 
Chrift and the Church : For the clearing cfthequc- 
Jlion and trying ifthisdiftindion be la w-biding.Thdc 
diftindions are to be obferved. 

I. The power of the ke) es may be thought to come to 
the Mimftcrs cf the (fhurch three Waiet, as Jhall be 
cleared, \ , By mediate derivation, the Church recei- 
ving this power ficm C^rtf-i and deriving it ivcr to 
the fiends of the Bridegroomc 2, By immediate do- 
nation, Cjod immediately giveth the honour of the 
keyes to thefe Whom he maketh hii Comtyers in this 
kinde. 3 . 'By application, the Church only naming 
tlxmcn to the office, 
2 • The power of the keyes, and all facred offices in gods 
Houfe, are from the immediate Wifdcme of Chris I; 
The def gnat ion of fuch men to fiich offices is by the 
miniftery of the Church, 

3. The power of the keyes is one things the lawfidl exercife 
of the keyes is another thing, 

4. The Minifters may be thought the fervants either of the 
Church, or fervants of Chrift fir the Church, 

5. Defgnation of men by the (fhttrch to facred offices may 
be thought either in the Churches free-will, or tyed to the 
lawes dejigned by Chrift. 

6. The (fhurch of believers may be thought either the vir- 
tuallor the formal I fhbietl of the kejes, 

7. The power of the kfyes may be thought to be givtn 
to the community or multitude of Believers or prof ef- 

fours of faith in Chris?, in the general I , not defign- 
tng one man rather then another^ but leaving that to 
the dijpoftion oj ' me ones , anddisfoftionoffecondcau- 
fes y Who [hall be the man, as to be a LMufitian, to 
be an Aftronomer is given to manhinde as fome Way 
proper to man, as Porphyre faith, howbeitallande- 
very one ofma*kinde,be not alwayes Uvlufitians and A- pr^o/^ 4 ^* 

It is thought by our Brethren, that the Church of 

H 3 be- 

54 Beth power andcxercife of the Chap.y. 

believers is the firfl: feat, the prime fab/eft, and head 
fountaine under Jcflis Chrifr, to whom the keyesarc 
given, and that howbeit all offices and officers be on- 
ly of Chrifts inftitutio:), yet the Church of believers 
doe as the Spoufe and MtftrefTe, and bfcfcfe of Clvifc 
communicate the lawfull exercifc of feme acls of the 
keyes, as to preach, adminiftcr the Sacraments, over- 
fee the converfation of the flock, care for the poore 
to fome certain men, as her deputies and lervants 
with borrowed authority from her felfe, as the vVeil- 
TgcutmVirif.&t head and prime fountain under Chrift of all the au- 
r a l nf^ <1 ' paS,t thority and ufc of the keyes that is m the officers of 
tu'pnefistii*. the Houfe, as Paftors, Doctors and Elders, the Church 
tt%Zt&lt ftlil keeping in her own hands authority and power of 
i*r«M,/>f»*£ the keyes in mod materiall afls of the power cf the 
mmediautuait^ k cyes as < Dy tnc f c k eyes to ordain and cledl all the 

turn jt4ppnJitM>n t J J J r } r \ • r •■• r 

qu<im*d aLqu%m officers, and in cale or aberration or railing to cenfure, 
fartem fuppfni, d C pof- excommunicate them, and all members of the 
mtmintendere, e . vi'ible Church, and that independently, and without 
*mi,bc*uf<»fi : y fuboriination to Presbyteries, "Clafles and Synods; 
e+totidtuwfe even as the kingly power or actuall government is m 
boministt per * u. t j ie Kings hand, and he appointeth deputies and fer- 
crgtnon&mir.i. vants unJer himielr, and in his name and authority, 
firwthominu ex- t0 j an j execute his will, according to the Laws 
tJmfrfr t**P: °f tne Kingdom, fo doth the Church of believers tin- 
7n h 7cho™T>n ^ er ^"^ b > T nn Httbrcd authority and power recet- 
/?'';?, boc°i*fa**bu ved from Chrift, fend out Paflors, Lofton, and EU 
limmnitafirm*. j ers j n } icr nara e ?nc [ authority to cxercife certain mi- 
^f'^f^S niikriall a&s\ yet fo as the Church of believers in all 
a*i> V inmradocto- t ' ne a ft s performed by the officers , remaincth the 
pVue, lo^Juri principall and prime agent, caufe and a&or under 
doeui> % 0>rQiM chrifr, and the officers only her fervants, deputies 
Ompriu,, imifedi. and inftruments, performing all by authority borrow- 
tUm^efeutiaU C{ ^ f rom ncr tnc bride, Queen and Spoufe of Chrift : 
u m?mtmtotTde- This they believe to be contained in the Scriptures, 
dijfcE'c'efu quam an j taught by Fathers and DoBors of the Church, i 
mZtji'lh'i™™ deny not but by the faculty of VarU , this queftion 
*rcer,»tur& pa S . was agitated in the Counccll of Bafil and Cenftance, 

i.prriaHtperteX' ° to 

Chap. J . Kejes in the Elder jhif. 5 5 

to bring the Pope as a fonne and fervant under the ^%u71 
power "of a Generally Councell. The Sorbonifts and i*/<£« ifr.;**? 
Dolors of "Paris, that are not near the fmoake of the Ht \ 9 ^aZ% 
Popes t^lory, for this, contend with the Jefjites, men p„u*/iter Eicty* 
that are fworne bellies to the world and the Pope. ^ISSEZ 
The Parifians cite the Councell of Carthage, where cmw^atifiepag. 
Angvftine was prefent : And Augustine, wA Tcrtul- |£^*^*£ 
lian and Cbry r ofto;*c feerne to favour this. So r JZfa/do- /«**«<*. /j.r« u£ 
nate, Term, fayifeniw , Sutluvius, Whhiak$r , Mmo*, ^J 5 ^^ 
Spa!ato,Gerfon, Aimain, "Petr.de A iliac. Alio Edmun- ^w.Mru^Ttrmim 
d*s Khkrluf , and Saw. t/*g£k* fet out a booke cf "£jjjjfl£u 
Church policy, depreiTing the Pope, and extolling the (nvim de p<mvf $ 
Church po;vcr as full and co.npleat without a minifte- L+*W***kF** 
riall had, as their owns Vimiftm Dothrs ackniWicd- m mJm tffUg. p, 
r/W f/;<? command of bavin* a P ope to be affirm j: he . and »l»b 4 ««♦ **•*•- 
not to bind alWayes, ana tvat the Churches power remai- tb'.epif, Spdaitnfi 

t;eth full when the Tope is deal as the Parifians fa)'p.S. Ar^BcdLjc. 
J , 'i 1 r* » 1 c.'2. 11.1,2,3,4.110.6 

The booke came out without the mme or an Authour, cicms^, 
and was condemned tv /V^/W/ Peronius, Archbijhop Ger fi* *<**/*&• 

r t r» • r r 1 si 1 • P*P O de psteit 

or Senona, and Primate of trance ani Germany , and is Ecc.3 4,5 .^/«a.«» 
refitted by Andreai Duvallim a Sorbonift. What our Di- £'** f f wr ?" u ?' 

,. '• i . f L , r r 1 •/* Petr.de *A.n:c,de 

vines % in this, I nave exponed to be far othervviie Ecd author* par.- 
then is the mind <£ Packer, V^Jacob, M.tieft, and the "P' z * . . J 
Authours 01 presDytenall government examined, Ann. E:df.&pdiupt>- 
1641. U&K6U 

Hence our firft conclusion is : All offices and of- vigariOL 
flce-bearers in Gods houfe have their warrant imm> D '* ,fwr ' t0 '• 
diately from Chrift Jefu*, as we all agree again*! the c Ui.?yigoi/ 
baftard prelacy, i.becaufe of the perfection and pie- i* c r \\ r ie l* !iu 
nltude of Scripture. 2 becaufe of our Law-giyer CbriPcs b**jL £•*>** 
wifedome, and his f:ven Spirits that are before the £j , ' < ,.'. l » 
Throne, feeing he feeth better then men. g.becauf: plfi^gm^ 
of the Scriptures. Eph 411. Rom 1 2. 7, 8, 9. 1*1 Or, *&*m*tk* **** 
12.26,-27,-8,29. iTim.-$. *W7. 20. : 8. Andtbere- 
fore Presbyters and Deacons have their oihees immedi- 
ately fom C hriit 3 and not from the Prelates. 

it. Conclufion. The firft fub j:cT of the keyes is ci- 
ther made quate or narrower, as one Pallor and fome 


56 Bo h power andexerafeof the Chap. 5. 

- ■ __^ — 

ruling Elders of a Congregation : And thefe have not 
the po w§r of all the key es, as of ordination of Paftors, 
and fo of dcpofition ; feeing in the Apoftolikc Church 
there were alwayes a number of Paftors at the ordi- 
nation of Paftors, onely they may pertormefonicacts 
of difciplincthatconccrneth that flockc. Tne adequate 
and proper Subject of full power of the kcyes is the 
presbytery of Paftors and Elders, as we (hall prove here- 

3. Conclujion. The power of the kcyes indirectly 
commeth from the Church of bcleevers to fome felect 
officers, I fay (indlreBlj) not directly , becaufc how- 
beit beleevers by no innate and intrinficall power of 
jurisdiction in them, due ordaine officers ; yet they 
are to give a popular conf:nt to the election of their 
officers, as the word of bod, all the fathers and our 
Divines teach againft Papifts and Prelates , who take 
away this power from the people of God Now by 
this popular election men are put in that ftate, where- 
by they may be and are ordained office-bearers by the 
laying on of the hands of the Elders. And this our 
brcthrens arguments prove and no more. Hence the 
power of the keyes commeth to the officers three 
wayes, whereof we deny one. 1. As if the Church of 
beleevers received the kcyes firft from Chrift,then by au- 
thority from Chrift did give over the ufc of them in 
fome acts to the officers, and did appoint them her 
fervants. That this is not according to the Scriptures 
of God, I hope by Gods grace to prove. 2 The power 
of the keyes and all power of jurisdiction and order 
is firft in Chrift, then immediately communicated to 
the Apoftles and their iucceflors in them, and here the 
MmaindtBm. . offices and power is of Chrift Jefus onely. 3. As the 
natur &avii.& application of the man to the office, and the office to 
* C 'm°!Z»£ r* the man is twofold ; one by popular election, fuch a 
Dom.jircbie spmU man pleafed- the multitude, zAtt. 1 Aft. 6. Another 
der e p.EccLL 5 .c.}. ^ ailtnor i tat i ve ordination or impoiition of hands to 
an office in Gods houfe , which they would have by 


Chap. 5. ^KeyesintheEUerjhif. ,_ 

a multitude of belee^ers, having no minifteriail fun- 
ction* ; but is net in the Apoftohkc Church of the New 
Teftamcnt, that ever we can rerde. We fnd out ordi- 
nation by the presbytery, 1 Tim.4. 1 4. 

4. Conclufon. IhecfTenceand definition of a Church 
doth not ex acuo , equally, and alike agree to the 
ChLrch of beleevers and Miniftcrs , or office-bearers, 
or to a company ef a vifible Church, made up cf thefe 
two parts, beleevers and officers, as our brethren ipeak 
of their vifible Church. My resfon is cleare, Belee- 
vers are eiTentially and properly the myfticall body^of 
Chrift:, and the Church of redeemed oms, I}h^ 25. 
e^ #.20. 28. And the £kurch builded onarocke, which 
they fay received the keyes from Chrift ( which I dare 
not fay) but the Church cf officers, that are only officers 
and ro more, that is called of. God and his Church, 
and cloathed with a calling to be Paftors and Doflors, 
Elders, Deacons, are not the redeemed of God ; but 
may often be, and are reprobates, and not members of 
Chrifls true body according to the influence, of laving 
grace. Now from this 1 inferre, that beleevers and 
office-bearers make not one common and true myfti- 
call bedy that hath received equally the keyes from 
Chrift , and that thefe predications are unproper and 
figurative, and that literally and in rigor of the letter 
they are falfe. (Sicn bringeth good ty dings (the Church 
giveth fucke and milhe to her children) (the Qburch be- 
cetteth a man chllde) becaufe the Paftors of the Church 
doe thefe things : For there is no elective influence 
orcaufality comming from the Church of beleevers in 
thefe and the like Paftorall actions, except that they 
pray for thefe fruits of a Miniftery , they chufe the 
men for the worke, but doe not ordaine them : But 
we cannot fay that the Church doth formally preach 
and beget children to God in and through preachers, 
as their fervants, as a Kingfpeakethfuchcbunncfleby 
his Legat and Embaflador ; and our King doth governs 
and reignc in Ire/and by his Deputy: Here the Kings 

I authority 

58 Both powsr and cxcrcifc of the Chap.j. 

authority bath influence in the acts of his Deputy,and 
Legat : For where will Scripture bcare this (Thtbe- 
leevers at (folofiee preach to the beleevers at £otojfee by 
their ferv ant Archippas) ( Philippians preach to *J> hi tip . 
plans by their fervant Epaphroditus) And (the Church 
exercifcth authority, and governeth loer felfe in and through 
the ferv ants fent by her felfe) And (the fait hfttll The ffa- 
lonians are over themfclves in the Lord, and obey them- 
felves in their fervants , and Ministers fent by them- 
felves ) how I fay, will the holy Spirits (Vile of lan- 
guage make thefe in rigor true ? but according to our 
CMfcragainl* brethren? tenents they are molt true. Katherenfhildley 
HJM#MHb, againft Edwards faith, pag % I o,i i . when the handlaun- 
p * |0,!, ' ceth the foot, it cannot be f aid properly the atlion of the 

hand alone, becaufe the hand u fet on workeby the body, 
if the body be destitute of the power, for the motion of the 
body commeih not fom the hand , but the motion of the 
hand fom the body. So this Argument would fay. The 
T aft or pre ache th as the mouth of the Church, and prea- 
ching is an a& of the Whole Church performed by the P a- 
fior as their fervant or mouth ; z^Jnd fo the power of 
preaching mufl be firfl in the Church, and not fir ft in the 
Paftors, as motion is firfi in the body, and not firft in the 
- hand, 

Anfit. The comparifon holdeth not, The Paftor is 
Gods" mouth, Jer. i?.iq, Z^.T.70. But Pafiors are 
not the mouth of the Church, and the motion is here 
from Chn(t principally, from the Paftor as the mouth 
inftrumentaily, from the Church objectively and final- 
ly, and the comparifon of the body natural! haiimh in 

It may be obj oftcd , 1 (for. 4. 5. We prtAth not 
felves but Chrift ftfa* 9 Atzd our felves jour fervants for 
Chrisls fake, Therefore Minifters are the tenants of the 

iAnfa. Minif; i Hooght theChurches fer- 

vants two waves, I .Subietlive/y , as if t bey had their 
authority from the Churchy and were Paftors of men, 


Chap.5» Keyes in the Elder jhif. 59 

or from men. This is the quell ioned fenfe that wc dc- Zfp*$? %m ' m 
ny. 2. finaliter, that is, they arc Tenants not of the sumfend^u^ 
Church, but for the Church, as Chrift is called our *»«*/*» &f/ifl* 
fervant, dfat.20.2S. And the Angels our minifiring Hi '' l4. 
Spirits; yet neither Chrift nor the Angels have autho- 
rity and a Calling from us to their fervice. It is«as if 
one Would fay, T he Phyfitian hath skill from the ficke 
pcrfon ; >\ hich is falfe, becaufe God gave him skill 
for the ficke perfon, and not from the ficjfcc per- 

5, foxcfaJifin.Wc judge this diftincTion a gaJnft Scrip- 
ture and reafon ,'tbat the power of the keyes effenti- 
ally, fundamentally and originally is in the Church of 
bclecvers, and the exercife only , and feme borrowed 
acts of the keyes fhould be in the officers. 

1. Becaufe we are not to diflinguijh Where the Lay* doth I Arg. 
yet diflinguifh, becaufe this diftinguifhing is unknowne *J guU . l n rU 

to the Scripture, which never giveth the keyes to the «//Lx*3T " 
beleevers. %"£*''' 

2. The comparifon which Tarker fetcheth from the c8n!J.' 
Parifians, holdeth not*. Sight is in the eje, as the in fir it- 2 t Arg. 
ment , but it is principally and crigwally from the whole 

man, fir the whole man feet h by the eye. The authority of 

the fchierch is as the foule in the 'Whole body ( as Bridge- 

fius faith) and in every member of the body : How belt Bridgef\^^%iu 

it doth not exercife the poWer in every member, but itjeeth 

by the eye 9 and heareth by the eare, fo the power of the 

"keyes is in all y and every one of the faithfully but it exer- 

cifeth fome zAlls minifteriall, as preaching, baptizing m 

the guides , and other are Afis in other members of tlie 

body, but the poWer is in all. 

But I anfwer, That this comparifon halteth many 

• 1. The body is a phyficall, organicall matter c 
ble of the foule, and a kindly or naturall houfe or {"hop 
for the foule to worke in, and every member may ex- 
ercife fome vitall operation by the foules inacTing of 
it, as hearing, fmclling, feeing, moying, growing, dec. 

I 2 w But 

0o Both power and ex*?rcifz of the Chip. 5. 


But the Church confining of beleevers and Minifters, 
that are often oppofed by way of contradiction, as be- 
leevers and no:i beleevers, and a beleeve: that is no 
more but a beleever , is nDt capable of the power of 
the keyes, it being grant gratis data, a freely given gift 
of God , except the Lord be pleafcd freely to give it 
by fome Law or promife ; And fo thefe that are on- 
ly beleevers , are as the woodden leg , or the eye of 
glafle in the body wanting all authoritative power of 
the miniftery where God hath not gifted and called 
them, now every member of the body isinadedby the 

2. If this companion hold well, as every member 
of the body liveth, and is denominated a living thing 
(howbeit every member be not an eye, or an eare) 
by the information of the foule : £> every toe and fin- 
ger liveth by the inading of the {oulc } aftu prima, and 
moveth and groweth atttt fecundo : fo mud every be- 
leever in the body of Chrift , Man and woman be 
attit prima, and elTmtially a minifteriall part andorrlce- 
bearer having authority from Chrift, and alfo aft it fe- 
cundo , exercife fome minifteriall ads ; for fuch as is 
the nature of the ad, fuch is the nature of the power, 
and fuch as is the power, fuch is the ad. If the pow- 
er be minifteriall, {o is the ad : If the ad be not 
minifteriall (as it cannot be in thefe onely that are be- 
leevers, efpecially women and children) fo neither is the 

3. The -whole man feeth by the eye, hearethby the 
eare, but the beleevers fee by their owne eyes (as they 
mud live by their owne faith) and not with the Pa- 
llors eyes, neither doe they grow by that foule of grace 
by which the Pallor groweth, 

3, The Beleevers rnuft cither be th: virruall,orthe 
formall ilibjeeT of the keyes, They are not the vimuM 
ifubjcd.or caujfe, as flint is a ciufe of fire; for our bre- 
thren fiy that the beleevers formally performe ads of 
the keyes, and that they rebuke, they excommuakare* 


Chtfp- 5 . Keyes in the Elder jhip. 6 1 

they chafe their officers, which is an authoritative 
a& of the keyes, as they teach. Now a virtuall caufe 
is not formally the caufe of the crFect ; as fire is the 
caufe of fire, and doth not formally perform: acts of 
the formall caufe ; food doth not formally make mo- 
tion in the body, but onely virtually. But they are for- 
ced to. acknowledge that beleevers arc the formall fab- 
led of the keyes : It is abfurd that one iliould eflen- 
tially , and atta frimo , have the power of the keyes, 
and yet he may not preach, nor baptize, that is, as if 
one had areafonablefoule,and yet could neither difcourfc 
nor move, nor walks. 

4. The power of the keyes is either in the officers as t.drg. 
officers,or onely as beleeversjif as officers,then they can- 
not borrow the keyes from believers, feeing they have 

them as officers, fuppofe they be not beleerers, and 
that is againft the meaning or this diftinfHon ; if they 
.have the power of the keyes onely as beleevers, then 
all Minifters that are non - beleevers want the 

5. Office-bearers have either a nearer and more mi- $,Jrg.. 
nifteriall power of the keyes then beleevers, or onely 

that fame minifteriall power ; if the former be faid, 
the miwiftery is but a naked acT , that fome exercife 
at the Churches direction fometimes, and nohabituall 
power whereby Taul is made a Minifter , Col. 1.25. 
and Epapbroditm is denominated a faithfull meflcnger, 
T^.2.25. f° r fo one ihaU not be a Minifter of Chrift; 
but when he is intheadofhisminiftery,againft Scrip- 
ture and reafon. if office-bearers have ondy that fame 
minifteriall power that beleevers have, Then Minifters 
cannot ordaine others to be Minifters, except they be 
beleevers, and a Minifter fhali not preach from an in- 
ward principle, proper to a Minifter ; but from a prin- 
ciple common to him with other beleevers, which 
maketh no difference betwixt a beleever and a Mini- 
fter, but in the naked a&s ; And this is all one, as to 
iiy a man doth walke naked,and yet he is void of life* he 

I 3 prea- 

Both power and txercife of the Chap.5. 

preacbctb, and hath no other inward power mtnifteri- 
ail , then any bclccving woman or childe hath. 
6. Art. 6* If the power of the keyes be originally in tke 

Church of Beleevers, and the exercife only in officers, 
then Paftors in rigor of fpeech are the Churches fer- 
vants, and (o not over them in the Lord". 2. Paftors 
arc fent by the Church from the inherent and innate 
power of the Church, as if the Church had a domi- 
nion and authority over the Paftors, .hence will it fol- 
low that Paftors have their authority from Beleevers, 
which is moft abfurd : For then if B eke vers fnouid 
receive the keyes immediately from Chrifi: to be com- 
municated to others, and applyed to men fit and able 
therefore, this application Is not a making of a Mirii- 
fter, or a reafon why Archippm h a Minifter , as the 
reafon why a fire burnetii a dry tree , is not the ap- 
plication of the tree to the fire, but the nature of the 
fire, and drinefle of the timber : If one fhould bring- 
out from amongft ten glafTes one , and hold it out to 
the Sunnes light ana beames, this refulgent beauty and 
glancing is not from the man that bringeth the glaffe 
before the Sunne , except occafionally , the glancing 
fplendor is from the nature of the glafTe, and the Suns 
light : And the man applyeth not the light of the 
Sunne to the glaffe, but bringeth out the glafle to the 
- light of the Sunne : So doe Beleevers but apply the 
fit perfon in their wife election to Gods office, and 
they apply not the office to the man, for it is prefup- 
pcfed they are tyed to the rules, 1 Tim.3. requiring 
fiich a man, as i<s of good report, apt to teach , &c. and 
the application is not in the free-will of people or 
Paftors, neither hath God left it to Beleevers in ge- 
ncrall what men they place in offices* So Spa/ato. 
n Art 7* ** cnnnot ^ anc ^ with thrifts wifedome, that he 

Ziiton dcDowr hath conferred an excellent mpernaturall power of the 
^rcUepif-jpaUt. fey CS that rcachcth fupernaturall ends and effe&s, and 
cln">3,»4. C ' then forbidden multitudes who have this power , as 
men, women and children, to touch the Arke, or to 


Chap 5. Keyes in the Elderfiip. £3 . 

preach, or meddle with the holy things of God. So 
Francis White, Andrea Duval/, Soto, Viiloria, Baynes. S.Arg. 

8. Chrift would have fet down rules how all Bdecvers g^J* Jfi aiofl Fi ' 
fhould ufc this power , as he letteth downe Canons D*£y£ M * 
how all Church-men fhouldufe their power, in the Epi- J^* 11 ***** 
fties to Timothy and Titus : If any luch power (as is v'^ cr . 
pretended) were originally and fundamentally in all B*r*MDi*cef. 
Beleeveis. But we reade of no rules or no Canons in ** • < U # « 8 *I> 
Gods word, obliging all Beleevers to bring in acr, to 
actuate or exercife this power thus and thus, and not 
according to their owne liking ; Therefore there is in 
them originally no fuch power. 

Chap. VI. 

^j5. Whether Chrift hath left the aft nail government of his 
Church to the multitude of c Beleevers ? 

PLato laid well of^Rvernment by the hands of the pUtoinroUu 
people, That amongst Uwfull governments it it wr/, ^^ti^T'* 
amongft uniuft governments the heft* Ariftotle fijth, of 
of its nature it is corrupt and faulty. Plutarch calleth 
it the Serpents taile leading the head. Xenofhon fpea- ^henVpriS." 
keth not well of it. Our Divines, as Cafoin, Bcza, ■Beyde.grfd. 
Chemmtua,Melanclhon, Luther, Jumtts, Parens make the J?^' iH Maw?i 
government of the Church to partake of all the three M*i**M*m* 
governments. Jn refpedt of Chrift the only fupreame *£*£' 
King it is an abfolute Monarchy-, but this is the invi- p^^. 
fible government for the mod part in rcfpecT of the 
rulers as Paftors and Elders, it is an <ty4riftocracie y the 
viftble government being in the hands of the Elders, 
and in refpeft of iome things that concerneth the whole 
members of the viiible Church,it is a Democratic, ox hath 
opuiar government in it. 


64 No Church government C b a p. 6* 

We are now to enquire, if the government of the 
vifiblc Church be in the collective body of the Con- 
gregation, as indeed by confequcnt they teach with 
whom wc now difpute,or in the Elderfhip; inClaf- 
fes and Synods provincial! arid national!, as it is no v v 
in Scotland. We hold that the gi lar, 

as it is properly taken, when the coll- . >i- 

geth and governeth to be exprefly againft the wonl oF 
God, 8pb4.11. He gave fome (not all) to be A po files, 
&C. I Cor. 12. 28. And God hath fet fome in the C hurcb, 
firfl zsf pottles, fecondarily Trophets, thirdly teachers, af- 
ter that miracles,8cc. I Theff.^.12. Now we befeech you 
brethren, to know them that labour among ft you, and are 
over j oh in the Lord, Heb. 13. 1 7. Obey them that have 
the rule over you, and fubmit your [elves , &c. 1 Tim. 5 . 
1 7. Let the 8lders that rule well be counted worthy of dou- 
ble honour. Hence it is cleare as the noone-funne, if 
there be fome over the people of God , fome that are 
Elders that rule well, fome to whom the people Jhould 
fubmit, and give obedience, then the whole people are 
not rulers, all have not the rod, nor a definitive voice 
in that higheft cenfure or excommunication. All are not 
ever jeers, guides, governours, fathers, Hew ards,fhepheards ; 
but fome are governed, fubject, fons, the flocke ruled, 
and fed, then doth not the people governe. 

2.Arg. 2. The keyes were only given to the Hders, as is pro- 


%.Arg. ■ 3- God fet downe in his word rules, canons , and 

direct ions for ?I1 lawftill governours, how Timothy and 
Tittts fttould behave themfeives in Gods houfe, in the 
Epiilles to Timothy and Thus ; but no where doth 
God give directions how all beledWs fnould rule, 
command and governe, neither hath he promifed that 
Spirit to all in that charge. 
j 4. Guides are eyes , eares , fathers, gifted-teachers, 

4- " r £> Eph4.11. But the whole body is not an eye, for then 

where were the hearing . ? I Cor. 1 2.1 7. All are not fa- 
thers,nor all governours gifted therfore,i Ccr.i 2.28,29. 


Chap.6. in the hands of Pceplt. 6$ 

a&uall government is not in the hands of all the commu- 
nity of believers. 

5. The faults of evill government is laid upon fome, 5-^ r £- 
not upon all, 1^^.3.4,5,6. Mat, 24. 28. Tit. r. 7. 

1 7W. 5.3. Revel,!. 14,20. 3. £/>. Johnv.io. Andthe 
praife of good Government is given to ibme, not to all> 
iTbefo.H. Heb.i2.ij. lTim.f.ij. Rev.i.l. zTim. 

4-4,5. i^.5.4>5. 

6. It is againft the dignity of fuch as are Embai- 6.Arr* 
fidours in Chrifts roome, 2 Cor, 5. 20. reprefenting 

his perfon who are to be heard** him feife, Mat.10.41, 
42. His Angels, Revel. 2.1. intrufled With his fecrets, 

2 Cor. 5. 1 P. Bis Stewards and builders, i Cor. 4. 1,2, 
2. Cor. 3. 10, the fiends of the Bridegroom, J oh. 3. 29. 
1 hcrefore they muft have fome honour of govern- 
ment that is not given to all , and every one of the 

7. That government which neceflavily includcth a J Art. 
confulion, is not to be thought to come from the " *" 
God of order, popular government is fuch, for in fome 
Apoftolike Congregations that were independent, there 

were fix ttoufand and above, ^fif.4.9. Two anfwers s mith6 ^ 
are given here, 1. Smith faith one may sjeake for all mm. 
the Church cr two. An[w. Thcfe two are then a je- 
prefentative Church, and doc fpeak in the name of the 
reft, which he denyeth.2.M.i?<?/? faith, none Should be a 
congregation, but fo many as may orderly meet without 
confifan, Anfw. Then the Apoltles government was 
confufed, els there was an Eldcrfhip that reprefented 
the reft, and the Church of believers was no indepen- 
dent Church. A third snfwer is, Let heads of Fami- &£$*££* 
lies, and fathers onely ffeake. Anfw. Yet you fall up- Ckmtkn% 
oil a fele&ed and reprefentative Church, which otho 
waies you deny." 2. If fonnes and fervants have alike 
intereft in Chnft, and a like power ofthekeyes, who 
dare for cfchewing confufion take from them what 
Chrift hath given them ? We may not do evill or rob 
any that good may come of it. Ainfworth againft Ber- 

K nard. 


No Church government 

Chap 6. 


mined, y.zj 
D080. Partp. dc 
fohuU eccltfpag. 

(ontil, Conf.ant. 


The Anthony* deny they maintain popular go- 
vernment ; Therfore (fay they) the ftate is popular^ the 

bv U t*r«om P exai & 6V * rnni€nt on C^ rp ft s P art * 4 Monarchy, and in the 
hinds of Elders an zsfriftocracy. The people is freely to 
voice in 8 leliibns and judgment of theChurches Jet the Elders 
pnblickfy propone and order all things Jet them reproove, con- 
vince, exhort ,&c. So they fay, they hold no Democracy or 
popular government. Anf.l acknowledge that the Doct- 
ors ofP arts doc make diftw&ion betwixt the flat e and 
government , who yet doe acknowledge a viable Mo- 
narchy in theChurch,and fo did theFathersof the Coun- 
cell of Conflance:\ox the date of the Church is indeed 
popular in refpeel nothing that concerneth the ftate and 
body of the Church, & fo conccrncth the, fhould be done 
without the privity or con Cent of the people of God, 
no excommunication untiil the man and his fcanda- 
lous finnes be delated to them. 1 Cor. 5. Nothing 
fhould be concluded in a Synod, untiil the people hcare 
and know, yea they have all place to fpeake, objecT, 
rcafon and difpute in an orderly way, as may be col- 
lected from Aft, 15.12, 13. letters are fent in the 
Churches name, charity fent to the diftreffed Saints in 
their name, officers chofen by their confent , but all 
thi& maketh no popular government, if we fpeak pro- 
perly, feeing the multitude doth not judge, define ju- 
dicially, nor fentence, nor command and give out Ca- 
nons and Constitutions. But thefe of whom we now 
fpeake doe conftitute a popular government in the 
Sfffc'howhplca Church, which I proove, j. "Parker, the fore- f aid A u- 
arg-7-paS'To.and thours, Befi, M. Jacob , Smith, and thefc that are for 
ffii?h*p«itanif. independency of Congregations afcribe^ to the whole 
^2,3,4. multitude, and from 1 £or. 5.4,5,12. a judiciall exer- 

A w««a»£S - cifeof flk rod, and a judging ofthsfe. that are within, 
Mat. 2. 18. The Church to be r hcard and obeyed ttot 
doth judicially excoinmumcate is not the Church of 0- 
vcr-feers (fay they) but the Church of all believers. 
3 . binding and loofing and the kgc* of the Kingdome, 
and that is, heth power and fX erctfe U given to the (fhurch 


ParVer dt foht. 


jacob.gQVCt 70. 
Smiib paralcl *5 

Chap.6. intht hands $f People* 6j 

budded en the rocke, againfl Which, the gates of HettJbaH 
not prevaile, Mat. 1 6. 1 8, 1 o. fo they teach alfo. 4. AH 
the power and jurifdi&ion that Presbyteries and Sy- 
nods have, faith Parker, is from the Church of be- 
lievers. 5. The Congregation of believers hath pow- 
er of jurifdi&ion over the officers, and rulers of the 
Church, -to make and unmake, ordainc, cenfure, de- M8*.p$BUuu 
pofe and excommunicate their over-feers .(fay they) ?j^*£]^ - 
Now all who have written Politiks, as Ariftotle, Bo- pto.o%J 
din, Tholof anus, and onr Divines difputing againft the J ^"J"** 
Popes Monarchy, Junius, Daneus, Keeker man, Chami- burnt poUt.U^. 
er, UKufculus, Sadeel fay, thefe are properly Judges, ^ ffl/jfjffB( 
Vvho cojrnofee and authoritatively try, fentence, decree and Tbc+Li.c*. 
punifh delinquents, and all this the whole faithfull doe JJj^JjJ* 
by the power of the keyes, as isprooved, er^o, there ?.Martn.i* % t** 
is a democrat icall or popular government brought in- ^-7 8 3« 
to Chrifts houfe this way, and all ncceflity of over- 
feers and officers taken clofe away. Smith faith, it is sSetU 
Antichrifiian to place Rulers and Elders over the whole s*«/> parale!. pa. 
body of the Church. Yea, he fceth net why all believers %*,$£& reft 
may not preach and administer the Sacraments : And if **/«*.f*.* 
the Keyes be given to them, and a&uall government u!ffl^semo!' 
to over-fee and rule their over-feers, I fee not how 
this will not follow from the fore-faid grounds. See 
what Arnifaus and Sfalato faith, both acknowledge, Atmfimiitn^ 
that is popular government when the people rulcth u f e€lc '** 
themfelves. Neither is it enough to fay the Elders 
rule, becaufe they propone and order all things, arfd 
reproovc, convince and exhort ; for no man will have 
the Apoftle fames, whom many of our Divines think 
Prefidcnt and Moderator of the Counccll of Hierufa- 
lem, A ft .if. The Ruler and one that is over the Coun- 
cell in the Lord, and fuch an one as the Councell muft 
obey and fubmit unto, for his place of Moderation: 
Tor the Duke of Venetia, becaufe he moderatcth their 
Senate, and proponcth and ordereth fuffrages , is not Duke of Venice; 
thought by Bodine, Tolofanm, Arnifims , Keckerman, 
or any Politician to be the King and Prince of the Ve- 

K 2 netians* 


No Church government 



Moderator of out 
aflcmblics in 

Tttrre crsmat, 

Hcb.i? 17. 

I Tim 5.17. 
AS .04$, 

netians, and Lord Judge over the Seriate. The Laccde* 
moni an government was popular, howbeit the people 
did order their matters by their Ephori, that were a 
fort of Rulers to the people. The Moderatour of our 
AfTembly is not Judge, or over the AfTembly in the* 
Lord : Nay, he hath not a fuffagc and decifme voice 
in our Aflembly, becaufe he is Moderator, but becaufe 
he is a chefen Commitfioner and member of the Af- 
fembly. So Field faith well, If the Pope be only a l> re- 
fide nt in the Councell, he is not a Prince, Turrecremam 
diftinguifheth betwixt a Prefident of Honour, and a 
Prefident of Authority, The Canon of the Councell 
of Taris maketh the Pope above this or this Church 
or Bifhop, but when he is in a generall Councell, he 
is there as a Prefident of Honour only, not as a Prince, but 
as the firft member by order of the Councdl and fub- 
ject. to the Councell Now the Scripture givech to 
the over- fee/s an authority, a preiidency of authority, 
We mufl obey them, and jubmit to them, and he are them 
as we -would heare Chrift, 2, Seeing this is ordinary 
to our Brethren to reafbn thus. All the faithful! are 
the Spoufe and Body of Chrift, Kings and Priefi sun- 
to God, and have a like title and intereft in him,ther- 
fbre the Keyes are immediately communicated to 
them without the mediation of Rulers interveening: 
Hence J inferte, if all have alike right to the keys for 
their alike title by Faith, and right of free redemp- 
tion in Chrift, ergo, all are alike Rulers over all in the 
Lord : then becaufe believers as believers have a title 
and intereft in Chrift as their redeemer, aadoiriee-bea- 
rers; becaufe office bearers have no title in Chrift as 
Redeemer (for no office giveth a man a chime to 
Chrift, as a redeemer, tut. oily fomc general L title 
to him as Lord of the butife ) Hence it {lull follow 
that the believers are Over-frers and Rulers and Paft- 
ors, and thatxthey iliould order and moderate all pub- 
lick aclions : So 1 fee no authority or pieheminency 
given to the Church-guides, but that which is due, 


Ch.ip.e'. in the bwhs of People. 6p 

and more- due to the believers then to them. As for 
reproovin?, convincing exhorting, thefe are common to 
all the' faithfull, as our Brethren lay, and fo due to 
them by virtue of the keys, and more due then to 
office-bearer?, who do but borrow the Reyes at the 
fccond hand fas they teach) and receive them not 
immediately from Chrift. Now we ail know that A- 
X'.p:iJ?s take away all Msgiftracy under the i\c\vTc- 
ftament, all dominion conquered by warre, all rela- 
tion of captain and ibuldkr, msiter and fervant, upon 
this ground, that we are all (fhrifts free-men, all Chn- 
ftians equally redeemed in Chrift ; And if the finite 
make y oh free then are jou fee in dee J. And the New 
Tefta merit, maketh us all Chrifts ranfomed ones, a;;d 
fo there (hould be no fervant. And we are called in [t-^o'lck 
Cirifi to kberty, be not jervants cf men. See what ■*«••!*« 
our Divines, Calvin, Parens, Bucan, TUenm y Pro^ef- JESS??** 
J curs of Ley den anlwer stnabafttjts, Libertines, Socu Ckttfiumj&q. 
man* ' Armixnms thus abufine Gods Word. "B»:«*M &. 

And certainly if the keyes and government of the T - '» sm^. 
Church be given to all believers, becaufe they are all y^f^* 4 * 1 " 
made Kings, Priefts and Prophets, and we are made *'*f'jr.Lri*m.m 
free and redeemed in Chrift, and all things are made ours % t** ?' ?fi' r ' 

t i r 11 • r i n i"?o og.dtfttrt <Q. 

Jnerrorel may well mrerre upon the fame grounds, tbcf:i*i%it. 

the keys of civill power to be Kin^.s temporal! and 
freemen civilly arc made ours, if all things be ours, 
and fo no Magiftrate, no Captain, no foukiier (xaee 
and liberty arc ours) no matter or fervant. I am fir 
f: cm thinking that cur worthy Brethren do ailow of 
this conchifion, but the principles are too fihb and igudm Epip ,* 
near of blood. What Fathers % for the Church go- •; 7 ( ? ' 

vernment by Elders, and not by the people may "be dk' _ 
ftcn in Ignatius, who will have us to haverecourfe to * Amkr H* im * Cor. 
theApeftlrs, as to the Cojledgc of Presbyters. And cl%f,v. *«■&« 
Baflins faith, The governours of the (fhxrch are fet down £ ta - ,8 
I Cor. i 2.28. And Amhrofe on that place fiith, the rm*/.u^ 
Church policy is fet ^downe, 1 Cor. 12. So Chryfo- *»• 
filwe i Cffrian, Term 11 ion, fo Origen, Ireneiis T <i/f:tguft> jimyfc 

K 3 " TU. . 

7 o 

That there is a Presbytcridl Church Chap. 7 

Hyrnm Theophylatl, Theodoret, Hyerom, which for time I can- 

T<Hopb>iac*i*i: not cite at length. 

Chap. VII. 

Q/7. If there be no true vifible Church in the New Tefta* 
ment, but onely a congregation meeting in one place, and 
no Presbyteriallorreprefentative Church (as they call 
it) at all. 

OVr Brethren hold that the only true pubhek \\r 
(ible Church in theNewTeftamentis a Congre- 
gation of Believers joy ned together by a voluntary pro- 
feflion of Faith, and meeting in one place to wor- 
fhip God. They deny 1. That the word (Church-) 
doth ever fignifie a Presbytery or Eldcrfhip. 2. They 
deny that there is any reprcfentative Church, proper- 
ly fo called, or that it hath the title of a Church in the 
New Tefiament. 3. They deny that there is any'Prfl- 
vinciall or Nationall (fhurch that can be called a via- 
ble politique body of Chrift. 4. They deny any Church 
to have power of jurifdi&ion over a particular Con- 
gregation.Tor the decifion of the prefent queftions,thefe 
diftin&ions are to beobferved, 

1 . There be odds betwixt a Church vifible, and a Church 

1. 7 here be odds betwixt a Cathedral! or mother Church 
( and this we deny) and a Church Nationall and pro- 
■vinciall, which cannot meet to the worjbip of Cjod 
in all the particular member s t her of 
3. The Church is termed reprcfentative three wayes (at 
wejhallheare) i .properly, 2. commonly,^ % mofi properly, 
4. Suppofe the name of Presbyteriall Church be not in 
the New Teslament, jet if the tkin£ itfelfe be in it, it 
ii Sufficient. 


Chap*7» intbcncwTeftamenU 71 

The word Church is not taken here, 1 .For the Tem- 
ple or Houfe where God is worfhippcd. 3. Neither 
for foure or five that worfhip God ordinarily within 
the walls of a Family, Row. 16.$. Salute the Church 
at their Houfe, 1 Cor. 1 6. 1 p. Philem. v. 2 . It is tcr- ?<>*"• T '"fi * 
med Kahat, that is in the old Teftament rendred Sy- f u f t £ ' ub.fing, d* 
nanovue* and Kahal rendred Ecclefia. And Kahal, E*clepf.ta. 
<Z&*4.*2. nfUOUk, Dent. a*, fignificth a Con- J^" 1 "?** 
Pfceation of people, and Gncdah a Congregation, ioh.B* f i Tryaii of 
Si<U. P/tf.m.i. is turned #*/*/&., Mat.1tf.18. ^t" 
A&7.38. A**W is either a multitude of Nations or 
People, Gen. 3 5.1 1. So fer.fo.^. An Affembly of Na- 
tions, not a Church of Nations, came agmnfl Babylon; 
Somtimes the Tribes and Cjovernours are called Kahtl, 
the Church ox Jjfembly, 1 Chr«m. 13.2,3. 1 Chron. 
29. 6. 2 Chron. 1.2,3. See Pifcator, Junius, Cjuide 
to Zion. The word Gnedah that fignifieth the A§em- 
hh of the Judges, Pfalm. 82.1. is turned in the NewTe- 
fiament Svifctyws Aft.5.^7. and Act.6\i 2. M. £*//»hadi 
obferved that the Arabick interpreter ufeth four words, 
Gamhony Ac*. 19. 31, 39. 2. Gamahaton, Acis 7. 38. 
both fignifieth an Affembly, or a« Affembly of Prin- 
ces. 3. Kainfaton, Rom. 16. 1. AcTs 11.26. 4. Biha- 
ton[ Matth.16*. 18. and 18* 17. the Church that hath 
power to determine controverties. 

1 . Conclufion. A number of believers profeffing the 
truth is not prefently a \if>ble politick Church, 1 Be- 
caufe then every Chriftian Family fhould be a vifible 
politick Church, 2 Peter oftended, CfrUt. 18. and re- 
buking his oriending brother, before three witnefles, 

and gaining his brother to repentance,?/. 1 6. is a number 
of believers in that h\nz *& profeiTing the truth, and 
convincing an offender, and fo profefling Gods wor- 
(hip,and yet they are not the judging governing Church, 
becaufe if the offender will not heare Veter, then he 
is to tcti the (fhurch. Hence visibility ©f Prof elfion a- 
greeth both to a number of believers ( if for exam- 
ple ten out of ten particular Congregations confeffe 


72 That there is a PreshyterialJ Church Chap.7. 

Chrift before a perfecting Judge) and alfo to a con- 
flitute Church of Believers and Elders. Then true 
I aith and the vifible prcferting of true Faith is not 
enough to constitute a Church that ordinarily hath, 
power and exercife of the keyes ; neither find we a- 
ny warrant in Gods Word, that the fwearing of an 
oath, or making a covenant, by four or five or 10. or 
40. believers toworfhip God together as lie hath com- 
manded in his word doth eflfentially conlhuite a via- 
ble miniftcriall Church, 1 . Becaufe a minilteriall Church 
is a body of Paftor and People, of eyes, eares, hands % 
feet, wherof Chnft is head, Rom.i 2.4. 1 Cor. 12. v. 
14,1 5,&c but a number of fole and only believers are 
not fuch a body. 2. More is there required an oath and 
covenant, but this is and may be where there is no mini- 

2. Conclufwtj. We deny that Chrift hath given pow- 
er of jurifdiclion to one particular Church over ano* 
ther particular Church, or to one Church to be a 
$ a jne[.Diocaf. mother C hurch to give laws and orders, to little daugh- 
tryaU h^ l d 1 ter- churches under it ; for that junfdiction is not to be 
thf Lj.cf'j! & C found in the Word of God, and fo is not lawfulLSee Tml 
*£+> TSayAes and Parker and Cartwright. 

ivJyYgsft!***™ 3. C onc ^ H fi on * A Church, may be a vifible incorpo- 
ration of guides and people meeting for the worihip 
of God, and exercife of difcipline, and yet not nccejfc 
farily a Church of believers, for if there be twenty 01 
thirty vihble Saints, who are Saints in profe (lion, they 
may meet for the worfhip of God, and confequcnt* 
ly by our Brcthrer.s grounds, independently and with- 
out any fubordination to Synods or cla(T:s exercife 
difcipline. 1 proove that they are not neceflarily be- 
lievers, 1. Becaufe to make one or twoformall mem- 
bers of a vifible Church is not required that they be 
indeed believers, it fufficeth that they profefle Faith, 
and be apparantly Saints ; and our Brethren teach 
they may be Hypocrites, and often are, as Inda* was 
amongft the n/ifoftlcs 7 now by that fame rcafon all 


Chap. 7 . in the New Teftament. 73 

thcthretty may be heart-hypocrites, and face-profcfTors. 
for whofecth the heart ? And our Brethren by tkc prea- 
ching of the word, and the adminiftration of the Sa- 
craments arc not effcntiall notes and markes of the 
Church^ becaufe the word is often preached to repro- 
bates and unbcleevers, and by that famcrcafon the po- 
wer of the kcyes and difcipline is exercifed by hypo- 
crites and unbelccvers. i.Amefitu faith it u probable (he ^{j^jf^, 
iaith not it is neceflary) where the Word, and Sacraments ° • I,c * 5 * n ' 1 * 
are that there are feme heltevers : And I fay it is pro- 
bable ; but that at all times there mould be beleevers, 
cfpecially when it is fir ft founded, it is not neceflary. 
1 lay when it is firft founded", becaufe we cannot fay 
it is pofliblc that there (hould be never any beleevers 
there at all ; for the Lord fendeth not a miniftery to 
thefe where there are none chofen at all ; it doth croffe 
the wifedome of God, who doth nothing in vaine, 
that he mould light a candle where he had no lofled 
money ; and the Shcpheard mould be Cent through 
the fields , where there were no lofled flieep at all. 
Hence I inferre thefe confedaries. 1 . that the claime 
and title that a people hath to Chrift is not the ground 
why the keyes arc given to that people, as to the ori- 
ginall fubje<ft, becaufe they may have the Word, Sa- 
craments and kcyes a long time , and yet want faith 
in Chrift, and fo all title and claime to Chrift : All 
which time they have the keyes, difcipline, and Sa- 
craments ; and I bclecvc their ads of difcipline, cen- 
tres, and Sacraments, arc validc, therefore the Church 
redeemed and builded on the rccke Chrift, is not the 
kindly fubjecT: of the keyes. 2 . The keyes are given 
to profeffors cloathed with a minifteriall calling, whi- 
ther they be beleevers or unbeleevers , howbeit 6od 
giveth them for the falvation and edification of belee- 
vers. 3 .There is nothing required to make a independant 
Congregation, but an profeflion of the truth, covenant- 
wayes, and outward worshipping of God, fuppofe the 
members be unbelccvers. 

L 4. fin- 

74 That there is a Tresbperiall chunk Chap. 7. 

4. Qoncltfion. There -is a vifible governing Church 
in the new Teftament, whole members in cormleat 
number of beleevers doth not meet in one place ordi- 
narily for the werfhip of God, neither can they con- 
tinually fo meet. 1. The Church of Jerufalem was 
one Church , under one government , and called one 
Church in the fmguiar number, which grew from one 
hundred and twenty, <zAc~ls\, to three thoufand one 
hundred and twenty, sA&s 4* 41. and then added to 
thefc, %ABs\. 4. rive, thoufand men, which is eight 
thoufand one hundred and twenty. And Alls 9.35. all 
that dwelt at Lydda and Saron turned to the Lord, v.42. 
many in foppa beleevcd in the Lord, A els 20. 21. many 
thoufands of the JcWes beleevcd , Acls 5. 14. multitudes 
ej beleevers moe ircre added to the Lord, both of men and 
Women, Acls 6. I . their number were multiply ed. Now 
it was rot poilible they could all meet in one 
houfe , efpecially feeing that' prophecye was to take 
its firft accomplishment at jerufalem , where all flejb 
lla ' 4C5 ' was to fee the falvation of God. And that of fosl 2. 

ZaytjesDioceftn I will pour e my {fir it on all fie jh. Its true B ay ne faith, 
irr.q.i.p.15. this Church was numerous by accident ', at extraordinary 
confluences of ftranjrers. Yet the multitudes of thoufands 
which I have obferved from the ftory of the <lAUs 
(granting the confluence, Atlsz. of nations to be ex- 
traordinary) did meet daily, Acts 2.46. fiom houfe to 
houfe. Now fo many thoufands could not meet daily, 
that is, ordinarily. 2. From houfe to houfe in private 
houfes, and fo it is iiot poffible all that people did 
make but one Congregation independent, where 1 all 
had voices in difcipline. 2. all did breake bread, that 
is, receive the Sacrament in a private houfe : fo that 
their meeting together mull: be taken dislributively in 
o diverfe Congregations, not collet-lively, for that w T ere 

againft edification. 2. againft: the nature of congre- 
gationall worfhip. 2. There was a vifible Church in 
Samaria under one government, that could not con- 
vene in all the members, in one place. The nume- 

Chap. 7. in the New Teft/tment. 7 5 

rotis people in Samaria converted to the faith is knowne 
to all > it being the head City of the ten Tribes : So 
huge that all Ifrael was named Samaria, They re- 
ceived the faith, AEis 8. and as vcr.\o. They all gave 
heed to Simon Magus, from the leafl to the or eat eft. So 
ver,6. with one accord they gave heed unto thefe things 
Which Philip fyake, hearing and feeing the miracles that 
he Wrought, vcr.i2. they beleeved and were baptized both 
men a?; a women. And that on Philip might have prea-. 
ched to one {ingle' Congregation, who doubteth ? but 
the number of beleevers were io many, that ver. 14. 
the Apoftles behooved to lend 'Piter and fohn to help , 

to hold up the hatveft. 3. That the Church of Ephe- 
fm could not be one tingle Congregation that met to- 
gether is cleare. 1. There was there a Presbytery of Pa- 
ftors or Bifhqs, Acls 20. 28, and thefe preaching or 
feeding Paftors, who were to watch and take heed 
tofalie teachers riling up amengft themfclvcs. 1. tea- 
ching pcrverfs things, 2. making Diiciples to them- 
felves: the teacher and (choller 2xt rcUta, every one of 
them has refpect to other. ?. That they were teaching 
Elders that did follow the Apoftles doclrine is cleare, 
Rev. 2« 2. Thou haft tryedthem that fay they are Apo- 
ftles , and are not , and haft found them to be lyars, . 
and Chrift termeth them one Church for their com- 
mon government. The anhver of Tykn iaith , Chrift MuuTii*&ar/ 
faith not wt imkwhk to the Churches, and there- «'*****«* 
fore all the Congregation were one Presbyteriall 
Church at Eploefiis. But it is without example in the 
word that one (ingle Congregation with one Paftor 
onely, and fome tilling Eiders doth try Minifters gifts, 
and finding them falfe teachers, authoritatively tocaft 
them out, io that the harveft has been fo great, that 
falfe teachers calling themfelves Apoftles rcforted to 
Ephcfus, to help the good number of Paftors who were 
there already , Acis 20. [28. By this it is cleare that 
Ephefas had many Congregations in it, and many prea- 
chers alio, who in a common lociety fed the flocke, 

L 2 and 

7 5 That there is a Presbyteridl Church Chap.7. 

and cxercifed difcipiine, Rev.i. a. neither can wefay, 
there was but one Angell there, except we make that 
on« a Prelate contrary to the word of God, AElsio. 
a 8. *• The multitude of converts there required a 
Presbytery, or a multitude of confociated Paftors, Aft* 
1 9. 20. 7 J aul continued there by the /pace of t\\>g j cares 
fo that all they who dwelt in Ajia heard the word of the Lord 
I Cor. 1 6. 8. there was a or eat doore, and efecluaM open 
to him at Ephcfus. 2. They were once madly devo- 
ted to their great Idoll Diana, and had a Temple for 
her that all tsffia wonilred at ; therefore Spheftu was 
ffrttojw: no ^ ma ^ ^owne. This Temple Herojlratus faith, was 

built by all AJia\ and was two hundred and twenty 
yearcs in building, and had in it (as he faith) one hun- 
dred and twenty [even pillars, every one of them mad; by 
fever All Kings, and every one of them fixty foot high. Now 
VCX. 19. Pauls miracles Were lenoVtne to all the J ewes and 
Greeks at Ephefus , and fear e fell on them aft, and the 
name of the Lord Jefus was magnified, and many of them 
that beleeved y came and confejfed, and /hewed their deeds ^ 
V. I p. And many that ufed curious arts brought their boolej, 
and burnt them before all men. And what wonder ? it 
is faid, vcr.20. fo mightily grew the word of god. Paul 
fought Vtith beafls at Ephefus, millions here were mad 
upon the ldoll Diana : If the beleevers had not been 
the manyeft , they durft not profefle the burning of 
their bookes, nor durfl: Paul flay there two yeers. 
Hence if there was a letled Church here above two 
ycares, a constituted Presbytery in this City, Atls 20. 
17,28. that had power of jurisdiction to ordainc tea- 
ching Elders, and rcjscl: hirelings, Rev.i. 2. and fo 
many thoufands of Cjreek?s and Jewes, fuch an effettu- 
atl doore opened to the Gofpell, againft fo many thou* 
fands oppofing , there was not here one oneiy finglc 
independent Church, that met in one houfc only but 
a Presbytcriall Church. Now they could not all preach 
at one time to them * being a number of preachers, 
Alls 20. 3$. Paul frayed with tlxm aU , and yet they 


Chap.7. in the New Teftament. yj 

were fa oyer that flockc by the Holy-Ghoft , Ails 
20.28. therefore they had each their ownc Church, 
and onecartot officiate or excrcife Paftorall ads amongft 
the fiock of another Faftor> as our brethren would prove 
from this fame place, A Sis 20. 

4. What, (hall we fay the Church of Rome was 
©nely an independent fingle Congregation that met in 
one place, or houfe, feeing the faith and obedience of the 
Saints there, Vras heard through all the world, Rom. 1.8. 
Rom. if, 19. fo that Ttrtullian in his time &ith 9 balfi 
of the City was ChriJHans. And ^rwk faith, befidc 
himfelfc there was forty and five Presbyters. Confider 
^owmany prime perfons & families /Wfalutetb, Rom. 
16'. TWftileth them one Church,and one body that had 
jurisdiction common to all, Rom.i 2. 3,4,?,<5, 

5:. So Galatia is written too as to one Church, and 
had one government and difcipline, ^/^ .p.^ little lea- 
ven (offalfe do Brine) leaven eth the whole lump, as I Cor. 
5. v.6 y y. and (}al.<>.ver t io. He that treubleth you fhall 
he are hU judgement , whofoever he be, ver, 12. / would 
they were even cut of (by the rod of difciphne 3 as T*- 
retts and jerkins expound it) that trouble you, So Gal. Parem 
6\ I. the ffirituatt are to re Bore in meeknep the wetke P*r\i»,onCa/. 
falling in fmne y and yet they were many Congregation* 
in g 'alma, Gal. 1.2. 1 Cor.io'.i. 

6. We finde a Presbyterie at Antioch of Prof het sand 
teachers, Acts 1 3.1. who laid hands-on 7 aul and 'Barna- 
bas, 2, 3. and ordained them to goe and preach. And 
a Presbytery at Lyftra, ABs 16. 1, 2,3. where 77- 
mothy was recommended to 'Paul, and received in his 
company, and laid hands on by him : Now that this 
impofition of hands was not done by the collective 
body of the Church, but by the Elders and Presbytery 
is cleare from, 1 T/w.4.14. as Junius collcclcth, for lunSctUfXi.^u 
that the people laid on hands, there is no ground. 

7. And ABs 21.18. There is a Presbytery at Ierufalem 
of lames, and the Elders exercifing jurisdiction ; for 
before them Paul giveth account of his miniftcry 

L 3 amongft 

78 Tbatthcreis a Preshyteridl Church Chap.7. 

amongftthe Gentiles, 1^:19, 20. and thcyen/oyn'/y*/ 
for the believing Jewes fake to purifte himfelfc, v. 23, 
24. which Paul obeyed, v.i6> 27. and this Presbyte- 
ry taketh on them the Canons of the Councell otje- 
ruftlem made, Afts 1 5 . at leaft as a part of that famous 

8 To ordaine Eiders in every city is all one, as to 
ordain Elders in every Church, Aft; 14. 23. fo doth 
uideJri d \ V ? iU Lii ^ cxpene it , as barker confeffeth , Aft: :o. 
I 7. And from CMiletus hee\ fent to Ephefus , and 
catted the Elders of the Church, he faith not of the Chur- 
ches, Aft: 1 6.4. And Vthen they W'cnt thorow the cities, 
they delivered them the decrees, Sec. now what is mea- 
ned by cities is exponed in the next ver:%. So Veere 
the Churches eftaUiJhed: So Tit: 1.5. Thztthoufiotildeft 
appoint 8ldcrs in every city y as I appointed thee ; Then 
that there bee an Elderfhip and Presbytery of Paltors 
in every city is an Apoftolike Inftitution, and fo the 
commandement of our Lord Iefus : for that P<w/un- 
derftandeth there efpecially preaching Elders hi 
every city, is cleare by the words following, that 
fheweth what fort of men preaching Elders fticuld 
be, ver:$. able by found Doftrine both to exhort and 
to convince the gain-fiiyers, &c. Hence if an Eldet- 
ihip in a city as Ephefus and lerufdem and Antioch, 
where 'all cannot meet for multitude, bee an Elder- 
d inline of fr^ &ip m one Church, as our book of Difcipline hath it, 
;W;».book7.c then there was Presbyteries in great cities, where 
there were many Congregations, but the former is pro- 
ved already, ergo, the Tresbytery of many Congregations 
is the Apoftles Presbytery. 

9, If Gods word warrant a number of officers in 
Gods houfe, who ordaineth P aft or s by laying on of 
hands, and Vvho tryeth thefe Who fly they are Apoftles and 
T aft or s, and are lyars, and who hathjurifdiclion^p^* 
nifh falfe teachers^ as Balaam and lezabel , and Who ap- 
pointed Elder sin cities and (fhurches ; then is there, a 
Presbytery and focicty of Paftors and Elders in moe 


Chap.7- ** the New Testament. 

confociated, and neighbour congregations appointed for 
this erfccT. 

But there is fuch a number of officers in Gods Horde, 
of which number are rio (ingle believers, not cloathed 
v/ith any Minifteriall calling. Therfore there muft be a 
Presbytery, diff.rent from private Profeflburs, that ovcr- 
feeth many Congregations. 

I prove the proportions Firft, that there is fuch a num- 
ber, and that they are different from ordinary profef- 
ibis. I Tim :4- 1 ^Megletl not the gift that is in thee , Which 
Was g hen by the laying on of the hands of the Eider '/, Re : 2 . 2 . 
Re.2.i4,20.Tit:E.5.i Tinr.5 2 2.now that ordinary pro- 
feflburs who are not Elders, doe hy hands on Pa- 
yors, ordain or appoint Elders, and judicially try and 
choofe, or refufe fallc Teachers, and cenilire or deprive 
them, wantcth precept, promife or practice in the 
Word of God, except we fay the Epiftles toTizothy 
and Tit us are not written to Church- men, but to all 
.profeflburs that they fhould lay hands fuddenly on no 
man, that they flmild appoint Elders in every city: Now 
alfp that this united Presbytery is a Presbytery of one 
(ingle Congregation is, 1 Againft that which we have 
pjcoved of the great Church of Ephefus, A&:2o.AcT: 
10. Rev:?, as alfo againft the neceffity of Paftors la- 
bours, who are not to ftay in numbers together upon- 
one (Ingle Congregation, where two or moe cannot 
be had. 

To the place 1 7Vw.-4.14. fome anfwer that , that lay- 2«<*r againft 7)^ 
ing on of the hands of the Presbytery Was extraordinary, ** ^ $J"J cf% io 
and ceafed with the Apofiles : Others fiy, he fpeaketh dmu/c, ** 
of the office, not of the per fins. 

Anfwx The lat.ter is a devife of Prelates refuted by our 
Divines, an office neither hath hands nor feet, but per- 
fons only have hands. 

2. C aft alio callcth this with good warrant, The c*tt*ioi,:i c. 
Senate of Elders , Chryfoft: and ^Hugo Cardinal*, a ^ Ji Hu z Xay ~ 
Colledge of Presbyters, jtflmHS faith, it is ai one rrith funi* 
the Church, Matn8. ^7%^ 

L Eutr 

go That there is d PreshyteriaH Church Chap.7. 

But thirdly, we deny not but there was an extra- 
ordinary laying on ofhands by theApoftlcs by which 
the Holy Ghoft was given, Aft: &. 18. But this is 
the laying on of the hands of the Apoftlcs, as Pres- 
byters, which is ordinary, and is limited, and ruled 
by the Word, and muft not be done fuddenly, 1 Tim. 
5.22. now no fuch rule is laid upon the miraculous 
laying on of hands , there is no km that the Apo- 
ftlcs in working of miracles fhould partake of other 
ntemfmnes, and that the ordinary laying on ofhands, 
fuch as this was, did not give the Holy Ghoft is 
cleare, ex/#:i4'2,. ^hc ^^ rs fyeth hands on Paul and 
Barnabas, who before had received the Holy <Jhoft y Aft: 
9.17. 3. This anfwer is againft the nature of this 
Epiftle, where Paul fetteth down a pht- forme of 
Church government to be keeped unviolably to the 
fecond comming of Chrift, as is cleare, 1 Tim, 6.14. 
and fo he faith himfclf, 1 Tim. 3.15. Thefe things I 
Write that thou may eft know how to he have thy felk in 
the Church, Gerfin: Buccr. Thefe Were Written fir ages 
«^, c#w.Dcw. t0 Con * e y & the Refutator of Ti/en, and our own Rollock^ 
nam,p 4 $5. and fo the Fathers, Oecumenm fay, he fetteth downe 

^ft:;^' 'be /fame of Ecclefmflick* Difcip/ine. So Chrome, 
R t fut.TiU>arentf, Auguftine, Enthim:Qjrillus. 

}tct. C 9 ? i,Ca ' ,8 ' 10 ' Supped we fhould grant a Prcsby tcriall Church 
Roiad prt/ida & be not exprefly in the Word, as wcthinkeitis,"^/^. 
olnZTfum^ l8 - as we ^all prove, yet the thing it felf cannot 
oeeonomutccuji. be denied: hence take away a Presbytery, whofe it 
"HufumJf' l% to or( ^ ame an d cenfurc Pa(lours,or neceility the go- 
tnthjmiul vernment and power of the keyes muft be in the 

cjriUu, h?nds of the people, againft the arguments in the for- 

mer Chapter, that cannot be aniwered,for the multitude 
of believers cannot ordainc a Paftor, fuppofe we grant 
they are to chufe and elcdl their owne Paftor,yet it is not 
warranted by the Word that ruling Elders with one pa- 
ftor fhould ordain paftors,feeing ordination is given ftill 
to preaching Elders, All: 14.3. Tit: 1.5. iTim:$.22. 
iTim.2.2. < Rr3/:2.2.^^;2o.;2o,3o,andtoraoepaftours 
then to one only. But 

Chap.7- to the New Teftament. 8 1 

«_ — — ■ i ' 

But by the way, let us hcarc what is (aid againft 

1. The Word Church fignifeth alwaies a gathered to* Obieci.i. 
gether Church, or fee h as may gather together , Ad: II. Aflerrion of go- 
26. 4 Whole j core they afembled With the Church, Ad: chuicholSctL 
20 7. The Difciples came together to breaks bread, fo /**<*, par.a.caj.p. 
Ad: I. 10. Atf:2. 44,46. Aa.-5.12. Aa-.15.25. ,4M4,,p - 150,5 

An % Our brother M.GiilcsJi faith many Interpreters ex- 
pound wnftt'ti&fti they Were together, that is, of one 
accord in love and amity : aad alfo Churches not being 
builded, and they melting in private houfes, as in 
Maries houfe, Ad:i ?. fchoole of T)rr annus, Ad: I p. 
p. in an upper chamber, Ad: 20.8. Pauls lodging at 
Rome, Ad: 2 8. 13. What private houfes could ordina- 
rily contain fo many thousands ? 

2. The Scripture fpeaketh fo to give us an exam- 
ple of the publick meeting for publick worfhip,where 
it is not needefull, that all met in one place colled- 
ively, it is enough they meet all diftributivcly. 

3. Neither doth the word Church aU-ayes fignifie *a**j* 
a meeting of one '(ingle Congregation, as Ad: 12. A&8.5. 
Prayers was made by the Church, that is by all pro- Aa ' 10,11, 
feflburs. Herod vexed the Church, Ad: 8. Saul made 
havocke of the Church, J- perfecuted the Church, There 

is no ncceflity to expound thefe of people meeting 
ordinarily to worfhip God ; for Herod and Saul per- 
fecuted all, whither Apoftlcs or profeffours in houfes, 
not reipeding their meeting in one place ; alfo it 
fhall follow that prayers were not made in private, 
but only in the Church, that if, in the convecned 
CcngregatioH for Peter, which is abfurd : And that 
they were a vifiblc Church is clesre, els Herod, and 
Saul could !not perfecutc them. barker anfwereth, obi f tl 2 
The Whole Nation of the Iewes did meet at one meeting, sx 7tl %[ ' 
and are called by Luke the Church, and there came in- L8 »n- 
numerable multitudes to he are Chrisl. nAnfw. That 
,is fcr us,tbc Church of the lews contained fix hundrcth 
;;thoufand fighting men, befide women, children and a- 

M gcd 

8 i That there is a Presbyteridl Church Chap.7 

gcd perfbns,ani the Levites that attended the Tabernacle 
and Arke ; it were a wonder to make out of this an inde- 
pendent Congregation, all; idging and governing both 
themfelves and their governours 1 Therfore there may 
be a vifible Church under one government that can- 
not ordinarily meet to heare the Word of God, and 
howbeit there met innumerable multitudes, Lttken 
to heare Chrift, and that with great confufion , that 
is forbidden in Church meetings, 1 Cor: 14. So that 
thty trod on one another^ that multitude could not be 
a Church, 1. Ordinarily meeting. 2. To heare one 
paftor. 3. To judge all the people and over-fee their 
manners. 4. And to communicate ordinarily at one 
Table in the Lords Supper : this is againft the nature and 
true ufe of a Congregation met in one place for the pub- 
. lick worfhip. 

Okiett.i. Thirdly, thcyrcafon; the Church vlfible in the Ner* 

Aftt*i. Tc fitment Are called the Churches in the p/urafl number, 

iCoc.itf',1,1* the Churches of fudea, Galatia, Afia, Macedonia. Hence 
\ C A 0t t f'L\ it followcth there is no vifible Church larger then a 

Church meeting in one houfe. 

sAnfw. We reade of the Church of Hierufi*len* 3 h&i 
1 j.where certainly there were moe particular Churches . 
2 Itfolloweth not, for moe Churches were vifible 
and audible, Att:V$. at that famous councell, and 
are called fo united, the Whole Churchy and yet fepa- 
rated, they were fundry churches ; they arc fo na- 
med in oppolition only to the Nationall and typicall 
Church otludea, not inoppofttion to provinciall and 
Nationall Churches and Synods. 

5 Conclufton. A Church may be called reprefentat iv e 
three waics. 

1 Properly, as if the Rulers ftood in the perfons 
of believers, judging for them, as if the believers were 
there themfelves, as a deputy reprefetiteth the Kins : 
So Ifrael did fwcare a covenant, DeHt\^.i^,\%. for 
their pollerity not borne : this way the Eldcrfhip 
doe not judge for the Congregations, as if the Con- 

Aft. 1 5. 41 • 

Cbap-7. w tbene* Teftament* 83 

gregations did judge by them as by their inftrmnents, 
as Robinfin faith, becaufe the multitude of believers ***»«/*•"> *» iA - 
ftiould not judge at all, therfore Elders doe not in \^<*^* 
governing reprcfent their pcrfens : So Bannes faid tomnjUm*y\* 
the Pope this way hath no Legate, fir he cannot give "nduf.^*"* ! °' 
m Atofiolike Spirit to his 8mb*]fad*ur, fir then he miiht Pr«bytergov.«- 
leave (faith" he) *» 4?efi alike ftirit in legacy to fome ""'"^P '<>>»• 
feccejfour: We acknowledge no reprefentative church 
io this fence, as the authonr of presbperiall government 
examined un juftly imputeth to us. 

2 A reprefentative Church may be thought a num- 
ber fent by a community, and elected to give laws, 
abfolutely tying, as if believers fhould fay, We refigne 
our faith and coafcience to you, to hold good Whatever 
yon determine without repeale or trjaH \ that is blinde 
faith, that we difclaime : all our Rulers ads in our 
Aficmblies do bind, 1 conditionally, if they be law- 
full and convenient, 2 matters to be enacted arc firft to 
be referred to the congregations and Elderftiips of parti- 
cular congregations before they be enacted. 

3 A reprefentative Church is a number having electi- 
on and defignation from the Church of believers , but 
ordination from the Elderfhip to voice, determine 
and command, as thofe who are over them in the 
Lord, to make conftitutions and decrees according to 
Gods word, and this way wc hold a reprefentative 
Church, Mat:i$. and 1 Cor:$. which made ads ac- 
cording to Gods word, tying the whole congregati- 
on, even the aMents ; for the prefents rcprcfenteth 
the abfent : If the inceftuous perfon had bin judici- 
ally excommunicated, the Apoftle Paul and all the 
abfents, that neither had bin act ours, nor witncfles 
had bin tied to abftain from brotherly con verfing with 
hirn, and this way the decrees of the Councell of 
Jtrufalem tyed the abfent Churches, AB\ 16. 4. and 
Chr.fts power «f the keyes, John 20. were given to 
Thomas, howbeit abfent, and Vauls Epiftles to Col- 
hffe, Ephtftu, Galatia hid an Ecclefiafticall tye upon 

M a thofe 

84 Tbut thereisd Fresbpcridll Church ,&c. Chap.7 # 

thcfe Churches that confented not to the writing^? 
thefc Epiftlcs ; not oncly becaufc the matter is the 
Canonicke word of God,but alfo the tyc was Ecclcfiafti- 
call, in fo farrc as the flocke is obliged to hcarc the 
Taftor, according to that (He that hearethyouheareth 
me, and he that deftifcth you defpfeth me.) Any abler* 
through ficknefic or other diffractions, from the ele- 
ction of U\>Tdtthias , Atts i. the {even Deacons, AEls 
6. and the Elders chofen in every City, <>Atts\^ % 23. 
were tyed to fund to the election of Matthias , the 
[even Deacons, and the Elders in every City ; elfcno 
act of the Church were valid, where one crtwodif- 
aficntcth , or where two or three are abfent by flck- 
neffe, and other diftractions infuperable : And iohere 
our brethren ( I beleeve ) cannot, in reafon, d«ny but 
there is a reprefentative Church , whofe deed tyeth 
the abfents. And the reafon is clcare , that to make 
a Church-conftitution oblige in confeience , and ec-, 
clefiaftically , there is not required as an ellentiall 
ingredient of obligation, that all, and every one who 
are tyed and obliged, be perfonally prcfent, to voyce 
and confent to the conftitution ; for conftitutions 
tyc Ecclefiaftically, as made by the Church, but not 
as made by all, and every one of the Church. And 
the lawfulncflc of Commiflioners to repre(cnt the 
cafe of the Church is clcare in Gods Word ; as An- 
tioch fent Commiflioners to ferujalem, Acts 15. Je- 
rufalem fent 1$ amah at their Meffcnger to Antioch, 
1 1. 22. But Titus, Timotheus, Zpaphroditits, and others 
were fent by the Churches, and to the Churches, as 
Commiflioners , and Embafftdours of the Church of 


Chap. 8 . Our Sdvttur under ft tndct A,&c. 85 

Cma ?. VIII. 

Qucft.8, J four Sdviour doth Warrant 4 Church of EU 
dtrs and Overfeers in thofe words, Mat. 1 8. Tell the 
Chunk, *** 

WE have an argument of weight for a Pres- 
bytcriall Church in our Saviours words, Aiat. 
18.17. If thy brother (offending) neglebl to keare them 
(the Cbriftian witnefles before whom he is convin- 
ced of his fiult) tell the Church , hut if he ncgleft to 
heare the Church, Let him be to thee as a heathen, and 
aTublicane, v. 18. Veri/y,/ fey to you,rvharfoeverye bind 
oh earth, Jhall be bound in heaven, andnvhatfoevcr je lofe 
an earth [hall be loofed in heaven. 

The Septuagint zgrccth with MatthcxvfwA* hyj^U. ? t e *™$" r £fPf 
So tsfrias (Jhloutanw, Tremell. Beza, Tar ens, LMuf- >*rUsMm.- 
chlm , Lyra, Hug, QardinalU, Caietan, Aquinas : It is p7rT*!'^X/ 
not much matter that (fas~ialio turneth {Ted the Affem- fp/*. '#4-w* 
bly of the Commons) zsfuguftine , CjDrian, Hyeronim, c^O^**** 
and all are againft him. The icopc of thefe words, is R'fyfi 
not, as many beleeve, that our Saviour fettcth downe nHft»' Cy ' r ' 
a way how to remove private offences done betwixt 
brother and brother onely. i.Becaufc the words then 
fhould not prove. the lawfulncfle of excommunicating 
for publikc and fcandalons finnes. 2. The fcope is as 
large, as binding and loofing on earth , and proporti- 
onally in heaven. But our Saviours ayrae is, to efta- 
blifh a Church confiftory, for removing all fcandals 
and cfF-'nces out of the Church, private and publike, 
betwixt* brother and brother, and betwixt Church and 
Church. Neither is there ground for the for cfakf fcope, 
becnufe he faith (If thy brother offend) in thefingular 
number ; for what if three, lixe, tenne brethren 
offend, is not this courfe of our Saviours to be taken, 

M 3 if 

86 onr Savi**r nndtrfidndttb Chap. 8, 

if fixe offend fixe ? Hence it followeth that the Church 
here flgnifieth not onclythe Elderfhip of a particular 
Congregation, but it flgnifieth reipeclively all Presbyte- 
ries, and Synods , Provinciall , Nationall , and Occo- 
menicke ; for feeing Excommunication 2nd Ecclef> 
afticall binding and looting, is Chrifts remedy, againft 
all fandals private or publike in Chrifts kingdome, 
then by a brother , by a JSynechdoche is meant all 
that effendeth ; then if a Jifier- Church offend a fifter- 
Chftrch, or a Provincial!, or Nationall Church offend 
a neighbour fifter-Church 3 Chrifts remedies being Catho- 
like and univcrfall, as farre as our difeafes goe 3 the 
courfe muft be to (Tell the C'tiftrek) Ipurpofethennrft, 
to (new this interpretation to be agreeable to the mind 
of all Doclors, acknowledging one Church of Elders 
cbryf.Dic Pre/ui. here, and next to prove ©ur interpretation. C^jfo- 
^Hi.dtc.Epifc- §i Qme Te/l the OverfeerSy Auguftine Tell the Watchmen, 
JUL m Bier en. We muft tell many. So Cjf rian * f© the Qonn- 
C'yfrA 3 Ep u» cell of Ancjra. So Ambrofe,Ballfahh : The <zs£thiopicke 
C JimbrAn*r?m*. Jnteryratcr faith, Tell the houfe of Chrijlians. Boderian, 
ZaiitryaBeffept- fell the houfe of Judgements. All our Divines fjy this, 
'^thhlutlp. Cdvin, Bez,a> 'Tar em, Chemnitim, Aretius , £rafmpu y 
dotnoCb>ifti*»otii. p e lattuSy HemmigitHy Ilyferim, Mufculiu, lunius, Pifi. 
B iudk?o n r*r° catory Bucanus, Rivet m , fartwright y Mar lor at , Dan. 
Calvin com. Tojf**, Bucer y The harmony of confejf, Helvet, French^ 

?»v*«M«.i«. FngUA Vrfi**, whittakcr. So Papifts, Emanxel, Sa. 
PMctucom.16. ZJitlor, Parifian Doclors, Fathers of Bafill , and Con* 
™wi*' fiance, j&an Gerfon, lac. Almain, Simon Vigorltu, A- 

ErafninJCovTe. quinas, Occam. What "Si/fin, Dormant, Sutluv'ws faith 
H^^Ro.ii againft this is anfwered by Parker, Ant.Waletu and other 

Hyper in i Tim. a« WOIthy d i V illCS. 
Mufc.iv lee. ro,8. 
lunim in di$p m 

Theol.difp.47 2« Pifcater loc.cam rlcBccl.a?. Thclp. Bncan.loc comJoc.44, a.f3. Rivet Ca- 
tho. Ortho, tom.i. tf»a.r. qoe.ft8.1i. tf, Tyf.cn Synixg. difp, 38, Thef. Jo i»,tj. Ctrtxrngbt 
againft Whitgfu trad 17.C.1. divif. 9 M ar'hrat in M at.i 8. Dan.Tejffonu tn pail. Evina- 48. 
BucerinKom.it. Cotifcjf. Helvet. GaSic, Anglic. Vrftv. Xatech. cxp. par 1. pag 534 Whit- 
tn\{erd'.Pontif. Rom, contr.4 qucft.r. Etnntanutl, Sa. Viclot. in Mat 18, 'Deft. Pari f. de P#. 
hu Ecclcf. pas. 1, t,j, Ca»«/. 3,ij</. Confiant* Girfi*, Mmtpt, Vigv* '«4quin. Occ&m,DuvaU 
litu,\ 5. par i.c^o. 


