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Full text of "The Death of death in the death of Christ : being a treatise of the redemption and reconciliation that is in the blood of Christ ; wherein the whole controversy about universal redemption is fully discussed : in four parts"

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Theological Seminary 


case, S CC.. Division 

SnelA )j03 Sectic- 





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Firji American Edition^ carefully revifed and corrcBUl 

CARLISLE, fPcnnfylvania) 




IF thou intendeft to go any farther, I would entreat thee ip 
flay here, a little. If thou art, as many in this pretending 
age, a fign or title-gazer- — and comell into books as Cato into 
the theatre, to go out again — rhou hall had thy entertainment ; 
jarewell. With him that refolves a ferious view of the fol- 
lowing difcourje, and really defireth fatisfaftion from the word 
and chrijiian rcafon, about the great things contained therein, 
I defire a few words in (hQ portal. Divers things there are, 
of no fmall coiifideration to the bufinefs we have in hand, 
which I am perfuaded thou can ft not be unacquainted with, 
and therefore I will not trouble thee with a needlels repetition 
of them. 

I fhall only crave thy leave, to preface a little to the 

point in hand, and my prefent undertaking therein ; with the 
refult of fome of my thoughts concerning the whole, after a 
more than leven ye^^ fenous inquiry (bottomed I hope upon 
the flrength of Chrift and guided by his fpirit) into the mind 

of God about thefe things, with a ferious perufal ut all 

which I could attain, that the zvit of man, in former or latter 
days, hath publifhed in oppofiti-n to the truth which I defire 
(according to the meafure of the gift received; here to ajfert. 
Some things then, as to the chief point in hand, I v/ould 
defire the Reader to obferve : As, 

ijl. That the affertion of Unwerfal Redemption, or the 
general ranfom, fo as to make it in the leaff meafure heneficial 
for the end intended,-— — goes not alone. Eleclion of free 
grace, — as the fountain ot all following difpenfations, all 
difcriminating purpofes of the Almighty, depending en his 
own good pleafure and will, mull be removed out of the 
way. Hence thofe who would for the prefent, fpopulo ul 
placerent quas fecerefabulas) defiroufly retain fome fhew of 
afferting the liberty of eternally Ci\{l\i\g\i\?a\x\^ free grace ; do 
themfe'ves utterly raze, in refpeCt of znv fruit or profitable 
iffue, the whole imaginary fabric of general redemption, which 
they had before erecfed. Some ^ of thefe make the decree 
of election to be aiitecedaneous to the death of Chriff, (as 
themfelves abfurdly fpeak,) or the decree of the death of 
Chrift : then frame a two-fold eleclion; one, cf fome to be 
\\i(t fons, — the other, of the reft to ht /ervants. But this 
dtclion of fome to h<i fcrvants, the Scripture cal's rrproha- 

tion i 
* T, M, Univerfali^ cf Lee-grace, 


tian; and {peaks of it as the ifTue of hatred, or a purpofe of 
3-eje6lion, Rom. ix. ii, 12. To be 2ifervant, in oppofuioii 
to children and their liberty, is as high a curie as can be ex- 
preffed, Gen. ix. 25. Is this Scripture-eleftion ? Befides, 
it Chrift </2^ to bring thofe he died for, unto iht adoption 
and inheritance of children ; what good could poflfibly re- 
dound to them thereby, who \ffQre prede/iinated beiorc to be 
only fir vants ?■ 

Others f make a general conditionate decree of redemption^ 
to be antecedaneous to eleBion ; which they affert to be the 
lirft difcriminating purpofe concerning the fons of men, an4 
lo depend on the klone good pleafure of God: that any others 
Ihall partake of the death of thrift or the fruits thereof, either 
\xxiX.o grace ox glory, \>\x\. only thole perfons {o eleBed,—-\\\2Lt 
they deny. Cui bono now ? to w\i2X purpofe ferves ih^ gene- 
ral ranfomf but only to affert,— that Almighty God would 
have the precious blood of \i\^ dear Son poured out, for in- 
numerable fouls whom he will not have to fhare in any drop 
thereof; and fo, in refpe6l of them, to be fpilt in vain; or 
elfe to be (hed for them, only that they might be the deeper 
damned. T\i\^ fountain \S\q.w of free-grace, \\\\^ foundation 
of the new covenant, this bottom of all gofpel-difpenfations, 
this \x\i\\.{\iX womb o\ all eternally diftinguifhing mercies, the 
purpofe of God according to eleBion, muft be oppofed, 
iQighied, blafphemed ; that the figment of the fons of men 
may not appear to be tr uncus ficulnus, inutile lignum^ an un- 
jprofitable ftock; — and all the thoughts of the moll High, 
'differencing between man and man, muft be made to take, 
occafion, hyfonie, to be caujed, fay others, by their holyfelf^ 
fpiritual endeavours: gratum opus agricolis, a favory facri- 
iice to the Ro?nan Belus ; a facred orgie to the long-bewailed 
htanes of St. Pelagins, 

' And here, [idly f Free-will, amor et delicia humani generis ^ 
corrupted nature's deformed darling, the F alias or beloved 
felf'Conceplion of darkened minds,— finds open hearts and 
arms, iov lii adulierous cxnhvdiCtsi yea, xht dye being caft, 
and Rubico paffed over, — eo devenere fata ecclefict, that having 
oppofed the free diftinguifliing grace of God, as the fole fworn 
<?«€wy thereof; it advanceih itfelf, (or an inbred native ability 
in every one, to embrace a portion of generally expofed mer^ 
cy) under the name of free-grace, Tantane vos tenuit generis 
nducia veft} i ? This, this is Univerfaliftsyz-^f-^rjcd / which, 
in the Scripture-phrafe, is curfed corrupted nature : neither 

i Cameri, Amirald, &c. 


can it othcrways be. A general ranfom without /ree-wili, is 
hui phanta^ce inutile pondus, a burden fome fancy: the merit 
of the death of Chrift being to them as an ointment in a box, 
that hath neither virtue nor power to aft or reach out its own 
application unto particulars ; being only fet out in \.\\^ go/pel 
to the view of all — that thofe who will, by their own ftrength, 
lay hold on it zn^ apply it to themfelves, may be healed. 
Hence is the dear elleem and high valuation, which this old 
idoiyr^<?-2i;z7/ hath attained in thefe days ; being fo ufetul to> 
the general ranfom, that it cannot live a day without it. 
Should it pafs tor /rw^ what the Scripture affiims, viz. that 
we are by nature dead in trefpajfes and fins ; there would not 
be left of the general ranfom, ajherd to take fire from the hearth: 
like the wood of the vine, it would not yie'da pin to hang a 
garment upon : all which you ftiall find lully declared, in the 
enfuing treatife. But here, as though all the undertakings 
diuA BabyloniJJi attempts ot ihe o\di Pelagians, with their var- 
niflied offspring the late Armiyiians, were flight and eafy ; I 
fhall {\it\^ y OMg^QdiiQX abominations than thefe, and further 
difcoveries of the imagery of the hearts of the Tons of men. 

In purfuance of this perfuafionof univerfal redemption, not 
a few have arrived (whither it naturally leads them) to deny 
ihefatisfaclion and tnerit of Chrift. Witnefs P. H. who 
not being able to untie, ventured boldly to cut this Gardian 
knot ; but fo as to make both ends of the chain ufeiefs. To 
thequeflion^ Whether Chrift died for all men or not ? he 
anfwers, — that he died neither tor all, nor any, fo as to pur- 
chafe life and falvation for them. tan, poion fe epos phugev, 
hercos odonton? fhall curfed Socinianifn be worded into 
a glorious difcovery oi free-grace ? Afk now for proofs of 
this affertion,— as you might juftly expe£t Achillean argu- 
ments from thofe who delight akineta kinein, to throw 
down {\ich foundations, (as (hall put all the righteous in the 
world to a lofs thereby ;) Projicit ampuUas et fefquipedalia 
verba ; hyperonka mataiotetos, great fwelling words of 
vanity, drummy expreflions, a noife from emptinefs, (the 
ufual language of men, who know not what they fpeak, nor 
whereof they do afinnj is all that is produced : fuch con- 
te'mptible products, have our tympanous mountains. Poor 
creatures, whofcy^w/i are merchandized by the painted hces 
of novehy and vanity ; whil ft thefe ^^^j^j falute you with 
the ki/fes of tree grace, you fee not the fword that is in their 
hands ; whereby they fmile you under the fiftf'i rib, in the 
very heart blood q^ faith and all Chriftian confolation. It 



feems our blefled Redeemer's deep humiliation, in bearing the 
chajiiftment of our peace and the puniJJiment of our tranf- 
greflions, being made a curfe d^nA/in, defer ted under wrath 
and the power of death, — procuring redemption and the re- 
raiflion of fms through the effufion of his blood, offering 
himfelf up a facrifice to God to make reconciliation and pur- 
chafe an atonement ; his purfuing this undertaking with con- 
tinued interceflion in the holuj}. of holies^ with all the benefits 
of his mediator jhip \ — do no v^-di-^ procure either life and falva- 
tion, o\ remiffion o\ fins; but only ferve to declare^ that we 
are not indeed what his word affirms we are^ viz. cvrfed, 
guilty, defiled, and only not aftually call into hell. Judas^ 
betrayefl thou the Son oj man with a kijs ? See this at large 
confuted, Book 3. 

Now this laft ajfertion throughly fancied, hath opened a 
door and given an inlet to all thofe pretended heights, and 
new-named glorious attainments, — which have metamorphofed 
the perfon and mediation of Chrift, into an imaginary diffuf- 
ed goodnefs and love communicated from the Creator unto the 
new creation : — than which familiflical fables, * Cerdons 
two principles were not more ahfurd ; the Platonic numbers, 
nor the Valentinian jEones, (flowing from the teeming wombs 
of Pleroma, Aion, Teleios, Sige, Bythos, and the refi, vented for 
high, and glorious attainments in Chriftian religion near 1500 
years ago) were not lefs intelligible. Neither did the cor- 
roding of Scriptures by that Pontic vermin Maraow, equalize 
the contempt and fcorn call upon them by thefe impotent im- 
poflors; exempting their whifpered difcoveries from \ht\v trials 
and exaking their revelations above their authority. Neither 
do fome flay here ; but, his gradibus itiir in ccelum. Heaven it- 
lelf is broke open for all; from univerfal redemption, through 
unwevh] jufiification, in a general covenant, they have arrived 
(haudignota loquor) at univerfal falvation; neither can an^f 
forfeiture be made oi the purchased inheritance. 

Ergo agite Sjuvenes, tantarum in munere (audum i, 
Cingite Jrondz comas, et pocula porgite dextris : 
Communemquc vocatt deum, et date vina volentes, 

March on brave youths, i'th' praife of fuch free grace ; 

Surround your locks with bays, and full cups place 

In your right hands; drink freely on ; then call, 

O'lh* common hope, the ranfom general. 


* Iren. I. 2. c. 6, 7. 14, 15; kc. Clcoj. i^iova, 3. Ep. H:3rcf, 
3T. Tercul. ad. Y-len. 


Thefe and the like perfuafions I no way dlfllke, becaufe 
•\vhoiiy new to the men ot ihis generaiion: That I may add 
this by the way ; every age hath its employment in the Jif- 
covery of truth. We are not come to the bottom of vice or 
virtue ; the whole world hath been employed in the praftice 
of iniquity 5000 years and upwards ; and yet Afpice hoc no- 
vum, may be fet on many villanics ; behold daily new in- 
ventions. No wonder then it all truth be not yet difcovered. 
Something may be revealed to them, who as yet fit by. Ad- 
mire not it Saul alfo be among the prophets; for who is their 
father ? Is he not free in his dfpenjations ? Are all the depths 
of Scripture, where the elephants may fwim, juft fathomed to 
the bottom ? let any man obferve the progrefs ot the laft 
century in unfolding the truths of God ; and he will Icarce 
be obfiinate, that no more is left — as yet undifcovered. Only 
the itching ot corrupted fancies, ihe boldnefs of darkened 
minds and lafcivious wanton wits, in venting new created no- 
things, infignificant vanities, with an intermixed dafli of blaf- 
phemy— is that which I defire to oppofc. And that cfpecial- 
ly confidering the genius (if I may fo fpeak) oi the days 
wherein we live ; in which what by one means, what by ano- 
ther, there is almoft a general deflexion after novelty grown 
amongfl us; ^^ fome are credulous, feme negligent, fomt fall 
into errors, fome feek them. A great fufpicion almoil every 
day, grows upon me, which, I would thank any one, upon 
foiid grounds, ^.o free me from ; that pride of fpirit, with an 
Heroflratus-\\k& defirc to grow big in the mouths of men — hath 
afted many, in the conception and publication of feme eafly 
invented falfe opinions. Is it not to be thought alfo, that it 
is from the faine humour poflefhng many, that every one of 
them almoft ftrives to put on beyond his companions, in 
framing fome y$;7^z//(2r artifice ? To be 2l follower of others, 
(hough in defperate engagements, is too mean an undertaking. 

Aude aliquid brevihus gyaris vel carcere dignum. 

Si vis efje aliquid; probitas laudatur, et alget, Juv. 
And let it be no fmall \ peccadillo, no underling opinion, 
friends; if in thefe bufy times, you would have it taken notice 
of; of ordinary errors you may cry 

• quis leget haec ? nemo hercule, nemo ; 

Aut duo^ aut nemo. They 

* Ouidam creduli, quidamnegligentcs funt, quibifdam men- 
claciu?n ohrepit, quibufdam placet. 

t In tarn occupata civitate, fah.ulas vulgaris nequitia non 
invenit. Sen. Ep. 120. 


They muft be glorious atlaimntnts, beyond the underfland^ 
ing ot men, and above the wifdom of the word, which at- 
tra6l the eyes of poor deluded fouls. The great Shepherd of 
the fheep, oui Lord Jefus Chrifl, recover his poor wander- 
ers to his own fold. 

But to return thither from whence we have digrelTed. This 
IS ihdii J at al Helena— 2in ufelefs, barren, ivuxiX^ia Jancy ; for 
whofe enthroning, fuch irkfome tedious contentions have been 
caufed to the churches of God — a mere Rome, a defolate dirty 
place ot cottages^ until all the world be robbed ztxA fpoiled to 
adorn it. Suppofe Chrift died for all ; vet if God, in his 

free purpofe, have chofen foine to obtain life and falvation, 
pafTing by others— 'w'lW it be profitable only to ihQ former, or 
unto all? furely \\\e purpofe of God muft ftand, and he will 
do all his pkafure ; wheieiort ek^ion, either with Huberus, 
by a wild contradiBion, muft be made univerfal, or the thoughts 
o\ the Moft High fujpended on the free will of man. Add 
this borrow ed feather to the general ranfom, that at leaft it 
riiay have fome colour of pompous oftentation ; yet if the 

free grace of God work efftSually in fome, not in others, can 
thole others pafled by in its powerful operation, have any be* 
nefthy unwerfal redemption? no more than the Egyptians 
had, in the angel's pafling over tho/e houfes whofe doors were 
not f prink led with blood, leaving fome dead behind him. . 
Almighty powerful free grace then muft ftrike its fail, that 

free will, like the Alexandrian fliips to the Roman havens^ 
may come in with top and top-gallant ; for without it, the 
whole territory of univerfal redemption will certainly be fa- 
mifhed ; but let thefe do6i;rines, of God's eternal eleSion, the 
free grace of converfion, perfeverance, and their neceffary con- 
fequents, be afTerted ; movet cornicula rifum, furtivis nudata 
eoloribus ; it has not the leaft appearance of profit or confo- 
lation, but what it robs from the fovereignty and grace of 
God ; but of thefe things m.ore afterwards. 

Some ^Qwn'^mg pretences are ufually held out by the abet- 
tors of \\\^ general ranfom; which by thy patience, courteous 
Reader, we will a little view in the entrance, to remove fome 

prejudice that may lie in the way of truth. 

1. T\\^ glory of God, they fay, is exceedingly exalted by 
jt ; his good-will and kindnefs towards men, abundantly mani- 
fefted, in this enlargement of vs extent ; and his free grace, 
by others reft rained, fet out with a powerful endearment. — 
This they fay ; which is in effctl — all things will be well, wherL 
God is contented with that portion of glory which is of our af 


Jt'gning, Tlie prl Toners of the earth account it their greatefi: 
wifdom^ to vaniifh over \\\^w favours, and to fet out with a 
full mouth, what they have done with half a hand; but will 
it be acceptable to lie. for Gor], bv extending his bcunty be- 
yond the marks and eternal hounds fixed to it in his word ? 
change fiift a hair of your own heads, or add a cubit to your 
own Matures, before you come in with an addition of glory, 
not owned by him, to the Almighty. But fo for the moft 
part is it with corrupted nature, in all fuch inyflerious things; 
difcovering ihe bafenefs and mlr.zfs thereof. If God be ap- 
prehended to be as large \\\ grace, as that is in offence. (I mean 
in refpe6l of particular offenders, for in refpcct of his people 
he is larger) though it be free, and he hath p'-oclaimed to all, 
that he may do what he will with his own, giving no account 
of his matters; ^Z/fhali be well, he is gracious, merciful, 8cc, 
But if once the Scripture is conceived, to hold out his /bve^ 
reignty and fiee di/li/igu?flii??g gn^ce, fulled in its di/pe?i/atio?i 
to his own pnrpofe accoiding to f/6'/zVf?.v, he is immams, tru- 
fAilentus, diabolo, Tiherio^ tetrior, (horrefo refere.ns.) The 
learned know well where to find this language, and I will not 
be inprumental to propagate their biafphemies to others. Si 
deus honnni non placucrit, deus non erit, faid Tertultian of the 
heathen deitier. ; and iliall it be To with us ? God forbid. This 
pride is inbred ;* it is a pait of our corruption to defend it. 

If we maintain then the glory of God, let us (peak in his 
own language, or be for ever filent. That is glorious in him 
which he afcribes unto himielf. Our inventions, though never 
fo rpiendid in our own eyes, are unto him an abomination ; 
a jiriving to pull him down from his eternal excellency, to 
tnakc hnn altogether like unto us, God would never allow, 
that the xcill of the creatu'"e iliouid be the meafare of his ho- 
nour. The obedience of Parachfc was to have been regulated^ 
God's prefcription hath been the bottom of his acceptation of 
any duty, ever fmcc he had a creature to worfhip him ; the 
very heathen knew, that that fervice alone Vv^as welcome to 
God, which himfell rrquired, and that glory owned, which 
himfclf had revealed that he would appear glorious in it. 
Hence, as t Epimenides advifed the Athenians, in a time of 
danger, to facrifice Theo prcjtkordi, to him to zvhom it 
TV as meet and due ; which gave occafion \o ihe altar, which 
Paul fav/ bearing the fuperfcription of Agnofto Theo, to the 

E unknozon 

^ Jsatura fic apparet viliata, ut hoc majoris zitiift non 
t'idere. ' ' - Au^. 

t Licrt, in vV. Epinif.nv 


unknown Cod ; fo Socrates telis us in Plato*, that every god 
will be woilhipped, To malifla auto arefconti tropo, in 
that way which pUaJeth bejl his own 7nind ; and in chriftianity, 
hieromt Jets it down for a rule, that honos prater mandatum 
(LJi dedecus ; God is dijlionourcd by that honour^ which is 
alcribed to him beyond his own prefcription ; and one wittiJy 
on the Jecond commandment — non imago non jimulacrum 
damnaiur^ fed non fades tibi ; affigning to God any things by 
him not aflumed, is a making to ourfdves, a deifying of oar 
own imaginations. Let all men then ceafe Jquaring the glory 
of God, by their own corrupted principles, and more cox^ 
vu'^icd perjuafions ; the word zXono. is to be arbitrator in the 
things of God ; which alfo I hope will appear by the follow- 
ing tieaiife, to hold out nothing in the matter in hand, con- 
trary to thofe natural notions o\ God and his goodnels, which 
in the fad ruins of innocency have been retamed. On thefe 
grounds we affirm, that all that glory of God which is pre- 
tended to be alTerted by the general ranfom, however it .may 
{ttm ^onous> io purblind nature^ is indeed a finjul Jlourijh, 
for the obfcuring of that glory wherein God is delighted. 

2. It is ^vou^ly pretended, that the worth and value of the 
fatisfaBian of Chrifl, by the oppofue opinion limited to a 
Jew, are exceedingly magnified in this extending of it to all ; 
Virhen, behdes which was faid belore, (about an human ex- 
tending of the things of God, beyond the bounds by himfelf 
Jixed unto ihemj the merit of the death of Chrift, confifting 
in its own internal zuorth ■i.ndi fiifficiency, with that obligation 
which, by his obedience unto death, was put upon xhc jujlicc 
of God for its application unto them for whom he died, is 
quite enervated and overthrown by it, made of no account, 
and fuch as never produced o\ itfelf abffdutely the Xtdi^ good 
to an\ part-.cular Um\ ; which is fo fully raanilefted in the 
follov ing ircatije, as I cannot but defire the Reader s fincere 
confidtiaiion ot it ; it bemg a matter of no fmall importance. 
Q. A feerring Jmile call upon the opinion of univer/al re- 
demption, by jrany texis ot Scripture, with the ambiguity of 
fomc words vvh.ch, though in ihemfelves txih&v Jigurative or 
indefinite, yet fi em to he of an univerfal extent, maketh the 
abettois ot it exceedingly rejoice. N(»w concerning this, I 
ftial) only defiie the Reader not to be llartled at the multitude 
of places ot Scripture, which he may hndheapedu^ by fome 
of late about this bufinefs, (efpeciaiiy by Thomas More, in 
his Univerjality oj Tree Grace) as though they proved and 


f Plato de legib, lib. 7. 



confirmed that, for which they are produced, but rather pre- 
pare himfelf to admire at that conf.dcncK of men, particularly 
of him now named, to make fuch a flour ITh with colours and 
drums, having indeed no y^/JzWi at all ; for notwiihiianding 
all their ^r^/^«6ej, it will appear, ihdl \\\ty hang the whole 
weight of their building on three or four texts of Scripture, 
viz. 1 Tim. ii. ^, 6. John iii 16, 17. Heb. ii. 9. 1 John ii. 
3. with fome few others; ^nAihc ambiguity o'i two or three 
words, which thcmfelves cannot deny to be of exceeding 
various acceptations. All which are at lar^e dlfcuffed in the 
cnfuing trtatife ; no one place that hath, with the leaff fhew 
or colour, been brought forth by any of our adver Janes in 
their own defence, or for the oppofmg of the cffcBual re- 
demption oj the deEl only, being omitted ; the book ol Thomas 
More being in all the flrength thereof fully met withal and 

4. Some men have, by I know not what inifprifion, enter- 
tained a perfuaHon, tha^ the opinion of the Univerfalijls ferves 
exceedingly to fet forth the love and free grace of God ; yea 
they make free grace, that glorious exprefTion, to he that alone 
which is couched in their perjaafion^ viz. that God loves all 
alike, gave Chriji to die for all, and is ready to fave all, if 
they will lay hold on him ; under which notion, how greedily 
the hook, as well as the bait, is iwallowed by many, we have 
daily experience; when the truth is, it is utterly dellruftive 
to \.\it free diflinguifhing grace of God, in all the dlfpenfations 
and workings thereof. Jt evidently oppofeth God's free grace 
of eletlion, as hath been declared ; and therein, that very love 
from which God fent his Son ; his free diflinguifhing grace 
alfo of effe&ual calling, mud be made by it to give place to 
nature's darling, free will ; yea and the whole covenant of 
grace made void ; by holding it out no otherwife, but as a 
general removing cf the wrath, which was due to the breach 
of i\\^ covenant of works; for what elfe can be imagined 
(though this certainly they have not, John iii. 36.) to be 
granted to the mofl of thole all, with whom they affirm this 
covenant to be made. Yea, notwithftanding their tlourifh of 

free grace, as themfelves are forced to giant, that after all 
that was effeSled by the death of Chrifl, it was poITible that 
none fhould be faved ; fo I hope I have clearly proved, that if 
he accomplifhed by his death no more than they afcribe unto 
it, it is iitterly impoffble that any one fhould be faved. Ojiid 
dignum tanto ? 

5. The opinion of univcrfal redemption is not a little ad- 

vantaged ^ 


vantage^, by prefentlng to convinced men a feeniing ready way 
to extricate themfelves out ol:' all their doubts and perplexities, 
and to give them all the comfort tiie death of Chrift can af- 
ford, before they feel any power of that death zuorking within 
them, or find any ejicacy of free grace drawing their hearts 
to the embracing of Chrift in the promife, or obtaimn^ a par- 
ticular intereft in him ; which are tedious things to flefii and 
blood to attend unto, and wait upon ; fome boaft, that by this 
ferfuafioa, that hath been efFe8ed in an hour, which they 
waited tor before j/^i^ifw years without fuccefs. To dilpel this 
poor empty flouiiih, I Iha'.l fhew in the progrefs, that it is 
very ready and apt to deceive multitudes with a plaufible dt' 
lujion^ but really undermines the vqvj Joundations of that 
ilrong unfailing confclation, which God hath Ihewed himfelf 
abundantly willing that the heirs of promife JJiuuld receive, 

Thefe and the like are the general pretences^ wherewith the 
abettors of a general ranfom do leek to commend themfelves 
and their opinion to the affztlions of credulous fouls; thiough 
them making an open and eafy pajfage into their belief, tor 
the fwallowing and digefting that bitter potion which lurks in 
the bottom of their cup ; of thefe, I thought meet to give the 
Reader a brief view in the entrance, to take off bis mind from 
empty generals, that he might be the better prepared to weigh 
all things carefully in an equal balance; when he fhall come 
to confider thofe particulars afterwards infiifed on, wherein 
the great pretended llrength of our adverfaries lies. — It re- 
maineth only, that I give the Chriftian Reader a brief account 
of my call unto and undertaking in this work ; and fo clofe 
this prelace. Then, 

1. I will offare thee, it is not the Icaft thirjl in my afTeftions, 
to be drinking of the waters of Menbah, nor the ieaft de/ire 
to have a (hare in Ifhrnatl's portion, to have my hand agdnnH 
others, and theirs againft me, that put me upon this lafk. I 
never like my felt zoof/e than when taced with a vizard of dif- 
puting in controverfies. The complexion of my foul is mucl; 
more pleafant unto me in the water ot Skiloah, 

Nuper me in littore vidi. 

Cum placidum ventis Jiaret 7tiare. 

What invitation there can be in itfelf for any one to lodge^ 
much lefs abide in this quarrel fom.e fcamblmg territory, where, 
as Tertullian * fays of Pontus, omne quod flat Aquilo eft, no 
wind blows but what \s Jliarp and keen, I know not. Small 

pica furs 

* Ad Mar* 

r R E F A C K 


pkafure in thofe walks, which are attended with dangerous 
praipic.es and unpleafing difficulties on every Tide. 
Utque viam ttntas^ nulloque trrore traharis ; 
Per tamzn advcrji gradiendum cornua Tauri, 
/Emomefqufi Arcus, vioUntique or a Leonis. Cvid. 
No quiet nor peace in thefe things and ways, but continual 
brawls aiid dliTeniions. 

Non hojpcs ab ho/pite tutus^ 

Non Jocer a genero ; Jrlatrum quo que gratia rara tfl, 
Tise ilrongeft boi^.ds ot neareft relations are too commonlv 
broken by them. Were it not for that precept, Jude verfe 3. 
and the like, oF contending earneftiy for the Jaitk once deliver- 
ed unto the Jaints^ with the founding of my bowels for the 
lofs of poor feduced y<7z//j, I could willingly engage myfelf 
into an unchangeable refoliition, to fly all wordy battles and 
paper combats, for the refidue of my few and evil days. 

It is not then (that I may return) any Salamandrian com- 
plexion, that was the motive to this undertaking. Neither, 

2. Was any conceit of my own abilities for this work, as 
though I were the fittejl among many to undertake it ; I 
know that as in all things, I am lej's than the leaji of ail faints ^ 
fo in thefe I r.m 

Ute tritos, ute tetartos, 
Ute duodecatos^ ud 'enlogo ud 'en aritkmo. 
Abler ^" pens have had, within thefe fezu years, the dif- 
cufling and ventilating of fome of thefe queftions, in our 
own language ; fome have come to my hands ; but none of 
weight, beiore I had well nigh finiflied this heap of mine 
own ; which was lome twelve months fmce and upwards. In 
fo7ne of thefe, at leaft in ,^7/ of them, I had reffed fully fatis- 
fied; but that I obferved they had all tied up themfelves to 
fome certain parts ot the controverfv, efpeciallv the re- 
moving of objeftions, neither compafjing nor methodizing 
the whole; whereby I difcerned, that the nature of the things 
under debate, viz. fatisfadion, reconciliation, redemption, and 
the like, was left exceedingly in the dark; and the flrong 
foundation of the whole building, not fo much as once dif 
covered. Therefore, 

3. It was always upon my defires, that fome one would un- 
dertake the main ; and unfold out of the word from the bot- 
tom, the whole difpenfation of the love of God to his eleft 

* Vindic. Rederapf. h'j my revcend and learned bro'.hcr Mr, 
John Stalfas::: ; Mr. Rutherf ufd*i Cfarift dying and drawing liu- 


in Jefus Chrift, with the conveyance of it through the pro- 
mifes of the gofpel ; being in all the Jruiis thereof, pur- 
chafed and procured by the oblation and interceflion ol Jefus 
Chnll ; by which it could not but be made apparent, what was 
the great defign ot the bleffed Trinity in this great work of 
^redemption ; with how vain an attempt and fruitlefs endeavour, 
it muft needs be, to extend it beyond the bounds and limits 
affigned unto it by the principal agents therein. That argu- 
^nents alfo might be produced, for the conjirmaiion of the 
truth we afTert, in oppofition to the error oppofed, and fo the 
^eak eflablifhed, and dijfenters convinced, was much in my 
woijhes. The doftrine ot ihe fatisfaBion of Chrift, his merits 
and the reconciliation wrought thereby, (underftood aright by 
few, and of late oppugned by fomej being fo nearly related 
to the point of redemption^ I defired alfo to have feen cleared, 
«infoldedf vindicated, by fome able pen. But now after long 
(waiting, finding none to anftuer my expe£lation, (although of 
myfelj 1 can truly fay, with him in the Comaedian, Ego me ne- 
que tarn aftutum ^?, neque ita per/pic acem id fcio, that 1 fhould 
be fit for fuch an undertaking ; the counfel of the Foet alfa 
running much in my mind, 

Sumite materiam vejlris qui fcribitis cnquam 
Vinbus ; et verfate diu quid ferre recujant^ 

Quid valeant humeii. Horat.) 

Yet at the lajl laying afide all fuch thoughts, by looking up 
to htm who fupplieth J^tf^ to the fower and doth all our works 
for us, I fuffered myfelf to be overcome unto the work ; with 
that oi another, ah alio quovis hoc fieri mallem qudm a me, 
Jed a me tamen potius qudm a nemine ; I had rather it fhould 
have been done by any than myjelf—hy myfdj oxAy, rather 
than by none ; efpecially confidering the induilrious diligence. 
X>i the oppofers of truth, in thcfe days. 

Scribunt indoSli, dodique ; 

Utjugulent homines furgunt de noEle latrones, 
Ut teipfum ferves non expergifcerisf Hor. 

Add unto the former defire^ a confideration of the fre- 
quent conferences 1 had been invited unto, about thefe things ; 
the daily fpreading of the opinions here oppofed, about the 
farts where I live; and a greater noife concerning their pre- 
vailing in oihtr places, with the advantage they hid obtained 
by fome military abettors ; moreover, the flirring up of di- 
vers eminent and learned friends ; and you have the Ju?n of 
what I dehre to hold J or th, as the caufe of my undertaking 
•tliis uik. What the Lord hath enabled me to perform there- 



in, muft be left to ihe judgment of others ; altogether hopdefs 
o\ Juccefs I am not ; but fully refolvtd^ that 1 {hall not li-m 
to fee a folid anfwer given unto it. If any fhail undertake to 
velhcate and pluck fome of the branches, rent from the root* 
and pnnapUs of the whole difcourfe, I fhall freely give them 
leave to enjoy their own wifdom and imaginary conquert : If 
any (hall Jaioufly undertake to debate the whole caufe^ if I 
live to fee it effected, I engage myfelt, by the Lord's alTift- 
ance, to be their humble convert or fair antagomft. In thac 
which is already accomplifhed, by the go(3d hand of the 
Lord, I hope the learned may find fomething for their con^ 
tentment^ and the weak for their flrengthening 2X\^ fatisfaElion ; 
that in j//, fome glory may redound to him whofe it is, and 
whofe truth is here unfolded, by the unwonhieft Labourer 
in his vineyard, 




The Death of Death, &c^ 



in general of the end of ike death of Chrift^ as it is in thi' 
Scripture propofid. 

1. T) Y the end of the death of Chrift, wp mean In general, 
JD both firft, that which his Father and himfelf inienrled 
in it; 'and lecondly, that which was efFe6lually fulfilled and 
accomplifhed by it. Concerning either, we may take a brie£ 
▼iew of the expreflions ufed by the Holy Ghoft, 

iji. For the firft: Will you know the <f«i whsrefor, and 
the intention wherewith Chrift came into the world ? Let us 
a{k himfelf, (who knew his own mind, as alfo all the fecrets 
ot his Father's bo'om) and he will tell us, that the Son ot 
man came to fave that zuhick was lojl^ Matth. xviii. ii. ta 
recover and fave poor loft finners; that was his intent and 
defign, as is again aflerted, Luke xix. lO. A(k alfo his 
Apoftles, who know his mind ; and they will tell you the 
fame. .So Paul, i Tim. i. 15. This ir a faithjul Jaying, and 
worthy of all acceptation, that Jefus Chrijl came into the world 
to fave /inner s. Now, it you will aft. who thefe finners are, 
towards whom he hath this gracious intent and purpofe ; him- 
felf tells you, Mat. xx. 28. that he came to give his life a 
ranfom. for many ; in other places called us, believers, diftln- 
guifhed from the world ; for he gave himfelf for out fnS, that 
he might deliver u^ from this prefent evil worlds according to 
the zuill of God and our Father, Gal. i. 4, That was the will 
and intention of God, that he (hould give himfelf for «j, 
that we might be faved, being feparated from tlie 'world.*— ^ 
They are his church, Eph. v. 2^, 26, 27. He loved the churchy 
and gave himfelf for it, that he might fanSify and clean fe it, 
with the wafiing of water, by the zuord ; that he might prefent 
it to himfelf a glorious church, not having fpot or wrinkle or 
uny fuck thing, but that it fliouldhe holy and without blemifh* 
Which laft words exprefs alfo the very aim, and end of Chriff, 
in giving himfelf for any ; even that they may be rn:idc fiC 

C wK 

i8 The End of ike Death of Chrijt 

for God, and brought nigh unto him; the like whereof is 
alfo alFerted, Tit. ii. 14. He gave himfelf Jar us, that he might 
redctm us from all iniquity ^ and purify unto himfelj a peculiar 
people^ zealous of good zoorks. Thus clear then and appa- 
rent, is the inteniion and defign ot Chrill and his Father in, 
this great work ; even what it was, and towards whom, viz. 
to {d\Q us, to dehver us from this evil world, to purge and 
wafh us ; to make us holy, ;zealous, fruitful in good works ; 
to render us acceptable, and to bring us unto God, tor 
ilircugh him zve have accefs into this grace luherein we Jland, 
Horn. V. 2. 

Q.dl\. The effe8. alfo, and aftual produ6>: of the work it- 
lelt, or what is accompliihed and fulfilled by the death, blood- 
Ihedding, or oblation of Jelus Chrift, is no iefs clearly ma- 
il i Felled ; but is as fully, and very oiien more diiiinBly 

As. 1. Reconciliation with God, by removing and flaying 
the enmity that was between him and us ; for whe n we were ene- 
mies, zve zuere reconciled U7ito God by the death of his Son, Rom. 
V. 10. God was in him reco?iciling the world unto himfelf, not 
imputing their trefpaffes unto them, 2 Cor. v. 19. yea he hatk 
reconciled us to hirnfef by Jefus Chrift, verfe 18. And if you 
would know hdw this reconciliation was eiTe61ed, the Apoftic 
v»'ill tell vou ; ihat He aboHfhed in Jus ffn, the enmity, the law 
of commandnienis confjling in ordinances, Jor to make in him^ 
ftlf of twain one new 7nan, fo making peace ; and that he mi^ht 
reconcile both unto God, in one body by the ci ofs j having Jlain 
the enmity thereby, Eph. ii. 15, 16. fo iha: he is our pcace^ 
veric 14. 

2. Jufification; by taking away the guilt ol fins, procuring 
remilfion and pardon of them, icdeeming us fiom iheir pow- 
er, with the curfe and wrath iiiXX't unto us for them ; for by his 
own blood he is entered into the holy place, having obtained eter- 
7ml redemption for us, Heb. ix. 12. He redeemed us from the 
curfe, being made a curfe for us. Gal. iii. 13. His own Jelj 
bare our fins in his own body en the tree, 1 Pet. ii. 24. We 
have all finned and come Jhort of the glory of God ; but are 
ju fifed freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in 

Jfus Chrifi : wham God hath ft forth to be a propitiation 
through faith in his blood, to declare his righteoufnefs for the 
remifjion of fins, R.om. iii. 23, 24, 25. for in him we have re- 
demption through his bloody even the forgivenefs oj fins ^ Col. 
i. 14. 

3. Sandificaticn ; by the purging away ol the uncleannefs 


as curnally inUnded. 19 

m^ pollution ot our fins, renewing in us ihc image of God, 
and fupplying us wiih the graces of the fpirit of holincfs; lor 
the blood of Chnjl, who though the tttrnal [pint offered him- 
felf without fpot to God, purgeth our con/ciencc from dead 
works, to ferve the living God, Heb. ix. 14. yea the blood of 
jfefus Chrilt cleanfeth us from all fin, 1 John i. y.hyhimfiJf 
he purgeth our fins, Heb. i. 3. That he irdght fanEijy the 
f topic with his own blood, he fuffercd without the gate, Heb. 
xiii. 12. hi' gave hirnreif for his church, xo JanBify and 
clean fe it, that it fiiould be holy and zuithout blemi/Ji, Eph. v. 
a^, 26, 27. pecuharly amongft the graces of the fpirit, it is 
given to us Hyper Christou forChrid's fake, to believeon 
Phil. i. 29. God bleffing us in him, with all fipiritual blefiings 
in heavenly places, Eph. i. 3* , ,, 

4. Adoption; with that evangelical liberty, and ail thofe 
glorious privileges, which appertain to the fons of God : For 
God fent his Son, made of a woman, made under the law ; to 
redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the 
adoption of Jons, Gal. iv. 4, 5. 

5. Neliner do the effects of the death of Chrirt reft here; 
they leave us not until we are fettled in Heaven, in glory and 
immortality forever; our inheritance is di purchafd poffeffion, 
Eph. i. 14. And for this caufe he is the Mediator of the Nezo 
Tef lament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the 
tranjgreffions that were under the firfi Ttjlament, they which 
are called might receive the promife of eternal inheritance, Heb. 
ix. 15. The fum ot all is, the death and bloodilicdding of 
Jefus Chrill hath wrought, and doth eiTe6tually procure, for 
all thofe that are concerned in it, eternal redemption, con- 
fifting in grace here, and glory hereafter. 

li. Thus, full, clear, and evident are the expreilions in the 
Scripture concerning the end and effeBs ot the death ot 
Chrift; that a man would thin!;, every one might run and 
read; but we muft ftay. Among all thing«? in chriUian re- 
ligion, there is fcarce any thing moie queiVioned than this, 
which feems to be a moll fundamental principle ; a fpreading 
perfuafion there is, of a general ranfoni p^id by Chrift for 
all, that healed to redeem all and every om : not only for 
many, his church, the ekS of God, but for every one alfo of 
the polierity ot Adam. Now, the mailers of this opinion 
do fee full well and eafily, that if that be the end ol the death 
of ChrlH, which we have from the Scripture afleried, if 
thoie before recounted be the immediate fruits and products 
therecF, iliat then or:s ol thefc two things will nccefTanly 

follow ; 

<f 6 iTie End of the Death of Chrifl 

follow; that either, firft, God and Chrift failed of their end 
propofed, and did not accomplifh that which they intended ; 
fhe death ot Chrifl being not a fitly proportioned mean tor 
the attaining of that end, (for any other caufe of failing can- 
no^t be afligned) which to aflert, feems to us blafphemouflf 
injurious to the wifdom, power and perteftion of God, a* 
likewife derogatory to the worth and value of the death of 
Chrifl ; or eife, that all men, all the poflerity of Adam, mull 
be faved, purged, fanftified, and glorified ; which furely they 
xvill not maintain, at leall the Scripture, and the wotul ex- 
perience of millions, will not allow. Wherefore, to call a 
tolerable colour upon their perfuafion, they mull and do deny, 
that God, or his Son, had any fuch abfolute aim or end in the 
death or blood fhedding of Jefus Chrifl ; or that any focb 
thing was immediately procured and purchafed by it, as we 
before recounted : But that God intended nothing, neither 
was any thing efTetied by Chrifl, that no benefit arifeth to 
any immediately by his death, but what is common to all and 
every foul, though never fo curledly unbelieving here, and 
eternally damned hereafter ; until an a6J: of fome, not pro- 
cured for them by Chrift, (for if it were, why have they it 
yiot all alike ?) to wit, faith, do diftinguifh them from others. 
INow, this feeming to me to enervate the virtue, value, fruits, 
and efFeB s of the fatisfaftion and death of Chrifl ; ferving 
befides for a bafis and foundation to a dangerous, uncomfort- 
able, erroneous perfuafion; I fhall, by the Lord's afTiftance, 
<]eclare, what the Scripture holds out in both thcfe things; 
both that afl'ertion which is intended to be proved, and that 
which is bi ought for the proof thereof; defiling the Lord by 
bis Spirit to lead us into all truth, to give us underftanding 
in all ihmgs; and if any one be otherwiie minded, to reveal 
ihdt alfo unto him. 


Of (he nature of an end in general, and fome difiinEiions 

about it, 
3. 'T^ H E end of any thing is that which the agent intend- 
X eth to accomplifh, in and by the operation which is 
proper unto its nature, and which it applieth itfelf unto; that 
which any one aimeih at, and defigneth in himfelf to attain, 
as a thing good and defirable unto him, in the ftate and con- 
dition wherein he is. So the end which Noak propofed unto 
liimielf, in building the ark, was the prefervaiion of himfelf 


{IS (ternally inUnded, 1 1 

«[nd others, according to the will of God ; he made an ark Xo 
pieferve himfelt and his family from the flood; according t& 
4ill (hat God commanded him, fo did he. Gen. vi. 22. Ihat 
vfViich the agent doth, or whereto he applyeth himfelf, for 
the coinpaffing his propofed end, is called the means ; which 
two do complete the whole realon of working in free intdUc- 
tual di^ems, tor I fpeak only of fuch as work according to 
choice or ele6^ion. So Abfalom intending a revolt from his 
father, to procure the crown and kingdom for himfelf, ke 
f>yepared him horjes and chariots, and fifty men to run be- 
Jore him, 2 Sam. xv. 1. and iurther, by fair words and gloz- 
ing compliances, he Jiole the hearts of the men of Ifratl, ver. 
6. then pretends a facrifice at Hebron, where he rn^jkcs dflrong 
conf piracy, ver. 12. all which were the means he ufed lor the 
attaming of his forepropofed end. 

II. Between both thefe, ^nafand means, there is this rela- 
tion ; that (though in fundry kinds) they are mutually caufes 
one of another. The endisthefirfl principle wofz/?^ caufe 
of the whole; it is that, for whofe fake the whole work is; 
no agent applies itfelf to a£fion, but for an end; and were it 
not by that determined to fome certain efFe6f, thing, way, or 
manner of working, it would no more do one thing than ano- 
ther. The inhabitants of the old world, defiring and intend- 
ing unity and cohabitation, with (perhaps) fome referves to 
provide for their fafety againfl a fecond fform ; they cry, goto, 
let us build us a city and a tower, whofe top may reach unto 
Heaven ; and let us make us a name, left we he fcattered abroad 
upon the face of the whole earth. Gen. xi. 4. Firfl they lay 
down their aim and defign, and then let out the means in their 
apprehenfion conducing thereunto. And manifefl then it is, 
that the whole reafon and method of affairs, that a wife work- 
er, or agent according to counfel, propofeth to himfelf, is 
taken from the end which he aims at ; that is, in intention and 
contrivance, the beginning of all that order which is in work- 
ing. Now, the means are all ihofe things which are ufed for 
the attaining of the end propofed, (as meat for the preferva^ 
tion of life ; failing in a fhip, for him that would pafs the 
fea; laws, for the quiet continuance of human fociety) and 
they are the procuring caufe of the end, in one kind or ano- 
ther ; their exiffence is for the end's fake, and the end hatk 
its rife out of them ; following them either morally as their 
dcfert, or naturally as their fruit and produft. 

-ifi. In a moral fenfe, when the a6iion and the end are \o 
be fueafured or confidered ia reference 10 a rporal rule, or 


s*2 The, End of ihz Death of Chrift. 

law prcrcnbeu to the agent, tlien the means are the defervrng 
or nifritorious cauft; of the end; as ii:' Adam had continued 
in Ills innocency, and dene ail things according to the law 
given unto him, the end procured thereby had been a blefled 
life to e'erniiy ; as now, the end of any finFul aQ: is death, 
the curfe of the law. 

2^/v. When the means are conddered only in their natural 
relation, then they are the inftrumentaily efficient caufe ol 
the zn(\. So Joab intending the death ol: Abner, he fmote 
liim with his fpear under the fifih rib, thar. he died, 2 Sain, iii. 
27. And when Benajciii, by the command of Solomon, fell 
upon Shimei, the wounds he gave him were the efficient caufe 
of his death, 1 Kings ii. 46. In which regard, there is no 
dlfFerence between the ipurdering of an innocent man, and 
the executing an offender ; but as they are under a moral con- 
fideration, their ends follow their defervings, in refpect of 
conlcrmity to the rule; and fo there is chasm A mkga be* 
tween them. 

HI. The former confideration, by reafon of the defecl and 
perverfenefs of fome agents, (for otiierwiie thefe things are 
coincident) holds out a two-foid end oi things, firll:, of the 
•work, and fecondly, of the workman ; of the aft, and the 
3gent. For, 

i/t. When the means afiigned for the attaining of any end 
are not proponioned unto it, nor fitted for it, according to 
that rule which the agent is to work by ; then it cannot be, but 
that he muft aim at one thing, and another follow, in relpecl: 
oi the morality of the \\rork. So Ada?7i is inticed into a de- 
iire to be like God; this now I^.e makes his aim ; which to 
effeft, he eats the forbidden fruit, -ypA that contratis a guilt 
which he aimed not at. But, 

2dly. When the agent atfs aright, and as it fnould do ; 
when it aims at an end that is proper to it, belonging to its 
proper perfe61ion and condition, and workcth by iuch means 
as are lit and fuitable to the end propolcd ; the end of the 
v/ork. and the vv'ork-man, are one and the fame. As when 
Abel imended the worihip of the Lord, he offered a facrifice 
through faith acceptable unto him ; or as a man deliring fal- 
vailon through Cv^rift, applicth himfelf 'to get an intereft in 

Now tiie folc reafon of this diverfity is, that fecondary 
agents, fuch a? men are. have an end fet and appointed to 
their anions, by him who giveth them an external rule ov 
law to work by ; which fiiall always attend them in their 


as titrr.::illy inicvidcJ.. .z-'_ 

vvoiking, Nvhciiicr ilicy \;l!i or no. God oi:I), wlicfo wili 
and good plcafure is the lolc rule of ail iliole v. oiks vvhiLli 
outwardly arc 6i" him, can never deviate in his stlii^ns, i;or 
have any end attend or iollow bis afts, net preci'Lly bv Liin 

IV. Again ; ilie end of cvciy free i-^gcnt, is citlipr \\:z'i 
which he efFefteth, or that for whofe lake he doih cffctt it. — 
When a raiin builds a boiife, to lot to hire, t!iat v»-hich l- cf- 
fefteth is the building of a hcnfo — that which moved h':\:\ '.o 
do it is love of gain. The phyfician cures tlie patiLrit, and 
is moved to it by his reward. Tjie end which Judas ain;cd 
at, in his going to the pricUs, bar^ainin;]; with thtui, conduct- 
ing the foldiers to the garden, kifling Chnil, was the bcL'a;- 
ing of his Mailer; but the end for whofe fake the whole un- 
dertaking was let en toot, was the obtaining the thirty pieces. 
of liiver ; what will ) on give me and I wil; do it ? The e;ul 
which God effected by the death of Chi ill, was the iuUaiJJd- 
on ot his jullice ; the end for whofe lake he did it, was ciil.cr 
iupreme, his own glory, — or fnbordinatc, ours with hiin. 

V. Moreover, the ?nea?is are of two ioi ts ; 

iJL SucU as have a true goodnefs in ihemfelves, with.cut 
reference to any further end ; though not fo conhdered, rs we 
ufe them for means : no mean as a mean, is confidcred as 
good in itfelf J but only as conducible to a further end. It 
is repugnant to the nature of means, as I'uch, to be confidcr- 
ed as good in themfelves: flndv is in itfe'f the molt ncbie 
employment of the ioul ; but aiming at wifdom or Imow- 
ledge, we conhder it as .qood, only in as much as it conduc- 
eth to that end; cihcrwiie as a uearinefs to the lidh^ LccL 
xii. 12. 

2.dly. Suchi as have no good at all, in any kind, as in tliern- 
felvesconfidered; but merely as conducing to that end, which 
they are fit to aiiain ; they receive all their goodnefs (v.^hich 
is but relative) from that whcrcunto they are appointed; in 
themfelves no way defn-able : as the Lutting otf a leg or a-i 
arm, ior the prefcivation of life; taking a bitter poiiuu, ior 
beahli's fake ; throwing corn and lading inio the fea, to pre- 
vent fhip-wieck: of which nature is the death oi Cinifi, as 
we fliall aicerwavds declaic. 

VI. Thefe thinns being thus propofed in general ; our 
next tafk muft be, to accommodate them to thepiefent bu- 
finefs in hand : which we fhall ao in oider, by laying down 
the agent working, the means zurcught^ and the end effe^led 
in the great work cf our redcmnuon ; for thofc three iTiUlt 


#4 The End of the Death of Chrifl 

be orflerlv confidcred and diflinftly, that wc may liave a rl^ht 
apprehenfion of the whole; into the fiift whereof SYif 
Thjso we make an entrance. 


Of the agent, or chief author of the work of our redemption / 
and of the firjl thing dijlintlly afcnbed to the perfon of the 

TKE agent in, and chief author of this great work of our 
redemption, is the whole blefled Trinity ; for all the 
works which outwardly aie of the Deiry, are undivided, and 
belong equally to each perfon ; their didinft manner oV fuh- 
fiftance and order, being obferved. It is true, there were 
other fundry inftrumental Cdufes in the oblation, or rather 
paffion ot Chrlft; but the work cannot in any fenfe l>e af- 
cribed unto them : for in refpe6l of God the Father, the iffue 
of their endeavour was exceeding contrary to their own in- 
tentions ; and in the clofe they did nothing, but what the 
hand andcounfel of God had before determined fliould be done^ 
A6ls iv. 28. And in refpe^l of Chrift, ihey were no way 
able toaccomplifh whaL ihey aimed at; tor he himfelf laid 
down his life, and none was able to take it from him, John 
X. 17, 18. fo that they are to be excluded from th's confi- 
deration. In the feveral perfons ol the holy Trinity, the 
joint Author of the whole wo-'k, — the Scripture propofetb 
difl:in6l and fundry afts or operations, peculiarly afTigned 
unto them ; which, according to our weak manner o\ ap- 
prehenfion, we are to confider feverally and apart : which 
alfo we fhall do, beginning with them that arc afcribed to 
the Father. 

Two peculiar acts there are, in this work ot our redemp- 
tion by the blood of Jefus, which may be and are properly 
afligned to the perfon of the Father : Firft, the fending of 
his Son into the world for this employment ; Secondly, a 
laying the punifhment due to our fm upon him. 

I. The Father loves the world, and fends his Son to die. 
Be fent his Son inn-' the world, that the world through him 
might be faved, John iii. 17. He fcnt his Son in the likenefs 
•f finful flefJi, and for fin condemned fin in thefefli, that the 
ri^hteou/nefs of the law might he fu filled in its, Rom. viii 3. 
Jie fent him forth, tfi be a propitiation through faith in his blood, 


as eternally intended. gj 

Rom. Hi. 25. When the fulnefs of time was co?ne, God feni 
Jortk his Son, made of a woman, made under the law ; to re' 
deem them that were under the law, that we might receive the 
adoption of Jons, Gal. iv. 4. ^. So more than twenty tiir.es 
in the Gofpel of John, there is mention of {\\\& fending ; and 
our Saviour defcribes himfeU by th's periphrafis, him whom 
the Father hath fint, John x. 36. and the Father, by this, 
he which hath fent me, John v. 37. So that this a6lion of 
fending, is appropriate to ihe Father ; according to his pro- 
mife, that he would fend us a Saviour, a great one, to deli- 
ver us, Ifa. xix. 20. and to the profeffion of our Saviour ; 
I have not fpoken in fecret from tht beginning, from the time 
that It was, there am /, and nozo the Lord God and his Spirit 
hath fent me, Ifa. xlviii. 16. Hence the Father himfelf is 
fometimes called oar Saviour, 1 Tim. i. 1. By the command- 
ment Theou Soieros hemon of God our Saviour : foine 
copies indeed read it, Theou kai Soteros hemon of God 
and our Saviour; but the interpofition of that particle kai, arofe 
doubtlefs from a mifprifion, that Chrifl alone is called Saviour. 
Butdireftly this is the fame with that parallel place of Tuus, 
i. 3. KAT 'epitagen tou Soteros hemon Theou 
according to the commandment of God our Saviour ; where no 
interpofition of that conjanftive particle can have place : the 
fame title being alfo in other places afcribed to him ; as 
Luke i. 47 \ 7ny fpirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. As 
alfo, 1 Tim. iv. 10; zue trufl in the living God, who is the 
Saviour of all 7nen, efpecially of them that believe : though in 
this laft place, it be not afcribed unto hirn, v/ith reference to 
his redeeming us by Chrift, but his favingand preferving all 
by his providence. So alfo, Titus ii. 10. and iii. 4. Deut. 
xxxii. 15. 1 Sam. x. 19. Pfal. xxiv. 5. and xxv. 5. lfy» 
xii. 2. and ix. 11. and xlv. 1^. Jer. xiv. 8. Mich. vii. 7. 
moft of which places, have reference to his fending of Chril'i^ 
which is alfo diftihguifhed into three feveral afts ; which ia 
order we mull lay down. 

\jl. An authoritative impofiiion cf the office of Mediator ; 
which Chiifl clofed withal, by his voluntary fulception of it, 
willingly undergoing the oftice : wherein, by difpeafation, 
the Father had and exerciled a kind of fuperiority ; which 
the Son, though in the form of God, humbled hirrifelf unto, 
Phil. ii. 6. 7. And of this, there n-ay be conceived two parts, 

1. The purpofed impofition of his counfel; or his eternal 

eounfel for the fctiing apart of his Son, incarnate, to this 

»fhce : faying unto him, thou art my Son, this day have 1 be^ 

D ^cttm 

sG The End of the Death of ChnJ 

goUen tnte ; Afn of me^ and I will give thee the nations for 
tkinf inheritance, and the utter mo/i parts of the earth Jor thy 
poffpjfLon. Prai. ii. 7, 8. He faid unto him, fn thou at my 
ri^hi hand, u^til I make thine enomes thy Joctjlool ; for the 
Lord hath /zvorn and will not repent ^ thou art a Pttefl forever 
after the order of Mdchifedek, Pfal. ex. 1, 4. He appointed 
him heir of all things, Heb. i. 2. having ordained him to be 
the judge cf quick and dead, Ath x 42. for unto this he was 
forr.ordained, hejore the foundation of the world, 1 Pet. i. ao. 
and determined, iioristheis, /i? betheSon of God with power, 
Rom. i. 4, that he mi^ht ht the firfl-born of many hrethrfn, 
Rom. viii. 29. I know that this is an aft eternally eftablifhed 
in the mind and will of God ; and fo not to be ranged in 
order with (he other, which are all temporary, and had their 
beginning in the fulnefs of time ; of ail which, this firft is 
the fpring and fountain, — according to that of James, A6ls 
XV. 18. known iin'o God are all his works front the beginning 
of the world': but yet, it being no unufual form of fpeaking, 
that the purpofe fhould alfo be comprehended in that which 
holds out theaccompUfhmcnt of it ; aiming at truth and not 
exaftiiefs, we pafs it thus. 

2. The 'dEi\x3i\ inauguration, or folemn admifTion of Chrlft 
unto his ofhce ; co??imitting all judgment unto the Son, John 
V. 22. making; him to be both Lord and Chrifl^ A6is ii. 36. 
appointing him ever his whole houfe, Heb. iii. 1,2, 3. which 
is that anointing cf the mofl holy, Dan. ix. 24. God anoint- 
ing him with the oil ofgladnefs above his fellows^ Pra\ xlv. 7. 
For the aftual fetting apart ot Chrift to his office, is faid to be 
byunftion; becaufe all thofe holy things which were types 
of him, as the ark, the altar, &c. were let apart and confe- 
crated by anointing, Exod. xxx. 25, 26, 27. &;c. To this 
alfo belongs that public t.effification by innumerable angels 
from licaven, of his nativity ; declared by one of them to 
the fncphcrds, behold (faith he) ] bring you good tidings of 
great joy, which fliall he unto all people ; for unto you is born 
this day in the city of David a Saviour, zvhich ifChrifl the 
Lord, Luke ii. lo, 1 1. which meflage was attended by, and 
clofcd v/ith that triumphant cxultatioii of the hoft of heaven ; 
Gloiy to God in the Highefl, and en earth peace, goodwill to- 
zvards men, yct. 14. with that redoubled voice which after- 
wards came from the excellent glory ; this is my beloved Scn,^ 
inzohom I om wcllpUafed, Matth.iii. 17. and chap. xvii. 5. 
2 Pet. i. ij. If ihefe things ought to be diftinguiihed, and 
placed in their ow.n order, they may he confidered in thefe 

. three 

as eUniilly inttndcd, ty 

three feveral a£l3. i. The glorious proclamation which he 
made oi his nativity, whznht prepared kv:i a body^ Heb. x. 
^. bringing his firll begotten into the world, and Taying,- 
Let all did angels of God worfliip him, Heb. i. 6. and fending 
them to proclaim the meddge which wo before recounted. 
2. Sending the fpirit vifibly in the form of a dove, to light 
upon him, at the time of liis baptifrn, Matth. iii. 16. when 
he was endued with a fulnefs thereof, for the accompiilh- 
ment o( the work, and diicharge of the office whercunto he 
was defjgned ; attended with that voice wlieieby he owned 
him from heaven as his only beloved. 3. The crowning of 
him with glory and honour ; in bis r<^lu' reef ion, afcenfion, 
and fitting down on the right hand of the Nhjfly on high," 
Heb. i. 3. fetting hiinas his King upon his holy hill of Sio?i, 
Pfal. ii. 6. when all power was given unto him, in heaven and 
in earth. Matt, xxviii, 18. ail things bang put under his Jeet, 
Heb. li. 7, 8. hinifeH highly exaaed, and a name given him 
above every name, &c. Phil. ii. 9. Ol which it pleaied hiiTi 
to appoint witnefTes of all foris ; angels Irom heaven, Luke 
xxiv. 4. Acfsi. 10. the dead out of the graves, Matr. xxvii. 
^2. the Apolfles among and unto the living, A61s ii. 32. 
with thofe more than five hundred brethten, to whom iie 
appeared at once, 1 Cor xv. 6. Thus gloriouily was he inau- 
gurated into his ofHce, in the feveral acts and degrees ihereoi ; 
God faying unto him, It is a light tiling ihat thou JJicuUljl hi 
my fervant, to raife up the tribes of Jacob, and 10 refiore the. 
preferved of Ifrael ; I will alfo give thee for a light to the Gtn- 
tiles, that thou mayfi be rnyfahation unto the end of the earth, 
Ifa. xlix. 6. * ' 

Between thefe two a61s, I confefs, there interceeds a two- 
fold promife ot God : one, of giving a Saviour to his people, 
a Mediator, according to his former purpole ; as Gen. iii. 1 j. 
That the feed of the woman fhall bruife the jer pent' s head ; and 
ihefceptrefliall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from 
between his feet, until Shiloh come ; and ur,to hviifhall the ga- 
thering of the people be, Gen. xlix. 10. Which he alfo fore- 
fignified by many lacrifices, and other types, with propheti- 
cal prediftions : for of this falvation the prophets have inquired 
and fear ched diligently, who prophefied of the grace that fJiould 
come unto you ; fearching what or what manner of time the 
f'pirit of Chrifi which was in them didfignify, when it teflified 
before hand the fuffe rings of Chrifi and the glory that fliould 
follow : unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themfelves, 
but unto us they did minifhr the things which arc ?13W reported 


^§ The End of the Death of Chrifl 

unto you by them that have preached the go [pel unto you, with the 
Holy Qhoji fent down from hzopuen : which things the angtls dc' 
fire to look into, i Pet. i. lo, ii, 12. The other is, a pro- 
mife of applying the benefits purchafed by this Saviour, fo 
defigned, to them that fhould believe on him, to be given in 
the fulnefs of time, according to the former promifes ; tel- 
ling Abraham, that in his feed the nations oj the earth fhould be 
hlffcd. Gen xxii. 18. and juftifying himfelf by the fame 
faiih, Gen. xv. 6. But thefe things belong rather to the ap- 
plication wholly ; which was equal both before and alter his 
a6uia] mifTion. 

2^^y The fecond a6i of the Father's fending the Son, is 
the fiirnifliing of him in his fending, with a fulnefs of all 
gifts and graces, that might any way be requifite for the office 
he was to undertake, the work he was to undergo, and the 
charge he had over the houle ol God. There w^as indeed 
in Chrift, a two-told fulnefs and perfe£tion of all Ipiritual 
excellencies : 

1. The natural all-fufficlent perfeftion of his deity, as on© 
with i is Father in refpeft of his divine nature : for his ^o\y 
vidi^ the priory of the only begotten of the Father, John i. 14. 
Be was in the form of God, and counted it no robbery to be equal 
'With God, Phil, ii, 6 bang the fellow of the Lord of Hojls^ 
Zech. xiii. 7. whence that glorious appearance, Ifa. 6- 3. 
when the cherubims cri'd one unto another, and faid^ Holy, 
holy, holy, the Lord of Flojls, the whole earth is full of his glo^ 
ry ; and the pojls of the doors moved at the voice of him that 
cried, and the houfc was filled with fnoke ; and the prophet 
cried, mine eyes have feen the King the Lor d of hofis, ver. 4. 
]Even concerning this vifion, the Apoftle laith, Ifaiah faw 
his glory and f pake of him, John xii. 41, Of which glo* 
ly, EKE NOSE, he as it were emptied himfelf for a feafon, 
when He was found in the form, or condition, of a fervani^ 
lumbling himfelf unto death, Phil. ii. 7, 8. laying a'fide that 
glory which attended his deity ; outwardly appearing to have 
ncMhtx forMincr beauty, nor comelinefs, that he fhould be de- 
fired, Ifa. liii. 2. But this fulnefs we do not treat of; it be- 
•ing not communicated to him, but effentially belonging tohis 
perfon, which is eternally begotten of the perfon oi his Fa- 

2. The fecond fulnefs that was In Chrift, was a communi- 
lated iulnefs ; which was in him by difpenfation from his 
father, beftovvred upon him to fit him lor his work and office, 
ss he was and is the Mediator between God and men, the man 


as eternally intended, 29 

thrift Jcfus, 1 Tim. ii. 5. not as he is the Lord of hod?, but 
as he IS Immamiel God roifk us ; as he was a Son given to us, 
tailed Wonderful, Counlfilor, the mighty God. the everlafting 
father, the Piince of Peace, upon whofe fhoulders the go- 
vernment was to be, Ha. ix. 6. It is a fuhiefs of grace ; not 
that eflential, which is of the nature of the deity, but that 
\vhich IS habitual and iniufed into the humanity, as perfonal- 
ly united to the oiher; which though it be not abfoluteiy in- 
finite, as the other is, yet ii extends itfelf to ail perfettions of 
grace, both in relpetl o\ parts and degrees. There is no 
grace that is not in Chrift, and every grace is in him in die 
higheft degree; fo that v/hatfoever the perfection of grace, 
either for the feveral kinds, or refpeftive a<ivancements there- 
of, requireth, is in him habitually by the collation of his 
Father, for this very purpofe, and for the accompliihment of 
the work defigned ; which though (as before) it cannot pro- 
perly be faid to be infinite, yet it is boundlefs and endlefs; 
it is in him as the light in the beams of the (un, and as water 
in a living fountain, which can never fail ; he is the candle- 
itick trom whence the golden pipes empty the golden oil out of 
ihemfelves (Zech. iv. 12,} into al! that are his; for he is the 
b-gintnng, the jirjl horn from the dead, that in all things he 
might have the pre-eminence, for It pkafed the Father that in 
him JJiould all fidnefs dwell. Col. i. 18, 19. in him he caufed 
to be hid all the treafures of wifdom and knoxoledge. Col. ii. 3, 
and in him dwelletk all f he fulnejs of the Godhead so mat i- 
k6s, Jubflantially or perfonally, v^rfe q. that of his fulnefs 
we might all receive, grace for grace, (John i. i6.j in a conti- 
nual lupply. So that fetting upon the work of redemption, 
he looks upon this, in the firft place: The fpirit of the Lord 
God (faith hej is upon me ; becaufe the Lord hath anointed me, 
to preach good tidings unto the meek ; he hath fent me to hind 
up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and 
the opening of the prifon to them that are hound ; to proclaim 
the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of vengeance of 
sur God, to comfort all that mourn, Ifa. Ixi. 1, 2. And this 
was the anointing with the oil of gladnefs, which he had above 
his fellows, Pfal. xlv. 7. It was upon his head, and ran dorun 
upon his beard, -^^^d, down to the fkirts of his cloathing, Pfal. 
€xxxii. 2. that every one covered with the garment of his 
righteoufnefs, might be made partaker of it. The Spirit of 
the Lord did reft upon lam, the f pint of wifdoyn and under ~ 
flanding, the fpirit of counjel and might, the fpirit of knova. 
Jcdge and of the fear of the Lord, Ifa. xi. 2. and that not in 


2^ Tnt End of the Death of Chrijl 

parcels and beginnings, as in us, proportioned to our rneafurc 
c,nd degrees ct iiiuBification ; but m a fulnefs, for he received 
liot (ht fpirit by meafure, John iii. 34. that is, it was not fo 
with him, wht^n he came to the tull meafure of the ftature of 
his age, as Eph. iv. 13. for otherways it v/as maniiefled in 
r/iHi, and collated on him by de<Trees; for he increafed in wif- 
dor/i and Jiatare and favour with God and maji, Luke ii. 52. 
Hereunto was added ail pow^r in Heavtn and in earth, which 
^v^s given unto him, Matth. xxviii. 18. poiver over all JUJh, 
io giud eternal life to as many as the Father had given him^ 
John xvii. 2. Which we might branch into many particu- 
lars; but io much ihaii fuffice to (et forth the fecond a6l of 
God, in fending his Son. 

3i/y. The third a8; of this fending, is, his entering into 
covenant and compa6l with his Son, concerning the work to 
be undertaken, and the iiTue or event thereof; of v/hich there 
be two parts. 

1. His promife, to pro(e£l and aflift Iiim in the accom- 
plilliroent and perfed fu'fiiUng of the whole bufinels and dif- 
penfation about which he was employed, or v/hich he was to 
undertake. The Father engaged himfeU, that tor his part, 
upon his Son's undertaking this great work of redemption, 
lie would Rot be v/anting m any affiftance in trials, fl:ength 
againft oppofitions, encouragement againft temptations, and 
llrong confolarion in the midft ot terrors ; which might be 
any way neceffary or requifite, to carry him on through all 
difficulties, to the end of fo great an employment. Upon 
which he undertakes this heavy burthen, fo full of mifcry 
and trouble; for the Father, before this engagement, requires 
no lefs ot him, than that he fhould become a Saviour, and 
be affliSledin the affiBions of his people, Ifa. Ixiii. 8, 9. yea 
that although he were the fellow of the Lord of hojls^ yet he 
fhould endure the fword that was drawn againjt him, as the 
'Jh'.*jkerd oj the Jlieep, 2.tc\\, xiii. 7. treading the wine prefs 
alone, until he became red in his apparel, Ila. Ixi. 2, 3. yea to 
be Ji.iciien, fiiitten of God, and ajfliBed ; wounded for our 
iiiiiifgrtfjloas, and bruifed for our iniquities; to be bruifed and 
■put to grif, to have his foul made an offering for fin, and to 
hear the fn cj many, Ifa. liii. 4, 5, 10, 12. to be deftitute of 
comfort fo far as to cry. My God, my God, why hajl thou for^ 
f'len me? Pfal. xxii. 1. No wonder then, if upon this un- 
dertaking, the Lord promifed to make his mouth like a Jharp 
fv>:-fd, to hide him in the fnadow of his hand, to make him a 
^jljfted Jhajt, ai:d if hide him in. his quiver^ io make him his 


as eternally inUnded, 31 

fnvanl in whom he would he glorified, Ifa. xIik. g, 3. Thnt 
ihoMgh the kings oj the eaith Jliculd jet iherrjtlvcs, and the 
rulers take counfel together againjl lam ; yet he. zvould Icvgh 
them to Jcorn^ and fet him as king upon his hcly hill cf Zicr.. 
Pfal. ii. 2, 4, 5. Though the builders did rejctl him, yet he 
fhould become the head cf the corner ; to the amazcmcrd arJ 
' Cijlcnifhment oJ all the world, Pfal. cxviii. 22, 23. (Matth, xxi, 
42. Mark xii. 10, u. Lake xx. ij. A£ls iv. 11, 12. 1 Pet. 
ii. 7.) yedijLewouldlayhi?!! for a fcundation, a Jlone, atri'/i 
Jlone, a precious corner jl one, a fare foundation, Ifa. ::xvili. 
16. that whofoever fnuuld fall upon hnn, fiiould be brcherr., bt:i 
upon whomfoever he flwuld fall, he Jliould grind them tc pcui' 
der, Luke xx. 18. Hence aroie that confidence of our Sa- 
viour, in his grcateft and utmoft trials; h'i\ng afTurcd, by yir- 
fue of his Father's cnFagfiTiCnt in this covenant upon a tirity 
with him about «he redemption of tnan, that he would never 
leave him nor torlake him: I gave (faith he) my back to hhe 
Jmiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair, I Ind 
not my face from JJiame and f pitting, Ifa. 1. 6. But with 
what confidence (blefTed Saviour) didft thou undergo all this 
fhamc and foirow ? why, The Lord God will help me, there- 
fore Jliall I not be confounded ; therefore have J fd my face 
like a flint, and I knozv that I fhall not be cfiamcd; he is near 
thai jufifieth me, who will contend with me ? let us fland to- 
gether ; who is mine adverfary ? let him ccme near to me ; be- 
hold! the Lord God zvill help me, xoho is he that fiall condemn 
me? lol they all f mil wax old as a garment, the moth fall 
confume them, verfes 7, 8, 9. With this afTiirance, he war 
brought as a lamb to the flaughicr ; and as a feep before her 
fiearers is dumb, fo he opened net his mouth, Ifa. liii. 7. for 
when he was reviled, he reviled not again ; when he fiffered, 
he threatened not, but committed himfelj to him that judgcth 
righteoufy, 1 Pet. ii. 23. So that the ground of our Sa- 
viour's confidence and afTurance in this great undertaking, 
and 3 flrong motive to excrcife his graces received, in the ut- 
moft endurings,- was this engagement of his Father, vmn 
this compaft of aflTifiance and protcilion. 

2. His promlfe of fuccefs, or a good iffue out of all 1 is 
fufFerings, and a happy accompiifhment and attainment of the 
end of his great undertaking. Now of all the refl this chiefly 
IS to be confidercd, as direftly conducing to the bufir.efs pro- 
pofed ; which yet v.'ould not have been fo clear, without the 
former confideraiions ; for whatfocver it was that God pro- 
niifcd his Sen H^ould be iMifiile:! dvA attained by him, that cer- 
tain! v 

32 'I^he End of the Death of Chifi 

talnly was it at which the Son aimed in the whole undertaking 
and defigned it as the end of the work that was committed id 
him; and which alone he could and did claim, upon the ac- 
compliflimeni of his Father's will. What this was, and the 
piomiles whereby it is at lar^e fet forth, ye have, Ifa. xlix. 
Thou Jlialt be my fcrvant ffaith the Lord) to raife up the tubes 
of Jacob, and to refiore the prefervedof Ifrael: I zuillalfo gwt 
thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayfi be my falvation 
unto the end of the earth: Kings fliall fee and artfe, princes 
alfo fhall zvorfhlp ; becaufe of the Lord that is faithful. And 
lie will certainly accomplifli this engagement : ' 1 will preferve 

* ihee and give thee lor a covenant of the people, to eftablifh 

* the earth, to caufe to inherit the defolate heritages; that 

* tiwu mayft ^Ay to the prifoners, go forth, to thenii that are 

* ill darknefs, fhew yourfelves ; they {hall feed in the ways, 

* fmd their paftures fliall be in all high places; thev fhall not 

* liunger nor thirft, neither fliall the heat nor Sun fmite them ; 

* ^'or he that liadi mercy on them, fhall lead them, even by 

* the fprings of water fliall he guide them; and I will make 

* all my mountains a way, and my highways fliall be exalted ; 

* behold thefe fliall come from far, and lo thefe from the 

* north, and from the weft, and thefe from the land of Sinim,* 
verfts 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. By all which exprefiions, 
the Lord evidently and clearly engageth himfelf to his Son, 
that he fliould gather to himfelf a glorious church of be- 
lievers from among Jews and Gentiles, through all the world ; 
that fliould be brought unto him, and certainly fed in full 
pafl:ure, and refrefiicd by the fprings oi water, all the fpi- 
ritual fprings of living water, which flow from God in Chrifl 
for their everlafling lalvation. This then our Saviour cer- 
tainly aimed at, as being the promife upon which he un- 
dertook the work ; the gathering of the fons of God toge- 
ther, their brinaing unto God, and pafling to eternal fal- 
vation. Which being well confidered, it will utterly over- 
throw the general ranfom, or univerfal redemption, as after- 
ward will appear. In the fifty-third chapter of the fame 
prophecy, the Lord is more exprefs and punftual in thefe 
promifes to his Son ; aflaring him, that v.'hen he ' made 

* his foul an offering for fin, he fliould fee his ft'ed, and 

* prolong his days, and the pleafure of the Lord fhould 

* profper in his hand; that he fliould fee of the travail of his 

* foul and be farisfied ; by his knowledge he fliould juftify 

* many ; that he fliould divide a portion with the great, and 

* the fpoil with the llrong,* verjes 10, 11, 12, He was to fee 

as eternally intended, §g 

bis feed by covenant, and to ralfe up a fpiritual feed untd 
God ; a faithful people, to be prolonged and preferved 
throughout all generations : which how well it conliifs with 
their perfuafion, who in terms have affirmed, that the death 
of Chrift might have had its full and utmolt efFeci, and yet 
rione be faved, I cannot fee ; though forae have boldly af- 
firmed it, and all the afTertors ot univerfa! redemption do 
tacitly grant, when they come to the affigning of the proper 
ends and efFefts of the death of Chrift. The pleafure a!fo> 
of the Lord was to profper in his hand ; which what it was he 
declares, Heb. ii. lO. * even the bringing of many fons un- 

* to glory : for God fent his only begotten Son into thd 

* world, that we might live through him,' i John iv. 9. as we 
{hall afterward more abundant'y declare, , But the promiies 
of God made unto him in their agreement, and fo confe= 
quently his own aim and intention, may be ictn in nothing 
more manifeftly, than in the requeft that our Saviour niakes 
upon the accomplifhinent of the work about which hei Was 
fent ; which certainly was neither for more nor lefs, than God 
had engaged himfelf to him for. * I have (faith he) glorified 

* thee on earth, I have finiftied the work which thou gavef?: 
' me to do,' John xvii. 4. And now what doth he require,; 
after the manifeftation of his eternal glory, of which ior a 
feafon he had emptied himfelf, ver. 5 ? clearly, a full con- 
fluence of the love of God, and fruits of that love, upon alll 
his eleft ; in faith, fanftification and glory, God gave them 
unto him, and he fanftified himfelf to be a facrifice tor their 
fake, praying for their fanftification, v. 17, 19, their prefer^ 
vation in peace, or communion one with another, and uriioni 
with God, ver. 20, 21. * I pray not for thefe alone, (that 
is his apoftles) but for them alfo which fhall believe on me 

* through their word ; that they all may be one, as thoU Fa^ 

* ther art in me, and 1 in thee, that they alfo may be oiie in 

* us:' and laftly their glory, v» 24. * Father> I will that they 

* alfo whom thou haft given me, be \vith me where I anil, thaf 

* they may behold my g'ory which thou haft given me,' A\i 
which feveral demands are no doubt grounded upon the fore- 
cited promiies, which by his Father were riiade unto hirri i 
and in this, not one word concerning all and every one^ 
but exprefsly the contrary, John xvii. q. Let this then be 
diligently obferved ; that the promife oi God unto his Son,; 
and the requeft of the Son unto his Father, are dire6fed to 
!his peculiar end of bringing (ons unto God. And this is 
the firft aft, confifting of thefe three particulars. 

E IL the 

34 The End of the Death of Chrljl 

II. The fccond is, o\ laying upon him the punifnment of 
fins, every where afcribcd unto the Father: * Awake O 

* (word againfJ my fliepherd, againfl the man that is my lei- 

* low (faith the Lord oi hofls,) fmite the fhepherd, ai'.d the 

* flieep ihall be fcatleied,' Zich. xiii. 7. What h?ie is fet 
down imperailvely by way of command, is in ilie go{ptl in- 
dicatively expounded ; * I will fmi'.e (he (liepherd, and the 

* flicep ofthe flock fliall befcattered abroad,' Maft. xxvi. 31. 

* He was ftricken, fmitten of God, and affl 6led, yea the 

* Lord laid on lilm the iniquity ot us all; yea it pleafed the 

* Lord to biuife him, he haih put liim to grief/ Ifa. liii. ^, 6, 
10. * He made him to be fin \ot us, who knew no hn, that 

* we might be made the righteoulnefs oi God in him,' 2 Cor, 
V. 21. The adjunft in boih places is put for the fubjeft ; as 
the oppofition between his being made fin, and our being 
niaderightcoufnefs declareih: him who knew no fin, that is, 
who deferved no puniihment : him hath he made to be fin, 
or laid the punifliment due to fin upon him : or perhaps in 
the latter place, yF« may be taken for an offering or facrifice 
for the expiation of fin ; K am art I A anfwering in this place 
to the word CHATAH in the OldTeftament, which fignificr'.h 
both fin and the facrifice for it. And this the Lord did ; for 
as for Herodi Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the 
people of Ifrael, when they were gathered together, they did 
nothmg but * what his hand and council determined before to 

* be done,' ABs iv. 27, 28. Whence, the great fhakings of 
our Saviour weie in his clofe conflift with his Father's wrath, 
and that burthen which by himfelf he imroediately impofed 
on him ; when there was no hand or infirument outv.'ardly 
appearing to put him to any fuiFering or cruciating torment. 
Then * began he to be forrowful even unto death,' Matt, 
xxvi. 37, 38. to wit, when he was in the garden with his 
three choice Apoflles, before the traitor or any of his accom- 
plices appeared ; * then was he fore amazed and very heavy,' 
Mark xiv. 33. That was the time, ' in the days of his flefli,' 
zohen * he offered up prayers and fupplications, with ilrong 
' crying and tears, unto him that was able to fave him from 

* death,' Heb* v. 7. which how he performed, the Apoflle 
defcribeth, Luke xxii. 43, 44, ' there appeared an angel 

* unto him, from heaven, ilrengthening him ; and being in 

* an agony, he prayed more earneuly, and his fweat was as it 

* v^ere great drops of blood falling down to the ground.' 
Surely it was a c)ofc and firong trial, and that immediately 
from his Father, he now underwent; for how meekly and 


as eternally intendtd. 35 

diearfully dotfi he fubmit, without any regret or trouble of 
Ipirif, to all the cruehv of men, and violence offered to his 
body; uruil this confiit't being renewed again, he cries, 

* My God, my God, why haft thou forfaken me ?' And this, 
by the way, will be worth our obfervation, that we may know 
with whom our Saviour chiefly had to do, and v/hat was that 
which he underwent for (inners; which alfo will give Tome 
light to the grand Qiicry, concerning the perfons ot them tor 
whom he undertook all this. His iuiferings were far from con- 
{iftiniT in mere corporal perpeilions and affliflions; wiih fu ch 
impreilions upon his foul and fpirit, as were the effefts and 
ilTues (jnlv of them; it was no more, nor lefs, than the curfe 
of the law of God, which he underwent tor us; * for he hath 

* redeemed us 'rom the curfe, being made a curfe,' Gal iii. 
13. which contained all the punifhment that was due to fm, 
euner in the feverity of God's juftice, or according to the ex- 
igence of that law which required obedience. That the exe- 
cration of the law IhouM be only temporal death, as the law 
was coiifidered to be the inftrument of the Jewilh polity, and 
fervmg that (Economy or difpenfation, is true; but that it 
fhould be wo more, as it is the univerfal rule ot obedience, 
and the bond of the covenant between God and rr.an, is a 
foolilh dream. Nay, but in dying for us, Chriil did not on- 
ly aim at our good, but alfo direcily died in our Head, the 
punilhaient due to our fm, and the chaftifement of our peace, 
v/as upon him ; which that it was the pains of hell in their 
nature and being, in their weight and preiTure, though not in 
tendency and continuance, (it being impoffible that he fhould 
be detained by death) who can deny, and not be injurious to 
thejudlce of God, which will inevitably infli8; thofe pains 
to eternity upon Tinners? It is true indeed, there is a relaxa- 
tion of the law, in relpeft of the perfons fufFcring, God ad- 
mitting of commutation ; as in the old law, when in their 
fdcrifices the life of the beaft was accepted (in xt^^^^ to the 
carnal part of the ordinances) tor the life or the man ; this is 
fully revealed, and we believe it ; but for any change ot the 
puniihment, in relpe£l of the nature ofit, where is the leaft in- 
timation of any alteration ? We conclude then tiiis fecond a£t 
of God, in laying the punifhment on him for us, with that 
of the prophet : ' All we like iheep have gone affray, we 
' have turned every one to his own wav, and the Lord hath 

* laid on him the iniquity of us all,' Ifa. liii. 6. And add 
thereunto this obfervation ; that it feems ilrange to me, that 
Chriil fhould undergo the pains 01 hell in their ftead, who 


^6 The End of the Death of Chrifi, 

lay in the pains of hell before he underwent thofc pains, and 
fliall continue in them to eternity ; tor * their worm dieth 
^ not, neither is their fire quenched.* To which 1 may add 
this dilemma to our Univerfalifls : God impofed his wrath due 
pnto, and Chrift underwent the pains of hell for, either all 
the fms ot all men, or all the fins of fome men, or fome fins 
of all men.^ If the Jaft, fome fins of all men, then have all 
liien fome fins to anfwer for, and fo fhall no man be faved ; 
for ir God * (hould enter into judgment* with us, though it 
were with all mankind for one fin, * no man living fliould be 
" juftified in his fight,' PfaL cxliii. 2. * If the Lord fhould 
'mark iniquities, who fhall ftand?' PJal. cxxx. 3. Wc 
might all go to cafl all that we have, * to the moles and to 

* the tsars ; to go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the 

* tops of the ragged rocks, for fear of the Lord, and for the 
^ glory of his Majefly,' Ifa. ii. 20, 21. If the fecoiid, that 
is It which we affirm; that Chrifi, in their Head and room, 
fuffered for all the fins of all the ele£l in the world. If the 
fir ft, why then are not all freed from the punifhment of all 
their fins? You will fay, becaufe of their unbelief, they will 
not believe ; but this unbelief, is it a fin or not ? If not, why 
fhould they be punifhed for it ? If it be, then Chrifi under- 
v/ent the punifhment due to it, or not ; if fo, then why mufl 
that hinder them, more than their other fins for which he died, 
from partaking of the fruit of his death ? If he did not, then 
did he not die for all their fins. Let them choofe which part 
they willo 

C H A P. IV. 

Of thefe things which, in the work of redemption, are peculiarly 
■ afcrihed to the perfon oj the Son. 

THE Son was an agent in this great work ; concurring by 
a voluntary fulception, or willing undertaking of the 
office impofed on him ; for when the Lord faid, * facrifice 

* and offerings he would not, in burnt offerings and facrifice 

* for fin he had no pleafure;' then faid Chrifi, ' Lo I come, 
' (in the volume of the book it is written of me) to do thy 

* will, O God,' Heb. x. 5, 6, 7. All other ways being re- 
jeftcd as infufficient, Chrifi undertaketh the tafk; * in whom' 
alone * the Father was well pleafed,' Matth. iii. 17. Hence 
he profeffeth, that * he came not to do his own will, but the 
^ will of him that feat him,' John yi. 38. yea that it was 


• as eternally intended, 1 ' ^j 

* his meat and drink, to do his Father's will, and to finifii hig 

* work,' John iv. 34. The firfl words that we finij recorded 
of him in Scripture, are to the fame purpofe : ' Wift you 

* not, that I mull be about my Father's bufinefs,' Lu.ic u, 49. 
And at the clofe ot" all, he faith, ' I have glorified thee on 
-'■ earth, I have finiftied the work which thou gavell me to do' 
John xvii. 4. calling it every where his Father's work that 
he did, or his Father's will which he came to accomplifh ; 
with reference to the impofition, which we before treated of. 
Now this undertaking ot the Son may be referred to three 
heads. The firft being a common foundation for both the 
other, being as it were the means in refpeft of them as the 
end ; and yet in fome fort partaking of the naiure of a diftinft 
aftion, with a goodnefs in itfelf, in reference to the main end 
propofed to all three ; we fliall confider it apart. And that is, 

I. His incarnation, as ufually it is called; or his * taking 

* of flefh, and pitching his tent amongrt us,' John i. 14.— 
His being made of a woman, [GaL iv. 4.) is ufually called 
his Ensarcosis or incarnation; for this was the mv- 
fiery of godlinefs, that God ' fhould be manifefl in the flefli,' 
1 Tim. iii. 16. thereby affuming, not any fingular perfon, 
but our human nature, into perfonal union with himfelf ; for, 
' for as much as the children are partakers of flefh and blood, 
' he alfo himfelf likewife took part of the fame; that through 
' death he might deftroy him that had the power of death, 
" that is, the devil,' Heb. ii. 14. It was the children that he 
sonfidered, the * children whom the Lord had given him,* 
verje 13. Their participation in flefh and blood moved hitu 
to partake of the fame ; not becaufe all the world, all the 
pofterity of Adam; but becaufe the children were in that con- 
dition, for their fakes he fan6lified himfelf. Now this empiy- 
ing of the Deity, this humbling of himfelf, this dwelling a- 
mongft us, was the fole a6l of the fecond perfon, or the di- 
vine nature in the fecond perfon; the Father and the Spirit 
having no concurrence in it, but by liking, approbation, and 
eternal counfel. 

II. His oblation, or offering himlelf up to God for us 
' without fpot, to purge our confcience from dead works,' 
Heb. ix. 14, Jor * he loved us, and wafhed us from our fins 

* in his own blood,' Rev. i. 5. * he loved the church, and 

* gave himfelf for it. that he might fan6lify and clean fe it,' 
f!.ph. v. 25, 26. taking the cup of wrath at his Father's 
hands due to us, and drinking it off, * but not for himfelf,' 
Dan. ix. 26. for, ' for our fakes he fanftified himfelf,' John 


3^ The End of the Death of Chrijl 

xvii. 1?). that is, to be an offering, an oblation for fin; for 
' when we were yet without flrensith, in due time Chrift died 

* ior the ungodly,' Rom. v. 6. This being that which was 
typified by ail the infbitutions, ordinances and Sacrifices of 
old; which when they were to have an end, then faid Chrift, 

* Lo I ccnie to do thy will.' Now, though the perfefting or 
ccufuinmating of thi:j oblation, be fet out in the Scripture 
chiefly, in refpeft of what Chrift fuffered, and not fo much 
in relpe£l; oi what he did; becaufe it is chiefly confidered as 
the means uled by thefe three blefled agents, for the attaining 
ot a further end ; yet in refpeft oi his own voluntary giving 
up himfelf, to be fo an oblation and a facrifice, without which 
it would not have been of any value, (for if the will of 
Chriilhad not been in it, it could never have purged our 
iinsj therefore in that regard, I refer it to his aftions. He 
was the ' Lamb of God, which taketh away the fin of the 

* wor'd,' John i. 29. the lamb of God, which himfelf had 
provided for a facrifice ; and how did this lamb behave him- 
felf in it ? With unwillingnefs and ftruggling ? No ; * he 

* opened not his mouth, he was brought as a lamb to the 

* flaughier, and as a fheep before her fhearers is dumb, fo he 
' opened not his mouth,' ^^. liii. 7. whence he faith, * I lay 

* down my life, no man taketh it ivom me, but I lay ii down 

* of myfelf ; I have power to lay it down, and I have power 

* to take it again,' Jfohn x. 17, 18. He might have been 
cruciaied on the part of God; but his death could not have 
been blu oblation and offering, had not his will concurred ; 
but * he loved me' (faith the apoftle) * and gave himfeif for 

* me,' Gal.ii, 20. Nov/<hat alone deferves the name of a gift, 
which is from a free and a willing mind; as Chrift's was, when 

* he loved us, and gave liimfelf for us, an offering and a fa- 
' crifice to God for a fv/eet fmelling favour,' Eph. v. 2. He 
does it chearfuliy : * Lo, I come to do thy will, O my God,* 
I-hb, X. 9. and fo, * bis own felf bare our fins in his own bo- 

* dy on'the tree,' 1 Pet. ii. 24. Now this oblation or offering 
of Chrift, I would not tie up to any one thing, aftion, or 
pafiioii, performance or fuffering ; but it comprifeth the 
whole economy and difpenfation of God manifefted in the 
flcfh, and convcrfing among us ; with all thofe things which 
he performed in the days of his fl^fh, when he offered up 
prayers and fupplications, with ftrong cries and tears, — until 
' he had/^//A' by himfelf purged our fins, and fat down on 

* the right hand of the Mojefty on high,' Ihb. i. 3. ' expeft- 
' irig liii his enemies be made his iootftoo!,' Jtkb» x. 13, All 


as eternally intended, 59 

tbc whole difpenfation of his coming and adminiilerlng, nntil 
he had given his foul a price of redemption for many, Matt. 
xxvi. 28. But for his entering into the holy o' tlie hoiicf, 
fprinkled with his own blood, and appearing fo for ur, be- 
fore the majefty of God, by fomc accounted as the continua- 
tion of his oblation ; we may refer unto, 

HI. His iniercejfion for all and every one of thofc. for 
whom he gave himfelf an oblation. Ke did not fufFer for tbcn^, 
and then refufe to intercede for them ; he did net do the 
greater, and omit the iefs. The price of our redemption is 
more precious in the eyes of God and his Son, than that it 
fhould (as it were) be caft away on perifhing fouls ; wiihor.t 
any care taken of what becomes of them afterwards : nay this 
alfo isirnpofedon Chriff, with a promife annexed ; ' Afli of 

* me (faith the Lord) and I fliall give thee the nations for 

* thine inheritance, and the uttermoft parts of the earth for 

* thy poflefTion,' Ffal. ii. 8. AVho accordingly tells bis 
dii''ciples, that he had more work to do lor tbv-m in heaven ; 

* I go^ Jaithhe, to prepare a place for you, that I may come 

* again and receive you unto myfelf, John xiv. 2, 3. For 
as the high priefl went into the fecond tabernacle nlone, on'^e 
every year, not without blood, which he offered for liimfelt 
and the errors of the people, Heh. ix. 7. fo * ChrlPi being 

* come an hi^h prielt of good things to come, by his own 

* blood entered in once into the holy place, having obtained 

* for us eternal redemption,' Heb. ix, 11, 12. Nov/, v.list 
was this holy place whcreunto he entered, thus fprinkled 
with the blood of the covenant ; and to v/hat end did lie enter 
into it ? why, ' he is not entered into the holy places made 

* with hands, which are the figures of the true, but into heaven 

* itfeif, now to appear in the prefenceof God for us,' i>. 2a, 
And w^hat doth he there appear for ? why, to be our advo- 
cate, to plead our caufe v.-ith God, for the application of the 
good things procured by his oblation, unto all thein for 
whom he was an offering ; as the apofllc tells us, ' if an)' man 
fin, we have an advocate with the Father, even Jcfus ChriO', 
the righteous,' 1 fohnu. 1. why? how comes that to pafs ? 
he is a * propitiation for our fins,' v. 2. his being iiilasmos 
a propitiatory facrifice for our fins, is the foundation of his 
interceding, the ground of it : and therefore they both belong 
to tlie fame perfons. Now (by the way) we know, that 
Chriff refufed to pray for the world, in oppofition to his e- / 
lecl : • I pray for them (faith he) ; I pray not for the world, | 

* but for them which thou haft given me,' John xvii. 9. And I 

therefore * 

40 The End of the Death of Chrifl 

therefore there was no foundation for fuch an interceding fof 
them, becaufe he was not hilAsmos for them. Again, we 
know the Father always hea?eth the Son ; for 'I know, 
' (faith he,) that thou heareft me always,' John xi. 42. that 
is, fo as to grant his requeft, according to the forementioned 
engagement, Pfal. ii. 8 And therefore, if he fhould inter- 
cede for all, all fhould undoubtedly be faved ; ' for he is able 

* to fave them to the uttermoft that come unto God by him* 

* feeing he ever liveth to make intercefhon for them,' Heb. 
vii. 25. Hence is that confidence of the apoftle, upon that 
interceffion of Chrift ; * Who fhall lay any thing to the charge 

* of God's ele6l ? it is God that juflifieth ; who is he that 

* condemneth ? it is Chrifl that died, yea rather that is rifen, 

* again, who is even at the right hand of God, who alfo mak- 

* eth interceflion for us,' Rom, viii. 33, 34. Where alfo 
we cannot but obferve, that thofe for whom he died may af- 
furedly conclude he maketh interceffion for them, and that 
none fhall lay any thing to their charge : which breaks the 
neck of the general ranlom ; for, according 10 that, he died 
for millions that have no intereft in his intercefTion, who 
fhall have their fins laid to their charge, and perifli under 
them. Which might be further cleared up, from the very 
nature of this interceffion ; which is not an humble deje6led 
fupplication, which befeems not that glorious flate of ad- 
vancement which he is pofTefTed of, that fits at the right hand 
of the Majefly on high; but an authoritative prefenting him- 
felf before the throne of his Father, fprinkled with his own 
blood, for the making out to his people all fpiritual things 
that are procured by his oblation; faying, * Father, I will that 

* thofe whom thou haft given mc, be with me where I am,* 
John xvii. 24. fo that for whomfoever he fuffered, he appears 
for them in Heaven with his fatisfaftion and merit. Here 
alfo, we mufl call to mind what the Father promifed his Son, 
upon his undertaking of this employment ; for there is no 
doubt, but that for that, and that alone, doth Chrifl, upon the 
accomplifhment of the whole, intercede with him about; 
which was in fum, that he might be the captain of falvation 
to all that believe on him, and efFeftually bring many fons to 
glory. And hence it is, having fuch * an high priefl over the 
« houfeof God, we may draw near with the full affiirance of 
« faith ; for by one offering he hath perfefted for ever them 

* that are fanaified,' Eeh. x. 14, 21, 22. But of this more 
mufi be faid afterwards. 


as eternally intended, .j 


irke peculiar aCiions of the holy Spirit in this hu/mc/s. 

T N few words we may confider the aftions of that ap-eri^ 
JL who in order is the third in that blefTcd One, whofe til 'la 
thewhoJe the ^,(y5/.,W/ ; who is evidently Concurring ,c 
his owndiftincl operation, to all the feveraUhief or ^Tand 
parts q[ this wotk. We may refer them to three heads'^ 

I. The incarnation of the Son, with his plenary ainiUnce in 
the coarfe of "his converfation whilft he dwelt amonaU us • for 
his mother was found en gastri echousa, to *Miave con-* 
" ceived in her womb of the holy Ghofl," Matt i 18 U 
yoii afk with Mary, how that could be'? the an^el refolved 
both her and us. as far as it is lawful for us to be Acquainted 
with thefemyflerious things, Luke x. 35. - The Holy Giioft 

inall come upon thee, and the power of the Higheft Ihall 
' overaiadow thee; therefore alfo that holy thing which Ihall 

be born of thee, fhall be called the Son of God/' It w^^ 
an overfliadowing power in the fpiric; fo called bv an allafio'^'i 
taken from fow.s that cover their eggs, that fo bv their warmth 
the young may be hatched: for. by the fole power of tl-e Spi- 
rit was tais conception : who did mcubarejcetiiu as m the be- 
ginnmg of the world. Now, in procefs as this child was 
conceived by the power ol, fo he ys2.s JiiUd zvith the fpin^ 
and waxed flronger in it; until having received a fulreis 
thereof, and not by any limited meafare in the gifts and graces 
ot 11, he was throughly furniflied and fitted for his meat u-i- 
dertaking. ° 

II. In his cllation or pafTicn, (for they are both tlie far^ie. 
with fevera refpeas. one to what he fufTered, the other tci 
what he Old Hich, by, and under thofe fulTerin'Js;) "th'-oudi 
"the eternal Spirit, he offered himfelf without%otto God '* 
H^b, IX. 14. Whether it be meant, of the ofFerinT himfelf 
a bloody fucnfice on the crofs, or his piefentaiicn ol" himfcl'^ 
continually before his Father ; it is through the eternal Spi^ 
Fit. The Willing oiTr:ng himfelf through that Spirit, waa 
th. eternal fiij ur.der this racrifice. v.hich made it acceptable 
un o Gog. Tnat which fome contend, that by the eternci 
Sp.nt IS here iniant G,:r Saviour's own Deity, I fee no cneau 
ground tor. Some Greek and Latin copies read, not a. 
we- commonly, PNEUMAios Ai6iMou,bat pxhl^matos 
HAGIGU and fo thedxibt is quite removed, and I fcenorea. 
1o.> v.'hy lie may notas v. ell be faiu to '"' offer himre:/, through 

F " the 

42 The End of the Death of Chrifi 

" the holy Spirit ;" as to be ** declared to be the Son of God, ac- 
** cordirii^ to the Spirit oi holinciS, by the refurre£lion from 
the dead," as Rom. i. 4, as alfo to be " quickened by the Spirit,'^ 
1 Pet. iii. 18. The working of the Spirit was required, as 
well in his oblaticn as refurreftion, in his dying as quickening, 
III. In his reJurreBion ; of which the apoftle fpeaks, Rom, 
viii, 11. " Butif the fpirit oi him that raifed up Jefus from 
•* the dead dwell in you, he that raifed up Chrift from the 
«' dead fhall alfo quicken your mortal bodies, by his fpirit 
" that dweileth in you." And thus have we difcovered the 
bleffed agents and undertakers in this work; their feveral ac- 
tions, and orderly concurrence unto the whole : which tho* 
they may be thus diftinguiflied, yet they are not fo divided, 
but that every one mufl be afcribed to the whole divine na- 
ture, whereof each perfon is in Jolidum partaker. And as 
they begin it, fo they will jointly carry along the application 
of it, unto its ultimate iffue and accompliihmcnt : for we 
muft " give thanks unto the Father, who hath made us 
*' meet (that is, by his fpirit) 10 be partakers of the inherit- 
" ance of the faints in light ; who had delivered us from the 
*' power of darknefs, and hath tranflated us into the kingdom 
" of his dear Son ; in whom we have redemption through 
*' his blood, even the forgivenefs offms." CoL i. 12. 13, 14. 

,j, ^ ^ .|. -J. .^ 4» 4» ^ .j» 4» 4, .J. ^ ^ .J. .1. <!► 


Jht means ufedby the fore-recounted agents, in this work. 

OU R next employment, following the order of executi- 
on, not intention, will be the difcovery or laying down 
of the means in this work ; which are indeed no other but 
the feveral anions before recounted, but now to be confi- 
dered under another refpeft, as they are means ordained for 
the obtaining ot a propofed end ; of which afterwards. Now, 
becaule the feveral aftionsof the Father and Spirit, were all 
cxercifed towards Chrift, and terminated in him as God and 
man ; he only, and his performances, are to be confidered 
as the means in this w^ork ; the feveral concurrences of both 
the other perfons before mentioned, being prefuppofed as ne- 
cefTarily antecedent or concomitant. 

I. The means then ufed or ordained by thefe agents, for 
the end propofed, is that whole ceconomy or difpenfation car- 
ried along to the eiid, from whence our Saviour Jefus Chrift 

as eternally intended. 43 

is called a Mediator: which may be and is ufually, as I men- 
tioned before, diftinguifhed into two parts ; f irft, his Qula^ 
tion. Secondly, his inter cejfion. 

ijl. By his oblation, we do not defign only the particular 
offering oF hirafelf upon the crofs, an offering to his Father, 
as the lamb of God without fpot or biemiih ; when he bare 
our fins, or earned them up with him in his own body on the 
tree, which was the fum and complement of his oblation, and 
that wherein it did chiefly confiil: but alfo his whole humilia- 
tion, or ftatc of emptying himfelf; whether by yielding vo- 
luntary obedience unto the law, as being made under it, that 
he might be the end thereof to them that believe, Rom. x. 4. 
or by his fubjeftion to the curfe oi the law, in the antecedent 
mifery and fufFcring of life, as well as by fubmitting to 
death, the death of thecrols; for no aQion of his, as Media- 
tor, is to be excluded from a concurrence to make up the 
whole means in this work. 

2dly, Neither by his inter cejjion, do I underfland only that 
heavenly appearance of his in the moft holy place, for the 
applying unto us all good things, purchafed and procured by 
his oblation ; but alfo every a6t of his exaltation conducing 
thereunto, from his refurre6lion, to his fitting down at the 
right hand of Majefly on high, angels and principalities and 
powers being madt fubjea unto him. Ot all which his re- 
furreaion (being the bafis (as it were) and the foundation of 
the reft ; " for if he had not rifen, then were our faith 
" vain," 1 Cor. xv. 14. and then " are we yet in our fin,'* 
verfe 17, " of all men moft miferable," verfe 19.) is efpecia!- 
ly to be confidered, as that to which a great part of the efFe6i 
is often afcribed; for he " was delivered for our offences, and 
*• was raifed again for our juftification," Rom. iv. 25. Where 
and in fuch other places, by his refurreftion the whole fol- 
lowing difpenfation, and the perpetual interceffion 0/ Chrift 
for us in heaven, is intended ; for " God raifed up his fon 
Jefus, to blefs us, in turning away every one ot us from 
*' his iniquities," A8s iii. 26. 

il. Nov/ this whole difpenfation, with efpecial regard to 
the death and bloodflicdding of Chrift, is the means we Ipeak 
©f ; agreeable to what we faid before, of fuch, in general. 
For it is not a thing in itfelf defirable, for its own fake ; the 
deathof Chrift had nothing in it, (we fpeak of his fuffsring 
<iiftmguifhed from his obedience; that was good, but only as 
U conduced to a further end ; even the end propofed, for the 
manifeftation of God's glorious grace. What good was it, 


Aj^ The End of the Death of Chrijl 

that H'rod and Pontius Pilate,, with the Gentiles and people 
of ITrael (hould with Inch horrid villany and cruelty gather 
theoifelves together, againft God's " holy child Jefus whom 
** he had anointed" Atls iv. 27. ? cr what good was it, that 
the fon of God Ihould be made fin and a curfe, to be bruifed, 
afflifcled, and to undergo luch wrath as the whole frame of 
nature, as it were, trembled to behold ; what good, what 
beauty and farm is in aU this, that it {hould be defired in it- 
felf, and for it{e)f ? doubilefs none at all. It mull then be 
looked upon, as a mean conducing to luch an end ; the glory 
luflre whereof, muft quite take away all the darknels and con- 
fufion that was about the thing itfelf. And even fo it was in- 
tended by the bleffed agents in it, by " whole determinate 
" counfel and lore-knowledge he was delivered and flain, Acis 
ii. 23. there being done unto him, *• whatfoevcr his hand 
^' and counfel had determined," Ads iv. 28. which what it 
was, muft be afterwards declared. Now concerning the 
%vhole, fome things are to be obferved : 

That though the oblation and inteicejjion of Jefus Chrift, 
arediflinft a6ls in themfelves, and have diftinB immediate 
products and iffues afri.g,ned oft-times unto them, (which I 
ihould now have laid down, but that I mufl take up this in a- 
nother place ;) yet they are not, in any refpe6^ or regard, to 
be divided or feparated, as that the one fhould have any re. 
fpeft to anv perfons, or any thing, which the other alfo doth 
not in its kind equally refpeft: but there is this manifold uni« 
on between them, viz, 

\fl. In that they are both alike intended, for the obtaining 
and accomplifhing the fame entire and compleat end propofed ; 
10 wit, the efte61ual bringing of many fons to glory, for the 
praife of God's grace, of which afterv/ards. 

2^/)', That what perfons foever the one refpe^eth, in thr. 
good things it obtaineth, the fame, all, and noneelfe, doth the 
other refpeft, in applying the good things fo obtained ; for 
•' he was delivered for cur offences, and railed again for 
*' our juftification," Rom, iv, s^. That is in brief; the ob- 
jeft of the one, is of no larger extent than the obj'^ft of the 
other : or, for whom Chrift offered himfelf, for all thcfe, 
and onlv thofe, doth he intercede; according to his own 
word, *"' for their fakes I lanftify myf^lf" (to be an oblation) 
" that they alfo might be fan£tified through the truth," John 
xvii. 1.9. 

