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Full text of "Select works of Robert Rollock"






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Rollock, Robert, 15557-1599 
Select works of Robert 

The Editoe tenders his humble apologies to the Memhers of the 
WoDROW Society, for the delay which has taken place in the pre- 
paration of this Volume. Anxious as he was to do justice both to it 
and to them, he was repeatedly interrupted hy other duties, and em- 
barrassed by obstructions ivhich it is here unnecessary to state. TJie 
Council are in no respect to blame for the delay. On the contrary, their 
anxiety for the appearance of the volume was repeatedly and strongly 
urged upon the Editor ; who makes this statement icith the greater ear- 
nestness, because, to his deep regret, he has learned that the Council 
have been, in this matter, subjected to reproaches, which are merited by 
him alone. 

nth August 1849. 







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The name of Egbert Kollock is identified with the infancy 
of the University of Edinburgh. That noble institution was truly 
fortunate in the choice of her first Rector. His education, dis- 
position and habits, admirably fitted him to be the fashioner of 
her discipline, and to give shape and direction to her methods and 
her aims. 

The Editor of these volumes had made some progress in col- 
lecting materials for an extended biography of this inestimable 
man ; but various causes have induced him to abandon, or, at 
least, to postpone this intention. Among others may be mention- 
ed one, the force of which will be universally recognised. The 
learned divine who now holds that place which RoUock once 
held, it is understood, has long contemplated giving to the world 
an account of the life of his distinguished predecessor. To no 
one could this duty fall more suitably or gracefully — by no one 
could it be more efficiently discharged. Should, however, this 
hope be disappointed, and should it be deemed expedient to con- 
tinue the publication of the Select Works of RoUock, under other 
auspices than those of the Wodrow Society, the Editor will do 
his best to exhibit Rollock, in that most useful career, in which he 
not only founded the Scottish fame of the Metropolitan Univer- 
sity, and instructed our citizens in the lessons of divine truth, but 
by his voluminous labours, made our theological learning and our 
orthodoxy to be known and respected in foi'eign lands. 


Yet it is not right that these volumes should pass into the hands 
of the readers of this generation, without some knowledge of the 
amiable man hy whose labours they are about to profit. In the 
din of that eventful era, in which it was his lot to spend his short 
but useful life, his voice was seldom heard. "While others, of like 
mind with himself, but whose temperament fitted them for more 
bustling scenes, are familiar to us, as if we had personally witness- 
ed theu' contendings for the truth, the name of Rollock is almost 
lost in the quiet of that academic life which he loved so well ; and, 
particularly fitted as he was for the part which Providence had 
assigned him in advancing the education of his country, the very 
qualities which imparted that fitness prevented him from attain- 
ing to success in matters where there were required a ready ap- 
prehension of danger, shreAvdness in the detection of ulterior pur- 
poses covered by specious pretexts, and bold opposition to wily 
schemes of political circumvention. ^ 

Eollock died on the 8th of February 159|-. In the course of 
the year 1599, there was published in Edinburgh, a memorial 
of the departed Pi-incipal, with the following title : — Vitae et 
Mortis D. Roherti Rolloci Scoti Narratio, sc7%pta per Georgiimi 
Hohertsonum : adjectis in eundem quorundam Epitaphiis. Edin- 
burgi, apud Henricum Charteris. 1599.^ 8vo, sig. c. To the nar- 
rative are appended, in the usual fashion of the time, thirty eulo- 
gistic Latin poems, and one in Greek, the latter by Henry Char- 
teris, who also contributed two of the Latin elegies.^ The whole 

1 "I mention," writes Dr M'Cric of another distinguished promoter of Scottish 
education, " this trait iu Melville's character, the rather because there is nothing 
which men, bred in colleges and devoted to literary pm-suits, are more deficient in 
than the knowledge of character ; in consequence of which, they are ordinarily dis- 
qualified for the management of public business, and apt to become the dupes of de- 
ceitful friends or artful opponents." -Life of Melville, vol. i., p. 76. 

2 Dr M'Crie, in his life of Andrew Melville, (vol. ii. p. 68,) quoting this title-page, 
gives 1589 as imprinted, and corrects the date to 1598 ; the correction should have 
been 1599. The copy before us is correct in the date, 1599. In the first sentence of 
Kobertson's Narrative, the error docs occur, the date of KoUock's death being given 
1589, properly corrected by Dr IM'Crie to 1598— but this was according to the old style. 

' It is in reference to these that Mr Tytler says, (Account of the Life and Writinc/^ 
of Sir Thomas Craig of Riccarton, p. 150,) " Engaged in these severer labours, the 


concludes with a list of works by RoUock, either published or to 
be published. This laudatory memorial, by George Robertson, 
then one of the ministers of Edinburgh, of whom a few particu- 
lars will be found hereafter, is the source from which all subse- 
quent notices of RoUock, by Spotswood, Melchior Adam, Clark,i 
and others have been drawn. 

Rollock's successor, Henry Charteris, seems to have made it 
his delight to revise, correct, and amplify this Life by Ro- 
bertson. There is in the library of the University of Edinburgh 
a MS. bearing the title, Vitce et Obitus D. Roherti Rolloci, Scoti, 
Narratio, ah Henrico Charterisio conscripta. In the year 1826, both 
Narratives were printed for the use of the members of the Ban- 
natyne Club — the latter for the first time. At the end of the 
volume are added, not only the elegies which Robertson had ap- 
pended to his Life, but seventeen others, which had probably been 
written after the publication of that Biography f and the whole 

muses seem for a time to have been neglected, as, with the exception of a short poem 
on the death of the celebrated Robert Eollock, upon whose monument every poet in 
the nation seems to have thought it his duty to hang up his ' tuneful sorrows,' Craig 
appears to have written nothing since the publication of the Genethliacon." 

1 Spotswood's History of the Church of Scotland, p. 454. Spotswood's notice is 
brief, but in it he contrives to give the naiTative a turn favourable to his own views, 
as will be noticed hereafter. Melchior Adam, Vitce. Eruditorwn, cum Germanorum 
turn extcrorum. Ed. Tertia, 170G, vol. i. pp. 90-95. This is a reprint of Eobertson's 
JVarratio, with verbal alterations, and a few unimportant omissions. Clark's Alarrow 
of Ecclesiastical History, London, 1 G75, p. 401. This is a mere translation of Ro- 
bertson's Narrative, and the translator is puzzled with our Scottish proper names. 
Thus he translates Synodus Taodunensis, the General Assembly held at Dundee, as 
"the Synod of Taodun." Dempster, in his Historia Ecclesiastica, Edinburgi, 1829, 
vol. ii. p. 565, charitably supposes that the Genevese may have corrupted Rollock's 
Commentaries on the Psalms, and smells heresy in his other works. But he adds en- 
couragingly, he was believed, during his life-time, to be not far removed from the 
Catholic faith. " Ipse sane credebatur, dum viveret, non longe a fide Catholica 
alienus." The notice of Rollock, in David Buchanan, De Scriptorihus Scotis; Edin- 
burgi, 1839, 4to, p. 121, abounds in gross en'ors, and seems to confound Hercules 
with Robert. The Article in the Scots Worthies, bearing the Principal's name, is 
loose and inaccurate in its details. 

2 Four of these, the fifth, thirty-ninth, fortieth, and forty-second, with four others 
not contained in the Bannatyne edition, form part of the prefatory matter to the Edi- 
tion of Rollock's Commentaiy on the Colossians, mentioned p. v. of the Preface to 
the Second Volume. The fifth is by John Johnston, mentioned in the note to p. 7 
of this volume. The thirty-ninth, fortieth, and forty-second as well as the forty-first 


closes with the three Scottish Sonnets by James Melville, which 
the reader will find in their proper place, in p. 297 of this volume. 

In order to enable him to form some acquaintance with the life 
of the amiable divine, a portion of whose works is now laid 
before him, the Editor has selected the Life by Charteris, as 
the fuller and the more accurate. He has translated it for more 
general edification, and added, in the shape of notes, such par- 
ticulars connected with the events of Rollock's life, or the persons 
with whom he came into contact, as seemed to be interesting or 
elucidatory. To many the Biography, in its original shape, will 
be interesting ; and for their sake the Latin is reprinted. 

In comparing the two Lives, that by Robertson and that by 
Charteris, the following conclusions seem to be plausible. Ro- 
bertson was probably a man of eloquence — one who possessed in- 

seem to be by Andrew IMelville. The thirty-ninth bears a striking resemblance to a 
letter M-ritten in 1609, quoted in Dr M'Crie's Life of MelrUk, vol. ii., p. 222. The 
most distinguished men of the time wrote the greater part of the remaining elegies. 
Among these are Robert Pont ; Adrian Dammian ; Sir Thomas Craig ; Robert Boyd 
of Trochrig ; Principal Adamson ; Alexander Hume, probably the grammarian ; and 
Hercules RoUock. Besides these, men of less note contribute their portion, — most of 
them old pupils, — as, John Ray, Professor of Humanity, aftei'wards Rector of the 
High School ; William Craig, then a Regent in the University ; William Arthur, 
minister of St Cuthbert's, co-editor with Charteris of several of Rollock's writings ; 
George Grier, second minister of Haddington ; George Thomson, afterwards minis- 
ter of the refomed church of Chataigneraye, in Poitou, and the fierce antagonist of 
Lipsius; Adam Abemethy, afterwards a member of the university of Montpellier, and 
tlie eulogist of Crichton. — See Encyclopcsdia Britannicn, vol. xiii., p. 373, s. v. Lipsius, 
by Dr Irving; and the same author's Lives of Scottish Writers, vol. i., p. 272. These 
elegies are, as was usual in such compositions, in general, mere vague, and often in- 
flated eloyia. Andrew Melville's alone bear any traces of an attempt to delineate 
the characteristics of the man. A brief specimen is given of one, in vol. ii. p. xiii. 
We shall content ourselves with quoting the lines by the unhappy Master of Ruthven, 
then employed in the Court of King James, and who, as well as his brother John, 
Earl of Gowrie, had been placed by the King under Rollock's care : 

De me, deque meo niei-uit tua fratre voluntas, 

De te verum index ut nioricnte loquar. 
Nobiscum hunc oibem donee, RoUoce, tenebas, 

Mortales inter Nuniinis instar eras. 
; Morte— quod optabas,— idem nunc additus a8tris, 

Implebis meiita laude superstes liumum.— M. A. Kuthvencs. 

This was written about eighteen mouths before the Master fell in the Gowrie 


nately a power of description, and of giving expression to the 
feelings within him ; Charteris, whose whole university education 
had been conducted by Rollock, from his experience of Rollock's 
teaching, and his more intimate familiarity with their common 
fi'iend, was much better qualified to give to the world the impress 
of his form and virtues than Eobertson, who had received only his 
theological training from the Principal. But Charteris was a truly 
modest as Avell as learned man. Robertson's early settlement in a 
city charge had given great offence to many, and had even brought 
reproach on Eollock himself. It seemed not unfitting, then, and 
it certainly was quite consistent with all that we know of the 
character of Charteris, that he should yield what seemed his na- 
tural privilege to Robertson, who might thus come recommended 
to the public under shelter of so popular a name as that of Rol- 
lock. These two circumstances seem to account for the ajjpear- 
ance of Robertson as Rollock's biographer — Charteris's considerate 
modesty, and Robertson's rhetorical fitness. But Charteris could 
not refrain from returning with a reverential hand to the memorial 
of his departed friend. He added many impoi'tant particulars ; 
he gave a fuller account of Rollock's conduct towards his pupils ; 
and he imparted precision to vague statements. But his taste does 
not seem so delicate, nor his perception of the emotional so acute. 
His Latinity is, perhaps, more classical, but not so graphic. 

Of all this we may give a few illustrations. Robertson notices 
that RoUock is descended from the Livingstones ; Charteris adds, 
that it is by his mother he is so descended. Robertson simply 
states, that the friendship of Rollock and Thomas Buchanan in- 
creased with their years ; Charteris gives specific instances of this 
friendly feeling. Robertson mentions Rollock's admission at 
St Salvator's College ; Charteris adds the name of the Regent 
under whom he studied. The preliminary steps taken by the 
Town Council of Edinburgh for the removal of Rollock from St 
Andrews to Edinburgh are more amply and accurately detailed 
by Charteris. The whole of the noble address by Rollock to the 
students on the eve of the first graduation is peculiar to Charteris, 


and is all the more striking, as he was an ear-witness, being one 
of the forty-eight who then took their degree. Indeed, not 
needlessly to multiply details, the whole of the first jDart of the 
life, and, in some respects the most valuable, (that to the words 
Omnibus enim summis jiixta, &c.,) is almost entirely new, and the 
changes and additions are of the greatest importance. There- 
after the narrative proceeds in much the same way in both, save 
that Charteris quietly corrects the slips of his co-biographer. 
Thus, writins: of Rollock's last illness at the close of 1598, Ro- 
bertson says, that Rollock anxiously commends to the care of his 
friends his wife, who was with child after a barrenness of more 
than ten years ; post decennii ultra sterilitatem. This agrees with 
the statement of Crawford, {History of the University of Edin- 
burgh, p. 50,) who speaks doubtfully, in the same passage, of the 
date of Rollock's marriage — " About the year 1589 he took to 
wife Helen Baron." We learn from Charteris that this is a 
mistake. Rollock's first class graduated 1587, (Crawford, ibid. 
p. 31,) and immediately after this solemnity, before entering 
on the duties of Professor of Divinity,^ that is, between August 
and November 3 587, he married. Consequently he had been 
married more than eleven years at the close of 1588, and hence 
Charteris gives the correct time ; " post sterilitatem undecim anno- 
rum." Similarly he quietly corrects grammatical errors. Writing 
of Charteris himself, Robertson states, that on his deathbed Rol- 
lock recommends him as his successor, saying that he had been 
educated under him, and that for ten years he has discharged 
the office of Regent of Philosophy with distinguished commenda- 
tion ; " professorisque philosophici munus decennio egregia cum 

' We infer that Rollock did not commence to teach theolog)^ till Novemher, from 
the following minute of the Town Council of Edinburgh. " November 1587. The 
gamyn day Rcqucistet and desyret William Littill, auld P~vest., MichacU Gilbert, and 
Patk. Sandelands to entreatt and qfer wt M. Robert RoUok, maister of the Townis Col- 
ledge, touchcing ye stipend to be givin him for serving in ye said CoUcdge as Maister 
and Principall yairotf, and for ye class of theolocjie to be tai/neup be him y into, as alswa 
for his teaching ilk Sunday in ye Eist Kirk in the mornings, and y~m to report again." 
— (Council Records, vol. Viii. fol. 118.^ 


laude perfunctus est." Charteris alters this to, " et professoris 
philosophiae munere plus decennio egregia cum laude perfunctus 

On this point the insertion ofjjlus is also observable. It is im- 
possible that Charteris can have been ignorant of the time of his 
OA\Ti professorial services. But if Crawford (^ibid. p. 34,) be cor- 
rect, Charteris is wrong. Crawford states that Charteris took the 
place of Mr Alexander Scrimger, removed for malversation, in 
1589. In that case he could have only acted as Regent of Philo- 
sophy for nine years and a few months. We can have little hesita- 
tion in trusting to Charteris, and placing Charteris's appointment 
in the room of Scrimger in the year 1588. 

Yet Robertson has a finer taste for the picturesque. Contrast 
Robertson's expresssion : " Ad Sabbathi auroram usque illi altum 
silentium, quod tandem hoc sermone abrumpit, ' Yeni Domine, 
ne morare" ' — with Charteris's more classical but less graphic La- 
tinity : " Cum aliquandiu mane quievisset, silentium tandem 
hoc sermone abrumpit, ' Yeni Domine, ne morare." ' In the 
same spirit Robertson mentions, that at the funeral of Rollock 
there was tempestuous weather — probably such a deluge of rain 
as often, in early spring, still sweeps our streets : " Funus majori 
quara unquam Edinburgi celebritate, quamvis prohibente tem- 
pestate, decoratur. Turmatim enim tam sublimis quam plebeiae 
sortis homines ad iUud ornandum confluxerant." Contrast with this 
the close of the narrative by Charteris ; " Ejus decessus," &c. 

The only passage In Robertson not noticed in the narrative of 
Charteris is a statement regarding Robertson himself, to which 
the reader's attention will be directed in the notes. 

On the whole, while the latter and more affecting part of the 
narrative seems to have been mainly adopted, and only slightly 
altered from Robertson by Charteris, the earlier and more impor- 
tant part is wholly written by Charteris himself, and its fulness and 
accuracy have prompted us to prefer it for our present purpose. 

This seems to be the proper place to notice the portrait pre- 

' i'uuctus est ? Meichior Adam reads, obivil. 


fixed to this volume. Three portraits of Rolloek are known 
to be extant. One, which has been engraved by Mr R. C. 
Bell for the Bannatyne Club, is the property of Lord Rollo, 
whose house is connected with the family of Rollock.i It is a 
small painting on pannel, and has evidently been retouched in 
the upjier part of the head ; but the original traces are quite dis- 
tinct, and have been restored in the engraving. The lettering on 
the top of this portrait (M : R : R : aetatis suae 43 morit : 1599) 
must have been added some years after Rollock's death, as in the 
old style he died in 1598, and the new style was not adopted in 
Scotland till 1 GOO. The second, which belongs to the University 
of Edinburgh, and from which the engraving, also by ISIr R. C. 
Bell, has been taken for the Wodrow Society, is more highly 
finished, and is of life-size on canvass. A duplicate of the latter 
is in the possession of Hugh James Rollo, Esq., who traces 
his descent to the same common stock as the Principal. In 
the opinion of the intelligent engraver, the last was probably 
painted about the end of the 17tli century. There is nothing in 
the style of these portraits to indicate the artists by whom they 
were executed. 

It is now the Editor's duty to say something of the works se- 
lected for publication in this volume. 

It seemed desirable to represent RoUock in his three capacities, 
as a Professor of Divinity, as a Preacher of the Gospel in detached 
sermons, and as an Expositor of the Scriptures in a continuous 
series of Discourses. The last object is attained in the second 
volume ; the first two are accomplished in this. 

From the Summary of Theology, (pp. 22-28), we acquire a 
knowledge of the learned Principal's System of Divinity. It 
would be presumptuous in the Editor to pronounce an opinion 
on its merits ; but it seems to him to be both logical and com- 

' "He was descended of the ancient Bavons of Diincrub, now dignified with the 
title of Lord Hollo."— (Crawford, ihid. p. 43.) Of relationsliip between Robert and 
Hercules Kollock, 1 have been unable to discover any evidence. 


plete. If it be compared with the Confession of Faith by the 
Westminster Divines, it will be found to follow very nearly 
the same order, — the principal difference being, that in the Con- 
fession of Faith the subject of Effectual Calling precedes Jus- 
tification, whereas Rollock first discusses the latter ; unless, in- 
deed, as we are inclined to suspect, one of the heads — that on 
Justification— has inadvertently been dropped out. The intel- 
ligent reader will easily see the ground of the suspicion by 
glancing over the ninth and three following heads. We learn from 
Crawford that portions of his course — and " Effectual Calling " 
was one of them — were delivered not to the students of theology 
merely, but in presence of the whole members of the University. 
His words (p. 51) are : " He wrote the treatises, De Foedere et 
Sacramentis, De Vocatione EJjicaci, De Providentia Dei, De Justi- 
ficatione, De Excommunicatione. These, for the most part, he 
taught in the Magistrand Hall, upon the Sundays, after the last 
sermon, till such time as the too great frequencie of auditors made 
him to chuse another time." We may infer from this, that in 
certain portions of the course he taught without writing; that 
others he elaborated more carefully, and not only read them for 
the benefit of the students generally, but published them for 
behoof of the Christian world. Accordingly, this Tractatus de 
Vocatione Ejfficaci, of the title page of which a fac-simile is given, 
was published in 1597. It does not seem to have been reprint- 
ed. It is in Octavo, 332 pages, to the end of the Treatise on 
Effectual Calling. Thereafter the pagination ceases, and with 
the Catechism a new title commences : De Modis quibus Deus ah 
initio Foedus suum idrumque humano generi revelavit. The head- 
ing to the end of the Catechism, which extends to 25 additional 
pages, is Modi Revel. Foed. ; but this heading it will be seen the 
translator has not followed. The whole concludes with an Index 
Capiium of two pages, which forms mainly the source of the 
Table of Contents mentioned in the note to page 23. 

The Translation,^ of which also the original title page is given 
1 We find in Dr Watt's Bihliothera Britanmca, the following works attributed to 


in fac-simile, is in 4to, extending to 253 pages. With the ex- 
ception of the spelling it has been faithfully followed. The only 
other alterations are the additions pp. 7, 130, and 23-28, the last of 
which is of sreat value. For Holland's Table of Contents above 
alluded to, the Editor has substituted one of his own. 

The English style of the translation hardly corresponds in clear- 
ness with the perspicuity of the original. The translator says, 
(p. 15): " Lastly, for the translation, albeit I have not followed 
the author's words, yet have I endeavoured faithfully to deliver 
his meaning in the plainest form, and in words most in use among 
the people." Fi'om his Address to the Header, (p. 21), it will be 
seen that he was somewhat doubtful of the accuracy of the work. 
He had reason to be so. He has occasionally given only a hurried 
glance at his original, and missed his meaning ; now and then he 
has altogether omitted important passages. But, on the whole, the 
translation is faithful, and the Editor has, by a careful comparison 
with the original, rectified the occasional mistranslations and omis- 
sions ; as may be seen in pp. 116, 256. 

The marginal notes are of two kinds. The one set proceeds from 
Holland himself — there being no such notes in the original — and is 
intended to form a summary of the arguments, or to point to a cor- 
roborative passage of Scripture, as at pp. 65, 72. These notes, in a 
few instances, lead to inaccuracy. See p. 121. The references to 
other than Scripture authorities, and the Greek quotations, which 
are found in the margin, are Rollock's own, and have been trans- 
ferred from the text by Holland. See pp. 120, 124. 

In the original, the Latin translations of the Old Testament 

Henry Holland, who is not to be confounded witli another of the same name, son of the 
famous translator, Philemon Holland. A Treatise against Witchcraft ; Cambridge, 
1590. Spiritual Persuasions against the Pestilence, chiefly selected out of the 91st 
Psalm ; London, Richard Field, 159:1. Aphorisms of Christian Religion ; A Compen- 
dious Abridgment of Calvin's Institutions. Translated from Piscator. London, 
Richard Field, 1596. Christian Exercise of Fasting ; London, 1596. The Works of 
Mr Richard Greenham, minister, revised, corrected and published by H. H. ; Lon- 
don, 1599. See, besides, in the list of Principal Rollock's works, the Lectures upon 
the Ejmtle of Paul to the Colossians. To Francis Marbury, who writes an Epistle to 
the Reader, (p. 19), all that is assigned by Watt is, A Sermon on Easter Tuesday; 
London, 1604. 


are chiefly from the translation of Tremellius and Junius, as Is 
noticed p. 105. There are slight variations, however, either 
owing to RoUock's quotations being made memoriter, or to his 
choice of diiFerent vocables. Sometimes, also, he uses the Yulgate 
translation. Thus in the beginning of the 10th Chapter, (p. 81 of 
the original Latin), he prefers the Vulgate rendering of Psalm xix. 
9, " Prteceptum Domini lucidum et illuminans oculos " — to that of 
Tremellius and Junius : " PrjEceptum Jehovae purum, Illustrans 
oculos." He adopts, (ibid.) "Mandatum lucerna, et lex lux," (Prov. 
vl. 23,) from the Vulgate, where Tremellius and Junius have : "Nam 
lucerna pr^eceptum est, et doctrina lux." In the New Testament 
he only occasionally differs from Beza's translation.^ Thus in the 
3d Chapter, (p. 22 of the original Latin), Rollock's translation of 
2 Tliess. i. 6, 7, is ; " Tamen justum est apud Deum retribuere lis 
vicissim, qui affligunt vos, afflictionem ; vobis vero qui affligimini, 
relaxationem noblscum." Compare this with Beza : " SI quidem 
justum est apud Deum vicissim reddere lis, qui affligunt vos, afflic- 
tionem ; vobis vero qui affligimini, relaxationem noblscum." The 
original of tamen and si quidem is ei'Tfg'. But Rollock has pro- 
bably omitted si merely because it was unnecessary in the con- 
nexion. Sometimes his variations are not happy. Thus he trans- 
lates (ibid.) Ephesians vl. 8 ; (si^orsg on o lav ri szuarog xoiriff)^ 
ayadov^ rovro zo(j!jis7rut xa^ci rov ILv^iov) " scientes quod quis- 
que fecerit boni, hoc reportabit a Domino " — which is manifestly 
ungrammatical. Holland's translation of Scripture texts Is founded 
on the Geneva version, though he occasionally translates literally 
from Rollock's Latin. His references are simply copied from the 
original. It may be as well to mention here, that the Editor has 
verified and corrected the references, and filled up those which 
were wanting or imperfect. 

A word as to the foot notes. The Editor at first contented 

1 His opinion on this work he gives in his Commentary- on Panl's Epistle to the 
Romans, in these words : " Secuti sumus versionem D. Bezae Latinam, ut quae longe 
optima sit." 


himself with a few brief remarks, pointing out wherein Holland 
had mistaken the original. But when he had reached the six- 
teenth Chapter, he found himself, for his own satisfaction, busied 
in turning up the authorities within his reach, to trace the refer- 
ences made by Eollock. He did not think it fair to Rollock's 
readers to put them to the same trouble, and he has briefly noted 
the result of his enquiries. Moreover, RoUock has taken up many 
controversial points with the Roman Catholics, which are, in our 
own time, both interesting and important. The great authority 
then, was Bellarmin, who had recently culminated on the Roman 
horizon. And he is the great authority still. It seemed not un- 
suitable to save the reader the trouble, even where he had the 
means, of turning up, in the ample folios of Bellarmin, the pas- 
sages which Rollock refutes. Besides Bellarmin, Rollock attacks 
the views of the Rhemish translators of the New Testament. 
Though this is not so difficult of access, the Editor deemed it ex- 
pedient to add such extracts from that work as serve to elucidate 
Rollock's views. 

He was the more induced to do this for another reason. Dr 
M'Crie, while treating of the progress of clerical learning in 
Scotland, towards the close of the eighteenth century, takes 
occasion to mention the writings of Rollock and Bruce. Of 
Rollock he says : — " The former published Commentaries on most 
of the books of the New Testament, and on some parts of the 
Old, which were speedily reprinted on the continent, with warm 
recommendations by foreign divines. Though they contain occa- 
sional remarks on the original, Rollock's commentaries are not 
distinguished for critical learning, nor do they discover deep re- 
search ; but they are perspicuous, succinct, and judicious. His 
treatise on 'Effectual Calling is a compendious system of divinity, 
and affords a favourable specimen of the manner in which he exe- 
cuted this part of his academical lectures." {Life of Melville, vol. 
ii. p. 421.) While on the one hand this treatise can hardly be 
called a compendious system of divinity — It is but a small por- 
tion cut out of the system taught by Rollock — on the other, the 


readers of this ])a8sage are liable to form the idea, (though the 
sagacious biographer of Melville makes no such assertion,) that 
from none of EoUock's works do we gather that he was a man of 
deep research. The Editor is anxious to remove any impression so 
erroneous. His own labours in following EoUock have taught 
him the reverse. EoUock not only had read on the controverted 
doctrines, but he had read deeply and had searched for himself. 
In this part of his works, both his learning, his research, and hia 
dialectic skill, are triumphantly established. Were he to rise from 
his grave now, and take his part with living men, he would, for 
all the laborious strifes that have taken place since he flourished, 
with the mastery which he had acquired over the points of debate, 
be able, in respect to learning and logic, to uphold the fame of 
the University, over whose infancy he presided. Not the less 
acceptable, it is hoped, will this work be, at the present momentous 

Still further to enable the reader to judge of EoUock as a 
teacher of theology, there has been added to the close of this 
volume, a Tractate, entitled, De aeterna Mentis Divince approha- 
tione et improhatione, the original of which, a broadside, is in the 
Advocates Library. ^ This it has not been deemed expedient 
to translate, partly on account of its scholastic terminology, which 
hardly admits of successful translation, and, partly, because 
those only who are acquainted with the original Latin, are likely 
to take much interest in the Tractate. It must be remembered, 
that though the Eeformers had made great progress in theological 
knowledge, they had not wholly freed themselves from the fetters 
of the various stiff and pedantic schools of logic, in which it was 
then, and long afterwards, the fashion to train the mind. The 
most momentous themes were played with as mere abstractions. 
Having concocted from certain premises the intermediate conclu- 
sions to which their rules led them, they treated these deductions 

1 The Editor gladly avails himself of this opportunity of recording his grateful sense 
of the dignified courtesy, combined with rare and profound learning, with which Dr 
Irving so long gi-aced this National Institution. 



as algebraists use their symbols. They reasoned them out, with- 
out remembering the darkness and doubt which overhang all the 
steps of moral reasoning, the moment that we pass the limits of our 
own consciousness, and that wherever revealed truth deals with the 
unknown, to enquire beyond what is written is foolish and dan- 
gerous. This often gives a dryness and repulsiveness to the spe- 
culations of our early divines. They appeal too little to the mind 
as it is ; they fashion phantoms similar to the idola tlieatri of 
Bacon, and from these draw their conclusions, which are utterly 
valueless. For, change or doubt one part of the definition, or 
add one other element, and the whole structure falls to the 
ground. Protestantism is extricating herself from this, though 
the process of extrication seems slow, and not yet complete. The 
constant references to Scripture, the proclamation of the gospel as 
bearing directly in its effects upon the soul, the appeals to con- 
sciousness, and the freedom from dogmatic authority, which, in 
order to create any thing like unity, must be regulated by a com- 
mon standard, framed by minds deferring to mutual, felt, reflected 
truth, all tend to break in pieces the idols of a vain and fantastic 
philosophy. The reader will find several instructive examples of 
the struggle between Rollock's feeling of the practical, and his 
habits as a dialectician, in the " Treatise of God's Effectual Call- 
in o-," while in the Tractate at the end of the volume he revels In 
almost pure dialectics — a shrewd exercise for training subtle minds, 
but dangerous withal, when the Bible and eternal truths are used 
as the instruments of fence. 

From this evil or error, in all forms and appliances, the Sermons 
are wholly free. Of them Dr M'Crie (Life of Melville, ibid.) 
has well remarked : " His sermons, which were published from notes 
taken by some of his hearers, exhibit him in a very amiable light, 
as ' condescending to men of low estate,' and keeping sacredly 
in view the proper end of preaching, the instruction and salvation 
of the people, and not the display of the learning, ingenuity, or 
eloquence of the preacher." But we shnll first shew what has 


been done in this volume, regarding the sermons, before we at- 
tempt to point out their peculiarities. 

Not long after Rollock's death, in 1599, eleven of his sermons, 
concocted from notes taken by his students, were published at 
Edinburgh. Dr M'Crie (ibid.) conjectures, that the Epistle to 
the Christian Reader was written by Melville. Whether this 
was the case or not, it is probable, from a passage in the republi- 
cation of 1616, (p. 454 of this edition,) that the collectors and 
editors were Henry Charteris and William Arthur. From the 
same passage, where we learn that in 1616 there were no copies 
of the sermons extant, we may form some notion of the great 
popularity of this publication. For, in the inventory of books 
forming the stock of the printer, Henry Charteris, who died 29th 
August 1599, we find,^ " Item, ane thousand RoUocke's Sermons, 
at vjs. the pece, summe ccc£." This was a large sale for that 

The original sermons were printed in the Scottish dialect. 
The volume is one of 282 pages 8vo, and contains, after the 
Epistle to the Reider, the three sonnets by James Melville. 
Charteris and Arthur were induced to republish these eleven 
sermons, with seven more, in 1616, as we judge from the date 
of the Dedicatory Epistle to Sir William Scott of Elie, (see p. 
455.) We have not seen any copy bearing this date on the 
title-page ; but we are told that there is at least one copy with 
that date in Glassow.^ Those that we have seen have the date 
1634, and are evidently the same edition with a new title-page, 
which may have been occasioned by the death of the printer ; 
for the book was printed in 1616 by Andrew Hart, and he died in 
1621.^ The republication alters the phraseology and the spelling 

1 Bannatyne Miscellamj, vol. ii. p. 224 ; pointed out by David Laing, Esq., Keeper 
of the Signet Library, who has taken much interest in this publication, and to whom 
the Wodrow Society, as well as all interested in the early literature of Scotland, are, 
in many respects, deeply indebted. 

2 We owe this information to Mr Rowand, Librarian of New College, Edinburgh, 
whose stores of information are open to all who are investigating matters like these. 

3 Bannatyne Miscellany, vol. ii. p. 241. 



of the Sermons originally published, from the Scottish to the Eng- 
lish dialect and form, so far as the provincial skill of the editors 
allowed them. In now reprinting these sermons, it seemed a mat- 
ter of interest to give the reader an opportunity of comparing the 
Scottish with the English version. Accordingly, the eleven ser- 
mons of the first publication of 1599 are copied verbatim et literatim 
from that edition. At the foot of the pages are given, as lectiones 
variantes, the changes in the words and phrases introduced by the 
original editors in the edition of 1616. Where the change made 
is merely one of spelling, or grammatical correction, no notice is 
taken, as that would have been to reprint both. The seven Ser- 
mons that are peculiar to the Anglicized edition of 1616, are, of 
course, given in their English dress, with no other change than 
in the spelling, which is modernized. Not a word or a phrase 
is altered ; even what we should now deem grammatical errors, 
are retained and sanctioned. If any one is inclined to censure 
the alteration in the spelling, we would shelter ourselves under 
the authority of South ey, whom no one will accuse of under- 
valuing old usage. He says, {The Doctor, p. 383, ed. 1848) : 
" There is no good reason why the caf)ricious spelling of the early 
editions should be scrupulously and pedantically observed in 
Shakespeare, Milton, or any author of their respective times ; — 
no reason why words which retain the same acceptation, and are 
still pronouced in the same manner, should not now be spelt ac- 
cording to the received orthography." 

Principal Lee — in his elaborate *' Memorial for the Bible Socie- 
ties of Scotland," p. 24 — says of these Sermons, that " they have 
aU the quotations from the Scriptures according to the Geneva 
version." This is nearly correct. The only variations which we 
have noticed are the following. In the text to the Fifth Seruion, 
(p. 353), 2 Cor. v. 1 7, the Geneva translation (we refer to Bassan- 
dyne's reprint of 1576, from the Geneva translation of 1560), 
gives : " Therefore, if any man be in Chi"ist, [let him be] a new 
creature." The brackets intimate a supplement of the translator's, 
the words in the original being, coan zi rig h X^/ctaI', kuivtj Kriaig. 


The reader will find that Rollock fills up the supplement as in our 
version, and in the Geneva translation of 1557, "he is a new crea- 
ture." In the text to the Sixth Sermon, 1 Cor. ii. 9, the follow- 
ing extraordinary sentence is fi*om the Geneva translation : " The 
things which eye hath not seen, neither ear hath heard, neither 
came into man's heart, are which God hath prepared for them 
that love him." The reader will find, on turning to p. 364, that 
the text prefixed to the sermons exhibits a translation almost ver- 
batim the same as that of Tyndale, Cranmer, and our own autho- 
rised version. 

Let us, in imagination, transport ourselves to the New Church 
of old Edinburgh, on some Sabbath morning, in the year 1596. 
Let us enter with the citizens, worthy burgesses, their devout 
dames and daughters, the thronging students, full of the pride of 
young scholarship, but grave withal, and not a little checked by 
the presence of those over whose spiritual interests they may be 
called to preside. Besides, there is Master Charteris, and there 
are his colleagues, and many eyes are on those who are hereafter 
to preach the gospel to an earnest age. Early as the hour is, not 
a few of the barons are there, and the judges of the land. The 
Court is at Holyrood — the King has marked Rollock with his 
confidential fii'iendship — and, though the devout man has no 
scruple in denouncing sin in high places, he has never been known 
to become personally minatory. It is known that his fame is in 
other lands besides his own. And he is at the head of the Uni- 
versity, by which much good has been done, and more is expected, 
for Edinburgh and for Scotland. 

One or two old men are there, who, when mere boys, saw the 
fires lighted at the Rood of Greenside, and the intrepid Straiton 
expiate with his life the crime of adhering to Scripture truth. 
Many changes have they seen, regencies, reigns, riots, foreign 
troops beleaguering their city, murder rampant in the very palace, 
one sovereign treacherously slain, another deposed, a prisoner, and 
a victim — but never has that fearful sight left their eyes or their 


heart; and, under its influence they have assisted like men to 
overthrow a crazy superstition, the foundation of which was already 
destroyed by the death-blaze of many a funeral pile. There are 
some younger, but still old men, who date their refoi*med creed 
from the barbarous death of Walter !Milne, that devout man of 
" decrepit age." The smoke of his execution had been wafted . 
to the furthest parts of Scotland. And not many months after his 
death, when the Queen Regent was dining in Alexander Carpen- 
ter's house, betwixt the bows, these very men had helped to " dad 
the head of St Giles to the causey," and had shouted, " Fy on thee, 
young St Giles, thy father would not have been so wud." Years 
and greater knowledge have cooled their blood, but confirmed their 
faith. Most of them have heard the trumpet tones of Knox, that 
son of thunder ; nay, some of them formed part of the deputation, 
which, when his intrepid spirit refused to yield before the hostile 
Hamiltons and their murderous designs, besought him, for their 
sakes, to leave the town, and seek safety elsewhere. Fierce 
enough times they had all seen, and fierce times they lived in, as 
we would deem them, but they were calm when compared with 
the storms that had nursed the hardy plant of the Scottish Kirk. 
The Popish Lords are a subject of constant dread : and, familiarly 
known as King James is to them all, sooth to tell, a little con- 
tempt for his want of firmness, and strong doubts of his sincerity, 
temper their confidence in his oft expressed zeal for the Church 
that has neither Pasch nor Yule. Some of the sterner spirits too, 
look on Rollock as too yielding. But even they attribute this to 
his love of peace, and his scholarly habits. And they deny nei- 
ther the holiness of his life, the purity of his doctrine, nor the 
genuine worth of his preaching. It is remembered by them that 
he has often spoken out boldly enough against the encourage- 
ment given by the King to the enemies of the true faith, and that 
on one occasion lately,^ howbeit otherwise a mild and meek man, 

' See vol. ii. p. 109, for this passage ; and for an account of the impression made by 
it, see Calderwood, vol. v. p. 359. Calderwood enables us to fix the date of the Lec- 
ture on John's gospel here referred to. It was delivered on the 5th of January 1595. 
It appears that the alhision made in the lecture is not to the I'apal Indulgences, as 


while lecturing upon the release of Barabbas, he prayed God to 
give the King a remission for all the remissions he had given 
to murderers. It is likewise known, that whatever be the inten- 
tion of the Court regarding the institution of Episcopacy, he has 
published to the world in his worthy commentary upon the 
Epistle to the Ephesians, a work highly commended by the most 
famous theologians among them, that the office of bishops, as they 
are lords over their brethren, is to be condemned, where, also, he 
proves pastors and bishops to be both one.^ And, so in their love 
of the man, the more ardent spirits are willing to forgive what they 
deem a too easy spirit of com^jliance. 

Let us now attend not to the hearers, but to the preacher. 
He is now only in his forty-second year, but is evidently worn out 
with labour. He looks on his audience with kindliest affection, and 
with gentle voice gives out as his text, John iii. 6.^ " That which 
is born of the flesh is flesh ; and that that is born of the Spirit is 
spirit." With great simplicity and clearness he shews the occa- 
sion on which these words were uttered, and discriminates be- 
tween the manner of the new birth, and its nature, — the latter 
being the subject of the discourse. He then examines, point by 
point, the flesh and the generation thereof; the Spirit and re- 
generation. On the first, he explains the nature of original sin, 
and how it has corrupted body and soul, the understanding, the 
will, the affections, and the natural powers and faculties; and this 
corruption is common to all. " The root and seed of all mischief 
under the sun is compacted in every man and woman." Even 

stated in the note to the passage, but to the corruption of the Court, which led to such 
remissions. The courteous reader will also forgive and correct an anachronism which 
occiu's in the note to p. 133 of the second volume. The allusion is plainl}' to the 
death of Heniy III. of France, 6th Augxist 1580, by the hands of Jacques Clement, 
and not to the murder of Henry IV. To return to the chronology of the Lectures on 
John, in vol. ii. p. 469, notice is taken of a dearth, which probably occurred in the 
course of 1595, or the beginning of 1595, — (See Calderwood, vol. v. p. 410,) and was 
the precursor of the greater dearth of 1596. Again, in vol. ii. p. 267, notice is taken 
of the proposed division of Edinburgh into parishes — a proposal which, we may safely 
conclude, was first made somewhei'e in the end of the year 1595. 

1 Row's History of ihe Kirk of Scotland, p. 419. 

2 See the Sixteenth Sermon. 


when lurking in the soul, it is to be feared ; though men think 
they have not the pest, present an occasion and it bursts out into 
actual sin. " Even, as we see sometimes, that fire will be so hid- 
den and covered under the ashes, that it will not appeal-, and men 
will think that there is no fire there ; but as soon as there is any 
meet and apt matter, as wood, powder, or brimstone applied, 
then it will manifest itself, and burst forth into a flame." Yet it 
is more dangerous when it bursts out, giving pleasure and cause 
of boasting to wicked men. He uses a homely similitude to de- 
clare this matter. " A man will have a worm in his finger,^ or 
tooth. It will keep itself quiet, and cease from gnawing for a sea- 
son, and he will think he is whole enough ; but take a little vinegar, 
or some such like piercing and sharp water, then she will begin to 
gnaw, and then the silly man will complain that he was beguiled, 
when he thought he was well enough. Even so it is with the con- 
science of man ; for it lieth in the soul of man lurking, as a worm 
lieth m the flesh, and sometimes it gnaweth, and sometimes it lieth 
stiU, and letteth the murderer, the adulterer, the oppressor, go for- 
ward in murder, adultery, oppression, and other most abominable 
sins, without any accusation, grief, remorse, or fear of the law of God, 
and threatening of the curses thereof. I shall tell you more than 
that. Sometimes the conscience of a miserable malefactor will be 
so senseless, that it will nowise be moved by the preaching. A 
murderer wiU be sitting before the minister ; a vile, filthy adul- 
terer will be sitting there, devising how to accomplish their abo- 
minable lusts, in the meantime that the minister will be threatening 
judgment against their wickedness. They will not be moved by 
the threatenings, but wiU disdain and scorn them in their hearts, 
and will say, ' This fellow doeth nothing but prate and rail what 
he pleaseth ;' and, after preaching, will go out merrily to his din- 

1 What was the notion of our ancestors on this snbject ? The reader ean hardly 
fail to call to mind a similar allusion in Shakespeare ; 

Not half fo big as a round little worm, 
Prick'd from tlie lazy finger of a maid. 

See pp. 372, 373, for other suggestive questions on the science of Rollock's time. 


ner, and there curse, and swear, and blaspheme God's name, and 
thereafter go to his bed as a beast, or a senseless sow." This 
corruption descends to a man's children, and if we take no care 
of that corruption, that sore pest shall be laid to our charge in 
that great day. He next turns to regeneration, and to Christ, not 
only our elder brother, but our spiritual father. The generation of 
his Spirit is called regeneration, which is an alteration and chang- 
ing of the whole nature of man, accomplished and performed by 
the powerful operation of the Holy Spirit. The mind and reason, 
the will and the affections are all changed. This is not an easy 
work. " Yea, thou mayest see that it is a thing altogether im- 
possible, except that almighty Spirit of God be present, and work 
it effectually in the soul. All the kings of the earth, with all the 
weapons and engines of war, cannot be able to do it. No, all the 
angels in heaven are not able to accomplish this work." The 
Spirit of God alone can do it, and, let great men, let worldly men 
esteem of it as they please, God hath ordained this ministry, to 
minister this wonderful power whereby the souls of men shall be 
regenerated. Nor is the work of regeneration^ perfected in an 
instant. It continues all the days of a man's life. Faith is the 
means of our change. Beholding Christ with the eyes of faith, 
we are changed according to oiu* faith. When we shall see him 
face to face, and behold him as he is, then shall we be like him in 
glory ; the change shall be perfect. His presence shall be effec- 
tual to change our vile body, and to fashion it like unto his owoi 
glorious body. When we behold his glory, we shall be changed 
into the same glory. But not for ourselves alone should this 
doctrine be pondered by us. " Brethren," says the warm-hearted 
preacher, in conclusion, " this is mine exhortation to all, both to 

1 It will be seen that Eollock uses the word regeneration, in one aspect of it, as 
equivalent to sanctification. It is important to notice the same use of the word in the 
Treatise on Ett'cctual Calling. Sometimes also he calls it glorification, (see chapter 
xxx\-lii,) which he uses in the active sense, not of being glorified, hut of glorifying God. 
Eegeneration is with him the cause or pi'ocess, and glorification the effect or result. 
It is necessaiy to attend to this in order to understand the twelfth division of his 
Theological Course. (See p. 25.) 


great and small, (I except none, from the king to the beggar,) 
strive, as ye are instruments of generation, so to be instruments 
of regeneration, that your children may be taken out of nature 
and planted in grace, and so be made members of the mystical 
body of Jesus Christ. Strive to bring them up in the knowledge 
of Christ, that so ye may be free of that heavy judgment which 
remaineth for all such as neglect this duty towards their children ; 
and that ye may see God's blessing upon your children here, and 
may have hope of that eternal life and glory hereafter, which the 
Lord hath promised to his own in Christ Jesus." 

With manly, sound, practical, and stirring teaching like this, 
were our fathers edified some two centuries and a half ago. 

In the Additions to the Coronis appended to Row's Historie 
of the Kh'h of Scotland, (p. 469,) we find a pleasing account of 
Rollock's manner of dealing with his pupils. We are there 
told that Mr Rollock took John Row, in 1590, " to waite 
upon himselfe and to studie with him. Mr Rollock wes verie 
kind to him and made much of him for his father's sake, he 
also having been regent to his tuo elder brethren in the Old 
CoUedge of St Andrews. He used him rather as a friend, nor 
as a servant, and w^es most communicative with him. He used 
ordinarlie on the Saturday afternoone to walk out to the feilds, 
choosing him to carie a booke or two with him, that he might read 
and meditate in the feilds. His ordinarie custom wes to tell him 
what wes his text he wes to preach upon to-morrow, and what 
wes his reasons and doctrines raised from the text, saying, ' Mr 
John, does that doctrine rise clearlie from my text ?' ' Is this 
use suitable to the doctrine, and pertinent for our people ?' All 
this, and the lyke passages, as it argued much humilitie and con- 
descending self-denyall in the learned, pious and prudent man, 
famous Mr Rollock, so it sheu verie much kyndencss in him and 
care of his servant, using him rather as ane comerad and intimate 
friend then a servant." A fine picture this of the godly man and 
his youthful attendant, nuising at even-tide, in our fields, on the 
truths which were, on the morrow, to be addressed to our own 


forefathers. But we notice it here, to bring out the characteris- 
tics of RoUock's method of treating his subject. His anxiety 
to make the doctrine rise clearly from the text, exactly cor- 
responds with his own language, (see p. 318,) " Leame the 
wordis, for all the doctrine rysis of the wordis." His habit is 
carefully to examine the occasion which gave rise to the words 
that furnish the subject for his comments ; he then investigates 
the train of thought pursued in the passage. This he does 
without any shew of learning, or any critical analysis of the ori- 
ginal. There is no parade of scholastic erudition, and his exami- 
nation is simple and clear. It is evident that he understood 
perfectly the difference between a promiscuous audience met to 
hear the truths of the gospel, and a class of pupils in their course 
of training for pursuing truth in all the various processes, and for 
acquiring those habits of investigation which should lead them 
authoritatively and successfully to teach others. Of this, the reader 
will be convinced, if he compares the 25th chapter of the "Treatise 
on God's Effectual Calling," which treats on original sin, with the 
16th sermon, where the same subject is handled. The one is a 
learned and scholarlike dissertation on the subject, enquiring into 
opinions and refuting opponents — too often, it must be admitted, 
degenerating into the varied and useless subtleties peculiar to his 
time. The latter is a popular, forcible and practical exposition of 
the truths to which Scripture and reason pointed, and has the ful- 
ness, without any of the pedantry of scholarship. This is the more 
to be admired, because the attentive reader will mark an imder- 
current of scholarlike thought running through the whole of these 
discourses. He tacitly gives the result of his study, but the 
unlearned hearer would never notice the process. Thus, in the 
text to the Fourth Sermon, (2 Cor. v. 14,) there occur the words, 
'H yag Dtyocxri rov H^tarov (rvvzyjn ni^oig — where the genitive may 
be either subjective or objective. Thus, Bloomfield remarks, " it 
may mean either the love we bear to Christ, as John xv. 9 and 10, 
or rather, as in Eph. iii. 14, the love which Christ bears to us." 
See how, (p. 348,) RoUock brings out this point with a strong 


practical tendency, "Tor the lufe of God constraynis us.' As 
gif he wald say, 1 am constrained to this fulischiies ; and ane 
charffe is laid on mee to doe sa. I am bund and obleist sa to 
do : that is, to be ane wod man for the glorie of my God. And 
quhairfra cummis this necessitie ? It is the love of God (sayis 
he) that constraynis me : this band that bindis mee is the love 
of Christ — not the love quhilk I beir to him, that is over waih, 
bot the love quhilk he beiris to mee, it bindis all my sensis, 
and careis mee to honour my God with my haill bodie." In the 
bumc way, in the Eleventh Sermon, (p. 435,) he has a tacit re- 
ference to the original. The word translated in the prefixed text, 
deceived, is, in the original, (Titus iii. 3,) '7r'kccva/[/jii'0i — the literal 
force of which he expounds in the expressions ; " He callis our 
warkis tavering, going out of the way. Can ane wod man keip 
the hie gait ?" &c. And, similarly, immediately afterwards, 
where the apostle uses the term dovXsvovng, and the translation 
has " serving the lustis," he brings out the full force of the 
original, in the words : " He descryvis this wavering, and he callis 
it serving ; it standis in slaverie," &c. And on the idea of slavery, 
thus suggested, he dwells with great force. "Sometimes, though 
rarely, he alludes to the Greek; as in p. 331, where he gives the 
force of the original, (p/Xor/|M/of3jW;S^a, (2 Cor. v. 9,) " ' We covet,' 
sayis he, thair is the first word ; and in the first language this word 
importis not onlie ane common desire, bot ane ambitioun," &c. So 
in tlie Tenth Sermon, (p. 422,) he thus explains the word uTOKa- 
^aloyJaVy " The word importis sic ane hope, as quhen ane man lies 
his heid raisit up, his eies oppin and bent, away ting for ony thing 
attentivelie,"^ &c. This is an accurate account of the word, and 
indicates a minute attention to the original ; yet the force of the 
expression is brought out unobtrusively and without pedantry. 
After Eollock has thus displayed the plain meaning of each 

1 Compare with this the account given in the hest of our modern Lexicons of the 
New Testament — Robinson's. "'Atroxa^aSox/a, from the verb avoKa^a^oKiu {a^o. xa^a., 
head, ^oKivu, to look,) i. q. r^ x,i(paXri T^oSxi'Tiiv. Etym. Mag. i. e. ' to look away to- 
wards any thing with the head bent forward,' and hence to await, to expect ear- 
nestly" &c. 


portion of his text, he applies it doctrinally and practically to his 
hearers. In this part of his teaching, he uses much simplicity, 
earnestness, and plainness, applying himself to the consciousness 
and the conscuences of his hearers, speaking strongly, but withal 
affectionately. Error he generally puts down by preaching the 
truth. The Papistical doctrines he does combat, but briefly. 
Here, too, there is a marked difference between his sermons and 
his academical prelections. In the latter he is learned, argumen- 
tative, and scholastic ; in the latter he uses the authority of his 
office, and announces the truth without controversy. There is 
considerable skill in his mode of passing from his application of 
each portion of the text, to the resumption of the analysis of the 
next portion. He generally comes back, at the close of his appli- 
cation, to the words of the text, and is thus enabled to proceed 
without effort or break, to the ])art immediately succeeding. 
The Twelfth and Thirteenth Sermons may be adduced as excel- 
lent specimens of our author's manner, exhausting his subject, 
and intimating much Christian experience, blended with practi- 
cal wisdom. The plainness of his manner sometimes approaches 
to familiarity, which, in the Scottish service, is pleasing from 
its quaintness. Thus, in the Sixth Sermon, (p. 371,) " Thou 
leis, suppois thou wer the Paip ; I speik it to the glorie of God, 
this Gospell that is preiched in Scotland, was fra all eternitie." 
And a little fm-ther on, in the same Sermon, (p. 374,) " I say mair 
to zow, the mair ane man hes of naturall wit and judgement, the 
mair he pride him in his wit, and clap his awin heid, and thinke 
he hes ane wise pow, the mair he count of his awin wisdome, the 
mair sail this wisdome of the Gospell be fulischnes to him : and 
ever the wysest of the warld countis the Gospell the greatest 
fulischnes. I had rather tak in hand to teiche ane idiote the Gos- 
pell, and cause him to conceive it, gif God wald give me grace, 
nor to tak ane heich-heided chylde that is puffed up with the 
pride of nature, to ding in him ane word of it." But every ser- 
mon abounds with instances. 

There is strong internal evidence that the sermons have been 


faithfully reported, and are accurate representations of Rollock'a 
manner. They agree, besides, with the various accounts Avhich 
we have of his affectionate, plain, and practical style of preaching. 
The skilful teacher is evident throughout. The brief sentences 
— the attention kept up by questions skilfully interponed — the 
variety of manner in the blending of comment, application, re- 
monstrance, denunciation, and consolation — and, here and there, 
unconscious dashes from the Professor's chair, seem characteristic 
of the man. To the latter may be referred the attack on the Aris- 
totelian school of Christians, in the Seventh Sermon, (p. 388,) cha- 
racteristic of Rollock as a follower of Ramus, and such technical 
terms as occur in the Fifteenth Sermon, (p. 502,) " But to consi- 
der more narrowly, first, the ground of the proposition ; then the 
assumption ; last, that joyful conclusion^ A careful reader, atten- 
tive to the peculiarities of spoken addresses written down on the 
spot, will be most convinced by the parenthetical clauses that are 
constantly thrown in, awkwardly enough for a written discourse, 
but most natural in the full flow of thought. A practised 
speaker, in whose mind there arises a stray thought connected 
with, but not part of, his main idea, dashes it off in a word or 
two, and resumes the principal topic, neither losing the happy 
suggestion, on the one hand, nor, by dwelling too long on it, 
drawing away attention from the main subject of the discourse. 
This, indeed, constitutes one of the great charms of ready elo- 
quence ; and most of us must recognise iu it that which has given 
us pleasure, from imparting the idea of intimate converse with the 
speaker. He seems for the moment not to be addressing us, 
but merely thinking aloud. There is much of this in these ser- 
mons. Take but one specimen. In the Sixth Sermon, (p. 366,) 
he says, while speaking of the wisdom of God, (1 Cor. ii. 6,) " The 
Apostle beginnis his commendatioun at the Authoiu" : and first 
he lets zow se quha is not the Authour : then he lets zow se in 
verie deid quha is the Authour of this wisdom. (All this is spoken 
of the Gospell quhilke we preichc to you, and thairfoir note everie 
circumstance, mark the excellencie of this Gospell, quhilk the 


Apostle to the Philip, iii. 8, callis, The eminencie of the knaw- 
ledge of Jesus Christ quhilk mountis above al knawledge in this 
warld.) Then quhome sayis he not to be the Authour of it ?" 

The allusions too, contained in the sermons, to the times and 
circumstances, stamp them with authenticity. The Eleventh 
Sermon is a preparation for the communion (p. 431.) There are 
throughout allusions to the condition of the ministry in Scotland ; 
the opposition of the Court is not obscurely hinted at ; and pas- 
sing events are made the subjects of comment. Hence we are 
able to fix somewhat precisely the date at which some, probably 
the greater part, of these sermons were preached. It was in 
1587 that Rollock commenced his morning discourses,^ and it was 
only in the last year of his life that he began to undertake a regular 
city cure. The sermons ought probably to be referred to the 
former duty, and in all likelihood followed the Lectures on John : 
— "Thair lies bene lang heiring and teiching amang us in this 
Toun, bot the ischue of thingis testifies that thair hes bene 
ane evill dispositioun in the hartis of the multitude ; the present 
trouble of this Toun tellis quhat hes been the dispositioun of 
manie. For quhatever be the wark of men heirin, zit na questioun 
the Lord hes his wark in it, to spuilzie thee for thy ingratitude 
and evill dispositioun of thy hart of the libertie of his glorious 
Gospell : and gif this Gospell gang away, then schame and con- 
fusion sal licht not onlie upon this Toun, bot also on the haill 
land and everie estait thairof." (Sixth Sermon, p. 365.) There 
were certainly about this time troubles enough in Edinburgh to 
set at defiance all chronology founded on them : but taken into 
connection with the fear of the loss of a gospel ministry, there is 
small risk of error in fixing the date of this sermon to the close of 
the year 1596, when the ministers of Edinburgh had to leave the 
town on account of the absurdly magnified affair of the 17th De- 
cember. RoUock seems to refer \Adth as much censure as his 
gentle nature will admit to the conduct of the citizens, in first 
bringing their ministers into trouble, and then pusillanimously 

1 See his Life, post ; and p. x., note 1. 


abandoning them. With this date also agrees the allusion in 
these words : — " Now, I hear there is great poverty and famine in 
this land ; and wo unto them that are the instruments of hunger. 
Let us be so far from this, to be the causes thereof, that, on the 
contrary, we may pinch ourselves, that we may spare upon the 
needy ; for I see the Lord will try our liberality. Therefore, let 
us spare upon the poor in this land, that we may hear of the Lord 
in that great day, ' Come ye blessed of my Father, for ye gave 
me meat and ye gave me drink in this world.' " (Fifteenth Ser- 
mon, p. 507.) This dearth is mentioned both by James Melville 
{Autobiography/, p. o67,) and Calderwood (vol. v. p. 437.) It 
occurred in the same year 1596. 

The attentive reader will not fail, not only to be edified by the 
sound doctrine and simple eloquence of these sermons, but to dis- 
cern in them instructive marks of the times in which they were 
delivered. Violence, bloodshed, practical atheism, sensuality, the 
corruption of the courts of law, excite the preacher's indignation, 
and call forth his rebuke. There appears in his sermons, only in 
a more chastened form, the same undaunted fearlessness of the 
royal displeasure which marked his brethren. Look at the whole 
passage in the Eighth Sermon (p. 401), beginning — " Ane man 
quhom the Lord will send, he wil denunce damnation to an 
obstinate and rebellious people ; and he will be bauld to tak thee, 
as it wer be the lug, suppois thou wer ane king, and leid thee to 
that tribunall to heir the sentence of damnation pronounced against 
thee. . . . Thair is na Lord, but the Lord Jesus, quha will tramp 
down aU the Lordis in the eirth, and tred upon thair craigis at his 
pleisure." By a brief sentence he gives a lively view of the good 
old times in Edinburgh, when Ave had a king in the midst of us, and 
neither he nor his people were sparing of intercourse, familiar enough, 
with one another. " Thou wilt run out and in, hither and thither 
to get a word of the king. And xoliy not, if so thj necessity require ? 
But strive to get a word out of the mouth of Jesus." (Fifteenth Ser- 
mon, p. 509.) Rollock's notion of the ministerial office was high, 
as will be seen in many places. We may point out one characte- 


liant address, which gauied him universal admiration.^ Next daj, which 
was that appointed for the assembling of the students who had determined 
to commence the philosophical course, a great multitude presented them- 
selves. For, on the news that a University had been opened at Edin- 
burgh, many young men flocked not only from the city itself, but also 
from the neighbouring country ; all of whom Rollock trained with the 
greatest assiduity in acquiring a pure Latin style, up till the day appointed 
for the entrance examination. The most of those who were found on ex- 
amination unfit to enter on a course of philosophy, were entrusted to the 
care of Duncan Nairn,^ a man of great learning and elegance of manners, 
that he might train them to a more accui'ate knowledge of the classics for 
the following year. But Rollock, at the very threshold of their studies, 
combined discipline and instruction ; and as the greater part of the stu^ 
dents had been I'endered disorderly by the loose discipline of the ordinary 
schools,^ he restrained them by the application of severity — ^which was tem- 
pered, however, by his innate mildness of temper; and he so blended with 
severity and mildness the first principles of religion, that their young and 
tender minds imbibed imperceptibly at his hands the enlivening dews of 
piety. For this purpose, on each Saturday, after having exercised his 
students till noon in disputations, in the afternoon he read aloud Beza's 
Quaesti07ies, of which, besides, he published a short analysis^ to assist the 
memory of the students. And on Sundays, from seven in the morning till 
half-past eight, w^hen they went to hear sermon, he exercised them regular- 
ly in this work ; and when they had returned from the afternoon discourse, 

1 Eollok began to teach in the town hall of the gi'eat lodging — the mansion of the 
Earl of Arran, which, after the forfeiture of the Hamiltons, had fallen into the hands 
of the magistrates of Edinburgh. — (^Crawford, p. 21.) 

2 Duncan Nairn was a pupil of Andrew Melville's, when Principal of the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow. He took his degree in 1580. — {M'Crie's Melville, vol. i. p. 71.) He 
was appointed to assist Eollok on the 8th November 1583. He died in the beginning 
of 1586, and was succeeded by Mr Charles Lumsden, aftei-wards minister of Dudding- 
stone, who translated EoUock's Commentary on Certain Select Psalms. — {Crawford^ 
p. 30.) 

3 For a graphic picture of the nnndy condition which the High School of Edinburgh 
exhibited about this time, the first chapter of Dr Stevens's History of the High School 
may be consulted. The death of a magistrate at the hands of one of the boys in a 
" barring out," gives a striking proof of their insubordination. See also Pitcairn's 
Criminal Trials, vol. i. p. 349. 

4 This must be Pollock's Prolegomena in primum librum Quaestionum Theodori 
Bezae, which occurs first in the list of his works appended to Eobertson's Life. But I 
have not succeeded in procuring or seeing a copy. 



after they had repeated the sermons which they had heard in church, he 
demanded the proofs. Then he diligently trained them in the Catechism 
of the Palatinate,! and explained with great clearness selected texts of 
Scripture, adding an accurate analysis, in order that they might with the 
utmost ease attain to a knowledge of the meaning of the Holy Spirit. 
In short, he omitted nothing which could impress the youthful mind with 
the knowledge and the fear of God. These labours of his were crowned 
by God with abundant success. 

The attention thus assiduously devoted to the pursuits of religion, in 
no degree obstructed the study of literature or of philosophy. For 
during the whole four years of the course, after he had carefully in- 
structed them in the knowledge of Greek, he read aloud to his pupils, on 
each day of the week, with the utmost minuteness and care, the text of 
Aristotle, beginning with the Oi-ganum Logicmn, and going through the 
Etkica NicoMacheia and the Physica. To these he added also the heads of 
Arithmetic, instruction in the Anatomy of the human body, on the globe, 
- — giving a careful exposition of the text of John of Holy wood- — and in 
Geography ; so that the extent of his instructions, and the attainments of 
his pupils, were both equally surprising. Yet such was the blessing with 
which God accompanied his labours, that their progress in their various 
branches of study enabled them to give as intelligent an account in each 
department, as if they had neglected every thing else to attend to it 
alone. But what was there that could not be accomplished by unwearied 
labour in the state of eager earnestness which then possessed the minds 
of the students! 

AVhen the four years of the philosophical curriculum were expired, after 
a careful examination of the students individually, he bestowed on them the 
degree of Master of Arts ;2 but first he exhorted them, with the greatest so- 

1 This Catechism was compiled at the desire of Prince Otho Frederic, by Ursiii, the 
friend of Mehuicthon, and Pi'ofessor of Divinity at Heidelberg, where he was the col- 
league of Tremellius. It was originally published in 1563. — {Clarke's Marrow of Ec- 
clesiastical History, p. 3G7 ; Melchioris Adaini Vitae, SfX., toI. i. p. 255.) We find it 
keeping its place in the Universities of Scotland for a long period. 

2 Joannes de Sacrobosco, vulgo, John Holybush, or Holywood, or Halifax, is of dis- 
puted birth-place. Dempster, as is his wont, claims him as a Scotchman, from the 
Holywood Monasteiy in Nithsdale ; Leland and Camden represent him to have been 
a native of England, from Halifax. He studied in Paris, and died about the middlfe 
of the thirteenth century. His work, De Sphaera Mundi, had Ramus in the number 
of its annotators. 

3 This took place in 1587. Forty-eight students took the degree of Master of Arts, 


lemnity, regarding the duties that devolved on thera. He reminded them 
with how much diligence and solicitude he had watched over their wel- 
fare, — with what seriousness he had always prepared their minds for that 
other life which is immortal, — that life to which he had brought them to 
direct all the thoughts of this present fleeting existence, all their studies, 
even those of polite literature, all their actions ; how seriously he had 
endeavoured that each day they should more and more be possessed of 
some feeling of that life, in order that, allured by the foretaste of future 
bliss and glory, they might sighing await the fulness of joy, even the adop- 
tion and redemption of their body. He commended to them, at the same 
time, the arts, the sciences, and the employments appertaining to this world, 
and demanded of them that they should immediately enter on some fixed 
line of life, which should be praiseworthy and honourable, and in which 
they might advance the interests of either the Church or the State. But 
so that they should always remember the advice of Paul, and because the 
time to come is short, that they should use this world as not abusing it ; 
in which, he told thera, that Paul has permitted attention to all things 
appertaining to this life, but only in such a manner, that while they are 
engaged in them, they should have their citizenship in the heavens; in other 
words, that while their bodies were exercised about earthly things their affec- 
tions should be above, earnestly beholding God, his will and glory, and look- 
ing for the coming thence of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, who shall 
transform our vile bodies to be like unto his own glorious body. He pro- 
tested that he had always regarded as worthy of abhorrence that profane 
and godless race which looked to themselves rather than to God — a race 
to whose destruction all the blessings of this life will turn. And lastly, 
he concluded his discourse with a serious exhortation to piety and holi- 
ness of life, and to perseverance in that true and pure religion, the truths 
of which they had learned, and in which they had been brought up from 
their chUdhood. 

" Among these were many able wits, namely, Mr Charles Ferme, Mr Philip Hislop, 
Mr Henry Charteris, and Mr Patrick Sands, who were thereafter Regents ; and the 
two last came to be principals of the College." Ferme was elected Regent in January 
1589. Among his pupils was John Earl of Gowrie, who took his degi-ee in 1593. In 
1598, Ferme was called to the ministry at Frazerburgh, where he died not long after. 
—{Cratcford, ibid. pp. 31, 33, 37, 42.) There are three copies of Latin verses, writ- 
ten by Ferme, at the beginning of Rollock's Analysis Loyica in Pauli Epistolam ad Ro- 
manos, Edinburgi, 1594, whicli are not in the Geneva editions. 



After the dismissal of this first class, having married Helen Baron, ^ a 
lady of choice worth, he renounced Philosophy, and devoted himself en- 
tirely to the study of the sacred writings, to which he had ever tui-ned 
his attention from his earliest years : and Philip Hislop,- a young man of 
probity and learning being appointed to take charge of the next class 
in his stead, he confined himself to the control of the whole University,^ 

1 Helen Baron was " daughter to the Laird of Kinnai-de, in Fife." — Crau-fo7-d, ibid. 
p. 50. Her sister Martha was the first wife of Mr Patrick Siinson, minister of Stir- 
ling.— See Boic's Historic of the KirJc of Scotland, Coronis, p. 436, Wodrow Edit. 

2 Philip Hislop, the son of a sword-di-esser,— a burgess of Edinburgh, — was ap- 
pointed Regent in 1587, after a competition Avith Eerme, Charteris, and Sands. In 
1589 he departed to travel in Germany, and was succeeded by Sands. He returned 
in 1591, and was reappointed one of the Regents, lu 1593 he was called to the mi- 
nistiy at Invcresk, where he died a few years afterwards. He was an excellent ma- 
thematician. — (^Crauford, ibid. pp. 32, 34, 37, 38.) He was siicceeded in his Regent- 
ship by George Robertson, the biographer of Rollock. 

3 As Rollock was appointed to the office of Principal in 1595, this appears to 
mean, that whereas before he had executed double duty, as Regent and as Principal, 
he exercised the latter function exclusively during the interval between the opening 
of the classes of philosophy, in October 1587, and his entering on his theological 
course, which, we have already seen, (p. x. note 1) did not take place till after No- 
vember. This time he apparently devoted to the preparation of the regular course 
of instruction in diAnnity. We append Rollock's commission as Principal : — " Let- 
.ter granted to Mr Robert Rollok, maister of the town's college, 1585. Be it kend 
till all men be thir put. lettres. We William Littill, provost of the burgh of Ed'., 
Andro Sclatter, Williame Naper, William Eairlie, Johne Weilkyne, baillies of the said 
burgh ; Nicoll Uddert, dene of the gild ; James Inglis, theasaurer, with the counsall and 
dekynes of craftes of the samyn ; forasmeikle as be contract and appointment maid be- 
twixt the provost, baillies, counsall and dckjaies of craftis of the said burgh for the 
■tyme, on the ane pairt, and Mr Robert Rollock, now regent of the colledge founded 
be the guid tonne at the Kirk of Field, on the uther pairt, it was promitted unto him, 
yat as the said colledge sould increis in policie and learning upoun his guid merit, to 
avance him to the maist honourable plaice yairof, as in the said contract, of the dait, 
the fourtene day of September, the year of God, Im. Vc. fourscoir thrie yearis, at mair 
length is contenit ; and now we hevin sufficient proof and experience of the said 
Ml' Roberte's lyfe and conversatioun, and of his qualificatioun and learning, as alsua 
considdering yt he hes withdrawn from the plaice quhairto he wes sufficientlie providit, 
we ar movit to performe the said promeiss and to schaw oux'sclffes beneficial! imto him ; 
Thairfoir, and for dyvers uthei's gixide causes and consideratiounes moving us, tending 
to the Weill of the said college, to haif maid, creat and constitute, lykas We be tliir puts, 
makis, creattis and constituttis the said INIr Robert first and principall maister of the 
said colledge, gevaud, grantand, and disponand unto him the said office and place yair- 
of, for all the dayes of his lyfetime, wt all fies, profeittes, dewties and casualties y' 
pntlie apperteins or hearaftir sail or ma^^ belang and pertine yairto, wt specill power, 
commission and authoritie, the schoUars and studentis qlk ar or sail be committit to 
his chairgh, to bring up and instruct in guid vertew and lettres, as sal be fund be us 
and oxxY successoures maist expedient for zair wciil, and for the honor and proffeitt of 


in which he neglected nothing that might tend to its advantage. His 
devoted industry in the discharge of this duty calls for universal ad- 
miration. For it was his habit frequently to visit each class, to 
examine into the industry of each individual, and his progress in his 
studies ; if any disputes or disturbances had arisen, quickly and pru- 
dently to settle them, to rouse all to a persevering discharge of duty, 
and daily to assemble the whole University in the Hall, and in person to 
conduct the public devotions. Each week he selected a day, on which 

this burgh, and of the heall realme ; and alswa the regentes placet or to he phicet in the 
said colledge, wt yair classis, studentis and heal body of the samyn coUedge, to com- 
mand and governe acurding to the hxwes, statutes and foundation yairof, and to take 
compt of yair doctrin and convereatioun at all tymes requisite, the offendouris to puneis 
in yair bodies or guides, or be deprivation or putting furth of yair societie, everie ane 
according to the qualitie of yair trespass; the plaisin and depryving of the maisters and 
regentis of ye said colledge remaining in the power of us and our successours as pa- 
trouns of the samyne ; and generallie, all and sundrie uther things to do, use and ex- 
erce yat to the said oiBce is knawin to appertene, or yat ony uyi" principall or first Mr 
of ony colledge wtin the universities of this realme, lies or may do wtin the samyne, 
to be frillie and peacebhe brukit, ■\^ysit and usit be the said Mr Robert, but ony impe- 
diment, revocatioune, or again calling ; Provideing always yat ye sd Mr Robert sal be 
subject imto us and our successours as undoubted patrones of the said colledge, to 
be comptrollit for randring of compt upoun the administratioun of the said office, 
and to obey and fulfill the comand, resolves, and injunctiounes to be given unto him, 
be us and our successours for the weill of the said colledge, siklyk, yat it sail not be 
lesum to him to depart fra the said coUedge, leif or renunce his office wtout the special! 
guidwill, awyse and consent of us or our said successours had and obtenit yairto ; Attour 
we will, grantes and consentis yat thir puts ar or sail be nawayes prejudicial! to the 
remanent heidis contenit in ye sd conti'act speciallie in yat pairt concerning the sus- 
tentatioun of him and his servand, and of his stipend and augmentatioun yairof, at the 
sicht of the persones namit yairin, or so mony of yame as ar or sal be in iyfe for the 
tyme. In witness of the qlk thing to thir pntis subscryvit be us the said provost 
and baillies, and be Mr Alex. Guthrie, comoun clerk of the said burgh, the seill of 
cause yairof is appendit at Edinburgh, the day of 

the yeir of God l^- Vc fourscoir fyve years." 

We may also add the following minute of Council extracted from the Council Re- 
cords, vol. viii. fol. lOi, as exhibiting the steps taken to procure for Rollock from the 
Church, authority to act as Professor of Theology. 27th August 1587 : " The qlk 
day, the foresaid provost, bailzies and counsall, wt ye minstrs and ane nu bir of the 
elders and deykinis of ye Kirk beand q^ienet, and having q^sederit yat M. Rt. Rollock, 
Principall of the To^^^l's Colledge, hes now q pleitt ane courss of philosophic in ye 
said Colledge, and in respect of his lang travel! and servyce yrinte of befor, and that 
he is thocht to be qualifiet for ye p fession of theologie : Thairfor, and for u~yr causes 
moving yame, they fand it expedi^t yat the said M. Rot. sal begyn and teach theologie 
in ye said College ; and ordaines ye same to be p ponet to ye Presbitery, yt jt (fcon- 
sula^an and a~vyse micht be had heirinto, and (ftinewis ye frd order to be tayin in yis 
mater till this day viij. dayes. 


to the whole assembled students, he explained some text of Scripture, 
whence he drew forth salutary advices, entreaties, and threatenings, 
not darkened with a cloud of words, but from the weight and serious im- 
portance of the sentiments, efficacious in softening the minds of the young, 
and training them to the attainment of perfect holiness. Such was the 
efficacy of these prelections that they kept the students to their duty more 
successfully than any severer discipline would have done. When the 
lecture was over, he next began to ascertain from the censors ap- 
pointed to mark down the faults of individuals in their classes, those 
whom they had noted as delinquents during that week. The students 
so reported he rebuked with the greatest tact ; he placed before their 
eyes the anger of God, and struck terror into their souls from the fear of 
disgrace ; and by these means he succeeded in bringing them to repent- 
ance and amendment of life better than if he had inflicted a thousand 
stripes. For, in many cases, where neither the words of others, nor blows 
could have occasioned grief or weeping, the youths were so daunted, 
shaken, and overwhelmed by the thunders of the divine wrath Avith which 
he plied them, and with the gentle promises of the gospel with which he 
soothed them, that sighs and sobs, and sometimes even floods of tears burst 
from them. He had this distinguishing characteristic, that whether he 
placed before them the promises of the gospel, or sternly threatened them 
with the judgments of God, he so insinuated himself into the minds of 
even the most profligate youth — and such he had sometimes under his 
care — even although his indignation had glowed most fiercely against him, 
that he roused warm feelings of affection, and led him voluntarily from 
error to the path of duty, not so much from fear as from love. It was 
also his habit each week, or as occasion offered, to assemble the Regents, 
that at their meetings they might consult and consider, whether any refor- 
mation or amendment of the system could be effected. Hence the Uni- 
versity acquired a settled state, increasing in purity of discipline, in 
attention to study, and in completeness of system. 

After he had dismissed his class of Philosophy and given himself up 
wholly to Theology, I can scarcely describe the assiduity, the watchful- 
ness, the laboriousness with which he set about training in Divinity such 
of his former pupils as had applied their minds to the study of the sacred 
writings. Sometimes he dictated a logical analysis of the epistles of Paul, 
or the other books of the sacred Scriptures ; sometimes he handled com- 


monplaces; sometimes he examined into the points of the controversy 
with Popery ; and in these pursuits he suffered no part of the day to pass 
unemployed. He varied his industrious labours with frequent exhorta- 
tions, in which he stirred up the students to holiness and faithfulness in 
the dischai'ge of those ministerial labours for which he was preparing 
them. First of all, he demanded of them not to obtrude themselves on 
that work while their knowledge was crude and undigested. He ear- 
nestly commended zeal, but zeal tempered with prudence ; urging that 
men are nowhere more liable to error than in the matter of zeal, which 
some measured by their own headlong passions, others, following the 
temper of the times, by the thoughtless opinions of a fanatical rabble ; 
that, indeed, genuine zeal is to be fostered in the Church, as the fire sent 
down from heaven, which it is most important ever to keep alive in God's 
house, but that they should reject adulterated zeal, as fire derived from a 
source other than heavenly. Again he entreated them, with gravest per- 
tinacity, not to seek their own private ends under the pretext of religion, 
and not to hunt after a character for candour, by blaming and cavilling 
at others ; he besought them to do nothing with a view to secure the 
good opinion of men, but all things to secure the approbation of their own 
conscience. God blessed these unwearied efforts and these boundless 
labours to such a degree, that in a few years he sent forth to the office of 
the ministry very many in whom the living image of his own holiness 
and learning shone forth conspicuous. 

To these labours pursued so industriously he added another. Seeing 
great crowds of people assembling eai'ly in the morning in the New ^ 
Church, and being unwilling that they should sit unemployed, as they 
were in the habit of doing, such was his anxiety to lead men to tread in 
the ways of the Lord, that on the Sabbath mornings at seven o'clock — a 
thing which had never been done in Edinburgh before — he began to preach,^ 

1 This is that portion of the edifice now called the High Church, which originally 
formed the choir, and in which, to use the language of Maitland, " is the King's seat, 
and those of the Magistrates and Lords of Session." — History of Edinburgh, p. 183. 

2 The following extract from the Minutes of the Presbytery of Edinburgh, shows. 
that RoUock began to preach before he entered on his theological course. 5tli Sept. 
1587 : " Anent the desyre of the ministrie of Edinburgh, craving, that be ressoun of 
the leirning and qualiticatioun of Mr Rot. RoUock and the good lyking that the congre- 
gation of the said toun hes of him, that a commandment be geiven to him to teich everie 
Sounday in the morning, in the New Ivirk ; qlk desyre being considerit, It is conclu- 


'and that with such demonstration of the Spirit and of power, with such 
mighty force of sentiment, and such gi'ave impressiveness of style, that the 
minds of the greater part of his hearers were illuminated with a heavenly 
light, their affections were stirred up, and they were irresistibly impelled 
to admire the preacher. For he not only excited the ordinary class of 
hearers, but he affected men of learning to such a degree, that they dis- 
tinctly felt and acknowledged that new light was thereby shed upon their 
minds, and that new affections were forming in their hearts. 

After he had gone over, in this course of preaching, the Epistle of Paul 
to the Ephesians, he wrote his Commentary, which was printed in the 
year 1590.^ About the same time, in the University, he publicly prelected 
to his students each Monday, on the Epistle to the Romans, of which he 
published a logical analysis, introducing in the course of it a treatise of 
great excellence on some heads of Chi-istian doctrine, derived from 
that golden chain of God's blessings, which occurs in the thirtieth 
verse of the eighth chapter.^ These two writings having accidentally 
fallen into the hands of Beza, the celebrated divine, gave him so much 
delight, that, in a letter to John Johnston,^ professor of divinity in St 
Andrews, he could not refrain from breaking out into praises of the 
author. It seems proper to give here some of his remarks. " At this 
very time," says he, " it was my good fortune to fall in with a treasure, 
which, by some unhappy fate, though in the hands of every one else in this 
place, had till then escaped my notice. A treasure, and that most pre- 

dit, and be the liaill i~brie consetit, that the said M. Rot. sail teach everie Sounday in 
the morning in the New Kirk as said is." 

1 With regard to the writings of Eollock, here mentioned, the reader is referred to 
the List of his Works which follows this Life. 

2 When Eollock reaches, in his Analytical Commentar}', the 30th verse, he thus pro- 
ceeds : — Quia locus hie insignis est, continetque anream quasi catenam beneficioinim 
Dei omnium breviter compreliensorum, certoque ordineenumcratorum, sunipto initio a 
primo, et facto deinceps per media progressii ad ultimum ; Idco ad brevem illam an- 
alysin statui adjicere siugidorum beneficiorum explication em paullo fusiorem, simulque 
capitum nonnuUorum doctrinac quae sparsim occurrunt in hac epistola, quaeque ad 
unum aliquod beneficiorum hie comprehensorum referri possunt. De his itaque 
dicemus. Then at considerable length he treats of the following subjects : — De Prae- 
acientia et Praedestinatione Dei; Praedestinutio ad mortem, quomodo decretum vocetur ; 
De Vocatione ; De Peccato; De Libera Arhitrio ; De Foedere Dei; De Fide; De 
Spe ; De Resipiscentia ; De Sacramento ; De Ecdesia ; De J2isllficatione et Glorifica- 
tione ; De bonis operibus. And after this extensive flight, he quietl}- resumes the an- 
alysis of the thirty-first verse. 

3 See pp. 7-12 of this volume. 


ciouSjI maywell term those remarkable Commentaries of Rollock, a brother 
worthy of the highest honour, on the Epistle to the Eomans, and on that 
to the Ephesians, both the most celebrated among aU the apostolical 
epistles. For this is my settled opinion of them in my own mind, and I 
would wish to say it without any appearance of flattery, that I have never 
read in this kind of interpretation any thing exceeding them in elegance 
and sound judgment united with brevity ; so that after I had perused 
them, I felt myself compelled by a sense of duty, to render hearty thanks 
to God, and to congratulate you, or rather the whole Church, on the pos- 
session of so great a blessing. I pray God that He may bestow on this 
man many new gifts from time to time, and happily preserve him, espe- 
cially at this crisis, when, on account of the fewness of labourers to cul- 
tivate fuUy the vineyard of our God, and the very small number of sur- 
vivors among the well trained veterans of a former day, Satan and his 
hosts were already triumphing in their victory over truth." Such are 
Beza's sentiments. 

He aftei'wards published several Commentaries — for instance, one on 
certain selected Psalms ; on the prophet Daniel ; on the gospel of John ; 
-on some of the Epistles of Paul, besides an admirable Treatise on Effec- 
tual Calling, and a useful Tractate on God's Covenant and the Sacra- 
ments, all which are diligently perused by many not only in Scotland, 
but also in other countries, being no less advantageous to the Church, 
than honourable to their author. 

While Rollock devoted his attention to these important matters, which 
might fully occupy and give abundant employment to a man of the utmost 
activity, there was imposed on him the additional necessity of undertaking 
a charge in the city ministry, on the following occasion. The whole city, 
by the common consent of the Presbytery and the Council, as well as by 
the advice of Eollock, had been divided into eight districts, resembling 
parishes ;^ over each parish there required to be placed a minister to take 

1 The four ministers of Edinburgh, at the time, were Walter Balcanquhall, Eobert 
Bruce, James Balfour, and William Watson. The expression qualifying the word 
" parishes," (^aasj parochias,) is necessary, as only in the sense of the superintendence of 
the ministers, which must have been a matter of mutual arnvngement, as sometimes 
happens in collegiate charges at the present time, could they be so named. There 
was but one session for the whole, and, properly speaking, Edinburgh then constituted 
but one parish. Though four ministers were added at this time, any fonnal di^•ision 
into distinct parishes did not take place till 1625, when the change made in Rollock's 


charge of it. The ministers of the city at that time were men of a great 
reputation indeed, and most watchful and faithful in the discharge of their 
duty, but they were not numerous enough to supply so many parishes. The 
eyes of all, accordingly, were turned to Rollock, and he was besought to un- 
dertake the pastoral office ; they earnestly plead with him to consent himself 
to undertake the office of the ministry, and the charge of one of the parishes, 
in order to promote a work so sacred and so necessary as the parochial 
division ; for he was held in the highest esteem and affection by all, both 
high and low. This esteem and affection were secured by his unfeigned 
candour in all his transactions, and his remarkable humility, which added 
a singular grace to his other gifts ; for, although he stood almost alone 
in high endowments, yet, in his own opinion, he was inferior to all. 

He had, indeed, formed the fixed resolution of remaining in retirement, 
and of confining himself to the walls of the University, free from all public 
employments, in order that he might have the greater freedom to attend 
exclusively to its interests ; yet, conti'ary to his purpose, he was dragged 
out to take a share in most public matters, in Avhich he conducted himself 
with rare and sanctified wisdom. Matters, which from the headlong zeal 
of the people had been thrown into great confusion, were, by his well-timed 
and prudent management, reduced into order. It is rare to find prudence 
accompanying zeal, nor is zeal always the attendant of prudence ; yet He 
who distributes His gifts at his sovereign pleasure had bestowed on Rollock 
both singularly combined, the salutary effects of which were experienced 
both by the Church and the State of Scotland. 

During the last two years of his life, he was so weighed down with 
public cai'es, that his constitution, otherwise by no means strong, began 
to give way, for he was excruciatingly pained with stone, and he was 
enfeebled by the weakness of his stomach ; and yet it was the will of God 

day was regularly autliorised, tlie parishes retaining the names and cliurches then 
allotted to tlie divisions temporarily made — (^Clty Records, vol. cix., p. 51.) An ac- 
count of the difficulties attendant upon the settlement of the four newly appointed 
ministers, Robert Rollock, John Hall, Peter Hewat, and George Robertson, will be 
found in Calderwood, vol. v. pp. 674, or Spottiswood, pp. 450, 451. Principal Rol- 
lock's colleague was Hewat, formerly a pupil ; they had for their charge the south-west 
quarter, and preached in the Upper Tolbooth. George Robertson, the biographer oi 
Rollock, had also been a pupil. He was the son of a burgess of Edinburgh, and, as 
already mentioned, succeeded Philip Hislop as Regent in 1593. . He " was the first 
that published the Theses in print." He did not live long to exercise his functions as 
a minister of Edinbui'gh. — Crawfurd, ibid. pp. 37, 38, 42. 


that during this very time, which was one of the greatest perplexity in 
public matters, he should succour the State while on the brink of ruin. 
As far as we can conjecture by human reason, had he not brought 
speedy help to the Church in its hour of need, it would have been en- 
gulfed in a sea of miseries ; for, in consequence of an inconsiderate ris- 
ing of the common people in arms, the rage of the King and the nobles, 
who had by this time left Edinburgh and gone to Linlithgow,! had risen 
to the greatest fury, and, in consequence, both Church and State were 
exposed to a great and twofold danger. The dismal and mournful state 
of things at that time presented a melancholy and fearful aspect. After 
many had in vain exerted their utmost efforts to settle these tumults, at 
last there shone forth like a star of ti-anquil safety, the holy prudence of 
Rollock, seasoned with piety, m.odesty, humility ; which seized such hold 
on the royal breast, that the royal resolves against the people of Edinburgh, 
previously bent on harsh measures, and that, in the belief of many, beyond 
the reach of reconciliation, were mitigated, and Church and State were 
rescued from the flames of destruction. But although Rollock's reputation 
increased in consequence of delivering the Church from its then melancho- 
ly condition, I pass over the particulars of these proceedings, lest I should 
be led into writing a lengthened histoiy of that time, and should make a 
longer digression than accords with my more immediate object. 

Immediately after the public affairs had been quietly settled by Rollock's 
constantwatchfulness and unwearied labours, there followed the General As- 
sembly at Dundee, "' which the King thought fit to honour with his presence. 
Rollock was unanimously chosen Moderator of the Assembly. In it, the 
acts which had been passed at the Assembly of Perth^ held immediately 

1 It is unnecessary to multiply references to the various accounts of the well known 
tumult of the 17th of December 1596, here alhided to. Crawfurd {ibid., p. 47) tlius 
mentions the interference of Rollock : " The niiuistei-s of Edinburgh were banished ; 
the most eminent ministers fined and confined, and the session removed to Leith, a 
plot being cunningly contrived, and narrowly missing the performance, for ransacking 
the town by the border thieves, who were secretly brought into the Links of Leith. 
None other willing or daring to appear in this breach, grave and wise Heniy Nisbet, 
provost, and godly Mr Rollock, so prevailed with the King, that at length he was re- 
conciled to the town of Edinburgh, and sutfered those ministers to return. 

^ For an account of this Assembly, "haldin on the 10th day of May, 1597, in the 
Little Kirk, Dundee," see Booke of the Universall Kirke of Scotland, pjD. 450, &c., Ed. 
1839; Calderwood, vol. v., pp. G28 ; Spottiswood, pp. 443-445; Row, pp. 181, &c. ; 
James Melville's Dairy, pp. 414, &c. 

3 The Perth Assembly was held on the 1st of March 1597. 


before, and which appeared to be rather harsh, received a milder inter- 
pretation.i The King demands that the Assembly should appoint some indi- 
viduals to watch on behalf of the Church, that she should receive no injury. 
A vote is immediately passed to this effect, that there should be named 
men distinguished for piety and prudence, to whom this duty should be 
committed. Of these RoUock was one. Their duties were limited, both 
with regard to time, and to the manner and the principle of their discharg- 
ing them ; and it was resolved that they should render to the subsequent 
Assembly an account of the manner in which they had discharged their 
functions.^ This commission strenuously exert themselves, by well con- 
sidered measures, and patient industry, to rei^air, and gradually to restore 
the Church, miserably shattered by the tumult already mentioned. 

In the end of the winter of 1598, he had been prevented by the increas- 
ing severity of his disease from stirring out of doors. William Scott, 
bound to him by the dearest ties of friendship, invites him to remove to 
his house, that, if possible, by the enjoyment of a more temperate and a 
purer atmosphere, he might recover his health — an invitation of which 
he availed himself. At first he was a little better, in consequence of the 
change of air ; but immediately thereafter, the disease recurring with 
redoubled violence confined him to his bed. When he perceived his 
breath failing him, and that he was drawing near the gates of death, expe- 
riencing a heavenly delight, he imparted intense pleasure to the minds of 
all who visited him by his sweet conversation, which bore evident marks 
of its divine source. But this joy was interrupted by universal bursts 
of lamentation, when they thought of a man of his great usefulness 
being cut off before he had reached the flower of his life — when they 
considered that the Church was about to be deprived of a father, and the 

1 For a succinct and animated account of the Acts passed at the Perth Assemhly, 
as well as the modifications" which they received in the Dundee Assembly, see J\r Cries 
Melville, vol. il. pp. 8, &c. 

2 For the powers and proceedings of this Commission — " the verie needle which 
drew in the thread of bishops," — see uti supra. The Commission itself may be con- 
sulted in the Booke of the Universall Kirk, p. 4G0. The first Commissioners were 
" ]\Irs. Alexr. Dowglas, James Nicolson, George Gladstone, Thomas Buchanan, Ro- 
bert Pont, Robert Rollock, David Lyndsay, Patrick Galloway, John Duncauson, Pa- 
trick Scharpe, John Portcrfield, James Melville, William Couper, and John Clapper- 
tonne, or any seven of them." The number and some of the members were changed 
at the next Assembly. The account here given of the limited powers of the Commis- 
sion is not borne out by the terms of its appointment. But the subject is too import- 
ant and intricate to be discussed in a footnote. 


State of the pillar of its safety, and that no one would be left to quiet the 
tumults in the Church, to reconcile to an offended pi'ince his subjects, or 
restore the Church to his favour. He arranges his private affairs with 
his wonted prudence ; then he earnestly commends to the care of his 
friends, particularly to William Scott,^ of whose remarkable trustworthi- 
ness and affection he had already had many proofs, his wife, then with 
child for the first time, after their marriage had subsisted for eleven years 
without offspring. Patrick Galloway and David Lindsay^ having come to 
see him, he solemnly declared his affection to his prince, which had ever 
been deep-seated in his heart, and declared that he would die in the same 
sentiments. He then demands of them to go to the King, and to exhort 
him to tread till his last breath, Avith unwavering steps, the path of religion, 
which he had hitherto pursued with unfaltei"ing course, never to be led 
astray from it, either by any hope of extending the regal power, or by the 
•crafty artifices of designing men, and to feel and speak of the ministers of 
the gospel with that reverence which was their due. " For that the ministry 

• This is Sir William Scot of Elie, Director of the Chancery, to whom by his will he 
directed his posthumous works to be dedicated, see vol. ii. p. 1 1. This incident in Kol- 
lock's history is thus mentioned by Crawford, (_ihid., p. 48.) " Sir William Scot of 
Elie, one of the Clerks of Session, an entire friend to Mr Rollock, persuaded him to 
remove to his lodgings over against the long plain-stanes, now belonging to Hopetoun, 
for the benefit of free air." For Scot's anxiety regarding the publication of the works 
of Rollock, see M'Crie's Melville, vol. ii. p. 422. 

^ Both of these were named in the first commission, along with Rollock. The first 
had been minister of Perth, {Caldericood, vol. iv. p. Ill), and afterwards became one 
of the ministers in the royal household. — Culderwood, voh v. p. 521 ; vi. pp. 60, 77, 
&c., et saepe ; Tytkr's History of Scotland, vol. ix. p. 360. He died in the year 
1624. By his wife Mary, daughter of James Lawson, Knox's successor, he left a son, 
Sir James Galloway, who was conjunct Secretary of State with the Earl of Stirling, 
and in 1645 was created a peer by the title of Lord Dunkeld. — ( Wood's Peerage of 
Scotland, vol. i. p. 482.) David Lindsay, when minister of Leith, had accompanied 
James VI. to Norway, where he solemnized the royal nuptials. — (^Calderwood, vol. v. 
p. 68.) In 1600 he was nominated Bishop of Ross. W^e find him taking a part in the 
history of the Reformed Church of Scotland from its commencement. He Mas one of 
the members of the first General Assembly in 1560, was repeatedly moderator of sub- 
sequent AssembUes, and possessed great influence both with the Court and his breth- 
ren. In the discussion in the Assembly of 1575, on the cpiestion of the scriptural law- 
fulness of bishops, he was appointed to take the afiirmative. The worst that could be 
said of him in the lampoon on the bishops in 1610, preserved both by Calderwood and 
Row, is Ros coetus amat. He was father-in-law to Archbishop Spottiswood, who is in 
these verses much more severely described ; cum vino Glasgua amoves. — ( Calderwood, 
vi. p. 96 ; James Melville's Diary, p. 489 ; Row's History of the Kirk of Scotland, saepe.) 
For another David Lindsay, then minister of Dundee, afterwards successively bishop 
of Brechin and Edinburgh, see Irving's Lives of Scottish Writers, vol. i. p. 318. 


of Christ, however humble and mean in human estimation, was glorious in 
the sight of God ; that although ministers were the filth and offscourings of 
the world, yet thereafter they would shine forth with transcendent glory." 
Then the ministers of Edinburgh came to visit him, to whom, when seated, 
he thus addresses himself; " Wearied with the overwhelming weight of my 
trouble — gasping — I breathe only with the hope of dismissal from this life. 
Yet I have not so learned, nor have I so taught Christ, as to find no solace 
for these ills. The cares of the University, my brethren, have, at all times, 
been most deeply seated in my breast. God is my witness, and my own 
conscience honestly testifies, how faithfully and assiduously I have 
managed that trust ; you are witnesses what profit has accrued from it to 
the Church and the State. Soon must the thread of my life be broken, 
soon must I pass to my Father's house, after which I have so long and so 
earnestly panted ; do not, I beseech you, after I have been removed from 
among the li\ing, leave the College to grieve too bitterly over its bereave- 
ments. Do you — you, I repeat, act the part of a real, not of a stepfather, 
cherish, and nourish her in your bosom. As to the office of the ministry, 
it is not long since it was laid upon me, and why I undertook it at all is well 
known to you. That I have done any thing worthy of approbation in it, I 
venture not to affu'm ; yet I will venture so far as to assert that it was 
my earnest wish to do so. It cannot have escaped your memory, that at 
the Assembly of Dundee I was chosen with some others to watch over the 
Church ; in which office, as I had before my eyes the glory of God and the 
safety of the Church miserably shaken by a sudden tumult, I declare that 
I have no consciousness of blame-worthiness in the discharge of my duty 
to torment me with the pain of remorse. A whisper has lately reached 
my ear that a report has gone abroad that my mind is uneasy on account 
of improper and unjust proceedings in that office.^ I appeal to God, the 

* The complaints made against Rollock and the Commission generally will be fonnd 
in M'Crie's Melville. One ohjection against him -which it did not come within Dr 
M'Crie's plan to notice, was the planting of ministers in Edinbnrgh. Bollock's allu- 
sion to it is omitted by Chavteris, but 1 transcribe Robertson's words bearing upon tlie 

subject. The passage occurs between the sentences j\remoriae vestrae susarra- 

vit guidein, p. 6 of Chartcris' Narratio. In pastorum Edinburgenorum numero gemi- 
nando, duobus praesertim illis qui studiorum tyrocinium sub mea ferula excrcuerunt 
ad munus illud invehendis, cum in iis dona muneri congrua Deumque corum labori- 
bus propitium perspexerim, tantuni abest illius facti me poenitcat, nt in banc usque 
horam summo potius perfundar gaudio. P. 21, ed. 1599 ; p. 16, ed. 1826. " As to the 
doubling of the numl)er of the ministers of Edinburgh, and especially introducing to 


arbiter and the Avitness of all secret things, before whose tribunal I must 
soon be summoned, that I have no reason to grieve or vex myself, as in 
the whole of that business I have confined myself to the lawful object of 
my appointment. I do not indeed deny, that seeing that the wise Creator 
of the world has united the Church and the State with a loving and fra- 
ternal bond, I have laboured heart and soul that they should mutually 
assist each other — that the sword of the State should not be drawn to 
destroy the Church, nor the Church too bitterly inveigh against the King 
or the State, and that no unnecessary war should be kindled. I have 
not, however, on the other hand, been so beguiled by a love of peace 
as not to make a difference between that which is genuine and that which 
is impure, nor have I been so carried away by my affection for my prince 
as to incur a single stain on my conscience, even the smallest, to gi'atify 
him ; but the integrity of my conduct will become more manifest even 
after I am no more. As for you, unite with one mind to carry on the 
work of the Lord. What is more inconsistent than for the heralds of 
peace to be torn asunder by quarrelling and discord ! At such a con- 
juncture as this, when the enemy is lying in wait for our halting, we 
ought not to dissipate our strength, but peaceably to concentrate it ; we 
ought to aim our weapons at the bosom of the enemy, and not at each 
other's throats. Discharge the duty which you owe to your prince. 
Times of rare happiness have fallen to your lot ; you have had the 
good fortune of being ruled over by a prince who has imbibed from his 
earliest years a feeling of religion,^ which has grown with his growth. 
He has walled round religion with sound discipline, he has protected it 
by his person, and undertaken the patronage of the Church in such a 
way, as to shew by a thousand proofs that he will not forsake it till life 
shall forsake him. What, then, you can obtain from him by gentleness, 
do not vainly attempt to extort against his will. You must seriously be- 
ware against hurling the Church from its present pinnacle of prosperity 

that office the two who were trained under my own care, seeing that I had every op- 
portunity of thoroughly ascertaining that their quahfications fitted them for the duties 
of the ministry, and that God smiled upon their labours, I am so far fi-om repenting of 
my conduct in this mater, that to this very hour it affords me the most lively satisfac- 
tion." To the matter here alluded to, reference has already been made in the notes. 
' In the original Principem uacti estis qui cum lacte religionem hausit. Who was 
James's nurse ? But I have not ventured to represent James as sucking in religion 
with his mother's milk. 


into ruin. Paul might have retained about his person the runaway 
Onesimus, yet he would not do so without the consent of Philemon, lest 
his kindness should appear to spring from necessity. It is my deliberate 
opinion that you should tread in the footsteps of Paul in a matter of so 
much moment.^ May God, the Father of Jesus Christ, encircle you with 
all spiritual blessings, and supply you Avith resistless might to strengthen 
you in the active discharge of your important ministry !" 

On the evening of the same day, death seemed to be rapidly approach- 
in"-. "When he descried its oncoming, he began a discourse which w^as 
not the elaboi'ate work of the human brain, but an emanation from the 
Spirit of God, and inspired all who stood by with wonder and admiration. 
The physicians came to his bedside, but declined^ any attempt to mitigate 
the force of the disease by medical means, as he had not sufTicient natural 
force to bear them. Accordingly, turning his discourse to God, he says, 
"Thou, O Gud, wilt heal me." He went on to pour forth supplications 
■with the devoutest earnestness, praying first that God would be propitiated 
for his sins by the sacrifice of Christ alone, declaring that he reckoned 
every thing else, however fair in human eyes, as dung compai-ed with the 
sui'passing excellence of Christ's cross. Then he prayed that God would 
favour him with a gentle and happy departure from life, that, covered 
with the Avings of mercy, he might leave it in Christ's bosom, and enjoy 
God's countenance, which he panted to behold and thirsted after. " I," 
says he, " have seen thee dimly in the glass of the word, bestow on me 

' Spottiswood's version (p. 454) of this is, "In his sickness being visited by his bre- 
thren of the ministry, amongst other pious exhortations, he did earnestly beseech them 
to carry themselves more dutifully towards the King, lamenting he shoidd be so ill used by 
some of their number ; and gave them a most comfortable tai-ewell." It is needless to 
point out the ingenuity with which Spottiswood gives this turn to Bollock's words. 
The reader will observe the discrimination with which Rollock addresses the various 
parties that visit him. Galloway and Lindsay, too prone to Court measures, he indi- 
rectly exhorts to faithfulness ; the ministers, zealous supporters of the Kirk, he coun- 
sels to calmness ; and to the President of the Court of Session, inclined, or suspected 
of an inchnation to Popery, he recommends the use of his influence and power in the 
behalf of true religion. 

^ In the original, renuerunt; and so in Robertson— giving a striking proof of the weak- 
ness to which Rollock Mas reduced, when his strength Mas unable to stand the ordinary 
medical means for alleviating his pain. This is evident also from, " ad Dcum itaqm" which 
follows— as the physicians could do nothing for him, he turned to God. Melchior 
Adam, overlooking this, substitutes tentahant for renuerunt; Mhich the learned editor 
of the Bannatync Edition seems to favour by printing it Mithin brackets, as a prefer- 
able reading. 


dicio implacabilem lenierit, ecclesiam ex incendio, rempublicam ex con- 
flagratioue eruerit. Sed quamvis Rolloco exinde creverit existimatio quod 
turbulenta hac tempestate Ecclesiae lugubria detraxerit, et turbata ad pri- 
stinuni statum reduxerit, res tamen sigillatim ab eo gestas praetereo, ne 
cogar longiorem illius temporis historiam praetexere, et ab instituto supra 
quam par esset digredi. 

Res Eolloci assiduis vigiliis ac indefessis laboribus compositas in- 
secuta est Sjnodus Taodunensis, quam visum regi sua praesentia ornare. 
Synodo praeses omnium suffragio RoUocus deligitur. Ibi, quae Synodo 
Perthi non multo ante habita severius in speciem decreta videbantur, 
benigniorem interpi'etationem sortita sunt. Flagitat Rex vellet Synodus 
nonnuUos designare qui excubias pro Ecclesia agerent, ne quid ea 
detrimenti caperet. Confestim pedibus itur in banc sententiam, pietate 
ac prudentia eminentiores quosdam deligendos quibus provincia haec de- 
mandaretur. Ex bis Rollocus unus. Horum munus temporis spatio et 
administrationis modo ac ratione circumscriptum est, decretumque ut de- 
functi muneris rationem proximae insequenti Synodo redderent. Hi Ec- 
clesiam tumultu, de quo dictum est, misere quassatam, maturis consiliis et 
perpete industria reficere sensimque restaurare adnituntui*. 

Anno 1598, praecipiti hieme, vehementius solito morbo ingravescente, 
domi se concluserat. Gulielmus Scotus, summa necessitudine ei conjunc- 
tissimus, consulit in domum suam transiret, aerem sereniorem ac liberiorem 
carperet, ut bac ratione, si fieri posset, valetudinem recuperaret. Ille con- 
silio obsequitur transitque. Initio quidem post migrationem coepit meli- 
uscule valere, verum confestim geminata morbi vis lecto cam alBxit. Ille 
cum spiritus linquentes, seseque in confinio mortis sensit, coelesti gaudio 
perfusus mellitis et plane divinis sermonibus omnium qui inviserant 
animos ingenti laetitia aiFecit; verum laetitiam interpellabant obortae om- 
nibus lacrymae, cum pensitarent tantum virum uondum matura aetate prae- 
ripiendum, adimendum Ecclesiae parentem, reipublicae salutare columen, 
neminem superesse qui turbas in Ecclesia componat, offenso principi cives 
reconciliet, Ecclesiam in gratiam cum eo reducat. Rle solita prudentia res 
domesticas digerit ; delude uxorem post sterilitatem undecim annorum 
» uterum ferentem curae amicorum, imprimis Gulielmi Scoti, cujus fidem 
et benevolentiam erga se eximiam multis jam experimentis didicerat, 
serio commendat. lugi-essis ad eum Patricio Gallovidio et Davide Lyn- 
desio, amorem in principeni qui semper ejus animo medullitus insedisset 



testatus in eoque se vita excessurum professus, flagitat ipsius nomine re- 
gem adeant, liortenturque ut religionis tramitem, quem inoffenso cursu 
hue usque pressisset, gradu non vacillante ad ultimum vitae spiritum cal- 
caret, neque spe ulla amplificandi regni aut veteratorum subdolis teclinis 
se ab eo divelli pateretur, de Ecclesiae pastoribus qua par esset reveren- 
tia seutiret et loqueretur : " Illud enim Christi ministerium, quantumvis 
humano calculo abjectum et huraile, apud Deum tamen esse gloriosum ; 
pastores licet testacea sint vascula, omnium sordes et purgamenta mundi, 
illustri tandem gloria fulsuros." Ligressi deinceps pastores Ediuburgeni, 
quibus assidentibus sic infit : " Aegritudinis mole lassus, vitae hujus exitum 
anhelans spiro ac spero. Non sic Christum didici aut docui, quiu in eo 
earum aerumnarum levamentum sentiam. Academiae cura, fratres, altis- 
sime semper animo meo insedit ; quanta ego earn fide ac industria admini- 
strarim testis est Deus, ego mihi probe conscius sum — quantum ex ea in 
Ecclesiam et rempublicam emolumentum redundant, vos testes. Eumpen- 
dum mox vitae meae filum, trajiciendumque mihi in patriam diu multum- 
que cupitam ; ne, quaeso, me vivis exempto, nimis amare orbitatem suam 
defleat Academia. Vos, vos, inquam, non novercae, sed genuini parentis 
vices obite, eam vestro sinu alite, fovete. Pastorale munus non ita pridem 
mihi incubuit, quod quamobrem in me susceperim non vos praeterit. In 
60 egregium quid praestitisse me affirmare non audeo, voluisse tamen au- 
debo. Memoriae vestrae non excidit Synodo Taodunensi delectum me cum 
aliis quibusdam qui pro ecclesia excubarem, in quo cum Dei gloriam et 
Ecclesiae incolumitatem repentino tumulto misere quassatam mihiob oculos 
habuerim, nullius admissae culpae poenitentia discruciai'i me profiteer. 
Susurravit quidam nuperrime in aurem meam disseminatum rumorem, 
inquietari animum meum ob inique et perperam gesta in ista provincia. 
Deum arcanorum omnium arbitrum ac testem, ad cujus tribunal ego mox 
sistendus, appello, cum in omni hoc negotio ad scopum legitimum coUima- 
rim, nihil esse quod me cruciet aut angat. Non eo quidem inficias, cum 
Ecclesiam ac rempubUcam nexu amabili ac fraterno colligarit prudeus 
mundi Opifex, in hoc ramis ac velis incubuisse me, ut se mutuis juvarent 
officiis, ne reipublicae gladius in Ecclesiae perniciem stringeretur, aut Ec- 
clesia in principem aut rempublicam acerbius inveheretur, bellumque non 
necessarium excitaretur. Neque tamen aut ita me pacis amor fascinavit 
ut genuinam ab adulteiina non secreverim, aut afFectus in principem ita 
abripuit ut in ejusgratiamlabeculam ullam conscientiac fuerim iiulucturus; 



verum meorum factorum candor etiam me extincto clarescet. Ceterum 
vos unanimi consensu ad opus Domini coalescite. Quid niagis incongruum 
quam pacis prascones litigio ac discordia dilacerari ? Hac tempestate qua 
in insidiis hostes sunt, non dissidiis dissipandae vires, verum pace combi- 
nandae sunt, petendum hostium latus, non mutua jugula. Principi vestro 
debitum obsequium praestate. Kara temporura felicitas vobis obtigit; 
principem nacti estis qui cum lacte religionem hausit, quae ejus visceribus 
recondita cum eo coaluit. Religionem disciplina circumvallavit, circum- 
vallatam suo prtesidio texit, Ecclesiaeque patrocinium sic in se suscepit 
ut, quamdiu eum vita non deserit, illud non deserturum se innumeris do- 
cumentis palam fecerit. Quod itaque blande mulcendo ei elicere potestis, 
ne invito extorquere frustra adnitimini. Serio cavendum ne ex hoc feli- 
citatis fastigio pessum se det Ecclesia. Poterat Paulus Onesimum fugiti- 
vum apud se retinere, noluit tamen absque Philemonis sententia, ne ipsius 
beneficium ex necessitate esse videretur. Pauli vestigiis censeo insisten- 
dum vobis in tanti ponderis negotio. Deus pater lesu Christi vos omni 
benedictione spirituali locupletet, et invicto robore muniat ad ministerium 
illud strenue obeundum." Vesperascente eodera die properare mors vide- 
batur, quam ille olfaciens sermonem occipit, non humano cerebro effic- 
tum, sed coelitus a Dei Spiritu stillantem, qui cunctis adstantibus admira- 
tionem incussit. Aderant medici qui medicamentis suis vim morbi le- 
nire, quod vigor naturalis deficeret, renuerunt. Ad Deum itaque verso 
sermone, " Tu," inquit, " Deus, medeberis mihi." Dein preces zelo inten- 
tissimo fundit, orans prirao vellet Deus sibi suisque peccatis propter unicum 
Christi sacrificium propitius esse, prtedicans omnia, quantumvis apprime 
speciosa, propter crucis Christi eminentiam pro stercoribus se ducere. 
Precatus deinde vellet vitae suae exitum faustum ac felicem indulgere, ut 
misericordiae alis opertus in Christi sinu excederet fruereturque Dei vul- 
tu, quem crebro anhelitu intueri sitiit. " Ego te," inquit, " subobscure in 
verbi speculo vidi — largire mihi diu multumque optati vultus tui sempiter- 
nam fruitionem." De resurrectione et vita aeterna verba profert immoi*- 
talitatis sensum spirantia. Singulis qui adstabant dextra prehensis summa 
verborum comitate ac gravitate benedicit, benedictionem hortationibus 
pro cujusque indole ac munere prudenter miscet. Ea nocte praeter spem 
paulum requievit. 

Die qui eum insecutus est, urbani magistratus, complures etiam ex 
ordine senatorio eum invisunt ; quos juxta lectum accumbentes sic af- 


fatur : " Quantum praesagiis ullis assequi valeo, absolvendum mihi vitae 
peiisum, deponeudum cori-uptibile hoc corporis indumentum, transeun- 
dum in patriam ; neque hoc mihi acerbum, novissimum enim hujus vitae 
diem crebra siti concupivi. Academia semper anxium me maxime habuit. 
Ego eam jam deserturus, si celarem quern meo calculo sufRciendum mihi 
Academiaeque praeficiendum censeam, incuriae maculam non effugerem. 
Quid attinet exteras regiones pervagari, peregrinum adsciscere qui huic 
provinciae praesit, quem interim doctrina disciplinaque hujus Academiae 
lateat? Domi virum locupletatum donis ac ad munus hoc instructum 
habetis, Henricum Charterisium, qui eruditionem me praeceptore uberrime 
hausit, et professoris philosophiae munere plus decennio egregia cum laude 
perfunctus est. Hunc vos in Academiae puppi sistite, ej usque clavo ap- 
ponite. Deum illi propitium, ej usque laboribus benedicentem conspicietis. 
Vos decet ex officio Academiae Maecenates ac patronos esse. AUior, 
quaeso, ejus sohcitudo animos vestros subeat. De domesticis quid dicam? 
Uxorem desero uterum ferentem. Unum a vobis summopere contendo, 
sentiat ilia amorem quo semper me amplexi estis extincto me non exar- 
uisse. Nunquam mihi dies aut nox aegritudinis expers : ilia me tot mor- 
borum difficultatibus quassatum suaviter semper fovit ac refocillavit. In- 
genue profiteor ex omnibus stipendiis meis non coacervasse me obolos 
duos ; nunquam enim mihi cordi aut curae mundana haec. Quid multa 
verba perderem ? Ne, quaeso, affectus vester in me claudicet in eam." 
Magistratus senatoresque solenni promisso fidem dant facturos se omnia ex 
animi ipsius sententia. Professores deinde philosophiae ad perstandum in 
officio debitumque successor! suo obsequium hortatur. His peractis, verba 
insigni sanctimonia condita profundit. "Deo meo," inquit, "gratia! memo- 
ria, visus, auditus, reliquique sensus mei tam vivaces, tam vegeti quam alias 
unquam ; ast ab hoc mundo alienatum cor meum. Et quorsum Domine 
lesu, corde meo non fruereris cui soli in illud jus? In hoc per totam vitam 
incubui ut illud tibi dicarem ac consecrarem ; illud, quaeso, assume ut 
tecum commorctur." Haec locutum invadit lenis quidam somnus, ex quo 
experrectus summo affectu flagrat dissolvi et esse cum Domino. " Vcni, 
inquit, " Domine lesu, fragilis hujus vitae filum abrumpc, matura Domine, 
ne tarda. lesus me redemit, non ut caducam banc, verum actcrnam vitam 
indulgerct. Veni, lesu, largire vitam propter quam redemisti me." Ad- 
stantes flebili planctu vicem suam in ejus obitu deflent. At ille : " Omncs 
hujus vitae gradus emensus sum ; ad novissimum pervcni — cur retrogre- 


derer ? Hunc gradum, Domine lesu, tuo favore feliciter emetiar. De- 
duc me in earn gloriam, quam per speculum tantum vidi ; utinam apud 
te diversarer." Qui adstabant significant diem posterum Sabbathum esse, 
unde in haec verba erumpit ; " Tuum Sabbathum, Domine, aeternum 
meum Sabbathum inchoet ; auspicia sumat aeternum Sabbathum meum 
a Sabbatho tuo." 

In mediam fere noctem modicam nactus est quietem, quam confestim 
morbi vis inten'upit, supremamque horam adesse ratus D. Walterum Bal- 
canquellum accersit ; quem ingressum sic alloquitur : " Quod diutissime 
muuus pastorale Edinburgi obieris, quodque non recens nostra amicitia, 
accersendum te curavi, ut reverentiam, qua semper a cunis Christi 
ministerium prosequutus sum, testatam facerem. Ego quidem pro mo- 
dulo doni preces in sinum Dei fudi ; tu, quaeso, pro me precum sacra pera- 
gito ; ego corde et afFectu sequar ; interim ne protrahi vitam banc flagita." 
Provolutis omnibus qui aderant in genua, preces celebrat Balcanquellus. 
Inter reliqua flagitat vellet Deus tanti viri diuturniorem usuram indul- 
gere, cum Ecclesiae et reipublicae salus tantopere earn poscat. Rollocus 
sic orantem interpellat : " Satius," inquit, " mihi hujus vitae : unice in votis 
habeo vitam coelestem cum Deo in Christo reconditam." Consummatis 
precibus in verbi praedicati encomia erumpit : " Verbum," inquit, " Dei 
potentia ad salutem, Dei sapientia, vita ; nee ulla ulli absque verbo salus. 
Non est, credite mihi, exigui momenti negotium vei'bum praedicare; 
perinde non est ac Platonis Aristotelisque textum interpretari, aut ora- 
tionem pigmentis ac lenocinio sermonis oblitam recitare ; in sanctimonia, 
humilitate, efficaci Spiritus demonstratione situm est verbi praeconium ; 
quanti illud semper fecerim novit Deus." Dein ad preces revertitur : 
" Veni," inquit, " Domine lesu, horum oculorum nervos abrumpe, alios 
mihi largire ; cupio dissolvi ac tecum esse ; matura venire, Domine lesu, 
ne ultra differ. Egredere pusilla vita, ut ingrediatur melior ilia vita Dei ; 
insere, Domine lesu, huic corpori manum tuam, arripe tibi animam istam." 
Cum aliquandiu mane quievisset, silentium tandem hoc sermone 
abrumpit : " Veni, Domine, ne morare ; diei noctisque fastidio lassus 
sum. Veni, Domine lesu, ut ad te veniam. O dulce, faustum ac felix 
vitae hujus divortium ! Veni, Domine, dulcedo mea, emancipato animam 
banc ut te marito fruatur." Tum ex adstantibus unus : " Ne esto anxius, 
accelerat Dominus tuus ;" cui ille, " Gratum mihi," inquit, " istud nuntium 
— utinam die crastino exequias meas duceretis." Tum alter : -" Beata 


anima tarn Domino vicina quam tua !" ille vero : " In me nihil est 
quod non ducam pro stercoribus, ut Christum luerifaciam ; Christus unica 
solatii materia; omnis justitia mea pannus menstruatus." Interrogatus 
numquid pastoris ullius alloquium flagitaret? respondet non creaturum se 
lis molestiam quod ad concionandura se accingerent. " Sinite," inquit, " me 
psittoci instar cum Domino meo balbutire." Certior factus inchoatam con- 
cionem ; " Da mihi," inquit, " Domine, ea videre quae in praesentia alii 
audiunt." Sabbathi meridie sic eum affiitur quidam : " Per omnem vitam 
tuam indefessa opera sedulisque laboribus Dei gloriam promovisti." Turn 
ille : " Mihi unica gloriandi materia misericordia Dei in Christo lesu ; alia 
omnia damna duco." Dein sopor quidam mollis eum invadit qui in ves- 
peram occupat ; quo discusso ingressus ad eum supremi senatus praeses, 
cui Edinburgi eo anno pi-aefectura obvenerat. Eum sic alloquitur : " Aca- 
demiam curae magistratuum quibus tu, Domine, praees serio commendavi ; 
tu etiam eandem in patrocinium tuum suscipe : experiatur, quaeso, te 
parentem ac Maecenatem. Cum pro excelsa dignitate qua in republica 
praecellis et amplissimo munere quo te honoravit Deus, Ecclesiae opem 
ferre possis, ne, quaeso, eam subtrahe ; in ejus praesidium artus ac vires 
tuas intende, summo conatu in id incumbe. Et salutem consequaris in 
Christo lesu — mundana haec omnia fluxa sunt moxque flaccessent. 
Deus te, tuam conjugem, universam familiam benedictionis suae thesauro 
cumulet." Eadem ilia nocte has voces emisit : " Tranquilla mihi mens in 
corpore aegro : mortis, peccati et Satanae metu non angor — nullum illis 
in me imperium ; sic tamen morbi pondere premor ut longe praeter spem 
in banc horam supersim. Dominus quasi in mortario pistillo aegritudinis 
me tundit, ut ad regnum suum formet." 