Chjp.S. a PrcsbperUH Church, Mac.i8. 87 

That the Church of Eiders is here under flood I 
prove. Chrift here alludeth to the Syncdry and Con- 
ffiW y of the J ewes, with which his hearers were 
well acquainted ; for he was now fpeaWng to the 
Tewes, who knew his language well, and knew thefe 
termes. Brother, witness, Sunedry, Affemhly, Congre- 
(tAtlcn , HeAthen , Public one , and knew what Cm 
had do .ver to caft oat mi repute men for Publicans 
7 oners : For as 'Bez,* obferveth, who would under- 
ft And Chrift here to ffe*k* rf * Chrijtian Presbytery, that 
has power to excommunicate, except we confider th,it Cbri 
hM a refpeci in this forme of Jpeech to the Iewes Church- 
policy : And Chrift in like manner, Mat.*. 22. acco- 
modated his {peech to the forme of the Jew es judi- 
catories : For many learned note out of the Talmud 
that the Tewes had three judicatories noted there. 
3. The 7 riumviri judged faiall matte**. 2. Their Sy- 

J.ry confifting of twenty three judges , more weigh- 
ty matters, and inBLcted more weighty punishments ; 
and 3**he great Counceli of 71. Judges did handle 

■!"^ions about falfe prophets , the Birh-priesl , And of 
ether wtightitfl caufes ; and therefore he fbeweth the 
punilhment of an offending brother amongft the 
Iewes too darkly ; but thefe judicatories were well 
knowne to them. And here excommunication is ex- 
prcff:d in Jewish tearmes in ufe at that time. Let 
him be to thee at a heathen , that is , a stranger from 
the common wealth of Ifrael 9 not one of the true Church, .. . 

but fuch a one as they called Goijm. So Drufius and 1%?^"* 
Be^a on this place. Now (Tell the (fhurch) Kahal 
to thofe that know the Iewes forme of fpcech muft 
be (Tell the Elders of the Congregation) amongft them, 
the multitude no more jadged caufes, then we would 
thtnke him excommunicated who is eltecmedoncnot 
carnally borne of Jfrraham, and fo all the whole Church 
of the Gentiles mould be excommunicated. So Franc. $£££*£<< 
lohnfon, 1. The Church ofbeleevcrs convened togc- m*.i8. 
thcr ii ftill a Church met together, for hearing the *.Arg. 


88 Our Saviour under lUndeth Chap.8. 

Word, receiving the Sacraments, i Cor.u. 18, ip. 
1 CV.i4,ip,2o,2j. In which none are to fpeake but 
Paftors, and as the Separates fay, Prophets, and not 
all private perfons ; but this is a Church not aflTem- 
bled to prophecying and praying, but to rebuking, to 
judiciall cenfuring by binding and looting , where all 
private perfons, as their witneflfes , the Oxfcnded bro- 
ther, be they publike, or be they private perfons (yea 
fuppofe a woman otherwife forbidden to fpeake in the 
Church met for worfhip, 1 Cor. 14.) may fpeake in this 
Church, for a woman may off:nd, and be excommuni- 
cate, or be oflfcnded, for fcandals betwixt woman and 
woman is to be removed. 
%.Arg. 3. The Church fpoken of here is fuch a fuperiour 

and judiciall feat, as ought to be obeyed in the Lord, 
under the painc^of excommunication , and to whofe 
voice and fentence coa&ivc the contumacious is faid 
isam.a.»5. to be difobedient, as f ^vmw ( a nd **mv andy^tP to 
feMiio*" difobey in the -holy tongues doth (ignifie. But amul- 
Dc«5.i. titude of bclcevcrs arc no fuch fuperiour and judicial! 

Lukno°iif * el ' ^ at as ma y ^ c obeyed, or difobeyed by inferiours, un- 
iioh. 4 tf! der the paine of excommunication, for it is without 

iohfc* 8 ' ^ c warrant of G<K * S Word, that all Chriftians , 9^ 

ioh!io 4 Ja7. fl ors > Elders, and D oUors are under the judiciall and co- 
Aas $ >}. a<5tivc fentence of belcevers. 

Heb.i^'17. 4. What ever Church may excommunicate, every 

+.Ar£. member thereof convened with the Church may in- 

flicT: all inferiour cenfurcs alfo ; for whofocver may 
inflict judicially the greater punKhment, may inflict 
the leffe ; but all the members of the Church of be- 
lecvers may not in this affembled Church inflict let 
fcr punifhnaents : For example , a woman , a fonne, 
a lervant, who arc all equally the trac members 
of the true Church of beleevers, being belecving pro- 
feflbrs may not in an affemblcd Congregation rebuke 
publikcly her husband and Faftor, his Father and Ma- 
tter : For publikc rebuking bcjng a degree of teaching, 
and cfpcttally in the affcmMccJ Chirch , the Apoftlc 


Ch ap. 8 d Presbyteriall Church, Mar. 1 8 . 85? 

— ■ — «ii ** 

will not have the woman to teach publikely, and 
ufurpc authority over the man, nor any to exhort and re- 
buke in the Church but Paftors. 

5. Thefe to whom the effence and definition of a 
Minifteriall Church having power to excommunicate 
(as this Church hath that power, Mat.1%.17.) doth 
neceffarily and eflentially belong, thefe, and thefe only 
are here underftood under the name of the Church. 
But fo it is, that the effence and definition of a Mi- 
nifteriall Church having power to excommunicate, 
agreeth not neceffarily and effentially to a company of 
true belecvers affembled Church-wayes , ergo, by the 
name of a Church here is no wayes underftood the 
Church of true beleevers affembled Church-wayes. 
The proportion is undenyable, f t out of the words 
may be gathered a definition of \ Minifteriall Church, 
to wit, an Affembly that has power of preaching 
and binding and loofing, ?nd £0 of all Church-cen- 
fures. I prove the affumpt. , To have power to 
preach, convene before them, .id judicially cognofce 
and fsntence, and excommunicate a contumacious mem- 
ber doth agree to thefe that by no neceflity are be- 
leevers, becaufe to have power to preach and excom- 
municate effentially require no more, but that pcrfons 
be, 1 . profeffors of the truth. 2. that they be gifted 
to preach and governe. 3 . that they be duely called 
thereunto by the Church , as Judas and others are ; 
but all thefe three are, and may be in a company in 
whom is no faving faith, as the word and experience 
clearc : For howbeit to be a called Paftor (the like I 
fay of Elders, Doftors, Deacons, and vifible profeffors) p*k>&V9iu&t& 
require faith in Chrift, as a gracious element and ne- %ll; ih> r ltim 
ceffary ingredient to make him a faved man : Yet it of the church, 
is not Required to the effence of a Paftor. Yea "Par- J n h d cf , £«.?'* V' 1 
ker, Anfworth, and authors of Presbyter, govern, ex. ac- Prt* % &uvnL\ 
knowledge profeffors to be members ofa vifible Church, cxanup IW " 
and fo to have power of thekeyes who are but rotten 
hypocrites, and whatwonder ? feeing God onely feeth 

N the 

g our Saviour under ft andeth Ghap.8. 

the heart, and men cannot fee farrc in a milftonc. 
S.drg. ^« AH the arguments proving that the po wet of the 

keyes is not given to all bcleevers , bur onely to the 
overfeers of the Church, and proving that the govern- 
ment of (Thrifts houfe is not popular, but in the hands 
Sups*p.i.q.i.&q. of the Elders proveth the fame, for this is a ruling, and 
e.cafc. authoritative and judging Church. 

j.Arg, „ Parens faith, The Church here meaned is the Church 

to be complained unto, but none can complaine to a multi- 
S.Arg., 8. The praclife of the Apoftolike Church, i Or.i. 

The houfe of Sloe being grieved with the fchifne of 
Corinth, telleth not the -whole belecvcrs , but telleth it 
to Paul , and in him to the Paftors, who had the rod 
of diicipline in their hands, and the Spirit of God 
gitcth' rules about receiving complaints to the Elder- 
ship, Tit. i. 13. and never to all beleevers ; therefore 
the rebuking and excommunicating Church fpoken of 
here mult bahc fhurch of Elders, ~ 
9.,Arg., 9* The Church here is thofe to whom the keyes 

are given, Mat. 16.19. / mil give to thee the keyes , 
whatsoever thou [bait bind on earth, jhall be bound in he a* 
ven ; but here the keyes are given to Peter , and in 
him, to the Apostles, and thefc to whom hefaid,^. 
20. whofe fmnes ye forgive, they are forgiven, and v?hefe 
ftnnes ye retaine, they are retained ; for that is to binde 
and loofe in heaven , as they Jhould bind, and loofe on 
earth ; and to whom he faid {As my Father jent me, 
fo fend J you ) but this Chrift faid to the Church of 
the Afoftles and Elders, for he hath not fent every be- 
leever as feis Father fent him , for thaf is a Paftorall 
fending* as is clearefrom Mat.?. 8. 18. All poW'ervs gi- 
ven to me in heaven and in earth. Hence he draweth a 
conclufion, Y.19. (Joe therefore and teach, dec. Which 
clearly includctb the keyes and power of preaching* 
baptizing, and governing, which agreeth not to all 
•tfftffr.** iolu» bcleevers in any tollcrable fenfe : As~Theophilat7,Chrj- 
tbry* Qyt. fofioms, Cjrill, Auguft, Bier on, Cyprian teach, and that 


Chap. 8. a Fresiyteriall chunbM^i 8. 9 1 

this place, Ioh 20. (es/s my Father fent me,fo fend I 
you) cannot be common to all beleevers , the Fathers 
teach Tlxopbila tl.inloc. 

He faith to them. Enter ye in my mini&eriall charge. 
Cjrill. inloc.& C hr jf ft^.C reAtl f Hnt t otitis or but) o- ^.^ 
Bores. «s4t4g.inVh.^.H*tro>j, Epift. and Evagrin. Cy- Hur.v.pAai 
prian Epift .4 1, « locum^auli.omnes fuccejfij]}. *«J* B 

10. The cnely apparent Argument againft this in- £- IOb 
terpretation is weake, and fo our interpretation mud \\ 
ftand .* For they fay that the word Church is never 
taken but for a company of beleevers, and the redee- 
med, E ph. 2. 20. budded en the rocke Chrisi. I deny 
not but the word Church is very fparingly taken for 
the overfeers onely ; yet it is taken in that fenfe, and 
there is reafon why it cannot bee otherwife taken 
in this place ; for Revelation. 2. The *Angell of 
the Church of Eplxftu, Smyrxa^c frandeth for the 
whole Church, . and the whole Church is written un- 
to under the name of the Angell of iuch a Church : 
Which may be demonftratcd thus, i.becaufe not only 
the Minifters, but the people that have eares to heare y 
are all and every one cf them commanded to heare. 
•2, The promt fe of eating the tree of life, v.7. of riving the 
hidden Manna, and the white ft one y and the new name, 
and they /hall be cloathed in white , and their names not 
blotted out of the botke of life who overcommeth, agreefh 
net to Minifters onely. 3. The command of being 
faithful! to the death , of holding f aft Vfbat they have, that 
none take d&ay their crowne y of ftrengthemng Vrbat remai- 
neth, of being zealous, and of repenting are not given to 
Minifters only. 4. The rebukes of falling from the fir ft 
Love, of not watching, of lake war mnejfe are not laid up ah 
Minifters onely^ therfore to the Angell of the Church 
tf Epheftts, cfthe Church of Smyrna, mull: need force 
have this meaning, Vnto the Church of Efefus , of 
Smyrna , and what is faid to the Angels, isfaid to the 
Churches, as is clcarc, comparing chap. 1. v. 20. and 
chap.a. t.i. with v.?. 11,17. So Ails 18, v,2i,2i. 

N a Paul 

9 2 Our S/tvlour under ft andetb Chap. 8 • 

Paul is faid to falute the Church , that muft be th c 
chiefe men and Elders of the Church ; for the Church 
being fo numerous at Jerufalem, as is proved, he could 
not falute the Church of belccvers, I. his manner in 
writing his Epiftles is to falute the prime pcrfons 
onely, and the reft in generall ; and this being areall 
filutation, or. by all appearance verball, he could not 
falute them all man by man , feeing he favv them in 
AKoIft.409 tnc by c > and tnc Kirke of Jerufalem (for he landed at 
o Siontiuti'riH- Cefarea) was more numerous, then that he could fa- 

fs'iVcloSn, lute them ali > man b y ™ n - Al ^ al& the Church is 
*% jam** faith, to named from the Paftors, Ifa.40.9. Sion that bringeth 
?S K cac u- n8 n«^^ tydinqs , and it is the Preachers that ordinarily 

Church whic us «*> J A J 

expounded, i fa. 5 v preach the good tydings, and the woman that has 

ar'dR^o t$ maK y f 0nrleS > "* ?4" *> 2 ' Gal.4. 261 27. Ifa.4p.2i. r/tf 

cniy of the Pa- ^oman that bringeth forth the manchilde, Rev. 12. the 
tforsfeotefGod bride who is made the keeper of the vineyard, Cant.i.tf. 
^g^ofpeace " Now it is the Paftors properly that travell in birth 
to beget children to God, gal. 4. 19. to the policye 
of which Church refpecl is had in this forme of 
fpeaking, the word Kaha/ y gnedah Ecclefia, a Church, 
an Aflembly doth onely (ignifle the Princes and Ru- 
lers, when the fpirit is fpeaking of matters of go- 
vernment, difcipline, commanding, complaints, or 
controverfie, as he fpeaketh here,Pfal.tf2. 1 . God slandeth 
in the Church gnedah, or Congregation of the mighty, Num. 
35.24. Andthc Congregation (Gnedah) {hall Judge betwixt 
the flayer and the avenger of bloud ,but it is expounded, J of, 
20.4. and the flayer fhall declare his caufe before the SI- 
ders of that City. So Deut.i i, 12, itf, 17. thefe that 
are called the men of Ifrael, Jolli.o. 6. are called thc 
Trinces of the Church or Congregation^ Y. I 5 . So com- 
pare, 2 Sam.7.7. Jpake I one word \Mith one of the tribes 
of 7fr.vl, with 1 Chr0n.i7.tf. sfake I one word to any 
of the Judges of Jfrael f So compare Exodus :o. 1 8, 
19. tsf& the people faw the thunder ,v,i 9. And they faid 
to ^Mofes, fpeafg thou to us, with Dcutronom.5. 23. 
And it came to pajfe, when jee heard the voyee , 


Chap.8. a Presbyteriall C/w/r/;,Mat.i8. 93 

out of the middes of darknejfe that ye c«me neare to me, 
even aU the heads of jour Tribes *nd Elders and faid y 
compare Exod: 4. ?p. with 30. 31. alfo compare 
I Ckr.2%. AndT>z\idaJf<wblcdsJl the Trlnces of Ifrael, 
the Princes of theJribes, and ihecaftoines of the comf fi- 
nes that ninifired to the Ki*& with chap. 29 1. Fur- 
thermore David the King /aid to all the con ere (ration. 

ssfinfworth rxkr.owledgeth that the word (C 071 ^ re i a " UhfiMrticum* 
tlon) is thus taken for the Elders enly ; fo the Sepa- *£$%X* 
ratiits in their confeflion cite this, Pfaliizi.T.. Lev: cvtftffim**. 
20.4,5, &c. with Mat-. 18. 17. Adds to thefe that 
1. Judges and Priefts in Ifrael might give fentenceof 
death, and judge of Leprofie without the peoples con- 
fent, *Deut:i.i6. 2 Chron:26.i6. Beut: i7- ? .andyet 
Ifrael as well as we, Were Kings and Triefts to God, 
Exod:i9.5>6\ rfah.149. 1 > *. And why may not we 
fay (Tell the (fhureh of Elders, as Judges) and in.tel- 
Xwf them, ye tell the believers, in relpecl: that Elders 
are not to pronounce fentence of Excommunicati- 
on, while they make declaration to the Church of be- 

H Argument, That Church which the plaintiffe 
muft tell,' that is publickly to admonifh the offender, 
but that is the Church of Elders, 1 Thef: 5.12,1 3,14. 
1 Tw.-5.20. Luk: 10.16. for they only arc to receive 
publick delations, and to rebuke publickly, as is, 
Tit tn 1.13. 1 Timothy 5.1. and ver: 19. 2 Timothy 

4. 2. 

12 It (hall follow, if Chrift. underftand heere by the 
Church, the Church of believers, that in the cafe of 
an Elderftiips fcandalous life, or if other wife all the 
officers be taken away by death, that then a compa- 
ny of believing women and children being ttie Spoufe 
of Chrift, and fo having chime and title to Chrift, 
his covenant and all his ordinances, maycenfiire, de- 
prive and excommunicate the Elders, and ordain El- • 
ders and paftors with publick fafting and fraying and 
laying on of hands. But this latter is unwritten in the 

N 3 Wortf 

94 Our Saviour under ft andeth Chap. 5. 

Word of God. For 1. Private believers, farrc lefle be- 
lieving women and children cannot judge the watch- 
men, and thofe who were over them in the Lord. 
2. Jn the Old Teftarrfent the heads of Families only 
excommunicated, Gen: 21. 10, ii, 12, 13. and the 
Priefts judged the Leper, Levir.13.34,5. DeutJ 24.8, 
p. Numb: ?. 1. not the people, and in the New Te- 
ftament, the Apoltles and Elders only ordained pa- 
ftors and officers with fraying and laying on of hands, 
Act: 6. 6. Act* 13 3. Acl: 14. 23. 1 11111:4.14. 2 Tim; 
1.6. 1 Tim:5.22. Tit:i-5. and never the people; al- 
io if three be believers happen to be an indepen- 
dent Church, and then the plant iff rebuking the oi> 
fender according to Chrifts rule, (J\lat:\6.\6. before 
the Brethren who are witneffes, he (hall tell the (fhurch, 
before he tell the Church, becaufe three are an inde- 
pendent Church by the Dodrine of our Brcthren,and 
moreover if thefe three being a Churchy mall excom- 
municate the offending brother before the Church (of 
which Chrift fpeaketh, when he faith, tell the Church) 
fhall heare of the matter : Then mail 1. Chrifts or- 
der be violated: 2. The offcnding brother mall be ex- 
communicated by a true mmifteriall Church, cLve 
non err ante, and that duly, becaufe he is contumaci- 
ous to them, and yet he is not excommunicated, be- 
caufe Chrifts order is violated, and the matter is ne- 
ver _come before the Church , who hath power to 
binde and loofe on Earth: 3. And certainly they muft 
Jay three or foure believers doe not make a Church, 
and they muft give fome other thing to make up ef- 
icntially one true vifiblc Church, then a company 
of believers vihbly profelTing one Covenant ' with 
Gcd. « 
x*,Arg. 13* And we have here for us the teftimony of 

Parker depotiteU* learned Parser, who is other wife againft us in this 
Ex^^V/»c?4- pl ca > w ^° confeffeth our Thefts, that in thefe words 
r» €up.tytobifcum y (tell the Church) Chrift doth underftand the Presbyte- 
&™&JL V or EHtrfiif. Hence the word Church in the New 


Chap.g. a Presbyter/all Church ,Mtt. 1 3. 9 5 

Teftamcnt doth not alwayes fignific the Church of ^J^fTjjJfjf" 
Believers, Difciples, Brethren, who pray in Chriits l7 9 '(Lf»fiiaJ 
name and are heard in Heaven, and are hullded on the "rf****** % f cd 
Rocke> and are the body and ffonfeof Ckrijl, foranum- VrlafiuxlTum^ 
ber may be. and often is. an Eiderfhip judicially ex- ******* «r##- 
communicaung, and a Presbytery , yea and alio in- If ,„, f f,/ ; / /rtOT 
cludinc fome externally profeffins Chrift, who are not ¥*#**&**•!*•* 
a company or redeemed ones, built by laving faith up- bkw\>i*dittc- 
on the Roche Jefus Chrift. Alfo it is mfolent that cl fi*> r^fi P**- 
the word Church here (houlo figni fie both precifely **, J ,ff^" 
the Eldermip, and alfo in that fame vcrf the whole hunu* famfi- 
Congregation cf believers 3 becaufe the fame Church ^Zwo^Juno- 
to the which the ofteaded brother fhould'put in his ? t*mm»mvrm»i 
bill of complaint, is that very Church which muft 7Jpx~wfjte~ 
be heard, and obeyed under the pain of excommuni* »t^t(m Down*. 

mus docei)exccm- 
Cation. * mwuc*wtim prep- 

2. It is hard that the offender fhould be excom- tercytumpumec. 
municated for not hearing and obeying the Congre- ^2^»um 
gation of believers, who are not tf&flfa^o^ over him ***** «c *****- 

• *.\ ~ T _J nanuwy turn & 

m the Lore. fMem ecdt f txde . 

3. By grant of M. Parker the Church of believers *wrauc*m tmi* 
hath not power from this place Mat:i2. to otdai^ jffiJESZ 
pallors to themfelvesjwhen they want pafiors, or to ex- n-,uwc*u>*$m m* 
communicate their own Elderfhip in cafe of fcanda- *'** rme fr 
lous fins, which is againft his grounds and our Bre- 

threns principles, who afcribe this authority to the 
Congregation of believers, becaufe a number of be- 
lievers is not an ArlfiocraticaU fart and a feleet Pref- 
b'ytery and Elderfhip, as he faith is meaned in this 
word (tell the Church,) 

14. The Church hcr« cannot well mean a vifible 14. Ar. 
Congregation of believers and Elders convecned to 
heare the Word preached, fo as he who contemneth 
two private admonitions fhould be accufed and cen- 
fured in the face of the Congregation conveened to hear 
Gods Word. Becaufethe Church meetethin Chriits 
name for Gods worfhip, if they meet in faith and 
humbk fenfe. cf > with purpofe of heart to 


$6 our Saviour under ft andeth Chap.8. 

worfhip God in sftirit and truth, but there is fome o- 
ther thing required, that the excommunicating Church, 
meet for the afluall exercifa of difciplinc, for befide 
meeting in Chrifts name, there is required that the 
Church meet with Tauls fpirit, and the rod of dis- 
cipline, i Cor: 5. 4. That yee meet in the name of our 
Lord Iefus Chrift, and my Jpirit with the power of our 
Lordleftu Chrifl.ThQn Pauls fririt as an Elder ,who hath 
power of the rod, a fpirit and power of excommuni- 
cation is required to this meeting. But I doubt not 
but the Church of believers did meet at Corinth, 1 Cor: 
n. for hearing the Word and receiving the Lords Sup- 
per, and for ordinary worlup and praying and pray- 
fing when it was not needrull that Paul (hould write, 
That yee meet together in the name of our Lord Iefm 
and my fftirit to heare the Word and to receive the Lords 
Supper : There was no need of Pauls sjirit for that, 
therfore I conclude that this meeting of the excom- 
municating Church requireth another fpirit and au- 
thoritative power to deliver to Satan ( fuch as was 
in Paul) then is required in ten believers meeting in 
faith, without Pauls authoritative power, to heare Gods 
Word. For Taul faith of his authoritative meeting, 
/ verily abfent in body but prefent in fpirit, have judged, 
&c. but Taul knew that they might meet as a num- 
ber of believers to heare the Word, whither Paul be 
abfent or prefent in fpirit, and this I obfervc for their 
miftake who teach that trvo or three agreeing together 
up$n Earth and praying for one thing, are heard of God, 
as it is faid, CMat: 18. ip, 20. is an independent 
Church having the power of the Keyes, ror firft, 
Chrifl: then hath not provided a fure way, for remo- 
ving fcandals. And when he faith (tell the Church) 
this (tell the Church) muft be a definite, vifible, con- 
fpicuoufly known Church ; now in one congregation, 
one province, one nation there be three hundretb, (ix 
or ten hundreth threes or fours of profeffed believers, 
ifevery three and every fourc be an independent Church, 


Chap. £. * Preshytcriall church y Mat. 1 8. £ i 

to which of all thefe many threes snd fours, ihall the 
plantiff- addietfc hirr.felfe, for they be all equally inde- 
pendent Churches , the planting is left in the midlt, 
and knoweth not his ordinary judge, there be fo ma- 
ny tribunals in one Congregation, yea in one Fami- 

2. How many key- bearing Churches fhall be with- 
in one independent Congregation, who may all meet 
in publike in one houfe, for the joy nt worlhiping of God 
together ? 

3. Chrift in thefe words, where he is faid to heare 
two V?bo flail Agree together ufon earth as touching one 
thtofi hath no purpofe to creel vifiblc Churches with 
the full power of the keyes, confiding only of three 
cr foure believers, but he doth argue here from the 

leffe to the more, as Bucer faith, and as C^lnfculm \ 'Bucer.em.ib. 
God will not only ratifie excommunication, but he ^l^clZit 
will heare the prayers of his children univerfally ;and p*r*wcom.\h. 
this prcmife, ver. 20. of Chrifts prefence amongft 
two or three is more large and generall, then his pro- 
mife to ratifie the fentence of excommunication, even 
that Chrift will be with his owne, howbeit they be 
net Church-waies conveened ; or rather,as Partus faith, 
it is a generall promife of the prefence of Chrifts grace 
in his Church, y?z><? magna* five parva, cither great or 
fmall, and I grant it will prove the power of our Church 
fefiions in Scotland very well, where there is often 
but one Paftor, and fome few ruling Elders, but Chrift 
cannot promife a Charch-prefence of bis Spirit and 
grace, or fuch a prefence wherby he ratifieth the cen- 
tres of the Church, but where there is a Church con- 
fiding of Elders and people, but if the words be pref- 
led according to the letter and definite number, then 
it (hall follow that every two believers ; yea fuppofe 
two women agreeing on earth to pray for one thing, 
fhall be a Minifteriall Church, having the po,wer of 
the keys, which is moft abfurd : For a number of be- 
lievers make not a Church, having the power of the 

O keys 


The true constitution 


keys, for i. They want the power of binding 3nd loo- 

fing by preaching, ». They are not a golden candle- 

(tick, in the which Chritt walketh, as a vifible Church 

is, Rev. I. Chrifb meaning then muft be, I promife 

my prefencc to the fmalleft Church, fuppofc it were 

poflible that a Minifteriall Church could confiftofthe 

lead number, that is, even of two only : but Chrifts 

purpofe is not to make every two believers a viiiblc 

Minifteriall Church, and every believing Family a con- 

vafturjn i>Tkb\ gregation having the power of the keys. Vafejuez the 

t*m£$.*44.c.$. Jefuite hath arguments and ancients to fpeak from the 

arifiiajnniu Text this which we fiy, which can hardly beanfvve* 

SyHodprovi*. red. See that Enchiridion of the Province of C alien 

un™n. under Charles the V.See alfo fanfemns jJMaldonat and o- 

mmuuu in thers on this Text. 

%arr$vr difco. of 
the ialfc Clutch. 
p. 8,9, i o 
Guide to Zion. 

Separate petit to 
K. lams j.pai p.44 
Confeff.ar*\<y p t 9 
*Ai»fivorth againft 
Bernard tea/. $.er t 

M. Gaunt neccf 
Difcover? of N. 
£»/'". primed an. 

Ch a p. IX. 

Q^9. What members are necejfarilj required for the right 
and lawfull confutation of a true politicly vifible Churchy 
. to the Which Wf may joy n in gods VPorfbip. 

IT is maintained by thefeof the Separation, that the 
rightly conftituted Church muft cenfift of the Lords 
planting (as faith M. Barrow) all taught of God, all 
plants of right eottfnejfe, fons of Zion, precious fiones, a 
redeemed people, a roj all generation ^ fo the Guiae to Zion, 
The true vifible Church (Tay the Separatists) is a com- 
pany of people called and feparated fiom the ^ or Id, by the 
Word of God, and iojned together in a voluntary pro- 
fejfion of the faith. So Separatists in their petit. Mr. 
Ainftvorth, M.Cavae, the difcovery cf N.Light.Tor the 
clearing of the Qiieftion, we remit to the confideration 
of the Reader thele diftinftions. 

I . Diftind;. Then be fome Saints by externall cal- 

Chap.p. $f a vifible Church. 93 

fiflffs but not chofen , fame Saints by internal and 
effecluaU 'calling, called and chofen of god, 

2. Diftinft. There befome members of a vifible Church t 
VvhO) de jure, by right and obligation Jhould be fitch, 
there be other members of a vifible Church, de (*dio>and 
in praclife 9 Vcho are fitch and fich members. 

3. Diftinft. There is a morall obligation , and fo all 
the members of a vifible Church are obliged to bee 
Saints by effetluall calling, there it a phyficall obli- 
gation, and fo that perfons may be members of a. 
vifible Church at vifible ,it is not effentially required that 
they be effectually called, 

4. Dift. If atrue (fhurch and a vifible Church, as vifi- 
ble may not for a time be oppofed by Way of contradi- 
Bion^as a believing (fht&ch, and anon-believing fhurch 9 
1 remit to be confidered, and fball God billing bee 

5. Dift. It is one thing to be kicked and fcandalotu 
indeed and really ; and another thing to be fcanda- 
Uus juridice, and in the Court of the Church and 

£. Dift* A knownc and openly fcandalous perfonutnda 
Well lu fired and dyed Hypocrite are to be differenced in 
the (fhurch. 

7. Dift. Let it be cenfidered/tf the preaching of the Vtord 
be not in divers confiderations, \ . A mean of confli- 
cting and making a vifible Church. 2. *s? true 
note of a vifible Church. 3. A meane of faving 
the believing Church , now vifibiy profiling the 

%. Dift. Let it be confdered if the Maqiflrate and 
King may not Compell men to the c on fi fifing and pro- 
filing of the faith, adu impcrato, by an externall 
fircing porver, and yet neither Magiftrate nor Pa~ 
flour can compell to heart- believing, s&u clicito, by an 
inward moving of the heart. 

p. Let it be confdered if a vifible Church may not be 

a true Church by reason of fomc fey? found belie - 

O 2 vers 

g\ 7 be true conjhitution Chap.c* 

vers and fincere feeders of god \ and t hit fame Whole 
body an InfeBed lump and Vohoorijh in refoett of Toms 
vifible prof e fours, who are hypocrites ana proud arfbi 
fers of the Lord. 
lO. Let it be confidered if a (fhurch may not be n 
med by Gods Spirit an yvhoore.no Church, no $p ou r e 
jure & merito & quoad vocanonem pa/fivam in 
refpecl of bad dejerving and their not anfwerin? on 
their parts to the call of God, and yet that* fame 
Church remaine de fafto, formal iter & quoad vo- 
cationem Dei a&ivam, formally and in regard of ■ 
gods part and his aVtive vocation and calling the Spoufe 
and bride of Chrift. Hence our firft C QyiclH fioyu The 
Saints by extern all calling are the true matter of a 
vifible Church. 

1. The word (Ecclefia) the called of God, provcth 
this : For thofe arc a true vifible Church, where God 
hath fet up a CandlefticJ^ and whom God calleth to 
Repentance, Remiffion of fames and life eternall in 
Chrift , becaufc there bee a fctkd Miniftcry cal- 

2. Becaufe all to whom the Word is preached are 
called the vilible Church, as all within the houfe are 
veffels of the houfe vifibly , howbeeit there bee 
in the houfe, Vefels of Honour and vefels of dijlv* 

3. So faith Ainfworth, this wc hold, That Saints by 
calling are the only matter of a vifible Church, yet with- 

jnim.vjo.". all we hold, that many are called, but few cho r en ^o al 
uSSXSSL fothe frngddo* or Heaven or vifible Church isndtfw 
P .i 7l . net, wherin are good and bad Hfhcs , a bame-fioore 

wherin are chpfrj and good wheat. See 1 Corinthians 
1.2^. (folio /fans I. t, fc. Remans 1.7. Thilip. 1. j, 
2.(foncluJion 2. Conclufwn, All the members of the vifibh Church 
de jure, and by right, or by morall obligation ought to 
be Saints cff.dually called. 1. Becaufe the comman- 
dement of making to themfclves a new heart, Ezcch. 1 8. j 1 . 


" — — ■ ■ ■ — — , •— 

Chap.9. efa vifible Church. p 5 

and to be renewed in doe ffiirit of dieir mind, E ph. 4. 23. 
Rom 12.2. and to be holy, as h: Who hath ca'leX them s h)- 
iy } \ PeM . 1 5 ; . 1 6.] t doth lay an obligation morall upon ail 
within the vifible Church. 2.5ecaufe the preached Gof- 
pcll ii the grace of God appearing to .ill men teaching them 
to deny ungodlineffe y &.z. Tit. 3. v. I l,i 2. 

3. Conclufon. Rut y dc facto, as the vifible Church is in z.r nclu(io* 
the field of the world, all the members of the vifible 
Church arenoterf><flually called Ju(tified,fanetiried, nei- 
ther is it needfull by a phificall obligation for the true 
nature and eflence ofa vifible Church, that all the mem- 
bers of it be inwardly called and fanclified, every pro- 
fefior is obliged tobeleeve, elfc the Wrath of god abideth loh.s 18,3*. 
onhim^andhe is condemned already. But to make a man 
a viliblc j>rofeflbr, and a member of the true vifible 
Church as vifible, favmg faith is not eftenfcially required, 
foashe fhould be no member of the Church vifible, if he 
beleevc not. 

That this may be right taken ; obferve that the viable 
Church falleth under a two- fold confederation. I. In 
cencrsto, as a (fhurch. 2. In abfiracio, as vifible. The vi- 
fible Church considered m concrete, is apart-oftheuni r 
vet fall, Catholike and un vifible Church which partaketh 
of the nature andeffence of a true Church, andChrifts 
miflicall body, in which confideration we deny repro- 
bates and unbelevcrs to be members of the vifible 
Church, i.Bccaufe there is no reall communion (what- 
ever Bellarmine and Papifts fay on the contrary) betwixt 
ri hteoufneffe and unrighteoufnefie , light and dar^eneffe , tl. e 
feed of the Woman 3 and the fee de of the Serpent, lb as they 
can make up one true Church. 2. Bccaufe thefe who are 
not Chrifts, are not members of Chrift, and Co no part 
of his mifricalibody. 3. Becsufe they are not bought 
With a price ; nor his purchafed flock in the blood of 00 J, 
as *At1s 20. thttrue Church is,nor buildcd upona rock, 
as Mat a 6.18. 4. Chriil is not their Redeemer, head, 
High-pritft, King and Saviour, and ib neither are' 
they his redeemed , his members , his people , 

O 3 fubjects, 

p6 The true constitutor* Chap.p, 

fubjccls and faved ones. 5 . Becaufe the promifes made 
•to thechofoi and beleevers, to give them anew heart, 
regeneration, fandification, rerniflion of firmes arc made 
to them only, and in Gods gratious intention, and not 
to reprobates. Whence I inferre thefe conclufiong. 
1. Seperntifts arguments mult; bewcake, for they ail 
conclude that which we deny not, and no other thing, 
to wit, that harreticks, adulterers, forccrers, blafphe- 
mers be no parts of Chnfts vifiblc Church, as it is a 
Church. Yea we fay that as the tree leg, and the eye 
of glaffr, and the teeth ©f filver by art put in the body, 
arc no members of the living body, fo neither are thefe 
members of the true Churchy and fo much doc all our 
Divines, as Calvin, Beza, Junius, V/hittaker, Tilctt, 
Pifiator, Parent, Vrfine, Trclcatius, Sibrandus, Ante* 
Jius prove againft Papifts. 

2. Preaching of the Gofpcll is called a note of the 
Church, and profeffion of faith a note of the Church 
both, the former is a no: e of the teaching Church or 
miniftenall Church called, Scclefia docens. The latter 
is a note of the profcfling Church, who profeiTetb the 
faith, which we may call Ecc/efs utens, or Ecclejiapr a. 
Mice confederate, 

3 . Profeflion of the faith is thought to be true, cither 
Subjectively. 2. Objectively. Or 3. Both Subjectively 
and Objectively. Profeffion fubje&ivciy is true when 
the profeffor doeth indeed profefleJand avow the truth, 
anddoth not only feem to avow & profeflethe trutb,and 
this is no note of a true Church, becaufe it may be in 
hypocrites, whojreally goc to Church, really heare the 
word and partake of the Sacraments, but not fincerely. 
Profeffion true objectively is when the profellor doth 
profdle that faith which is indeed found and orthodox. 
And this isamarkeof the true teaching or miniftcriall 
Church y and may be in a vifiblc company of profeflbrs 
who for the time arc not fincerc beleevers. But a pro- 
feffion of the faith both objectively true and fubjective- 
ly is, when the object is orthodox and found truth, and 


Chap. p. cf dvifMc clurch. 97 

the profeflbr fincerely and gratioufly, and with an ho- 
neft heart beleeveth and profcfTeth the truth, and this 
way profefilon of the truth is a true and effentiall note 
of a vifible Church as it is a true Church and body of 
Chrift, and fo are our Divines to be expounded in this 
dodrine about the notes of the vifible Church. But 
withall, the vifible Church is to be confidered in ab- 
ftr*tto> under the notion of vilibility, and as vifible, 
and- as performing all the externall acls of prcfe/Iing, 
governing, hearing, preaching, praillng, adminiftrating 
the fealesof the covenant, binding and Ioofing in the 
externall and vifiblecourt of Chrift, and under this re- 
duplication as obvious to mens eyes, and therefore in 
this notion all externall profeflors who are not mani- 
feftly and openly fcandalous are to be reputed members 
of the true vifible Church, and therefore this tearmc, 
would 4>e confidered, a true vifible Church. For the ad- 
jective (true) may cither be referred to the fubjedt 
( Church) and Co figntfieth the true mifticall body of 
Chrift vilibly, and with all fincerely profelTing the 
found faith. Or it may be referred to the other ad- 
jective {vifible) and fo it is no other but a company 
of profeflbrs vifible to ourfenfes, andfo truely vifible, 
whofe members may be unfbund and falfe profc flours ; 
Then the queftionis, Whither vifible Saints 1. fir faking 
attknorvne finnes. 2. ISoinc all th knowne Will of God. 
3. growing ingrme, (as &hh Smith, and the difcov. of m.^^^ 
T^.Light.) be the only true matter of aright and law- «»/obrer,paj»*»a 
fully confident vifible Church and congregation ; fo as °£ 0V -fs N ' Uglji 
we are to joyne with no company or worlhippers or 
God, but fuch vifible Saints as thefe, and to acknow- 
ledge no other fociety a true Church, whereto we are 
obliged to ad joy ne our felves as members, five only fuch 
a f ciety : Or is this fufficient for the nature, and right 
conftitution of a true vifible Church, that the company 
that we are to joyne our felves unto, as vifible mem- 
bers, have in it thefe true markes of a vifible Church, 
The pure word of God purely preached, and the Sa- 

9 8 iht true conjliiutioH Chap.o. 

craments duely adminiftred, with difciplinc according 
to Gods word, and withall a p:ople externally pro- 
fjffing the fore- faid faith, fuppofc they cannot give to 
us lmnifcft tokens and evidences that they are etfe- 
dually called, and partakers of the divine nature, and 
tranflat.ed from death to life, and are elected, called and 
judified ; This latter we hold as the truth of God ; thdz 
of the Separation hold the former. Now wc mult care- 
fully diftinguifh here what are tobediftinguifhed ; for 
there are many queftions infolded here of divers natures: 
For I. The queftion is if the fociety have the word, 
feales and right discipline, and they profile the truth, 
fuppofe their lives be wicked; whether they mould 
not be anfwerable to that which they prcfeffe ? I 
Anfwer. No doubt they ought to be anfwerable to their 
light, and obey the holy calling. 2. What if many 
of them leade a life contrary to that which they pro- 
kfle, and yet the govcrnours ufe not the rod of difciplinc 
to cenfure them : then whether mould the members 
feparate from that Church ? They ought to feparate,(fay 
the Separatifts',) They ought not to feparate from the 
' Church and wor(hip,fay we ; they are to ftay with their 
Mother ,but to plead with her; and modeftly and fca- 
fonably fay, that Archippus and others doc not fulfill 
their Miniftry, tyhich they have received of tfx Lord. 
3. What if there be purity of doclrine, butextreame 
wickedncfli, contrary to their docTrine; whether is 
that company a true fhurch or not? I anfwer, it is a 
true, vifible and a teaching orrightminifteriall Churchy 
but for as farre as can be fcene, not a holy, not aian- 
cTified Church, and therefore mufl: not be deferred and 
left. 4. What if the guides receive in as members of 
the fhurch, thofe who arc knowne to be mod fcan- 
dalous and wicked, and not fuch Saints as ?Wwn- 
tcth unto at RoMe y £ori»th 3 jEphefuf C°l°§ e - Anfiv. The 
faults of the guides are not your faults who are private 
members, you arc to keepe publike communion in the 
publike ordinances of Chrift, but not to take part with 


Chap.o. of a vifible Church. 99 

their unfruitfull worhes,but rather to reprove them, 5. What 
if the members of the Church can give no reallproofes 
that they are inwardly called, fan&ified, and juftified, 
and yet you fee no fcandalous out-breakings in them, 
to teftifle the contrary. 1 anfvver, forasmuch as grace 
may be under many afhes, as a peece of goldamongft 
mountaines of earth : If they profeflfe the found faith, 
they are a true Vifible Church, and we are to acknow- 
ledge them as fuch, and to joyne our fclves as mem- 
ben to fach a fociety, or being already members^ we 
aretoremaineintha fociety, and not to feparate from 
it in any fort. 

The Separation doth complains that in our Church 
are (as AwfwmrA faith) fwarmes of Atheists, Mmers^^^ 
Tapirs, err onions andhsreticall fc claries, witches, charmers, ^mdrd-p.^. 
forcerers, tkeves, adulterers, lyars&Q The Gentiles en- g^^g* 6 
ter unto the temple of Cjfod , the holj things of God, the Dialog.of 
Sacraments indifferently communicated with cleane ank un- 
clcane, circumcijed and uncircumcifed : And amongst joti 
are thoufands who cannot tell how thej Jhail be faved. So 
fay ethers, as M. Barrow and Smith. Hence infers they 
cur Church is a falfe Church , not right conftitute 9 no 
^poufe of Chrifi , no royall generation, not 4 people who 
hath ^hrifi for King, Frieft, and Prophet, We on the 
contrary hold this as our fourth conclufion, That how - 
beit openly and groflely prophane wicked peifons, as 
knowne atheifts, and mockers of Religion, Idolaters, 
papifts, herctickes, forcerers, witches, theeves, adul- 
terers,&c.are not to be kceped in the Church ; but to 
be excommunicated , nor yet to be received into the 
Church as members thereof, untill they give eviden- 
ces of their repentance : Yet we fjy that there is no- 
thing required more as touching the eflfentiall proper- 
ties, and nature of being members of a Church, as vi- 
fible ; but that they profeflfe before men the faith, and 
defire the feales of the Covenant, and crave -fellowship 
with the vifible Church, which I prove : 

i. From the manner of receiving members in the 
P Apo- 

*oo The true conftitutio* ^Chap.^. 

Apoftolikc Church , where nothing is required but a 
profefled willingneffe to receive the Gofpell, howbeit 
they receive it not from their heart, Acl:. 2. 41. 
then they that gladly received his word ( Peters word ) 
•were baptised , and the famedsy were added to the Church 
ah at three thoufandfoules, v. 45 . And they fold their pof- 
Jeffions and parted them to all wf«.Now amongft theft glad 
receivers of the Gofpell were Ananias andSaphira, cli.4. 
v - *4>35>3^37- chap.6.v.i,2,$. It is true they are all 
charged by Tetcr to repent, ere they be baptUed^nd 
added to the £Wr£«but the A poftlcs require no more 
to make members of the vifiblc Church, but 1 . profeffed 
willing receiving of the word, and this receiving expref- 
fed by an outward ad of felling their goods , which, 
was but hypecrifie in Ananias and Sapbtra, as the event 
declared ; yet were Ananias and Saphtrafot that tifarw 
members of the Churches as truly vifiblc, and their acls 
of electing and chufing a Paflor, and confenting to ex- 
communicate fcandalous perfons in that time valid in . 
Chrifts cout : Yea fuppofe Ananias bad been a prea- 
cher, his preaching and baptizing fhould have been 
valid, by grant of Separates. Alio there is no more 
required by the Church of Simon Magus , A&-8.V.13? 
but beleeving hiftorically at the fight of miracles, and 
he was baptized and received into the Church prefent- 
ly. Now this beleeving was not feene to be faving 
faith to Peter and the Apoftles, we know no wayes they 
had to know it : feeing they know not the hcart,but what 
is faid,v.l 3. hecontinrndwith Philip ^andwondred, which an 
hypocrite might doe, and he had been not long fince 
an abhominable forcerer, and ufurped the honour of 
God like a fjcrilegious robber of the Almighty of his 
glory, ver.9,1 o,n. And the like we may feeof.D<r- 
rnas, who forfooke Taul, 2 Tim.4. 1 o and followed: the 
prefent World : 1 here was nothing to make him a mem- 
ber of the vifible Church then, but that for a while he 
followed Paulinhis journey es, and profefled the faith. 
And the like muft be faid of Hjmenew and Alexander, 


Chap.o. ef a vifible Church. 101 

who for a time were members of the true Church, 
as it is vifible, and a profefiing Church ; and this was 
knowne onely by their profeilion ; yet that they had 
but a bare profeilion is clcare , feeing afterward they 
made thipwrackc of faith, i Tim.i. 19,20. Now our 
brethren cannot deny but oil thefe might, and did ex- 
ercife Eccledafticall Acts that were valid and ratified 
of God, yea of binding and looilng, and fo nothing 
is required to make men members of a vifible Church, 
but fuch an outward profeffion of faith as may befalJ, 
and hath been found in the hired broidered and pal- 
mentcd hypocrites, who have been in the Apoftolike 
Church. Alio what more was in Judas , even after 
Chrift had foid (Have not I chofen you twelve, and one 
of y ou i6 a Devill?) yet the eleven lay not, Lord, 
difcovcr him to us, that we may feparatc from 

2. Argument. If the vifible Church planted and s.^rg-, 
conftituted lawfu ly, be a draw-net, wherein zxzfijhes 
of all forts ; and a houfe wherein are vejfe/s of fiver 
and gold ; and alfo bafe veffels of brafle and wood ; 
and a barne- floors wherein are "Wheat and a chaffe, then 
a Church is rightly conftitute ; howbeit there be in 
it beleevers and unbeleevers, and hypocrites, as mem- 
bers thereof : And there is no more required to make 
members of the Church vifible as vifible, but that they 
be within the net, hearers of the word , within the 
houfe as vejfels of brajfe , within the barnc-wals as 
chafe, in hkeneflc and appearance like wheat : But the 
former is true, and granted by Barrow, Mat 1 x 47. „ 

_-• w & i r • \ ti •' Barrciv A/lav. 

2 Tim.2. 20,21. Mat. 3. 1 2. Barrow laith , Hypocrites &$ church*. 10* 
are ever in the Church, but it followeth not that the pro- 
phage multitude for that Jhould be admitted members 
Without proofe of their faith. Anfw. As the likens fife 
between the veflell of brafle, and the vefTHl of gold, 
and their being in one and the f.me Noblemans cm- 
table together, is fulficient to make the brazen veflHl 
a part of the plenifhing of the houfe : fo the hypocrites 

P 2 externall 

I02 The true conjlitution Chap.9. 

extcrnall profeflion, and. receiving the word, and re- 
maining in the Church , as Ananioi and Saphira, and 
Simon Magus his beleeving , his adhering to Philip 
his defirc of Baptifme maketh him a member of the 
vifible Church, and the Church that thefe are in, is a 
truly and right conftitute vifible Church. 
l>Arg. 3. Argument. If that Church be rightly conftitutc 

and a true Church, where the man without the wed- 
ding garment commeth to the Marriage of the Kings 
fonne, that is, where multitudes were called, and doe 
hearc the Word, and fo come to the banquet cf the 
Gofpell, that arc not chofen, and are deftitute of the 
wedding garment of faith and Chrifts righteoufneffe, 
•and all thefe that arc profefled hearers of the word, 
and yet not found beleevers. Then a profeiTed and ex- 
ternal! ufeof the mcanes (if no outward out-breakings 
of fcandals be in them) maketh men members of the . 
vifible Church , and the Church is rightly conftitute 
where thefe are ; but the former is true, Mat. 22. 
^.*,3.&c. ^.11,12,13. and this is a point moft ordinary 
in every vifible Aflembly, where the word is prea- 
ched , where fome bekeve , and fome are hardened, 
as in the parable of the fower , where the feed falleth 
upon good ground, and bringeth forth fiuit, andalfo upon 
the way fide, upon the rookie and thorny ground , and in 
the parable of the ten Virgins, to make them 
all tnc vifible kingdome of heaven, there is no more 
required, but that all have lamps, that is, a profeflion 
that they are the Bridegroomes men attending the 
wedding, and yet five of them wanteth oj/e. And fo 
when Chrift preacheth and workcth miracles, fome be- 
leeve, and fome beleeve not, foh.j.^ 1,3 2,33. A els *. 
48,49, 5°« compared with At~ls% % 1,2. 2 Cor. 15. 
A.Atg. 4. Argument. I frael was a right conftituted Church. 

The covenanted people of God, an holy people to the Lord y 
chofen to be a peculiar people to himfelfe, Deut.*4. i>2. 
Deut.2?, 10, 1 1, I2.rf people on whom Qod fet hn love, 


Chap. 9 . of a vifible Church. i o 3 

Deut.7.7. So happy as none was like wnto them , faved 
by the Lord the jhield of their help, Dear. 3 3 . 26,27,28, 

.; j?^/* irirfi wLcm God would not Ireake hu oath, 
and Covenant made with. Abraham, ycdz*2.1 ,and: 
God, 1 King. 18. 7,6. i. Kiivj.p. 6. ay. ..th them 

op ie, Hoi 6 J er. 2. 1 3 . ma; ried unto the Lcrd, 1 er. 
2.14. a:id married fir ever, Jcr.^i; 56, 37.Ier.32 40, 
41. Hof2. ip, 20, Iia.50. 30. Pial.80. 30,21,32.3.?, 
&C. e^ people who had avowed the Lord to bs : 
God, a people whom the Lord had avowed to be his pecu- 
liar people, Deut. 2d. ? 8, I 9. A people with goodly tents, 
as the gardens by the rivers fide, as the trees of Liba- 
nns } that the Lord hath planted, Num.24. 5,6. A peo- 
ple on whom the Lord looked upon, and behold their time 

the time of love, over whom the Lord sfread h'is skirts 
of love, to whom CJod [ware a Covenant, and made them 
hti, Ezech. 1<5, 6, 7, 8,9. the Lords heritage, Ier.12.8. 
'his pie af ant fonne, and deare child? , Ier.3 I. 20. his we ^~ 
beloved, Ifa.5. i. And yet becsufe of tranfgrefHons and 
the backliiders and revolters that were amongft them, 
a pervt'i'fe and crooked (feneration, Deut. 32.5. at that 
fame time had waxed fat and thick? , and light Ij efiee- 
med the rock? of their Jldvat ion, v.l 5. zs4 people that had 
no eyes to fee, nor cares to heare, nor a heart to perceive, 
to that day, Dsut. 29.4. /ported, but not as his children, 
Deut. 3 2.5. a whorijh people, v.! 6, 1 7. Sodome and 64* 
morrah, Dent .32. 32. I fa. I . I O.an harlot city full of murX 
thererSy d'^jfe, not fiver, wine and water, v. 2 1,2 2. 
circumcifed in heart, Ier.9. 16. to God no better the;: 
circumcifed esEthjopians, Egyptians., 'Philiftives^j.dS'jf- 
riar.s, Amos 9.7. thefe that played the harlot with:nv*df 
lovers, in all the high- way es, Jer 3. '2,3 The Pris pirns 
prophefying falfly , the Priefls bearing rule by" their 
meanes, and the people lozing to have it Co, Ijsrein «r. 
3 I . Tlie Princes wolz es , evening wolves , : <£zckiei 
2i. 27. What Apoftafie was m Ifrael , yea un 
all, except Caleb and Jofinah ? What; -harlo- 
trie with the Daughters of Oil. and 

P 3 that 

1 04 The true cmsiituuon Chap.p- 

that vile Idoll Baal-pcor ? both immediately before, 
and immediately after the Spirit had called them , a 
blefled people, goodly plants, trees of the Lords planting, 
Numb. 24. as may be feen in the Chapters of that 
ftory, efpecially, cap. 25. Hence unanfwerably it 
mult follow, A Church vifible is a rightly and law- 
fully conftitutc Church, to the which we may joyne 
our felves as members , and yet it is a mixed multi- 
tude of godly and prophnne, cirenmcifed and cleane, 
uncircumcifed and uncleane. And Mofes and the Pro- 
phets knew Ifrael to be thus mixed and rebuked them, 
and yet tearmeth them a married people tothcLoid, 

%*Arg % 5- Argument. If the Church of the Jewes was a 

truly conftitute vih'ble Church, a Church that did wor- 
fbip a God they k^^, and of Vvhom was falvation , T oh. 
4.22. in Chrifrs dayes, and had Mofes chair e among 
* them, and teachers on that chalre whom Chrift comman- 

ded to heare, and obey, Mat. 2 3 . 1,2,3. and was the Lords 
vineyard, Mat. 2 1. 33. and the Lords building, ver. 4?. 
and had the Kingdome of Cjod among ft them, ver. 43. 
and the Lords Priefts whom Chrilt commanded to 
acknowledge and obey, Mat.S.A. and if the Lord coun- 
tenanced their feaft.s , preached in the Temple, and 
t their Synagogues, John 5.1. John 7.37. John 8.2. Luke 
4, 16,17. anc ^ tnat daily, ar, d y ct there was in their 
xLburch Scribes and Pharifees, who perverted the Law 
of -God, Mat. 5.2 1. Veho made the Law of God of none 
effete with their traditions, Mat.15.6. and polluted all 
with will worftip, Mark^j. 6,7,8,&c. Mafter buil- 
ders who rejecled Chrisl the corner ft one of the buildinff, 
anM'flew the heire Chrift to make the vineyard their owne, 
Mat. 2 1 . v.42 . v. 3 8 kdlers of the ^Prophets, Mat. 2337. 
blinds guides who led the blind people in the ditch, forifts 
pftn who would not receive him , Joh.i . 1 2. if they flew the 
Lord, of glory, A&S ?. 30. Acts 2. 36. Goh houfemade 
ahoufe of merchandife, a den of theeves, John 2.16. the 
Triefthoodwas bought and fold, Caiapkat wot High-priejt 


Chap.p. of aviftble Church. 105 

that jeare : By Gods Law the High-Pricft lLould have 
continued fo all bis life All this being true, then a 
Church is a right conftitute Church, where the cleanc 
and uncleane are mixed. 

6. The like J might prove of the Church of Co- G.drg. 
riirtl, GsJatia, and Efheftis, Thjatira, Sat da, Lao dice a, cnftfrni \ 
And the Separntifts grant that hypocrites are often in 
e true viiible Church, then the pretence of wicked 
men in a viiible Church 'rnarreth not the conftitution 
of a Church, oneiv Separates would have a more ac- 
curate tryall taken before perfons were received in the 
Church, left the uncircumcifed enter into the temple 
of the Lord. But all the markes that we are to take 
before we receive members in the Church , or they 
rlf.o, is but an externall prcfeflion : And the Apoftles 
tco';eno markes in receiving Anar.ite and Sayl.lr>\ Si- 
mon Magi* , DemAS \ ^Alexander , and Hjmjnew, but 
onely an hypocriticall profifiion, as <f^/'«"hath well c^v.infiiti^ c.i, 

.;rved, and after him Cameron. We have no ar ain- (c &*> 
ty of faith to know that this, or this man is a belce- rJXS^ 
ver , that another man beleeveth and is h\cd is not "■" er ^q^dam 
the object of my faith. 2. Hence it fblioweth, that ££T/J 
of a Congregation of forty profeflors, foure and twenty <?*»> 

be, and often are but hypocrites ; yet thefefoure EcdcL** ** 
and twenty , fuppofe twelve of them be the Pallor, 
Elders and T>:acon.^ are truly parts of the Church as 
vifiblc : Howb^it not parts of the Church as the 
Church, and as the true and myftciall body of Jefus 
Chrift, and by this fame reafon all the fourty may be 
jcritesfor a time, becaufe they are but men, who 
feeth not the heart , who did congregate this 
Church , and what is true of foure and twenty may 
befali fcurty. I fay (for a-time) they may be all hy- 
pocrites, or at the frft conftitution of the Church, 
but that all fhall remaine fo, 1 thinke is againft the 
wifedome and gracious intention of ^od, who doth 
not f:t up a candle and candlefticke, but to leekc his 
owneloft money ; And where he fend :th fhepheards, 


io6 The true confiitution Chop.g^ 

he bath there fome loft (Keep , becar.fe the preaching 
of the word is an efT:ntiall note of a viiible Church. 
Hence that Congregation of forty not yet converted 
is a true viiible Church, I meane, a tru2 teaching and 
Mimfteriall Church in which are acls Paftorali of prea- 
ching, baptizing, binding, and looting that are vplid 
and right Eccleiiaftically : For Baptifme there admi- 
niftrated was not to be repeated, and fuch a Church 
by the Miniflcry therein, is and may be converted to 
the faving faith of Chritt ; yea and Separatists would 
call fuch an independent Congregation. Hence 3. this 
muft follow, that as to make one a Paftor, and to 
make twelve men Deacons and Elders, and fo fuch as 
hath joynt power of the keyes, even by the grant of 
Separatisms, with the reft of the Congreg3tior, there 
is not faith m Chritt required as an effcntiall element, 
as I have proved from LMat.j. 22. fo to make thefe 
twelve members of a vifible Congregatior, Faifh is 
not effentially required ( fuppofe it be morally requi- 
red) fo by that fame reafon to make other twelve mem- 
bers in that viiible fociety in Chrift, faith were not 
required, as to make Dewas, Ananias , Sapbira > Afagtfs 1 
Alexander , Hyneneus and fome moe of that kind a 
vifible Church •: There is no more required but that 
profeflion of faith which moved the Apoftolike 
Church to nuke them members of a true Church 
vifible : .For what maketh formally a member of a 
Church vifible, tp wit, profetiion of the faith , that 
fame maketh forty alfo members of a vifible Church, 
and qua eft ratio conftitmiva partium , eft etlam conft.'- 
tmlvatotim. That which formally conltitutethapart, 
doth formally conftitute the whole, where the whole 
is made of parts of the fame nature, as what is effen- 
tiall to make a quart of water, that is cflentiall tomakc 
a whole fea of water , and every part of the vitible 
Church is vifiye, and a vifible profeflbur, as vifibility 
denominateth rhe whole, fo doth it every part of the 
whole. And from this I inferre this fourth, That a 


Chap.9. tf a vifible Church. 107 

vif-ble Church ss vifible, doth not effentially and necef- 
farily confift «f believers 3 but only of prokflburrs of bc- 
licfc, ib that a Church and a vifible Church may be op- 
pofed by way of contradiction, as a number of believers, 
and a number of non-believers. For a Church effential- 
ly is a number of believers and Chrifts myfticall body-, 
els it is not a Church, that is, a number cf perfons effircV 
ually called ; for this caufe I grant an Eldcrfriip of 
a congregation ; a Synod Trovinciall or Nationall 
are improperly called a Church ; and howbeit we lift 
not to firive about names, we may grant our Gene- 
ral aflcmbly not to be properly called a National Church, 
but by a figure,for the believers of the Nation are proper- 
ly the Nationall Church, I meanea myfticall believing 

5 . Conclufion. The preaching of the Word and feals 
tberof ordinarily fetled in a vifible fociety is the e£ ^»/Wi6 caw- 
fcntiall note and marke of a trueChuich : It is weak Uffi^°' 11 
and vaine that Ainfaorth, Robtnfin, C\*#w and Ma- 
tter Smith fay, The preaching of the WordUs. no effen- 
tiallmarke of the true Church, and why ? Becaufefor- 
footh, our Matters learned frem Barrow to fay ; It is 
•preached to the Reprobate to Whom it it the favour of death 
unto deaths 2nd it was preached to the fcoffing e^/- 
themans by Paul AEIaj. and yet the Athenians were 
not a true Church. But we diftinguifh three things here. 
There is 1 . The fingle and occafionall preaching of the 

2, The fetled preaching of the Word, the fetling of 
the Candle-fticke and Kingdome to dwell amongft a 

3. The preached Word, with the fealcs, efbecially 
the Sacrament of the Lords Supper. The fingle and 
occafionall preaching, or by concomitancy as to a peo- 
ple unconverted and unbelievers, and io it is not an 
eflTentiall note cf the true Church, but a meane to ga- 
ther a Church to God, and this they prcove, and no 
more, and fo doe the Belgickc, Armimans and Socini- 

I0 3 The true confkhution Chap.p. 

ans proovc a^ainft our reformed Churches, that it is 
sim 9 *Epifco?.dif no marke of the Church ; fo Spifcopiw, the Rcm$n- 
8 ' Tie/ 7° firants, the Catechife of Raccovia and Socinus, but this 

Jo'™". % * P * is as if one would fay : the colours and arm:* offjch 
cattch.-%icc0i:ca. a King in warre are carried through the enemies fields, 
sfwMEccicfp. as well as through the Kings land; therfore they are 
*8. not the proper colours of fuch a King. 

2, The ictled preaching of the Word cftablifhed 
and remaining in a Church , as the ftandmg candle- 
ftick, the fixed kingdome of Godistheeflentiallmark 
of the true Church, and preached in Gods bleffed de- 
cree of Election only for, and to thechofenb:lievers,.. 
and as it were in the bie to the prophane reproba: 
amongft them, and this they cannot be able to im- 
proove. And it was M. Smith vanity to fay, the Refor- 
CdvwfauBt* *d- med Churches have the Word, as the t hie ft hath the ho- 
xtrfuiUbm. ne jj. mms f Hr fe, Anabaptifts teuton juvt that way. See 

3. The preaching of the Word, and the feales of 

the fetled covenant is a means of confirming thofe 

that are already converted : Neither is it much againit 

us that the Word is preached to the reprobate ; fcr 

the preaching of the Word is confidered either in it 

z M c £ t f* 6jhe f' felfe, and aBti prime, and fo it is a mark of the vifiblc 

R^icol'fejj: Church. Or 2. As it is effj^uall by the Spirit of -J c- 

"' %&*-' mi^o- & s > anc ^ *%** feenndo, and fo it is an effcntiall marke 

f rlt%onS%°x- of the true Church and lively body of Chrift, ace 

Cifenecefariani'd ,. * |^ ^^ ^y Whlttc'^Y Ctfoin, Willetj Pa~ 

miirum. rdHS, Be^% Vrftnc, Bucamu, and our Divines, fom 

s*cinjra3.deZc- ^ ^,r ^^ e epe heare my vojee. Hence obf:ivca 
fJcfJdi^ftn.'rel. Do&rine of Separative, holden alfo by Socinians and 
thrift ectttffi.w Arminians, as hpifcofms , the Belgk'ke Remonftrants, 
C ™lcbmT\°t*s Socinns, the Raccovian Catechife, and fbeopbtf. Nico- 
3 oj, 306. laides. That all <ri feed per fins in ij preach pu b likely- 

TrthMwfr.™- that there U no neceffitj of c dim a of P aft or s cjtbePref- 
wScdp:r.f»i44. bytery, fo doe they teach, That there can be no I 

s*£Z£tfifi* Pa P rs nm a f ter the yl P°fi ac V °f °f dntichrift, till there 
!4»J5^ 2 5' lie a conftitstt: Church of be lu vers to choofc them, or a 


Chap.9. ofavijibk Church. icg 

fiafk* to them to Scotch over. And therefore conversion is 
crdir t*gh ( fey they) fa private Chrislians, 

: the gift to prophecy publike ly, and jet are not 
tpaftottrs j fir private (fhrtflians die gather the Church 
V they ) Paftours doe not ordinarily convert, they do 
only ccr.frme the church of Saints al eadj converted, A- 
gainft which we lay. The new Teftament 1 f Chrift ■ 

telleth us of no officers to preach in thrifts name, concert meuV* 
for tbc perfecting of the Saints, the woiveofthe Mir -• 
niftry, edifying of the body of Chrift, but Paftors and l Ar g* 
Doctor ,£^.4. 11,12. 

2. None but Inch as have power of binding and loofing 2 -Arg. 
by the preaching of the \Vord,^\20. 

3. Thole to whom Chrift giver h power of pub- S^rg. 
lick teaching, to thofe he giveth power of Bapti- 
zing, Mat.2*. 1 b',ip. and fendeth them as his Father 

fent him. 

4. How (hall they preach except they be fent ? Rom. 4. ^£. 
10. 14. Sending m the Apoftolike Church was by 
praying and the laying on of the hands of the Prcl- 
bytery, 1 Tiw.4. 14. 

5. There is nothing more ordinary then that Pa- ,.Arg. 
ftors as Paftors, and by vertue of their paftorsil office 
coru'ert fcules. 1. "Faith is begotten by hearing a 1% Arr. 
lent ireacher, Rem". 10.14, 15. Mimfters by Whom we 
beleeve, I Cor. 3.9. by them Vec receive the Spirit by the 
hearing of Faith, Gal: 3. 2. -. People are begotten over 2. 
a^aine by them, as by Spiritual/' fathers and mothers, 1 Cor. 

4. 15. Gal:4 19. 3. Paftors are the -*?*:v-'',\voo- 3. 

ers and under-futers to gaine the Brides eonf n% to 
marry the lovely Bridegroome Chrift Jefus, J eh. 2.29 
2 Cor: I 1 .2, 3-4.Their Word is the favour- of li'e ur.to life 4. 

unto Jdme y and the favour cf death unto aeuth unto others, 
2 Cor.2.16. They are to preach with all gentleneffe, 
Wwiting if God peradventure Vfi/t give repentance to the 
gdin-fyers, 2 Tim:2.24, 25, 26. 5. They are £r*~ 5. 

haffddoursin Chrift s fteed, befeeching men to be reconci- 
led unto god, a Cor:5.2o. 6, The Weapons of their 6 % 

£2 war* 

no The trueconftitution Chap.o. 

Warfare are mighty throw- h God to fling downe ftrong 
holds (caf unbelief e) to caft downe imaginations , and e~ 
very high thing, that exalteth it felfe againft the \n§wledie 
of God, and to bring unto captivtty every thought to the 
obedience of Chrift, 2 Cor: 10.4,5. and fo they are to 
- pull men out of the hands of Satan, 7. They are to 

feckc the Lords Sheep, Ezekc ?4 4. Hence the objecY 
and m.itter that a Paftor is to worke on as a Talbor, 
is unbelievers, unborne men, gain-fiycrs, proud, Sfobedi- . 
ent, keeping ftrong holds againft Chrift : So the nature 
cf the Pallors office is to open the eyes of the blinde, to. 
tttrne them from darkneffe to light, and from the poiver 
of Satan unto Cjod, that they may receive forgivencffe of 
finnes, Acl:2c\i8. and this evidently evinced* , that 
the vitible and rightly conftitutc Church* where God 
hath erecled a Miniftery is a number of blinded fin- 
ners in Satans power, and in the power of darknetfe 
for the mod part, while God by a Miniftery delivers 
them, fuppofe they profeffe the Faith. It is alfi a 
Doctrine unknowne to the Word of God, that the 
Church of Chrift is gathered and edified formally as 
a Church without Chrift* Minifters that are fent to 
gaine the content of the Bride to marry the Bride- 
grcome Chrift. It is alfo unknown to Scripture that 
Frophets are no Paftors, and have no power of the 
paftorall calling or feates of the Covenant, Should 
thofe bee the ordinary officers of Chrift that gather- 
isnners in to Chrift , and convert to the Faith cf 
Jefus men dead in (ins and trefpaffes , who yet ate 
neither Paftours.nor Doitours lent by Chrift and his 

6\ Conclnfon. Seeing then the Church hath no o- 
thcr marke and rule to looke unto, in the receiving 
in of members into a vifible Church, butextemall pro- 
feffion, which is no infallible marke of a true convert, 
the Church is rightly conftitutc, where all borne 
within the vifible Church and profiling the Faith 
are received, fuppofc nuny wicked perfons be there. 


Chap.p. of a vtfihle Church. I T i 

Now feeing time, favour of men, profperity accom- 
panying the Gofpeil, bring many into the Chnrch,fo 
the Magiftratc may compell men to ad j :»y n thcmfelves to 
the true Church. 

faith, V aft ~K Harrow, Ainfworth, Vs.Canne. The M.5*rr«r 
blaft of the Kin?s home can make no man a member of JJ; c#wt T r . ' 
Chrift s body, that muft be done Willingly, and by the S pi- OkeEt. 
ritof Chrift, not by compnlfion : The C*A 'achate (lay 

they ) can Worke faith in none, he ought indeed t9 abo- 
lifh Idolatry, fit up the true- Wcrftnp of God, fipprejje 
err ours caufc tlje truth to be taught 9 yet he cannot conftrain 
men to jor/:c to the Church, 

1 ar.fwer, This is a fenfleffe reafon ; for how doth 
the Magifu-atc abolifh Idolatry, fet up the true wor- 

[p of God ? It is, I hope, by externall force and 
power : for the "Magiftrate as the Magiftrate doth no- 
thing but by an externall coacTive power. The Ma- 
giftrate ufeth the fvvord, not reafons, preaching aad 
counfcll.. Yea, this way he cannot abolifh idolatry ,nor 
ere LI the fare V? or (hip. of Qod,for it is a Worke of Gods 
Spirit and a willing worke , that a . fubjecT for- 
fake Idols, and worfhip God purely at the command 
of a King, as it is the worke of God, that he believe 
in Chrift, and joynhimfelfe to the Church of true belie- 
vers. . 

a. That a man by externall profeflion adjoyn himfelf 
to the true vifible Church, is not a work of fa'ving faith, 
as our Mafters dreame, for Simon Ma$hs arfd Ananias ani . 
Saphira turned members of the vifible Church upon as 
fmall motives, as the command of a King, upon the mo- 
tive cfgaine and honour, and were never a whit nsarer 
Chrift for all this. 

3. The Magistrate cannot compell men to believe,nor jtmmcvtr.i.fih 
can the Minifter by preaching, or the power of the keys B * a ^ ca A tf4% 
doe it, except Gods Spirit doe it, but as Junius faith, he ^^luJjsk 
may compell men to profcjfe beliefe, but xot to believe \ a.c.»*« 
he may compell to the externall meanes, net to the 
end. 3, TheMagiftratc (as Voetius faith) may compell 

• Sj py 

ii2 The true eonflitution Chap.p. 

by remeovixg impediments, as idols and faifi teachers and 
authoritatively. 2. compeli to the means. Now it fhall 
be eatie to ani wer their Objections, who would prove 
that Saints are theonely matter of a rightly and lawful- 
Barro* difcov.p.9 ly conflitute vifible church. 

»°* Firft, Matter "Barrow reafoneth againft us thus, The 

Obielt.i* rnateriall Temple from the very foundation Was of choyfe 
coftly feneSy the beames of choyfe Cedars and <*s4laum- 
mim-trceSj Which typified the church of the newT eft amert, 
I fa. 5 4. II. "Behold I Will lay thy ft ones with carbuncle 
and thy foundations with SaphiHs, &rc. 1ft. 6. \j. for 
braffe I will bring cold, I fa. 3 5. 8. No Lyon^ nor rave- 
nous be aft (hall be in the mount aine of the Lord, 'but the 
redeemed cf the Lord, Jer. 3 1. 3 4. They Jh.dl all know 
me fern the leaft of them, to the great eft, in this motin- 
taine there fhall be no cockatrife, ajpe, lyon^ leopard un- 
till they have left their poyftn, jlfaiah U. 6. Anfvvcr 

Thefe places none (except Anabaptifts) csn apply 
according to the letter, to the Church independent of e- - 
very Parim,may not the Separati(ts,who teach that there 
is rotten timber in their vi(ibleTemple,and chalkeftones, 
'BtrrowdiCco^ 30 Lyons, Wolves, Cockatrices, for faith Barrow, Ainf- 
w, F rai.p.38. ^^ andall their (ide, there are always in the Church 
glorious Hypocrites ; now fuch as Judas, Demos y Hyme- 
neus, and iuch hypocrites are not 'precious (tones, gold, 
taught of God, there is not a vifible Church of a con- 
gregation out of Heaven, where there is not a hypocrite 
and an unbeliever. 

2. The place //S.54. and Jer: 31. is underftood of 
the Catholick Church, with whom the covenant of 
grace ismade, Ifi. 54. 10. f*+%i?$\+ and this cove- 
nant is not everlafting, nor an eternall covenant to any 
one Parifh Church, yea, nor to aNationall church, nor 
to (forinth, Ephefks, c Tergamus, all which particular 
r . ulcom in Churches are fallen under horrible Idolatry, and in thofe 
cJvLms* Mountains are Lyons and Leo >ard$,and therfore as Muf- 
HUron. ict. 31. cuius % Calvin > Hitrom, and the courfeof the Text clca- 

* rcth 

Chap. 9* tfa vifible Church. T } ^ 

rcth, he is (peaking of the begunne holinefTe of the 
whole Church, of the redeemed under Chrifi, which 
is finally and folly accomplLhed in Heaven, for what 
ufe mould there be of excommunication, and of the 
Paftors and Porters care to hold out, and cart out, by 
the Church cenfures, Lyons, Leopards, (fockatrices^ if 
all, and every one in the Church be taught ofCjod f 

g. It is befidethe Text to make the Temple of Jeru- 
falem a type of a Parilh congregation, it was a type of 
Chrlfl, John 2.21. of every belecver, I Cor.6.19. and 
of the whole Catholike^Church. 

4. Where it is fkid, There fhall be ne ravenous beafi in the 
Mountnine of the Lord, the Mountnine of the Lord is not 
taken laterally for Mount S ^ion, as if in every little 
Mountnine of a vifible congregation, made up of fo ma- 
r.y Saints, there were not a Judas amongft them ; But 
by the Mountnine of the Lord is meaned the Catholike 
Church, alluding to the vifible Mount Sion& type of the 
Church oF Chrifi through all the earth. 

2. They difpute thus : God in ail ag*s hath appointed, obiecl.2 
and made a feparation of his people from the World, before the 
Law, under the Law, and now in the time of the Cjoffell, 
Gen.4>6. Exod.6.3. Levit. 20.24. Ezech.6.11. Pfal. 
84. 10. 

Anfw. God hath made a feparation of the Church from 
the wicked, but not fuch afepararion, as there remai- 
neth no mixture of hypocrites and unbeleevers in the 
Church. The Church was feparated from Caines&cdz, 
yet was there Idolatry, defection and wickedr.eff; in 
the Church, till God charged Abraham to ieaze his 
country, And bid fithfrs houfe. God feparatcd his Ifracl 
from Egjpt y but fo that there was much Idolatry and 
wickedneffe in Ifrael thus fepsrated. 

2. God may, and doth feparate his owne from Sgypt, 
Babylonfm Marriage arid mixture with the Cazaanites. 
£rga,thofe that are born in the TifibleC n arch and profdfc 
thefiith with us, mould not be received in the Church 
While they be all taugftt of God, ail precious fiones, all 


X 1 4 The true constitution Chap. p. 

plants of ' right eoufnejfe : it folio weth no way, but the 

contrary, therefore becaufethey are unbeleevers under 

the power and chaines of Sathan, and ignorance, they 

are to be received in a communion with the Church, 

to be hearers of the word, that they may be all taught of 

God,and all made righteous plants. 

Obiecl.2. 3» They reafon thus. The niched have not Chriftfur 

G unit to Hon. their head. So the guide to Zion. A true vifible Church 

po(.?i pas \6. / f ay tnc Separates ) is the Temple of the Lord, the body 

Separatijl ?. pen* y r L, .n . 1 - J r n • a V>i i r r • '/ 

tio. 3-pofit at g ,j, of Chrijt, a kmgdome oj Priejts, a Church of Saints, the 
%an<nv. dfio. houfhold and Kingdome of god. Yea faith Barrow, a 
P a g * p eo ple, chofen, redeemed Saints by calling partakers of the 
moft precious faith, and glorious hope, the humble, obe- 
dicnt 9 loving Shecpe of Chrifl, a ficepc-fold Watched by 
difcipline, a garden Veell inclofed, here entreth no Cana- 
nite, every vcjfe/l is holy. 

Anfw.i. The body of Ch rift, a Kingdome of Priefts 
and Saint's, and thefe that are partakers of the holy faith, £.re 
the chofen ofGod, ordained for glory in his decree of 
election, and effectually called and juftified; but the ad- 
verfaries fay, that the vilible Church is a company-of 
Saints by calling, where (faith Ainfworth) there be 
many called, but few chofen, hence this argument will 
prove that none, no hypocrites can be in the vifible 
C hurch , as a Churcfi is indeed Chrifts body. Now 
the Church vifible as a Church is indeed ft r 'ft s 6°dy> 
arcyalllPrieft-hood, a chofen generation, but as vifible, it 
is fufficient that the Church be a royall Pricft-hood only 
in pi ofeflion, and fo poflibly for a while, no royall Priefi- 
hoo&, m chofen generation, as I have obferved before. 
*But (fay they) hypocrites are not indeed and realty mem- 
bers of the true vifible Church, but only in reputation, as am 
eye ofglajfe, is not indeed a true part of the body. 

I anfwer, then our adverfaries give us no right de- 
fcription of the true naturall and lively members of the 
true vilible Church, he that would give fuch a defini- 
tion of a man as agreeth both to a living man, and to a 
pictured or painted man, were bat a painted Logician. 


w ■ ■ 

C h sp 9. 0/ a vifible Church, 1 1 5 

For they acknowledge the true parts of a vifible Church 
to be a choftn people, A rojall generation, partakers of the 
holy faith, either they are really and in Gods efteem a 
chofen people, &c. And fo we are at a point, there be 
none members of a vifible Church, none ought tohearc 
tre word as members of the Church, none ought to 
preach, baptize, bind and loofe with the reft of th« 
Congregation, but thefe that are really chofen and efc. 
fe&ually called, which cannot befaicL Ainfrvorththen 
andM.Canne, and Smith doe but mockcus, when they 
fay, The true matter of a true vifible (fhureh are Saints in 
profejficn, and in the judgement of charity, for that is 
not enough, they mutt be according to the Texts of 
Scripture allcdged by Barrow, not onely in the judge- 
ment of charity, but in Gods cftimation, and in the 
judgement of verity, a chofen people, a rojall veneration. 
If the true matter of the true vifible Church be a chofen ge- 
nerAtionand a rcjAll Prieft-heo d only in profeflion,the pla- 
ces cited will not help them^for Peter, \ Pet.2. writetk 
■otto an independent Congregation, who arc in pro- 
feflion only a chofen people; But he writeth to the 
Catkolick^Churck,e\cn to all the difperfed and fanctiried, 
and regenerated in Tortus, GaJatia, CappAdocia, Afia 
and Bjthinia, who were not only a chofen generation in 
profeflion, butalfo really and in Gods decree of ele&ion. 
Neither Peter nor Ifaiah are of purpofe to teach that in 
the independent Congregation of the NcwTcftament 
there arc none, but all righteous men^ no ft ones (to fpeakc 
with JfaUh ) but Saphires And Carbuncles, no thornes 
and briers, but only the firre and the myrtle trees ; no iron 
and brajfe, but All fold and filver*, no (fananite, ns Ljon, 
no uncleane vejfell, this they fhall not find in the indepen- 
dent Congregations of Separatifis, nor can it be in the vi- 
fible Church on earth, except they fceke the A 'nabaptijfs 
Church,a man in the Moone. 