3^/)'. That the oblation of Chriff is, as it were, the founda- 
tion of his interceflion^ inafmuch as by the oblation was procu- 

as a&ually accomplijhed. 4^ 

red every thing, that by virtue of his intcrcefTion is beftowed ; 
and that becaufe the fcle end why Chrift procured any thing 
by his death, was, that it might be apphed to ihen^ lor whom 
it was To procured. The fum is, that the oblauon and inter- 
ccflion of Jefus Chrift, are one entire means lor the producing 
of the fame effeff ; the very end of the oblation being, that 
all thofe things which are beftowed by the intcrcefTion of 
Chrift, and without whofe application it (houid certainly fail 
of the end prooofed in it, be effefted accordingly ; fo that it 
cannot be affirmed, that the death or ofFermg ot Chrift con- 
cerned any one perfon or thing more, in refpeft of procuring 
any good, than his interceflion doth for the collating of it. 
For he interceding above, for all good purcbafed, and pre- 
vailing in all his interceflions, (for the Father always hears 
his Son) it is evident, that every one for whom Chrift died 
rauft actually have aoplied unto bira, all the good things pur- 
chafed by his death ; which, becaufe it is evidently deftruftive 
to the adverfe caufe, we muft a little ftay to confirm it; opiy 
telling you, the rnair p^oof of it lies in cur following pro- 
pofal of alTigning the proper end. intended and e-fe61cd by the 
death of Chrift, fo th?r the chief proo^ muft be deferred un- 
til then. 1 fhall, now only propofe thofc reafons which may 
be handled apart, not rr.erely depending upon tha<:. 

C H A P. VII. 

Containing reafons, to prove the ohlaiion and i.p.ff.rcejjion oj 
Chnjt to be one entire mean^ refpeding the accomplifnnicnt of 
the fame propofed end; and to have the favie perfonal ok- 

Iv ^\ U R fift. reafon is taken from that perpetual union 
* _/ which ^.he Scripture mzketh of both thefe, almoft 
slways joining them together; and fo manifefting thofe things 
to be moft infeparable, v/hich are looked upon as the diftin6l 
fruits and e fife cis of them.: '' 'Ery his knowledge fliall m.y 
•^ righteous fcrvant juftify many, for he fliall be'ar their ini'* 
« quities." Ifa. liii. 11. The aBual juftification of finners, 
which is the immediate fruit of his interceffion, certainly fol- 
Jov/R his bearing of their iniquities. And in the next verfc, 
thev arc of God fo put together, that furely none ought to 
prefume to put them afunder ; " he bare the fin of many," 
(behold his oblation) ♦' and made interceflion for the tranf- 

*• grefTors; 

46 The End 0/ the Death of ChriJ 

** grefTors;" even for thofe many tranfgrefTors, whofe fin he 
did bear. And there is one expieffion in that chapter, verfe 
5, which makes it evident, that the utmoft application of all 
good things for which he intercedes, is the immediate effe6^ of 
his pafTion; " with his ftripes we are healed;" our total heal- 
ing is the fruit and procurement of his ftripes, or of the ob- 
lation confummated thereby. So alfo, Rom. iv. 25. " He 
** was delivered for our offences, and was raifed again for our 
*' jullification ;" for whofe offences he died, ior their juftifi- 
cation he rofe; and therefore if he died for all, all muff alfo 
be juftified, or the Lord faileth in his aim and defign, both in 
the death and refurreftion of his Son ; which though fome 
have boldly affirmed, yet for my part I cannot but abhor the 
owning ot fo blafphemous a fancy. Rather let us clofe with 
that ot the apoffie, grounding the affurance of our eternal 
glory and freedom from all accufations, upon the death of 
Chrift, and that becaufe his intercefTion alfo for us doth in- 
feparably and necelTarily follow it ; " who" (faith he) ** fhall 
•' lay any thing to the charge of God's eleft ?" (it feems 
alfo, that it is only they for whom Chrift died ?) '* it is God 
*' that juftifieth; v/ho is he that condemneth? it is Chrift that 
*' died," (fliall none then be condemned for whom Chrift 
died? what then becomes of the general ranfom ?) "yea 
*' rather who is rifen again, who is even at ihe right hand of 
•' God, who alfo maketh intercefTion for us," Rom. viii. 33, 
14. Here is an equal extent of the one and the other; thole 
perfons who are concerned in the one, are all of them con- 
cerned in the other. That he died for all, and inteicedeth 
only for fome, t^ill fcarcely be fquared to this text ; efpccial- 
ly confidering the foundation of all this, which is fverfe 32) 
that love of God which moved him to give up Chrift to deatti 
for us all; upon which the apoftle infers a kind of impofTi- 
bility in not giving us all good things with him ; which how 
it can be reconciled with their opinion, who affirm that he 
gave his Son for millions, to whom he will give neither 
grace nor glory, I cannot fee. But we refl in that of the 
fame apoftle ; " when we were yet without ftrength, in due 
" time Chrift died for the ungodly," fo that " being juftified 
*• by his hlood, we fhall be faved from wrath through him," 
E,om. v. 6, 9. The fame connexion between the oblation and 
intercefTion of Chrift, with their fruits and effe6b, being in- 
timated in very many other places. 

II. To cffdr and to intercede, to facrifice and to pray, are 
both ^Eh ot the fame Tacerdotal office, and both required in 


as aflually accompliJJied. ^7 

him who is ii prie]} \ fo that if he omit either of ^hefe, he 
cannot be a faiihiu! pnejl for them ; it other he do i>ot offer 
for them, or not intercede for the fiiccefs of his ob'aiKni on 
their behalf, he is wanting in the diicharge oihis office by 
him undertaken. Bova thefe we find conjoined (as before) 
in Jefus Cliiill, 1 John ii. 1. 2. " If any man fm, v/c have 
" an advocate with liie Father, Jefus Clirift the righteous, and 
** he is the propitiation for our fins :" He muft be ;':n advo- 
cate to intercede, as well as offer a propitiatory facrifice ; if 
he will be fuch a l^.erciful/^^^/^ priejl over the houfc of God, 
as that the children fhould be encouraged to go to God 07 
him. This the apolfle exceedingly clears and evidently 
proves, in the epillle to the Hebrews j defcribing the prief't- 
hoodof Chriftin the execution thereof, to confiltin ihefc two 
a6ls, of offering up hirafelf in and by the ffiedding of his 
blood, and interceding for us to the utmoft : upon the rer- 
formance of both which, he prefl'eth an exhortation to draw- 
near with confidence to the throne of grace ; for, " he is 
" come an high-priefl: of good things to come, neither by 
" the blood ot goats and calves, but by his own blood he en- 
*' tered in once into the holy place, having obtained for us 
*' eternal redemption," cha^. ix. 11, 12. His bloody ob- 
lation gave him entrance into the holy place not made with 
hands, there to accomplifh the remaining part of his office ; 
the apoffle comparing his entrance into heaven for us, with 
the entrance of the high prieff into the holy place, with the 
blood of bulls and goats upon him, verfc 12, 13. (which doubt. 
lefs was to pray for them in whofebehalfhe had offered, t/6^r/? 1.) 
fo prefenting himfelf before his Father, that his former oblati- 
on might have its efficacy. And hence it is faid to have 
APARABATON HI EROS YN EN an unchangeable priefthood, 
becaufehecontinuethever, Hd. vii. 24. i^o being " able to 
" fave them to the tittermoff, that come unto God by him," 
verft 25. wherefore we have *•' boldnefs to enter into the 
*• holieft, by the blood of Jefus," chap. x. 19. So then it is 
evident, that both thefs are aBs of the fame prieffly office in 
Chrift ; and if he perform either of them for any, he muff of 
neceffity perform the other for them alfo ; for he will not ex- 
crcife any after duty of his prieftly funftion, in their behalf 
for whom he is not a prieff; and for whom he is a prieff, he 
muft-perrorm both, feeing he is faithful in thedifchaVge o\. his 
funaion to the utmoft, in the behalf of the finners for whom he 
undertakes. Thefe two tiien, oblation uuiinUrceJfiGn, muft m 
refpeQ of their ohjeas be cf equal extent, and can by no means 


48 The End of the Death of ChrifK 

be feparatcd. And here by the way, (the thing being by this ar- 
gument in my appichenfion made fj clear) I cannot but demand 
ot thofe who oppufe us about the death ot Chrift, whether they 
will fullain thjt he intercedeth for a!!, ornot? If not, then 
they make him but half a prieft : it they wiil, they muil be ne- 
ceffitated either to defend this error, that all (hall be faved; or 
ov/n thisblafphemy, that Chrift is not heard of his Father, nor 
can prevail in his interceffion; which yet the faints on earth 
are fure to do, when they make their fupplicaiions according 
to the will of God, Rom. viii. 27. 1 John v. 14. Befidcs 
that of our Saviour it is exprefsly faid, that the Father " al- 
ways heareth him," John xi. 42, And if that were true, 
v;hen he was yet in the way^ in the days of his flefh, and had 
not finiflied the great work he was fent about ; how much 
more (htnnow^ when, having done the will and finiihed the 
work of God, he is fet down on the right-hand of Majefty 
on high, defning and requefting the accornplifning of the 
promifes that were made unto him upon his undertaking this 
work; of v/hich before. 

III. The nature of the intercefTion cf Chrift, v/ili alfo 
prove no lefs than what we alTert ; requiring an unfeparable 
conjun6lion betv/een it and his oblation ; for as it is now per- 
fe6ied in He.5ven, it is not an humble dejetiion of himfelf, 
with cries, tears and fupplications; nay it cannot he conceived 
to be vocal^ by the way of intreaty ; but merely reai^ by the 
prefentation of himfelf fprinkled with the blood of the cove- 
nant before the throne of grace in our behalf. *' For Chrift 
** (faith the apoftle) is not entered into the holy places made 
*• with hands, but into heaven itfelf, now to appear in the 
prefence of God for us, thb. ix. 24. His intercelLon there, 
is an a/;j&<?^m^ for us in heaven, in the piefence of Gad; 
a demonftration of his facred body, wherein for us he fufter- 
ed. For (as we faid before) the apoftle, in the ninth to the 
Hebrews, compares his entrance into heaven for us, unto the 
entrance of the high-pricit into the holy place, which was 
with the blood of bulls and goats upon him, verf 1?,, 13. 
our Saviour's being wiih his own blood ; fo prefenting him- 
lelf, that his former oblaiion might have its perpetual efficacy, 
until the many Sons given unto him are brought to glory. 
And herein his inter cejjion covAi^Xtih ;ht\v\g nothing (as it 
were) but his oblaticn continued. He was a Lamb *' flain 
*' from the foundation of the world," Rev. xiii. 8. Now, 
his interceftion beiore his aQual obhtion in the fulnefs cf 
time, being noihing but a pvefeniing of the engagcirienL that 


as a^ually accomplijiicd, .49 

Was upon him for the work in due time to be acccmplifherl ; 
certainly (hat which follows it, is nothing but a prcfen^ing of 
what according to that engagement is fulfilled ; To that it is 
nothing but a continuation of his oblation, in rcquirin^j, bv 
remembrance, and declaration of it, thole things wiiich by it 
were procured. How then is it polTible, that the one ot if.efe 
ihould be of larger compafs and extent than the other ? Can 
lie be laid to off.'r for them for whom he doth not intercde ? 
when his intercejjion is nothing but a prefenting ol his oblati- 
on in the behaltof them for whom he luffered, and for tlie 
beftowinjrof ihofegood things which by that were purcha: d, 
IV. Again, if the oblation and dea'h of Chrift procured 
and obtamed that every good thing fhould be beftowed, which 
is aftually conferred by the intervening of his intercfjjion^ 
then they have both of them the fame aim, and are both means 
tending to one and the fame end. Now tor the proof of this 
fuppofal, we mult remember that which wc delivered before, 
concerning the compad and agreement that was between the 
Father and his Son, upon his voluntary engaging of himfelf 
unto this great work of redemption ; for upon that engage- 
iment, the Lord propofed unto him as the end of his (ufTer- 
ings, and promifed unto him as the reward of his labours, the 
fruit of his defervings, every thing which he afterwards in- 
tercedeth for. Many particulars I before indanced in; artd 
therefore now, to avoid repetition, will wholly omit them, 
Tefering the reader to chaptsr iii. for fatisfa61ion„ Only I 
fhall demand, what is the ground and foundation or our Savi- 
our's intercejjion ? Underftanding it to be by the way of en- 
treaty either virtual or formal, as it may be conceived to be 
either real or oral, for the obtaining of any thing ; mufb 
it not reft upon fome promife made unto him ? or is there 
any good bellowed, that is not promifed ? Is it not apparent, 
that the interceflion of Chrift doth reft on fuch a promife. 
as Ffal. ii. 8, '* Afk of me, and I fhali give thee the heatheii 
" for thine inheritance,^" &c. Now, upon what connderatiori 
was this promife and engagement made unto our Saviour ? 
Was it not for his undergoing of thataboat which " the kings 
" fet them.'elves, and the rulers took counfel together againlt: 
" him," ver/e 2. v/hich the apoftles interpret of Herod and 
Pontius Pilate with ihe people oj the Jews^ profecutint^ hitn 
to death, and doing to him " whatfoever the band and coun- 
*' fel of God had determined before to be done," Atls iv. 27,' 
28. The interceflion of Chrift, then, being founded on 
promifes made unto him ; and thefe promifcs being nothing 

G bw^ 

^o The End of the Death of Chrijt 

but an engagement to bellow, and aftually collate upon tberm 
for whom he fuiTered, all thcfe good things which his death 
and ^/'/fl/z^/z did merit and purchafe, it cannot be, but that 
he intercedethfor ail for whom he died, that his death pro- 
cured all and every thing which upon his inttrctjfion is he- 
flowed ; and until they are beftowed, it hath not its lull fruits 
and effefts. For that which Ibme fay, viz. that the death 
ot Chrift doth procure that which is never granted, we {hall 
fee afterwards, whether it doth not contradift Scripture, yea, 
and common fenfe. 

V. Further, what Chrift hath put together, let no maa 
prefumeto put afunder; diftinguifh between them they may, 
but feparate them they may not. Now thefe things concern- 
ing which we treat, (the ablation and interceflion ol Chrift) 
are by himfelf conjoined, yea united, John xvii. For there, 
and then, he did both oflfer and intercede ; he did then as 
perfeftly offer himfelf, in refpeft of hi« own wil! and inten- 
tion (verfe ^) as on the crols ; and as perfeftly intercede, as 
now in heaven. Who then can divide thet'e things, or put 
them afunder ? Efpecially confidering, that the Scripture 
affirmeth that the one ot them without the other would have 
been unprofitable, iCor.^v. 17. For complete remiffioii 
and redemption could not be obtained for us, without the 
entering ot our high prieft into the moft holy place, Hth> 
ix. 12. 

VL Lailly, a feparating and dividing of the death and in- 
tercefTion of Chrift, in refpeft ot the objeBs of them, cuts 
off all that confolation which cny foul might hope to attain, 
by an aifurance that Chrift died tor him. That the doarine 
of the general ranfom is an uncomfortable doBrine, cutting 
all the nerves and fmews of that ftrong confolation which 
God is fo abundantly willing that we fhould receive, fhall be 
eftei wards declared; for the prefent I will only Ihew, how- 
it cuts off cur comfort in this particular. The m.ain founda- 
tion of all the confidence and affurance, whereof in this life 
we may be made partakers, (which amounts to joy unfpeaka- 
ble and full of glorv) arifeth from this ftria connexion of 
the oUalion and intercejjion of Jefus Chrift ; that by the one 
he ha*th procured all good things for us, and by the other he 
will procure them to be aBu^illy beftowed ; whereby he doth 
never leave our fms, but follows them into every court, until 
rhev be fullv pardoned and clearly expiated, Hcb. ix. 26. He 
will never leave us, until he hath faved, to the uttermoft, 
them that come unto God by him. Hijl^leaih, without his 


AS eRually dccomplijhcd, c i 

refurre6lion, would have profited iis nothing ; all our faith 
in him had been in vain, i Cor, xv. 17, So that feparated 
from it, with the interceffion following, either in his own 
intention, or in the feveral procurements of the one and the 
other, it will yield us but linle confolarion ; but in this cor*- 
nexion, it is a fure bottom for a foul to build upon, li^b. vii. 
25. What i^ood will it ^o me, to be perfuaded that Chrift 
died for mv fins, if, notwithilanding that, my fins may an- 
pear againft me for my condemnation, where and when 
Chrift will not appear for my juflification ? If you will afk 
with the apoftle, *' Who is he that condemneth, it is Chrifi, 
" that died?" Rom. viii. 34. It may eafily be anfwered ; -vhy, 
God by his law may condemn me, notwithftanding Chrift's 
^y'mg for me ! Yea but faith the apoUle, *' he is rifen airam, 
!" and fittethat the right hand of God, making intercefTion 
" for us ;" he refls not in his death, but he wi»l certainly 
make interceffion for them for whom he died, and this along 
gives firm confolation ; our fins dare not appear, nor any oi 
our accufers againft us, where he appeareth for us. Cavillingr 
objeftions againft this text, (hall be afterwards confidered ; 
and fo I hope I have fufficiently confirmed and proved, what 
in the beginning oi this chapter I did propofe, about the 
identity of the objeft of the oblation and intercefTion qI 
Jefus Chrift. 


ObjeBions againji the former propofal, anfwered, 

BY what was faid in the laft chapter, it clearly appeareth, 
that the oblation and interceffion of Chrift are o\ equal 
compafs and extent, in refpeft of their objefts, or the per- 
fons for whom he once oflFered himfelf, and doth continually 
intercede; and lo are to be looked on, as one joint mean for 
the attaining of a certain propofed ^w^; which what it is, 
comes next to be confidered. But becaufe I find fome oh- 
jeftions laid by fome againft the former truth, I muft remove 
them before I proceed ; which I fhall do, as a man removeth 
dung, until it be all gone. 

The fum of one of our former arguments, was, that to fa- 
crifice and intercede belong both to the fame perfon as high 
prieft ; which naine none can anfwer, neither hath apy per- 
formed that office, untH^oth by him be accomplifhcd ; where. 



^,2 The End of the Death of Chrtfl 

fore cur Saviour being the moft abfolute, and indeed only true 
High Prieil, in whom were really all thofe perfeftions which 
in others received a weak typical reprefentation, doth perform 
both thefe in the behalf ot them for whofe fakes he was fuch. 
An argument not unlike to this, I find by fome undertaken 
to be aiiiwered ; being in thefe words propofed : Tlie ranfom 
and intdialion oj Chrijl^ is no larger than his ojice^ of pnejl, 
frophct, and king ; hut thefe ojices ptrtain to his church and 
chojen, thzrfore his ranfom pertains to them only. 

The intention and meaning of the argument, is the fame 
with what we propoled, viz. That Chrifl offered not tor them 
for whom he is no priefl ; and he is a priefl only for them 
for whom he doih alfo intercede. If afterwards 1 fhall have 
©ccafion to make ufe ot this argument, I fhall, by the Lord's 
affillance, give more weight and flrength to it, than it feems 
to iiave in their propofal, whofe interefl it is to prefent it as 
ilighily as pofTible, that they may feem fairly to have waved 
3t ; but the eC'afion, fuch as it is, let us look upon. 

This (faiih the anfwerer) is a foher ohjeEiion ; which friend- 
ly term, I imagined at firll he had given this reafon, becaufe 
he found it kind and eafy to be fatisfied; but reading the an- 
iwer, and finding that, fo wide from yielding any colour or 
appearance ot what was pretended, it only lerved him to 
vent fome new weak and talle conceptions; I imagined that 
jt inuft be fome other kindnef^,, that caufed him to give this 
pbj-rfction .'as i^.e cal s iij fo much milder an eniertainmentj, 
than thofe oilers which equally gall him; which hear nothing 
but, this is horrid, that biafphemy, that deteflable, abomi- 
nab e and talfe ; as being iiideed, by thofe of his perfuafion, 
Fieiiher to be endured nor avoided. And at length 1 con- 
ceived, that the reafon of it was intimated in the fiift words 
ot his pretended anfwer; which are, that this objeSlion dotk 
riot deny the death of Chrifl for all 7nen, but only his ranfom 
and mediation for oil men. Now truly if it be fo, I am not 
of his judgment ; but fo far from thinking it a fober objec- 
tion, that I cannot be perfuaded that any man in his right wits 
,^ would once propofe it. That Chrifl fhould die tor all, and 
yet not be a raniom for all, (himfelf affirmmg, that he came 
lo " give his life a ranfom for many," bAatt. xx. 28.) is to 
me a plain contradi61ion. The death of ChriO, in the firft 
mofl general notion and apprehenfion thereof, is a ranfom* 
Nay do not this anfwerer, and thofe who are ot the fame per- 
fuafion fvith him, make the raniom of as lar^re extent, as any 
|bing in or about or following the de|lh of Cbrifl? Or have 

as ailually accomplijhtd. ^a 

they yet fome further diftin£lion to make, or rather divlfion, 
about the ends oF the death of Chrift ? As we have heard 
already, for fome he not only paid a ranfom, but aifo inter- 
cedeih tor them, which he doth not for all for whom he paid 
a ranfom; will they now go a ftep backwards and fay, that 
ior fome he not only died, but alfo p-riid a ranfom for them, 
which he did not for all for whom he died ? Who then were 
thele that he thus died for? they muft bclome beyond all and 
every man ; for as they contend, for them he paid a ranfom ? 
But let us fee what he fays further ; in fo eafy a caule as 
this, it is a fhame to take advantages. 

I. The anfzuer to this ohjeSlion (faith he) is eafy and plain in 
the Scripture; for the mediation of Chrijl is both more general, 
cs he ts the Mediator between God and men, i Tim. ii. 5. and 
more efpeaally, as he is the NLdiator oj the New Tejlament, 
that they which are called may receive the promife of eternal 
inheritance, Heb. ix. 15. According to that, it is /aid he is 
the Saviour of all jnen, efpecially of thofe that believe, 1 Tim. 
iv. 10. So in all the offices of Chrijl, the prief, the prophet, 
the king ; there is that which is more general, and that which 
is more fpecial and peculiar. And, 

ijl. This is that, which he calls a clear and plain anfwer 
from the Scripture, leaving the application of it unto the ar- 
gument, to other men's conjeaure ; which, as far as I can 
conceive, mufl be thus, viz. It is true, Chrift paid a ranfom 
for none but thofe for whom he is a Mediator and Prieft ; 
but Chnft is to be confidered two ways; Firft, as a general 
Mediator and prieft for all; Secondly, as a fpecial Mediator and 
prieft for fome ; now he pays the ranfom as a general Me- 
diator. This I conceive, may be fome part of his meaning; 
for in itfelf, the whole is in expreflTion fo barbiJious and re- 
mote from common lenfe, in fubftance fach a wild unchrifti- 
an madnefs, as contempt would l^ar better fuitii, than a reply. 
The truth is, fenfe and expreflion, in men who from their 
manual trades leap into the office of preaching, and employ- 
ment of writing, I know no reafon why we fliould expe£^ ; 
only it can never enough be lamented, that wildnefs, in fuch 
tattered raggs, fhould find entenainment, whilft fobcr truth 
is fhut outol doors. For what, 1 pray you, is the meaning 
of this diftinftion ; Chrift is either a general Mediator be- 
tween God and man, or a fpecial Mediator of the New Tef- 
tament ? Was it ever heard before, that Chrift was any way 
a Mediator, but as he is fo of the New Teftament ? A Ivle- 
fuaior is not of one ; all rnediation rcfpc6ls an agreement of 
V fever al 

54 The End of the Death of Ckriji 

fevcral parties, and every mediator is the mediator of a cove- 
nant. Now, if Chrill be a Mediator more generally, then a$ 
he is fo of a covenant ; of what covenant, I befeech you, 
was that ? Of the covenant of works ? Would not fuch an af- 
fertion overthrow the whole Gofpel ? would it not be dero- 
gatory to the honour of Jefus Chrift, that he fliould be 
the Mediator oFa cancelled covenant ? Is it not contrary tq 
Scripture, affirming him to be a furety (not of the firft) but 
of a better Teftament ? lieb. vii. 22. Are not fuch bold 
afierters, fitter to be catechifed than to preach ? But we muft 
not let it pafs thus ; the man harps upon fomething that he 
hath heard from fome Arminian do61or, though he hath had 
the ill hap, fo poorly to make cut his conceptions? Where- 
fore being in foine meafure acquainted with their evafions, 
which they colour with thofe texts of Scripture which are 
here produced, I (hall briefly remove the poor fhift, that fo 
qur former argument ma)' ftand unfliaken. 

The poverty of the anfwer, as before exprefled, hath been 
fuSicienily aheady declared. The fruits of Chr ill's medi|a- 
tion have been diflinguiihed by fome, into thofe that are more 
general, and thofe which are more peculiar ; which in fome 
fenfe may be tolerable ; but that the offices of Chri/l fhould 
bcfaid to be either general or peculiar, and himfelf in relation 
to them fo confidered, is a grofs unfhapen fancy. I anfwer 
then to the thing intended, that we deny any fuch general 
mediation or iun6lion of office in general, in Chrift, as 
iliould extend itfelf beyond his church or chofen. It was his 
church which he *' purchafed with his own blood," AEls xx. 
28. His church that " he loved and gave himfelf for it, 
*- that he might fanftify and cleanfe it with the wafhing of 
" water by the word, that he might prefent it to himfelf a 
« glorious church," Eph, v. 25, 26, 27. They were his 
fhtep whom he laid down his life for, John x. 15. And 
'" he appeareth in heaven for us," Bch. ix. 24. Not one word 
of mcdiatinfT for any other, in the Scripture. Look upon his 
incarnation; it wasbecaufe iht children were partakers offlefh 
and blood, Heb. ii. 14. not becaufeall the world vj^^ fo. Look 
upon his oblation ; " for their fakes," (faith he, thofe whom 
thou half given me) "I fan£lify myfelf" Job xvii. 19. that is 
to be an oblation, which was the work he had then in hand. 
Look upon his reruric£ficn ; he died for our fins and rofe for 
j r.if ification, Rom. iv. 25. Look upon his afccnfion ; ** I go 
♦* (faiLh he) to my Father and your Father, and that to pre- 
" pare a plac« for you, John xiv. $*. Look, upon his perpetu- 

• ' '* ate4 

as adually accomplijlied. J, 5 

«* ated intercefllon ; is it not to " (ave to ihe uttermofl them 
*♦ that come unto God by him," Heb. vii. 25. Not one word 
of tins general niediation for all. NdV, if you will hear him- 
felf, he denies in plain terms to mediate for all ; tor "I pray 
" not" Idi'.h he, " tor the world, but for them which thou 
« haft aiven me," John xvii. 9, But, 

2i/7v. Let us fee vvhat is brought to confirm this diftin6^io>n, 

1. The text 1 lim ii. 5. ia quoted tor the maintenance 
ihereof J " for there is one God and one Mediator between 
*• God and men, the man Ch. id Jefus." What then I pray ? 
whaf will be concluded hence ? Cannot Chrift be a Mediator 
between God and men, but he mud be a Mediator for all 
men ? are not the ele£l men ? do not tke children partake of 
flefn and blood ? doth nor his church confift of men ? Whit 
reafon is there to affert cut of an indefinite propofiiion an 
univerfal conclufion? Becaufe Chriit was a Mediator for 
men, (which were true, had he been fo only for his apofties) 
fliall we conclude therefore, he was io for ^//men ? apagt nu- 

2. But let us ke ano:ber proof, which hap'y may give 
more ftrength to the uncouth diftinftion v;e oppofe ; and that 
is 1 Tim. IV. 10. *' who is the Saviour of all wen, especially 
** of thofe that believe." H:id it been, who is the Mediator 
of all men, etpecially of them that believe, it had been more 
likely ; but O the co'nfciences, or at leaft «lie foreheads of 
thefe men \ Is there any word here fpoken of Chrift as Me- 
diator ? Is it not the living God in whom we truft, that is the 
Saviour here mentioned, as the words going before in the 
fame verfe are ? and is Chrift called fo, in refpcB of his me- 
diation? That God the Father is oiten called Saviour, I 
fhewed hefore; and that he is here intended, as is agreed upon 
by all found interpreters; fo alfoit is clear, frurn the matt-r in 
hand, which is the protefting providence of God ; genci ai 
towards all, fpecial and peculiar towards his church. Thus is he 
laid to y^tt/^ man and beaft, Py^/. XXX vi. 6. anthropo'JS 
l-^Ai KTENE soSEis KYUIE; rendering the Hebi-ew TO- 
SHIAH by SOSEIS, thou fhalt fave or preferve. It is Go ], 
then, that is here called the Saviour of all ; by deliverance and 
proteftion in danger, of which the apolile treats ; and that 
by his providence, which is peculiar towards believers; lirA 
wiiat this makes for an univerfal mediation, I know not. 

Now, the very context in this place will not admit or any 
other interpretation. • For the words render a reafon vAvy, 
EOtv/ithftaridsng all the injury and reproaches wherewith ti;e 

56 the End of the Death of Chrijl 

people of God are continually affaulted, yet they {hould chear'« 
fully go forward, to run with joy the race that is fet betore 
them ; even becaufc, as God preferveth all, (" for in him we 
*' live and move, and have oui being," A8s xvii. 28. PfaL 
cxlv. I4, 15, 16.) fo that he will not fuffer any to be injured 
and unrevenged, [Gen. ix. 5.) fo is he efpeciajly ihe prelerver 
of them that do believe, tor ihey are as " the apple of his 
" eve," Zexh. ii. 8. Deut. xxxii. 10. So that il he (houid 
fuffer them to be preffed for a feafon, yet let them not let go 
their hope and confidence, nor be weary of well-doing, but 
Hill reft on and truft in him. This encouragement being that 
which the apoftle was to lay down ; what motive would it be 
hereunto, to tell believers, that God would have thofe faved, 
who neither do, nor ever will, or fhall believe? That I lay- 
nothing how Ifrange it feems, that Chriil fhould be the Sa- 
viour of them who are never faved, to whom he never gives 
grace to believe ; for whom he denies to intercede, John xvii. 
g. which yet is no fmall part of his mediation, whereby he 
faves finners. Neither the fubjeft then, nor the predicate of 
the proportion, (He is the Saviour of all men) is rightly ap- 
prehended, by them who would wrell it to the maintenance 
of univerfal redemption. For the fubje£l He, it is God the 
Father, and not Chrift the Mediator; and for th« predicate, 
it is 2i providential "^i^itxvd.non, and not apurchafed falvation, 
that is intimated ; that is, the providence ot God, protefting 
and governing all, but watching in an efpecial manner for the 
good of them that are his, that they be not always unjuftly 
and cruelly traduced and reviled, with other preffures, is what 
the apoftle here refts upon ; as alfo he (hews that it was bis 
courfe to do, 2 Cor. i. 9, 10. " But we had the fentence of 
*' death in ouiielves, that we fhould not truft in ourfeivcs^ 
*• but in God which raifeth the dead ; who delivered us from 
*' fo great a death, and doth deliver, in whom we truft, that 
" he will deliver us;" for he is the Saviour of all men, ef- 
pecially of them that do believe. 

If any fhall conceive, that thefe words (becaufe zoetrujl in 
the living God, who is, &c.) do not render an account ol the 
ground ot P^w/'j confidence, in going through with his la- 
bours and affliftions, but rather are an exprefTion of the head 
and fum of that do£trine, for which he was fo turmolied and 
alflifted, 1 will not much oppofe it ; for then alfo, it includes 
nothing but an afTertion of the true God and dependence on 
him ; in oppofition to all the idols of the Gentiles, and other 
vain conceits, whereby they exalted themfeves mto the throne 


as adually accomptijhed. ^7 

oF the Mod High. But that Chrift fhould be fald to be a 
Saviour (i.j of thofe who are never faved from their fins, as 
hefaves his people, Matt. i. 21 ; (2.) of thofe who never hear 
one word of (aving or a Saviour; (3.) that he fhould be a Sa- 
viour in a twofold fenfe, [1.] for all, [2. J for believers; (^.) 
that to beheve, is the condition whereby Chrill becomes a 
Saviour in an efpecial manner unto any, and that condition 
not procured nor purchafed by him ; that this, 1 lay, is the 
lenfe of this place, credat Jadaus Apdla. To me nothing 
is more certain, than that to whom Chrift is in any fenfe a 
Saviour in the work of redemption, he faves them 10 the ut- 
termoft from all their fins of infidelity and difobedience; with 
x\\^ faving of grace here, and glory hereafter. 

II. Further attempts alfo there are, to give ftrength to this 
evafion, and fo to invalidate our former argument ; which I 
inuft alfo remove : 

" Chrifl (fay they) * in fome fort intercedeth and putteth 
*' in for tranfgrefTors, even the fons of men, yet in and of the 
*' world; that the Spirit may fo ftill unite and blefs thofe that 
*' believe on him, and lo go forth in their confefiions and con- 
*' verfations, and in the miniftration of his gofpe! by his ferv- 
*' ants, that thofe among whom they dwell and converfe 
•' might be convinced and brought to believe the report of 
" the gofpel, Ifa, liii. 12. As once, Luke xxiii. 34. As 
" himfelf left a pattern to us, John xvii. 21, 23. That lo, 
*' the men of the world might be convinced, and thefe con- 
*• vinced allured to Chrift, and to God in him. Matt. v. 14, 
*' 15, 16. Yea fo, as that he doth in fome meafure enlighten 
*' every man that cometh into the world, John i. 9. But in 
** a more fpeciai manner doth he intercede, &c." 

Here is a twofold interceflion of Chrift as Mediator : t . For 
all finners, that they may believe ; (for that is it which is in- 
tended, by the many cloudy exprelBons wherein it is involved) 
2. For believers, that they may be faved. It is the firft mem- 
ber of the diftinftion, which we oppofe ; and therefore muft 
infift a little upon it. 

\]l. Our author faith, it is an interceding in fome fort : I 
afk, in what fort ? is it diredly, or indire61ly ? is it by virtu 
of his blood, fhed tor them, or otherwife ? is it with an in- 
tention and defire to obtain for them the good things inter- 
ceded for, or with purpole that they fhouid go without them ? 
is it for all and every man, or only for thofe who live in the 
outward pale of the church ? is faith the thing required for 

H them, 

* More'i Univerfalitj of Grace, 

58 Tfie End of the Death of Chriji 

them, or fometbing elfe ? is that defired abfolutely, or upoB 
fome condition ? All which queries muft be clearly anfwered, 
before this general intercetTion can be made intelligible. 

1. Whether it be diretlly, or indirettty, and by confe- 
quence only, that this interceirion alter a fort is ufed ? For 
that thing interceded for is reprefented, not as the immediate 
ilfue or aim oi the prayer ot Chriit, btit as a reflex, arifing 
from a blt-ffing obtained by oihers ; for the prayer let down, 
is *' that God would fo blefs believers, that thole amongft 
•' whom they dwell may believe the report of the gofpel ;" it 
is believers that are the dire£t obje6l of this interceflion, and 
others only glanced at through them. The good alfo fo 
defired for them is confidered, eitlier as an accident that may 
come to pafs, or follow the fiourifhing of believers, kata 
SYMBEBeKOS ; or as an end intended fo be accompliib- 
ed by it; if the firft, then their good is no more intend- 
ed than their evil ; if the latter, why is it not efiFe6led ? why 
is not the intention of our Saviour accomplilhed ? is it for 
want of wifdom to choofe fuitable and proportionable means 
to the end propofed, or is it for want of power to effeft what 
he intendeth ? 

2. Is it by virtue of his blood, {bed for them, or otherwife ? 
It it be ; then Chrift intercedeih for them, that they may en- 
joy thofe things which for them by his oblation he did pro- 
cure : for this it is, to make his death and bloodfhedding to be 
the foundation q\ his inlerceffion. Then it follows, that 
Chrift by his death procured faith lor all; becaufe he interced- 
eth that all may believe, grounding that intercefTion upon the 
merit of his death. But, (1) This is more than the alfertors 
of univerfal redemption will fuftain : amon^ all the ends of 
the death of Chrift by them afligned, the effe61;ual and infalli- 
sble beftowing of faith on thofe for whom he died, is none^ 
{2) If by his death he hath purchafed taith for all, and by in- 
tercefSun entreaieth for it ; why is it not aftually beftowed 
on them ? is not a concurrence of both thefe fufficient for 
the makiiig out of that one f[3iritual bleffing ? — But if it be 
not founded en his death and bioodfhedding ; then we defire, 
that they ihould defcribe unto us this interceflion of Chrift, 
differing from his appearing for us in heaven fprinkled with 
his own blood. 

3. Doth he intercede for them, that they fhould believe ; 
with an intention or defire that they fhould do fo ; or not ? 
If not, it is but a mock interceflion, and an intreaty for that 
which he would not have granted; iffo ; why is it not ac- 

complifhed ? 

as aSIual/y accomphJJied, c* 

•orapIJfhed ? Why, do not all believe ? yea. if he died frr 
all, and pravedforall that they might believe ; why are not 
all faved ? for Chriil is always heard of his Father, 7ohn 
xi. 42. ^ 

4. Is it for all and every one in the world, that Chrift 
makes this interceffion ; or only for ihofe who live within 
the pale o[ the church? If only for ihofe latter; then this 
doth not prove a general interceffion for all, but only one 
more large than that for believers : for if he leaves out any 
one in the world, the prefent hypothtfis falls to the ground. 
If for all: how can it confift in'that petition, that the fpirit 
zuould fo Uad, guide and blefs hduvers, and /o gojortk in the 
mimftralion of the gofpd by his Jervants, that others (that is 
all and every one in the world) may be convinced and brought 
to believe ? How, I fay, can this be fpoken, with any refer- 
ence to thole miiiions of fouls that never fee a believer, that 
hear no repoit of the gofpel ? 

5. L'^this interceffion be for faith, then either Chrift inter- 
cedeth tor it abfolutely, that they raay certainly have it ; or 
upon condition ; and that, either on the part of God, or man. 
It abfolulely, then all do aaually believe ; or that is not true, 
the Father ^ia'^yj/^^r^rj him, John ya. 42. If upon condition 
on the part of God ; ircan be nothing but this, if he zcill or 

Jleafe. Now, the adding of this condition may denote in our 
Saviour two thmgs : (1.) A nefcience of what is his Father's 
will, in the thing interceded for ; which cannot ffand with 
the unity of hisperfon, as now in glory ; and cannot be, be- 
caufe he hath the afTurance of a promife to be heard in what 
ever he ail^eth, Pfal. ii. 8. Or. (2.) An Advancement of 
his Father's will, by fubmifTion to that, as the prime caufe 
of the good to be beffowed ; which may well itand with ab- 
foluteinttrcefTion, by virtue v/hereof all muff believe. But 
next, is it a condition on the part of thofe for whom he do:h 
intercede ? Now I befeech you, what condition is that : 
where in the Scripture affigned ? where is it faid, that Chrift 
doth intercede for men that they may have faith, if they do 
fuch and fuch things ? Nay, what condition can rationally 
be afhgned of this defire ? Some often intimate that it is, if 
they /offer the Spirit to have its work upon their hearts, arJ o- 
bey the grace of God: now what is it to obey the grace of 
God? is it not to believe? therefore it Teems, that Chrifl inter- 
cedeth for them, ibar they may believe, upon condition that they 
do believe. Oihcrs more cautioufly ailert the good ufmg of the 
means of grace, that tbey do enjoy, to be the ccndition upon 


6o The End of the Death of Chrift 

which the benefit oF this Intercenion doth depend: but again, 
(i.) What is the good ufing ot the means of grace, but afub- 
mitiing to them, which is beHeving; and fo we are asbeiore. 
(2.) All have not the means of grace, to ufe well or ill. (3.) 
Chrift prays that they may ufe the means of grace well ; or 
he doth not : if not, then how can he pray that they may be- 
lieve ; feeing to ufe well the means ot grace, by yielding o- 
bedience unto them, is indeed to believe ? if he do, then he 
doth it abfolutely, or upon condition ; and fo the argument 
is renewed again as in the entrance. Many more reafons 
might be eafily produced, to fhew the madnefs of this afler- 
tion ; but thofe may fuffice. Only, 

2dly. We mull look upon the proof and confirmations of 

1. The words of the prophet Ifaiah liii. 12, "He made 
*' interccffion for the tranfgreffors," are infifted on. Now 
the tranfgreffors here for whom our Saviour is faid to make 
interceffion, are either all the tranfgreffors for zvhom he fut- 
fered ; as is moft likely, from the defcription we have of 
them, verfe 6, or the tranfgreffors only by whom he fuffered, 
that a6led in his fufferings as fome fuppofe ? If the firft ; 
then this place proves, thai Chrift intercedes for all thofe for 
•whom he fuffered, which differs not from that which we con- 
tend for. If the latter ; then we may confider it as accom- 
pliflied : how he then did it, lo it is here foretold that he 
fhould ; and thus, 

2. The next place urged, is Luke xxiii. 24, ** Then faid 
•* Jefus, Father forgive them, for they know not what they 
" do." 

The conelufion which from thefe words is inferred, being, 
therefore there is a general interceffion for all, that they may 
believe ; I might well leave the whole argument to the filent 
judgment of men, without any further opening and difcove- 
ry ot its invalidity and weaknefs : but becaufe the ableft of 
that fide have ufually infiftcd much on this place, for a gene- 
ral fuccefslefs interceffion ; I will a little confider the mfer- 
cnce, in its dependence on thefe words ot the gofpel, and 
fearch whether it have any appearance of flrength in it ; to 
which end we muff obferve that, 

(i.) This prayer is not for all men, but only for that hand- 
ful of the Jews by whom he was crucified ; now, from a 
prayer for them, to infer a prayer for all and every man, 
that ever were, are, or ffiall be, is a wild dedu6iion. 

(2.} It doth not appear that he prayed for all his crucifiers 


as aBually accomplijhed, 6i 

either, but only for thofe who did it out of ignorance ; as 
appears by the reafon annexed to his fupplication, '» for the/ 
*' know not what they do." And though, ABs ili. 17, it is 
faid that *' the rulers alfo did it ignorantly ;" yet that al! of 
them did fo, is not apparent, That (ome did, is certain from 
that place ; and fo it is, that fome of them were converted 
afterwards : indefinite propofitions muft not, in fuch things, 
be made univerfal. Now doth it follow, that becaufe Chrilf 
prayed for the pardon of their fins who crucified him out of 
ignorance, as fome of them did ; that therefore he interced- 
eth for all, that they may believe ? even fuch who never once 
heard of his crucifying. 

{3.) Chrift, in thofe words, doth not fo much as pray for 
thofe men that they might believe ; but only, that that fin of 
them, in crucifying of him, might be forgiven, not laid to 
their charge : hence to conclude, therefore be intercedeth for 
all men that they may believe, even becaufe he prayed that 
the fin of crucifying himfelf might be forgiven them that did 
it, is a ftrange inference. 

(4.) There is another evident Hmitaiion in the bufinefs ; 
for among his crucifiers he prays only for them that were 
prefent at his death ; amongft whom, doubtlefs, many came 
more out of curiofity to fee and obferve, as is ufual in fuch 
cafes, than out of malice and defpight : fo that whereas 
fome urge, that notwithflanding this prayer — yet the chief of 
the priefts continued in their unbelief; it is not to the pur- 
pofe, for it cannot be proved that they were prefent at his 

(5.) It cannot be affirmed with any probability, that our 
Saviour fliould pray for all and every one of them, fuppofing 
fome of them to be finally impenitent : for he himfelf /^/^f a; 
full well what was in man, John ii. 25. yea htknezv from the 
beginning who they were that believed not, John vi. 64. Now 
it is contrary to the rule which we have, 1 John v. 16, thera 
is a fin unto death, &c. to pray for them whom we know to 
be finally impenitent, and to fin unto death. 

(6.) It feems to me that this fupplication was effeftual and 
fuccefsful, that the Son was heard in this requeif alfo; faith 
and f orgivenefs being granted to them for whom he prayed ; 
fo that this makes nothing for a general inefFeftual intercef- 
fion, it being both fpecial and efFe6fual. For of them whom 
Peter tells, that the'/ " denied the holy On^^ and defired a 
" murderer," ACts in. 14. and " killed the Prince of life," 
ifcrfc i^. of thefe, I fay, five thoufand believed, Atls iv. 4. 

*' Many 

62 The End of the, Death of Ckriji 

*' Many of them which heard the word, believed, and the 
" number of the men was about five thoufdnd." And if 
any others were among thetn, whom our Saviour prayed for, 
they might be converted atterv/ards. Neither were the rulers 
without the compafs of the fruits of this prayer; for " a 
•'.great company o\. priefls v»^ere obedient to the faith," AB:s 
.\\..j. &o that nothing can poilibly be hence inferred for the 
-purpofe intended. 

(7.) We may, nay we muft grant a twofold praying in our 
Saviour; one by virtue oi his office as he was Mediator, 
the other in anfwer to his duty, as he was fubjcB; to the law, 
and a private perfon. It is true, he v/ho was Mediator wag 
made a fubjeft to the law ; but yet thofe things which he did 
in obedience to the law, as a private perfon, were not a6;.s of 
mediaiion, nor works of him as Mediator, though of him 
who was Mediator. Now, as he was fubjefl to the law, our 
Saviour was bound to torgive offences and wrongs done unto 
him, and to pray for his enemies ; as alio he h^id taught us to 
do, whereol in this he gave us an example. Matt. v. 44. *' I 
" lay unto you, love your enemies, blefs them that curfe you, 
" do ^ood to them that hate you, and pray for them which 
** defpitefully ule yoa and perfecute you." Which doubtlefs 
he inferreth from that lavv% Lev, xix. 18. *' Thou (halt not a- 
" venge, nor bear any grudge againft the children of thy 
*' people, but thou flialt love thy neighbour as thyfelf ;" 
quite contrary to the wicked glofs put upon it by the Phari- 
fees. And in this fenfc our Saviour here, as a private per- 
fon, to whom revenge was forbidden, pardon enjoined, pray- 
er commanded, prays for his very enemies and crucifiers ; 
which doth not at all concern his interceding for us as Medi- 
ator, wherein he was always heard ; and fo is nothing to the 
purpofe in hand. 

3. Again, John xvii. 21, 23. is urged, to confirm this 
general intcrcefTicn which we have exploded^ our Saviour 
praying that bv the unity, concord, and flourifhing of his ferv- 
ants, the world might believe and know that God had fent 
him ; from which words though fomc make a feeming flouriih, 
yet the thing pretended is no v/ay confirmed. For, 

(1) it Chnll really intended and dcfired, that the whole 
world, or all men in the world, fliould believe, he would aifo, 
no doubt, have prayed for. moie effeftual means of grace to 
be gi anted unto them, than only a beholding of the bleffed 
condition of his, (v^hich yet is granted to a fmall part of the 
world) at leaft the pieachingof the word to ihem all, that by 

as aSlually accomplifned. 63 

it, as the ovk\y ordinary way, they might come to the know- 
ledge ot him. But this we do not find that ever he prayed 
for, or that God hath granted it ; nay he bleffed his Father 
that fo it was not, becaufe fo it fcemed good in iiis fight. 
Matt. xi. 25, 26. 

(♦.) Such a glofs or interpretation mult not be put upon 
the place, as 111 >uld run cro!s to the exprefs words ot our Sa- 
viour, V, 9. " I pray not for tlje world;" for it he here 
prayed, that ihe world fliould have true, holy, faving iaith, 
he prayed for as great a bleffing and privilege for the world 
as any he procured, or interceded for, for his own. Where- 

(3) Say fomc, the world is here taken (or tiie world of the 
elefct, the world to be faved, God's people tliroughout the 
world. Certain it is, that the world is not here taken proper- 
ly, pro mundo coniinmte^ for the world containing ; but figu- 
ratively, pro mundo contento, for the v/orld contained, or men 
in the world ; neither can it be made appear, that it mufc he 
taken univerfally for all the men in the world, as feldom it is 
in the Scripture, which afterwards we fhall make appear; but 
may be underftood indefinitely, for men in the world, few or 
more, as the eleft are in their feveral generations. But this 
expofition, though it hath great authors, I cannot abfplutely 
adhere unto, becaufe, through this whole chapter, the world 
is taken, either for the world of reprobates, oppofed to them 
that are given to Chrift by his Father, or for the world of un- 
believers (the fame inen under another notion) oppofed to 
them who are conimitted to his Father by Chriil. Where- 
fore I anfwer, 

(4.) That by believing^ verfe 21. and knozuing,.verfc 23. is 
not meant believing in a flrift fenfe, or a faving compre- 
henfion and receiving of Jefus Chriil, and fo bicominer the 
fons of God, which neither ever v.'as, nor ever will be ful- 
filled in every man in the world, nor was ever prayed for; 
but a convittion and acknowledgment, that the Lord Chriil is 
not, what before they had taken him to be, a feducer and a 
falie prophet, but indeed what he faid, one that came oiit 
from God, able to proteft and do good for and to his own ; 
which kind of conviaion and acknowledgment, that ii is often 
termed believing in the Scripture, is more evident than that it 
fhonld need to be proved; and that this is here meant, the 
evidence of" the thing is fuch, that it is confented unto by ex- 
pofitors of all forts. Now, this is not for any good of the 
world, but icr the vindication of his people, and the exalta- 

6^ The End of the Death of Chrifl 

tion ot his own glory ; and fo proves not at all the thing in 
queftion. But of this word, worlds afterward. 

4. The following place, Matt. v. 14, 1^, 16. (containing 
fome inftru6lions given by our Saviour to his apoftles, fo to 
improve the knowledge and light which of him they had, 
and were farther to receive, in the preaching of the word 
snd hclinefs of life, that they might be a means to draw- 
men to glorify God) is certainly brought in to make up a 
fhew of a number, as very many other places are, the author 
not once confidering, what is to be proved by them, nor to 
what end they are ufed ; and therefore, without further in- 
quiry, it may well he laid afide, as not at all belonging to the 
bufmefs in hand, nor to be dragged within many leagues of 
the conclufion, by all the ftrength and fkill of Mr. More. 

5. Neither is that other place, John i. 9. any thing more 
advifedly or feafonably urged, though wretchedly glofl'ed, and 
rendered in fome meafure enlightening every 7nan that cometh 
into the world. The Scripture fays, that Chrift is the true 
liaht, zohich lighteth every man that cometh into the toorid; in 
fome meafure, fays Mr. More ; now, 1 befeech you, in what 
meafure is this ? how far, into what degree, in what meafure, 
is illumination from Chrifl ? by whom, or by what means, fe- 
parated from him and independent of him, is the reft made 
up ? who (upplies the defe61: of Chrift ? I know your aim is, 
to hug in your illumination by the light of nature, and I know 
not what common helps that you dream of, towards them who 
are utterly deprived of all gofpel means of grace ; and that 
not only for the knowledge of God as Creator, but alfo of 
him as in Chrift the Redeemer. But whether the calves of 
your own felting up, fhould be thus facrificed unto, with 
wrefting and perverting the word of God, and undervaluing 
the grace of Chrift, you will one day I hope be convinced. 
It fufficeth us, that Chrift is faid to enlighten every one, be- 
caufe he is the only true light ; and every one that is en- 
lightened, receiveth his light from him, who is the fun, the 
fountain thereof. And fo, the general defence oS. this gene- 
ral ineffectual interceflion is vaniihcd ; but yet further, it is 
particularly replied concerning the priefthood of Chrift, that, 

111. " As a prieft, in refped of one end, he ofFereth facri- 
•' fice, that is, propitiation, for all men," Heh. ix. 26. and 
ii. 9. John i. 29. 1 John ii. 2. " In refpeCl of all the ends, 
«' propitiation, and fealing the New Teftament, and teftifica- 
*• tion to the truth, and of the uttermoft end in all, for his 
*' called and chofen ones," lieb, ix. 14. 15. Viatt. xxvi. 26. 


as dRually accdmplijhed, 6, 


^what follows after, being repeated out of another place, hath 
been already anfwered.) Now , 

ifl. Thefe words, as here placed, have no tolerable fenfa 
in them, neither is it an eafy thing to gather the mind ot the 
author out of them ; fo far are they trom being a clear an- 
fwer to the argument, as was pretended. Words of Scrip* 
ture indeed are ufed ; but wrefted and corrupted, not only to 
the countenance of error, but to bear a part in unreafonable 
cxprelTions. For what, I pray, is the meaning of thefe words; 
he offered facrijicc in refpeti of one end, then of all ends^ then 
ef the utltrmojl end in all? To enquire backwards, 

1. What is this utter?no/l end in all? is that in all, in Of 
among all the ends propofed and accomplifhed ? or in alf 
thofe for whom he offered facrifice? or is it the uttermoft end 
and propofal of God and Chrifl, in his oblation ? If this lat- 
ter, that is tlie glory of God ; now there is no fuch thing 
once intimated, in the places of Scripture quoted, Lkb. ix* 
14, 15. Matt. xxvi. 26. 

a. Do thofe places hold out the uttermod end of the death ot' 
Chrilf, (fuboidinate to God's glory ?) why, in one of them ifc 
is the obtaining of redemption; and in the other, the fhed- 
ding of his blood for the remifTion of fins, is exprefled ? 
Now, all this you affirm to be the firft end of the death of 
Chrift, in the firft words ufed in this place : calling it propi- 
liation, that is an attonement for the remiffion of (ins: wliich 
remiiTioii of fins, and redemption, are, for the fubiUnce, one 
and the fame: both of them the immediate fruits and firllend 
of the death of Chrift, as is apparent, Epk. i. 7. CoL i. 14* 
So here you have confounded the firft and lafi end of the 
death ot Chrift, fpoiling indeed and cafting down (as you 
may lawfully do, tor it is your own) the whole frame and 
building ; whofe foundation is this, that there be feveral and 
diverfe ends of the death of Chrift, towards feveral perrons. 
To that fome of them belong unto all, and all of them only to 
fome ; which is the proton pseudos of the whole book. 

3. Chrift's ofterin;» himfelf to put away fin, out of Ileh* 
ix. 26. you maketo be the^^T^,^ end of the death of Chrift; 
and his (bedding of his blood for the remifTion of fins, from 
Matt. xxvi. 26. to be the /j/?: pray, when you vv^rite next, 
give us the difference between thefe two. 

4. You fay ; he offered facrifice, in refpecl of one end, that 
is propitiation, for all men; now truly, if you know the mean* 
ing ofi'acrjiice and propitiation, this will fcarce appear fenf<S 
unto you, upon a fecoiid view. But, 

I ^dly. 

C6 The End of the. Death of Chrijt, &c. 

adh. To leave your words, and take your meaning ; it 
feems to be this: in refpeft oF one end that Chriil propofcd 
to himfelf, in his facrifice, he is a priefl for all, he aimed to 
attain and accompliCi it for them ; but in refpeft of other 
ones, he is fo only for his chofen and called. Now truly 
this is an eafy kind of anfvvering ; which il it will pafs for 
good, and warrantable, you may eafily difappoint all your 
adverfaries : even firft by laying down iheir arguments, then 
faying your own opinion is otherways : lor the very thing 
that is here impofed on us for an anivver, is the to kri- 
N OMEN ON, the chief matter in debate. We abfolute- 
]y deny, that the feveral ends of the death of Chuft, or 
the good things procured by his death, are thus diftributed as 
is here pretended. To prove our affertion, and to give a 
realon of our denial of this dividing of thefe things, in refpcfl: 
of their objefts ; we produce the argument above propofed, 
concerning the priefthood of Chrift, to which the anfwer 
given, is a bare repetition ot the thing in queflion. 

But you will fay, divers places ot Scripture are quoted for 
the confirmation of this anfwer. But thefe, as I told you be* 
fore, are brought forth for pomp and fhew, nothing at all be- 
ing to be found in them, to the bufmefs in hand ; fuch are 
HeL ix. 26. yo/:n i. 29. For what confequence is there, from 
an affirmation indefinite, that ChriR bare or took away fin ; 
to this, that he is a prieft for all and every one, in refpefl of 
propitiation? Befides, inthatof^<9^« i. 29. there isamanifeft 
allufion to ihepa/chal la?nh, by which there was a typical ce- 
remonial purification and cleanfing of fin ; which was proper 
only to the people of Ifrael, the type of the ele£l of God, 
and not of all in the world, of all forts, reprobates and unbelie- 
vers alfo. Thefe other two places, Heb. ii. 9. 1 John ii. 2. 
Ihall be confidered apart, becaufe they feem to have fome 
ftrength for the main of thecaufe ; though apparently there 
is no word in them, that can be wrefled to give the leaft co- 
lour to fuch an uncouth diflinflion, as that which we oppofe. 
And thus our argument from the equal objcSivc extent of the 
oblation and intercefjion of jcfus Chriil, is confirmed and vin- 
dicated ; and withal, \.\\q rmaus u^tci by the blefied Trinity 
for the accom^plifhment of the propofed end, unfolded ; 
whicl> end what it was, is next to be confidered. 



B O O K II. 

C H A P. I. 

Some previous con/tderalions, to a ?nore particular enquiry aj< . 

ter the proper end and efcd oj the death ofChiiJl, 
nPHE main thing upon which the whole controverfy abou: 
A th(i deaih ot Chi id tuineth, and upon which the great- 
eft weight of the bufmers dependeth, comes next to our con- 
fideration ; being that which we have prepared the way unto, 
by all that hath been already faid. It is about the proper end 
of the death of ChriO; which whcfo can rightly conftitute 
and make manifeft, may well be admitted for a days-man and 
umpire in the whole coateftation; for, if that be the end of 
Chrift's death, which niofl of our advei faiies aiTign, we will 
not deny, but that Chrift died for all and every one; and if 
that be the end of it, which we maintain' fo to be, they wili 
not extend it beyond the eleft, beyond believers. This then 
muft be fully cleared and folidiy confirmed, by them who 
hope for ^ny fuccefs in thefe undertakings. The end of the 
death of Chriff, we aiTerted in thebeginning ot our difcourlc, , 
to be our approximation or drawing nigh unto God; that be- 
ing a general exprefTion, for the whole reduaion and reco- 
very of finners from the ftate of alienation, mifery apxd wratb, 
into grace, peace, and eternal communion with him. Nov/ 
there being a two-fold end in things, one of the worker, the 
other of the work wrought; we have manifeffed how that, 
unlefs it be either for want of wifdom and certitude of mind 
in the agent, in chufmg and ufing unfuitable vieans for the 
attaining of the end prcpofed, or for want of fkill and pow. 
cr, to make ufe cf and tightly to improve well-proportioned 
means, to the beft advantage; thofe things are always co-inci- 
dent, the work cfTeaeth what the workman intendeth. In 
the bufmefs in hand, the agent is the hlejed Three in One, as 
was before declared; and the «zft3,7j whereby they coiiimed 
and aimed at the f «ijf propofed, was the oblation and intercef- 
fion of Jefus Chrift; which are united, intending the fame 
objea, as was alfo cleared. Now, unlefs we will blafphe- 
mouflyafcribe want of wifdom, power, perfeaion, and fuf- 
ficiency in working, unto the agent; or affirm, that the 
death and intercefTion of Chrift was not fuitable and propor- 
lioned for the attaining the end propof^d by it to be effeaed ; 
vvc mufl grant, that th^ etid of thefe is one and th^ fame; 


62 Previous Conjiderations about the 

^vhatfoever the blefi^d Trinity intended by them, that was ef- 
fetled; and whatioever we find in the ilFue afcribed unto 
them, that by them the hlejfed Trinity intended. So that we 
ihall have no caufe to confider thefe apart; unlefs it be lome- 
times to argue from the one to the other; as where we find 
any thing afcribed to the death ot Chrift, as the fruit thereof; 
we may conclude that, that God intended to effeft by it; 
and fo aifo on the contrary. 

Now, the end of the death of Chrift is either fupreme and 
uhimrite; or intermediate and fubfervient to that laft end, 

I. The firft is, the glory of God, or the manifeftation of 
his glorious attributes: efpecially of hisjuftice, and mercy 
tempered with jullice unto us. The Lord doth neceflarily 
aim himfelf in the firll: place, as the chieteft good ; yea 
indeed that alone which is good, that is abfolutely and fimply 
lo, and not by virtue of communication from another; and 
theielore in ail his works, efpeciaily in this which we have in 
hand, the chiefeft of all ; he firff intends the manifeftation of 
his own glory ; which alfo he fully accompliflieth in the clofe, 
to every point and degree by him intended. He maketh 
•' all things for himfell," Prov, xvi. 4. and every thing, in 
the end, muft '* redound to the glory of God," 2 Cor, iv. 1^. 
AVherefore Chrijl himfelf is faid to be G^^V, 1 Cor. iii. 23. 
ferving to his glory, in that whole adminiftration that 
"was committed to him. So, Eph. i. 6. the whole end of ali 
this difpenfation, both of choofing us from eternity, redeem- 
ing us by Chrift, blefling us with all fpiritual bleflings in him ; 
is affirmed to be, the praife of the glory of his grace ; and 
Tjerfe 13. '* that we (hould be to the praife of his glory." This 
is the end of all the benefits we receive by the death of Chrift, 
for, " We are filled with the fruits of righteoufnefs, which 
** are by Jefus Chrift unto the j^lory and praife of God, PhiL 
•* i. 11." which alfo is fully afferted, chapter ii. 11. "That 
•* every tongue fhould confefs that Jefus Chrift is Lord, to 
*• the glory of God the Father. This the apoftle fully clears, 
in the ninth to the Ro??ians; where he afTerts the fupreme do- 
minion and independency of God, in all his aftions; his abfo- 
Jute freedom from taking rife, caufe or occafion, to his pur- 
pofcs, from any thing among us fons of men; doing all things 
ior his own fake, and aiming only at his own glory. And 
this is that which, in the clofe of all, fliall be accomplifhed ; 
when every creature fliall fay, '* bleffing, and honour, and 
*' S'^^y ^^^ power, be unto him that fitieth uponthe throne, 
*• and unto the Lamb for ever and ever," Rev. v. 1 3. But this 
jsBETExON. JL There 

proper end of the death of Chrijl, 69 

11. There is an end o^ the death of Chrift, which is inter^ 
mediate, and fubrervient to that other which is the laft and 
raolt fupreme; even the eUcBs which it hatli in rcfpecl of us : 
aFid ih-*t is it oi which we now treat ; which as we before af- 
firmed, is, ihc bringing of us unto God. Now this, though 
in reference to the oblation and interceflion of Chri'ft, it be 
one miuQend; yet in itfelf, and in refpea ot the relation 
which the feveral afts therein have one to another, it may be 
confidereddiitintlly, in two parts ; whereot one is the end, 
and the other the 7nean for the attaining of that end, both, the 
compleat end of the mediation of Chrift, in refpeft of us. 
The ground and caufe of this, is,— the appointment of the 
Lord, that there (hould be fuch a connexion and coherence 
between the things purchafed for us by Chrii^ that the on2 
ihouid be a mean and way of attaining the other ; the one 
the condition, and the other the thing proraifed upon that 
condition; but both equally and alike procured for us bv 
Jefus Chrift : for if either be omitted in his purchafe, the 
other would be vain and fruitlefs ; as we fhaU afterwards de- 
clare. Now, boihthefeconfiftina communication of God 
and his goodnefs unto us, (and our participation of him hv 
virtue thereof) and that either to grace or glory, holinefs or 
bleiTednefs, faith or falvation. In this lalt way, they are 
ufually called ;/zj//^ being the means of which we fpeak. 
^vid. falvation the end ; faith the condition, falvation the pro- 
mifed inheritance. Under the name of faith, we comprize 
all faving grace that accompanies it : and under the name of 
falvation, the whole glory to be revealed ; " the liberty of the 
"glory of the children of God," Rom. vm. ^i, all that 
bleiTednefs which confifteth in an eternal fruition of the 
blefled God. Wkhfaith go all the effeaual means thereof, 
both external and internal ; the Word, and almighty fanfti- 
fying Spirit : all advancement of ftate and condition attend- 
ing it ; asjuftification, reconciliation, and adoption into the 
family of God : all fruits flowing from it, in fanaification. 
and univerfal holinefs; with all other privileges and enjoy- 
tnents oi believers, here, which follow the redemption and 
reconciliation purchafed for them by the oblation of Chrift. 
A real, effeaual and infallible beftowing, and apolyincr of all 
thefe things, (as well thofe that are the means, as thSfe that 
are the end; the condition, as the thing conditioned about ; 
taith and grace, as falvation and glory) unto all and every 
one for whom he died ; do '.ve maintain to be the end pro- • 
poled and cfFeaed, by the bloodllicdding of J.^ias Chrift. 


7© '^djt Ends removed^ and the proper 

with tliofe other afts of his Mediatorfiiip, which we before 
declared to be therewith infeparably conjoined : fo that every 
one for whom he died and offered up himfelf, haih, by virtue 
of his death or oblation, a right purchafed for him unto all 
thefc things ; which in due time, he {hall certainly and in- 
fallibly enjoy. Or, which is all one, the end of Chrift's ob- 
taining grace and glory with his Father, was, that they might 
be certainly bcflowed upon all thofe for whom he died ; fome 
of them, upon condition that they do believe; bat faith itfelf 
abfoluiely. upon no condition at all : all which we fhall fur- 
ther illuftrate and confirm ; after we have removed fome falfe 
ends afTigned. 


Containing a removal of fome mijlakes^ and falfe affignations, 
if the end of the death of Chrift. 

'"T^ HAT the death, oblation and bloodfhedding of Jefus 
X Chriff, is to be confidered as the rnean for the compafTmg 
of an appointed end^ was before abundantly declared ; and 
that fuch a jnean, as is not in itfelf any way defirable, but for 
the attaining of that end. Now, becaufe that which is the 
end of any thing, muft alfo be good, (for unlefs it be fo, it 
cannot be an end, for bonum & Jinis convertuntur) it mufl be 
either his Father's good, or his own good, or our good, which 
was the end propofed. 

1. That it was not merely his own good, is exceedingly ap- 
parent ; for, in his divine nature, he was eternally and efTen- 
tially ptaraker of all that glory which is proper to the Deity; 
which, though in refpett of us it be capable of more or lefs 
maniieflation, yet in itfelf it is always alike eternally and ab- 
folutely perfeft ; and in this regard, at the clofe ot all, he de- 
fires and requeffs no other glory, but that which he had with 
his Father *' before the world was,'' John xvli. 5. And in 
refpcft of his human nature, as he was eternally predelfinat- 
cd, without '^any forefight of doing or fufFering, to be perfon- 
ally united, liom the inflant of his conception, with the fe- 
cond pel ion in the Trinity ; fo neither, while he was in the 
way, did he merit any thing for himfelf by his death and ob- 

* That !£, not upon anj foreHght of hii doicg or fuffcricg, 
38 raeritofioui of his incarnation. 

End bJ the Death of Ckrifi ajfnted. ^t 

Jation. H« needed not to fuffer for h^mfelf, bein-r pertea- 
Jy and legally righteous; =nd the glory that he aim?d at by 
enduring the crofs, and defpifing the (hame. w^., not fo n^'-ch 
his own, m rcfpea of poffeffion, by the e.x-,3haticn of"his 
own nature, as the bringing of many children to glorv even 
a. It was m the promife fct before him, as we before at lar.e 
dec,ared Hisown exaltation, indeed, and power overall 
Jlelh. and his appointment to be judge of the quick and the 
dead was a conjiquent of his deep humiliation and ri.fFerin.T. 
but that It was the effea and produa of it, procured mtruJ. 
rtcujly by it; that it was iht end aimed at bv him i'l h.'s 
making fatisfaa-.on for fin ; that we deny. Chrill' hath "a 
power and dominion over all ; but the foundation of ihis do- 
minion ,s not m his death for all ; for he hath dominion over 

ad by the word of hs power Hcb. i. 2, 3. " He is ki over 
the works of God's hands, and all things are put in ftib- 
jeaion under hm,," He!,, ii. 7, 8. A„d%.hat a?e thofe .z// 

hatn he no, power over the angels, are not principahties and 
powers made fubjea ,0 him ? (hall he not, at the M da" 
J"dge the angels? for with him the faints fnall do i, b-." 
giving atteftation to his righreous judgments, , Qr. v'i o 
And yet is.t not e..pref.iy faid, that the ^angels have ni Lf^ 
in the whole cnfpenfation of God manileft'in the fl.ft % i1 
he had died for them .0 redeem them from their fins (ol 
M/ome had no need, and others are eternally exSd d 
Ilek 11. ,6. " He took not on him the nature of an.e's km 
'•he took on him the feed of Abraham ?"1 God's ^t't't 
him hng upon hnholy kUlofSwn, in defpight ol his nemi>^ 
to bruife them and to rt;!c them with a rod of iron, pTlT'^ 
.s not the immediate effca of his death for them ;' Z\tkl\ 
ad mngs are given into his hand, out of the immediate bve 
_ of me Fatner to his Son, John iii. 35. Matt. xi. 27 That 
"ret eT"'l°-1 "^^ ^" '"'^ '-"-§"' -^^ doinir.ioiroveTa 
haul: • "' P°"'' °^ J^-^Sing. that is put into his' 

byliStt' !■ r'""" ^"T^ ''""°' ^= Proved) that Chrift 
b) his death did prccuie this power of jud^ine would anv 

of'tL':""?'"? "'r"'*^'" ''^' benei;cia°l tf'ti:e"p;;v nj 
^infnnfnT'''^'"- ¥■."''• ^^' do"b'lefs : for this do'! 
«.monat>d power oi judging, is a power of condemning as 


-7 2 Talft Ends rcmovf.d, and the prdpir 

well as laving; it is all judgment that is committed to hif«, 
John V. 22. " He hath authority given him to execute judg- 
'* mcnt, becaufc he is the Son of man ;" that is, at that hour 
•* in ihe which all that are in ihcii graves, (hall hear his voice, 
•• and come torlh ; they that have done good unto the refur- 
" re£lion ot" li^e, and they that have done evil unio the lefur- 
** re6lion of damnation," ver/es 27, 28, 29. 2 Cor. v. 10. — 
Now, can it be reafonably afferted, that Chrift died tor men 
to redeem them, that he might have power to condemn? Nay, 
do not thefe two overthrow one another ? If he redeemed 
them by his death, then he did not aim at the obtaining of any 
power to condemn them; if he did the latter, then that lor- 
mer was not in his intention. 

11. It was noi his Father's good. I fpeak now of the proxi- 
mate and inmiediate end and product of the death ct Chnii, 
not of the ultimate and remote ; knowing that the fupreme 
end of Chrift's oblation, and of all the benefits purchaled and 
procured by it, was the praife of his glorious grace ; but tor 
this other, it doth not directly tend to the obiaining of any 
thing unto God, but ot all good ihlnns from God to us. Ar- 
7nmus wiih his followers, and the other Univerfalifls oi our 
days, affirm this to be the end propofed, thai God might, his 
iullice being fatisfied, favefmners; the hindrance being re- 
moved by the fatisfaaion of Chrift, he had, by his de<ith, a 
right and liberty obtained, ot pardoning fin upon what con- 
dition he pteafed ; fo that alter the fatisfaaion ot Chnft yield- 
cd and confidered, integru?n Deo fmt, (as his words are) it 
was wholly in God's free difpofal, whether he would fave any 
or not ; and upon what condition he would, whether of taith 
or of works. God (fay they) had a good mind and will to do 
good to human kind ; but could not by reafon of Im, his 
fuflice lying in the way ; whereupon he lent Chrifl to remove 
that obltacle ; that fo he might, upon the prefcnbing of what 
condition he pleafed, and its being by them tulfilled, have 
mercy on tliem. Now, becciufe in this they place the chief, 
if not the (ole end of the oblation of Chriii, I muft a little 
(hew the talfcnefs and folly of it ; which may be done plainly 
bv thefe following reafons, viz. 

' 1//. The foundation of this whole aiTertion fcems to me to 
be "falfe and erroneous, viz. That God could not have mercy 
on mankind, uniefs latisiaaion were maae by his Son. It is 
true indeed, iuppofing the decree, purpofe, and conftitiition 
of God, thit fo it fhould be, that fo he would inanifeit his 
clorv by the wav of vindicative juftice, it was impofTible that 

End of the Death of Chrifl ajferted, 73 

it fliould othcrways be ; for with the Lord there is neither 
change nor (hadow of turning, James i. 17. 1 Sam. xv. 29. 
But to afleit pofirively that, abfoluieiy and antecedently to 
his conftitution, he could not have done it, is to mc an un- 
written tradition, the Scripture affirming no fuch thing ; 
neither can it be gathered from thence, in any good confe- 
quence. If any one (hall deny this, we will try what the 
Lord will enable us to fay unto it; and in the mean time reft 
contented in that ot Augujtine, viz. though other ways ot 
faving us were not wanting to his infinite wlfdom, vet cer- 
tainly the wav which he did proceed in was the molt couvc- 
nienr, becaufe we find he proceeded therein.* 

9.dly. This would make the caufe ol fending his Son to 
die, to be a conamon love ; or rather a wifhing ihat he m'ght 
do good, or (hew mercy to all ; and not an intiie aft ot his 
will or purpofe, ol knowing, redeeming, and faving his eleH: 
which we fhall afterwards difprove. 

3^/)'> If the end ot the death of Chrifl, were, to acquire a 
right to his Father, that notwithftaading his juftice he might 
fave finners ; then did he rather die to redeem a liberty ujito 
God, than a liberty from evil unto us: that his Faiher might 
be enlarged from that eftate, wherein it was impoffible 
for him to do that which he defired, and which his nature 
inclined him to ; and not that we might be freed from that 
condition wherein, without this freedom purchafed, it could 
not be but we moft periih. If this be fo, I fte no reafon why 
Chrifl: fhould be faid to come and redeem his people from 
their fins : but rather plainly, to purchafe this right and li- 
berty for his Father ; now where is there any fuch affertion ; 
where is any thing of this nature, in the Scripture ? Doth the 
Lord fay, that he fent his Son out of love to himfelf ; or 
unto us ? Is God or men, made the immediate fubjeft of 
good attained unto by this oblation ? -< 

But it is faid, that although immediately and in the firfl: 
K place 

^ It is here^ though not zvithcut fomt dubiety, 5 efufed by 
Dr. Owen, That vindicative jujiice is ejftntial to God^ and ne' 
ce/fary in its egrefs; fo as to make afatisJaEiion for fn abfo- 
lately necejlary, in order to the falvation of finners : but five 
years afterwards^ he was led to a more cloje examination 
of this fubjeB ; he puhliflied a book, fviz, Diatriba de JuftU 
tia Divina,) of purpofe to ?naintain the point which is hr're re* 
fufed ; and itiat without any detriment tc tke caufe now d^Jend* 


74 ^^^ -^w^-f removedy and ike proper 

place this right did a rife unto God by the £)eiith of Chrift, yet 
that it alfo was to tend to our good; Chriil obtaining that 
right, that the Lord might now bellow mercy on us, if wc 
fulfilled the condition that he would propofe. But I anfwer, 
that this utierly overthrows all the merit of the death of Chrift: 
towards us, and leaves not fo much as the nature of merit 
unto it; tor that which is truly merircrious indeed, deferves 
that the thin?, merited, or procured and obtained by it, (hall 
be done or ought to he beitowed ; and not only that it may 
be done. There is fuch an habitude and relation, between 
merit and the thing obtained by it, whether it be ablolute or 
anOng on contra61 ; that there arifeth a real right to the thing 
piocured by it, in them by whom or for whom it is procur- 
ed. When the labourer hath wrought all day ; do we fay, 
now his wages may be paid, or rather, now they ought to be 
paid ? hath he not a right imto them ? Was ever fuch a me- 
rit heard of before, whofe nature fhould confid in this, that 
the thing procured by it might be bellowed, and not that it 
ought to be : and (hall Chriil be faid now to purchafe by his 
meritorious oblation, ihis only at his Father's band ; that he 
might bellow upon and apply the fulnefs of his death to fome, 
or all, and not that he ftiould lo do ? To him that workdh 
(faith the Apollle) is the reward not reckoned of grace, hut of 
debt, Rom. iv. 4, Are not the fruits of the death ol Chrilt, 
by his death as truly procured for us, as if they had been 
obtained by our own working ? And if fo, though in refpe6l 
of the perfons on whom they are beftowed, they are of free 
grace ; yet in refpe£l; of the purchafe, the bellowing of them 
IS of debt.. 

Athly. That cannot be alTigned as the compleat end of the 
death 01 Chriil, which being accomplilhed, it had not only 
been pofiible that not one foul might be faved ; but alfo im- 
poflible, that by virtue of it any (inful foul fliould be faved. 
For fure the Scripture is exceedingly full, in declaring that 
through Chi ill we liave remiflion of fins, grace and glory (as 
alterwards.) Butnov/ not withftanding this, when Chrift is faid 
to have procured aiid purchafed by his death, fuch a right 
and liberty to his Father, that he might beftow eternal life 
upon all, upon what conditions he would; it might very well 
fland, that not one of thofe iTiould enjoy eternal life ; ior 
fuppofe the Father would not beftow it, as he is by no en- 
gagement according to this perfuafion bound to do, (he had a 
right to do it» it is true, but that which is any one's right, he 
may ufe or not ufe at his pleafure ;j again, fuppofe he had 


End of ik: Death of Chrijl ajf cried, 7 .; 

prefcrlbed a condition of works, which it had been impoffi- 
ble for them to fulfil ; the deaih of Chrill might have had its. 
full end ; and yet not one been faved. Was this his coming 
to fave finners, to fave that which was loft ? Or could he, npori 
fuch an accomplilhrnent as this, pray as he did ; Fatiiei i 
" will, that they whom thou haft given me be with me wbere 
*' lam, that they may behold mv g'oiy," John xvii, 24? 
Divers other reafons might be ufed, to evert^his fancy, that 
would make thepuichafe ot Ch-ift, in refpett of us, not :a 
be the remiftion ot fins, but a poffibility of it ; not falvation, 
but a falvability ; not reconciliation and peace wiili God, 
but the opening of a door towards it : but I fhall ufe them, in 
afTigningthe right end of the death of CbrilL 

Afk now of thefe, what it is that the Father can do, and 
vyill do, upon the death of Chnft; by which means hi'sjuf^ 
rice, that before hindred the execution o^ his good will to- 
wards them, is fatisfied ? and they tell you, it is the entcrino- 
into a new covenant of grace with them ; upon the perform^ 
ance o^ whofe condition they Ihall have all che benefits of the 
death of Chrift applied to them. But to us it feemeth that 
Chrifthimlelf, with his death and paflion, is the chief nro- 
mife of the nezD covenant itfelf, as Gen. iii. 15. and fo the co- 
venant cannot be faid to be procured by his death. Befides, 
the nature of the covenant overthrows this propofai ; that 
they that ve covenanted withal, fhall have fuch and fuch 
good things, if they fulfil the condition; as though that ail de- 
pended on this obedience; when that obedience itfelf, and 
the whole condition of it, is a promife of the covenant, Jer\ 
xxxi. 33. which is confirmed and fealed by the blood ot 
Chrift. We deny not, but the death of Clu id hath a proper 
end in refpcft of God ; to wit, the manifeftation of his glory ; 
whence he calls him his fcrvant, in whom he will be glorified, 
[fa. xlix. 3. And the bringing of many fons to glory, where- 
with he was entrufted, was to the manifeftation and praife of 
his glorious grace, that {o his love to his ele61 might gloriouf- 
ly appear; his falvation being borne our, by Chrift, to the 
mmoft parts of the earth. And this fuil declaration of hti 
glor>Y by the way of mercy tempered withjuftice, (" for he 
** fet forth Chrift to be a propitiation through faith in his 
" blood, that he might be juft,' and the juftifier of him which 
*• believethinjefus," Rom. iii. .25.) is all that which accru- 
ed to the Lord by the death of his Son ; and not any riglt 
and liberty of doing that which before he would have done, 
but could not for liisjuflicCf lv\ rcfpea of us, the end of the 


y6 Faljt Ends removed^ and the f roper 

oblation and bloodfliedding of Jefus Chrift was, not that God 
might if he would ; but that he (hould, by virtue of that 
compacl and covenant which was the foundation ot the me- 
rit of Chrift, beltow upon us all the good things which Chrift 
aimed at, and intended to purchafe and procure, by his offer- 
ing of hirnfeif for us unto God ; which is in the next place 
to be declared. 


^iore particularly^ of the immediate end of the death oJChiJi: 
with thejcveral ways whereby it is defi^ned. 

WHAT the Scripture affirms in this particular, we laid 
down in the entrance of the whole difcourle ; which 
now, (having enlarged in explication of our fenfe and mean- 
ing therein,) muft be more particularly afTerted, by an appli- 
cation ot the particular places (which are very many) to our 
'ihrfis as before declared ; whereof this is the fum : " Je- 
*' Cus Chrift, accordmg to the counfel and will ot his Father, 
*' did offer himfelf upon the crofs, to the procurement of 
" thofe things before recounted, and maketh continual inter- 
*' ceffion ; v^iih this intent and purpofe, that all the good 
" things fo procured by his death, might be aftually and in- 
*' fallibly beftowed on, and applied to, all and every one for 
" whom he died, according to the will and counfel of God." 
Let us now fee what the Scripture faith hereunto ; the fundry 
places whereof we (hall range under thefe heads, '^. 1^, 
Thofe that hold out the intention and counfel of God, xih our 
Saviour's own mind ; whofe will was one with his Father's, in 
this bufinefs. ^dly, Thofe that lay down the aBual accom^ 
plijhment or effeB o{ his oblation; what it did really procure, 
effc£l and produce, '^dly, Thofe that point out the perfons for 
whom Chrift died; as defigned peculiarly to be the objeft o£ 
this work of redemption, in the end and purpofe of God. 

I. For the firft ; or thofe which hold out the counfel, pur- 
pofe, mind, intention, and will of God, and of our Saviour, 
m this work ; they are, 

1//, Matt. x\ni. 15, " The Son of man is come to fave 
" that which was loft ;" which words he repeateth again upon 
another occafion, Luke xix. 10. In the firft place, they are 
i/3 the front of the parable o^ feeking the lojljheep ; in the o- 


End of tke Death of Chrijl ajferted. 77 

tber place, they are in the clofc of the recovery of loft Zac^ 
ckeas : ami in both places, fet iorih the end ot Chrift's com- 
ing ; which was to do the will of his father^ bv the recovery 
of loft finners ; as Zaccheus was recovered by converfion, 
by bringing him into the free covenant, making hiina fan oj 
Abraham ; or as the loft Iheep, which he lays upon his Jho^U- 
der, and bringeth home : fo that unlefs he findcth that which 
he feekeih for, unlefs he recover that which he cometh to 
fave ; he faileth of his purpofe. , ^ 

2(//y, Mait.i. 21. where the angel declareth the end of 
Chrift's coming in the flefh, and confequcntly of all his fuf- 
ferings theiein, is to the fame purpofe ; he was to fave his 
people from their fins. Whatfoever is required, for a com- 
pleai and perfeft faving of his peculiar people irom their fins, 
■was intended by his coming ; to fay that he did but in a part, 
or in fome regard efFe6t the work of falvation, is of ill report 
to chriftian ears. 

^diyy The like expreflion is that alfo of Pauly t Tim. i, 15. 
evidently declaring the end of our Saviour's coming, accord- 
ing to the will and counfel of his Father, viz. to fave /inner s\ 
not to open a door for them to come in, if they will or can ; 
not to make a way pafTable, that they may be faved ; not to 
purchafe reconciliation and pardon of his Father, which per- 
haps they ftiall never enjoy ; but aftually to fave them from 
all the guilt and power of fin, and from the wrath of God 
for fin ; which if he doth not accomplifh, he fails ol the end 
of his coming; and if that ought not to be affirmed, furely 
became for no more, than towards whom that efFeftis procu- 
red. The compaft ot his Father with him, and his promife 
made unto him, o\ feeing his feed, and carrying along the pica- 
fur e of the Xord^ profperoufly, Ifa. Jiii. 10, 11. I before de- 
clared ; from which it is apparent, that the decree and pur- 
pofe of giving aftually unto Chrift a believing generation^ 
whom he calleth ** the children which God gave him," Heb» 
ii. 13. is infeparately annexed to the decree of Chrift's mak- 
ing his foul an offering for fin, and is the end and aim 

4M/y, As the apoftle further declareth, Eeb. ii. 14, 15. 
" For as much as the children are partakers of flefti and blood, 
" he himfelf likeways took part of the fame ; that through 
" death he might deftroy him that had the power of death, 
" that is, the devil ; and deliver them who, through fear of 
" death, were all their lite-time fubjeft to bondage." Than 
which words, nothing can more clearly fct forth the intire 


78 Falji Ends te}noved, and the proper 

enaoFthat whole difpenfatlon of the incarnation and offerino'- 
of Jeius Cbrift; even a deliverance of ihQ children whom God, 
f^ave hm, trorn the power of death, hell, and the devi!, fat 
bringing them nigh unto God ; nothing at all, of the purchaf- 
ing of a polFible deliverance for all and every one ; nay ali 
are net ihofe childrca which God gave him, all are riot deli- 
vered from death and him that had the power of it, and there- 
fore it was not all, for whom he then took flefh and blood. 
m ^^'^'O* ^^^^ fame purpofe and intention we have, EpJi, y, 
25 26, 2/. *' Chrill loved the church arki gave hjmfelf for 
" it; that he might fanftity and cleanfe it, with the. wafhing 
** of water by the word, that he might prefent it to himfelf a 
*' glorious church, not having fpot or wrinkle, or any fuch 
** thing, but thbit it ihould be holy, and without blemifh." — 
As alio Tttus ii. 14. *' He gave himfelf for us, that he might 
" redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himfelf a pe- 
*' culiar people, zealous of good works." I think nothing 
cm be clearer than thofe two places; nor is it pofTible for the 
wii of man to invent exprefTions, fo fully and lively to fet 
out the thing we intend, as it is in both thefe places by the 
Holy Ghoif. — What did Chrifl do? ke gave himfelf , fay both 
theie places alike;; for whom ? for his church, faith out; for 
ij, faith the other; both words of equal extent and force, as 
all men know. To what end did he this? to fan&ify and 
dtanf ity to prejent it to himfelf an holy and glorious church, 
Ziii'nout fpct^or mrinkUy faith he to the Ephefians ; to redeem 
us pom all iniquity, and to purify to himfelf a peculiar people, 
zealous of good works, faith he to Titus. \ afk now, are ail 
men af this church ? are all in that rank of men, among 
whom Faul placeth himfelf and Titus? are all purged, pu- 
rified, fanftified, made glorious, brought nigh unto Chrifl ? 
or doth Chrift fail in his aim towards the greateft part of men ? 
I dare not clofe with any of thefe. 

6thiy. Will you have cur Saviour Chrifl himfelf exprefTmg 
this, more evidently retraining the objeft, declaring his 
whole defign and purpofe, and afhrming the end of his death ? 
John xvii. 19. *' For their fakes I fandify myfelf, that they 
*' alfomightbe fan^lified through the truth. For their fakes;" 
whcie I prsy ? " the men which thou gave me out of the 
*' v.'crld," verfe 6, notthe whole world, whom he prayed not 
for, verfe 9. " I fanftify myfelf;" whereunto ? to the 
work X am now going about, even to be an oblation ; and 
to what end? hina kai autoi osin xisgiasmenoi 
£}■ ALETHEIA that they alfo may he truly fanBified. 


En4 vf the Dtath df Chriji qfaied, y^ 

The HINA there, (that \ht)\) fignifics ilic intent and 
purpofe ot Chrift ; It dcfigns out the end he aimed at, which 
our hope is, and that is the hope of the goTpel, ihiit lie hath 
accompliihed ; (for " the deliverer that comes out of Sion, 
*' turns aw-ay ungodlinefs from Jacob," Rom, xi. 26.); and 
that herein there was a concuricnce of the will of his Father ; 
yea that this his purpofe was, to lu'fil the will of his Taiher 
which he came to do. 

jthly. And that this alfo was his counfel, is appareift,^ 
Gal. i. 3, 4. " For our Lord jefus gave himfeU for our fins, 
•* that .he might deliver us from this prefent evil world, accor- 
*' ding 10 the will of God and our Father." Which will and 
purpofe of hi.^, the aooflle further declares, chuptcr-'w. a. p,^ 
6. ** God fcnt forth his Son, made of a v/oman, msde under 
** the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we 
*' might receive the adoption of Sons ; and becaufe ye are 
•' Sons, God hath fent forth thefpiriicf his Son into ) our 
** hearts, crying, Abba Father." Our deliverance Ifom the 
law, and thereby our freedom from the grdlt of fm ; our a- 
doption to be fons, receiving the fpirit, and drawing nigh un- 
to God; are all of them in the purpofe of the Father, rivin^ 
his only Son for us. 

8M/)'. 1 fliall add but one place more, of the very many 
more that might be cited to this purpofe ; and thai is 2 t^r. 
V. 21. " He hath made him 10 be fin lor us, uho knew no 
*' fin, thai we might be made the righieoufnels ol Gdd in him." 
The purpofe of God in making his Son 10 be tm, is, ihat 
thofe for whom he was made fm, might become ri^htcouQjefs; - 
that was the end of God's fending Chrifl to be To, and* 
Chrift's willingnefs to become fo. Now, if the Lord did not 
purpofe what is not fulfilled, yea, what he knew fhould never 
be fulfilled, and what he v/ould not Vv-orkat all, that it might 
be fulfilled, (eiiher of which are mofl atheiftical exprclfi- 
■ons) then he made Chrifl fm for no more, than do in the 
cfFefl become aftually righteoufnefs in him.; fo that the coun- 
fel and will of God, with the purpofe and intention of 
Chrifl, by his oblation and bloodfhedding, to fulfill that will 
and counfel ; is from thefe places made apparent. 

From all which v/e draw this argument; that which the Fa- 
ther and the Son intended to accomplidi, in and towards ali 
thofe tor whom Chriii died, by his death ; ihat is mofl cer- 
tamly effeaed ; (if any fliall deny this piopofiiion, I will at 
any time, by the Lord's afudance, take up the aflenion of it;) 
but the Father andhb Son intended, by?hs death of Chrift, 

♦ to 

8o falfe Ends removed, and the proper 

to redeem, purge, fanftify, purify, deliver from death, Sa- 
tan, the curfe of the law, to quit of all fin, to make righte- 
oufnefs in Chrift, to bring nigh unto God ; all thofe for whom 
he died ; as was above proved ; therefore Chrift died for 
all thofe, and only thofe, in and towards whom, all 
thefe things recounted are efFefted ; which whether they 
are all and every one, I leave to all and every one to judge 
that hath any knowledge in thefe things. 

II. The fccond rank contains thofe places, which lay down 
the a6lual accomplifhmcnt and efFe61 ot this oblation ; or what 
it doth really produce and effcft, in and towards them for 
whom it is an oblation. Such are, 

i/?. Heb. IK. 12,14. "By his own blood he entered in once 
" into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for 
*' us; the blood of Chrift, who through the eternal Spirit of- 
" fered himfelf without fpot to God, {hall purge your confci- 
** ence from dead works, to fcrvc the living God." Two 
things are here afcribed to the blood ot Chrift; one referring 
to God, It obtains eternal redemption ; the other refpe^ring us, 
it purgeth our confciencesfrom dead works; fo that jullification 
with God, by procuring for us an eternal redemption from 
the guilt of our fins, and his wrath due unto them, with fanc- 
tification in ourfelves, (or as it is called, Heb. i. 3. *' a purging 
•* our fins") is the immediate prodluft of that blood, by which 
he entered into the holy place — ot that oblation which, 
through the eternal Spirit, he prefentcd to God, Yea, this 
meritorious purging of our fins is peculiarly afcribed to his 
offering, as performed before his afcenfion, Heb, i. 3. *' When 
*' he had by himfelf purged our fins, he fat down on the right 
" hand of the Majefty on high;" and again moft exprefsly, 
Heb. ix. 26. " Ke hath appeared, to put away fin by the facri- 
*' fice of himfelf;" which expiation and putting away of fin, 
by the way of facrifice, mufl needs take in the aftual fanfti- 
fication of them for whom he was a facrifice; even as ** the 
*• blood of bulls and of goats, and theafiiesolan heifer, fprink- 
*' ling the unclean, fandifieih to the purifying of theflclh," 
verfe 13. Certain it is,, that whofoever v/as either polluted or 
guilty, for whom there was an expiation or a facrifice allow- 
ed, in thofe carnal ordinances which had a Jhadow of good 
ihinos to come ; that he had truly a legal cleanfing and fanfti- 
fving, to the purifying of the flefii, and a freedom from the 
punifhment which was due to the breach of the law, as it was 
the rule of converfation to God's people; fo much this facri- 
fice carnally accomplifhed, for him that was admitted there- 


End of the Death of Chrifi aJferUL 8 1 

unto. Now, thefe things being but a Piadow of good tilings to 
come ; certainly the facrifice o\ Chrift did effed fpiritnally, 
for all them for whom it was a facrifice, whatever the other 
could typify out; that is, fpirilual cleanfmgby fanSlificatlon, 
and freedom from the guilt of fin ; which the places pro- 
duced do evidently prove. Now, v/hethsr this be accomplifh- 
ed in all, and for them all; let all that are able, judge. 

2diy. Chrifi, by his death and in it, is faid to l>^ar our fins ; 
1 Pet. ii. 24. " His own felf bare our fins;" where you have^ 
both what he did, bare our fins, (anenenkem, he carried 
them up with him, upon the crofs) and what he intended^ 
that zve being dead to fin, Jhou'd live unto righteoufnefs ; and 
what was theefTeft, by ivhojejlripesyc were healed. \Vhich lat- 
ter, (as it is taken from the fame place of the prophetj where 
our Saviour is afHrmed to bear our iniquities, and to haver 
them laid on him, Ifia. liii. 6, 11*) (o it is expofitory of the 
former; and will tell us Vvhat Chrifi; did by bearing cur fins ; 
which phrafe is more than once ufcd in the Scripture to this 
purpofe. Chrifi: then lo bare our iniquities by his death, that 
by virtue of the ftripes and i^ffiiftions which he underwent, in 
his oflfering himfelf for us, this is certainly procured and ef- 
fefted, that we fiiould go free, and not fuffcr any cf thofd 
things which he underv;ent for us. To which alfo you may 
refer all thofe places, which evidently hold out a commutation, 
in this point of fuffering^ between Chrifi and us; Gal iii* 
13. •' lie hath redeemed us from the curfe, bring made a 
*• curfe for us;" with diver.-? others, which u'e fliali have oc^ 
cafion afterwards to mentioHi 

o^dly. Peace alfo, and reconciliation with God, that is^ ac- 
tual peace by the removal of all enmity on both fides, with 
all the caules of it, is fully afcribcd U) this oblation; CoL i, 
21, 22. " And you that were fo^Tetime alienated, and qk\i'.' 
*' mics iri your mind by wicked W(7rks, vet now hath he re- 
*• conciled in the body of his fiefii through death ; to prefent 
** you holy and unblameable, and urircprovcable in his fight ;" 
as alio, Eph. ii. J3, 14, j^, itS. " Ye v;ho fometimes v/ere 
** far off, are made nigh by the blood of Chrifi; for he ?« 
*• our peace, having abolilhed in his fieOi the enmit)-, even 
•* the law of ccmmandments, that he might reconcile both 
*' unto God in one body by the crofs, having flain the enmity 
" thereby." To which add all thofe places, wherein plenary 
deliverance from anger, wrath, death, and him that had the 
power of it, is likewife afierted as the fruit thereof, as Rom, 

L T. 

82 I'alje Ends remcycd, and the proper 

V. 8, 9, 10. and ye have a further difcovery made, of the 
immediate efre6l of ihe death of Chilfl. Peace and recon- 
cihation, deliverance from wrath, enmiiy, and whatever lay 
agalnfl: us, to lieep us from enjoying the love and favour of 
God ; all thefe he eftefted for his church, " with his own 
*' blood," Ads XX. 28. Whence all and every one for 
whom he died, may truly fay, '* Who fhall lay any thing to 
*' our charge ? It is God that jufiifieth ; who is he that con- 
** demneth ? It is Chrift that died, yea, rather that is rifen a- 
*' gain; who is even at the right hand of God, who allomak- 
*' cth interccfhon for us," Rom* viii. 33, 34. which, that 
they are procured for all and every one of the Sons of Adam, 
that thev all may ufc that rejoicing in full afTurance, cannot be 
made appear. And yet evident it is, that fo it is with all for 
whom he died ; that ihcfe are the effefts of his death, in and 
towards ihcm lor whom he underwent it ; for by his being 
iiain, •' he redeemed ihem to God by his blood ; out of eve- 
" ry tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation ; and made 
*' Mf/7z kings and priefts unto our God," Rev. v. 9, 10. For 
he •' made an end of their fins, he made reconciliation for 
*' their iniquity, and brought in everlafling righteoufnefs,'* 
Dan.ix. 24. 

4/A/)'. Add all thofe other places, where our ii/e is afcrib- 
ed to the death of Chrift ; and then this enumeration will be 
perfeft. John vi. 33. *' He came down from heaven, and 
•' gjveth hie unto the world ;" furc enough, he givcth life to 
that Vv'orld, for which he gave his life. It is the world of his 
Jheep, for which he " laid down his life," J^ohn x. 15. even 
that he might •' give unto them eternal life," that they might 
*• never perifli," verje 28. So he appeared to '* abolifh death 
" to bring life and immortality to light," 2 Ti?n. i. 10, as 
Elfo Rom. v. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 

Now there is none of all thefe places, but will afford a 
lufhcicnt llrength againfi the general ranfom, or the univerf- 
idity of the merit ol Chrifl. My leifure will not ferve, for fo 
large a profecution of the fubje6f, as the explaining of that 
would require ; and therefore I fhall take from the who-e, 
this general argument, viz. If the death and oblation of Je- 
ius Chrift (as a facriiice to his Father) doth fanftify all them 
for whom it was a facrifice, doth purge away their fin, re- 
deem them from wrath, curfe, and guilt, work for them 
peace and reconciliation with God, procure for them life and 
immortality, bearing their iniquities and healing all their dif- 
cafes, then died he only for ihofe that are in the event fanc- 


End of the Death of Chrijl aj] tried, 83 

tificd, purged, redeemed, juflificd, freed from wrath and 
death, quickened and faved ; but that all are not thus fanfti- 
fied, freed, &c. is mod apparent ; and thcrctore, they can- 
not be faid to be the proper object of the death of Chrilf.-— 
The fuppofal was confirmed before ; the fccond propofition 
is plain from Scripture and experience ; and the whole argu- 
ment (it 1 miftake not) foHd. 

III. Many places there arc, that point out ;he perfons for 
whom Chrift died, as defigned peculiarly to be the obje£l of 
this work o\ redemption, according to the aim and purpofc 
of God ; of which, fome we will briefly recount. In fomc 
places they are called many ; as Matt, xxvi. 28. " The blood 
•• of the New-Teftament is fhcd for many, for the remifTion 
" of fins ; and^ by his knowledge fliall my righteous fervant 
*' juftify many, for he Ihall bear iheir iniquities," ]fa. liii. 11. 
** For the Son of man came not to be miniflered unto, but 
" to minifter, and to give his life a ranfom for many," Maik x. 
45. andMa^/. xx. 28. He was to " biing many ions unto gio- 
*' ry;" andfo was to be "the captain of their falvation, through 
fuffering," Heh. ii. 10. And though perhaps the word wa??)', it- 
fclf, be not fufhcient to reff rain the obje£l of Chrifl's death un- 
Xofome^ in oppofition to all\ becaufe many is fometimes placed 
abfolutely {ox all \ as Rom. v. ig. yet, thefe 772^??^ being defcrib- 
ed in other places, to be fucb, as it is mofl certain all are not ; 
fo it is a full and evident rcflriflion of ir. For thofe many 
are the " fhcep of Chrift," John x. 15. " The children of 
** God that were fcattered abroad," John xi.,52. thofe whom 
our Saviour called /;rf//2;^«, Rtb* ii. 11. " The childrea 
" which God gave him," which were " partakers of flefh 
" and blood," r;er/fj 13, 14. and frequently, thofe who were 
" given unto him" of his Father, John xvii. 2, 6, 9, 11. 
who fhould certainly be preferved, vtrfi 12, "The iheep, 
" whereof he was the Ihepherd, through the blood of the 
"' covenant," Heb. xiii. 20. His tleEl^ Rom, viii, 33. and 
his ptopUy Matt. i. 21, further explained to be his " vifited 
" and redeemed people," Lun^ i. 68. even the people which 
he foreknew^ Rom. xi. 2. even fach a people as he is faid to 
have at Corinth before their converfion • \\\% people by elec- 
tion, Atls\s\\\. 10. T\\Q people that he " fufifered for with- 
*' out the gate, that he might fanftify," ILb. xiii. 12. Pi's 
** church which he purchafed with his own blood," Ads xx.. 
28. which "beloved, and gave himfelf for," Eph. v. 2,5. 
ihe many, whofe " fins he did bear," Hcb. ix. 28. with 
whom " tie confirmed the covenant," Dan, ix. 27. Thofe 


3-i faljc Ends removed^ and the proper 

many being thus defcribed and fet forth, with fuch qualifica- 
eions as by no means are common to al', but proper only to 
the cleft, do moft evidently appear, to be all and only thofc 
that are chofen of God, to obtain eternal life through the of- 
fering and bloodfliedding of Jefus Chrift. Many things are 
here excepted, with much confidence and clamour, that may 
eafily be removed. And fo you fee the end of the death of 
Chrift, as it is fet out in the Scripiure. 

That we may have the clearer pafTage, we muft remove the 
hindrances that are luid in the way, by fome pretended an- 
fwers and evafions, ufed to efcape the force of the argument 
drawn from the Scripture, affirming Chrift to have died for 
many, his ftieep, his els^i, and the like. Now to this it is 
replied ; thit this reafon, as it is called, is weak and of no 
force, cquivoca!, fubiile, fraudulent, falfe, ungodly, deceit- 
ful and erroneous ; fora'i thefe feveral epithets are accumu* 
lated, to adorn it withal, [Mores Univerfaiity of free Grace, 
pag. 16.) Now this variety ot terms, (as 1 conceive,) ferve5 
only to declare, what copia verborum the unlearned eloquence 
of the author is woven withal ; for fuch terrible names, im- 
pofcd on that which we know not well how to gainfay, are a 
ibong argum'^nt of a weak caufe. When the Pharifees were 
not abie to refift the Spirit whereby our Saviour fpake, they 
call him devil and Samaritan^ Waters that make a noife are 
are ufually but fiiallow. It is a proverb among the Scythians, 
That the dogs which bark moft, bite leaft. Bet let us fee, 
Qj.dd digraan tanto ferclhic refponfcr hiatu ; and hear 'him 
ipcak in his own language. He fays then, 

ly'?, " This reafon is weak, and of no force ; for the word 
" [many] is often fo ufed, that it both fignifies all and every 
** man, and alfo amplifieth or fetteth forth the greatnefs of 
'* that number; as in Dan, xii. 2. Ro7n. v. ig. and in o- 
*' ther places, where [7/2./i!^?_)'] cannot be, nor is by any chiif- 
mn underftood, for lefs than all men." To which I reply, 

1. If the proof and argument were taken merely from the 
?ivord ?^anyt and not from the annexed defcription of thofe 
many, with the prefuppofed diflinclion of all men into feveral 
forts, by the purpofe of God, this exception would bear 
^ome colour; but for this fee our arguments following. On- 
}y by the way obferve, tha: he that fhall divide the inhabitants 
ofany place, as at London, into poor and iich, thofe that want, 
and thofe that abound ; aherwards affirming, that he will be- 
ftov/ his bounty on many at London, ©n the poor, on thofe 


End of tht Death of Chrijl aJfaUd. i^<; 

that want : he will be eafily underllood to give unto, and bc- 
ftow it upon them, only. 

2. Neither of the places quoted prove direftly, that wa«y 
mull neceffarily in tiiem be taken tor all. In Daa. xii. 2. a 
diftribution ot" the word to the leveral parts of the aflirniation 
mud be allowed ; and f^ot an application ot it to the whole, 
as fuch ; and fo the fenfe is, the dead Ihall arife, many to life, 
and many to fhame ; as in another language it would have 
been expreiled ; neither are fuch Hebraifms unufual ; be- 

fides, perhaps, it is not improbable, that many are faid to rife 
to life, becaufe as the apoftle fays, all (hall not die. The 
like alfo mav be faid oS. Rom. v. 19. Though the many there 
feem to be all, yet certainly they are not called fo ; with any 
intent to denote all, with an amplificaiion, (which that /«a«y 
ihould be to «//, is not likely ;) for there is no comparifou 
there inftiiuted at all, between number and number, of thofe 
that died by Adam's difobedience, and thofe that are made a- 
live by the righteouinefs of Chritt ; but only in the effefts of 
the fin of Adam and the righteoufnefs of Chrift, together 
with the way and manner of communicaiiug death and lile 
from the one and the other ; whereinto any confideraii- 
on of the number of the participators of thofe eflfeft?, is not 

3. The other places whereby this fliould be confirmed, I 
am confident our author cannot produce, notvvithftanding 
his tree inclination ior fuch a referve, thefe, thefe being the 
places which are in this cafe commonly urged by Arminians ; 
but if he could, they would be no way material to infringe 
our argument ; as appeareth by what was faid before. 

odly. '* This real'on f he adds) is equivocal, fubtile and 
" fiaudulent ; feeing where all men and every man is affirm- 
*' ed of, the death of Chrilf, as the ranfom and propitiation, 
" and the fruits thereol only, is afFumed for them; but where 
*' the word manyh'm any place ufed in this bufmefs, there are 
" more ends of the death of Chrilf, than this one affirmed 
•' of." 

Reply, 1. It is denied that the death of Chrilf, in any place 
of Scripture, is faid to be for all men, or for every man ; 
which with fo much confidence is fuppofed and irapofed on 
U5, as a thing acknowledged. 

2. That there is any other end of the death of Chrifl, be- 
fides the fruit of his ranfom and propitiation, dire6f !y intend- 
ed, and not by accident attending it ; is utterly faife; yea 
what other end ; he ranfom paid by Chrilf, and the atonement 

8o Falfe Ends removed^ and the proper 

made by him, can have, bat the fruits of them, is not ima» 
ginabls. The end of an/ work, is the fame with the fruit, 
effeft, or produfcl of it ; fo that this wild diftinftion, of the 
ranfom and propitiation of Chrift with the fruits of them to 
be for all, ani other ends ot his d^ath to be only for many, 
is an aflertion neither equivocal, fubtile, nor fraudulent ; but 
1 fpeak to whit I c jnceive the meaning of the place ; for 
the words themfelves bear no tolerable fenfe. 

3. The obfervation, that where the word many is ufed, 
many ends are defigned, but where all are fpoken of, there 
only the ranfom is intimated, is, (1.) Difadvantageous to 
the author's perfuafion, yielding the whole argument in hand ; 
by acknowledging that where m:iny are mentioned, there alt 
cannot be underftood ; becaufe more ends of the death oi 
Chrift, than do belong to all, are mentioned ; and [o confef- 
fedly all the other anfwers, to prove that by many'y all are to 
be underftood, are againft the author's own light. (2.) It is 
frivolous ; for it cannot be proved, that there are more ends 
of the death of Chrift, befides the fruit of his ranfom. 
(3.) It is falfe; for where the death of Chrift is fpoken of, 
as for 7nany, he is faid to give his life a ranfom for them, Matt* 
XX. 28. which are the very words, where he is faid to die 
for ally 1. Tim, ii. 6. What difference is there in thefe, what 
ground for this obfervation ? Even fuch as thefe, are divers 
others of that author's obfervations ; as his whole 10th chap- 
ter is fpent to prove, that wherever there is mention of the 
redemption purchafed by the oblation of Chrift, there they 
for whom it is purchafed are always fpoken of in the third 
pcrfon, as by atlth^ worlds or the like; when yet, in the ift 
chapter of his book, himfelf produceth many places to prove 
this general redemption, where the perfons for whom Chrift 
is faid tofuffer, are mentioned in the firft or fecond perfons, 
as 1 Pet, ii. 24, and iii 18. Ifa. liii. c, 6. 1 Cor, xv. 3. GaL 
iii. 13, &c. 

