(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us) Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The complete works of Thomas Manton, D.D. : with memoir of the author"





SHELF No..... 











.,- -. 




\V. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D., Professor of Theology, Congregational 
Union, Edinburgh. 

JAMES BEGG, D.D., Minister of Newington Free Church, Edinburgh. 

THOMAS J. CRAWFORD, D.D., S.T.P., Professor of Divinity, University, 

D. T. K. DRUMMOND, M.A., Minister of St Thomas's Episcopal Church, 

WILLIAM H. GOOLD, D.D., Professor of Biblical Literature and Church 
History, Reformed Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 

ANDREW THOMSON, D.D., Minister of Broughton Place United Presby 
terian Church, Edinburgh. 

General *?bitor. 


PAG ic 


SERMON UPON PROVERBS vi. 6-8, .... 3 

PROVERBS iii. 18, . . . .13 

PSALM xci. 1, , . . .22 

JOHN xix. 34-37, ..... 33 

MATTHEW xix. 30, . . . . .41 

1 JOHN i. 7, . , , .50 

JOB x. 2, . . . . , .61 

ACTS vii. 55, 56, . . . , .70 

2 SAMUEL xxiv. 24, . , - .81 

1 JOHN ii. 20, . , , .95 

HEBREWS xii. 24, . . . . .106 


INDEX OF SUBJECTS, . , , , * .149 

INDEX OF TEXTS, . . . , . . .373 







Go to the ant, ihou sluggard ; consider her ways, and be wise : which 
having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the 
summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest. PROV. vi. 6-8. 

MAN being fallen from God, and the primitive perfection of his nature, 
may be taught his duty by the meanest creatures ; therefore in scrip 
ture we are often referred to the beasts of the field and fowls of the air. 
As, for instance, to cure our ingratitude, the prophet bids us consider the 
beasts : Isa. i. 3, ' The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's 
crib ; but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider.' And 
to cure our distrust, Christ sends us to the ravens : Luke xii. 24, 
' Consider the ravens : for they neither sow, nor reap ; which neither 
have storehouse, nor barns ; yet God feedeth them : how much more 
are ye better than the fowls.' And to cure our insensibility and im 
providence in the season of action, and to put us on using fit remedies, 
we are sent to the stork and crane : Jer. viii. 7, ' The stork in the 
heavens knoweth her appointed times, and the turtle, and the crane, 
and the swallow, observe the time of their coming; but my people 
know not the judgment of the Lord.' These creatures know the time 
of coming and going, but man is stupid and senseless. Now here we 
are sent to school to a far more inferior creature, the ant or pismire. 
Certainly there is a great deal of morality in the bosom of nature, if 
we had the skill to find it out. There are in most of the creatures 
shadows both of virtues and vices ; and if I may speak my mind, these 
are the true layman's books, and the images from whence we may learn 
understanding and the knowledge of God. 

Here, to shame him, the sluggard is sent to the ant ' Go to the 
ant, thou sluggard,' &c. 

In which words we have (1.) The learner, the sluggard. (2.) The 
teacher, the ant. (3.) The manner of address directed, 'Go, consider 
her ways, and be wise. (4.) The lesson to be learned, diligence and 
labour, or providence and foresight. Diligence and labour, in that 
' she provideth her meat, and gathereth her food.' And providence and 
foresight, that this is done in ' harvest and summer ; ' in the time 
when it is to be had, when there is much grain spilt or shed. (5.) The 
enforcement of this lesson ; that the ant doth this though she hath ' no 
guide, overseer, and ruler/ 

1. The scholar or learner is the sluggard, who is averse and back- 


ward to his necessary duty, both in temporals and spirituals ; and so 
sins not only against the law of God, but his own nature ; for a living 
soul was never given us to be idle. Nature made our faculties for use. 
All the world about us is in action ; the sun runneth his course, the 
waters flow for our use and benefit, the winds blow, the earth bringeth 
forth, cattle labour for us ; but the sluggard is the shame of the 
creation ; every creature is a witness against him to condemn his 
sloth. But here the slothful are sent to the ant to learn to labour, and 
make provision for futurity. And thus, to correct our stupidness and folly, 
God sendeth us to the least of the dumb and unreasonable creatures. 

2. The teacher is the ant, a sedulous and sagacious creature. 
Wonders are spoken of them in writers, which I list not to trouble you 
with ; as what skill they show in framing their cells, that they may not be 
drowned by wet ; what order and discipline they use among themselves ; 
what diligence they use to get provision, not only by day, but by night, 
as JElian tells us. In the full moons of summer and harvest they 
rest not. What sagacity they have in biting off the ends of the corn, 
that it may not grow ; how they perish not, but live in the wettest and 
coldest winter. The grasshopper, that singeth away the summer, dieth 
whilst they supply themselves out of the store which they have 
gathered by their industry. To dilate on these things at large would 
savour more of the natural historian than the divine. 

3. The direction, or the manner of address; in three things (1.) 
Go ; (2.) Consider her ways; (3.) Be wise. 

[1.] For the first, ' Go ; ' as their fashion was to go to their doctors 
and teachers : 1 Kings xiv. 3, ' Go to the prophet, and he shall tell thee 
what shall become of the child.' In those days the party, if capable, 
did not send for the prophet, but went to him. So here, ' Go to the 
ant ; ' to shame the sluggard, as if he needed to perform that office to 
the ant which they showed to their eminent prophets. But when they 
come, what must they do ? 

[2.] * Consider her ways.' This doctor teacheth not by words, but 
by example ; and therefore the sluggard is not bidden to hear, but to 
see, and consider her ways ; that is, see the great diligence of this 
creature, and their marvellous order in passing to and fro ; not cross 
ing one another, but if any be overlaboured, helping them, as your 
eye will easily inform you. 

[3.] ' Be wise.' Be not a spectator only, but an improver ; not more 
learned, or able to discourse of these things, but more wise, to cure 
idleness and improvidence. 

4. The lesson to be learned; which is (1.) Labour; and (2.) 

[1.] Labour. In the hottest times they are most busy, and endure 
the trouble of it. Their industry is a pattern to us. 

[2.] Their foresight. They do this in the ' summer and harvest/ 
They suffer not the opportunity to pass. As we are to labour if we 
would attain eternal life (Acts xxvi. 7, ' Unto which promise our 
twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come '), so 
we are also to redeem the season : Eph. v. 16, ' Eedeeming the time, 
because the days are evil/ Means, and mercies, and life itself, lie upon 


5. The amplification of this provident industry of the ant ; and so it 
enforceth the lesson, 'Which having no guide, overseer, or ruler;' that 
is, the ant doth her duty by instinct, not as compelled thereunto by 
any that have power to check and control her. Naturalists tell us 
that the bees are a feminine monarchy, but the ants a democracy and 
commonwealth, where every one's natural industry prompts him to seek 
his own good, and the good of the whole. 

But to the text. Three words are used ; she hath no ' guide ' to go 
before her and show her what to do ; no ' overseer ' to observe whether 
she doth it or no; no 'ruler' to punish her for idleness or miscarriage; 
yet she labours. All this is spoken to aggravate the sluggish improvi 
dence of man. We have a guide, the Lord, who 'hath showed us what 
is good,' Micah vi. 8. We have an inspector ; God is our witness as 
well as our guide : Prov. xv. 3, 'The eyes of the Lord are in every 
place, beholding the evil and the good.' We have a lord and ruler, 
to whom we must give an account : Eom. xiv. 12, ' Every one of us 
shall give an account of himself to God.' And shall we be idle and 
neglect our duty ? 

From the whole you see 

1. The argument is a minore ad majus, from the less to the greater, 
to shame us. If the creatures that want reason do for their own pre 
servation with such diligence make preparation for time to come, how 
much more inexcusable are we, who are endowed with reason, and can 
foresee the end, and chose the means, bound to provide for the future, 
and forecast and foresee for those things that belong to our future 
happiness ? And if we make not use of it to that end, we are highly 
culpable before God. 

2. It is bound the more upon us, because this instinct of nature 
which prompts them to this is not their providence, but God's, who is 
the Creator of nature, and hath put this disposition into them. Now, 
hath not God put such a disposition and inclination into us much more? 
Surely man is made a nobler creature than the beasts, and is more 
fitted to his use and end ; for it is said, Job xxxv. 11, ' Who teacheth 
us more than the beasts of the earth, and maketh us wiser than the 
fowls of heaven.' Beasts have instinct, but men have the gift of reason 
and conscience bestowed upon them, and do not only understand their 
own duty, but may make wise collections from what God hath put into 
other beings. 

3. That this is binding upon us, both as to the body and soul ; for 
we consist of both, and must make provision for the welfare of both. 

[1.] That we should provide for our bodily welfare will be easily 
granted, and is agreeable enough with the context, which speaketh of 
the inconveniency of asking, and borrowing, and engaging others in. 
suretyship ; and that we should rather by our diligence and providence 
live by our callings, that we may not need to borrow. This application 
maketh the context run on smoothly. Now though it may be presumed 
that in these things wherein common reason and sense inviteth men to 
this diligence and providence, all should have a quick and tender ear, 
yet some idle drones there are who live without a calling, and have 
nothing whereby to support themselves; who* are not only worse than 
the ant, that by labour layeth up for the time of want, but worse than 


the grasshopper, that have scarce a merry life for the present, but 
involve themselves and their friends in manifold inconveniences, living 
by borrowing when they have nothing to pay, which is but a specious 
kind of theft and robbery. Or, if they can support themselves for the 
present, tempt God to forsake them in their age, when they do not 
employ themselves as instruments of his providence, for their own pri 
vate or the public good. They that be busy in an honest calling may 
have to supply their own necessities, and to give to him that needeth : 
Eph. iv. 28, ' Let him that stole, steal no more ; but rather let him 
labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may 
have to give to him that needeth.' By stealing is meant not only 
downright theft, but all those fraudulent and deceitful ways whereby 
a man doth wrong his neighbour in his outward estate. As a remedy, 
he prescribeth diligence in some good and honest calling, and then he 
may expect God's blessing, that he will give him a competency, not 
only to support him in his necessities, but also to enable him to relieve 
others. But when men will not labour, they are cast upon temptations 
to use sinful shifts to keep them in their straits. Therefore it is the 
Lord's will that every one should betake himself to some lawful calling 
and employment, and serve God therein with a good conscience ; for 
God usually blesseth this conscientious diligence with such a measure 
of success, that they have wherewith to sustain themselves and be helpful 
to others. Whereas others cannot trust in God who neglect to use the 
means, for he never undertook to provide for us in our sins, or that 
laziness, carelessness, idleness, luxury, and neglect of our affairs should 
not be our ruin, for then his providence would run contrary to his word : 
1 He becometh poor that dealeth with a slack hand ; but the diligent 
hand maketh rich,' Prov. x. 4 ; and ver. 22, ' The blessing of the Lord 
inaketh rich : and he addeth no sorrow with it ;' implying that God's 
blessing goeth with man's industry. So that though our great business 
be to press men to look after eternal life, yet as idleness is a sin, and a 
great part of sensuality, and disposeth for other sins, we need to read 
the lecture of the ant to many men to awaken them out of their slug 
gishness, and indulgence to the ease of the flesh in temporal affairs, that 
they neither live without a calling, nor without industrious diligence in 
their calling ; that they may not tempt God's providence to provide for 
them, when they take no course to live by ; nor become drones and 
unprofitable burdens of the earth, and so prove a clog and disgrace to 
religion, and lie also open as a prey to Satan ; for the devil employeth 
them whom he findeth not employed by God, or who refuse to be 
employed by him ; and so they prove a reproach to providence by their 
want, and a disgrace to religion by their carnal shifts, lies, and devices. 
[2.] That we should provide for our soul's welfare, the lesson of the 
ant is also useful to us ; for if diligence and providence be recommended 
as necessary for Christians, surely the best and greatest works call for 
most of our care : Prov. iv. 7, ' Wisdom is the principal thing, therefore 
get wisdom : and with all thy getting get understanding.' And those 
things which are of most absolute necessity, which must be done or 
we are undone for ever, must be despatched with the greatest earnest 
ness and diligence : Luke x. 42, ' One thing is needful.' And besides, 
for those that are of most profit, that conduce to eternal life, and bring 


a blessing upon our present affairs, these are to be most minded in 
their season and opportunity. Such are spiritual affairs : Mat. vi. 33, 
' Seek first the kingdom of God.' Therefore the contemplation of the 
ant concerneth these affairs. If we must * consider her ways, and be 
wise/ surely we should mind these things ; for the best wisdom is to 
be wise to salvation. And this doth chiefly become Christians ; for 
God that giveth instinct to the creatures, and reason to all men, hath 
given faith to those that live in the church : 1 John v. 20, ' He hath 
given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true ; and 
we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the 
true God, and eternal life.' The knowledge of the true God directeth 
us to eternal life as our happiness. So that this life is our opportunity, 
our summer and harvest as to the means, the time of action, but here 
after is the time of retribution and reward. Therefore man, being 
born to labour, and having not only reason to guide him, but faith, and 
being to give an account of what he hath done in the body, he is now, 
while means and mercies last, to provide for the world to come. 
Therefore 'go to the ant, thou sluggard.' Thou careless Christian, 
consider the manner and course of life of this poor creature, how 
vigilant, careful, and diligent she is in providing for the time to come, 
and do something proportionably for thy great hopes. 

Doct. That serious diligence is required of Christians in improving 
the present season in order to eternal life. 

1. There is much work required of a Christian. Christianity is not a 
loitering profession, but is always represented to us as a laborious thing : 
Phil. ii. 12, ' Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling ; ' 
John vi. 27, ' Labour not for the meat that perisheth, but for that 
meat which endureth to everlasting life ; ' 2 Peter iii. 14, ' Be diligent, 
that ye may be found of him in peace, without spot, and blameless.' 

[1.] There is much diligence required to get into a state of grace : 
Luke xiii. 24, * Strive to enter in at the strait gate ; for I say unto you, 
many shall seek to enter in, but shall not be able.' Therefore, if we 
are yet unconverted, we are to bestir ourselves, and use all means that 
we may not come short of converting grace. If we miss it, it is long 
of ourselves ; we forfeit it by our negligence and carelessness. 

[2.] There is much diligence required to keep ourselves in a station 
of grace. There are many soul-endangering sins which we are apt to 
indulge ; therefore David saw need to beg, Ps. cxix. 133, ' Order my 
steps in thy word, and let no iniquity have dominion over me ; ' and 
the apostle warneth converted Christians, Kom. vi. 12, ' Let not sin, 
therefore, reign in your mortal bodies, that ye should obey it in the 
lusts thereof.' And there are many duties required to which we are 
backward and averse, at least remiss and cold ; therefore we need to be 
exhorted, Kom. xii. 11, ' Not to be slothful in business, but fervent in 
spirit, serving the Lord.' We cannot be zealous enough in our pursuit 
after eternal happiness. If it were about riches and honours, a cold 
desire and dull pursuit were not amiss ; but about God, and Christ, 
and heaven, coldness is a contempt. 

[3.] There is much diligence required to get grace evidenced: 
' Give diligence to make your calling and election sure,' 2 Peter i. 10. 
Providing comfort against the hour of death : 2 Peter iii. 14, 'Where- 


fore, beloved, seeing that ye look for such things, be diligent, that ye 
may be found of him in peace, without spot, and blameless/ 

[4.] There is much diligence required to keep up assurance, as well 
as to get it. It is gotten with diligence, and kept with watchfulness : 
Heb. vi. 11, 'And we desire that every one of you do show the same dili 
gence, to the full assurance of hope unto the end.' So far as we abate 
in our qualification, so far doth our assurance abate. Well, then, you 
see from first to last that there is much work required of a Christian. 

2. That the opportunity of doing this work is confined to this life ; 
and when that is at an end, it presently ceaseth. There is no mending 
of errors in the other world. Now is the season, and therefore we 
should speedily, and without delay, set about our work: Isa. Iv. 6, 
' Seek ye the Lord while he may be found, call ye upon him while he 
is near/ There is a time of finding, which, when it cometh to an end, 
all opportunity is lost. The Father's season is while he waiteth ; the 
Son's season while he offereth grace ; the Holy Ghost's season while he 
stirreth the waters. So, on the contrary, Luke xix. 42, ' If thou hadst 
known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things that belong to 
thy peace ; but now they are hid from thine eyes.' Men know not 
their day and time, and so show themselves more silly and brutish than 
the ant. A child of God is wise in time, and the sensual and brutish 
worldling is wise too late ; when he is in the other world, then he 
wisheth that he had minded God, his soul, and heaven more. What 
will it profit us to think of working when it is too late to work, and 
we are in termino, in our final estate ? 

3. We have a guide, overseer, and ruler, to whom we must render 
an account of what we do, which is denied to the ant. 

[1.] We have a guide. Our work is such as our Creator expects 
from us. Surely God made not such a creature as man for nothing. 
He sent us into the world, and hath appointed us our business, which 
we are to do here ; as our Lord telleth us, John vi. 38, c I came down 
from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent 
me/ So none of us come into the world to live to ourselves, but to 
God ; not to do our own will, but to finish his work ; to love, serve, 
glorify, and obey him. Many live in the world they know not why, 
and they go out of the world they know not whither. 

[2.] We have an inspector or overseer, who observeth how we spend 
our time, and what we are continually doing : Ps. cxix. 168, 'I have 
kept thy precepts and thy testimonies ; for all thy ways are before me/ 
God seeth what we do daily : he observeth with what posture of heart 
we rise in the morning, and converse all day, and go to bed at night. 

[3.] We have a ruler that will call us to an account if we neglect 
our duty to him, and that provision that we should make for eternity. 
Unless we be found of him in peace, and without spot and blameless, 
we cannot enter into his kingdom ; for * without holiness no man shall 
see the Lord/ Every man's qualification must be judged, and a strict 
inquiry made into our ways, what we have done in the body, whether 
good or evil : 2 Cor. v, 10, ' For we must all appear before the judg 
ment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in the 
body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad/ Now 
seeing we know these things, or look for these things, what preparation 


should we make that we may be accepted in the judgment, when we 
are to give an account of ourselves to our supreme Lord ? 
Use 1. To press us to mind our work in this our day. 

1. This life is our opportunity, and when that is over, there is no 
more working ; no praying, nor hearing, nor glorifying God upon earth : 
John ix. 4, ' Therefore we must double our diligence before all oppor 
tunity be lost. It must go with you for ever as you behave yourselves 

2. Consider how swiftly time passeth away, and we know not how 
soon it may have an end. The present life is always in fluxu, in 
motion ; like a stream or current, that runneth as fast from us as it 
cometh to us. That part which is past is, as it were, resigned up to 
death already ; that which is to come is not yet ours, nor can we make 
any sure reckoning of it ; that which we count present is usually 
divided between us and death. It wasteth as we are writing, thinking, 
speaking, or doing anything. So that we die as fast as we live : Job 
ix. 25, 26, ' Now are my days swifter than a post ; they flee away, 
they see no good : they are passed away as the swift ships, as the 
eagle that haste th to the prey.' He sets forth the passing of time by 
a post on land, who is to make quick despatch ; and by a ship under 
sail before the wind in the water, and by an eagle in the air. Thus is 
set forth the fugacity of man's life. Now should any of this time be 

3. We have lost much time already : 1 Peter iv. 3, * For the time past 
of our life may suffice us to have wrought the will of the gentiles, 
when we lived in lasciviousness, lust, excess of wine, revellings, ban- 
quetings, and abominable idolatries.' We lost much time in childhood, 
when we were not in a capacity to express any act of love and thank 
fulness to God ; much in youth, when we followed after vain pleasures ; 
and in our riper age, we are too careless and mindless of eternity. Now 
as travellers that set forth' later ride the faster, so should we double 
our diligence, and be more hard at work for God. 

4. Consider how comfortable it will be when we die that we have 
made preparation, known our season, done the things which God hath 
given us in charge, thought of this hour, and made provision for it 
before it come upon us. This was our Lord's plea : John xvii. 4, c I 
have glorified thee on earth, I have finished the work thou gavest 
me to do/ This was Hezekiah's prayer: Isa. xxxviii. 3, 'And he said, 
Remember now, Lord, I beseech thee, how I have walked before 
thee in truth, and with a perfect heart, and have done that which is 
good in thy sight.' This was Paul's confidence : 2 Tim. iv. 6-8, ' For 
I am ready to be offered up, and the time of my departure is at hand. 
I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the 
faith : henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, 
which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day ; and 
not unto me only, but to all that love his appearing.' Now we should 
be able to comfort ourselves in like manner. The remembrance of 
a diligent, well-spent life will be a great cordial to us in such an 

5. After death we shall have the fruit and benefit of it : Eev. xiv. 13, 
Their works follow them ; ' that is the reward of their works. They 


enjoy the comfort and benefit of whatever they have done and suffered 
for Christ ; in another world, they are fully satisfied. 

Use 2. Is by way of inquiry. 

1. To inquire what should be the reason why men should be so silly 
and neglectful, when they have such great things in view and pursuit, 
and do no more in order to the obtaining of them, which concerneth 
not only the carnal world, who wholly neglect these things, but also 
the children of God, who are so cold in them. You see sense teacheth 
the ants, and reason should teach men, and grace inclines the saints, 
but yet they are slight and overly. 

The reasons are these 

[1.] They forget or consider not what God is, or how great and good 
a master they serve ; for if they did, they would earnestly address them 
selves to serve and please him. How great is he ! Poor, sorry service 
is a contempt of his majesty : Mai. i. 14, ' Cursed be the deceiver that 
hath in his flock a male, and voweth and sacrificeth to the Lord a 
corrupt thing ; for I am a great king, saith the Lord of hosts.' So 
also how good is he ! Who hath done so much for them : Col. i. 10, 
' That ye walk worthy of the Lord, unto all pleasing ; ' 1 Thes. ii. 12, 
' That ye would walk worthy of God, who hath called you to his 
kingdom and glory.' And he will do more : Heb. xi. 6, * He is a 
rewarder of them that diligently seek him.' These are the considerations 
that may serve to cure our neglect, and show we can never do enough 
for God ; surely never too much for him. 

[2.] They do not consider the end and consequence of their work. 
Eternity should quicken and put life into the dullest creatures. It is 
hell you are avoiding, heaven that you are seeking after : Prov. xv. 24, 

* The way of life is above to the wise, that they may depart from hell 
beneath/ Now in the case of heaven and hell, flight and speed is 
always necessary, or the most serious and earnest diligence that we can 
use : Mat. iii. 7, ' Who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to 
come ? ' Heb. vi. 18, c Who have fled for refuge to take hold of the 
hope set before them.' Now it is not a wet winter that we provide 
against, but everlasting torments. 

[3.] They do not count negligence and slothfulness so great and so 
dangerous an evil. If they do not oppose God, or break out into open 
sin, they think no great harm will come of it ; but, Heb. ii. 3, ' How 
shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation/ Oh, there are millions 
in hell lamenting their carelessness ! And the great fault of the world 
is to make light of those things : Mat. xxii. 5, ' And they made light 
of it ; ' and Mat. xxv. 30, ' Cast the unprofitable servant into outer 
darkness ; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth/ How many 
poor creatures knock and cry when it is in vain. They neglected their 
season, got not oil in their lamps while it may be had. When their 
lamps should have been burning, their oil was to buy ; and so they 
perish for ever. 

[4.] They are diverted by worldly business, providing for the bodily 
life. They are too much like ants in one thing ; all their care is what 
they shall eat and drink, and how they may live in pomp, and ^ ease, 
and honour ; and then by the cares of this world and voluptuous living, 

* they bring forth no fruit to perfection,' Luke viii. 14. They have 


some religion, but not such as is carried on in the way of sincere and 
serious diligence. 

[5.] There is not a sound belief of the world to come. When the 
apostle presseth to diligence, 2 Peter i. 5, ' And besides this, giving all 
diligence, add to your faith virtue/ &c. ; and ver. 10, ' Wherefore the 
rather, brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure ; 
for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall ; ' he urgeth this argument, 
ver. 16, ' For we have not followed cunningly-devised fables, when we 
made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ ;' 
implying that men will see a reason for their diligence if they have a 
sound persuasion of the truth of religion ; and if we do not with zeal 
and constancy seek to add to faith virtue, and to make our calling and 
election sure, to enter abundantly into the kingdom of heaven, we dis 
honour the gospel, as if it were but a fable. Sense teacheth the creatures 
to shun misery and seek their happiness, and reason doth much more 
teach man, who can foresee the good and evil to come ; but where the 
good lieth in the other world, there faith must interpose. Now if 
faith be either none or weak, so will our endeavours and pursuits be. 
Most men have but a weak persuasion of the world to come, and the 
truth of eternal life, and therefore their endeavours are so overly. 

2. To seek for a remedy of this. 

[1.] Live in the continual remembrance of God, who is our guide, 
overseer, and ruler. It is his work we do, as well as our own, for he 
hath appointed it, and he always looketh on to see how we do it. And 
will you loiter in his sight, when a very eye-servant will work while his 
master standeth by ? Besides, in the close of our life we must give up 
our account ; that should be oftener thought of : Job xxxi. 14, ' What 
then shall I do, when God riseth up ; and when he visiteth, what shall 
I answer him ? ' Such an eye should we always have to God's appro 
bation and condemnation, and entertain frequent, serious thoughts of 
being called to an account by God, and the inquiry that shall be made, 
how we have spent our time, how we have improved our talents and 
interests, what our ways have been. This is as the cold water cast 
into the boiling pot, to stop the fervours of youthful lusts : Eccles. xi. 
9, ' Kejoice, young man, in thy youth, and let thy heart cheer thee 
in the days of thy youth, and walk in the ways of thine heart, and in 
the sight of thine eyes ; but know thou, that for all these things God 
will bring thee to judgment.' This bindeth the whole duty of man : 
Eccles. xii. 13, 14, ' Fear God, and keep his commandments ; for this 
is the whole duty of man. For God shall bring every work into 
judgment,' &c. This maketh God's -servants more careful to do their 
work in its season : 2 Cor. v. 10, 11, ' For we must all appear before 
the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things 
done in the body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or 
bad. Knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we persuade men/ &c. 

[2.] Whenever we feel a loathness and backwardness to our work, let 
us set about it the more earnestly ; for the more we give way to it, the 
more we contract an habit of idleness and sloth. It is an industrious 
creature that is here set before us to shame us, a creature always busy ; 
so should we be. Therefore when you find any sluggishness, let not 
the ease of the flesh overcome you, but do you overcome it. This evil 


is best avoided by resistance ; and a duty recovered out of the hands 
of difficulty is the sweeter, and maketh labour for the future more easy 
to us ; for tlie more we stir up ourselves, the more we get a sedulous 
disposition : Isa. Ixiv. 7, ' There is none that stirreth up himself to take 
hold of thee.' It may be at first you will have much ado with a back 
ward heart ; but urge it on, and you gain upon it, and what seemeth 
impossible or difficult at first becometh easy afterwards. The way to 
godliness is by godliness, and duty fitteth for duty. 

[3.] Think oftener of heaven and hell, what we shun and what we 
seek after. We are so dull and lazy because we see not the rest we 
hope for, nor the torments that we fear. If both were before our eyes, 
we should be other manner of Christians in all holy conversation and 
godliness. But what we see by faith should in some measure affect 
us, as if it were before our eyes : 2 Cor. iv. 18, ' While we look not to 
the things that are seen, but at the things which are not seen/ &c. ; 
and 2 Peter iii. 14, ' Wherefore, beloved, seeing that ye look for such 
things, be diligent, that ye may be found of him in peace, without spot 
and blemish.' 

[4.] Consider the great sin of negligence. Not to do good is to do 
evil ; for it is an omission of necessary duties : ' Every tree that bringeth 
not forth good fruit, shall be hewn down/ &c., Mat vii. 19. If you had 
a servant, though he did not steal, nor answer again with contradiction, 
nor drink with the drunken, &c., yet if he should sit always idle, and 
not do those things you require of him, he would be counted a bad 
servant : Mat. xxv. 30, * Cast the unprofitable servant into outer dark 
ness/ Not the thief, the drunken, but ' the unprofitable servant.' If 
you hire a man to labour in the vineyard, will you be contented if he 
doth not steal your fruit, though he standeth idle all the day, and neither 
destroy eth the weeds, nor piuneth the vines, nor manureththe ground? 
Much more must neglect of God's service be a great sin. 

[5.] To overcome worldly affections, consider not only how sure and 
near, but how great our reward is. This will make us more diligent : 
1 Cor. xv, 58, * Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immov 
able, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as ye 
know that your labour is not in vain in the Lord ; ' that is. this will 
oblige you to the utmost industry and diligence in God's service. If a 
poor man will work so hard for a shilling a day, shall we be so sluggish 
when we seek after the kingdom of God and eternal happiness ? Alas ! 
what are all our labours to the glory that shall be revealed in us ? 
Our reward is great in itself, and is greater according to the propor 
tion of our labour : 1 Cor. iii. 8, ' Every man shall receive his own 
reward, according to his own labour/ So Eph. vi. 8, ' Whatsoever 
good thing any man doth, the same shall he receive of the Lord/ 


She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her ; and happy is 
every one that retaineth her. PROV. iii. 18. 

THE context is spent in an exhortation to wisdom, to get spiritual and 
heavenly wisdom. The argument is first generally proposed and 
particularly amplified. Generally proposed, ver. 13, ' Happy is the 
man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding ; ' 
secondly, particularly amplified 

1. By the worth and excellency, ver. 14, 15, 'For the merchandise 
of it is better than the merchandise of silver, and the gain thereof 
than fine gold. She is more precious than rubies ; and all the things 
thou canst desire are not to be compared with her. 

2. From the utility and profit, ver. 16, ' Length of days is in her 
right hand ; and in her left hand, riches and honour/ She is repre 
sented as a queen having both hands full of blessings, ' Length of days 
in her right hand ; and in her left, riches and honour/ 

3. The pleasantness of wisdom, ver. 17, 'All her ways are pleasant 
ness, and all her paths are peace/ Which is added to sweeten the 
difficulties in attaining or pursuing after it, or regulating our lives 
and actions according to the tenor of it. 

4. Here is another special benefit which we have by wisdom, or the 
saving knowledge of God in Jesus Christ, above all hitherto mentioned 
before : as pleasantness and peace during our service, so eternal life 
and happiness as our final reward. Here it is metaphorically expressed, 
with allusion to the tree of life in paradise, ' She is a tree of life to 
them that lay hold upon her.' 

In the words we have (1.) The benefit we enjoy by wisdom ; (2.) 
The persons qualified. 

1. The benefit is expressed metaphorically and literally ; the latter 
explaineth the former. It is ' a tree of life/ and ' happy is every one/ 
She is so a tree of life as to make them happy that get her ; as it is 
usual with Solomon to express any great felicity by a tree of life : 
Prov. xiii. 12, * Hope deferred maketh the heart sick ; but when the 
desire cometh, it is a tree of life;' that is, the man is pleased and 
satisfied, as if he were fed with apples in paradise. So Prov. xi. 30, 
* The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life ; and he that winneth souls 
is wise/ Therefore by this metaphor Solomon understandeth some 
great felicity, and ordinarily eternal felicity, as the latter clause mani- 


festeth, ' And happy is every one.' He meaneth it of our chief happi 
ness ; that is, all and every one that so do, how despicable soever in 
the world, they shall not be forgotten and passed over by God. 

2. The persons qualified to enjoy this happiness. They that ' lay 
hold on her/ or they ' that retain her.' The one expression noteth the 
getting of wisdom, the other the keeping of it ; and they both imply 
the manner also, diligence in getting, and constancy in keeping. 

[1.] In getting. Wisdom is not profitable to them that only see 
her at a distance, or lightly salute her, but to those that with singular 
industry seek after her. and labour to get her : Prov. iv. 7, * Wisdom 
is the principal thing, therefore get wisdom ; and with all thy getting 
get understanding.' 

(1.) Get it above all things ; that is, whatever you go without, be 
sure you be not without wisdom or saving grace : Luke x. 42, ' One 
thing is needful ; and Mary hath chosen the better part, which shall 
not be taken away from her.' You may do well enough though you 
want worldly honour and greatness, but you cannot do well enough if 
you want spiritual wisdom : Mat. xvi. 26, ' But what is a man profited, 
if he shall gain the whole world and lose his own soul ? or what shall 
a man give in exchange for his soul ? ' 

(2.) Get it upon any terms, though with the loss of all other things: 
Mat. xiii. 45, 46, ' The kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant 
man seeking goodly pearls ; who, when he had found one pearl of 
great price, he went and sold all and bought it.' You must get wis 
dom, though at the expense of all that you have gotten. 

(3.) Get it by any means, with all the care and diligence that you 
can use : Prov. viii. 34, ' Blessed is the man that heareth me, watching 
daily at my gates, waiting at the posts of my doors.' Begrudge no 
labour and pains to get into the gospel-state. 

[2.] In keeping, constancy is required. We must not be put off till 
we have it ; and when we have it, we must not let it go, but persevere 
in the way that wisdom prescribeth, and obey God at the dearest rates. 
We must retain her, though despised, though opposed by the world : 
Heb. x. 39, ' For we are not of them that draw back to perdition, but 
of them that believe to the saving of the soul.' 