4. They reafon thus, The kicked are exprt fly forbidden 4.0b jeSl. 
ht the Word ofCjod, fir medling With his (fovenant And or* G aidc place cited 
dinanas, PfaJLjo. So the guide to Zio*. **•**+** 

R Anfvf. 

■ii6 The true conftitution Chap.£. 

Anfiv. The wicked are forbidden to fpcakd ef Gods 
Law and bis Covenant, in fottje c.f., fo long as //;*y /W* 

f<? be rcfirmed, but they are not fiiv: ply forbid ck 1; but 
hence it followeth not, that they ihould not be ordinary 
hearers of the word, but rather they arc to be hearers, 
and io members of the vifible Church, fang faith commeth 
by hewing, 2. From this argument is nothing conclu- 
ded againlt us, for fuch adulterers, theeves andfianderers, 
as are forbidden to take Gods Law in their mouth, Pfal % 
50. are to be call out of the Church, and thequefrion 
is, if they be not caftout, if the Church for that be no 
true Church, that we fhould remaine in, they fay it lea- 
veth orf to be a true vifible Church : we deny. 
f.Objett. 5, There it ( faith *A infix- >or >t h ) proclaimed by Godhim- 

fcof" 5 ' $*ft> enmity and Warre, betwixt the fade of thecoma*, and 

the fade of the Serpent ; and there is no communion nor fit* 
lowfhip betwixt Chrift and BeliaHJight and darkneffe. There- 
fire theprophane and the godly cannot be mixed together in one 
vifible pciety, as mo contraries are not capeable of one and the 

tAnfw. This will prove that which is not denyed,that 
the godly and ungodly cannot agree well together, fup- 
pofe the ungodly be htent hypocrites; for they have 
two contrary natures, as hre and water, an i have two con- 
trary fathers, God and Sathan,but that is not denyed. But 
hence it followeth not but that hypocrites and unbele:- 
vers maybe all their life in extermll fociery with the 
wicked ,and make up one true vifible Church. 
6 Objecl 6 jf the aodly have a due riaht to the promts avdrea/es 

separates *.peti of Cjods covenant, and ht* pre fence and bleffings appertr.. 

Hon to K. James, fam. Milt . U 8 ,l8 ,1P- 2C0r.tf.i7. Le\lt. l6. 1 1 ,1 2. If*. 

56.20. Then n^prophane per Jons can be received or retained 
in the vifible (fhurch With the godly ; fir this m, 1 . To pro- 
phane the holy things of Cfod,Which no beleez>er Jhouldfuffer, 
2. This is contrary to the nature of the covenant that offeretk 
remiffion of finnes only to the chofen and fait hfi/l. 3 . The 
godly fi.ill become one body With the Wicked, by having com- 
munion With them. 1 Cor. io.io", 1 7. and fo fiali be 


C ha p. 9 . 0/ a vifible Church. 1 1 7 

defiled, Haggai2.i2. 1 Ccik\.$.6. 

Anfw.j. This argument is injurious to Gods provi- ^ 
dence, who bath left no infallible meanes to kcepe his 
owneName and ordinances fromprophanation, and his 
owne Church from being leaveHed and defiled with the 
uncleane. For Simon Magus, Annanixs and Saphira, 
Demos, to whom the precious promifes of the covenant 
were preached, and the feales cenfened, could not be 
diicerned to be hypocrites by any word of God, while 
the event of their out-breaking wickedneile declared 
them to be fuch, and fo this ihould prove that God is 
not tender enough of the honour of his owneName and 
ordinances, who fhould permit hypocrites to lurke in 
the vif.ble Church, and heare the promifes, and receive 
the leaks of the covenant, and defile and pollute them, and 
Chrifts body the Church, for the godly by that Text are 
made one body, 1 Cor. 10. (if it be rightly expounded ) 
with the latent hypocrites that come to the communion 
with them. 2. The promifes and feales were not de- 
filed to Chrift and his Difciples, becaufe Iudas did heare 
the word, and receive the 'feales of the word with them : 
The Word and Sacraments were not polluted to Paul, 
bccaiifcDcmas did communicate with him. 3. Iffome 
one private Chriftian know another to be an adulterer, 
he is to rebuke him privately, and not to tell the C hurch, 
but in cafe ofobftinacie, and fuppofe the Church would 
not call out the adulterer, yet is he not to private per- 
fons an adulterer, while he be juridice, by two or three 
Xtitneffes- tonvi&ed before the Church, and all this 
while it is lawfrll to communicate with him; for a 
a teft imonie fhould not be received againft any, but un- 
der two witnefles. We are not made one bsdy by eating 
that fame fjpper with an unbelcever, except it be. one 
vifble body communicating in one vifible bread. Chrift 
and the Apoftles were not made one body mifticall with 
Judas &y eating the Pafieovcr together,fcut only one vilrble 
cxternall fociety which is not inconvenient. 

7. They reafon thus: The leaper by the Law Vtasnotto j.Ob\eEh % 

H 2 remdine 

1 1 8 The true con dilution Chap.9 » 

remaine in the campe, but beh§oved for fo many dayes to be 
removed, ami not re-admitted to come among fl the people of 
^od, while he wm clean fed ; the uncircumcifed muft not bs 
admitted to eat the Paffeover, the uncleane and uncircum- 
cifed, the QHj; the Heathen, the Moabites and Ammo- 
rites were notfitffered to enter into the Temple : And all thefe' 
fynified that no profane perfon fiould be mixed with the con* 
aregation ofbeleevers. 

I anfwer. The uncircumcifed and the Heathen did 
forc-fignifie the excommunicated, who are to be reputed 
as Heathen and Tublicanes, Mat.1S.i7. and thefe are to 
be caft out of the Church being once fentenced and judged 
by the Church according to Chrifts order and Pauls ; if 
thefinnebepublicke, LMath.\$. and 1 Tim: $. 20. yet 
are they not to be debarred wholly from the fociety of the 
congregation, but they muft not be counted as enemies, 
but adrnonilhed as Brethren, 2 Thef:^, 15. the urrcircurrr- 
cifed were not counted as brethren, yea excommunica- 
tion is a meanc to fave the spirit in the day of the Lord, 
1 Cor:5. 5. andfohe is under the Churches cure, as a 
tick fon , and muft heare the Word, and is to be as a 
Heathen, and yet net a^Heathen indeed , but warned 
as a brother, and in fome Church- communion with 
ZnMft ^' Theyreafon thus, Iftheprophane be admitted at mem- 

bers of the true vifible Church, the true Church Jhould not 
be difiinjiuifhed from falfe Churches, contrary to the Word 
of God, Pfiil.84.10. Cant:i.6,7. Hof.2.:^2o. 2 Cor:6. 
jf. Rey.i.ix,T 2,20. compared with 1 7. 1^5. but gad 
bath differenced his true (fhurch from all Synagogues of 
Samn, and, humane focieties y as a feparated and fmliifed 
people ? 

Anfw. gods tour ts, PfaL 84.10. are d iff. fenced from 
the tents of Vfickedneffe, The flocks of the companion s,font: 
i.y.expounded to be the falfe Cburch,are differenced from 
the true Church, in that in the true C hurch arc the Kidds 
fid be fide the Shepheards tents, that is,the Word of God 
is purely preached in the true Church, and the mem- 

C ha p.p. of a vifibk Church. % 119 

bers therof profefle this Word, which is not done Hi the 
tents of wickedneffe, and yctzjudas is often one of (he 
Shepheards, andaTVfl^a follower of Paulz.id the Go- 
fpell, a member of this true Church vifible. 

2. Hof.i. Ifrael is called not Gods Veifc, and god not 
her husband, not becaufe Ifrael tefi off to be a true Church,. 
de faft^andfirmaUj^s if upon Gods part he had given her 
a billofdivorcement,the contrary wherof is faid,*/. 6,7. h; 
Will give her pace to returne to her frfl husband, and 19. 
he ^iii marry h?r, and Jer: 15. 14. hee Was married to 
bachefiiding Ifrael, that had plaid the harlot Vfithmanjlo- 
vers, Ter.3.i4.v.i. but Ifrael is called no wife, de jure, 
by her evill detervings, as a husband faith to his wife that 
l.a;h plaid the harlot, you are not my wife, to wit, by 
kw and right of defervin?, for you have broken your 
Marriage-oath. Y ct upon his part who hath not rent and 
cancelled the contract of marriage, nor put her out at 
doores with a written bill of divorcement, fhe is de fatlo 
and formally, ftillawife, andfo was God ftih in cove- 
cant with Ifrael, andfenthis Prophets to them, and they 
had circumclfion amongft them, and God had there feven 
thoufand that had not botved their knee to Baal , and had 
not cafi off hi: people Vthom he fore- knew, Rom. 1 1. 1,2, 

3, 4. 

3. God isprefcntandChriftalfbinthemidftofthc fe- 
ven candlc-fticks, and walketh in his Church, and goeth 
not away, becaufe thefe that digge downehis Altars and 
fl.3y his Prophets, and fo extinguifh the candles, are in 
the vifible Church, as is cleare, he walked in Edhsfiu bc- 
Hde his candle-ftick, howbeit, they had fallen from their 
firft-love, and in Pergamus, howbeit the dottrine of Ba- 
laam was there, and in Thyatira, howbeit, Jezabel the 
fiilfe Propheteffe Vets there feducing hit people. 

R 3 CRAP. 

1 2 o No feparatior* from the true Chunk Chap. 10- 

Ch a p. X. 

Qucft. Io. Whither or no it be lawfiJl to feperdte from 
' a true Church vifible , for the corruption of teachers, 
And the Wickednejfe of Pa flours and profijfours, where 
Faith is begotten by the preaching of profiled truth ? 

THat we may the more orderly proceed, thefediftin- 
dionsare tobeconfidered,asmaking way to cleare 
the queftion. 

I . There is a feparation in. the vifible Church , and 
a Separation out of, and from the vifible Church. 

2. There ts a Separation tot ail and whole, from anyti* 
fible communion with the Church ; or partiall and in 
party from a point of Doctrine or praEiife of the ^hurch 
in a particular only, 

3 . There is a Separation negative, when we deny theprahli[e 
of an err our with filence, or refufe publike communis 
on with the Churchy but doe not ere ft a new Church 
within the Church. There is a feparation pofitive,when 
we doe not only refiije pratlife of errours, and protest 
and pleade againft them, but alfo ereft a new vifible 

4. As there is a three- fold communion, \. in Baptifme^ 
2. in hear in go j the Word, ^.incommunicatingwiththe 
Church at the Lords Supper ,fo there is a three-foldfcpa- 
ration anfwcrable therunto, 

k. The influence of awor/hip corrupt may either be thought 
to come from the perfons with whom we worjhip, or 
2. from i he matter of the wor/hip , if corrupt, and 
that either, v. by praBtfe , or 2. by not prafiifing 
fomthing that an affirmative commandement ofQodim- 
pofeth on tis. 
6, A communion in worfljip either imply eth 4 confcnt 


Chap* io. fortbefmnes of fettow-rvorjhipfers. 121 

and approbation of the wor/hip y or no confent at 

7, A communion of worjhip when the worfhip in the mut- 
ter is lawfiill, yet for the profeffion may be moft un- 
lawfully as to heare a Jefeite preach found Do- 

8. There us a feparation from a friendly familiarity, and 
from a communion in worjhip. 

I. Conclufion. We are to feparate in the true vifible 
Church , from all communion, wherin need- force we 
cannot choofe but finne, fuppofe we feparate not from 
the Church, Eph.j.w. Have no fellowjhip with the un- 
fr uit full workes of darkeneffe, but rather reprooze them, 
Col. 2.0 1. Touch not) tafte not, handle not, 2 EpiPt. 
John, 'Bid him not God sfeed, that bringeth another do- 

2, Conclufon, from the firft conclufion it will follow, 
that a feparation in part, I meane, in fome a&s of pub- 
like worfhip, when we cannot chufe but fall in fin, from 
a true Church is lawfully we mull feparate from an ido- 
latrous communion, where the bread is adored : for then 
the Lords Table is made an Idols Table, and yet we are 
not totally and wholly to feparate irom the Church and 
hearing of the word,and praiersandpraifesof thatChurch, 
as we (hall heare. 

3. Conclufion. Anent fe paration from Rome, and fpki- 
tuall "Babel : We have two parties to fatisfie,if they would 
in reafon be informed. 1. Papifts. 2. Separatifts, oppo- 
f:rs of government Fresbyteriall, who thinke we have 
all as good reafon to feparate from our felves and Prcsbyte- 
riall Cbur ches, as from Babel. But I fhall fpeake a little 
cfthe fir ft in fome few 7 hefes considerable for our pur- 

I. Confideration. It is mod: falfe that Bcllarmine faith, Be2.de notjcclef. 
Churches all withered as branches feparated from trees, l -* cl ° 
when they feparated from Rome : fofeph grew as a fruit- 
full Branch, and bleflings was on the top of his head, 
when he was feparated from his Brethren, V>em, 33*16. 


12 2 No fepwaticn from the true Church Chap, i o. 

For i. The contrary is fcenc in the reformed Churches 
who never flourrfhed, as fince our reparation from Rome, 
2. The Churches in *Afta and Africa, and efpecially the 
Greeke Church flourished ever fince, and they feparated 
from Rome, and had famous learned men in them after the 
feparation, zsTheofhylaEl, Damafcen, Oecttmemus, Zo- 
fv*r<u y Cedrenm, E/ias Cretenfis, Bafil: NUm, and ma- 
ny others, and efpecially the ?y£thiofian and Armenian 
Churches had both their Bifh*ps and Affemblies, how- 
beit gcncrall they could not have, feeing they were apart, 
not the whole Church. 

2. Confederation. The faithfull before Luther, the Al- 
bigenfes, Waldenfes and others, yea the Romane DocTors 
thcmfelves holding the fundamentall points with forae 
hay and ftubblc builded upon the foundation made a nega- 
tive Separation from 'Babylon^ and did neither hold, nor 
profefle their greffe Idolatries, and other fundamental! 
errours, howbeit they did not h©ld them pofitively, 
by erecting a new Church, becaufe the leparation 
was then in the blade , and not ripe for the Har- 

3 . Confederation. We hold that Rome made the Separa- 
tion from the Reformed Churches, and not we from 
them, as the rotten wall maketh the fchifme in the houfe, 
when the houfe ftandcth ftill and the rotten wall fal- 

i. Becaufe we left not Chriftianity in Rome, but tht 
leprofie of Popery growing upon Chriftianity, feeing we 
kept the Apoftolikc faith, and did pofitively feparatc 
from the pooke?, blybes, and ulcers of Chriftian 

2. We did not feparate from the Wefternc Churches, 
either collective or reprefentatively gathered in a general! 

3. We departed not from a Nationall, Provinciall or 
Parifhonall Church, or Paftors that we had before, nor 
from the materiall Temples and Churches, except that 
fbmc not very confiderable hyrelings and idoll-paftours 


Chap. io. for thifinms offilhw- worjhifpers. lr + 

weuld not goc before us. 

4. And becaufe the mcccflion o f fun damen tall truths 
frcm generations to generations, is as neceflary as the 
perpetual] exigence or the true Cstholick Church, while 
the covenant with night and day and the ordinances 
of Heaven (hall continue, Jer: 31.37. therfore there 
were a iucceflion of profciTcurs and members of the 
Catholick Church that did ever hold thefe fundamen- 
tals, which we to this day hold againft Rome • iuppofe 
Hiftories cannot cleare the particular perfons by 

5. \\ r e have not feparated from Rames baptifmc and 
ordination of Paftors according to the fubftance of the 
acT,nor from the letter of the twelvaArticles of the Creed 
and contents of the old and new Teftarnent, as they (land 
with relation to the mind and intent of the Holy 
Ghcft, hovvbeit we have left the falfe interpretations 
of the Lords of poore peoples Faith and Conscien- 

4. Confideration. We feparate not from acTs of love to 
have thereliques ofi?^<?/faved, howbeit we have Separa- 
ted from communion in faith and worfhip. 

5. C on fid er * tl9n ' ^he cfTentiall ingredients and rcifons 
of a la wfull divorce are here. 1 . we could not lye in one 
bed with that fometime lifter Church of Rome y but our 
skin behoved to rub upon her botch-boy le, and therfore 
we did feparate from nothing but corruption. 2. There 
was there perfecut ions, and in that we are patients and 
ejected rather then departers on foot and horfe. 3. A pro- 
filed dominion over our con'ciences. 4. Ncceflity of 
receiving the marke of the heaft, and fo the plagues of 
the beaft, to worfknp Images, and the worke of mens 
hands, a neceflity of profiling fundamsntallerrours, that 
fubvert the foundation of faith, did all neceflitate our 

6. Confideration. The Church of believers might 
lawfully ufe jttfta tutdk atcrm fa/nti*, a neceflary de- 
fence for fahation, and forfake her corrupt guides and 

S chaofe 

c*4 No f e P araii0J * f rm the true Church Cbap.io* 

choofe others, and fo we had the confent of the Church 
to the fcparation, and a voice from Heaven, Cwe out of 
her my people. 

7. Confederation. A collaterall and fifter-Church, 
fuch asi?<"0<?ever was, is not faid to feparate from ano- 
ther ; the leflsr feparateth alway from the greater, the 
member from the body. Where there is a fchifme, 
Mkr-rroteftant Churches then cannot be faid to fepa- 
rate one from another, nor C3n the crime of fchifme 
here be more objected to us then to Rome, but rather to 
Rome feparating from O:thodoxe and right beleeving 

8. Confederation, We feparate not from men but er- 
rours. 2. We feparate from Papifme kindly, properly 
and totally; from Chriftian Articles in no fort. 3. From 
points of truth fevved and engraven with Popery only 
by accident, breaking the thread and needle that fowed 
them together. 

But as concerning the other point. We fee not how 

jthfomh eoun- we are to %> arate * rotn tns reform ed Churches , as 
tcrpoyfou,p 8. " Ainfworth faith , and how M.Jacob faith, Our reformed 
Divines cannot fawfte the obiellion that Qalvin and Luther, 
and Zuingliw, Who had their ordination and calling to be 
Paftors from the (fhurch of Rome, and fo from Antic hrifl, 
and fo our AliniUcrs having ordination and calling from 
CMinifters , who had their calling from Antichrifl cannot 
be iawfuH Afinifrers, nor our Church a true (fhurch,fee* 
ing it wanteth a true Miniflery, except we fay with them, 
they had thsir calling ejfentially from the fuffrages and con- 
fent of the £hurch of beleevers, who have power to ordaine 
Mimfters i and power to depofe and excommunicate them if 
need be. But I anfvver, this power is in the backeof 
the Bible, and amongit unwritten traditions, not in 
the holy Oracles of the old or new Tcftamcnt. Hence 
I will fpeake a word of the calling of our reformers. 
jiMnWdmhc 2 -°* ^ Church of Rome, if they could give a calling 
t ™% ' to our reformers , feeing we hold them to be an An- 

Ecckf.pa.9 10. tichriftian Church. Some anfvver and w aliens ap- 

Chap.io. for thefwnes effellow-tvorjhippcrs. 125 

provcth them , that Luther, Zuinglitu \ Farellus were 
Paftors ordinary cf Churches, and fo had power to con- T $f^*£ 
vince the gainfayers. But the queftion yet remaineth 4?. 
from whence had thefe before them their calling ? Our *%££""+* 
Divines, Tjlen, 'Buctn, profejfots Lejd, WaHeus diftin- Pffefiydtnf. 
guim here three things, 1. Something in the calling ^f* 1 .*'!*'* 2 * 
of our reformers was from God : fo authoritatively, 
they were called of God, the Miniftery being of God. 
?.The Chriftian Church lying under Popery, called, 
defigned, and ordained the men to be Paftors • fo their 
calling according to the fubftr.nce of the act was from 
God, and the Romane Church as a Chriftian Church. 
5. There was corruption in the way and manner of 
their vocation, as the Antichriftian ceremonies, and an 
oath to maintaine the doctrine of the Church of Rome, 
not onely as a Chriftian Church, but alfo as Romifh, 
if any ef them did fvveare to defend the corruptions 
cf the Church, this latter was taken away by Gods il- 
lumination of their minds : A called Minuter fweareth 
to defend the truth, and this truth of this Church; but 
aye under the notion of truth : and if he fee it to be er- 
rour he ft ill holdeth the fubftance of his oath, in as far 
as it is obligatory and tyeth him in confeience. 

It is objected, An Antichriftian Church cannot or- Obi, 
daine Chriftian (JMimfters, Rome was then an Antichri- 
ftian Church, Ergo, 

Anfw. That which is wholy,as touching its whole j n r 
cflencc Antichriftian, cannot ordaine Chriftian Mini- 
fters : True, A dead man cannot beget a living barne : 
The Romane Church was not wholly Antichriftian, 
but kept fome of Chrifts truth. That which is An- 
tichriftian in part onely, may ordaine Minifters , who 
- have the true elTence of a Minifteriali calling ; for lfrael 
no mfijfut a whore, Hof.2. 2. a whore and no Wife \ me- 
rito driure, in ill deferving ; yet a mother and a wife, 
de fatto^ and keeping fome.hing of a covenanted bride, 
is called gods people, Hof.4.6. and Ezech. 16.21.7^*/* 
haft ftaine my children, then her barnes were Gods barnes 

S 2 ia 

126 No fep Ararat ion from the true Church Chap, i o . 

in Covenant, and not bafhrds : God was ftill Samt- 
ria's God, Hof.T 3.16. a remnant according to eletlion re* 
mained, Rom. 1 1. 5. The Orthodox Fathers acknow- 
ledged the Africans as a true Church , who defended 
herefie, that barnes baptized by heretickes were to be 
baptized againe, 2. A calling is extraordinary, either 
in habit or in exercife ; in habit, as to be an Apoftle, 
and have the gift of miracles : Thus our reformers cal- 
ling was not extraordinary, they were not immediate- 
ly called by God from heaven ; for they would not 
have concealed fuch a calling, if they had had any fuch : 
Cr a calling is extraordinary in the exercife, and that 
two wayes ; Either in the Principle moving them to 
teach, or 2. in the manner of teaching and erricacy;a 
calling extraordinary in the principle moving, is two- 
fold : Either a meere Prophcticall impulfion of Reve- 
lation, ftirring them up to fuch an arf, as the Spirit of 
the Lord came upon SahI, and he prophecy ed, this out 
reformers had not , becaufe we never finde that they 
alleadge it. 2. A more then ordinary motion with il- 
lumination by Gods Spirit, fpeaking in the Scriptures, 
in which motions they were not fubordinate in the 
exercife of their Miniftery to the Church of Paftors 5 
but immediately in that fubordinated to God , and in 
this I prove that our reformers were extraordinary Do- 

1. Becaufe Ezech.34. in a univerfall apoftacycofthe 
Prophets and fhepheards, the Lord extraordinarily wor- 
l<cth,v.ii. For thus fmth the Lord God, behold I, even I 
will both fcarch my jheep y and feeke them out. Now this 
is by Paftors, when the ordinary Paftors are all failed. 
So Rev. 1 1. in that univerM Apoftacye under Ant:-- 
chnft, rshen the Cj entiles treade vpon t'oe utter Court of 
the Temple, And the holy City, Cjod ftirreth up tV?o Wit- 
ness to prophecy e in facecloth ; that is, Jomefeiv Taftors 
(for two is the fmalleft number) and they prophecye, 
and 4 re flaine, and yet they rife againe. We need not 
apply this to men in particular, as to ?ohn Hujb , and 

Chap, r o. fit thefinnes off How- werflxppers. 1 2? 

Terome of Prague ; but certainly, ibmc few fpakeagainft 
<BabyUn, and they were borne downe, and oppreffed, 
and killed, and men of that lame fpint rofc and fpikc 
that fame troth, as if the very two men who were fldne, 
had rifen mtkin three dajes againe. 

2. Becaufe when the Church is overgone with he- 
retic" and Apoftacye, oar reformers in the exercife of 
their Mineftery, were not to keepe a certainc rlocke 
as in a conftitutc Church, and fuppofethey had no cal- 
ling but eminent gifts , they were to fpread the Gof- 
pel? to Nations, as Luther did, and fuppofe the people 
(hould refill them, as in many places they did-; yet God 
called them ', and they were not to expecT election 
from people : So Cjf™ and c ) renpiS preached, A8 % 
ii. and 1 8. and we readc of no vacation that they had 
from either people or Apoftle, So Origen preached to a orige» t HmU 
people in a certain Town , where there was not one Chri- «■ n wn.18. 
ftiaq, and afterwards he was chofen their Paftor. 

As for the Church of Rome, fuppofe our Reformers 
have their calling thence, yet have we a true Miniftry 
and there was a Church in Rome before the Later an Qour^ 
se\ which could conftitute a true Miniftry, as I cleare in 
thefediftinftions, for the Church of Rome it hath thefe 

L DiftnttioKt 5- The court of Rome and Clergy, a.Tfee 

feduced people. 

2. Diftiufthu. There is a teaching court profening and 
teaching Popery, aad obtruding it upon the confeiences 
of others. 3. There is a people profeffing and believing 
this with heat ©f zeal. 3. A people raided, ignorant, not 
doubting but following. 4. There is a people of God, 
Come out of her my people, ergo, there is a covenanted 
people of God there, 2 Thef slntkhrifl Jhall fit fa the 
Temple of God, ergo. GOD hath a Temple in 

A third Diftinttion is ncceflary 5 a true Church fe 
one thing veritate Memphyfica, with the verity o£ e£- 
faice, £s"a Gck-man, or a man wanting a legg is a 


128 No Jefaration from the true chunk Chap, i o 

true man, and hath a reasonable foule in him, and a 
true Church veritate Ethka, a Church morally true, 
that is, a found, whole, a pure Church profeifing the 
found faith, that is another thing. Rome is a fick- 
Church and a maimed and lamed Church, wanting legs 
and atmes, and fo is not morally a true Church, for 
vile corruption of DocVine is there, as wc fay a thief 
is not a true marwbuta falfe and.^a taking man, yet 
he hath a mans nature and a reafohable foule in him ; 
the queftion is if Rone have the foul, life and being of a 

A fourth DlsiinEiion is : That the queftion is either 
of a teaching Church and a Miniftcriall,profening Chrift, 
the Word and Baptifme, or of a believing Churxhand 
Spoufc of Chrift. 

The fifth *Diftin&ion\s. If Rome relatively be a wife in 
comparifon of other Churches, or if Rome abfolutely in 
her lelfbe a Church. 

The fixth Diftinttion is. If Rome be jure and me- 
rito 3 a Spoufe, or an Harlot, or de fa&o, a wife, not having 
received a Bill of Divorcement^ as the Church of the 

The feventh DlfiinElion is.\£ Rome according tofome 
parts be a Spoufe, and keepcth any lift of marriage kindnes 
to her husband, or if (he be according to other parts a caft 
off whore. 

The eighth and laft is j£ Rome be materially a Church, 
having in it the DocTrine of faith, or if formally it bee no 
Church, having no profeffed faith that hath the nature 

Hence fhortly I fay, The Court of Rome as Popifli, 
is the falling-ficknefle of the Church, not the Church. 
But the Xame Court teaching fomething of Chrift, 
baptifme, good-works, &c> hath fomething of the life 
and being of a Church, howbeit (he be not a whole 
Church, her skinne being leprous, pocky and pol- 
i- Becaufc in a Church that is no Church, there can- 

Chap. io. ferthcfwnes of fettow-mrjhippers. 129 

not be a true feale of Cods covenant, but in the Court of 
Rome there is true baptifine; for we baptize notagainc 
children once baptized there ; fome of the Separation 
called it Idoll-baptifmc, and no baptifmc, which is Aka- 
baptifme. for then all converted Tapifts mud be bapti- 
zed againe, no leff: then converted Turkes and ftvrej; 
But I . The covenant is there, Come out ofkermj people : 
:\i their baptifme conrlrmeth this covenant. 2. C/>- 
c::mc\ l lon even in apoftate//r^/is truecircumcifion, her 
barnes the Lords barnes , Ezech. 16. 21. hee is If- 
raels God, the holy one of Ifrael in the midft thereof. In 
Hezekiahs reformation the people ate the Pafeover, and 
yet all had corrupted their Vtajes, and had beene along 
time worshipping Idols, and they are not, 2 Chro. 30. 
circumcifed againe,and yet Sxod. 1 2.none but the circum- 
cifed might eate the l?a^eorer % 

2. Becaufe the word of God and fo the contrail of 
Marriage is profeffcd amongft them, and fo there is an 
extemall active calling there, and the word of the co- 
venant- founding amongft them, and a paiTive calling alio, 
becauie many fecretly believe and obey. 3. Marry fun- 
damental!, truths are taught that may beget faith, andfo 
there are true and valid paftorall acts in that Church. 
2. I fay there is an hid and invifible Church and Temple 
in Rome, and thefe God warneth to come out of 'Babel, 
and thefc we by writings cry unte, that they would 
forfake their harlot mother, and worflvp the Lord in 
truth, and they obey, howbeit they dare not profeiTe the 
truth. But the teaching Church teaching Popery and 
fundamentall truths, and obtruding them upon the con- 
fciences of ethers, is not the believing Church, andfo 
not the fpoufe and body of Chrift. 3 . Rome now com- 
pared with P Antes Rome which he did write unto, is no 
Church , no fpoufe , as a whorifh wife compared with 
her felfe in her firft moneth to her Husband, while (he 
was chafte, is now, when (Jje imbraceth the bofome of a 
firangcr, no wife, and yet Rome compared with /«- 
dians who worfhip Sathan, with PerjUns who wor- 

1 30 Nofeparationfrom tbctrne Church Chap.io. 

fhip the Sunne, with the Egyptians who worfhipped 
gods growing in their gardens, as Oneons and Garlick, 
fo fuvenal, 

O fanEias genres quibus hac ntfeuntur in hortU 

Tr&nck uhn **[. * %> being compared with th: fe, they are the Lords 
to*bo(Sef*rau Temple, iThef. 2 4. ic^f. 1 8.4. and his Wife, as (one 
pa2$i,*5» faith well) apoftate Ifracl compared With Syrians, Phi- 

liftines is counted gods people, having the trtje God for 
their God, 2 King, £.8,15,17. But being compared With 
Judah which ruled With God, and Was faith jiitt With the 
Saints, is called no Wifi, but an harlot, Hole 2.2,5. & 4« * 5 • 
& 5.3,4. 4* R° me ture an d ™ e ™t°> in her bad deferving 
to her Lord, is no wife, no Church, no fpoufe, no peo- 
ple in covenant with God, and yet defatto and formally 
in pefleiTion, in profelTion, and for matrimcniall tables 
which {"he keepeth is a Church, and dilfercth from the 
Jewes, as a Church and no Church. 1. Becaufe albeit 
the fewes have the old Teftament, which implicitly and 
by interpretation is the covenant, yet they want two 
things which Rome hath which deftroyeth the efTenceof 
a true Church. 1 . The Jewes give not fo much as a vir- 
tuallconfent to the Marriage and the very externall active 
calling and invitation to come to Chrift, and all mini- 
fteriall publifhing of the newes of falvation is removed 
from them, Alls 13.46. but there is a virtuall confent 
to the Marriage with Chrift in Rome, and falvation there 
in the word, and fome, miniftenall and paftorall publi- 
cation thereof as in the feed. 2. levies dire&ly oppugn c 
the Cardinall foundation of falvation, i^r.3.11. AEis 
4.12. 1 Thef.2. 15,16. Chrift Jefus, Papifts profcfle 
him, and have his feales amongft them, especially bap- 
tifme. 5. Rome in concreto, accordiug to her beftpart, 
to wit, fecret beleevers groaning and fighing in Egyfts 
bondage is a true Church ; but Rome in abftratlo, the 
faction of Papifts, as Papifts, are no fpoufe of Chrift, but 
the whore of JB«M,md mother of fornications, 6. How- 


Chap. io. fir tkefinnes offellew-tvcrfbippers. 131 

foevcr Rome- be materially a trtic Church, having the 
matcriall object of faith, the doctrine of the old and new* ■ 
' Tcftament common with us, yet formally they arc not 
one Church with us, but there is a reall and eflentiall 
feparation betwixt us and them, as betwixt a true 
Church and an Antichnftian Church, a fpoufe of Chrift 
and no fpoufe; for faith relatively taken, filth of many 
united in one fociety doth eflcntially conftitute a Church, 
and the form all object of their faith is the word of the 
Church, and of men, or Gods word as expounded by 
men, and our faiths object formall is the worc^of God, 
as the word of God,and fo doc formally differ.- 7. How- 
bcit I fay Rome is a Church teaching and profeffing, and 
hath fomething of the life and being of a true Church, 
yet I hold not thati?<?w*is Chriftsbody, nor his wife. 
Neither meane I with our late novators, Prelates and 
their fa&ion fometimes in this Land, and now in Eng- 
land, that Rome is a true Church, as they taught, that 
is, fo a true Church as, 1. We erred in feparating 
from that leaper whore. 2. That her errours are not C ap?a!?ea!n. * 
fundamental!, and that we and this mother can be recon- JtmM&jpHg** 
ciled and bedde together. But what I fay, i$ holdcn by wbuuk^emre. 
our Divines Calvin, Junius , whktaker, that famous Di- a qaeft j.cap.a. 
vine Rivettts, that moft learned ProfefTor gilbcrtus Voe- ^S£S^ 
tius> and our Divines. Voetitu maketh nine rankesof traa.a.11. 
thefe that were not dyed and engrained Papifts in the ?$£%£$£' 
popifli Church. I. Some deceived. 2. Seme compelled. j»cap.7.iea,a. 
3 . Some ignorant. 4. Some carelejfe, Who tooke not heed 
to that faith. 5 . Some doubting. 6. Some loathing it. 
7. Some fighing. 8. Some oppofmg and contradi&ing it. 
9. Some feparating from it. Now feeing our Church hath 
nothing to doe with Rome, and our miniftry lawfull, Se- 
paratifts may hence be iatisfied. Neither yet doe I S p*.ia*<*.d*x*p. ' 
thinke with Spalato de repub. Ecclcf, in ofienfione er- •cci.in often err. 
ror, Suarezij cap. 1. pag. 887,888. That the Ro r \^ u ^ M% 
imane Church is crronious onely in execflfc, feeing 
&fubftantiall points there is fuch defect alfo as avcrteth 

T 4, Conclttfion, 

132 No fepAratioh from the true Church Chap. 1 o. 


4. Conclufion y There be three forts that have com- 
munion rightly with our C hurch, 1. Infints baptifed, 
for baptifme is a fealc of their fellowfhip with thrift,' 
and therefore of communion with the Church, becaufc 
Separates will have none members of the Church, while 
they can give proofes thereof by fignes of regeneration, 
infants muft be without the Church, as Inridels and 
Turks, for none are the Church to them, but the royall 
generation^ partakers of the ho/j faith, taught of God, called 
and feparated from theVeorld, the reft are without : hence 
baptifme (hall either feale no entrjng of infants in the 
Church, contrary to Gods word, or the baptizing of in- 
fants is not iawfuil, as Anabaptifts teach. 2. The hea- 
rers of tlie word have a communion with the Church as 
iscleare, feeing thefe that eate of one bread are one body, 
thefe that profefle in the hearing of the wordj that fame 
faith, are alfo that fame body in profeftion; yet excom- 
municate perfons are admitted as hearers of the word. 
Hence only the extrearrie and great excommunication, 
1 Cor, 1 6. 2 2 . cutteth of men from being limply no mem- 
bers of the Church, that excommunication that maketh 
the party ^ a heathen and Publican, fuppofeth him ftill to 
be a brother and hearer of the word, 27*^/3.14,15. 
And all thefe are members of the Church and yet not ne- 
ceflarily converted. 3. The regenerate and beleevers 
that communicate of one bread and one cup at the Lords 
Table, are moft neerely and properly members of one 
vinbkbody,and none of thefe are to feparate from Chrifts 

5. G$nd>/Son y It is not lawf: ill to feparate from any 
wurfhiP of the Church for the (innes of rhe fcllow- wor- 
shippers, whether they be oiheers or private Cbriftians. 
1 Becaufe Scribes and T 3 karifees, and the Church in 
Chrifts daves was a moft perverfe Church, the rukrs 
perverted the Law, yJ^tf.5.21. denyed that hatred and 
rafrt ancer was a finne, ver. 22. or heart adultery a fin. 
Made tbe comm&ndement of God of no effeel by their t^adi^ 
tians, Mat.15.6. polluted theworfhip with fuperftition 


— X- 


Chap. i c- for thcfinnes ofjtllorv-wrjhippers. 133 

and will-worfhip, zer.7.$» Markjj- 6.7,8. /£/W <> tt^ 
nothinc to fie fare by the Temple, d+99 fired Widdows houfes y 
wade Sieir pro/elites children ofdansna> ion, Mat. 1 3 . * 4,1 5 , 
16. Wvrff £/;W guides, filled the m afore of their fathers 
Wrath, flew the Lord ofglcry, 1 Ccr.2.8 5 9.£;/W and cru- 
cified the 7rophets, ^ere blind guiJes, and the blind people 
Mowed them y and flew the Lord of 'ffoij al(o. The Prieft- 
hood was keeped by Moyen, Caiphas was High-prieft 
that ycarc. But Chnft by pradice and precept forbad 
to feparate from this Church. Ergo : dcc 3 The aflfumption 
is cleare. Mat, 2 3 , They fit in Mofes hi* chair c, he are themj, 
Mat. 10.6,7. Goe to'the loft Jheepe of the hwfc of Ifrael and 
preach. And Chrift and his Difciples otferved their 
feafts, preached in the Temple and Synagogues, J oh . 1 .7, 2, 7. 
Job 8.2.Luk.4.i6, Luk.i.p. Chrift reafoned with them 
about religion, hb.ib. 24,25,26. 

A infworth replyeth to this, Chrift and his Difiiplesfe- *^™ t * 8 
par at ed from the corruptions of the Jewijh (fhurch : and from ' w,pa§ * ' 
falfe Churches, as from the Samariranes. Anfw. Wc ac- 
knowledge reparation from corruption, but not from 
the worfhip of corrupters, when they kecpe the foun- 
dation, the Samaratine- Church had not the foundation, 
but worrhipped they knew not what, neither was there 
falvation in their Church, Iohn 4.2. but there wai the 
true God worshipped among the /ewes and ;fahation a- 
mongft them. 

2. Ainfworth replyeth, The Iewifh Church confiftedftiH, 
as M'ofes had ordained, Lcyit.10.24. of a people feparated 
from tie heatJjen, and Vcere the children of the Prophets and 
covenant, Jeh.4.9. Acts 3.25. but your Churchctnfifteth 
of an unfeparated people ? Anfw. The THeft-hood was 
changed, Ioh.i 1 .5 1 . Caiphas was High-prieft that yeare, tv*w m uh.u 
againft the Law (as Toilet obfervcth) for the High- £$^£ f . 
prieft, Exod. 28.29. by the Law was High-prieft till iud,iiba5.cap.j. 
his dying day. But all was corrupted ( faith CV- 
<*;'#,) and all bought and fold (faith Iofephus:) this was 
as Anri-Mofaieall as our reformers Miniftry is Anti- 
chriftian, if they had their calling only from Rome. 

T 2 2,Thc 

I 3 4 JStefeptrdtion from the true Church Chap, i o . 

2. The Jcwifa Church confided of men feparated from 
heathen, who faid ftand back, I am holier then thou, 
I (a iah 6$. but they Were corrupters of the Law^ mur- 
therers of the prophets and the heire Chrifi, Math. *i. 
hypocrites, will-worfhippers, blind guides, blind peo- 
2,Jr& Our fecond Argument, If Gods Prophets and people 

were never commanded to feparate from the pubhkc 
worfnip, but commanded to come up to Ierufalem and 
worfhip, pray, facrifice with Gods people, r DeHt.n. 
11,12,13. Went. 15.19,20. Dcftt.16. 7,8. v.\6,\j. 
And yet that people was a crooked and perverfe genera- 
tion^ Deut.32.5. not his children, provokers of god to \ea- 
loujie With fir ange gods, facrifiars to *Z)/W//, ver. 16,17. 
their Vtorkes fir bitter neffc like the elufters and grapes of So- 
dome, vcr.32. a people that had neither eyes noreares, nor 
heart to under fi and Cjod y Deut.29.3,4. fiiffe necked, f 00- 
lijh, proud, murmur ers, idolater s,&c. 1 hen the finfulneflc 
of the worihippers defileth not the worfhip, and weare 
not to feparate from the worfhip for the wickednefTc of 
the worfhippers. But the former is Scripture, Ergo 
feparate we cannot upon this pretence. The propor- 
tion is fure, for God cannot both command his people 
to come and worfhip publikely with his- people, and 
then alfo forbid them, becaufe for the wickedneffe of the 
worfhippers, they were to abftaine. Alfo 2. It wiH 
1 Sam. j. follow that the people fhculd not have gone to Shi/oh 

when God commanded them to facrifice with Elies 
fonnes,. becaufe tbey committed fikhineffe with the 
women at thedoore of the Tabernacle of the Congrega- 
tion, be^aute Elies formes wickedneff; made men toab- 
horrc the Lords facriftce. 
yArg* A lfo 3. Becaufeto prophecy to a people, and for the 

people to heare the word of prophecy are both acts of 
worshipping God, it will follow, if we muft abftaine 
from the worfhip for the knowne finnes of fellow-wor- 
fhippers, then Ifaiah finned hi prophecying to a people la- 
den With iniquity , corrupt children, the feed? of evill doers* 


C hap. r o. for thefmncs of fellow- worflnppers. 1 3 ^ 

hypocrites, re bells, Sodom c and Gomorrah , murtherers, 
oppreffors y &c. Ifa. r. for Ifaiah and that wicked people 
worshipping together, the worfhip was defiled to Ifia- 
iah, by thefe wicked hearers, and he fhould hare ab- 
ftained from prophecying and feparated from that pol- 
luted and unlawfull worfhip. Hence Feretniah finned 
in prophecying to Ifrae/znd ludal), Hofea finned, Amos 
(inned in prophecying to wicked people, Jonah finned in 
prophecying to Niniveh ; Tanl finned in preaching 
Chrift totheobftinate/^W^, to the fcorHng ^Athenians. 
And feeing they were commanded to prophecy obe^ 
dience to Gods commandements, (hall it be fin and difo- 
bedience, tor certainely the preacher and the hea- 
rers of the preaching joync in one and the fame wor- 

Alfo 4. BaruchihoM not have gone to the houfecf 4.-^ r i« 
the Lord at the commandement of Jeremiah, and foat 
Gods commandement, Ier. 36.6,7. to reade the bookeof 
the Prophecie of Jeremiah, in the eares of the Princes and 
people at the entry of the nerv-gate of the Lords honfe, ver. 1 o. 
becaufe the Princes, Priefis, Prophets and people fol- 
lowed 'Baalim, flew their children to Molech, fbrfooke 
the Lord their God, fiidto aftoch^thou art my father, came 
to Gods houfe and cryed, the Temple of the Lord, the Tern* 
pie of the Lord, and yet did fie ale, murther, commit adultery, 
fweare falflj , bnrne incenfe to Baal, and ' Walk* after other 
gods, Jer.9. 2,3., 13,14. Chap. 5- 31. Chap. 7.8,9,10. 
Chap.2. 13,14. ver.27. Chap.i 4.1 5,16. Chap.23.1,2, 
3,9,10,11,12. Chap.7. 30,31,32. Chap.15.1. No peo- 
ple could be more defperately wicked ; yet Jeremiah 
worfhipped God with them, commanded Borne h to 
worfhip Ged,and commanded the King,his fervants,and 
the people publikely to worfhip and heare and bcleevc 
the word, {f^p.22.2,3. v -5- Chap.19.3,4. Chap. 26.2. 
Andbefides he fhould have commanded the faithfull to 
fcparate from fuch an Idolatrous Church, and not com- 
manded them to heare in the Lords houfej and beleevc 
mi obey, Sq E^chiel commandeth a moft wicked 

T 3 aud 

13 6 

^ebinfon againft 

*<fi>ifivortb coun- 

SefSftttlfl ewfef, 


JW feparttien from the true church Chap. 10. 

and idolatrous people to joyn in the publick worfhip, 
2.^.62,3. C^p.20.3,4,?. Chap. 11.3,4. f° a ^ the 
reft of the Prophets. 

1, This idolatrous people in the judgement cf chari- 
ty could not be judged vifible Saints, feeing they were 
viiible Idolaters, lyars, murtherers, adulterers, and an 
Affembly of treacherous perfons. 

2. It cannot be faid, that to prophecy to them in 
publick is not to keep a religious communion with 
them. For to heare on Mefftah preached, thefc fams 
promifes, threatnings, covenant, and that ordinarily,, is 
an evident figne of a Church-fellowffoip, and j'oynt wor- 
shipping of God together. 

There only reafon that they give to this is. The com- 
mon-wealth of J fracl was a policy eftabhjhed by God, by 
covenant without exception, and fo long as the C 01 en ant 
flood unbroken on Cjods party though broken on their part, 
it was not law full to feparate from that Church. SoRo- 

Others fay, Chrisl behooved to be borne of the true 
Church, therefore they never left off to be the true Church 
till Chrift came. 

Anfw. Fir ft, we have Rebinfbn contrary to A in/worth, 
the Ifraelites then facrifieed to r jDivels, not to Cjodj Deut. 
32. 17. ■ Chron.n.i<y. and will you fay the Prophets 
feparated nop from themfaithJinfworth.Wc fay in the a<fl of 
facrirlcing to Divels, the Prophets that were holy fepaja- 
tcd from them,but not from theirChurch and lawful wor- 
fhip. Robinfon faith, They were to hold communion with that 
Church of \ fracl without exception. 

2. We have a fa ire con feilibn, that contrary to the 3 1. 
Article, The faithjult may become and ft and member s , and 
have a fhirituall communion ~*fcith a people , as an orderly 
gathered and conftituted Church of Chrift that are Idola- 
ters > thieves, murtherers, Vror/bippers of Baal, fo being they 
Veorfiip the true God publickly as he commandcth, and be 
in -extornall covenant Veithhim. 

3. Suppofc the Church of Ifrael (houldhave had a ty- 


Chap.io. for thtfiwesoffelUiv-rvorJhippers. 137 

picallpmiledgein this beyond all the Churches of the 
new Teftament, which Ainfworth will not grant, nei- 
ther can wefee it, yet all the Separates goodly argu- 
ments hence fall to the ground , if the faith fall 
nVi<*ht lawfully keep Church fellowship with the Church 
of ^Ifrael (o corrupted. Then in the old Teftament 
ChrlSi and Belial, tight and darkcnejfe might be in orrc 
Church worfhip. Then in the old Teftament, the feed 
of the Woman, and the Serf ents feed could agree together, 
then it was lawfull to remain in "Babel, /aw fill to be- 
come members of an Harlot- Church, and be defiled With 
their unlaw fidl worfhip, and. to confent therunto. Then 
it was not required in the old Teftament, that the Church 
of God, and bit people in Covenant fiould be a RoyaU 
PrieS-hood, an ho/j people. In the old Teftament , the 
Church might be a whoore, IVorfhip Baa/, Sacrifice to 
Dive/<, and yet remain the Spoufe and Wife ofjehevah. 
All their phages cited in the old Teftament for re- 
paration irom a Church fall. The Church of Ifrae/ 
had not Chrift for their Kmt, Priefi and Prophet, and 
therfore was not feparated from all falfe Churches, as 
they prove from Hof.2.2. Cant.\q$. P/4/.84.10. in 
the old Teftament, The Wicked might have taken the co- 
venant of god in their mouth, contrary to Pfal.%o. \6, 
17. which place the authour of the Guide to Zion, al- Guide to Zion,^/: 

lesdaeth tovrevc that idolaters and Wicked per fins are not ?*f« tf - 
lCdU^ttu, p y . r/ . . , —, • • r ir l Separac j« petit to 

members of the true vifible Church. Then it is falfe that K.LwJ.pof. 

Separafifis faid, The Lord in all ages appointed, and made 

a fe p oration of his people from the World, befire the Law, 

under the Law, and now in the time of the Qosjell: For 

M. Robin[on teacheth us in the old Teftament none were 

to feparatefrom the Church of Ifrael though never fo abhorm- 


Laftly, The Church of Ifrael had no fuch priviledge 
as that perfons who were idolaters, thieves, worfhip- 
ptrs oi "Bad, and firfakers of the true God, and going a 
Whorino after firange gods mould remainc members • ot 
Chrifts true body, and a redeemed Church ; for then 


138 NofcparMionfrom the true Church Chap. 1 o. 

they fhould have had a privilcdge, to goe to Heaven, 
holding the broad way to Hell, for Chritts true body (hall 
be glorified. 
$.Arg. Alfo 5. Elijah fhould have gricvoufly finned againft 

God in gathering together all ffrael on CMount Car- 
melly amongft the which there were [even jhoufand that 
-Roai.il. bowed not their knee to Baal, and was the Lords elected 

and fanctified people, and alfo with them the idolatrous 
people that halted betwixt God and Baal, I Kin. 18. for 
fo he brought light and darkgneffe, Chrift and Hel'ial 
to one and the fame publick worlhip, for there was 
praying and preaching and a miraculous facrifice, and 
- ver. 39. All the people fell on their faces and tyor flipped, 
and Elijah knew them to be an idolatrous people, and 
that the faithfull in that worlhip behoved to have bin 
defiled and confenters to the unlaw full worlhip ofthcle 
halters betwixt God and Baal. 
M,came necef. Matter Canne, poore foule doubtfome what to Ay, 
of scpar.pa.107. g^ T ^ e t y t y reac y tQ y eo y le ^ Ave not jpiritttall com- 
munion with all which are prefent and heare the fame, for 
the Divell is often a hearer. But this is a poere (hift, 
for neither Saviour, Word of God, covenant, promifc, 
or feale belongeth to Satan : He is a hearer to carry 
away the feed that falleth by the way fideJAzt. 1 3 . And 
fo becaufe the word is not Satans in offer, and he com- 
mcth uncalled, he hath no Church communion with 
the Church, but the Word preached to men, and e- 
fpecially in an ordinary way is a profeffed communion 
with all profe{fours,-fbr fo the word of God faith, € z>e.$ ;. 
^•They come unto thee as the people commeth, and they fit 
hefore thee as my people, and they heare thy words. And 
-E/rt.58.3. 'They aske cf me, the ordinances of Jufiice, they 
take delight in approaching to God. And Efa.2.2, The 
peoples communion with one another in going to the 
Lords Mountainc to be taught his Word, is fet downc 
as a marke ef the called Church of the Cjen'iles. 

2. To heare or profefle hearing of the word is a wor- 
shipping of God : thcrfbrc joynt- hearers arc joy nt- wor- 

Chcp.io. for thefwntseffellow-tvorjhippcrs. 139 

Clippers, and have communion together. 

3. To eate at on« Table of the Lord is a profeflion 
that the eaters are one body, 1 Cor.10.17. with that 
fame Lord,andpromifes are offered in the word that arc 
fealed in the Sacrament. - 

4. All our Divines proove the Church of the 
laves, and the Church under the New Tcftament to 
be one Church, becaufe that fame word of the covenant, 
and that fame faith in fubftance that was preachedand fca- 
ledtous,waspreachedtothem,i^r.io.i 3 2 3 3,4.H^:n. 
Hekii.S.Heb: 3.7,8,12,1 3. none deny this but Armini- 
ans y Socinians, Papifts, and fome other perverters cfthe 

5. Jf a joynt hearing of the Word be denied to 
be a Church-communion in externall worfhip , upon 
this ground , becaufe »all that heare doe net believe, 
but many feeffe at the Word, many hate it, many rc- 
j eel it in their hearts, as Separates reafon ; this is moft 
weake and prooveth that all have not an internall com- 
munion by faith and love, but it is nothing agawft a 
Church-communion, in the naattcr of Separation. Alfo 
hence it might be concluded, none have a Church- com- 
munion that eateth at one Table,and eateth one bread and 
drinketh one cup, except only believers, and fo all Hypo- 
crites 111 the vifible Church, hearing toqether,praying and* 
prayilng and receiving the feales cf the covenant toge- 
ther in one politick and vifible body with believers, 
fhould be Separates from believers, having no Church 
communion with believers, the contrary whereof rea- 
fon and fenfe teacheth, and Scripture, P faint, 47. 4. 
'/yfl/w.55.13,14. I Cor: 10.17. t^Math: 13. 47. C^fat: 
12. 13. confirmeth. Maftcr Canne feeing this faith, 
We affirme not that there can he no religious communion, 
but with members of a vifible Church, our profiffion and 
fratlife is daily otberwaks, jet fo that they be fiich perfons t 
hovrbeit not in Church- fiate , jet to bee judged in the 
Faith by their gracious and holy walking , and are 
ferfons in the judgement of ^Men gracilis and holy 

V • in 

i/^o Nofepdratim from the true Church Chap.io. 

in their walking, but members of a vilible Church are vi- 
able Saints, and fo if there be no religious communion 
to be kept, but with perfons judged gracious, then is 
there no religious communion to bee kept, but with 
members of the vifible Church, who are gracious and ho- 
ly, which is a plain contradiftion. 
6 Arg» Moreover 6. The zeale of fofah commended fo high- 

ly by God, ihonld have bin finfull and wicked zeale, in 
commanding all he people to keepe the moft folemne 
■Paffeovcr that ever had becne fnce the daies of the Judges, 
2 King. 23. 2 1 , 2 j . and yet Judah was universally corrup- 
ted with high f laces, idolatry and filfePriesl~hood, images, 
groves, &c. It is true Iofiah reformed all thefe, it is as 
true he fought no more of the people for their external! 
right wo: (hip, but profeHion,and could get no more, yet 
he commanded not fjparation from the Church of Iudah, 
for thefe corruptions, howbeit much heart wickedneiTe 
was amongft them, as is cleare, v. 16. . Nstwithfianding 
God turned not from thcfiercenejfe of hu great anger againfi 
"l\ Art* Moreover 7. <tAfa his zeale fhould have bin as ftnfulW* 

commanding all Judah and Benjamin, and the ftr angers 
VfiHi them out of Ephraim and Manafleb, to conveeno 
in an Affembly (which wr»s farre from feparation) to a 
folemne fervice of /wearing a Covenant, tofeef^ the Lord, 
■under the fame of death , to both men and Vvoemen, and 
prefently after fuch abominable Idols as had bin in Iudah 
and Beniamin, 2 Chron.j^.S. were they all turned vifible 
Saints, a holy people, a c hofen gener at ion, oil t aught of 'God, 
all partakers of the faith and promifes, fo fuddenly at one 

Alfo 8. IofiM 24. conveened all the Tribes and ex- 
horted them to ferve the Lord, he charged them all to 
conveene, and they did enter in a covenant With the 
Lord, and he fet up a flone under an oake that Wat by the 
Santtuary, ver: 26. Now this conveenin : ^ of them all* 
even thefe who v. 14. and 23. had ft l range gods amongft 
them befidc the Lord, as Jofimh knew well, and gave 



Chap.i o. for thefinnes of fellow- worfliippers, 141 

warning therof, muft have bin a finfull fad: in lofiua, in 
commanding a mixture of Gods people, and thefe that 
hadftrange gods, toaflemblein the Sanctuary, and en- 
ter in covenant with God, andhearethe fervant of God 
exhort them fo heavenly in that Sermon Chap. 23. and 
£^.24. ot Iofouah, this was light and darknejfe^hrifi 
and 'Belial to come to one Sanctuary to defile thewor- 
fhip of God, pollute the people with leaven, take the 
name of God in vaine , ir Separatifts teach true Do- 

And 9. CAtofes finned grievoufly, Tteut, 29. in affrm- 9'^rg. 
bling all the men 0/Ifrael, their little ones, wives ', fir an- 
gers, hewers of Wood, drawers of Water to enter in an oath . : 
and covenant to ferve god, which was a folemne pub- 
lick worfhip; for there was amongft that company, who 
ought to have bin feparated, v.4. thefe to Whom the Lord 
had not. given a heart to perceive, nor eyes to fee, nor ears 
to hcare to this day. So Mofes in that prophaned the 
name of God, polluted the word of the covenant. 
Many other inftances might bee given for this pur- 

3. Argument. If T^avl doe net only not command \.Vrmip*u Jr& 
feparation in the Church of 'Corinth, but alfo command 
and approove their meeting together in Church- com- 
munion, I CV.5.4. 1 CV.II.lS : 20 5 2I,22. 1 Cor, 14. 
33. 1 CV.16.2. where there was fchifwes and contenti- 
ons, 1 Cor. 1.12,13. envying and fir if, 1 Cor.3.3.in- 
ceft, and inceft tolerated, fitch as is not named amongfl 
the Gentiles, 1 Cor. 5.1. going to law with their bre* 
thr en for gain before Infidels, I Cor. 6. Harlotry, v. 1 5, 
l6\ Sating at the Idols-Table, 1 Cor.8. Keeping fellow- 
ship With Dive Is, 1 Ccr.io. 20,2 r , 2 2. commingto the 
Lords Table drunken, 1 Cor. 1 1. 21. eating and dr irking 
damnation, v. 29,30. A denying of a fundamental! 
point of faith, the refirretlion of the dead , and that 
with fcoffing at it, 1 Cor. 15.35. CMurtheringofWeak^ 
fottles, whom fhrifi had dyed for, 1 Cor.8. 1 2,1 3. Tauls 
name defpitefully traduced, 2 (for,\ 0,8,9, &c. Then it 

V 2 is 

142 No feparation from the true Church Chap.io. 

is nnlawfulltofeparate from the pure worrhip of God, 
becaufe a Church is not constitute of viCible Saints, and a 
people all taught of G od . 

Harrow of a falfc To this Matter Barrow anfwereth . I . Thefe were faults 

Churcb,p2 4 . of frailty and iterance. 

Anfw. Such nnnes of the flefh againft the law of na- 
ture, as envy, ftrife, extortion, drunkenneffc at the Lords 
Table are not finnes of frailty, malitious hating and 
reproaching the knowne andapprooved fervantofGod, 
I (formth: I G. -it, 1 2. i (forlnth 4. 1 8,19,20. are not 
frailrics,but mull: contaminate the wor/hip, no leffe then 
fins to the which obftinacy is added, howbeic poiftbly 
not in alike meafure and degree. 2. We then are to 
thinke them members of a vifible Church, and not to 
feparatc from them, bowbeit in the. judgement of cha- 
rity we cannot fay, they are a royatt Prieft-hood, the holy 
feed, the Jheepe of Chrifl, the Spoufe and body of Chrifl, and 
all taught of God, as you fay, for fo the conftitution of 
the vifible Church is marred, and a company that is 
net fuchj is not the matter of a vifible Church, as you 

Barrow fecondly faith, We fbonld notfeparate, tiM their 
finnes be reproofed and cenfured, and they declared incor- 
rigible, and fuch as will not heare admonition , fuch were 
»*//& Corinthians. 

Anfw. Then we are to eftceme denyers of the re- 
furrecTion, febifmatickes, extortioners, drunkards, inr 
ceftuous perfons, fornicatours knowne fo to us, to 
bee a Roy all Triesl-hood, the Sheepe , bodie and Spoufe 
of Chrift , regenerate, plants of righteoufnejfe , precious 
flones of Zion, all- taught of Cjod , aye and while 
the Church and Profcfiburs rebuke them and cenfurc 

2. If thefe were not difpifers of Pauls admonitions, 
why fliould T^v/fiy, l CV.4.21. (hall I come to you 
With the rodde ? how were fome of them puffed up as 
though Taut would not come, ver.iS, and why doth 
Paul never once command that they feparate from the 

'' Church 

Cnap.io. fertbefmnes of feHow-worjhippers. 145 

Church, if the Church will not ufe the rodde againft 
them? if the fervant of God muft waite on gainfayers 
and obftinate pcrfons, if at any time God thall give them 
repentance, 2 Tim.2.1^1 5,16. Should not one wait on a 
whole Church,or many in a Church and keep communion 
With them, t ill God give t htm repentance ? It's true, Se- Seporvijlstonfef. 
paratiftsfay there ihould be no reparation from a Church * n i 6 p*zi*. 
till all meanes be ufed of rebuking, but why did not then 
Elijah, Mofes, Jofhuah, Ifaiah, leremiah command fepa- 
ration ? and why did they command Church-fellowrfiip 
after all meanes arc ufed, and Ifrael declared ftiffe- necked, 
Deuto.o'. Sodome, Cjomorrak, Ifa.I. 10. impudent and 
hard-hearted, Ezech.3.7. ftiffe hearted, chap. 2. 4. refit- 
fing to hearken, pulling away the {boulder, flopping their eare, 
making their heart as an Adamant f Zach.7.1 1, 1 2. after 
all which Church communion with them in the 
word, covenant and oath of God, Sacraments, Paffeover, 
circumcifion, prayer, hearing of the word is comman- 

4. Argument. If the Apoftle tearme the gaHatians the ^PmUfaU At& 
Church of Chrift, brethren^ Gal. 1.2. receivers of the Spi- 
rit b] the hearing of faith, chap. 3. 2. the children of God by 
faith in (fhrift, xcr.26. Jpirituall,chap.6.l. and foeftee- 
meth them a right conftitute Church not to befeparated 
from, howbeit they were in part removedfrom Chrifl to 
another Cjosfell, Gal. 1.8. bewitched, fiolijh, joyning cir- 
cumcifion and the Voorkes of the Law Vvith faith, anffo fal- 
len from Chrifl, Chrifl profiting them nothing, fallen from 
grace, running invaine, under the Law againe, anci not un- 
der Chrifl, Gal. 5.4,5.6,1 8. beginning in the Spirit, ending 
inthe'flejb, Gal. 3 3. if fo (I Cry) then is ft not lawfall 
to feparate from a Church, for the fumes of th^ wor- 
shippers. But the former is true, Srgo, fois thelatter. 
The proportion is cleare, becaule Pauls ftiks which he 
giveth them make them the body and fpoufeof Chrift, 
and fo it is not la w full to feparate from them. Alfo Paul 
writeth to them as to the Church of Chrift, which is m 
acknowledged Church-communion. 

V3 yJrg. 


No fe far Mien from the true Church Chap 10 

6.PrimfaU t Arg. 

.TriftcifaU Ar& j. Argument. If the Church of Ephefu* be a true 
, Church, holding the candlefticke of Chnft and Chrifts 
prefcnce walking ia it, that fufced for Chrifts name, 
and fainted not, Rev. 2. and yet had fallen from herfirft- 
love. If Pergamm held the doctrine of Balaam, and the 
IVjcolaimns, and murthered the Saints, had Sathans throne ■ 
amongft them, ver. 13. 14. \i Thjatira fiffered the 
Woman Jezabel to J educe the fervants of fhrift. //Sardis 
had a name to live, and V?at dead, and her Workes Were not 
per fill be fire Qod- 7 If Laodicea turned cold t indifferent 
and Inketvarme in the matters of God, and was ready to 
be sfewed out at Chrifts mouth. Then may a church re- 
maine a true Church with a lawfulL vifible Miniftry , ha- 
ving power of the word, feales and Church difcipline, as 
all thefe had, and cannot be feparatcd from, except we 
would leave the candlcfticke, and Chrift Walking in the 
midft of the golden candle ft kks. 

6. Argument. If we are to beare long in patience, and 
brotherly kincinefle, with the moil refracTarie, and 
ftitfe-neckcd gainftyers, and to preach to them, and fo 
keepe externall communion with them, as Taul faith 
the fervant of God muft doe, 2 Tim. 2.24,2 5. much 
more owe we this to a whole Church which dothcon- 
tumacioufly fuf&r, or defend a (inne, and a (inner. But 
the former is true, Ergo fo is the latter. The propolition 
is proved, If we owe patience and longanimity to one, 
then farre more to a hundred, five hundred, ten hun- 
dred, fo lohn Spift 3. w.10,11. did beare with the 
Church wherein wickedneffb was tollerated. This ar- 
gument is confirmed, That which the Prophets of God 
at Gods command did, preaching, and waiting on upon 
an obftiaatc Church all the day long, that fame onwai- 
ting patience owe we to the Church, whereof we arc 
members : But the Prophets, at Gods command, kept 
Church-fcliowfhip of prophecy ing to a people difobe - 
dient,andobftinate aye till God caft them off, as Jftdah 
doth chap.6%. 2,3. all the day long : The Prophets went 
and preached to Jernfilem after they hdd ftened, and £//- 


Chap.io. for the finms of 'fellow-wet flippers. 145 

led the firmer Prophets, VAt.2$,$y. and after they had 
killed the hcire Chrifl le[us> they preached to thtm alfo, 
Ads2.22. Aftsj. 13,14. A<?h>4 1,2,3. 5.4&C. f© 
Jer.% 12. Jeremiah after he had becve put in the ftoc'kes, ■ 
the word of the Lor! became a reproacb,y ct ft ill propl jccv ed , 
fer, 20. 9 /*r. 2(5. 1 2. \ Now a preacher in a conftitute 
Church is a member and part of that Church where he 
preachetb, and is to beleeve and be laved by that fame 
word which he commandeth others to heare, as a meane 
of their filvation, 1 Tim 4.16. 

7. Argument. If the wkrkednefls of a Church have lfrinciPAU ^ 
filch influence as to pollute the publike worihip, and to 
defile thefe that communicate in the worfhip, fo as they 
mufl: feparate therefrom, and if the unconverted prea- 
cher be not to be heard, as a lawfull Paftor. Then alfo 
we can communicate in no Church, where there are 
lurking hypocrites; But both thefe are againft the word 
of God, Erg* feparation from the Church in that kind 
muftbe agahift the word of God alfo. The proportion 
is clearc: If thefinnes of thefe that heare, and com- 
municate with me, defile the worfhip to me, they 
defile, it whether I know their fames or no. If a pelt 
man eating with me, defile my meate; the meate is 
infecTed to me, whether I know it or no, and if I be ob- 
liged to know it, and know it not, my ignorance is 
fiunefull, and doth not excufe me. Now certainely no 
beieever is obliged to know the latent hypocrite, it was 
no linnc in the eleven Apoftles, that they knew not luda* 
to be the traitor while God difcovered him. The af- 
fumption I prove, an unconverted man may be a called 
Paftor, whom we may lawfjily heare, as iudat was a 
chofen Apoftle, ft Mat. 7. 22, 23. T>hil. 1. T 6, 1 7,18. 
Alfo it were lawfull to be a member of no vifible Church, 
if the femes of unknown hypocrites fhould defile the 
worfhip, becaufc in the net and barne-floore there are 
alwayes bad ^ and ch.jfe. Judge then if U.Barrow ^ rrowdl r ctv 
teach judicioufly. If the open fanes (faith he) of Mi- P a S . S °. ' 
nifters or people defile not Vord and Sacraments admmifirated 


146 No feparation from the true Church C hap. 1 o. 

- — ■ - — — — ** 

by thern, Why hath God faid the (acrifice of the kicked ii 
abhom'uMtion to the Lord? Prov.15. And that the Vvicked 
may as Vtell hill a man, as a bullock^, and Vchat the defiled 
V : riefl toucheth is defied, their prayers and facraments are 
not the Ordinances of God, Anfw. Except by Anahaptifts, 
I never read the Scripture fo perverted ; the praying, 
preaching, facraments of a defiled Tried, and an uncon- 
verted man, to hi mfelfe, but not toothers, are abhomi- 
nable, and finne before God ; whether they be cenfured 
by the Church or no, whether they be known to be de- 
filed and polluted finners in the ftate of nature, or not 
knowne; becaufe their perfons are not reconciled in 
Chrift to God, as all our Divines prove, as AHgufline and 
^^cap.Tj,' Prof f> er proveth againft Pelagians, and our hivincs a- 
Sicenu hug & gainlt Arminians - y fee for this wh3t Arminifis, Corvu 
C p$£*m!*cli nH *> and the Jduite Bellarmine, Suarez and Vafques 
^.cap.18. ' faith on the contrary. The notoriety of Minifters and 
^H^are^i. P YO fett° TS finnes, or their fecrecy is all one, the finnede- 
pag.35> ' ' fileth the man, and the mans worfhip, preaching and 
aio^.^'W prayers to himfclfe, but their finnes doe not anal], and 
Corl*om. Molin. make of no effed the ordinances of God, that are pub! ike, 
Ve ? a*rm.d< rat tne P ra y er °^ tne unconverted Minifter is the prayer of 
^liba^biVfibls". tne Church, and heard for Chrifts fake, hovvbeit the 

fib,i.cap.i^ ' fants baptifed by an unconverted Paftour, were infi- 
f^X?"' ^ Sy anc * y ct un baptifed, if his facraments admimftred 
by him in the ftate of finnebe no ordinances of Chrift, 
but abhominations that defile others as well as him- 
fclfe. Thus the preaching of Scribes andT 3 harifees, the 
abhominable flaves of hell, as concerning their converfa- 
t ion, were not to be heard, even while they fite on Mofcs 
chayre, the contrary whereof Chrift commandeth, Mat. 

23 2,3,4. 

*.PrincifaU*4rg£ g # ^Argument If the Church AVorJbip muft be forfa- 
ken, for the wickednefle of the fellow-worfhippers,then 
the publike ordinances of word and facraments, fhould 
have their worth and dignity from the perfons worship- 
ping : as preaching (hould be more the word of God, 


Chap.io. for thcfinnesoffellorv-rvorfrippers. 147 

the holier the preacher be; and lcffe the word of God, 
the leffe holy that he be, and not the word of God at all, 
if the pr€2chtr be an unwafhen and an unhallowed Pricft 
( whereof there are too many, alas, in our age) But 
this were abfurd, the word hath all the eflentiall dig- 
nity and holineiYe from God, and preaching and bap- 
tizing are true paftorall acls and meanesoffalvation, fo 
the men be called by God and the Church having their 
power from Chnft Jefus, whofe ordinances they are, 
what ever be the mens morali carriage. I grant it is 
more ur.favoury, andworketh the lefle, if the man be an 
ungracious (lave of linne, but that is by accident and from 
our corruption who cannot lookc to Gods word, and 
receive it as his word, but we muft looke who he is, a 
good, or a bad naan who carrieth the letters ; and what 
veiTell it bethatbeareth Gods-trcafure, if of gold, or of 
earth. This argument Awruftine prcflcth aeainft the -*«s»£«comt. 
Donatifts. DoMtifls - 

p. Argument, if Church-worlhip, where wicked 9 ?"*'?** **'&• 
people worfhip with us, be defiled tousbeleevers, then 
Peters preaching was defiled to the converts, AEls 2. 
becaufc Ananias and Sapkira, Simon Magus did wor- 
ship with them: Mofes^ Elijah, fojhna could not but be 
defiled by the prefence of ftiffc-necked people, whofe 
hearts were going after Baalim, and they tinned in ta- 
king part and confenting to a polluted covenant, PafTe- 
over^ fcaft of the Lord, Sermon or the like. It is not 
enough to fay, if they knew the worfhippers to b* 
fuch, they were not to communicate with them. I 
anfwer, then the wormip publike where wicked per- 
fons doe communicate, doth not of it felfe contami- 
nate and pollute the wermip to others who are true 
believers, but only upon condition that believers 
know the wickedneffe, for 1. We defire a warrant 
of this from the Word of God, or the nature of the wor- 
lhip. 2. And if fb be baptifme adminiftrcd by a pri- 
vate perfon, whom we take to be a faithful! Paftor, 
mould be lawfull, I never thought our knowledge had 

X power 

77^ NefevtrAtion from the true Church,&c. Chap, i o . 

power to change worfhip from a pure and cleanecafe, 
to make it impure and unclcanc, by this mcanes light 
and darkeneffe, Chrlft and fieliafl, the Romans fee de and 
the Serpents feede may remaine together, we may ftay 
with the infedious botch of unclcanc worfhip, while 
we know it, and the Church rebuke and eenfureit, but 
it is too long, to lye in the fire, and be burnt toafhes, 
till we take notice of the fecrets that are known to God, 
that is, whether the whole thoufand profefTors that wor- . 
fhip with us> be beleevers or unbeleevers. 3 This 
anfwer helpeth not againft our argument, for Mofes r 
Jfaiah, Jeremiah and the Apoftles, knew mod part that 
; thefc with whom they did publikely communicate 
in publike worfhip were ft iff;, necked , rebellious, 
idolatrous , fuperftitious , and yet they did not 
feparate from the publike worfhip, for their wicked- 
• • n An. i G » Argument. That which is fo hainous a finnc, as 
io.Vrmc>}* - 10 p ro phanc Qodsnawe, 3 nd ordinances, to marry fhrift 
$x\& r BelUl 9 to-mixc God and Idois that arc Dwells, fhould 
have been forbidden in the old and new Teftamenc ; but 
*± . feparation from the true worfhip of God for the finnes of 
* the worfhippers is never forbidden, and communion 
is ever commanded in theold,or new Teftament, therforc 
feparation cannot be lawfull, and communion cannot be 
6 ConcMon *>. Conclufion. A worfhip may be ralicin the matter 
* two wayes, either when we are topradice it, or give 

our affcnt to it, as to receive the Sacraments after an un- 
lawfull manner, to aflcnt to corrupt dodrine, that is 
never law full, and here we may feparate from the wor- 
fhip, when we feparate not from the Church. Or then 
the worfhip is falfe in the matter, but our prefencedoth 
not make it unlawfall to us ; as profedors may heare a 
preacher who preach eth the body of divinity foundry, 
howbeit he mixe errors with it, becaufe what every one 
heareth they arc to try ere tbeybelecve, as the Spirit of 
God teacheth, 1 Theft . 2 1 . Try all things, hold f aft V?hat 

Chap. 1 1 . Arguments for ft f oration diphed. 149 

u good, 1 Job.4.1. Try the jpirits : in fo doing we fepa- 
rate from the Sermon, while we heare the good and rc- 
fufethe cvill: becaufewe feparate from the error of the 
worfhip, therefore to heare unfound do&rine is not 
to partake of falfe worfhip, becaufe we are to heare 
the Pharifees, but to beware of their leaven , and 
finding it to be fbure and unfound do&rine, wcare to re- 
ject it. 

7. Conclufon. A communion in worihip true in the 7 \(fonclttfion 
matter, where the perfon called, for example, the Prea- 
cher is a minifterof Antichrift, is unlawfull, becaufe we 

are not to acknowledge any of Bethel , or "Bads 
Priefts profcfling their calling to be of the Tope, the man 

8. finclufion. When we feparate from a Church over- % t (fonclufofi 
turning the foundation of religion, as from Rome, vve arc 

to keepe a defirc of gaining them, howbeit not a bro- 
therly fellowfhip with them. Auguftine faith with us, 
wc are in mercy to rebuke Vohat ttv cannot amend, and to 
leave it patiently % and elfe Ventre : So Ciprian, esfuguft. 
Efift.\6i. &^o t fheweth, the Africans were efteemed 
a Church of Chrift, howbeit they prickly held baptifme, 
by heretiques,to be no baptifme. 


Queft.l I Whither or no feparation frem a true Qhurch be* 
caufe of the finnes of profeffors and manifefl defence of 
fcandaloud perfins can bo proved from Gods Word, to be 


Divers places of Scripture are abufed by Separates, to 
maintaine the lawfullncfTeof their feparation,2 Cor. n ?. <* 
6.17. C om * out from among ft them and feparate your J elves \'2 ,'n. 
fiith fa Lord) and tench no uncleane things and IWtllre- cpata ' 2 

X 2 eeivc 

150 ^Arguments for Chap.n* 

^ii*fwortb c«». ceive y of *y ^ r g° (faith Ainfoorth ) It is commanded us 
ivfoiffz^* or God to come out of a corrupt Church, and feparate 
from it, if wc would be in covenant with God. 

Anfit.i. This is no locall feparation commanded the 
Erafn. Santr.i* Corinthians, tfErafmits Sarceriiu obferveth, but a fepa- 
loc. i c«r^. ' ration in aff:dion, and if it were a locall feparation, it 
is from the Idol-table of the Gentiles, at which fome did 
eate at Corinth to the great offence of the wcake, 1 Cor. 
8.10. 1 Cor. 10. 17, 18, 19,20. but from this is badly 
concluded feparation out of the Church of firintb, or 
any other true Church y where the word and facrameats 
are in purity, fuppofe fome errors be praftifed by fome : 
tolviumUe* Paul borrowed this place from I fa. 52. 11. as Calvin 
thinketh, where the Lord chargeth the people to come 
out from Babilon, feeing Cyrus na d proclaimed liberty 
to them to come home, and applyeth it to the cafe of 
Ctrivth, that they (hould fly e all fellowfhip with idols, 
and Idols temples and tables, 1 CVr.&io. becaufe light 
*nddarlzene§c, Chrift and Beliall cannot agree, asheciteth 
from Ezech,$j. Ezech^.y* Levit.26. in the former 
Uationm in verfe, as Mar lor at teacheth. Now this feparation in 
jc«.«, £$rinth was in a Church from the Idolatry in it, which 

feparation wc allow, but not a feparation out of a 
Church, eKe the wordes would beare that Paul will 
have them to forfake the Church of Corinth, for idola- 
trous tables in it, 2nd fet up a new Church of their own, 
which the Separatifts dare not fay, and is Contrary to 
other places, 1 Cor^.4. 1 CV.n. 1 Cor. 14, Where 
he commandeth and alloweth their meeting and publike 
Church communion , therefore this place proveth not 
their point. 

2. This feparation is fuch a feparation as is betwixt 
light and darkenejfe, Chrifl andTteliall, but the feparation 
is not from externall communion, which Separatifts 
urge, but from all fpirituall and internall communion. 
For Separatifts teach that al wayes there are in the Church 
viiiblc hypocrites and true beleevers, for the which caufe 
1mm. IA.B arrow faith, it is compared to a draw-net therein there 


Chap. 1 1 , (eparation dtfiolved. 


are both good and bad; now Hypocrites and believers 
together in one vifible Church are light and darkneflfe 
together, and externall Church communion with the 
hypocrite (which is hwfull) cannot be a touching of 
an uncleane thing, and fo Church-feliowfhip with the 
wicked cannot be Chrift and Belial together. 

3. That Separation here commanded is from the worftiip 
of God corrupted in the matter ,where need force the Co- 
rinthians behoved to be joyned to Idols, tn \6 For rohat 
agreement ("faith he) hath the Temple of q d with Idols' 
Now he meaneth, that the faithfull who were Temples 
of the holy Sprit (hould not fit and eat at the Idols 
Table, which is called, 1 Cor: 10. 20, 21, The Di~ 
vels Table and cup. But what Logicke is this .? Sepa- 
rate from Idols, ergo, feparate from a Ghurcbj where 
the true worfhipofGod is, and isprofefled and taught • 
this is to be yoaked with Chrifts body, Spoufe, truth', 
but to fly theerrours that are in the body, which we al- 
io teach. 

2. They objcft,.*w:i 8.4. qoeoutof % r my people that *.Otjefit m - 
yee be not partakers of her fmnes, and that ye receive not 
of her' plagues. Srgo, ttv mufl feperate ficm the Church 
Where there is- any thing of Romes Vtor/bip. 