3i/)', He proceeds ; " This reafon is falfe, and ungodly; 
" for it is no where in Scripture faid, that Chi ift died or gave 
^* hinifeit a ranfom but for many, or only for many, or orily 
" for his flieep ; and it is ungodlinefs 10 add to, or diminiOi 
*' froni, the words of God in Scripture.'* 

R^ply 1. To pafs bv the loving terms of the author, and 
allowing a grain to make the fenfe current ; I (2iy, that Chrift 
sinrming that he gate his Hfe for many, for his Qieep, being 
friid to die for his Church, and innumerable places of 
Scripture witnefling, that all men are not of his iheep. 

End of the Death of Chriji aJferteL 87 

of his Church ; we argue and conclude, Ly juft- and un- 
deniable confequence, that he died not Tor ihofe who arc 
not fo. It this be adding to the word of God, (being only 
anexpofition and unfolding of his mind therein) who ever 
fpake from the word of Gud and was guiiilel^ ? But it were 
cafy to recriminate. 

«. Let it be obfcrvcd, that in the very place where our Sa. 
viour fays, that he gave his hfe for lils fheep, he prefenily 
adds, that feme are not ot his fheep, John x. 26. which if ii 
be not equivalent to his fheep only^ 1 know not what is. 

^thly, •' But, fayshe^ the reafon is deceitful and er cncotis ; 
*' for the Scripture doth nowhere fay, thofe many he died 
*' for arc his fheep, (much lefs his eleft, as the reafon intends 
*• it) As lor the place, John x. i^. ufually inftanccd to this 
" end, it is therein much abufed ; for our Saviour, John x. 
*' did not fet forth the difference between fuch as he died tor, 
*' and fuch as he died not for ; or iuch as he died for fo and 
** fo, and not fo and fo ; but the difference between thofe that 
*' believe on him, and thofe who believe not on him, verfts 
" 4, 5, 14, 26, 27. The one hear his voice and follow him, 
** the other not. Nor did our Saviour here fet forth the pri- 
*' vileges of all he died for, or whom he died tor fo and fo ; 
" but of thofe that believe on him through the miniffration 
" of the gofpel, and fo to know him, and approach to God^ 
" and enter the kingdom by him, verfes 3, 4, 9, 27. Nor 
*' was our Saviour here fetting forth the excellency of thofe 
" for whom he died, or died for fo only ; wherein they arc 
*' preferred before others ; but the excellency of his own 
" love, with the fruits thereof, to thofe (not only that he 
" died for, but alfo) that are brought in by his miniftralion 
** to believe on him, verfis 11, 27. Nor was our Saviour 
•' here treating fo m.uch of his ranfom-giving and propitia'ion- 
'• making, as of his miniffration of ths gofpel ; and (o of his- 
*' love and faithfulnefs therein ; wherein he laid down his 
"life, for thofe mini ftred to, and therein gave us an exam- 
" pie, not to make propitiation for fin, but to teffifV love in 
*' fuffering." 

Reply, 1 am perfaaded that nothing but an acaujiintcdnefs 
with the condition of the times v/nerein we iive^n afford 
mc fan^uary from the ccnfure of the reader, to hi lavifli of 
precious houis, in confidering and iranfcribing fuch canting 
lines as thefe lafl repealed. But yet, feeing better cannot be af- 
forded, we muft be content to view fuch evafions as thefe; 
all Vi'hofe ffrcngth is in incongruous expreffions, incoherent 


85 ^alfc Ends removed, and the proper 

flriiftnrc, cloudy and windy phrafes ; all tending to raifc fuch 
a mighty fog, as that the bulinefs in hand might not be per- 
ceived, being loft in this fmoke and vapour, caft out to dark- 
en the eyes and amufe the fenfes of poor fcduced fouls. The 
argument undertaken to be anfwercd, being, that Chrift is 
faid to die for many, and thofe many are defcribed and de- 
figned to be his Iheep, as John x. What anfwer, I pray, or 
any thing like thereunto, is thtre to be picked out of this 
confufed heap of words which we have recited? So that I 
might fafely pafs the whole cvafion by, without further ob- 
fervation on it, but only to defire the reader to obferve, how 
much this one argument preflcth, and what a nothing is that 
heap oi confufion which is oppofed to it. But ) et, left any 
thing fhould adhere, I will give a few annotations to the 
place, leaving the full vindication of them, until 1. come to 
iheprefling of our arguments. I fay then, 

2. That the many Chrift died for, were his fheep, was 
before declared; neither is the place of John x. at all abufed, 
our Saviour evidently fetting forth a difference between them 
for whom he died, and thofe for whom he would not die; 
calling the firft his ftieep, verfe 15. thofe to whom he would 
give eternal life, verfe 28. thofe given bim by his Father, 
chapter xvii. evidently diftinguifhing them from others who 
were not fo. Neither is it material, what was the primary 
intention of our Saviour in this place; from which we do 
not argue, but from the intention ?<nd aim ot the words lie 
ufes, and the truths he reveals, far that end aimed at, which 
was the conlolation of believers. 

2. For the difference between them he died for fo and fa r 
and thofe he died iox fo and fo ; we confefs he puts none; 
for we fuppofe thai ih^sfba^ndfo, doth neither exprefs nor 
intimate any thing, that raay be fuitable to any purpole of 
God, or intent of our Siiviour in this bufinefs ; to us, for 
whom he died, he died^ in the fame manner, and lor the fame 

3. We deny, that the primary difference that h-crc is made 
by our Saviour, is between believers and not believers ; 
but itisbetyytoi clecl and not cle£i, fhecp and not flieep ; the 
thing whfreSrtlicv are thus dilTerenced, being, the believing 
of the one, csllecl hearing of his voice and knowing him, and 
the notbelievin-T of the otiier ; the foundation cf thefe a8s 
beincr, their diiferent condition, in refpcft of God's purpofe 
snd Chrift's love, as is apparent from the antirhefis and op- 
pcfition v/hichye have in verfs 26 and 27. " Ye believe not, 



End of tilt. I):ath ej Chrijt ajfcrted. % 

becaufc ye are not of my Cheep ; and, my Oieep hear my voice." 
Firft, there is a diftin6lion put in — the a6i ot" believing and 
hearing; and then is the foundation of this diilinclion afforted, 
from their diftlnguifhed flate and condition ; the cne being 
not his (hecp, the other being fo, even them whom he loved 
and gave his lite for. 

4. It is nothing to the bufinefs before us, what privilegMwi 
our Saviour here expreffeth; our queftion is, for whom KfiL 
fays he would give his life, and that only. Again, the ficl^ 
quent repetition of that ufelefsyi a«iy^, ferves for nothing 
but to puzzle the poor ignorant reader. Moreover v/e deny 
that Chriil died tor any, hut thofe who ftiall certainly \>t 
brought unto him by the miniftration of thegofpei; fo that 
there is not (a not only thofe. whom hi died Jor, but aJjo ihofe 
that are brought in unto him) tor he died for his fheep, and 
his fheep hear his voice; they for whom he died, and thofe 
that come unto him, may receive difF^rcnt qualifications; 
but they are not feveral perfons. 

5. The queffion is not at all, to what end our Saviour here 
malies mention of his death ; but for whom he died, who are 
exprefsly faid to be his flieep, which all are not. His inten- 
tion is, to declare the giving of his life for a ranfom, snd 
that according to the commandment received of his Father, 
verfe 18. 

6. The love and faithfulnefs of Jefus Clirifl, in tlie mini- 
ftration of the gofpel, that is, his performing I'le oiTice of the 
Mediator of the new-covenant, is feeji in no'hing more, than 
in giving his life for a ranfom, John xv. 13. Here is not one 
wordof givingus an example; thoughin laying down his life^ 
he did that alfo; yet here, it is not improved to that purpofe. 

From thefe brief annotations, I doubt not but that it is 
apparent, that that long difcourfe before recited, is nothing 
but a miferable miftaking ol the text and quellion; which (he 
euthor perhaps perceiving, he adds divers ether evafions ; 
which follow : 

c^thly, •* Befide:, (faiii he) the oppofiiion nppenrs here to 
*' be, not fo much bet-.vccn elc61: and not elett; as between 
*' Jews cal'ed, and Genfiles uncalled." 

Reply. The oppofuion is between fheep and not fliecp : snd 
that with reference to their ele£lion, and not their vocation. 
Now, who would he have fignified, by the «:7/^:<?r/?? thofe / 
that were not called, the Gentiles; but that is againft the text, 
terming them nicer; ; tliat is, in defignaiion, though not 
as yet called, verfe 16. And who are the called ? the Jews ; 
. ' M true. 


Falfe Ends removed, and the propet 

true, they were then outwardly called ; yet many of then* 
were not fheep, vzrft 26. Now truly, fuch evalions from the' 
force of trwth, as this, by To foul corrupting of the word of 
God, isnoftnall provocationof the eye oHiis glory. But he adds, 
^thly. '* Befides, there is in Scripture great difference be- 
** tvv^een flieep, and fheep of his flock and pafture, of which 

»he here fpeaketh, verjts 4, 5, 11, 15, 16." 
Rep. This unrighteous diftindion, well explained, mufl 
needs no doubt (if any know howj give a great deal of light 
to the bufinefs in hand. If there be a diftinftion to be allow- 
ed, it can be nothing, but that the fheep who are fimply fo 
called, are thofe who are only {o to Chiift from the donati- 
on o\ his Father ; and the flieep of his paff ure, thofe who by 
the effeftual working of the Spirit are aftually brought home 
to Chrift : and then of both forts we have mention in this 
chjpter, verfe 16. vtrfe 27. both making up the number of 
thoie flieep for whom he gave his life, to whom he giveih 
life. But he proceeds. 

'jthly, " Befides, fheep [vcrftA^^ 5. n, 1<5-) are not menti- 
" oned, as all thofe for whom he died ; but as thofe who by' 
*' his minillration are brought in to believe, and enjoy the 
** benefit of his death, and to whom be miniftreth and com- 
** municateth the Spirit." 

Uep. 1. The fubftance of this and the other exceptions, is, 
that by flieep is meant believers ; which is contrary to verfc 
16. calling them fheep who are not as yet gathered to his fold. 
2. That his flieep are not mentioned, as thofe tor whom ht 
died, is in terms coniradiftory ioverfc 15, "I lay down my 
•• life for the flieep." 3. Between thofe for whom he died, 
and thofe whom he britigsin by the miniftration of his Spirit, 
there is no more difference, than is between Peter, James 
and John, and the three Apoftles that were in the mount 
with our Saviour at his transfiguration. This is childifh fo- 
phiflry, to beg the thing in queftion ; and thru ft in the opi- 
nion controverted, irvto the room of an anfwer. 4. That 
bringing in, which is here mentioned, to believe, and enjoy 
the benefit of the death of Chriff ; is a moft fpecial fruit and 
benefit of that drath, certainly to be conferred on all 
thera for whom he died ; or elfe, mcft certainly his death 
will do them no good at all. Once more, and we have done; 

SM/y. ** Befides, here is more ends of his death mentioned, 
'* than ranfom or propitiation only ; and yet it is not faid^ 
" only for his flieep ; and when the ranfom or propitiation 
•» only is mentioned, it is faid for all men. So that this rea- 

« foa 

End of the Death of Chnji aftrttd, 91 

" fon appears weak, fraudulent, ungodly and erroneous." jtfM 
Rip, 1, Hereis no word nnentloned nor iniimated, of the^^H 
death of Chrift ; but only that which was accomplifhed by ^^^ 
his being a propitiation, and making his death a ranfom for 
us, wirh the fruits which certainly and infallibly fpring 
therefrom. 2. If more ends than one, of the death of Chrift, 
.are here mentioned, and fuch as belong not unto all ; wh)r 
do you deny, that he fpeaks here ot his fheep only ? take heed 
or you will fee the truth. 3 Where it is faid of all men, I 
know not ; but this I am fure of, that Chrifl is faid to give 
his life a ranfom, and that only mentioned, where it is not 
faid for all, as Matt. xx. 28. Mark x. 45. And fo from 
thofe brief annotations I hope any indifferent reader will b« 
able tojudge ; whether the reafon op;>ofed, or the excepti- 
ons agdinfl it devifed, be to be accounted weak, fraudulent, 
ungodly and erroneous. 

Although I fear, that in this particular I have already en- 
trenched upon the reader's patience; yet I cannot let pafs 
the difcourfe immediately following in the fame author, to 
thofe exceptions which we lad removed, (laid by him ag^.inft 
the arguments we had in hand,) without an obelifl<. ; .as alfo 
an oblervation of his great abilities, to caft down a man of 
clou.is, which himfelf had fet up, to manifeil his fkill in its 
defti'uftion. To the preceding difcourfe, he adds another ex- 
ception, which he impofeth on thofe that oppofe univerfal 
redemption, as though it were laid by them, aoainftthe under- 
ilanding of the general expreffions in the Scripture, in that 
way and fenfe wherein he conceives them ; and it is, that: 
thofe words were fitted for the time of Ciiriff and his apoftles, 
having another meaning in them than they ieem to import. 
Now, having thus gaily trimm.ed and let up this man of ftraw, 
to whofe framing I dare boldly f^yjj^t one of his acjptfaries 
did ever contribute a penful of in^j||Po fiiew his rare (kill, he 
chargeth it with I know not how many errors, blafphemies, 
\)^^, fet on with exclamaiions and vehement outcries, uniii it 
tumble to the ground. Had he not fometimes anfwered an ar- 
gument, he would have been thought a moff unhappy difpu- 
tant ; now, to make fure that once he would do it, I believe he 
was very careful that the objedion of his own framing, (liould 
not be too flrong for his own defacing;. In the mean time, 
bow blind are they that admire him for a combatant ; who is 
fkilful, only at fencing with his own fiiadow ; and yet with 
luch empty janglings as thefe, proving what none denies, an- 
iwering what none objc6ls j is the greateP!: part of Air. Mort\ 
bookftufFed, CHAP. 

p2 Talfi Ends ronoved, and the proper 


Of the diJlinBion if impe.tr adon and application : tJie uje ani 
abufe thereof ; with the opinion of (he adverfaries, upon the 
whole matter in controverfy, unfolded ; and the quejlioit 
on bothfdes fated* 

THE further reafons whereby the precedent difcourfe may 
be confirmed, I defer, until I come to oppofe fome ar- 
guments to the general ranlom. For the prefent, I (hal! on- 
ly take away that general anfwer which is ufually given to 
the places of Scripture produced, to wave the fenfe of them ; 
which is PiiARMACON PANSOPHON to our adverfafics, 
and ferves them, as they fuppofe, to bear up all the weight 
wherewith in this cafe they arc urged. 

I. They fay then, that in the oblation of Chrift, and con- 
cerning the good things by him procured, two things areto be 
confidercd ; firlf , the impetration or obtaining of them ; and 
I'econdly, the application of them to particular perfons. The 
tirfl (fay they) is general, in refpeft o\ all ; Chrift obtained 
snd procured all good things by his death, ot his Father, re- 
f:onciliation, redemption, forgivenefs of fins, for all and eve- 
ry man in the world ; if they will believe and lay hold upon 
liira ; but in refpeft oi application, they arc a6lually beftowed 
and conferred but on a tew; becaufe but a few believe, 
which is the condition ©n which they are beftowed. And in 
this latter fenfe ire the texts of Scripture, which we have ar- 
gued, all of them to be u.iderftood ; fo that they do no whit 
impeach the univerfality of merit, which they aflert; but on* 
]y the univerfality of application, which they alfo deny. Now 
this anfwer is commonly fet forth by them in various terms, 
and (iivers drcffes ; accorfipg as it feems beft to them that 
ule it, and moft fubfervieU: to their feveral opinions. For, 

ifl. Some of them fay, that Chrift by his death and pafli- 
on did abfolutely, according to the intention of God, pur- 
chafe for all and every man, dying for them, remifllon of fins 
and reconciliation with God ; or a reftitution into a ftate of 
grace and favour ; all which ftiall be aftually beneficial 
to them, provided that they do believe. So the Armi- 

idly. Some again ; ^ that Chrift died for all indeed ; but 
conditionally lor fome, if they do believe, or will fo do, 
(which he knows they cannot of ihemfelves ;) arid abfolutely 


f Cqmero^ Tefiarduf^ Amiraldus, 

End of the Death cf Chrijl oJfuUd, 



for his own, even them on whom he purpofeth .to bellovv 
faiih and grace, fo atiualty to be made pcfredors .If' die good 
things by him purchafcii, So Camerc, and the divines of 
France, which follow a new method by him devifed. 

o^dly. Some f diftinguiih of a two-fold reconciliation and 
redemption ; one wrought by Chriftwiih God for inan, which 
(fay ihzy) is general tor all and every man ; fecondly, a re- 
conciliation wrought, by Chrid in man unto God, brin;jin^ 
them a61ually into peace with him. 

And (undry oih-r ways there are, v.hereby men expref^ 
their conceptions in this bufniefs. The fum of all comes to 
this, and th? weight of ail lies upon ih?.t diftindion which wc 
before recounted, viz. that in refpeft of impetration, Chriil 
obtained redemption and reconciliation for ail ; in iefpt£t of 
application, it is beftowed only on iheni 'Ahodo believe, ^.•[id 
continue therein. 

II. Their arguments whereby they prove the generality of 
the ranfom and univerfality of the reconciliation, muff after- 
wards be cor;fidercd ; for the prefent, we handle only tho 
diftinBion iticlf, the meaning and mifapplication whercct i 
{hall briefly declare; which will appear, if we confider, 

\fl. The- true nature and ir.eaning of this diHin^lioii, and 
the true ufe thereof; for we do acknowledge, that it may be 
ufcd in a found fcnfc and right meanirg, ^which way fotver 
you exprefs it ; either by impetraiion and application, or by 
procuring reconciliation with God, and a v/orking of recon- 
ciliation in us. For by impdration, we mean the meritorious 
purchafc cf all good things made by Chi iff for u?, with and 
of his Father ; z^ndhy applicaiicn, the a^ual enjoyment of 
ihofegood things upon our believing; as if a mian pay ^a price 
for the redeeming of captives ; the psying cf tlie piicetuppli- 
€th the room of the impttraiioh of wyifch we fjeak, ancl the 
freeing cf the captives, is as the application u: ir. Yet then 
we mull obfcrve, 

1. That this dift inclion haih no place in the irctcniicn *nd 
purpcfc o\ Chrilf, but only in refpsct ot the thing.5 procured by 
him. For in his purpoft-, they are belli united ; hii fail 
end and aim being, to deliver us lioni al! evil, and to procure 
all good actually to be beftowed upon us ; but in refpcd ct" 
the things tkemfck'cs, they may be-eonfidered as either procur- 
ed by Chrifl, eras beflcwed on us. 

2: That the will of God is not at aM ccndi'ional, in this bufi. 
jiefs ; as iho' he gave Chril!; to cbt..ia peace, rccci;ci!ijtioii 


t More, with fomc others cf laic. 

Q4 ^^^If^ ^^^^ removed, and the proper 

:ir\^ forgivenefs of fins, upon condition that we do believe. 
There is a condition in the things, but none in the will of 
God ; that is abfolute, that fuch things fliould be procured^ 
and beflov\ed. 

3 That a// the things which Chrift obtained for us, are not 
beftowed upon condition ; but Jbme of them abfolutely ; and 
as for thofe that are beftowed upon condition ; the condition 
on which they are bellowed, is aftualiy purchafed and procur- 
ed for us, upon no condition, but only by virtue of the pur- 
chafe. For inftance ; Chrift hath purchafed remifTion oi fins 
and eiernal life for us, to be enjoyed on our believing, upon 
che condition of faith ; but faith itfelf, which is the condition 
of them, on whofe performance they are beftowed, that he 
hath procured for us abfolutely, on no condition at all. For^ 
what condition foevcr can be propofed, on which the Lord 
Ihould beftow faith; I fliall afterward fhew it vain, and t* 
run into a circle. 

4. That both thefe, impetration and application^ have for 
their objefts the fame individual perfons ; that lor whomfo- 
cver Chrift obtained any good thing by his death, unto them 
it Ihall certainly be applied, upon them it (hall aftually be 
beftowed ; fo that it cannot be faid, that he obtained any 
thing for any one, which that one fhall not or doth not in due 
time enjoy. For Wfeonifoever he wrought reconciliation with 
God, in them doth he work reconciliation unto God ; the 
one is not extended to fome, to whom the other doth not 
reach. Now, becaufe this being eftablilhed, the oppofite in- 
terpretation and mifapplication ot this diftin6lioii vanifhcth ; 
I Ihall briefly confiim it with reafons. 

(i.LIf tiie application of the good things procured be the 
cndimy tlicy are procured, for whofe fake alone Chrift doth 
obta^themj; then they muft be applied to all for whom they 
are obtained"; for otherwife Chrift faileth ol his end and aim ; 
which muft not be granted. But that this application was th« 
end of the obtaining of all good things for us, appeareth, 
[1.] Becaufe il it were otherwife, and Chrift did not aim at 
the applying ot them, but only at their obtainiijg ; then might 
the death of Chrift have had its full effeO: and ilTue, without 
the application of redemption and lalvation to any one foul, 
that being not aimed at ; and fo notwithftanding all that he 
did for us, every foul in the world might have perifhed eter- 
nally ; which, whether it can ftand with the dignity and fuffici- 
ency of his oblation, with the purpofe of his Father, and his 
•wn intention, who came into the world to Jave finners^ that 


End of the Death of Chrijt ajfertej, ^ o J 

which was loft, and to bring many fons unto fjory • let a^l 
juJg<r. [2.] God, in that aftion of fending his Son, |,jvmi>' 
the weight oi iniquity upon him, and giving him up toHfs M' 
curfed death; muli be affirmed to be altogether i^ncc' -*;i!, 
what event all this (houU have in rcfpeft of us. For,^r ' - 
intend that we fhould be Paved by it ? then the app)lcatlo:i of 
it, is tliat which he aimed at, as we aiFcrt : Did he not? cer- 
tainlv he was uncertain what end it fhould have ;. which, is 
bUfphrmv, and exceeding contrary to fci ipfure and rit>ht rei- 
fon. D.J he appoint i Saviour, without tlioui^ht of them 
that were to be faved ? a Redeeme.r, not determining; Avijo 
fhould be redeemed? Did he icfolve of a m.mn, not determin- 
ing the end ? It is an alTertion oppofite to all the gloiious pro- 
perties of God. 

(2.) If that which is obtained by any, do, by viirue of th^t 
aftion whereby it is obtained, become his in right, fo» wi om 
it is obtained ; then for whomfoever any thing is by Chni*£ 
obtained, it is to them applied. For that muft be made thf )rs 
in fafcl, which is theirs in right : but it is moll; certain, that 
whatfoevcr is obtained for any, is theirs by right tor whom 
it is obtained. The very fenfe of the word, whether you 
call it merit, impetration, purchafe^ acquifition or oUaiinno; 
doth befpcak a right in them for whofe good the mtiit is et- 
fcQed, and the purchafe made. Can that be laid to be ob- 
tained for me which is noways mine ? V/nen I obtain any 
thing by prayer or intreaty of any one ; it being obtained, it 
is mine own : that which is obtained by one, is granted by 
him of whom it is obtained ; and if granted, it is g'^^m^d by 
him to thein for whom it is obtained. — But they will^^HL is 
obtained upon condition ,• and until the conditiih ^^RfiU 
led, no right doth accrue. I anfwer ; it this condition be 
equally purchafed and obtained, with other things that are to 
be bellowed on that condition, then this hinders'not, bat thai 
every thing is to be applied that is procured : but if it be un- 
certain whether this condition will be fuifilled or not, then,. 
[1.] This makes God uncertain what end the death of his 
Son will have; [2.] This doth not anfwer,' but deny the 
thing we are in proving ; which is confirmed, 

(3.) Becaufe the Icripture perpetually conjoining thefe two 
things together, will not fuffer us to fever them, as that the 
one Ibould belong to fome and not to others, as though thfv 
could have feveral perfons for their obje6fs : as IJh. liii. n. 
By his knowledge fdall my righteous fervant jiiflify many, there 
i^ the application of ail good things" ; for hef.iallh^ar their ini- 


^6 ^ Falfi Ends removed, and the proper 

quiiics, tliereis die impetration ; he juillfied all whofc Iniqui'-- 
ties he bore. As alfo verf: j. of that chapter, But he was 
zvoundecifor cur tranfi^rejfions, kt zvas bruifed for our iniqui" 
iieSyiiiithajiifcTmntoj our peac^ was upon him, and zoith his 
jlripeS we arc htaltd : his wounding and our healing, impe- 
tration and appHcarion, his chaftifement and our peace, are 
inf.-parably alTociated. So Rom. iv. 2j, Who was delivered 
for cur cffenees, and was raifcd a^^ain f@r our jujlifi cation : and 
Rom. V. 18, B\ the nghteoufnefs of one, (that is his impetra- 
tionj the free gift comrs upon a' I men unto juflification oj life, 
in the application. See there who are called all men, moft 
clearly. Alfo i;^w. viii. 32,33, 3^, " He that fpared not 
" his own Son, but delivered him up to the death for us alL 
" how fhall he not with him alfo freely give us all things? 
" Who {liall lay any thing to the charge of God's eleft ? It is 
'* God that juflifieth, who is he that condemneth? It is Chrift 
*• that died, yea, rather that is rifen again ; who is even at 
*• the right hand of God, who alfo makeih interceflion for 
*' us." From which words, v.^e have thefe feverai leafonr 
of our affertion : [1.] That for whom God gives his Son, 
to them in him he freely gives all things ; theretorcall things 
obtained by his d^th, muft be beftowed, and are, on them 
for whom he died, verfe 32. [2.] They for whom Chrifl 
died, arejuilified, are God's ele6^, cannot be condemned, nor 
can any thing be laid to their charge ; all that he hath pur- 
chafed for them inuft be applied to them, for by virtue there- 
of it is that they are fo faved, ve^fes 33, 34. [3.] For v;hom 
Chriildied, lor them he makcth intcrccfifion : now his intcr- 
ccfliofi is for the application of thofe things, as is confellcd^ 
and thereinjtie is alv.-ays heard; thofe to whom the one be- 
longs, theirs aUo is the other. So Johnr.. 10. the coming 
of Chrift is, that his fheep might have life, and have it ahun- 
dantly. as alfo 1 John iv. 9. and Heb. x. 10. By the which 
zvill we areJanCnfud, that is the application ; thro' the offer- 
ing oj the body 0/ Jefus Chrifl, that is the means of impetrati- 
on ; *' for by one ofTering he hath perfe6led for ever them 
^» that are fan^iined," IJeb. x. 14. In brief, it is proved by 
c\\ thofe places which v;c produced, rightly to afTign the end of 
the death of Chrift ; fo that this may be refted on, I conceive 
ss firm and immoveable ; t'.iat the impetration of good 
things by Chrift, and the application of them, rtfpeft the 
f>me individual perfons. 

9.dly. We may confider the meaning of thofe who; feck ta 
niaintsiin univerfJ redemption by this diftinftion ; and to 


kndof tht heath of Chrifl ajfaicd. gf 

what ufe they do apply it. Chrift (fay they) died f(ff all men^ 
and by his death purchafed reconcihaiion wiih God for them, 
and forgivenefs of fins ; which to fome is applied, and they 
become aftually reconciled to God, and have their 
fins forgiven them ; but to others not, who therefore pe- 
rifh in the (late of irreconcihation and enmity, under thd 
guilt of their fins. This application (fay they) is not procur- 
ed norpurchafed by Chrift; for then he dying for all, all mud 
be aftually reconciled, and have their fins forgiven them, and 
befaved; but it attends the fulfilling of the condition which 
Godispleafedtoprefcribeunto them, that is, believing; which 
(fay forae, though not in terms, yet by diretl confequence) 
they can do by their own ftrength; others fay not, but God 
muft give it. So that when it is faid in the Scripture, Chrift 
hath reconciled us to God, redeemed us, faved us by his 
blood, underwent the punifhment for our fins, and fo madd 
fatisfaftion for us ; they affert that no more is meant, but that 
Chrift did that which, upon the fulfilling of the condition 
that is of us required^ thefe things will follov/. To the death 
of Chrift, indeed, they aftign many glorious things; but 
what they give on the one hand, they take away with the other 5 
by fufpending the enjovtnent of them en a condition by us 
vo be fulfilled, not by him procured; and in terms alTert, that 
the proper and full end of the death of Chrift, was, the doing 
of that whereby God, hii? juftice being fatisfi.ed, might favei 
finners if he would, and on what condition it pleafed him 3 
that a door of grace might be opened to all that would come 
in; and not that aftualjuftification and remilnon of fins, lile 
and immortality, were procured by him, but only a poffibility 
of thofe things, that fo it might be. Now, that all the((poni 
that lies under this expofition and abufe of the diftinaion, 
may the better appear; 1 (liall let down the whole mind of 
them that ufe it, in a fev/ affertions; that it may be clearly 
feen what we do oppofe. 

1. " God (fay they) confidering all mankind as fallen from 
*' that grace and favour in Adam wherein they were created, 
*' and excluded utterly from the attainment of falvation by 
*' virtue of the covenant of works^ which was at the nrft made 
*' with him; yet by his infinite goodnefs was inclined tode- 
*' fire the happinefs of them all and every one, that ihey might 
*' be delivered from mifcry, and be brought unto hirafelfj 
" which inclination of his, they call his univerfal love and 
*' antecedent will, whereby he would defirouily have them aU 
'' to be faved; cut of v/hich love he fsnae-h Ch:ift."' As 

98 Falfi Ends removed^ and the proper 

to which* obCeive, 

(i.j That God haih any natural or nccefTary inclination, hy, 
his f^oodnefs or anv other property, to do good to us or aiiy 
of his creatures; v/e do deny ; every thing that concerns us, 
is an aft of his Irec-vvill and good pleafure, and not a natural 
neceiTary aQ o'i his deity ; as (hali be declared. 

(2.) The alciibing aa antecedent conditional will unto 
God, whofe fulfining and accomphlhtnent fhould depend on 
any tree contingent a6t or work of ours, is injurious to his 
wifdom, power, and fovereignry ; and cannot well be excuf- 
ed fromblalphemy ; and is contrary to Rom. ix. 19. " Who 
" haih refifted his will ?" 

(3.) 'A common affeflion and inclination to do good to all, 
doth not feem to fet out the Irecdom, tulnefs, and dimenfi- 
ons of that molt intenfe love of God, which is aflerted in the 
Scripture to be the caufe of fending his Son ; as John iii. 16. 
•' God fo loved the world, that he gave his only begotten 
" fon." Rom. V. 8. " God commendcth his love towards us; 
*' in that while we were yet finners, Chrifl died for us." 
Thefe two I Ihall by the Lord's affiftan-ce fully dear ; if the 
Lord give life and ftrengtn, and his people encouragement, 
to go through with the fecond part of this controverfy. 

(4.) We deny that all mankind is the cbjeft of that love 
of God, which moved him to fend his Son to die ; God hTHV- 
'mg 'made iCyiTxt for the day of evil ^ Prov. xvi. 4. hakd ihem 
before ihey were born, Rc'?n. \^. 11, 13. Before of old ordained 
them to condemnation, Jude'iw "^Qiug fitted to defiruBion, Rom. 
ix. 22. made to betaken and deflroyed^ 2 Pit. ii. i2» appointed 
to zurath, 1 Thef. v. g. io go to ihoAX own place, Ads i. 25. 

2.'|f^The juilice of God being injured by fm ; unlefs 
*' foinelhing might be done for the fatisfaftion thereof, that 
*' love of God whereby he wouldeth good to all Tinners, could 
*' no way be brought forth into a£f ; but muff have its eternal 
*• reiidenceinthebofomoiGod, without any efFeft produced." 

Obf. (1.) That neither Sciipturenor right reafon, v/ill en- 
force nor prove an uUer and abfolute want of power in God, 
to fave fmners by his own abfolute will, without faiisfaftion 
to his juftice. Suppoung his purpofe that fo it fhould be, in- 
deed it cou;d not be otherways ; but without the confiderati- 
on of that, certainly he could have effefled it; it doth not 
imply any violating of his holy nature.* 

(2.) An a£lual and neceflary velleity, for the doing of any 
thing which cannot poffibly be sccemplifhed ^Yithout fome 


^sc iha note on page 73. 

End ofthz Death of Chrift aJfcrUd, 99 

work fulfilled outwardly of him, is oppoGte to his clernal 
blelfednefs and all-fufliciency. 

g. •• God, therefore, to (ulfil that general love and good 
" will of his toward all, and that it rriight put forth i.felf in 
*' fuch a way as fhould feem good to him to faiisly his juflice 
*' which ftood in the way 2nd was the only hindrance ; he 
*' fent his Son into the world to die." 

Ohf. The failing of this alTertion, wc fhall lay fcnh ; when 
we come to declare that love, whereof the fending of Chrift 
was the proper iffue and effect. 

4. " Wherefore the proper and immediate end and aim of 
** the purpofe of God, in lending his Son to die for all men, 
*' was, that he might what way he pleafed him fave fmners, 
*• hisjultice which hindred being fatished, as Arminius \ or 
" that he might will to fave fniners, as Corvimis : and the in- 
" tention of Chrift, was, to make fuch (atisfaftion to the juf- 
*' tice of God, as that he might obtain to himfelf a power of 
" faving, upon what conditions it feemed good to his Father 
" to prcfcribe." 

Ob/. Whether this was the intention of the Father in fend- 
ing his Son, or not ; let it be judged. Something was faid 
before upon the examination oi thofe places of Scripture 
which defcribe his purpole ; let it be known from them, whe- 
ther God, in fending of his Son, intended to procure to him- 
felf a liberty to fave us if he would ; or to obtain certain fal- 
vation for his eleft. 

(2.) That fuch a pofTibillty of falvation, or at the utmoftj 
a velleity or willing of it, upon an uncertain condition to be 
by us fulfilled, fhould be the full, proper, and only immedi- 
ate end of the death of Chrift ; will yet fcarcely go down 
v/ith tender fpirits. 

(3.) The expreffion of procuring to himfelf an ability to 
fave, upon a condition to be prefcribed, feems not to anfwer 
that certain purpofe of our Siviour in laying down his life .; 
which tb.e Scripture faith was to fave his Jlieep, and to bring 
many Jons to glory ^ as before ; nor hath it any ground in 

5. '* Chrift therefore obtained for all and every one recon- 
*' ciliation with God, remiflion of fins, life and falvation ; 
*' not that they fhould aftually be partakers of thefe things ; 
" but that God (his juftice now not hindering) might and 
*' would prefcribc: a condition, to be by them fulfilled, where- 
" upon he would actually apply it, and make them partake 
-" ©f all thole good things purchafed by Chrift." And here 


100 falfe Ends removed^ and the proper 

comes inthelr diftinftion oiimpetration and application^ which 
we before intimated ; and thereabout, in the expUcaiion of 
this afferiion, they are wondroufly divided. 

(i.) Some fav, that this proceeds fo far, that all men are 
thereby received into a new covenant ; in which redemption 
AdajJi was a common perfon, as well as in his fall from the 
old, and all we again reflored in him ; fo that none fhall be 
damned, that do not fin aflually againft the condition where- 
in they are born, and fall from the flate whereinto all men 
are affumed through the death of Chrift. So Borreus, Cor- 
vinus, and one of iate in plain terms ; that all are reconciled, 
redeemed, faved and juftified in Chrift ; though how, he 
would not underfland, (More page lo.) But others, more 
waiily, deny this ; and aflert, that by nature we are all chil- 
dren of wrath, and that until we come to Chrift the wrath of 
God abidtth on all, fo that it is not a£hially removed from 
any ; fo the afterters ot the univerfality of grace in France. 

(2.) Some fay, that Chrift bv this fatisfattion removed ori- 
ginal Jtnin all; and, by confeqiient, that only : fo that all 
infants, though of Turks and Pagans out of the covenant, 
dying before they come to the ufe ot reafon, muft undoubted- 
ly be faved ; that being removed in all, even the calamity, 
guilt, and alienation contrafted by out firft fall, whereby God 
may fave all upon a new condition. But others of them 
(more warily) obferving, that the blood of Chrift is faid to 
" purge all our fins," 1 John'i.j. 1 Pet.'i. 18. Ifa. liii. 6. 
they fay he died for all fins alike ; abfoiutely lor none, but 
conditionally for all. Further, fome of them affirm, that af- 
ter the- fatisfaftion of Chrift, or the confideration of it in 
God's prefcience, it was ablolutely undetermined what condi- 
tion fhould be prefcribed; fo that the Lord might have reduc- 
ed all again to the law and covenant ol works ; fo Corvinus. 
Others, that a procuring of a new way of falvation, by faith, 
was a part of the fruit of the death of Chrift ; fo More^ 

page 35- 

(3.) Again, fome of them fay, that the condition prefcribed 

is by our own flrength, (with the help of fuch means, as God 
at all times and in all places and unto all is ready to afford,) 
to be performed. Others deny this ; and affirm that effeftual 
grace, flowing peculiarly from eleflion, is necefTary to be- 
lieving : the firft eftablilhing the idol of Jreewill, to maintain 
their own aJTertion ; others overthrowing their own afTertion, 
for the eftabluliment of grace. So Amiraldus, Ca?Mro, &c, 
(4.) Moreover fome lay, that the love of God, in fcndin 


Eiid of the Death of Chriji afferied. ioi 

of Chiift is Is eciual to all; others go a ftralii higher, and 
rnaiiUain an inequality in the love oi God ; although he fend 
his Son to die for all, and tnough greater love there can- 
not be, than that whereby the Lord fent his Son to die lor us,* 
as Romans viii. 32. and fo they fay, that Chrlll purchafed a 
greater good tor fome, and lefs for others. And here they 
put tl-.emfelves upon innumerable uncouth difhndions, or ra- 
ther (as one calleih thern) extinBions ; blotting oui all fsnfe 
and reafon, and true meaning of the Scripiure; witnefs Tef 
tardus, Amirald: and as every one may ieethat can but read 
Englifh, in T. M. Hence that multiplicity ot^ the feveral ends 
ot the death ot Chrift ; fome that are the fruits of his ranfom 
and fatisfaftion, andfom.e that are I know not what; befides his 
dvino- for fome fo andfo, for others fo and fo, this way and that 
way ^hiding themfelves in innumerable unintelligible expref- 
fjons, that it is a moll difficult thing to know what they mean ; 
and harder to find out their mind, than to anfwer their reafons. 

(5.) Inoneparticularihey agree well enough, viz. in de- 
nying that faith is procured or merited for us, by the death 
of Chrift. So far they are ail of them conftant to their own 
principles ; for once to grant it, would overturn the whole 
iaihncoi univerfalredtfnpiion; but in afligning the caufe ot 
faith, they go afunder again. 

Some fay, that God fent Chrift to die for all men; but on- 
ly conditionally, it they did or would believe ; as though, if 
they believed, Chrift died for them, if not, he died not ; and 
fo make the a£f, the caufe of its own objecf . Other fome 
teach, that he died abfolutely for all, to procure al- good 
things for them ; which yet they (hould not enjoy, u.itil 
they fulfil the condition that was to be prefcribed unto 
them. Yet all conclude, that in his death Chrift had no 
more refpeft unto the e'ie6l than others ; to fuftain their 
perfons, or to be in their room ; but that lie was a public 
perfon, in the room of all mankind. 

III. Concerning the clofe of all this, in refpeB of the e- 
vent and immediate produft of the death ot Chrift, divers 
have diverfly exprefted themfelves; iomc. placing it in the 
pozvery fome in the will of God ; fome in the opening of a 
door of grace, fome in a right purchafed to himfelf ot faving 
whom he pleafed ; fome, that in refpeft of us he had no end 
9t all, but that a'l mankind mjght have perifJisd alter he 
had done all. Others make divers and diftinft end?, not al- 
moft to be reckoned, of this one acl of Chrift ; according 
to the diverfity ot the perfons tor v/hom he diecl, \vhom they 

102 lalfi Ends removed^ arid the proper 

grr.nt to be dlllinguiflied and differenced by a foregoing de- 
cree ; pat to what purpofe the Lord fhould fend his Son to 
die for them, whom he hirnfelt had determined not to fave, 
but at leaft to pafs by and leave to irremedilefs ruin for their 
firjs, I cannot fee ; nor the meaning ot the twofold deftinati- 
on, by fome invented. Such is the powerful force and evi- 
dence o} tt uth, that it fcatters all its oppofers, and makes 
them fly to feveral hiding corners; who if they are not wil- 
Jing to yield and fubmit themfelves, they fliall furely lye down 
in darkncfs and error. None of thefe or the like intricate 
and involved impedite diftinBions, halh truth ilfelf any need 
of; into none ot fuch poor fliitts and devices, doth it com- 
pel its abettors ; it needcih not any v/indings and turnings, 
to bring it fell into a defenfible pofture ; it is not liable to 
contradiftions, in its own fundamentals ; for v,?ithout any 
further circumftances, the whole of it, in this bufinefs, may 
be thus fummed up, viz. 

*' God cut of his infinite \o^q to his ekcl, fent his dear 
** Son in the fulnefs of time, v/hom he had promifed in the 
*' beginning of the v/orld, and made efteftual by that pro- 
" mife ; to die, pay a rarJom ot infinite value and dignity ; 
*' for the purchahng of eternal redemption ; and bringing 
•* unto himfelf, all and every one ot thefe whom he had be- 
♦* fore ordained to eternal life, for the praife of his own 
" glory;" fo thatyrd^^',9?;i from all ih^ evil from which we 
are delivered, and an enjoyment of all the good things that 
arebeftowed on us, in our trad uftion from death to life, from 
hell and wrath, to heaven and glory ; are the proper iffues 
and effe61s of the death of Chrift, as the meritorious caufe of 
them all. Which may, in all the parts of it, be cleared by 
thele few affertions, viz. 

ijl. The fountain and caufe of God's fending Chrift, is 
his eternal love to his ele6f, and to them alone; which I fhall 
not now funher confirm ; referving it for the fecond general 
head of this whole controverfy. 

odly. The value^ worth and dignity of the ranfom which 
Qui if gave himfelf to be, and of the price which he paid, 
was infinite and unmeafureable ; fit for the accomplifhing of 
any end, and the procuring of any good, for all and every 
one for whom it v;as intended, had they been millions of 
men more than ever were created. Of this alfo alterwards. 
Si-cMh XX. 28. *' God purchafed the church Vv-ith his own 
'' blood.'* 1 Pet. i. 18, 19. *' R.edeemed, not with filver 
" zvA ^old : bin with the precious blood of Chrift ;" and 


End of tke Death of Chrijl aJ/drUd. 103 

that anfwering the mind and intention ot Almighty God, 
John\\y. 31^ " As the Father gave me commandment, c- 
" van fo I do :" who would have fuch a price pairl, as mioht 
be the tonndation of that oecoiiomy and difpenlation oi" his 
love and grace which he intended, and cI the way whereby 
he would have it difpenfed; A&s xiii. 38, 39. " Throuirh 
" this man is preached unto you the forgivenels of fins ; and 
*' by him all that believe are julllxied from all things, from 
" which ye could not be juftiiiedby the lawof A/Jofes." 2 Cor. 
V. 20, 21. •' We are ambalFadors for ChrlH, as though God 
" did beleech you by us; we pray you in Chrill's Head, be 
" ye reconciled to God : for he hath made him to be fin for 
*' us, who knew no fin; that we mig'it be made the riglr.couC- 
*' nefs of God in him." 

2,dly, The intention and aim of ihe Father, in this great 
work, was bringing of thofe many fons to gloiy, znz. his c- 
le6i ; whom by his free grace he had chofen from amongrt 
all men, ol all forts, nations and conditions, to take them in- 
to a new covenant of grace u'ith himfelf ; the lormcr beinir 
as to them, in refpeft of the event, i\uil and aboliihcd : oi 
which covenant, Jefus Chrift is the fiift and chief promi(e ; 
as he that was to procure tor them all other good things pjo- 
mifed therein ; as fliall be proved. 

^tkly. The things pur chafed ox procu'-ed for thofe pc-rfcijs, 
which are the proper effects of the death and ranfom cF 
Chrift, in due time certainly to become theirs, in po{ic{T]Gn 
and enjoyment ; are reraiiTion of fin, freedom from wrath 
and the curfe of the law, juflification, fanftificaticn, reconci- 
liation with God, and eternal life ; tor the will of Ids Father 
fending him for thefe, his own intention in laying down his 
life for them, and the truth of the purchafe made bv himj is 
the foundation oi his intcrceflion, begun on earth and continu- 
ed in heaven ; whereby he, whom his Father always hears, 
dehres and demands, that l>Iie good things procured by hin: 
may be aftually bellowed, on them all and cvcvy one for 
whom they were procured. So that the whole of v;hat we 
affcrt in this great bufinefs, is exceedingly clear and apparent, 
without any intricacy or the lead diiTiculty at aSi ; nut 
clouded with Itrange exprefiTions, and unneceflary divjifions 
and tearingsof one thing from another, as is the oppofite o- 
pinion ; which in the next place fiiall be dealt withal by ar- 
guments ; confirming the one, and everting the ether. ' But 
bccaufe the whole ftrength thei^of lyeth in, and the v^eight 
of all lycih upon, that cnecilHnflion we before fj^ali-j or, 


104 Falft Ends removed, and the. proptr 

by our adverfaries dlveril)' eKprelFed and held out ; we WiO 
a Utile fuiflier confHer that ; and then come to our argu- 
ments ; and fo to the aniwering oi the oppofed objeftionS. 

C H A P. V. 

Of application and impetration* 

^ I "HE allowable ufe of this diftinction, how it may be tak- 
JiL en in a found fenfe, the feveral ways whereby men 
have expreffea the thing which in theie words is intimated, 
and fome arguments for the overthrowing of the falfe ufe of 
it, however expreffed ; we have before intimated and de- 
clared. Now, feeing that this is the proton pseudos 
of the oppofite opinion, underftood in the fenfe and accord- 
ing to the ufe they make of it : I fhail give it one blow more^ 
and leave it I hope a-dying. 

I. I fliall then briefly declare, that although thefe two 
things may admit of a diftinftion, yet they cannot of a repa- 
ration ; but that for whomfoever Chrifl obtained good, to 
them it muft be applied ; and for whomfoever he wrought re-- 
conciliation with God, they muft aftually unto God be re- 
conciled ; fo that the blood of Chrift, and his death, in the 
virtue of it, cannot be looked on (as fome do) as a medicine 
in a box, laid up foi" all that fhall come to have any of it ; 
and fo applied, now to one, then to another, without any re- 
Ipeft or difference ; as though it fhould be intended no more 
tor one than for another; fo that, although he halh obtained 
all the good that he hath purchafed for us ; yet it is left in- 
different and uncertain, whether it (hall ever be ours or 
not. For it is well known, that notwithflanding thofe g'ori- 
ous things that are alTigned, by the Arminians, to the death 
of Chrift ; which they fay he purchafed for all, as remifTion 
of fins, reconciliation with God, and the like ; yet they for 
whom this purchafe and procurement is made, raav be damn- 
ed ; as the greateft part are, and certainly Ihall be. Now^ 
that there fhould be fuch a diftance between thefe two. — 

ijl. It is contrary to common fenfe, or our ufual form of 
fpeaking; which muft be wrefted, and our underftandings 
forced, to apprehend it. When a man hath obtained an 
office, or any other obtained it for him, can it be faid, that 
it is uncertain whether he (hall have it or not? If it be ob- 

End of the Death of Ckriji ajferted, 105 

tained for him, is it not his in right, though perhaps not in 
pofTeflion ? That which is impetrated or obtained by petition, 
is his by whom it is obtained. It is to o£Fer violence to com- 
mon fenfe, to fay, a thing may be a man's, or it may not be 
his, when it is obtained for him ; for in fo faying, we fay it is 
his ; and fo it is, in the pnrchafe made by Jefus Chrifl, and 
the good things obtained by him, for all them for whoin lis 

<2.dly. It is contrary to all reafon in the world, that the 
death of Chrift in God's intention, fhould be applied to any 
one, that fhall have no fhare in the merits of that death : 
God's will that Chrift ihould die for any, is his intention that 
he {hall have a fhare in the death of Chrift, that it fhould be- 
long to him, that is, be applied to him; tor that is in this 
cafe faid to be applied to any, that is his in any refpefl accord- 
ing to the will of God; but now the death of Chrift, ac- 
cording to the opinion v/e oppofe, is fo applied to all; and 
yet, the fruits of this death are never fo m.uch as once made 
known to far the greateft part of ihofe all. 

3^/)'. That a ranfom fl:iould be paid for captives, upon 
compaft for their deliverance, and yet, upon the payment, 
thofe captives not be made free and fet at liberty, (the death 
of Chrift is a ranfom, Matt, xx. 28. paid by compaQ; for 
the deliverance of captives for whom it was a ranfom, and 
the promife wherein his Father ftood engaged to him, at his 
undertaking to be a Saviour and undergoing the ofRce im- 
pofed on him, v/as their deliverance (as was before oeclared.) 
upon his performance of thefe things, that the greateft num- 
ber of thefe captives ftiould never be releafed) feems ftrange 
and very improbable. 

^thly. It is contrary to fcripture, as vyas before at large de- 
clared. Sec alfo book III. chop. 10th. 

II. But now, a'l this our adverfaries fuppcfe they (liall 
wipe away, with one flight diftinftion, that v/ill make, as they 
fay, all v/e affirm in this kind to vanifti. And that is this ; it 
is true, (fay they) all things that are abfolutely procured and 
obtained for any, do prefently become theirs in right, for 
v/hom they are obtained ; but things that are obtained upon 
condition, become not theirs until the condition be fulfilled ; 
now Chrift hath purchafed by his death, for all, all good 
things, not abfolutelv, but upon condition; and until that 
condition come to be fulfilled, unlefs they perform v;hat is 
required, they have neither part nor portion, right unto, nor 
poireflion of them. A'fo, what this condition is, they give 

O ov*» 

id6 Falje Ends removed, and the proper 

out in Tundry terms ; fomc call it a not rejijling of this redemp- 
tion offered to them ; fome, 2^ yielding to the invitation of the 
gofpel ; fome in plain terms. Faith. Now be it {o, that 
Chrift purchafed all things for us; to be beftowed on this 
condition, that we do believe it ; then 1 affirm, that, 

\J{. Certainly this condition ought to be revealed to all 
for whom this purchafe is made, if it be intended for them in 
good earneft; all for whom he died, muft have means xo 
know that his death will do them good, if they believe ; e- 
fpecially it being in his power alone to grant them thefe means, 
who intends good to them by his death. If I fhould intreat a 
phyfician, that could cure fuch a difeafe, to cure all that 
came unto him ; but fhould let many refl ignorant of the 
grant which I had procured of the phyfician, and none but 
rayfelf could acquaint them with it, whereby they might go 
to him and be healed ; could I be fuppofed to intend the 
healing of thofe people ? doubtlefs no : the application is 

^dly. This condition of them to be required, is in their 
power to perform, or it is not ; if it be, then have all men 
power to believe ; which is falfe. If it be not ; then the Lord 
will grant them grace to perform it, or he will not; if he 
will, why then do not all believe ? why are not all faved ? 
If he will not; then this impetration or obtaining falvation, 
and redemption for all, by the blood of Jefus Chrifl, comes 
at length to this; Godintendeth thathe fhall diejor all, to pro- 
cure for them remijfion ofjins, reconciliation with him, eternal 
redemption and glory ; hut yet Jo, that they Jhall never have 
the leafl good by thefe glorious things, unlefs they perform that 
which he knows they are no ways able to do,^ and which none but 
himfelf can enable them to perform, afid which concerning far 
the greatejl part of them he is refolved not to do. Is this to in- 
tend that Ghrift fhould die for them, for their good ? or 
rather that be fhould die for them, to expofe them to fhame 
and mifery ? Is it not all one, as if a man fhould promife 
a blind man a looo pounds, upon condition that he will 

S^/y. This condition of faith, is procured for us by the 
death of Chrifl ; or it is not. If they fay it be not ; then the 
chiefefl grace, and without which redemption itfelf, (expref- 
fed how you pleafe) is of no value, doth not depend on the 
grace of Chrift, as the meritorious procuring caufe thereof: 
which is exceedingly injurious to our bleffed Saviour, and 
ferves only to diminifh the honour and love due to him. 


End of the Death of Chrifl ajferted, so/ 

And it is contrary to Scripfure, lit. iii. 5. 6. 2 Cor. v. 21 
He became " fin for us, that we might be made the righte- 
*' oufnefsof God in him ;" and how we can become the 
righteoufnefs of God, but by believing ; I know not. Yea 
cxprefsly faith the apoftle ; " It is given to us, in the behalf 
** ot Chrift, to beheve on him," Phil. i. 29. " God blefling 
" us, with all fpiritual bleflfings in Chrift, Eph. \. 3, where- 
of furely faith is not the leaft. If it be a fruit of the death of 
Chrift ; why is it not beftowed on all, fince he died tor all P 
efpecially fince the whole impetration of redemption is alto- 
gether unprofitable without it. It they do invent a condition 
upon which this is beftowed ; the vanity of that fhall be af- 
terwards difcovered. For the prefent, if this condition be, 
Jo they do not refufc or refijl the means of grace ; then I alk ; 
if the fruit of the death of Chrift ftiall be applied to all, that 
fulfil this condition of not refufing or not refifting the means 
of grace ? If not, then why is that produced ? If lo; then 
muftall be faved, that ha^e not or do not refift the means of 
grace ; that is, all paganJ, infidels^ and thofe infants to whom 
the gofpel was never preached. 

^tlUy. This whole aftertion tends to make Chrift but an 
half Mediator ; that thould procure the end, but not the 
means conducing thereunto. So that notwiihftanding this 
exception and new diftin6fion, our affertion ftands firm ; that 
the fruits of the death of Chrift, in refpeft of im.petration 
ot good and application to us, ought not to be divided ; and 
our arguments to confirm it, are unlhaken. 

For a clofe of all ; that which in this caufe we affirm, may 
be fummed up in this ; Chrift did not die for any, upon con- 
dition if they do believe ; but he died for all God's elefl;, 
that they fhould believe, and believing have eternal lite. 
Faith itfelf, is among the principal effefls and fruits of the 
death of Chrift ; as Ihall be declared. It is no where faid in 
Scripture, nor can it rcafonably be affirmed, that if we be- 
lieve, Chrift died for us ; as though our believing (hould 
make that to be, which otherwife was not, the a£i create the 
object : but Chrift died for us, that we might believe ; falva- 
tion indeed is beftowed conditionally ; but faith, which is 
the condition, is abfolutely procured. The queftion being 
thus ftated, the difterence laid open, and the thing in contro' 
V€rfy made known ; we proceed, in the next place, to draw 
forth fome of thofe arguments, demonftrations, teftiniQ«es 
and proofs, whereby the truth we maintain is eftablifhed, in 
which it is contained, and upon which it is firmly founded ; 


io8 ' Arguments agairifi 

only defiring the reader to retain feme notions in his mind, 
oF thofe fundamentals which in general we laid down before ; 
they {landing in fuch relation to the arguments which we Ihall 
ufe, tli^t I am confident not one of them can be throughly an- 
fwcred, before they be everted. 



Argu?7ients againjl the univer/ality of redeviption. The two 
jirjl ; from the nature of the covenant, and the difpenfation 


TH E fiifl argument may be taken from the nature of ihe 
covenant of grace ; which was eftabliflied, ratified and 
confirmed, in and by the death of Chrifl. That was the 
Tejlament whereof He was the Teftator, which was ra- 
tified in his death, and whence his blood is called ** the blood 
-' of the new teftament," Matt. xxvi. 28. neither can any 
effefts thereof be extended beyond the compafs of this cove- 
nant ; but now, tliis covenant was not made univerfally with 
all, put particularly only with fome ; and therefore, thofe a- 
lone were intended, in the benefits of the death of Chrifl. 

The affumption appears, from the nature of the covenant 
itfelf ; defcribed clearly, ^er^yw. xxxi. 31, 32. *' I will make 
*' a new covenant with the houfe of Ifrael, and with the 
" houfe of Judah : not according to the covenant that I 
" made with their Fathers, in the day that I took tiiem by 
*' the hand, to bring them out of the land of Egypt, (whicl^ 
" my covenant they brake, although I was an hufband unto 
" them faith the Lord. "J and Hebrews viii. 9, 10, 11. " Net 
" according to the covenant that I made v/ilh their fathers, 
** in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out 

• * of the land of Egypt ; becaufethey continued not in my co* 
" vcnant, and I regarded them not, (faith the Lord ;) for 
*' this is the covenant that 1 wiJl make with the houfe of H- 
*' rael after thofe days, (faith the Lord ;) I will put my laws 
" into their niii^d, and write them in their hearts ; and I will 
'• be to them a God, and ihey fhall be to me a people ; and 

• ' they fiiall not teach every mV.n his neighbour, and every 

" man 

, Vnivtrftxl Reacmption. 109 

•* man his brother, faying, Know the Lord; for all fhall 
" know me, from the leaft to the greateft." Wherein the 
condition of the covenant is not faid to be required ; but it is 
abfolulely promifcd ; " 1 will put my laws into their mind, 
*' and write them in their hearts." And this is the main dif- 
ference, betv/een the old covenant ot works, and the new 
one of grace ; that in that, the Lord did only require the 
fulfilling of the condition prefcribed ; but in this, he promif- 
eth to cffeft it in them himfelf, with whom the covenant is 
made. And without this fpiritual efficacy, the truth is, the 
new covenant would be as weak and unprofitable ior the ^x\^ 
of a covenant, (the bringing of us and binding of us to God,) 
as the old. For in what confifted the weaknefs andunprofit- 
ablenefs of the old covenant, tor which God in his mercy a- 
boiiftied it ; was it not in this ? bccaufe, by reafon of fin, we 
were no way able to fulfil the condition thereof, Bo this and 
live ; otherways the connexion is flill true, that he that c^cth 
thefe things Jhall live. And are we, of curfelves, any way 
more able to fulfil the condition of the new covenant ? Is ic 
not as eafy, for a man, by his own ftrength, to fulfil the whole 
law, as to repent, and favingly believe the promife of the gof* 
pel ? This then is one main difference of thefe two covenants; 
that the Lord did, in the old, only require the condition ; 
but in the new, he will alfo effe£l it in all the federates to 
whom this covenant is extended. And if the Lord fhould only 
exaft obedience required in the covenant of us, and not work 
and effecl it alfo in us ; the new covenant would be a fhew, 
to increafe our mifery, and not a ferious imparting and com- 
municating of grace and mercy. If then this be the na- 
ture of the New Teflament, (as appears from the very- 
words of it, and might abundantly be proved ;) that the con- 
dition of the covenant fliall certainly, by free grace, be 
wrought and accomplifhed in all that are taken into covenant; 
then no more are in this covenant, than in whom thofe con- 
ditions of it are effefted. 

But thus, as is apparent, it is not with all ; iovallmen have 
not faith, it is of the ele6f of God ; therefore it is not made 
with all ; nor is the com.pafs thereof to be extended beyond 
the re?nnant.that are according to eleBion. Yea, every Wef- 
fmg of the new covenant, being certainly common, and io 
be communicated to all the covenantees ; either faith is none 
of them, or all muff have it, if the covenant itfelf be general. 
But fome may fay ; that it is true, God promifeth to write 
his law in our hearts, and put his fear in cur inward parts ^ 


no ArgU7nents againjl 

but it is t:pon condition. Give me that condition, and I wUl 
yield the caufe. Is it, if they do believe ? nothing elfe can 
be imagined ; that is, it* they have the law written in their 
hearts, (as every one that beUeves hath ;) then God promif- 
eth to write his law in their hearts; is this probable, friends ? 
is it Hkeiy ? I cannot then be perfuaded, that God hath made 
a covenant oi grace witli all ; efpecially thofe who never 
heard a word or covenant, grace, or condition of it ; much 
]efs received grace for the fulfilling of the condition, without 
which the whole would be altogether unprofitable and ufelefs. 
The covenant is made with Adam, and he is acquainted with 
it, Gen. iii. 15. renewed with ISloah, and not hidden from 
him, again eftablKhed with Abraham, accompanied with a 
full and rich declaration of the chief promifes of it. Gen. xii. 
which is moft certain not tobeefFefted towards all, as after- 
wards will appear. Yea that firft diftin6lion, between the 
feed of the woman and the feed of the ferpent, is enough to 
overthrow the pretended univerfality of the covenant of 
grace; for who dares affirm, that God entered into a cove- 
nant of grace with the feed of the ferpent ? 

Moft apparent then it is, that the new covenant of grace, 
and the promifes thereof, are all of them of diftinguifhing mer- 
cy ; reftrained to the people whom God did foreknow, and 
fo not extended univerfally to all. Now, the blood of Jefus 
Chrift being the blood of this covenant, and his oblation in- 
tended only for the procurement of the good things intended 
2nd promifed thereby, (tor he was the furety thereof, Hebrews 
vii. 22. and ot that only ;) it cannot be conceived to have 
refpe6t unto all, or any, but only thofe that are intended in 
this covenant. 


If the Lord intended that he fhould, and he by his death 
did, procure pardon of fm and reconciliation with God, for 
all and every one ; to be aftually enjoyed, upon condition 
that they do believe; then ought this good will and intention 
01 God, with this purchafe in their belialt by Jefus Chrift, to 
be made known to them by the word, that they might believe; 
*' for faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of 
*• God," Rom. X. 17. For if thefe things be not made 
known and revealed, to all and every one that is concerned 
in them, viz, to whom the Lord intends, and for whom he 


Univerfal Redemption. 


hath procured fo great a good ; then one of thefe things will 
follow ; either, that they may be faved without Uith in, and 
the knowledge of Chrift, (which they cannot have unlefs he 
be revealed to them ;) which is falfe, and proved fo ; or elfe, 
that this good will of God, and this purchafe made by Jefus 
Chrift, is plainly in vain and fruftrate, in refpeft o\ them ; 
yea a plain mocking of them, that will neither do them any- 
good to help them out of mifery, nor ferve the juftice of 
God to leave them inexcufable; for what blame can redound 
to them, for not embracing and well ufing a benefit which they 
never heard of in their lives ? Doth it become the wifdom 
of God, to fend Chrift to die tor r/ien that they might be 
faved ; and never caufe thefe men to hear of any fuch thing; 
and yet to purpofe and declare, that unlefs thev do hear 
of it and believe it, they fhall never be faved? What wife 
man would pay a ranfom, for the delivery of thofe captives, 
which he is lure fhall never come to the knowledge of any 
fuch payment made; and fo never be the better for it ? Is 
it anfwerable to the goodnefs of God, to deal thus with his 
poor creatures ? to hold out towards them all, in pretence, 
the moft intenfe love imaginable, beyond all comoare and il- 
luftration, as his love in fending his Son is fet forth to be, and 
yet never let them know of any fuch thinor, but in the 
end to damn them for not believing it ? Is it anfwerable to 
the love and kindnefs of Chrift to us ; to affifrn unto him at 
his death fuch a refolution as ihis ; *' I will now, by the obla- 
•' tion of myfelf, obtain for all and every one, peace and re- 
•' conciliation with God, redemption and everlaftingfalvation, 
•' eternal glory in the high heavens ; even for all thefe 
" poor miferable wretched worms, condemned caitiffs, that 
*' every hour ought to expe6l the fentence of condemnation; 
" and all thefe fhall truly and really be communicated to them 
•' if they will believe ; but yet wiihai I will fo order things, 
•' that innumerable fouls fliall never hear one word of all this 
*• that 1 have done for them, never be perfuaded to believe, 
** nor have the object of faith that is to be believed propofed 
♦' to them; whereby they might indeed poiTibly partake ot 
*• thefe things ?" Was this the mind and will, this the dcHgn 
and purpofe of our merciful high prieft ? God forUd. It is 
all one, as if a prince ftiould fay and proclaim ; that whereas 
there be a number of captives held in fore bondage in fuch a 
place, and he hath a full treafure, he is refolved to redeem 
them every one ; {o that every one of them iliall come out of 
prifon, that will thank him for his good will ; and in the 


1 1 2 Arguments agairifl 

mean time never take care to let thefe poor captives fcnovy 
his mind and pleafure ; and yet be fully aflured, that unlefs 
he efteft it liimfelf, it will never be done ; would not this be 
conceived a vain and oftentatious flourifti, v/ithoutany good 
intent indeed towards the poor captives ? Or asif a phyfician 
fhould fay, that he hath a medicine that will cure all d'ifeafes, 
and he intends to cure the difeafes of all ; but lets but very 
few know his mind, or any thing of his m.edicine ; and yet is 
aflured that, without his relation and particular information, 
it will be known to very few : and fhall he be fuppofed to de- 
fire, intend or aim at the recovery ot all ? 

Now it is moft clear from the Scripture and experience of 
aU ages, both under the old difpenfation of the covenant and 
the new ; that innumerable men, whole nations, for a long 
fealon, are palled by in the declaration of this myftery ; 
the Lord doth not procure, that it fhall by any means in the 
leaft meafure be made out to all ; they hear not fo much as a 
rumour or report of any fuch thing. Under the Old Tefla- 
ment, " in Judah was God known, and his name was great 
** in Ifrael ; in Salem was his tabernacle, and his dwelling 
*• place in Sion," P/^/. Ixxvi. 1,2. " He fhewed his word 
*' unto Jacob, and his judgments unto Ifrael ; he hath not 
" dealt fo with any nation, and as for his judgments they 
*• have not known them," cxlvii. 19. 20. Whence thofe apel- 
lations of the heathen, and imprecations alfo ; diS jfer. x. 25, 
" Pour out thy fury upon the heathen that know thee not, 
•* and upon the families that call not on thy name ;" of whom 
you have a full defcription, Epk. ii. 12. " Without Chrifl, 
" aliens from the commonwealth of Ifrael, and flrangers 
" from the covenants of promife ; having no hope, and with- 
" out God in the world." And under the New Teflament ; 
though the church have confirmed her cords and flrengihened 
her flakes, and many nations are come in to the mountain of 
the Lord ; fo many, as to be called, all people, all nations, yea 
the world, the whole world, in comparifon of the fmall pre- 
cinft of the church of the Jews ; yet now alfo. Scripture 
and experience do make it clear, that many are paffed by, 
yea millions of fouls that never hear a word of Chrifl nor re- 
conciliation by him ; of which we can give no other reafon, 
but, " even fo. Father, for fo it feemed good in thy fight," 
Matt. xi. 26. For the Scripture ; ye have the Holy Ghofl 
exprefsly forbidding the apoflles to go to fundry places with 
the word, but fending them another way, yltls xvi, 6, 7, 9, 
10. anfwerable to the former difpenfation in ^omc particulars, 


Univerfal Redemption, uq 

wherein he fuffered all nations to walk in their own ways, ABs 
Aiv. 16. And tor experience; nor to multiply particulars, 
do but afk any of our brethren who have been at any time 
in the /WiVj, and they will eafily refolve you in tiie tiuth 

The exceptions againft this argument, are poor and frivo- 
lous ; which we referve for a reply. In brief; how is it re- 
vealed to thofe ihoufands of the offspring of infidels, whom 
the Lord cuts oflFin their -nfancy, that they may not pefter 
the world, perfecute his church, nor diliuib human fociety ? 
How to their parents ; of whom Paul affirms, that by the 
works of God they might be led to the knowledge oi his 
eternal power and god-head ; but that they Jliould know any 
thing of Redemption or a Redeemer, was utterly impojji'ule, 


Containing three other arguments, 


JF Jefus Chrill died for all men ; that is, purchafed and 
procured for them, according to the mind and will of 
God, all thofe things which we recounted and the Scripture 
fetteth forth, to be the efFe£ls and fruits of his death, which 
may be fummed up in this one phrafe, eternal redemption : 
then he did this, and that according to the purpofe of God ; 
either abfolutely, or upon fome condition by thera to be ful- 
filled. If abfolutely ; then ought all and every one, abf^lute- 
ly and infallibly, to be made actual partakers of that eternal 
redemption fo purchafed : for what, [ pray, fhould hinder the 
enjoyment of that to any, which God abfolutely mtended, 
and Chrift abfolutely purchafed for them. If u^on condition ; 
then he did either procure this condition for them, or he did 
not ? If he did procure this condition for them ; iha^ is, that 
2t (iiould be bellowed on thera, and wrought within them; 
then he did it either abfolutely again, or upon a condition. 
If abfolutely ; then are we as we were before : for to procure 
any thing for another", to be conferred on him upon fuch a 
condition, and withal, to procure that condition abfolutely to 
be beffowed on them ; is equivalent to the abfolute procur- 
ing of the thing itfelf. For fo we affirm in this very bufint fs; 
Chrifl procured falvation for us, to be bellowed condiiion- 

? ally, 

1 14 Arguments agaUifi 

ally, if we do believe ; but faith itfelf, that he hath abfolutC' 
iy proLured, withvout a prefcribing of any condition. Wuence 
we affirm, that the purchafing of falvation for us, is equiva- 
lent to what it wouM have been, il it had been fo purchafed, 
as to have been abfolutely beftuwed, in refpeft of the event 
and iflue : fo that thus alfo, mull all be abfolutely faved. — 
But if ihis condition be procured upon condition, let that bs 
afTigncd ; and we will renew our query concerning the pro- 
curing of that, whether it v»'ere abfolute or conditior.al ; and 
fo never reft, until they come to fix fomcwhere, or flill run 
in'o a circle. 

But on the other fide, is not this condition procured by 
him, en whofe performance all the good things purchafed by 
him are to be aftually enjoyed i^ Then firft, this condition 
muff be made known to all, as Arg, 2. Secondly; all men 
are able of themfelves to perform this condition, or they are 
not : if they are ; then, feeing that condition is faith in the 
promifes, as is on all fides conff (Fed, all men are of them- 
felves, by the power of their own free will, ab'e to believe : 
which is contrary to the Scriptures ; as by the Lord's afTift- 
ance fliall be declared. If ihey cannot ; but that this faith 
muft be bellowed on them and wrought within them, by the 
free grace of God : then, when God gave his Son 10 die for 
them, to procure eternal redemption for them all, upon 
condiiion that thev did believe; he either purpofed to work 
faith in them all by his grace, that they might believe, or he 
did not : If he did ; why doth he not a6\ually perform it ; 
feeing he is of one tnind, and who can turn him ? why do 
not all believe ? whv have not all men faith ? or doth he fail 
of his purpofe ? If he did not purpofe to beflow faith on, 
them all, or (which is all one) if he purpofed not to beftow 
faith on all, (for the will of God doth not confift in a pure 
negation of any thing, — what he doth not will that it fhould 
be, he wills that it fhould not be) then the fum of it comes to 
this : that God gave Chrift to die for all men ; but upon this 
condition, that they perform that which of themfelves with- 
out him they cannot perform, and purpofed that for his part 
he would not accomplifh it in them. 

Now, if this be not extreme madncfs ; to allign a will un- 
to Gof*, of doing that which himfelf knows and orders that it 
Ihail never be done, of granting a thing upon a condition 
which without his help cannot be fulfilled, and which help he 
purpoled not to grant ; let all judge. Is this any thing, but 
to delude poor creatures ? Isitpoflible that ^ny good at all 


Univerfal Redemption* 


fiiould arlfc to any, by fuch a purpofe as this, fuch a giving 
of a ledeemer ? Is it agreeable to the goodnefs ot God, to in- 
tend fo great a good as is the rcdempdon purrhaftrd by Clu ul ; 
£nd to pretend that he woold have it prcfitablc for thern : 
when he knows that they can no more fuitii the condition 
which he requires, that it may be by ihcm enjoyed ; than 
Lazarus could, of himfelf, come ou« of the grave ? Doth 
it befvfetn the wifdom of God, to purpofe that which he 
knows fhali never be fulfilled ? If a man (bould promife to 
give a iooo pounds to a bhnd man, \xMm condiiioti that he 
will open his eyes and fee ; which he knows well enough he 
cannot do ; were that promife to be fuppofed to come from 
an heart-pitying of his poveri) ; and not rather from a mind 
toillude and mock at his mifery ? If the King Ihould pro- 
mife to pay a ranfom for the captives at Algiers, upon con- 
dition that they would conquer their tyrants, and come away, 
v»'hich he knows full well they cannot do : were this a kindly 
aft ? Or if a man fhould pay a price to redeem captives, but 
not that their chains may be taken away, without which they 
cannot come out of prifon ; or promife dead men greac re. 
wards, upon condition they live again of themfelves : are 
not thefe to as much end, as the obtaining of falvation for 
men upon condition that they do believe ; without obtaining 
that condition for them ? Were not that the atTigning fuch a 
will and purpofe as this to Jefus Chiilt : *' I will obtain eter- 
" nal life, to be beftowed on men and become theirs by the 
" application of the benefits of my death, but upon this 
*' condition that they do believe ; but as 1 will not reveal my 
" mind and will in this bufincfs, nor this condition iifelf, to 
** innumerable of them ; fo concerning the reft, I know they 
" are no v^ays able of themfclves (no more than Lazarus was 
*' to rife, or a blind man is to fee) to perform ihe condition 
*• that I do require, and without which i:one of the ^^ood 
" things intended for them can ever become theiis ; neither 
" will I procure that condition ever to be fulfilled in ihem : 
** that is, I do will that that fxiall be done, which I do not 
" only know fliail never be done, but that it cannot be done, 
" becaufe I will not do that, without which- it can never be 
*' accomplilhed." Now whether fuch a will and purpofe as 
this, befecms the wifdom and goodnefs of our Saviour; let 
the reader judge. 

In brief, an intention of doing good unto any one, upon 
the performance of fuch a condition as the intender knows is 
abfolutely afbovc the lirength of him of whom it is required, 


Ii6 Arguments againP 

(efpecially if he know that it can no way be done but by his 
concurrence, and he is refolved not to yield that afliftance 
•which is necefTary to the a£^ual accomplifliment of it) is a 
vain truitlefs flouiifh. That Chrift then fnould obtain of his 
Pdther eternal redemption, and the Lord ftiould through hit 
Son intend it for them who ihall never be made partakers of 
it, bpcaufe they carmot perform, and God and Chrifl have 
purpofed not to beftow, the condition on which alone it is to 
be made ^flually theirs; is unworthy of Chrift, and unpro- 
fitable to them for whom it is obtained ; which that any thing 
ihdi Chilli oh'amed tor the fons of men, fhould be fo unto 
ihem, is an hard faying indeed. Again, if God through 
Chrift purpofe to fave all if they do believe, becaufe he died 
for all; and this faith be not purchafed by Chrift, nor are 
men able of themfelvcs to beiieve : how comes it to pafs, 
th.'t any are faven ? 

11 it be anfwered ; God beftows faith on fome, not on 
others: 1 repl\' ; is this diftinguifhing grace pui chafed for 
thr){e fonjc, comparatively, in refpeB of thofe that are pafTed 
by wiiiiout it ? li u be, then did not Chrift die equally tor all, 
ior lie died «hat fome might have faith, not others : ytdi in 
compaiifon, he Cdnnot be faid to die for thofe other fome at 
all; not dying th<it they might have faith, without which he 
J;new that all the reft would be unprofi able and fruitlefs But 
is it not purchafed lor them by Chrift ? then have thofe that 
be faved no more to thank Ctirift for, than thofe that are 
damned ; which were ftrange, and contrary to Rtv. i. 5, 6 : 
** Unto him that loved us, and waftied us from our fins in his 
*' own blood ; and hath made us kings and priefts unto God 
« and his father," Sec. 

For my part, I do conceive that Chrift haih obtained falva- 
tion for men ; not upon condition if they would receive it, 
but fo fully and perfectly — that certainly they fhould receive 
it : he purchafed /2,W^?6'«, to be beftowed on them that do 
believe ; but wiihal faith, ihat ihey might believe. Neither 
can it be obje^fed, that, according to our doftrine, God re- 
quites any thing of men that they cannot do ; yea faith, to 
believe in Chnft: for, i. Commands do not fignify what is 
God's intention fhould be done, but what is our duty to do ; 
which may be made known to us, whether we be ab!e toper- 
form it or not : it (jgnifieth no intention or purpofe ot God. 
^2. For the promifes, which are propoled together with the 
commind to believe; (1.) thev do not hold out the intent and 
purpoieof God, that Chrift Ihould die for us if we do be- 
lieve ; 

Univerf at Redemption. u^ 

lic?e ; which is abfurd, that the aft fiiould be the conftituter 
©f its own obje£l, which mult be before it ; and is prelup- 
pofed to be, before we are defired to believe it : nor, (2.) 
thepurpofeof God, that the death of Chrift fhould be pro- 
fitable to us if we do beHeve ; which we before confuted ; 
but, (3.) only that faith is the way to falvation, which God 
hath appointed ; fo that all that do believe, (hall undoubtedly 
be faved ; thefe two things, faith and falvation, being infe- 
parably linked together, as Ihall be declared. 

A R G U M E N T IV. 

If all mankind be, in and by the eternal purpofe of God, 
•liftinguifhed into two forts and conditions, feveral'v and 
diftin6lly defcribed and let forth in the Scripture ; and Chrift 
be peculiarly affirnned to die for one of thefe forts, and no 
where for them of the other : then did he not die for all • 
for of the one fort he dies for all and every one, and of the 
other for no one at a'l. But, 

1//, There is fuch a difcriminating diflinguifliment among 
men, bv the eternal purpofe of God, as ihofe wiiom /^^ /^y^j 
and thofe whom ^d liaies, Rom. ix. 13. Thofe whom he 
knoweth, and whom he knoweth not ; John x. ia. I tnozu my 

Jheep : 2 Tim. ii. 19. Tfie Lord knozuetk them that are his : 
RoiTJ. viii. 29. whom he did foreknow : Rom. xi. 2. h'is 
people which he foreknew : Matt. xxv. 32. 1 know you not : 
fo J^.hn xiii. 18. I /peak not of you all ; I know zuhom I have 
chofen. Thofe that are appointed to life and glory, and thofe 
that are appointed to and fitted for deffru6iion ; dtB: and re- 
probate ; thofe that were ordained to eternal life, an'd thofe 
who before were of old ordained to condemnation : as Eph* 
i. 4. He hath chofen us in him : A6^s xiii. 48. ordained to 
eternal life.: Romn/iii. 30. tVhom he did predfiinate, them he 
aljo called ; and wfiom he called, them he al/o ju/hfi^d; and 
whom hejujlified, them he alfo gloi ified. So on the othe'r fide ; 
1 Thef. V. 9. Godhathnot appointed us to wrath, but to obtain 

falvation; appointed to wiath : Rom. ix. 18, in, 20, 21. 
Be hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will 
he hardeneth; thou wilt J ay then unto me, why doth he yet find 

fault ? for who hath repjled his will? nay, but man, who 
art thou that reply fi agaifl God ? fhall the thing formed fay to 
himihatjormed it, why hafi thou made ihe thus f hath not the 
mttr power over the clay, of the fame lump to make one vej/el 


1 1 8 Arguments a^airifl 

unto honour and anoiher unto difhonour ? Jode Iv. Orddini,J 
id this condemnation ; 2 Pes. ii. 12. Mad<: to be taken and 
dc/iroyed : Matt. xxv. 0^2. JJzeep and goats : John x. pqffim. 
Tt'ole that are \\\s peculiar people and ckildren according tp 
fiomi/e, riiat are not of the zcorld, his church ; and thofe thirt 
in oppofition to tbem are the zvor Id, not prayed for, not hispto- 
fie; as Tit. ii- 14. Gal. iv. 2^. John w. 19, and xvii.9, lo.CuL 
i. 2'\.Johnx\. ^2. Htb.W. 10, 12, 13. WhichdIftin8ionotmen 
is every where alcribcd to the purpofe, will, and good plealufe 
of God : Prov. xvi. 4 The Lord hath made all things jor him/elf 
even the wicked Jor the day oj evil : Matt. xi. 25, 26. I thank thee 
father^ becaufe thou kajl hid thej'e things from the loife and 
prudent, and hafl revealed them unto babes ; evcnfo Father, f or fo 
if feemed good in thy fight: Rom. ix. 11, \2..The children being 
not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the pur-^ 
poje of God according io eletlion might Jland, not of works, bul 
efhim that caileth ; it was faid unto her. The elder fJidll fervt 
the younger : verfe 16, 17. So then it is not of him that willeth^ 
nor of him t^Mt runneth, but of God that fheweth mercy; for 
the Scripture faith unto Pharaoh, even Jor this fame purpoje 
have Ifaifedthee up, that I ?rdglitfiew my pozuer in thee, and 
that my name might be declared throughout ell the earth: Rora. 
viii. 28, 29, 50. Who are called according to his purpofe ; 
for whom he did foreknow, he alfo did predeflinate to be con- 
formed to the imaoe of his Son, that he might be the firfl born 
among many brethren ; moreover whom he did predeflinate, thent 
he alfo called, and whom he called, them he alfo jufiifitd, and 
whom hejufUfied, them he alfo glorified. So that the firft 
part of the propofition is clear from the Scripture. Now, 

2diy. Chrift is faid exprefsly and punBually, to die for 
them an the one fide ; {ox his people. Matt. i. 21. hisfheep^ 
John X. 11, 12, 14. his church, Afts xx. 28. Eph. v. 25. 
as diftinguilhed from the world, Rom. v. 8, 9. John xi. 51, 
^2. his ""eldi, Rom. viii. 32, 33, 34. hv'uhildren, Heb. ii. 
13. as before more at large. Whence we may furely con- 
clude, that Chrift died not for all and every one ; to wit, 
not for ihofe be never knezv, whom hehateth, whom he hard- 
eneth, on whom he will not fiew mercy, who were before of 
§{d ordained to condemnation; in a word, for ihe reprobate^ 
for the world, Jor which he zvould not pray. That which 
fome except, that though Chrift be faid to die for his fieep, 
for his elctl, his chofen ; yet he is not laid to die for them on:ly, 
ihat term is no where expreft ;. is of no value ; for is it not 
wi^houiany forced interpretation, in- common fenfe and ac- 

UnWerfal Redemption. 11* 

^crcilrg't^ thft nrual courfe of fpeaking, to dlfiin'ruilTi men 

into two Tjch oppofite conditions, as c!e6l snd rcprobai:?, 

flieep and goats ; and then affirming that be died for his el<:t^, 

to be equivalent to this, he died for his elc6> only ? 1$ not. 

the fenfe as clearly reftrained, as ifthat refbiftive term had 

been added ? or isthi^t term always- ?dded in the Scripture, 

in every indefinite aflertion ; which yet muft of neccfTi'y be 

limited and rellrained, as if it were exprefsly addfd ? As 

%vhere our Saviour laiih, " I am the way, and the life, and 

" the refurreBion," John xiv. 6. and xi. 2^^ He (\o>hr\fA 

fay, that he only is fo ; and yet of neccffuy it muft be fo un- 

derftood. As alfo in that, Col- i. 19. " It pleafed the Fa- 

*• ther, that in hira fliouid 3II fulncfs dwell ;" he doth not 

cxprefs the limitation only : and yet it were no lefs fhaf> bldf- 

phemy, to (uppofe a pofjibility of exter-ding the affirmation 

to anv oiher. So that this argument, notwiihflanding ihis 

exception, i*, as far a? I can fee, unanfvirerabic t which alfa 

might be further urged, by a more large expiicatlon of God'& 

purpofe of election and reprobation ; {hewing how the dcsub 

of Chriil was a means fet apart and appoin'eil for the faving 

of his eleft, and not at all undergone and ruffercd for thofi? 

which in his eternal counfel he d\d. determine fhould perifh- 

for their fins, and {o never be made partakers of the benefits 

thereof. But of this more muft he fpoken ; if the X^ord 

preferve us, and give affiftance for the other part of thi-^ 

controverfy, concerning the caule of fending Chrift. 


That is not to be afferted and offirni^t!', vhich the Scrip* 
lure doth not any wheie go before us in ; but the Scripture 
no where Lith, Chrid died/^r a// 7;:f«, much lefs for all and 
every man, (between which two, there is a wide difFerence, 
as (hall be declared) therefore this is not to.be afierted. jt 
is true, Chriil is faid to give his life a random for all, but no 
ynhcvc ior rJl men. And becaufe it is affirmed exprefslv iri 
©ther places, that he died for ?;2^;2j);, for \m churck, for them 
thatM^?',?, for the children thai God gave him, for us : foms 
©^ ^\' forts, rhough not exprefsly, yet clearly in terms equi- 
valent, Riv. V. 9, 10. it rnuftbe clearly proved, that where- 
all is mentioned, it cannot be taken for all believers^ all his 
elet>, his whole church, all the children that God gave him, 
l©m.' cf all forts ; before an iinivcrfal afltnuctive can be- 

>20 Argumsnts againjt 

thence concluded : and if men will but confider the parties-- 
lar places, and contain themielves until they have done 
what is required ; we ihall be at quiet, i am perfuaded, i« 
this bufinefs. 


Containing two other arguments ; from the per/on which 
Chriji fuftaintd, in this bufinefs, 


FOR whom Chrift died, he died as a Sponfor in their ftead ; 
as is apparent, Rom. v. 6, 7, 8. " For when we were 
*' yet without ftrength, in due time Chrift died for the un- 
" godly ; for fcarcely for a righteous man will one die, yet 
" peradventure for a good man forae would even dare to die ; 
*' but God commendeih his love towards us, in that while 
" we were yet fmners Chrift died for us ;" Gal. iii. 13 He 
was " made a curfe for us ;" 2 Cor. v. 21. "He hath made 
" him to be fin for us." All which places do plainly fignify 
and hold out a change or commutation o\ perfons ; one be- 
ing accepted in the room of the other. Now if he died as the 
fponfor or furety of them for whom he died, in their ftead ; 
then thefe two things, at leaft, will follow. 

1/?, That he freed them from that anger, and wrath, and 
guilt of death, which he underwent for them ; that they 
fhould, in and for him, be all reconciled, and be freed from 
the bondage wherein they are by reafon of death : for no 
other reafon in the world can be afligned, why Chrift fhould 
undergo any thing in anothei's ftead ; but that this other 
might be freed from undergoing that which he underwent 
for him. And all juftice requires, that fo it fhould be; 
which alfo is exprefsly intimated, when our Saviour is faid 
to be EN GYOS, "a furety of abetter Teftament," Heb.v'w. 22. 
that is, by being our prieft, undergoing the ch-tftilement of 
our peace, and the burthen of our iniquities, Ifa. liii. 5, 6, 
7. He was " made fin for us, that we might be made the 
** righieoufnefs of God in him," zCor.wix. But now all 
are not freed from wrath and the guilt of death, and adually 
reconciled to God; which is to be juftified, through an im- 
putation of righteoufnefs, and a non-imputation of iniquities: 
lor until a man come to Chrift, ** the wrath of God abideth 

Univerfal Redeinption, 121 

' " on him," JfoJin ill. 36. which argueih and intlmateth, a 
not-removal of wrath, by reafon of not beHeving. He dotb 
not fay, it cojnes on them ; as though, by Chrift's death, 
they were freed from being under a date and condition of 
wrath, which we are all in by nature, Eph. ii, 3. but men ei, 
it remaineth or abidetk ; it was never removed ] and to them 
the gofpel is a favour of death to death ; bringnig a new 
death and a fore condemnation, by its being delpifed, unto 
that death the guilt whereof they before lay under. Some 
have indeed afhrmed ; that all and every one are redeemed, 
reftorcd, juftified, and made righteous in Chrift, and by bi^ 
death : but truly this is fo wretched; I will not fay pervert- 
ing of the Scriptures, which give no colour to any fuch yffer- 
tion, but fo direft an oppofition to them ; as I judge it fruit- 
lefs and loft labour, to go about to remove iuch exceptions, 
(More, page 45.) 

zdly. It follows, that Chrift made fatisfa^llon for the finS 
bf all and every man ; if he died for them ; for the reafon 
why he underwent death for us as a furety, was to make fa- 
tisfa£lion to God's juftice for our fins, fo to redeem us to 
himfelf; neither can any other be aftigned. But Chrift hath 
not fatisfied the juftice of God, for all the ftns of all and 
every man ; which may be made evident by divers reafons ; 
as, . ... 

1. For whofe fins he made fatisfaflion to the juftice of God^ 
for their fins juftice is fatisfied ; or elfe his fatisfa6fion was 
rejefted as infufficient ; for no other reafon can be affigned 
of fuch a fruitlefs attempt ; which to aver, is blafphemy iri 
the higheft degree. But now, the juftice of God is not fatis- 
fied tor all the fins of all and every man ; which alfo is no* 
lefs apparent than the former ; for they that muft undergo 
eternal puniftiment themfelves for their fins, that the juftice 
of God may be fatisfied for their fins ; the juftice of God 
was not fatisfied without their own puniftiment, by the pu- 
niihment of Chrift j for they are not healed by his ftripes. 
But that innumerable fouls iliall, to eternity, undergo tl;e 
punifliment due to their own fins ; I hope needs with chrifti- 
ans no proving ; now, how can the juftice of God require 
fatisfatiion of them for their fins; if it were before fatisfied 
for them in Chrift ? To be fatisfied, and to require fatisfa61i- 
on that it may be fatisfied, are coatradi6lory ; and cannot be 
affirmed of the fame, in refpeft of the fan\e; but that the 
Lord will require of forae the ut'moft farthing, is moft clear. 
Matt, v, 26. 

g a.^Chrift 

122 Arguments againfi 

2. Chriil:, by undergoing death for us a£ our lurety, fatisfi- 
cd lor no more than he intended fo to do. So great a thing 
as fatisfa6lioii for the fins of men, could not accidentally 
happen befides his intention, will, and purpofe; efpecially con- 
fidering that his intention and good will, in fanttifying him- 
fclf to be in obianon, was ot abfolute neceflity to rral^e his 
death an acceptable offering. But now, Chrifl: did not in- 
tend to fatisry for the fins oi all and every man : for innu- 
merable fouls were in hell, under the punilhment and weight 
of their ov/n (ins, from whence there is no redemption ; be- 
fore, and actually then, when our Saviourinade himfelf an 
oblation for (in. Now (hall we fuppofe that Chrift would 
make himfelf an offering for their fins, whom he knew to 
be paft recovery ; and that it was utterly impoffible, that e- 
ver they Hiould have any fruit or benefit by his offering ? 
Sliall we think, that the blood of the covenant was cafl a- 
way upon them, tor whom our Saviour intended no good at 
all ? to intend good to them, he could not ; without a dire6): 
oppofition to the eternal decree of his Father, and there- 
in of his own eternal deity. Did God fend his Son, did 
Chrift come to die for Cain and Pharaoh ; damned fo many- 
years before his fuffering ? crtdat Apella. The exception, 
that Chrift died for them, and his death would have been a- 
vailable to them, if they had believed and fulfilled the condi- 
onr equired ; is in my judgment of no force at all. For, 

(i.) For the moll part, they never heard ot any fuch con- 

(2.) Chrift at his death knew fi;ll well, that they had not 
fulfirred the condition ; andi were actually cut off from any 
poffibility ever fo to do ; fo that any intention to do them 
good by his death, muft needs be vain and fruftrate ; which 
muft not be affigned to the Son of God. 

(3.) This redemption co?iditionate, if they believe ; we fliall 
reje^i anon. Neither is that other exception, that Chrifl 
might as well fatisfy for them that were eternally damned at 
the time of his fuffering (for whom it could not be ufeful.) 
as for them that were then aftually faved (for whom it was 
not needful ;) of any more value. For, 

[1.] Thofe that were faved, were faved upon this ground; 
that Chrift ftiould certainly fuffer for them in due time ; 
which fuffering oi his was as effeflual in the purpofe and pro- 
mife, as in the execution and accomplifhment. It was in the 
mind of God accounted for them as accomplifned ; the com- 
pa6l and covenant with Chrift about it being furely ratified 


Ihihrfcd Ridcmpcion* 123 

' upon mutual unchangeable promifes, (according to our con- 
ception ;) and fo our Saviour was to perform it ; and fo it 
was needful for them that were aflually faved. But f( r thofe 
that were aflually damned ; there was 'no fuch inducement 
to it, or ground for it, er iiTue to be expecled but of !■. 
' [^.] A fimile will clear the whole. Jf a man fhould fend 
word to a place where captives were in prifon, that he 
tfVvou'd pay the price and ranfom that was due for th^ir deli- 
very ; and to defire the prifoners to come forth, for he that 
detains them accepts of his word and engagement ; when he 
comes to make payment, according to his promifc; i[ he find 
fome to have gone forth according as was propofed ; and o- 
th'er continue obftinate in their dungeon ; iomt liearing ot 
what he had done, others not, and that according to his own 
appointment, and were notv long fince dead; doth he, in 
the payment oHiis promifed ranfom, intend it for them that 
died {lubbornly and obflinately in the prifon ? or only for 
them who v/ent forth ? Doubtlefs, only for thefe laft. No 
more can the paffi()n of Chrift be fuppofed to be a price paid 
for them that died in the prifon of (in and corruption, before 
the payment of his ranfom ; though it might rLiIl well be for 
them that were delivered, by virtue of his ergagement for 
the payment of fuch a ranfom. ^"^' 

3. If Chrift died in the ftead of all men. and made iatis^ 
faftion for their fins ; tiien he did it for all their fins, or only 
for fome of their fins. If for fome only, who then can be II 
faved i if for all, why then are not all faved ? They fay, it 
is becaufe of their unbelief ; they will not believe, and there- 
fore are not faved ; that unbelief, is it ,1 fin, or is it not ? 
If it be not; hov/ can it be a caufe of damnation ? if it be ; 
Chrift died for it, or he died not. If he did not; then he 
died not for all the fins of all men ; if he did, why is this an 
obftacle to their falvation ? Is there any nev/ fhift'to be in- 
vented for this ? or muff we be contented with the old, viz, 
becaufe they do not believe ; that is, Chriff did not die for 
their unbelief, or rather, did not by his death remove their 
unbelief ; becaufe they would not believe, or becsufe they 
would not themfelves remove their unbelief ; or, he died for 
their unbelief conditionally, that they were net unbelievers? 
Thefc do not feetn to me to be fober affertions. 


424 Arguments again/! 


For whom Chrift died, for them he is a Mediator ; which 
is apparent : for the oblation or offering of Chrifl, which he 
made of himfelf unto God, in the (hedding of his blood, was 
one of the chiefeil afts of his mediation. But he is not a 
Mediator for all and every one ; which alfo is no lefs evi- 
dent : becaufe, as Mediator, he is the priefl for them for 
whom he is a Mediator. Now, to a priefl it belongs, as was 
declared before, to facrifice and intercede: to procure good 
things, and to apply them to thofe for whom they are pro- 
cured ; as is evident, Heb. ix. and was proved before at large : 
which confefTedly Chrifl doth not for all : Yea, that Chrifl 
is not a Mediator for every one, needs no proof: experience 
fufficiently evinceth it ; befides innumerable places of Scrip- 
ture. It is I contefs, replied by fome ; that Chrifl is a Me- 
diator for fome, in refpeft of fome a6ls, and not in refpeft of 
others: but truly this, if I am able to judge, is a difhonefl 
fubterfuge ; that hath no ground in Scripture, and would 
make our Saviour a half Mediator in refpeft of fome, which 
h an unfavoury exprefTion. But this argument was vindicate 
ed beforcc 



Of fanBiJication, and of the caufe of faith ; and the procure^ 
mtnt thereof hy the death of Chrifl, 


ANOTHER argument may be taken, from the efeB and 
fuit of the death of Chrifl ut\\o fanBifi cation ; which 
Vhich we thus propofe, viz. If the blood of Jefus Chrifl doth 
toafh, purge, deanfe, and fanSify them for whom it was fhed, 
or for whom he was a facrifice ; then certainly he died, fhed 
liis blood, or was a facrifice, only for them that in the event 
are zvafhed, purged, cleanfed, and fanBified : which that all 
or every one are not, is moft apparent ; faith being the firfl 
principle of the heart's purification, ABs xv. 9. and all men 
have not faith, 2 Jhef iii. 2. it is of the ele£l of God, Titus 
i. 1. The confequence I conceive is undeniable, and not to 
be avoided with any diliinftions. But now we fhail make 
it evident, that the' blood of Chrift is efre6iual for all thofe 


Univerfol Rede?nption. ii^ 

,ends of zvajliing, purging, and JanSit/ying, which wc before 
recounted : and this we (hall do, firil from the types of it ; 
and fecondly, by plain expiefTions concerning the thing it- 

i/?. For the type, that which we fhall now confider is the 
facrifice of expiation ; which the Apollle fo exprelsly compar- 
eth, with the facrifice and oblation of Chrift. Of this he af- 
firmeth, Heb. ix. 13. that it legdWy JanSIified them^ for whom 
it was a facrifice ; for, faith he, " The blood of bulls and of 
" goats, and thealhes of an heifer, fprinkling the unclean, fanc- 
*' tifieth to the purifying of the flefli ;" now that which was 
done carnally and legally in the type, muft be fpiritually ef- 
fe6led in the antitype, the facrifice of Chrift, typified by that 
bloody facrifice ofbeafls. This the Apoflle afTerteth in the 
verfe following ; " How much more (faith he) fhall the blood 
" of Chrifl, who through the eternal fpirit offered himfelf 
*' without fpot to God, purge your confcience from dead 
** works to ferve the living God ?" If 1 know any thing, 
that anfwer of Arminius and fome others to this, viz. that the 
facrifice did fan6Hfy, not as offered, but -d.^ /prinkled ; and the 
blood of Chriff , not in refpe6t the of oblation, but of its ap- 
plication, anfwereth it ; is weak and unfatisfa6lory ; for it 
only afferts a divifion between the oblation and application of 
the blood of Chrill ; which though we allow to be diilin- 
guifhed, yet fuch divifion we are now difproving ; and to 
weaken our argument, the fame divifion which we difprove 
is propofed ; which (if any) is an eafy, facile way of an- 
fwering. We grant that the blood of Chrifl fanftifi- 
eth, in refpeft of the application of the good things pro- 
cured by it ; but withal prove, that it is fo applied to all for 
whom it was an oblation ; and that becaufe it is faid to fanc- 
tify and purge ; and muff anfwer the type, which did fan£lity 
to the purifying of the flefh. 

2.dly. It is exprefsly, in divers places, affirmed of the blood- 
Ihedding and death of our Saviour ; that it doth efFeft thefe 
things, and that it was intended for that purpofe. Many 
places for the clearing of this, were before recounted. I 
fhall now repeat fo many of them, as fliall be fufficient to 
give flrength to the argument in hand ; omitting thofe which 
before were produced ; only defiring, that all thofe places 
which point out the end of the death of Chrifl, may be con- 
fidered as of force to eflablifh the truth of this argument. 

1. Rom. vi, 5, 6. " For if we have been planted toge- 
5* ther in the likenefs of bis death, we fhall be aHo in the 

*' likenefs 

126 Arguments againfi 

** likenefs of his refurrecllon ; knowing this, that our old 
*' man is crucified with him, that the body of fin might be 
*' deftroyed, that henceforth we fliould not (erve fin," The 
words of the latter z;^r/^, yield a reafon of the former aflerti- 
on in ver/e 5, viz. that a participation in the death of Chrift, 
fliall certainly be accompanied with conformity to him in his 
refurrefclion ; tijat is, to life fpiritua!, as alio to eternal ; be- 
caufe our old man is' crucified witk kim, that the body of Jin 
might be dejlroyed ; that is our finful corruption and deprava- 
tion of nature, are by his death and crucifying efFe£lually and 
meritorioufly fliin, and difabled from fuch a rule and domi- 
nion over us, as that we (houid be fervants any longer unto 
them ; which is apparently the fenfe of the place ; feeing it 
is laid as a foundation, to prefs forward unto all degrees of 
fanflification, and freedom from the power of fin. 
■ 2, The fame apollle alfo tells us, 2 Cor. i. 20. '* All the pro- 
" mifes of God in him are yea and amen ; unto the glory of 
*' God by us. "YV.Qy TkXQ yeaandainen ; confirmed, ratified, 
unchangeably eftablilhed, and irrevocably made over to us ; 
now this was done 2,7 hira ; that is, in his death and blood- 
(hedding, for the confirmation of the teffament, whereof 
thefe promifes are the conveyance of the legacies to us '; coxi" 
^xmtiihy u\t death of him the Tejlator, Heb. ix. 16. for he 
VfdiS ih(: Jiireiy of this better teftamtnt^ Heb. vii. 22. which 
teftament, or covenant^ he corijirmed with many^ by his being 
cut off for them, Dan. ix. 26, 27. Now, what are the 
promifes that are tbus confirmed unto us, and eifablifhed by 
the blood of ChriP*. ? The furn of them you have, ^^r. xxxi. 
33» 34* whence they are repeated by the apoille, Heb. Viii. 
10, 1 1, 12. to fet out the nature of that covenant which was 
ratified in the blood of Jefus ; in which you have the fumma- 
ry defcription of all that free grace towards us ; both in fanc- 
tification, verfe 10, li. and in juftification, vtrfe 12. A- 
monaft thefe promifes alfo is that moil famous one of circum- 
cinn'J our heart?, and of giving new hearts and fpirits unto 
us ; as Deut. xxx. 6. Ezek. xxxvi. 26. So that our whole 
fan6lification and holinefs, with juftification and reconci- 
liation unto God ; is procured by, and eftablifhed unto us 
with unchangeable promifes in, the death and blood-fliedding 
of Chrill ; The heavenly or fpiritual things, being purified 
u^iihihaijacrificeothis, Heb. ix. 23. For " we have re- 
" demption through his blood, even the forgivcnefs of fins,'' 
Co/, i. 14. ** Through death he dellroyed him that had the 
** power of death, that is, the devil; that he might deliver 

' ** them 

Univerfal Randeption, i^^ 

** them who through fear of death were all their life-tlme 
•• ftibjeft to bondage," Heb, ii. 34. 15. 

3. Do but take notice of ihofe two moft clear places, Tit, 
ii . J4. Eph. V. 2j, 26. In both which, our cleanfing and 
fanftification is alTigncd, to be the end and intendnient of 
Chrift the worker ; and therefore the certain cffeft of his 
death and oblation, which was the work ; as was before 
proved. And I Ihall add but one place more to prove that^ 
which I am forry, that I need produce any one to do; to wit, 
that the blood of Chrift purgeih us fro?u all our fin ; and it is 
I Cor, i. 30. " Who of God is made unto us wifdom, and 
*' righteoufnefs, and fan6tification, and redemption ;" of 
which, becaufe it is clear enough, I need not fpend time to 
prove, that he was thus made unto us of God^ in as much as 
he fet him forth to be a propitiation through faith in his Mood, 
Rom. iii. 25. fothat our fanftification, with all other effefts 
of free grace, are the immediate procurement of the death of 
Chrift. And of the things that have been fpoken, this is 
the lum ; fan6lification and holinefs is the certain fruit and 
efFeft of the death of Chrift, in all them for whom he died ; 
but all and every one are not partakers of this fan6iification, 
this purging, clcanfing and working of holineis ; therefore 
Chrift died not for all and every one, quod er at dcincnflrandum. 