Octavo Idus Februarii, " Mirum," inquit, " videri potest, cum tarn 
acerbe morbo discrucier, tam diu protrahi vitam meam ; verum per patien- 
tiam Domini beneplacitum praestolabor ; connivebo, connivebo ; agat ille 
mecum pro libito ; non disseram cum eo. Quid est homo ut cum Deo 
disceptare audeat ? Imo si in orcum detruderet, parendum, non respon- 
sandum. Gratiam fac mihi, Domine, propter Christum lesum. Xon 
erubesco confiteri nunquam me tam sublime notitiae Dei fastigium atti- 
gisse quam hoc morbo. quam horrendum in manus Domini incidere ! 
Sed reposita est mihi misericordia in Christo. Quid contristaris, anima 
mea ? Quid te dejicis in me ? Obveniet tibi mox aspectus et congi'essus 
amoenissimus." Cum advesperascerct ; " Experior," inquit, " sexti 


Psalrai veritatern/' atque aliqiia ejus verba recitat — " Gratiam fac mibi, 
Jehova, quia languore pressus sum : cura me, Jeliova, quia conturbata 
sunt ossa mea," etc. Interjecta modica pausa sermonem iterat : *' Christus 
portabit jugum meum, et ego ejus gratia fultus sequar." Cum morbi 
acerbitate torqueri cum animadverterent adstanfes, lacrjmas, planctus 
ac singultus cient, quos ille increpat ; " Ne meam vicem," inquit, " sed 
peccata vestra deflete : cum nemo a peccato immunis, nemini fletus ma- 
teria subtracta est. Quod ad me, ego omnium complementum ac con- 
summationem mox videbo." Vespere ex cognatis unus ad eum ingressus 
sermone impio bilem ei movit. Ab eo flagitat, " vellet in coelos receptus 
mediari pro se reliquisque amicis !" Hoc audito ira ferveos repente corpus 
imbecillum ac fere exanime erigit : " Ego," inquit, " munus illud abnuo ; 
Christus unicus Mediator." Non multo post invisit eum frater natu major. 
" Tu," inquit, " cognatum nostram increpa, mone alium capessat vitae 
tramitem ; alioqui nulla ei salus, certissimum exitium." 

Ab hoc tempore oblatum alimentum respuit ; " Non," inquit, " edam aut 
bibam usque dum in regnum coelorum tranferar." Funeris curam Gu- 
lielmo Litillo et Gulielmo Scoto amicis integerrimis, quorum amicitiam non 
vacillantem frequenti elogio ornavit, commendat. *' Cur non," inquit, 
" mihi esset hujus corporis cura, illud siquidem glorificandum, et confor- 
mandum tandem glorioso Christi corpori 1 " Et manus intuens ; " Istae 
etiam manus," inquit, " illustri gloria fulgebunt." Exinde sermo ei sub- 
missior et contractior ; verba tamen fortia ac efficacia, gaudium coeleste 
spirantia ac redolentia, quae placidus somnus excepit, qui cum aliquandiu 
eum occupavisset, placide ac suaviter Creatori ac Redemptori-suo animam 
commendat ; et quamvis extinctus, notas tamen oris pallor non confunde- 
bat, verum temperato quodam rubore perfundebatur. Obiit sexto Idus 
Februarii 1598, veteri calculo, qui turn in usu, expleto jam aetatis suae 
anno 43. 

Erat statura mediocri, colore rubido cui candor quidam admistus, coma 
subrufa, vultu ad comitatem gravitatemque pariter facto, valetudine parum 
firma, quam mirum erat ad tantos labores sufficere potuisse, singulari 
pietate, sanctimonia, vitae innocentia, quam vel inviti admirabantur et 
laudabant ipsi veritatis hostes. In vocatione sua fidelissimus et vigilan- 
tissimus, assiduus in studiis et meditationibus, ab otio supra quam facile 
credas abhorrens : fidem tamen facere possunt tot tam paucis annis, etiam 
corpore morbis et aegritudinibus debilitato, editi ab eo docti et elegantes 


Commentarii. Pacis amantissimus, injuriarum patientissimus, ad condon- 
andum facillimus. In ferenda de aliorum vita, dictis, factisve sententia 
perquam aequus ac moderatus ; secus ab aliis prolata praestitave semper, 
quoad fieri potuit, in meliorem partem interpretatus est. In communi 
consuetudine et amicorum consortio apprime humaniis ac jucundus, in 
consiliis fidus, in colloquio affabilis et comis. In rebus seriis gravis ac 
prudens, quod in publicis Ecclesiae negotiis procurandis omnibus fecit 
manifestum ; in consilio aliis impertiendo promptissimus. Has vero ex- 
imias virtutes ornabat admirabilis humilitas, qua, quamvis plurimis praes- 
tantissimis dotibus alios fere omnes anteiret, tamen ne infimum quidem 
fastidiose despexjt, quin potius sese omnibus submisit. Ad bumilitatem 
accessit incredibilis modestia et animi moderatio, ut quam^as multorum 
conviciis ac calumniis publice ipso audiente immeritoimpeteretur, nunquam 
auditus sit convicia regerere, aut calumniatores recriniinari, aut vocem ali- 
quam contia detractores emittere, sed bonae conscientiae testimonio fretus 
tacitum sese continuit. Semel tantura pro concione apologia usus est, 
tanta moderatione ut neminem vellicaret, nullius famae detraheret, nemi- 
nem insimularet, nemini crimen impingeret, sed sinceritatem tantum suam 
coram Deo et ipsius Ecclesia testatus sit. Studia sua cum familiaribus 
communicabat, eamque discendi viam saepe utilem sibi ac fructuosam 
testatus est. Sed cesso de eo plura, quae satis multa dici poterant, et 
fortasse debuerant : sed omnibus in propatulo sunt ejus virtutes, et tam 
modesto genio sobrium laudis decus competit. 

Ejus decessus fama quantas lacrymas, quae suspiria, quos singultus 
per universam urbem ac regionem concitarit, relatu fere incredibile. 
Senatus, Academia, civitas, plebes, singuli tanquam in domestico luctu 
moerebant. Funus majore quam alias consuetum Edinburgi celebritate 
decoratur; turmatim enim omnes, tam supremae, quam infimae sortis 
homines, et quidem omnis sexus, omnis aetatis, ad illud ornandum con- 











It Is now an old-established custom to depict the life and death of men 
who have rendered themselves illustrious, and excelled others in virtue, 
and to embalm them in the memory of posterity — a custom highly to be 
commended, and hardly exceeded by any other in a title to popular ob- 
servance. Foi', as far as public utility is concerned, its efficacy is great 
indeed in exciting men to virtue, piety and morality. Surprising is the 
power with which examples influence the minds of those who are slow to 
receive instruction. For what they cannot learn during a whole lifetime 
from mere precepts, even though derived from the living spring of the 
sacred wi'itings, they easily attain by imitating the example of good men, 
especially of such as are conspicuously known, whose actions and habits 
are brought prominently before general observation, and whose whole 
conversation and life are full in public view. Hence I am the more 
strongly impelled to delineate briefly the life and manners of Robert 
RoUock of pious memory — a man, whose learning and whose sanctity 
and uprightness of life cannot be impugned by sucli surviving enemies of 
the truth as were his contemporaries — that the greater part of this gene- 
ration may bear in remembrance what excellent lessons they have learned 
of him, and that posterity may have before them his example for their 

Robert RoUock^ was born in the year 1555. His father was David 

1 So we have given the Principal's name in conformity with modern usage, and with 
Row, Spottiswood and Caldenvood. James Melville, with the capricious orthogi'aphy 
of his time, gives RoUok, and Rolloc, but prefers the latter. In the records of the col- 
lege of St Salvator's, St Andrews, he is styled Rollok ; and so he signs himself in his 
contract with the town-council of Edinburgh. This is confirmed by the document 
quoted in the next note.— See also Stevens's Histoi-y of the High School, p. 15. 


Rollock,! Laird of Powis, an estate not far from Stirling ; his mother 
was Mary Livingstone, of the distinguished family of that name. His 
father manifesting a singular anxiety and zeal to bestow on him a libe- 
ral education, he gave evident proofs of high talents, even in his boy- 
hood, while acquiring the first rudiments of learning, which induced 
his father to send him from his home to Stirling for the purpose of en- 
tering on the study of the classics. He enjoyed the instructions of Tho- 
mas Buchanan, the nephew by the brother's side of that great Buchanan,^ 
who was beyond all controversy the first poet of his time. Thomas 
Buchanan was a man distinguished both for Avorth and learning, and was 
celebrated as a successful teacher. Under his instructions^ he made such 

* David Rollock died ou the 14tli March 1578, as we learn from the following docu- 
jjient: — "Ultimo Decemhris 1579. The testament-dative and inventor of the glides, 
geir, sommes of money and dettis perteining to umquhill ane honourable man, Maister 
David Eolloli of Powis, the tyme of his deceis, wha deceisit npon the xiiij. day of 
Marcli 1578 yeirs : faithfiillie maid and given up by Mr Robert, Thomas, Elizabeth, 
Margaret, Christiana and Barbara RoUokis, lauchfull barnes by tlie wife to the 

Sum of the Inventor, £5i2 10 
„ „ Dettis, 128 

£670 10 
Dettis awind be tlie deid, 276 6 8 

Free Geir, £3di 3 4 
Testament confirmed be the said Mr Rot., Thomas, &c., executors-dative to the said 
umquhil Mr David their father." — The Principal's elder brother, of whom mention is 
made at the end of the naiTative, was named Da\ad, as we learn from a MS. in the 
possession of H. J. RoUo, Esq. We presume that it is from his succeeding to the 
heritable property that his name does not appear in connection with the moveables. 

2 Thomas Buchanan, nephew of George Buchanan, as we learn not only from this 
passage, but from the dedication to Rollock's Commentary on the First Epistle to the 
Thessalonians, was first a Regent in the College of St Salvator's, St Andrew's. In 
.1568 he was appointed to the High School of Edinburgh. In 1571 he became Master 
of the Grammar School c>f Stirling, where his uncle was residing. fil/'CVt'e's Life of 
Melville, vol. ii., p. 367.) In 1578 he was appointed Provost of the Collegiate Church 
of Kirkheugh, and minister of Ceres, in the neighbourhood of St Andrews. He died, 
according to Dr M'Crie, on the 12th April 1599, " of a biiiise which he received of a 
fiiU from his horse. (^Melville, vol. ii., p. 67.) Spottiswood, (p. 454), and James Mel- 
ville {Diary, p. 438), date his death in 1598. See also Dr Stevens's Uirjli School, pp. 
11-12. Thomas Buchanan was a man of great learning, and of high rejiutation as a 
teacher, but seems to have been of a wayward temjier. 

' We learn from Keith's History, p. 531, that Mr Thomas " Duncanson was school- 
master and reidar in Striveling in 1568." It is probable that at some time between 
this and the appointment of Thomas Buchanan in 1571, Thomas Jack, afterwards 
master of the Grammar School of Glasgow, was teacher in Stirling, or he may have 


progress in the classics that Buchanan had the strongest affection for him. 
And Rollock so reciprocated his teacher's fondness, that many years after- 
wards, when he filled the station of Principal of the University of Edin- 
burgh, he never allowed him, when coming to Edinburgh on business, to 
live in any house but his, and in token of his gratitude, he dedicated to 
him his excellent Commentary on the first Epistle to the Thessalonians.i 
When he had made sufficient progress in the Classics, his father sent him 
to St Andrews to commence the more elevated studies of philosophy. 
He entered there the college called St Salvator's, under John Carr^ as 
Regent, a man of the greatest learning, and he advanced so rapidly in 
the study of philosophy, that he was equalled by few and surpassed by 
none of his fellow students. When this course of study was completed, 
though his singular and conspicuous endowments had made him univer- 

been an assistant teacher tliere. Eollock, in laudatoiy verses to Jack's Onomasticon 
Poeticum, published in 1592, says 

dedit praeceptor ille olim mens 


Tor an account of Jack, see il/'Crte's Melville, vol. ii., pp. 365, 478. 

1 This dedication is as follows : Eximiae Pietatis et Doctrinae viro, Thomae 
Buchanano Siresensis Ecclesiae Pastori, Robertas Rollocus, S. & G. per Christum. 
Si quae in me sit rerum aliquarum cognitio, cj;uae quam tennis sit et exigua, ipse 
mihi probe sum conscius, profecto earn tibi imprimis, nt debeo, acceptam fero, qui 
primus ejus in me jecisti semen : et ita qiiidem jecisti, ut ego adolescens, cum 
in schola tua educarer, quam tum Sterlini magno reipublicae nostrae bono aperuisti, 
non sine auspiciis Georgii Buchanani Patrui tui, viri, omnivnn quos tulit hacc natio, 
literatissimi, non tantum te vulgarcm habuerim informatorem, sed patrem potius, 
mei studiosum adeo et amantem, ut ex eo tempore in hodiemum usque diem 
sensus ille benevolentiae in me tuae, cujus recordatio semper mihi suavissima fuit, 
ex animo meo elabi nunquam potuei'it : idque eo magis quod tu emidem ilium 
in animo meo sensum assidue sic foveris et foveas, non modo cumulata subinde tua 
ilia in me solita benevolentia, sed etiam collocata perpetuo in commune Ecclesiae 
Christi commodum opera tua, ut si patiar me tui xmquam oblivisci, profecto inter 
ingratissimos homines, quos passim, ut nmic sunt tempora, quamphnimos invenias, 
merito queam recenseri. Quod si autem cuiquam doctrinae et cognitionis fi-uctus ali- 
quis debeatur, profecto ei imprimis deberi eum nemo sanae mentis non fatebitur, a 
quo primum in auimis nostris semen ejus j actum est, et cujus ductu, non modo huma- 
niomm literarum, sed etiam verae solidaeque pietatis stadium sumus ingressi. Quam- 
obrem, ego, licet serins quam oportuit, fructum hunc aliquem laborum meorum, atque 
etiam tuorum tibi offero, et Commentarium hunc meum in Pauli Apostoli ad Thessa- 
lonicences Epistolam priorem, in tuo nomine exire volo, idque eo fine, ixt si quid ex 
meis scriptis boni ad quosvis pervcniat, ii bona ex parte abs te agnoscant illud eman- 
asse. Vale. Edinburgi. 1598. l-t Calend. Augiisti. 

■■' The name of John Carr occurs in 1574, as one of the Procuratores Nationum for 
the election of Rector in St Salvator's. 


sally esteemed, yet, till a vacancy occurred, he only taught philosophy for 
some time as substitute for another. When elected Professor he so in- 
stilled into the minds of the youth piety in conjunction with instructions 
in philosophy, that he acquired great praise, and his reputation began to 
be extended. 1 

It so happened, meanwhile, that the Town Council of Edinburgh be- 
gan to entertain thoughts of erecting a College in Edinburgh, and that 
especially at the instigation of James Lawson^ — a minister distinguished 
for his faithful discharge of duty, and whose remarkable learning and piety 
are matters of unperishing record — and of William Little,^ a gentleRian 
of the highest integrity, and exceedingly beloved by his townsmen for his 
tried prudence and courage. This scheme originated in the following con- 
siderations. Not only was Edinburgh the metropolis of the kingdom, but 

1 Among the Nomina Incorporatorum in Colhgio Salvatoriano, in 1574, appears Ro- 
bertas Rollok, and also Thomas Rollok, probably his younger brother. The future 
Principal nivist have been in his nineteenth or twentieth year, a ripe age, especially 
at that time. In 1580 he was appointed an Examiner in the Faculty of Arts for St 
Leonard's College, so that he must have been a Regent at that time. In the same year 
he was appointed Quaestor to the Faculty of Arts. (Communicated by Professor 
Pyper of St Andrews.) "Then," (1580,) says James Melville, "I had the honour, 
of Him to whom all honour apperteins, to be the teatcher of Mr Robert Rolloc, of 
most worthie memorie, the Hebrew toung, wha resorted ordinarlie to my lessone and 
chalmer to that effect." — (^Diary, p. 86.) 

'^ James Lawson was a fellow-student at St Andrews with Andrew Melville in 1559, 
having been educated gratuitously by Andrew Simpson, the celebrated master of the 
school of Perth. The Countess of Crawford ap}jointed him tutor to her son, with 
whom he travelled on the continent. In 1568, on his retui'u, he obtained an appoint- 
ment to teach Hebrew in the New College of St Andrews. In 1569 he was presented 
to the olKce of sub-principal of the University of Aberdeen. — (J/'CV/c's Melville, vol. 
i., pp. 23, 235, 422.) In 1572 he succeeded John Knox as minister of Edinburgh. 
He was Moderator of the Assembly which met at Dundee in 1580. In Mav 1584 
he was obliged to flee to England for his opposition to the Blade Acts. He died in 
London on the 12th October of the same year. — {Caldencood, vol. iii., p. 223 ; vol. iv. 
pp. 65, 201 ; Melville's Diary, pp. 80, 1G7, 219.) He was a strenuous supporter both 
of the High School and the University of Edinburgh. — {Crawford's History of the 
University, pp. 19, 20 ; sec also M^Crie's Knox, pp. 214, 442, 4th ed.) 

* William Little, one of the Littles of Craigmillar, was one of the Baihes of Edin- 
burgh in 1583, {Council Records,) and twice Provost in 1586 and 1591. — {Maitlund's 
History of Edinburgh, p. 226. See also Wilson's Memorials of Edinburgh, pp. 169, &c.) 
It was his brother, Mr Clement Little, who, in 1 580, with a view to the institution of 
the University of Edinburgh, founded the Library — " he dedicated all his books for 
the beginning of ane library." — {Crauford, pp. 20, 26, 110.) RoUock, in 1596, dedi- 
cates to William Little, especially for the behoof of his son William, his M^ork, entitled 
Responsiones aliquot de Foedere, &c. 


the Council observed that their townsmen were in the habit of sending 
their sons for their education to St Andrews, or other universities, not only 
with great inconvenience, but at great expense; and they knew that many 
in humble circumstances were prevented by the narrowness of their means 
from educating their children away from home, being thus, in very many 
cases, constrained to give up to mechanical pursuits talents of a high 
order. "When the proposal was once made to the Council, they omitted 
nothing that could contribute to advance the work ; they procured the 
buildings necessary for so large a scheme ; what were wanting they built 
from the foundations, and with prudent foresight they arranged that all 
might be in readiness before the beginning of October, at which time 
candidates for the studies of philosophy are in the habit of repairing to our 

Abundant provision being made in all points, they began to deliberate 
on the choice of a Principal who should preside over the University. 
RoUock, the subject of our narrative, had already, from the conversation 
of many, been made known to James Lawson, who also had sent to him 
a most courteous letter, entreating him to undertake the duty. To this 
Eollock replied with friendly affability, and, as he was a man in truth 
born to instruct others, he declared himself willing and ready, if he should 
receive an invitation befitting the importance of the occasion. Lawson, 
accordingly, went to the Council, where his influence was very great, and 
informed them that there was no person better qualified for the charge of 
the University than RoUock, of whose learning and piety he was assured 
from the most abundant evidence. The Council passed a resolution to 
send immediately for RoUock, and two of the principal inhabitants were 
chosen for that purpose. They visit St Andrews, and calling upon Rol- 
lock, after explaining to him the whole circumstances of the case, and ear- 
nestly enti-eating him not to fail the Council in so sacred a cause, they 
easily persuade him to accede to their wishes. On the arrival of RoUock 
in Edinburgh, at an interview with the Council, matters were arranged 
between them without the least difficulty; he undertook the management 
of the University, which he conducted so long as he lived in such a way 
that nothing ever contributed more to the advantage both of tlie Church 
and of the State.^ 

1 The following is a copy of the contract between Kollock and the Magistrates of 
Ediubiu-gh. " At Edinburgh, the fourtene day of September, the zeir of God I™. 


On the 1st of October 1583, in the public hall of the University, in the 
presence of a crowded audience of men of all ranks, he delivered a bril- 

V<^. fourscoir thrie yeires. It is appointit, aggi'eit, and fiuallie contractit, betwixt the 
provost, baillies, and counsall of the burgh Edinburgh, upon that ane pt and Mr Rot. 
Rollock, for the present ane of the regeutis of Sanct Salvatoris Colledge, situate within 
the citie of Sauct Androis, upon that uyr pt in manr, forme, and effect as after fol- 
lowes : That is to say, the said Maister Robert sail entre to the Colledge newly 
foundit wtiu the said burgh for instnictioun of the youth, and professing of guid leim- 
ing, as the erectioun and foundation beirs, the fourtene day of October next to cum, 
but furder delay, and sail exerce the office of the regent of the said Colledge, in in- 
structioun, governament, and con-ectioun of ye youth and persones quhilk sail be 
committed to his chairge, dureing the spaice of ane yeir immediatelie following his 
said etrie, and furder, sa lang as the said Mr Ro'. uses himseltf fuithfuUie yrinto, ac- 
cording to the mills and injunctiouns qlk sail be given unto him be the provost, 
baillies, and counsall of the said burgh, quhilkes are now pn*. or sail happen to be 
for the time, to the observing and keipeing of the quhilkeis injunctiouns in all the 
pairtis yi'of, the said Mr Robert, be yir p~ntis, bindis and obleis him ; for the qlkeis 
causes, the said provost, baillies, and counsill, bindis and oblesis yame and yr succes- 
sores thankfullie to content and pay to ye said Mr Rot. the soume of fortie pundis 
usual money of yis realme, at twa termis in the yeir, Candlemes and Lambes, be twa 
equall portiounes, and sail susteine him and ane servand in jt ordinar expenses, 
honestlie as etfeirs. Attour the said Mr Rt. sail repare and haif for his laboures to be 
takin in instructing everie bairne repairing to the said Colledge yeirlie, as foUowes : 
To witt, fra ye bairnes inhabitants of the said burgh, fortie schillings, and fra ye 
bairnes of uyeris, noclit inhabitants yairin, three pundis or mair, as ye bairnes parentis 
please to bestow of yr liberalitie ; and furder, in cais, at the end and expiring of ye 
said zeir, ye said Mr Robert find himself not sufficientlie satisfeit be his said yeirlie 
fie and casualities, that he, upon his awin giud discretioun, declair that he has rea- 
sonable cause to meane and compleane upon that behalf, the mater being proponit be 
the said Mr Robert to Master James Lowsone, minister, Jo" Prestoun, ane of the 
commisseriss, and Jo" Schairp, advocate, the said provost, baillies, and counsall, 
and yair successores, sail follow yr determinatioun and advj'se to be given jairin, 
quhat ^all be augmentit for ye said Mr Rotis stipend the zeir foirsaid ; providing al- 
wayes yat ye said augmentatioun exceed not the simi of fortie merkes ; and further, 
the said provost, baillies, and counsall obleiss yame and yr successores, yat as it sail 
happen yr said Colledge in policie and leiniing to encreis, that the said Mr Rot., upon 
his guid merite, sail be advancit to the maist honorable roume yat sail be vaik yairin, 
or to the ylk ony new Regent sail be providit, he being als qualifiet as ony uy"" ther- 
foir; and hereto baith the saidis pairties faythfuUie binds and obleisiss yamseltFes to 
uyris, and, for ye mair securitie, they are content, and consentis that thir pntis be 
actit and registrat in the builds of the Commissers of Edinburgh, and decernit to have 
ye strenth of yair decreit and executorialles of horning and poinding, the ane but pre- 
judice of the uyr, at the pleasure of the pairtie pas yairupon, and to yat effect baith 
the said pairties makes, constitutes, and ordaines, &c. 

and ilk ane of yame yr prors, conjunctlie and severallie, in uheriori coiistitutionts forma, 
promittendo de rnto. In witness heirof both the said pairties lies subscrivit yis pnt con- 
tract with yair handis, day, zeir, and place foresaids, before thir witnessis, «&;c. Et sic 
subscribitur, Maister Robekt Rollok, ane of the Regcntis of Sanct Salvatoris Colledge 
for the imt." 


rlstic passage in the seventeenth sermon, (p. 532.) " And last, 
this serveth to reprove the vain thoughts and ungodly speeches of 
the common multitude ; for they think this ministry to be but a 
base and contemptible calling, and say, who should be placed into 
it ? Who but such fools and unworthy bodies as cannot be meet 
for another calling ? Who but kinless bodies ? But if a gentle- 
man, an esquire's son, a lord's brother, take on this calling, he is 
disgraced and abased therewith. But O, unworthy wretch ! no 
emperor, no monarch, nor no flesh whatsoever, is worthy of so 
great a calling ; no, the angels in heaven honour not so much the 
commission as the commission honoureth them." 

We hope that our readers will not deem that too much time has 
been devoted to this imperfect account of these sermons. It is too 
often the fate of such productions to be glanced at cursorily for a 
few brief minutes and then laid on the shelf, an unheeded orna- 
ment or incumbrance. The gentle, learned, and pious Rollock 
merits kindlier treatment. To secure this, it seemed both suffi- 
cient and necessary to show the reader, that he has before him the 
living manner of the man whom all his contemporaries delighted 
to honour as an unrivalled teacher of ministers, and Avho himself 
was a persuasive and successful herald of the Cross, endowed with 
all the unction of a gracious spirit. 

High School of Edinbcegh, 

26tk May 1849. 


, OF 


Vitae et Obitus D. Robert! Rolloci, Scoti, Narratio ab Henrico 

Charterisio Conscripta, xxxix 

Life of Principal Rollock by Principal Charteris, (translated, with 

Notes, by the Editor, with list of Rollock's Writings,) . Ivii 

Original Title Pages of Rollock's Tractatus de Vocatione Efficaci, and of 

Holland's Translation, .....•• 1 

The Author's Epistle to King James VI., (translated by Holland,) 5 

The Printer, Robert Waldegrave, to the Reader, (translated by 

the Editor,) 7 

Beza's Letter to John Johnston, (translated by Holland,) . . 9 

Holland's Epistle Dedicatory to Sir "William Scott of Elie, . 13 

Marbury to the Reader, ....••• 19 

Holland to the Reader, . . . . . • • 21 

Rollock's Summary of Theology, (translated by the Editor,) . 23 

Rollock's Summary, in the original Latin, . . • • 26 

A Treatise of our Effectual Calling : (translated by Holland :) 
Chapter I. Outline of the Treatise, . . • • • 29 

H. Of the Word of God ; especially of the Cove- 
nant of Woi-ks, . . . • • 33 

III. Of the Covenant of Grace, .... 38 

IV. Who are comprehended in God's Covenant, . 51 


A Treatise of our Effectual Calling : — 
Chapter V. The Protestant and the Popish judgment of 

these Covenants, . . . • • ^1 

VI. Of the written Covenant of God, . . . 61 

Vn. Outline of the various Controversies on this Sub- 

ject. Is the Scripture the Word of God ? 63 

-: VIII. Evidence that the Scripture is the Word of God, 68 

Characteristics of the Scripture with relative Controversies : — 
Chapter IX. First Characteristic of the Scripture — its 

Antiquity, ...... 75 

X. Second Characteristic — its Perspicuity, . 78 

XL Third Characteristic — its Simplicity, . 82 

XII. Fourth Characteristic — its ever-living Efficacy, 85 

XIII. Fifth Characteristic — its Indispensabihty,* 88 

XIV. Sixth Characteristic — its Perfection, . 92 

XV. Seventh Characteristic — its Authority as a 

Judge of Controversies, ... 94 

XVI. Eighth Characteristic — its Authority as a 

Ground of Faith, 97 

XVII. What are the Books of the Scripture, . 99 

XVIII. The Authentic Edition of the Scripture — the 

Old Testament, 110 

XIX. The Authentic Edition of the Scripture — the 

New Testament, 119 

XX. The Translations of the Old Testament, . 127 

XXI. The Syriac Translation of the New Testa- 

ment, ...... 135 

XXII. The Latin Translations of both Testaments, 136 

XXIII. The Translation of the Scripture into the 

Mother Tongue, . . . . 140 
XXIV. Sin in general, . . . . . 160 

XXV. Original Sin, 166 

* The Editor finds that he has neglected to notice, in its place, an oversight of 
Holland's, who has given, (p. 88) as the heading of the 13th Chapter, " Of the Fifth 
Property of the Church" &c., instead of Scripture. The original has Scripftira' Sncrce. 



A Treatise of our EtFectual Calling : — 
Chapter XXVI. Concupiscence, 

XXVII. Actual Sin, 

XXVIII. The Sin against the Holy Ghost, 

XXIX. Justifying Faith, 

XXX. Improper Significations of Faith, 

XXXI. Popish Doctrine of Faith, . 

XXXII. Hope, .... 

XXXIII. Charity or Love, 

XXXrV. Repentance, 

XXXV. The Repentance of the Reprobate, 

XXXVI. Popish Doctrine of Repentance, 

XXXVII. Freewill, .... 

XXXVIII. Free Grace, 

Catechetical Exposition of Modes of Revelation, 

Sermons : — 

Original Title Page to Edition of 1599, containing Eleven Sermons 

in the Scottish dialect, 
Address to the Christian Reader, 
Three Sonnets by James Melville on Rollock's Death, 

Sermon I. 2. Cor. v. 1-4, 

II. 2. Cor. V. 1-8, 

III. 2. Cor. V. 9-11, 

IV. 2. Cor. V. 12-15, 

V. 2. Cor. V. 16-18, 

VI. 1. Cor ii. 6-9, 

VII. 1. Cor. ii. 10-12, 

VIII. 2. Cor. iv. 3-5. 

IX. 2. Cor. X. 1-5. 

X. Philip, i. 18-26. 

XI. Tit. iii. 3-7. 

Original Title-page to Editions of 1616 and 1G34, containing 

Eighteen Sermons in the English dialect. 
Epistle Dedicatory, — to Sir "William Scott of Elie. 
The Seven additional Sermons : 

Sermon XII. Psalm cxxx. 1-4. . 








Sermon XIII. Psalm cxxx. 5-8. 

XIV. Matth. XV. 21-28. 

XV. Luke vii. 37-50. 

XVI. John iii. 6. 

XVn. 1 Tim. i. 12-14. 

XVIII. 1 Tim. i. 14-16. 

De Aeterna Mentis Divine ArrROBATioNE et Reprobatione, 














Jam olim inolevit mos virorum illustrium et virtute aliis praecellen- 
tium vitam obitumque describendi et ad posteritatis memoriam conse- 
crandi. Laudabilis sane consuetudo, et qua vix alia observatione dignior. 
Ejus enim maximus publice usus ad homines ad virtutem, pietatem, bo- 
nosque mores excitandos. Mirum, quantum exempla rudiores moveant. 
Nam quod prseceptis, etiam ex ipso vivo sacrarum literarum fonte traditis, 
tota vita discere non possunt, proboi'um virorum exemplo et imitatione 
facile assequuntur : pr^esertim si uoti sint, si eorum facta et mores oculis 
obversentur, si palam fiat eorum tota conversatio. Quo magis moveor ut 
piae memoriae Robert! Rolloci vitam moresque paucis describam, cujus 
non doctrinam tantum, sed et sanctimoniam vitaeque integritatem ipsi 
etiam qui supersunt et una cum eo vixerunt veritatis bostes inficiari non 
possunt; ut et plerique qui adhuc vivunt meminerint quae bona ex eo di- 
dicerint, et posteri exemplar habeant sibi propositum quod imitentur. 

RoBERTUs RoLLOCus natus, anno 1555, patre Davide RoUoco Puissae, 
quae villa non longe Sterlino abest, comarcho, matre Maria Levingstonia 
ex illustri Levingstoniorum familia oriunda. Singular! patris cura et 
studio liberaliter educatus, etiam in ipsa pueritia cum prima elementa ad- 
disceret, non obscurum magni ingenii specimen dedit; quo motus pater eum 
Sterlinum ad humaniora studia capessenda amandavit. Hie praecep- 
torem habuit Thomam Buchananum, magni iUius Buchanan! poetarum 
sui saeculi facile principis ex fratre nepotem, spectatae tum probitatis turn 
eruditionis virum, et egregium juventutis erudiendae magistrum, sub cujus 
ferula ita in humanioribus Uteris profecit ut Buchananus eum impense 


dilexerit; et RoUocus vicissim praeceptoris amorem ita compensavit ut 
multis post annis, cum Academiae Edinburgente praefectura fungeretur, 
nunquam eum Edinburgum pro re nata venientem passus sit extra do- 
mum suam liospitari, eique insignem ilium Commentarium in priorem ad 
Thessalonicenses Epistolam in testimonium gratitudinis dicarit. Ubi in 
studiis humanioribus satis maturuisset, misit eum pater Andreapolin ad 
sublimiora ilia philosophiae studia ineunda ; ubi Collegium quod Salva- 
torianum vocant ingi'essus, eos progressus, Regente Joanne Caro viro 
eruditissimo, in pliilosopliiae studiis fecit, ut ex condiscipulis pauci eum 
assecuti sint, nemo anteierit. Exacto hoc curriculo, etsi omnibus propter 
egi'egias quae in eo enitebant dotes esset carissimus, vicaria tamen opera 
aliquandiu in docenda philosophia functus est, donee vacante loco in nu- 
merum professorum philosophiae allectus est ; in qua professione ita cum 
philosophiae studiis pietatem animis adolescentium instillavit, ut magnam 
inde laudem adeptus sit, et coeperit ipsius nomen latius propagari. 

Accidit interea ut Senatus Edinburgensis de erigenda Edinbui'gi Aca- 
demia cogitare coeperit, idque praecipue instigatione Jacobi Lausonii 
pastoris fidelissimi, cujus eximia eruditio et pietas digna est quae omnibus 
saeculis celebretur, et Gulielmi Litilli vii'i integerrimi, et propter specta- 
tam prudentiam ac fortitudinem civibus suis carissimi. Cogitatio haec 
hinc orta, quod regni metropolis esset, et animadverteret Senatus cives 
suos, non tantum gi*a\'i molestia, sed magno etiam impendio, liberos 
Andreapohn aut ad alias Academias erudiendos ablegare, et quod intel- 
ligeret complures tenuioris fortunae sic angustia rei familiaris premi, ut 
extra domum suam sumptus educandis liberis tolerare nequirent, eoque 
coactos plerumque sublimia ingenia mechanicis artibus addicere. Ubi 
hoc semel Senatui propositum, nihil omittit quod ad opus promovendum 
spectaret, aedificia tan to operi idonea comparat, quae deerant a fudamen- 
tis extruit, prudenter etiam cavet ut omnia in promptu sint ante ineuntem 
Octobrera, quo tempore philosophiae candidati se ad Academias conferre 
Solent ; omnibus abunde provisis, consultare demum coepit de Rectore 
qui Academiae praesset. 

Innotuerat jam multorum relatione Jacobo Lausonio Rollocus noster, 
qui et ad eum literas miserat humanitatis plenas, quibus eum ad banc 
provinciam suscipiendam hortatus erat: his comiter et amice respondit 
Rollocus, et, ut erat homo vei-e aliis instituendis natus, promptum se pa- 
ratumque ostendit si honesta accederet vocato. Adit itaque Senatum 


Lausonius, cujus summa apud eurn erat auctoritas, edocet milium magis 
idoneum cui Academiae praefectura committatur quam Rollocum, de 
cujus doctrina et vitae sanctimonia abunde sibi constaret. Decernitur 
continue accersendum Rollocum, et elect! in earn rem duo cives primarii, 
qui Andreapolin contendant, li Rollocum adeunt, rem omnem ei aperi- 
unt, hortantur serio ne in tam sancto negotio senatui desit, et facile quod 
volunt persuadent. Veniens Edinburgum Rollocus Senatum alloquitur ; 
facillime inter eos convenit ; praefecturam Academiae suscipit — quam ita 
gessit quamdiu vixit ut nihil unquam majori, aut Ecclesiae emolumento, 
aut Reipublicae ornamento cesserit. 

Calendis Octobris anni 1583, in publico Academiae auditorio luculen- 
tam habuit orationem, confluente copiosa cuj usque ordinis multitudine, 
qua egregiam sui in animis hominum admirationem concitavit. Postri- 
die, qui dies indictus erat adolescentibus qui philosophicum cursum statu- 
erant inire ad conveniendum, magna sese offerentium multitude affuit. 
Nam ad famam apertae Edinburgi Academiae, multi non ex ipsa tantum 
urbe, sed ex vicina etiam regione, confluxerunt adoljscentes; quos omnes 
Rollocus in Latini sermonis puritate addiscenda usque ad diem examini 
constitutum diligentissime exercuit. Habito examine, plerique qui com- 
perti sunt ad capessendum cursum philosophicum minus idonei, curae 
Duncani Narnii, viri morum elegantia et doctrina singulari, ut eos exac- 
tius in Uteris humanioribus in sequentem annum institueret, commissi 
sunt. In ipso autem limine cum institutione disciplinam conjunxit, et 
plerosque, laxiori triviahum scholarum disciplina eflfraenes, adhibita seve- 
ritate compescuit ; severitatem tamen insita quadam sibi dementia pru- 
denter temperavit, et utramque religionis dementis sic miscuit, ut gutta- 
tim tendlis adolescentium animis pietatem instillaret. Inque eam rem 
singulis diebus Saturni, cum discipulos a mane ad meridiem usque dispu- 
tationibus exercuisset, a meridie pradegit Quaestiones Bezae, in quas etiam 
brevem analysin ad discipulorum memoriam juvandam edidit; in iis, 
etiam diebus Dominicis ab hora septima matutina ad sesquioctavam qua 
adeunda erat concio eos continue exercuit, et a meridie, ex quo a po- 
meridiana concione reditum est, post repetitas quas in templo audierant 
conciones, rationem exigebat. Deinde Catechesin Palatinatus eorum 
mentibus diligenter inculcavit, et textus Scripturae sdectos perspicue in- 
terpretatus est, adhibita etiam accurata analysi, qua facillime mentem 
Spiritus Sancti assequi possent, nihilque omisit eorum quae ad Dei cog- 


nitionera et timorem adolescentium animis imprimendum facere possint ; 
quibus ipsius laboribus felici successu abunde benedixit Deus. 

Neque tamen haec tanta in studiis pietatis sedulitas quicquam remorata 
est ordinaria humanitatis aut philosophiae studia. Nam toto quadriennii 
curriculo, postquani in Graeci linguae cognitione probe eos instituisset, 
summa cura et solicitudine Aristotelis contextum singulis hebdomadae 
diebus discipulis praelegit. Exorsus ab Organo Logico Ethica Nicoma- 
cheia et Physica percurrit, quibus adjecit etiam arithmeticae principia, 
doctrinam de anatomia corporis humani, de sphaera, accurate exposito 
textu Joannis de Sacro Bosco, de geographia; ut miruni videri possit, aut 
potuisse eum tarn multa docere, aut discipulos discere. Qui tamen, Deo 
ipsius laboribus benedicente, ita in singulis hisce profecerunt, ut non minus 
parati essent de unoquoque rationem reddere quam si ei soli, neglectis 
reliquis, incubuissent. Sed in tanta alacritate ac animorum promptitudine 
quanta tum in adolescentibus fuit, quid non posset labor improbus ? 

Exacto curriculi philosophici quadriennio, post accuratam singulorum 
examinationem, laurea, quam magistralem vocant, eos donavit, sed prius 
summa gravitate admonitos officii sui. Monuit eos quanta diligentia et 
solicitudine eorum bono invigilasset, quam sei'io semper eorura animos 
praeparasset ad alteram illam vitam ac immortalem, ad quam liortatus 
erat ut vitae hujus praesentis ac periturae omnes cogitationes, omnia studia 
etiam liumaniora, omnes actiones dirigerent ; quam serio dederit operam 
ut ejus vitae sensu aliquo magis magisque indies alTicerentur, ut eo quasi 
gustu futurae laetitiae ac gloriae allecti desiderarent illam plenitudinera 
gaudiorum, et suspirantes expectarent adoptionem et redemptionem cor- 
poris sui. Commendabat quidem iis artes, scientias, exercitationes quas- 
cunque quae sunt etiam liujus vitae, postulabatque ut quam primum in- 
grederentur certum aliquod vitae genus honestum ac laudabile, in quo vel 
ecclesiae vel reipublicae usibus inservirent; sed ita semper ut memi- 
nerint admonitionis Paulinae, " ut quia tempus contractum est, in poste- 
rum uterentur hoc mundo ut non abutentes;" qua permisit quidem Paulus 
procurationem istorum omnium quae ad praesentem vitam pertinent, sed 
ita tamen ut interea, dum his exercerentur, n-oXtVev/ta suum haberent in 
coelis — hoc est, dum corpora versantur circa ea, animi interea in coelis sint, 
intuentes Deum, ejus voluntatem et gloriam, et expectantes inde venturura 
Dominum et servatorem Jesum Christum, qui ti'ansformet corpus nostrum 
humile ut conforme fiat corpori suo glorioso. Protestatus est detestabile 


se semper censuisse profanum illud hominum genus et atheos illos qui se 
potius quam Deum spectarent, quibus omnia hujus vitae bona tandem in 
exitium sint cessura. Postremo sermonem suum conclusit cum seria 
exhortatione ad pietatem, sanctimoniam vitae, perseverantiam in ea ve- 
ritate et religionis puritate quam accepissent, et in qua educati essent. 

Post emissam primam banc classem, contracto cum Helena Baronia 
lectissima foemina counubio, valedixit philosopbiae, et totum se sacrai'um 
literarum studio, ad quod ab ineunte aetate semper animam appulerat, 
tradidit ; et suffecto Pbilippo Hislopo, adolescente probo et erudito, qui 
succedentem classem susciperet, Academiae praefectura contentus fuit, in 
qua nibil omisit eorum quae ad ipsius commodum spectarent. Quis hie 
non impensam ipsius industriam admiretur? Consuevit enim frequenter 
singulas classes adire, cuj usque sedulitatem et progressum in studiis ex- 
plorare, si quae contentiones, si quae turbae incidissent, egregia celeritate 
ac prudentia componere, universes ad perstaudum in officio erigere, quo- 
tidie omnibus in auditorium convocatis preces ipse celebrare. Unaquaque 
hebdomada unius diei delectum fecit, quo discipulis suis omnibus in unum 
coeuntibus textum aliquera scripturae interpretatus est, unde admonitiones, 
hortationes, comminationes salutares eruit, non sermonis fuco obductas, 
verum sententiarum pondere ac gravitate efficaces ad adolescentium ani- 
mos emoUieudos, instituendos, et ad sanctimoniam efFormandos. Hujus 
praelectionis tanta fuit efficacia, ut ea adolescentium animi arctius quam 
asperiori aliqua disci plina in officio continerentur. Absoluta praelectione, 
scrutari deinde coepit ex censoribus quos ad delicta singulorum in suis 
classibus observanda nominarat, quos ea hebdomada notassent delin- 
quentes. Delatos summa dexteritate increpuit, iram Dei ante oculos pro- 
posuit, dedecoris metu attonitos reddidit — quibus plus ad poenitentiam et 
vitae emendationem apud eos profecit quam si mille plagas inflixisset. 
Quibus enim aliorum nee verba, nee verbera dolorem afferre, lacrymas 
excutere quivissent, coelestem iram intonando, blandis promissis mulcendo, 
sic eos terruit, concussit, prostravit, ut suspiria, singultus, interdum etiam 
fletus uberrimos expromeret. Illud in eo autem fuit insigne, quod sive 
promissiones evangelicas proponeret, sive severe judicia minitaretur, ita 
se interdum etiam nequissimi animo adversus quem vehementissime ex- 
canduisset insinuavit, ut profusum ejus in se amorem derivaret, neque 
tam metu quam amore ad ultroneum obsequium traduceret. Consuevit 
etiam singulis hebdomadis, vel ut occasio ferebat, Regentes convocare, ut 


inter se conferendo consultarent et dispicerent si ({uid reformatione opus 
haberet, aut in melius mutari posset ; quo factum ut Academiae disciplina 
purior, exactior et magis integra permaneret. 

Postquam emissa classe et sepositis studiis philosophicis se ad theolo- 
giam contulisset, dici vix potest quanta sedulitate, quanta vigilantia, quantis 
laboribus conatus sit eos ipsos adolescentes, quotquot ad rerum divinarum 
studia animos applicassent, in theologia instituere, interdum quidem ana- 
lysin logicam in Epistolas Paulinas aut alios sacra Scripturae libros die- 
titans, interdum locos communes tractans, interdum coutroversa cum pon- 
tificiis religionis capita examinans ; in quibus studiis ita assidue versatus 
est, ut nullam diei horam vacuam praeterire permitteret. Hanc tam as- 
siduam operam condiebat crebris hortationibus, quibus adolescentes ad 
sanctimoniam et fidelitatem in munere pastorali, ad quod eos praeparabat, 
incitabat. Postulabat imprimis ne crudos se ac immaturos ad munus 
illud protruderent. Zelum quidem serio iis commendabat, sed pi-udentia 
conditum ; in nulla re magis quam in zelo errari, quem alii praecipiti sue 
affectu, alii, ut turn ferebant tempora, inconsulto vesanae plebis judicio 
metirentur ; fovendum quidem in Ecclesia zelum genuinum ; esse eum 
ignem coelitus descendentem, quem ali in domo Dei operae pretium sit ; 
explodendum tamen zelum adulterinum, quod ignis sit peregrinus. Ob- 
nixe autem serioque suadebat ne res suas privatas praetextu religionis 
quaererent, neque famam sinceritatis alios suggillando, criminando, tax- 
ando aucuparentur ; bortatus etiam ut nihil opinionis, omnia conscientiae 
gratia agerent. Huic tam indefesso studio et immensis laboribus ita bene- 
dixit Deus ut plurimos paucis annis ad munus pastorale propulerit, in 
quibus sanctimoniae et eruditionis suae viva effigies eluceret. 

Ad hos labores tanta industria exantlatos accedebat et alius, quod cum 
videret in templo, quod Novum vocatur, ingentem summo mane convenire 
multitudinem populi, nollet eum, ut solebat, otiosum sedere ; sed — tanta 
hominem alios in via Domini instituendi incessit cupido — singulis diebus 
Dominicis hora septima matutina, quod antehac Edinburgi nunquam fac- 
titatum, palam concionari coepit, tanta spiritus et potentiae demonstra- 
tione, tanto sententiarum pondere, tanta verborum gi'avitate ut plerorum- 
que mentes coelesti luce perfunderet, affectus permoveret, omnes in sui 
admirationem raperet. Neque enim vulgus tantura movit, sed et erudi- 
tum hominum genus sic aftecit ut novam lucem in mentibus suis accendi, 
novos affectus in cordibus formari non obscui'e sentirent ac profiterentur. 


Postquam sic concionando absolvisset Apostoli Pauli Epistolam ad 
Ephesios, scripsit in earn Commentarium, qui typis excusus est anno 1590. 
Eodem fere tempore, in Academia discipulis suis publice diebus Lunae 
praelegit Epistolam ejusdem Apostoli ad Romanos, inque eam edidit ana- 
lysin logicam, interjecto etiam, occasione aureae illius catenae beneficio- 
rum Dei quae cap. viii., vers. 30 habetur, tractatu insigni de nonnullis 
Christianae doctrinae capitibus. Duo haec scripta cum forte in manus 
celeberrimi illius tlieologi D. Theodori Bezae incidissent, tanto gaudio 
ejus animum perfuderunt, ut in epistola ad Joannem Johnstonum Theo- 
logiae in Academia Andreana professorem non potuerit se continere 
quin in ejus laudes erumperet. Visum est aliqua ipsius verba attexere. 
" Hoc ipso tempore," inquit, " mihi contigit thesaurum nancisci, qui nescio 
quo sinistro fato, quamvis hie in omnium aliorum conspectu versaretur, 
me tamen adhuc subterfugerat : tliesaurum enim cur non appellem, et 
quidem pretiosissimum, illos honorandi summe fratris, D. RoUoci, turn in 
Epistolam ad Romanos, tum in Epistolam ad Ephesios, utramque inter 
Apostolicas omnes celebratissimam, commentaries ? Sic enim ego qui- 
dem de iis apud me statuo (quod absque ulla specie adulationis dictum 
velim) nihil adhuc legisse me in hoc interpretationis genere brevius simul, 
et tum elegantius, tum judiciosius scriptum ; ut ipse me iis inspectis con- 
tinere nequiverim, nee, etiam opinor, debuerim, quin et Deo de hoc 
utilissimo procul dubio quamplurimis future labore gratias magnas 
agereni, et tantum hoc vobis bonum, vel toti potius Ecclesiae gratularer, 
Deum precatus ut hunc hominem novis subinde donis auctum feliciter 
conservet, hoc praesertim tempore, in quo propter tantam operariorum in 
excolenda Dei nostri vinea raritatem, et paucissimos ex veteranis illis 
exercitatissimis superstites, triumphare jam sibi de oppressa veritate Satan 
cum suis videbatur." Haec Beza. 

Edidit postea commentaries complures, ut in Psalmos aliquot selectos, 
in Danielem Prophetam, in Joannem Evangelistam, in nonnuUas Epis- 
tolas Paulinas, Tractatum praeterea egregium de Efficaci Vocatione, 
et libellum utilissimum de Foedere Dei et de Sacramentis ; qui omnes, 
non modo in Scotia, sed et apud exteras regiones, non minori Ecclesiae 
emolumento, quam nominis sui ornamento multorum manibus teruntui*. 

RoUoco his tot tantisque negotiis, quae hominem totum vel vigilantis- 
simum distinere, et occupatissimum reddere possent, incumbente, impo- 
sita est praeterea necessitas capessendi ministerii urbani hac occasione. 


Erat jam civitas tota, communi tarn Ecclesiastic! quam urbani Senatus 
consensu, suadente etiam Rolloco, in octo quasi parocliias divisa ; singulis 
parochiis praeficiendus erat suus pastor, qui ipsius curam haberet. Erant 
turn in urbe pastox'es, viri quidem magni nomiuis et in officio suo vigi- 
lantissimi ac fidelissimi, sed non eo numero qui tot parochiis sufficeret. 
Itaque in Rollocum omnium oculi conjecti ; eum sibi pastorem expetunt ; 
cum eo serio agunt vellet ipse, ad tarn sanctum ac prope necessarium 
opus divisionis parochiarum promovendum, ministerium suscipere ac 
parochiae unius curam gerere ; omnibus enim summis juxta ac infimis 
erat gratissimus carissimusque. Gratum carumque reddidit candor 
quidam in rebus gerendis genuinus, insignisque humilitas quae reliqua 
dona, quae in eo erant eximia, mirifice exornavit ; quam vis enim ille 
praeclaris dotibus aliis fere omnibus praeluceret, sese tamen suo sensu 
infra omnes demisit. 

Fixo quidem animi proposito constituerat apud sese latere, utque stu- 
diis liberius vacaret intra Academiae pomoei'ia sese abdere, ne curis pub- 
licis implicaretur ; pi'aeter votum tamen ad publica negotia pleraque ex- 
tractus est, quae quidem ille singular! et sanctissima pariter prudentia 
expediebat. Praecipiti plebis zelo turbata maturo ejus consilio in ordi- 
nem reducta sunt. Kara zeli socia prudentia, nee assiduus prudentiae comes 
zelus; utriusque tamen insignem temperiem Rolloco indiderat is qui munera 
tacito dispertit arbitrio — quam cum ecclesia, tum Respublica Scoticana 
magno suo bono et commodo bono sensit sibi salutarem, Novissimo vitae 
biennio «ic curis publicis praegravabatur ut valetudo alioqui satis infirma 
labasceret — assiduis enim calculi cruciatibus angebatur, et stomacbi in- 
firmitate languescebat — et tamen visum est Deo, hoc ipso summe perplexo 
tempore, ipsius opera ecclesiae pessum eunti subvenire. Nam, quantum 
humano judicio consequi valemus, nisi periclitanti Ecclesiae celerem 
opem tulisset, in miseriarum oceanum incidisset. Inconsulto enim armatae 
plebis concursu Regis ac primatum, qui jam Edinburgo Limnuchum seces- 
serant, ira vehementissime exarserat, quo factum ut ecclesia et respublica 
in magnum et anceps periculum devolverentur. Squalida tum ac lugu- 
bris rerum conditio trucem lacrymabilemque faciem spectantibus prae- 
buerat. Cum in turbis hisce componendis complures operam ac oleum 
perdidissent, eluxit tandem tanquam sidus salutare sanctissima Rolloci pru- 
dentia, pietate, modestia, humilitate condita ; quae tantum regii pectoris 
possedit, ut ejus animum in Edinburgenses asperiorem ac multorum ju- 


now the enjoyment of thy face — oh ! how long and earnestly desh'ed." On 
the resuiTcction and eternal life, he uttered words breathing of immor- 
tality. He took the bystanders individually by the hand and blessed them 
with the utmost kindliness and seriousness, while he mingled his blessing 
with advice wisely adapted to each one's disposition and duties. During 
that night he rested better than had been hoped. On the following day 
the magistrates of the city and several of the Judges visit him. When 
they were seated near his bed he thus addressed them. " As far as I am 
able to judge, I am about to finish the task of life, to lay aside this cor- 
ruptible garment of the body, to pass hence to my Father's house. Nor 
is this a bitter thought to me ; for I have often thirsted for the last day of 
my life. The University has always been my greatest source of anxiety ; 
now that I am about to leave it, if I were to conceal who in my opinion 
should succeed me and preside over it, I should incur the reproach of care- 
less indiiFerence. Why need you traverse other countries, and assume 
to this charge a foreigner, who must in the meantime be ignorant of the 
system of instruction and discipline pursued in our University ? You 
have at home one endowed with high gifts and already trained for this of- 
fice, Henry Charteris,^ who, under my instruction, has drunk deep of learn- 
ing, and has for more than ten years discharged the office of Professor of 
Philosophy with high distinction. Place him at the helm of the University j 
you will see God smiling on him and blessing his labours. From your 
official situation you are bound to be the Maecenases and patrons of the 
University ; I beseech you, let a deeper care for it than ever possess your 
minds. What shall I say to you of my domestic concerns ? I leave be- 
hind my wife in a state of pregnancy. One thing I entreat of you beyond all 
others ; let her feel that the love with which you ever cherished me while 
I was alive has not been dried up by my death. Never have I been free 
fi.'om bad health, day or night ; and while I was shaken by the disquiet- 
ments of so much distress, she has ever cherished and nursed me with a 

* Henry Chai-teris, son of a worthy citizen and magistrate of Edinburgh, a printer of 
no small usefulness and celebrity in his day, was, as we have seen, educated under 
Rollock. He was appointed Regent in 1 589, and, on the death of Rollock, Principal, 
on the 14th Feb. 1599. In 1620 he resigned, and accepted a call to the ministry in 
North Leith. In 1627 he was appointed Professor of Divinity, an oifice which, on his 
resignation, had been disjoined from the Principalship. He died in 1629. — {Crawford, 
ibid.) His character seems to have been that of an amiable but weak man, studious 
and learned, but without much vigour of intellect. 



gentle hand. I declare frankly, that from all that I have received for my 
labours, I have not accumulated a single penny ; for these earthly mat- 
ters never gave me either pleasure or anxiety. I need not, however, 
waste more words on this subject ; I entreat you let not your affection to 
me halt towards her." ^ The magistrates and the j udges solemnly promised 
that they would act as he desired. He next exhorted the Professors of 
Philosojihy^ to persevere in their duty, and pay due respect to his suc- 
cessor. This being done, he exclaims in a tone of singular piety : *' Thanks 
be to God! memory, sight, hearing, and all my other senses, are as lively and 
vigorous as ever they were ; but my heart is away from this world — and, 
wherefore, Lord Jesus, shouldest thou not alone enjoy my heart, since thou 
alone hast a right to it ? During my whole life I have striven for this end, 
to dedicate and consecrate it to thee ; I pray thee, take it to thyself, that it 
may dwell with thee." After he had spoken thus, a gentle sleep steals over 
him, and when awakened from it, he burns with an intense desire to depart 
and be with the Lord. " Come," he says, " Lord Jesus, break the cord of 
this frail life ; hasten. Lord, and do not tarry. Jesus has redeemed me, not 
to indulge me Avith this fading life, but with that which shall never 
end. Come, Jesus, bestow on me the life for Avhich thou hast ransomed 
me." His friends standing around lament, with tears and wailing, the 
bereavement which they should suffer from his death ; but he addressed 
them thus : " I have gone through all the stages of this life : I have 
reached the last ; why should I go back ? I shall finish this stage hap- 
pily, through thy favour. Lord Jesus. Conduct me to that glory, which 
I have only seen as through a glass darkly ; my prayer is, that I may 
take up my abode with thee." Wlien the bystanders told him that the next 

1 The emoluments of Rollock's ofBce were by no means gi-eat ; but the city did not 
neglect his wife and his posthumons daughter Jean. To the widow, in 1600, they 
allowed a pension of 100 merks for five years. The family probably fell into difficid- 
ties after this ; for we find the Town Council allowing, in IGll, the sum of 100 merks 
for her education and maintenance, to be paid yearly till her marriage, to which 
they added the sum of 1000 merks as her portion. She was subsequently mamed to 
Mr Robert Balcanquhall, (son of Walter Balcanquhall, and brother to the Dean of 
Rochester,) whom we find minister of Tranent in 1622. — (^Crawford, ibid.') 

'"* The Professors at the time were Ilcnry Charteris ; William Craig, (son of John 
Craig, one of the King's ministers,) afterwards Professor of Divinity at Saumur ; John 
Adamson, aftenvards minister at North Berwick ; James Knox, afterwards minister 
at Kelso. And John Ray was Professor of Humanity, an oftice whicli he resigned in 
1606 for the rectorship of the High School. — (^Crawford, ihid. ; Stevens's: Historj/ of 
the JIi<jh School, p. 47.) 


day was the Sabbath, he broke out into these words ; " May this Sab- 
bath, Lord, begin my eternal Sabbath ! may my eternal Sabbath receive 
its hallowed commencement frona thy Sabbath !" 

He enjoyed a period of tolerable repose till about midnight, which was 
then broken by a paroxysm of his disease, and thinking that his last hour 
was come, he sent for Mr Walter Balcanquall. When he came in he 
thus accosts him ; " As you have longest discharged the pastoral office 
in Edinburgh,^ and as our friendship is not of yesterday, I have caused 
you to be sent for, that I might testify the I'everence with which, 
from the cradle, I have regarded the ministry of Christ. For my own 
part, I have, so far as I have been enabled by my humble gifts, poured 
forth my supplications into God's bosom; do you now engage in prayer on 
my behalf; I shall follow you with the desires of my heart ; only do not 
pray for a prolongation of my life." All present fell upon their knees, and 
Balcanquall engaged in prayer. Among other petitions, he prayed that 
God would grant the longer services of so distinguished a man, since he 
was so much required for the welfare both of the Church and of the State. 
While he is thus praying, he is interrupted by Rollock,^ who says ; " I have 
had more than enough of this life — one thing I alone desire, the heavenly 
life that is now hidden with God in Chi'ist." When the prayer was done, 
he broke forth into praises of the preached word. " The word," says he, 
" is the power of God to salvation — the wisdom, the life of God ; nor has 
any one salvation without the word. Believe me, it is not a thing of 
small importance to preach the word ; it is not the same thing as to ex- 
pound the text of Plato or Ai-istotle, or to set forth a harangue, bedaubed 
with the colours and allurements of rhetoric. The preaching of the word 
depends on holiness, humility, and the efficacious demonstration of the Spirit. 
God knows how highly I have ever esteemed it." Then he returns to 
prayer. " Come," says he, " Lord Jesus, break the nerves of these eyes, 
give me others ; I desire to be freed, and to be Avith thee ; hasten to 
come. Lord Jesus, do not tan-y. Depart from me, thou paltry life ; let 
that better life, even God's, enter in thy stead. Lord Jesus introduce 
thy hand into this body, and take my soul to thyself." 

' Mr Walter Biilcanquhall had all aloug been a wami promoter of the University. 
As early as 1574, James Melville {Diary, p. 52) finds him " ane honest, upright- 
harted young man, latUe enterit to that ministerie of Edinbruche." 

■•' The reader will call to remembrance a similar incident in the death-scene of Luther. 



He remained quiet for a considerable time in the morning, but at length 
he broke silence with these words; "Come, Lord Jesus, tarry not; I am 
wearied with my loathing of day and night ; come, Lord Jesus, that I may 
come to thee. O sweet, blessed, happy divorce from this life ! Come, 
Lord, my sweet delight, free this soul, that it may enjoy its union unto 
thee." Then one of the bystanders says ; " Be not anxious, thy Lord 
makes haste." " That is glad tidings," he replied ; " I would that ye were 
to bury me to-moiTow." Then says another, " Happy is the soul that is 
so near to the Lord as yours is." But he answered : " Li me there is 
nothing which I would not count as dung that I may win Christ : Christ 
is the sole ground of my comfort : all my righteousness is as filthy rags." 
Having been asked if he wished to converse with a minister, he replied, 
that he would not give them the trouble, as they were preparing for 
preaching. "Permit me," says he, "parrot-like to babble incoherent words 
to my Lord." Being told that divine service had begun, " Give me," 
he says, " O Lord, to see those things which others are now hearing of" 
At Sabbath-morn one thus addresses him ; " During your whole life, 
you have advanced the glory of God A\dth unwearied labour and cease- 
less industry :" to which he says ; " My only ground for glorying is in 
the mercy of God — all other things I reckon as loss." Then a gentle 
slumber steals on him, and lasts till the evening. "\i\Tien he awoke, 
to the President of the Court of Session,! Avho was the Lord Provost 
of Edinburgh for that year, and who then paid him a visit, he says : — " I 
have anxiously commended the University to the care of the magistrates, 
over whom you. Sir, preside ; do you also take it under your patronage. 
Let it find, I beseech you, in you a father-and a patron. Do not, I en- 
treat you, withhold from the Church the assistance which you can render 
her, from the high rank which you have in the State, and the distinguished 
position with which God has honoured you ; exert all your powers and 
sti'ength to establish her ; strive with your utmost endeavours to obtain 

' This was Alexander Setoii, bora about the same year as Rollock. He studied 
abroad, and, in 1588, was appointed an Ordiuaiy Lord of Session, under the name of 
Lord Urquh art. In 1593, he was nominated Lord Pi-esident. He was successively 
created a peer by the title of Lord Fyvie, Cliancellor, and Earl of Dunfcnnlinc. He 
died in 1G22. Thoujrh one of the detested Octavians, and strongly susjiccted of Pop- 
ish leaninjTs, he was Lord Provost of Edinburgh for ten successive years, from ir)98 
to 1607. — (i^faithnurs History of Fdinhurfjh, p. 224; Brunton and Ilaiys Iliatorkal 
Account of the Senators of the College of Justice, pp. 198, &c.) 


safety in Christ Jesus. All earthly things are fleeting, and will soon 
fade away ; may God heap on you, your wife, and all your family, 
the riches of his own bles.sing !" That same night he dropped the follow- 
ing expressions : — " In a sick body I have a calm mind. Death, sin, 
and Satan terrify me not ; they have no dominion over me ; yet the 
burden of disease so weighs me down, that my surviving so long is far be- 
yond all expectation. The Lord is crushing me as in the mortar of 
affliction, that he may form me for his own kingdom." 

On the 7th of February he says ; " It may appear astonishing, seeing that 
I am racked so cruelly with disease, that my life is protracted so long ; 
but I shall patiently wait the good pleasure of the Lord. I Avill not repine ; 
let him do with me as he pleases, I will not argue with him. What is 
man, that he should dare to dispute with God ? Nay, should he thrust me 
into hell, obedience, not remonstrance, is my duty. Have mercy on me, 
O Lord, for Christ Jesus' sake. I am not ashamed to confess that I 
never attained so high a point in the knowledge of God as by means of 
this illness. O how dreadful to fall into the hands of the Lord ! But 
mercy is laid up for me in Christ. Why art thou sad, my soul ? Wliy 
art thou cast down in me ? Thou shalt soon see His face, and enjoy ravish- 
ing communion Avith Him." When it was drawing towards evening he 
says; " I experience the truth of the sixth Psalm ;" quoting some words 
from it ; " Have mercy upon me, Lord, for I am weak ; O Lord heal 
me, for my bones are vexed." After a short interval, he again be- 
gins ; " Christ will carry my yoke, and I shall follow, supported by his 
grace." When the bystanders, on perceiving him writhing under the 
agonies of his trouble, were weeping and lamenting, he rebuked them, 
" Weep not for me," he says, " but for your own sins ; as no one is 
free from sin, so no one but has cause to weep. As for me, I shall 
soon behold the fulfilment and consummation of all things." In the 
evening one of his relations visited him, and excited his indignation 
by his impious remarks, importuning him when received into heaven to 
mediate for him and his other friends. When he heard this, burning with 
wrath, he suddenly raises his body, weak and almost breathless though 
he was: "I," says he, "renounce that office; Christ is the only mediator." 
A short time after, his elder brother came to see him. " Do you," he said, 
" rebuke our relation ; warn him to betake himself to another mode of 
life, otherwise there is no safety for him, but sure destruction." 


From this time he refused all the nourishment that was offered to 
him. " I shall not eat nor drink," says he, " till I shall be removed to 
the kingdom of heaven." He committed the charge of his funeral to 
William Little and William Scott, his most stedfast friends, whose un- 
wavering affection he extolled with frequent praises. " Why," says 
he, " should I not care for this body, since it is to be glorified, and made 
like unto Christ's glorious body ?" Looking on his hands he exclaimed, 
" these very hands shall glow with resplendent glory." After this he 
spoke in lower tones and in shorter sentences, yet his expressions were 
forcible and lively, sweetly savouring of the joys of heaven. He then fell 
into a gentle slumber, during which, after some time, he tranquilly and 
pleasantly gave up his soul to his Creator and Redeemer. The expression 
of his countenance was not effaced by death, and his colour remained in a 
considerable degree. 

He died on the ninth day of February, old style, as was then in use,^ 
having just completed the forty-third year of his age. He was of mode- 
rate height, of ruddy complexion mixed with a certain degree of white- 
ness, of reddish haii', of features equally formed to express kindliness and 
seriousness. His health was not strong, so that it is astonishing that 
he could have borne up under a life so laborious as his. He was of 
singular piety, holiness and integrity of life, which commanded the un- 
willing admiration and praises even of the enemies of the truth. In 
his calling he was most faithful and watchful, unceasing in his studies 
and meditations, shrinking from rest more than is easily credible. Yet 
the fact is attested by the number of learned and choice Annotations 
published by him in so few yeai's, and that while his body Avas weakened 
by disease and sickness. He was an ardent lover of peace, most patient 
under wrongs, and ready to forgive. In estimating the sayings or doings 
of others, he was in the highest degree just and moderate, and, differently 
from other men, he was always inclined, so far as he possibly could, to 
give a favourable interpretation to what others said or did. In ordinary so- 
ciety and in the intercourse of his friends, he was particularly courteous and 
pleasant, faithful in his counsels, affable and gentle in his conversation. In 

1 The change to the new style took place in the veiy next year, 1600, which it was 
publickly enacted should commence with the 1st of January, instead of the 25th of 
March, as had been the practice previously. England did not adopt this mode of 
computing time till 1 752. 


matters of serious business he was grave and prudent — as he made clear 
to all in his management of the public offices of the Church — most ready 
in giving advice to others. And these distinguished excellencies were 
adorned by a wonderful humility, through which, though he excelled 
almost all men in many surpassing qualities, yet he did not disdain even 
the lowest, but rather placed himself below all. To this humility were add- 
ed an incredible moderation and command of temper, so that, although in 
his own hearing he was publicly and undeservedly attacked by the slan- 
derous calumnies of many, he was never heard to reproach them in turn, 
or to retaliate, or say a single word against his slanderers ; but, trusting 
in the testimony of a good conscience, he remained silent. Only once did 
he defend himself in a public address,^ and that with such moderation, that 
he upbraided none, took from no man's reputation, made no insinuations, 
accused no one, but only maintained his own integrity in the presence of 
God and the Church. He pursued his studies in common with his inti- 
mate friends, and he affirmed that this mode of acquiring learning had 
often been productive of good results to him. But on this theme I shall 
dilate no more, though much more might and perhaps ought to have been 
said ; were it not that his virtues are conspicuously known, and that praise 
in moderate measure suits best the modest genius of the man. 

I should hardly be believed if I were to tell the lamentations and the 
profound grief which the report of his death occasioned through the 
whole of this city and the country. The Town-Council, the Univer- 
sity, the burgesses, the lower orders, mourned as if each had suifered a 
family bereavement, and his funeral was attended with a greater throng 
than Edinburgh had been wont to see on similar occasions. For the 
whole population, of the highest and of the lowest ranks, of all ages and 
sexes, flocked in crowds to pay due honour to his memory. 

1 This, probably, alludes to Eollock's opening address, or exhortation, at the opening 
of the General AssemWy held at Dundee on the 7th of March 1598. — {Booke of the 
Universall Kirk, p. 464 J 


At the end of Robertson's Narratio is appended the following 

Catai,ogus Operum Roberti Eolloci, quorum aliqua excusa, alia 
niox excudenda. 

Prolegomena in primum librum Quaestionum Theodori Bezae.^ 
Commentarius in Pauli Epist, ad Ephes. 
Commentarius in Danielem Prophetam. 
Analysis Logica in Pauli Epist. ad Eom. 
Tractatus de foedei'e Dei, et de Sacramentis. 
Tractatus brevis de Providentia Dei.^ 
Tractatus de efficaci Vocatione. 

Commentarius in utramqu ; Pauli Epist, ad Thessalonicenses, et ad 

Commentarius in quindecim selectos Psalmos. 
Commentarius in Evangelium secundum Joannem. 
Conciones aliquot sermone vernaculo editae.^ 

Mox Excudenda. 
Coment. in Epist. ad Colossenses. 
Analysis Logica in Epist. ad Galatas. 
Analysis Logica in Epist. ad Hebraeos.* 

' See p. Ixv. note 4. 

2 Can this be the Tractate De Aeterna Mentis Divinae, &c., printed at the end of 
this volume ? 

^ The Sermons, then, reprinted in this volume, were published before Robertson's 
life of Eollock. 

■* This volume contains the Tractatus de Justificntione mentioned belov.-, and which 
it was probably intended at first to publish separately. 


Comment, in duo capita prioris Epist, Petri.^ 
Tractatus de Justificatione. 
Tractatus de Excommunicatione.^ 

I append a fuller account of sucli Editions of Rollock's Works as I have 
had an opportunity of examining. 

1. In Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad Ephesios Roberti EoUoci Scoti, Mi- 
nistri lesu Cliristi in Ecclesia Edinburgensi, Commentarius. Edinburgi. 
Excudebat Robertus Walde-grave. Anno Dom. 1590. 

4to. With a Dedication to James VI. dated 1st October 1590. This 
Edition contains a brief Argument and an Index. It is printed in italics 
throughout, and is a favourable specimen of typogi'aphy. 290 pp. exclu- 
sive of Index. 

2. In Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad Ephesios Roberti Rolloci Scoti, 
Ministri lesu Christ! Ecclesiae Edinburgensis Ministri, Commentarius. 
Altera Editio, cui accesserunt Notae, quae Epistolae et Commentarii 
methodum per brevem quandam Synopsin ostendunt. Genevae. Apud 
Franciscum le Preux. 1593. 

8vo. The Index of this Edition is different from that of Edinburgh, 
and it has marginal notes pointing out the substance of the text. 421 pp. 
exclusive of Index. 


In Librum Danielis Prophetae Roberti Rolloci Scoti, Ministri lesu 

1 This is said by Watt in his Bibliothcca Britannica to have been published in Lon- 
don in 1603, 8vo. 

'•^ The same authority attributes to this, " London, 1604." I hare seen neither, nor 
have I seen Commentarius in Epistolas ad Corinthios, said to be published at Herborn 
of Nassau, in 1600. It is difficult to imagine how such a work could have reached a 
place so distant in so short a time after Rollock's death. It need not be said that a 
work entitled " Ejjiscopal Goveniment instituted by Christ, and confirmed by Scrip- 
ture and Reason," London, 1G41, 4to, assigned by Dr Watt to our Rollock, is not l)y 
him. Is it by the Bishop of Dunkeld ? 


Christi iu Ecclesia Edinburgensi Commentarius, Edinburgi. Excudebat 
Robertus "Walde-grave Typograplius Eegiae Majestatis : 1591. Cuin 
Privilegio Regali. 

4to. The Dedication to King James and Queen Ann is dated 1st 
October 1591. It has an Argument and Index. 480 pp. exclusive of 
Index. I haye noted, but cannot retrace ray authority, that it was re- 
printed at St Andrews in 1594. " Dr M'Crie, who appeai'ed to have 
studied Rollock with deep interest and profit, gave to his Exposition on 
Daniel the palm of his expository works." — {Letter from Reverend Charles 
Bridges to the Editor.) 


1. Analysis Dialectica Roberti Rolloci, Scoti, ministri lesu Christi in 
Ecclesia Edinburgensi, in Pauli Apostoli Epistolara ad Romanos. Re- 
spersa est Analysis Doctrinae Theologicae quorundum capitum, quae in 
ea Epistola sparsim reperiuntur, explicatione quadam brevi ac dilucida. 
Edinburgi. Excudebat Robertus Walde-grave Typograplius Regius. 
1594. Cum Privilegio Regali. 

8vo. 316 pp. At the end are appended four explanatory rules {quasi 
regulae) on the subject of Free Will, which, in the subsequent editions, 
are incorporated iu the body of the work itself. The Dedication of the 
work — Juvenibus optimae spei, nobilitate generis et morum probitate, 
cum primis conspicuis, Joanui Ruthveniae, Comiti Gaureae, Domino 
Ruthvenio, &c. et Colino Campbello, Domino Glenurqhuae, discipulis 
suis carissimis — ^is dated Id. November 1593. This Edition has three 
copies of verses by Ferme (see p. Ixvi, note 3,) one to Rollock, another 
to the reader, and the third " ad Joannem Ruthvenum et Colinum Camp- 
bellum." All the Editions have an Argument — that of 1608, a copious 

2. In Epistolam S. Pauli ad Romanos Roberti Rolloci Scoti, Edinbur- 
gensis Ecclesiae Ministri, Commentarius Analytica methodo conscriptus. 
Genevae. 1596. 

3. In Epistolam .... conscriptus. Altera Editio emendatior et indice 
auctior. Apud Jacobum Stoer, 1 608. 

8vo. 467 pp. 



Quaestiones et Responsiones aliquot de Foederi D.ei, deque Sacra- 
mento quod foederis Dei Sigillum est. In gratiam rudiorura, collectae 
per Robertum RoUocum Scotum. Edinburgi. Excudebat Henricus 
Charteris. 1596. Cum Privilegio Regali. 

8vo. Sig. D. 3. Dedicated to William Little. See p. Ixii, note 3. 
In the inventory of the stock of the printer, Henry Charteris, (see p. Ixxxi. 
note 1,) who died in the same year as Rollock, 1599, we find : — Item, 
four hundreth xxxiij Rollocus de Federe at js vid. the pece, summa 
xxxxij. £. ix. s. vi. d. — (^Bannatyne Miscellani/, vol. ii. p. 241.) 


Tractatus de Efficaci Vocatione.^ 1597. 


1. In Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad Thessalonicenses priorem Commen- 
tarius Roberti Rolloci, Scoti, ministri lesu Christi in Ecclesia Edinburg- 
ensi. Edinburgi. Excudebat Robertus Walde-grave, Typographus Re- 
Cfius. Anno Dom. 1598. Cum Privilegio Regio.-^ 

1 Holland's Translation, 1G03. 

Of each of the works reprinted in this edition, sufficient information is given in its 
proper i^lace. 

' A translation of this was published at Edinburgh in 1G06, by Robert Charteris, 
printer to the King, with the following title. Lectures upon the First and Second 
Epistles of Paul to the Thessalonians. Preached by that Faithful Sen-ant of God, 
M. Robert Rollock, sometyme Minister of the Evaugell of Jesus Christ, and Rector of 
the CoUedge of Edinburgh. 

4to. First Epistle, 246 pp.; Second, 173 pp. It wants Rollock's Dedications to 
Buchanan and Scot, and is dedicated to Scot of Elie by H. C. and W. A., whose 
names occur so often in connection with the posthumous works of our author. H. C. 
is, beyond doubt, Heniy Charteris, of whom notice has been already taken. There 
is little doubt that W. A. rein-esents William Arthur, a pupil of Rollock's who was 
settled as one of the ministers of St Cuthberts, in 1G07. He died, 1054.— (5/we's 
History of the CImrcli and Parish of St Cuthberts, pp. 41, 04.) 


8vo. For the Dedication, see p. Ixi. note 1. In the same volume 
occurs the Commentary on the Second Epistle, with the same title, save 
that hr priorem, we hsive posteriorem^ .... Adjecta est ejusdem 
Authoris in Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad Philemonem Analysis Logica 
The Dedication, which is to Scot of Elie, bears the same date as that to 
Buchanan. A general argument is prefixed, as well as a special Argu- 
ment to each chapter. 374 pp. 

2. Roberti EoUoci Scoti in utramq. Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad 
Thessalonicenses Commentarius ; Necnon ejusdem Authoris Analysis 
Epistolae Pauli ad Philemonem. Additae sunt necessariae quaedam 
Notae per Joannem Piscatorem, Professorem sacr. literarum in illustri 
schola Nassovica-Herbornensi. Herbornae Nassoviorum. Ex officina 
Christophori Corvini. cio.ioci. 

8vo. 426 pp. The avowed object of the Notes is to correct errors in 
doctrine. With some useful remarks, principally verbal, Piscator incul- 
cates his own peculiar tenets on the imputation of Christ's righteousness, 
and the nature of justification. 


In Selectos aliquot Psalmos Davidis, Eoberti Rolloci Scoti, Ecclesiae 
Edinburgensis Ministri, Commentarius, Nunc primum in lucem Editus. 
Genevae apud Franciscum le Preux. 1599.1 

8vo. There is no Preface, but from a Notice from the printer we infer 

1 Translated, -n-ith the following title. An Exposition npon some Select Psalmes of 
David, conteining gi-eat Store of most Excellent and Comfortable Doctrine and In- 
struction for all those that (under the burthen of Sinne) thirst for Communion in 
Christ Jesus. Written by that Faithful Servant of God, M. Robert Eollock, sometime 
Pastour in the Church of Edinburgh, and Translated out of Latine into English by C. 
L., Minister of the Gospell of Christ at Duddingstoun. The number of the Psalmes 
are set down in the Page following. Edinburgh, printed by Robert Waldegrave, 
Printer to the King's Majestie. 1600. Cum Pri\-ilegio Regio. 

8vo. The translation is dedicated to " The Right Honorable Grave and Godlie 
Matrone, Lilias Gilbert, Spouse of M. John Preston of Fentou Barnes, one of the 
Senators of the College of Justice, and Collector-General of Scotland." 503 pp. 
" This work exhibits admirable specimens of translations of fifteen Psalms, probably 
from the original, (for Lumisden, who was son-in-law to the famous Robert Pont, was 
a superior scholar) ; but when other parts of the Scripture are quoted, the transla- 
tor generally adheres to the Geneva Bible." — (^Principal Lee's Memorial, p. 25.) 


that the MS. had beeu forwarded to Geneva for publication. A letter pre- 
fixed to Rollock's Commentary on the Epistle to the Colossians, renders 
it probable that Simon Goulart was the Editor. (See vol. ii. p. vi.) 
Remarks from some of the Fathers ai'e prefixed by the printer. The 
Psalms commented on are, the 3, 6, 16, 23, 32, 39, 42, 49, 51, 62, 65, 
84, 116, 130, 137. The work contains brief arguments and marginal 
notes indicative of the contents. 365 pp. 


In Evangelium secundum loannem Commentarius. 1599.^ 


Certaine Sermones, &c. 1599.- Reprinted in this volume. 


Certaine Sermons, &c. 1634. Reprinted in this volume. 


Commentarius D. Roberti Rolloci, ministri Ecclesiae et Rectoris Aca- 
demiae Edinburgensis, in Epistolam Pauli ad Colossenses. Cum indice 
rerum, sententiarum et observation um dignissimarum copioso. Edin- 
burgi, excudebat Robertus Walde-grave, Typographus Regius. Ann. 
Dom. 1600. Cum Privilegio Regio.3 

1 Lectiu-es upon the Ilistoiy, &c. 1G16. Sec vol. ii. 

Five-and Twentie Lectures, &c, 1619. Sec vol. ii. p. xv. 

^ This and all that follow are posthumous. 

^ Lectvris vpon the Ei)istlc of Paul to the Colossians. Preached hy tluit faithfvll 
seniant of God, Maister Robert Eollok, sometime Rector of the Vniucrsitie of Eden- 
burgh. At London. Imprinted by FelLx Kyngston, dwelling in Pater-Noster Row, 
oner against the sign of the Checken. 1603. 
4to, 442 pp. 


8vo. Dedicated to Scot of Elie, and edited by Henry Charteris. The 
volume contains eight elegiac poems on Rollock's death, and the letter 
from Goulart, mentioned in the Preface to our second volume, pp. v., «&;c. 
381 pp. 

2. Reprinted at Geneva in 1 602. 


1 . Analysis Logica in Epistolam Pauli Apostoli ad Galatas, Authore D. 
Roberto Rolloco, Scoto, IMinistro lesu Christi et Rectore Academiae Edin- 
burgensis. Excudebat Felix Kyngstonus, impensis Edmundi Weaver. 

8vo. Edited by Charteris, and dedicated to Scot of Elie. Dedication 
dated, Idibus Julii, cioiocii. 119 pp. 

2. Reprinted at Geneva. Excudebat Jacobus Stoer. mdciii. 

8vo. 179 pp. 


Analysis Logica in Epistolam ad Hebraeos, Authore D. Roberto Rol- 
loco, Scoto, Ministro lesu Christi, et Rectore Academiae Edinburgensis. 
Accessit brevis et utilis Tractatus de Justificatione, eodem authore. Edin- 
burgi, excudebat Robertus Charteris, Typographus Regis. An. Dom. 
MDCV. Cum Privilegio Regio. 

8vo, 253 pp. Rollock had gone on to the sixth verse of the eleventh 
chapter, when he requested Charteris to finish the work ; which he did. 
It is edited by Charteris, and dedicated to Scot of Elie. It has prefixed 
two copies of verses ; one by John Ray, see p. Ixxxii. note 2. 




inter locos TheologiEe communif- 

fimos recenfetur, deq; locis fpecialiori- 

bus, qui fiib vocatioue com- 



neilluftriorevaderet, adje6l8e funtqu^- 
ftiones aliquot de modis illis, quihus Deo vi- 
fum eft jam iude a principio, homiui verbum vtriufq; 
foederis fui, revelare. 

Authore Roberto Rolloco Scoto. 



Walde-graue Typographus Regius, 
Anno 1597. 

Cum privilegio Regio. 





tongue, by the reuerend and faithfull feruant of 
Chrift, Maifter Robert Rollock, 

Preacher of Gods Avord in 


for the benefite of tlie vnlearned,into the Englifh 

tongue, by Henry IIonand,Vrea.cher 

in London. 

2. Pet. 1.10. 

Glue diligent lieede to make your calling and election 

Imprinted by Felix Kingston 

160 3. 









After some advising with myself, in whose name I should publish 
this little Work, your Majesty, my most dread Sovereign, above 
all others, came first into my mind, for that you may justly chal- 
lenge as your own right the first-fruits of my labours, of what 
kind soever they be. Having then, heretofore, consecrated the 
first-fruits of the first kind of my writings unto your Highness, I 
thought it meet also, that this second kind of Meditations in the 
common-places of divinity should be presented to the same, your 
Majesty. From this purpose although many things feared me, 
among which your Princely Majesty, to speak as the truth is, 
adorned with rare knowledge of divine things, did most occupy my 
mind — your Majesty, I say, the greatness whereof, my own mean- 
ness, and the slenderness of this Work, were not able to endure ; 
yet when I recounted with myself how great yom* courtesy and 

6 THE author's epistle DEDICATOIIY. 

gentleness was always accustomed to be toward all men, but espe- 
cially towards myself, I determined rather to incur some suspicion 
of overmuch boldness, than not to give testimony of my duty, and 
of my most humble devotion towards your Majesty, even by the 
dedication of this small Work of mine, how mean soever it be. 
Eespect, therefore, most noble King, not so much this small 
Work, as the testimony of a mind most dutifully affected towards 
your Majesty in the Lord, and as my duty requireth, most ready, 
according to my small abihty, with all lowliness, to do your Majesty 
most humble service in any thing that I can during life. But 
what is there wherein I can do your Majesty better service than in 
striving with my God, with continual and earnest prayers, that 
through his grace and singular goodness, you may for ever main- 
tain, continue, and make good that excellent opinion which 
you have, not undeservedly, already gotten in foreign nations 
amongst such men as are most eminent in this our age, both for 
learning and godliness ? That so you may have a happy reign in 
this present life, and in that other life may be a fellow-heir of that 
heavenly kingdom, — in comparison of the glory of which kingdom, 
— that I may speak this by the way — I myself, a good while since, 
have heard you despise all these earthly kingdoms, at such time as 
amongst other matters, in a certain familiar conference, where there 
were but a few present, you discoursed of many things learnedly, 
— I speak the truth to the glory of God, without any flattery, — and 
o-odlily, and delightfully, concerning Christ, and of praying to Him 
only, and not to Angels, or Saints departed out of this life; — ^you 
may, I say, be a fellow-heir together with your Head, even that 
Most High King, Lord and Heir of all things, Jesus Christ, whose 
grace, mercy, and power defend and protect you, both in body and 
soul, from all your enemies, bodily and ghostly, for evermore. 

Your Majesty's most dutiful Servant, 


[Dated ill the original Latin : Edinbnrgi: [>. Id. -lauy. 15'J7.] 


While engaged in printing this Treatise of IMr Robert Rollock 
on "Effectual Calling," I chanced to fall in Avith a letter from 
Mr Theodore Beza, sent to Scotland to Mr John Johnston,^ con- 
taining a recommendation of certain works published by the same 
author, and printed by me — I mean his "Commentaries on the 
Epistle to the Ephesians," and his " Analysis of the Epistle to the 
Romans." Accordingly, I have deemed it right to prefix the letter 
of Beza to this work, in order that, kind reader, you might learn 
what opinion is entertained of this author's writings, by a man 
most versant in the whole science of Theology, and who has deserved 
so well of the Church : and in order that from this opinion you 
might form an estimate of his other labours, either already finished 
or hereafter to be finished, for the Chm'ch's good. I join with 
Beza in praying God to preserve happily this man, and to adorn 
him with a succession of new gifts, and in His own good time to 
send other workmen like him into His vineyard. Farewell. 

^ After the Epistle Dedicatory, there follows, iu the Latin Treatise of Rollock, 
a notice from the Printer, a translation of which is here inserted. Holland 
omits it. 

2 INIr John Johnston is mentioned in Goulart's letter to Rollock, which will 
be found inserted in the Preface to the Second Volume of this work. He was 
a native of Aberdeenshire, had studied for eight years in the Universities of 
Helmstiidt, Rostock, and Geneva, (in which last place he had become acquainted 
with Beza,) and in 1593, was appointed one of the Professors of the New 
College, St Andrews. He was a divine of much learning, and he attained con- 
siderable eminence as a writer of Latin Poetry. He was an intimate friend of 
the Melvilles. He died in 1616, deeply regTctted by both. (M'Crie's Life of 
Melville, vol. i. p. 331 ; vol. ii. pp. 284, 288, 441. James Melvill's Diary, 
p. 314. Irving's Lives of Scotish Writers, vol. ii. p. 40.) 



I MAY seem slow in answering your letters, good Maister John- 
ston, for that they were long in coming to my hands. I under- 
stood by them, to my great joy, that you are safely arrived in your 
own country, and have found your churches there in a blessed and 
peaceable state, wherein I desire in heart they may long continue. 
And why may I not confidently hope that this my desire shall be 
fulfilled? Specially seeing they were from the beginning so hap-T^e wessing 
pily, soundly, and excellently founded by those faithful and worthy yg^JJ[anr "^ 
servants of God, those skilful master-builders which begun the 
work ; and they who seconded them brought no stubble or hay, 
but silver, gold, and precious stones to the building. Nay, which 
is more, the Lord himself having so clearly and apparently favoured 
and furthered their holy labours, that whosoever have stumbled at 
this building, have not only missed and failed of their purpose, but 
have been (as it were) by the strong and powerful hand of God, 
scattered and thrown out into utter darkness. To these we may 
add that singular and most precious gift of God, which the same 
good God hath bestowed on you — I mean your worthy King, ^^g*]^!^]^^,^ 
whom he hath likewise miraculously preserved from many andcommenda- 
grcat perils, who hath joined to his singular and admirable care King's Ma- 

n T 1 /-A 1 T • jesty in the 

and watchfulness, in defendincj the Gospel, and prescrvmo- the i^appy s"- 

' o 1. ' 1 O vemment of 

purity and unspotted sincerity of this Church, so great and exact o'^'^scotiM^" 
knowledge of Christian religion from the very grounds and prin- ^"^ '*^'''^'"' 


King mayinciples tliGrcof, that tliG Lorti, it seems, bath made his Majesty both 

verity be ^ " ' J J 

Tda'l^eTomi'^ princc and preacher to his people : so that your realm of Scotland 
wasboth'^''*'is now become, of all others, most happy, and may justly hope for 
rrcacher. incrcasc of tranquillity and felicity, if only (as we are persuaded 
she will) she can discern and thankfully acknowledge the great 
blessing she enjoy eth, and, as she hath begun, so continue to direct 
them all, to the right scope and end, which is to His glory, who is 
the father and fountain of all goodness. 

And I assure you, I rejoice from my heart, that occasion was 
given me to congratulate, by these my letters, your happy condi- 
tion with the rest of ray reverend brethren, both by your country- 
man, Maister David Droman, a man both godly and well learned, 
whose presence, though but for a few days, was most acceptable to 
us here, who is now upon his return to you with these letters ; as, 
likewise, in that I chanced of late to meet with a great treasure, 
which I know not by what mishap, being frequent in other men's 
hands, hath hitherto missed my fingers. For why should not I 
esteem as a treasure, and that most precious, the Commentaries of 
Maister Beza my houourable brother, Maister Rollocke, upon the Epistle to the 

commendelli , ... 

Maister Romans and Ephesians, both of them bemg of special note among 

RoUocke's ^ o j o 

works. the writings apostolical? for so I judge of them. And, I pray you, 
take it to be spoken without all flattery or partiality, that I never 
read or met Avith any thing in this kind of interpretation more 
pithily, elegantly, and judiciously written : so as I could not con- 
tain myself, but must needs give thanks, as I ought, unto God, for 
this so necessary and so profitable a work, and rejoice that both 
you and the whole Church enjoy so great a benefit ; desiring the 
Lord to increase witli new gifts, and preserve in safety, this excel- 
lent instrument, especially in these times, wherein, through the 
scarcity of skilful workmen, which labour in the Lord's vineyard, 
and by the decease of those well exercised and experienced soldiers 
and worthy Christians, Sathan and his companions begin again to 
triumph over the truth. 

Concerning the estate of our Church and school, we yet con- 
tinue and proceed in our course, by the mighty hand of our CJod 


and Saviour protecting us, which is admirable to our very enemies, 

being delivered from the jaw of death. But in truth, for ought we 

see, it is like to last but one year, our estate depending on those 

acts which shall be concluded in the * diet of Eoan, between the* or meeting 

± rench Ivmg and our neighbour Duke, either concernms; peace or or the 

^ ° ° ' » -t^ Prince our 

war, wherein we hope to be comprehended upon equal condition, neighbour. 
In this frail and uncertain estate, that is our principal consolation, 
that we are sure this slender and twined thread, whereupon we 
rest, is sustained by the hand of our good God, who will not suffier 
that to be falsified which we have learned of the Apostle, that all Rom. viii. 
things work together for the good of those that love him. In the 
meauAvhile, I beseech you, brethren, continue your remembrance of 
us in your daily prayers. I, for my part, for some months, though 
I be not much pained with any fever, gout, stone, or any of those 
sharp diseases which be the usual companions of old age, yet I feel 
myself so enfeebled and weakened, that I am constrained, in a 
manner, to give over both my public duties, to keej) house and 
home, looking every day for that joyful and happy dissolution 
whereunto age itself calleth me, being now seventy-eight years old. 
And herein I desire your prayer, with the rest of my brethren ; by 
name, of my reverend brother, Maister Melvin,^ and Maister Peter 
Junius,^ whom (unless memory fail me) Maister Scringer,^ of blessed 

1 Andrew Melville, who reached Geneva in 1569, and for five years filled the 
chair of humanity in the University of that place. " Melville, who had only 
attained the age of twenty-five, and who was not less eager to learn than will- 
ing to teach, became a student under this able and venerable Professor, [Beza.] 
Notwithstanding the disparity of their years, they formed a cordial friendship 
for each other."' (Iiwing's Lives of Scotish Writers, vol. i. p. 175.) 

2 The Latinized name of Young. Peter (aftenvards Sir Peter) Young was 
conjoined with George Buchanan in conducting the education of James VL 
He was for some time on the Continent, with his imcle, Henry Scrimger, and 
attended the University of Lausanne. (M'Crie's Life of Melville, vol. i. 
p 255.) He was of respectable attainments, but paid too much deference to 
the wishes of the young Monarch — by which, however, he acquired honours 
and gifts for himself and his family. 

^ In the original Latin Scrimgerus. Henry Scrimger, (written by James 
Melville, Sot/mr/our, oftener Scrymgcoiir^') was uncle to Peter Young, and also 
to James Melville — his sister Margaret being the mother of the former, and his 


memory, was wont to call his cousin. Unto whom, remembering 
withal my hearty commendations, I desire you to communicate 
this my letter, desiring the Lord, my dear and loving brother, to 
preserve your whole Church there with his mighty and blessed 
hand, against all, both foreign and domestical dangers. Fare ye 
well. From Geneva, the Calends of Novemb., after our old com- 
putation, CIO.IO.XCVI. 

Yours wholly, 


sister Isobcl of the latter. He was a distinguished gi'aduate of St Andi-ews iii 
1534. After studying and holding several distingnished appointments abroad, 
he attended in Geneva, where he was elected professor, first of Philosophy, then 
of Civil Law. He was a man of great learning and consideration. He had 
laboured in the collection of ancient mannscripts, and assisted Henry Stephens 
in his valuable editions of the classics. From his notes Casaubon is said to have 
derived valuable assistance in his Editions of Strabo and Polybius. His prin- 
cipal work is an edition of the NoveUcB Constitutioncs of Justinian in Greek, 
published by H. Stephens, in 1558. (M'Crie's Life of Melville, vol. i. pp. 38, 
425. James Melvill's Diary, p. 30.) 





When I had finished my last siiramer's work of revising and cor- 
recting Master RoUocke's "Readings on the Colossians," I was 
inwardly much affected with the holy spirit of the man, which I 
found as in that, so in the rest of his works. Then my heart 
desired that as foreign Churches greatly rejoice in him, and bless 
God for him, so the Churches of England and Scotland might, to 
their great joy, hear him speak yet more unto them in their own 
native language. 

This is the cause. Right Worshipful, that moved me the winter 
past to gain some hours from mine ordinary labours, to give this 
little book a new coat, that it might be known also in all this island 
where it was first conceived and bom. 

It hath the protection of our most mighty King, for safety and 
free passage into other parts of the world, where it hath been 
entertained with kind acceptation : and so now, no doubt, it shall 
be no less in both these kingdoms, when as all true-hearted sub- 
jects shall see with what Christian affection our most noble King 
affected this faithful servant of Jesus Christ, and his holy works. 
Now, blessed be God, for being thus mindful of us ; and for anoint- 
ing his sacred breast with such a measure of the spirit of judgment, 

14 Holland's epistle dedicatory. 

i>hn"i"9'\o'' ''''^ ^" angel of God, to discern the things that differ, and so respect 

isai. xi. 3, 4. the ineek ones of the earth, to the unspeakable joy of the good, 
and terror of the wicked. 

Behold, now praise the Lord with us, and let us magnify his 
name together, for the Lord hath done great things for us : the 
Lord hath so set the wheels of his admirable providence, and so 
carried his blessed hand this year past in all his proceedings round 

isam. X. 2c. about US, and so touched the hearts of all this kingdom, as having 
a purpose to accomplish a great work in the building of his Church, 
and in his good time to lift up such strokes as shall destroy, for 

Psai. ixxiv. 3. ever, every enemy that doth evil to the sanctuary. 

Psai. ixxxv. The Lord's compassions fail not : O Lord, wlthdraic thine anger, 

Lam. V. 21. and turn hack the fierceness of thy wrath : Turn us, O God of our 
salvation, turn thou us unto thee, that ice may be turned, and cause thy 
face to shine upon us, that we may he saved. Cease not to pray for 
us, that we may not return to our old security and unthankfulness 
any more, but that we may attend what the Lord saith, for now 
he begins to speak peace unto his people, and unto his saints, cry- 

Prov. i. ing in their doors, even as it were in the open streets, that then 

Psal.lxxxv. 8. '^ r 7 ./ 

return not again to folly. 

Now we see that the counsel of the Lord shall stand for ever, 
and that the thoughts of his heart shall continue throughout all 
ages : for he hath broken the counsels of the wicked, who have 
ever sought to be possessed of God's habitations : but the Lord 
shall make them as stubble before the wind, the Lord Avill persecute 
them with his tempest, and make them afraid with liis storm. O 

Tsai. ixxxiii. Lord, fill their faces ivith shame, that they may seek thy name. 

Psai.cxiiv.i3. Finally, the Lord hath made our corners full, and abounding with 
divers sorts of blessings : he hath made the bars of our gates strong, 
and hath settled peace in our borders : he hath stablished his Gospel 
and Holy Covenant with us : he hath taught us to observe his 
judgments, and his wonderful administrations both of his justice 

Psai oxivii. and mercy : he hath not dealt so with any nation round about us. 
Wherefore, O praise the Lord with us : let England and Scotland 
now, with one heart, as with one mouth, praise God in nil the 

Holland's epistle dedicatory. 15 

assemblies : O praise the Lord^ ye that are of the fountain of Israel,Viox.\^\\\\.-i6. 
praise ye the Lord. 

To return to our purpose. As touching this sweet treatise in hand, 
I say no more but this, (I trust the reader shall find my words 
true,) that so many common-places of divinity as be here briefly 
couched, as branches appertaining to this one head, the religious 
and wise, I hope, shall find them as judicially, comfortably, and 
compendiously set down and knit together as any one thing of this 
kind as yet extant in the English tongue. 

Next, as for the argument of this book, our effectual calling is 
one principal link of the golden chain of the causes of our salva- 
tion. And it is the very first in the execution of God's eternal 
decree of our election which manifesteth the everlasting love of 
God in Jesus Christ unto the heart of every believer — that Almighty 
God should love him, being his enemy, seek him, and find him, 
when he wandered in the maze and vanity of his own mind, quicken 
him when he lay dead in sin, loose him when he lay fast bound in 
the bonds of death, enlighten him when he sat in extreme dark- 
ness, giving him the spirit of grace, and of faith by the Gospel, to 
attend his holy calling, and in time to rejoice with an exceeding Rom. v. 2,3. 
joy therein. 

Lastly, for the translation, albeit I have not followed the author's 
Avords, yet have I endeavoured faithfully to deliver his meaning norat. art. 

,.p ^.^ . , Non verbum 

in the plamest lorm, and in words most m use among; the people, verboeuraws 

, . . . o 1 i. reddere fidus 

The Lord give it a blessing, wheresoever it shall rest, among God's interpres. 
elect of both these kingdoms. 

Now, right worshipful Maister Scot, I come unto yourself. Your 
most Christian and holy love in these cold and evil times, as unto 
all the saints, so specially to this good servant of Christ, like as it 
comforted him greatly in his latter days, so assuredly it shall much 
refresh your own heart, not only all your life, but also much more, 
I doubt not, in the very hour of death. 

There be three infallible notes knit together in one Scripture to 
justify our precious faith unto our own hearts, that we may be truly 
persuaded we are possessed of that faith which shall justify us before 


' '^ God: — Love to the brethren, hospitality of love, and Christian 

^" sympathy to the saints in their afflictions. Love to the holy mem- 

bers of Christ is often commanded and commended in Joseph, in 
Moses, in Nehemias, in Daniel, in David, who, being advanced to 
great dignities, yet esteemed they nothing more than the good of 
the Church, and to become serviceable, as it were, by all means to 

liom. XV. :!i.thc saints. To love the servants of Christ, and to be beloved of them, 
riiiii)). i. !t. .... 

it is, as Saint John saith, an infallible argument that God hath taken 

1 Johniiis. us by the hand, loosened our bands, and translated us from death 

1 ret. ii. y. tQ life^ and from darkness into the glorious light of God. All that 

talk of charity do not love the saints, that is, the living members 

of Christ on earth. We may discern our love to be sound by these 

notes. First, it is a flame which comes down from God into our 

Rom. V. r,. hearts, kindlino-, as it were, within us, and giving us no rest, till 

we perform duties to the saints. And this is that which the 

iicb. X. 24. Apostle mcaneth, when he wllleth us to stir up one another unto 

a paroxysm of love. Secondly, hence it comes to pass, that love to 

the saints being never cold, is never idle in well-doing, and there- 

ikb. vi. 10. fore proceeds the second note which the same Apostle calls labour 

ra KOTTov ^ J ^ ^^^^ ^l^jg 1^^^ travails by all means possible to do good 

■j^M- to the members of Christ. Thirdly, next this, love is sincere, 

4, "si ■ void of all dissimulation. Fourthly, and lastly, it is constant, 

iici). xiii. 1. consuming, as a fire, all offences, and cannot be quenched. 

iiiii. i. 9, 10. The second mark, in the same Scripture, of our most holy faith, 

Hell. xiii. a. is hospitality of love, (as the Syriac translation hath it,) not of 

Rom. xii. lucre. The Lord gave often charge by his Apostles concerning 

iPetiv. 9. this, foreseeing the necessity and afflictions of the saints in the 

15. -io- ' ten bloody persecutions which even then began and were to follow. 

iiiiaritcr rx- The practice of this we see commended in all ages — in Abraham 

biiiter trac- and Lot receiving angels ; they receive them cheerfully, they en- 
tare, amiiO , , ,. . , 1 • 1 c\ 

uimitteie. tcrtain and use them courteously, they dismiss them lovingly. So 
did Bethuel Eleazar, so did Jethro Moses, so did Manoah the angel 
of God, so did the good old man of Gibeah the Lcvite and his 
wife, so did Obadiah the prophets, so did the widow of Zarophath 
Elias, so did the Sunamite Elisha, so did ^lary often receive 


Christ, so did the tanner and Cornelius Peter, Lydia and the jailor 
the Apostles, Aquila and Priscilla Paul ; Phebe and Stephanus 
many, and Gains the whole church at Corinth. All these are 
chronicled in the Book of God as most memorable precedents for 
all ages. 

The third note of the precious faith of God's elect, in the same 
place annexed, is Christian sympathy to the servants of Christ in 
all their afflictions. This grace is found, when love hath set on 
fire our very bowels, as the Holy Ghost speakcth, that in all Mattii. ix. 
their passions, it fills us with a feelinG: and a tender compassion. ™''''-'-,^- 
This stirs up men to visit the members of Christ in all their uoig. 

. ■, • ^ n ^ • in- • i Matth. xxr. 

miseries, to consider wisely or their amictions, to mourn when 36. 

1 T -1 1 • -. -1 Psal.xli.l. 

tliey mourn, to distribute to their wants, and so to proceed on Rom. xu. is. 

... . ,.. ... , Kora. xii. 13. 

to the duties or instruction, admonition, consolation, instant and 
fervent in prayer, and to add confession of sins with fasting, ifJ^m.v. n, 
the state and heaviness of the affliction so require. 

These things I write unto you, Right \Yorshipful, first, not so 
much for your instruction, as for the edification and confirmation 
of others in this frozen age, wherein carnal and self-love and all 
iniquity increaseth, and love to the saints decreaseth and waxeth 
cold, as Christ hath forewarned us: a manifest sign that saving J'^*'*''' ^^^*'' 
faith faileth, in most places, even where it is professed most. 
Secondly, I write this unto you, for that you have been taught of 
God, as I hear, to practise these things, and to observe the canons 
of Christ in his Gospel concerning love to the saints. This holy 
servant of Christ, Maister Rollocke, if he were living, could and 
would testify of your sincere love, when you entertained him into 
your own family, respecting his wants with all compassion and ten- 
derness of heart. 

The most provident Ruler of heaven and earth, which hath shed, 
by the working of his Holy Spirit, this precious love into your 
heart, will fully repay and recompense this your love with mani- 
fold comforts of his Spirit, even then specially, when the comforts 
and props of this present life shall most be wanting. Now the God 
of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may 
VOL. r. B 

18 Holland's epistle dedicatory. 

abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost, that so 
ye may persevere in this your holy faith in Christ, and love to 
the saints, unto the end. Amen. 

Yours to use in the Lord Christ Jesus, 



Although the greater part both of authors and translators of 
books may be taxed of officiousness, and not a few of ungodliness, 
yet are there some whose merits in this kind do outweigh the 
demerits of the other. These are either those worthy lights them- 
selves, or else those second candlesticks to translate the light into, 
which God, specially in these latter years, hath bestowed as gifts 
(to use St Paul's word) upon his Church, to the edification of it. 
It is true, indeed, in one sense, that both the one and the other 
are but candlesticks, for the light is God's : but otherwise, com- 
paratively, the author is the light, and the translator is, as it were, 
another candlestick to translate the light into, and that for those 
which, through ignorance of the tongue, could not attain to the 
light when it shone out of the author's own lamp. Now, although 
there seem no great gifts to be required in a translator, yet the truth 
is, that if he be not of good discretion, to choose the fittest Avorks, of 
good speech to express the author's sentence with fittest words, 
and of so great apprehension and former store, that by that which 
he seeth in the author, he hath attained to more than peradventure 
the author himself saw or minded, his defections will bring him 
in danger of showing what gifts are required in a translator : for 
a good translator is neither a paraphrast nor a periphrast, which 
is committed by needless changing or adding words. He so 
behaveth himself, that the comparing of the original will commend 
his fidelity, and that they, wdiich know of no original, would take the 
translator for the author himself. He must naturalize his transla- 


tion for the reader, without injuring the gift of the author in the 
native work. But these seem critic rules to the irregular, which 
offend against their authors, to please themselves ; for as there are 
many translations of unworthy works, so are there many transpor- 
tations of worthy works, which, like plants ill taken up, rejoice not 
to grow in the soil into which they are translated. And yet, never- 
theless, it cannot without injury be denied, that this age hath 
afforded many excellent translations of excellent and learned 
authors to the benefit of our people : amongst whom Maister Rol- 
locke, the reverend author of this work, deserveth an eminent place ; 
as also this work itself is very acceptable, together with the trans- 
lator's godly labour in this and other things commodious to the 
Church of Christ. This incHned me the rather to commend it to 
thee in these few lines, not as taking upon me anything, but as 
a poor man, where he is better known, is sometimes engaged for a 
rich. This labour is become ours, not only because it is thus well 
Englished, but also because the author is a Scottishman, which is 
now to the wise-hearted a synonymy of an Englishman. And it 
shall be to the praise of both the nations to receive both mutual 
and common benefits, without that emulation which was betwixt 
Israel and Judah. It is a comely thing (to speak in the words of 
that king that was so miraculously restored) to declare the signs 
and wonders of the high God, which we see this day, even this 
unanimity in receiving the king, wrought (no doubt) by divine 
instinct, rather than grace in some, Avhich otherwise, mendaciter 
dedunt se, as David saith. Let us, on the other side, go out in our 
sincerity and meet the King of kings with Hosanna. And I 
beseech you by the w^onder of our neighbours, Avliich is our inno- 
cent aggregation to this sceptre, let the solution of an objection 
by King Henry the Seventh, of noble memory, and of so renowned 
wisdom, be our satisfaction, that the sovereignty is devolved where 
it is, not only by the providence, but also by the ordinance of 
God, to the comfortable uniting of that nation, rather than nations, 
which at the first upon the matter was indeed but one, though for 
some years past it were divided by conceit. Let us take up the 


argument of Abraham : We are brethren, &c. And as this is a 
work of vocation, so let us hold the coming of our King to be the 
work of revocation, to call us back to unity. And so, gentle 
reader, I commit thee to the God of peace and unity. 

Thine in Christ, 



Christian reader, I pray thee pardon all faults in this first impres- 
sion : I could not well be present with the workmen for their 
direction. Some school points and phrases of schoolmen do not 
so well relish in the English tongue, nor could be rendered to my 
content. Whatsoever is wanting, in word or matter, in this edition, 
I will amend in the next, if the Lord permit. Farewell. 

Thine in Christ Jesus, 



That the reader may understand the place In the science of 
Theology, belonging to the following Treatise on Effectual Calling, 
it has been deemed right to delineate the following rude and ele- 
mentary outlines of a Theological system. 

L Of Theological science the two capital and most general 
heads are — 

1. Of God. 

2. Of the works of God. 

11. To the first most general head regarding God, there belong 

1. Of the nature of God, and his essential attributes, as 
they are called ; such as his Mercy, Justice, Power, Wisdom, 

2. Of the Trinity, or three persons in one divine essence. 

m. The second most general head, of the works of God, has, 
as more special subjects, 

1. Of that work of God which is from eternity — as his 
general Providence, and his general Decree regarding all 
creatures, originating in eternity. 

1 Holland gives, in this place, a Table of Contents drawn from EoUock's head- 
ings of the chapters. But he omits the summary of Theology given iu the 
original work, which is now presented, both translated and in the original Latin. 
It appears to be of importance that the reader should be put in possession of 
what was, doubtless, the system of Theology taught by oiu- Author. 


2. Of the work of God which is in time, and which is per- 
ceived in the execution of the aforesaid eternal decree and 
divine Providence. 

IV. Under the subject of the execution of the decree, there are 
contained other special subjects, 

1. On the creation of all thing-s. 

2. On the government of all things when created. 

Y. Under the general subject of the creation are contained some 
special points concerning the particular kinds of creatures, but par- 
ticularly the subject of the rational creatures, 

1. Of the angels. 

2. Of man. 

VI. To the division on man belong other subdivisions, 

1. Of his state of innocence. 

2. Of his fall and first sin. 

3. Of his restoration. 

VII. To the subject of the restoration belongs this subject, 

Of Christ the Mediator, in whom the restoration has been 

VIII. To the subject of Christ the Mediator belong other sub- 

1. Of his nature. 

2. Of the personal union of his two natures. 

3. Of his threefold office. 

4. Of the benefits conferred by him, or the spiritual bless- 
ings wherewith God the Father blesses us in his Son Jesus 

IX. To the subject of his benefits, or the blessings of God in 
Christ Jesus, belong subdivisions regarding particular benefits. 

bollock's summary. 25 

1. Of the predestination of man to life, or his election in 
Christ, which was before the world began. 

2. Of God's calling man in Christ, which is in time. 

3. Of the justification of man by God in Christ. 

4. Of God's glorifying man in Christ. 

X. To the subject of predestination of man to life belongs the 

Of the predestination of man to death, or of reprobation. 

XI. To the subject of the Calling of man belong several sub- 

1. Of the Word of God, or of God's two Covenants, both 
that of works and that of grace. 

2. Of the Sacred Scripture. 

3. Of Sin. 

4. Of Faith. 

5. Of Hope. 

6. Of Love. 

7. Of Repentance. 

8. Of Free WiU, or of the Nature of Man. 

9. Of the Grace of God. 

Xn. To the subject of glorification belong the subjects, 

1. Of Regeneration. 

2. Of Good Works. 

3. Of the Merit of AVorks. 

XIII. To all these subjects of the blessings of God In Christ 
the following subjects are supplementary, 

1. Of the Sacraments, as the seals of all the blessings now 

^ This eleventh division comprises the subject of the ensuing Ti*eatise, and 
it will be found that our Author follows this arrangement, which he, probably, 
obsei*ved in his academical instructions. 

26 rollock's summary. 

2. Of the Churcli of God, Avhich arises out of the blessings 
before specified along with their peculiar Sacraments, and to 
■which all these blessings belong. 

XIV. To the subject of the Church belongs the subject, 
Of the Discipline of the Church. 


I. Doctrine Theologicae summa et generalissima capita duo sunt, 

1. De Deo. 

2. De operibus Dei. 

II. Capiti primo generalissimo de Deo subaltemi sunt loci, 

1. De natura Dei et ejus attributis, qufe vocantur, essen- 
tialibus, ut Misericordia, Justitia, Potentia, Sapientia, &c. 

2. De Trinitate, sive tribus in unica Deitatis essentia per- 

m. Caput secundum generalissimum, quod est de operibus Dei, 
habet sub se locos specialiores, 

1. De opere Dei quod ab setemo est, — cujusmodi est gene- 
ralis providentia et decretum Dei generale de omnibus crea- 
turis, quod inde ab a^terno est. 

2. De opere Dei quod in tempore est, quodque cernitur in 
exequutione jetemi illius Decreti et Providentia3 divina?. 

IV. Sub loco de exequutione decreti continentur speciales alii, 

1. De creatione rerum omnium. 

2. De administratione rerura omnium creatarum. 

rollock's summary. 27 

V. Sub loco general! de creatione continentur speciales alii de 
particularibus creaturarum speciebus, nominatim vero loci de ratio- 
nalibus creaturis. 

1. De angelo. 

2. De homine. 

VI. Ad locum de homine pertinent inferiores alii, 

1. De innocentia. 

2. De lapsu et peccato primo. 

3. De reparatione ipsius. 

VII. Ad locum de reparatione pertinet locus, 

De Christo Mediatore, in quo facta est reparatio. 

Vin. Ad locum de Christo Mediatore pertinent loci subalterni 

1. De natura ejus. 

2. De personali unione duarum naturarum. 

3. De officio ipsius triplici. 

4. De beneficiis ipsius, sive benedictionibus spiritualibus, 
quibus nos benedicit Deus Pater in Filio suo Jesu Christo. 

IX. Ad locum de beneficiis sive benedictionibus Dei in Christo 
Jesu pertinent inferiores loci de particularibus beneficiis, 

1. De pr^destinatione hominis ad vitam, sive electione in 
Christo quEe fuit ante tempora secularia. 

2. De electione Dei in Christo, quse est in tempore. 

3. De justificatione Dei in Christo. 

4. De Dei in Christo nostri glorificatione. 

X. Ad locum de Pra3destinatione hominis ad vitam pertinet 
De prasdestinatione hominis ad mortem, sive de reprobatione. 


28 rollock's sdmsiary. 

XI. Ad locum de Vocatione pertinent plures subaltern! alii, 

1. De Verbo Dei, sive de foedere Dei utroque, tarn operum 
quam gratite. 

2. De Scriptura Sacra. 

3. De Peccato. 

4. De Fide. 

5. De Spe. 

6. De Caritate. 

7. De ResipisccRtia. 

8. De Libero Arbitrio, sive de natura hominis. 

9. De Gratia Dei. 

XII. Ad locum de glorificatlone pertinent loci, 

1. De Regeneratione. 

2. De Bonis Operibus. 

3. De Merito Operum. 

XIII. His omnibus locis de benedictionibus Dei in Christo Jesu 
subjecti sunt loci, 

1. De Sacramentis, quasi superiorum omnium sigillis. 

2. De Ecclesia Dei, quse ex superioribus benedictionibus una 
cum Sacramentis suis consurgit, et ad quam esc omnes perti- 

XIY. Ad locum de Ecclesia spectat locus, 
De Disciplina Ecclesiastica. 






God's Effectual CallinG: is that whereby God calleth out ofi- o^dcaiis 

"-' •' by his word 

darkness into his admirable light, from the power of Satan unto p'^®**^'^^'*' 
God, in Christ Jesus, those whom he knew from eternity, and 
predestinated unto life, of his mere favour, by the promulgation 
of the covenant of grace, or preaching of the gospel. 

Such, also, as be called by the same grace of God, answer, and 2. Man an- 

' ' •' " ' ' swers by oe- 

believe in him through Jesus Christ. This answer is of faith, ^®^'"s- 
which is in very truth the condition of the promise which is in the 
covenant of grace. Wherefore our Effectual Calling doth consist 
of the promise of the covenant, (which is under condition of faith,) 
and in faith also, which is nothing else but the fulfilling of the con- 

Therefore there be two parts of our Effectual Calling ; the first Two parts of 

our effectual 

is, the outward calling of such as are predestinate unto life, from calling. 
darkness unto light, and that of God's mere grace ; and that, I 
say, by the publication of the covenant of grace, or preaching of 


the gospel. The latter part is their inward faith, wrought in them 
by the same grace and Spirit of God, whereby they are converted 
from Satan unto God ; for I cannot see how this second part of 
our Effectual Calling can differ from faith itself. 

In the first part of our Effectual Calling, first, we are to consider 
the persons, calling and called. The person which calleth us, 
properly to speak, is God himself; for he only promiseth in his 
covenant, calling those things lohich he not as though they xcere. 
(Rom. iv. 17.) The persons called are they whom God knew 
before, and hath predestinated unto life, for whom he hath predesti- 
nated, them he hath called. (Rom. viii. 30.) Secondly, in the first part 
of our Effectual Calling — the cause which moved God hereunto is 
his own special grace ; for the cause of all God's blessings upon us 
is in himself. For as he did predestinate us in himself, according 
to the good pleasure of his own will, (Eph. i. 5,) so hath he called 
and justified us in himself, and shall glorify us in himself, to the 
praise of the glory of his grace ; that all glory may be wholly 
Instrument ascribcd uuto him. Thirdly, Ave be to observe the instrument of 

of our voca- . , . , . 

lion. our vocation, which is the covenant published, or the gospel preached. 