Anfw. It folio weth not ; for it is as if one would fay 
the wrath of qodis to comeupon the whore of Rome, who 
hath overturned the foundation of true faith. Ereo y if Co- 
rimh'yjiW not excommunicate the inceftuous man after ye 
have warned them of th«ir duty, come out of that 'Babel 
alfo, leasi ye be partakers of her fmnes. For they tench 
were a vifiblc Church never fo found, pure, holy, faire 
indoftrine and life, yet if they refute to caft out a 
fcandalous perfon, and will fparc and defend him, they 
are to be feparated from, and thofe that flay in that 
Church and keepe communion with her, are parta- 
kers of her fins. Ho wbeit fome faving truths remain in the 
Church of Rome, and in that we keepe yet a mate- 
rial and rcall union with Borne in as farrc as they pro- 
life one God, three perfons, two natures in Chrift, 

x 3 &c. 

152 Arguments for Chap.u, 

&c. but wc have feparated from Rome. i. Bccaufe their. 
Doctrine of profeffed and commanded Idolatry , and 
their other Herefies cvertcth the foundation of Faith. 
2. Becaufethcy lay another foundation above the foun- 
dation Chrift, the Pope, and a multitude of Idol-gods, 
bu: itfolloweth in no fort. Ergo, we are to feparate 
from every true Church of Chrift, that is incorrigible in 
bne fault or other. 

Where is there a Chriftian Church that we could 

live in in the Earth, yea except the Anabaptifts -Chxtch, 

a Church of white paper as Aire as Heaven , and the 

Sunne, that there is not a fpot on more then on 

the triumphing Church, this on Earth is a city in the 


ObleB.2. 3- They object, Come not ye to Gilgall, neither goe 

^ii*jwmbib. yee up to Bethaven, therfore pee fie Were to feparate from 

Idolatrous Ifrael. 

Anfw. I have proeved that the true Prophets com- 
manded Chureh-fellowfhip with Ifrael after their I- 
dolatry : and judge if this be good, goe not to Beth- 
aven, that is the houfe of vanity, called 'Bethel the 
houfe of God, where Jeroboams" 'calves were worship- 
ped, ergo, feparate from all the worfhip of God inJf- 
rael : we fay, Ex negatione Ifecici, male conc/uditur ne- 
gatio generis, feparate from leroboams calves : thcrfbrc 
feparate from all true worfhip of God in Ifrael, it is a bad 
t confequencc. 

OfoVfl.4. 4# They object, In the old TeHament the Law con- 

ft fled of outward ordinances, and if they were outwardly 
performed, there was no caufe to feparate from them. 'But 
under the new Tvftament , all things are beeome new and 
Jpiritua!/, where Chrift hath given power to all the faith- 
7t.irr»rv difcov. of fi^ t0 Cen fi>re fcandalous fnnes } all fbould feparate from A 
faifeChurchpj?, corrupt (fhurch : So Barrow. But Mafter Smith hel- 
fmitbparaL ctnf. P etn him, All things were jhndowes in the old Tefla- 
M*jo. ment : David, Jehoiliaphat, &c. fttffered knowne finnes 

in the land, jet were they the true matter of the tjpicall 
Church, being typically and ceremonially clean* : for to the 


Chap. if. fipar Alton dijfilved. x ^ ? 

HltHtion of the typical/ Church, there was not required 
true holineffe, but ceremonial! cle.inneffe : Holinejfe was 
required of them for their acceptation before Cjod, but not 
for the conftitution of their (fhurch : fo there -were there ty- 
ficall Saints ', tjpicall Hypocrites, that might have no com- 
munion together till they were purified, a id yet being in- 
deed wicked perfons they mirht have Church- communion 
together. 'But our conftitution^ mimftry, communion^ fe- 
parathn are contrary to theirs, true holinejfe it required un- inifcjliiWJi 
der the new 7 'eft anient. Robinfon addeth, No man could ^ *«"*•/>, »**• 
abfolutelyfcparate fiom the Church of the Jews, /or it was 
the onely one vifible (fhurch upon the face of the Earthy tj- 
ed to cne Temple, Altar , Sacrifice Trieft-hook azdplace y 
they hid not excommunication, as we have now, the offen- 
der was by bod* ly death cut of from the common-wealthy as 
fiom the (fhurch ? 

Anfiv.lt is moft falfr that externall performances of du- 
ties were furficicnt to make men members of the vifible . ff 
Church of the old Teftament. I . Becaufe man-flayers, a- of irJmoman & 
dulterers, &c. were to be cut of and excommunicated Jp'muaiiiK.iinefle 
from the congregation of the Lord, and their pray- «£oi£ and dj 
ers were not accepted of God, even by Afofeshis hw, chucch °* th c 
KmriMS^ E6i.i«.M4.iJ. Etc*. 3,4,5. 2 It EfiZ"* 
is filfe that all the worlhip under the new Teftament church *tthq 
is {o fpirituall that outward performances of externall ^cre the?/ ST£ 
profeftion in the new Teftament doth not alfo make njrhypociiewftal 
profelTours Ecclefiaftically holy and fepatated from o- cl^SLllE' 
ther people not of the vifible Church , for Ananias, hypocrites in the 
Saphira, Simon Ma%us for a time were externally ho- Kb?22a_ 
ly, and differenced horn Pagans without the Church by niaii and e_tern.i 
fctbeir baptifme and externall profcflion. Then "Barrow I^SJSaI! 
muft quit 2II places in the old Teftament, for fepara- hrpocnta of & 9 
tion from a wicked Miniftry, as that Prov. 15. The ola 7c^««t. 
Sacrifice of the wicked is abomination to Cjod , was as 
true in the old as ia the new Teftament. Erg°, the 
Sacrifices offjred by the wicked Prieft were no ordi- 
nances of God, and did pollute others, who did commu- 
nicate with him. 

2. The 

x 5 a Arguments for Chap.ii 

2. The Sacraments of the J ewiflh Church in fubftancc 
were one and the fimc with our Sacraments, Heb. t } . 8. 
i Cor.io. ) 5 2 5 3joh,8.56\Joh.6.so J 5i, Col. 2. 1 i, 12. 
I Cor: 5 . 7. all lay this except Tapifls, Anabaptifts, Armeni- 
ans and Socinians^ and for notorioufly wicked perfons 
to ufe the Sacraments with prophaneand wicked hearts, 
was mod unlawfull and made them in that no members of 
the true Church,but as Sodome and gomorrah^{. 1 .1 o. as 
tAlthhfians, <L/£^ypians and Philifiins, Amos 9.7. and 
fuch were forbidden to take gods covenant in their mouth, 
feeing they hated to be reformed, Pfal. 50. 16, 17. Their 
prayers were abomination when their hands were bloody , Ef* 
1. 15. their Sacrifices like the murtheringofaman, and 
the Sacrificing of a dogg, which was abomination to 
God, lf*fi€.%i and fo are all the means they ufe, but I 
believe, if Chrift was the Spcufe, Prfeft^head of the bo- 
dy to the Church of the lews, as to us, to the conftitu--* 
tisn of this body vifibly worfhipping him in a Church- 
ftate, there was required that the peopb fhould be not 
only typically holy, but really, and that God ihould be 
fancTified not only typically, but really, by reall declara- 
tion of all that drew nigh to him, and the Song of So- 
lomon faith, that the communion was morall, fpirituall, 
YpetidcntoK. befidethat it was typicall in fome points. And this is di- 
/4w«.3/*> reel: contrary to their confeflion, where they make Se- 
paration from a corrupt Church morall, and to that fc- 
paration of the godly from the wicked was taught of 
God, before the Law, under the Law, and under the Go- 
fiell, and they teach, That all true Churches from the 
beginning to the end of the world are one in nature, and 
ejfentiali conftitution : And would the Lord have thefe 
to receive the feales of his covenant, as true members 
typicall of a typicall Church : This they fay is 1 To 
take the name of God in vain. 2. That the Lord doth 
feale unrighteoufneffc. 3. That he prophaneth his Sons 
bloud and death : then a people laden with iniqu : ty,a 
Sodome, a generation of Idolaters might all by Gods ty- 
picall command, claims to the promifes of the covenant, 
and they only. 3. The 

Chap. 1 1. fepardtion difiolvtd. 155 

> — — ■ 

3. The common beleevers amongft. the Iewes had 
the power of the keyes, as well as we, if Separates 
teach right, for they had power to rebuke one another \ 
Levimp.17. and this to them is a part of the power 
of the keyes, as Smith faith, they had power of ordi- Smth t«^** 1 
nation to lay hands on their officers, and the right 
of election, as they would prove from, Z*t>//.-8.a,3. a 
place notwithstanding abufed, for the congregation there « TrT y 3J1f(lfllf 
is the Princes of the congregation, as it is a hundred •m/*^* "*/>• 
times taken in the old Teftament, els how could fix ** 
hundrcth thoufand p:rfons, befide aged men, women 
and children lay hands on the officers ? They did alfo 
excommunicate no lsffe then our Church of believers, 
as they fay, tberfore their Churchintheeflenceofa vi- * rrtrt - , P^ 
fible Church was every way as ours, except in fome acci- 
dentall ceremonies. 

* Laftly, fuppofe the laves were the only vifiblc Church 
that none could feparate from, yet Chrift W Belial, light 
anddarkne^e jhould never dwell together. 

5. They objecT, A little leaven leaveneth the -whole 
lump, andfo a fcandalom [inner not cen fired, maketh the R 'i™{%' t r fi 
whole Church an infilled lump, t her fore we are to fepa- Smith. 
rate from that £hurch, if they goe on, except wee would M * Ca!tns ' 
le leavened : So Robinfon, Ainfworth, Smithy Canne^ok- 

Anfr 1. There is a double infedion, one phyficall as 
leaven, that by touching leaveneth, and pelt- cloaths that 
by touching defile the ayre or mens bodies : the com- 
parifon holdeth not in this, I am fure. There is a 
morall infection by evill example, and fo the inceftu- 
ous Corinthian, not excommunicated, did infecft, if a- 
ny mould ufe his company as a brother and member 
ot the Church ; of this latter fort, the place 1 Cor: 5. 
is to be underftood. The inceftuous man would infe^, 
if the gnides and the Apoftles fpirit mould a >t cift 
him out : Hence it is true that Church- guydes, in not 
excommunicating, did what was in them morally, to 
infecT: and lcatcn the Chnrch : but 1. It felloweth not 

V * that 

I j 5 Arguments for Chap.i i . 

that the Church was attu ficundo, and a&ually infeit- 
cd, howbeit, no thanks to the gutdes. 2. Itfolloweth 
not that they fhould fcpante from a Church that 
might infeft , becaufc that is not Gods meane of ef- 
chewing infection to lowpc out of one true Church to a- 
nother for one fault. 

2. The cfchewing and feparating from the error of the 
Church, and the maws company, is enough to them to ef- 
chew the infe&ion. They urge, 'But it is a tempting of 
CjQ& to flay in an infilled lump, Juppofe you be not a& st- 
all] infilled ymr felfe, fir no thankes to you, as it is a 
tempting of God, to keepe company With a^ickedma^,fup- 
jpefe by Cjods grace, yee learne nat his kicked fajhions, a 
wan k guilty of felfe-murther, who rydeth a fuelling and 
danger opu river, and finneth in fi doing, fuppofe God'gra- 
cioufly pardon his rajhnejfe, and carry him thrtugh the river 

I Anfy*. 1. To ftay in every place where finners are, and 
to haunt the wicked mans company as his companion, is 
a finfuli tempting of God, fuppofe ye be not actually in- 
inared ; but to ftay in the company or Church, carefully 
flying every fpot and fculeayre, that may blow fin up- 
on you,is no tempting of God. 

Butfecondly, they thus urge, to ftay a member ef a 
leavened Churth, and keepe Church-communion With that 
infeBed Church, is to tempt God, t her fire god caller h yott 
iofeparatefrom that Church, 

I anfweri. To ftay a member of that Church wholly 
leavened, and where the matter of the worfhip is leaven, 
and fundamentall points corrupted and obtruded upon the 
confcience, is to tempt God, for then I keepe communion 
with a leavened Church, as leavened, fuch as is BabeH.-but 
• the affumption now is falie, and the cafe not fb here, but 
to keep my felf and remain a member of a Church lea- 
vened in part with one fin, and to take no part with the 
finne, and yeeld no content therunto is no tempting ©f 
God ; TohI joyned as a member with the Church of 
Corinth, and acknowledged them as a Church, and com* 


Chap. 1 1. fepdrati&n diffolvcd. 1 57 

manded to keepe Church fellowship with them, 1 Cor: 
5 .4. even when this leavened lump was fouring amongft 

But thirdly they urge, the inceftuous mans finne not 
cenfure d,- infected the Church, theinfecledChurehinfecletk 
the Werfiip. 

Anfop % . I deny that the finne of the worfhippers infccl- 
cth the worfhip to others that are not guilty, it infeclcth 
the worfhip to themfelves, but not to others, a worihip 
corrupt by accident only through the fault of the wor- 
(hipper, may and doth make the Lords Supper damnation 
to the eater, and therefore the eater is forbid ien fo to eat; 
a worfhip in the matter .and intrinfccall principle unjuft 
and finfull is defiled both to the man himfdfe and to all 
that taketh part with him, as the teacher of falfe Docl- 
rine and all that- heareth and believeth are defiled, but if 
the fin of an unworthy communicant even knowne to 
be fo be damnation to himfelfe, and defile the wor- 
ship to others, then Paul would have faid, he that ea- 
teth and drinketh unworthily, eattth and drinketh hii owne 
damnation, and the damnation of the Whole Church, and 
Paul fhould have forbidden all others to eat and drinke 
withall, who communicateth unworthily, if he allow- 
ed feparation, but he faith, he eateth and drinketh dam- 
nation, i ^Ta, to himfelfe, not to all others. 

But fourthly, they urge thus, We mufl not onely ftrive 
to rebuke, and cenfure one another, but We mufl not flay a 
member of that Church, in the Which We are not permit* 
ted to doe the duty that Chrisl hath commanded m, for 
the flat ion and place ii unwarrantable, Where We arenecef- 
fitated to finne, that U, to omit a duty of the Kcyes, that 
god hath j(izen to all the faith full. Ergo, We mufl Jepa- 
rate from that Church, Where all the faithfill may not life 
the Keyes. 

Anfvp % i. Alfo if the power of the Keys be in the hands 
of the people, as fome teach, foas they arc under sreom- 
mandement ofGod to rebuke authoritatively, and judi- 
cially to cenfure and excommunicate, their univerfall 

Y 2 omit 

158 Arguments for Chap.ii. 

omiiTion of that duty fccmcth to be finfull ; and (how- 
beit I be loath to teach Separation) I fee not how the 
authours who give the power of the kcyes to all pri- 
vate Chriftians, are not to feparate from all Churches 
where Prcsbyteriall government is, no kfle then the 
ftrittcft 6 eparatifts doe. 

2. Affirmative precepts tye not in all differences of 
time : To rebuke your brother is alwayes lawfull, fo it 
be done, obferving due circumftances ; but that every 
be'eever rebuke Church-wayes, and judicially by the po- 
wer of the keyes doth not tye at all, becaufe Chnft ne- 
ver gave that power to all. 2. Some duties tye abfo- 
lutely, as to pray, thefe we cannot forbeare : Suppofc 
a Church fhould make a Law, like Darius to borrow 
a dumbc Devill, for thirty dayes, and to pray none, 
that Church fhould not. be heard, and not acknowled- 
ged in that. Other dutyes tye conditionally, as not to 
pray in publicke with a man notorioufly ferving Satan, 
and deferving to be excommunicate; yet if the Church 
excommunicate not, wee are not to feparate from the 
prayer of the Church , becaufe that perfon is fuffirred 
there : fo thefe duties that tye upon a condition that 
dependeth upon others and not upon my felfe, tye not 
alwayes. I am obliged to belecve what point the Paftor 
tcachcth,but not abfolutely, but upon condition it agrees 
to Gods Word. 

They fifthly urge. But lam neeeffttatedinafalfe Church 
to communicate with thofe whom I know to be no members 
of the true Church , but limbs of Satan y becaufe in Cjods 
court they are excommunicated , ani no members of the 
Church ; but ' through the corruption of thefe that have the 
tower of the keyes, thefe are permitted to be members of the 
Chnr ' h, who in gods court are no members at all ; and if 
I remaine in the Church, I mufl communicate with them % 
jea if I remaine in the Church , I mufl communicate at 
that table where the holy things of God are propkined by 
dogges and fwine , therefore in that cafe I mufl fepa* 


C ha p. 1 1 • fefaratien difohed. 159 

Anfvo. In your helieft indepcndant Church where 
difcipline is meft in vigour, you meet with this doubt, 
and niuft feparate alfo, if this reafon be good: For fup- 
pofc you know ene to be guilty of adultery and mur- 
ther, and had feen it with your eyes, the party guilty 
to you is not guilty to the Church : For i.you are 
but one , none is guilty Ecclefisftically , and to be de- . 
barred penally and judicially from the holy things of 
God, except by confeiTion to the Church, or by two or 
three -witnejfes. 2. You know what is holden by all our 
Divines, yea even the Canon Lit* and Tapifts teach that rbmomas ^un. 
the Church cannot judge of hid things, and ads of the £"«*•<&««*"». 
mind. So faith Thorn. Aquin. Cajetan, Soto^Dnrandm, wi5'"?a?t'i. 
tSilmaln, Crerjon, Navar. Vriedo, Joan. Maior. Tain- Da *^ de - 
dan. tAntonin. their ground is good : The Church j£cUap.io. ' 
cannot judge of that they cannot fee ; And theChur- G'rfondeviuftir* 
ches power of the keyes is all for the external policy SJtJSi/M^ 
of the Church, and therefore fuch a finne cannot be the cap.j7n.5f. 
object of Church-cenfurc , or caufe of Separation, Ex- cbS*s^! 
communication is ever ufed againir. externall fcandals, A/*or«. 
^r.18.15. iOr.5,1,1^,1,19,20, tTheft. 14. !£%£+** 
(hew one place where the Church excommunicateth for 

6. They object, \t i* not lawfull to call God Father 6.0bitl~l. 
ioyntlj with thefe Vvho are not brethren, bttt fonnes of So- Sw'&.paral.pig; 
tan, Ergo, we are to feparate fiom fuch. So Smith rea- ,o7 


Anfw. Except they be all and every one thefonnes ,. ~ 
of God, that are in our vifibk Church, and not one hy- l %Qtu "• 
pocrite or childe of Satan amongft them, by this argu- 
ment we muft feparate from them , and fo SepAratifts 
are to feparate from their owne Congregation, where- 
in they acknowledge there be hypocrites. This is Ana- 
baptifticall holineffe, Ifa.6^. 

7. Thev object, \t id not lav full to make Chri ft a Me- 
diator to all the prophane in the land, and to make all the 
prophane members of ku body, Ergo, *e are to feparate from 

T 3 Anfm. 

160 Arguments for Ghap.u 

Anfw. So was Corinth , Galatia , Ephefus , confufed 
Chinches, wherein there were hypocrites. We make 
Chrift Mediator and Head to the vifiblc Church, ac- 
cording to the beft part , as Chrift fpeaketh , foh. 17. 
Thine they were, when Judas Was never CyWr. And Paul 
calleth Corinth Saints, Colons aims, and fait hfull bre- 
1 Cor !.!,». ' thren, and Peter, the elecled according to the forc-know- 
» Pci.i-2,3,4. ^£ e °f G°d, begotten againe to a lively hope, where yet - 
there was Tome at Corinth, 2 Cor. 2.16. To Whom the 
Cjosfell WW the favour of death unto death, forne to Whom 
it Vtas hidden, Whom Satan had blinded, 2 Cor. 4. 3. And 
Col.a.18,1* Tome in Colojfe carried away with Angel-Worfhip, not 
holding the head Chrift, fom'c of th'ofc to whom Peter 
iPec.%8. writeth were fuch, Who fumbled at the ft one laid on Zi- 

on, and there was amongft them, falfe teachers privily 
bringing in damnable Herefies, 2. and many followed their 
aPet.3.r>3,t;. pernicious Wayes, sfots, fiafting amongft the Saints, ha- 
ving eyes full of Adulttry, that cannot ceafe from finnet, 
2.0 b vet. g^ They object, Thefe that are mixed with unbele ever s 

corfent to all the fimes of the unbeleevers, and to all their 
prophanation of the holy things of God, feeing Cjed hath gi- 
ven them the power of the keyes to hold out and excommu- 
nicate all wicked perfons • therefore beleevers are to fepa- 
rate from all prophaners of the Covenant, except they wonld 
forfeit their Covenant, 

Anfw, A Ample worshipping with-hypocrites whom 
we know not is not a cenfent to their prophanation 
of the holy things of God ; Chrifts eating the Pttjfe- 
over with Judxt ; the Difciples eating the Vaffcovcr, 
when Chrift faid, One of you hath a Devill, one of 'you ft all 
betray me, did not import confe;it,nor partaking with Ju- 
do* his prophaning of the Sacraments. 2. Neither hath 
God given to all beleevers the power of thekcyes that 
way, as is allcadged. ?. Suppofe the Elderfhip in whofe 
h«nds oneiv' aie the keyes, fhouki permit a knownc adul- 
ters, wire never pr«rl{V-d bis repentance therefore to 
yet thw were not in the Eldeifliip 

Chap. / 1. fepar alien diffolved. T 5 r 

the fmne agtinft the HolyGbofl, and to forfeit the Cove- 
nant .though it were a great fmne. 

9. They object, God commandeth the godly to plead 
with their mother, becaufe (faith he) Jhe u not my Veife, 
nor I her km band, trgo, if the Church turne a bur lot, 
the children are to protefl and plead agunsl her y at repu- 
ting her ?:o mother, and fo they are to forfake her, 

s/fnfto. If this place prove lawfulnefli of feparnuon 
from the Jewih Church, as from a harlot call off of 
God , it (hall crofle a mainc principle of Separating 
that the Jewijh Church wo* the cnelj vifible Church from. 
Vthich it Vras not lawful! to fepars.te, feeing the Mejftah be- 
hooved to be borne there , and the Temple, facrifces were 
snely there, Alfo this pleading was for harlotry and Ido- 
latry : But Isl.Smith and others f^y, that Wickednefe and 
Idolatry did not marrethe constitution of the Jewijh Churchy 
fo being they had ceremoniaH and typicall holinejfe according 
to the letter of the outward legall fervice ; and fo from 
this feparation" from the true Church is vainly colle- 
cted. 2 . Plead with your mother for her harlotries. Hence 
it followeth firft,i.They were to cftcemhQras another,. 
and of duty as fonnes to plead with her. 1, If they 
were to plead with her, and rebuke her, they were to 
keep communion with her ; becaufe non-rebuking for 
a time is a figne of feparation and lufpending commu- 
nion for a time, Ezcch.3.26. Thou [halt be dumbe, and 
fhalt not be to them a reprover , for they are a rebellions, 
houfe, Ergo, reproving is a figne of communion. But 
they fay 3 they were to plead with their mother by -power of 
the keyes ; and if their mother would not return to the Lord 
her firfl his band, then they ^ere to goe on to a f nil ftp. 
fiom her, 

1 anfwer : Then two or three fcithfull ones in the 
Church of the fewes , no lejQfe then in the Chriftian 
Church were a true vifibie Church , having the power 
of the keyes. This is contrary to their owne dofrrine D 
who make a typicall and ccremoniall cleanneff? fuffi- 
cient to conftitute the Jcwift Church • but require a 


\6% Arguments for Chapn 

rcall, true, and fpirituall holineffc, to the conftitution 
of the Church of the New Testament : For if the 
children may plead with the mother for want -of fpi- 
rituall chaftity and marriage- love to her Lord, and for 
that contend againft her, to fcparate from her, as from 
a harlot and non-Church, then is reall holinefTe requi- 
red for the conftitution of a vifible Church amongft the ( 
X©.0£iV?. Jcwes,as amongft us, which Separatists deny. 

I o. They ebjecT, Abraham behooved to feparate from 
his fathers houfe^ for the Idolatry thereof > before Abrahams 
family was made the true Church of Qod> therefore there is 
no remaining in a Church where the worjhip is corrup- 

nsfnfw. Separation from a Society profcfling Idolatry 
and corrupting altogether the doctrine of the Cove- 
nant, fuch as was Abrahams fathers houfe, we grant is 
lawfull, their father was an Hittite, and their mother was 
an Ammorite % Ezech. 16. 3,4,5,&c. Ifa.jr. 1,2. but 
what is this to feparate from a Church where are the 
true fignes of Gods prefence, the Word and Sacraments 
. in fubftance profeflfed. 2.God in a particular call went 
before Abraham to make a Church of him, of whom 
the UWeJfiah was to come, and to. whom he was to 
give his Covenant, whereas his Covenant was not in 
Abrahams fathers houfe : This call is not made, nor 
this Revelation to thefe who feparate from the Church 
and true Covenant. 
11. Objett. 11. They objecl, The Minifiery of the Gofyell fhould 

Ezech : 3*,j8. fa as the holy floc^e, as the flocke of Jerufalem -in their fo- 
So s4ltt ^ Mib ' l emne feasls, that the oblation might be fanttified ; but when 
the people is a confufed prophane multitude. , they are not 
the oblation of the Lord, and fo not the (fhurch that wt 
can remaine in to 9 and offer fuch lamed facrifice to Qod 
in our prayers f 

A nfw. The fame will follow in their Churches, 
where Minifter and profeflbrs beeing whited wals, 
and painted hypocrites, though aotknowne to others : 
A fcabbed facrifice is offered to God , and that hypo- 

Chap, i r , feyardtion dijfolved. 159 

critesare in the Church alwayes, we and they agree and 
teach Joyntly. 2. What though the people beprophanc 
and knowne to be a bad facrifice, feeing they profeffc 
the truth, fhall they be excluded from trie prayers of 
the Church, and none offered to God in the prayers of 
tfie Church, but oncly beleevers? (hall not thefe be of- 
fered in prayer to God, who are yet unconverted ? what 
meaneth that petition then {Thy Kingdome come) is 
it not a prayer of the Churches for the non- conver- 

12. They object, With that Church we cannot ioyne * nL % pi 
with, as members thereof^ where Images and Pitlures of 
Devils are laid upon Cjods rfltar for sfiritnall facrifices, 
which is as abominable to Cjod, as uncleane beafts were un- 
der the Law : \pyd ChriB cannot be a Priefi to offer thefe 
in publicise Church-fervice to Cjod \ bu-t prophane men in 
the £hurch are fuch pitlures of Devils, Etg©, the true 
Church Jhould not offer them to Cjod, nor Jhould we flay in 
that Church where fuch are offered) as Chrisl will not offer 
Unto God. 

Anfw.j. That fame inconvenience fhall ever retort 
upon the objectors, becaufe hypocrites that are ftill in 
th-; vifible Church fhall be Images and Tittures of De- 
vils offered to God 3 and Chrifl can be no Priest to offer fuch 
to God. 

2. That a vifible Church may be a holy oblation laid 
upon the Altar of God, to be offered to God, by our 
High-prieft Chrifl ^ It is not required for the Eflence 
of a true and acceptable facrifice of worfhip , that all 
and every one of the Congregation be holy and fpiri- 
tually cleane : Tor then the Church of the Lords Dif- 
ciples and followers in the dayes of his ficfh fhould 
not be a cleane offering to God, for amongft them was 
f udxs % The Church of beleevers, ABs 2 . fhould not be 
an holy cblation , but an offering to God of Images and 
Pitlures of Devils : For in their vifible Church was 
Ananias , Saphira, and Simon LMagus : Cbrift our High- 
prieft bcarcth the twelve Tribes of Ifrael in his breaft, 

Z ark* 

*6o Argument* for Chap.u* 

- — .. ■ . ..^ 

and offjreth Ifrael to God as the typicall Pried did • 
yet all and every Idolater, Sorcerer, Murtherer in If 
rael, are not written on Cbrifts breaft, but onely thof 
that are fealed of every Tribe, Rev.7. It is furficient ti. 
make the oblation holy , that there are fome few be- 
Jeevers that arc (tamped with the Image of God, anc 
off-red in a holy and cleane oblation to .God , by out 
' High-pried Chrift : For amongfl: Separations were 
found revolters that left their Congregation^ and wrote 
againfl: the Separation ; yet thele were once offered 
to God while they were vifble Saints, and efteemed 
to be t fright of god and found beleevers. 

Obiett,!^. 13. They objecT, That it is not lawfiill to have com- 
munion with a Church, where there is any fupcrftitioa 
or Idolatry , or falfe wprfrup : For David Would not 
take up the names of I do™ in his lips ; nor is it lawful! to 

i ' touch the garment sfotted of the fiejh, in rejpeel, one Achan 

taking the accurfed sJ>oyle s brought lodgement on all the 
reft, and therefore they must feparate who would be fee of the 

*Anfw> It is not lawfull to communicate with tie 
holieft Church on earth in an acl: of falie worfhip we 
grant ; but every falfe worfhip doth neither make 
a true Church, a falfe Church, or no £hurch • neither, 
givcth it aground and warrant of Separation ; for there 
was much falfe worflhip- in Corinth, where many were 
partakers of the Idols Table, 1 Cor. 8. 10. and many 
deny ed the RefurreUion, and fo Thy ati'ra, Pergamus, 
Rev. 2. where were Balaams do Urine , and Je^alel the 
falfe Tropbetejfe, and yet none of thefe are to be fepa- 
rated from x as falfe Churches, and the Separates would 
obferve this, that when Churches m the New Tefta- 
ment are moit fharply rebuked ,. if communion with 
thefe Churches going on in their (Inncs be Idolatry 
and falfe worfhip, and offering of Devils Images to Goa 3 
how is" it, that the Lord and his Apoftles. rebuketh the 
fault?, but never wameth the true and found beleevers 
to feparate and m.ike a new Chur.ch, feeing this is 


Chap. ii. of wicked parens baptized wJrrAbtably. \ 65 

1. ^Argument. If the children of wicked parents t.Arg. 
were circumcifed, all without exception, notwith- 
ftanding the wickcdneflfe of their parents, then the chil- 
dren of thefe who are borne in the viible Church of 
Chriflians, are to receive that fsme fealcin nature and 
fubftancc of that fame covenant of grac?, which is b; 
tiline. But all the children of molt wicked parai 
were circunacifed without exception. Ergo, fo are the 
children of Chriitians borne in the viiible Church. 1 
proportion cannot be deny ed by our brethren, 1 * They 
fay circumcition was given only to m of the 

rifible Church, to whom the do'dxineof the covenant, 
tyVtf.17.7,8. was preached, and thefe were profeflbrs 
only within the viiible Church of the Jewes, as M.Befi 'Stficbutiay^ 
faith, and if children Kere t§ be circumcifed beaiufc God jMi*4* pa S . 
(aid ( I U 1 /// be your Cjod and the God of your feed) then 
becanfc this promife is made to Chriftians, and to their feed 
i n -the newTeftamevt^ Afls 2.2,8. they.fbouldbe baptized* 
38. be baptised every one of you,dcc. ver.39. izr the 
pro.nife is made to you, and t« your children. Whence it is 
cleare, as thefe who were externally in covenant, were 
onely to be circumcifed, fo thefe, who are externally 
in covenant in the chrifHan Church, are to be bapti- 
zed. I prove the aflumption, that all the male children 
were to be baptized without exception. 1. From Gods 
commandement, Cjen, 17.10. Every max-ehi!d amongfr 
yon (hall be circumcifed, VCT.II. Every man-child in your 
generation^ he that is borne in the ho life, And bought "frith 
money of any fr anger , that is not thy feed , the n 
circumcifed mufi be cut off from his people, he hath broken my 
covenant. Here is no exception, but all mirfi be circui*- 
c : £d. 2. Alfo many muft be circumfed, as thefe to 
om the Lord gave the Land for apcfTcflion, an'd was 
Abrahams feed , according to the flefh, but the land 
5 given te the moil wicked of Abrahams feed, fo cap* 
8.5. That all the children of the wicked are circumci- 
r, Jojh.%. Becaufe Jojbuah at Gods comman- 
dement arcumcifed the children aflfrael, vcr, 2 , 2 {]. whefe 


1 66 infants of the vifible Church Borne Chap.12. 

wicked parents the Lord had confined, becaufe they 
obeyed not the voice of the Lord, unto Whom the Lord [ware 
that he Would not fiew them the Land Which the Lordfware 
to their fathers. And Heb.$. 10. of that generation the 
Lord laid, They doe alrvayes erre in their hearts and they 
have not knovene my Wayes, there was in the q an evill 
heart, an hard heart, an unbeleeving heart, ver. 13.15,18. 
and yet God commanded fofiuah to circumcife their 
childen, therefore there was no more required of the 
circumcifed, but that they were Abrahams feed accor- 
ding to the fle(h, and by that fame reafon there is no 
more required of infants that they may be baptized* but 
that they be borne in the chnftian Church, for the Chri- 
ftian baptifme, and the J ewifh circumcifion infubftance 
are all one. Rom, 6.4. Col. 2. 1 1. Jer. 9. 26. ^r.4.4. 
1 Tet. 3 .2 1 ,2 2. 7 his is fo true, that circumcifion is put 
for the Nation of the fewes, Attsij.i. Rom.2.i6 i ij. 
&al.2.y. Gal 6.i%. which fpeech could not (land, if 
moft part of the children of the fewes, for the parents 
— - wickedneffe were to be uncircumcifed : neither dee we 

y || reade in Gods word, that ever the children of wicked 

lewes were uncircumcifed, and if their circumcifion had 
beene a prophaning of the covenant, and difhonouring 
and polluting of the holy things of God, the Prophets 
who rebuked all the finnes of that Nation, would not 
have paffed in filence that which (liouid have beene a N .- - 
tionall finne in them : and as G©d determineth thee 
lity of thefc that eate the Pafleover, that they be '£ 
cumcifed people, an&folewes, fodoth he determine^ 
quality of thefe that arc to be externally circumc'iied, 
Cjen.iy. every male child. Some anfwer that thefe in- 
fants, Iofi.$. cir cumcifed, 'Were the infants of -parents dead 
in the Vvildernejfe, and Jo they Were not now under the care 
And tutorie of their parents, but under the care of others, and 
fo the j might be cir cumcifed. 

Anfvo; But the death of the parents did not change 
their Church-ftate, for they were (till the children of 
wicked parents, Wbofe car cafes fill in the Wildewejfe, and 


Chap. ij. of wicked parents baptised warrant ably* 1 6y 

that in Gods wrath, Hebrews 3. 

2. Argument. If John'Baftift Mat. 5.5. baptized ]c* l*Ar* k 
rufalem, and Ml Judea, and ah the regions roundabout, 

and that without any further examination of the aged, 
fo they would confeffe thdr (innes, and yet he called them 
a generation of vipers, and fo the fecde of murtherers and 
eviil doers, fucKasarcc*/w.r, and Chrift faid LMat.i%. 
that of their children, and f'uch like was the Kingdom* 
of god; then the children of Tharifees and Tublicans 
and wicked per ions are to be baptized, fo their parents 
profefle the doctrine of the covenant, but the former is 

3. Argument. If Peter, Acts 2.38, $9 . command every ^tyfr^ 
one ofthe/r»w to be baptized by this argument, becaufe 

the promife ( faith he ) is made to you, and to your children, 
and to as many as the Lord Jbxll call, then all are to be bap- 
tized, to whom the promife of the covenant, and ex- 
tcrnall calling by this covenant is made; but the promife 
of the covenant is made to the feede of the wicked with- 
in the vifible Church, Ergo the feale of that promife is 
to be conferred upon them, I prove the atfumption. 
When God faid to Abraham^ IVvill be thy God, and the 
Godoftkyfeed, by the feed of Abraham he cannot meane 
the neareft of Abrahams ked only, to wit, the nearen; 
fonnes, for fo by that, he fhould have been Abrahams 
"God, and Ifaacks God only, and not Iaacobs God, and 
theGodofthe feed of Jacob, which is againft thetenour 
of rhe covenant, now if God be the God of Abrahams 
feed farre off, and neare downe, to many generations, 
j wickeiinefie of the neareft parents connot brcakethe 
covenant, as iscleere, £<.«•/;. 20.1 8, 19. ^.22. ^.3 6, 3 7. 
^.42,43. Pfal.\c6. ^.40,45,46, /faw.3.3. Lev. 26.44, 
45. fpoken of the fonnes of wicked parents, and if 
thefe children ftand in the covenant, for Gods names 
fake, and God fay exprefly, Ezech. 20 18, 19. to the 
fonnes of wicked parents who grieved his holy spirit in 
the Veildernefe :. Waike in my ftatutes and Voalke not in the 
ftatutcs of your fathers^ 1 am the Lord jour Qoa\ then 

A a they 

1 6 8 Infants of the vifible Church borne Chap. 1 2 • 

they were in covenant notwithstanding of the wicked- 
nefleof their fathers, and therefore by our bretherensar- 
gument,the feales of the covenant mould be beftowed up- 
on them. 
A* Art. 4. Argument. If the Lord Jhew mercy to the thoufand 

qenerAtions of them Vvho love hlm^ and fceepe hit comman- 
dements, then the wickedneffe of the neareft parents, doe 
not remove the mercy of the covenant from the chil- 
dren, becaufe the mercy extendeth to the tlooufand ge- 
nerations : But the former is faid, Exod.20. in the ie- 
cond commandement, and therefore for the (inncs of 
their neareft parents, they are not excluded from the 
mercy of the covenant, and therefore neither from the 
feales of that mercy. If our brethren fay, we have no af- 
furance of faith, that their thoufand generation upward 
hath been lovers of God and keepers of his commande- 
ments, and fo the children in faith cannot be bapti- 

I anfwer firft, by this argument you connot deny bap- 
tifme to them in faith. 

1. Yoa have not certainty of faith, which muft be 
^fib.c«Sc£ f,dC grounded upon infallible verity, that their neareft parents 
are beleevers, you have for that only the judgement of 
charity, as famero faith well : and this faith you have 
infallibly, .that the finnes of no one, or two, or foure 
pcrfons doc interrupt thecourfe of Gods immutable co- 
venant in the race of covenanters borne in the vifible 
Church, Rom.i.-$4. lo/h^.z^^.Levit 26.41,42,43,41. 

IT*^\20.I4,I7>2 2. 

}\Arg % 5. Argument. The infallible promife of the covenant, 

J Wl be thy god, andthe Godofthyfeede : which is made 
tow% CjenttieSy as well as to the Jewes, Ga/.^.io,iT,i2, 
13. muft make a difference betwixt the feed of Chri- 
ftians, and the feed of Turks and "Pagans, and thefethat 
are without the true Church of Chriftians. But if fo, 
that the finnes and wickedneffe of the nearcft parents cut 
off their children, from the mercy of the covenant, and 
hinder God to be their God ; then thefe infants arc in no 


Ghap. i %. of wicked parents baptised rvarrantably. 1 69 

better cafe through the covenant made to their grand- 
fathers and generations upward, then the fonnes of Turks 
and Pagans; for they arc ftrangers to the covenant, and 
have no right to the fcales oft|he covenant, no more 
then the children oiTurks. I prove the propofition ( / 
\fe/Y/ be thy Cjod and the God ofthyfeede ) cxtendeth the 
covenant to the ked of the faithfull to many generations 
downeward, untill it pleafe the Lord to tranflate his 
Sonnes Kingdome, and remove the candleftick from a 
people; Neither can the meaning be, (IVri/I be thy God 
and the God of thy feed > except the tie or eft parents of thy feed 
be unbeleevers,) for that is contrary to the Scriptures a- 
bovedcitwd. Neither can they lay, that the children of 
unbeleeving parents borne within the chriftian Church, 
have right to the covenant and the feales thereof when 
they come to age, and doe beheve and repent, for 
fo the children of Turl^s, if they belecve and repent 
have that famerigMt, asiscleare, Ijaiah t $6.6 > ']. Acls 10. 


6. Argument. If God in the covenant of grace and 6.Arg. 

Evangel!, will not have the fonne to beare the iniquity 
of the father, except the fonne follow the evillwayes of 
his parents, and fo make the fathers iniquity his owne: 
then cannot the children of wicked parents be excluded 
from the covenant, and the feales of the covenant, [for 
the (innes and wicked neffc of their neareft parents ; But 
the former is faid, Ezech.i% % <\. The fonne iliall not beaic 
the iniquity of his father : Now infants as yet being 
f ree of a&uall nnnes, have not ferved themfelves heires 
to the iniquities of their fathers. Neither can it be faid, 
as fomefay, the children of Turks are not to be baptized, 
becaufe their parents are without the covenant, and yet 
thefe children being free of a&uall tranfgreflions b'earc 
the iniquity of their fathers. 

I anfwer, God keepeth alegall way with Turks and 
all that arc without the Church, and covenant of grace, 
and we fuppofe the child borne of wicked parents to be 
in the cafe of election, and fo really within the covenant, 

A a a And 

170 Infants of the vifible Church borne Chap. 1 2 • 

and it is ordinary enough that cbofen and redeemed in- 
• fants be born of unbelieving parents, in that cafe who can 
fay that God layeth their fathers iniquities on them in 
fpirituall and cternall ppnifhments, fuch as is to be re- 
puted without the covenanted dying in that cftate,tobc 
damned for ever. 
a 7. Arg. If the root be holy, fo alfo Are the branches, 

7* r & m Rom.11.16. Now this holineffc cannot be meant of 

perfonall and inherent holineffe 5 for it is not true in 
that ienfc, if the fathers and fore-fathers be truly fan- 
edified and beleevers, then are the branches and chil- 
dren fandhfied and beleevers, the contrary wherof we 
fee in wicked Abfalom borne of holy David, and ma- 
ny others : Therfore this holineffc rauft be the holincs 
of the Nation, not of peribns ; it mud be an holines, 
- bscaufe of their clecled and chofen parents the Patri- 
arches and Trophets, and th* holy feed of the levies : 
and fo the holineffc federall, or the holineffc of the co- 
venant. If then the levees in Pauls time were holy by 
covenant, howbeit for the prefent the fons were branches 
broken offfor unbeliefe : much more feeing God hath 
chofen the race and Nation of the Gentiles, and is be- 
come a God to us and to our feed, the feed muft be holy 
with holineffeof the choien Nation, and holineffc exter- 
nall of the covenant, not withftanding the father and mo- 
ther were as wicked, as the lews who flew the Lord of 
UArjt. & ^Argument. If the fpecfatt and only rcalon, why 

Baptlfme (hould be denied to the children of neai eft Pa- 
rents who are unbelievers, be weake and contrary to the 
Scriptures, then is this opinion contrary to Scripture al- 
fo; but the former is true, Ergo, .fo is the latter : for not 
only the fpeciall, but the only argument is, becaufethefe 
children are without the covenant, feeing their nearcft 
Parents are without the covenant, but this is moft falfe 

many waies. 

I. God commandeth (as I (hewed before) that the 
r xhildrcn o^rnoft WKkcd Parents, fofi.j, fhould be cir- 


Chap. 1 2 . vtjtble church war rant ably baptized. 171 

cumcifed. €rg9 s God eftecmed them within the cove- 
nant, notwithstanding of their fathers wickedneiTe. 

2. The Lord tearmeth the children of thofe who flew 
their fonnes to Mokch, and fo offered them to Divels, to 
be his fonnes, Ezccb.16.2Q. <J\f or eovtr thou haft taken 
my fixr.es trnd my daughters > vrhich thou haft borne to we, 
and thefekaft thou ficrificed to them to be devoured : ft 

of thy -ptloooredcnjcs a [mall matter, v, 21. That p)ou 
haft flaine my children, &c. So iT*^*. 2 3. 3 7. If they be 
z Lords fonnes, and borne to the Lord,- bowbeit their 
Parents were bloody murtherers, and facrificers to *D/- 
vtlt ; then God efteemed thefe fonnes within the cove- 
nant, and who are we to exclude them out of Gods cove- 
nant ? 

3. The fonnesofmeft wicked Parents dying in their 
infancy may be faved, and of them God hath his ownc. 
chofen, as we fee in many aged ones borne of wicked Pa- 
rents. Ergo, the wickedneffe of the Parents is a weakc 
ground to fay they arc without the covenant, efpecially 
feeing we arlirme, God hath his decrees of Election and 
Reprobation of infants, Rom. 9. n. no lefTe then of 
aged, the contrary whereof wee know sArmimans 

9. Arg. If externallprofeffion be fufficicnt without 9^ r £* 
longer examination to baptize the aged, as we fee in 
Simon C^'tagpts, AcT.8,i3. and in Amnio* and Saphira, 
Aft.2.3 8,30,44 4>. compared with Atl.$. 1,2. by the 
Apoftles pra&ife : Then the profeilion of faith in the fore- 
fathers is enough for us to judge their fore-fathers with- 
in the covenant, and confenters to the covenant • for 
when many thoufartds at once are laid to enter in cove- 
nant with God, zs is clears Deut. 2^,10^1^2, 13. Jo(b. 
24.24,25. 2 Chron. 15.9,10,11,12, they could not give 
any larger proofs or evidences of their faith of the cove- 
nant, thenafolemneaflembling together, and a verball 
oath or a faying {Amen, or So be it) as Deut,in.\/L 17 , 
after which they were reputed in the covenant, and* 
fa thenr feed alfo in the covenant. Auguslim his mind ^^75. 

A 33 is 

iyz Jnfdnts ofwukcd\farents 9 forne in the Chap. 1 2 

is that fuch infants arc not to be excluded from bap- 
*Bumh {teem,*?, tifme, fo Bucan, Calvin, W aliens, the Trofeffoptrs of 


Calv Intliu 

wadt-M UcsmAe Let us heare fhortly what our brethren fay on the con- 
^W^i'l; trary. U.Befl and others ofcjetf, Thefe only are to 
finwurior.theti. receive the feale of the covenant, whofe Parents, at 
^Uttfegt* lca ft onc f them, in externall profeffion, are within 
the covenant 5 but infants borne of wicked and pro- 
phane parents, are not borne of parents in external pro- 
- fetfion within the covenant, Srgo, the infants of wic- 
i.Owct. ^cd p arents are not to receive the feale of the covenant. 
The proportion he proveth from Genef. 17.10. This a my 
Btfi Churches j lea covenant, and every man-childe amon>fi yon Jhall bee cir- 
;>.>o53. . cumcifed y and /c 0*0.4. 1 1, Be received tkc figne of circum- 

tZ^i^yT' cifion, a feale of the riokteotifneffeof Faith. Theaflump- 
Gutdete Uw*fo{. ^\ on he and others groove, hecanfe murtherers, drunkards \ 
i*y> 1, fwearers, and whofe children we baptife, declare them [elves 

not to be ChriftUns, nor faith fill, nor Saints by their wic- 
ked life, and p not within the covenant. This argument 
alfo the Separates ufe. 

Anfa. The Major is falfe, and not proved from Gen. 
17, or Rom. 4 for neither of thefe places fpeake of 
neareft Parents, father and mother one at lead ; the 
Text bcareth no inch thing, but the contrary. Thefe 
are to receive the feale of the covenant whofe fore- fa- 
thers are in externall profeflion within the covenant ; 
for God commandeth not Abraham only to circum- 
cife his ions, but all parents defcended of Abrahams 
circumcife their feed, the feed of Abraham carnally de- 
fcended to all generations : and fo the nearelt parents on- 
ly are not to be looked unto. 

2. This argument doth either proceed according to 
this meaning, that thefe infants only are to receive the 
feale of the covenant whofe parents are within the co- 
venant by an inward ingrafting and union by true faith, 
befides the externall profefling therof ; or then there 
is no other thing required, but only externall profefli- 
on, that the Church without ^finne t may conferrc the 


Chap. 1 2 . viftble Church warrantable baptized. 173 

fealcs; if the former be faid, it will follow that God 
fpeaketh, Qen. 17. enly to Abraham and his fons by 
faith, according to thepromife, and only to believers; 
but God fpeaketh to all Abrahams fons according to 
the flefti. 2. Becaufc God fhould fpcak'e an untruth, 
that he were a God by renll union of faith 10 all that 
are commanded to be circumciied ; for he comman- 
ded thcuiands to be circumcifed to whom he was not 
a God by reall union of faith : therefore thefe words 
mud import, that nothing is more required, that ths 
Church without fin may conferre the feale of the co- 
venant, but the children to be defcended of parents 
profefling the truth and faith , although the parents 
indeed, as concerning any renll union of faith, be plain 
ftrangers to the covenant, and members of the Church 
only as an arme of wood is a member of the body, 
which being true, as it muft be faid, the aflumptien is 
weakc and fick. For the cjueftion is, what it is to be 
externally within the covenant, it is not to flee all 
knowne finncs, to be 4 chofen people, a people taught of 
god (for then God would not have commanded fofiua 
C*hap.$. to circumcife all Ifrael, becaufe their fathers 
externally were within the covenant) as this argument 
would fay ; for their fathers were a generation ©fun- 
believers Who knew not God, who tempted him and Grie- 
ved his holy Spirit in the ^'i/demejfe, and profeffed them- 
felvcsby their murmuring never to be truly within the 
covenant. Then to profefle the doclxine of the cove- 
nant is but to be borne Iewes y and avow the Lord in 
externall profctfion, and T>eut.2p, fweare a covenant 
with him, when the heart is blinded and hardned^x.q. 
And fo by this it is cleare Jojlma had commandement 
of God to give the feale of the covenant to their chil- 
dren, who were as openly wicked againft the Lord, 
as murthercrs, drunkards, fwearers, &c. 3. This ar- 
gument will prove circumcillon could lawfully be gi- 
ven to none, but the children of parents within the 
covenant, that is> profeflcdly knowne to be 6ithfull 3 


174 Infants of wicked parents 7 farne in the Chap, r 2 

holy, and fcparated from the prophane world in the 
judgement of charity : this hath no warrant of the word. 
For i . The children of the moft wicked were circum- 
cifed,/^.? . 2. We detire to know whom God forbad to 
be circumcifed that were carnally defended of Abraham? ' 
Or (hew us example or precept therof in the Word ? 
3. What God required in the parents, whofe Infants 
the Church might lawfully and without fin circumcife, 
lb they were borne Iewes : O faith Mr. *Besl, they be- 
hooved to be members of the (fhurch whofe infants might 
lawfully be circumcifed. I anfwer, that is, ignotum per 
ignotius, Shew me one perfon being a borne lew, whofe 
child the Lord forbad te circumcife ? 2. What is it 
to be a member of the Iewijh Church ? Is it to bee a 
vifible Saint and taught of @od ? I true, that was re- 
quired indeed to make men acceptable before God ; but 
to make one a vifible member of the lewifi Church 
vifible, nothing was required, but to be a borne lew, 
«■. and profefle Gods truth, and keepe them from external! 
ceremoniall pollutions, I mean to be a member of the vifi- 
ble Church, to keep cxternall and Church- communion 
with the reft of Gods people. 
Ob 'eft Secondly, they object, Not onely mufi they be in pro- 

" feffion within the covenant ; but alfo members of fome vi- 
fible £hurch and particular congregation, that is, that they 
M.2</2 churches be within the Chmxh ; fir we have nothing to do to judge 
pica:/\*o,*irfyg.i t hem that are without. 1 Cor. 5,12. And this M.Beft pro- 
vcth by the order required in Gods Church, putting a 
difference betwixt Church-communion and Chriftian- com- 
munion, A man may be a juft, peaceable, quiet man, and 
fo meet to be a Citizen in a City, but he hath not right 
to the priviledges of the brnghe, ttntill he come to them bj 
due 6rder ; fo mufl a man not onely be a (fhrifiian ere 
his childe be baptised ; but dlfo a member of a vifible 

Anfw. 1. This Objection procccdeth from a great 
miftake, as if Church-communion with a particular in- 
dependent congregation were more, and a better and 


Chap. 1 3 . of wicked Parents warrant ably b^ti^ed. 175 

nearer ground cf baptizing, then Chriftian-ccmmunion, 
which we judge to be falfe ; becaufe the Catholick 
Church is hy order cf nature, and firft and rr ore prin- 
cipally the kdy, sfoufe, redeemed fleck? of Chrift, then 
«ny particular independent congregation, that is but a 
part or member of theCatholikc Church; and therfore the 
covenant,promifesofgrace,the power ef the keys,the feals 
of the cevenant belong firft & principally to the Catholike 
Churcb,& to thefe that are in Chriftian communion with 
her,before they belong to this or that \ ifibk part of theCa- 
tholick Church, and fo all ecclefiaftick power of the keys 
muft be firft & more principally in the CatholickChurch, 
then in a particular congregations a reafonable foul by or- 
der of nature is in maa,before it be \viPeter>l homos or John. 
2. I believe thefe are within, that are profeflours of 
the true faith, fuppofe they be not members of the 
Church of Corinth, or of any fetled Church , it is c- 
nough if they be within the covenant , and thefe are 
without only, who are Infidels and Pagans, not profef- 
fing the true and found faith, as the Affile meaneth, 
2 Cor.5.12. Baptifme is a pnviledge of the Church, 
not a priviledge of fuch a particular independent C hurch, 
and the diftinclion betwixt Chriftian- communion and 
Churcb-communionintbis point is needleffe and fruit- 
lelTe ; for none are to be rcfufed of baptifme, whofe 
parents prcfefic the faith and Chriftian-ccmmunion : 
Howbeit, they, by Gods providence may be caft into a 
country where they are not, and cannot be (without due 
examination) members of a fetled Church, as one may 
heare the word and joyn in pubhek prayer with any true 
Church he comcth unto, and fo having Chriftian-commu- 
nion w ith a true Church,he hath by that fame alfo Church 
communion. For baptifme is not like Burgefle freedomc 
in a city, a man may be a free Citizen in one Towne 
or City, and not be a free citizen to have right to the 
priviledges of all other Cities, but he who is Chrifts 
free-man in one Church, hath Chriftian freedome and 
right to communion therby in all Churches, and may 

B b have 

X y5 Infants ofthcv;Jible Church fornt Chap. 12. 

hive Church- comma lion in all true Churches ; but 
hee tint is a free Bargeff; in o.ie City, is not free in 

Thirdly, they object, If 'Baptifme be given to a!l pro- 

wlfcHoafly y the Church Jha/l n§t be the hsufe of God, to 

receive only Gods family, but a common Inne to receive 

B-lli6 t all cleane and uncle ant. So Bcft citing Ca/twright. c Bap- 

Stpa "aufit 1 petit, tifme is to be adminiftred (fry the Sepjtratifts ) onely 

io.}ioCar.a rcar.3, t0 fa fed of the faithfully becaufe fitch only are accounted 

to the Lord fir a generation, Vvhich h; begetter h and re* 

ceiveth in his Church to declare his righteoufneffe in Chrifi 3 

PAlm. 22.30,31. Rom. 4.1 1. and Rom. 1 l*\6. Math. 


SXT^* 1 a * al-a Anfw. Cartrvright in that place is only againft the 

uvt^f.fju baptizing of infants of excommunicate parents who 

are catt out of the Church ; but as the Church is a 

houf.*, fo there are in the houfe of baptized ones, both 

cleane and uncleanc : Neither arc they all barnes of 

the houfe, who are within the houfe : the profeifion 

of cleanneffc and holinefl'e, and of the faith of Chrift, 

maketh it a houfe different from the fociety cf Tagans 

and Infidels. 

3. Wheras M. *Beft urgcth that none [ho nld be bapti- 
zed, but members of the viable Church: he maketh all 
baptized members of the Church, how then rnuft they be 
allviftble Saints, clean perfons and holy? For baptifme 
maketh not the thounnd part that are baptized t«> be vi- 
able Saints. 

3.. This feneration begotten of the Lord and received 
into the Church to declare Ir-srightcmfnefie, Pfal.2 2. is not 
ilich only as are to be baptized ; for that generation, 
v. 30 is a feed that fer vet h the Lord, and v. 31. -decla- 
re th his right eoufnefie : All infants whether of fatthfjll or 
unfaithfull parents doe alike fervice to God, and alike de- 
clare his righteouf leffe, that is to fay, infants of what c- 
ver kinie can doe no fervice to God. If their mea- 
ning bee the infants of faithfull parents circumcif:d 
(ball ferve God, and declare his Righteoufnefie, when 


C hap. 12. of wicked Parents war rant ably Baptized. 177 

they come to age : Firft this Text faith not they are 
the feed of the faithfull cnely that fhall ferve God : 
For the feed of the faithful), fuch as Ammo*, AbfoUm, 
and Davids feed often refi fe to ferve God, and declare 
his rigkteoufnejfe, 2vA the feed and children of wicked 
Parents , as Hezehiah the fonne of wicked Aha*. , and 
fojtah the fbnne of wicked Amon, doe often ferve god, 
and declare his righteou/nefe : So they cite Scriptures, 
that by no force of reafon doe Ipeake for them, as- 
Rom.4. 11. and R*m.U.i6. fay nothing ; but if the 
root be holg with the holineffe federal!, and of the ex- 
ternal! profclTion : So are the branches ; but the place 
fpeaketh nothing of true inherent holinefle ; for then 
all holy Parents fhould have holy and vifible Saints com- 
ming out of their loines, which is againfl Scripture and 

Fourthly, they objecT, *By this' our 'Divines lofe their Obiett.q. 
be si Argument again ft Anabaptifts ; namely 3 that children ^'ft «*Pt**» 
of Chriftians by that fame warrant are to be baptize d^that 
Infants under the Z#rtV -were circumcifed • but none was 
circumcifed but a member of the vifible Church undtr the 
Law. Now this ye gain- fay , Who wuld have all eleane 
and uncieane baptized , and fo you leave your pat- 

Anfw. W# leave our patterne in no fert : For all wert 
circumcifed that were borne of circumcifed Parests 
within the Church of the Jcvves : fo all are to be bap- 
tized that are borne of Chriftians, and baptized Parents 
profefling the faith. 'But (fay they) Drunkards, Mur- 
thererSy Scoffers^ Shearers, and ignorant Atheifts both Fa- 
thers and Mothers , Whofe children yon baptize , doe not 
profejfe the faith *for in Works they deny and belye their pro* 

Arfw % Then you will have the children of none to 
be baptized, but thefe whole parents are found and fin- 
cere profeflors in the judgement of charity; but (ojo- 
fiuah failed who circumcifed the children of all profef- 
fing themfelves to be Abrahams fonnes carnally ; how- 

Bb 1 beit 

178 Infants of the vifikle Charcb fornt Chap.i*. 

beit Jofkxah knew,ani was an eye-witneffc that their Far- 
thers did deny and bsiye their profeflbn. And Jokn 
baptized the feed of all, Mat.$. that profeffed the faith 
of the Mejftah, although he knivV them to be a gene- 
ration of vipers. 

2 They often require that one of the Parents be a 
beleever, or elfe the childe cannot be cleane, nor law- 
fully baptized , and they rcpole on that place, 1 Cor. 
7.14. For the unbeleeving husband is fanBifed by the Wife, 
and the unbeleeving Veife is fanBifed by the husband ; Elfe 
(that is , if both were unbeleevers ) were your children 
mcleane (that is not within the covenant) bat now org 
they holy. And they alleadge Bezi and Tareu* for 

Anfw. But they miftake the word (unbeleeving) for 
by (unbeleeving) in that place (as the Profeflbrs of 
Pr>fe[.Uyd.Synop. Leyden doe well obferve) is meant I nSdell Gentiles that 
P urior.Theol. arc w j tnou t the Church, and profeffe not Chrift, as is 
cleare from the Text : For where the husband that be- 
WtUm \t difp. fc CYCC | wa s married on a Pagan-wife ; or a Jew hee 
44-t c.4?, thought being converted to the Chriftian faith, he be- 

hooved to funder with his "Pagan-wife ; and the wife 
converted to the Chriftian faith married to a heathen 
and Pagan-husband thought (he behoved to divorce • 
and that the marriage could not be fancTirled. The Apo- 
ftle anfwereth this cafe of confeience : Suppofe the Fa- 
ther be a Pagan, if the Mother be a beleever, that is, 
a profeflbur of Christianity (for a Beleever is here op- 
pofed to a Pagan) yet the children are holy by the Mo- 
thers or Fathers profcifion of Christianity. Hence the 
Argument is ftrong for us, Profeilion of Chriftianity 
oppofed to Paganifme maketh the children cleane" and 
holy before God by theholmefleof the Covenant; there- 
fore I nf ants borne of parents profelling Chriftian Reli- 
gion are to be baptized": For that this troubled many 
converted, that they were married to heathen,and bond- 
men to them , and in fuch and fuch callings as they 
thought inconfiftible with Chriftian Religion is cleare 


Chap.12, of wicked Parents rvarrantably baptized, ijg 

from vcrfe 14,15, 16,20,21,22,23,24, And Beza on fc"yfriCot*i* 
that place faith , it was never heard in the ancient 
Church that every I nfldell child was to be baptized. And 
Parens faith, the children of Chriftian parents are holy £££.£***** 
before Baptifme by a Covenant and extermll holineffe, 
iure 3 by Gods right being borne of Chriftian parents ; 
And after Baptifme they are \\o\y,de fatto, formally and 
a&ually. So fay Melantlhon and Keckerman. Butlfeare MeUn6iho»\o C . 
that thefe who will have none baptized but the chil- compag.383. 
dten or beleev-mg parents, aime at this, inat the faith ifacoik3p. 4 j3, 
of the father is imputed to the children, which indeed 
reverend Beza doth maintaine : Or then a worfe,.that %*'*?/*% 
Infants are not" to be baptized at all, feeing they op- ° v *^ 
pole the places that we cite for the la vvfulneffe of bap- 
tizing Infants. The authors of Presbyteriall government Vj^Z™^ 
call the baptizing or children auntimous anticipation. Our 
brethrens mind is , that the Infants of both Parents 
knowne to be unbeleevers , are not to be baptized un- 
till they come to age, and can give proofe that they 
are within the covenant of grace , what Anabapufls 
thinke here is knowne. Some fay that 'Boniface the 4. Boniface^ 
in the yeare 606. began the Baptifme of Infants. M. Z*^* 1 "* 
*Beft faith too nakedly. / beleeve as ^-fugufline, Cyprian, 
. Origen, Cyril/, Nazianzen , tsfmbrofe , and many other 
Fathers affrme, that the Church hath received the 'Bap- 
tifme of Infants from the Apoflles. What ? doth he not 
beleeve that it ismoft evidently in Scripture ? and hath he 
no better warrant then the fathers? . . • 

Fourthly, W.Befr obje&eth, J f there be no precept nor 4-^^^* 
example for baptizing of Infants begotten of both parents 
unbeleeving • then there is no promife of bleffinf made unto 
it j but the fir si u true, Er 'go, the fecond. 

Anfkw, Weaske with what faith, and by what pre- 
cept or example was ever circumcifion in the whole old 
Teftament denyed to any male-childe of the moft wic- 
ked Jewes ; and by what precept and example is Bap- 
tifme denyed to any Infant in the New Teftament for 
his Parents wickedbefle r the Fathers profcfling the 

B b 1 . Chri- 

1 80 Infants of the vifible Church borne Chap.i2« 

Chriftian Faith : Ye?, feeing Baptifrae is denycd to Trv 
fonts upon a fufpition , that their Parents are deftitute 
of faith, and not within the Covenant ; Now this fuf- 
pition is not faith, nor grounded upon any word cf 
God, or cert3intie of faith ; for whether an other man 
beleeve,or belceve nor, it is not faith, nor knowne by 
faiths certaintie to me, but by the judgement of cha- 

Obiett.j, Fifthly, they cbjedt, If all promifcuoufiy be baptiz/d, 

Cjods name is taken in vaine, and the holy Sacrament creatly 
abufed, Mai. 1. 12. Heb.io 29. 

Anfw. This is to accufe God, as if he had not found 
fufficient wayes out to five his owne name frombkf- 
phemy. Nor can our brethren by their Doctrine fave 
his name from dishonour, nor the Sacrament from pro- 
phanation ; becaufe multitudes of Infants borne of be- 
leeving Parents are reprobates, and yet God hath com- 
manded to baptize them , who being reprobates mud 
be without the covenant, and fo the covenant is pro- 
pbaned, and many Infants of wicked Parents are cho- 
ien, and within the covenant > yet are we forbidden 
by our brethren to give them the feales of the cove- 
nant untill they come to age, which alfo fhould be gi- 
ven to them , and needs- force by their doclrine that 
Chrift hath commanded a certaine way of dishonouring 
his name (which is blafphemy) For we have not fuch 
acleare way to know Infants cleane and uncleane, as 
the Priefi had to know the polluted bread, and the pol- 
luted facrifkes, cJ^/h.7, 12. as he cireth : For what 
Infants are within the covenant indeed, and chofen of 
God ; and what not : We neither know, ncr is it re- 
quifit* that we know further then that we arc to 
know , that they arc borne within the vifible 

Obiecl 6 C nurc h\ 

Beitchunb'pUty Sixthly, they fiy, The Church of Qod is defied, Hag. 

P <* J. 2 . 1 4 , 1 V . E zech .44.7. ff all Infants promifcuoujly be bap- 

tized ; for then the people and ezery re or kg of their hand, 
and their offering is unc leans. So IA,B eft. 


C hap. it, of wicked parents faptiztd warr.ir>l*bly , 1 8 x 

*Anfm We deny that children borne wkhin the vi- 
fible Church are an uncleane offering to the Lord, and 
that the baptizing of them polluteth the Nation, and 
all the worihip of the Nation, as they would gather 
from Hated : For being bom: of the holy Nation, 
they are hoi)' with a federall and nation-ill hclineffe, 
Rom. 1 1.16. If the root be holy [9 are the branches: For 
our brethren baptize children of Parents who are hy- 
pocrites and unbelievers, and fo the uncircu.rjcil:d in 
heart come into the Sanctuary : Yea Teter in bapti- 
zing Simon Magus ; and AHam* aid Saphira brought in 

. uncircumcifed m heart and the Grangers to Gods co- 
venant 3 as Befi alledgeth from K^?chq<\. borrowing 
f-ich abuled teftimonies of Gcds word from Separatists, 
as they borrowed them from Anabuptifis : For wc p;each 
and invite in th? Gufxli all theu.icircumcifed in heart, 
and all the wicked to come and heare and partake of 
the holy things of the Gofpel 1 , and receive the promi- 
fes thereof with faith : And when many come to this 
heavenly fanqtitc without their wedding garment, 
ji/*M2.'2,i ;. iCor.i.\6. ^f^.21.43,44. It folio w- 
ethnot, becaufe they prophane the holy things of God, 
that Minifters who baptize the Infants of hypocrites, 
and prophane perfons, are acceflarie to the prophaning N 

of the holy things of God , and that we bring in the 
polluted in heart to the Sanctuary of God. It is one 
thing whom Minifters uSould receive as members of the 
Sanctuary and Church ; and another thing, who mould 
come in, and what fort of per£>us they are obliged to 
be who come to be members. To fay that Miaiiters 
fhould receive none into the Church but thofe that are 
circumcifed in heart, and cleane and holy, and cloathed 
with the wedding garment of faith is more then our 
brethren can prove : Nay, we are* to invite to the wed- 
ding, good and bad, cho'fen and unchofen, Mat. 22. p. 
As many as you find bid to the ivedding But that all that 
come to be received members of the unvifible Church 
are obliged to be circumcifed in heart , and holy, and 


8 2 Infants of the vifihle Church Borne Chap, i ^ ^ 

clonthed wiib the wedding garment, elfe they pro- 
phane the Sanctuary and holy things of God) is moft 
true : But we defire that our brethren would prove 
this ; The Porters that held out the uncircumcifed and 
the ftrangers out of the Sanctuary, were types of the 
Mmifters and Church of the N~w Teft ament , who 
fhould receive none to be Church-members , and in- 
vite none to the wedding of the Gofpell , but fuch as 
have their wedding garment, and are* circumcifed in 
heart, and arc cleane, and holy, elfe they prophane and 
defile the Church of God, as W.Bcffi faith. VVebelceve 
this latter to be an untruth, and yet the ftrength of 
this Argument doth hang upon this : They are obliged, 
to be fuch who enter into the Churchy elfe they defile the 
Santiuary^ Ergo, the Church and Ministers of the New 
Testament are obliged to invite none to any Church-com- 
munion, or receive them into a Church fel/ow/hip, but only 
the circumcifed in heart : Wee utterly deny this con- 
fcquence. It is one. thing, what fort of perfons they 
ought to be, that mould be members? of the Church 
(doubtlefTe they fhould be belcevers) And another thing, 
whom the Church fhould receive in (thefe mould be 
<.Obiec~l. Seventhly, M-Beft reafoneth thus, The CMinifter u 

wade a covenant- breaker , Mai. 2. 8. \\>ho baptized the 
childe of prophane ^parents, a^d -why ? becaufe he ojfereth 
the blinde for afacrifce to Cjod, 

Anjrv. What if the Parents be efteemed bcleevers, 
and are but hypocrites indeed, as is too ordinary : There 
is then a blinde facriflce offered to God, and that by 
Gods commandement. 2. It followeth no way that 
the Minifter is acceffary to this facriflce : Suppoic it 
were blinde, as none can judge that but God ; but the 
"Minifter doth What Iris Rafter commandeth him, to 
preach unto all , and baptize' all that are borne within 
the vifible Church ; the iacriflce may be blinde by their 
dodrine and ours alfo ; but that it is a facrifice blinde 
to the Minifter, and he a Fricft to offer that blinde fa- 

Chap, i z . $f wicked Parents wan ant ably bapiT(cd. \ 8 $ 

crifice, is not hence concluded. 

Eighthly, Beft faith, Divine Wrath ii kindled for the ^Obictt. 
prophanation of holy things, 

Anfw. That this is the Minifters or Churches pro- 
phanation of holy things is not proved : It is not wrath 
procured by the Ministers, ©r tfcofe who receive them 
into the Church, but wrath procured by the vn worthy 

Ninthly, i>/><*r4r//r'.rrcafonthus : If all be baptised fro- 9.0bie8. 
rnlfcuoufly^ unbeleevers and prephane , together with their Se ^^ 1 * P"* 
children /hall be counted in that flare to be AbrahamsT^, 
and heires of the promife y and fo t* be Chrifts, contrary 
to gal. 7. j y ip. with gen.i<$.6.and 17.7. 

AnfVe.i, A promiscuous baptizing of all we deny: 
It may import a baptizing of the Infants of Turkes, or 
of Papifts , who avow they will bring up the childe 
baptized in the Romane faith : In which cafe,it would 
fcem# Baptifme fhould be denied, as the learned iVaL ^««w»'*be. 
lens thinketh. 2. There is a double counting on in Gods 
feed. 1. One according to Election, and fo oncly the 
eleel: are counted in the feed, as is cleare, Rom.g. Paul 
expoundeth, GV«.i$. This counting in the feed is not 
well counted to be common to all circumcifed : Sepa- 
ratiftf doc ordinarily mifcount and abufe Scriptures, not 
caring what they cite, fo that the Margen fwell with 
citations. 2.TrK*re is an Ecclefiafticall and conditionall 
counting, whereby all baptized are in the judgement 
of charity counted jitraharrshdxes ; but with the con- 
dition, that they have Abrahams faith , and be inter- 
nally in Abrahams covenant, and fo are counted in tha 
feed, and all baptized. Hence the Separatifts other two 
Arguments doc not conclude : For they inferrc, if all 
muft be baptized, that unbeleevers have alike intercft 
with beleevers in the feales and priviledges of the 
Church, and muft be counted in that fame body and . 
ftate with beleevers : "For to the externall priviledges 
and vifible body of the Church all profeflbrs (for they 
arc not to be reputed unbeleevers) have alike iotereft ; 

Ce but 

*84 Infants oftbcvifibk Church bunt Chap.i2. 

but to the inward favours and graces fealed in the Sa- 
craments, and in the true and myfticall body of Chrift 
they have not ail alike intercft who are baptized. 2. Se- 
parates doe ignorantly and uncharitably in this difpute 
take the children of the ncareft Tarents that are pro- 
phane and wickecf, and unbeleeving and uncleane In- 
fants for all one : For becaufe their Fathers many ge- 
nerations upward were within the covenant ; therefore 
are fuch children in extcrnall profefilon within the co- 
venant, as the Lord did (hew favour to his people for 
Abraham and Davids fake manyyeares after they were 
dead, when their neareft Parents were wicked and pro- 
phane, Pjai. 106, 4> 46. Tfal. 105.41 ^2. Ezecb.20.2u 
andehap.;6.2J : , r. 
Centltif. *• Conclnfion. Thcfe oncly are to b* admitted to the 

Supper of the Lord , whom in charity we judge, can 
and doe trye and examine themfelves, and rightly diC* 
cerne the Lords body, and who in faith can annuntiatc 
the Lords death, unto his fecoad comming againe: 
And therefore children and infants, ignorants, and fcan- 
daloufly flagitious perfons , and mad perfons are to be 
debarred. But that none mould be Church- members $f 
Chrifts vifible body, but fuch as we can, and dare ad- 
mit to the Lords Supper, is moil: falfe : For we put a 
manifeft difference betwixt thofe that are admitted in- 
to Chrifts vifible body, as ordinary hearers of the word, 
fuch as arc ignorants, and many unconverted profef- 
lors ; and the excommunicate who arc admitted to 
be ordinary hearers of the word, but are not to be ad- 
mitted to the Supper of the Lord ; for fo we mould 
prophane the holy things of God, and be acccffiry to 
the prophaning of the Lords body and precious bloud. 
Here a. doubt arifetb, feeing Chrift cruci.ied is the fcib- 
ftance and object of faith in the word preached, as well 
as in the Sacrament of the Lords Supper ; and in no 
ibrt are Minifters to be acceflary to the prophaning of 
the holy things of God, or of casllng pearles before fmne, 
Mat.7. 6. Mat.15. 26. Heb.io. 2*, Hag.2. 14, 15, 


Chap.ii. of wickedFtrents rvarrmtMy baftizcd. 185 

Num.5.2,3. and Lcvit.ip. 22. How doc wcadniitthc 
ignorant and unbeleevcrs, yea the excommunicate, M#t. 
22. p. 2 ^6^3.15. to the holy things of the Gofpcll 
preached , which we know they fball , and doe pro- 
pria ne I F$r to them the Vcord is the favour of death un- 
to death, 2 Cor. 2. io\ and Chrifl is a rock? of offence 9 
#nd a fumbling ft one , a gmne and a fnare , I fa. 8. 14. 
1 Pet.2. 8. and yet we arc accefTary totheir prophaning 
of the Lords Tabic if w r e admit fuch to the Table. 

K^nfto. There arc great odds betwixt a poffiblc and 
necefTary meanc of falvation prophaned , and a mcanc 
of falvation not necefTary nor poflible to reach its end 
for the which it is ordained : If thefe of ^the Separa- 
tion would diftinguifh this as Gods word doth, they 
fhould not fo [tumble about the conftitution of a visi- 
ble Church : For the wcrd preached is the neceffary 
and pofliblc meane of converfion to the moft flagitious 
and wicked hearers ; And howbeit they prophanc the 
\f ord, promifes , and delpife Chrift and his covenant 
in the word preached ; yet Minifters in receiving fuch 
into Church-communion are pot accefTary to the pro- 
phaning of Gods holy things ; becaufe they are under 
aneceflity of offering Chrift preached, as the onely or- 
dinary , necefTary , and pofliblc meane of falvation ; 
Therefore wc admit them to the hearing and beleeving 
©f the word, per fe, and kindly ; but to the {tumbling 
at the word by accident, by their abufc comming from 
themfelvcs. But the Lords Supper being a Seale of our 
nourifhment aHd fpintuall growth in Chrift , it pre- 
fuppofeth faith, and the begun life of God, and the new 
birth , and fo to thofe who are openly flagitious and 
knowne unbeleevcrs, it is neither a necefTary meane of 
ialvation, nor yet a pofliblc meane : Net necefTary ; 
for meat and drinke and thefe elements cannot nou- 
ritli thofc who have no life of God in them at all : 
As bread and wine are not means at all to a dead man, 
Infeftment in the husbands lands, and a dowry is no 
meane necefTary at all to an unmarried virgin remai- 

Cc 2 ning 

l86 Infants oftht vifible Church borne Chap.i*. 

ning unmarried. Alfo untill the communicant belecve 
in Chrift , it is not a poifiblc Seale ; for it can fealc 
nothing to one that is not capable of nourifhment,fee*- 
ing the unbeleever by no poitibility can be fealed up in 
a growing communion with Chrift. And this- Supper 
is not a formall meane of conversion , but a formall 
meane of the further growth and nourifhment of thefe 
who are already converted ; and therefore when Mi*- 
nifters are acceffary to admit to the Lords Table thefe 
whom they know are unbeleevers , they have there 
a kindly influence in the prophaning of the holy things 
of God, in giving a meane of falvationto thefe to whom 
it is neither ncceffary nor poflible : But in admittance 
©f members of the Church to be ordinary hearers of 
the word, their influence is not kindly, and their co- 
operation oncly accidentall. The finne is in the abu- 
fers of the word onely, which is a -meane both necef- 
fary and pofliblc, and the fault is not in the Minifters. 
Tor this caufe are we to be more (IricT in admitting 
to the Lords Supper , then in receiving of Church- 
members to Baptifme, and the hearing cf the Word. 
But as we are to take care that the holy things of God 
be not prophaned in this Sacrament :. fo alfo that none 
be debarred by the under-ftewards and fervants whom 
the Matter of the houfc hath admitted. And i.none 
are to be excluded from the Table, but fuch as are un- 
der the Church-cenfures , except the impediments be 
naturall, not morall, fuch as age and diftraclion. 2.That 
none are reputed uncapable, but fuch as are jartifce^ 
and in the Church- cour r,. under two or three whnejfes 
convicTed ; for why Should the Church punifhments. 
be inflicted blindly, fuch as is debarring from the 
Lords Table ? therefore the Minifrer hath no power of 
the Keyes himfdfe alone, without the Elderfhip to dc- 
barreany ; for then he himfelfe ufcth the Keyes by cen- 
tring, Pope-like, without the Church. 3 . (jrolTdy ig- 
norant are to be cenfiircd by the Church, and debarred : 
But it may perhaps be here laid, J make no evidence 


Chap.i^- No independent Church. t &c. 1 87 

of converfion required to goe before , as lecne to the 
Church, before they dare admit to the Lords Table,but 
fuch as may be in hypocrites. 

Anfw, And fo did the Apoftolike Church ,\ I doubt 
not but the Apoftles did, Acls 3.46,47. admit Ananias 
and Saphira to the Lords Table : And fo did /Wefteeme 
of Demos, and would once have admitted Hymenem, 
Alexander and others ; and this is cleare, 1 Joh.2.19, 
If they had been of us , thej mould no doubt have conti- 
nued with us : Then they remained for a fpace commu- 
nicators with the true Church in the word of the co- 
venant and feales. We are againd Separates, who will 
have the number of aged perfons that are members of 
the Church , and the number of thofc who are to be 
admitted to the Sacrament, equall. We thinke multi- 
tudes are members of the vifible Church , and muft be 
hearers, as knowne unbeleevcrs, who are not to be admit- 
ted to the Sacrament. 

Chaf. XIII. 

Queft. 1 3 . Whether or no every particular Congregation and 
Church hath of it felfe independent poster from Chrift, to 
exercife the Whole pofter of the K eyes, without any fubie- 
tlion to any fuperiour Scclefiafticatt iurisdiclion I 

IT is knowne that thefe of the Separation, and others, 
whom we love and reverence, contend for the inde- 
pendency of every vifible Congregation, denying that 
they are fubjed to Synods, Presbyteries, and Nutionall Af- 
femblies of the Churches confociated ; holding that they 
can, and may give counfcll, and brotherly advife in mat- 
ters doubtfull ; But that Presbyteries or Synods have no 
Lcclcfiafticall power to command in the Lord any Con- 
gregation whatfoever. 