It is altogether in vain to except, as fome do ; that the 
death of Chrift is not the fole caui'e of thefe things, for they 
are not aftually wrought in any, vjithout the intervention of 
the Spirit's working in them, and faith apprehending the 
death of Chrift. For 

(1.) Though many total caufes of the fame kind, cannot 
concur to the producing of the fame efFe6i ; yet feveral caufes 
of feveral kinds, may concur to one effect ; and be the fole 
caufes, in that kind wherein they are caufes; The Spirit of 
God, is the caufe of fiinclification and holinefs ; but what 
kind of caufe I pray ? even fuch a one, as is immediate- 
ly and really efficient of the effeft. Faith is the caufe of 
pardon of fin ; but v/hat caufe ? in what kind ? why merely 
as an inftrum.ent, apprehending the righteoufnefs 01 Chrift. 
Now, do thefe caufes, whereof one is efficient and the other 
inftrumental, both natural and real, hinder that the biood of 
Chrift may not only concur, but aifo be the fole caufe moral 
J'nd meritorious of thefe things ? doubtlefs they do not. 
Nay they do fuppoie it fo to be ; or cHe they would, in this 
work, be neither inftrumentrd nor eilicient ; that being the 
io!e foundation of the Spirit's operation, and cilicicnce ; and 


128 Arguments againfl 

tlie folc caufe of faith's being and exiftence. A man is de« 
tarined captive by his enemy ; and one goeth to him that de- 
tains him, and pays a ranfom tor his dcHvery ; who thereup- 
on grants a warrant to the keepers of the prifon, that they 
fhall knock off liis {hackles, take away his rags, let him have 
new cloaths, according to the agreement ; faying, Deliver 
him, for I have found a ranfom ; becaufe the jailor knock* 
off his (hackles, and the warrant of the judge is brought for 
his difcharge ; (hall he or we fay, that the price and ran(om 
which was paid, was not the caufe, yea the fole caufe ot his 
delivery ? confidering that none of thefe latter had been, had 
not the ranfom been paid ; they are no lefs the effeft of that 
ranfom, than his own delivery. In our delivery from the 
bondage of fin, it is true, there are other things in other 
kinds which do concur, be(ides the death of Chrift ; as the 
operation of the Spirit, and the grace of God ; but thefe be- 
ing in one kind, and that in another ; thefe alfo being no 
lefs the fruit and effetl of the death of Chrift, than our deli- 
verance wrought by them ; it is moft apparent, that that is 
the only main caufe of the whole. 

f2.) To take off utterly this exception, with all of the like 
kind ; we affirm, that faith itfelf is a proper immediate fruit 
and procurement of the death of Chrift, in all them for whom 
he died ; which (becaufe if it be true, it utterly overthrows 
the general ranfom, or univerfal redemption ; and if it be not 
true, I will very willingly lay down this whole controverfy,, 
and be very indifferent which way it be determined, foi go 
it which way it will, free will muft be eftablifhed ;) I wiiS 
prove apart by itfelf, in the next argumentc 


1. Before I come to prefs the argument intended, I moft 
premife fome few things ; as 

iji. Whatever is freely beftowed upon us, in and through 
Chrift ; that is all wholly the procurement and merit of the 
death of Chrift ; nothing is beftowed through him, on thofe 
that are his, which he hath not purchafed ; the price where- 
by he made his purchafe, being his own blood. For the co- 
venant between his father and him, of making out all fpirilu- 
al bleffings to them that were given unto him ; was exprefsly 
founded on this condition, that he fhould " make his foul 
♦' an offering for fin," Ifa. liii. lo, 

idly. That 

Vniverfal Redemption. lag 

2dty, That Cohfeffedly on all fidcs, U\\\\ is, in men of un- 
derftandirig, of fach abfolute indirpenfable heceflity unto faU 
Vation, there being no facrifice to be admitted lor the want of 
.t iri the new covenant ; that whatever God hath done, in 
'his iovc lending his Son, and whatever Chrifl hath done or 
doth, in hiti oblation or interGelTiori for all or lorne, without 
{his in us, is, in regard oF the event, of no value, worth or 
profit unto us j but ferveth only to encreafe and aggravate 
Condemnation ; for vvhatfoever is accornphfned befides, thart 
is moll certainly true, — He that belteveth not.Jliall be damned^ 
Mark xvi. 16. (So that if there is in ou.Telves a power ot 
believing, and the aft of it doth proceed from that power, 
and is our own alfo ; then certainly and undeniably, it is in 
our power to make the love of God and death ot Chriil: ef- 
feclual towards us, or not ; and that in believing we aftually 
do the one, by an aft of our own ; which is fo evident, that 
the mod ingenious and perfpicacious of our adverfaries have 
ifi terms confcffed it ; as I have declared ^ elfewhere.) This 
being then the abfolute necefTity ol faith; it feems to me that 
the caufe of that,muft needs be the prime and principal cauCe 
of fal vation ; as being the caufe of that without which the 
whole would not be ; and by which the whole is, and is ef- 

3^/y. I fliall give thofe that to us in this are contrary mind- 
ed, their choice and option ; fo that they will anfv/er direft- 
ly, categorically, and without uncouth infignificant cloudy 
diftinftions, whether our Saviour, by his death and inter* 
ceffion (which we proved to be conjoined) did merit or pro- 
cure laith lor us or not ? or which is all one ; whether faiih 
be a fruit and efFeft of the death of Chrift, or not ? and ac- 
cording to their anfwer I will proceed : 

If they anfwer affirmatively, that it is, or that Chrift did 
procure it by his death ; (provided always that they do n3£ 
wilfully equivocate, and when 1 fpeak of faith as it is a 
grace in a particular perfon, takin^^ it fubjcftively, under- 
(land t Jiih as it is the dcftrine of faiih or the way or falvatio.'i 
declared in ilie gofpel, taking it objeftively ; which is anothef- 
thing, and befides ibe prefent queilion : although by the way 
I mud tell them, thai we deny the graniing of that new way 
of faivation in bringing lite and immortality to light by the 
gofpel in Chnft, to be procured for us by Chrift ; Imnrelf be- 
ing the chielefl part of this way, yea the way itfeU; and that 
be fhould himfelf be procured by his own death and obla- 

R ' tion, 

^ Difplay of Arminianifnu 

igo Arguments againjt 

tlon, is a very ftrange contradi6lory aflertion, befeeming 
them who have ufed it fMore^ page 35.^ It is true indeed, 
a full and plenary carrying of his elefct to life and glory by 
that way, we afcribe to him, and maintain it againft all ; but 
the granting of that way, was of the fame free grace and un- 
procured love, which was alfo the caufe of granting himfelt 
unto us, Gen. iii. 15.) if, I fay, they anfwer thus affirmatively ; 
then I demand, whether Chrift procured fai'.h for all for 
whom he died, ahfolutely, or upon fome condition on their 
part to be fulfilled ? If ahfolutely; then furely if he died for 
all, they mufl all ahfolutely believe ; for that which is abfo- 
Jutely procured for any, is ahfolutely his, no doubt ; he that 
hath ahfolutely procured an inheritance, by what means fo- 
ever, who can hinder that it fhould not be his ? But this is 
contrary to that of the apoffle, all men have not faith, 2, ThefT, 
iii 2. zudi faith is of God's eleB^ Tit. i. 1. If they lay that he 
procured it for them, that is, to be beftowed on them conditi- 
onally ; I defire that they would anfwer, bona fide ; and round- 
ly in terms, without equivocation, or blind diftinflions, af- 
fign that condition, that we may know what it is, feeing it is 
a thing of fo infinite concernment to all our fouls; let me 
know this condition which ye will maintain; and en herb am 
a?nici, the caufe is yours. Is it as fome fay, if they do not 
refift the grace of God ? now what is it not to refift the gra^e 
of God ; is it not to obey it ? and what is it to obey the grace 
of God ; is it not to believe ? fo the condition of faith, is 
faith itfell: Chrifl procured that they fhould believe, upon con- 
dition that they do believe ; are thefe things fo ? But they can 
affign a condition on our part required, oi faith, that is not 
faith iifelf ; can they do it ? let us hear it then ; and we will 
renew our injquiry concerning that condition, whether it be 
procured by Chrift or not. If not ; then is the caufe of faith 
ftill refolved into ourfelves : Chrift is not the author and 
finifher of it. If it be ; then are we juft where we were be- 
fore, and muft follow with our queries, whether that condi- 
tion was procured ahfolutely, or upon condition : depinge 
ubi fiflam. But, 

2. If they will anfwer negatively ; as, agreeably to their 
own principles, they ought to do ; and deny that faith is pro- 
cured by the death of Chrift ; then, 

(1.) They muft maintain, that it is an aft of our own wills; 
fo our own, as not to be wrought in us by grace ; and that it 
is wholly fituated in our power, to perform that fpiritual 
a8 ; nothing being beftowed upon us by free grace, in and 


Univerfal Redumption* 


ihrough Chrift, (as was before declared) — but what by him, In 

■ his death and oblation, was procured. Which is contrary, 

fi J io exprefs fcripture, in exceeding many places ; which I 

mall not recount ; [2.] to the very nature of the being of 

the new covenant ; which doth not prefcribe and require the 

condition of it, but efFeftually work it in all the covenantees, 

7er. xxx'i. 33, 44. EzeL xxxvi. 26. Bd. viii. 10,11. 

[3.] to the advancement of the free grace of God ; in fetting 

up the power of fiee will in the flate of corrupted nature, to 

the flighting and undervaluing thereof ; [4.] to the received 

doftrine, of our natural depravednefs and difability to any 

thing that is good ; yea, by evident unftrained confequence, 

overthrowing that fundamental article of original fin ; yea, 

[5.] to right reafon ; which will never grant that the natural 

Faculty is able of itfelf, without fome fpiritual elevation, to 

produce an a6l purely fpiritual ; as 1 Cor. ii. 14. 

(2,) They muft refolvc almofl the fole caufe ot our falvation, 
into ourfelves ultimately ; it being in our own power, to 
make all that God and Chrilt do unto that end, efFeftual, or 
to fruftrate their utmoft endeavours for that purpofe. For 
all that is done, whether in the Father's loving us and fending 
his Son to die for us, or in the Son's offering himlelf for an 
oblation in our ftead, (or for us, in our behalf) is conieffedly 
(as before) of no value nor worth, in refpe6b of any profitable 
ifTue, unlefs we believe; which that we fhall do, Chrift hath 
not effefted nor procured by his death ; neither can the Lord 
fo work it in us, but that the fole cafting voice (if I may fo 
fay) whether we will believe or no, is left to ourfelves. Now 
whether this be not to aflign unto ourfe'ves the caufe of our 
own happinefs, and to make us the chief builders of our own 
glory, let all judge. 

II. Thefe things being thus prcmifed, I fhall briefly prove 
that which is denied, viz. That faith is procured for us by 
the death of Chrifl; and fo confequenily he died not for all 
and every one, for all men have not faith. And this we may 
do, by thefe following reafons : 

1//. The death of Jefus Chrifl purchafed hollnefs and fcinc- 
tification for us ; as was at large proved, 'Arg. 8ih ; but faiih, 
as it is a grace of the fpirit inherent in us, is ioi mally j part 
of our lanftification and holinels ; ihereloie he procured 
faith for us. The affumption is mod certain, and not denied; 
the propofiiion was fufficienily confirmed, in the ioregoiiig 
argument; and I lee not what may be excepted, againit tne 
!.ruth ot the whole. If any fhall except and lay, that Chrift 


j^e Arguments againfi 

flight p'-ocure for us fome part of hoHncfs (for we fpeak of 

pans and not of aegiees and iTie?.fure) but not all ; as the 
fanftification of hope, love, meej^nefs, and the like ; \ 
^{k firft, what warrant have we for any fuch difiinftion be. 
trween the graces ot the Spirit ; that fome of them fhould be 
of the purchafing of ChriU^ others of our own ftore? Se- 
condly ; whether we are more prone of ourfelves to believ?, 
and more able, than to love, and hope ? and where may we 
have a ground for that ? 

idly. All the iruits of eleftion are purehafed for us by Je» 
fus Chrifl ; for we are chojen in him, Eph. i. 4. as the only 
caufe and fountain of all thoie good things which the Lord 
choofeth us to, for the praife of his glorious grace, tliat in 
all things he might have the pre-eminenee. 1 hope I need 
rot be To folicitous about the proving of this • tha: the Lord 
Jefus is the only way and mean, by and for whom the Lord 
will certainly and aftually collate upon his eleft, all the 
fruits and eSPefts of intendments of that love whereby he 
chofe them ; but nov/, faith is a fruit, a principal fruit of our 
ele6lion ; for (faith the apoflle) we are ckofen in him, before 
the foundation of the worlds that we JJiould he holy, Eph. i. 4. 
of which holinefs, faith, purifying the heart, is a principal 
fhare. Moreover, whom he did predeftinate, them alfo he caU 
led, Rom. viii. 30. that is, with that calling which is ac- 
cording to his purpofe ; effeQually working faith in them, 
by the mighty operation of the Spirit according to the exceed- 
ing greatnefs of his power, ^"^h. i. 19. And fo they believe, 
(God making them differ from others, i Cor. iv. 7. in the 
enjoyment of the means) who are ordained to eternal life, A6ls. 
xiii. 48. their being ordained to eternal life, was the foun- 
tain from whence their faith did flow ; and fo the eledion 
hath obtained, and the refl were blinded, Rom. xi. 7. 

33^/)'. All the blefhngs of the new covenant are procured 
and purehafed, by him in whom the promifes thereof are 
ratified, and to whom they are made; for all the good things 
thereof are contained in and exhibited by thofe promifes, 
through the working of the Spirit of God. Now, concern- 
ing the promifes of \he covenant, and their being confirmed 
in Chriif, and made unto him, as Gal. iii. 16. with what is 
to be underftood in thofe exprcffions ; was before declared. 
Therefore all the good things of the covenant are the effeHs, 
fruits, and purchafe of the death of Chrift ; he, and all things 
for him, being the fub (lance and whole of it. Further, that 
iaith is of the good things of the new cpven&nt, is apparent 


univ^i'j^i' Rcaempiion. igg 

irom the (lefcriprion thereof, Jer. xxxi. 33. Hebrews viil. le. 
11. £z^/^. xxxvi. 26. with divers other places; as might clear- 
ly be manifeOcd, if we ail'e£ied copiouJnefs in cavfafacili, 

^thly, Tnst without which it is utterly impoflTilDie that we 
(bould be (aved, rnuft of necefiity be procured by him by 
whom we iire fully <ind e(re6lually faved ; let them that can, 
declare how he can be faid to procure falvation fully and 
£ffe61u«»l|y for us, and not be the author and purchafer of 
that, (tor he is the author of our falvation, by way of pur- 
ebafe) without which it is utterly impofTjbJe we fhould attain 
^^Ivation. Now, without faith it is utterly impoflible thit 
«ver anv (Ht^uld attain falvation. Ueh, xi. 6. Maik xvi. 16. 
But Jefus Chrift (according to his name) doth perfectly favft 
us, MiJtth. i. 21. procuring for us eternal redemption^ Heh. 
ix. 12. being able to fave to the uttermojl^ them that come un^ 
iQ Cod by kim, Hebrews vii. 25. and therefore mu ft /azVA 
^Ifo be within the compafs of thofe things that are procure^ 
by him. 

^ihly. The Scripture is clear in exprefs terms, and fuch as 
arc fo equivalent that they are not liab'ie to any evafion ; as 
Phil. i. 29. // IS given unto us, hyper Christou in thehe^ 
half 0/ Chrtjly for Chnjl'sfake, to believe on him. Faith or belief 
is the gift, and Chrift is the procurer of it : God hath blejfed 
us with allfpiritual bkjfings in heavenly places^ in Chrifl, Eph, 
i. 5. If faith be a fpintual blefTmg, it is beffowed on us in 
him ; and fo alfo for his fake ; if it be not, it is not worth 
contending about, in this fenfe and way; fo that, let others 
look which way they will, 1 defire to look to Jefus as the au- 
thor and finiPur of our faith, Heb. xii. 2. 

Divers other reafons, arguments, and places of Scripture, 
might be added ; for the confirmation of this truth; but I 
hope I have faid enough, and do not defire to fay all. The 
fum of the whole reafoning may be reduced to this head, viz, 
Jf the fruit and effeft procured and wrought by the death of 
Chrift, abiolutely, not depending on any condition in man to 
be fulfilled, be not common to al! ; then did not Chrift die 
fcr all ; but the fuppofal is true ; as is evident in the grace of 
faith, which being procured by the deaih of Chrift, to be 
abfolutely beftowed on them for whom he died, is not com- 
mon to all; therefore our Saviour did not die for all. 


i34 Arguments againfi 


We argue from the type to the antitype, or the thing figni. 
fled by it ; which will evidenLly reftrain the oblation of Chrift 
lo God's ele6t. — The people of Ifrael were certainly, in ail 
remarkable things that happened unto them, typical of the 
church of God; as the apoflle declares, i Cor, x. n. Ef- 
pecially, their inftitutions and ordinances were all reprefent- 
ative of the fpirituai things of the gofpel ; their priefls, altar, 
facrifices, were but all (hadows of the good things to come in 
Jefus Chrift ; their Canaan was a type of Heaven, Heb iv. 
3, 9. as alfo Hierufalem or Sion, Gat, iv. 26. — Heb, xii. 22. 
The whole people itfelf was a type ol God's church, his eleft, 
his chofen and called people ; whence as they were called an 
holy people, a royal priefthood, fo alio, in allufion to them, 
are believers, 1 Pd. ii. 5, 9. Yea, God's people are in in- 
numerable places called his Ifrael; as it is further expounded, 
Jieb, viii. 8. a true Ifraelite is as much as a true believer, 
jfokn \, 47. and he is a Jew which is one inwardly, in the 
hidden man of the heart, Rom, iii. 29. I hope it needs not 
be proved, that that people, as delivered from bondage, pre- 
ferved, taken nigh unto God, brought into Canaan^ was ty- 
pical of God's fpirituai church, of eleft-believers. Whence 
we thus argue, Thofe only are really and fpiritually redeemed 
by Jefus Chrift, who are defigned, fignified, typified by the 
people of Ifrael, in their carnal typical redemption ; (for no 
reafon in the world can be rendered, why fome ftiould be 
typed out, in the fame condition partakers of the fame good, 
and not others ;} bat by the people of the Jews, in their de- 
liverance from Egypt^ bringing into Canaan^ with all their 
ordinances and inllitutions, only theeleft, the church of God 
was typed out ; as was before proved. And in truth, it is 
the moft fenfelefs thing in the world, to imagine that the Jews 
were under a type to all the whole world, or indeed to any 
but God's chofen ones, as is proved at large, Heb, ix. 10. — 
Were the Jews and their ordinances, types to the feven na- 
tions whom they deftroyed and fupplanted in Canaan? were 
they fo to Egyptians, infidels, and haters of God and his 
Chriit ? we conclude then affuredly, from that juft proportion 
;hat ought to be obferved between the types and the things 
typified, that only ihe eleft of God, his church and chofen 
cni:s, are redeemed by Jefus Chrift. 


Univerfal Redemption. k3i 


Being A continuance of arguments, from the nature and de- 
fcription of the thing in hand: And firjl^ of redemption. 


THAT doftrine which will not by any means fuit with, 
nor be made conformable lo the thing fignified by it, and 
the expreflions hteral and deduftive, whereby in Scripture it 
is held out unto us, but implies evident contradittions unto 
them, cannot poflibly be found and fincere, as is the milk of 
the word ; but now fuch is this per fuafion of univerfal re- 
demption, it can never be fuiied nor fined to the thing iifelf, 
or redemption, nor to thofe expreffions whereby in the Scrip- 
ture it is held out unto us ; univerfal redemption, and yet 
many die in captivity, is a contradiftion irreconcileable in it- 
felf. To manifeft this, let us confider fome of the chiefell 
words and phrafes, whereby the matter concerning which we 
treat, is delivered in the Scripture, fuch as are redemption, 
reconciliation, fatisfaSion, merits dying for us, bearing our 
fins, fur etyfhip ; his being God, a common perfon, a Jefus, 
faving to the utmoft, a facrifice putting away fin, and the 
like ; to which we may add the importance of fome prepo- 
fitions, and other words ufed in the original dbout this bufi- 
nefs, and doubt not but we fhall eafily find that the general 
ranfom, or rather univerfal redemption, will hardly fuit to 
any of them ; but it is too long tor the bed, and mud be 
cropped at head or heels. 

I. Begin we with the vjok^ redemption \\.\<t\\ \ which we 
will confider, name and thing. Redemption, which in the 
Scripture is Lytrosis fometimes, but moft frequently 
APOLYTRosis; is, the delivery of any one from captivity and 
mifery, by the intervention Lytron of a price or ranfom. That 
this ranfom or price of our deliverance, was the blood of 
Cbrift, is evident ; he calls it Lytron, Matt. xx. q.%. and 
AN Ti LYTRON, 1 Tim. ii. 6. that is, the price of fuch a re- 
demption ; that which was received, as a valuable confidera- 
tion for our difmilTion. Now that which is aimed at, in the 
payment of this price, is the deliverance of thofe from the 
evil wherewith they were opprefled, for whom the price is 
paid : it being in this fpiritual redemption, as it is in corpo- 
ral and civil ; only with the alteration of fome circuniflan- 
ces, as the nature of the thing inicrceth. Tliis the holy Spi- 

1^6 Arguments againjl 

rit manifefteth ; by comparing the blood of Chrift in this 
work of redemption, with filver and gold, and fuch other 
things as are the intervening ranfom iri civil redemption, i 
Fet. i. 18, 19. The evil wherewith we were opprelTed, was 
the punifhment which we had deferved ; that is the faiisfac- 
tion required, when the debt is fin : which alfo we are by the 
payment of this price delivered from; fo Gal.'\\\. 13. For we 
Aie juflified freely by his grace^ thro' the rtdemplion that is in 
Jejus Chrijl. Rom. iii. 24. In whom we have redemption 
thro' his bloody the forgivenefs of fens, Eph. i. 7. Col. 1* i^. 
Free jaftification from the guilt, and pardon of lin, in the 
deliverance from the punifhment due anto it; is the efte£t of 
the redemption procured, by the payment of the price We 
before mentioned : as if a man fliould have his friend in bon* 
dage ; and he fliould go and lay out his eftate to pay the 
price of his freedom, that is fet upon his head by him that 
detains him ; and fo fet him at liberty. Only, ^s was before 
intimated, this fpiritual redemption hath fome fupereminent 
things in it, that ar6 not to be found in other deliverances ; as, 

ijl. He that receives the ranfom, doth alfo give it ; Chrift 
is a propitiation, to appeafe and atone the Lord j but the 
Lord himfeif fet him forth foto be, Rom, iii. 24, 25. Whence 
he himfeli is often laid to redeem us ; his love is the caufe of 
the price in refpe6l of its procurement, and his juftice accepts 
of thepriceinrelpe£l of its merit : for Chrift came down from 
Heaven, to do the will of him that fent him, John vi. 38. 
Heb. X. 9, 10. It is otherways, in the redemption amongfl 
men ; where he that receives the ranfom, hath lio hand in the 
providing of it. 

2dly, The captive or prifoner is not {o much freed from 
his power who detains him, as brought into his favour. 
When a captive amongft men, is redeemed by the payment 
of a ranfom ; he is inftantly to be fet free from the power 
and authority of him that did detain him : but in this fpiritual 
redemption, upon the payment of the ranfom for us, which 
is the blood of Jefus ; we are not removed from, God, but 
are brought nigh unto him, Ephef. ii. 13. not delivered from 
his power, but reftored to his favour : our mifery being a pu- 
nifhment by the way of banifliment, as well as thraldom. 

<^dly. As the judge was to be fatisfied, fo the jailor was to 
be conquered. God the judge, giving him leave to fight for 
his dominion ; which was wrongfully ufurped, though that 
whereby he had it, was by the Lord juftly infli£led, and his 
thraldom by us rightly deferved, \Heh, ii. 14. CcL ii 15, And 


Univerfal Redemption, i^y 

he loft his power, as ftroncr as he was, for ftrlving to grafp 
more than he could hold : for the foundation of his kingdom 
being Cm, afTauhing Chrifl who did no fin, he loft his power 
over them that Chrift came to redeem, having no part in 
him ; fo was th« ftrong man bound, and his houfe fpoiled. 

In thefe and fome other few circumftances is cur fpiritual 
redemption diverfified from civil ; but for the main, it an- 
fwers the word in the proprietv thereof, according to the ufe 
that it hath amongft men. Now there is a two-fold way, 
whef'eby this is in the Scripture exprcfTed : for fomctimesour 
Saviour is faid to die for our redempticriy and fometimes for 
the redemption of our tranfgreffions ; both tending to the fame 
purpofe ; yea both exprefTions, as 1 conceive, fignify the fame 
thing. Of the latter you have an example, Heb. ix. 15. he died 
£IS APOLYTRosiN PARABASEON*. which fay (ome is a 
metonymy, tranfgrejfions being put for tranfgrejjors ; ethers, 
that it is a proper expreffion for the paying of a price, where- 
by we may be delivered from the evil of our tranfgrefTions. 
The other exprefTion you have EpheJ. i. 7. and in divers other 
places, where the words lytron and apolytrosis do 
concur; as alfo Matt. xx. 28 and Mark x. 45. Now thefe 
words, efpecially that of antilytron, 1 Tz/^. ii. 6. do al- 
ways denote, by the (not to be wrefted) genuine fignification of 
them, the payment of a price ; or an equil compenfation, in 
lieu of fomething to be done, or grant made by him to whom 
that price is paid. Having given thefe few notions, concern- 
ing redemption in general ; let us now fee, how applicable it 
is unto general redemption. 

Redemption is the freeing of a man from mifery, by the in- 
tervention ot a ranfom ; as appeareth : now when a ranfom 
is paid for the liberty of a prifoner, is it not all the juftice in 
the world, that he fhould have and enjoy the liberty fo pur- 
chafed for him by a valuable confideration ? It I iliould pay 
a thoufand pounds for a man's deliverance from bondage, to 
him that detains him, who hath power to fet him free, and is 
contented with the price I give ; v/ere it not injurious to me 
and the poor prifoner, that his deliverance be not accompliffi- 
ed ? Can it poflibly be conceived, that there fhould be a re- 
demption ot men, and thofc men not redeemed P that a price 
fhould be paid, and the purchafe not confummated ? yet all 
this muft be made true, and innumerable other abfurdities, 
if univerfal redemption be aflerted. A price is paid tor all, 
yet few delivered; the redemption of all confuram-ated, yet 
ie\w of them redeemed : the judge fatisficd, the jailor con- 

S que red ; 

13B Argumcnls cgaipfr 

qaerCvi ; and yet t!ie prifoner inthralled. Doubilefs, vnivzT" 
Jul ani tedirnplion, where ihegreaieft part of men pcrilh, are 
as irreconcilcable as Rjman and Catholic. If there be an unU ;, 
veifal rederapiion ot all, then all men are redeemed ; il ihey 
are redeemed, then are ihcy delivered Irom all mifery virtu- 
ally or aclnaliy, whereunto they weie inthralled, and that by 
the intervention oi a ranlom : why then are not all favcd ? 
la a word, the redemption wrought by Chiift, being the 
lull deliverance of the peifons rtrdeemed, from all mifery 
wherein they were enwrapped, by the price ot his b'ood ; 
il cannot pofTibly be conceived to be univerfal, unlefs all be 
favcd : fo that tHe opinion of the univerfaliils is unfuitable 
ij redemption. 

<}♦ 'J' ♦ ^ ^ 4* •?• 4"J* "f 4- "r 'f ^ + 4- "f 4* 


()/ the nature of reconciliation ; and the. argument taken 
Jrom thence. 


II. \ NOTHER thing afcribed to the death of Chrifl, 
XX and by the confent of all extending itfelf unto all 
for whom he died, is reconciliation. This, in Scripiure, is 
t-learly propofed under a double notion : firfl of God to us ; 
itcondly, of us to God : both ufually afcribed to the death 
and blood-fhcdding of Jefus Chrift ; for thofe who were enC' 
inics, he reccncilcd in the body cj his Jltjh th 0' death. Col. i. 
*2i, 22. And doubilefs, thefe things do exaftly anlwer one 
another ; ail thofe to whom he hath reconciled God, he doth 
alfo reconcile unto God : ior unlefs both be effefted, it can- 
not be faid to be a perfeft reconciliation. For how can it be, 
if peace be made only on the one fide, yea it is utterly im- 
poflible, that a divifion of thefe two can be rationally appre- 
hended : for if God be reconciled, not man ; why doth not 
he reconcile him, feeing it is conieffedly in his power ? and 
if man ftiould be reconciled, not God ; how can he be ready 
to receive all that com.e unto him ? Now, that God, and all 
and every one in the world, are a61ually reconciled and made 
at peace in Jefus Chrift, I hope will not be affirmed : but 
to clear this, we muft a little confider the nature of reconci' 
Ration^ as it is pi-opofed to us in the gofpel, unto which alfo 
fome light may be given, from the nature of the thing itfelf, 
and the ufe ot the word in civil things. 

Reconciliation ~ 

Univerfal Redimption, 13a 

Ueconciiiaiion is the renewing of friendrhip, between parties 
before at variance : bo li parties being propeily faid to be re- 
conciled ; even both he that ofifenileth, and he that was of- 
fended. God dim\ man were fel at dirtance, at enmity and va- 
riance, by-^fin ; man v/as the party offending, God offend- 
ed, and the alienation was mtitual on cither fide; but yet 
with this difference, that man was alienated in refpefl of af- 
teftions, the ground an..l caufe of anger and enmity, God, 
inrcfpea of theeff.asand iiTu>?of anger and enmity, The 
word, in the New Teiiament, is katallage, and the verb 
KATALLAsso; reconciUaticn^ to reconcile; both from 
ALLATTO, to change, or to turn from one thing, one mind, 
to another; whence the firft native fignification of thofe 
words, \% permulalio 2.x\i\ permutare \ (o Arifr, Elh. 3. tom 

moil commonly thofe that are reconciled are changed, in re- 
fpect of their affeftlons, always in refpeftof the diflanceand va* 
riance, and in refpea of the effefts ; thence it fignifieth re- 
conciliation and to reconcile. And the word may not be 
affirmed of any bufinefs, or of any men; until both parties 
are aOually reconciled, and all differences removed, in 
refpea of any former grudge and ill-will; if one be well- 
pleafed with the other, and that other cotuinuc akatal- 
LAKTOS, inappeafcd and implacable, there is no reconcili- 
ation. When cur Saviour gives that command, that he 

that brought his gift to the altar, and there remembered 
that his brother had ought againft him, were offended with 
him for any caule, he (hculd go and be reconciled to him ; he 
fully intendeth a mutual returning of minds one to another, 
efpeciaily refpeaing the appeafmg and atoning of him that 
was offended ; neither are thefe words ufed among men in a- 
ny other fenfe ; but always denote, even in common fpeech, 
a full redintegration of friendlhip between diffenting parties ; 
with reference, moll times, to fome compenfation made to 
the offended party. The reconciling of one party and the o- 
ther, iiiay be diftinguifhed ; but both are required, to make 
up an intire reconciliation. ' 

As then the folly of Socinus and his feaaiies is remarkable, 
who would have the reconciliation mentioned in the Scrip-' 
ture, to be nothing but our converfion to God ; without ihe 
appearing oi his anger, and turning away his wrath from us ; 
vyhich is a reconciliation hopping on one leg ; fo, that dif- 
tinaion of fome, between the reconciliation of God to man, 
making that to be univerfal towards all; and the reconcilia- 

140 Arguments againjl 

tlon of man to God, making that to be only of a fmall num- 
ber of thofe to whom God is reconciled ; is a no lefs monf- 
trcus figment. Mutuil alienation muft have mutual recon- 
ciliation ; feeing they are correlata. The ftaie between God 
and man, before the reconciliation made by CLrifl, was a 
flate oi enmity ; man was at enmity with God, we were his 
enemies^ CoL i. 21. Rom. v. 10. hating him, and oppofing 
ouifelves to him, in the higheft rebellion, to the utmoft of our 
power. God alfo was thus far an enemy to us, thai his 
wrath was on us, Ephef, ii. 3. which remaineth on us, until 
we do believe, John iii. 36. To make perfeft reconcU 
Jidiion, (which Chrilt is faid in many places to do) it is re- 
<3u)red, firO, that the wrath of God be turned away, his an- 
ger removed, and all the eflfefls of enmity on his part to- 
ward us; fecondly, that we be turned away from our op- 
pofition to him, and brought into voluntary obedience; 
muil both thefe be effefted, reconciliation is not perfefted. 
Now both thefe are in the Scripture alhgned to our Saviour, 
as the effe6ls of his death and facrjiice. 

1/?, He turned away the wrath of God from us, and fo ap- 
peafed him towards us; that was the reconciling of God by 
his death ; for when we were encjiiies^ we were reconciled to 
Cod by the death of his Son. Rom. v. 10. That here is meant 
the reconciling of God, as that part of reconciliation which 
confifleih in turning away his wrath from us, is moft i\ppa- 
rent ; it being that whereby God chiefly commendeth bis 
iove to us, which certainly is in the forgivenefs of fin, by 
the averfion of his anger due to it; as alfo being oppofed 
to our being faved from the wrath to come, in the latter end 
oftheverie; which comprifeth our converfion and whole 
reconciliation to God. Befides verfe 11. we are faid to re- 
ceive TEN RATAL LAG EN, this reconciliation^ (which, 
I know not by what means, we have tranflated — atonement) 
which cannot be meant of our reconciliation to God, or 
converfion, which we cannot properly be faid to accept or 
receive ; but of him to us, which we receive when it is ap- 
prehended by faith. 

^dly. He turneth us away from our enmity towards 
God; redeeming and reconciling us to God, by the blood 
of his crofs, Ci?/. i. 20. to wit, then meritorioufly, fatistac- 
torily, by the way of acquifition and purchafe ; accomphfh- 
ing it in due time, aflually and efficiently by his Spirit ; both 
tljcfc ye have jointly mentioned, 2 Cor, v. 18, 19, 20. 
Where we may fee, i, God's being reconciled to us in 

Chrift i 

Univerfal Redemption l^j 

Chrlft ; which confifleth in a not imputation of iniquities, 
and is the fubjeft matter of the miniftry, ver/es 18, 19. and 
«. The reconciling of us to God, by accepting the pardon 
of our fins, which is the end of the miniftry, verje 20. as the 
fame is alfo at large declared, Ephf. ii. 13, 14, i^. The ac- 
tual, then, and efFeftual accompliftiment ot both thefe,^;wtt/ 
& femely in refpe£f of procurement, and by continuance, in 
procels of time, in the ordinances of the gofpel, in refpeft of 
final accomplilhment on the part of men ; do make up that 
reconciliation, which is the efFeft of the death ol Chrift ; 
for fo it is in many places afligned to be ; Wt are rtconciled 
to God by the death of his Son y Rom. v. 10. And you that 
werefometimes alienated^ hath he reconciled^ in the body of his 
JleJJi through deaths Col. i. 21, 22. Which is in lundry 
places lo evident in the Scripture, that none can poflibly deny 
reconciliation to be the immediate effeft and produft of the 
death ofChrifl. 

Now, how, this reconciliation can poflibly be reconciled 
with univerfal redemption, I am no way able to difcern ; 
for if reconciliation be the proper efFeft of the death of Chrift, 
as is confeft by all ; then if he died for all, I afk, (1.) How 
Cometh it to pafs, that God is not reconciled to all ? as he is 
not ; for his wrath abideth on fome, John iii. 36. and re- 
conciliation is the averfion of wrath. (2.J That all are not re- 
conciled to God ? as they are not ; Jor by nature all are the 
childr&i of wrath^ Eph. ii. 3. and fome all their lives do no- 
thing but treafure up wrath againfl the day oj wrath, Rom. 
ii. 5. (3.) How then can it be, that reconciliation fhould be 
wrought between God and all men ; and yet neither God re- 
conciled to all, nor all reconciled to God ? (4.) If God be 
reconciled to all, when doth he begin to be unreconciled to- 
wards them that perifh ? by what alteration is it ? in his will 
or nature ? (5.; If all be reconciled by the death of Chrift, 
when ^o they begin to be Uiireconciled who perifh» being born 
children of wrath ? (6.) Seeing thai reconciliation on the 
part of God, confifts in the turning away of his wrath, and 
not imputing of iniquity, 2 Cor. v. 18, 19. which is'jufti- 
fication, rendering us blefled, Rom. iv. 6, 7, 8. why, if 
God be reconciled to ail, are not all juftified and made bleffed, 
through a non-imputation of their fm ? They who have 
found out a redemption where none are redeemed, and a re- 
conciliation where none are reconciled ; can eafily anfwer 
thefe and fuch other queftions. Which to do, I leave them 
to their leifure ; and in the mean time conclude this part of 


1 42 Arguments dgainjl 

our argument, that reconciliation, which is the renewing of 
loil fiiendfhip, the flaying of enmity, the making up of peace, 
the appcafing of God and turning away of his wrath, attend- 
ed with a non-imputation of iniquities ; and on our part con- 
verfion to God, by bith and repentance : this, I fay, being 
that reconcib'ation which is the efFeft of the death and blood 
of Chrift ; it cannot be aflerted in reference to any, nor 
Chrift faid to die for any other, but only thofe concerning 
whom all the properties of it, and a6ls wherein it doth confift, 
may be truly affirmed ; which whether they may be of allmen^ 
er no, let all men judge, 


OJ the nature oj the fatisfaSion of Chrifl ; with arguments 
from thence. 


HI. A Third way whereby the death of Chrifl for finners 
JLjL is exprefled, is fatisfa6lion, viz, that by his death 
ha m^de fatisfa6tion to the juftice of God for their fms for 
whom he died, that {o they might go free. It is true, the 
word fatisfaBion is not found in the Latin or EnglifJi bibles, 
applied to the death of Chrift ; in the New Teftaraent it is not 
at all, and in the Old but tivice, Numb. xxxv. 31, 32. But 
the thing itfelf intended by that word, is every where afcribed 
to the death of our Saviour ; there being alfo other words, in 
ihe original languages, equivalent to that whereby we exprefs 
the thing in hand. Now that Chrifl did thus make fatisfac- 
tion for all them, or rather for their fins, for whom he died, is 
(as far as I know) confefTed by all that are but outwardly call- 
ed after his name; the wretched Socinians excepted, with 
whom at this time we have not to do. Let us then firfl fee, 
what this fatisfaftion i^ ; then, how inconfiflent it is with uni- 
verfal redemption. 

i//. Satisfaclion is a term borrowed from the law, applied 
properly to things, thence tranflated and accommodated unto 
perfcns, and it is <2 full cowpenfalion of the creditor from the 
dtbtor. To whom ary thing is due from any man, he is in 
that regard that man's creditor, and the other is his debtor; 
upon whom there is an obligation to pay or rcflore what is fo 


Univerfal Redemption. 143 

due from him, until he be freed by a lawful breaking of that 
obligation, by making it null and void ; v\hich nii U be done, 
by yielding y^/2j/a(?2V7i to what his ntditor can icquire, by 
virtue of that obligation. As, if 1 owe a man an £ , 100, I 
am his debtor, by virtue ot the bond wherein I am bound, un- 
til fome fuch thing be done as rccorapcnccth him, and movcth 
him to cancel the bond ; which is called fatisfadicn. Hence, 
from things real^ it was and is tranfiatcd to things perjonal ; 
perfonal debts are injuiies and faults, which when a man hath 
committed, h,e Is liable to punifliment ; he that n to infli6l 
that punifliment, or upon whom it lieih to fee that it be done, 
is or inay be the creditor ; which he muft do, unlefs fatis'ac- 
tion be made. Now there may be a twofold fatisfaclion, viz» 
by a lolution or paying the very thing that is in the obligation, 
either by the party himfelf that is bound, or by fome other ia 
his ftead; as, if 1 owe a man £. 20, rny friend goeth and pay- 
eth it, my creditor is fully fati^fied ; or by a foluiion or pay- 
ing ot fo much, although in another kind, not the fame that 
is in the obligation ; which, by the creditor's acceptation, 
Hands in the lieu of it ; upon which aifo, freedom from the 
obligation foUoweth, not neceflarlly, but by virtue of an a6t 
of favour. 

In ihe bufinefs in hand, the debtor is man; he ov/eth the 
10,000 talents, Matt, xvlii. 24. The debt \s,Jin; Jorgivc us 
our ddts. Matt. vi. 12. That wh.ch is required in lieu 
thereof, to make fatisfaftion for it, is death ; in the day that 
thou eatejl thereof, thou JJialt furtly die. Gen. ii. 17. The 
zvages of fin is death, Rom. vi. 23. The obli'^ation whereby 
the debtor is tied and bound, is the law ; cur fid is every cue 
that continueth not in all things zchich are written in the hook of 
ihe law, to do them. Gal. iii. 10. the juflice of God, Rom. i. 
32. and the truth of God, Gen. iii. 3. The creditor that re- 
quireth this of us, is God; eonfidered as the party offended, 
level e judge, and fupreme Lord of all things. And that 
which inierveneth, to the deftruftion of the obligation, is the 
ranfomp^id by Chriff, Rom. iii. 25. God Jet him jcrth to be 
a propitiation through faith in his blood. 

1 Ihall not enter upon any long difcourfe, of the falisfaclion 
made by Chrifl; but only fo far clear it, as is neceffary to 
give light to the matter in hand. To this twd. two things mult 
be cleared; firft, that Chriil did make fuch faiisfaaion as 
whereof we entreat, as alfo wherein it doth confi/i ; lecond- 
]y, what is that acl of God towards man, the debtor, which 
doth and ought to folbv; the futisfa61ion made. 

1. For 

144 Arguments againfi 

1. For the firft ; I told you the word itfelf doth not occur 
in this bufinefs in the Scripture ; the thing fignified by it (be- 
ing a compenfalion made to God by Chrift for our debts) moft 
trequently. For to make fatisfaftion to God tor our fins, it 
is required only, that he undergo the pumjhment due to them ; 
for that is trie fatisfa6^ion required, where fin is the debt. — 
Novv this Chrift hath certainly efFefted ; for his own JelJ bare 
cur fins in his own body on the tree^ i Pet. ii. 24. By his 
knowledge Jhall my righteous fervant jujlify many, for he ^atl 
hear their iniquities, Ifaiah liii. 11. The word NASA 
alfo verfe 12. arguing a taking of the punifhment of 
fin from us and tranflaiing it to himfelf, fignifieth as much^ 
yea all that we do mean by the word fatisjatlion. So alfo 
doth that of anenenken, ufed by Peter in the room 
thereof; for to bear iniquity, in the Scripture language, is 
to undergo the punifhment due to it, Lev. v. 1. which we 
call, to make fatisfaftion for it ; which is further illuftrated, 
by a declaration how he bare our fins ; even by being wound' 
ed for our tranfgrefjions, and bruifed for our iniquities, Ifa, 
liii. 5, whereunto is added in the clofe, that the chaflifement 
of our peace was upon him. Every chaftifement is either 
NOUTHETIKE, for inftruftion, or paradigmatike, tor 
example, punifhment and correction ; the firfl can have no 
place in our Saviour, the Son of God hath no need to be 
laught with fuch thorns and briers ; it muft therefore be for 
punifhment and correftion, and that for our fins then upon 
him, whereby our peace or freedom from punifhment was 

Moreover, in the New Teflament there be divers words 
and exprefTions concerning the death of our Saviour ; hold- 
ing out that thing which by fatisfaftion we intend ; as when 
itisiermedPROSPHORA£^^. v. ii. paredoken heautoi^ 
PROSPHORAN KAi THYSIAN, an obiaiiou or facrifice of 
expiation ; as appeareth by that type of it, with which it is 
compared, Ueb. ix. 13, 14. Of the fame force alfo is the 
word ASCHAM, Haiah liii. 10. Leveticus vii. 2. Kt 
made his foul an offering for fin^ a piacular facrifice for the 
removing of it away ; which the apoflle abundantly cleareth, 
in faying that he was made hamartia, fin itfelf, 2 Cor, 
V. 21. fin being there put for the adjunft of it, or the pu- 
nifhment due unto it. So alfo is he termed hilasmos, 
1 "John ii. 2. Whereunto anfwers the Ffebrew chitte, ufed 
G^w.xxxi. 39. (ANICHI CHITTENAH, egoiUud txpiabam) 
which is to undergo the debt, 2nd to make corapenfation for 


JJnivtrfal Redemption. 145 

it ; which was the office of him who was to be Job's Goel, 
Job xix. 25. All which and divers other words, which in 
part fhall be afterwards confidered, do declare the very fame 
thing which we intend by fatisfaftion ; even a taking upon 
him the whole punilhment due to fin ; and in the offering of 
himfelf, doing that, which God, who was offended, was more 
delighted and pleafed withal, than he was difpieafed and of- 
fended with all the fins of all thpfe that he fuffered and offer- 
ed himfelf for. And there can be no more compleat fatis- 
faftion made to any, than by doing that which he is more 
contented with, than difcontented and troubled with that ior 
which he muft be fatisfied. God was more pleafed with the 
obedience, offering, and facrifice of his Son, than difpleafcd 
with the fins and rebellions of all the eleft. As, if a good 
king ffiould have a company ot his (ubjefts ftand out in re- 
bellion againft him, and he were thereby moved to deftroy 
them, becaufe they would not have him reign over them; and 
the only fon of that king {hould put in for their pardon, mak- 
ing a tender to his father of fome excellent conqueft by him 
lately atchieved, befeeching him to accept of it, and be 
pleafed with his poor fubje6^ts, fo as to receive them into fa- 
vour again ; or, wKich is nearer, ffiould offer himfelf to un- 
dergo that punifhment which his juftice had allotted for the 
rebels, and ffiould accordingly do it; he fhould properly 
.make fatisfaftion for their offence, and in Ilrift juftice they 
ought to be pardoned. This was Chrifl ; as that one Hircus 
APOPOMPAios, fent-away goat, that bare and carried 
away all the fins of the people of God, to fall himfelf under 
them ; though with affurance to break all the bonds of death, 
and to live tor ever. Now, whereas I faid that there is a 
twofold faiisfaftion, whereby the debtor is freed froni the 
obligation that is upon him ; the one being folutio ejufdem^ 
payment of the fame thing that was in the obligation ; the 
oiher Jo I utio tantideJUy of that which is not the fame, nor e- 
quivalent unto it, but only in the gracious acceptation of tlie 
creditor ; it is worth our inquiry, which of thefe it was thac 
our Saviour did perform. 

He who is eiteemed by many to have handled this argu- 
ment with moft exaclnefs, denieth that the payment made by 
Chrift for us (by the payment of the debt of fin, underlland 
by analogy, the undergoing of ^the puniffiment due unto it) 
VI 3iS folutio ejiifdem, or of the fame thing diretlly which was 
in the obligation ; for which he giveth fome reafons ; viz. 
becaufe fuch a folution, fatisfaftion or pavment, is attended 

T ' with 

1^6 Arguments againji 

with a£luai freedom from the obligation ; and becaufe where 
fuch a folution is made, there is no room for remiflion or 
pardon. It is true (faith he) deUverance fol'.oweth upon it, 
but this deliverance cannot be by way of gracious pardon ; 
tor there needeth not the intervening of any fuch aft of 
grace. But now (faith he) that fatisfaftion whereby fome 
other thing is offered than which was in the obligation, may 
be admitted or refufed according as the creditor pleafeth ; and 
being admitted for any, it is by an a6l of grace ; and fuch 
was the fatisfaftion made by Clirift. Now truly, none of 
thefe reafons feem of fo much weight to me, as to draw mc 
into that perfuafion. For, 

(i.) The firft reafon refls upon that for the confirmation of 
it, which cannot be granted, viz. that aftual freedom from 
the obligation, doth not iollow the fatisfaftion made by 
Chrill. For by his death he did deliver us from death, and 
that aftually ; fo far as that the eleft are faid to die and rife 
with him ; he did aftually, or ipfo JaBo, deliver us from the 
curfc, by being made a curie for us ; and the hand writing 
that was againft us, even the whole obligation, was taken out 
of the way, and nailed to his crofs. It is true, all for whom 
he did this, do not inflantly aftually apprehend and perceive 
it, which is impofTible ; but yet that hinders not, but that 
they have all the fruits of his death in a£f ual right, though not 
in aftual poffeflion ; which laft they cannot have, until at leaft 
it be made known to them. As if a man pay a ranfom for a 
prifoner detained in a foreign country ; the very day of the 
payment and acceptation of it, the prifoner hath right to his 
iiberty ; although he cannot enjoy it, until fuch time as ti- 
dings ofit are brought unto him, and a warrant produced for 
his delivery ; fo that this reafon is nothing but a begging 


(2.) The fatisfa£iion of Chrift, by the payment of the 
fame thing that was required in the obligation, is no way 
prejudicial to that free gracious condonation of fin, fo often 
mentioned. God's gracious pardoning of fin comprifeth the 
whole difpenfation of grace towards us in Chriff, whereof 
there are two parts, viz. The laying of our fin on Chrift, or 
making him to be fin for us; which was merely and purely an 
aft of free grace, which he did for his own fake ; and then, 
the gracious imputation of the righteoufnefs of Chrift to us, 
or making us the righteoufnels of God in him ; which is no 
lefs of grace and mercy ; and that becaufe the very merit of 
Chrift himfclf .bath its foundation in a free compaft and co- 

Univerfal Redemption, 1 47 

venant. However, that remiflion, grace and pardon, which 
is in God Tor fmners, is not oppofed to Chrill's merits, but 
ours; he pardoneth all to us ; but he fpaied not his only Son, 
he bated him not one farthing. The freedom then of pardon, 
hath not its foundation in any defeft of the merit or fatisfac- 
tion of Chrifl ; but in three other things, viz. [1] The will 
of God, freely appointing this fatisfaftion of Chrift, John 
iii. 16. Rom, v. 8 1 John iv. 9. [2.] In a gracious accep- 
tation ot that decreed latistaQion, in our fteads i fo many, 
no more. [3.] In a free application of the death of Chrift 
unto us. 

Rcmiffion, then, excludes not a full fatisfaftion, by the 
folution of ihe very thing in the obligation ; but only the fo- 
lution or fatisfaflion ot him, to whom pardon and remiffiou 
is granted ; fo that notwiihftanding any thing faid to the con- 
trary, the death of Chrift m.ade fatisfaftion in the very thing 
that was required in the obligation. He took away the 
cmie by bang ?nade a cur/Cf Gal. iii. 13. He delivered us 
from fin, bemg made Jin, 2 Cor. v. 21. He underwent 
death, that we might be delivered from death ; all our debt 
was in the curfe ot the law, which he wholly underwent. Nei- 
ther do we read of any relaxation of the punifhment, in the 
Scripture; but only a commutation of the perfon ; which 
being done, God condemned Jin in theJleJJi of Lis Son, Rom. 
viii. 3. Chrift ftanding in our ftead ; and fo reparation was 
made unto God, and fatisfa6lion given, for all the 'detriment 
that might accrue to him, by the fin and rebellion of them for 
whom this fatistaftion was made. Hisjuftice was violated ; 
and he fets forth Chriji to he a prdpitiation for our fins ; that 
he might bejujl, and the j-ujiijier of him which believeth in Je- 
fuSy Rom. iii. 25, 26. and never indeed was his juftice 
more clearly demonftrated, than in caujing the iniquity of us 
all to meet upon him. His law was broken ; therefore Chrift 
comes to be the end of the law for righteousnefs^ Rom. x. 4. 
Our offence and dilobedience was~to him diftafteful ; in the 
obedience of Chrift, he took full pleafure, Rom, v. 17, 
Matt, iii. 17. 

Now from all this, thus much (to clear up the nature of 
the fatisfa61ion made by Chriftj appeareth, viz. it was a full 
valuable compenfation, made to the juftice of God, for all 
the fins of all thofe for whom he made fatisfaffion ; by un« 
dergoing \\\-dXfamz punifliment, which, by reafon of the obli- 
gation that was upon them, they themi'elves were bound to 
undergo. When I fay {htfame, I mean efTentially the faine 


148 Arguments againjl 

in weight and prefTure, though not in all accidents, of dura- 
tion and the like ; tor it was impofliblc that he (hould be de- 
tained by death. Now, whether this will ftand in the juftice 
of God, that any of thefe (hould perifti eternally, for whom 
Jefus Chrift made fo full, perfeft, and compleat fatisfaftion, 
we fhall prefently inquire ; and this is the firft thing that wc 
are to confider in this bufinefs. 

2. We mull look what aft of God. it is that is exercifed, 
either toward us or our Saviour, in this bufinefs. That God, 
in the whole, is the party offended by our fins, is by all con- 
feffed ; it is his law that is broken, his glory that is impaired, 
his honour that is abafed by our fin ; Jf I be a Father ^ (faith 
he) where is mine honour ? Mai. i, 6. Now the law of nature 
and univerfal right requlreth, that the party oflPended be re- 
compenfed, in whatfoever he is injured by the fault of ano- 
ther. Being thus offended, the Lord is to be confidered un- 
der a twofold notion, viz. (1.) In refpeft of us he is as a cre- 
ditor, and all we miferable debtors ; to him we owe the ten 
thoufand talents, Matt, xviii. 24. and our Saviour hath taught 
us to call our fins our debts, lAatt. vi. 12. and the payment 
of this debt the Lord requireth and exafteth of us. (2.) In 
xefpeft of Chriff, (on whom he was pleafed to lay thepunijh* 
Tnent of us ailf to make our iniquity to ?neet upon him^ not 
/paring him, but requiring the debt at his hands to the ut- 
jnofl farthing) God is confidered as the fupreme Lord and 
governor of all, the only law-giver ; who alone had power 
fo far to relax his own law, as to have the name of a furety 
put into the obligation, which before was not there, and then 
to require the debt of that furety : for he alone hath power 
of life and death, James'w. 12. 

Now thefe two a6b are eminent in God, in this bufinefs \, 
(1.) An a61; of fevere juftice, as a creditor; cxafting the 
payment of the debt at the hand of the debtor : which, 
where fin is the debt, is punlfhment, as was before declared ; 
the juftice of God being repaired thereby, in whatfoever it 
was before violated. (2.) An aft of fovereignty, or fupreme 
dominion; In tranflating the punlfhment from the principal 
<iebtor, (o the furety, which of his free grace he himfelt had 
given and beftowed pri the debtor ; He /pared mt his own Son, 
hut delivered him up to death Jor us all. Hence let thefe 
two things be obferved. 

(1.) That God accepteth of the punlfhment of Chrift, as a 
ereditor accepteth of his due debt ; when he fpares not the 
debtor, but reqnires the uttermo(l farthing. It is true, of 


Vniverfal Redemption . 149 

punlfhment as punlfhment, there is no creditor properly for, 
deliSa puniri publice interejt : but this puniftiment being ;con- 
fidered alfo as a price, as it is 1 Cor. vi. 20, it muft be paid 
into the hands ot fome creditor ; as this was into the hands 
of God : whence Chrift is faid to come to do God's will, 
Heb. X. 9. and to fatisfy him, as John vi. 38. Neither in- 
deed do the arguments that fome have ufed, to prove that 
God as a creditor cannot inflift punifliment, nor yet by virtue 
of fupreme dominion, feem to me of any great weight. 
Divers 1 find urged by him, whofe great fkill in the law and 
fuch terms as thefe, might well give him fan6iuary from fuch 
weak examiners as myfelf ; but he that hath fo foully betray- 
ed the truth of God, in other things, and corrupted his word ; 
deferves not ourafTent in any thing, but what by evidence of 
reafon is extorted. Let us then fee what there is of that, in 
this which we have now in hand. 

[1.] He tells us, that " The right of punifiiing in the 
" reftor or law-giver, can neither be a right of abfolute do- 
*' minion, nor a right of a creditor ; becaufe thefe things 
" belong to him, and are exercifed for his own fake, wha 
** hath them : but the right of punifhing, is for the good of 
*• the community." 

Anfzuer. Refer this reafon unto God, wlilch is the aim of 
it ; and it will appear to be of no value : for we deny that 
there is any thing in him, or done by him, primarily for the 
good of any but himfelf ; his AUTARKEIA orfelf-fufficiency 
will not allow, that he fhould do any thing with an ultimate 
refpeft to any thing but himfelf. And whereas he faith, that 
the right of punifhing is for the good of community ; we an- 
fwer, that honum univerfi^ the good of community, is the 
glory of God, and that only ; fo that thefe things in him can- 
not be diflinguifhed. 

[2.] He addeth, ** Punifhment is not in and for itfelf de- 
" firable, but only for community's fake ; now the right of 
*' dominion, and the right of a creditor, are things in them- 
" felves expetible and defirable, without the confideraiion of 
" any public aim." 

Anfwer. That the comparifon ought not to be, between 
punifhment and the right of dominion ; but between the 
right of punifhment, and right of dominion ; the faft of one, 
is not to be compared with the right of the other. Again, 
God defireth nothing, neither is there any thing defirable to 
him, but only ior himfeif; to fuppofe a good, defirable to 
God for its own fake, is intolerable. Moreover, there be 


^b^ Argumenis againji 

fomea6lsofhipreme dominion, in themfelves and for their 
owfi lake as little defirable, as any aft of punilhment ; as the 
annihilation of an innocent creature, which Grotius will not 
deny but that God may do. 

[3.] He proceedeth, "Any ons may. without any 
*' vvronor, go oiflrom the right of fupreme dominion or cre- 
*' ditorfiiip ; but (he Lord cannot omit the aft of puniftiment 
*' 10 forne fins, as of the impenitent." 

Anju'er. God may, by virtue ot" his fupreme dominion, o- 
jnit punilhment, without any wrong or prejudice to his juftice. 
It is as great a thing, to impute fin where it is not, and to 
jnfliil punilhment upon that imputation, as not to impute fm 
where it is, and to remove, or not to inflift punilhment, upon 
that non-imputation ; now the firft of thefe God did towards 
Chrill ; and therefore he may do the latter.* Moreover, the 
wrong or injuftice of not punilhing any fm or fins, doth not 
arife from any natural obligation; but the confideration of an 
affirmative pofitive aft of God's will, whereby he hath pur- 
poled that he will do it. 

[4.] He adds, " None can be called juft, for ufing his 
*' own right or lordfhip; but God is called juft, for punilh- 
" ing or not remitting fin, Rev. xvi. 5." 

Anfwer. However it be in other caules, yet in this, God 
may certainly be faid to be juft in exafting his debt, or ufing 
his dominion ; becaufe his own will is the only rule of juftice. 
And we do not fay, punilhing is an aft of dominion, but an 
aft of exafting a due debt ; the requiring this of Chrift in our 
flead, fuppofing the intervention of an aft of fupreme domi- 

[.5.] His laft rsafon is, *' Becaufe that virtue, whereby 
"onegoeth off from his dominion, or remitteth his debt, is 
"liberality; but that virtue whereby a man abftaineth from 
*' punilhing, is clemency; fo that punifhment can be no aft 
" 01 exdftiutj a debt, or afting a dominion." 

uihfwer. Tiie virtue whereby a man goeth off from the ex» 
acting oJ that which is due, univerfally confidered, is not al- 
v»ay3 iibcraiity ; for as Grotius himfelf confeffeth, a debt may 
arife and accrue to any by the injury of his fame, credit, or 
Jianie, by a lie, llander or otherwife. Now that virtue 
whereby a man is moved, not to exaft payment by way ol re- 
paration, is not in this cafe liberality ; but either clemency, 
ox that grace of the gofpel for which nioralifts have no name ; 
aiid lo It is with every party offended ; (o otten as he had a 


" S:: tht noli on page 73. 

Univerfal Redempticii. ' 351 

right of requiring punifhment from his (.{fender, which yet he 
doth not. So that notwithftanding thcfc exceptions, this is 
eminently feen in this bufinefs of fatisiaftion, that God, as a 
creditor, doth exaftly require the pa)ment o! the debt, by the 
way of punifliment. 

(2.) The fecond thing eminent in it is, nn a8 of fupreme 
fovereignty and dominion ; requiring the puniHiment of 
Chrift, for the full compleat anfwering of the obligation, 
and fulfilling of the law Rom. viii. 3. Ro?n. x. 4. 

Now thefe things being thus at large unfolded, we may 
fee in brief fome natural confequences, lollowing and attend- 
ing them as they arelaid down ; as, [1.] That the full and 
due debt of all thofe for whom Jefus Chrifl was rerponf-ble, 
was fully paid in to God, according to the utmofl exieiu of 
the obligation. [2.] That the Lord, who is a jull creditor, 
ought in all equity to cancel the bond, to furceafe all fuits, 
aftions, and moleftations againft the debtor ; full payment 
being made unto him for the debt. [3.] That the debt thus 
paid, was not for this or that fin, but all the (ins of all thoie 
lor whom and in whofe name this payment was made, 1 /ohu 
i, 7. as was before demonflrated. [4.] That a fecond pay- 
ment of a debt once paid, or n requiring of it, is not anfvver- 
able to the juflice which God demonflrated in fetting forth 
Chrift to be a propitiation for our fins, Ro?n. iii. 25. 1'^,] 
That whereas to receive a difcharge from further trouble, is 
equitably due to a debtor who hath been in obligation, his 
debt being paid ; the Lord having accepted ot (he payment 
from Chrift, in the ftcad of all them for whom he died, ought 
in juftice, according to that obligation, which in free g.ace 
he hath put upon himfeif, to grant them a difcharge. [6.J 
That confidering that relaxation of the law, which by the fii- 
preme power of the law-giver was efFeaed, as to the perfons 
fufTering the punifnmcnt required, fuch aaual fatisfatiion is 
made thereto, that it can lay no more to their charae for 
whom Chrift died, than if they had really fulfiiled in the way 
of obedience whalfoevcr it did require, Rom. viii. 32, qc^, 

2diy. Now, how confiftent thefe things (in themfelves evi- 
dently and clearly following the doQrine of Chrift's fatisfac- 
tion before dcclarcdj are with univerfal redemption, is eafily 
difcernable. For, 1. If the full debt of all be paid, to i!ie 
utmoft extent of tlie obligation, how comes it to pafs, that fo 
many are fnut up in prifon to eternity, never freed from their 
debts ? 2. If the Lord as a juft creditor ought to cancel all 


1^2 Of the Satis faBion 

obligations, and furceafe a'l fuits againft fuch as have their 
debts fo paid ; whence is it that his wrath fmokes againft fome 
to all eternity ? Let none tell me, that it is becaufe they walk 
not worthy of the benefit beftowed ; for that not walking woT" 
thy is part of the debt which is fully paid ; for (as it is in the 
third inference) the debt fo paid is all our fins. 3. Is it prob- 
able that God calls any to a fecond payment, and requires fa- 
tisfa6fion of them, for whom, by his own acknowledgement, 
Chrift hath made that which is full and fufficient ? hath he 
an after reckoning, that he thought not ot ? for, for what 
was before him, he fpared him not, Rom. viii. 32. 4. How 
comes it, that God never gives a dllcharge to innumerable 
fouls, though their debts be paid ? 5. Whence is it that any 
one foul lives and dies under the condemning power of the 
law, never releafed; if that be fully fatisfied in his behalf, fo 
as it had been all one, as if they had done whatfoever it could 
require ? Let them, that can, reconcile thefe things : I am na 
Oedipus for them. The poor beggaily diftinftions, whereby 
it is attempted, I have already difcufled* And fo much for 


A digrejjion; containing tht fuhjlance of an occajional confer- 
' ence^ concerning the JatisfaBion of Chrifl, 

MUCH about the time that I was compofing that part of 
the laft argument, which is taken from the fatistaftion 
of Chrift, there came one (whofe name and all things elfe 
concerning him, for the refpeft I bear to his parts and mo- 
•lefty, (hall be concealed) to the place where I live, and in a 
private exercife, about the fufferings of Chrift, feemed to 
ihofe that heard him, to enervate, yea to overthrow the fa- 
tisfaftion of Chrift ; which I apprehending to be of danger- 
ous confequence, toprevent a further inconvenience, fet my- 
felt briefly to oppofe ; and alfo a little after willingly enter- 
tained a conference and debate (defired by the gentleman,) 
about the point in queftion. Which being carried along, 
with that quietnefs and (obriety of fpirit which befeemed lov- 
ers of and fcarchers after truth ; I eafily perceived not only 
what was his perfuafion, in the thing in hand, but alfo what 
was the ground and fole caufe of this mifapprehenfion. And 



d Merit of Chrift, j^g 

it \ia% briefly this; That the eternal unchangeable love of 
God to his 6le£i, ^\^ aftually enftate them in fuch a conditi- 
on, as wherein they were in an incapacity o\ liaving any la- 
ti^taftion made for them ; the end of that, being to reir.ove 
the wrath due unto them, and to make an atonement for tlieir 
fins ; whicn, by reafon of tlie former love of God, they fitted 
in no need of ; but only wanted a clear manifeftation of that 
love unto their fouls ; whereby they might be delivered from 
all that dread, darknefs, guilt, and fear, which was in and 
upon their confciences, f by reafon of a not-underf^anding of 
this love) which came upon them through the iall of Adam. 
New, to remove this, Jefus Chrifl was fent to manifefl this 
love, and declare this eternal good u'ill of God towards ihem; 
fo bearing and takitig away their fins, by removing from 
their confciences that mifapprehenfion of God and their 
own condition, which by reafon of fin they had before ; and 
not to make any fatisfaBicn to the jufiice of God for liieir 
fins, he beings eternally vv/ell pleafed with them. The fum is, 
eleftion is aiTerted, to the ovenhrow of redemption. That 
which followed in our conference, with v/hat fuccefs by 
God's bicfling it did obtain, (hall for my part reft in the 
minds and judgments of thofe that heard it, for whole 
fake alone it was intended. The things themfelvcs being of 
great weight and importance, of frngular concernment to all 
chriflians ; as alfo containing in them a fixture of undoubted 
truth, and no lefs undoubted errors, true propofiiions, and 
falfe inierences, aiTertions of neceffary verities, to the exclu- 
fion of others no lefs neceffary ; and likeways dirctily belong- 
ing to the bwrmefs in hand; I ffiaii briefly declare and con- 
firm the whole truth in this bufmefs, fo far as occaCon was 
given by the exercife and debate before mentioned : 

I. Beginning with the firft pave of it : concerning the e- 
ternal love of God to his eleft, with the (fate and ccnditiort 
they are placed in thereby ; concerning u'hich you may ob- 

ijl. That which is nov/ by fomc made to be a new doc- 
trine of free grace, is indeed an old obje£^ion againfl it. • That 
a non-neceffity of (atisfaftion by Cliriff, as a confequent of 
etern^d eIe61ion. v/?.3 more than once, for the fubifance of it, 
objefted to Anjtine by the old Pelagian heretics, upon his 
clearing and vmdicating that doftrme; is moff apparent; the 
fame obj':;ftion renewed by others, is alfo anfwered !)y Calvin, 
InlHtut. lib. ii. cap. 16. as alfo divers fchool-men had before, 
in their way, propcfed it to themle'.ves, as Thorn. 3. ^- 40. ti. 4. 

U '^ " Yet 

1^4 Of the. Satisfaction 

Yet, riOtwiihftaading the apparent fenfelefncfs of the thing 
iifeif, together with the many folid anfwers whereby it 
was long before removed; the Armimam 2X the fynod of 
]^ort greedily Tnatched it up again, and placed it in the very 
front of their arguments againft the eflpeftual redemption of 
the eleft by Jefus Chrift. Now that which was in them on- 
ly an objeftion, is taken up by fome amongft us, as a truth; 
the abfurd inconfequent confequence of it, owned as juft and 
^ good ; and the conciufion deemed necefTary,' from the grant- 
• ing of eleftion, to the denial of fatistaftion. 

idly. Obferve, that there is the fame reafon of eleftion 
and reprobation, (in things fo oppofed, fo it muft be) Jacoh 
have I loved, but EJau have I hated, Rom. ix. 13. By the one, 
men are ordained to ettrnal life, Afts xiii. 48. by the other, 
behove oi old ordained to co?2demnafion, Jude verfe 4. Now 
if the eleft are jullified and fanftified and faved, becaufe of 
God's decree that fo they {hall be; whereby they need no- 
thing but the manifeftation thereof; then likeways are the 
reprobates, as foon as they are, finally impenitent, damned, 
burned ; and want nothing but a manifeftation thereof ; which 
whether it be true or no, conlult the whole difpenfaiion ot 
God towards them. 

^dly, Confider what is the eternal love of God; is it an 
affeftion in his eternal nature, as love is in ours? it were no 
lefs than blalphemy once fo to conceive; his pare and holy 
nature, wherein there is neither change norfhadow of turning, 
is not fubjc£t to any fuch pafTion ; it muft be then an eternal 
ufct of his will, and that alone ; in the Scripture it is called, his 
^ood pleafure, Matt. xi. 26. his purpofe according to eledion, 
Rom. ix. 1. the foundation of God, 2 Tim. ii. 19. Now e- 
very eternal aft of God's will, is immanent in himfelf, not 
leally diliinguilhed from himfelf; whatever is fo in God, is 
God: hence it puts nothing into the creature concerning 
whom it is, nor alteration of its condition at all; producing 
indeed no effeft, until fome external aft of God's power do 
make it out. For inftance, God decreed from eternity that 
he would make the world; yet we know the world was not 
made until about five (houfand five hundred years ago. But 
ye will (ay, it M'as made in God's purpofe ; that is (fay I) he 
purpoii^d 10 malie it; fo he purpofeth there (hall be a day of 
judgnJCiU; is theie therefcic aftually an univcrfal day of 
judgment already i^ God purpofeth that he will, in and 
through Chrift, juftily and fave fuch and fuch certain per- 
iuns; are they ilierelorejuftified, becaufe God purpofeth it? 
' * it 

dnd Merit of Chrijl, 


it is true they (hall be fo, bccaufe he hath piirpofcd it ; hnt that 
they are fo, is denied. The confequence is good, from the 
divine purpofe to the futuriiion of any tiling, and ihe certain- 
ty of its event ; not to its aflnal exiHence; as wiien the 
Lord in the beginning went a61ually to tnake th.c world, there 
was no world ; fo when he comes to bellow faith, and aaiully 
to juftify a man, until he ha'h fodone, he is not jiiUified. 
The fum is: 

1. The eternal love of God towards his elecl, is nothlncr 
but his purpofe, good pleafure, a pare aft of his will ; where- 
by he determines to do fuch and fuch things for them, in his 
own fime and way. 

2. No purpofe of God, no immanent eternal a6l of his 
will, doth produce any outward efieft, or make any change 
in the nature and condition of that thing concerning which 
his purpofe is ; but only makes the event and fuccefs neceffa- 
ry, in refpe£l of that purpofe. 

3. The wrath and anger of Gc^\, that fmners lie under, 
is not any paflion in God ; but only the outward efFe6ls of 
anger, as guilt, bondage, ^c. 

4. An a61: of God's eternal love, which is immanent in 
himfelf, doth not exempt the creature from the condition 
wherein he is under anger and wrath; until fomc temporal 
aft of free grace do really change its ffate and condition. 
For God beholding the lump of mankind in his own power, 
as the clay in the hand of the potter; determining to make 
fome vefleis unto honour, for the praife of his glorious grace, 
and others to difhonour, for the manifeftation of his revencrl 
ingjuflice; and to this end fufFers them all to fali info fin, 
and the guilt of condemnation, whereby they became all li- 
able to his wrath and curfe; his purpofe to fave forae of 
thefe, doth not at all exempt or free them from (he common 
condition of the red, in refpeft of themfelves and the truth 
of their eHate ; until fome aBual thing be accompli(hed, 
for the bringing of them nigh unto himfelf, fo that notwith- 
ftanding his eternal purpofe, his wrath in refped of the ef- 
teas abideth on them ; until that efernal purpofe do make 
outitfelf, in fome diffinguifhinga^l of free oracc ; which may 
receive furtlier manifeflation, by thefe enfuing arguments. 

(1.) If the tinner want nothing to acceptation and peace, 
but a manifeftaiion of God's eternal love; then evangelical 
j'jflification is nothing but an apprehcnfion of God's eternal 
decree and purpofe ; but this cannot be made out from the 
Scripture, viz. that God's juflifying of a perfon, is his making 


15^ Of the Salisj action 

known unto him his decree of eleftion; or man's juftification, 
an apprehenfion of that decree, purpofe, or love. Where is 
any luch thing in tlie book of God? It is true there i$ a 
difcovery thereof made to juftified believers, and therefore 
it IS attainable by the faints; GodJJieclding abroad his Icvs in 
their hearts, by the Holy Qhoji which is given unto ihem, Rom. 
V. 5. But it is after they ^x^ jufiifyed by jaith, and have peace 
with God, verfe 1. Behevers are to give all diligence, to 
'snake their calling and eledion fare ; but that juilification 
fhouH confiil heiein is a (l range notion. Juftification in the 
Scripture, is an a6t of God; pronouncing an ungodiy perfon, 
upon his beheving, to be abfolved from the guilt of (in, and 
in;crefted in the all fufiicient righteoufnefs of Chrift; fo God 
jujlifiis the ungodly^ Rom. iv. 4. by the righteoufnefs of God, 
which is by the faith of Chrifl unto them, Rqjji. iii. 22. mak- 
ing Chrift to become righteoufnefs to them, uho were in 
themfelves fin; but of this manifeftation of eternal love, there 
is not the leaft: foundation, as to its being the form oi jufti- 
fication ; which yet is not without fenfe and perception oi 
the love oi God, in the improvement thereof. 

(2.) The Scripture is exceeding clear, in making all naen 
betore aftual reconciliation, to be in the like flate and con- 
dition; without any real difference at all ; the Lord reiejv- 
ing to hiraleH his diftinguifliing purpofe, of the alteration 
which he will afterwards by his free grace effeft, There, is non€ 
that d Ah good, no not one, Rom. iii. 13. for we have proved 
both Jews and Gentiles, that they are ail under Jin, verfe 9. 
Ail mankind is in the fame condition, in refpecl ot themfelves 
and their ou'n real ftate ; which truth is not at all prejudiced, 
by the relation they are in to the eternal decrees, for every 
mcuth is flopped, and all the worldi^hecome guilty before God, 
Rom., iii. 19. KYPODIKOS obnoxious to his judgment. 
IVho maketh thee to differ from another, and what haji thou 
that thou didfi not receive? 1 Cor. iv. y. All diftinguifli- 
inent, in refpeft of ftate and condition, is by God's aftual 
grace, for even believers are by nature the children of wrath 
even as others, Ephef. ii. 3. Tne condition then of all men, 
during their unregeneracy, is one and the fame ; the purpofe 
-of God, concerning the difference that fhall be, being referred 
xo himfelf. Now 1 afk whether reprobates in that condition 
lie under the effecls of God's wrath or not? if ye fay not, 
who will believe you ? iffo, whynot the eleft alfo? The 
fame condition hath the fame qualifications; an a£fual diftin- 
^uiilfrnent we have proved there is not; produce forae dif- 

and Mtrit of Chriji, Iq-j 

ference tUatliath a real exiftence ; or tbecauic is loft. 

(q.) Confider what it is to lie under the e(fe6ls oi: God's 
\vr2Hli» according to the dcciuraUon u{ the Scripture, and then 
ice how the elefct are deUvered thereiroiT), beiore their actual 
calling. Now this confids in divers things, as [i.] '1 o be in 
fuch a {late ot" alienation frotn God, as that none of their 
fervices are acceptable to him ; \\\^fnaytrcA the wicked is 
^i\ abominalioii to the Loid, Prov. xxviii. 9. [2] To have 
no outward enjo) ment fanftified, but to have ail things un- 
clean unio thera. Tit, 1. 15. [3.] To be under the power 
of Satan, who rules at his pleaiure in the children of difobe- 
4k»ce, Epii. ii. 2. [4.] To be in boruh^ge unto death, HdK 
ii. 15. [5.] To be under the curie and condemning power 
Qt the law, Gal. iii. 13. [6.] To be obnoxious to the judg- 
ment of God, and to be guilty of eternal death and dam- 
nation, Rom. iii. 19. [7.] To be under the power and do- 
minion of fin, reigning in them, Rom. vi. 17. Thefe and 
fuch like, are thofe which we call the e/fe£ls of Gad's anger. 

lyCt iK)w any one tell me, what the reprobates in this life 
ii€ under more? and do not all the eleft, until their a61ual re- 
coQcilidtion in and by Chrift, lie under the very fame? For, 
[i.j Are not tbeir prayers an abomination to the Lord? Caa 
ihey without faith ple^^fe God? (Htb. xi. 6.) and faith we 
luppole them not to have ; for if they have, they are aBual- 
ly reconciled, [2.] Are their enjoyments fanciified unto 
them? hath any thing a lan6tified relation, without faith ? fee 
1 Cor. vii. 14. [3.] Are they not under the power ol Satai] ? 
if not, how comes Chrift in, and for them, to deftroy the 
works of the devil ? did r.ot he come to deliver his people 
frotii him that had the power of deatli^, that is the devil ? Heb. 
ii. 14. Eph. ii. 2. [4.] Are they not under bondage unto 
death? the apoIUe ariirms plainly that they are fo all their 
Jives, until tliey are aftually freed by Jefus Chrift, Heb. ii. 24. 
\.5'~\ ^"^^ ^^'"^^y ^''^^ under the cuife ol the law ? how are they 
ireed irom it ? by Chrift being made a curfe for them. Gal. 
iii. 13. [6.] Are they not obnoxious unto judgment, and 
guilty of eternal death ? How is it then that Paul fays, that 
there is no difFereiice ; but that all are fubjeci to the judgment 
of God, and are guilty before him ? Rom. iii. 9. and that 
Chrift laves them trora this v/rath, which (in refpe61; of merit) 
was to come upon them? Rom. v. 9, — 1 Thef. \. 10. | 7.J 
Are they not under the dominion of fin ? God by thanked^ 
fays Paul, ye were the Jtrvunts oj Jhi^ bul ye lia-ue obeyed^ ike. 
Kom. vi. 17. In brief, the Scripture is in nothing more 


ijS Of the SatisfaSion 

plentiful, than in laying and charging all the mifery ind wratk 
oC and due to an unreconciled condition, upon the elefl: of 
God, until they a6^ually partake in the deliverance by Chrift. 

But now, fome men think to wipe away all that hath been 
faid, in a word ; and tell us, that all this is fo, but only in 
their own apprehenfion ; not that thofe things are fo indeed^ 
and in thcmreives. But, if thefe things be To to them, only 
in their apprehenfions, why are they olherways, to the reil 
of the v/hole world ? The Scripture gives us no difference 
nor diflinftion between them ; and if it be fo with all, then 
let all get this apprehenfion as faft as they can, and all (hall 
be well with the whole world, now miferably captivated under 
a mifapprehenfion of their own condition ; that is, let them 
fay the Scripture is a fable, and the terror of the Almighty a 
fcarecrow to fright children ; that fin is only in conceit ; and 
fo fquare their converfation to their blafphcmous fancies. — • 
Scnie men's words eat as a canker. 

(4.) Of particular places of Scripture, which might abun- 
dantly be produced to our purpofe, I (hall content myfelf to 
name only one ; John iii. 36. He that believeth not the Son, 
the wrath of God ahidtth on him. It abideth ; there it was, 
and there it fhall remain, if unbelief be continued ; but upon 
believing, it is removed. But is not God's love unchangeable^ 
hy which we fnall be freed from this wrath? who denies it ? 
But is an apprentice free, becaufe he fhall be fo at the end of 
{even years? becaufe God hath purpofed to tree his, in his 
cv/n time, and will do it; are they therefore free, before he 
doth it? Bui are we not in Chrijl from all eternity? yes, 
cbofen in him we are, therefore in fome fenfe in him ; but 
how ? even as we are. Aftually a man cannot be in Chrift, 
until he be : Nov/, hov/ are we from eternity ? Are we eter- 
nal ? no. Only God from eternity hath purpofed that we 
{hall be : Doth this give us an eternal being ? alas we are of 
yefterdav. Our being in Chrift, refpefteth only the like pur- 
pofe, and therefore from thence can be made only the like in- 

II. This being then cleared, it is, I hope, apparent to all, 
how miferable a ftrained confequence it is, to argue froin 
God's decree of eleftion, to the overthrow of Chrift's merit 
and fatisfaftion; the redemption wrought by Jefus Chrift, be* 
irg indeed the chief means of carrying along that purpofe un- 
to execution; the pleafure of the Lord profpeiing in his hand. 
Yea, the argument may be retorted, kata to biaion, 
and will hold undeniably on the other fide; the confequence 


£nd Merit ofChriJi. 15^ 

being evident, from the purpofe o\ God to fu'c finners, to 
the fatisfaftion of Chrift for thofe finners. The fame aft of 
God's will, which fcts us apart from eternity tor ihe enjoy- 
ment of all fpiritual bleflings in heavenly places, fets alfo a- 
part Jelus Chrift to be the purchafer and procurer of all thofe 
fpiritual bleflings ; as alfo to nrake fatistaftion for all their 
fjns; which that he did, (being the main thing oppofed) v/e 
prove by thefe enfuing arguments. 

4»^4»^4,4».j.^ 4. 4, 4. ^ 4» ^ ^ -f -^ ^' 

C H A P. IX. 

Being a fecond part of the former digrejfion^ 

Arguments to prove the JatisfaBion of Chrijt. 

Arg. I. T F Chrift fo took our fins, and had them by God 
X fo laid and impofed on hmi, as that he underwent 
the punifiiment due unto them in our ftcad, then he made f.w 
tisfdftion to the juftice ol God for them, that the finners 
might go free; but Chrift fo took and bare our fins, and had 
them fo laid upon him, as that he underwent the panilhment 
due unto them, and that in our itead, therefore, he made la- 
tisfaftion to the juftice of God for them. The confequent of 
the propoficion is apparent, and was before proved. Oi the 
affumption there be three parts, feverally to be confirmed; 
firft, that Chrift took and bare our fins, God laying them on 
him ; fecondly, that he fo took them, as to undergo the pu- 
niftiment due unto them ; thirdly, that he did this in our 

fl. For the firft, that he took and bare our fins ; ye have 
it, John i. 29. HO A I RON &c. who takelh aivay the 
fm of the world, 1 Pet. ii. 24. KOs an en en K en, who his 
oxvn felj bare our fins in his ozvn body, Ifa. liii. 11. HU 
jISSABEL, their iniquiiies he Ihall bear; and vcifc 
12. NASHA he bare the Jin of many. That God aifo laid 
or impofed our fins on him, is no iefs apparent; Ila. liii. 6. tiie 
Lord HIPHGIAH made to inset on him the iniquity of us 
all; 2Cor. V. 21. ha:4Artian j:poi£;*en Xitmadehiux 
to be fin for us. 

2.diy. The fecond branch is, that in thus doing, our Sa- 
viour underwent the punifiiment due to the fins which he 
bare, which were laid upon him, v/nich may be thui made 
inanifeft. — Death, and the curfs of the law, coniain thq 
whole of the nunifhn^-erit due to fin, Gen. ii. 17. 

MOTH HAMOTH dying thou Jkait dk, is that Which* 
was threatened. Dfeath ^.i"s that wtikh entered l)y Jin, Rotfl. 
V. il. which woid, in thoffc places, is comprehc^nfive oF slfl 
mifery dufe to our tranfgr^jrioii. Which alfo is held out ift 
the curfe of the law, Deut. xxt-ii. 2"6. Curfed bs he thai con- 
firmeth not the words of this law to do them. That all cvrFs 
of puniniment whatfoerer are comprifed irl thdie, is un- 
queftionably evident ; now jefus Chrift, in beating cTut fins, 
underwent both thefe; for by the grace of God he fajled death, 
Heb. ii. 9. By death delivering from death, verfe 14. He 
was not fpared, but given up to death for us all, Rom. viii. 
02. So alio the cnrfe of the law, Gal. iii. 13. genomenos 
KATARA he was made acurfejor us; atid epikaTaratos, 
curfed; and this by the way of undergohng the punifhrnent 
that was in dea'h and curfe; for by thefe, it pleafed the Lord 
fobruifehim,andputhimtogfief,\bL.\\\\. 10. Yea, OUK 
EPiiEiSATO he fpared him not, Rom. viii. 32. but condem- 
ned fin in \\\s flefh, Rom. viii. 3. 

o^dly. It remaineth only to fliew, that he did this in out 
fteads, and the whole argument is Cotififmed. Now this alfo 
our Saviour himfclf maketh apparent. Matt. xx. 28. He 
came dunai ten psychen lytron anti pollon, 
to give himfelf a raiifom for inany. The word anti 
alwavs fuppofeth a commutation and change, of one perfoii 
or thing inftead of another, as fliall be afterwards declared ; To 
Matt. ii. 22. 1 Tim. ii. 6. Thus 1 Fd. iii. 18, He died 
tor us, thejufljor the unjufl ; and Pfal, Ixix. 4. / reflored 
(or paid) that which 1 took n'ot away, viz. our debt, foTar as 
that thereby we are difcharged ; as Rom. viii. 34, where it 
is afferted, upon this very ground, that he died in our ftead. 
And fo, the feveral parts of this firll argument, are con- 

Arg. II. If Jefas Chrift paid into his Father's hatids, a 
valuable price and ranfora for our fins, as our furety. — fo 
difcharging the debt that we lay under, that we might go free ; 
then did he bear the puniflim.ent due to our fins, and make 
fatisfaftion to the juftice of God for them ; (for to pay fuch 
a ranfom, is to make fuch {atisfattion ;) but Jefus Chrift paid 
fuch a price and ranfom, as our lurety, into his Father's 
hands : ergo, £3c. 

There are four things to be proved in the afTumption, or 
fecond propofirion : Firft, that 'Chrift paid fuch a price and 
ranfom ; Secondly, that he paid it into the hands of his Fa- 
ther; Thirdly, that he did i: .-^s our fiircty ; and. Fourthly, 


and Merit of Chfifi, 1 6 1 

that we tnight go free. All which we fliall prove in order. 

iJL For the firli:, our Saviour himTelf affirms it. Matt. xx. 
28. He came to give his life lytron a ran/am, or price of 
izdtm^nciU, for many ; which theapoflleterms an tilytron 
1 Tim. ii. 6. a ranfoin to be accepied in the ftead of others ; 
whence we are Taid to have dehverance dia tes apoly- 
TROSEos, by the ranfom-paying of Chiift, Rom. iii. 
24. He bought us with a price, 1 Cor. vi. 20. which price 
was his own blood, Afts xx. 28. being compared to, and ex- 
aUed above filver and gold, in this work of redemption, i 
Pd. i. 18. So that this fiift part is moft clear and evident. 

2dty. Pie paid this price into the hands of his Father. A 
price muft be paid to fomebody ; in the cafe of deliverance 
from captivity by it, it muft be paid to the judge or jailor ; 
that is, to God or the devil. To fay the latter, were the 
highell blafphemy ; Satan was to be conquered, not faiisH- 
ed ; for the former, the Scripture is clear ; as it was his 
Zf;r^^^ that was on us, Johnm. 36. It was he that had {hut 
us all up under fin, GaL iii. 22. He is the great king to whom 
the debt is owing, Matt, xviii, 23, 34. He is the only 
lawgiver ^ who is able io fave and to dejlroy, James iv, 12. 
Nay, the ways whereby this ranfom-paying is in the Scripture 
expreffed, abundantly inforce the payment of it into the 
hands of his Father ; for his death and blood-lhedding is faid 
to be PRCSTHORA and tkysia, an oblatiomnd facrifue^ 
Eph. v. 2. and his loul to be A SAM a faciifice or offer- 
ing for fin, Ifa. liii. 10. Now certainly, offerings and facii=- 
fices are to bediretled to God alone. 

'^dly. That he did this as our furety, we are aiTured, Heh. 
vii. 22. He was made egguos, a furety of a better tcfia- 
ment ; and in performance of the duty which lay upon hiiii 
as fuch, he paid that which he never took, Pfal. Ixix. 4. 

ji^.hly. All which could not poflibly have any other end^ 
but that we might go (ree. 

Aug. III. To make an atonement for iln, and to recon- 
ci'e God unto the (inners, is in effecl to make fatisla^Hon 
unto the jullice of God for fin, and all that we underfianJ 
ihereby ; but Jefus Chrilt, by his death and oblation, did 
make an atonement for fm, and reconcile God uaio fir.neis : 
ergo, &c. 

The firft propofition is in itfelf evident. The adumptiori 
is confirmed, Kom. iii. 24, 25. W'q are jufijud j^^eiy, 
through the ranhni'paying that is in Chrijt : whom Cod hath. 

iU2 Of the Satisfailion 

fit forth ^^ ^^ HI L ASTER ION, a propitiation, an atonement, 

amercy-feat, a coveringofiniquity; and that Eis endeixin 
TES DIKAIOSUNES AUTOU JoT the manifejiation of his juf- 

ticCy declared in the going forth and accomphftiment thereof. 
So likewife, Heb, ii. 17. He is faid to be a merciful high- 

prieji, eis to hilaskesthai tas amartias tou 
LAOU, to make reconciliation for the fins of the people ; to re- 
concile God unto the people ; the meaning of the words be- 
ing hilaskesthai to theon peri ton amartion 
tou LAOU, to reconcile God who was ofifended with the 
fins of his people ; which reconciliation we are faid to receive, 
Rom. V. II. (the word katallage there, in our com- 
mon tranflation rendered atonement, is in other places in the 
fame rendered reconciliation ; being indeed the only word 
ufed for it in the New Teftament) And all this is faid to be ac- 
compliflied DiA henos dikaiomatos, Rom. v. iS. by one 
righteoufnefs or fatisfaftion, that is ol Chrift ; (the words will 
not bear that fenfe, wherein they are ufually rendered by the 
righteoufnefs of one ; for then mail it have been, dia di- 
kaiomatos TOU henos.) And hereby were we delivered 
from that, from which it was iropofTible we fhould be other- 
wife delivered, Rom. viii. 3. 

Arc. IV. That wherein the exercife of the prieflly office 
of Jefus ChrifL whilft he was on earth, doth confift, cannot 
be rejefted or denied without damnable error ; but the exer- 
cife of the prieflly office of Jefus Chrift whilft he was upon 
the earth, confifted in this, to bear the punifliment due to 
our fms ; to make atonement wilh God, by undergoing his 
wrath, and reconciling him to fmners upon the fatisfatlion 
made to his juflice ; therefore cannot thefe things be denied, 
without damnable error. That in the things before recount- 
ed, the exercife of Chrift's prieftly office did confift, is mofl 
apparent ; \f. From all the types and facrifices whereby it 
was prefigured ; their chief end being, propitiation and atone- 
ment. '2.dly. From the very nature of the facerdotal office, 
appointed tor facrificing ; Chrift having nothing to offer but 
his own blood, through the eternal Spirit. 3^/)'. From 
divers, yea innumerable texts of Scripture affirming the 

It would be too long a work, to profecute thofe things fe- 
verally and at large ; and therefore I will content my fell with 
onflSpr two places, wherein all thofe teftimonies are comprif- 
ed; as Heb. ix. 13, 14. If the blood of bulls and goats, &c. 
h%w much morefnaU ike blood of Chrifi, who through the eter* 


emd Merit of Chriji. 163 

nal Spirit offered kimfelf without /potto God, &:c. ? Here the 
death of Chrift is compared to, exalted above, and in the an- 
titype anfwered the facrifices of expiation, which were made 
by the blood of bulls and goats ; and io muft, at leafi: fpiritu- 
aliy, efFeft what they did carnally accomplilh and typically 
prefigure, viz. deliverance from the guilt of fin, by expiati- 
on and atonement. For as in them, the life and blood of the 
facrifice was accepted in the ftead of the offerer, who was to 
die or the breach ot the law according to the rigour of it ; fo 
in this ofChriff, was his blood accepted as an atonement and 
propitiation for us ; himfelf being pi ieft, altar, and facrifice. 
So Heb. X. 10, 12. he is faid exprefsly, in the room of all 
old infuflicient carnal facrifices which could not make the 
comers thereunto perfeft, to offer up his own body, a facri' 
Jice for fins ; for the remiffion and pardon of fins, through 
that offering of himfelf, as \\\%vtrfe 18. And in the perform- 
ance alfo, do we affirm, that our Saviour underwent the 
wrath of God, which was due unto us. This becaufe it is by 
forae queftioned, I fhall briefly confirm ; and that with thefe 
following reafons. 

1. The puniflimcnt due to fin, is the wrath of God, Rom. 
i. 18. The wrath of God is revealed againjl all ungodlinefs. 
Chap. ii. ^. the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous 
judgment of God. Ephef. ii. 3. children of wrath. John 
iii. 36. The wrath of God abideth on him. Now Jefus Chrift 
underwent the punifliment due to fin, 2 Cor. v. 21. 7nade 

Jin for us. I fa. liii. 6. Iniquity was laid upon him. 1 Pet. 
ii. 24. He bare our fins in his own body on the tree. There- 
fore he underwent the wrath of God. 

2. The curfe of the law, is the wrath of God taken paf- 
fively, Deut. xxix. 20, 21. But Jefus Chrift underwent the 
curfe of the law. Gal. iii. 13. made a cur fe Jar us ; the curfe 
they lie under which are out ofChriff, who are oj the works of 
the law, verfe 10. Therefore he underwent the wrath of God. 

3. The death that finners are to undergo, is the wraih of 
God; but Jefus Chrifl did tafle of that death, which finners 
for themfelves were to undergo, for he died as our furety, 
Hcb. vii. 22. and in our flead, Matt. xx. 28. Hence his fear, 
Heb. V. 7. agony, Luke xxii. 44. affonifliment and amaze- 
nient, Mark xiv. 33. dereliftion, Matt. xxvi. 46. forrow, 
heavinefs, and unexpreffible preffures. 

Arc. V. That doftrine cannot be true nor agreeable to the 
gofpel, which flrikes at the root of gofpel-faith; and plucks 
sway the foundation of all that flrong confolation, which 


ii).\ 0/ tht Satisfaclioh 

God Is fo abundantly willing wc fhould receive ; but fuch is 
ihat of denying the fatisfaflion made by Chrift. ; his anfwer- 
ing the juftice, and undergoing the wrath of his Father; it 
makes the poor foul to be like Noali^ dove in its diftrefs, not 
Icnovving where to red the foal ot her feet. When a foul is 
turned out of its felf-righteoufnefs, and begins to look abroad, 
and view heaven and earth for a rcfting place ; and per- 
ceives an ocean, a flood, an inundation oi wrath to cover all 
the world ; the wrath ot God revealing itfelf from heaven a- 
gainfl all ungodllnefs, fo that it can obtain no rell nor abld^ 
ing ; heaven it cannot reach by its own flight, and to hell it is 
wnwilling to fall ; if now the Lord Jefus Chrift do not ap- 
pear as an ark in the midft of the waters, (upon whom the 
floods have fallen, and yet is got above them all,) tor a re- 
fuge ; alas ! what fliall it do ? When the flood fell, there 
^vere many mountains, glorious in the eye, far higher than 
the ark ; butyetthofe mountains were all drowned, whilft 
the ark fUll kept on the top of the waters. Many appearing 
hills and mountains of felf-righteoufnefs and general mercy, 
at the firft view fecm to the foul much higher than Jefus 
Chrift ; but when the flood of wrath once comes and fpreads 
iifelf, all thofe moimtains are quickly covered : only the 
ark, the Lord Jefus Chrift, though the flood fall on him alfo, 
yet he gets above it quite, and gives fafety to them that reft 
upon him. 
/ Let me now afk any of thofe poor fouls, who ever have 
been wandering and to/Ted with the fear of the wrath to come ; 
•whether ever they found a refting place, until they came to 
this ; God fpared not his only Son, but gave him up to 
death for us all ; that he made him to be fin for us ; that he 
put all the fins of all the eleft into that cup which he was to 
drink off; that the wrath and flood which they feared, did fall 
upon Jefus Chrift, (though now as the ark he be above it,) 
!o that if ihey could get into him, they fhould be fafe ; the 
V ^orm hath been his, and iht fafety fhall be theirs ; as all the 
"■' vaters which would have tallen on them that were in the ark, 
fell upon the ark, they being dry and fafe ; fo all the wrath 
that Ihould have fallen upon them, fell on Chrift, which a- 
]one caufeth their fouls to dwell in fafety ? Hath not, I fay, 
this been your bottom ? your foundation ? your refting place ? 
if not. (for the fubftanceof it,) I tear you have but rottien 
bottoms. Now, what would you fay, it a man ftiould come 
9nd pull this ark from under you : and give }'ou an old rot- 
tm-i poft to f^vim upon, in the flood of wrath ? It is tao late 


and Merit of ChriJ}. 165 

to tell you, no wraih is due unto you ; the word of truth, 
and your own confciences, have given you other informati- 
on ; you know, The wage.s of Jin is death, in whomfoever it 
be ; he mud die, on whomfoever it is found. So that trul/ 
the foul may well fay, bereave me of the fatisfaftion of Chriff, 
and I am bereaved ; if he fatisfied not juflice, I muft ; if he 
underwent not wrath, I muft to eternity ; O rob me not of 
my only pearl. Thus, a denying the fatisfa6lion of Chiift, 
^cftroys the foundation of faith and comfort. 

Arg. VI. Another argument we may take from two par- 
ticular places of Scripture, which infteadof many I fhall pro- 

iJL 2 Cor. V. 21. He hath made him to be Jin for us, who- 
knew no fin. He made him to ht fin for us ; how could that, 
be? are not the next words, he knew no fin? was he not a 
lamb without fpot, and without b'cmifti ? Doubtlefs he did 
no fin, neither was guile found in his mouth. What then 
is this, God made him to he fin ? it cannot be, that God made 
him finlul, or a finner by any inherent fin; that will not 
fland v.'ith the juftice of God, nor with the holinefs of the 
perfon of our Redeemer. What Is it then? he made him to 
be fin who kaew no fin? why clearly, by difpenfation and 
confent he laid that to his charge, whereof he was not guilty. 
He charged upon him and imputed unto him, all the fins of 
alltheelecl; and proceeded againft him accordingly. He 
flood as our furety, really charged with the whole debt; and 
was to pay the uttermoft farthing, as a furety is to do if it be 
required of him ; though he borrow not the money, nor 
have one penny of that which is in the obligation; yet if he 
be fued to an execution, he muft: pay all. The Lord Chrill 
(if I may fay fo) was fued by his Father's juftice unto an ex- 
ecution ; in anfwer whereunto he underwent all that: was 
due to fin, which we proved before to be death, wrath, and 

If it be excepted (as it is) that God was always well-pleaf- 
cd with his Son, he teftified it again and again from heaven; 
how then could he lay his wrath upon him? I anfwer, It is 
true he was always weU-pleafed with him; yet it pleafcd him 
to bruifi him, and put him to grief. He was always well pleaf- 
ed with the holinefs of his perfon, the excellency and per- 
fe6tnefs of his righteoufnefs, and the fweetnefs of his obedi- 
ence ; but he was difpleafed with the fins that were charged 
on him ; and therefore it pleafed him to bruife and put him 
ito grief, with whom he ^d,% always well pleafed. 


1 66 Oj the SatisfaBion 

Nor is that other exception of any more value. That 
Chrift underwent no more than the cleft lay under; but they 
Jay not under wrath and the puniQiment due to fin ; becaufe 
the propofition is nioft taUe ; neither is there any more truth 
in the affumption. For Chrift underwent not only that 
wrath, (taking it pafiively) which the eleft were under; but 
that alio which they (hould have undergone, had not he 
borne it for them ; delivered them Jrom the wrath to come. 
Moreover the eleft do in their feveral generations lie under • 
all the wrath ot God, in refpeft of merit and procurement, 
though not in refpeft of aftual endurance ; in refpeft of guilt, 
not prefcnt punifhment. So that, notwithftariding thefe ex- 
ceptions, it llands firm : That he was made Jin for us wh9 
knew no Jin. 

zdly. Ifa, Uii. 5. He was zoounded Jor our tranfgrejfionf 
he was bruifedjor our iniquities, the chaftifement oJ our peace^ 
was upon him, and with his fir ipes we are healed. Of this 
place lomethingwas faid before ; I fhall add fome fmall en- 
largements, that conduce to dikover the meaning, of the 
words. The chajlijement oJ our peace was upon hi7n : that is, 
he was chaftifed or punifhed, that we might have peace, that 
we might go free ; our fins being the caufe of his wounding, 
and our iniquities of his being bruifed; all our fins meeting 
upon him, as verfe 6. that is, he bare our /ins, in Peter s in- 
terpretation. He bare our fins, (not as fome think, by de- 
claring that we were never truly finful; but) by being 
wounded for tbem, bruifed for them ; undergoing the chaf- 
tifement due unto them, confifting in death, wrath, and 
curie ; fo making his foul an offering Jor Jin. He bare our 
fms ; that is, fay fome, he declared that we have an eternal 
righteoufnefs in God ; becaufe of his eternal purpofe to do 
us good ; but is this, to interpret Scripture; or to corrupt 
the word of God ? Afk the word, what it means by Chrifl's 
bearing of fin ? It will tell you; his htmg Jiricken for our 
tranfgreffions, Ifa. liii. 8. his being cut off for our fins, 
Dan. ix. 26. Neither hath the expreffion of bearing fins, 
any other fignification in the word, Lev. v. 1. he that heareth 
fwearing and doth not reveal it,Jhall bear his iniquity. What 
is that ; he (liall declare himfelf or others to be free from 
fin ? No doubt lefs ; but he fiiall undergo the punifliment 
due to fin ; as our Saviour did, in bearing our iniquities. 
He muft be a cunning gamefler indeed, that fhall cheat a be- 
liever of this foundation. 

More arguments or texts on this fubjeft, I fhall not urge 


and Merit of Chrift, 167 

or produce; though the caufe itfelf will enforce the moft 
unfkilful to abound. I have proceeded as iar, as the natuie ot 
a digreflion will well bear ; neither fhall I undertake, at this 
time, the anfwering of objeaions to the contrary, 'a full 
difcuffion of the whole bufinefs of the fatisfaaion of Chrift, 
fhould caufe me to fearch for, draw forth, and confute all 
objeaions to the contrary ; being not by me intended. And 
for thofe which were made, at that debate which gave occa- 
fion to this difcourfe, I dare not produce them ; left haply I 
fliould not be able to refirain the conjeaures of men, that I 
purpofely framed fuch weak objeaions, that I might obtain 
an eafy conqueft over a man of ftraw of mine own ereaion ; 
fo weak were they ; and of fo little force, to the (baking of fo 
fundamental a truth as that is which we do maintain. So of 
this argument hitherto. 


Of the merit of Chriji ; with arguments from thencs, 

JV. A Fourth thing afcribed to the death of Chrift is 
-Ck merit; or that worth and value of his death, 
whereby he purchafcd and procured unto us and for us all 
thofe good thmgs, which we find in the Scripture for his 
death to be beftowed upon us. Of this, much I fhall not 
fpeak ; having confidered the thing itfelf, under the notion 
of impetration, already ; only I fhall add feme \ew obferva 
tions, proper to that particular of the controverfy which we 
have m hand The word merit, is not at all to be found in 
the NewTeftament, in no tranllation out of the original that 
Ihavefeen. Th^ vulgar Latin oviz^r.^a, pro mereUr, Heb. 
xuu 16. and the Rkamjls, to preferve the found, have ren- 
dered li pro?nerited. But thefe words, in both lan^uaaes arc 
uncouth and barbarous; befides that they no way^nVwe. 
EUARESTEiTAi, the word in the original, which aives 
HO colour to merit, name, or thing. Nay I funDole i^ 
^vdl prove a difHcult thing, to find out^any on Jword ^eithc .• 
IrLl"^"'^'''^^^'''/"'^' '^^^>' ^^"P^"^« ^'^^ v.ritten, 
^oruT^.\^'T^^^ ^^^ ^'^^ "^^'ve in.- 

To hl.n F^'^^'T^* ^^^^^^^bout the name we fhall not. 
trouble gurfelyes, if the thing itfelf intended thereby be mad« 


,58 Arguments againjl 

apparent; which it is both in .he Old and New Teftamenf. 
As Ifa Ull s- The chaftifanent of our peace was upon him. 
andwi'thhlsjiripesv^^are healed; the procurement ol our 
pLceandheaUr.g, was the merit of h.s chaft.femen. and 
Ces; fo Heb^x^. 12. D. A Tou iD.ou aimatos 
moni\n lutrosin euramenos, oblMoed by hu olood 
\u,nal redcmpiion, is as nmch as we intend to Cgntlv by 
ihe mrit ot Chrill. The word which comes ueareft it 
figmfication, we have J& xx. 28. VERlPOtESATO 
mcLfed With his own blood; purchafe and mipet.at.on. 
merit Ind acquilition, being m tUlshufinefs terms equ.va- 
lem- which latierwordisufed in divers other places as, 
.Wv.g. Ephej:\.ii. I Pet. n.g. Now that which 
bv this name we underlland. is, the performance of fuck an 
action, as whereby the thing aimed at by the agent is due 
unto him according to the equity and equality required injuf- 
tice-Tto him that worketh, » the reward not reckoned of 
Zee b'u of debt, Rom. iv. 4. Tl.at there is fuch a merit 
f tet dm? the death ol Chrift. is apparent from what was laid 
belo re; iither is the weight of any operous proving of it 
impofed on us, by our adverlaries feem.ng .0 acknowledge 
i^no lefs themfelves; fo that we may take it for granted; un- 
1 ou adverlaries clofe with the Socin.ans m this alfo. 

: ^e^^e^Ced ot'-the S aud^ffeas of his death. 
Thele are fe things purchafed and merited, by his blood- 
I.ddinjW d-ath : which mav be referred umo two heads, 
% Su?h as are privative; .'s, x. Deliverance ou, of the 
1/^ bucn -s aic f. , , ■ From the zvrath to come, 

'rrd r ;:- : M/' «^- --^ ^^f - < -^i .- 

■ - HM ii Id -Ci. of the works ofUte devil, 1 Joarx 

Srr- : De^veun'^e from the curje If the law. Gal it. 

,\.^prefe,U evil ^^rld,^^- 1. 4-_'- . ^j ^^^ /,,,,_ 

1 John ii. 2. 3- Peacemaking, Ephel. u. 14- 4- 

^" AU^tfi hith our Saviour by ^^f^^^;^^ 

Vniverfal Redemption, 169 

according to the equity of juftice, to be beftowed on ihcm for 
whom they were fo purchafed and procured. It was abfolute- 
\y of free grace, in God, that he would fend Jefus Cbrift to 
die for any ; it was of free grace, for whom he would fend 
him to die; it is of free grace, that the good things procured 
by his death be bellowed on any perfon, in refpeft of thofe 
perfons on whom they are bellowed ; but confidering his owa 
appointment and conftltution, that Jefus Chrift by his death 
Ihould merit and procure grace and glory for thofe tor whom 
he died, it is of debt in refpcft of Chrift, that they be com- 
municated to them. Now that which is thus merited, which 
is of debt to be bellowed, we do not fay that it may be be- 
flowed, but it ought fo to be, and it is injudice if it be not. 

Having (aid this little of the- nature of meiit, and ot the 
merit of Chrift, the procurement of his death for them in 
whofe ftead he died, it will, quickly be apparent, how unre- 
conciieaBle the general ranfom is therewith. For the demon- 
flration whereof, we need no more but the propohng of this 
one queftion, vi2^ If Chriil hath merited grace and glcry, for 
all thofe for whom he died, if he died for all, how comes it 
to pafs that thefe things are not communicated to and bellow- 
ed upon all ? is the defe6l In the merit of Chriil, or in the 
juftice of God ? How vain is it to except, that thefe things 
are not beftov/cd abfolutely upon us, but upon conditioi\ 
and therefore were fo procured ; feeing that the very condi- 
tion itfelf is alfo merited and procured, (as Ebh. i. 3. 4. FhiL 
8. 29.) hath been already declared. 


V. The very phrafes of dying for us, bearing our fins, 
being our furetm and the like, whereby the death of Chrift 
for us is exprened, will not fland with the payment of a ran- 
fom for all. To die for another , is in Scripture to die in that 
other's ftcad, that he might go free ; as Judah be^'ought his 
brother Jofepk to accept of him for a bondman, inilead ct 
Benjaniin, that he might be fct at liberty, Gen. xHv. 33. and 
that to make good the engagement wherein he ftood bound to 
his father, to be a (urcty for him. He that is farety for ano- 
ther, (as Chrift was for us, Heb, vii. 22.) is to undergo liie 
danger, that the other may be delivered. So Daxjid wifiiing 
that he had died for his fon Ahfalom, 2 Sam. xviii. 33. in- 
tended doubtlefs a commutation with him, and a fubftituti mi 
«f his lits for his, fo that he might have livsd. F.vil aliV,. 


170 Arguments againjt 

Rom. V. 7. intimates the fame; fappofing that fuch a thing 
might be found among men, that one (hould die for another ; 
no doubt alluding to the Decii, Meneccrus, Euryalus, and fuch 
others, whom we £nd mentioned in the ftorics ot the heathen, 
who voluntarily caft themfelves unto death, for the deliver- 
cnce of their country or friends ; continuing their liberty and 
freedom from death, who were to undergo it, by taking it 
upon themfelves to whom i: was not direftly due. And this 
plainly is the meaning of that phrafe, Ckrifl died for us; that 
is, in the undergoing of death, there was a fubrogaiion of his 
perfon in the room and ftead of ours. 

Some indeed except, that wliere the word hyper is 
iifed in this phrafe, as Heb. ii. 9. That he by the grace oj 
God Jhould tajle death Jor every inani there only the good and 
profit of them for whom he died is intended, not enforcing 
the neceffity of any commutation. But why this exception 
Ihould prevail, I fee no great reafon; for the fame prepofiiion 
being ufed in the like kind in other cafes, doth confelfedly 
intimate a commutation, as Rom, ix. 4. where Paul affirms 
that he could wi(h himfelf accurfcd from Chrill hyper 
TON ADELPHoN.tor his brethren, that is, //2 their Jlead; lo 


are ambaffadors in QAin^\ Jlead. So the fame apoftle, 1 Cor. 
i. 13. afking, and ftrongly denying by way of interrogation; 


crucijiedfor ycu? plainly fheweth that the word hyper, ufed 
about the crucifying of Chrift for his church, doth argue a 
commutation or change, and not only defigns the good of 
jhem for whom he died; for plainly Paul might himfelf have 
been crucified for the good of the church ; but in the flead 
thereol, he abhorreth the leaft thought of it. 