To the purchasing of the soul : we do not purchase it from God, for 
we have it by mere gift, but we purchase it from the world ; liberty to 
save the soul at hard terms. But if we have gotten wisdom, we must 
never part from her, whatever it cost us. Well, then, get this wisdom 
we must, with all earnestness of endeavour, with all watchfulness and 
care, and firmness and certainty keep it. He that doth not do both is 
not blessed ; that is, that doth not make it his main work and business 
to get wisdom, and doth not hold out and overcome temptations. 

Doct That wisdom doth restore men to that life and happiness 
which they lost in Adam. 

We shall explain the point. 

1. By wisdom may be understood Christ, who is the wisdom of the 
Father, 1 Cor. i. 24, and is both the object and fountain of happiness 
of the saints. He is the fountain of happiness as being the procurer 
and author of it : Col. iii. 4, 'When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, 
then shall ye also appear with him in glory.' And the object of it : 


John xvii. 24, ' Father, I will that those whom thou hast given me 
may be where I am, and behold my glory ; ' and is truly and properly 
the tree of life, whose fruit is for food and leaves for medicine : Rev. 
xxii. 2, ' And in the midst of the street of it, and of either side of the 
river, was there the tree of life, which bore twelve manner of fruits, 
and yielded her fruit every month : and the leaves of the tree were for 
the healing of the nations/ There is no inconvenience to understand 
it of Christ, or else of the saving knowledge of God in Christ ; as one 
is the author, the other is the means to bring it about : John xvii. 3, 
'And this is life eternal, that they may know thee the only true God, 
and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent/ 

2. By life is meant the life of grace, begun here by the Spirit, and 
perfected in heaven. By wisdom we begin the life of grace here, and 
hereafter shall obtain the life of glory. In the Hebrew the word for life 
is in the dual number, the tree of lives ; of both the lives, the life of 
holiness and the life of happiness, of grace and of glory. How this 
agreeth with the metaphor here used I shall show you by and by. This 
life is begun in regeneration when Christ cometh to live in us by his 
Spirit : John iii. 3, * Except a man be born again, he cannot see the 
kingdom of God/ The immediate effects of the new birth are life and 
likeness to God; and it is perfected in heaven: Col. iii. 3, 4, 'Our life 
is hid with Christ in God. When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, 
then shall we also appear with him in glory/ This life is safely laid 
up in God, through Christ, in due time to be manifested in all its 

3. That this life is restored to those that live under the evangelical 
dispensation, provided they use the means, which are to lay hold on 
her and retain her. These are the things we must press upon you, to 
apprehend and retain, that is, we must receive the faith of Christ, and 
live accordingly. First be engaged in a course of godliness, and then 
hold it on, whatever temptations we have to the contrary. And accord 
ingly two ordinances are required in the gospel baptism, which signi- 
fieth our entrance, and the Lord's supper which confirmeth our vows of 
a new life, and bringeth down more grace for the performance of them ; 
or, as our Lord sets it forth, by the gate and the way : Mat. vii. 14, 
' Strait is the gate, and narrow is the way that leadeth unto life ; 
and few there be that find it/ The gate by which we enter is faith 
and repentance. The narrow way is a strict obedience, doing the will 
of God, and not our own. And though few mind these things, we must 
mind them. It is elsewhere represented by making and keeping cove 
nant. Making covenant : Ps. xl. 5, ' Gather my saints together unto me, 
those that have made a covenant with me by sacrifice/ Keeping 
covenant : Ps. xxv. 10, * All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth, 
even to such as keep his covenant and his testimonies.' We make it 
by faith ; we keep it by a resolved, holy, and heavenly life : Kev. xxii. 
14, ' Blessed are they that do his commandments ; that they may have 
a right to the tree of life/ They that believe, repent, and obey, they 
have a right to the apples of paradise, to eat of this blessed tree ; as (to 
accommodate the notions of the text to these things) many as take hold 
of Christ by a lively faith, and resolve to live holily ; and this resolution 
must be made whatever difficulties we have to fight with in the 


accomplishing of it : Kev. ii. 7, ' To him that overcometh I will give 
to eat of the tree of life which is in the midst of the paradise of God.' 
It is promised to the conqueror who overcometh the world, and is 
faithful to death. 

1. Let me confirm it (1.) By showing what the tree of life was to 
Adam ; (2.) What Christ will be to us if we choose him and walk in 
his ways. 

[1.] What the tree of life was to Adam. That there was such a tree 
in paradise appeareth, Gen. ii. 9, ' And out of the ground made the 
Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for 
food ; and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, and the tree of 
knowledge of good and evil.' For the physical use of it, whether it 
might be wholesome, and a natural means to prolong life, we meddle 
not with ; the mystical use is that which falleth under our consideration, 
as it was a sacrament of immortality, or a sign of eternal life to man, if 
he had obeyed God his Creator. Now sacraments have a mutual respect 
to privileges and duties. As it relateth to his duty, Adam had two 
things enjoined him ; the oueprceesse creaturis, to rule over the creatures, 
the other subesse creatori, to be subject to his Creator. He had no need 
of a caveat for the one; he was ready enough to govern and bear 
sovereignty : but for his duty to God, he had great need to be put in 
mind of that ; therefore under the condition of obedience, life present 
and future was promised to him. Those were his privileges : as he had 
received a natural life, in esse, in being ; so an eternal life, in posse, in 
power, and so had matter and just occasion of thankfulness and obedi 
ence. For this end served the tree of life as a token and pledge that 
he had received and should continue his life at God's will and pleasure. ^ 
The tree of life sealed the continuance of his natural life during his 
abode upon earth ; and eternal life, when he should be removed thence, 
to enjoy the fulness of God's blessed presence for ever in heaven ; for 
in all probability the life promised answereth the death threatened. 
Now the death threatened is eternal, and therefore the life promised 
is eternal also. In short, it was God gave him life, and not the tree ; 
working not by physical efficacy, but by sacramental representation. 
It represented to Adam that God was his life and the length of his 
days, as he is also to us : Deut. xxx. 20, ' That thou mayest love the 
Lord thy God, and that thou mayest obey his voice, and that thou 
mayest cleave unto him ; for he is thy life, and the length of thy days ; ' 
Job x. 12, ' Thou hast granted me life and favour, and thy visitation 
hath preserved my spirit.' Expressing thereby God's care in preserving 
his natural life. His life could not be preserved but by God's im 
mediate power, care, and love, which Job calleth his ' visitation,' or 
looking after us, as a parent overseeth his child condiiione corporis. 
Adam was mortal as other men are, and no temporal thing could 
preserve him but immortal beneficio conditoris, by the bounty of his 
Creator, and the tree of life was the sign and assurance of it. 

[2.] When Adam sinned, this privilege was forfeited : Gen. iii. 22, 
' And the Lord said, Behold, the man is become as one of us to know 
good and evil ; ' that is, he will be at his own finding and know what 
is good or evil for himself, and not take my direction, but live accord 
ing to his own will : ' And now, lest he put forth his hand, and take 


also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever. Therefore the Lord 
sent him forth from the garden of Eden.' That expression might 
seem to intimate that if Adam, in a state of sin and mortality, had tasted 
of the tree of life, he should now, notwithstanding his fall, live for 
ever ; but God respected not the event in that speech, but the opinion 
of Adam, or the use for which the tree was ordained. Possibly man 
might believe Satan suggesting that Adam notwithstanding his fall 
might be immortal still by the use of that tree ; therefore God drove 
him out of paradise. But the true reason is, God would not suffer 
Adam to make use of the token of life when he had forfeited life itself 
by his transgression. The tree had lost its use ; it was the sign of life 
to Adam ; therefore to prevent his sin in profaning the holy ordi 
nances when he had no right to them, God drove him out. Thus our 
first parents, being separated from God, they were separated from life, 
for God was their life. 

2. What Christ will be to us if we choose his ways, and walk in 
them. Take that in these propositions 

[1.] That we, that did once partake of life (which lieth in the 
fruition of God) in our common root and first father Adam, are now 
excluded by sin : Eccles. vii. 29, 'Lo, this only have I found, that God 
hath made man upright, but they have sought out many inventions.' 
In our mere natural estate we are deprived of life : Eph. ii. 1, ' And 
you hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses and sins.' And 
the longer we live in our unrenewed estate, we are the more estranged 
from it : Eph. iv. 18, ' Being alienated from the life of God, through the 
ignorance that is in them because of the blindness of their heart.' And 
so made incapable in a further degree : Ps. liii. 2, ' God looked down 
upon the children of men to see if there were any that did understand, 
that did seek God.' Every sin maketh the breach and distance 
between us and God broader and wider. 

[2.] In pity to lost mankind God hath set up a new tree of life. 
Though we are deprived of the first tree, yet God hath planted a better, 
which yieldeth better fruit, to be enjoyed in a better place. This 
better tree is Christ : Kev. xxii. 2, ' And in the midst of the street of 
it, and on either side of the river was there the tree of life, which bare 
twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month ; and the 
leaves of the tree were for healing of the nations.' This tree can be 
no other but Christ, who by his ordinances dispenseth all manner of 
blessings and comfort to his people at all times. His fruit, abundance 
of spirituality in obedience to the doctrine of the twelve apostles : the 
leaves, the mere outward and civil conversation, is so excellent that it 
draweth others to imitation and conversion. And it is said, 1 John 
v. 12, ' He that hath the Son hath life ; arid he that hath not the Son 
bath not life.' His fruit is better ; the fruit of the first tree was 
corporeal, and did only represent spiritual and heavenly things ; but 
this fruit is the things themselves, saving grace and eternal life : Cant. 
ii. 3, ' I sat down under his shadow with great delight, and his fruit 
was sweet to my taste.' And we have this life and immortality in a 
better place than Adam had. Not in an earthly paradise among 
beasts, but in an heavenly paradise, in the immediate presence of 
God and his holy angels : Eph. i. 3, ' Blessed be the God and Father 

VOL. xx ir. B 


of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with spiritual bless 
ings in heavenly places in Christ/ Therefore heaven is called 
paradise : Luke xxiii. 43, ' This day shalt thou be with me in paradise.' 
And Paul was caught up into paradise, 2 Cor. xii. 4, ' Which is the 
same with the third heaven,' ver. 2. Oh ! what should we do but take 
hold of this tree, gather the fruit of it ? What greater thing can be 
given us than Christ, and what shall we want if we have him for our 
Eedeemer and Saviour ? 

[3.] This grace is offered to all that lay hold of him, and will not let 
him go, but still cleave to him by an entire dependence and close ad 
herence. There are two things qualify us for the grace of Christ 
thankful acceptance and close adherence ; and the heirs of promise are 
described sometimes by the one, and sometimes by the other. 

(1.) Acceptance : John i. 12, ' To as many as received him.' Who 
soever do broken-heartedly, thankfully, and heartily take the Lord 
Jesus to be their Lord and Saviour, and are resolved to seek their 
happiness in God through him, are adopted into his family, and are 
made heirs according to the hope of eternal life : Heb. vi. 18, 'Who 
have fled for refuge, to lay hold upon the hope set before us.' They 
have a heaven of glory at their lives' end. They cannot be satisfied 
till they are in their city of God, till they have a right, and get some 
possession of Christ and his benefits, which is mainly done by faith 
and hope. We believe Christ to be that to us as the gospel sets him 
forth to be ; consent he shall be such a one to us, and therefore trust 
in him, and resign up ourselves to him, that he may do the works of a 
saviour for us and in us. Well, then, do you heartily entertain him 
in your souls for these ends ? and do you depend upon him, that he 
will according to his word accomplish these ends ? namely, deliver you 
from the guilt, and power, and punishment of sin ; also work grace, and 
preserve, and quicken, and strengthen it unto eternal life. Then we 
begin to live in him : Gal. ii. 20, ' The life that I live in the flesh, I 
live by the faith of the Son of God.' 

(2.) Adherence. There is first choosing and then cleaving : Acts 
xi. 23, ' And exhorted them all that with purpose of heart they would 
cleave unto the Lord ; ' Cant. iii. 4, ' I found him whom my soul loveth ; 
I held him, and would not let him go.' Abiding in him : John xv. 4, 
* Abide in me.' There is no fear of breaking the union on his part. 
His gracious presence is secured by his love and promise. All the 
danger is in breaking on our part. And though Christ doth finish 
the work he hath begun, yet we must use caution and watchfulness ; 
not consent to quit him upon any terms. This adherence is a con 
tinuance in faith, and love, and strict obedience. 

(1st.) In faith : Col. i. 23, ' If ye continue in the faith, grounded 
and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the gospel.' He 
had spoken of their reconciliation with God through Christ ; now the 
comfort did depend on their perseverance. It is not enough for us to 
assent to the truth of the gospel, and once to embrace Christ, and 
choose the good things offered by him for our portion, but still Christ 
must be precious to us, and our faith firm and fixed. 

(2d) Love : Kom. viii. 35, ' Who shall separate us from the love of 
Christ ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or 


nakedness, or peril, or sword ? ' Cant. viii. 7, ' Many waters cannot 
quench love, neither can the floods drown it ; if a man would give all 
the substance of his house, it would be utterly contemned.' Love 
cannot be bribed nor quenched; nothing can unclasp those mutual 

(3c?.) Strict obedience and holiness : Rev. xxii. 14, ' Blessed are they 
that do his commandments, that they may have a right to eat of the 
tree of life.' 

[4.] And this when there are sore temptations to drive us from God : 
Rev. ii. 7, ' To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of 
life which is in the midst of the paradise, of God.' 

Use 1. To persuade us to get and keep this wisdom, and this 
saving knowledge of Christ, which may produce faith, love, and 

1. Consider the motives propounded, life and blessedness. These 
are most desirable things. All would be happy, and all would live to 
enjoy them ; yea, the general desire of all men is to prolong their life, 
though in misery ; but this life is happy, and it is eternal, and recom 
mended to us with all the advantages which the place heaven can 
afford us. The tree of life is gone, when paradise was defaced by the 
flood ; but God hath provided a better life by the death of his Son, 
that we shall live for ever, both in body and soul, eternally in heaven. 
Nothing else but this deserveth to be called life. The bodily life is 
short ; it is a dying life or a living death. It floweth from us as fast 
as it cometh to us ; but this never fadeth, but endureth for ever. The 
bodily life is subject to pain and misery, but the heavenly, full of joy and 
endless glory. The bodily life is supported with meats and drinks, 
but there God is all in all. The bodily life is consistent with sin, but 
this life is pure and perfect : ' We shall see God as he is, and be like 
him,' 1 John iii. 2; Jude2, 4, 'Now unto him that is able to keep 
you from falling, and to present you faultless before the presence of 
his glory with exceeding joy/ In the bodily life we have a mixture of 
sorrow with all our comforts, but here is full contentment and satis 
faction : Ps. xvi. 11, 'In thy presence is fulness of joy, and at thy 
right hand are pleasures for evermore/ 

2. It is a new recovery of life lost and forfeited. After our long 
exile from God, he hath found out a way how we may return to him 
again, and live in communion with him. The work of redemption 
Christ himself hath performed for us, without asking our consent, or 
imposing any conditions upon us. He took our nature, fulfilled the 
law, satisfied the offended lawgiver, merited grace, conquered death, 
the devil, and hell. But to apply the comfort of these benefits, some 
what is required of us ; for a neglected Christ will not profit us. Of 
how much sorer punishment shall we be thought worthy if we despise 
God's second dispensation ? Then to the breach of our duty will be 
added the slighting of our remedy : John iii. 18, ' He that believeth 
not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name 
of the only-begotten Son of God/ And if salvation itself cannot save 
us, nor life quicken us, what will become of us ? If God offereth his 
grace, and we will not lay hold of it and retain it, we are justly 


3. Here is motive enough to recompense all the difficulties and 
troubles in getting and keeping Christ. 

[1.] In getting. Christ is not to be had with a large wish or a cold 
prayer. There is much waiting and striving, and praying and medi 
tating ere the soul is well settled, and can be brought to trample upon 
all things so we gain Christ. The tree in paradise was provided by 
God, and planted in the midst of paradise without Adam's labour : so 
is Jesus Christ provided for us by the mere grace of God ; but before 
we get to him, we must conquer guilty fears, rebellious lusts, and much 
averseness of heart ; many a bitter pang before we come to lay hold of 
this grace, which is troublesome to them which would sleep quietly in 
their sins. But if you will set yourselves in good earnest to get him, 
it will be worth your pains ; for ' he is a tree of life to them that take 
hold of him,' and your first faith is rewarded with a sweet taste of this 
blessed fruit. 

[2.] In keeping. The trouble will be recompensed : Ps. cxxvi. 5, 'They 
sow in tears, but they shall reap in joy.' You have your temptations 
to overcome ; you make your way to heaven by conflict and conquest 
every step : c Without are fightings, within are fears.' Now we have 
the wrestling life, overcoming first one difficulty and then another. 
We make a snare to ourselves if we look for too much satisfaction in 
the world : but the clearer sight we get of heaven by faith and hope, 
the more we are strengthened. Here we must expect our conflicts, 
but there our quietness and rest. Now the happiness God hath pro 
vided for his people in heaven is enough to sweeten our crosses and 
encourage our obedience. Surely if we kept this recompense in our 
view it would strike temptations dead : Eom. viii. 18, ' For I reckon 
that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be com 
pared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.' The reward is 
sufficient, though we lay down our lives for Christ ; for the case is, 
whether we will yield it as a debt to nature, or resign it to Christ, 
who hath promised to render it again with advantage. 

4. There is wisdom in it. Surely they walk most wisely that are guided 
by God's counsel. Carnal men think their own way to be wisest, who 
spend all their time and care in attaining profit, and pleasure, and pre 
ferment in the world. There is present advantage, and they j udge the 
way of the godly to be mere folly, who spend their strength in looking 
after spiritual and heavenly things, which they count to be but fancies : 
but a little time will discover this error. They who thought themselves 
to be the only wise men shall certainly be found to be mere fools, and 
the godly the wisest adventurers, whose wisdom shall be to them a tree 
of life. Oh, what poor things are present delights, which draw away 
the carnal, if compared with these choice satisfactions and pleasures 
which are to be had at God's right hand for evermore ! Death will 
soon show that they are in an happier condition that suffer all things 
for an unseen world and the life to come, than the sensual and ungodly, 
that have their good things here : Luke xii. 20, * Thou fool ! this night 
thy soul shall be required of thee : then whose shall these things "be 
which thou hast provided? ' Jer. xvii. 11, 'At his end he shall be a 

Use 2. To inform us that life is to be had and best preserved by 


obedience and close adherence to God. Which, though it be princi 
pally meant of life eternal, which is God's gift : Rom. vi. 23, ' The gift 
of God is eternal life ; ' assured to us by promise, if we believe in Christ, 
and obey the gospel : 1 John ii. 25, ' And this is the promise that he 
hath promised to us, even eternal life ; ' yet in its proportion it holdeth 
good of life natural also. Our life and breath is in his hand : Dan. v. 
23, ' And the God in whose hand thy breath is,' to take it away or con 
tinue it at his own pleasure : Ps. civ. 27, * Thou takest away their 
breath, and they die.' The sound in the pipe continueth no longer than 
he that pipeth bloweth in it. Now obedience or disobedience are the 
terms of communicating or withholding of it. It is said, Job xxxvi. 6, 
' He preserveth not the life of the wicked.' Though it be continued by 
him, yet it is not out of any respect to them. They have not a moment's 
assurance of the continuance thereof. If therefore we live by him, let 
us live to him and for him, and then, when he is pleased to put a period 
to this natural live, we may live for ever with him. 


He that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High shall abide in 
iJie shadow of the Almighty. Ps. xci. 1. 

THIS psalm is thought to be composed upon occasion of that great pes 
tilence which destroyed seventy thousand in the space of three days, 2 
Sam. xxiv. Whether David is the author of it is disputed ; for though 
some of the Greek and Latin copies have a title ascribing it to David, 
yet the Hebrew has none. I should think it is not David's. 

1. For David's psalms usually have his name prefixed, together with 
the occasion ; which, the case being so weighty, probably here it would 
not have been omitted. 

2. It is not likely that David, having drawn that great calamity on 
the people by his sin, and expressing his resentment of it with so much 
penitence, would make no mention of it in the contexture of this psalm, 
nor signify his repentance by some passage or other. 

It is more likely to be composed by Gad, a prophet of those times, 
called David's seer, and whose ministry God made use of to offer David 
his choice of pestilence, war, or famine. It is probable that holy man, 
being no way accessary to David's sin, declareth his confidence and 
trust in God, for an example to other believers in like dangers. He 
maketh no mention of David's sin, it being both needless and undutiful 
to discover the nakedness of his prince, who had already manifested 
such an exemplary repentance. But whoever was the penman, the 
devil himself grants it to be the word of God, for he quotes a passage 
out of it : Mat. iv. 6, ' It is written, He shall give his angels charge 
concerning thee.' 

In this verse (which is the ground of the whole psalm) there is 
(1.) A qualification; (2.) A privilege. 

Both are almost expressed in the same terms, to show that our pri 
vilege and our duty are near of kin. God is wont to reward grace with 
grace : Ps. xxxi. 24, ' Be of good courage, and he shall strengthen your 
heart ; ' and Ps. xxvii. 14, ' Wait on the Lord ; be of good courage, and 
he shall strengthen thine heart.' So delight with delight : Isa. Iviii. 
13, 14, 'If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy 
pleasure on my holy day, and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of 
the Lord, honourable, and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, 
nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words : then 
shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord/ &c. But here it is the duty and 


the fruit. What do yon desire in the time of danger but to abide in 
the shadow of the Almighty ? Do so, and you shall abide. Make him 
your refuge, and he will be your refuge. Dwell in God, and you shall 
dwell in God. 

But though the qualification and privilege be expressed in like 
terms, yet they are not altogether the same ; but as in the qualification 
you may observe three things, so the privilege answereth it (1.) The 
act of faith ; (2.) The mariner of preservation ; (3.) The author, or 
person trusted. 

1. The act of faith, 'He that dwelleth;' in the privilege, * shall 
abide/ He that doth dwell shall dwell. 

2. The manner of preservation. It is called in the qualification, 'The 
secret place of the Most High ; ' in the privilege, ' The shadow.' The 
secret place : Sept. ev ftorjOeia TOV v^Ca-rov, ' He that dwells in 
the help of God.' God's help is secret, unknown, and unaccessible 
to the carnal world, who live by sense. The other term, 'shadow/ 
siguifieth defence ; for a cool shade was a great relief to travellers in 
that hot country : Num. xiv. 9, ' Their defence is parted from them ; ' 
margin, ' Their shadow is departed from them/ Here the Sept. ev 
cTKeTry, ' In the protection/ The Chaldee addeth, * In the shadow of 
the clouds of the glory of the Almighty/ 

3. The author, or person trusted for preservation. In the qualifica 
tion, ' Most High ; ' in the privilege, ' Almighty/ The one noteth his 
supreme authority and command, the other his invincible power. 

Doct. That whosoever will trust himself in God's hands may remain 
secure under his protection in the midst of all dangers. 

The point will be best discussed by considering these things (1.) 
What it is to trust ourselves in God's hands ; (2.) How it is expressed 
and recommended to us in this text ; (3.) How necessary a duty this 
is for all Christians. 

I. What it is entirely to trust ourselves in God's hands. We shall 
consider the nature and the grounds of it. 

1. The formality, nature, or essence of it consists in two acts in 
resigning ourselves to God's will, and in resting with quietness, and 
depending upon him for the good we stand in need of. It is expressed 
in scripture by two words (1.) Consecrating ; and (2.) Committing 
ourselves to God. 

[1.] Consecrating, or devoting or giving up ourselves to his will : 
Kom. xii. 1, ' I beseech you by the mercies of God, that ye present 
your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God.' There is a 
twofold will of God his governing and his disposing will. We give 
up ourselves to obey his governing will as our ruler : Bom. vi. 13, 
' Yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and 
your members as instruments of righteousness unto God/ We give up 
ourselves to submit to his disposing will as our owner : 2 Sam. xv. 26, 
' Behold, here I am, let him do unto me as seemeth good unto him/ 
The one, to do what he will have us to do ; the other, to be what he 
will have us to be. Both are presupposed in trust, which resulteth 
from owning God as our God: Ps. xxxi. 14, 'I trusted in thee, 
Lord ; I said, Thou art my God/ Till we have given up ourselves to 
him, how can we trust him ? And till we give up ourselves entirely 


to him, to be governed and disposed of by him at his pleasure, we do 
not trust him. Therefore this is included in the fundamental article 
of the covenant, in the choice of God as our God. And so Ruth's con 
version to the God of Israel is expressed : Euth ii. 12, ' A full reward 
be given thee of the God of Israel under whose wings thou art come to 
trust;' that is, to whom thou hast given up thyself, whatever befall 
thee. She left her own people to obey his will and trust his provi 

[2.] The other word is committing ourselves to him ; a notion often 
used, and of great significancy in this matter: as, 2 Tim. i. 12, 'For I 
know whom I have believed, and I am persuaded that he is able to 
keep that which I have committed unto him against that day;' 1 Peter 
iv. 19, ' Wherefore, let them that suffer according to the will of God 
commit the keeping of their souls to him in well-doing, as unto a 
faithful creator ; ' and Ps. xxxvii. 5, ' Commit thy way unto the Lord ; 
trust in him, and he shall bring it to pass.' This is when the soul 
rests quietly in God by faith, as a man doth in his habitation, and we 
can go on cheerfully in the duties of our general or particular calling, 
knowing that while we are in God's hands we are in safe hands, come 
what will come. We are not troubled about any event, but entirely 
commit it to God. 

2. The grounds of this trust are two (1.) God's nature ; (2.) His 
covenant. His nature showeth his all-sufficiency ; his covenant assuretli 
us of his readiness to help us. 

[1.] His nature is a ground of trust ; for God is represented to us 
as an infinite, eternal being, wise, powerful, and good. As he is 
infinitely wise, so he knoweth all things, what may hurt and what may 
help us : Mat. vi. 32, ' Your heavenly Father knoweth that you have 
need of all these things ; ' ' And he knoweth how to deliver the right 
eous out of temptation,' 2 Peter ii. 9. And then he is powerful, or 
able, whatever difficulties arise : 2 Tim. i. 12, ' I know whom I have 
believed, and I am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have 
committed unto him unto that day ; ' Rom. iv. 21, ' Being fully per 
suaded, that what he had promised he was able also to perform.' So 
he is good : Ps. cxix. 68, ' Thou art good, and doest good.' So Ps. c. 5, 
' The Lord is good, his mercy is everlasting, and his truth endures to 
all generations.' Now it is not enough that there be notitia, a know 
ledge with assent, but there must be Aducia, a reliance or dependence 
upon these things, on the infinite wisdom, power, and goodness of God, 
that he will to us show himself a God wise, good, and powerful, as he 
doth to all his creatures. 

[2.] His covenant or promise is a ground of trust ; for God's pro 
mises are the sacred bands which he hath put upon himself, the rule 
and warrant of our faith, and the great encouragement of it. As it is 
said of Sarah, that 'she judged him faithful that had promised,' Heb. 
xi. 11. Surely God will make good his word. Believers may be con 
fident of it, though the event be never so unlikely : Ps. Ivi. 4, ' In God 
I will praise his word, in God have I put my trust, I will not fear 
what flesh can do unto me/ When we have God's word, it is enough 
for the triumph of faith, though the dispensations of his providence 
little answer our expectations. Only here lieth a difficulty ; certain it 


is that God's nature and his word both together are a foundation of 
trust; and when his wisdom, power, and goodness is at the bottom of 
the covenant, it is made thereby more firm and valid to us ; for our 
general security lieth in the nature of God as the particular warrant 
of our faith in his promise. But when these two are severed, when we 
have no particular express promise, how far may we depend upon his 
nature ? I answer 

(1.) Consider what trust is.. Not a confidence of particular events, 
but a resigning and committing ourselves to God. Then you will see 
that his nature relieveth very much, though we have no express pro 
mise. Surely a powerful God can do all things that we expect from 
him. He can keep and preserve us when all means fail. A wise God 
knoweth what is best for us, and a good God will not forsake his chil 
dren or people. 

(2.) We have general promises when we have not particular; as 
Heb. xii. 5 ; that God will not utterly forsake us ; that he will not 
leave us to insupportable difficulties: 1 Cor. x. 13, 'God is faithful, 
who will not suffer you to be tempted above that you are able : but 
will with the temptation also make a way to escape, that ye may be 
able to bear it ; ' that ' all things shall work for good/ Rom. viii. 28. 
But for disposing the particular event; on the one hand, God is so 
wise and good that we need not disquiet ourselves about it ; but on 
the other, we must not make promises to ourselves, nor become false 
prophets to ourselves, nor entertain a confidence of particular events 
without God's express warrant. 

(3.) We may lawfully hope for good success though there be no 
promise, if there be nothing to the contrary ; because God is so ready 
to do good to all his creatures, especially to his people and faithful 
servants, when in their distress they seek to him and humbly wait 
upon him. Surely we ought not to be faithless and distrustful in par 
ticular exigencies. There is a common bounty and goodness of God 
which is over all his works : Ps. cxlv. 9, ' The Lord is good to all ; his 
tender mercy is over all his works. This reacheth to the preservation of 
the smallest worm, decketh the lilies, feedeth the ravens and fowls of 
the air ; therefore certainly more noble creatures, such as man is, may 
expect their share in this common bounty. How much more may 
God's people and children ? See Mat. vi. 25, &c., ' Therefore I say 
unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye 
shall drink ; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on : is not the 
life more than meat, and the body than raiment ? Behold the fowls 
of the air; for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into 
barns, yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better 
than they?' Will he not give to children that which he giveth to 
beasts, to fowls of the air, to enemies? You would count him an 
unnatural father which would feed his dogs and hawks, and let his 
children die of hunger. 

(4.) In case the scruple be whether any promise belong to us, see the 
parables : Luke xi. 8-13, 'I say unto you, Though he will not rise and 
give him because he is his friend ; yet because of his importunity, he 
will rise, and give him as many as he needeth. And I say unto you, 
Ask, and it shall be given you ; seek, and ye shall find ; knock, and it 


shall be opened unto you. For every one that asketh, receiveth/ &c. ; 
Luke xviii. 7, 8, ' And shall not God avenge his own elect, which cry 
day and night unto him, though he hear long with them ? I tell you 
that he will avenge them speedily.' Thus we should raise ourselves 
into a confidence and comfortable expectation in waiting on this good 

II. Let us see how it is expressed and recommended to us in this 
text. Here is the person trusting, the act, the encouragement to trust. 

1. The person trusting is indefinitely expressed, ' He that dwelleth/ 
&c. And the indefinite expression in the case is equivalent to an uni 
versal inviting all. There is no exception against any because of their 
outward condition. ' He/ whatsoever he be, high or low, rich or poor ; 
for God is no accepter of persons, but is rich to all that call upon him. 
Among men it is otherwise ; the poor, who most need cherishing and 
protection, have least share of it. Men barter with their kindness, and 
give harbour and entertainment to them from whom they may receive 
it again. It is the fashion of the world to respect great ones. If a rich 
or noble man should invite himself to our houses, we take it for a great 
favour, and strain ourselves to give them suitable entertainment; the 
more free they are to take any part of the provision made for them, the 
more we thank them, as if obliged by a new benefit ; which liberty, if 
a poor man should take, we should look upon it as a bold intrusion. 
It is the rich are respected, the rich are entertained in the world, whose 
causes and suits are despatched, when the poor can hardly get access 
and audience. As all floods run to the sea, so do the respects of the 
world to the rich and mighty. But this is a general and common 
promise, which exeludeth no sorts of men. Here is no distinction of 
high and low, prince and subjects, nobles and common people ; whoso 
ever come to seek an hiding-place in God are welcome, if they come in 
faith. He doth not say, The prince or potentate that dwelleth in the 
secret place of the Most High, &c., lest he should exclude meaner people ; 
nor doth he say, Only the poor and destitute that dwell, &c., lest the 
trust of princes and persons of better condition should be cut off. No ; 
the bosom of God's providence is open to receive persons of all sorts, 
ages, sexes, degrees, and state of life. He is present with all, provideth 
for all, protects all, supplieth all that flee to him in their tribulation : 
Ps. xxxiv. 6, * This poor man cried, and the Lord heard him.' Not 
the mighty prince or eminent saint. Prayers in cottages are as accept 
able to him as prayers in palaces. 