Fourthly, in this former part of our Effectual Calling, we be to con- 
sider the estate from which, and the estate whereunto, we be called. 
The condition from which we be called is darkness, the power of 
Satan, and that miserable plight, which is without Christ in sin and 
death. The state whereunto w^e be called is light, God himself, and 
that blessed condition of man in Christ. Hence it is evident that 
these common-places of divinity, of God's Word, and of Sin, and the 
Misery of Mankind, must be referred to this argument of our 
Effectual Calling, as to a most general head in religion. 

In the second part of our Effectual Calling, these branches must 
be noted. First, that the cause wherefore we answer God's calling, 
or believe in God, is God's own grace, which worketh in us this 
faith by the Holy Ghost, which is given us with his word ; for, like 
as God of his mere grace calleth us outwardly unto himself, so the 
same — his grace and free love in Jesus Christ — kindleth this faith 
in us, whereby we answer his heavenly calling. 

god's effectual calling. 31 

And in this second part of our Calling, (which we say doth con- second part 

. . of our calliug, 

sist in faith,) if we desire yet more deeply to search it, there is afaub. 
double grace or working of God in our hearts. The first is, when 
he enlighteneth us by his Holy Spirit, pouring a new and a heavenly 
light into our mind, before so blind, as that it neither saw, nor could 
see, the things w^hich do belong to the Spirit of God. (1 Cor. ii. 
14.) The natural man perceiveth not the things of the Spii'it of 
God, for they are foolishness unto him, neither can he know them. In 
the will, which is altogether froward and quite fallen from God, he 
worketh an uprightness, and in all the affections a new holiness. 
Hence proceeds the new creature, and tliat new man which is created 
after God in righteousness and true holiness, (Eph. iv. 24.) 

The Papists ^ call this first grace in the faith and work of the 
Holy Ghost, not the creation of any new creature which was not 
before, but the stirring up of some goodness and sanctity, which, 
as they say, w^as left in nature, after the first fall of man, which Free-wm. 
they call also free-will, which, they say, was not quite lost in the 
fall, but lessened and weakened. But this free-will whereof they 
speak is in very truth nothing else but that holiness of nature and 
life of God, and the spiritual light of man in his first creation and 
innocency. But of this more in place convenient. This they say 
then, that after the fall, man retained not only the faculties of his 
soul, but also the holy qualities of those powers, only hurt and 
weakened. And this is that free-will which they say is quickened 
by God's preventing grace, which they define to be an external 
motion, standing as it were without, and beating at the door of the 

In this first grace of God, which we call a new creation of divine 
qualities in the soul, man standeth mere passively before God, and 
as the material cause of God's work. For in this first renewing of 
the soul of man, what divine virtues hath man to work with God's 
Spirit, or to help the work of grace ? Yet we say not that man in 
this new birth is no more than a trunk or dead tree : for that there 

^ EoUock here uses the term Papistoe. He generally employs adversarii, 
translated by Holland, " the adversaries," to denote the same thing. 


is itt man (that so I may speak) a passive power to receive that 
divine grace and life of God, as also the use of reason, which dead 
trees have not. The adversaries say, that in quickening of free- 
w^ill, there is a liberty or strength in it to reject or to I'eceive that 
grace Avhich they call preventing grace. Therefore they give a 
fellow-working unto grace, and a fellow-working unto free-will.^ 
The action of The secoud gracc, or the second work of God's Spii'it in the 


second part of our Effectual Calling, or in faith, is the very act of 
faith, or an action proceeding from this new creature — the action of 
the mind, enlightened in knowing God in Christ — of the will 
sanctified, in embracing and apprehending God in Christ. And 
here the principal agent is that very Spirit of Christ, who, after the 
first grace and creation, abideth and dwelleth in us, not idle, but 
ever working some good in us and by us. The second agent work- 
ing with God's Holy Spirit is the very soul of man, or rather the 
new man, or the new creature in the soul and all the faculties 
thereof. By this the Holy Ghost, that so I may speak, knoweth 
God; or otherwise to speak the same — to know God, the Holy 
Ghost useth the new creature in man, and by this the Holy Ghost 
doth embrace and apprehend God in Christ. Thus speaks the 
Apostle, Rom. viii. 26. The Holy Ghost, saith he, maketh intercession 
for us with sighs ivhich cannot be expressed. Observe here how he 
ascribeth this action of sending forth sighs unto the Spirit, as to the 
principal agent. 

In this second grace, which is the action or work of faith, we 
stand not as mere passively ; but being moved by the Holy Ghost, 
avi/i^yoi. we work ourselves ; as being stirred up to believe, we believe ; and, 
in a word, we work with God's Spirit working in us. 

The adversaries say, this second grace in faith is an action of 
free-will, when as we by our own free-will dispose and prepare 
ourselves to a justifying grace, in believing, in hoping, in repenting. 
In this action, they say, not the Holy Ghost is the principal agent, 

1 This is not the meaning of our Author, whose words are : " Ergo opera- 
tionem tribuunt gratis, cooperatiouem vero libero arbitrio," p. 5. " Therefore 
they assign the work to grace, but a fellow-working to free-will." 

god's effectual calling. 33 

or any motion, to use their own word, of the Spirit, but free-will 
itself, which, as they say, goes before, when as that motion of God 
working together Avith their free-will must follow after. They 
speak not a word here of God's Spirit, either in the first or second 
grace, who works effectually in both, as is aforesaid : but instead of 
the Holy Ghost, they talk of, I know not what motion standing 
without and knocking at the door. They say this motion stirs up 
free-Avill ; they say it worketh with free-will when it worketh, and 
prepareth us unto the grace of justice or justification. This their 
doctrine is strange ; it savoureth not the holy Scripture of God, 
nor the phrase of Scripture. Thus faf of God's grace in faith, or 
of the second part of our Calling, and of the two special branches 
of it. 

Next, in it we are to consider of the points or conditions before 
noted, which are the very same with those in our Calling afore-going. 
To this second part of our Effectual Calling, refer the Doctrine of 
Faith, which in very truth is the same Avith it. Hope, Love, and 
Repentance, follow Faith ; and Free-Avill is a common-place in 
divinity subaltern, or to be referred unto that of Repentance. 



The common-place in religion which is concernins: God's WordTiiecommon- 

° ° places of re- 

or Covenant, is to be referred unto this of our Effectual Callino-, as!p'"T,''°^ 

' to" they follow 

to a most general head. Next follow these points of Sin, and of^*""^^"' 
the Misery of Mankind : thirdly, that of Faith ; then follow Hope, 
Love, and Repentance. 

Now, therefore, we are to speak of the Word, or of the Covenant 

of God, having first set down this ground, that all the word of 

God appertains to some covenant ; for God speaks nothing to man 

without the covenant. For which cause all the Scripture, both old 

VOL. I. c 



and new, wherein all God's word Is contained, bears the name of 
God's covenant or testament. 

finld"^°* ^^' "^^^ covenant of God generally is a promise under some one 
certain condition. And it is twofold ; the first is the covenant of 
works ; the second is the covenant of grace. Paul (Gal. iv. 24) 
expressly sets down two covenants, which in the Old Testament 
were shadowed by two women, as by types, to wit, Hagar, the 
handmaid, and Sarah, the free woman ; for, saith be, these be those 
two covenants. Let us then speak something of these two covenants ; 

Covenant of and first of the covenant of works. The covenant of works, Wiiich 

•works; the ' 

offt.^™""'^ may also be called a legal or natural covenant, is founded In nature, 
which by creation was pure and holy, and in the law of God, which 
in the first creation was eno-raven in man's heart. For after that 
God had created man after his own image, pure and holy, and had 
written his law in his mind, he made a covenant with man, wherein 
he promised him eternal life, under the condition of holy and good 
works, which should be answerable to the holiness and goodness of 
their creation, and conformable to his law. And that nature thus 
beautified with holiness and righteousness and the light of God's 
law, is the foundation of the covenant of works, it is very evident ; 
for that it could not well stand with the justice of God to make a 
covenant under condition of good works and perfect obedience 
to his law, except he had first created man pure and holy, and had 
engraven his law in his heart, Avhence those good Avorks might pro- 
ceed. For this cause, when he was to repeat that covenant of 
works to the people of Israel, he first gave the law written in tables 
of stone ; then he made a covenant with his people, saying. Do 

Note. these things, and ye shall live. Therefore the ground of the cove- 

nant of works was not Christ, nor the grace of God in Christ, but 
the nature of man in the first creation holy and perfect, endued 
also with the knowledge of the law. For, as touching the covenant 
of works, there was no mediator in the beginning betAveen God and 
man, that God should in him, as in and by a mediator, make his 
covenant with man. And the cause that there was no need of a 
mediator Avas this, that albeit there Avere tAvo parties entering Into 
a covenant, yet there was no such breach or variance betwixt them 

god's effectual calling. 35 

that tliey had need of any mediator to make reconciliation between 
them ; for, as for the covenant of works, God made this covenant xote. 
with man, as one friend doth Avith another. For in the creation we 
were God's friends, and not his enemies. Thus far of the ground 
of the covenant of works. 

The thing promised in the covenant of works is life eternal first, 
not righteousness : for that man, in his creation, was even then just 
and perfect, by that original justice, as they call it ; — unless you will 
say that the righteousness of works was promised in that covenant, 
for which righteousness' sake, after that man had Avrought it, God 
would pronounce and declare him to be just. For we are to under- 
stand, that in this covenant there is a double righteousness ; the 
first is that original justice which is nothing else but the integrity 
of nature in that first state of man. This justice, out of all doubt, 
is not promised in the covenant of works, for it is the ground of it. 
The second justice is that which was to follow the good works of 
nature in that integrity, and might be called the justice of works ; 
for after that man had lived godly and justly, according to God's 
law in that integrity, then he might be said to be just again, and to 
be declared of God to be just by his good works well pleasing unto 
God, and so eternal life might be said to be given unto him, as 
justified by his works. For Paul to the Romans teacheth, that 
there may be some imputation of righteousness by good works, if 
so be that works be perfectly good. Hence come these manner of 
speeches, Abraham loas not justified by his works : by rcorks no Jiesh Rom. iv. 2. 
shall be justified. Thus far of the promise of the covenant of works, 
or of the things promised in the covenant of works. 

Now to come unto the condition. The condition of the covenant The conai- 
of works is the condition of good works ; of sjood works, I sav, co^enaiu of 
not which proceed from Christ, or from his grace, but from nature 
only in the integrity thereof, and being informed with the know- 
ledge of the law, and perfectly good, as it was in the first creation, 
proceeding, I say, from that ground of the covenant of works. 
Therefore works mere naturally good only are required as the con- 
dition of the covenant of works. So, then, by this condition, do 
you exclude hence faith in Christ ? I do so. And do ye except 


here from the condition of the covenant of works, all the works of 
grace and regeneration ? I do except these also. But the covenant 
of works is often propounded in the gospel to such as be in grace 
and in Christ Jesus. For how often is the reward of eternal life 
promised to such as do well ? Wherefore it may seem that the 
works of regeneration appertain also to the covenant of works, for 
that such works be required of them which be under grace. I 
answer, the antecedent is false ; for if at any time we hear or read 
in the gospel of grace, that good works be required of them which 
Note. liQ in Christ and justified by him, to that end that they may obtain 
eternal life, we may not think that God speaks unto them after the 
form of the covenant of works ; for, in the gospel, good works are 
required of them which be in Christ, not such as proceed from their 
own nature, or such as they can yield of their own strength, but 
only such as proceed from the grace of regeneration. For we never 
find in the New Testament, that they which are in Christ be com- 
manded to do the works aforesaid of the covenant of works, Avhich be 
naturally good ; or that the covenant of works is set before them, 
that by it, and the works thereof acted by the strength of nature, 
• they may receive eternal life. For thou shalt never find it said to 
them which are in Christ, Do this of your oivn strength, that so ye may 
live, which is the very sum of the covenant of works. 

As for that place (Matth. xix. 17) where Christ said to a certain 
young man, which called upon him, saying. Master, what good shall 
I do that I may have eternal life ? — the Lord answered, and said, 
Jf thou tcilt enter iiito life, keep the commandments ; I grant that here 
he understandeth the covenant of works, and that the Lord pro- 
poundeth to the young man the form of the covenant of works. 
But observe that the Lord so answereth to one that sought his life 
and salvation by the law, and which did before cleave unto the 
covenant of works, and trusted to works as meritorious. For so 
the covenant of works, and the rule of the law of works, must be 
set before every one which is without Christ, seeking righteousness 
by the law, and the Avorks of the law, to this end, if it may be, that 
by the sense of sin, and the feeling of his own misery, he may be 
prepared to embrace the covenant of grace in Christ. For to 

god's effectual calling. 37 

return unto his words, that young man said to the Lord, What good 
shall I do ? Therefore he sought salvation by works, and not by 
faith in Christ. So then the Lord answered fitly to his question, 
Do this, and thou shalt Uoe : which manner of speaking is never 
wonted to be propounded in the gospel to them which have once 
embraced and professed Christ. For those good works of nature 
be never required of them, according to the form of the covenant 
of works, neither be the promises made unto them under condition 
of any such works. 

I confess good works be required of them which be in Christ, and 
justified by him ; but all such works belong to grace and regenera- 
tion ; — to grace, I say, only ; — and they be not the works of free-will 
nor of nature. Know this then, that to such as be in Christ, the 
covenant of works to them is abolished, and of none effect so far 
forth as by it justification and salvation is obtained. I grant the 
law abideth which is the rule of those works, which properlv and How far the 

•' L L J law IS abol- 

specially did first appertain to the covenant of works ; but now it"'^'^'^- 
hath another special use ; for it serveth for our direction in the 
works of grace and sanctification. So then the law hath ceased, 
as it was the rule of the works of nature required in the covenant 
of works ; but it is still in use to them which are in Christ, as it is 
the rule of the works of grace. For the same justice of God is 
unchangeable, and the law of God is the very image of divine 
justice; wherefore the law of God must abide for ever, albeit it 
have not ever the same use, nor be not always the rule of the same 
works. But of this we shall speak more at large hereafter. It is 
a question here, whether, in the first creation, good Avorks in the 
covenant of works were required of man, as meritorious for the 
promised life ? I answer, not so. But they were due in the crea- 
tion, as pledges of thankfulness in man to his Creator, for that excel- 
lent work of his creation, and to glorify God his Creator. But it may 
be objected, that Paul to the Romans, disputing against the works 
of nature, (for in that epistle he [is] disputing principally against 
this kind of works,) he reasoneth against them as seeming meritorious, 
and not as duties and testimonies of man's thankfulness unto God, 


■wherefore it may seem they were commanded unto man in his 
creation as meritorious. I answer ; true it is, Paul disputes there 
of them as of merits, not for that this was his judgment of them, 
but because the Jews had that conceit of them, which were so far 
blinded, that they thought the good works of nature were not only 
good and just, but also might merit justification and life. But of 
this blindness of the Jews we shall speak more at large hereafter. 
Thus far of the condition of the covenant of works, and^ of this kind 
of covenant accordingly, and as we purposed in this present treatise. 



1st ffronnd j^ ^[^q f^.gg Covenant of Grace, or of the gospel, the first ground 

ot the cove- ' o i -" o 

nant of grace, jg ^^j. ;\/[e(]iator Jcsus Christ, crucified also, and dead ; or, which 
is the same in effect, the blood of the Mediator, the virtue whereof 
is twofold. The first serves to satisfy the justice and wrath of God 
for our sins, for the breach of that covenant of works. The second 
is, to purchase and merit a new grace and mercy of God for us. 
And this grace or mercy of God, obtained by the blood of the 

2(1 ground. Mediator, is the second ground of the Covenant of Grace, whereby 
we stand reconciled unto God, and in grace with him. Wherefore 
the first immediate ground of the Covenant of Grace is God's free 
favour or mercy, (whereby man's misery is presupposed,) and not 
nature, or any good thing in it, for that all our natural good- 
ness, after the breach of that covenant of works, is quite vanished ; 
that is to say, nature, as touching holiness, justice, and wisdom, is 
utterly lost. For we are not to approve their judgment which 
say, that the freedom of will, that is, the goodness and holiness of 
nature, is much worn and weakened, as they speak, in this corrupt 

1 Rather, " And this is all we liave to say of the covenant of works, as far as 
it accords with our purpose in this treatise." 

god's effectual calling. 39 

And thus far of the ground of the Covenant of Grace. Upon this 
ground, I say, first of the blood of Christ, next of God's free mercy 
in Christ, the covenant of grace (usually so called) is founded. 

The first and principal grace promised in this covenant is 
righteousness ; which must necessarily here have the first place, for 
after the breach of the covenant of works, that one first original 
justice, as they call it, was quite lost, and injustice did succeed 
into the place thereof. And this justice, which is here promised in 
the Covenant of Grace, is no inherent righteousness, as that original 
justice was, but is the righteousness of our Mediator Jesus Christ, 
which is ours by faith, and by the imputation of God. For Avhich 
cause the Apostle calls it the righteousness of God; for without this Rom. iii. 2l 
imputative justice we cannot possibly stand before the tribunal of 
God, and by the imputation of this righteousness are we said to bo 
justified before God. Next after this kind of righteousness, which 
is by imputation, there is another kind of inherent justice promised 
in the Covenant of Grace, even such a sanctity and goodness of 
nature as was lost in the fall of man, and this is but begun in this 
life, but perfected in another. And this inherent justice is nothing 
else but life eternal in us, begun, I say, in earth, and perfected in 
heaven. And this heavenly and spiritual life doth proceed from that 
righteousness of Christ, which is imputed unto us by faith. For 
that righteousness of Christ is eiFectual in us unto eternal life by 
the Spirit of Christ, who sanctifieth and quickeneth us. And thus 
far of the promise, which is in the Covenant of Grace. 

Now it followeth that we see what the condition is of this 

covenant. The very name of the Covenant of Grace might seem The condi- 

•' ° tion of the 

covenant of 

to require no condition, for it is called a free covenant, because God '•o^ 
freely, and, as it might seem, without all condition, doth promise 
herein both righteousness and life ; for he which promiseth to give 
any thing freely, he bindeth not to any condition. But we are to 
understand that grace here, or the particle freely, doth not exclude 
all condition, but that only which is in the covenant of works, which 
is the condition of the strength of nature, and of works naturally 
just and good, as we may call them, which can in no wise stand 
Vv'ith God's free grace in Christ Jesus. For neither that freedom 


of will, -svliich doth import some purity and holiness in nature, nor 
the works of free-will, as they call them, can agree with the grace 
of God in Christ Jesus. What is the condition then which this 
word (jrace^ or freely , will admit in this Covenant of Grace ? I 
answer, assuredly none other than that which may stand with 
Christ, and with God's free grace ; and that is Faith only, Avhich is 
also by grace, (for it is God's free gift, Phil. i. 29, It is given unto 
yon, not onhj to believe in him.^ hut also to suffer for his sake,) having 
Christ first the object thereof, and next God's free mercy in Christ, 
for faitli embraces God's mercy in Christ, and makes Christ effectual 
in us r.nto righteousness and hfe. For this cause Paul (Rom. iv. 16) 
saith, our inheritance is by faith, that it might come by grace; (Eph. 
ii. 8,) Ye are saved by grace, by faith, and that not of yourselves, that 
is, as he after expoundeth it, 7iot of icorks. So he concludeth, that 

Rora.vi. 23. salvation, because it is of God's free grace by faith, is the free gift 
of God. AVlierefore we see faith stands best with the grace and 
mercy of God, as, Avithout which, Christ and God's mercy in him 
cannot be effectual unto righteousness and life. For if we receive 
not Christ by fliith, and God's mercy in Christ, Christ and the 
mercy of God can profit us nothing unto justification and life. 
Howbeit we be here to remember, that whereas God ofFereth 
righteousness and life under condition of faith, yet doth he not 
80 respect faith in us, which is also his own gift, as he doth the 
object of faith, which is Christ, and his own free mercy in Christ, 
which must be apprehended by faith ; for it is not so much our 
faith apprehending, as Christ himself, and God's mercy apprehended 
in him, that is the cause wherefore God performeth the promise of 
his covenant unto us, to our justification and salvation. Wherefore 

The ciiTifii- the condition of the Covenant of Grace is not faith only, nor the 

tion of the •' ' 

Grlcr"'"^ object of faith only, which is Christ, but faith with Christ, that is, 
the faith that shall apprehend Christ, or Christ with faith, that is, 
Christ which is to be apprehended by faith. Note then briefly 
this, how these three are one in substance, the ground of the Cove- 
nant of Grace, the condition of it, and the cause wherefore God 
performeth the condition. Yet in reason they differ something. 
For Jesus Christ is the ground, being absolutely considered, without 

god's effectual calling. 41 

any respect of application unto us. But Christ is the condition of the 
covenant, as he is to be applied unto us, and must be embraced by ftxith, 
for every condition is of a future thing to be done. And the cause 
also of the performance of the covenant is Jesus Christ already 
embraced, and applied unto us by faith. Whereas Paul then saith, 
that we are justified by faith, his meaning is, that we are justified 
by Christ applied unto us by faith already in our effectual calling ; 
which, by order of nature, goeth ever before the benefit of justifi- 

It may be here demanded, whether the works of grace and 
regeneration (as they are called) have not some place in the con- 
dition of the Covenant of Grace ; for all the good works of nature 
are hence excluded. I answer, that the very works of regeneration 
are not contained in the condition of the Covenant of Grace. First, 
for that the Covenant of Grace is made with the unjust and unre- 
generate : now, how can their works be just and good ? Next, in 
the Covenant of Grace both regeneration itself, and all the holy 
fruits thereof, are promised, for in it all the benefits of Christ be 
promised the believers. Now then, the promise of the covenant 
must necessarily differ from the condition of the covenant. But objection. 
this you will say ; It is evident, and that in many places of the New 
Testament, that life eternal, or, as they say, the reward of eternal 
life, is often promised under the condition of good works, that is, 
the works of regeneration, as, (1 Tim. Iv. 8.) Godliness is ijrojitahle 
unto all things, having the promises both of this life, and of the life 
to come. (Luke xiv. 14,) It shall he repaid thee in the day of the 
resurrection of the just. (Matth. v. 12,) Your reward is great in 
heaven. (Matth. xlx. 29,) He shall notlose his reivard. (Gal. vi. 19,) 
Let us not be weary in ivell-doing, for in due season loe shall reap, if 
we faint not. (Eph. vi. 8,) Knoioing this, that ivhat good soever 
every man doth, that he shall receive of the Lord. (Heb. vi. 10,) 
The Lord is not unjust to forget your work, and the love which ye 
ministered unto the saints. (2 Thess. i. 6,) Notwithstanding it is a 
righteous thing with God to render affliction in like manner to them 
which afflict you, and unto you ichich are afflicted rest with us. To 
these I answer : In my judgment, there are three distinct kinds -Answer. 


Tiirce kinds of promises in the gospel. The first is the promise of the cove- 

ot piomises _ ... , . n 

In the gospel, nant of works, wherein eternal life is promised under condition of 
works done by the strength of nature. The second is the promise 
of the Covenant of Grace, which is propounded under condition of 
faith. The third kind of promises are those particular and special 
promises which ai'e to be referred to the Covenant of Grace, found 
every where in the gospel, and made under condition of the works 
of grace and regeneration. 

These three kinds of promises differ first in condition ; next in 
propriety ; thirdly, in subject ; fourthly, in end and use. First, 

First differ- then, they differ in condition ; for the promise in the covenant of 
works is under condition of the works of nature, and the strength 
thereof. In the Covenant of Grace, the promise is under condition of 
faith in Christ. In the promises which I call particular or special pro- 
mises, there is a condition of works indeed, but of the works of grace 
and regeneration, and not of the works of nature, or any natural 

Second dif- faculty. Secondly,these promises differ in propriety; for the promise 

feruiice. />i« iiii 'i t • 

in the covenant of works is merely legal, and requires the condition 
of works done only by the strength of nature, commanded in the law, 
and to be done according to the strictnileof God'slaw ; and the v.orks 
of nature, or wrought by natural strength, are properly called the 
wo7-ks of the law, (Rom. ix. 32.) And the promise in the Covenant 
of Grace is not legal, but merely evangelical ; for the condition here 
is not of any work moral and natural, but of faith in Christ, and of 
Christ himself to be apprehended by faith. Lastly, those particular 
promises, they are partly evangelical, partly legal ; for the condition 
is of works which proceed from grace and regeneration, and, there- 
fore, of such works as, in regard of their original, may truly be 
called evangelical works, but because the law moral is the rule of 
d differ- tliem, in this respect they may also be called legal works. Thirdly, 
these promises differ in subject, because the promise in the covenant 
of works is propounded to them, which now, after the breach of 
Ei.h. ii 1. that first covenant of works, lie dead in siyis and offences, having, 
notwithstanding, for the time no sense of sin nor death. The 
promise in the Covenant of Grace is given to them which are also 
dead in sins and transgressions, but having some feeling of sin, of 


god's effectual calling. 43 

death, and of their own misery, wrought in them by the law and 
legal covenant ; and, as for those particular promises, they are pro- 
posed to them which are already justified and renewed by faith in 

Christ. Lastly, these promises differ in use and end ; for the end Fourth dif- 
of the covenant of works is, that wretched sinners, which are void 

of sense of their sin and misery, may be awakened to feel and 

acknowledge their own sin and misery, that is, (as the Apostle 

speaketh, Kom. vii. 9, 10,) that sin may revive in them, and that 

they may die, that is, they may feel that they be dead in sins and 

offences. Of this use of the law, see Eom. iii. 19, 20 ; xi. 32 ; 

Gal. iii. 22 ; and v. 23. This is the use then of the covenant of 

works, to work in us the sense of sin and misery, and to prepare 

men to receive grace. Therefore the doctrine of the gospel begins 

with the legal doctrine of works and of the law moral ; for the 

gospel should preach and promise in vain righteousness and life to 

the believers, if they were not first prepared by feeling their own 

corruption and miserable condition, to hear and receive grace by 

the gospel. For this cause Christ himself first (Matth. v. 17, and 

after) freeth and restoreth the law as pure from the leaven of the 

Pharisees, expounding the perfection and exact severity thereof, for ax^z/SiS/- 

this very cause, that men by this light of the covenant of works ^'*'"*''* 

and law moral, might acknowledge how miserable they be by nature, 

and so might hereby be prepared to embrace the Covenant of Grace. 

So did Christ prepare that rich young man (which came unto him 

to be schooled, as he made show) to entertain the Covenant of Grace. 

Wilt thou (saith he) enter into life ? Keep the commandments. Paul 

begins his doctrine in the Epistle to the Eomans, from the law and 

covenant of works, and spends near his three first chapters of his 

Epistle in this doctrine, to this end, that he might conclude all 

under sin and condemnation, and so might prepare men to the 

doctrine of grace, which begins, Kom. iii. 21. So (Gal. iv. 21) he 

teacheth the Galatians that would be under the law, (as he speaketh,) 

their miserable servitude, which be in that condition, and how at 

the last they are cast out of G^d's kingdom, for this very cause, 

that the Galatians, renouncing all confidence in that righteousness 



which is by the law and covenant of works, might lay hold on that 
righteousness which is by faith and grace. This might appear by 
many arguments which now I willingly pass over. The end and 
use of the promise in the Covenant of Grace is, that men cast down 
and humbled in the sight of their own sin and misery by the legal 
covenant, might be raised up and comforted by heai'ing and receiv- 
ing that righteousness and life, which is freely promised and offered 
to the believers in the gospel. Of this use, read Rom. v. 1, There- 
fore, being justified by foith, tve have peace loith God. This is the 
proper end of the evangelical doctrine. Therefore, the second and 
principal part of the gospel doth consist in the doctrine of the 
Covenant of Grace, which is properly and principally to bear this 
title of an evangelical doctrine ; teaching us what Christ our Media- 
tor is ; Avhat his humiliation first, next his glorification ; and then 
W'hat benefits, life, and righteousness, we get by him : and these be 
the special branches of the gospel, and of that joyful message of 
our salvation. Last of all, the use of those particular promises is, that 
God's elect, justified, renewed, comforted, and quieted in their con- 
sciences, may testify their thankfulness by their holy obedience and 
good w^orks. The Apostle noteth this end, (Titus ii. 11, 12,) 
For that grace of God which bringeth salvation unto all men hath shined; 
teaching us, that renouncing ungodliness and worldly lusts, ice live 
soberly, justly, and godly, in this present world. And, for that this 
is the end of these promises, they have also their place in the third 
part of the doctrine of the gospel, whicli concerns the life and 
Christian conversation of the saints ; for which cause ye have these 
promises often in the gospel, annexed to exhortations, admonitions, 
and instructions concerning manners, as (Gal. vi.) after that (ver. 6) 
he had given in charge, that he which is catechised in the word, should 
minister unto him which tcachcth him of all his goods ; he forthwith 
addeth (vers. 7 and 8) a promise and a threatening. Again, (ver. 9,) 
having warned them not to wax weary in well-doing, he addeth this 
promise. We shall reap in due time, ij\ve faint not. So, (Eph. vi.,) after 
that his charge given to servants to serve their masters in all up- 
rightness, (ver. 5, 6, 7,) he addeth a promise, (ver. 8,) Whatsoever 

god's effectual calling. 45 

good thing every man doth, that shall he receive of the Lord. The 
like testimonies are everywhere, in which ye may find admonitions, 
exhortations, and instructions, confirmed with promises and threat 
enings. Of this kind, then, are all those promises before mentioned, 
which must be carefully discerned, first, from the covenant of works; 
next, from the Covenant of Grace, wheresoever we find them in 
reading the New Testament. 

And, finally, concerning the aforesaid promises, we are to observe, 
first, that the condition of the works of regeneration and grace is 
required of believers, not as merits, but as duties only, and testi- 
monies of their thankfulness to God their Redeemer ; like as the 
condition in the covenant of works is not of merits, but of duties 
only, and of testimonies of their thankfulness to God their Creator. 
I grant that the w^orks of regeneration are necessary unto eternal 
life promised in the gospel, but not as merits or meritorious causes, 
but as the means and way wherein we are to proceed on from justi- 
fication and regeneration unto glory and life eternal. They may 
also be said to be causes, after a sort, for they please God in Christ, 
and in some respects move him, but not as merits, but as eflTects of 
the only merit of Jesus Christ, whereof they testify. But of this 
we shall speak in place more convenient. Secondly, note in this third 
kind of promises, that the condition therein is of the works of 
regeneration, which are also most perfect in their kind, for the 
great justice of God cannot bear the least defect. The rule also 
of all works is the justice of God, w^hereof ye have a certain express 
imao-e in the moral law. Wherefore the condition here is of works 
most absolute, but not in themselves, but in Christ, and in the per- 
fection of his satisfaction and merit. If ye object, doth not the 
law require that perfection of works which is in works themselves ? 
I answer ; it doth so of them which are under the covenant of 
■works, under the law, and without Christ ; but as for such as be in 
the Covenant of Grace and in Christ, it doth not requu-e a perfec- 
tion in the works of regeneration, but is content with the good 
beginnings which the believers have, the perfection of whose 
obedience is supplied, and to be found, in Christ Jesus. For like 
as he justified us of his mere grace in Christ, and by his merit, 


Hom.'v. 9 10 ^^^"S ^^^^ enemies, so now mucli more Avill he accept us, being 
' "■ justified and regenerate ; I say, much more will he accept us being 
his friends, and our obedience in Christ even for his merit sake. 
For so the Apostle concludeth, (Rom. v. 9,) Being justified therefore 
hy his blood, we shall now much more he preserved from lorath by him. 
And thus far of these three kinds of promises which are distinctly 
set down in the New Testament. 

And here this might also be demanded, whether these three kinds 
of promises be not as distinctly to be found in the Old Testament ? 
I answer, they may so be found, yet not Avithout some difference ; 
for that the Old Testament did serve specially to prepare men to 
receive Christ, which in his appointed time was to come. For the 
law was a schoolmaster unto Christ,^ (Gal. iii. 24.) Therefore the 
greatest part of the Old Testament is spent in propounding, repeat- 
ing, and expounding the covenant of works. And because Christ 
was not as yet manifested in the flesh, therefore the doctrine of the 
Covenant of Grace is more sparingly and darkly set forth in it. 
Finally, as touching the faithful in the Old Testament, which em- 
braced Christ the Mediator of the Covenant of Grace, howsoever 
then but shadowed before their eyes in types and figures — to them, 
I say, being justified in him which was to come, and regenerate by his 
grace, the promises of eternal life were made under condition of the 
Avorks of I'egeneration, as this promise made to Abraham, (Gen. 

Rom. iv. xvii. 1,) IFalk thou before me, and be thou upright, and I jvill make 
my covenant icith thee. This promise was made to Abraham^ being 
before justified by faith and renewed by grace. The like promises 
are often in the Old Testament annexed to moral precepts, as in 
the books of the Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. And thus far of the 
Covenant of Grace, the ground thereof, the promise thereof, and 
the condition thereof. 

Now it remaineth that we ansAver a question or two concerning 

First use of tJ^ig covcuant. The first, Avhether the covenant of Avorks be abolished, 

the covenant ' 

of thTnwrui ^"^ of none effect to such as be under the Covenant of Grace ? I 
answer, the covenant of works hath tAvo ends and uses. The first 

god's ErrECTUAL CALLING. 47 

and proper end and use of the covenant of works is, that men by 
it may be justified and saved, or otherwise condemned. The cove- 
nant of works had this use in Adam before his fall, that Adam by 
it might be justified and live. After the fall it hath the same use 
in the unregenerate, elect and reprobate, to wit, to justify and save 
them, or to condemn them. And forasmuch as it cannot justify 
them because of their corruption, (Eom. viii. 3,) it followeth that 
it must necessarily condemn them. And the very unbelieving and 
unregenerate do otherwise feel this condemnation in themselves. 
Of this use, read Kom. iii. 19 ; where he saith, that by the laAV, 
Every mouth is stopped^ and made obnoxious to the condemnation of 
God. And of the experience of this condemnation, read Rom. 
vii. 10 ; /, saith he, lohen the commandment came, loas dead, that is, 
condemned in my conscience, so that I felt in myself present con- 
demnation and death. And albeit this first use of the covenant of 
works be common to all unregenerate, elect and reprobate, yet 
this wants not some difference ; for, in the elect, the acknowledg- 
ment of sin and condemnation which they have by the covenant of 
works, is unto them a preparative to embrace the Covenant of Grace ; 
but in the reprobate it is the way to extreme desperation. Thus far 
of the first use. 

The second end of the covenant of works is this, it serves to second end of 

the covenant 

drive on, and to stir up all believers to marrfh^on forwards in all °^^°''''^- 

faith and godliness. This use it hath, I say, in the regenerate, who, 

in the legal covenant or moral law, do desire principally to behold, i- 

" ' , r 1 .7 'The use of 

as in a glass, evermore, first, the holiness, majesty, and justice, of{^'^™°[^^ 
God. (Rom. vii. 12,) Therefore the law is holt/, and the co7mna)id~^'^^"''^^'^ 
ment is holy. Just, and good. Next, they see here that which they ■^• 
call the original holiness and justice of man, to wit, the same which 
was in the creation, which is defined to consist of justice, holiness, 
and wisdom. Thirdly, they behold here that life eternal which was 3. 
to follow that first original justice. Fourthly, they see that corrup- 4. 
tion and unrighteousness which is now in nature after man's fall. 
But this they see by consequent; as we say, one contrary is discerned 
and known by another. For, while we consider first, that infinite 



justice of God, next, our original justice, — wliicli are properly dis- 
cerned by that glass of God's law and covenant of works, — by the 
light and brightness of these, I say, Ave may take a view of the gross 
darkness, filthiness, and deformity of our corrupt nature. For this 
cause it is said, (Rom. iii. 20,) By the law cometh the knoicledge of 
sin. Fifthly, they see herein God's wrath kindled against that 
deformity of nature, so contrary both to God's justice and to man's 
original justice. For this cause it is said, (Rom. i. 18,) The wrath of 
God is revealed from heaven against all the ungodliness and unrighte- 
ousness of men ; and, (Rom. iv. 15,) The law causeth wrath. Sixthly, 
and lastly, they behold how present death foUoweth that wrath of 
God, (Rom. i. 32,) IVhich men, though they knew the law of God, 
how that they which commit such things are icorthy of death, yet not 
only do the same, hut also favour them that do them; and, (chap, 
vii. 9, 10,) When the commandment came, I died. 

The regenerate, when they consider these things in the laAV and 
covenant of works, they are forthwith terrified with that heavy- 
spectacle, 1. Of their sin ; 2. Of the wrath of God against sin ; 3. 
Of eternal death w^hich followeth God's wrath. And then do they 
more and more relinquish and renounce, 1. That legal righteous- 
ness required in the covenant of Avorks ; 2. That original justice 
and all opinion of free-will ; 3. That life and safety which followeth 
that legal righteousness of works. And having renounced all con- 
fidence in these things, with like endeavour they follow hard after 
Christ by conversion and faith, to this end, that they may find in 
him, first, that mercy of God in Christ, contrary to that justice of 
God ; secondly, they seek for that imputative justice, as they call It, 
60 contrary to their OAvn righteousness, and to that original justice of 
the law, or of works. Thirdly, they labour for that sanctification 
and regeneration, that so they may bring forth the fruits of the 
Spirit. Fourthly, they Avalt for to attain that life eternal, which is 
given us of God's free grace. In and by that imputed righteousness 
of Christ. 
A perfect If we wcrc posscsscd in this life of a perfect faith in Christ, and 

not. so of perfect holiness, then I grant the believers should not need 

god's effectual calling. 49 

this terrible glass of the law, and of the covenant of works. But 
because unbelief still resteth in this our nature, and the relics of 
that inherent contagion still abide in us, and for that so long as we 
live here, neither our faith nor holiness can be perfected ; there- 
fore, to weaken more and more our unbelief and inherent sin in us, 
and more and more to increase faith and holiness, we have ever need 
of this terrible glass, as a continual severe schoolmaster, Avhich, ever 
casting many fears before us, may drive us to the faith of Christ, 
and to sanctimony of life. 

Now, then, seeing it is evident that there is a double use of the 
covenant of works, the answer to the question aforegoing is easy. 
For this Ave avouch, that, as touching the former use, the covenant 
of works is abolished to them which are under grace. To this the 
Apostle pointeth when he saith, (Rom. vi. 15,) Ye are not under the 
law, but under grace. (Gal. iv. 5,) TJiat he might redeem them which ivere 
under the law. (Rom. vii. 6,) Being dead to the law, we are note free 
from the law. (2 Cor. iii. 11,) For if that which should be abolished 
was glorious. But as for this second use, it is not abolished. This 
distinction is commonly received, that the law and legal covenant 
is abolished, as it is a condemning tyrant, and not to be abolished 
as it is a schoolmaster to chasten us, and with terrors to drive us 
unto Christ. For this second use we have an example in Paul after 
his regeneration, (Rom. vii. 14, &c.) For when he considers in the 
glass of God's law the spirituality, (that so I may speak,) the holi- 
ness and goodness of the law, first; next, his own carnality (to 
use that word) and rebellion ; and, lastly, death itself ; first he 
breaks forth into these words, Miserable man that I am ! who shall 
deliver me from the bodg of this death ? Next, he flieth to the mercy 
of God in Christ Jesus, saying, I give God thanksin Christ Jesus. And, 
(2 Cor. V. 11,) Paul saith of himself, he was enforced and moved 
forwards to do duties in his calling, because of the terrors of the Lord 
set down and offered unto him in and by his law : Knowing, there- 
fore, the terror of the Lord, we bring men to the faith. The same 
Apostle, (Gal. iv. 21,) when he saw that the Galatians which began 
to believe in Christ, notwithstanding not to cleave unto him only 

VOL. I. D 


bv fiuth. but to make a mixtore of the law witb Christ, he seta 
before tbem this glass of God's law, or of the covenant of works, 
wherein he layeth open, first, the miserable bondage of such as are 
imder the law ; next, their finfil rejection, to this end and purpose, 
that thev might be moved by this fearful speculation to stick to 
Christ onlv. and to the Covenant of Grace. 

Hereunto refer those comminauons which we find partly an- 
nexed to the Covenant of Grace in the second part of the evange- 
lical doctrine : partly put to the particular promises, instructions, 
exhortarions. in the third part of the doctrine of the gospel. For 
thi> is the duty of the moral law and of the covenant of works, to 
contain the believers with threatenings and terrors i»ithin the 
bounds of the grace of Christ, and of his gospel. John iii. 18, we 
^1-* ■ .'..^ have a commination of the law. or of the covenant of works, added 
' -^ " to the Covenant of Grace ; -He that believeih in him is not comdammed; 
this is the Covenant of Grace, He that bdimetii not is amdemned 
already ; this comminarion doth properly appertain to the law or 
covenant of works. Eom. riiL 13. he conjoineth a threiten- 
ing of the law or covenant of works with a parucular promise, 
wherein life is promised unto sanctimony ; If ye lice according to 
the Jlesh^ t/e shall die : but if ye mortify the deeds of the body by the 
Spirit, ye shall lire. See Gal. vi. 8. And thus fiar of the first question. 
The secoed The secoud qucstiou is this : Whether the moral Liw, which we 

, ^ ** call the Decalosrue, be abolished to them which be under the Cove- 

Hv be abol- c 

°*^"*'* nant of Grace? I answer by way of distinction: The moral law, 
as it commandeth works done by the strength of nature, and as it 
is the rule of all works of this kind, to wit, of such works as be 
required in the covenant of works, that is, in respect of the first 
and proper use thereof — for it concerns properly the works o£ 
nature, which make the condition in the covenant of works — in this 
respect, I sav. the moral law itseh"also is abolished to them which 
are in Christ, even in like manner as the covenant of works is can- 
celled, and of none effect against them. For which cause Paul useth 
these phrases, JVe be not under the laic, ice are dead to the late, tee are 
freed from the law, to wit, either as touching justification or coo- 


denination. And look how far the covenant of works serveth for 
their use which be in grace, so far the h\w of works is in use for 
them. And what use the believers have of the covenant of works, 
we have already showed. Again, look how far forth the same moral 
law serves to give rules for the works of grace, and attendeth not 
on the covenant of works, but of grace and of the gospel, so far it 
resteth in use for the servants of Christ. For there is but one rule 
and law of all good works whatsoever, whether they proceed from 
nature or from grace ; like as there is but one and the same justice 
of God, ever like itself, whereof the law of God is a very express 
image, or a lively representation. Thus, then, the law moral 
abideth for such as be under the gospel, yet in some respect — that 
is. in use — changed : for like as all things are become new in Christ 
Jesus, so also the law itself after a sort is renewed. And that the 
law serveth and is in use for them which be under the Covenant 
of Grace, it is very clear by many scriptures. This may appear by 
those very testimonies which are before produced for the covenant 
of works, and other scriptures many, where the works of the law 
are commended. (Rom. xiii. 8,) Love one another ; for he that loveth 
another hath fulfilled the law. (Gal. v. 13, 14,) By love serve one 
another ; for all the law is fulfilled in one icord, which is this, Thou 
shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. See James ii. 8, &c. And thus 
far, as we purposed, have we spoken of the Covenant of Grace. 



Now it followeth that we speak briefly of such as be under the 
Covenant of God, or, if I may so speak, confederates with God. 
Every reasonable creature must of necessity be liable to one of 
both covenants, either that of works, or this of grace. For the 
verv angels are under the covenant of works : but because the 


Scripture speaks so sparingly of them, therefore we say this only 

in a word, that they also be under the covenant of works. Again, 

man must be under some one covenant. Adam, in the state 

of his innocency, was under the covenant of works. Man, 

after the fall, abideth under the covenant of works ; and to this 

day, life is promised him under condition of works done by strength 

of nature. But if he will not do well, death and the everlasting 

curse of God is denounced against him, so long as he is without 

God's people Christ, and without the ffospel. And being freed from the cove- 
in grace be ^ . . . 

"o'l^^^^'^ss nant of works, he is not become a libertine, or not subject to any 

libertines. ' ' j j 

covenant, or as it were lawless, but forthwith he is admitted to the 
Covenant of Grace, and thenceforth liveth under it. Therefore, 
concerning angels and men, it is evident that they are under some 
one covenant. 

It is a doubt indeed concerning Christ, whether he were then 
under any covenant, when he dwelt among men, and did converse 
on earth? I answer, there be two natures in Christ, a divine and 
human. Christ, as he is God and the Son of God, is not under 
the covenant of works or of grace ; for that he is no creature, but 
the blessed Creator, to whom, to whose covenant and law, every 
creature is and must be subject. But as he is man, he is under the 
Christ under covenant of works ; and that in two respects. First, in respect of 

tlie covenant i ' i 

whatTespect. himsclf, bccausc he is a creature, because he is a servant, and made 
man, and was in the loins of Adam when that covenant of works was 
first made with him. But we be to speak sparingly of that state 
of the man Christ, which is in respect of Christ himself, whether 
that his human nature, as touching itself, were under the covenant 
of works ? whether this nature did purchase for itself life eternal 

PJ ^,'?"?.* . by observation of the covenant of works? Next I say, the 

the Mediator J •' ' 

etfbimRcinn human nature of Christ is under the covenant of works in re- 
toVhe'iaw lor spect of US ; for being united to that divine nature, it is become 
a mediator for us, to make intercession and peace between 
God offended and man offending. For Christ our Mediator, 
albeit he be God and man in that personal union, yet was 
he made subject to the covenant of works, and to the curse 

god's effectual calling. 53 

of the law for us, properly In respect of his human nature, 
that, as the Apostle speaketh, he might redeem us from the 
law, and the curse of the law. See Gal, iv. 4 and 5. After that the 
fulness of time was come, God sent his Son, made of a looman, made sub- 
ject to the lata, to redeem them tohich were tinder the late. And Gal. 
ili. 13, But Christ (saith he) hath redeemed us from the curse, while he 
was made a curse for us. Christ, therefore, our Mediator, subjected 
himself unto the covenant of works, and unto the law for our sake, 
and did both fulfil the condition of the covenant of works in his 
holy and good life, even in the highest degree of perfection, as 
being God and man — even that most Holy One of God — in one per- 
son : and also he did undergo that curse which was denounced 
against man in that covenant of works, if that condition of good 
and holy works were not kept ; — for in the covenant of works ye 
have, together with the promise of life to him who doth well, a 
commination of everlasting death to him who doth not well. For 
this cause Christ our Mediator both did well according to the pro- 
mise, and died also according to the curse denounced. Wherefore 
we see Christ in two respects, to wit, in doing and suffering, sub- 
ject to the covenant of works, and to have most perfectly fulfilled 
it, and that for our sake whose Mediator he is become. 

It may be demanded, Had it not been sufficient for our good, 
and to the end he might redeem us, if he had only lived well and 
holily, and not also so to have suffered death for us ? I answer, it 
had not sufficed. For all his most holy and righteous works had 
not satisfied the justice and wrath of God for our sins, nor merited 
the mercy of God, reconciliation, righteousness, and life eternal 
for us. The reason is, for that the justice of God did require for 
our breach of God's covenant, that we should be punislied with 
death eternal, according to the condition denounced and annexed 
to the promise of that covenant. Therefore, no good works of our 
own, or of any mediator for us, after the breach of that covenant 
of works, could have satisfied the justice of God, which of necessity 
after a sort required the punishment and death of the offender, or 
certainly of some mediator in his stead. If, then, all the good {\nd 
holy works of the Mediator could not satisfy that wrath and justice 


of God for sin, it Is clear they could not merit any new grace or 
mercy of God for us. 

But you will say, that the good and holy works of Christ our 
Mediator have wrought some part at least of that satisfaction, 
whereby God's justice was appeased for us, and some part of that 
merit whereby God's favour was purchased for us ? I answer, these 
works did serve properly for no part of satisfaction or merit for us : 
for that, to speak properly, the death of Christ and his passion 
only did satisfy God's justice, and merited his mercy for us. 

If any will yet farther demand, May we not divide the satisfac- 
tion and merit of Christ into his doings and sufferings, that we may 
speak on this manner, Christ by his death and passion hath satis- 
fied God's justice, and by his good and holy works he hath merited 
God's mercy for us, that so satisfaction may be ascribed to his 
death, and merit to his works ; that the righteousness w^herewith 
w^e are justified before God may be partly the satisfaction Avhich 
Christ performed by his death for us, partly the merits which he 
He saith, ^ve obtained by his works for us ? I answer : to speak properly, the 

are justified ■^ ... . . 

passive li'Au- satisftiction and merit which is by the only passion of Christ, both 
eousness of ^^.^^ ^^^ j^ ^^^ rightcousness, or the satisfactory and meritorious 
death of Christ,^ or the satisfaction which was by Christ's death, or 
the merit of his death, or the obedience of Christ, as being obedient 
to his Father unto the death, the death also of the cross, [or] to be 
short, that justice of Christ which he obtained when in his passion 
he satisfied his Father's wrath — this is our rlglitcousness. For we 
may say, that either the death of Christ, or his satisfaction, or his 
merit, or his obedience, or his righteousness, is imputed unto us for 
righteousness. For all these are taken for one and the same thing. 
But here it may be replied, If the works of Christ cannot pro- 
perly procure for us any satisfaction nor merit, nor any part of 
The active satisfaction or merit, then it may be demanded, What hath been, 

('IiidieiKT' of 

ciiiist,ortiie^j-^(j "wliat is tlic usc of Clirlst's works, or of his active obedience, 

1 This is not quite correct. It ought to be rendered tlius : — " I answer, tliat 
to speak properly, both the satisfaction and the merit belonged to Christ's 
passion exclusively, and that our rightcousness is constituted by either Christ's 
satisfactory and meritorious death, or," &c. 

god's effectual calling. 55 

or of the obedience of his life ? I answer, that the holiness of the righteous- 
ness and ho- 
person of Christ, and of his natures, divine and human, and of hisi'nessofhis 

^ ' ' person and 

works, is the very ground or foundation of the satisfaction and'/^^'g^JJ,,;'^'* 
merit which we have In the passion of Christ. That Is, the excellency factor/arla. 
and worthiness of that person and of his works did cause that his passion of 

. . . . . Christ. 

passion was both satisfactory and meritorious : for if this person 
which suffered had not been so holy and excellent, as also his life 
so pure and godly, it is most certain that his passion could neither 
have satisfied God's wrath nor merited mercy for us. For which 
cause the Apostle, (Heb. vil. 2G,) speaking of this ground of this 
meritorious passion of Christ, saith, that such an high priest it he- 
came us to have, which is holy, blameless, undefiled, separate from 
sinners, and made higher than the heavens. And thus far of Christ, 
and how he may be said to be under the covenant of works. 

And that he was not under the Covenant of Grace, the matter is 
so clear, that it needs no disputation. For the Covenant of Grace 
was made in him, and established In his blood, and the promise in 
the Covenant of Grace is made to them which were unjust and dead 
in sin, because of the breach of that covenant of works ; and, lastly, chnstnot 
the condition in the Covenant of Grace Is ftiith in Christ the Me-'^°''''"='°'o^ 


diator. Wherefore, if ye respect either the gi'ound or condition 
or promise of the free covenant, Christ cannot be said to be under 
it. And thus far of both covenants, and of them which are under 
the Covenant of God, either of Works or of Grace. 



Now we be to compare a little our assertion with the adversaries', 
and to consider which of both sides is of soundest judgment, touching 
both these covenants of works and of grace. A rule to try the 
opinion of the adversaries and ours by, can none better be found 


than the doctrine of Paul, specially that in the Epistle to the Ro- 
mans, and namely, in that disputation which he hath of justifica- 
tion in the three first chapters, against the Jews of that time. If, 
after conference, we shall find that our assertion doth consent with 
Paul's mind and doctrine, and that the adversaries are of the same 
mind and judgment with the Jews which lived in Paul's time, 
then it shall plainly appear, that our judgment is better than the 
adversaries concerning the covenant of God. 

Wherefore, in this disputation of Paul, we are to consider, first, the 
mind and pm'pose of the Apostle ; next, by Paul's doctrine, we 
shall gather what the opinion was of those Jews against whom he 
disputed : this done, Ave will apply both his and their assertion to 
ourselves which live in this age, and to the doctrine and conclusions 
which we maintain concerning both these covenants. By this means, 
if it shall appear that our doctrine is agreeable to Paul's mind, and 
that our adversaries follow the Jews, themselves being witnesses, 
it shall, I say, be manifest, that our judgment is better than theirs 
in this argument. 

To come then to the point : Paul in that place to the Romans 

disputeth against those Jews which were obstinate and perverse, 

defending, first, Christ and his merit, which is the first ground of 

PauVs dispu- the Covcnant of Grace. Next, he disputeth for grace or the mercy 

tation. -^ ° ^ "^ 

Rom. i. ii. iii. Qf God, which is the second ground of the free covenant. Thirdly, 
he avoucheth against those adversaries that the Covenant of Grace 
was founded in Christ, and In the grace of God. Fourthly, he 
proveth the justification of man, and so, consequently, the salvation, 
which is according to the Covenant of Grace. He disputeth, I say, for 
these things, first, against nature, which is the ground of the covenant 
of works ; next, against the very covenant of works itself founded 
on nature : thirdly, against the justification of man, and salvation 
which is by it, arising of the just and good works of nature, ac- 
cording to that covenant of works. I grant he doth expressly fight 
against that justification and salvation, which is by the works of 
nature required in the covenant of works, and for the justification 
of faith, which is required in the Covenant of Grace ; but by one 

god's effectual calling. 57 

and the self-same disputation he concludes both against nature and 
the covenant of works, and for Christ and for God's grace in him — 
that is, for the Covenant of Grace. For the doctrine of antecedents 
must necessarily be included in the doctrine of the consequent. 

By this purpose of Paul we may see what was the drift of those 
adversary Jews, and what was their judgment against whom he 
disputeth in the Epistle to the Romans. Those Jews, they on the 
contrary part did strive for nature, as being the ground of the co- 
venant of works, as also for the very covenant of works or of 
nature, — for justification and salvation by works, and according to 
the form of the covenant of works. They did, I say, contend for 
these things, against Christ, against the grace of God in Christ, 
and against the Covenant of Grace, and against justification and 
salvation of men, which is according to the Covenant of Grace. I 
grant, that, as is aforesaid, the question was of this last point, 
which is justification : but this question includes all the former 
branches, as is before showed. Wherefore, let us consider again 
that old controversy, and the very ground thereof. 

In this controversy, by the way, note how great the blindness The state and 
was of the Jews of those times : first, they did not understand p/uj^f^fnj^ 
that man's nature after the fall was lost, as touching goodness : 
they saw not their own corruption, neither were they touched with 
any sense of sin or of their own misery. Next, they knew not 
Christ the Mediator, and the mercies of God in him. Thirdly, 
being so blind in the premises, they could not conceive also how 
that covenant of works was abolished in Christ. Fourthly, they 
understood not that there was any Covenant of Grace made with 
man in Christ Jesns. Fifthly, they did not consider that those 
works of nature, whereby they would be justified, according to the 
prescript form of the covenant of works, they did not consider, I 
say, that they were but duties only, and testimonies of thankful- 
ness, according to the first institution of that covenant ; but they 
did ascribe some meritorious virtue unto them : for which cause 
the Apostle disputeth against the works of nature, as against 
merits, because of this blind conceit of the Jews. And that they 


were of judgment that these works were meritorious, may appear 
by their glorying in works, against which the Apostle speaketh 
often : Where is then the glorying or rejoicing ? it is excluded, (Rom. 
iii. 27.) If Abraham were justified by works, he hath wherein to glory, 
(Rom. iv. 2.) Not by tcorks, lest any should glory, (Eph.ii. 9.) For 
he which gloricth doth not deem that he hath received that of God 
for which he glorieth ; and, therefore, he judgeth it to be meri- 
torious. What hast thou that thou hast not received ? And if thou hast 
received it, wherefore boastest thou as if thou hadst not received it ? 
(1 Cor. iv. 7.) 

Thus far of the question In controversy, which was between Paul 

and the old Jews of his time, concerning the covenant of God. 

How like to this is that which at this day is controversed between 

Our defence US and thc Paiiists ? We in this ap-e conclude wholly for the only 

attliisday ^ ^ , * *' / 

nKainstthe merit of Clirist, for the sole and mere grace and mercy of God in 
Christ, for the Covenant of Grace, for justification and salvation by 
Christ only, by grace only, by faith only, (for all these phrases 
serve to one effect ;) we dispute, I say, for these things against the 
strength of nature, the liberty of free-will — that is, the goodness and 
holiness of nature — against the covenant of works, against justifica- 
tion by works, even that which is according to the rule of the 
covenant of works. The Romanists of this age defend that nature 
is holy in itself, yet hurt, impoverished and weakened, for this 
is their freedom of will ; they defend, I say, the covenant of Avorks, 

Fiec-wiii. and the works which proceed from free-will, justification by works 
of free-will, meritorious also according to the covenant of works ; 
for they say, the ground of every merit, whether it be of congruity 
or condignity — to use their own terms — is free-will. These things, 
I say, they strive to defend, against Christ only, and his merit, 
against the only grace of God and mercy in Christ, against thc 
only Covenant of Grace, against justification which is by Christ 
only, by the grace of God only, by faith only ; for all these have 
one respect and purpose. 

popisii blind- Observe then here, by the way, Avhat thc palpable blindness of 
the Papists is, in this clear light of the gospel. First, they see not 


god's effectual calling. 59 

how nature is plainly lost, as touching sanctity. Secondly, they 
know not the sole grace and mercy of God, neither do they under- 
stand what the excellency is of Christ's merit. Thirdly, they per- 
ceive not how that covenant of works is abolished to them which 
are in Christ, as touching justification. Fourthly, they conceive 
not that the only Covenant of Grace Is made with mankind after the 
fall, specially now after the incarnation of Christ in the gospel, and 
that unto justification and life eternal. Fifthly, they see not that 
the works of free-will, as they call them, if there were any such, 
to be duties only and testimonies of thankfulness, according to the 
first institution of the covenant of works, which be done by the 
strength of nature, but ascribe some special meritorious virtue unto 
them. Wherefore, we conclude concerning these men, that albeit 
they be not just of one mind with those old Jews, against whom 
the Apostle disputed In the Epistle to the Romans ; yet they 
hold much on their side, striving to defend that nature Is in part 
good and holy, so contendinfj aj^^alnst the pure and only ffrace The Popish 
of God, and to divide justification and man's salvation between 
Christ and God's free grace and the virtues and works of nature : 
whereas, notwithstanding, these two, nature and grace, can never 
stand together In the work of our salvation. For whosoever shall 
conjoin or make a mixture of grace and nature In this matter, shall 
quite overthrow and extinguish grace, which either Is alone or not 
at all, as Rom. xi. 6, If it he of grace, it is no more of tvorks ; for, 
otherwise, (jr ace were no more grace. And in the Epistle to the Ga- 
latians, he doth purposely dispute against those Jews which did 
couple togetlier. In the matter of justification, the gifts and works 
of nature with Christ, with the grace of God and with the gospel. 
And these Jews (as I judge) the Papists seem most to resemble — 
I mean those Jews against whom he wrote in the Epistle to the 
Galatlans. For In that other Epistle to the Romans, he disputeth 
against such Jews as did openly deny Christ and reject him : but 
to the Galatians, his disputation Is against such Jews as were not 
content with Christ only, but would have Christ and the law 
joined together. Thus far of the comparison between Paul and us 
on the one side, the old Jews and the Papists on the other. 



Now, because it will be demanded, what Paul thought of the 
works of regeneration, and what we, and what the adversaries 
think also ; therefore, I will touch this question in few words. 
Here, then, some one will say. Did Paul, then, in that disputation to 
the Romans and to the Galatians, oppugn the works of grace and 
regeneration ? I answer, Paul's chief purpose in that disputa- 
tion is against the works of nature, which the Jews thought to be 
holy and just, and also meritorious : he did not reject the works of 
regeneration, as they be duties and testimonies of thankfulness 
unto God, but in that respect commends them, Rom. vi. vii. viii. 
chapters, and in other places. But, as touching the cause of justi- 
fication, he would not have these works, as we call them, of 
regeneration, coupled with the grace of God, or with Christ, or with 
faith, as any cause, or as part of any meritorious cause of salvation. 
To this purpose, he saith, Rom. iv., that Abraham himself, being 
regenerate, was not justified before God by any works of his 
regeneration. And, Rom. vi., having commended the works of 
sanctification, in the end, verse 23, where he attributeth death to 
the merit of sin, he doth not there, notwithstanding, ascribe life 
eternal to the merit of the works or fruits of sanctification ; but when 
he had said, that " the wages of sin is death," he doth clearly 
avouch it, that eternal life is the free gift of God in Christ Jesus. 
In which place, if the Apostle had been of this judgment, that the 
works of regeneration be In any respect meritorious, assuredly he 
would not so pass over the commendation of the works of regenera- 
tion, specially for that this here is principally intended. Where- 
fore, the Apostle to the Romans, so rejecting the works of nature, 
which the covenant of works requireth, yet he understandeth also 
all kinds of works, moral and natural, going before grace and faith ; 
as also, all ceremonial works, and the very fruits of regeneration 
which follow grace and faith ; that fiiith only, Christ only, grace 
only, may herein be all in all. Thus far of St Paul's judgment. 

We at this day are of one and the same mind with the Apostle 
concerning works of regeneration. Our adversaries, granting 
there be sucli works, ascribe too much unto them ; for they will not 

god's effectual calling. 61 

have them to be duties and testimonies only of thankfulness unto 
God, but also that they be meritorious causes of that justification 
which they call the second justification. 

Again, we are to remember, that the adversaries' judgment con- 
cerning works of regeneration is, that they proceed not only from 
infused grace and first justice, as they speak, but also from 
nature and free-will, which works together with that justice, in 
respect whereof also they account good works meritorious, as 
was before showed ; so ascribing their good works in part to that 
their first grace, and in part to free-will. And thus far of this 
comparison ; whereby It appears, whether we or our adversaries 
have the better or the more sound judgment concerning both 
covenants, of the grounds of both, nature, grace and Christ ; as 
also of the effect of both, which we call man's justification. And, 
lastly, for that this is the most fiindamental point of true religion, 
we may hereby discern also whether we or the adversaries have 
the religion and worship of God the more purely and soundly estab- 
lished amongst us. 



The Word in both covenants was for a long time in the world, 
even from Adam's time till Moses, unwritten, delivered as from 
hand to hand, and continued by a lively voice. For I pass over such 
matters as Joseph records to be engraven in columns before the 
flood, as also the Apocryphals of Henoch. 

And when as in continuance of time corruptions grew by these 
traditions, and the purity of the doctrine of the covenant could not 
thus be preserved, and that God would no longer follow the former 
course only, he began in Moses' time to ordain and to publish 
another form, to wit this, to preserve and to continue the purity of 


the celestial doctrine in written books, approved and sealed by 
divine authority and testimony ; and the more to commend his 
Written Word unto men in all succeeding ages, God himself Avith 
his ovv-n hand did first wi-ite in tables of stone the words of the Deca- 
logue. Next, after this, he gave it in charge unto INIoses, that he 
should afterwards write and record all things which he received at 
God's own mouth ; and that the people of God might be assured 
that the books of Moses came not by man's will, but were given 
> Tim. iii. 16. by diviuc inspiration, the Lord sealed and testified these writings 
to be his heavenly oracles, by many great wonders, before they 
were written, when they were written, and after they were 
written. And jNIoses wrote the word of both covenants ; of both, 
I say, legal and evangelical : but whereas he gave but, as it were, 
the first lineaments of the evangelical covenant, he set forth the 
legal covenant clearly and in full measure. For the legal covenant 
in the books of Moses is clearly recommended and urged, but the 
evangelical more darkly set before us. For which cause all the 
doctrine of Moses is said to be legal : " The law came by Moses," 
(John i. 17.) 

After Moses, God stirred up his prophets, Avhose writings also he 
confirmed with his great miracles, and gave them great authority. 
Yet were they not to set forth anything diverse or contrary to 
the doctrine of Moses and the Patriarchs, nor to publish anything 
but what was grounded in the books of Moses ; but by divine revela- 
tion they did add more clear interpretations, as the morning star 
of the New Testament did more nearly approach. These holy men 
wrote the sum and chief heads of their doctrine, even so much as 
God himself thought meet to be reserved for posterity. And these 
records, being written, were laid up with the holy books of Moses, 
which were kept in the side of the ark. (Josh. xxiv. 26.) 

Finally, after the incarnation of Christ, the evangelical doctrine 
or the gospel, first began for certain years to be delivered by voice 
and to be preached by Christ himself; and then after by his 
apostles ; and, lastly, the same was written by the apostles. The 
works of God's law and nature are commanded in the books of the 

god's effectual calling. 63 

New Testament, and the very moral law is expounded by Christ 
himself, and freed from the leaven and corruption of the Pharisees ; 
but the works of the law and nature are not recommended, to 
the end that by them men might be justified and saved ; but they 
be commended, either to prepare men to entertain grace offered, 
or to quicken them to proceed and grow in grace received, as is 
before showed. Again, the works of regeneration be commanded, 
not for justification, but as testimonies of that justification which is 
by faith, and of thankfulness unto God : for which cause, so soon 
as the Apostle hath taught the doctrine of faith, he descends to 
the works of the law, teaching men that their life and conversation 
must be worthy that high calling, whereunto we are called in 
Christ Jesus, (see Eph. iv. 1 ; 1 Thess. ii. 12.) But faith in Christ 
is that which is principally required in all the books of the New 
Testament. And thus far generally of the Written Word of the 



There be two kinds of controversies concerning the holy Scrip- 
ture. The first kind is of such controversies as be more essential, 
that is, which concern the very essence (if I may so speak) or 
being of the Scripture. The second kind is of those controversies 
which be more accidental, and do not so nearly concern the essence of 
the Scripture. Of the first kind there are ten controversies or ques- 
tions. The first is, " Whether the Scripture; prophetical and apos- 
tolical, be the word of God ?" The second is, *' How it may appear 
that this Scripture is God's word ?" The third is, " Of the antiquity 
of it." The fourth is, " Of the perspicuity or clearness of it." 


The fifth is, " Of the simplicity or plainness of It." The sixth is, 
" Of the vivacity, quickening power, or life of it." The seventh 
is, " Of the simple and evident necessity of it." The eighth is, 
" Of the perfection and sufficiency thereof, that it is sufficient and 
perfect in itself, without all unwritten verities or traditions what- 
soever." The ninth is, " "Whether the Scripture may be the judge 
to determine all controversies?" The tenth is, " Whether the 
Scriptures, prophetical and apostolical, must have the chief place 
of excellency, and be in authority above the Church ?" 

As for those eight controversies which follow the two first, they 
are touching the properties of the holy Scripture ; and these, when 
we shall have proved that the Scripture is God's word, will appear 
evidently, for they are necessary consequents of that theorem. 
For grant we this, that the Scripture is God's word, then these 
things must follow necessarily ; first, that it is most ancient ; 
secondly, most clear ; thirdly, most simple or pure ; fourthly, most 
powerful; fiftlily, most necessary ; sixthly, most perfect ; seventhly, 
the greatest and best judge of all controversies without exception; 
eighthly, most excellent. But for as much as the adversaries deny 
these eight properties, therefore (as is aforesaid) there is of every 
one of them a special controversy. 

We are then to handle these controversies in order. And, first, 
of that which by due right and naturally is to have the first place, 
whether the Scripture be the word of God ? The adversaries grant, 
generally, that the holy Scripture is the word of God ; but, when 
they are brought from the general to a special, they break from us. 
To speak more plainly, the word of God at this day is twofold in 
the Church of God, 1. immediate, 2. mediate. I call that the im- 
mediate word of God which doth proceed immediately out of God's 

God's written *• •' 

word. Q-^jj mouth ; and that I call mediate which the Lord speaks by his 

preacher or minister. We hold, then, and avouch, that the holy 
Scripture is that immediate and primary word of God, and to be unto 
us instead of that first immediate and lively voice of God himself; 
yea, that it serves us in place not only of that lively voice of God, 
but also of the secret and unsearchable mind of God, and of God's 

god's effectual calling. 65 

unspeakable mysteries. Our arguments are these : 1. For that this 
is the very Avill of God. They have Moses (saith he) and the Pro- 
phets; that is, the books of Moses and the Prophets. (Luke xvi. 29.) 
2. If we had nothing to supply the defect of the lively voice of God, 
then doubtless our state were w^orse than that of the old Church of the 
Jews, which hadthe oracles of God; but it is against all light of reason Rom m. i, 2. 
so to affirm. 3. Our third reason is this ; the first ground of our 
faith must be either the lively voice of God, or the very mind and 
counsel of God, or something to supply the want of God's lively 
voice, and of the secret mind of God, which must also be unto us 
no less certain and firm than if we heard God himself speak, or did 
behold and read the very mind of God, yea, the very divine oracles 
written in God's own breast. But now we have not the lively voice 
of God ; now Ave see not the secret mind of God. Therefore it 
must follow that we have something to supply the want of the 
lively voice of God, even means to reveal unto us the secret mind 
of God ; and nothing can do this but the sacred Scripture. There- 
fore, God's holy written word is, and must be, unto us as the very- 
voice, and as the very mind or will of God himself manifested unto us. 
The fourth reason : The Scripture contains all those things which 
God hath spoken in elder ages, and what God himself hath decreed 
in his secret counsel, so far as is meet for us to know, concerning 
our life and salvation : Ergo, §r. Thus far of the immediate word 
of God. The mediate voice of God, we call the voice of the holy 
and true Church of God ; for albeit men speak, yet the word 
spoken is the word of God himself. 

Here the adversaries rise up and contend, that the voice of the 
Church must have the priority of excellency, and that it supplieth 
the want of God's lively voice, and the manifestation of his mind, 
rather, or better than the Scripture : "For," say they, " the voice of I'opish ob- 

^ ^' -I •/ ' jeotion con- 

the Church is a Scripture written, not with the pen of any scribe, "™jj"^j^"*^ 
but by God's own finger in the heart of the Church ; therefore, the '?i"oyty oT~ 
voice or testimony of the Church ought to be accounted the beLc "he^ 
principal voice of God. For it is a lively voice, proceeding from 
the living heart of the Church, wherein God hath engraven all 
VOL. I. E 


truth with the finger of his own Spirit ; whereas the Scriptures of 
the Prophets and Apostles, albeit they were delivered and spoken 
by God himself, yet they were not written by God's own hand, 
but by the Prophets and Apostles, which were the penmen. Again, 
they Avere not written in the living hearts of men, but in papers 
and books, or tables. Hence, therefore, it followeth that this 
Scripture, which is found in the heart of the Church, is the princi- 
pal Scripture of God, and that the voice of the holy Church is that 
most excellent voice of God, and ought to be unto us as the imme- 
diate voice of God, and instead of the secret counsel of God." 

I answer, true it is, the testimony of the Church is a lively 
voice, proceeding from a living heart, sanctified by the Holy Ghost, 
for Ave speak of the true Church. But first, I say, that the only^ 
Scripture, prophetical and apostolical, is to be accounted that 
Scripture which was written by God's own finger, and that imme- 
diate word of God. Next, I say, that the heart of the Church is 
taught and sanctified by the spirit of the Scripture ; and that the 
Scripture, which is in the heart of the Church, is nothing else but 
a certain transcript, that so I may speak, or a copy, which the Holy 
Ghost hath Avritten in our hearts, according to that ancient and 
authentical copy, which is the holy Scripture. For the Holy Ghost 
teacheththe Church nothing now but that which is written, and doth, 
by the Scripture, after a sort, beget the Church ; and the Scripture 
is the mother, the Church the daughter; the Scripture is the 
mistress, the Church is the scholar. Thirdly, I add, that the know- 
ledge of the truth which is in the heart of the Church by means of 
the Scripture, is not so perfect nor so absolute as is the Holy 
Scripture. And, lastly, I say, that the Church being enlightened 
and renewed but in part, may err from the truth, even in the 
greatest matter of weight, and that it doth err, so often as it 
forsakes the canon and rule of the sacred Scripture. 

Their former assertion being thus cast down, it is evident that 
the voice of the Church, — I understand here the true Church only, 
not that wliorish Church of Home, — the voice of the Church, I -say, 
1 i. e., The Script uro aloac. Scripturam solam. 


is not that primary and most excellent word of God, nor ought to 
be unto us instead of the lively and immediate voice of God, nor 
to be reputed for God's mind and counsel ; but this prerogative is 
due only to the sacred Scripture. I add, further, that if thou doest 
first not so much respect the truth itself, Avhich the Church speak- 
eth, as the instruments of the speech uttered, which are men ; 
next, if ye compare the voice of the Church speaking with the 
sacred Scripture itself, it doth not deserve at all to be called by the 
name of God's word, but may more properly be called the 
word and testimony of man. For Christ himself calls that testi- 
mony which John the Baptist gave of him, the testimony of man. 
"I receive not," (saith he,) "or desire not, the testimony of man," 
(John v. 34.) Be it so, that the testimony of the Church be true, 
and agreeable to the holy Scripture, notwithstanding, it is truly 
called a human testimony, whether ye respect the men which speak, 
or compare their testimony with that which doth proceed from the 
mouth of God and Christ himself. 

But it may be replied, that the very Apostles and Prophets 
which Avrote and spake all these things which we have in the 
Scriptures were men in like manner ; and, therefore, all the Scrip- 
tures are but a human testimony. I answer, that I deny not all is 
objected, if we were to esteem the words or writings of an Apostle 
or Prophet as they are instruments and ministers, or if this were 
to be compared with the very lively voice of God and Christ himself. 
For in respect of the instruments, if we compare the words or 
writings of these men with the words and writings of God himself, 
theirs, I say, must come after and give place unto this, and must 
bear the name of a human testimony ; for so the testimony of John 
Baptist himself, as being an instrument in comparison of Christ the 
Lord of life, was called the record of man. Wherefore, when we 
avouch that the prophetical and apostolical Scripture is the imme- 
diate testimony of God himself, we make no comparison with the 
lively voice of God himself, neither do we so much respect what 
organs the Holy Ghost used to set forth the Scriptures ; but we 
consider the matter itself, and the divine oracles which be written 
and we ponder in what estimation God himself will have us to 


accept the sacred Scripture, not as the writings and sayings of 
men, but as the writings and words of God himself. And we con- 
sider this also, as in a comparison made with the Church. For, to 
use that comparison again, the voice of the Scripture is God's own 
voice ; but the voice of the Church of Christ is called a human testi- 
mony, as the word or writing of a Prophet or an Apostle, compared 
with the lively voice of God, is called the record of man, as Christ 
himself testifieth, (John v. 34.) And thus far of the first controversy. 



The second controversy is. By what argument may it appear that 
the Scripture is the Word of God ? Like as then the first 
question was this. Whether the Scripture be God's word ? so 
the question in hand is this. How and by what evidence this 
may appear, that the Scripture is God's word ? To this I an- 
swer on this manner : That we have no need simply of any other 
light, or of any one special evidence to demonstrate this matter, 
but that very light which is in the Scripture. For the Scripture 
(being the first and immediate word of God) is of authority suflfi- 
cient in itself, and so likewise of itself most clear and evident, 
Scviptura est and the only cause of all that light which is in the Church and in 
the hearts of men. For like as the light of the sun is not per- 
s.' ceived nor to be seen by means of any other light, for that it so 
far exceeds all other bodily and external light, so, that spiritual 
light of the Scripture hath no need in itself of any other light to 
set forth the same, for that of all spiritual lights to enlighten the 
mind withal, it is the most bright and most beautiful in the world. 
But whereas evidences and demonstrations be here demanded for 
the proof of this matter, toconfirm the Scripture to be God's word, 

' By tliis letter, I presume, Holland means to point out the Sbmk in tbe 


god's effectual calling. 69 

that is, to be the very light, the cause of this doubtfulness is in 
ourselves, for that we be so blear-eyed and so blind by nature. 
Wherefore, the arguments which are brought for this purpose add 
no light to the light of the Scripture, which is of its own nature so 
clear, and cannot be made to shine more bright by any addition, 
but all serve to this end, to make that thing manifest unto us 
which is most evident in itself, and that our eyes may be opened 
to see that most full and most glorious light of the sacred Scrip- 
ture : that is, to behold the divine majesty of God shining bright, 
and speaking unto us in the holy Scripture. Like as if a man were s. 
to prove to a blind man that the sun did shine, he would not pro- 
duce arguments to commend the excellency of the light of the sun, 
but rather provide such things as whereby, if it were possible, he 
might open the eyes of the blind, that with his own eyes he might 
look on the glorious light of the sun. Wherefore, in a word, what- 
soever arguments men ask of us to demonstrate the light of the 
Scripture, they ought not to be demanded because of any defect in 
the Scripture, but in respect of us, because we be so blind, having 
need of all arguments and helps every way to open our eyes, that 
our sight may be quickened to behold this glorious light. 

The arguments and helps whereby our eyes may be opened to 
behold the light of the Scripture, or God speaking and shining in 
the Scripture — these arguments, I say, which the godly and leai-ned 
use for this purpose, be not of one sort, but many in number. But 
if the Holy Ghost, speaking in the Scripture, do not first of all ^p"^- '• ^"^ ^^• 
inspire our minds, and open the eyes of our understanding, for he 
alone can do it, assuredly it is but lost labour to speak of any 
other argument or help ; if we be not taught of God, and by his isaiah. 
Holy Spirit, all other means shall profit us nothing at all. Where- 
fore, the first and most principal cause to effect this, that we may 
behold the light of the Scripture, so bright in itself, must be the 
Holy Ghost teaching us inwardly in our hearts, and opening our 
understanding, that we may behold that light of the Scripture, and 
may acknowledge the voice of God, and of Christ himself, speakinrr 
in the Scripture. And the Holy Ghost also himself in this work 


gives no new light to the Scripture, which is clear and glorious in 
itself, as is aforesaid, but enlightens our minds, to this end, that we 
may see the great light of the sacred Scripture. Again, the Holj 
Ghost, in this great work of our illumination, effecteth it by cer- 
tain means and instruments, whereby it pleaseth him to work in our 
hearts and minds. 

The means which the Holy Ghost useth for this work are of 
two kinds. The first is internal ; the second Is external. The in- 
ward mean is in the very Scripture itself; the outward is without 
the Scripture. The internal mean is the principal organ or instru- 
ment of God's Spirit in this work, and it is that very light which 
How the shlneth in the Scripture. The Holy Ghost, then, doth first of all 

Ihily Ghost '^ J J 7 

urtVknmv*'' open the eyes of our understanding, by the light of the Scripture, 

tures"'^ to discern that light of the Scripture, so bright in itself, and so 

unknown unto us. And he cleareth our understanding, to see the 

light of the Scripture, by the very Scripture itself and by the 

Inward lio;ht of the Scripturc, many ways. For partly he eflfecteth this 

means to see ° i ^ ^ ^ i. j 

the sci'i')-°'^ by producing certain testimonies of Scripture which plainly testify 
tiires. p£ ^j^jg great light of the Scripture, and of God speaking in the 

1. Scripture, as that place. All Scripturc is given hy dioine inspiration ; 

2 (2 Tim. ill. 16 ;) partly by suggesting into us, that we observe 

3. the spiritual matters which are therein described ; partly by ad- 
monishing that we note the spiritual Avords whereby the same 

4. spiritual matters are expressed and set before us ; partly by warn- 
ing us to observe the truth of the divine oracles by the complement 

6 of the prophecies. Again, he sets before us the beautiful harmony 

of the Scripture in the Old and New Testament, the one sweetly 

6. testifying of the other. And here he omltteth not the miracles 
which he recordeth therein, whereby the celestial doctrine had in 
the beginning a confirmation. He putteth us also in mind of the 
martyrs which sealed the same truth with their blood, as we read 
in the same Scripture. By these means, and such like, the Spirit 
tcacheth us out of the very Scripture, that the sacred Scripture is 
God's word, by clear evidence manifesting that great and excellent 
light which is in the Scripture. Add also unto the aforesaid means, 

god's effectual calling. 71 

tlie worth and holiness of those men which wrote the Scriptures, 
as the same is testified and recorded in the Scriptures. And this 
is the internal and principal mean and instrument of the Holy 
Ghost, whereby he teacheth us and bi'eedeth faith in our hearts, 
whereby we be certainly persuaded that this Scripture is the very 
word of God. 

There are also other means without the Scripture, whereby the External 

A ' •' means to 

Spirit proveth the same thing ; as the constancy of the martyrs, ^crip'iure to 
which daily seal with their blood the truth of this heavenly doc-^TOi^*^^ 
trine ; and the persecution raised by the enemies of the Church 
against it, and the enmity of Satan against it, and the preservation 
of the divine oracles of God unto our times ; and, to be short, the 
testimony of the true Church of God for it. All these are without 
or beside the Scripture, and give us a secondary kind of demon- 
stration, whereby the Holy Ghost worketh also, as it pleaseth him, 
and openeth the eyes of our understanding, enlightening us to see 
and hear God himself speaking and shining in the Scripture. 

But here we be to observe, that the Holy Ghost doth not beo^et 5;^'"?/**''«'^ 

' -I o by these 

faith in our hearts, properly and principally, by this second kind ofJ^J^fi^n^/^y^Qf 
external means, — for the proper and principal instrument of God to and comer- 
breed faith is the very -word of God himself, for it must be, ne- saints, ine- 

pareth us to 

ccssarily, either the lively voice of God or the sacred Scripture, i-eceivo the 

•' ' •' '■ ' precious 

which serveth us instead of the lively voice of God himself, — but ^'^'^^^ -^.j 
either prepares our hearts only to receive faith afterwards by the^'*^''"" ' ' 
word of God, or to confirm the same in some sort, being already 
engendered in our hearts by God's word. For this cause, this 
second kind of means sometimes is sent before the voice of God in 
t]\e Scripture, whereby the Holy Ghost otherwhiles makes men's 
minds ready to entertain faith and grace offered. This we read of 
Augustine, for he speaks it of himself, / would not have believed 
tke gospel, hut that the authority of the Catholic Church moved 
me thereunto ; by which words he meaneth, that when he Avas a 
Manichee, he was prepared by the authority and testimony of the 
Church to believe the gospel. Afterwards, notAvithslanding, the 
same Holy Spirit which thus prepared him by the testimony of the 



Church, — I say, the same Spirit did beget faith in Augustine's heart 
by the very Scripture of the gospel, whereby he did believe that 
the gospel was the very word of God. For this cause he speaks 
Anfnistine'B clscwhere of himself. And let usfolloto them (saith he) which do 
invite us 'first to believe that which ice cannot behold as yet, that 
being strengthened by faith itself, we may be worthy to understand 
what we believe, not by the relation of ?ne7i, but by the grace of 
God himself inwardly confirming and enlightening our minds. So 
the M^oman of Samaria, (John iv. 39,) as a member of the Church, 
did, by her kind of preaching, prepare the Samaritans to the faith 
of Christ, and they having heard Christ himself, said to the 
jihn iv. 42. woman. We believe no longer because of thy sayings, for ice have heard 
Win them' Jiiui ourselvcs, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Saviour of 
conversation, ^^/^^ xoorM. By which words they plainly testified, that they were 
vit!..iui the pi-ep^i-ed only by the woman's testimony to embrace the faith, and 
that faith was engendered in their hearts by the powerful voice of 
Christ himself. Wherefore, it is clear that sometimes this kind of 
mean and argument, as is aforesaid, goes before faith, is begotten 
in the heart to prepare us. And sometimes this follows faith for con- 
firmation. And sometimes, also, this kind of argument [both] goes 
before faith, and follows after it : it goes before,! say, for preparation ; 
it follows after for confirmation. For the Spirit teacheth us many 
Avays, applying himself to divers men in divers manners, as it 
scemeth good unto himself, and as men's infirmities do require. 

And here we be to observe, that there is no absolute necessity 
of this secondary kind of argument, which is external and less 
principal, to beget faith in us ; for it ought to suffice us, if the 
Spirit teach us only by God's word. But to help our weakness the 
same Spirit addeth the other secondary kind of argument, as 
Christ plainly teacheth us, (John v.,) where he saith, the testi- 
mony of John Baptist concerning him was not simply necessary, 
but that God so provided to help their weakness and unbelief; 
(verse 33,) John gave testimony to the truth, hut I desire not the tes- 
timony of man. Nevertheless, these things I speak, that ye may be 
saved. And that John's testimony was but a secondary argu- 

Juhn iii. 

god's effectual calling. 73 

ment only, and that Christ's own record of himself was the first, 
he showeth plainly in the words following; (verse 36,) But I have 
a greater witness than the witness of John : for the works which the 
Father hath given me to finish, the same works thai I do, bear witness 
of me that the Father sent me. And this is our judgment con- 
cerning this argument, whereby we prove the Scripture to be the 
word of God, and our answer to the question, wherefore it is so as 
we avouch it. 

What the Papists think in this matter, it Is easily seen by their how the 

^ ^ ' -z <i Papists prove 

words and writings. Their judgment briefly is this : The mean ||j"jj^'^'j|'^{.'^'' 
and principal argument, and, in a manner, the only way with them^°^^' 
to demonstrate the Scripture to be God's word, is the testimony of 
the Church, not only the Catholic, as they speak, but also those of 
their church which have preserved the faith, as they speak, by con- 
tinual successions from the Apostles unto our times ; and here they 
understand principally the Popes, who, as they say, succeeded 
Peter and his chair. These men will have the Church the judge 
and interpreter of all Scriptures, from Avhose judgment it may not 
be lawful for any man to depart for an appeal to any other judge. 
And they ascribe this dignity and prerogative to the testimony of 
the Church, because they Avill have the Scripture, which is written 
in the heart of the Church, to be the principal Scripture, and that 
we account and esteem of the voice of the Church as the very 
lively voice of God himself; as if God now spake first principally 
in his Church, and by the voice of his Church. If they will have 
it so, that the voice of the Church be the primary voice of God 
and the primary Scripture of God, it is evident that they deem 
the greatest light we have is to be found in the voice of the Church, 
and the same to be most clear and demonstrative, not only to us, 
but also in and by itself; and, therefore, that this light enlightens 
the sacred Scripture, not in respect of us only, but In respect of 
themselves ' also. For which cause one of them hath said, that the '"'* ^'«'- 

•" piieiiiy of 

Scripture is of no more validity, without the authority of the Church, ^*p'^*** 

^ Incon-ect. It should be : lu respect of its own nature also. The orlgiual 
is : sed ctiam ratione sui. P. 74. 


than ^sop's Fables. For the voice of the Church being unto them 
the primary voice of God in all respects, forasmuch as it is lively 
and vocal, and for this cause both by nature and to us most mani- 
fest ; it foUoweth, according to their judgment, that it yields light 
unto the Scriptui-e, not only in respect of us, but also in respect of 
the Scripture itself; and yet is it in verity but a certain secondary 
Scripture, and a certain secondary voice.^ For, as they avouch it, 
the voice of the Church is as God's own voice sounding from 
heaven, serving to confirm the voice of the Scripture, which now 
is but man's voice only, and to ratify and make authentical the very 
Scripture, as being written but by certain scribes, and published only 
by the hands of men. This must be the consequent of their prin- 
ciples, or conclusion of their premises, albeit other men be of 
another judgment. 

As for ouiselves, like as we deny the conclusion which they infer 
upon the former principles, so we reject also their very principles. 
For we deny and refuse their first ground, to wit, that the voice of 
the Church is to be accounted the lively voice of God himself, and 
that the Scripture, written in the heart of the Church, is to be 
accounted for that Scripture which was written by the very finger 
of God. And we affirm, that the only prophetical and apostolical 
Scripture is to be esteemed as the lively voice of God ; we avouch 
it, I say, that this prophetical and apostolical Scripture only serveth 
us instead of that Scripture Avhich was written by God's own finger. 
"We add, also, that the sacred Scripture is unto us a book of revela- 
tion of those divine mysteries which were hidden in God's own 
breast from eternity ; for this is the very will of God, that we attend 
on him speaking in the Scripture as it were in his own lively voice. 
They have (saith he) Moses and the Prophets, (Luke xvi. ver. 29 ;) 
that is, the books of Moses and the Prophets. And God will [not] 
have this Scripture in no less account than that Scripture which he 
wrote in times past with his own finger in tables of stone. The 
voice of the Church — I mean the true Church, not the lying 

"^ Incorrect, The last clause should be : Which is a cortaiii secoiularv writ- 
i))g, and a certain secondary voice. 

god's effectual calling. 75 

])apistical synagogue — is but as the voice of the handmaid or as the 
voice of a crier, which is to publish and to proclaim that voice of 
God, full of excellency, speaking in the Scripture. But the Scrip- 
tiue in the heart of the Church, that is, the maxims of God's 
truth written in the hearts of the faithful, they be nothing else but 
a certain secondary Scripture, taken out by the Holy Ghost out of 
that primary and most sacred Scripture, and engraven in the minds 
of men. For how much, think you, of that full measure of the 
})rophetical and apostolical Scripture is there taken forth and 
engraven in our minds ? I say, that if all men's hearts were bound 
together, yet all they could not comprehend all those things fully 
and perfectly, which be recorded in the prophetical and apostolical 
Scriptures. For the Catholic Church, so long as it is conversant 
on the earth, is not capable of all that light which shineth in the 
sacred Scriptures of the Apostles and the Prophets. Let their first 
principle be thus beaten down, and their corollary or second con- 
clusion, to wit, that the voice of the Church is most manifest both 
in itself and lanto us, will fall to the ground of its own accord ; and 
so both principles being shaken, their conclusion, which they infer, 
is of no strength to stand, but must fall away. 



AVe are now to proceed, and to make it manifest that the holy ^i^ty'^f^^he' 
Scripture is of greatest antiquity ; and this is the first propriety mostandeut. 
before ascribed to the Scripture. Here, first, we be to find out the 
divers acceptations of this word Scripture. This word Scripture may ^5'''/"^'^^**'\" 
be taken either for the matter only, and the very substance which ^'^"i'""^- 
is contained in the words and letters ; or not only for the matter 
and substance, but also for the very writing itself, or the form 

' Pro/?m'to5 is RoUock's word, /.e., peculiar cliaracteristic ; in which sense Hol- 
land use? Propriety, interchangeably, as will be seen, with Property. 


wherein that substance is expressed and set before us. Now, if by 
this word Scripture ye understand the very substance itself, it is 
without all controversy that the Scripture is most ancient, because 
it is the substance of those divine oracles which not only patriarchs 
and prophets have spoken, but also God himself uttered ; which 
things also were hidden in God's mind from eternity. But if ye 
understand by this word, not only the substance, but the very 
writing, and in this respect also, the Scripture may be said to be 
most ancient. For, as touching the prophetical and apostolical 
Scriptures, in respect also of the writing and manner of revealing 
of them, as we said often before, it is God's will that we so esteem 
them, not only as the lively voice of the Prophets and Apostles, 
nor only as the lively voice of God himself, or as a book written 
with his own hand, as the Decalogue was set down with his own 
finger in tables of stone, but also that we so accept them as the 
very mysteries, and, if I may so speak, as the very divine notions 
which were engraven in God's own mind from eternity. 

To clear this point a little. The verity kept secret in God's mind 
from eternity was in time manifested many ways, or in divers 
forms ; for it was revealed partly by the lively voice of God him- 
self, partly by the voice of the Patriarchs, Prophets and Apostles, 
to pass by Angels in silence, and partly also by the Scripture 
which was written by the Prophets and Apostles. The lively and 
immediate voice of God did cease long since ; neither have we that 

How to cs- copy which God himself wrote. The Patriarchs also, and the Pro- 
teem .if the ^"^ ,,,. 
written word phets, and the Apostles, have ceased to speak; tlic writmgs only 

of the Prophets and Apostles remain to this day. Wherefore this 

we hold as necessary unto faith, that we accept these writings or 

1. books, first, instead of the lively voice of the Prophets and Apostles. 
2. 3. Next, in place of the lively voice of God himself. Thirdly, of the 

4. Scripture written with God's own finger. Fourthly, and lastly, as 
that holy verity and divine mysteries which are recorded in God's 
own breast ; which oracles being simply, without comparison, of 
greatest antiquity, it is very manifest that the prophetical and 
apostolical Scripture is after a sort most ancient. For what may 

god's effectual calling. 77 

be avouched of the lively voice of God himself, or of the oracles of 
his mind, the same in some respect may be said of the Scripture 
supplying unto us their defect. For if I may truly say, in some sort Substance of 
the Scripture is the lively voice of God himself, do I not as truly simply most 
speak also in like manner, the Scripture is most ancient, forasmuch 
as the voice of God is most ancient ? But it shall suffice us to com- 
mend the antiquity of Scripture, to consider the substance only of 
the Scripture, Avhich, without all controversy, is most ancient. But 
the very Scripture and writing itself hath liis excellency also, for 
that the Scripture, in respect of the very writing, is said to be given 
us also by divine inspiration. For there is not a jot or prick in thescripturaest 
very writing which is not by the inspiration of God. io'rryiva- 

Here the adversaries take exception, and, as elsewhere often, so 
here they prefer their Church before the Scripture, and they affirm 
the Church is more ancient than the Scripture. For they say there a Popish ob- 
was a Church two thousand full years before Moses, the first writer 
of the Scripture ; and, since Christ's coming, the Church for many 
years wanted the Scriptures. But that which hath been already 
written, and is aforesaid, can easily solve this objection. For if we 
understand by this word Scripture, not only the characters and 
books, but also that substance and matter contained in them, for 
we have the Prophets and Apostles speaking in the Scriptures, and 
we have their lively voice, we have, I say, the lively voice of God 
himself, and the very express mind of God contained in them ; — if, 
I say, we understand by this word that substance, it cannot then 
be denied but the Scripture is more ancient than the Church, 
which was horn not of mortal seed, but of immortal, even by the word 
of God, ivho liveth and endureth for ever. (1 Pet. i. 23.) I say, the 
premises well considered, it shall appear the Scripture is not only 
more ancient than the Church, but to be of greatest antiquity, and 
to have been with God from everlasting. But if by this word ye 
understand both the matter and writing, in this respect also it shall 
be no disparagement to avouch it to be of greater antiquity than 
the Church, yea, to be most ancient, as we have at large before 
showed. And thus far of the first property of the sacred Scripture, 
and of the third controversy. 




The second property of the sacred Scripture is opened suffi- 
ciently, in a manner, already, in the second controversy before handled . 
This property is this, that the Scripture is most clear in itself, and 
most easy to be understood : for, it being the very word of God, which 
word every man must necessarily grant to be in itself most clear, 
most manifest, and most perspicuous, whether you respect the 
words or the matter contained in the words, if men will not offer 
extreme injury to God's Holy Spirit, assuredly it must follow, I 
say, that the Holy Scripture is in itself and of itself, most clear 
and evident in every part and in every respect. Of this great per- 
spicuity of the Scripture, the Holy Ghost testifieth often. (Psalm 
cxix. 105,) The icord of the Lord is a lantern to my feet. (Psalm xlx. 9,) 
The -precept of the Lord (saith the Psalmist) is clear, and enlighteneth 
the eyes. (Prov. vi. 23,) The commandment is a lantern, and the law is a 
light. Tiie Lord by the Prophet Isaiah (chap. xlv. 19) saith, / 
have not spoken in secret: and, (2 Peter i. 19,) he saith. We have a 
most sure word of the prophets, to the ichich ye do ivell that ye take 
heed, as to a light thatshineth in a dark place. Wherefore the whole 
Scripture, and all places of the Scripture, are by themselves, and 
in themselves, most manifest, most clear, and applied also to the 
capacity of the vulgar sort, and of the most unlettered among the 
people. For it is cei-tain that the Lord in the Scriptures doth, as 
it were, lisp with us. (John iii. 12,) Lf I have spoken to you of 
earthly things, and you believe not; that is, I have spoken unto 
you after an earthly and plain manner, and I have applied myself 
to your capacity. 
All the seiip- I have avouched that the sacred Scripture is in itself clear and 

turu cluiir rr, . . . n i 1 il i • 

and easy to easv^ Truc it IS, II yc respect men as they are men, that is, 
believer. natural and carnal, the holy Scripture unto such is altogether 

god's effectual calling. ^ 7^ 

obscure and strange ; for the natural man doth not conceive the i Cor. u. 14. 
things ivhich appertain to the Spirit of God. But if ye consider the 
spiritual man and such as be taught of God, I grant to such it is 
partly obscure, because they be as yet in part carnal. And for this 
cause the godly put up continually supplications unto God, as 
feeling the reliques of their natural blindness and corruption, and 
making requests, that the eyes of their understanding might be 
opened, that they may behold the bright shining light of tlie 
Scriptures and of every place and portion of the Scripture, being 
otherwise most evident in itself. All the religious and godly in 
their prayers are so far from laying any imputation of hardness and 
obscurity on God's word, that they do ever accuse and condemn 
themselves and their own blindness and dulness. 

And, albeit this be true that all the Scripture and all places of^'oie. 
the Scripture be simply and in themselves most clear and easy, and 
only dark and hard by reason of our corruption and blindness, yet 
this cannot be denied, but that some places of Scripture be more 
clear in themselves than others, more easy and more evident — as 
those Scriptures concerning faith and manners, which be so neces- 
sary unto salvation. They be, I say, so clearly set down, so often 
repeated and in so many places expounded, that Ave need not many 
rules for interpretation or to find out the knowledge of them. But 
these places also require the grace of God's Holy Spirit ; for, 
without him, spiritual things, which be most perspicuous and evi- 
dent, cannot be understood of any man on earth. Wherefore he 
that is ignorant of the most elear Scriptures, which do so much con- 
cern his salvation, is altogether blind, and lieth as yet in the 
woeful state of perdition, for so the Apostle spcaketh. If that the 
gospel be hid, it is hidden to them tJmt are lost. (2 Cor. iv. 3, 4.) 

As for other Scriptures which are more hard in appearance, for 
that they do not so much concern the necessary articles of faith, 
and rules of life and conversation, we may be ignorant of them 
without danger of faith and salvation ; albeit the knowledge of such 
places might bring some light for the better understanding of the Sow to in- 

ci- 1'ip • 11 •/>'iT terpret and 

Scriptures, which 01 necessit}'- must be known concerning faith and expound 

' ' •' . , *= haid Scrip. 

manners. And we may attain some tolerable interpretation of*"'^*- 


these Scriptures, analogical unto faith, if we observe those rules of 
knowledge and interpretation which are commonly recommended 
by the learned, ever making God's Holy Spirit our first and princi- 
Ruies. pal guide for our inward illumination and insti'uction. The rules 
which follow this are but the means which the Holy Ghost useth, 
and they are borrowed partly out of the Holy Scripture, as by con- 
1. 2. feren-ce of places of the Scripture, either the very same, or the like 
3. in sense and phrase ; partly from elsewhere, as of the common-places 
4. 5. of divinity, of the testimony of the Church, of the grammar itself, 
c. especially the Hebrew and Greek ; and good rules and helps are 
had from rhetoric and logic, which teacheth us to consider not only 
of simple arguments set apart, but also of the disposition and con- 
nection of arguments, bound and knit together in axioms or pro- 
positions, in syllogism and method. For logic teacheth us the 
coherence of antecedents and consequents, which serveth not a 
little for the unfolding and opening of hard places. And to pass 
7. over other things, some little insight in ethics and physics, &c., 
may give some help hereunto. But, above all things, we must 
remember to put up unto God continual and fervent prayers, to 
open and to enlighten our minds by his Holy Spirit. If men 
observe these means for the interpretation and understanding of 
the Scriptures, and hard places of the Scripture, we shall not lightly 
err from the truth of God. 
The drift of Hcrc fumc tlic advcrsarics, and endeavour to prove by many 
afflrming the arguments, that the Scriptures in themselves and of themselves are 

Scriptures to ° . 

be obscure, obscurc, cvcu in those places which are necessary, and appertani 
to salvation, to this end and purpose, forsooth, to withdraw men's 
minds from reading the Scriptures, that they may attend and trust 
to their dreams, and that they may obtrude their glosses on the 
Church, even what please them, and what for the most part they 
prefer before the text itself; writhing, as it were, and drawing 
rather the text of Scripture to be their gloss, than giving any light 
of interpretation by or from the text itself.' And here they contend 

I Obscure. It should be : Eather distorting the text of tlie Scriptures to 
agree with their gloss, than drawing the interpretation from the text of the Scrip- 

god's effectual calling. 81 

against us with testimony, first, of the Scriptures themselves ; next, 
of the doctors and fathers of the Church ; and, histly, with argu- 
ments of their own ; all which may easily be answered, if w^e ob- 
serve well the grounds before set down. It shall suffice us now to 
hear only one or two of their arguments refuted. 

They demand, whether for these Scriptures now extant of the 
Old and New Testament, we have no need of commentaries, which 
are now in the world very many, written by many men ? I answer. 
That the divine Scriptures of themselves have no need of the com- 
ments and interpretations of men ; for the Scriptures we account 
them to be the lively voice of God himself: and what is there that 
can make this voice more clear and evident in itself? Can either 
man or angel speak any thing more clearly than God himself? or 
doth God purposely affect obscurity ? both which to avouch is 
very blasphemous. As for the commentaries or expositions of thecommen- 
godly learned, which have spent some good time in the Scriptures 
of God, we grant they help the ignorant and the common sort 
very much, and that they serve well to dispel the clouds of our 
natural corruption. 

But this may seem a greater question and more doubtful, touch- 
ing the preaching of God's word, and the expounding of the Scrip- 
tures, by pastors and preachers in the public assemblies : whether 
preaching be not necessary — I mean the lively preaching of pastors 
and teachers ? I answer, The Scriptures of God, which we account 
as the lively voice of God, have no need of this means in them- 
selves ; I say, that God and his word in themselves need neither 
this preaching nor interpretation of the Scriptures ; but the neces- 
sity of the ministry and of preaching is only in respect of us, and 
of our blindness and ignorance, which be but as children, yea, as in- 
fants in a manner, all the days we live on earth, Eph. iv. 20 ; 1 Cor. 
xiii. 11. And when, as we shall become men in the world to come, 
then shall we have need of no such ministry : for we shall rest con- The state of 

the elect in 

tented, being filled with that only light of God and of Christ, ^'^^*^^'^- 
without any further instruction of men and angels. And thus far of 
the second property of the Scripture, and of the fourth controversy. 
VOL. I. F 




The third property of the sacred Scripture is this : It is most 
simpiicis- plain and pure, whether ye respect words or phrase ; neither hath 
it any ambiguity or doubtfulness in it. This property differs from 
the former herein, for whereas perspicuity extends itself, and con- 
cerns words and matter ; this simphcity or plainness, as I may so 
speak, is of Avords only. This we avouch, then, that the sacred 
Scripture is of itself most single and plain, void of all ambiguity 
circcmiocu- and amphibology, or that it containeth nothing doubtful in one 
speech. place Nvhich is not expressed in another, if there be any obscurity 
in it. For the word of the Lord and his Spirit be ever single and 
sincere ; neither doth God at any time speak to catch men with 
ambiguous and doubtful speeches, as do devils and sophisters ; but 
to teach men his holy truth. For the Spirit of truth leadeth us into 
all truth, John xvi. 13. And the Scripture is given of God by 
inspiration, and is the very word of God, as is before showed. 
Wherefore, if we will not offer God extreme injury, we must neces- 
if the Scrip- sarily grant that the Scripture in itself is most plain and simple in 

tures seem jo i j. j- 

d?lmi"ihine"' sGnse and signification. I say, the Scripture in itself is plain, as 
coiTupaon.'^ touching the sense : for if there be any ambiguity in any words of 
Scripture, that diversity or darkness may not be imputed to the 
Scripture, but to tlie bhndness or ignorance of men, even of such 
also, which do not of any evil purpose of heart pervert the Scrip- 
ture. For there be many which impiously wrest the same to the 
one side and the other, when as they know right well, notwithstand- 
ing, the sense of the same Scripture is only one, plain and evident. 
To approve this plainness and simplicity of the Scriptures, first the 
Son of God himself, in his disputations against Satan and all his 
adversaries, borroweth hence his weapons, by his own example 

god's effectual calling. 83 

recommending the sacred Scriptures to all men. Next after hlra 
the Apostles and their successors, and the Fathers themselves have 
drawn their arguments from the sacred Scriptures against heretics, 
both for confirmation of truth and confutation of error. 

The adversaries here contend against this property of the sacred 
Scripture, and they hold that that is doubtful, ambiguous, and 
blasphemously report that it hath a nose of wax, and may be turned ^'"t^instar. 
here and there : For which cause they affirm it is the book of 
heretics, and that of it spring heresies, and that all men seek to 
maintain their errors by it. But these blasphemies are easily 
answered by that which is before showed. For this ambiguity and 
flexibleness is not to be imputed to the Scripture, which is given 
of God by divine inspiration, and serveth us instead of God's own 
voice ; but must be ascribed either to the ignorance or malice, or 
malapertness of men, who either cannot apprehend the simple and 
true sense of Scripture, or maliciously pervert and turn the same 
into a strange sense. 

Here they object, that the Scripture is full of tropes, allegories, Ob. 
parables, words of divers significations, amphibological sentences, 
visions, all which have their ambiguity. I answer, That this matter a. 
may the better be cleared, we are to look a little more soundly into 
it. The ambiguity which is contrary unto simplicity, being in the 
words and not in the matter — for the words are ambiguous, and 
not the matter — let us reduce all ambiguity which is in the words 
into five principal heads. For, first, there be simple or common rive pnnci- 

, . . pal heads 

words of divers acceptations : secondly, there be tropical or figu- 
rative words : thirdly, there be whole speeches or sentences which 
carry a doubtful signification : fourthly, there be allegorical 
speeches consisting of the continuation of tropes : fifthly, there be 
also typical words and sentences, concerning types and figures. 

Of all these, this I say generally, that in all such places the 
Holy Ghost hath but one only simple sense and meaning. For as 
touching words of divers significations, if any such words be found 
in Scripture in the originals, Hebrew and Greek, (as that cannot be 
otherwise, but there must be such in the ►Scriptures,) first, I say, 


that such words have but one signification only in sucli places, and 

that the Holy Ghost purposeth and iutendeth but one thing by 

them. For the Holy Ghost desireth not to use any fallacion or 

Howtoun- sophistication. Next, I answer, That we may deprehend that one 

doubtful siy-nification, and that one plam meanmg oi the word, we desn-e 

■\vovd, phrase, o ^ x o 

rnScrlTilr^e ^° ^"^^' either by the drift of the Holy Ghost in that place or text, 
■where any such word is, or by conference of other places of Scrip- 
ture where the like word is to be found ; or by other Scriptures, 
expressing the same sense and matter in other words ; or by obser- 
vation of grammatical accidence, accents, points, or pricks, and 
such like. And where we find tropes and w^ords borrowed and 
drawn from their proper and native signification in any text of 
Scripture, I say that these such words are used by the Holy 
Ghost purposely, to express in a more significant and lively manner 
but one sense and meaning. As where it is said, " This is my body," 
by the metonymy, which is the word " body," the Spirit speaketh 
more significantly than if lie had said, " This is a sign of my body :" 
for by that metonymical phrase, the Holy Ghost plainly avoucheth 
the sacramental union which is of the sign and of the thing signi- 
fied. Next, I say, if the trope seem somewhat obscure and strange, 
that ye may find the signification of the same trope by a word of 
proper signification, either in the same Scripture, or in some other 
Scripture where the like trope may be found. 

A sentence If JO meet in Scripture with a sentence seeming ambiguous, first 

in Scripture 

seeminK am- jjg well assured that God's Spirit doth not purposely speak doubt- 

biguous. I X ^ L 

fully, as sophisters do, but hath ever one single and plain meaning ; 
but men do both give and receive an evil construction of the con- 
text, either ignorantly or maliciously. Next, I say, that other 
places of Scripture do more clearly set forth the self-same matter. 
Finally, if you find allegories in Scripture, of them this I aflSrm, 
that first they serve for illustration : next, that they have but one 
slo-nification or sense; and the same is either manifest, and needeth 
no further exposition ; or if it be obscure, it is more clearly 
A typicii expressed somewhere else in the Scripture. And as for Scripture 
scriptiut. concerning types, I say of ihem also, first, that they have but one 

god's effectual calling, 85 

signification, and signify types only, and not also the matter signi- 
fied by them : next, that one very sense of the types is applied to 
signify another thing, that is, the body itself; for the types them- 
selves caxrj in them the significations of the things signified, and 
shadowed by the types, and not the words themselves which are 
used to set forth the types. For in that history recorded. Gal. iv., 
this name Sarah signifieth Abraham's wife, that is, the type only : 
next, the type signifieth the covenant, that is, the thing shadowed, 
figured, and signified by the type. And thus far of the third pro- 
perty and fifth controversy. 



This we say also concerning the sacred Scripture, that it is 
most eflfectual, most lively, and most vocal, sounding to every man 
an answer of all things necessary unto salvation. The life, which 
here I understand is not any fleshly or carnal life, as the life of 
man, but that spiritual life, as the life of God : and by a lively 
voice I mean a spiritual voice, speaking not so much to the ear as 
to the mind of man. For, first, if ye respect the substance of this 
divine revelation, this, which I avouch, is without all controversy. 
For the Scripture contains in it the word of God, xchick is lively 
and powerful, &c., (Heb. iv. 12.) Next, in the form of the revela- 
tion thereof, that is, the very writing of God, this is evident 
in like manner. For it was given and Avritten by divine inspiration ; 
and whatsoever is of this kind must necessarily be in itself both 
lively and spiritual. Again, this Scripture is unto us, if not the 
lively voice of God, yet certainly instead thereof. For we have 
none other lively voice of God but this : for, as for the voice of 
the Church, pastors and teachers in the Church, the same may 
err; neither may it pi'operly be called the voice of God. The 


voice of God we must avouch of it, that it is a lively voice : Ergo, 
&c. Thirdly, the very Scripture speaks of itself as having a lively 
voice, as we may read, Rom. ix. 17, The Scripture saith, &c. Again, 
Isaiah's Scripture is said to cry concerning Israel, (Rom. ix. 27.) 
Fourthly, so many as propound questions of any matter necessary 
to salvation, be sent to it : Isa. viii. 19, 20, Should not a people inquire 
at their God : from the living to the dead? Turn rather to the law 
and to the testimony : If they speak not according to this icord, there is 
no morning light in them. Again, the Son of God himself, so often 
as any propounded questions unto him of the law, of divorcement, 
of the Sabbath, of the Messiah, of regeneration, and of the resurrec- 
tion, or how to attain eternal life, he always gave them answer out 
of the sacred Scripture, and ever he sends such as move any such 
doubts unto the Scripture. " How readest thou?" saith he: and 
" Have ye not read ? Have ye never read ? How is it written ?" 

Again, the Apostles of Christ, for all their assertions, bring proofs 
and testimonies out of the Old Testament. Apollos was a man mighty 
in Scriptures. He strongly confuted publicly the Jews with great vehe- 
mency, showing by the Scriptures that Jesus was that Christ, (Acts 
xviii. 24, 28.) The men o^^Qve^i received the word ivith all readiness, 
and searched the Scriptures daily, tchether these things icere so, (Acts 
xvii. 11.) Thus the primitive Church and the Fathers refuted 
heresies by the Scriptures. To conclude this point, most memor- 
able is that worthy fact of Constantinus the Great, who, pro- 
pounding the Bible to the Fathers, assembled in the Nicene Coun- 
cil, spake on this manner : — " Here I set before you the writings 
Evangelical, of the Apostles, and the sanctions of the ancient Pro- 
phets, Avhich can inform us concerning the sacred law of God. 
To beat back, therefore, the dint of the sword of the adversary, let 
us learn how to answer all objections of the adversary, out of the 
words which arc given us of God by divine inspiration." Lastlv, 
this I have said, that the Scripture is in itself lively and vocal ; for, 
as concerning deaf and dead men, that is, the natural never taught 
of God, unto such, I say, it is but as dead and mute. 

Here the adversaries blaspheme and reply, saying, that the 

god's effectual calling. 87 

sacred Scripture is but as a dead letter, mute, and not able to give 
answer to any man, not able to decide questions and controversies 
in religion : and, contrarily, they glory that the voice of the Church, 
which proceeds from the Scripture, (as they speak,) which is en- 
graven by God's own Spirit in the hearts of men ; they boast, I say, 
that this is vocal, and able to answer the demanders of all questions 
appertaining to salvation, and that this cannot be wrested nor per- 
verted, but ever abides the same in all respects. The answer 
to this calumniation and blasphemy is clear, of that which is before 
showed ; for we made it clear and manifest, that the sacred Scrip- 
ture is most lively and vocal in itself. And v/hereas controversies 
are not so soon decided by the Scriptures, the cause is not in God's 
word, but in men, which be either so naturally blind and dull, that 
they cannot hear and understand the Scripture, speaking and an- 
swering, yea, crying in their ears : or they be so malicious and obsti- 
nate, that they will not hear and understand ; yea, that they will 
full often, against their own conscience, wrest the voice of the 
Scripture into another sense, and that to their own perdition, i Pet. iii.i6. 
Wherefore we conclude this point, that the Scripture is in itself, 
and by itself, most lively and vocal. 

And, further, we be to remember, that to the end it may speak 
as a lively voice unto us, and to the end we may understand it 
concerning all controversies in religion, we must use the means 
before mentioned, and our very grammar is one special instrument 
for this purpose. For our eyes and ears are opened by such means Jieanstobe 
to understand the Scripture, and to attend unto God's voice, un'i^istaud- 

. . 'ing-ofthe 

speaking in the Scripture, if it shall seem good to the Holy Ghost ^'^^"i''^^"^- 
to work effectually by them in our hearts and minds. If so be 
that the Spirit work effectually by the aforesaid means, then the 
Scripture shall answer to all controversies concerning faith and 
religion, with a more clear, lively, intelligible, and distinct voice, 
than all the men in the whole Church shall answer, who can avouch 
nothing sound and certain, unless, first, they have received it from 
the mouth of the Scripture, and answer in the very words of the 
Scripture. For whereas these men say, the voice of the Church 


is lively and vocal, heard of all men, and cannot be perverted and 
Avrested : to this I answer, first, That the voice of the Church (as 
is aforesaid) doth depend on the voice of the Scripture. Next, 
that the voice of the Church is subject to errors and change, so 
that they may this day answer one thing, and to-morrow another ; 
and this serves no better, in a manner, than a Lesbian rule to 
decide controversies concerning faith and religion. As for the 
Church of Rome, they have so long and so corruptly answered 
concerning faith and religion, that they have carried the world 
from the truth to lies, and errors, and infinite heresies ; that there 
is now no cause wherefore these men may so put forth to sale, the 
voice and sound of their Church, which is become so corrupt and 




Now it resteth that we prove that the sacred Scripture Is simply 
most necessary. Here, then, I say, that if by Scripture ye under- 
stand the substance and the very matter contained in the words 
Fifth pro- written, it cannot be denied that the Scripture is so necessary that 
nire^'s most without it thcrc can be no Church in earth, for the Church is born 
and bred, not of mortal, but oj wimortal seed, ivliich is the icord of 
God, 1 Pet. i. 23. But if ye understand by the Scripture the 
very writing and form of revelation, I say, that in this respect also 
it is so necessary, that without this there cannot be a Church. 
For the lively voice of God is simply necessary. The Scripture, 
after a sort,, is the lively voice of God : Therefore, simply neces- 

I grant it, that when as the lively voice of God did sound, and 
was heard in the Church, this writing, and this form of revelation, 

god's effectual calling. 89 

•was not then so necessary ; but when as God did cease to speak, 
and that the Scripture came in place of God's own voice, then the 
Scripture was no less necessary than the lively voice of God. For 
the voice of God must ever be in the Church, that the Church 
may have her being, and may continue on the earth ; yea, this 
voice must be heard by the Church, either by itself or by that 
which may best supply the want of the lively voice of God. Before 
Moses' time this voice itself was heard. After his time this voice 
sounded and spake in and by the voice and writings of Moses and 
the Prophets. When Christ has come, his own lively voice Avas 
heard. After Christ's ascension, for a time the preaching of the 2 Cor. v. ^19. 
Apostles, and the books of the Old Testament, were received for 
the lively voice of God himself, and of his Son Jesus Christ. Then 
followed the Apostolical Scripture, which, together with the Holy 
Scripture of the Old Testament, continue in the Church, to supply 
not only the lively voice of the Apostles, but also of God, and of 
Christ himself. By the premises it is evident, that it is simply 
necessary at all times that the lively voice of God sound ever in 
the Church of God, either by itself or by this supply, which we 
now avouch to be only the sacred Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testament. AVherefore, we plainly conclude, the Scripture is 
most necessary. 

The adversaries oppose themselves against this assertion, as 
against the former, and they deny that the Scripture is simply 
necessary : it is necessary, (say they,) that is, it is profitable or 
commodious for the well-being of a Church ; but it is not so neces- 
sary for the being, nor no such thing, as without which the Church 
can have no being. And for this cause do these men deny the 
necessity of the Scripture, that they may open the door to their 
authority and traditions, that is, to their own dreams, which they 
say be simply necessary, and prefer them before the Scripture. 
They are easily answered by the rules before set down. For if by 
Scripture they understand the substance of the Scripture, it can- 
not be denied that the Scripture is simply necessary. But if they 
understand not the substance only, but also the very Avriting, in 


this respect also, we have showed it by clear tlemonstration that 
the Scripture is simply necessary ; for that it is unto us in place 
of the lively voice of God himself. Wherefore, their assertion is 
false, howsoever they take this woi'd Scripture either in this sense 
or the other. 