But concerning the word anti \/hich ^allo is ufed, 
there is no doubt, nor can any exception be made ; it 
always fignifieih a commutation and change, whether it be 
applied to things or perfons. So Luke xi. 11. OPHI& 
ANTI ICHTHYOS, a ferpent injlead of a fijh; Matt he vr 
an eye ; Heb. xii. 16. prototokia anti broseos 
his birth- right for meat. And for perfons, Archclaus is faid 
to reign anti Herodou tou patros, Matt. ii. 22. in- 
fieadof his father. — Now this word is ufed ot the death of our 
^Saviour, Matt. xx. 28. The Son oJ man came DOUN ai ten 
. pscHEN ANTOU LYTRON ANTI POLLoN which words are 
repeated again, Mark x. 4|.) that is, to give his life a ranfom 


Vnivtrfal Rtdemption, 171 

VI the flead of the lives of many. So that plainly, Chrifl's 
d} ing for us as a furety, Heb. vii. 22. and fhertby and there- 
in bearing our Jins in his own body^ 1 Pet. ii. 24. being inadc 
a cur ft for us, was an undergoing of death, punifhment, 
curie, wrath, not only for our good, but direffly in our (lead ; 
a commutation and fubrogaiion of his perfon in the room and 
place of ours, being allowed and of God accepted. 

This being cleared, I demand, iJL Whether Chrift died 
thus for all ? that is, whether he died in the room and ftead 
of all, fo that his perfon was fubftituted in the room of 
theirs ? as, whether he died in the ftead of Cain and Pharaoh^ 
and the reft, who long before his death were under the power 
of the fccond death, never to be delivered? ^dly. Whether 
it be juftice, that thofe or any of them in whoft; ftead Chrift 
died, bearing their iniquities, fliould themfelvej, alfo die and 
bear their own fms to eternity ? 3^/y. What rule of equity 
is there, or example for it, that when the furety hath anfwer- 
cd and made fatis{a£lion to the utrnoft of what was required 
in the obligation wherein he was a furety, that they, for whom 
he was a {urety, fliould afterwards be proceeded againft? /i^ihly. 
Whether Chrift hung upon the crofs in the room or ftead of 
reprobates? ^thly. Whether he underwent all that which was 
due unto them for whom he died ? if not, how could he be 
faid to die in their ftead ? if fo, why are they not all deliver- 
ed ? I ftiall add no more but this, that to affirm Chrift to die 
for all men, is the readieft way to prove that he died for no 
man, in the fenfe which Chriftians have hitherto believed, 
and to hurry poor fouls into the bottom of Socinian. blai- 


The lafl general Argument, 


VI. /^ U R next argument is taken from fome particular 
V^ places of Scripture, clearly and diftinftly in them- 
felves holdmg out the truth of what we do affirm; out of the 
great number of them I fiiall take a few to infift upon, and 
therewith to clofe our arguments. 

i/?. The firft that I fhail begin withal is the fir ft mentioning 
of Jefus Chrift, and the firft revelation of the mind of God, 
concerning a difcrimination between the people of Chrift and 


i>7f Arguments dgainjt 

his enemies, viz. Gen. iii. 15. 1 will put nimity hdwien thee 
(the ferpent) and the woinan, cind between thy feed and her feed. 
By the feed of the woman is meant the whole body of the ele£l ; 
Chrift in the firft place as the head, and all the reft as his mem- 
bers ; by the feed of the ferpent, the devil with all the whole 
multitude of reprobates, making up the malignant ftate, in 
oppofition to the kingdom and body ot Jefus Chrift. 

1. That by the firft part, or the feed of the woman, is 
meant Chrift with all the eka, is moft apparent ; for they 
in whom ail things that are here foretold of the feed of the 
woman do concur, they are the feed of the woman ; (for the 
properties of any thing, do prove the thing itfelf ;) but now- 
in the eleft, believers, in and through Chrift, are to be found 
all the properties of the feed of the woman ; feeing for them, 
in them, and by them is the head of the ferpent broken, Sa- 
tan trodden down under their feet, the devil difappointed in 
his temptations, and the devil's agents fruftrated in their un- 
dertakings. Principally and efpecially this is Ipoken of Chrift 
himfelt ; colleaively of his whole ^ body, which beareth a 
continual hatred to the ferpent and his feed, 

2. By the feed of the ferpent is meant, all the reprobate 
men of the world, impenitent, unbelievers. For, ^ 

(1.) The enmity of the ferpent lives and exercifeth itfelf 
in them ; they hate and oppole the feed of the woman, they 
have a perpettia! enmity with it ; and every thing that is faid of 
the feed of the lerpent,' belongs properly to them. 

(li.) They are often fo called in the Scripture, Matt. iii. 7. 
generation of vipers, or feed of the ferpent ; {o alfo. Matt. 
xxiii. 33. and Chrift telleth the reprobate Pharifees, ye are of 
your father the devil, and \m lufts ye will do, John viii. 44. 
■fo again, the child of the devil, Afts xiii. 10. that is, the 
feed'^of the ferpent ; for he that committeth fin is oj the de- 

%il, 1 John iii. 8. 01 •« 

Thefe things being undeniable, we thus proceed ; Chnll 
died for no more, than God promifed him unto, that he 
Should die for them ; but God did not promife him to all, as 
that he Ihould die for them ; for he did not promife the feed 
of the woman to the feed of the ferpent, Chrift to repro- 
bates ; but in the firft word of him, he promifeth an enmity 
againft them. In fura, the feed of the woman died not tor 
the (ecd of the , ferpent. 

2dly. Matt. vii. 23. / will profefs unto them, I never 
knew you ; Chrift at the laft dav will profefs to fome, that he 
never knew them : Chrift faith direBly, that he knows his 


Univerfal Redemption. 173 

Sion whom be layeth down his life for, John x. 14, 1^, 17. 
and furely he knows whom, and what he hath bought. Were 
it not ftrange, that Chriii (hould die for them and buy them 
that he will not own, but profefs he never knew them ? If 
they are bou^rht with a price, furely they are his own, 1 Cor. 
vi. 20. It Chrifl did fo buy them, and lay out the price of 
his precious blood for them, and then at laft deny that he e- 
ver knew them ; might they not well reply, ah Lord ! was 
not thy foul heavy unto death for our fakes ? didft thou not 
for us undergo that wram that made thee fweat drops of 
blood ? didft thou not bathe thyfelf in thine own blood, that 
our bloods might be fpared ? didft thou not fanfclify thyfelf 
to be an offering for us, as well as tor any of the apofties ? 
was not thy precious blood by ffripes, by fweat, by nails, by 
thorns, by fpear, poured out for us ? didft thou not reme»n- 
ber us, when thou hung'ft upon the crofs ? and now doft 
thou fay thou never kneweit us? Good Lord, though we be 
unworthy fmners, yet thine own blood hath not deferved to 
be defpifed ; why is it that none can lay any thing to the 
charge of God's eleft? is it not becaufe thou died:ft for them ? 
and didft thou not do the fame for us? why then are we 
thus charged, thus rejefted ? could not thy blood fatisfy thy 
Father, but we ourfelves muft be punilhe'd ? could not jufr- 
tice content itfelf whh that facrifice, but we muft now hear, 
Depart^ 1 nruef knew you ? What can be anfwered to this 
plea, upon the granting of the general ranfom, I know 

3<//y. Matt. xi. 25, 26. / thank thee, Father, Lord of 
heaven and earth, becaufe thou haji hid thefe things from the 
Kuife and prudent, and haji revealed them unto babes ; even fo. 
Father, for fo it feemed good in thy fight : ihofe men from 
whom God, in his fovereignty as Lord of heaven and earth 
of his own good pleafure, hideth the gofpel, either in refpecl 
of the outward preaching of it, or the inward revelation of 
the power of it in their hearts ; thofe cer:ainly Chrift died 
not for. For to what end (hould the Father fend his only 
Son, to die for the redemption ot thofe, v.yhom he for his 
own good pleafure had determined fhould bt everlafting ftran- 
gers from it, and never fo much as hear of it, in the power 
thereof revealed to them. Now that fuch there are,- our Sa- 
viour here affirms ; and thanks his Father for that dlfpenfati- 
on, at which fo many do at this day repine. 

j^thly. John x. 11, ij, 16, 26, 27, 28, 29. This clear 
place, which of itfelf is fufficient to evert the general lan- 


174 Arguments againfi. 

fom, hath been a little confidered before ; and therefore I 
iliali pafs it over the more briefly, i. That all men are not 
the fheep of Chdft, is moft apparent; for, (i.) He himfelf 
faith fo, verfc 20. ye are not of myjheep, (2.) The diftinfti- 
on at the lafl day will make it evident, when the fheep and 
the goats {hd\\ be feparated. (3.) The properties of the fheep 
here, that they hear the voice of Chrift that they know him, 
and the like, are not in all. 2. The fheep here mentioned, 
are all his e!e8: ; as well thofe that were to be called, as 
tbofe that were then already called, verfe 16. Some were not 
as yet of his fold, of called ones ; fo that they are fheep by 
cle£lion, and not by believing. 3. Chrifl fo fays that he 
laid down his life for his fheep, that plainly he excludes all 
others ; for, (i.) He laid down his life for them as fheep ; 
now that which belongs to them as fuch, belongs only to 
fuch ; it he lays down his life for fheep as fheep, certainly 
he doth it not for goats and wolves and dogs. (2.) He lays 
down his life as a fhepherd, verfe 11. therefore for them as 
the fheep ; what hath the fliepherd to do with the wolves, un- 
lefs it be to dtilroy them ? (3.) Dividing all into fheep, and 
others, verfe 26. he faith, he lays down his life for his fheep; 
which is all one as if he had faid, he did it for them only. 
(4.) He defcribes them for whom he died, by this, My Fa- 
ther gaxje them vie, verfe 29, as alfo chap. xvii. v. 6. thine they 
were, and thou gavefl them me; which are not all; for all 
thai the Father giveth him fliall come to him, (John vi. 37.) 
and he gives unto thein eternal life, and they fliall never perifli, 
yerfe 28. Let bat the fheep ot Chrift keep clofe to this evi- 
dence, and all the world fliall never deprive them of their in- 
heritance. — Further to confirm this place, add Hatt, xx. 28. 

John xi 52- 

5^^2/7. Ro:r.. vlli. 32, 33, 34 The intention of the apoflle 
in this place, is to hold out confolation to believers in affliftion, 
or under any di fire fs ; which he doth, verfe 31. in general, 
from the afTurance of the prefence of God with them, and 
his aiTiftance at all times, enough to conquer all oppofitions, 
and to make all difficulty indeed contemptible, by the af- 
furance of his loving kindnels which is better than life itfelf; 
if God be for us, who can he agairft vs? To manifefl this his 
prclence and kindnefs, the apoflle minds them of that mofl 
excellent, tranfcendent and hngular a6l of love towards them. 
in fending his Son to die for them ; not fparing him, but re- 
quiring their debt at his hand; whereupon he argues from 
the greater to the lefs, that if he have done that for us, furely 


Univerfal Rednnplion. 


he will do every thing elfe that fhall be reqiiifitc; if he did 
the greater, will he not do the lefs ? if he gave his Son to 
death, will he not alfo with \i\m freely give us alt things-' 
Whence we may obferve, i. Thaf the greateft and moft e;vi- 
mious exprefhon of the love of 'God towards believers, ii m 
fending his Son to die for them, not fparing him for their 
fake; this is made the chief of all ; nov/ if God fent his So.i 
to die for all, he had as great love, and hath made as greai a 
manifellation of it to them that perifh, as to thofe that arc 
faved. 2. That for whomfoever he hath given and not (paitd 
his Son, unto them he will alTurediy freely ^ive all thinf^s; 
but now he doth not give all things that are good for iheiu 
unto all, as faith, grace and glory; from whence wc con- 
clude, that Chrifl died not for all. 

Again, verfe 33. he gives us a defcription of thofe that 
have a fhare in the confolation here infended, for v.hcin God 
gave his Son, to whom he freely gives all things, and that is, 
that they are his eled ; not all, but only thofe whom he haih 
cholen before the foundation of the world, that ihey fhould 
be holy ; which gives another confirmation of the reltraint of 
the deaih of Chrill to them alone. 

This he yet further confirms, verfe 34. by declaring that 
thofe of whom he fpeaks fliall be ireely juilified and freed 
from condemnation; whereof he gives two reafons : 1, Be- 
caufe Chrift died for them : 2. Becaufe he is rifen and makes 
intercefTion for them for whom he died ; affording us two in- 
vincible arguments to the bufmefs in hand : (1.) From the in- 
fallible effe6fs cf the death of Chrift ; who {hall lav any thing 
to their charge ? who (hall condemn them ? Why ? what 
reafon is given ? it is Chrift that died, lo that his cTeath doth 
infallibly free all them from condemnation for whom he died. 
(2.) From the connexion that theapoftle here makes, between 
the death and intercefTion oi Jefus Chrilf ; for whom he died, 
for them he makes intcrceihoa ; but \\q fimth to the uttcrir.cjl 
them for whom he interccdeih, Heb. vii. 25. From a! I 
which it is undeniably apparent, that the death of Chrill, 
with the fruits and benefits thereof, belomreth only to the 
elea of God. ^ 

6thly. Eph. i. 7. In whom, zve have redeinptioiu If his 
blood were fhed for all, then all muit have a ihare in thofe 
things that are to be had in his blood; now amon^fi thcfc ;.■> 
that redemption that confifts in the torgivenefs cf f:ns, which 
certainly all have not; tor they that have arc bleffcd, Horn, iv, 7, 
and fhall be bleff?d for everinorc ; which blclMng comes nut 


176 Arguments againj: Univerfal Redemption, 

upon all, but upon the feed of righteous Abraham, verfe 16. 

jthly. 2 Cor. v. 21. He hath viade him to he fin jor us, 
that we might he made the righteoufnefs of God in hi?n. It was 
in his death that Chrift was made fui, or an offering for it ; 
now for whomfoever he was made fm, they are made the 
righteoulnefs of God in him; with his Jlripes we are healed, 
Ifa. liii. 5. And John xv. 13. greater love hath no man than 
this, that a man lay dozun his life for his friends. To inter- 
cede therefore, is not of greater iove than to die, or any thing 
elfe that he doth for his e!e6f. If then he laid down his Ufa 
for all, which is the greateff, why doth he not alfo the reft for 
them, 'and fave them to the uttermofl ? 

%thly. John xvii. 9, I pray for them; I pray not for the 
-world, but for them "which thou haft given ine, for they are 
thine' And verfe 19. For their fakes, I fandfy myfelf, 

qthly. Eph. v. 25. Hufbands love your zoives ; even as 
Chrifi alfo loved the church, and gave himfelf for it. Alfo 
Afts XX. 28. The objeft of Chrift's love and his death is 
here afferted to be his bride, his church ; and that as properly 
as a man's own v^ife is the only allowed objea of his conju- 
gal afTections; and if Chrift had a love to others, fo as to die 
for them, then is there in the exhortation a latitude left unto 
men, in 'conjugal affeftions for other women befides their 

wives. . 

I thought to have added other arguments, as mtendmg a 
clear difcufling of the whole controverfy, but upon a review 
of what hath been faid, I do with confidence take up and 
conclude, that thefe which have been already urged, will be 
enough to fatisfv them who will be fatisfied with any thmg, 
and thofe that are obftinate v.-ill not be fatisfied with more.— 
So of our arguments here (liali be an end. 


Things previoujly to be confidered, to the folution of ohjcBions, 

TPIERE being fundry places in the holy Scripture where- 
in the ranfom and propitiation made by the blood of 
Chrift, is fet forth in general and indefinite expreffions; as 
alfo a fruiilefnefs or want of fuccefs in refpea of fome, 


General Anfwers unto I'J'J 

ihrough their own default, for whom he died feemlngly, in- 
timated ; with general profers, promlfes and exhortations 
made for the embracing of the fruits of the death of Chriil, 
even to them who do never a6lLially perform it ; whence 
fome have taken occafion to maintain an univerfality rj re- 
dempiion^ equally refpefting all and every one ; and tha: 
with great confidence, afHrraing that the contrary opinion 
cannot pofTibly be reconciled with thofe places of Scripture, 
wherein the former things are propofed ; thefe three heads, 
being the only fountains from whence are drawn (but with 
violence) all the arguments that are oppofed to the peculiar 
cfFeftudl redemption of the eletf only; I fliall (before I come 
to the anfwering of obje£lions, arifmg from a wrelled inter- 
pretation of particular places) lay down {ow.z fuch funda- 
mental principles, as are agreeable to the word, and largely 
held forth in it, and no way difagreeable to our judgment in 
this particular ; which do and have-givca occafion to thofc 
general and indefinite afHrmations, as they are laid down iu 
the word, and upon which they are founded ; having their 
truth in them, and not in an univerfal ranfom for all and e- 
very one ; with fome diflincfions, conducing to the further 
clearing of the thing in queftion ; and waving of many falfe 
imputations of things and confeqaences, crrcneoully or ma* 
licicufly impofed on us. 

I. The firff thing that we (hall lay down, is concerning the 
dignity, v/orth, pretioufnefs and infinite value of the blood 
and death of Jefus Chrift. The maintaining and declaring 
of this, is doubtlefs efpecially to be confiriered ; and every 
opinion that doth but feemlngly clafli againfl it, is excte.i- 
i'lgly prejudiced, at leafi: defervedly fufpetfed, yea prefen^Iy 
10 be reje6led by chriillans, if upon fearch it be found to (io 
fo really and indeed ; as that which is injurious and dqrogato. 
jy to the merit and honour of Jefus Chrifl, The Scripture 
alfo to this purpofe is exceeding full and frequent, in fetiing 
forth the excellency and dignity of his death and faciiiicc ; 
calling his blood, by reafoa of the unity of his perfon. Goir s 
ozvd blood, A8. x'::. 28. exalting it infinitely above all oiher 
faciifices ; as having for its principle the cttrnat Spirit, and 
bein<^ 'vAo/ii without f pot, Hcb. ix, 14. tranfcendenily more 
precious than jilver ot gold or corruptible things, 1 Pet, i. 18. 
Able to give jultijication from all things, frorp, which by the 
Laiu men CGuld not be jujiified, A61. xiii. 39. Now fuch a^ 
was ihe facrifice and oft'L-ring of Chrlfl in ufelf, fuch v.-as it 2a- 
Unded by his Father il fhould be; it was th':n the purpofe and 
Z intcniion 

1 7 8 Arguments for Univerfal Redemption* 

intention of God, that his fon fliould offer a facrifice of infinite 
worth, value and dignity ; fufficient in itfelf for the redeem- 
ing of all and every man, if it had pleafed the Lord to employ- 
it to that purpofe ; yea and of other worlds aifo, if the Lord 
fiiould freely make them, and would redeem them. Saffici- 
ent we fay then was the facrifice of Chrifl, for the redempti- 
on of the whole world ; and for the expiation of all the fins, 
of all and every man in the world. 

This fufficiency of his facrifice, hath a twofold rife, viz. 
Tlie dignity of the per fon that did cfFer and was offered ; as ai- 
fo the greatnei's of the pain he endured ; by which he was 
able to bear, and did undergo, the whole curfe of the law 
and wrath of God due to fin ; and this Jets out the innate real 
true worth and value of the blooJJliedding of jfefus Ckrijl ; this 
is its own true^ internal perfeftion and fufficiency. That it 
fhould be applied unto any, made a price for them, and be- 
come beneficial to them, according to the worth that is in it ; 
is external to it, doth not arife from it, but merely depends 
upon the intention and will oi God. It was in itfelf of infinite 
value and fufficiency to have been made aprice^ to have bought 
and purchafed all and every man in the world; that It did for- 
mally become a price, for any, is folely to be afcribed ^) the 
purpofe of God, intendingr their purchafe and redemption by 
it. The intention ol the offerer and accepter, that it fhould be 
for fuch, fome^ or any, is that which gives the formality ot a 
price unto it ; this is external ; but the value and fitnefs of 
it to be made a price, arifeth from its own internal fu£Bci- 

Hence may appear, what is to be thought of that old dif- 
tinftion of the fchoolmen, imbraced and ufed by divers pro' 
teftant divines, though by others again rejefted ; viz. that" 
Chrifl died for all in refpeft of the fufficiency of the ranfom 
he paid ; but not in refpeft of the cjfficacy of its application ; 
or, the blood of Chrifl was a fufficient price for the fins of 
all the world ; which lafl expreffion is correfted by fome, 
and thus afferted, viz. That the blood of Chrifl was fuffici- 
ent to have been made a price for all ; which is raofl true. 
For its being a price for all, or fome, doth not arife from its 
own fufficiency, worth or dignity ; but from the intention of 
God and Chrifl, ufing it to that purpofe, as was declared ; 
and therelore it is denied, that the blood of Chrifl was a fuf- 
ficient price and ranfom for ail and every one ; not becaufe 
it was not fufficient, but becaufe it was not a ranfom. And 
fo it eafily appears, what is to be owned in tfie diflin6tion it- 

General Anfwers unto 179 

felf before cxpreft, W it intend no more, hut that the Mood 
of our Saviour was of fufficient value tor the rcdcnipii^)n of 
all and every one, and that Chrift inceiided to iciy down a 
price which (hould he fufticicnt for their reden^.ption ; it is 
acknowledged as moft true ; hut the truth is, that cxprcirion 
(to die for them) holds out the intention of our Saviour in the 
laying down of the price, to have heen their redemption, 
which we deny ; and affirm that then it could not be, but that 
they mull be made aftuai partakers of the eternal redemption 
purchafed for them ; unlcls God failed in hisdefign, through 
the defeft of the ranfom paid by Chrill, his juftice refufing 
to give a difmifTion, upon the delivery ot the ranfom. . 

Now the infinite value and worth which we afTert to be in 
the death of Chrift, we conceive to be exceedingly underva- 
lued by the allertors of univerfal redemption ; for that it 
Ihould be extended to this or that object, fewer or more, we 
ihewed before to be extrinfical to it ; but its true worth con- 
iifls in the immediate efFefts, producls and ifTues of it, wuh 
what in its own nature it is fit and able to do ; which they o- 
penly and apparently imdervaluc, yea almofl annihilate. For 
they ufe thofe exprellions concerning it, viz. That by it a 
door of grace was opened for Jinmrs ; where (1 fappofe) 
they know not ; but that any were efFe^lually carried in at the 
door by it, that they deny. Alfo, That Cod might if he 
wouldy and upon what condition he pleafed^ fave thoje for 
whom ihriji died : but that a right of falvation was by him 
purchafed for any, they deny. Hence they grant, that after 
the death of Chrift, God might have dealt with man upon a le- 
gal condition again ; likewife that all and every man might 
have heen damned^ and yet the death of Chrifl have had its full 
tffed, : as alfo moreover, that faith and J andif cation are not 
pur chafed hy his death : yea, no more purchafed y^^r a«;' (as 
before) than what he may go to hell wtthalL And divers other 
ways do they exprefs their low thoughts, and flight imagin- 
ations, concerning the innate value and fufficiency ot the 
death and blood -fiedding of Jefus Chrift. — To the honour 
then of Jefus Chrift our Mediator, God and man. our all- 
fufficient Redeemer, we affirm, that luch and fo great was the 
dignity and worth of his death and blood-lhedding, of lo pie- 
cious a value, of fuch an infinite fulnefs and fufficiency was 
this oblation of himfelf ; that it was every way able and per- 
fe£lly fufficient to redeem, juftify and reconcile and fave, all 
the fmners in the world, and to fatisfy the juftice of God for 
all the fins of all mankind, and to bring them every one to 


i8o Argtitmnis for Univzrfal Redemption. 

cverladlnggiory. Now this lulinefs and fufRciency of the merit 
of the death of Chrift, is a foundation unto two things, viz> 

ift. The general puhhfliing of the gofpel unto all nations, 
tviih the right that it hath to be preached to every creature. 
Math, xxviii. 19. Mark xvi. 15. Becaufe the way of falva- 
tion which it declares, is wide enough for all to walk in; 
there is enough in the remedy it brings to light, to heal all 
their difeafes, to deliver them from all their evils; if there 
were a thoufand worlds, the golpel of Chrift might, upon 
this ground, be preached to them all ; there being enough 
in Chid for the falvation of them all, if fo be they will 
derive virtue from him by touching him in faith, the only 
way to draw refiefliment irom this fountain of falvation. It 
is then ahogether in vain which lome objeff ; that the preach- 
ing of the gofpel to all, is altogether ncedlefs and ufelefs, if 
Chrifl died not for all; yea, that it is to make God call up- 
on men to believe that which is not true, viz. that Chrifl died 
for them. For, 1. befides that amongfl tliofe nations whith- 
rr the gofpel is fent, there are fome to be faved, (I have muck 
iieople in this city, A61s xviii. 10.} which they cannot be, in 
ihe way tliat God hath appointed to do it, unlefs the gofpel be 
preached to oihcrs as well as themfelves ; and, 2. befides that 
in the ceconomy and difpenfation of the new covenant, (by 
which all external differences and privileges of people, 
tongues and nations, are abolifhedand taken away) the word 
of grace was to be preached without dillinftion, and all men 
called every where to repent; and, 3. that when God called 
npon men to believe, he doth not in the firft place call upon 
ihcm to believe that Chrift died for them, but ih^i there is 
none other name "under heaven given among men, zuhereby we 
vnf*Ji he faved, but only of Jefus Chriji, thro' whom falvation 
is preached : I fay, befides thofe certain truths^ fully taking 
off that objeBion, this one thing of which we fpeak, is a fuffi- 
ci'ent baf.s and ground for all thofe general precepts of preach- 
3n(T the gofpel unto all men ; even that fufEciency which we 
have dercribed, 

2dh, That the preachers of the gofpel in their particular 
-ron^regations, being utterly unacquainted with the purpofe 
end fecret counfel of God, being alfo forbidden to pry or 
iearch into it, Deut. xxix. 29. may from hence juflifiably 
rail upon every man to believe, with affurance of falvation to 
rvcry «-- in p^^rMcuinr upon his fo doing ; knowing and be- 
hn% fully perfuaded of this, that there is enough in the death 
#f ChsirL to fave every one that (hall {o do; leaving the pur- 

General An/tuers unto ig^ 

pofe and counfel of God, on whom he will bellow faith 
and for whom in particular Chrift difd, (even as (hey are' 
commanded,) to himfelf. 

And this is one principal thing, which being well obferved 
will crufh many of the vain flourifhcs of our adverfaries ; as 
will in particular hereafter appear. 

II. A fecond thing to be confidercd, is the ceconcmy or ad. 
mnijration of the new covenant, in the times of the gofpel ; 
with the amplitude and enlargement of the kingdom and do- 
minion of Chrift, after his appearance in the flefh ; whereby 
dU external differences being taken away, the narne of G^;?- 
/?7<fj removed, the partition wall broken down ; the Dromife 
to Abraham, that he (hould be heir of the world, as he was 
father of the faithful, was now fully to be accomplifhed. 
Now this adminiftration is fo oppofite to that difpenfation 
which was reflrained to one people and family, who wc^e 
God's peculiar and all the reft of the world excluded, that it 
gives occafion to many general exprefTions in the fcripture, 
which are far enough from comprehending an univerfality of 
all individuals, but denote only a removal of all fuch reftrain- 
ing exceptions as were before in force. So that a confidera- 
tion of the end whereunto thefe general exprefTions are ufed, 
and of what is aimed at by them, will clearly manifeft their nal 
ture, and how they are to be underftood ; with who they are' 
that are intend^ed by them and comprehended in them. For 
it being only this enlargement of the vifible kingdom of 
Chrift, to all nations in refpea of right, and to many in re- 
fpeft of faa, (God having elea in all thofe nations to be brought 
iorth, in the feveral generations wherein the means of grace 
are in thofe places employed,) that is intended ; it is evident 
that they import only a dijlnhution of men through all difTer- 
ences whatfoever, and not an univerfal colle&ion of all and e- 
very one ; the thing intended by them, requiring the one 
and not the other. ' 

Hence thofe objeaions which arc made againft the parti- 
cularity of the ranlom of Chrift, and the reftrainino- of it on- 
Iv to the elea; from the terms of ,?//, all men, all nattons 
tae world, the whole world, and the like ; are all of them ex- 
ceeding weak and invalid, as wrefiing the general exprefTions 
of the Scripture beyond their aim and intent: they bein^ 
ufed by the Holy Choft, only to evidence the removal nf aU 
perfonal and national diftinaion, the breaking no of all the 
narrow bounds of the Old Teftament, (he fnlaroipa the 
kingdom of Chrift beyond the bounds of Jewry and \Stm ; 

aboil filing 

i82 Arguments J or Univerjal Redemption* 

aboUflilng ail old reftriaions, and opening a way for the e- 
ka araongfl all people (called the fulnefs ot the Gentiles) to 
come in, there being now neither Greek, Jew, circumcifion 
nor uncircumcifion. Barbarian, Scythian, bond or free, but 
Chrifl is all and in all. Col. iii. 1 1. Hence the Lord promil- 
eth to pour out his Spirit upon all fejh, Joel ii. 28. which 
Peter interpreteth to be accomplilhed, by the filling of the a- 
poftles with the gifts of the Spirit, that they might be enabled 
to preach to feveral nations, Aas ii. 17. having received 
erace and apojilepp, for obedience to the faith among all natt- 
%ns, Roro. i. 5. not the Jews only, but fome among all na« 
tions ; the golpel being the power of God unto falvation, to «- 
very one that believeth, the Jew and alfo the Greek, verfe 16. 
intendincT only as to falvation, the peculiar people bought by 
Chrift • ^which he redeemed out of every kindred, and tongue, 
andpe'ople, and nation. Rev. v. 9. where ye have an evident 
dillribution ot that, which in other places is generally fet down ; 
the eofpel being commanded to be preached to all thefe nati- 
ons, Ak//. xxvUi. 19. that thoie bought and redeemed ones 
amongft them all, might be brought home to God John:^u 
c2 Andthis is that which the apoftle lo largely fets forth, 
Ephef. ii. 14. »5' ^6, 17. Now in this fenfe which we have 
explained, and no other, are thole many places to be taken, 
ivhich are ufuallv urged for univerfal grace and redemption ; 
as {hall afterwards be dedared in particular. 

HI V\re muftexaaivdiftinguilh betwixt mans duty and 

God's purpofe, there being no connexion between them. 

The DurpoFe and decree of God, is not the rule of our duty ; 

neither is the performance of our duty, in doing what we arc 

commanded, any declaration of what is God s purpofe to do. 

r^is decre; th/t it ftiould be done Efpecially is this to be 

fcenandconhdered, in the duty of the mimfters of the gof- 

oel • inthedifpenfingofthe word, in exhortations, invitati- 

ons' precepts and threatenings, committed unto them ; all 

which are perpetual declaratives of our duty ; and do raani- 

feft the approbation of the thing exhorted and invited to, with 

the truth ot the connexion between one thing and another; 

but not of the counfel and purpofe ot God, in ^eTpea of ind|. 

vMual perfons, in the miniftry of the word. A mmifter if 

To to make enquiry after, nor to trouble himfelf about thole 

fecrl« of the eternal mind of God. viz, whotn hepurpofeth 

to fave. and whom he hath lent Chrift to die for in particu. 

ar it is enough for them to fearch his revealed will ; and 

l^nce take th^.r direBions, from whence they^ave^ 

Gencxal Anfwers unto igg 

commijfwns. Wherefore there is no fequel from the univer- 

fal precepts of the word concerning the things, unto God''» 

purpofein himfelf concerning perfons : thev command and 

invite all to repent and believe ; but they knov/ not in parti- 

cular, on whom God will beftow repentance unto falvation 

nor in whom he will cffea the work of faith with pow^r! 

When they make prefers and tenders in the name of God to 

all, they do not fay to all, it is the purpofe and intention of 

God that ye (hould believe; who gave them any fuch power ? 

but that it is his command, which makes it their duty, to do 

what is required of them; and does not declare his mind, what 

himfelf in particular will do. The external offer is fuch. 

as from which every man may conclude his own duty ; none* 

God's purpofe ; which yet may be known upon performance 

ofhisduty.^ Their objeaion then is vain, who affirm that 

God hath given Chnft for all, to whom he offers Chrift in 

the preaching of the gofpel ; for his offer in the preaching of 

the gofpel. IS not declarative to any in particular, neither of 

what God hath done, nor af what he will do, in reference to 

him ; but of what he ought to do, if he would be approved of 

God, and obtain the good things promifed ; whence it will 


17?. That God always intends to fave fonie. among thrm to 
whom he lends the gofpel in its power; and the minifters of it 
being. I. unacquainted with hisparticular purpofe; 2. bound 
to feek the good of all and every one, as much as in them 
lies ; 3. to hope and judge well of all, even as it is meet for 
them; they make a proffer of Jefus Chrift, with life and faU 
vation in him ; notwithffanding that the Lord hath given his 
oon only to his eleft. ° 

2flf/y.^ That this ^/-^r is neither vain nor fruirlefs, beW 
declarative of their duty ; and of what is acceptable to God if 
it be performed as it ought to be, even as it is required ; and 
if any afk, what it is of the mind and will of God tha^ is de 
dared and made known, when men are commanded to believe 
for whom Chrifl did not die ? I anfvver. ,. what they ought 
to do. if they will do that which is acceptable to God ; 2. fhe 
ufhciency of falvation that is in Jefus Chrift, to all that be- 
heveonhim; 3 the certain inJallible, mviolable connexion 
that IS between faith and falvation ; fo that whofoever per- 

ZZ^ ru'^'a ^'^^ M '''>^ '"i^^ '^'^ ^^her ; for whoever 
^ometo Chrift, he will no ways caft out; of which more af- 

IV. The engrafted erroneous perfuafion ohh^Jews, which for 

a while 

184 Arguments for Univerfal Rzdemplion. 

a while had a ftrong influence upon the apoftles themfclves, 
rellraining falvation and deliverance by the Nlejfiaso-: promif- 
ed feed, to ihemfelves alone, who were the off-fpring oi Abra* 
ham according to the flefli ; mull be confidered as the ground 
of many general expreflions and enlargements of the objefts 
of redemption , which yet being fo occafioned, give no co- 
lour of any unlimited univerfality. That the Jews were ge- 
nerally intefted with this proud opinion, that all the promifes 
belonged only to them and theirs, towards whom they had 
an univerfality ; exclulive of all others, whom they called 
do<TS, uncircumcifed, and poured out curfes on them ; is 
molf apparent. Hence, when they faw the multitude of the 
Gentiles coming to the preaching of Faul; they were jilkd 
with envy, contradicting, blafpkeming, andjtirred up perfetuti' 
on againjl thtm, A6fs xiii. 45, ^o, which the apoftle again 
relates of them, 1 Thef. ii. 15. 16. They pleafe not God, 
faiih he, and are contrary to all men ; forbidding us to tofpeak 
to the Gentiles^ that they might be faved ; being not with a- 
ny thing more enraged, in the preaching of our Saviour, 
than his predifting of letting out his vineyard to others. 

That the apojiks themfelves alfo had deeply drunk in this 
opinion, learned by tradition from their fathers, appeareth ; 
not only in their queftioning about the reftoration of the 
kingdom unto Ifrael^ Afts i. 6- but alio moft evidently in 
this, that after they had received commiflion to teach and 
baptize all nations y Matt, xxviii, 19. ox every creature^ Mark 
xvi. 15. and were endued with power from on high fo to do, 
according to the promife, A6ts i. 8. yet they feem to have 
underftood their commiflion, to have extended only to the 
lofl Iheep of the houfe ot Ifrael ; for they went about and 
preached ^?2/y to the Jews, A6ls xi. 10. And when the con- 
trary was evidenced and demonftrated to them, they glorified 
God, iaying. Then hath God alfo to the Gentiles granted repent- 
ance unto life \ Atls xi. 18. admiring at it, as a thing which 
before they were not, acquainted u-ith. And no wonder, that 
men were not eafily nor foon perfuadcd to this ; it being the 
great my ftery ichich zvas not viade known in other ages, as it 
was then revealed to God's holy apojiles and prophets by the Spi- 
rit, viz. that the Gentiles fJiould be fellow heirs and of the 
fame body, and partakers of his promifes inChrijl, by the gof 
pel, Ephef. iii. 5, 6. 

But now this being fo made known unto them by the Spi- 
rit ; and that the time was come wherein the little fifler was 
to be confidered, the prodigal brought hoirx, and Japhel 


General Anfwers unti 18. 

perfuaded to dwdl in the tents of She7n ; they laboured by 
all means to root it out of the minds ot their brethren ac- 
cording K) the flefh, of whom they had a fpecial care ; as 
alfo to leave no fcruple in the mind of the eunuch, that he 
was a dry tree ; or of the Gentile, that he was cut ofFironi 
the people of God ; to which end they ufe divers general ex- 
preflions ; carrying a direft oppofition to that tormer error, 
which was abfoluiely deftruftive to the kingdom of Jefus 
Chrift. Hence are thofe terms of the a;or/i/, all men ^ all na^ 
tions^ every creature^ and the like, ufed in the bufinefs of re- 
demption, and preaching of the golpel ; thefe things bring 
not reft rained, according as they fuppofed, to one certain na- 
tion and family ; but extended to the univerfality of God's 
people, fcattered abroad in every region under heaven, Ef- 
pecially are thefe exprefTions ufed hy John; who living to 
fee the firft coming of the Lord, in that fearful judgment and 
vengeance which he executed upon the Jewijh nation, feme 
forty years after his death ; is very frequent in the afferting 
of the'benefit of the world by Chrilt, in oppofition, as I faid be- 
fore, to the Jewifh nation ; giving us a rule how to underftand 
fuch phrafes and locutions, John xi. 51, 52. He prophjitd 
that Jefasjhould die for that nation ; and not for that nation 
only ; but that al/o hefliould gather together in one, the chil" 
dren of Godthat were fcattered abroad. Conformable where- 
unto he tells the believing Jews, that Chrift is not a propiti' 
ation for their fins only, but alfo for the fins of the whole, 
world, 1 John ii. 2. or the people of God fcattered through- 
out the whole world ; noi tied to any one nation, as they 
fometime vainly imagined. And this may and doth give 
much light, into the fenle and meaning of thofe places where 
the words world and all are ufed, in the bufinefs of redempti- 
on ; they do not hold out a colledive univerfality ; but a ge^ 
neral dijiribution into men of all forts, in oppofition 10 the be- 
fore recounted erroneous perfuafion, 

V. The extent, nature and fignification of thofe general 
terms, which we have frequently ufed indefinitely in the 
Scripture, to fet out the objefci of the redemption by Chritt ; 
mult ferioufly be weighed. Upon thefe expreflfions hangs 
the whole weight of the oppofite caufe ; the chief, if not only 
argument for the univerfality of redemption, being taken 
Iroin words which feem to be of a latitude in their fignificati- 
on, equal to fuch an afTertion; as the world, the whole world, 
all, and the like ; which terms when they have once faflen- 

A a 

i86 Arguments for Vniverfat Redemption* 

ed upon* ibey run with, jo, tnumphe ; as tbo' the vi^^ory- 
v/ere fursly theirs. The zvorld, the whole world, all, all 
?nen, who can oppofe it ? Call them to the context in the 
feveral places where the words are ; appeal to rules of inter- 
prcta:ion, mind them of the circumftances and fcope of the 
place, the fenfe o\ the fame words in other places ; with other 
fore-named helps and afTiliances, which the Lord hath ac- 
quainted us v,7ith, for the difcovery of his mind and will in 
his word; they piefently cry oui, the bare word^ tha letter 
'is theirs; avv-ay wllh the glofs and interpretation, give us 
leave to helieve v^'hat the word exprefsly faith ; little (as I 
hope) imagining, being deluded with the love of their own 
darling, that u this afT-Ttinn be general, and they will not 
allow us the gift of interpretation agreeable to the proportion 
of taith ; thai at one c'ap ^hey confirm the curfed madnefs of 
the AnthropomorpJdies, afhgning a human body, form and 
flispe unto God, who hath none ; and the alike curled fig- 
ment of trarifubjiantiation, overthrowing the body of Christ, 
who hath one ; with divers other mofl pernicious errors. 
Let them then as long as they pieafe, continue fuch empty 
clamours ; fit to terrify 2nd (hake weak and unff.able men ;. 
^ for the truth's fake v;e will not be filent. And I hope we 
' fhall very eafily make it appear, that the general terms that 
are ufed in this bufinefs, will indeed give no colour to any ar- 
gument for univerfal redemption, whether abfolute or condi- 

Two words there are that are mightily {luck upon, or 
flumbledat; firfi, the zvorld ; fecondly, all. The particular 
places wherein they are, and from which the arguments of 
our adverferies are urged, we fliall afterwards confider ; and 
for the pre fen t only fhew that the words themfelves, accor- 
ding to the Scripture ufe, do not necefTarily hold out any 
colleftive univerfality of thoie concerning whom they are 
affirmed ; but being words of various fignificatioPiS, muft be 
interpreted according to the fcope of the place where they are 
ufed, and the fubjevS- matter of which the Scripture treateth 
in thofe places. 

i/i. For t!ie word worlds which in the New-Teftament is 
called KOSMOS, (for tiiere is another word fometimes 
tranfla^ed world, viz. AioN, thit belongs not to this mat- 
ter ; noting rather the duration of time, than the thing in 
that fpace cont.nuing ;) he that dclh not acknowledge it to 
be POLYSEiMON, need fay no more to manifefl his unac- 
sjuamtednels in the book of God. I fhall briefly give you fo 


General An/wars unla 


many various fignifications of it, as fhall make it apparent, 
that from the bare ufage of a word, fo exceedingly equivo- 
cal, no argument can be taken ; until it be dillinguifhcd, i.nd 
the meaning thereof in that particular place evinced, irom 
whence the argument is taken. 

MUNDUS furnitur, 

I. Subjeclive : 

udo MERiKos; pro, 
1. Coelo afpe6labili. 
2 Terra habitabili. 

II. Adjunftive : ratione, 

imo, Incolarum; idque, 
1. Colleftive, kata 


t. Diftributive ; pro, 
(l.) Quibufvis. 
(2.J Multis. 

3. Signanfer ; pro, 
(1.) Bonis, feu eie£iis. 
{2.) Malis, feu repro- 
4. AORiSTos feucom- 
5. Reftriftive, feu 


(1.) Praecipuis. 
(2.) Romanis. 
%do. Accideniium ; 

1. Corruptionis — un- 
de fumitur pro, 

(1.) Ipfa corruptione. 
(2.) Sede corruptionis. 

(3.) Tcrrena conditio- (3.) 

2. Ma!edi6lionis. 

The WORLD is taken, 
1. Subjectively : 

1/?. Totally. 

2dly. Partially ; for, 

1. The vifible heaven. 

2. The iiabitable earth. 
H. Adjuntlively : in rtfpefl 

ijl. The inhabitants ; and 

1. Colle6lively, for 
the whole 

2. Dillributively: for 

3. Signally ; for, 
The good, or ele6l. 
The wicked, or re- 

4. Indifferently, or 
in co.iimon. 

5. Rcftrifiively, or 
fynecdochicaily; for 

The chief. 
The Romans. 
2dly, The accidents ; 
1. Of corruption, — 
whence it is taken 

Corruption itfelf. 
The feat of corrup- 

The earthly condi- 
2. Of the curfe. 




Thefe diftinftions of the u(e of the word, aie made out in 
llifi following obfcrvations. 


i8S Arguments for Vniverfal Redemption, 

The word World in the Scripture is in general taken five 
ways, viz. 

1. For iheworid containing : and that (i.) generally, holos 
for the whole fabric of heaven and earth, with all things 
in them contained, which in the beginning were created of 
God; fo Job xxxiv. 13. A6fs xvli. 24. Eph. i. 4. and in 
very many other places, (2.) Diftinftly, [1.] for the heavens 
and all things belonging to them, diftinguifhed from the earth, 
Pfalms xc. 2. — [2.] the habitable earth, and this very fre- 
quently, as Pfal. xxiv. 1. and xcviii. 7. Matt. xiii. 38. John 
i. 9. and iii. 17, 19. and vi. 14. and xvii. 11. i Tim, i. 
15. and vi. 7. 

2. FoT the world contained, efpecially men in the world; 
and that either (1.) univerfally, for all and every one, Rom. 
iii. 6, 19. and v. 12. — (2.) indefinitely, for men, without 
reftri6iion or enlargements, John vii. 4. Ifa. xiii. 11. — (3.) 
exPi^eticallv for many; which is the moft ufual acceptation of 
the woid. Matt, xviii. 7. John iv. 42. &xii. 19. &xvi. 8. & 
xvil. 21.1 Cor. iv. 9. Rev. xiii, 3. — (4) comparatively, for a 
great part of the world, Rom. i. 8. Matt. xxiv. 14. and 
XX vi. 13. Rom. x. 18. — (5.) reftriftively, for the inhabit- 
ants of the Roman empire, Luke ii. 1. — (6.) for men dif- 
tingailhed in their feveral qualifications ; as [1.] for the 
good, God's people, either in defignation or pofleflion, Pfal. 
xxii. 27. John iii. 16. and vi. 33, 51. Rom. iv. 13. and 
rci. 12. 15. 2 Cor. v. 19. Col. 1. 6. 1 John ii. 2. [2.] 
for the evil, wicked, rejefted men of the world, John vii. 7. 
and xiv. 17, 22. and xv. 19. and xvii. 25. 1 Cor. vi. 21 
and xi. 32. Heb. xi. 38. 2 Pet. ii. 5. 1 John v. 19. Rev. 
xiii. 3. 

3. for the world corrupted, or that univerfal corruption 
which is in all things in it ; as Gal. i. 4. and vi. 14. Eph. 
31. 2. James i. 27. and iv. 4. 1 John ii. 15, 16, 17. 1 
Cor. vii. 01. 33. Col. ii. 8. 2 Tim. iv. 10. Rom. xii. 2. 

1 Cor. i. 20, 21. and iii. 18, 19. 

4» For a terrene worldly ejlate or condition of men or things 
'?h\. Ixxiii. 12. Lukexvi. 8. John xviii. 36. 1 Johniv.5. 
and very many other places. 

5. "^ ox ih^ world ac cur fed t as under the power of Satan, 
John vii. 7. and xiv. 30.- and xvi. u, 33. 1 Cor. ii. it, 

2 Cor. iv. 4, Eph. vi. 12. 

And divers other fignifications hath this word in holy writ, 
which are needlefs to recount. Thefe I have rehearfed, to 
fbew the vanity of that clamour wherewith feme men fill 


Beneral Anfwers tinti iSa 

their mouths; and frighten unliable fouls, with the Scrip- 
kire mentioning ^ti/or/^^ fo often ; in the bufinefs of redemp- 
tion, as though fome flrength might be taken thence, for the 
upholding ot the general ranfom. Parvas hahtt /pes Troja^ 
JitaUs habet ; if their greateft Jlrength be but /o phi/tic al crafty 
taktnjrom the. ambiguity of an equivocal word ; their whole 
endeavour is like to provejruitlefs. Now as I have declared, 
that it hath divers other acceptations in the Scripture; fo 
when I come to a confideration of their obje61ions, that ufe 
the word for this purpofe, I hope by God's afliftance to fhew, 
that in no one place wlierein it is ufed in this bufinefs of re- 
demption, that it is or can be taken for all and every man in 
the world; as indeed it is in very few places befidcs. So 
that concerning this word, our way will be clear; if to what 
hath been faid ye add thefe obfervations. 

(i.) That as in other words, fo in this, there is in 
the Scripture ufually an antanaklasis ; whereby the 
kme word is ingeminated, in a different fenfe and accep- 
tation, fo Math. viii. 22. Let the dead bury their dead ; dead, 
in the firft place denoting them that are fpiritually dead in 
(in ; in the next, thofethat are naturally dead, by a diffolution 
of the foul and body. So John i. 11. he came Eis TA IDIA 
unto his own 'y even all thmgs that he had made; kai hoi 
iDioi, his own^ that is the greateff part of the people, re- 
ceived him not. So again, John iii. 6. That which is 
horn ofthefpirit is fpirit ; fpirit in the firft place, is the Al- 
mighty Spirit of God; in the latter, a fpiritual life of grace 
received from him. Now, in fuch places as thefe, to ar- 
gue that fuch is the fignification of the word in one place, 
therefore in the other; were violently to pervert the mind of 
the Holy Ghofi. 

Thus alfo is the word, world, ufually changed in the mean- 
ing thereof ; fojohni. 10. He was in the world, and the 
world was made by him, and the world knew him not; he that 
fhould force the fame fignification upon the word, in that 
triple mention of it, would be an egregious gl offer ; for in 
the firft, it plainly fignifieth lome part of the inhabitable earth, 
and is idktn fuhjedive, merikos ; in the fecond, the 
whole frame of heaven and earth, and is taken JubjeBive 
KOLlKoS; and in the third, for fome men living in 
the earth viz. unbelievers, who may be faid 10 be the world 
adjundive. So again, John iii. 17. Godfent not his Son into 
the world, to condemn the world; but that the world through 
him might be Javtd ; where by the world in the firft, is nccef- 


3 5 ® Arguments for Vniverfal Redemption, 

farily to be underftood that part of the inhabitable world 
wherein our Saviour converfed ; in the fecond, all men in 
the world, as fome fuppofe ; [io alfo there is a truth in it, as 
our Saviour came not to condemn all men in the world; for 
cor*demnailon of any was not the prime aim of his coming ; 
biic he came to Uwg his own people, and fo not to condemn 
alJJ in the third, God's eleft or believers living in the world 
in their fcveral generations ; who were they whom he intend- 
ed to lave, and norre elfe, or he faileth of his purpofe, and 
the endeavour of Chrift is inlufficient for the accomplifliment 
of that whercunto it is defigned. 

(i2.) That no argument can be taken from a phrafe ot 
fpeech in the Scripture, in any particular place, if in other 
places thereof where it is ufed, the fignification prefled from 
that place is evidently denied; unlefs the fcope of the place, 
or fubje£l ^matter, do enforce it. For inflance, God is faid to 
love tfaejp^/^, and fend his Son ; to be in Chrift, reconci- 
ling the z^Md to himfelf ; and Chrifl to be a propitiation for 
the fins of the whole world ; if the fcope of the places where 
thefe affertions are, or the fubjeft matter of which they treat, 
will enforce an univerfality of all perfons to be meant by 
the \woxA world', fo let it be, without controuL But if not, 
if there be no enforcement of any fuch interpretation from 
the places themfelves ; why fhould the world there fjgnify 
all and every one? more than in John i. lo. The worldknew 
him not ; which if itbe meant of all without exception, then no 
one did believe in ChriA, which is contrary to verfe 12 ; or 
in Luke ii. i. That all the world JJiould be taxed; when none 
but the chief inhabitants of the Roman empire can be under- 
ftood ; or in John viii. 26. I /peak to the world thofe things 
which 1 have heard of him; underftanding the Jews to whom 
he fpake, who then lived in the world, and not every one to 
whom lie was not fent ; or in John xii. 19. Behold the. 
xsor Id is gone after him; which world was nothing but a 
great multitude of one f mall nation; or in 1 John v. ig. 
The whole world lieih in wickedne/s ; from which notwith- 
ftandiiur, all believers are to be underftood. as exempted ; or 
in Rev. xiii. 3. All the zvorld wondered after the heafi ; which 
whether it be afiirmed of the whole univerfality of individu- 
als in the world, let all judge. That all nations, an exprefli- 
on of erjual extent with that of the world, is in like manner 
to be underftood, is apparent, Rom. i. 5. Rev. xviii, 3, 23. 
P!dl, cxviii. 10. 1 Chron.xiv. 17. Jer. xxviii. 7. And it 
ijcing evident that the words, world, all the world, the whole 


General Anfzctrs uni$ x © i 

world — dc, where taken ^djunflively for men in the wotM, u- 
jually and alraoft always denote only fome ; or many men in 
the world, diftinguifhed into good or bad, believers or unbelie- 
vers, e!e6t or reprobate; by what is immediate]y in ibcfeveral 
places affirmed of them; I fee noreafon in tbe world, \s\\y they 
ihould be wrefted to any other meaning or fenfe, in the peaces 
that are in controverfy between us and onj opponents. The 
particular places we fliall afterwards confider. 

*idly. Now as we have faid of the word zcoxld, {o we may 
of the v/ord all ; wherein much flrength is placed, and many 
caufelefs boaflings are raifed from it. That it is no where 
affirmed in the Scripture, that Chrift died f^r all mtn, or 
gave himfelf a ranfom Icr all men, much lefs for all ^nd c'^z- 
Ty man, we have before declared. That he gave Inmfdf a, 
ranfoinfor all, is exprefsly affirmed, 2 Tim. ji. 6. but now 
who this ^//{hould be, whether al! believers, oral! the el«:£>, 
or fome of all forts, or all of every fort ; is id|iiefaaic. 
Our a dverfaries affirm the lafl ; and the main region they 
bring to affert their interpretation, is from the importance of 
the word itfelf ; for, that the circumflances of the place, the 
analogy of faith, and (he other helps for expofition, do not 
at all favour their glofs, we fliall ^qw, when we come to 
the particular places urged. For the prefent, let ;is look 
upon the word in its ufiial acceptation in the Scripture ; 
and fearch whether it always necefTarily requires fuch an inl 

That the word all, bsing ufed amonpr all foris of men, 
fpeaking and writing or any way exprefling themfclves, but 
cfpecially in holy writ ; is to be taken cither colkPuvdy, for 
all in general, without exception, or diJiribiUivety, for fame 
of all forts, excluding none; is more apparent, than that it 
can require any iliuftration. That it is fomctimes taken in tlic 
firfl fenfe, for all colleftively, is granted, and I need not 
prove it ; they whom we oppofe, affirming that (his is the 
only fenfe of the word : though I dare boldly fay, it is not 
once in ten times fo to be under (food, in the ufage of it 
through the whole book of God ; but that it is commonly, 
and indeed properly, ufed in the latter fenfe, for fome of all - 
forts, concerning wliatfoever it is affirmied ; a few inflances 
for many that might be urged, wiil make it clear. Thus then 
ye have it, John xii. 32. And /, ij I he lifted up from 
the earth, zuili draw all unto me: that we tranll.jte it all m 177, 
as in other places, (for though I know the {^u'iq may be the 
fdme, yet the word ni^n being not in the original, ^b.t:t only 

192 Arguments jor Univtrjal Redemption, 

PANTAS, allj I cannot approve. But who (I pray) are 
thefe ail ? are they all and every one ? then are all and eve- 
ry one drawn to Chrift, made believers, and truly converted, 
and fliall be certainly faved ; for thofe that come unto him, 
by his and his Father's drawing, he will in no ways cajl out, 
John vi. 37. All then, can here be no more than many^ 
fome o{ all forts, no fort excluded ; according as the word 
is interpreted in Rev. v. 9. Thou hajl redeemed us out of 
every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation. Thefe are 
the ^// he draws to him ; which expofition of this phrafe, is 
with me of more value and efteem, than a thoufand glolfes of 
the fons of men. So Luke xi. 42. where our tranflators 
have made the word to fignify immediately and properly (for 
tranflators are to keep clofe to the propriety and native figni- 
fication of every word) what we affert to be the right inter- 
pretation of it ; for they render pan lachanon, (which 
RHETOS IS every herb) all manner oj herbs ; taking the word 
(as it muft be) dijlributively for herbs of all forts, and not for 
every individual herb, which the Pharifees did not, could not 
tyihe. And in the very fame fenfe is the word ufed again^ 
Luke xviii. 12. I give ty the s of all that I poffefs ; where it 
cannot fignify every individual thing, as is apparent. Moil 
evident alfo is this reftrained fignification of the word, A6ls 
ii. 17. I zuill pour out oJ my Jpirit upon all flefh, epi pa- 
SAN SARKA ; which whether it comprifeih every man or 
no, let every man judge ; and not rather men of feveral and 
fundry forts. The fame courfe of interpretation as formerly, 
is followed by our tranflators, A6ts x. 12. rendering panta 
TA TETRAPODA (literally all beafts, or four footed creatures) 
all manner of beajis, or beails of fundry feveral forts. In 
the fame fenfe alfo mult it be underflood, Rom. xiv. 2. 
One believeth that he may eat all things ; that is what he pleaf- 
cth, oi things to be eaten of ; fee moreover, 1 Cor. i. 5. 
Yea in that very chapter, where men fo eagerly contend that 
the word all is to be taken for all and every one, (though 
fruitlels and falfely, as fliall be demonftrated ;) viz. 1 Tim. 
ii. 4. where it is faid, that God will have all men to be faved 
in that very chapter ('confefledly) the word is to be expound- 
ed according to the ienfe we give, viz, verfe 8. I will there' 
fore that men pray every where EN PANTi TOPO ; which 
that it cannot fignify every individual place, in heaven, earth 
or hell, is of all conlelfed, and needeth no proof ; no more 
than when our Saviour is laid to cure PASAN NOSON, as 
Matt. ix. 35. there is need to prove, that he did not cure every 
difeafe of cvefy man, but only aH forts of difeafes. Sua- 

Genet dtl Anfwers unto 293 

Sundry other inftances might be given, to manifeft that 
this is the moft ufual and frequent fignificaiion of the word 
all in holy Scripture ; and theretore from th:; bare worl no- 
thing can be inferred, to enforce an abiojute unlimited uni- 
verfaiity of all individuals to be intimated thereby. The par- 
ticular places infilled on, we (hall afterwards confider : I 
(hall conclude al), concerning thefe general cxprefBuns that 
are ufed in the Scripture about this bufinefs, in ihefe obfer- 
vations, viz.' 

1. the word a//, is certainly and unqaeflionably fometimes 
reflrained, and to be reftrained to all of fome forts : although 
the qualification be not exprefTed, which is the bond of the 
limitation ; fo for all believers, 1 Cor. xv. 22. Ephef. iv. 
6. and Rom. v, 18. The free gift caim vpon all men untj 
juflification of life; which all men, that are fo aftually jufli- 
fied, are no more nor lefs than thofe that arc Chrift's ; that 
is, believers ; for certainly juflification is not without faith. 

2. The word all is fomttimes ufed for fome of all forts ; 
as in Jer. xxxi. 34. where they word KOLIM is by Paul 
rendered pantes, all, Keb. viii. 11. h John xii. 32. 
and I Tim. ii. 1, 2, 3. which is made apparent by the men- 
tion o^ kings, as one fort of people there intended. And I 
make no doubt but it will appear to all, that the word mufl 
be taken in one of thefe fenfes, in every place where it is 
ufed in the bufinefs of redemption; as fhall be proved. 

3. Let a diligent comparifon be made, between the gene- 
ral exprefnons of the New, with the predi6lions of the Old 
Teftamcnt ; and they will be found to be anfwerable to, and 
expofitory of one another ; the Lord affirming in the New, 
that that was done, which in the Old he foretold fliould be 
done. Now in the predictions and prophecies of the Old 
Teflament, {(hat all nations, allflefn, all people, all the ends^ 
families, or Xindreds of the earth, the world, the whole earthy 
the ifies, fhall be converted, look up to Chriil, come to the 
mountain of the Lord, and the like,) none doubts hut that 
the ele8: of God in all nations, are only flgniiied ; knowing 
that in them.alone, thofe predi8ions have ihc truth of their 
accomplifhments; and v/hy fhould the fame exprefTions ufed 
in the jTofpe!, and many of theVn aiming direftly to declare 
the iulfilling of tlie other, be wire drawn to a larprer extent, ^o 
c.oh*rary to the m.ind of the Holy Ghofl ? In fine, as whea 
the Lord is faid to wine tears from all faces, it hinders not 
but the reprcb.i:es (hi-'ji be call out to eternity, v/here there is 

B b 

$94 Argumenls for Vnivsrfal Redemption. 

weeping and wailing ; fo when Chrift is fald to die fet */5f» 
it hinders not, but tb^fe reprobates may perifti to eternity for 
their fins ; without any effeftual remedy intended for ihcnoj 
though occafionaliy propofed to fome ot them. 

VI. Obferve, that the Scripture otten fpeaketh of thingi 
and perfons according to the appearance they have, and the 
account that is ol them amongft men ; or that efleem that 
they have ot them, to whom it fpeaketh ; frequently fpeak- 
ing of men and unto men, as in the condition wherein they 
are according to outward appearance, upon which human 
judgment muft proceed ; and not what they arc indeed. 
Thus, many are called and faid to be wife, jujl, and righte- 
ous, according as they are fo efteemed ; though the Lord 
know them to be h)oliih Tinners. So Jerufalem is called the 
holy city, Matt, xxvii. 53. becaufe it was fo in efteem and ap- 
pearance ; when indeed it was a very den of thieves. And 2 
Chron. xxviii. 23. it is faid of Ahaz that wicked King of 
Judah, that He facrijiced to the gods of Damafcus, which/mote 
him; it was the Lord alone that fmote him ; and thofe idols to 
whom he facrificed, were but flocks and ftones, the work of 
men's hands, which could no way help themfelves, much !efs 
fmite their enemies ; yet the Holy Ghoft ufcih an expreflion 
anfwering his idolatrous perfuafion ; and faith, They Jmotc 
him. Nay is it not faid of Chrift, John v. 18. that he had 
broken the Sabbath ; which yet he only did, in the corrupt o- 
pinion of the blinded Phari/ees ? 

Add moreover to what hath been faid, that which is of no 
Icfs an undeniable truth ; viz. that many things which are 
proper and peculiar to the children ot God, are ott and fre- 
quently afligned to others, who live in the fame outward com- 
munion with them, and are partakers of the fame external 
privileges ; though indeed aliens in refpeft of the participati- 
on of the grace of the promife. Put, I fay, thefe two things, 
which are moft evident, together ; and it will eafily appear, 
that thofe places which feera to exprefs a pofhbility of pe- 
rifhing and eternal deftruclion, to them who are faid to be re- 
deemed by the blood ol Chrift, are no ways advantageous 
to the adverfaries of the effe£lual redemption of God's eleft by 
the blood of Chrift ; becaufe fuch may be faid to be redeem- 

peft of appearance, not reality, as is the ufe of the Scripture, 
m divers other thmgs. 

VII. That which is fpoken according to the judgment of 


General Anjwers unU t^g 

^ariiy, on our parts, rauft not always be cxaftly fquared 
and made anfwerable to vcriiy^ m relpeft ot them ot whom 
any tiling is affirmed ; tor the te£liiuc/e of our judgment it fuf- 
ficeih, tiidt we proceed according to the rules of judging that 
are given us; tor what is out of our cognifance, whether that 
anfwers to our judgments or not, belongs not to us. Thus 
oftentimes the apoftlcs in the Scriptures write unto men, and 
term them holy^ faints^ yea eicBed ; but trom thence pofitivc- 
ly to conclude that they were {o all indeed, we have no war- 
rant. So Pder calls all the ftrangers to wham he wrote, 
fcattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Capadoaa, Afia, and 
Jiuhynia, eUB according to the fore-knowledge oj God the Fa- 
tker^ I Pet. i. i, 2. and yet that 1 have any warrant to con- 
clude de Jide, that all were fuch, none dare affirm. So Paul 
tells the Tkfjfalonians^ the whole church to whom he wrote, 
that he kntw thdr ekilion oj God, x ThefT. i. 4. and 2 
Their, ii. 13. he blelTeth God who hath chofen them tofalva- 
iion / now, did not Paulm^k.^ his judgment of them by the 
rule of charity ? according as he affirms in another place, it 
is meet for me to think this of you ally Pa. i, 7. and can it. 
ought it hence to be infallibly concluded, that they were all 
eleded ? If fome of thefe fhould be found to fall away from 
the gofpel, and to have perifficd ; would an argu- 
ment from thence be valid, that the ele£i might perilh ? 
would we not prelenlly antwer, that they were faid to be e- 
lefted according to the judgment of charity, not that they 
were fo indeed ? And why is not thlsanCwer as fufficient and 
fatistying, when it is given to the obje6lion taken from the 
perilhing of fome, who were faid to be redeemed merely 
in the judgment of charity ; as they were faid to be e- 
lefcled ? 

VIII. The infallible connexion, according to God's purpofe 
and will, of faith and lalvation, which is frequently the tning 
intended in gofpel propofals; muft, be confidered. The Lord 
hath in his counfel eltdb-ifhed n, and revealed in his word, 
that there is an diffolublc bond between thefe two things, fo 
that whofoever believeth (hall be faved, Mark xvi. 16. which 
indeed is the fubflance of the gofpel, in the outward jjiomul- 
gation thereof. This is the teitimony ot God, that eternal 
life is in his Son; which whofo believeth, he fets to his feal 
that God is true ; he who believes not, doing what in him 
lieth to make God a liar, 1 John v. 9, 10, 11. Now this 
connexion of the means and the end, faiih and lite, is the on- 
^r thing which is fignificd aod held out to innumerable perfons 

1 9 5 Argu ?nents/or Univirfal Redempiion. 

to whom the gofpel is preached ; all the commands, prefers, 
and promifes that are made to them, intimaiing no more than 
this will ot God, that believers fiiall certainly be laved ; which 
is an unqueftionable divine verity, and a fufficient objeft for 
fupernatural faith to reft upon ; and which, being not clofed 
with, is a fufficient caufe of damnation, John viii. 24.' Jf 
you believe not that I am he^ (that is, the way, the truth and 
the life) ye Jhall die m your fins. 

It is a vain imagination of fome, that when the command 
and promife of believing are given out to any man ; that tho* 
he be of the nutraber of them that {hall certainly perifli, yet 
the Lord hath a conditional will of his falvation ; and in- 
tends that he fliali be faved, on condition that he will ht^ive; 
when ihe condition lieth not at all in the will of God, which 
is always abfolute ; but is only between the tilings to them 
propofed, as was before declared, and thofe poor deluded 
things, who will be {landing upon their own legs, before they 
are able to craw), and might juflly be perfuaded to hold by 
men of more ilrength, do exceedingly betray their own con- 
ceited ignorance ; when with great pomp they hold out the 
broken pieces of an old Arfninian fophifm, with acclamations 
of grace to this new difcovery, (for fo they think of ail that's 
new to them,) viz. that, as is God's profer, fo is his intenti- 
on ; but he calls to all to believe and be faved, therefore he 
intends it to all. For, 

ijl. God doth not profer life to all, upon the condition erf 
faith ; paffing by a great part of mankind, without any fuch 
profer made to them at all. 

ei/)'. If by God's profer, they underftand his command 
and promife ; who told them that thcfe things were declara- 
tive of his will and purpofe, or intention ? He commands 
Pharaoh to let his people go ; but did he intend he fhould fo 
do, according to his command ? had he not foretold, that he 
would 10 order things, that he fliouid not let them go ? I 
thought always that God's commands and promifes had re- 
vealed our duty, and not his purpofe ; what God would have 
lis to do, and not what be will do. His promifes indeed, 
as particularly applied, hold out his mind to the perfons to 
whom they are applied ; but as indefinitely propofed, they 
reveal no other intentions of God, but what we before difco- 
vered, which concerns things, not perfons ; even his deter- 
jpninate purpofe infallibly to conneft faith and falvation. 

^dly. II the proler be (as ihey fay) univerfal, and the in- 
teaiion of God be anfwcrable thereunto ; that is, he intends 


Qentral Anfzi'ers unt» t^ 

the fdlvation of them to whom the tender of it upon faith is 
made, or may be fo ; then, i. What becomes of elc61iori 
and reprobation ? neither of them, certainly can confift with 
this'univ'crfal purpofe of faving ot all. 2. It he intends it, 
why is it then not accompliflied ; doth he fail of his puroofc ? 
Dum vitant vitiuin JiuUi, in contraria currunt ; is not this 
certain Scylla, worfe than the other feared Charybdis ? 

But they fay he intended it only upon condition; and the con- 
dition being not fulfiUed^ he fails not in his purpoje^ tho' the 
thing be not conferred. But did the Lord foreknow, whether 
the condition would be iulfillcd by tliem to v/hom the pro- 
pofal was made, or not ? if not ; where is his prefcience, his 
omnifcience ? if he did ; how can he be faid to infend fal- 
vation to them, of whom he certainly knew that they would 
never fulfil the condition on which it was to be attained; and 
moreover, knew it with this circumftance, that the condition 
was not to be attained without his bellowing, and tfiat he had 
determined not to bellow it ? Would they afcribe fuch a will 
and purpofe to a wife man, as they do ignorantly and pre- 
fumptuoufly to the only wife God ? viz. that he fliould intend 
to have a thing done, upon the performance of fuch a con- 
dition as he knew full well without him could never h& per- 
formed, and he had fully refolved not to effeft it : for in- 
fiance, to give his daughter in marriage to fuch a one, upon 
condition he would give him fuch a jewel as he hath not, nor 
can have, unlefs he bellow it upon him; which he is refolved 
liever to do. Oh whither \vill blindnefs and ignorance, ef- 
, teemed light and knowledge, carry poor deluded fouls ? 

This then is the main thing demonftrated and held out in 
the promulgation of the gof|)el, efpecially for what concerns 
unbelievers : even the ltri6l connexion between the duty of 
■faith alTigned, and the benefit of life promifed : which hath a 
truth of univerfal extent ; grounded upon the plenary fufn- 
ciency of the death of Chriif, towards all that Ihall believe. 
And I fee no reafon why this Ihould be termed part of the 
myjlery oj the univerfalijls^ (though the loweil part) (as it is by 
M.S. page 202) that the gofpel could not be preached to all, 
unlefs Chrifi died for all : which, with what is meniioned he 
fore, concerning another and higher part of it, is an cid rot- 
ten, carnal and long-fmce-confuted fophifm ; arifing out of 
the ignorance of the word and right reafon, which are no 
way contrary. 

IX. The mixt dillribution of the eleft and reprobates, be- 
lievers and unbelievers, according to the purpofe and mind 


xg% Arguments for Vnwerfal Redemption* 

of God, throughout the whole world, and in the feveral 
places thereof, in all or moft of the fingle congregations ; is 
another ground of holding out a tender of the blood of Jo- 
ius Chrilt, to them for whom it was never Qied, as is appa- 
rent in the event, by the inefFetlualnefs of its propofais. The 
miniftersof the gofpel, who are ftewards of the myff eries of 
Chrift and to whom the word of reconciliation is committed, 
being acquainted only with revealed things, (the Lord lodg- 
ing his purpofes and intentions towards particular perfons in 
the fecret ark of his own bofora, not to be pryed into) are 
tound to admonifti all, and warn all men, to whom they are 
fcnt : giving out the fame commands, propofing ihe fame 
promifes, making tenders of Jefus Chrift in the fame manner 
to all • that the ©left, whom they know not, but by the event, 
may obtain, while the reft are hardened. Now thefe things 
bein2 thus ordered by him who hath the fupreme dilpofai of 
all [viz. firft, i^at there fliould be fuch a mixture of ele£l 
and reprobate, of tares and wheat, to the end of the world; 
andfecondly, that Chrift, and reconcihation through bini, 
{hoald be preached by men ignorant of his eternal difcrimi- 
natina purpofesj there is an abfolute necefTity of two other 
thinos: fiift. that the promifes muft have a kind of unre- 
({rained generality, to be fuiiable to this difpenfaiion before 
recounted; fecondly, that they muft be propofed to them, to- 
wards whom the Lord never intended the good things of the 
promifes; they having a (hare in this propofal, by their mix- 
Jure in this world with the elea of God. So that from the 
general prooofrion of Chrift in the promifes, norhing can be 
concluded concerning his death for all to whom he is propof- 
ed • as having another rife and occafion. 

The fum is, the word of reconciliation being committed 

to men unacauainted with God's diftinguifliing counfels, to 
be preached'iomenof a varipus mixt condition in refpeft 
of his purpofe ; and the way whereby he hath determined to 
brinff his own home to himfeU, being by exhortations, in. 
treaii-s promifes, and the like means, accommodated to the 
re-^fonable nature, whereof all are partakers to whom the 
word is fent ; which are fuited alfo to the accomplilhment ol 
c^her ends, towards the reft, as conviBion, reftraint, harden- 
ing inexculablenels : it cannot be, but the propofal and offer 
muft necellarily be made to fome upon condition ; who in- 
tentionally andinrefpe6l of the purpofe of God have rio 
riaht unto it, in the juft aim and intendment thereof. Only 
fo^^ rlofe, obferre thplc two things : firft, that the proter 


General An^^ers anfg 159 

itfelf neither is, nor ever was abfolutely univerfal to all, but 
only indefinite, without refpeft to outward differences ; fc- 
condly, that Chrift being not to be received without faith, 
and God giving faith to whom he pleafeih ; it is manileft 
that he never intendcth Chrift to them, on whom he will not 
beftow faith. 

X. The faith which is enjoined and commanded in the 
gofpel, hath divers fcveral a6ls, and different decrees ; in 
the exercife whereof it proceedeth orderly, accrrding to the 
natural method of the propofal of the objefts to be bciieved : 
the confideration whereof is of much ufe in the bufinefs ii\ 
hand; our adverfaries pretending that if Chrift died not for 
all, then in vain are they exhorted to believe ; there being in- 
deed no prop-r objeQ for the faith of innumerable perlons, 
becaufe Cl.uft did not die for them : as tho' the gofpel did 
hold out this do6lrine, in the very entrance of all, that Chrift 
died for every one, ele6l and reprobate ; or as tho' that the 
iirft thing which any one living under the means of grace is 
exhorted to believe, were, that Chrift died for him in par- 
ticular; both which are notorioufly falfe, as I hope in the 
dofe of our undertaking will be made manileft to all. For 
the prefent I ftiall only intimate fomething of what I faid be- 
fore, concerning the order of exercifing the feveral atls of 
Jaith ; whereby it will appear, that no one in the world is 
commanded or invited to believe, but that he hath a fuffici- 
cnt objeft to fix the aft of faith on, of truth enough for its 
foundation, and latitude enough tor its utmoft exercife which 
is enjoined him. 

\l^' The/itji thing v^hich the gofpel enjoineth finner?, and 
which it perfuades and commands them to believe, is, that 
falvation is not to be had in th&mfdves, in as much as all have 
[finned and come Jhort of the glory of God: nor by the works 
of the law, by which noflejh living can bejuftfed. Here is 
a faving gofpel truth for iinners to believe, which the apoftle 
dwells upon wholly, Rom. chap. i. ii. iii. to prepare a way 
for juftificaiion by Chrift. Now what numberiefs numbers 
are they to whom the gofpel is preached, who tiever come 
fo far as to believe fo much as this ? amoni^ft whom you may 
reckon almoft the whole nation of tlie Jczvs, as is apparent 
Rom. ix, X. 3. 4. Now not to go one ftep further w'lth a- 
ny propolal, a contempt of this objeft of faith is the ^m of 

Q.dly. The gofpel requires faith to lois, that there is fjlva- 
♦JOM t© be had in the pr;>mifed feed, in him who was before 


£00 Argument: Jot Vnwerfat Rtdimption^ 

ordained to be a captain of falvation to them that do be- 
lieve; and here alfo at this trial, fome millions o\ the great 
army of men outwardly called, drop off; and do never believe 
with true divine faith, that God hath provided a way for the 
faving of finners. ^ 

Q^/v, That Jefus of Nazareth, who was crucified by the 
lews^ was this Saviour, promifed before; and that there is 
no name under heaven given zoherehy they may be Javed] bejides ' 
his. And this was the main point upon which the Jews 
broke oflf; refufmg to accept of Chrift as the Saviour o\ men, 
but rather profecuting him as an enem.y ot God; and are there- 
u-^on fo oft charged with infidelity and damnable unbelief. 
The queftion was not between Chrift and them, whether he^ 
died for them all or not ; but whether he was the Mejias\ 
promifed ; which they denied, and periflied in their unbelief. 
Now, before thefe three afts of taith be performed, in vain 
is the' foul exhorted further to climb the upperm^oft fteps, and 
mifs all the bottom foundation ones. 

Athly. The gofpel requires a refting upon this Chrift, fo 
iJifcovered and beheved on to be the promifed Redeemer, as 
an all-fufficient Saviour ; with whom is plenteous redemp- 
tion, and who is able to fave to the utmoft them that come 
to God by him, and to bear the burden of all weary labour- 
ing fouls,' that come by faith to him. In which propofal 
there is ascertain infallible truth, grounded upon the fupera- 
bundant lufficiency of the oblation of Chrift in itfelf, for 
whomfoever (fewer or more) it be intended. Now much 
felf-knowledge, much conviclion, much fenfe of fin, of 
God's juftice, and free grace, is required to the exercife of 
this acl of taith. Good Lord 1 how many thoufand poor 
fouls within the pale of the church can never be brought un- 
to it ? The truth is, without the help of God's Spirit none 
of thofe three before, much iefs this laft, can be performed ; 
which wcrketh freely, when, how and in whom it pleafeth. 

r^thly. Thefe things being fxrmly feated in the foul, (and 
not before) we are every one called, in particular, to believe 
the efficacy of the redemption that is in the blood of Jefus, 
toward our own fouls in particular: w^hich every one may 
affuredly do, in whom the free grace of God haih wrought 
the former aBs of faith, and doth work this alio, v;i;hout 
either doubt, cr fear of want of a right objea to believe, if 
they (hould fo do; for certainly Chrift died for every one, in 
whofe hearts the Lord by his almighty power works efFe61u- 
4illv faith, to lay hold on him, and afTent unto him accord- 

' " ' ing 

Cenerul Anfwirs unto (dc^ ^oi 

Ihg to that orderly propofal that is held forth in the gofpel. 

Now according to this order (as by fome it is obfcrved) are 
the articles of our faith difpofed in the apoftles creed, (that 
antient fumraary of chriftian religion, commonly fo called) 
the remifTionof our fins, and life eternal, being in the laft 
place propofed to be believed : for before we attain fo far, 
the reft muft be firmly rooted. So that it is a fenfelefs vanity^ 
to cry out ot the nullity of the obje6l to be believed, if Chrift 
died not for all ; there being an abfolute truth in every 
thing which any is called to afTent unto, according to the or- 
der of the gofpeh 

And fo I have propofed the general foundiitions of thofe 
anfwers, which we fhall give to the enfuing objeBions: 
whereunto to make particular application of them, will be 
an eafy talk ; as I hope will be made apparent unto all. 

C H A P. II. 

An entrance to the anfzver unto particular ohjeBions. 

NOW we come to the confideration of the objeftions^ 
wherewith the do8rinc we have from the word of God 
undeniably confirmed, is ufually with great noife and cla- 
mour afTauIted : concerning which I muft give you ihefe 
three cautions, before I come to lay them down^ 

The firil whereof is this^—ihat for ray own part I had ra« 
ther they were all buried, than once brought to light in op- 
pofition to the truth of God, which they feem to deface ; and 
therefore were it left to my choice, I would not prodiace any 
one of them: not that there is any difficulty or weight in 
them, that the removal (hould be operofe or burdenlome J 
but only that I am not willing to be any way inftrumental, to 
^ive breath or light to that which oppofeth the truth of 
God. But becaule in ihefe times of liberty and error, I 
fuppofe the moil of them have been objefted to the reader 
already, by men lying in wait to deceive ; or are likely to be : 
1 fhali therefore (hew you the poifon ; and withal turnilh 
you with an antidote againil ihc venom of fuch felf-feekers 
as our days abound withal. 

Secondly, I muft cUTire you, that when ye hear an ob- 
jeflion, yc would not be carried away with the found o^ 
words, nor fuftcr it to. take an imprellion wpon your {piriis ; 

C r. 

SOS OhjeBions particularly anfwcTti^ 

remembering with how many demonflrations, and Innumer- 
able places of Scripture, the truth oppofed by them, hath 
been confirmed : but reft yourfelves until ihe places be well 
weighed, the arguments pondered, the aniwers fet down ; and 
then the Lord dire6i you to try all things, and hold faft that 
which is good. 

Thirdly, That you would diligently obferve, what comes 
near \S\tJirefs of the controverfy, and the thing wherein the 
difference lieth ; leaving all other flourilhes and fwelling 
words of vanity, as of no weight, of no importance. 

Now the ohjeBions laid againfl the truth maintained, arc of 
two forts ; the firft, taken from the Scripture perverted, the 
other from reafon abufed : we begin with the firft, viz» 


All the places of Scripture that may any way feem to con- 
tradift our afTertion, are by our ^Jlrongejl adverfaries in their 
greatefl Jirengtk, referred to three heads : firft, thofe places 
that affirm that Chrift died for the world ; or otherways that 
make mention of the word worlds in the bufinefs of redemp- 
tion ; — fecondly, thofe that mention «//, ^ndavery man; either 
in the work of Chrift's dying for them, or where God is laid 
to will their falvation ; thirdly, — thofe which affirm Chrift 
bought, or died for them that perifh. Hence they draw out 
three principal aTgumcnts or Jbphifms, on which they much 
infift ; all which we fhall by the Lord's alfiftance confider in 
their feveral order, with the places of Scripture brought to 
•onfirra and ftrengihen them. 


The firft is taken from the word world; and is thus pro- 
poled by them^ to whom our poor pretenders aie indeed ve- 
ry children, viz, - 

*• He that is given out of the love wherewith God loved 
** the world," 2l% John iii. 16.** that gave himfelf for the life 
•• of the world," as John \\, 51. and was "a propitiation 
*' for the fins of the whole world," 1 John ii. 2. (to which add 
Johnu 29. and iv. 42. 2 Cor. v. 19. cited by Armin. "^dign 
52>^y 531 ^'^^ Corvm. and Molin* page, 442. chap. 29.) 
** He was given and died for every man in the world ; but 
** the firft is true of Chrift, as appears by the places before 

** alledged ; 

J Rcmonjlrantium ttSia Synod&litt* 

and Places oj Scripcurt optned, 20^ 

" alledgcd; theiefore he died for all and every one." Rcmon*, 
16I. Synod, page 300. and to this they fay their adverfaiict 
have not any colour of anfwcr. 

But granting them the liberty ol boalling ; wc flatly deny, 
without feeking for colours, the conlequent of the liril pro- 
pofuion ; and will by the Lord's help at any time put it to 
the trial, whether we have not juft caufe fo to do^ or not. 
There be two ways whereby they go about to prove this con- 
fequent from the word world, to ail and cjcry cm ; fiift, by 
reafon and the fenfe of tke word ; fecondly, from the confi- 
deraiion of the paiticular placffs of Scripiure urged. Wc 
will try them in both. 

I. If they will make it out by the way of reafo-ning, I 
conceive they muft argue thus ; 

jji. The whole world conttiins all and every man in the zuorld; 
Chrijl died for the whole world; therefore, 6?<:. 

Anfw. Here are maniteftly four terms in this fyllogifm, z- 
rifnig from the ambiguity of the word world ; and fo no true 
medium on which the weight of the conclufion {fiould hang : 
The luorld, in the fir ft propofition, being taken for the world 
containing ; in the fecond, for the world contained, or men 
in the world, as is too apparent, to be made a thing to be 
proved ; fo that unlefs ye render the conclufion, therefore 
Chrifl died for that which contains all the men in the world, 
and affert in xhtajfimption, thai Chrift died for the zvorld con- 
taining, or the fabric of the habitable earth, (which is a fien- 
zy ;) this fyliogifm is moft fophifticaily falfe. If then ye will 
take any proof from the word world; it muft not be from th*^ 
thing itfelf, but from the fignificstion of the word in the 
Scripture ; as thus ; 

zdly. This word world in the Scripiure, fignijlelh all and <r- 
very ?aan in the world ; but Chrijl is J aid to die Jar the world; 
ergo. &c. 

Anfw, The firft propofiiion, concerning the fjgnification 
and meaning of the word ri;or/^, is either univerfal, compre- 
hending all places where it is ufed ; or particular, intending 
only fome. If the firft, the propofition is apparently falfe, as 
was raanifefted before ; if in the fecond way, then the argu- 
ment muft be thus formed ; ' 

o^dly. In fame places in Scripture, the word \iO\\^ fgnifieth 
till and every man in the world, oj all ages, times and conditi- 
ens ; but Chrift is faid to die lor the world ; ergo, Be. 

Anfw, That this fyllogifn is no belter ihan tiie former, is 
moft evident ; an univcrUi conclufion being inferred from a 


$04 Ohje&ions particulaHy anfweredy 

particular propoGtIon. But now, the firft propofition being 
rightly formed : I have one queflion to demand concerning 
the (econd, or the afFumpiion, viz. whether in every place, 
where there is mention made of the death of Chrift, it is faid 
ht died for the world ; or only in fome places ? If ye fay in 
every place ; that is apparently falle, as hath been already 
difcovered by thofe many texts of Scripture before produced, 
reftraining the death of Chrift to his elcB^ hh JJieep^ his 
church ; in coraparifon whereof thefe other texts are but 
few : if the (econd, then the argument muft run thus ; 

j^thly. In fome few places of Scripture^ the word world 
doth fignify all and every inan in the world; but in Jomt few 
placei Chrijl is fid to die for the worlds (though not in ex- 
frefs words, yet in terms equivalent ;) ergo, &c. 

Anfw. This argument is fo weak, ridiculous and fophifti- 
cally falfe, that it cannot but be evident to any one ; and 
yet clearly trom the word world n^ti^^ it will not be made a- 
iiy better ; and none need defire that it {hould be worfe. It 
concludes an univerfal, upon particular affirmatives ; and be- 
fides with tour terms apparent in the fy llogifm ; unlefs the 
fome places in the frf propofition, be proved to be the very 
iome places in the affumption ; which is the thing in quefli- 
on. So that if any Itrength be taken from this word, it muft 
be an argument in this form ; 

If the word world doth fignify all and every man, that ever 
were or fall be, in thofe places where Chrifi is faid to die for the 
Tvorld : then Chrifi died for all and every man ; but the word 
-world, in all thofe places where Chrifi is faid to die for the 
world, doth fgnify all and every man in the world : therefore 
Chrift died for them, 

Anfwer. i. That it is but in one place faid, that Chrifi gave 
Ills life for the world, or died for it ; which holds out the in- 
uention of our Saviour ; all the other places, feem only to hold 
out the lufficicncy of his oblation, for all; which we alfo 
-inalntain. 2. We abfolutely deny the affumption: and ap- 
nea! ior trial, to a confideration of all thofe particular places 
wherein fuch mention is made. 

Thus have I called this argument to rule and meafure, that it 
smight be evident where the great flrength of it lieth : (which 
is indeed very weaknefs) and that for their fakes, who having 
caught hold of the word world, run prefently away with the 
bait, as though all were clear for univerfal redemption ; when 
yet, if ye defire them to lay out and manifefl the flrength of 
their reafon, they know not what to fay but the awf/</and the 


and Places of Scripture opined, to$ 

whole world; underftanding indeed neither what they fay, nor 
whereof they do affirm. And now, quid dignmn tanto? 
what caufc of the great boafl mentioned in the entrance ? a 
weaker argument, I dare fay, was never by rational men 
produced, in fo weighty a caufe. 

11. This will further be manifefted, by the confideration 
ot the feveral particular places produced to give it counte- 
nance ; which we fliall do in order. 

ift. The firft place we pitch upon, is that which by our 
adverfaries is firft propounded, and not a little refted upon ; 
and yet notwithllanding their clamorous claim, there are not 
a few who think that very text as fit and ready to overthrow 
their whole opinion, as Goiiak's fword to CRt off his own 
head ; many unanfwerable arguments againfl the univerfality 
of redemption, being eafily deduced from the words of that 
text. The great peaceable King of his church, guide us to 
make good the intereft of truth, to the place in controvcrfy ; 
which through him we Hiall attempt, firff, by opening the 
words ; and fecondly, by ballancing of reafonings and 
arguments from them. And this place is John lii. 16. 
** God fo loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son ; 
" that whofoever believeth in him fhould not periin, but 
" have everlafling life.'* 

This place (1 fay) the univerfalifts exceedingly boafl in ; 
for which we are perfuaded they have fo little caufe, that we 
doubt not but with the Lord's afTiftance to demonftrate, that 
it is deff ru6live to their whole defence. To which end 1 will 
give you in brief, a double paraphrafe on the words ; the 
firft containing their fenfe, the latter ours, 

1. Thus then our adverfaries explain thefe words : [God 
Jo loved] had fuch a natural inclination, velleity and propen- 
fity to the good of [the world] Adam with all and every one of 
his pofterity of all ages, times and conditions, (whereof fome 
were in heaven, fome in hell long before ;) [that he gave his 
§nly begotten Son^\ caufing him to be incarnate in the luinefs 
of time, and to die ; not with a purpofe and refolution to 
fave any ; but [that whofoever] what perfon foever of thofe 
which he had propenfity unto [believeth in him, fhould not 
perift, but have everlafling lift] fhouM have this fruit and if- 
fue, that he fhould efcape death and hell, and live eter- 

In which explication of the fenfe of the place, thefe thinorg 
are to be obferved, viz. (1.) What is that love, which was 
the caufe of fending or giving Chrift ; which they make to 


3o6 Qbje8ion$ particularly anjioeted, 

be a natural propenfity to the good of all. (2.) Who are the 
obje6l of this love, all and every man of' all ge?ierations, (3.) 
Wherein this giving confifteth ; of which I cannot find, 
whether they mean by it the appointment of Chrift to be a 
recoverer ; or his a£lual exhibition in the flefti, for the ac- 
comphfliment of his miniftration. (4.) Whofoever, they 
make dilbibutive of the perfons in the world ; andio not re- 
ftridive, in the intention, to fom.e. (5.) That life eternal, 
is the fruit obtained by believers ; but not the end intended by 

2. Now look a little, in the fecond place, what we con- 
ceive to be the mind of God in thofe words ; whofe aim we 
take to be the advancement and fetting forth of the free love 
of God to loft finners, in fending Chrifl to procure for them 
eternal redemption ; as may appear in this following para- 
phrafe, viz, [God~\ the Father, [/? loved^ had fuch a peculiar 
tranfcendent love, being an unchangeable purpofe and aft 
of his will concerning their falvation, towards [the world) 
miferable fintul loft men of all forts, not only Jews but Gen- 
tiles alio, whom he peculiarly loved ; [that^ intending their 
falvation, as in the laft words, for the praife of his glorious 
grace ; [he gave'] he prepared a way to prevent their ever- 
iafting deftruftion, by appointing and fending [his only h' 
gotten Son] to be an all-fufficient Saviour to all that look up 
unto him ; that [whofoever helieveth in him] all believers 
whatfoever, and only they, [fhould not perifi but have ever- 
lajling life ;] and fo efFe6lually be brought to the obtaining of 
thofe'^glorious things through him, which the Lord in his free 
I JVC had defigned tor them. 

In which enlargement of the words, for the fetting forth 
of what we conceive to be the mind of the Holy Ghoft in 
them, thefe things are to be obferved, viz. (1.) What we 
nnderftand by the love of God, even that aft of his will which 
was the caufe of fending his Son Jefus Chrift ; being the moft 
eminent aft of love and favour to the creature ; for love is 
7}ellealicuihonum, to will good to any; and never did God will 
greater good to the creature, than in appointing his Son for 
their redemption. Notwithftanding 1 would have it obferved, 
that I do not make the puipofe of fending or giving Chrift, 
to be abfolutcly fubordinate to God's love to his eleft, as 
th»ugh that were the end of the other abfolutely: but rather 
tlist they are both co-ordinate to the fyme fupreme end, or 
the manifcftation of God's glory, by the way of mercy tem- 
pered with juftice, hut in rcfpeft of our apprehenfion, that 


and Places of Scriptura opened, 2oy 

is the relation wherein they fland one to another. Now this 
Jove we fay to be that, greater than which there is none. 
(2.) By the world, we underfland the eleQ ot God only' 
though not confidered in this place as fuch; but under fucli 
a notion, as being true of them, Terves for the further exalta- 
tion of God's love towards them, which is the end here de- 
figned ; and this is, as they are poor, miferable, loft crea- 
tures ; in the world, of the woild, fcattered abroad in all 
places of the world ; not tied to Jews or Greeks, but difperfed 
in any nation, kindred and language under heaven, (o.) 
HIN A PAS HO PISTEUON is to US, that every believer ; 
and is declarative of the intention ot God, in fending or giv- 
ing his Son ; containing no diftributicn of the world belov- 
ed, but a direaion to the perfons whofe good was intended ; 
that love being an unchangeable intention of the chiefefi 
good. {^.} Should not perijk, but have ever la/ling life, contains 
an expreffion of the particular aim and intention of God in 
this bufinefs, which is the certain falvation of believers by 
Chrift. And this, in general, is the interpretation of the 
words which we adhere unto ; which will yield us fundry ar- 
guments, fufficient each of them to evert the general ran« 
fom ; which that they may be the better bottomed, and the 
more clearly convincing ; 

3. We will lay down and compare the feveral words and 
expreffions of this place, about whofe interpretation we dif- 
fer ; with the reafon ot our rejeaing the one fenfe and era 
bracing the other. The firft difference in the interpretation 
of this place, is about the caufe of fending Chrift, called 
here love; the fecond, about the objea of this love, called 
here the world ; thirdly, concerning the intention of God iti 
fending his Son ; faid to be, that believers midu be faved 

1. By love, m this place, all our adverfaries agree that 
a natural affedion and propenfity in God, to the good \f the 
treature, loji under fm, in general, which moved him to take 
fome way whereby it might pojfibly be remedied ; is intended. 
We on the contrary fay. that by love here is not meant an 
mcination or propenfity of his nature, hmTj^n ail of his will 
(where we conceive his love to be feated) and eternal pur^ 
pofe, to do good to man ; being the moji tran/cendent andemi^ 
nent act oj God's love to the creature. 

That both thefc may be weighed, to fee which is moft a- 
greeable to the mind of the holy Ghoft ; I ftiall give vou. 
tint lorae of th€ reafoRS whereb/ we oppofc the former inter- 
pretation ; 

fio8 ObjeBions particulany anfiverea'i 

pretatlon ; and fecondly, thofe whereby we confirm out 

1. \i no natural afftBion, whereby he fhould neceffariiy 
be carried to any thing without hiinfeU, can or ought to be 
afcribed unto God ; then no fuch thing is here intended in 
the word love; for that cannot be here intended ; which is 
not in God at all ; but now, ihat there neither is nor can be 
any fuch natural affeftion in God, is mofl apparent ; and 
may be evidenced by many demonftrations. I fhall briefly re- 
count a few of them. 

(i.) Nothing that includes any imperfeftion, is to be affigned 
to Almighty God. He is God all-fufficient, he is our rock, 
and his work is perfeB ; but a natural afFeflion in God to the 
good and falvation of all, being never compleated nor per- 
fe£led, carrieth along with it a great deal of imperfe6lion and 
weaknefs ; and not only fo, but it rauft alfo needs be ex- 
ceedingly prejudicial to the abfolute blefTcdnefs and happi- 
nefs of Almighty God. Look how much any thing wants, 
of the fulfilling of that whereunto it is carried out with any 
defire natural or voluntary ; fo much it wanteth of blefled- 
nefs and happinefs ; fo that without impairing of the infinite 
bleffednefs of the ever blefled God, no natural afFedion unto 
any thing never to be accomplifhed, can be afcribed unto 
him ; fuch as this general love to all, is fuppofed to be. 

(2.) If the Lord hath a natural afFeBion to all, as to love 
them fo far as to fend his Son to die for them ; whence is it 
that this affe6tion of his doth not receive accomplifhment ? 
whence is it that it is hindered, and doth not produce its ef- 
fefts ? why doth not the Lord engage his power for the ful- 
filling of his defire ? It doth not {t&m good to his infinite 
wifdom (fay they) fo to do. Then is there an affeftion irt 
God to that, which in his wifdom he cannot profecute ; this 
among the fons of men ; the worms of the earth, would 
be called a brutifh affeftion. 

(3.) No afFeftion or natural propenfity to good is to be af- 
cribed to God, which the Scripture no where afiigns to him, 
and is contrary to what the Scripture doth afTign to him. Now 
the Scripture doth no where allign unto God any natural af- 
feftion, whereby he fhould be naturally inclined to the good 
of the creature; the place to prove it clearly, is yet to be pro- 
duced. And that it is contrary to what the Scripture affigns 
him, is apparent; for it defcribes him to be free, in (hewing 
mercy ; every a^l of it, being by him performed freely, e- 
vca as he pleafeth ; for he hath mercv on whom he will have, 


and Places of Seripture opened* 209 

mercy. Now, if every aft of mercy fliewn unto any, do 
proceed from the free diltingulftiin^ will ot God, (as is appa- 
rent;) certainly there can be in him no fuch natural affeftion; 
and the truth is, if the Lord fhould not Ihcw mercy, and be 
carried out towards the creature, merely upon his own diftin- 
guifhing will, but fhould naturally be moved to fiiew mercy 
to the miferable; he (hould be no more merciiul to m.cn than 
to devils, nor to thofe that are faved than to thofe ih it are 
damned ; tor that which is natural muft be equal in all its o- 
perations, and that which is natural to God muft be eternil. 
Many more efFe6i!;ai reafons are produced by our divines, 
ior the denial ot" this natural afiFc6fion in God, in the 
refolution of the Arminian diitinftion (I call it fo as now by 
them abufed) of God's antecedent and confequent will ; to 
whom the learned reader may repair for fatisfatlion. So that 
the love mentioned in this place, is not that natural affliction 
to all in general, which is not : But, 

2. It is the Jpecial love of God to hiseleB, as we affirm ; 
and fo confequently, not any fuch thing as our adverfaries 
fuppofe to be intended by it, viz. a vdlcity or natural inclina^ 
tion to the good of all. For, 

(1.) The love here intimated, is abfolu^ely the moll emi- 
nent and tranfcendent love that ever God fhewed or bore to- 
wards any miferable creature ; yea the intention of our Savi- 
our, is lo to fet il forth ; as is apparent by the emphaiical ex- 
preffions of it ufed in this place. The particles ffo, th^tj i 
declare no lefs ; pointing out an eximioufnefs, peculiarly re- f 
markable, in the thing whereof the affirmation is, above any *" 
other thing in the fame kind. 

Expofitors ufually lay weight uponalmoll every particular 
word ot the verfe, for the exaltation and demonftration oi 
the love here mentioned. fSoJ that is, in fuch a degree, 
to fuch a remarkable aftoniffiable height : (God) the glorious 
all fufficient God, that could have manifelted his juftice to e- 
ternity in the condemnation ot all Tinners ; and no way 
wanted them, to be partakers of his bletlednefs : (loved) 
with fuch an earneft intenfe affeBion ; confiiting in an eter- 
nal unchangeable a6l and purpofe of his will, for the beftow- 
ing of the chiefeft good (the choiceft effeftual love ;j (the 
world) men in the world, of the world, fubjeft to the iniqui- 
ties and miferies ot the world, lying in their blood ; having 
nothing to render them commendable to his eyes, or befoie 
him ; (that he gave) did not, as he made all the woiiJ at firft, 


£10 GhjeSlwns particularly anfwtttd^ 

fpeak the word and it was done; but proceeded higher, to the 
performance of a great deal more and longer work ; wherein 
he was to do more than exercile an aft o\ his ahnighty power, 
as before ; and therefore gave (hia Son ;) not any favourite 
or other well-pleafing creature, not fun, moon, or flars, not 
the rich treafure ot his creation; all too mean, and coming 
fhort of exprefling this love ; but his Son, (begotten Son ;J 
and that not fo called, by reafon of fome near approaches to 
him and Jilial obediential reverence of him, as the angels are 
called the fons of God ; for it was not an angel that he gave, 
which yet had been an expreflion of moft intenfe love, nor 
yet any fon by adoption, as believers are the fons of God ; 
but his begotten Son, begotten of his own perfon from eter- 
nity ; and that fhis only begotten Son) not any one of his fons ; 
but whereas he had or hath but one only begotten Son, al- 
ways in his bofom, his Ifaac, he gave him ; than which how 
could the infinite wifdom of God make or give any higher 
teftimony of his love ? efpecially if ye will add what is here 
evidently Included, though the time was not as yet come that 
it fhould be openly exprefled, viz. whereunto he gave his 
Son, his only one ; not to be a king and worfliipped in the 
iirfl place, but he fpared him not, but delivered him up to 
death ybr Mi a//, Rom. viii. 32. 

Whereunto, for a clofe of all, caft your eyes upon his de- 
fign and purpofe in this bufmefs; and ye fhall find that it 
was-, that believers, thofe whom he thus loved, might not pe- 
rifh, that is, undergo the utmoft mifery and wrath to eterni- 
ty which they had deferved; but have everlafting lite, eternal 
glory with himfelf, which of themfelves they could no way 
attain; and ye will eafily grant, that greater love hath no man 
ihan this. Now if the love here mentioned be the greatefl, 
higheft and chiefeft of all ; certainly it cannot be that com- 
^mon afFeftion towards all, that we difcufTed before ; for the 
love whereby men are aftually and eternally faved, is greater 
than that which may confift with the perilhing of men to e- 

(2.) The Scripture pofitively aiTerts this very love, as the 
chiefefl aft of the love ot God ; and that which he would 
have us take notice of in the firfl place, Rom, v. 8. *' God 
*' commendeth his love towards us, in that while we were 
** yetfinners, Chriff died for us; and fully ^ 1 John iv. 9. 10. 
" In this was manifefled the love of God towards us, becaufe 
*• that God fent his only begotten Son into the world, that 
" we might live through him; herein is love, not that we 

♦* love^ 

and Places of Scripture opened. gn 

" loved God, but that he loved us, and fent his Son to be 
*' the propitiation for our fins;" in both which places, the 
eminency of this love is fet forth exceeding emphaticafly to 
believers; with fuch exprelTions, as can no way be accom- 
modated to a natural velleity to the good of all. 

{3.) That feeing all love in God, Ts but velle alicui bonum, 
to will good to them that are beloved ; they certainly are the 
objeft of his love, to whom he intends that good which is the 
ifTue and effeft of that love ; but now the ifllie of this love, 
or good intended, being not perijiiing and obtaining eternal 
life through Chrift, happens alone to, and is beftowed on, 
onlyeleft, believers; therefore they certainly are the obje6l 
of this love, and they alone; which was the thing we had to 

(4.) That love which is the caufe of giving Chrift, is alfo 
always the caufe of the bellowing of all other good things, 
Rom. viii. 32. " He that fpared not hisown Son, but deli- 
" vered him up for us all, how fhall he not with him give us 
" all things?" Therefore if the love there mentioned be the 
caufe of fending Chriff, as it is, it muft alfo caufe all other 
things to be given with him ; and fo can be towards none but 
thofe who have thofe things beftowed on them, which are 
only the ele6l, only believers ; who elfe have grace here, or 
glory hereaher? 

(5.) The word here, which is egapesen, fignifieth in 
Jts native importance, valde dilexit ; to love, fo as to r^ in 
that love ; which how it can ftand with hatred, and an eter- 
nal purpofe of not beftowing effeftual grace, which is in 
the Lord towards fome, will not eafily be made apparent. 
And now letthechriftian reader judge, whether by the love of 
God in this place mentioned, be to be underftood a natural 
v^leity or inclination in God to the good of all, both eleft 
and reprobate ; or the peculiar love of God to his eleft ; be- 
ing the fountain of the chiefefl good that ever was beftowed 
on the fons of men. This is the firft difference, about the ii^ 
terpretation of thefe words. 

2.) The fecond thing controverted, Is the objcB of this (ove, 
expreffed by x\iit \soxdi world ; which our adverfaries would 
have to fignify all and every man ; we, the eleft of God fcat- 
tered abroad in the world ; with a taclte oppofition to the 
nation of the Jews ; who alone, excluding all other nations 
(fome few profelyies excepted,) before the aftual exhibition 
of Chrift in the flefh, had all the benefits of the proraifes ap' 
prooriated to them, Rom. ix. 4. in wiiich privilege now, all 


gi2 OhjeBions particularly anfwered, 

nations were to have an equal fhare. To confirm the expofi- 
tion of the word ufed by the univerfalills, nothing of weight, 
that ever yet I could fee, is brought forth, but only the word 
itfelf ; for neither the love mentioned in the beginning, nor 
the defign pointed at in the end of the verfe, will pofBbly a- 
gree with the fenfe which they impofe on that word in the 
middle. Befides, how weak and infirm an inference from 
the word world, by reafon of its ambiguous and wonderful va- 
rious acceptations, is, we have at large declared before. 

Three poor fhifts I find in the great champions of this 
caufe, to prove that the word world d.oi\i not fignity the ele&, 
Juflly we might have expefted fome reafons to prove, that it 
iianified or implied all and every man in the world ; which 
was their own aflertion ; but of this ye have a deep filence ; 
teing confcious, no doubt, of their difability for any fuch 
performance. Only (as I faid) three pretended arguments 
<hey bring to difprove that, which none went about to 
prove, viz. that by the world is meant the eUB, as fuch ; 
for though we conceive the perfons here defigned, direftly 
men in and of the world, to be all and only God's eleft ; yet 
we do not fay, that they were here fo confidered, but rather 
under another notion, as men fcattered over all the world, in 
themfelves fubject to miiery and fin. So that whofoever 
will oppofeourexpofition of this place, mufleitherfirif prove, 
that by the world here muil be neceflariiy underftood all and 
everv man in the world; or fecondly, that it cannot be taken 
indefinitely for men in the world, which materially are eleft, 
though not confidered under that formality ; fo that all thofe 
vain flouri files which fome men make with thefe words, by 
puttino- the word ele& into the room of the word world, and 
then coining abfurd confequences ; are quite befide the bufi- 
nefs in hand. Yet further we deny, that by a fupply of the 
word ek8 into the text, any abfurdity or untruth will juftly 
follow ; yea and that flourifh, which is ufually fo made, is. 
but a bugbear to frighten weak ones. For fuppofe we fhould 
read it thus, God Jo loved the tleEl, that he gave his only begot- 
ttn Sen ; that whofoever helitveth in him Jliould not penjh ; 
what inconvenience will nov/ follow? Why (fay they,) (i. 
That fome of the elcB, whovi God fo loved as to fend his Son 
jor, may perifli. Why I pray ? is it becaufe he fent his Son 
that they might not perifo ? or what other caufe ? no : but, 
(2. Btcaufe it is faid, that whofoever of them belitveth on him^ 
fhould notperifn; which intimates, that jome of them might noJL 
Hiitvc. Very good ; bui where is any fuch intimation ? God 


and Places of Scripturs opened, 215 

ciefigns ihe falvation of all them In exprefs words, fof whom 
he fends his Son ; and certainly all that (hall be faved, fhall 
believe. But, (3. It is in the word whofoever ; which is dif- 
tributive of the world, into thofe that believe^ and thoje that believe 
not, I anfwer, if this word whofoever be diftributive, then it 
is reftriftive of the love of God to fome, and not to others ; to 
one part of the diftribution, and not to the other ; and if it 
do not reftrain the love of God, intending the falvation of 
fome, then it is not diftributive of the forementioned obje£l of 
it; and if it do reftrain it, then all are not intended in the 
love which moved God to give his Son. Moreover, I deny 
that the word here is diftributive of the obje6^ of God's love; 
but only declarative of his end and aim in giving Chriff, in 
the purfuit of that love, to wit, that all believers might be fav- 
ed ; To that the fenfe is ; God fo loved his eleft throughout 
the world, that he gave his Son with this intention, that 
by him believers might be faved. 