Cc 3 leb- 

1 8 8 No independent Church Chap. 1 3 • 

I obferved before that there be two degrees of a 
Church independent* 1 . In every vifible Congregation 
there is a number of beleevcrs, to whom our brethren 
fay, Chrift hath committed the power of the keyes, 
who have power to chufe and ordaine their owne offi- 
cers , Paftors , Doctors , Llders and Deacons, and alfo 
judicially to cenfure, rebuke, fentencc, depofe andex^ 
communicate thefe fame office- bearers. We have dif- 
puted already againft this independent Church, a.Thcrc 
is another Church independent, which is that fame con- 
gregation of bcleevers new cloathed with a fetled and 
constituted Elderfriip, one Pafto'r, and Elders, and Do- 
dors ; Of this Congregation is our prefent queLtior?. 
This Congregation againe hath either one Psftor only, 
with a number of Elders ; or it hath a number of Pa- 
ftors and Elders who doc meet for difcipline , which 
is a Presbyteriall fW , fuch as we efteeme the Church 
of Corinth) the Church of Sphefus. The qu«ftion is of a 
vifible Church in both fenfes : And for the former, they 
have within themfelves fome power of difcipline , ib 
farrc as concerneth themfelves, as the Arguments of 
our brethren doe prove, but with fubordination to the 
Elderfhip of their owne and other filter and confociate 
Congregations, who fhall meet in a Presbytery. The 
Church in the latter meaning cannot conveniently meet 
in all and every one of the members thereof, but doth 
meet in their Rulers , as the Elderfhip of Ephefus did 
meet, A Els 20.17. And *Panl and fames, and the El- 
derfhip of ferufalem did meet, Alls 21. 18,19,20,21. 
And of this Presbytery that ordained Timothy a Paftor, 
we read 1 Tim. 4. 14. So the Elderfhip of Ephefus,Kc\. 
2.2. whereof there were a number of Paftors, as we 
may reade AEls 20. 28,29,36. Vcho tried thofe who called 
themfelves Affiles, and did lye, and were found lyars y 
Rev. 2. 2. This Presbytery confiding of moe Paftors, 
is the firft ruling and governing Church, having power 
of the kcyes in all points of difcipline within them- 
felves ; They have intenfivelj power of the keyes in all 


Chap, i j. in the New Te ft anient. 189 

points, and cquall power (intenfive) with greater Sy- 
nods and Aflemblies ; becaufe ordination of Paftors by 
them, 1 77*0.4.14. is as valide in the point of Church- 
difcipline , as the Decrees made in the great Councell 
con vented at Jevufalem , Acls 15. 2i,22 3 &c. But Pro- 
vinciall Synods, and Nationall Aflemblies have greater 
power then the Presbyteries extenfiz-e j became they 
have power as a great body to exercife difcipline that 
concerneth the whole Congregation* of all the Nation, 
which power is not in inferiour Eldcrftiips.-Now that 
there is not to be found in the word a Congregation 
with an Eldcrfrup , and one Paftor that hath* the po- 
wer of all difcipline independently , within it feife, I; 
prove : 

1. I reafon from the Apoftolike Churches pradifc, l.Arg, 
which muft be a pattcrne to us : And firft, let no man 
fay the Argument is wcake, becaufe the Apoftolike 
Church being lyable to perfecution , and Parifhes 
not then fctled, their order cannot be a rule to us: For 
1. we have not a perfect patterne if the Apoftolike 
Church be laid afide, as no rule to us. 2. It is faid, 
Ads 9.51. Then had the Churches reft thrwghout aliun- 
de*, Cfalilie, and Samaria, And were e defied, and walking 
in the feare of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy* 
Ghoft, were multiplyed. Hence if there be not a patterne 
©f fiich an independent Congregation by precept cr pra- 
dife , where one particular Congregation with one 
Paftor, and their Elderftiip did ctfercifc, or may exer- 
cife all power of the keyes in all points :Then fuch 
an independent Congregation is not to be holden ; but 
the former is true : For i.an inftance cannot be given 
in the point .of ordination of Minifters, by a Congre- 
gation with one Paftor. We ddire an inftance. 2. All 
ordination by pradife and precept in the New Tefta- 
ment is by more Paftors then one ; yea by a Colledge 
of Paftors, which is cleare, ABs 1. 1 $. the eleven Ape. 
files were at ths ordination of UHatthias^nd the Apo- 
ftle Peter preiideth in the adion. And Ads 6. 2. the 


i?o No independent Church Chap. 1 5 . 

twelve Apoftles did ordaine the feven Deacons, ver.6. 
and prayed and laid their hands on them, ver.6. Jt is vainc 
Dt Ptntif.lix.u that Turrecremat a and other Papilts fty, that Peterhim- 
¥*.*• L , felfe alone mieht have chofen the feven Deacons. See 
gu*a.$.p.i5o. for this JVhitgyft oppofing Tnrrecremata^ndfVhtttaker, 
Alfo fee A els 13. 1,2,?. Prophets and teachers with the 
Apoftles fent Paul and Bfomabat to preach to the Gen- 
tiles, and they fafted and prayed, and laid their hands 
on them. So Paul and "Barnabas , if there were not 
more Paftors with them, Atts 14.23. appointed El- 
ders in every Church with f aft ing and prayer , Acls 20. 
17. ver.28. There was a Colledge of preaching Elders 
ztEphefta, and at Philippi t Phil. 1.2. Bifho >s and Dea- 
cons at Theffalonica, 1 Thefp. 1 2. a multitude, that is, 
more then one Paftor that were over them in the Lord, 
and laboured amongft them, and admonhlied them, 
ver.il 1 Tim 4. 14. a Colledge or Senate of Presby- 
ters or Paftors , who ordained Timothy by the laying 
on of hands. 2. If ordination of Pallors in the word 
be never given to people, or beleevers, or to ruling El- 
ders ; but ftill to Paftors , as is clearc, 1 Tim. ^,21. 
Tit-i.vcr.j. Atts6.6. Atts\% % s % iT$m.i*6. 1 Tim.4. 
14. And if ordination in the word of God be never 
in the power of one fingle Paftor ( except we bring 
in a Prelate into the Church) then one Paftor , with 
one lingle Congregation cannot exercife this point of 
. discipline, and fo not all points of difcipline. 3. If 
the preaching Elders be charged by the Spirit of God 
to tyatch dyainft grievous wolves fpeaking perverfe things , 
Ads 20. 22.30,3 >. and rebuked becaufe they fhjfer them 
to teach falje d; Brine ; and commended, becaufi they try 
falfe teachers, and c aft them o*t, Rev. 2. \er. 14. ver. 20. 
vcr.2. if they be commanded to trdaine faitkfull men,-* Tim. 
2. 3< and taught Whom they fbould ordtine, Tit. I. 5,6,7. 
i Tim. 3. ver.2,3,4, 5. 1 Tim.5.22. and whoai they 
fhouid reject, as unmeet for the worke of the Lord : 
Then one Paftor and a fingle Congregation have not 
the power ©f this point of difcipline, and fo they are 


Chap.ij. in the New.TeJidtneM. \g\. 

not independent within themfclves ; but the for- 
mer is faid by Gods Word. Ergo , fo is the lat- 

2. Argument. That government is not of God, nor i.Ar£ 
from the vvifdome of Chrift the law-giver, that devi- 
feth means of difeipline for edifying the people by the 
keyes, and omitteth meanes for edifying by the keyes 
the Elders of every particular congregation ; but the 
docTrine of independent Congregations is fuch. Ergo, 
this doctrine is not of God. The proportion is cleare, 
Chrifts perfect government hath wayes and meanes in 
his Teftarnent, to edihe all rankes and degrees of peo- 
ple, for the perfecting of the body of his Saints, Eph. 
3.II. 10.5.4,5. OWat. 18.15,16. John 20.21,22,2?. 
I prove the Afiimption : If a paftor and (Ix or twelve 
Elders turne fcandalous in their lives, and unfound and 
corrupt in the Faith : there is no way of gaining them 
by the power of the keyes -, for there be but three w T ayes 

1 . That they fhould cenfure and ufe the rod againft 
themfelve*, which is againft nature, reafon and unwrit- 
ten in the Word of God. - 

2. T hey cannot be cenfurcd by Presbyteries and Sy- 
nods; for the doftrin of independent Congregations doth 
abhorre this. 

And thirdly, they cannot be cenfured by the multi- 
tude of believers ; for 1. The Lord hath not given the 
rod and power of edification, fuch as Paul fpeaketh 
of, 1 Cor. 4. 20,21. to the flocke over the over-feers. 
2. This is popular government and worfe, the flock made 
over-feers to the Shepheards,thefons authorized to correct 
the fathers. g. We delirc a pattern of this government from 
the word of God. 

Our third argument is from many abfurditics. That V^ r L 
docTrine is not found, from whence flow many ab- 
furdities contrary to Gods Word ; but t from the do- 
drine of independent Congregations without Coordi- 
nation to Synods, flow many abfurditics contrary to 

D d Gods 

igi No independent Church Chap. 13 

Gods Word, Ergo, that do&rine is not found. The 
Major is out of controverfie, and is cleare ; for the 
Scriptures reafon from abfurdities, I Cor. 15. 14, 15. 
John 8.55. I prove the aftumption ; as, 

1. The Prophets (hall not be authoritatively judged 
by Prophets and Paftours, but by the multitude, con- 
trary to that, 1 £>.-i4 29. Let the Prophets fpcake 
two or three, and let the other judge. 

2. Authoritative and judiciall excommunication was in 
the Paftors and Elders power,i Co.j.^.iTim.i.io.iCor. 
1 0.8.1 ^0^,4.2 1. this do&rini u teth authoritative and ju- 
diciall excommunication into the hands of all the people* 

3. All the affrmblics of Paftours. in the ApoHolick 
Church, for the difciplinc which concerned many Chur- 
ches, upon neceffary caufes fhall be temporary and ex- 
traordinary, and fo not obliging us now., as Acls 1 . 
48.6. Jfi.zi.i. ^#.8.14. ^#.13.1,2,3. ^fif.iy. 
jfth2i.i2 9 i9. I Tim^.\^. and yet thefe fame neccf. 
fary caufes of fuch aflemblies, as Divijions betwixt \ Gre- 
cians and Hebrewes, herefies, fchifmes rcmaine in the 
Church to the worlds end. 

4. Thefe who authoritatively governe and edjfiethe 
Church, are men feparated from the world, not mangled 
Vvith the affairs of 'this /^,2Tim.2.2,3,4,5.therefore if all 
the multitude governe and over-fee both themfelves and 
their guides : they are not to remaine in their callings, 
as tradef men, fervants, merchant!, lawyers, &c. but 
to give themfelves wholly to the over-feeing of the 
Church, contrary to that which the Word of God faith, 
ordaining every man to abide in his calling, 1 Corj t 20, 2 1 3 
22. CV.3.22. iThejf. 4.11. 

5 . Believers are over-feers to excommunicate,depri vc, 
cenfure,and authoritatively rebuke their paftors, and fo 
I. paftors of paftors , over-feers and watch- men, 
over their Over-feers and Watch-men. 2. The 
relation of paft or and flock, of feeders and a people fed 
is taken away. 3. That which the Scripture afcribeth 
to paftors only, 1 Tfo-Jiij^o. ZVf. 1. 13; v.$v is gi- 


Chap. 1 3. in the New Tefiament. ipj 

ten to private profeflburs. 6. Th e broth erly confociation 
of the authority and power of jurifdi&ion in many fifter- 
Churches united together,is taken away,therc is no Chri- 
ftian-communion of Church officcrs,as Church officers^. 
All,particular Churches are left,in cafe of errours, to the 
immediate judgement of Chrift, and obnoxious to no 
Church cenfures, fuppofe they confift of fix or ten pro- 
feffours only. 8. The grounds of the dodtrine are thefe 
fame arguments, which Anabaptifls and Socinhns ufe 
againft the places of Kings, Judges, Magiflrates, to wit, 
that believers are free, redeemed, bought With a price, all 
things are theirs • and therfore ail power, which con- 
fequence is no ftronger the one way, then the other. 
o. It layeth a blot upon Chrifts wifdome, who hath 
appointed congregations to be edified by no power of 
the keyes in cafe of aberration and incorrigible obfti- 
nacy. 1 o* 1 1 makcth the Word of God imperfect, which 
fetteth downe no Canons, how the believers of an in- 
dependent Church fhould governe, and Taul teacheth 
how Timothy and Titus, and all Church- men ftieuld 
governe. 11. It excludeth not women from ufurping 
authority over men, by judging, excommunicating, 
ordaining pallors, feeing they are the body and Spoufe 
of Chrift as believing men are. 12. It maketh the Sa- 
craments no Sacraments, the baptized non-baptized, 
and in the place of Turkes ; if pofiibly the paftour and 
the ten profe {fours of the independent Church be un- 
believers, which is too ordinary. 13. By this an af- 
fembly of Pallors and Elders from divers congregati- 
ons, have no more the power of the keyes, then one 
fingle man, who may counfell and advife his brother. 
14. Extreme confufion and inevitable fchifmes hence a- 
rife, whilft fuch a lifter- Church faith, / am Tau/s^ud 
her fifter-Church faith, I am Apollo's , and there is no 
remedy againft this fire. 15. The patterne of a Church 
governing and minifteriall, confiding of only believers, 
is neither in all the Scriptures, antiquity, nor in the 
writings of Divines. But of thefe I (hall fpeakc 

D d a more 

g* No independent Church Chap.13. 

• more fully hereafter, God willing. 

A 4. Argument. That Doftrine is not to be holden, 

* ^ which tendeth to the removing of a publick Miniftry: 

but the doctrine of independent Churches is fuch. 
Erqo, the dodrine of independent Churches, is not 
to be holden. The propofition is out of doubt, feeing 
Chrift hath ordained a publick Miniftry for the gathe- 
ring of his Church, Ephef: 3.1 1. I Cor: 1 1. 1 Com 4 
I Tinr.3. 1,2,3. Heb:l3. 17. 1 lhefi:5.i 2,13. 1 Cor:5. 
Bngl'fc Puritanic ^ k' a th:i6\i p. Math:28. i 8. Joh: 20.CI, 22, 23. I 
WSS$£» prcvc the aflumptioH. By thcdoftrincofindcpcndcn- 
, a5.piir.ted, an- cy two or three, or ten cr twelve private Chriftians 
l Gu)Ztoi:^tcf in 'a private Family, joyning themfelves covenant- waies 
>»•/>?• ' to wcrfnip God is a true vifible Church : So the ^w^- 

SEjJSJf m P*rir«*ifme : So a Trcatifc called. Light fir the ig- 
%*&** nor ant : So the guide to Zion : So the Separates hol- 

ding Independent C on l Ye l Atlom ^ define a vffiblc Church, 
Svery company, Congregation or Afiembly of true belie- 
vers, joyning together according to the order of the Cjosfell^ in 
the true VeorJhip,isa true vifthle Church. This being the true 
definition of an independent congregation from the 
writings of the Patrons thereof; I prove that it taketh 
away the neceflity of publick miniftery. 1. becaufe e- 
very twelve in a private Family is this way joyned 
together, and is an independent Church. 2 this con- 
gregation being independent, it hath within it fclfe 
the power of the keyes, and is not fubjccl (faith the 
Envlifi Turitanifme) to any other Superiour eccieiia- 
Engiifli PntitaniC fticall junfdiclion, then to that which is within it fcl£ 

1 Katherin againft M. Edwards faith, p. 7, 8. Pri- 
vate Chriftians have the Spirit. Ergo, they may pray. 

Anfw: God forbid we deny, but they both may and 
ought to pray continually ; but hence it folio wcth not 
affirmative, a genere ad sjeciem, therfore they may au- 
thoritatively, not being called of God, as was Aaron, 
and invade tine paftors chaire, and pray and faft and lay 
on hands by niinifteriall authority, as the paftors doe, 


Chap.i 3. in the New TtftAment. 195 

48:6.6. Att:i$4. 

i.The Church (faith the Feminin Authour, p.8.) u nrt 
Uinde, fo that none have power of feeing, but only the of* 

Anfw. All believers fee and difcerne true and falfe tea- 
chers, I lobn^.l. Heb:f t iq. 2 C0r.-3.18. Pfal.i J9.18. 
Ephef: 1.1 j, but it folio weth not, affirmative, a gentre 
ai fpeciem, therfore they doe all fee as the eye of the 
body, with an authoritative atfd paftorall light and eye; 
for then all tfa body fhould be an eye, where were then the 
hearing ? 2 Cor. 12.17. 3 Within it felf there is no 
jurifdidion minifteriall ; for in the definition of a Church 
. minifteriall, there is deepe (llence of Minifters or office- 
bearers i and good reafon by their grounds, who hold 
it : lor it is a fociety of believers joyned together co- 
venant wayes in the true worfhip ofGod ; which fo- 
ciety hath power to ordain and eled: their owne pa- 
dors and Elders, here is the power of the keyes to bind 
and loofe on earth, as Chrift bindeth and lcofcth in 
Heaven, dfath:i$ t i$. ehap:i6.i9 and a minifteriall 
ad of thefe keyes, to wit, the ordaining of Paftours, 
IfoElers, Elders and Deacons ; before there be anyP/j- 
sior y DoUor or Elder or Deacon. A miniftery then 
muft only be neceffary, ad bene effie, -non ad effie Jimplici- 
ter,to the better or wel-bcing of the independent Church, 
and not to the fimple being of the Church j for the thing 
muft have a perfect conftituted being and etfence, before 
it can have any'operation, and working proceeding from 
that being : as one muft be a living creature indued with 
a fenfiti ve foule, before it can heare, or fee, or touch ; now 
this independent Church, muft have the perfect eflence 
and being of a minifteriall Church, feeing it doth by the 
power of the keyes within it fdfeconftitute and ordaine 
her owne Minifters and Paftors ; and if they were joyned 
in thewerfoipofGod before they had Minifters, they 
did in a vifible way (being a vifible Church in the 
compleate being of a vifible Church)- worfhip God, 
before they had Minifters ; for before they ordaine 

D d 3 their 

ip<S Noindefer Jem Church Chap.13. 

their Minifters, they muft keepe the Apoftolick order, 
fail and fray, and lay on their hands, for fo did theA- 
poftles, tAB\\.i^ % Atts 6.v.6. AEls 13.3. Acl : 14,23. 
I 7^:4.14. i7«w:i.^ So here are, publick fafting, 
publick praying, publick ordination of a vifible and 
independent Church, and as yet they have no Mini' 
ftcrs ; So in cafe the Elder{hip of a congregation (hall 
all turne fcandalous and hcrcticall : this fame inde- 
pendent congregation may excommunicate them. Ergo 
before excommunication, they mud publickly and by 
the power of the keyes, convince them of Herefi'e, re- 
buke them, pray fir them , and finally by the spirit of 
Paul a Taftor, 1 Cor: 5.4. judicially call: them ouK 
Now let all be Judges, if this be farre from paftorall 
preaching, and if here be not minifteriall acts, and the 
higheft judiciall and authoritative cenfure exercifed by 
noMiniftersatall ; and what hindreth by this reafon, 
but the independent Church (that doth publickly and 
authoritatively pray, fafl 9 rebuke, convince gain foyers, make 
and unmake, by the power of the keyes, paftours and Mi- 
nifters) may alfo without Minifters preach, and admi- 
nifter the Sacraments ? againft which the Separatifts 
themfelves doe fpeake and give reaibns from Scripture 
that none may adminifter the Sacraments, untill the pa- 
S€paratiPscc»/ f /; ftors and teachers be chofen and ordained in their office. 
<*»W*5' -g ut nencc we Nearly fee an independent Church con- 
ftituted in its compleat effence, and exercifmg mini- 
fteriall ads, and ufing the keyes without any miniftry 
and edifying their Minifters, fo that a miniftry is ac- 
cidentall, andaftranger to the independent Church both 
in its nature and working, and feeing they edifie others" 
without a miniftry :why may not private Families,whcre ' 
the independent Churchi dwelleth, edifie themfelves 
without a publick miniftry ? I reade in Arminian 
and Socinian writings, that feeing the Scriptures arc 
now patent to all. 1 A fent Miniftry is rather ufe- 
full and profitable then neceffary. 2 The preaching 
of the Word by Miniftgrs is not neceffary : So Efif- 


Chap.13. in the New Teftament. IP7 

covins : The Arminians in their Apology, and thcCa- Epi/ecpd,rat.i6. 
techife of Raccovia : I will not impute thefe conclu- % monJirapolf , lt 
dons to our deare brethren, but I intreat the father or > 4 «. 
Lights to make them fee the premises. 3 Three or ^f x r ^^ 
fcu r e believers this way in covenant joyned together c«trifpt<*< 
to worfoip God, have mtcnfively and effcntiafiy all jtf*J^ **■ 
die power ofthekeyes, as the Ccuncell cenvented at ice. & v6.fi 
HierufaUm* Ads 15. 4. the power of Ordination , s oa * 
publiek praying, publick and authoritative convincing 
cf the gainiayers, and judiciall rebuking, which Pf.ul 
afenbeth to the Faftors and preaching Elders, 1 Tim: 
5.20,21. iTkj.2. Tit:\.9. iTim:^.2. as eilentiall 
parts proper to their calling, doe not agree at all to 
pallors, but by accident, in fo farre as they are bclee- 
veis or parts of an independent congregation by this 
dodrine ; for if the keyes and the ufe of the keyes,in 
all thefe minifteriall ads, be given to a fociety of be- 
lievers fo joyned in covenant to ferve God, as to the 
firft, native and independent fubjed : all thefe muft 
agree to Miners at the lecond hand, and by commu- 
nication, for if God hath given heat to thefire,asto 
the firft and native Sub jed ; all other things muft be hot 
by borrowing heat from the fire ; and fo Paftors re- 
buke, exhort, ordain Paftors, cenfure and excommu- 
nicate Paftors only by accident, and at the by , in fo 
farre as they ate believers, and parts cf the indepen- 
dent congregation : And all thefe are exercifed mod: 
kindly in an independent congregation by fome of their 
number, fuppofe there be no Paftors at all in the con- RMnfo* 
negation. Robinfon (in juftification of Seyaratiftsy. 121, chlUU J- 
122") mdKatherin Childly (againft M. Edmrds,pa.3.) 
fay, as a private Citizen may become a Magiflrate : So 
a private member ma] become a Miniftcr in cafe of necef- 
foy, to crdaine Pafiors in a congregation , -where there u 
none, and therefore (fay they) the Church may fkbfifl for 
a time yvithiut T 3 after or Slder. Anjw. In an cxtra- 
• ordinary cafe a private man, yea a Prophet as Samuell 
hath performed, by the extraordinary impultion of 


i p8 No independent Church Chap. 13. 

the fpirit, that which King £d/*/(Tiould doe, to wit, he 
inay kill Agag ; but an independent congregation of pri- 
vate men ordaining paftors (fay our Brethren) is Chrifts 
fctled ordinance to the worlds end. a The queftion is, 
whither the Church can fubfift a politick minifteriall bo- 
dy without Taftors and Elders. 3 By this the indepen- 
dent way is extraordinary, where a private man may in- 
vade the paftors chaire ; then Synods mull: be ordinary : 
els they muft give us another way then their independent 
way or presbyteriall Churches, that is ordinary. I defire 
alio to know, ho w our brethren who arc for the main- 
tenance of independent Churches, canefchew the pub-' 
lick prophecying of fome qualified in the Church, e- 
ven of pcrfons never called to be Paftours, which the 
Separatifts doe maintaine to the griefc of the godly and 
learned ; for in an independent congregation, where' 
Paftors and Elders are not yet chofen, and when they arc 
in procefle re excommunicate them, who (hall publickly 
pray, exhort, rebuke, convince the Eiderfhip to be or- 
dained or excommunicated ? I doubt, but a grofTer point 
then the prophecying of men who are in no paftorall cal- 
ling muft be helden, to the difcharging of all thefe pub- 
lick actions of the Church ; yea, I fee not but with a like 
warrant, private men may adminifter the Sacraments ; 
becaiife Chrift from his Mediatory power gave one and 
the fame minifteriall pow T er to paftors,to teach and baptize 
0^:28.1 8,ip. 
5 » *sf r L* 5 • ArgHm.\£Go&s word allow a presbyteriall C htirch, 

and a presbytery of Paftors and Elders : then are we not 
to hold any fuch independent congregation ; for our bre- 
c«p.7.<j7,c»nc,4. thren acknowledge they cannot confift together. Butthc 
former is cleare, 1 Tim:^ % 1 4. Mat: 18.17,18 .and is pro- 
ved by us already. Other arguments I fliall(God willing) 
addc in the following qucftions. 


Chap. 14. 7 he Authority of Synods proved from A ft. 1 5 . 199 


Chat. XIV. 

Queft. 14. Whither or no the y oxter ecclefiafticall of Sj~ 
nods can be yr owed from the fanoui c ounce 11 of jeru- 
falem holden,Aft:ij. 

NOvv follow cth our fixt Argument againftindepen- six Argument, a. 
dent congregations. Where I purpofe (God wil- gu»a mfcpea Mi 
ling) to prove that the praclife of the Apoftolick Church 
givcth us warrant for Synods, and a meeting of Pa- 
yors, and Elders from many particular congregations 
giving and making ecclefiafticall Canons and Decrees 
that tye and lay a band ecclefiafticall upon many par- 
ticular congregations, to obferve and obey thefc De- 
crees. And, 1. the popular and democraMcall govern- 
ment of Anabaptifts, where the people governeth them- 
{e\\cs, and the Church, we reject. 2 The Fopifh Hie- 
rarchy, and the Popifh or Epifcopall Synods, where 
my lordTrelate the Antichnfts eldcft fonnc, (itteth do- 
mineering and ruling all, we reject. 3 We grant that 
one fitter- Church, or one presbytery, or one provin- 
ciall or Nationall AfTembly hath no jurifdi&ionovera- 
nother fifter-Church, presbytery or fellow Aflembly. 
4 As there is a communion of Saints by brotherly 
counfell, direction, advife and incouragement : So this 
fame communion is farre more tobeobferved byfifter- 
Churches, to write and to fend Commiflloners and fa- 
lutations one to another ; and hitherto our brethren 
and we goc one way. 5 An abfolutc, independent 
and unlimited power of Synods over congregations, wc 
alfo condemne : Their decrees tye twowayes I grant, 
1. Materially ; for the intrinficall lawfullnefle of the 
decree :.Thus our brethren will not deny, but this tye 
is common to the brotherly counfell and advife of 
friends and brethren counfelling one another from Gods 

E 9 word. 

7 go The Authority of Synods Chap. 14, 

v o d. For all arc tyed to follow what God comman- 
dcth in His word, whither a fuperiour, an inferiour or 
an cquall fpcake : But we hold that the decrees of grea- 
ter Synods doe lay an ecclefiafticall tye upon under, 
or le(T:r v ynods in thofe bounds where presbyteries 
and particular congregations are. But it is weaknefli 
In Separatifts, and womanly and weakly faid by theau- 
Cbid.'ey. thour of Juftif cation of independent ^hurcheSyprintcdy an. 

1641. under the name ci'Katherin Childly, pag.17.that 
the Synod. Ac"hi5» U not properly a Synod; becaufe their 
decrees Were not alterable, but fuch as Were Warranted by 
God y and a perpetuall rule for all the Churches of the Gen- 
tiles, for that authour ignorantly prefumeth that Sy- 
nods may make Canons of nothing but of circumftan- 
ces of meere order : Wheras Synods with good war- 
rant, following this Synod, have made Acls againft 
ArrianSy Neftorim, and other heretiques ecclefiaflical- 
ly condemning fundamentall errours. And heere I 
enter to proove the lawfiillnerT; of Synods , and to 
difpute againft the independency of a vifible pref- 
byteriall Church, For that which in Scotland wee 
call, following Gods word, 1 Tim: 4. 14. the prcf- 
by tery. 

But before we proceed, one queft ion would be clea- 
red, What ground is there to tye a congregation by an ec- 
clefiafticall tye of obedience to a presbytery, and a presby- 
tery to a provincial A^embly, and a provincial Affembly^ 
to a Nationall AJfembly : for feeing thefe are not in Cjods 
Wordy they Would feeme devices of men, anl of nee di- 
vine inftitution ; one may fay, Whether h.ive they war- 
rant in a pofitive Law of Cody or in the law of na- 
ture f 

I anfwer, they have warrant of both : for it is Gods 
pofitive law, that the Elders and Over-feers be over 
the Church in the Lord, Heb:i-$.i-y. 1 Thef 5.1 2,15. 
c^I^f ^: 18.17,18. I call this Gods pofitive Law, be- 
caufe if it had bin the willof the Law-giver, he might 
have appointed an high-Prieft, or iome arch-Paitor or 


Chap. 1 4* Prove J from Ad. 15. 201 

prime officer in his nrme to corrmand the whole 
Church, Lke to the Judge and the high-Pricft in the 
old Teftament : So AriftocraticaU government is not 
natural!, our presbyteries arc founded upon the free- 
will of Chrift, who appointed this government rather 
then another. Now the qucftion, how fubordination of 
congregations to presbyteries, and cf presbyteries to grea- 
ter Synods is of natures law is harder, but a thing is 
naturall two wayes, 1. (Imply and in it felfe, 2/and 
by confequent ; an example of the former is, by the 
law of nature, the hand moveth, the feet walketh, at 
the direction of the will, which is a commanding fa- 
culty that ruleth all the motions of moving from place 
to place:This way it is not directly natural! that Arc hippia 
be governed by the Elderfhip and Presbytery at Co/ojfe; 
becaufe he may be removed to another Presbytery, he 
poflibly might have becaea member of the presbytery 
at Corinth, and never beene fubjtel: to [the presbytery 
at Co/ojfe. Example of the latter , it is fimply fuper- 
naturail for ?eur to be borne over againe, O^tath: 16. 
1 j. Iohn 1.12,13. but upon fuppofition that God hath 
given him a new nature, it is naturall or ( <s we fay) 
connaturall and kindly to this new nature in Teter to 
love Chrift, and to love Chrifts fheep and his lambes, 
becaufe every like loveth a like 5 So the fubordinati- 
on is not naturall : for it is not naturall for John and 
Thomas to be fubjed to fuch an Elderfhip of this 
congregation ; for Gods providence might hare difpo- 
fed that Iohn and Thomas {hould have dwelt in ano- 
ther congregation as members therof, and fo fuV je& to 
another Elderfhip. Butfecondarily and by confequent 
upon fuppefition that they are members and inhabitants 
of this ecclefiafticall incorporation it is kindly and con- 
naturall now that they be fubjected ecclehaftically to 
the Elderfhip of Chrifts appointing in this congrega- 
tion : and fo the ground of the bond is {the part muft 
be in JubieBion to thofe ^ho command the Vthole ) Iohn 
and Thom^xc parts of this congregation, fuch an 51- 

Ee 2 dcrfliip 

2 oa The Authority of ^Afemblks Chap. 1 4 

dcrfhip commandeth the whale, therefore Iohn 
and Thomas arc in fubjc&ion to fuch an Elder- 
ship. So all the belecvers of this congregation and all 
the belecvers of the (idcr- congregations are parts of this 
presbytery ; wheras Gods providence might have dif- 
pofed, that all the beleevers here might have beenc 
parrs and members of another presbytery : And fo by 
proportion fundry presbyteries are parts of a provinci- 
all Church, and fundry belecvers of many provinces 
are parts and members of a National! Church, Now 
the divmon of a Nation into Provinces , and of Pro- 
vinces into fo many territories called presbyteries, and 
the divifion of presbyteries into fo many congregati- 
ons, cannot be called a devife of mans, becaufe it is 
not in the Word of God ; for by that fame reafon,. 
that Iohn and Thomas and fo many threes and foures 
of belecvers fhould be members of an independent con- 
gregation, feeing it is not inthcWord,itmallbe alio a 
devife of man. For all our (ingular a&s arc mixed, there 
isfomethingmorall in them, and that muft be fquared 
and ruled by the word ; and fomething is in them not mo- 
rall,butpofitive,and this is not to be fquared by the word; 
but fomctimesby natures light (which I grant is a part 
implicite of Gods word) fomctimes it is enough that the 
pofitive part be negatively conform e to the word, that is* 
not contrary to it : Howbeit I hold that the morality re- 
quired in every action, muft be pofitively confonne to 
the word, for example the Law faith, Every male-child* 
muft be circumcifed the eighth day , Gen. 17.7. Now the a- 
clion ofChrifts circumciiion, and drifts presenting in 
the Temple, and -offering of two turtle- Doves, and 
two young pigeons is faid to be according to the Law 
of Mofes, Luke 2 23 . >&$*< yiytctwdj, as it is written ; 
yet the babe Icfus by name,his mother Mary who brought 
him into the Temple, the Prieft by name that ofcred the 
Doves for him, are not written in theScripture o(<JWofes 
his law;but the morality of that action was pofitively con- 
form toMofes his law:lb that every part be fubjed to the 


Chap.14- Proved from Ads 15. 203 

law of the whi lc is Cods word -but that parts and whole 
be thus divided it was not required to be defined in the 
word. But what our brethren deny is, that as 'Veter 
and John are Ecclefefticall parts of a fmgle Congrega- 
tion under the jurisdiction of that (ingle Congregation 
is clcare in the word of God ; but that three orfourc 
Congregations are parts EcclefiafticaU cf a Presbytery, 
and Ecciefiaftically fubjecled to the government of the 
Tresbytery ; as lohn and Thomas arc parts fuhje&ed 
to the government of a Congregation is utterly deny- 
ed. But we may reply , lohn and Thomas are to obey 
their Psftor preaching, in the Lord, and by that fame 
reafon they are to obey their Paitors gathered toge- 
ther , with the Elders in a Synod : So by that fame 
reafen, as lohn and Thomas are to obey their Elder- 
(hip cenvented in their owne Congregation to govcrne 
them, by that fame reafon, lohn and ThomM of fourc 
Congregations are to heare and obey their owne Ei- 
dcrfhips convented by that fame authority of Chrift in 
another Congregation,wh«n a Colledge of other Elder- 
(hips are joyned with them. 

But I come to the Scriptures of God. If when the 
Churches of Syria, Sjficia y Antioch and Jerufalem were 
troubled with a queftion, whether they ihould keep the 
Law of Mofes, and be circumcifed, and could not de- 
termine it amongft themfelves in their particular Chur- 
ches, they had their recourie to an aflembly of dpoftles 
and Elders at JerHfaiem , who gave out a Decree and 
Canon anent that queftion, which the Churches were - 
obliged to keep, then when particular Congregations 
are troubled with the like queftions in dodrinc and go- 
vernment, they are by their cSnmplc to have reccurfc 
to an AlTembly of PaUors and Elders , that are over 
m;,ny Churches, and to receive Decrees alfo, which 
they are obliged to keep : But the former is the pra- 
difc of the Jpoftolike Church , Ergo, to have recourie 
to a Synod of Paftors and Elders, to receive Decrees 
from them, that tye many particular Churches, is Jawfull 
to us. Ee 3 I prove 

2 04 ' The Authority of Affemblies Chap.14, 

I prove the affumption , A queftion troubled thefe 
Churches, fome falfe teachers faid ( Cyrinthus as Epi- 
phanius thinketh ) You mult be circumcifcd after the 
Wfifk. manner 'of CMo r e s, Ads 15. ver.i. and there W3S no 

fmali diffenthn and disputation about this, ver.2. and this 
queftion troubled the Church of ferptfalem , as ver. 4. 
and ?. doe declare : And it troubled the Churches of 
A-Mioch, Syria, and £)/*?/*, ver.2 3. 2. That the que- 
ftion could not well be determined in their particular 
Churches, is cieare from ver.->4, from three circumftan- 
ces, 1. The maintainers of the queftion troubled them. 
-2. They almoft fubverted their foules with words, 3. They 
alleadgc a necelTity of keeping Mofes Law, and that it 
was the commandement and doclnne of the Apoftles 
and Elders. 3. That in this queftion that troubled them 
fo much, they have their recourfe to a Synod, is cieare, 
ver. 6. tA'nd the ApoFiles and Elders came to confider of 
this matter ; and ver.2. They determined that P.iul and 
Barnabas, and certaine others of them (bould goe upto]z- 
rufalem, unto the Apoftles and Elders about this ejueftion ; 
And that the Apoftles who were led by an infallible 
{pint, and could not erre, might have determined the 
queftion, is cieare by their fpeeches in the counfell, if 
the Aposlles had not had a mind to fet down a Samplar and 
a Copy of an Aflembly in fuch cafes. 4. That there are 
% here the members of a Synod is cieare, Apoftles , El- 
ders, Brethren, ver.2 3. and CommiiTioners from Anti- 
och y ver. 2 . certaine others, and the Elders of the Church 
At Jerufalem, James, Taul, and the Siders tf/Jerufalem, 
chap.21. v.17,18 compared with ver.2 5. so here are 
Eiders from lundry Congregations. 5 . That thefe De- 
crees did tye and Ecclefiaftically oblige the Churches; 
howbeit all the membeis were not prefent to confent 
is cieare, chap. 16. ver.4. zSind as they went through the 
(pities, they delivered them the Decrees for to keep, AcTs 
21. ver.25. We have Ver it ten and concluded that they ob- 
serve no fuch things , but that they keep themfelves, &c. 
So chap. 1 5. 2$. It famed good to lay on you no greater 


Cbap.14. Proved from A&s 15. 20; 

burden then thefe necejfarj thine /,&c. Now let us hearc 
the exceptions which our brethren propound on the 
contrary, to prove that this was no generall Aflim- 

They object I. ThU cannot be proved to be an occu- 
menicke Cotmcell y that 13,4* siftembly of the whole Churches Obiec~l % \ % 
fif the world. 

Anfa> % Howbeit aAugfiftine , Chrjfofiome , CjrtBm , 
Theophylafi, Theodoret, Cy prion \ Ambrofe y and molt fcf 
the learned Fathers agree, that it was an occumenicke 
Aflemblv, yet we will not contend, many Churches 
of J ewes and Gentiles were here by their CornmiiTI- 
oners, which is fufficient for our point. 2. The Apo- 
ftles who were univerfall Taftors of the whole world, 
were here. 

2. They object, There is no word of a Synod or AJfem- 
blyintheText. ; 2.0bje£t. 

nsfnfw. The thing it felre is here , if not the name, Gubm vmim ie 
faith that learned Voetius. 2. Neither is the name of claffi ^ h cC7. 
an independent Church in Scripture, nor the word 
Trinity or Sacrament, what then ? the the things arc 
in Scripture. g.Yerfe^. <nv*\x£M*<. >, they alTembled, and 
ver.25. they wsre together, is plainly a Synod. 

They ob je<ft 3 . Though there Were a generall affembly 
here, "jet it proveth nothing for the power of the j^eyes to be Obiecl,^, 
in fitch anafiembly, but onely^ it faith fometking for a po- dependem c L«." 
Veer of deciding of coY.tr over fes in matter of faith y Which cues, 
imply eth noatl of iarisdiElion. 

Anfw. i. The deciding of controverfies in matters 
of doctrine tying the Churches, and kying a burthen 
on them, as it is, ver.28. and tying them to keep the 
Decrees, ehap.2i.2s, chAp.16.4. is an a:t of jurisdi- 
ction, and an opening and (faulting heaven by the power 
of the keyes, when it is done Synodically , as this is 
here. 2 This prefuppofath that the pawcr of the keyes 
is onely 'in cenfuring matters of fact, and nor in 1 im- 
nifteriall judging and condemning of fahe doctrine; 
which is againft Scripture ; lor Epheftu is commended 


io<5 The authority of Affemblies Chap.i4» 

for ufing tbc kcycs in condemning trrc doctrine of 
thofe who called themfelvcs Apoftles and were not; 
and Vergamus rebuked for futfinng the doctrine of *Ba- 
laam ; and Thjatira is rebuked for fuffering fezabei to 
teach the lawfulneffe of fornication, and of eating things 
facrificedunto 7^A,Rev.2.v.2.v.i 4.V.20. 
Obl e $ t They object fourthly, The true caufe why Paul and 

M*tju/e r$pt f»i in- Barnabas Were fent to Jcrufakm, was not to get autho- 
dcpcndcmChui; ritative refolution of the queftion in hand • but to know, 
c *"' whether thefe teachers had warrant ftom tht Apoftles to 

teach the necejpty of circumcifion , as they pretended they . 
had, as may be gathered from ver.24. To Whom we gave no 
fuch command. 

ssfnffr. 1 he .contrary is fcen in the Text : For if the 
Apoftles had commanded any fuch thing, it was a dis- 
pute of fact in this Synod, and they might foone have 
anfwered that ; but the thing queftioned was quefth 
iuris, a queftion ii' circumcifion muft be^.5., and that 
they muft be circumcifed, ver.24. Alfo Taulznd Bar- 
nabas were fent to Jerufalem, vcr.2. about this queftion. 
Now the queftion was not whether the Apoftles had 
taught tho lawfulneffe of circumcifion or not ? But 
the queftion is, vcr.l. Certainemen taught, except ye be 
circumcifed after the manner of Moles you cannot be javed. 
a. It were a vaine thing to fay that \,6. the Apoftles 
and Elders met about this matter, to fee what the Apo- 
ftles had taught, and what not. 5. The Apoftles bring 
reafbns from the Scriptures, and from the calling of 
the gentiles, which were vaine reafons if nothing were 
in queftion ; but whether the Apoftles had taught this 
point, or not taught it. 4. That Taut and Barnabas 
were fent to be refolved of more , then whether the 
Apoftles had taught this or not, is cleare by their an- 
fvrer.in the -Decree. It feemed good&c. to lay no greater 
burden on you, and that you abftaine from meats offered to 
$ t ,ObuU. . They objeft fifthly, Then was no combination of many 


Chap.i4« The Authority of Synods proved from Aft.15.207 

— - — ■ — — ■ — ' — - — «* 

T<*ftors of divers Churches, but onely afeWmeffcngers fent 
from Antioch to the Congregation at Jerufalem : Hence 
many fay , it was an aftembly of a particular Churchy 
and it bindeth enly as a particular and sfeciall meeting. So 

Anfwi. We (land not upon an exact: meeting of \™*$££Z' 
all Churches, when as the nature and effence of a Sy- 4*a S .i3« 
nodicall and Aflembly-meeting is faved : Here were 
Apoftles and Elders, whofe charge was the wide world, 
And the E'ders of Jerufalem, and CommiiTioners fent 
from Antioch , and they fend Canons and Decrees to 
other Churches. 2. A decree of one particular indepen- 
dent Congregation cannDt bind another, as our brethren 
teach : But the Decrees made here did tye the Chur- 
ches of Syria, (fylicia, Antioch, and Jerufalem. v. 22, 23. ^ idi e ^\. 
chap. 1 6- v.4. Yea and all the Churches of the gentiles, L ° """* 
Acts 21.25. remember that enemies to our Synods, as 
'Bridgefim and Hugo Qrotius object: this alfo : This is p * Mi.Ecc!cC 
the anfwer of Bridgefius nnd Hugo Cjrotius who deny ic '**' ' 
the Hcceflity of reformed Synods ; Parker who is for our 
brethren in many points refuteth this, and proveth it was 
a Synod. 

They object: fixthly, They Veere not neighbouring Chur- 6.0bieEi. 
ches that fent ; for Jerufalem did lye two hundred miles ^|2f ,, * p34 ** 
fiom Antioch : How could they that lay fo far di slant, or* 
dinar Uy meet, as your Clajfes did? 

Anfw. To the effence of a Synod, and the neoeffity 
thereof is not required fuch meetings of Churches fo 
farre diftant ; but when the Churches necefliry requi- 
red it, the lawfulnefle thereof may hence well be con- 
cluded, and that when they lye id near-hand they may 
more conveniently meet. 2. Neither is this much (to 
give Vi.BeH his geography at his owne meafure) when 
the Churches were now in their infancy, andtheque- 
ftion of fuch importance , that the Churches travell 
many miles for their refolution in this. 

They objed feventhly, HoVo prove you that thefethat j.Obiett. 
"Wire fent from Antioch, had authority inth* Church of Je- 
rufclcm. JF f Anfw. 

208 The Authority of Synods Chap.14; 

^yir. Becaufe T/*#/ and 'Barnabas fent from Antioch 
had voyces in thefe Decrees. 

Objetl.S. They object eighthly, // cannot be proved from heme 

that Antioch was a Church depending on Jerufalem. 

Anfw. Neither doe we intend to prove fuch a mat- 
ter : But hence it followeth , that both Antioch, and 
jerufalem, and Syria, and Cilicia depend upon the De- 
crees of thefe Pallors of divers Congregations aflembled 
in this Synod. 

ObieB Q. ^ ne y °kj e & ninthly, That Papift sand 7 relates allcadge 

this place to prove their D Uctfan Synods. 

Anfw. So doth Satan aileadgcaScripture,Pfalmeoi, 
which muft not be rejected , becaufe it was once in 
his foule mouth : Prelates allcadge this place to make 
Jerufalem a Cathedrall and Mother- church , having Su- 
premacy, and jurisdiction over Antioch, and other 
Churches, that there may be erected there a filkenchaire 
for my Lord Tr elate , and that Lawes may bee 
given by him to bind all mens confciences under him, 
in things which they call indifferent, we allcadge this 
place for an Apoftohke affembly, to make Jerufalem a 
collaterall and Sifter- church with Antioch ,m& the Chur- 
ches of Syria and Cilicia, depending on a generall Coun- 
cell : We deny all Primacie to Jerufalem, it was only 
judged the moft convenient feat for the Councell : We 
allow no Chaire-for Prelate or Taslors , but that they 
determine in the Councell according to Gods Word, lay- 
ing bands on no mans confciencc farther then the Word 
of God, and the dictates of found reafon, and Chriftian 
prudency doe require. 
...» They tenthly objecT, That the matter carried from An- 

li.ieil, * t* 000 u Jerufalem was agreed Hp$n by the Whole (fhurch, 
and not carried thither by one man, as is done in your Clares* 

Anfw. It were good that things that conccrnc many 
Churches were referred by common content to higher 
affemblies ; but if one man be wronged, and fee truth 
fuSer by partiality, the Law of nature will warrant him 


Chap. 14. Proved from A&.ij. 209 

to appcale to an affembly , where there is more light 
and greater authority , as the weaker may fly to the 
ftronger : And the Churches wkofe foules were fubver- 
ted with words, A&s 15. v. 24. did fly to the authority 
of a greater affembly, when there is no fmall diffe~ntion 
akout the queftion in hand 3 i\&S 1 5.2. 

They object eleventhly, The thing concluded in this. a[- ObUft.lli 
fembly was divine Scripture, imptfed upon all the Churches 
of the Gentiles, v. 2 2. 28. and the conclusion obliged , be- 
catife it was Apostolike, and Canonicke Scripture, not be- 
cause it was Synodicall, and the decree of a Church* 
affembly >And fo the tye was D ivine, not Ecclcfiaflicke. It fee- 
' med good to the Hely-Cjhoft, 

Anfw.j. So the excommunication of the inceftuotu 
man, 1 Cor.5. (if he was excommunicated) and his re- 
receiving againe in the bofome of the Church, 1 Cor.2. 
and the laying on of the hands of the Elders on Timothy, 
i Tim.4. 1 4. and the appointing Elders at Lyftra, Ico- 
nium, Antioch, and fading and praying at the faid or- 
dination, >4tf j 14.^.21,22,23. was Scripture, and fet 
downe in the Canonicke Hiftory by the Holy-Ghoft ; 
but no man can deny that the conclusion or Decree of 
excommunication given out by the Church of Corinth, 
and the ordination of Thmthj to be a Paftor, and the 
appointing of the Elders at Ljsira , did oblige the 
Churches of Corinth, Ephefus, and Lyftra, with an Ec- 
clefiafticall tye, as Ecciefialticall Synods doe oblige. 
2. That this conclusion doth oblige as a Decree of 
a Synod , and not as Apoftclike and Canonic^ Scrip* 
ture, I prove 1 . Becaufe the Apoftles and Prophets be- 
ing immediately infpired by the Holy-Ghoft , in the 
penning of Scripture doe never confult and give de- 
cisive voices, to Elders, Brethren, and the whole com- 
munity of beleevers in the penning holy Scripture : 
For then, as it is faid, Epbef.2. 20. That our faith is 
built upon the Apoftles and Trophets, that is, upon their 
doctrine : fo (hall our faith in this point , concerning 
the taking in of the Church of the qentiUs, in one body 

E f 2 with 

2 1 o The authority of Affemblies Chap. 1 4 , 

with the ferns, as is proved from Scripture, ^.14,15, 
16,17. be built upon the doUrlne of Elders, Brethren and 
whole Church of Jerufalem ; for all had joynt voyces 
in this Counccll, as our brethren fay, which is a great 
abfurdity. The comm augments of the Apos~iles,4re the com* 
mandements of the Lord, I Cor.14. 37. But the com- 
aPeto*a, mandements cf the whole Church of Jerufalem, fuch 

as they fay this Decree was, are not the commwde* 
ments cf the Lord : For we condemnc Papifts, fuch as 
Suxre\de trip. Suarez>, V afefuez*, Bellarmine, Caletan, Sotiu, and with 
*ut<aa.2dir P .5. t | iem Forrnalifts, fuch as Hooker and Sutluvius who 
v*il'ut\in 3.10m. make a difference betwixt divine commandements,asd 
5d.rp.2i6.cj. Apoftolike commandements , and humane ordinances,, 
^n£ipr. VC *° f^ ™r Divines, ^Junius, Beza, Parens, Tylen 3 Sikan- 
Catctan.opuCA. dus, JVhktaker, Willct, Reynolds, fetxell , make all Apo- 
"ottfe'iufiif.ij- ft°hke mandates to be divine, and humane comman- 
c.6 ar.i. dements > or Ecclefiafticall mandates, to oblige onely 

n*int&lu fecondarily, and as they agree with divine and Apofto- 
s'utiuvius deVnib like commandements : But here our brethren make 
cn.p.67. mandates of ordinary beleevers , that were neither 

Jfoftles nor Prophets to be divine and Canonicke Scrip- 
ture. 1 . That which is proper to the Church, to Chrift 
his fecond comming agame, doth not oblige as Cano- 
nicke Scripture : For Canonicke Scripture (hall not 
be ftill written till Chrift come again e,becaufe the Ca- 
non is already clofed with a curfe upon all adders, 
,K*v.2 2..but what is decreed according to Gods word, 
by Church-guides, with the confent, tacit, orexpreffe 
of all the community of beleevers, as this was ^.22. 
(as we and our brethren doe joyntly cenfefle) is pro- 
per to the Church to Chrifts frcond comming, Lrgo, 
this Decree obligeth not as Scripture. 4. The Apo- 
ftles if they ,had not purpofe that this Decree fhould 
oblige as an Ecclefiafticall mandate ; but as Canonicke 
Scripture, they would not i.have advifed with all the 
beleevers, as with collaterall and joynt pen-men with 
them of holy Scripture. 2. They would not have di(- 
puted and reafoned together, every one helping another, 


Chap. 14. Proved from Afls 1 y . an 

as they dee here, v. 6,7,8 ; Q,io,&c. 5 . They would not 
deprede and fljbmit the immediately infpiring Apcfto- 
likc fpirit to mens content 1 fo as men mud give con- 
sent, and £y Amen to what God the authour of Scrip- 
ture fhali ditc as Scripture. This was a villifying arid 
leflening of the authority of Scripture ; therforc neceffa- 
rily hence it followcth this was an Ecckfiafticall de- 
gree of an A dumbly. Obie2.it. 

They object twclfihly, That Paul and Barnabas rrent 
up to Jerufalem, not to fubfnit their lodgement to the Apo- 
flles , for then they had not been infallible, neither for the 
neceffity of an a§embly , or becaufe Congregations depend 
deth on ajfemblies ; but they did it I . to conciliate autho- 
rity to the Decrees, 1. To flop the mouthes of falfe Apo- 
ftles y Who aUeaaged that the Lords Aposlles Flood for cir- 
enmcifion , otherwife Paul himfelfe might have determined 
the point. 

AnfwA. Paul as an ordinary Paftor, howbeit not as 
an Apoftle, was to fbbmit to a Synod in this cafe, 
as an Apoftle he might have excommunicated the in- 
ceftuous Corinthian, without the Church ,• but it fhall 
not follow that Paul did write to the Corinthians to 
excommunicate him for no neceflity of a Church-court 
and Synod, but onely to conciliate authority to ex- 
communication, and to ftop the mouthes ot enemies. 

2. I aske what authority doe they meane, 1. autho- 
rity of brotherly advife ? But thefe Decfees bind as the 
Decrees of the Church, ^.28. ckap.16.4. chap. 2 i.v.25- 
2, If they meane authority Ecckfiafticall, the caufe is 
ours. 3. If they meane authority of divine Scripture, 
then this Decree muft have more authority then other 
Scriptures, which ware not penned by common con- 
lent' of all beleevers. 4. This is a bad confequence, 
Paul could have determined the point his alone, Ergo, 
there was no need of a Councell, for the Scriptures 
and many holy Paftors determine that Chrift is equal! 
with God the Father : It followeth not that there- 
fore there is no need of one Councell to condemnc Ar- 
rius. F f 1 They 

212 The Authority of Affemblles Chap,i4. 

Obie£l.\l, They object I.fc 7^<fr<? tt><?r<? #0 CommiJJi oners at this 

affembly from the Churches of Syria rfW Cilicia, therefore 
it TV as not an ajfembly obliging Scclefiaflically all the Chur- 
ches of the (Jentiles. 

Anfw.i. Suppofe Syria and Cilicia had no Commif- 
fioncrs here (which yet we cannot grant, but give on- 
ly) yet lerufalem and Antioch had their Commiflioners, 
which maketh the meeting formally and effjntially a 
Synod , of many particular Churches met fynodically 
in one ; for there were many (ingle Pari hionall con- 
gregations both at lerufalem and at Antioch, 2. We 
doubt not but the ApolUes who wrote to them the 
Decrees of the affembly , advertiled them alfo of that 
Afoflolike remedy for determining the queftion, feeing 
they writ to them, v, 24* We have have heard that fome 
have troubled j on with words, fubverting your foules, fay- 
ing, ye mufl be circumcifed, Ergo, the Apoftles tendrei 
their fdvation ; therefore we are to thinke that Syria 
and Cilicia had their Commiflioners here : What if they 
neglected to fend (afaElo ad irn non valet confequentia) 
they fhould have fent Commiflioners. This affemblies 
Decrees did lay a tye and bond upon v the Churches 
of Syria and Cilicia , then it did either tye them as a 
counfell and advife, or or as a part of Scripture , or 
thirdly as a Decree of an EcclefiafHcall Synod: If the 
flrft be faid, this Canon doth not lay a command upon 
them, the contrary whereof we find, v.*8. it layeth a 
burthen on them, chap. 16. 4. chap.21. 28. and Decrees 
.that they mufl keep. The fccond is unanfwerably con- 
futed in anfwenng the tenth objection : If the third be 
faid we obtaine what we feeke , and fo they fhould 
have fent Commiflioners, otherwife the Decrees of Sy- 
nods (hall oblige Ecclefiaftically -Churches who are not 
obliged to be prefent in their Commiflioners, which 
neither we, nor they can affirme. 
Obietttl^ x 4* ^ ne y °W e &> That this is not one of our Synods ', 

for the multitude of beleevers had voices here. And the 
Whole multitude sfakg , for it is faid, v.1 2. Then all the 


Chap.i4» Proved from Acts 15. 215 

multitude keept ftlence, and gave audience. And Whittaker 2 -^' 
faith, they had decifive voices, but in your Synods none have "*"* 
voyces^ut only the Slderfhip Be***/*** 

Anfiv.i . .Abut the- fjitnfull fpeake, propole, and rea- Uwokchap^. 
fon,our bookc cf difcipline frith. So faith Zuinglius, fr*jf'*ffi m 
2>eza, yea the Fathers, as Cyprian and others : Who ty/ri^cpar.t* 
Avill not have Acls made aeainft the peoples corfent; u ' hit '-°*};iy~ 
it is like the multitude ipeake, but orderly, feeing the t*wuU»ex flat 
Holy Ghoft was here, v 28. whittaker futh only,' it is &&**&*. 
like that fome of the multitude ffake : And what mar- 
veil then many fhould fpeake, feeing it was untruth 
that any of mtofis Law, which was alfo Gods Law, 
fhould be abrogated. 2. The Church may fend in foms 
cafes learned and holy men to Synods , who are nei- 
ther Paftors, E Id ers 3 nor Doctors : So was here *wW* 
brethren, that is, choife anci able men ; otherwife be- 
leeving women, and the whole Church of beleevers 
come under the name of brethren in Scripture, ap^r- ^°^ ,9? ' 
ker f?ith well, The materiall ground of commiffi oners at Ko^,'io!!l 
affemhlies is their gifts and ho line 'ffe, the for mall ground is 'Com.ii, 
the (^hurch calling and fending them. 3, That the whole iCbr.iaX 
multitude had definitive voices, is firft againft what we ^fj££ 
have faid, expounding thefe words, Mat. 18. (Tell the aTheff^i' 
Church) 2. It is a rn:ere popular government refuted l ™f »• 
before. 3. 1 reafon from the end of the Synod- Thefe JUiTmJlS&ii 
onely had definitive votes , who met together fy nodi- fo**i**m»pm. 
cally for to confider of this queftion, but thefe were only Y^knticdtpm. 
Apples and Elders, v.6, including brethren, who only *■&'»£»* aai;.*. 
had place to judge, as Bullinger and Calvin faith, and ^* wr« wf*" 
not the multitude. 4. The Canons are denomina- ru+upJim$m 
te d A»pflSi m^i Decrees ordained by the Apoftles ^S^SSSSk 
and Elders, AcTs 1 6. 4. AcTs 21,25. 5 . By what war- ****&& lucas \ 
rant could the brethren at lerufalem give La wea tobre- ^$£T/£ 
'thrcn of other independent congregations of Syria and r**— 4fcf*r*m 
CilicU, and thefe alfo who were abfent? So ttvs (hall *^*** 
be no Synod. 6. 1 grant the Epiftle is fent in the name 
of all : For i.to fend greeting in an EpruTe is not an 
aft of jurisdiction, but a fort of Chriftian kindneffc. 2. It 


214 The Authority of Afiemblics Chap. i 4» 

jJPas done by common confent of all. 3. It added fbme 
riierc authority. 4. It is poflible the fending of the De- 
crees required c harges and cxpences. 

15. The Female replyer- to M.Edtodrds 3 the re 
( faith Hie ) Vchy the Church of Antioch fent the ma$f 
to be decided at Jerusalem , was becavfe the forties Were 
members of the Church of Jerufalem, Ads 15. 1. certain* 
men which came fiomludxa. taught the brethren^Sccv .24. 
They went out from hs, and this prove th independency of 
Churches, for the Church of Antioch judged it an unequall 
thing to iudge members of the Church 0/ Ierufalem. 

Anfto. 1 . Let it be that contenders for ceremonies were 
of the fell of the Ttharifees • yet the foules of thefe of 
Antioch Vecre fubverted t v. 24. If Antioch had been in- 
dependent , they could have determined the truth , to 
prevent fubverfion of foules, who ever were the au- 
thors of that wicked doctrine ; but their fending their 
commiflloners to the Synod at lerufalem proveth that 
in a thing common to them all they depend upon a 
Synod that doth oblige them all. 2. How could one 
independent Church at lerufalem give Lawcs to an in- 
dependent Church at Antioch ? 3. Antioch might have 
condemned the herefie. Suppofe they could not judge 
the heretickes, if they were an independent congrega- 
tion,feeing the hercfie troubled them. 

1 6, They objccl, Oecumcmcke and univerfall Synods of 

M left Church the whole Chrifiian (^hurch are mpoffible ; and the Church 

plcafca. 7.ar7. is, and msy be without Synods • therefore Synods tire no 

[^ Po,i - ordinances of Chrifi. SoBefl. See Parlor. 

vrbiiu'^r com. 1. Anfk\ whittaher faith indeed univerfall Synods arc not 

V^UQo»n an fi^pty neceffary ; and Parker faith no more, they arc not 

c.j? * abfolutely neceflary jitceffitate medy, but they are neceflary , 

neceffitsite pr<ecepti, and conditionally, if fbme politickc 

union were amongft all Nationall Churches ; but hence 

it followeth not that they arc not Chrifts ordinances, 

becaufe they are not this way ncceflary, neceffitate me- 

*dij; for then Baptifme and the Lords Supper, publikc 

preaching of the word , perfect difciplinc were not 

Chrifts ordinances, becaufe in time of persecution, or 

Chnp.ij. lndefendtncy of Churches refuted. 2 1 5 

,_ ' 

univerfall apolblle, many, yea even whole Churches 
may be faved without thefe. 2. Synods are necefiary 
for the well being, not (imply for the being of the 
Chu'ch : But hence it's a weake confequence • there- 
fue they are not ordinances of Chrift. 3. It is knowne 
that the Popes power hindereth general! Councels; for }jMeierutva 
the Councels of [onfiance and Bafill, where the Popes J.gcnS 
wings were clipped, made that good, burnt children c £*" *<*&**• 
dread fire. ^Adrian, it may be with fomehoneity, pro- c ardmaU oak, 
nailed the counccll of Trent, anno 1522. But Clemens awwj«j. 
the feventhdid openly oppofe Charles the fifth his 
Chancellors proclaiming thereof at Bononin ; they fea- 
red the place that the Emperors power Ihould fliamc 
them, and learned well from Jch.i 3. as Nanclerns faith, 
to make the place of the conncell all in all : And fuch 
was Trent ; for they licked and reviled againe and 
againe all the circumftances of that councell , that it 
W T as a birth in the Popes wonabe good twenty and rive 
yeares, and then was the Popes barnc borne again-ft his 
will ; yet gencrall councels fhould be , Popes hin- 
der them to be, and what wonder ? Theeves love not 
rcell itiftke- courts ; yet by their owne Law they fhould 
be. The councell ef Cenftance ordained that a gener all coun- 
ted fhould be every ten yeares once ; Yea after the councels of 
Laxfen and Florence, the fea being void,rf#».i 503. the 
Cardinals convened, and fweare to Almighty God, and 
blafphemoudy to Peter and Paul, that whofoever of 
them fhall be created Pope, he fhall convene a general! 
councell within two yeares after his inauguration ; which 
oath Iulius 2. did lweare, but had neither honefty, nor „ 
memory to oerforme. The facultie of Paris^nA Church £ t l ",l of°»h e 
of France, who are (till (as faith the Reviewer ef r &? Cou nccii of ft-**, 
councdl of Trent ) at daggers drawing rv th the Tofe and Btsd»tt4mJk 
'court tffRome, doe cry and write For a generall coun-" u «a -> C t. ,c.jj. 
Cell : Bur (they lay) 1 he articles of Paris cannot climbe «^™e*X-" 
cveer the Alps. It is fome hundred yeares fince T homos "n&Udtum* 
TSradftardine of Canterbury^ the hammer of thePehgi- 
ans cryed to waken dimon "Peter, that he might fpeake 

Gg out 

2i6 The Authority of Synods proved from-t\dL.\%. Chap. [4. 

out of his Counccll-chaire for grace agamft the Pela- 
gians. But Jefuitcs bellies and pennes ftoutfor their 
Father the Tope, thinke it vvifedomc that the Pope be 
dcafe at the cryes of Dominkanes, who call for his ho- 
lineffe tongue to determine in bickerings betwixt their 
order and J -fuites in the v matter of (jrace 9 Predtft mo- 
tion. Freewill, Gods providence. The Pope fearing a ge- 
neral! Councell, thinketh beft that they rather bloud o- 
ther in the Schools, then that his greatneflfe hazard to 
face the Court of a gerierall Councell ; and therefore 
matters are now tryed at home. Lod. CMo/iva the Fa- 
ther of the nevv Science, the middle light with that 
wild heed fan!ied to be. in God, was cited before C/e- 
wens the 8 \ and holden in procetfb rive yearcs, even 
before Potd the fifth, and ths Cardinal?, and when all 
was done, was whipped with a Toads (took, and no- 
Tr4w.d« Arriba in thing was determined, as faith Trmcif.de Aribo Other 
^ c \)'^cJir { Counceis ordained that there fhould be in all places, 
Condi TruicX provinciall and Nationall Affemblics. So ordained the 
C cZi?la*Z\t Councell of Nice, Trutla, A filed, Sardu. Hence I adde 
a third diftinftion : From this is concluded onely that 
Counceis are not neceffary, but impoflible , impoffibili- 
uue moroli, non Phyfick : Counceis are only morally im- 
poflible, not limply impoflible, and that through mens 
corruption. It followeth not therefore they arc not 
Gods ordinances : For feeing Churches independent arc 
morally, and I fcare, more then morally impoilible,and 
have been hindred by Prelates , our brethren would not 
from hence conclude that they are not Gods ordinan- 
ces- A Congregation of vi(iblc Saints where there is 
not an hypocrite, is unpoflible morally, and cannot be 
becaufe of our corruption ; yet fjch a Congregation 
fhould be, and fo is an ordinance of Chrift. Let me 
alfo adde the fourth diftindtion : Chrift may well or- 
daine that as a necenary meane of edification , which 
cannot be had ordinarily in the full perfection and de- 
grees required, fo it may be had in the degrees and parts, 
that may edirie, howbeit not & well, and not io con- 

icniently * 

Chap. 1 5 . lndepndencic of Churches refuted* 317 

vcnicntly : fo Synods are ordinarily poflible , I meanc 
lcffer Synods, if not fuller and compleater, if an uni- 
vcrfall Synod cannot be had , a Nationall may be in 
Scotland) and in England alfo if it pleafe the Prelates, 
and if Cod will, whether Prelates will or will not; 
and if thefe cannot be, Provinciall Synods are, and may 
be, and if thefe cannot be, yd Synods, Lldermips, and 
particular Churches may be; and I thinke independent 
Congregations in their perfection confiding of finccre 
beleevers onely, and a perfect Church-difcipline, are 
Gods neceflary meanes of edification , yet in their per- 
fection they cannot be had. But to clofe this point,no 
Divine that ever did write, or fpeake of this Chapter, 
except fome of late; but they acknowledge, Abls\%, 
to be a formall copy and draught cfagenerall Affem- 
bly. 1 might cite all our Proteftant Divines, the Z«- 
tberans y Papifs, Schoolemen , Cafulfts , all the Fathers,- 
and Councels, all the Doctors anticnt and moderne ; but 
this was to fetch water to the Sea. 

Chap. XV, 

Que. 1 5 . whether or no by other valid Arguments from (jods 
Word, the lawf nine fe of Synods can Ire concluded*. 

Hitherto hath been fixe Arguments againft Chur- 
ches independent, and confequently proving the 
lawfulneflc of Synods. Now followeth our feventh Ar- 

7. If there be a commandement to tell the Church 

when an obftinatc brother offendeth a brother , then 

muft this courfc alfo be taken when an obftinate Church 

fliall offend a Sifter-church. But the former is true, 

G g 2 tMit* 

2 1 8 The Authority of Afemblies proved. Chap, i y. 

Parade pdit. CMat 18. £r£0, fo is the latter. This is not mine, but 
j^dtmm <nnn the Argument of Tarty, D. Amines, Profeflbrsof Z>j* 
cM s/w«f»4. <&/*, ani of all our Divines, fVillet 9 whittaker , Junius 
^Tl^ £«*,&C ; Oar brethren fay Chrift fpeakcth, Ukat.it. 
v.nctv.ioi.\ucu of a particular Congregation, and not of many Conor e^a- 
nop?df^.^ ln Sy " tions meeting pynodically in their members of princ'ipa/l note y 
thctie, ' as Pastors aid SUers. I. Becaufe an offended brother can* 

not have a Synod «f Elders ', and a Nationodl AJfemjly al- 
Veaycs to complaine unto y and f* Chrift (hall not fefdoVvne 
an expedite Vvay . to remove fcandals betwixt brother and 
if rot her. 2 Chrift (fay they) is fetting doVone a Way, how 
an obftinate offendor Jhall be casl out of the Qhurch, Vehere 
he -was an ordinary hearer of the word y and a compartner 
With other profejfors of the holy things of god, in a parti- 
cular vijikle Church. No^> thefe of divers Congregations 
partake not in a Church- communion of thefe fame holy, 
things of Gadg.fVord) Sacraments, and Difcipline. 

Anfw.i , Chrift here fettcth down a way how all offen- 
ces of brethren may be takera away •, for Chrifts falve 
muft be as bread and large as th* foare, and excom- 
munication muft reach as farre as offences ; but of- 
fences are betwixt Church and Church, betwixt the 
Grecians and the Hebrewes, Ads 6.1. no lefle then be- 
twixt a (ingle brother and a brother. 

2. I borrow the Argument and pay it home againe. 
Chrift fetteth downe a way how all fiandals in his vifibU 
Church may be removed : So teach our brethren, as an 
offended brother cannot alwayes have recourfe to a Na- 
tionall Affcmbly, and fo Chrifts remedy ftiall be insuf- 
ficient. If by a Church, Mat. 18. we underftand a Sy- 
nod, fay they ;. but when the Cjrecian .fhurclic&ndetk 
the Hebrew Church , the Hebrew Qhurch cannot com- 
plaine to the Cyrecian Church , for the Law forbiddeth 
the party to be the Judge ; therefore if they under- 
ftand, Mat. 1 8. onely a Congregation , excluding all 
Synods, Chrifts remedy of removing fcandals betwixt 
Sifter, and Sifter-church , (hall be unfurficient ; there- 
fore the Grc<$*n and Heir ewes muft have recourfe , as 


Gbap.15'. Independent Churches refuted 

AB % 6. to a Colkdgeof Apoftles and ra&ors,and that is a 

3. I borrow the other Argument alio, and (ball pay it 


Theie who arc confociated and neighboured to- 
gether in the Ads and Dentees of vilible Church- 
communion, by rebuking one another, Leviticus I Q. 17. 
Admonljhing, Collolians 5. 16 . Exhorting, Hebrewes 
3. 13, comforting one another, 1 Thefl. $. II, and. 
pleading one again ft another, Hofeaz. 2. and occasional- 
ly communicating one with another in that fame Word 
and Sacrament, and in efchewing the fellowihip of one 
and the fame excommunicate perfon. 

Thefe make up one vilible politick Church,that is under 
a common Church-government , according to Chrifts 
difcipline,which regulateth thefe ads of Church-commi> 
nion of one with another. 

But fo it is, that Grecians and Hebrewes, and fundry 
particular fifter-Churches, are confociated and neighbou- 
red together in the fore-laid ads and dentees of. viable 
Church-communion, &c. 

Ergo, divers fifter- Churches fo make up one vilible- 
politick Church under one common Church government, 
according to Chrifts difcipline 5 e£r. . 

The propofition is our brethrens, wherby they proove, 
and that ftrongly, that fingle profeffours confociated in 
thefe ads and dentees of vilible Church communion,makc 
up one vilible Church under one common governement, . r . . 
and fo fay the Fathers Bafil, Chryfiflome, Angnftine and cbrytfi'™' 
tsfthanajiHf, howbeit inhabitation we be fep orated, jit are «*h u &' 
we one body, and Cyprian will have nothing done in the utTun^fmc fe- 
caufe of many Churches , except wee aM meete in one *««, 

Theaflumption for the communion of fundry Churches «»««»• 
barker granteth, and the Scripture is cleare, Laodicea 
and Colore have a fifter- communion in that fame word 
of God, Col\^.\6. fo Corinth, ^Macedonia and Galatia 
in. thefe fame ads of charity to the Saints at Jernfa- 

g 11 t™, 

2*o The authority of Ajfemblies proved, Chap.15. 

/em, 1 Cor: 1 6. 1,^,3,4. fee alfo 2£V:8.i. Rom:\6.ij. 
Alfo ir any perfon be excommunicate in one congrega- 
tion, all j in all the neighbour congregations. 1. Be- 
caufe his funics dre bound in Heaven, 2. He is delivered 
to S at an, 1 Cor. 5. 4. to ait. 3. Chrift faith herhouldbe 
as an Heathen to all,and {o is excluded from Church com" 
munion to all. Hence thefe vifible acts of C hurch com- 
munion require a common law and difciplinc of Chrift 
to regulate them, feeing they may effend in the exceffe 
and defect one to another , but one common difciphne 
they cannot have, except they may by authority conveenc 
in one Synod in their principall members. Alio Field, 
T chixrht' C c-o Wfi"* WhUtaher allcadge this place fur Synods, all fay 
9U/mmra!p.i%. if Paftors have authority every one within themfelves and 
whmak-de com.q. f arrc mOYQ w h cn they are met in a Synod,for vis unitafir- 

tior, united fire e uftronger. 
%.Arg % Our eighth Argument is, from the conftant pra&ifeof 

the Apoftles, if all weighty affaires that concernc equally 
many particular congregations were managed, not by one 
fingle congregation, but by the joynt voyces and fufrra- 
ges of Apoftles, Paftors and feletled Brethren of many , 
congregations in the Apoftolick^Qhurch : Then were Sy- 
nods the practice of the Apoftles,md n t independent con- 
gregations.but the former is true. Ergo, fo is the latter. 
The propofition cur brethren grant. I prove the aflump- 
tion by an induction. 1 . Thcfelett Paftors of the Chriftian 
world, and feiccT brethren, Act: 1. did elecT and ordainc 
Matthias to be one of the twelve, becaufc that concerned 
many particular Churches, the publick treafury of Apofto- 
lick Churches was committed to the Apollles, becaufe 
that concerned them all, ^#,4.3 3.34. When the Chur- 
ches of the Cjrecians,2Li\& the Churches of the He br ewes mur- 
w#ra/theoncagamftthe other, cne common Synod of 
the twelve Apoftles authoritatively convcencd, and ordai- 
jtnt9.WaUmJoc, ned Veith praying and laying on of hands the feven Deacons, 
tm.'ftoiy AcT.6.2,3,4,5. and fValleus faith, the argument for ordai- 

ning Deacons, that the Taftors might attend the" word 
and prayer, pro veth alfo that there were then ruling El- 

Chap.i?. I»defendent Churches refuted. 211 

dcrs. Alfo Ad. 20. 2 8. there is a Synod of Payors at -E- 
pbefns, whom Paul warned to take heed to the floe ke y and 
Acl: 1 1.2. Teter giveth a reckning and count ofhis go- 
ing in to the Gentiles, before a Synod of Apoftles and Bre- 
thren, for it was unpoflible that the multitude of be» 
lievers now growne fo numerous could all meete in 
one houfs, and Acl.21.18. anAlTembly of Apoftles and 
EUers ordaineth T^atd to purifle himfelfe, a Synod of 
Elders, I T~Vw.-4.14. ordainedTimothy. 

p. Argument is from the care afChrifi lefm the head a^Arr. 
cf the Cjnurcb, in the end of excommunication. Hence if 
Chrift J efus take care that one particular congregation be 
net leavened, and fowred with the wi eked con verfat ion 
of one, then farre more will he take care that many 
Churches be not leavened, and hath ordained excommu- 
nication for many, as for one ; but our brethren grant 
he hath taken care that one lump leaven not one fingle 
congregation, 1 Cor.5.4. & c * f prove the proportion, 

* Tor Chrifts remedy for remooving of fcandals is hence 
argued to be unperfeel, if excommunication doe not 
remove all effcnees, and prevent the leavening cf many 
lumpes ; for he that careth for the part muft far more 
care for a whole Church, and ordaine excommunica- 
tion of a Church, for the edifying therof, 1 CV.4.20, 
ft 1 . 2 Cor. 10.8. That their ffiirit may befavedln the day of 
thcLord, iCor.5.4.5. and (ince he tooke this care for a 
Nationall Church, Numb.$.2,^.^. Who can doubt, 
but he hath care of edifying and faving in the day of 
the Lord, Churches of Nations and Provinces under the 
New Teftament, yea and a greater care, then for fa- 
ving one fingle man, feeing the influence of his love is • 
bounded firft upon the body, bride and sjoufe by order 
of nature, before it be bounded upon one finger or toe 

1 "or any particular member of the body, 1 meane on« 
(ingle perfon. They anfwer. Cjod haih provided other 
mcancs for whole Churches then to excommunicate them, 
for it wanteth precept, promife and pratlice to excommwii- 
fate d rphcle (fhurch, tmj are to be rebuked^ and rve mvfl 


222 7ht Authority of^jiffem'ilics proved,. Chap. 15.. 

pleade with obfiinate Churches^ Hof.2.2. and if they re- 
mdne obftinate, we are to with-dr Aw our fellowfbip and com- 
munion from them, and not to acknowledge them as fifter- 
Churches, that u -we are. to feparate from them, but there 
is no warrant to excommunicate them. 