But tliey say, the Church wanted the Scripture near two thou- 
sand years, all which time religion was preserved by tradition only. 
Therefore, the Scripture is not simply necessary. I answer, If you 
understand by Scripture the very substance of the Covenant, then 
your argument followeth not : for the substance of the Scripture 
was in those very traditions, whereby the Church was edified and 
kept. But if by this word ye understand the very writing, then I 
grant the Scripture was not extant so many years ; and I say, that 
it was not then necessary, for that then the lively voice of God 
itself was heard. If they conclude that because it was not then 
necessary, therefore it is not now necessary, or that it was not 
necessary, after that God had commanded it, and after that it 
began to be extant ; surely the consequence is very evil : for as 
ages and times have changed, so divers forms of revelation were 

Or we may more hriejiy set down this Controversy in this form. 
The Scripture is necessary not only for the well-being (as Popish 
schoolmen speak) but also for the being of the Chm-ch : Et hactenus 
Ti.e word ^st simplex necessitas. And this necessity is in respect of time only : 
necLsao"m for thcrc was not a necessity of the Scripture in all ages. I under- 
Heb.'i. i,2. stand by the word Scripture, not only the substance of the written 
word, but also the manner or form of revelation ; but this simple 
necessitv must be avouched of the substance and form of revela- 
tion in divers respects. For the Scripture, as touching the sub- 
stance of it, was necessar)^ to the Church in all ages, but in respect 
of the manner of revealing the same, it was necessary for a certain 
time only, to wit, until it seemed good unto Almighty God to 
teach his Church by the Scripture. Arg. 1. For the Lord God 
had not given his Church the Scripture, if he had not thought it 

god's effectual calling. 01 

necessary even for the being of his Church. Arg. 2. The lively 
voice of God was necessary in the time appointed for it : Ergo, the 
Scripture also is necessary in the time the Lord hath decreed for 
it : for there is but one and the same reason of both. Aeg. 3. It 
is necessary that God's will be revealed and communicated to the 
Church at all times, in one form or other, either by God's own 
lively voice, or by writing, or by both ; but now the lively voice 
of God hath ceased : therefore now the word written is necessary. 
The adversaries deny this absolute necessity, moved hereunto 
with these arguments following : — First, From Adam to Moses 
there was no Scripture : Ergo. I answer. The Lord God thought it 
not necessary for all that time. But when as the Lord himself 
began to write, and that the holy men of God were acted ardj^^f-' i^- 
moved by the Holy Ghost, first Prophets, then Apostles ; then tlie 
Scripture began to be necessary, and even simply necessary. 
Akg. 2. From Moses unto Christ, Job and his friends both 
believed and were saved without the Scripture. I answer, It is 
most like these also read the Scriptures, as may appear by the 
eunuch's story. Acts viii. Xext, I answer. That so many as were 
called without the visible Church, God dealt with them in an 
extraordinary manner. Akg. 3. They did more attend the tradi- 
tions of the Fatliers than the written word, even in the second a£:e. 
I answer. This is false. Aeg. 4. In the third age there was no 
Scripture of the New Testament extant for a long season : Ergo. I 
answer. The Apostolical Scripture began not long after Christ. 
Next, all that time I grant it was not necessary ; but when the 
Apostles were dead, and when their lively voice ceased, then began 
it to be necessarv. 





The Scripture is perfect, containing in it all tilings necessary 
for faith and manners, not only sufficiently, but also abundantly : 
for this is the perfection which here we do avouch. The sense, 
then, of the proposition is this : This kind of revelation contains all 
things, &c. The proof is this. Argument 1. The lively voice 
of God contained all articles or instructions concerning faith or 
manners : Ergo, So doth the Scripture. The reason of the argu- 
ment is evident; for that nothing in respect of substance was 
spoken by that lively voice Avhich is not recorded in the Scripture. 
Arg. 2. If the Scripture contained not all things necessary per- 
fectly, then evil were the condition of our Church, and of our 
time, M'hich heareth not the lively voice of any man speaking by 
divine inspiration, nor of any prophet or apostle. Arg. 3. The 
religious, and such as be taught of God, have a holy experience of 
the sufficiency of the Scriptures, and of the fulness of it. Add to 
these arguments these divine testimonies : Deut. iv. 2, Ye sJiall not 
add to the word that I speak, 8fc. Rev. xxii. 18, If any man shall add 
to these things, God shall add unto him the plagues which are icritten 
in this hook. Albeit these sayings are to be understood properly of 
particular books, yet the same reason serves for all books of the 
canonical Scripture ; and surely the reason binds more strongly : 
for if we may not add to particular books, how much less is it 
lawful to add to the whole canon ? Pro v. xxx. 6, Thou shalt add 
nothing to his words. This seems to be understood of the whole 
Scripture : Matt, xxviii. 20, Teaching to observe all things n-hirh I 
commanded gou ; Gal. i. 8, If we, or an angel from heaven, shall preach 
tinto gou another gospel, or otherwise than that which we have preached 
unto gou, let him be accursed ; John xx. 31, These things arc icritten 
that ge may believe, ^x. 


god's effectual calling. 93 

And as for the judgment of the adversaries in this matter, which 
affirm that the Scripture is lame and maimed, chiefly note Bellar- 
min and his arguments for this purpose. They teach the Scrip- 
tures to be defective and weak, that we might give place to their 
traditions and forgeries. Wherefore, let us a little consider this 
matter of tradition. The word Tradition is general, and signifieth ofTradiuons. 
any doctrine written or unwritten ; and so this word is used in the 
sacred Scriptures, and in the ancient writers : albeit the Papists 
affirm that the Fathers use this word only to signify a doctrine not 
written. Testimonies of Scripture Avhich clear the general accep- 
tation of the word are these : Acts vi. 14, And shall change the ordi- Quos nobis 


nances which Moses gave us, or, which we had from Moses by tradition. '''1°^^'^ ■ ,^ 

n-il •• . . at TCOLflihu- 

2 Ihess. 11. 15, Keep the tradition or doctrine delivered unto you, ksu hi^rj. 
ichich ye were taught, either by word, or by our Epistle. xraditam 

f-pi 1 T • • o • • • 1 doctiiiiam. 

Ihe word tradition in Scripture is given other whiles to things y.galnrf 
necessary and continuing ; and sometimes to things not necessary I*''. '^*?*'' 
and temporary. The testimony which is 2 Thess. ii. 15, is of 
necessary doctrine. The place which is cited out of the Acts, 
xvi. 14, is of ceremonies : for here the Spirit speaketh of a decree 
of the council holden at Jerusalem, concerning blood, and things 
offered to idols, and that ichich is strangled: of which, Acts xv. 29. 
As touching traditions which concern necessary points of faith and 
manners, they were first delivered by the lively voice of Christ 
and his Apostles ; and then the short sum of them recorded in 
books, as may appear by that speech of the Apostle concerning 
the Lord's Supper, 1 Cor. xi. 23. And, again, 1 Thess. iv. 2, ^^.^^yyj. 
where he giveth rules of an honest conversation. And, ao-ain, '^'*'^' 
2 Thess. ii. 15. And as touching traditions which be not neces- 
sary, but ceremonial, they were either recorded, as of ecclesiastical, 
1 Cor. xi. 14, or not recorded, 1 Cor. xi. 34. Other things will I 
set in order when I come. He promiseth here to set in order butofccre- 
^premonies, and namely, such as did concern the Lord's Supper. Good Puie 
Of ceremonies only this I will say, they did no way exceed ; neither i. 
were they unprofitable ; neither were they delivered with any opi- ^ z 
nion of necessity to bind men's consciences ; neither were they 4. 


contrary to those things which were written. Yea, this I avouch, 
that there was nothing delivered by way of tradition, or touching 
ceremonies by the Apostles, which have not good ground and 
warrant in God's word, that is, in the books of the Prophets, 
and in the doctrine of Christ, which not long after was written by 
Popis'ihadi- the Evangelists and Apostles. And as for Popish traditions and 

tions ir.cl _ n ^ 

ceremonies, ccremonles, there is no end of them ; they are unprofitable, they 
are like old wives' fables ; all for the most part delivered with an 
opinion of necessity ; and most of them most repugnant to the 
apostolical doctrine. And thus do we distinguish traditions. 

The adversaries understand by Tradition their unwritten verity ; 
not that which is no where found written, but that which is not 
written by the first author thereof, that is, by him which delivered 
the same by his own lively voice. This, then, the Papists do here 
profess, that they cannot find their traditions in the Scriptures, nor 
prove them by the Scriptures. 



The sacred Scripture is the judge of all controversies : I mean 
such controversies as are concerning religion. Now there be two 
principal controversies concerning religion : the first is of the 
The Judge of Scripture itself, who shall be judge here, or how it may be tried, 
t'^i"- that the Scripture is the word of God. The second is of the sense 

and interpretation of the Scripture, who shall judge of that, or 
how it may appear that this or that is the very natural sense of 
the Scripture. I mean by judgment here a definitive sentence 
pronounced and given with such authority, as that all men mu||; 
therein rest. By the word Scripture, I mean not only the sub- 
stance thereof, but also the form of revelation, which is also by 
divine inspiration. Again, this manner of speaking is improper, 

god's effectual calling. 95 

when we say of the Scripture that it is the judge of controver- 
sies. For to speak properly, the Holy Ghost is the judge ; for the 
judge must be a person, and the Holy Ghost, he is the third person 
in Trinity. The Scripture, therefore, is not properly said to be a 
judge ; but it is the voice and sentence which the judge hath 
given, the principal instrument or mean whereby the Spirit sets 
forth his judgment, and Avhereby he teachetli us, and w^orketh 
faith in our hearts. And the Spirit here judgeth freely in and by 
whom he pleaseth, being not tied to any one kind of men, as pas- 
tors and doctors, but in and by Avhom it seemeth good to him. 
Here then three things must be considered of us. First, Whether FUst.Aviie- 

TT 1 /-(I 1 • 1 therthe Holy 

the Holy Ghost be a judge ? Secondly, Whether the Scripture be f^'^of .^^'^ ^ 
his principal voice, whereby he giveth sentence, or determineth 
any question? Thirdly, Whether he judge in and by any man 
without difference or respect of persons, or be bound to one certain 
kind or sort of men ? For the first question, I answer : The Holy 
Ghost is a judge ; First, for that he was promised of Christ unto his Joimxiv. le, 

, Matt, xxviii. 

Church, at his last departure from the Apostles, and is given, and, ^^^^^^^.j. ^^.; ^g 
as it were, deputed Christ's vicar on earth, both to teach and to 
judge, &c. Secondly, For that among other offices of the Holy Joim xvi. s. 
Ghost, this is one, to judge. But because the adversaries do not 
much gainsay this assertion concerning God's Spirit, that by him 
all things are to be judged and tried, and that by him the Scriptures 
are to be interpreted, therefore w€ Avill be brief on this point. 
Now for the second point: that the Holy Scripture is the primary seconcU)-, 

f, ...... . ThattheHoly 

voice of this ludge, ludiciary, and proper to him, wdierebv he besrets scripture is 
faith in our hearts, may appear by these reasons following. First, j'^°j|^e,°'""' 
The Scripture is the word of God. Secondly, It is most ancient. 
Thirdly, It is most clear or evident. To these I add the testi- 
mony of the Scripture itself. John xiv. 'i^, He shall teach you all 
things, and bring all things to remembrance which I have told yoM. Saggeict. 
And hereunto may be added the common experience of the saints. 
There are other means to prove this, but less principal, amono- 
which the testimony of the Church is one. The adversaries with- 
stand this conclusion, and infringe it with these arguments. First, 
The Scripture i^ not written m men's liearts with the fino-er of 


God, neither is it the primary voice of God. Secondly, The 
Scripture is of no antiquity. Thirdly, It is obscure. Fourthly, 
Ambiguous, &c. Bellarmiu adds more to these, of which ye may 
read in him. They conclude that the voice of the Church is the 
principal and proper voice of the Holy Ghost, as he is the judge of 
controversies. Their proof is this : The Scripture is written in the 
heart of the Church with God's own finger, and this is the primary 
voice of God. And whatsoever excellency we do ascribe to the 
Scripture, that they attribute to their own Church, which is 
nothing else but a den of thieves. 

And that the Spirit being this great judge, is not bound to one 
sort of men as those of the ecclesiastical function, the Pope and 
councils, (as they speak,) but doth perform this office without all 
respect of persons, in whom and by whom soever it seemeth good 
unto himself; this is manifest : First, For if the Holy Ghost be not 
the judge ^ both of the very context of the Scriptux'e, whether it 
be God's word, and of the interpretation of Scripture ; if he be 
not (I say) in man himself, assuredly there can be no faith. For 
the Spirit only begetteth faith in man's heart. Secondly, The 
Holy Ghost executeth his other offices freely in and by any man ; 
therefore, so may he this function of judging. For I demand, 
what else is to judge, but to enlighten, and to teach that the 
Scripture is given of God by inspiration, and that this is the 
natural sense of this Scripture ? Thirdly, The same we be taught 
by our experience : for we find it true by experience that he doth 
freely judge in and by whom it pleaseth him. Testimonies of 
Scripture prove also this assertion. 1 Cor. xil. 11, And all things 
worheth, even the self-same Spirit, distributing to every man severally 
as he will. And Isaiah liv. 13, All thy children shall be taught of God. 
Jer. xxxi. 33, / ivill icrite my laws in their hearts. The adversaries 
impugn this truth of God with some argument of their own, of which 
ye may read in Bellarmin. And these men bind the Holy Ghost 
to the Pope, and to councils confirmed by him ; which point our 
men impugn also, and refute with many arguments, of which this 

' Tiicorrect. It should be, For if tlie Holy Ghost, Jiidgiiijr both, S:c. 

god's effectual calling. 1)7 

is one : that of their conclusion, this must be the consequent, that 
the Pope and his Councils must be above the Scriptures, which 
thing is absurd to be granted. See more arguments of this sub- 
ject In their disputations. 



Lastly, "VYe avouch that the sacred Scripture Is of highest Tenth pro- 
authority, excellency, and dignity, on the earth. Here, again, by 
this word Scripture, we understand both the substance of It and 
the writing. And here we mean it hath such excellency as makes 
It most worthy of credit, and whereby also it gains authority and 
estimation to the Church. For which cause the Church is called 
the pillar and ground of truth, 1 Tim. iii. 15. And it hath many 
other titles, which are given to It often In the Scriptures. This is 
proved by the former demonstrations as these : — The Scripture Is 
the iDord of God; It Is most perspicuous ; It is most pure and simple, 
S^'c: Ergo. 

The adversaries vary in judgment touching this authority of 
Scripture. For some of them detract from this sovereign autho- 
rity of It, affirming that of itself it is not authentlcal, but takes 
authority and estimation from the Church. Of this mind are 
these : — Ecklus ^ in Enchiridio, Pighius ^ in his book De Hierarchia, 

' Eckius, John, Professor of Theology at Ingolstadt, a well known opponent 
of Luther. The work referred to is Enchiridion Controversiamm. He died iii 
1545, leaving several other works — (Pallavicino, Istoria del Concilia di Trento, 
lib. i. c. 6 ; Ladvocat's Dictionnaire Hist., ^-c.'Paris, 1760, s. v.) 

^ Pighius, Albert, was celebrated as a furious opponent of Luther and the 
early reformers. He died at Utrecht, where he had an ecclesiastical charge, in 
1542. The work referred to is entitled Assertio Hierarchim EcclesiasticcB. His 
doctrines are censured by the Roman Catholics themselves as too ultra- mon- 
tane — (Ladvocat, uti supra, s. v.) 

VOL. I. Q 


and one Hermannus,' an impudent Papist ; he with a bhick mouth 
avoucheth it, that the Scripture is of no more vahdity, without 
the testimony of the Church, than ^ICsop's Fables, &c. Others, 
more late writers and more subtile, say, that the Scripture hath 
authority in and by itself, and is authentical, but not to us, be- 
fore the Church approve it, and ascertain it to be so.^ Of this 
judgment be these : Bellarmin,^ Coclfeus,'* Canus,^ Stapleton,'' 

' Tliere are two writers of this name, tlie works of both of whom were piib- 
lislied before our author's time. Herraauuus Contractus, (the paralytic,) a Sua- 
bian, died A. D. 1054. He wrote a work called Chronicon de sex Mundi jEta- 
tibus, which has been repeatedly reprinted. — (Cave's Script. Eccles. Hist. Lit., 
p. 552, ed. Genev. 1720.) Hermannus de Petra, a Belgian, and a Carthusian 
monk. He died in 1428, having written fifty sermons on the Lord's Prayer; 
which have been printed. — (Cave, ibid. p. 73, A.) 

^ Si iuterdum Catholici aliqui dicunt, Scripturam peudere ab Ecclesia, sive 
a Concilio, non intelligunt quoad auctoritatem, et secundum se, sed quoad expli- 
catioucm, et quoad nos. — (Bellarmini Opera., vol. ii. p. 86, c. ed. Paris. 162i).) 
'^ If it is occasionally said by some Catholics, that the Scriptures depend on the 
Church or its Council, thej' do not mean Avith regard to their authority and in 
their owoi nature, but as to the exposition of their meaning, and as far as they 
affect us." 

3 Bellarmin was born at IMontepulciano in 1542. He was nephew to Pope 
Marcellus II., and entered the Order of the Jesuits in 1560. In 1599, after 
discharging various confidential oflices under the Pope, he was made Cardinal 
by Clement VIII., and Archbishop of Capua in 1601. He died at Rome in 
1621. He is the most able and plausible of the Roman Catholic controver- 
sialists. He wrote a Hebrew Grammar, a Commentary on the Psalms, a brief 
History De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis. But his principal work is one embracing 
all the points of discussion between the Reformers and the Roman Catholic 
Church. It is entitled, Dispidationum Roberti Bellarmini Politiani S. R. E. 
Cardinalis, de Controversiis ChristiancB fidei, adversus hujus temporis Hcsreticos. 
4 vols, folio. — (Bellarmin, uti supra; Moreri, Dictionnaire Ilistorique, s.v.) 

^ Cochleus, a native of Nuremberg, and actively engaged, both personally 
and by his writings, in controversies with Luther and his adherents. He was 
Canon of Brcslaw, and died there in 1552, aged seventy-three years. — (Lad- 
vocat, ibid. s. v.) 

^ Melchior Canus, a Spanish theologian, member of the Council of Trent, 
Professor of Divinity at Salamanca, and, ultimately, Provincial of Castille. 
He belonged to the Dominican Order, and died at Toledo in 1560. He wrote 
in Latin some theological works much esteemed by the Roman Catholics. 
— (Ladvocat, ibid. s. v. ; Pallavicino, Istoria del Concilio di Trento, lib. xii, 
c. 2.) 

6 Thomas Staplcton, an Englishman of high connections, who acquired adis- 

god's effectual calling. 99 

Canlslus/ &c. They which speak thus, that the written word of God 
is not authentical to us before the judgment of the Church be mani- 
fested, these men (I say) have this meaning, that we be not bound 
to believe that the Scriptures be authentical before the judgment 
of the Church be past of it, and that we sin not at all if we believe 
them not, before the definitive sentence of the Church. But we hold 
this to be false also, to say that the Scripture is not to us authen- 
tical without the authority of the Church : for it is the Holy 
Ghost that teacheth every man to know and believe that the Scrip- 
ture is authentical, and hath sovereign authority in itself. And 
this he teacheth, not by any external mean first, but by the very How the 

^ •/ ^ J . . Holy Ghost 

sacred Scripture, by which alone he properly breeds faith in our teacheth us 

■'•''•' I L J vr\\a.t autho- 

hearts to believe and apprehend this truth of God. And so wejgp-jpjj^g 
resting on this illumination of the Holy Ghost, teaching us by the^^'^' 
Scripture, that this is the excellency and authority of the Scrip- 
ture, do believe this to be so, albeit the whole world did oppose 
itself against us. And thus far of the more essential questions 
concerning Scripture. 



The first question is concerning the books of the Holy Scrip- 

tingnished reputation as a Roman Catholic controversialist. He was born at 
Henfield in Sussex, and was a canon of Chichester, The severity of the mea- 
sm-es taken by Queen Elizabeth against the Roman Catholics drove him abroad. 
He first taught at Douay, and, after the influence of Elizabeth had reached that 
seminary, he became Royal Professor of Divinity at Louvain, where he died in 
1598. His collected works were published at Paris in 4 vols, folio. — (Ladvocat, 
ibid. S.17.) 

1 Peter Canisius, a native of Ximegnen, provincial of the Jesuits, and a dis- 
tinguished member of the Council of Trent. He died in 1597, aged seventy- 
seven years. His principal work is entitled, Summa DoctrincB Christiance. — 
(Ladvocat, ibid. s. v. ; Pallavicino, ibid. lib. x. c. 2 ; lib. xx. c. 4, &c.) 


ture. These books are commonly called (for the excellency of 
them) The Bible. The Bible, as it is commonly received and car- 
ried in hands, contains in it two sorts of books. The first is of 
books Canonical, and the second is Apocryphal. Regular or 
canonical books, are such as give rule or direction touching faith 

First Canon, and manners. The books of Moses are the first Canon or prece- 
dent sent from God, which may not be judged or tried by any 
other external canon whatsoever. For there Avas no book extant 
before the books of Moses. The authority of the writer so holy, 
and the evidence of the Spirit so powerful, and the holiness of 
these books (to pass by other arguments) so great, hath gained 
these books tliis high estimation and authority in the Church. 

Second Xhe books of the Prophets make up the second Canon : which be 

Canon. '■ ^ 

adjudged canonical by that external canon of the INIosaical books, 
by which they were examined. Next they were, and are discerned 
of such as be taught of God inwardly by the Holy Ghost, by the 
great evidence of God's Spirit, which is manifested in them both 
Tiiird in words and matter. The third Canon are the apostolical books 

Cauun. ^ 

of the New Testament, which are adjudged and approved as 
canonical, partly by the canonical books of Moses, partly by the 
books of the Prophets, partly by the spiritual evidence they carry 
in themselves, which the sons of God, instructed by his Holy 
Spirit, can easily discern. The canonical books of the Bible are 
cither of the Old or of the New Testament. The canonical books 
of the Old Testament are these : — 

1. The five Books of Moses. 9. Nehemiah, one Book. 

2. Joshua, one Book. 10. Esther, one Book. 

3. The Book of Judges, one. 11. Job, one Book. 

4. Ruth, one Book. 12. Psalms. 

5. The Books of Samuel, two. 13. Proverbs. 

G. The Books of Kings, two. 14. Ecclesiastes. 

7. The Books of Chronicles, 15. The Book of Canticles. 

two. 16. Isaiah. 

8. Ezra, one Book. 17. Jeremiah. 

god's effectual calling. 


18. Ezekiel. 

19. Daniel. 

20. The Twelve Small Pro- 


1. The Gospel according to St 


2. The Gospel according to St 


3. The Gospel according to St 


4. The Gospel according to St 


5. The Acts of the Apostles. 

6. St Paul's Epistle to the 


7. St Paul's Epistles to the 

Corinthians, two. 

8. The Epistle to the Gala- 


9. The Epistle to the Ephe- 

10. The Epistle to the Philip- 

11. The Epistle to the Colos- 


12. The Epistles to the Thessa- 

lonians, two. 

13. The Epistles to Timothy, 


14. The Epistle to Titus. 

15. The Epistle to Philemon. 

16. The Epistle to the Hebrews. 

17. The Epistle of St James. 

18. The Epistles of St Peter, 


19. The Epistles of St John, 


20. The Epistle of St Jude. 

21. The Book of the Revelation 

of St John. 

And whereas some have doubted for a time of some of these 
books, as of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistle of St James, 
the last of St Peter, the second and third of St John, the Epistle 
of Jude, and the Apocalypse, yet they were never utterly rejected, 
but for a time only doubted of, whether they might be accepted as 

^ In the original, simply, Evangelium secundum Matthceum; and so in all 
the other names of the writers of the New Testament Scriptures. 



canonical. These canonical books of the Old Testament were 
written by holy men, as they were moved by the Holy Ghost, 
2 Pet. i. 21. And of these some are called the Prophets, which 
wrote the books of the Old Testament, so called, because they 
were governed by the spirit of prophecy ; some be called Apostles, 
so called because of their function, and these wrote the books of 
the New Testament. The books of the Old and New Testament 
some have their writers' names expressly set down, or noted by 
special characters or signs. Some have no names at all annexed, 
whereby the Holy Ghost would signify unto us that these men 
were but instruments only, and not the very authors of such 
books. Wherefore, we be not so much to respect their names, 
nor so busily to inquire after theni, if they be not expressed. Thus 
far of the canonical books. 

Now, as concerning the apocryphal books : they be so called 
because the Church would have them kept hid, and not to be read 
or taught publicly in the Churches ; the private reading of them 
was only^ permitted. The apocryphal are such as were found only 
annexed to the Old Testament, and they be eleven in number : — 


• Falsely so 

1. Judith. 

2. Tobit. 

3. Esdras, third and fourth 


4. The Wisdom of Solomon.* 

5. Ecclesiasticus 
G. Baruch. 

7. The Epistle of Jeremiah. 

8. Additions to Daniel.^ 

9. The Prayer of Manasses. 

10. The Two Books of Macca- 


11. The Supplement of Esther, 

from the third verse of 
the tenth chapter. 

Among these, some there are which the very adversaries account 
to be apocryphal. First, the Prayer of Manasses. Secondly, the 
third and fourth books of Esdras. Thirdly, the third and fourth 
books of Maccabees, whereof Athanasius raaketh mention in his 

• i. e. Only the private reading of them was permitted. 

2 This includes the Song of theThree Children, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon. 

god's effectual calling. 103 

Synopsis.' But we are to prove that all these before named be 
apocryphal. The first argument is from the writers : All the 
canonical books of the Old Testament were written by the pro- 
phets ; but these were not Avritten by the prophets. Therefore, 
they be not canonical but apocryphal. I prove the proposition. 
Luke xvi. 29, Tliey have Moses and the Prophets; tliat is, the books 
of Moses and the Prophets. Luke xxiv. 27, Of Christ it is written, 
that he began at Moses, and at all the Prophets, and interpreted 
unto them, in all the Scriptures, the things which were written of 
him. Therefore Moses and the Prophets were the writers of the 
Old Testament. To the Romans, (xvi. 20,) he calls the Scriptures 
of the Old Testament the Prophetical Scriptures. And, 2 Pet. i. ^^h^" 
19, The most sure word of the Prophets. And for the assumption — ^^Jj,^ 
" But these were not written by the Prophets" — I prove it: Malachi 
was the last of the Prophets ; and between Malachi and John the 
Baptist there arose no prophet. But these books were written 
after Malachi's time, and this cannot be denied of some, as of 
Ecclesiasticus, and the books of the Maccabees : Ergo. Second 
Arg. This is from the language wherein all the canonical Scrip- 
tures were written. They were written (I say) in the language of 
Canaan, in the Hebrew tongue, which was the speech of the pro- 
phets, Avherein they wrote their prophecies. But these books be 
not written in the Hebrew tongue, but all for the most part in 
Greek : Therefore our proposition or assertion is manifest. The 
assumption is evident, that I shall not need to cite either the tes- 
timony of the Fathers, or the adversaries' own confession. Arg. 3 
is from the testimony of the old Church of the Jews. If these 
books were canonical, the old Hebrews had heard somethino- of 

1 " By some it [this Synopsis] lias been reckoned genuine ; but, for the most 
part, it is supposed by learned men to be falsely ascribed to him," [Athanasius.] 
" After which Athanasius adds : — ' There are also divers other books, both of the 
Old and the New Testament, some conti-adicted, and some apocryphal. The 
contradicted books of the Old Testament, spoken of before, are the Wisdom of 
Solomon, the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach, and Esther, and Judith, and 

Tobit ; with which also are reckoned four books of the Maccabees, &c."' Lard- 

ner's Works, vol. iv. pp. 161, 163, ed. 1829. 


them ; but tliey never heard of them : Therefore they be not 
canonical. The proposition is clear : I prove the assumption. In 
Ezra's time, all the canonical books were gathered into one volume, 
and the Jews' care was such of them, that they numbered all the 
letters which were found in the prophets, and set down the sum of 
them. How much more would they have had care of these whole 
books if they had heard of them ? The fourth Arg. is from the 
testimony of the late Church of the Jews, which was in Christ's 
time. If these books were canonical, then the later Eabbins or 
Jewish writers would have accepted them ; but they did not 
receive them, but reject them : Therefore they be not canonical. 

1 prove the proposition : For out of all question, if they had not 
received the canonical books, Christ would have taxed them for it, 
for that he so reprehends them for their sinister and false represen- 
tations of the canonical Scriptures. The adversaries grant the 
assumption. The fifth Arg. is from the testimony of Christ and 
his Apostles. If these before-named books were canonical, then 
Christ and his Apostles would have cited them somewhere for con- 
firmation of their doctrines ; but that can never be found they did, 
no, not in all the New Testament : Therefore they be not canonical. 
The proposition is manifest : The matter itself will make sure the 
assumption. The sixth Arg. : These apocryphal books contain 
some things differing from the canonical Scriptures, some things 
contrary, some things false, some things fabulous, and some things 
impious : Therefore these books be not canonical. I prove the 
antecedent : Tobit iii. 8 ; and iii. 17 ; v. 12 ; and xi. 11. Judith 
viii. 6 ; and ix. 2 ; and ix. 10 ; and xvi. 7. Baruch vi. 3. The 
additions of Daniel, xiii. 1, [The History of Susanna ;] and xiv. 32, 
[Bel and the Dragon, verse 33.] The additions to Esther, 
XV. 1. [?] 2 Mace. ii. 1, 7, 8, 27 ; and xii. 43 ; and xiv. 37 ; and 
XV. 38. The seventh Arg. : These books contain contrarieties, 
and points repugning one another. Confer 1 Mace. vi. 8, with 

2 Mace. i. 16; and 2 Mace. ix. 5. Confer 1 Mace. ix. 3, and 
2 Mace. x. 1. [?] Confer 1 Mace. iv. 36, and 2 Mace. x. 1. Confer 


god's effectual calling. 105 

1 Mace. vl. 17, and 2 Mace. x. 11.' The eighth Aeg. is taken 
from a human testimony : first, of Councils ; secondly, of Fathers — 
the ancient first ; next, the later writers. The councils which give 
canons touching the canonical books, and the apocryphal, are 
these for the most part : The Laodicean Council, which was held in 
the year after Christ's incarnation 300 f the third Council of Car- 
thage in the year 400 f the Trullan in the year 600 ;"* the Florentine 
in the year 1150 f the Tridentine in our age.^ By these we may 

' The references are here given according to the authorised translation, our 
author having followed the version of Tremellius and Junius. Some of the 
passages seem to be incorrectly referred to, nor is it easy, in these cases, to 
recover the original allusion. It will be better, however, to give the references 
as in the original. " Tobit. 3. 8. et?,. 25. et 5. 15. et 11. 12. Judith. 8. 6. et 9. 2. 
et 9. 13. et 16. 8. Baruch. 6. 2. Adjectiones ad Daiiielem. 13. 1. et 14. 32. Adjec- 
tiones ad Hester. 15. 1. 2. Machab. 2. 1. et 7. 8. 27. et 12. 43. et 14. 37. et 15. 
39. Argumentum. 7. Hi continent ci(iviA,(puux et pugnantia inter se : Ergo. Pro- 
batur antecedens. Confer. 1. Machab. 6. 8. et 2. Machab. 1. 16. et 2. Machab. 
9. 5. Confer. 1. Machab. 9. 3. et 2. Machab. 10. 1. Confer. 1. Machab. 4. 36. et 
2. Machab. 10. 1. Confer. 1. Machab. 6. 17. et 2. Machab. 10. 11."— P. 117. 

^ For the proceedings of the Laodicean Council regarding the Canon — that 
Council omitting, for the Old Testament, the books of Baruch, Judith, Tobit, 
Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, the Maccabees, and, probably, Esdras ; and, for the 
New, the Revelation — see Lardner, vol. iv. p. 182, &c. He thinks that it met 
in A. D. 363 ; Cave, {ibid. p. 231,) A. D. 367. But the date is admittedly 

^ This is sometimes called the sixth Council of Carthage. It met A. D.397. 
(Cave, p. 235.) It included in the Canon five books of Solomon, Tobit, Judith, 
and the two books of the Maccabees. For this Council, so far as the Canon is 
concerned, see Lardner, vol. iv. p. 486, &c. 

4 There were two Constantiuopolitan Councils of this name, (Cave, ibid. p. 
399,) which is derived from the fact that the palace, or room in the palace, in 
which they met, was covered with a dome, (Trulla. — Moreri, s. v. TruUane.) 
The Council referred to by our author is the second of these, the seventh (Ecu- 
menical Council (called also the fourth) held at Constantinople inA. D. 691. 
It is also called the Concilium Quinisextum. (Cave, I. c.) There seems to have 
been nothing in its proceedings directly affecting the canonical books of Scripture. 

5 Held 1055. (Cave, p. 548.) Another, 1105. (Cave, p. 604.) Another, 
1439. (Bellarmin, vol. ii. p. 9, d.) There seems nothing in the acts of any of 
them touching the canonical books. 

6 On the 8th of April 1546, all who were present at the fourth session of the 
Council of Trent adopted the Canon of Augustine, and itwas declared, " He is also 
to be anathema^ who does not receive these entire books, with all their parts, as 


reason thus : The Laodicean Council (the most ancient here num- 
bered) rejects these books as apocryphal. See the fifty-ninth 
canon of that Council : Ergo. But the adversaries object here, 
that at this time, before the third Council of Carthage, the canon- 
ical books were not distinctly known. I answer, first, that this 
Council was not held till four hundred years after Christ ; but it 
is absurd to say that there was no canon known, or that the canon- 
ical books were not discerned till this time : Ergo. Secondly, I 
answer, that Council was not general, but provincial. But a pro- 
vincial Council may not prescribe any canon for the Catholic 
Church : Ergo. But, they say, this Council was confirmed by 
that of Trullan. I answer, that the Laodicean Council also was 
approved by this ; and that the Trullan Council is rejected by the 
Papists themselves in many things.^ 

Thus far of Councils : now for the ancient Fathers ; they also 
did reject these books as Apocryphal, Ergo. I prove this by an in- 
duction. 1. Athanasius in his Synopsis.^ 2. Cyril of Jerusalem.^ 
i5. Hilary, Bishop of Pictavia.* 4. Melito, Bishop of Sardinia.^ 

they have been accustomed to be read iu the Catholic Church, and are found in 
the ancient editions of the Latin Vulgate, as sacred and canonical, and who 
knowingly and wilfully despises the aforesaid traditions." — (Kitto's Cyclopedia, 
vol. i. p. 556.) The Canon of Augustine, here referred to, will be found in Lard- 
ner, vol. iv. p. 493, &c. It includes the Apocryphal books. For the interest- 
ing discussion on the canonical books, which took place in the Council of Trent, 
sec Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council, lib. ii. c. 43, &c. The Decree itself 
is prefixed to the editions of the Vulgate published since the Conncil of Trent. 
^ For the objections made by the Roman Catholics against this Council, 
which is placed iu the list of those partim confinnata, partim reprohata, see 
Bellarmin, vol. i. p. C60, c &c. ; and for its defence as a legitimate Council, 
sec Cave, ibid. p. 399. 

2 See before, page 103, note 1. 

3 Bishop A. D. 350. Our author's reference may be verified by turning to 
" Cat. iv. n. 33-30, ed. Bened., n. 20-22, edit. Milles,"— (Lardner's Works, vol. 
Iv. p. 172.) 

■1 Hilary of Poictiers flourished about A. D. 354. " Pro!, in libr. Psalm., 
p. 9, Paris, 1693.''— (Lardner's Works, vol. iv. p. 178.) 

5 This should be of Sardis. Original, Sardensis. Bishop A. D. 177. " Ap, 
Euseb. H. E., 1. iv. c. 36."— (Lardner's Works, vol. iv. p. 429.) 

god's effectual calling. 107 

5. Nazianzen in his poem.^ 6. Hierom in his Prologo Galeato, which 
is prefixed before the book of Kings.^ 7. Gregory the Great.^ 8. 
Joseph against Appion.* 9. Ruffin in the exposition of the Symbol 
Apostolical.^ 10. Augustine.^ The adversaries here except, saying, 
But these men have spoken of the canon of the Old Testament of 
the Hebrews (say they) and not of Christians. I answer, first, 
as if the Hebrews had one canon and the Christians another. 
Secondly, they did approve that very canon of the Hebrews. But 
it may be (say they) that then peradventure there was no canon 
known or determined of by the Church. I answer, and I demand 
then : When was this decreed ? and in what council ? was this done 
in the Council of Trent ? but this is too late, for this council was 
even in our age. Was it decreed in the Florentine Council ? that 
is but little elder. Was this canon agreed upon in the third Coun- 
cil of Carthage ? But that council, 1. was but provincial; 2. and 
this is rejected of the very Papists themselves in some things, as 
in the canon of the High Priest, which in number is the twenty- 
sixth.^ They will say, this council was confirmed by the Trullan 

1 Gregory Nazianzen flourished about the year 370. " Carm. 33, T. ii. p. 98." 
— (Lardner's Works, vol. iv. p. 286.) 

2 Should be Prologus Galeatus. St Jerome (Hieronymus) died A. D. 420. 
His Prologus Galeatus may be seen prefixed to most editions of the Vulgate. 

3 Pope Gregory I. of Rome A. D. 590. See Larduer's Works, vol. v. p. 126. 

4 Original, contra Appiotiem. Our author is not singular in this method of 
spelling the name, which, however, should be Apionem. (See Vossius, De Hist. 
Grcec. p. 234, ed. Westerman.) See the work of Josephus referred to, book 1. 
c. 8. 

5 Presbyter of Aquilia, flourished about A. D. 390. " Expositio in Symbol- 
lum Apostolorum, apud S. Cyprian. 0pp. in Append, ad S. Hieron. 0pp. T. v. 
p. 127-146."— (Larduer's Works, vol. iv. p. 483.) 

^ Bishop of Hippo Regius A. D. 395. " De Doctr. Christ. 1. i. i. cap. 8, n. 12, 
13, 14, torn. iii. P. i. Bened."— (Lardner's Works, vol. iv. p. 494, &q,.) His 
opinions were substantially as stated by our author, but he was not always 
consistent, or, at least, not guarded enough in his expressions. See p. 105, note 6. 

7 Our author seems here to have confounded the Trullan Council with that 
of Carthage. I can find no Roman Catholic authority objecting to the Council 
of Carthage. Nor was there any Canon there enacted de summo sacerdote. On 
the other hand, at the Trullan Council, the 36th (not the 26th, as stated by our 
author) Canon makes the Patriarch of Constantinople equal to the Pope. See 
Bellarmin, vol. i. p. 660, c. &c. ; Cave, p. 399, &c.; and Concil. in annis suis. 


Council. I answer, 1. So was the Laodicean. 2. So the canon 
was concluded or established later/ to wit, in the year of Christ 
400. 3. The Trullan Council is rejected in many things of the 
very Papists. 4. After the Trullan Council, there were Fathers 
which would not receive the Apocryphal books. And so now let 
us come to the second class of Fathers, that is, to the later writers. 
Here, then, I reason thus, — The late writers do not reckon these 
books among the canonical. Ergo. This I prove by an induction, 
Lib. de offl- Isidore,^ John Damascene,^ Nicephorus,^ Leontius,^ Eabanus jMau- 
rus,^ Radulphus,^ Lyranus,^ Carthusianus,^ Abulensis,^*^ Antoninus,^^ 
Hugo Cardinalis,'" Erasmus^^ in some of his writings. Cardinal 
Cajetanus.'^ All these were after the Trullan Council ; yea, some 

^ Should be, too late. Origiual, serius. 

2 Bishop of SeviUe A. D. 596. See Lardner, vol. v. p. 135, &c. The work 
referred to is, De Divinis sive Ecclesiasticis Officiis^ libris ii. 

^ John of Damascus, a monk and presbyter, flourished about A. D. 730. 
" De Fide Orthodoxa, 1. iv. c. 17, in torn. i. p. 282, B." — Lardner, vol. v. p. 14G. 

■• Patriarch of Constantinople in the beginning of the ninth century. See 
Lardner, vol. v. p. 86, &c. 

5 Leontius of Constantinople, according to Cave, (p. 352,) flourished A. D. 
590. See Lardner, vol. v. p. 141. 

6 Abbot of Fulda A. D. 822.— (Cave, p. 456.) 

7 There are various writers of this name. It is probable the reference is to 
lladulphus Ardens, chaplain to William fourth Duke of Aquitaine, A.D. 1101. — 
(Cave, p. 538.) 

8 Nicolaus de Lyra, (from Lire, in Normandy, his native place,) of the order 
of St Francis, flourished about A. D. 1320. — (Cave, p. 15, Appendix.) 

The reference is probably to Bruno, who founded the order of Carthusians, 
1086.— (Cave, p. 539.) 

10 I have been unable to trace this writer. 

11 Archbishop of Florence in 1446. He wrote, among other works, Summa 
Theologica, in four parts, and Summa Historica, in three. — (Moreri, s. v.') 

12 A French divine, born in Dauphine, of the Dominican Order, made Car- 
dinal by Pope Innocent IV. in 1245. He died in 1260, after having compiled 
the first Concordance, — that to the Vulgate. It was he also that first divided 
the Bible into chapters. — (Cave, p. 631; Moreri, s.v.; Home's Introduction, 
vol. ii. Part i. p. 70, Part u. p. 338.) 

1'^ The celebrated Desidcrius Erasmus, born 1467, died 1536. 

14 Thomas de Vio, surnamed Cajetanus from his birth place. He belonged to 
the Dominican Order, and was made Cardinal in 1517. His opposition to Luther 
has principally rendered him notorious. He died in 1534, having left several 
Commentaries on the Scriptures, as well as other writings, theological and philoso- 

god's effectual calling. 109 

of them were reputed for sons by the Church of Rome after the 
Florentine Council. 

By these testimonies, first, of Councils, next, of Fathers, it is 
evident that none of these books was accepted for canonical in any 
lawful judgment ; for if there had been any such matter, so many 
ancient and late writers would no doubt have so acknowledged. 
Wherefore these books are apocryphal, and so to be accounted. 

The adversaries for their defence allege also human testimonies, 
and this in a manner is all they can say. They cite the councils 
before named as the third of Carthage, the Trullan, Florentine, and 
the Council of Trent. But we reject the two latter as tyrannical, 
and congregate purposely to oppress the truth and light of God. 
And touching the Trullan and the third Council of Carthage, we 
have set down our judgment. And as for Fathers, they bring 
forth for this matter principally the popes themselves, as Pope In- 
nocentius,^ and Gelasius,^ and Augustine in some place.^ But I 
answer, that they cannot bring so many as we can, nor so ancient 
for themselves. Secondly, when these Fathers, which they name, 
call these books canonical which we reject as apocryphal, they take 

phical. — (Moreri, s. v. Vio.) Paolo Saii^i tells us, that in the disctissiou, on tlie 
Canon, which took place in the third session of the Council of Trent, in support 
of the opinion, that a distinction should be made between the books univer- 
sally acknowledged and the antilegomena ; " Louis of Catania, a Dominican, 
said that this distinction had been made by St Jerome, and that the Church 
had received it as a rule in the adjustment of the Canon ; and he quoted Car- 
dinal Cajetanus, who, following the example of Jerome, had made the same dis- 
tinction, and had given it as an infallible rule of the Church, in the letter which 
he addressed to Pope Clement YII., at the head of his Commentary on the His- 
torical Books of the Old Testament."— (Lib. ii. c. 47.) 

1 Pope Linocent I. succeeded Anastasius, A. D. 402. The reference here is 
to a letter from him to Exuperius, Bishop of Tholouse, where he includes in the 
Canon of the Old Testament live books of Solomon, Tobit, and two books of 
Maccabees. — (Cave, p. 242 ; Lardner, vol. iv. p. 586 ; Kitto's Ci/clopcedia, 
vol. i. p. 178.) 

2 There were two popes of this name. It is to Gelasius I. our author alludes. 
He succeeded Felix III , A. D. 492. — (Cave, p. 298.) For the decree ascribed 
to him, see Lardner, vol. v. p. 75. 

^ The passage referred to is that mentioned p. 107, note 6. For which, with 
some judicious remarks, see Lardner in the place there noticed. 


the name of canonical books more largely than we, to wit, for 
books which have some such sanctity, as in profane writers cannot 
be found ; and they call them so, not for that they mean that they 
are of like authority with the canonical books of Scripture. And 
we deny not but that in many of these such holiness may appear 
as cannot be found in the books of profane authors.' And thus 
far of the apocryphal books. 



Whereas there be extant many editions of the Bible in divers 
languages, as the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and other proper^ 
tongues, it is a question which of these must be reputed for au- 
thentical? I answer, the Hebrew edition of the Old, and the 
Greek of the New Testament, is authentical; and so must be 
accounted : so that all things are to be determined by these, and 
all other editions must be approved so far as they agree with these. 
We Vv'ill therefore first speak of the Hebrew edition of the Old Tes- 
tament. We avouch, then, that the Hebrew edition of the Old 
Testament is authentical. This proposition shall have his confirma- 
tion, after we have given a short preface touching the Hebrew 
tongue, and the writing of the Old Testament in that language, 
and the preservation of these books of the Old Testament, written 
in the Hebrew tongue to this day. 
Tiie Hebrew The Hebrew toncjue was the first and the only lanjruase on 

tongue only ^ . . ^ o a 

before the gjirth to thc flood, and to the building of the tower of Babel, Gen. 

llooa, Gen. ' o 7 

^'- ^' xi. 1-9, " Thc whole earth was of one language, and of one speech," 

Et verba or " bad thc same words." At the building of Babel began the 

erant ci'.dcm. ^ „ irri r 1 1 

confusion of languages, and irom the Hebrew, as Irom the mother 

1 " In other profane writings." Original, In alas scriptis profenis. 

2 Original, vernaculis. 



of all the rest, all other tongues had then* first beginning ; for all 

other lanscuaores are nothing: else in a manner but as dialects of the Tiie Hebrew 
o o o tongue mo- 

Hebrew tongue, of Avhich some resemble their mother more than Jj^^^"*^^" "^^ 

others, some be more estranged from her. In that confusion of 
tongues, the Hebrew was preserved as the womb or mother (as 
Jerome speaketh) of all the rest; this was preserved (I say) in iiebei'sfami- 
the family of Heber, who was the fourth from Noah, and lived "^S^ 
that very time that the tower of Babel was built, and when the 
confusion of languages began. The Hebrew tongue then was so 
called first of Heber, and from him it came to his posterity, not to 
all, but to them only of whom came Abraham ; and from him con- 
tinued to the very last of all the prophets ; for Haggai, Zacharias, 
and ]\Ialachi, wrote their prophecies in this very language. Thus 
far of the Hebrew tongue. 

The Old Testament was written first in this Hebrew and holy tiic oid Tes- 

tament wnt- 

tongue. The first writer was Moses ; the prophets followed him, t^'^^i" ^^- 
of whom some wrote before the captivity, some in the captivity, 
some after the captivity ; and they writ all in Hebrew, except 
Daniel and Ezra, which wrote some things in the Chaldee tongue. 
And this letteth not but that we may say, that all the Old Testa- 
ment Avas written in the Hebrew tongue, for that the Chaldee and 
Hebrew have no great diversity. 

Now to speak of the preservation of these books of the Old Tes- 
tament ; the books of Moses and the Prophets, that is, the Old 
Testament written in Hebrew, was kept by the admirable provi- 1 he admir- 

*■ ' ^ able Provi- 

dence of Almighty God unto this day. They were preserved, I say, ['^°^°^ "vo^er^ 

in most perilous and hard times, as in the burning of the city and gf^']™ ^^ ""^ 
of the temple of Jerusalem, in the captivity, and in that most griev- 
ous persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes ; for he raged also against 
these very books ;^ and in the great persecutions which were after 
Christ, under the Roman Emperors. 

But here it is demanded, whether the same very books which 
were written by Moses and the Prophets before the captivity be 

' " Even against books themselves." Original, et in ipsos libros. 



come into our hands ? I answer, for this matter diverse men have 
thought diversely. For there were that thought, that those 
books -which Moses and the Prophets left were lost when the temple 
and the city were destroyed with fire, and that these which we 
have were rej)aired and written over again by Ezra the scribe, in- 
spired by God, and called extraordinarily for this purpose. Of 
Epist. ad this iudgment are these, Basil, ^ Irena^us,^ Tertullian,^ Clemens Alex- 

Cliilonem. . . 

Lu.. deoffl- andrinus,^ Isidoi'us, Rabanus Maurus, Leontius.^ It may be they 
were thus minded, because of that story or fable rather, which we 
may read, Esdras xiv. 14.*" But that book is apocryphal, and re- 

^ Basil, sufuamed the Great, a native of Cfesarea ia Cappadocia, was born in 
329. Having studied at Constantinople and Athens, he practised law for some 
time, but afterwards gave himself up to a life of poverty and seclusion. In 370 
he was chosen Bishop of Ca>sarea, and died in 379, leaving several writings ; 
the most complete edition of which is that of Garnier, 3 vols, folio, Paris, 1721- 
30. — (Smith's Diction, of Greek and Rom. Biog. Sfc, s. v.) 

2 Irenseus was a native of Asia Minor, but settled in Gaul, where he became 
Bishop of Lyons. He probably flourished towards the end of the second cen- 
tur3^ His principal work, and the only one now extant, is one written against 
the Gnostics, to a passage from which (Adversus Hcp?-es. iii. 25) our author here 
refers. The best edition is that of Grabe, Oxon. 1702, fol. — (Smith's Diction- 
ary., ^'c, s. v.; Lardner's Works, vol. ii. p. 165, &c.) 

3 Tertullian was a native of Carthage, and flourished about the beginning of the 
third century. He was a man of morose temperament, but of immense learning. 
He lapsed into Montanism, and was excommunicated by the Church of Kome, 
but afterwards renounced that heresy. He is considered the most ancient Latin 
father whose works exist. Among the best editions of his works is that of 
Rigftult, Paris, 1 634-5, 2 vols, folio (Cave's Apostolici, p. 138, &c.) The re- 
ference in the text is to De Habit. 3Itdier., c. i. p. 3, § 25. 

* Clemens Alexandrinus was probably a native of Athens, who settled in Alex- 
andria. He was fond of philosophic pursuits, and travelled much. He presided 
in the Alexandrian School of Divinity in 211, and died in 220. His works are 
characterised by philosophical speculation, a want of comprehensiveness, and a 
tendency to allegorize. The best edition is that of Potter, Oxford, 1716, 2 vols, 
folio. — (Smith's Dictionary., ^r., s. v.) The reference in th.e text is to Strom, c. 
1. 329, 330, 342. 

•'' For these see p. 108, notes. The passage fi-om Lcontius, referred to by 
our author, will be found in Lardner, vol. v. p. 143. 

6 In the original, Esdrce 4. iv. What in our translation is called the first 
and second Books, bears elsewhere the name of the third and fourth Books of 
Esdras ; Ezra and Neliemiah being the first two books. In tlie Septuagint the 
first Book of Esdras is placed before Ezra and Nehemiah, which fonn together 

god's effectual calling. 113 

jected not only of our Church, but also of the Church of Rome. 
The point may be thus refuted. If Ezra had written over these 
books again, then assuredly it is most like that he Avould have 
written them, not in the Hebrew, but in the Chaldee tongue, or 
in a mixed language of Hebrew and Chaldee together ; for that 
Ezra did write two books in that mixed manner, even those two 
books of Esdras.^ Secondly, Nehem. viii. 1, &c.,Ezra is said to have 
brought forth, and to have read, not his own books, or books which 
he had written, but the books of the law of Moses. Thirdly, it is 
not like, but some godly man, or prophet, or some other, was left, 
which in that time of the fire preserved these sacred books, or 
kept some copy of them ; and the rather, for that then out of all 
doubt Ezekiel and Daniel the prophets lived. 4. The very name 
which Daniel gives to the Chaldee monarchy, (calling it the Golden 
Empire,) doth argue that this did not rage so against the sacred books 
of God ; for if this monarchy had laid such violent hands on God's 
books, assuredly the Holy Ghost would not have given it a name 
of such excellency. Therefore that assertion is false, and the con- 
trary is true, to wit, that the books of Moses and the old Prophets 
were preserved from danger, when the temple and the city were 
consumed with fire, as also in the captivity, and so be reserved 
by divine providence, and delivered by God's own hand at last 
into our possession. Neither yet do we gainsay what the godly 
have recorded, that is, that Ezra, after the captivity, did revise 
the books of Moses and the Prophets, digested them into one vo- 
lume, and set them down in this certain order. Thus far of this 

but one Book. See an excellent article, s. v. Esdras, by the Reverend William 
"Wright, in Kitto's Cydopcedia. 

1 The original is — Nam Esdras sic ipse scripsit lingua ilia mixta duos libros 
EsdrcB. " For so Ezra himself wrote in that mixed language the two books of 
Ezra.'''' RoUock had apparently adopted the notion entertained by some learned 
men, that both the books, known by the name of Ezra and Nehemiah, called 
sometimes, as in the Vulgate, First and Second Ezra, were written by Ezra. 
And hence he mentions that mixed dialect as a general feature, whereas no por- 
tion of Nehemiah is written in the Chaldaic. 

VOL. I. H 


Now It resteth after the premises, tliat we prove the Hebrew 
edition of the Old Testament to be only authentical. That edition 
which was written in the first language that ever was, and first in 
the primary language, and hath been preserved in that tongue purely 
and fully, even unto our times ; — I say, that edition of the Old Tes- 
tament is authentical. But such is the Hebrew edition : Ergo. 

The adversaries cannot deny but that it was written in the 
first language and mother tongue, and also that it was first written 
in it ; and they cannot deny but that it was preserved in some 
purity, even unto this day ; but they will not grant or allow it this 
excellency of sincerity and purity which we avouch. Bellarmin 
hath observed out of all the Old Testament five places only where- 
by he would prove that the Hebrew fountain hath lost some of 
this purity. The first place is Isaiah ix. 6, And he shall call his name 
(to wit, the Lord) Wonderful. " But the vulgar Latin readeth, and 
he shallbe called, which reading Calvin approveth. And, therefore, 
by Calvin's confession here, the Hebrew fountain itself is not clear."^ 

1 These, and the other words from the Hebrew, are, in the orighial, prhitcd 
in Koman capitals, and form part of the text. In the translation, they arc 
placed on the margin, as in this edition. 

2 In the passage refeired to, Bellarmin is examining into the question, 
whether the Hebrew ought to be regarded as fons purissitnus, which opinion he 
maintains to be false. His words are, " Qua; sententia apertissirae falsa est. 
Nam imprimis Calvinus Institutionum capite sexto, § 11, contendit esse legen- 
dum Isaia; nono, et vocabitur admirabilis, etc., modo non habet vocabitur, id 
est, x~lpS sed vocabit sips [it would seem that he was unable to represent the 
difference from want of pointed letters:] neque ignoravit Calvinus, meliorem hoc 
loco vulgatam edltionem esse, quam Hcbraicam. Sic enini ait : Neque est quod 
oblatrent Judcei^ et sic lectionem invertant; hoc est nomen quod vorahit cum Deus 
fortis, pater futuri scBculi, ac demum hoc unumfilio reliquum faciant. ut sit prin- 
cepspacis; quorsum enim tot epitheta in Deum hocloco congesta forent ? Igitur 
confessione Calvlni turbidus alicubi fluit ille fons, quem ipse idem ubique purum 
videri volebat."— (Bellarmin. Disput., vol. i. p. 69, d. e.) The passage from 
Calvin, animadverted on and misquoted by Bellarmin, will be found in his In- 
stitut., lib. i. c. 13, § 9. It is as follows:— Hoc est, inquit [losaias,] nomen quo 
vocabunt eum, [not vocabitur, as Bellarmin attributes to him, that he may ap- 
pear to have preferred the Vulgate rendering as more accurate tlian the original 
Hebrew,] Deus fortis. Pater futuri seculi, &c. Oblatrant hie quoque Juditi, et 
sic lectionem invertunt. Hoc est nomen quo vocabit eum Deus fortis, Pater fu- 
turi, &c., ut hoc duntaxat Filio reliquum fociant, Principem vocari pacis. Scd 
quorsum tot epitheta in Deum patrem hoc loco congesta forent ? 

god's effectual calling. 115 

I answer, first, the sense is the same, whether ye read shall call or 
shall be called. Secondly, the letters are the same in both words vajikra. 
in the Hebrew, shall call, and shall be called, the points being divers 
do not make the body of the word to be of divers significations. 
Thirdly, the Hebrew doctors, as Vatablus,^ say often, that with the 
Hebrews a verb personal of the third person is taken for an imper- 
sonal, as here shall call for shall be called. Fourthly, Tremellius and 
Junius retain the Hebrew reading, and say thus, and he doth call 
his name, ^^.^ 

The second place ^ is Jer. xxiii. 6, And this his name, ivhey-ewith^^'''^^^ sciie- 

*■ ' moasherjik- 

he shall call him, the Lord our righteousness. " But the vulgar Latin i^idkenu^"*^ 
edition saith, that they shall call him, the Lord our righteousness, and 
this translation also Calvin approveth. Therefore by Calvin's testi- 
mony, the very Hebrew text is here corrupted." I answer, the sense 
shall not be greatly unfitting, if ye read icherehj he shall call him, 
to wit, the Lord our righteousness. The name going before is the 
name of a people of security, of a people that dwell safely, as Tre- 
mellius and Junius understand and read the place. Thirdly, Jeremy 

1 Francois Yatable, the pareut of Hebrew literature in France, died in 1547, 
having acquired the admiration of the Jews themselves for his oriental erudition. 
Bertin, one of his pupils, — he was Professor of Hebrew in the College Royal of 
Paris, — collected some of his lectures and his expository notes on the Old Testa- 
ment, which were first published in 1545. — (Moreri, s. v.) 

■' Sed quum puer natus fiierit nobis, filius datus nobis, cujus humero adit prin- 
cipatus ipse ; cujus nomen vocat Jehovah, admirabilem, &c., Tremel. et Jun. in 
loco. It may be proper to remark, that when the translator uses the term, the 
vidgar translation, he means the Vulgate, in the original, Vulyata. 

3 Bellarmin's words (/. c.) are, " Pari ratioue Hierem. 23 vult ibidem Calvlnus 
esse legendum, et hoc est nomen quod vocabunt eum, Dominus justitia nostra. 
At fons Hebraicus constanter habet ix-|p'> vocabit eum non iniNIp'' vocabunt 
eum." Calvin refers (1. c.) to two passages in Jeremiah xxiii. 6, and xxxiii. 16, 
in the first of which he renders ij^ips vocahitur. The second passage he ren- 
ders. Hoc est nomen quo vocabunt earn (Jerusalem,) Jehovah justitia nostra. 
In both cases, the Vulgate rendering is, Hoc est nomen quod vocabunt eum, 
Dominus Justus noster. The translation of Tremellius and Junius is, in the first 
passage : atque hoc nomen ejus est quo vocabit eum (Jisrael,) O Jehova justitia 
nostra. In the second : is autem qui vocabit earn, (erit) Jehova justitia nostra. 
The Septuagint in the first passage has KcfKiait, in the second, Kx7\i(Tov(nv^ (c. xl. 


leaves it to our free cholce.i Fourthly, the Hebrew doctors Vat- 
ablus, Pagnine, Arias Montanus/ read vocabit, he shall call ; and yet 
turn the word vocabunt, they shall call. 

ygragfaf'^^' The third place is in the 22d Psalm, 17th verse. They pierced my 
hands and my feet. " In the Latin edition it is, foderunt, they digged 
or pierced, and so read all Christians ; but the Hebrew is, sicut leo, 
as a lion. Wherefore in this place the Hebrew text is corrupted."^ 
I answer, the Masorites testify that they have read in some He- 
brew copies cam, which signifieth to dig into or to pierce. They 

Cn.iii. also Avhich have the word Caari in their books, say it is not to be 
taken here in the proper and common signification. The Chaldee 
Paraphrast doth knit both particles together. As a lion smites 
with his teeth, so have these jncrccd, ^'c. But these were before 
Jerome, I mean the Masorites, and the Chaldee Paraphrast ; there- 
fore it is false that this place was corrupted by the Jews after 
Jerome's time. Jerome in his Psalter keeps this reading Caariy 
and yet he translates the word foderunt, they digged or pierced. 

1 This whole passage is mangled in the translation, and a whole passage 
omitted. It will be better, perhaps, to retranslate it, without noting the inaccu- 
racies. " Therefore, in this place, the Hebrew spring has been rendered muddj, 
even in the opinion of Calvin himself. I answer, 1. "We have a sense not inap- 
propriate, if we read, the name whereioith it shall call him, viz., the name of Je- 
hovah our righteousness ; but the antecedent noun is that of a people dwelling in 
security, as Tremellius and Junius understand and translate the passage. 2. 
The Septuagint [original, through inadvertence, Sexagiiital translates it KotXidn. 
3. Jerome makes it a matter of indifference," p. 127. 

2 Sanctes Pagninus, a Dominican monk of great learning, especially' as an 
orientalist. He was a native of Lucca, born in 1470, and died at Lj-ons in 1541. 
— (Moreri, s. v^ For his translation of the Bible, the first by a modern from the 
original language, see Home's Introduction, vol. ii. part ii. p. 59, seventh edi- 
tion. He also wrote a Hebrew Lexicon. His translation was revised by 
Arias Montanus. — (Home, uti supra.) The latter distinguished himself at the 
Council of Trent, and acquired the highest reputation for the mode in which he 
executed a new edition of the Polyglot Bible for Philip IL of Spain. He died 
at Seville, his native city, in 1598. — (Moreri, s. v.) 

3 Bellarmin's words (vol. i. p. 70, a. b.) are, Prasterea, Psalm xxi., [our 
22d is the 21st psalm in the Vulgate, in consequence of their joining our 9th 
and 10th,] nemo Christianorum est qui non legat : Foderunt mantis meas, et 
pedes meos, textus vero Hcbraici legunt, sicut leo nN3 non foderunt quod dicitur 

god's effectual calling. 117 

Lastly, a certain Popish writer, one Augustine Justinianus,^ who 
set forth the Book of Psalms collected of many languages, doth 
plainly avouch it, this place is not corrupted, but that there is a 
defect of a word which the Chaldee Paraphrast hath supplied. 

The fourth place is Psalm xix. 5,^ Their line is gone forth through ecoi haareta 
all the earth. '' Here not only the vulgar, but the Septuagint also, "^"^ 
whom the Apostle to the Romans, x. 18, followeth, do read, their cp^oy yog. 
sound is gone, 8fc., therefore this place is corrupted."^ Let Gena- 
brard'' alone answer this in his observations on the Psalms, who 
saith, the Septuagint and Paul did rather express the sense of the 
word than the proper and natural signification thereof. 

The fifth place is Exodus ii.^ " After the 22d verse, in the vulgar 

1 "In 1516 there was printed at Genoa, by Peter Paul Poitus, (in jedibus 
Nicolai Justiniani Pauli,) the Pentaglott Psalter of Augustin Justiniani, Bishop 
of Nebo. It was in Hebrew, Arabic, Chaldee, and Greek, with the Latin ver- 
sion, glosses, and scholia." — (Home's Introduction^ vol. ii. part ii. p. 32.) 
Justinian was a native of Genoa, born in 1470, Bishop of Nebbio (in Corsica) 
in 1514, and a member of the fifth Lateran Council. He was drowned in 1536, 
while sailing from Genoa to his diocese. — (Ladvocat, s. v.) 

^ Four of our authorised translation. In the translation into Latin of Tre- 
mellius and Junius, the title of the psalm is numbered as a verse. 

^ " Item Psalm xviii. [xix. with us] Hebraici codices legunt ; in omnem 
terram exivit Dipi id est, linea sive perpendiculum eorum : cum tamen LXX. 
verterint et (p^oyyog oiviuv : et eorum versionem approbaverit B. Paulus Roman. 
10, ubi hunc Psalmum citat. Quid quod Hieronymus ad literam reddidit ex 
Hebraeo, exivit sonus eorum 1 ut omnino necesse sit, aut Paulum et Hieronymum 
reprehendere, aut certe fateri, fontem hoc loco non esse purum ; verisimile autem 
est legi debere D^lp : i^na enim litera tantum addita ex Dip fit D^lp-" — (Bellar- 
min, uti supra^ p. 70, a. b.) Gesenius' explication is simple enough, " Musical 
chords hence sound, Ps. xix. 5." — (Lexicon, Leo's Translation, 1825.) 

4 Genebrard, a learned French theologian, was professor of Hebrew in the 
Royal College of Pai-is. Irritated at obstructions having been thrown in his 
way to a bishopric, he joined the party of the League. He was made Arch- 
bishop of Aix in 1591 ; but became involved in much trouble, from his having 
written against the right of the king to nominate bishops. In addition to other 
works he wrote a translation of the Psalms, with a commentary. He died at 
Semur in 1597. — (Moreri, s. v.) 

* " Adde quod interdum desunt integrjE sententiae in Hebraeo, cum non desint 
nee in versione LXX. nee in Hieronymi translatione. Exemplum habemus 
Exod. 2, ubi deest totum illud. Alium quoque genuit, et vocavit nomen ejus Eli- • 
ezer, dicens, Deus Patris mei auxiliatus mihi, et liberavit me de manu Pharaotiis." 
(Bellarm., uti supra, p. 70, b.) There is no such addition in the Septuagint. It 


Latin edition, all this place is read of a second son of Moses ; And 
she bare a second, wliose name he called Eliezer, saying, the God of 
my father is my helper, and hath delivered me from FharaolUs hand. 
But all this place is not to be found in the Hebrew text : EryoT 
To this I answer, the very Louvain editions^ have here their mar- 
ginal note, to put us in mind that this place hath crept into the 
text, and the better sort of the Papists are of this judgment, that 
this place is not the natural or very text of God's word ; as Caie- 
tanus, who writes of this place in this manner. All this clause of a 
second son is superfluous. A^Tierefore Bellarmin cannot conclude 
by these places that the Hebrew edition is corrupt, and therefore 
is not authentical. 

I shall conclude contrarily with this one argument, that the He- 
befonf Christ ^^^^ cdition is not corrupt. If the Jews corrupted it, it was be- 
ripMhe'^He- ^'^'^'^ Christ or after. But not before Christ ; which point, to pass 
is witness, '" by all tcstimonics of ancients, I make evident with this one reason : 
Apostle, If the Jews had corrupted the Hebrew text, Christ would have 
taxed them for so horrible an offence. But we never find that 
Christ so chargeth them for any such cause ; but contrarily, we 
read that he sends them to that very Hebrew edition Avhich they 
had in their hands. Search the Scriptures, saith he, John v. 39. 
The Scripture was not corrupted after Christ's time ; which asser- 
tion I prove, to pass by the authority of ancients, with this one 
argument : The Jews could not corrupt all the Hebrew copies, 

is not easy to see on what principle Bellarmin quotes. The words of the Vul- 
gate are, Altenim vera pepcrit, quern vocavit Eliezer^ dicens: Deus enitn patris 
mei, adjutor mens, eripuit me de manu Pharaonis. Is it uncharitable to supi)0se 
that he misquoted purposely, as if to show that both the Vulgate and he had 
translated fi-om one common source, there being in reality no founda^ioa f'or the 
passage but the Vulgate ? It is observable, that our author quotes correctly 
(with the exception of a slight misprint, the insertion of an et) from the Vulgate. 
Tlie clause is given in the Douay translation. 

I Jacques le Fevre d'Estaples, who w^as strongly suspected of a leaning to 
Protestantism, was, notwith.standing, for his learning appointed tutor to the 
third son of Francis I. He died in 1537, having executed a translation of the 
Scriptures into French, which was first printed at Antwerp in 15.S0. A revision 
of this by the divines of Louvain appeared in 1550, and has since been repeatedly 
printed. — (Ladvocat, s. v. Fevre; Home's Introduction, vol. ii. part ii. p. 92.) 

Rom. iii. 1. 

god's effectual calling. 119 

albeit they were never so willing to effect it, for that they were 

now for the most part come to the hands of Christians. Hence it 

followeth, that if the Hebrew text was not corrupted neither before 

Christ's time nor after his coming, then was it not corrupted at all. 

But happily they will say, that the Jews corrupted it after Augus- The Jews 

tin and Jerome's time ? I answer, In what places ? For as touch- ^g^py^J'^^gj. 

ing Bellarmin's five places, we have already showed, that both in 

Jerome's time and before, these places were thus read as we read 

them this day. Wherefore we conclude, the Hebrew edition is 

most pure, and, consequently, in the Old Testament this edition 

only is authentical. 

oil list's com- 



Whereas there be many editions of the New Testament, we say 
the Greek only is authentical, which first I demonstrate on this 
manner : First, in Christ's time and the Apostles', the Greek 
tongue among the Gentiles was of greatest excellency. Secondly, 
and as it was accounted of best note, so was it most famous and 
most common in the world. For albeit, as then the Roman empire cicero in 
was most large and great, yet the Latin tongue Avas not so common, pvoArciiia 

, . poeta.1 

as is testified by a good writer of that age. Thirdly, the idolatry 
and superstition of the Gentiles, and all the philosophy of the 
Greeks, was written in the Greek tongue. The Lord having these 
and such like respects, no doubt at what time it pleased him to 
carry his gospel from the narrow bounds of Jewry, into the great 
and spacious field of all the world ; it was the Lord's will and 

' Nam si quis miuorem glorite fructum piitat ex Grascis versibus percipi quam 
ex Latinis, veheraenter errat ; propterea quod Grseca legiintur in omnibus fere 
gcntibus, Latina suis finibus, exiguis sane, continentur. c. 23. 


pleasure, I say, at that time, that the gospel should be written 

principally^ in the Greek tongue. 

The writers they were, some of them, Apostles — some Evan- 
Matthew first gelists ; all which first wrote In Greek, except Matthew,^ and the 
t In synopsi. author to the Hebrews. For, first, concerning Matthew,* Athanasius 
t Lib. 3. saith, he first wrote in Hebrew ; ^ the same saith f Irenasus,* and 
|incarmin.j;]sj"azienzen,^ and § Jerome,^ who saith that in his time Matthew's 

§InPriefat.in ' ; J 7 

mmas-^erui Hebrcw copy was reserved in the library of Cesarea, which Pam- 
MattK^" '" i^hilus the martyr built/ Athanasius saith, that Saint Matthew's 

1 " In preference to all others." Original, potissimum. 

2 "Except perhaps Matthew." Original, Si forte Mattliceum excipias. 

^ " It is there [in the Sjniopsis ascribed to Athanasius] said ' that Matthew 
wrote his gospel in Hebrew, and published it at Jerusalem ; and that it was 
translated [into Greeli] bj^ James, the Lord's brother according to the flesh, who 
was ordained by the holy apostles the first Bishop of Jerusalem.'" — (Lardner, 
vol. iv. p. 165.) 

^ " Matthew then, among the Jews, wrote a gospel in their own language." — 
Adv. Hseres. lib. iii. c. i. apud Lardner, vol. ii. p. 170. 

^ It is very doubtful whether Gregory Nazienzen intended to characterise the 
Gospel of Matthew as originally Hebrew. His words are, (Carm. 33, vol. ii. 
p. 98, apud Lardner, vol. iv. p. 287,) 

'Mxr^Sita; ^sv 'iy^ct-ipsv 'E^Qx7oig ^xv/hxtcc X^icrrov, 

Ma^xof d^lrxXicf, AovKxg A)(,xiec8i. 
The expression E«Qxioii, as compared with that IraA/a;, seems to mean only 
"/or the Hebrews." See Lardner, /. c. 

^ De novo nunc loquor Testamento, quod Grajcum esse non dubium est, 
excepto Apostolo Matthaeo, qui primus in Judjea Evangelium Christi Hebraicis 
Uteris edidit. — (llieron. ad Damas. Prcefat.) 

' Matthaeus, qui et Levi, ex publicano apostolus, primus in Judasa, propter eos 
qui ex circumcisione crediderant, evangelium Christi Hebraicis Uteris verbisque 
composuit. Quod qui postea in Gr»cum transtulerit, non satis certum est. 
Porro, ipsum Hebraicum habetur usque hodie in Caesariensi bibliotheca, quam 
Pampliilus martyr studlosissime confecit. INIilii quoque a Nazaraiis qui in 
Bera^a, urbe Syrias, hoc volumine utuntur, describeudi facultas fuit. — (Hieron. 
Cat. de Viri lUustribus^ c. 3, apud Lardner, vol. iv. p. 441.) Pamphilus was a 
native of Beyrout in Phoenicia, who flourislied at Cffisarea about A. D. 294. 
He there formed a library, magnificent for tlie time, and busied himself in pre- 
paring for gratuitous circulation copies of the Scripture. AVith Euscbius, who 
took his name, he edited, from the autograph revision of Origen, the Greek 
translation of the Septuagint. He was martyred, after an imprisonment of two 
years, in 309. — (Cave, uti supra, p. 97.) 

god's effectual calling. 121 

Hebrew edition was translated to Greek by James the Apostle ;' 
others say, by Saint John the Apostle ; ^ others by Matthew 
himself.^ Thus write the fathers, but their assertion hath no 
strong grounds. For when Christ lived with his Apostles, all 
the Jews spake Syriac, that is, a language mixed of Hebrew and 
Chaldaic. Therefore, if Matthew had purposed to write in any 
other language but the Greek, he would no doubt have written 
specially in the Syriac tongue, and some Papists of this age are 
of the very same judgment.* Wherefore it is uncertain whether 
Matthew first wrote in Hebrew, Syriac, or Greek; yet it is 
more probable that he did first write in Greek, both for that this 
tongue was not unknown to the Jews, and other apostles first 
wrote in it, not onlv to Jews and Gentiles indifferently, but also 

^ '' , . As St James 

particularly to the very Jews. Well, howsoever it is, the Greek and st^etcr, 
edition which we have in the Church at this day is authentical ;^^*^j.g^"5''^ 
for that it was both written and approved while the Apostles were 
yet living. For as touching the Hebrew edition, if there were any, 

1 See previous page, note 3. 

2 " Matthew first wrote a gospel in the Hebrew language, for the sake of the 
Hebrew believers, eight years after Christ's ascension ; and John, as is said, 
translated it out of Hebrew into Greek." — (Theophylact. apud Lardner, vol. v. 
p. 158.) 

3 " This opinion, we believe, was first intimated by Sixtus Senensis, from 
whom it was adopted by Drs Whitby, Benson, Hey, and Townson, Bishops 
Cleaver and Gleig, and some other modern divines." — (Home's Introduction^ 
vol. iv. p. 265.) Sixtus of Sienna was a converted Jew, who died at Genoa 
in 1569 — (Ladvocat, s. v.) His principal work is Bibliotlieca Sancta^ to which, 
lib. vii. p. 582, Home gives a reference. On the question regarding the 
language in which Matthew wrote his gospel, see Home's Introduction, 
vol. iv. p. 262, &c. ; Lardner, vol. v. p. 308, &c. ; Fabricii Bib. Grcec. vol. iv. 
p. 758, ed. Harless. 

4 " De Testamento Novo major est dubitatio ; et quidem valde probabile est 
Evangclium S. Matthaei, et Epistolam S. Pauli ad Hebroeos, Syriaca lingua 
scriptos esse : id euim efficacissimis argumentis probat Albertus Uvimestadius 
Ferdinandi Imperatoris Cancellarius, qui primus in Europa Testamentum Novum 
Syriacum imprimi curavit : et Guido Fabricius, ciijus est Latiua interpretatio 
Novi Testamenti Syriaci in regiis Bibliis." — (Bellarmin, vol. i. p. 76, c. p. 77, a.) 

^ This marginal note is the translator's. " Matthew in Hebrew," seems to 
be a misprint. 


I doubt now it can no Avhere be found. And as for this Hebrew 
copy, which is in many hands, it is not the true copy.^ 

As concerning the Epistle to the Hebrews, Jerome saith, that first 
it was written in Hebrew ; next turned into Greek, either by Bar- 
nabas, or Luke, or Clement.^ But it is uncertain, and it is more like 
to be true that this Epistle also was first written in Greek. How- 
soever it be, this Greek edition of this Epistle which we have at 
this day is authentical. 

Now the New Testament, written in Greek by the Apostles and 
Evangelists, hath been so preserved by the admirable providence 
of God, even in the midst of persecutions and heresies, unto this 
age, and in all former ages so freed and kept by godly and ortho- 
doxical writers from the corruption of heretics ; the Lord God, I 
say, hath so provided, that it is come into our hands most pure 
and perfect. Thus, then, I reason. That edition of the New Tes- 
tament which was written in the best language, and first and 
originally written in it, to wit, the Greek, I say the same must be 
accepted as authentical of all men. But such is the Greek edition 
of the New Testament : Ergo. 

The adversaries except only against the purity of this edition. 
Eor albeit some of them, the latter, and the better learned, as 

1 " Ilcbraice vero qu* exstant Matth. editiones recens a Judaeis vel Chris- 
tianis elaboratai sunt, et absurdissime pro Matthaso autheutico habentur ; sive 
Munsteriana ilia Basil, 1537, fol. Henrico VIII. Angliae regi inscripta, et ver- 
sioue atqiie commentario adversus Judajos instructa, sive Tiliana, quam ex Italia 
attvilit /(//«. Tilius, [Jean de Tilef] ctJoh. ilferce/«<s Latino traustulit, Paris, 1555, 
12." — (Fabric. Bib. Grcec. vol. iv. p. 759, note 1.) 

2 Our author's account of Jerome's lauguage, regarding the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, is not quite accurate. Jerome's words are : — Epistola autem, qu^e 
fertur ad Hebricos, non ejus creditur, propter styli sermouisquc differeutiam ; sed 
vel Barnaba;, juxta TertuUianum ; vel Lucai evaiigelistfe, secundum quosdam ; vel 
dementis, Komanae postea ecclesia; episcopi, quern aiunt Ipsiadjunctum senten- 
tias Pauli proprio ordinasse et ornasse sermone. Vel certe quia Paulus scribebat 
ad Hebraios, et propter invidiam sui apud eos nominis titulum in principio salu- 
tationis amputaverat, scripserat, ut Hebrans Ilebraiee, id est, suo eloquio, diser- 
tissirae, ut ea quas eloqueuter scripta fuerant in Ilebn^io, eloqucntius vertcrentur 
in Graicum ; et hanc esse causam, quod a caiteris Pauli epistolis discrepare 
videatur. — (^Catalog, de Vir. III. c. 5, apud Lardner, vol. iv. p. 451, note.) 

god's effectual calling. 123 

Bellarmin, do not say that the Greek edition of the New Testa- 
ment is altogether corrupt, as some of them have blasphemed ; yet 
they say it is not so pure, that they can grant it to be authentical, 
because in some places it is corrupt.' Bellarmin brings forth 
seven places, whereby he endeavours to prove this assertion, that 
the Greek edition is corrupt, and, therefore, cannot be authentical. 

The first place is 1 Cor. xv. 47, The Jirst man is of the earth, 6 ttqZtos 
earthly : the second man is the Lord from heaven. " But in the f {'''^°^.. 
vulgar Latin edition it is, the second is from heaven^ heavenly ; x.6c. 6 Isv- 
and this reading is approved : therefore the Greek edition is^i,°^oj j 
corrupt and not authentical."^ I answer, first, albeit we read as K^^e'^f '-^ 
the Greek is, yet the sense is good and orthodoxal, and the same 
with that which is of the vulgar reading, differing in word only, 
and not in matter. Secondly, the Arabic and Syriac translation 
so read the place. Thirdly, the Fathers, Chrysostom ^ and Theo- 

1 " Jam vero quod attinet ad auctoritatem, dubium esse non potest, quin editio 
Apostolica summte sit auctoritatis, nisi forte constet earn esse coiTuptam. De 
qua re ita sentiendum censeo, ut supi'a de Hebra'icis diximus, videlicet uon esse 
Graecos codices corruptos generaliter ; nee tamen esse foutes purissimos, ut ne- 
cessario quidquid ab eis dissentit comgendum sit, ut falso existimant Calviuus, 
INIajor, Kemnitius, ceterique hujus temporis Iia^retici." — (Bellarmin, vol. i. p. 

- " Quod autcm non sint ubique incori'upti, sed aliqui interdum errores irrep- 
serint, saltern negligentia librariorum, et non sit tutum semper Latina ad 
Grseca corrigere, aliquot exemplis planum fiet. Certe i. Corinth. 15, legendum 
est ; Primus homo de terra terrenus, secundus homo de ccelo^ ceelestis, ut non solum 
nostra Latina versio habct, sed etiam Calvinus probat. c. 7, Inst. § 12. At 
Grseci constanter legunt secundus homo Dominus de coelo, 6 liure^o; uv^^uTrog 
Kv^io; l| oi/qxvov. Quam depravationem mansisse vitio scriptorum ex corrup- 
tionibus Marcionis, patet ex Tertulliano lib. 5, in Marcionem." (Bellarmin, Ibid. 
p. 85.) Calvin refers to the passage, (lib. ii. c. 7, § 12,) but without any such 
approval, or opinion of any kind as to the true reading. 

3 John Chrysostom (or the Golden-mouthed, so named from his eloquence) 
was born at Antioch, probably A.D. 047, of parents of high rank. He was or- 
dained deacon, 381 , and presbyter, 384. On the death of Nectarius, Archbishop 
and first Patriarch of Constantinople, in 397, he was appointed to succeed him ; 
but his fidelity, and plainness of living as well as of speech, rendered him obnox- 
ious to the Empress Eudoxia and sundry of the bishops. Through then- joint 
eftbrts he was deposed and banished, first to Cucusus, then to Pontus, where he 
died from the fatigues of his journey, A.D. 407. His works are most voluminous, 


Hsereseon. phylact/ SO read. Fourthly, Epiphanius,^ citing all the places 
Tert. lib. 5, which Marcioii corrupted, vct remembers not this place. "But," 

contra Mar. . . . . 

saith^ he, " Tertullian saith that Marcion hath corrupted this 
place." I answer, that Tertullian, in that book and place, reads 
these words in the very same manner as we do. The Lord from lieavcn. 
6 V vu- "^^^ second place is 1 Cor. vii. 33, He that is married careth for 

^«j(70£f fj^g things of the ivorld, hoio he may please his tvife. The wife and 
Toirou ' the virgin are distinctly set down, so reads the Greek.'* "But the 
xoafA.ov, vulo-ar thus. He that is joined to a wife careth for the things of the 
T^yvi/ettxl. tcorld, how he may -please his ivife, and he is divided; but the woman 
. '^^^''^^'*'' that is unmarried^ and the virgin, hethinketh of the things ichicJt please 
ii'7ra^6ivoi. the Lord, both in body and spirit. Wherefore the Greek edition is 
^ here corrupted, and so cannot be authentical."^ I answer, first, that 


and his merits, as an expositor of Scripture, very great. Tiie Editio Optima of 
his works is that of Bernard de Montfaucon, 13 vols. fol. Paris, 1718-38. — 
(Smith's Dictionary, s. v. ; Lardner, vol. iv. pp. 534, &c. ; Cave, S. E. H. L. 
pp. 195, &c.) 

^ Theophylact was Archbishop of Achridia, in Bulgaria, A.D. 1077. He 
AATOte or compiled, from Chrysostom and others, commentaries on most of the 
books of the New Testament, and on some of the minor prophets. His works 
were published at Venice, in 4 vols. 1754-1763.— (Cave, S. E. H. L. p. 530 ; 
Fabric. Bib. Groec. vol. vii. p. 586, &c.) 

2 Epiphanius, Bishop of Constantia, in Cyprus, died an old man, A.D. 402. 
He was violent and bigoted, but a man of great learning. His works were 
published at Leipzig, in 1682, in 2 vols, folio. — (Smith's Dictionary, &c. vol. ii. 
p. 40) For his account of Marcion, and the Marcion heresy, generally, see 
Lardner, (vol. viii. pp. 452, &c.) 

2 Original, testatur. It is necessary to notice this, to defend our author's 
good faith ; for Bellarmin's remark (see note) is only inferential from the lan- 
guage of Tertullian. 

■* The translator here has mistaken his author. The words of the original, 
which seem to give Rollock's own translation of the passage from the Corin- 
thians, are : Qui uxorem duxit curat quai sunt hujus mundi, quomodo placeat 
uxori. Discrete sunt iixor et viryo: Innupta curat, &c. Hasc lectio est Gra^ca. 
" ' He Avho has married a wife cares for the things of this world, how he may 
please his wife. The wife and the virgin are distinguished from each other. 
She that is unmarried cares for,' &c. Such is the Greek reading." 

5 " Proeterea, 1 Cor. 7, ubi nos habemus : Qui cum tixore est, solicitus est, qum 
sunt mundi, quomodo placeat uxori, et diinsus est, mulier innupta et virgo cogitat 
quce Domini sunt, &c. Graeci codices longe aliter habent, nam illud divisus est, 
conjimgunt cum sequentibus, sic fis/^i^iffrcct ij '■/vi>ii kocI »j Traj^sj/oj, divisa est 

god's effectual calling. 125 

the sense which is by the Greek is not only sound, but also more 
fitting in this place than that which is by the vulgar translation. 
Secondly, the Syrlac translation so read these words. Thirdly, 
Theophylact, the Greek Scholies,^ and Basil, so read the words. 
But he saith that Jerome avoucheth it, that this Greek reading isLib. j. contia 
not apostolical. I answer, the same Jerome, in another place, contra Hei- 

■■• ^ > L ' vidium et 

reads these words as Ave do. Wherefore, seeing he changeth his ^'^^^°^'''""^- 
mind, he is not fit to judge for this Scripture. 

The third place is Rom. xii. 11, Serving the time. "But the old^^ xa/ji? 
Latin IS, serving the Lord : Ergo. ^ 1 answer, first, albeit ye read so -rj^ . ^^ Ky- 
the place, yet the sense is good and sound. Secondly, the reading 2'^- 
varies in many Greek copies, as Avitnesseth Origen's interpreter,'^ 
who reads the word Ky^/w, and he noteth it, that in many books 
he found jca/^p, the time. The same saith Ambrose,^ who reads 

uxor et vh'go. Quam lectionem B. Hieronym. ia lib. i. contra Jovin. affirmat 
Don esse Apostolicae veritatis." — (Bellarmin, vol. i. pp. 85, 86.) 

^ Original, Grceca Scholia. The Scholia were brief, explanatory, and gram- 
matical notes, partalviug of the nature of commentary and criticism. — See Home's 
Introduction., vol. ii. part i. pp. 390, &c. 

2 "Rom. 12, ubi nos legimus, Domino servientes : Graeci non habent xyj /^ sed 
Koii^u lovTisvovTis, id est tempori servientes ; et tamen nostram lectionem esse 
verissimam patet tum ex Hieronymo in epistola ad Marcellam, qu£e incipit, 
Post pejorem epistolam ; ubi dicit, in emendatis Grjecis codicibus haberi non 
xa/^ij, sed Kv^iu ; tum ex Origene, Chrysostomo, Theophylacto, et aliis Grsecis 
Patribus, qui sic legerunt et explicuerunt in suis commentariis." — (Bellarmin. 

3 Origen, one of the most estimable, laborious, and eminent of the early 
Christian Fathers, was born at Alexandria about A.D. 186, and died about A.D. 
254, after a life of much usefulness, dm-ing thirty-eight years of which he was a 
presbyter of the Church. He was a most voluminous writer. Of his two edi- 
tions of the Old Testament, called Tetrapla and Hexapla, the most complete 
edition is that of Montfaucon, 2 vols, folio, Paris, 1714. Of his other writings, 
the most complete edition is that of Delarue, 4 vols, folio, Paris, 1733-1759. — 
(Smith's Dictionary., &c. vol. III. pp. 46, &c.) The interpreter is Rufinus, (see 
p. 107, note 5,) to whom we are indebted for a Latin version of many of his 
works ; among others, of his Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, con- 
tained in the 4th volume of Delarue's edition. — (Fabric. Bihl. Grcec. vol. vii. 
pp. 208, 233.) 

* Ambrose was Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397. He was a man of great 
influence, which he exerted successfully against the Arians. His works are not 


xa/gw, serving the time ; " yet," saith he, " in some books we find Ku^/wj 
the Lord'' Thirdly, the Syriac, Chrysostoni, Theophylact, and Basil, 
read Kup/w, the Lord; which reading we best like. For which cause 
our Beza translates the word Domino, the Lord. 

The fourth place is John viii., where, in the beginning of that 
chapter, many of the Greek copies want the story of the adulterous 
woman, which the common translation in Latin hath, and the 
Church approves it as canonical.^ I answer, first, that our Greek 
books, which we have and hold for authentical, have this history 
also, and our Church receives it. Secondly, yet we deny not that 
this hath been gainsaid by some, and the Syriac translation hath 
it not. 

The fifth place is Mark xvi., where in many Greek copies that 
whole chapter is wanting,^ which notwithstanding the Latin edition 
retaineth : Ergo. I answer, first, that all our Greek books which 
we account authentical have also this chapter, and our churches 
receive the same as canonical. Secondly, Jerome somewhere^ 
moves some doubt touching it, but to no purpose. 

The sixth place is 1 John v., where the seventh verse, which 
contains a Avorthy testimony of the Trinity, in many Greek copies 
is missing, but in the vulgar it is retained : Ergo. I answer, first, 
our Greek books, which we hold for authentical, have this verse, 
and our Church receives it. Secondly, we deny not but some have 
gainsaid it. 
oT/ aw The seventh place is Matth. vi. 13, For thine is the kingdom, potoer, 

Bctai-hita., and glory, Amen. " But this place is not in the vulgar translation : 

ionv V) 

highly esteemed. The best edition is that of the Benedictines, 2 vols, folio, 
Paris, 1686-90. — (Smith's Dictionary^ &c. vol. i. p. 140.) 

' " Deuique constat in pliu'irais Grajcis codicibus deesse multas vera; Scriptm-a; 
partes, ut historian! adultenx;, loan. 8. Ultimum caput Marci; testimonium 
pulcherrimum Trinitatis, T. loan, et alia de quibus supra disseruimus." — (Bel- 
larmin, Ibid.) 

2 Both Bellannin and our author have overstated the objection regarding the 
last chapter of Mark, which extends only to the last twelve verses. 

2 Hieronymi Ojyp. vol. iii. p. 96. Qu^est, 3. 

god's effectual calling. 127 

Ergo}'"' L. Valla ^ answereth, this place is not added to the Greek, 
but detracted from the Latin ; and I pray you, what heretical or 
unsound matter hath this place ? 

Thus we see then the adversaries cannot prove by these places 
that the Greek edition of the New Testament is corrupted, and so 
not authentical. AYherefore it resteth that the Hebrew edition of 
the Old Testament and the Greek of the New Testament is only 



Now it resteth that we speak of the translations of the Old and 
New Testament. And, first, of the translations of the Old Testa- 
ment. The Old Testament was first written in Hebrew, and after- 
wards translated into divers languages, specially the Chaldee and 
Greek. First, concerning the Chaldaic translation, next, of the 
Greek. And for the Chaldaic, we be to consider first what manner 
of translation it is ; secondly, by whom this was done ; thirdly, 
what authority this hath. For the first, the Chaldaic translation Authors of 

, . , . the Chaldee 

IS rather a paraphrase than a translation word for word. The Pamphrase. 

' " Constat etiam qua^dam iu omnibus Grgecis codicibus inveniri, qua? noii sunt 
pai-tes divinje Scripturge, ut jSIatth. 6, orationi Dominicse additur : Cluia tuum 
est 7egnum, et potentia, et gloria^ in scecula: quae verba nou esse de textu, sed 
addita a Grajcis ex duobus iutelligi potest. Primo ex eo, quodTertuL, Cyprian., 
Ambrosias, Hieronymus, Augustiuiis, Orationem Dominicam exponunt, et ta- 
men nullam horum verborum mentionem faciunt, cum omnes isti Grace bene 
noverint. Secundo ex eo quod Groeci in sua liturgia recitant quidem lisec verba, 
sed non continuant cum Oratioue Dominica." — (Bellarmin. Ibid.~) Bellarmin is 
wrong in his statement, oiyinibus codicibus, — See Kuiuoel, ad locum. 

^ Laurentius Valla (L. is not iu the original Latin of our author) was one of 
the most learned men of the fifteenth century, and contributed essentially to the 
revival of letters. His annotations on the New Testament have been repeat- 
edly published. — See Home's Introduction^ &c. vol. ii. part ii. p. 276. 



Five books 

Prsefat. in 


Lih. Stro- 
ma t. 

Rabbins call this paraphrase the Targum} For the second point, 
of by whom this paraphrase was set forth. Rabbi Aquila translated 
the Pentateuch, and this they call Onkelos ; "^ the rest of the books 
of the Old Testament were translated, partly by Rabbi Jonathan, 
partly by Rabbi Joseph C^ecus ;* they lived not long before Christ, 
or about Christ's time. For the third point. The Chaldee para- 
phrase with the ancients was ever of great note and authority, 
specially that part of the Pentateuch ; for as for the rest of this 
paraphrase, one Ximenius® a cardinal avoucheth it to be full of 
Jewish fables, and of the vain conceits of the Thalmudists. And 
thus far briefly of the Chaldee paraphrase. 

Now touching the Greek translation of the Old Testament, there 
were divers translations of it into the Greek tongue. Some num- 
ber nine translations. Of these the first and principal is that of 
the Septuagint,* which these seventy-two ancients did at the ap- 
pointment of Ptolemaeus Philadelphus ; for whereas Clemens 
Alexandrinus writeth, that the Scripture w^as translated long before 
into Greek, and that Plato had read the same, it is not like to be 

• AVith regard to tlie Targum, generally, see Prideaux' Connection, part ii. 
B. 8, vol. iii. pp- 531-555, edit. 1718 ; also Home's Introduction, vol. ii. pp. 
198, &c. ; Kitto's Cyclopmdia^ s. v., and the authorities there quoted. It may- 
be noticed, generally, that RoUock's account is very imperfect, and is nearly a 
mere abridgment of Bellarmin, (Ibid. p. 75,) whose account also is very unsa- 

2 Original : Quod ad secundum, Pentateuchon vertit R. Aquila, qui Onkelos 
dictus est ab lis. "As to the second point, the Pentateuch was translated by 
Rabbi AquUa, who was also named Onkelos by them." The source of this con- 
fusion between Onkelos, the real translator of the Pentateuch, and Aquila of 
Sinope, a Jewish proselyte, and translator of the Scriptures, afterwards men- 
tioned by our author, is shown by Prideaux, /. c. 

3 For a brief account of the splendid Polyglot Bible, executed at the expense 
of Cardinal Ximenes, — containing, among other translations, the Targum of 
Onkelos, published 1514-1517, in 6 vols, folio, at Complutum, {Alcala de 
Henares,) hence called Complutensia, — see Ilorne, Ibid. vol. ii. part ii. p. 32. 
Ximenes was Archbishop of Toledo, and possessed supreme influence in Spain 
for twenty-two years before his death, in 1517, in his eighty-second year. 

* For the discussion of this question, for the references made by our author, 
and on the history of the Septuagint, see Prideaux, Ibid. vol. ii. pp. 27-48; 
and for an excellent account of its merits, Kitto's Cyclopcedia^ s. v. 

god's effectual calling. 129 

true ; for neither Plato nor any of Pythagoras' sect ever saw the 
Sacred Scriptures. To speak then of the interpretation of the 
seventy interpreters, and to bind ourselves to certain questions, six 
in number. The first may be this, whether there was ever any 
Greek translation set forth by the seventy-two interpreters ? Se- 
condly, if there were any, when it was done ? Thirdly, of what 
books ? Fourthly, how this was done ? Fifthly, what authority this 
translation is of? Sixthly, whether this be the true translation of 
the seventy-two interpreters which Ave have at this day?^ 

For the first question, the answer is easy ; for there is no doubt 
but that there was a Greek translation by the seventy-two inter- 
preters, for that all antiquity accords to this. This is testified by 
Epiphanius,* Eusebius,t Justin Martyr, | with many others. And as * Lib. dc 
for the second question, the answer also to it is easy ; for all men ponderib. 

t De praepa- 

do a2;ree that this translation was done in the reisn and at the an- '''''• '^™"^^'- 

•^ ^ c X In dialog. 

pointment of Ptolemjeus Philadelphus. This write and avouch these ph"nJ''^" 
men, Joseph, Philo, Athanasius, § Epiphanius, Tertullian, Arist£eus,||§ in synopsj. 

' , ' J r i 7 7 '" II In historia 

and many others." And for the third question. What books were ?"''^ '^^ ^'^'^ 
translated by them ? the answer is not so easy ; for some tliink they 

' It is worthy of notice, that the whole statement regarding the Septuagint, 
and the Greek translations generally, is, in many respects, identical with the 
account given by Bellarmin, (Ibid. vol. i. pp. 77, &c.) who also mentions nine 
translations, as stated above by onr Author. Thus, Bellarmin gives five ques- 
tions regarding the Pentateuch, identical with the last five of our Author. It 
may be interesting to compare them. 

Bellarmini. De iuterpretatione Septuaginta seniorum, qua? inter omnes 
Grajcas editiones merito primum locum semper obtinuit, quiestiones quinqne 
exsistunt. Prima, quo tempore facta sit. Secunda, quorum librorum sit. Tertia, 
quomodo facta. Quavta, quanta; sit auctoritatis. Quinta, num hoc tempore 
germanam interpretatiouem Septuaginta seniorum habeamus. — Ibid. p. 79. 

Rolloci. De versione itaque ista Septuaginta interpretum dicemus : qua; 
autem dicemus revocabimus doctrinae gratia ad certas aliquot qujBstiones, nempe 
sex numero : Prima est, an fuerit versio Gragca facta a Septuaginta duo- 
bus interpretibus. 2. Si fuerit, quando facta. 3. Quorum librorum fuerit. 4. 
Quomodo facta. 6. Quanta ejus authoritas. 6. An ha^c sit germaua versio 
Septuaginta duorum interpretum quam nos habemus in manibus. P. 139. 

2 It must be confessed, that the account given by Bellarmin is fuller and more 
accm'ate than this. 

VOL. I. I 


translated but the five books of Moses only. Of this mind is 
inpiooemio Josepli, and Jerome seems to incline this way. Others say, they 
translated all the Scripture ; and this is likest to be true. For, 
first, it is not likely that King Ptolemy could have contented him- 
self with the Pentateuch only. Secondly, the Apostles of Christ 
used the Greek translation in citing testimonies out of the prophets, 
but in the Apostles' time there was none other translation but that 
of the Septuagint's. Thirdly, there had been no matter of admira- 
tion, in that this work was done wdth such expedition, if the Pen- 
tateuch ordy had been translated and finished in the space of 
seventy-two days ; for they say, this translation was miraculous.^ 
Fourthly, Chrysostom and Theodoret, among the Fathers, are of 
this judgment. Wherefore it is best we hold this as most pro- 
bable, that all the Old Testament was translated by them. 

[As to the question regarding the manner in which the transla- 
tion was executed, the following narration is given. Seventy-two 
elders from the tribes of Israel, the most skilled in both the 
Hebrew and the Greek, by the orders of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
finished the translation at the island Pharos, in ^gypt, with mira- 
culous quickness, namely, in seventy-two days, and with extra- 
ordinary harmony. Some relate that, in the execution of this 
translation, they were shut up, each in a separate apartment ; 
others, that they Avere in pairs ; and others, that they wrought in a 
body, sitting in one place, and comparing their labours. They 
make, then, the execution of the translation miraculous ; but these 
miracles, narrated for the purpose of magnifying the authority of 
this translation, no one can believe.^] 

1 The meaning of our Author is not well brought out here. He does not mean 
to say that It was actually a miraculous translation, but that, in the opinion of 
those who were acquainted with it in its early history, it was deemed miracu- 
lous, which would not have been the case if it had consisted of a translation of 
the Pentateuch only. 

2 This passage has been omitted by Holland. I subjoin the original, 
(^uod ad quajstionom de modo versionis, hunc fuisse modum narrant : Septua- 

ginta duo sencs ex tribubus Israel utriusque linguaj Hebraici« et Gra^ca; peri- 
tissimi, jussu Ptolemaii Phlladelphi, miraculosa cclcritatc, nempc 72 dicrumj 

god's effectual calling. 131 

And as for the fifth question, What authority this translation had ? 
Hereunto men answer diversely. For some ascribe too much to it, 
as Epiphanius, who saith, they were not interpreters only, butiniib.de 

■i J- ' J J i " mensuris et 

in a manner prophets. Augustin is too much in the commenda-p^nderib. 
tion of it ; he saith, it was done by a special dispensation of God, 
and thinks it to be set forth by divine inspiration. Others ascribe 
not so much to it ; Jerome saith ao-ainst Epiphanius, they were noinprsefat. 
prophets.^ And often in his commentaries, he teacheth it not only teuchon. 
as corrupted, but as very faulty in itself, which thing he would never 
have done, if he had thought this work had been done by divine in- 
spiration. What authority soever this translation is of, assuredly 
it can have no more than what may, by good right, be given to an 
interpretation ; for we may not avouch it to be given by the in- 
spiration of God, nor make it of equal authority with the Scrip- 

As touchino; the sixth question, some think that the old trans- owtransia- 
lation of the Septuagint is as yet extant, but to be so corrupt, that ^^^ 
it is no wisdom to correct either the Hebrew or Latin copies by it. 
Bellarmin is of this mind.^ Others affirm, that the ancient trans- 
lation of the seventy-two interpretei's is lost, and that this which 
we have is mixed, and very corrupt. This also they prove by in- 
duction of certain places corrupted. First, the Greek Bible num- 
bers from the creation of the world unto the Flood, 2242 years, 

spatio, adiuirabili consensione, ad Phadum [sic; lege Phariim] ^gypti, versio- 
nem banc absolvernnt. Alii singulos seorsim sedibus disclusos ; alii biuos ; alii 
omues coufertim considentes uno loco, et operas conferentes, versionem banc 
confecisse tradimt. Miraculosain igitnr fuisse versionem narraut, sed mu-acula 
h^c quae dicimt fuisse, ad amplificaudam hujus versionis authoritatem, fidem noii 
habeut. P. 141. 

' It is important to notice, iu forming an estimate of our Author's acquaint- 
ance with his subject, that Jerome, in the passage here referred to, does not 
name Epiphanius, while he throws discredit on the story told \>y him regarding 
the cells in which the translators were shut up. 

^ De postrema qujestione licet [non] ignorem nonnullos in ea sententia esse, 
ut existiment interpretationem Septuaginta seniorum penitus uiteriisse ; niulto 
probabilius censeo, illam adhuc superesse, sed adeo corruptam et vitiatam. ut 
omnino alia esse videatur. Bellarmin. — Ibid. vol. i. p. 82. 


as we may see in Augustin, Eusebius, and Nicephorus In his 
chronology ; but the Hebrew verity saith, the number of years be 
1656. Therefore the Greek number exceeds the Hebrew in years 
586. Secondly, from the Flood to Abraham, the seventy-two in- 
terpreters reckon of years 1082 ; but according to the Hebrew text 
of God's word, there be no more years but 292, so the Greek ex- 
ceeds the Hebrew verity 790 years. Thirdly, in the Greek copy, 
Adam is said to have lived 230 years, and in some books 330, 
when he begat Sheth : but the Hebrew Bible saith, Adam begat 
Sheth when he was 130 years old. Fourthly, according to the 
Greek copy, Methusalem lived fourteen yeai's after the Flood, 
which is very ridiculous ; for where lived he ? or how was he kept 
from the waters ? In the ark ? That cannot be, for but eight souls 
only entered into the ark, among whom Methusalem is not reck- 

Metiinsa- oncd. The Hebrew Bible speaks far otherwdse of Methusalem's 

death. ycars and age ; for by it we gather, that he died that very year 
the deluge came on the whole earth, to wit, the year of the world 
1656. Fifthly, In Jonas, the Greek copy denounceth destruction 

ciiap. iii. 4. to tlic Nlnevltcs after the third day. As yet three days, and Nineveh 
shall be destroyed ; but in the Hebrew text we read, Yet forty days, 
and Nineveh shall be destroyed. By these places w'C see there is 
jireat difference between the Greeks and the Hebrews in their 
numbering ; but all agree that the Hebrew numbers are true, 

Pecivitate Augustin fcIgns I know not what mystery in this diversity of 

Dei, lib. xviii. t n i i i • f> i 

numbers, to deiend the authority oi the seventy-two mterpreters, 
which notwithstanding he could not maintain in the place concern- 
ing Methusalem. Jerome deals more plainly and faithfully, saying, 
that the Septuagint have erred in their number. By these before 
cited places, and many such like corrupted, we conclude, that this 
Greek translation, which Is now extant, is not that which the 
seventy-two ancient Jews wrote, or If it be the same, that it is 
corrupted, as we may reckon It to be of very small authority. 

Thus far of the Greek edition of the seventy-two interpreters. 
Now we are to consider of other Greek translations, which were 
written after the Gospel was published far and near among the 


GentileSj and there be eight several translations numbered. The 
first was Aquila's, written in Adrian the Emperor's time, as testl- 
fieth Epiphanius.^ This Aquila was first a Pao;an, and after turned Aquiia si- 

■■■ *■ •*■ CD J nopensis, 

Christian, and was baptized; after this, being admonished for his^"^^;^'^ 
studies in judicial astrology, and at last cast out of the Church for 
his obstinacy, he fell away to the Jewish religion, and conversing 
with the Jews, he learned the Hebrew tongue, and then and there 
translated the Old Testament out of the Hebrew into Greek, but 
with a perverse and a froward mind, as saith Theodoret, purposely 
intending to obscure the doctrine of Christ, and to colour his apos- 

After this translation of Aquila followed Theodotion's, in the 
reign of Commodus the Emperor, as Epiphanius also writeth. 
This man was of Pontus, and of the sect of Marcion the heretic. 
After a time, renouncing his sect, and abjuring all Christian religion, 
he fell to Judaism ; and having learned the Hebrew tongue, he 
translated in like manner the Old Testament Into Greek, but with 
a malicious heart, and unfaithfully, as Theodoret speaketh, intend- 
ing the confutation of his own sect. 

After this translation of Theodotion followed that of Symmachus, symmachus" 

1 • p o A mi • n • 1 translation. 

m the reign ot feeverus Augustus. Ihis man was a ibamaritan by 
birth and country, and for that he could not attain some superior- 
ity he desired in his own country, he fell in like manner into 
Judaism, and was circumcised the second time. And how this 
was done, Epiphanius noteth it out of 1 Cor. vii. 18, to wit, by 
gathering his uncircumcision after his first circumcision, that so 
there might be matter for a second circumcision. This man trans- 
lates the Old Testament out of Hebrew into Greek, but unfaith- 
fully, as Theodoret saith, intending most the confutation of the 
Samaritans, of whom he had his first beginning. 

After this translation of Symmachus, there were two others, 
whose names be not known. The one was found in Jericho, laid 
up in great vessels for the preservation of it, in the reign of Cara- 

^ De ponder, et mensiir.^ c. 14. 



Apud Nico- 
pulin Aqiii- 
lonaveni, be- 
cause there 
were three of 
that name. 






calla the Emperor. The other was found at the north Nicopolls, 
in the time of Alexander the Emperor, the son of Mammaeas. 
This is testified by Epiphanius, Theodoret, and others. 

After all these followed Origen, who lived in the year of Christ 
261, in the days of Valerian and Gallienus the Emperors. Origen 
laboured exceedingly in the conference of such translations as he 
found extant before his time ; for he gathered into one volume 
four translations, to wit, first, Aquila's ; secondly, Symmachus' ; 
thirdly, the Septuagint ; fourthly, Theodotion's ; and set them 
do^\ai in four distinct columns, and this was Origen's Tetrapla. 
This done, he added to these four columns two more of the He- 
brew text, the one set down in Hebrew, the other in Greek 
characters; and this was Origen's Hexapla. Lastly, to the six 
former columns he annexed the two editions before noted to 
be of unknown authors, and this was called Origen's Octapla, 
a work of great labour and excellency, the loss whereof hath 
been, no doubt, no small damage to the Church of God. Origen, 
in these his works, had his marginal stars to observe what he 
liked, his long strokes to put out what he disliked, his little 
labels for addition, and his second labels for a second addition,* 
according to the variety and diversity of his copies. A certain 
godly man, complaining for the loss of these works, said, " Well we 
may deplore the loss of these works, but restore the same we can- 

After Origen, there was one Lucianus' translation, about Dio- 
cletian's time. This man was a minister of the Church of Antioch, 
and a martyr. A copy of this edition, as I have read, was found 
written with this martyr's OAvn hand, and kept in a marble chest 
at Nicomedia. Jerome also writeth, that in his time there were 
copies which were called by Lucian's name. 

Finally, after Lucian's translation followed another edition, set 
forth by one Hesychius, which corrected the interpretation set 

1 As some of the marks used by Origen have been the subject of much dis- 
cussion among tlie learned, it is proper to notice, that tlie description of these 
here given is tlie translator's own. Rollock merely names them. 

god's effectual calling. 135 

forth by the Septuaglnts, and gave it to the churches of Egypt.^ 
And thus far of the eight great translations which were after 
Christ ; all which be lost, howbeit the Papists sell for good 
canonical Scripture certain remnants, as they say, of Theodotion's 
translation, Dan. xiii. and xiv. chapters, a fragment which that 
foul heretic and apostate left in their safe keeping.^ For as con- 
cerning this Greek edition of the Old Testament which is now ex- 
tant, howsoever it comes to us, we have none pure, but mixed and 
corrupted, as we have before observed. And thus far of the trans- 
lations of the Old Testament ; first, the Chaldee paraphrase, next, 
the sundry Greek copies of all ages. 



Now let us come unto the translation of the New Testament. 
The New Testament being first written in Greek, was translated 
into the Syriac tongue, which in the days of Christ and his Apos- 
tles, w^as the proper and natural language of the Jews, by reason 
of their long captivity in Babylon, and for that the Assyrians were 
transported to the possession of Jewry. It is uncertain who 
was the author of this translation, as also at what time it was done. 
Tremellius thinks it most like to be true, that this was done in the 
primitive Church, in the very beginning, and that by the Apostles 

1 Lucianus, Antiochenus presbyter, et Eusebius, Pamphilusque atque Hesy- 
chius, Alexandrinus, non adornarunt novas Grsecas versiones ; sed editionem 
x.otu'/iv LXX. interpretum vel recensuerunt, iit Lucianns et Hesjchins, vel Ori- 
genis labores cum ecclesia commuuicaruut, ut Eusebius et Pamphilus. — Fabric. 
Bib. GrcBC.., vol. iii. p. 715. 

2 The correct translation of the original is ; " Except that the Papists retain 
certain parts of Theodotion's translation, Daniel xiii. and xiv., and to this hour 
ostentatiously produce as a portion of the canonical Scripture the fragment of 
the impious Theodotion, first heretic, then apostate." 


syi-iac trans- themselves or their disciples. He proves also the reverend anti- 

lation, an- *■ ^ 

cient. quity thereof : First, by the elegancy of the tongue. Secondly, by 

the defects and loss of certain books and places of the New Testa- 
ment, which are to be found in the Syriac translation ; as the 
Second Epistle of St Peter, the Second and Third of St John, 
the Epistle of James and of Jude, the Apocalypse, and the story of 
the woman taken in adultery, which is found in the beginning of 
the eighth chapter of the Gospel according to St John. By this 
defect he gathereth, that seeing the Syriac translation was extant 
before the Church accepted these books as canonical, the Syriac 
translation must be very ancient. Again, he saith he found a 
singular faithfulness in the Syriac translation, by conferring it with 
the Greek and original ; which experience any shall find if they 
shall please to confer both languages together. Of the premises, 
the conclusion is this, that the Syriac translation both was in elder 
ages, and is now at this day, in great authority in the Church. 
Thus far of the Chaldaic and divers Greek translations of the Old 
Testament, and of the Syriac translation of the New. 



"We be now to speak of the Latin translations of the New Tes- 
tament and of the Old. The Latin translations of the Bible were 
Dc Doctrina vcry many. This say Augustin and Jerome, who complaineth 
cap.'ii. ' ' "' much of the variety and diversity of Latin translations. Of all 

In prooemio t t i a • r> 

in lib. josuiB. tiie Latin translations, the first was an Itahan ; ' Augustm prefers 

1 Original : Ex versionibiis Latinis, prima fuit Itala qusedam. This transla- 
tion, the first used by the AVestern Church, and which is said to have been 
made from Greek, both in the Old and New Testaments, is called by Jerome 
Communis and Vulgata, by Augustin, Itala, by Pope Gregory I., Vetus. It is 
generally known now by the name Old Italic^ to distuigiiish it from Jerome's 

god's effectual calling. 137 

this before all the rest, as keeping most strictly to the words of the ^hiEtlibTi 
original, and being more perspicuous than others in sentences. '^^p- ^^• 
This was not that translation of Jerome, for it is evident this was 
far more ancient than that translation of Jerome. And who should 
be the author of this is uncertain. 

After this Italian translation, Jerome's followed next ; who is 
said to have left a double translation in Latin of the Old Testa- 
ment. In the first he followed the seventy-two interpreters,^ in the 
latter, the Hebrew original text. For as touching the New Testa- 
ment, Jerome is said not to have translated it into Latin, but to 
have corrected the old Latin translation, as himself affirmeth in 
many places.^ This edition of Jerome, Avhen it came forth first, itAug.Epist. 

•' ■■■ ' •' 10, ad Hier- 

began forthwith to be accepted and read publicly in the churches, °"' 
but with no contempt of that old Italian copy. For as Gregory ^ 
saith, these two translations, that elder Italian and the latter of 
Jerome, were of greatest note in the Latin churches, and most used. 
At length, all those old Latin translations, together with that 
Italian, were not respected ; and Jerome's translation alone re- 
mained, if we may truly avouch this to be Jerome's translation 
which at this day is used, and is carried about In his name ; for the 

^ This is a mistake. Jerome only published a revision of the Old Italic ver- 
sion, comparing it with the Septuagint, of the Psalms, Job, Chronicles, Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes, and Solomon's Song, the rest having been lost through fraud or 
carelessness. Of these there are only extant, the translation of the Psalms 
and Job, and the prologues to the others. 

2 "The history of the Vulgate, therefore, as it now exists, is briefly this: — 
1. The Old Testament is a translation made directly from the Hebrew original 
by Jerome. 2. The New Testament is a translation formed out of the old trans- 
lations, carefully compared and corrected from the original Greek of [by] Jerome. 
3. The Apocrypha consists of old translations, with the exception of Tobit and 
Judith, freely translated also from the original Chaldean by Jerome." — (Pro- 
fessor Eamsay in Smith's Dictionary, vol. ii. p. 466.) 

2 Gregory I. or the Great, Pope 690, died 604. (Ladvocat, s. v.) His sanc- 
tion first gave authority to Jerome's translation. The reference is probably 
taken from Bellarmin, (vol. i. p. 87,) who says ; Quod apertius iutelligitur ex 
B. Gregorio in epist. ante prisfat. in libro Moral, cap. 5, ubi dicit sue tempore 
Romanam ecclesiam utraque editione uti consuesse, id est, antiqua versa ex 
Grffico, et nova Hieronymi versa ex Hebrseo. 


learned greatly doubt of this matter. Here, therefore, we be to 
consider of this point, and two questions principally are to be an- 
swered ; first, who was the author of this ; the second, what author- 
ity it may have in the Church. 

As touching the author of this Latin translation, divers men 
speak diversel}' ; some think it was Jerome, and that it is pure 
without any mixture ; so think all Papists for the most part, espe- 
cially the Jesuits. Others think it not to be Jerome's, as Sanctes 
* In priEf. in Pagninus,* ^ and Paulus ^ a bishop.t to pass by Erasmus, Munster,' 

Interp. BlDl. O ' 1 ' i r ./ 

ad Clement, ^nd otlicr Popisli writcrs. Others deem it to be Jerome's, but not to 

7, Pontif. i ' 

pronianus waut corruptiou ; of this judgment are these men, Joannes Driedo, 
Sixtus Senensis ; * and Bellarmin seems to incline this way, as may 
easily be gathered by his propositions and reasons touching this 

Not his in matter.^ We say, it is neither Jerome's, nor yet pure, nor mixed ; 

whole nor yet 
in part. 

^ See p. 116, note 2. The reference is given by Bellarmin ; Prajfat. iuterpre- 
tationis Bibllorum ad Clementnin VII. Pontificera Maximum. 

2 Thus given by Bellarmin : Paulus Foro Sempronii Episcopus, lib. ii. c. 1, de 
die passionis Domini. 

^ Sebastian Munster was a laborious and celebrated writer of the 16th cen- 
tury. He was born at Ingelheim in 1489, and joined the order of the Cordeliers. 
He afterwards followed the opinions of Luther, quitted the order, and retii-ed 
to Heidelberg, and then to Basle, where he taught with high reputation, and 
where he died in 1552. Among other works he published a Latin translation of 
the Old Testament, with the Hebrew text, which is ranch esteemed. He also 
published a Hebrew Grammar and Dictionary. — (Ladvocat, s. v^ It is proper 
to notice, that RoUock does not call him a Popish wi'iter : he says, Aliis etiam 
pontiliciis hominibus ; " other writers, even those who are Popish." Bellarmia 
takes no notice of Erasmus or INInnster. 

* Jean Driedo, a native of Brabant, was Professor of Divinity at Louvain. 
He died iu 1535. His works occupy 4 vols, folio. For Sixtus Senensis, see 
p. 12] , note 3. Bellarmin (vol. i. p. 87) supplies us with tae references ; his 
words are ; At mixtam esse ex vetere et nova decent Joannes Driedo, lib. ii. 
c. 1, de Eccles. dogmat. et Scripturis, et Sixtus Senensis, lib. 8. Bibliothecae 
sanctaj extremo. From this it appears, that they held not that the text was 
corrupt, but that it was not Jerome's pure translation, being jiartly his and 
partly the Old Italic. Our Author, accordingly, does not say, vitiosam^ but ; 
Alii HieronjTni quidem esse pntarnnt, sed non puram. 

5 Bellarmin {Ihid^ has four propositions, which agree with the account given 
page 137, note 2, except that Bellarmin maintains that the Vulgate translation 
of the Psalms is not from the Hebrew, but is a translation (amended by Jerome) 
of the Greek version as corrected by Origen and Lucian. 

god's effectual calling. 139 

and this we prove on this manner.^ Jerome translated the Old 
Testament out of the Hebrew into the Latin accurately or exactly ; 
but this vulgar edition is not exact ; therefore it is not Jerome's. 
The proposition is evident ; for Jerome himself testifieth in many 
places of his works that he had laboured and done this translation 
very exactly ; as in his preface before the five books of Moses, in 
his preface before the book of the Kings, in his preface on the 
Psalter, in all which places he saith he changed nothing, but fol- 
lowed faithfully the Hebrew text, and he appealeth to the Jews to 
testify of the faithfulness of his translation. And Ausustin- affirm- 5^. *^,m ""'-., 

•' » Dei, lib. xviiiJ 

eth it, that the very Jews did confess his translation was sound '^^^^ ^^' 
and true. Isidore^ prefers Jerome's translation before all men's, for Hispaiensis, 

. 'lib vi. Ety 

keeping himself more strictly to the words of the Hebrew text, and"'°'°s';ap.5. 
for his perspicuity of phrase. Wherefore, if we may believe these men, 
Jerome's translation was exactly done. So far the proposition. The 
assumption followeth : But the vulgar Latin edition is not accurate ; 
neither doth it agree with the original, the Hebrew text; yea, 
it so far dissenteth from it, that necessarily one of these two 
assertions must be true, either that this Latin edition is most cor- 
rupt, or that the Hebrew fountain is most troubled and disordered. 
And this last point Bellarmin himself dare not avouch, but taxeth 
such as do so affirm, and that worthily.* 

It resteth therefore that we prove this great disagreement between 
the Latin edition and the Hebrew text. And this can no other- 

1 The meaning of our Author is clearly this. Some aflGlrmed that it is a piu-e 
transcript of Jerome's version, others, partially an edition of it. Our Author 
maintains that it is neither the one nor the other — it is not Jerome's at aU. 