And this is all that is by any (befides a few worthlefs cavils) 
obje6ted from this place, to difprove our inierpretation ; 
which we fhall now confirm, both pofitively and negatively. 

(1.) Our firft reafon is taken from what was before proved, 
concerning the nature of that love which is here faid to have 
the world tor its objeft ; which cannot be extended to all and 
every one in the world, as will be confefTed by all. Now 
fuch is the world here, as is beloved with that love which we 
have defcribed, and proved to be here intended; even fuch a 
love as is, [1.] the moft tranfcendent and remarkable; [2] 
an eternal aft of the will of God : [3.] the caufe of fending 
Chrift ; [4.] of giving all good things in and with him; [5.J 
an afTured fountain and fpring of falvation, to all beloved 
with it ; fo that the world beloved with this love, cannot pof- 
fibly be all and every one in the world. 

(2.) The word world in the next verfe, (which carries a- 
long the fenfe of this, and is a continuation of the fame mat- 
ter, being a difcovery of the intention of God in giving his 
Son) muft needs fignify the ele6t; and believers, at leafl only 
thofe who in the event are laved ; therefore fo aifo in this. 
It is true, the word world is three times ufed in that verfe, iti 
a difTonant fenfe; by an inverfion not unufual in Scripture, 
as was before declared. It is the latter place that this hath 
reference to, and is of the fam.e fignification with the zvorld 
in verfe 16, that the zvorld through him vvght be faved; 
Hi.NtA SOTHE, ihdii\ifioutdhQ faved; it difcovers the aim, 
purpofe, and intention of God, what it was towards the world 


21^ Ohje^ions particularly anfwered, 

that he fo loved, even its falvation ; now if this be underftood 
of any but believers, God fails of his aim and intention * 
which as yet we dare not grant. 

(3.) It is not unufual with the Scripture, to call God's cho- 
fen people by the name of the world; as alfo, of all Jlejhy all 
nations y all families of the earthy and the like general expref- 
fions; and therefore no wonder if here they are fo called ; 
the intention of the place being, to exalt and magnify the 
love of God towards them, which receives no fmall advance- 
ment from their being fet forth as a world. So are they 
termed, where Chrift is faid to be their Saviour, Jfohn iv. 42, 
which certainly he is, only of them who are laved ; A Savi^ 
our of mvi not faved, is Jlrange. h\{o John ^i. ^\, where 
he is faid to give himfelf for the life of the world: clearly 
vtrfe 'V^, oi the hme chapter y he giveth life unto the world: 
which whether it be any but his eleft, let all men judge; for 
Chrift himfelf affirms that he gives life only to hisfheepy and 
that thofe to whom he gives life, Ihall never per ifhy jfohn x. 
27, 28. fo Roth. iv. 13. Abraham^is faid by faith to be the 
heir of the world ; which verfe 11. is called to be the father 
ofalltliem that believe; and Rom. xi. la. the fall oi the Jews 
is faid to be the riches of the world; which world coraprileth 
only believers of all forts in the world; as the apoftle affirrar 
ed, that the word bare fruit in all the worlds Col. i. 6. This 
is that world which God reconcileth to himfelf y not imputing 
their trefpaffes unto themy 2 Cor. v. 19. which is attended 
with bleffednefs in all them to whom that non-imputation be* 
longeth. Rom. iv. 8. 

And for divers evident reafons is it, that they have thit 
sppelh.tion. As [i-] to diftinguiih the objeft of tkis love 
of God, fiom the nature angelical, which utterly perifhed 
in all the fallen individuals ; which the Scripture alfo care- 
fully doth inexprefs terms, Ueby ii. 16. and by calling this 
love of God PHILANTHROPIA , mankind-lovCy Titus 
iii. 4. [2.1 To evert and rejeft the boafting of the JfewSy as 
though all the means of grace, and all the benefits intend- 
ed, were to them appropriated. [3.] To denote that great 
dificrence and diifin8ion between ihe old adminiftration of 
the covenant, when it was tied up to one people, family, 
and nation ; and the new, when all boundaries being broken 
M^ the lulnefs uf the Gentiles and the corners of the world 
were to be made obedient to the Sceptre of Chrilh [4.] To 
TOanlfell the condition of the eleB themfelves wlio are thus 
iVivcd for the declaration of the free grace of God toward 
'"'*^"''* them; 

dnd Places of Scripture opined. 21^ 

them ; they being divefted of all quallficaucns. but only 
thofe that befpeak them terrene, earthly, loft, mifcrable, cor- 
rupted. Sothat thus much at leafl may cafi'.y be obtained, 
that from the word itfelf nothing can be oppoied juftiy to our 
expofition of this place; as hath been already declared, and 
fliall be further made manifeft. 

(4.) If every one in the world be intended, why doth not 
the Lord, m the purfuit of this love, reveal Jefus Chrift to 
every one whom he fo loved ? Strange ! that the Lord Ihould 
fo love men as to give his only begotten Son for them, and 
yet not once by any means fignify this his love to then, ; 
as to mnumerable he doth not : that he Ibould love them, 
and yet order things fo in his wife difpenfation, that this love 
ihould be altogether in vain and fruitlefs ; love ihem and 
yet determine that they (hall receive no good by his love', tho' 
his love indeed be a willing of the greatcfl good to them.' 

(5.) Unlels ye will grant, [1.] fome to be beloved and 
hated alfo from eternity ; [2.J the love of God towards in- 
numerable, to be fruitlefs and vain ; [3.] the Son of God 
to be given to them who never heard a word of him, and have 
no power granted to believe in him ; [4.] that God is mu- 
table in his love, or elfe flill loveth thofe that be in hell • 
[5.] that he doth not give all things 10 them to whoni he 
gives his Son ; contrary to Rom. viii. 32 ; [6.] that he 
knows not certainly before hand who fhall believe and be 
faved : unlefs (I fay) all thefe blafphemies and abfurdities 
be granted, it cannot be maintained that by the world here is 
meant all and every one of mankind ; but only men in com- 
mon fcattered throughout the world, which are the elea. 

3. The third difference about thefe words, is concerning 
the 77iean whereby this love of the Father, whofe objeQ il 
faid to be the zuorld, is made out unto them : now this is by 
believing; hina pas ho pisteuon that whofoever he^ 
heveth, or, ih^i every believer. The intention of thefe words 
we take to be the defigning or manifefling of the way, where- 
by the elea of God come to be partakers of the fruits of the 
love here fet forth, viz. hy faith in Chrift ; God having ap- 
pointed that, for the only way whereby he will communicate 
unto us the life that is in his Son. To this iomething was 
faid before ; having proved that the term whofoever, is not 
diftributive of the objea of the love ot God ; to which al- 
fo, we may add ihcfc following reafons, viz. 

I. If the objea be here retrained, fo that fome only be- 
lieveandare faved, of them for whofe fake Chiia is lent; 


2i6 OhjeBions particularly an/cvered 

then this ieftri£lion and determination of the fruits of 4his 
love, dependeth on the will of God, or on the perfons them- 
felves. Hon the perfons themfelves; then make they them- 
felves to differ from others, contrary to i Cor. iv. 7, If on 
the will of God ; then you make the fenfe of the place, as to 
this particular, to be, — God Jo loved all, as that butfome of 
thefnJJiould partake oj the fruits of his love. To what end 
then, I pray, did he love ihofe other fome ? Is not this, — 
Out with the fword, and run the dragon through with the fpear ?, 
2. Seeing thefe words M^z/ whofoever beheveth, do peculiar- 
ly point out the aim and intention of God in this bufinefs ; 
if it do reftrain the obje£l beloved, then the falvaiion of be- 
lievers is confeffedly the aim of God in this bufmefs, and that 
diltinguifhed from others. And if fo,^ the general ranfom 
is an empty found, having no dependance on the purpofe of 
God; his intention being carried out in the giving of his Son,- 
only to the Salvation of believers, and that deterrainately : 
unJefs you v;ill affign unto him, a nefcience of them that 
fhould believe. 

Thefe words then, whofoever believeth, containing a defigna- 
tion ot the mean whereby the Lord will bring us to a partici- 
pation of Hie, through his Son whom he gave for us ; and 
the following words of having life everlajling, making out the 
whole counfel of God in this matter, fubordinate to his own 
glory: it followeih that God gave not his Son, [1.] for them 
who' never do believe ; [2.] much lefs for them who never 
hear of him, and fo invincibly want means of faith ; [3.] 
for them on whom he hath determined not to beftow effettual 
grace, that they might believe. 

Let now the reader take up the feveral parts of thefe oppo- 
fite expofitions, weigh all, try all things, elpeciaily that which 
is chiefly to be confidered, the love of God ; and fo inquire 
ferioufly, whether it be only a general afiPeftion, and a natu- 
ral velleity to the good of all, which may ffand with the pe- 
rilhing of all and every one fo beloved ; or the peculiar tran- 
fccndent love of the Father to his eleft, as before laid down; 
and then determine, whether a general ranfom, fruilefsin re- 
fpe£l of themoft for whom it was paid, or the effe£lual re . 
demption of the eleft only, have the firmefl and flrongefl 
foundation in thefe words of our Saviour ; withal remem- 
bering, that they are produced as the ftrongefl fupportment of 
the adverfe caule ; with which, it is mofl apparent, both the 
caufe of fending Chriff, and the end intended by the Lord in 
fo doing, as they are here expreffed, are altogether inconfift- 
ent. CHAP- 

and Places of Scripture opened* 2 1 7 


An unfolding of the remainijig texts of Scripture^ produced for 
the confrmaiion of the frji general oh jedion, or argument for 
univerfal redemption, 

NEXT to the place before confidered: that which is urg* 
ed with moft confidence, and prefTVd with nioft impor- 
tunity, for the defence of the general ranfom, m theprofecu- 
tlon of the former argument, is, 

^dly, 1 John\u 1, 2. ** If any man fin, we have an ad- 
*' vocate with the Faiher, Jefus Chrift the righteous; and he 
*' is the propitiation for our fins, and not for ours only, but 
** alfo for the fins of the whole world." Now thefe words, 
and the deductions from thence, have been fet out in various 
drefTes ; with great variety of obfervations, to make them ap- 
pear advantageous to the caufe in hand. The weight of the 
whole hangs upon this, that the apoflle affirms Chrift to be a 
propitiation for the fins 0/ tht zohole world ; which, fay theyj 
manifeftly appears to be all and every one in the v/orld ; and 
that, Firlt, From the words them fives ^ without any wref ling ; 
for what can he fgnifitd by the whole worlds but all mm in the 
world? Secondly, From the oppofilion that is made between 
world and believers ; all believers being comprized in the firft 
part of the apoflles affertion, that Chrifl is the propitiation for 
cur fins ; and therefore by the zuorid oppofed unto them, all O' 
thers areunderflood. If there be any thing of moment fur- 
ther excepted, we (hall meet with itj in our ioliowing open- 
ing of the place. 

Before I come to the further clearing of the mind of the 
holy Ghoft in thefe words, I mud tell you ; that I might an- 
fwer the obje6fion from hence very briefly, and yet fo folid- 
ly, as quite to cut ofFali the cavilling exceptions of our ad- 
verfaries, viz. that as by the world in other places, men liv- 
ing in the \/orld are denoted ; fo by the whole world in this, 
can nothing be underdood but men living throughout the 
whole world, in all the parts and regions thereof, (in oppo- 
fition to the inhabitants of any one nation, place, or country 
as luch) as the redeemed of Chriil are faid to be. Rev. v. 9, 
But becaufe they much boaft of this place, I fhall by God's 
affiftance fo open the fenfe and meaning of it, that it fiiall 
appear to all, how little reafon they have to place any confi- 
dence in ibeir wrelled interpretation thereof. 

£ e 

siS OhjcBions pariiculariy anjwtrcd 

To make out the fenfe of this place, three things are to be 
confidered, viz. i. to whom the apoftle writes; 2. what is 
his purpofc and aim in this particular place; 3. the meaning 
of thofe two expreffions, (1.) Chriil being di propitiation 2. the 
whole world ; which having done, according to the analogy 
of faith, and the fcope of this and other parallel places, v;ith 
reference to the things, and ufe of the words themfelves; we 
(hall eafily manifeft by undeniable realons, that the text can- 
not rightly be fo underllood as it is urged and wrefted for 
univerfal redemption. 

1. A. di\{coveiy of tkem to whom the epijllz was peculiarly 
directed, will give fome light into the meaning of the apoftle. 
This is one of thofe things which, in the inveftigation of the 
tight fenfe of any place, is exceeding confiderable ; for al- 
though this, and all other parts of divine Scripture, were 
given for the ufe, benefit, and direftion of the whole church; 
yet that many parts of it were direfted to peculiar churches 
and particular perfons, and fome diftin6l forts of perfons, 
and fo immediately aiming at fome things to be taught, re- 
proved, or eilabiiflied, with direft reference to thofe pecu- 
liar perfons and churches, needs no labour to prove. Now 
though we have nothing written, exprefsly nominating them 
to whom this epiftle was primarily dircfted, to make an af- 
fertion thereof infallibly true ^wA de Jidc ; yet by clear and 
evident dedaftion, it may be made more than probable, that 
it was intended 10 \hQ Jews ox believers of the circumcijion. 

(1.) John was in a peculiar manner, aminifter and an apof- 
tle to the Jercs ; and therefore they were the moft immediate 
and proper objefts of his care ; James, Cephas^ and John, 
gave to Paul and Barnabas the right hands ojfellowjkip ; that 
theyjhould go unto the heathen, and themfelves unto the circum- 
cifion. Gal. ii. 9. Now as Peter and James, (for it was 
that James of whom Paul here fpeaks, who wrote the epiftle, 
the brother of John being flain before) in the profccution of 
their apolllefliip towards the Jews, wrote epiftles unto them 
in their difpcrfion, James i. 1. 1 Fet*\. 1, as Paul did to 
all the chief churches among the Gentiles by him planted; 
fo it is more than probable, that John v/riting this epiflle, di* 
xzEitAiX chitfly and in the firjl place unto them, who chiefly 
and in the firil place were the obje6^s of his care and apoftle- 

(2.) He frequently intimates, that thofe to whom he wrote 
were of th«m, who heard gf and received the word from the 

beginning ; 

^nd Places of Scriptun opemd. a 55 

beginning ; fo twice together in this chap. v. 7. I write an 
old commandment which ye hadjrom the beginnings which ye 
heard Jrom the beginning. No'v ihat the pioinulgaiion of 
the gofpel hid its beginning among the Jcws^ and iis fiift 
entrance with them, before the cor.vcifiun of any of the 
Gentiles, which was a myftcry for a feafon; is apparent from 
the flory of the a6ls of the apollles chap. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. xii. 
To the Jew Jirji and alfo to the Grtek^ was the order divinely 
appointed, Rom. i. 16. 

{3.) The oppofition that the apoflle m^kes between us and 
the worlds in this very place, is fufficient to nianifefl unto 
whom he wrote. As a Jew^ he reckoned himfeif with asd a- 
mongthe believing ^trjyjr, to whom he wrote; ^nd lets liini- 
felf with them, in oppofition to the refidae of believers in 
the world ; and this is ufual with this apoftle : wherein, how- 
lie is to be underftood, he declares in his gofpel, John xi. 
^1. 52. 

(4.) The frequent mention, and cautions, that he makes 
and gives, ojfal/e teachers, Jeducers, and antichnjiss (which 
in thofe firfl days were, il not a'l of them, yet for the greateft 
part, of the circumcifion, as is manifeft from Scripture and 
eclefiaftical flory ; of v,'hom the apoflle faid, that they went 
©ut from them, chap.W.iQ. and iv. 1.) evidently declares 
that to them in fpeciai was this epiflle dire£led, who lay more 
open, and were more obnoxious to the feducements of their 
countrymen, than others. 

Now this being thus cleared ; if withal ye will remind what 
was faid before, concerning the inveterate hatred of that 
people towards the Gentiles, and the engrafted opinion they 
liad, concerning their own fole interejl in the redemption pro- 
cured and purchafed by their MefTiah ; it will be no difficult 
thing for aay, to difcern the aim of the apoftle m this place, 
in the expreffion fo much fluck at. He (faith he) is the pro- 
pitiation oj our fins ; that is, our fins who are believers of the 
Jews; and leif by this affertion, they fhould take cccafion to 
confirm themfelves in their former error; he adds, and not 
for ours only, but alfo for the fins of the zohole world i or the 
children of God throughout the world, as John y\. ,51. 52. 
of what nation, kindred, tongue, or language foever they 
were. So that we have not here an oppohticn, betv.'ccn the 
efleftual falvation ot all believers, and the ineffeftual rcdennp- 
tion of all others; but an extending of the fame Cocc-iuai 
redemption, which belonged to the Jews behevers, to all 
other believers, o^i the children of God ihroiJghout the 
whole world, 2, For 

^80 i Ohje-^ions particularly anjiveredt 

2. For the aim and intention of the apoftle in thefe words, 
It is to give confolation to believers, againft their fins and 
failings : if any man fin, we have an advocate with the Father^ 
Jefus Chriji the righteous ; and he is a propitiation for our fins. 
The very order and/eries of the words, without further en- 
largement, proves this to be fo : and that they were believers 
only to whom he intended this confolation, that they ihould 
not defpair nor utterly faint under their infirmities, becaufe 
of a fufficient, yea cfFcftual remedy provided, is no lefs evi- 
dent ; tor, (i.) They only have an advocate ; it is confelTed, 
that believers only have an intereft in Chrift's advocation, 
{2.) Comfort in fuch a cafe, belongs to none but them ; unto 
others in a flate and condition of aHenation, wrath is to be 
denounced, John iii. 36. (3.) They are the little children to 
whom he writes, ver/e 1. whom he defcribes verje 12, 13. to 
haVQ their Jins forgiven them/^r his name s Jake, and to have 
known the Father. So that the aim of the apoftle being, to 
inake out confolaiion to believers in their failings ; he can 
fpeak of qone but them only : and if he fhould extend that 
whereof he fpeaks, [viz. that Chrifl was a propitiation,) to all 
and every one ; I cannot perceive how this can pofifibly make 
any thing to the end propofed, or the confolation of believers. 
Tor what comfort can arife from hence to them, by telling 
them that Chrift died for innumerable perfons that fhali be 
damned ? Will that be any refrefhment unto me, which is 
common unto me with them that perifh eternally ? is not this 
rather a punice-ftone, than a breaft of confolation ? If you 
afit, how comfort can be given to aU and every one, unlefs 
Chrifl died for them ? I fay, if by all and every one, you 
mean all believers ; Chrift is, as in the text afTerted, a pro- 
pitiation and an advocate for them all ; if all others, repro- 
bates and unbelievers ; we fay, that there is neither in the 
death of Chrift, nor in the word of God, any (olid fpiritual 
confolation prepared for them; the children's bread muft not 
be caft to dogs. 

3. The meaning and purport of the word propitiation, 
which Chrift is faid to be, Jor us, and the whole world ; is 
/lext to be confidered. The word in the original is hil A^- 
M OS, twice only ufed in the New Teftament ; here, and 
ikap, iv. io. 'The verb alfo iiilaskomai, is as often 
ufed, viz. Heh, ii. 17. trvinflated there, (and that properly, 
iconlidering the conftruciion it is in,) to make reconciliation : 
^nd Luke xviii. 13. itis the word of the publican, hilas- 
rUETi MOI, ^<? merciful to me. There is alfo another word of 


and Places of Scripture opened, j^j 

the fame original, and a likefignification, viz, Hilasterion;' 
twice alfo uled, Rom. iii. 25. there trandaicd ^ propitiation ; 
and Heb. ix. 5. where it is ufed for, and alio rendered 
the mercy-feat ; which will give fome light into the nieanino- 
oF the word. That which Exodus xxv. 17. is called Cappo- 
reth, homCapkar, properly to cover ; is here, (Heb. ix. j.) 
called HILASTERION ; that which Chrift is faid to be, Rom. 
iii. 25. This mercy-feat was a plate of pure gold, two cubits 
and a halt long, and a cubit a halt broad ; like the uppermofl 
plate or board of a table ; that was laid upon the ark, iha- 
dowed over with the wings of the cherubim. 

Now this word CAPPORETH comes, as wa« faid, from 
CAPHAR ; whofe firft native and genuine fenfe is 10 cover, 
(though moft commonly ufed to expiate.) This plate or mer- 
cy feat, was fo called, becaufe it was placed upon the ark, 
and covered it ; as the wings of the cherubim hovered over 
that; the myftical ufe thereof being, to hide (as it were) the 
law, or rigid tenure of the covenant of works, which was in 
the ark ; God thereby declaring himfelf to be pacified or re- 
conciled, the caufe of anger and enrairy being hidden. Hence 
the word cometh to have its fecond acceptation ; even that 
which is is rendered by the apoftle (Rom. iii. 2^. hilaste- 
HI ON, placamen, ox placamentum, that whereby God is ap- 
peafed. This it did plainly fignify ; being (hadowed wiih the 
wings oi the cherubim, (denoting God's prefence in power 
and goodnefs,) which were made crouching over it, as the 
wings of a hen over her chickens. Hence is that exprefiion 
of David, to truji under the fhadow of God's wings, Pfal. 
xxxvi. 7. Ivii. 1. Ixi. 4. Ixiii. 7. xci. 4. (and perhaps that 
allufion of our Saviour, Matt, xxiii. 37 .j; intimating the fa- 
vourable proteftion of God, in mercy ; denoted by the 
wings of the cherubim covering the propitiatory, embracing 
that which covered the bill of accufation; which typically 
was that table or golden plate, or covering before defcribcd'; 
truly and really Jefus Chrift, as is exprefsiy affirmed, Rom. 
iii. 25. 

Now all this will give us fome light into the meaning of the 
word ; and fo confequently into the fenfe of this place, with 
the mind of the holy Ghoft therein; hilasmos and hi- 
lasterion, both tranflated di propitiation, v^wh liie verb of 
the original, (the bottom of them all oeing hilao, not ufed in 
the New Teftament ; which \n Eujiathius, is irom HiEMAl 
LAEIN, intently and with care to look upon any thiug, like 
the oracle on the mercy. feat,} do fignify that which was done 

tit OhjeHioiis particularly anfwtrti, 

or typically cfFefted by the mercy- feat, viz. to appeafe, pa- 
city and reconcile God, in refpeft of averfation for fin. 
Hence that phrafc, Heb. ii. 17. HILASKESTHAI tas 
HAMARTIAS; TOU LAOU whicli the Latinift renders djtf 
j)iarc peccata populi, to expiate the fins of the people : (txpi" 
are, in this bufinefs, is to turn away anger by an atonement ; 
fo the hiitorian, Sokre Regis portenta cekjlia cctde aliqua it* 
lufiri expicre^ et a femd in capita proctrum dcpellere. Suet, in 
Keren.); we render it /<? make reconciliation for the Jins of 
ike people. The v/ord will bear both ; the meaning being, 
to appeafe or pacify, or faiisfy God for fin, ihat it might not 
be imputed to them tov/ards whom he was fo appealed; hi- 

ON to pacify God concerning fin. Hence the word re- 
ceiveth another fignification : that wherein it is ufed by the 
publican Luke xviii. 13, hilastheti moi, be merciful 
to me; that is, let me enjoy that mercy from whence flows the 
pardon of fin; by thy being appeafed towards me, and recon- 
ciled unto me. From all which it appeareth, that the mean- 
ing cf the word hilasmos or propitiation^ which Chrift 
is faid to be, is that whereby the law is covered, God appeafe 
td and reconciled; fin expiated, and the finner pardoned; 
whence pardon and remiflfion of fin, is fo often placed as the 
produft and fruit of his blood-fhedding whereby he was a 
propitiation, Math.yiWi. 28. Eph. i. 7. Col. \. 1/^. Heb. ix. 
22. Rom. iii. 25. Rom. v. 9. 1 John i. 7. 1 Pet, i. a. 
Rev. i. 5. 

From that which hath been faid, the fenfe of the place is 
evident to be, that Chrift hath fo expiated fin and reconciled 
to God, that the finner \% pardoned and received to mercy for 
his faiie; and that the law fiiall never be produced, or brought 
forth for his condemnation. Now whether this can be tole- 
rably applied to the whole world, {taking it for all and every 
man in the world;) let all the men in the world, that are able, 
judge. Are the fins of every one expiated ? is God reconcil- 
ed to every one ? is every finner pardoned, fhall no one 
have the tranfgreffion of the law charged on him ? why 
then is not every one favcd ? Doubtlefs all thefe are true of 
every believer, and of no one clfe in the whole world ; for 
ihem the apollle affirmed that Chriff is a propitiation ; that 
he might fhew from whence arifeth and wherein chiefly, if not 
only, confiRs that advocation for them, which he premifeihas 
the fountain of their confolation, even in a prefentation of 
ihz atonement made by his blood. He is alfo a propitiation 


and Places of Scripture opfnej, 221. 

bnly through faith, Rom. iii. 25. and furely none have faith, 
but believers ; and therefore certainly it is they only iliroiisrh- 
out the world, for whom alone Chrifl; is a propitiaiion. Un- 
to them alone God fays, hileos esomai, / zvill bz 
propitious, the great word of the new covenant, Hzb. viii. 
12. they alone being covenantees. 

4. Let us confidcr, the phrafe holou tou iCosmou, of 
tht whole world. I fhall not declare how the word world is 
in the Scripture polysemon, of divers fignifications; 
partly becaufe I have in fome meafure already performed it ; 
l^artly becaufe it is not in itfelf fo much here infided on, but 
only with reference to its general adjun6l whoU, the whok 
ivorld; and therefore we muft ipeak to the whole phrafe tocre- 
ther. Now, concerning this exprefTion, I fay, 

(1.) That whereas, (with that which is equivalent unto if, 
all the world) it is ufed Teven or eight times in the New 
Teflament ; it cannot be made appear clearly and undeniably, 
that in any place (fave perhaps one, where it is ufed in re 
necejfaria) it comprifeth all and every man in the world; fo 
that unlefs fome circumftance in this place enforce that fenfe 
(which it doth not) it will be a plain wrefting of the words, 
to force that interpretation upon them. 

Let us then briefly look upon the places ; beginning with 
the laft, andfo afcending; now that is Rev. iii. 10. 1 zvill 
hep thee from the hour of temptation, which fiall come e p i 
TES OIKOUMENES HOLES, Upon the whoU world; (ihe 
word world \^ other in the original here, than in the place 
we have before us : there being divers words to exprefs 
the fame thing, confidered under feveral notions) where ihat 
it cannot fignify all and every one is evident, becaufe fome 
are promifed to be preferved from that which is faid to comje 
Upon it. Faffing the place of which we treat, the nexi is. 
Col. i. 6. which is come unto you, kathos kai en panti 
TO KOSMO, as in all the xuorld, where all and every man can- 
not be underftood, for they had not all then received the 
gofpel; but only believers are here fignified, living abroad 
in the world, becaufe the gofpel is faid to bring forth fruit in 
them to whom it comes, and there is no true gofpel fruit 
without faith and repentance. Another place is Rom. i. u- 
your faith is fpoken of en holo tO kosmo, through' 
eut the whole zuorld; did every one in the world hear, and 
fpeak of the Roman faith ? You have it alfo, Luke ii. 1. the.re 
zuent out adecreefrom Cslar Auguflus apogp-APHEStiiai 
F AS AN T I N O I KO u M £ N E N, that thc ishoU rjorld^fJwuld be 


224 Obje^ions particularly &nfi)trtdi 

Hixed : which yet was but the Roman empire, fhort enough 
oF comprizing all fingular perfons in the world. It were 
needlefs to repeat the reft» being of all the fame indefinite 
importance and fignification. 

If then the expreflion itfelf, doth not hold out anj fuch 
univerfality as is pretended ; unlefs the matter concerning 
which it is ufed, and the circumftances of the place do re- 
quire it, (neither of which inforcements have any appear- 
ance in this place) there is no colour to faften fuch an ac- 
ceptation upon it. Rather may we conclude, that all the 
world and the whole world, being in other p'aces taken indefi- 
nitely for men of all forts throughout the world ; the fame 
words are no otherways here to be underftood ; fo that 
HOLOS HO KOSMOS, is here no more than ecclesia 
KATHOLIKE; the catholic church. 

(2.) The whole world, can fignify no more than, all nati- 
ons, all the families oj the earth, alljlejh, all men, all the ends 
of the world. Thefe furely are expreflions equivalent 
unto, and as comprehenfive oi particulars as//z(? whole world ; 
but now all thefe expreflions we find frequently to bear out 
believers only, but as of all forts and throughout the world; 
and why fhould not this phrafe alfo be affirmed to be, in ihe 
fame matter, of the fame and no other importance? We 
may inftance in fomc places, viz. All the ends of the earth 
havefeenthefalvationofourGod, Pfal. xcviii. 3. All the etids 
of the world Jliall remember, and turn unto the Lord ; and all 
ihe kindred of the nations fhall worfhip before thee, Pfal. xxii. 
27. All nations Jhallferve him, Phi. Ixxii. 11. which general 
expreffions do yet denote no more, but only the believers of 
all the feveral nations of the world ; who alone fee the fal- 
vaiion of God, remember and turn to him, and ferve him. 
So Joel ii. 28. I will pour out?ny Spirit upon allfafh, and the 
words again repeated, on the accomplifliment of the promife, 
A£ls ii. 17. alfo Luke iii. 6. ufing the fame expreflion, as 
part of a fermon of John Baptift ; All fefJi fiall fee the 
falvation of God. What a conqueff (hould we have had pro- 
claimed, if it had been any where affirmed, — that Chnft di- 
ed for allfefh, all nations, all kindreds, 8cc. ? which yet are 
but liveries of believers ; though garments as wide and large 
as this expreffion, the whole world. Believers are cabled all 
nations, Ifa. ii. 2. and Ixvi. 18. yea all men, Titus ii. 11. 
for to them alone, the ialvation-bringing-grace ol God is ma- 
nifeft. If they then, the children of God, be, as is appa- 
rent, in the Scripture phrafe, all fefli^ all nations, all ktn* 


dcnd Places of Scri^iurt optikd taj 

dreds, all the ends of the world, all the aids of the earth, all 
me7i ; why not alfo, thie whole world ? 

(3.) The whole, world, doth (oraetimes fignify the wor/e 
part of the world; and why may it not, hy a hke fynccdoche, 
iignify the hetter pan thereoF? Rev. xii. 9. The devil and 
Satan which deceiveth the whole world, was cajt out ; that is, 
the wicked and reprobate in the world ; others rejoicinjr in 
his overthrov/, verfe 10. Alio 1 John v. 19. ho KOSMOs 
HO LOS, the whole world lieth in wickedncjs ; where the whole 
world, IS oppofed to them which are of God, in the beginning 
of the verie. The contrary fenfe you have, Col. i. 6. 

This then being fpoken, to clear. the fignification of the ex- 
prefTion here infiited on, will make it evident that there is 
nothing at all in the words iheinfclves, that lliould ei.f.rce 
any to conceive that all and every man in the world are de- 
noted hy them ; but rather believers, even all that did or 
fliould believe, throughout the whole world, in oppofuion 
only to believers of the Jewifli nation. Which that it is the 
meaning of the place, befides what hath been clearly demon- 
flraied, I prove by thefe reafons, viz. 

[l.] This place treateth not of the ranfom of Chrifl, in re- 
fpefcl of impdration, but o'i application : for it adirms Chriu to 
be that by his death, which he is only by faiili ; as was ma- 
nifefled fiom Romans iii. 25. Alfo from application only, 
arifeth coniolation. Now never any faid, that the applicati- 
on of the death of Chrifl was univerfal ; therefore this place 
cannot have regard to al! and every one. 

[2.] Chrift is here faid to be a propitiation, only for fuch 
as are intended in the p'ace ; which is apparent ; but now 
believers only are intended^ for \'i is to give them confolati- 
on in their failings ; in which cafe, coii-folalion be'.ongeth to 
them alone. Therefore it is believers only, though ot all 
forts, times, places and conditions, lor whom ChnU is faid 
to be a propitiation. 

[3.] This kind of phraie and expre(r:on in other places 
cannot pofhbly be tortured to fuch an extenhon, as to ccrfi- 
prebend all and every one ; as was apparent Iroin the places 
before ailedged. To which add, Matth. iii. 5. then went 


ROs TOuJoRDANOU all Judca and all the region round 
about Jordan: among whom, notwithftanding, the Fharifces 
rejected his baptilrn. Whv then fnouid it be fo uriJerflood 
here; efpecidliy all circumRances, (a^ hdth been Ihewjd,) be- 
ing contrarv to luch an inteipretaiioii r 

F f [4] Ths 

2 a 6 Objeilions particularly anfwertd, 

[4.] The moft clear parallel places in the Scripture, are 
oppofite to fuch a fenfe as is impofed ; fee Col. i. 6. John 
xi. 51. 52. 

[5.] 11 the words are to be underflood, to fignify all and 
every one in the world ; then is the whole affei tion ufelefs, 
as to the chief end intended, viz. to adminifter confolation 
to believers. For what confolation can arife from hence un- 
to any believer, that Chrift was a propitiation for them that 
perifh ? Yea to fay that he was a fufficient propitiatioti for 
them, though not efFeftual, will yield them no more comlort, 
than it would have done Jacob and his fons, to have heard 
from Jofephy that he had corn enough fufficient to fuftain 
them, but that he would do fo, was altogether uncertam ; 
for had he told them, he would fuftain them fufficiently, tho* 
not efFe6lually ; they might have flarved, notwithftanding 
his courtefy. The whole world ih^n in this place, is the whole 
people of God (oppofed to the Jewifh nation) fcatiered a- 
broad throughout the whoU worlds of what nation, kindred, 
tongue or family foever ; who are fome of all forts, not all 
of every fort ; fo that this place makes nothing for general rC' 

Some few objeftions there are, which are ufually laid a- 
gainft our interpretation of this pafTage of the apoftle ; but 
they are all prevented or removed in the explication itfelf; fo 
that it Ihdll fuffice us to name one or two of them, viz. 

ObjeB. 1. It is the intention of the apoftle to comfort all, 
in their fears and doubts ; but every one in the world may 
be in fears and doubts : therefore he propofeth this, that they 
all may be comforted. 

Anf. The a// that may be in fears and doubts, in the bufi- 
nefs of confolation, muft of neceflity be reftrained to belie- 
vers ; as was before declared. 

ObjeSi. 2. All believers are comprehended in the firft 
hr2inch, for our fins ; and therefore in the increafe and ex- 
tenfionof the affertion, by didding Jbr the Jins of the zuhole 
world, all others are intended. 

Anfzu. 1. In the firft part,^ the believing Jews alone are 
intended ; of whom John was one ; and the addition is not 
an extending of the propitiation of Chrift, to others than belie- 
vers, but only to other believers. 2. If it might be granted, 
ihat in the firft branch all believers then living were compre- 
hended, who might prefently be made partakers of this com- 
fort by truth ; yet the increafe or accelTion muft be by ana- 
logy, only thofe who were to be in after ages, and in remoter 


and Places of Scripturg opened, 127 

places than the name of Chrift had then reached unto ; even 
all thofe who, according to the prayer of our Saviour, John 
xvii. 20. fliould believe on his name, to the end of the wurld. 
And thus the two main places produced lor the confirmaiion 
of the firft argument, are vindicated from the laife glolles and 
violent wrellings of our adverfaries ; the reft will be eafily 

3^/y. The next place urged in the argument is John vi. 
51. where our Saviour affirms, that he will give his JUJh for 
the Ifeojthc world. This giving ot himfelf, was the fan6tilying 
and offering up himfelf an acceptable oblation, for the fins 
of them for whom he lufFered ; his intention being ihai they, 
for whom in dying he fo offered himfelf, might have life e- 
ternal thereby : which becaufe it was not for the Jews only, 
but alfo for all the t\tQi of God every where ; he calleth 
them the world. That the world here cannot fignify all and 
every one that ever were or fhould be, is as manifefl as if it 
were written with the beams of the fun, and that becaufe it is 
made the objeft of Chrift's intendments, to purchafe for them 
and to beftow upon them life and falvation. Now I afk whe- 
ther any man not bereaved ot all fpiritual and natural fenfe, 
can imagine, that Chrifl in his oblation intended to purchafe 
lifeand falvation, for all ihem whom he knew to be damned 
many ages before ; the irreverfible decree of wrath being 
gone forth againft them ? Or who dares once affirm, that 
Chrift gave himfelf for the life ot them who, notwithftanding 
that, by his difappointment, do come fhort of it to eternity ? 
So that if we had no other place, to manifeft that the word 
world ^o\\i not always fignify all^ but only fome of ail forts, 
as the eleft of God are, but this one produced by our adver- 
faries to the contrary ; I hope with all equitable readers, our 
defence would receive no prejudice. 

^thly. Divers other places I find produced by T. M. chap, 
xiv. 0/ the univerfality of Jree grace ; to the pretended end in 
hand ; which, with that whole chapter, fhall be briefly con- 
fidered. And, 

1. The firft infifted on by him, is 2 Cor. v. 19. " God 
" was in Chrift reconciling the world unto himfelf, not im- 
" puting their trefpafTes unto them." 

An/. (1.) Really, hemuft have no finall confidence of his 
own ftrength, and his readers weaknefs, who from this place 
Ihall undertake to conclude the univerfality of redemption . 
and that the world do(h here fignify all and every one the.ein 
They who arc called the world, verfe 19, are termed us' 


ft 88 OhjeBions pdtticularly anfmrtd 

verfe t8. \it.hatk reconciled v^ to himfelf by Chrijl ; ^% alfo 
verfe 21. where they are turther defcribed, by Chrift's being 
nade Jin for ihem, and their being made the right doufmfs oj 
God in him. Are thefe things true ot all in the world ? If this 
text may receive any light, from what is antecedent ard con- 
lequentunto it ; if the word, any interpretation from thofc 
expreffions which are direftly expofitory of it ; by the "WOTld. 
here, can be meant none but eleft believers. 

(2.) Qod's Teconciling the world unto himjelf, is defcribed 
evidently eitber to confiftin, or heceflarily to infer, a non- 
imputation cj fin to them, or to that world ; which is further 
interpreted to be an imputation of the righteculnefsof Chrift, 
verfe 21. ' Now in thefe two things confifteth the bleffednefs 
of julfification in Chrift, Rom. iv. 6, 7. Therefore this 
'\A-\o\e worlds which God in Chrift reconcileth to himfelf, is 
■ a blefted juftified worM ; not all and every one of the fons of 
men that ever were, are, or fliall be in the world ; the greateft 
jpart of whom lie in evil. 

(3.) This, God in Chrift reconciling^ holdeth out an a6lual 
work of reconciliation ; now this muft be either an abfolute 
reconciliation, or a conditionate. If abfolute, why are not 
all aHually and abfolutely reconciled, pardoned, juftified ? 
J^ conditionate ; then, 1.] ho\y can a conditionate reconciHa' 
iion, be reconciled with that which is aBual ? 2.] Why is 
no condition here mentioned ? 3.] What is that condition ? 
Is it faith and believing ? Then the fenfe of the words muft 
be, either, [1.] God was in Chrift, reconciling a believing 
world unro himfelf; of which there is no need, for believers 
are reconciled : or [2.] God was in Chrift, reconciling an 
unbelieving world unto himfelf, upon condition that it do 
be'iieve ; that is, upon condition that it be not unbelieving ; 
that i?, that it be reconciled ; is this the mind of the Holv 
Spirit? ; ' • 

(4.) If this reconciliation of the world confift (as it doth) 
in a not-imputation of ftn; then this is either of all their fms, 
or only of fome fins ; if of fome only, then Chrift faves only 
from fome fins; if of all, then of unbelief alfo, or it is no 
fin ; then all the men in the world muft needs be faved, as 
whofe unbelict is pardoned. The world here then, is only 
the world of bleffed pardoned believers, who are made the 
jirhteoufncfs of God in Chrift. 

That which T. M. bringeth to inforce tlie oppofite fignifica- 

ticn of the word, is in many words very little. Much time hp 

Jf end:, with many uncouth expreflipps, to prove a two-fold 

i '^■'■■- reconciliation 

and Places of Scnptuvf opened* 229 

reconciliation intimated in the text ; the firft cf God to us by 
Chrift, the other o\ us to God by the Spirit ; ^vhich we alfo 
grant ; though we do not divide them, but make them feveral 
parts of the lame reconciliation, ihe former bi^in^ tl^g rule of 
the latter. For to whomioevcr God is reconciled in and hv 
Chrift, they ftiall certainly, every one of them, be reconcil- 
ed to God by the Spirit : God's reconciliation to tiiem, con- 
filling in a not-imputatior, ct their fins ; their reconciliation 
nnto iiim, in an acceptance of that non-imputation in Jefus 
Chn^- And as the former is the rule of, io it is the chief 
rootive unto, the latter ; being the iubj?61 or matter of the 
raefTacre in the gofpel, whereby it is cfFe6fed. So the aiTerti- 
on of this two-fold reconciliation, or rather (wo branches of 
the fame compieat work of reconciliation, eilablifheth our per- 
fuafion, that the world can betaken only for the eleft therein. 

But he brings farther light from the context, to ifrengthen 
his interpretation. For (faith he) thofe of the world here, 
are called ;^^?7, verfe 11. me", that muft appear before the 
judgment-feat of Chrift, verfe 10. that were dead ver. 14. that 
ought to live unto Chrift, ver. 15. therefore all men. Anfw, 
Now ho7nini homo quid interejl ? Hov,? eafy is it for fome men 
to prove what they pleafe ? Only let me tell you, one thing 
moreis to be clone, that the caufe may be yours ; viz. a prov- 
ing that the ele£t of God are not men, that they may not ap- 
pear before the judgment-feat of Chrift, that they were not 
dead, that they ought not to live to Chrift; this do, or you 
lofe the reward. 

But he adds, of the fe fovic are reconciled to God, verfe 18. 
Anfw. Moft talfe, that there is any limitation or reftri6tion of 
reconciliition, to fome of thofe concerning whom the apoftle 
treats; it is rnther evidently extended to all of them. But^ 
fays he, [omr. are not reconciled, verfe 11. Anfw. Not a 
word of any fuch thing in the text ; nor can the lea ft colour 
be poiTiWy wrefted thence, for any fuch affertion. Many cor- 
rupt ihe word of God. 

2. Afecond place heurgeth, is John i. 9. *' Thatv/as th.e 
" true light which lighterh every man that cometh into the 
'* world." This tuorid (faith he) is the world of m.ankind, 
verfe 4. made by Chrift, verfe 3. which was his own, bv 
creation, mercy and purchafe ; yet received him not, verfe 
3, ID, 11 ; therefore it is maniVeft, that there is life, and 
that Chrift died for all. 

Anjw. That by-^che world here is meant, not rnen in the 
world, all, or fome, but the habitable part of the earth ; is 


8 30 ObjeBions particularly anfwered, 

more apparenr, than can well admit of proof or illuftration. 
The phraie of coming into the world, cannot poflioly be o- 
therwife apprehended ; it is as much as born, and coming to 
breathe the common air. Now, among the expofitions of this 
place, that feems mod confonant and agreeable to the dif- 
courle of the apoPJe, with other expreflions here ufed, 
which refers the word erchomenon, C(;;«zV7^, unto PHos, 
light; and, not to ANTHROPON, man, with which it is 
vulgarly efteemed to agree ; fo that the words ftiouldbe ren- 
dered, that was the true light which, coming into the world, 
lighteth every man. Thus John iii. i(^. light is come into the 
world ; and John xii. 46. lam come a light into the world; 
parallel expreihons unto this. So that from the word world, 
nothing can hence be extorted, for the univerfality of grace 
or ranlom. The whole weight then muft lye on the words, 
tvery man; which yet J". iVf. doth not at ail infift upon : 
and if any other fliould, the word holdmg out aftual illumina- 
tion, can be extended, in its fubjeft, to no more than indeed 
are illuminated. 

Chrift then, coming into the world, is faid to enlighten e- 
very man ; partly, becaule every one that hath any light, 
hath it from him ; partly, becaufe he is the only true light 
3iid fountain ol illumination, fo that he doth enlighten e- 
very one that is enlightened ; which is all the text avers, and 
is by none denied. But whether all and every one in the 
world, before and after his incarnation, were, are, and fhall 
be aftually enlightened with the knowledge of Chrill, by his 
coming into the world ; let Scripture, experience, reafon, 
and fenfe determine. And this in brief may fuffice to mani- 
fefl the weaknefs of the argument for univerfal redemption, 
from this place ; waving for the prefent, not denying or op- 
pofing another interpretation of the words ; rendering the cn- 
liohtning here mentioned, to be that of reafon and underfland- 
ing communicated to all ; Chrift: being propofed, as in his 
fiivine nature, the light of all, even the eternal wifdom of his 

3. A third place is John i. 29. Behold the Lamb of God 
which takzth away the fins of the world: and this (faith he} is 
fpoken of the world in general. 

Anfw. (1.) If it fhould be fpoken of the world in general ; 
yet nothing could thence be inferred, to an univerfality ol in- 
dividuals. (2.) That Chrift is he, ho airon, uhichtak- 
eth away, (beareth, purgeth, pardoneth (as the word is ufed, 
g Sam. xxiv. lO.J taketh away by juftificaiion that it Ihould 


and Places of Scripture opened. 231 

not condemn, by fanfllfication ihat it fhould not reign, by glo- 
rification that it fhould not be,) ten hamartian, the fin 
(gieat fin, original finj tou KosmOU of the world, fcom' 
mon to all,) is mofl ceytdin ; but that he t..keth it away 
from, beareth it for, paidoneth it unto, purgeth it out of all 
and every man in ihe world ; is not in the leafl manner inti- 
mated in the text, and is in iifelf exceeding falfe. 

4. John iii. 17. is by him in the next place urged ; God 
fent not his Son into the world to condemn the worlds hut that 
the world through him nnoht be javed. 

Anfw. (1.) A notable an tan aklasis, or eminent 
inverfion of the word worlds in this place ; was before 
obferved ; like that of chap, i. 10. he zvas in the world, ar 
on the earth, a part of it ; and the world was made by him, 
the whole world, with all things therein contained ; and the 
world knew him not, or the moff of men living in the world. 
So here, by the world, in the firfl: claufe, that part of the 
world wherein our Saviour converfed, hath the name of the 
whole afTigned unto it; in the fecond, you may take it for all 
and every one in the world, if you pleafe (though from the 
text it cannot be enforced ;) for the prime end of our Savi- 
our's coming, was not to condemn any, but to fave his own, 
much lefs to condemn all and every one in the world, out of 
which he was to fave his eleft: in the third claufe, they only 
are defigned, whom God fent his Son on purpofe to fave * 
as the words evidently hold out. The faving then of them 
who are called the world, was the very purpofe arid defign of 
God's fending his fon. Now that thefe are not all men, but 
only believers of Jews and Gentiles throughout the world, 
is evident; [1.] Becaufe all are not faved ; and the Lord 
hath faid he will do all his pleafure, and his purpofe (hall 
fland. [2.] Becaufe the mofl of men were a: the inflant ac- 
tually damned : did he fend his Son that thev might be fav- 
ed ? [3.J Becaufe Chrifl was appointed for the .-^11 of fome, 
Luke ii. 34. and therefore not that ail and every one might 
be faved. [4.] The end of Chrift's aaual exhibition and 
fending in the flefh, is not oppofite to any of God's eternal de- 
crees ; which were eternally fixed, concerning the condemna- 
tion of fome for their fins ; did he fend his Son to fave fuch ? 
doth he aft contrary to his own purpofes, or fail in his under- 
takings ? The faved world, is the people of God fcattered a- 
broad throughout the world. 

S- John IV. 42. and 1 John iv. 14. with John vi. ri. 
(which v\ras before confidered) are alfo produced by T, M. 

2Q2 ObjeBions particularly anfwered, 

in all which places Chrlft is called the Saviour of the world. 

Anjzu, ChriR is Uxd to he the Saviour ol ihe world ; either 
firlt, becaufe there is no other Saviour for any in the world, 
and becaufe he faves all that are faved, even the people of 
God fnot the Jtws onlyj all over the world : or fecondiy, 
becaufe he doth a^iually fave all the world, and every one 
in it. If in this latter way, vici/h Mr. More ; it in the for- 
mer, MENOMEN HOSPER EMEM we aie ftill where we 

The urging of John xii. 46. / a?n come a light inid the 
worlds in this bujinefs, deferves to be noted, but not anuver- 
ed. The following places, John iii. 16, 17. 1 John ii. 
I. 2. have been already confidered. Some other texrs are 
produced ; but fo exceedingly wrefted, (tiangely perveiied^ 
and fo extremely ufelefs to the bufinefs in hand, that I dare 
not oake fo hold with the reader's patience, as once to give 
him a repetition ot them. 

And this is our defence and anfwer, to the firrt principal 
argument of our oppofers; with our explicauon of al) thofe 
texts of Scripture, which they have wreded to fupport it ; 
the bottom of their ftrength being but the ambiguity ak one 
word. L^t the chriilian reader try all things, and hold fafi 
that which is good. 


Anfwer to the ftcond general ohjeBion^ or argument for the urd- 
verfality of redemption. 

THE fecond argument, wherev/ith our adverfaries make 
no lefs tlouriih than with the former, is raifed from 
thofe places of Scripture, where there is mention made of all 
7nen and every man, in the bufinefs of redemption. With 
thofe bare an^ naked words, attended with fwelling vain ex- 
preffions of their own ; they commonly rather proclaim a 
viftorv, than fludy how to prevail. Their argument needs 
not 10 be drawn to any head or form, feeing they pretend to 
plead Irom exprefs words of Scripture , wherefore we ihall 
only confider the feveral places by them in this kind ufually 
produced ; with fuch enforcements of their fenfe from them, 
as by the ableft of that pcrfuafion have been uied. The chief 
places infilled on are, 1 Tim. ii. 4, 6. 2. Pet. iii. 9. Heb. 
ii. q. 2 Cor. V. 14, 15. 1 Cor. xv. 22. Rom. v. 18. 


Fnr \\ic ule ii^d figntfica'ioii of the word aii in Scripurc . 
n-^ r.;uch hath been id'id aiieiHy by many, tb.*' it were neeci) ?(•; 
"' ^;c lo'infilfc upon it ; (jiiicihing ally to ihis purpcf.*, 
:, si; brenfpo ken before i and that abi\-ich:idy {ulHcien? f^ 
inan!t\?Q, that m ltrtn;^th of urpiimcnx c^Jii be w'jkcn iron] -h^' 
Willi nidi. \Vh*iQ^oi-c 1 {hill fcpp'y myi'^lf onfy jo < 
aiiiMauon of the paiticul^^r pl2CCi uryeJ ; and the ol.'ic 
iron-. t!jem raiidd. 

i. The fird and Ciiict nit? i:^, » Ti'im. ji. ^, 6. Cc^u r^'i' 
have all men to be faved^ and to co-nr unto the hno!i>l?fi^e of liif. 
truth ; Chrijl fyaoe himfdj a ranfom jot all, to he t'^jlijkd in avr 
time i hence thsy dra^v this ar!>umenf, (Rem aCia jynod } 
VIZ. 1} Oad will hav2 ai! nien to be iaved, thf^n Chrsit ditii 
iL;« all ; bat God wiii have all men lo be iaved, and c:>me lo 
the knowledge of the triuh ; thirehrfe ChriH died icr aii 

Anfw, ift. Thp v^ho'e llrpntTfh of this arf-umen^ lies m 
the ambiguity of the word all ; vvldch bein;? of various fignt- 
'icanons, and to b'f interpreted fuitably to the i-R'^ircr in hand, 
r-iij the thingn and nerions '.viiereot ic is fpoken ; the whole, 
iTsay be f^ranicd, or Cevera! piopofiiions denied, accL'rdjng a.'j 
t'if* acceptation of the wcrd is enforced on us. That all cr 
oilmen, do not alu'ays comprehend a! and ^very man thai wee 
preorihsll be, m^y be made apparent by near five hundred 
inflsnces from the Scripture. Taking then ^// and all men, 
dijlributively ffjr iome of a'l forts ; we grant the whole ; tdk- 
i;»fT tl em cc'Uclzvely for all of al! (ortg, wtr demy {heminor, viz, 
that God will b?>ve them a'l to be favcd. To make our densjl 
of this appear to bean evident f-ath, arid a^'reeahle to >.')e mind 
of the huly Gholt in <his place; tvvoihiiigs iniiil h'c conOirr- 
ed, xnz what is- ihiu a'jV/ of God here ^ieniif>nec', vi'i^-ch/ 
he wilieih all to be faved ; and v/iio are the all, oc v.-ho ;i 
the apoilie is in this place treatir.ff. 

1. The mfl cii God is ufualiy diftin^f^uiOit'd into his willir,. 
fending and his zuzii commandir^g : ox rdther ti)st word is u!4i 
in reference iinio God, in ihi.<> two ff>]d no ion, tiz. for bis 
pu'pofe, what lie will do; and h>r his approbation of what 
we do, with liis comiDand thereof. Let iinw our oppofers 
take their option, in svhefher fu^n ficdiion ih.e wdl ul G .•:! 
:'h-h' be here nudeiifooJ, or hovv {iv:^ vviiledi the falvaion oj 

-'■(,)i?.h-. ^.h^ 

ih :' 

» ' ' -* 


^.^ Aj^?i 

■, v.H 


1 ' 

;? wd! 




;h?ri 1 




oi ih- 

234 Ohjcdio ns pa r tic :i lasly a nfzut red, 

words is tills : Gad commandeth all men to ufe the means 
whereby they may obtnin the cnd^ or falvition, the perfoini- 
ar;ce whereof is acccpre-bic to God, in any or all ; and fo it is 
the fame widi ihat o\ the apoill's in snoiber piacei God cojii- 
manddh all mtn tvcry zchcre to itpent, N^nv if this be ths 
vvav whereby God wi!!:'ih the (alvanon of all, here nrjiuion. 
ed ; then certainiv (hole all can pofiTibly be no more, than to 
whom he gran^eih and revealeih the ii;eans of grace ; which 
are indeed a great many, but yet not the one hundredth parr. 
cf ihe cofterhy of Aiam,- Befides, taking God'^ icilling the 
f^^ivdiion ot infH in this Cenie, ive deny ihcjtqael of the firit 
propofition, viz tbat Chrilldied lor as njany, as God ibus 
wilieth Ihoiild be tived. The f.vundation ol God's coniraand 
unto men, to ufe the means gx^mcA iheni, is not C brill's dy- 
ing for thera in pariicular : but the connexion which himfelf 
by his decree hath fixed between ihefe two things, laith and 
fdivation; the death of Cliriit being abundantly fufficient, Icr 
the holding oat oi tiiat connexion, unio a!i ; there being e- 
nough in it, to hwc all bciievers. 

(2.) il the will of God, betaken for his efFicacious will ; 
the will of his purpofe and good pleafure ; (as truly to me 
it (eems exceedingly evident, that this is here intended ; be- 
caufe the will ot God is made the ground and bottom ot our 
fuppiications; a3 if in theft: our prayers, we fhould fay only, 
Tny Will be done, which is to have them all to be faved ; 
now we have a promife to receive of God, whatfocver we ail: 
according to his will, 1 John iii. 22 and v. 14. and therefore 
this will of God, which is here propofed as the ground of our 
prayeis, muit needs be his effeftual or rather efficacious will, 
which isa!v.M)s accompliihed ;) ii it be (I fav) thus taker:, 
then certainly it muff be lululled, and all thofe faved, whom 
he would have h'^ed ; for whaifoever God can do, and will 
do, thai fhall certainly come to pafs and be etre6led. That 
God can fave all, (nut confidering his decree,) none doubts ; 
and that he will favc ail is liere affiiraed ; therefore it thefe 
all here, be all znd every one, all and every one fhall cer'ajniy 
be hjved: for xvhohath refijlidhis will? f^om. ix. 19. Hckcuk 
done whatjoevcr lit pUaf.d, Vu\. ex v. 3. He dcilz according to 
his z'Jill, in tke army cf kto.vcn, and among the inhabitant? cj 
the eartn, D.iT),'iv 35. if ^// then here, be to be tinderTfood 
oi all men univcrt&ily, one of ihele two things mufl of necef- 
iity follow; either (hat God faileth of his purpofe and inten» 
tion, or elCe ihat all men univerfally fliail be (hvcd ; which 
puir, us upon the ftcond ihir.ir, confidsrsble in the word:. 

a nd Places oj Scripture opened/' i- j 5 

'2. Vv'ho are meant by all men, in this place. By all 7ne??, 
the apoiiie here miendeth all forts cA iDcn indefinitely, living 
under the golpcl, or in ihefe latter times under the enlarged 
iiifpeiiration ot the m-^ans of grace. That men ct ;he!e times 
only, are inierxlerj, is the acknowledgment of Arndmus 
iiin.fcU, trc^aiing with i^crizwj about 'his place. The (c<;pe 
ui the cJpoJlle, treating ol ihe amphtude, enlarafment and 
extent or grace, in the outward adminiliratioii ihereoT under 
(he g'lfpel ; will not (uller it to be denied. This he lays down 
as a lounda(ion of c\y praying for all ; becaufe the means oJ 
p^race, znd the habitaiion ol the church, are 5iow fjo longer 
confined «o ihe nariow bounds ol one nation : hut proiiiif- 
cuouily and indciiniiely extended unto all people, ton/iurr,, 
and languages ; and to ail lorts cf men amonj:',!} ^hem, high 
and !oiv, t\c\\ and poor, one v.'i!h another. W.' {&y then 
that by the words, a(l men, arc be^e inioncied, on'y fonie 
of 2I) ioits oF men, luit^bfe to the purpofe oi the .ipoille, 
which was to ftieiv that all external d;{Fsrence between liie 
foes oi men is new c:.'ken aivay : which, ex abundanti, v;3 
further cor.firrn by thefe following reafons, viz 

(i.j The word ali^ being in the Soipiuic in:;lt ccm^-Ti^.^nh/ 
uftd in this fenfe, (that is lor many of all foj;t^ arrd there be- 
ing nothirjg in the lubjefct nutter of which it is here afh.med, 
that Ihouid in the leait meafure impel to another acceptation 
of the word, efpecially for an univerfal colleftion ot every 
}nG:vida-<jl ; we hold it (die, to cleave to the moit ufuil fen(e 
and meaning of ir. Thus our Saviour is f^id to cure all dif' 
eafes ; and the Phaiilees to tiihe pan lackano^j, cviry 
herb, Luke xi. /j2, 

(2 ) Paul bitriicU plainly leadeth v.% to this in-erpretstion 
of It ; for aitej- \m hath enj'oined us to pray for a!l, becaufs 
tbe Lord will have all to be faved ; he exprefsly iniimare-:, 
that by all men he undordandeth men of all forts, rank-:, 
conditions and orders ; by diilrtbuting thofe all ifsto leverdi 
kinds, exprefsly mentioning fome til them, ^%!;inos and alii n 
mdkority No: unhke tliat eyprefTiou we have, Jet. xxix. :• , 2. 
J^*tbu(:\idt\utzdiX carried away all the people captive to Bdi\- 
lon ; Jecomak the /u?:g, and the (juetn, and tkz eunuchs ^ the 
pririCfS of judah, and Jerufalcm, and the carpenters end the, 
fmiths : w{:ere all ike p^fJ/>/<' is interp^pied lo, be- lome ol ?11 
forts; by a diilributjon of (hem into the fevera! or'ir-r5, cai- 
es and coi^.diiicns wl-ereof tlicy vtic. Nj otliciwife do h 
the aooflle interp'.ct the (dl men by him mer^tioned ; in f,iv. 
ing us the names 01 )}n:e of thole o deis and ccnditioDs 

v> hcin 

yj ) GvJd vvDuid have no more lu be laved, ihan he vvoul'l 

-J - Chjtd.lons puTliculuriy an/wend, 

'u\o:ii\yi\rAevA^xhx pray /or aU msn^ {{^.'v^\ he) that is all 
r)i(s ot rt)en, as inagiiirates, all that are in authority; the 
'tne bring now corne, wherein, wsihcut fuch d!i'tir;Ltions as 
formerly have been cbferved, the Lord v/ill iave (ocae o\ all 
i:rts apH nations. 

(:^.) We are bound to pray for ail, vvbora God vvou'tj 
}>.3ve to be iaveJ ; n< w we oui^Jit not to pray for ali an'l evc- 
lyorje, as knowing that furne art! ifpnbaie?, apvi (in unio 
oenh ; concerning ivho.i^, we have eu exprels cautian not to 
pffV for liiern. 

( [.) Ail ihall be faveo, whom Go^ \vill have to b^ r-ivcd ; 
♦liU we dare not denv, /or who liaik rt/ifi'd his vjiU? Seeit'ig 
ilien i? \i r.ioii ceJiaui ilict a!i ihail not be Uwid^^ (for roniti 
iliall fland on the leh hand) itcaonoc be, Oiat ther uiiivtildliiy 

q\ mcxx fh'.>u!d be iuunaed in this piace 

{ ' ~ - 

bave come lo lUe kjvjwiedgeoi the irutb ; theie two things 
areofequ.il latiiude, and conjoined in the text : but it is not 
the will of the Loid, ihatai! and every one in all agrs, Ibould 
cotnc to the knc'.vi;cif?'i of «be truth. Or old, He JJuwtd his 
tuord unto Jjcob, his Jlatius and ins judgments unto ifrael ; 
He hath not dtall f> u-ilk any nation ; and, as J or his judg- 
?nin/.s, they havs not known themy PiaL cxUii. 19, 20. if 
lie would h3Ve them c// cotw.i to the knowledge of the truth; 
why did he fliew bis wotd to fome, and not to others, wiiti. 
oui which they could not attain thereunto ? He fujfered aU 
TJ^s^.iuijs in fontic: tigzi t-j walk in tkdr own Zi^czyj, Atls xiv. 
16 and winked at tkft iitiv.s cf Liiis ignorance, ABs xvii. 30, 
biding the invitery ot faivaiion froru thole tormer ages, CoL 
1. l:6. And be coniinu?:s the fame dirpeniaiion, even uatil 
t'lisday, in r^fpeft of fome; and' that becaule, /b it fetrntd 
f^ood inh\i light, Matih. xi. 2^-, 26. It is ibta evident 
«h:t God dofli not wsil, that all and every one in the world, 
Ci ull anes and tircef, Jlua'd come, to the knowIied;?e ot the 
truth; bu". only ail lorts o[ men withou: cnretcnce : ana 
tbncfoifc ihe^ only are be«e intendtid. 

Thfcfe, and the I'ke reafoDS, v/hich compel us under- 
ilijnd by ell rt.tn verle 4. whom God wouiii have to be faved, 
men oj ail forts ; doaiio prevail, lor ihejame acceptation of 
I ho word all, ver fe G. where Chfill is (aid 10 give himjelf a 
ranjamjor all. Wbertunto you may &lfo add all thoic rea- 
);)iid whc-reby we before decJurtd, thst it is oi abfolue Vii:.CftU 
!iii' and jali equity, that ali they tor whom a ranfom was 
pair!, fliould hdveapait audpurtioa in that raaloiD; and, if 
• that 

ar,d Places cf Scripture opened, to.-^ 

that l>e accepted as fulTicient, be fet at lilu-rty : p:ying and 
accepiin^; of a ranfom, intimate a coinmirauon, and reiling 
free of all ihem for v/hoin the ranfon: is paid and accfpitxl. 
By (2// then, can none be underflood biu ilie redeemed, t*',e 
ranfom.'d ones of J<^fus Chrift ; fuch as, ^q,t him and hy vir- 
tue of ihe ps ice oi his blood, are virwiicaJc'd 'into tliC glorious 
liberty ot the children of God : which as fomc of ad foris 
ate exprefsly faid to be, Rev. v. 9 (ivhich place is inverpie- 
tative oi th'.^) fo, th^t afl in the v;o»id aniveifaliy arc 1>, is 
conlefledly talfe. 

tdly. Having thii'' rnade«evident the riie.tning i)f the word<, 
cur andver toihc objecfion (whofe llrenr^th is a rncer fall jcy 
Jiom ihe arr-bisaous itnfc oi ihe vford aVj is ^aiv and facile. 
Fur il by aihii.'n, yo\i nieaa the all in' the lex-', ihat is, all 
forts ot men ; we grant the whole, o/z. that Chiu^ died lor 
ail ; but if by all nun, vou mean ail uiMverfdll'/, wz abfolute- 
ly deny the minor or aifumption ; having fufBcieruiy proved 
that there is uofach all in the text. 

The enJorcing of an obje8:ion ftotTi fiiis place,— -T. M. in 
bis univer/ality of grace, rn^kes th-j fuhjecl of one whole 
chapier. It is alio one of the two place?, vviiich he Ktys ^or 
the bfjttorij snd ioundation cf the who-e h\ji\\r\\nT; and 
whereunto, at a dead !ilt» he always rciiires. Wherefore I 
thought to have confidered thatchr^pter ot his, st large : bu? 
upon iecond confideratioDS, have laid ixvA^ that lefoiutiarj ; 
and that for three reaforiF, viz. 

1. Bfcaiife i defired not aHu??! agcre. ; to Cio that v/uicli 
hath ai^sady been done : efpecialjy tiie thin,tT i^feif beitu' 
iuch, as fcarce deferveih to me n;eddled Vv'ith at all. "Now 
much about the rime tb;it I was pioceediiig in this particul^^ 
the' leari.ed work of Mr. Ruther/ord, about the death oi' 
Chiiu and the drav^ing of fitineis thercbvs caiue to my hap.sl ; 
whereifs he ha;b fully aniv.reied thai ch^pcer ol: Mj. M. V,a 
book, vv'hittier I remit the reader. 

1:. I hr.d that he hath not once attempted to iredJie 'with 
any of thofe reafons and arnuments, v;hereby we coniircu 
ouTEr^fwer 10 the objrUion ironi the place ; and prove uii- 
deni.ibly, that by <2// ;;]•:;?, is meant only inen cf rJl for.'s, 

3. Betaide, fttun^^ alide thcde bare n-h.'d aiTeriions ol ):.■£ 
own, whereby he feeks 10 ilrrngthen hij arfvuinent Irorji ^a 
jtnerptciation of this place ; tlse refiduc \viieu;vi?h he j\.m^ 
rulieih, is a ^001 Jizilacy running thrcu;'!* ihe wIi.jIc ; il:-^ 
llrength otail his ar|]uracnts con(iUing in this— th.u by all 
we are t9 pray Icr, a^e not txicant opJy all xvho dre [a< p^^ 

2 Co Ohje^lions particularly anfwtred 

fent) believers ; which as no man in his right wits will affirm ; 
io he that will ronciud!? from thence, ihat becauTe ihey are 
not only a!) prclent believers, therelore they aie ail the in- 
j^ividua's of mankind, is not to be efleemed very fober. — 
Proceed we then to the next place urged for the general ran- 
fom, from th^ word /i//; which is, 

li i! p4-t. iri. 9. The Lord is long fuffcring to us ward ^ 
not wiilhg that any fnoald per'^Jli, but that all Jhould come to 
repentanct!. The wii! ol Gud (lay fom^j lor the ialvadon of 
{lUy is hese fet dov/n both negaiivdy, 'hat he would not have 
any perifh ; and pofuivdy^ that he would have all to come to 
repenrance, Nov<' i'^eing there is no coming 10 repentance, 
nor cfczning defiraflion, but only by the blood of Chrift ; 
it is manifelt, that that biood was fhed for all. 

Anfxn. M.^ny v/ords nerd not b^ (pent in anfwer to this 
objettion, wrefled frOiii the mifunderftanding, and palpable 
corrupting of the lenle of il:iefb words of the apoiilc. That 
ind-fiiiite and general exprelTions, are to bs interpreted in an 
anfvyprabieprjpartion to the things whereof they arc affirm- 
ed; is a rule in the opening of the Scriprure. See then oi' 
v/hom tlie apoilL- is here fpcciking; Tiiz Lord ((akh he) is 
lolig Juffervigto us vjard, not willing that any Jhould penjli ; 
will njt common fenfe teach us, that fusj is to be repeated 
in both ihre following claufes, to make them up complete and 
full? viz, not willing that any of Mj fliould perifh, but that 
all of us fhjuld come to repentance ? Now who are thefe of 
whom the apoil'.e [peaks, to whom he writes ? fuch as had 
received grf^at and precious promiJcSf chap. i. 4. whom he 
Cdi]\s beloved, chap. iii. 1. whom he oppoleth to \\itfcojfers 
of the Iciji days, verle 3. to whom the Lord hath refpecl in the 
difpofal of thefe days, who are faid to hteUB, Malih. xxiv. 
3 2. Now truly to argue, that becaufe God would have 
none of fhofeto pcrifn, but all of them to come- to repent- 
ance, therelore .;^- haih the fame will and mind lov/ards all 
and every one in the world, (even ihofc to whom he never 
makes known his will, nor ever calls to repentance, and nt- 
ver once hear of his way of falvziicn) comes not much fhort 
of extrem'^ madnels and folly. N<:ither is it of any weight 
to the contrary, th.at they were not nil cleft to \Nhom Peter 
wrote; for in ihe judiTment of charity he? eileemed them fo, 
dcfirir.g thrm to give diligence to maki I'ruir calling and eu'cli- 
on jure, chap. i. 10. even as he cxprefsly caileih ihoie 
to whom he wrote his former epiRle, eleB, chapter i. 2. and 
A chofcn generation, as v/eil as a pur cha/ed people, chap, ii- 9, 

I fnJl 

and Places oj Scnpiure opened, €33 

I iliail not need to add any thing, copcernln<r the contra. 
di6iions and inexiricabic difficulties, wherewith the oppcfite 
interpretation is accompanied; (as, that God Oiotild will fuch 
to come to repentunce, whom he cuts cffin ihcir infancy out 
ot the covenant ; fucli as he hateth from eternity, from whom 
he hide:h the means of grace ; to whom he wiil not j;ive re- 
pentance, and yet knoweth that it is utterly impofiible th«^y 
ihould have it wi.hout his beitowing.} The text is c\cdi\ 
ihat ic is aii, and only tLe eic6^, whom he would not have 
10 pcrdh. A place (tippofed parallel to this, we have i;i 
Ezckiel xviii. 23. 32. which ihill be akerwards confidercd 
The next is : 

III. Hcb. ii. 9. Tkdthi by ihc grace oj God, Jluuld lajle 
death for eveyy man. 

Vbjtr, That hyper pantos, /^r every one, is here 
ufed I or hyper pan ton, jar ally by an enatlage ot the 
number, is by all ackaowledged. The whole quellion is, 
who ihe/e all arc ; whether all men univerlully, or only alJ 
ihofe 01 whom theapoHle there treaieth. That this exprelTioa 
every ma?2, is commonly in the Scripture ufed to fignify men 
under forue reftriftion, cannot be denied. So in that ot 
the apoftle, warning every man and teaching every man^ Col. 
i. 28. that is, ail ihofe to whom he preachc^d the gofpe), ot 
whom he is there fpeaking; a!fo Ihe marajcjiaiion of the j pi- 
rit is given to every man to profit withaiy i Cor. xii. 7. viz. 
to all and every one ot thofe, who were endued witli the gihs 
there mentioned ; whether in (he cliurch at Conrtih, or eUe- 
where. The prefent place i have Irequcntly met withal, 
produced in the behalf ol nniverfal redemption ; hut never 
once had the happinefs to find any endeavour to prove from 
the text, or any other way, that all here, is to be taken for all 
and every one; although they cinn.jt but know that the u- 
fual ccceptation ol the word is again (I their purpoie. Mr. M, 
fpenris a whole chapter about this place ; which I (eiiriJily 
coniidercd, to fee ii I couid pick out anv thing which ' 
iiiiglu feem in the ieaft meafure to tend that way, viz. to the 
proving that all and every one, are in thai place by the apof- 
tie intended; but concerning any fuLh fnd$^?ivcur, you havv^; 
deep fiience; fo that v/ith abundance of fmooth words, be doth 
nothing in that cb^pu r but humblv and heartily beg tlie thing 
in queition ; unto which his petition, though he becxcecdi.-g 
eaineff, we cannot cocicni ; and that becaule ol thefe iol- 
lowing reafonp, viz. 

3//. To fnjle death, being '.o drinh o:d thz r::i? c'uc to Hn. 


OljifiicKs particular!)) aTiftvered , 

ne»s; ccruin'}' for M^homfoever our S^iviour did taft?^ of i\ 
he Icif not one diop for ihem to drink after him ; he tailed, 
or underwent deash in ilieir ftcad ; that the ci\p might pais 
tiomthcm, which paiTod not troni him. New the cuj) of 
death paiTcth only troni the e'eO, from behevers ; for whom- 
i'orver c-ur Siviour/tsiled death, he fwallowcd it up unio 

■i,Qly. We fee nn evident appfarin^sr cauTr. tha* raou'd 
move the apoiile here, to call thoje for whosTi Chiifidied alt, 
VIZ h^ciwicht vivoie io ihz Hebrews ; who v;ere dfcp'y 
tain'td with an erroneous perfuafion, that all the benefits par . 
chafed by the MefTi-ih, belonged alone to men of their nalion, 
excluding all others ; to root cut which pernicious cpitiion, 
it behoved the apoflle to mention the extent of free prrace 
under the gofpei ; and to hold out an univetfality of Gcd's 
eie£l ibroughoiu the world, 

'^d'y\ The prefeni deicripfion oT the all, for whom Chr ill: 
lafted dealh by the grace of God, will not fuit to all and eve- 
ry one ; or any but only the e!e6l of God ; for verfe lo. 
ihf.y are called viany fons to be h ought iinio glory ; veife i i, 
\\^Ci{'s.i\\zx arcj(indi\ficd\i\'ihretkrtn ; veife 13. the children 
which God kaik given him ; vcife 1^5. ihofe thit are dtlivercd 
f/cm ike bondage of deaih ; none of which can be afFuraed of 
tbcm, who are born, live and die the children of ihe wicked 
One. Chriil is not a Captain of falvadon, as he is here Hi led, 
to any but them that cb^y him^ Heb. v. g.righteoufdefs com- 
ing by hirn, unto all and upon all that bdizvet Pvornans 
iii. £2. For \\\^{^ and ih'e like reaions, we cannot he indiic- 
ed to heavken to our 2dveilary's petiiion ; being fully pc*fii.id- 
cd th'i= by every one liere, is meant all and only God's elctf ; 
iri whole lfe?td Chri{> by ijie grace ofGody tafied dea'h. 

IV, Another place is 2 Cor. v. 14. 15. For the love of 
(hrij-. cGTiJirainaknSy becavfi we thus judge that if one died 
for all, then zuere all diad ; and that he died for all, that they 
xvhich hvejhould not hencejorth live unto therrfdvti^ but unto 
f:im which died for i hem. Here t£:y they, ver. 14. you have 
two ails, v.'hich mud; be boih ot an equal extent ; ii all weie 
d;;«sd then Chri 11 died for fi//; that is, for as many as were 
d?ad. Again he died for is// that muH live unto him ; but 
\\u\ is the du'v off.very one in the world ; and therefore ht: 
<V;fd for thdii ail. Fmther, xXni all are a!l individual'', is 
< iiiir'frijpn vf-r. io. where they are alHrmed fo ba all tna: 
r-ufl appear before the jud^^nirnt feat of Chrifl j from v;hict5 

and Places of Sc r ipiu re opened. ■ 241 

Afifiu. J./?. Taking the words, as to this particular, In the 
fenle of fome of our auveriaries ; yet, k iloth not appear from the 
texture of the apollJe^s arguing, that the /ti/o alls of vcrfe 14. are 
of equal extent. He doth not Uy, that Cluiji died for all that 
were dead; but only, that all were dead w'iom Chrijl died for / 
which proves no more but this, that alj they whom Chrift died 
for, were dead ; with that kind of death, of which he Ipeaks w«. 
The extent of the words is to be taken from the iirll a//, and not 
the latter. The apoftb affirms fo many to be dead as Chrift died 
for; not that Chrill died for fo many as were dead. This the 
\v0rd3 plainly teach us ,- if he died for all, then were all dead^ 
that is, all lie died for ; I'o that the all that wertdead, can givo 
no light to theisxtent of the all that Chriil ^litd for ; being merel/ 
regulated by this. 

zdly. _ That all and every one, are morally bound to live unto 
Chrift, viniite prctcepti, we deny. Only they are bound to )iv« 
to him, to whom he is revealed j indeed only they who live b/ 
hnn, that have a fpiritual life iii and with him j all others are 
tander previous obligations. 

'idly. It is true, all and every one muft appear before the 
judgment fea.t of Chrift j he is ordained to be judge of the world ; 
but that they are intended, verfe 10, of this chapter, is not true ; 
for the apoftle fpeal^s of us ally all believers^ efpecially all preacli- 
ers of the gofpel : neither of which all men are. Notwithftdud- 
ingthen any thing that hath been faid, it no way appears, that 
by all here is meant any but the elecl of God, all believers ; and 
that they only are intended, I prove by thefe following reaions 
drawn from the text : 

1. The refurreftion of Chrift, is here conjoined with his death ; 
he died for ihem^ and r of e again, No^v for whomfoever Chrift 
rifeth, he rifeth for their jujUfication, Rom. iv. 25. and they 
muft be juftified, F^om, viii. 34. Yea our adverfaries then)!^ Ive'd 
have always confeftcd, thai the fruits of the refurredion of Chrift, 
are peculiar to believers. 

2. Ke Ipsak? only of thofe vvho, by Viitue of the death of" 
Chrift, live unto hi/;;, verfei5. Who B.rQ new creatures, verfa 
17. to whom the L^^rd impitteth not their defpajfes, vetle /9. 
^Vq become ihe righteoiifnef of God in Chrijl, verle2:. which 
are only believers. All do not attain hereunto. 

3. The articlp HOI joined with pantes, evidently rcflr^ineth 
that all, to all of Tome lort j then ivere they all (or r.^tl^er all 
thefe) dead; thefe all; what all? even aii thcfe believers of 

as above. 

HI* 4. AH 

542 Ohj^Bions particularly anfwertd 

4. Al! thofe of whom the apoflle treats, are proved to be deac:* 
becaiife ChriPt died for them ; if one died for ali^ then were all 
dead. What death is it, which here is fpoken cf ? not a death 
natural, but fpiritual; and of death which comes under that name, 
not that which is t'ti fin^ but that which is unto fin; for, (i ) 
The greatefl: charhpions of the Arminian c-&.w^q^ as Vcrjtiui^ and 
Gr otitis (on the ph^.ce) convinced by the evidence of truth, ac- 
Vnowlec^ge, tliat it is a death unto fin* by virtue of the death of 
Chrift, that is here fpoken of; and accordingly hold out that for 
the fenfe of the place. ( 2 . ) It is apparent from the text ; the in- 
tention of the apoflle being to prove, that thofe for v.'h.m Ch rift 
died, are fo dead to fin, that henceforth they fliould live ho more 
thereunto, but to him that died for them. The fubjeft he hath in 
hand, is the fame with that which he handleth more at large, 
Rom vi. s->^', I1 S, ii> where we are Ci'id to he dead zmto fiii, 
by being planted together in the likenefs of the death of Chrifl: j 
from whence, there as here, he prelFeth them to newnefs of life. 
Thefe words then, // C/ir/fi died for all, then were all dead ; 
jire concerning the death of them unto fin, for whom Chr.ft died ; 
at leaft of thofe concerning whom he there fpeaketh j and what is 
this to the general ranfom ? 

5, The apoftle fpeaks of the death of Chrift, in refpe£l of ap- 
plication : the cfTeclualnefs thereof, towards thofe for whom he 
died, to caufe them to live unto him, is infifted on. That Chrifl 
died for all in refpect of application, hath not yet by any been af- 
lirmed. Then muft all live unto him, yea live with him for ever- 
more ; if there be any virtue or efficacy in his applied oblation for 
that end. In fum, herein no mention of Chrifl's dying for an)', 
but thofe that are dead to fin, and live to him. 

V. A fifth place urged, to prove univerfal redemption from 
the word ^<7/, is iCor. xv. 22. Fur as in Adt^m all die^ even fo 
in Chrifl jOial I all be made alive. 

Anfw. There being another placi, hereafter to be confiderecl, 
w'lerein the whole flrength of the argument nfually dr^wn from 
thefe words, is contained ; I Ihall not ne^d to fpeak nuirh to this : 
neither will I at jW turn from the common expofition of the place. 
I'ijofe coiicerning vvliom Paul fpeaketh in this chapter, are 1^ this 
lerfe called all: thofe are they who are implanted into Chrifl, 
joined to him as the members to the head, receiving a glorious re- 
furre(2:ion by virtue of his; thus are they by the apoille defcribed. 
That P^id!/ in this whole chapter difcourfeth of tne refurreition of 
believers, is manifefl from the arguments which he bringeth to con- 
firm it ; being fuch as are of force only with believers. Takeil 
^tiiey arefrornihe refurr.edtion of Chrill, the hope, faith, ciilloms, * 
and expeiled rewards of chriQians : all which, as they are of un- 
conquerable power to confirm and eftablifii believers in the faith of 
th'e rsfurrection j fo ilicy would have been, all and evtry one of 

I hem. 

and Places of Scripture opened, 242 

tbtm, exceedingly ridiculous, had they been held out fo ilie men 
of the world, to prove the refurreaion of the dead in general. 
Further, the very word zoo i'diethesontai, denotes luth a 
Uving again, as i?; to a good life and glory ; a bleifed relurreaion, 
and not the quickening of them who are raifexl to a fVcond deaih. 
The Son is faid z^oi'ojun, Joim v. 21. to quicken and 
make alive {woi 2i\\^ but) whom he vailL So he ufeih the v.crd 
ag.iin, chaptervi. 63. it is the Spirit -co zoo^oiovk^ that [ihu?) 
'Ktaketh alive ; in lil:e manner, Romaia iv, 1 7. and not any 
where it is ufed, to Jh-^w forth that common refurrecVun which ail 
^lallhaveatthe laQday.' 

/^//then, who by virtue of the refurrection of Ghrift faal! be 
made alive, are all thofe who are partakers of the nature of Chrift; 
who, vsrfe^i. are exprefsly called, they that are Chri(}\ : and of 
whom, ver. 20 Ghrilt is faid to be ib.t firfl-friiits ; and certainly, 
Ghrift u uot the Jir/t fruits of the damned. Yea though it be true, 
that all and every one died in Adam; yet that this is h.ere aiTerted^ 
(the cipoftle fpeaking of none but believer^-, } is not uuie : sud yet, 
if It were foto betakenhere, it couldnot prove the ihing intended ; 
becaufe of the exprefs limitation of the {ev\(e^ in the claafe folJow- 
ing. Laftly, granting all that can be defired, vi?. the univerfai/- 
iy of the word fl// in both places, yet I am no way able to difcem 
Simeditwi^ that may ferve for an argument to prove the general 

VI. Rom. V. 18. is the lafl place urged in this kind, and by 
fome mod infifted on : As by the offence of one ^ judgment came np~ 
on all men to condemnation ; evenfo by the rightcb'tCnefs of one ^ t'le 
free -gift came up9n all men unto jiijflifi cation of life. It might 
fufficebriefly to declare, that by all w^;Mn the latter place, caw 
none be underdood, but thofe upon whom the free-gift aflual!/ 
comes unto juftificatlon of life : who are faid, ver. 17. to receive 
abundance of grace, and the free -gift of righteoufnefs ; and fo to 
reign in life, by one Jeftis Chrijl. ; and "by his obedience to be made 
righteous, ver. 19. which certainly, if any thing be true and 
certainin the truth of God, all are not: for fome bolieve not, all 
men h ive not faitli ; on fomethe v/ratli of God abideth, John iii. 
36. upon whom furely grace doth not reign through righreoufnefs 
CO eternal life, by Jefus Ghrift ; as it doth upon all t^ofe, on 
whom the free-gift comes to jullilicatlon, ver. 17 We might, I 
iay, thus anfwer only : but feeing fome, contrary to the cl«:;ar 
manlfeil intemion of the apoftle, (comparing Adarn and Chrlji, 
i-n the efficacy of the lin of the ov.c unto condemnation, and of the 
righteoufnefsof the other unto juflification and life, ni refped: of 
'.hole who are the natural let;d of the one by propatjaiion, and tl;e 
ipiritual {qq^ of the other by regeneration,) have labo^;red to wreR 
th'.s place, to the maintenance of the error we oppofc, with more 
fh-dn erdinary endeavour2 and ccnfidciice of fuccefs 5 it may not be 


©44 OhjeBions pariuularly anfwtred, 

iinneccfHiry to confider, \vhr.t is brought by them to this end and 

Verfe 14, Adam is ealied Typos, the type arid fgrtf e cf ki'm 
iliut was to come : not that he was an it^ftituted type, ordained for 
that only end and purpofe ; bat only that in what he was, and 
what he did, with what folluwed thereupon, there was ji refe?n^ 
^/.a/.'cre between hiin and Jeius Chrift. Hence, by him and what 
he did, by reafon of the refembiance ; many things by way-of op- 
pofition, concerning the obedience of Chrift and the efficacy of his 
death, may be well reprefented. That which the apoftle here 
profecuteth this refcmhlauce in, (with the fliewing of many diver- 
iities in all which he exal eth Chrift above his type) — is this ; that 
analike, though not an equal efficacy, (for there is more merit and 
enlcacy required to fave one, than to lufe 10,000) of the demerit, 
fin, difobedience, guilt, iranfgrelTiun of the one, to condemn, or 
bring the guilt of condemnation upon ail them in whofe room he 
was a public perfon, (being the head and natural fountain of them 
all, they all being wrapped up in the fame condition witii him by 
divine infthution) and of the righteoufnefs, obedience, and death 
of the other, — for the abfolution, juflification, and falvation of all 
them to whom he was a fplritiial head by divine inflitution, and in 
whofe room he was a public perfon ; is by him in divers particulars 
allerted. That thefe /a/?, wcie all and every one of the ,'*'//, 
there is not the leafl: mention. The comparifon is folely to be con- 
fidered intenjivel}i^ in refpect of efficacy ; not extenfivtly in refpe>Il 
ofobjecT:: though the ^// of ^J«w be called his w^i/zy ; and the 
rnany of Clirill; be called his alU — as indeed they are, even all the 
i'eed which is given unto him. 

T . M. in his univerfakty of free grace^ chap. 8. p. 41. fays 
down thi>comparifon infbituted by the apoflle between Adam and 
Chrift, as one of the main foundations of his univerfal redemption : 
and this (after fome firange mixtures of truth anderrors premifed; 
ivhich, to avoid tedioufnefs, we let pafs) he affirmeth to coniift in 
four things. 

ifi. *' That Adam in his fjrft [\\-\ and tranfgreflion was a public 
" perfon in the room and place of all mankind, by virtue of the 
*' covenant between God and him ; fo that whatever he did therein, 
^' all were alike fliarers with him: fo alfo was Chrift a public 
** perfon, jn his obedience anddenth, in the room and place of all 
" mankind reprefented by him ; even every one ofthe pofterity of 
*< 4da77z " 

AuJ-uf. To that which concerneth ^^flw, — we grant he was a 
piiblic perfon in refpecl of all his feed, that were to proceed from 
himby natural propagation : that Chrift tilfo was a public perfon 
in the room of his feed; and herein prefigured by Adam. But 
that Chrift in his obedience, death and facri£ce, — was a public 
perfon for, and ftood in the room and ftead of all and every one In 


and Places cj Saipiure opened. 245 

tl'.e world, of all ages and times ; (that Is not only of his elccl or 
thole who were given untohini of God» — but alfo of reprobate per- 
fons hated of God from eietniiy, ofthofc whom he never knew, 
concerning whom, in the daysof hisflefli, hethankedhisFatherUiat 
he had hid from them the niyllerles of falvation, whom he refufed 
to pray for ^ who were the greateft part of them already damned 
in hell, and irrevocably gone beyond the limits of redemption, be- 
fore he acliialiy yielded any obedience) is to ur. fuch a mondrous 
ah'ertion, as cannot once be apprehended or thou;;ht on — without 
horror and deieftation. That any ihould perifli, in whofe ronrrt 
or ftead the Son of God appeared before his Father with hi^ perfect 
obedience ; that any of thofe for whom he is a Mediator and Ad- 
voccUc^ to v\ honi he is a king andprie/i and prophet {(ov all this he 
13, a-: he was a public perfon, a fponfor, a hirety and undertaker 
for iijem) fliould be taken from him or pir.cked out of his r.rms, his 
fitisfaftion and advocation in their behalf being refufed; I fup- 
pofe is a dodtrinc that will fcarce be ov/iied among thofe, who 
ilrive to preferve the witnefs and teftimony of the Lord Jefus. 

But let us a little confiderthe reafom, whareby Mr. More un- 
dertakes to maintain this ftrange ailertion; which, as far as I can 
gather, are thefe, /). 44. -o/z. *'i. He flood not in the room only 
'* of the elect; becaufe z^'i^iw lofl; not election, being not entruft- 
" ed with it. 2. If he Hood not In the room of all, then he had 
*' come ihort of his figure. 3. It is faid he was to reftore all men 
*« loil by Adam, Heb. ii. 9. — 4. He took iiefli, was fubjededto 
*< mortality, became under the law, and bare the fins of mankind. 
<' 5 . He did it in the room of all mankind, once given unto him, 
t« Rom. xiv. 9. Fhil. ii. 8, 11,— 6. Becaufe he is cafled the 
" lalt Adam. And 7. He is faid to be a public perfon in the 
*' room of all, ever Hnce the fnfi; Adam, i Cor. xv. 45. 47. 
*' I Tim. ii. 5." 

A.nfw. Never furely was a rotten conclufion, bottomed up.-.n 
more loofe and tottering principles; nor the word of God more 
boldly corrupted for the maintenance of any error, fince the name 
of chridian was known. A man v/ould think it quite loil;, but that 
it is fo very ert/>' a labour, to remove Inch hay and Hubble, I aii- 
fwerthen, (i) That though ^M^.'?2 loft not f/t'fT/oT?, andtheeteru- 
al decrees of the Almighty are nor committed to the keeping of the 
fons of men ; yet In him all the eleU were loft, whom Chrjft cimc 
to feck, v/hom he found, in v/hofe room he was a public pei kn- 
(2 .) Chrift is no where compared to AJam, in refpecl of the cxWnt 
o/M? o/^ytV/ of his death ; hiM on\y oiihe efilcacy of hi^ obedieuiS. 
( 3 ) The third is a falfe aficrtion ; fee our foregoing confideration 
ofHeb. ii. 9. { t^.) for his taking cfjlejh, eirc. it wa*? neceilavy 
he fiiould do all tisis, for the laving of his elea ; he took ncfn ard 
blood, becaufe the children were partakers of the fame. (5. ) I-Jo 
Aich thing is once affirmed ii> the whu^e book of Gcd, that all ihfe 

»a6 OhjdSions particularly miJwtTti, 

fans of men were given unto Chrlft to redeem, fo that Ls fliould b« 
a public psrfoii in their room ; nay himfelf plainly afnrms the con- 
trary, John xvii. 6. 9. Some only are given him out of the 
world ; and thofe he faved, not one of them perifnetij, The pla- 
ces urged held out no fuch thing, nor anything like it ; they will 
alfo afterwards come under farther confideration. (6. ) He is cal- 
led the laft ^Ju?^, mrelpedlov the eliicacy ofhis death, unto the 
julliiicatii>n of the feed proniifed and given imto him, as the fin. of 
the firft Adam was effeftual to bring the guilt of condemnation on 
the feed propagated from him : which proves not at all, that he 
frood in the room of ail thofe to whom his death was never known, 
nor any ways profitable. (7.) That he was a public perfon, is 
confeft: that he v/asfo in the »-oom of all, is not proved \ neither 
by what hath been already faid, nor by the texts that there are al« 
ledged, all which have been confidered. 

This being ail that is produced by Mr. Move^ tojiifiify his alTer- 
tiou ; it may be an inftance of what weighty inferences he ufually 
afierts, from fuch weak and invalid premifes. We cannot alfo 
but take notice, by the v/ay, of one or two ftrange palfages, which 
he inferts into this dilcourfe : whereof the firft is, that Chriil, b/ 
his death, brought all men out of that death whereintQ they were 
fallen by Adam. Now the death v/hereunto all fell in Ada7n, being 
a death in fin, Ephef. ii. i, 2, 3, and the guilt of condemnation 
thereupon; if Chrift frefd all from this death, then mud all and 
evtry one be made alive with life fpiritual, which only is to be had 
and obtained by Jefus Ghrifl ; which v/hether that be fo or not, 
whether to live by Ghrifl be not the peculiar priviiedge of believers, 
the gofpel hath already declared, and God will one day determine. 
Another fn-ange affertion is, his atiirmlng the end of the death 0/ 
Ghrifl, to be his prefenting himfelf alive and jufl before his Father; 
as though this were the ultimate thing by him intended ; the Holy 
Ghofl; exprefsly afiirming, that he loved the churchy and gave him- 
felf for it ; that he might pref^nt it agloriatis church untq himfelf^ 
Ephef. v. 25 27. 

2tiiy, The following parallels v.'hich he inilituteth between A- 
rfrtr/3 and Chriil, have nothing of proof in them to th« bufinefs in 
hand, viz.. that Ghrifl was a public perfon, ftanding in his obedi- 
ence in the room of all and every one that were concerned in the 
difobedience of Adam, There is I fay, nothing at all of proof in 
them; being a confufed medley of fome trtiths, and divers un- 
fa vory here fies. I fl:iall only give the reader a taOie of fome of 
them, whereby he may judge of the refl ; not troubling myfelf or 
6tbers, with the tranfcribing and reading of fuch empty vanities;, 
as no way relate to the bufinefs in hand. And, 

I. Inthe fccond part of his paralkl^ he afHrms, that when 
Chriil linilhed his obedience in dying and rifing, and offering him- 
felf a jacrifice and making fatisfaclion ;• it \vaSj by virtue of thi? 


and Places 0/ Scripture cfctud, ji^;? 

a(^.cor,nt of God in Chrill and for Chrift, with God (that is accept- 
ed with God for Chrifl's fake) the death and rermredion, the fa- 
crifice and fatisfaction, and the redeinption o( ail; that is, all and 
«very one ; and therein he compares Chnll to Adam, in the ptr- 
formance of the bufinefs by him undertaken. Now, were it not that 
I cannot but with trembling con/ider what the apoftje afSrms, 2 
Thef. ii. it. 12. I fliould be vxreedingly amazed, that any maa 
in the world fliould be fo far fcrlaken of fenfe, reafon, faith, and 
all reverence of God and man; as to piibliJl], maintain, and feeic 
to propagate, fuch abominable, bJcii'pher.ious, fenfelefs, ccntra- 
didious errors. That the death of Cbrill ihould be accepted of, 
and accounted befcre God,- as the death of all ; and yet the great- 
efl part of thefe ail, be adjudged to eternal death in their own per- 
fons.by the fame righteous God ; that all and every one fliould arife 
in and with Jefus Chrifl: ; and yet moft of them continue dead in 
their fms, and die for fln, eternally; tha: fatisfaftion fliould be 
made and accepted for them who are never fpared, nor fliail be, 
one farthing of their debt : th-it atonement fliould be made by fa- 
crifice, for fuch as ever lie undelivered under wrath; that ail the 
reprobates, C^//?, Pharaoh^ Ahab, aud the refl:; who were adtu- 
ally damned in hell, and under death and torment, then, w^hen 
Chrifcdied, fuffered, made fatisfaclion, and rofs again; fliould 
be efteemed with God, to have died, fiiflered, made fatisfajSlicn 
andrifeu again with Chrifl:: that (I {^j) fuch feiifelels contradic- 
tions, horrid error', and abominable uflcrtion:^, iliould be thus 
nakedly thrufl upon chriflians ; without th,e lead colour, pretence, 
or lliew of proof, bat tha naked autliority of him who hath already 
embraced fuch things as thefe ; were enough to make any man ad- 
mire, and be amazed; but that we know the judgments cf God 
are oft-times hid, and far above out of our figlrt. 

2. In the third of his paralU'ls, he goeth one (lep higher; com- 
paring Chrifl: with ^i/^;;2, in refpefl of the efficacy, effedl, and 
fruit of his obedience. He affirir?, that as by the flu of Adaf??y 
all his pofl:erity vyere deprived of life, andfell under fin and death, 
whence judgment and Gondemiiaii(.n p-iiled upvMi all ; though this 
be done fecreily and invifibly, and in foiiif; fort unexprefiibiy : 
{\vhax\\Q mt^Vi'^byfc'cretly and iui:;Jlbly, well 1 know not, furely 
he doth not fuppofe, that thefe tilings might poiJibly be made the 
objeclsof our fenfes; iwd {ov uncxpn'fftbiyy how that is, let Rom, 
r. 12. with other places, where all this £;id more is clearly, 
plainly, and fally exprelFed, be judge v/herhtr it be fo or no :) 
fo, faith he, by the etiicacy of the oberiience of Chrifl:, all meii 
without exception are redeemed, rtftor^J, made righteous; jufli- 
fied freely by the grace of Chrill, throiigli the redemption that is 
in Jefus Chrill, the righteoiifnefs that is by. the faith of Jefus Chrifl", 
being zinto ally Rom. iii. 22. (vvIi<:Mv the impoflor wickedly cor- 

rupteththe v/orsl of God, I'lki; the J.evilj Mair. iv by <mttir.gofv 

. . the 

£48 OhjtBions par tkuhrly anfwered^ 

the following words, and upon all them that believs ; "both alls an* 
fvvermg to believers. ) What remains now, but that all alfo fliouid 
htfaved} the Holy Ghofl exprelsly affirming, that \ho(Q whorn 
Godjiiftifieth^ he alfo glorifiethy Rom. viii. 30. Solvits mortalss 
afiimasy curifjue levatc. Such aflertlons as thele, wiihout all 
colour of proof, tloth ihis author labour to obtrude upon u?. Now, 
that men fiioukl be rtfiored, and yet continue loA: j that the/ 
Hiould be made righteou?, and yet remain deteftably v;icked and 
wholly abominable ; that they flionldbe jaftified freely by the 
grace of God, and always lie under the condemning icntence of 
the law of God ; that the righreoufnefs of God by the faith of Jefus 
Clirifl, fhould be upon all believers j thofe are not only things 
exceedingly oppofite to the gofpei of Jefus ChrlJl ; but fo abfolately 
at variance and diftance one with anotiier, that the poor falve of 
Mr. More's following cautions, will not ferve to heal their mutual 
wounds. I cannot but fear that it would be tedious and oU'enfnt, 
to rake any longer infuch a dunghill : let them that have a minsi 
to be captivated to error and ialfehoocf ; by corruption of Scripture 
and denial of common fenfe and reafon, becaufe they cannot re-< 
cejve the truth in the love thereof j delight themfeives with fuch 
hulls.? as ihefe. 

What weak arguments we have had, to maintain that Chtifl in 
his obedience to the death— was a public perfon in the room of ail 
and every one ; hath been already demxonftrated. I iball now, 
by the reader's leave, a iltcle tranfgrefs the rule cf difputation : 
and taking up the oppofite part of the argument, produce fome few 
reafons and teflimonies to demonRrate, — ^that our Saviour ChrKi, 
in his obedience unto death, in the redsmptioJi which he wrought, 
SiVidifatisf action which he made, andfacrifice which he offered, — 
was not a public perfon in the room oi all and every man in thv^ 
world, eleft and reprobate, believers and infidels or unbelievers; 
"\vii!ch are briefly thefe, 

(r. ) The/t'«r^ of ths woman was not to be a public perfon in 
the place, (lead, and room qI l\it Jecd of the fer pent. Jefus 
Chrifl: i5 thefeed ofthe woman, kat' exochkn, all the repro^ 
bates ( as was before proved} are the feed of the ferpent : there- 
fore Jefus Chrifl: was not, in bis oblation and fuffering, when \\^ 
brake the head of the father of that feed, — .a public perfon in their 

(2.) Chviil, as a public perfon, reprefenteth only them for whofg 
fake he fct him felf apart, to thatofnce and employment wherein he 
was fuch <^reprcftfntattve ; but upon his own tellimony which \vs 
];ave John xvii. 19, — he fet himfelf apart to the fervice and em- 
ployment wherein he was a pubiic perfon for the fakes only of fome 
that were given him out ofthe world ; and not of all and every 
one : therefore he was not a public perfon in the room of all. 

{l.) Chviil was n fiu'et/, as he \y*8 " pablic perfon, Htb. vii 2 2 . 


and Places cf Sci iptun ofxened, 249 

But \\t was not furety forali : J'or, [i.] All ar^t nor taken into tbat 
covenant, whereof lie was a furety; whole (ond!tlon<= are elfedted 
in all the covenantees, as before. [2 ] None can pcr'uh for whom 
Giirill is a furety, unlefs he be not able to pay the debt j therefore 
he was not a public perfan intiie room of all. 

(4. ) For whom he was a public perfon, in their rooms he f-jiFrr- 
«d, and for them he made fatisfaclion, Ifa. liii, 5, 6. But he iuf- 
lered not in th*" ilead of all, nor made fatisfadtion for all: for, [i.] 
Some mufl: fufftr themfelves ; which makes it evident that Cliriic 
did nor fulFer for them, Rom. viii. 33, 34, and, [2. J The juf- 
tice of God requireth fatisfaction from thcmfeivcs, to the payuieiit 
of the utraoH: fa>-thlng. 

(s.) Jefus Chriil, as a public perfon, did nothing in vain, — ^ 
In refpeft of any for whom he was a public perfon : but many 
things which Chrifl: as a public perfon did perform, were altoge- 
ther in vain and fruitlefs, in refpe<5t of the A'eateft part of the 
fons of men, being under an incapability of receiving any good by 
any thing he did, wz. all that then were actually damned ] in re- 
fpea of whom,— redemption, reconciliation, fatisfaflion and the 
Hke, — could poilibly be no other than empty names. 

(6. ) If God were well pleafed with his fon, in what he did as a 
Jjublic perfon in hisreprefentation of ethers, (as he wat Eph. v. 2.) 
then muft he alfo be well pleafed with them whom he did reprefent, 
either abfolutely or conditionaliy : but with many of the fons of 
men, God in the reprefcntation of his fon was not well pleafed, 
neither abfolutely nor conditionally, viz. with Ca/V;, Pharaoh, 
Saul, Ahab, and others dead and damned before : therefore 
Chriftdidnot, as a public perlon, reprefent all. 

(7.) For tei'limonies, fee John xvii 9. Matt. xx. 28 and ::xv}. 
a6, 18. Markx. 45. Heb, vi. 20. Ifa. liii. 12. John x. 15. 
Heb. xiii. 20. Matt. i. 2i..Heb. ii. 17. John ::i. 51, 52. AoL^ 
XX. 28. Eph. v. 2, 23, 24, 2j. Rom. viii. 33, 34. 

Tht laji objection^ cr argwntnt frow Scripture^ anfv^ergi, 

I Come in the next place, to the third and laft argument drawn 
from the Scripture ; wherewith the Armiuians and their (as to 
this point) fucceifors, do llrive to maintain their rigment of univtr- 
fal redemption ; and it is taken from fucli texts of Scripture, as 
feem to huld out the periihing of fome of them for whom Chnft di- 
ed, and the fruitlefnefs of his blood, in refpedl of divers for whom 
it was flied. On this theme, their wits are wonderfully luxuriant, 
and they are full of rhetorical flrains, to fet out the unfuccefsfulnefs 
1 i and 

2^d OhjeBions particularly anfuered 

and fruitlefsnefs of the blood of Chrift, in refpeci of the raoftfcr 
whom it was ihed ; with the perifliing of bought, purged, recoir^- 
eiled linner>\ Who san but believe^ that this perfuflfion tends to the 
cov folati on of poor fouls ; who fe ftronge ft defence litth^ in rnakipg 
vile The ftrecious blood of the lamb ; yea trampling npon it, and e- 
Jleemifig it as a common thing ? But friends, let me tell you, I am 
perfuaded it was not fo unvaluable in the eyes of his Father, as to 
caufe it to be poured out in vain, in refpecl of any one foul. Yet, 
feeing we mull be put to this defence, wherein we cannot but re- 
joice, it tending fo evidently to the honour of our blefled Saviour ; 
let us conlider what can be faid by chriflians (at lead in name) to 
enervate the eScacy of the blood-fhedding, of the death of him, 
after whofe name they deHre to be called. 

Thus then they argue, riz. *' If Ghrifl died for reprobates and 
*' thofe that periili, then he died for all and every one; for con- 
*' feflediy he died for the cled, and thofe that are faved ; but he 
*< died for reprobates, and them that perifh ; therefore, <^c'^ 

Arifw. Tor the ajfumption, or fecond propofition of this argu- 
tnent, we fhall do what we conceive was fit for all the eledl of God 
to do, pofitively deny it; (taking the death of Chrift, here faid to 
be for them that perifh, to be confidered not in refpeft of its own in- 
ternal worth and futEciency, but as it was intended by the Father 
and Son in refpedl of them for whom he died;) we deny then (I 
fay) that Chrifl, by the comtnand of his Father, and with intenti- 
on to make fatisfaclion for fins, did lay down his life for repro- 
bates, and them that perifli. 

But this they pretend to prove from Rom. xiv. 15. i Cor. viji. 
II. 2 Pet. ii. I. Heb. x. 29. Now that no fuch thing as is pre- 
tended, is proved from any of the places alledged, we fliall fliew, 
by the confideration of them, in the order they are laid down in. 

j/}. The firft is Rofn. xiv. 15. But if thy brother be grieved with 
thy meaty then walked thou not charitably ; deflroy not him with 
thy meaty for whom Chrifi died. 

Anfw- Kad we not experience of the nimblenefs of our ad verfa- 
ries, in framing arguments for their caufe ; I fliould defpair to find 
their conclufion prefj'ed out of this place. For what coherence or 
dependence, I befeech you, is here to be difcerned ; the apoflle 
cxhorteth ftrong and found believers, to fuch a moderate ufe of 
chriflian liberty, that they do net grieve the fpirit of the weak ones 
that were believers ?Ifo, (profelfors, all caHed faints, eleft, belie- 
vers, redeem.ed, and fo in charity efleemed ;) and fo give them oc- 
cafion of tumbling, and falJing oif from the gofpel ; therefore Je- 
fus Chrifl: died for all reprobates ; even all thofe that never heard 
a word or fyllable ofhim, or the doctrine of the gofpel? jVIuft he 
not be very quick lighted, th^t can fee the dependence of this infe- 
rence, 00 that exhortation of the apoftle ? 