Anfw.i. I fay this is a begging of the queftion, for 
we defire a warrant of Gods Word why fifter-Churches 
may ufe fome power of the keyes againft filler- Churches, 
fuch as is to rebuke them, plead with them, Hof. 2.1. 
and yet we may not ufe all power of the keyes, even ex- 
communication ; now to rebuke and pleade againft a 
Church, to Parker and our brethren is a power of ju- 
rifdidion, and a fort of clofing and Shutting of Hea- 

2. Trie Tewes did juftly excommunicate the Church of 
the Samaritans, and Chrift alloweth therof, John 4. 22. 
yeworjhip ye know not what, falvation u of the J ewes, 
in which words, Chrifl pronounceththe lewes to be the , 
true Church , and the Samaritans^ not to be the true 

3. 1 defire to know what excommunication is, if it 
be not to deny all Church-communion with thofe who 
were once in our Church, now if this be done by one 
Sifter-church to another fifter-church , it is no excom- 
munication at all, feeing Chrift hath not given the power 
of the keyes to one Sifter-church over another, for one 
particular Church is not fet over another in the Lord, but 
when the Elderfhipof many confociated Sifter- churches 
denieth C hurch communion to one of thefe confociated 
Churches having turned obftinate in fcandalous fins, Ifee 
not what this is els but excommunicaton and authorita- 
tive unchurching and ejection of fuch a Church. Alfo our 
brethren pleade for the peoples power in excommu- 
nicating, becaufe all and every one of the beleevers arc 
to efchew the company of the perfon excommunicated, 
therfore all and every one fhould have hand in excommu- 
nicating him, as all Ifrael and not the Judges onely 
were adors in putting away the leaven, io reafoneth 



Chap. 1 5. Independent Churches refuted. 223 

Tarhr M. Bejt, fo alfo the Separatiftes, yea if it bee . . 
rieht taken, fo alfo faith 3«*, P. CMartjr, Calvin, £****^ 
CMarlorat : So C hryjoftome^ Augusline ; for all arc to M - Be fi church 
confent to the excommunication of one who is a mem- l^JJ^.^m, 
ber of that vifiblc Church with thcmfelvcs , but fo it *p»f*r.yp6%. 
is that all confeciated Churches are to efchew the com- *£* anJH ' Cor * 
pany of an excommunicated by a (ingle congregation u*n>r.fm. 
iuppofer by our brethren to be independent : Becuufe < *u%!? lK ' m * 
1. if they admit him to the Lords Supper with them, p*™. 
they prophane the holy things of God. 2. They an- ^J^ 
null excommunication fuppofed by our brethren duely, 
c£- clave non err ante, inflicted, and fo they loofe on earth 
him whom God hath bound in Heaven, they hold him 
for a member of fhrift, and a brother whom Chrift 
hath delivered to Satan, and will have to be reputed as 
a Heathen and a Publican. Ergo, by this reafbn allfhould 
have hand in excommunicating fucha perfon, but many 
Sitter-churches confeciated together in neighbourly and 
ffterly Church-fillowjhij ; as we heard before a cannot aCoU.Kf. 
excommunicate in their owne perfons being poflibly \ £°^ I \ T ' 7>3 ' 
twenty feverall congregations. Therefore they mult Rcm.i6.»7« 
excommunicate in their Elderftiips fynodically convee-. 
ned, which is oue purpofe we intend. It is but a wo- 
manly evallon of the F email authour who differenceth be- 
twixt rebellion of an offending £hurch and excommunica- K 1theriH tbititef 
tion. We may reject (faith Hie J an offending Churchy ^Jf^i^ 
but not excommunicate ; Saul rejetled God, did he there- 
fore excommunicate God ? For this is but afutingofthc 
qUeftion, it is not fimple rejection of an obftinate Church 
that we plead for, but an authoritative unchurching » 

and" not acknowledging of an obftinate Church to be 
any more a Church with whom we can communicate 
in the holy things of God, and this is more then fim- 
ple rejection, or refuting to obey, as Saul isfaid to re- 
ject God I grant we feldomerlnd the practice of ex- 
communicating Churches in the New Teftament, be- 
caufe fo long as a number ofbcleevcrs are in a Church, 
God Icaveth them not all to be involved in one fcan- 

H h dalous 

2 ? 4 The Authority of Afiemblies proved. Chap.i 5. 

dalous groffc fnqne, therforc the presbytery is to ceri- 
iiire particular perfons -and not the whole Church, ther- 
fire when we feparatcd from Rome, which was an au- 
thoritative declaration that Rome is now no longer a 
Spoufe of Chrift, but a ftrumpet, we did not feparate from 
thefaithfull lurking amongft them. 
10. Ar. 10. Arojtmcnt. That government is not from Chrifl: 

that is deficient in the meanes of propagation of the Gof- 
pdl to Nations and congregations that want the Gof- 

But the government by independent congregations 
is luch. The proportion is cleare, 1. Bccaufe Chrifts 
keyes arc perfect and opens all lockes, 2. Our Di- 
vines hence prove Chrift a perfect Mediatour, King, 
Prieft and Prophet 5 becaufe he perfectly cureth our three- 
fold mifery. 

I prove the aflumption, by the doclrine of indepen- 
dency. Taftors and "Dolours may not preach theGof-' 
pell without the bounds of their owne congregation, 
neither can they exercife any paftorall afts elfe where, 
faith the Enflifh Puritamfme and M.'Beft, and fo Paftors *• 
;^^ MMf '4»rfD^^/havc now, fines Apoftlcs are out of the 
Mieft. churches world, and the Churches are planted, no authority pa- 
pie^r^.8.^73,74 ftorall to preach the Gofpcll to thofc who fit in the re- 
gien, and fhaddow of death, and if they preach the Gof- 
pell to thofe who are not of their congregation. i.They 
doe it as private men, not as Paftours. 2. They have 
nopaftourall authority or calling from Jefus Chrift, 
and his Church fo to doe. But certaincly Papifts, as 
Wtr.detmifU Sellarmine, Snares, Becanw, Vafquezqregor.de Valen- 
stlare^deuipt. r*<* feeme to fay better, who will have the authorita- 
«wt4§ki9./fc.i. tive power offending Paftors to Nations, who want 
b*coh. the Gofpcll, to be in the Tope, whom they con- 

GnTvtU* ccive to bc mnniverfall Paftor to care for the whole 
Churches, fo Chrifl: hath left no paftorall authority on 
Earth in Paftors and Dolors to make thofe the Chur- 
ches of Chrift, and to tranllate them to the kingdom. 
of grace, who are yet carried away with dumbe I- 


Chapa5« Jtfdefewcliricy of Churches refuted. 225 

Idols, and howbeit the Apoftles and their univerfallcom- 
mfiion ordinary to preach the Gpfpell to all, their imme- 
diate calling, their extraordinary gifts be now out of 
the world, yet it is unbefeeming the care of Chrift,that 
paftorall authority fhould be fo confined at home, and 
imprifoned within the lifts of every particular Church, 
confifting poiTibly of fix or ten beleevers only, that the 
care for many Churches, 1 Cor. 11.28. The paftorall care 
to gaine Jew and Gentile, thofe that are Vcithin and Vcith- 
euty to be wade all things to all men to five fome, fhould 
be no\^ in no paftors on earth,but dead with the Apoftles, 
as if thefe places, 1 C«r. 10.3 2. 1 Cor.g. 19,20,21,22,23, 
J? 010.1. 14,1 5. Rom 9.24. didnotprelTetoallMiniftert 
of Chrift, the extending of their paftorall vigilancy to 
the feeding and governing of all the Churches in their 
bounds that maketh up one vifible politick body, com- 
municating one with another in the ads of Church- 
communion. Hence it muft follow, 1. When the Grc- 

' cian Church fhall be wronged by the Hebrew Church, 
that thepaftors may not fynodically meet, and byjoynt 
authority remove the offences betwixt Church and 
Church, as the Apoftlcs did, Atl. 6. 2. It follow- 
cth that ail the meetings and convention of the Apo- 
ftlcs and Paftours, to take care authoritatively for tb« 
Churches, as Ad. I. Ad.4 35. Ad.6. 2,3,4. Ad. n.i. 
Ad. 8.14. Ad.14. 1,2,3, Ad. 15.6. Ad.21. 18,10,20, 
&c. Ad. 30.18. Ad. 14 23. 1 Tim. 4. 14. were all 
meetings of Apoftles, extraordinary , temporary, and Sy- 
nods of Apoftles as Apoftles, and not meetings of paftors 
as paftors to joyn their authority in one for the governing 
of many Churches. 3. It fclloweth that Paftors and 
Elders andDotlors may now no more lawfully meet and 
joyne their authority in one for the feeding of the floe ^, 

■ "then they may take on them to V?orke miracles, fteake 
with tongues, and as apoftles goe up and doyen the earth" 
and preach to all the world the gosfell. O that our Lord 
would be pleafed to reveale his minde to our dears 
BrethreR in this point of truth. For what be extraordi- 

H h 2 nary 

7i 6 The Antherity of "AffimUics proved, Chap.i* 

nary and temporary in the con joy ned authority and pa - 
' ftorall care of the Apoftles for all the Churches, of the 
world, I fee not, neither is it in reafon imaginable, 
which doth not in confeience oblige Taftors, Dollars 
and Elders in the £hurck of Scotland, to conjoyne their 
authority in one Synodicall power for all the Churches 
of Scotland. O faith our Brethren, there Should be too 
many mafters, commanders and Lords over ths free and in- 
dependent vifible Qhurches of Chrifl. 

I anfwer, feeing all thefe Pallors, and Elders in a 
nationall Synod, are no other way over all the Chur- 
ches of Scotland y then the particular kldermip in a par- 
ticular congregation is over the believers, there be ao 
more too many Lords md LMafiers over the whole 
Churches collectively united in a general Synod,then there 
be too many Lords over the particular congregations. For 
I. in both meetings the beleevers choofe their owne 
guides and commanders that are over them. 2. No- 
thing is done in either a Nationall or in a congrega- ' 
tionall Synod without the tacite confent of believers. 
3. In both, it is free for beleevers to refufe and not 
receive, what is decreed contrary to Gods Word, See 
%ipper.depoiit.i.i* Zipper its, and fo there is no dominion here, but what 
'** you findc, H^.13.17. 1 ^jf&Mt'S* <-M*th. 18.17, 

18. Nay, our brethren will have pallors (o farre Gran- 
gers to all congregations, five only to their ovvne 3 tbac 
M. Davenport and Mr. 'Beft faith to the Paftours and 
Churches other Churches are without, and Paftors have 
nothing to doe to jidge them, and they alleadge for 
this, 1 CV.5.1 2. but by thefe that are {without) Paul 
meaneth not thefe who were not of the congregati- 
on of Corinth, but he meaneth Infiels and Heathen as 
acoi.5.4. : Pi otner Scriptures, a for Paul judged and excommu- 

nicated Hymenals and Alexander, 1 Tim. 1. 20. whd 
were without the Church of firintb 3 and if this ex- 
podtion, ftand Paftors can .extend no Church cenfure 
towards thefe who are of other congregations, neither 
can they rebuke nor admonilh them as Chrklians, for 


Chap.i 5. Independent Churches refuted. 227 

thefc arc Ads of Church-cenfures , as our brethren 

Our eleventh Argument is from the light of fancti- 
fied reafon ; for fanetmed reafon teachcth that the ftron- 
ger authority of the greater politicke body of Chrift 
ihould help the parts of the body that are weaker, as 
I Cor. 1 2 1 The Whole body faffereth when one member [u 'ffe- 
reth, and fo the whole body helpeth the weaker , and 
/ejfe honourable member, I Cor. I 2 v. 2 3, 2 5. So urriverfall 
nature contendeth for the fafety of particular nature, 
and helpeth it ; therefore the greater body and Nati- 
onal Church is to communicate its authority f^r the 
^ood of a particular Congregation , which is a part 
thereof : But the doffrine of independency maketh 
every Congregation an independent and compleat body 
within it fclfe , needing no authority to governe it, 
higher then its own: authority, as if it were an inde- 
, pendent whole Church, and no part of a greater vifi- 
ble Church : But fippofe the greateft part of Corinth 
deny the refurredion, as often the worft are manyeft, 
then I aske, whom to doth the Lord fpeakc ? Take us can:.*.?*; 
the little foxes thtt sj&ile the vines : He fpeaketh either 
to greater Synods, which we fay, that the greater body 
may help a part, and fave a little daughter of Siom Or 
to the founded: part of the Congregation ; but they are 
weakeft and feweft, and (hall the greater body looke 
and fee a member perifh, and not help ? Let them help 
(fay our brethren) vrith advife and counfell, but not with 
command and authority. 

I anfvver, Take u* the little foxes, is an acl of autho- 
ritative and difciplinary taking enjoyned to the Church. 
2. Our Argument is drawrrc from the greater autho- 
rity in the politicke body to the kffer ; brotherly ad- 
fe is not authority. Hence authority as authority by 
this meanes fnall not help the weaker parts of the body, 
contrary to that which we have at length commanded, 
1 Cor.12. Neither doe fome reply well, that he fpeaks, 
x Cor.i 2. of Chrift s invifiblebodfr becaufe it is feid,v.i 3. 

Hh 3 For 

22? 7 be Authority of \Jffembltes proved, Chapaj. 

a marufcriptfor For by one fplrit rec are all baptized into one body, ^he- 

chuic^.p.1. ther ™ e be ? ewes or Gentile >- ? erves and G**Ms (iaith 
he) make not a vifibU Church, but an invifible Catholike 

I ant wee I . What can hinder under the New Tefta- 
ment, Taut a Jew to make a vifible Church with the 
Spheftans who arc CjentiUs , ? 

2. That he ipcaketb of a vifible politicke body is 
cleare while he alleadgeth, The eye exerciieth Pafto- 
rail ads of feeing for the foot, and that the eare hea- 
reth for the whole body, and when one member fuf- 
fereth all fuflfrr, which is principally true of a politicks 
vilibic body : For we are not baptized in one body vifi- 
ble, with thofe preachers who are long agoe dead, who 
never preached for the good of us who now bclceveiri 
Chrift, becaufe we never heard them preach, and £o they 
arc not eyes feeing for us. 
Ar^\ 2. Our twelfth Argument is from the pracTifes of the Jew- 

i(h Church in a morall duty 

If Chrift hath left the Churches of a whole Nation 
in no wcrfe cafe then the Nationall Church of the 
jewes were in, for their publike giving of thanks, 
tor the turning away of Gods wrath, when the Land 
is defiled With bio ud and other Nationall tranfgre (lions, 
for the bringing backe the Arke of God, for the renew- 
ing a Nationall Covenant and Oath with God in cafe of 
univerfall Apoftafie from God and true Religion. Then 
hath Chrift ordained to Churches ija the New TeQament 
Nationall Affemblies, which authoritatively oncly can 
reach thefe ends and effjvfls. 

But Chrift hath left the Churches of a whole Na- 
tion in no worfe cafe then the Nationall Church of the 
Jewes was in , for reaching the foreiaid ends and ef- 
fects, -£>^,&c. 

I have to prove i . That the Jewes had their folemnc 
Affemblies for thefe ends. 2. That thefe Affemblies were 
morall, and fo conccrne us. 3 . That thefe ends cannot 
be attained without Nationall Affemblies, which being 


C h ap. 1 5 . Indtfendcnt churches refund. 229 

done, I truft the Argument fhall ftand ftrong. 

For the firft I may prove both in the Iewifh, and 
after their example in the Chnftian Church, Deut.29. 
20. AH Jfrael were convened to enter in Covenant with 
the Lord. So fofhuah for the fame end afiembled all the 
Tribes tf Jfrael y Iofh.24 I. their Heads, Judges ani Offi- 
cers. And Samuel, 1 Sam. 12. gathered all JJrael to renew 
their repentance for their finne in as^ng a King. So 
did Hez.ekiah.2 Chron.2p # 4. in an univerfall Apoftsfie. 
And Jofiah, 2 Chron.34.2p. And Afa y 2 Chron.ij.p. 
gathered all Judah a*d Bertiamin, and they [ware a Qove- 
mnt to the Lord. And Ahab, 1 King.22. gathered Joure 
hundred Prophets to a$ke counfell about going to warre 
againft Ramoth Cjilcad. And Herod, Mat* 2. 3. when 
Chrift was borne. So Salomon did when the Temple juim^.B^ 
was confecrated, and D avid zffzmblcd them to bring the a»»° w. 
Arke to it's place. The examples of thefe Kings did Kufiniv.Ji* 
godly Empcrours follow and convened generall Coun- Socratinpm. 
eels, what ever Julius j.ufurpe in his 7?ull,ami.T<tfi. E^d'cvir.Coa. 
Decemb.15. Conftantlne convened the Councell of Nice, J \*+ 
as faith Theodoret, Ruffin } Socrates and Estfeblus. Theo- soc°l 7 xi9. ' 
dofus called the 2.generall Councell at Conslaitinople, Eu*gi*c&. 
as Theodoref frith : And Theodofim gathered the third stSSm^SP^ 
generall Councell at Ephefws, as Socrates and^ Ettagrius N*«j*tok*jr, 
faith. Valentine and A<fartian called the Councell of 
Chatcedon, and the Councell of Sardis in JUjrium , as c^*/'**" b 
Socmen faith : And Iuftinian called the fifth generall ° n ant * 4 * J 
Councell at Conftantinople y as Nicephorm faith, finftan- 
tine the 4, gathered the fixth generall Councell at Con* 
ftantinople, as faith Martinm Tohnns. I might adde 
many others, but theft may fuffice. I prove the fecond 
particular, that convening of generall Councels in the 
Iewifh Cturch was morall : For 1 . an oath and vow 
to keep Gods Commandements is a part of the third 
Commandement, according to that Pfalme 119.T.106. 
/ have fworne , and I rvlll performe , that J wilt k*tp thy 
righteous ludgements 3 and the maintenance of the true 
Religion in a Land is obligatory for ever : ¥ot Jttd.v.3. 


230 Authority of Affcmbliesfroved Chap, i y . 

wc arc willed earneftly to contend for the faith once de- 
livered to the Saints ; and it is obedience to the third 
Commandement, to avow God and his Sonne Chrift 
before men, Mat.10.^2. And fo doth CMofes com- 
mend it in Ifrael, Deut. 25.17. Thou haft avouched 
the Lord this day to be thy CJod i and to Wa/ke inhu^yes, 
and to keep hid statutes, and hid Commandements^&c. Now 
what ever doth lay a bond morally binding on man, 
doth alfo morally bind a whole Nation. 1. It is moft 
certaine that bloud defiled the land of Ifrael morally, 
as it was a Land , and not as the holy Land only, Num. 
35.33, Hof.4 1,2,3. i.Becaufe it isafinneagainftthc 
Law of Nature, for man is made according to Qods > r mage, 
Gen.9.6. (2.) Becaufe bloud defileth the Land under 
the New Teftament, as in the Tewifh Church ; for if 
this were not, the Magistrate had no warrant from 
JV/ww.33. to ufe the fword againft the murtherer, which 
is that very fame that is taught by Socinians^zfdrmini. 
\*t !$'f fp ' 13 ' aHS * anc * <L<4 na b*?tifts. So teacheth Zpifcopius, Joan Cjei- 
Jan G titter in. fleran , and Henry Statins , Co alfo Socinm^ the Chatechife 
conf.de officma&. f }{ ACC0V i^ d en y that the Magiftrate now under the 
decTi 5 j ,M " apcr ' Mefliah his kingdoms mould fhed the bloud of any mur- 
Sxiwo *in defenf. tnerer Qr rnalefa&or : Tea if it be knowne (faith Oft or 0- 
magpolit.par.j. dim) that a man cannot be a LMagiftrate mtbout /bedding 
f M , M5 pf blond, and War. It u not lawfull for him to be a Ma- 

Proc. chriai, giftrate , quia precept a C hrijh non permittunt ulh homim 
(•MM** • > adimcre vitam. So alfo faith Smalcius , therefore need- 
Rci-gc -8° ' force thefe precepts anent uSedding of bloud are not ju- 
SmdcA&'t&c diciall, but morall, feeing the Magiftratc carrieth the 
FrantT rC ° nr ' fword, as the Minifter of God to execute judgement 
upon the evill doer, i^w.13.4 which being undeny- 
ably true, a Nationall Church muft have meancs allow- 
ed of Chrift to purge the land of bloud, Sodom) , and v 
other Nationall finnes, for the which £anaan fpewed 
out feven great 'Nations. A\Co,Becaufe of fwearing the land 
{hall mourne, ler.33.10. And if the *s4rke befallen away y 
as it was out of his place, 1 £hron.i$. The Land is in 
a hard cafe, we fee no meanes but an Aflembly of the 


Chap. 1 6. Arguments agxir.fi Synods&c. 2 3 1 

N^tion?ll Church, that hy authority of the Atfem- 
bly wil may be moved to renew their Covenant with 
God; to repent, and to bring backeagaine theGofpell; 
as David conveened all 7/rW, 1 Chron.ij. 1,1/3,4. 
to brinrr backe the Arhe from Kircath- je-:rim : For the 
Gofjbels departure and univerfail Apoitafie ( when wc 
are as Ifrael , without the true God, and a teaching 
Pricft, as 2 Chron.\%. and withall in great trouble) is 
a cafe that conc:rneth not a particular Congregation 
onely, but the whole Land ; and therefore the whole 
Church of the Nation muft be affcmbled in their heads 
and leaders to turne away God? wrath, and bring backc 
the ^lory that is departed from the Lard* by renewing 
our Covenant with God. Laftiy, the whole hoaft and 
armies of \vriters,antient and modernc,may be allead^ed 
for the lawfiilneffe cf Synods, as witnefleth the Tomes 
of tfce Counccls generall and Provincial!. 

Ch a?. XVI 

TVhtker or no it can be demon frated from Gods IVcrd, that 
■all particular Congregations have of and within them* 
f elves full power of Church- difcipline V9tthop:t any fubie- 
clion to Presbyteries, Synods, or higher AJfe&blies ? 

VEry reverend and holy men hold the affirmative w.B>/ichm& 
part of this queftion, and deny all fubjecftion of S^J^'/i!* 
Congregations to Presbyteries and Aflemblies. Their fTrft p*k» dcPoto. 
-Argument is, Jc ' 4, 

If Churches planted by the Apoftles y fuch as Corinth, 
have power Within themjclves to exercife Church- difcipline^ 
at to rebuke .excommunicate , loofe and relaxe from excom- 
munication : Then ouvht not particular (Congregations now f 
f and under any other JBcclefiaflical authority out ofthemfelies. 

Ii But 

23* Arguments againfi Synods ^and for Chap.itf. 

But the former is true, i Cor.5. 2,3. So M.Beft^arm 

ker, the Separates, Robinfon, Authors of Presb.govern. 

set*t*t.i pet. examined , prove that all beleevers in Corinth had voice 

^/«/agiinft5^- ™ excommunication. \, They amongsl whom the fornicator 

»*r4p. 70. was, they who Were puffed up, and forrowed not that he wot 

aminid C ,ann.'i%'r. not ctit °f> tty ™ r * f * be gathered together in one y and 

p.»>,ij, to iudge and excommunicate, v.i 2. but the fornicator was 

not among ft the Elders only, hut amongsl all the beleevers, 

neither were the Elders onely puffed up, nor did they onelj 

not forrow that the incestuous man 'Was not cut off, but 

the belcevers aljo were puffed up, and did not forrow thai 

he was not cut off, Ergo , ail the beleevers had voices in 

fudging and excommunicating. 2. Of old not the Levites 

onely were to purge out the leaven, but all Jftaclalfo ,Ergo, 

here not the Elders only are to purge out this leaven. % . Paul 

writeth not to the Elders onely, not to be mixed with the for* 

nicators, but to all the faithfull. 4. The faithfully and^not 

the Elders only were to forgive, 2 Cor. 2. 

Anfw. I will firft anfwer thefe reafons, and withall 
fhew how the people had hand in excommunicatien, 
and might prove that there was a Presbytery of many 
Faftors at Corinth, and not a fingle Congregation of one 
Paftor , and fomc few Elders and beleevers, who did 
excommunicate. I retort thefe Arguments ; Thefe with 
whom the fornicator did converfc, and fo leavened them, 
thefe who were pufrcd up , and forrowed not at the 
mans fall, and at his not being cut off by excommuni- 
cation, thefe were judicially to excommunicate with 
the Elders : But the fornicator converfed amongftbe- 
leeving women and children, and did leaven them, bc- 
leeving women and children were puffed up and for- 
rowed not, Ergo, Beleeving women and children did 
judicially excommunicate, but the conclufion is foule^ 
and againft the Argumcntators, Ergo, fo muft fome of 
the premiffes befouleand falfe, but the affumption is 
moft true • therefore their major propofition muft be 
falfe ; therforc they muft firft acknowledge areprefen- 
tative Church with us , and that men onely did judi- 

Chap. 1 6. Independent Churches dijfolvett* 235 

daily excommunicate, and not all the faithful!, except 
they make women ordinary Judges ufurping the autho- 
rity over men. Then the number of thefe who were 
puffed up, and forrowed not at his fall,&c. mud be 
more then the number oftheperfons who flaould judici- 
ally, excommunicate. 

7. The authors of Presbyteriall govern, exam. &y, ^3, 
Elders Are principally to iudge^ and to be leaders andfirfi 
atlors in excommunicating and people are to follow in 
the fecond roome andaflent. So fay our Divines,^/- £t™'" 
lens, Bucanus, Rollocus^ Bezji. Therefore c Paul cannot ^awJoccom.^ 
rebuke private bcleevers , becaufc they did not ex- JL«k.cwva 
communicate judicially in the firft roome ; for then iThcf.j. # 
7W fhould have rebuked the Elders and leaders for fg^* " 
not excommunicating in the order anfwerable to their 
place and power , and becaufe they did not judicially 
and authoritatively lead, and goe before as firft aclors 
% and prime moderators in the judiciall act. of delivering 
* of the man to Satan, and {o Pant cannot in realbn re- 
buke all the faithfull amongfl; whom the fcandalous man 
did converfe, and who were puffed up, and forrowed 
not at the mans fall, becaufe they did not excommuni^ 
cate judicially, at moft, they can be rebuked oncly for 
not excommunicating in the fecond roome, and in that 
orderly and fubordinate way futable to their place $nd 

3. I fee no fbet-ftep of any tollerable ground in the 
Text, why it ftiould.-be alieadged that all the faithfull 
men comming to age (to fpeake nothing of beleeving 
women and children) are rebuked for not excommuni- 
cating judicially ths fornicator ; but rather the con- 
trary, that the faithfull out of office were not to ex- 
communicate judicially : For applying thefe words as 
arcproofc to beleeving men, v. 2. And ye are puffed ftp, 
and have not rather forrowed, that m "'*> to the end that 
he that hath done this deed y z&fa 1* />w« vV£r,rrjay beta- 
ken from amongft you. He ufeth the paffiv c verbe, not 
the aftivc , whereby it appearcth that the bcleevers 

li 2 were 

2 34 Arguments Againft Sjmis^ndfor • Ch^pM £ 

were patiertts rather, then agents in the not jncfi- 
ciall* and authoritative taking a wy of the rani horn 
amongft them, md that their fault was that they mour- 
ned not to God for the mans fall, and the rem Me neg- 
ligence of the Elders , by vvhofe authority he might 
p-r^com fb. have been authoritatively delivered to Satan. Varem faith, 
c*l\. 'pa.nkvm that he blameth the beleevers fecurity ; Calvin , their not 
immtpMUteffi. y e i ni ^ humbled at the fafL and Cajetan , they boasted that 

luniu, LccU.l.c.i, / •> I r I . - 

& ?#. 14. "* fornicator wot the f inner, not they. 

4. That great Divine Junius doth excellently obferve 
that Paul ioyneth himjelfe as an extraordinary Elder with 
the ordinary Slderfhip of Corinth,v. qJVhen you are gather 
red together with my spirit : For, as I obferved before, 
1>aul requircth not only that they be gathered together 
In the name of Chrifl, which is required in all meetings 
for Gods worfhip in Prayers, Word and Sacraments ; 
but alfo here he requireth that they meet (iaith he) 
With my fpirit, that is, with my Presbyten'all power of. 
the keyes , and , 1 Cor. 4. 2 1 . with the authority 
Vthich the Lord hath given ns for edification, 2 Cor. 1 0.8. 
as J am an Elder. So faid the Prophet to Gehaz>i y z King. 
5. i6.V8c#t not my spirit with thee, that is, my Propheticall 
power, Col. 2. 5. For though I be abfent in tht fe(h y yet 

1 am prefent in jpirit. Now the beleevers out of o£ 
fice, did not convene in this meeting , indued with 
Pauls Minifteriall and Paftorall fpirit ; for (ingle belee^ 
vers receive not Minifteriall fpirit from God, neither is 
fuch a fpirit promifed to them : Give an inOance in 
Scripture of this promife, and we Oiall lofe tbiscaufe; 
but this fpirit for doctrine and difcipline fo given to 
Paftors, 1 C0n4.ll. 2Cor.io. 8. C0I4. 17.2 Cor.4.1. 

2 Cor. 5. 1 8. 1 Cor. 1 2. 28,29. v. 17. therfore the com* 
ming together with Pauls spirit, that is, with his mini-^ 
fteriall power of the keyes, as an Elder, rauft be reftraf* 
ned to the Elderfhip of Corinth, and cannot beapply- 
cd to (ingle beleevers, men, women and children, who 
yet were puffed up and forr.wed not,v 2. therefore this is 
not a gathering temher of an independent Congregation 


Chap. 1 6*. Independent Churches dtffolved. 23 5 

of beleever?, men and women meeting with Tunis fpirit, 
and his presbytenall power of the keyes in an authorita- 
tive and judiciall way to exco in muni care, but it mnft 
be a gathering together of thefe who had fuch a fpirit 
and power paitorall and mwifteriall, as "Paul had. I 
deny not but the faithfull conveencd, or were to con- 
\eene in this meeting with the Eiderfhip, for praying 
and hearing the word preached, which maft be con- 
joyncd with excommunication, but the meeting is de- 
nominated paftorall and presbyteriall with fpirituall 
power from the fpeciall intended end in that act 5 which 
was authoritatively to deliver the forme at oar t* Satan, 
and Vrfwe thinkcth not without re^fon that the man ^l****'**'* 
was excommunicated, and there being a fpace inter* 
veening betwixt Pauls writing of the fir ft, and his fecond 
Efiftle to the Corinthians, that Paul, 2 Cor .2. writcth 
for relaxing him from the fenteoc* c£ cxcom.riLinica- 

x tioff. Alfo Paul when he faith, iJn ux*>«& ms WAf**]* 
I Live already indeed as prefint, meaneth not a popular 
or private judging, as we fay, the rhyiitian fudged) of 
the difeafe by the pulfe, and the Geometer judgeth of ]**&.*&.*&& 
figures, as MarJitinsfyttVzxh, but underltandeth ajoynt i«? 
authoritive judging with the Elderfaip, otherwayeshe 
needed not to adde {but prefent in Jpirit, as if I were 
prefent , fame already iudged ) for whither hee had 
bcene abfent or prefent, hee might have given his 
private minde of the due demerit of fo fcandalous a 

5. The maine thing that our brethren reft much 
on, is that one commaod of delivering to Satan, v. 4. 
and -purging out the old leaven, v,j, and the word of jud- 
ging that Taul taketh to himfflf?, v^, is given, v. 12. 
to all beleevers, and to all that he writeth unto; but 
'Paul would not f;y they command the beleevers to 
doe that which they had no authority and power trorn 
Chrift to doe, if all beleevers had not porter judicially 

' to excommunicate \ But I anfwer, bclidc that this is to 
bring in a popular government in Gods hcufe ; they 

Ii 3 confides 

a 3 ^ Arguments Ag&wfk Synods , and for Chap. 1 6* 

conlider not that they prefuppofe as granted, what we 
juftly deny, that all ana every vcrfe of this chapter is 
fpoken joyntly and equally to ail both Elders and peo- 
ple, which cannot in rcafon be faid, as in other parts 
of the epiftle, where fometimes he fpeaketh of all, as 
i Cor.1.1,4,5. both paftors and people, fometimes of 
the people, iCorj.12. 1 Cor. 4.1. fometimes of tea- 
chers only, 1 Cor.3. 12. 1 Cor.4.*. 2. One and the 
fame word e^ata'?^ to purge out the haven, v 7. ap- 
plied to both Elders andbelecfers have divers meanings, 
according as it is applied to divers fubjc&s, fo that the 
Elders did excommunicate, and purge out one way, 
that is authoritatively and with Pauls fpirit, and mi- 
niftcriall power ; I meane that fame power in kinde 
and fpeech that was in Paul was in the Elders, for 
Paul was no Frelate above other paftors, and the peo- 
ple did purge out the leaven another way, by a popu- 
lar confenting that he fhould be excommunicate, '* and 
this is well grounded on Scripture, fee Ads 4. 27, 28/ 
Herod, Pilate, Gentiles and Iewes crucified Chrift ; now 
it is certaine they did not crucifie him one and the 
fame way, Pilate judicially, the people of the Iewes in 
a popular way of asking and confenting crucified him, 
fo 1 Sam.l a. 1 8. All the people greatly feared the Lord, 
and Samuell ; that fame verbe NT jar a, to fear, expret 
feth both the peoples fearing of Sod, which is a re* 
ligious feare commanded in the firft Commandcment, 
and due to God only, and the peoples fearing of Sam- 
uell, which civill reverence given to Samuell as to a 
Trophetjisa farrc inferiour feare, and commanded in the 
fift Commandemcnt, fo Prov. 24.21. UWj finne f&are 
the Lord and the King, 1 Chro.2p.20. And the people 
"toer Jhipped Jehovah and the King, the verbe is nnUJ 
Shaehah^Nhich fignificth to bow and encline the body re- 
Ugioufly, but the meaning cannot be, that the people 
gave one and the fame religious worfhip to God and 
the King, for that fhould be idolatry : So howbeit 
Elders and belcevcrs were rebuked for not excommu- 

Chap. 1 6. Independent Churches dijfelved. 237 

nicating, and both commanded to excommunicate and 
purge out the leaven, it will never follow that botk hath 
o&e and the fame judiciall power to excommunicate, 
but every one Qiould purge out the leaven, according 
to their place and power ; and IJrael is commanded 
to put out the leper ; yet the Prieft only put him out 
judicially, and Jfrael is commanded to put to death the 
falfe Prophet, and fo to put arraj eviU out of the midfi 
of them, Deut. 13.5. and yet the Judge did put away 
evili judicially and authoritatively, and the people as 
executioners (toning him to death, *>.?, 10. and what 
I fay of excommunicating, that fame is faid of the au- 
thoritative pardoning of the fornicatour, 2 C or * 2 » * or 
xofttftft, as Vrfint obferveth, is by authority to confirme 
their love to him, as Gal.3.15. the teftament is confirmed, W****** * 
tupf*ft£nt £i?Mni s and fo doth Kemnitius,(falvin and Bui- £"—■"■ »«■« 
Gng* take the word.. SK^St 

* It is alfo more then evident that the Church of Co- c *h*» «*v*. 
rinth was not a congregation of believers onely, or a BuUlH ^ 
congregation with one paftor only, and fo not an in- 
dependent congregation^ for there was at Corinth a coi- 
led ge of paftors and fo a presbytery of Elders, Doctors, 
teachers and Prophets ; for I . Paul was but a founder 
of this Church, there were many others that built up- 
on the foundation Chrift Jefus, and fome built gold and 
fiver, that is good and found Dc&rine, fome hay and 
ftubble, 1 Cor. 4 6. And thefe things, Brethren, 1 have in 
a figure tranff erred to my Jelfe, and to Apollo for jour ' or '5 |,,,,2,1 > 
fakes, that ye might learne in us, not to thinke of men a- 
hove that which is (written:) whence I collet, how- 
beit PW,and Apollo and Cephas, were not conftantly 
rcfident teachers at Corinth, yet there were other pa- 
ftors there, of whom Paul and Apollo were named as 
figures, that with the lefie envy he might rebuke them, 
and amongft thefe many teachers, fome faid this is the 
beft preacher, ethers faid nay, but another preacher li- 
keth my care better ; and fo there hath beene fo ma- 
ny choife paftoars there, as the Provcrbe was true a- 


2 3 8 Arguments dgamft Synods, and for Chap. 1 6« 

mongft them, Wealth waketh wit to waver, which Paul 
fharply rebuketh as a fchifme, i Cor. i.i 2,1 5. 1 Cor: 
3.4,5. So Paul faith, Though ye have ten thou/and inftrtt- 
thrs y yet have ye not many fathers, I Cor: 4. I 5. I hen 
they had amongft them rmny teachers : And it is 
2. clcarc from 1 £V.i2. 14,15, 16,17,28, 29, $0. that 
there were amongft them Apoftles, Prophets, c Dottors y 
governments, or ruling Elders, and that this fault wasa- 
Biottgft them, that the higher contemned the lower, 
which is, as if the eye fbouUfay, I have no need of the 
hand, and that they were not content of that place in 
Chnfts body, while as they would all be paftors, and 
all eyes y and fo, where then were the hearing, v. 17. and 
to thefe especially PWdiredcd his rebuke, 1 Cor.j.bz- 
cnuf: pf their neglecl of difcipline againft fcandalous pcr- 
ions, not excluding the multitude or kiievers, who alfo 
in their kind defer ved to be rebuked, 3 . We may fee j.Gr, 
14, 1 here was amongft them a good number of Prophet? 
who both prophecyed two or three, after other, by coufe, 
and who alfo by the power of the kcyes did publickly 
judge of true and falfe dodtrinc,v. 29. which is indeed our 
presbytery. Seef.1,2,3. v 12,13. ^.24,25, 26. fo that it 
is a wonder to me that any learned men fhould think that 
theChmch of Corinth was one fingleand independent 
congregation, and that they met all in onehoufe, where 
1. the Lord had much people, 2. where we are not to 
thinke in fuch a plcntifull harveft of Chrift , that fo 
many paftors a id teachers, and fo many Apoftles and 
Prophets, as there were there, as you may gather from 
1 Cor 14. 24, 31, 32. and fo many (peaking with divers 
tongues, fo many who wrought miracles, io many who 
had the $iftofdifcerning y rer.26,27. that all theie were 
imployed to edifie one (ingle congregation, who were 
all ordinary worfhippers of God within the wall's of 
one hoafe, 4. Wc fee how theftlfe Apoftles and tea- 
chers laboured to make 'Taulx defpifed Apoftle amongft 
tiem, as is clcare in the 2 epift.ch. 10. ch.i i.eh. 12. snd 
fo their meeting together, 1 O.5. 1 CV.u. 1 Cor. 


Chap.15. InAcftndtnt Churches d fjolvtd. ?jo 

It t an. 

1 4*mu(t be expounded of their meeting diftributively, not 
c'tteBheiy, as though all met in one houie ; and fup. w _ ,. ,. . ft 
pole that the paines or lo numerous a company of Pro- Mr**„/>28 
phets (bould do nothing, but feed one fingle congre- 2 «v *••»'* Cor « 
gntion which meetalhnonchoufe, yet there was here a l*tvin 
Cclledgeof many Paftors, Prophets ,1)otton ami Elders, ?Atv - "»"■•*' 
who have power of excommunication, fc iaith Mobinfon, B w ^. 
that there were many Doners and 7 etcher sin this Church, Marpr, 
and proveth it well from 1 £Vi 2. for w hich,fee what our p^JT" 
ow n Divines fay , as Calvin, Bt^afPareus ^Bulling % Martyr. y or ««4« 
Pelican. Tomeran. So alio ChryfoH. Theoph- Oecumen. Theifh. 
Ambref % Lyra t (faietan. SoIthinkethisplacsthusdiLuflcJ '''» w ». 
is much agatnft independent Churches,and for the presb) - L^^.cor. ><• 
teries power. ^*T5h 

They object 2. A&.14.2. !T^« Appointed they Elders O fact ,2. 
by the peoples confer t in every Church. Ergo , Every 
Congregation hath forcer to chufe their ewne ^Paftors and 
sElders % 

. Anfw.i. Paul and Barnabas the Apoftles ofChnft chofc 
Elders in every Church, with the peoples confirm. Er- 
<ro % a congregation wanting paftcrs who ordaineth El- 
ders, canandmayofthcmlelves ordaine Tailors and El- 
ders. Whataweakconlequcnce is this ? Paftors in an 
Apoftolick Church ordained paftors. Srgo, the multi- 
tude have power to ordain Paftors. I ratlier inferre the 
contrary. Ergo, there are no congregations of believers 
independent , who have power to ordaine Paftours 
without a Colledge of Paftours, and obferve (faith Caieutf.iuhet.i4} 

Caietan ) on that place. That tie fa fling; and pray- !|v 

n , mi 1 i' • r / V < & \ f n *. far. 

ers of the Affiles were at the Ordination of "Tresbyte- T^Mm.i dttj* 
ries. ^ •''-' 

2. Snppofe yttsflfivitL were applycd to the people, I » *r. 
feenotwhatcaninreafon be faid againft Vafquez,, vvho ™'**fjr, A 
faith, it will follow only they were created by the con- ttl 
fent of the people, anda'man more to be rcfpe&ed then 2JSSS* 
ZJafquez,, Fran. Junius faith, that lifting up of the hands may BuUutgjh. 
Well be meant of Paul and Barnabas their hands. See alfo 
Titen, Calvin } Te^a and TZullinfer, Ordinary EleFlion 

K k~ • (faith 

240 Arguments Agdinfi Sy nods ^and for Chap.i6\ 

( iaith hce) u from this commended, and this forme of 
rite of lifting up oftht hands W3S borrowed from the Qre- 
cians, who gave fuifrages with lifted up hands; However 
the peoples frceele&ion is hence authorized, which forme 
§£!*.* **'^* was ufed in Cyprians time, Quando ipfa (plebs) maxime ha- 
VkhLi.uc r* beatpotefatem, veleligcndi dignos facer dotes, vel indignos 
recHjkndiflmd & ipfum videmm de-dhina author it ate defcen~ 
dare, ut facer do s plebe prefente fUb omnium oculU deligatHr i & 
cUgnus, atj 3 id$neus publico iudicio ac teflimonio comprobetur. 
It is nought that Bellarmine faith, they had not \m eli- 
genii, power ofchoofing, but \us ferendi teftimonium d* 
vita ac moribus, power to give teftimony of the life and 
convcrfation of the paftors chofen, but good man he feeth 
not that this is a power of Election, by Cjprians te- 
ftimony, and no power of choofing, which is a con- 
tradiction, and- fo faith Theodoret, avouching this to 
tmVVit*4*0+ be the minder of the Councell of f*ke in an Epiftleto 
tZtconfiTZt the Billions of Alexandria, and the firft gcncrall Coug- 
Greqix.i* Mijfc cell at Conftantinople. Only from the time of Frederic/^ 

™rtrj*n e .'M<- tnc r 7- wno <* ied » * nn ' I 3°°- werc tne people- cxclu- 
vop.ci. ' ded from the power ofchoofing Paftors and Elders, 

um?i%w h .s and this was tnc deec * of Gre g° r 7 the ix. as Krantzi- 
im ' ? av reportefh. ' Vafqnez defendeth Illyricus in this, whom 
aww7jo?* A 'Bellarmine refutetb, It is true fome fay the elcdionof 
Alexander the iij. which was foure hundred ycares be- 
fore, was made by the Cardinals only, without the peo- 
ples confent : But 1* What may the Antichrift notdc? 
his deed is not law. 2. Who can beleeve fuch-a drea- 
ThtiKxi* iecrtu mer as icW*ww,whaalleadgetb this. Tlatinc ( I grant) 
tua.Grcger-j 'faith, that ^regory the 7. was chofen 500. yearcs before, 
'f;l\ f *" r ' by the Cardinals only : But to thefc I adde Gregory 
Leoef>'tH.t 9 . a d e- w<js a lawleflc man, and from lawlefleftfts without the 
/t 3 VZ^l nMtn ' authority of Scriptures and Synods no lawfull election, 
Grepr.Magepiji. without the confent of the people, can be concluded. But 
fll M what can be f ud againft Chrjfofl, Leo and Cjregor. Af*;n. 
***!■ . ■ and many cleare teftimonies for us, which are to bee 
feene in Gratiot, all affirming that the ancient Church 
required the confent of the people to the ©rdinajion 

I of 

Chap. 1 6. Independent Churches dijjolvcd. 241 

©f Elders, but all tbefc exprefly fpeake of popular cog- 
nition of the good parts, gifts and hohnefle of the 
chefen Elders, anU doe frill afcribe authoritative Ordi- 
nation of Elders to the presby terie of Elders, as all An- 
cients with one pen afrirme. 

They object from Col.:.4. That the Church of Co- 0Ue8.}l 
lolTe had ordcr y and fo difcipline within ther/.fehes, Er- 
go, Coloile was an independent Church. And that fame 
thy atleadge of the (fhureh fl/ThefTalonica, which had the 
■power of Excommunication within themfelves, 1 ThefT, 

Anfw. Seeing Epapbras, Col. 1.7. and Archippus> 
Col.4.17. and others were their pallors at Colojfe, it 
is no marvell that they had difcipline within them- 
felves , but what then ? therefore they had difci- 
pline independently, the - Congregation not (lan- 
ding under fubjedion to the Prcsbitt ric , it followeth 
no wayes. 

fc 2. They had difcipline within themfelves, not be- 
ing compafied with (1ft cr- Churches in a O riftian 
coniociation, it will not follow therefore Churches con- 
feciated with other Churches. 2. Churches in cafe 
of aberration. 3. Churches in points of difcipline 
that conccrneth many Churches. 4. In the cafe of 
difficulties that cannot be expedited and determined 
by the particular Churches , it will not (I tiy ) 
follow, that they have power of difcipline indepen- 
dently, and without fubordination to fupcriour jud% 

3. The conclusion to be proved is, that ore paftor 
with fome rulingEldcrs and beleevers is the mell fuprcme 
miniftcriall Church, fubordinatc to none other Church Syna mmfirmn 
atfemblies now in 7 hetfalonica, 1 Thefl. 5. 1 2, 1 3. there £j5f* 
Were many paftours who warned and admcnijled them *»*(*$. 
The Syrian faith (who fond before your face to teach you) ^^ 
JBezA faith they were teachers: {oErafmus^ ( alvin, Bui- Marfolu 
finger Jo he ftileth the paftors : fo MarUrat^ Sutlu, Bright- £*£££ 
Pian } Scuttctw* swiMm, 

X k a 4, They 

242 Arguments a^ain ft Synods , and for Chap.i6 # 

Obktt.4. 4- They obje^l, The feven Churches of K\\\ are com. 

m-vded y or rebuked by Chrift for exercifing or omit tin* 

dtjcipline, every candle ftick& floul by it felfe , and held 

forth her owne tirhty if thy had had dependency one upon 

another, one mefra^e Woula have ferved them aU ; but one- 

ly rfwatira u charged for filtering Jezabell to teachy if 

they were one Church, the Whole Would have beene ouihy 

of the finnes of the party the Whole being negligent to dif- 

ciplinate the part, but every Church is rebuked for it's own 

fault, Ergo, every one wm independent within it felfe. So 

M.Resly Author of '^re/b.gover. exam, and the femaH do* 

p'njbiov exam tlrix Chilly. 

j^tb.chu<i;y>p,\9 Anfw. The firfk of thefc feven, to wit, Bphefits was 
not a particular congregation, but had a presbytery of 
Elders in it, ^#.20.17,36*. Paul prayed with them all; 
this is not (aid in the word, but of a reafonable good 
B,igbt*a». Apoc. numbcr fpcrfons; 'Brightman under the name of an 
Butting* ib. AngeKy he -writeth to a coHedge of Angels or? aft or s % Bui-;' 

SS^&J* linger he writeth to many Pafiors. Didoclav. prorethby 
■St»tf* ' good arguments againft Ttownamhis Angell-P relate that 

ap^*S" «. hc writeth to a colledgc of Angels in every Church. 
tufa**. Auguftine he fpeakcth to the Rulers ; fo futh Greoor. 

GregnmrM lob Ma , ntli ^ 'Primafms, Veda, Bay mo, Ful^erkhiSyVox: 
prlmUfi*. neither hath one fingle paftor the power of the kcyes, 

H^mo ^ Ut at t ^ c ^ econ ^ nan( *> tnc bcleivers have it as the 

F»^againfl R6f prime mimfteriall fountaine of all Church difciplinc, 

yHhm V,I,2 °* aF1( * ^° tnc ? ty our b retnrens learnings fhould have bin 

A* ' principally rebuked. 

2. Alfo Afia was of the Roman Empire, and contai- 
ned Phrygia, Myfia, Carta, Lydia y Trots and Thejfalo- 
nica 3 and every one of thefe mud be proved to be fin- 
gle congregations, and fuppofe they were, they have 
many paftors in them, as Ephefus had, they had pow- 
er of difciplinc in all points that concerned ihemfdves, 
but in thin *s common to all, they had it not,but in depcrv 
dcnce,and what? howbeit Synods could not lb conveni- 
ently be had under the perfecuting Domitian, no abfurdity 
will folio w,difciplin< may be excrcifed without provinci- 
al! Synods. 3. It 

Chap. 1 6. Independent Churches dijsolved. 2 4 J 

3. Tt is a wcake grcund , Every candlefticke flood by 
it felfe, and and held forth it's onne light : for the light 
of the Candlefticke is a preaching Paftor flhining 
in light of holy Dodrinc : Wee difpute not about 
independency of preaching Minifters in the act of 
preaching ; but about independency of Churches 
in the a&s of (fhurch-difcipline ; And fo this is a weakc 
ground (I fay) for independent Churches; yea neither 
is the Paftor in the aft of Paftor all Jh ining in found Do- 
Urine independent ; for our brethren teach that private 
perjons by the power of the kcyes ordaine him, call htm to 
office ,cenfure and depofe, and excommunicate himjf need re- 
quire, and this is no fmall dependency, 

4. It is no lefie loofc and weake to alleadge they arc 
independent Churches , becaufe every Church is 
reproved for it's cwne faults ; reproofe is a fort of cen- 
furj* : What, becaufe the fornicator, 1 Cor $. is reprc- 

- ved for a (innnc that is fcarce named amongfl the Cjen- 
■ tiles , yea and iudged worthy to be excommunicated f frail 
it hence follow that the fornicator is no member de- 
pendent, and in Ecclefiafticall fubje<ftion to the Church 
of C 9Yint ^ - ? S° fome of the Corinthians, 1 Cor. 1 5.12. 
arc reproved for denying the refurredion ; for this was 
the fault of fome, and not of all : But will it follow, 
thefe fome were no independent parts of the Church of 
Corinth, but an independent Church by themfelves? 
The faults of rcmiffc difciphnc may be laid upon a 
whole Nationall Church in fome cafes, when it com- 
meth to the notice of the Nationall Church, that fuch 
a particular Church faileth m this and this point of dis- 
cipline ; but we teach not that thefe feyen Churches 
made up one Nationall Church ; yet this hindercth not, 
but parts of an independent and fubordinatc Church may 
be rebuked for their faults, and yet remaine dependent 

5. They object If Chrifl bid an offending brother tell f.Ofatt. 
-the particular Church vf hereof he is a member, then that 
particular Church may excommunicate > Mat. 1 8.1 J. ard 

Kk 3 fi 

244 Arguments Againft Synods , and for Chap.16% 

M.Brft* f h*th footer within it felfe of the htgheft cenfitref, andu 

independent Jut the former u true, Mat. 1 8. Ergo, Vrjin* 
(hy they) Zuinglius, Andrewes , Kennitius, tsfrctitu 9 
Tclargiw^ Hunmns, Vatabltts, Cfrlunfter, Beza, Eraf- 
pufu, JVhittake^Scc, expound this of a particular Con- 

Anfa.i. We ("hall alfo expound this of a particular 

Church, but not of fuch an one as hath but onePaftor, 

neither doe thefe Divines meane any other Church then 

aColledge of Paftors and Elders. 

^r^rdePolit.j. 2. Your ownc Varker, the learned Voetiw, and Ed- 

a£i vm. it Po] mm ^ Rtcherius ,and the T> otlors of Tar is cite th is place 

Bed* thc'f7. ' to prove the lawfulneflfe of Synods, yea even hence they 

d^oK&? c dcf P rove *** UT * aa( * *° tnc Po P e * *"ftoerd/e to a generall 
potcft,p.u. C tunc ell, 

foiilcipt 3- Wnen an Eldcrfhip of a particular Congregation - 

GerftHdcPn'ca, is the obftinate brethren, to be cenfured, I defirc our 
EccjconPd.4. reverend brethren to fhew in that cafe a minifteriall, ^ — -« 
governing, and cenfuring Church, confiding onely of 
private perfbns out of office , to whom the offending 
perfon fhall complaine ? I appeale to the whole old and 
new Teftamenr, to all antiquity,to all Divines writings 
the word (Church) in this notion. See alfo Gerfon. 

6. They objecT, Every particular Church is the body of 
ObieElfi* Chrift, kii Spoufe, Wife , and Kingdeme , and every one^ 
i Com* 10.17. h at h received faith of equall price y 2 PeM. 1. and confe- 
a^ h iV.»t n ^. 5 and 1 uentl J of e quail power, and right to the tree of Life, and 
i^jj.Matilr.T. Word of Cjod, and the holy things, the keyes *f the King- 
* ' t dome, the promije and ufe of Chrifls poWer and prefenct 9 

Stptrat'iBi j.pctit. Rom.i 2. 4,8. Therefore there is not one Church above ano- 
a.ponp.4i« tier. So the Separates. Beft. 

Anfw, 1 . If this argument from an equall intcreft and 
right to Chrift\ the promife, life eternaE ftand good, not 
only one Church fhall not be over another ; but alfo 
Taflors and Elders cannot be over the flock* in the L^rd^ 
nor have the charge of h them , nor watch for their foulesx 
The contrary whereof you rhall reade, 1 Cor. 12. 17, 
28,2?. i Thef.y. 12,13,14. Heb.j3.17. Ephefy. ix. 


Ghap. 1 6. Independent Churches diffilved. 2 45 

and the rcafon is good, but truly better with Anabap- 
rifts, then with men fearing God ; becaufe Paftors and 
people, King and Subject, Doclor and Scholler, bein<* 
belee vers, have all received like precious faith , ana &%'.:u< 
right to the tree of Life, &c. for God is no accepter of per - 

2. By this Argument three belee vers in an indepen- 
dent Congregation conlifting of three hundred {hall be 
no dependent part in Ecclefiafticall fubje&ion to three 
hundred, and every three of independent Churches (hall 
be a Church independent,and twenty independent Chur- 
ches (hall be in one independent Church, becaufe all the 
three hundred belecvers have received alike precious faith, 

3. The confluence of the Argument is mofrweake, 
for precious faith and claime and inter eft in Chrift is not the 
jround why Chrift giveth the keyes to fome, and not 
toothers, but the ground is the good pleafure of Gods 

"will. Chrift gave not the keyes, nor any Church- 
authority to Judas, Demos, mi the like, becaufe of their 
precious faith ; but becaufe hs calleth to labour in his 
vineyard, whom he plcafetb, and whom he pleafeth he 
calleth not. 

7. They objecl: , Proivinciall and National Ckurehes 7»Obietl. 
Are humane formes brought in after the fimUkude ofeivHl £ me f-Med*{. 
governments amon^ft the Romanes, and there is no Church AcCm"/' ' 
properly fo called, but a Pari/h Church. SccD.Ammes, 

Anfiv.i. y&?o\oiU, The lifting up of the hands in voi- 
cing at the election of Elders, Aft. 14.2;. fo taken from 
a civill forme of peoples giving their fuffrages amongft 
the Lacedemonians, as our brethren fay : Yet it is net 
for that unlawfully or an humane forme, a^Parifihionall 
meeting of the people to heare the word, is taken from 
a civill forme of both Romanes and Grecians convening 
to heare declamations and Panygerickes, yet a Parifhi- 
onali Church is not for that a humane and unlawfull 
-2. We fay not thara Synod is a properly fo called myfti- 


246 Arguments again ft Synods >and fir Chap, i $. 

call Church * yet its a proper miniftcriall and teaching 
Church, fuch as is, Acts i % . 
Objett.S. 8. They obj?&, The Popijh fuperiority of one Church 

over another Jhould be lawfully if a Church be in bondage 
under a Church, better be under a great Lord Pope, and a 
little Lord Prelate , as under many Nationail Lords in a 
Nationa/l Church- A ffembly. 

Anfw.i. We make no other fubje&ion here then our 
brethren make; for they make ten t© be futjed to five 
hundred in an independent Congregation : As the part 
is in fubje&ion to the Lawes of the whole, fo make 
we many Churches in Cities, Townes and Provinces 
fubjetl in the Lord to all their owne Pallors and Elders 
convened in a Nationail Affembly : Papifts make their 
Synods to lay bonds upon the confeiences of men. 

2. Their Synods cannot crre. 

3 . The Lord Prelate over- ruleth them. 

4. They make things indifferent neceffary. 

5. People may not examine Decrees of their Synods 
according to Gods Word. 

6. People may n©t reafon or fpcake in their Synods. 
We acknowledge no fuch Synods. 2. Papifts, as &el- 

?<JwEuclir. Urmlne, (feflerus, Pterins -, doc nst thinke Synods' very 
7>terir in E*od i©. neceffrry, they call the Popes determination an eafier way 
for ending controverfies then Councels ; and therefore 
Ticriu* faith b,T\c } fiuslra fit per plura,Scc. 
f.ObicB. P. They ohjed, If a reprefentative (fhurch confining 

onely of '^Pafiors , Dotlors and Elders , be a Church of 
Chrifts infiitution, it Jhould have a P after over it , as all 
Churches have ; and if it be a generall CouncetljheTa- 
flor thereof enn be no other then the Pope, and there beho- 
ved to be alfo an univerfall Confiftory of Cardinals. 

Anfto. I deny both thefe confluences, a feeding, go- 
verning and miniftcriall Church doth not neceffanly re- 
quire a Pattor over it. Timothy is a Paftor t« himfelfe, 
and by preaching both faveth him felfe and others, 1 Tin.1.4. 
3. Cardinal* arc degrees above Paflors and Prelates, 


Chap.io*. Independent Churches dijjolved. 24.7 

our c ynods arc made up, as A&s 15,0/ Pajion, Elder $ 
and brethren , wherenf vvc acknowledge no Paftor of 
Puftorsbut Chrir> Jefus, no Daflor of Doctors, no El- 
der of Elders, and fo I fee not what- this confequencc 

10. 1 hey objecl, That Which contemn h aU jhould be 10. ObjecX 
handled by aM, Quod omnes tangit ab omnibus tratlari de- 
bet ; but matters of difci; line concerne the conference and pra- 
tlife of all, Ergo, all and every beleever fhould handle 
matters of difciplihe, and not fame few §f a Whole Ration 
rpho reprefenteth the reft, 

Anfw. That which concerneth all, one and the fame way 
and the manner , Should be handled by all. That which 
concerneth aR y divers and fundry manner of wvycs Jhould 
be handled by all divers manner of wayes : If ten men 
be owners of a (hip, nine of them cannot fell the fhip 
"v^tfout the conient of the tenth owner 4 If all 
^oth Elders or Ministers, and the whole company of 
belecvers had one and the fame power of the keyes, 
we fee not but all , Minifters and people (hould have a 
Kkc hand in voicing and coucluding ; nor doe I well 
fee , that if the keyes be given to all belecvers , upen 
cur brethrens former ground, becaufe they are the bo- 
dy and Spoufe of Chrift , how women and beleeving 
children can be excluded from joynt- governing a r id ufc 
of the keyes ( except in the ad: of publikc teaching, 
iCor.14. 34,35. 1 Tim. 2. 12.) with ^aftors, DoJtors 
and Elders , feeing they are the body and Spoufe of 
Chrift, no lefle then men : God accepteth no perfbns, 
nor fixes s male or female, in thefe fpirituall priviledgcs, 
Gal.3.28. aCor.6* 18. 1 Pct-3.4,5,6. Bat feeing difci- 
pline concerneth all divers wayes , according as God 
hath feated and placed perfons in his Church ; fomc in 
higher , and fome in lower places of Chrifts body ; 
therefore Minifters are to handle points ©f doctrine and 
difcipline in Synods authoritatively. Tcoplc alfo by ele- 
cting Commiflioners to Synods, by confenting, rcafo- 
ning,propo(ing and advifing, and according to their place, 
Hot mhmwivclj. LI II. They 

24.8 Arguments agam/i Synods ana for Chap.itf. 

ObUft % ii. ii. They objc I, It is a Topifh ab r *{ of the people of 

God to exclude them from all govern me it of Cjois hou[i % 
and all meanes of edify inv one another , and leak on the 
people in an implicit faith end ■ lini obedience. 

Anfw. This obje&ion toucheth the queftion anent 
the power of private Chnftians in edifying one ano- 
ther, where I muft ftay a little to cleare doubts, for divers 
run in extremities here. Hence our 
Sqarat j P et. 4% i.Conclufion. We utterly condemnc the dofirlne of 
^*«/ i 5 a ainft Separatifts, who teach that private Chriftians gifted 
7m>u with knowledge, fuppofe they be out of office, are .to 

viinfvorth com p r cach the Gofpell. and to prophefie publikely for the 
ederying or the Church. 

i. Becaiife by confent of all found Divines, all anti- 
quity and confelfion of party , and Tattls teftimony, 
Eph 4.1 1. there are none given of Chrift, when he often* 
ded on high , for the publike edefying of the Chu?cK 
and gathering of the Saints to Chrifts fecond comming? 
faveonly Paftors, and Do&ors and Elders. But the pri- 
vate girted men are to edefie by publike prophccymg r 
and they be none of Chrifts officers, and they are un- 
lawful teachers. 

2. To preach publikely as ordinary mc{Tengers.(l &y) 
ordinary , becaufe of our expe&ants of the miniftery, 
who preach by the call of the Church, for a time, as 
the Sonnes of the Prophets -, while they be ordained Pa- 
ftors. To preach (I fiy) publikely, is a formall acl: of 
Faftors who are fent, Rom. 10. but thefc Prophets arc 
not fent, Ergo, they ou*ht n t to preach. They anfwer 
. but as Anabaptifis and Socinians doe, who fay to begif~ 
ted of god is to be fent ; but I anfwer, Panl Rom 10. 
14, 5. thiikcch hftt f , beca'ih he undcrftandeth fuch 
a fending, as is req-iir-d in ordinary Paftors, who bc- 
getteth faith in rhei<* hearers, v.14. and^hofe feet are 
beattrifnll upon the me -intames^ by bringing gUd tidings of 
fcace,v 1^. N-v.r th ft were facn asboth were sifted>and 
had authority to Dreach. 2 Ch rift, Mau i o. clearly dif- 
ferenceth gtftiag oi Payors, vu.frooi authoritative^- 


Chap.itf. Independent Churches dtfjolved. 249 

A*jr, V.5.V.1& And a]fo ^* 20,21,22,23, 3-Becauic 
Cod cballeugeth fuch as run, and the Lord fendtth them 
not, Jer.23. 2 1- 4. Becaufe no man taketh that honour on 
him, except he be cJied oj god , ^ jr/w Aaron, Heb. 5. 
Suppofe be be gifted as our Sauour was. 6 Fublikc 
Preachers bave power ?uthoritati\e to binde and lcofe % 
and accordingly Cod bindeth and loojeth in heaven ; but 
private belecvers bave not this power, bur unly Paftors, 
Mat.\%.i%. Mat m i6. 1 9. John 20.23. 7. Such Preachers 
they drtame to be in the old 1 cftament ; but the old 
Teftament fpe>keth of non^ but men in officers Triefls, 
Levitts, Propbets,8cc. 

M.Robinfon l' :th, 1 Cer.14. There were gifted ordinary %jjjj*f'Jp& 
*Prophets not in off.ee, who preached pttbukeiy. a G c '. 20.7. 

Anfw. ThCc Prophets were Prophttt by effyre, and gjjjf*' 
fo b^fidc thut ''hey were gifted, they were fent v. ub U d g <?,c 
pficiall authority to preach. 1 They are fich as FkhL ■5*' i *2£?. 
fpeaketh of, I { or 1 2 2S. god haih Jet forre in the , * 3 t 7.*/ 
Church, fir ft Ap fl> s, Secondarily Prcphtts , Ergo, tl cy t , «^ n§ l ' 1 8 ' • 
were ctbeers fa in the boxry, cs Apoitles were at that Iting!**!* 
time, Sph.^.w. 2. They rcc lied Prefers, 1 Cor. **|'. fi tf - J' 
14 v.2p, 32. ■ Butii Id orncw Tcftau:C t,Pro- ixingiet'* 

phers iiLnirie over theft c in office, as the pla- » cbawi^ 

ces in the margen dart , " ind a pi ce cannot be £amS?o« 
bought where the word Prophet (ignifictb a man who ***>•*'• 
pubbkcly preacheth, and yet is no Prophet by office, JJ*JJ^ 
but poilibly a Tafhiorur, a Nough-man, a Shoom^i^r. iuke7 * 
3. The formall effects of publike defying, comforting, ^i,'^ 
convincing, converting foules are afaibeu to thefjpro- E.h 11 
phets,v. 1,5,4,5,1 2,2425,5i.whicl are afcribed to prea- ^ SI V iI . 7 ' 
ching Paftors, Rem 10. 1*4,15. 1 Cor.q. 1,2,3. 4- In iThef^if. 
this chapter, and in chap 1$. /^#/ dothfetdowneCa- Rcv * l, » iai 
nons ancnt rhe right ufe of the offices that he fpakc 
of, 1 CV.i 2. 28,29. 5. Paul mull thinke thtm Pro- 
phets by office, while as he compareth himfUfc who 
was an Apoftleand Prophet with thefe Prophets v. 57. 
If any man thinke himfelfe to be a Prophet^ or sfirituall \ 
let him acknowledge that the things that / Write to you are 

LI z the 

250 Arguments ' again fi Synods^ and fir Chap.i6« 


the Commandements of the Lord. 

Alfo thefc Prophets were extraordinary and tempo- 
rary, as were the gifts of tongues and miracles ; and, 
therefore none out of office now are to prephefiepub-' 
likely. }A.Robinfon faith, they cannot be extraordinary,. 
. becaufc extraordinary Prophets arc infallible , and can- 
not crre, clfe the Scriptures fbould have been written, 
by Prophets, who could erre, but thefc Prophets, i Cor, 
14. could erre and were not infallible, becaufc their do- 
ctrine \vas to be judged, v,29. 
***** eom.3«/. <4flfa. This is a filly reafon,/ 5 'aretu fulling, Calvin^Beza 
*?%£• faith all fpints arc to be tryed by the word, and all Pro- 

phcts,CYen Samuett and Nathan may erre, and looke befidc 
thebooke, and may fbeake of thcirowne fpirit, how then, 
were the pen-men of Scripture infallible, faith Rcbinfon $ \ 
I anfwer, there are none fimply infallible but God* 
sverymanisalyar : The pen-men of the Scripture' were 
infallible, becaufc when they were actually infpired byl 
the Holy-Ghoft, they could not erre : And the fpiritf 
of all Prophets are to be tryed by the word , even of 
Taul preaching at TSerea : But it followcth not that 
Paul then could erre. , To this they anfwer,that falfe 
Prophets, as Balaam, could not erre when they were 
actually infpired, no more then Canonicke writers.. 

Anfto t In the cafe of infallibility all arc alike-, none 
are mfellible by any infufed habit of a Propheticall fpi- 
rit ; but filfe Prophets were infpired with an habitual! 
fpirit of lyings which fpirit is not in Canonicke wri- 
ters. Roblnfon and others. of his fide thinke them not 
extraordinarily infpired. 1. Becaufc thefc Prophets might 
have been interrupted and put to filcnqe , that another 
to whom cboifer things were revealed, might prophe- 
fi: 3 z/.3 i.Bccaufe Vatd exhortcth to pray for the gift 
of interpretation, and to covet (faith others) to prephe- 
Jle. Mow we cannot fceke in faith from God an extra- 
ordinary and miraculous gift. 3. Others adde, this pro- x 
phecying was fubje.t to the free-will of the Prophets, 
for they might prophefie, or keep filence,as they pleafed; 


Chap. 1 6. Independent Churches difiolved. 2 5 1 

butthcacTs of extraordinary prophecy ing arenotfubje- 
dted to the frcc-wili of the Prophets ; therefore this was 
but ordinary prophecying, to th^vvhich all gifted profef- 
fors even out of office arc obliged for theedefymgor the 
Church of Chritt to the vvonds end. 

Anpiv. All tbefe thr~e come to one, to wit, a&s of 
extraordinary propheevmg are under the determination 
of free-will. A little of this. S^ 

i.Conclufion, Parens obferveth well that there bet wo 
kinds of Prophets, t. Some who foretold things to 
come, of thcie the Text in hand fpeaketh not. 2. Some 
extraordinarily inipired with an extraordinary grace of 
interpreting Scripture : The former were Prophets in 
the old T€ftament; the latter efoecially 'Prophets of the 
new Teftarnent ; knowledge of both were given with- 
out ftudy or paines. So there was a Prophetical] fpirit 
in Paul, Gal. 1. 13. I received it not of man , neither VtM 

1 taught it, but hj the revelation of Jcfiu Chrifl, 

2. Conclufion. The adt of foretelling things to come, 
efpecially things meerly contingent, which are deter- 
mined enely in the free Decree of God, is not fo un- 
der our free-will, as the ads of preaching and inter- 
preting Scripture out of a Propheticall infufed habit : 
For prophecying things to come feemed to have come 
on the Prophets of oti, as a fire-flaih appcareth to a 
mans eye in the darke ayre, he cannot chufe but fee it,, 
EzwCb.2. 14 . So the fpirit lifted me up, and tooke medtoaj, 
and I went in bitjernejfe, in the keate of my spirit, Sat tit gjfcwfcBiffli** - 
hand of the Lord was firong upon me, J er. 2 0.9. And I [aid, ^nJUlj qT" 
/ W/7/ not make mention ofhim.nor fpeakjw) more in hU name, oecumtn m aThcf. 
hut his word was in my heart, as a burning fire Jhut up in my c "f£ r% or ' * 
hones, and I Vtas wearj^rith f§rbearing,and I could not slay^ Thom.M.q.i7X . 

2 Kin ^, 3. 1%. The hand of the Lord came upon Elifha, and 2n " u 
he prophecjed. See lerom, Oecumen.gregcr.mi Thomas, 

The Propheticall fpirit in the New Teftament fce- 
meth to be more fwsyed with free-will, and morall 
threatnings, 1 Cor.9 1 6, Woe unto me if I preach not the 
Qoftell ; yet the habit from whence he preached w 

LI 3 Pro-. 

2 5 * Arguments again ft Synods, and for Chop. 1 6. 

Prophetical! principle, Galath. i.'ia. I CV. 14.32. 

3. Conclu. Hence prophecying is not a habit, and 
it is a habit. It is not an habit. 1. Bccaufe no Pro- 
phet can (imply prophecy when he wi'l, except the 
man Chriit, efpecially of things to come by con tin - 
Swoe^de trip!, gent cau les (the pre fence of Which things (faith Snares) 
vmM;p%jcc>%. # one [y connatural to (jod, and to no mortall man) com- 
ming on men by a tranfient irradiation, while as the 
candle of Gods prophcticall light glanceth upen the 
fancy, and from thence to the mind , that the man - 
may fee and reade the fpecics and images, and when 
this light (hineth not Nathan and Samuell readc beude 
the Bible and are widely out. PropKcvalfo is an ha- 
bit. For 1. fomething remamc in lfaiah and Jeremiah 
while they flecpe, and prophecy not, from whence 
they are named Prophets, and really arc Prophets; for 
when God hath orce revealed himf-lfe to one as to 
his owne Prophet, even from by paft revelation. 1 There^, 
remaineth a difpofition to prophecy, 1 Sam. 3.^0. All 
Ifrael knew, even from Dan to Beerlheba, that Samuell 
*toa* eftabliftjed to be a Prophet of the Lord, 3. Becaufe 
there remaineth a prophcticall light, whereby the man 
gave atfirft to the laft prophcticall rcvclaticn , and Co 
the fpecics and propheticall images ipuft remaine 
in the fantafic, and with thtfe a propheticall memory 
of by paft predictions, and fo ibme experimentall cer- 
tainty, that what he kr^-telleth fhall come to pafle: 
it*** n.f. 17*. See Thomas and Caietan y new the objecl propheticall 
Cut'taH.con, inn. 1S knowne three waye.% 1. When the naked naturall 
|,i7Mri.a. images or fpecics of the material objtd: are only call: 

in by t od ;mi no more, and this is mott in dreames, 
as NebuchadfT^ar f a vv a tree in his dreame, but knew 
not that it was a Kings Tharoah jaw [even biafted reeds 
*nd [even leane kjne, but knew not that they we r e fe- 
ven yearcs of Famine. And fometimes in a viflon being 
in an exiajie, as John, R.Y.I, faw 1. [even candleftick* 9 
but knew not tha'they were the J f even C Lurches of "Ada, 
while Chrift revealed the meaning to him. 2. The 


Chap. 1 6. Independent Churches difiolved. 253 

images and fpecics arc knowne formally, as figncs fig- 
nitying thus and thus, as fofeph by a prophetical light 
faw the feven leane kine to be feven yeares of famine. 
3. Now there 1$ a third light, to judge of the act 
of feeing, which J take to be two-.fold. 1. When the 
Seer and Prophet is perfwaded. that what he feeth is 
a prophetical vifion, and not a delufion of Satan, this 
is (as faith Parens) the very light of prophecy, or Vttrmp , . [ ogtift 
fome extraordinary light (as faith Anto % Wdleus) There ccm.mtioj.ar.u 
is another light whereby the Seer beleeveth thefe things tZTrnj^i^dji 
(hall come to paflc, which he feeth, either by a com- »& 
mon light of hiiloricall faith, as Phtroah might belecvc 
that feven yeares of plenty fhould come, and Balaam 
that Chrift the fiarre of Jacob fbould certainly arife and 
fiine upon the Church, or the Seer feeth and beleeveth 
by light of faving faith, as Ifaiah and Dante I beleeved 
/feat the Mejfiah Ihould be (lane, and this latter light 
.whatever good Schoole-men fay on the contrary, is the 
light of faith; for the three former lights might well 
be in Balaam. 1. He might fee in his fantafie, the 
fpecies ©f the fiarre of Jacob. 2. And know that they 
meaned no other thing, then the Mcjfuh. 3. And be 
certainly perfwaded that he faw fo, and that he was 
not deluded, yea and hiftorically beleevc that that blet- 
fed Starre fhould arife, and yet he had no light of fa- 
ving faith to belecve that the Meffiab (heuld come 
So h: c we cannot but diftinguifh betwixt a prophc- 
ticall light, in the fecond and third fight, which is 
gratia gram data, a free gift, and the light of faving 
fa ith, which is gratia pratum faciens, a faving grace 
of G O D in the found beleever , onely in this laft 

4. Concluf. Hence Separates may fee that extraor- 
dinary afh of prophecy may well be fubjefted to the 
determination of the Ch urch, and yet be extraordina- 
ry infv)irations, and that divers wayes. 

1. Becautcthcv were Prophets of the New Tene- 
ment, and fo grace being more aboundaut aow nor 


254 Arguments againft Synods .and for Ch ip. 1 6. 

under the old Tcftament, it can bow and facilitate free- 
will to acts ©f prophecying, and Paul from more grace 
laboured more aboundantly then they all. 

2. Prophecying at that. time in Corinth might well 
be obtained by prayer upon the extraordinsiy impulsi- 
on of the fpiiit, as 'Daniel obtained by prayer the in- 
terpretation of a dreame, neither can it be proved from 
l Cor. 1 4. that Paul willeth them all without excep- 
tion, to covet to fpeakc with tongues and to prophe- 
cy, but only thefe that were extraordinarily moved to 
pray, except thefc (v.j.i. yea may aH prophecy) be con- 
trary tothefe words(i£V.i 2. 2 p.are all Prophets ?)which 
we cannot fay. 

3. Bccaufe it was of old in the power of Prophets 
to ufe fomc meanes to difpofc theiniclves to prophe- 
cy, for when the pafllon of anger overclouded the fan- 
cy and the fpecies therin, thsn Slifba caUeth fir a mir 
fir ell to play y and dijpofe the minde better ,as Cajetan fa ith:^* 
Howbeit for all that the Text faith, the hand of the 
Lord only actuated thefe fpecies, and caufed him to 

E&S2L* propbecy. 

a Kin j Mex& Neither are Robmfons arguments or great weight, I 
Miw?int'wm& anfwer only thefe that havemoft apparency, 1. If the 
t»*t'q*tntermt»tu Lords giving of the fpirit extraordinary to Fldad and 
tevautnemadDe- j^ e ^ ma( { e t y m p ro phets both in office and exercife s bi 

urn. . . . r 1' r *■* ~~ n J r* n- J y ' 

jt^i«/,againft due proportion, gifts under the New Ttfiamem are fifficient fa 

¥*h*M7*1*» . make men ordinary Trophets. 

Anfw. The antecedent is falfe, becaufeto JE/dadmd 
UWedad were given both the fpirit of prophecy, and 
from that gifted fpirit, came a propheticall impul- 
sion actually to prophecy without any farther call of 
the Church; for God fpake then by impulfion, as he 
doth now by his Word, els one may fay the pbyficall 
and naturall power that Samnell had to kill Agag 9 was 
a calling fufficient to authorize him to kill A gag, and 
an liability to difchargc the office of the high-Pricftin 
a man of the tribe of Indah were a good calling for 
oae fo gifted to thruft himfclfc in Aarons chair, which 


(~ hap.16". In dependent Ckwches dtjfolved. 


Cud tyed only to Levies Tribe. 

2. This is that which Epifcopius, Sefinians and Ar- fyfapdifas. 
mnians teach from Anabaptisls, lb TheophiL Nicolaid, mcoUidtracJt 
And RaddecifiSy Catech.oj f Raccovia, Oftorod. Socintu.the *"<epc io.f,.M.& 
Rtmonftrwts, 1. That the fending and calling of Mini. fui^ €m¥ik 
fitrs by the Church new V \hcn the Gofpellu fufficiently pro- ~**d,Rad.'i*rt/hn 
mitigated, is not necejfary. 2. That any gifted man hatha Sf^| ,s ' 
Warranty becaufe he is gifted to be a Paflour Without a- Cat ch.Racc0t.de 
ny call or authority official/ fiom the fhurch. And what? 'olil^uzlTl 
will Robinfon fay, becaufe thefe Prophets are gifted to SocwttaaMetci 
baptize and to adminifter the Supper of the Lord, as I^£JJ7 ,uo^b 
well as they are to preach the Gofpell, then by this cb,i *t?ifi7£* 
goodly reafon of his, they, may be paftors without a- ^"^Y 9 *^ 
ny calling of the Church, and certainly any man gif- UfUfatf^ 
ted to be a King, and a Magiftrate, by the calling that 
the Word of (jod alloweth (hall by this reafon have 
£*call to leape up to the thr >ne and the bench ; but 
our Divines as Calvin, Parens, Zanckius, lunius, T$e- 
za 9 make tw r o different things in a lawfull calling. 
Jt fvHLfuf, gifts for the calling, which is not enough. 
2. «EbjU, authority from the Church, which is alfo re- 

2. He objecTeth, 2Chron.17.7- fehofhaphat fent his 
Princes to teach the cities of Judah With the Levites^and 
aH Princes and Afa-Jftroies are bound to expound , open 
Hp 9 and apply the law by Which they ^overne, elfe they rule 
by tyranny. Hence the publu\ Sermon of fehofoaphat, 
2Chron.io. to the Fudges and Levites, and his prayer , 
And Hczckiahs Sermon, 2 Chr. xp. WNehemiah taught 
the people ,Nch. ,8. 

. Anjw. \..lm%ut and Ar. Mont an. Iehojhaphat VI tth 
nS& Shalach, Lef*reu y read, he fent with the Princes, 
the Levites to teach, fo that the Princes were not fent 
to teach. 

2. It is (aid hee fent the Princes to teach not in 
their ownc perfons , but hec fent them to take care 
that the Levites fhould teach in time or that Apofta* 

M m J.jho 

7 $6 Arguments again fi Synods ^and for Chap.i 5. 