2 Non defuit temporibus nostris presbyter Hieronymus homo doctissimus, et 
trium Unguarum peritissimus, qui ex Hebrteo in Latinum divinas Scriptm-as 
convertit, cujus tantum literarum laborem Hebrsei fatentur esse veracem. 

3 See p. 108, note 2. Isidore's words are ; De Hebra^o in Latinum elo- 
quium tantummodo Hieronymus presbyter sacras Scriptm-as convertit, cujus 
editione generaliter omnes ecclesise usquequaque utuntur, eo quod veracior est 
in sententiis, et clarior in verbis. — {De Ojffic. Divin. lib. i. c. 12.) And ao-ain in 
the passage referred to in the margin : Ejus intei-pretatio merito ceteris ante- 

* In the second chapter of the second book, De Verbo Dei, vol. i. p. 70, &c. 


wise be done but by conference the one with the other. Let the 
comparison begin at the book of Genesis, and compare not all 
places which dissent, for that were infinite, but some special places, 
whereby ye may soon conceive of the rest, and judge what they be. 
And by this conference of places you shall discern that the defaults 
are not of one kind, but of divers, as for changing of words and 
sentences, for defect and superfluity ; for so many ways the Latin 
edition is faulty. In my judgment, this comparison cannot better 
be found by any man or means ^ than by that vulgar Latin which was 
corrected by John Benedict, a divine of Paris, whom, that I may 
pass over this point briefly, I recommend unto thee, gentle reader. 
By this conference ^ that shall appear, both that this is not Jerome's 
translation, and that this vulgar Latin edition is not authentical, 
so as we shall not need to spend any time in handling the other 



It remaineth now that we speak of such editions and translations 
as be in the usual mother tongue. I understand that translation 
to be in the mother tongue, which is done in that language which 
is vulgar and common among the people of that country, whose 

1 Ori^'inal : Meo judlcio non aliunde melius discetur Iicbc comparaiio quam ex, 
&c. In my judgment, this comparison will be learned from no other source 
better than from, &c. 

^ "In conclusion, we may remark, that the Vulgate in its present form is by no 
means the same as when it issued from the hands of its gi-eat editor. Numerous 
alterations and corruptions crept in during the middle ages, which have ren- 
dered the text uncertain. A striking proof of this has been adduced by Bishop 
Marsh, who states, that two editions published within two years of each other, 
in 1590 and 1592, both printed at Rome, both under Papal authority, and both 
formally pronounced authentic, differ materially from each other in sense as well 
as in words." — (Professor Ramsay, ibid.) 

god's effectual calling. 141 

language it is ; as the Dutch, Italian, French, English, Scottish, 
and Spanish translations, &c. We may move three questions of 
these translations. First, whether it be lawful to translate the 
Sacred Scripture into every mother tongue. Secondly, whether 
the liturgy or common prayers of the Church ought to be in the 
mother tongue. Thirdly, whether it shall be lawful for the common 
people to read the Scriptures translated into their own language or 
mother tongue. 

To the first question we answer, that it is lawful, yea, also, that 
it is expedient it should be so, and this Ave prove by some few ar- 
guments. First, the Sacred Scriptures must be read publicly be- Translation 

° *• i ^ oftheScrip- 

fore all the people; therefore must they be translated into their tw^^nto^e 
own known language, for otherwise it were in vain to read them.^°"ft"^y^g^^_ 
The antecedent is proved, Deut. xxxi., verses 11, 12. The Lord™®"'' 
commandeth that the books of Moses be read to all indifferently 
when they were assembled, men, women, and children, with the 
strangers. Jer. xxxvi. 6, chargeth Baruch the scribe that he should 
read before all the people the book which he had written from his 
mouth. But some will here object, that this precept was to en- 
dure but for a time. I answer, the end shows it must be perpetual, 
Deut. xxxi. 13 ; the end being this, that this people may hear, learuy 
and fear the Lord. This end is perpetual ; therefore, so is the law in 
like manner, specially seeing that the reading of the Scripture is 
the ordinary and necessary means whereby we be to come to this 
appointed end. So the antecedent being thus cleared, it followeth 
necessarily that the Scripture must be translated into our known 
mother tongue. 

Argument 2. The people are permitted to read the Scriptures ; second ar- 
therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar tongue, for 
otherwise the common people could never read them. The ante- 
cedent I prove thus : The Sacred Scriptures do furnish us with 
weapons against the devil, as we be taught by Christ's example, 
Matth. iv., who gave Satan the repulse, using none other weapons 
against him but testimonies of Scripture. John, chapter v. 39, 
Christ commanded the multitude to search the Scriptures. Acts, 



chap. xvii. 11, the Christians of Bereaare commended for searching 
the Scriptures, whether the points were sound and good, and 
agreeable to the Scriptures, which were taught by the Apostles. 
But see more of this antecedent in the handling of the third ques- 
Third aigu- Argument 3. The very Papists grant the Scriptures maybe 
read before the people, but they say it must be done in an unknown 
tongue. Wherefore, I reason thus : If the Scriptures must be read 
before the multitude in an unknown tongue, that shall be fruitless, 
and without all edification ; therefore they must be translated into 
their known language. The antecedent is proved by 1 Cor. xiv. 
6, If I shall come unto you speaking in tongues, xoliat shall I profit you ? 
q. d.,^ nothing. And after, in the same chapter, verse 19, I had 
rather speak Jive toords with my understanding, that I might also in- 
struct others, than ten tliousand words in a strange tongue. But of 
this point more hereafter. 

Fourth argu- The fourth argument. God requires in his people wisdom, know- 
ledge, and instruction. Therefore the Scriptures must be read, 
and therefore translated into the vulgar tongues. The antecedent 
I prove thus. Deut. iv., God will have his people to be wise and of 
understanding, that the nations round about hearing of this might 
be smitten with an admiration, and say, verse 6, Only this people is 
wise, and of understanding, and a great nation. The Apostle, Col. 
iii. 16, will have God's tcord to dicell in them richly or -plenteously. 
Paul in his Epistles every where requires the Churches to whom 
he writes to be filled with all knowledg-e. The adversaries contend 
and dispute much against this knowledge which God requires in 
the common people. 

Fifth argu- The fifth argument. Christ, while he lived among the Jews, 
spake and preached unto them in their own mother tongue. The 
Apostles of Christ in like manner did preach the Gospel in their 
vulgar tongue, as in the day of Pentecost and after ; and for this 
very cause, that they might speak to every nation in their own 

^ Original : Quasi didssct ; — " as if he liad said." 



god's effectual calling. 143 

known language, that gift of tongue was given them. Thus then 
I reason : If to preach the Gospel in the vulgar known languages 
was no profanation of the Gospel, then so in like manner, to write 
the Gospel in the vulgar known languages is no profanation of the 
same ; for there is like reason of both. 

The sixth argument is from the perpetual use and practice of all sixth argu- 
the ancient Church. For in the primitive Church, the sacred 
Scripture was translated near hand into all languages, as the Chal- 
daic, the Syriac, the Arabian, the Armenian, the Egyptian, the 
Ethiopian, the Indian, the Persian, Scythian, the Sarmatlan 
tongue. There are not a few do avouch this, Chrysostom,* Theo- 1 Homu. i in 
doretjt Augustin,! with others. And at this day there be extant t oe corrig. 
the Chaldaic, the Syriac, the Arabic, the Egyptian, and the Ethio- affectib. 
pian translations; all which the learned say were done in the t ^^ ^°<='''- 

*■ •> Christ, lib. ii- 

Apostles' time. Chrysostom turned the sacred Scripture into^^^"^' 
the Armenian tongue, as Sixtus Senensis reporteth. Jerome 
translated the Scripture into the Dalmatic tongue, as these men do Lingua Dai- 


testify, Alphonsus a Castro,^ Eckius, Hosius,^ Erasmus. Methodius^ 
translated it into the Sclavonian tongue, as saith Aventin * in his 
Chronicle. Ulphilas, Bishop of the Goths, translated the same into 

1 Alfonso de Castro, a Spanish divine, of the order of St Francis, followed to 
England Philip II., when he married Queen Mary. He died at Bnissels in 
1558, aged sixty-three years. His works, which are mainly controversial, 
were published at Paris, in 1578. — Ladvocat, s. v. 

2 Stanislaus Hosius, a native of Cracovia, was educated in Italy, and on his 
return to Poland, became ultimately Bishop of Wannia. For his services with 
the Emperor Ferdinand, to whom the Pope appointed him resident nuncio, he 
was made Cardinal in 1561, and was one of the three legates that opened 
the Council of Trent in that year. He returned to Germany, but soon after 
was recalled to Rome, where he died in 1579, aged seventy-five years. 
His works are numerous, and highly esteemed by the Eoman Catholics. — Lad- 
vocat, s. V. Pallavacino, ibid. lib. xiv. c. 13. lib. xv. 6, 6. c. &c. 

^ Two brothers, Cyril and Methodius, sons of Leo, a noble Greek of Thessalo- 
nica, are said to have first preached the Gospel to the Sclavouians, in the end 
of the ninth century ; and to Cyi'il is ascribed the invention of the Sclavonic 
Letters. — Home's Introduction^ vol. ii. part i. p. 245. 

* John Aventin of Abensperg, born in 14G6, died in 1534. He wrote Annates 
Bavarice, to which there is here a reference. The best edition is that of 1580. 
—Ladvocat, s. v. 


Socrates, tri- the Goths' lano-uaffe. Auo-ustln writeth that the Old Testament 

partita his- .... 

I?"?.-' .. . was translated into Syriac. Plardino- ag-ainst Juel.^and Eckius, write 

De Civitate •' o o ' ' 

Dei, ub. XV. ^j^^^^ ^]^g Muscovites and the people of Russia had the Scripture in 
their own mother tongue. The History of England, Avritten by 
Beda, affirmeth, that the Scriptures were translated into the 
English tongue before his time. Beda saith, he translated part of 
the New Testament himself.^ Thus far the practice of the Old 

1 Tho ecclesiastical histories of Socrates, Sozomenus, and Theodoritus, (which 
are generally joined with those of Eusebius, Theodoras, and Evagrius,) were first 
translated, or paraphrased in Latin by Epiphanius Scholasticus in the beginning 
of the sixth century, and were repeatedly printed prior to our Author's time, 
especially at Basle. From the three authors thus translated, Epiphanius called 
the work Tripartita Historia, which he divided into twelve books, (Fabricii, Bib. 
Gr(Pc.^ vol. vii. p. 425.) But Sozomenus, not Socrates, makes the statement 
referred to by our Author. — Sozom. Hist. Ecclesiast. lib. vii. c. 37. For an ac- 
count of the Gothic translation, made towards the close of the fourth century, 
see Ilorne's Introduction., vol. ii. part i. p. 240- 

- This is the celebrated Bishop Jewel, who flourished in the time of Henry 
Vin., Mary, and Elizabeth. His Apology for the National Church was attacked 
by Harding, a Roman Catholic divine. The original is adversus Jovellum. 

3 The original has no counterpart to the words, " written by Beda." It has 
simply Anglicana Historia, though it is highly probable that it is to the Historia 
Ecclesiastica Gentis Angloi-um of Bede that om* Author refers. The only words 
there bearing on this subject, that I can find, are, (lib. i. c. 1,) " Htec [insida] in 
prjEsenti, juxta numerum librorum quibus lex diviua scripta est, quinque gentium 
Unguis unam eandemque summje veritatis et vera; sublimatis scientiam scrutatur 
et confitetur, Anglonmi videlicet, Britonum, Scotorum, Pictorum, et Latinorum, 
qua3, meditatione Scripturarum ceteris omnibus est facta communis." This, it 
must be admitted, is ambiguous. If it means that there was a translation of 
the Scriptures in the Anglo-Saxon before Bede's time, it must also mean that 
there was a Welsh, Scottish, and Pictish translation. All that it seems to 
indicate is, that there were preaching and creeds in the several languages, and 
that for the study of the Scriptures the Latin was the common medium. Fulke, 
in. his edition of the Rhemish Testament, is of our Author's opinion. " He 
meaneth that learned men of all the four nations studied the Scriptures by 
help of the Latin tongue, and such commentaries and treatises of the elder 
fathers as were written therein. But he saith expressly, that the knowledge of 
the highest truth, which is not to be found but in the Holy Scriptures, and 
according thereunto, was both searched out and confessed in the mother tongue 
of the other four nations, by which he meaneth the Christians unlearned in the 
Latin tongue." — (Preface, p. 3, ed. 160L) I have been unal)le to discover in 
Bede any notice of his translation of part of the New Testament. It is said 
that his translation of the Gospel of St John is the first portion of the Ncav 

god's effectual calling. 145 

Church, whereby, as by the rest of the argument aforegoing, it 
folio weth, that the sacred Scripture is to be translated into every 
country's vulgar language. 

Now it resteth to see what the Papists answer to this question 
we have in hand. Some few years past they utterly denied that 
the sacred Scripture might be translated into any mother tongue. 
Petrus Asoto,^* Censura Coloniensis, and Harding, before named, *jjj^°„'?gj2'* 
these write that some are of this judgment, the Scriptures are 
not to be translated into the vulgar languages. And for this cause, 
such as translated Scriptures, they were banished ^ and condemned 
by the Pope, and their books were prohibited and burnt. And 
when they saw this to be odious to all men, these grave fathers 
changed their minds, and now forsooth they avouch the Scriptures 
may be translated into the vulgar languages, yet by the Pope's 
permission. And this albeit it seems to be something diverse 
from the former assertion, yet in effect it is the very same, 
lor the Pope will permit no man to do this, but to such a one 
as shall turn all the corruptions which are to be found in the 
old Latin edition into the vulgar tongue, and so recommend 
the same to posterity. This is Bellarmin's^ judgment and the 

Testament trauslated into the language of this island of which we have any 
account. — (Historical Introduction tothe'EnglhhHexapla, p. 2.) Home (Intro- 
duction, &c., vol. ii. p. 246) says: "Not many years after this, the learned 
and venerable Bede (who died A. D. 735) translated the entire Bible into 
that language." — See also, on this subject, Ai-chbishop Usher's Historia Dog- 
matica Controversice, &c., p. 107. 

1 This, both in the original and translation, should be Petrus a Soto. He 
was a distinguished Dominican of Cordova, Confessor to the Emperor Charles 
V. He afterwards taught in Dettingen till 1553, when he was summoned to 
England to assist in re-establishing the Papal faith in the Universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge. On the death of Queen Mary in 1558, he returned to 
Dettingen, and thence went to the Council of Trent, where he died in 1563. 
His works are held in high estimation by those of his own persuasion. — Ladvo- 
cat, s. V. Pallavacino, ibid. lib. 20. cc. 13, 17, &c. 

2 As in the case of Luther, AVicliff, Tindal, &c. — See Ai-chbishop Usher, ibid 
pp. 179, &c. "Banished." Orig'mdil : proscriptis. " Excommunicated" seems 
a preferable translation. 

2 Bellarmin treats more of readers than of translators. But his allusion to 
the celebrated Index of Pius IV. in the following passage, together with his 
VOL. I. K 


Ehemists.^ But we avouch the contrary, to wit, that every godly 
learned man, skilful in the tongues, may translate the Scripture 
without the Pope's permission ; yea, albeit he prohibits the same ; 
and that it shall be lawful for the Church of Christ to accept of the 
same translation after examination, albeit the Pope give none 
authority nor approbation hereunto. For in the ancient Church, 
when the authority or tyrannical jurisdiction of the Pope was un- 

wliolesale approbation of the Vulgate throughout, makes his opinion abundantly 
clear. At Catholica Christi Ecclesia non quidera prohibet omuino vulgares 
traushitiones, ut Kemuitius impudenter mentitur, nam in indice librorum prohi- 
bitorum a Pio IV., edito Reg. IV. videmus concedi lectioncm ejusmodi 
librorum lis qui utiliter et cum tructu ea uti possunt, id est, iis qui facultatem 
ab ordinario obtiuueriut ; prohibet tamen ne passim omnibus sine discrimiue 
concedatur ejusmodi lectio, ct ne in publico, et comnumi usu Ecclesia?, Scripturaj 
legantur vel canantur vulgaribus linguis, ut in Concilio Trident. Sess. 22, cap. 
8, et can. 9. — (Ibid. p. 112.) Bellarmin's mode of statiug the controversy is 
instructive. Controversia est inter Catholicos ct hasreticos, an oporteat, vel 
certe expediat^ divinarum Scripturarum usum comraunem esse in lingua vidgari, 
et propria uniuscujusque regionis. 

^ " Now, since Luther's revolt also, divers learned Catholics, for the more 
speedily abolishing of a number of false and impious translations put forth by 
sundry sects, and for the better preservation or reclaim of many good souls 
endangered thereby, have published the Bible in the several languages of 
almost all the principal provinces of the Latin Church : no other book in the 
world being so pernicious as heretical translations of the Scriptm-es, poisoning 
the people under coloiu* of Divine authority, and not many other remedies being 
sovereign against the same (if it be used in order, discretion, and humility) than 
the true, faithful, and sincere interpretation opposed thereunto. Which causeth 
the Holy Church not to forbid utterly any Catholic translation, though she 
allow not the publishing or reading of any, without exception or limitation ; 
knowing by her divine and most sincere wisdom, how, where, Avhen, and to 
whom these, her INlaster's and Spouse's gifts, are to be bestowed to the most 
good of the faithful ; and, therefore, neither generally permitteth that which 
must needs do hurt to the unworthy, nor absolutely condemneth that which may 
do much good to the worthy. Whereupon, the order which many a wise man 
Avished for before, was taken by the deputies of the late famous Council of Trent 
in their behalf, and confirmed by supreme authority, (Ind. li. prohibit, regula 4,) 
that the Holy Scriptures, thongh truly and Catholicly translated into vulgar 
tongues, yet may not be inditiercntly read of all men, nor of any other than 
such as have express license thereunto of their lawful ordinaries, Avith good tes- 
timony from their curates or confessors, that they be humble, discreet persons, 
and like to take much good and no harm thereby." — (Preface to the llhemish , 
Translation of the New Testament.) 

god's effectual calling. 147 

known, the translations before specified were both done and re- 
ceived of the Churches without the Pope. And thus far of the 
first question. 

It followeth, in the second place, whether the Liturgy or common 
prayers of the Church are to be celebrated in a known tongue ? I 
mean the public service or worship of God in ecclesiastical assem- 
blies, as the public prayers, the reading of the Scriptures, the ad- 
ministration of the Sacraments, singing of psalms, &c. These be 
called by the name of divine service. To the question Ave answer^",*"' ^^'- 
affirmatively, that this public service of God is to be done in the 
vulgar tongue. Our first argument we take from the 1 Cor. xiv., 
where, from the sixth verse to the twenty-first, the Apostle teach- 
eth that nothing is to be done in the Church in an unknown and 
strange language. But Bellarmin ^ excepteth, saying, that in that 
chapter the Apostle understandeth principally, a collation and exhort- 
ation, which in the old Church followed after the public prayers f and 
to this end he showeth out of Justin Martyr, the custom of the old ^p°^°^^^2. 
Church. " The Christians assembled on the Lord's days, and first, oui cimrcif 
the Scriptures were read ; then after this the chief minister of the day. "^ *"^ * 
place preached; after this the sacraments were administered; lastly, 
they did use conference of divine arguments or of godly questions." 
I answer, the Apostle here entreateth generally of all ecclesiastical 
duties, and that in this order; first, ye have a general doctrine 
from the sixth verse to the fourteenth. Next, there followeth a 
special instruction how prayers must be conceived, how to sing 
psalms, not in an unknown tongue, but in a known or common lan- 
guage, to the nineteenth verse. After this he returns to his 
o-eneral doctrine again. 

^ Respoudeo, imprimis certum esse, in magna parte liujus capites non agi de 
Icctione Scripturarum, nee officiis divinis, sed de exhortatione spirituali sive 
collationc. Ut euim olim monasti inter se couveniebant, et conferebant de rebus 
spiritualibus, unde existnnt coUationes Patrum apud Cassianum, ita etiam in 
prima Ecclesia, vindicat beatus Justinus in fine Apolog. 2. — (Bellarmin, ibid. 
p. 218.) The following account of Martyr's statement is verbatim from Bel- 
larmin. The marginal, " Note the order," &c., is the translator's. 

^ Divine service. Original : sacrorum. 


Bellarmin ^ excepteth again, that Paul here speaketh of songs 
•svhich in that meeting they sung, which were endued with some 
extraordinary gift of the Holy Ghost. I answer, the Apostle dis- 
tinctly nameth prayers and songs. Again, he speaketh of those 
prayers and thanksgivings, Avhereunto the people did answer, Amen; 
now the people did not answer Amen but to the public prayers ; 
wherefore he meaneth here public prayers conceived in the divine 
administrations, in the public assemblies. 
If in Greek, Bellamiin ^ again obiecteth : " The public prayers in Corinth were 

not in Latin. o o i i i 

in the Greek tongue, a speech well known to the people, and 
that the Apostle knew, and therefore there was no need to prescribe 
any such rules for their divine service." I answer, albeit it be 
granted that the common prayers,^ &c., at Corinth were done in 
the knoAvn mother tongue, yet it followeth not but that the Apos- 
tle's doctrine is general of all ecclesiastical offices to be done in 
the public assemblies. Next, it is most like, that there "svere at 
Corinth some Avhich had the gift of tongues, Avhich abused it to 
vain ostentation, even in the public administration, and that is it 
which the Apostle taxeth in that chapter. And thus far of the 
first argument. 
Argument 2. The sccoud is of the same Apostle in the same chapter, verse 6 ; 
If I shall come unto you, speaking with tongues, that is, unknown 
tongues, lohat shall I -profit you 1 Hence I conclude, the public 
worship of God must be not in an unknown but a known language. 
Bellarmin answereth,thathe which administereth the public prayers'* 
in an unknown tongue shall profit others, for it is sufficient that 

1 Vera igltiir scntentia est, Apostolum hoc loco iion agcre de diviiiis officiis 
uec de piiblica Scripturarum Icctionc, sed de caiiticis spiritualibus, quoi Christiaui 
componebaut, ad laudandum Deum, et gratias ei agendas, et simul ad suam et 
alionim coiisolatiouem et ajdificatioiiem. This opinion Bellarmin elaborately 
defends at gi-eater length than it seems necessary to quote. — {Ihid. p. 120.) 

2 Non loqui Apostolum de Scripturis vel officiis divinis ex eo probatur, quod 
Scripture sine dubio legebantur Gra^ce, et divina otRcia ticbant Grajce in Gra-cia, 
ut etiam lia-rctici admittunt.— (Bellarmin, ibid. p. 120.) The marginal note, 
"If," &c., is the translator's. 

3 The usual public divine service. Original : solita sacra publica. 
^ The public divine service. Original : sacra publica. 

god's effectual calling. 149 

God understands him, and this he goeth about to clear by a simili- 
tude.' '' Like as," saith he, " if a man speak for a rustic or rude man, 
ignorant in the Latin tongue, in Latin to the king, this shall suffice 
if the king understand him, to confer any benefit by the king upon 
the same ignorant person." I answer, what is this else but to say, opus opera- 
that the public administration doth profit the people by virtue or 
merit of the work done,^ albeit in the meantime the people be without 
faith and knowledge of the true God ; ^ but of this in place apper- 

The third argument is of the same Apostle in the same chapter, Third Argu- 
ver. 1 1 ; He that speaketli unto me in a strange tongue, shall be as a 
Barbarian; therefore the public administration of the word and 
sacraments, and of all God's worship and service, must be in the 
vulgar and known tongue. Bellarmin ^ answereth, that he which 
speaketh Hebrew, Greek, or Latin, albeit he be not understood, 
yet is he not to be reputed as a Barbarian, because these tongues 
be not barbarous ; but if he speak in any other language, he is to 
be accounted barbarous. I answer. If the speaker who speaketh 
in these tongues be not understood, he shall be to him who under- 
standeth him not, as barbarous. For so the very poet avoucheth it 
of himself; When, saith he, he wag in exile in Pontus, he com- 
plaineth,^ that albeit he spake Latin, yet he was accounted of those 
strangers as barbarous; 

^ Imprimis falsam est, ex pnblica oratione Ecclesise nullum fructum a populo 
percipi, nisi ea oratio a populo iutelligatiu- ; nam oratio Ecclesite uon fit populo, 
sed Deo pro populo. Itaque non est opus, ut populus intelligat, ut ei prosit, sed 
satis est si iuteUiget Deus. Quemadmodum si quis apud Regem Latine oraret 
pro aliquo rustico, certe rusticus fructum iude perciperc poterit, etiamsi non 
intelligat orationem advocati sui. — (Bellarmin, ibid. p. 121.) It may be in- 
teresting to compare RoUock's own account of this similitude. Ut, inquit, si 
quis Latine pro aliquo rustico et Latins linguai imperito agat cum Rege, hie 
satis est si Rex intelligat, ad hoc ut beneficium perveuiat adrusticum. — (P. IGl.) 

2 Original : Virtute ojieris operati. 

3 " Of the true God." Not in the original. 

■* I have not been able to find this passage in the edition of Bellarmin's works 
of 1620. 
^ More correctly, — For when Ovid was in exile in Pontus, he complained, &c. 


" Barbaras hie ego sum, quia nou intcUigor iilli." ' 
And when it was objected to Anacliarsls,^ the philosopher, at 
Athens, that he was barbarous, he answered, " The Athenians are 
barbarous unto me." 

The fourth argument is of the same Apostle in the same chapter, 
ver. 16; When thou blesscst xcith the Spirit, to wit, speaking in an 
unknown tongue, hoio shall he, that occupieth the room of the un- 
learned, say Amen at thy thanksgiving, seeing he knoweth not xchat 
thou sayest ? "Whence it followeth necessarily, that all public prayers 
and services of God must be done in the known vulgar tongue. 
Bellarmin ^ answereth, that it sufficeth, if some of the people imder- 

1 Trist. V. 10. 37. 

2 A Scythian prince -niio visited Athens in tlie time of Solon, and became 
noted for the terse wisdom of his sayings. — Ilerodot. iv. 76, 77. Luciau, Sci/fha. 

3 This is not a correct account of Bellarmin's answer. He gives two answers 
that have been made to the Protestant objection, both of which he rejects. The 
first is, that Paul is still speaking of exhortation and friendly conference, as 
distinct from and carried on after divine service. This answer Bellarmin holds 
to be totally at variance with the plain meaning of the words. The second is, 
that the passage does refer to the stated divine service, but that there was a per- 
son who, in behalf of the unlearned, or as one of the unlearned, (whom llollock 
calls a clerk, a term not used by Bellarmin at all,) replied, Amen. This, too, 
Bellarmin rejects, on the gi'ound that all ancient authorities agree that there 
was no such otiice in the early Church. He gives it as his own opinion, that 
the Apostle refers to prayers and praises offered to God in the course of those 
exhortatory conferences which followed, but formed no part of the stated service. 
Bellarmin's actual reply to the objection here stated by our Author, which he 
saw might be proposed in this shape — granted that the Apostle does so refei*, 
the same principle holds good in the case of the stated services — is illogical, 
contradictory, and in its admissions, fatal to his argument. I give the whole 
of the concluding passage in his own words. At objicies. Sicut Apostolus volebat 
ista cantica fieri lingua vulgari, nt populns subjiceret. Amen, ita etiam debuit 
velle, nt divina officia celebrarentur lingua vulgari, ut populns respondere posset, 
Amen. Respondeo, negando consequentiam, quia divina officia ficbant lingua 
Gra3ca, quam multi de popido intelligebant, ctsi non omnes, et hoc satis erat, 
non enim volebat Apostolus, ut omnes posscnt respondere. Praiterea, tunc quia 
Christiani erant pauci, omnes simul psallcbant in Ecclesia ct respondebant in 
divinis officiis ; at postea crescente populo divisa sunt magis officia, ct solis 
Cleris relictum est, ut communes preces et laudcs in Ecclesia peragant. Deni- 
qne finis projcipuus illorum canticorum erat instructio et consolatio populi : 
fiebant oiiim in collationibus loco exhortationis, et ideo tequum erat ut a pluri- 
niis intelligercntur, et nisi lingua uota facta fuissent, vcl mox sequuta fuisset 

god's effectual callixg. 151 

stand and answer, Araen ; yea, it sufficeth, if he whom they call 
the clerk, say Amen for the people. I answer. This was not the 
custom of that old ancient Church which never knew what a clerk 

My fifth argument is of the same Apostle in the same chapter, Fifth^Argu- 
verse 40 ; Let all things in the Church he done decently, and in order. 
But if the minister shall pray in an unknown tongue, and the 
people shall conceive other prayers differing from the minister's, 
then shall the minister in the public congregation have his prayers, 
and every one of the people his own prayers also, and not the 
same with the minister. What good decency can be in this, when 
the people are so divided in prayer, which, in the public assembly, 
should offer up with one mind, and with one mouth, one and the 
same prayer unto God? 

The sixth argument is from a point which Bellarmin himself^^^^^^^''" 
yieldeth.^ He granteth that the public administration of prayers, 
&c., at Corinth, were done in the known Greek tongue ; wherefore 
then may not all other Churches in the like manner have their 
Liturgy in the vulgar known language ? What can he answer 
here, but this haply, that the public administration at Corinth 
was done in the mother tongue, not for that it was the vulgar 
tongue, but because it was Greek ? for Papists give the Greek 
tongue, when they please, some prerogative. 

The seventh argument is from another point which Bellarmin seventh 

. Arguuient. 

granteth.^ The collations, as himself speaketh, and the exhortations, 
ought to be done in the mother tongue ; wherefore, in like manner, 
may not the public administration of God's worship be done in the 
mother tongue best known to the people ? He answereth, that 
the reason is not the same of the collation and service. " For," saith 
he, " the collations tend to the instruction and consolation of the 

interpretatio, perisset prsecipuus fructus ipsorum, at divinoiiim officiorum nee 
est finis prjEcipuus instructio vel consolatio populi, sed cnltus Dei, et quaj 
popiilum scire oportet, ex diviuis officiis a pastoribus explicantur. — (^Ibid. 
p. 121.) 

' 2 See the quotation from Bellarmin in the last note. 


people ; but the public service principally concerns God's worship." 
I answer ; Doth not all the people worship God in the public ad- 
ministration or service of God, and therefore ought they not to 
worship God in a known language, if they will worship their God 
in faith ? 

The eighth argument is from the practice of the old and best 
Church. In elder ages, so many translations were done, principally 
to this end, to celebrate the public service of God, and that herein 
the Scriptures might be read to every man in his known mother 
Lib. de tongue, ^neas Sylvius writeth, that to Cyril and Methodius it 
linhemo- "was permitted, that the people of Lloravia should have their com- 
mon prayers^ in the mother tongue. And at this day the people 
of Armenia, ^Ethiopia, ^gypt, and the Muscovites, have their com- 
mon prayers^ in their known tongue. Here Bellarmin answereth; 
" All the?e are heretics." ^ I say they be no more heretics than 
Papists. Assuredly, as touching public prayers, I had rather be in 
this heresy with them than with the Papists, as they think to 
mean well.^ And thus for our judgment in this matter. 

The adversaries say, that the public prayers ^ may not be in a 
known tongue, but in Hebrew or Greek, as in the East and Greek 

^ 2 5 Public divine service. Original : puhlica sacra. 

3 Bellarmin makes a distinction between the Moravians and the other 
nations here mentioned. The latter he calls heretics, or schismatics. As to 
the Moravians, he says : — Ad illud de Moravis respondeo, fuisse causam justam, 
cur id eo tempore fieri deberet, quia nimirum, (ut i-efert iEneas Sylvius libro de 
origine Bohemorum, c. 13,) totum regnum simul convertebatnr, et uon poterant 
inveniri ministri, qui Latiue celebrarent, visum est summo Pontifici melius per- 
mittere, ut Sclavouice id fieret, quam nullo modo. Tamen postca ubi crevit 
eruditio et ministri idonci inveuiebantur, qui possent Latiue idem prjEStare, 
melius fuit omittere nsum lingua; Sclavonica;, et communeni totius ecclesia^ cou- 
Guetudinem sequi, ut hoc tempore Moravi Catholici faciuut — {Ibid. p. 126.) 
Tt deserves notice, in reference to our Author's research, that as Bellarmin 
makes no mention of the parties among the Moravians to whom the permission 
was given, RoUock must have verified for himself the passage from iEneas Syl- 
vius, otherwise Pius II. Pope, 1458 — 1464. His Ilistoria Bohemorum, with 
other writings, were republished in Helmstad, in one volume fol. 1700. 

"* Incorrect ; it should be, — I had rather be in this heresy witli them, than 
think with the Papists orthodoxly, as they suppose. Original : JNIalim in hac 
hajresi esse cum lis, quam cum Pajnstis, ut ijisiputant, recte sentire. 

god's effectual calling. 153 

Clnirches ; or in the Latin tongue, as in tlie Latin and West 
Churches. The arguments they produce for this purpose be, first, 
from the prerogative of tongues. The first is this; "Christ in the 
title of his cross gave honour to these three languages ; therefore 
public prayers^ ought to be done in these." ^ I answer ; Albeit we 
grant the antecedent, the consequent will not follow ; yea, rather, 
we may infer the contrary. The Lord would have the cause of 
Christ's death to be manifested to all people in those languages 
which then were best known, which cannot be denied of the Greek 
and Latin ; therefore public prayers^ ought to be done in the vulgar 
tongues, and known to the people. 

The second argument. — "These three tongues, Hebrew, Greek, and 
Latin, are of greatest excellency, antiquity, and authority ; there- 
fore the common prayers and service of God'' ought to be done only 
in these tongues." ^ I answer ; Grant the antecedent be true, yet the 
sequel is not good. For that very gift of tongues which was given 
the Apostles in the feast of Pentecost, plainly proveth that every 
tongue, be it never so base, is sanctified of God for holy uses, and xote. 
for the execution of public and ecclesiastical offices, and service 
unto God. 

The third argument. — "The Scriptures were originally written in Tiie Papists 

® -^ _ to J gay, Saint 

these three tongues;'' therefore the public prayers'' ought to be done ^|;J'.|^."^g^°|^ 
in these only." I answer ; First, the antecedent is false ; for neither 
the whole Scripture, nor any part thereof, was written first in the 
Latin tongue. For whereas they say Saint Mark's Gospel was 
first written in Latin,s it is false ; but of this point elsewhere.^ 

13 4 7 Original : sacra publica. 

2 5 6 Contenti sumus illis tribus Unguis quas Dominns titulo crucis &\\x. hono- 
ravit, Joan. 19. et qiiaj omnium consensu, antiquitate, amplitudine, ct gravitate 
omnibus aliis prajstant; ac demum quibvis ipsi libri divini ab auctoribus suis 
initio scripti fueruut hoc est Hebraja, Grajca, et Latiua. — (Bellarmin, ibid. 
p. 112.) 

^ Sunt enim qui existiment, Marci evangelium, ut etiam supra monuimus, 
Latine scriptum KomjB ab ipso Marco ; et postea ab eodem in Grascam linguam 
translatum. — (Bellarmin, ibid. p. 113.) 

3 He, probably, refers liere to his general account " of the Greek edition of the 
New Testament," in his 19th chapter. 

written in 


Next, I answer, that it will not follow of tliat antecedent, that 
public prayers should be said in unknown tongues, but rather the 
contrary followeth ; for that whereas the Scripture was first written 
in these two tongues, Hebrew and Greek, for this very cause, for 
that even then, and in those times, these two languages were most 
common, and best known to the people ; hence it follows rather, I 
say, that the public prayers^ ought to be in the most common and 
best known tongues. 

Thus far we have heard of arguments drawn from the preroga- 
tive of tongues ; now follow arguments from the practice and use 
of the Church. The first here is this : " From Ezra until Christ the 
Scripture was wont to be read in the church of the Jews in the 
Hebrew tongue, that is, an unknown tongue ; er^o, public prayers 
may be said- in an unknown tongue." ^ I answer; I grant the Scrip- 
tures were lead in the Hebrew tongue, but I deny that this was 
an unknown tongue. For, Nehemiah viii., it is very clear that the 
sacred Scripture which Ezra read in Hebrew was understood by 
the people which were present and heard it.'* Whereupon the 
contrary consequent must follow. The Scripture was read in the 
church of the Jews in older ages in a known tongue ; therefore it 
must be read at this day in popular and known tongues. 

^ Original : Publica sacra. 

2 This slioxild be, — The public diviue service onglit to be celebrated. Original : 
Ergo cehhranda sacra publica. 

2 Pi'incipio igitur Ecclcsiai Catholicie consuetudinem coraprobare ]iossunnis 
ex iisu Ecclesiaj Vcteris Testanicnti, qui fuit a tempore Esdr;\% usque ad Chris- 
tum. Nam a temporibus Esdraj desiit in populo Dei lingua Ilebraica esse 
vulgaris ; siquidem in illis Septuaginta annis quibus IIebr;ei fuerunt inter 
Chaldeos in Babylone, obliti sunt linguam propriam, et Chaldaicam didiccruut, 
et deinceps Chaldaica, seu Syriaca fuit illis materna, quocirca lib. Esd. 2, [Nehe- 
miah with ns,] cap. 8. habemus, quod cum legeretur liber legis Domini uuiverso 
populo, Nchemias, et Esdras, et Levitaj intcrprctabantur, quia alioqui populus 
niliil intelligebat. Itaque propterea, ut ibidem dicitur, facta est L-etitia magna 
in populo, quia intellexerant verba legis, Esdrainterpretante. — (BeUarmin, ibid. 
p. 112.) 

* The opinion of most learned men, as well as of our Author himself in 
other i)laces, (pp. 113, 135,) is decidedly in favour of Bellarmin's statement, 
that the Hebrew, in its pure form, was not iniderstood bj^ the Jews on 
their return from Babylon. But the circumstance mentioned by Bellarmin, 

god's effectual calling. 155 

The second argument is from the practice of the Jewish syna- 
gogue in these times. " To this day," saith he, " the Scripture is 
read in the synagogue of the Jews in the Hebrew tongue ; therefore 
public prayers must be celebrated' in an unknown tongue." ^ I 
answer ; The argument follows not from the evil example of the 
synagogue of the Jews ; for that this reading of the Old Testa- 
ment in an unknown tongue is the cause wherefore so many of 
them hold back, and will not be converted to the faith of Christ. 

The third argument is from the practice of the primitive Church. 
"In the primitive Church the prayers^ were said in one of these 
three tongues ; therefore the conclusion followeth." ■* I answer; The 
antecedent is false, for that, as hath been before showed, in the 
time of the old Chvn-ch, yea, in the very days of the Apostles, the 
Scriptures were translated in a manner into all languages. 

The fourth argument is from the continual practice of the 
Catholic Church ; " for in it the public prayers'^ were ever either in 
the Greek or Latin tongue." ^ 1 answer; If by Catholic Church they 

Nehemias, et Esdras^ el Levitce interpretabantur^ is evideutly fatal to his own 
argument. Tlie words of another eminent Eoman Catholic authority may be here 
quoted on this subject. "The mode of conducting religious instruction and 
Avorship, at the present day in Christian chiu-ches, is derived for the most part 
from the practices which anciently prevailed in Synagogues. And still there 
were no regular teachers in them, who wei-e officially qualified to pronounce 
discourses before the people, although there were interpreters, JiDjin, }Oj"iniD> 
who rendered into the vernacular language — viz., the Hebrew, Aramaean— the 
sections which had been publicly read in Hebrew." — {3 ahn's, Biblical Antiquities, 
§ 372. Upham's Translation.) 

^ This should be, — The public divine service ought to be celebrated. Original : 
Ergo celebranda sacra publica. 

^ Deuique usque ad hanc diem in Synagogis Judaji Scriptiu-as Hebraice 
legunt, cum tamen nuUi nationi hoc tempore lingua Hebraica sit vulgaris. — 
(Bellarmin, ibid. p. 112.) 

^ 5 Original : Publica sacra. 

^ Probatur secuudo ex usu Apostolornm : nam Apostoli per totum orbem 
terrarum Evangelium pra^dicarunt, et Ecclesias constituerunt, utpatet ex Paulo 
ad Rom. 10, et ad Coloss. 1, . . . . et tamen non scripserant Evangelia 
aut Epistolas Unguis earum gentium, quibus pra^dicabant, sed tantum Hebraice, 
aut Greece, et ut quidam volunt, Latine. — (Bellarmin, ibid. p. 113.) 

^ Probatur tertio ex usu universalis Ecclesias ; nam ut Augustinus docet, 
epistola 118, contra id quod universa Ecclesia facit disputare, insolentissinije 


mean the Church of Rome, then I weigh not the example and 
practice thereof. But if by this word they mean the true Catholic 
Church, then it is clear already by that which is before delivered, 
that the antecedent is false. And thus far of these arguments taken 
from the practice and use of the Church. 

To the former arguments, they add more from a final cause.' 
" The public administration of God's service and worship being per- 
formed of all or most Churches in one tongue, to wit, the Latin, 
this might serve well for the preservation of the unity of faith." ^ To 
this I answer; This serves notably for the continuance and increase 
of unbelief and ignorance. Again, our very experience teacheth, by 
God's good blessing in these times, that, notwithstanding the great 
variety of tongues in the Reformed Churches, yet they agree well, 
to God be the praise ! in the unity of faith. 

Next, they reason from the little good which hence ensueth,^ as 
they imagine. " It profits the people nothing at all that the Scrip- 
tures be read in the vulgar tongues ; for they understand not any 
sentence of Scripture, albeit they know the words." "* To this I 
answer ; Every one of the unlearned, if they come to hear the Scrip- 
tures with God's fear and reverence, they shall reap and receive 
some profit by it. 

Again, from another danger which may happen,^ they reason 

insauite est. Uiiiversa porro Ecclesi<a semper his tautnm lingnis, Ilebraia, 
GraBca, et Latina, usu est in communi et publico usu Scripturariim, emu tameu 
jamdudum dcsieriut esse viilgares. — (Bellarmin, ibid. p. 112.) 

^ Original : Ah usu etfine iitili. 

2 Sed accedat argumentum ab ipsa ratione petitum. Nam convcnit omiiino 
ad Ecclesiai unitatera coiiscrvandam, ut pnblicus usus Scripturariim sit in aliqua 
lingua communissima : nisi cnira sit Scripturarum pnblicus usus in lingua com- 
muni, toUetur imprimis communicatio Ecclcsiarum. — (Bellarmin, ibid. p. 116.) 

2 Original : Ah inutili. 

* Quinto si uUa ratio csset, cur Script ura; lingua vulgari in coetu fidelium legi 
dcberent, ea certe esset potissima ut omnes intelligerent. At cortc populus nou 
intelligeret Proplietas, ct Psalmos, et alia qua; in Ecclesiis legantur, etiamsi 
lingua matcrna legerentur. Nos enim qui Latine scimus, non propterea continue 
intelligimus Scripturas, nisi expositores legamus vel audiamus. Quomodo ergo 
intelligerent homines imperiti? pra;sertim cum Scriptune eo sint obscuriores, 
quo magis in peregrinas linguas transferuutur. — (Bellarmin, ibid. p. 117.) 

^ Original : Rursus ab inutili. 

god's effectual calling. 157 

thus: " The reading of the Scriptures in a known tongue may more 
hurt than profit the people ; for devotion hath rather decreased 
than increased, since public prayers or service of God hath been 
celebrated in popular tongues."^ I answer ; The consequent is not 
good — the sacred Scripture read in the mother tongue hurts many, 
therefore it is not so to be read at all ; because accidentally, and 
through the defaiJt and corruption of the people, it hurts and 
profits not. So — the preaching of the Gospel is the savour of death 
unto many ; therefore the Gospel is not to be preached ! Further- 
more, be it known that this is no religion, nor true piety, which is 
so coupled with ignorance, but a damnable superstition, when as 
the sacred Scriptures are read, and prayers administered in a 
strange and unknown tongue. Thus far these three arguments 
from the final causes and effects. 

Again, they reason from an inconvenience.^ First, on this wise: "If 
the Scriptures must be read in the vulgar tongue, then translations 
must be renewed in every age ; for ancient words wear out of use ; 
and this is inconvenient." ^ I answer ; What loss is it, if translations 
be revised and renewed in every age ? for the whole translation 
needs no renewing, but some words which haply are become obso- 
lete and out of use.* 

' Quid, quod populus uon solum non caperet fructura ex Scripturis, sed etiam 
caperet detrimentum ; acciperet euim facillirae occasionem errandi, turn in 
doctrina fidei, turn in prseceptis vitte ac morum. . . . Audivi ab bomine 
fide digno, cum in Auglia a ministro Calvinista in templo legeretur lingua vul- 
gar! capitulum 25. Ecclesiastici, ubi multa dicuntur de malitia mulierum, 
surrexisse foeminam quandam atque dixisse : Isiudne estverbum Dei? Imo potius 
verbum diaboli est. — (Bellarmin, ibid. p. 117.) 

2 Original : Ab absurdo. 

3 Sexto, si oporteret lingua vulgari Scripturas sacras publice legere, oporteret 
etiam singulis astatibus mutare translationes. Nam liuguaj vulgarcs singulis 
sa3culis magna ex parte mutantur, i:t Horatius in Arte Poetica, et experientia 
ipsa docet. Tot vero translationum rautationes, non sine gravissimo periculo, 
ct incommodo tierent. Nam non semper invcniuntur idonei interpretes, atque 
ita multi errores committerentur ; qui non possent postea facile tolli ; cum ncque 
Pontifices, neque Concilia de tot Unguis judicare possint. — (Bellarmin, ib. 117.) 

* Two centuries and a half furnish another argument which our Author could 
not then urge. The translation of the Scriptures into modern languages fixes 
and saves, from violent changes, these languages themselves. Thus, of our own 


Again, another evil which might follow this conclusion is this ; ^ 

'' The Pope understandeth not all vulgar tongues ; but the public 

prayers^ must be celebrated in a language which the Pope knoweth : 

Enjor I answer; It is not necessary that prayers^ be in that tongue 

*unocon- "which thc PoPC knoweth. This they prove* because he is the 

cesso errore '- ^ j. 

'"uuntur"*'^' universal Bishop. And this I deny also. Wherefore there is no 
damage shall follow, if public prayers ^ be contained in a language 
which the Pope knoweth not. And thus far the second question. 

The third question folio weth, Whether it is lawful for the lay 
people, as they call them, or the vulgar sort, to read the Holy 
Scriptures ? [I shall observe greater brevity in thc discussion of 
this question.^] We avouch that it is lawful for every one, even of 
the basest of the people, to read the Holy Scriptures. For this 
point, see Deut. chaps, vi., xi., and xvii. ; Josh. i. ; and John v. 39- 
Search the Scriptures, saith the Lord Christ. Acts xvii. 11, The 
men of Berea searched the Scriptures, and for this cause are com- 
mended by the Holy Ghost. Matth. iv., The example of Christ, 
who resisted the devil with no other weapons but of the Scripture, 
teacheth us that the Scripture ministercth unto us such a furniture, 
as every man must be provided of to withstand Satan in his 
assaults against us. Lastly, this is proved by the practice of the 
Church; for wherefore were the Scriptures in the old Church 
translated into so many popular languages, but that they might be 
read and understood of the people? And this is our judgment in 
few words, 
virte ccnsu- What say the adversaries ? Some years past they taught it 

ram Colon i- 

cnsen. ^^.j^g ^q^ lawful at all for any of thc common and lay people, 

translation, it is -well said by Dr Adam ClarlvC, (rrcface to Commentary, vol. i, 
p. 21,) " Our translators have not only made a standard translation, but they 
have made their translation the standard of our language." 

1 Ori'nnal : llursus ah incummodo argumentantur. 

2 3 5 Original: Sacra jmhlica. 

4 This marginal note is tlie translator's. I presume he means that the one 
error of admitting a universal bishop leads to countless others. 
^ Omitted in thc translation. 

god's effectual calling. 159 

as tliey usually term them, to read the Holy Scriptures. After- 
wards, when they saw how odious this was, they changed their 
mind ; and now forsooth they say, it is lawful to read the Scrip- 
tures, but with condition, if it he permitted. Permitted ! I say, of 
whom ? They answer ; " By the Pope, his Bishops, or Inquisitors." 
I demand. What ! of these only ? They answer ; "Not of these only, 
but of them, with the advertisement of the parish priest or con- 
fessor." Well, I understand who be to permit the reading of the 
Holy Scripture. Now I ask. To whom is this permitted ? They 
answer ; " Not to all indifferently, but only to such as the parish 
priest," whom they call the curate, " shall well discei'n, both by their 
confession, and by their whole carriage of their life, to be a true 
Catholic, that Is, a stubborn or stiff-necked Papist." I see then to 
whom they yield thus far the reading of the Scriptures. I demand, 
in the next place, what translations be allowed them ? They 
answer, they will not have them to read all translations Indifferently, 
but such only as some Catholics have published, such as at this 
day, the English Rhemisli translation of the New Testament. 

Thus far briefly of that permission, which hath so decreed the 
condition of this liberty of reading the Scriptures. And this Is their 
meaning according to the decree of Pius Quartus, the Pope, which 
decree is confirmed also by the Council of Trent,' and commended 

1 It is not quite correct to say that tlie decree of Pius IV. was confirmed 
by the Council of Trent, Tlie converse was the case. The Kulcs of the Coun- 
cil of Trent were confirmed by the Pope. The following is the fourth of the 
Ilules, prefixed by that Council to their Index libroruni prohihitorimi^ and con- 
firmed by a constitution of Pius IV. in 1564. The title is, De Lihris ProJdbitis 
IlegulcB X. per Patres a Tridentina Synodo delectos condnnatce^ et a Pio P P. 
IV. comprohatcB superiore constitutione., qum mcz}«V Dominici, die xxiv. ]\Ia,rtii^ 
anno jidlxiv. : — Cum expcrimento manifcstum sit, si sacra Biblia vulgari lin- 
gua passim siue discriminc permittantur, plus inde, ob hominum temeritatem, 
detrimenti quam utilitatis oriri : hac in parte judicio Episcopi aut Inquisitoris 
stetur, ut cum consilio Parochi vel Confessarii, Bibliorum a Catholicis auctori- 
bus versorum lectionem in vulgari lingua eis concedere possint, quos intellex- 
erint ex hujusmodi lectione non damnum, sed fidei atque pictatis argumentum 
capere posse ; quam facultatem in Scriptis habeant. Quin autem absque tali 
facultate ea legere sou habere, pra;sumpserint ; nisi prius Bibliis ordinario red- 
ditis, pcccatorum absolutioncm pcrciperc non possint. Bibliopolai vcro, qui 


by the Rhemlsts ^ in the preface of their English translation. And 
this is Bellarmin's judgment, who differeth in words only a little 
from the former Popish assertion, but in matter and purpose is the 
same in effect ; for what difference is there, if there be no permis- 
sion at all, and to be thus far permitted with such a condition as 
is afore moved? 

And thus of the third question, and as touching the controver- 
sies which are moved at this day concerning Holy Scripture. I 
remember not any that we have left untouched. We have there- 
fore spoken of the word of God, which is the word of both cove- 
nants, as also of the Sacred Scripture, which is a certain mean 
whereby it pleased God to manifest his word and Avill unto men. 
It resteth now that we speak of sin, and of man's misery. 



The common-place of sin, as also the former before handled, is 
AMiat our gubaltei'n to the place or general head of our calling. For calling 

calling is. i. o ^ o ^ ^ o 

is the transferring of a man out of the state of sin and misery, into 
the state of righteousness and happiness. Therefore we shall speak 

praedictam facultatcm iionbabenti Biblia idiomatc vulgarl consciipta yciididcrint 
vel aliis quovis modo couccsseriiit, librorum pretium in iisus pios ab Episcopo 
couvertcudum amittant, aliisquc panis pro delicti qnalitatc ojnsdcm Episcopi 
arbitrio subjaccant. Kcgularcs vero nonuisi facultate a Pra?latis suis liabita ca 
legere aut emere possint.— (Hardiiini, Acta Conciliomm, vol. xi. p. 206.) 

1 For tlie Ehcmists and Bellarmin, sec p. 145, note 3 ; p. 146, note 1, 

2 It may be proper here to remind the reader, that our Author, in treating of 
Effectual Calling, proposed to treat, 1. Of the instrument of God's call, or his 
covenants, especially his Word; 2. Of the condition from which man is called, 
or Sin ; and that into Avhich he is called, or Faith, with its accessories. In the 
chapters, ii.-v., the covenants were treated of generally : in the chapters, 
vi.-xxiii., God's written covenant, or Word ; wliicli led to the long discussion 
on the Canon. And now he resumes the more direct subject. 

god's effectual calling. 161 

of sin first in general ; after, we shall come into his kinds or parts. 
The name of sin signifies a certain thing componnded of his own 
matter and form. The matter of sin, to speak thereof in the first 
place, is a certain being, or thing that is, and that being is not a wiiat sia is. 
substance, but an accident ; and that is either a quality or action ; 
and this quahty or action belongs not to every creature, but only 
to the reasonable creature, angel or man, for God gave his law to 
these only. Of this being, which we say is the matter of sin, God 
himself is the author or principal efficient ; for it is he alone that 
calleth those things which are not as if they were, and that 
createth all things, both substances and accidents. But the crea- 
ture neither is, nor is called the principal efficient of any being. 
Therefore that being, which is the matter of sin, seeing God is the 
principal efficient thereof, necessarily in and by itself is good ; for 
that whatsoever God createth or maketh hath an ingrafted form of 
goodness in it; Gen. i. 31; "When God," saith he, " saw whatsoever 
he had made, behold, it was very good." This form of goodness is 
so natural and essential to being, whether quality or action, which 
God made, that therefrom it can never be separated. But now I 
grant that this same being hath put on another form, to wit, »vo^lx. 
Lawlessness^ the cause whereof is an evil instrument, as we shall 
show hereafter ; for this lawlessness is from another cause, neither The cause of 
doth it destroy that essential form of the goodness of the being 
itself, which procecdeth from God, the creator and maker thereof. 
For, as for the being which God maketh, nothing can be put to it, 
or taken from it, that in itself it may be better or worse. So much 
concerning the matter of sin. 

Now, as touching the form. The form of sin is called Laivless-iheimmoi 
ness, that is, the want of conformity with the will and law of God, 
1 John iii. 4. Sin by his form is thus defined : Sin is the trans- y, «t^«^- 
qression of the laic. This lawlessness or transgression, which we callT'^ ^'^'^t" 
the form and manner of sin, is not a being, or a thing positive, but 
a thing merely privative, to wit, a privation and want of confor- 
mity with the law of God. This transgression happeneth through 
the cause and fault of an evil instrument which God useth in that 
VOL. I. L 


belnof, or in doino; his own work : and this instrument is either the 
devil, or an evil man, and unbeliever. For when the devil or an 
evil man concurreth with God to bring forth his work, he is not 
the principal efficient of the being itself, or of the work done, but 
only an instrumental or ministerial cause : but the devil or man is 
the principal efficient cause of the transgression, or of the deformity 
or sin of that action. And this transgression, the efficient whereof 
is an evil instrument, is evil either for that the action itself or 
work is contrary to the law of God — as when a man committeth 
murder, the action of murder is expressly condemned by the law, 
Tliou slialt not murder — or for that the fountain or beginning of the 
action or work is against the law of God, although the action itself 
be conformable to that law. For as the law of God commandeth 
the action or work itself, so hath it regard of the fountain and begin- 
ning of the action, commanding that the whole work which is com- 
manded by the law, proceed from a pure, holy, and believing heart; 
of that instrument which God useth in doing his work. An 
example of this kind of transgression may be this : AVlien any man 
giveth alms, which work is indeed commanded of God, and yet 
not done of charity, it is rejected; see 1 Cor. xiii. 3. Or, lastly, it 
falleth out to be a sin, for that the end which the evil instrument, 
in doing or working together with God, proposeth to itself, is 
ajrainst the law of God. For as the law of God commandeth the 
work itself, and the fountain and beginning of the work, even so 
it commandeth, as the chief and principal, the end to wit, the glory 
of God himself; Whether ye eat or drink, or loliatsocver ye do, do all 
to the glory of God, 1 Cor. x. 31 . And in this respect a man sinneth, 
when he doth ought, not for God, nor for his glory, but for him- 
self, his own profit, and only for his own glory. 

Here it is to be noted, that whosoever sinneth, as touching the 
fountain and original of the action, the same man always sins 
touching the end, and so contrarily. Wherefore these two last 
ways of transgression are always joined together. Again, it is to 
be noted, that he who sinneth, touching the original and the end, 
doth not always sin in the action itself; for the action or work of 

god's effectual calling. 163 

any instrument, how evil soever in itself, may be good and con- 
formable to the law. Wherefore the first way of transgression, and The person 

•^ o / must please 

the two last, are not always' conjoined. Now then this transgres-^^°^'°,|g^^'~ 
sion, which we call the manner and form of sin, coming, or put to displease! 
that being, the author whereof is God, and which in itself is good, 
Avhether it be a quality or an action, maketh up that which we call 
sin, and which is so called of the form thereof, and not of the 
matter, seeing all things have their denominations from their 

These things thus declared, it shall be easy to gather some defi- 
nition of sin — that sin is a quality or action of a reasonable crea- 
ture, lawless, or contrary to the law of God. The general propriety 
of sin, or the consequent thereof, is guiltiness, and guiltiness is that 
which meriteth or deserveth punishment; as therefore guiltiness 
followeth after sin, so after guilt followeth punishment, both tem- 
poral and eternal. 

Let this suffice concerning sin in general, which being known, it 
is easy to answer those questions which are wont to be made touch- """-ee qnes- 

•' -"■ tions con- 

ing sin, and, namely, to this which they ask : If sin be of God ? or, causl" of ^^ 

if God be the author of sin ? Ans. In sin there are two thino;s — a ^"^ 
being '^ and a transgression. God is the author and principal efficient 
of that being, but of that transgression God is not the author, but 
the evil instrument is. Again, it is asked, whether this transgres- 
sion be any way from God ? Ans. It is from God, not effecting, 
but permitting it, for he suffers it to be done by an evil instrument. 
Thirdly, it is demanded, if God permit sin, inasmuch as it is'' trans- 
gression of his law ? Ajis. Not so, which even by this one reason 
may be showed : He permitteth it unto his glory ; and all the 
means of God's glory, so far as they have such respect, are good ; 

^ Necessarily. Original : Necessario. 

2 That is, a being or ens^ in the sense of oiu* Author when defining the matter 
of sin, (p. 161.) 

3 In its quality of being a transgression. Original : Qua oe.vof4.iot, est. This is 
uniformly the sense wherever similar expressions occur, to the end of this 


find darkness Itself, as it is permitted of God, unto the glory of his 
name, becometh light. 

Again, if here it be asked, If, therefore, the transgression of 
God's law, in so far as a transgression, be not permitted of God, 
doth it not of necessity follow, that sin in respect, or as it is a 
transgression, is done against God's will ? A71S. It foUoweth not ; 
for that which is done against God's will is said properly to be 
done against God's decree, and not against his revealed wiU or 
express law ; but sin, as it is a transgression of the law, is not done 
ao"ainst any decree ; therefore sin, as it is a transgression of the law, 
is not done against God's will. The assumption is shown, because 
God decreed not from everlasting, that sin, as it is a transgression 
of his law, should not be done of an evil instrument. Therefore 
thou sayest, he decreed that it should be done ? Ans. It followeth 
not. For both these are true concerning God : God hath neither 
decreed that transgression, as it is transgression, should not be 
done ; neither hath he decreed that transgression, in so far as it is 
transgression, should be done. For there is no decree of God 
extant, either in this or that respect, touching sin, as it is a trans- 
gression or breach of the law of God. 

But thou mayest ask. Is not sin effected, as it is transgression, 
some way by the permission of God ? Ans. A thing is said to be 
done two ways by God's permission : either by itself, or by acci- 
dent. That which by God's permission cometh to pass by itself, 
must of necessity respect and put on the nature of good, seeing 
God proposeth and directeth the same unto a good end. But that 
which by accident is done, God permitting it, or forsaking the 
creature, nothing hindereth, but that as it is such, it is evil ; for 
God leavino- the creature an evil instnmicnt to itself, the creature 
doth that which is evil, as it is evil ; neither can it otherwise do, 
beino- left of him who is tlie Author of all good. But now, in respect 
of God permitting and leaving, that evil as it is evil, is done by 
accident, not by itself, because God, in forsaking, purposed not 
evil, as it is evil, but, on the contrary, so far forth as it respecteth 
good, and is a mean of his glory, of that especially which is the 

god's effectual calling. 165 

consequent of his mercy. For all means, whether wrought by God 
himself, or suffered to be done of evil instruments, in the first 
place, are both ordained of God himself, and directed to the glory 
of his mercy, arising from the salvation of the creature ; God hath 
shut up all under sin,^ that he might have mercy on all. And, in the 
second place, for the hardness of man, and because of the heart 
that cannot repent, sins and evils which are done by an evil instru- 
ment, serve to that glory which God getteth unto himself, by his 
justice and just punishments. 

If, on the contrary, thou object, " God sufFereth sin that he may or i would 

• 1 1 11 • 1 1 • • 1 ... answer the 

punish the same; but he pumsheth sm m that it is sin or trans- ™'''Jo'' "i^t 

*• _ God suffer- 

gression; therefore he permitteth sin as it is sin :" I answer unto '^*fj„"^'iji^''' 
the assumption; Sin, as punishment follows thereupon, which inr^pecfetu 
itself is good, and turns to the glory of God ; in this, sin, I say, thauie^hatii 

11 -11 11' -, nn ^ pUl-pOSe to 

hath not respect unto evil, but unto good, producing; a o;ood effect ; manifest his 

' ... o/i. no 7 Q^^ gloi-y in 

for an evil cause, as it is evil, cannot bring forth a good effect ; but menn"/siL2 
if that cause, which in itself is evil, be also considered as the cause 
of a good effect, it must needs, in some sort, take unto it the 
nature of good, I confess, indeed, that sin, as it is sin, is the 
cause of punishment ; and the punishment, as it is the effect of an Punishment 
evil cause, must needs itself be evil. And, indeed, punishment evu. 
which is inflicted is considered two ways : First, as a thing in itselfnowpunish- 

. . . . . ment is evil. 

evil; for there is some transgression in every punishment, and 
every punishment, after a sort, is also a sin : Again, it is consi- 
dered as a thing that is good, to wit, as a mean of God's glory. 
This I say, in a word, that all means, which in and by themselves 
are evil, in respect of God propounding, and of the end, which is 
the glory of God, in some sort are good. And that whole chain of 
means, which is between God propounding, as the head and be- 

1 Rom. xi. 32. Our Author's translation is ; Coudusit Deus omnes in contu- 
maciam ut omnium niiscreretur. Beza, giving effect to the article roiig vu.uToe.g 
which occurs in both the clauses, translates ; Conclusit enim Deus omnes illos in 
inobedientiam, ut omnium illorum misereretur. Our translation, it will be ob- 
served, gives effect to the article in the first, but not in the second clause. 

2 This is the translator's own solution of the difficulty. 


ginning, and the glory of God as the end, is the order of things, 
which either by themselves are good, or at the least, in some sort, 
may be so accounted. For these two extremes change all dark- 
ness after a sort into light. 



Thus far of sin in general. The first division of sin is into ori- 
ginal and actual. To speak of original sin first, we be first to 
wh^'so call- observe the reason why it is so named. It is called original, 
'^'^ because it is in us, and with us, from our first being, conception, 

and nativity : for it comes by propagation, and is derived from 
parents to children, as a hereditary disease, as [the itch,] a leprosy,^ 
the stone, or any such like malady of the body. 

And that there is such a kind of sin it is most manifest ; for there 
is none so sottish, and so void of all sense, that he feeleth not this 
hereditary sickness in himself, as the infection and corruption of 
his nature. But the Holy Ghost, who best knoweth what is in 
man, doth clearly avouch this in many Scriptures.^ Gen. v. 3, 
When as Adam^ saith he, hegat a son, according to his oton image. 
Note here the proj)agation of that corrupt image, which was in 
Adam, into his son Seth. Job xiv. 5,^ Who can bring forth a clean 
thing of an unclean ? not one. Behold here the propagation of un- 
Tremei. clcauness. Psalm li. 1,^ Behold, I icas formed in iniquity, and in sin 

me warm in 

her bed. , 

' 111 the translation, leprie. The itch, scabies^ is omitted. 

2 This should be, That this corruption is one of descent. Original : Malum 
esse hoc oriyinis. 

3 This, in the Septuagint, Vulgate, and our translation, is v. 4. Tremellius 
and Junius assume the last verse of the 13th chapter as the first of the 14th. 

* V. 5 of our translation. Our Author has adopted the version of Tremellius, 
of which the translator gives, in the margin, a singular interpretation, which he 
did not venture to insert in the text. The original Hebrew is ''jnnns which 

god's effectual calling. 167 

did my mother cherish me. Behold the sin which we have from our 
mother's womb. John iii. 6, What is horn of the Jlesh, is Jlesh. 
Behold the propagation of flesh, that is, of our corrupt nature. 
Eom. V. 12, Like as hy one man sin entered into the world, and by sin 
death, ^T. Observe here the propagation of sin. Eph. ii. 3, We 
loere hy nature the children of lorath. Note here our corrupt nature, 
and therefore how subject it is to the wrath of God. And thus 
far we see that there is a sin which we call original. 

Now let us consider what the subject thereof is. The subject of 
original sin is the whole man, body and soul, which thing is taught soui infected 
us clearly by that one name which is given it, Rom. vi. 6, as else- Ti °"^"^* 
where, that old man ; whereby nothing else is signified but the 
whole man corrupted, or the corruption of the whole man. That 
the mind is infected with this sin, first we be taught it by very 
sense itself; next, by many testimonies of Scripture. Gen. vi. 5, 
When the Lord saw all the imaginations, that is, all the thoughts of his 
heart, loere only evil continually. Gen. viii. 21, Albeit the imagination 
of mans heart be evil from his youth. Ej)h. ii. 3, Fulfil the will of the 
flesh, and of the mindc 

And that the body is infected with this poison, see Rom. vi. 12,Thebodyand 
Let not sin reign in your mortal body. And that every one of the tiers poison- 

, . eel with ori- 

members is infected and poisoned with the same sin is showed, sinai sin. 
ver. 13, Neither give your members as instruments of unrighteousness 
unto sin. 

Again, the very names of this sin show the subject thereof, or 
where it resteth : as when it is called flesh, concupiscence, the law 
of the members, the body of sin, the body of death. And thus far 
of the subject of original sin. 

Now we be to come to the parts of it ; and because it is a com- The material 
pound thing, we are to consider, first, what the matter thereof is ; ginai sin 

If r^<^ c • • i • • threefold. 

next, what the form. Ihe matter or original sin is threefold. The 
first part of the matter thereof is that apostacy wherein we fell all 

the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and Gesenius, intei*prct in the same way as our 
translation ; the primary meaning of the Avord, at the same time, being to grow 


away from God in the loins of Adam. This we receive fifom our 
mother's womb ; for we are all born apostates, and backsliders from 
God. For that the first apostacy was not Adam's only, but did 
appertain to us all — first, reason itself may sufficiently convince it : 
for we were all as then in his loins, and as parcels of the substance 
and nature of the first man ; and so we all fell in him, and with him, 
from the living God. For this very cause, Heb. vii. 9, 10, Levi 
is said, before he was born, to pay tithes to Melchizedec, because 
he was then in the loins of Abraham. Abraham's fact* was there- 
fore Levi's fact also, and of all his posterity, wiiich then were in 
his loins. Next, this is testified by Scripture, as by name in that 
place which is, Eom. v. 12, In wliom^ to wit, Adam, all men have 

The first apostacy, I grant, is past, and vanished away, as every 
action passeth away ; yet, after a sort, it is said to continue stiU : 
r°oTtac^of ^^^ albeit the fact be past, yet the guilt thereof remaineth still ; for 
^ueth still, every man is born guilty by natm-e of that first apostacy. The 
same is to be said of every other sin; murder, adultery, theft, &c. 
For whatsoever it is, it may be truly said to remain still, so long 
as the guilt remaineth, which is consequent thereunto. Wherefore, 
every man is guilty of that first defection and falling from God, 
until this guilt be taken away by the blood of a mediator. And 
that we be such apostates by nature, tlie Scriptm-e testifieth, Rom. 
V. 15, By the offence of one, many be dead. Wherefore, many must 
be guilty of that one offence. Eom. v. 16, Thefault^ came of one 
offence unto condemnation. And thus far of the first part of original 
sin, that is, of the first backsliding, and our falling away, which we 
bring forth with us from our mother's womb into the world. 
Second part The sccoud part folio weth of original sin — which is a certain defect, 

of original ^ .... 

^'"- or a certain want of original justice, that is, of that righteousness 

or integrity wherein man was created, according to the image and 

1 i. e., Deed. 

2 Original : In qtio omnes peccavimus. The Greek is £(?:' 2. This has been 
variously interpreted. — See Hill's Lectures on Divinity^ vol. ii. p. 22, cd. 1837. 

3 Criminality iu guilt. Original : lieatus, ■which is Beza's translation. The 
Greek is xg/^ec. 

god's effectual calling. 1 69 

example of the righteousness which is in God, the Creator. For 
he created man after his own image, wise, just, holy. For the 
Apostle to the Ephesians ^ and Colossians ^ saith, that in these 
respects man was like to God himself in his creation. This want, 
I speak of original justice, is the first effect of that apostacy before 
showed. For that apostacy whereof we are all by nature guilty, 
depriveth us in our first birth, even in our very conception, of that 
original justice and image of God. This part of the matter of ori- 
ginal sin very sense showeth, and many Scriptures testify of it ; I 
mean such as speak of sin negatively or privatively. For all such^''°°/°J<'"J 

■■- D ^ i J want 01 ori- 

places show plainly what defect is in us, and what want of original 1'°,^!. senle^; 

justice. Rom. iii. 23, All have sinned, and are deprived^ of the glory uirJ "'^~ 

of God. Rom. vii. 18, I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, diccll- 

eth no good tiling. And a little after, I find no means to perform that 

which is good. Rom. viii. 7, The wisdom ^ of the flesh is not subject to 

the law of God, neither indeed can be. 1 Cor. ii. 14, The natural man 

perceiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, neither can he know 

them. 2 Cor. iii. 5, Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any 

thing of ourselves. Eph. iv. 18, Having their cogitations darkened^ 

and being strangers from the life of God. And thus far of the second 

part of original sin, to wit, the want of original justice. 

The third part folio weth; and tliis, we say, is an inclination or The third 

..•,.. , . part of the 

quality contrary to that original justice and integrity before men-™8^"erofori- 
tioned, succeeding even in place thereof. This is that which they 
call our natural cormption, and it is the second effect of the apos- 
tacy of Adam in Paradise. For that rebellion of our first parents, 
first depriveth us of original justice, and of the image of God; 
next, in place thereof, by God's just judgment, it infecteth us with 
a quality clean contrary to that righteousness, whereby we are 
made prone and apt to all evil. This contrary quality or inclina- 
tion unto sin to be in us, very sense proves it, with many testi- 
monies of the Holy Scripture, all which speak of sin afiirmatively ; 

1 Eph. iv. 24. 2 Col. iii. 10. 

^ Original : Deficiuntur — Beza's translation of Can^ovyTxt. 

* Original : Intelligenlia. The Greek is (p^ouyif^x. 


or, that I may so speak, positively. Rom. vii. 7, / had not knoiim 
concupiscence, but that the law sayeth, Thou shalt not covet. Rom. vii- 
23, I see another laio in my inemhers, rebelling against the law of my 
mind. Eph. ii. 3, Fulfilling the lusts of the flesh and of the mind. 
Add to these the places before cited. Gen. vi. 5, and viii. 2. And 
thus far of the third part of the matter of original sin. 

And here, as touching the want of justice, and inclination unto 

A special gj^, wliich wcre two parts of the matter of original sin, ye must be 
advertised that there is no faculty of the soul of man which is not 
infected with both these evils together. We reckon as principal 
powers of the soul, the mind or understanding, the will and the 
affections. These two last the Scripture often understandeth them 
in the Avord heart ; because the will and affections be seated in the 
heart. The first defect then is in the mind, and this is the want 
of light and knowledge ; here is also the want of holiness, that is, 
of a quality, wherewith our very knowledge and light must be 
affected, and assuredly was affected with, in the first creation. 
The light of the mind or knowledge is twofold, natural or spirit- 

A twofold ual. In the mind there is a defect of light or of natural knoAvledge, 

guilt of the -111. c ^ t • •! 

mind. not in whole, but m part ; lor there do remain, even m the unre- 

1. Want of . . . . 

natural light, generate, certain general notions of good and evil things, which 
are commanded and condemned in the law ; but they be such as 
serve only to make men inexcusable, for that they are but lame 

2. Want of and corrupt, Rom. i. 19. The mind also wants spiritual lio-ht, not 

spiritual _ ^ \ ^_ ... 

light. in part, but in whole ; for it is utterly void of this light ; for as 

concerning those things Avhich appertain to the kingdom of heaven, 

3. Want of tlic Understanding is so darkened, that it doth not only not per- 

holiness in . iii 'ji ■i/^««-ij 

tiiemind. ccivc them, but also hath no power to conceive them, 1 (Jor. ii. 14. 
To be short, the mind wants holiness ; for the things it under- 
standeth, it neither conceiveth them rightly and holily, but im- 
piously and profanely all things, even the things which in and by 
themselves are good. For the faculty of understanding, albeit it 
be not utterly lost, yet that holiness of this faculty, Avherein it was 
created after the image of God, Avas utterly lost in the fiill of man. 
This want of this natural light the Apostle showeth, Rom. i. 21, 

god's effectual calling. 171 

Because when they kneio God, they glorified him not as God. These 
latter words plainly show that the natural light of the mind is but 
a dim light, and soon vanisheth away. The want of the spiritual 
light the Apostle showeth, 1 Cor. ii. 14, The natural man perceiveth 
not the things of the Spirit of God. The want of sanctity in the 
understanding the Apostle showeth, Rom. viii. 7, Tlie loisdom of the 
flesh is enmity against God ; even then when it understandeth those 
things which otherwise be in themselves true and good. 2 Cor. 
iii. 8, Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing, to wit, 
well and holily. Eph. iv. 18, Having their cogitation darkened, and 
being estranged from the life of God. And there, ver. 23, And be ye 
renewed in the spirit of your mind. And thus far of the want or 
defect which is in the mind. 

There is also a quality in the mind which hath succeeded or 
stept in place of that light and holiness, which was lost in the fall 
of man. For darkness hath taken possession in the very seat of 
light. Eph. V. 8, Ye icere in times past darkness, but now ye are 
light in the Lord. In place of sanctity and integrity have crept in 
impurity, and a certain maliciousness of nature, which evidently 
appeareth, when it is said, Rom. viii. 5, For they that are after the 
flesh, savour the things of the flesh. This wisdom is of some evil 
quality. 1 Cor. i. 18, Tlie preaching of the cross is to them that 
perish foolishness. And 1 Cor. ii. 14, For they are foolishness unto 
him. This word foolishness argueth the perverse judgment of the 

Thus far of the want of the mind, and the contrary quality crept nie wiu cor- 
thereinto. Both these, in like manner, are to be seen in the will, 
and in every affection. The want of integrity and uprightness in 
the will the Apostle testifieth, saying, I find no means to perform that 
which is good, Rom. vii. 18 ; and Philip, ii. 13, It is he which worketh 
in you, both the loill and the deed. The corruption and frowardness 
of the will, and of the motions thereof, is testified by many Scrip- 
tures ; as Gen. vi. 5, The conceit of a maris heart is only evil. Eph. 
ii. 3, Doing the will of the flesh and of the mind. 
, Finally, this I say, that man's will is more poisoned by this ori- 


Video meiu mnal Corruption than the mind is, for which cause the very hea- 

ora prolioque '-> ^ •' 

nuor"°''^^^' then could say : "I see and approve (by the light of reason) the 
better things ; but (through the corruption of my will) I incline to 
the worser."^ And this the Apostle saith, Eph. iv. 18, Affirming that 

The wiu tliQ icmorance loJdch is in men, is by reason of the hardness of their 

worse than ^ i u ^ j 

the mind, hearts ; and Rom. i. 28, They regarded not to hioio God, therefore 
God delivered them unto a reprobate mind. Note, how the obstinate 
will resisteth the light of the mind, and causeth the mind to be 

Entia. ^j^j ^jj^g fj^j. Qf \\^q threefold matter of original sin.^ These parts 

of the material cause of original sin, because they are so many 
beings, and are of God, every one of them must retain in them 
some goodness, as we say, in respect of their being. For that very 
apostacy and falling away was good in itself; as so the want of 
original justice, because it is a thing in nature, and a consequent 
of that apostacy, this want, I say, as it is of God, is good in itself ; 
and to conclude, that positive quality, which succeedeth in place of 
that holiness and image of God, for the being thereof is of God 
as principal efficient, and is good in itself. 

The form of 'j'j-^g form of orio;inal sin follow eth. And this is a very special 

original sin. o j x. 

repugnance against the law of God, causing a very special kind of 
dvofAix. gijj^3 ^ii(j lil^e as the material cause of original sin is threefold, so 

' Video meliora i^roboque, 
Deteriora sequor. Ovid. ]\[et. vii. 24. 

2 I subjoin tlic original of the passage: — Atque luce hacteiuis de pcccati 
originalis materia triplici. Hai partes materia) peccati originalis, cum totidem 
entia siut, et ab auctore Deo sint, insitam sibi qualitatem bouitatis liabent 
singulse. Nam apostasia sive defectio in se ac per se bona est. Item carentia 
orio-inalis justitia;, cum entis cujusdam rationem liabeat, et res quasdam sit facta 
motu illo defectionis ; carentia, inquam, a Deo est, et in se bona est ; denique 
qualitas ilia positiva, qnaj succcdit in locum sanctitatis et iraaginis Dei, a Deo 
est tanquam principali eflSciente, et per se bona est. Prout igitur triplex est 
entitas, ita triplex est bonitas. (P. 190.) 

It must be remembered, that, according to his view in the 24th cliap., these 
entia are necessarily good, as coming from the hand of God, as the sole efficient 
cause of all entia; but that they assume an evil /o/-»i of oluo/^ix, of which the 
instrumentality of man is the cause. 

3 This should be, — " Now this is a lawlessness, a rebellion against God's law; 

god's effectual calling. 173 

there Is in it a threefold repugnance against God and his law : for 

every part of the material cause hath a repugnance against the law 

in it, and so a form which is from another, in respect whereof it is 

sin. The first apostacy hath in it a repugnance against God ; and 

so the want of original justice, and the positive quality also, which or breach of 

succeeded in place thereof. This threefold iniquity is not of God 

as efficient, but from the evil instruments, tlie devil first, next 

Adam, and, lastly, every man, which is of Adam's progeny. For 

we also, which are sick of this hereditary evil, are the very causes 

of our sickness. And thus far of the form of original sin. 

Now we be to define original sin from the matter and form thereof. Original sin 

!•• /~t • • 1 • • /.y^T ^ defined. 

on this wise. (Jriginal sin is an apostacy from (jrod, a want of ori- 
ginal justice, and a certain positive quality, repugning against the law 
of God. The threefold material cause stands for the genus of it ; 
and for the form, the threefold breach of God's law. And like as ^^^^ movf- 

•^ ' mg original 

guilt in general is the consequent of sin in general, so a speciaP'"" 
guilt is consequent to original sin ; and this is threefold also, as the 
matter and form of this sin is threefold. For the apostacy hath 
his special guiltiness following it, so also the want of original jus- 
tice, and that positive quality. And every guiltiness merits death 
and eternal damnation. 

It resteth now, that seeing we see this sin original is derived by 
propagation from the parents to the children, that we search out 
the manner thereof; and this maybe expressed on thiswise. The 
propagation of sin must be by one of these three ways ; for it Is 
derived either by the soul, or by the body of the parents, or through 
their default. It cannot be said that the propagation of this sin 
is by the soul, for the soul of the father or mother is not derived 
by propagation to the children, in whole or in part, as is very evi- 
dent ; wherefore this sin comes not by the soul of the parents.^ 

and that special, inasmuch as it forms a peculiar species of sin." Orio-inal : Est 
autem ea dvo^U sive pugnantia cum lege Dei, eaque specialis, utpote qua^ cer- 
tarn peccati speciem constituit. (P. 190.) 

^ " If we say with some sects of Christians, animam esse ex traduce, that the 
soul is generated, like the bodj^, by the act of the parents, we seem to approach 



How sin is 
derived from 
parents to 
their diild- 

How sin in- 
fecteth the 
verj' soul. 



But it may not unfitly be said, that there is some derivation of 
this sin by the body of the parents to the body and soul of the 
child begotten by them. This j)ropagation of sin by the body of 
him which begetteth into the body of him which is begotten is 
easily discovered ; for the seed of the parents being in the child, 
is corrupted and infected with sin ; whence it foUoweth necessarily, 
that the body which is begotten of such corrupt and unclean seed 
must also be corrupt and unclean in like manner. 

The propagation of sin by the body of him which begetteth into 
the soul of him which is begotten is more hardly expressed, yet I 
deliver what seems most probable unto me on this manner. After 
that by the body of him which begetteth, sin is derived into the 
body of him which is begotten, now the body begotten being cor- 
rupt and infected with sin, this body, I say, infecteth and poisoneth 
the soul, created even then of God before, and infused into it that 
very moment of time wherein it was created. Here you demand, 
whether the soul were pure and clean the time it was created, and 
so infused into the body, and then afterwards so defiled by the 
contagion of the body ? I answer ; It is not like to be so, for that the 
soul is created, infused, and corrupted in the very self-same moment 
of time. This corruption of the soul is partly by reason of the 
desertion of God, partly by reason of the contagion of the body 
whereinto it is infused. For God, the very same moment of time 
wherein he createth and infuseth the soul, in his just judgment for- 
sakes it, and gives it over to the body to be so defiled with sin. 
Wherefore this I avouch, that the soul is created, infused, forsaken 
of God, and defiled by the very same moment of time. 

The manner of the propagation of this sin, which is said to be 
through the default of the parents, foUoweth ; and this I express 
on this wise. Adam by that his first offence did derive, as by a 
certain conduit, whatsoever corruption was in him to his posterity ; 

to materialism. If we say, as the Calvinists generally do, that sowls are suc- 
cessively made by tlie Creator, and joined by his act to those bodies which they 
are to animate, we seem to form a rational hypothesis." — Hill, ibidem, vol. ii. 
p. 18. 

god's effectual calling. 175 

for this cause the Apostle, Eom. v. 12, saith. By one man, to "wit, 
sinning, sin entered into the icorld. 

Here it may be demanded, whence proceeds this efficacy or 
power of that first sin, to engender, as it were, and to derive sin 
into all and every one of Adam's progeny ? I answer; This efficacy 
of that sin is by reason of that word and covenant which God 
made with Adam m his creation, as it were in these words; "If'">?,'^°^:*^"''"t 

' 'of God m the 

man will stand and persist in that his innocency which he had by "■*^'*'io'^ 
creation, he shall stand for his own good and for his progeny ; but 
if he do not stand, but fall away, his fall shall turn as to his own 
damage, so to the hurt of his posterity ; and whatsoever evil shall 
betide him, the same shall ensue to all his offspring after him." 
And this last way of the propagation of original sin pleaseth me 
best, and ought to content all sober wits, for that this is grounded 
on the authority and words of the Apostle.' And thus far our 
judgment concerning original sin. 

Now let us briefly see what the old heretics and late adversaries The opinion 
of God's truth say concerning this sin. First, here we be to meet tics concem- 

• o 1 /- 1 ' ... ^^S original 

with the heresy of Pelagms' the monk, and Coelestius ^ his disciple, sin- 
which said there was no original sin, that Adam by his fall did 
hurt himself only and not his posterity, excepting only by his ex- 
ample. They said his posterity sinned, not by propagation of his 
sin, but by imitation of their father Adam's prevarication. 

1 See Calvini Institut. ii. 1, 7. 

2 Pelagius is generally supposed to have been a Britisli monk. He lived 
about the beginning of the fifth century. We find him in Rome in the year 410, 
then in Africa, and subsequently in Palestine. His peculiar doctrines regarding 
human corruption, and the whole scheme of man's regeneration, were vehemently 
opposed by Jerome, who had at first warmly received him, and he was anathe- 
matized, A.D. 417, by Pope Innocentius. His ultimate fate is uncertain. 

^ Coelestius, a monk, was a younger man than Pelagius, whom he accompanied 
to Africa, where he remained, when Pelagius went to Palestine. He adopted 
and energetically promulgated the tenets of Pelagius. Excommunicated by the 
Council of Carthage, he was afterwards reinstated by Pope Zosimus. But he 
and Pelagius were subsequently banished successively from Rome and Constan- 
tinople. The last mention of him is A.D. 430. We have some of the 
treatises of Pelagius, and a few fragments of those of Coelestuis. (Smith's Dic- 
tionary, vol. i. p. 812; vol. iii. p. 175, &c.) An account of the doctrines im- 
puted to Pelagius on this subject will be found in Hill, ibid. vol. ii. p. 9, &c. 


ThePeia- When It was objected ag-ainst them that younor infants died, 

gians-argu- -^ ^ . . . . 

ment apiinst whIch could not bc, but that they are infected with orio^inal sin, 

01 igiiial sin. 7 J D / 

they answered, that Adam himself also had died by the law of 
nature, albeit he had not sinned; and this was the Pelagians' prin- 
cipal argument against original sin. If sin be by propagation, then 
it must needs be derived to the posterity by the soul or by the 
body, but not by the soul, for that it Is not by traduction,^ and It 
is not by the body, because It Is void of reason, neither can sin be 
said to be first and properly seated in It ; and not by both united, 
because It Is not by the parts ; therefore there Is no original sin 
Answer. j^^ ^^ ^\iQ, answcr Is easy from that Avhich hath been before set 
down In this chapter touching the form or manner of the propaga- 
tion of this sin. First, their proposition doth not number all the 
forms and means of the propagation of this sin ; for there is besides 
those means a derivation of sin, which Is through the default of the 
parents. Next, the assumption Is false, for albeit there be no pro- 
pagation of sin by the soul, yet it may well be by the body, as is 
afore showed. And thus far of Pelagius' and Coelestius' heresy. 

Next, the Schoolmen had divers opinions of original sin ; for 
some said, that original sin consisted only In the guilt of Adam's 
apostacy, others said It was but the want of original justice. But 
Peter Lombard,^ rejecting these opinions, avoucheth it to be also a 
positive evil quality, contrary to that first original justice.^ Al- 
bertus Pighius* and Ambrosius Catharlnus'^ said, that It was nothing 

1 Original : quia non est tradux animoi. 

2 Peter of Lombardy, called also the Magister Sententiarum, was Bishop of 
Paris, about 1159. His principal work is his Sententicc^ in four books, which is 
regarded as the foundation of the Scholastic Theology of the Latin Cliiu-ch. 
(Ladvocat, s. v.) 

3 Pcccatum originis nihil aliud esse volunt, nisi concupiscentiani, hoc est, 
morbidani qualitatcm, prava desideria pcrpetuo excitantcm. Ita docet Petrus 
Lombardus, in 2 lib. sent. dist. 31, § 2 et 3. (Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. p. 336.) 
He held, however, that this co7iciipisce>itiawa.ii merely sensual ; (Calvin, Institui. 
ii. 1, 9,) and that it was removed by baptism. — (Bellarmin, ibid.) 

4 See p. 97, note 2. 

^ An Italian of the Dominican order. Archbishop of Conza in 1551. — (Lad- 
vocat, s. r.) He was a distinguished member of the Council of Trent, and held 
peculiar views on many points of Theology. — (Pallavaciuo, ibid. lib. xiii. 8, 8.) 

god's effectual calling. 177 

else but that first transgression of Adam.^ And out of this con- Three gross 

'-' opinions of 

chision they drew forth three other opinions ; the first was this, — ce?nhig mil 
Original sin is one and the self-same only in all men. Secondly, ^"^ ^"'" 
This sin in Adam was real and actually his, but it is ours only by 
imputation. The third, that infants in verity have nothing in them 
that hath any appearance of sin, for they said that guiltiness, want 
of justice, and the spots of nature, and such like things, seem rather 
to be punishments than faults, if ye speak not happily improperly, 
as when ye apply the name of the cause to the effect. 

Bellarmin following all these, first blames Lombard's conclusion Beiiarmin-s 


concerning his positive quality, and next, condemns Pighius' asser- Lombajcu 
tion as heretical. One of his principal arguments against Lombard 
is this : God is either the cause of that positive quality or not the 
cause ; if the cause, then he is the cause of sin ; if he be not 
the cause of it, then is he not the author of all things. Therefore 
there is no such positive quality at all.^ We answer to the assump- 
tion : In that evil positive quality two things must be respected ; Answer, 
first, the quality itself, or the being of It ; next, the evilness, or 
Irregularity, or deformity thereof : God is the author and principal 
efiScient of the first, but the devil and the evil instrument is the 
author and cause of the second."* 

His reasonings on the subject of original sin in that Council may be seen in 
Paolo Sai-pi's Histoiy of the Council. (Book ii. pp. 17, 65, 177, of the French 
Translation. London, 1736.) 

1 Restat ultimus error confutanclus, qui est Alberti Pighii in prima controversia 
de peccato originis, et Ambrosii Catharini in opuscule de lapsu homiuis, et pec- 
cato original!, c. 6, et vidctur etiam fuisse quorundam veterum, ut refert Petrus 
Lombardus in 2 lib. sent. d. 50. Haec igitur sententia docet, &c. (then follows 
a passage, which Rollock has adopted almost verbatim. — BeUai'min, ibid. vol. iv. 
p. 342.) 

2 The translator's note. These were not the opinions of the Papists, but of 
a few of them. 

3 Tertio ; vel Deus est auctor positivje illius qualitatis, vel uon. Si est, igitur 
est auctor peccati, totam enim concupiscentiam adversarii peccatum esse conten- 
dirat. Si non est, igitur Deus non est auctor omnium rerum, neque verum erit 
quod in Evangelio legimus Joan. 1. Omnia per ipsum facta sunt, et sine ijjso 

factum est nihil. — (Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. p. 340.) 

* AVhile reading the scholastic discussion both of our Author and Bellarmin, 

VOL. I. M 


This done, at last the Jesuit sets down his own judgment, avouch- 
ing that original sin consisteth in two things ; first, in the first 
transgression of Adam, not as he was a certain private person, but 
as bearing then the person of all mankind ; next, he saith, it is also 
a want of that gift of original justice.^ And thus far he sj^eaks well, 
affirming that there are two parts of original sin ; but herein he 
erreth, for that he omitteth that evil positive quality before men- 
tioned. And thus far of the judgment of the adversaries concern- 
ing original sin. 



But because there is some controversy touching concupiscence, 
which is the third part of original sin ; therefore we be to speak 
something of it apart. The word concupiscence doth first and 
propei'ly signify that coveting or lusting which is said to be in the 
baser faculty of the sovil, to wit, in the sensible and the natural 
power thereof; and tropically it signifieth our natural corruption, 
and that evil positive quality which resteth not only in the concu- 
pisclble faculty of the soul, but in all the powers thereof also, even 
in reason itself. For the word Concupiscence in Scripture is as 
general as the old man or the Jlcsh ; for Paul usetli these ^^'ords in- 
regarding the origin of evil, how iiTesistibly is one reminded of Milton's judg- 
ment of such futilities ! 

" And found no end, in wandering mazes lost." 

1 See Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. pp. 344-354, in ^-hich there is much that is 
excellent. The following words are those which our Author seems to have 
founded his statement upon: — Peccatum originale est prima Adami inobedientia 
in ipso Adamo commissa nou ut erat singularis persona, sed ut personam totius 

generis humani rcferebat Peccatum originale est carentia doni 

justitiic originalis, sive habitualis aversio etobliquitas voluntatis, quae ct macula, 
meutem Deo invisam reddens, appellari potest. (P. 345.) 

god's effectual calling. 179 

differently for one and the same matter, " the old man," " the flesh," 
" concupiscence," and " the law of the members," to wit, for the third 
part of original sin, which is that evil positive quality. And that 
concupiscence is properly and truly a sin appears plainly out of the 
Epistle to the Romans, chap. vii. 7, / had not known lust, except the 
law had said, Thou shalt not lust? And this briefly is our judgment 
touching concupiscence. 

Pelagius rcckoneth concupiscence in the number of the good 
things or benefits of nature, for he denies original sin. Our adver- 
saries the Papists by concupiscence understand nothing else but 
that concupiscible faculty of the soul which is in itself good, or at 
least indifferent, but evil accidentally, and in some respect ; to wit, 
for that now the bridle of original justice is let loose whereby con- 
cupiscence ought to have been curbed ; so then this curb being 
lost, it inclines, say they, to sin.^ This is the judgment of theTJiejua?- 

'^ mentofthe 

Council of Trent concerning concupiscence, that it may not be ^"p'^*^ ^°"- 

'^ i- > J ceming cnn- 

said truly and properly that it is a sin, but that it is so called bg. <=ip'sccnce. 
cause it proceeds from sin, and inclines to sin.^ But that concupis- 

1 The translator omits the very point of the proof, which lies in the illnstra- 
tiou of a general proposition, " I had not known sin but by the law," from a 
particular illustration — concupiscence. The original is complete, being Eollock's 
own translation of the Greek, "Peccatum non novi nisi per legem: Concupis- 
centiam nou cognovissem nisi dixisset lex : Non concupisces." 

'■^ Dicimus sensualitatem esse pronam ad concupiscendum etiam contra ordinem 
ratiouis : non ex aliqua insita qualitate earn inclinante, sed ex careutia justi- 
ilsi originalis, quai earn perfecte ratioui subjiciebat. Quemadmodum si equus 
'incitetur ad currendum, non quia admoventur ei calcaria, sed quia sublatum est 
freuum. — (Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. p. 338.) In the previous page, Bellarmin 
gives a threefold definition of concupiscentia as used in Scripture. The first is a 
good affection ; the second good or indiflferent ; the third, viiiutti, gtio projii sunt 
homines ad appetenda bona sensibilia, coiitiri ordinem. rationis. But even in 
this sense it is not sin. Concupiscentia quamvis non sit proprie peccatum., tamen 
eslcorruptio quadam incitans ad nudum, &c., ibid. p. 309, etsic Siepissime. On 
this subject see Hill, ibid. vol. ii. p. 16. 

3 Hanc concupiscentiam, quam aliquando Apostolus peccatum appellat, 
sancta synodus declarat ecclesiam catholicam nunquam intellexisse peccatum 
appellari, quod vere et proprie in renatis peccatum sit, sed quia ex peccato est, 
et ad peccatum inclinat. Si quis autem contrarium senserit, anathema sit. 
Decret. Concil. Tridenten. de Peccat. Original, § 5. — (Harduin, Acta Concil, vol. 
xi. p. 29.) 


ccnce Is sin Is more manifest by Paul's doctrine, than that It needs 
any proof at all ; nay, that It Is a sin not only In tlie unregenerate, 
but also In the regenerate. And thus far of concupiscence and of 
original sin. 



Actual sin. AcTUAL slu Is the fruIt and effect, and the punishment also, of 
original sin. The first and principal division of actual sin Is Into 
Internal and external. The Internal I call the sins of the soul and 
of the faculties thereof. Internal sin Is partly of omission, and 

si"jn!wi™tr partly of commission. A sin of omission in the mind is the want 
of a holy and good motion, and the root of this is the want of original 
justice. And like as that defect of original justice is In all the 
powers of the soul, so this Internal sin of omission Is of all the 
powers of the soul. Of the sin of omission the Apostle speaketh, 
1 Cor. II. 14, when he salth, that the natural man cannot conceive the 
tilings of the Spirit of God. So here the want of a holy motion in 
man's nature, the fundamental cause whereof he addeth in the 
next woi'ds, saying, neither can he perceive them ; in which words 
ye have the want of that power and faculty whence a holy motion 
doth spring. 

cummission ^^^ Internal sin of commission followeth ; and this is a perverse 
and evil motion of the mind. And this proceeds from the third 
part of original sin, to wit, that evil positive quality or natural cor- 
ruption. And like as that positive quality Is of all the faculties of 
the mind, so that internal sin of commission Is of all the power of 
the soul in like manner. Of this sin the Scripture speaks every- 

or afTcctions whcrc, Rom. vil. 5, When ice loerc in the Jiesh, the motions of sin, 
ivhich locre hj the laio, had force in our memhers, to bring forth fruit 
unto death. Where three things are to be observed ; first, the flesh. 


which is original sin ; secondly, affections or motions, whereby we Three 
understand the internal sin of commission ; thirdly, the fruit of vii."F' 
those motions or affections, whereby he means every external actual ^«.'^>j^«- 
sin. Again, ye have the same three things knit together, Eph. ii. 
3, Fulfilling the icill of the flesh and of the mind. 1. The flesh, that 
is, original sin. 2. Next, the thought or lust of the flesh, which is the 
internal commission of sin. 3. To fulfil the same, and this is exter- 
nal sin. The same things ye have, James i. 15, When concujns^ 
cence hath conceived, it hringeth forth sin. Concujnscence is original 
sin ; conception is actual internal sin ; the hirth thereof is an external 
sin. And thus far of actual internal sin. 

The external actual sin folio weth, which is a sin of the body and External 

1 1 • • 1 • IP • • actual sin. 

of the members thereof; and this sin also is partly of omission, 
partly of commission. The external sin of omission is when things 
to be done are omitted, and this proceeds from the internal sin of 
omission. And here also, like as the internal sin of omission is of 
all faculties of the mind, so the external sin of omission is of all 
the members of the body. Of this sin the Apostle speaketh, 
Romans vii. 19, / do not the good which I would do. The external sin 
of commission followeth. This is when that is done which ought Externa] 
not to be done ; and it proceeds from the internal sin of commis- sion. 
sion. This is also of all the parts of the body, like as the internal 
sin of commission is of all the powers of the soul. The testimonies 
of Scripture before cited prove this, Rom. vii. 1 9, The evil which I 
would not, that do I. 

The external sin of commission is twofold, partly of error and 
ignorance, partly of knowledge. It is of ignorance when a man 
ignorantly committeth any thing. This was Paul's sin, 1 Tim. i. 
13, For I did it ignoranthj through unbelief. This ignorance is either 
of the law or of the fact. The ignorance of the law is to be 
ignorant of God's will. Of this sin speaketh Christ, Luke xii. 48, 
He that hath not knoion his master's loill, and hath done things worthy 
of stripes, shall he beaten loith few stripes. This was also Paul's ignor- 
ance, when he blasphemed and persecuted the Church of Christ, ^'""^ 'gnor- 
1 Tim. i. 13. The i";norance of the fact is when a man knows not 


of commis- 


what he doth ; and a man may be said not to know what he doth, 
or to err in the fact, either when he doth a thing negligently, or 
when a thing is done by him, as we say, by fortune or chance, or 
rather by the inevitable providence of God. An example of sin of 
negligence may be this, as when a ship is lost by the negligence of 
the governor or master thereof. An example of a sin by fortune 
or God's providence may be, as when one casteth a stone, killeth a 
man passing by, of whom he never thought ; for this sin in the 
old Church, the cities of refuge were appointed. Numb. xxxv. 23. 
Thus far of the external sin of commission, which proceeds of error 
or ignorance. 

The external sin of commission followeth, which is committed in 
knowledge, or, as we say, wittingly; and this is when a man knoweth 
when he doth evil. Hereof speaks Christ, Luke xii. 47, That ser- 
vant who knoiveth his master's will, and doth it not, shall be beaten tvitk 
many stripes. 
Actual ex- This siu ib either of infirmity or of contumacy. An example of 
committed ^ sin of infirmity is in Peter, who three times denied his Lord and 

willingly. . 

Master for fear of death and persecution. An example of a sin of 
contumacy we have in Judas the traitor. Again, a sin of contu- 
macy is either done in hypocrisy, as when a man is not openly re- 
bellious, but hides his sin under the cloak of hypocrisy. This the 
Apostle taxeth, Rom. ii. 5, Thou, saith he, after thy hardness and 
heart that cannot repent, dost treasure up icrath against the day of 
lorath. J^gain, it is an open rebellion or pride, when a man joins 
to his contumacy pi'ide against God himself; for which cause he 

Heresy. IS Said to siu tcith an high hand, Numb. xv. 30. This manifest re- 
bellion and pride is either against the second table of the law, as 
open murder, known adultery, and this is the lesser contumacy ; 

Open rebel- but if it bc a proud rebellion against the first table, the sin is intol- 
erable. And of this latter kind is heresy first, when as a man, in 
a proud obstinacy, will defend any opinion against the manifest 
truth of God's word. 

Of all the sins before specified, this is one property, that a man 
may repent of them or for them all ; whereupon follows another 

god's effectual calling. 183 

property, tliat they are all pardonable. But if ye add to know- 
ledge, pride, frowardness, a malicious heart, striving against the 
Holy Ghost, enlightening a man, and teaching inwardly ; then the sin against 

the Holy 

great sin ariseth, which they call the sin against the Holy Ghost, tihost. 
the property whereof is this, that he which so sinneth cannot repent 
him of his sin; whereupon it folio weth that this sin is unpardonable. 
And this sin is called irreraissible, not for that the greatness of it 
exceeds the greatness of God's mercy and grace in Christ, but be- wiierefora 
cause final impenitence is the reward and punishment which byawe. 
God's just judgment is inflicted upon this sin. Read of this point 
Matth. xii. 31 ; Heb. vi. 4, 5, and chapter x. 2G ; 1 John v. 16. 
And thus far of actual sin. 

Now it remaineth to see what the adversaries say of actual sin. 
Here the greatest controversy is of the division of actual sin into 
mortal and venial. We avouch that every sin by nature is mortal, 
that is, that the guilt of eternal death follows it; and that if any sin mortal 
sin be venial, that is, may find pardon of God, this cometh to pass, a Popish 
not for that it is so by nature, but of God's mere mercy in Jesus 
Christ. Many Scriptures approve our assertion, Rom. vi. 23, The 
toages of sin is death. He speaks here of sin in general, and of 
eternal death. INlatth. v. 19, Whosoever shall break one of the least 
of these commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall he called the 
least in the kingdom of God; that is, he shall have be of [no] reckoning 
in heaven. Observe then here how for the least sin a man deserves 
to be shut forth out of heaven. Deut. xxvii. 26, Cursed he he thai 
ahideth not in all things ivhich are ivritten in the hook of the laiu. 
Therefore there is no sin which deserveth not the curse ©r^^inale- 
diction of God. For in that the law denounceth an execration 
against every sin, there is no exception we see of any, even the 
least sin. James ii. 10, Whosoever shall keep the whole laic, and yet 
fail in one point, he is guilty of all. Therefore if ye rest in any one 
sin against the law, ye sin against the whole law, and stand guilty 
of all sins which are committed any way against the law. So 
there is no cause why we should measure our guilt by any one 



sin, even the very least. For even the very least sin we live * and 
lie in, without faith and repentance, carries with it the guilt even 
of the greatest sin, as may clearly appear by that place of James. 
Matth. v. 26, Thou slialt not depart hence till thou hast paid the ut- 
most farthing. Therefore God in his accounts respecteth even the 
least parts of sin, and the smallest sins that are. The tenth law 
condemns even the least motions of concupiscence. Matth. xxii. 
37, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, witli all 
thy soul, and with all thy mind. Therefore the Lord requires an 
exact or perfect obedience. Wherefore he that ofFendeth even in 
the least point is a transgressor of the law, and that everlasting 
curse followeth the breach of the law, if redemption be not pur- 
chased by Jesus Christ. Matth. v. 18, Till heaven and earth 
perish, one iota or one tittle of the law shall not escape till all things he 
fulfilled. Note here, there shall not pass away one iota or one 
tittle, that is, the least branch of the breach of the law, which shall 
escape Avithout satisfaction either by ourselves or a mediator. And 
thus far touching our judgment of this matter. 

The adversaries for actual sin, respecting it either according to 
the greatness thereof, or for the punishment it deserveth, they 
divide it into mortal and venial. They call that mortal sin which 
doth extinguish charity or justice, making us enemies unto God, 
and therefore guilty of eternal death. They call that venial sin 
which doth not quench charity and justice, nor doth not cause an 
enmity betwixt us and God, but doth a little stain justice, which 
thev place in charity, and they say it sjiots it a little ;^ " wherefore 

1 " We live .... repentance.'' Not in the original. 

2 Quinta partitio nascitur ex gravitate culparura, sive ex reatn poenaa, qui 
peccantes conseqiiitnr. Dicnntiir enim peccata, qua^dam lethalia, alia venialia. 
Lethalia sunt qure hominem plane avertunt a Deo, et quibus poena debetur 
seterna. Venialia qua; uonniliil impediunt cursnm ad Deum, non taraen ab eo 
avertunt et facili negotio expiantur. Priora dicuntur crimina, posteriora pec- 
cata, ut S. Augustinus monet in Enchirid. cap. 64, ubi scribit, sine crimiue justos 
homines vivere, sine peccato non vivere. Denique simile est mortale peccatum 
vulneri Icthif'ero, quod subito vitam extinguit, venialia autem plaga; legi [ievi] 
qua; sine vit» periculo suscipitur, et facile curatur. Illud enim cum charitate, 

god's effectual calling. 185 

this sin," say they, " is soon pardoned, and expiate with a light 
punishment — as in this life, with the repetition of the Lord's Prayer, 
the smiting of the breast, satisfaction or penance imposed by the 
priest, or which men do of themselves voluntarily undergo.^ After 
this life all venial sins be expiate in purgatory, if they be not par- 
doned in this life by the means before expressed."^ 

They say ; " Venial sin is twofold ; the first venial sin is so called, J^f^^ ' 
because it is so by nature, and for the substance of it, as an idle 
word, or immoderate laugh.^ The next venial sin," they say, " is 
that which is not so by nature, but for some imperfection, for that 
sin by nature is mortal ; but because it is imperfect for the measure 
or quantity of the evil, therefore it is venial."* This imperfection," 
say they, " is twofold, for this imperfection is either by reason of 

quae vita est auimte pugnat, hoc non tain contra, tarn prceter charitatem est. — 
(Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. p. 60.) 

^ Tertia propositio : Potest ecclesia instituere novas caeremonias non quidem ad 
justificandum impitan, sed ad alios effectus spirituales. Nota pro explicatione 

C£eremonias ab ecclesia institutas tribus modis posse esse utiles 

Secundo, ad morbos curandos, et demones pellendos et peccata venialiapurganda, 
et alia id genus, itaque per modum impetrationis, ut cum Ecclesia benedicit 
candelas, palmas, agi-os, &c. — (Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iii. p. 196.) Confitendum 
est igitur, Christi mortem, qute per se ad omnia peccata absolvenda sufficeret, 
nemini prodesse nisi per fidem et sacramenta, ceteraque instrumenta divinitus 
instituta, singulis applicetur. Unum autem ex instruraentis divinitus institutis 
ad poenam temporalem peccatorum expiaudam, satisfactionem esse, nos dicimus, 
nee solum dicimus, sed ex Scriptm-is, et omnium Patrum testimoniis compro- 
bamus, ut ex lis quEe antea scripsimus, paruit. — (Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iii. p. 1181 ; 
see also vol. ii. p. 602, C. D. et ssepissime.) 

2 Quaidam peccata sunt venialia, solaque temporal! poena digna. At fieri 
potest, ut cum soils talibus homo decedat ex hac vita ; igitur necesse est in alia 
vita posse purgari. — (Bellarmin, zftjrf. vol. ii. p. 698.) 

3 Peccata venialia ex natura et ratione peccati dicuntur ea qufe non sunt 
contraria charitati Dei et proximi, quaeque proprie et absolute mortalibus oppo- 
nuntur .... Venialia ex genere suo dicuntur ea quje habent pro objecto rem 
malam et inordinatara, sed qus charitati Dei, vel proximi non repugnet, quale 
est verbum otiosum, risus nimius, et alia id genus. — (Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. 
p. 61.) 

^ Incorrect. It should be : — " In the next place, they say a sin is venial, 
because it is so, not from its own nature, but its incompleteness ; as where a 
sin is, in its own nature, a mortal sin, but in consequence of being incomplete 
in respect to the quantity of evil, is on that groiuid venial." 


the will, as when there Is not a full consent of the will Into a secret 
motion of concupiscence." In this kind of venial sin they reckon all 
secret evil motions which stir in the affection, before the mind can 
think of them, and which get not any full consent of the will, as 
the motions of lust, of anger, of envy, &c.^ " Or again, there is an 
imperfection in respect of the matter of the sin, to wit, when the 
matter is so small and light that it makes the sin venial ; as, for 
example, if a man steal a halfpenny,^ or some such trifle, whereby 
the neighbour is little or nothing touched, and charity is not 
violate." ^ 

And they go about to prove their opinion, concerning venial sin, 
Popish argu- by dlvcrs kinds of arguments.* First, by testimonies of the Scrip- 
veniai sins, turc and of the Church, next, by reasons of their own ; in refuta- 
tion of which arguments, my meaning is not to insist. For venial 
sin they cite Matth. xii. 32, PVJtosoever shall speak against the Holy 
Ghost, it shall not he forgiven him, neither in this ivorld nor in the 
toorld to come. " Therefore," say they, " there is a kind of sin which 
shall be pardoned after this life, and the same is venial sin, which 
is purged with the fire of purgatory." But let Mark, chap. Hi. 29, 
be the Interpreter of this phrase which Matthew hath in this place ; 
Whosoever, saith he, shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost shall 
never have forgiveness, hut is culpahlc or guilty of eternal damnation. 
Therefore, where Matthew saith, neither in this life nor in the 

^ Rursus peccata veuialia ex imperfectione operis in duo membra secari solent. 
Alia enim dicuntin- veuialia ex subreptione, alia ex parvitate materife. Ex 
suBREPTioNE (licmitm' ca, qua; iioii sunt pcrfccte voluntaria, quales sunt subiti 
motus cupiditatis, irn?, invidentia;, ct alii similes, qui prius in animo existunt, 
quam ratio plane deliberare potuerit, cssent necne adniittcndi : qui quidem et 
peccata sunt, cum praiveniri, aut continuo repcUi potuissent, si ratio vigilasset : 
et tamen venialia sunt, cum pleno voluntatis asscnsu caruerint. Ex mateki.e 
PARVITATE dicuntur ea qua; in re parva ac levi committuntur, quale esset fur- 
tum unius oboli quod neque proximum notabiliter hedit, neque ejusmodi est, 
ut apud a;quos homines amicitiam tollerc queat. — (Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. 
p. 61.) 

2 Original : obolum. 

^ See last sentence of note 1. 

* For these arguments, see Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. pp. C2-100. 

god's effectual calling. 187 

life to come, it is the same as if he had said, It shall never be for- 
given him. 

They bring also the place which is Matth. v. 22, Whosoever is 
angry with his brother unadvisedly^ shall be culpable of judgment ; and 
whosoever saith unto his brother, Raca, shall be worthy to be punished 
by the council; and whosoever shall say, Fool, shall be worthy to be 
punished with hell fire. " There are here three kinds of sins," say 
they, " of which he adjudgeth one kind only worthy of hell fire ; 
wherefore the two former are to be expiate with some light punish- 
ment ; and therefore be venial sins." I answer ; This place teacheth 
us that there is an inequality, first, of sins, next, of punishments ; 
and those also spiritual and infernal, which Christ expresseth here 
by an allusion to civil and politic penalties which were unequal. 

They reason also on this wise : " No man," say they, " will deny Popish 

• • 1 1 11 mi n • reasonsfor 

that one sm is lesser than another by nature. Therefore is not the ^eniai sins. 
lesser sin venial by nature ?" I answer; It followeth not ; for that 
the least sin by nature meriteth eternal death and eternal punish- 
ment, albeit not the greatest punishment. For we deny not the 
inequality of the pains of the damned. 

Next say they ; " Is not one sin less than another in quantity ? 
and therefore is it not venial in respect of the imperfection thereof?" 
I answer ; It followeth not ; for every sin, howsoever imperfect, 
meriteth eternal death ; or if it be venial, it is not for the imper- 
fection of it, but for Christ's sake, and his satisfaction for it. 

Thirdly, they say; " Is not that sin venial which doth not destroy 
or overthrow justice, charity, or inherent grace ? But there are 
some sins which do not overthrow or extinguish justice : Frgo, 
there be some venial sins. The assumption is proved. The Just 
man falls seven times in the day, and riseth again.^ Behold here one 

1 Prov. xxiv. 16. This is a favourite verse with Bellarmin. I give one of 
the passages in which it occurs in the use refeiTcd to by our Author. Intelli- 
gibile non est, quomodo verbum otiosum ex natura sua dignum sit eterno odio 
Dei, et sempiternis flammis ; hie enim in terris stultissimus haberetur, qui ob 
levissimam offensionem amici. nee malo animo factam, nollet amplius esse ami- 
cus, imo usque ad mortem persequeretur eum, quern amicum paulo ante habue- 
rat. Maneat igitur, quajdam esse peccata venialia ac sola poena temporall 


sinneth, and yet ceaseth not to be just." I answer ; The proposition 
is false, for that every sin which not extinguishes the grace of 
Christ and inherent holiness, that very sin, by its own nature, is 
mortal ; and in that it is pardonable, and doth not abolish holiness, 
that is not to be imputed to the sin itself, but to the free mercy of 
God in Jesus Christ. 



•Hie Papists The adversaries say there be six kinds of this sin ; ^ the first sin is 

say there •' 

of theslli"'^^ presumption, when a man presumeth overmuch of the grace of God 

lufiy Ghosl and of fliith, in the meanwhile denying his faith by his works. 

This is the man whom James taxeth in his Epistle, chap, ii., verse 

digiia. Quod aiitem cum ejusmodi peccatis aliqui interdura de hac vita migrent, 
ac proinde in alia vita pin-gatione temporali cgeaut, probatur lioc modo. Po- 
test quis, dum movitur, habere voluutatem permanendi in peccato veiiiali : 
igitur tale peccatum deleri iu niorte non potest. Pra^terca cum septies in die 
cadat Justus, ut dicitur Prover. 24, et multi moriantur repente, quomodo credi- 
bile est nou mori aliquos cum peccato veniali. — (Bellarmin, ibid. vol. ii. p. 599.) 
^ The Rhemists (on Matt. xii. 31) recognise the reckoning of six sins against 
the Holy Ghost. Bellarmin, in an instructive passage, (vol. iii. pp. 10, 11, &c.) 
states that there were four opinions on this subject, but in reality, he gives five. 
The first is that held by Origenes, (on Matt, xii.) and Novatian, that all sins 
committed against God after baptism are the sins agamst the Holy Ghost. 
Another is that of Augustin, (de Sermone Domini in JMuntc, c. 43,) wlio makes it 
consist in envying or repining " at the grace of God in oiu- bretliren," — our 
Author's fourth. A third, held afterwards by Augustin, (in Enchiridio, c. 83,) 
is " final impenitence," — our Author's sixth. A fourth, stated by Thomas, the 
Angelic Doctor, (2. 2. q. 14,) and Peter Lombard, the Magister Scnfentiarum, (2. 
dist. 43,) is, that it is a sin of wilful maliciousness, not ignorance or infirmity, — 
our Author's fiftli. A fifth is that held by Bellarmin himself. Est igitur (piarta 
sententia, quam vcram esse non dubitamus, peccatum iu Spiritum Sanctum ])yo- 
prie nihil aliud esse quam veritateni cognitam, et manifestam, ex malitia impro- 
bare, et tanuiuam dajmoniacam, et detestabilem calumuiari. 

god's effectual calling. 189 

14, and after. The second is desperation, contrary to presumption ; 
this was Cain and Judas' sin. The third is to impugn the known 
truth ; hereto belongs the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost ; this 
was the sin of the Pharisees, Matth. xii. 24-32. The fourth is to envy 
or to repine at the graces of God in our brethren ; this was the sin of 
the Jews, which did repine and grieve at the grace of God given 
the Gentiles. The fifth is obstinacy, when as a man shall persist 
in a known sin with an obstinate mind ; this was Pharaoh's sin 
and the obstinate Jews. The sixth is final impenitency, when as 
any shall die in contempt of the sacrament of penance, and of any 
satisfaction imposed upon him by ecclesiastical order. Of this they 
understand that place, 1 John v. 16, There is a sin unto death; I do 
not say that ye shoidd pray for him. They say, a man sins against 
the Holy Ghost all these ways, and that all these sins be inexpiable, 
and that these sins are called irremissible, because they be seldom 
and hardly forgiven, as men seldom and hardly repent them of 
these sins.^ But the last, which is final impenitency, they think 
that only is properly said to be unpardonable, because it is neither 

1 There were, as we learn from Bellai-min, (J. c.) various opinions on this sub- 
ject. Theopliylact (on Matt, xii.) thought that sins against the Sou— sins of 
ignorance — were pardonable without penitence, {pcenitentia ;) not so sins against 
the Holy Ghost. Another opinion was, that sins against the Holy Ghost were 
said to be unpardonable, because, without penitence, the sentence of eternal 
condemnation followed, with penitence, the temporal punishment was fully ex- 
acted. A third is that held by Chrysostom, (on Matt, xii.) Ambrosius, (de 
Pmiitentia^ ii. 4,) and Bellarmin himself, and condemned by our Author. Dicen- 
dum igitur, Scripturas et Patres dicere, peccatum in Spiritum Sanctum non 
remitti, quia ordinarie et ut plurimum, non curatur: sicut de aliis peccatis 
Dominus ait: Omnia peccata et blasphemicB remittuntur, non quia semper et 
omnibus remittantur, sed quia ut plurimum, et ordinarie remittuutur. A fourth 
opinion is that of Athanasius, Hilarius, Jerome, and Anselm, (on Matt, xii.) 
which is also that of our Author : Alia igitur solutio e?t illorum, peccatum in 
Spiritum Sanctum irremissibile dici, quia etiamsi remitti posset, si poenitentia 
adsit, tamen qui ita peccant, ad veram pcenitentiam non perveniunt, quod justo 
judicio Deus eos descruerit, et in reprobum sensum traditisunt. TheRhemists' 
note is : (l. c.) " Otherwise among all the sins against the Holy Ghost, which 
are commonly reckoned six, one only shall never be forgiven, that is, dying with- 
out repentance, wilfully called final impenitence. Which sin he committeth 
that dieth with contempt of the sacrament of penance, obstinately refusing abso- 
lution by the church's ministry." 


forgiven In this life nor after this life. And this is their judgment 
of the sin against the Holy Ghost. 