But ye will fav, is it not affirmed, that he may perifli fur whofn 


and Places of Scripture tfpcntd. a^l 

Qhrift di'ed ? Anfiu. In this place there is no fuch thing at all once 
ineii:ioned or in!:lmateci ; only others arc commanded not to do 
that which goeth in a direct way to deftroy him, by grieving him 
with their uncharitable walking. But (ye will fay further) w^y 
jaoiddthe apojlle exhort him not to do that which he could no way doy 
ifh:: that Chrijl diea for could not perijh I Anfw. Though the one 
could not perilh in refpecl of the event, the other might finfuliy 
give occaiiou of periihing, in refpecl of a procuring caufe. M.dy 
not a man be exhorted from attempting af that, which yet if he 
fliouid attempt, he could not etfcd J no thanks to the foldier, who . 
ran a fpear into the fide of our ^^itidi Redeemer; that therewith he 
brake none of his bones. Befides, is every one damned, that one 
attempts to deilroy, by grieving him with uncharitable walking ? 
fuch arguments as thefe, are poor men of flraw. 

Andyet notwithftanding, we do not deny biit that many may 
perilh and that utterly, whom we, in our walking towards them and 
converfe with them, are bound to conceive redeemed by Ghrill ; 
even all being to be thought fo, who are to be efteemed iaints and 
brethren, as the language of the fcripture is, concerning the pro- 
fefiorsof the gofpel ; and this is moll: certain, that no one place 
makes mention of fuch to be brought or redeemed by our Saviour, 
but thofe which had the qualihcations of being members of his vi- 
£bie church j which come infinitely ihort of all and every one. 

2rf/y, Bat let us fee a fecond place, which is i Cor. viii, lo, 1 1. 
And through thy knowledge JJiall the weak brother perijh^ for whom 
Chr:J} died, 

Anfw. This feemeth to have more colour, but really yieldeth 
no more ftrength to the perfuafion for whofe confirmation it is 
produced, than the former. A brother is faid io pari fa for whom 
Chrijl died: but, 

1 . That by perifliing here, is underflood eternal deflruclion and 
damnation, I cannot apprehend. That wh'ch the apoftle intimates 
v/hereby it is done, — is eating of things o^ered to an idol, with 
confcience or regard of an idol ; by the example of others, who 
pretended to know that an idol was nothing, and fo to est freely 
of the things oifered ro them. That fo doing was a fin in its own 
nature damnable, none can doubt ; all fin is f o ; every time we 
fin, for any I'nng that lieth in us, w^ perilii, we are deflroyed ; fo 
didtiieeater of things otiered to idols: but that God always re- 
vengeth fin with damnation, on all on whom it is, 'we deny ; he 
hath otherways revealed himfelf, in the blood of Jeius. Thai 
every fuch a one did actually perltli eternally, as well as m.erkori- 
ouily, cannot be proved. Befides, 

2. He that is faid loperiib is called a brother, that is a believer, 
we are brethren only by faith, whereby we come lohave one fa- 
ther : and as he is faid to be a brother, fo Chriil: is faid to die for 
him. Bat that a true believer cannot finally perilh, ciay eafily be 


s^^ CbjcSions particularly an/wtrtdj 

proved ; therefore he who dothperlfli, is manifeftly declared never 
to have been any : they went out from ut^ hecaufe they were not of 
its; ifanyperiih, then be was never a true believer. How them 
is he called a brother ; becaiife he is fo in profefiion, loin our jud- 
inent and perfuafion ; it being meet for us to think fo of them all. 
3. As he is faid to be a brother y fo Chrifl is faid to die for him ; 
even in that jut]gm5j^t.-,-^hich the Scripture allows to us of men^ 
We cannot count a'lfi an brother, and not edeem that Chrifl: died 
for him ; we have no brother hood with reprobates. Bat Chrift 
died for all believers; fo we cftcem ail men walking in the duepro- 
fefiTion of the gofpel, not manifefting the contrary j yet of thefe 
that many may perifh, none ever denied— Further, thhfoJJiall he 
peviJJi, referreih to the fm of him that lay eth the often ce ; for 
ought that lieth in him, he ruins him irrecoverably. 

Hence fee their argument, viz.. The apoftle telleth perfons 
walking offrnfively, that by this abufing their liberty, others will 
follow them, to the wounding of their coufcience and ruin; who 
are brethren, acknowledged fo by you, and fuch as for whom 
tlhrift died : therefore Chrift died for all the reprobates in ihe 
world. Isitjuft and equal, laith the apoftle, that ye ihould do 
fuch things as will be fl:umbling-blocks in the way of the weak 
brother, at which he might ftumbleand fall? therefore Chrift died 
for all. — We do not deny, but that fome may perifii and that eter- 
nally, concerning whom we ought to judge that Chrift died for 
them : whilft they live and converfe with us according to the rule 
of the gol'pel. 

3rf/y. The next place is much infifted on, viz. 2 Pet. ii. i. 
There fiall befalfc teachers among you, who privily /hall bring in 
damnable herefieSy even denying the Lord that bought them^ and 
bringing upon themfehes fwift deflruClion. 

A'tfw. All things here, as to any proof of the bufinefs in hand, 
are exceedingly dark, uncertain and doubtful : — uncertain^ that 
by the Lord is meant the Lord Chrijl ; the word in the original b€'' 
ing Despotf.s, feldom or never afcribed to him: uncertain, 
whether the purchafe or buying of tliefe falfe teachers, refer to the 
eternal redemption by the blood of Chrift; or a deliverance by 
God's goodnefs from the defilement of the world in idolatry or the 
like, through the knowledge of the truth; which laft the text ex- 
prefsly affirms: and uncertain^ whether the apoftle fpeaketh of 
this purchafe, according to the reality of the thing; or according 
to their apprehenfion and their profedirn. 

On the other fide, it is moft certain^ that there arc no fpiritual 
diftinguifliing fruits of redemption afcribed to thofe falfe teachers ; 
b\it only common gifts of light and knowledge ; which Chrift hath 
pu; chafed for niaiy, for whom he did i^t make his foul a ranfom:* 


* Thfs cannot be mcant^ of pur chafing thefe co7mnon gifts for 

fiichperfonsy as the objects of intended benefits thereby; but only izr 

and Places of Scripture opened. 353 

and ir.oftt:ffr/fl!/«, that, even according to our advcrfarles, there, 
dempiion of any by the blood of Ghrill — cannot be a peculiar ag- 
gravation of the fins of any, becaufe they fay he died for all: and 
yet this buying of the falfe teachers is held out, as an aggravation 
of their fin in particular. 

Of the former uncertainties^ whereon our adverfaries build their 
inference tot univerfal redemption, (which yet can by no means be 
wire-drawn thence, were they moft certain in their fenfe) 1 fi^all 
give a brief account; and fo fpeak fomething, as to the proper 
intendment of the place. And, 

1. It ismofl: uncertain^ whether Chrift as a Mediator be here in- 
tended by Lordy or not, there is not any thing in the text, to in- 
force us fo to conceive : nay, the contrary feems apparent; (i.) 
Becaufe in the following verfes, God only as God, with his deal- 
ings towards fuch as thefe, is mentioned : of Chrift i^ a word. 
(2.) The name DESPOTEs, properly ^'(?r«/^, attended by dominion 
and fovereignty ; is not ufually, if at all, given to our Saviour in 
the New Teftament : he is every where called i:yrios; no where 
clearly DESpoTEs, as is the Father, Luke ii. 29. Aftsiv. 25. and 
in divers other places. Befides, (3 ) If it lliould appear, that 
this name were given our Saviour in any one place, doth it there- 
forefollow, that it mull be fo here? Nay, (4.) Is this the n aire 
proper for oui' Saviour, in thtf work of redemption? oESpoTEsis fuch 
a lord or m after, as refers to fervants and fubjedlion; ihe end of 
Ghrift'spurchafing any by bis blood, being in the fcripture always 
and con^iantly exprefled, in other terms of more endearment. It 
is then moft uncertain, that Chrift fiiould be here underftood by the 
word Lord. But fuppofe he fliould, 

2. It is moft uncertain, that by buying of thefs falfe teachers, is 
meant bis purchafing of them with the ranfom of his blood ; for 
(i ) The apoftle infifteth on a comparifcn with the times of the 
Old Terta-ment, and the falfe prophets that were then amongft the 
people; backing his alTertion with divers examples out of the Old 
Teitament, in the whole chapter following: now the word agou a- 
zo here ufed, (ignifieth primarily x\\z buying ofthingr, tranflatioufl/ 
the redemption ofperfons: andthe word PHADAH in the Old Tef. 
lament anl'wcring thereunto, lignifieth any deliverance, as Out. 
vii 8. and XV. 15. Jer. xv. 21. with innumerable other places ; 
■\n^ therefore fome fuch deliverance is here only intimated. (2.) 
Becaufe hpre is no mention of blood, death, price, or oifering of 
jefus Chrift ; as in other places, v/here prroper redemption is treat- 
ed on : efpecially fome fuch exprellion is added where the word 
AGoRAJois ufed to exprels it; as i Cor. vi. 20, Kev. v. 9. 

ihem, as the k\h]ta^ of th.^fe gifa^ f'r the iyitendcd hnef.t of the 
church i fo that fill all the intended benefit ^ and ihe formal objec- 
tive refpedof the pur chafe ^ is only tewards thr)fe for whnm Chrijl 
did make his foul a ranfom. 

$S54 Ohjstlions particularly anfzvered, 

which othf nvlfe holds out of itfelf, deliverance in common from. 
any trouble. (3 } The apoftle (etting forth at large the deliver* 
ance they had, and the means thereof, verfe 20 — affirms it to con*, 
fifl: in the efcaping of the pollutions of the world, (as idolatry, 
faife worfnip and tne like) by the knowledge of our Lord and Savi- 
our jefus Ghriftj plainly declaring, that their buying was only in 
refped of their reparation from the world, in refpedl of the enjoy- 
ment of the knowledge of the truth ; but of walhing in the blood of 
the Lamb, he is there wholly lilent. 

Plainly, there is no purchafe mentioned of thefe falfe teachers ; 
but a deliverance by God's difpenlations towards them, from the 
biindnefsof Judaifmor Paganiim, by the knowledge cf the gofpel; 
whereby the Lord bought them to be fervants fo him, as their fu- 
premehe;'d. So that our adverfaries argument from the place is 
this : *' ^ d the Lord, by imparting the knowledge of the gofpeU 
*' and working them to a profefTed acknowledgment of it, and fub- 
*' jeclion unto it, feparated and delivered from the world, divers that 
*» were faints infliew; really wolves and hypocrites, of old ordained 
*' to condemnation, therefore Jefus Chrifl Ihedhis blood for the re- 
** demptionandfalvationofallreprobatesand damned perfons in the 
<* whole world." Who would not admire our adverfaries chlmiflry I 

3. Neither 13 it more certain, that the apoftle fpeaketh of the 
purchafe of the wolves and hypocrites, in refpect of the reality of 
the purchafe ; and not rather in refped of that eftimation which o- 
thers had of them, and (by reafon of their outward feeming profefli- 
on) ought to have had; and of the profellion that themfelves made, 
to be purchafed by him whom they pretended to preach to others ; 
fis the Scripture faith cf Aha-z.y that tli€ gods of Damp fens f mote 
him^ 2 Chron, xxviii. 2 3. becaufe he himfelf fo imagined and pro- 
fefTed. The latter hath this alfo to render it probable viz* That 
5t IS the perpetual courfe of the Scripture, to afcribe all thofe things 
to every one that is in the fellowiliip of the church, which are pro- 
per to them only who are true ipiritual members of the fame j as to 
hefair.ts, eldd^ redeetned, 4yc. Now the truth is^ from this their 
proft'Jfion that they v;ere bought by Chrifl, might the apoftle juftly 
( and that according to the opinion of our adverfaries) prefs thefe 
fdlfe teachers, by the wa}' cf aggravating their fin; for as to the 
thing itfelf their being bought, it could be no more urged to them 
than to heathens and infidels that never heard the name of the 
Lord Jefus. 

Now, after all this, if our adverfaries can prove unlverfal re- 
demption from this text, let them never defpair ot fuccefs in any- 
thing they undertake; be it never fo abfurd, fond or fooliili. But 
when they have wrought out the work already cut out for them, and 
proved, ( j . ) that the Lord is meant of Chrifl; as Mediator ; (2 . ) 
x'n:xthy buying^ is meant fpiritual redemption by the blood of the 
Lamb : (3.) that thefc falfe teachers were really and efeihially fo 


and places of Scripture opened. fi^5 

Redeemed, and not only lb accounted, becaufe they were of the 
church ; (4 • ) that thole who are lb redeemed may peril]], contrary 
to the exprels Scripture, Rev. xiv. 4 and (5,) when they manifell 
the ftrcngth of this mlbrence, "oiz. Some in the church who have 
acknowledged Chrift to be their purchalVr, fall away to blal- 
pheme him, and perifl) forever, therefore Chrili: bought and re- 
deemed all that ever did or fltall perifli j (6.) iluit tiiat which is 
common to all, is a peculiar aggravation to the lin of ary one more 
than others : I will affure them they Ihall have more work provided 
for them ; which thcmfelves know, for a good part already, where 
to find*. 

Stthly. The laft place produced for the confirmation of the argu- 
ment iri hand, is Heb. x. 29. Of how much for er pun ifmnent^ 
fuppofe ye^ fiall he be thought worthy i who hath troildeu n?iderfoot 
the Son ofGodj and hath counted the blood of the covenant luherewith 
he waifanCiified^ an unholy things and hath done defpite unto the 
Spirit of grace ? Nothing (fay our adverfaries) could be aiiirmed of 
all this concerning apoftates, viz. That they /;ai;f trodden tinder 
foot^ •6'ir. unlefsthe blood of Chrift was in fome fenfe filed for them. 

Anf-vj. Tie intention of the apoftle in this place, is the fame 
with the general aim and fcope of the whole epiftle, to perl'uade and 
urge the Jews who had embraced the doftrlne of the gofpel, tp 
perfeverance and continuance therein. This as he doth netjform 
in other places, (with divers and various arguments ; the molt of 
them taken from a comparifon at large inftituted, betwetn the gof 


* It feemi not improper to fnlj oin here., an extract frojn what Dr. 
CiWfays (The caufe of Gor/ and Truth^ part i. numb. 54..) upon 
thii fame text y 2 Pet. ii. i. — viz. 

The wordhwj'm'g., regco'ds temporal deliverance ; and particu* 
larly the redemption of the pecpCe o/'Ifrael out q/' Egypt ; who are 
therefore called ihe people the Lord had purchafed- 7^ht' phrafe 
is borrowed fro7n Dent, xxxii. 6. Do ye thus requite the Lord ? O 
foolilh people and unwife I Is not he thy father that bought thee? 
Hath he not made thee and eiUblillied tliee ? Nor is this the only 
place the apoflle Petef refers to ifi this chapter ; fee verfa 12, 13. 
tompari^dwith Deut. 32. 5. Now the perfons the apojlle writes tOy 
were Jews ; the ftrangers fcattered thro^out Pontus,,Galaiia, Gap- 
padocia, Ada and Bithynfa; a people who in all ages., valued thzm^ 
felvel upon^ and boa jled mightily of their being the bought, purchaf- 
cd people of the Lord. Wherefore Peter makes ufe of thi% phrafe^ 
much in the farm manner as Mojes had done before him^ to aggra- 
vate the ingratitnd J and impiety of thefe falj'e teachers among, the 
Jews; thit they faould deny, if not in luord'., at leajl in works., that 
flighty lehovah, xuho had (fold redeemed their fat'icrs o::t of Egypt 
7v:th a flretched out arm^ and in J.'tccejjive ages had diftinguifhed 
them with peculiar favours: being ungodly men ; turning the gruce 
the dotiriuc of the grace of God i;: to lajciviuurriefs. 

£c5 OljeQions particularly anfwcred, 

pel in its adminiftration, and thofe legal fliadows, which before 
their profefll in of the gofpcl the/ lived under, and were in bondagd 
unto :) fo here he urgerh a ftrong argument to the fame purpofe, 
ab incommodo feu efeciu perniciofo i from the miferable dangerous 
«fffi£ts and confequences of the fin ofbackfliding, and wilful renun- 
ciation ofthetruih kno yn and profelTed, upon any motives and 
inducements whatfoever ; which he aflureth to be no lefs, than a 
total calling off and depriving themfelves of all hopes and means 
of recovery, with dreadful horror of confcience in cxpe dlation of 
judgment to come, verfe 26, 27- 

Novv this he confirms, as his manner is, in thisepiflle, from fom« 
things -way and pra^^ife', which was kiiown to them, and wherewith 
they were all acquainted, by that adminiftration of the covenant 
under which they had before lived in tHeir Judaifm ; and fo makes 
up his inference from a comparifon of the lefs ; taking his example 
from the punifbmentdue by God's own appointment, to all them 
who tranfgreffed Mofes his law, in fuch a manner as apoilates fin a- 
gainft the gofpel, that is, with an high hand and conternptuoufly ; 
for fuch a one was to de without mercy. Numb. xv. 30. 31. 
Whereupon, having aljundantly proved that the gofpel and the ma- 
rjifeilation of grace therein, is exceeduigly preferred to and exalted 
above the old ceremonies of the law; he concludes, that certainly 
a much forer punifliment, (which he leaves to their judgment to 
fuppofe) awaits for them who wilfully violate the holy gofpel, dcC^ 
pifing the declaration of grace therein contained and by it revealed. 
Which further alfo to manifeft, he fets forth the nature and quality 
of this fin in all fuch as, profefling redemption and deliverance by 
the blood of Chrift, fliall wifully call: themfelves thereinto : it h, 
faith he, no lefs than to tread under foot, or contemn the Son of 
God ; to efteem the blood of the covenant, by which he was let a-, 
part and fandified in the profeflion of the gofpel, to be as the blood 
of a vile man ; and thereby to do defpite to the fpirit of grace. 

This being (as is confefled) the plain meaning and aim of ths a- 
poftle; wemayobfervefundry things, for the vindication of this 
place from the'abufe of our adverfaries ; as, 

I. He fpeaketh hereonly of thofe that were profeflbrs of the faith 
of the gofpel; feparated from the world, brought into a church-llate 
and feUow-lhip, profefling themfelves to be fanaified by the blood 
ofChrift, receiving and owning Jefus Chrifl: as the Son of God, 
and enJuid with the gifts of the holy Spirit, (as chap. vi. 4,^ 5* ) 
Now it is moa certain, that thefe things are peculiar only to feme, 
yea to a very few, in comparifon of the univerfality of the fonsof 
men: fo that what is affirmed of fuch only, can by no means be fo 
extended as to be applied unto all. B ut if any one may be exempt- 
ed, univerfal redemption falieth to the ground; from the condition 
©fa very few, with fuch qualifications as th« muUimde have not, 
jiothirig can be conduced concerning all. 

2. The 

end PUiccs cf Sciipinre opcmd. 


2. Tlie apodle doth iiclilicr declare what haih -'een, nor afTcrc 
what may hcj but only at^Js a c(>inniin<nioii, uj.uu a Aij.pofitiou 
of a ih'usg; liis main aim bcin^ t» deter from iIjk ihiug ruther than 
la (igriiiy that it ii^.ay be j by ihev/in<T the inif;;ry tha: miiil useda 
lolJ'jvv, if* it flioiilJ io coiiitt «o pafs. When Paid icid the ibldiers 
Adsxxvii. 31, thu if t!je ii)arii.eVs lied away in the boar, the/ 
could not be favetli he did not i.uend to 1/gnify to then^, that in 
refptrcl of I'ije event they fliould be diowneci; fur Gcd had decla- 
red the contrary unto him ia t!.c night before, and he to ilitjTj j 
but oiily to exhort them to prevent that, vvhi^ih of ilfcif v^as a 
likely way for »he:r ruin and pirilhing. Keiilier fhali ihe AV;;.i?;;- 
J^rants, v/ith al! ihsir rhetoric, ever prrfaadc liS, that i: i: in vain 
ar.d altogether fruiiiefs, to forewarn nien of an evil, ?.i:d to exhor: 
them to take hoed of thole ways, whereby it is naturally, and 
accorditij;*; to the order among the things th ^mfelves, to be 1 leiineJ, 
althougli hi vefpect of the purpofe of God, the thing 'tfcif have no 
futurition, nor lliall ever come to pifs, A conunifuilon of ihe 
judgmeiit due to apollacy, b;;i>>-.^ an appointed means for the pre- 
ferving the faints from that fui, irtay be held cut to them 3 iho* 
it be impoHible the cieil lliould be feduced. 

Now that Paid here deals Oiily npon a fuppcfuion, (not g'v'nct 
bsing to the thing, but only iiiewing the conn^iiion between apofi..- 
cy and condemnation ; thereby to iiir up all the faiiU.s to take heed, 
lefi; there ihouid be in any of them ^.n evil heart of unbcii^f, de« 
parting from the living God ; ) is app^renl from verfe 2 6, where he 
jnakes an entrance upon this ar;?uinentan J motive to perftverance: 
for if vj^ fin wilfully^ ^c. That believers njay do fu. he fpeahd 
noL one word ; but if they flioidd do fo, j>e Ihevvs what v»'ould be 
the event; as that the foidiers in tlie Ihip ihould peri:]!, Paid tohl 
them nor; but yet iliewed Vvhat muil: needs come to p.if^, if the 
means of prevention were not ufcd. Nojv if this be the intenrinu 
of the rpoi'lle 'as it is mofc likely, by his fpeaking in the lirll perfon, 
ifwj fin vjilfuUy;) then not any thinj in the v/orld can be hence 
Gjncluded, either for the imiverl\diry ^i redemption or.tlie apolla- 
cy of faints, to both whlcli ends this place is urually \xx'ji^\ ; fcr, 
fur^poiitio nil pcnUt in efe. 

3. I: is mod certain, that t'lefe of v/hom he fp^iak?, d'.d mn!:e 
profeflion of all thefe things v/herecf l:cre is mci.ti«.n, wr. that je- 
f'.is Chnit was the Son of God, that they were fincJiled by the 
blood of t;;e covenant, and enlighrened by the fjnnr i>f grace; yea, 
as is ar>p3ient from the parallel phi'ie, Hcb. vi. 4, 5, hod many- 
gifts of iruimination ; befides their inirijtion by bi:p£ilVn,' \vhere-i;i 
open prufoilion and cemon{lrat:onwa'> made of thefe things ; fo 
that a renunciation of all thefe, with open dcteflat-on of them, as 
was the rnioiier of apofiates, accufuug the nar.-.e of Cbrifl ; v/hs a 
fa of fo deep an abomination, attends i with fj'many aggravaiiuiis 
z annexed to it ihi- r<:::;.i:kabie c*.i..ii;inr!t;wii ; 
K. k iiiv.u:''h 

e^S Chjiclions partkularly anjivend, 

though ths apoitates never had ihemfdves any true efTeclual intcreU 
in the blood of Jefus. 

4. That it was the manner of the faints and the apoftles them- 
felves, to efteem of all baptized initiated ptrfons, ingrafted into 
the church, as fancl'iied perfons; frfthat fpeakingof backfliders, 
he could not make mention of them any otherwife than as they 
were commonly efteemed to be, and at that time in the judgment 
of charity were to be confidertd. Whether they were true believ- 
ers or not (but only temporary) to whom this argument fgainft a- 
poftacy is propofed ; according to the ufual manner of fptech uled - 
by the holy Gholl, they could not be otherwife defcribed. 

5. If the text be interpreted pofitiveiy, and according to the 
truth of the thing Itfelf, in both parts thereof ; viz. that thefe of 
whom the apcflle fpeaketh were truly fandified, and that fuch 
may totally perilh; then the fe tv/o things will inevitably follow; 
(i.) that faith and fanditication is not the fruit of election; (2.) 
that believers may full fmally from Chrilt; neither oi v/hich I as 
yet find to be owned by our newtniiverfalifls, though both con- 
tended for by our old Armi}iiant* 

6. There is nothing in the text, of force to,perfuade, that the 
perfons here fpoken of, mufl needs be truly jullified and regenerat- 
ed believers ; »raich lefs that GhrUt died for them, which comes in 
only by llrained confeouences. One ejiprelHon only, feems to g've 
any colour hereunto, thai they v/ere fa id to be fanftified by the 
blood of ths covinant. Now concerning this, if we do but confider, 
(i.) the manner and cuftom of the apoftles in writing to the 
churches, calling them all faints that were called, afcribing that to 
every one that belonged only to fonie; (2.) that tkefe perfons 
were baptized; which ordinance among the ancients was fome- 
tlmes called Photismos, illnmin atioyt ,, fometimaes hagiasmos 
fanciification ; wherein by a folemn afperfion of the fymbol of 

the blood of Chriil:, they were externally fandlified, feparated, 
and fet apart, and were by all eftecmed as faints and believers ; 
(3.) the various fignincation of the v/ord hagiazo (here ufed) 
in the fcripture, whereof one moft frequerit is to conlecrate and fct 
apart to any holy ufe, as 2 Chron. xxix. 33. Levit. xvi.4. (4.) 
that Paul ufeth in this epiille many words and phrazes in a tem- 
ple-fenfe, alluding in the things and ways of the chriftian church, 
unto the old legal obfervances ; (5.) that iuppoftd £nd pro- 
felTed fandlity, is often called fo, and cfleemed to be fo indeed: 
If I fay, we Ihall conlider thefe things, it will be moft Epparent, 
that here is indeed no true, real, iniernal, effedual fa.ncXlfication, 
proper to God's elecl, at all intimated ; but only a common exter- 
nal fetring apart, with repure and cTteem of real holinefs, from 
the v/ays of the world and cufcoms of the old fynagogne, loan en- 
joyment of the ordinance of Chrilc, repreienting the bleed of the 
coveuriut. So that thii Ci.>minii;a'.ion being maUe lo all, fo exter- 

and Places of Scripture opened^ ^ 2 r« 

iially and apparently fanclified ; to them that were tra?y (o^ it ds. 
clareJ the certain connexion between apoft^cy and condemnatiop, 
thereby warning them to avoid it : — as Joftph wa-; v/arnrd to fly 
iiUo Egypt, leil Herod fhoiild il ay tjj^ cljild; which yet, in r^. 
fpect of Jod's parpofe, coiifd not be eff-cled : but as to them that 
were only apparently fo, it held ottt the odioufners of the fin» 
with their own certain inevitable deflruclion if ihfy fell inro it • 
which it was poUible they r.iipht do. 

And tins by the Lord's aliillanc?, have I given you, as I hop-, 
a c^erir foiiuion of all the arguments — which heretofore the Aryni - 
7iia.i\ p etended to draw from the Scripture, inti^c defence of their 
CAufe : fome other /o;j////wjf]iall hereafter be removed. But be- 
Cuufe of late we have had a multiplication of arguments on this 
fubjed; fome whereof, at Itait inform, pppear to be new, and 
may caufe fome trouble to the unftilful : I fliail in the next place 
remove all thofe objeiNens which T. HI. in his book of thQUUtver* 
fality cf free grace, hath gathered together againft our main thtjis 
— of Chnll's dying only for tiie elea,- which himfsif puts together 
in one bundle, chap. 26, and calleth them r(?^/o7^y. 


An anfivertd the VJientieth chapter of ihe hook entitled, Tlie Unl- 
verfality of Gods free Grace, ^c. being a colhaion of all the 
argumenti ufed by the author, thro'ighotttthe xuhf^le book, to prove 
the wiiverfality of redetvption. 

Til E title pretends fatisfaftion to them who dcfire to have 
reafon fatished; which that it is a great undertaking, 1 ea- 

illy grant: but for the performance of it, hie labcr, hoc opm. . 

Tliai everchriftian reafon, rightly informed by the word of God 
fliould bef itisfied with any doctrine fo df/lrepaut from ihc woci, 
fo full of contradi<n:ion in itfelf and to its ov/n principles, as the 
dotlrine of univerfai redemption is ; I fliouid much marvel : there- 
fore I am perfuaded that the author of the arguments following, 
(which left you fliould miflake them for others, he calleth reafons) 
will fail of liis intention, with all that have fo much reafon as to 
know how to make ufe of reafon, and fo much grace as not to love 
darknefs more than light. The only reafo!! as far ns I can cv)n- 
ceive, why he calls this collcdion of all the arguments and texts 
of Scripture which he had before cited and prodiiced at large, i'o 
many > eafous; being a funpofal that he hath given them a logical 
argumentative form in this place ; I iliall briefly confider them : 
and by the way take notire of his fkill in a regular franii:)g of ar- 
guments, to which he evi.lecily pr;itends. His firfi: reafon then is 
asfolloweth, viz. Arc, 

26o OhjcBicns parikularly an/wired, 

Arg. r. ''That whic!^. t!ie fcrlptura oft and plahily s^i'meth m 
*' plaiii wrrd?, 1? certainly true and to be beli'rved, Prcv. xxii. 20, 
^'- 2X> If,?, viii. 20. 2 Pe!. i. ro, 20. But that Jefiis Cbfift gave 
*' himfeif a ranioir, and by th^ grace of God taded death for eve- 
*'ryman, is oft ^\\A plair.ly aftirtiif d in Sciijpture; a? is before 
*' fii'^'.Vi-', cliap, vi). to rlie xiii. Therefore the ia«r!? is certainly a 
irinh ro bs bi'.]i€ved; John x::. 31; Afl^3 xxvl. 2 7 ." 

Anfxv. \!tl. The major propoiiticn of this argument i; clear, cvi- 
dcnr, and ac'cnow.'edgeJ by all prcfefiing the narne of Chrifi:, but 
yj- univerfally with this caution and provifo : that by :h^ Scripture 
fiijirming miy thing in plain wordj^ that is to be hlieved, you u;-;- 
derlland the plain leiife of tnofe v.-or(h v'hich i" clear by rules of ir- 
terpretat'on fo to be. It is t^ie ihinc;, J!,c;n':ried. that i.^ fobe belif^ved, 
and not t'ls words only, r;':lc!i am the u^rvi t'lereof : rr>d there- 
fore the plniu Je'^je and ',nczy^ii ~ ;.- that ^^h'tii v/e rrinll ir.qiilre af- 
ter: and is intended v.'hsn v/e fpeak of believing plan words of 
the Scripture. But now if by plain words you undcfrfland the l.-te- 
ral iranirtancs of words, which w.zj perhaps be figjivative or ^t 
Jcall uivnrioiit jlgnification — and capable of extent or reflrriclion 
in the interpretation : then there is nothing more falfe than this 
nirertinn: for liow can yon then avoid tiis blafphentous follv cf 
the At7fhropo-:2orphifcs^ all3gn;n[^ a body and human fhape unto 
God ; the plain words of the Scripture often mentioning his eye", 
hand?, ears, <^jc^ it being Apparent to every child that the true im- 
portance of thofe ezpre'Iions an fwers not at all their grofs carnal 
conception ? Will not alfo tra'ifuhjla'ntlaiion or its younger brother 
c^nrab^}antiation^ be an article cf our creed? With tiiis I'mltation 
then we pafs the propcfition, and the places of Scripture broug^t: 
to coniirtn it; only with this cbrerva':;o:\ fh't there is not one cf 
them to the purpofe in hand : which b^cai-fe t!i.*y do net relate to 
the argument in confidcration, we oniy leave to men's filent judg- 

2://;/. The au'u'",ipthon or ?7/'?'^5' propoHtlon we abfoiutely deny 
n.3 to fom? part of it, — that Chrifl: Ihould befaidtogive himfelf a 
ranfom for every man; it being neither often nor once, ncr 
plainly, nor obfcurely a[rirmed in the Scripture, nor at ail proved 
in the place referred unto : fo that thi:^ is but an empiy flourifaing. 
V'^^r the other exprelTior, of tr.il-iv^i death for lii^ery rnaiu we grar-t 
t:;at tlie words are fouriid Hch. ii. 9. but we deny that every tn an 
d.^th alwr.yr? ncceiPariJy (ignify all O'^d e-very man in the ivorld : 

Kf) I? TMKTO L'NTES P ». N'T A J^ VT M •? '> l» O K, KAf ,0 I 3 ^ 5 K A NTT <: T/K- 

7' A /^ vT.j ?.opoh, Co!, i. 20. Warning every T??nn, and teaching 
Ercry man ; every man h not there every man in the world : nei- 
ther are wc to believe tliat Paxil Vv'arned and taught every partlcu- 
iiv man, for it is falfe and iuTpollible, So that ('every man) in 
the Scripture, is not univerfally coileclive of ail forts; but either 
dillributive, fjr Umt of all for:s, or cojledive with a reflricliion 


and Places of Script u re opened, 2 6 1 

To all of MiTi* forts : a-^ in that of Paul, (every viau) vvn.<? on-y of 
thofe to whom he had preached the gofpe!. Moreover, in the ori- 
ginal, there !3 only hyprh pantos, for v^cry, — without the 
I'ubflantivs f/i-n^; \yhich injght be fuppiled by oihcr wcriJs as well 
a3 war?, as eleCiy or b-uiever. 

'^dif. That eviiry one h there h clearly retrained to all the bre- 
thren of Ghnfi., and the fons by him brought to glory, — we have 
before declared ; fo that tills plice is no way ufefiil for the confir- 
mation of the airi.imption : whicii we dery in the fenfe intended ; 
and are fure we fiiall never fee a clear, cr fo much ss a probable 
tefr'niony, for the confirming of it. 

To the concluuou of the fvltogifm, the author (to mnnlfrfl his 
f^ill in difputing fuch an argnmentatlve Vv-ay as he nnc'ertaketh j 
sddeth fome further proofs. Conrcloii3 it feems he wa^ to himfeir, 
that it had little vh-ength from the propofitions from w!i!ch it h en- 
forced ; and therefore thought to give fon^e new fupporimcnts to 
it, although with very ill fuccefs : as will eafily appear to any 
one that (Iiali but confalt the places quoted, and coni'>der the bnfi- 
nefs in hand. In the mean time thisnew log^c, (of lilhng up proofjj 
to the conchiijon v/hich are fuitable to neither propofitioti, r.nd 
firiving to give flrengtli ro that by new tcfumcnies — which it hath 
not from the prcmifes) deferves our notice, in this pge of learned 
v;riters : hen quantum ejl fapere.' fuch logic is fit to maintain 
fuch divinity. And fo much for the fir fl argument. 

Ar3. II. " Thofc whom JefusChrifi: and his apofiles in pla'ji 
" terins without any exception or reftraint, afHrm. that Chriit 
*< came to fave, and to that end died, and gave himfeif a ranfom 
** ^o\\ and is a propitiation for their fin ; he certainlv did come to 
** fave, and gave himfeif a ranfom for them, and is the proph'a- 
'* tion for their fins, ?>latth. xxvl. 24. John vl. 3S. i Cor, xv, -;. 
«< 4. Keb. X. 7. John viii, 38, 45, q Pet. i. 16. Keb. ii- 3, /i. 
«' But Jefus Ghrifl: and his apoflies have in plain fevnis afHrmed, 
'''•\.\\zX.Chr-p: came to fave Ci'iners^ r Tim. i. 15. if/e world, Jf hn 
*'iii. r;. that lie died for the nnjuf^^ i pet. Iii 18, the uiigf^dly^ 
"Rom. V. 6. for every man ^ Keb. ii. 9. gave hivf^lf a ranfom 
'•^for allmen^ 1 Tim. ii. 6. and is the prop-tiofinn for the fins of 
*♦ the whole world, r John ii- 2. And every of thefs afnrmcition.?, 
»< witlioiit any exception or redraint; all belr.g uf7jujl^ uv<rodh,\ 
i> fraiers, and fi:en, and of the world, Rom. iij. ro, 19, 20. 23. 
"Eph.ii. I, 2, 3. Tit. iih 3. John iii. 4.6. Therefore Jefn>^ 
<'Ghriil: cnme to fave, died, and gave himfeif r. ran fern for all 
•' men, and is rhe propitiation for tlieir fn^, Jolm. 1, 29.'' 

Arfw. iji. To the mpjor propofition of tiiis argument, I defire 
onlyto obferve; that we do not alTirtn lii?t the Scripture do'fi in 
any place lay an excejTtlon or refa-aint upon thofe perfons for whom 
Ghrlft is f;iiJ to die : a^ though in ane place it fijou'd be alTirmed 


»62 Chjccllons parlicularly anfzoered, 

he d^ed fur all m;n, and in snother fome exceptioa EgainH: it ; as 
tho' fome cf thofe all mRii were excluded, which were to feign a 
repugnancy end coatr.^c'iftion in ihe word of God. Only \^'e fay, 
one place of Scripture interprsrs another; and declares liiat fenfc 
which before in one pi? ce Was ambiguous and doubtful. For in- 
flance, — w-hfjn the Scripture flievv-eth that Ghrifl died or gave him- 
felf a ranfom for all^ we believe it: and when in another phice it 
declares thai all to be his churchy his elect ^ his jlieep^ all believer :^ 
fome of all forts, out of ail kindreds and naticJis^ audtougues un* 
der heaven ; this is not to Jay an exception or rellraint upon what 
was faid of all before.- — but only to declare that the ell for which 
Jie gave him felf a ranfom, v/ere ^M his church, all his eled, all 
bis Iheep, fome of all forts ; and fo we believe, that he died for 

With this obfervation v/c let pafs the proporiion; taking out 
its meaning, as well as the phrafe whereby it is exprelied will af- 
ford it ; together with the vain flourif;) and pompous fliev^ of many 
texts of Scripture brought to confirm it, wherecf not one is any 
thing to the purpofe; fo that I am perfuaded he put down names 
and figures at a venture, without once confab' ing the texts ; having 
no fmall eaufe to be confident, that none would trace him in his 
flouriili ; and yet that fome eyes might dazzle at his fupernumc- 
rary quotations Let me defire the reader to turn to thofe places; 
and if any one of them be any thing to the purpofe tr bufinefs in 
liand, let the author's credit be of weight with him another time. 
O let us not be, as many Vvho corrupt the word of God Bur per- 
lians it is a miftake in the impreflion : and that for Matt xxvi. 24. 
he intends verfe 28, where Chrifl is faid to flied his b)ccd for ma- 
ny; as alfo that in John vi. he miftook verfe 38 for 59, v.'here 
our Saviour affirms that lie tame to (ave that which his Father gave 

him, that none fliould belof^, which certainly are the eled, 

3n 1 Cor. xv. 3, 4. he was not much amifs j the apodle conjoining 
in thofe verfes; the death and refarredion of Chrifl:, which he 
faith was for us: and how far this iidyantageth his caufe in hand, 
v-.e have before declared. By Hcb. x. 7, I fuppofe he meant verfc. 
10, of the chapter, affirming that by the will of God, which 
Chrifl cam.e to do, we are: fauclified; even through the cfiering of 
the body of Jefus ; afcribing our fanaification to his death, which 
is not elTtfted in all and every one : though perhaps lie may fup. 
pofe the I aft claufe of the verfc, once for alL to make for him ; 
but fome charitable man, I hope will undeceive him, by letiing 
liim l.now the meaning of the word EPHAPAxy. The like maybe 
cbferved of the other places, that in them is nothing at all to the 
propofitlon in hand; and iiigh them at leaft, is enough to evert 

§ An Adverb fi^nifyingowzt on'y, ivith an onblicfu ; for all, 
f U 111 gin ihe Creek. 

and Places of Scripture cpened 263 

It : and fo his propofition Jii fiim \z ; all thofc (.n- \v!ioTn the Scrip- 
tare aSrms that Chria did die, for them he died ; which is gvzni- 
ed to be true and doiihilels. 

idly. The allamption allirnis, that Chrifl end hl^ apcftles, in 
the Scriptures, lav that he died to iave Ihiners; ui jail,* ur, godly, 
the world, all: whereupon the conclufion ought barely to Se ; 
therefore Chrifl: died for linncrs, unjuti:, ur^'oujy, the woild, and 
the iiiie. To yvhich we fay, 

I. That this is the very fame argument for AibHanc? with that 
v;hich we.-.t before; as alfo are foir.e of thofe that fuIJow: onfy 
fome words are varied, to ciidtigs the cuiward rppe.irance j and 
i'yj to make ihew of a number. 

2. That the whole flrength of this argument lies, in turning in- 
definite propofitions into univerfals : concluding, that becaufe 
Chrid: died for finners. therefore he died for all hnnersj becaulc 
he died for the unjuft, ungodly, and the world; that therefore 
he died for every one that is uijuft or ungodly, and for every one 
in the world : becaufe he died for all, therefure for all and every 
one of all forts of men Now if this be good arguing, I will fur- 
nifli you with fome more Aich arguments dgAad you have occafion 
to ufe them. As (i.) God jujtijieth the uhgodly^ Rom. iv. 5. 
theiefore he juftifisth every one that is ungo^ily ; now whom he 
juftifieth he giorifieth; and therefore every ungodly perfon fliall be 
glorined. (2.) When Chrift came, 7nen hved 'darktiejs rather 
than lights John id. 19. therefore all men did 'io^ and fo none be- 
lieved. (3.) The world krjew 7iot CWx^, John i. 10. therefore 
no man in the world knew him. (4.) Ths whole wcrld lieth in 
vjickcdnefs, i John v. 19. therefore everyone in the world doth 
fo. Such arguments as thefe by turning indefinite propofieions into 
univerfaU; I could eafiiy furnilli you v/itLall, for any purpofe 
that you will ufe them to. 

3. ff you extend the words in the concIuHon, no further than 
the intention of them iii the places of Scripture reciied in the af- 
fumption. we may fafely grant the whol-, viz. that Chrilt died for 
finneisand the world, for fmful men in their feveral generations 
living therein, bu: if you intend an univcrfahty colleaivc of all, in 
(h.s conclufion, then the fyllogifm is iophiilicii and falfe ; no place 
cf Scripture that is produced, affirmingfo nruch. The aiHgnation 
of the oojecl of the death of Chrill in tliem, being in terms indcli- 
iiite; receiveth light and clearnefs, for amore refirained fenfe, in 
».hofe places where they are expounded to be me^nt of all l;i3 own 
people, and the children of God fcattered throughout the world. 

4. The p'irticuUr places of Scripuire u/ged, ivr.. i Tim i. ^S' 
X Peter iii. i2. Horn. v. 6. in the bcgiuwir.g of the aCmnption, 
are not at all 10 the purpofe in hand : aad John iii. r;. Heb! 
li. 9. r Tim. ii. 6. i John ii. 2. (with John i. 29) have been already 
cunf.deied. Il&m. I'ii, ic, 19, ao, 23. iph. ih i; 2, 3. Tit. iii. 3. 


264 ObjcBions particularly anfacrtd 

John iii. 4, 6, added In the clofe of the fame propofitlon, prove 
that all are fijiners ami children of wrath i but of Chrjft's dying 
for all Imners, or for all thofe children of wrath, there is not the 
leaft intimation. And this nj^iy fulilc-, in anuvcriotho two nnl 
irpumentsj v/hich might eafijy ba rcioried upon (he auihor uf 
tiiem : tiie Scripture being full and pi::.'n, to the connrmation of 
the p,)':::"o:i which he intends to oppofe. 

Arg. Ill, •'Thit which the Scripture layeth forth, as one 
*' eud of the death of Chriil, and one •>ri.unu and caufe of God's 
** ejcaking Ciiriil to he the Lord and judge of ali, and of the 
*' enmity ofliis juJging; that is certainly to be bclievcid, pf*l. xii. 
" 6. andxviii. 30. and cxix. 4. But the Scripture layetli fcrih 
*' this for one end of the death and refurredlion of Ciu-lll, that 
*' he might be the Lord of all, Romans xiv. 9. 2 C jr. v. 14, 15, 
"and for that caufe (even his death and refurrcirtion) hath God 
*• exalted him to be the Lord, and judge of all men, and his 
*^ judgments fhall be juil, Rem. xiv. 9, 11, 12. 2 Cor. v. 10. 
"Philip, ii. 7, II. Acts xvii. 31. Rom. ii. 16, — Thtr;:fore that 
** Clniil [o died and rofe again for ail,— is a truth to be lellevcd. 
«' I Tim. ii. i .*' 

Anfii). ijQ, The unlearned framing of this argument, the un« 
couth expreirions of the ihi-g intended, and failiiig in particulars 
by the by, being to be afci ibed to the perfon and not the caufe ; I 
iliall not much trouble myfelf withal, as i. Hh artificial regularity 
in bri.'iging his minor prcpofitlon, (ws. Chrill's being made Lord 
and jadge of all) into the tnajo,' ; fo continuii:g one tsrm in all 
the three propofitions, and mahiiig the whole almofl unintelligible. 
2. His interpreting, that caufe for luhichGud exalted Gnrifc^ to be 
his death and refurreilion, when his refurredlion wherein he was 
declared to be the Son nf God -with power ^ Rom. i. 4. was a glorious 
part of his exaltation. To examine and lay open the weaknefs and 
folly of innumerable fuch things as thefe, which every where oc- 
cur, were to be laviiii of precious m -ments : ihofe that have the 
lead tafte of learning, or the way of reafoning, do eafily fee thtir 
vanity. Aiid for the reft, efpecially tlie poor admirers cf thefe 
fo;:gy fophifius, I fiiall not Oy, aiioniam hie populus vu.it decip:\ 
dscipiautur s hut God give them underflancing and repentance, 
lo the acknowledgment of the truth. 

2dly, To this whole argument as it lies before ns, I have nothing 
to fay; but only to intrsat Mr. iMore^ that if the mifery of our 
times fli-ould be calling upon him to be writing again, that he 
would ceafe exprefiing his mind by fyllogiuns, (and to fpeak in his 
own manner) which by Its confunon, in innumerable tautologies, 
may a little puzzle his reader. For truly this kind of irguing here 
ufed, (for want of logic, whereby he is himfelf deceived, and 
by delight in fophijiry, whereby he deceiveth others : ) is ex- 
ceedinglyndiculciis^ for ncr.e can be fo blind, bat that at firil 


and Places of Scripture ofened, 26 j 

reading of the argument he will fee, that he afTerts and Infers that 
in the conciuiion ({h-eijgtlieiilng it with a iitw teftinaony) whicli 
was not once dreamed of in either of the premifea ; they fpeakinn- 
of ihe exaltation of Chri.^ to be judee of ail, wMcLrefers to hisov.-n 
glory ; the conclufiun of his dying for all, which neceifarily aim;; 
at and intends tlicirgood. Were it not a noble defi;,,n, to baniili 
all liu:-^-!an iearinng and to tfHabiifi fuch a way cf arguing in the 
roo'.n iiie'-eof j* //o*- Ithacus -aUt^ hoc v.ognu tnsrcentur Atrld.e, 
ylly. The force and fim of the argument is this : ChriH died 
and r >fe again, tliat he rnirrht be the Lord and judge of all ; there- 
fore Ghriic Jisd for all. Now afk wiiit he mean:i by dying for a)i, 
indthc whole treatlf:: ani'wcrs, that it is a paying a ranfom for 
them ail, that they might be faved. But how this can be extorted 
out cf Chriii's dominion over all, wkli his power of judging all com- 
mitted to him, (which alfo is extended to the angeii for whom h-* 
died not) j let them that can underlland it rejoice in iheir cmick 
apprehenfion; I confefs it files my thoughts. 

4t'ily, The manner of arguing being lo vain, let u** fee a little, 
whtthtr there be any mors v;eight in the matter of the argument. 
Many texts of Scripiurc are heapsd up, and diihibutcd to the feve, 
ral prcpo'itions : in thofeout ofrfah xW.G, xviii. 30. (as 1 kip- 
pofc it ihouldbe, not 130'. as it is printed) cxix. 4. there is ft^me 
mention of the precepts of God, with the purwy and perfctlian of 
his word ; which that they are any thing to the biilinefj in hand, I 
cannot pcjrceivc. That of i Tim, ii 6. added to tie cor.clufion, 
is one of thofe places which are brought forth upon every occaHcn, 
as being the iuppofed foundation of the whole alTirtion ; but canfe- 
Icfsly, as hath been ihewed oft. Of thofe which are annexe^ to 
the r^:/«or propofif ion, is 2 Cor. v 14. 15. but as I have alrea- 
dy cleared fhe ndud of the Holy Glioil in it, and made it man*ftft 
that no fuch thing as univerfal redemption can be w relied from it ; 
fo unto this prefent argument it hath no reference at ail : not con- 
taining one fyllable, concerning the judging of Chrill, and his 
power GVirr all ; which v/as the »2^i/;\'//w inlided on. Phil. ii. 7. 
II. Aflsxvii, 3:. Kom. ii. 16, 2 Gor. v. 10. make mention in- 
deed 01 ChrKt's exaltation, and his judging all at the \A\ &Oiy ; but 
becaufe he ihall judge all at the iafb d-xy^ therefore he died for 
all ; wili aik more pains to prove, than our uJverfary intends to 
lake ill tiiis caufe. 

The w.eight of the whole muri depend on Rom. xiv. 9, 1 1 , 12. 
which being the only place that gives any colour to i his kind of ctr- 
guing, fhall a little be confidered. It is the lordlliip and dominion 
©f ChriH: over all, which the apoille in thai place at large infills on 
andevidsnceth to belie vers that they might thereby be provoked to 
walk blanielefo, and without olft-nce one towards aroiher : kf'ow 
ing the terror of the Lord ; and how that all men, even tl.tmfcives 
sni others, nJuft.co:i:'v to a'~oear befoit his iucl"niv:u-r£j.t. wlien it 

s,S5 Chjeclions particularly anfxjotrtd^ 

will be but a fad thing, to have an account to make of fcandals anil 
cffences. Further, to ingraft and fallen this ii.pon ibem, he de- 
clares unto tlieai the WcvV whereby the Lord Ghrift attained and 
came to this dominicn and power of judging ; all thipgs being 
put under his feet: together with what defiga he had as to tiiis par- 
t'lcular, in undertaking the ofBce of mediation, there exprefled by- 
dying, rlfing, and reviving ; to wit, that he irisht have the execu- 
tion of jiidg'ng over all, coi-nmitted to him ; that being part of the 
glory fct before him, which caufed him to endure the crof^ and 
defpifethe fiiame, Keb. xii. 2. 

So that all which 'S here intimated concerning the deadiofChrift, 
is about the end, eiTects, and iilue that it hath towards himfelf; 
not any thing of what was his intendon towards them for whom he 
died. To die for others, does at leafl denote to die for their good j 
end in the Scripture ahvays, to die in their ftead ; now that ary 
fiich thipg can be hence dedufled. that Chriit died for all, becaufe 
by his death, himfelf made way for the enjoyment of that power 
whereby lie is Lord over all, and will judge them a]], cssfting the 
grearelt part of m.en into heil, by the fentence of his righteoui 
iudcrment \ I profefs fmcerely, that I am no way able to perceive. 
If men will con.iend and have it To, that Chrift mud be faid to die 
for all, becaufe by his death and refurreclion he attained the pow 
er of judging all ; then I fnall only leave with them thefe three 
thing"^, Ws. (. That innumerable fouls fliail be judged by him, 
for not walking according to the light of nature \ih unto them, di- 
recting them to feek after the eternal power and Godhead of their 
Creator j without the lead rumour of the gofpei, to direcS: them to 
a R-edeem.er, once arriving at their cars, Rom. ii. 12. and of 
whatgosd wiUitbefor fujh, that Chrlll fo died for them I 2. 
That then he alfo died for the devils ; becaufe he hath, by his 
death and rerurreaion, attained a power of judging them alfo. 3. 
That the whole affertien is nothing to the bufmeft in hand ; our in- 
quiry being about them whom our faviour inten^led ta redeem and 
fave by his blood, but this return being about thofe he will one da/ 
judge : qu.vftio efl ds alliis^ refponfio de cocpis. 

Arg. iV. *' That which the Scripture fo fets forth in general 
ti for the world of mankind, as a truth for them ail, that v/hcfoe- 
<< verofthe particulars fo believe as tacome into Chrifc and receive 
*-<- the fame, fliall not pevilubut have everlafting life ; is certain!/ 
<' a truth to be believed, Aas v. 20. But that God fent forth his 
»' Son to be the Saviour of the world, is in Sciipf ure fo fet forth in 
*' general fur all men, that whofoever of the particulars fo believe 
«* as they come Inio Chrift and receive the fame, they fliall not pe- 
*t lidi, but have everiafiing life, John iii. 16, 17, i8, 36. 6* 
*< i. 4, 1 1, I 2. Therefore that God fent his Son to be :he Saviour 
«< of the world, is a certain truth, i Johniv» 14-'' 

A'lifvj, I hope no ingeniotts man, that knows any thirg of the 


and Places of Scripture cpcncd t^-j 

•ontroverr/ iii iiand, anil to \vb;it h^zA U is i^-hcr. beuve^n us nnrf 
our adver(\ry,or is in any meafure acqu.iinied vvltli th? way of *r- 
gning ; will exped ihat we iliouki fpend many words about fuch 
poor liourifiies, vain repeiitio*)S confured exnreHinns, and illogical 
dcdiictioM.s and argumentations, rs in ih<s prelendf d new argument 
(iiidtfcd the lame with the two iirfl, and with alaiod nil that fol- 
low ; ) or th.tt I Ihouid call avv-:y much time or }>aii\s about them. 
For my own part, I were no way able t^i uadergo i\\t tcuioulnefo 
of the review- of fuch things asthefc ; but that enndum ej} quo t) ci^ 
huntfuta eccicfiiS. 

Not then any more to trouble the reader with a declaration of 
that in particulars, which he cannot but be fufncientl/ convinced of 
by a bare over looking of iheTe reafon?;, vi?^ that this author is ut* 
terly ignorant of the way ofreafoni.ig, and knows not how tolerably 
to cxprefs his own conceptions, nor to I'nfer one thing from ano- 
ther in any regular way ; I anfwer i. That wha^fotvcr the Scrip- 
ture holds forth as a truth to be believed, is certainiy fo ; and to 
be embraced. 2. That the Scriptin-e fets forth the death of Chrifl, 
to all whom the gofpel is preached unto, a-, an all fujScient mea 1 
f*r the bringing of linners unto God ; fo as that whofotver believtj 
it and come in unto him, 'iiail certainly be faved. 3, What can 
be concluded hence, but that the death of Ghrifi i^ fuch intinic* 
value, as that it is able to fave to the utmoil: every one to whom it 
is made known; if by true faith they obtain an Interefl: therein, 
and a right thereunto, we cannot perceive. This truth we hava 
formerly connrmed by ma'^^y teftirnenies of Scripture ; and da 
conceive that this innate fufficiency of Uie der3th of Chriil:, is the 
foundation of its promifcuous propofal to elect and reprobate. 4 . 
That the concinfion, (if he w^ould have the reafcn to j.ave any co- 
lour or fliow cf an argument) fiiould at leafl inciude and exprefs 
the whole and entire Hneriion contained in the prcpohtion, viz, 
" that Ghriii is fei forth to be the Saviour of the world, that who- 
*' foever of the particulars believe, d-c'' And ther. it is by us fully 
granted, as nuking nothing at all for the univerf?ii'y of redempti- 
on ; but oniy for the fuinefs and iufllciency ©f his fatisfaction. 
Of ths vfovdworld, enough hath been faid before. 

Ar.<?- V. ** That which God will one day caiife every man 
»' confefs to the glory of God, is cerraini}'' a tvutb ; I'ur God wiii 
*' own no lie for his glory, John xiii 3,9* * Rom. iii. 3, 4.-.,- 
*' But God will one d-iy caufe evej-y man to confefs Jcfus (by 
<* virtue of his death and ranfom given) to be the Lord, even to 
" the glory of God, Pliiiip. li. 7, S, 9, 10, 11. I fa. xiv. 22, 

** 23. Rom xiv. 9, 12^ Pfal. l;cj:xvi. 9 Therefoie it is csrr- 

'* tainly a truth that Jefas Chrlil hath given himfeif a ranfom for 
*' all men, and hath thereby the righ*: of Lordiii.p over them ; and 
*« if any will not believe and come into this government, yet he 

^^ abideth 
* UvjQuUfcem, thai this oii^htto be Jo 'in iH, 33, 

q68 OhjeSiions particularly anfwtredt 

<• abidetb rdUhral and cannot dcnv hlmfelf; but "W-iil ore «ay 
" bring ihem before him, ?nd c^uie them to corfffs him J.ord t« 
*' the i;lory of God ; n-li-in they ihaii be denied by him, for de- 
*' J' ing him in the <'ays of hi:^ patience, 2 Tim. ii. 12, 13, 14. 
«' Muth. X. 32, 33. 2 Co'-. V. :o." 

Anf. The conclulion of this argument nuglit to be thus, and 
no otherwiie, if yoii intend it fhould receive any ftrength from 
the premifes, viz. therefore* that Jefus Ghrifl Is the Lord^ and t» 
be co\\{eS^iQ to the glory ci God, is certainly truth. This» I fay, 
i? all the conclui'ier! that this argument ought to have had ; nnlefs 
initead of a fvllorrifni, yav^ intend three indeperdent propofitions, 
e^'ery one ilanding upon h>s own Ilrengtb. That which is infert- 
ed CDnccrninghi?givir.ghimfelf a ranA»m fjr all ; and that which 
iollows, of the conviction and condeB^nation of them who believe 
not nor obey the gofpel, confirmed from 2 Tim. ii, 12, 13, 14. 
is altogether heterogeneus to the bufirefs in hand. 

Now this bcjing the conchinon Intended ; if our author Aippofe 
that the dcniers of univerfa) redemption do qucrrion the truth of 
it, — I wonder not at a!l, why he left all other em'ployment to fall a 
writing controverfies; havlrg fuc'n apparent advantages againfr his 
adverfaries, as fiich fmall miflakes as this are able to fnrnifli Ijjs 
conceit \vithal. But it mt?y be an acl of ciiarity, to part him and 
lii:. own lliadoi;(r {o terrioiy at variance, as here and in oiher place sj 
wnerefore I befeech him to hiear a word in iii? heat, and to take 
ijotice, I, Thatthongh we do not afcnbea fniitiefs inctftii^ual re- 
«3cmption to Jefus Chrill: ; nor fay, that he V-vtA any. v/ith that 
entire love which moved him to lay down his life, but his own 
chu-cii,^ — fo that all his elf ct are efFeclual?y redeemed by him ; yer 
\7e deny not but that he ihall alfo judge the reprobates, -y/z. even 
all them that know not, that deny, that difobey and corrupt the 
truth of his gofpe) ; and that all Ihal! be convinced, that he is Lord 
of all, at tli.^ lad day : fo that he may fpare his pains, of proving 
fuch unqaef!:' enable things Something elfe is extremely defiroui 
tofollow; but indignation mud be bridled. 2. For that claufe in 
the fecond propcfiii )n, (iy inrttte of hh death and ra^f^m givtn ;^ 
we deny, that it IS any where in the Scripture once intimated, — 
tnat t'.- ranfom paid by Chrill; in his death for us, was tb.e caufe of 
his exaltation to be Lord of ail : it was his obedience to his Father 
in his d -arh, an.-l not his fatisfaclion for u?, that is prcpoftd as the 
antecedent of this ezaltation 5 as is apparent, Phil. ii. 7,8,9, 10, 
1 1 . 

Ar« VI. *' That whicfc may be proved in and by the Ser'p- 
** ture, both by plain fentences therein, and necelFary confequen- 
*' ces imported thereby ; vrithout wreflling, wrangling, adding 
** to, taking from, or altering the fentences and words of Scr"p- 
*' ture; is a trurh to br* believed. Matt. xxii. 29, 32. Rom. xi. 
^* 2,5,6 — But that Jefus Chrifi: gave hinifelf a ranfora for all 

<' men 

aJtd Places rf Scripture opened, tC«^ 

** iTsfT. srd by the gr^cc r.fGcd taflet.' dpnih fo'' evrry nan, rr.'?v 
" he nroved in and by the Scripture — Uorji |;y plain fertci-ces 
'* (herein, and nectfNry conleciKnces i iiporfed tlierel>v ; vitl.tMit 
«« wi-e[l!irij% wrangling, adding, or taking away, or jJtering the 
" ^rcdr, atid i'enrctnces ; as is' already (hewed, chap. vji. xiii. 
<« w*hicl\ v/ill he now orderf^d into feversi proofs. — Therefore that 
<« JefiH C!-!r;/l give himlcif for ail ivr-n, an.i hv the grace of 
<« God !3lled c!e uh for ev/».ry man, is n ii ui'i »o be believed, fAaili. 
"■ i. 15. and :-:v!. 14. 18. r John iv. 14." 

A'if\.v- \J}y The nveaningof this ar£iimei)t ir, that unlverf,*! 
redeniption msy b? proved by the Scripture : which being ihc very 
thing in quellion, ;^ncl th«" thefis undertaken to he proved ; there j*r 
no rt-.-i<i>n why itfcl'-'ilioul J mske an argument, but onjy to make 
wo a number. And for my psrt they fliould paf?, without any 
further anfvp-er than that they are a number j but that thuftzt-'Z/o arc 
th: numhi}\ are fo be conlidered. 

2dl)\ Concerning the argument itfelf, (feeing it mud go for 
ene) v/e fay, 

I . To the firfl pr-T'oHticn, — that laying afide the unneccfTary 
exprsffiun?, .the meaiii-g of it I take to be this, t'/z. That which 
)5 atiirmed in the Scr-pture, or may be deduced from thence by jnft 
♦onfequence; r)llovving fuch ways of interpretation, of pfiirmaTi. 
on, and confcquences, as by v/hich the fpirit of God leadeth.ns- 
into the knowledge of the truth j is certainly to he believed : wh-cli 
is granted cfail, tho* not proved by the places he quoteth {Matt, 
xxii. 32. P^om,y\. 2, 5^6.) and is the only foundation of th«t 
art'cle of faidi, v/hich you fcek to oppofe 

' 2. To the fecon-.?; that Chrlfc gave himfelF a ranf?*!:! hvpfr 
i» ANTov, /or fl//, and taded death HY PER f ant o $/"')»• a-// is the verv 
word of Scriptun*, and wa? never denied by any: t!-.e mak)! g of 
fill, lohe.allmen and L":ie.rymav^ in both the places aimed at ; '\% 
your addition, and not the Scripiure*s afiertion. If yon inttrd 
then to prove that Chriil- give j'.imfeif a ranfoni for all, ?nd t-Hed 
djirith for all, you may live your labours; it is confefTcd on 'A\ 
!}ancls, none ever denied it. I'nt if you intend t^ prove thole all to 
he all and every man cfall agesaiul kind?, cleft and reprobate ; and 
i^ot all hit children, all his elecl, cllhisjheepy all his people ^ cli 
Vie children gi'uen him ofGod/nme of all ffyrts, rations, tongue?;, 
snd iangu >ge5 only ; I will, by th.e Lord's a fliilance, wiliinglj join 
iiUie with you, or any man breathing, to fearch out tl-e meaning 
of the v/ord and mi'id of God in it ; holding ourfelves to the pro. 
portion of faith, efTent'ality cf tie doclrlne rf redemption, {o^^c 
of the pliceswhere luch afit-rtions are, ccmpa»-i:5g tliem with rther 
places, and the likeways ; labouring in all Snimil ly, to find the 
itjindofihe Lord, accordingro his own appointment. ^Snd oftlie 
fuccefs of fucha trial, laying afide fuch failings as vill adhere to 
w.y perfonal weakiiefi, I ainby the grace cf God exceedirgly cnn- 

£denr j 

• 70 Ohjccilons particularly cnfwired, 

fi.lent; h3v;n£»by liis goodnefs received foirse Hrerigtli and oppor- 
tu:iity to le.irch into^ a ul ffvioufly to weigh, — whatever tiie mofl 
famous afl'^rlors of uiiiverfal redemption, whether L::thcrani or 
Arminians^ have been able to i^y in this caule. 

Fortheprelent, I acldreis myfelf to vhat is before nie: only 
delirinz tbe reader to obferve, that the a/Tertion to be proved 
isthis» -P/x. — That Jefus Chriil, according to the counfel and 
v/il! of his Father, iuitable to hispurpofe of falvation in his own 
liiind and intention, — did by his death and obiation, pay aran- 
f am for ail and every man, ^\t€i and reprobate, boLh thofe that 
are favec, and thofe thatpeiifli j to redeem them from Gn, death, 

and Iifll, to recover faJvation, life and immortali'y, for th.cin; 

atidnot only for his elect or church, chofen to an inheritance be- 
fore the foundation of the world. To confer ni this, we have di- 
^ter5 proofs produced j which, by the Lord's aJiflance, we fliall 
conader in order. 

: Proof xfl. ♦* God fo loved the world, that he gave his Son to be 
<* theSavimrof the world, i John iv. 14, and fends hs fervant 
*-' to bear wltnefs of his Son, that all men tbrcugh him might be- 
«* lieve, John i. 4, 7. That whofoever believes on him, m>ght 
<^ have everl^-iding 'M^e, John iii- 16, 17. Ar^.d he is v/illing, that 
" aii {]iousd come to the knowledge of the truth, i Tim ii. 4, and 
*'hefaved, I I'im. i. 15. Kor wiii he be wanting in the fuffici- 
»' ercy of helpfmnefs to them, if as light comer, they will fuifer 
** th-emfeives to be wrought en and to receive it, Prov. L 23. and 
*^ viii. 4, 5. And is not lah plain in Scripture V* 

A''if,i. The main, yea indeed only thing to be proved (as we 
before obferved lis, — that thofe indefinite prcpofitions, which we 
iind in the Scripture 'concerning the death of ChnTr, are to be un^ 
derftooQ imiverfally 5 that the terms ^/Z, and uwrld, do (^.g\\\iy ia 
this buGnefs (v.'hen they denote the objecl ofthe death of ChriO,) 
all and every mvi in the v/orld : unlefs this be done, ail oihcr 
labour is altogether ufc-lefs ancT fruiilefs. Now to tbis there is no- 
thing at all urged, in this pretended proof; but only a few am- 
b'^gMous places barely recited, — withafalfe colledion from them, 
or obfervations ur>c)i\ them which they g\ye no colour to. for ( i .) 
as to I John iv. 14. God's fending his Son to be the Saviour of 
the world, and his fervant to teftify it, is nothing but to be the 
Saviour of men living in the world, which his elect are: an hun- 
dred fuch places as thefe, fo clearly interpreted as ihey are in other 
places, would make nought at all to the purpofe. 

(2.) The next place is, John i. 4, 7, Verfe 4 imports that 
Chrift was the life of men, which is mofl true ; no life bejug to be 
had for any man, but only in and through him; but this is not at 
all to the q-jeflion. The next words of \tY(e 7. are, that all me^ 
through hl7n might believe ; which words, being thrufl in to peace 
Tip a fenle wish an.Q:hc'rfi-aaicucf Scripture, ftem to have fome 
. . weight ; 

and Places of Sc ripi u re opened. j 7 1 

Wiigbt:; as tho' Chriil were fent, thit all men tnro' Mm might 
believe : a gooJJy fnew; iteming no lefs to make {or unlverfal re- 
demption, thati the Scripture, cited by the devil (after he had 
cut off part of it) did — for our Saviour's caiting hiniTelf from tire 
pinnacle of tbe temple, But if you cad adde the fophilhy ofihe 
eld ferpent, — the; ezpreHion of this place i:j net a little available, to 
iiivalldate the tnejls fought to be maintained by it. 

The words are : — T/n're was a man fe-,\t fr om God^ whrje fiaifie 
•Was John ; the fame cams for a witnefi^ to bair witnefs ofihelfght, 
that all men through him might belie-vp. Now luho do you think 
is ther^j meant by 21 *autou, through hitni i^ it Chrijl rhink ycu, 
JheKght; or John ^ the v;itnefs of the light; certainly J.'/ilw, as 
almolt all expofitors do agree; except feme among the Popifh, and 
C^ra/;//i that IJlrmael : fo the Syriac interpreter; reading, ty hii 
hand^ or minilby. Soihewoid infers: for we are rtot fdid to 
biilieve Di A CHRisTON by Chrift^ or as it fhould be here — di a mu 
PHOTOS by the light ; but e i s t o ? h o s , Jo Im xi i . 3 6 . i7t the L'ght, 
not ^y it ; and e p i t o k ky r i on Acts ix • 42. b?lii\-jsd in the Lord; 
fo alfo Rom, ix. 33. kai pas ho piseuon ep' alio every oi:e 
that believ2th on him. So ek Chris to in divers places, is in. 
him: but no mention cfbsiieviig by him ; which. r.uher denotes 
the inftrument of believing, as is the miniftry of the word, than 
the objecl of faith, asChrlllis. 

This being apparent; let us fee what is afarraed of Jr//'^, why- 
he was feat, that all through him might believe, Nov;- this word 
all here, hath aU the qualifications which our author requireth for 
it, to be always efteemed a certain expreilicn of a collective uni- 
verfality; that It is fpoken of God, <i*c. And voho I pray you 
were thefe all, that were iatended to be brou^mt to tiie faith by the 
rriiniilry of /j/2«? were they not only all thofethat lived through 
the world in his days, who preached (a few years) in Judea on- 
ly; but alfo all thofe that were dead before his nativity, aid that 
were born after his death I and lliall be to the end of tije world, in 
any place under Heaven? Let them that can believe it, .ejijoy their 
perfuafion; witli this affurance, that I will never be their rival, 
being fully perfuacled that by all men here, is meant only fome of 
all forts to whom his v/ord did come; fo that the ncceilajy ienfe of 
the word rt//, here, is wholly deftrudive to the propohtion. For 
what is urged from John iii. 16, 17. that God fo fcnt h-s Son, 
that xuhofo ever beliem-ih in him (hould have everinfti^.g Jife ; as 
far as I know, It is not under debate, as to fne kn^^c of it among 

{3.) Yo\' Gou-iV.'inif'gnefi that all {ho\\\Aberaved. i Tim. ii, 
A. (to which I Tim. i. 15. is nee<l!ers!y added to m;ike a fhew ; 
that text being quits to another purpoie;) taking all men thcie, for 
t!ie uuiverfaiiiy of indlvidu.ils ; then I a.^ic, [i.] V-'hi^t a^ is it of 
f.od^ wherein this his wllingiicfs doth ccni':i'-? ii it in the f-erpal 


£/ * Oljcdian s particuldrly anficcred 

purpofs of his trill, tlut all fliould be I'jveJ ? wlj then is it ret .:c- 
compiillicd? who hirh reii.ieJ his wiii I Is it in an aui<reedeiu ile- 
fjrethatlt fliould bo lb, though he fails in the end? lUvn is the 
biciic-d v»od mort: niil'cia'olc ; it being not in him, tu accon»pIiih \vs& 
juil and holy defir^s.— Is \i fonie ituii'«oraiy act of his, whereby 
he hoth dccbred himi'elf ur.iu them ? then 1 fay; grant that lal- 
Vaiion is only to be had in a Kedecincr, in jcfus Chriit, and j^:ve 
jne .in indance how God, in any a»il whatfoever, hath declared his 
niir.d and reve.;led hinifelf to all men of aii linits anU places, cou- 
ceruing bis wildiigueis of their faivaiiin by Jel'us Chrifr a Re- 
deemer; and I will never more trouble yoM^ in this CrtUlV, [sj 
Dvfih this u'/*7, equally rtlpccl ih^ ail intended, or doth i; not ? If 
\i doih, why hata it not ec^ual tifeds towards all.^ what i eafcn can 
bealligned? If it doth not, whence ihall that appear f there is 
ucthir.g i\ the text to intimate any fuch diverfjry. 

For our parts, hyalhiie': — we undtriland /owm of c- 
throughoui the world? not doubling bin that, to the <cu-.] rru.;'. *, 
we have made it lo appear fiom the cor.ifxt and circiim{l:.'.n«:es of 
the place i the will >.'i God ihere, being that meniior.ed by oiif 
Saviour, John vi. 40. That which follows in the cJofe of this 
proof, of God's not being wanti'igia :ke lu^.ch'ncy of ht:lpfi*h^eft 
to thdr:i-ivho^ ai light covzss^ fufar t/intfTjeh^'i to be wrought upon 
a^id rscf^ive :ti is a poifonous lling in the litil of the ftrpeni; 
wherein is couched the whole Pvlagian pofon of free -^w ill ^ and 
Popifti mtfr it ofco/2gruity; with Aimi:iian /o^citTit gracCy in ita 
\* hols extent and univerfality J 10 neither of which, there is the 
leail wicuefs given in the place produced. Thus, 

2. The funi and meaning of the whole aOertion, i*, that there 
13 an univerfaliJy of ftdScient grace grafted to all, even of grace 
fubjvCwive, enabling them to obedience J which receives add. lion, 
ir.creafe, degrees, and augmeniation, according as thty who 
liave ir, do make ui'e of whcit they prefently enjoy ; which is a po- 
fitlon iJ contradictory to ::iiiui:ierable places of Scripture, fo dero- 
l^irory to the free grace of God, u> deftruftive to the c^cacy of it, 
fuch a clear exaltation of the old iJul free-will into the throne of 
God, as an_y thing that the decaying ef.;ate of chrillianity hath in- 
vented and broached. So far is it from being plain and clear 'q 
b>cripture, that it is unlverfally repugnant to the whole dd"pen'a« 
t.onof the new covenant, revealed to us therein; whicii if ever 
liie Lord call me to, I hope very clearly to damonftrate. Yjv the 
pre-cr.r, it belongs not immediately to the bufmefs in band; and 
therefore I leave it ; coming to 

Proof 2. ** JcfusChriil: the Son of God came into the world, 
** to five the World, John xii 47. to fave (ini.crs, i Tim. i. ij- 
••■ to take away our (in?, ano deilroy the works ol -e devil, i 
•' John ill. 5.8- to take away the fuis of t!:c world, J>hn i. 29- 
*' iu:dtherifu:* diei fcr all, : Cor. y. i*l; xi. aau g;ive bimfelf a 


and Places 0/ Scripture opened, 2*3 

♦* ranfoiR for all, i Tim. li. 6. to fa-.c ti.at %h)ch was lof^ 
** Malt, xviii. if. and fu hh propiiiatioii was rr.at'c for the world 
•* 2 Cor V. 19. the whoJe v,orid, i John :i. 2. And ajl thi« 
** is fuiJ and plain in Scriprure." 

Anfiv. Thofc places of this proof, where there i« mention of 
ailloTTVorld^ asjohnxii. 47. John i. 29. 2 Cor. v 14, 15^ t 
Tim. ii 6, 2 Cor. y. i»^. i John ij. 2. hare been all already 
eonfidered; and I am unwiJlirg to trouble the reader ^.j^Ji repe- 
titions i Ice thephccs; and I doubt net but/ou will fine tbar the/ 
arcfof^r from givjnf^ any firengfh to the thing intended to be 
proved by him, that they much rather aven it. For tbc refl, i 
Tim i. 15. Matt, xvijj. 11. i Jolm ili. 5. S. hcjr any thirg 
can be extracted from them, to give colour to the urjiverfajity cf 
redemption, I carinoi fee j what they make againft it, bath been 
declared. Pafs we then to 

Proof id. ** God in Chrift doth, in fome means or other of 
*' his appointment, give frime witnefs to ail men of hi? mercy and 
*' goodnefs procured by Chrift, Pfalm xiz. 6, Rom. x. 8. Ads 
*' ziv. 17. and therethr.jugh, at one time or oti;er, fendeih fonli 
♦* feme ftirrings of his Spirit, to move in and Icr.r.c!: at the heart-j 
** of men, to invite them to repentance and feek'ng God, and 
*t fo to lay hold oti the grace and fa'vation offered j and this noi 
*' in a fhevy or pretence, but in truth and good will, ready to be- 
** ftow it on them ; and this is all fully tefti£ed in Scripture, Gen, 
** vi. 3. Ifa. zlv. 22. Ads xvii. 30, 31. John i. 10, 

Anfvj. Parvai haUtfpes Troja^ ft tales ha&eii n the univer* 
fality of redemption have need of fuch proofs as thefe, it baiK 
indeed great need J andliale hope of fupportraent. Vni-oerfal -v^, 
cation \i here afierted, to maintain uni-verfal tedcmpticn ; ( J/a- 
nui maniim frizat i or rather Mula fe mutuo jcaiiuxtt i\ thi? 
being called in oflentirr.es to fupport the other; ar.d they are both 
the t'vvo legs of that idol — free v/ill, which is fct up for n:en \o 
worlh'p ; and when one ftumble", the other fteps forward to ar- 
ho\d ihe Babel Of t'Mirjerfal 'socalion (a grofs fgmentj I ihail 
ftot nov7 entreat j but only fay fcr the prefent, 

1. That it is true that God at all times, ever fince the creatioc, 
bath called men to the knowledge of bimicif asthe great Creator, 
in thofe things which of h;ni, by the means of the viilble creatiop., 
P3:gbt be known : - icnWit eternal P9^rr and Gcd-head^ Ken. i. 
19,20 Pfal. zJz. 1,2. A6t5xiT. ij. 

2. That after the death ofCbriil, he did, by the prezchir^ 
of the gofpcl eztenced far and wide, call hocie to himitJf iht 
children of God. fcattered abroad in the world, where&s h-'- t.Udk 
were before confined almcft to one n?tion ; giT-ng a rigLt for ih« 
gofpelto be preached to every treattire, Ma k z»L «i. Roo. x. 
r8. Ifa. 17. 5,22. Acisrvii. 5c. 3!, Bur, 

ilffl a. Hjat 


274 OhjeBions particularly anfiLtred 

<x^. That God OiQuld at all times, inall places, in all agr s, 
grant means of grace, or call to Chrift as a Redeemer, or to 
a participation of his mercy and goodnefs in him manifeited, 
with ftrivings and rr-otions ot his Spirit for men to clofe with 
thole invitations, is fo grofs and feroundlefs an imaginauon, 
lo oppofite 10 God's dillinguifliing mercy, fo contradftaiy 
to exprcfs places of Scripture and the experience of all ages, 
as I wonder how any man hath t!ie boldnefs to sfTert it, much 
more to produce it as a proof of an untruth mere grofs than 
itlclf. Were I not refolved to tie myfelf to the prefent con- 
iroverfy, I (hould not hold from producing fome reafons to 
evert their lancy ; fomeihing may be done hereafrer, \\ the 
Lord prevent not ; in the mean time let the reader confult 
Pfal. cxlvii. 19, 20. Mat. xi. 25. and xxii. 14. A61s xiv. 16. 
and xvi. 7. Rom. x 14, 15. We pafs to 

Proof /^ih. " The Holy Ghofl that comeih from the 
*• Father and the Son, fliall reprove the world of fin, (even 
*' that part of the world that retufeth now to beheve, that 
•• they are under fin) becaufe they believe not on Chrilt ; 
" and that it is their fin that they have not believed on him ; 
*' and how could it be their fin not to believe in Chrili, and 
*' they for that caufe under fin ; if there were neither enough 
*' in ti.e atonement made by Chrift for them, nor truth in 
" God's cffer of mercy to them, nor will nor power in the 
«' Spirit's moving, in any fort fufHcient to have brought (hern 
*' to believe, at one time or other; and yet is this evident in 
*' Scripture, and (hall be by the holy Spirit, to be their great 
•* fin, that fallens all other fins en them," John iii. j8, 19. 
and viii. 24. and xii. 48. ard tv. 22, 24. and xvi. 8, 9, 10, 11. 

Anfw. 1. The intention of this proof is to ihew that men 
fliall be condemned for their unbelief, for not believing ia 
ChriH; which (faith the auihot) cannot be, unlefs three 
things be granted : Firif, that there be enougli in the atone- 
mt nt made by Clitifl for them : Secondly, that there be tru h 
in God's ( fferof mercy to them : Thirdly, that there be fuf- 
ficieni will and power jTiven them by theS:irif, at fome time 
or other, to believe. Now, though 1 beheve no man can 
perceive what may be concluded hence for the univerfality 
ot redemption, yet 1 (hall obferve fome fev.^ {hin);s; and 

(1) To the fif It thing required, I fay; that il by nwugh 
in iU atonement for them, you underltand that the atonement 
which was nude lor thi^m, haih enough in it; we deny it: not 
becaufe the atonement haih not enough in it, foi them; but 
bccau/e theaionement was not for them. If you mjan that 


and Places oj Saipture opened. p. 7^ 

t^iere i J a fufficiency in the merit of Chrill to fave them, if 
they (houM believe ; we grant it, and afliMn that this tuffi* 
clencv is the chief ground ot the prcpofing it un'o tf*em ; 
(underitanding hofe to whim it is propufed ; thai is, thofe to 
whom the gofpel is pitched.) 

(2.) To ihe iL-cond ; that there is tiuih, as in all the ways 
and words ol God, foin his ofF^r ot mercy to uhomfocver 
it is cfiered. It we lake the command to believe, with the 
promife of life upon fo d(.ing. for an offor of mercy, there 
is an eternal tru h in it; which is, thai God will a{iuted;y 
befiow life and falva-ion upon all believeis ; the proffc^rs be. 
ing immeciiciiely declarative of our daty, a^td of the conca- 
tenation of faiih and life ; and not at all of God's intention 
towards the paiticular foul to whom the proffer is made; for 
xjuko hath known the mind of God ^ and zvho hath been his conn- 
Jdior F 

(3.; To the third; the Spirit's giving mil or power; I 
fay ; '[i.j that you fet the cart before the horfe, placing luiU 
hsioie power. [2.] I deny that any internal alfiltance is re- 
quired, to render a man inexcufable for not believing, if he 
have the objeft of faith propounded to him ; though of him- 
felf he gave neither power nor will fo to do, having lolt both 
in Adam. [3 ] How a man may have given him a will to 
believe, and yet not believe, I pray decUre, the next con- 
troverfy you undertake. 

2. This being obrerved, I (hall iake leave to put this proof 
into fuch form iis alone it i? capable of, that the fltengih 
f hereof may appear. And it is this; if the Spirit fhal! con- 
vince all thofe of fm to whom the gofpel is pre^jched, that 
they do not believe, then Chrift died for all men, both thofe 
that have the gofpel preached unto them, and thofe tbat have 
not; but the fi'ft is tme, for their unbelief is their great fin; 
frgo, JffusChriltdied for all; which if any, is an argu- 
mem a baculo ad angiUum from the beam to tkeJliultU, The 
places of Scrip;urc, John iii. j8, 19. and viii. 24. and xii. 
48 andxv. 2;j, 24. piove that unbelief is a foul-condemn- 
u!g fin ; and that lof which they fh^ll be condemned in whom 
it h privaftvs, by their having the gofpel preached (o them ; 
bui quid ad nos ? 

3. One place is more urged, and confcqucnily more 
abuied thin tl.e reft, and therefore niolf 1>- a little cleared; it 
is John xvi. 7, 8, 9, 10, ii. Tt>e words are. 1 will fend the 
Lomjorter urdc you ; aid when he is come, he zviU reprove the 
urn Id of fm, and of righicoujaefs, and oJ judgment ; of fin 


^'^j 6 OhjeBions particularly anfzotred , 

hecaitfe ihfiy believe not on me; oj righltoufnefs ^ hecauje I g^ 
te my Father, and ye fee me no more; of judgment ^ becaufe 
the prince of this world is judged. Now it is uncertain, whe- 
ther our author underltands the words of the Spirit in and 
with Chrift at the !alt day, or in and with the miniftry ot 
the word now in the days of the gofpei ; if the firft, he is 
foully miftaken ; if the latter, then the conviftion here 
meant extends only thofe to whom the gofpei is preached ; 
and what that will advantage univerfal redemption, which 
comprifeth all as well before as after the death of Chrill, I 
tnow not. But it is likewife uncertain, whether he fup- 
pofeth this convifction of the Spirit to attend the preaching of 
i.he gofpei only ; or elfe to confifl in drivings and motions, 
even in them who never hear the word of the gofpei ; if he 
mean the latter, we wau lor a proof. Moreover, it is un- 
certain, whether he (uppofeth thofe thias convinced, to be 
converted and brought to the iaith, by that convi6lion ancj 
that attending effeftualnefs of grace, or not. 

But omitting thofe things; that text being brought forth 
and infifted on, further to maniteft how little reafon there 
was for its producing, 1 |hall briefly open the meaning of 
the words. — Our Saviour Ghrift intending, in this his laft 
iermon, to comfort his apollles in their prefent fad condition, 
whereto they were brought by his telling them that he muft 
leave them and go to his Father ; which forrow and fadnels 
he knew full well would be much increafed, when they 
Ihould heboid the vile ignominious way whereby their Lord 
and Mdlter thould be taken from them, with all thole re- 
proaches and perfecuiions which would attend them fo de- 
prived of him J he bids them not be troubled, nor filled with 
forrow and fear, for all this; affuring them, that all this lofs, 
Ihame and reproach, fhould be abundantly made up, by what 
he would dg for them and beftow upon ihem, when his bo* 
dily prefence fhould be removed from them. 

And as to that particular, which was the head of all, that 
he fhould be fo vilely rejefted and taken out ol the world, as 
a falle teacher and feducer ; he telleih them that he will fend 
ALLON PARACLETON, John xiv. i6. another Com- 
forter ; one that fliall vicariam navare operam, (as TertulJ 
he unto them in his ftead, to fill them wuh all that confo- 
lation, whereof by his ablence they might be deprived ; and 
not only lo, but alfo to be prefent with them in other greater 
fhings, than any he had as yet employed them about. This 
3|ain he puis them in naind cl, chap. xvi. 7. Now ho 


and Places cj Scripture opened. 277 

PARACLETOS, who is there promiCed^ is properly an 
Advocate ; that i;-, one ihat plcadeth the c^ufe of a perfon 
who is guilty or acculed before any tribunal ; and is oppofed 
TO KateGORO, Revelations xii. 10. and fo is this 
word by us tranfliied, 1 John ii. 1. Chrilt then here teileth 
them, that as he will be their Advocate with the Father, fo 
he will fend them an Advocate to plead his caufe which they 
profefr«.'d, with the world, that is, thole men in the woild 
which had fo vilely traduced and condemned him as a fe- 
ducer, laying it as a reproach upoi: all his followers. This 
doubtlefs, tho' (m fome refpe6l) it be continued to all ages in 
the miniflry of the woid, yet principally intended the plen- 
tiful tffufion of the Spit it upon the apofUes at Pentecoll, af- 
ter the afcenfion of our Saviour; which alfo is made more 
apparent, by t!ie confideraiion ol what he aflirnieih thai the 
Advocate fo (eiit dial I do, viz. 

[1.] He will reprove, or rather evidently convince the 
world o//in ; becaale ihey believed not on hitD; which fure- 
ly he abundantly did, in that fernaon of Peter, A8s it. when 
the enemies themfelves and haters of Chritt, were fo re- 
proved and convinced of their fin, that upon the prtfTing 
urgency of that conviftion, thev cried ou', (verfe 37.) Allen 
and brethren, what Jhall we do ? Then was the world brougr»t 
to a voluntary conlefTion— of the fin o\ murdering Jcfus 

[2.] He (hall do the fame of righteoufnefs, bccaufe Chrift 
went to his Father; not of the world's own righteouCnefs, to 
reprove it for that, becaufe it is not ; but he (hall convnice 
the men of the world, who condemned Chrill as a feducer, 
of his righieoufnefs ; that he was not a blafphemer as they 
pretended, but the Son of God — as himlelf witnefTed ; 
which they (hall be forced to acknowledge ; when by the ct- 
fufion and pouring out of the Spirit upon his apollles, it ihall 
be made evident that he is gone to and received of his Fa« 
ther, }*nd owned by him ; as the centurion did, piefently up. 
on his death. 

[3] He Piall convivce the world ef judgment, hecaufe the 
prince oj this world is judged ; nianifeituig to all thofe of 
whom he fpeaketh, that he whom they defpifed as the car- 
penter's fon, and bade come down from the crofs if he could, 
is exalted to the right-hand of God, having all jnd*imeut 
committed 10 him; having beiore-hand, in his death, jtjdged, 
fentenced, and overcame Satan the prince of this v/oild, the 
chief infiigator of hiscrucifiers, "yvho had '.he power of death. 


g;8 Ohj^Blons particularly anfwered. 

And this I take be the clear, genuine meaning of this places 
not excluding the cantinned etHcacy of the Spirit ; working in the 
fame manner (tho' not to the fame degree; for the fame end, in 
the mini/try of the word, to the end of the world. But what 
this is, to univerfiil redemption, Jet them that can underfland it, 
keep i: to themfelves ; for I am confident, they will never bs able 
to make it out to others, 

Proof ^th. *' God hath teflified, both by his word and his oath, 
^ that he would that his Son fiiould fo far fave, as to work a re- 
" demption for all men ; and likewife that he fliould bring all to 
" the knowledge of the truth, that therethrough redemption 
*' might be wrought in and upon them, i Tim. ii, 4, with John 
*'iii. 17. So he wijielh not, nor hath any pleafure in the death 
*' of him (even the wicked) that dieth ; but rather that he turn 
** and live, Ezek. xviii. 23, 32. and xxxiii. 11. And dare any 

*' of us fay,-^ the God of truth faith and fweareth that, of 

" which he hath no iav/ard and ferious meaning ? Oh far be fucl\ 
<* blafphcmy from us.'* 

Anfv). 1. Thisair.rtion, t'lrit God tcjlifieth by his word ani 
oathy that he would that Chrijl Jhould Jo far Jave iis^ <^c. is a 
bold calling of God to witnefs that which he never :i5rmed, nor 
did it ever enter into his heart ; for he hath revealed his will, that 
Chrifl fiiould fave to the utmofi them that come to him ; and not 
{diVe fo far or fo far, as is boldly, ignorantly, and falfely inti- 
mated. Let men beware of provoking God to their own confu* 
fion ; he will not be a v^ritnef^ to the lie of falfe hearts. 

2. That Chrijl f]ioiild jo bring aU to the. knozvledge cfthe truths 
that therethrough redemption might be wrought in and upon them^ 
is another bold corruption of the word, and falfe witnefs bearing 
in the name of God ; it is a fmail thing for you, to weary and fe- 
duce men ; will you weary our God alfo ? 

3. For places of Scripture corrupted, tothefenfe impofed ; ir^ 
John iii, 17. God is faid to fend his Son., that the wot Id through, 
him might befaved ; not be faved {o far or fo far, but idwtdfrom 
their fins. Matt. i. 21. and to the uitermoft, Heb- vii. 25. fo 
that the world of God's ekft, who only are fo faved, is only there 
to be underflood J as hath been proved. In i Tim. ii 4- there' 
is fomething of the will of God, for the fiving of all forts of 

rtnen^ as haih been declared j nothin^ conducing to the bold affer- 
tion ufed in this place. 

4. To thofe are added that of Ezfk. xviii. 23 that God hatU 
not any pleafure at all that the wicked fioidd die ; and verfe 32. 
710 pleafure in t'lc death of him that dieth; ( which chap, xxxiii. 11.) 
Nov.'-, though thefe texts are exceeding ufelcfs to the bufinefs in 
hand, and might poffibly have fome colour of univerfal vocation, 
bat none of univerfal redemption, ther€ being no mention of 
Chrifc or his death, in the place from whence they are cited, yet 


and Places oj v. ^ l/iure opened. 179 

bccaufe or.r adverfaries are frequently kiiiiting knots from this 
place, to Inveigle and liamper the fmple J I Jhcili fidd fon/C few 
obfervations upon if, to clear the ineanii^g of ihe text, and dtmon- 
llrate, how it belongr. nothing at all to the bnf.nefs in hand, i^nd, 

[i.] Let us coniider to whom av.d of uluni iltie words are 
fpoken. Is it to and of all men ; or only tie hcnfe tf UVi'ti ? 
doubrlefs thefe laft j they are only init tided, ihry only are fpoken 
of; hear now^ hot.fe cf ifrael, verl'e2 5. 'Nc.wwiil it fcMow, 
that becaufe God faith he delights net in the death of ihc houfe of 
Ifrael, to whom he revealed his mind aid rtqnhtd their repentance 
and converfion j that therefore he faith fo of alJ, even ihoie to 
whom he never revealed his will by fuch ways as to them, nor 
called to repentance, PfaJ. cxlvii 19, 20. So that the veiy 
ground-workof the vyhole corclufion is removed by this fril ob- 

[2.] That God willeth not the death of a finner, is, eilher 
God purpofeth and deterrnineth he fliall not die; or, God com- 
raandeth that he fliall do thofe tilings wherein he may live. If the 
firft, w hy are they not all laved ? why do the Hnrcrs die ? for there 
is an iinmiiiability in the counfel of God, Heb. vi. 17. His coun» 
fd fiiall Jtand^ and he will do his ^ leaf ure^ Ifa. >:Ivi. 10. If 
the latter way, by commanding, then the fenfe is, that the Lord 
commandeth, that thofe whom he calleih riionld do their duty, 
that they may not die, (although he knows, that \hiis they cannot 
do without his alliftance;) now what this makes to general re- 
dempiion, I know not. 

[3.] To add no more, — this whole place, (with the fcope, aim, 
and intention of the prophet iu it) is miferably miilaken by our 
adverfaries; and ivreiled to that, whereof thtre is not the leal: 
thought in the text. Tlie v/ords are a part of the anfwer whic'i 
the Lord gives to repining Jews, concerning their provetb — 
The father s have eaten four grapes, and the childreh's teeth are 
fet on edge. Now, ab:)Ut v;hatd;d they ufc tl.is proverb ? Why ? 
concerning the land cf llracl^ verfe 2, the land of tiitlr habita- 
tion ; which was laid wafte by the fwon) (as tht-y affirmed) for 
theJinsof their fathers, themfelvcL beinfi Innocent- So that it is 
about God's temporal judgments, in cverlurn'ng their land and 
nation, that this difpiite is ; where the Lord juftitieth himfelf, in 
declaring the etju'iy of thefe judgments, by reafon oi their fnis ; 
even ihole fins, for which the land devoured them anv fpewe& 
them out ; telling tl.en\ t'hat liis judgment is, that for fuch things 
they lliould fure'y die, their blood fncjld be upcn them, verfe i 3. 
theyihould be ilaiii with the fword, and tut t^f by thoie judg- 
ments which they had deferved. N^t that the ihedding of their 
blood, and caflingout of their carcafes, was a thing in itlelf fo 
pleafurable or d.eiirabie to him, as that he did it only for his own 
will ; for let them leave their abon ir.atiun^. ^r.d try v/j- ether their 
livs? \^erc not nrc'cn^ed in peace. i'hii^ 

fiSo ObjeSlons particularly anfwered, 

This being the plain genuine fcope and meaning of this place^ 
at the firfl view prcfenting itfeif to every unprejudiced man, I 
have often admired, how I'o many flrange conclulions for a general 
purpofe of flievving rnercy to aJi, univtrfal vocation and redemp- 
tion, have been wrefted from it; as aJfo, how it came to be pro- 
duced, to give colour to that heap of blalphemy, which our au- 
tlior calleth his fifth proof. 

Proof 6M. *' The very words and phrafes ufed by the Holy 
'' Ghoft in Scripture, fpeaking of the death of Chrifl; and the 
*• ranfom and propitiation, to whom it belongs, and who may 
<' fetk it, and in believing find life, implies no lefs than ail men. 
*' As toindancej AILiiations, Matt, xxviii, 19, 20. The ends 
** of the earth, Ifa, xlv. 22. and xlix. 6. Every creature, 
»^Markxvi. 15. All, 2 Cor. v. >4)iJ. i Tim. ii. 6. Every 
♦'man, Heb. li. 9. The world, John iii. 16, 17. 2 Cor, v. 19. 
" The whole world^ i John ii 2. That which was loft, Luke 
*' xix, 10. Sinners, Matt. ix. 1 3^ Unjuft, iPet. lii. 18. Un- 
*' godly, Rom. v. 6. And that whofoever of thefe repent and 
''believe in Chrifl, fljall receive his gracf, John lii. 16, 18, 
" Ads X. 43 Now, all thele being fo often and indifferently 
"ufed, were it not pi ide and error, to devife gioffes to reftraiii 
*' thefenfethe Scripture hoideth forth, fo full end large for all 
*' men ?-' 

Arifw. I. This argument^ taken from the words arid phrafes 
whereby the object of the death of Chrifl is in the Scripture ex- 
prelfed, is that which fiileth up both pages of this book ; being re- 
peated, andraoftof the places here cited, urged an hundred times 
over; and yet it is fo far from being any prefling argument, as that 
indeed it is nothing but a bare naked repetition of the thing in de- 
bate, concluding according to his ov/n perfuafion. For the main 
query beiween us, is, whether the words ^/V and the wor/<i, be to 
be taken univerfally ; he faith fo, and he faith fo, which is all the 
proof we have; repeating over the thing to be proved, hiilead of 
a proof. — For thofe plrxts where the words all, every 7nan^ the 
luoild^ the whole world^ are ufed, we have had them over and 
over, and they have been confidcred; and for ihofe places which 
afiBrm Chrifl to die for finners, ungodly, that which is lofl, 6-c. 
as Luke xix. 10. iMatt. ix 13. i Pet. iii. t8. Rom. v. 6. 1 have 
before declared, ho .v exceedingly unferviceably they are to uni- 
verfal redemption. 

2. For thofe expreffions, of all nations^ Matt, xxviil. 19. 
every creature^ Markxvi. 15. ufed concerning them to whom do 
goipel is commanded to he preached, I fay, (i.) That they do 
not comprife all individuals, nay not all nations at all times, much 
lefs all fingular perfons of all nations ; if we look upon the ac- 
compliflimcnt, or tlie fulfilling of that command ; for de fa&o the 
g^fpel was never fo preached lo all; although there be a litnefs and 


and Places of Scripture opened. 2S t 

fuitablenefs in tne dirpearation thereof, to be lu preached to i\]'^ 
as was declired. (2.) The command of preaching the gofpel to 
a!!, doth not in the leall manner prove — that Ghrilt died with an 
intention to redeem all ; but it hath other grounds, and other enda 
as hath been manifclled. (3.) That the ranfom belongs to all, to 
whom it is propofed, we deny ; there be other ends of that propo- 
fjil ; and Chriil will fay to fonie of them, that he ntver knew 

them J therefore certainly he did not lay down his life for them 

Moreover, t/ieadscft/meart/i, Ifa. xlv. 22. are thole i/i at look 
uptoGod^ from all parts, and are Javed ; which fiirely are not 
all and every one. And Chrilt's being given to be a falvution 
unto the end of the earthy chap. xlix. 6. is to do no more among 
the Gentiles, than God promifeth iu the fame place t!ia: he ihall 
do for liis own people ; even t^ gather the prtftrvf^d of Iftatl ; (o 
ihall he bear forth the falvation of God, a<id gather the preferved. 
remnant of his ele£t, to the ends of the earth. 

3. And now, I hope, I need not mind the intelligent reader, 
that the author of thefe collcclions could not have invented a more 
ready way for the ruin of the the/is v/hich he feeks to maintain, 
than by producing thefe places of Scripture laft recounted, for the 
confirmation of it ; granting that «//, and the wor/l, are no 
more thdn all the ends of the earthy mentioned in Ifa. xlv. 22. 
and xhx. 6. It being evident beyond denial, that by thefe expref- 
fions in both thefe places, only the elect of God and believers are 
clearly intimated i fo that interpreting the one by the oiher, in 
thofe places wliere all and the loorld are fpoken of, thofe only are 
intended. If pride and error had not takc-n fuli poffeflion of the 
minds of men, they could not fo far i.\tny their own fenfe and 
reafon, as to contradiel themfelves, and the plain texts of Scrip- 
ture, for the maintenance of the falfc and corrupt opinions. 

Profl/';/'^/. "• That whereas there are certain high and peculiar 
<' privileges of the Spirit, contained in the New Tellameni fealed 
*' by the blood of Ghrift, which belong not to all men, but only 
'' tothe faints, the called and chofen of the Lord; and when 
*' they are alone diflindly mentioned, are even fo fpoken of, a-j 
*' belonging to thtm only, Matt. xiii. 11. John xiv. 17, 21,22. 
<' 23. and xvi. 13,14,15. andxvii. 19,20. Acts ii. 3S, 39, 
*' I Cor. 11-9, 14 Ileb. ix. 15. and viii tot. i Pet. ii. 3, 9. 
*' Yet many of ihefe peculiar privileges are fo fpoken of, as 
*' joined together with the ranfom and propitiation which belongs 
** to all ; then are ihey not fpoken of in fuch a reftraining and 
" exclufive manner, or with fuch appropriating v/orcsj but lo^ 
*' and v/ith fuch words, as room is left to apply the ranlom to all 
*< men, in fpeech. And withal, fo hold out the privileges to 
♦* them that believe, that are proper to them ; that they may both 
** have their comfort and efpecial hope , and aifo hold forth the 
" ranfom, and keep open tl)e door for others, iu belief and re^ 

N n *' ccipt 

£$2 OhjeBions pariicularly anfw6red, 

•* ceipt of the propiciation, to come in, and partal^e with 
" them. And fo it is laid, lot hxsjheef, and for mary ; but 
" no wheie only hut for his Iheep, or but only for many. 
** Which is a ilronfr proot of the ranfom iot all men ; as is 
** {hewn chap. iii. x.'* 

Jnfiu, The fliengih of this proof, as to the bufinefs in 
hand, is wholly hid horn me ; neither do I fee how it may 
receive any fuch tolerable application, as to deferve the 
name of a proof, as toihe main thefis intended to be main- 
tained. The force which it hath, is in an obfervaiion, which, 
if it hath any fenle, is neither true, nor once attempted to 
be made good ; for, 

1. That there are peculiar high privileges belonging to the 
faints and called of G'>d, is a thing which needs no proof : 
Amongft thefe^ is the death of Chrift for them, — not as 
ftiints but as elc£l ; which, by the benefit of that death and 
blood {bedding, are to be made iaints, and accounted to be 
the holy ones of God ; for he redeemed his church with his 
own blood, A6ls xx. e8. loved and gave him fdf J or it, Eptief. 
V. 2^. even us. Tit. ii, 14. And divers of thofe privileges 
here intimated, areexprelsly afligned unto them as eleft ; 
fuch as thofe, John xvii. 19, eo. Amongfl which alfo, ^^ 
in the fame rank with them, is reckoned Chrift's fonBifying 
himftlf for their fakes : that is to be an oblation, verie ip. 
In a word, all peculiar faving privileges — belong only to 
God's eleft ; purchafed for them, and them alone, by the 
blood of Jefus Chriff, Ephef. i. 3. 4. 

2. For the other part of the obfervation, — that where 
mention is made of thefe together with the ranfom, there is 
room left to extend the ranfom to all ; I anfwer, (1.) This 
is faid indeed, but not once attempted to be proved ; we have 
but fmall cau[e to believe the author, in a thing of this im- 
portance, upon his bare word. (2 ) For the leaving oj room 
for the application ; 1 perceived that if it be not left, ye will 
make it, — though ye jollle the true fenfe of the Scripture 
quite out of its place. (3.) I have already fiiewed, — that 
■M'here many are mentioned, the ranlom only {as ye ufe to 
fpeak) is expreffed ; as alfo where^^<?/? are fpoken of; and 
the like is faid, where the word all is ufed ; fo that there is 
not the Icafl difference. (4 ) In divers places the ranfom of 
ChrKf, and thofe other peculiar privileges, (which indeed 
are fruits of it) are fo united together, — as it is impoflible to 
apply the latter n^fomr, and the other to all ; being all ot 
ihem redrained to his faved ones, only. As in Rev. v. 9. xo. 


and Places of Scripiun opened. £83 

the redemption of his people by the ranfom oF Ills blood, 
and ihe making them kings and priclts, aic united, — and no 
loom left lor the extending o\ the ranfom 10 all ; it beinnr 
pun6KiaHy rilioned to ihofe favsd crowned ones, diftinguifh- 
ed from the relt o\ the nations and lan/juages irom among 
whom they were Jt,ken, who were pjiied by in the payment 
ofthejaniam; which is direfliy oppolife to all the ftnfe 
which 1 can obferve, in th:s <jb{crvaiion. (^.) Ol Iheep 
and (heep only, — t?nc;ugh betore. 

Ffco/Hik.^' Tlie relloration wrought by Chrift in his 
** own body for mankind, — is fet forth in Scrip ure to be as 
*' large and full lor all men, and of as much iorce; as the 
" fall of tlie fir(t Jcia?/i\->y and in himfelf tor all men ; in 
*• which rerp££l ihe fi;U Jdam is laid to have been a fi/,ure 
" of Chrilt ihe fecond Adam^ Rom. iii. 22, 23, 24. ar;d v. 
** 12,14,18. J Cor. XV. 21, 2is, 45, 40,47." As is beiore 
ihewn, chap, vlii. 

An/w. \. It is moft true, that Chrift and Adam are com- 
partd together, (in refpe^l ot the righteoulneis of the one 
communicated to them that are his ; 2nd the difjbcdience 
and tranTgrefTion of the other, in like manner communicated 
to aU them that are of him) in fome of the places here men- 
tioned ; as Rom. v. 12, 18. But evidently, the con^parffoa 
is not inltituted (between the Tighteouh)efs ot Chiifl a:id the 
d^iiohzdicnccoi Ad^^'i) extenfively in reipeft of the ot-jtci ; 
\)\MinterJively\nxQ\^&^ o\ the efficacy c\ the one and the 
other ; the apoltle afTerting the efFeBualnefs of the lightecuf- 
nefs ot Chrifi unto juftification, 10 miwer the pievalency of 
the fm of Adam unto condemnation ; — that cveii as the trinf* 
greflion of Adam brought a guilt ot condemnation, upon all 
them that are his natural feed ; fo the righteoufnefs ol Chrift 
procured the free gilt of grace unto juliificiition, lowardi; all 
them that are his, his i»i.i:ual feed, — that were the childrca 
given unto him ol his Faiher. 

2. This text 1 Cor. xv. 21, 22. fpcakeih of the rcfunec. 
tlon from the ^z^^, and tiiat only ot believers; for though 
he mentions them as «//, veife 22. in Chrijl [liall all he made 
alive ; yet verfe 23. he plainly interprets tliuJe alt — 10 be all 
that ^xtCkriJt^s. Not but that the oiner dead Ihall rife alio ; 
but that ins a refurreftion to gloiy, by virtue ot the reiurec- 
tion of Chrift, v^liich the apoftJc here treats of ; v.hich ctr- 
lainly ail fiiall not have. 

3. The comparifon between Chrift and y^^uw, vciie 4^. 
(to jpeak nothing of the various reading of that plac?) *s 


e5 J ObjcBions particularly an/weredt 

only in refpe£l of ihe principles which they had and were 
ir.ijufted withal, to conimunjcate to others: Adam a living 
JouU or a living creature ; iheie was in him a principle ot 
lite natural, to be communicated to his pofterity ; — Chriji a 
quickening Spirit ; gi^'«ng ^'^t?, grace and fpirir, to his feed. 
And here i would dcflre that it may be obferved, — ih-it ail 
the ccropaiifon that is any where initituted between Chriil 
and Adam, ilii! comes to one head, and aim.s at one thing, viz. 
that ihcy v^ ere as to common flocks or roots; communica' 
ting to them that are ingrafted into them, ^fhai is, — into 
Adam naturally, by generation ; into Chriit fpiritually, by re- 
f-eneratir.nj th-t wherewith thev were repkndhed : Adam, — 
iin, iiuih, and difobedience ; Chfiit, — lightcoufnefs, peace 
and jvillificalion. For the number of thofa that do thus re- 
ceive theie ihingS; trora one and the other ; the confideration 
ol it is exceedingly alien from the Icope, aim, and end of 
the apof^le, — in the places where the comparifon is inflituled. 