2. The act, ' He dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High/ He 
that expecteth the protection of the Almighty must be a person quali 
fied for that protection ; he must be one that dwelleth in God ; such as 
are reconciled to him by Christ Jesus, such as have taken God for their 
God, such as fear him, and have chosen him for their portion, and are 
resolved with an upright heart to obey him; these are the objects of 
God's protection, blessing, and defence : Ps. Ixxxiv. 11, 'The Lord 
God is a sun and shield : the Lord will give grace and glory : no good 
thing will he withhold from them that walk uprightly/ The Lord 
complaineth of some that would lean upon him and yet continue in 
their sins: Micah iii. 11, 'The heads thereof judge for reward, and the 
priests thereof teach for hire, anil the prophets thereof divine for money : 


yet will they lean upon the Lord, and say, Is not the Lord among us ? 
none evil can come upon us.' Such God will cast off, as Paul cast off 
the viper that fastened upon his hand. These sleep too securely already 
in their sins, and God never intended to provide a pillow for them in 
his promises. These God meaneth to punish, not protect. These 
rather build castles in the air than dwell in the secret place of the Most 

More particularly, this dwelling in God 

[1.] Noteth trust, or making God our refuge, in whom alone we seek 
safety, comfort, and defence. In a time of danger men seek out for a 
secure dwelling and safe place of retreat : Prov. xviii. 10, 11, ' The name 
of the Lord is a strong tower : the righteous fleeth to it, and is safe. The 
rich man's wealth is his strong city, and an high wall in his own con 
ceit.' What wealth is to another, that the name of the Lord is to the 
righteous person ; he hath no dependence but on God, from whom he 
expecteth safety and supply. Whither doth a man retreat from the 
storm, but to his house ? There he seeketh shelter, and there he enjoyeth 
all his comforts. So doth a believer in God ; there is his protection and 
consolation. We have a sure dwelling in reality, they in conceit. 

[2.] It noteth a constant intimacy or continual trust. We do not 
call our tarrying in an inn for a night our dwelling, nor running to a 
tree or shelter in a storm, with a mind to depart thence as soon as it 
ceaseth. Many run to him in their distresses. No ; the secret of the 
Most High must be our dwelling-place, or the place of our constant 
residence. The expression intendeth such as live in an holy familiarity 
with God, and have constant recourse to him : Job xxii. 21, * Acquaint 
now thyself with him, and be at peace.' Most men make use of God 
in their straits, when they are beaten to him, and have no other place 
of retreat. No ; it is meant of such a trust as puts us upon a constant 
communion with God, or an habitual converse with him, not by fits. 
In this Ps. xci. 9, ' Thou shalt make the Most High thy refuge, and 
my God thine habitation.' God cannot be well our refuge unless he be 
also our habitation. A refuge is a place of retreat and safety in a time 
of war, and an habitation is the place of our residence and abode in a 
time of peace. So that whatsoever our condition be, our dependence 
must be still on God. When things are prosperous, he must be owned 
as the fountain of our blessings, and all our comforts taken immediately 
out of his hand, acknowledging that we hold all by his mercy and boun 
tiful providence. If we consider our forfeiture by sin, the uncertainty 
of these outward comforts, and the continual necessity of God's provi 
dential influence, and how apt the heart is to be enticed from God by 
carnal confidence, we shall soon find that trust is as necessary in pros 
perity as adversity. Then in adversity no man can withdraw himself 
from God; therefore it is best dwelling in him. Qui a tefugit, quo 
fug it, nisi a te placato, ad te iratum f He doth but forsake him as a 
friend to find him as an enemy. There is no way to avoid his justice 
but by flying to his mercy. We may escape the wrath of earthly kings 
and potentates ; their eyes cannot see all, nor their hands reach all ; but 
who can lie hid from him that filleth heaven and earth, that he should 
not see him and find him out ? Jer. xxiii. 24, ' Can any hide himself 
in secret places, that I shall not see him, saith the Lord ? Do not I 


fill heaven and earth, saith the Lord ? Our sins cannot be hidden from 
his sight, nor our persons from his punishment. There can be no 
hiding-place without God, nor hiding-place against God. None can 
hide himself from him, but in him. Mercy receiveth those whom justice 

3. The encouragements to this trust. They are three 

[1.] The titles and attributes given to God, ' Most High,' and 'Al 

(1.) The first is ' Most High/ There are many names given to God 
in scripture, but this is most proper to the case in hand ; for all our 
enemies and dangers are something under God, and at his disposal. 
Whether they be men or devils, they are not exempted from the do 
minion and government of God's providence. If you be in their hand, 
they are in God's hands, and can do no more than he pleaseth. Devils 
are spiritual wickednesses in high places ; they are high, but God is 
Most High. So when men oppress others by their power : Eccles. v. 
8, ' He that is higher than the highest regardeth, and there be higher 
than they.' Nothing on this side heaven should be feared by a believer ; 
for the Lord in whom he trusts, ' is high above all/ Ps. cxiii. 4. Could 
we dwell more above with God, how would both the splendour and 
terror of all worldly glory be lessened in our eyes ; how soon and easily 
should we despise this little ant-hill of the world, where poor worms 
creep up and down, and make a great deal of pudder about a thing of 
nought ! 

(2.) The other title is ' Almighty.' We need not warp, nor shrink, 
nor shift: Gen. xvii. 1, 'I am God Almighty ; walk before me, and be 
thou perfect.' He is able to keep off danger, to give us all mariner of 
happiness. You have his promise who hath power and dominion over 
all things in the world ; and if omnipotency shall be employed for your 
comfort and protection, why should you be disquieted ? His power is 
above all power, and his wisdom above all wisdom, and his love will 
never fail. He can destroy what resists his will ; for he that made all 
things out of nothing can easily turn them into their original nothing 
again. If we can do nothing for our own relief, he can do all things ; 
one beck of his will is enough to make a world ; he can speak creatures 
into being or nothing at his pleasure. 

[2.] The expressions that set forth the manner of this help. They 
are two ' The secret of the Most High,' and ' The shadow of the 

(1.) The first word, ' The secret,' hath various acceptations. Some 
times it is put for the knowledge of God's will : Ps. xxv. 14, ' The 
secret of the Lord is with them that fear him ; ' and Prov. iii. 32, ' His 
secret is with the righteous.' Sometimes it is put for his gracious 
protection : Job xxix. 4, * The secret of the Lord was upon my taber 
nacle.' So Ps. xxxi. 20, ' Thou shalt hide them in the secret of thy 
presence from the pride of man.' By it is meant that special favour of 
God -which the world knoweth not, or his providence, that protecteth 
his people and keepeth them safe, though they have nothing to trust to. 
As there is a secret curse, that, like a moth, eateth out all the enjoy 
ments of the wicked, so there is a secret and insensible blessing that 
maketh godly men to prosper in the midst of all difficulties. This 
secret preservation is not discerned by carnal men ; they are kept, and 


none knoweth liow, when, to appearance, they are not only laid in 
common with others, but exposed to the rage of others. Well, then, 
God's power, wisdom, and goodness, whereon faith doth fix itself, is a 
riddle and mystery to the world, which carnal reason knoweth not how 
to improve to any satisfaction and comfort. However, it teacheth us to 
depend upon the providence of God, whether there be any appearance 
of the benefit we look for, yea or no. If the name of the Lord be a 
strong tower, it is an invisible tower, only found out by faith and entered 
into by faith. Therefore he that would take up his dwelling-place in 
God must not go altogether by probabilities of sense, but govern him 
self by grounds and reasons of faith. 

(2.) The other notion is, ' The shadow of the Almighty.' Shadow 
is defence, as we said before. Yea, not only defence and safety is 
implied in it, but that sweet refreshing of mind which they find who 
repose themselves tinder the protection of God ; as it is a mighty com 
fort to men when they come out of the scorching heat of the sun into 
some shady place : Ps. Ivii. 1, ' Under the shadow of thy wings will I 
make my refuge, until these calamities be overpast.' So Ps. xxxvi. 8, 
and in many other places. The allusion to chickens shrouding them 
selves under the dam's wing, or the outstretched wings of cherubirns, 
&c., or else to the shadow of a tree, as Cant. ii. 3. Thus Jonah was 
mightily refreshed with the shadow of his gourd ; and you know how 
.passionate he was when it was blasted, see Jonah iv. 8, 9. But this is 
another manner of shadow. Earthly shadows may be blasted, but this 
is always fresh and green ; here we may abide, and have many cool re 
freshings. There is no danger of the withering of our shadow, or our 
being thrust out. 

[3.] It is given out as a promise, c He that dwelleth shall abide ; ' 
which implieth two things (1.) Leave to dwell in God ; (2.) Assur 
ance of safety and comfort. 

(1.) Leave to dwell in God. There is an entrance for and admission 
of poor penitent believers. The throne of grace or mercy-seat standeth 
always open in the times of the gospel : Heb. iv. 16, ' Let us therefore 
come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find 
grace to help in time of need.' None are rejected that come in faith, 
and seek all their hope and comfort in God through Christ. When 
times are uncertain, and we know not the bottom of the dangers that 
compass us about, is it not a great comfort to have a hiding-place, 
where we may remain secure and without fear ? And is any place 
more secure than the heart of God ? Evil may come at us in other 
places, but there we are safe day and night. Now we may have a 
room in the heart of God if we will but enter into his peace, and seek 
our reconciliation by Christ Jesus : ' He that cometh to me, I will in 
no wise cast out,' John vi. 37. 

(2.) It implieth assurance of safety and comfort: 'He shall abide 
under the shadow of the Almighty.' We have here his word to build 
upon : Ps. Ixii. 5, 6, ' My soul, wait thou only upon God, for my expec 
tation is from him. He is only my rock, and my salvation, and my 
defence ; I shall not be moved/ What should harm you when God 
taketh you into his protection, in whose hands are all persons and 
things ? If he be made a friend, and his power and love engaged for 


us, your souls may dwell in full ease and content : Ps. v. 3, ' I laid 
down and slept, for the Lord sustained me/ So Ps. iv. 8, ' I will lay 
me down and sleep, for thou only makest me dwell in safety.' There 
is ground of confidence that God is our preserver. Never shall we be 
free from vexing, tormenting cares and fears till we can thus dwell in 
God, and build all our hopes upon his truth, love, and power. A child 
of God is not stupid and foolhardy ; he hath as tender a sense of his 
natural interests as others have ; he doth often think of the vanity and 
uncertainty of all earthly things ; he has a greater reverence for all 
events of providence, as he eyeth God in them ; yet none are less discom 
posed, whatever falleth out in the world, because they trust God, and can 
cast themselves into the arms of his providence, and depend upon his 
love and promise, even then when he seemeth to be an enemy to them. 
They have resigned themselves to God, and rest satisfied in the disposals 
of his providence, how harsh and severe soever they seem to them. 
III. How necessary a duty this is for all Christians. It is necessary 
1. With respect to the honour of God ; for trust is the practical ac 
knowledgment of his being and attributes his wisdom, goodness, and 
power. Of his being. It is natural worship. Jure venit cidtos ad 
sibi quisque deos : Jonah i. 5, ' Then the mariners were afraid, and 
cried every man unto his god.' Whom we take to be our god, we 
trust him with our all : Ps. Ixii. 8, ' Trust in him at all times, ye 
people, pour out your heart before him ; God is a refuge for us.' All 
invocation and worship is founded in trust : Kom. x. 14, ' How shall 
they call on him in whom they have not believed ? ' And as we ac 
knowledge his being the proper object of our worship, so his attributes. 
His wisdom : Prov. iii. 5, 6, 'Trust in the Lord with all thy heart, and 
lean not to thine own understanding. In all thy ways acknowledge him, 
and he shall direct thy path/ We see none is so wise to guide and 
direct us as God. So we show that his power is above all power when 
we can depend on him, running the hazard of the greatest terrors : 
Dan. iii. 17, 18, ' If it be so, our God, whom we serve, is able to deliver 
us from the burning fiery furnace ; and he will deliver us out of thine 
hand, king. But if not, be it known unto thee, king, that we will 
not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up/ 
On the contrary, it is a despising or lessening of God's power to be 
afraid of man : Isa. li. 12, 13, ' I, even I, am he that comforteth you ; 
who art thou, that thou shouldst be afraid of a man that shall die, arid 
of the son of man which shall be made as grass ? and forge ttest the Lord 
thy Maker, that hath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the founda 
tions of the earth ? ' So for goodness. You are so satisfied with the 
promise and thing promised that you can forsake all other happiness 
and hopes in confidence of salvation offered to you by Jesus Christ : 
Heb. x. 39, ' We are not of them who draw back unto perdition, but 
of them that believe to the saving of the soul/ In lesser things, it is 
a great owning of God's goodness, when you have this persuasion in 
your minds, and can say, I know that my good God will not forsake 
me, as the apostle doth in effect : 2 Tim. iv. 17, 18, ' All men forsook me, 
but the Lord stood with me, and I was delivered out of the mouth of 
the lion ; and the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and 
preserve me to his heavenly kingdom/ 


2. To quicken our duty ; for unless we can trust God, the soul will 
never be faithful and true to him ; but when we seek all safety and 
comfort from his protection, we will more study to please him. Our 
dependence is the great tie upon our obedience : 1 Tim. iv. 10, ' There 
fore we botli labour, &c., because we trust in God.' This giveth life 
to our service, comfort in our reproaches, support in all our trials ; so 
that we go on readily, without disquiet of mind, in all our difficulties, 
upright in our dealings. Men warp and turn aside to crooked ways, 
unless they be persuaded that God taketh care of them, and will 
maintain them by honest and lawful means. The ground of upright 
ness is the persuasion of God's all-sufficiency : Gen. xiii. 1, ' The Lord 
appeared to Abraham, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God ; 
walk before me, and be thou perfect/ On the other side, the ground 
of apostasy is unbelief : Heb. iii. 12, * Take heed, lest there be in any 
of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. 
So it is the ground of shifts : Isa. xxviii. 15, ' We have made lies our 
refuge, and under falsehood have we hid ourselves.' They that cannot 
depend upon God fly to other means. 

3. To settle and quiet our hearts and minds. He that looks no higher 
than the course of affairs in the world, can never have any firm peace 
in his own soul ; but trust easeth of all fears, cares, and estuations of 
mind : Ps. cxii. 7, ' He shall not be afraid of evil tidings ; his heart is 
fixed, trusting in the Lord ; ' Prov. xvi. 3, ' Commit thy way unto the 
Lord, and thy thoughts shall be established.' This allayed the storms 
in David's spirit : Ps. xlii. 5, ' Why art thou cast down, my soul, 
and why art thou disquieted in me ? hope thou in God, for I shall yet 
praise him for the help of his countenance.' When we can refer all to 
God, then we are at peace: Phil. iv. 6, 7, 'Be careful for nothing, but 
in everything, by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, let your 
request be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which 
passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through 
Christ Jesus/ 

Use 1. To reprove those that trust something else instead of God. 
Every man hath some shadow under which he refresheth himself, 
some crutch upon which he leaneth, some satisfaction wherein his soul 
is pleased, or something that shall bear him up or bear him out in the 
course he taketh. 

1. Some trust in the creature against God ; as those that strengthen 
themselves in their sins because of their great power, wealth, and 
interest : Ps. Iii. 7, ' Lo, this is the man that made not God his portion, 
but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened himself in 
his wickedness/ Alas ! they will soon find God is too hard for them, 
blasting all their power and wealth, and bringing it to nothing, when 
once it is a fit sacrifice to his justice. 

2. Some trust in the creature without God ; as in wealth, and honour, 
and favour of men, &c. ; and so God is neglected, and the sinner is laid 
asleep in the midst of the greatest soul-dangers. Alas ! all things on 
this side God will prove a ruinous habitation to us : 1 Tim. vi. 17, 
4 Trust not in uncertain riches/ So for honour : Ps. xlix. 12, ' Man 
being in honour, abideth not/ God can soon lay it in the dust. How 
often have we seen the most shining glory go out in a snuff ? The 


favour of men is very variable. The prophet cried out, 2 Sam. xix. 
43, ' We have ten parts in David.' But in the very next verse, 2 Sam. 
xx. 1, one said, ' We have no part in David.' However, they die: 1 
Kings i. 21, ' Otherwise it shall come to pass, when my lord the king 
shall sleep with his fathers,' <fec. In the general, Ps. cxviii. 8, 9, ' It 
is better to trust in the Lord, than to put confidence in man. It is 
better to trust in the Lord, than to put confidence in princes.' If you 
were as careful to please God as to get men's favour, it would be better 
for you than within a while you will find it to be. 

3. Some trust in the creature, in a co-ordination with God; as those 
in Isa. iv. 1, 'In that day shall seven women take hold of one man, 
saying, We will eat our own bread, and wear our own apparel ; only 
let us be called by thy name, and take away our reproach.' God hath 
the name, but they trust the creature indeed ; or at least hope, by both 
conjunctly, to make their felicity. They serve God and mammon. 
They see riches will not cure a disease, prevent death, save a soul ; 
these things they leave to God ; but wealth will do much in the world, 
and therefore they trust in wealth as well as God's promises : Mark x. 
24, * How hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the 
kingdom of God?' Alas! this is false: Luke xii. 15, 'Take heed, 
and beware of covetousness ; for a man's life consisteth not in the 
abundance of the things which he possesseth/ This sin appeareth 
when we cannot deny ourselves for God. 

Use 2. To press you entirely to trust yourselves in God's hands. 
Here take notice of 

1. The adventure of faith after disappointments : Luke v. 5, ' And 
Simon answering, said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night, 
and have caught nothing : nevertheless, at thy word I will let down the 
net.' Dig the pit, and see if God will fill it with rain. 

2. The waiting of faith, though you find not success presently : Isa. 
xxviii. 15, 'Because ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, 
and with hell are we at agreement ; when the overflowing scourge shall 
pass through, it shall not come unto us : for we have made lies our 
refuge, and under falsehood have we hid ourselves.' Greedy and 
impatient longing must have present satisfaction. 

3. The resolution of faith : Job xiii. 15, ' Though he slay me, yet 
will I trust in him/ 

4. The submission and resignation of faith. Make sure of heaven, 
and for other things, let God order them as he pleaseth : Mat. vi. 33, 
' Seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these 
things shall be added unto you/ 

5. The prudence of faith. Settle your mind as to present necessities; 
and for future contingencies, leave them to God's providence. 


But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith 
came thereout blood and ivater. And he that saw it bear record, 
and his record is true ; and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye 
might believe. For these things were done, that the scripture 
should be fulfilled, a bone of him shall not be broken. And 
again another scripture saith, They shall look on him ivhom they 
pierced. JOHN xix. 34-37. 

I HAVE taken occasion upon these opportunities to go over the story 
of Christ's passion by several paragraphs. This paragraph treateth of 
the things which happened between the death and burial of Christ : 
and the main thing offered therein is that notable circumstance that 
happened immediately after Christ's death, the flowing of water and 
blood out of Christ's side. 
In the words you have 

1. The occasion of this circumstance, ver. 31-33, ' The Jews there 
fore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain 
upon the cross upon the sabbath-day (for that sabbath-day was an high 
day), besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and they might 
be taken away. Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the 
first, and of the other that was crucified with him. But when they 
came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his 

2. The circumstance itself, 'But one of the soldiers with a spear 
pierced his side, and forthwith came thereout blood and water.' 

3. A solemn attestation of it, ver. 36, ' For these things were done 
that the scriptures should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be 

4. The ends of God's providence, which are two the fulfilling of 
the prophecies of scripture, confirmed by the citations of many places. 

[1.] That Christ should die without breaking of a bone, ver. 36, ' A 
bone of him shall not be broken.' 

[2.] That yet his body should be pierced with a spear, ver. 37, 
1 Again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they 
have pierced.' 

I shall go over these circumstances in my accustomed method, with 
brief observations or hints of meditation. 

First, The occasion of the words, which was the niceness and scru 
pulosity of the Jews, that the dead bodies might not hang upon the 



cross upon the sabbath-day, especially that high sabbath of the passover. 
Therefore they go to Pilate to hasten the death of the malefactors by 
breaking their legs ; which is readily granted, and accordingly executed 
upon the two thieves, but not upon Christ, because he was dead already, 
I shall not stay on the occasion, only observe 

1. That superstition is fuller of ceremony than mercy. We find 
the Jews very tender in the lesser points of the law. They made no- 
conscience of spilling innocent blood, yet by no means would put the 
price of blood into the treasury. They made no conscience of bringing 
Christ to the cr,oss, but are zealous not to have him hang there on the 
great sabbath of the passover ; as if God would accept their eating the 
typical lamb, when they had slain the Shepherd of the flock and of tha 

2. That the worst of men are usually very solicitous about external 
worship. The wicked Jews, that crucified the Lord of life, would not 
have the passover profaned with an unseemly spectacle. Every man 
must have somewhat of religion, or else conscience will not be quiet - T 
and externals are very easy. We find it in our carnal people, that 
with much reverence observe the externals of the sacraments ; though 
they altogether neglect the obligation of them. They are as zealous 
for the supper as the Jews for the decency of the passover, and yet are 
false and faithless in their allegiance to Christ; like madmen, tear 
the bond, and yet prize the seal. 

3. From their going to ask leave of Pilate for the additional punish 
ment, we learn that malefactors are not to be taken out of the hands 
of justice. Every degree of punishment and torment is left to the 
magistrate, and not to the malice of the executioner or the fury of the 
multitude : Deut. xxv. 2, 3, ' And it shall be, if the wicked man be 
worthy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to 
be beaten before his face, according to his fault, by a certain number. 
Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed : lest if he should exceed, 
and beat him above these with many stripes, then thy brother should 
seem vile unto thee.' Therefore the judge was to be present when the 
malefactor was beaten, that they might not receive more or less stripes 
than the law awarded. 

4. From Pilate's grant observe, that when once a man giveth up himself 
to please men, there is no end of compliance. Pilate, by the importu 
nity of the Jews, is first drawn to scourge Christ, and then to crucify 
him, and now to sign an order for breaking his legs, a torment unusual, 
and contrary to the custom of the Komans. When we are tempted to- 
serve men, we have need consider the issue. The first temptations are 
modest and plausible, but afterwards more servile and odious. It is 
good to break off at first, unless we mean to keep time and pace with 
every lust of men. 

5. From Christ's being dead already, before the others crucified with 
him, we learn his willingness to die for us. His love made quick 
despatch. He could have retained his life longer, but he was willing 
to let it go, that everything might be finished that was necessary for 
our comfort and restoration. 

6. We learn also from hence, the voluntariness of his death. If his 
legs had been broken, his death would have seemed an effect of violence 


rather than willing resignation. He had said, John x. 18, c No man 
taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself : I have power to lay 
it down, and I have power to take it again.' It is meant of his divine 
power, and to notify that there was no force put upon Christ, but he 
would undertake it, and appear in this circumstance. In this obla 
tion Christ would be the priest ; his legs were not broken, but he gave 
up the ghost. Thus I have opened the occasion. 

Secondly, The circumstance itself, in the 34th verse, 'But one of the 
soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came thereout 
water and blood.' They brake not his legs, but to make an experiment 
whether he were truly dead, and had any sense and feeling left, and to 
put some scorn upon his body, one of the soldiers, out of malice, and 
beyond his commission, pierced his side with a spear ; and the heart 
being pierced, together with the bag of water that encircleth the heart, 
and Christ's body not being cool, there followed a flux of water and 

I shall look upon this circumstance under a threefold considera 

1. As an act of Christ's love and condescension, that he would expose 
his body to the malice and violence of wicked men. He might have 
withered and dried up the soldier's arm, as he did Jeroboam's when he 
stretched it out to reach the prophet ; but by this stroke Christ would 
have his heart and bowels opened to us, to show how full of love he 
was to sinners. Look, as at the beginning Adam's side was opened, 
and Eve was taken out of Adam's side, so is the church out of Christ's 
side. He suffered his side to be opened that he might open to us the 
gate of life. Some of the ancients compared this wound in Christ's 
side to the door in the side of the ark, by which all the creatures that 
were not to perish in the flood found entrance. By this door we have 
entrance into the heart of Christ, and by Christ presented to God 
the Father. Patet area cordis per foramina corporis, saith Bernard. 
By the hole of his side we may espy the secret of his heart. He 
opened his side, that we might see his heart. He would have sinners 
know that he had not a drop of blood which he accounted too good for 
us. He would now let out the residue, that he might not keep a drop. 
His heart was first pierced with love, and then with a spear. It had 
never been pierced with a spear if it had not been first pierced with love. 
Christ saith, Cant. iv. 9, ' Thou hast ravished my heart, my sister, my 
spouse.' First wounded with love to the church, and that brought him to 
the cross, and there he was wounded and pierced with the malice of men. 
Other members were wounded before, and now his heart. His hands and 
feet were pierced with nails, and his life-blood dropped out by degrees ; 
but now his side is pierced, and through his side his heart, which caused 
the flux of water and blood. 

This circumstance is useful to beget hope and thankfulness. 

[1.] Hope for all wounded sinners. It is said of those converts, Acts- 
ii. 37, * That they were pricked in their hearts.' This is the usual case 
of all the saints in pangs of the new birth ; they are pricked, and 
wounded in heart with a sense of their sin and rebellion and unkind- 
ness to God. Now this is some ground of comfort ; Christ's own heart 
was wounded. The bowels of mercy were now set open by a spear, and 


to penitent sinners they shall never be shut more. Therefore when 
you are wounded, think of the wounds of Christ. These are the clefts 
of the rock in which a poor guilty creature may lie hid when wrath 
maketh inquisition for sinners. When God caused his glory to pass 
by, he put Moses in a cleft of the rock, Exod. xxxiii. 22 ; and the spouse 
is described to lie hid in ' the clefts of the rock, and the secret places 
of the stairs/ Cant. ii. 14 ; which certainly is meant of some secret 
hiding-place in time of danger, wherein God is wont to protect his 
people. Your hiding-place is the wounds of Christ. Here you may 
run for shelter. Oh, it is sweet to be found in him, by his side to get 
into his heart, and there to lie hid till the pursuit of wrath be over. 
Everything that was executed upon the person of Christ should be 
some advantage to faith, for it maketh up a part of his merit. The 
wounds of Christ are the best cure for the wounds of a sinner. The 
prophet saith, ' By his stripes we are healed/ Isa. liii. 5. 

[2.] It yieldeth matter of thankfulness that Christ would expose his 
body to so many violences and indignities for man's sake. It is mangled 
with whips, because one prophet speaketh of stripes. It is nailed to 
the cross, because it is said in another, ' They pierced my hands and 
my feet/ Ps. xxii. 16. Wounded with a spear, because it is said again, 
1 They shall look upon him whom they have pierced/ Zech. xii. 10. 
Christ's body, though it were excellently tempered, seemeth to be 
assumed for no other purpose but to be harassed with sorrows and 
extremities. How should this increase our thankfulness ! Soldiers, 
to endear themselves to their country, are wont to show their wounds 
and scars received in public service. Christ hath wounds and marks 
to show : as he said to Thomas, John xx. 27, ' Keach hither thy finger, 
and behold my hands ; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my 
side, and be not faithless, but believing.' In the sacrament these 
things are represented to faith. Christ doth, as it were, show you his 
marks and his wounds. Kemember Christ retaineth them in his glori 
ous body as tokens of his sufferings and combats, and this body you 
are to look upon by faith. Remember it, and cry out, my dear Lord, 
and my God ! with Thomas ; a vehement, abrupt speech, noting an 
admiration of Christ's mercy. Twice in that chapter we read that he 
showed his wounds, ver. 20 and 27. Christ loveth to show his wounds. 
Quanta vilior pro nobisfactus est, tanto charior esse debet. By how 
much the cheaper he was made for us, so much the dearer he ought 
to be to us. 

Let all this endear him to your souls. When you take the cup of 
blessing, remember that cup was filled out of the side of Christ. When 
thou art drinking, thou art spiritually drinking his blood, that thou 
mayest indeed bless God. 

2. I look upon this circumstance as a certain pledge of Christ's death. 
The flowing of water and blood showeth the pericardium was pierced, 
a bag which keepeth water about the heart. The place in which the 
heart is enfolded is full of a waterish matter, which by this stroke was 
let out ; so that it did not appear by the former passages that Christ 
was dead, but this was a certain evidence which made it manifest ; his 
heart being pierced, which is certainly mortal, if he had been living 
before. Now his enemies could not say he was half dead, and that his 


resurrection was but a reviving out of a swoon. And this is one reason 
St John is so earnest in his attestation of this circumstance, because 
all our faith and hope is built on the truth and certainty of Christ's 
death. Beyond death there can be no more required. They that are 
thirsty of revenge can never be quiet till the party be dead. God's 
justice was thirsty of satisfaction, but now Christ is dead all is finished. 
What would you have more ? The flux of water and blood is a certain 
seal and confirmation. Divine justice pursued Christ, and the affronts 
and injuries of men are not ended till the bag about the heart be pierced, 
and there issue out water and blood, so that all the world should have 
a visible testimony that Christ was really dead. 

From this circumstance I shall a little speak of the certainty and 
the necessity of Christ's death, and the comfort thereon depending, a 
matter weighty and of great importance in religion : 1 Cor. xv. 3, ' I 
delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ 
died for our sins according to the scripture.' There was a real expira 
tion and delivery up of his soul to God, which was now showed openly 
and truly, and not done in show and fiction. To confirm the truth his 
heart is pierced, and he remained three days in the grave, under the 
power and dominion of it. However, Christ died, yet not whole Christ 
died, but only according to his human nature. Though he yielded up 
the ghost, that is, the natural human life, yet the hypostatical union 
was not dissolved. There was a separation of the soul from the body, 
yet both remained united with the divine nature. So that here was no 
dissolving of the person of Christ ; and therefore he is said to raise him 
self. His human body, though it lay in the grave, was still a part of 
his person. 

3. The necessity of Christ's death. I shall instance but in a double 
relation to the covenant 

(1.) As a surety ; and (2.) As a testator. Christ was to die 
[l.J As a surety. We had deserved death, but our surety was to 
pay our debt. The sentence under which man lay was a sentence of 
death; therefore his life was laid down to redeem ours. As Paul 
undertook for Onesimus, Philem. 18, * If he hath wronged thee, or oweth 
thee ought, put that on mine account ; ' so Christ for us : ' He suffered 
for our sin, the just for the unjust,' 1 Peter iii. 18. He died in our 
room and stead : 1 Tim. ii. 6, * He gave himself a ransom for all, to 
be testified in due time.' He died not by any weakness of nature, but 
by voluntary consent. Christ had to do with several parties, and so 
died under several relations. He had to do with the devil and his 
agents, so he died as conqueror ; with the Jews, and so he died as a 
martyr ; he had to do with his Father, so he died as a surety ; and as 
a person in covenant with the elect, so he died as a sacrifice. The devil 
was his enemy, God his judge, and himself his own priest. The Father 
issued out a process, and Christ offered up himself to be killed by the 

[2.] As a testator or maker of the new testament. We could never 
have had the great blessings of the covenant if Christ had not died : 
Heb. ix. 16, 'For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be 
the death of the testator/ Till then the testament is not in force. 
Christ promised to make a new testament, therefore to die, or else he 


could not make good his word. Christ is lifted up to the cross as upon 
his deathbed, and there he dieth of love, and leaveth great legacies 
to the church pardon, grace, and glory ; disposeth of heaven, and all 
things conducing thereunto. This testament is engrossed, and a for 
mal instrument made of it in the gospel, sacraments, seals. The 
apostles were the notaries to witness from heaven in a glorious way by 
miracles on earth, by the Spirit, water, and blood, 1 John v. 6-8. 
Christ, because of the duplicity of his nature, may be allowed to be a 
witness to his own will. The Spirit descending like a dove, appearing 
in cloven tongues of fire. And there are three which confirm this 
truth in the hearts of believers the Spirit, the water, and blood. 
Ease in conscience by the blood of Christ, the work of holiness in the 
heart, and the certioration of the Spirit. 

Use 1. Oh, let us make use of this great comfort, Christ is dead ! 
The apostle beginneth his triumph thence : Kom. viii. 34, ' Who is he 
that condemneth ? It is Christ that died.' He died in our name and 
stead, whereby we are absolved ; as the ram was taken, and Isaac let 
go : Job xxxiii. 24, * I have found a ransom.' God will not exact the 
debt twice. Believers do not live as if they had a surety to die for 
them, or a testator to make them such great and rich legacies. If we 
would meditate on the death of Christ with comfort and profit, we must 
consider these things ; for still we must consider with respect to the 
covenant and the transactions of God with men. 

1. The horrible deserving of sin, and the hatefulness of it to God. 
We must have a redeemer, or be all lost. This redeemer must make 
full satisfaction, both in respect of the infinite value of his person, 
which was not the blood of an angel, but the blood of God, and the 
extremity of his sufferings. The great almighty God, the author of 
life, must come and die himself : Isa. xliii. 24, ' Thou hast made me 
to serve with thy sins, and hast wearied me with thine iniquities.' 
Jesus Christ, the eternal Son of God, must come and be put upon an 
harsh service. Life itself must assume death. The Lord Almighty, 
filling the whole world with his glory, hung dying upon the cross. 

2. The great love of God, that, when we wanted a ransom, God gave 
it us out of his own treasury. Among all the treasuries of heaven 
nothing more precious and excellent than Jesus Christ. Christ must 
pay for the rest. He sendeth his own Son to endure the shameful 
death of the cross ; the natural Son for the adopted sons : 1 John iv. 
9, 10, ' In this was manifested the love of God towards us, because 
that God sent his only-begotten Son into the world, that we might live 
through him. Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he 
loved us, and sent his Son to be a propitiation for our sins ; ' Rom. v. 
8, ' God commendeth his love to us, that while we were sinners Christ 
died for us/ This was a circumstance to set out love. 