3. The Kings and Judges were to teach according to 
the judicial! Law the equity of their fentence to the ill 
doer, ?s a Judge to convince a thiefe and a murtherer may 
lay before him the eighth and the fixtcommandement in 
fofarreas the breach of thefe ditturbeth the peace of the 
common-wealth, not as they are Church fcandals, and 
whither the male-factor be convinced or not, the Judge 
punifheth with the fivord, fo that the Judges hand- 
ling of the judiciall law, and his handling ofthe mo- 
rall law now is meerly civ ill and coa&he, neither is 
he to labour the conversion and repentance of the" El- 
der, and fo ccclefiafticall edification ; but the handling 
ofthe law by the Separatifl Prophets is meerly pa- 
ftorall and for the converfien of foules, and they are 
the only preachers who gather the Church of Saints » 
Paftovs and DoUrrs are not to convert foules to Chrift, 
hut to confrme thefe Who are already converted and made 
Saints by their Prophets, neither is the Prophets hand^ 
ling ofthe lawcivill, coadtive or regall, all which they 
teach themfelves : So arc we to thinke of thefe ex- 
hortations of lehofhaphat and HezekiaJjj they taught in- 
deed yci-TJtTh fccpindfimqmd'm a civill and coa&ive and 
regall way, by a kingly and imperiall commanding, 
not by a fervant way, or a minifteriall or paftorall way. 
E*go, Kings are Prophets, and Seers and Pr lefts, Whofc 
tifs Should prefer ve knowledge, and ergo, Rings are Mini- 
sters, by Vvhhw \V<? beleeve, and fent to open the eyes of 
the blinde as Prophets, 1 Cor, 14, It is a mod vaine 
confequence. So alfo from JehoJhaphat 3 agencrall of an 
army his publick praying having the lpir it of adopt ion, 
asking helpe from the Lord of Hoafts before the armies 
jayne'in battle, can no wayes be concluded that Ie- 
hojhaphat was a publick Prophet, for then at all times, 
as in that extraordinary warre, hec fhould publickly 
pray for the people in all Church-meetings, as did the 

What he bringeth for publick preaching in the Sj- 
nagoguc bj Chrift, Twl and ethers, *tohicb (faith hee; 


C hap, 1 6. Independent Churches dtfiolved. 257 

were not Paflo^rs , is not to any purpofe. Chrift and 
Pau/had a calling, ordinary or extraordinary itskilktfa 
not, it was more then naked gifts; fomc private Chri- 
ftians, ^#.8.4. preached the Gofpeli, but when ? in 
time of heavy perfection when they were fcattered, v. 1. 
r.4. Then all gifted Chriftiaps, tradef-men or what 
dfc, not feparated by Chrift and his Churches calling 
may now preach the Gofpeli, yea be the ordinary and 
only converters of fouls and gathtrers of the Saints ; it fol- 
io we th no wayes. 

2. Many grave Divines thinke thefe were the feventy 
Difciplcs,and not private profeffours.Other doubts of this 
kind are of no weight, therforel goe on to that which 
Chriftiansmay doe, and yet have they no power of the 

2. CoKclufion. They aretocdifie, exhort, rebuke and i.ffonclnfion, 
comfort one another, and this they may doe, not Hcb.j..?. 
one to one onely, as fome fay, but one to many, 1. iVheff^n.u; 
So the Scripture faith, Proverb. 10. 21. The lippes of C0L3. us. 
the righteous fied many, Ephef. 4. 29. They are to jpeak^^^'l 1 * 
words miniftring grace to the hearers : So faith falvine, z.acb.8.21. 
Bullinger, *Beza, Davenant, fVhitta^r, Parens, Zanchi- M^ffifc* 
ns, CMtifcHltis, Gualther, 2. The word ««cjo»V*7i ak- Be\x.it,. 
wȣ*> exhort one another, will not bearc that one with %X mM P L 
one only fhould conferre, but one with many (how- ^bm^Tmurie 
beit a multitude fhould evert the nature of private con- Td[if ip ' Uc ' Ht 
ference) lam,^*6. pray one for Another, £-t&$ ettoaAar, it PareuiinHof,%.%. 
were narrow charity to pray one for one onely, lam. l^i itt E /. t.*. 
5.9. Grudge not one again ft another, ys<t* d/^fihav- this »• 
forbiddeth not only grudging of one againft one, but Gutlth ^ m ^ 
of one againft many, Roman. 13 9. Love one another, 
ct'tfii*8t, Gal.j.il* In love ferve one another, and the 
fame is to be obferved in the Hebrew, Mai. 3, .16.2^7 
that feared the Lord sf>ake oft one to another , ^nyv^^ W& 
every man to his neighbour, 2 King. 7. 9. The fome 
Lepers f aid one to another, this was not one to one, but 
one to three, 2 Kin.j.6. and the Syrians faid one to ano- 
ther, VHN-^N WH HDNH. This could not have been 

M m * one 

258' Arguments againfl Synods, and for Crrep. 1 6 

one man of the Syrians fpeaking ro one only, forth n 
how could the whole army fly, Gen 42, ai. And the 
brethren of Jofeph /aid every one to hx brother y Vaj$- 
merti aijh el-achin, Ge.a 37.19. Bu: fome allow con- 
ference of one with many, but they deny that it ought 
to beindicled, fore-fct or intended, but only occalio- 
nall : but thefe with ill logick diftinguith, where the law 
diftinguirheth not,for one and the fame conference is both 
occafioned by the Lords chaftifemenrs upon Iob.ch. 1 c h. 2* 
and alfo fbre-fet and intended by lobs friends, who made 
an anointment to c§me together to moptrne with him, and 
to comfort him, for the word, v.n. ~iy> jagnadistom- 
dicl, fbre-fet time and phce, 2 Sam. 20, 5. So *A- 
tnafah went to ajfemble.the mm of Juiah, bnt hee tar~ 
ried longer then the time which hee had appointed him t 
\yp ^htf Exoi. 2f. 2 2. There will I appoint with 
thee or meet with thee, Job p-.ip. Who Jkall fet mee a 
time to plead, Am. 3.3. Nuiib.io^.- 2. If conference v 
^ of many belawfull, asit is Job 2.1 1 Mal.4^.i6.£fa.2.2. 

Jer. 50. ^.4,5. Za*h$>i\. PfaH. Pfat 14 Lvk, 24. 
14, 15. Detit.6.7,8,$. then the fore-fettingof time and 
place is no eflfentiall ingredient in the action to make it' of 
a lawfull aelion, to become unlawful!, except it were 
fore-fet upon the religious reafon of fome facred or myfti- 
caUfignirication, as our holy dayes were : mecre circum- 
ftancei doe not change actions that way. 3. All Divines, 
Uug.de civJ)eU. the Fathers as Aupnfbine, Chryfofiome, Ambrofe, Hyeron, 
ckryhhmin ix. Thomas-, Bannes^Suarez, t'afqxez, Valentin, mike pri vate ex- 
»»• horting a^.d rebiui ag oar fallen brother a duety of the 

Hv/mMuZb!' Iavv °^ mature, fueh as to take our neighbours Oxe 
Tbomtt.q.n\ ' out of a - ditch, to vifit a priixier, to give almes 
^"» a »flJ« ^ the pDore , novV tf t0 fatznl timz ani place to 

s**re\ - lift up a brother whom God hath call downe, to 

Mwfefuita. rc ^Jce him whom wee underlland God hath permit- 

' tej to wanier, be uila,vfjli, then to forclet time ani 

place to vifit a captive id pnfon, to give almes to 

tha pD^rc by that fi.n: reaibn were unlawfull, 

which no nun , in rc^fon, can fay. 4. To intend 


Chap. 1 6. Independent Churches difiolved. '259 

and to appoint time and place for obedience to an£ 
Commandemcnt of God doth rather make the action 
the more good and laudable, as the more deliberation 
in an ill aitio.i the worfe, a id the more deliberation 
in a. good action the better, Pfal. up. 30. v. 62,105, 


Neither is that Objection more againft us then againft. 

the word of God, while fome fiy y lf private fkrifluns may 
teach >cxhort am). rebtth&.ene another, ttxn may they preach and 
exponnd the word of god, 

I anfwer 1. For one private perfonto preach to one 
and that occafionally is nolefleunlawfuil, then for one 
of intention and fore-fetting time and place to preash 
to many. 

2. The word inaketh mutuall exhorting luvfull,ani 
# condcmneth the mutuall preaching of private Chri- 

3. Private exhorting and teaching differ. 1. ThePa- 
ftor rebuketh fwearing as a pubhek watch-man, with 
care for many, Ex officio specials deUgAxionzs^ and *;<- 
thoritaiivelj by the power of the keyes , the private 
perfon rebuketh fwearing out of charity , with cars 
onely of thefe with whom hee converfrth withall, 
by noe power of the Keyes. A Watch- man giveth 
warning of the approach of the enemy, and the 
common Souidier may doc the fame, the Schoole- 
rmfter teacheth one leflbn, the fchoole- fellow tea- 
cheth that fame, the one by office, the other of 
common Charity. 2. The • Paftour interpreted 
the word, the private perfon docth but ufe , ap- 
ply and accommodate the fonfe and interpretation 
of the word to his owne act of beleeving , and 
the ads of admaniihing, rebuking, comforting his 

Twclfthly they object againft Synods. The Tope is 
the Antichrift, becaufe he miletb men to npp'ale from their 
ovne Chnrches to him^a* VVhittaker aui Chumier prove ; 
ha: the dottrinc of the Synods tea:h mtn to m 

■ (Jit m 1 from 

2 60 PaJIoks warrant My extrcifc Pajlorall Chap. 1 7- 

from particular Churches to Synods , and by no word of 
X]od have Taftorspo wer over other Congregations, nor their 

Anf% Antioch appealed from corrupt teachers, Ails 
15.2,3. and that is Apjftolike ; but toappealc from a 
Church to a man of fin , as if he were the whole Church 
is Antichriflian. 

2. ]f fixe bckevers in a Congregation of forty be- 
leevers mould, cenfure a brother , our brethren would 
fay that brother mould appeale from thefe fixe (who 
yet make an independent Congregation) to the Church 
of forty, yet mould not this be Antichriftian. 

3. To appeale from a Church as an unlawfull ju- 
dicatory is unlawfull, but to appeale from a lcflcr 
Church, as from a not competent Jndge, to that fame 
Church in a larger meeting is mod law full. 

4. That Paftors ©f divers Churches have power over: 
many Congregations, being convened in a Synod fs > 
clcare, Atls 1 . A Els 6. Acts 15. 

OfoVff.13. 13. They object, That this wmteth antiquity, 

conciLSATdx. 17- Anfip. This is faid for the fafbion , what meaneth 
€ coniltfiic^\vi then the tomes of Councels , the Counccll of Sardls, 
Conc.Toliio^c.ts Laodkea^fricaXoledo ^ Canon Layv^yprian.Auguliine, 
ffifcT TcnM*, Irene, Chyfifh^Scc. 

Cw\i>. XVII. 

Whether or no fonte doe Warrantably teach that a Tailor 
hath no paflorall power to preach and ddminiftr ate the Sa- 
craments t Without the hounds of his oWne Congregation i 
and from wljence ejfentia/Iy Is the calling of a Pafior . ? 

OVr brethren who teach that the ordination of Fa- 
ftors is onely from that power of the kcyes that 
they imagine to be in the body of beleevers muu needs. 


-Chap, 1 7. Acts without their owm Congregation. 26 ( 

,_ : ■ — ■ »i 

holding fuch an humane minifteriaS Chtrsh , fuJJ in di- 
vers errors ; as 1 . that he cannot officiate paftorally 
without that number of bcleevers, from whence fflen* 
tially he hath his paftorall calling. ?. When the Chur- 
ches necetflty rhail call him to remove to another in- 
dependent flocke ; He is no Pallor while he be ordai- 
ned and chofen of new by that flocke. So the Engiijh Pu- Big/ifb Pmuamfi 
ritA»ifme J ax\AM.Be&. . . mm*]** 

VVe hold that a Paftor may officiate, as a Pallor pI^T^i^ 
without his owns congregation. 

i.Arti That which the brotherhood and commu- 
nion of Sifter-Churches requireth to be done, that Pa- 
ftors may lawfully doe ; but this the brotherhood of 
Sifter-Churches requireth to be done, Erao&c. the a£ 
fumption is proved, i.Becaufe death, or neceilaryab- 
fence of Paftors, ncceffity of keeping the flocke. a.Ne- 
cclTity of convincing the gainfayers if the prefcnt Pa- 
ftor be weake in learning, yet able to cut the word 
aright(fai:h M.T 5 ^/) requireth this. M./?f/?anfweretb, J****" »<Wr » 
Officers of Chftrches may be helpfull to ether Qmrches, a& M*S'church J * 
C hr ittian s ,but not as Minifters. plca,p.3o,ji. 

Anftv. This Argument prefuppofeth that Paftors not 
*s Paftors, but as Chriftians cither may adminifter the 
Sacraments lawfully,and fo any Chriftian may adminifter 
the Sacraments, which is both Popiiri and abfurd , or 
that it is not lawfull for Falters to adminifter the Sa- 
crament out of their owne congregation, or to any other 
cf another congregation then their owne, and fo yet 
communion of Sifter-Churches, in thefe ac\s, is cleans 
taken away. 2. Out Argument is from Church-commu- 
nion not in Chriftian ads as Chriftian, but in miniftc- 
riall acTsas miniftcriall. 

a. Arg. If Minifters (as M. Paget afgueth) may labour 
to convert wbeleevixg Jfrangers, and to adde them to tlxir 
flocke , that they way enlarge (,hrifts kino 19 me, then tky 
may exercife Paftorall afts over , and above otk-ers then 
tlxfe of their ovpne charge ; but the former is true, Erga, 
id is the latter. The aflurnption is cleare, becaufe Prov. 

262 Pajiors rvarrantdhly extrcife Vaflordl Chap.i7< 

9 3 ■ fVifcdome fendeth out 'her maid/ to call in tbefe that 
are Without ; and I Cor. 14. 24. the Prophets as Pro- 
phets were paflorally . to convince , *md fo to con- 
• m vert Infidels, who were not of their charge. hWBesl 
infwereth, Thefi atls arejiot a$s of a Minificr at a Mi- 
ftifter, a man and a wife, a father and a childe, a P after 
and a flockg are relatives , as I am a Father, I txercife ' 
not proper atls as a Father y but towards my owne children , 
\\-h-it~good I doe to others cannot be [aid to be the attsof 
a Father ■, but rather of a friend, a neighbour ^ 4 Chriftian, 
&C - 

Anfw. He prefumeth that a Paftor may preach and 
exercife paftorall acts, as a Chriftian, but fo all Chri- 
flians may paftorally preach though not called of God, 

• Hcb s *,r. contrary to the Scripture : a fo women and private per- 

Rom o 14,15. fons may invade the Paftors chaire. 

]S$\''iu' 2 - Ir * s vamc to P re ^ e fimilitudes while they Hood, 

Aas s 5. for Chrift: properly is the bridegroome and husband of 

Aetlu*\ t hts Church, Eph.5 <5,2y. John 3. 29 Rcv.19.9. Rev. 

a Tin a.2. 21. p. ifa.54.5. Paftors arc hut tnc <**i*wuta under fill- 

^Tims,i,fc torb f Qt tne y r ' t de$roome, John 3.29. This is Popirlido- 
n**nfic P ». ctrine to make fuch a relation betwixt a mortall m in 
epi £oiflc* ** and an ^dependent Church. Pope Enariflus and CV 
lm«*n.ic&c lixtus faith, while the Bifiop liveth , the Church can 
waoflatfipirc. m mor e bee given to another, without his confent , nor 
j.dr-acr the wife can bee given to another then to her oypne hus- 
dtfp.^o.c k i.n.». y An ^ without his confent. And fo faid Innocentim 
the third therefore at the con(ecratien y after impo- 
ftion of hands (faith XJafcjucz) >nd anointing of the Bi- 
Jhop, and delivering to him a jtaffe, a confecratedandblef- 
fed rin% is put on his ring-finger m token he u married to 
the Cwrck ; bat what have ws to doe with fuch train 
as thus ? For in a word, the companion of a marriage 
in tlrs point is either PopiOi or unfeafon.iblcorboth ; 
brca:if the mutnall confent betwixt A t B. and his wife, 
bemg cflenriaily marriage, as the*. am>n Law, D: vines, 
and found CafuiOs acknowledge, it maketh A B. a hus- 
band, and alfo the husband of fuch a wife during their 

life- - 

Chap.17 Acts without their owne Congregation. 2 63 

life-time ; but election of the people that A.B. be their 
Paftor, and A.*B. his acceptation of the Church as his 
charge, maketh^him not both a Paftor, and alfo the Pa- 
ftor of that Church ; becaufe the ordination of the Prcs- 
' bytery maketh A.B. formally and effentially a Paftor, 
I meane a called Paftor under Chrift ; but the election 
Xf the people and his confent doth not make him a Mi- 
nifter, but doth only appropriate him after he is made 
^ Minifter to be the Minifter of fuch a Church, and (b 
the comparifon haltcth in the maine point for which 
it is allcadged ; therefore A.B. is made indefinitely a 
Paftor for the Church, and is obliged to labour the 
converfion of all, within and without the bounds of hi$ 
Church, in as far as he is a Paftor : But forafrnuch as 
the Church thinketh good to appropriate his Miniftery 
to this particular congregation, for the more commo- 
dious congregating and gathering of thcfliecpef Chrift, 
he is not fo their Paftor, as he cannot exercife Pafto- 
rall a&s towards ethers alfo , neither doth the place, 
ABs 20.28. and 1 Pet.5.2. infinuate any fuch marriage- 
relation betwixt Paftor and Parifh , as that he is a 
Paftor to none but his owne Parifh , for as he is to 
feed fpecially, thefe over which the Ho Ij-Ghoft hath made 
him overfeer, and araongft whom he is principally by 
the Churches fpcciall appropriation and application of 
tiis miniftery to them : So alfo hath the Holy-Ghoft 
made him an over-fecr to feed indefinitely, and as Godf 
providence fliall effkr occafion, as many as god hath fur- <* 
chafed by his bloud, Acts 2©. 28. and as many as are tfo 
Lords heritage 9 1 Pet. 5. 3. whether they be of his owne 
congregation or no, as the words clearly import, and 
he is a Paftor to them as they are the Lords heritage 
conquered with his bloud, and not becaufe he is appoin- 
ted Paftor over them, and no more. 

3. Arg % BelccYers. of divers congregations are mem- 
bers of a vifible politicke body, and arc to keep Church- 
communion together in exhorting, rebuking and com- 
forting one another, and fo may eate bread at the 

Nn Lords 

7 64 Fajiors warrant My exercife Paftoraff Chap.17. 

•»^"""* — __ ^ . _, 

Lords Table, and be made one body, 1 Cor.10.27. but by 
this dodrine they miy not eat at on- Table of the 
Lord ; For if the Paftor may not adminifter the Sacra- 
ment lawfully to pcrfons of divers congregations, nei- 
ther may they receive the Lords Supper from him ; for 
if it be unlawfull for the Paftor to adminifter the Sa- 
crament to thefe of other congregations , feeing he is 
to them as a Non-Paftor, and as a Cbriftian only, they 
cannot lawfully receive the Supper cf the Lord from a. 
Non- Paftor : Yea, and Paftors baptizing Infants of other 
congregations doe finne, and thefe Infants thus bapti- 
zed are Infidels and non-baptized, becaufe they are bap- 
tized by enc who is a Non-Mimfter to the bapti- 
4»//*£. 4-^i"» That opinion muft be reafonleffc and with- 

out ground, the fpeciall reafon and ground whereof is 
falfe. But the fpeciall ground and rcafen of this opinion 
is falfe, Er£o } &c. I prove the gfiumption : The fpeciall 
ground thereof is, that ordination and cledion of Pa- 
ftors are all one, and that Paftors have cffentially their 
calling from the election of the people ; but there be 
wide differences betwixt ordination of a Paftor which 
effentially maketh him a Paftor , and the peoples chu- 
^ ,. fing him to be their Paftor ; as i.that all Divines ac- 

kSJm? " cording to Gods Word make them different things, as 
Ctfrepss. docTheophyUtt* Cyprian. Athmafiw. Arnbrofe. Chryfb- 

jinbro]. com.in flome, tiyperim^ Aretiw, FroKiiorsor Lcyaen,MorneHf y 
ih im h'm 1 in Pkjf*™* ZanchiuS) WUktk Gerf.Bptcer, Zipperw. 2.The 
3T> / m.° ml3m word of Uod reftrafneth ordination of officers to Pa- 
hr?eT ' x VTh?* A ' ^ ors » l Tim '4- *4* x Tif"-^ 22 - ^Tim.2. 2. Tit.r. 5. 
^/L^.difF. A&s6.6. Ads 1 $. 1, M« and afcribcth cledion of erfi- 
4 ».Tn. ?». tec. cers to tnc p eo pi c , Adts6.v.$. 3. Ordination is an ad 
*>£<&" c c f aut t- j0r ity and fapreme jjrisdidion cenjoyned with 
Ztncb in4.pr*ccp faftincr, praying and laying on of the lc*nds of the £ldtrs\ 
™?JZZr' ^t publike praying and dedicating the Paftor to Chrifts 
Gerf Bncer degub. fervice with imposition of hands is given to Paftors, 
5tt*£u& Ads*, tf. 1 Tim 414. Ads^.1,2,3. butnevertothe 
Ucii.n«8,*io. jaultitudc of bckcvers : Give au inftancc in all the 


Chap. 17. ABs without their orvtie Congregation. 265 

Scripture of the ordination of Paftors and officers of the 
New Teftament tfeat way. No man ever alleadged any; 
oneplf.ee in Numbers they bring, where the children of 
IfraeUre fold to lay on hands on the Levites; but judge how 
fix hundred thoufund righting mt n could all ky their hands 
on the Levitts ? and thefe were not all IfraeJ, but certainly 
thefe mult be the heads and Princes of Tribes, who put 
hands on the Levites, as the word is often taken , as 
I obferved before. Now ordination is an a& of juris- 
diction, fuch as is to fend an Embaffador ; but that an 
Embaflador confent to goe (fuch as is election) is 
no adt of jurisdiction : I or a father to give his daughter 
in marriage to one is an authoritative ad of a father ; 
but for the daughter to confent to the choife, is no a& 
of authority, but an act of her private choife. 2. Or- 
dination is that which formally makes the man and 
Paftor: The peoples election doth only appropriate th« 
mans miniftery to fuch and fuch a people : 1 1 is one thing 
to make a gold ring, this is an acl: of art, and another 
thing to propine and gift the ring to fuch a perfon. 
^SA.facoh faith, the people hath power to re jell a Minifter 
&h$ is unworthy ; True, they have poVcer to reittt him from 
being their Mini ft er 5 but their power of election or ♦re- 
jection hath no influence in either ordaining him to be 
a Paftor, or rejecting him from being no Paftor. 

Neither is it much that M.Befi faith, that in this an i.Q&ecf* 
^Apoftle difereth from the Softer , that the Apoflle is 4 
*paftor through the whole Chriftian world, but the ^Pastor 
is tyed to a certdine congregation out of which he is not a\ 

Anfw. We allow of no Paftors ordained Paftors with- 
out a certainc flocke ; but this hindercth not, but ordi- 
nation of a Paftor is one thing, and tying of a Paftor f 
be a Patter of fuch a flocke is another thing, and that thefe 
two come from divers caufes and grounds. An Apoflle 
was a Paftor to all jhe world, yet might he exera'ie pa- 
it orall?6h of preacning and praying towards thefe peo- 
ple who would not receiue his miniftery, and againfl: 

Nn: whom 

i66 OrdtnAtionof Paftors is fromthe Presbytery, Chap.i7 # 

Mar i». who in he was to Jbak* off the dust of his feet, as a witne]fe 9 . 

an J a Paftor is only the Paftor of that flocke over the- 
which the Holy-Ghoft by the Churches authority hath 
fet him as their Paftor ; but yet fo ., as when he prea- 
cheth in another congregation, he ceafcth not to bca ; 
Paftor, howbeit he be not the Paftor of that flocke. 

Obiett, 2 , They ob j eel , The ejfence of a 7 aft or is from fomething 9 _ 

but it can be from nothing bntfrom the confent of the people, 

Hen Imc.cS Chur. $ Q M.facob. 

Anfve. The paftorall calling is effentially from fome- 
thing, but it is not from the confent of the people;, 
becaufea man may exercife paftorall a<fb of preaching 
toward thefe who are molt unwilling to receive his 
miniftcry, Ergo, the paftorall calling muft be effcntially 
from tb§ ordination of Elders,. I Tim.4.1+1 

Obiecl,7 t '3* They object, fVhatfoever is ejfentiall at foms times 

and plases for the making of a Minister, is ejfentiall for 
ever ; but the peoples confent at fome times and places U 
for the making of a CHinifter ejfentiall, and m other thing 
at that time can be ejfentiall : For example, When Chri- 
Jiians came- fir ft out of Antichrifiian tyranny , Vvhen there 
are no law full PaTiors , and in the fir ft converfion of the 

fyirMtijlTritifi. Indies, when there are no Paftor u So Separatifts and. 

M^'^chuJch Anfit. I borrow this Argument, what is ejfentiall at. 

gov«n.fa7.p«47.; J^w f i me and places for the making of a "Taftir is ever* 
more ejfentiall j but ordination of Paftors by Pallors, ani 
fending them to preach to the Indies, who are unwil- 
ling to receive their miniftery is oncly ef&ntiall to make 
a manfent thither a Pallor ; for peoples confent in that 
cafe cannot be effentiall, where they will not give their 
confent at all, and non ens cannot be eflentiall to the ma-, 
king of a Paftor. 

2. What is eflentiall for making a* Minifter who is 
extraordinarily called of God , is not ever more cfl'en- 
ti ill to the miking of a Mini'ier ordinarily called of Go J, 
in an iQand where the Gofpeil is, if alf the Paftors iliould 
dvc, the people might chufe Paftors to themfelves, but 


Chap. 1 7. Not (rem the People. 267 

— ■ ■ — - — ■ - 

they could not then make Paftors, God onely without 
the miniftery of other Paflors in that cafe fhould make 
Paftors ; but it followeth not hence that Paftors ordina- 
rily have not their calling to be Pallors from the ordina- 
tion of Paftors. • , 

4. They objeft, When the Church elettcth berfPaftr,. Obictt.^ 
jhe faith, Vve five thee A.B. power to adminijJer the word, 

feAles and cenfures, and the Uttinifier doth pojfeffe and af- 
fume. Ergo, the peoples eletlion ts the effence of a '<J\U»ifters 
calling So John Smith. pntn^^' 

Anfw. It is prefuppofed by order of nature, that A.B. 
is firft called and ordained a Paflor by Chrift, and the 
laying on the hands of the Elders, 1 Tim.4.14. before 
the people can eled him for their Pallor : For if A.Ti, 
be no Paftor, people cannot chufe him to be their Pa- 
ftor, neither doth the peoples election give any fuch po- 
wer to A.B\ That power is given by the Presbyteries 
ad of ordination, by order of nature, before the peoples 
formall acT: of clcdion : As tht husband who in a La- 
pidaries (hop choofcth a gold ring for his wife , and 
putteth it on her ringer, prciuppofeth it w r as a gold ring 
before his chufing thereof , neither doth his chufing 
thcreofmakeitagold-ring, but onely make.it his wifes 
gold- ring by application to her : Juft lb, peoples ele- 
ction appropriatcth fuch a man w 7 ho is already a Pallor 
to fuch a charge, but doth not make the Pallor a Paftor, 
hut chufeth him only to be their Paftor. 

5. Smith laboureth to prove that the miniftery com- Okie&jl. 
meth not by {uccefiion from Minifters: For then (faith Srmhe*r*(*n 
he) the mimfiery fhould be before there were any Churchy 

km the Church itbeftre themimslery, andcalleth the U\ Uni- 
fiers to office. 

Anfto. The Church minifteriah\the governing Church, 
whereof we now fpeake, cannot be before there be a 
miniftery ; for then, there fnould be Minifters before 
there be Minifters, which is againft common fenfe: 
The Church myfticallis before the Church miniftenall, 
I grant j but a Church myfticali , or a Church of be- 

N n 3 lecvew 

2^8 Ordination \'of Paftors is from the Frcsbjtery* Chap. 1.7. 

leevers mny chufe Paftors before they can ordinarily be 
their Paftors, but they cannot make Paftors : Yea,and 
God at fine times fupplyeth the want of popular ele- 
ction, while he calleth one to preach to a people, never 
confeoting he (hall be their Paftor , and fo neither can 
the objector maintainc a fucceflion of beleevers alwayes 
calling Minifters, nor doe we hold a conftant ordina- 
tion of Paftors in a continuall line of fucceilion from 
the Apoftles made by Palters, the fucceflion may be 
interrupted, but then €*od himfelfe fupplyeth the want 
of ordinary ordination appointed by himfelfe, 1 Tim 4. 
14. 77m. 5. 1 Tim. 5.21,22. Acls 6 6. 
6,0 tic ft. 6. They object, If * Miniftcriatl poWer come (faith 

Smnb'jb. hi, Smith), by fucceffton from Tresb juries, then are ^Pres- 

byters Lords of the Churches faith , in resjeft that the 
Church cannot enioy the holy things of God, howkeit fhc he 
if her felfe the body andSpoufe of Chrift, Without the Pres- 
byters confent. 

Anfw. Any may here fee right downc Anabaptifme, 
becaufe the Church cannot enjoy paftorall preachiy?, 
and the Sacraments without Paftors appointed of Chrift 
for that cfK-cr, UWat.2%. i8,ip. Johmo. 21,22,23. 
■Mar, 16. 15. therefore Paftors are Lords of the peoples 
faith , fo they may have Baptifme and the Supper of 
the Lord, becaufe they are Chrifts Spoufe and tody with- 
out Paftors. 

2. By this goodly Argument, private beleevers prea- 
ching and baptizing arc Lords of the faith of other pri- 
vate beleevers, who are their hearers, becaufe not with- 
(landing that private beleevers be the body andSpoufc 
of Chrift of themfelvcs ; yet can they nor, by M.fmiths 
reafoning, enioy the holy things of god, without the mi- 
ll iftery of private Chrift ians preaching and adminiftra- 
ting to them the Sacraments. 
f.Obictt. j t Smith objzftcth, If 'mimfteriall power come by fuccef- 

fton from Minifters, then Minifters may excommhnieate the 
Vthole Church of Chri/f. 

Ayf'to. This is moft weakc, Mud, tmtum pojfumut 


Chap. 1 7- Not fremthe Ftoph. 269 

quod de iure pofumus. And by this rcafon the belcevers 
may excommunicate the whole miniftery alfo, which is 

8. Smith addeth, If the Eld rs and Deacons dye, tlx % % 0b\c% 9 
fucceffion faileth, and a mm fieri all power of Christ being once 
lost can never be recovered againe, andfo there JhaU be no 
M-inifters in the Worlds 

Anftv. Suppofe in this or that Church all the Mini- 
sters (hould dye, yet it followeth not that a Miniftery 
can utterly faile in the Church : It is contrary to Eph. 
4.1 1. and to the perpetuity of Chrifts kingly govern- 
ment and Thrcne, which (hall endure as the day es of be a- NaLb.3^ 
<ven : And what if God extraordinarily fupply the want p ' al 7 -'W>^ 
of ordfhation in this or that particular Church ? A mi- 
nifteriall power is conferred in that cafe immediately 
upon fo me, in a Church removed from any Church- 
confociation from other Churches,and fo Chrifts minilte- 
riall power dieth not. 

9. Smith reafoneth thus, to prove that beleevcrs may %Obie&+ 
ordainc their owne officers, That Which is given by 
Chrifl to the Church is in the power and pojfejfion of thi 
^hurck, but officers and offices axe given to the C hurch. 

Anfw. What is given to the Church fnaliter & ob- 
ietlive , that is for the behoofe and good of the Church, 
for their edification and falvation as Gods propoied 
end , fuch as preaching and baptizing , that is in the 
Churches power and pofejfion, is mod falfe, and fo I deny 
the maior proportion ; for preaching and baptizing is gi- 
ven by Chrift for the good and falvation of women and 
private Chriftians ; yet women and private Chriftians 
may not preach, baptize and ordaine Minifters. what* 
foever is given to the Church, fubietlive, as to the proper 
fubjed, Miftreffe and Spoufe, to difpofe and carve upon 
at her pleafure, is in the Churches power and pojfefficmz 
It is true, but now the aflumption is falfc, becaufe offi- 
cers and offices are not fo given to the Church of be- t 
leevcrsastothefubjeft. Chrifl afcending on high, gave 
Paftors and teachers for thi fhuuh of bekevers, for tk 


270 Ordination of Pdftors is from the Presbytery, Chap.iy, 

gathering and perfetling, but not to the Church of belee. 
10.0 bjetl. 10. If two or three (faith M.Smith) faithfull ones have 
poWer to make a Church, then have fhey power to make the 
Mmifters of the Church , but two or three have power to 
make a Church. Er go >two or three faithfull ones have power to 
make the Minifiers of a Church. He proveth the major. They 
•who can doe the greater can doe the lejfe, to make a Church 
is greater ; for the Church is the Body, Spoufe and Wife, 
the AliniFiers are hut an ornament of the body, andfo the - 
iejfe : The ajfumprion he proveth, two or three faithfull ones 
have Chrift, the holy things of David, the promifes. Ergo, 
two or three have power to make a Church. 

Anfw. Thefe who can make a Church myfticall have 
power to make a Church minifteriall, or Miniftcrs of a 
Church: that I deny : As for the probation, this pro- 
pofition (Thefe Vvho can doe the greater can doe the lejfe) 
muft be right taken : It is true, in thefe fame kind of 
works, and in the fame kind of power. Chrift can for* 
give Jinxes, Ergo, he can doe leffe, he can fay to a fickc 
man, take up thy bed and walke : So if by prayer Jacob 
obtainea blefling from God, which is greater, then by 
prayer he will obtaine deliverance out of the hands of 
Efau, which is lefle ; but in powers of divers kinds it 
holdeth not true : A beleever by prayer may obtaine 
grace and pcrfevcrance, which is greater, but it follow- 
eth not, Ergo, hee can open the eyes of the blind, and 
worke miracles, which is leffe j and therefore howbeit 
three can make a myfticall Church, which is greater, by a 
power of faving grace (which is gratia gratumfaciens) 
It folio wcth not, that therefore they have a minifteriall 
and paftorall power of the keyes (which is gratia gratis 
data) to preach and make Minifters : For then,becaufc 
Mary Magdalen hath power to beleeve that Chrift buri- 
ed (hail rife againc from the death , which is greater ; 
therefore fhe hath power to preach and baptize, which is 
a leffer power : He who hath power to make a (hip, hath 
Rot for that power to make a cup. 

II. Smith 

r Kip.17. Not -from the People. 271 

11. Smith reaioneth thus : Tkefe who have the true 
matter and forme 3 have the property Which arifeth from the 
matter and forme, that u Chritts minifteriall porter to of- 
fume all the ir.eanes of their edification to falvation ; tut 
two or three falthfull ones are the true matter of the (^hurch 
of the New Teftament y and therefore have the true forme 
or covenant of the New Teslamcnt y and fo have a mimfteriaU 
power arifino frcm I hefe two. 

Anffc. Thefe wfx> have the true matter and forme of A 
myfticaR, Church of belcevers, thefc have the union and 
property of a my ft i call Church refulting from matter 
and forme, is moft true ; but they have net for that 
the true property of a minifteriall Church ; faith, and 
the covenant written in the heart is not the forme of 
a minifteriall Church , bur of a myfticall Church of 
belcevers. Sixe borne Scotti(h men dwelling in 7 arid 9 
make a body of Scottifh men ; but they are not for that 
a politicke body of Scottish men living according to 
the Lawes of Scotland : Foure beleevers are a myfti- 
call Church borne over againe by the Spirit of Thrift; 
tut if they be no more but (ingle beleevers, they arc 
not for that a minifteriall Church, which is neceflari- 
ly a politicke body governed by Chrifts Lawes, con- 
filling of Qiepheard and flockc : Bat this man will 
have three beleevers, becaufc they are beleevers, to be 
Minifters, and fe taketh away all vocation and ordi- 
nation of Church-officers by the Churches authority, 
which is flat Anabaptifme. 


27* $*jtresmtnt Chap.iS, 

Chap. XVIII. 

Cert Aim Qupres anent independent of Congregations, 

^wcrt i . I F the independencie of Congregations ftand^ 
1 whether or no is a Democracies and theaclu- 
all government of the Church in the peoples hands ? 

Ianfwer affirmatively, feeing calling, ordination, cen- 
tring , depriving , and judiciall excommunication of 
Church-guides are in their hand, 1 fee not what they 
want, and wherein MoreUim erred. 

i.gmre. Seeing hence it followeth that (ingle be- 
leevers arc to pray publikely, and exhort publikely, and 
authoritatively convince gainfayers at the ordination and 
deprivation of Paftors , if they may not alfo publikely 
preach and adminifter the Sacrament? 

J anfwer : If you give to fingle belccvcrs one pafteraU 
Ad,you may with the like weight of reafon give to them 

3. Whether or no is a miniftery neceffary in a vifiblc 
Church ? 

I anfwer : feeing all thefe^ eminent a&s of the Pafto- 
rail charge by an ordinary power may be performed by 
fingle belecYcrs , I cannot fee any necetfity of a Mini- 

4. Whether or no then is every myfticallChurchof 
bcleevers, becaufe it is fuch, a minifteriall Church, ha- 
ving the keyes both in uie and power ? 

1 anfwer : The former do&rinc {landing it is. 

5. If every one borne of God be not by that birth 
borne alfo a Key -bearer to open and /hut Heaven? 

I anfwer, he is. 

6. If hence a Senate of Elders Who laid on hands at 
ordination of Minifters, 1 Tirn.q. 14. 1 Timj.iz. Ails 
6.6. be not then quite out of the Church ? 

I anfwer, in Churches independent it is quite gone. 

7. if 

Chap. 1 8. > Independencic of churches. 273 

7. If then all beleevers as well as the A potties, and 
Paul, Timothy and Titus are not tolaj hands on Paftors ? 

Anfvver, no doubt they are,but precept or praftife ther- 
fbrc in the Apoftolike Church I fee none. 

8. if the dodrine of refufing Baptifme to Infants, 
whofe neareft parents are not, one of them, at leaft, be- 
leevers, doth not inferre , that (uch a Church , where 
they are baptized is a falfe Church in the matter, and fo 
in its conftitution falfe ? Hence I leave it to be anf wered 
by authors of independencie, if they fhould not feparatc 
from fuch a Church > 

9. Seeing we judge Papifts cruell in excluding from 
^lory unhaptized Infants, when election and reprobation 
hath place in Infants not borne, Rom.p. z/.u. If wc 
can judge Infants borne of neareft parents unbeleevers, 
as the children ef Pagans & Turks without the Covenant ; 
and if the fins of one unbeleevmg Father, where many- 
foregoing generations have been lovers of God^and kee- 
pers of bu Contmandements^oth exclude the Infants from 
the Covenant made with thefe belecving forefathers ? 

Anfto. Wc arc to judge them in no Covenant with 
God by the former dodrine. Hence we require that pla- 
ces of Scripture where God is faid to fhew mercy on a 
wicked race of people : Yea, whefe neareft parents were 
moft wicked rcjedors of Gods Covenant, and that for 
the Covenant made with Abraham, as Jofhuah, 5.3,4, 
5^7>£. S^ech % 20. ^.8,9,10.^.18,19,20,2 1,2a. Pfal,ic6. 
6>7&9- and z/.iOji 1,1 2,1 3,i4,&c. ^.44,45,46. may be 

10. J f children laden with iniquity, and the feed of evill~ 
doers, Ifa.1.4. doth beget in the vifible Church a gene- 
ration which is no more holy with externall and fede- 
rail holinefle , then Indians and* Tartarians who never 
heard of Chrift : And feeing fuch a generation hath by 
the former grounds no right to the meanes offalvation, 
we aske with what faith we can keep any Church-corn- 
naunion with fuch, yea how the Gofpcll can be preached 
to them. 

Oo 2 n.Whc- 

2 74 gu&res went Chap.iS 

ii. Whether or no we are to keep fome Church- 
communion with an excommunicate perfon, who U to 
be rebuked as a brother y 2 Thcf.3. 1 5. and fo is to be a 
hearer of the word, and for whofc good w« ufe the 
medicine or excommunication, that hn ffirit may be fa- . 
ved in the day of the Lvrd, \ dr.5. 4. We aske if (the 
doftrineof Independencie (landing) we are not alfo to- 
tally to feparate from an excommunicate perlon in the 
very external! Church-communion of hearing the word, 
feeing ten excommunicated pcrfons joyned in Covenant 
for hearing of the word , arc no Church, no 3ody, no 
Spottfe of Chrifi. We fee not how we are not by the for- 
mer grounds totally to feparate from them. 

12. If we may rebuke a particular Church,and if the re- 
niaincobftinate,and will not heare,why may we not pro- 
ccedacording to Chx'&s or &z?y Mat. \%.& tell the Church I 

Anfvo. By the former grounds we arc to ftand at fingle 
rebuking, and proceed no farther. 

13. .SupDofe the independent Congregation confift. 
often Elders and an hundred beleeversiJf the ten El- 
ders abide found in the faith , and the hundred belce- 
vers errc in fundamental points of faith : In that cafe 
we aske, 1 . If Chrift have appointed no paftorall or mi- 
niftenall acl: of difcipline to reclaime thefe hundred who 
errc from the faitfc. 

I anfwer, none at all which may authoritatively re* 
claime them , for they are the fupreame independent 
Church. 2. Becaufe it cannot be denyed but Paftors and 
Doctors of the faid Elderfhip may preach againft their 
errours, and fhoot Heaven upon the pertinacious defen- 
ders of thsfe pernicious errors, and that by the power 
©f the keyes, Mat.16.19. foh. 20.25. yet have they no 
power of difcipline to •ihut Heaven upoa them , who 
thus erre from the faith, nor to bind their fins on earth, 
becaufe the Elderfhip is not the Church, neither hath 
power of jurisdiction over the hundred erring beleevcrs. 
How cap a power of binding and loofing by way of proa- 
ching,and that both in Gods Court and the Churches be in 
' " thefe 

Chap. 1 8. Independent Churches . 275 

thefe who have no power of difcipline to bind and loofc. 
14. Seeing the Lifter-Churches of Colore and Lao- 
dice a, C0I.4. 16. and of Corinth^ Macedonia , ^chaiA y 
q*LithiA^2 Cor.8.1,2,3,18,19,23,24. chap.p. 1,1,3, 4,5. 
are confociated together in a viiiblc body, in external! 
ads of Gods worihip , as to heare one and the fame 
word of Ged , C0/.4. 16. and to doe Church-bufinefle 
and works of mercy toward the pcore by their dele- 
gates and commiflioners : We askc if confociated Chur- 
ches tyed together in a vifible Church-communion of ails 
of divine worfhip be not with as good reafon a vifible po- 
litick body of Chrift, as many beleevers conlbciated in a 
Church-communion, if ads of divine woriliip doth make 
a particular Congre-gation. 2. If the former Church hath 
not the power of the keyes upon the grounds of a vilible 
Church-communion among themfelvcs, as a Congregati- 
on hath the power of the keyes upon thefe fame grounds? 
3. Jf thefe confociated Churches be not a viiiblc Body, 
Spoufe^and covenanted people with Cjodin Chrifl, as vtyell as a 
little Congregation of fixe or ten beleevers ? 4. Iffucri 
a greater body may not meet in their overfeers, and ex- 
ercife difcipline, and govcrne the particular Congrega- 
tions, as a Congregation doth meet in their principal! 
members, and govcrne themfelvcs, and all the members 
of the particular Congregation 5. We aske a reafon, 
why in a Congregation of three hundred beleevers par- 
taking one Word and Sacrament,a hundred of the three 
fcparated from the other two hundred cannot meet and 
exercifc the power of the keyes by themfelves alone, 
becaufeone worfhip, and one government doth equally 
concerne them all, and by that fame reafon it fhould not 
be affirmed often Congregations,all partaking one Word 
and Sacraments upon occafions which neighbourly con- 
fociation doth furnith, that one cannot meet to exercife 
difcipline in matters which in reafon equally concer- 
ned all the ten Congregations without fubordi nation 
to the joynt authority of ail the ten ? For if a hundred 
of three hundred cannot exercifc difcipline there alone^ 

Oo 3 with- 

27 6 gueres anent Chap.i8. 

without the other two, reafon would inforce one or two 
congregations of ten confociated congregations cannot 
meet, without fubordination tothe whole ten, wherof 
one or two congregations are part ; if ten be owners 
of one (hip, fix cannot meet and difpofc or fell the (hip, 
or repaire her cordadge, or any decayed part, without 
the power of the other foure, whom it concerncth ; fo 
if ten congregations b^ vifible owners and copartners 
of one GofpelL one worfhip, one extejnall profeflion, 
and one communion with a brother, or feparation from 
a fcandalous perfon, we aske a reafon how one con- 
gregation can meet and difpofe of that common wor- 
ship, government, and haunting familiarly with, orfe- 
parating from a member of the Church, without fub- 
ordination to all the ten congregations, whom it doth 
concerne ? 

15. If the Elderfhip of one congregation make one 
vifible reprefentative Church ruling and governing the - 

* abfents, we aske why the Elderfhip of fix congrega- 
tions may not judicially meet and rule fix congregati- 
ons alfo? 

16. If the power of the keyes be given to belce- 
vers, as beleevers, becaufc Chrift is their King, T^riefi and 
<Prophet, and all things are theirs, Paul, ApolU, Cephas, 
the World t 

1. It is asked, if none have the power of the keyes, 
but beleevers, and if all a&s paftorall of preaching, (finding 
And loofing, excommunicating performed by unbelee- 
\ing Minifters and ProfelTours be not hence made null, 
as performed a non babsntibpu potefiatem, as if Turkes 
and Pagans had performed tbefe ? We thinkc they muft 
be null. 

2. We thinke children baptized by unbeleeving Mi- 
nifters not baptized. 

3 . An unbeleeving paftor not ciTentialiy a paftor. 

4. If, becaufe Chrift is given to the ele ft, and all things 
are theirs, and fo all minifteriall power of the keyes, it 
is qucftioncd, if amongft thefe all things given to the 


Chap.i8. Independent Churches, 277 

beleevers, we may not include the Magiftrates fword, 
the Kings power, the matters power over the fervant, 
the Captains power over the fouldier, fo that by that 
fame reafon there be no Kings, no Judges, noMafters,. 
no Captains, fave only beleevers, we fee not how this 
followes not, as well as that the power of rhc keyes, 
and all things are given to beleevers, becaufe Chrift is 
given to them. 

"5. We aske if the power of the keyes in binding and 
retaining finnes be not given to unbeleevers, or rather 
for them as Gods intended [end, to declare the glory 
of his Juftice in the veflcls of wrath, as Rom. 9. 17. 
•£/£.§. 14. 2 Cor.2.\6. 2 Cor. 10.6, j, S. 

17. £**rt. Ifthediftin&ionofatrue Church. 2. A 
falfe Church, and 3. no Church can ftand? And if the 
diftin&ion of true baptifme, 2. falfe baptifme, but valid 
and fuch as is not to be repeated, 3. and no baptifme can 

I anfwer, thcdo<ftrine of independency ftanding, we 
fee not how a Church wanting the right matter and 
confiding of members who are not profeflfed beleevcrs 
having having faith, can be any thing but a non-Church, 
and fuch as is a non-Spoufe, a nen- body of Chrift * and a 
non- covenanted people, and fb wanting all power of the 

£*cre. If the baptifme of that congregation can be va- 
lid baptifme, not to be repeated, I leave to the con (id era- 
tion of the learned. Y ea, if the Minifter be an unbclecver 
by the former grounds, it can be no baptifme. But fome 
fay it is the baptifme of the Church, and fo valid, 
fuppofc the Minifter be an unbeliever, and fo want 

I anfwer, the whole congregation may be unbelievers, 
as is the Minifter, and fo yet the baptifme comming from 
the Church, commcth from thefc who want power,and 
cannot be valid. 

2. Suppofe the congregation be a company of believers, 
yet I fee not how by their authority they can make the 


278 §£&re$ anwt Chap.18. 

baptizing ofa Paftor wanting all power to be valid, for 
then if the Church ftiould baptize by a Tu^k* or a iVo- 
mm, that baptifme ihould be valid, which no man can 

18. What fort of an AflTembly was the meeting, Aft. 
15. if it wasalavvfullSynod offjndry particular Chur- 
ches, or an extraordinary meeting, the practice whereof 
doth not oblige us ? If it was a meere Apoftolick meeting 
obliging as Apoftolick, and if it oblige us as ApoIhV 
lick, how commeth it that the multitude {pake , and 
gave their mind in that which obligeth us as Cano- 
nick Scripture ? For that the multitude fpakc our bre- 
thren colled from v.i 2. and how is it that Elders and 
brethren determine in penning Canonick Scripture ? 
Except the firft be faid, there be many doubts here, 
of which the way of independency cannot cleare 

jS^ip. How commeth it that the Lords Apoftles, 

who were to goe through ail the Nations of the world to 

preach the Gofpell, doe io often affcmble together to 

confult about the common affairs of the Church and 

difciplinc, as Aft.i. Att.z. ^#.4. Aft. 6.4. Aft. 8. 

14. Aft.11.1. ^tf.13.1,2,3. Att.15. AB.2i.lS. Aft. 

20. Tatsl and the Elders of Ephefis, v. 17, 18. 1 Tim. 

4.14. it is queftioned feeing thefe affemblies of many 

paftors from fundry Churches (becaufe the Scriptures faith 

they were occasioned by the prcfent neceflity of ordering 

things, belonging to all the particular Churches) if they 

were only temporary , extraordinaty and Apoftolick 

meetings, which oblige not us to the like praftifc, how- 

bcit there be the like caufes of meetings in the Church 

now, as errours and corrupt doctrine in many particular 

Churches, as were Aft.\<$. the murmurings betwixt 

Churches,a« %Aft.6.z fulpitious pra&ife ofa paft©r,which 

feemeth to beagainft Gods law, as Peters going in to the 

uncircumcifed,^#.i i» 

20. Whither or not T^/did not fome things as an A- 
poftlc, as writing of Canonick Scripture, working of 


Chap. 1 3. Independent Churches. 279 

miracles. 2. And fome things as a Chriftian, as Phil, 
5.9,10,11,12,13. 3. And fome things as an ordinary 
Elder and Paftorcfthe Church delivering fome perfons 
to Satan, I CVr.5.4 and whither or no is Pauls rod and 
authority, and his power of excommunicating, whereof 
he fpeaketh, iCor.^zi. 1 Cor, 5.4. iCor.io.S. com- 
mon to all believenPOur brethren muft fay, it is common 
tqall believers. 

2 1 . If the power of the keyes be given to all believers, 
aqueftionis, 1. It Tatters have no other power of the 
keyes, but thatfime that believers have,feeing the ground 
of Chrifts gift is one and the fame, to wit, alike intereft 
in Chrift, and if alike power of preaching, baptizing, ex- 
communicating be in Paul, and all believers ? 2. Whi- 
ther or no the calling of Chrift and his Church doth not 
fuperadde and conferre to him who is made a paftouc 
feme farther power of the keyes, then he had before 
he was cloathed with any fuch calling, feeing, to r*- 
bukg) exhort and com fir t on another, are duties of the 
law of nature, and would oblige all, fuppofe Chrift 
had given the power of the keyes to none at all, wee 
fee not, but cur brethren muft deny that the calling of 
the Church giveth any other power of the keyes then 
the believer had before he was called. 3. If there be not 
a greater power ef preaching, baptizing and binding and 
loofing in the believers then in paftors, feeing believers 
give the power to paftours, and may take it away a- 

22. If fix believers be excommunicated, and that juft- 
ly, clave non err ante , yet remaining believers, itisqucfti- 
ened, if they keepe not ft ill the power of the keys ? they 
muft keepe that power, and yet are no members of Chrifts 

23. I defire a place may be produced in all the old or 
newTeftament, where a minifteriallor governing Church 
is taken for a company of only believers ? This our bre- 
thren teach. 

24. If all authoritative Affemblics, for renewing a co- 

P p tenant 

2 8 o QKfkiom about Presbyteriall Chap.19. 

tenant with God, rtftoring of the worfhip of God, be 
I . A part of the pedagogy of the law of Mofes, and 
removed by Cbrift ? a. if thefe Afkmblies in the 
Churches of Chrift now be a fpecies of fudaiftne ?Thi$ we 

25. If believers exerc'fing the moffc eminent a&s of 
ordaining paftors, publick cenfuring, depriving and ex*- 
communicating paftors, publick convincing gain-fayers, 
be not formally hence made by our brethren, over-feers, 
watch-men for the foules of P aft ors and guides, and fo < Pd- 
fiorsofPaftors? We anfwer affirmatively, they are by the 
former grounds. 

26. Let the godly and learned confider, if the Patrons 
of independent Churehes arc not to give obedience to 
Decrees and Canons of Synods, for the neceffity of the 
matter, as a brotherly counfell from Gods Word ob- 
Sigeth in confciencc the brother to whom the counfell 
and advife is given ; howbeit the tye be not authoritative 
by the power of the key es^ and if in that they are not to 

Chap, XIX. 

"Doubts agalnft Presbyteriall government difcujfed, at #* 
bout ruling Elder s y Deacons, Widows^ the Kings pow- 
er in things ecc/eftafticatl; 

C*lvjnTh.L M&ft**' TJ 0rv doth Calvin WCartwright deny that 
Sortwrizbul^p* 1 I the Apoftls [freaketh of ruling Elders, Tit, . 

Vunuu. *• And yet Junius and Bcza, that both a preaching and rtt~ 

l 2t\.*H*}i*i. Ihg Elder are there comprehended, So the ant hour of ^the for- 
*r»?Mft v-yofdifcipline. 

Jlnfo. A great queftion anent the latitude of an haire • . 
how doth many Formalifts make the Prelate an humane 
creature, and feme/ar* hnmAno, and yet Land ©f Canter- 

Chap. i9. Government dtfcujfed. 281 

^rjand D.#*#maketh him, /W rfiVw. 

2. An office may be defcribed two waycs. 1. Direct- 
ly and expreflely, astbePaftor, 1 Tim>2.. 2. IndirecTI^as 
many things agreeing to the Deacon, as that he hold the 
my fiery cj € faith in a goodconfeience, he be fiber, grave, faith- 
fidl in all things ficz, all which are required in the hotter 
and Pafior alio. 

Queft.2. How are the rutin* Elders, 1 Tim. 5. omit- 
ted Where the officers are named f Paul fajfetb from the 
*BiJbop to the ^Deacon, omitting the ruling Elder : So 
ii bee omitted, Ephefian. 3. II. Philip, i. 1. it it lik* 
they are not efCbrisls making, Vfho are not in Chrifis rowle. 

Anfw. Either the Prelate or the Presbyter is omitted, 
iTim.^. Thil.i. not the preaching Presbyter,as is cleare 
by the defcription agreeing onely to him. €rgo 9 the 
Prelate is out of Chrifts rowle. 

2. Doctors are omitted, Tto/.i.l. iTim.%. and yet 
«re fet dewne, Eph.^.ii. yet are ruling Elders in other 
places,as Rom.12. 1 Cor 1 2. 

3. Paul, 1 Tim. 3. is not defcribing offices, but giveth 
Canons, which generally agreeth to all Church-officers, 
howbeit he giretfe inftanee in two, yet in fuch two 
as includcth all the reft, as he that labouretb in tea- 
ching and governing, and he that taketh care rf the 
Church goods. Whenc^/*/^ defcribeth the Judge, he 
{heweth what a man the King, the Jufticc of peace, 
the Sheriff*, the Major of a City, the Lord of the pri- 
vy Councell {hould be, howbeit thefe be not named in 
the Text. Hence, becaufc they arc not named, it fol- 
loweth not that they are omitted,and not fpoken of in the 

Qucft.3. But Elders are not, \ Cor. 12. 29. nor yet \ 
Rem. 1 2. but only governours (faith JVhjtgift and Dr. 
Field) andit u an ill argument, a gencre ad fpecicm affir- 
mathe, he nameth gouernours, itfolloweth not therfcre he na- 
methjour governing Elders, 

tslnfw. 1. Where Paul fetteth downe in order officers 
by their fpeciall names, ordinary and extraordinary , is 

P p a firfl 

282 Jgutftiws about Prcsbytcriall Chap. 19 

fir ft Apeftles, fecondarily Prophets, thirdly Teachers, &C. 
he cannot reckon out generals only , tor fo Apoftles, 
Trophets, Teachers, fhouid be alfo but generals , tor the 
words in Scripture alfo fignifie generals. 

2. The enumeration mould rialt, which yet is orderly 
fit down, ifit were compofe J of a number of particulars 
and the generals of fome caden in amongft them. 

Neither can fome here well undcrftand the civill Magi- 
ftrate. 1 . Becaufe he fpeaketh of the Church as the body 
of Chrift confiding of divers members cccldiafticallj 
And CSod hath/*? fome in the Church, and alfo he fpea- 
keth of the Church, Rom.n.5. feeing V?ee being many 
are one body in Chrift , and in that place the ruler is 
clearly differenced from the teaching Dottor, v. 7. from 
the exhorting P aft our , and him ^ho Jhoweth mercy in 
the Chttrth, but the civill Magiftrate is not a Church 
officer whom God hath fet in the Church , as hec 
hath fet zsfpoftles , Prophets, &c. for God hath fee 
him in t*i ^\n y j n the Common- wealth, and his in- 
fluence in governing Gods houfe is meerely chill, co- 
aftive and regaU, not paftorall, ecclcfiaftick and mini- 

Neither yet can the place be meant of the governing 
Prelate. 1. Becaufe the Prelate is thought to be the Apo- 
ftlesfuccefDurandisfirftmtheroule, but the govemours 
heere are fome fteps pofterior to Apoftles, Prophets, 
&ff. 2. Becaufe the Prelate giveth himfelfeout to be a 
certaine preaching creature, fuch as it may be, 1 Tim. 
3.2. Tit.i.g. but thegovemourshere in this linckeare 
con*ra-diftinguith.ed from Prophets and %eachers , and 
fb the Prelate mould either be a fole lord governor and no 
teacher, or then he mill be twife, yea thrice named in 
oncverfe, 1. under the nam: of an Apoftlc, next under 
themm-ofa Prophet, and Uftly, (houjid c >me in as a go- 
vernor, fj the Prelate, as in Church and State , fo alfo 
inthe Bible, he mould C3rry too muchbookc. Now fee- 
ing here are governours in the Church, co.itra-diftingm- 
fhci from Prophets and Teachers > from a juft enumerate 


Chap.ip. Government di [cuffed. 283 

on they rnuft be ruling Elders, ana it is to be obfervcd 

that 'the Apoftle faith not, Are all Arch-bijhops? are all 

Primates f And furely the Jefuites have no lcfff roome 

without tlrong to pinne in, in this wall , under the 

name of helpes and governments, their regul.ir Canons 

andficular Priests, as Forntalifts can ailed ge for Prelates , 

and their long tayle. What Tilenus faith againft this Dulcuf^DMf 

place is fully anfwered by % Didoclavius, for becaufe the /•?»*• 

Apoftle confoundeth or rather rcckoneth together in one 

enumeration ordinary and extraordinary functions in the 

Church, will it follow he doth not here fpeake of ruling 

Elders? If that reafonbe good, neither is the Prelate 

here, nor is the Taftor or the Doctor here, and if there 

be who excell in the gift of governing, vvho yet arc 

not called to preach, who can deny the nece(Tity of this 


Many anfwers are given to elude the force of that 
place, iTim.%Aj. The Elder s Vtho rule Well, &c. fhall Ru i ing ^, dc?9 
ever inforce that loytering Paftors, Who labour not in the proved from 
Word and Doclrine are commended by the Spirit of * Tim -i %1 > 
God, as worthy of double honour. For wee reafon 

If thefe fort of Elders who rule well, and especially ' 
thefe who labour in the Word and Do Brine are wor* 
thy of double honour,then are there two forts of Elders, 
fome who rule well, 2nd fome who labour in the Word And 
Do Urine. 
But the former is faid, I 7V;#.£. 17. 
Ergo, The latter muft be true. 

The propofition in termini* almoft is our thefts, if 
two forts of Elders bee worthy of itatble honour, 
then arc there two fort of Elders, for a qualitate 
& ab ad'untto fubjetti ponitnr fib;eB:tm ipfum : Al- 
{o if "Paul make the well ruling Elder worthy of 
double honour, ani more efoxnlly the teaching 
Elder, then hee acknowledged fome well-ruling 
Elder worthy of double honour , howbeit , hee 
labour not in the Word. A region is ; becaufe the 

P p 3 . ^oiitivc 

1 84 £>ueftio»s about Prcsbyteriall Chap.ip, 

pofitive and comparative arc ever differenced, andrna- 
keth a number, when both are fpecirled with particular 
rities as»here, they are by (Well-ruling) and ( labouring 
in the word and dotlrine,) The Author of the Survay 
durftnot looke this place in the face. c Bilfon i Field and 
Tjlen deny our major proportion. 

If one Jhould fay (fay they) a preacher is worthy of dou- 
ble honour, especially a painfull Preacher, he Jhould not fay 
there be ftoo kinds of Treacher s, fome Treacher s thus and 
thus, and fome painfull Preacher 'S, and a King is Worthy of 
honour >e specially a in$~l King, he jhould not make two forts S 
fome are Kings, and fome are iuft Kings, as Deacons and 
P afters are tWo fort of Offices, 

Anfw, He who faith a T aft or is Worthy of honour , efpe- 
cially a painfull P aft or, rliould clearly inlinuate that two 
fort of honours were due to Paftors two waves con- 
fidered ; For in the former part he fhould fpeake of 
the office, which indeed is worthy of honour ; In the 
latter part he (hould fpeake of the officer in concreto 9 
laudably difcharging his office ; but Paul fpeaketh not 
£o ; for he fpeaketh not of the office, and the officer, 
of the abftnacT: and concret, of the office, and the ufe 
and exercife of the office, as is here alleadged ; but he 
fpeaketh of officers in the exercife and ufe of their of- 
fice in both : He faith not Elders arc worthy of ho- 
nour, for that might well beare this fenfe ; that the 
office of an Elder is worthy of double honour, which 
fenfe rhould be moft true 5 for the office of an Elder 
is uorthy of double honour, which fenfe {hould be moft 
true ; for the office of an Elder is worthy of honour. 
Suppofe the man be wicked ; but the A poftlc fpeaketh 
not of the office, but the officers, and the praife- worthy 
cxeicife of the office : The Elders who rule well are wor- 
thy of double honour, and fo the example is not alike. 

2. If Paul had put downe a general! onely in the 
former part, and laid, an Elder is worthy of honour, this 
anfwer mi-ht have had fome colour (howbeit but a 
colour) But now P^/puttcth downe a sjeciall : El- 

Chap, i p. Government di [cuffed. 2g> 

ders who rule well are Worthy of double honour • and with 
tbefe another fpeciall fort of Elders, ejpecia'ly theft vfa 
labour in tlje word tvid dotlrin: ;'and io clearly he (dt- 
teth downc two particular fjecies and forts of Elders? 
Now to make good the fenie of the objectors of this, 
they muft fiy, a worthy Preacher who ruleth well is war- 
thy of dwble honour , but especially a Worthy Treacher ii 
worthy of double honour ; 1 herefore of necellity fome 
Elders who rule well muft be meaned in the former 
part, who are not meaned in the fccond,and thef: can 
in good reafon be no other but ruling Elders and tea- 
ching Elders ; for thefe fame fort of Elders cannot be un- 
derftood in both places. 

3. And this fenfe, fuppofeitfhouldftand, fhouidbavc 
but a colour of reafon, becaufe you fhall never find the 
Spirit of God commend and praife the (imple exercife 
of an office ; but the right and conscientious cxercifc 
thereof! Gods Spirit will not fay, he who ru'eth, and 
he who preacheth is worthy of double honour; but he 
who rulcth well and preacheth well is worthy of dou- 
ble honour. 

4. By this wild interpretation men may be ■« *4*u* 
m^Z&^ell-govermng To/tors, who labour not in the 
word and do&rine , and io the dumbe Prelates , who 
hold it all one to be damned to a Pulpit, and 'o a man- 
mill , {"hall be Paftors worthy of double honour. Now 
Paul will not fay this of a right Bifliop, 1 Tim.^. 2, 
Tit. 1. p. becaufe good governing in a Paftor includcth 
labouring in the word and doctrine, as the whole in- 
cludcth the part : For preaching is a fpeciall ai* of 
overfeeing and well-governing of fbulesjfer.i. 10. rTiw. 
4. 2. Becaufe the word is the inftrument of paftorali 
governing, how can Paftors rule well by uling aright 
the word of God , except they labour in the word, 
which is the fhepheards itafE: of right governing and 
painfull preaching, H^.13.17. Alls 10. 28,79, 0^1. 
And fo the Apoftie fhall fay one thing twice; to wit, 
jhcie PaSors who rule well in fekinring in the word 


2 g 6 gucftiorts about Prcsbyteniall Chap. 1 9o 

arc worthy of double honour , efpccially thefe Paftors 
who labour well in the word and do&rine. 

5. To labour in the word, wa'dv \ CV.3.8. I Cor m 
15.38. lThef.1.3. Mat. 1 1.28. is a word in the pofi- 
tive, and not in the fuperlativc degree : And let it be 
a word of the fuperlative degree, if the well- governing 
Elder here fignific the Prelate (as the currant expofi- 
tion of Formalifts is) and the Elder labouring in the 
word and doctrine fignifie the painfull preaching Pres- 
byter, then the Presbyter who h a poore Pulpit- man 
is more worthy of double honor and double maintenance, 
and the Lordly benefice,then my Lord Prelate.This glofe 
will offend the proud Prelate. 
Hals humble %e. Doctor Hall fetcheth from Scultetus another poore fn- 
%£££j$ terpretation : The Elders Uo rule veil, that is, admini- 
p.«**.w< fter the Sacraments , make publike 'prayer s y and privately ad* 

mompy faithfull people are worthy ef double honour^ especi- 
ally thefe Who excell in the aift of teaching, which is more ex- 
cellent then baptizing, 1 Cor. 1 . 1 7. 

Anfto % \* We have a new office brought in in odium 
tertij, out of hatred to ruling Elder s y and this is a crea- 
ture who can baptize, adminiller the Lords Supper, 
and pray far off a print booke, and admonifh in cor- 
ners, but cannot preach • but firlt I aske this fellowes 

2. Where isfuch an officer in Gods word ? 

3. By what warrant bath one power to adminifter 
the Sacraments, and that pk*«Vj well as a ^ell-governing 
Elder, who cannot preach the word and pray, this is 
but the reading Prieft, who faith fervice for hire ; and 
yet he baptizeth ex officio, by his office : Chrift con- 
joyneth the publike preaching and baptizing, Mat.2%. 
18, ip. as two parts of an office, and here they are f> 
parated and given to different officers. 

4. How is a man called on that ruleth well, becaufe 
he baptizeth well, and readcth faire in the booke ? and 
is not called on who ruleth well, becaufe he preachcth 
well ? For it cannot be conceived how baptizing be- 


I * — — -" — — — — ~— — ■ — ■ — 

Chap, 19. Government dtfcufied. 287 

lcngeth rather to well governing then good preaching. 
3.Cood governing is the Frelates element ; for fo he 
■faith himielfe ; but to preach bafe, it's for his Chap- 
Jaine ; and by this, to read fa-vice, to baptize, to ex- 
hort privately (hall make the Prelate a good governing 
Elder, but worthy of leffe honour then the preaching 
Presbyter : But the right Bifhop, 1 Tim^ % muftborn 
be apt to teach , and one who can governe well, and 
this maketh the Prelate in office only a Reader. R-tf j.boo*e of * 

But neither can DocTor Fields other gloffe fhnd. The the chuieh,c,a^ 
guides of the Church are worthy of double honour, both in 
refhetl of governing and teaching , but especially for their 
paines in teaching, fo he noteth tWo parts or duties of Pres- 
et triad offices, not tWo forts of Presbyteries, 

Anfw. 1 . By this it is the Prelates glory te preach, 
but he cryeth up courting and Lordly command,and in his 
pradife cryeth downe preaching. 

2. This interpretation wrongeth the Text : For the 
divers Pronoupes mud note divers perfons, as is clcarc 
in the words 0)^017^% and 5' **»*»*&, and it is all one 
as if Tdul fhould fay, That Archippus who ruleth Weill* 
worthy of double honour •, effeciaKy that Archippus who la- 
boureth in the word and dofbrine^ where as it is one Ar- 
chippus who ruleth well, and laboureth in the word and 
dodrine. None ufe to fpeake fo fuperfluoufly, or igno- 
rantly, who underftandeth the Greekc Language, ex- I^efhfaYtfcte 
cept by way of excellency perfons be noted which is ««' is doubled, ™i 
not here : Alfo it (hould be untrue that any tnouldbe J^ttSSSSS 
worthy of double honour for well governing, except fi^nifie ever divert 
only he who laboureth in the word and dodrine which P etfon$ * 
is agairrft reafon,and the words of the Text. 

Neither can thefe words (Tell the Church) ftand in 
a particular Congregation, if ruling Elders be removed, 
especially where there is a Paftor in the Congregation : 
For then the Church fhould either (ignihe the multi- 
tude of beleevers, which I have abundantly refuted, or 
the Paftor with the Deacons ; but Deacons have no ju- 
sisdidion in Gods Church by the word of God : Or 

Q^cj thirdly, 

*88 Jiseftiom about Presbperidl Chap.ta, 

thirdly the wordTPaftor it alone fhould figrrific the' 
Church which is Popiili ; therefore of neceiTIty there 
muft bee fome Rulers with the Paftors which make 
the miniftenall Church, of which our Saviour 'fpca- 

Neither can the famous Councell at ferufaUm, con- 
fifting^ of Apoftles, Elders and Brethren* exclude ruling 
r*>« j.boolcc of Elders. D.Fidd citeth Cj/priAn,TcrtnHian 9 Hierom, Am~ 
c*25!iV* ^ e ^° r ru ^ n § Elders, but doth no way iatisrie the 
Mp/u 4, i% Reader ; for he inaketh them all preaching Elders, and 
mlrl^ic^ 9 ' ma k ctn al * tne Presbyters to be preaching Presbyters, 
& i» jriM. * tnat ne may fill the field with Prelates. 
•rf*8r.iaiTa«5* ' But i. the Ancients by way of queftion*and as it 
were doubting at leaft polimickely determine that the 
Councell and voices of Elders fhould be had in gover- 
ning the Church ; but feeing they all, and moft exprefly 
Hierom acknowledge, that Epifeopus and Trestyur are 
all one* they muft either underftand other Elders then 
preaching Elders* otherwayes it wasaqueftionamongft 
them, if Bifhops had voices in the government of the 
Charch, which was never heard in all Antiquity. 

i t Cyprian complaineth that fenlores had been debar- 
red in discipline, but acknowledged^ that Presbyters 
were fo proud that they were Mafters of all, and ruled 
all abfque eonfenfn feniornm ; therefore he acknowled- 
ged preaching Presbyters* and governing femores to be 

3. We arc not to doubt but Hierom knew the mind 
of Antiquity better then D.Field, and that Hierom was 
not (ingular in this knowne to all : gmd facit Epifco- 
pW). quod non facit Presbjter except a ordinatione ? Hence 
Paftors have had in the ancient Church all power of ju- 
risdiction with thefe who were, as Hierom faith, Bi- 
fhops or Prelates, confuetudine, non dominica diff>ofitione^ 
by the Churches cuftome, Prelates above Paftors, and this 
is the judgement of all our Divines,who have ever jud- 
ged the contrary Popery, and a ftep to the Popes Chaire, 
J might cite Cii/i/Mf, ' Beza, 'juntas t B(scan ) Ptirem, Vr- 


Chap, i p. Government dtfcuffed. 289 

fine, Luther ', McLir.clkcn, T ] olan.T } ij cater, Sibr an Jus, Are- 
tins > Dantus, TcntruS) Kicktrman^ Rizet y W aliens, T 10- 
fejfcrs of Leyden, giLVectius, and many others. Now if 
Antiquity tooke Spifcopus and Presiyter for all cne, ex- 
cept in the fole ad of ordination, a^d in all ether points 
of jurisdiction they were equaU, what meaned that 
word that the Ancients all approved, none gainfaying 
that ever I law who are not parties or corrupted by 
Prelates : Epifcopi nihil faciunt fme confilio Clericcrum ; 
and nihil fine confilio Presbyter or urn. The meaning muftbc 
ridiculous, except ruling Elders be understood, rafters 
doe nothing without the advife of Paftors, andBimops 
c\ck nothing without the counfell of Bilhops ; forBi- 
(hops and preaching Presbyters are all one, except in 
the ad of ordination. -Wc never read in found anti- 
quity that Biflops domineered over Bijhops, : Yea it is 
knowne the Bijhop of Ccnftantinople, and the City had ****■« iTta**' 
the dignity above the Bijhop of Rome, and the Church 
of Rome, Awbrofe or as venerable a man. The feWifb 
Church or Synagogue , and after the Church had Seniors 
cr Elders , without nhofe counfell nothing was done in the 
Church, Which by what negligence it grew out J knoW not, 
unleffe it Were by the floth or pride of the teachers, ^vrhilefi 
they alone mould feeme to be fomething. Here are Elders 
dirfcrenced from teachers : If is ignorantly replyed by 
Field, that none were teachers but Prelates, and all 
others teached by permiflion from the Prelate, becaufe 
Valerius Bifhop of Hippo gave Attouftine a Presbyter 
leave to preach. 

Anfa. That none were teachers but Prelates is meft 
falfe. What then, fuprofc we grant that ? were none 
called teachers but Prelates ? he dare nor fay that, TV- 
tul/ian, Ircnaw, Hiercm, Auguftine , Cyprian, Ambrofe^ 
Chryfefiome, Oecumenius, The'opbylacl, Cyrilltu, Trover, 
BilUriits a thcufand times calleth all Paftors, Doctors, 
teachers : And what, howbeit Chrift be the only Arch- 
doclor and teacher, and all others teachers by his grace 
and gracious permiflion, arc not Jpojilss, Bifhops, *ra* 

290 gueftions about Presbytcriall Chap.i^ 

fiors oiled teachers, a. hundred times in Gods word ? 
and this man will not give the Ancients leave to call 
poore Presbyters teachers , and yet T^/'giveth them 
this name, as they are corilfadiftioguiChcd from Apoftlcs, 
gph.^.i i. i Cor. i 2.29. 

j2^4» But the Ancients knew no Lay-Elders. 
Anfiv. Nor doe wc de iure know them, they are 
Church-men,, and mould be for ail their life-time en- 
tertained upon the Churches charges, what our Church,. 
Ac fact*, doth tolerate by reafon of our Churches poverty, 
is another qucftion, 
$urvay>ciS.p.ij{ j2^,$* How is it that your ruling- Elders doe not 
r#tiChHr^i%6 giveimpofition of hands, and blefle Paftors, when they- 
are ordained, and fo the lefler mould blcfTe: the grerter t 
So the author of Survay. So D .Field, 

Anfw. If they judicially conCnt to impofition of 
hand«, it is furficient._ 

2. There is no inconvenience that a ruling Elder, asa* 
part of the Presbytery bleflfe one, who is not yet a Pa- 
ftor, but to be ordained.a Paftor : For the ordainer as he is- 
fuch is greater then the ordained. 
B«V*iiiMK,itf.i9 J3±6. Beza giveththe keyes to both Traitors and E/- 
pT ? T r,,s ^ 1 ' 3 ' dsrs. Cart Wright denjetb the keyes to any, except only to 
N"Whcr. Paftors. Bat Daniel Niellius, the keys (faith he) were 
S^ P ,c.it« given to Peter, rationcofificij, by hid office ,. and not to the> 
j>,iQj>'.oj,ioj. Apostles only , but alfo to all Vfho ttvre to fa fent to preach and 

Anfrc. The keyes. by the preaching of the Gofpell, 
Poteftas concionalU clavium, were given to Peter as repre- - 
jfenting all Paftors and Doflors , tAnquam fuhiefto ad&- 
ejftato : The keyes by way of difciplinary binding andloo- 
finj! were given to Peter, taxqHAw fubietto virtuali, re- 
presenting not only Paftors, but alfo Doftors and ru- 
ling Elders, who were to be called and fent of God. 

JUL 7. H*rp can any voice in matters of Religion , but 
only I'aftors, for ruling Elders are not Paftors. So Fields 
?£"■> C ° n€ ' *#*' ll is Jef-iite-likc to reafon thus with *Be!Ur- 

m'w, who &ith, it is a paftor 41 aft to define in Com- 


Chap.ip. Government di {cuffed. 291 

C£ l* ; and therefore none thould teach in Councell (faith £"**'• 
Panormitan in the Councell of r Bafi<'l\but "Prelates who are Eca„ d*c7ncil. 
the pi/Urs d?td k?yes of Heaven, So laid Eccim, But the. N *'*^**P'*» 
Councell of Bafill thought not fo,nor the Greeke Church, 
for whom Niliu fpeaketh. alleadging- others whom it. 
coacerneth, thould voice alio.. 

2. Matters of difcipline concemeth all, Ergo y Elders 
reprefenting the people (hould voice. 

3. Suppofe that the furtrage and voice of a Pallor, and 
of an Elder be voices different onely in diverfe relati- 
on to divers oiic^rs , to wit, the To/lor and the El- 
der ; yet in the muter of bearing weight in the con-^ 
fcienccfrom force or truth, and not from the authority 
of men, they arc cquall ; and therefore ruling Elders 
having knowledge aad light, and withall. authority of 
office may well have voices : But it folio weth not hence 
that th:fe. who have knowledge are formall Canon- 
makers, becaufe the Dxrees and conftitutions of Sy- 
nods lay two obligations upon the people: One for the 
matter, and fo in refpeil that ia tlie morall part there- 
of they mat be agreeable to the word , they bind the 
confeiencssto an obedience of confeience, ^.Theyim* 
pofe an Ecclefnftlciil tye from the authority of the 
Couacell and CaaDamikers > and fo they require fub- 
Jeitioa or obedience of reverence for the authority o£ 
ficiall that is in the Canon-makers : The fecond com- 
mand lay eth on the fir ft bond or tye, and the firft com- 
mand layeth on the other bond and tye. 

J^, 8. Philip and Steven, Veho ^9 ere Beacons , baptised 

And preached, Arts 2 1.8, Ails 7 1,2, 3,6c c. but your 

Deacons mAy nit preach nor baptize, that fo they may be 

prepared for the miwflery, according to that 1 Tim. 3. 13. 

Pbr th'y Vehi have ufed the office of a Deacon rv*ll y pvr- _. 
1 r J r m rt , 1 ,j fr • 1 Deacons cannct 

I'hre to tbsmfeives a good degree, and great eoldnejje in the baptize and 
faith. P rcacb - 

Anfo. What "Philip and Stephen did, in ftito\ in a a 
extraordinary fif>, nihil p nit in iure , it beic*ngcth no- 
thin^toLaWp but the oiic^ of itielfe, tiafirvitg of 

Xj] 3 Tables, 

? 9* £wftiom about Presbyteriatl Chap.ip. 