4. It is true in Pom iii. 2j. it is faid, — All have finned^ 
cndccm&fhort oj the glory cj God; which the apoPile had 
7A large proved before, thereby to manifefl that there was no 
faivaiicn to be attained but only by Jsfus Chrifl, but if you 
will zfk, to whom this righieoufnefi of Chrifl is extended, 
2nd that redemption which is in his blood; he telleth you 
plainly, it is unlo all and upon all them that believe^ verfe 22. 
whether they be Jew or Gentile ; for then: is no differ&ncz. 

PrcoJ^tk. " I'he Lord jc'fo5 Chriil: hath fen t and com- 
" rnanded his fervants to prtach the goipel to ail nations, to 
** every creaure ; and to tell them witha', that whoever be- 
** lievethand is baptized Cia'l be faved, Matr. xxviii. ig, 20. 
" Maikxvi. 15, 16. and his fervants have fo preached to 
** all, 2 Cor. V. 10. Rom. x. 13, 18. And our Lord Jefus 
" Chriil will make it to appear one day, that he bath not 
** fenl Kis fervan!s upon a fa'fe errand, nor piu a lie in their 
•• mouths : nor Vi/ifrjed them to diffcmblc, in offrring that to 
*• all which they knew belonged but to foiiie, even 10 few- 
** eiL of all ; but to Ipcak tjiub, Ii''a xliv. 26. and Ixi. 8. 
** 1 Tim- i. 12." 

Anjw 1. The firength of this proof is not eafily appa- 
rent, nor roanifeif wherein it lieth ; in what part or words of 
it. For, (1.) It is true, — Chriil cotnmandeth his apollles to 
pitach the gofpel to all nations, and evtry creature] to tell 
liicm, that xxhofoivtr hclicveth^ fJiall be faved. Matt, xxvtii, 
30, 20. Mark xvi. 1^5, 16. That is, — without diilinftion 
or perfons or nations, to call all men, (to whom the provi- 


and Places of Scripture opened. 285 

dence of God fliould dlrc£l them, — and from whom the Spi- 
rit ol God (hculd not wish-hold them, as trom thefe, Afts 
xvi. 6, 7.) warning them to repent and bc-lieve the gorpttl. 
(2.) It is aUo true, that in obedi?nce unto this coromaud, his 
fervants did bcfeech men fo to do, and to be reconciled unto 
God ; evcLi ail over the nations, without diftinfiion of any, 
— bur where ihey were forbidden, as above ; labouring to 
fpread thegofpel to the endsoi the earth, and not to tie it 
up to the confines of Jewry, z Cor. v. ici, 20. Rom. x, 18. 
^3.; Mod certain alfo it is, that the Lord Jefu^ Cliriit fent 
not his fervants with a lie, — to offer that to all, ivhicb be- 
longed only to fome ; but to fpcak the truth ; of which there 
needs no proof. — But now, what can be concluded Irom 
hence for univerfal redemption, is noteafily difcermble. 

2. Perhaps firr^e will fay, it is in this ; that if Chnit did 
not die for all whoai the word is preached, then how can 
they that preach it, — ofTer Chrifl to all ? A poor proof in- 
deed ! for, (1.) Thegofpel was never preached to all and 
every one ; nor is there any fuch thing affirmed in the 
places cited ; and yet yc are to prove, that Chrift died for 
all ; as well thofe that never hear ol the gofpel, as jhofe 
that do, (2.) What do the preachers ol the gofpel oiler to 
them, to whom the word is preached ? is it not lile and fal- 
vaiion through Chrilf, upon the condition of fuith and re- 
pentance ? And doth not the truth of this ofier confifl in 
this, that every one that bclieveth fhall be fayed ? And do'.h 
not that truth Hand firm and inviolable, — fo long as there i^ 
an ali-fuiTiciency in ChriO, to fave all that come unto him ? 
Hath God intruikd the minillers of the gofpel, with his in- 
tentions, purpofe and counfels ; or with his commands and 
promifes ? Is it a lie to tell men, that he that beheveth fha^'-l 
be laved ; though Chrilt did not die for fome of ihem ? Such 
prools a3 thefe, had need be well proved themfelves ; or they 
will conclude the thing intended, very weakly. 

Proof loih,** The Lord willech believers, to pray even 
** tor the unjuft and their perlccators, Matt. v. ^/^, 48. Luke 
*' vi. £8 yea even lor all men ; yea even for kings and ail 
*• in authority, when few in authority loved chriftianiiy ; yet 
*• he (aid, not fome of that fort, hut for all in auihoniy ; 
"and that on this ground, // is good in tkt Jight cf God, 
*■■ ziho will have all men fave d, and come to the knozvlcage of 
*' the Iruik, Lnke X. 5. 1 Tim. ii. 1,4. Surely ibcje' is a 
*' door ol life opened for all men, 2 Tim. i. ig. for God 
" haih not faid 10 the feed of Ifrael, feck ye me in vain, Ifa. 

[' xlv. J 9. 

2^6 OhjeSlions particularly anfwercd, 

" xlv. 19. He will not have his children pray for vain 
" things." 

Anfw. The ftrengih of this proof lieih in fuppofing, i. 
That indefinite aflertions — are to be interpreted as equiva- 
lent to univerlal, which is falfe ; (fee Rom. iv. 5.) 2. That 
hy ad, iTim. ii. 1. is not meant all forts of mco, — and the 
word ail not to be t^kcn diftributively ; when the apallle, by 
an enumeraiion o^ divers forts, gives an evident deraonftrati. 
on ot the fliftribution intended. 3 That we are bound to 
pray for every fmguUr man, that he may be faved ; which 
{1. we have no warrant, rule, precept, or example for. (2.) 
It is contrary to the apoltolical precept, 1 John v. 16. (3.) 
to our Saviour*s example, J^>hn xvii. 9. (4.) to the coun- 
fel and purpofe of God, in the general made known to us, 
Rom. ix. 11, 12, 15. and xi 7 — So that evidently our pray- 
ing for all, is but for all forts of men, excluding none ; and 
that thofe roav believe, who are ordained to eternal life. (4.) 
It fuppofeth — that there is nothing elfe that we are to pray 
for to men, but that they may be faved by Chrift ; which is 
apparently falfe, Jer. xxix. 7. And 5. that our ground of 
praying for any, ij an affurance that Chrift died for them in 
particular; which is not true, Afts viii. 22, 24. Yea 6. it 
moft Iplendidly takes for granted, — that our duty is to be 
conformed to God's lecret mind, his purpofe and counfel. 

Until every one of ihefe fuppofals be made good, which 
never a one of them will be very fuddenly ; there is no help 
in ihis Proof, nor ftrengih in this argument, viz, we muft 
pray for all, therefore God intends by the death of Chrift to 
iave all and every one ; its fophiftry and weaknefs being ap- 
parent. From our duty to God's purpofes, is no good con- 
clufion : though from his command to our duty, be moft 

Proof nth, " The Lord hath given forth his word and pro- 
•' mife, to be with his fervants fo preaching thegofpel to all, 
•' and with his people fo praying for all, where they come ; 
" that they may go on with confidence in both, Matth. xxviii. 
*• 20. 1 Tim. ii. 3. 8. Luke x. 6. ifa. liv. 17.'* 

An/w. That God will be with his people, wheiher preach- 
ing or praying, according to his will and their own duty ; is 
as appaient, as it is, that this makes nothing for univerfal re- 
demption : than which, what can be more evident ? 

Proof 12th, " The Lord hath already performed and made 
•♦ good his word to his fervants and people, upon loitse of all 
•* ions of men, and all forts of fmners : ftiewing then; ^ercy, 

•• to 

and Places of Scripture opened. & 87 

" to the very end that none might exclude themfelves ; but 
** ail be encouraged to repent, believe» and hope thereby, 
" Afts ii. and iii. and viii, and ix, and x, and xi, and xvi, 
*• and xix, and xxviii. 1 Cor. vi. 10, it, x Tim. i. 13, 
« 14. 15, i6, 17." 

Anfw. If you had told u.», that God had aheady made good 
his word to his fervanis, in faving all and every man ; and 
proved it clearly ; you had evidently and undehiably confirm- 
ed the main opinion. But now affirming only, that he had 
(hewed mercy to fome of all forts, and all forts of finners : 
that others ot the like lort (as are the remainder o\ his ele6k 
yet uncalled) might be induced to believe ; you have evi- 
dently betrayed your own caufe, and eflabiilhed that ot your 
adverfaries: fhewing how the Lord in the event declareih on 
their fide, faving in the blood of Jefus only fome o^ all forts, 
as they affirm ; not all and every one, which your tenet leads 
you to. 

Pr<9<7/ 13^/2, " The bleffing of life hath ftreamed In this 
•' doftrine of the love of God to mankind ; yea in the tender 
" and fpiritual dikovery of the grace of God to mankind, ^iti 
" the ranfom given and atonement made by Chrift for all 
•* men with the fruits thereof,; hath God in the firft place 
•* overcome his chofen ones to believe and turn to God, A6ls 
" xiii. 48. Titus ii. 11, 13. and iii. 4, 5." 

Anfw, 1. That the freedom of God's grace, and the tran- 
fcendency of his eternal love towards men, with the fending 
of his Son to die for them, to recover them to hirafelf from 
fin and Satan, is a moft effectual motive, and (when fet on 
by the Spirit of grace) a moft certain operative principle of 
the converfion of God's eleft ; we moil willingly acknow- 
ledge; it is that wherein our hearts rejoice, whereby they 
were endeared, and for which we defire to return thankful 
obedience every moment. But that ever it was efre£lua!, in 
extending this love 10 all, or at leaft that any efFeaualnefs is 
in that aggravation of it ; we utterly deny: and that, ^1.) 
becaufe it is falfe, and a corrupting of the word of God, as 
hath been fhewed ; and of a lie, there can be no good confe- 
cjuence. (2.) It quite enervates and plucks out the efficacy 
ot this heavenly motive ; by turning the moft intenfe and in- 
comparable love of God towards his ele6f, into a commoa 
defire. wifhing, and aff^fclion of his nature, (which indeed is 
oppofite to his nature,) failing of its end and purpofe ; which 
might confiil with the eternal deftru6lion of all mankind : as 
I ihould airUiidantJy detnonlUaie, if providence call me to the 


288 OhjeHions particularly an/wered, 

other part of this controverfy, concerning the caufe cf 
fending Jefus Chrift, 

2. Theje is nothing of this common love to all, in the pla- 
ces urged : for(i.) The grace mentioned. Tit. ii. ii, 13. 
is the grace that certainly brinjJS falvation, which that com- 
mon love doth not ; and was ihe caufe oF fending Chrifi, that 
he iBJght redeem us from all iniquity, and purify tohimfeU a 
peculiar prople zealous of good works : where our redemp- 
tion and fju6bficaiior., is yfTerted to be the immediate end of 
the oblation of Jefus Chrift ; which how deitrnftive it is to 
univerfal rcdeinption, hath been formerly declared. (« ) 
So alio is that love and kindnefs mentioned, chap iii. 4, 5. 
luch as whereby we receive the wafhing of regeneration, 
and renewing ot (he Holy Ghoff, verf'* 5. juiHficarion, and 
adoption toheirfhip ot eternal life, verfe 7. — which, whether 
it be a common or a peculiar love, let all men judge. ^"3.) 
A£ts xiii 47. (for verfe 48. there cited, contains as clear 2 
reilriftion of this love of God (o his ele£l as can be dcfired) 
feis out the extent of the mercy of God in Chrill through the 
preaching of the gofpei to the Gentiles alfo, and not only to 
the Jews ; as was foretold by Ifaiah xlix. 6. — which is far 
enough from giving any colour to the univerfality of grace ; 
it being nothing but the fame affirmation which ye have, 
John xi. 53. o\ gathering together in one the children of God 
that were /cattered abroad. 

Proof i^th.*' Thofe that when the gofpei comes and any 
•' fpiritual light therein to them, when they refufeto believe, 
•' and fufFer themfelves to be withdrawn by other things, 
•• they are affirmed to love or choofe darknefs rather than 
** light, John iii. 19. (which how could it be, if no light in 
•* truih were for them ?j in following lying vanities, to for- 
•' fake their own mercies, Jonah ii. 8. to harden their own 
♦* hearts, Rom. ii. 5. to lofe their fouls, Mdtt. xvi. s6. 
*♦ and to deftroy themfelves, Hofea xiii- 9. And they being 
*• from AdamiiUen into darknefs, hardnefs, and lofs of their 
** fouls, and death palled on them ; how could ihefe things 
'• be ; if by Jefus Chriil no life had been attained, no atone- 
•* ment made, no refloration of their fouls, nor means pro- 
♦* cured and ufed that they irjght be faved ? God is no hard 
*• mafler, to gather where he hatii not flrown." 

Anfw, The fum of this argument is, — that thofe who do 
not believe upon the preaching of the gofpei, are the caufes 
of their own ruin and dcilru6lion ; ihereiore Jefus Chrift 
died fcr all and every man in the world. Now though it 


4ind Places cj Sc / iplu re cfcntd, 2 89 

cannot but be appreherded, that it is time cafi awsy and b- 
lour loft, to anfwcr iucn C()n'vquen.':es cs ihcfej yet I rrinit 
add a Jew obier vations, leil ei;iy fctuplc iliouid remain wji.U 
ihe weakeft reader ; as, 

1 All have not the goTpei .>re*ched ?o ihfrn ; nav, hem 
tbe be^innirj,;^ of the world, the greisJefi part cf ir>eii L'<)ve 
bi'en psILd by, in the di(pei:{jnr-n <>t the means o^ g^ace, 
Rc:r:. ii. 14. Ails xiv. 16. and xvii. 30 Ail thcfe, ihcn, 
ir.ufl be \tV\ ci;t in this coiiclufjon ; whsch fendiTs ic ^litoge- 
thtr uleii-fs, to ihe buisn^is in hand ; lor the ur.'iveifdli y cf 
redrmption Llls 10 tise ground, \\ anyone foul be not itiien. 
ded in the payment of thefanlom. 

2. It is not a difb-^^Iieving ihs death oi Ciuiii Icr eve^ v in- 
dividual foul that ever was or ihal! be, fvvhich lo bclicV'j la no 
where in Scriprme required.! — ibdi is the caufe of nian's de* 
fiiuftion ; but a not- believing in ti»e a'l-!u!iicien<:y ol the 
palFion and oblaiion of Jelus Chriil for linners, — fo as to ac- 
cept cf the nr.ercy procured thereby, on thofe terms and con- 
diiionsupon which it is held forth in the golpel ; which doth 
not attend the purpofe and intention cf God — for whom 
Chrift ftiould die, but the fufnciency and eHicacy of his 
death — for ail ;hat receive him in a due manner ; he being the 
ordy true vvay, life, and light — No ether navit under lluw^n 
being given^ zvlureby men may be faved. It is a loving dai.k' 
nefs rather than lights as in John iii. 19. the place urged ia 
the proof; whete the word mallon, rather^ doth not in- 
flitute a ccmparifon between their love ot daiknefs and ligh.fj 
as though ihey loved both — but darknef^ chietly j biit; plain- 
ly intimates an oppcTi'icn unto t.ie icve cf light, by a fulj 
love of darkntfs. And this men are faid 10 do ; v^hich 
being fooken indefinitely — according to the «i.Ic:i of inifi- 
prfting Scripture follow-ed by this author, ihouid be lakeii 
univerlally tor all mm ; bu' v*e ^re contenied. that it be the 
/Kt^^'l? of thole n)en to whom Cot ill pitached j for 10 me aii^o 
of them received him, — to whom h^r gave thii pfiVilr'^e, iliat 
ihey Pioiild become the Sons 0/ God, John i. 12. 

Why you fhculd iniexpiciwve here, by ckoofi, — as ihoucJi 
ci^l er the words wete equivalent. Ox the \soid in the criginaf 
v;oaid fign'fv either, 1 can (ee no leafon ; lor bcth ibeii^ «ro 
exceeding ialfe. There is a diifcMence b-^tvveeti loving &i\d 
choofiTig : and as for egapesan, fic would be as bad rt 
tranhaior as you are an in'eip'eter, that fiiould render i.i tkty 
choojed ; Now what is tl;l5 Iv-'r^ of daitaefi rather thh*. 
iigkt/bat a foik>wirg t;i;d cleaving ir* s^'d-^DM^n .ind pr^i^iice tj 
O V " ^h 

290 Obji&ions particularly ar^/zvindf 

the WAY'^ wherein they were ', being alienated from the life of God, 
labouring in the unfruitful works of darknefs, and rtfufing to em- 
biMce the heavenly doclrine of the gcfpei, boldino forth peace and 
reconciliation with Go J through Chrilt, with life and immortality 
thereby. To concliuic from hence, that fberefore Ghriil died for 
all and every man in the world, becaufe tije greatell part of them 
to whom he preached the gofpe! did not believe, is a wild kind of 
reafoninj ; much better may we infer, that therefore he died not 
lor all men ; becaufe it is noi gi'Siin unto them for his fake to believe 
onhim^ Phil, i^ 29. 

Neither will that parenthefis (ly/^/c/^A/oii/ to,v/i// be, if no light 
in truth were for them \ ) give any light to the former inherence ; 
becaufe if the word (/or) lhou:d denote the intention and purpofe 
of God, — the truth i?, we dare not fay that God intends and pur- 
pofeth that they fhould receive liglit who do not ; left by fo faying 

we ihould make the ftrength of Ifrael to be like to ourfelves, 

ancj contradict him who hath faid. My counftl jhall Jlandy and I 
will d9 allmy pleafure. Ha. xlvi. lo- The counftl of the Lord 
flandeih for ever^ Pfal. xxxiii. 11, He bcmg the Lord and 
changing not^ Mai iii. 6. James i. 17. 2 Tim. ii. 19. Rom. ix. 
1 1. But if by {for them) — you mean fueh a ftock and fulncfs of 
light and grace, as there is of ligiit in the fun for all the men in the 
world, tliough fome be blind and cannot fee it ; then we fay that 
facha light there is for all in the gofpel — to whom it is preached, 
and their own blindnefs is the fole caufe of their not receiving it ; 
fo that this hath not got the ilone altep forward, which ftill rolls 
back upon him. 

3. The other Scriptures urg.*d, have not fo much as any colour 
that fliould give advantage to confider them, as with any reference 
to the bufinefs in'hand. That of Jonah ii. 8. is concerning fuch 
as forfake the true God to follow idols ; fo forfeiting the mercies, 
temporal and fpiritual, which from the true God they had before 
received. Rom. ii. 5. fpeaks of the Gentiles who bad the works 
cf God to teach them, and the patience of God to wait upon 
them; yet made no other ufe of them both, than by vile rebel- 
lions to add new degrees of further hardnefs upon their own heart 
That of men's /9y?^^//2J:r/i>z//j, Matt. xvi. 26. and defraying 
themfel'ves, (flof xiii. 9.) by lln, is of eqnal force with what 
went before. 

Buf, 4. The clofe of this reafcn feems to intimate a further 
view of the- author, which at the iirft doth not appear, viz. that 
ail men are in a reftored condition by Chrift ; not only a door of 
mercy opened for them all, but that tht-y are all ac'tually reftored 
into grace and favour, — from which if they do not fall, they ihall 
filreiy be faved ; and the argument y/hereby he proves this, is, b2» 
caufe being iuft in Ad:im^ thsy could not be faid to \o^t themfelres, 
unlcfs the/ wt^rs rellored fay Cluii]: ; being Jarkncfi and h-ardncfj 


and Places of Scripture opened 291 

\xi Adam, uiilef; alt were enlightened and mollified by Chrifl^ they 
could not be laid to love darknefs nor to harden ihemfelves. Now 
if this be hisiniention, (as it is too apparent that lo it h) I niuft 
{ly iomething, — firft 10 tlie argument, fecondJy to ihe thing itfelf. 

(i.) For ihe argumenf, it is this ; beciufeby original lin mea 
are guilty of death aiid damn nion, therefore they cannot by ac- 
tual fins make lure of and aggravate th it condemnation, and f« 
bring upon thernCelves a dei-h unto death ; or, becaufe there is a 
native inbred hardnefs of heart in man, therefore none can add 
further degrees of contracled hardnefs and induration by actual 
rebellions ; breaufe men are biinci, therefore they cannot under- 
value light, (when indeed the reafon why they do fo, is becanie 
they are blind) and that men who hevp time and opporturtiry and 
means to fave their fouls, cannot bo i ud to lofe them, that is to be 
condemned, — unlcfs their fouis were \\^ a favcd condition before. 
Now this is one of the pi oofs, which in the clofe is called plain and 
according to Scripture. ; when indeed nothing can be more contrary 
to reafon and Scripture, even the principles of the oracles cf 
God, — than this and lome other of them are. I fliail add no 
more on this ; kno^ving that no reader can be fo weak, as to con- 
ceive, — that the refufing of apropofed remedy, accompanied Vwith 
infin-te other defplghts done to the Lord, is not fufficieiit to make 
men guilty of their own condemnation j i fpeak of thofe, that en- 
joy the preaching of the gofpel. 

(2.) For the thing itfelf, or an actual reftoration of all men by 
Chrifl: into fuch a ftate (as is intimated) as they had at the firft in 
Adam ; (I mean inrcfpttt of covenant, not innocency,- — which I 
take to be the meaning of the author ; and that becaufe in another 
place he pofuively affirnis that it is fo, and that all are juflified by 
Ghrift, — though how it ihould be fo, he is not ?ble to declare ; ) to 
this then I fay, — that there is nothing in the Scripture that fliould 
give the leafl colour to this grofs error ; nor can any thing he pro- 
duced, fomnch as probably founding that way. Uuifnither, 

(1.) It is contrary to very many piaces, ainrming that we are 
dead intreTpajfes and fins ^ Ephef. ii. i. that except a 7nan le kom 
again^ he cannot fee the kin grUm of God^ John iii. 3. that xiauI a 
man come by faith to Ciirill, ihe wrath of God ahii'tth on him, 
John iii. 36. with thofe infiumerable places which difcover the uiii 
verfal alienation of all m^A ftom God, yntil aclual | eace and \t~ 
conciliation be made'lhrffMA Chvill 

(2.) It is contrary to^h^very nature and cifence of the new 
covenant oi" grace, — proeeeding from the free mercy ^i God to 
his elect, carried along with diltinguifliing piomifes frcni the fiiTt 
(putting a difference between the feed of the v;oman and the fee«l 
of the ferpent, — as well in the members as in the head) to t) e laft 
•f them i being effe^'"^ of and r^-^"'- - ^ * - - --•' •' tN,;ricr 

29 "2 Oljedions particularly anfiuctid, 

it promifeth, in and to^vards all to w'nom it doth belongs (whicti 
certai'ily It doth rot in all) and being everj where fald to be made 
•with the people of GoJ, or tholf whom be vvill own, in onpofition to 
the world j ofall which and divert othtr thing?, fo plerttifully af- 
iirraed of it in the Scripture, r;nt one can be true j if ail men re- 
ceive a reiteration by Chrifr, inro covenant. 

(3.) It is contrary to the eternal purjiofeof God, in eleftion ari 
reprobation: of which the latter i? a reiulutinn to leave men in 
their fallen condition, without any reparation by Chrift, 

(4. ) It is attended with verA' many ftrange, abfurd and ground- 
lefs confequences ; as, [f.J I'hat all infants, dying before they 
corne to the uie of reafon and the comni'tting of aftua! fin, mud 
neceirarily be faved ; (althounh ouv faviour hath faid, that except 
a mrtJ2 he born again^ he cawnotfec the. kingdom of Gcd^ John iii. 3. 
and Paul from hhri, that the children of iniidels are tindenn^ i 
Cor. vii. I 4. but no unclean thing Ihall enterthe new jerui'alem, 
Kev. xxi. 27.) whereby the infants of T^irks^ Pagans^ ifijidels^ 
perfecntors^ — are placed in a far more h^ppy condition, if they de- 
par: in their infancy, than tire bell of believers ; who arc not (ac- 
cording to the authors of this doclrine) out of danger of eternal 
ptriihin^. [2 •] That there is no more required of any to be 
faved, than a continuance in the eftate wherein he was born, (that 
Ss, in the covenant, — as being actually reftored by Chrifl there- 
unto) v;hen the whole v/ord of God crieth ouf , that all fuch as fo 
abide fliall certainly perifli cverlaftingly. [5.3 That every one 
that periflieth in the whole world, falls av;ay from the grace of the 
Tiew covenant ; though the promifes thereof are, that there llialJ. 
r.ever be any total falling away of them that are in the covenant. 
^4.] That none can come unto Chrift, but fuch as have in their 
own p^^rfcns fallen from h-.m ; for all others abide in h.im.^ — Innu- 
jnerahle other fuch confequences asthefe, do necelfarily attend this 
falfe heretical afTertion ; that is fo abfoKitely deftrudive to the free 
grace of God. I doubt not but fuch proofs as thtfe, v/ill make 
coHiidering men farther ftarch into the matter intended to be 
proved ; and yield them good advantages, to <5ifcover the v/retch- 
cu lie cf the whole. 

5. To the lari: word" of the proof I anfwer ; that God fowed 
t'lat (ted in Adan:^ and waiered it.u^Ji innumerable temporal 
blefRngs tcv;ards all, and fpjrituai in fcae.-^vvhofe fruit he will 
come to require from the v^orld of ^||^fe^«vers, and not in the 
blood of Jefus Chrifr-; any further, rfflpnHjlt hath been certainly 
propofed to fomeof them — and defpife^jniyBi 

Proof isth^ *' God's earned expoOulat'c™ contending*;, char. 
" ges, and proteiftations j even loftich as vvjiereof maii^'^ perifiied ; 
** Rnm. xi. 27, Ifa. X, 22. As to inftance, O! that there were 
'' fuch an heart in them, that they would fear me, <bz, that it 
'- might be well withthem, Detit. v. 27. What could have been 

«* done 

and Places 0/ Scripture opened. snt 

*< done more to 1117 vineyard, that I have not c'cne In it ? ejc- ITa, 
*' V 4, 5. What Lnlquity have your fathers found in me, that they 
** are gone far froin me.' Jer. ii 5. Have I been a wihiernefs 
" unto liriel, a landof darknefs ? Wherefore fay my people \vc 
<< are Lords, we will come no more unto thee ? verfe 31. O mv 
<» people ! v/hat have I done unto thee ? wherein have I v/earie'd 
** thee ? icflify againft m.e, Micah vi 3* How often Mould I 
*' have gathered, <rc and you would not, Matt, xxiii 37. O 
** that my people had hearkened unto me, <sc. I fiiould foon have 
** fubdued their enemies, <6^c, Pfal Ixxxi. 13, 14. Eecaufe I 
<' have called and ye refuled, and no man regarded, ^c, Prov. 
"i 24»25 32. Becaufe that when they knew God, they glorifi- 
<* ed him not as God, Rom.i. 2r,28 Therefore thou art inex- 
" cufable, Oman, ^c.T/toii a{ter thy hardnefs and impenitent 
<' heart, treai'ureft up unto thyfelf wrath, ^c. Rom. jl i. 
(i 5. NocfiriJlian,Ihope\\\\\ reply againft God and fay; thou 
<< never manteft us good, there was no ranfom given for us no 
«* atonement made for us, no good done us, no mercy Hie^wn 
«' us, nothing in truth whereby we might have been favcd 
<t nothing but an empty fnew, a bare pretence. But if any fljould 
<< realbn fo evilly, yet fnall not fuch anfwers fland.'* 

Afijw, To thiscolledlion of e:^poflulations, I flialJ very brieflr 
anfwer with fome few cbfervations; manlfeilingof how little ufe 
it is, to the bufinefs in hand. As, 

I. That in all thefe expoflulations, there is no mention of any 
i-anfom given, or atonement made for them that peril]], which is 
the thing pretended in the clofe ; (but they are all about temporal 
mercies, with the outward means of grace : ) concernirg wh;ch we 
mayobferve, that as God doth not cj^poftulate with them about it 
no more fiiall they with God about it at the lafi: day. Not that I 
deny, that (here is fufficient matter of ejrpoftulation with fnnerr 
about the blood of Chrift and the ranfom paid thereby; that fo 
his elect may be drawn and wrought upon to faith and rtpentapce • 
and believers more and more endeared to forlaks all iingodlinei"? 
and worldly lufts, to live unto him who died for them: and that 
others may be left more unexcufable : only, for the prefent there 
are no fuch expoftulations here exprclTed ; nor can any be found 
holding out the purpofe and intention of God in Chrifi: towards 
them that peridi. 

2 That all thefe places urged, (e.-cepting only thofe of Rom. 
i. 28. and ii. 5. whi^apparently and evidently lay the incr.cu. 
fablenefsof fin, upcait^iat kr.owledge which they might have had, 
bythev/orkof creafion and providerce, of God as erernal, z\- 
might.r, and powerful ; without the leall intimation of nuy ran- 
fom, atonement and redemption;} that al! tlie reft, I fay arc 
fpoken to and of thofe that enjoyed'thc means of grace ; who, hi 
the days wherein thofe cxpoilulafirns were uft-d towards them. 

ig\ Cljcdions pajticularly anfwtred, 

were a very frnal) portion of all men ; fo that from what is fald t» 
them, nothing can be concluded of the mind and purpofe of God 
towards all others, a^faL cxivii. 19, 20. j) which is deftruaive 
10 the general ranfom. 

3. That there are no men, efpecially none of thofe that enjor 
the means ofgrace, but do receive fo many mercies from God ; as 
that he may juftly plead with them about their unthankfuhiefs, 
and not returning of obedience proportionable to the mercies and 
light uhich they received. 

4. It is confelTed, I hope, by all, that there are none of thofe 
things, for the want whereof God txpcftuiateth with the Ions of 
men ; but that he could, if it fj feetned good before him, effccluaily 
work them in their hearts, atleaftbytlie exceeding greatnefs cf 
his power: fo that thefe things cannot be declarative of his pur- 
pofe, which he miglit if he pleafed fulfil j for who hathreftfied hks 
will :' Rom. ix- 19. 

5. That defires and wifliings fliould properly be afcribed unto 
God, is exceedingly oppofite to his all fuliiciency, and the perfec- 
tion of his nature ; they are no more in him, than he hath 
eyes, ears and hands : thefe things are to be underftood, theo- 


6 Iti^ evident, that all thefe are nothing but pathetical declara- 
tions of our duty, in tlie enjoyment of the means of grace ; ftrong 
convictions of the ftubborn and difobedient ; with a full jufli- 
fication of the excellency of God's ways, to draw us to the per- 
formance of out duty J ergo^ Chrift died for all men! Hop£a 


7. Some particular places, that feem to be of more weight than 
the reft, have been already examined. 

Proof i6th^ *' The Scripture's manner of fetting forth the fin 
*' offuch as defplfe and refufe this grace, and their eftale, and 
** the perfonsperifliirg; as to fay, they turn the grace of God 
•' into vi'antonnefs, juJe 4. tread under foot the Son of God, pro- 
** fane the blood of the covenant, with which they were fanctiiied ; 
*' offer defpight to the fpirit of grace, Heb. x. 29. deny the 
*' Lord that bought them, 2 Pet. ii. 1. they perilh for whom 
'^ Chrifldied, 1 Cor. viii. ir. trees twice dead, plucked 'up by 
*' the roots, Jude, 12, 13. and bringupon themfeives fwift deftruc- 
** tion, 2 Pet. ii. i. And how could all this be, if God had giv- 
** en his Son in ijo fort for them ? IfChriilhad fxied no blood to 
*< procure rcraiiuon for them I If he had not bought them nor had 
** any grace or I'fe by his Spirit to beitow on them :" 

Anfxv, 1. Tliere arc in this proof three places of Scripture, 
which are fi-equently urged in this caufe, ^/z. lieb. x. 29. 2 Pet. 
ii. I. 1 Cor- viii. ir. and therefore they have been confidered 
iilreadv apart, at large : wliere it was evidenced, that they no 
wayincline to the afl'ertlonof that whereunto thty are violently 
wrefted, and their f^nf^ fer that end perverted. 3> Fe-i 

Mfid Places fif Scripture cptntd S'?^ 

2. For thofe other places out of Ju'Je4. r2, 13. I caT.nct per- 
ceive, how they can be hooked nito the bufmers in hand. Some 
.'ire faid ver. 4. to turn the grace of God into lacivioufntfi ; that If, 
to abiife the dodlrine of the gofpel, and the riiercy of God revealed 
thercb/, to encourage themfelves in fin; wht-nce to conchide, 
that therefore Jefus Clirifi: died for all men, is an imcouth infer- 
ence : efpecially, the apollle intimating that he died not for t! efe 
abufcrs of his grace, afiirn::ing that they luere before of old ordaifi- 
ad to condemnation; which ordination flandetlj in direct oppof t;cn 
to that love which moved the Lord to fend his Son Chrift to procure 
the falvatlon of any. The flrength of the procf licth in the other 
places which have been already confidered. 

Proof lyt/iy " Jefus Chrilt, by virtueof his death iliall be their 
*' judge; and by the gofpel, in which they mi,]ht have been 
** faved, will he judge them to 3 fecond death : and how can that 
*'be, if he never died the firft death for them,' and if there were 
" not truth in his gofpel preached to them ? Rom. xiv. 9, 10, 11, 
** 12. Phil. ii. 7, II. Rom. ii. 16. Johnxii. 47, 48,50." 

Anfw. I. That Jefus Chriftfhall be judge of all, and that all 
judgment is already committed to hinj, is confefl; : that it doth not 
hence follow that he died for ail, hath been already declared ; 
unlefs ye will affirm that he died for the devils alfo, becaufe they 
alfo mud be judged by him, 

2. That all ihall be judged by the gofpei, even fuch as never 
heard word of it, is direftly contrary to the gofpel ; for as many 
as have finned ivithout laxuy fiall alfo perijli without the laiv^ and 
as many as have finned in the law^ Jhall be judged by the law, 
Rom. ii. 12 Every man doubtlefs lliall be judged, ?ccording to 
the light and rule which he did or might have enjoyed j and not 
according to that whereof he was invincib'y deprived. 

3. That Chrift fliould be fald to die oniy the frft death Is nei- 
ther an exprefiion of the word, nor can be collected from therce: 
he died ths death v/hich vi^as in the cuvfe of the law; but of this 
«nly by the way. 

4. You intimate, as though there v/ere no truth m t'ne gofpel 
preached, unlefs Chrift died for all ; when indeed there is no afier- 
tion more oppofite to the truth of the gofpel. T he places urged men- 
lion Chrift being Lord of all, exalttd above all, beirgjudje of all; 
judging men according io the .cclpel, that is, thole nun who enjoy 
it; but how thev may be ivrelled to i:l,e end propofed, I know nor. 

Proof i8th^ ''Eeiievers are exhoued to contend for the faith 
" of this common ialvation, which v^asonce delivered to ihe iaints, 
"which fome having heard — oppofe, and others turn the rifers of 
"It into wantonnef.s; and through not heeding, and not walking 
"in the faith of this filvaticji, already wrought by Chrift for 
" men, they deprive theirJelves of, and wind out ihemfelves from 
" thi»t falvation wrJch Ghritt by ii's fjriric in Efplicalicrn of the 

" farmer 

^9^ C3;V^72'£772 s pariicuUriy anjkerei 

*' former hath wrought in them, — and fo deprive themfelves o/thf 
<* fwlvation to come, Jude 3. 4» 5-'' 

*' And every of thefe proofs be plain, and according to Scrip. 
*' tiire, ana each of force j how much more altogether ; Ibll juf- 
*' tifyirg thefenfe, that i Tim. ii 6. and Heb. ii 9. importeth, 
<' and the truth of the piopolition in the beginnivg ?'* 

Anfvj, I can fee nothing in this proof , — -bat only that the fal- 
vationpiirc'iafed by Ghrifl, is C3.\\ed common fahation ; which if 
youco;ic!u;;e from thence to be common to all,- you may as well 
conclude f-j of faith that it belongs to all, becaufe it is called the 
gammon fJt'i^ Tit. i. 4. though termed, The faith of Cod*i 
ehii^ verle i. Doubtlefs there is a community of believers ; and 
that is common amungil: them, v»hich is extended to the whole 
church of G^d. There is, totus mimdui ex tcto mundo ; * and 
the common falvaiion, is that whereby they are all faved ; without 
any colour of that Grange common falvation, whereby no one is 

laved, —maintained by this diiputer. The remainder of this 

proof, is a fuhiefs of words, fungible to the perfuafion of the au- 
thor ; bar, in no fmall part of them, exceedingly unfuitable to the 
v/ord of God, and derogatory to the merits of Chrifl: ; making 
the falvation purchafed by him, to be m itfelf of no effed j but 
left to the willof fmful, corrupted, accurfedmen, — to make avail- 
able, or to rejecl. 

And thefe are the proofs, which this author C3.\h plain^ aJzd ac- 
cording iQ the Scripture^ — being a recapitulation of almoft all that 
hs hath faid in his whole book ; at leaft for the argumentative part 
thereof, there is not any thing of v/eight omitted ; and therefore 
this chapter I fixed on, to return a full and pundual anfwer unto. 
Now, whether the thing iatended to beproved, 'viz, the paying of 
a ranfom by Chrijifor oil and every 7nan^ be plainly^ clearly and 
evidefitly from the Scripture confirmed, — as he v/ould bear us in 
hand ; or whether all this heap of words, called arguments, reafons 
and proofs,-^be not, for their manner of exprellion, obfcure, un- 
couth, and ofitimes unintelligible ; for their v/ay of inference,— 
childiih,.weak and ridiculous; in their allegations and interpre- 
tations of Scripture, — pervcrfe, violent, miitaken, — through ig- 
norance, hcediefsnefs, and corruption of judgment, — in diredop- 
pofiiiontothe mind and willof God revealed therein j—is leftta 
the judgment of the chriftian reader, that Ihall perufe them, wlt.^ 
the anfwers annexed. 


4f Th?iih,^avjhokvjQrli (of believers gathered) 9Ut of t!w 
Tv'icle wsrid. 

and Places of Scripture opened. 297 


Thersmovaiofoihsr nmaining ohje^ionSj fto-m renfon, 

TH E removal offome ufual fophifms and captious arguments 
of the Arminians^ of late made common and vulgar, — fliall 
be the cJofe of our treatife ; and wind up the whole controverfy, 
which hath drawn us with violence thus far. And in this perform- 
ance. I fliall labour to be as brief as polUble; partly, becaufe thefe 
things have been handled at large by others; partly, becaui'e all 
colour of oppofition to the truth by us maintained, from the Scrip- 
tures, being removed, — all other objeftions will indeed naturally 
fink of themfelves. Yet, becaufe great boafting^ and fwelling 
words of vanity have been ufed, concerning fome that follow, it 
is neceifary that fome things be faid, to iliew the emptinefs of fuch 
f/ouriflies, that the weakell may not be intangled by them. 

Object. I. That which we fliall begin withal, is an argument 
o{ a.z great fame and as little merits as any that in this caufe (or 
indeed in any other controverfy) hath been ufed of late days;- and 
it is this, viz ** that which every one is bound to believe, is 
** true; but every one is bour>d to believe that Jefus Ghrlft died 
♦' for him; therefore it is true, that Jefus Chrift died for every 
" one.**-. ■■■■Now, 

jfi. This is an argument which, to diTcover t'leir convidion of 
the weaknefs of the reft of their arguments, the Ar?77i fJi an s and 
their friends never ufe, — but withal they add fome notable enco-, 
Tniumofk; with fome terms of affront and threatening to their 
adverfaries ; in fo much as, byconfent on both fides, it hath ob^» 
ia.medthena.me of the Remonftrafits Jcliillei. Now truly, for my 
part, — as I fiiali not tranfcribe any thing hither, out of the many 
full anfwers given to it by our Divines ; by which this Achilles^ of 
rather Goliahy hath been often caft to the ground ; fo I heartily 
wifli, that the minyoperous prolix anfwers which the boafting of 
our adverfaries hath drawn forth, — had not got this poor nothing 
more repute a thoufand times, than its own ftrengih, or any ad- 
dition of force from the managers of it, could have procured unto 

S'jppofing then, i. That the term Z'(?//V'y^, be ufed in the fame 
fenie in both propofitions ; (for if otherwife, the fy llogifm is falfe 
in the form of it.) 2. TY.dilhy belie'ving^ is underllood, aja'virg 
npplication ofChyifi to the foril — as held out iit the provzift ? fcr 
to believe that Chrifi: died for me in particular, as is afferted to be 
the duty of every one, can be nothing elfe but fuch a faving appli- 
cation. 3. That a ^^//f^/«^ that Chrifi died for any, according 
to the bufinefs in queftion, — mufi: be with reference to the purpofe 
of the Father, and intention of Jefus Chrift liimfelf; for that is 

P p it 

29B. OhjcBionypartiadarly anfuered 

it which, with regard to ary univerfaUiy^ is by us oppofed.* 
4. That tlie term {every one) mufl relate unto ali n^en as confider- 
ed in an alike condition / for feveral refpeds and conditions of the 
Tame perions, may caufe then) to come under Teveral ob'igaticn? 
unto duties 3+ — now there is no one condition common unto ad, 
but only the ftate of wrath and death, Eph. ii. 3. and therefore 
every/nan mult be confidered as in that condirion.™ The fenfe 
thenof the w//;or propofition, is in film this, vit.. *' All men iit 
*' the world, as confidered in a (late of wM'ath and unregeneracy, 
«' are bound to believe (as before defcribed) that it was the in- 
" tention of God that Ghrid flic iild die for every one of them in 
tt particular.'- 

Novv, not to fay any thing to tlie fnajor prcpofitiou, (which ytt 
i% falfe ; that which men are bound to believe in this fenfe, being, 
as hath been obferved by many, neither true nor falfe) but 
gBod\ ) the affiimpt'.on is abfolutely falfe, £nd hath not the leaft co- 
lour of reafon or Scripture to fupport it ; and (taking every man 
for every individual in the world) when our adverfaries prove it, 
I engage myfelf to be ihtn profelyfe . For, 

(r.) Then mulKome be bound to believe that which is falfe j 
which cannot be ; every obligation to believe b^ing from the God 
of truth ; novv it is falfe that Chrift died for all, and every indivi- 
dual of human kind ; as hath been before proved at large. 

(2,) Then fliould men be bound immediately to believe that 
which is not revealed, though divine revelation be the object of all 
faith; for the Scriptures do not holdout any where, that Chrifl 
died for this or that particular man d^sfuch ; bui only for finner^ 
jnoefiriitely , — fpecified to fome antecedently by God's purpofe, and 
canfeqiiently by their own purchafed obedience. 

(3.) Neither indeed is the iV?f<r«//o« and purpofe of God con- 
cerning whicli we now inquire, propcfed as the objeft of the faith 
of any, ^ but only his command, promifes, aad threatening".; the 


* Thu?^ the queftion here is not, — about believing a particular 
intereft in the death of Chrift, upon the footing of the promife j 
by a faving application of him to the foul, as held out therein; 
but about bel-evir.g that intereit in his death, upon the footing of his 
intention — and the Father's /•f/r/?5/i/ ; v/hich is the thing orpofed. 

t That is, (in ilie prefeiit cafe) — as to the iwt?iediuiehej's of 
thcfe obhgaticn^., in the flated order of duties. 

\ That is — God's intention that Clirilt fliould die for pcrfons In 
particular, conies not under the fpeculative confiderciiion of a true 
thing — to be alfented unto; b?ut the practical confiddration of a 
good i\nxi^ to be embraced. 

5 That is, — the faid divine //j/^'W/'/o.v a.T\d purpof£^ is not pro- 
P'ofed by thegofpel unto the faith of any; as a niatter which their 
faithj v.riPAiiiAttlf and at r;r*t inil ance, has nny wi^y ado wiih . 

und Places of Scripture opened. 299 

other being left to be collefted, jind affured to the roii!, by an 

experience and ienle of i'ome fwcet infallible IfTue and ciTeft thereof 
in the heart* (ituaUy fnjoyed. 

(4*) Nor cm any command in the Scripture to believe, be in* 
terpreted by the purpofc and intention of God; as though the 
ine3nin;rof itfliouldbe,— God intented that Chrill fliould die for 
thee in particular j nor doth any promife contain that fenie. 

{5.) Rclides, (which of itfelt" is enough to b;-eak the neck of 
this argument) all have not any fuch object of faith as Chrifl's 
death, at ?.ll proposed to them. And how can they believe, uniefi 
rhty hear ? can they be bound to believe that, of which they ne- 
ver heard the leail rumour ? How many millions of infants, and 
others in barbarous nations, goto their own place ; without hear- 
ing the leall report of Jefus Chriil, or his fulferings for them or 
others, even in thele days of the gcipel ? how much more theti, 
before the coming of Ghrift in the licfli; when the means of grace 
were reftrained to one fmall nation, with fome few profelytes^ 
"Were all thefe, are they that remain,— all and every one bound to 
believe, that Chrifl. died for them ail and every one in particular ? 
thefe that think ib, are doubtlefs bound to go tell ail of them io ; 
I mean fuch of them as are yet in the land of the living. Js not 
unbelief xhegxesii&immwg^m, where faith is req-ilred," John iii, 
^6 ? and yet doth not Paul prove, that many iliall oe darn:;ed for 
finning againll the light of nature, Rom. ii. 12? an evident de- 
monftration that faith is not required ofajl, all are not bound ta 
believfi. Bur, 

2dly. Perhaps our adverfaries will except, — as they muft ex- 
cept, if they intend to have any colour or ftew of ftrength, Jeft 
unto this argument ; that they mean it only inrefped of them who 
are called by the word, and lb it is of force ; to which end, let it 
be thus propofed, viz. That ivhich evsry one called by theword^ I0 
whom the go/pel is preached, is bormd to believe ; a t? ne : but 
that Chrid died for him in particular, emery onefo called is bound 
to b<ilisve ; therefore it is true To .which I anfwer, 

I. Only the laft exception foregoing, 13 taken OxTby this re- 

* Thefaith of God's /7?fe;/r;'o« and/?//r/»()y^, ss to Chrift's dv- 
hig for a perfon in particular, —is the lame upon the matter, with 
tiie faith of a perron'sf/^(^//(;7z ; v/hich noway belongs to faith as 
j unifying ; and when this is faid to be colkiied — by an experience 
and fenfe of fame fweet infallible ijfue and efsCi thereof in the 

Ipiart, andthzii aljuredtothefoul; the meaning cannot be, that 

this ailurance (or faith) is founded upon the faid inv/ard expe- 
rience and fenfe, as its proper ground ; — but that faith is hereby 
carried forward upon its objed in the word, unto a believing of 
everladlng love — in tiie divine piirpofe ai:d intention towards the 

300 OhjeBlons particularly anjwtrtd, 

formed argumefits ; all the reft ftand in their full force, which ar« 
futficient to evert it. Moreover, who feeth not, — that this very 
reforming of the argument, hath made it altogether ufelefs to the 
caufe in vvliofe defence it was produced j for if any one, much 
more the greatert p<3rt of men, be excepted, — whfch are now ex- 
cluded from the verge of this argument ; then the geJieral ranfom 
fails to the ground. From the innumerable multitudes ofall^ wc 
are come to the many that are called ; and doubt not, but that we 
iliall inllantly defcend tothc/6'it; that are chofen. Unto the ex- 
ception that that which is true in refpeCi of them to whom it is pro- 
p(\Jed, would alfo be true in refpeCt of all — if it Jhoida be propofed 
io them ; I anfwer by the way, 

(i. ) That the argument is to be taken from the fcriptural obli- 
gation to believe; and can be extended no further^ than that is ac- 
tually extended. 

(2.) That it is no fafe difputing of what would be, cr fliould 
be, — if things v/ere not as God hath appointed or ordained them. 
We fee the will of God for the prefent j neither are we tofuppofe^ 
r. — {o as to make our fuppofal a bottom for any arguments, that they 
could have been otherways difpofed. 

(3.) That if the ^o/p^/ fliould be preached to all the world, or 
all in the vv'orld,— this is all the mind and will of God, that would 
or can in general be fignified to them by it : He that believeth and 
is baptized Jlial I befa'scdy but he that b.'lieveth not jhall be damned ; 
or that God hath concatenated and knit thefe tv/o things together, 
faith AvAfalvation s fo that whofoever will enjoy the latter^ mult 
practife the former. If the gofpei fliould now be preached to the 
Turks and Indians^ and they fliouid rejeft it 5 certainly they fliould 
be damned, — for not believing that which they were, upon the 
preaching of it, bound to believe. Now what is this? that Chrifr 
d\ed for every one of them in particular? no, doubtlefs ! but 
this ; there is no narne under Heaven whereby men mufl befaved^ 
but only the name ofChrift made known to them in the gofpei i and 
that they muft perifli, for rejecting the counfel and wiidon of God 
tj fave finners by the blood of Jefus; for not believing the neceility 
oi 3. Redeemer^ and that Jefus of l^azareth is that Redeemer ; — 
according to his own word to the Jev/s ; Jf ye believe not that I am 
he^ ye flail die in your fns ; as indeed the peculiar infidelity of 
that people, was their not beleiving him to be their Mefliah, whom 
they fa \v to be declared to be the Son of God with power. The 
not believing thefe things^ v/ould be the foul-damning infidelity of 
fuch obfl:inate refufers, to come in upon the call of the gofpei; and 
not a refufing to believe that Chrirt: died for every one of them in 
particular; which could not, by the rule of the gofpei, be pro- 
pofed unto them ; and which they never come fo far as to queftion, 
(cr elleem. 

a. Still then wc deny the minor piopofition of the reduced fyl- 


and Places of Scripture opined, 301 

logifm ; and that parti/ for the reafons before produced ; partly 
for thefe fubjohied. 

(1.) They to whom the gofpel Is preached, are bound to believe 
with that faith which is required to juflification : Now this is not a 
full perfuafion that Chrift died for any one in particular, in the in- 
tention and purpofe of God j which revealcth not the ubjed of juf- 
tiiication, nor the way whereby a fmnermay bejuftified.^ 

(2.) Becaufe there is an order, natural in itfelf, and eiUblilhed 
by God*s appointment, in the things that are to be beUeved j fo 
that until fome of them are believed, the reft are not required. t 
A man is not commanded, nor can be reafonably, to get to the 
top of a ladder, bylkipping all the lower rounds, [t is necefTary 
then, [i.] To repent, and believe the gofpel to be the word of 
God, to contain his will; and that y^z^f C/zr//? therein revealed, 
is the wifdom and power of God unto falvation. [2.] To believe 
that there is an infeparable coniieftjon by God's apptautment, be- 
tween faith and falvation ; gofpel-faiih carrying a finner quite out 
ofhimfelf, and from off his own righteoufnefs, [3] That there 
be a particular convidlion by the Spirit, of the necellity of a Re- 
deemer — to their fouls in particular,* whereby they become weary, 
heavy laden, and burdened. [4.] That there be a lerious full 
recumbency, and rolling of the foul upon Chrift in the promife of 
the gofpel, as an all-fuHicient Saviour, able to deliver and fave 
totheutmoft, them that come to God by him; ready, able, and 
willing, through the precioufnefs of his blood and fufficiency of 
his ranfom, to fave every foul that fliall freely give up itfelf unto 
him for that end ; amongfl: whom the perfon is refolved to be. 
And in doing of all this, there is none called on by the gofpel once 
to inquire after the purpofe and intention of God, concerning the 
particular objects of the death of Chrift ;, every one being fully 
alTured, that his death fliall be profitable to them that believe in 
him and obey him. Now, 

(3.) After all this,! and not before, it lies upon a believer to 


-if There feems to have been a miftake in thelirft printingof this 
claufe ; and that it Ihould run, — which is not revealed to ?he object 
of juflification^ or in tha wayiv here by a finner may hejuflified. 

t That is, 'are not immediately required, in the order of duty ; 
as, {uppofing a man required to get up to a certain height at the top 
of a ladder, he is not required to be immediately at the top; but 
to proceed thereunto, by the lov/er fteps. 

\ The feveral fteps of faith before-mentioned, are not to be 
taken as /o many faiths, of different degrees; but as all one faith-, 
nor is it to be underftood, that faving faith proceeds in thele fteps 
by a diftinft gradation, or one after another, in the order of time; 
butthat all the/e fteps are materially included, in that one adl of 
faith, whereby it clofes v/ith Chrift for >uftiiica;icn. 

^02 GhjcBions particularly anfwered, 

afrured his foul, (according ashe finds* tli€ fruit of the death of 
Chrift in him and toward! him) of the good will and eternal love 
of God lo him, in fending his Son to die for him in particiilar. 
V/hat a prepofterous courfe, and hov oppofite to the rule of the 
golp^:!, were it ; to ci!l upon a man to helieve, that it was the in- 
tenrion and purpoie of God that GhrifL fiiould die for him in partl- 
cuiar, and delire him to ai]ur^ his foul thereof ; before lie be con- 
vinc-ed, either [i.J of the truth of the gofpel in general; or [2. J 
that faith is the ovAy way of falvation j or [3 ] that himfeif fcand- 
eth in need of a Saviour ; or [4.] that there is enough in Chrift to 
five and recover him, if he give uphimfelf unto him in his own 
way ? Now it is mod apparent, that it is only fuch as thefe?, that 
are boundt to believe that whereof we difcourfe. 

3i/y. The argument then muft be once again reform-ed ; and 
thus propofed, viz, " That which every one, convinced of th© 
*' neceility of a Saviour, and of the. right way offalvaiion, hun- 
<^' goring, thlrfting, and panting after Jefu3 Ghriit, as able alone 
*< to give him refreiliment, is bound to believe ; is true ; bu^ 
^' every fuch a one is bound to believe, that Ghrill: died forLim in 
<* particular; therefore it is true." And fome grant the whole; 
without any prejudice to the caule we have undertaken to defend. 

It is moll apparent then, i. That all that are called by the 
word, are net, in what f:ate or condition faever they continue, 
bound to believe that Chrifl: died for them by name;; but only 
fuch as are fo qualified as before dsicribed. 2 . That the precepjt 
o^Lbills-oing, with fiduciary coulidence, that Chrifl di«d for any 
in particular, is not propofed, nor is obligatory, to aU that -are 
called; norlsic in the not performance of it any otherwife a fin, 
but as it is in the root and habit of unbelief, or not turning to God 
in Chrift for mercy. 5 3. That no reprobate for whom Chrift 


* That is, finds it by faith, in its exercife before defcribed- 

t That is, bound to believe fo immediately^ according to tha 
fluted order of duties. 

t That is, are not bound to believe this, with reference to 
God'sj>?^rDr//e? and intention ; as if the faith of Ghnft's having in^ 
tentlonilly died for them, could connO: with a continuing in their 
natural ellate; or as if fuch a perfuafion belonged to jurdfying 
faith; cr as if that perfuafion were required and attainable any 
otherwife, than according to the order of duty before declared. 

5 It is to be remembereu here, as the author has before adver^ 
tifed, thsthe is only fpeakingof Clirift's having died, .[according 
to the Father^s pf^r^o/L' and his own intention^ for any. in parti- 
cular ; and the precept of believing tliis (he declares) // not pro- 
pofed, nor ckligatory to all that are called; as to which, fee the 
foregicng note. But the not bjlievif2g of this, is acknowledged t.p 
be their yi/z; as it is in tlie roQi and habit of imbslief.s iliftt is, it-i? 

afrd Places of Scripture opened. 303 

iJied not, fllall be condemned for not believing that Chnfl: died for 
him in particular, whicii is not tru£ .; bat for iioi believing tLcfe 
things wherennto he was called, before related, whicli are all moft 
true, and that in reference to him. 4. THat the coi-ninand of be- 
lieving in Chrili, which is efpecially urged as given unto all, is 
not, in that particular contended about, obligatory unto un> p but 
upon fuhilling of the conditions thereto requirtd.* 5. To be. 
lieve on the name of Jefus Chrill, which is the command, i joha 
iii. 23. is not ro believe, that it was the intention of God that 
Ghriftfliould die for us in particular; but to rell upon him for LiU 
vation, aslfa. 1. 10. Neither, 6. is iheiettiraony of God, to 
\Vhich we ought to fet our fealthat it is true, any other but this : 
he that hath the Son hath lift;, but he that hath not the Sou of Cod 
hath 71 ot life ^ i John v. 12. which reprobates diftelieving Sinners, 
who do what in them lies ro make God a liar; and arejuftly con- 
demned for it. — He that defireth to fee more of this argument, let 
him confuk, if he pleafe, Pifcator^ Pdrkim, Tu::JJc, Synod cfDort, 
Moulin^ BaroniuSy Rtitherford^ Spanhemius, Amefms^ </yc. 

Object. II* *' That dodrine which rills the minds and fouls of 
'« poor miferable finners, with doubts and fcruples whether they 
*< ought to believe or not, when God calls themthereunto; cannot 
<« be agreeable to the gofpel ; but this doth the doctrine of the par- 
♦' ticularity of redemption ; it fills the minds of finners witli fcru- 
<' pies and fears v/hether they may b3lieye or not, and that becaufe 
'' they are uncertain whether it v;as the intention of God that 
<*• Chrin. Ihould die in particular for them or not, feeing it is {up^ 
" poled he died not for all but only for his ele^fl ; whereupon the- 
*' foul, when it is called upon to believe, may jufcly t'ill aquefiion- 
*^ ing, wheJhether it will be available or not for him fo to do, and 
<* v/hether. is will be his duty or not, feeing he knoweth not v/he- 
*' ther Ghrift died for him or not/' 

Anftv. ijl. That fcruples, doubts, ancf fears,, the proper iflue 
of unconquered remaining unbelief, will often arife in the hearts 
of finners, fometimes againft, u»metim.es taking occalion from the 
truth of the gofpel, is too evidei-t upon txperientej all the 
quefcion is, whether the dodrine iiielf fcrupled or Oumbled at, do 
of hfelf in its ov;n nature give c^ufe theret<', unto thofe who 
lightly perform their duty ; or whether aii thofe fears and fcruples 


their fm ; yet not immediately ; but in the way of its being more 
imniedfatily ihe'iY Cm^ that they m^kenot ofwDirg applicatiou cf 
Chrift by faith as he is held out in th'i p'07vife^ according to what 
is before fet forth 

* It is alio to be remembered here, as the author has before de- 
clared, that he fpeaks not of any couditivm^ with refped to God's 
puipofe and inteniion of things ; but only withr«fpect t» the cou- 
2iexicn and order of tne iljings themf^h tt5. 

304 Olje&ions particularly anjwered, 

be the natural product and iffue of corruptioin and unbelief; fetting 
up themfelves agalnfl: the truth as it is in Jefus. The firfl we deny, 
concerning the dodrine of the particularity of effectual redemp- 
tion : the latter, God alone can remedy. 

2dly. This objection fuppofeth, that a man is bound to know and 
be perfuaded, (that Is, to believe) that Jefus Chrifl died by the 
appointment of God for him in 'particular, before he believe in 
Jefus Ghjrift ; nay this they make the bottom of their argument, 
that men, according to our perfuafion, may fcruple whether they 
ought to believe or not ; becaufe they are not affured before, that 
Chrifl died for them in particular, by the defignation and appoint- 
ment of God. Nov/, if this be not to involve themfelves in a 
plaiii contradiction, I know not what is ; for what, I pray, is it 
according to Scripture, for a man to be affured that Chrifl: died for 
him in particular ? is it not the very higbefl: improvement of faith ? 
doth it not include a fenfe of the fpiritual love of God, died a- 
broad in our hearts? isit not the top of the apoftle's confolation, 
Rom. viii. 34, 35? and the bottom of. all his joyful affurance, 
Gal. ii- 20 ? So that they evidently require, that a man muft be- 
lieve before he do believe j that he cannot believe, and fli all ex- 
ceedingly fear wliether he ought to do {o or not j unlefs he believe, 
before he believe* Methinks fuch a removing of fcruples, were 
the ready way to intangle doubting confciences, in further inextri- 
cable perplexities. 

2,dly. We deny that a perfuafion that It was the will of God that 
Chrifl Hiauld die for him in particular, either is or can be any 
way neceffary, that afmnerbe drawn to believe; for confidering 
Unners as fuchy whcfe duty it is to believe; the call of Chrifl:, 
Matth. ix. 28. Ifa. Iv. r. the command of God, i John iii. 23. 
the promife of life upon believing, with the threatening againft 
unbelief, John iii. 36. the all-fuificiency of blood of Chrifl: to 
fave all believers, A6ts xx. 21. Ephef. v. 2. the affured ialvation 
of all believers without exception, Mark xvi.. 16. and the like, 
are enough to remove all 'doubts and fears, and are all that the 
Scripture holds out fcr thatpurpofe. 

4thly. That peafuafion which, i. afferts the certainty of fal- 
vation by the death of Chrifl:, unto all believers whatfoever; 2. 
affirms the command of God and the call of Chrifl to be infalli- 
bly declarative of that duty which is required of the perfon com* 
manded and called, which if it be performed, vvill be be affuredly 
acceptable to God, 3. holds out purchafed free grace, to all dif- 
treffed and burdened confclences in general ; 4. difcovers a foun- 
tain of blood, all-fufficient to purge all the fin of every one in the 
world, that will ufe the appointed means for coming unto it ; that 
doitrini, I fay» cannot pofllbly be the caufe of any doubt or fcru- 
ple in the minds of convinced burdened finners, v>'bether they 
ought to bdleve or not > now all this held forth, by the doctrine 


end Places of Scripture opened, 305 

of particular effedlual redemption, in the dilpenratloii of the gof- 
pel ruit4ble thereto. 

Sthly. I fliali then let go this objeftlon, w ithout further purfult j 
only attended with this query, viz. What is it that, according to 
the. authors of wiiverfal redemption^ men are bound to believe 5 
when they know beforehand, that Chrift died for them in particii- 
iar? A perlualion of the love of God and good will of Cliriil, it 
cannot be, that they have before-hand, John iii. 16. Rom. v. 8. 
Nor can it be a coming to God by Chrift, for the enjoyment of the 
fruits of his death; for what is that, I pray? There are no imme- 
diate fruits of the death of Chrift, according to them^ but what 
are common to all ; which may be damnation as well as falvation ; 
for jnore are damned than laved ; infidelity as well as faith, fer- 
tile moft are unbelievers. As the immediate fruits, then, of the 
death of Chrift, can be nothing but that which is common to them 
with thofe that perilh, plainly, their faith in Chrift will at length 
appear to be Socinian obedience. 

There be three things that remain, about which there is no fmall 
contention J all of them, things in themielvcs excellent and valu- 
able; and each laid claim to, by the feveral perfualions concern- 
ing which we treat; but with inch an unequal plea, that an ealy 
judgment might ferve to decide the controverfy. No w thele are, 
the exaltation of God's free grace^ the merit of Chrift, and the 
confolation of our fouls; let us confider them in order, and let 
each perfuafion take its due. 

OsjECT. III. For the fh"ft, or the exaltation of God's free 
graces I know not how it comes to pafs, but fo it Is, — men have 
entertained a perfuafion, that the opinion of univerfal redemptioJi 
ferveth exceedingly to fet forth the love and free grace of God ; 
yea they make free grace, that glorious expreliion, to be nothing 
but that which is held forth in this their opinion, 'vi-z. that God 
ioveth ally and gave Chrift to die for ally and is ready to fave all, 
if they will co}7te to him. Herein, fay they, is free grace and 
love magnified indeed ; this is the unlverfallty of free grace, and 
fuch other flouriihing exprellions; whereas the contrary opiniou 
chains up the love and grace of God to a few. 

Bat, ijl. ftay a little ; what I pray is this your grace, free 
grace, that is univerial? Is it the grace of election? truly no; 
God hath not chofen fl// to falvation, Rom. ix. ii, 12, Ephef. j» 
4. Rom. viii. 28. Is it the grace of effectual vocation? noneitherj 
doubtlefs that it cannot be; for vjhom God ealls^ he alfo jiijlifieth^ 
a'ldgUrifies, Rom. viii. 30. and xi. 25, 26, 29. nay all have no? 
been, a// are not outwardly called, Pfal. cxlvii. 19, 20. Rom. x. 
I 4« Is it the grace of cleaning and fanaification ? why ; are all 
purged, are all v/aflied, in the blood of Jefus ; or it is the church 
only, Ephef. v. 25, 26, 27? Some, fare, are defiled ftil], Titus 
i* 15' f»^th is th« principle of the heart's purincii6;onj and all men 

306 'Objt^ions parikularly anfwere'd, 

have not faith. Is It the grace of juftification; the free lore an4 
mercy of God, in pardoning and accepting finners ? but, friends i 
is thisuniverfal? are all pardoned, are all accepted; fee Rom. I. 
17. and iii. 22. and v. i. Is it tire grace of redemption hi the 

blood of Chrifl: ? fee, I pray, Rev. v. 9 What then is this your 

univerfal free grace ? is it not univerfally a figment of your own 
brains ; or is it not a new name for that ©Id idol freewilP. is it not 
deftruclive to free grace, in every branch of it? doth it not tend 
to the everffon of the whole covenant of diftinguifliing grace; evi- 
dently denying, that the conditions thereof arc wrought in any of 
the fcederates, by virtue of the promife of the covenant? 

Are not the two great aims of their free grace, to mock God, 
and exalt themfelves ? Do not they propofe the Lord, as making a 
pretence of lave, goodwill, free grace and pardon, unto all j yet 
never once acquainting incomparably the greateft number of them, 
with any fuch love or good vrill at all ; although he know that, 
without his effecting of it, they can never come to any fuch know- 
ledge. — As for thofe that are outwardly called to the knowledge 
of thefe things ; do they not, by their univerfal grace, feign the 
Lord to pretend that he loves them all, has fcnt his Son to die for 
them all, and lo defire that they all may be faved; yet upon fuch 
a condition, as without him they ean no more effect than to climb 
to Heaven by a ladder, which yet he will not do ? Do not they 
openly make God to fay, fuch is thii my hve^ my iini'verfal grace ^ 
that by it I will freely love them ; I dare joyfully embrace them in 
all things y but only that which will do them good ? Would they not 
affirm him to be a grofsly counterfeiting hypocrite, that fliould go 
to a poor blind man and tell him, — Alas, poor man! I pity thy 
■€afe, I fee thy want, I love thee exceedingly; open thine eyes, 
and I will give thee an hundred pound-s ? and dare they aflign fuc'fe 
a deportment, to the moft holy God of truth? Is their univerfal 
grace, then, any thing but a mock? Did that ever do good to any, 
as to falvation, which is common to all ? Are they not the two 
properties of the grace of God in the Scripture, that it is difcriml- 
nating and effectual ? and is not their grace any thing elfe but 
thefe ? Let it be granted, that all is true which they fay concerning 
the extent of grace ; is it fuch grace, as that ever any foul was 
faved by it ; why I pray then are not all? They will fay, becaufe 
they do not believe; fo then, the beflowlng of faith is no part of 
this free grace.— -And here is your fecond aim ; even to exalt your- 
felves, and your freewill, in the room of grace; or at leafl 
leaving room for it to come in, to have thcrjpeft fliare in the work 
of falvation,,^ viz. in believing itfelf, that makes all the reft pro- 

See now, >^at your univerfallty of free grace leads and tends 
to; are notiihe very terms oppofite to one another ? In a word, to* 
bring in reprobates to ba objefts of free g^ce, you deny the free 


dnd Places of Scripture openea*, go/ 

grase of God to the elecl:;^ and to make it univerial, you-deny U 
tobeeffcdlual; that all may have a iharc of it, they deny any to 
be faved by it; for i'aving grace muft be reftrained. 

2dly. 0\\ the other fide ; in what one title, I pray you, doth the 
doctrine of the eifeclual redemption of God's elecl only, in th« 
blood of Jefus, impair the free grace of God? Is it in it2 freedom} 
why, we fay it is fo free, that if it be not altogether free, it is no 
grace at all. Is it in its etficacy ? vvhy, we fay that by grace we 
are faved ; afcribing the whole work of aur recovery and bringing 
to God, 'mfoh'du7?i, thereto. Is it in its extent ? we affirm it to 
be extended to every one that is, was, or ever fnall be delivered 
from the pit. It is true we do not call grace that goeth into hell, 
free grace in a gofpel notion j for Vve deem the free grace of God 
fo powerful, that wherever it hath designed and chojen out itfelf 
a. fubje<a, it brings God and Ghrifl and falvation with it to eternity. 

But (fay ye) you do not extend it unto all; you tie it up to a 
few. Well, De tiio largitor^ puer; is the extending of the love 
and favour of God, in our power? hath he not mercy on whom he 
will have mercy, and doth he not harden whom he will ? Yet, do 
not we affirm that it is extended to tlie univerfajity of the faved 
ones? fliould we throw the children's bread to dogs? Friends, 
we believe that the grace of God in Chrift, worketh faith to every 
one, to whom it is extended; that the conditions of that covenant 
which is ratified in his blood, are all elfectually wrought in the 
heart of every covenanted perfon; that there is no love of God, 
that is not eiFedual; that the blood of Chrift was not Ihed in vain ; 
that of ourfelves we are dead in trefpajfes andfms, and can do no- 
thing but what the free grace of God worketh in us ; and there- 
fore we carmot conceive, that It can be extended to all. For you, 
who affirm that millions of thofe that are taken into a new cove- 
nant of grace, do pcrilh eternally, that it is left to men to believe, 
that the will of God may be fruilrate and his love ineffectual, that 
u'e diflinguiih ourfelves one from another ; you may extend it whi- 
ther you pleafe; for it is indifferent to you v/hether the objedls of 
it go to heaven or to hell. 

But in the mean while, I befeech you, friends! give me leave 
to queftion, whether this you talk of, be God's free grace, or your 
fond figment ? his love, or your wills ? For truly, for the prefent, 
it feems to me th« latter only. But yet our prayers fliail be, that 
God would give you infinitely more of his love, than is contahied 
in that ineffectual univerfal grace wherewith you fo flourifh ; only 
we fiiall labour, that poor fouls be not feduced by you, with the 
fpeclous pretences of gree grace to all; not knowing that this your 
free grace, is a mere painted cloth, that will give them no aiiift- 
ance at all, to deliver them from that condition wherein they arc, 
but only give them leave to be laved, irLliey can; whereas they 
are ready, by the name you have given to the brat of your own 


jo8 ObjiSiions particulariy anfwtred^ 

brain, to fuppofe you intend an eiTedlua] almiglity faving grace, that 
will cei'tainlj bring all to God to whom it is extended, of which they 
have heardin the Scripture; whilfl you laugh in your flcevcs, to 
think how fimply thefc poor fouls are deluded with that empty 
Ihew; the fubftance whereof is this, 'uiz. go your ways, be faved 
if you can, in the way revealed, God will not hinder you. 

Object. IV, Each party contefts about the exaltation of the 
7nerit of Chrifl ; for io ar«^their mutual pretences. Something hath 
been faid to this before; fo that now I fliall be brief. Take theft 
only a fliort view of the difference that is between them, where 
each pretends to exalt the merit ofChrifi, in that which is by the 
other denied ; and this plea will fuddenly be at an end. And 

ift. There is but one only thing, that concerns the death of 
Clirifl, in which the authors of x\\t general ranfom are upon the af- 
iirmative; and Avhereby they pretend to fet forth the excellency of 
his death and oblation, viz. that the benefits thereaf are extended 
unto all and every one : whereas their advcrfarics flraitcn it unto 
a few, a very few, none but the elect ; which, they fay, is deroga- 
tory to the honour of the Lord Jefus Chrifl. And this is that, 
wherein they pretend fo exceedingly to advance his name and me- 
rit ; above the pitch that they aim at, who affert the effectual re- 
demption of the elecl only. The truth is, the meafure of the 
honour of Jefus Chrift, is not to be afligncd by us poor worms of 
the duft ; that he takes it to be honour, which he gives and a- 
fcribes unto himfelf ; and nothing elfe. He hath no need of our 
lie, for his glory ; fo that if thii did, in our eyes, feem for the 
exaltation of the glory of Chrifl; yet arifmg from a lie of our ow» 
hearts, it would be an abomination unto him. Moreover, we deny 
that this doth anyway ferve to fet out the nature and dignity of 
the death of Chrifl; becaufc the extent of its efficacy to all, (if 
any fuch thing fliould be) doth not arife from its own innate fuf- 
liciency; but from the free-pleafure and determination of God; 
which, how it is enervated by a pretended unirerfality, was be- 
fore declared. The value of a thing arifeth from its own nature, 
fufEciency and worth, unto any purpofe whercunto it i^ to be em- 
ployed ; which the maintaincrs of effcdlual redemption, do affert 
in the death of Chrifl, to be mitfh above what any of their advcrfa- 
ries afcribe unto it. 

^.dly. Should I now go about to declare, in how many things 
the honour of Chrill, and the excellency of his death and pafTion, 
with the fruits of it, is held forth in that doftrine which we have 
fought to openfrom the Scriptures; above all that can be afligncd 
to it, agreeable to their own principal maxims who maintain uni- 
verfal redemption ; (and that according to truth itfelf) I fliould 
he forced to repeat much that hath already been fpokcn. So 
that it fljaJl fuifice mc, to prefent t)ie re^.der irith this following 
.mtithejiiy ?iz. 


and Places cf Scripture opmed, 309 

Univcrfalifls. Scriptural Redemption. 

1. Chrijl died for all and every 
one, eleCi and reprobate. 

2 . Mo/i of them for whom Chrijl 
'died are damned. 

3. ChriJ}, by his death y pur- 
chafed not any faving grace 

for the 772 for whom, he died. 

4. Chrijl took no care, for the 
greatejl part of them for 
whom he died, that ei'er they 
Jliould hear •ne word of his 

5. Chrijl, in his death, did not 
ratify nor con fir jn a cove- 
nant of grace with any f<£dt- 
rates ; but only procured by 
his death, that God anight, if 
he would, enter i7itQa7iewco- 
'veJiant with wh$m he would, 
and upon what condition he 

4. Chrijl might have died, and 
yet 719 one befaved. 

Chrijl had no inte?ition to re- 
deem his chureh, a7iy 7nore 
than the wicked feed of the 

Chrijl died 7iotfor the infi- 
delity ofa?iy. 

1 . Clirijl ^iedfor the elecl 07%ly. 

2. All thofe for whom Chrijl 
died are certainly faved. 

3. Chrijl, by his death, pitr- 
chajed all faving grace for 
them for whom he died. 

4. Chrijl J end i the means., and 
reveals the ways of life, to 
all tliemfor whom he died^ 

5. The new covenant of grace 
was co7ifir77ied to all the eU^, 
in the blood of J ejus. 

Chrifi by his death pur chafed, 
upon covenant and compacl, 
an ajjured peculiar people ; 
the pleafure of the Lord prof- 
pering to the end in his hand. 
Chrijl loved his church, and 
gave hirnfelf for it. 

8. Chrift died for the i7i fidelity 
of the eled. 

Divers other inftances of the like nature, might be cafily col- 
lecledj upon the firft view whereof, the prefent difference in hand 
would quickly be determined; thefe few, I doubt not, are fufS- 
cient in the eyes of all experienced chriftians, to evince, how little 
the gefieral ranfom conduceth to the honour and glory of Jefus 
Chrifi; or to the fetting forth of fhe worth and dignity of his 
death and paflion. 

Object. V. The next and laft thing which comes under debate, 
in this contefl, is gof pel co77folation ; tvhich God in Chrifi is abun- 
dantly willing we fliould rec«ive. A fliort difquifition, whether 
of the two opinions treated on, doth give the firmefl bafis and 
founded foundiition hereunto^ will, by the Lord's alii fiance, lead 

gi© Objedioiis particularly anfwcnd, 

us to an end of this long debate : The Cod of truth and comfort^ 
grants that all our undertakings, or rather his workings in us for 
truth, may end in peace and eonfolation. To clear this, foine 
things are to bepremiledj as, 

ifi. All true evangelical eonfolation belongeth only to be- 
lievers, Heb. vi. 17, 18. God^s people, Ifa. xL i, 2. upon uab'ci 
lievcrs the wrath of God abideth, John iii. 3.6. 

zdly. To make out eonfolation, unto them to whom it is not due, 
is a no lefs crime, than to hide it from them to whom it doth belong, 
Ifa. v. 20. Jer. xxiji. 14. Ezek. ziii. 10. y 

'i.dly. T. M. his attempt to fet forth the death of Chrifl lo, that 
Till might be comforted, (meaning all and every one in the world, 
S.S appeareth) is a proud attempt to make that flraight, which God 
hath made crooked ; and molt oppofite to the gofpel. 

4. That dodrine which holds out eonfolation from the death of 
Chrifl to unbelievers, cries peace, peaces v/hen God fays there is 
no peace. 

Thefc things being premlfed, I fliall briefly de-monftr;ite the four 
following pofitions, 'viz. i. That the extending of the death of 
Chrifl unto an univcrfality, in refped of the objed, cannot give 
the leafl ground of eonfolation to them, whom God would have to 
be comforted by the gofpel. 2. That the denying of the efficacy 
of the death of Chrifl, toward them for whom he died, cuts the 
nerves and fmews of all flrong eonfolation ; eveft fuch as is proper 
to believer? to receive, and peculiar to the gofpel to give. 3. That 
there is nothing in the dodrine of the redemption of the elect only, 
that is yet in the leafl meafure to debar them from eonfolation, to 
^hom comfort is due. 4. That the doctrine of the effeftual rC" 
demption of the flieep of Chrifl, by the blood of tlio covenant, is 
the true folld. foundation of all durable eonfolation. 

I . Begin v/e with the firft ; that the extending of the deaih of 
Chrifl unto an unlverfality, /;;. refpeCi of the objed, hath nathing in 
//, as peculiar unto it, that can give the leafl ground of eonfolation 
unto them zvhom God would have to he comforted. That gofpel- 
eonfolation, properly fo called, being a fruit of actual rcconcili 
ation with God, is proper and peculiar only to believers, I laid 
dov/n before ; and fuppofe it .' o be a truth out of all queflion and 
debate;, now that no consolation can be made out to them as fuch, 
from any thing v/hich is peculiar to the perfuafion of a general ran- 
fom, is eafiiy proved by thefe following reafons. 

( I. ) No eonfolation can arife unto believers, frqm that which Is 
no where in the Scripture propofcd as a ground, caufc or matter of 
eonfolation; as the general ranfom is not; for, [i.] that which 
hath no being, can have no aifcclion nor operation; [2.] all the 
foundations and materials of eonfolation^ are things particular and 
peculiar only to fome; as fliail be declared. 

^2.) No eonfolation can acru* uutp belie vsrs, fronn that which 

And Places^ of Scripture opened, '^ik 

is common unto them, with thofc whom, [i .] God would not have 
•comforted; [2.] that ihall affuredly perilh to eternity ; [3] th^t 
ftanJ in open rebellion againft Chrift; [4.] that never hear one 
Vvord of golpel, or confolation: Now to all thefe, and fuch as 
thefe, ^oth the foundation of confolation^ as propofed with and 
arifing from thtgetieral ranfom^ appertain j equally with the choif- 
cft of believers. 

(3.) Let a man try in the time (not of difputation, but) of dc- 
fertion and temptation, what confolation or peace to his foul he 
can obtain from fuch a colledlion as this; Chrift died for all men^ ■ 
t am a man^ therefore Chrift died for me. Will not his own heart 
tell him, that notwithftanding all that he is affured of in that con- 
clufion, the wrath of Cod may abide on hrm for evermore ? Doih 
he not fee thvit, notv/ithftanding this, the Lord flieweth fo little 
love unto very many millions of the fons of men, (of vv'hom the 
former colleftion (according to the prcfent opinion) is true, as well 
as of himfelf) as that he doth not once reveal himfelf, or his Son 
unto them ? What good will it do me, to know that Chrift died for 
me-; if notwithflanding that, I may perilh for ever ? if you in- 
tend me any confolation, from that v/hich is common unto «//, 
you mufl tell rte v/hat it is which all enjoy, that will fatisfy my de- 
fires, which are carried out after alRirance'of the love of God m 
Chrift? If you give mc no more to com.fort me, than what you 
give or might have given to Judas^ can you expert I ihould receive 
iettlement and confolation? Truly miferable comforters are you 
all, phyficians of no valite, Job^ vifiters ; fl^iliful only to add af- 
fiidVion imto the afaifled. 

But be of good comfort, will Armtniam fay; CJirifl is a propiti'. 
ation for all finnen^ and naw thou knowejl thyfelf fo to be. A.ifw. 
True; hut is Chrift a propitiation for all the fins of thofe finners^. 
If fo, how can any of them perilli? If not, what good will tjiis 
do me, whofe fins perhaps (as unbelief) are filch, as for which 
Chrift v/as not a propitiation? But (will they fay) exclude not thy-. 
felf God exclude th 77 one; the love ivhich aaufed him to fend his Sor?^ 
was general towards all ; tell me not of God*s e:^cluding, I have 
fufficiently excluded my feif; will he powerfully take me in? hath 
Chrift not only purchafed that I fliall be admitted, but alfo pro- 
cured me ability, to enter into his Father*s arms ? Why, (fay ye) 
He hath opened a do^r of f ah at ion to all; alas! is it not a vaia 
endeavour to open a grave, for a dead man to come out? Who 
lights a candle for a blind man to fee by ? To open a door for him 
to come out of prifon, who is blind and lame and bound, yea 
dead; is rather to deride his mifcry, than to procure him liberty; 
.neither tell me M/^f will yield me ftrong confolation, under the en- 
joyment whereof the greatcft portion of men periih everlaftingjj. 
3. The opinion concerning a general ranfom, is fo far from 
yielding firm confolation nnt§ l^ilienters from the death of Chrift; 


Q12 ObjeBions particular^ anjwaed^ 

that it quite overthrow i all the choice ingredients of flrong confo^ 
lation, which flovj tJierefrom; and that, (i.) by flrange divifions 
and divulfions of one thing from another, which ought to be con- 
joined, to make up one certain foundation of confidence ; ( 2. ) by 
denying the efficacy of his dtath, towards them for whom he died; 
both which are necelTary attendants of that perfuafion. 

(i.) They fo divide the impetration of redemption, and the 
application thereofy (the firfl being, in their judgments, the only- 
proper immediate fruit and effect of the death of Chrift) that the 
one may belong to millions, who have no ihare in the other; yea 
that redemption may be obtained for all, and yet no one to have 
it fo applied unto them, as to be faved thereby. Now the firfl of 
thefe, iuch as it is, (an eifeclual pollible redemption, notwithftand- 
ing which all the fons of men might perifli everlaflingly) being the 
whole objedt of the death of Chrift, (as is afTerted) feparated and 
divided fr«m all fuch application of redemption unto any, as 
might make it profitable and ufeful in the leafl meafure, (for they 
deny this application to be a fruit of the death of Chrift; if it 
were, why is it ngt common to all for whom he died ? ) what com- 
fort this can in the leafl degree afford to any poor foul, will not 
dive into my apprehenfion. What Jliall 1 do, faith the fmner; the 
iniquity of my heels compajfeth me about, I have no rejl in tny 
hones by reafon of my fin i and now, whither JJiall I caiife my 
forrow to go} Be of good cheer, (fay they) Chrift died for fin- 
ners; yea, but JlwJlthe fruits of his death be certai?ily applied un^ 
to all them for zvhorn he died ? If tiot, I may perijli for ever. 
Here let them that can, anfwer him, according to the principles of 
univerfalijls i without fending him to his own flrength in believing, 
or that which in the clofe will be refolved into it ; et erit mihi mag- 
nus Apollo. And if they fend him thither, they acknowledge the 
confolation concerning which they boaft, properly to proceed from 
ourfelves ; and not from the death of Ghrifl. 

(::.) Their feparating between the oblation and intercejfiofz of 
Jefus Ghrifl, makes little for the confolation of believers; yea in- 

de£d quite everts it There are, amongft others, two eminent 

places of Scripture; wherein the Holy Ghofl holdeth forth confo- 
iStion to believers, againfl thofe two general caufes of all their 
troubles and forrows, viz. their affliction?, and their fins. The 
firfl is, K-om. viii. 32, 33, 34- the other, i John ii. i, 2. In 
both v/h:ch places, the apoflles make the bottom of the confolation 
which they hold out to believers, in their aiilictions and failings, to 
be that flr?.it bond and infeparable connexion which is between 
tdiefc two, with the identity of their objects, viz. the oblation and 
intercelTion of Jefus Chrift. Let the reader confult both the texts, 
and he Ihall find, that on this lies the flrefs, and herein confifls the 
ilrength of the feveral propofals for the confolation of believers, 
which in both places is principally intended; a Hiore-dlred under- 

And PlacM of Scripture opened gij 

taking for this end and purpofe, cannot be produced. Now the 
authors of univerfal redemption, do all of them divide and feparato 
thefetwo ; the/ allow of no connexion between them, nor depend- 
ence of one upon another ; further than is effected by the will of 
man ; his oblation they ftretch to all, his interceffion to a few only. 
But the death of Chrill, feparated from his refurredion and inter- 
ceifion being no where propofed as a ground of confolation, yea, 
pofitively declared to be unfuitable to any fuch purpofe, i Cor. xv. 
14. certainly they who hold it out as fo feparated, are no fricni* 
to chriftian confolation. 

(3.) Their denial of the procurement of yiz/Vi', grace, hcUncfs, 
(the whole intendment of the new c^)veRint) and perfcverance 
therein, by the death and bloodihedding of Jefus Chriii:, unto all 
or any of them for whom he died, doth not appear to be fo faitable 
an alfertion, for to raife confolation from his crofs, as is vainly pre- 
tended. What folid confolation, I pray, can be drawn from fuch 
dry breafts, as from whence none of thefe things do flow.? That 
they have not immediate dependence on the death of Chrift, atcord- 
ing to the perfuafion of the afTertors of univerfal grace, hath been 
before declared, and is by themfelves, not only confeiTed, but 
undertaken to be proved. Now where Ihould a foal look for 
thefe things, but in the purchafe of Chrift? whence Ihould they 
ilow but from his fide t or is there any confolation to be had with- 
out them ? Is not the flrongeft plea for thefe things at the throne 
Q^ grace, the procurement of the Lord Jefus ? wh^t promife is 
there of any thing without him ? are not all the proniif^s of God 
yea and a?nen in him ? is there any attainment of thefe things in 
our ow^n ftrength ? is this the confolation you afford us, to fend us 
from free grace to free will ? Whither, I pray, according to 
your perfuafion, Ihould a poor foul go, that finds himfclf in want 
of thefe things ? To God, ^vho ginjes all freely ; well ; doth God 
blefs us with any fpiritual bleffmgs, but only in Jefus Chrift .? doth 
he blefs us with any thing in him, but what he hath procured for us ? 
is not all grace as well procured by, as difpenied in a Mediator ? — 
Is this a way to conifort a foul, and that from the death of Chrift ; 
to let him know tkat Chriii did not procure thofe things for him, 
without which he cannot be comforted ? credat Apella. 

It is then moft apparent, that the general ranfom, (which is pre- 
tended) is fo far from being the bottom of any folid confolation 
unto them whofe due it is ; that it is diredtly deilrudive of, and 
diametrically oppofed unto, all thofe ways whereby the Lord hath 
declared himfclf willing that we fliould receive comfort from the 
death of his Son ; drying up the brealls from wlience, and poifou- 
ing the ftreams whereby it ihould be conveyed unto our fouls. 

3. The next thing wc have to do, is to manifeil. That the doc^ 

trine cf the effe^ual redemption cf the cleJl only by the blood rfjefus^ 

ii v.ot liable to ariy ji:fi deception as te this par ilcular ; ntr ioth any 

K r '^cy 

1 1 4 Ohj colons parlicularly* anfioeredt 

vjoy abridge helie-verSy cf ayiy part cr pcrtlo7i of that confolatio^ 
"which Gcd is ivilling they pculd recevve. That alone which by 
the oppofers of it, with any colour of reafon, is objefled ; (for a« 
to the exclamation, of fiiutting cut innumerable fouls from any 
ihare in the hleod of Chrift. feeing confeffedly they are reprobates, 
unbelievers and perfons fndly impenitent, we are not at all moved 
at) comes to this head, ^vi%. That there is nothing in the Scripture, 
'whereby ary man can ajjure himf elf that Chrijl died for him in par- 
ticular ; uiilcfs nve grant that he died for all. But, 

(i.) That this is notcrioufly falfe, the experience of all believ- 
ers, who by the grace of Gcd affcred their hearts of their fhare and 
intercfc in Chriii:, as held out unto them in the promife, without 
the leall thought of univerfal redemption, is a fufficient tefti- 

(2.) That the affurance arifmg from a praftical fyllogifm, 
whereof one proportion is true in xhe word, and the fecond by 
the witnefs of the fpirit in the heart, is infallible, hath hitherto 
been acknowledged by all ; now fuch afTurance may all believers 
have, that Chrift died for them ; with an intention and purpofe to 
fave their fouls. For infcaiice ; all believers may draw out the 
truth of the word, and the faith created in their hearts, into this 
eonciuficn, -viz. [1.] Chrijl died for all belie^jers ; that is, all 
who chufe him and reft upon him as an all-fufficient Saviour ; not 
that he died for them as fuch ; but that all fuch arc of thofe for 
whom he died. He died not for believers, as believers; though 
he died for all believers ; but for all the eleft, as eled ; who by 
the benefit of his death do become believers, and fo obtain afTur- 
ance that he died for them. For fuch of thofe that are eleftcd. 
Mho are not yet believers ; though Chrift died for them, yet wc 
deny that they can have any aftiiiance of it, whilft they continue 
fuch; you fuppofe it a foul contradi61:ion, if a man (hould be faid 
to have affurance that Chrift died for him in particular,^ and yet 
continue an unbeliever. — Now this firft propofition, as in the be- 
ginning laid down, is true in the word ; in innumerable places. 
[2.] The heart of a believer in the witnefs of the Spirit, affumes ; 
but Ibelie-ve in Chrijl ; that is, I chufe him for my Saviour, caft 
and roll myfelf on him alone for falvation, and give up myfelf un- 
to him ; to be difpofed of unto mercy, in his own way. Of the 
tiruth of this propofition in the heart of a believer, and the infalli- 

* The diiFerence between this and the following anfwer, is to 
be particularly obferved. According to this firft anfwer, believers 
may a/Jure their hearts, of their Jhare and inferejl in Chrijl, as 
held out to them in the premife ; without refped to any experience 
in themfelves ; but the next anf\\'er is, about a reflex aflurance, 
ofChrift's having \al ^Vi intenii^n ^nd purpofe^ induing, to fave 
their fouls. 

and Places ef Scripture opened. 3t5 

Villty of it, there are alfo many teHimonics in the word, as i« 
known to all ; from whence the conclufion is ; Therefore the Lord 
J ejus Chriji died for me in particular ^ ^ivitt> c.n intention and purpnfe 

Tjjis is fi'.ch a colledion, as all believers, and ncnc but believer?, 
can jufHymake; io that it is peculiar to them alone ; ani untd 
thofe only, is tjiis treafure of conlblation to he imprirted. The 
fufficiency of the death of Chrill, for the faving of every cue with- 
out excepti<^n that comes unto him, is enough to fill all the invita- 
tions and entreaties of the gofpel unto fmners, to induce them to 
believe ; which when, by the grace of Chvifc, they do, clofing 
with the promife, the fore- mentioned infallible afiurance of the 
intention and purpofc of Chrift to redeem them by his death, Matt. 
i. 21. is made known unto them. Now, whether this be not a 
better bottom and foundation, for a man to affure his foul unto reil 
and peace upon, than that reafoning which cur oppofers in this 
bufmefs, (moll fuitable to their own principles) lay as a common 
ftone, njiz. Chriji died for all men ; 1 am a man y therefore Chriji 
died for me i let any man judge; efpecially confidering, that in- 
deed the firfl propofi don is abfolutely fahe ; and the concluhcn, if 
it could be true, yet according to their perfuafion, can be no more 
ground of confolaticn than Adam'' s fall. All this is fpoken, not as 
though either one opir.ion or other were able of itself to give con- 
folation ; which God alone, in the fovereignty of his free grace, 
can and dath create ; but only to fnew what principles are fuitable 
to the means whereby he worketh on and towards his elecfl. 

i^. Ihe dra-dcing cf gvfpel confolaticn frctn tie death cf Chrift 
AS held out to he efetiucd tonjjards the ehJf only, for "jjhom alone he 
died; Ihould clo'e up our difcourfe. Bat coniidering, (i.)how 
abundantly this hath been done already, by divers eminent and 
faithful labourers in the vineyard of the Lord; (2 ) how it is the 
daily tafk of the preachers of the gofpel, to make it out to the peo- 
ple of God; (3.) how it would carry rae out befides my purpofc 
%o fpeak of things in dipraSiical way, having defigned this dixourfe 
fco be purely /ij/^;;z/V/3/y and (4.) that fuch things are no more cx- 
pedled nor welcome, to wi'e and learned men, in contrcvenics of 
this nature, than knotty crabbed fcholallical objeaions, in popular 
ferm.ons and doitrinal difcourfes, intended mxrely for edification : 
I fhail not proceed therein. 

Only for a clofe, I dciire the reader to perufe that one place, 
Romans viii. 32, 33, 34. And I make no doubt but that he will, 
if notinfeded witn the leaven of the ern)r opp-ofed, conclude with 
me, that if there be any comfort, any confolaticn, any aiihrance, 
any reft, any peace, any joy, any reirefhm.ent, any exaltation of 
fpirit, to be obtained here below, it is all to be had in the blood of 
Jefus long fmce flied, and his intcrccffion ftill continued ; as both 
firt united, and appropriated t» the ele^l ©f Ged ; who by the pre- 


3 i6 Ohjeclions particularly anfwered^ &c, 

clous eiTecls ana fruits of tliem both, are d^awn to believe, and 
preferved in believing, to the obtaining of an immortal erown of 
glory that Ihail not fede away. 

Mono fcpho TheOf dia Jefu Chrijiou ho he doxa eis tous Aionas. 

A few TESTIry^ONIES of the Ancients. 


K E confejjian of the holy church of Smyrna ; a little after 
the commendation giijen it by the Holy Ghoji Rev. ii. 9. upoK 
the martyrdo7n of Polycarpus. 

Hoti oute ton Chrifion pote kataleipein dunefometha, ton hyper tee 
tou kofmcu ton foscomenon foterias pathonta, cute heterontinajebein, 
Eufeb. Hiji. Ecclef lib. 4. cap. 15. ^ 

*' Neither can we ever forfake ChriH, him who fuffered for the 
*' falvation of the vjorld of them that are fa^ved i nor worihip any 

II. The ^-itnefs cf holy IgncLtiMS ; as he ivas carrying to Rome 
from Antioch, to be cajt 10 beajls for the tejiimony ofjefus. Epift. 
ad i^hil. (anno 107.) 

Houtos efiin he pros ton patera agcifa hodos, he petra, ho 
phrag;nos, he kleis, ho poimen, to hiereion, he Thyra tes giiofeos, di 
hes eifelthon Jbraa?n kai Ifaac kai Jacob, Mofes, kai ho fympas ton 
prcpheton choros, kai fiylot ton kcfmou hoi Apojioloi kai he nymphe tou 
Chrii'icuy hyper hes phernes logo excchee to oikeion haima, hina auteu 

** This is the way leading to the Father, tins the rock, the fold, 
'' the kev ; he is the .fhepherd, the facrince ; the door of know- 
*' ledge,' by which entered Abraham, Ifaac, Jacob, Mofes, and 
*■ the whole company of prophets, and the pillars of the world, 
«* the apoilles, and the fpoufe of Chrift; /^r T.yi'/V/?, inftead of a 
" do\-iy, he poured out his own blood, that he might redeem 


Surely Jefus Chrifi gives not a donvry for any, but his o^vnfpo'jfe. 

III. Clemens, ivkcje name -'i-vas in the book of life, Phil. iv. 3. 
<^'jitb the lijhcls church at Rome in his days ; in the epiftle to the 
church of Corinth. 

Dia ten agapen hen efchen pros hemas, to haima autou edoken hy- 
per hemon en ihelemati dutou, kai ten farka hyper tes farkos hemon, 
Kai ten pfychen h^^per ton pjychon hemon. 

" For 'the love which ne had unto us, he gave his blood for us, 
"■ according to his purp^fe : and his flefla for our Heili, and his life 
*' for cur liViis." 

A Jew Tefliffionus of the Ancients* 517 

Whireyou ha've ajpgnedy i . The caufe of Chrijl^s death, his love 
to us ; 2. The^bjeit of it, us or helie-vers y 3. 2 he manner hoiAj he 
redeemed us> ^'ven by commutation. 

N.S. This triple teftimony is taken from the very prime of un- 
«lpabted antiquity. 

IV. Cyprian. EpiH:. 63. to Caecilius ; anho^y, learned and fa- 
mous martyr. Ann. 250. 

Nos onmes portahat Chriflus, qui et peccata noftra portabat. 

*' He bare all us, v\ ho bare our fins :" (that is) He iuftainea their 
perfons on the crois, for whom he died. 

n he fame, to Demetrian. 

Hanc gratiam Cbj-iflus ir.p-^rtit ; fubigendo mortem tropheo cru- 
cis, rediit enc.o creaentem prctio fanguinis fui. 

*• This grace hath Chrill communicated ; fubduing death in the 
** trophy of his crofs, redeeming helie^ers with the price of his 
'* blood." 

Ihe fame ; cr fime other ancient and pious nx^riter of the cardinal 
fvooiKs of Cirijl. oerm, 7. fecund. Rivet. Cat. Sac. in Cyp, 
Scuitet. Medel. ap. — i^^ralm. prefut. ad lib. 

The fame author rJfo, in exprefs terms, mentions tie fiificiency of the 
rciffcm paid ly Chr'Ji j arifeng from the dignity of his perfon. 

TantjE dignitatis ilia una Redemptoris nofcri fuit obiatio, ut 
una ad toJlcnda mundi peccata fufiiceret. 

**Of fo great dignity was that one oblation cf our Redeemer, 
«* that it alone was fufficient to uke away the fins of the world.'* 

y. Cyrill. of Hierufalem, Catechef 13. (cir. ann. 350.) 

Kai me thaumafes, ei kcfmos hclos elytrothe, cu gar en antlrcpos 
pjilos, alia \huios thecu moncgenes, ho apothnefcon. — Kai ei tcte dia 
to xylon tes brofeos, exehleihefnn ek Paradeifouy ara dia to xylcn 
Jefu nun eukcpoteron hoi pifteuontes eis Paraactfon ouk eifeleufcntai ? 

" Wonder not if the nx:hole ^-world be redeemed ; for he was not 
" a mere man, but the only begotten Son of God, that died : and 
" if then, through the eating of the tree (forbidden) they were 
*^€aft out of Paradife ; certainly ve-xu by the tree (cr crofs) of Je- 
"* fus, Ihall not kelie-vers more eafily enter into Faradiie f" 

00 aifo dcth another cf tlefn make it ma7:ifejl, in <v:hat ferfe tley 
ufe the <v:ord all, -vix. 

VI. Atiianafius, cfthe incarnation cf tie Wcrd cfGcd. (cir. an- 
no 350.) 


giS A few T'flimonies of the Ancients, 

Houtos ejiin he pantin zoe, hat hos prohatotKhyper tes pantin/ett^ 
rias antipjychon to heauteu foma eis thanafon paradous. 

"He is the life of all ; and as a Hieep, he deUvercd his body 
" unto death— a price for their foulsj that they all might bt faved.** 

All, in hoth places t can he none hut the ele(^. As, 

VII. Ambrofe de Tocat. Gen. lib. i.cap. 3. Or rather Yio% 
j^er. lib. i cap. 9. edit. Olivar. (cir. ann. 370.) 

bi non credis, non dcfccndit tibi Chriftus, non tibi paffus eft. 
"If thou believe not, Chriii did not defcend for thee, he did 
"not fuffer for thee." 

Amhr. de fide, ad Gratianufu. 

Habet populus Dei plenitudinem fuam in eledlis enim et priefcir 
tis ; atque ab omnium general itate difcretis, fpecialis quaedam cen^ 
•ietur unirerfitas ; ut de to to mundo, totus mundus liberatus j ct de 
omnibus hominibus, oirsnes homines videantur affumpti, 

" For the people of God hath its own fulnefs — in the cleft and 
■'* foreknown ; diiUnguilhed from the ^/r«<frfl//>y o/'^//, there is ac- 
*' ounted a certain fpecial uni^verfalitj ; fo that the 'whole nvorld 
** feems to be delivered from the whole world ; and all men to be 
** taktn out of all men." 

In 'which place he proceedeth at large to declare the reaftins, nvhy, 
in this bujinej's, all, and the world, are fo often ufed ftet 
fome of i*il forts. 

iV. B. Thefe that follow, were wrote after the rinng of the Pe- 
lagian herefy ; v/hich gave occafion to more diligence of fearch an<J. 
warinefs of expreluon, than had formerly been ufed by fome. 

VIII. Auguflinus. de cor. et grat. cap. 11. (^a>. ann. 420). 

Per hunc Mediatorem, Deus oftendit eos, qucs ejus fanguin« 
redemit, facere fe, ex malis, in eternum bonos. 

"By him the Mediator, the Lord declareth, that he maketh 
•' thofc whom he hath redeemed witli his blood, — of evil good to 
«* eternity." 

Yule poiTidere ChriHus quod emit ; tanti emit ut poffideat. 

" Clu-ift willpolTefs what he bought; he bought it with fuch a 
•* price, that he might pofTefs it." 

Idem Serm. 44, de t-erbis Jpojf. 

Qui ncs tanto pretio emit, non vult perire quos emit. 

" He that bought us with fu*h a price, will have aonc to peril^ 

•* wJiiSTi he hath bought." 


A Jew Ttjlimonies of thr AncienU. 


Idem, traSIat. 87. in Jchan, 
Ccclcfiam pleruxnqwcetiam ipfam, irundi nomine appellat ; licuC 
eft illud, Deus erat in Chrifto niundum recorcilians f.bi : kc'mque 
illud ; Nop venit Filius hominis ut judicet n-.undrm, fed ut fal- 
vetur mMndus per ipfum. Et in epillola Aia Johrnnesait ; Advo- 
catuiP hi.ben-us ad Patrcm, Jefiim Chrifium juftum ; et ipfc pro- 
pitiator eft peccatonim noftrorum : non tantum noftrorum, {^^ 
etiam totius mundi. Totus ergo mundus eft ecclefia ; et tot us mun- 
dus odit ecclefiam. Mundus igiter edit mundum ; inimicus re- 
conciiiatnm ; damnatus falvatum j inquinatus n.undatum : fed ifle 
mundus quern Dcus in Chrifto rcconciliat fibi, et qui per Chriftuni 
(alvatur, de mundo eleftus eft inimico, diimnato, contnminato. 
** He often calleth the church itfelf by the name of the nuorU 
•* as in that, God nvas in Chriji reconciling the <wcrld to himfelfz 
•* and likewife that, The Son cf Man came not to condemn the nvorld 
** but that the 'world through him might ke faved. And John, in his 
*' epiftle, faith : We ka^-ve an ad'vocate — and he is the propitiation 
''for the fins of the -whole -world. Ihc nxjholc -world therefore is the 
'* church ; and the whole world hateth the church. The -world 'Ctvtvt 
**hateth \k\.^ -world: that (world) which is at enmity, (hateth) the 
** (world) reconciled; the condemned (hateth) the faved (world)"* 
** the polluted (hateth) thecleanfed (world;) but //'c/ ^ivor/^ whick 
*' God in Chrift reconcileth to himfelf, and which is faved br 
*' Chrift, is chofcn out of the hoftile, condemned, defiled -world}* 
Much more to this purpofe might be eafily cited out of Auguftine • but 
his judgment in thefe things is kno-wn to all. 

IX. Profperus ; Refpon. ad Capit. Gal. cap. g. (dr. ann. 44.0) 
Non eft crucifixus in Chrifto, qui non eft membrum corporis 
Chrifto: cum itaque dicatur Salvator, pro totius mundi redcmpti- 
©ne crucifixus, propter veram humanae naturae fufceptionem / pro- 
tcft tamen dici pro his tantem crucifixus, quibus mors ipfius profait 
Diverfa ab iftis fors eorum eft, qui inter illos cenfentur de quibus 
dicitur, Mundus cum non cognovit. 

" He is not crucified -with Chrijf, who is not a member of the 
*' body of Chrift : when therefore our Saviour is faid to be crucified 
" for the redemption of the whole world, becaufe of his true af- 
*' fumption of the human nature yet may he be faid tcjbe crucified 
" only for them, unto whom his death was profitable. DiiFerent 
" from thefe is their lot — who arc reckoned amongS: them of whoim 
** it is faid. The -world kne<w him not.^* 

Idem,' Refp. Objed. Vinctnt. Refp: \, 
Redemptionis proprietaa haud dubie penes illos eft, de quibus 
princeps raundi mififus eft foras : mors Chrift i non ita impcnfa eft 
humano gencri, ut ad redemptionem ejus, etiam qjii regenerandf 
non erant, pertinerent. 

"Doubtlefs the propriety of redemption is theirs, from whom 
<* the pxince of t^hi* world w wft «ut ; the doath •£ Clwiift ii not fo 


gso A feto Teftimonies of thd Ancients* 

*' laid out for human kiiid-^hat they alfo n^uld belong unto hk 
<* redemption, who were not to be regenerate." 
Idem ; de ingrat, cap. 9: 
Sed tamen haec aliqua fi vis ratione tueri, 
Et credi tarn ftulta cupis : jam p^nde quid hssc fit j^ 
Quod bonus oninipotenfque Deus, non omnia iubdit 
Corda fibi, periterque omnes jubet elTe iideles ? ^ 

Nam li nemo ufquam eft quern non velit efle redemptum* 
Kaud dubie impletur quicquid vult fuinma potellas : 
Non omnes autem falvantur. 

(Which is in Turn : 
If there be one vjhom God njuould not hwve redeemedy nxjhy are not 
all faved ; feeing the "will of the Almighty is infallibly auom* 

X. Council of Valence, Can. 4. (ann. 855) 
Pretium mortis Chrifti datum eft pro illis tantum, de quibus 
Dominus ipfe dixit : Sicut Mofes exaltavit ferpentem in deferto, 
ita exaltari oportet Filius Kominis ; ut omnis qui credit in ipfo noa 
pereat, fed habeat vitam eternam. 

** The price of the death of Chrift is given for them alone, of 
** whom the Lord himi'elf faid : As Mcfes lifted up the ferpeni ik 
" the ^vildernefsy e'ven fo muji the Son of man be lifted up y that 
^* 'whcfoe-ver bdieueth in himjhouldnot perifh, but ha^s stern^lUfi^^ 


< . Y.. z<^y it\