3. The unspeakable love of Jesus Christ, his meekness and patience. 
How may we admire the ready mind of Christ ! Heb. x. 5-7, ' Where 
fore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offerings 
thou wouldst not, but a body hast thou prepared me. In burnt- 
offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure ; then said 
I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me) to do thy 
will, God.' If nothing but the shameful death of the cross will do, 


yet it was readily agreed to. If any had cause to love his life, Christ 
had ; it dwelt with God in a personal union. 

4. The sufficiency of this sacrifice : Heb. x. 14, ' By one offering he 
hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified/ Christ hath no 
more work to do, but only to look for the travail of his soul. He hath 
paid the full price, made a full purchase. The vessels of honour 
cannot be dashed. No satisfaction remains to be paid by ourselves ; 
there needeth nothing by way of satisfaction. 

Use 2. Let us not be quiet till we feel Christ is dead. Great reports 
without experience beget atheism : Kom. vi. 5, * If we have been planted 
together in the likeness of his death ; ' Gal. ii. 20, ' Who hath loved me, 
and' gave himself for me.' Is the heart of our corruptions wounded ? 
is Christ incarnate ? is Christ formed in us ? is Christ dying, and we 
feel nothing ? It availeth us nothing. 

Thirdly, I look upon it as a symbol and type of his mediatory office. 
Christ was in every part furnished: 1 John v. 6, 'This is he that 
came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ : not by water only, but 
by water and blood.' Now this water and blood are two of the wit 
nesses : ver. 10, ' Hath this testimony within himself.' It setteth forth the 
double benefit of Christ's death. He came to satisfy and to sanctify ; 
by water noting the force of grace upon the heart, and by blood noting 
peace and ease of conscience. These flowed so distinctly as they might 
be discerned. Aqua quce diluat, sanguis qui redimat Ambrose. 
Water to wash, blood to redeem : an allusion to the ancient Jewish 
rites. There were under the law ablutions and oblations ; there was a 
purification by water to take away the filth of sin, and an expiation 
by blood to take away the guilt. Now water and blood, that issued 
from Christ's side, prefigured both these. He came not only to justify, 
but to sanctify. By a double symbol Christ would teach us that he is 
the true expiation and la ver, \ovrpov teal \vrpov. So suitably there are 
two ordinances in the gospel baptism and the Lord's supper. Out 
of Christ's side, saith St Austin, came the two sacraments. Christ 
<came not only to disannul guilt and the curse, but to destroy sin ; to 
cleanse from inward corruption, as well as procure their reconciliation 
with God. Of the first, the legal washings were a type ; of the second, 
the sacrifices. 

Use 1. To rejoice in Jesus Christ, because we are complete in him. 

1. There is * a fountain open for sin and for uncleanness,' Zech. xii. 
1, and it is a fountain ever springing and overflowing. When Christ 
was pierced upon the cross, like a full vessel he sent out water and 
blood ; water to purify the church, and blood to feed it. From the 
same source there flows a double fountain De eadem origine, aqua 
et sanguis emanant. Let us draw water hence with the buckets of 
faith, and do it with joy : Isa. xii. "3, ' Therefore with joy shall ye draw 
water out. of the wells of salvation.' The Jews in the feast of taber 
nacles, they were to go to Siloam and draw water. He that brought 
the water did it that it might be poured out before the Lord upon the 
altar with wine. They did it with trumpets and hymns, and hosan- 
nas often repeated. Thence Christ saith, John vii. 37, ' And in 
the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, 
If any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink.' With great 


variety of melody they went to fetch water from Siloam to the temple 
in golden vessels. Oh, consider here is a double stream say, as it is 
Isa. xlv. 24, ' Surely shall one say, In the Lord have I righteousness 
and strength.' Enough to justify, enough to sanctify. Oh, come 
again and again to this fountain ! 

2. To teach us what to expect from Christ. Come for this double 
benefit. It is sad to have Christ in one quality of a mediator and not 
jn another. Say, Lord, out of this side of thine there flowed not blood 
alone, but water and blood ; as they flowed together out of thy pierced 
side, so let them ever flow together into my wounded soul, justifica 
tion and sanctification : those things which thou hast joined let me not 
ever put asunder. Consider it is dishonourable to Christ when these 
two are severed. Celsus and others reproached the church as a com 
mon sanctuary for villains and profligate persons. No ; it is a school 
of discipline, an hospital to cure them, not shelter them in sin. Both 
go together. It was convenient that, before he sanctified man in him 
self, he should justify him before God ; first reconciled, and then 
receive privileges of grace ; and after reconciled, it is again convenient 
they should be sanctified, lest Christ should have an ulcerous body. 
When Esther was chosen to be queen, she had garments given her out 
of Ahasuerus' wardrobe, and she was to accomplish the months of her 

3. Whenever we beg pardon, there is always a serious study of 
sanctification ; they are inseparably joined in God's dispensation : 1 
Cor. i. 30, * But of him ye are in Jesus Christ, who of God is made 
unto us wisdom and righteousness, and sanctification and redemp 
tion ; ' 1 Cor. vi. 11, ' And such were some of you, but ye are washed, 
but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord 
Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God/ Whosoever truly repenteth of 
sin doth not only seek the judicial abolition of it, but the real. A 
serious aim at the glory of God doth carry the soul more against the 
corruption of sin than the guilt of it. The abolishing of the guilt 
doth directly respect our profit, but the abolishing of corruption doth 
profit the glory of God, that we may not offend him. 


But many that are first shall ~be last, and the last shall be first. 
MAT. xix. 30. 

THESE words are a part of Christ's answer to Peter's question, ver. 27, 
1 Behold, we have forsaken all and followed thee : what shall we have 
therefore ? ' What had Peter to forsake ? a cottage, a net, a fisher-boat : 
a great all ! But we are apt to think much of what we part with on 
Christ's score, if it be but the superfluity of our estate, if we suffer a 
disgraceful word or a small inconveniency, or be but browbeaten with 
a frown, we are apt to inquire, ' What we shall have therefore ? ' as if 
God were greatly indebted to us. We need not seek another pay 
master ; Christ will not be behindhand with us. Christ's answer is 

1. To their particular case, as apostles, ver. 28, ' Jesus saith unto 
them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me in the 
regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, 
ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of 
Israel.' We do not enough think of the general renovation of all 
things. It seemeth the number of the apostles ought to be twelve. 
Therefore Matthias was chosen in the room of Judas. And that the 
apostles shall have eminent honour in that day. 

2. As to the general case, ver. 29, ' And every one that hath forsaken 
houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, 
or lands for my name's sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall 
inherit everlasting life. None can be a loser by God, no, not in the 
midst of his troubles and persecutions, but hath the comforts and 
experiences of God by the way : Mark x. 29, 30, ' And Jesus answered 
and said, Verily I say^unto you, There is no man that hath left house, 
or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or 
lands, for my sake and the gospel's, but he shall receive an hundred 
fold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, 
and children, and lands with persecutions, and in the world to come 
eternal life.' 

3. By way of admonition, not to reckon too much of their present 
fidelity to Christ, for temptations might come ; others later called 
might exceed them : ' Many that are first shall be last, and the last 
shall be first/ 

In the words observe two things are asserted (1.) The ' first shall 


be last ; ' those in the first rank might be cast back ; (2.) The ' last 
shall be first ; ' advanced to the highest place in Christianity. 

First, For the former proposition, 'Many that are first shall be 
last/ For explaining of it, observe 

1. That it doth not universally and necessarily prove so, but for the 
most part it will be so ; not all without exception, but many that are 
first shall be last. Therefore : Luke xiii. 30, ' And behold, there are 
last which shall be first, and there are first which shall be last.' You 
may keep your priority and precedency to the end, if you do not grow 
dead, and drowsy, and sleepy. If they that began early acquit them 
selves with any zeal and industry suitable to their beginnings, the 
saying shall not prejudice them. Proverbs hold, eVt TO iro\v, for the 
generality ; and this is a proverbial speech, adapted and used by our 
Saviour with an holy purpose, to caution his disciples against pride in 
what they had already done and suffered for his sake : they were too 
well conceited of their forsaking all to follow Christ. 

2. Observe, that it is applicable not only to persons, but nations and 
-societies and communities of men ; for in Luke it is applied to the re 
jection of the Jews and the calling of the gentiles : Luke xiii. 29, 30, 

' And they shall come from the east and f rom the west, and from the 
north and from the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God. 
And behold, there are last which shall be first; and there are first which 
fchall be last.' Many nations, cities, and countries that have embraced 
the true worship and service of God may lose their crown, and suffer 
their candlestick to be removed to others. In a little succession of time 
there are strange changes and revolutions as to the state of religion 
among a people: Mat. xi. 23, 'And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted 
unto heaven, shall be brought down to hell/ The gospel is the honour 
of any country, city, or town ; and where it is most clearly preached, 
that place is exalted most, and made nearest heaven ; but through their 
unthankfulness, unfruitfulness, and contempt, this honour and glory 
may be taken from them, and they sunk as low in judgments as formerly 
exalted for privileges ; and thus it may be interpreted as to the enjoy 
ment of means, ' They that are first shall be last ; ' that is, they that 
get away the gospel from them. 

3. Observe, that this firstness and lastness is to be understood with 
respect to matters of religion. In the world it is often verified that they 
who have had the precedency of others may afterwards be set far be 
hind them : 1 Sam. ii. 7, 8, ' The Lord maketh poor, and maketh rich : 
he bringeth low, and lifteth up. He raiseth the poor out of the dust, 
and lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill, to set them among princes, 
.and to inherit the throne of glory : for the pillars of the earth are the 
Lord's, and he hath set the world upon them/ That prosperity may 
not be without a curb, nor adversity without a cordial in the government 
of the world, God turneth things upside down, and the mighty and 
opulent are brought low, and the base and despicable raised to great 
riches, dignity, and honour ; which should quiet our minds whenever 
it falleth out, because the great sovereign of the world hath so appointed 
it, and will take his own course without asking our leave or waiting for 
our consent. But here it is meant of religious matters, or things ap 
pertaining to God. First and last often shift places. 


4. In matters of religion it may bear a good sense, that God's latter 
dispensation is better than the former, and those that live under it ex 
cel the other. 

[1.] Our condition under the covenant of grace is better than that in 
innocency under the covenant of works ; as a vessel that is soldered is 
strongest in the crack, or an hedge that is mended is more firmly fenced 
than it was before the gap or breach. Take, for an instance, Adam 
and Job. Job is more happy in his misery than Adam in his inno- 
oency ; he was victorious on the dunghill, when the other was defeated 
on the throne ; he gave no ear to the counsel of his wife : Job ii. 10, 
' Curse God, and die/ when the woman seduced Adam. He despised 
the assaults of Satan, when the other suffered himself to be worsted at 
the first temptation ; he preserved his righteousness in the midst of his 
sorrows, when the other lost his innocency in the midst of paradise, 
where he had all manner of delights and pleasures. So that the grace 
of the Kedeemer doth much excel the innocency of Adam. 

[2.] The last edition of the covenant doth excel the former, and 
they that live under the gospel of Christ are in a much better condi 
tion than those that lived under the economy of Moses. They had more 
of outward prosperity, but these have more of the Spirit. They were 
more exempted from suffering, but these are more fortified against suf 
ferings ; Christ hath not taken away the fight, but secured the victory ; 
and though all that will live godly in Christ Jesus must suffer perse 
cution, yet they have an hundredfold in this life, and in the world to 
come life everlasting : ' For many that are first shall be last, and the 
last first/ Mark x. 30, 31. 

5. In matters of religion some may have the precedency of others ; 
either (1.) In reality and truth ; or (2.) In appearance only ; or in 
their own opinion ; or in the opinion of others. 

EL] In reality and truth. Some may have the precedency two ways; 
er (1.) As to time ; (2.) As to zeal and fervency in the profes 
sion of religion. 

(1.) As to time. As they began sooner, or have served God longer, 
so they are first. Surely this is a precedency and a privilege. The 
apostle saith of Andronicus and Junia, they ' were in Christ before 
him/ Kom. xvi. 7 ; Eph. i. 12, ' That we should be to the praise of his 
glory, who first trusted in Christ.' Those who do not retard or delay 
their conversion, but are converted early to God, are more obliged by 
his mercy to serve and honour him, because he did so soon break off 
the yoke of their slavery to sin and Satan, and also they take the way 
to honour and obey God sooner than others that yet lie in their sins. 
They are sooner capacitated to serve him, and therefore it is their honour 
and glory that they are first. 

(2.) As to zeal and fervency in the profession of religion. Some are 
in the first rank of Christians, and are more forward than others ; as 
the apostle made boast of the forwardness of the Corinthians, and 
thereby stirred up other people, yet was afraid this boasting might seem 
a vanity and over-confidence of them : 2 Cor. ix. 2-4, ' For I know 
the forwardness of your mind, for which I boast of you to them of 
Macedonia, that Achaia was ready a year ago ; and your zeal hath pro 
voked very many. Yet have I sent the brethren, lest our boasting of 


you should be in vain in this behalf ; that, as I said, ye may be ready : 
lest haply if they of Macedonia come with me, and find you unprepared, 
we (that we say not, you) should be ashamed in this same confident 
boasting/ This the apostle doth lest the rich Corinthians would be 
disgraced before the poor Macedonians, the business cooled again ; he 
was forced to quicken them. We see many in their youth are emi 
nently zealous, willing to run all hazards with Christ ; but when their 
first heats are spent, grow worldly, careless, if not greatly profane, 
and are strangely withered and blasted in their age. 

6. Those that have these advantages of being first may become last. 

SL] Some that come after them in time may exceed them in labour 
Christian diligence; and though the other keep up the life of grace 
still, yet they may be much outshined, and outstripped ; as, for in 
stance, these apostles of our Lord who left their all, and seemed to de 
serve so much of him, were exceeded by Paul, who professed himself 
to be ' one born out of due time/ 1 Cor. xv. 8, yet laboured more abun 
dantly than they all, ver. 10. Well, then, the first may be last; though 
called sooner, yet may do less service than those that were called after 
wards ; so to be last doth not imply a loss of grace, but an excellency 
in latter converts. 

[2.] As to zeal in profession and practice. Certainly it is our duty 
to keep up our vigour to the last, for they that * are planted in the 
house of the Lord should bring forth fruit in old age/ Ps. xcii. 14. 
The older they grow they should be the more fruitful. Enoch kept up 
his communion with God throughout his whole life : Gen. v. 23, 'Enoch 
walked with God/ after he begat sons and daughters. And it is the 
commendation of Mnason of Cyprus, that he was 'an old disciple/ Acts 
xxi. 16 ; one that was rooted in the doctrine of the gospel, and had for 
a long time owned Christ. But oftentimes it falleth out that they that 
are longest at work do not always the most or best service. 

This may fall out two ways 

(1.) By the larger measures of grace vouchsafed to the latter converts 
above others, of which no reason can be given but God's will. He is 
arbitrary in his gifts, but not in his judgments. In converting grace, 
as to time and degree, he acts^tf dominus, as a free lord : Kom. ix. 16, 
' It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that 
showeth mercy/ But in rewarding grace, he acteth ut rector etjudex : 
1 Cor. ix. 24, ' So run that you may obtain/ They that have done 
most, and served him longest, are most richly rewarded. But in mere 
donatives God will do with his own as he pleaseth. Instances in David : 
Ps. cxix. 98-100, ' Thou hast made me wiser than mine enemies, wiser 
than my teachers, wiser than the ancients/ God may furnish the 
younger with larger gifts of prudence, knowledge, boldness, zeal, and 
industrious activity. So Paul : 1 Cor. xv. 10, ' But by the grace of 
God I am what I am : and his grace which was bestowed on me was 
not in vain ; but I laboured more abundantly than they all ; yet not I r 
but the grace of God which was in me/ Now this might affect the 
apostles, who being leavened with carnal conceit, dreamed of great 
offices in the kingdom of the Messiah, that might become others more 
worthy than they, richly furnished to do God and the church service. 

(2.) By the fault of those that did formerly excel ; by their pride, 


Carelessness, and security, they may be thrown back behind many, who 
for a time had nothing of God and goodness in them. 

(1st.) For their pride ; if they be conceited that they deserved more 
4it God's hand than others. Many who, in the conceit of their own 
merit, were first, shall, in the course of God's dispensations, be found 
last : James iv. 5, 6, ' Do ye think the scripture saith in vain, The spirit 
that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy ? But he giveth more grace.' The 
envious, proud spirit is blasted : ' The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth 
to envy, but he giveth more grace ; wherefore he saith, God resisteth 
the proud, but giveth grace to the humble.' Now, of all pride, spiritual 
pride is most provoking : as the pride of the legal justiciary : Luke xviii. 
9, 14, ' And he spake this parable unto certain which trusted in them 
selves that they were righteous, and despised others. I tell you, this 
man went down to his house justified rather than the other : for every 
one that exalteth himself shall be abased, and he that humbleth him 
self shall be exalted.' The humble publican is preferred before the 
conceited pharisee. So the elder brother, who impersonateth those who 
grow conceited of their own profession, and envieth the grace of God 
to others : Luke xv. 29, * And he answering, said to his father, Lo, these 
many years do I serve thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy 
commandment, and yet thou never gavest me a kid that I might make 
merry with my friends/ If any of this leaven get into the hearts of 
God's children, God will prefer others before them. He will have his 
grace magnified and adored. And we must cherish an humble sense 
of all that we suffer and do for him, that we are nothing and that he is 

(2d.) Their laziness. They do not improve and grow according to 
their standing, and the many advantages they have by so long acquaint 
ance with God ; but are apt to grow dead, drowsy, formal, and custom 
ary, and go on in a tract of duties without any life and vigour, Luke 
viii. 18. He that useth not grace shall not increase it ; whereas others' 
diligence shall be blessed. Some start up that have more grace in a 
little time "than they that have been getting many years. 

(3d.) It may come to pass through their security. When they have 
had some losses for Christ, they may think all their trials are over. A 
man of long standing, being secure of salvation, may grow negligent, 
and supposing that he hath grace, and is possessed of the love of God, 
there needeth not such diligence as when he was doubtful ; and if he 
go round in a course and tract of duty, and avoid grosser sins, it is 
enough, and he is now past all danger ; and so is tempted to leave his 
first love and zeal, Kev. ii. 4. After the first labours of regeneration, 
and the difficulties of reconciliation with God, are past over, and he 
hath gotten some peace, and confidence, and freedom from the terrors 
of the law, then he is in danger of security, by which means all runneth 
to waste in the soul, and our nakedness will soon appear. Take, for an 
instance, David and Joseph. The one will show us the danger of laying 
aside of our fear and caution, the other the benefit of a constant 
watchfulness and circumspection : 2 Sam. xi. 2, 3, ' And it came to pass 
in an eveningtide that David arose from off his bed, and walking upon 
the roof, of the king's house ; and from the roof he saw a woman wash 
ing herself ; and the woman was very beautiful to look upon. And 


David sent and inquired after the woman : and one said, Is not this 
Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite ? ' Gen. 
xxxix. 7-9, ' And it came to pass after these things, that his master's 
wife cast her eyes upon Joseph, and she said, Lie with me. But he 
refused, and said unto his master's wife, My master wotteth not what 
is with me in the house, and he hath committed all that he hath to my 
hand. There is none greater in the house than I ; neither hath he kept 
back anything from me but thee, because thou art his wife : how then 
can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God ? ' The one was 
a young man, the other old, and well experienced in the ways of God : 
Joseph a single man, David had a multitude of wives ; Joseph had 
the advantage of secrecy, David was fain to make way to his adultery by 
other sins ; Joseph was solicited, David the solicitor ; yet how foully 
did the one fall, because secure ? The other had his heart possessed, 
with the fear of God. 

2. In appearance only. I have spoken to you of the softest inter 
pretation of the words ; now I shall show you how they maybe under 
stood of those that are first in their own opinion only, or in the opinion 
of the world ; and so they that are first, that made a great blaze o 
profession for a while, and at length, last ; and so to be last is to be no 
thing. It is not meant of gradual declinings, but total apostasy, which 
is the end of many that are forward in outward show and profession o 
Christ and the gospel, do, after they have professed a religion awhile, 
suffer it to die away, and vanish into nothing ; a greater abuse and mis 
chief to the church of God than if they had never professed : so they come 
to be least in the kingdom of heaven ; that is, to have no room nor 
place there, Mat. v. 19 ; and elsewhere, to reap sparingly is not to reap 
at all, 2 Cor. ix. 6 ; and Mat. xxi. 31, ' Publicans and harlots go into 
the kingdom of God before you.' It is not to be understood as if the 
one made haste into the kingdom of God, and the other were only slow 
and remiss, but did at length enter. No ; they were opposite, and 
averse, and never entered : ' This man went to his house justified rather 
than the other,' Luke xviii. 14. Not as if the pharisee was justified ; 
but the meaning is, not justified at all. There are many such speeches : 
so that many that have begun well for the present shall afterwards 
fall away, and be utterly excluded from the kingdom of heaven. Such as 
are foremost in outward shows and profession of religion are not always 
the best Christians : Gal. iii. 3, 4, * Are ye so foolish ? having begun in 
the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh ? Have you suffered sa 
many things in vain? if it be yet in vain.' All former profession, 
praying, hearing, suffering, is lost, if we by one afterchange should re 
proach our former practice : Gal. v. 7, ' Ye did run well ; who did hinder 
you ? ' They had made some progress in the ways of God ; their after- 
carriage may be no way answerable to their promising beginnings ; 
they may not only grow remiss and lazy, but strangely perverted by 
the allurements of the flesh and the world. A carnal and unsound 
heart will either take some offence, or by some temptation or other be 
taken off from the profession and practice of godliness, by sensuality, 
error, or worldliness : John vi. 66, ' From that time many of the dis 
ciples went back, and walked no more with him.' Demas for a time 
made a good profession, but afterwards was blinded by the world : 2> 


Tim. iv. 10, ' For Deinas hath forsaken us, having embraced the pre 
sent world.' So the scripture taketh notice of many other blazing- 
meteors that fell from heaven like lightning. It will be so ; all that 
are called are not elected : Mat. xx. 16, 'So the last shall be first, and 
the first last ; for many are called, but few are chosen.' Therefore we- 
should not be contented with the beginnings of Christianity only ; many 
times there are plenty of blossoms, and yet but little fruit, and those 
that have had good beginnings may afterwards greatly dishonour the- 
name of Christ by their scandal or defections from him. They may 
seem to be first in the kingdom of heaven, and to be the very flower 
of Christianity, but prove afterwards the very dregs of Christianity. 
The foolish virgins had their lamps as well as the wise, but their oil 
failed ; they went forth to meet the bridegooom as the wise did, but 
they were afterwards shut out, Mat. xxv. 10. It is not enough to 
make the profession plausible, but to see the practice be real and the 
heart sound. Some in an hopeful way went far, but at last all is- 

Use 1. See that you do not make an ill use of it. 

1. It is not to discourage men from beginning betimes, or remember 
ing their Creator in the days of their youth. No ; we should believe- 
with the first. Epenetus is called the first-fruits of Achaia, Kom. xvi. 
5. Surely it is an honour to be first in the service of God. The 
sooner the better. The more experience of God, the more inured to 
his blessed yoke. All the sacrifices of the law were to be offered to- 
God young, and in full strength. We expect eternal life, and therefore 
no part of our temporal life should be diverted from God. Therefore 
to discourage beginning early were to play the devil's game, who would 
fain feast upon the flower and freshness of our youth, and leave God 
the scraps and fragments of old age. No ; begin betimes ; but hold on 
and keep your crown. 

2. Not to quench your zeal and forwardness in profession of godli 
ness, provided it have a root : Deut. v. 29, ' Oh that there were such 
an heart in them, that they would fear me, and keep my command 
ments always, that it might be well with them, and their children after 
them.' And that you keep up this life and vigour, and still stir up 
yourselves that you may not grow dead, and drowsy, and sleepy, but 
acquit yourselves with a like affection in the progress as in the begin- 
ing : Heb. iii. 14, ' For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold 
the beginning of our confidence steadfast unto the end/ An old dis 
ciple keepeth up his dignity still ; it is not the newness of the thing 
affected him. No forwardness in religion is good, if you do afterwards 
grow remiss and lazy. 

Use 2. The right use that we should make of it 
1. Is to excite men to a perseverance in a course of holiness and 
righteousness, that the end may answer the beginning. Do not break 
off the race till you come to the goal : Heb. iv. 1, ' Let us therefore- 
fear, lest a promise being left with us of entering into his rest, any of 
you should seem to come short of it ; ' Phil. iii. 14, ' I press towards 
the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.' If 
you trust to your former righteousness, and commit iniquity, all is lost, 
Ezek. xxxiii. 13. No ; this work must be brought to an end, that you 


may not be rejected and disallowed at last, after all that you have done 
and suffered for Christ. They came into the vineyard at several hours, 
Mat. xx., but all tarried till the close of the day. Some are converted 
sooner, some later ; but all hold out to the end. In the work of re 
demption Christ never gave over till all was finished, John xix. 30. 
So must we never give over till we can say, It is finished ; or, with Paul, 
2 Tim. iv. 8, ' I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I 
have kept the faith.' We have no licence to slacken our course and 
give over till all be finished, and then we keep our precedency to the 

2. To press you to diligence in growth and progress, that you may 
still go on from strength to strength, Ps. Ixxxiv. 7 ; for this is the 
way to keep up your precedency. Many do not fall off, nor make 
shipwreck of the faith ; yet they make no progress, but are soon out 
stripped by those that come after ; they do not provoke them to an holy 
emulation : Heb. x. 24, ' Let us consider one another to provoke to 
love and good works.' Actively we must provoke others by our ex 
ample, and passively we must provoke ourselves ; we must not justify and 
encourage that common negligence and forgetfulness of God which 
prevaileth in the world. Cold dealing in Christianity doth so; but 
when zealous in the best things, we enkindle one another, and awaken 
one another to a greater zeal and mindfulness of God and the world 
to come. You should condemn the world by your seriousness, and 
you harden them in their impenitency by your straitness and worldli- 
ness, as if you had no other hope than what the world can afford 

3. To an humble sincerity, thinking meanly of yourselves, or any 
thing that you do or have done. Surely the first are last in their own 
account. If you are low and poor in your own eyes, affect not to be 
great in the eyes of others. God will show you that it is his grace 
made the difference, by raising up other instruments of his glory that 
have not half your advantages, and yet how do they grow both in the 
knowledge and love of Christ. Twice Christ marvelled ; at the faith 
of the centurion, having so little means : Mat. viii. 10, ' When Jesus 
heard it, he marvelled, and said unto them that followed, Verily I say 
unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel ; ' and at 
the unbelief of his own countrymen, who had so great means : Mark 
vL 6, 'And he marvelled at their unbelief.' And truly it is an 
humbling consideration to us when others have thriven in less time, 
and by smaller means than you have had ; though low in the esteem 
of the world, yet outshine you in meekness, patience, and blameless 
conversation, and fervent prayers. 

' And the last shall be first.' The last, such as are backward as to 
any affection to heavenly things, yea, afar off as to any profession or 
sense of religion ; these shall in time to come show themselves more 
forward than others who were in Christ before them ; prove glorious 
Christians at the last : it may be so. 

Now here are ' first ' and ' last.' God doth not call all his elect at 
once, but some sooner, some later. Andrew and Peter were first called, 
and then Philip. Some called young ; as Timothy, 2 Tim. iii. 15. 
Some in elder age. Obadiah feared God from his youth, 1 Kings xviii. 


12 ; Lydia and the jailer in middle age, Acts xvi. ; Mauasseh about 
sixty years of age, near on his death, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 19. 
Use 3. Let us not despair of any. 

1. Judge of nothing before the time. They may be called that are 
afar off: John x. 16, ' Other sheep have I.' Christ knoweth the elect, 
looketh upon himself engaged to bring them in. We know them not, 
but Christ knoweth them. 

2. As soon as you are called, mind your work : Col. i. 6, ' Which is 
come unto you, as it is in all the world, and bringeth forth fruit, as it 
doth also in you since the day ye have heard of it, and knew the grace 
of God in truth.' 

3. These last shall be first. Many late converted ones grow eminent 
in grace, for these reasons 

[1.] Those that have been great sinners love much, because much 
was forgiven to them : Luke vii. 47, ' Her sins, which are many, are 
forgiven her; for she loved much : but to whom little is forgiven, the 
same loveth little/ It was long ere they would hearken to God and 
regard his offers ; therefore now they bestir themselves the more. 

[2.] They live in a constant admiration of grace ; whereas others 
may bear up themselves too much upon their own worth : James iv. 
6, * Wherefore he saith, God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to 
the humble/ 

[3.] Because they recompense their long delay by their after dili 
gence: Eph. v. 16, 'Kedeeming the time;' as travellers that set out 
late ride the faster : 1 Peter iv. 3, ' For the time past of our life may 
suffice us to have wrought the will of the gentiles, when we walked in 
lasciviousness and excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abomi 
nable idolatries ; ' 2 Sam. xix. 11, they that were last in bringing back 
the king to his house, were most zealous for his interest afterwards. 

[4.] They look upon themselves obliged to do as much for God as 
they did for Satan : Eom. vi. 19, ' For as you have yielded your mem 
bers servants to uncleanness, and to iniquity unto iniquity, even so now 
yield your members servants to righteousness unto holiness/ Therefore 
those that have been grievous sinners, when God toucheth their hearts, 
prove eminent saints and seek to excel in righteousness and holiness. 

Use 1. You that are converted late should double your diligence. 
As you have been instances of the corrupt vigour of nature, so also of 
the sacred power of grace : or if recovered out of some eminent fall, as 
Peter, John xxi. 15, Peter had been boasting before, that if all men 
forsook him, yet he would not forsake him. Now Christ puts the 
question to Peter, John xxi. 15, ' Simon Peter, lovest thou me more 
than these ? ' He expecteth not only love, but comparatively more 
love ; not only to check his making comparisons, but also to show that 
those that are recovered by grace from grievous errors should be more 
eminent in love to Christ. The renewed sense of pardoning mercy 
should sharpen their affections to Christ, and we should show more 
unfeigned zeal. 

Use 2. Do not upbraid others with past sins, when they are after 
wards more forward and earnest in the ways of God. We should not 
rake in that filth which God hath covered. Many a choice instrument 
of God's glory hath been recovered out of Satan's clutches. 

VOL. xxir. D 

UPON 1 JOHN I. 7. 

And the Uood of Jesus Christ his Son deanseth us from all sin. 

1 JOHN i. 7. 

IN the context the apostle speaketh of communion with God. Now 
communion with God we cannot have till we be reconciled to him by 
Christ, and none can be looked upon as reconciled to him by Christ, 
but those that endeavour conformity to God in purity and holiness ; 
for the manner of speech is hypothetical and continual : ' If we walk 
in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, 
and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.' 
In the words observe 

1. A privilege or benefit ; to be cleansed from all sin. 

2. The extent, * From all sin.' Original, actual, small, great, omis 
sions and commissions, past sins, present infirmities. 

3. The meritorious cause of it, ' The blood of Jesus Christ.' 

4. The subject to which it is applied, or the parties interested ; they 
that ' walk in the light, as he is in the light.' 

Doct. That remission of sins which is promised in the new covenant 
to the sanctified is procured by the blood of Jesus Christ. 

I. The privilege or benefit is to be cleansed from sin. The phrase 
importeth both justification and sanctification. Where cleansing from 
sin is spoken of as a duty required of us, it always importeth sanctifica 
tion : Isa. i. 16, * Wash you, make you clean, put away the evil of your 
doings before mine eyes, cease to do evil.' But where it is spoken of as 
a mercy received from God, there it implieth sometimes both benefits ; 
for both go together : as Eph. v. 26, ' He gave himself for it, that he 
might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word.' 
It implieth there our whole translation from the state of sin and death 
to an estate of grace and life : both justification, or doing away the 
guilt of sin, and sanctification, or the renovation of our natures 
Sometimes it implieth one benefit only or principally, which sense must 
be determined by the context. As, for instance, when both benefits are 
mentioned together, and one of them in other terms : as 1 John i. 9, 
' To forgive us our sins, and cleanse us from all unrighteousness/ 
There cleansing intendeth sanctification, which, with pardon, is made 
a distinct branch of our recovery. 

When this cleansing is ascribed to the blood of Christ, it principally 


noteth justification ; when to the Spirit, sanctification. So they are 
distributed, 1 Cor. vi. 11, ' But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, 
but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of 
our 'God.' As to give instances : Ezek. xxxvi. 25, ' I will sprinkle 
clean water upon you, and you shall be clean.' That water signifieth 
the sanctifying Spirit ; and his cleansing work is sanctification. So 
Titus iii. 5, ' But according to his mercy, he saved us by the washing 
of regeneration, and the renewing of the Holy Ghost.' But when it is 
uscribed to the blood of Christ, it principally signifieth justification, 
as in the text : and Rev. i. 5, ' And washed us from our sins in his 
own blood ; ' and in many other places. Well, then, when the blood 
of Christ is said to be beneficial to cleanse us, it is meant of his taking 
off the guilt of sin, and our obligation to wrath. Sin is the whole 
cause of God's displeasure against us, and that which maketh us odious 
in his sight, as a filthy thing is to us. Therefore when we are freed 
from sin by the death of Christ, we are said to be cleansed. Guilt is 
not a quality, but a relation, or an obligation to punishment, which the 
law of God hath made the sinner's due, which relation and obligation 
ceaseth when that is done which our supreme Lord and Judge requir- 
eth. For man is bound to God no further than God will have him 
bound. And when the obligation is dissolved, the punishment is no 
more in force. 