But AA'e avouch that the Scripture doth teach us there is but one 
sin only against the Holy Ghost, (Matth. xii. 32 ; Mark iii. 29; 
Luke xii. 10,) called the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost. Ye 
have a description of this sin, Ileb. vi. 4, and x. 2G, 27, the Apos- 
tle calling it an apostacy, or backsliding from God. It is also 
described, 2 Pet. ii. 20, and 1 John v. 1 6. It is called a sin unto 
death. As for the other kinds of this sin before specified, some of 
them are consequently of this sin, which we call a blasphemy, and 
appertain unto it ; for desperation and final impenitency are the 
punishments of this sin. Obstinacy is in the very nature of this 
sin, for it carries with it an obstinate maliciousness. And as for 
the other kinds, I cannot see how they may be called sins against 
Presumption, the Holy Ghost ; for as for presumption, what is it else but hypo- 
crisy ? To repine at the graces of God in our brethren, is a sin 
against our ntjighbour, and against the second table of the law. 
Therefore let this rest, that there is but one sin against the Holy 
Ghost, so called — to Avit, the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, 
or an apostacy from the grace of the Spirit once received ; for these 
are one and the same, to blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, and 
to fall from grace received. Kotwithstandiug, I deny not, but that 
this sin, which is but one in substance, may have his increase or 
growth ; for then it is come to a height, when as it fighteth against 
all the known truth which is accordins; to godliness. Next avc 
say, that this one sin is impardonable, not for that it is seldom and 
hardly pardoned ; but for that it is never pardoned, because such 
a one can never repent him of his sin that he hath committed. For 
this man's heart groweth to such a hardness, and that by God's 
just judgment, as can never after be mollified. 

And that this sin is simply impardonable, is manifest by the 
very words of the Lord in the Gospel before cited ; for when it is 
said in ^Matthew, It shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, 
nor in the icorld to come ; and in Mark, This sin is never forgiven, hut 
is culpable of eternal damnation, do not these words cut off all hope 

god's effectual calling. 191 

of pardon ? So as I cannot but wonder at the Rhemlsts, so impu- RUemists' 


dently to extenuate the force of the words of the Lord.^ To the 
Hebrews vi. 4-6, he saith, It is impossible that he which so sinneth^-'^^i''^'^^''^- 
should be renewed by repentance ; then he addeth a weighty cause 
and most necessary, for, saith he, This man crucijieth again to him- 
self the Son of God, that is, as much as in him lieth. 

Which point the better to conceive it, we must know there is a 
difference between all other sins, and this sin against the Holy 
Ghost, as touching the remission and expiation of them. For to 
expiate all other sins, the sacrifice of Christ once offered is suffi- 

1 '■'■ Impossible. How bard the Holy Scriptures be, and how dangerous they 
be read of the unlearned, or of the proud, be they never so well learned, this one 

place might teach us And let the good readers beware here also of 

the Protestants' exposition, for they are herein worse than Novatiaus, especially 
such as precisely follow Calvin : holding impiously that it is impossible for one 
that forsaketh entirely his faith, that is, becometh an apostate or an heretic, to 
be received to penance or God's mercy. To establish which false and damnable 
sense, these fellows make nothing of S. Ambrose's, {de Peenit. ii. 2, et in Ep. ad 
Heb.^i) S. Chrysostom's, (Horn. 9, in c. 6, ad Hebr.,) and the other fathers' 
exposition, which is the holy Church's sense ; that the Apostle meaneth of 
that penance which is done before and in baptism. Which is no more to say, 
but that it is impossible to be baptized again, and thereby to be renovated and 
illuminated, to die, be buried, and rise again the second time in Christ, in so easy 
and perfect penance, and cleansing of sins, as that first sacrament of generation 
[regeneration ?] did yield ; which applieth Christ's death in such ample manner 
to the receivers, that it taketh away all pains due for sins before committed. 
And therefore requireth no further penance afterward, for the sins before com- 
mitted, all being Avashed away by the force of that sacrament duly taken. S. 
Augustin calleth the remission in baptism, Magnam indulgeniiam, a great par- 
don. Enchirid. i. 64. 

" The Apostle, therefore, warnelh them, that if they fall from their faith, and 
from Christ's grace and law, which they once received in their baptism, they 
may not look to have any more that first great and large remedy applied unto 
them, nor no man else that siunetli after baptism. Though the other penance, 
which is called (Hieron. ep. 8, ad Demetriad. 6, 6) the second table after ship- 
wreck, which is a more painful medicine for sin than baptism, requiring much 
fasting, praying, and other afflictions corporal, is open not only to other sinners, 
but to all once baptized, heretics, or oppugners of the truth, maUciously, and of 
pm-pose, or what way soever, during this life. See S. Cyprian, ep. 52, S. 
Ambrose upon this place. S. Augustin cant. ep. Farm. lib. 2, c. 13, and ep. 
50, S. Damascene, li. 4, 6, 10." — Rhemish Testament. Note on Hebreivs 
vi. 4. 


cient for them all, and tlie virtue thereof extendeth Itself to purge 
all sins for ever. But when a man hath once sinned against the 
Holy Ghost, and profaned that precious blood, the virtue thereof 
will never after be effectual for the expiation of his sin. Where- 
fore he stands in need of some new sacrifice to purge his sin, which 
thing shall never be granted him. For if this were granted, then 
must Christ be crucified again, or some other sacrifice must be 
offered ; but neither can Christ be crucified again, neither can any- 
other sacrifice be offered for him, as it is written, Heb. x. 26, For 
there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins. Therefore this sin can 
never be expiate, because a new sacrifice can never be given for 
it : and this is the cause of the impossibility of the pardon of this 

The adversaries, namely, the Rhemists, in their observations on 
this place, do thus interpret this impossibility. They say, there is 
a double repentance, or renewing, or purging of sin : they say, 
the first is easy and light, in and by baptism ; where, say they, 
all the sins before baptism are j^urged by that light washing of 
Popish sacra- jtiaptism. The second they call penance, or the purging of sins, as 
nance. ^j-^g^ ^r^j^ jjy ^\^q sacramcut of penance ; and in this sacrament, as 
they speak, such sins are purged Avhich are committed after bap- 
tism; and this is hard and painful, as consisting of fastings, 
prayers, satisfactions, and other corporal afflictions. If you grant 
them this distinction, then they say, this impossibility of being re- 
newed is in respect of that repentance, renewing, and purging of 
sin which is in baptism : for, they say, it is impossible that a sin 
committed after baptism, some baptism being iterated, should be 
purged ;^ for we may not be rebaptized. As for the latter, penance 
and renewing, they say, there is a possibility in it ; for the greatest 
sin after baptism may be expiate by it. Therefore they aflfirm, 
the Apostle speaks covertly to such as sin after baptism, sending 
them to the sacrament of penance, that by virtue of that sacra- 

^ This should be : Should be purged by any iteration of baptism. Original : 
Impossibile enim esse dicunt ut pcccatura commissum post baptismum ilerato 
aliquo baptismo expurgatur. 

god's effectual calling. 193 

ment, their sin may be expiate, and that they may be renewed.^ 
But by this their interpretation, they pervert the Holy Scripture 2 Pet. lii. 15. 
to their own destruction. For this is certain, that the Apostle here 
takes away all possibility of being renewed, as the reason annexed 
manifestly proveth. 

Finally, it is evident by that place of John before cited, that this 
sin is impardonable, and that this is proper to that sin, that it can 
by no means be pardoned. For John saith, we may not pray for 
that sin. If we may not pray for it, there is no hope of repent- 
ance, or pardon for it. I know what the Rhemists here would say,^ 
to wit, that by this sin unto death we must understand final im- 
penitency ; " final impenitency is not remitted, because here wants 
repentance, and therefore we may not pray for such a one after his 
death; for he died in impenitency, contemning the sacrament of 

^ " If ice sin ivUUngly. As the Calvinists abuse other like places against the 
holy sacrifice of the Mass, so they abuse this, as the Novatians did before 
them, to prove that a heretic apostata, or any that wilfully forsaketh the truth, 
can never be forgiven. "Which (as is before declared in the 6th chap.) is most 
■vvicked blasphemy : the meaning hereof being, as is there said, only to terrify 
the Hebrews, that, falling from Christ, they cannot so easily have the host of 
Christ's death applied unto them, because they cannot be baptized any more, 
but must pass by sacramental penance and satisfaction, and other hard reme- 
dies which Christ hath prescribed after baptism in the Church's discipline. 
Therefore, S. C}Til saith, lib. 5, m Joan. cap. 17, Penance is not excluded by 
these words of Paul., but the renewing by the laver of regeneration. He doth not 
here take away the second or third rernission of sins, (for he is not such an enemy 
to our salvation,) but the host, which is Christ, he denieth that it is to be offered 
again npon the cross. So saith this holy doctor. And by this place and the like, 
you see how perilous a thing it is for heretics and ignorant persons to read the 
Scriptures. Which, by following their own fantasy, (2 Peter iii.,) they pervert 
to their damnation." — (Rhemish Testament. Note on Hebrews x. 26.) 

2 This should be: — I am not ignorant of the answer here made by the 
Rhemists. Original : Non ignore quid hie respondcant Rhemenses. The note 
of the Rhemists, on 1 John v. 16, is, " A sin to death." A sin to death is another 
thing than a mortal sin, for it is that mortal sin only, whereof a man is never 
penitent before his death, or in which he continueth till death, and dieth in it. 
/ affirm, (saith S. Augustin, de Correp. et Gratia, c. 12,) that a sin to death is to 
leave faith ivorhing by charity even till death. So likewise in the words before, a 
sin not to death, is not that which we call a venial sin, but any that a man com- 
mitteth, and continueth not therein till death. 

VOL. I. N 


penance." But they affirm it to be lawful to pray for other sins 
after death. 

This again is to pervert Scripture, for the Apostle speaketh not 
of prayer to be or not to be after his death which hath so sinned, 
but that prayer must not be conceived for him whilst he liveth, 
after that it hath manifestly appeared unto the Church, by infallible 
arguments, that such a one hath sinned unto death ; as for Julian 
the Apostate ; for whom the Church prayed not while he lived, yea, 
it prayed against him in his lifetime, after it was clearly discerned 
that he had sinned unto death, that is, had blasphemed against the 
Holy Ghost. I pass over that place of Peter before cited, where 
the Apostle speaks of no difficulty, but of a mere impossibility of 
being renewed, of repentance, and of remission of sins, where it is 
said, Tlieir latter state is worse than the Jirst; and as it folio weth, 
But it hath happened unto him, (as it is in the true proverb,) the dog hath 
returned to his own vomit, and the sow to her wallowing in the mire. And 
thus far of this second controversy, and so nmch shall suffice con- 
cerning; sin. 



Our effisctual calling is effected, first by the Law, then by the 
Gospel. The whole doctrine of the Law may be reduced to this 
Or form of syllogism ; Cursed is he that continueth not in all things which are 
written in the book of this law, to do them ; but I have not con- 
tinued in them ; therefore I am accursed. The proposition of this 
reason is the voice of the Law, and that commination which is 
added to the Covenant of Works ; which is thus conceived, Do 
this, and thou shalt live, hut if thou do it not, thou shalt die. The as- 
sumption of this reason is the act of every one's conscience that 
applieth to itself the transgression of the Law. The conclusion 

god's effectual calling. 195 

likewise is the act of each one's conscience, applying to itself the 

just punishment and curse of God for sin. This form of reasoning 

belongs not so much to the calling itself, as to our preparation to Our prepara- 
tion to our 
that effectual calling which is properly effected by the doctrine of effectual 

the Gospel. For by the doctrine of the Law w^hich is comprehend- 
ed in this argument, we are amazed and affected with the feeling 
of our misery, which feeling is the first degree unto salvation. 

Now the doctrine of the Gospel may be comprehended in this 
form : Whosoever believeth shall be justified and live ; But I be- An evangeiu 

. . . . , . eal syllogism. 

lieve ; therefore I shall be justified and live. The proposition is 
the voice of the Gospel, or of God himself calling. For therein is 
contained the first part of an effectual calling, which is nothing 
else but a proclaiming of the free covenant, the form whereof is 
contained in this proposition. The assumption is not indeed the 
act of the natural conscience, but of every one's supernatural faith 
applying to himself Christ Jesus the Mediator of the Covenant, 
and him first crucified, and next glorified. The conclusion also is 
the act of faith, applying to every one the benefits of Christ his 
righteousness, and salvation by him. This reason ^ doth properly 
belong to calling ; and the proposition of it is the first part of call- 
ing ; and the assumption and conclusion is the second part. And 
seeing the assumption and conclusion are the acts of our faith, 
whereby w^e do, as it were, make answer unto God that calleth, 
surely we shall not without cause say, that the second part of ef- 
fectual calling is nothing else but faith. Wherefore the common- 
place of faith must be comprised under this of our effectual calling. 
It followeth, therefore, that we speak of faith, yea, of that faith 
which is properly and simply so called, that is, of faith which they ^"^^J^'^ins 
call " Justifying faith." For as touching the other kinds of faith, 
which are commonly numbered,^ as " a dead faith," &c., they are so 
termed, not simply, but in some respect, and with an addition, dead 
faith, temporary faith, &c. 

^ Syllogism. Original : syllogismus. 
2 Euumerated. Original : enumerantur. 


The object Now, in the declaration ^ of faith, the first thine: that offereth it- 

of faith. ' ' ^ 

self to be considered is the object thereof. The object is generally 
"whatsoever is contained in the Word of God, that is, the whole 
truth of God. But specially and properly, the object of it is Jesus 
Christ with all his benefits. 

There is a twofold consideration of Christ and his benefits; for 
first, Christ with his benefits is considered as he is offered in the 
"Word and Sacraments; that is, as he is offered unto us, as in a 
looking-glass; and yet not so much Christ himself, as a certain 
image or picture of him. Of this looking-glass of the Word and 
Sacraments ye read, 1 Cor. xiii. 12, We see now as it were in a glass, 
and by a dark speaking."^ And 2 Cor. iii. 18, But we^ with open face 
The glass helioldivg the glory of the Lord as in a glass, are transformed into the 

■wherein we 

may find and same image from glory to glory. Now Christ so considered, is nothing 
of Christ, gjgg Ijy^ Christ preached in the Word, and represented in the Sa- 
craments. We, saith he, preach Christ crucified, 1 Cor. i. 23. For 
the Gospel preached doth set Christ in a manner before ovn- eyes. 
Gal. iii. 1, To luhom Jesus Christ loas before pictured before your 
eyes, and among you crucified. Next, we be to consider Christ 
without ■* this glass of the Word and Sacraments, as he is in himself. 
Of Christ so considered the Apostle speaketh, 1 Cor, xiii. 12, But 
then we shall see him face to face ; and 1 John iii. 2, But ice know 
that it shall come to pass, that when he shall appear, we shall be like 
him, because we shall see him as he is. 

As there is a twofold consideration of Christ, so the knowledge 
A twofold and apprehension of him is twofold. The first is called Faith, 
orappichcn- the latter Sight. Of both these ye read, 2 Cor. v. 7, For we walk 

sion of faith. . 

by Faith, not by Sight. These two ways of knowing and apprehend- 
ing do agree one with another in nature and essence; for both of 
them are the knowledge and apprehension of Christ; but they dif- 

^ Exposition. Original : explicatione. 

2 Original : per cBnigma, Beza's translation. 

3 We all. Original : nos omnes. 
* Original : extra. 

god's effectual calling. 197 

fer in quantity, and as tliey use to speak, more or less; ^ for the 
knowledge of faith is the lesser, as also is the apprehension ; 
whereupon, 1 Cor. xiii. 9, it is said, that we know in part. But 
the knowledge and apprehension by sight is the greater, and 
so perfect knowledge and apprehension; and this shall have place 
in the next wcrld.^ Of this perfect knowledge is spoken in the 
same chap. ver. 10, But after that which is perfect is come; and ver. 
12, The7i shall I know even as I shall be taught. 

These things thus laid down and known, it is easily perceived 
what the special and first object of faith is ; namely, Jesus Christ 
with all his benefits, and even so, as he ofifereth himself in the Word 
and Sacraments. Or the object of faith is the Word itself, or the 
promises which are made of Christ, which is all one. Hence it The necessity 

*■ . ^ . of the Word 

followeth, that whensoever the preaching of the Word and admin- preached. 
istration of the Sacraments shall cease, this faith also, whereby we 
now walk, must also cease. See 1 Cor. xiii. 10, Then shall that 
ivhich is in part he done away. 

To conclude, it is to be noted of this object of faith, that it is 
special, that is, offered to me, to thee, and to every man specially 
and distinctly. For albeit the words be generally conceived, yet 
they are specially to be taken as spoken to me, to thee, or of me, 
and of thee. Thus much touching the object of faith. 

Now we are to speak of the subject thereof; namely, wherein it The subject 
is, and from which it proceedeth.^ The subject of faith is the soul 
of man, and in the soul of man the reasonable and principal facul- 
ties; those I term, first the mind, then the will. For as touching 
the other inferior faculties and affections of the soul, faith is not 
so much said to be resident in them as to sanctify them, and to stir 
them up unto good, and, as a body, to govern them. Whereupon it 

^ Original : secundum majus et minus. 

2 This should be : But the knowledge and apprehension of sight is the 
greater, and is perfect, inasmuch as it is to take place in the life to come. Original : 
Aspectus vero cognitio et apprehensio major est adeoque perfecta^ ut qucefutura sit 
in altero scecuIo. 

^ This should be : in what it is, and from what it proceedeth. Original : 
in quo est, et a quo procedit. 


is said, after that hy faith he had purified their hearts} Now, that 
faith belongs to the mind, it is apparent by those titles which are 
given to faith everywhere in the Scripture, as when it is called, 
knoivledge, understanding, sight; as when it is said, We see now in a 
glass. And that it is in the will, it is evident by that which ia 
said, Rom. x, 10, For with the heart man helieveth unto righteousness j 
and Eph. iii. 17, that Christ may dwell in your hearts hy faith; for 
the seat of the will is attributed to the heart. Furtheraiore, the 
names whereby faith is termed in the Scripture do sufficiently con- 
vince that the seat of it is not only in the mind, but also in the 
will and heart; as when it is called an apprehension, and when it is 
called a certain embracing, and such like names, which signify the 
office of the heart and will. Thus far of the subject of faith. 

Now let us come nearer to the nature thereof, and to the parts 
of the nature of it. The first part of faith is the knowledge or 
understanding of the mind, whereby the mind doth plainly under- 
stand some sentence or proposition of the Gospel, and by name, 
that proposition, which is in the syllogism of the Gospel, which we 
alleged before ; for the proposition of that syllogism is, as it W'Cre, an 
abridgment of the whole Gospel. From this j)art, as the principal, 
namely, knowledge, faith is named everywhere in the Scriptures. 

Parts of faith. The second part of faith is the judgment, or, as it is commonly 
called, the assent of the same mind. Of this judgment the Scripture 
speaketh everywhere, as 1 Cor. ii. 15, The spiritual man judgeth all 
things, 1 John iv. 1, Try the spirits tvhcther they he of God. This 

Judgment judgment is twofold ; the first, of truth ; the second, of goodness. 
The judgment of truth is, when the mind assenteth to the proposition 
of the Gospel, that it is true ; of this judgment see John iii. 33, He 
that receiveth his testimony, hath scaled that God is true. 1 Tim. i. 15, 
This is a faithful saying, and xcoithy hy all means to be received, &c. 
To conclude, this judgment of truth is gathered out of all places of 
Scripture, wherein there is mention made of the truths of God's 
Word. The judgment of goodness is, when the mind assenteth to 

1 Acts XV. 9. 

god's effectual calling. 199 

that thing which is in the proposition of the Gospel, that it is good; 

and therefore to be followed. For it must be known, that all the 

propositions of the Gospel be practical, as they say; in the naked Tiie sayings 

speculation and contemplation of which none must set up his rest ; ^^ practical 

but they are to be drawn out into the manners and life, every day. 

Of this judgment of goodness ye have that, Rom. vii. 16, I consent 

to the laio that it is good. 1 Cor. i. 18, The preaching of the cross is 

to us which are saved the power of God. And in the same chap. 

ver. 24, We preach Christ, to them which are called, the power and 

loisdom of God. And thus much concerning the twofold judgment, 

which, as we have said, must be of the general proposition of that 

evangelical syllogism : of both which, this, last of all, is to be held, 

that it is not only general, but also special ; whereby I do judge 

that those things which are spoken in the Gospel are true of me, 

and good to me. For, as we said before, those things which are 

published in the Gospel are to be understood to be spoken specially 

of me, and of thee. And this special judgment is properly that which 

is called full assurance. After this follows confidence, which be- '!fhYiqo(po- 

longs to the heart and will; whereof we will speak in -the iiext|'*^!^''^°'* 


There foUoweth, therefore, in the third place, the choice or hold- 
taking of the will, which is, when any one doth with his will or 
heart peculiarly apply to himself that which he hath judged first 
true, then good, not only in general, but also in special. This ap-Tiietwrd 
prehension or application is in the assumption or conclusion of that 
syllogism of the Gospel, alleged before by us. For after that the 
mind hath seen and judged the proposition of that syllogism, then 
the will of every one doth particularly apply unto himself in the 
assumption and conclusion, those good things which that general 
proposition did concern. Of this apprehension ye have, 1 Tim. Tiie appre- 
vi. 12, Lay hold on eternal life. Phil. iii. 12, I follow, if I also may^^^^- 
apprehend it. 1 Tim. i. 15, This is a faithful sayiny, and worthy 
by all means to be embraced by us. To conclude, this third part 
of faith is to be understood in all those titles whereby the choice 
of the will is signified in the Scripture. From this part faith is 


termed a special confidence or trust ; for the nature of faith is 
chiefly seeu in it. 
Faith defined. Thcsc things thus declared, it will be easy to gather a definition 
of faith. For Faith in Christ with all his benefits, as he is offered in 
the Word and Sacraments, is first a knowledge of the mind; then an 
apprehension of the loill or heart} In this definition we have first the 
object of faith; then the subject of it; thirdly, the parts. Under 
the knowledge of the mind I understand also the judgment or as- 
sent of the mind, and that twofold, whereof we have spoken before. 
It is to be known, that faith thus defined by us, is improperly taken 
for the function and work of faith, seeing faith is properly an in- 
fused habit, as they call it, or a holy quality, first of the mind ; 
then of the mil or heart. 

Now this quality in the mind, Avhat is it else but that light of 
which the Scripture speaks everywhere ? Ye icere once darkness ; 
Faith alight, j^^^ jiQyj yg are light in the Lord, Ephes. v. 8. The eyes of your mind 
being opened, that ye may know lohat is that hope of his calling, Ephes. 
i. 18. God, lohich comjnanded that the light should shine out of dark- 
ness, is he which hath sliincd in your hearts, to give the light of the 
knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ, 2 Cor. iv. 6. 
But God hath revealed those things unto us by his Spirit ; for the Spi- 
rit searcheth all things, everi the deep things of God, 1 Cor. ii. 10. 

And this light of the mind, which is the first part of faith, seem- 
eth to be not only a restoring of that natural light, which was im- 
paired in Adam's fall, but also a certain supernatural light put into 
the mind by the Spirit of Christ, to this end, that the mind might 
behold and see those things which excel all natural knowlcdo-e. 

1 The Original of this important passage is : — His expositis facile erit colligere 
defiuitionem fidci. Est cuim fides Christi cum beneficiis suis, iit in verbo et 
Sacramento oifertur, primum mentis cognitio, dcinde voluntatis sive cordis 
apprehcnsio. I would not object greatly to the translation in the test. Yet it 
seems erroneous in this, that the question is not, " What is faith iu Jesus 
Christ?" — but, " What is justifying faith?" To which, I think, our Author's 
answer is, " It is faith iu Jesus Christ with his benefits, as he is offered in the 
word and sacraments ; being, first, the assenting knowledge of the understand- 
ing; and, secondly, the hold-taking of the will or heart." 

god's effectual calling. 201 

"VVTiereupon, Eph. iii. 17, 18, it is thus said, TJiat ye, being rooted and 
grounded in love, may be able to attain icith all saints ichat is the 
length, and breadth, and depth, and height, and to know that love of 
Christ, ivhich passeth all knowledge. 

I do not think that this knowledge was in Adam, in his first Adam-s 
creation, before his falL For all the knowledge in Adam's mind, ^'=*'ore ^^ 

<=> 7 fall. 

before his fall, as it was holy, so it seemeth it was natural ; it seem- 
eth it was a natural knowledge of God himself; it seemeth it was a 
natural knowledge of the things created. Neither did he before 
this see God in the Mediator Christ, nor was it needful he should 
see him so. Besides, this light which I speak of is kindled in our 
mind by looking on the face of Christ the Mediator, as it were in 
the glass of the Gospel. 2 Cor. iii. 18, We all with open face, be- 
holding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are transformed into the 
same image from glory to glory. Also iv. chap. ver. 6, To give the 
light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. 
But Adam before his fall, as he heard nothing concerning the 
Gospel of Christ, he saw not his face in the glass of the Gospel. 
Besides, 1 Cor. xv. 45, of Adam it is said, the first Adam was made 
a living soul ; but of Christ, the last Adam teas made a quickening 
spirit. Out of which words the difference betwixt Adam and 
Christ is seen, that Adam Avas made only natural, yet holy ; but 
Christ was made spiritual and supernatural ; for spiritual things are 
supernatural. Again, out of this difference we gather this, that 
spiritual and supernatural light, which we have only by the benefit 
of Christ, that is, the second Adam, was not in Adam before the 
fall. For in the same place, (verses 48, 49,) our heavenly or spiritual 
condition is ascribed unto Christ. But of this thus far, and but 

Also in the will or heart faith is a supernatural ability, put into or the foith 

1 o • • p /-^i • p 1 • 1 •' ' i of the opera- 

it by the bpirit of Christ, of which Col. ii. 12, By the faith offl^l^^l^^ 

God that loorketh mightily in us. This power, also, as I think, was uie'nS '"^ 

not put into Adam's heart before the fall, being induced by the In usr*"'^""'" 

* This note is the translator's own. 


same reasons which we alleged before. And seeino; that the lio-ht 
of the mind and efficacy of the heart are supernatural, it followeth 
also, that the functions of that light and efficacy, namely, the know- 
ledge of the mind, and the apprehension of the heart, are likewise 
supernatural. Wherefore unto that definition of faith before set 
justifyiiiK dowu, w^c add this branch, supernatural, as the last ; so that Justi- 

faith defined. 

fying faith in Christ, with all his benefits offered unto us in the Word 
and Sacraments, is not only a holy, but also a supernatural knoicledge 
of the mind, and apprehension of the icill. Thus, then, we define 
faith, as we admonished before, as the name of faith is taken for 
the function and work of faith, for so the divines do commonly de- 
fine it. So also in the Scriptures is the name of faith wont to be 
taken, namely, for the function or work of faith, as it is termed, 
2 Thess. i. 3. But if the description of faith properly, and as it is 
taken for an infused quality, do like any man better, thus also he 
may have it described, that Faith is a light of the mind, and an 
hi^yiloc. effectual action in the heart, super naturally put into them both, for the 
knoiving and apprehending of Christ with all Ms benefits, offered in the 
Word and Sacraments. 

Now it remaineth that we speak something touching the effects 
of faith. That knowledge and apprehension of Christ which w^e 
speak of, sith the seat of it is in the principal and reasonable facul- 
ties of the soul, namely, the mind and the will, it cannot be idle, 
neither does it contain itself within the bounds of those higher 
faculties of the mind, the soul, and the will ; but it is effectual also 
in the lower heart, that is, in all the affections ; and there is not 
any of all the affections, but is affected some way or other by this 
knowledge and apprehension, being not only sanctified by it, but 
also wrapt up above itself and the nature thereof. For as we said 
of faith, that it is a supernatural knowledge and apprehension, the 
same is true also of the functions of all the affections ; for they are 
all not only made holy, but also supernatural, by a certain superna- 
tural faculty put into them by the Spirit of Christ. 

But to speak distinctly of the effects of Faith. Christ with all 
his benefits being once known and apprehended, a hope of good 

god's effectual calling. 203 

to come, and a fear of evil to come, the love of Christ, and Note the 
the desire of him, and ioy and gladness, are in a wonderful manner wwchfoiiow 
kindled in the soul, as 1 Peter i. 8, Believing in him, ye rejoice tvith 
joy unspeakable and glorious. Grief, also, which is according to 
God, is kindled, with groans which cannot be expressed, Rom. viii. 
26. To conclude, the whole heart burns to God-ward. By faith 
also our affections toward our neighbour are stirred up, and that 
for God and Christ, as love of our neighbour, and delight in the 
saints, Ps. xvi. 3. And these are the first effects of faith, and those 
are inward in the lower heart or affections. 

There be also outward effects, of faith, having their being in the 
body, and in all the members of the body; and those are outward 
actions of the body, into which the in^vard motions of the affections 
break forth. And those are, first, such as respect God; then, such 
as respect our neighbour for God's cause. And thus much of the 
effects of faith, both inward and outward, as also of faith ; which 
is properly so called, which they commonly term Justifying Faith. 



It followeth that we speak of the improper significations of faith. Diversaeeep- 

x-i 1 • 1 7-- 7 • 1 • tations of 

i or this very word. Faith, is ambiguous, and signifieth many ^^^^ 

Properly, it signifieth this faith which they call justifying ; for i. 
that is properly and simply termed by this name. Secondly, it 2. 
signifieth that faith which they call historical, or dead ; which is 
nothing else but, as it Avere, the carcase of justifying faith, for it 
lacks the soul, the full assurance of the mind, and the confidence 
of the heart in the special assent of the mind, and in the trust 
and apprehension of the heart. 

Thirdly, it signifieth faith which they call temporary, which is a 3. 


4. certain ape of justifying faith. Fourthly, and last of all, that faith 
which they term miraculous. 

These three last significations of faith are improper, and the name 
of faith is but an Homonomy^ or improperly put upon them, to sig- 
nify these things. For not any of these may be called by the name 
of faith, unless you say, "in some respect," "in part," and "after a 
sort," and "with an addition;" for example, the knowledge of history 
is termed faith, but wdth this addition, historical or dead, and so of 
the rest. Now a general notion of this word faith is that which is, 
Heb. xi. 1. And that is a knowledge in general, with assent and 
agreement to all those things which are compi-ehended in the Word 
of God, and that whether general or particular. I mean by a par- 
ticular word, when any thing is revealed to any one peculiarly out 
of order, by which kind of revelation it came to pass that miracles 
were done by some. We must speak, therefore, in the first place, 
concerning historical or dead faith ; and first, for the testimonies 
Historical or of Scripturc toucliiug it. Jamcs ii. 17, Faith, if it have no works, is 

dead faith. 

dead of itself . 1 Cor. xli. 9, Unto other faith by the same Spirit. The 
coherence of the text, and comparison made with other gifts of the 
Holy Ghost, which in that place are numbered, do show sufficient- 
ly that the Apostle speaketh of historical faith. Plitherto belongeth 
that place which is, 1 Cor. xiii. 2, If I had all faith, so that I could 
remove mountains. Here he doth not only mean the faith of mira- 
cles, but also the historical ; for he saith all faith ; and after he sets 
down one kind, as if he had said by name, miracidous faith to re- 
move mountains. The reason of the name is this : It is termed 
historical, because it is only a bare knowledge of the holy history 
concerning God, Christ, the will of God, and his works, and not a 
Dead faitii. holy apprehension of the things known. And why it is called dead, 
James rendereth a reason in the place before cited, namely, because 
it hath no works ; the reason i;? from the consequent or sign. For 
want of works or actions, argueth and showeth that faith is as it 
w^cre dead, and without life, and, if I may so speak, the carcase of 

^ That is, the same in sound oiijj — not in signification. 

god's effectual calling. 205 

faith, even as if there be no motions nor actions in a man neither 
inward nor outward, thereby it is declared, that the man is dead 
and the body without life, or but the dead carcase of a man. 

Our adversaries, that I may speak of this by the way, when they The Papists 


hear of it, of James ii. 17, that faith is therefore called dead, because 
it hath no works, by and by conclude, that charity and the works of 
charity is the soul of faith ; but this followeth not that charity and 
the works of charity are the soul of faith, but this followeth, that 
charity and the works of charity are the signs and tokens of the 
soul, that is by name, of that apprehension of Christ ivhich is in the 
heart ; for this is indeed the soul and form of faith. I will declare 
this thing by a like example. A man, if he have no works, no ac- 
tions, neither inward nor outward, that indeed argueth, that there 
is not a soul or form in him, out of which actions do proceed ; but 
it doth not argue that works or actions are the soul and form of 

But they think that the words of James, chap. ii. ver. 26, do make 
for their opinion. For out of that that James saith — As the body 
without the spirit or breath is dead, so also faith which is loithout 
icorks is dead — thus they infer ; Therefore as the spirit is the form 
of the body, so are works the form of faith.^ But this consequent 
is not of force. For the comparison and similitude is not in that, 
but in this, that even as the body without the soul or breath is 
dead, so faith without works is dead. The body without the spirit, 
as her soul and form, is dead ; faith without works, as the siirns and 
tokens of the soul, is dead. Even as therefore the want of the 

^ " Some heretics hold that good works are peraicious to salvation and justi- 
fication ; others, that though they be not hurtful, but required, yet they be no 
causes or -workers of salvation, much less meritorious, but are as effects and 
fruits necessarily issuing out of faith. Both which fictions, falsehoods, and 
flights from the plain truth of God's word, are refuted by these words, where the 
Apostle saith, That faith ivorketh together with good works ; making faith to be 
a coadjutor or co-operator with works, and so both jointly concurring as causes 
and workers of justification : yea, afterward he makcth works the more princi- 
pal cause, where he resembleth faith to the body, and works to the spirit or life 
of man." — Notes to the Rhemish Translation of the New Testament, James ii. 22. 


spirit or the soul doth argue the death of the body ; so the want 
of the sign and token of the soid of faith doth argue the death of 
faith ; it is therefore a comparison of the spirit and works in the like 
effect, and not in the like nature. For both have the like effectp 
which is death ; but both the things are not of the same nature. 
Hitherto of the reason of the name. The object of historical faith 
is all the holy story, that is, the Avhole truth which is according to 
godliness, and the word of both covenants ; wherein this faith dif- 
fers from justifying faith, which hath the word of the Gospel, or of 
the covenant of grace, for the object thereof. 
Subject of The subject of this faith is the mind, which knoweth and 

an historical ■' 

fuitii. judgeth ; but the judgment of the mind doth only reach to the 

truth of the history, as I think, and not to the goodness of the 
things themselves, which are contained in the story. For although 
a hypocrite do profess that all those things, of which the Gospel 

Noteweu. spcaks, are true; yet he doth not assent to them in his mind, as 
good things ; which is the first step of practice or action. For 
after the judgment of the goodness of things, followeth the appre- 
hension thereof, Avhicli belongs to the will, out of which after pro- 
ceed the motions of the affections, and out of them last of all do 
issue the outward actions of the body. Therefore, this dead faith 
doth not sincerely, at the least, assent to those things which are 
in the Word, as good things, but rather doth indeed reject them, 
and count them as evil ; so the devil, who hath this faith, is said to 
tremble, James ii. 19. Out of which it is manifest, that the devil 
doth reject Christ and all his good things. For tliis horror ariseth 
out of rejecting and hating of the thing. Therefore, in one word, 
this historical faith pertains only to the mind, and hath that for the 
subject of it. 

The nature of It foUoweth, that WO spcak of the nature thereof. By these 

a liistorical 

f'"tii. things which have been spoken of the subject, it may easily be 

learned what is the nature of it. For it is wholly comprised but 
only in the general knowledge of the mind, and judgment of truth ; 
it hath therefore one or two degrees of justifying faith. Out of 
all these things which we have spoken of a historical faith, it is easy 

god's effectual calling. 207 

to gather the definition thereof. For Jdstorical faith is a knowledge folt^^aeflned. 
in the mind of the whole truth both of the Law and of the Gospel, 
and the judgment of the mind made thereupon, as far as concerns 
the truth thereof. And thus far concerning historical or dead 

Next followeth a temporary. Of this faith ye have these texts : tg,^''^* ;. * 
Matt. xiii. 20, 21, But he that received the seed in stony ground, is ^'^^^^' 
he loho heareth the Word, and hy and by receives it with joy, yet hath 
no root in himself, but is for a time, and xohen persecution and trouble 
ariseth because of the Word, is offended presently. To the same pur- 
pose read Luke viii. 13. Of this faith see also Heb. vi. 4, 5, 
jFor it cannot be, that they ivhich have been once enlightened, and tasted 
of the good Word of God, and of the powers of the ivorld to come, if 
they fall away, &c. To conclude, of this faith ye have John v. 35, 
He, namely, John, %cas a burning and a shining candle, and ye tcould 
for a time have rejoiced in his light. The reason of the name is this ; 
it is called Temporary, because it endures but for a time, because 
it hath no root. 

It hath the same object with justifying faith, and which is pro- 
perly so called, namely, Jesus Christ with his benefits, oflTered in 
the word of the Gospel and in the Sacraments ; wherein it diflfers 
from historical faith, which hath for the object thereof the univer- 
sal truth. It haih the same subject with iustifvinp; faith : for it Ti'e subject 

"^ o J a ^ of a tempo- 

hath its seat both in the mind, and also in the will and heart. ^^''^ ^'^"^^• 

Last of all, it hath as many parts of nature as the justifying 
hath. For it is a knowledge of the understanding, conjoined with 
both the judgments of the mind, and it is the apprehension of the 
will or heart, w^hereout followeth also the stirring of the aflTections, 
as of joy, delight, &c. 

But that I may speak a little more largely of this apprehension, 
which is in temporary faith, and of this joy. First, it is certain. How the his- 
by the Scripture, that these thino-s are in the teraporarv faith, temporary 

... 1 J taitlidiffer 

For Christ saith in Matthew, That he, which is but for a time, doth °"'' *'''°™ 

' another, and 

receive the Word, and that with joy. And in John, the Jews are Eustify- 
said to have rejoiced for a time in the light of John Baptist. And '"^' 


to the Hebrews, there is attributed to this faith, not only the en- 
lightening of the mind, but also the taste of the heart, and that 
performed not only by the Word, but also by the Spirit ; for he 
salth, " They which have been made partakers of the Holy Ghost." 
Therefore, in temporary faith, there is indeed a kind of apprehen- 
sion ; there is indeed a certain joy, wherein temporary faith differ- 
eth from historical faith. For in historical faith, these things are 
not indeed, but he that hath it doth feign, and dissemble, and lie, 
in his outward profession, that he hath these things ; wherefore he 
is a shameless hypocrite. But he that hath temporary faith hath 
these things indeed — apprehension, I say, and joy, after a certain 
manner, neither doth he so feign or lie, as he that hath an 
historical faith ; yet he is a hypocrite, because this apprehension 
and this joy are not sincere, albeit after a certain manner they be 

I say, they are not sincere, because they are not for that cause 
for which they should be, that is, they are not for Christ himself, 
offered in the preaching of the Gospel ; they are not for God's sake, 
they are not for his glory, nor for those heavenly benefits of Christ, 
his righteousness and eternal life ; but they are for other causes, as 
for the newness of the Gospel, which is to be understood in that 
place, John v. 35, He was a burning and a shining candle, and ye 
wotdd have rejoiced for a time in his light, namely, for the newness of 
the matter. Secondly, they be, because of a licentiousness to sin, 
which men by and by snatch to themselves, upon the hearing of 
free justification by Christ, and Christian liberty. To conclude, 
they are for riches, honours, and other commodities of this life. 
Now, seeing the temporising professor hath these causes propound- 
ed to himself in hearing and receiving the Word, and in rejoicing, 
it must needs be that these are not sincere in him. For nothing is 
done sincerely, unless it be done in respect of the glory of God. 
And herein differs Temporary Faith from Justifying. For the 
Justifying Faith doth all things for Christ himself, for God him- 
self, for the heavenly and spiritual benefits of Christ, as much as 
it can for man's infirmity. 

god's effectual calling. 209 

Out of this, therefore, it follows, that the temporiser is also aiempoviseris 
hypocrite, seeing he is not sincere, and that the temporary faith is 
hypocritical, seeing it is not sincere. Out of that again, that it is 
not sincere, another thing followeth, namely, that it is not sound 
and firm ; for nothing that is not sincere can be sound. For those 
causes upon which it depends are not sound ; as, for example, those 
worldly things, as riches, honours of the world, &c. In which thing 
temporary faith differeth from justifying faith ; for justifying faith, as 
it is sincere, so it is sound. For of that it is said. Col. ii. 5, And ^/ie xiie aiffer- 

_ . •/->• r • 1 ' • encebetween 

stedfastiiess of your faith in Christ. For justifying faith is, as it were, a temporary 
a solid body, consisting of three dimensions, length, breadth, depth, E'J'^^^^uf,'^" 
for it possesseth the depth and lowest of the heart ; but temporary 
faith is not a body with three dimensions, but only a surface, 
sticking in the upper part of the heart ; for it is not either a sound 
light, enlightening all tlie heart, or a sound apprehension, arising 
from the bottom of the heart ; or, to conclude, a sound joy possess- 
ing the whole body, but all these things are only superficial in the 
temporary faith. Whereupon, Heb. vi. 4, that apprehension of hea- 
venly things which is therein, is compared to tasting, or slight 
touching, seeing that the heart doth but, as it were, with the tip 
of the tongue, lightly taste those heavenly things, and not quite 
drink them up, and receive them into itself. 

Again, out of this, that temporary faith is not sound, another 
thing also followeth, namely, that it doth not endure for ever, but 
only for a time. For that which is not sound, is not durable and 
perpetual ; but only temporary. Wherein also it differeth from 
justifying faith, whicli, as it is sound, so it is perpetual and con- 
stant. From this property this faith took her name, and was called 
temporary ; now this property doth presuppose the two others 
going before ; namely, first, that it is not sound ; secondly, that it 
is not sincere, albeit it be in some sort true. 

While I consider somewhat more diligently of the cause of these 

three properties, I find that it is not to be imputed so much to 

those outward things for which this faith doth apprehend Christ 

in the Word, and rejoiceth in him, as to the inward evil affection of 

VOL. I. o 


the heart. For the heart of man, as Christ saith, is stony ground ; 
that is, it is neither good nor honest of its own nature. Now, we 
measm-e this goodness and honesty, chiefly by simplicity and sin- 
cerity, which is opposed to hypocrisy and dissembling. Therefore, 
a deep hypocrisy, which is contrary to sincerity, possesseth the 
heart of man. Now, the heart, so affected, doth believe, appre- 
hend and rejoice, not sincerely, for a true cause, for which it ought 
to do these things, but for other worldly causes. It followeth, 
therefore, that the cause of these evils doth lurk in the heart.. 
numitfon'for Whcreforc, if any man w^iU not be a temporiser, let him above aU 
a temponser. ^j^.^gg look to his heart, and sift and examine it diligently, night 
and day, so long till he feel that the faith of Christ takes root 
in the bottom of his heart, and doth throughout possess the whole 
heart, as much as may be. 

Out of these things Avhich we have spoken, touching the proper- 
ties of this faith, and of the cause of them, a mark may be taken, 
whereby any one may discern true and justifying faith from tempo- 
rary. And that is, sincerity ; in a word, sincerity in doing, in believ- 
ing, in apprehending, in rejoicing, and in doing all things through- 
out the whole course of the life. Now, sincerity is known by this, 
if all things be done and performed by us for God and for Christy 
whether those things be of small or great moment. Whether yeeat 
or drink, or lohatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God, 1 Cor. x. 31. 
Temporary Bv thcse things whlch havc been spoken, it is easy to gather a de- 

faith defined. •'^ _ ° _ ^ ^ . 

finltlon of this faith. I^or temporary faith is a. linoidedye in the 
mind, and an apprehension in the tcill, of Christ with all his benefits ; 
but yet temporary, or enduring but for a time. And thus much of 
temporary faith. 

The miraculous faith followeth, which is the third Improper signifi- 
cation of the word faith. Touching this faith these are testimonies : 
Matt. xvll. 20, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard-seed. 1 Cor. 
4. Miraculous xlil. 2, If I had all faith, so that I could remove mountains. The 
reason of the name Is this ; It is termed miraculous from the effect 
of It, because it is powerful to do miracles. 

The object thereof is not the bare general Word of God, but ra- 

god's effectual calling. 211 

ther a special promise or revelation made to some one, touching the 
doing of some certain miracle. Now that the bare general Word 
sufficeth not, it appeareth hereby, for because many holy men have 
had faith in the general Word, yea, they have justifying faith in the 
promise of grace ; and yet could do no miracles. Simon Magus 
believed by an historical faith in the general Word, and yet he 
could do no miracles ; therefore he would have bought this faculty 
with money for a price. Acts viii. 18. Unless, therefore, unto the 
general Word there be added a special promise or revelation, it is 
no miraculous faith ; which is a certain special and extraordinary 
gift of the Spirit. Wherein the adversaries do err very much, who 
think that the general Word sufficeth for this, to make a miraculous 
faith.^ The subject of it is the mind, first understanding, and withal The subject 

• 1 • 1 • 1 • T 1 1 Ml of miraculous 

judgmg the special promise ; and then the w^U or the heart appre- '^'"t^- 
bending that which is promised. 

The parts of the nature thereof are ; a knowledge with a 
judgment of the mind, and an apprehension with the will and heart. 
Out of these things now spoken, I gather this definition of this 
faith ; that Miraculous faith is a knowledge in the mind, and an «/?- MUacuious 

. • 1 1 m f • 1 • J faith dotiiKMl. 

prehension With the will, oj a special promise or revelation, for the doing 
of a miracle. Thus far of miraculous faith ; and in sum, of the 
true doctrine of faith. 

^ Respondeo ; In his omnibus locis, vocabulum fidei accipitur pro vera fide 
Catholica, qua credimus id omne, quod Dens revelat ; uon pro fiducia, aut con- 
fidentia. Quaravis illud verum sit, fidem qua impetrautur miracula, magna 
[maguam] esse debere, ut etiam gignat fiduciam quandam impetrandi quod pe- 
titur. Nam propterea dixit Domiuus Chananeas : mulier, magna est fides tua. 
Matt. xiii. et Apostolus 1 Cor. xiii. Si hahuero omnem fidem, ita ut mantes 
transferam. Esse autem fidem miraculorum, fidem ipsam Catholicam, supra 
probavimus ex ca. ult. Marci, et ex lioc ipso loco, 1 Cor. xiii. — Bellarmin, 
ibid. vol. iv. p. 750. 




It followeth now that we see briefly what the adversaries do 
hold touching Faith. First, they do not acknowledge the divers 
significations of Faith ; they entreat only of one faith, and that 
The Popish they term justifying ; that is, as they expound the word, that which 
faith. disposeth us to justice, being to be infused after in the time there- 

of.' Thus thinks Bellarmin in his Treatise touching Faith.- 

In this doctrine of faith, which they term justifying, they differ 
from us, first about the object of it. Indeed, they do not deny 
that the object of faith is the mercy of God in Jesus Christ, offered 
in the Gospel ; that is, that it is the Gospel, and the promises of 
grace concerning Christ, and God's mercy in him. But they will 
have the object to be not only the word of the Gospel, but equally 
the universal word of God.^ 

^ In its proper time. Original : suo tempore. 

- Fidem historicara, et miraciilorum, et proniissionum nnam et eandera esse 
docent [Catholici ;] atque illam imam non esse proprie notitiam, aut fidiiciam, 
sed assensum certnm, atque firmissimiim, ob axictoritatem primse veritatis, et 
banc nnam esse fidem justificantem. — Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. p. 731. Catholici 
contra, ac prjEsertim sj'nodus ipsa Tridentina, (quam omnes Catholici nt magis- 
tram sequnntnr,) sess. 6, cap. 6. Septem actus enumerat, quibus impii ad jus- 
titiam disponnntur, videlicet, fidei, timoris, spei, dilectionis, pa-nitentia, propo- 
siti suscipicndi sacramenti, et propositi novaj vita;, atque observationis manda- 
torum Dei. — Ibid. p. 755. At nos per obedientiam Christi jnstos multos existi- 
mamus in co sensu, ut merito obediential Christi reconcilietur nobis Deus, et ab 
eo justitia donemur, qua3 sit qualitas animre nostras, infusa et inhxrens.— /J/t?. 
p. 412. 

3 Itaque tribus in rebus ab hfereticis Catholici dissentiunt ; Primum, in ob- 
jecto fidei justificantis, quod hseretici restringunt ad solam promissionem mise- 
ricordia; specialis, Catholici tarn late patere volunt, quam late patet vcrbum Dei ; 
quin potius ccrtam promissionem specialis miscricordiir, non tarn ad fidem, quam 
pra^sumptionem pertiuere contendunt. Deikde in facultate et potentia animi 
quc-c sedes est fidei. Si quidem illi fidem collocant in voluntate, cum fiduciam esse 
definiuut ; :u- per hoc eani cum spe coiifundunt. Fiducia enim nihil est aliud, 

god's effectual calling. 213 

To confirm this opinion of theirs, they allege' that definition of 
faith which is set down, Heb. chap. xi. 1. Faith, saith the Apostle, 
is the ground of things that are hoped for, and the evidence of things 
which are not seen.^ " This," say they, " is the definition of justify ing 
faith. But this definition stretcheth itself not only to Christ, to 
the promises of God, and to the Gospel concerning him ; but also 
to the whole word of God, and to all things that are contained in 
the word of God. For example ; it stretcheth itself to the word 
of God, which is concerning the creation of the world, as is evident 
by ver. 3, which folio weth in the same chapter ; Bg faith tee under- 
stand that the world was ordained hg the word of God." Hence they 
conclude, that justifying faith hath the whole word for the object 
of it. But to this we answer ; that not only justifying faith is de- 
fined by the Apostle in that place, but that that definition [of faith] 
is common to all the significations of faith, as is plain enouo-h by 
that induction of examples which foUoweth in that place and 

Neither is that their argument, which they gather out of the 
coherence of the text, of any force. They say, " that that faith is 
defined, of which the Apostle spake in the last verses of the chap- 
ter going afore ; Now the just shall live hg faith, &c. But there the 
Apostle spake of justifying faith ; therefore here, in the xi. chapter, 
justifying faith is defined." I answer, this definition, I confess, 
doth belong to justifying faith, but not to that alone ; but it is 
common to it with other significations of faith, as with historical Heb. xi. i. 
faith, and miraculous, &c., as is evident by the induction that fol- 'leflnitjon of 

faith com- 

loweth. Seeing, therefore, that this definition doth not onlv be-'"°" '° ''^ 

" J kinds of 


nisi spes roborata, ut S. Thomas docet in 2. 2, q. 129, artic. 6. Catholici fidem 
in intellectu sedera habere docent. Denique, in ipso actu intellectus. Ipsi 
enim per notitiam fidem definiunt, nos per assensum. Assentimur enim Deo 
qnamvis ea nobis credenda propouat, quae nou intelligimus. — Bellarmin, ibid. 
vol. iv. p. 731. 

1 See Bellarmin, De Gratia et Libera Arbitrio^ lib. vi. cap. 5. 

2 As there is some doubt as to the words here translated ground and evidence, 
it is proper to remark, that our Author gives, without translating them, the 
Greek words, vTroo-vAaii and I'h^yx^i. 



long to justifying faith, it folio weth that out of this definition they 
get not that they would have, namely, that the object of justifying 
faith is equally the universal word of God. Therefore, let the ob- 
ject thereof properly be that which it apprehendeth ; and that is 
the Gospel, and the promise concerning Christ. 

Secondly, they dissent from us about this same special object, 
namely, the mercy of God in Christ. For we say and affirm, that 
the object of justifying faith is not only a general mercy, nor only 
a general promise touching Christ, but much rather a special mercy, 
and a special promise ; that is, mercy offered in the Gospel, not iu 
common to all, but peculiarly to me, or to thee. For albeit the 
promises and sentences of the Gospel be conceived generally, yet it 
is certain, that they are to be received particularly by every one, 
as if they were spoken to every one in several ; as, for example, 
John iii. 15, the promise of the Covenant of Grace is conceived ge- 
nerally in these Avords ; Tfliosoever helieveth in the Son shall notperi&hy 
hut have life everlasting . This promise is indeed generally conceiv- 
ed, but it is to be understood particularly and singularly by every 
one, as if it had been spoken to me, or to thee ; " If thou believest 
in the Son, thou shalt not perish, but have everlasting life." The 
Apostle, 1 Tim. i. 15, doth understand this general sentence, namely, 
that Christ Jesus came into the loorld to save sinners, no otherwise 
than if it had been pronounced only concerning himself; where- 
How the be- upon he doth apply it particularly unto himself, assuming byname, 

liever is to . 

iiirtkeasyi- that he is the sinner, and concluding at the least secretlv, that Christ 
torrn. came into the world to save him by name. We may make trial of 

this thing by those promises that are made specially in the Gospel 
to save certain men, as to the man sick of the palsy, jSIatt. ix. 2 ; 
to the Avoman that was a sinner, Luke vii. 48 ; to the adulteress, 
John viii. 11 ; to Zaccheus, Luke xix. 9; to the thief, Luke xxiii. 43. 
For the Spirit of Christ, Avhcn any general promise or sentence touch- 
ing Christ and his mercy is alleged, doth no less particularly now 
apply the same to every man, by speaking inwardly to the heart of 
every one, than at that time Christ did by his holy voice apply those 
])articular promises to some certain persons. Rom. iii. 22, when 

god's effectual calling. 215 

the righteousness of God is said to belong to all believers, and that 
without distinction, it is plainly signified that that righteousness is 
offered to men of every sort and condition, and also propounded to 
every several person. 1 Tim. ii. 4, after he hath admonished that 
we are to pray for all men, he addeth, that God will have all men 
to he saved, and come to the knowledge of the truth. Out of which it 
foUoweth, that in the publishing of the Gospel, God hath respect 
not only of all men in common, but also distinctly of every several 
person ; which regard also he will have us to have in our prayers. 
What need many words? For if there were nothino; else that did The mercy of 

*' ^ ^ ^ God in Christ 

teach this, the administration of the Sacraments alone hath force °^f^'^ sene- 

" rally to all 

enough in it to prove, that the mercy of God in Christ is offered partici^iiriy 
specially to every one. For in both the sacraments, the seals of every one°hy 

1 f¥^ 1 n A T 1 ^'^"^ Spirit, is 

that mercy are given and oiiered to every one severally. And let the object of 

" '' '> justifying 

this suffice to show that special mercy, as it is called, is the object^'^'^'^- 
properly of justifying faith, against which our adversaries hold. 

The object of justifying faith being made to be a general mercy, 
it followeth, that faith, in the opinion of our adversaries, is a gene- 
ral, and not a special assent.^ For seeing there is only a general 
mercy propounded generally to the Church, and not offered par- 
ticularly to the several members thereof, how can any particular 
man challenge that particularly to himself, which is not spoken and 
offered particularly ? But we affirm, that justifying faith is that 
Avhereby every believer doth particularly, not only assent to the 
promise that it is true in itself, but also apprehends with the heart 
the promised thing, and applies it properly to himself. For this 
being made plain, that the mercy of God was particularly offered 
to every one, it followeth, that faith must be particular. But for 
the proof hereof, there are almost infinite testimonies of the Scrip- 
tures. We will be content with but a few. Gal. ii. 20, And the life 
that I now live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Soji of God, who 
loved me, and gave himself for me. Mark here, he doth by faith 
peculiarly apply to himself the Son of God, and his life, his love, 
and his death. Neither is there any cause Avhy any one should 
' See p. 212, note 3. 



say, that this might be lawful for the Apostle, who had some ex- 
traordinary revelation of that thing, but that it is not lawful to the 
common sort of Christians ; inasmuch as the Apostle doth in this 
place bear the person oP everj Christian and believing man. Rom. 
viii. 38, I^or I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, &c. Mark 
here that special trust and particular application is pointed at by the 
verb of the singular number. Beside, that which is cited out of 
Habakkuk (ii. 4) by the Apostle,^ The just shall live hy faith, doth 
sufficiently insinuate a special faith ; for thereby is signified that 
every just person doth live by his faith, that is, by a special assent 
to, and application of, the righteousness of God in Christ. Matt, 
chap. ix. 2, a particular faith is commended to the man sick of the 
palsy, to whom it was said, Son, he of good comfort, thy sins he for- 
given thee. John iii. 36, when it is said. He that helievcth in the Son 
hath eternal life ; that very same special faith is signified, Avhich is 
when every one doth assent particularly to, and apply to himself, 
everlasting life offered to himself. What need many words ? The 
same thing doth that verb, I helieve, which is found in the Apos- 
tles' Creed, teach ; for to believe, is there specially and particu- 
larly ^ to believe. 

Out of the general mercy, and general faith of the adversaries, 
folio weth the uncertainty of particular faith, and of God's peculiar 
grace, which they defend.* For it is easily discerned, that uncer- 
tainty doth follow necessarily out of that generality ; first, a doubt- 
fulness of mercy, then of faith. For when as mercy is propound- 
ed and offered, not specially, but generally, and when there is 
only a general assent of faith, how can I be certain of that mercy, 
which pertains not certainly by name to me ? 
iiie oertaiji g^t that therc is a certainty of faith, ao-alnst which thev hold, 

ty of faith. J ' a J 7 

1 That is, represent. Original: sustineat personam. 

2 Rom. i. 17 ; Gal. iii. 11 ; Ilcb. x. 38. 

3 Individually. Original : individiio. 

* Sicut nemo pius de Dei miscricordia, de Christi merito, deqne Sacramento- 
rum virtnte et efRcacia dnbitare debet ; sic qnilibet dum seipsum, suamque pro- 
priam infirmitatem ct indispositionem, respicit, de sua gratia formidare et timere 
potest. Cum nuUus scire valeat, certitudine fidei, cui non potest subesse falsum, 
se gratiam Dei esse consecutum. — ConciL Trident, scss. 6, c. 9. 


first, it easily appeareth by those things which have been spoken of, 
God's special mercy, and special faith. For seeing mercy is offer- 
ed particularly to thee and to me, &c., and I again assent particu- 
larly to it ; now am I certain of that mercy that it is mine speci- 
ally, seeing I do already by faith and special application possess it. 
For Christ dwelletli in our hearts hy faith^ that is, we now possess 
Christ, and do enjoy him as present. Of this special certainty, see 
Rom. iv. 16, The inheritance is of faith, that it may he by grace, 
to the end the promise may be firm to the seed. And in the same 
chapter, ver. 18, Which Abraham against hope believed under hope. 
But hereof there is a notable place, Heb. vi. 18, That by tico im- 
mutable things, in which it is not possible that God should lie, we might 
have strong consolation, lohich have our refuge'^ to hold fast the hope 
that is set before us. Where you see, first, that God hath promised 
it ; secondly, that he hath bound himself by an oath, that is, that he 
hath declared the unchangeableness of his counsel for saving of us 
by two immutable things, to this end, that we might have strong 
consolation. Now the comfort is not strong, unless it rise out of 
our firm and certain assent, whereby we consent to the truth of Note. 
God's promise. For if our assent waver and be uncertain, certainly 
there can no strong consolation arise out of our assent. Secondly, 
that it may be a strong consolation, some general certainty of our 
assent is not suflficient, but it must needs be a special and particular 
certainty of assent, whereby, to wit, I am certain, that that is pro- 
mised is true of me. For what consolation at all, much less a 
strong consolation, can that be, when as 1 am certain that the pro- 
mise concerning Christ doth belong only in general to the Church, 
and not to myself also in particular ? Nay, rather in that very thing 
is the grief increased, when one sees that the benefits of Christ 
pertain to others, but not to himself at all. 

But to the end that this which we speak of, touching certainty 
and uncertainty, may be the more manifest, we must search into 

1 Eph. iii. 17. 

2 Who have hastened our flight thither. Original : qid cursum eo corripuirnus. 
— Beza's translation of >coiTx(pvy6ti7is. 


this point a little more deeply. In general, therefore, certainty is 
otVaiUi!'''"*^ either of the thing or of the person. Concerning the certainty of 
the thing, and the firm truth thereof, there is no question. The 
certainty of the person apprehending the object is nothing else but 
the firmness of the judgment or the assent of the mind, consenting 
to the truth of some thing or sentence. Wherefore, certainty is 
nothing else but a certain property of the judgment, or of the 
assent of our mind. And seeing the assent of the mind is twofold, 
either general, when I generally assent to the truth of some sen- 
tence that it is true, as, for example, concerning the universal 
Church ; or it is special, when as I assent to the truth of any sen- 
tence that it is true, even of me and of each particular ; seeing, I 
say, there is a twofold assent of the mind, it followeth that there is 
a twofold certainty, one general, namely, the property of a general 
assent ; the other special, namely, the property of a special assent. 
^\^latthe Now, that we may come to the state of the controversy; The 

cop.troversy . , . i , • , i ii i 

is concerning qucstiou IS not conccmmg general certamty, but all the controversy 

a particiiliir , , , i-ii 

faith. ig of the special certainty of a special assent, which they call the 

certainty of grace or of special mercy. For we do affirm and de- 
fend the certainty of special grace ; but they oppugn this same cer- 
tainty of special grace, but, I pray, with what arguments ? First, 
they say, " that in the Gospel no mercy is anywhere offered and pro- 
mised to any particular, or any one man ; therefore there can be no 
certainty of special grace." ^ I answer, and do invert the argument. 
In the Gospel grace is promised and offered, not only in general to 
all, but in special to every one, as we have taught before ; where- 
fore the certainty of a special grace is required in every one. 

Now, to those things which we said touching special mercy offered 
to several persons, I add these few things, to the end that the whole 
matter may more clearly appear, and to the end that we may learn 

^ Nou potest aliquid certura esse certitudine fidei, nisi ant immediate contine- 
atur ill verbo Dei ; aut ex verbo Dei per cvidciitem consequeiitiam deducatur : 
Fides enim uon est, nisi verbi divini auctoritatc uitatnr. Neque de hoc priuci- 
pio vel Catliolici, vel luviretici dubitaut. At in verbo Dei non continetur imme- 
diate particularis ista propositio, Talis vel talis homo vcre justificatns est. — 
BcUarrain, ibid. vol. iv. p. 866. 

god's effectual calling. 219 

by sense and experience itself, that grace is offered to every one 

by God. The Spirit of Christ only is Christ's vicar on earth, who The Spirit of 

•^ '^ ^ •' ^ _ ' Cliiist is liis 

teacheth and instructeth us in those thing's which Christ spake, ""'y/''^"'" ""^ 

o JL ' earth. 

and Avhich are Avritten in the Gospel. Now this Spirit teacheth, 
not only generally, that the promises and sentence in the Gospel 
touching Christ and his benefits are true of the whole Church, but 
much more that they are true of that special and particular man 
whom he inwardly teacheth. And sith the Spirit of adoption doth 
testifi/ with our spirit that ice are the sons of God, Eom. viii. 16, this 
testimony of the Holy Ghost is not general concerning the whole 
Church, that they which are in the Church be the sons of God ; 
but it is a special testimony of me and of thee that I am the son of 
God, and that thou art the son of God. Besides, 1 Cor. chap. ii. 10, 
it is said of the Spirit, that he searcheth even the deep things of God^ 
that is, the Spirit which is given to every one, and which dwelleth 
in every one, doth search that grace and mercy in Christ Jesus 
which lieth hid in the deep, and makes it to be known to every 
one. For the Spirit of God dwelleth in me, reveals to me that 
which is hid in the very heart of God. Now I demand whether 
he reveal to me some general mercy only, belonging in general 
only to the Church ; or whether he reveal to me that special 
mercy hid in God, which belongs to me peculiarly ? Certainly there 
is no man to whom this Spirit dwelling in him hath at any time 
revealed any grace that lieth hid in God, but he will constantly 
affirm, that by the Holy Spirit there is revealed to every one not 
a general mercy, I know not what rough draught of mercy ; but 
a special mercy belonging particularly to himself. Wherefore these Defenders of 
same defenders of general grace and mercy only seem to me to be are but mere 

. • • 1 r> 1 natural men. 

only natural men and not spu'itual ; of whom that of the Apostle 
may be truly spoken, The natural man perceivcth not the things which 
are of the Spirit of God, 1 Cor. ii. 14. 

Secondly, they say, "that it is not expedient that every one should 
be certain of his own grace, righteousness, and salvation, for cer- 
tainty breedeth pride, but uncertainty humility." ' I answer, cer- 

^ Tertia ratio probabit, non cxpedirc ut homines liabcaiit oi-dinarie ccrtitu- 


talnty is a gift of the Spirit regenerating, which is bestowed only 
upon the elect ; I speak of true and sound special certainty, which 
is the property of true justifying faith. Can it therefore be spoken 
without blasphemy, that the Holy Spirit and justifying faith is the 
cause of the greatest of all evils that are, and that the worst of all, 
that is, of pride ? ^ Nay, rather the uncertainty of a man is utterly 
the property of one that exalts himself against God, even when 
he promiseth and offereth special mercy, and binds it with an oath. 
Thirdly, they say, " certainty of special mercy is a special prero- 
gative of some certain men, to whom God was pleased to reveal 
extraordinarily some special mercy proper unto them. Is, there- 
fore, a special prerogative which belongs but to some, and but to 
a few men, to be reckoned among God's common or spiritual 
graces ?"^ I answer, it is false that the certainty of special grace is 
a special prerogative of some certain men. For if justifying faith 
be reckoned among the good things and gifts of all Christians, and 
this special certainty be the property of justifying faith, with what 
face dare any deny this gift of special certainty to the common 
sort of Christians ? Is it because it was revealed but to some cer- 
tain and few of them, that their sins are forgiven, as to that man 

dinem dc propria gratia. Nam (\\t Sanctus Augustinus ait in lib. de Con-ept. 
et Gratia, c. 13) in hoc loco tentationis tanta est infirmitas^ ut superbiam possit 
generare securitas. Uude etiam S. Gregorius scribit lib. 9 Moralium, cap. 17, 
Si scimus nos gratiam habere, superbimus. Et ipse Domiinis, Luc. 17, per para- 
bolam Pharisaii et Publicani ostendit, eos qui se justos esse confidunt, facile 
se caiteris anteponere, eosque despicere ; Non sum, aiunt, sicuti cateriliominum, 
velut etiam hie Puhlicamis. Coutra autem iguoratio hujus secreti huiuilitatem 
consen^at et auget, facit enim ut sc fidelcs superiores arbitrentur, et unus alium 
lionorc prseveniat. — Bellarmiu, vol. iv. p. 868. 

^ Of the worst evil of all, that is, pride. Original : mali omnium pcssimi, 
hoc est, superbim. 

^ Quarta ratio docebit, re ipsa fidelibus cjusmodi certitudiuem uou adesse. 
Nam in primis quibusdam singulari bencficio revelatum esse constat, ipsis 
remissa fuisse peccata. Id enim testatur dc Sancto Antonio Magnus Athanasius, 
in ejus vita ; de Sancta Galla S. Gregorius in lib. 4 Dialogornm, cap. 13 ; de 
Sancto Francisco, Sanctus Bonaventui-a in ejus vita, c. 3 ; nee desunt alia ejus- 
deni generis exenipla. Quorsuni autem Dcus id certis hominibus rcvelaret, 
quasi speciali prairogativa, si fidelibus omnibus esset notitia ista communis? — 
Bcllarmin, ibid. 

god's effectual calling. 221 

sick of the palsy, to that sinner/ to Zaccheus, to the thief, is there- 
fore this gift of certainty no other but special and extraordinary ? 
Nay, we have already said, that the special mercy of God is no 
less now promised and offered to every several and particular per- 
son — as, to me, and to thee — than it was offered in times past to 
those men by Christ's express words. 

Fourthly, " the holiest men," say they, " have bewrayed with a 
lamentable voice, at the very point of death, and do bewray daily, 
the uncertainty of their salvation.^ Therefore there is not that 
certainty of mercy and life which we say there is." I answer, there 
is much difference between that which is and that which ought to 
be. This argument doth only conclude that which is ; that is, that 
there is an uncertainty, but it concludes not that there ought to 
be uncertainty ; nay, it concludes against it, that it ought not to 
be. For they that weep and lament for the uncertainty of their 
own salvation do thereby declare, that there ought not to be an 
uncertainty ; but our adversaries do reckon the uncertainty of our 
own salvation among the chief Christian virtues. Secondly, I 
answer, that out of that complaint of holy men, being ready to give 
up the ghost, the certainty of special mercy doth never a whit the m. eoUocIv 

n ^T 1 1 • -Til argueth of 

less follow than the uncertamty. i^ or that speech riseth out of '^e conflicts 

" i- of the godly 

that war that is between the Spirit and the flesh, between faith and JTeath'that 
unbelief, between certainty and uncertainty. Wherefore it is no feift.^^""'^ 
less an argument of certainty than of uncertainty ; nay, it argueth 
that in that war certainty hath the upper hand. 

Fifthly, they say, " the best may fall from grace and faith ; there- 
fore what certainty can there be of special mercy and salvation?"^ 
I answer, they which are endued only with temporary grace and faith, 

1 To the woman that was a sinner. Original : peccatrici mulieri. See Luke 
vii. 48 ; and the same list in p, 214. 

2 Deinde nou minus constat, alios quosdam, alioqui perfectissimos, in obitu 
suo propter hoc incertum non mediocriter trepidasse. ... At certe si viri 
etiam sanctissimi propter incertitudinem gi-atiai, et abyssum judiciorum Dei 
trepidant, quomodo credibile erit, omnibus fidelibus certitudinem adesse de 
propria gratia atque justitia? — Bellarmin, ibid. 

2 See Bellarmin, De Justificatione^ lib. iii. c. 14, entitled, Fidem ac justiliam 
non esse propriam electorum^ et semel habitam amitti posse. 


from grace. ^^^^ ^^7 indeed fall, and do fall away ; but those which are endued 
with true justifying faith, and with regenerating grace, can neither 
fall away totally nor finally. Now that comes to pass, not in re- 
gard of the men themselves, for of their own nature they are prone 
to final and total defection, such is their infirmity and weakness, 
but it comes to pass, by the nature, as I may speak, of that grace 
and gift of God which is given in Christ Jesus, For the gifts and 
calling of God are such as that he cannot repent himself of them, Koni. 
xi. 29. 

Sixthly, they object testimonies of Scripture,^ those chiefly which 
commend unto us care, thought, and endeavour for the keeping and 
dte it'uiM pi'sserving of grace. As, He that standeth, let him take heed lest he 
foiseiyrfor fa^h 1 Cor. X. 12. Also 2 Cor. vi. l,Paul exhorts the Corinthians 
h \oicuv''i(7- ^^^^^ ^^^^y 't'^ceive not grace in vain. To conclude, Christ admonisheth 
rctvcct, tljat we should xcatch and pray, to say nothino^ of those places 

and so it IS L J i j O 1 

fheins' wherein fear is commended to us, as Rom. xi. 20, Thou standest hy 
Phil. ii. 12. faith ; be not high-minded, but fear. And in another place, Work out 
your salvation icith fear and trembling. 

Out of these and the like places, they say, followeth doubting of 
a man's own grace and salvation. " For why should there be such 
commandments given, unless it might be so that one might fall 
from grace and faith ? and therefore that he ought to doubt of his 
own grace and salvation." I answer, that out of these and the 
like places, it followeth there is no perseverance in grace, unless 
there be joined a care, thought, and labour to keep grace. For 
chiistian carc and thought is set, God so ordainino; it, to be, as it were, the 

care and fear, 07 o J J ' 

how good, lieeper and watchman to grace ; forbidding, that a man fall not into 
carnal security, which is the enemy of grace ; and this thought and 
care is given with grace, yea, and itself is a kind of special grace, 
and a companion of grace, which never departeth from her side ; for 
Avhere grace is, there is always surely some thought and care to 

1 See Bellaxmin, ibid. c. 12, entitled, Refellitur error de certitudine Prcedesti- 

2 This had escaped Rolloclc's notice. In the original he quotes Bcllarmin's 
version, (Qui stat, videat 7ie cadat,) as he does in the quotation from riiilippians. 

god's effectual calling. 223 

retain that grace, which is never all quite lost, even as grace itself 
is never wholly lost, for it is ever in proportion to the grace. For 
when there is great grace there is great care, and when there is but 
a small grace, the care is but little. And because God knoweth 
how necessary this care is, which is the companion and preserver 
of grace, therefore doth he so often in the Scriptures stir us up 
unto care, and comraendeth it unto us. And all these exhortations 
are nothing else but so many outcries, as it were, Avhereby this 
care, which we said is the watchman and keeper of grace, is stirred 
up and provoked to do her duty ; that is, to keep grace, and drive 
away carnal secui'ity, which is an enemy to grace, and which 
would, except care stood upon her watch, utterly abolish grace it- 
self, as faith, regeneration, righteousness, and life. Wherefore, out 
of these and the like places, care and not doubting, virtue and not 
vice, do follow. For doubting hath been ever reckoned in the 
Scriptures among the worst evils, and of most enmity to God and 

Now, let us speak of the subject of justifying faith, what that is, Subject of 

. "^justifyins 

accordinsr to the mind of our adversaries. They make the mindS'*'?^^^"' 

° •' Papists. 

only to be the subject ; and in the mind only one faculty properly, 
which is, that that judgeth and assenteth to the truth of any sen- 
tence ;^ but of the will and heart, they speak nothing, when yet 
justifying faith doth chiefly belong to the heart, as we have said 
For the parts of the nature of justifying faith, they make not so Parts of the 

"Ti i 1* 1 IT ^ ' 1 ' t n nature of jus- 

many as we. Jb or as touchmg knowledge, which is the first part tiding faith 

. . . with Papists. 

of justifying faith, either they say that it is not necessary, or else 
that some obscure knowledge will suffice ; which thing they labour 
to prove by this reason. " There is," say they,^ " a double assent of 
the mind, whereby we consent to the truth of any sentence. The 
first assent is, when we consent unto it for some reason or cause ; 

• See p. 212, note 3. 

2 Judicium autem sire assensus duplex est. Alter enim sequitur rationem et 
evidentiam rei, alter auctoritatem proponentis ; prior dicitur uotitia, (si proprie 
loqui velimus,) posterior fides. — Bellarmiu, ibid. p. 739. 


and this is termed knowledge. This assent doth necessarily require 
knowledge to go before it, to the truth whereof we assent. The 
latter assent is, when we assent to the truth of a sentence, not for 
some reason, but for the authority of him that speaketh : this assent 
is called faith ; but it doth not require that the knowledge of that 
thing whereto assent is given should go before it, being content 
only with the bare authority oCthe speaker. Out of this distinction 
and difference of assent," say they, " it followeth, that in faith there 
is no need of knowledge, seeing faith is an assent, whereby we do 
agree to the truth of some sentence, being induced not by any 
reason or cause, but by the authority of the speaker." 

To this reason we answer, and, first, we do grant this difference 
of assents ; but we deny that that assent, which is yielded because 
of the authority of the speaker, hath no need of knowledge to go 
before it. For that it may be justifying faith to us, it is required 
that that which is spoken by God himself be some manner of way 
understood by us. For God doth not require that of us, that we 
should assent to his word and voice because of the bare authority 
of him that testifieth, when as we undei'stand them not at all. 

Secondly, they reason out of that definition of faith, Heb. xi. 1, 
Faith is the fjround^ of things that are hoped for, and the evidence of 
those tilings that are not seen. ''Here," say they, "we see faith of things 
unknown, namely, of such things as are to be hoped for, and as are 

vToarciatg, not sccu." " But, Say I, these two words, ground and evidence, do 
argue sufficiently, that those things which are hoped for, and not 
seen, are, in the meantime, in some sort present, and seen of us. 

The Popish 'Whereupon Paul, 2 Cor. chap. iv. 18, saith, While loe look not on 

implicit fdith. *- _ ' ^ ' _ ' _ 

those tilings which arc seen, hut on those things which are not seen. Here 

' The same remark, as was made p. 213, note 2, applies to this Avhole passage 
wlierever (jround and evidence occur. 

2 See Bellarmiu, De Justi/icatione, lib. i. c. 5, entitled, Refellitur ex cap. 
xi. ad Hebr. hcereticorum error de notionc Jidci justijicantis. Bellannin translates 
i/TToaruatg by substantia., 'iT^iyxoq by argumentum^ which he explains, after 
Augiistin, by demonstratio scu convictio. Itaqiie definitio fidei, he says, ab 
Apostolo tradita duas continet fidei proprietates ; nnam, qnod faciat in auimo 
snbsistere ea, qnae sperantur futura ; alteram quod intellectum faciat iis asscn- 
tiri, qu3e non intelligit. 

god's effectual calling. 225 

you sec that even those things which are not seen, nor object to 
these eyes of our bodies, are yet seen and beheld with the spiritual 
eyes of our faith. And this is their opinion touching the knowledge 
of faith, which tendeth to this purpose, to establish that faith which 
they term implicit or infolded^ faith. 

Concerning that assent which we said is the second part of 
justifying faith, they do place the nature of faith only in that assent, 
which is yielded in regard of the truth of a thing ; for they speak 
nothing of the assent or judgment of goodness, and they make that 
same judgment of truth, which they hold, to be only general ; 
namely, whereby one doth judge that some sentence is true, not of 
himself, but, in general, of the whole Church : ^ when as notwith- 
standing that judgment, as well of truth as of goodness, which is 
the property of faith, is rather particular ; yea, a very peculiar 
grace, which, in the Scripture, is called that full assurance, as y^Q'^'^fi'^f^o- 
have said before. 

Touching the third part of faith, which we termed the confidence 
of the heart, they do not acknowledge it. For they say " that con- 
fidence is nothing else but hope strengthened,^ and a certain effect 
of faith;" whereas notwithstanding confidence, which the Greeks 
tenn m'-oiUnGi;, is a certain motion of the will or heart not expecting, 
but in present apprehending some good, and depending thereupon, 
and rejoicing therein as present. Furthermore, 'xisrig and TS'Toji^Tiffigf 
that is, faith and affiance, are of the same root. For both of them conficimce 

and fiiith of 

come from the verb miiJoaai, which si2;nifieth to persuade.^ Besides, thesam.Moot 

' " *• 'in Greek. 

the verb crs/^o/xa/ is taken everywhere by the Apostle for " to be per- 
suaded, to believe," and not "to hope :" Rom. viii. 38, Tscrs/tf/xa/, that 
is, I am persuaded that neither life, nor death, nor things p7-esent, nor 
things to come, &c. : Phil. i. 6, 'XimiGiJ.ai,^ I am iiersuaded that he that 

1 This etjniiological hint is not in the original, which simply has, quam 
ipsiimplicitam vacant. I can find in Bellarmiu no notice of Jides implicita. 

- See Bellarmin, De Justijicatione, cc. 8, 9, 10, 11 ^ 

^ Spes roborata. 

^ The original has persuadere. But, comparing this with the next sentence 
it is evident that this is a misprint for persuaderi, and that we should here have, 
to be persuaded, 

^ This should bo ■7cs7:ot6o)i, The same mistake occurs in the original. 
VOL. T. P 


hath begun in you a good tvork, &c. : 2 Cor. v. 11, Knowing, therefore, 
the terror of the Lord, av^wTou; -xslOo/Miv, ice persuade or draio men to 
the faith. I grant that the name 'Xi'rroi&riGH is sometimes taken for 
confidence, which is a consequent of fiiith, and a certain property 
of it ; for it comes to pass, that he which beHeveth or trusteth doth 
depend on him in whom he placeth his trust. Of this signification 
of ffsTo/t)'/5(r/g, read Eph. iii. 12, In whom we have freedom, and access 
■with confidence, Iv TiToidrjasi, bg faith in him. 

Out of these things which we have spoken, it is easy to gather a 

definition of faith, according to their opinion, who take justifying 

faith to be nothing else than that whereby every one doth, in 

A Popish de- o-eneral, assent to the truth of the M'ord of God, and that for the 

finition of ^ ' • . i i • • x 

*'*"'^- authority of the speaker ; which definition, Avhat else is it, I pray 

you, than a general notion of faith, and such as is common to all 
the significations of faith, which we set down before ? From this 

A Popish fie- Jefinition of iustifying faith, they gather, and that truly, that justi- 

finition of j ^ o ^>/ , . , . 

faith. fying faith may be in every wicked and heinous sinner.^ For in 

him this general assent may be, which cannot be denied to the 
very devils, as James ^ witnesseth. " The devils," saith he, "believe 
and tremble;" and yet they call this justifying and true faith, though 
not livino-. For they distinguish between true and living faith. 
" True faith," they say, " is even that which worketh not by love, 
yea, though it be dead f^ but a living faith they term " that which 
worketh by love as by her form, and not as an instrument," where- 
upon they term this by another name, formed faith. '^ 

* See Bellarmin, De Justificaiione^ lib. i. c. 15, entitled, Fidem veram posse 
re ipsa a dilectione, aliisque virtutibiis srparari. ^ II. 19. 

^ Fides sine operibus non est falsa sed vera tametsi mortua dicatur. — Bellaniiin, 

vol. iv. p. 607. 

4 Distinctio vero iniius fidei in formatam et informem ab Apostolis Christi 
Paulo et Jacobo manifestissime traditur. Nam quid, quaso, interest, si dica- 
mus fidem vivani ct niortuam, vel formatam et informem? Certe enim res 
viva, per aliquara formam vivit, etres mortua propter abseutiam alicujus formaj 
mortua est. Fidem autem vivam et mortuam Jacobus appellat in cpistola sua, 
capite2. Sed Apostolus Paulus non solum docct fidem cliaritate formari, sed 
etiam explicat dilectionem formam esse extrinsccam fidei, non iutrinsecam, et 
quae det iUi, non ut sit, sed ut moveatur, ac per hoc sive dilectione non desinat 
esse fides, sed desinat esse res actnosa et.opcrans.— Bellarmin, ibid, p. 813. 

god's effectual calling. 227 

But we do utterly deny tliis distinction of true and living faith ; 
for we take true faith and living faith for one and the same ; even 
as one and the same man Is true and living, and as true and living 
man Is so termed from his soul or form, so also true or living faith 
Is so termed from her soul or form, which consists In full assurance 
and trust, as we have said, without which faith is nothing else but 
a carcase, even as a man without a soul is not so much a man as a 
carcase and dead body. 

But they endeavour to prove out of James li., last verse, that even 
dead faith, and not living, is nevertheless true faith. " As the body 
Is to the soul, so Is faith unto works ; but the body, without the 
soul, is a true body, albeit not living ; therefore faith, without 
works. Is a true faith, although not living." ' I answer, that this Is 
a sophistical argument ; for the comparison of the body and faith, 
which James maketh, is not in the truth, but in the death of them ; 
and James assumes and concludes out of that proposition : But the 
body without the spirit is dead; icherefore, also, faith without loorks is 
dead. For between faith and the body this Is the difference ; one 
and the same body may be dead and true, but faith is not both true 
and dead, even as a man Is not both true and dead ; for as a man 
is a compound thing, of his body and his soul, so faith is a certain 
compound thing, as It were, of her body and of her soul, the tokens 
or signs whereof are the actions. Wherefore, In James the com- 
parison is made between a simple and a compound; the simple 
thing, which is the body void of the soul; the compound, which is 
faith. And the comparison Is of force In that wherein it is made ; 
namely. In the death of both, and not In other things. 

And so much of justifying faith, according to the opinion of our 
adversaries, as also of the whole doctrine of faith. 

' Deinde comparat [Jacobiis] fidem sine operibus corpori sine spiritu, qnod 
certum est, verum esse corpus, licet mortuum. — Bellarmin, ibid. p. 7GC. 




Hope. Hope followeth faith ; for that apprehension of Jesus Christ, 

with his benefits, offered in the word and sacraments, which is the 
property of faith, doth give hopes unto us that we shall one day- 
enjoy Christ present. The Apostle, Eom. v. 4, saith, that experience 
breeds hope. Now, by faith we get experience,^ and, as Peter 
saith, we taste, how good the Lord is ; wherefore, it must needs be, 
that faith begets hope. 

That we may therefore speak of hope, it must, first of all, be 
objpctof seen what is the object thereof. The object of faith and hope is 
f=amein sub-tlie samc lu substancc, namely, Jesus Christ with his benefits. 

stance with 

the object of pjgj^^ xi. 1 , it is Said, that /fl/^A is tlie ground'^ of things that are hoped 

how they dif-^^^^ It may be again said, that hope is of those things which are 

believed, or which have, after a sort, a being by faith. By these 

thino-s it is evident, that the object of faith and hope is the same 

thing in substance or effect. 

Yet the object of hope differeth in reason^ from the object of 
faith. The chief difference is this, that the object of faith is Christ 
in the word and sacraments, or the word concerning Christ and 
the sacraments, which shadoweth him. Wherefore, the object 
of faith is a certain image of Christ, which is propounded to us to 
be looked upon in the glass of the word and sacraments. Where- 
upon, 2 Cor. iii. 18, we are said, loith open f nee, to beliold, as in a glass, 
and to he transformed into the image which w^e behold in that glass. 
But the object of hope is Christ with his benefits, not, indeed, 
appearing to us in the word and sacraments, but appearing as he 

1 Simply: we experience; expressed in 1 Peter ii. 3 — ye have tasted ^ sysv- 

2 See p. 224, note 2. 

^ llather : in tlie way in which it is viewed. That is, Faitli views Christ's 
image; Hope, Christ himself. 

god's effectual calling. 229 

Is, and, as I may say, in his own person. For hope is not settled 
upon that Image of Christ which we behold in a glass by faith, but 
upon the face of Christ himself, which we hope we shall see at the 
last. Phil. iii. 20, from whence also we look for the Saviour, our Lord 
Jesus Christ. Tit. 11. 13, Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious 
coming of the great God, our Saviour Jesus Christ. 1 John ill. 2, 3, 
Because we shall see him as he is ; and lohosoever hath this hope in him, 
that is, he that hopes that he shall see him as he is. By these 
things it appeareth that hope hath for its object the very face of 
Jesus Christ. There be three things which are convei'sant about i- ^:"tii. 

° 2. Hope. 

one Christ, Faith, Hope, and Sight, but each in a diverse respect. ^- ^^°'^'- 
For faith is properly of his Image ; hope is of his face, but to come 
and appear hereafter ; and sight is likewise of his face, but pre- 

The second difference between the object of faith and hope is a 
consequence out of the first, and this Is it, that faith Is of present of 
things, namely, of Christ and his benefits,^ or rather of the Image 
of these things, which we behold present In the glass of the word 
and sacraments ; whereupon, Heb. xi. 1, it is called a ground and an 
evidence, which Avords signify the presence of those things which 
are believed. But hope is of things which are to come hereafter ; 
for hope, if it he seen, is no hope, that is, if It be of things present 
it Is no hope ; for why should a man hope for that which he sees ? 
Eom. viii. 24. Beside, hope is of his face, which is not yet seen. 

The third difference follows also out of the first ; for faith Is of the 
thing only in part, seeing that it Is of the Image, and, as it were, 
of the shadow, and, as I may say, of the earnest, which Is but part 
of the sum. See 1 Cor, xiii. 12, f^Fe know in part. But hope Is of 
the whole thing, it Is of the face, of the complement ;" to conclude, 
It Is of the whole sum, the hope whereof that earnest, which we 
apprehend by faith, giveth unto us. And thus far of the object of 

1 This should be : Faith belongs to things present — Christ and his benefits. 
Original : quod fides sit rcrum jJrccsentium, Christi et heneficionim. ipsiiis. 
- The fultilmcut. Original : compkmcnii. 


hopi!'^' ° The subject followeth, which is not the mind, or some faculty of 

the mind, whether of understanding or judgment ; nor is it the will, 
for faith hath made her seat in these. But hope, being content 
with the inferior seat, hath its abiding in the heart. For it is an 
affection of the heart, even as fear is, which is opposed to it. If 
we ispeak of the nature of it, it is not judgment or assent ; it is not 
an apprehension or trust ; for all these belong to faith, but it is an 
expectation which foUoweth faith, and is begotten by faith. 

The property of hope is, not that certainty, properly, which is 
of faith, or of that assent which is in faith. For faith is properly 

How hope 13 said to bc certain, but hope is not properly called certain; but it 
is termed certain because of the certainty of faith. In Scriptiu"e, 
I find that patience is attributed to faith [hope] as a certain property 

vvof^ovT^i, thereof. Rom. viii. 25, But if tee hove for that which ive see not, 

Patience of . ^ ^ , 

iiope- 2m do with patience abide Jbr it. Heb. vi. 15, It is said of Abraham, 

that when ho had j^atiently tarried, he obtained the promise. 1 Thess. 
i. 3, there is mention made of the patience of hope, or of patient 
hope. And this patience is it, whereby hope doth sustain all the 
crosses and afflictions of this life, and doth, as it were, go under 
them. For all the promises of heavenly things are made with an 
exception of temporal afflictions. Wherefore, whosoever hopeth 
that he shall obtain those heavenly promises, he must needs make 
himself ready to bear and sustain all the calamities which are in- 
cident to this life. Wherefore, patience is so necessarily joined 
with hope, as that hope cannot be without it. 

Hope defln- Out of tlicsc things which we have spoken, the definition of 
hope may be gathered ; that hope is a patient abiding of the heart 
for the face of Christ, or fulfdling of the promise. It is to be noted, 
that this is the definition of hope, as the name is taken for the work 
and office of hope, which properly signifies an affection of the 
heart, and that a sanctified one ; and not only so, but an affection 
carried above nature. For Avhen we are regenerated by the Spirit of 
Christ, we do not only recover that holiness of nature lost in Adam, 
but also in regeneration there is not a faculty of tlie mind or an 
affection of the heart, but some supernatural power or quality is 

god's effectual calling. 231 

put into it, for the exercising of supernatural functions. For our 
regeneration is not so much effected, according to that image which 
was entire and holy in Adam before his fall, as according to the image 
of Christ ; 1 Cor. xv. 49, We shall hear the image of the heavenly 
man. Whereupon the motions of our heart are termed unutterable, 
and such as cannot be declared. Kom. viii. 2Q, they are called qroans ^^at affec- 

' *' "^ tions a man 

which cannot be expressed. ] Pet. i. 8, Joy is called unspeakable «'?^hafh"ia wm 
glorious. And the faculties of the mind and the affections of the 
heart regenerated, are carried to those things which are incompre- 
hensible, and which, I think, could not be comprehended by Adam's 
holy nature. Such as these are : The unsearchable riches of Christy 
Ephes. iii. 8 : the love of Christ, which passeth all knowledge, in the 
same chapter, verse 19 : as those things which ^/te eye hath not seen, 
7ior ear heard, nor ever entered into man^s heart, 1 Cor. ii. 9. But we 
have spoken of these things already in the doctrine of Faith. 

This last of all is to be observed concerniner hope, that there be degrees of 


many degrees of it. For there is a certain more earnest or vehe- 
ment hope, which is called by the Apostle, Eom. viii. 19, the fer- cLttokx^x- 
vent desire of the creature. Phil. i. 20, Paul doth profess this ^^"'* 
kind of hope and earnest looking for. And thus much of hope, 
according to the judgment of our churches. 

Now be advertised in few words, what our adversaries think of ^P^'* "p'- 

' nions of 

it. They make the object of hope to be those things which belong ^°p^" 
to him that hopetli ;^ for this difference they make between hope 
and faith, that faith is of general mercy, and not of proper ; but 
that hope is of proper mercy .^ But this difference is false ; for 
as well faith as hope is of proper grace and mercy. They say Avith 
us, that the subject of hope is the heart ; for they teach that hope 
is a virtue put into the heart. 

They make the nature of it to consist not in knowing nor in judo-- 
ing, but in expecting. Bellarmin makes a difference between hopino- 

* Should be: which have a special reference to. Original: qucs peculiar iter 
ad sperantem pertinent. 

2 Pauci illi viri, et ii valde eximii, fortasse peculari revelatione certi fieri 
meruerunt de gi-atia, quam apud Dominum iuvenerunt. — Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iv. 
p. 885. Spes est tantiuu pertinentinm ad sperantem. — Ihid. 


and expecting. " We hope," saith he, " for those things which we 
do not know, certainly, that we shall obtain. Whereupon the blessed 
soids in heaven are said to expect the resurrection of their bodies, 
because they know, certainly, that it shall come to pass."^ But 
Paul, Rom. vili. 25, seemeth to take the words of hoping and 
expectation for one and the same thing ; If ice liopefor that which 

i'ATriCitu, we see not, then do we ivith patience expect it. You see that with Paul, 

Vxi^ '^^'^ to hope and to expect are one and the same. 

They make the property of hope to be certainty ; ^ for they say that 
hope is certain, but they teach that this certainty belongs to the un- 
derstanding. "For it is the understanding that doth know, certainly, 
that salvation will come to pass ; and because of the certainty of the 
understanding, hope is said to be certain, and the heart liopeth, cer- 
tainly, that salvation will come. Therefore, this certainty is not pro- 
perly in hope, but hope presupposeth it." They say that this certainty 
is not simple and absolute. For they say that no man is simply and 
absolutely certain of his salvation, or doth certainly know that he shall 
obtain salvation. Nay, contrariwise, that there is simply and abso- 
lutely an uncertainty of hope, and he that hopeth, say they, is simply 
and absolutely uncertain of his salvation. " But he that hopes," say 
they, " is certain of his salvation, not simply and absolutely, but after 
a certain manner and in some respect. First, in regard of the founda- 
tion of hope, that is, the promise of God which cannot deceive, and 

1 Quod ccrto scimus nos habituros, non proprie speramus, sod simpliciter 
cxpectamus. Hoc euim modo, aniuiaj bcatorum non proprie sperant corporum 
resiuTcctiunem, sed tantmn expectant, quia certissimas sunt ex parte intcllectus, 
cam sibi deesse non posse. — Bcllarmin, ibid. p. 88G. 

- Beliavmin's notions of Hope, which our Author evidently alludes to, are 
contained in his treatise, De Justi/icatiune, lib. iii. c. 11, of his great A\ork. His 
views are given here somewliat confusedly. Bcllarmin admits that Hope ot(i//U 
to be certain. That certainty, however, consists of two parts — of the Avill firmly 
clcavmg to the object hoped fur ; and of the understanding, judging whether we 
are united to God. In this second part lies the uncertainty of Hope. For, 
while the understanding may firmly believe the truth of God's promises, it 
cannot but fear as to our compliance with all the conditions on which these 
promises rest ; and, secondly, even in the case of righteous men now reconciled 
to God by Love, {caritate,) the possibility of theii' falling away jnust occasion 

god's effectual calling. 233 

for which, if there were not other causes of certainty, one might 
be said to be simply and absohitely certain of his salvation. But 
seeing there be other causes of certainty, beside the promise 
of God, a man cannot be said to be simply and absolutely certain 
of his own salvation for the promise of God only, and the infallible 
truth thereof. Secondly, a man is said to be certain of his sal- 
vation in respect of charity, which," they say, "is the form of faith. 
For he that hath charity is in this part, and in this respect, certain 
of his salvation. For charity is a sure cause of salvation, and if it 
could be that a man might never fall from charity, even for that 
cause alone, he might be simply and absolutely certain of his salva- 
tion. But seeing any man might fall from charity and lose it, 
therefore there is no absolute certainty of hope in respect of charity 

This is, then, their opinion, " that hope is likewise uncertain, but 
yet that it is certain in some respects ; First, in respect of the 
promise ; then in respect of charity.^ And, therefore, that the cer- 
tainty of hope is always mixed with uncertainty ; for what time 
it is certain because of the promise of God, at the same time, it is 
uncertain for other causes which are in ourselves, as in regard of 
our repentance, in respect of our Avorks and merits, which are also 
required to make hope certain. Again, what time it is certain be- 
cause of charity, at the same time it is uncertain, because of the 
changeableness of charity." This is their opinion. But we hold 
thus, that hope is called certain because of faith going afore it, and certainty of 
for the full assurance of that faith. For certainty doth properly "'^"^' 
belong to faith ; and it is faith whereby every one of us doth cer- 
tainly know that salvation belongeth unto us. Hence cometh 
the sureness of hope, and the certainty thereof. Secondly, we say, 
that this certainty of hope, Avhich is for faith's sake, is simple and 
absolute ; and Ave deny that hope is in one respect certain, and in an- 
other respect uncertain, Avhich thing they affirm ; but we affirm that 
it is certain in all respects, at least, that it so ought to be in respect 

^ The reader hardly requhes to be reminded, that the word here translated 
Charity, is the Christian virtue of love to God. 


of God's promise, in respect of charity, and of our whole regenera- 
tion, in respect of our perseverance ; and so of the rest. .For all 
these things are certain and sound, upon which hope dependeth, 
and for which it is said to be certain ; and these things do depend 
upon God's unchangeableness, whether they be out of us, as the 
promise of God, or within us, as charity and all regeneration ; for 
grace once given in Christ Jesus can never be totally and finally 

Our adversaries do place some cause of certainty in ourselves, and 
in our strength, and in our works and merits. And, therefore, it 
is no marvel, though they say that hope is not simply and absolutely 
certain ; for there is nothing more uncertain than these things, 
in Avhich they place some, or rather, the chief cause of the certainty 
of hope. 

Concerning the absolute certainty of hope, these be some testi- 
monies of Scripture : Ps. xxxi. 1, In tliee^ O Lord, have I hoped, let 
me not be confounded for ever, Ps. cxxv. 1, He that trusteth in the 
Lord shall he like mount Sion, which shall not be moved for ever. 
Eom. V. 2, TFe rejoice under the hope of the glory of God; and after, 
5, Hope maketh not ashamed. Rom. viii. 24, We are saved by hope. 
Phil. i. 20, According to my earnest expectation and hope, that I shall 
not be ashamed. Eom. ix. 33, Whosoever believeth in him shall not be 
confounded. And thus much of hope. 



Among the principal effects of faith, charity is reckoned in the 
next place after hope ; and Paul unites them together, as the three 
special graces of the Holy Ghost, faith, hope, and charity, 1 Cor. 
xiii. 13. There are three, saith he, faith, hope, charity, and the 
greatest of these is charity. The Apostle unites these together, and 

god's effectual calling. 235 

we do not sever them, specially for that God's love is a certaia 
bond uniting us to God, together with the bond of faith, which is 
the primary and principal. For this cause Peter ^ saith, that our 
communion with Christ, now absent from us, doth consist in love 
and faith. And this moveth us, in the third place, after faith to 
entreat of charity, in this treatise of our Effectual Calling. 

And charity or love proceedeth from that sweet apprehension and whence 
taste of the Lord, for that taste stirs up in the heart an exceeding love ceedeth. 
of the Lord, and of our neighbour for the Lord's sake. And when as 
charity hath received this life by faith, it becomes the instrument 
of faith, whereby it worketh other effects of the Spirit ; as the gifts 
of knowledge, of prophesying, of tongues, and of miracles. These 
also are the instruments and means whereby justifying faith work- 
eth, but the principal is love ; for which cause it is said. Gal. v. 6, ^ove, the 

■^ -^ ' > best evidence 

\\\^t faith worketh by love, and love with the works or fruits thereof, ^^^'■^^^ 
among all signs and testimonies, gives the surest evidence unto faith. 

If this be compared with other graces of God's Spirit, it must be 
preferred before them all ; for it hath the third place after faith. 
Therefore, if ye set aside faith and hope, love hath the first place 
of all the graces of the Holy Ghost, and is, as it were, the soul of 
all gifts which follow after it. For this cause the Apostle, 1 Cor. 
xiii., having niunbered divers gifts of the Holy Ghost, saith, 
that if these graces wanted love, they were either as dead, or as 
nothing, or should profit nothing. Whereby he gives us to under- 
stand, that all other virtues have no soundness in them, if ye sever 
them from love, but to be only certain dead shadows of virtues. 
We may, therefore, justly call charity the life of all gifts and graces 
which follow it. 

If the adversaries had contented themselves with this prero<?ative Popish charu 
of charity, they had not erred, but for that they avouch it to be 
also the life and form of faith,^ herein they sin greatly, that faith 

1 1 Peter i. 8, 9. 

2 Itaque sensus Apostoli [^Gal. v. 6] est fidem a charitate agi et moveri, quo 
modo a spiritu movetitr, et agitur corpus. Ac per hoc dilectionem non esse 
signum viventis fidei, ut adversarii dicere sclent, sed esse ipsam vitam fidei, et 
fidem sinedilectione similem esse corpori sine spiritu, ut rectissime scribit Jacobus. 


rather contrarily is the Hfe of charity, for that without faith, there 
is no man hath but the dead shadow of love. Wherefore the faith 
of Christ is the principal life or soul, both of charity, and of all 
other virtues, for without it they are all but vain and counterfeit, 
and very sins before God ; for whatsoever is not of faith is sin} 

Object of 'j'jjQ primaiy object of love is the same with the object of faith 

and hope. For what we first apprehend by faith, and next expect 
in hope, the same we embrace in love. The secondary object of 
love is our neighbour, whom we love in and for the Lord. The 
subject of love is the heart ; for we love with the heart, as the 

1 Thcss. i. 5. Apostle speaketh, love out of a pure keart.^ 

Nature of The naturc thereof is not in knowledge, nor in hoping, but in 
loving. In love two things are principally to be respected ; first, a 
diligent endeavour for the preservation of that we love ; next, an 
earnest affection to be united and conjoined with it, both which we 
see are to be respected in the love of God and of our neighbours. 

The properties of love are many. 1 Cor. xiii. 4, &c. For whereas 
love is, there is a heap of virtues ; for charity is never alone in any 
man, but hath ever many other virtues as companions and hand- 
maids attending on it. 

Of the premises ye may gather some definition of faith ;^ 

I.OVC defined, as namely, that love is a holy endeavour for the preservation of 
that which is beloved, tvhether God or man, icith an earnest desire 
to be united unto it. For love is that bond, as the Apostle 
speaketh,'' whereby the members of the body are knit together. 
And it serves also in some sort and place to unite us unto God and 
Christ, notwithstanding that the communion of Christ, the head of 
his body the Church, be principally to be ascribed unto faith. And 
in this respect love goes before justification, and is a branch in our 

Eecte igitur Catholici dicuut fidcni siuc cliaritatc esse iiiformcm, et cum cha- 
vitate formatam. — Bcllarmin, ibid. vol. iv. p. 813. 

^ Rom. xiv. 23. 

2 " As the Apostle speaketh," &c., is the translator's own. The marginal 
reference is also his, and seems to be a mistake for 1 Tcter i. 22. 

^ Faith, evidently a misprint for Love. 

■1 Col. iii. 14. 

god's effectual calling. 237 

effectual calling, ever going together with faith, hope, and repent- 
ance. For which cause principally, I thought good to speak of it 
briefly in this treatise, after faith and hope, for that faith, wherein 
w'e say consisteth the second part of our effectual calling, hath 
these for inseparable companions, faith, hope,^ and repentance ; after 
which follows our justification by order, not of time, but of nature. 
But in another respect love follows justification, and appertaineth 
to the grace of regeneration ; but of this Ave shall speak in fit 

Now to return to' our purpose ; the definition given before is 
not so much of love itself, as of the work and function thereof. 
For love is properly an affection, holy or sanctified; and not soAiargeniefl- 

. , nitionoflove. 

only, but also supernatural, earned up to love those things which 
are above nature, and exceed all natural affection ; for like as faith 
is of those things which excel all natural knowledge and apprehen- 
sion, and hope is of those things which excel all natural expectation, 
so love also is of those which be above the reach of all natural affec- 
tion. For as we have often before admonished, this our new- birth 
in Christ Jesus, is not so much a restoring of us to that image of 
Adam, which he had before his fall, as unto the image of Christ, 
who is a spiritual and a heavenly man, in whom, and by whom, we 
have not only, so to speak, a natural sanctity or holiness ; but also 
do receive from him a certain heavenly and supernatural virtue and 
eflicacy infused into all affections and powers of the soul. But this 
our supernatural condition as yet appeareth not unto men, neither 
do we sufficiently feel it and find it ourselves, but it shall be seen 
in another life, when as we shall put on, and hear the image of that 
heavenly man, 1 Cor. xv. 49. Now toe are called the sons of God, hut 
as yet it appeareth not xchat ice shall he ; hut ice hnoio it shall come to 
pass, that ice shall he like unto him, when he shall appear, 1 Johniii. 2. 
The adversaries spend all their labour in setting forth the com- 
mendations of love, and they be too long in extoUing charity ; for 
they adorn it with the spoils of justifying faith, so gracing it with 

1 Should be : hope, love, and repentance. Original : spem, charitatem, et 


stolen colours, and not with its own proper beauty, ascribing the 
justification and salvation of man, which they take away from faith, 
unto charity,^ as shall be seen when we come to speak of the doc- 
trine of free" justification. And thus far shall suffice of charity or 



Repentance followeth faith, as the effect followeth his cause ; for 
that godly sorrow which is according to God, and worketh repent- 
ance, is the daughter of faith, as we shall see afterward. Of this 
benefit there are divers names in divers languages. The Hebrew 
do call it Teschubhah,^ the Grecians, iMirdvoiav and /xsra/xiXs/'^i/. 
The word iiirama is of a verb,"* which signifieth to be wise after 
a thing is done, to retract his sentence, to change his mind, and 
to return to a right mind. Whereupon repentance is nothing else 
but an after-wit, a reversing of judgment, and change of determina- 
tions. The word /isra/xsXs/a is of the verb //.sra/xsXs/f, which signifi- 
eth to be careful and anxious after a thing is done ; whereupon 
/jt,£-a,y,j>.£/a is nothing else but a trouble and disquietness of heart, 
after a thing is acted. Therefore these two Greek words differ,'' 
for that the first concerneth properly the mind or understanding ; 
the second, the heart and affection. They differ also in another 

1 Quod si cliarltas est forma fidei, et fides non jiistificat formaliter, nisi ab 
ipsa charitate fonnata, ccrtc multo magis cliaritas ipsa justificat. — Bellamiiu, 
ibid. p. 813. 

2 Tliere is no word for free in the original. Or love, also is the translator's 
own explanation. 

3 nai^i'. Bellarmin (ibid. vol. iii. p. 907) gives nii:^';!, which our Author 

has followed. 

■* f^iTdvoiiv, which is in the original. 

5 On this subject, see Erasmus and Beza on ]\Iatthew iii. ; Calvini Insfifiifa, 
iii. .", § 5 ; and Campbell's Preliminary Dissertations, vi. .". 

god's effectual calling. 239 

respect, In that /xsrJvo/a compreliendeth the whole work and benefit 
of repentance, for the change of the mind, which is implied in this 
word, doth necessarily presuppose the sorrow of the heart, and 
that same /xsra/xjXs/av, Avhich is a contrition, and an anxiety after 
the fact committed ; whereas /xjra/xsXs/a is rather restrained to 
signify only a part of this benefit, namely, the first, which consisteth 
in sorrow, in contrition, and the disquiet of the heart after a thing 
is done ; for it followeth not, that wheresoever this same compunc- 
tion of heart be, there should presently follow that sound repent- 
ance ; as it is necessary that wheresoever sound repentance be 
found, there also must be that compunction of heart. Some there 
are which make a third difference between these two, affirming 
that this sound repentance properly belongs to the godly and to 
the elect, and only to them ; for the elect only, properly, and in 
very truth, become wise after their falls, and they do only change 
their minds, and their purposes, and return to a sound mind; 
whereas some compunction, and disquietness of heart, doth not only 
belong to the godly and the elect, but also to the wicked and to 
the reprobates, in whom there is found, after a sin is committed, 
some grief, and disquietness of heart, not so much for the sin com- 
mitted, as for the punishment of the sin. But we are to understand 
that wheresoever this same sorrow is attributed to the wicked, there 
is not understood hereby that godly care and sorrow which is 
according to God ; but a worldly sorrow, and a sorrow which is 
unto death. In which sense it is attributed to Judas, Matth. xxvii. 
3, Judas repented himself ; but contrariwise, when it is attributed to f^irx^i. 
the godly, thereby is signified not so much a sorrow for the punish- '^fft^ ** 
ment of sin itself, as for the offence and displeasure of God. Thus 
far of the Greek names of repentance. 

The Latins do call it a conversion, an after-wit, to return to heart conversio. 
and understanding, and repentance} Conversion dioih. fitly answer tiaT''*"' 
with the Hebrew word ; and it is a word which the prophets have 

1 This should be : The Latin terms are, Conversio, Resipiscentia, PmiitenUa. 
Holland translates rtszpjsce/iifia by after-wit, a change of the mind, audi repentance 
pcenitentia,hy repentance, penance, and cowjowncfton, generally one of the two latter. 


Tesciu-.biuih. used in the Old Testament, Convert me, O Lord, and I shall he con- 
verted, Jer. xxxl. 18. Even as Christ and his apostles themselves use 

f/.iTix.voiet.g.i\\Q foresaid Greek words in the New Testament of repentance and 

CJ/LT' compunction of heart, a change of the mind is properly signified 
in the Greek word iMiravoia,, for to change the mind is to begin to be 
•wise after the deed done. Penance is signified in the Greek word 
Ij^iTaiMXua, for it is derived of the verb poenitere, which signifieth a 
punishment;^ for in this kind of repentance, that sorrow and anxiety 
of the heart is a punishment. For as the Greek word /xsra/xsXs/a 
doth diflfer from the word /Asravo;a, so doth poenitentia, penance, from 

Resipiscen- the word resipisce7itia, repentance. For to pass by other differences, 
the word penajice signifieth properly one part only of this benefit, to 
wit, sorrow, disquietness, and anxiety after the deed done. But 
the word resipiscentia, which is a change of the mind, doth com- 
prehend this whole benefit ; for the change of the mind, and to 
become wise after our falls, doth necessarily presuppose the sorrow 
of the heart, as the efficient cause. The old Latin translation doth 
transkte both the Greek words every where poenitentia, penance.^ 
The adversaries do earnestly contend, that the word p^na/zce is every 
where to be retained, to wit, that they may defend the sacrament of 
penance, as they call it, even by the very name itself, to consist in 
external and corporal aflfliction.^ The word resipiscentia, which signi- 
fieth a change of the mind, is more used by our Divines "* when they 
speak of this grace. And thus much concerning the names of this 

Parts of re- The parts thereof are generally these ; first, sorrow, then, after 
sorroAv, a change of the mind and purpose, which is properly, as is 

1 This is tlic common derivation of pccnitet^ from posna. Erasmus singularly 
derives it from jmnc, to give the force of the Greek /^csrx. 

^ Sec Cam}:)bcll, ibid. 

3 Deniquc undo vox Panitcntia dipthongum liabcret qncm liabet vox Poena, 
si a Po7ie, ut vult Erasmus, et non a pccna dcrivanctur ? Maneat igitur omnes 
Po3uitentia3 voces, Ilebraicam, Graecam, et Latinara, secundum Scripturjc ot 
bonorura auctorum usum, non solam mentis mutationcm, aut erroris agnitionem, 
sed etiam detcstationem peccati, et vindictam spontc assumptam siguiticare. — 
Bellarmin, ibid. vol. iii. p. 909. 

^ It was intrcxluced bv Erasmus. 

god's effectual calling. 241 

aforesaid, signified by the Greek word used for repentance. We 
are, therefore, first to speak of sorrow, which is the first part of 
repentance, and this sorrow is of two kinds. First, for the pun- sorrow two- 
ishment of sin, which, 2 Cor. vii. 10, is called the son-ow of the loorldy 
and also a sorroio ic/iich is to death. Secondly, it is a sorrow for 
the sin itself, and because of the offence which is committed 
against God, which, in like manner, is called of the Apostle, a 
sorroio according to God. Of both these we will speak severally. 

The principal eflficient of the first sorrow which is conceived in 
the heart for the punishment of sin is the Holy Ghost, which, Rom. 
viii. verse 15, is called the spirit of bondage to fear ; that is to say, 
which testifieth unto us of our terrible and miserable condition 
without Christ, and, therefore, doth beget fear and horror within 
us. The instrument, whereby the Spirit doth work this sorrow in 
our hearts, is the preaching of the Law. The sura whereof is in 
that syllogism, concerning which we have spoken in the doctrine of 
faith ; the proposition of which syllogism is this. Cursed is every one 
that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of this laWf 
to do them.} The assumption is by every man's conscience thus an- 
swered : — But I have not continued in them ; and the conclusion, 
therefore, is this, I am accursed. From hence doth that sorrow, 
or rather that horror of the heart, arise or spring, not so much for 
sin, which is in the assumption, as for the punishment and fear of 
the curse, which is in the conclusion. And this is that which is 
called the prick of conscience, which, by means of the conclusion 
before showed, doth not only prick a wounded mind, but also 
pierce even through the heart. And this legal sorrow, if the 
grace of the Gospel did not put a helping hand between it and us, 
would drive a man into utter desperation. And thus much con- 
cerning that first sorrow. 

The very same Spirit of God is likewise a principal efficient 
cause of the latter sorrow, but not proceeding as before ; for now he 
becomeththe Spirit of adoption, xohereby we cry, Abba, Father, Rom. 
vili. 16, that is, testifying of our adoption in Christ, and, therefore, 

' Gal. iii. 10. 
VOL. I. Q 



doth enlarge both our heart and mouth to call upon God fami- 
liarly, as upon our Father. 

The instrument whereby the Holy Spirit doth work this faith 
in our hearts, it is the preaching of the Gospel, the sum whereof 
IS contained in that syllogism, concerning which we have spoken 
in the doctrine of fliith. The proposition of this syllogism is. He 
that believeth shall be justified, and shall live ;^ whereupon faith doth 
assume, saying, But I do believe ; and concludeth saying, There- 
fore righteousness and life pertaineth unto me. In this conclusion 
there is, I confess, matter of joy and of unspeakable gladness ; but it 
is as true that there is in it matter of sorrow also, wdiich is con- 
ceived after we have known the mercy of God in Christ to be so 
great, and doth arise in this respect, because we have offended 
so merciful and so loving a Father. It is then a joy mixed with 
sorrow, and with the unspeakable and glorious joy of faith, having 
joined with it sighs that cannot be expressed. And thus much 
also of the latter sorrow. 

Now let us see how^ both these kinds of sorrow belong unto 
sound repentance. That first sorrow, Avhich is of the law, and is 
ui^Law"^ "^conceived by reason of the punishment which followeth sin, I con- 
for'tiirGos- ffiss it is no part of this holy change and conversion unto God, for 
of its own nature it doth rather estrange us from God, than con- 
vert us to God ; and, in very deed, it doth altogether alienate the 
wicked from God as from a terrible judge. Notwithstanding, in 
repentance it hath his use, for it prepareth the elect by giving 
them sense of their misery, to that grace and mercy which is ^jro- 
pounded in the Gospel. The latter sorrow, which is according to 
God, and is effected by the Gospel, is properly a part of repent- 
ance, and doth effect that change of the mind and reason before 
specified. And, therefore, the Apostle saith, 2 Cor. vii. 10, that the 
sorrow, which is according to God, causeth repentance. And thus 
far of the first part of this benefit which is found to be in sorrow. 
The other- followeth, which is called properly by the Apostle, 

1 Mark xvi. 16. 

2 That is, the other part of repentance. The first was soitow, — 1. for the 
pimishment of sni ; 2. for offending Gofl. The second is a cltange ofmtnd. 

god's effectual calling. 243 

2 Cor. vii. 10, a ciianqe of the mind. For there foUoweth after Second iwt 

' •y '^ 01 repent- 

that godly sorrow a certain svonderful change of the mind, of the""^°- 

will, and of the heart. As touching knowledge and illumina- 
tion of the mind, this goes before the sorrow we have spoken of, 
and is an acknowledgment wrought in us first of sin, and of our misery 
by the Law; next, of mercy by the Gospel. Therefore, the change of 
mind which foUoweth this sorrow pertains to the faculty or judgment 
of reason, Avhich also is called the counsel and purpose of the mind; 
Acts xi. 23 ; he exhortetli them, that with one purpose of heart they 
would cleave unto the Lord. And the judgment or counsel of the 
mind is changed in this sort. The mind disalloweth the evil which is 
committed, and alloweth the good hereafter to be practised. There Tiie change 

' ° ^ ot the mind 

are, therefore, two parts of the change of the judgment or counsel ; J];.'^|J^*j]^g° 
the first is the disallowing of the evil committed ; the second is the 
approving of the good to be done. After the change of the judg- 
ment, or counsel of the mind, there foUoweth a change of the will 
in this manner. The will rejecteth that evil which is committed, 
or it declineth from it, and alloweth the good to be done hereafter, 
or inclineth thereunto. There are these two parts of this change : change of 

... thewiU. 

first, a declination of the evil committed ; secondly, an inclination 
to the good which is or ought to be done. After the change of 
the will foUoweth the change of the heart, which is on this man- change of 

the heart 

ner. The heart hateth and detesteth that evil Avhich it hath here- 
tofore done, and it loves and affects the good which hereafter it 
ought to do. There are, therefore, two parts of this change ; 
the first is the detestation of evil done and committed ; the second 
is the love of that good which ought to be done. 

In general, therefore, there are two parts of that change of the 
mind which is an efiect of sorrow ; the first is a change from evil, 
and from sin committed ; the second is a change to good hereafter, 
to be practised and followed. Commonly these parts are called 
mortification and vivification, but I know not how rightly and 

justly; for mortification and vivification are properlv parts of re-^<'^°"'^'-'*- 
•^ i 1 ./ i tion and re- 

generation, which doth differ from repentance, as shall be seen ^iffgr."''^ 


By that which hath been ah'eady said, we understand what be 
the special points of repentance, from whence it proceeds, and 
whereunto it serveth. The point from whence it proceeds is the 
evil or sin committed ; the point to which it tendeth is the good 
hereafter to be done. Repentance, therefore, standeth between 
two actions, past and future, and it doth differ from regeneration, 
for the points thereof ^ are not deeds and actions, but qualities, to 
wit, the corruption of nature or the old man, and sanctity or the 
new man ; but of this we shall entreat afterwards, when we come 
to speak of the difference of repentance and of regeneration. 

Ye see, then, after that great sorrow, how there is a change in 
the whole mind of man. Next, ye see by that hath been said of 
this benefit of repentance, that repentance doth begin from the 
heart, and doth proceed by the reasonable faculties of the 
mind and will ; and, last of all, it doth end and rest in the heart. 
To conclude, it may easily be gathered, by that which hath been 
defined""^" ^^^^ ^^ ^hc treaty of the parts of it, what the definition of repent- 
ance is, that it is an after-wit, after the deed and evil committed, and a 
sorrow, because God is offended, and from that sorrow a certain change 
of the whole mind from evil unto good. The effect of repentance is 
in the outward life, to wit, an amendment of life bringing forth 
fruit worthy of repentance ; INIatth. iii. verse 8. 