Tables , tfnd a taking of the buff den of caring for the 
poore of the Payors, that the To/tors may give them- 
fdves to the Word- and, prayer. Ads 6. 2,4. Now ft Dea- 
cons ex officio , turne Preachers, and give themfehes t? 
the word and prayer, then .by the Apcftles reafon, ASs 
6. 4. they cannot lerve Tables, but they muft have other 
Deacons to take the burden of the poorc off them, that 
they may give themfehes to the word, 
l.Arg. 2. Chrift ordameth, OWat.zS. 18. Apoftles and Pa- 

ftors their fucceflors to preach the word, and not Dea- 
2.ex4r£. 3* There (hall be mee officers in Gods houfe given 

• for the edifying of the Saints, then Payors and Dodors, 

even preaching Deacons ; yea all the offices in Gods 
houfe fhali be Preachers ; the Prelate to Formalifts is" 
apceceofa Preacher ; the Paftor and Doctor by their 
office muft preach (the ruling Elder is nothing to them), 
and the Deacon is a teacher, and fo ail are teachers, ex 
officio, why then do h Paul, 1 Cor. 1.2. difference be- 
twixt Govetnours, helps and teachers, feeing all arc 
a Art. 4* R° m > 12 " ^ c wno faeweth mercy, and he who di- 

*' ftributeth aire differenced by their fpecificke ads from the 

Paftor who exhorteth and preacheth. 
S»^ r £« 5* % ml rcquireth, t Tim^ t that the Paftor be aft to 

teach ; but he requireth no fuch thing of the Deacon, 
whofe qualification he defcribeth at length. 
6>Arg % 6. The well u(ing of the^ Deacons office is no more 

by, 1 Tim. 3. 13. a decree to the miniftery or paftorall 
calling, then, witch boldneffe in the faith is a degree there- 
unto, for he, who ex officio y doth preach and baptize, 
is not a degree to a Paftor, as he who difcourfcth is not 
in degree to be a man, cr in preparation a man onely ; 
but 4ie is formally a man, now to preach and baptize, 
are fpeciflcke ads of a Paftor, Mat.i%. 18. and fo the 
Deacon muft be formally a Paftor, as he is formally a 
a man who can and doth performe ads which proceed 
only from the fpecificke forme of a man, 


Chap, i p. Government difcufjed. 29$ 

—- ___________ ___—_——. — — — — — ^_-_________—__— ____________________ , ., 

7. It is a my fiery that a Deacon may preach and bap- j^rr. - 
tize, but be may not adrrimfter the Sacrament of the 

Lords Supper ; For 1. Philip an fivangeftft as well as a 
Deacon might have dene both. 2. J s the Sacrament of 
the Lords Supper holier then the Sacrament of Bap- 
tifme, that the Deacon may adminiiter the one Sacra- 
ment, and not the other ? But this is a Majfe-my fiery t 
there is no Tranfubftantiation in Baptifme, and there- 
fore a woman , ^a laicke (as they fpeake) may baptize; 
but he muft be a confecrated and orderly Prieft who hath 
power to make and create the naturall body of Chrift. 
So Qreg.de Valentia, S 'ttarez, V afquez., Bucanns teacheth v*km 
us. 3. I he word of God knoweth not any who have £*££' 
power to baptize, and have no power to adminiftcr the »»*_»«J 
Lords Supper. 

8. The Popish Libeller in the Murray faith, ^hen noW? %.Arg. 
contributions and collections ceafe y the Deacon may preach Sarva T>mp,iM 
and baptize.Then Deacons ordained, Rom.12. %. Alls 

6, 4,5. 1 Tim.3. are now out of the world, and they 
have given to us for a well made Deacon, an ill made 
and a fpilt Minifter ; but the caufc remaining the office 
fliould remaine, the Churches poverty remaincth : For 
the Prelate hath a lingular faculty of creating beggars in 
bisOfficiall-Courts. . * 

fy^ g. How u it that you have taken aftay widowes^ 
which was an office eftablifhed by the Apoftles I Rom. I 2- 
&. For feme fay they fiould-be gone, becaufe they were tem- 
porary* &nd the he Ate of the Safierne Countries which cau- 
fed ftckneffe, required them, but they are not needfnll new. 
So faith Car Wright. Others make them perpetually ^ Ten- 
ner, fome make them to be women, as Cartwright, fome p^f^^ 
men, as Travors , fome ntither men nor women onely y as Ttwur\deff, 
Bczn and Junius. SwJJifliL-hci 

Jnfw. The perpetuall ufc of that office we thinke p.u?,'is>. 
continueth, that is, that there be fome to (hew mercy >»-~ c ' Uc «4* 
on the poore, which are captives, exiled, ftrangers, di£ 
eaied , diftrafted , and that there be Hofpitals for that 
effed, and Chirurgians, Phyilcians, aged men and wo- 
men 5 

2 94 

Smrvay of difcipl, 



*>• 9h 

Vtretm Alal.%, 
Calv admonitions 
to the Patl.j.of 

gueftions about Prcsby tent ail Chap, i g 9 

men, but that widowes were officers in the Church, as 
Elders and Deacons are, vvc thinkc no 5 but that that 
iVrvice may be performed by men or women , as the 
Church (hall thinkc good. C^fwWg^ tbinketh no other 
then what I fay. Tenner thinketh well that the^ficke 
fhould alwayes be cared ior, neither by men only, nor 
by women onely , as Beza and ftmus thinke, bur by 
both as need requireth. 

®Keft 10. Presbyteriall government cannot conffi with 
a Monarchy, you ioyne With Papifij in oppugning the Prin- 
ces authority in caufes Scclefajficall. Cartwright,Viretus, 
Calvin teach that the authority of Kings commeth imme- 
diately from God the Creator, not from Cjod in the ^Medi- 
ator Christ. So the Survay. 

Anfw. It is the flanderous malice of Court- Syco- 
phants, to fay y a fiend to Chrift cannot be a fiend to C*.» 
far ; but we fet do wnc our mind here anent thus. 

i.C'encl, Presbyteriall government, and the regall po- 
wer of Monarchs doe well confift : Paul a fovourer of 
this government, 1 Thn.q. 14. commandcth that pray- 
ers be put up to God for Kings and all who are in autho- 
rity, and fb doe we teach. 

2,Conclufon, Our adverfaries here corrupt the mini 
cf Cartwright,Viretm, Calvin, and others, who fay that 
the authority of Kings come immediately from God as 
Creator, and not from God in Chrift as Mediator : For* 
trie kingly power is considered two wayes, 1. In ge- 
nerall, as kingly, and in the perfon of heathen Princes, 
who know nothing of God as a Redeemer in the Me- 
diator. And fo the kingly power in general! as given 
for the good of all humane focicties in generall, is from 
God the Creator for the good of all focieties whither 
heathen or Christian. So Nebuchadnezzar, Darius, Nero, 
and Julian were eflfentially Kings, and yet had not their 
kingly power immediately from the Mediator Chrift, 
except in this general! fenfe that the kingly power is 
alawfull ordinance of God warranted by the word of 
God, and Tcftamcnt of our Teftator Jefus Chrift, bc- 


Ch P* x 9 • Government dtfcufled. a p 5 

,aufe thcfe arc cfTentially Kings and lawfull Magiftratcs 
who cither never heard cf Chrift, nor any thing of 
God i but onely that he is Creator of the world , or 
then who perfecute and hate the name of Jefus Chrift. 
It may be that the fruits of perfecuting Princes/their go- 
vernment redound to the good and falvationof the Saints, 
and that by accident, as all things work? out for the good 
totbofe rvho love god. Now Formahfts denying fuchta 
be law full Kings , as either know not Chnft , or be- 
leeve not in him, joync hands with Papifts, and make 
way for Anabaptifticall Anarchy, that a perfecuting, or 
an unbeleeving King is no King, not to be obeyed, but 
to be turned out cf his hrone : And to this meaning, 
fahin, VirettU) and CarMrigbt teach that the king- 
ly power floweth immediately from God the Cre- 
ator, not from I od in the Mediator Chrift. But a.th« 
kingly power is confidered in a ipeciall manner, as it is 
in a Chriftian, whether profcfTing onely the Gofpell,or 
truly beleeving in Chrift, and fo in relation to thrifts 
Church and to ihe foule of a beleeving Prince, the 
kingly power floweth from God in and through the 
Mediator Jefus Chrift , as all common fav< urs which 
in general, flew from God the Cre tor, are f .ndrificd, 
at.ti blcifed to the bdeevers in the Mediator Chrift, as 
meat, dunke, deep, riches, kingly honour. And in this 
meaning, &«*ls kingly honour in rtfpecT: of Saul fiim- 
fdfe i* bur a common favour flowing from the Crearor ; 
howbeit to Gods Church, for whofe good he did fight 
the battels of the Lord, it was a fpeciall favour flow- 
ing from God in C hrift, as our Divines fay that creation 
(which in it felfe \s i common favour t© all) is a meane 
in the execution of the Decree of EU&ion to the chil- 
dren cf God. 

3. Conclufiott. Hence our Divines fay , that kingly ^Conduf. 
authority is the fame ordinance of God cfTentially con- 
fidered in the heathen Princes, as in Chriftian Kings, ftmifciij* 
as Cartwright and others fay. Neither doth it follow as f l 6i 'j . - 
©ur unlawful! Canons teach, That the Chriftian Kings «.2u *""* 

Rr now 

19$ guefltons about Presbperiall Chap.Q : 

now have that fame power in (faufes Ecclefiaflic all, which 
the godly Kings , nongfl thefe\\>es, as David and Salomon 
had : For 'David ana 1 Salomon were Prophets as well 
as Kings, and hud power to pen Canomcke Scripture, 
and ?o propheiie, which rower in Ecclefiafticke caufes 
no King now can have. Neither doth it follow which 
Whniift againft Whjtgtft faith, rh'at we give no more authority to the ChrU 
Ch*n. ftian Magiftrate in the Church of Chrifl then to the great 

Turkc. Our Divines fay, and that with good warrant, 
that the kingly power as kingly , is one and the fame 
in kind in heathen jRerin, and in Chriflian Conftantine, 
As a heathen man is as eflentially a father to his owne 
children, and a husband to his. owne wife, and a King to 
his owne fubjeds ; as a Chriftian man is a father, hus- 
band, arid king tohis owne children, wife, and fubjeds. 
Neither doth Chriftiamty fupcr'adde, and give of new 
any kingly power to a Kinj, becaufe he isnowbecome 
by Gods grace of a Heathen King,* Chriftian King, Chri- 
ftianity addeth indeed a new obligation to imploy his 
kingly power, which he had full and entire before, now 
in its exercife and ufe to more regall and "kingly ads, 
as to take care that the Gofpell be foundry preached, 
the Sacraments and difcipline of the Church kept pure, 
and heretickes puniffoed according to that, he to whom 
much is given, from him much Jhall be required : But the 
fame King, while he was a heathen King, had the fame 
kingly power and authority to perfbrnie thefe regall 
ads ; but being yet a heathen, he wanted. ^ w '*m'* fu}tr- 
naturahs, a fupernaturall or reall ancf phyficall power to 
perfbrmc thefe ads; now this power which he wanted 
before he heard of the Gofpell and beleeved in Chrift, 
was not a kingly authority, for then hefhould not have 
been a com pleat Heathen King before, which is againfl: 
Gods word, commanding obedience to heathen Kings,. 
Rom.i 3.1,2. i Tim.2. i,a. i Pet.i. 17. but this power 
that he wanted is a Chriftian power to exercife regall 
and kingly ads : Neither is this- an inconvenience, that 
power to exercife the ads of a calling in a Chriftian 


Cup. 19* Government difcujfed. 297 

manner, be Chriftian and fupernaturarl, and yet the au- 
thority king'y, and not formally Chriftian, but fiich as 
is , and may be m a heathen King ; therefore kingly 
power and Chriftian power are here carefully tobedi- 
ftinguifhed, and a Chriftian Kings power as n Chriftian, 
is more then the Turks power in. Church-matters. Hence 
our Adverfaries here dethrone and degrade the King* 
for they give the King a headship and dominion over 
the Church as he is a Chriftian man, and take that head- 
ship from him as a King ;becaufe if the Twrke by fword 
{hould conquer Uritaine, and become our King, by theit 
grcunds he mould be Head of the Church, no lefle theil 
our Chriftian Prince who now reigneth over us, and 
certaine it is a poore Headftiip that they give to the 
King, even fuch aHead-(hip as a Heathen King and the 
Turks t hath over fubdued Chriftian kingdomes ; and 
thus by their way Nero and Julian were heads of Chrifts 

2. if unbeleeving Kings ccafe to be Kings, then when 
they commit any fault that maketh them in Gods Court 
no members of the Church, they are to be dethroned, 
which is moft feditious doctrine, and Co Formalifts herein 
joy nc with Papifts. 

4, Conclufion. There be thefe diftinclions here con- 4.£W//«/I 
fiderablc : 

I ,. The Kings power ordinary and extraordinary. 

2 . Hid power as a King. 2. and as a fingu/arty graced 

3. Hid power hortatorieas aCkrislian,andcoaclive as 
a King. 

4. His poWer accumulative, not privative in Cburck- 

5. Hid poWer in acTibus imperatis, in alls comman- 
ding to amther, and hid power in acTibus elicitis, 
which he is to performs himfelfe. 

■ If a King were a Prophet as a David, he might dee 
many things in an extraordinary way in Church-matters, 
which he. cannot now ordinarily doc. 

Rr 2 .2. As 

? o % gutftiom about Presbytcriall Chap. n # 

a. As a Angularly graced Chriftian, he may write Ser- 
mons and Commentaries on holy Scripture for edifying 
the Church ; but this ftiould be done by him by no kingly 

3. As a Chriftian he may exhort others to doe their 
duty, but as King he may command that which Paul 
commanded Timothy and Titus, to commit the Cjojpell to> 
faithfull men why are able to teach others, to f reach in fea- 
f<m> and out of feafon , to lay hands fnddenly on no man, 
and rcformc Religion , purge the Church of idolatry, 

*chfn.i 9 . anc * *uperftition,as Jofhuah and Hezekiah did, all which 

• King,*;. # Church-men and Synods might doe alfo ; but Synods 

doe this in an Eccicfiaftickc way , upon the paine of 

Ecclefiafticke cenfures* The King doth it by a rcgall, 

kingly, and coa&ive power of the fword. 

4. the Kings power is accumulative, ingivingtothe 
Church, and ayding and helping > God hath given to 
the King the ten Commandements, andtbeGofp:ll, aj 
a pupillis given to a Tutor ; The King holds his fword 
above the Law of God, to ward off the ftroakes of wic- 
ked men who doe hurt the Law ; but the Kings power 
is not privative, to take any priviledge from the Law 
and-^the Church : fo his power is as a tutor to keep^ 
not as a father who may both give and take away from 
hisfon the inheritance ; his power is defend ve, not of> 

5;. He hath power in aBibns imperatis, ta command 
that all preach found Dofrrinc , decree juft Canons , cx- 
crcife difcipline aright, but in aElibns elicitis, in a&s per- 
formed by an intrinf-cail power in the agent, he hatfi no 
power 1 for the King as King cannot preach himfelfe,. 
nor baptize, &c. as the will may command the eye to 
fee, the feet to walke, but the willdoth not fee nor walk: 
Here two errours arc to be rebuked. 
w+npft,u*St t- I. Whit gift faith, the King is not the head of the Church 
•othe admoc*. aj it is a fociety of tie El a;id believer s> for fo the oovern- 
Isnmi^pti^i ment is fpirituall r but he is the head of the Churchy as it 
k A vlfible focktj in external government , comprehending 


fnap.ip. Government dt(cnfjcd. 299 

gooaand eviU. For 1 . The government vihble and cxter- 
nall is meerly ecclefiafticall, by Chrifts fpirituall lawes 
and cenfures, of rebuking, binding , loojing and excom- 
municating ; but the King is not an eccleliaflicall pcr- 
fon, audio not the head who bath any intrinfecall in- 
fluence as Xing in thefe ads. 

2. He is the head of the perfbns who make the Church, 
and fo is a politick head, but he is not the head of the 
Church vifible, asitisfuch. Thehead vihble and mem- 
bers are of one nature, the King as King is a politicke 
and civill head, the vtlible Church- is not a politick and 
civill, but an eccldiaftick body, fo C« mero erreth who f ^' Hlm ' 9m 
will have all Church-men fynodicdly conftituting and de- 
creeing Canons, anci in all ads of external! government 
fubordinatetotheKingasKing, as the instruments and 
fervants arc fubordinatetothe principall caufe and firft 
commander. 1 .Becaufe then the King fhould be the prin- 
cipall ecclcfiaftick matter, and prime Canon maker, the 
King the nrft excommunicater when the Church excom- 
municateth j but the members of a Church-Synod 
are immediately fubordinate to Chrift whofe fervants 
and inftruments they arc, and not the fervants of 
the King. Nathan as a man was "Davids fervant, but 
as a Prophet he was Gods fervant, and not Davids fer- 

Hence a thiref errour of court fycophantes muft be rejc- MagiArttefcatiiV 
&ed, that the King hath a negative voice in difci- jH^egawevcyce. 
plinc, and in- Church-AQ;mblies, which is inoft falfc. inSvDodfc 

1. Becaufe Chrift hath promifed to lead hit fchnrcb in 
all truth) to be With her to the ena\ to be in the midft of 
his owne affcm'ledinhu name, and this promifc Chrift ma- 
keth and keepeth under Heathen £/»£/, who have no voice 
at all in Church-Aflcmblics, 1 Cor.A\. j, cJ^^.18.23. 

2. If the ads of Church- AflTemblics have no ccclcfiafti* 
call power, without the confent of a Chriftun Tince,by 

-that fame reafon the ads of publick preaching, baptizing 
and adminiftring the Lords Supper ihouid lay no ce- 
lt r 3 deft 


300 £htejlions about Presbyteriall Chap. 13, 

clefiafticallbond upon mens conferences, except the King" 
fhould conflnt unto thefe aefs ; but the latter is againft 
the Word of God, ^r.1.10. Jer. 1. 18, 19. 2 (for, 10.4, 
5. and mod abfurd. Ergo, fo is the former. I prove the 
connexion, becauf; that fame power of Chrifl: which is 
given to the Church conveened for acls of difcipline is 
given for preaching, and the conferring of the feales 
of the covenant ; for the Church hath the keyes to 
bind and loofe from Chnfi: equally independent upon 
any mortall man in difcipline, as in doclrine, fo in dis- 
cipline the Kings power cannot be to impede ail acls 
of difcipline or to make them null, except he confent 
to them. 
3 . ayfr^ 3 • Becaufe thefe words are abfolutcly made good,with- 

out the interveening of any other authority, whatfoever 
ye binde on earth, Jhall be bound in Heaven, and Vvhatfo- 
ever ye loofe on earth, Jhall be loofed in Heaven, els Chrift 
would have fa id, what foever the King or civill Afagiftrate 
jhall Itinde on earthy fliallbe bound in Heaven, otherwije no* 
thing Gratified on earth or Heaven either, Which tlje (fhurch 
bindeth or loofetI\,, becaufe the King faith not Amen to 
4*drg. 4. If a contumacious brother fliall refufe to hears 

the Church , hee is not for that to bee excommu- 
nicated and to be reputed an Heathen and a ?ublican % 
becaufe the civill Magiftrate doth not repute him fuch 
an one. 
5 x tsfrg. 5 • Of that free grace, wherby God heareth the prayers 

of two or three agreeing to pray for one thing on earth, the 
Lord bindeth and loefeth in heaven that which his Church 
bindeth and loofeth on Earth, Mat. 18. 19. but the Lord 
heareth the prayers of two or three agreeing to pray 
for one thing on Earth, though the civill Magirtrate* doc 
not give his confent that thefe prayers be heard and gran- 
ted of God ; becaufe the Magiftrate is no intercef- 
four without whofe confent God heareth not pray- 
ers. The proportion is clearc komUWatthew 18. w. 

6. If 

^i)ap.i9. Government difcufjed. 50 1 

6. If the Magiftrate hnve fuch a jefynt power of £/«- 
#£;*£ *W ^ofing, and of forgiving and reteining fins with °- ^ r «>» 
the Church, then aifo with the Apoftles and their fuc- 
cefiburs; hue Chrift gave this power to his Apatite 
without any fuch condition, Matth, 28. r8 3 ip. f?h* 
io. 22,23. and they pracliud this power without con- 
tent of the Magistrate, and preached and excommuni- 
cated againft his will, iTtm.t'ja^ity. 1 Cor. 5.4. yea, 
as the Father lent Chrift, fo ftiouM thcFath &&£ 

the civill Magiftrate, for lb are they fent who have pow- 
er to forgive and retaine fmnes, John 20. 21, 22, 

a, 7. That power which upon juft reafons we deny to 7* Ar £° 
the Pope, that we cannot give to the King, but upon 
jtift reafons we deny to the Pope a negative voyce in 
Councels, to anull lawfull Councels conveened in the 
name of Chrift, except he who is the virtuall Church 
fay Amtn thereunto, neither is the King the virtuall 

8. IfawoebeduetoaPaftor, if he preach not, fup- %.Arg. 
pofe the Magiftrate fhould forbid him to preach,then alio ■ c« fJS\ 
is a woe due to the Church, which ufeth not thekeyes, Aa " 
though the Magiftrate forbid, then hath the Magiftrate 
no fuch voyce, and tf the Church of Tergamss be re- 
buked for not ufing the power of the keyes againft thefe 
who held the Dcftrine of 'Balaam and the Nicolakane^ 
even when the Magiftrate was a killer of the witnef- 
fcs of Jefus, then the Magiftrate hath no fuch negative 
Toyce, for it fhould not be poflible to cenfure the 
followers of fuch Doctrine, feeing, hee was againft 
both Doctrine and Difcipline, but the Lord reprjo- 
veth "Tergamos in this cafe, Revelation 2. ver. 13,14, 


9. There is no Word of God to prove that the Lord p # Ara. 
hath given the power of the keyes to the King as the 
King, and therfore we are not to believe that he hath 
any fuch £ower. Alfb if the fore-faid power of the 
keyes be gi<ven to tfee-Church without any fuch pow- 

— — — «• 

jc2 gncftions about Prtsby tent all Chap. 1 V 

cr of the King, the Church by all the former argu- 
ments may convcene to exercifc that power, in prea- 
ching, binding, looftng, excommunicating, fuppofe theci- 
vill Magiftrate Ihould discharge and inhibit thefe mee- 
tings, for if the power of the keyes be given imme- 
diately by Chrift to the Church, then the power of 
meeting for the exercife of that power muft alfo be 
given, though the Magiftrate fay not Amen, asiscleare, 
c3/i*M 8.1 8,19,20,21. 1 ^r.5.4.5. \ Cor t \ 1.19,20. 
where the Church had her owne Synods without the 
confent of a civili Magiftrate, but we are to repute it 
a fpeciall favour of God, when the King as a nurfing- Fa- 
ther will countenance Synods with his royall prcfence, 
God blcfle our King. 
K.ronclHf. $• Conclujion, The Kings royall power in adding 

his fan<ftion to the ecclefiaiticall confutations, and in 
punifhing fuch as arc decreed to be hereticks by the 
Church is regall, and not minifteriall and fervilc. See 
for this the Cou^c. Chdced. A:>. 16. the Impenall 
lawes, CodJ.\. tit. $, /eg. 2. Heretic. Vocal?* & aecret, p. 
2 .cauf. 2 $. q.% c.±o. CToiYmgBeIlar.de pent Lx.c.f So do 
their owne men goe againft BclLrmtne in this, as San- 
der -us de clavib. e DavidJ.2.c.l^. Carerimde pot eft, fun** 
font J i.e. 2 1 Leo epift.$%.to Martian and Pn/cheria^nd 
Leo epiftrj. to Tkeodofius. Bccanus erreth here with 
'BelUrmint, making the King as a fcrvant obliged to addc 
his fanclion civili to ecclefiatticall Canons. Becan. tno- 
pftfe. exam, cone. ^Anglic c.j. 

i. Becaufe the ule of the fword at Gods comman- 
dement is a kingly act commanded by God, andisfer- 
vice done to God, not to the Church. 
+ 2 . Neither is the Kmg fo ro execute the Churches will, 
as he fhould judge only of the fact, and or theaffump- 
tion, yea he is to judge of the law, and of the majc 
proportion. For we fee not in the Word of God, where 
a Judge is a Judge to punifti a fault, and is not to 
know judicially that it is a fault : a Judge as a Judge 
fliould know iuch a thing to be berejie, and not takf 
■ " it 

Chap, i p. Government difcuffed. 3 >$ 

it upon the word of an Affembly of Church-men, Deu. 
17. 18 1 p. he is exprefly to readc and know the lav/, 
and to know and remember the Decree, Prov.^t. 5. 
m-^rtd the caufe Which he knoweth not he u to feaich out y 
Job 29.1 6. all which is meant of a knowledge not of 
private difcretion, wh?ch is required in all private Cbri- 
fti?ns, but ("s I take thefe nLces) of a knowledge ju- 
dicial] and authoritative which agreeth to a Judge as a 

3. If a Synod erre, and decree that man to bean he- 
retick who is found in the faith, the King is nor ob- 
liged to erre with the Synod, and ro punifh the in- 
nocent, he is to decree righteous judgeme* t, and fo 
the King is to j'-'dge of hereiie, but after a regall and 
ciuil way, and with a coa&ive power, as the SyiK d 
or Church- A flembly is to judge of hereiie after an ec- 
clefiaftick way, and with a fpirituall rower. 2. The 
King punilheth hesefie as it troubleth the Common- 
wealth, and the Synod- as it is icandalous and infecti- 
ous in the Church. 

Yea and the (fhrlflis.n King ruleth over men as rnerr, 
and alfo as ChriftUn-men; he rule h over them as men, 
with a dominion over their bodies, lives apt. 1 , goods by 
his civill lawes, he hath alfo dominion as fcmg over 
men, as Chriftians and members or Chrifts kingdoms 
and Church, not over their conferences (for rhat is 
proper only to the father of ff>ir'us) but he hath a 10- 
active power over all men, even Paftors, as to canfc 
them do their Chriftian duties, he hath power ro com- 
pell Church-men in AfTcmblies to determine tenth, 
to uie the keyes right, and to preach and ufe the Sa- 
craments according as Chrift h th commanded in his 
Word, and to punifh them when they do other wife. 
What then if the King difcerne that to be truth, and 
abiclve the man, whom the Church- A fcntbly doth 
condemne as an heretick, who fhall judge betwixt 
them ? 

I anfwer, the infallible rule of judging for both is 

Sf the 

' — ■ " l » ■ ■■ ■ i ■■ i i i ...i .. i i . k 'i ' ■ "'" i i .. i ■ 

3 °4 gutftions about Presbperidl Chap. i^ 

the Word of God, which fpeaketh home unpartially 
to both, if they will heare, but certainly the Kings 
civill, kingly coi&ive power to compell men to doc 
their duty rcauiacth the higheft and moft foot earn pow- 
er on Earth y in gener; potssiatU pifitica, in the kind of poli- 
tick power,and pair ors and all men may,by this power, be 
compelled to do right,as for the abuk of the power, it is na 
part of the power,, and in this kind the King hath a nega- 
tive politick and kingly fufF age and voyce in all Church 
Affemblies, no ecclefiafticall eonftitution hath the force 
oi' a law without the politick iiiavage of the c&vlil J adge. 
And againe the ecclefiaftick power that Chart hath 
given to his Church remaineth : alfoth: moft fjpreme 
power under Chrift in genere potettatu ecclejiafiica y and 
the King is.f'jbjcft to this power. The King is not 
excepted in this, He that defpife'h jot* defbiCethme, and 
Ifji this, W' hat fo ever ye Jhall binds on turih (hall be bound 
in Heaven, and in this, Vchofe finnesye remit, the j were* 
nzltted, and ^hofe finnes ye ret dine they are retainedy and 
this eccle(i itt i call power being the higheft on Earth, 
Paftoss may command Kings- m the Lord, fer. i. io, 
i8, 7. to doe. their duty by an cccleiiaftick power. 
nsfrminians and Formzlifts both aske which of thetvvo 
powers are higheft, and nearest unto the head thrift, 
whither the kingly power, or the cccleiiaftick power, 
for two paralell higheft powers on earth canao;: be.. 

I anfwer, by asking which of the two. fhoulders, in a 
mans body are higheft, and neareft to the mans head? 
Certainly one of them in a well proportioned body is 
not higher then a nother,.and both are alike.neare the head, 
as none oft wo pob-ftarrs are nearer to their Zenith zn± 
Nadir, none of two wheels in aright Chariot are highr 
Dtve»s*tM hd.' er then another. The Church power (faith the Prelate 
cvntTrvtr.cfx.p.Ti Davenan?) is hi 'hi} in teaching and direttint, the kinoh 

BsrcbtutdipMeft. . ' * ,/ , V ^ ,'V & L 

r.i^iio pouter m comwtdivr and. compelling BarcUt compareth 

iatth.Mtifnerm taS:;n t0 trPD fi wider s under on: head. l_M:ifner fiitk 

Sen.t.c.*, one of then u not above another. There u no abjurd$ty 

^»toSp*'**td< f(mh Spdato) that in two bodies formally different there 

Chap. 19* Govmwentdi 3°> 

~f!.wld be two heads, yea it istteceffary. The Roman Glojfe ^r^cBaam 

) have deleted tkzt out of the Utojje, Berettgarim lit 
at <7>apa, McoUlusxVzl agree to gj2J*** 
tficfc words, Sciendum c.uod nee Catholic*. fidei y nee Chri- GeUfi*. 
lliarut contrarium efi IcA, ft ad henorem regni, & facer- ^f^l^rnin. 
tlorii, Rex poxtifici i & pontijex ebediat regi. ^uhiepfc Sp*i*. 

^palate icemcth agamft Bellarmine, to make up,the ^^jf**** 
lofljs made by Paprits in Kings honour, while he hol- 
dcth, that the Kin* his perfon , and as he it a Chriftian 
man isfibjecl to C hurch- power , but as King he is fiib- 
jcEl to none, hit to CLrift , from \Xhom immediately he 
hith his kingly dignity, even as ("faith he) fthen An Em- 
perours fervant, being a Thyfitian, the Emperour as Em- 
perour u not fibjecl to the Phyftian, but only the Empe- 
r our as he isaVfoundedmanisfobjetl to the art of his owr.c 
fcrvant Who cureth him, *nd that of the Emperours free- 
if ill, not by coaclion, fo the Ima^e-maker or he who m*r 
keth pGttrtracls, in his art is net fi>b;eci to the King, nei- 
ther is the King as King, M after of the art of paintings 
or pourtratt-making, the art onelj it fiil\ecl to the precepts 
and principles of art, but the per [on of the painter is feb- 
jeft to the -kingly power ; for the Kin g , as Belter min faith, Brtanhcmr* 
may forbid the linage-maker to draw obfeene and filthy /- Sari ^ c ^ 
mages, or to wafte too much goid or fiver upon his Ima- 

fs, or to fell his Images attoodeare a price. Hence, fatth 
, the kindly dignity is not fibjecl to the ecdeftafticall 
power, or to any other power on earth, 4mt only to fefit 

I aniwef, the Trelate doth well difference in the art 
oFpaintry thcic two. i. That whichis artificial! and 
is* only ruled by art, that the King cannot command, 
another thing which is morall, as that he fell nor his 
Images too dea re, a nd hurt not the common wealth by 
fpending vainly too much gold and (iiver on his Ima- 
ges, and in this the King may make lawes to limit 
the Painters morall carriage, but then he and hit fei-. 

S f 2 l0WS 

3o5 £*e (lions about Presbyteriall Chap.jp. 

9 lowes honour not the King, who call him incite over 
all perform, and of all cattfes, or in all caufes : and that 
without any diihn&ion ; for when two Shoomakcrs 
contend about a point of tanning leather, the King is 
not Judge in that caufe, becaufe it is a point of art 
which belongeth to the art, not the King. Alfo the right 
tranflatian of the Bible out of the Hebrew and the CJreeb* 
in the vulgar language is a caufe rneerly ecclefiafticall, be- 
longing to the Church A(frmbly,'it were hard to make the 
King being ignorant of thefe mother languages,the Judge 
of that verfion, as he is made by them Judge in all caufes 
ccckfiafticall, howbeit, de jure, he is a politick Judge, 
even in this judging by a coa&ive and kingly power,how- 
bcit, de fafto, and through ignorance he cannot excrcife 
the kingly power that God hath given him in this 

a. By this eomparifon, the Trelate putteth upon the 
King but a courfe peece of country honour. O (faith he) 
as King, I make him above ail, and fobjeEi to no -power 
in Heaven or Earth, but immediately to God ; forfboth 
fo make you the Painter, the Shoomaker, the Fafhioncr 
fubjeel: to no power in Heaven and Earth, no not to the 
King, but only immediately to God,, only their perfons 
arc fubjeft to the King, and fb is the perfon of the King a* 
a Chriflian man, not 04 a King, fubjec> to Paftors,who 
may exhort him and rebuke him when he judgcth un- 

But 5. faith the Prelate, The bounded Emperonr is fob- 
jeEi to hit fervant the Thffitian V?ho cutetb him, not as 
Emperottr, If at as a bounded man , and that of his owne 
free- will and not by coaftion. What meaneth this ( not. 
by coattion) but that a King, neither as King, neither as a 
Chriftian man is fubjeft to Church-difcipline, to the ad- 
monition of Pallors, by any ecclefiafticall coa&ion, oi 
any law of God, but of the Kin^s owne free-will ? Con- 
fider how Court-paralites doc difhonour the Lord, for iT 
iVd.'/h* byGods commandement was obliged to rebuke 
&*vid for his adultery andiruHther, and the man of God 


Chap. 1 9 . Government difcuffed. 3 07 


obliged to cry againft Jeroboam Akar, and the Seer ob- 
liged to reprove King Afa 9 and JcrewAah commanded 
to fpeake againft rhe Kings and Princes of the land, 
and if the Kings of I frail and Jadah were plagued of 
God, becaufe they would not heare and fubmit to 
the Prophets fpeakingto them in the name of the Lord, 
then the King as a Chriftian man is fubjed to the Eccle- 
fiafticall power, not of hii ox*ne fi-ee-m/1 , as this flatte- 
rer faith, but by fuch Eccldiaiticall coadion as God 
layeth upon all men, whofe fpirits are fubjed toChrifts 
kingly power. 

4. This comparifon halteth fowlely. In the art of pain- 
try, ye may ablrrad that which is morall from that 
which is artificial! ; but m a King as a King, there is 
nothing artificiall, or which is to be abftraded from ju- 
ftice and piety ; for all the ads of kingly authority as 
kingly, are morall ads of juftice, and of piety in prc- 
ferving both the Tables of the Law (if a King command 
a ftratagem of war, that which is meerly artificiall is 
not from the King as King, but from a principle of mi- 
litary art in him, as an expert fouidier) if then the King 
as King be a morall agent and a preferver of both Tables, 
then as King he is fubjed to the Ecclefiafticall power. 

5. Spalato faileth farre in making the end of kingly *K*.n»* 
government a naturall end, not life erarnall, as the end 
of fayling is the defircd harbour, and not the kingdome 
of Heaven, which is life eternall ; nay, but ifwefp?ake 
cither of the end of the worke, or the end cf the wor- 
ker , the end of kmgly power is a morall end ; for 
the end of the worke called finu operh, is by Paul frid 
to be , that we may lead a quiet and a peaceable life in aU 
gpdlineffe and bonefty, and this is de lure , alfo fins ope- 
rants, the end which the King is to intend, and fjthc 
dignity, office, ads and end of *he King as the King 
is fibord mated to Chrifts kingly power in Church- 
difcipline, and yet Vie is the moft fupreme polificke po- 
wer on earth, and ineo gencre > folo Deo mw§r, and above 
the Tailors in that kind. 

Sf 3 But 

-o3 Government of the Church of Chop.* o» 

tumtnx '. & tem- £ tlt doe we joyne with PapifEs in this ? 
%]tl ( ZVZ? I. Papiftj fay Kings hold their Orownesof the Pope 
(Kcx)c/^^»i.». tne Church umverlali virtually : We thmke Nero had 
^vT^infl.mor BOthis kingdoms from T^wr, nor Domitianan&Traian 
p.ij4»c -° ^ their kingdotne from Clement and AnachtHs, nor /&. 
</*** , S5 f£?~ drw* from Enarislu< and Alexander, 
*rt*'K&~ f 9tviU a - Imoccntitts 3 '. rorbad obedience to Emperours: 
S °onar u.c^.' 1 ' B° m fi chii 8: - &* nat red of King T^i/fy of France for- 
**wkge«**M. bad to pay tribute to the Emperors .> the Devill might 

-Bikar.conu* Bar- y^ tQ j ay ^ ^^ ^ 

f s ^^cofthi« 3. Was there cveramongft us the like of their 8 ge- 

U^itoSft. nera ^ Councell ? A Prelate ihall not li htoffhis hcrfe, 

and3 f i«dc 3 iu- nor bow to a King, nor ihall a King feeke that of a Ei- 

inisgcmium,]t. ft p under the paine of two yeares excomrnunica- 

5<i^rdcvifib. 4. d.j an y or us thinke or write what Bellarmlne 

jf wat ^ e 4 l hath fpoken pgainft the Lords anointed ? if 'Tribes can- 

<JcE'ift>Vrb.i.s. #0* ^ moved by Church-cenfures ; *W f//&J! neceffuy of 

in vita ?*»»/*<■**• ^ cWeV? require, the ( P ope ) jhalL fee their fubietts from 

ii.anno.uo^.n.14. obeying them, lphsq; principatus aorogabit, and JhaU full 

ail Trumpets cf t y ir <j> r ' mce d ome from them. I fay no more of this. 

Trcafon that the J J 

Pope-fT-ay de- 
throne Kings. 

Chap. XX. 

Q^20. Whether or no the government of the Church of 
Scotland can be f roved by Gods Word to be lawfull t 

i. Aktic Lfi. 
Of the D Urine and worjhip of the Church of Scotland. # 

WE acknowledge the Scriptures of God contained 
in the Old and New Teftament to containethe 
whole doctrine of faith and good manners, our Love- 
nan* rejeiteth all traditions contrary, without and be- 
fidc the word of Godj and fo it reje&cth all religious 
b* obfer- 

Chap.2°. ScoUnd proved by Scripture. 309 

obfcrvances, ail humane Ceremonies, all religious fym- 
bolieall iignes, all new meanes of worshipping God, 
all Images, pofitivc Rites which have any influence in 
Gods wonhip as will-worfhip, and impious add \i ions 
to Gods word, Jer 7. 7. 2 Sam.j . 7. Detst.i 232. Dent* 
4.2. Lev 10 2. Bnb.\.\$ Heb.j r4 1 Chron. 1 5.1 3. 
lKing % \i.$i. Ma:.\<$. 14. Rev 22. 1 3. whereas they * 
want warrant from Gois w >rd. All anions of divine 
won hip, ali religious meanes of wor ; "hip, all actions of 
morall converfation muft be warranted by 'ff*4&*t }*• 
y&^Av) according as it is written, for the which caufeour 
Church condemneth kneeling m the aft of receiving 
the Lords Supper, all Holy-dayes dedicated to God or 
Saints, except the Lords-day, confirmation, bed-com- 
m.Kiion,furplice, corner-cap,&c. becaufe they are^dte of 
worfhip and religious mfcanes of worfhip, not accor- 
ding to the word, as is clearly fhewne to the Reader 
> by the following Categoricke Tables, where alt right 
wor<"hip, morall afls of difciplinc and converfation that 
3?e lawful! will bide the tryaii of this (according ask ii 
written) even to the laft fpecincke and individual! hu- 
m me ail, and where the lad individuall aft* is proved; 
all the reft in that fame Categorie is proved : As when 
I prove "Peter to be a rmn, I prove him tobsafenlitive 
creature, a living creature, a bodily fubftancc,&c. which 
no man feeth in the Categorie of humane Ceremonies 
and unlawfull offices. Hence our firft Categoric. 

1. The worfhip of God, ^ 

2. Sacramentall worfhip. J 

3. Partaking of the fupper of the Lord (as it is written^ 

4. Partaking of the Lords Supper in f Mat. 26. 26. 
this time and placcby Peter Jamcs\ 

Ann 4. Jr 

So in the officers of the New Teftament. 
r. Aja.vfull Minuter of the New! 
Teilament, Task is written, 

2. A lawful! Paftor, tCof.wj.PhH.i.tf 

3. Archipfus EfAfkroditftSy j 


3 j o Government of the Church of Chap. 2 o 

So 1. an act of difciplinc, 

2. An a& of Church- cenfurc, 

3. An aft of the Eidermip of C*-V s lt ^written. 
r/W/? excommunicating the ince-\ * ""' * •^ 

j ftuous man. J 

The like may be faid of an act of charity to the poore, 
I Cor. 16. 1. 

But tome to the Categorie of Formalifts , and you 
flrall fee a great defed, and this (as it is written) (hall be 
wanting foure times,as the diagram following doth mow 

1. Order and decency, as it is written, 1 Cor, 14. 

2 Orderly Ceremonies of humane initi-' 

3 . Sacred fy mbolicall fignes of Religions 
inltitudon devifed by men 

4. Surplice,croflin^, ; not written. 

5. A Surplice upon William, Thomas, the 

crofling of this Infant John, made by j 
this Paftor Thomas, this day and place^ 
So the reafon is cleare why we will have nothing unde- 
termined by Scripture in either adts of the rlrfr, or of the 
fecond Table, except meere circumftances of pcrfons, 
time, and place , which adde no new morality to rhe 
aftions, is becaufc we hold the word of Cod to be per- 
fect in do&rine of faith, and manners, and all points of 
difcipline , which the Patrons of Ceremonies, and hu- 
mane Prelates are forced with Papifts to deny. 

7. Artic le. 

Officers of the Church. 

THc ordinary officers of our Churh are Pafters , to 
Whom helongeth the word of exhortation, I Tim. 3. I, 
2,3. 2 fiin.i . 7,8 D otters, who in fchooles expound the 
Word of God, aid convince gainfajers , Rom.12. 7,8. 
Eph.4.11, i Cor a 2, 28. G over noun, or governing El- 
w^L dcrs 

Chap. 2 o. Scotland proved by Scripture. 3 1 1 

ders Vrko rule well, Rom.i3.8. 1 Cor.I2. 28. I Tim.5. 
17. A&$ 15.23. and beacons who care for the poorc, 
Ads6. 2,3,4. * Tim.5. 8 9 io,U ; i2. As for the Prelate 
who is pretended to be the Paftor of Pallors, and an Eo 
cleliafticall creature, having majority of power, both 
©f order and jurisdi<ftion above the Paftor and Doctor, 
the Church or Scotland did ever repute fuch an one the 
fifth element, and the (ixt finger in the hand , as ha- 
ving no warrant in the word, and therefore unlawfull, 
£xod.2^.p. Hebt.f.l Chron.iS. 19. 11,12,13,1 King. 
6. 38. as alfo cxprefly condemned, Luke 22. 24,25,26. 
I /^f.5.3.4. (JHat.i2.lS. 1^.5.4,5,6. Ads 1. 23. 
Adts 15.24- 

In the firft conftitution and infancy of ©ur Church 
there were fome victors, and fuperintendents for plan- 
ting of Churches, becaufe breafts and haire of our Chur- 
ches 'were not grownc, after the example of the Apo- 
ftles, who fent fuch to plant, and vifit Churches , and 
appoint Llders in Congregations, esftts 8. 14, 15,16. 
jfttJlz. 14.15,16. ^^14.23. Tit.i. 5A7j8,9 AUs 
si. 17,18. but after the Church was planted there was 
no need of fuch. 

Titular DoHors who were Taftors onely, and taught 
not in the Schooles, but were onely previous dif^iti- 
©ns to Epifcepacy , as blew colour prcpareth a cloth for 
purple , ©ur Church never allowed, upon the grounds 
allowing lawfull Doctors, as the Scripture doth, Rom.i 2. 
7,8. 1 CV.12.28. Spk4.11. 

3. Article. 

Calling of Officers t and effecioRj Paflors. 

IVnius rnaketh according to Gods word three parts of 
the Paflors calling- 

I. Election, fome call it Nomination. 
a. Prefcntation, or cflfering of the man. 
3, Confirmation, When a place vackcth in the mini- 
Tt ftcry, 

3 u Government of the Churchof Chap.ao^ 

ftery, with us a PaLtormaketha Sermon of the neceflity 
of a Paftor, (hewing what a perfon the Paftor (hould be, 
after the example of Teter, k>5si.2X The looking out 
of a man is fometimes given to the multitude of belee- 
vers, with us, according to that, Acfts 6". 3. The A pottles 
lay, Wherefore ', brethren, look? ye out f even men. But or- 
dinarily this beginrieth at the Presbytery, or Colleugc 
of Pallors, from whence things take their beginnings 
Alls l. 15. And in thofe dayes (when the Church wan- 
ted an Apoftle), Peter flood up,- and [aid, A els 6 % 2. then 
the twe he called the multitude. When th:y wanted -Dm* 
ttef, Acls 21. 1$. the matter is brought firft to the El- 
derfhip, Aften.30 the Difciples charity isfenttoths 
Elder-Chip. Paul fent Timothy, Titus, Sylvanus, whom 
after the multkude did approve, Acls 14, 2 2 ,2 CV.8. 1 6* 
and fo doe we. 

2. The pcrfon is tryed, 1 . by Timothy and Titus, and 
fo by the Presbytery. 1. his ability, that he be able to 
teach others, 2 Tim. 2. 3. that he be apt to teach, 1 Tim* 
5,2. Tit. 1 .9, elfe the Timothies of the Church lay 
hands fuddenly on him , contrary to 1 Tim. 5. 2 2. So thq 
Presbytery tryeth according to thefe Canons with us, 
his skill in the Tongues , Latine, Hebrew, and Cfreeke ; 
his ability of preaching, popular Sermons , and inter- 
preting Scripture, in controverfies > in Chronology, and 
the biftory of the Church, and he mud be proved and 
tryed by the p:oj>le, by preaching fundry Sermons to 
them, I Tim. 3. IO. And let thefe first be proved, and let 
them ufe the office, what ever officers they {"hall be, Pa- 
ftors, Doclorsy Slders or Deacons, Alfo his grace and god- 
lineffe is tryed by both people and Presbytery, ! Tim. 
3.2,3. hi& ability to governe, ^.4,5 . Alls 6. 3 . Titus 1 . 
7,8,9. his fidelity, iTim.i.t. and he muft bring a Te- 
ftirnoniail or Chrittian Letters of recommendation, from 
thofe amongft whom he lived as 1 Tim.?. 7. 

3. When all this is done he is not yet a Paftor. Then 
a.day is appointed, wherein an EdicT: is read and affixed 
on the Church-doprc, ani another day fet for his or- 

Chap. 20. Scotland p&vzdby Serif we. 313 

dination, at which day the Edid is called, all who have 
any thing to objed againft his life and dodrine are thrifc 
publikely at the Church-dore invited to come and object 
.And this we thinke is hrmfaftfratftZ And 1 Tim. 3. 
10. fcxjjJcL&v tfW P «, Ads 6. 3. to finde out, and to try 
the man. The day of ordination is a day of fading and 
praying for Gods bleiTing to the miniftery, as AcTs 13. 
2 3 . And they trddned them Elders in every Chstrch, and 
frayed with f aft in*, Ads 13. 3. and when they had, failed 
And prayed, they laid their hands on them. The Presbytery 
and people meeting, fome Paflor , as A8si. iy. prea- 
cheth for the purpoie in hand, as Peter doth there, v.i 7. 
1 8, 1 P. After Sermon the Paftor calleth him up before 
the Congregation, and demandeth if he be willing to 
accept the charge , and he muft teftific his confent as 
Ifaiah, Ifa.tf. 8."jcr.6. v.7,8. Ads^. 20. Then the Pa- 
fior asketh the peoples confent, which they teftifie by 
their yjQ°b'* , *9 the lifting up of their hands, as Ads 1 4. 
23. and the man muft fleafe the whole multitude, as Ads 
6. v.j. Ads 1. 26. This being done, the Paftor com- 
xneth downe x)ut of the Pulpit , and he with the Pres- 
bytery layeth their hands on his head, and prajeth that God 
Would bkfle him , as the Apoftles did, Ads 6.6. The 
yffeftles prayed and laid their hands on them, Ads I 3.3. 
They prayed and laid their hands on them , 1 Tim, 4. 1 4. 
I Tim. 5 22. all being done,thc Elderibip of the Congre- 
gation give him the right hxnd of felloV?Jbip, as Gal. 2. 9. 
Theadion is clofed with thanksgiving, as all grave adi- 
ons fhould be, 1 Thefy .18. 

And this order in fubftancc is kept in ordaining Do> 
iftors, Elders, and Deacons. Here are no popifri toyes, 
which Papifts ufe in ordination, no man is obtruded upon 
the flocke againft their confent, and no man appoioted a 
Paftor but of a ccrtaine flocke, as Attszo. 28, 1 Tet % 

T t a Article 

5 1 4 Government $f the church of Chap.2 o, 

4. Article 
Pallors dutj. 

THePaftorteachethy^W^tfr/w, 1 Tim. 3.1 • oft err 
thrife in the weeke, which is in feafon ani out of 
feafon, 1 Tim.4. 2. The people arc called to the Church* 
meeting by the ringing of a Bell, to give warning of the 
time of the publike worship, as ffrael was convocated 
by found of Trumpet at gods Commandement ', Num. to. 2. 
Joel 2. 1 . The Paftor full prefaccth a little before the pub- 
like worfhip, to waken up the peoples attention : As 
the Lord doth, Exod.20.2. the Prophets,Ha.i . v.2o.and 
Peter 9 Ads 2.14. 

2. He beginneth the worQiip with prayer, and prai- 
fing,and clofeth therewith, as the Apoftles, A<fte2o.iS > 
io,36.Mat.26. 30. As the Church of Corinth added to 
prophecying, praying, and finging of Pfalmes, 1 Cor. 
14. (4,15,16,17. and this morall worfhip was ordinary 
to the J ewes : The order is naturall, "Paul beginneth 
his EpilUcs with prayers, and clofeth with praifes. The 
I>aftor readeth a Text as Chriftdid, Luke 4. 6, 7, 8,^. and 
oxpoundeth M% \fes> the Prophets, and the reft of the Scrip- 
tures, as Chrift doth, Luke 24. 27. and confirmeth and 
proveth ((rv^CiCd^i )the points which he propoundeth,as 
Paul doth, Acls 9. 2 2. and Peter, Ads 1 0.4 3. And laftly 
be applycth the doctrine to the preient ufe and confei- 
enccsof the people, as did the 'Prophets, I fa. 1. 11,12. 
Ifa.5. 7,?,o. Jcr.22. 15,16,17. and the Apoftles, K&s a*. 
1 1 .Acts 2. 36,37. AcTs 5. 30,31. 1 Cor.i. 10,1-1.2 Tim. 
2.15. The Doctors way is doclrinall , to informe the 
mind* and defend th« truth againft gainfayers, Kom.i*. 
7. We acknowledge no reading Paftors, but oncly Pa- 
llors gifted, who are able to cut the word aright, 2Tim.2. 
If. apt to teach, 1 Tim. 3.2. able to teach others, 2 Tim. 2. 
2, fent of god to preach, Rom. 10 1 7. to whom this grace 
h given to preach the mjearchakle riches of Chrift, Eph.3.?. 


Chap.20. Scotland proved by Scrifture. 315 

Wehaveno Paftors who may adminift cr the Sacra merits, 
but may not and cannot preach the word, contrary to 
Chrifts ordinance, Mat. 28. 18,19. 1 CV.i. 14, 15, 16", 


The Paftors part befide pubiike preaching and pray- 
ing in our Church, is alfb to chatechizethe flocke,^. 
6. 5. Bebj. 12,13. Heb.6. i,2,3> 1 Or.?. i,a,3.to yifit 
the flocke, Cant.y. 11,12. if ***/>. 3 4. 4. Rom.1.13. Atts 
14.22,23,27. Aftszo. 17,18. and efpccially toexhort 
and pray over the ficke, 7""M' x 4- anc * t0 ft rcn § tncn 
the exercifed in confeience, ^ 3 3. ^3,24.and that in 
every houfe^s Ads 1 o. 3 4. Ads 5 A 1 - 

5. Article. 


THe Miniftcr or Pallor only may baptize, as he only 
may preach the word^as Mat a 8. 19.^06.4 2.1 C«r. 
X . J 4 3 i 5 > l *• Our baptizing is con joy ncd with the word 
preached going before, as the Charter hath the Scale 
added to it , and as the Apoftohkc Church pradifed, 
^&m 0.44,45 ,46,47,48. >4#j 8.3^:6,37,38,39. A&i 
J P.4)5>^. And the prayers or Paftor aqd people going 
before for a bleffing to the ordinance, as the juft Ana- 
logy, which it hath with the other Sacrament of the 
Lords Supper rcquireth , which hath prayer going be- 
fore, Mat.26. 26. and becaulc the very nature of fo blef- 
fed a Sacrament rcquireth prayer. No other Element is 
ufed, but nature, as A8s 8. 39. Iob.3. 23. Mat.$. 16- 
No Ccremonie, but Chrifts ownc adion of extcrnall wa- 
ging or fprinckling, as baptizing with water fignifieth, 
Heb.9.\o. hhns. 23. ABs%. 39. is ufed; and that in 
our cold countrey, feeing it doth aptly exprciTe ffrink? 
ling with Chrifts bloud, 1 Pet. 1. 2. It is ufed to be ap- 
ply ed with the words of the inftitution, in the nam* of 
the F At her, the Sonne, and of the Holy ~G ho ft, as Mat. 2 8. 
19* The place of baptizing is in the publikc meeting 

Tt 3 of 

31 6 Government of the Church of Chop.* o» 

of the Church, which rcceivcth the childe in her fel" 
lowfhip, as Rom. 6. 3 ,4,5. 1 Pet 4. 20,21. Theprefentcr 
of the childe is the father, or feme friend if he be dead 
cr abfent , becnufe the childe is received in the Cove- 
nant becaufe the fathers are within the Covenant^ and 
fo fealed with the fame feale of the Covenant, ASlsi. 
37,38 Rom.11. 14. Gen.ij. 7,8,9,10. and the action 
is clofed with thanksgiving, as all grave, but efpecially 
actions of Gods worfhip fliould be ended, 1 Chron.16, 
7,8,9, and as the other Sacrament is clofed, Mat. 26, 

6. Articii. 

The Lords Suffer. 

THefeoncly are admitted to the Lords Suffer, who 
in the judgement of charity have try ed and exami- 
ned themfelvess 1 Cor.11. 28. The prophaneand fcanda- 
lous are debarred from this Table, asMat.yti. "Tfal.so. 
•p.16,17. This Sacrament requiring a felf-examination 
going before, 1 Cor.i 1.28. Therefore a Sermcnof pre- 
paration is preached the day before, even as Chrift pre- 
pared and dieted his guefts with heavenly Sermons pre- 
ceding the acTion, as is cleare, Luke 22. 14,1 5. Marke 
14. 18,19,20, i^mo\ 21,22,23. lohn 13.^.13,14,1 5, 
16. A Table is covered, not an Altar erecTed,as is Lu\e 
a 2. 21. Iohn 13.28. A Sermon for the purpofe in hand 
is preached before , as Chrift doth, ^.13. 18,19 20. 
■M*t. 26. 22,23. as a Sermon gocth before Baptifme, 
Atts 8. 35,39. Atts 19. 4,5,6. The banqueters fit dorvne 
*t Table, even as lefus fate downe with the twelve Difci- 
fles,zs is Mat, 26, v. 20. andf.28. Marke 14.zz.18. and 
22. the Lord honouring them with Table-honour with 
tiimfelfe, as is cleare, Luke22 % 21. John 13.24, 2 8. The 
Paftor taketh the bread, and before he breake it, he givetk. 
thanks, and prayeth for the blefling of the Elements,to 
the end and ufe appointed by Chrift, even as Chrift 


C rup. t o. Scotland proved h Scripture. 3 1 7 

did, Mat. 26. 26 and thereafter taketh the bread, re- 
hearfcth the words of the inftitution, and breakcth the 
bread,and giveth to the banqueter s, and they divide it amonfjl 
them y at Chrift s c 'omman dement ; as alfo he taketh the cttp, 
and faith, drink? )f all of thx, this u the iV<?W Testament ± 
&c. as Chrift did, CMat. 26. 26.27. Marh\±. 22,2?. 
Luke 12. 19,20.^.17. In the mcane time while the peo- 
ple are eating and drinking, the Paftor is- fpeakins of 
Chrifis love in dying for man, of the Lords death, offiith 
1 equired in annuntUting the Lords death till he come ag^ine^ 
even as Chrift all the while entertained his gu:fts with 
heavenly Sermons, as is cleare, Mat. 26. 28,29. Mturk* 
14. 25. Luke 22. 21,22. Iohni$. and having done, they 
fingaPfalme, as Chrift and his Difciples did, Mat.- 6\ 
28. Mar.i^, 26 all the while Elders in reverend and 
decent manner attend the fervice of the Table as the 
banquet requireth ; for that fome ferve at that Supper 
is gathered from Mat. 26. ip.Mar^ei^. 1 5.where men- 
tion is made of a large upper rooms furnifhed and prepay 
red, which is a cleare warrant for a large Table, a clcane 
and faire Table-cloth, Bafons, Cups, and veflels decent 
and comely for that fervice , and from Chrift his guir- 
ding himfelfe with a towell, and walhing their feet, and 
ftanding as a fervant, John 1 ?. 4,5 y 6. Luke 22. 27. The 
nature of the Sacrament requires thanksgiving, and there- 
fore afternoone a Sermon of thanksgiving is preached., 
which is alfo warranted from Mat.z6.lo. 

7. Artic le. 

Tublike Fatting. 

THe Faft' is indicted eight dayes before, and the can* 
£cs laid open for preparing of the people for hu«- 
miliation, as 701/2.1,3,3. 7/^.22.12,13. We have no 
ttnniverfarie, and fet Falls or Feafis cither, becaufe God 
himfelfe by his judgement imminent, or already infil- 
led, or by permitting his people to folio w their o^ne 


3 1 3 Government of the Church of Chap.2 o 

wyes, calletb to fafting and mourning, I fa. 2 2. 1 g, Joel a. 
i,2,},4,$,6,&c. and fo by his mercies and wonderfull 
deliverances calleth to extraordinary joy of thanksgi- 
ving, T/^/.iiH. 24. The doxflrine of tkc Law is prea- 
ched, as /oe/i.and /fit 58. and the Fail: obferved with 
abftinence from meat and drinke, and carnali and ordi 
nary pleafures. /oeli! Q [6. We thinke to deny the law- 
fulness of publike falling on the Lords day , as if the 
Chriftian Sabbath were a day onely of fpintuall feafting 
and rejoycing, becaufc that day Chrift ended the worke 
of redemption and fecond Creation , is a wronging of 
the Chrift ian Sabbath , which is ordained for the whole 
publikc worfliip of God, joying, forrowing for finne, 
learning Gods will in all and every point, as the J ew- 
ifh Sabbath was not ordained onely for Meditation on 
the worke of Creation, but for worftiips of all kinde : 
The worfhip of this day, ABsio.y. is as large as prea- 
ching, and being in the Spirit, on the Lords day, and 
feeing the virions of God, Mev.i. 10, 11, 12. and the 
whole ordinary worfhip publikc. It is then too narrow 
to reftrid all our Sabbath-worlhip to one fingle ad of fe- 
ftivall rejoycing. 

8. Article. 


MArriage is no Sacrament, but becaufc it is not acon- 
traft meerly humane, and God is faid to j'oyne the 
parties together, Mat, 1 o.6\ and God firft married Adam 
and Eve. We thinke it fit that the Pa(ror,wh© is the Em* 
tajfador of Chrift, a C©r.$. 20. ftiould j'oynethem toge- 
ther, and inftrudt them in the doclrine of Marriage, as 
it is, <y**.2. 18,19. MM.194A' Hrf.13.4. 1 Cer.y. cx- 
preftd by God. 

For efchewing of fcandals, harlotry, forbidden Mar- 
riages, for obtaining confent of Parents and vice-parents, 
and hearing of parties contracted to the parties to be 


Chap. 20. Scotland frcvcdby Scripture. 3 1 9 

married, pre clrrr.ation of purpcfcS marriage is ncedfull, 
that \ve .give no orfence, 1 Cor, 10. 32.2. 3. 1 Gr.7,29. 
^.Article, BurlalL 
A Sccmminginthe world, fo neither interring and 
jt% bunall is performed in the Woid cf God Witl prea- 
ching, reading fcrvicc over the dead, finding Scriptures 
(ns Papitls) which tend to fuperftition, tbtirorc we ufe 
only with a company of Chriilians in decent manner to 
convey the corps to the Earth with moderate mourning* 
conference of our mortality, as Sarah, Gen. 23. 2, 19. 
ts brakim, Gen. 49. 31. and Jojhua, Jofh. 24. 30. and 
Samnell^ 1 Sam, 25. 1 ,2, 3. fc-Jiah were buried. 

The place of buriall with us is net under the Altar, or 
the place of a{Tembling,tbc Churcb,ror the word or Sacra- 
ments, as Papifts doe, but in fome publick place either 
nearc the Church or fome incioied field, becaufe xhefewes 
buried fometimes in a cave, Genef.2$.p. fometimes in a 
«/*%,Deut.34.6\ fometimes in a garden, 2 Kin. 21.18. 

Art. io, SchooUs and *D otters. 

T Here are with us Do tl or s of ^Divinity who teach in 
Schotles and Vniverjities, men tryed to be holy and 
learned, and then put in office, ss 1 Tim. 3. 10. under 
whofe in(truc*tion are ftudents ayming at the hcly my- 
niftery called ex Reclames, as in zhefewifi Church in their 
CoUed^es, were young Prophets, orfinnes of the Pr*phepf± 
as 1 Sam.tO 5. 2 Kin. 2 7. 2 Kin. 4.1. 1irw.20.35.Thde 
Doctors and alfo the teachers of humane literature, who 
train* up children in the nurture and admonition of the 
Lord, Fro.22.6\ Ephef.6 4. iftheyayme at theMinifte- 
ry, prophecie in our prcsby teriall meetings,! Cor. 14.29, 
Art. II. iSlaers and 'Deacons. 

PLder s helpe the Pafiors in governing, but labour not 
in tf:e Word and T>oclrine, I Tim 5. 1 7. and yet vi- 
fit the lick, over- fee the wayes and manners of the people, 
andfb rule Vcith diligence, Rom 12.8. 1 Cor. 12.28. and 
judge with Paftors and DocTors, CMatth. 18.18,19,20. 
Qeacons are officers who judge not authoritatwery, nei- 

V u thec 

3 io Government of the church of Chap.2 o 

thcr preach theWordnoradminifterthe Sacraments, but 
Attend Tables , ortakethcare of the Churches rents, and 
Jhewetb mercy Vehk chearjullneffe, A"*. 6.3,4. Rora. 12.8. 
beingtryedtobegrave, foaer, fkithfall,are put inoifice, 
I Tim-i 10. 

Vpon the fir Fi day of the Veeeke, every one layeth by m 
ftore^ At God prosjereth him, giving it in to abroad at the 
Church-doore, fir the reliefi of the poore, as 1 £V.i6,2. 
It is provided that Minifters have competent ftipehds, as 
I Cor 9.13. andthatHofpitalsbeupholden, Mat.i^^^ 
36 £o-/.i 1.1,2. and that thefabrickof the Church beup- 
holden by the Patron and frce-holders,as^/*/ 1 .1 o. Hag.i, 
4. Hag % i.i6. Art. 12. 

Church^ Afiemhlies and the power ofcenfores. 

THcre are Affemblies in our Church, as were in the A* 
poftolick Church, ^#.1.15,16. ^#6.2,3,4. axf#. 
11.1,2,3. ^^15,6,7,8. &c. They handle only matters 
mcerly eccleiiafttcall, what is fcandalous, and what may 
edifie, .^£.18.18,19,20. 1 £^.5.5,6. but nothings ci- 
vill which belong to the chill CMagiftrate , Luk.22* 
35,26,37. Luk.i 2.1 3,14,1 5. Rom.13.4,5,6. compared 
with Rom. 1 2. 6,7,8. 

jiffemblies in our Church are of fbure forts. 1. Sefll- 
ons of every particular Congregation who hath power of 
difciplinc in things belonging to thcmfclves, fuch as is 
to rebuke publicity thefe fyho Jinne publicity, as I Tim .£. 
20. to admit or not admit to the Sacrament, to order de- 
cently the publick worm ip, 1 C*r.ii.2o,n. i £V. 14^ 
33,40. 7VV.1.5. Hence there was an Elderfhip ordained 
in every Church, ^#.14.23. Alfo feeing every particular 
Congregation is a vifible mimfteriall Church, having 
. power of the Keyes in preaching the Word , though 
they be but a fmall number, as two or three A$embled in 
Chrifls name, Mat.18. yethavetheyapromifeof Chnft, 
of his prefence for binding and loofing,vJ/*tf.i 8.18,10,20. 
in things which belong to themfclves. 

The fecond Affembly is a CinflfisofmanyFaftors and El- 
ders from fundry congregations wh© have power ofex- 


Chap. 2 o. Scotland proved by Scripture. 311 

communication, in refpecl: that the pcrion excommunica- 
ted doth keep company with many confociated Churches, 
and fo as a leaven may iLfe<ft many, 1 Cor. 5.4. Mat. 26 L 
59. Jch % 1 1.47. Att.10. 17,1 8. and for this caufe one 
Paftor cf a finglc Congregation not being able to ordaine a 
Paftor (becaufe it wanteth example in the Word of God) 
therefore a Colledge of Presbyters, or a Presbytery of Pa- 
fiors and Elders, who have power larger then a Sejfion, e- 
ven to excommunicate and ordaine Paftors is neceilary in 
the Church, which ordaineth Timothy to be a Paftor, and: 
fo may deprive snd excommunicate him, 1 Tim, 4. 14. 
^#.20.17,18,28,29. Thefcaretoaflembletogether,and 
to prophecy two or three by courfe , and others fitting by arc 
to judge, that every mans gifts may be tryed by the Pref- 
^jm-j and the Church edified, 1 Cor. 14, 27, 18,29,30, 
3 t 3 3 z. and howbeit thefe prophets were extraordinarily 
gifted ,yet their preaching by courfes and the authoritative 
trying and judging of the gifts of the Prophets and Pa- 
ftors cannot be extraordinary, for if that were extraordi- 
nary and temporary, there ihould be now in the Church 
no Coiledge of Paftors who are to try the Paftors 3 ?&*/ they 
lay not hands onthemfiddenly, 1 Tim. 5.22. and are to take 
Care to commit the gofyell to faithfiff men Who are able 
to teach others.i Tim.2.2.Tit.i 5,6. therfore is this Pref- 
bytery in our Church, 1 Tim.\. 14. ■ 

The third Aflembly is the meeting of many Paftors of a 
Province, or a greater number of Congregations, who 
handle matters of discipline which conceme the whole 
Province, and many moe Congregations, which difrcreth 
not from the Presbytery, but that it is a greater Presbyte- 
ry containing moe Paftors and Elders : io we thinke, be- 
caufe there were many Paftors and Elders at ferufalem 
then at Corinth, therforc the meeting of Paftors and El- 
ders of ^erufiU wand the Churches about, A El 2 1 .1 8,19. 
Was a Provinciall Aflembly, fo the meeting of the Elders 
cfEpbefis, being more then an ordinary Presbytery, be- 
caufe of the multitude of that Church, lAtt. 19. was of 
the nature of a Provinciall nffembly, or a greater Presby- 
tery, ^#.20,17,18. U u 2 The 

1 1 Government of the Church of Chap.io^ 

The fourth Aflfembly is a gcnerall Aflfembly of many 
Province£,and is a cleare warrant of our National! Aflfem- 
bly, as Afl.i.r^. where the eleven Apoftles tvere, Act.. 
6.2. where the twelve Apoftles were, and Att.i$. where 
Jernfalem, Anthch, Syria, and Sylkia are met in their 
principall guides, Apoftles, 'Brethren, Slfors ; with US 
the King or his CommiiTioner is prefent, as in the Nation 
nail Aflfembly ofthe^*/, w*s King David, i Chron. 13, 
I 3 r. A(a-2 Ckron.15,9. Hez,?kiab y 2 Chron,2p,q. fojiak 
2 Cbron.$^i9 for the King bcareth the Sword, and is 
the^e as a politick Prefideat, and nurfing "Father, Efa.^f, 
23. Rom.i 3.4. The members of the Councellare Paftort y 
Dollors, Elders, as ^#.15.22., fentby the Churches for 
thatcffeJt, /*#.15.2,$. All the Ckrches. have place to 
fpeake, propound and reafon in an orderly, way, as there. 
the multitude jpake, v. 1 2 ; 1 }. but none have decifive voices 
faveonly CoiiimiiTioners, as Apoftles and Elders, A'fl.if. 
v.2,<5. Ch. 1.5.4. Ch.21.2?, The afts of the Aflembly 
oblige all the abientsmot prefent in all their members, as v* 
23 24,28. ^^.id.4.ch.2i.2T.notbecaufe of the authority: 
of the Church,but becaufe of the matter which is neceflary ; 
and agreeable to Gods word,as A Si, 1 5 . 14, 1 5,1 5, 17,1 8. 
In this Aflembly a Moderator is chofen, who ordereth,. 
propoundeth,and gathercth the voices,as Atis 1 5. either 
James eye Peter. Silence is kept that one onely fpeake at. 
once, as vq. firft Peter, after him Barnzbas zad Paul y 
#.12. after them James, v.13, and thefe who fpeake ar& 
to fpeake to the Afl'e.nbly or Moderator, not to parties, as, 
v.i 3. Men and brethren v Aifoa Clerke is chofen who wri-, 
teth thea&s of the Aflfembly ,as v. 2 $.thej "torote letters aft<r\ 
thUm&nner. The CommiTI? lers carry home from the 
Scribe of the Aflembly, the decrees of 'tloe Pafiors and Elder* 
to be observed by thevt, as Aft. i<5.4. r Chriftian prudency 
and natures light teacheth the time and place ror the next- 
Aflfembly to be appointed moll conveniently, for the eafc 
of all fc he Churches. 

Where matters are difficile to inferiour Aflemblies* 
and parties wronged,, and there U no fmall diffenfion, their 


Chap. 20. Scotland proved by Scripture. 323 

references and appeals are made to the greater AfTem- 

blies , and they determine that Paul and Barnabas, or 

A. B. and S. F. qoe to Jerusalem, or the place of the next 

Ajfembly to the Paftors an). Eiders about this queftion, as 1 , 2 . 

All our inferiour Affemblies have brotherly correfpon- 

dence by mutuall advife and counfell one with another, 

but none have authoritativepower over another, as 1 fir. 

16. {,2,3.4. 2 Cor. 8. f, 2,3. Col.^.ij. By reafon qf our 

Affunbiies, no man though moft eminent in gifts, piety, 

or authority, may play the Diotrephes , 3 JoruY.10. cr 

hath power to caft out the brethren oat of the Church. 

2. By Affcrrrlies order of- gifts, and- fubordination 
of the part to the whole is maintained, as zAmochis 
inferiour to both Antioch, ferufalem, Syria, and £ilici4 
convened in a Synod, AEls 15. ^.23. compared with 2$. 
Atts 6. both the Church of the Hebrewes, and the Church 
of the Grecians are fuojed to a Synod of Apoftles and 
DifcipleSj^.2. and Teeter z. pillar cf the Church, and Paul 
inferiour to none of the greatcft Apoftles, are fubjed 
to Synods, Aelt 11. i,z 9 ^ m Ablsii. 19,20,2 1 ,&c. 

3. By A(l:mblies, fchifmes, ditf-ntions, Alls 15.2 and 
errors or herclies fub verting the foules of thefe of parti- 
cular Churches, An:ioch> Syria, and Cilkia, ver.23, 24, 
are removed out of the Church; and unity preferred. In 
keeping of the Decrees of 4ffemblies par tic filar Churches 
doe tvelly v.28. and fo are the Churches eftablifhed in the 
faith y and increafe in number daily \ Ads 1 6*. 4, 5 . and Re* 
ligion is reftored to it's purity, and the Landenters into Co~ 
venint to feeke the Lord God of their Father , and rejoyce 
at the oath, and feeke the Lord With their whole dsfre.a-id 
he is found of them, 2 Chron.15. 1 2,1 3,14,1 $. and this 
hive wj fbni, So lonr as W? were as Judah, who ruled 
with Cjody and Wm faithful! with the SaifftSyHoC.il. v. I *. . 
axdveentnitto Jt\\%z\nor upto Beth-aven, Hof4.i5; 

InCharch-c-nfjres, w- proceed thus : In private faults 
if a brother o6F:nd a brother , he is admonifhed alone 
by the o renied ; If that gahe him not , he is admani- 
{bed before two or three ; If that prevaile not, the mat- 

U u 3 tcr 

324 Government of the Church of Chap. 2 o # ' 

tcr is brought before the Church, which hath power of 
the kcyes;If he obey not the Church, he is excommu- 
nicated, 3/^.18.15,16,17,18,10,20, in more ha i nous 
and publike faults the fcandalous perfon is not fo dealt 
with; but where the fault is groffe and hainous, the of- 
fender more quickly is delivered to Satan, as 1 Cor. v. 4. 
1 Tim. 1. 19, 20. Where obftimcy and wilful! irnpeni- 
tencic is added to lefler fcandals, the offender is excom- 
municated , as 1 Tbef.%. 14. yet with great meeknefle 
and longanimity ; for he is three Lords dayes publikcly 
admoniQiedjand three Lords dayes publikely prayed for, 
as this jrextlenejfe is required in the Lords Jew ants a Tim. 
24,25, before they cut off any, 1 Or 4.21. The cen- 
fures publike of the Churches are rebukes in publike as 
Paul requireth, 1 Tim. 5. 20. and that the rebuke may 
be publike, and the rebuked may make publike confef- 
fion before the offended Congregation : He ftandeth in 
a publike place , which we call the ftoole or filUr of 
repentance, which hath both a warrant by natures light, 
which requireth that he who fpeaketh to a multitude 
fhould (land in a place where all may commodioufly 
hearc to whom he fpeaketh, as Judg.gq. Dent 27.12, 
13. And alfo in Scripture, by Salomons example, who 
on a fca§old fpake to the people, 1 Chron.1^0. and the 
pracTife of Ezra, who read k> the people thebookeof 
the Law in a pulpit of Wood, which they had made for the 
furpofe, Nehem.8. 4. which alfo is a warrant for a pulpit. 

2. To this publikc rebuking, there is a\econd cenfure 
adjoyned, which is a debarring of the offender from the 
Lords Supper, 1 Cor, 1 1.28. which is our lefTer excom- 

3. Our third cenfure ?s the greater excommunication, 
which is done by the whole Congregation, as all other 
cenfures, but divers wayes by the Presbytery or Eldcr- 
fhip judicially and authoritatively, by Paul his paftorall 
fpirit, 1 O.5.4. the Minifter in the Churches name 
pronouncing the fentence, \Yim.\.io. and and by the 
people, i, conferring and approving, 1 Cor. 5.4^: 6. 

a. Mour- 

Chap. 2 o. Scotland proved by Scripture. 325 

«. — ■ ■ • ■ ■ 

2. Mourning and being humbled at thefinne, 1 Cor.f* 2. 

3. Abstaining from all brotherly fellowship and fami- 
liarity with him, 1 CVr.io. 11,12. except where the 
law of nature require duties of us, as the fonne to the 
excommunicated father owes love and honour, and con- 
verging with him, JExod20.11, For a commandement 
naturall and fimply morall obligeth more, and in the 
roome before the pofitive and lefTer commandement, as 
Hof.6 % 6. Mat.M. 3,4,5,6. yet is the excommunicated 
excluded onely from the publikc prayers and feales of 
the Covenant, not from private prayers and hearing of 
the word, iThefa. 15. For the Church inrendcth in 
that cenfure the faving of hi* spirit in the day of the Lord 9 
1 Cor. 5. j. and the hearing of the word is that necef- 
fary mcaneef falvation, Rom a. 16.1 fir t i.i2,2i.Jlow. 
10. 17. 1 /Vr.1.23. The contrary order not unlike to 
this is kept in confirming authoritatively the Churches 
love to the excommunicated pcrfbn being penitent, and 
in pardoning and forgiving him when he heartily for- 
rowcthforhislln, 2(^.2.6,7,8,0,10. From this cen- 
fure no member of our Church is exempted ; yea afcan- 
dalous Paftor is by the Presbytery deprived and excom- 
municated, as he was ordained by them, 1 Tim. 4. 14. 
aTw.2,14. anc l nc wno natn committed ctying and 
hainous (ins is fcarce ever to be readmitted in tlie mini- 
ftcry, as being hardly found fuch an one as is described* 
I Tim.$. Tit.i 5 a 6,7« except it be feen to all that he hath 
obtained mercy in a confpicuous and large meafurc, as 
iTim.i. 13,14,15,16. 

13. Article. Private Worfiip. 

NOne may preach the word with us but Faftors and 
the fons of the Prophets, and fuch of their fort who 
aime at the holy minidcry, and that authority Ecclcfi- 
afticallmuft warrant them is cleare by our Law and pra- 
ctife, as it was in the feVeiff? Church, 1 Sam. 10.5. 2 King. Affcmbfy* 
2.7. 2King.4.i. 1 King.20.35. Fheworfhipof God is t^ hlf M 
commanded by ouiAffemblies to be ia private families, £&»**& - 


j 1 6 GcvcYnmzntofthe Church of Chap.ro* 

afe chatcchliingby theMafterof the Family,or fo me other 
better gifted in every Family, ^D**r'.6.-6,7,8. <7«u8..ip. 
Ephef-6. 1,2,3 27^.3.15. praying, Zach.i 2.1-0 None 
by any aft or our Church, whether Paftor or any other, in 
orrice,or out of otfice, is obliged to a (tinted or read pray- 
er, asthewordofGodaliowetb, Ro#t.%. 26,27. Y ea nerc 
it is free to all, having the ipirit of adoption to exprefle 
their particular neceflitics, which cannot well be booked, 
to God according to the prefent cafe of the Church, and 
pcrfon praying, as the Saints have done/Pfat. 88 9. Tfal. 
$.j.Pfit!.i$.z\PJ<i£i2i.i,Pra{.i2i.i.?oh.i 7 i.Luk.1%. 
I 3 . and Pfd. 3 . <Pj£. 5 . P>/. 2 5 . /'/*/. 3 o.Pfal. 3 4. P/4/. 5 4. 
Pfal,^j-.Ppi^6^.Scc.yct did our Church never condemne, 
but condantly pra&ife the praying of that divine and Ca- 
nonical! prayer of our Saviour, called the Lords prayer, 
as being commanded, LMat-6,9 Z«^n.2.in matter and 
manner,though affirmative precepts'oblige not adfemper. 
Alfo finging of PAlmes is commanded by out* Church in 
Families, as 8x0* Pfal.^.iy. £ph.$. \ 8, 19,20. 
andhoufe-difciplme, as fob 1 3. Deut.*}.i %.?fal. 1 o .7. 
and private fatting in Families, Neloem i.q, JEfth.^.i6. 
f Our Affembly alfo commandeth godly conference at all 
Aficmbi/.an^i occafionall meetings, or as Gods providence fhali difpofe, 
asthe wordofGod com mandethjH^ 3.13. 1 Tkcf<$.\ f, 
l1.Levit.19 ly.ZachZ 21. M*l.^.\6.Col 3.16 provi- 
ding none invade the Paftors office to preach the word 
who are not called thereunto by God and his Church, 
^^.5.4,5.^0^.10.14,15. [ Cor % \ 2.2 8,59. and by'that 
fame warrant the grieved in confeience is to confdfe his 
fins, which troubleth and preffeth downe his fouk, to ei- 
ther an experienced Chriftian or Pallor, as_74w5.16.but 
this confeflion is free to the grieved party, I meanc free 
from being canonically commanded in our Aflcniblies, 
and far from Sacram en tall confeflion, or Auricular confef- 
(ion to a Prieft.