To understand this distinctly, we may, with respect to justification, 
consider three things in sin (1.) The fault ; (2.) The guilt; and (3.) 
The punishment. 

1. The fault is a criminal action. This is not taken a.way, either as 
a natural action or a faulty action, contrary to the law of God ; for 
that is impossible. Not as a natural action ; for such a fault we com 
mitted, either by omitting good, or doing evil. Factum infeclum fieri 
nequit ; that which is done cannot be undone. Nor as it is a faulty 
action contrary to the law of God. This Christ taketh not away neither; 
for that were to disannul the obliging force or authority of the law. 
The sins we committed are sins still. Christ came not to make the law 
less holy, or the fault to be no fault. What shall we say then to this 
first thing in sin ? The fault is not taken away ; but it is passed by as it 
is the foundation of our guilt. The scripture sets it forth by the meta 
phor of removing it out of God's sight : Ps. ciii. 12, ' As far as the east 
is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us ; ' 
that we may not be objects displeasing to him. And it is expressed, 
' Thou hast cast all my sins behind thy back,' Isa. xxxviii. 17 ; as 
men cast behind their backs such things as they list not to look on, or 
remember. In humiliation we set them before our face ; but in pardon 
ing, God casts them behind his back. So in a like expression he is said 
' to pass by the transgression of the covenant of his heritage,' Micah 
vii. 18. Pardon is a passing over, a seeing and not seeing the faults 
of his people. God quits the plea, doth not call to an account for them. 
It may further be represented by taking off the filthy garment where 
with the high priest was clothed when he stood before the Lord : Zech. 
iii. 4, ' Take away the filthy garments from him, and unto him he said, 
Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe 
thee with change of raiment.' Whilst we are clothed with filthy 


garments, we are unpleasiug objects in God's sight, therefore they are 
removed, that we may be accepted. 

2. The guilt. There is a twofold guilt, reatus culpce and reatus 
poence ; the guilt of sin and the guilt of punishment. The reatus 
culpce, or guilt of sin, is seen by applying the law to the fact, and both 
to the person that hath committed it : 1 John iii. 4, ' Whosoever com- 
mitteth sin transgresseth also the law, for sin is the transgression of 
the law.' Such a fact is sin, because the law forbiddeth it, and I am 
a sinner because I have done it. Now this is not taken away ; my 
faulty act is an offence, and I am an offender, and none of us can be 
reputed as those that never omitted any duty, or committed any sin ; 
for the new covenant is not set up to make us innocent, but pardonable 
upon certain terms. And when we come to God as our offended 
governor, we plead not as innocent, but as sinners, desiring that in the 
behalf of Christ our sins may be forgiven to us. There is also reatus 
pcence, or guilt of punishment, which resulteth from the sanction of the 
law, binding us to surfer such penalties as the law hath determined. 
Now this may be considered, quoad meritum, vel quoad eventum, accord 
ing to the merit, or according to the event ; according to the merit of 
the action, what the action in itself deserveth, which is condemnation 
to punishment ; this Christ hath not taken away, nor ever intended to 
take away. Every sinful action is in se, et merito operis, in itself, and 
by the desert of the work, damnable or deserving damnation ; but quoad 
eventum, as to the event and effect : ' There is no condemnation to 
them that are in Christ,' Kom. viii. 1. By the new covenant we are 
discharged from the obligation to punishment, and so are said to be 
cleansed, purged, pardoned. This will be more clear and plain to you 
by considering what is required of us in suing out our pardon. We 
must not deny the fault or sin, but confess it : 1 John i. 9, ' If we con 
fess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse 
us from all unrighteousness.' And we must acknowledge the guilt and 
desert of God's righteous law : 1 Cor. xi. 31, ' If we judge ourselves, 
we shall not be judged of the Lord.' There must be self-accusing and 
self-judging. In self-accusing we confess reatum culpai, the guilt of 
sin, our breach of the law. In self-judging we confess reatum pcence, 
that we deserve condemnation ; without either of which there would 
be no due recourse to God for pardon, or that humiliation and broken- 
ness of heart which the scripture calleth for, or else these would be 
performed perfunctorily and formally, if there were not a ground in the 
nature of the thing. For if the guilt of the fault were utterly dissolved, 
how can I heartily accuse myself of such and such things before the 
Lord ? Or if the guilt of punishment were so far dissolved that my 
actions did not in their own nature, and by God's righteous law, deserve 
such condemnation and punishment, how can I broken-hearted ly ac 
knowledge myself to have deserved the greatest evil which his law 
threatened ? So that this cleansing of us is not a vacating the action, 
as if. it had never been done, or a denial of the fault, as if it were no 
fault, nor a disannulling of the desert of punishment, but a remission 
of the punishment itself, or a discharge from the penalty which sin hath 
made our due debt. 

3. The punishment. Where sin is pardoned, there is a discharge 


from the punishment due upon the guilt. Sin is not imputed to con 
demnation ; nay, the man is dealt with before the tribunal of the judge 
as if he were pure and clean from all sin. He deserves indeed to be 
accursed, but the penitent, broken-hearted sinner is accepted to pardon, 
and shall be exempted from eternal punishment: John v. 29, ' He hath 
everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation ; ' that is, he 
hath escaped eternal death and shall enjoy everlasting life. 

But now for the question, whether all sins be forgiven at once ; past, 
present, and to come ? I must answer negatively ; sins to come cannot 
properly be said to be pardoned, for till they are committed we are not 
guilty of them, and this would be not so much a pardon, as an indul 
gence and licence to sin ; such as the man of sin is wont to give to his 
superstitious adherents, indulgences for so many years to come. Then 
a man once converted could no otherwise than frivolously pray, ' Forgive 
us our trespasses.' It would take away care of avoiding sin to come, 
and repentance for what is past. Daily sins displease God, and deserve 
death. Forgiveness of sin sometimes is spoken of with respect to the 
purchase : Heb. x. 14, ' For by one offering he hath perfected for ever 
them that are sanctified.' There needeth no more sacrifice. Some 
times with respect to the offer in the new covenant : Acts xiii. 38, 39, 
' Be it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this 
man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins. And by him all 
that believe are justified from all things from which ye could not be 
justified by the law of Moses.' The same covenant pardoneth all ; 
there needeth no other covenant. Sometimes it may be considered as 
applied as soon as we do believe : Eom. viii. 1, ' There is now no con 
demnation to them that are in Christ ; ' Eph. i. 6, * Wherein he hath 
made us accepted in the beloved, in whom we have redemption through 
his blood, the forgiveness of sins/ By pardon we partake of a threefold 

[1 ] The state of the person is altered : from a child of wrath he is 
put into a state of grace ; from a child of the devil, made a child of 
God: John i. 12, 'But to as many as received him, to them gave he 
power to become the sons of God.' 

!2.] There is an actual remission of all past sins till that day. 
3.] There is a right to sue out pardon for daily failings : John xiii. 
10, 'Jesus saith unto him, He that is washed needeth not, save to 
wash his feet.' We contract new defilement every day by going up 
and down in a dirty world. Well, then, the certain remedy is pro 
vided, which will pardon our sins as soon as we are capable. 

II. The extent of this benefit, 'AH sin/ This showeth how perfect 
this deliverance is. If we should be freed from some sins only, and 
left under the guilt of others, we could never be upon sure terms. 
Though the self-judging sinner seeth multitudes of sins in himself, yet 
that will not hinder his free and full pardon ; nor need it to obstruct 
the peaceable estate of it in his conscience. For where God forgiveth 
one sin, he forgiveth all : Ps. ciii. 3, ' Who pardoneth all thy sins/ 
Micah vii. 18, ' Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea/ 
Sins are of several kinds, original, actual ; of omission, commission ; 
small, great ; secret, open ; past enormities, and present infirmities. 
Look into thy bill ; what owest thou ? A Christian is amazed when 


he cometh to a serious account with God. But he needeth not be 
discouraged, since upon sincere and unfeigned repentance God par- 
doneth all that is past, and will not be severe, notwithstanding present 
failings and imperfections. All sins are mortal, all of them damnable : 
wherefore, if all sins be not pardoned, we remain in danger of the curse. 
Any one sin let alone is sufficient to exclude us out of heaven. There 
fore, first or last, all is pardoned. Justice hath no more to seek of 
Christ, and we have full leave to sue out our pardon in his name. 

III. The meritorious cause of it, ' The blood of Christ.' 

Here let us see (1.) What the blood of Christ doth ; (2.) Whence 
it hath this power to cleanse us from all our sins. 

1. What the blood of Christ doth. It may be considered three 
ways as shed, pleaded, sprinkled. 

[1.] As shed. This is necessary by way of merit and satisfaction, 
to obtain for us the pardon of sins. After the entrance of sin into the 
world, God, that is inclined to do good to his creatures, would have it 
manifestly appear that he hated sin, and loved righteousness : therefore, 
sin being already committed, and the punishment of eternal death 
incurred, he would show the hatred of his justice and holiness against 
sin, and yet spare the sinner: Kom. iii. 25, ' Whom God hath set forth 
to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteous 
ness for the remission of sins.' Heb. ix. 22, 'Without shedding of 
blood there is no remission of sins/ And in the gospel, Christ is the 
true sacrifice for sin, accepted by God for sinful man, that he may be 
cleansed and purified, or freed from the wrath and punishment which 
sin had made his due. Hereby is enough done to signify God's purest 
holiness, and his utter hatred and detestation of sin, and to declare his 
love of justice, and to keep up the authority of his law, and instruct 
the world that it is a dangerous thing to transgress it. 

[2.] As pleaded (1.) By Christ in heaven , (2.) By us in prayer. 

(1.) By Christ in heaven ; for Heb. ix. 12, ' But by his own blood he 
entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption 
for us.' It is that which is presented to God as the full price and 
ransom of souls. 

(2.) By us in prayer ; for the apostle saith, Heb. x. 19, * Having 
therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of 
Jesus.' When we beg any blessing, especially this necessary benefit, 
the pardon of our sins, that which supporteth our confidence of 
audience and acceptance with God is the blood of Christ. 

[3.] As sprinkled or applied, for so we are told : Heb. xii. 24, ' You 
are come to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood 
of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than the blood of Abel.' It 
is not enough that his blood be shed, or pleaded, but it must be 
sprinkled. In itself it hath a cleansing power and virtue ; but being 
sprinkled, it doth actually cleanse and purify from sin. The sprinkling 
of the blood of the paschal lamb saved the house from the stroke of 
the destroying angel, Exod. xii. 11, Heb. xi. 28. The destroying 
angel passed by all those whose door-posts are sprinkled. And all the 
elect are said to be saved ' by the sanctification of the Spirit, and the 
sprinkling of the blood of Jesus,' 1 Peter i. 2. And the apostle 
reasoneth it : Heb. ix. 13, 14, ' For if the blood of bulls and goats, 


and the ashes of an heifer, sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the 
purifying of the flesh: how much more shall the blood of Christ, who 
through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge 
your consciences from dead works to serve the living God.' In the 
type of the red heifer there was a solemn sprinkling to the purifying 
of the unclean, which answereth the purging of our consciences by the 
blood of Christ : the one purifieth the flesh, the other the conscience : 
the one freed from such penalties as the law imposed for legal and 
ceremonial offences, the other from dead works, which are pollutions 
before God ; and so are spiritual evils, and eternal penalties, that unfit 
us for communion with God. Well, then, we see there must be appli 
cation ; therefore let us consider how it is to be applied, or the means 
of sprinkling, both on God's and our part. 

(1.) On God's part, the means of applying are, external or internal : 
for the external means we have an account of them, Eph. v. 26, * That 
he might sanctify and cleanse it by the washing of water through the 
word : ' that is, by the word and sacraments ; so he applieth to us the 
virtue of his death. 

(1st.) By the preaching of the word. The great duty of the ministers 
of the gospel is to sprinkle the hearts of the people with the blood of 
Christ, by the preaching of the new covenant : not only to assure them 
that pardon of sins may be obtained : Acts x. 43, ' To him gave all the 
prophets witness, that through his name whosoever believeth on him 
shall receive remission of sins ; ' but to instruct them how it may be 
had ; that such as repent and believe, and do what becometh either 
duty, shall be assuredly cleansed from sin and accepted with God. 
The apostle telleth us the sum and substance of his preaching was, 
repentance towards God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, Acts xx. 
21. Kepentance towards God is necessary, that we may acknowledge 
our obligation to his law, bemoaning our former sin and misery, and 
devoting ourselves anew to him, that we may do his will, and walk in 
his ways. Faith in Jesus Christ is necessary, that those that have 
benefit by him may own the author of their deliverance, and put their 
cause into his hands, that he may reconcile them unto God. Kepent 
ance is our turning to God, as faith is a thankful owning of our 
Redeemer. Thus the word giveth both instruction and assurance ; for 
it is both a doctrine, and a grant or charter. 

(2rf.) The sacraments are the means of this sprinkling, or applying 
the cleansing virtue of Christ's blood. These are two ; baptism : Acts- 
ii. 38, * Then Peter said unto them, Eepent, and be baptized every one 
of you in the name of Jesus, for the remission of sins ; ' the Lord's 
supper : Mat. xxvi. 28, * For this is my blood of the new testament,, 
which is shed for many for the remission of sins.' Both excite and 
assure us of the participation of this benefit by Christ. They excite 
as they are applied to every one ; for every one that submitteth to these 
ordinances bindeth himself to seek after this benefit in the way wherein 
Christ will dispense it; and this they do assure us as they work, 
increase, and strengthen faith in us, and are a solemn investiture to 
Christ and his benefits. 

(3d.) Internal ; by the effectual operation of the Spirit, as the fruit 
of Christ's intercession. Therefore it is said, 1 John iii. 8, ' There are 


three that bear witness on earth, the Spirit, the water, and the blood ; 
and these three agree in one. The TO /cpwopevov, or thing to be proved, 
is that Jesus is the Son of God. The Spirit beareth witness to this, 
applying the blood of Christ to the conscience, and purifying and 
sanctifying them as with clean water. These are not one, as the first ; 
but these agree in one, as they do establish the same conclusion, as 
they do concurringly establish it : neither simply nor apart ; not water 
apart, nor blood apart, nor Spirit apart, but they all concur ; the Spirit, 
by water and blood, appeasing our guilty consciences, and washing 
away the guilt of sin. And it is said, 1 John v. 10, ' He that believeth 
on the Son of God hath his witness in himself ; ' the Spirit by the 
blood of Christ pacifying his conscience, and sanctifying his heart : 
Rom. v. 5, ' The love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy 
Ghost given unto us/ The business is, what is meant here by the 
love of God ? I take it for the great instance of his love, the reconciling 
the world to himself by Jesus Christ ; for it immediately followeth, 
* For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for 
the ungodly.' Surely it is not taken for our love to God, but his love 
to us, which was chiefly seen in that great instance. We have the 
effect and feeling, the sense and comfort of it, by the Spirit. 

(2.) The means of sprinkling on our part ; for until we believe, the 
blood of Christ produceth not its effect upon our souls : Eom. iii. 25, 
' Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his 
blood.' Faith believeth the great love of Christ in the shedding of 
his blood for the expiation of our sins, and doth excite us to live in a 
constant course of obedience to him who died for us : 2 Cor. v. 14, 15, 
'For the love of Christ constraineth us, because we thus judge, that if 
one died for all, then were all dead : and that he died for all, that 
they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto 
him which died for them.' All that sincerely believe in Christ, and 
embrace the gospel, have their sins pardoned, are accepted with God 
in Christ, and live in amity with him : Eom. viii. 1, ' There is no con 
demnation to them that are in Christ.' They are now actually ad 
mitted into communion with God, and the privileges of Christ's death. 
But these who thus believe, how far obedience concurreth I will not 
now debate ; it is enough to say, that sincere believers are freed from 
sin, and the direful consequences of it. 

2. Whence hath the blood of Christ such a cleansing virtue ? Partly 
from the institution of God, and partly from its own intrinsic worth 
and value. 

[1.] From the institution of God : Col. i. 19, 20, ' It pleased the 
Father that in him should all fulness dwell. And having made peace 
through the blood of his cross by him to reconcile all things unto him 
self, whether they be things in earth or things in heaven.' It pleased 
the Father to make use of the blood of his cross to reconcile the world 
to himself. Divine institution puts a value upon things ; for surely 
God accepts what he hath appointed, let it be otherwise never so con 
siderable, anything is of force unto that whereunto God hath ordained 
it. God's will is the reason and cause of all things. If God will 
appoint bread and wine to be the mysterious instruments of his grace, 
who can contradict his will ? Well, then, this is one ground of our 


confidence, that Christ is not a mediator of our choosing. If we had 
offered God a satisfaction, or Christ had interposed of his own accord, 
we might have met with a like answer as Moses had : Exod. xxxii. 32, 
33, ' If thoti wilt, forgive their sin : and if not, blot me out of thy 
book. And the Lord said, Whosoever hath sinned against me, him 
will I blot out of my book/ But God will not refuse what he hath 
appointed himself. 

[2.] From its own intrinsic worth and value. There is more in 
Christ than what an institution puts upon him. 

(1.) The dignity of the person ; who is not only perfectly holy, and 
separate from sinners, but hath also a divine virtue and power. Both 
concur in Christ, who was that holy thing born of the virgin, and 
was a] so a person subsisting in the Godhead. Who had a fulness of 
all grace, Col. i. 19. 'And the fulness of the Godhead dwelt in him 
bodily,' Col. ii. 9. Not mystically, as in believers ; not symbolically, as 
in the sacraments ; nor typically, and by way of shadow, as in the 
types of the law ; but really and personally. And therefore it is said 
in the text, ' The blood of Jesus Christ his Son ; ' and elsewhere : 
' Kedeemed by the blood of God,' Acts xx. 28. If the person satisfying 
be an infinite person, so is his satisfaction. The scripture improveth 
this notion, both in opposition to the sin of Adam ; there is a 7ro\X<^ 
/zaAAoz/, a much more, put upon Christ : Kom. v. 15-17, ' But not as 
the offence, so also is the free gift ; for if through the offence of one 
man many were made sinners ; much more the grace of God, and the 
gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto 
many. And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift ; for the 
judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many 
offences to justification. For if by one man's offence death reigned 
by one ; much more they which receive abundance of grace, and of the 
gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ/ The 
value of the first Adam did merely arise from God's institution ; yet 
one act of the first Adam was enough to ruin millions of souls, because 
God instituted him to be a public head and common root to all his 
seed. God hath also instituted Christ, but his acts were much more 
of an unlimited influence, because without any institution he was really 
better worth than all the world. So in opposition to the ceremonies of 
the law, there is a TTO\\W fjia\\ov, a much more, put upon Christ : Heb. 
ix. 13, 14, ' For if the blood of bulls and goats, and the ashes of an 
heifer, sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, 
how much more shall the blood of Christ purge your consciences from 
dead works to serve the living God ? ' The rites of old were able to 
work that for which they were ordained, cleanse from all uncleanness, 
and so stand before God in his worship ; but besides, there is an infinite 
worth in Christ to purge the conscience from sin. His person gave a 
value to his suffering, so that one serveth for all. He is worth millions 
of us. His temporary sufferings are enough to take off the penalty of 
eternal punishment due for the disobedience of the whole world. 

(2.) The nature of the work. It was a glorious act of obedience. 
Do not think God is cruel, and standeth upon a little blood. No ; he 
standeth upon his honour. He hath made a law, and his law must 
have satisfaction ; the debt of obedience must be paid : Eom. v. 19, 


' As by one man's disobedience many were made sinners ; so by the 
obedience of one shall many be made righteous ; ' Phil. ii. 8, ' He 
became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.' The 
authority of the lawgiver was to be salved by obedience ; and the dread 
of the penalty, by an obedience to the death. It standeth, the Medi 
ator, in no less than his blood, before God will make friendship with 
us. The law said, ' In the day thou sinnest thou shalt die the death.' 
Therefore Christ must lay down his life, by a most shameful, painful, 
cursed death. He that is above all law taketh the yoke of obedience 
upon him. His suffering death for the sin of man at the command 
of his Father, was the highest degree of obedience that ever was per 
formed to God. So much love showed to God and man, so much self- 
denial, so much humility and patience, such resignation of himself to 
God, as cannot be paralleled. 

(3.) The grievousness of the sufferings which Christ endured. He 
suffered the punishment due to us, in his agonies and desertion ; and 
so ' carried our griefs, and bear our sorrows,' Isa. liii. 4. His bloody 
sweat, his prayers and strong cries, his troubles of soul, show it ; he 
was made sin, and made a curse, for us. What can be expected more ? 
He not only bore our sins on his body on the tree, but we read also 
of his soul sufferings : John xii. 27, ' Now is my soul troubled, and 
what shall I say ? ' His desertion : Mat. xxvii. 46, ' My God, my God, 
why hast thou forsaken me ? ' He was forsaken for a while, that we 
might be received for ever. All these things give hope to penitent 
believers that there is a sure ground laid whereby they may be 
cleansed from their sins. 

IV. The persons that have this benefit are such as ' walk in the 
light, as he is in the light.' They propound no lower pattern to them 
selves than the perfection and excellences of God. Here it is dis 
puted by divines what respect this qualification hath to the benefit ? 
Whether merely as a sign, or as a condition. The form is conditional. 
The generality determine that this is propounded as a sign of our 
communion with God. But others urge against them, that then there 
may be communion with God while we are in our sins ; for omne 
fignum est posterius signato ; the sign is after the thing signified. Be 
it a natural sign, as the smoke of fire; or an arbitrary sign, as a 
tavern by a bush, or a servant by his badge and cognisance. There 
fore, for some time at least, a man hath communion with God before 
he is holy. But this argument may be answered thus, that sanctifica- 
tion is the first gift. We are first sanctified, and then justified ; when 
a man sanctified walketh in the light, it is a sign of his sanctification 
and justification. But they further urge that the apostle discourseth 
not of the evidence, but means ; therefore it is best to say, It is both 
a sign and a condition without which we cannot have benefit by Christ's 
death ; but the first condition is faith ; next, love and holiness to con 
tinue our interest in this privilege. Those that walk in the light do 
in some sort resemble God, and endeavour to be more like him every 
day in goodness or holiness. 

Use 1. For information in sundry particulars. 

1. It showeth us the heinous nature of sin. A deep stain it is that 
could not be washed off but bv the blood of Christ. All in their natural 


estate are become -filthy and odious to God : Ps. xiv. 3, ' They are all 
gone aside ; they are altogether become filthy ; ' objects displeasing in 
the eye of holiness, therefore we need to be cleansed. The leper cried 
out, ' Unclean ; ' so must we. 

2. It showeth us the great love of Christ : Kev. i. 5, ' Who hath 
loved us, and washed us in his own blood/ That he would die an 
accursed, shameful death, to recover us to God, our hearts should be 
deeply possessed with a sense of his love. There are three things set 
it forth to us (1.) The way he took to cleanse us ; (2.) The fulness of 
the benefit ; (3.) The daily application. 

[1.] The way he took to cleanse us. It was by his blood : 1 John 
iv. 10, ' Herein was love ; not that we loved God, but God loved us, 
and sent his Son to be a propitiation for our sins/ 

[2.] The fulness of the benefit : * His blood cleanseth from all sin/ 
There needeth no other sacrifice, no other covenant. It is done per 
fectly : Heb. x, 14, ' For by one offering he hath perfected for ever 
them that are sanctified/ 

[3.] The daily application. This fountain is always open. We sin 
daily, and every day we sue out our discharge in Christ's name. The 
best of God's children make but too much work for pardoning mercy. 
We contract new filth by walking up and down in a dirty, defiling 
world : John xiii. 10, ' He that is washed needeth not save to wash his 
feet/ Now where much is forgiven, there should be the more love, 
Luke vii. 47. 

Use 2. To persuade you to make use of Christ's death for this effect. 
If the price be paid by Christ, and accepted by God for the ransom of 
souls, and the liberty proclaimed to us, surely it is our own fault if we 
remain yet in bonds. Either you are senseless of your spiritual condi 
tion, and so despise the fruits of Christ's death, or else you have not 
that esteem of the blood of Christ as you ought to have, as if he had 
not made full satisfaction. Both are great crimes. 

1. Consider your misery by reason of sin. The Kedeemer hath no work 
to do in stupid and senseless souls. They that know not their misery 
regard not their remedy. The offers of the gospel are always made to the 
sensible, the broken-hearted, the weary, the thirsty, the heavy-laden. 
Many are welcome to Christ that know not themselves penitent be 
lievers ; but never any welcome that knew not themselves condemned 
sinners : Luke xviii. 13, 14, ' And the publican, standing afar off, 
would not lift up so much as his eyes to heaven, but smote upon his 
breast, saying, God be merciful to me a sinner. I tell you this man 
went down to his house justified rather than the other ; for every one 
that exalteth himself shall be abased, and he that humbleth himself 
shall be exalted/ 

2. Be firmly persuaded of the sufficiency of what Christ hath done 
for man's redemption, that you may not have slight thoughts of the 
blood of Christ. It is that blood by which Christ entered into the holy 
place, having obtained eternal redemption for us, Heb. ix. 12. It is 
the blood of the ' everlasting covenant, which maketh us perfect in every 
good work,' Heb. xiii. 20, 21 ; that precious blood by which we are 
redeemed from our vain conversations, 1 Peter i. 18 ; that blood which 
purges our conscience from dead works, Heb. ix. 14. 


3. Make hearty application of it. Lay the plaster upon the sore. 
In the word, when you hear the offers of grace in the gospel, that God 
desireth not the death of a sinner, that he is willing to save those that 
believe in Jesus Christ, put in for a share : 1 Tim. i. 15, ' This is a 
true and faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Jesus came 
into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief ; ' Kom. viii. 31, 
1 What shall we say then to these things ? If God be for us, who can 
be against us ? ' Job v. 27, ' Hear it, and know it for thy good.' Bring 
it home to thine heart. So in the Lord's supper, where we solemnly 
remember his death ; there we hear of the blood of the new testament 
which was shed for the remission of sins. Now apply it : 1 Cor. x. 16, 
' The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the 
blood of Christ ? the bread which we break, is it not the communion 
of the body of Christ ? ' 

4. Labour to make your claim more sure. Walk in the light. The 
ground of comfort is the blood of Christ ; the matter of comfort is the 
covenant ; but we must look to our claim and title, or else this grace 
is not brought home to us, nor we sanctified and enabled to live to 
God : John xvii. 19, ' And for their sakes I sanctify myself that they 
also might be sanctified through the truth ; ' 1 John iii. 7, ' He that doeth 
righteousness is righteous, even as he is righteous/ 


I will say unto God, Do not condemn me ; show me ivherefore tliou 
contendest with me. JOB x. 2. 

THESE words are spoken by Job in the bitterness of his soul, and as 
one weary of his many and heavy troubles. In them take notice 

1. Of a resolution of addressing himself to God, and bringing his 
complaint before him, ' I will say unto God/ &c. 

2. The matter of his address ; it is double 

[1.] A deprecation of condemnation, ' Do not condemn me/ 
[2.] An inquiry after the reasons of his afflictions, ' Show me where 
fore thou contendest with me.' 

Let me first explain the letter of the words, and then come to the 

1. The deprecation ' Do not condemn me/ Do not make me or 
count me wicked. So Heb. his conscience did testify of his upright 
ness, and therefore he desireth God would not deal with him as wicked. 
It is explained ver. 7, * Thou knowest I am not wicked/ Condemna 
tion is the sentence of a judge. ' Now in a judge three things are con 
siderable (1.) His opinion; (2.) His sentence; (3.) His execution. 
With respect to all three the word is used. 

[1.] The opinion of a judge deeming or counting one wicked ; as to 
justify is to count one righteous : Kom. viii. 33, 34, ' It is God that 
justifies ; who is he that condemns ? ' So to condemn is to count one 
wicked. This respects the inward mind, and what appeareth on evidence. 
So it is said, Prov. xvii. 15, 'He that justifieth the wicked, and con- 
demneth the just, they are both an abomination unto the Lord/ It is not 
meant of judicial absolution and condemnation, but in private opinion. 
[2.] The sentence passed or pronounced on the tribunal. So to 
condemn is to declare one unrighteous or punishable : Deut. xxv. 1, 
' If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, 
that the judges may judge them, then they shall justify the righteous, 
and condemn the wicked ; ' that is, pass sentence upon them, pronounce 
them wicked. Otherwise to declare our opinion is not always lawful. 
We may pejus timere, fear the worst, for our caution ; but not sim- 
pliciter definire, absolutely determine, till called to the judgment. 

[3.] The execution. W nen ti iev are dealt w ^ n as wicked : 1 Kings 
viii. 32, ' Then hear thou in heaven, and judge thy servants, condemn 
ing the wicked, to bring his way upon his own head; and justifying 


the righteous, to give him according to his righteousness.' Like expres 
sions there are often : as Ps. cix. 7, ' When he shall be judged, let him 
be condemned; ' Heb. ' go out wicked, or guilty.' So Ps. cxxv. 5, ' They 
shall be led forth with the workers of iniquity ; ' that is, as malefactors 
to execution. Now all these senses are intended, opinion, sentence, 
stroke ; chiefly the last. Do not deal with me as a wicked person, or 
afflict me as an evil-doer. He desires God to deal more tenderly with 
him, not as a judge, but a father : Jer. x. 24, ' Lord, correct me, but 
in judgment ; not in anger, lest thou bring me to nothing.' 

2. His inquiry after the cause of his afflictions, ' Show me wherefore 
thou contendest with me.' The word ' contendest ' is emphatical. Ifc 
notes God's contending with man as an adversary in a suit or cause. 
Before he considered God as a judge ; now as an advocate pleading, 
not for, but against him. For providence is a kind of arguing and 
pleading, not by words, but deeds ; and therefore called his controversy ; 
as Hosea iv. 1, ' The Lord hath a controversy with the land ; ' and 
Micah vi. 2, ' The Lord hath a controversy with his people, and will 
plead with Israel.' This controversy is pleaded with sharp afflictions 
whereby God appeareth against them as their opposite party. Now 
Job desireth to know the reason and cause, he having feared God and 
eschewed evil. And yet God suffered all this misery to come upon 
him, as if he were condemned and executed without trial. 

[1.] The sense. Before I tell you that, let me note to you that there 
is a mixed nature in a child of God, but a prevalency of the better part. 
Accordingly this scripture must be explained. There is some weakness 
bewrayed in these words, but more grace. 

(1.) It was weakness that he mistook the present dispensation, 
thinking that God condemned him when he did but try him. He 
may sharply chastise those whom he loveth and justifieth, yet not 
condemn them as wicked ; rather the contrary : 1 Cor. xi. 32, ' When 
we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we may not be con 
demned with the world.' 

(2.) It was weakness, in that he thought there was no sufficient 
cause that God should condemn him ; whereas the common pollution 
wherein we are involved doth sufficiently justify the severest trials he 
can bring upon us. He hath cause enough to condemn his best 
servants, and those that are not wicked ; yet because they are sinners, 
ought to look upon themselves, in strict justice, as deserving the greatest 
punishments : Ps. cxxx. 3, * If thou, Lord, shouldst mark iniquity, 
Lord, who should stand ? ' Pa cxliii. 2, ' Enter not into judgment 
with thy servant, for in thy sight shall no man living be justified.' 

(3.) Clearly he was under some perturbation and passion ; for he 
considered God not only as a judge, but as a litigant party with whom 
he might expostulate about his quarrel and controversy : * Show me 
wherefore thou contendest with me ; ' whereas an absolute submission 
is necessary. Partly because of his sovereignty : Job ix. 12, ' He 
giveth no account of his matters.' Partly because of his exact justice. 
God's judgments are sometimes secret, but always just : Ps. xcvii. 2, 
' Clouds and darkness are round about him.' There are reasons which 
we see not. 

(4.) Here is some taxing of his providence, as if his dealing were 


unjust, and God did oppress him with his great power. For so it 
followeth, ver. 3, c Is it good for thee that thon shouldst oppress, and 
despise the work of thine hands ? ' 

(5.) In all such cases there is an over- valuing of our worldly comforts 
and conveniences, and we look more to the loss and want of these 
things than the use and benefit we should get by the affliction ; 
whereas a Christian should more regard the fruit of adversity than the 
trouble of it: Heb. xii. 11, 'No chastening for the present seemeth to 
be joyous, but grievous ; nevertheless afterward it yieldeth the peaceable 
fruit of righteousness to them that are exercised thereby.' And if God 
awaken him to more seriousness in religion, by his smart, loss, and 
want, his pleasure is more than the pain, and the gain than the want 
and loss. 