There is question concerning repentance, whether it be the same 

with regeneration or new birth ; ^ for the common opinion of Divines 

is, that the benefits of regeneration and new birth differ not in 

Repentance matter itsclf. Notwithstanding, it appears unto us that there is a dif- 

and regene- 

ration lUfftr. ferencc between these two, and it shall appear to them also who dili- 
gently consider the ends of both ; for repentance is to be referred to 
our effectual calling, and it is an effect of faith, Avhich is another part 
of our effectual calling, for as many as believe, they repent, they 
change their counsel, and return to a better mind. But regenera- 
tion is the beginning of our glorification, and the beginning of a 

1 That is, of regeneration. 

2 Rollock uses the words here, rcgeneratio sive renovatio, i\\ the sense of 

god's effectual calling. 245 

new creature. Repentance goeth before justification, even as faith 
and hope; for of the Baptist it is said, that he preached the 
baptism of repentance for the remission of sins, Mark i. 4 ; Luke 
iii. 3. But regeneration foUoweth justification; for, being justified, 
we receive the Spirit of sanctification, whereby we are renewed, 
and, as it were, find a new creature begun even in this Hfe. Re- 
pentance is the cause, regenerationr is the eflfect ; for therefore God 

doth renew us in Christ, and make us new men, because we repent How regene- 
ration and 
US of our old Hfe, and becfin to be wise after sin committed. Not- ';'?p<="tance 

•' o (litter. 

withstanding, in the middle place, betwixt repentance and regene- 
ration, comes in justification, when as God doth of his mere mercy 
account and repute us as just. The name of repentance iraplieth 
sorrow, but the name of regeneration gladness. To conclude, the 
points' of repentance, as whence it proceeds and whereunto it 
tends, they are deeds, the evil or sin committed, and the good 
which ought to be practised ; but the bounds of regeneration are 
qualities — inherent corruption, and sanctity or holiness, which is 
wrought in us ; the old man and new man renewed in Christ. 

But you will say, in repentance there is a change from evil to good, 
a change, I say, of the mind and heart. I answer, in our efiectual 
calling [also, and faith] thei^e begins a change of the mind of man ; 
notwithstanding, all divines distinguish calling and faith from regene- 
ration. Why then should they not in like manner distinguish be- 
tween repentance, which followeth faith, and our effectual calling, 
and resjeneration ? For every chano-e of the mind is not to be ^o^^ repent- 

'-' ./ o ance follow- 

deemed forthwith regeneration, but there are certain changes ofj^^t'onf^"®' 
man's mind which go before regeneration, and which prepare the 
mind, and so the whole man, unto regeneration, and to that new 
creation ; in which kind repentance is a special grace.^ These things 
are to be distinguished not in time but in nature ; for at that very 
same Instant, we believe, and be effectually called, and do repent, 
and be justified, and be I'egenerate. 

' Points and bounds are in the original, termini. 

2 Shonkl be : in winch class is repentance. Original : in quo gnicre est rc- 




Having thus far spoken of repentance, which is proper to the 
elect and godly, Ave are next to consider how far the reprobate 
and ungodly man may proceed in repentance. All wicked and 
ungodly men do not make like progress, for they profit, some less, 
some more, in the work of repentance. We will first speak of 
them which be least proficient. These first have a sorrow or lior- 

repentar.ce ^'^^^ ^^ their miuds whicli cometh from the Law, and that not for 

pious? """ sins or any offences committed against God properly and truly, 
but because of the punishment of sin properly, and for sin acci- 
dentally, because punishment followeth sin. Next, after this sorrow 
there followeth in them some dislike in mind of the sin committed, 

distinction, but bccausc of the punishment ; but as touching affection to the 
good which ought to be done, so far they come not. Further 
yet, there followeth in the will a declining from evil committed, 
but because of the punishment ; for in the meanwhile their will is 
not bent or inclined to the good which ought to be done. After 
this little change of the will, there followeth in the heart a detes- 
tation of evil committed, but in regard of the punishment ; for all 
this while the heart doth not proceed to love justice, or the good 
which ought to be done. And as touching the outward life, there 
is no good change or holy amendment in it. 

In this kind was Judas the traitor, of whose repentance read 

ample! ^^' ^attli. xxvii. 3-5, where first it is said that Judas did repent Jam of 
that he had done. Note here in this word his sorrow and anxiety of 
heart. Next, he is said to have brought the thirty pieces of silver to 
the high -priest^ w'hence may necessarily be gathered a change of the 
will, of the mind, and of the heart, which thing also by his own con- 
fession may ap]icar, because he said afterward, I leave sinned, betraying 

god's effectual calling. 247 

the innocent blood ; for this Avord doth argue a dislike of sin in some 
sort, and a renouncing and detestation of sin, albeit not sincere, 
but principally in respect of the punishment, accidentally in respect 
of the sin, because sin and the punishment thereof go together : 
finally, whereas he cast the silver pieces into the temple, it appears 
there was in him an inward dislike and detestation of evil : and yet 
that no amendment of life followed this change of mind, it appears 
in this, because, presently going aside, he hanged himself. 

There are other impious men, who proceed a little further in 
repentance than these, having in their minds some change unto 
good, their minds allowing that which is good, and their will 
choosing the same, and their heart affecting it ; yet these things 
be not sincere in them, but proceed from fear of punishment. 
And as concerning the amendment of their outward life, they 
begin that also ; but as the Prophet saith, Their goodness van- 
isheth as a movjiing cloud, and as the morning dew, Hosea vi. 4. 

Of this number was Saul, 1 Sam. xv. 24-31, and Achab, 1 Kings ^'^'^'■ 
xxi. 27. And of this kind also, it seems, was Esau, Gen. xxvii. 31-38. 
His sorrow appeareth by his tears shed ; the change also of his mind 
in some sort unto good appears by that it is said, he would have 
obtained the blessing, he sought the blessing ;^ but there was nothing 
sincere in him, for, forthwith after he returned to his old haunt, or 
wonted course again. The wicked, whicli yield best signs of repent- 
ance, are those who have attained the temporary faith, whose soi'- 
row also doth arise from the Gospel, and the acknowledgment of the 
mercy of God in Christ ; and the change of the mind unto good is 
in some sort for the good itself, for they taste after a sort the 
sweetness of God in Christ, and are delighted in it. And as con- 
cerning the amendment of outward life, that also is in them a 
little longer than in those before described. They also do turn 
and relinquish many sins. 

Of this kind, it seems, Herod was, of whom it is written, Mark 
vi. 20, Herod feared John, knoicing that lie was a just and a holy 

1 Hebrews xii. 17. 


man, and he received him, and when he heard him, he did many things, 
and heard him gladli/. And thus far of these three steps of impious 
men in repentance ; and here also I end the doctrine of sound re- 



It followeth now that we consider what the Papists do think of 
their penance ; for they reject the very name of repentance. Their 
errors are many which they hold, we Avill take view of some few 
of them, and briefly confute them. First, they say "that repentance 
is a sacrament." 1 But, I ask, if it be a sacrament, what sensible 

A sacrament, sign hath it ? They answcr, " that the sign is partly the act of the 
penitent person, and partly the words of the priest, whereby the 
penitent is absolved."- But, I answer, in a sacrament there must 
be not only an audible sign, but also a visible ; there must be also 
a certain element, and not a ceremony only, as in Baptism and the 
Supper of the Lord. Besides the ceremonies and rites, there are 
elements, water, bread, and wine. Concerning this error, this 
shall suffice. 

2. Error. Sccondly, they affirm "that the use of repentance is this, to abolish 

mortal sin after baptism, and to make him, Avho, of a friend, through 
sin, was become God's enemy, the friend of God again, that is, a 
just man."" To this I answer: To the restoring and repairing of 

^ Nunc ad veritateni coufirmandam aocedamus. Ac primo qnidem loco liabe- 
mus verba Domini, Joan. 20, — Quorum remiseritis ptccata, remittuntnr eis, et 
quorum retmueritis, retenta sunt. Ex quibns vei'bis duocolliguntur, quii" ad omne 
Sacramentum proprie dictum constituenduni, et rcquiruntur, et sufficiunt ; ritus 
externus sive synibolum divinitus institutuni, et promissio gratia? justilicantis, iUi 
ritui sive symbolo annexa. — Bcllarmin, ihid. vol. iiil p. 914. 

^ Hie igitur status controversial est. An poenitentia signis externis manifestata, 
accedente ad earn verbo Absolutionis, sit Sacramenti'ui nova? legis proprie dictum. 

god's effectual calling. 249 

man, who hath sinned after baptisnij we have no need of any other 
sacrament than baptism, the force and vh^tue whereof is perpetual 
and eflPectual throughout the whole life of man, for the washing 
away of sin to regenerate men ; for it is false that in baptism these 
sins only are washed away which were committed before baptism, 
seeino; baptism reacheth to the whole life of man, and the remem- Baptism ef- 

, ... fectual to the 

brance thereof is eflPectual for the remission of sins, and our i?sf I'^nitc 

' all his lite. 

regeneration, even then, when a man gives up tlie ghost and de- 
parts this life. 

Thirdly, they say ." that the repentance Avhicli was in the Olds. Ereor, 
Testament, and before the resurrection of Christ, is nob the same 
which followed the resurrection of Christ ; for that was no sacra- 
ment, but this is." ^ I answer, that the doctrine of repentance, and 
of our conversion to God, is one and the self-same, which all the 
Prophets, John Baptist, Christ before and after his incarnation, 
and the holy Apostles, have preached. 

Fourthly, they say " that the principal efficient cause of repent- 4. Enor. 
ance is free-will, and the strength of nature, stirred up by a pre- 
venting grace, and that grace is but only our helper, working 
together with nature or free-will." ^ 

I ansAver, that it is clean contrary ; for the Spirit, or grace of 
God, is the principal efficient cause of repentance, but the instru- 
ments are the faculties and powers of the mind, not such as they 
are by nature, but as they are sanctified by the Spirit ; Avhich may 

Istum eniin ritum reconciliandi lapses post Baptismum, qui ex poenitentia signis 
extevnis prodita, et verbo Absolutlonis coustet, Catholici verum ac proprie dictum 
Sacramentum esse affirmant ; HaereticI negant. — Bellarmin, ibid. p. 910. 

^ Scribit quidem Concilmm Trident. Sess. 14, cap. 1. Sacramentum Pceni- 
tentiae institutum fuisse post Chrlsti resurrectioneni, et ea de causa Sacramenta- 
lem Poenitentiam non fuisse Catholici docent Pcenitentiam ilium quam Baptista 
et Cliristus praidicabaut. — Bellarmin, ibid, vol iii. p. 902. 

2 Quare cum et Deus conterat corda nostra, et nobis imperet ut ea scindamus, 
et conteramus ; cum det nobis cor novum, et velit, ut nos ipsi nobis faciamus cor 
novum ; cum projiciat peccata nostra, et nobis, ut eam projiciamus, mandet ; cum 
nos convertat, et PoBnitentiam nobis inspiret, et simul ut convertamur, et Poeni- 
tentiam agaraus, jubeat ; nulla remanet dubitatio, quin ad Contritionem nostram 
vere cooperemus, et sit contritio, non vere passio, sed etiam actio, eaque volun- 
tanda ct libera. — Bellarmin, ibid. p. 965. 



appear evoa by this testimony, Jer. xxxi. 18, Convert me, O Lordy 
and I skull be converted ; where the principal efficiency, and cause 
of the work, is given to the Lord himself, and to his grace. But 
of us it may well be said, that we become active in repentance, being 
acted and moved by the Holy Ghost. 

Fifthly, they divide 2:)enance essentially into the act of the peni- 
tent, as the matter ; and absolution of the priest, as the formal 
cause. ^ I answer, that there is no necessity why repentance should 
be so parted between the penitent, or confessing sinner, and the 
priest absolving. For the sinner, who doth repent him of his sin, 
may privately confess unto God, and of him also be absolved, 
Avithout any conceived or set form of absolution by the priest. We 
repent daily, and yet there is no need that the matter should be 
daily so performed by the sinner repenting, and the priest or min- 
ister absolving. Wherefore, repentance is not to be restrained to 
this form and dialogue or communication, which must pass, as they 
say, between the sinner repenting and the priest absolving. 

Sixthly, they divide penance materially into contrition, confes- 
sion, and satisfaction, for these three parts do, as it were, appertain 
to the acts of their penitents, which be the matter of their sacra- 
ment of penance.^ I answer, concerning contrition, which is 
nothing else but a sorrow of heart, we verily admit of it, but 
without any opinion of merit which they attribute thereunto. 

And as touching confession, first, we say, that it is not properly 
any part of repentance, but an outward sign of repentance, which 
is wrought inwardly in the mind ; for amongst the signs these are 
numbered — confession of the mouth, tears, humbling of the body, 
and other actions of like kind. Again, we say that their auricular 
confession, wherein all, even the private sins of a man, must be 
numbered, as near as they can remember, and whispered into the 

' Tribus purtitionlbus dividi solet poenitentiic Sacramentum. Prima suiaitur ab 
essentia, quaj diuibus partibus constat, materia, et forma, id est actibus ijcenitentis, 
et solutioiie sacerdotis, secunda a materia, qua} tres partis compi-eliendit, Coutri- 
tionem, Confessionem, et Satisfactionem. — Bellarmin, ibid. p. 9;36. 

2 Sec previous note. 


ear of the priest ;' we affirm, I say, that such a confession is the 
invention of man's brain, whereof there is no commandment or ex- 
ample extant in the whole Scripture ; yea, verily, the will of God 
is, that many private sins, unto which we alone are privy, should 
be concealed, and not uttered, even as God doth cover the multi- 
tude of our private sins of his free-will and mercy, wherewith he 
embraces us in Christ Jesus. Notwithstanding this, he requireth 
of us that we privately repent of them, so oft as we shall remember 

To conclude, concerning satisfaction, we utterly condemn and 
renounce it; for by it, as they teach, "we satisfy, of ourselves, the 
wrath and justice of God, and that by temporal punishments, which 
we willingly suffer for our sins."" This we do utterly condemn, as 
an opinion which doth derogate from the merit and satisfaction of 
Christ, whereby alone the wrath and justice of God Is satisfied for 
sinners. And as for these temporal afflictions of the godly, they 
are not truly satisfactions for their sins, but by them God doth 
mortify the remnants of sins, and by that means provoke us to 
earnest repentance ; hereby curbing and keeping us from falling 
into sin again. Finally, as all things work for the best to them 
that love God, so these things, which are not so much punishments 
as crosses, do work together for the best for the godly. Neither is 
that distinction of temporal and eternal punishments to be allowed ; 
for it Is certain that whosoever are punished temporally for their 
sins, and in that respect, and for that cause, such also, without 
repentance, shall be punished for their sins eternally ; for temporal 
punishments of the ungodly, in this life, are the very beginnings 
of eternal punishments to be suffered in another life. And thus 
far of repentance. 

^ Qui mortali peccato se obstrinxerunt, tenentur jure divino Poeniteutiain 
agere et reconciliationem cum Deo quserere. Sed medium necessarium ad recon- 
ciliationem postBaptismum est confessio omnium peccatorum sacerdoti facta. Erjjo 
tenentur jure divino, qui post Baptismum mortali peccato se obstrinxerunt, sacer- 
doti peccata omnia contiteri, &c. — Bellarmin, ibid. p. 1028. 

^ Concilium Tridentinum, sess. 14, cap. 9, docet, tribus modis Domino satis- 
fieri : ptvnas et flagella a Deo inuiiissa patienter ferendo. opera laboi'iosa sponte 




OF man's free-will.^ 

After the doctrine of Faith, Hope, and Repentance, the doc- 
trine of Free-will is to follow, because the adversaries do attribute 
faith, hope, repentance, or, as they call it, penance, to the liberty 
of our will, as to the principal agent or cause ; but they assign to 
grace the second place in the work of faith, hope, and repentance ; 
for they say, " after that free-will is stirred up by a preventing grace, 
man, by the benefit of his free-will, doth, of his owm strength, be- 
lieve, hope, and repent him of his sins. And as for grace, that is 
only a fellow-worker," say they, "and a helper of man's free-will, 
which })rincipally worketh in faith, hope, and repentance." ^ But to 
fhis we have answered before in the doctrine of repentance, and we 
shall hereafter answer it a little more plainly. Now, having thus 
far showed the occasion, why, after the doctrine of faith, hope, and 
repentance, we speak of free-will, let us come to the point itself, 
scribed! ^^' ^^^d discoursc of it. The will of man is a faculty of the reasonable 
soul, following next after the faculty of reason ; for the mind first 
understandeth, and then judgeth. The function thereof is in willing, 
in nilling, in choosing, in refusing, and in doubting of those things 
which were before concealed^ and considered of in the understandingf. 

assumendo, ct miilctain sacerdotiim arbiti-io iiijunctam subeundo. — Bcllarmin, 
ibid. p. 1095. 

' The title in the original is, De Libera Arhitrio Ilumano. But it is proper to 
notice, that though the Translator throughout uses the term Free- Will as the sub- 
ject of the chapter, the Author treats of two subjects, between which he makes a 
distinction. The first is, Lihertas Voluntatis^ and the second, Liberum Arhitrium. 
— See p. 263, note 1. 

^ See Bcllarmin, De Gratia et Libera Arhitrio : especially the last chapter, 
entitled, Compendium dispittationis de cooperatione gratice et liberi arbitrii, aliquot 
scnteniiis ronipreJiensum. 

^ A misprint, I presume, for conceived. Original : intellecia. 

god's effectual calling. 253 

The objects thereof are things simply gootl, and evil, and things in- Tiiinps sim- 

, . . . ply good. 

dmerent. I call those things simply good, which are commanded 
by some express law of God. I call those things simply evil, which 
are forbidden by the same express law of God. And those things 
I count indifferent, which are neither expressly commanded nor 
expressly forbidden in the law of God ; and if they be commanded 
or forbidden by any law of God, that is by accident, to wit, so far 
forth as they further or hinder the edification of our neighbour. 
These objects of the will I subdivide into their final causes or ends, 
and into those means which tend and lead us to the ends. And 
thus I apply tlie functions of the will to the ends, and to the 
means. We be said as well to Avill and nill the means as the 
ends unto which they serve ; for to will and nill are things general ; 
but we are said only to accept, and to reject, and to doubt of the 
means ; for these things are special. And thus far of the will, 
according to our present purpose. 

There is ascribed unto the will a certain property, which the ^i^'^'"'''^' 
Latins caW Liberty ; the Greeks Si Poicer ; as Rom. ix. 20, where 
the Apostle speaks of the power the potter hath over the clay. 
And 1 Cor. vii. 37, He that hath poicer over his own will ; as if he 
should have said, he that hath liberty or power of his will ; in our 
vulgar tongues it is called sovereignty} This liberty of the will is, 
as it were, a royal power, and the Greek word is used to set forth 
the power of a king or some supreme magistrate. Rom. xiii. 1, 
Let every soul ho subject to the higher poicer. For this cause the will, 
in the soul of man, is received as a queen, and, in that respect, is 
said to have, as it were, the jurisdiction in her own hand. 

But to come to some description of free-will. This freedom of ^ description 

^ of free-will. 

will is a liberty when as a thing being offered to the will, as to a 
certain queen, whether it be good, or evil, or indifferent, the will 
even then can, by its own proper right or power, either will it or 
nill it, reject or receive it, or hold a man in suspense. For which 
cause commonly in schools it is defined to be a power or faculty, 
to like or dislike things that are directly opposite, that is, to incline 
' Original : Soveranitie. Holland : Soueraingtic. 


to either part of the contradiction, to receive or reject the one or 
the other, and thus commonly they describe it. Yet I like best 
this descript'on — to wit, that liberty of will should be,^ in respect 
of good and evil things, for concerning them the controversy is, it is, 
I say, a power of the will, or a certain right it" hath, whereby of 
itself, and of its own inward and natural motion, Avithout constraint, 
it wills only that is good — it chooseth the good — it wills not that 
is evil — it rejecteth that is evil ; — in one word, liberty of will is a 
power unto good, not to evil. 

I am induced to like best this definition of liberty by the example 
of the liberty of God himself, who, by the confession and grant of 

^m^ ^^^ ^^^ men, most freely wills and doth all things, notwithstanding the 
liberty of God is not so defined, that it should be a certain power, 
whereby he doth so Avill good as though he might nill it, or doth 
not so nill evil, as though he might will it ; but the liberty of God 
is this, of his own right, and without constraint, only to will that 
which is good, and nill that is evil. Again, the same is plain by 
the example of the blessed angels, who have liberty to that is good 

Freedom of Only, and not unto good and evil ; that is, they do not so will good, 
as if they might nill it ; for they are so governed and strengthened 
of God, that their will only is inclined to good, and doth abhor 
from evil. To conclude, the same is showed in the example of 

Adam-s free- Adam, and of his state before his fall; for then truly the liberty 

dom in his ' j j 

innocence. Qf jjjg y^r[\\ -^^^g ^q y^[\i g^Q J only, and not both good and evil ; that 
is, he did not so will good as if he might nill it, except you under- 
stand a remote power; whereas we, by this word liberty, to speak 
properly, do understand a more near faculty of the soul. 

toiTia!^^° I call that a remote faculty which is incident to the matter, as 
is the power or property of laughter in the body of a man, before 
it hath either form or life. I call that a near fliculty which is inci- 

Propinqua clcut to the fomi, as laughter in a man that hath life. So in the 

potentia. ' ° 

Avill of man there is a remote power, as appertaining to the matter, 
and there is a near power, as pertaining or consequent to the form ; 

' Rather, is. 2 That is, the will 

god's effectual calling. 255 

but we, as a little before we spake, by liberty understand not that 
remote power, which is incident to the matter, but that near power 
which is consequent to the form ; and by the form we understand 
that sanctity which is accordino- to the image of God, which is the The image of 
soul, as it were, of our soul, and without which our soul is, as it 
were, dead. For which cause, the Apostle saith, Ephes. ii. i, that 
without this holiness we are truly said to be dead in sins and tres- 
passes. Whence I conclude, that the liberty of will is properly a 
power or faculty, which is a consequent of sanctity, as of the formal 
cause, and, as it were, the very soul of the will. Whereby it cora- 
eth to pass, that the will in this state, without constraint, doth in- 
cline only to good, and doth decline from evil ; for this liberty of 
a man's will is according to the similitude and image of the liberty 
of God himself. Unto this liberty, constraint ^ is opposite, proceed- 
ing from some outward agent, and is contrary to the nature of the 
Avill ; for it is not a will if it be constrained, neither is it said that 
the will is constrained, albeit man himself, in whom the will is, 
may be said to be constrained. I say that constraint is opposite 
to liberty and not necessity ; for those things which we will or nill 
freely, we will or nill those things of necessity ; first, because of 
the necessity of God's decree ; secondly, because of the incident 
form of the will itself, as of holiness, of corruption, of both. As 
when man was holy in his creation, so long as that holiness con- 
tinued, of necessity he did will that which was good, and nill the 
evil. So the blessed angels of a certain necessity will that is good, 
and nill the evil, and at length, when man is glorified, he shall in- 
cline to good and decline from evil ; so man being wholly corrupt 
before his reo-eneration, of a certain necessity, he wills the evil, and?^'^^ ^'" "^ 
nills that is good, and notwithstanding after his manner he doth "''^**'' 
will freely, albeit this be not a true liberty, as we shall hereafter 
see. To conclude, a man regenerate partly of necessity doth will 
good, in respect of his new birth ; partly of necessity he doth will 
evil ; for that he is as yet partly corrupt, yet in both respects he 
willeth freely ; for we must distinguish betwixt necessity and con- 
' Original : Coactio, which Holland renders throughout by " constraint." 


straint, for necessity is more general and large than constraint is, 
for that which is constrained is necessary, but, on the contrary, 
that Avhich is necessary is not consti'ained. And thus much con- 
cerning the liberty of the will in general. 

1. state. There is, then, a fourfold hate of man to divers conditions or 

states of man to be considered/ The first state, of his innocency 
before his fall ; secondly, the state of his corruption after his fall ; 
thirdly, the state of regeneration ; fourthly, the state of glorification. 
First, then, concerning the first state, it is a question, whether man 
in his innocency had liberty of will ? I answer, if you follow the 
former definition of liberty, which is a faculty or power respecting 
inclining to either side, I grant that in things indifferent it had a 
liberty ; but in things simply good and evil, man had not in that 
state of innocency that liberty of will, whereby, when he did will 
good, he might nill it, and when he did nill evil, he might Avill it, 
except you understand a remote power ; for in respect of his near 
power he was inclined to good only, because of the form of sanctity 

Piopinqna ^^^^(j croodness in the will Avhich Avas in him, accordino; to the imafje 

poteiitia, o ^ D o 

of God ; but if you follow the latter definition of liberty, Avhich is, 
when the will of itself, of an inward motion, without coaction or 
constraint of any external agent, is carried to that which is good 
only ; if, I say, you follow this definition, I answer, that man in the 
state of innocency had a liberty of will. 
2. state. Concerning the second state of man, the question is, whether 

man in the state of corruption now hath liberty of will ? I answer, 
if you follow the former definition of liberty, I do not deny that in 
things indifferent he hath his liberty, but in things simply good and 
evil he hath not liberty. For man, Avhich is wholly corrupt, doth 
not so will evil as that he may or can nill it ; neither doth he so 
reject that is good as that he may or can will it, except ye under- 
stand a power remote ; for in man unregenerate that near power 

' This Is unintelligible, and should be : "We must now apply this to the various 
conditions of man. In all, four states of man fall to be considered. Original : 
Nujic apjiUcanda est en ad varias hominis conditiones. Quadruples omnino status 
liominis venit considerandus. 

god's effectual calling. 257 

of the will is only inclined to evil, because of the form of corruption 
and of impurity which doth wholly possess his will. But if you 
follow the latter definition of liberty, then verily we cannot ascribe 
that liberty of the will which is according to the image of the 
liberty of God himself, and is a near power or faculty, and whereby 
without constraint he is carried to that only which is good — we can- 
not, I say, truly attribute this to the unregenerate and his will. 
For a faculty to evil cannot truly be said a liberty, but rather a 
certain servitude. And in verity the unregenerate man's will is 
not free but bound ; yet, because the unregenerate doth not will 
evil by constraint, but of his own accord and mere motion, in some 
sort it may be said that his will is free. 

Here our adversaries dissent from us, ascribing liberty of will 
to the man unregenerate, whereby also of his own mere power he Papists ot 

^ ^ ■*■ fvee-will 

may will good ; ^ "whereas this liberty or self-power, before prevent- 
ing grace, lieth indeed asleep, yet, notwithstanding," say they, " it 
is in him like as a man though he be asleep, yet he is both a man 
and living." ^ From whence it followeth necessarily, as they would 

1 See Bellarmin, De Gratia et Libera Arbitrio, especially lib. iv. c. 9, (Posse 
hominem sine fide, cum auxilio speciali, ct etiam sine illo, bonum aliquod morale 
perficere, si ntdla tentatio tirgeat,} and the twenty-one chapters that follow. 

2 Bellarmin (ibid p. 708) repudiates this illustration as deceptio velfraus kem- 
nitii. His own opinion is contained in the following extract, which, though lono-, 
is interesting and instructive. It must be premised, that Bellarmin identifies 
gratia operans with gratia praveniens. Hsec est igitur gratia operaus, quje 
praevenit conatum et iiidustriam nostram, et operatur ut velimus, quod antea no- 
lebamus, sine nobis operantibus ut velimus, non tamen sine nobis libere consen- 
tientibus dum volumus. 

Atque hinc intelligemus, cur ad primum actum voluntatis tantum, requiratur 
gratia operans, ad reliquos auteni non sit necessaria operans, sed cooperans : nam 
posteaquam coepimus velle converti ad Deum, jam nos ipsi non tantum per 
liberum arbitrium producimus Deo juvante reliquos actus, sed etiam nosincitamus 
et impellimus, Deo cooperante, ad eos. 

Ac ut corporali similitudine rem illustremus, sit aliquis cui expediat navigare 
in orientem, et tamen nolit id facere ; si quis ad eum accedat, eique multis allatis 
rationibus tandem persuadeat, et de nolente volentem faciat ; deinde ubi eum 
velle navigare cognoverit, procuret illi navem, pecunias et ca?tera, quae naviganti- 
bus sunt necessaria ; is profecto vere dicere poterit, ego solus feci, ut juste navi- 
gationem suscipere vellet ; nam etiamsi alter rationes allatas audierit, atque apud 
VOL. 1. R 


have it,i that tliere is some holiness and integrity in the will of a 
man unregenerate. For there is no self-power of the will to good 
unless there be in it the form of sanctity and integrity, which is as 
it were the life of the Avill, and quickness of this self-povver in the 
will unto good. 

The Papists, therefore, err here two manner of ways ; first, be- 
cause they will have some sanctity and integrity to remain in the 
will of man unregenerate now after the fall ; and, secondly, because 
they will have this self-power of the will, which necessarily is a 
consequent of the formal cause thereof, which is holiness, as is 
aforesaid — they will have this self-power, I say, unto good to be in 
the will. For as touching holiness and righteousness, it is certain 
that all the image of God was lost in the fall of man, and what 
portion soever hereof we shall have in this life, it is repaired, and, 
as it were, created anew by Jesus Christ ; for which cause it is 
called a new creature. And if this in any respect be old, where- 
fore is it called new ? and if any sanctity, which is the soul of our 
soul, remain in man after the fall, why is man said after the ffdl, 
before regeneration, to be dead and not half-dead ? We forbear to 
use testimonies of Scripture in this matter, which are infinite. And 
as concerning the liberty or self-poAver which they ascribe to the 
will of man, how many evidences of Scripture might be produced 
to repel the same ! John vi. 44, No man can come to me, except the 
Father ichich sent me draic him. Eom. viii. 7, The loisdom of the 
Jiesh, it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can he. 1 Cor. 
ii. 14, The natural man perceiveth not the things that are of God; for 
they are foolishness to him, neither can he discern them. These places 

SG expenderit, et tamlem assensiim pr«buerit : non tamen ipse sibi persuasit, 
neque se ipse movit, sed amicus eius ilium movit eique persuasit. 

CfBterum quod attinet ad exequutionem voluntatis, non potestamicus ille dicere, 
Eo-o solus detuli istura in orientem sed solum, Ego ilium adjuvi et cooperatus sum 
ut commode navigaret. Siquidem ille qui ab amico persuasus navigare decrevit, 
sine dubio non sibi ipse dofuit, sed cogitarc coepit, quid facto opus esset, et cona- 
tnni atf|ueindustriam adliibere ad futuram navigationem. — Ibid. p. 448. 

^ This clause is not in the original. 

'-' It docs not appear what the Translator wished to indicate by this marginal 

god's effectual calling. 259 

of Scripture, and other such like, are to be understood of that near 
power of the will unto good, which, therefore, the Scripture denieth 
in his corruption, because there is in him no holiness left since the 
fall of Adam. For as touching the remote power of the will unto 
good, which is a consequent of the matter, not of the form, we do 
not deny that It Is In the avIII of a man unregenerate, and that it 
also becomes of a remote power a near power, so soon as any holi- 
ness is wrought in the will of man by the Spirit of Jesus Christ. 
Seeing, then, we leave this remote power to the will of the unre- 
generate man, that Is, a certain power of the cause material, there 
is no cause why our adversaries should say that we make men very 
stocks and blocks,^ because we deny free-will unto them.^ For this 
power of the material cause unto good, which we ascribe unto the 
will of man unregenerate, may not truly be ascribed to any dead 
stock or trunk. 

We must understand in this place, that whereas we deny this 
near power to the unregenerate, that is, a liberty to good ; we mean 
hereby that which is good, as It Is truly good. For even the un- 
regenerate person may will that which Is good in itself, as the 
conservation of his country, justice, equity, &c. But that which 
in itself Is good, becomes evil In some sort. In regard of the man 
unregenerate, who doth not will well that which is good In Itself, 
that Is to say, neither in that manner, nor to that end, doth he will 
it as he ought to will It, because himself is not good and clean ; and 
to the unclean all things are unclean, as to the clean all tilings are 
clean, Tit. I. 15. 

Again, be advertised, that, in this matter of free-will, I hold that 
there is one and the same reason of good things of what kind soever 

' Can our AutLor have bad in view the following passage fi-om Bellarmin ? 
(ibid. p. 700.) Respondet Calvinus, lib. 2, Instit. cap. 5. § 14. Ista omnia loca 
nihil aliud sibi velle, nisi nou moveri nos a Deo, tamquam stipites et truncos, sed 
tamquam homines mente et ratione pra^ditos, quamvis necessario moveamur, nee 
possimus aliud agere, quam id, quod Deo movente agimus. Stipites et truncos 
are the words used by our Author in this passage. Bellarmin, so far as I can 
find, never uses this objection. But that it had been made, appears from the 
words of Calvin, (/. c.) Extranea est ilia similitudo qua nos invidiose gravant ; 
quis enim ita desipit ut hominis motioncm ujactu lapidis nilnl diferre autumet? 

^ Tliis should be : what they call freedom of will. Original : libertatem, qucnn 
vacant, arbilrii. 


tliey be, natural or civil, and human or spiritual ; ^ for the unregener- 
ate man hath not this liberty or near power to any good thing, as 
it is good or accej^table to God, and agreeable to his law ; albeit 
by nature his will is most far estranged from spiritual things, which 
the natural man perceiveth not, and which, as the Apostle saith, 
Hq cannot kno^c, yea, they are foolishness unto him. By spiritual 
good things I mean faith, hope, repentance, justification, eternal 
life itself. There is no cause, therefore, why our adversaries should 
ascribe faith, hope, repentance, to the liberty of our will, that is to 
say, to the strength of nature, as to the j)rincipal efficient cause of 
the same ; as if we, by nature, and the strength thereof, could be- 
lieve, could hope, and truly convert ourselve* unto God. 
twng^s?'^^°°'^ But to the intent this thing may yet be more manifest, we must 
understand that there be two kinds of good things ; the one is of 
human good things, the other is of divine and spiritual good things. 
Human good things are either moral, and pertain to every private 
man ; or economical, and pertain to a man's family ; or they are 
political, and pertain to the whole commonwealth, or to the whole 
city. Spiritual good things are faith, hope, repentance, justification, 
sanctification, life eternal. To both these kinds of good things 
man's will is not like affected, for unto human things, or unto 
human good things, it is somewhat more inclined ; as, for example, 
nature doth incline unto temperancy, fortitude, liberality, justice, 
albeit it doth neither will nor choose these things, which, in them- 
selves, are good, in that manner, or to that end, it ought. Where- 
by it cometli to pass, that those things that in themselves are good, 
yet, in respect of him who is unregenerate, become evil and very 
sins before God. And concerning things spiritual, the nature of 
man is more estranged from them ; and when they offer themselves 
to the will, nature itself doth wholly abhor from them. 

The thing may be yet more plain by example and experience. 
There are two certain- good things, to wit, justice by works, and 

' There is here a reference to Bellarmin's answer in the affirmative to the ques- 
tion : An homo liberum arbitrium haheat in operihus naturalibus et civilibits? 
discussed, ibid. lib. iv. cc. 6-16. 

2 It wouUl be better to omit the word, certain, throughout this pnssage. It 
is the transhition of the original, rpiaikv)!^ in various forms. 

god's effectual calling. 261 

justice by faith, which is called the justice or rio;hteousness of God ; Ris'iteous- 

'' <^ ' ness by works 

we all have experience that our will naturally is inclined to that °^''"''^' 
righteousness which is by works, and which is a certain human 
good thing. Hence it comes that even to this day all the world, 
following nature, seeks to be justified by good works. But the 
same will doth wholly abhor, and utterly dislike, that righteousness 
which is by faith ; the reason is, because it is a certain spiritual 
and unknown good thing. Hence it comes to pass, that so few 
seek to be justified by faith, and by the alone mercy of God in 
Jesus Christ. 

By this and other such like examples it appears, that man's will 
is more inclined by nature to human good things, and wholly to 
abhor spiritual good things. Albeit in truth, to speak exactly, It 
is Inclined to no good at all, as it is truly good. It is not inclined 
at all, no, not to those human things, as they be truly good and 
acceptable unto God ; for It wills them neither In that manner, 
neither to that end, it ought. So far forth, then, as it wllleth them, 
even those things that are good in themselves are sins, and unpleas- 
Ing to God. Notwithstanding they differ from those evils and sins 
which, even in themselves, and in their own nature, are sins, as 
manslaughter, adultery, theft, and in which I grant there be more 
degrees of sin ; for in these things men sin both in the substance of 
the things themselves, and in the manner of doing, and in the end. 
And the will of man unregenerate is more inclinable unto these 
things by Its own nature, than unto those things which are good 
In themselves. For, first. It is carried, of Its own accord, to those 
which are evil in themselves. Secondly, It hath but some inclina- 
tion to things human, which, in their own kind, are good. Lastly, 
It doth wholly abhor spiritual good things before regeneration. 
Again, I conclude, that human good things, so far forth as man 
unregenerate doth will them, become In some sort evil ; and the 
man unregenerate doth sin In the very desire of them, which thing 
also is true In things indifferent, which are neither good nor evil in 
themselves. For so far forth as man unregenerate doth will them, 
^ And unknoun, is tlic Translator's own. 


SO far forth they become evil ; and the unregenerate man doth sin, 
when he doth will and desire even that which, of its own nature, is 
indifferent, because he doth will it neither in that manner, nor to 
that end, he ought. 

Now, concerning the estate of regeneration, the question is, 
whether the regenerate man hath his free-will ? I answer, if you 
define free-will to be a liberty or power to choose, or Avill, they say,^ 
any of both sides : First, in things indifferent, Ave say that he hath 
this liberty. Secondly, we do not deny unto him this liberty also 
in good things and evil : for seeing that there is a double act and 
a double form in the will of the regenerate man, to wit, the form of 
holiness, and the form of corruption ; and because he hath the first- 
fruits of the new man, and the remnant of the old, it cannot be but 
that the near power of his will be double also, one inclining unto 
good, the other declining unto evil : so that this received definition 
of free-will seems unto me to agree best with the w^ill of the regen- 
erate person. But if you define liberty to consist of a power not 
constrained, tending to good only, and not to evil, then, verily, the 
man regenerate is not so free, but proceeds " only to this liberty, 
which shall at length be perfected in another life. 

Finally, concerning the estate of glorification, the question is, 
whether man, when he shall be glorified, shall have this liberty of 
will ? I ansAver, if you define free-Avill a poAver to make choice of 
either part, even in good things and in evil, then, I say, man, in 
this state of glorification, shall not have it. For he shall have that 
near poAver to good only, because of that form of holiness, or glory 
rather, Avherewith, then, his will shall be endued withal. I deny 
not that there shall be in him also a remote poAver to evil, in re- 
spect of the necessary mutability of the creature, but this remote 
power shall never be a near poAA-er, because God shall for ever 
strengthen him and sustain him in that state of glory. But if you 
follow that latter definition of free-Avill, the glorified person shall 
at length be set free ; for he shall will that onlv Avhich is ffood and 

' They say, — an addition of the Translator. 

- That is : make? progress. Original : ;??w/?-C5SM;n/rtn/. 

god's effectual calling. 263 

acceptable to God, and that without constraint and for ever. Man 
had free-will in the state of innocencj, according to the image of 
that divine liberty, but in the state of glorification, wherein he shall 
come more near to the image of his God, and shall bear the image 
of that heavenly man Jesus Christ, his will shall be much more free, 
and far more ready, to that which is good only. And thus have 
we spoken hitherto of the liberty of will, that is, of that propriety 
or natural quality of the will. 

Now we be to speak of free-will.^ But there be which refer the 
y^ovdi Arbitrium to the mind ;^ for that they deem it is nothing else 
but the judgment of the mind, which goeth before the free action 
of the will, but the word free, they say, doth pertain to the Avill. 
Notwithstanding I think the word Arhitrium doth signify the decree 
of the will itself, that is, that, by this word, we understand the 
function of the will, whatsoever it be, whether it will or nill, 
whether it choose or reject. We ascribe liberty to this purpose or 
endeavour^ of the will, and it is said to be free, even as the will 
itself is called Free-will, for that ever the propriety of the cause 
doth predicate, as the Logicians speak,* both of the effect and of 
the action of the same cause. Free-will, then, is nothing else, in 
my judgment, but the decree or endeavour^ of the will, which is 
without constraint, and which proceedeth from some inward motion 
of the will, and not from any constraining external power. 

A question may be demanded, whether the will, when it doth 
freely execute his function and office in willing freely, or willino- any 
thing, whether, I say, the mind and understanding have not some 
working herein ? I answer, that object, whatsoever it be, which 
the will and the free function thereof doth respect, is first discerned 
by the mind. The judgment also of the mind is twofold : first, Judgment of 

^ flip Tiii?iii 

tlie mind 

1 He has hitherto spoken de libertate voluntatis. He distinguishes man's voluntas, 
the power whose promise it is to choose or reject, from arbitn'um, the act of the 
voluntas in actually choosinj^ or rejecting. See p. 252, note 1. 

2 Mentem in the sense of the intellect or understanding, 
^ Determination. Original : placito. 

^ This clause is not in the original. 


simple and intelligible ; ^ as when, without any discourse or rea- 
soning, it judgeth that this is good, and that is evil; this is to be 
followed, and that is to be avoided. This judgment of the mind is 
of the end, or of some means serving to the end, which is but only 
one. Next, the judgment of the mind is, [the result of reflection,^] 
when as by discourse, or arguing, it judgeth anything to be good 
or evil ; to be avoided or to be followed. This judgment is where 
divers means fall out, of which, after discourse had in the mind, 
one is chosen and the other is rejected. Now the object which by 
the mind and understanding is in some sort showed and discerned, 
the will doth freely will or nill, choose or refuse ; howbeit, since the 
The disorder fall of man such is the confusion of these faculties, or powers of 

and confu- , 

sion which is the mind of man, that what the understanding; iudoeth to be evil 

by nature in o J o 

mM.°"^ °^ ^^^ disalloweth, the very same doth the will choose and prosecute ; 
and, on the contrary, that which the mind approveth for good and 
alloweth, that very same the will rejecteth. 

Of the mind it may be demanded, whether it can discern be- 
tween good and evil — approve the one, improve^ the other? 
This question must be answered by the consideration of that 
fourfold state of man. But because the question chiefly is of 
the understanding of man in the state of corruption, whether 
that can accept or approve the good and reject the evil, our 
answer shall be accordingly. We say, therefore, that if you un- 
derstand that near power, which is a consequent of that corrupt 
essential form, the mind of man in this state can but only allow 
that which is evil ; it may also allow that which is good in itself, 
but not as it is truly good, because it cannot allow it neither in 
the manner, nor to the end it ought, as is aforesaid of will. But to 
approve that good which we call human good, the mmd of man in 
the state of corruption is more inclinable, but far is it from enter- 

' Conceived by the understanding. Original : voyirix.6v. 

2 Not in the translation. Original : Iixvoyitikosi. 

3 That is, reject. Original : improbare. This use of improve is not un- 
known in early English. — See Johnson's Dictionary, s. v. It is ^ill found in the 
peculiar phraseology of Scottish Law. 

god's effectual calling. 265 

talning any spiritual good at all ; for, as the Apostle St Paul salth, 
1 Cor. i. 14, it judgeth every spiritual grace to be folly, for the 
things which are of the Spirit of God are foolishness unto him. And 
thus far have we spoken concerning the freedom of man's will, or 
of free-will. 

It foUoweth now that we speak next of the grace of God, 
which is contrary to free-will or to nature, and which is not only 
the principal efficient cause of faith, hope, and repentance, but 
also the sole efficient cause of them. It foUoweth, then, that we 
treat next of the free grace of God. 



The grace of God is the undeserved favour of God, or it is that Grace de- 
whereby God favoureth his creature without any desert of his. 
The Apostle doth intimate this much, Ephes. i. 9, in that he putteth 
no difference between these words, ^^race i^nd a good pleasure ; for|t,3ox;V 
whereas he saith in that verse, that God hath elected us according to 
his free grace^ it seems to be spoken in the same sense and meaning 
with that with which he said before in that same chapter, ver. 7, In 
him we have redemption according to the riches of his grace. For the 
grace and love of God are taken indifferently one for another f 
Rom. ix. 13, / have loved Jacob. This is that love, or that free 
grace, wherewith from all eternity he loved Jacob. Eph. iii. 17, 
That, saith he, you being rooted and grounded in love, &c. And this 
is that grace whereby he loved us from all eternity. Tit. iii. ver. 4, 

^ Unmerited good pleasure. Gratuita benevolentia is Rollock's translation of 
ivloKioc. And his argument is, that, as in the one passage the Apostle uses the 
term, grace, (xo^Q^rog,) and in the other, good pleasure, {ivIoki'xv,) grace and 
good pleasure are synonymous. 

^ The Grace and the Love of God seem also to be used indifferently. Original : 
Yidentur etiam gi'atia Dei., et Charitas sive dilectio, indifferenter accipi. 


the grace of God, as it respected mankind, is called tpOMvdPu-rta, or 
love towards man. 

Again, this word grace is taken more generally than this word 
mercy, for whereas mercy doth more properly respect such as are 
in misery and sinners ; grace reacheth unto all creatures of what 
kind or condition soever they be, as well to the blessed angels as 
to sinful men, as may appear by the salutation which Paul useth to 
Timothy in the First and Second Epistle, where he wisheth first 
Grace more gracc to Timothy, as being a more general thing; then, in the 

general than _ ... 

mercy. sccoud placc, mcrcy, as a more particular thing, restraining it to 
the person saluted. For although in those salutations, grace and 
mercy are taken metonymically for the blessings and benefits which 
are conferred, and conveyed to men of God's free grace and mercy, 
yet hereby may appear that the mercy of God, which is the cause 
and fountain of these benefits, hath not so general an acceptation 
as grace. For the meaning of the words is thus much, as if the 
Apostle had said, the benefits Avhich God doth give us are freely 
bestowed upon us, without any desert of ours, and not only without 
desert, but to us which deserve to be punished with all the miseries 
and calamities that can be. 

That it may farther appear that all the blessings and benefits of 
God are derived and conveyed unto us by means of his grace and 
same favour of God, we will search into and consider more deeply 
of the doctrine of grace. God, from and before all eternity, pur- 
posed to be glorified specially in his grace, Eom. xi. 32. God hath 
shut up all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all. In which 
place we may see the justice of God to attend on his mercy and 
grace. So, in like manner, all the other essential properties of God, 
as his power and wisdom, &c., all which he subordained to serve 
his grace and mercy. Hence it is, that, first of all, God had, before 
all eternity, past his decrees of grace to the praise and glory of his 
The first de- grace. Eph. i. 6, 12. The first decree of God's free grace was 
free'^grace'! ^ couccming tlic incamatiou of his Son, and the glorifying of him, 
at the appointed time, unto the praise of his grace. Concerning 
the decree of his Son Christ, read Acts ii. 23, and iv. 28 Concern- 

god's effectual calling. 267 

ing the love of the Father to Christj Col. i. 19, Because the Father 
was well pleased in Mm ;^ where you may see that the love of the 
Father is the cause why the fulness of the Deity doth dwell corpo- 
rally in Christ ; for it was of his admirable grace that God would 
have flesh, that is, so base and vile a creature, to be united unto 
God, the glorious and incomparable Creator. 

The second decree proceeding from grace, was concernins: the second ae- 

'- . . <^ree of God's 

fii'st creation of man after his own image; then after the fall, free grace, 
concerning his restoring by his Son Jesus, I trust,^ unto the image 
of his Son ; that is to say, by calling, justifying, and glorifying of 
man to the glory of Christ, and to the praise of his own grace in 
his appointed time. For the restoring and repairing of mankind 
after the fall is summarily set down in these three chief points ; 
read Eph. i. 4, 5 ; Eom. ix. 11 ; Rom. xi. 5, 6. 

Hence followeth the execution of these decrees by same srace Execution of 

God's free 

of God; and the first execution was of the decrees of God concern- erace. 
ing man, which by order of nature had the second place ; for that 
which was first in decree and ordination became the second in 
execution ; and, contrarily, that w^hich was the second in decree 
and ordination became the first in execution. Therefore the exe- 
cution of the decree of God concerning man hath the first place, 
and the same was of the free grace of God, unto the glory and 
praise of the same grace. Therefore the execution of the decree 
of God concerning man, to speak something thereof, was first the 
creation of man, of God's free grace, after the image of his Creator, 
and to the praise of the same grace. Then after the fall of man 
followed the restitution of man, of God's free grace, in and by his 
Son Christ, to the glory of Christ his Son, and to the praise of the 
grace of God the Father. This repairing, which is one of the parts 
of the execution of the decree of God concerning man, consisteth 
of many parts, all which proceed from the mere grace of God, and 
first tend to the glory of Christ the Head, and our Mediator between 

^ Because it pleased the Father that iu him, &c. Origiual : Quoniam in eo 
placuit Patri, ijc. 

- / trusty not in the original. 


God and man ; next, to the praise of the grace of God the Father. 
1 Cor. iii. 22, 23. All things are yours, and you are Christ's, and 
Christ is God's. And concerning this restoring of mankind, before 
we come to the parts thereof, ye must be advertised that, in time, 
it partly Avent before the execution of that decree concerning Christ 
the Son of God, and partly did follow after it. For before the 
fulness of time came, wherein Christ was manifested in the flesh, 
God began to restore mankind, even from the very fall of the first 
man: that is, men were called, justified, and gloi'ified ; and that 
partly by virtue of that decree concerning Christ, which Mas fi-om 
everlasting, and partly because of the manifestation of the same 
Christ, which was to come. But when that fulness of time came, 
and when Christ was now manifested in the flesh, had suffered and 
was glorified, this redemption of man was more fully and richly 
accomplished. For Christ, being now come, works our restitution 
more effectually by his Gospel ; I mean his power is more effectu- 
ally seen and known in our vocation, justification, and glorification, 
than it was before his incarnation. Therefore the execution of the 
decree concerning Christ the Son of God, which was first, falleth 
now as it were into the midst of the repairing of mankind, or of 
the execution of the decree concerning man's redemption. Where- 
fore we shall also speak thereof in the middle place, that so from it 
we may proceed to speak of the parts of the redemption of man- 
The execu- The exccution, then, of that decree touching the Son of God, 

tion of the . 

decree con- Jesus Christ, consistctli in his incarnation, passion, and glorifica- 

*^'^™'' tion, and that of the free grace of God, which respected partly 

the humanity of Christ, and partly respected us, who be repaired 

and redeemed by that same very flesh of Christ, hypostatically^ 

united unto the Son of God. Therefore, the execution of the 

The exccu- decrec concerning the Son of God, Jesus Christ, did proceed fi-om 

tion of the ° , 

decree con- ry Jouble ffracc, and was to the praise of that grace of God. 

ccrning O / J- <=> 

dlmpuon. Now I comc to spcak of the recovery or redemption of man- 

^ Original : inroorxTiy.o);. 

god's effectual calling. 269 

kind, or of the execution of the decree concerning the restitution 
of man ; the parts hereof briefly be these : vocation, justification, 
glorification. Our calling, to speak thereof in the first place, is 
by God's free grace, and that in a double respect. For, first in our 
effectual calling, the publishing of the covenant, and the preach- 
ing of the Gospel, is of the only free grace of God. Eph. i. 9, Hav- our calling la 
ing opened unto us, saith he, the mystery of his will, according to his 
good pleasure. Next, faith, whereby we receive the promise of the ^^it'^- 
covenant, which is offered unto us in Christ, is of the mere grace 
of God. Philip, i. 29, JFor unto you it is given for Christ, not only 
to believe, hut also to suffer for him. Hence it followeth that faith 
is the free gift of God. That former grace may be called the 
grace of our vocation ; this grace is common to all that are called, 
elect and reprobate. But the latter grace in our effectual calling 
may be called the grace of faith, appertaining only to the elect ; for 
it is given only to those that are predestinated to life everlasting 
to believe. Under the grace of faith I likewise comprehend the 
grace of hope and of repentance as being subaltern graces, and 
comprehended under this argument of our effectual calling.^ 

The grace of justification followeth this double grace in our 
effectual calling. For that very imputation which followeth faith, 
and that apprehension of faith in our eflTectual calling, proceed also 
of a certain new grace of God. For it cannot be but of grace 
that the justice and satisfaction of another should be imputed or 
accounted unto us as ours ; Rom. iii. 24, We are justified freely, 
that is, by grace, as elsewhere often. This grace the Apostle doth 
always oppose to works and to mei'its, making it the companion Merits, 
to faith in Christ ; for the free grace of God doth well agree, and 
stand with the merits of Christ apprehended by faith, not only 
because that merit is not ours but Christ's, that is, the merit of God 
himself, but much more rather, because the satisfaction and merit 
of Christ is of God's free grace and mere mercy ; For God spared 
not his Son, but gave him to die for us, Rom. viii. 32. Hence it is, 

^ Which are subaltern to the head that treats of cftectual calling. Original : 
tjiim loco de vocatione efficaci suhalterncB sunt. 



that the grace of God doth more appear in this satisfaction and 
merit of his, than If he had justified us without any merit at all, 
either of our own or of any other. 

Therefore, the free grace of God doth very well stand with that 
merit which God gave us of his own. And if that merit and price 
of our redemption had not been paid by God himself, then surely 
the grace of God had not so manifestly appeared In our redemp- 
tion. And as for man's merit, we say that the grace of God can- 
not in any Avays stand with It. 

The grace of glorification or regeneration followeth the graceof jus- 
tification ; for as [the] pronunciation and giving of sentence Is of grace, 
Eegenera- SO the exccutlon thereof Is likewise of grace, for reofeneration or glori- 

tion or glon- o ? o o 

fj°^*^°" '*,V''' ficatlon is a certain execution of the sentence of justification afore- 

thrsentence golng. Of this grace,see 1 Pet. i. 3; JFko of his great mercy hath 

tion.' begotten us [agaiii] unto a lively hope. Tit. HI. 5 ; According to his 

mercy he saved us, by the fountain of regeneration, and renewing of 

the Holy Ghost. Eph. ii. 5, 8 ; Ye are saved by grace. 

Here ye must observe, that in this work of the restitution of 
mankind, and that in all the parts thereof, there Is but one only 
grace of God, which is the beginning and first cause of all these 
proceedings ; but we, according to the variety of the eflfects thereof, 
do thus distinguish it, and consider of It diversely ; like as the 
Spirit of God, which is one, 1 Cor. xll. 4, In respect of the diver- 
sity of the gifts and effects thereof. Is after a sort distinguished, 
for that In some respect, but not in deed and verity, he seems not 
to be one and the same, as it were, Rom. viil. 15, For you have not 
received the spirit of bondage to fear any more, but you have received 
the Spirit of adoption. 

By this that hath been spoken, understand that there are, as it 
were, four graces of God In the restoring of mankind, and In the 
parts thereof. For whereas there Is a double mercy of God In our 
effectual vocation, to wit : First, an offering of Christ with all his 
benefits In the covenant of grace, or the Gospel ; secondly, faith to 
rifectuai'"'' I'ccelve Christ being oflfered, (under faith I comprehend hope and 
calling. repentance, which follow faith), therefore, In our effectual calling 

god's effectual calling. 271 

two graces must be understood ; the grace of our vocation, or of 
oiFering Christ unto us, and the grace of faith, or of receiving- 
Christ by us. In justification we have a third grace, which we 
may call the grace of justification. And in glorification there is a 
fourth grace, which we may not unfitly call the grace of glori- 

Hence we may see, that the first grace, which they call prevent- Preventing 
ing grace, is that grace whereby God first calleth us to himself by 
his Gospel; and the last grace, which is the complement^ of grace, 
to be that grace whereby God doth glorify us together with his 
Son in his kingdom ; for he beglnneth the last grace in this life by 
regeneration, but reserveth the full consummation thereof to an- 
other life by glorification. Thus much of the parts of the restitu- 
tion of mankind, all which proceed from the mere grace of God, 
and are directed unto the glory of his grace. 

We must observe this in general, that all the blessings of God, 
as well those that were from all eternity as those that are in time, 
be founded upon the only and mere grace of God. And that in re- 
spect of grace there is no difference between those benefits of God 
that were before all worlds, as his prescience and predestination, 
and these which are in time, as our vocation, justification, glorifi- 

This is the truth of God, and it will stand in despite of all the 
adversaries and enemies of the grace and cross of Christ, which, 
notwithstanding, hold I know not w^hat freedom of will, and that 
our meritorious works do concur in our vocation, justification, and 
glorification, with the grace of God.^ For as touching our calling, 

' Fulfilment. Original : Complementum. 

2 Sed et illud prteterca libenter agnoscimus de jnstificatione dici posse : Ipse 
fecit nos, et non ipsi nos. Deus enim est qui justiticat, ct qui regenerat in spem 
vivam, et nos ejus tactura sunuis crcati in Christo Jesu, in operibus bonis, id 
Scriptui-c'e loquuntur. Ca?terura, sicut respicicndo terminum justificationis, ut 
est, habitum cliaritatis infusum, ipse facit nos, et non ipsi nos, quoniam solus 
ipso habitum charitatis infundit, ita respiciendo dispositionem ad justificationem, 
ipsi nos, Deo adjuvante, facimus, quod expressit Ezechiel c. 18, cum ait : Ipse 
animam suani vivijicavit. — Bellarmin, ibid. p. 708. 



although they confess this to be true, that preventing grace, as they 
speak, doth so prevent or pre-occupy us, even then, when we think 
nothing of the grace of God, or of preparing ourselves to receive 
grace, but being, as it were, asleep in sin ; yet they do ascribe to 
free-will that affiance' which we give unto faith, whereby we assent 
unto preventing grace, and admit the same,^ as though we had any 
actual free-will or self-power,^ as they speak, to receive the grace of 
God. We do grant some power or freedom of will, whereby it in- 
clines after a sort unto that which is good — I understand a power 
of the matter*— but we do utterly deny that men by nature have any 
actual free-will,^ or that we have a self-power^ to do that which is 
good, as it is good. That self ^ or near power of will, or liberty of 
pinqiia. ^^-jj ^^ good, I define to be that liberty in the will which is by the 
essential form of holiness, or by the image of God which is im- 
printed in the will, as may appear in the chapter of Free-will before 
handled. Therefore we hold and teach, that in receiving the first 
grace, our will stands before God mere passively and not actively ; 
that is, when the free grace of God preventeth it, we say it hath a 
power unto good, but the same to be of the matter only, as schoolmen 
speak, and passive, which they call a remote power. Again, we 
avouch that the same power is made actual by means of divine 
grace preventing us ; that is, by the working of the Holy Spirit, 
who taketh possession, as it were, of us by the preaching of the 
Gospel, Avhereby the Holy Ghost doth renew our hearts, inspiring 
that life of God into us from which Ave were before altogether stran- 
gers, as it is written, Eph. iv. 18, creating in us again that 
image of God which was lost, that image, I say, of holiness and true 

^ Assent. Original : assensionem. 

2 Liberura enim arbitrium per gratiam pi-a}vcnicnteni excitatum et pra^para- 
tiim, potest per vires, quas a Deo recipit, coopei'arl ad suam ipsius conversionein. 
— Bellarmin, ibid. p. 707. 

2 Proximate power of tlie will. Original : potentia propinqua voluntatis. 

^ See chapter on Free Will., p. 254, where he calls this power, in the lan- 
guage of the schoolmen, remota potentia., and materice consequens. 

5 Original : qucB actu sit. 

^ Sec note 3 supra. 

god's effectual calling. 273 

As touchino; our iustification, where our adversaries do affirm thatropish jusu- 

° , , fication. 

it is twofold, terming the first habitual, and the second actual ;^ 
they say, that we are prepared by our free-will to the first justifi- 
cation as by a principal agent, and by the grace working together 
with the same.^ But as for the second justification, that they place 
in works proceeding from free-will and from our first justification, 
which they call infused grace. And here they ascribe life ever- 
lasting to the merit of this second justification,^ which doth consist 
in the works of our free-will, and of infused grace, as they call it. 

Hence we may see that they do not attribute to the only grace 
of God any of the former benefits, neither justification, nor voca- 
tion, nor glorification, nor any of those spiritual graces which God 
in time gives to his children. But they do part them between 
God's grace, free-will, and man's merit. Finally, if any comparison 
be made between God and us concerning the conferring of these ^o"'- 
benefits, we shall find them to ascribe more to us and our free-will, 
and our works, than to the grace of God. But we have Avritten 
somewhat of this before in the chapters of our Effectual Calling, 
of Repentance, and of Free-will. Therefore I refer the reader to 
these places, and here I end this matter. 

Thus fiir, then, have we spoken of this common-place of our 
effectual calling, which, because it comprehendeth under it many 
other points of divinity, it may be well reckoned amongst the most 
genei'al heads of theology. 

' Semper enim docuimus et docemus, justiiicari homines ex fide et dilectione 
ac operibus bonis ; ita ut ad praeparationera ac dispositionem ad justificatioiiem 
requivantur actus fidei, spei, et dilectionLs, qnos ipsos tamen nou liabemus, nisi 
Doi gratia nos praeveniente, excitante, et adjuvante : Ipsa vero formalis jiistifi- 
catio consistat iu remissione vera omnium peccatorum, et infusione habituura 
fidei, spei, et cliaritatis, quos propter Cliristi meritum, Deus in corda nostra 
gratis ditfundit. Denique actualis justitia sit legis diviuaj obedientia et obser- 
vatio, ad quam non ex nobis idonei sumus, sed ex spiritu gratia;, id est fidei, 
spei, et charitatis, nobis a Deo per Christum douato. — Bellarmin, ibid. p. 1202. 

2 Praeterea, potest homo nondura reconciliatus per opera poenitenticB impe- 
trare et mereri ex congruo gratiam justificationis. — Bellarmin, ibid. p. 1022. 

^ Catholici omnes agnoscunt opera bona jiistorum esse meritoria vilte 
ajterua?. — Bellarmin, ibid. p. 1009. 

VOL. I. 6 



Kinds or QUESTION. How many icays are there tcherehy God from the he- 

vciation. ginning hath revcalcd all his ivill, that is, the doctrine of both covenants, 
of works and grace, unto mankind? 
Ansaver. They are two. 
q. Which he they ? 

A. The first is a lively voice, the second is the Scriptiu'e. 
Q. What callest thou a lively voice ? 
AVhat is ■^' The first means of revelation, whereby God, partly by his 

ilvdy voice, own moiith, and partly by men, hath manifested the whole doctrine 
of both covenants to his Church from time to time. 

Q. What loere the instruments of that lively voice from the he- 
ginning ? 

A. First, God himself spake sometimes by his Son in the form 
or likeness of man, appearing to the Fathers ; sometimes by his 
Spirit inwardly in the heart. Secondly, the lively voice of Angels 
was heard. Thirdly, the lively voice of men, first of the Fathers, 
then of jNIoses and the Prophets ; after that of John the Baptist 
until Christ. Then followed Christ himself, manifested in the 
flesh. Last of all, the lively voice of the Apostles of Christ. 

Q. This kind of revelation, ivhich loas by a lively voice of all those 
TiiR quality ivhom you have named, ivas it by inspiration, and altogether free from 

of it. ,, 

error i 

A. Concerning the lively voice of God himself, of Christ, and of 
the Angels, there is no question. And as concerning men, whose 
lively voice God hath used from the beginning of the world hitherto, 
in revealing his will to his Church, they truly, albeit they were 
sinful men, and in part only regenerated ; notwithstanding, in the 
delivery of the doctrine of the truth of both covenants, they were 

Wliosc it 

god's effectual calling. 275 

so extraordinarily governed and inspired with the Holy Spirit of 
God, that they could by no means err. 

Q. Dust thou mean, then, that all men, as many as have been from 
the beginning of the world hitherto, hy whose mouths God hath spoken 
to his Church, iccre men extraordinarily endued ivith extraordinary gifts 
of the Holy Ghost, and confirmed by miracles ? 

A. I mean even so ; for prophecy in time past came not by the 
will of man, but holy men spake as they were moved by the Spirit 
of God. 2 Pet. i. 21. 

Q. At what time began this lively voice in the Church ? 

A. It began even in the first creation of man. wienitbc- 

° gan. 

Q. Hoic long hath the lively voice of God and men, tvho could not 
err in delivering the doctrine of the truth, continued in the Church of 

A. It hath been from the beginning of the world, even to the continuance 

° , ^ ' of it. 

death of the Apostles, all which time there was almost no age 
wherein at least some one holy man of God was not extraordinarily 
stirred up, w'ho could not err in delivering the doctrine of the 

Q. Why do you say almost ; was there any intermission at all ? 

A. Truly there was ; but I will name only some more notable 
intermissions, which may be gathered out of the Holy Scriptm^es. 
First, in the age of the Patriarchs it is observed, that there was an 
intermission in Terach's time, who was the father of Abraham ; 
for albeit he retained some grounds of truth, received from his 
lathers, notwithstanding he became an apostate and an idolater, as 
is manifest by the history.' Next, there was an intermission also 
when the people lived in Egypt, for from the death of the sons of 
Jacob, even to the departure out of Egypt, Ezekiel testifieth, 
chap. XX. 8, that all the people were fallen from God to the idols of 
the Egyptians. Lastly, there was an intermission from ISIalachi, 
the last of the prophets, until John Baptist, in all which time 
no prophet was raised up ; notwithstanding, the AVord of God 
was continued amongst the people of the Jews by high priests and 

^ Joshua xxiv. 2. 



the ordinary ministrj, but not without corruptions, so that, at the 

coming of Christ, for the more part the doctrine of truth was now 


V .'^f!''!^''-^ Q. Ourjld not the lively voice of God, lohich is not subject to error, 

not8ui3jertto/,g continued in the Church until the, coming of Christ, because you said 

Christ.*'^ ^/iO'^ this lively voice did continue in the Church till the coming of the 

Apostles only ? 

A. The lively voice of Christ continues in the Church, I confess, 
but not the lively voice either of God or of extraordinary men, such 
as were the Fathers, Prophets, and Apostles ; but only the lively 
voice of ordinary men, of pastors, and doctors, who both may err, and 
do err, whensoever they depart, never so little, from the prescript 
word of the Prophets and Apostles. 

Q. But God hath given a greater measure of his Holy Spirit to his 
Church, ichich now is under Christ, than ever he gave to the old Church. 
Therefore, if in the old Church there was a lively voice ivhich coiddnot 
err, how much more shall there be noxo in the Church of Christ a lively 
voice which cannot err ? 

A. It is true, indeed, tliat together with this full revelation, 
which Is contained in the writings of the Apostles, a more full 
spirit was given to the Church of Christ which now is than was 
given to the old Church. But hence it followcth not that either the 
Churcli, or the pastors and doctors in the Chvu'ch, are so governed 
with that spirit, that they cannot at all err in delivering the truth. 
For this was the extraordinary gift of the Holy Ghost, which was 
given but for a time ; but the gift of the Spirit, which Avas given 
to tlie Church of Christ since the times of the Apostles, is ordinary 
and perpetual ; to wit, the gift of sanctification, illumination, and 

Q. Tlie Church, then, ivhich now is, seems to be in a icorse case than 
the old Cliurch teas, which had the lively voice of God, and of men 
ivhich could not err ? 

A. That doth not follow ; for this Scripture of the Prophets and 
Apostles, which now the Church hath, doth not err in doctrine, 
and contains also a most full and clear revelation of the truth. 

god's effectual calling. 277 

Q. Albeit I should grant the condition of our Church to he better 
than of that old Church which was before Moses, and lohich had the 
tradition and use only of the lively voice^ and that very imperfect and 
obscure ; notwithstandiny I see not how the Church loas nut in better 
case, ichicli was after Moses, even to the coming of Christ, as having 
not only the use of tradition and of a lively voice, but also of the Pro- 
phetical Scripture as a light shining in a dark place ? 

A. Truly that Church had both, that is, both the sound of a 
lively voice, and of the Scripture and written Word of God ; but 
neither perfect nor absolute. But this Scripture, which our 
Church alone ' hath, contains a most full and plain revelation ; for 
even one form or manner and kind of revelation, which is perfect 
and full, must be more excellent than two which are both imper- 
fect, or which contain an imperfect revelation of the truth. 

Q. But there is no man who would not say it ivere better tvith this 
our Church if it had some lively voice lohich, in speaking and answer- 
ing to all controversies, might not err ? 

A. They have Moses, the Prophets, and Apostles, that is, 
the writings of Moses, of the Prophets, and of the Apostles, and 
those truly not only sufficient but most perfect ; wdience only if they 
cannot learn the truth by them,^ and decide and end all contro- 
versies, they will not be instructed with the lively voice of any 
extraordinary man : howbeit, as I have said before, the lively 
voice Avas to continue only so long in the Church, as something was 
wanting to the full declai'ation of the mystery of Christ. So that, 
if now there should be any need of the lively voice either of God, 
or of some extraordinary man in the Church of Christ ; that truly 
should plainly argue, that the revelation of the truth and mystery 
of Christ is not perfect as yet nor accomplished. 

Q. You conclude, then, that since the Apostles' time there hath been 
no lively voice heard in the Church which could not err ? 

A. Yea, truly. 

1 Which alone our Church hath. Original : quam solam habet nostra ecclesia, 

2 From which indeed if tliey cannot learn the truth. Original : ex quibus 
quidem si veritatem nan didicerinU 


Q. Why did a lively voice, not subject to error, contiinie in the Church 
all that time, which was from Adam to the Apostles? 

A. To speak nothing of the will of God, with the which alone 
we ought to rest contented ; first, the condition of the Church did 
require this continuance, and then the measure of the revelation 
that then was. 

Q. TVliy the condition of the Church ? 

A. Because the visible Church in all that time, which was from 
Adam to the Apostles, was both in place moi'e strait, as being shut 
up in one family, or in one nation, and was, by reason of age, weaker, 
or not so well grown. For the Church before Christ, if I may so 
speak, was either as a child or as a young man. 

Q. What then? 

A. The lively voice doth more easily reach, or extend itself to 
a Church, which is in place more strait, and to the saints fewer in 
number ; and the Church being as yet unexperienced by reason of 
the age of it, and less grown, had need of the lively voice of a 
teacher, none otherwise than children have need of the lively voice 
of a master, who, as it were, stammeretli with them. But after the 
coming of Christ, when the Church was sufficiently instructed by 
the lively voice of Christ, and of his Apostles, and now come to 
man's estate, there was no more heard any lively voice either of 
God or of men extraordinary. 

Q. Why did the measure of revelation require this ? 

A. Because all that time, which was from Adam to the Apostles, 
there remained as yet something more clearly and more manifestly 
to be revealed ; and the revelation of the doctrine Avas, in several 
ages, made more manifest, still as pertaining to the substance of it. 
And so long as some thing remained to be more clearly revealed, 
so long a lively voice was to continue ; for every new revelation 
ought first to begin with a lively voice. 

Q. Seeing that the last and most full revelation teas hy the lively 
voice of Christ and his Apostles, hath there ever since been heard any 
lively voice, cither of God or of any extraordinary man ? 
A. None at all. 

god's effectual calling. 279 

Q. Do you gather by these things, which you have spoken, concerning 
the causes of the continuance of a lively voice in the Church, what was 
the use of it heretofore in the Church ? 

A. Yea, truly ; for the use of it was, first, in respect of the Church 
itself, to give it instruction while it was yet so small for place and so 
young in knowledge ; next, in respect of revelation, to deliver it 
from time to time more clearly and evidently unto the people. 

Q. By this use of a lively voice, which you have here mentioned, it 

seems that this kind of revelation, which teas by a lively voice, icas the 

more simple, and the more familiar, and the more imperfect, and, tliere- 

fore, the more fit for persons and things that were of like imperfection'^ 

A. It is even so as you have said. 

Q. Hitherto I have heard you speak concerning a lively voice ; now, 
I would hear something of you concerning the subject of it; what say 
you, then, was taught all that time by a lively voice ? 

A. In all that time, and in every age, the self- same, and the tiic subject 
whole truth of God, v/as delivered by a lively voice. the uveiy 

' '' '' voice. 

Q. JVherefore, then, said you, that the perfect manifestation of that 
mystery of godliness was not accomplished till the Apostles^ time'? 

A. By that fulness and perfection I understood not the substance 
of the doctrine itself, but the quality, that is, the clearness of one 
and the same doctrine. For the mystery of Christ was in the 
Church, and was manifested, in some measure, from Adam unto 
Christ and the Apostles ; but if the comparison be made of times, 
it may be said to be shut and hidden in all ages before the comino- 
of Christ. 

Q. iVas the purity of the heavenly doctrine sufficiently conserved 
and kej/t by a lively voice ? 

A. The history shows plainly that the doctrine delivered by a 
lively voice was often corrupted and adulterated. 

Q. Hoiv, then, tvas it restored ? 

A. It seemed good to God, afterward by new revelations, to 
restore the purity of his word decayed, to conserve and keep it, 
and to give a more full declaration of it. 

Q. Was the purity of doctrine sufficiently preserved and kept so ? 


A. Not SO, verily ; and therefore it seemed good to God at length 
to add hereunto the written word. 

Q. Are there no other causes of xcritincj the Holy Scripture^. 

A. There are ; for, first, the condition of the Church required 
that the Scripture should be added unto the lively voice ; and, 
next, the measure also of revelation. 

Q. Why the condition of the ChurcJi ? 

A. Because at length, in Moses' time, the Church began to be 
botJi in place more large, as being spread throughout a whole 
nation, and to grow greater and riper in years ; for the time from 
Moses unto Christ was, as it were, the time of the middle age or 
young years^ of the Church. 

Q. What then ? 

A. The written word, therefore, was first^ in respect both of place 
and ripeness of age. For both a whole nation is more easily taught 
by writing than by voice ; and the age which is more ripe is more 
capable of that doctrine which is delivered by writing, that is, by 
that kind of revelation which is not so familiar and simple, and by 
writing doth more easily conceive any man's meaning. 

Q. Why doth the measure of revelation require the xoritten icord? 

A. Because, whereas before Moses, the revelation of the mystery 
of godliness was small and very obscure, it seemed not good to the 
Lord to cause it straightways to be written, to the intent it might 
be kept for posterity. But wherein Moses' time the revelation 
began to be much more clear than before, then it seemed good unto 
God to commit it to writing, to the intent it might be reserved, and 
remain for those which should come after. For that which is more 
perfect and full, that we are to write, to this end, that it may re- 
main both for us and our posterity ; but that which is more imper- 
fect, that we do not esteem worthy the writing, or to be reserved 
unto posterity. 

Q. Before you go any further, I would have you declare unto me the 
ages of the Churchy whereof you have so oft made mention ? 

' Original : adolesceiitia. 

^ Suitable Original : convenit. 

god's effectual calling. 281 

A. I will do so. 

Q. How many ages then, say you, are there of the Church? 

A. Three. The first was from Adam unto Moses, which v/as the 
infancy and childhood of the Church. The second, from Moses unto 
Christ, which was the youth or middle age of the Church. The 
third, from Christ and his Apostles, even unto the end, which may 
be called the ripe age of the Church, if it be compared with the 
ages past ;^ for otherwise we are not men grown until Ave be gathered 
together with Christ our head in heaven. 

Q. Do you mean, then, that God hath respect always of these three 
ayes in his iwoceedinys with his Church ? 

A. I mean so, indeed ; for, that I may so speak, he hath tem- 
pered these three things proportionally to these three ages of the 
Church ; to wit, first, the measure of revelation ; secondly, his Holy 
S]iirit ; thirdly, the manner of revelation. 

Q. Declare, I pray you, more particularly what you have said. 

A. To the infancy and childhood of the Church he gave the least 
measure of revelation, to wit, first, the first principles of religion 
only. Secondly^ the least measure of the Holy Spirit, to wit, that 
which was proportionable to the revelation. Thirdly, one only 
kind of revelation, which was by lively voice, as being the most 
fit for the instruction of infants, and of such as were weak in the 

Q. I understand ichatyou say concerning the first age of the Church ; 
now, I icould have you speak concerning the middle age, which you call 
the youth of it, and to apply these three things mentioned to it in like 

A. To the middle age of the Church he gave, first, a greater 
measure of revelation. Secondly, so to speak, a greater portion of 
the Holy Spirit. Thirdly, a double kind of revelation, the lively 
voice, and the Scripture. The lively voice, I say, because as yet 
it was but weak; and the written word, because it was in age 
better grown, and so more capable, in some sort, of the word 

' Those ages that had goue before. Original : ciwi prcecedoUibus illis cBlatibus. 


written ; for God hath tempered^ these two kind of revelations to- 
gether, and of both hath made a middle kind of revelation, accord- 
ing to the time and age which we call the middle, and, as it were, 
the temperate age. 

Q. You have spoken of the first and second age of tlie Church, noio, 
I pray you, speak of the third. 

A. To the third age of the Church, which I call the manly or 
ripe age, he gave, first, a full measure of revelation. Secondly, a 
most plentiful effusion of the Holy Ghost. Thirdly, both those 
kinds of revelations, and that now truly containing a full and perfect 
'revelation ; he taught it by lively voice for a certain time, and, 
after this, he added the writings of the Apostles. And when, as 
the mystery of our salvation was fully revealed by that lively voice 
first, and then that full revelation was written, ever since there 
hath been no more use of the lively voice of any extraordinary 
Prophet or Apostle. But the Scriptures, written first by the Pro- 
phets, and after by the Apostles, remained only without any lively 
voice, which could not err. 

Q. Where must ice begin to count the third age of the Church ? 
A. Not so much from the coming of Christ, and the sending of 
his Apostles to all nations, as from that time when the Apostles 
ceased to speak Avith lively voice as well to the Jews as to the 
Gentiles ; for even then the Church catholic came to man's estate 
and full growth, and then the Church began to understand and to 
learn the will of God by the written word,^ as being a more accurate 
and perfect manner of revelation. The time then which was from 
the coming of Christ until the death of the Apostles, was as it were 
a passage from the middle age of the Church unto the full growth 
and ripeness of the same. 

Q. I understand what you say concerning the causes of addition of 
the written word to the lively voice and of the several ages of the Churchy 

1 Original : tempcravit^ mcaniug " compounded," which is the sense in Avhich 
■vve must understand " temperate," four lines below. 
" Written word alone. Original: ex solo scripto. 

god's effectual calling. 283 

noio I woicld have you speak something concerning the Scnpture, or of 
the ivriting of God^s loord. 

A. I will do so. 

Q. Whaty then, call you ivriting or Scripture ? 

A. I call Scripture or writing the second kind of revelation, 
whereby God either by himself, or by the means of men, extraor- 
dinarily revealed those things, which already had been delivered 
by lively voice before, to wit, in that first kind of revelation. 

Q. Who, then, icere they who ever since the beginning have ivritten? 

A. First, God himself; next, men, Moses, the Prophets, and the 

Q. This kind of revelation, which was by writing, teas it not subject 
to error like as that kind which teas by a lively voice ? ^ 

A. No, truly ; for concerning that which God himself did write 
there is no question ; and, touching men, they were so extraor- 
dinarily inspired and governed by the Spirit of God, that in 
writing they could not err at all. 

Q. JFhen began it then- to be written ? 

A. In Moses' time. 

Q. How long did the word written continue in the Church ? 

A. The Scripture, or the act of writing, continued fi'om Moses, 
even to the Apostles, all which time there was almost no age 
wherein extraordinarily some one was not stirred up, who, in de- 
livering the doctrine of truth by writing, could not err. 

Q. You think otlierwisc of the Scripture itself than of the act of 
ivriting ? 

A. I do so ; for the Scripture itself, or that which is now ^^TItten 

^ Oixr author does not mean that the revelation by a " heavenly voice," was 
subject to error — though his words are ambiguous. They are : yin modus hie re- 
velationis qui fuit per saiptionem ei'Tori non est obnoxiiis^ perinde ut modus ille 
quifuit per vivam vocem ? He evidently understands 7ion-ohnoxms to be a com- 
pound term — " free from " eiTor, as the revelation by a lively voice was {non- 
obnoxius) free from error. And, accordingly, the answer begins : Ita est, " Yes, 
it is free from eiTOi*." 

2 " When at length," i. e. in the progress of the Church. Original ; Quando 


by Moses, the Prophets, and Apostles, yet continues in the Church 
and shall continue unto the second coming of Christ. 

Q. Was there any intermission of writing the icordfrom Moses unto 
the Apostles ? 

A. There was ; for it appeareth in all that time, which was from 
Malachi till John the Baptist, none Avas stirred up, either prophet 
or writer inspired by God, for the books of the Maccabees be not 
given by inspiration, as we shall show hereafter.^ 

Q, You said that writing continued in the Church until the time of 
the Apostles ; ought it not then to continue unto the end ? 

A. Like as, since the Apostles' time, there is no lively voice 
heard in the Church, which can be said to be so governed by the 
Holy Ghost that it cannot err at all ; so, since the Apostles, no- 
thing is written in the Church which may worthily be called or 
said to be given by inspiration. 

Q. What, then, do you think of so many writings of godly and 
learned men, which have been published since the times of the Apostles, 
from time to time, to the great good and profit of the Church ? 

A. Verily, I think of the writings of the pastors and doctors in 
the Church as I think of their pi'eaching, to wit, that both be sub- 
ject to error, and neither is so governed by the Holy Ghost, but in 
delivering the truth of God they may err. 

Q. It seemeth, then, that the condition of the Church, which, since 
the time of the Apostles, is not so good, as having neither the lively voice, 
as is aforesaid, nor the writings, as now you speak, of those very men 
who in delivering the truth cannot err ? 

A. It hath the Scriptures of the Prophets and Apostles, which, 
as pertaining to the substance of revelation, is full ; and, as touch- 
ing the kind and form of revelation, it is given by inspiration, and 
not subject to error ; out of the Avhich Scripture whosoever do not 
learn all things which are necessary to faith and salvation, assuredly 
such would not receive from the mouth of God himselfj openly 

1 He refers to the treatise on " Effectual Calling," where the Apocrypha is 
discussed. See chap. xvii. The subject forms no part of this Catechism. 

god's effectual calling. 285 

speaking in an audible and intelligible voice, the doctrine and in- 
struction of faith and salvation. 

Q. Wherefore did the Lord so continue to record his will by wi'itina The cause oi 

the continu- 
al the Church all that time, ivhich icas from 3Ioscs to the Apostles? anceofwrit- 

' -^ -' ing God's 

A. There are the same causes of the continuance thereof, as are^^**"^* 
of the addition of the lively voice unto writing ; for both the condition 
of the Church and the measure of revelation required the same. 

Q. Why the condition of the Church ? 

A. Because the Church continually increased and grew, as in 
numbers, so in knowledge. 

Q. What then'? 

A. The greater number and riper knowledge do require this, 
that the word be written. 

Q. Why the measure of revelation ? 

A. Because the revelation of the doctrine of salvation was from 
time to time made more clear and manifest, even unto the times of 
Christ and his Apostles, at which time it was in the end complete 
and perfected. For it was meet that every revelation manifested 
more clearly and fully should be recorded in writing, to this end, 
that it might be surely kept and delivered to posterities. 

Q. Can ye gather by these things the use of the continuance ofiue use of 
Scripture in the Church of God ? ^" "*^' 

A. Yea, truly. 

Q. What is then the use of it ? 

A. To pass by the consideration of the purity of doctrine, the 
first use was in respect of the Church, for the instruction thereof, 
as being now in place more ample and large, and in knowledge 
more perfect. Secondly, it was In respect of the revelation of the 
doctrine itself, that It might compi-ehend and keep it more fully and 

Q. By this use of Scripture, or icriting, which you give, it seems that 
this kind of revelation, ivhich is by ivriting, is somewhat more perfect 
and high, as that which is best agreeing and fitting to persons and things 
that are more perfect ? 
A. It is even so. 


Q. Thus Jar, then, for ici'iting or Scripture. Noxc I icould have 
you declare something unto me concerning the subject of this writing, 
and of the matter itself which is written ? 

A. As touching the substance, the very same is written which 
was before delivered by the lively voice. 

Q. I pray you sjjeak in order unto me of the subject or argument in 
Scripture, written first hy God himself, secondly by rnen, by Moses, the 
Prophets, and Apostles. 

A. I will do so. 

Q. What then hath God written ? 

A. The sum of the doctrine of the covenant of works, and of the 
law, even the very same which he had delivered first by a lively 
voice to the Fathers and to Moses. 

Q. What hath Moses icritten ? 
Jioscs- books. A. All the celestial doctrine, which he had received partly of 
the Fathers by tradition, partly of God himself, who spake mouth 
to mouth' with him, for so the Scripture speaketh ; partly he had 
learned of the Holy Ghost by an inward inspiration ; and, to speak 
in a word, whatsoever had happened to him, and to all the people 
in his lifetime, for the space of one hundred and twenty years, 
all these things he committed to writing, and gave to the people. 

Q. Did Moses, then, write whatsoever true doctrine was delivered 
from the beginning of the world to that time ? 

A. Moses omitted no point of true doctrine, which at any time 
had been delivered concerning either faith or manners, for from the 
beginning unto that very time one and the same doctrine of truth, 
as touching the substance, was taught full and whole in all ages. 
The difference only was in the measure of the revelation of it, that 
it is accidental ;^ and Moses delivered this doctrine fully and wholly 
by lively voice more clearly and manifestly than ever before ; then 
after this, it w^as recorded in writing. 

^ Face to face. Original : ore ad os. Sec Exodus xxxiii. 11, &c. 

^ In accidente, i. e. in a jiart not necessarily belonging to the essence. The 
substance was the same, bnt the fullness, called in the hmgnagc of the sclioohnen 
accidens, was different. The distinction will be seen from the next note. 

god's effectual calling. 287 

Q. What did the Prophets ivrite, ivho folloioed 3Ioses every one in 
their time and order ? 

A. The same and all, as touching the substance, which Moses 
had written before ; the difference only was herein, that every 
one by revelation did add a more clear and manifest interpreta- 
tion, as the bright morning star did approach more near. 

Q. What have the Apostles written after the Prophets ? 

A. All and the same, which from the beGfinnin"; of the world in 
all ages before them Avas both by lively and audible voice delivered 
and written, they first also by lively voice delivered the same, and 
after committed it to writing. 

Q. Do you, then, make no difference betioixt the writings of the Pro- 
phets and of the Apostles ? 

A. In the matter and substance, none ; in the clearness and per- 
spicuity thereof, very great ;^ for the Scriptures of the Apostles, 
containeth the same revelation of the mystery, which was declared 
from the beginning of the world, but most fully and most clearly. 

Q. I have lieard you speak concerning both kinds of revelation^ con- 
sidered without comparison ; now I would have you to compare together 
the lively voice and meriting, that by comparison it may appear whether 
it is of greater dignity and authority. 

A. I will compare them together. The lively voice and Scripture 
are compared either in respect of substance and of matter itself, 
which is revealed by these means, or in respect of the kinds of the 
revelation of it. If comparison be made in regard of the matter or 
substance, they must needs be both equal and alike, seeing that the 
matter in either is one and the same ; but if you compare the kinds 
of revelation together, it cannot truly be denied but that the first 
and better place is due to the lively voice, seeing that the lively 
voice is both in respect of time more ancient, and was before the 
organs or instruments thereof^ — for the mouth is an instrument 
more worthy and to be preferred before the hand — and is a kind of 
teaching more familiar and more fit for the capacity of such as are 

^ Original : in re et substantia nullum, in rei claritate et accidente magnum. 
2 Is first in point of instruments. Original : organis prior sit. 


more rude and ignorant. Albeit, also, in some respects writing is 
to be preferred before the lively voice ; for it is a more perfect and 
accurate kind of revelation, fit to instruct those that are more perfect, 
and to keep the truth more firmly. In the meanwhile, it cannot be 
denied but that in other respects they are both alike, for they have 
both spoken and written the same thine-, and in the same manner,^ 
to wit, as being guided and moved by the Holy Ghost and inspired 
of God, 2 Pet. i. 21; 2 Tim. iii. 16. To conclude, seeing that now 
the livel}' voice by the will of God hath ceased, and in the place of 
it the Scripture hath succeeded ; so, that whole dignity of the lively 
voice before mentioned is, and ought worthily to be, ascribed and 
referred unto the Scripture, or written Word of God. 

Q. Do you mean.) then, that the Prophetical and AjwstoUcal Scrip- 
ture ought to he noio in as great account loith us as the lively voice of 
God himself y and of extraordinary men was in times past ? 

A. I mean so ; and in this kind of revelation alone I willingly 
rest, as in that which came by inspiration from God, so long, until 
I shall hear at his glorious coming that lively and most sweet voice 
of Christ my Saviour ; when he shall say to them who shall be at 
his right hand. Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom 
prepared for you from the beginning of the world. To whom be all 
praise for ever. Amen. 

To God only ivise be praise through Jesus Christ 
for ever. Amen. 

^ For it is this same men that hath both spoken and written ; and that 
in the same manner. Original : idem cnim et loquuti sunt^ et scripsei'unt, et 
eodem modo. 

1^®I Epiltles of Pavl. 

^pj^ PREACHED BE M. ^^jri 


Minifter of the Euan- >Q7t' 
gell of lefus Christ at 



■^Printed by Henrie Char-Ojl^^o 
), teris, 1599. ^^WL 

Cum Priuilegio Regah 


As all the godlie and profitabill instrumentis in the Ku-k of 
Christ haif not lived togidder at ane time, nor in ane land ; bot 
the Lord, even the Lord of the harvest hes sent furth heir and 
thair, now and then, labourers, according to his awin gude pie- 
sure, and as he hes sene the neid of his people and corruptioun of 
the time to crave. Sa he hes never at onie time communicat all 
graces to ane, bot according to the divers turnis that ar to doe in 
his house, hes given unto diverse men diverse graces, sa that in 
everie ane thair hes bene and is to espy sum grace (at the leist a 
greater measure of it) quhilk ane uther laikis. Thair ar diversitie 
of gifts, bot the same Spreit, and thair ar diversitie of administra- 
tiounis, bot the same Lord : and thair ar diversitie of operations, 
bot God is the same, quha wirketh aU in all, sayis the Apostle. 
Zit thair is never ane quhome the Lord ever sent, or dois send 
furth, bot they have brocht and bringis with them gold, mirrhe, 
and franckincense : that is, even he quhais grace in comparisoun 
will be called mein, being considered in the self, is mair precious 
nor the maist precious thing in the warld, and mair savorie in the 
spirituall sanctuarie, then all the odouris and perfumes in the eirth. 
Amangis the rest of the Lord his Messingers that hath cum furth 
in thir last times, qulien we remember of that worthy and deir 
servand of God, M. Robert Rollok, (quha having died in the 
Lord now restis fi'a his labouris), and considderis the great varietie 
and diversitie of excellent graces and gifts quhilk the Lord maid 
to scliyne in him, we cannot bot admire the Lord his bountie and 
riches of his niercie, schawin furth in the persoun of that man to- 
wardis this last and declyning age of the warld. For, to banische 

T 2 

21*2 TO THE KEIDElt. 

darkiies and ignorance, tliis man come furth with a measure of 
licht and knawledge far bezond uthers, quliilk he hes em])loyit sa 
profitablie to the weill of God his Kirk, as I think thair be few 
pairtis of this land (for of uthers I ceis to spcik) that findis not 
the fruit of his travellis : quhair thair is not ane or mae in quhome 
the Lord used him as ane instrument to dres and prepair them 
for his wark. Bot quhen I speik of knawledge in this man, I mon 
call it sanctified knawledge, quhilk al men that knew him micht 
cleirlie have persaved : First, For that he used all his knawledge 
in sciences, in artes, and languages (quhilk in him was not small) 
as helpis and furtherances to that chief point of knawledge quhairin 
standis life cternall, even of the Lord and of his sonne Jesus 
Christ quhome he hes sent. Nixt in his account and estimation 
quhilk he had of all thir giftis, notwithstanding excellent in them- 
selfis, he estemed him to knaw nathing bot Christ and him cnici- 
fied ; and last of al in that singular blissing of God that accumpa- 
nied al his travels, sa that the Lord, be the visibil incres declared, 
that he planted in his name, he watered in his name, and as he la- 
boured to him, sa he reaped to him. lie was wise, bot wise accor- 
ding to sobriety. lie was zealous, bot (quhilk is raiv), his zeall 
was tempered Avitli a halie discretioun, quhilk keipis men from com- 
mitting of that quhilk is unworthie of thair calling. For suppois 
the Disciples of Christ wer commended fra that effect of thair zeal, 
that they left al to follow Christ, zit they are als fjir discommend- 
ed, quhen (as Avald appeir of zeall), they craved that fyre micht 
Q.nm doun from lievin and consume the Samaritanes. Zca, our 
Maister sayis to them, Ze knaw not of quhat spreit ze ar. Bot by 
the way ane of the symptomes of the seiknes of our age appeiris 
not to be heit, bot cauldnes ; and sa our diseis is the mair deidlie ; 
for the bodie that is hait, is distempered, bot the bodie quhilk is 
altogidder cauld, is dead. Thair was beside all thir graces in that 
notabill servant of God sic a rare and wondcrfull grace of humility 
and meikncs, quhilk in sic sort seasoned all the rest of his graces, 
that he was content to abase him self under al, and to becum, as it 
wer, ane servant to al, that he micht win al to Christ. He culd 


never be clrawln to give over hard and rigorous ane censure of ony ; 
he met never the calumnies and bitter speiches of men with the 
Hke, he spak never of the maist deboschit sinner, bot with pitie, 
schawing him self ever touched with ane sense of the common 
miserie and conniption of nature. He eschewed all schawls and 
ostentatioun, to lurk at his studie and meditation he tuke pleasure, 
sa that to be sene he desired never, except quhen the exercises of 
his calling drew liim in publict. To be schort, all that luiked upon 
him in all his occupations micht have scne him as a man out of the 
warld, consecrat and sanctified to the service of his God. We 
have a common proverbe quhairin we say, Familiaritie geners con- 
tempt : because men oft frequenting togiddcr, espyis ilk ane in 
uther sic infirmities as makis them peice and peice, to tyne that 
reverent estimation, quhilk utherwayis they wald have : Bot sure- 
lie how sa ever he wanted not his awin sinnes and infirmities in 
the sicht of his God, familiaritie with him brocht out the contrair 
effect : for as men grew in familiaritie with him, they espied ever 
farther and farther grace in him, of quhilk it come to pas, the 
greater familiarity the greater lufe and reverence, as I have heard 
gude men and of sound judgement, that had bene langest acquaint 
with him, and wer oftest in his cumpanie, give him this testimonie 
(efter his departure), that they culd never espy in him onie thing 
bot that quhilk was worthie of imitation. Now, as in al thir 
things quhairof I have spoken, the Kirk of God in this time micht 
think themself mekill addebted and behaldin to thair God in the 
person of this man : sa especially in that notabill gift of publict 
preiching and opening up of the Texts of Scriptures, to the greit 
comfort and singulare edificatioun of the heirers. With quhat 
haly gravit}^ with quhat spiritual authoritie, zea, with how greit 
evidence and demonstration of the Spreit he dischargit tliis point 
of dewtie, I refer mee to the conscience of his heirers ; the affec- 
tioun of his hart, the words of his mouth, togidder with his haill 
outward actioun did sa concun'c, that being as it wer ane man 
transported and ravished himself, he ever drew his auditor in the 
same sense with him ; and the maist gros of judgement did per- 


save that his ministeric was not a bair and naked ministery, bot 
accumpanicd with Spreit and grace. Sa that thair ar monie saidlis 
now blissing the time quhairin it pleasit the Lord to deall with 
them be the ministerie of that man, and mak the power of rehgion 
to cum to their hartis. And becaus that his forme of teiching, 
being sa weill warranded, and having sa speciall ane blessing 
accumpanying it, may serve as a reuU and exemplar to uthers that 
sail cum efter, we have not thocht meit that the posteritie sidd be 
defrauded of this benefite, bot rather or sum thing sidd not be 
extant to mak knawin his forme of teiching, we wer content to tak 
the scrols quhilk we fand in the hand of sum of his schollers quha 
wrait at his mouth, quhill he teiched, and to give them furtli to 
licht for the comfort of Goddis Kirk. And albeit it be tnie that 
in the letters we ar not able to expres and schaw furth that quhilk 
was maist singular in him, quhill he uttered thir thingis be vive 
voice, zit in them we propose unto zovi his form, that he keip it in 
publict preching quhilk may serve to monie gude usis, baith to 
teichers and heirers ; for he esteming ever sobrietie, prayer, and 
humbil meditation to be preferred to curious and presumpteous in- 
quisition, keipit in the handling of the Scripture of God that halie 
simplicitie quhilk heir ze may persaif. For as every sound is not 
Musick, sa everie sermon is not Preiching, bot worse then gif ane 
suld stand up and reid a Homelie. And suppois art had tauclit 
him weil aneuch to go heich in his style, and be exquisite in his 
tennis, zit in this cace of preiching ze sail see him set all that kind 
of art, and the colouris forged in the brain of man aside ; Sa dan- 
gerous a thing estemed he it, and sa it is indeid, not to descrive 
Christ his croce in the awin colours, or to defile it with humane 
eloquence ! Besidis this, of him ze sail Icirn heir that preiching 
and opinning iqi of Scripture, stands not in liberty of discoursing, 
men taking small occasions of the words, and thairby carying the 
heirers far fra the present purpois, bot standis in a plain and evi- 
dent opening up, and precise sticking be the Avords and })urpois of 
the text : and then hes thou a warrand in uttering : then is it also 
that the people edifies in heiring, quhcn na thing sounds in thair 


eiris bot his word qiiha lies promeist the blessing, and the thing 
quhilk is solidlie grounded thairupon. Then ar men brocht to be- 
leve becaus like the nobil man of Bercea efter seking of the Scrip- 
tures they find it to be sa as hes bene spokin. We offer then thir 
few Sermons for the reasons quhairof we have spoken, not to the 
proud and wise of this warld, in quhais eies the croce of Christ 
and al preiching semis fulischnes, bot to the humble and meik 
scheip of Christ, to be weyit be them in the richt balance of the 
sanctuary, that is examined according to the cannon and rule of 
the Scriptm-e : and we doubt nathing bot they sal find weicht in 
them. And seing that the calling hame of sic ane Ambassadour 
of peace portendis weir : and the removing of sic a licht threitnis 
darknes and wraith, let us seik al be the tears of repentance, to 
prevent the imminent judgement. The Prophet Amos cals it ane 
evil time, quhairin the prudent keipis silence : sa we may call this 
a hard and ane evil time quhairin sa prudent, sa grave and learnit 
a man keipis silence, and is callit hame to his rest for the sins of 
the land. I will not detein zou Christian reidar with lans^er letter 
fra the purpois. As this man in his lifetime waited not for honor, 
for riches, for pleisure, for the countenance of men, bot with Si- 
meon, waitit for the consolation of Israel : sa having imbraced his 
Saviour in the armes of his saull, joy full and peaceable was his de- 
parture, and his eies saw the salvation of the Lord, with quhora 
as he ringis now in saul, sa sal his body be raisit up at the last 
day, and his glory accomplisched. The Lord mak us to live the 
life and die the deith of the richteous, that with them we may be 
pertakers of that glorie. Amen. 


Kirk of Edinburgh anent the departure of 
thair maist godlie, learned, and pain- 
full Doctour and Pastour, M. 
Robert Rollok. 


Thy Uivine Doctor deirest now is deifl, 
Thy peirless Preicher now hes plaide his part : 
Thy painfull Pastor, quha in loue did leid 
Thy little Lanibes, with sweet and tender hart, 

Hes dried his dayes, with sair and hitter smart. 
To purchase pleasand profit unto thee. 
His words, his warks, his wayes, his vertues gart 
Thee get this gaine of great felicitie. 

How thou suld live, and how that tlTou suki die 
In Jesus Christ, he hes in word and deid 
Declared and done unto thine eare and eye, 
Als weill as thou could ever heare or reid. 

follow tlien, till thou atteyne to this. 
And schaw a thanketull hart to him and his. 


Richt happie war his hearers, when he lived, 
And happie war his hearers at his dead, 
Bot liajipicr qnha heiring baith, lielieved 
That word of life, quhilk can not fall nor fead. 

1 heare how himihlit mekill dule was maid 
Be all his hearers, at the huriall : 

And justly, for he stude them in great stead, 
To leade them to the life celestiall. 

Bot let us Pastors, and zon people all 
Haste to that happincs wlierein lie is. 
Professing truly Christ on quhonie we call, 
As he hes teached and practised quhome we mis. 
Sa sail the preassing to his halines, 
Mak us atteyne unto that liappiiies. 



Of Christ thou was the Pastor, and the scheip, 
That hard his voice, and lovingly obeyit, 
That fed his Lambis, and cairfully them keipt 
With painfull labour, and na tyme delayit, 

On Christ thy hart was haillie set and stayit : 
Of Christ thou ever thocht, thou spak, and wryte, 
With Christ thou wissed all thy warkis arrayit, 
In Christ, in life and deid, was thy delyte. 

Be Christ, nocht eUis, thou socht to be perfyte ; 
And finallie thy Christ to thee was all. 
Sa hes he cround in thee that wark sa greit, 
And brocht thee to his blis perpetuall. 

O ! niicht I follow as I clearlie see 

Thy rare example ! sa so live and (.lie. 

M. I. Melvill.* 

* Mr James Melvill, Minister of Kilrenny and Anstruther, in Fife, and author of 
the Autobiography published by the Wodrow Society. 


2. Cor. Cap. 5. 

1. For we knaw that gif our earthly hous of this Tabernacle be destroyit, 

we have a buylding given of God, that is, a hous nocht made with 
hands, bot eternall in the heavens. 

2. For therefore we sigh, desyring to be clothed with our hous, quhilk 

is from heaven. 

3. Because that gif we be clothed, we sail not be found naked. 

4. For indeid we that ar in this Tabernacle, sigh and ar burdened, be- 

caus we wald not be unclothed, bot wald be clothed upon, that mor- 
talitie might be swallowed up of lyfe. 

In the Chapter immediatlle going before, the Apostle Paul hes 

bene speiking of the afflictions that he sufferit in his awin person, 

and hes declarit that thair was twa things that held him up in 

those afflictions, the ane thing present, the uther thing to cum. 

The thing present, the power of God, the lyfe of Jesus ; this held 

him up in sic sort (sayis he) that quhen he was dying under afflic- 

tioun in the bodie, zit the lyfe of Jesus was manifest in him, and 

he was living in saidl : and the mair his bodie was decaying and 

wearing away, the mair the inner man, that spirituall lyfe that 

flowis from Christ, grew and was renewit. Woe to that man that 

dyis altogidder : thou mon die, and this bodie and lyfe mon sever, 

the bodie mon gang* to the dust, bot luik that saul and bodie gangf 

not togidder. Luik that as thou findis the bodie and lyfe naturall 

to decay, sa thou find that spiritual lyfe, that flowis fra the Lord 

* The body must go, &c. Edition o/"1634 ; from which the other various readings 
given in these foot-notes are derived, 
t Go. 


of lyfe, to grow, or ellis of" necessitie thou mon have ane wofull 
departure. This is the thing present that held him up. Ane other 
thing and greater quhilk was not present hot to cum, held him up 
under all the afflictiounis that was laid on him, quhilk he utteris 
in thir wordis, " The momentanean lichtnes of afflictioun wirkis 
unto us ane everlasting wecht of glorie that passis in excellencie." 
Thir ar the wordis of the Apostle, quhairin he wald leu-ne us that 
efter all thir afflictiounis ar done and endit, thair abydis ane 
glorie efter this lyfe, that passis in infinite degreis above all the 
afflictiounis that ever came to man in this lyfe. AYill ze luik to 
the nature of the afflictiounis ; first, they ar licht, that is ane pro- 
pertie ; then, they last bot for ane moment, that is ane uther pro- 
pertie ; the weicht of them is licht, the time of thair during is bot 
ane moment. " Bot the glorie," (mark every word of the Apostle), 
" the glorie" (sayis he) " passis in excellencie." It is not onlie 
excellent, bot it excellis in excellencie ; excellent above excel- 
lency ; ane help above ane heip, mounting up to an infinite heij). 
Then luik to the wecht thereof, it is not licht, bot it is heavie ; the 
afflictiounis war licht as ane fether, or as the wind in comparison of 
this glorie, bot the glorie is hevie and weiclitie, ane wecht of glorie 
that passis in excellencie, this is the first propertie. Than luik to 
the tyme, the afflictiounis wer bot for ane moment. And gif thou 
suld live ane thousand zeirs, and be afflictit als monie zeiris, (for 
all thy dayis, and thy best dayis, and tliou suld live never sa weill, 
ar bot dayis of affliction,) all the thousand zeiris ar bot ane mo- 
ment in respect of that eternitie that followis. Then let ever zour 
eie be upon eternity of joy, or eternitie of paine, eternity either of 
torment or of rest. Afflictioun is bot for ane moment, this glory 
that passis in excellencie is eternall in time. Luke how great 
things is spoken in few words ; ane glorie passing in weiclit and 
eternitie. And quhen he lies tauld zou all that he can, he hcs not 
atteinit to the thousand part of the greatnesse of that glorie ; never 
man thocht of it as it is, nor it could never enter into the hart of 
man that excellent glorie that is pre})arit for tlicm that love God, 
1. Cor. ii. y. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 301 

Quiien lie lies set douii tliir twa poiutis in the end of the chap- 
ter preceiding, he gals forward, and he schawls quhat he is doing 
in the meantime quhill he get this excellent glorie. Learn to do 
as he is doing. He sayis, " my eies are not upon the warld ; My 
lake is not set upon tlm* visibill thingis that men lies sa great 
pleasure into ; bot my eies ar hftit up, and I am hiking to thingis 
invisible, that the mortall eie of man can not see, because all thir 
things visible ar bot tempoi'all, and Avill decay." Gif it wer ane 
kingdom and thou begin to rest or repose upon it, it will decay, 
and thou sail fal doun togidder with it, and perische eveiiastinghe. 
Bot the things invisible ar etemall, and he quha leanis and reposis 
thairon, sail get eternitie. Luke to the condition of those thingis 
quhairupon thou reposis in this warld. For gif they be thingis 
hevinly, spirituall and eternall, thou sail be hevinlie, spiritual! and 
eternall. And as ever thou wald wis to see that glorie, luke that 
thy eie be set thairon in this eirth, luke that thy eie be mountit 
up above al thir eirthly things, and that thou keip the hevinly 
things in thy siclit ; forzct tliem not, for gif thou die, and they be 
out of thy sight, thou sail never sie them. Take pleasure to luke 
to that excellent glorie, and thou sail obteine it, otherwayis not. 

Now I cum to the text : I sal let zou see the dispositioun of the 
Apostle, and quliat he esteimis of tliis life present, quhairof we 
account sa mekil, and quhairupon our hart and mynd is sa set to 
keep it. All our terrour is for the parting of the saull from the 
body, luik to Paule quliat he dois, and behald his dispositioun 
either in lyfe or deitli. Brethren, we have the mair mister to tak 
tent to thir thingis,* because we sail all be put to the prufe : hap- 
pie is he that can be preparit. The Apostle having spoken this 
that his eie was set on that lievinMe glorie. It micht have bene 
said, thou scttis thyne eie upon ane lyfe above, bot tak hcid Paul 
thou sail die in the mein time, is not lyfe and deitli twa con- 
trares ? thou mon die, and that bodie of thyne mon be dissolvit ? 
lukis thou ever to ryse again ? thinkis thou anie other thing bot 
to be disappointed of lyfe? luikis thou that that body of thyn, 

* We have the more need to take heed tu these things, &c. 


being dissolvit in dust, sail ryse againe to glorie ? This is ane 
fair tentatioun, and sundry thinkis efter this maner. The Apostle 
answeris, " We knaw that gif our eirthlie hous of this Tabernacle 
be dissolvit, we have ane buylding given be God, ane hous not 
maid with handis bot eternell in the hevinnis." Leirne ane les- 
soun heir. Ze se quhil ane man is luiking to hevin, he will not 
be without tentatioun, nay not Paule himself, nor na other man 
nor woman, that hes thair conversatioun in hevin. And the spe- 
cial tentatioun of him quha wald faine have lyfe, is deith, and the 
dreidfull sicht of deith, and deith is ever in his eie. He was never 
borne bot deith will tempt him, deith will be terrible to flesche 
and blude ; and when he is luiking up to that licht and glorie in 
hevin, it will cum in betwixt his eie and the sicht of hevin, as it 
wer ane terrible black cloud, and sum tyme will twin* him and 
that sicht of hevin. As quhen ane man is luiking up to the 
Sun, ane cloud will cum in on ane suddainty and tak the sicht of 
the Sun frae him : sa quhen ane man is luiking up to the Sun 
of richteousnesse Christ Jesus, that cloud of deith will cum in 
and cleik the sichtf of Christ fra him. This is our estait heii", and 
thair is nane acquainted with heavinlie thingis, bot he will find 
this in experience as Paule did. Bot quhat is the remedie ? In 
the first worde of the text that we have red, he says, " we knaw," 
and we ar assured, for the w^ord importis ane full assurance, and 
faith, and ane fuU perswasion. Then the remedie aganis this ten- 
tation of deith is only faith, ane full perswasioun and licht in the 
minde of the knawledge of the glorie of God in the face of Christ, 
with ane gripping and apprehensioun thairof : this is the onlic re- 
medie. The man that lyis in ignorance, and hes not this knaw- 
ledge, he is oppressit be deith. Sa ever seik, and seik earnestlie 
for licht, Christ is licht : and let zour plesour be in licht, for deith 
is darknesse, and it smoris| the saull except it be lichtnit with this 
licht that cumis fra the face of Jesus. Bot to be mair speciall, 
quhat licht and knawledge mon this be ? quhat assurance man 
this be? Thou man knaw and be assurit, not that thou will be 

* Siindc-r. f Cntch the' sidit. J Smothcreth. 

ON 2 COR. 5. 303 

exemit fra delth ; nay, begyle not thy self, die mon thou, and re- 
solve to die : sa it mon not be sic ane assurance as to be perswadit 
that thou sail not die, opponing thy self to deith, saying I will not 
die, and I sail not die. Then quhat assurance and knawledge mon 
this be ? Ever this, that efter I am dead I sail ryis againe to lyfe. 
It is trew, O death, thou sail sease upon my bodie, and thou sail 
not leave it quhill it be dissolvit in dust, hot quhen thou hes gottin 
this bodie dissolvit, I sail recover ane new glorious bodie : Thair 
is the melting of this tentatioun, assure thy self of lyfe efter deith. 
Seik this assurance, and labour to pearce with the eie of faith 
throw the cluds of tentatiounis to see that lyfe in Christ quhilk 
is hid up above those cluddis. Seik that eie of faith to pearce in 
throuch those cluds, to schaw thee that life and the Sun of richte- 
ousness Christ Jesus. Now the wordis would be weyit particu- 
larlie ; and first, mark ane descriptioun of this death, and of the 
tentatiouns that wald sever thee from that life eternall. The 
wordis ar thir, " Gif our eirthlie hous of this tabernacle be dissol- 
vit." Then quhat is death ? ane dissolution and lousing of ane 
thing that was joy nit togidder, ane dissolving and scattering of 
the parts of it : it is not ane utter destruction of it, the thing that 
it dissolvis, it wrackis* not utterlie. It lyis not in the handis of 
deith to >\Tackt the thing it dissolvis : it may weill louse it and cast 
it sundrie, bot it cannot destroy it. Then deith is ane dissolutioun, 
not ane destructioun : ane dissolving, quhairof ? Not of the sauU, 
it lyis not in the power of deith to louse thy sauU, or sunder the 
partis thereof, thou hes that advantage. Death will dissolve and 
louse thy house, the ludging that thou dwellis in, that is, this 
bodie quhilk cleithis thy saul. Thou art termit be thy saull, and 
the saull properlie makis ane man to be ane man ; it is the cheif 
part of man, and the bodie is callit the ludging of the sauU, and 
the sauU dwellis in it as in ane house. Sa deith is the dissolutioun 
of the body, of the hous, quhilk it lousis into powder : zea it wiU 
louse all the members and partis of the house. O, bot mark quhen 
it cummis to powder and asches, it lyis not in the handis of deith 
* Destroj'ctli. f Destroy. 


to destroy the powder and asches of the bodie, hot that powder 
and aschis in spyte of deith will be gatherit and set togidder in 
ane niair glorious forme of bodie nor ever it was befoir. Zit luik 
how the apostle descryvis this house : first fra the matter, secundlie 
fra the forme thairof. As for the matter he callis it " our eirthlie 
hous." This bodie is bot clay, evin ane lump of that clay and 
eirth quhairupou thou gangis,* esteim of it as thou wil : ze se the 
mater of this body is vile and contemptible. As for the form thair- 
of, it is ane hous, nocht ane hous that lies ane fundatioun or biggitf 
on ane grouudstane, bot ane tabernacle and flitting tent. It is 
set doun heu' the day, the moi'ne tane up and set doun in ane utlicr 
place. Thy body is ane pavillion that men transports hither and 
thither as they pleis. Then thou seis that thy body is ane thing 
little worth, quhidder tliou luik to the mater quhairof it is maid, 
of the eirth, or to the form thairof, ane unstabil tent or pavilion. 
Now mark this weill. Brethren, qulia speiks this ? It is Paul. How 
speikis he it ? Be faith. Speikis the body this ? Na. Quhat 
then ? The said that dweliis in the body as in ane ludging speikis 
it. The saull is speiking of the body, the faithful saul of Paid is 
speiking of his fraile body. Then leirn how little faith counts of 
deith. Leirne also how little the faithful saul counts of the body, 
zea even then quhen it is dwelling in the body, it Avil lichtly the 
ludging thau'of : It wil cal it ane lump of clay, ane tabernacle, ane 
tent, an frail hous. It wil count na mair thairof nor ane glorious 
king wil count of ane coit hous,:]: he having many fair palices. 
Weil brethren, it is faith that dois this ; it is not the saul allane 
that can count sa lichtly of deith, or the frail body. Gif thou have 
onhe the sauU in the bodie and Mant this faith, the saull will think 
the bodie sweit to dwell in. It is faith and the faithfiill saull that 
dois the turn. And thair is not ane better argument nor tins to 
see gif thy saull be faithfnll or not. Luke quhat estimation thou 
hes of thy body and carcase, quhat account thou makis thereof: 
I say to thee, gif thou hes thy cheif plesour in esteiming of thy 
bodie, decking and feiding it, following thy appetyte, wallowing in 
* Goest. t Builded. i Cottage. 

ON 2 COR. 5. 305 

the lust thairof, gif thou lives In sic estimation of thy bodle, I say 
thou hes a faithles sauU reraayning within thy bodie. Wo to that 
falthles man that hes na uther pleasure, nor can grip nor seik to na 
uther thing, hot to the plesing of that fleschlle bodie, without regard 
of the pretious saul : allace^ in plesuring thy bodie thou tynis^ thy 
saul, thou makis thy body thy hevin, and thou testifies plainly, 
that thou wants that licht and sense of that hevinlie bodie, quhilk 
sail be efter this lyfe. This far for the description of the death of 
the body, quhilk is the hoas of the saul, learning vis to esteim of 
the saul and bodie as they ar in deid, and that not with ane flesch- 
lle sense, bot with the spirituall eies of faith. 

Now we cum to the lyfe that is contrarie to deith. Thair is 
twa partis of man, his saull and his bodie, this glorie quhilk we 
speik of is not the glorie of the saull onlie, bot the glorie of the 
bodie likewise, ane glorie belanging baith to saull and bodie. 
" We," (sayis he), " sail get ane building, not ane sarie'^ house, as 
this eirthlie bodie was, bot ane fair buylding." He callis the bodie 
quhilk we have presentlie ane hous, bot the body quhilk we sal 
get he termes it ane building, thou gat this body fra nature, that 
uther is above nature ; nature can not give thee that other body, 
God sail give thee it above nature, and against nature. Quhat 
buylding is this? It is ane hous not bigglt^ with the handis of 
men ; it is biggit with God's awin hand ; the Lord immediately 
with his awin hand biggls^ up this buylding. The former house of 
this body was unstabil, and had na abiding, for this bodie passis 
away, but this secund buylding is ane house that sal never fal nor 
flit, bot sal be eternal : quhen thou sal get this buylding, thou sal 
not neid to be feirit for the dissolutioun thairof; it sail never be 
dissolvit. Quhair sal this buylding be biggit ? Men regardis me- 
kill'5 situatioun in buylding ? This lions in the quhilk wc dwel heir 
it is biggit in the eirth, and it is ane tabernacle pitchit quhylls'' in 
this place, quhylis in that place, bot the situation of this buylding 
sail be in the hevin. For I assure thee, fra anis ane man^ is glori- 

' Alas ! - Losest. ' Silly. * Buildcd. * Builded. " Mncli. 

' Sometimes. ' When a man is once. 



fyit, and enteris In that glorie, he sail na mair retume to the eh'th. 
The eirth dow^ not beir ane glorifyit person ; Christ glorifyit could 
not byde in the eirth, bot being glorifyit he went to that glorious 
mansioun in hevin. Thou sail na sooner be glorifyit, bot thou sal 
mount up to hevin as Christ did. Weill, then, thair is the glorie, 
and thair is no word heir, bot it aggregis that passing glorie. 
Everie word lets us see the greatnes of that glory, and zit it is not 
all tauld. Nay, Paul can not tel thee al the glorie that sal be in 
the glorifyit bodie, he lies maid- bot ane little inckling of it. It is 
bot ane buylding quhairof he tellis thee. Zit mark, quha is this 
that spekis this ? It is Paul. How speikis he it ? Be fliith. Is it 
his mouth that speikis it ? Nay. It is the saull that ludgis in the 
bodie, that fallis out in the extolling of that buylding that it sail 
dwell in. As ane sillie man in ane coit house,^ appointit to glorie, 
suld say : I am now sitting in ane sarie house, bot I sail anis sit 
in ane glorious palice. Sa marke, faith will cause the saull mount 
up above the bodie, and quhill the saull is in the bodie, faith and 
hope will lift it up, and put it (in ane maner) in hevin. Thairfoir 
this same Paul sayis in the third chapter to the Philip, the 20. 
verse, Be faith and hope he had his conversatioun in hevin, quhill 
hee was zit dwelling on the eirth. Get thairfoir faith and hope, 
that enteris thee in the possessioun of that glorie, and befoir the 
saull be severit fra the bodie, they will in ane maner put thee in 
possessioun thairof. It is the to-luik to hevin that makis the saull 
of Paull to rejoyce in this glory. The coitter* that hcs not a to- 
luik to ane better hous, he is a fuil to despyse this coit-house, bot 
he that hes ane to-luik to ane better, quha can wyte^ him to de- 
spise this cot-hous. I will tel thee my counsel, befoir thou disludge 
out of this bodie, for als fraile as it is, wit weilP of ane better, 
gang not out of the hous dore, except thou wit that' thou sal enter 
in ane glorious house. I assure thee and thou be not provydit 
for ane better house, and have not faith and hope of ane better 
than that quhilk thou ludgis in, thou sal enter in ane worse, 

' Can. - Given. ' Cottage. * Cottager. ■'' Who can blame. 