[2.] There is something good and gracious in it. 

That he bringeth his complaint to God. He doth not complain 
of God, but to God. To murmur in our own bosoms, or to vent our dis 
content to others, is in effect to slander God behind his back. There 
fore his resolution to go to God is commendable : ' I will say unto 
Grod,' saith Job. This is to bring our complaint before his face. 

(2.) It is good that it was grievous to him to be in the state of a 
condemned man. Not only to be counted a sinner, but as wicked, or 
one that was not sincere and approved of God, because his judgments 
seemed to put him in that number. To be accepted with the Lord, 
and approved of the Lord, is a Christian's all. 

(3.) That he desireth to know the cause, end, and use of his afflic 
tions. This is good and holy if it be done 

(1st.) Not to satisfy curiosity, but conscience ; for sometimes we may 
be in the dark about the reasons of God's dealings with us ; as 2 Sam. 
xxi. 1, ' David inquired of the Lord,' concerning the famine, that he 
might know his duty. 

(2cZ.) By way of humble supplication, not by way of expostulation, 
as if we were innocent, and hardly dealt withal. 

Doct. 1. That open and free dealing with God in our bitterness and 
troubles is better than to smother and stifle our griefs, or vent them in 
discontent to others. 

So Job saith here, * I will say unto God,' &c. Thus David telleth 
us that he practised this open and free dealing with success : Ps. cxix. 
26, ' I declared my ways, and thou heardest me ; ' that is, he opened 
his whole case to God, conflicts, distresses, hopes, supports, sorrows, 
dangers, ^hide nothing from him; as a man will acquaint his bosom 
friend with all his condition, or as sick patients will tell the physician 
how it is with them. Now thus to do is 

1. Filial ingenuity ; for the Spirit of adoption worketh most in our 
addresses to the throne of grace ; and there it betrayeth itself in a 
Trapped {a, a telling God our mind : Heb. iv. 16, * Let us come 
boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace 
to help in time of need ;' Heb. x. 19, 'Having boldness to enter into 
the holiest ; ' Eph. iii. 12, ' In whom we have boldness and access with 
confidence.' Laying forth our whole estate and condition before him, 
sins to be pardoned, doubts to be resolved, miseries to be redressed, 
perplexities to be helped by his counsel, our weaknesses to be confirmed 


by his strength, our griefs and fears, that he may pity us and help us. 
Tell God of all; your temptations, passions; these you should distinctly 
lay open before him. Natural pride and self-love will not let us take 
shame upon ourselves, and guilt is shy of God ; but the Spirit of adop 
tion bringeth us to him with openness of heart. 

2. There is in it candid simplicity. David's maschil, or psalm of 
instruction, viz. Ps. xxxii., shows us thus much; for ver. 2, he men- 
tioneth ' guile of spirit,' which made him hang off from God. But 
then you find by the 5th verse, he had come to his ease sooner if he 
had sooner confessed his sin. We are in distress of conscience till this 
be done ; especially when trouble of conscience cometh upon us for 
some great sin, which God will cause to be manifested for his glory. 
Till we come to a clearness and openness of mind, we keep Satan's 
counsel. Moses had a privy sore, which he was loath to disclose, and 
pleadeth other things, insufficiency, want of elocution ; but carnal fear 
was the main ; therefore God gently toucheth his privy sore : Exod. iv. 
19, ' The Lord said unto Moses in Midian, Go, return into Egypt, for 
all the men are dead which sought thy life.' He never pleaded that ; 
but God knew what was the inward let. It is a mighty thing sincerely 
to open our hearts to God. 

3. It argueth a man given to prayer when all our complaints run in 
that channel, and if we have any grievance and burden upon us, we 
bring it before the Lord. 

But must we pray when we have a distemper upon us, and come to 
God with our raving passions ? I answer 

[1.] If this be known, we must get it removed ; for we must lift up 
pure hands, without wrath and doubting, 1 Tim. ii. 8 ; and a pet 
against providence is the worse kind of wrath, for then we are angry 
with God himself. Now passion putteth strange fire into our censers. 

[2.] If we are blinded for the present, and there be failings in our 
addresses to God, he will pardon them, but loveth the plainness of his 
people's hearts. 

[3.] By praying, the distemper may be cured ; for when we own 
God as our supreme and most holy and just judge, the tempest ceaseth, 
and our thoughts are appeased, and we reduced to a better frame. 

Use 1. To direct us what to do when we have many estuations of 
mind. Go, open the case to God. The apostle giveth this direction : 
Phil. iv. 6, 7, ' Be careful for nothing, but in everything by prayer and 
supplication with thanksgiving, let your requests be made unto God. 
And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep 
your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.' As in an earthquake, 
when the imprisoned wind once gets a vent, the heaving and shaking 
ceaseth ; such a quieting force there is in prayer. 

2. It persuadeth us not only to pray, but to deal sincerely with God, 
and open our hearts to him. Tell him your griefs, wants, fears, 
temptations, what reasonings are apt to arise in your minds against 
his providence; let God know all. He knoweth it already, but let him 
know it from you. Give an account of yourself to God, but with that 
humility which becometh a creature subject to him, and hath given up 
himself to be ordered and disposed by him according to his own plea 
sure. Tell him how you came to reconcile his attributes and his pro- 


vidence ; you dare not quit the sense of your integrity, but you know 
not the meaning of his dispensations. Such plain dealing God liketh 
better than arting and parting it in prayer. 

Doct. 2. From his deprecation of condemnation observe, it is 
grievous to a child of God to be condemned as a wicked man. 

1. They are apt to fear it in great pressures, when God pursueth 
with multiplied and redoubled strokes ; for these reasons 

[1.] Providence seemeth to mark them out for his enemies when he 
spendeth the arrows of his indignation upon them. Affliction is an 
act of judication. The apostle saith, 'We are judged when we are 
chastened of the Lord/ 1 Cor. xi. 32 ; and again, 1 Peter iv. 17, ' That 
judgment beginneth at the house of God.' God will prove himself 
impartially just in correcting the sins of his own; therefore he covereth 
himself with frowns, and seemeth to condemn us as an angry judge, 
rather than to correct us as a loving father. They are indeed acts of 
his holy justice, correcting and humbling them for sin. So far the 
best must own it : Ps. cxix. 75, ' I know, Lord, that thy judgments 
are right, and that in faithfulness thou hast afflicted me/ But then 
the vindictive wrath, according to strict justice, must be deprecated : 
Ps. cxliii. 2, ' Enter not into judgment with thy servant.' And the 
providence must be expounded aright. We are not condemned when 
we are judged, but judged that we may not be condemned. The dis 
pensation is medicinal, not vindictive ; to promote our humiliation and 
sanctification, not to procure our rum and destruction. 

[2.] The world is apt to make this interpretation of great afflictions: 
Acts xxviii. 4, 'This man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped 
the sea, vengeance suffereth not to live ; ' and Luke xiii. the first 
five verses, they thought those greater sinners than others whom these 
dismal accidents befell, and so turn matters of warning into matters of 
censure. Nay, of Christ himself : Isa. liii. 4, * He hath borne our grief, 
and carried our sorrows ; yet we did esteem him smitten, and stricken 
of God, and afflicted.' As if these afflictions befell him for his own evil 
deserts, and out of a disaffection to him, as one pursued by God's justice. 
The like conceit had Job's friends of him : Job vi. 4, ' If thy children 
have sinned against him, and he hath cast them away for their transgres 
sion/ And in many other places. Therefore this arrow sticketh fast in 
their sides ; by it they are pierced, and hit in their main confidence. 

[3.] Conscience may have many misgivings because of afflictions : 
1 Kings xvii. 18, ' thou man of God I art thou come to call my sin 
to remembrance, and to slay my son ? ' Affliction reviveth the guilt : 
Job xiii. 26, ' Thou writest bitter things against me, and makest me to 
possess the sins of my youth.' They sat so close to his conscience that 
he could not get rid of them. Such suspicions and fears are revived 
in their hearts. It were well if it were only to humble us for the 
demerit. So we ought to judge ourselves as deserving condemnation. 
But to question the truth of God's grant, as if he did retract it, and 
make our pardon void by these afflictions, this should not be ; or to 
conclude that he has a purpose to ruin us and condemn us for ever, 
this is downright despair. 

2. This is grievous to them. Guilt affects the saints most. A rod 
dipped in guilt smarteth sorest upon their backs. 



[1.] This for the present depriveth them of the sense of God's love 
to them, which is their all and their happiness. Nothing cheereth 
them so much as the beams of his reconciled face : Ps. iv. 6, 7, ' Lord, 
lift up thou the light of thy countenance upon us. Thou hast put 
gladness in my heart more than in the time that their corn and wine 
increased ; ' Rom. v. 11, ' We joy in God, through our Lord Jesus 
Christ, by whom we have received the atonement.' 

[2.] It questioneth their love of God, as if all were counterfeit ; for 
God cannot condemn the soul that loveth him. And his providence 
seemeth to their consciences to speak out condemnation to humble them. 
Peter took it tenderly to have his love questioned : John xxi. 17, 
' Master, thou knowest all things, and thou knowest that I love thee ; ' 
as Job afterwards, ' Lord, thou knowest that I am not wicked.' 

Use 2. It showeth what we should do that the wounds of an healed 
conscience may not bleed afresh again. 

1. Interpret the dispensations of providence aright. Whatever God's 
dealings be with his children, it is to prevent condemnation, not to 
revive it upon them. If we have nothing else to weaken our faith 
and confidence, it is a temptation from Satan to question our estate 
merely upon the account of afflictions. It is his suggestion, If God 
did love thee, he would not follow thee with his judgments ; but that 
he hateth thee, and hath no delight in thee ; this is from Satan. For 
so his instruments said to Christ : Mat. xxvii. 43, * He trusted in 
God ; let him deliver him now if he will have him : for he said, I am 
the Son of God.' Now retort it for Satan : Nay, because God loveth 
me, he dealeth thus with me ; he meaneth to save my soul. Because 
we are children of God, therefore we are the more afflicted, that sins 
may be prevented, grace increased. 

2. Eemember the absoluteness of God's pardon. Sin pardoned is 
remembered no more, Jer. xxxi. 34; nor would be found, Jer. 1. 
20 : all sins cast into the depth of the sea. God will not recall his 
sentence of pardon. 

3. Make your interest in Christ more certain and clear ; for certainly 
' there is no condemnation to them that are in Christ,' Eom. viii. 1. 

Now these things evidence that we are in Christ 
[1.] A change of nature is necessary : 2 Cor. v. 17, ' Therefore if 
any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; 
behold, all things are become new.' If it be so, you may appeal to 
God that you are not a wicked man. A sinner indeed, but renewed 
and reconciled. You have obtained mercy not to be wicked. 

[2.] You must walk holily, that you may have the testimony of a 
good conscience, which is a notable support in troubles : 2 Cor. i. 12, 
' For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in sim 
plicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace 
of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundant 
to you- ward/ 

4. There must be serious endeavours against the remainder of sin 
that may prevent the reign of it, for then you are not under the law, 
but under grace : Eom. vi. 14, ' To break the power of sin is not the 
work of a day ; these sad dispensations tend to it, not to infringe our 
justification, but promote our sanctification, that we may carry it more 


cautiously, holily, and thankfully to God : Isa. xxvii. 9, ' By this shall 
the iniquity of Jacob be purged, and this is all the fruit to take away 
his sin ; ' Heb. xii. 10, ' They verily for a few days chastened us for their 
own pleasure ; but he for our profit, that we might be partakers of his 

Doct. 3. That it is a good thing to inquire after the cause and reason 
of our afflictions. 

1. They will not else be so honourable to God ; for God loveth to 
be clear when he judgeth, Ps. li. 4, or to have the reason of his dispen 
sation seen, that he may have the glory, we the shame : Jer. ii. 17, 
' Hast thou not procured this unto thyself ? ' Micah vii. 9, ' I will bear 
the indignation of the Lord, because I have sinned against him, until 
he plead my cause, and execute judgment for me : he will bring me 
forth to the light, and I shall behold his righteousness/ 

2. Nor are our chastenings so profitable unto us till we know why he 
doth contend with us. We reap a double advantage when we know 
for what sin : 1 Cor. xi. 30, ' For this cause many are weak and sick 
among you, and many sleep/ 

[1.] That God never afflicteth but for a cause is necessary to be 
known for his honour; but for what cause, that is necessary to be 
known for our profit. We are apt to flatter ourselves with notions 
and generals. Sin in the general is the common pack-horse, upon 
which men lay all their burdens. But come to particulars, amend 
them, avoid sin ; there we are at a loss : Mai. iii. 7, ' Keturn unto me, 
saith the Lord of hosts : but they said, Wherein shall we return ? ' 
There we show that our repentance was but a notion. Dolus latet in 
universalibus Deceit lurks under generals. Therefore it is an advan 
tage to know that not for sin in general, but for this sin, God afflicts 

[2.] We can the better judge of the greatness of that sin ; for we 
know causes by effects, and can the better see our folly by our smart : 
Jer. ii. 19, ' Thine own wickedness shall correct thee, and thy back- 
slidings shall reprove thee. Know therefore, and see that it- is an evil 
thing and a bitter, that thou hast forsaken the Lord thy God/ God is 
fain to teach us as Gideon taught the men of Succoth, by briars and 
thorns. By the evil that we suffer he showeth us the evil which we 
commit, and so helpeth our faith by our sense. 

3. Our sufferings else are more uncomfortable. No rod so uncom 
fortable as a dumb rod, when we do not know the cause and use of it, 
but barely feel the stroke, and see no more. But when we see the use, 
that maketh for comfort: Ps. xciv. 12, ' Blessed is the man whom thou 
chastenest, Lord, and instructest him out of thy law/ When the 
rod hath a voice, and speaketh out the mind of God to us : Micah vi. 
9, ' Fear the rod, and who hath appointed it/ 

^ Use 3. It is lawful humbly to desire God to show us the reason of 
his dispensations. And here I shall a little speak to the case. 

1. For men who are wicked to make this request to God is to leave 
the matter of repentance upon an uncertain debate : and it is all one 
as if a man should break through a thorn hedge, and curiously desire 
to know which thorn had pricked him. For those that are overgrown 
with sin, it is enough to know that the author of all afflictions is God ; 


the cause is sin, and the end is repentance ; that they must be new 
creatures, or they are undjone for ever. To be more particular with 
them is to defeat the purpose of the dispensation, and to put them upon 
the leaving of one sin when God calleth for a change of state, or a 
passing from death to life ; and this is but like mending a hole in an 
house that is ready to drop down. 

2. To put this question to God when we do not search diligently 
ourselves is to betray a duty by our prayers : for when you complain, 
you must also search : Lam. iii. 39, 40, ' W nere ^ ore doth a living man 
complain ? a man for the punishment of his sins. Let us search and 
try our ways, and turn again to the Lord.' Let us search what sins 
have an hand in all that cometh upon us, and what special provocation 
we are guilty of. 

3. When one that for the main hath walked faithfully with God 
puts the question, these two cautions must be observed 

[1.] That it be not out of the impatiency of the flesh, murmuring 
against and taxing God's providence, as if he dealt hardly with them, 
who for wise reasons will dispose of the temporal interests and condition 
of his people according to his own pleasure, for his honour and their 
profit. If there be an overvaluing of the prosperity of the flesh, we 
bewray the cause, and yet do not see it. This is that God aimeth at, 
but you would translate the matter to some other thing. He would 
teach you that your happiness lieth not here; that patience and 
humility under the sharpest trials is better than immunity from 

[2.J That it be not from an over-conceit of our own holiness, so that 
you wonder why God should afflict you. Alas ! the sins of the regene 
rate are very provoking, and may occasion sore afflictions in this life : 
Amos iii. 2, * You only have I known of all the families of the earth, 
therefore will I punish you for all your iniquities.' They sin against 
a nearer relation than others do, even against God, who is their Father 
by the new birth, which is more heinous than if a stranger did it, 
1 Peter i. 17. They sin against more excellent operations of the Spirit 
than others do, a principle of life within them : 1 John iii. 9, * Whoso 
ever is born of God doth not commit sin.' There is more unkindness 
in their sins : Ezra ix. 14, ' Should we again break thy command 
ments ? ' They know more of the sting of sin, and have drunk of the 
bitter waters, Joshua xxii. 17 ; against more knowledge, for they know 
more what the will of God is, James iv. 17. They make profession of 
a strict obedience, and that by covenant, vow, and dedication. God's 
quarrel against you is the quarrel of his covenant, Lev. xxvi. 25. You 
dishonour God more than any others by your sins : Neh. v. 9, ' Is it 
not good that ye should walk in the fear of God, because of the 
heathen ? ' You harden the wicked more than such sins in other men 
would do: Ezek. xvi. 51, 'Neither hath Samaria committed half of 
thy sins ; but thou hast multiplied thine abomination more than they, 
and hast justified thy sister in all thine abominations which thou hast 
done.' Think of these things, and then put the question. 

4. If the inquiry be humbly and dutifully made, it may be known 
wherefore he contendeth with you. 

[1.] Partly by the word of God : Heb. ii. 2, ' If the word spoken by 


angels was steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received 
a just recompense of reward/ &c. 

[2.] Partly by checks of conscience. What is your greatest burden 
in sore troubles? Gen. xlii. 21, 'We are verily guilty concerning our 
brother/ It was many years before, yet their trouble brought it to 
their remembrance: Isa. lix. 12, 'For our transgressions are multiplied 
before thee, and our sins testify against us ; for our transgressions are 
with us ; and as for our iniquities, we know them/ 

[3.] Partly by Christian friends, what they tell us of and observe in 
us. As Nathan to David : Ps. cxli. 5, ' Let the righteous smite me, 
and it shall be a kindness/ 

[4.] Partly by enemies. Reproaches of enemies ; they are sharp and 
quick-sighted ; they soon spy out the faults of others. We often hear 
our enemies teaching our duty to us, that will not hearken to God. 
The staff of Egypt is a broken reed, Isa. Ivi. 6, with Ezek. xxix. 6, 7. 

[5.] The nature of affliction. God knoweth how to strike in the 
right vein. Usually one contrary by another. 

[6.] By his Spirit, with due application to him : Job xxxiv. 32, 
' That which I see not, teach thou me ; if I have done iniquity I will 
do no more/ 


But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up steadfastly into heaven, 
and saiv the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand 
of God, and said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son 
of man standing on the right hand of God. ACTS vii. 55, 56. 

THESE words show the carriage of Stephen when the Jewish fury was 
whetted against him. We read of some, Acts ii. 37, that were pricked 
in heart when they were charged with crucifying the Messiah ; but 
these, when they are charged by Stephen with the same crime, are cut 
at heart, ver. 54. This is not so kindly a work as that ; that pierced 
their spirits with sorrow, this embittered and inflamed them into 
wrath and rage ; they were cut at heart, and gnashed on him with 
their teeth. Stephen, by that discerning they were resolved upon his 
death, what doth he do ? Expect to be defended and rescued by the 
Christians ? There were none such in the council ; and for other, their 
religion warranted not violence against the magistrate. What then ? 
Being forsaken of all, he lifteth up his eyes to heaven to the Lord Jesus, 
whose cause he pleaded, and for whose sake he incurred this hazard 
and danger, ' But he,' &c. 

In the words we have two things (1.) His vision ; (2.) The publi 
cation of it. 

First, His vision ; there three things are observable 

(1.) The inward impulsive cause, ' Being full of the Holy Ghost.' 
(2.) The action consequent thereupon, ' He looked up to heaven.' (3.) 
The event; where (1st.) The act, 'He saw.' (2d.) The objects, or 
things seen by him, * The glory of God, and Jesus standing at his 
right hand/ 

1. The inward moving cause or power by which he was moved and 
assisted, ' Being full of the Holy Ghost.' It is said before, Acts vi. 5, 
that Stephen was a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost. That 
expresseth the habit, which was now excited and quickened into act ; 
his faith and confidence in God was heightened into courage ; as a 
good soldier hath always an habit of fortitude, but in the danger of 
battle his valour is quickened, and a great ardour cometh upon him. 
So holy men, that have always a spirit of faith, upon necessary occasions 
are elevated beyond the line of their ordinary strength ; as Stephen 
was here by a new impulse of the Holy Ghost. This is notable> that 


it is a special work of the Spirit of God to raise our minds to the sight 
of heavenly things : 2 Cor. i. 22, ' Who hath also sealed us, and 
given the earnest of the Spirit in pur hearts ; ' Eom. viii. 23, ' Our 
selves also which have the first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves 
groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, viz., the redemption 
of our body.' All the lively effectual knowledge of any truth cometh 
from him, especially a sight of heaven ; it is his office to make all our 
knowledge of truth more quick, lively, and powerful, to affect the heart 
and rule the life. And especially is the Spirit given as the earnest 
and first-fruits of heaven. 

2. The action on Stephen's part; he looketh up steadfastly into 
heaven. All earthly help failing, he looketh higher ; turneth off his 
eyes from the world and men to God, the great arbiter and disposer of 
life and death. We read of Moses, aire^Kenre ek pLoOaTroSoa-iav, 
Heb. xi. 26, a looking off and a looking on. The word signifieth a 
turning of the eye from one object to behold another. He turned away 
his mind and heart from the honours, pleasures, and treasures of Egypt, 
and fixed them on the rewards of godliness. The more we shut the 
eye of sense, the better we shall open that of faith. If we did oftener 
look from that which is present to that which is to come, from the 
creature to God, from earth to heaven, we should be much wiser and 
stronger than we are, and not so regard our worldly concernments as 
that upon every rumour of danger our hearts should be shaken like the 
leaves of the trees of the wood. 

3. The event ; he ' saw the glory of God, and Jesus Christ standing 
at his right hand.' And in his publication of his vision, ' Behold, I see 
the heavens opened.' Now here three difficulties are to be considered 

[1.] The opening of the heavens, how such a solid body should be 
divided, and yet close and come together again. 

[2.] The seeing of God, who is invisible: John i. 18, 'No man hath 
seen God at any time ; ' and 1 Tim. vi. 16, ' He dwelleth in light, which 
no mortal eye can approach unto and live.' 

[3.] The seeing Christ at so great a distance. How can a mortal 
eye reach so far through the house in which the council was met, the 
intervening clouds and firmament ? These difficulties we must remove 
before we go further. To solve these doubts there are many opinions. 

(1.) Some make it a mere intellectual vision, or the sight of faith. 
He was so firmly persuaded of the truth of these things, as if he had 
seen them with bodily eyes. So Abraham saw Christ's day, John viii. 

(2.) A prophetical vision, such as the prophets had by the immediate 
instinct and operation of God. So Isaiah saw God on the throne, Isa. 
vi. 1. Paul was rapt into the third heaven, whether in the body or 
out of the body he could not tell, 2 Cor. xii. Most of the visions the 
prophets had were of this nature: 1 Kings xxii. 19, ' I saw the Lord 
sitting on his throne,' said Micaiah. A vision, as distinguished from a 
dream, was an immediate representation of things, either to the imagi 
nation, or to the understanding of a man while he awoke. Certainly 
this was one means whereby God did manifest himself to the prophets. 
If to their imagination, then he did affect their minds and hearts with 
certain sensible objects and species. If to their understanding, by cer- 


tain ideas and representations, as did wonderfully ravish and transport 

(3.) Others, a symbolical vision, that he saw these things by certain 
external shapes and corporeal images : as John Baptist saw the Spirit 
descending like a dove on Christ, John i. 32. So Moses is said to see 
God, Exod. xxiv. 11, as he saw some visible signs of his glorious pre 
sence. The rays of his majesty have been seen by creatures. 

(4.) Others think his natural eye was so strengthened as to be able 
to pierce the clouds and see God's throne, and Christ at his right hand. 
Such a sight the blessed have hereafter : John xvii. 24, ' I will that 
they may be with me, that they may behold my glory/ And they think, 
by extraordinary dispensation, this was vouchsafed to Stephen ; that he 
had such a supernatural light as to see heaven opened, and the splendour 
and majesty of God, and Christ at his right hand ; in short, a glimpse 
of the beatifical vision. 

Now which of these shall we choose for the opening of these words ? 
The sight of faith cannot be denied ; but withal it must be granted 
that it was accompanied with a glorious apparition and spiritual ecstasy ; 
which if any will call a glimpse of the beatifical vision, there is nothing 
absurd in it ; for it is said, ' His face shone like an angel/ Acts vi. 15 ; 
that is, there was a great splendour about him. And God, that wrought 
such a change in his body, might exhibit such a manifestation of him 
self to his mind as might come near to the beatifical vision. 

But let us come more particularly to the difficulties alleged. 

(1st.) The opening of heaven implieth not a change in the nature of 
heaven, or rupture there ; for it was only seen of Stephen, not by his 
enemies. The miracle was not in heaven, but in his eye. A miracu 
lous vision it was, or some remarkable manner of appearance. We 
read, the heavens were opened at Christ's baptism, Mat. iii. 16. But 
interpreters are at a stand whether they were really parted asunder, or 
only after some remarkable manner of appearance. So again, that the 
heavens were opened in Peter's trance, Acts x. 11. And that is granted 
by all that it was done in a vision. And why may not the like be sup 
posed here ? 

(2d) The second difficulty is about the sight of God. Certainly no 
man can see God in his essence ; for he is a spirit, and a spirit cannot 
be seen with bodily eyes. Nor can he be seen in the infinite excellency 
of his majesty ; for what is finite cannot comprehend what is infinite. 
But he may be seen in such a visible manifestation of his glory as he 
is pleased to represent to the view of the creature, both here and here 
after. Thus here he may and hath often been seen. Therefore when 
it is said, ' He saw the glory of God/ you must understand so far as he 
can be seen by an human eye ; namely, by certain strictures and rays 
of his splendour and majesty, or such a brightness by which his divine 
glory is represented unto us. So Luke ii. 9, ' The angel of the Lord 
came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them ;' 
that is, the splendour occasioned by the presence of an angel. So in 
the apparition of an angel to Peter in prison : Acts xii. 7, ' The angel 
of the Lord came upon him, and a light shined in the prison/ So by 
this manifestation which God made of himself to Stephen, thereby is 
represented a glorious majesty, such as is described Exod. xxiv. 17, 


' The sight of the glory of the Lord was like devouring fire in the eyes 
of the children of Israel ; ' meaning thereby some representation of his 
splendour and majesty ; only that was more for terror, this for comfort 
and support. 

(3d.) For the third difficulty, about the seeing of Christ, this being 
an extraordinary miraculous vision, it hath been answered before. 
But mark, 'He saw Christ standing at his right hand.' Elsewhere he 
is described in another posture, of ' sitting on the right hand of God : ' 
as Mark xvi. 14, ' He was received into heaven, and sat on the right 
hand of God.' That noteth his royal dignity ; but standing as ready 
for the help of all that belong to him. God is said to arise when he 
will help his people ; as Ps. Ixviii. 1, ' Let God arise, let his enemies 
be scattered.' So he saw Jesus, God-man, standing, as in a posture of 
readiness to assist and help his servant. 

Nothing remaineth for further explaining this text but the publica 
tion of his vision : ' And he said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and 
the Son of man standing on the right hand of God.' This publication 
is made 

[1.] To show his own faith. The apostle saith, 2 Cor. iv. 13, 'We 
having the same spirit of faith, according as it is written, I have believed, 
therefore have I spoken : we also believe, and therefore speak ; ' that is, 
we having the same spirit of faith which is spoken of in David's psalms, 
where he saith, ' I believed, therefore I spake.' In sore afflictions he 
pleads the hopes of his preservation and deliverance. Therefore we 
profess Christ, and express our faith in him, notwithstanding all our 
afflictions, troubles, and dangers. A spirit of faith, when it cometh 
upon a man, it cannot be checked ; but a bashful inconfidence is easily 
obstructed. Therefore Stephen would not conceal his vision to himself, 
but divulge it for the profit of others. 

[2.] To show forth the dignity of his lord and master. Therefore 
he calleth him the Son of man, but acknowledgeth him to be at the 
right hand of God ; to show that Christ reigneth as God incarnate in 
that flesh in which he was abased and contemptuously used by men : 
* Crucified in the flesh, but liveth by the power of God,' 2 Cor. xiii. 4. 

[3.] He testifieth and publisheth it to show them that they did in 
vain strive against the truth of Christ, whom they supposed to be utterly 
destroyed by their rulers; for he was in the highest glory, reigning with 
God in the heavens. Therefore nothing more vain and fruitless than the 
opposition which Satan and his agents make against Christ and his king 
dom : ' For he is sat down at the right hand of God ; from henceforth 
expecting till all his enemies be made his footstool,' Heb. x. 12, 13. 

I)oct. Nothing doth fortify us against the discouragements we meet 
with in Christ's service so much as the sight of heaven, and Christ's 
sitting at the right hand of God there. 

In the prosecution of this point I shall consider (1.) The objects 
represented, God, Christ, and heaven ; (2.) The sight of them, how we 
can see such things, visions and raptures being antiquated things, at 
least not commonly dispensed ; then (3.) You will soon see how this is 
the ground of Christian courage. 

First, The objects represented to us, God, Christ, heaven. 

1. There is mentioned in the text the glory of God. A due sight of 


God lesseneth all other things in our opinion and estimation of them 
and affection to them ; and could we but see his glory, we might easily 
wink out the amiableness and terribleness of the creature ; for what 
are all the fears of man and the rage of the world to God ? the wrath 
of a poor creature, whose breath is in his nostrils, against the power of 
an eternal God ? Ps. xl. 4, ' Blessed is the man that maketh the Lord 
his trust, and respecteth not the proud, and such as turn aside to lies.' 
The proud are those that abuse their prosperity to the oppression of 
others, and, turning aside to lies, seek to uphold themselves by earthly 
props and dependences, or those base arts by which atheistical men, 
that have no conscience, would maintain their greatness. Surely he 
that is afraid of man doth not rightly know God : Isa. li. 12, 13, ' Who 
art thou that art afraid of a man that shall die, and forgettest the Lord 
thy Maker.' Is not God able to bear us out in his work ? Heb. xi. 27, 
Moses endured the wrath of the king, seeing him that is invisible. 
Could we get this sight of his invisible glory, lesser things would not 
startle us. Alas ! when we come to set God against" man, the match 
is altogether unequal ; there is then the Creator against the creature, 
who is the mere product of his Maker's will, and can subsist and act no 
longer than he pleaseth ; an eternal God against a bubble, that is soon 
blown up, and bursts. You may set his wisdom against their policy 
and wiles : ' For there is no wisdom, nor counsel, nor understanding, 
against the Lord,' Prov. xxi. 30. His love and goodness against their 
malice and cruelty. What matter is it if they frown when he smile th ? 
His power against their weakness ; they can be nothing without him, 
and therefore we need not fear the sword if we have not reason to fear 
him that beareth the sword. And lastly, his promises against their 
threatenings ; he is not God if he be not above his creature. All the 
powers of the world are nothing to God. 

2. The next object is Jesus Christ at his right hand. This is the 
second object in the text. Let us a little consider what this importeth. 
Properly speaking, God hath neither right hand nor left, for he is a 
spirit. It is a metaphor, therefore, which must be explained by the 
manner of earthly kings, who place those whom they highly esteem 
and honour on their right hand ; as Solomon did his mother in a chair 
of state on his right hand, 2 Kings ii. 19 ; and also such whom they 
put in chief authority and trust next themselves, as the mother of 
Zebedee's children made suit to Christ that her two sons might sit, one 
at the right hand, the other at the left of Christ in his kingdom, Mat. 
xx. 21. She falsely imagined it to be an earthly kingdom, accompanied 
with worldly honour; and therefore the purport of her request was, that 
her two sons might have the highest places of authority and profit under 
Christ, and next to Christ in his kingdom. So Christ's sitting at the 
right hand of God noteth the esteem he hath with God, and his being 
exalted to the highest degree of glory, and majesty, and authority, and 
honour, next himself. First, let us see the things imported by it ; 
secondly, the ends of it. 

[1.] The things imported by it. 

(1.) His great esteem with God, which is a ground of confidence ; 
for we have a friend in heaven, as David had Jonathan in Saul's court, 
to give him notice of danger, and to prevent displeasure from breaking 


out against him. Surely to have a friend in the court of heaven is a 
great privilege ; one who taketh up all differences between God and 
us, and answereth all accusations of Satan and his instruments, and 
preventeth wrath from breaking out upon us : 1 John ii. 1, ' If any 
man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the right 
eous.' We should not abuse it to wantonness and wilful sinning : yet 
it is a comfort against failings, and also against the clamours and 
reproaches of the world, that we have an advocate and witness on high: 
' My witness is in heaven/ saith Job. 

(2.) The glory and majesty which is put upon him, next to God, 
more than any creature is capable of, by virtue of the unspeakable union 
between the two natures. Crowned with glory and honour. He hath 
the fulness of grace and glory given to him, to dispense to his redeemed 
ones, Acts v. 31, which is a great comfort, to consider his personal 
endowments as God incarnate. 

(3.) The authority and power that is put upon him. It is said, 1 
Peter iii. 22, that ' he is gone into the heavens, and is on the right hand 
of God ; angels, authorities, and powers being made subject to him ; ' 
so that he hath the highest glory, the highest power. And Eph. i. 20, 
21, 'God hath set him at his right hand in the heavenly places, far above 
all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name 
that is named, not only in this world, but in the world to come ; ' that 
is, not only above earthly potentates, who are his vicegerents, but 
heavenly powers, who are his messengers and instruments, whom he 
employeth for the defence and comfort of the godly : Heb. i. 14, * Are 
they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall 
be heirs of salvation? ' and for the terror and punishment of his enemies; 
Ps. Ixviii. 17, ' The chariots of the Lord are seventy thousand, even thou 
sands of angels. The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the holy 
place.' Mark there, thousands of angels are but as his chariot con 
veying him from heaven to earth. And mark, ' The Lord is among them ;' 
that is, God incarnate ; for he presently speaketh of his ascending up 
on high, and leading captivity captive, ver. 18. And among them in 
his holy place ; that is, in heave.n. As at the giving of the law in mount 
Sinai, there were then, so they still attend on the propagation of the 
gospel. Now this is a great comfort to the godly when they are 
oppressed ; especially when the' authorities and powers of the earth are 
employed against them, as they were in the apostles' time. So that we 
cannot utterly fail while Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. 

[2.] The ends for which Christ was exalted to sit at the right hand 
of God are, to perform the several functions of his mediatorial office ; 
therefore in such high esteem, such majesty, such authority. His offices 
are three his prophetical, sacerdotal, and regal office ; which he doth 
by three solemn acts 

(1.) The effusion of his Spirit, to promote the ends of his prophetical 
office, convincing the world of the truth of his doctrine, and converting 
them by it. Therefore the first news we hear of Christ after his ascen 
sion, as soon as he was warm in the mediatorial throne, was his pouring 
out the Spirit, Acts ii. And presently the virtue of it appeared ; three 
thousand souls were added to the church that day. And this is a pledge 
of what is continually dispensed. There is still a Spirit sent forth, to 


convince the unbelieving world, and to conquer the opposing wisdom 
and power of the flesh, John xvi. 8 ; as also to beget and continue life 
in his people, that they may be actually put in possession of what he 
hath purchased for them ; for he hath promised to accompany the dis 
pensation of the gospel with this Spirit to the end of the world : Mat. 
xxviii. 20, ' I am with you.' Not only by his powerful providence, but 
his convincing, supporting, quickening Spirit. 

(2.) The second work Christ doth at the right hand of God belong- 
eth to his priestly office ; and that is his intercession : Kom. viii. 34, 
' He sitteth at the right hand of God, making intercession for us.' As 
the high priest went into the holy place with blood, so Christ is gone 
to represent the merit of his sacrifice : Heb. ix. 24, ' Christ is entered 
into heaven, now to appear in the presence of God for us.' To answer 
the accusations of Satan, 1 John ii. 1 ; to make reconciliation for the 
sins of the people, Heb. ii. 17. He doth interpose night and day to 
prevent breaches, to preserve a mutual correspondence between us and 
God, and sue out necessary grace for us in all our conflicts and temp 
tations. And this not only for the church in general, but every believing 
soul, Heb. vii. 25, according to their particular wants, exigencies, and 
straits : ' He is able to save them to the uttermost that come unto 
God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.' 

(3.) The third act respecteth his kingly office, or the actual adminis 
tration of his kingdom, calling and gathering his people out of the 
profane world, and appointing laws to them for their direction to true 
happiness ; and then protecting and defending them by his divine 
power and providence, giving success to his cause and servants, and 
restraining and subduing their enemies, treading down Satan and all 
his instruments under their feet, disappointing their attempts, and 
bringing to nought their counsels, Ps. ii. ; but he doth most fully subdue 
them at his second coming : Phil. ii. 10, ' That at the name of Jesus 
every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things on earth, and 
things under the earth.' Now this is a mighty encouragement. Poor 
creatures will be courageous in the eyes of their master, and he is ready 
to support and strengthen them, and able to do it. Therefore we 
should say, as the apostle, 2 Tim. i. 12, ' I know whom I have believed, 
and I am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have com 
mitted unto him against that day/ 

3. The third object is heaven. Looking to heaven is a great ground 
of Christian courage : 2 Cor. iv. 17, ' Our light affliction, which is but 
for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight 
of glory.' There is glory opposite to affliction ; a weight, a far more 
exceeding weight, to light affliction ; eternal, to what is momentary. 
Afflictions are leves et breves, light and short ; not in themselves (for 
some may be grievous, and some very long) but comparatively, with 
respect to our glorious reward, which, being infinite, maketh them light; 
and being eternal, maketh them short. Alas ! no more than a point 
to the circumference, no more than a feather against a talent of lead. 
The good and evil of the present world is slight and inconsiderable, but 
that of the other world truly great. All the pleasures of sense are but 
as a may-game to our reward ; all the troubles of our obedience but as 
a flea-biting or the scratching of a pin to eternal torments. 


[1.] The sight of them. We have no visions and raptures, but first 
we have the prospect of faith. A believer, by the eye of faith, may by 
the perspective of the promises look within the veil, and see the reality 
of those eternal and glorious things which lie in the other world. An 
object, though never so glorious, cannot be seen without eyes. Now 
faith is the eye of the soul, Heb. xi. 1. It is defined to be ' the sub 
stance of things hoped for, and the evidence of things not seen/ It is 
good to see how the light and sight of faith differeth from all other 

(1.) Compare it with the light of sense, that can only discern things 
near, and present with us, and before our eyes, as that it is comfortable 
to eat and drink, and sleep well ; to be at liberty, and free from trouble, 
and to live a life of pomp and sensual pleasure and delight. The 
sweetness of honour, wealth, and pleasure are known easily, and known 
by all ; this every one can see ; but he that hath enslaved his reason to 
sense ' is blind, and cannot see afar off/ 2 Peter i. 9. The light of faith 
will discover there is no such danger as perishing for ever ; no such 
worth in anything as in salvation by Christ ; no such business of im 
portance as seeking after eternal life. 

(2.) Compare it with the light of reason. Reason can only guess at 
future contingencies, or at best see things in their causes or natural 
order, and that it is probable, if nothing tetteth, such and such things 
will fall out ; but faith can look through all distance of time and place, 
and contrary appearances, with such certainty and firm persuasion as 
if the thing were at hand : Heb. xi. 13, * These all died in faith, not 
having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were 
persuaded of them, and embraced them ; ' John viii. 56, ' Abraham 
rejoiced to see my day ; and he saw it, and was glad ; ' Rom. iv. 18, 
' Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father 
of many nations/ 

(3.) Compare it with the light of prophecy ; that is a seeing : Eev. 
xx. 12, ' I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God/ &c. They 
agree in the common object, such things as are revealed by God. They 
agree in the same common nature, that it is a sight of things absent, 
or future and to come, with such certainty and clearness as if they were 
in being. They differ, because faith goeth upon the common revela 
tion which God hath made of his mind to all the saints in scripture ; 
the other upon some special vision and revelation made to certain chosen 
persons. The light of faith affects the heart with great joy and com 
fort ; the other is usually with rapture and ecstasy. 

(4.) Let us compare it with the light of glory, the beatifical vision, 
that worketh a change in body and soul : 1 John iii. 2, ' We know 
that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him/ This in the soul : 
2 Cor. iii. 18, 'We all, beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, 
are changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as by the 
Spirit of the Lord ; ' 1 Cor. xiii. 12, there see him face to face, as in a 
glass. Though not as highly affected with the light of faith, yet as 
truly and really. That nullifieth sin and misery ; this mortifieth sin, 
and fortifieth us against misery. We have not such a full enjoyment 
of God as by the light of glory, yet by the light of faith we have some 
communion with him ; it somewhat affecteth the heart, as if we saw 


God on the throne, Christ in the midst of his holy ones, Paul with his 
crown of righteousness. It sets us above the clouds in affection ; and 
as to foresight and foretaste, puts us in the midst of the glory of the 
world to come. Once more,this light of faith is like that sight which 
God hath of things, for it is the resemblance of it. There is a double 
knowledge in God, scientia visionis, et scientia intelligentice. God 
seeth all things that shall be in his own purpose and decree ; knoweth 
all things that may be by his own all- sufficiency. Faith acts propor- 
tionably ; it seeth all things that shall be in God's covenant and pro 
mises : 2 Cor. v. 1, * We know, that if our earthly house of this taber 
nacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made 
with hands, eternal in the heavens.' It conceiveth what may be by 
the power of God : Dan. iii. 17, 18, ' Our God is able to deliver us ; ' 
though not sure of the event. It realiseth the blessing promised; 
when they have the promise, they have the pledge of the blessing. 

[2.] The Spirit helpeth our sight. Naturally we are short-sighted, 
and there is a thick mist on eternity ; these things are glorious in them 
selves, above our experience, remote from us, and we take up with 
4oys and children's trifles. Our own natural wisdom bendeth us to 
present things : James iii. 15, ' This wisdom descendeth not from above, 
but is earthly &c., Prov. xxiv. 4. Eeason is debased by sense, and 
wholly catereth for the body. Therefore true wisdom is from eyes 
anointed with spiritual eye-salve, as the apostle prayeth, Eph. i. 17, 18, 
' That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give 
unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him : 
the eyes of your understanding being enlightened/ &c. 

[3.J The nearer approach to death, the clearer sight of heaven and 
Christ at the right hand of God, as ready to receive them. The most 
lively acts of faith are then usually put forth, the spirit being about 
to return to God. David's last words are noted, Num. xxiii. 1 ; so 
Joshua xxiii. 14. Usually there is then a clearer discerning of heaven, 
more elevated thoughts about it ; it seemeth another thing than 
formerly. They that are nearer heaven, in the borders of it, do more 
vehemently long for and desire the actual possession of the glorious 

Use. Let us oftener look within the veil. If you would have God look 
down upon you, you must look up to him. Faith is acted by serious 
thoughts. Carnal men mind earthly things ; why not we heavenly ? 

1. Believe that there are invisible good things to be enjoyed in another 
world. Here is our first work, when we hear of these great promises : 
* Believest thou this ? ' John xi. 26. The things are glorious and cer 
tain, but our persuasions of the reality of them are too weak and feeble. 
That there is a world to come, and a state of invisible happiness and glory, 
nature guesseth at ; for such a conceit hath been noted in the minds of 
men of all religions, not only Greeks and Romans, but barbarians, and 
people least civilised. This tradition hath passed from hand to hand 
throughout all successions of ages ; and the nearer we trace it to the 
first originals of mankind, the more strong and pressing hath been the 
persuasion hereof. But still it hath borne up itself against all encounters 
of time, and in the midst of so many revolutions of human affairs, 
through which many truths are lost ; yet this hath maintained itself. 


and been readily received by all nations. But if it be dark to nature, 
the light of Christianity doth more clearly discover it. Life and immor 
tality are brought to light in the gospel, 2 Tim. i. 10. Christ, thai- 
purchased heaven for us, is gone into it himself, to give us a demon 
stration of the reality of it, 1 Peter i. 21. Having first left a promise 
of eternal life to all that believe in him, 1 John ii. 25, which promise 
was outwardly confirmed by divers miracles. Inwardly in the hearts 
of his people, by forming them for this estate, and giving them a taste , 
of it in their own souls, 2 Cor. v. 6. Now, is the scripture false, the 
gospel a fable, the oracles of the prophets, the doctrine of Christ, his 
miracles, resurrection, and ascension, but a dream ? Were they all 
deceived that followed Christ upon these hopes, and took such pains in 
subduing the flesh, and hazarding their interests upon the hopes of 
another world ? Are the wisest sort of men the world ever saw fools ? 
Is sanctifying grace a fancy ? or the joys of the Spirit delusions or 
fantastical impressions ? The foretastes of the children of God a mere 
imposture ? And is it any way likely that all this solemnity should be 
used to establish a vain conceit ? Well, then, be persuaded of it, as if 
you saw it with your eyes. 

2. Let us often raise our thoughts to the meditation of this heavenly 
bliss and glory. As a man is, so are his musings. Thoughts, being 
the genuine birth and immediate production of the soul, do discover 
the temper of it : Kom. viii. 5, ' They that are after the flesh do mind 
the things of the flesh,' &c. Those that are of an heavenly temper and 
frame do often exercise their minds in heavenly things ; their happiness 
lieth there, and their business tendeth thither. Our Lord telleth us, 
that where the treasure is, there the heart will be, Mat. vi. 21. If the 
mind were more taken up with these great things, they would breed in 
us a more excellent and choice spirit. But alas ! in most men, thoughts 
of heavenly blessedness are few and cold, when in the meantime their 
minds are thronged with all manner of vanity ; and therefore do they 
feel so little of the joys of the Spirit and the efficacy of grace, and do no 
more get up above the hopes and fears of the world. Certainly they 
do not hope for heaven that seldom cast a look that way. Where any 
thing is strongly expected, the mind is wont to create to itself images 
and thoughts, whereby we preoccupy and foretaste the delight of what 
we expect ; for thoughts are the spies of hope sent toward the thing 
hoped for. If a man were adopted unto the succession of a crown, 
would he not please himself with the supposition of the honour and 
pleasure of the royal estate that he shall one day enjoy ? They that 
do not earnestly and warmly think of heaven and heavenly things have 
little expectation this way. 

3. An earnest and desirous expectation. ' Looking for the blessed 
hope/ Titus ii. 13. Set your affections on it : Col. iii. 2, ' Set your 
affections on things above.' Groaning after it : 2 Cor. v. 2, ' In this 
we groan earnestly, desiring to be clothed upon with our house which 
is from heaven ; ' Phil. i. 23, ' I am in a strait between two, having a 
desire to depart, and to be with Christ ; which is far better.' Without 
this, faith is a dead opinion or speculative assent ; hope but some 
cold ineffectual thought. Well, then, long to be at home. Heaven is 
opened for us ; Christ hath carried our nature, our flesh thither, and 


advanced it on the Father's right hand ; let us long in person to get 

4. So look to these things, that you may get your hearts above all 
earthly things : 2 Cor. iv. 18, ' While we look not at the things which 
are seen, but at the things which are not seen : for the things which are 
seen are temporal ; but the things which are not seen are eternal/ 
The act is not simply denied as to things seen, but comparatively, that 
the world's honour or dishonour may have less influence upon us. In 
all our actions: 1 Cor. vii. 29, 31, * The time is short : it remaineth, 
that both they that have wives be as though they had none ; and they 
that weep, as though they wept not ; and they that rejoice, as though 
they rejoiced not ; and they that buy, as though they possessed not ; 
and they that use this world, as not abusing it : for the fashion of 
this world passeth away.' We mourn for sin as if we mourned not. 
We should grow more dead to all impressions of sense. Though carnal 
satisfactions be near at hand, yet they are but short and inconsiderable : 
' Demas loved the present world/ 2 Tim. iv. 10. 


Neither will I offer burnt-offerings unto the Lord my God of that 
which costs me nothing. 2 SAM. xxiv. 24. 

IN the context you will find a laudable contention between a good 
king and a good subject. Since it was to David, and since it was for 
the Lord, Araunah would not sell, but give. On the other side, David, 
since it was for the Lord, he would not take, but buy. 
A double reason may be given of David's refusal. 

1. According to the law no man might offer to God anything but 
what was his own. 

2. Because he would not serve God cost free. 

You have both in the parallel place, 1 Chron. xxi. 24, ' I will not 
take that which is thine for the Lord, nor offer burnt-offerings without 
cost.' In the text it is notable that he calleth God, c the Lord,' to note 
his majesty ; and ' my God,' to note his own love, choice, and interest. 
Such a God he could not find in his heart to serve in a cheap and 
unworthy fashion. ' Neither will I offer,' &c. 

Doct. A gracious heart will not serve God with that which costs 
him nothing ; or counts that religion worth nothing which costs 

Reasons. 1. This is the fruit of their faith. Carnal nature be- 
grudgeth everything ; and in the eye of sense all is lost that is laid 
out upon God. They say, with Judas, ' What needs this waste ? ' The 
same judgment that Seneca gave upon the Jewish sabbath, the same 
thoughts have carnal men of all the service of God : he said the Jews 
were a foolish people, quia septimam cetatis partem perdunt vacando, 
because they lost a full seventh part of their lives in idleness and rest. 
Now those that are thus minded, that think all is lost that is laid out 
in his service, will never do anything for God that is great and worthy ; 
the refuse of what they have is thought good enough for him. That 
this opinion, that all that is done in religion for God's sake is as good 
as lost, hath an influence upon men's careless and perfunctory dealing 
in religion, appeareth by the first chapter of Malachi. The main 
intent of that chapter is to expostulate with them about their con 
tempt of God, and the sorry service which they brought to him. 
Among other arguments, this is pleaded, that the meanest employment 
about him was not without its reward : Mai. i. 10, ' Who is there 
among you that would shut the doors for nought? neither do ye 



kindle a fire on my altar for nought,' &c. That is, the porters of the 
temple did not open and shut the doors for nought ; nor the priest 
attend upon the burnt-offering for nought ; they were all well rewarded 
with tithes and oblations ; they were all well provided for, by God's 
own appointment and allowance. This is God's argument, which 
plainly showeth they were under the influence and dominion of this 
blasphemous thought : that they should be losers by God, and there 
fore did not care how they served him. But now a man that hath 
faith, that is persuaded of God's being and bounty, Heb. xi. 6, he 
thinketh he can never do enough for God ; for he knoweth it will turn 
to a good account. Here, during the time of his patience, the super 
ficial service he gets from us hath its reward : God giveth many 
temporal blessings to those that worship him in the slightest fashion. 
He suspended his judgments, you know, upon Ahab's counterfeit 
humiliation, 1 Kings xxi. 29. His providence plainly declarelh that 
none shall be a loser by him, nor do anything for nought ; and there 
fore, shall we not do it well ? If anything be done sincerely, though 
never so mean and inconsiderable, it hath its reward: Mat. x. 42, 
' He that giveth a cup of cold water in the name of a disciple, shall in 
no wise lose his reward.' The smallness and meanness of the benefit, 
help, or refreshing, done to any in Christ's name, shall not lose his 
estimation and recompense, if it be done under that notion. This, 
though hardly credited by the unbelieving world, is very true : ' Verily 
I say unto you,' and ' shall in no wise,' they are emphatical particles. 
But now the more eminent services, which are carried on with hazard 
and difficulty, and some considerable self-denial, surely they shall not 
fail of their recompense : whatever we lose for Christ, we shall receive 
again with infinite advantage : Mark x. 29, 30, ' Verily I say unto you, 
There is no man that hath left house, and brethren, or sister, or father, 
or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake and the gospel's, 
but he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and 
brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with per 
secutions, and in the world to come eternal life.' He shall not only 
have heaven at last ; but here in this life, in the midst of persecution 
an hundredfold. Even in this time, the time of trials and troubles ; 
yea, by his troubles : in kind or value. Not an hundred wives, or 
mothers, or children, as Julian scoffed. Now who would not serve 
such a master, and serve him. with his best, improve every received 
ability, stand upon no cost and charges, so we may be faithful to him ? 
It would be no difficult thing to persuade men to it, if they were firmly 
persuaded of these things ; as it would be no hard thing to persuade 
others to put out their money where they may have, not only ten in 
the hundred, but an hundred for ten ; or to sow their seed there 
where the soil will certainly produce an hundredfold. But we want 
faith, and therefore draw back and struggle with our shoulders when 
we are to do anything for God that will occasion trouble or cost. 
That faith hath a great influence upon the costly and self-denying 
services of the saints, is evident by the instance of Abel : Heb. xi. 4, 
' By faith Abel offered a better sacrifice than Cain/ TrAetWa 6valav, 
the first, the fat, the best, the tenth. Cain, that doubted of the world 
to come, bringeth it hand over head. So also the instance of Abraham : 


Heb. xi. 17, c By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac ; 
and he that received the promises offered up his only-begotten son/ 
Here is a son, an only son, a son on whom the promises were fixed, 
and this son to fall under the weight of his own father's hands : an 
act that occasioned not only a conflict between his obedience and his 
natural affection, but a kind of riddle between his obedience and his 
faith. How should he offer Isaac, and yet believe that in Isaac's seed 
all the nations should be blessed ? But faith is a strange grace ; it 
trusts God wonderfully, and can reconcile all contradictions ; it can see 
Isaac offered, and yet kept still, and a father of many children ; gain 
in loss, and life in death ; something in nothing. Well, then, a sound 
believer will not grudge at trials ; when he is put upon the most diffi 
cult cases, he saith, * Shall I serve God with what costeth me nought?' 
No, God shall have the best : if he will have Isaac, let Isaac go. 

2. Their love to God inclineth them to this disposition of heart. 
Love is liberal and open-hearted ; it standeth upon no labour, cost, or 
difficulty. Fear serveth God with a kind of reserve ; it is a force put 
upon us, and therefore doth no more than needs must. But love is 
sensible that our obligation is far beyond our ability to recompense, 
and hath such a delight in God's service, it can never do enough for 
him ; it counts nothing too good or too much, but all is short and too 
little. Love would still do more. There is a compulsion in fear, and 
there is a compulsion in love ; for love constraineth, 2 Cor. v. 14. 
But how do these differ ? The compulsion that is in fear is slavish, 
and mighty unwelcome to the soul, easily works off. That is bad 
ground that bringeth forth nothing except it be forced ; and usually 
such ground, at the best, brings forth but sparingly. But love is a 
willing compulsion. Amor non cogitur, sed cogit love is not forced, 
but forceth. Natural conscience worketh by fear, faith by love, 
Gal. v. 6. Love consecrateth and devoteth all that a man hath to the 
will and pleasure of him whom he loveth. Quis legem det amanti ? 
Amor major lex sibi ipsi est. There needs no urging of laws. Love 
is a greater law to itself. No presenting of terrors where there is a 
strong self-inclination and propendency. It hath in its bosom as deep 
an engagement and obligation to please God as you can lay upon it. 
So that let a man's love be gained to Christ, and then he will stick at 
nothing. What love will do we may see in other cases ; as in Jacob's 
love to Kachel: Gen. xxix. 20, 'And Jacob served seven years for 
.Rachel, and they seemed to him but a few days, for the love he had to 
her.' So in Shechem's love to Dinah : Gen. xxxiv. 19, * The young 
man deferred not to do the thing, for the delight which he had in 
Jacob's daughter.' Circumcision was an hated thing to them, as well 
as painful in itself. Well, now, so it is in religion. Where love is 
wanting, all that is clone seemeth too much ; but where love prevaileth, 
let it be never so difficult, it seems light and easy : Acts xx. 24, ' None 
of these things move me.' Where there is love there will be self- 
denial^ it submitteth to duties against the bent and hair. Where 
there is love there will be labour ; it is not a slothful and idle affec 
tion: 2 Thes. i. 3, 'Your work of faith, and labour of love.' Well, 
then, if you had a greater love to God, he would have the best of your 
hearts, the best of your labours, the best of your estates, and the best 


of your time and strength, and you would count nothing too dear to 
give to him or for him ; for the voice of love is, ' Shall I serve God 
with what costs me nought ? ' It is very notable that a little is 
accepted if it hath the stamp of love upon it. The lover's mite cast 
into the treasury is more worth than ten times so much outward 
obedience from another man. But then this is the genius of love, to 
do its best. He that loveth much cannot satisfy himself with a little, 
but still seeketh how it may more glorify and please God, and that 
at an higher rate : Ps. Ixxi. 14, ' I will glorify him yet more and 

3. They have a deep sense of God's majesty and excellency, and 
therefore dare not put him off with anything that is vile, cheap, and 
unworthy. No ; he shall have the best, the choice, the flower of their 
time, strength, love, affection. If we had an higher sense of God's 
majesty and greatness, we would be more careful of his worship ; for 
he is not a God to be slighted or dallied with, or put off with a little 
religiousness by the by. As his spiritual nature calleth for spiritual 
service, so his glorious majesty calleth for eminent service, and bindeth 
this thought upon us, that he should not be served without cost. It 
is a sign we have lessening thoughts of him, if we think that any slight 
sorry performance, that costs us little time, little care, little preparation, 
done with little life and affection, will serve the turn. God pleadeth 
his majesty against this abuse: Mai. i. 14, 'Cursed be the deceiver, 
which hath in his flock a male, and voweth, and sacrificeth to the Lord 
a corrupt thing : for I am a great king, saith the Lord of hosts.' A 
king of so great majesty calleth for other manner of service than usually 
we bestow upon him. Common stuff will serve for an ordinary house. 
In a palace for a king, most costly furniture is requisite and becoming. 
Superficial dealing in his work is an affront of his greatness, and show- 
eth that we have mean thoughts of him, and a want of reverence ; 
when we put him off with the refuse, or bring common dispositions 
into his presence, and serve him carelessly and sorrily, thinking if the 
work be done it is no matter how, so we may once get it over. But 
he that knows God, what an high glorious God he is, dareth not be so 
sinfully bold and familiar with him : ' I will not serve God with what 
costs me nought.' 

4. A cheap course of religion, such as costs little or nothing, will 
never be accepted with God; for it is contrary to his prescription. 
Our first lesson in Christ's school is self-denial, to prepare us for our 
after-service and obedience to him : Mat. xvi. 24, ' If any man will 
come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow 
me.' We promise ourselves too much when we promise ourselves 
nothing but pleasure and contentment, as if we could go to heaven 
without blows and conflicts. This self-denial is not to be exercised 
only in little things, or in few things. No ; we must sell all for the 
pearl of great price, Mat. xiii. 46. And selling all for the pearl of 
great price is required in times of peace as well as in times of persecu 
tion. None must enter upon the profession of Christianity, but they 
must sit down and count the charges, Luke xiv. 28. And shall we 
think, after all this, that we shall go to heaven without cost ? Surely 
this is new Christianity, which Christ never taught, and the scriptures 


own not ; a Christianity of our own making, and therefore will not be 
accepted of God. 

5. A cheap course of religion will yield us no comfort, nor sensible 
evidence of our sincerity. There are two reasons couched in one, but 
yet such as have a near affinity the one with the other. 

[1.] There will be a sensible evidence of our sincerity. You will 
easily grant that it is necessary to a sound and sincere heart that we 
prefer Christ in our choice and esteem before the world and the flesh, 
and that we believe a world to come, and take heavenly things for our 
portion, treasure, and happiness. Now, how shall we know that we 
believe a world to come, if we venture nothing upon it, do nothing but 
what other men do, or but what we would do if there were no such 
hope offered to us ? How shall we know that we prefer Christ before 
the world, if we can deny no worldly thing for Christ's sake ; so that 
a man is still doubtful, and cannot tell what to say and judge of his 
spiritual estate and condition before God ? Heretofore, when God used 
extraordinary dispensations, he put his people upon special trials, that 
their sincerity might be more sensibly evidenced to them : Heb. xi. 17, 
* By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac/ &c., ireipa- 
foyicez/o?. God saw fit to put such an eminent believer as Abraham 
was upon such an extraordinary and eminent trial. So the young 
man, when he came full of self-confidence to Christ, he puts him upon 
a special trial : Mark x. 21, 'Go thy way, and sell what thou hast, and 
give to the poor.' Doth the Lord wholly discontinue, think you, this 
kind of dispensations ? No : Heb. x. 33, ' Partly whilst ye were made 
a gazing-stock, both by reproaches and afflictions ; and partly, whilst 
ye became companions of them that were so used.' Are not believers 
now put upon divers trials? James i. 2. Should they not 'count it 
all joy while they fall into divers temptations,' as having an happy 
occasion to discover their sincerity towards God ? You are ignorant 
of the scriptures, and what belongeth to the usual discipline of your 
heavenly Father, if you conceit otherwise. Now, why doth God try 
us, or put his people upon sundry trials ? Doth not he know our 
thoughts afar off. And is he not acquainted with us, and the sincerity 
of our affections towards him, before we are put upon such a sensible 
proof ? Yes, verily ; he trieth, non ut ipse hominem inveniat, sed ut 
homo se inveniat Augustine. Not that he may know more of man 
than he knew before, but that man may know more of himself than he 
knew before. He knoweth us already ; but he trieth us, that we may 
know ourselves. Indeed it is said, Gen. xxii. 12, ' Now I know that 
thou fearest God, since thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, 
from me.' All interpreters grant that it is liumanitus dictum, and they 
expound it thus : Now there is a document ; now there is an apparent 
and sensible proof ; now I know, what not till now, Lord. Was 
Abraham's mind unknown to thee before ? Could not God tell long 
ago whether Abraham feared him, yea or no ? Yes ; he that knew 
all things knew that he feared him : yet know it he would not, that 
is, not approve it, till he had thus experienced it. And that was for 
Abraham's comfort and satisfaction. All this is for our learning, 
brethren. We know not that we love God more than other things 
till we are tried ; and tried we are not to the purpose till we are tried 


in our Isaac ; in things nearest and dearest to us, and can be at some 
cost for God. It is a nice case ; before a thing is liable to great un 
certainty of debate ; therefore that is an happy occasion to a gracious 
heart, to be put upon some exercise of self-denial : ' I will not serve 
God with what costs me nought.' 

[2.] God doth not so openly own men, nor pour out such a large 
measure of the comforts of his Spirit upon his people, when they serve 
him without cost, as he doth when they are called to deny themselves, 
and all that is dear and precious to them in the world, for his sake. In 
the Revelation there are many promises diversified under the notion 
of ' eating of the tree of life,' Eev. ii. 7. 'Having the white stone, with 
the name/ Eev. ii. 17 ; 'Of being fed with hidden manna ; ' but still 
' to him that overcometh,' chapters ii. iii. They are more feasted with 
comforts, and have a more liberal allowance of spiritual joys and delights 
than others have ; those that have passed the pikes, and have counted 
nothing dear to them, so they might keep their innocency, and approve 
their faithfulness to God. Sufferers have more of the comfortable and 
supporting operations of the Spirit than others have ; and in sharp trials, 
when put to live by faith, and having nothing to encourage them but 
their bare love to God, they enjoy usually more of the sensible comforts 
of his Spirit than others do. Whereas those who are not exposed to 
such difficulties, though they be sincere for the main, yet are kept more 
in the doubtful, humbling way, have less of the joys of the Spirit, and 
are more put to it to interpret their qualification, and make out any 
hope by Christ. 

Cautions for the understanding of this truth. 

1. When we speak of costs in religion, be sure you do not allow so 
much as a private whisper in your souls of merit ; for the costliest ser 
vices deserve nothing at God's hands. If we do never so much, suffer 
never so much for him, ' we are but unprofitable servants,' Luke xvii. 
10. Yet all our comfort and happiness is a free gift, or mere grace to 
us. When David had offered many cart-loads of gold and silver, he 
admireth grace, and acknowledged that he had but paid God out of 
his own exchequer : 1 Chron. xxix. 14, ' Who am I, and what is my 
people, that we should be able to offer so willingly after this sort ? for 
all things come of thee, and of thine own have we given thee.' He 
putteth away the glory of what was done from himself and people, that 
both will and ability might entirely be ascribed to God. So Eev. iii. 
10, ' Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep 
thee from the hour of temptation.' If we do never so much, and suffer 
never so much, the crown of life is a gift. 

2. See that you do not draw needless trials and inconveniences upon 
yourselves ; for that is not zeal, but rashness and folly. Suffering for 
well-doing is a duty that doth not bind, as negative precepts do, at all 
times and in all cases ; nor are the children of God tied to it, as they 
are to some other positive duties. We are to ' watch unto prayer,' 1 
Peter iv. 7 ; redeem all opportunities for it. But this is only binding 
when the will of the Lord is so, 1 Peter ii. 17 ; and that is when by his 
providence he puts us under the power of persecutors, and they put us 
to a necessity either of suffering or sinning. Then, when the flesh is 
ready to say, Favour thyself, you must say, ' I will not serve the Lord 


with what costs me nothing/ With courage and cheerfulness we must 
choose suffering rather than sinning. The apostle saith, James i. 2, 
1 Count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations.' He saith, 
when we fall into them ; not, when we draw them upon ourselves. It 
was Tertullian's error to say, Afflictions are to be sought and desired. 
No ; they are only to be submitted unto when sent by God. We are 
not to desire troubles, but bear them and improve them when he layeth 
them upon us. Christ hath taught us to pray, ' Lead us not into 
temptation ; ' and it is but a fond presumption to cast ourselves upon 
it. Philastrius and Theodoret speak of some that would compel men 
to kill them, out of an affectation of martyrdom. This was a mad 
ambition, not a true zeal. And no less fond are they that seek out 
crosses and troubles, rather than wait for them, and by their own vio 
lence bring a just hatred upon themselves, and run headlong into 
dangers without necessity. If a man set fire on his own house, he is 
liable to the law ; if it be fired by accident, he is pitied and relieved. 
We are not to seek the cross, or make it, but bear it, and take it up ; 
not to fill the cup ourselves, but drink it off when our Father puts it 
into our hands. 