" Be assuvcil. ' Know that. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 307 

thou sal get that bodie againe quhilk was evill befolr, hot then 
it sail be ane thousand tymis worse : for the saul sail be schot in 
that body again, and then thou sail be schot baith saull and 
bodie in that foule dungeoun of hell. Sa, brethren, luke for ane 
glorious buylding, and thou that esteimis not of this bodie, be cair- 
full for a better. Ane vain prodigall man will cast his saull out 
of this bodie, and in the mein time will not be provydit for ane 
better ludging thairto. He is not estemit ane man in thir^ dayis, 
that will not hazard and cast out his life for ane evil cause and 
quarrell. Trowis^ thou that saull of thine sail get ane better ludg- 
ing heirefter, and thou not provydit thairof be faith and hope heir : 
nay, nay. O blissit is that man that deis in ane gude cause. 
And quhat better cans can be nor Christis cause, qulia is the God 
of lyfe : assure thee thou that will die for Christis cause, thou sail 
get ane buylding in hevin : thou that takis na cair of this lyfe for 
Christis cause, death sail be advantage to thee. The Lord grant 
us ane to-luiking to that hevinly buylding, and ane assurance of 
that hevinlie life. This mekill for the assurance that Paul hes 
that he sail dwell in hevin. Now in the verse followino; learn how 
he groundis this assurance, and quhat warrand he hes for him. 
Faith is not ane word as to say, (I believe) ; and hope is not ane 
word as to say (I hope). Na, bot thou mon have ane warrand of 
thy salvation in this lyfe, or ellis I assure thee in the name of 
God thou sail never get hevin. It is ane strait way to cum to 
hevin, and it is wonder'' hard to get the assurance of it : it is na 
small mater to get ane assurance of lyfe everlasting eftcr death. 
Than luik quhat warrandis this man Paul had, that thou may 
preis to have the lyke. The first ground of his assurance is in 
this secund verse. For, (sayis he), " For this cause we sigh, de- 
siring to be clothed, to put on as it wer ane garment :" Quhair- 
with ? " With our hous quhilk is fra hevin." Thir ar his wordis. 
Then his first warrand and ground of his assurance is ane desyre 
of that samin glorie. Quhat sort of desyre ? Ane earnest desyre 
with sidling and sobbing : not ane cald desyre, bot day and nicht 
' These. ■ Trustest. ^ Wondrous. 

u 2 



crying and sobbing for lyfe. Trowis^ thou sa easily to get hevin 
that can never say ernestlie in thy hart, God give mee that hevin- 
lie lyfe : na, thou will be disappointed : it is the violent that enters 
in hevin. Mat. xi. 12 ; as ze will see ane man violentlie thring^ in 
at ane zct.^ Thou that wald gang to hevin, make thee for thring- 
ing throw quhill^ all thy guttis be almaist thrustit out. Paul, in 
the viii. chap, to the Romanes, the 22. and 23. verses, usis thir ar- 
gu mentis againis those wickit men that can not sich for hevin. 
First he takis his argument fra the dementis, the sensles and 
dumb creaturis, quha sobbis and gronis for the revelatioun of the 
sonnis of God, and travellis for that time as ane woman in hir 
birth. O miserable man the eirth sail condemne thee, the flure 
thou sittis on is sidling, and wald faine have that carcase of thine 
to hevin. The waters, the air, the hevinnis, al siching for that 
last delyverance, the glory apperteinis to thee, and zit thou is 
lauchand, aUace quhat sail betyde thee. The other argument he 
takis fra the piching of men quha hes gottin the spreit of God : 
" We also, (sayis he) quha hes the first frutis of the spreit, even we 
do sich in our selfis, wayting for the adoptioun, even the redemp- 
tioun of our bodie." Thou that hes not gottin the spreit sail never 
sich for hevin ; flesche and blude will never sched ane teare for 
hevin. It mon only be the spreit of Jesus, that mon fetch up the 
sich out of the hart, and the teare in the eie. Eom. viii. 26. Sa he 
takis his argument fra them quha hes gottin ane sense of the spreit 
of God, and redemptioun of the bodie, to prove the certaintie of 
that heavenlie kingdome and glorie. Now thair can not be ane 
surer argument to us that ever we sail obtein glory, nor this sich- 
ing in hart for it, and this earnest desyre thairof. Gif thou finde 
tliy hart desyrous of glorie, ane sure argument thou sail be partaker 
of glorie. It is said, " Blissit ar they that hungers and thirstis for 
richteousnes, for they sail be fillit." Mat. v. 6. Sichis thou for 
Christis riehteousnesse and thy glorie, assure thee thou sail get ane 
sweit filling, mark it, I say to thee, thou hes not onlie throuch this 
crnest desyre of glorie, ane assurance that thou sail ring'' in glorie : 
' Tliuikcst. - Thrust. ^ Dour. * Till. ' Reitrii. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 309 

bot (luik to zour experience) that desire is not sa sone begun of 
that life and glorie, bot als^ sone the saul of the faithfidl begins to 
ryse with joy. Quha ever zet was he that gave ane sich fi'a his 
heart, raisit up be the spreit of Christ, that felt not with that sich, 
ane joy in his heart ? Learn it be zour experience. This lets us 
see, that the desire and thrist of glorie, puts us in present posses- 
sioun of ane part of glorie. Or thou cum to it desire it earnestlie, 
and I promeis thee in the name of the Father, thou sail be present- 
lie put in possessioun of ane part of that hevinlie inheritance. It 
is trew thou sail not get it all heir, zit thair is nane other hevin 
after this life, bot that hevin quhilk thou gets begun in thee in this 
life. Alwayis luik ever for that joy that is be sicht. Thair is twa 
joyis the ane be sicht, the other be fiiith. 2. Cor. v. 7. The joy 
be faith is in our pilgrimage in this lyfe. The joy be sicht is efter 
this life quhen with our eies we sal see Christ. The joy be faith 
is to luik to Christ afar of, and zit we rejoice, and lufis him that 
is far absent. 1. Pet. i. 8. Faith lies ane joy that it enjoy is, be 
speiking and thinking. Sicht hes the joy that it enjoyis be pre- 
sence. The joy of the eie greit in quantitie and the fulnes of joy : 
the joy of faith not sa great, for it is the joy of ane pilgrime, not 
as zit cummit to his hame. The joy of the sicht is quhen we sail 
see our glorious Lord, face to face, quhom we see only now be faith. 
1. Cor. xiii. 12. This is the fulnes of joy. The joy of faith, quhilk 
is induring our pilgrimage, is not sa full. O how greit sal be the 
joy at the perfite seing of Christ. Think never to have the joy 
be sicht efter this life, except in this lyfe thou have the joy be faith, 
as the arliss^ penny of the other, and except be faith thou get ane 
joy anis or thou gang fra this lyfe, thou sail never see the face of 
Christ, nor have joy in him. Sa brethren, it is ane gude thing to 
have that desyre of hevin. Sich and sob, and desire with Paull for 
hevin. For it is ane sure chartour and evident,'' of thy everlasting 
inheritance. And never ane eirthlie Lord had ane surer chartour 
of his land, nor thou, that hes ane desyre of hevin, hes of thy in- 
heritance in hevin. For thir eirthlie evidentis of land ar without 
1 So. " Earnest. ^ Evidence. 


them in tliair kistis, bot this evident of thine is written and ingraft 
in thy hart. Now quhen extremitie is threatned, it is time to seik 
thy warrands of this heavinlie inheritance. This present countrie 
is gude for thee, and the best countrie that ever thou sail see, ex- 
cept thou find this waiTand of siehing, and desiring for that hevin- 
ly inheritance. And therefoir, let scorners and mockers scorne as 
they will, the children of God mon powre furth tearis : And this 
is it that the Lord hes bene desyring thir monie dayis bygane,i he 
lies bene gentlie drawing out of us this sense ; bot now he begins 
to preis it out of us, that oiu* eies may burst out in tearis ; and 
thou that can nocht sob, and desyre in thir miserabill dayis to be 
dissolvit, thou hes na trew mater of joy. Wo be to them that hes 
na hart to sicli for the trubill of Christis ku-k, bot is ay- reddie to 
execute judgement againis Godis servandis quhen the Lord is 
pressing'* them. Weill, the Lord sail wring out tearis out of them 
in his wraith, that will not sob in the time of the daunger and 
trubill of his Kirk. Then quhat is it that Paul sichis for, and 
quhat desyris he? He desyris ane new cleithing to be put on abone,* 
as ane cleithing abone ane cleithing, that is, he wald keip this same 
bodie in substance, and cast off this filthie garment of sinne and 
death, and put on that glorious schaipe of the bodie of Christ. 
The reason is set doun, " For quhen the Lord sail cleith us, we 
sail not be fund nakit." Sa this bodie sal remaine in substance, 
bot O the glorie and immortalitie of it. Mark the nature of the 
ludging quhilk we sail receave, it sal not be in ane other body in 
substance then this bodie quhilli we have heir in eirth. The same 
bodie in substance we sail have in hevin that we have heir. Heir- 
in onlie is the difference, this bodie is vyle, it is mortall, fuU of 
sinne and wickednesse, unglorious, ignominious, full of corruptioun, 
waik, infirme. Bot quhen this bodie saU be changit in hevin, it 
sail be changit not in substance, bot in qualitie. Paull, i. Cor. xv. 
42, 43, 44, sayis, " The bodie is sawin in corruption, and is raisit 
agane in incorruptioun, it is sawin in dishonour, it is raisit in glone ; 
it is sawau in waiknesse, it is raisit in power :"' the waikcst bodie 
' Vast. ' Arc ever. ^ Visiting. ■* Above. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 311 

in lievin sail be starker nor^ the strongest man in eirtli. '' Then" 
(sayis he) " it is sawin ane naturall bodie, and is raisit ane spirituall 
bodie." Sa the change is in qualitie ; and thairfoir he sayis to the 
PhUip. iii. 21., " Quhen Christ cummis he sail transforme (not abo- 
lische, bot transforme) in qualitie om* vyle bodie like to his awin 
glorious bodie." Christ keipis in the hevin that same verie bodie 
quhilk he had in the eirth, and thou sal keip the same bodie in 
hevin, quhilk thou hes in eirth ; bot it sal be alterit in qualitie, 
als far as the hevin and eirth is different. Brethren, this ministers 
comfort. Thair is nane of us bot naturallie we love this bodie, 
then let this comfort thee, that suppois thy saull sail be for ane 
tyme uncled of ^ this body, zit thou sal get it agane. Ane other 
comfort ; deith dow not destroy it, the grave dow^ not be abil to 
swallow up that bodie, bot the grave sal keip it and the dust and 
substance thairof, quhil the cumming of Christ, and then it sail be 
compellit to rander it again. " Lyfe sail swallow up death :" Bot 
deith nor the grave saU not be abill to swallow up the bodie of 
Goddis elect : Bot the reprobate saU be swallowit up of deith baith 
in sauU and bodie. In the aucht chapter to the Romanes the tent 
and eUevint verses, Paul ministers thair* twa consolationis aganis 
deith. He sayis ; " the bodie mon die because of sinne :" bot he 
subjoynis : The sauU in the mein tyme sail live ; and the spreit of 
lesus sail tak it and cover it with that blude. And albeit it was 
ane sinfidl sauU, zit als sone as the Father blenkis upon it, wompled^ 
and wrapped as it wer in the blude of lesus, iramediatlie he bid- 
dis it pas to glorie. He gais fordward. And quhair it micht have 
bene said, sal we have na consolatioun In the bodie ? He answeris, 
" Gif the Spreit of him that raisit lesus fra the deid, dwell in zour 
mortall bodie : quhat then ? he, that is, God the Father that raisit 
up Christ from the deid : he, be his Spreit saU rais zour bodies : that 
same body that is dead and laid in grave, that same body be God's 
spreit, (for the spreit of lesus and the spreit of the Father is al ane) 
sal be raisit up." Leirn then fra anis'' this halie Spreit of God tak 

' Stronger tlinii. -= Without. 'Shall. * There. ' Wympled, (i. f. folded.) 
* Learn then if. 



ludglng in zou, he sail never leave zou in saull nor budie : he sail 
accumpanie the bodie in the grave, and convoy the sanll to hevin. 
The spreit of lesus sal gang with the saull and lift it up. The 
eirth gets the body quhen the saull is separate from it, zit the 
halie Spreit sal gang to the grave with the bodie, and sail remain 
with it in the grave, and with the leist pickilli of dust thairof : and 
quhen Christ sail cum he sail gadder it togidder, and mak ane 
hail bodie. Sa happie are they that hes anis ludgit this gaist^ in 
thair saullis, for fyre, nor water, nor na uther power, ever sail be 
able to destroy them, becaus that Halie Spreit ever remaines 
with them. Now in the next verse, because it micht have bene 
said and objected: Thou wald not want the bodie, quhy sichis 
thou then and quhat meinis this desyre, gif thou wald keip the 
bodie ? " We (the faithfull) that ar in this tabernacle, we sich 
and are burdened : (hot mark our desyre) becaus we would not 
be unclothed, (as sum will say, sauU to God, and banis to the 
borrow mure'' in contempt of the bodie : trowis thou to be glorifyit 
in hevin without ane bodie ? Xa) but would be cleithed upon, 
that mortalitie micht be swallowed up of life." As gif he Avald 
say, I wald have this fair cloke of glorie put on this bodie, that 
it micht consume, and swallow up all this stink of sinne, that is 
in the bodie. Leirn then first the bodie as it is now, is ane burden. 
He say is : " We that ar in this tabernacle, sich and ar burdenit," 
it is ane lead* layit on the back of the sauU, it is ane tabernacle, 
bot ane burdenable tabernacle, as ane house smoring' him doun, 
and he balding the same up on his schoulders, that appeirandhe it 
wald be better to him to be out of it. Leirn secundlie the estait 
of them that dwellis in this tabernacle. Gif the bodie be ane 
burden, then the saull mon grone and sich as ane man under 
ane heavie burden. And the bodie is nathing bot ane hous of 
murning to the faithful saul, sa lang as it dwels thairin. The wan- 
ton licht man thinkis this bodie quhilk he beiris about to be na 
burden, and wiU rin and loup" with it, as thocht' this carcase wer 

' Tart. ' r.iicst. ' Soul to God, aiul bones to tlic (hinnliill. * Load. 

* Smothering. " Leap. ' Tliough. 

ON 2. Cor. 5. 315 

licht as ane fetlier. Allace lie feillls not the burden, he is sensles, 
and like ane in ane fever, and in ane rage, that wats^ nocht quhat 
he dois or quhat he sufferis. Ane mountane is lying on him, and 
he feillis it not. Woe to thu' men that are sa wantoun under this 
miserie. Amend in tyme, or the Lord sal thrust thee doun to 
hell. Fy on thee that dwellis in Bethania, the hous of murning, 
and can not murne : Murne in tyme, or eUis I assure thee thou 
sail murne for ever. This being the conditioun of men that dwellis 
in this tabernacle, siching and desyring, as ane woman with child 
to be rehevit, quhat is the end of this desire ? The end of the 
murning of the godlie is, not that they wald be quyte of the hous, 
as manie desyris : that were wrang : for manie wiU murne under 
this hous desperatlie, and the bodie will be ane burden to the sauU 
in them, and thair life will be displeasand^ to them : they wil think 
to get ane relief of the burden be the want of this present life, and 
wil put hand in themselfis, bot then beginnis thair everlasting 
murning, they never wist quhat murning was quhill that end come. 
Sa this is not the way to be delivered of the burdene, bot the w^ay 
is to seik to put on ane cleithing on this bodie, and heir is the end 
of our desire. It is cled with mortalitie, and that is all the mater 
of thy murning, it is not the substance of the bodie that causis 
thee to murne, bot sinne that seazis on thy bodie, and gangis into 
the merche of thy banis,^ deith accumpanying sinne. Then this 
mortalitie being ane accident of sinne, quhilk is the chief cause 
thairof, the remedie is : Seik to be cled with the lyfe that cummis 
of Clii'ist. Souk* in be faith ane drop of that lyfe of Christ. This 
wiU not destroy thy bodie, bot it will destroy the deith and sinne 
that seazis^ on thy bodie. And the lyfe of lesus Christ in ane mo- 
ment wiU swallow up all that deith, and sinne, and all that misery 
that lay on thee. Thair is the way to dwell with ease in the bodie. 
Seik not to destroy the bodie, bot seik the slauchter of that sinne 
and deith that lyis on thy bodie, utherwayis sauU and bodie baith 

' Knoweth. ^ Unpleasant. ^ But sin that posscsseth thy body and coiTupteth 
the manow of thy bones. * Suck. ' Possesseth. 


sail perische, the lious sail fall doun, and the man that ludgit in 
the hous sail be destroyit. 

Remember then, lyfe and deith ar not maters to mow with/ they 
ar not wordis, nay, nay. Think gravelie of them, and befoir thy 
saul be disludged, lulk that thou be preparit for ane better lyfe, 
luik that thou finde the Lord of lyfe Chi-ist lesus be his Spreit 
wirking the deith of mortalitie in thee, and the beginning of the 
lyfe that sail last for ever. The Lord be his Spreit wirk thir 
thingis in zour hartis : To quhome be all prais, glorie, and honour, 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

' Life and death are not matters to be scorned withal. 


2. Cor. Cap. 5. 

5. And he that hath created us for this thing, is God, quha also hes given 

vnto us the arlis^ of the Spreit. 

6. Thairfoir we ar alwayis bauld, thocht we knaw that quhylis we ar at 

hame in the body we ar absent from the Lord. 

7. (For we walk by faith, and not by sicht.) 

8. Neverthelesse, we ar bauld, and love rather to remufe out of the bodie, 

and to dwell with the Lord. 

Brethren, ze that wer present the last day, hard quhat was 
tlie purpos of Paul in this place. First he beginnis to comfort 
himself, and all others that ar to die, and to be dissolvit, against 
deith, and the terrours of deith. He (as he sayis in the chap, 
preceiding ver. 18.) is luiking up to hevin, and whill he is luik- 
ing up to hevin to see that end that he was anis to attein to, 
thair cummis in betwixt his sicht, and the licht of that glorie 
and lyfe, ane cloud of deith, to have cleikit" out of his eies (gif 
it had bene possible) all to-luik to lyfe everlasting. The re- 
medie aganis it, we schew zou was faith, and ane constant hope, 
with ane schairp, eirnest, and stedfast luiking, even to pearce in 
throuch deith, and that cloud of deith, and throuch deith to get ane 
sicht of that lyfe, and licht of glorie, that lyis hid up in hevin bezond 
deith, " We knaw" (sayis the Apostle) " and ar assurit, that our 
bodie and the eirthlie house of this tabernacle, sail be dissolvit, zit 
we sail get ane buylding for ane hous, ane buylding that is fra God, 
not maid with mannis handis, ane buylding eternall, that is situate 
' Earnest. ' Caught. 



in the hevin above the cirth." Quheu he hes set doun this remedie, 
he beginnls to comfort himself and utheris, be ane sure faith, that 
efter deith he sail live agane, efter the dissolutioun of his mortall 
bodie, he sail receave ane glorious bodie. The first argument of 
his assurance is fra the desire he had of lyfe, siching with ane elr- 
nest desire of that kingdom quhilk is fra hevin. This desire never 
disappointit man. Never was thair onie man that had ane eirnest 
desire of lyfe and glorie, and had the trew knawledge and mein to 
attein to this glorie, that was disappointit of his desire : bot quha 
ever desirit maist eirnestlie to be glorifyit, maist certainlie they 
live now in hevin, and at this hour they ar glorifyit thair : and 
nane thair sail be that sail have this desire, and stryvis to thring 
in to hevin violentlie, Mat. xi. 12 ; bot they sail enjoy hevin efter 
thair departing. Now in the text quhilk we have red, we foUow 
out the assurances, and warrands quhilk the Apostle hes of the glory 
of the lyfe to cum. The secund assurance and warrand of the lyfe 
to cum, is in the first words : " He" (say is the Apostle) " that hes 
creatit us for this thing is God," &c. The argument of the lyfe 
to cum, in thir wordis, is fra the end of our creation, God hes crea- 
tit us to this end, to wit, that in the end this mortality quhairwith 
we ar cled, micht be swallowed up of lyfe, thairfoir live mon we in 
hevin. This is the end of our creatioun : thairfoir it cannot fail, 
bot glorifyit mon we be. Learne then : The maner of our glori- 
fying is this : It is God, not man, that hes maid us and creatit us 
to this end : It is impossible that God can be disappointit of the 
end quhilk he settis befoir him of his wark. Man may be disap- 
pointed, for he wil begin ane wark for sum purpose, bot oft tymis 
he will be disappointed of that purpose : He wiU big ane house to 
dwell in, bot it may be he never dwell in it, ane uther will dwell 
thairin. God quhen he workis ane wark to ony end, it is impos- 
sible that he can be disappointit. AU the warld gif they wald 
stand up and oppone to Goddis wark, they cannot hinder it : That 
wark that God workis in us, is sic ane wark that tendis to lyfe as 
to the end thairof. " Quha sail condemne" (sayis the Apostle) " it 
is God that justifyis." Kom. viii. 33. WiJ jte justifie thee ? al 

ON 2. COR. 5. 317 

the warld sal not be able to condemne thee. Wil he save thee ? 
all the warld sail not be abill to make thee perische. Sa it is of 
his haill Kirki in general. Suppose al the warld wer conspyrit 
aganis his Kirk, he will have it saif : and wonderfullie workis he 
the salvation of his Kirk, and every member thairof : throuch 
deith he bringis them to lyfe : sa that it is follie to men to stryve 
against the warkis of God. Zit luik to the wordis: " He that lies 
creatit us to this end, is God." Quhat creatioun is this that he 
meinis of? Is this that first creatioun of Adam and Eva ? Of everie 
ane of us in them that was at the beo-innino- ? Not swa '.- that crea- 
tioun faiUit. Indeid we wer first creatit to live and throw that first 
creatioun everie ane of us gat ane certaine richt to live for ever : bot 
that richt we lost in our amn default, we ar fallin fi-a that richt 
of our creatioun in the fall of Adam. Sa we mon seik ane utlier 
creatioun or we sail never see lyfe : for we have na richt to that 
first creatioun that was in aU halinesse according; to the imao:e of 
God. Eph. iv. 24. Gif thou stick to that first creation and auld 
birthricht, thou sal never see life. Then the Apostle meinis of ane 
uther ? Quhat uther making or creating of us is this ? It is our re- 
generatioun and renewing again, quliilk is nathing ellis bot as it 
wer ane new birth and begetting, fra the quhilk we ar called new 
creatures. 2. Cor. v. 17. Then brethren wald thou have ane sure 
argument that thou sail live efter this life ? (and wo to thee and 
thou live not efter this life, wo to them that ever saw this warld, 
and they get nocht ane lyfe efter this lyfe, for this lyfe wiU away.) 
Luik gif thou be regenered and renewed, luik gif thou be sancti- 
fied, and finds ane slaying of thy lustis within thee. Luik gif thou 
finds the lyfe of God be his Spreit wirking within thee, not this 
naturall life, bot this hevinlie and spirituall lyfe begun in thee, not 
be nature, bot be grace. Gif thou hes this, thou hes ane warrand 
thou sail live, and albeit this naturall lyfe sail be takin from thee, 
thow saU get ane uther lyfe everlasting in glorie: Bot gif thou find 
thee not renewed be the Spreit of grace, tak this hfe from thee, 
thou saU not get life everlasting in glorie. Sa luik gif thou be a 
' Church. 2 So. 


new creature, thou hes gottin ane greater grace, nor to be borne to 
ane earthly kingdome, gif sa be thou may assure thy self of life 
everlasting. Quhat is this newnes in the new creature ? This new- 
nes that is in the new creature is nathing ellis bot that same life 
quhilk we sail live in hevin, and is begun heir. This newnes is 
only this new life of regeneratioun, quhilk lyfe sa lang as thou 
livis heir (fra time thou hes gotten ane sponk thairof) peice and 
piece eatis up the auld cankerit nature. The lyfe of God within 
thee, will consume, (evin as thou consummis the meat thou eatis) 
the auld corruptioun that lyis in thy nature : and in the end, in the 
glorious resurrectioun of the deid, it sail be altogidder abolisched. 
This lyfe then quhilk is begun heir, it sail oppin the mouth and 
swalloAv up deith, and deith thairefter sail have na mair place. 
This life is onlie eating up peice and piece' deith heir : bot at that 
time it sal swallow it up haillely^ and thou sail say with PauU, 
"Death is swallowed up," 1. Cor. xv. 54. Sa well is the saull that 
hes ane warrand of his new creation, quhidder he die in his bed 
or out of it, he sail die with joy. Then my counsell is, seing 
deith is daily threatned, let every ane preis to get this assurance 
of this new lyfe begun in him heir, that it may swallow up deith : 
woe be to them that hes not this assurance. This is the secund 
assurance of life everlasting. I pray zou mark thir assvirances, for 
Paul had sic ane earnest desire, that he socht al assurances 
and warrands of this life, and he is reigning now In hevin. Sa 
thou quha thirsts efter life, learne at him. Now restis the third 
Avarrand in the nixt wordis, "Quha alway hes given us the arils of the 
Spreit." Learne the wordis, for all the doctrine rysis of the wordis. 
Then the third warrand is the Spreit of Christ Jesus In thee. 
Gif ever thou myndls to have life helrefter, thou mon have Goddls 
Spreit in thee: not onlie thy awin Spreit, bot Goddls Spreit, flowing 
fra God through Jesus Christ and entering in thy bodic and saull. 
Behald the liberality of God, quhen he be his Sprit hes renewit 
thee, he avIU not tak that Spreit fra thee, as ane man will doe 
quhen he his biggit ane wark, he will tak his hand fra it, stand 
' Little iiiKl little. - Wholly. 

ON 2. Cor. 5. 319 

gif it will or not. Bot the Lord dois not swa : he hes renewed 
thee be his halie Spreit, quhilk he puttis within thee. O how 
the Lord puttis the third person of the Trinitie in thee, and makis 
him ane arlis-pennie to thee of life everlasting. Because thy re- 
generatioun Is imperfite, and thou hes not zit atteined to that life, 
thairfoir he lets his Spreit byde in thee, assuring thee as ane arlis- 
penny, that quhatsaever God hes promised, he sail performe it to 
thee, and thou sail not be disappointed of ane jot thairof. Sic is 
the iufidelitie of our nature, all the promises, all the aithis quhilk 
he makis to confirme his promises, aU his sacramentis quhilk 
he hes joynit to his promises cannot perswade us : bot luik 
to this third warrand, hes thou the Spreit of God, gif he be in 
thee, he will be quick, wirking joy with sichis, he can not be idill, 
he will be wirking the wark of regeneration baith day and nicht. 
" Then anger him not." Eph. iv. 30. Away with filthy cogita- 
tiounis, away with everie rotten word, away with every evill deld, 
labour to plesour him day and nicht, and preis^ to keip him, and 
thou sail have ane warrand in thy bosome of lyfe, and quhen thou 
is dying, thou sail find sic sweitnes in death as is wonderfull to 
tell. Nane ever had the Spreit of God bot in deith they had un- 
speikable joy. Sa^ seik to be in Christ and get his Spreit within 
thee, and getting this Spreit, keip him diligently, and powre out 
thy awin Spreit, bot never Gods Spreit for then in aU distressis 
thou sail have comfort. Now to resume all ; Ze that takis o-reit 
plesour in zour chartouris, the evidentis of zour inheritance and 
land, take tent to this,'' zour inheritance is in hevin : and thou is 
ane fuile quha thinkis that thou hes ane inheritance in eirth. For 
either sail thou be ruggit fra* it, or it sail be ruggit fra thee. Na, 
luik as ever thou wald be ane inheritour, that thy inheritance be 
in hevin. Thou is the fulischest begger, and the puirest that ever 
was, and thou wer^ ane king, gif thou think thy inheritance to be 
in airth : having laid this count with thy self, my inheritance is 
in hevin, then nixt luik that thou have thy evidents : thou sail not 
bruik"^ hevin, and thou have not the evidents thairof laid up in 
' Strive. - Then. ' Take heed. •* Pulled from. * If thou be. " Possess. 


thy chartour kist. Now thy evidents ar the same evidents that 
Paul had, and the same kind of evident servis for all, it is ane in- 
heritance that all men mon get, ane sort of chartour raon serve 
for ane inheritance. Quhat then can be the chartour -and evident ? 
Can thou sich for that hevinly inheritance ? can thou have ane 
desire of it ? thair is thy first evident : then findis thou thy self 
to be rene^vit ? findis thou Christ's life in thee ? " the life of lesus is 
manifest in me" sayis Paul, 2. Cor. iv. 10. Findis thou the wickit 
lyfe of this warld reformit ? thair is the secund evident. Zit mair, 
finds thou the worker of the desire, and the worker of thy regene- 
ration, the Spreit of Christ within thee? then keip him weill. 
Thair is the best evident of all the evidents of thy inheritance : 
having thir assure thee of hevin : want thou thir or onie of them, 
thou sal never get that inheritance in hevin. As thir three ar 
three evidents of thy hevinly inheritance, sa they ar three proppis 
of faith that grippis this hevinly lyfe, they are three pillars that 
halds up faith that is biggit on them ; cut ane of thir pillars away, 
tliou sail tyne faith and hope. Bot heir it may be speirit,^ Ar all 
thir three of the nature of the life to come ? I answere : As for the 
desire, siching and sobbing for that hevinly inheritance, it endis with 
this lyfe, and in that lyfe to cum " al weping sail be tane away." 
Revel, xxi. 4. ^lurne and grone in time, then heirefter saU cum 
joy, and puir joy. Ane trublit joy is heir in this life, bot heirefter 
thair sail be ane puir solide joy, and nathing bot joy. Sa this 
murning ceisses then, and is not of the nature of the lyfe to cum. 
Bot as to the new creature and regeneratioun, it is of the nature 
of the lyfe to cum : and it is the beginning and first part of that 
hevinly glory, sa that our hevinly glory sal be na uther thing bot 
the perfyting of our regeneratioun. For quhen all this peltrie^ sail 
be taken away, then we sail fullie be renewed. As to the Spreit, 
gif ever he was powerfull in eirth, he sail be mair powerfull in 
hevin, sa that the same spreit that heir dwelt in thy body, sail then 
glorify thy body, and mak it schyne mair bricht then the sun. 
Thairfoir let us seik this regeneratioun, and the Spreit of Christ : 

' Asked. ' Fclffry, (('. -'. vile trnsh.) 

ON 2. COE. 5. 321 

for In thir twa standls the perfection and the glorle of the life to 
cum. Now when he hes reckned out al the warrands of lyfe, 
quhalrby he assurls him self thalrof, he concludls In the next 
verse : " Then (sayls he) we have confidence alwayis :" As gif he 
wald say : having thIr warrands, I have confidence alwales, that 
Is, I am assurit of my glorie : and zit the wordls importis not onlle 
ane assurance, bot the effect thairof, quhilk Is ane swelt securltle In 
the saull : for quhen ever onle man is assurit of lyfe, then the 
sauU with sweltnes will rest : then cummis that peace of conscience 
assuring us quhidder we live or we die we ar Christ's : sa this 
drawls on that bauldness and confidence. Then luik the nature, 
the beginning, and rysing of Faith. It standls and Is buyldit upon 
zon2 thre pillers, ane earnest desire of lyfe, regeneration, and the 
Sprelt of God : ThIr ar the three proppis thairof, quhilk ar sensible 
to them that hes faith, and we suld be acquainted with them : 
Then of this rysis the sweit confidence of glorie, and securitie, the 
repose and rest of the saull and conscience, and fra the saull it 
cummis up to the mouth, and brekis out In ane glorying : As this 
same Apostle upon this confidence in his sauU brekis out and sayls, 
" Quhat sail sever us fra the love of Christ ? sail tribulatioun, or 
anguische, or persecutioun, or famine, or nakednes, or perrill, or 
sword :" " Na, in all thir thingis we ar mair nor victorious throw 
him that lulffit us." Rom. viii. 35, &,c. Sa that faith being biggit 
upon thir three pillers, securitie and confidence being biggit upon 
faith, than bauldness in mouth will say, I defy all contrarie 
powers : lay the sword, lay fyre, lay deith before mee, it will 
say, I defy them all : zea, let all the devlllis of hell cum befoir 
a man, and his faith be well biggit, and confidence on faith, he 
will defy them all : zea, albeit they threatin damnatioun to him ; 
for gif thou stand In Christ, live sail thou : albeit thou may be 
severed fi'om this mortall lyfe, al the warld can not sever thee fra 
the lyfe of Christ. Seik tills lyfe noAv In tyme, that in troubill we 
may say that we will rest on Christ, and all the warld sail not se- 
ver us fra him. Zit to go ford ward in the wordis : The Apostle as 

' Whensoever. ^ These. 



zit hes not the full contentatioun in hart, for all this assurance. 
" For (sayis he) we knaw that whyll we ar at hame in the bodie, 
we ar absent fra the Lord." Gif we be at hame with ane thing, 
we ar on feild fra ane better.^ Allace ! thou being at hame at thy 
awin house and fyre, thou is far on feild^ fi'a thy hame in hevin : 
whill we ar at hame in this mortal bodie we are strangers and pil- 
grimes fra the Lord. Brethren, ze sail leirn heir ane great diffe- 
rence betwixt confidence and contentatioun. It is ane thing to 
have contentatioun, ane other thing to have confidence. This 
Apostle had confidence bot not contentatioun. Thou art al begylit^ 
that thinkis thou hes sufficient contentatioun in this warld. Wo is 
thee, zea althocht thou have hevinlie graces, and thou think thou 
hes contentatioun either of glorie, or of siclit : all is naething. 
Quhy ? because thair can not, nor suld not be contentatioun heir : 
na, the best nor maist confident man that livis, suld not think he 
hes contentatioun in this present life. All thy halines, faith, confi- 
dence and hope, suld not give thee full contentatioun. Al the king- 
doms, honour, and riches of this warld, quhilk is nathing but dirt 
and peltry in respect of those hevinly thingis, sidd not give thee 
full contentatioun. And zit the warldly foil will say in hart, I have 
contentatioun and sufficiencie. O, bot quhat said Christ to him 
that decreit with his hart to mak wyde barnis : " Fuil, this nicht 
thy saul sail be takin fra thee." Luk. xii. 20. Away with ane opi- 
nioun of contentation in this eirth an thou wer ane kinff of al the 
eirth : AViU thou have contentatioun without Christ ? WiU thou 
have sufficiencie, and not have him quha is thy lyfe and glorie : 
Quhen thou is ane pilgrime fra Christ, and wandring fra thy coun- 
trie and inheritance, wiU thou say thou hes thy liartis desire ? Had 
ever pilgrim full contentatioun during the time of his pilgrimage ? 
Then na contentatioun to the faithful saull bot in Christ. I sal 
never think contentatioun to be in my saul quhiP I se Christ face 
to face. I give the same counsel, zea, and I had al spiritual graces 
in never sa grelt ane measure, na contentation for my saull quhil I 

' Wc arc far from a better thing whicli is abroad. ^ Thou art far abroad. 

^ Far deceived. ■• Till. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 323 

see Christ. For all our blissitnes stands In the sicht of Christ, 
and thou can not see Christ heir, becaus thou is absent fra him. 
" For sa lang as I am at hame," (speiking of the eaul sa lang as it 
is closit heir within this eirthly tabernacle), " I am absent from 
Christ." And this preson of my bodie sa closis me about that I 
can not see Christ. Brethren, it is this mortall bodie that is cled 
with sinne and mortalitie, wherewith we mon be cled sa lang as 
we are heir, that haldis us fra the sicht of Christ : It is impossible 
sa lang as thou art cled with the sinfull body, to get that full sicht 
of Jesus, albeit he were standing on the earth, cled with his glory. 
Sa thou mon be uncled of this mortalitie or thou can see him. 
And thair is the ground quhairfoir we suld think na contentatioun 
quhill we are in this bodie. Because sa lang as we dwell in this 
mortall bodie, we shall never see Christ, nor get ane full fruitioun 
of his countenance. Thairfoir, Brethren, tak not sa meilde plesure 
and delyte in this mortall bodie, for I assure thee it is bot ane 
presoun balding the faithful saul, and the eie of the faithful saul 
from the sicht of Christ : bot how sone sa ever^ it sail be lousit 
thairfra,^ it sail mount immediatlie with joy to Christ, and thair get 
full contentatioun in his face. Ze think sa lang as ze want thir 
eirthlie thingis, ze can not get contentatioun : (I speik not of the 
wickit bot evin of the regenerate man) : bot when the saul gettis 
this glorious presence of Christ in hevin, it sail have ane joy in in- 
finite degreis greater nor ever it had in eirth. And albeit the bo- 
die sail lie heir in grave, and ignominie for ane time, zit all that 
sail be recompensed be the glorious sicht of Christ quhilk the saull 
sail enjoy in the hevinnis, being separate from the bodie. We 
think we can have na hevinlie glorie and joy, except we have this 
eirthlie bodie thair. It is trew indeid, the saul can not have sa 
great joy, as gif the saul and bodie were togidder, bot it is als trew 
that the saull being separate hes greater joy in hevin, nor saull and 
bodie can have togidder in this eirth : Otherwayis how wald 
Paull have desired to have been dissolved, he having that confi- 
dence and arlis penny of glory, except he had desired that joy in 

• But as soon as. ^ From it. 



the saull. Allace, we are sa senselesse that we think joy cannot 
cum, except we get it in our bodie eirthlie. And this is ane pau't 
of our miserie. Kow in the next verse in ane parenthesis, he castis 
in the cause quhy he is absent fra God, and ane pilgrime heir, and 
sayis : " For we walk be faith and not be sicht." As gif he wald 
say. All the sicht quhilk I have of him is far of, luik how far the 
hevinnis is distant fra the eirth, als far is Jesus distant fi"a the eie 
of the faithfuU saull : thair is only ane far sicht of him heir : all 
the sicht of hevinlie gloir quhilk we half heir is like ane mote in 
respect of that sicht we sail get. It is sa far fra thee, that it semis 
not to be the thousand pairt of that fulnes that it is in deid. Thou 
seis it now as it were ane mote, bot thou sail anis see it as ane 
mountane in great fulness. Sa PauU sayis, I see my Lord bot far^ 
of, that is ane greit distance betwixt the eie of my saul and him : 
and besides this fames, sic mist aryses out of the stinking bodie of 
corruption bet^vixt my Lord and mee, like ane cloud, that it hydis 
my Lordis face fra me. Sa thair is twa impedimentis that hinders 
from the full sicht of Christ. The first is the far distance of place 
betwixt him and mee. The secund is the reik^ and mist of my cor- 
ruptioun that gangis in betwixt me and him, that takis the sicht 
of my Lord fra me. Find ze not this in zour selfis be experience ? 
In the beginning of ane hour thou sail have ane sicht of him, and 
agane or^ the half-hour be past the sicht of him is away, let be ane 
day or half ane day. Then mervell not suppose Paul compleinis 
of this, that he cannot see Christ in respect of the fames, and reik, 
that cummis betwixt them : wald to God we had ane sense of this. 
Quha is he that anis granis for this, and sayis, Allace, I am ane 
pilgrime, it is ane far sicht quhilk I have of my Lord. O gif my 
saul were lousit fra my bodie, that I micht be with him. Quha 
can say this ? Na : we ar all sleiping, and thair is na eie 
liftit up to Christ in this great miserie? AVill thou aye* cry 
peace in sic ane miserie ? at last thou sail be pressed doun to 
hell. Zit to insist upon this verse, " AVe walk,'" (sayis he), " be 
faith and not be sicht." Ze see heir then the conditioun of ane 
' Afar. ^ Smoke. ^ Ere. ♦Always. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 325 

Christian is walking, not sitting, or sleiping, he mon be on fute. 
This word is ever in the Apostle's mouth. 1 Thes. v. 6 ; Col. iv. 2, 
&c. Ever walking, ane pilgrime mon not sit doun. Thou is ane 
pilgrirae upon thj journey toward ane other countrie, thou mon 
not sit doun: for otherwayis thou sail never cum to thy journeys 
end. The secund thing quhilk I mark heir : This walking mon 
not be in darknes, bot it mon be in licht. "Woe to him that walkis 
in darknes, for gif he were never sa weill occupyit, he sail die in 
darknes, he that walkis in darknes he sail get hell, for hell is dark- 
nes : sa that walking mon be in licht. The licht is of twa sorts, 
they are baith set doun in this verse. The first is the licht and 
knawledge of faith : the second the licht of presence and sicht. 
The knawledge of faith is bot ane glimmering in respect of the 
other licht that is be sicht, quhen thou sail see Christ. In his 
presence is ane wonderfull licht : quhen he sail luik to the, and 
thou to him, the beamis of his glorie sail sa stryke on thee, and 
cause the schyne that thou sail be astonyit. Thair is na sauU bot 
sa sone as it cummis in his presence, it will be astoneist, and mer- 
vel that ever thair was sic ane licht in Christ. Faith hes bot ane 
sarie licht, bot the licht be presence is mervellous. He sail trans- 
late us to ane mervellous licht. 1. Pet. ii. 9. All the angellis won- 
ders at the licht quhilk is about the Lamb : and thy saull quhen 
it sail come in glorie, sail stand wondering at sic ane glorie : and 
thy bodie quhen it sail fallow, sail wonder, and all sail be wondring 
at sic ane passing glorie. Thir ar the twa sichts. Wald God we 
culd tak tent^ to get ane glaunce of that hevinlie glorie, then all 
the plesures of this eirth wald be bot vanitie, dirt, and peltry to us. 
The Lord zit oppin our eies to get ane sicht of this glorie. Thir 
ar the twa lichtis. As thair is twa lichtis, sa thair is twa kindis 
of walkiujr : the ane is in this life, the other in hevin in the life to 
cum. In this lyfe we have ane sarie glimmering without ony sun, 
ane blenk of licht environed about with darknes. Thairfoir be- 
caus of the want of licht, thair is sic stammering^ in our walking in 
this life. Bot when we sail walk in the lievins with that hevinly 
' Heed. ^ Such stumbling. 


liclit of God, with the countenance of Christ befoir our eies, then 
na snappering' neither to this side nor to that, becaus of that licht 
that is in the face of Christ schyning ever in our eie. The dark- 
ness ze see is unplesand, the licht is plesand. It is ane wonder- 
full thing that we sal get leif to walk in that inaccessible light of 
God, quhairin the Father and the Sone walkis. Brethren, think 
on thir thingis, for thir ar the chief end of al.^ All eirthlie thingis 
evanischis as the sunne gais to,^ and darknes cummis. Thairfoir 
set zour eie on that glorie that never sail evanische, as ever ze 
wald desire to ring thair. Thir dayis cravis* this preparatioun. 
Certainlie preaching and heiring will evanische, and preiching 
being taken away, faith will fail, and without faith how can men 
attein to glory. Thairfoir to keip in the glorie of this licht, we 
suld ernestlie cry : Lord give us this word. For gif it be taken 
away we sail be worse nor Sodome and Gomorrah. Now quhen 
he has schawin this, he cummis back agane, and he sayis, " Never- 
theles we have confidence." He that hes confidence, he will re- 
joice to speik of it, and it swellis sa in his hart that of necessitie it 
mon be utterit, and he will say anis, twyse, thryse, I have confi- 
dence. Bot now with confidence he joynis ane other thing, to wit, 
his love to die, and to flit out of the bodie to reigne with Christ. 
Love to die is the companion of confidence. He sayis, " I 
have confidence, but I love rather to remove out of the bodie, 
and to dwell with the Lord." Thair ar twa gude thingis, 
the ane confidence,, the other licht. The apostle makis ane 
choise heir: he will leif confidence heir in the bodie, and he 
chusis to die that he may attein to the licht. And in this re- 
spect he wald cois^ all the confidence that he hes with deith. 
Thou will not cois a fut of eirth with death, bot the Apostle will 
cois confidence with deith, and confidence is mair pretious than all 
the eirth. Few will doe this, and zit thou will die and thou had 
sworn it. Weill is that bodie that is sa resolvit to die as PauU 
was. Bot makis PauU ane chose of deith for deith itself? Cer- 

' No staggering. ^ For these are the chief points of all. ^ When the 

sun gocth ilown. ■* Reciuirc. * Change. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 327. 

tenlie na man will chose deith for deith itself: for except the Lord 
lichten deith and transforme it, it is ane entrie to hell : And gif 
thou have na other respect in deith hot to be quyte of this miser- 
abill life, (as sura will say, " Wald God I wer dead that I might be 
quyte of this miserie"), thou sail be in greater miserie efter deith 
nor ever thou was quliill thou was living. Quhat then suld be the 
speciall cause that suld move a man to say, " Wald God I 
were dissolvit," even this, I am burdenit with sinne, I am 
burdenit with mortalitie. This burden suld be ane great mo- 
tive : Weill is the sauU that is fred of sinne Quhat plesure 
is it to ane saull that wald faine serve God, to live ever in sinne ? 
Na, nane plesure. This is the speciall motive that suld move us 
to male choise of deith : to be with Jesus Christ, to dwell with 
him, and to be in his companie, in the participatioun of that glorie 
that is in the countenance of Christ. For that cause I wald flit, 
that I micht be with my Lord, and embrace that joy. Sa as the 
misery of this warld will put thee fordward to God, sa the sweit- 
nes of Christis cumpanie will draw thee fordward. Then to end : 
the Apostle hes preconceaved in him selfe ane wonderfull joy of 
that glorie, when he saw it not zit, sa mon we doe. All his walk- 
ing was be faith, and not be sicht : bot he seis befoir the hand 
ane hevinlie joy and pleasure, in respect of that fruitioun that he 
sail anis get of the countenance of Christ. This suld leame thee 
to luik ever for mair nor thou seis. Think not that thou hes sein 
all the glorie that sail cum to thee, and hes felt all the plesures 
that is laid up for thee in hevin. Bot think that thair is greater 
joy and glorie thair, nor ever thou culd heir of. For Christ him- 
self never utterit all the glorie that is laid up for the saintis. All 
that we see heir is bot in ane mirrour. All the glorie of Christ in 
the Scripture, is bot in ane mii-rour : lyke as quhen the sunne 
schynis in the mirrour, thou lukis not to the sun that schynis, bot 
to the glauncing thairof in the mirrour. And as thair is greater 
schyning in the sunne, nor in the glancing thairof that thou seis : sa 
think ever thair is greater glorie in hevin nor ever thou hard of in 


the Scripture. Trow^ not that tliou can think of the joyis of hevin 
as men on eirth dois^ of cirtlilie thingis, quha can think ane thing 
greater nor it is. Na, the glorie of hevin, and the joy with Christ 
moiintis up above the reache of thy faith and hope, and all thing, 
that is abill to consave the same. It mountis up hicher than the 
hevin of hevinnis is above the eirth. Thairfoir think not with thy 
self, it is over meikle^ that I luik for : thou failis onlie in nar- 
rownes, thy faith and hope is sa narrow, that they cannot com- 
prehend the thousand part of that glorie. And sa we suld say, 
" I hope and I believe mair nor I dow^ comprehend." And heir 
is the caus that thou cannot get that fidl sicht of glorie that is laid 
up for thee. The walk begun grace of faith, and the Spreit of 
God in thee is not abill to attein to the thousand pairt of that 
glorie. The Lord give us grace to preconceave this glorie in 
sum measure, that we may seik the same, and say with Paull, I 
have faith and hope, hot that glorie passis all. The Lord graunt 
this even for Christis saik. Amen. 

' Suppose. ^ Thiuk. ' Too much. ■• More than I am able to. 


2. Cor. Cap. 5. 

9. Wherefoir also we covet, that baith dwelling at hame, and removing 

fi'a hame, we may be acceptable to him. 

10. For we must all appeir befoir the Judgement seat of Christ, that 

everie man may receive the thingis quhilk ar done in his bodie, ac- 
cording to that that he hath done, quhidder it be gude or evil. 

11. KJiawing thairfoir that terrour of the Lord, we perswade men, and 

we are made manifest unto God, and I trust also that we are made 
manifest in zour consciences. 

We have hard, Brethren, thir dayls bygane^ the reraedle that the 
Apostle sets doun against this temporall deith, and the dissohition 
of the bodie. In ane word, it is ane full assurance and perswasion 
of the hart, that quhen we ar deid concerning the bodie, zit we 
sail live againe, and sail receave at the handis of God ane mair 
glorious bodie nor ever this bodie wes. It is ane hard mater to 
get this assurance, for the natural! reason of man can not, nor will 
not perswade huu, that he anis being deid, the bodie being dissolvit 
in asches, that ever that bodie sal be recovered againe. Thairfoir 
the Apostle bringis in three arguments of this assm-ance : the first 
is, the earnest desire that the godlie hes In this life to be glorified : 
it is ane thing impossibil that this desire can be in vaine. He that 
gevis thee ane desire of glorie and siching for it, he mon give thee 
the life and glorie that is desirit and sichit for. For otherwayis he 
wald never give thee grace to sich anis for this life and glorie, ex- 
cept he were purposit to put thee in possessioun of that glorie ane 

* These days past. 


day. The secund argument is taken fra our regeneration, or the 
end of our regeneration. God is he that makis us over of new 
againe, efter we were dis-maid be the fal of Adam : he creatis us 
of new againe, to this end, that we suld live the first creatioun. 
It endit indeid, and we have lost the richt thairof evin in the first 
creatioun. We wer creatit to live everlastinglie, zit we dyit. Bot 
the secund creatioun in Jesus will never brek, bot as in him we ar 
renewed to lyfe, live sail we in the hevinnis everlastinglie : it can 
never faiU. Peter sayis, 1. Epist. chap. i. ver. 3. We are regene- 
rat againe into that livelie hope. The third argument is, the 
spreit of Christ, quhairby God workis In us baith the desire, and 
regeneration : having anis given us that Spreit, he takis him not 
fra us againe, bot lets him dwell in saull and bodie, to be ane arlis- 
penny in us assuring us he sail never leif us, quhill the haill promis- 
es in Christ be fulfilled to us. And thairfoir he is callit the 
" spirit of truth." John xv. 26. Notwithstanding of al this confi- 
dence and assurance, proppit up upon thir^ three pillars, desire, re- 
generatioun, and the Spreit, the Apostle lies not full contenta- 
tioun of hart : and the reason is, becaus he seis not the Lord. lie 
is zit wandring as ane pilgrime in this warld, and hes not gottin 
that joyfuU countenance of Christ, in the quhilk countenance is 
onlie saciety of plesures. For assure zou, the faithful hart sail 
never have contentatioun quhil it se Christ. Thairfoir to attein 
to this thing, and to get the full satisfactioun of the hart, he makes 
chose of deith and removing out of the bodie : he preferi'is it to 
all grace that can be had in this life He preferris it to that 
confidence and assurance, and to all other graces that he can 
have in this body, that he miclit win-' up to that presence of Christ. 
This far we have spoken hitherto. Now to cum to this text that 
we have presently red : The Apostle considering that sicht that 
anis we sal see, and that presence that anis we sal haif of the Lord 
Jesus, quhilk he hes not gottin, and will not get unto the time it 
pleis the Lord to call on him ; (and nane of us will get it, albeit 
we wald never sa faine, quhill that the Lord call on us) he schawls 
' Undcr-piT)p])ed with these. ^ Go. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 331 

thairfoir quhat he will do quhill the time cum that he get that 
presence, and how he will be occupyit living heir in this pilgrim- 
age, quhat will be his studie and cair in life and deith. " Thair- 
foir," (says he) " also we covet that baith dwelling at hame, and 
removing fra hame, we may be acceptabill to him." Thair is his 
cair in the mein time. All my cair, wald he say, sa lang as I live 
in this eu'th, sail be, to be acceptable to my Lord, to quhome I 
gang, that I may be the welcummer quhen I cum. Zit, brethren, be- 
caus the wordis ar wechtie everie word wald be weyit. " We covet," 
(sayis he) thair is the first word, and in the first language this 
word importis not onlie ane common desire, bot ane ambitioun : 
Sa be this word he utteris that he is gredie of honour, and ambi- 
tious ; for thair is ane halie ambition that is lesum,i that is requi- 
site, that is neidful in everie Christian man, evin in the purest 
man that is. Bot to cum to the honor quhilk he covets ; — " We 
covet," (sayis he) " that we may be acceptabil." Thair is the 
honour to be acceptable to be countit and lykit of. The warldlie 
man that huntis efter the honour of the warld, he desyris to be 
estemed of, to be had in admiratioun, and to be in gude grace. 
Sa is it with the man of God, the honor quhilk he desiris is 
estimatioun, he wald be accountit of, he wald be in grace and gude 
lyking, and gif it wer possible, he wald be esteimed above al the 
men in the warld. Bot quhome wald he have esteimand^ of him ? 
The warldlie ambitious man wald be accountit of be men ; he hes 
na regaird of Goddis estimatioun of him ; he wald have the Prince 
accounting of him above aU courteouris ; he wald have the people 
accounting meikill of him. Bot the man of God that hes this 
holie ambitioun and gredines of honour, he cairis not the account 
and estimatioun of men, and seikis not his prais of men, bot of 
God and Christ, with quhome he mon dwel efter this life. He de- 
siris in this pilgrimage to be assured that Christ hes ane likino- of 
him, that efter this lyfe he may ring with Christ as ane kino- 
for ever. That is his honour. To ga fordward in the words. 
Quhen seikis he to be acceptable to Christ ? At quhat time ? 
' Lawful. - To esteem. 

332 THE THIRD sermon, 

Thair is twa tyinls ; ane tyme of living, and ane uther tyme of 
dying ; ane time qidien the saull dwellis in the bodie, and ane 
uther tyme quhen scho flittis. The ambitious halie man seikis to 
be acceptable to the Lord baith thir tymis, baith dwelling at hame 
and flittinjT fra hame. All the honour of the wardlie man is in 
this life, and quhill the saull is dwelling in the bodie. Bot anis 
lay him doun in his bed, and let death seaze on him,i thair he layis 
doun his honour ; and gif ze tel him of the honour quhilk he was 
seiking, he will spit at it. Bot the godly man, gif ever he was 
gredie of honour in this life, in the hour of his deith he is gredier 
thairof, and the nelrer deith, the gredier of the honour of Christ. 
He can have na contentatioun in hart, quhill he knaw his saul is 
acceptal)le to that Lord quhom to he is going. As for the meinis 
quhairby he seikis to cum to this honour, ze will heir of them in 
the nixt verse heirefter. This same Apostle, 2 Timoth. ii. 15, sets 
them doun also. Quhen he lies desirit Timothie to studie to ap- 
prove himself to God, immediatlie he subjoynis, Gif thou wald be 
approven be ane wark-man, thou will not get this acceptatioun be 
di-yvlng over thy lyfe in idilnes or sluggischnes ; let everie man in 
quharsaever estat be ane wark-man. The warldly man is claiming 
to his honour be meinis unlesum,^ be flatterie, be falset,^ bot it endis 
in miserie. Bot the godlie man let him seik to be aj^provin be the 
King of Kings, being ane faithfull wark-man in his calling, and 
diligent thairin. Thair is the mein of thy acceptation in this life ; 
in thy dying, and quhen all thy sensis, thy toung, thy hand, and 
all faillis thee, and thou dow not work, zit suffer with patience, 
and set thy hart patientlie to suffer deith, that in thy deing God 
may be glorifyit, and sa thou may conseci'at baith deith and lyfe 
to him. Mark heir ane lessoun. Paull of befoir he makis ane 
choisc to gang and dwell with Christ. lie wald faine have bene 
dead, bot heir is ane uther desire, quhilk man ga befoir that, and 
thou mon have the lykc desire befoir thou desire to flit out of this 
bodie, and to be with Christ. First desire quhil thou is in the 
bodie to be acceptable to him, and then desire to flit, utherwayis 
' Assail him. ' Unlawful meaus. ' Falsehood. 

ON 2. Cor. 5. 333 

not. For certeinlle gif thou die befoir thou be acceptable to God 
in thy lyfe, thou sal not be welcum to him, and he sail be the 
maist terrible sicht to thee that ever thou saw. I sail never desire 
to see him quhen I die, gif I desire not to be acceptablll to him 
first in life and deith. Thairfoir studie be ane faithfidl discliaro;e 
of thy dutie heir on eirth to be acceptable to thy Lord, begyle not 
thyself. Leirne againe heir. Quhen he lies maid ane choise to 
gang and dwell with the Lord, he desiris that he may live ane 
godly lyfe heu' first ; then the lessoun is, ane godlie lyfe heir is 
ane to luik to that lyfe that we sail have in Christ, that makis ane 
faithfull pilgrime desire to be with Christ. It is ane easy thing to 
have ane eie to the life to cum, gif thou study to live weill in this 
life. And on the uther pairt, it is the hope of that life and glory 
to cum, and ane eie to hevin, that makis ane pilgrime to live weil 
in this life ; quhair this eie to hevin is not thair is na gude life. 
Quhairfoir suld we speik farther ? Allace thir evill lyfis of men, 
thir murthers, adulteries, thiftis, tellis us plainly thair is na sicht of 
hevin, nor regaird of the lyfe to cum. Thou that passis thy time 
taking thyplesure in the displesing of God, testifies that thy eie was 
never on hevin, that the eie of thy saull was never liftit up above 
thy bodie ; and assure thy self, gif thou live on sa, thou sail never 
see hevin. Now, in the nixt verse, he subjoynis ane other argu- 
ment, moving him to be ambitious to be with that Lord of lyfe. 
The first argument was, because he was to dwell with that Lord 
in hevin. The secund is, that terrible judgment that al flesche sal 
se, except they indevour them selfis to serve God in this life. 
" For," sayis he, " we mon all appear befoir the judgement seat of 
Christ." Learne ane lessoun of the pith of this argument. As 
thair is ane force in hope of the lyfe to cum, sa thair is ane force 
in the feir of ane terrible judgement to move ane man to live weill 
heir. Luik how neidfidl the ane is to cause thee to live weill in 
this life ; als neidfull is the uther. Hope of life is neidfull, feir of 
judgement is neidfull. Quhat suld be the cause of this ? Knawis 
thou not thy nature how bakwai-d and thrawart' it is, sa that ex- 

' FroA\'avd. 


cept thou be broddit' fordward with terroris of judgement, thou 
wil never addres thee to hevin, bot will linger and sit doun be the 
gait.^ Brethren, thair is twa thingis in hevin, and twa thingis in 
eirth, baith serving to mufe us to live weill heir in this life. In 
hevin thair is twa saitis, ane sait of grace, that is callit the throne 
of grace : the uther ane seat of judgment, ane tribunall : Fy on al 
tribunals in the eirth, in respect of that hevinly tribunal. The 
throne of grace is spoken of in the Heb. iv. 1 6. " Let us goe bauldly 
to the throne of grace, that we may get mercie." Bot this will not 
suffice except the tribunal of judgement be also befoir thee, to 
draw thee fordward. Baith mon befoir thee, and as thou luikis 
to the throne of grace with the ane eie, sa luik to the throne of 
judgment with the uther eie. Thair is siclyke in eirth twa thingis^ 
to draw thee fordward : The ane, the Gospell of grace : the uther, 
the Law threatning judgement. The Gospell drawing thee loving- 
lie to God, the Law threatening thee to gang fordward or thou sail 
die. The Gospell gentlie alluring thee fordward, promising that 
thou sail get lyfe ; the Law standing about the Gospell as ane fyre, 
to terrific thee, and gif thou gang out of the richt way, it will burn 
thee. It will not be the Gospell alane that will do* the turne. In- 
deid gif thair wer na canker in thee, the Gospel wald do the turn, 
bot in respect of this wickit canker in thy nature, thou mon be 
thretnit with the Law. Seis thou not thy nature : fairnes wiU not 
do the turn, thou mon be ruggit'^ be the hair fordward, or ellis thou 
will fall in damnation. Tak me away the rebuikis of the law, and 
thou wert king or monarch, it is bot a deid Gospell to thee. Sic 
is the corrupt nature of man : Tak away the canker of the nature 
of man, I sail speik na thing of the law : bot sa lang as this canker 
remaynis, the Law mon threatten al, fra the king to the begger. I 
were ane fals doctour gif I usit not the threatning of the law to 
rebuke this canker of nature. Quha is mair halie nor Paul was ? 
He luiking up to hevin seing the mercie sait, likewise seis the 
judgement sait, and gif he had not sein the judgement sait, 

Pricked. ^ Way. ' There are also in like manner two things in earth. 

* Serve. ' ruUed. 

ON 2 COR. 5. 335 

and bene terrified thairwith, he suld never half gottin ane 
sicht of that mercy sait : sa mon it be with us, we mon see 
that judgment salt als weill as the mercie sait. This is mer- 
vellous. He was evin now speiking of Christ as ane sweit Lord, 
and fain wald be at him, and now agane, he sets him up as ane 
judge to terrifie men. Is this the Lord at quhom he wald be? 
Quha desiris to compeir^ befoir ane terribil judge, quha hes lyfe and 
deith in his handls ? Tak tent : this is Paullis meaning. The Lord 
Jesus is baith terrible to men and joyous to men, and he mon be 
baith joyous and mercifull in deid to thee quha indevouris thy self 
to pleis him in this life. Terribill to them quha endevouris them 
not to pleis him in this lyfe. Wald thou have him mercifull to 
thee, studie then to live weill, serve him sinceirlie in thy calHug. 
Will thou have him terrible to thee, thou sail in deid find him ter- 
rible to thee, and thou sail schaik and trimbill at his countenance, 
in cace thou seik not to pleis him in this life. And this sail be the 
first sicht that ever the wickit quha desired not to pleis him in this 
life, sail get of him. Hevin and hell are thocht mowis^ now a dayis : 
and this tribunall is nocht luikit to, bot certeinlie comj^eir mon thou 
either befoir the throne of mercie, or the tribunall of judgement. 

Zit to gang fordward in the wordis : I sail onlie touche them, 
without discoursing on that generall judgement. Then first heir, 
to let you see the terribilnesse of that judgement, thair is ane com- 
peirance® quhairof Esaias in his fourtie and five chapter, and the 
23. verse thairof : and Paull, Rom. xiv. 11, speikis : " As I live 
(sayis the Lord) all kneis saU bow to mee, and aU thingis saU con- 
fess mee to be GOD." Thau- is the reverence that sail be at that 
compeirance, all kingis in the eirth sail bow thair kneis : and the 
toung that wald not speik in this eirth to Goddis glorie, sail then 
be compellit to speik to his glorie. Then thair is first ane com- 
peirance, secundlie ane necessitie, compeir mon thou : thridlie, ane 
universalitie, all sail compeir without exceptioun, all sail be callit 
and all mon answere, Hic sum, I am heu*. Nane sail be away, 
man nor woman, riche nor poore, fi-om Adam the first man to the 

' Appear. ^ Are thought jests and mocks. ' Appearance. 


last borne man on eirtb. Tben fourtblie, the salt befoir the quhilk 
this compeirance men be, is ane tribunal : the judge is Christ, Je- 
hovah, God, not man onlie : all kneis sail bow to him as God, and 
not onlie to Christ as God, bot to Christ in our nature, as man he 
he sail sit as ane glorious judge, as it is said Joh. v. 22. The Fa- 
ther judgis na man, bot lies committit all judgement to the Sonne. 
And as thair sal be ane compeirance of all, sa thair mon be ane re- 
ceiving : nane sail compeir bot sumthing they sail receiue. Quhat 
Ball be received? Ane rewaird of thy actiounis, and doing in thy 
bodie, quhilk reward sail perteine to the bodie als weill as to the 
saull, becaus thou did them in the bodie. As to the qualitie of the 
rewaird, it is proportionall to that quhilk thow hes done in the 
bodie, be it gude or evil : gif it be gude thou sail be rewairdit with 
glorie : gif evil, thou sail be rewairdit with ignominie and scharae. 
To insist sum thing on the last wordis, becaus the Papistis sticks 
on them, and thinkis they have ane advantage of this place : quhen 
they heir that everie ane sail receive according to the thingis 
quhilk they have done in the flesche, incontinent they conclude : 
Ergo Warkis meritis. I answere, Evill warkis indeid meritis 
damnatioun, and damnatioun sail be thy portion for them, gif 
thou be out of Jesus : bot gude warkis hes na merite. In all 
thy gude warkis thair is na deserving, albeit they wer ten thou- 
sand mai nor they ar. Thair is force aneucli in ane evil wark to 
condemne thee, bot in a thousand gude warkis na force to 
save. The Apostle sayis not heir, they sal receive ane rewarde for 
that quhilk they have done, bot according as they have done : he 
sayis not Propter, making warkis ane cause, bot secundum, that is, 
according to the testification of the warkis. Bot to Icif the larger 
insisting in this, as mair pertinent to ane uther place, and to cum 
to our purpose. 

Wey the wordis, for everie word is ane word of wecht, import- 
ing ane terrible judgement, ane compciring, ane necessitie of oom- 
pelrlng, ane universal compeiring without exception, na respect of 
person of the king, mair nor of the begger, na mitigation of the 

' More. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 337 

sevei'Ity of the judge : Christ wil have na mitigation, bot gif thou 
be ane reprobat, thou wil be handlit seveirlie, albeit thou wer ane 
king. The judgement then being sa terrible, the judge Christ men 
also be terrible: And sa the Apostle sayis, " Knawing thairfoir that 
terrour of the Lord," &c. And aU this is to learne everie saull, not 
sa to presume of the mercie of Christ, that thou sail think to find 
him mercifull in that day, except that thou have studied to be ac- 
ceptable unto him in this lyfe, and can say : Lord I imployed my- 
self in serving thee. Away with that presumption of mercie, that 
makis tlie lowne quhen he is murthering and committing adulterie 
to say, God is mercifull. Having set doun the terrible judgement, 
he concludis quhat he vdU doe in his awin persoun. Is the judge- 
ment and judge sa terrible? I wiU be wise: (the Lord give us this 
wisdom.) " Knawing," sayis Paull, " that terrour of the Lord," I 
will doe my dewtie in this lyfe. My dewtie is to preiche to bring 
men to the faith in Christ : I will walk in the discharge of that 
dewtie nicht and day. He sayis, " Knawing perfytely that terrour 
of the Lorde :" It is nocht ane blind terrour that will mak ane man 
to doe his dewtie in tliis life, bot it is the knawledge of ane Tribu- 
nall : to beleve that thair is ane Judge and ane Tribunall in hevin, 
and that thair is ane maist terrible day abyding. And gif ane be- 
loved that thair is ane tribunall in Hevin, ane terrible Judge sitting 
thair to tak account of his doingis in eirth, for all the warld he 
wald not offend that God : bot this can not sink in the hart of man. 
He will say, thair is ane general judgement : bot this is fra the 
mouth onlie, and not fra the hart : and surelie sa lang as ane man 
continewis in sinne, albeit he suld sweir that thair is ane Tribunal], 
it is ane takin^ he knawis it not. The wordis of judgment availlis 
nathing : it is the beleving, and sure knawledge that thair is ane 
judgement, and ane terrible Judge to sinners in hevin that dois the 
tume. Thairfoir seik perswasioun, and luik to that article of thy 
Creid, that the Judge sail cum and tak account baith of the quick 
and the deid. Beleve it, and then it sail draw thee to live ane 
godlie life. " Knawing thairfoir that terrour of the Lord, we per- 

1 Token. 


swade men," or causis them beleve. He sayis not, I go to play the 
pairt of aue King, or of ane politick man, I am bussie in this or that 
turne that perteinis^ not to my calling: Na, bot according to my 
calling I preiche the gospell, to perswade men to beleve in Christ, 
that they may be saif. To speik the treuth, it is not thy laboring 
and doing in ane uther man's calling that will profeit thee, bot thou 
art ordanit be God to do thy dewtie in thy awin calling : and quhen 
the account of thy deidis sail be tane^ in that greit day, he sail not 
say, Quhat hes thee done in ane other man's calling : bot quhat lies 
thou done in thy awin ? I maid thee ane minister, how travellit 
thou in that vocation ? Thairfoir I say as eveiy man wald be red- 
die to give ane account of his doings, let every man be walkrife'' in 
his awin vocation, seiking the glorie of his God thairin. Now it 
micht have bene said to Paul, Thou boistis mekil of thy doing and 
preiching, bot luik with quhat sinceritie thou hes bene occupyit, 
and with quhat uprichtnesse of hart thou hes bene preiching in 
thy lyfetime ? He answeris : and first, he takis God to be witnes 
of the sinceritie of his hart in discharging his ministerie : and then 
he takis the Corinthians amang quliom he had travellit, to be 
witnes also of his sinceritie. As for God, he sayis, " AVe ar made 
manifest unto God " : And as for men, " I trust also I am made 
manifest in zour consciences." He takis first God to be witnesse, 
quha knawis the hart ; and then the Corinthians quha saw his 
actiounis. Then, brethren, it is not aneuch for ane minister that 
preichis Christ as Paull dois, for perswading men to beleve in 
Christ, to speik outwardlie to men, as I am now speiking to 
zou, bot he mon luik in the mein time, that inwardly his hart 
be set upon God : that is, luik that he approve his hart 
in sincerity to God quha seis the hart. Men markis the wordis 
that cummis out of the mouth, bot God markis the sinceritie of 
the hart, to se with quhat sinceritie the man speikis. This that I 
speik of Paul in his calling, I mein of all uther men in thair call- 
ings. Dois thou onie thing outwardlie to men ? Luik that thou 
doe it inwardlie in thy hart with sinceritie to God, utherwayis 

1 Appertaiueth. ' Tuken. ' Diligeut. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 339 

thou tjnis all thy travell, albeit it were never sa gude in the pre- 
sence of men. Of this it followis, all thir ar but vain voices, to 
stand up and say, I haif done this thing, or that thing. To speik 
to men quha knawis not the hart, except in the mean time as thou 
art speiking to men, thou may draw the Lord to be witnes (as 
Paull dois) to the sincerltie of thy hart, and may say, I have bene 
travelling, with quhat sinceritie the Lord knawis : That quhilk I 
have done I haif done it in sinceritie. Not bein^ content to call 
God onlie to be witnes, he turnis him to the Corinthians, and he 
appealis thair conscience to beir record of his sinceritie in his 
doing, and he sayis, " As for zou Corinthians (speiking sparinglie) 
I trust, &c." He was assurit of God's testimonie, bot he trustit 
that the Corinthians buir^ him recorde, that he had travelled trulie : 
He say is, "in zour consciences." It is to be markit, that he appealis 
thair consciences, not thair mouthis, bot thair consciences : for the 
mouth of man wil give an testimony, bot the conscience wil give 
ane uther. And quhen the conscience will be saying the man hes 
spoken trulie and in sinceritie, the mouth in the mean time wil 
be backbyting him, and the conscience will say, thou leis mouth. 
Speik thairfoir ever according to conscience : for gif thy con- 
science speik ane thing, and thy mouth ane uther, thou sail be 
challenged of ane lie. It is trew in deid men knawis not the 
hart of man, as quhen ane minister is speiking, ze can not judge 
of his hart, the Lord judgis it, zit ane faithfull and sincere man, 
he wil utter sum time the inward sinceritie of his hart in his 
wordis and deidis, that aU that seis and heiris him, will luik in 
thairthrow,^ and see the inward sinceritie of the hart, and give ane 
outward confessioun of it. Now, Brethren, then in this example 
of Paidl ze have sic ane protestatioun as the faithful Pastour suld 
make in the hour of his deith, and quhilk suld be his Testament. 
Thair is twa thingis in his ministrie, the outward speiking, and 
the inward sinceritie of the hart : Gif he wald protest of his faith- 
fulnes, luik that he protest as Paull did : first outwardlie, I have 
used all diligence in discharging all the outward parts of my 
1 Also would bear. ' Throw. 



calling, I have keipit na thing aback : and then inwardlie. As 
for my sinceritie, Fii-st I take God to be witnesse, qulia knawis 
and onlie seis my hart, with quliat sinceritie I have spoken ; and 
then I take zou witnes, that hes bene conversant with mee, sa far 
as ze can knaw the inward sinceritie of my hart, be my living and 
outward actiounis Wald to God we cidd have this sinceritie. 
And I pray the Lord grant me this sinceritie, and I beseik^ him 
that as he hes bene with mee sen the beginning of my ministrie : 
sa he wald never leif mee, untill the time I finish my cours with 
joy, to his glory, and comfort of his Eark, through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. To quhome with the Father, and the Halie Gaist, be 
all honour, praise, and glorie, for now and ever. Ajvien. 

1 Beseech. 


2. Cor. Cap. 5. 

12. For we praise not our selfis agane unto zou, bot give zou ane 
occasioun to rejoice of us, that ze may have to answere against 
them, quhilk rejoice in the face, and not in the hart. 

13. For quhidder we be out of our wit, we ar it to God, or quhidder we 

be in our richt mynde, we ar it unto zou. 

14. For that love of Christ constraynis us. 

15. Becaus we thus judge, that gif ane be dead for all, then wer all dead, 

and he died for all, that they quhilk live suld not hence furth live 
unto them selfis, bot unto him quhilk died for them, and rose agane. 

To repeat schortlle that quhilk Ave liaif hard in tliis chapter, we 
hard first of that assurance of glorie and of lyfe everlasting quhilk 
is the onlie remedie against deith and the dissolution of this bodie 
We hard secundly of the three warrands of this assurance of lyfe 
and glone : the first, the earnest desire quhilk the heart had of that 
glorie and lyfe : the secund regeneratioun and renewing : the thrid, 
the Halie Spreit quha is the worker of aU grace in our hartis, and 
quha nevir leifis us, bot bydis in us as ane assured arlis-penny of 
the fid accomplischment of all that glorie promised to us in the 
Word of God. And zit for all this, we hard that the Apostle had 
not that contentatioun nor full satisfactioun of his hart, because he 
is zit ane pilgrime, living heir by confidence, and hes not gottin the 
full presence of his Lord, he choisis to leif all the thingis in this 
life, and thairfoir he taks resolutioun quhat he wil do in life and 

1 Abideth. 


deith, to the end that when he cummis to his Lord In the hevinnis 
he may be welcum. The thing he resolvis to do is this, he ende- 
vouris himself in his calling to be acceptabill to him in life and 
deith, and he will consecrate al the actiounis and sufFeringis of 
baith to him. Beside that glorie to cum quhilk movis him to 
studie to be acceptable to his Lord, he settis doun ane utlier mo- 
tive, ane terrible Tribunall quhilk abydis him and all men and we- 
men, qvdia studies not to be acceptabill to the Lord. The saull 
sal not sa sone depart out of the body bot it sail als sone be pre- 
sentit befoir that Tribunall, and sail receive thnt dolorous sentence, 
gif they have not studied to be acceptable to him. Thairfoir the 
Apostle concludis, Knawing thairfoir the terrour of the Lord we 
travell in our calling to preiche Christ, and to bring men to faith, 
and that not for the fassoun,^ bot in sinceritie of heart : sa that 
we tak God (quha seis the hart) to be witness to us of our since- 
rity. And as to zou Corinthians upon quhome we have bestowed 
our labour, we appeale zour consciences, and we tak zou to be wit- 
nes of that same sinceritie of our calling. This is the sum of all 
quhilk ze have hard hitherto in this chapter. 

Now to cum to this text quhilk we have red, in this first 
verse the Apostle having spoken of his sincerity in preiching, 
the Corinthians quha had not that lyking of him quhilk they 
suld have had, micht have objected : Weil Paull, zit vauntis 
thou of thyself? Thou hes anis vaunted of thy self (as ap- 
peiris in the second and third chapter preceiding) and zit art 
thou commending thy self? He answeris : Na, I commend 
not my self agane. I vaunt not of myself, neither befoir nor 
now : bot quhen I said, " We ar maid manifest to God, and I 
trust also that ice ar maid manifest in zour consciences^ In 
thir w^ordls, I give zou occasioun to glorie of mec, and not for 
my cans sa mekill, as for the caus of fals flattering apostles, quha 
gloryis In thair outward doings, without sinceritie in the hart : the 
repressing of thir mennis vain glorying. Is the cause of this my 
speiking. This is the meining of this verse. Then this text being 

1 Fashion. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 343 

plaine, learne thir lessounis. I mark first in the persoun of the 
Corinthians quha objectis this vaunting to the Apostle mistaking 
his words : Scarse may ane godlie man speik ane or twa wordis of 
the grace quhilk the Lord hes given him, and that not to his awin 
praise, bot to the prais of his God, quhen he is mistaken be evill 
men, quha sets them selfis to wry^ everie word that is spoken. And 
gif ever thair was ane age in the whilk this vice rang,^ I am assured 
(and experience provis it) na age may be compared in that cace to 
this age. Zea, ane godly man can do na thing, bot incontinent he 
is mistaken : he can speik na thing bot he is misconstrued, and 
especiallie the Ministeris in thair callings, amang all men thair 
wordis ar maist misconstrued. The day rysis not bot thair is ane 
evident experience of this point, and ilk^ ane seis it. Thairfoir 
quhat remedie bot patience. All this judging is bot for ane time, 
tarie ane littill quhyle, and keip ane guid conscience in the mein 
time, and we sal see ane uther judgment, quhen he sail cum that 
judgis richtlie. Then secundlie leirn in the person of PauU. He 
will not have it sa meikill as seming anis,* that he praises him self. 
Everie gude man, and especiallie ane minister suld fle al occasion 
of vain glorie. Zea, that Christian modestie and sobernes cravis, 
that everie man and they wer indewit with the greatest gracis in 
the warld, zit they suld speik and think of themselfis soberly. The 
mair they have, the greiter grace that God hes given them, the lea 
they suld account of themselfis : zea, suppois they be sum thing in 
the sicht of God, zit luiking to the nauchtines that abydis in this 
cankert nature, they suld say of themselfis, I am na thing. For 
the Apostle sayis 1 Cor. viii. 2, and Galat. vi. 3. " He that thinkis 
him self sum thing, he is na thing:" and Phil. ii. 3. "Let everie 
man account ane uther man better nor himself." Gif ane man will 
meditate on his awin estait, either be night or be day, let him 
think of his infirmities, his sinnis and naughtines : AVill he rejoice 
of himself in his awin minde ? Luik to Paull quhat he sayis, 2 Cor. 
xii. 9. " I will rejoice in my infirmities, that the power of Jesus 
may dwell in mee." The power of God never dwelt in ane proud 
1 Wrest. 2 Reigned. ' Every. * So much as once seeming. 


nor ambitious hart bot in ane humbil hart. "God resistis the proud 
and gevis grace to the humble." 1 Pet. v. 5. Sa Paul quhen he was 
prasing of himself, albeit he had sene greit visions, 2 Cor. xii. he 
corapleinis of his infirmitie to the Lord. The Lord answeris, "My 
grace is sufficient for thee, my power is maid perfite throch waik- 
nes." Then thou that wald be Strang in God, be walk in thyself, 
think nicht and day of thy infirmitie and miserie be sinne. I 
mark agane in the wordis of the Apostle ; ane godlie man may re- 
joice and glory in the grace of God. Quhy suld not the grace of 
God be gloried in ? The Apostle in that xii. chap. 2. Cor. 5 verse, 
quhen he lies spoken of that hevinlie revelation. " Of sic ane man 
I wil rejoice," sayis he, "of myself will I not rejoice, except it be of 
my infirmitie." Then may not ane godlie man speik of himself? 
Zes, he may speik of himself as the instrument of God, as the dis- 
penser of the grace of God, as Paull did heir. To quhat end ? 
That they unto quhom the Lord hes maid him ane gude instru- 
ment, upon quhom he hes bestowed his travels, may glorifie God, 
and may rander him the honor of ane minister. Paull, 1 Cor. iv. 
1, sayis, " Let ane man count of us as of the ministers of Christ, 
and disposers of the secreitis of God." And sa ane minister suld 
have honom', and they npon quhome he hes bestowed his travellis 
and the grace quhilk God hes given him, suld honour him, and 
they ar als strait detbund^ to give him it, as onie debt that ever 
they aucht to pay. Thairfoir the Apostle sayis in the 2. Epistle to 
the Corith. xii. chap, the ellevinth verse : " I have bene fulisch in 
glorying, bot zee have compellit mee, because I suld have bene 
commended be zou." It is a point of sacriledge to tak onie honour 
fra them that God hes given them. Now, quhairfoir is this that 
the Apostle wald have them glorying of him ? Not sa meikil for 
his awin cause, as for the caus offals teichers, quha rejoiced in the 
face and not in the hart ; that is, not in inward sincerity, bot in 
outward thingis, having ane fair schaw of eloquence and fair 
wordis. Then leirne, ambitioun mon not be borne with. It is 
pernicious baith to the man in quhom it is, and to uther men quha 

1 They are as greatly iudebted. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 345 

hes ado with him. This vain glorying is ane kind of blasphemie, 
for that quhilk thou takis to thyself in thy vaine glorying, thou 
spuilzies^ God of it in quhat calling sa ever thou be. Thairfoir this 
vaine vaunting of our selfis is ane vice, quhilk amang all vices 
suld be maist repressed. Allace that stinking flesch suld stand up 
and spuilzie God of his glory. Now wald thou have ane mein to 
repres this vaunting in the mouth of ane ambitious man ? Quhen 
he is vaunting of thir outward graces and benefites, as ane tume 
tub^ sounding without sinceritie in his hart, cast thou up in his 
teitli the sinceritie of the hart. Say, Yaine man, all thy speach is 
in thy face, and not in the hart. Set up the hart against the 
face, and it sail blek^ it. It availes not to speak of onie thing 
that thou can do, except thou have inward sinceritie in the hart. 
For thir outward thingis sal evanische, and dar not appeir befoir 
God in that great day : bot sinceritie remains for ever. 

To cum to the nixt verse. Zit they will not let him be, zit they 
will object unto him his fulischnesse. Quha will vaunt of him- 
self bot ane fuil ? Paull, thou is ane fule, thou braggest of 
thyself? The Apostle answeris with modestie " Quhidder we 
be out of our wit, we are it to God, or quhidder we be in our 
richt mynd, we are it unto zou." Tliair is the Apostle's answere. 
Than, Brethren, that quhilk God countis wisdome, the warld 
counts it flilischnesse, and that quhilk the warld countis wisdome 
God countis it fidischnes. Wes thair onie fulische talking heir, 
quhen the Apostle sayis, " We ar manifest to God, and I doubt not 
bot we are manifest also to zour conscience :" Was thair onie brag- 
ging heir ? Sa the wisdom of God is fulischnes to the warld, and 
sail be sa lang as corrupt nature is within us. And the Apostle 
says, 1 Cor. iii. 19. " The wisdome of the warld is fulischnes with 
God." Bot the questioun cannot now be decydit, quhat is the trew 
wisdom, and quhat is fals wisdom, the end will prove. Trew wisdome 
is justified of hir a win children. Math. ii. 19. Weil, the end wil 
schaw and speciallie that day quhen all thingis sail be revelled. 
Fulischnes saU stand up, and all the warld sail see it to be fulisch- 
' Reavest. ^ As an empty vessel. ^ Shame. 


nes : wisdome sail stand up, and all the warld sal see It to be wis- 
dome, and then it sail have the awin approbatioun. Sa that thir 
men that will be countit wise in this warld, will be compellit to 
utter thir wordis of them quhome they estemed fuillis in this warld, 
Ar thir the men quhais life we countit fulischness ? And I beseik 
God to oppin our eies to see this trew wisdome, and specially in 
thingis concerning religioun, quhilk wisdom onlie will abyde ap- 
probatioun. Secundly learne, Paul heir zeildis to them. Let me 
be wod, ^ I am wod to God. My God is befoir my eies, and I cair 
not to be mad to this warld. And as for zou, gif I be in my richt 
minde, it is to zou. Ze Corinthians have na thing to lay to my 
charge, for I have done my dewtie faithfullie to zou. Brethren, 
see ze not heir the cair quhilk we suld have of the glorie of God, 
and of the Kirk of God, and hir salvation ? It suld cause ane man 
of this calling that Paull was of, to be ravisched in Sprit, and to be 
content to be countit ane fuill in this warld, that God may be glori- 
fied, and men helped forward to hevln. Gif God be glorifyit in 
my w^odnesse, quliat regaird I to be wod ? Quhat reckis- of man 
in this warld ? Quhat reckis of mannis^ ruiue and decay, gif God 
be glorified ? Bot allace thair is sic ane self-love ingraft in the hart 
of everie man, that we wUl not let God be honourit, except it may 
stand with our honour. And we will say, I will not be esteimed 
ane fuill, I will not be disgraced : gif it may stand with my honour 
and profite I will glorifie him : bot gif his honour and mine standis 
not togidder, I will cheiflie have respect to my awin honour. Sa 
it will never be weill quhill we get this cankert self-love submitting 
the self to the glorie of God. And it suld be the greatest endea^ 
vour that ever we suld have in this warld to cast out this self-love, 
that we may be content that God may be glorified, and it wcr with 
our dishonour, zea, and it wer with our destruction. It is not self- 
love that bringis honour and glorie, onlie honour is of God, and 
thou sail never get honour except thou cast away self-love, that 
God may be glorified. 

Then to gang fordward. Paull mon have sum thing for him 
1 Mad. "^ What respect is to be made. ' What if iiieii go to. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 347 

qiihy he will bee wod for Goddis cause : he will not bee wod 
without sum reasoun. Thairfoir in the nixt verse he sayis, 
" For the lufe of God constraynis us." As gif he wald say, I 
am constrained to this fulischnes ; and ane charge is laid on mee 
to doe sa. I am bund and obleist sa to do : that is, to be ane wod 
man for the glorie of my God. And quhairfra^ cummis this ne- 
cessitie ? It is the love of God (sayis he) that constraynis me : 
this band that bindis mee is the love of Christ, not the love quhdk 
I beir to him, (that is over waik) bot the love quhilk he beiris to 
mee, it bindis all my sensis, and careis^ mee to honour my God 
with my haill bodie. Thir ar the wordis. Then the verie necessi- 
tie quhilk lyis on thee to be ane wod man for Goddis cause, it is 
not ane thing quhairof thou can free thee : thair is ane necessitie 
laid on thee to be counted wod for Christis cause. Then gif thair 
be ane necessitie laid on us to do this, (albeit it be to our awin 
dishonour) quhat gif we doe it not, bot will schaik of this zoke ? 
Then I tell thee, in place of it, ane uther necessity mon cum in. 
ane necessity of wo. Paull sayis, " Woe to mee gif I preiche not 
the Gospell." 1 Cor. ix. 16. Hes God laid this necessitie on mee 
to preiche, and I cast it off, ane uther necessitie of woe sail be laid 
on mee. Allace, this warld thinkis all this worschipping of GOD 
to be voluntarie, that men may serve GOD as they pleis, and that 
men may preiche as they pleis, this way, or that way, and speik 
heir, and hald thair toung thair as they will. Bot I say to thee, 
will thou free mee of that necessitie that lyis on me ? Is thou 
abill to take it off my back ? Gif thou be not abill, then for Goddis 
saik let mee preiche the gospel with fredome and sincerity of hart. 
I tell thee, thair is sic ane necessitie laid on t]ie schoulders of the 
ministers, to utter everie thing quhilk the Lord puttis in thair 
mouth, that gif thou schaik of this necessitie, ane uther necessitie 
of wo sal be laid on them. And this sail be thair cry on thair deid^ 
bed. Wo be to mee that I preichit not trewlie the Gospell. 

Zit to gang ford ward. Quhairfra cummis this necessitie ? He 
sayis, " It is the love of God that constraynis me." It is the love 
^ From wheuce. " Urgeth. ' Death. 


of Christ quhilk lie kythit^ in his suffering for mee, that bindis mee. 
Sa, it was the love of Christ towai'dis Paidl that moved him pa- 
tientlie to be callit wod for Christis caus. Christ for the love 
quhillc he buir to us, sufFerit liimself not onlie to be called wod, 
bot to be called ane Devill. INIat. xii. 24. He suffered the extre- 
mitie of paine and ignominie for our saikis : and all the revylings 
and reprochis that suld have lichtit on us, he tuke them on him. 
Sic was his love quhilk he buir to us. Then will not thou suffer 
to be called ane wod man for his cause. Gif thou wald have ane 
pairt of the inheritance conqueist be Christ, bund mon thou be, 
ane necessitie mon be laid upon thee, and gif thou be loused, thou 
is lowsed fra the love of Jesus, and then wo and destructioun ever- 
lasting sail cum on thee. I see then, all our service of Christ, is 
of necessitie : Then quliat pleisure can be in the service of Christ, 
gif it be constrayned service ? The thing I am compelled to doe, 
I will have littil pleisure in the doing of it ? In deid it is trew, 
thou art not lous, bot bund. Fra time thou enters in the Kirk of 
Christ, thou enters in bondes. Bot thair is ane great difference 
betwixt band and band : ane band will bind thee and force thee to 
doe ane thing, wil thou, nill thou^ : Ane uther band will onlie leid 
thee the richt way quhilk thou is to gang. Brethren, this band 
that Paull speikis of in this place, it is sweit band the band of the 
love of Christ, and it bindis thee sweitlie and lovinglie to discharge 
thy dewty to God : and al thy dewty be this band is voluntarie, 
and he quha is bund with this band, wil rejoice mair to be callit 
ane fule for Christis saik, nor to be estcimit ane king upon the 
eirth. Bot thou mon tak tent quhair this band is that bindis thee, 
that it may leid thee to do thy dewty willingly. Gif the love of 
Christ quhilk is the band, be outwith thee, only sounding in thy 
eir (as quhen it is tauld thee, Christ lovis thee) I tel thee it wil 
not bind thee. Al the preiching in the warld wil not bind thee, 
and it be without thee. Paul sayis thairfor, Rom. v. 5. " The love 
of God is schcd abrode in our harts throw the Haly Spreit that is 
given us." Then that that love may bind the hart, it mon be pourit 

1 Shewed. ^ AVhioh Christ coiiqiKied. ^ Whether tliou wilt, nr wnlt not. 

ON 2. COR. 5. , 349 

in thee, and quhen it enters in the hart, it lowsis the hart with 
sic ane sueitness to do God's wil as is unspeikable : it bindis the 
hart with ane exceiding joy. AYald to God we had ane taist of 
this love. All is hot wordis. Thair can be na sic sweitnes as that 
is, fra anis the Sprit lies powrit the love of Christ in thy hart, 
then let all our travels be quhen we heir of thir things, to get ane 
sense of the lufe of Christ in our harts. All the powers in the 
warld will not move thee to doe thy dewty sa meikle, as the feil- 
ing of this love of Christ towards thee. And na thing will be abil 
to stay thee fi'a Christ and honouring him (and it wer with thy 
awin ignominy) gif anis thou have ane sense of it. In the nixt 
verse he gevis twa reasounis quhy the love of Christ constrained 
him. The first reason is takin fra that misery that Christ fand 
him in, quhen he sufferit for him : the secund is takin fra the end 
of the deitli of Jesus. As to the first, this was our miserabil estait 
befoir Christ loved us : " We were all dead." How provis he 
that, " Gif ane be dead for all, then wer all dead," gif thou had 
not bene dead, in vaine deit Christ for thee. Gif thou had ben hot 
half deid (as the Papists say is, quha vaunts of thair fre wil,) the 
Son of God had never deit for thee. Gif Paul had had this fre 
wil, and sa bene half deid, Christ had never deit for him : and gif 
ther wer na uther argument bot this, to import that thair is not 
ane free will, nor spunk of godlines in men be nature, it is sufficient 
to say, Christ hes deit for al : we were without all spunk of free 
will to gude quhen Christ come. Mark the force of the argument. 
It is fra that miserabill estait and spirituall deith quhairin Christ 
fand us, quhen he began to kyith^ his love on us. We wer deid 
spiritually in sinne, deid in trespassis. Quliat reckis of this cor- 
porall deith, gif thou be deid in sinne, thou is worse nor ane carrion. 
This spirituall deith suld move us to think that the love of Christ 
was wonderfull towards us : it suld ever mak us aggrege that 
love quhairwith he hes loved us. He died for thee quha was deid 
in sinne and trespassis, and sa ane enemie to him. " Quha is he 
(sayis the Apostle) that will die for his enemie ?" Pom. v. 7. Thou 

1 Bestow. 


being deid in sinne, thou lived in sinne, and sa lived ane enemy 
to the lyfe of Christ. And thairfoir thy hart can never sufficient- 
lie aggrcge the benefite of his deith. Men ar miserable, bot 
allace they feill it not : thou hes na want nor scant of miserie, 
bot thou wantis sense : and the less felling thou hes of thy deid- 
ness, the greater is thy deidness : for the sense of deith is the 
beginning of life ? the greater thy inlaik be of the sense of deith,^ 
thou is ever the deider : the quikker- the sinner be, lowping^ and 
playing him in his wantonnesse, the deider is he in saull. For he 
hes ane burden on his back that will presse him throw the eirth, 
and mak him sink to hell ane day : and in the mein time he is 
running to his mischeif and villanie, and kennis not that he hes 
deith everlasting on the back of him. O wo be to that miserabill 
cative suppois he wer ane king. Allace, men ar deid in siune and 
half in hell, and will not considder it. It is ane pitifull thing to 
considder how thair is na sense of this infernall miserie, that fol- 
lowis upon tliis deith. Qulien it Is tauld them, the Lord hes died 
for them, they will mak na account of it. The word of the croce 
of Christ hes bene to the multitude of this land bot ane vain sound, 
and they have never counted of sic ane mercy. And tliairfoir 
quhat wonder is it to see thir vexatiounis. O Scotland, thou sail 
get ane uther walkning, thou hes sa lang contemnit grace, quhilk 
is the maist pretious that ever was : The Lord can not be Lord 
and he suffer sa lang contempt and lichtlying of Christ and his 
love unpunisched ! The secund argument is taken fra the end and 
purpose that Christ had in deing : luikit he to this end that thou 
suld play thee, and follow thy awin last ? that thou suld abuse 
that life, quhilk he had bocht sa deir with his precious blude ? Na 
his purpose was that not onlie in his deith and satisfactioun thou 
suld be justified and counted just, bot also that thou suld be sanc- 
tified, that thou suld cast of thy warkis of unclennes, and dedicate 
thy life in halines to him. It is said, Rom. xiv. 9. " That he rais 
againe, that he micht be Lord over thy life." For thair was never 
man that had sic ane richt to an eirthly thing as he hes to thy life : 
1 The more thou wantest the sense of death. 2 Livelier. ' Leaping. 

ON 2. coE. 5. 351 

then do quhatever may pleisure him, and it wer to die ane 
thousand times, and it were to be ane fule for his cause, quhat 
ever may pleisure him, set thee to do it, or of necessitie thou sail 
tyne that life of thyne. Bot heir is the miserie : Man knawis not 
quhairfoir Christ died. Will ze speir at men and wemen, quhen 
they ar lying bathing them selfis in wickitnesse, gif they will gang 
to hevin : they will answere, Zes, they will gang to hevin or ever 
thair feit be cauld. Bot vain lown, thou never knew Christia 
purpose in deing for thee. His purpose was that thou suld be ane 
new man, and thou suld not live to thy awin self, bot to him. And 
the end sal prove (and thou proceid sa, living to thyself and not 
to him quha hes died for thee) that the deith of Christ had never 
force in thee. Thairfoir luik mf thou livis to Christ : and m{ 
thou dois sa, then assure thyself Christ died for thee. Luik gif 
in the morning thou can say. Lord thow died for mee, I will 
give thee my life, and consecrate to thee this day all my actiounis, 
and all that I have. Weill is the saull that can say this way. 
Then all turnis to this, Seing Christ died for mee, I will tak this 
resolutioun, I wiU live to him aU my dayis. The Lord grant us 
this resolutioun that we may live to him in this life, that heirefter 
we may live with him in hevin for ever. To quiiome be all 
honour, prais and glorie for ever. Amen. 


2. Cor. Cap. 5. 

16. Quhairfoir hencefurtli knaw we na man efter the flesche : zea though 
we have kiiawne Christ efter the fllcsche, now zit hencefurth knaw 
ze him no more. 

17. Thairfoir gif onie man be in Christ, he is a new creature : auld thingis 

ar passit away, behauld all thingis ar becum new. 

18. And all thingis ar of God, quhilk hes reconciled us unto himself 

through Jesus Chi*ist, and hath given unto us the ministerie of recou- 

Ze heard the last day, in the last part of this chapter, the reasounia 
set down quhairfoir ane man is bund and oblisched in conscience 
to live to God, to consecrate his life, his deith, and all his actiounis 
to Jesus Christ : to wit, first the love of Christ constrainis and 
oblischis us sa to love him agane, that we be content even to be 
fuilis to this warld for his saik. Ane uther argument was taken 
from our amn estait quhairin we wer, quhen he kythlt^ this love of 
his on us, we wer deid in sinne and trespassis. Sa this miserabill 
condition that we lay in, quhilk was the beginning of hcl and 
everlasting damnatioun, suld move us never to think on jileising of 
oursclfis, bot onlie to pleisure him quha hes delyvercd us fra .sic 
damnatioun. The thrid argument wes taken fra the purpose quhilk 
the Lord had in dying for us : to wit, that the lyfe that was bocht 
be his dcith, suld be consecrate to him, and imployed in his service : 
for being unis redeemed by him we ar na mair our awin men, bot 

1 Shewed. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 35S 

his quha lies coft^ us. And thairfoir as the servand sets his eie 
upon his lord, waiting to plesure him ; sa in our haill actiounis, with 
our haill mind, we suld be set to pleisure our Lord, quha coft us 
quhen we wer bund slaves to sin and Sathan. Utherwayis we sail 
fall aback to that damnation quhairfra^ we wer redemed. 

Now to come to this text that we have red. In the first verse 
thairof we have the resolutioun of the Apostle PauU, and the pur- 
pose quhilk he takis concerning this matter. Seing Christ his Lord 
hes set himself to pleis him, and to redeme him fra deith, and to 
conqueis'^ life to him, his resolutioun is to give him agane that life 
quhilk he hes conqueisit to him, to imploy the haill life of him in the 
service of that Lord that hes redemit him. Thairfoir, Brethren, 
befoirl gang fordward learne ane lessoun of this general, Gif this was 
the purpose ofChrist in deing for us, and In deing sa schameflill ane 
deith, that we for quhome he deit suld live to him, and not to our- 
selfis ; our purpose suld be on the uther part, to give him this life 
that he hes bocht sa deirlie. Give him it, or ellis thou sail give it 
to ane worse man. Imploy it in his service, or els thou sail imploy 
it in the service of ane worse man. And ilk* ane suld say for thair 
awin partis as Paul did for his pairt, Hes Christ died for me to this 
purpose that I suld live to him, then will I tak purpose and will 
resolve in my hart to give him the life that he hes conqueist to me 
be his deith. This was his purpose in his deith concerning me, I 
will not disappoint him of his purpose. That life that he hes win 
to mee, I will consecrate it to his service. It is true, thou can 
never disappoint the Lord of his purpose : his purpose standis im- 
movable. The man to quhome he luikit in his deith he mon live, 
and every man for quhom Christ died was in his eies quhen he 
died. Na godlie man was out of his rainde in his suifering, hot he 
said in his hart, I will die for this man and for this woman, that 
they may live to mee. Sa he will not be disappointed. Bot luik 
thou disappoint not thyself. Gif thou say, Christ died for mee, 
and in the meintime thou wil not give thy life to him, bot will live 
to thy lustis, and not to him, thou of necessitie in the end sail bring 

' Bought. 2 From which. ^ Purchase. * Everj'. 



thyself to ane miserable point. Tliair is natbing in tbe warld that 
ane man suld take mair tent ^ to, nor to tbe life to cum, to thair 
maner of living heir, and to the actions that they have in hand, 
and the things about the quhilk they ar occupied in thair conver- 
sation. For gif thou have ane conscience, thy conscience wil tel 
thee by thy actions quhat part thou lies in Christ ; gif in thy 
actions thou be serving him, thy conscience wil tel thee, thou hes 
a part in the Lord quhom thou is serving. And thou in the mein 
time (gif thou wer bot eating thy denner) gif thou do it to his 
glorie thou sail finde ane sweit apprehensioun of the deith of 
Christ, and it sail raise a greit joy in thy hart. Bot be the con- 
trair, gif thou be evill occupied, and about to doe any evill turne, 
thy conscience within thee will give thee ane secreit warning, and 
wil say, Oh ! man, thy wark testifies thou hes na thing ado with 
Christ, and thou sail find in thy hart na comfort of Christis deith, 
nor of his resurrectioun. Sa it is gude to be weill occupied everie 
man in his awin calling, and in all his doings ever to have Christ 
befoir his eies, quha hes given him this life. Wald thou then try 
quhidder the turnis^ that thou dois be service done to the Lord or 
not, I sail tell thee how thou sail ken, (I will not speik of outward 
takinnis) bot luik day and nicht Avithin thyself to thy awin hart 
quhat thow feillis thair : Feillis thou ane conscience be nicht and 
be day testifying to thee that thou art upon ane gude course, and 
serving Christ quha died for thee, it is weill with thee : gif thy 
conscience be richtlie informed, and thou find in the mein time 
ane sweit apprehensioun of Christis deith, ])assion and rysiug, it is 
weil. Bot gif thovi feill not this testimonie of ane gude conscience, 
bot rather ane displesour and grudging in thy saul, al is wrang. 
Weil is thee gif thou find in all thy doings ane sweit apprehen- 
sioun of Christis deith and resurrectioun : gif thou find it not, woe 
is thee, leave that tume, away with it. Away with all busines 
that will not furneis ane joy of conscience in Christ, and will nocht 
mok thee to say, Christ is myne, I am doing him service. 

Now to cum to the purpose, the special point of service that suld 

' Heed. ^ Deeds. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 355 

be siven to Christ is set cloiin in thir wordis : — '-'- From hencefurtli 
knaw we na man efter the fleshe :" thir ar the wordis, wey them. 
The speciall point of service set doun heir, is the richt estimatioun 
of men among quhom we live in the warld. It is na small mater 
to esteim of men and wemen as we suld do. The rule quhairby 
the Apostle will esteim of them is not in the flesche, nor be fleschlie 
doing, that is, be na outward thing. All thir outward thingis, as 
kindred, nobilitie, beautie, wisdome, warldlie eloquence, riches, 
honoui', with all the rest of thir things quhilk men hes in admira- 
tioun, is nathing. This is not the rule of the Apostle, nor we suld 
not be that rule esteim of them. How then ? Quhat is contrair 
to the flesche ? the Spreit. Quhat is contrair to nature ? Grace. 
Quhat is contrair to the auld man ? Regeneration. Then quhat 
audit to be the rule according to the quhilk we sould judge of men ? 
the Spreit, Grace and Regeneratioun. Bot ze will say, ar not all 
thir warldlie thingis benefitis of God, suld not men be estemed of 
for them ? I answere : the Apostle speikis not simplie of them, bot 
in comparisoun, in respect of the spiritual! graces. The nobilitie 
of the King is bot dung in respect of the leist drop of the blude of 
Christ : the leist spunk of grace is worth haill nature ; the leist 
portion of hevinlie glorie is worth all the glorie in the warld ; the 
leist spunk of regeneratioun is worth aU the genealogies that can 
be in this warld. Quhen Christ cumis with his Spreit, grace and 
regeneration, all thir eirthlie prerogatives vanisches as the mist. 
Then mark : Thair is the special point of service done to Jesus, 
discerne betwixt deid men and living men in this warld. Deid 
men ar they quha ar naturall men and na mair. Hes thou na 
mair bot nature with al the prerogatives that can follow nature 
thou art deid suppois thou were ane king. Living men ar they 
quha ar born again be Christ. Hes thou the Spreit of Christ thou 
livis : want thou the Spreit of Christ thou art bot deid. Sa thair 
is ane speciall point of Christis service, discerne betwixt living 
men and deid men : thou art in the middis of them, and living 
men on the ane hand, and deid men on the uther hand. Discerne 
betwixt them. Count not of the dead man althocht he had all the 



prerogatives under hevin. Clif lie havB na mair bot nature, cal 
him not blissit. The living man is he that hes the Spreit of Christ 
in him, albeit he wer ane begger ; and the men quha makis ane 
account of thir warldhe prerogatives, and followis nature and the 
auld generatioun, ar bot natural men : thou quha accounts of deid 
men art deid thy self, and as thou art deid, sa al thy estimation is 
of deid men. To go fordward to the vs^ords, he ampHfies this be 
the example of Christ. He sayis, howbeit I countit anis of Christ 
efter the flesh, befoir I knew him weill ; zit from henceforth I ml 
ken him na mair efter the flesche, and thairfoir quhy suld we ken 
men efter the flesche, quha ar inferiom'is to Christ, the heid of all 
flesche. Now to speik of this Lord. Quhen he was in this warld 
he was cled with thir eirtlilie prerogatives as uther men ; zea, I 
think he had thir outward prerogatives in his awin person in 
s-reatest measure above all men. For never man descended of ane 
mair excellent race and genealogie than he did. Then luik to his 
beautie, albeit it is not set doun in the Scripture, I doubt gif ever 
thair was ane man^ sa fair in beautie as he. He was maist wise, 
maist eloquent of all men, and thairfoir the Apostles had him in 
admiratioun for thir prerogatives. Bot fra anis by his glorious 
resurrection (as the Apostle sayis, Rom. i. 4) he was declared 
michtelie to be the Sone of God, then all thir thingis evanisched, 
and the onlie admiratioun remained of that glorie quhilk he declared 
by his resurrectioun. All thir eirthlie prerogatives (sayis Paul) 
then past out of thair eies, and the graces of Christ only remained 
to be mervailled at. The lessoun is plaine. The Lord Jesus is 
the rule of the estimatioun of all flesche. In thy estimatioun hald 
thy eie ever on Christ, or eUis thou sail fall. First cast thy eies 
up to hevin, afid then cast doun thy eies on man quha is bot ane 
worme on the eirth. Luik up to ane glorious God, Jesus the Me- 
diatour, and then to ane worme on this eirth, and he wer ane king, 
and say, Those thingis that I will not count of in Jesus, quhilk 
he had, being in Galilie and in the eirth, I will not count of them 
in thee that art bot ane worme, I wil not do it. Bot be the con- 
' Yet I think there was never man. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 357 

trair, that thing quhilk I esteim of in him, that passing glorie 
quhilk is in him, quhen I luik to thee and seis ane glaunce thairof 
in thee, indeid for that littill resemblance quhilk I see in thee like 
to my Lord resembling him in grace, I will esteim of thee, uther- 
wayis I may weill give thee this warldlie reverence, bot gif thou 
want this resemblance I will never count thee happie, and ^ thou 
had all the eirthlie prerogatives in the warld. And certainlie they 
quha hes men in admiratioun for thir eirthly prerogatives never 
saw Christ, nor his glorie. Thou that will see ane tribunall, ane 
monarche heir, and mervell thairat, thou never saw the tribunall of 
Christ. Sa the thing that garris^ people esteim of men for thir 
eirthlie prerogatives, is because they see not the glory and graces 
of Christ. Wald the people have estemed sa mekill of Herode, gif 
they had knawin the majestic of the greit God quhen they eallit 
hira ane God. Act. xii. 22. Na, not for all the warld, and thair- 
foir seik ane sicht of the glorie of God, gif ze wald richtly esteim 
of men, and give them only thau' awin place. 

Now to go fordward. Ze have heard of the purpose that the 
Apostle takis in serving of his Lord, be the richt esteiming of men 
in this warld amang quhom he livis. In the nixt verse he cummis 
to the estait of this warld, and schawls quhat alteratioun was made 
in the warld be the alteration made in the person of Jesus ; for quhen 
Jesus altered all creatures altered with him ; quhen he went from 
the eirth to the hevin, and left behind him all thir eirthlie plesures, 
thair followit ane wonderfull change and alteratioun in al the crea- 
tures. Bot to cum to the wordis : he first speikis of the estait of 
man ; and, secundly, of the estait of the rest of the creatures in 
the eirth. As for man he sayis : " Thairfoir gif ony man be in 
Christ, let him be a new creature :" mark this : gif onie man be 
in Christ he is a new creature ; he is changed, he is altered, and 
wonderfiillie altered : he is changed fra ane aidd creatm-e to ane 
new creature ; fra ane auld deid creature to ane new living crea- 
ture ; fra nature to grace ; fra deith to lyfe ; fra hell to hevin : 
Quhat suld becum of ane auld rottin stock bot be castin in the 
' Albeit. "^ Causeth. 


fyre ? Sti gif thou had continewed ane aidd rotten creature, 
brunt had thou bene in that fyre quhilk is unquenchable. He 
settis doun the meinis how this change is maid : First thou mon 
be in Christ ; as ever thou saw ane imp ingraft in ane tre, sa thou 
mon be planted and ingrafted in him. Being planted in him, than 
cummis that freschc sop^ out of him into thee, and transformes 
thee, and makis thee ane new creature. Then leirn of this first, 
luik the force of the alteratioun of Jesus : qulien he altered fra 
eirthlie thingis to hevinlie glorie, man especiallie altered -with him. 
Then luik, secundlie, the dignitie of man, — amang all creatures 
he lies the first place of chaunging, and Christ was first effectuall 
in man to make him ane new creature. And this preferment hes 
man above al the hevinnis and above al the creatures. The maner 
how this cummis to pas is this. Or thou be altered thou mon be 
raised up to him, and be joyned with him, and ingraft in him as 
ane imp in ane tree ; then thou and he, and he and thou being 
made ane, the glorie that is in Jesus spreddis the self over thee, 
and covers thee. Bot gif thou be not in him, thou sail never get 
ane part of his glorie. Luik that thou be in him, be faith, (for 
faith ingrafts thee in him), and being in him thou sail get a part 
of his glorie ; and zit thou is bot ane creature, and not ane creator. 
The difference is in newnes, thou wes made befoir aid, bot now 
made new, green and livelie, fra anis thou be planted in Christ 
thou is flm-isching. It is true all thir thingis ar not sene zit, and 
this flurisching of us in Christ is not fund zit perfitelie, and this 
conjunction of him with us is not sa sensible as it sail be, bot this 
sail anis be fund true, we sail find that we wer the sonnes of 
God, and new creatures, quhen we wer on this eirth, and we sail 
get the accomplischment of our felicitie in hcvin, quhen we ar 
reigning in glorie with him. Now as to the rest of the creatures 
he sayis, " Auld things ar past by, behauld al thingis ar becum 
new." He sayis, " Behold ;" mark the word : heirby steiring up 
their hartis to sec the alteratioun and renewing of thir creatures, 
scing it is ane thing difficill to be bcleved be men. Thair is na 

1 Sap. 

ON 2. COR. 5. 359 

creature, neither angell, nor man, no the dumb and sensles crea- 
tures as the hevin, eirth, the fyre, water, air, hot they wer al bene- 
fited be that change maid in Christ, and be his glorious Resun-ec- 
tion and Ascension they receaved some alteration fi'a the worse to 
the better. The angels quha wer befoir in glorie, wer bettered, 
and thair glorie was augmented be the rysing of Christ. The 
Apostle, Eph. i. 10, and iii. 10, and Coloss. i. 20, schawes this ; 
bot to speik of the inferiour creatures and thair estait, of this 
Hevin, Sunne, Mone, Starres, Eirth, Water, &c., that was created 
for the use of man, thir creaturis fra the beginning ever altered with 
man. Quhen man was created in the beginning in perfectioun, 
thir creaturis was in than* perfectioun, the hevin in his perfectioun, 
the sunne in his perfectioun, &c. Quhen man fell, they fell also, 
the hevin fell from his perfectioun, &c., the eirth was accursed for 
man. Rom. viii. 20. As man grew auld, that is, as he grew in 
sinne, unto the time that sinne came to the hicht (quhilk fell in 
that same period of time quhen Christ come in the warld ; then 
the Apostle sayis sinne superabunded and all was under sinne. 
And surelie I think gif the Lord had not cummed at that periode 
of time quhen the warld superabunded in sin, and sinne was cum 
to the heicht, the warld had presentHe perisched ;) sa, I say, as 
men grew auld be sinne, the Kevins, the Sonne, the Mone, and al 
the rest of the creatm's grew auld. Allace man be sin defylis the 
au', the hevins, &c. Quhen thou, oh man, for quhom all the rest 
of the creatures was maid, runnis ford ward in offending thy Crea- 
tor, thou drawis on al the . rest of the creaturs efter thee. And 
again at the cumming of Christ the auld creaturis began to be 
maid new creaturis, and the creaturs that was maid to the use of 
man, wer benefited with that benefit of man, and gat ane renewing 
as man thair Lord was renewed. Again efter Christis cumming, 
quhen man began of new to degener and grow auld, then the 
creatures also began to grow auld. Sa man growing in sinne 
drawis efter him the creaturis, and as he decayis, the eirth and all 
creaturis decaies, and thairfoir Paull (Rom. viii. 19, 22,) sayis, 
that the sensles and diunb creaturis o-ranis and raakis ane mane 


for sin, murniug as aue Avoman travelling of birth, and fain wakl 
be deliverit. Sa the eirth wald fain be quite of thee, O sinful 
man, quha is maid of the eirth, and trampis on the belly of the 
eirth. Scho granis^ under the wecht of thee for sin, fy on thee 
that can not grane for sin : thou sal either grane heir in this lyfe 
and get releif, or thou sal grane efter this life for ever without re- 
leif. This is the graning that the puir creature makis for the 
beiring of thee, and the eirth wald fain serve God in hir aAvin 
kind, bot sho is maid subject to thy vanity, (Rom. viii. 20,) and, 
thairfoir, scho granis : sa the sensles creaturs tyris^ and cryis. Lord 
put an end to this vanity, and ar crying this day this same hour ; 
bot man, for quhoni the eirth and all is maid siibject to this mise- 
rie and vanitie, is going playing him on the eirth without gi'oning. 
"Weill, at last quhen the sonnes of God sail be revelled, and sail 
be glorified, (Coloss. iii. 4,) then the eirth quhilk groned with them 
quhen they groned sail be glorified with them, and then the sunne 
and the mone sail receave newnes, and, as Peter sayis, (2. Epist. 
iii. 13,) The sons of God sal receive this same hevin in substance, 
bot it sal be new, and the eirth sal be new, and then the eirth sal 
be na langer capabil of a sinfull man. Thou sinner sal not get leif 
to luik to this hevin, onlie the sons of God that sail be glorified 
sal get this priviledge, they sail be kingis of this new eirth. Ze 
see then the estait of the creatures evanisches according to mannis 
estait, and altei'is as man dois, and in the end the creatures sail 
have the participatioun with man of that glorie quhilli they longed 
for. This for the opinning up of the, text. Leime heir. Ze se 
the creaturis gets renewing alsweil as man ; bot (mark the differ- 
ence) in the second rowme. Man is first renewed, then the crea- 
turis is renewed ; man hes his preferment first, nixt the creatures 
is renewed, bot not efter that manor that man is renewed ; for 
man is first imped" in Christ, and he is maid ane with him. Jesus 
the held, the kii'k, the bodie, and everic faithful man and woman 
ane member of that bodie. (Eph. i. 22, 23.) Bot the creatures 
quhen they ar renewed they are not imped in Christ ; the hevin 
' Gro.ins. ' Arc wcarv. 3 Grafted. 

ON 2 COR. 5. 361 

qiilien it is renewed is not called to that honour to be impit in 
Christ, it is na part of the bodie of Christ : the eirth qidien it is 
renewed is na part of the bodie of Christ. Na : na sic conjunc- 
tioun is betwixt Christ and those creatures, as is betwixt him and 
his Kirk. Sa seing thir creatures that ar renewed with man, ar 
not honoured with that conjunctioun quhilk is with Christ the 
Lord, it mon follow that the glory of the creatures is not equall 
w^ith the glorie of man. Quhen the hevinnis sail be made new 
and verie glorious, zit all sail be nathing to that glorie of man. 
Thou O man sail schyne in bodie above the glorie of the sun be 
ane thousand stages, (Matt. xiii. 43.) The conjunctioun of Christ 
not being sa made with the creaturis as it is with man, the glorie of 
them can not be compared with the glorie of man, bot all the glorie 
of the creatvu'es sail be as ane particij^atioun of the glorie of man. 
Thou man sail be glorified with the glorie of Jesus Christ him self: 
the creaturs sail be glorified, bot with thy glorie. Al this tellis us 
quhat glorie we suld luik for, seing this Lord that makis this reno- 
vatioun, is sa glorious. It is certain that at the cumming of Christ 
in the warld, and his passing up to the hevinnis, ane renewing of 
all the creatures in the warld was maid, all thingis were renewed. 
This is ane ground that we mon hald, gif we believe that Christ 
come in the warld and lies ascended to glorie. Allace, this is not 
perceaved, and in myself I can not see it as I wald, and the maist 
godlie compleinis that they can not see this effectualnesse of 
Christis glorie. The cause is, the deidnes that abydis in us, sinne 
can not be gottin out of this warld, quhill the Lord cum ao-aine. 
It dwellis in us, and reignis in the warld, and the Devill the Prince 
of this warld reignis be it, (for quhau' sinne reignis, he reignis) 
zea, it oppressis the godlie hart, that scarcelie they can feill in 
them selfis this renovatioun : sa weichtie is sinne ! quha seis it ? 
Thair is ane glimmering of this new creatioun, bot quha hes this 
glimmering ? Nane, bot that new saul. Ane unregeuerat man 
never saw this regeneratioun neither in himself, nor m uthers and 
he can not suffer to heir of ane regenerate and sanctified man : he 
will laugh as thocht thair culd not be sic ane thing as reo-enera- 


tioun, because the mocker himself is unrenewed, thairfoir he can 
not wey Gocldis graces in ane uther. Sa lang as thou art unre- 
generat, thou can not bot scome regeneration : zea, and persecute 
the regenerate man, and sa rasche thy heid against ane wall. For 
the Lord lies maid him inviolable, and the temple of his Spreit, 
and thaii'foir he sail wi'ak^ thee that art the unregenerate man : 
zea and wrakit sail everie man be that daschis himself against the 
Kirk of Jesus, that is the renewed bodie, that bodie as ane iron 
wall sail bruise them. Experience tells this. Quha ever was he 
that rusched aganis the Kirk, bot the Kirk dang and beat him- in 
powder : MelP not with the Saincts of God : suppois it wer bot 
ane Sanct renewed be the grace of God he is sufficient to destroy 
and bruis ane haill kingdome that ruschis on him. The Lord 
opin men's eies to see this. For all the warld, wald I not be ane 
to mak opposition to ane of the saincts of God. The Lord thair- 
foir save men, and leirn them to account of this renovatioun, as 
they wald have ane portion thairof, and be glorified at the cum- 
ming of Christ. 

Now, to end schortlie : The Apostle, quhen he hes spoken 
of the renewing of all creatures made be Jesus the Mediatour 
(for all flowis out of him), in the nixt verse he rysis and m