3. Take heed that you only displease the flesh in a lawful way. Do 
not step out of the road of your duty for this, and think that the Lord 
is pleased with barbarous austerities; as Baal's priests gashed themselves, 
1 Kings xviii. 29. And the pharisees and papists have their self- 
disciplinings. And Origen, who was too allegorical in plain texts, was 
too literal when he castrated himself, because Christ speaketh of mak 
ing ourselves ' eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven,' Mat. xix. 12, 
intending only thereby the gift of continency, or a power over our 
natural affections. Exterior mortifications and dolorous impressions 
on the body are a piece of apocryphal bastard religion, highly prized by 
the world, who are given to please the flesh. If they must displease 
it, they affect to do it in an outward way. But as much as these things 
are esteemed by men, they are abhorred by God. Christ is a lover of 
human nature, and he hath put no such severe penance upon us. It is 
more acceptable to him to mortify a lust than to mangle a member of 
the body. 

4 See that you place not too much of religion in outward things, in 
external pomp and gaudiness, and then put this zealous gloss upon it, 
' I will not serve God with what costs me nothing.' It is easy to exceed 
in externals, and such things as make a fair show in the world ; but the 
majesty and spirit of religion is lost in the pomp of self-pleasing 
appearances. Aquinas disputeth the question whether a nimium, any 
thing superfluous in religion. He grants it in externals. A man can 
not love God too much, or trust in him too much ; but he may exceed 
in outward observances, connaiurale est nobis per sensibilia duci. And 
though not too much in absolute quantity, yet too much in proportion, 
non proportionatur ad debitum finem istius luctus. ' The king's 
daughter is all glorious within,' Ps. xlv. 15, in faith, love, patience, 
sobriety. By gifts and graces is the true church known, rather than 
by a splendid appearance ; and holiness becometh his house rather than 
gold and costly furniture, Ps. xliii. 5. 

5. When some outward advantages do accompany religion, they 


must not be foolishly thrown away upon the pretence of self-denial, 
but acknowledged as favours from God, as reputation, countenance, 
maintenance, favour of men, &c. Yet the heart must be watched 
narrowly when duty and interest meet together. They must not be 
foolishly thrown away upon the pretence of a more self-denying serving 
of God : this was the pretence of the false teachers, to gain credit and 
entrance, 2 Cor. xi. from the 7th to the 12th. And if it be real, it is 
foolish ; for it is God's allowance both in his word and providence. 
Not but that a man may cedere jure suo, for the glory of God, the 
credit of the gospel, and give no offence : 1 Cor. ix. 18, ' What is my 
reward then ? ^ Verily, that, when I preach the gospel, I may make the 
gospel of Christ without charge, that I abuse not my power in the 
gospel/ Paul did what he could that the Corinthians might have 
a&aTravov evayyeX.iov ; they would be prejudiced else; and Paul 
was fain to deny his own right to gratify them. But the heart must 
be watched when duty and interest meet together, that we do not make 
a market of religion, and a design of our profession, or a trade to live 
by ; as we do when we look more to the secular encouragement than 
our duty. Their religion beareth their charges ; they do not bear the 
charges of it. And these do rather say, I will not serve God for 
nothing, than, c I will not serve God with what costs me nothing.' 

6. Be not unreasonable in taxing yourselves with such a course of 
duty as is beyond ability and opportunity ; for this is to make a snare 
for your own souls, and to entangle yourselves in some by-laws of your 
own making. And God accepts man according to what he hath, not 
according to what he hath not. A gracious heart may err on this hand, 
and think it never doeth enough. Conscience may be urging more ; 
but even that little which we do is accepted. God is well pleased with 
it, because love is ill pleased with it, because it is no more nor better. 
Little is accepted for much when love offereth it. He taketh as much 
delight in the children's willingness as the more aged's strength. The 
main thing God looketh after is the willing mind : 2 Cor. viii. 12, ' If 
there be first a willing mind, it is accepted according to what a man 
hath, and not according to that he hath not ; ' and 1 Chron. xxix. 9, 'The 
people rejoiced, for that they offered willingly, because with perfect 
heart they offered willingly to the Lord.' Therefore, though we are ta 
keep the heart liberal and open to God, and, when we have done our 
best, still to be willing to do more : Ps. Ixxi. 14, ' I will praise him yet 
more and more ; ' yet this duty must be acted and exercised as strength 
and health will permit. In short, in performance of duties, the two 
measures are the strength and weakness of body and soul ; as much as 
the health of the soul is more than the strength of body, our chief 
care must be for the soul, that the health of the soul be not lost, but 
still kept in good plight. That measure will show when we do too little ; 
the other measure when the outward exercise is too much, when the 
health of the body is impaired or overwrought by it. 

Use 1. It informeth us of the reasonableness and necessity of self- 

1. The reasonableness of it ; for a man's heart, that is touched with 
any sense of religion, cannot be satisfied with a cheap course of duty. 
Natural light will tell us that no slight thing will become the God 


whom we serve, and the glory and blessedness which we expect. Our 
religion were not a religion if it did not bind us to our duty, and not 
retrench the comforts and interests of the animal life, to preserve the 
spiritual in life and vigour ; neither were Christianity such a noble, 
glorious, and high institution if it did not draw us off from things 
earthly to things heavenly, and make them willing to quit the one for 
the other. 

2. The necessity of it. They mistake religion that carry it on in such 
a way that it puts them to no cost. Wherever it is in vigour and 
power, it will put us to some expense. If it be otherwise, either men 
neglect many necessary duties, as self-examination, meditation, secret 
and earnest prayer, constant waiting upon God, mortifying their lusts 
and passions, which are all contrary to the ease of the flesh, or honour 
ing God with their substance, Prov. iii. 4, seasonable reproof, owning 
his truth and stricter ways, notwithstanding troubles, persecutions, and 
disgraces, which are contrary to the interests and profits of the flesh ; 
or else, secondly, they do what they do in a slight and overly fashion ; 
and painted fire needeth no fuel. There is no trouble in a careless 
profession ; there needs not much ado to keep it up. Where men leave 
the soul to the stream, and do, as Solomon saith of himself, Eccles. ii. 10, 
* Whatsoever mine eyes desired, I kept not from them ; I withheld not 
myself from any joy ; ' they leave their senses without guard, their affec 
tions without a bridle, and are carried on as they are impelled by their 
own lusts ; and then varnish over all with a little profession, and talk 
of God, and Christ, or hearing. They may give religion a slight glance, 
and suffer it to have a turn among other things. Indeed such a reli 
gion puts them to no self-denial. But this is a false Christianity of our 
own making. Here is no striving to enter in at the strait gate, no 
walking in the narrow way, no working out our salvation with fear and 
trembling. All this may be, and no denying ourselves and hazarding 
the displeasure of the world. 

2. It informeth us that we have no reason to be displeased or over- 
troubled with oppositions, reproaches, and troubles for godliness' sake. 
God often in his providence sendeth troubles to heighten the price of 
profession, that it may not be taken up in a carnal design, and that 
every hypocrite may not take it up to hide or feed his lusts. Now 
when it is our lot to live in such times, they that are sincere should 
not be troubled at it ; for then they have an happy advantage and op 
portunity to make their love to God more sensible and evident, when 
they do not serve him without cost. It is a finer and nicer debate at 
other times, to discern which is greatest in our hearts, our love to Christ 
or to the world, our esteem of things earthly or heavenly. A tried faith 
is sooner discerned, and God's suffering servants have a larger allowance 
of comfort. It is an happy occasion of discovering our sincerity ; for 
you are now upon your trial, and more ample communion with God, 
and tasting the joys of the life to come. Surely these are truths which 
our Lord hath commended to our consideration : Mat. v. 11, 12, 
' Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs 
is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye when men shall revile you, 
and say all manner of evil for my name's sake ; rejoice, and be exceed 
ing glad, for great is your reward in heaven/ When we suffer for a 


good conscience, we are to carry this cross, not only patiently, but joy 

* Use 2. It reproveth those that put off God with anything. A sickly 
lamb for a sacrifice ; yea, and grudge at their sorry services : Mai. i. 

13, ' What a weariness is it ! ' Surely they are far from religion that 
can deny themselves nothing, that will perform a duty when they have 
nothing else to do, and deal reservedly, superficially, and unfaithfully 
in all their work, and still complain of tediousness and weariness in 
God's service ; that think the time long, the pains too much, the cost 
too burthensome ; can be content with a little labour perhaps, but it 
must not be tired too much : ' When will the sabbath be over ? ' 
Amos iii. When will the duty be done ? Or it may be they will sacri 
fice some of their weaker lusts, or their smaller and petty sins, which 
yield them no pleasure or profit, but retain their great sins, wherein 
their souls delight ; as Saul destroyed the rascal multitude and carrion 
cattle of Amalek, but spared Agag and the fattest of the oxen and sheep, 
1 Sam. xv. 7-9 ; or as John destroyed the idolatry of Baal, which his 
interest led him to, but not the calves at Dan and Bethel, which reason 
of state was against, 1 Kings x. 29, 30 ; or as Herod did many things, 
but if John will touch his Herodias, he shall smart for it, Mark vi. 17, 
20. Thus do they desire and hope to gain heaven at a more easy rate 
than an entire resignation of all to God. They may sustain some re 
proach, make some small losses, but to be undone by their religion, 
to venture reputation, estate, and life, and all, for Christ and his gospel, 
this they cannot endure to hear of. They can be contented to be 
distasted and despised by their open enemies, but so as to make them 
selves whole again by their own party, yield to many corruptions, 
and humour them, please them, as the young prophet, 1 Kings xiii. 

14, 19. Oh, this is but carnal self-denial, yea, rather carnal self- 

Use 3. Of caution. Let us not rest satisfied with the cheaper part 
of religion. No ; you must be at some cost for God. They are self- 
seeking hypocrites that cull out the safe, the cheap, the easy part of 
their duty, and leave all the rest undone. A faithful discharge of your 
duty may bring trouble to the flesh, but it will bring comfort to the 

What is the cheaper part of religion I shall instance in a few 

1. Outward profession ; especially when our interests or education 
lead us thereunto. Alas ! this is to serve God with what costs us no 
thing. Though it be the profession of God's stricter ways, when we 
have not that constitution of heart, and do not carry on that course 
of life which doth become such profession ; for then you are but faction- 
ists ; not of Christ's religion, but of his faction. God is no 'jrpoowiro- 
XeTro? , 1 Peter i. 17, ' No respecter of persons.' Herding with a strict 
party, while yet our hearts are not subdued to God, is nothing worth. 
Keligion is not to be carried on in the world so : Gal. v. 6, ' In Jesus 
Christ neither circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision, but 
faith which worketh by love ; ' Gal. vi. 15, * In Christ Jesus neither 
circumcision availeth anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature ; ' 
1 Cor. vii. 19, ' Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, 


but the keeping of the commandments of God.' It is no great matter to 
be of this side or that, while carnal, if there be not an heavenly, holy, 
mortified heart, and a sober, grave conversation. 

2. A dull speculative approbation of what is good will serve no man : 
Kom. ii. 18, ' And knowest his will, and approvest the things that are 
more excellent, being instructed out of the law,' &c. The truths of God 
have great evidence, and reasonable men have some aptitude to discern 
it. Opinions are cheap things, and may be taken up and held without 
any great cost. Do they sway your love and practice ? There is the 
chief trial 

3. Minding lesser while we neglect weighty things : Mat. xxiii. 23, 
' Woe unto you, scribes and pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye pay tithe of 
mint, and anise, and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters 
of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith/ Ceremony rather than sub 
stance. No ; there must be a uniform conscience ; not make a busi 
ness about small matters and neglect weighty duties. 

4. Doing that which is good when no temptation to the contrary ; 
Exod. xxxiv. 21, ' Six days shalt thou labour, and the seventh day 
shalt thou rest. In harvest and earing-time shalt thou rest/ They 
should rest then when it was a self-denial to rest, when their profit 
invited them to labour. To be humble when under ; but lifted up, 
they soon discover themselves. Some will follow a good way while it 
is peaceable, writhe themselves into all shapes and postures, and dis 
tinguish themselves out of a sense of their duty, that they may avoid 
the cross, or be at any charge for God : Gal. vi. 12, ' They constrain 
you to be circumcised, lest they should suffer persecution for the cross 
of Christ.' They cannot live without honour, ease, and plenty ; and 
therefore turn and wind any way to shift off the cross. 

5. It is an easy religion to be more in public duties than in private. 
We have the greatest advantage to discover more earnestness of affec 
tion in private, secret duties, where usually we are slight, and slubber 
over things in an unhandsome fashion. Our Lord Jesus went apart 
into a solitary place, early in the morning, to pray the more earnestly, 
Mark i. 53. There we may enjoy most sensible communion with God, 
can most feelingly lay forth our own case. The spouse of the church 
is bashful, saith Bernard, and will not communicate his loves to us in 

6. The external part of religious duties is more easy than internal. 
They that have knowledge and utterance may flow in expressions. 
The ring of parts gratifieth natural pride, and procureth our esteem 
with others ; therefore the exercise of gifts will not discover a Christian 
so much as the exercise of grace, faith, hope, love, humility, sobriety, 
mercy, mortification. Therefore should a Christian measure himself 
rather by these things than the pomp of gifts : ' If I speak with the 
tongue of angels, yet without charity, I am nothing,' 1 Cor. xiii. 1. 

7. It is more easy to reprove others than to reform ourselves, and to 
be more earnest in opposing their sins than to subdue our own. Many 
please themselves in invectives against the times or censuring others. 
It is a false zeal that is much abroad : James i. 27, ' Pure religion, 
and undefiled, before God and the Father, is this, To visit the fatherless 
and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the 


world.' The crafty lapwing will go up and down fluttering and crying, 
to draw the fowler from her own nest. We have a nest of sin of our 
own; we are loath it should he rifled and exposed to public view, 
therefore we crack against others : James iii. 1, ' My brethren, be not 
many masters, knowing that ye shall receive the greater condemnation.' 

8. Power and dominion of the truth over hearts is a far greater 
evidence of our sincerity than curious speculations or highflown 
notions : 1 Cor. iv. 20, c The kingdom of God is not in word, but in 
power ;' James ii. 17, ' Faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone.' 
Be warmed, be clothed ; or, I have faith, relieving, comforting ; this is 
best. A doing and giving is more than a bare attendance upon God 
in his worship : Isa. Iviii. 5, 7, ' Is it such a fast that I have chosen ? 
a day for a man to afflict his soul ? Is it to bow down his head, as a 
bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes upon him ? Is it not to 
deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that are 
cast out to thy house ? when thou seest the naked, that thou covet 
him ; and that thou hide not thyself from thine own flesh ? ' Acts ol 
charity are much better than formalities of worship. 

Use 4. To press us to this self-denying way of serving God. I shall 
do it by these considerations 

1. How much wicked men can deny themselves for their lusts. 
There is not a verier drudge in the world than a carnal man. What 
cost is he at to satisfy his lusts ? nothing is too good for back and 
belly ; he can ransack the storehouses of nature for their supply, and 
all seemeth little enough to gratify those pleasures and delights which 
he fancieth. The world and the flesh engross his whole time and 
strength, he beginneth betimes ; the flower and freshness of his youth 
and strength is employed this way ; so that if God should break in 
upon him, and bring him to any sense of his everlasting interest, there 
is nothing but the dregs of age left for God ; the flesh and the world 
have his health and strength. If he promise anything to his Creator, 
whom he should remember in the days of his youth, Eccles. xii. 1, it 
is only his weakness and sickness. Carnal vanities have his first-fruits, 
and scarce his gleanings can be reserved for God and religion. In his 
age, how little is he reduced ! what commands doth the devil lay upon 
men ! and how laborious and grievous and difficult soever they be, 
this is no impediment. But in religion a little thing is grievous ; all 
proveth too much. It is a costly thing to feed any lust ; what large 
offers do they make ! Micah vi. 6, 7, ' Wherewith shall I come before 
the Lord, and bow myself before the high God ? shall I come before 
him with burnt-offerings, with calves of a year old ? Will the Lord 
be pleased with thousands of rams, or with ten thousands of rivers of 
oil ? shall I give my first-born for my transgression, the fruit of my 
body for the sin of my soul ? ' They had rather be at any pains than 
quit their bosom corruptions ; are more willing to promise what is 
impossible or sinfully cruel than kill one lust. How can a Christian 
but blush at this, that he began with God so late, and that the best of 
his -days were past before he thought of God ; and when he seeth the 
devil's martyrs, how they venture reputation, estate, life, soul, and all, 
for a base pleasure, and he can do so little for God ? 

2. What a change it would make in the Christian world if Christians 


of all sorts would put this question seriously to their souls, Shall I 
serve God with that which cost rne nothing ? 

[1.] In ministers. Oh, how justly may God put us out of service, 
who have so often served him with what cost us nought ! Surely, did 
we oftener think of this, we would be other manner of ministers than 
ever we have been. When we are entering into this sacred function 
and office, we would think what skill and industry is required to be 
able to guide souls unto their eternal rest ; we would be more careful 
to get ministerial graces ; that is to say, such zeal for God, such sound 
belief of the things whereof we speak, that we might not seem to speak 
of them in jest, and for fashion's sake. Such compassion over souls, 
for which Christ died, that we would warn every man, instruct every 
man, teach every man, that we may present every man perfect in Jesus 
Christ, Col. i. 27, 28. We would be more careful to get ministerial 
abilities and sufficiencies, such a stock of knowledge, speculative and 
experimental, that our lips mi^ht preserve knowledge, Mai. ii. 7 ; 
that we might be able to resolve cases, to answer doubts and scruples, 
obviate errors, convince gainsayers ; not only fodder the sheep, but hunt 
out the wolves. We would not come to this work raw and unfledged, 
as many ministers, who are for the main sincere, do ; we would not 
think that a few natural parts, or a little slight eloquence, would serve 
the turn. No ; saith the conscientious man, ' I will not serve God 
with what cost me nought.' Every time we are meditating upon a 
word of exhortation, or thinking of attending God's throne, we would 
seek to find out acceptable words, and think we hear poor souls crying 
to us, Good sir, study for us. Certainly we would not serve God with 
what costs us nought. As the psalmist saith, Ps. xlv. 1, ' My heart in- 
diteth a good matter/ baketh a good matter. It is an allusion to 
the mindah, or meat-offering. We would not come with a little dough- 
baked stuff, some raw, crude, and indigested eructations. Yea, we 
would deal reproofs more freely, as John Baptist told Herod plainly, 
Mark vi. 18, 'It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife.' 
The flesh will be apt to say, This will be ill taken, this will procure 
displeasure or danger ; but conscience will reply, Let him take it how 
he will, 'shall I serve God with what cost me nought ? ' The minister's 
conversation would be better, such as may be an example to others, 
such as may keep up the full value of his testimony in the consciences 
of men. He would aim at that singular holiness which becometh his 
station ; for, saith he, ' Shall I serve God with what costs me nought ? ' 

[2.] Let magistrates mind this, and they will be possessed with another 
spirit than most magistrates are. He will not be a careless Gallio, nor 
a partial Jehu, nor a lukewarm Laodicean. He will do justice, and be 
useful in his place ; not only when his ease permitteth him, or his credit 
inviteth him, or may do it without any prejudice to his interests, but 
when his interests are in danger. He will not leave a duty undone, 
because trouble followeth it ; when he is to contend with nobles, as 
Nehemiah ; when hazards and displeasing attend the discharge of his 
office ; for, saith he, ' Shall I serve God with what cost me nought ? 
He doth not consult with inconveniencies, but duty. 

[3.] Let common Christians think of this in their constant duties to 
wards God or men. Towards God. In general, he is resolved not to 


stand upon the ease of the flesh or the interests of the flesh. The 
pleasures and delights of the flesh will make us sluggish ; and the 
interests of the flesh cowardly and faint-hearted. And then his repen 
tance would be more full. When he cometh to enter in by the strait 
gate, there is required much sorrow and grief before he can settle his 
peace, or his soul sit easy. Now the flesh recalcitrates, and kicketh 
against this kind of discipline, as the bullock at yoking is most unruly ; 
but he holdeth his heart to it by this, ' Shall I serve God with what 
costs me nought ? ' His walking in the narrow way, his mortification 
more full. If he findeth any bosom lusts or tender parts, they must be 
renounced ; the right hand must be cut off, the right eye pulled out, 
Mat. v. 29, 30. Many do many things, but keep their Herodias. His 
profession is more constant, though he suffer loss of credit, estate, esteem. 
He is more diligent in the discharge of his duties. He dealeth 
righteously with men, though it be to his loss and hurt. He is more 
faithful in his relations, as husband, wife, master, parent, child, 
servant ; when it is grievous. Soberly, when the flesh would crave an 
indulgence. What ! shall I obey every vain fancy and appetite ? The 
main care and diligence of his life is laid out, not upon the flesh, but 
the spirit, that God be first and chiefly served, and not self. They 
leave God nothing that will not give him their best 

UPON 1 JOHN II. 20. 

But ye "have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things. 

1 JOHN ii. 20. 

IN the context you have a caution against seducers, who are represented 
under the term of antichrists, because they took upon themselves to be 
sent of God, as Christ was, and yet opposed the dignity of his person 
and the interest of his kingdom. For their number, they are said to 
be many, because they swarmed everywhere ; and for their prevalency 
they had proselyted many of the baser and looser sort of Christians ; 
but the more solid were preserved untainted. And what was their 
preservative we are told in the text, ' But ye have an unction/ &c. 
This is mentioned 

1. Partly to show the reason of their standing ; not by the sharpness 
of their own discerning, but the enlightening of the Holy Ghost. It is 
the Spirit that confirmeth us in the truth of Christ's doctrine. Hoc 
non docet eruditio, sed unctio Bernard. 

2. Partly to comfort them. So many had miscarried, and been led 
away by this stream of error, that the best Christians might be dis 
couraged. But they had a teacher near at hand, an oracle, as it were, 
in their own bosoms, sufficient means and helps within themselves to 
keep them from these snares. 

3. Partly to quicken them to the more caution. If they should be 
seduced, they had no excuse, having sufficient evidence of the truth of 
the gospel, or that Jesus is the Messiah, and so were fortified against 
those that would deceive them. In all reason it might be expected 
they should not swallow these cheats and impostures, having such 
experience and assurance of the truth. 

In the words we have three things 

1. The privilege, or gift imparted -to them, e Ye have an unction.' 

2. The fountain, or author of it, ' From the Holy One.' 

3. The effect and benefit thence resulting, ' And ye know all things.' 
Doct. The saints have a special anointing from Jesus Christ, to 

enlighten and confirm them in the truth of the gospel. 

First this must be explained 

1. What is this unction or anointing ? Probably the word alludeth 
to the holy ointment, the composition of which is described, Exod. xxx. 
25 ; the figure of pouring out the Holy Spirit on Christ, his church, 
and ministers. Or if you will more largely refer it, anointing was for 


two uses to inaugurate men into any eminent office, suppose of king, 
or priest, or prophet ; so the holy oil was poured on Aaron and his 
sons ; and thus Jesus Christ himself was anointed ; as Acts iv. 27, 
' Against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed ; ' which was 
done at the Spirit's coming down upon him. Then was his solemn 
inauguration manifested, and the authority and power of his mediatory 
office showed forth. ' God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy 
Ghost, and with power/ Acts x. 38. Now as Jesus was thus anointed, 
so were the apostles when the Spirit was poured on them, Acts ii. ; and 
so are all ordinary ministers of the gospel, when furnished with the 
gifts and graces of the Spirit suitable to their calling. So are all 
Christians : 2 Cor. i. 21, * Now he that stablisheth us with you in 
Christ, and hath anointed us, is God.' So made kings and priests unto 

2. For the entertainment of honourable guests invited to a feast : 
Mat. xx vi. 7, 'A woman having an alabaster box of very precious oint 
ment, poured it on his head as he sat at meat ; ' Ps. xxiii. 5, * Thou 
preparest a table for me in the sight of mine enemies ; thou anointest 
mine head with oil, my cup runneth over.' So Ps. civ. 15, ' Oil that 
maketh his face to shine/ and * the oil of gladness ' spoken of in 
scripture related to the oil used in feasts : Ps. xlv. 8, ' Anointed with 
the oil of gladness above his fellows.' Jesus Christ, as head, was 
advanced and dignified above angels and men : yet his fellows or com 
panions have a liberal effusion or communication of grace from the 
Spirit at the gospel-feast ; there is an abundance of grace poured on 
them, to the refreshing of their souls. 

Well, then, what is this anointing but the testimony of the Spirit 
given to the truth of the gospel ? Now the testimony of the Spirit is 
twofold objective or subjective, internal or external. 

[1.] The objective or external testimony was the coming down of 
the Holy Ghost upon Christ and his apostles in a wonderful and mira 
culous manner, together with the many signs and wonders* which 
accompanied the preaching of the gospel, whereby assurance was given 
them of the truths which they were to believe, especially that Christ is 
the Messiah : Acts v. 31, 32, ' Him hath God exalted with his right 
hand to be a prince and a saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and 
forgiveness of sins. And we are his witnesses of these things, and so 
is also the Holy Ghost whom God hath given to them that obey him ;' 
and Heb. ii. 3, 4, ' How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salva 
tion, which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was con 
firmed unto us by them that heard him ; God also bearing them wit 
ness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles and gifts 
of the Holy Ghost ? ' If there were no more in it than so, yet from 
heavenly truths thus . asserted and assured to them they should not 
lightly depart upon every suggestion and insinuation from a crafty 
seducer, till they could bring something with as good or better evidence 
than those things which they had received. Christians should con 
tinue as they were. 

[2.] Internal and subjective. And here I shall take notice of a 
threefold work of the Holy Ghost (1.) Illumination; (2.) Conversion; 
(3.) Consolation. 


(1.) Illumination ; as they were enlightened by the Holy Ghost in 
the knowledge of the gospel, and the necessary things contained therein. 
Besides an object sufficiently revealed and externally confirmed, there 
is need of a prepared faculty, or visive power. Therefore an internal 
efficiency is necessary : Eph. i. 17, 18, ' That the God of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of 
wisdom and revelation, in the knowledge of him : the eyes of your 
understanding being enlightened, that ye may know what is the hope 
of his calling.' That is the work of the Spirit, to open the eyes of the 
mind : 2 Cor. iv. 6, * God, who commanded the light to shine out of 
darkness, hath shined into our hearts, to give the light of the know 
ledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ ;' there is lumen 
internum, inward light. Therefore when Peter had acknowledged 
Jesus to be the Christ, Mat. xvi. 17, ' Flesh and blood hath not 
revealed it to thee, but my Father which is in heaven.' Human 
credulity is wrought by tradition, but saving faith and knowledge by 
spiritual illumination. When man leadeth us into truth, man may 
easily lead us off again. Education may furnish us with opinions in 
religion, and we may sacrifice some of our weaker lusts for the opinions 
we have imbibed by education, for men will not easily forego their 
prejudices ; but it is the Spirit of God that settleth and confirmeth us 
against all contradiction ; such a difference there is between taking up 
religion out of inspiration and out of opinion. It is the Spirit only 
that giveth us a clear perception and discerning of the truth, and firm 
adherence to it ; because it removeth the incapacity or disproportion 
between the things revealed and the constitution and temper of our 
hearts : 1 Cor. ii. 14, ' The natural man receiveth not the things of the 
Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him ; neither can he know 
them, because they are spiritually discerned.' 

(2.) The mind is not only illuminated, but the heart sanctified and 
converted to God, and fitted for God, and so suited to spiritual and 
heavenly things : ' That ye put on the new man, which after God is 
created in righteousness and true holiness;' Titus iii. 5, 'Not by works 
of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he 
saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy 
Ghost.' Surely the renovation of the soul and the restitution of God's 
image giveth us greater advantages, both for the perception of truth 
and the retention of it. 

(1st.) For the perception or discerning of truth from falsehood ; for 
there are such impressions of the holiness, righteousness, and goodness 
of God left upon their hearts, that nothing can be offered unto them; 
but whereof they may be competent judges by means of those disposi 
tions stamped upon their hearts by the Holy Ghost : 2 Cor. iii. 3, ' Ye 
are manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ, ministered by us, 
written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God ; not in 
tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of the heart.' They can better 
ta'ste doctrines, being freed from the distempers and delusions of the 
flesh, and may more easily scent an error ; for there is something in 
holy, believing souls which is of kin to anything of truth represented 
without, or carrieth a repugnancy to it if it be error : Heb. viii. 10, ' I 
will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts/ 



besides the light of nature, doctrine of your deliverance and redemp 
tion by the Son of God, and your future glorification according to his 
promises. Therefore they have an advantage above other men : Ps. xi. 
3, ' The Spirit of the Lord shall make him of quick understanding in 
the fear of the Lord.' He shall scent, or smell, or breathe of nothing 
but what is pious and religious ; and therefore is more acute in dis 
cerning of matters of godliness, and what is agreeable or disagreeable 

(2d) For retention, or holding fast the truth of Christian doctrine. 
A man in his corrupt estate is more apt to believe Satan than he is to 
believe God ; and the scale will more easily be turned against the 
truth when the flesh holdeth the balance ; especially where men among 
professors of the truth are, as birds in a cage, still seeking to get out. 
Therefore if the understanding be not cleared, and the will inclined to 
Christ, and to God the Father by him, we shall easily fall off when the 
temptation cometh with any considerable strength. Certainly a man 
is held faster by the heart than by the head alone. Conviction may 
breed an awe upon the conscience, but conversion suiteth the heart to 
it. Love maketh us quick of discerning, and firm of retaining truth ; 
and for retaining there is something in a renewed man that taketh part 
with Christ, and strongly biasseth and inclineth him to him : 2 Thes. 
ii. 10, ' They received not the love of the truth, that they might be 
saved.' Truth looketh to be entertained as truth, and preferred before 
any carnal interest. Divines, when they open the nature of faith, dis 
tinguish of certitudo evidentice, and certitudo adhcerentice. There may 
be more evidence in matters of sense than in matters of faith, but not 
more adherence ; the one ariseth from the clear sight of the thing, the 
other from the weight and worth of it. I have not such evidence of 
the world to come as I have of the things before my eyes ; but I have 
such a persuasion of the certainty, which draweth me off from things 
I see with my eyes, and so leave all that I see and have for that glory 
which I never saw, but expect on God's promise. 

(3.) Consolation. This oil is not only the ' oil of grace/ but the c oil 
of gladness;' and the Spirit is a comforter as well as a sanctifier. Now 
when we have not only been enlightened and converted, but comforted, 
found benefit by it, surely this will be a means to establish and settle 
us in the truth ; for then there is a spiritual sense, or taste and savour 
ing the things of God : Phil. i. 9, ' That your love may abound more 
and more in all knowledge, and in all judgment,' ev alcrOrja-ei, sense. 
And what use is there of it ? ' That ye may approve the things that 
are excellent ; ' or Sotapd^ev ra Siacfrepovra, try the things that differ, 
1 Peter ii. 3. Optima demonstratio est a sensibus the best demonstra 
tion is by the senses ; to know honey by description and by taste, or a 
country by a map and travel. Others have but the notion of things 
contained in the gospel ; these feel the sweetness and power of them 
in their own souls, Col. i. 6. Now when a man must be persuaded, 
not only against his knowledge, and against his love and his sense, desires, 
hopes, against his very heart and his nature, and all his experience, 
his new nature, and all the inclinations and notions of it, surely he will 
not be so easily won as one that hath no experience ; there is some 
thing within that checketh the temptation. Arguments have little 


force against the inclination of nature and constant experience. There 
is communis sensus fidelium. Well, then, this anointing is the gracious 
operation of the Holy Ghost, whereby we are enlightened, regenerated, 

Secondly, The author or fountain of the gift, ' The Holy One ; ' 
whereby is meant Christ, often so called : Luke i. 35, * That holy thing 
which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God ; ' Kev. ii. 
7, ' These things saith he that is holy ; ' Acts iii. 14, ' But ye denied 
the Holy One.' He was the first anointed, and hath the fulness of all 
grace in himself, therefore called Messiah : Dan. ix. 24, ' To anoint the 
Most Holy.' And from him this anointing is derived to his people, Ps. 
cxxxiii. 2, like the oil on Aaron's head, that descended to the beard and 
the skirts of his clothing. So that this holy oil is from Christ, and 
from him freely and abundantly dispensed unto his people. First 
Christ purchased it for us ; secondly conveyeth it to us ; for he shed 
his blood for us, and then his Spirit on us : Titus iii. 6, ' Which he shed 
on us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour. 

1. He procured it for us : Gal. iii. 13, 14, * Christ hath redeemed 
us from the curse of the law, that the blessing of Abraham might come 
on the gentiles through Jesus Christ, that we might receive the 
promise of the Spirit through faith.' Compare 1 Cor. x. 4, with John 
iv. 14, and John vii. 38, 39 ; the rock struck with the rod of Moses. 

2. He conveyeth it to us : John i. 16, ' Of his fulness have we 
received, and grace for grace.' Christ is an head of influence as well 
as an head of eminence. It is by virtue of his anointing that we are 
anointed : ' Of his fulness we receive.' We go to God for it in the 
name of Christ. We receive it for his sake and from him ; upon the 
account of his merit, and from him as our head. 

Thirdly, The benefit, ' And ye shall know all things/ How is this to 
be understood ? For omnisciency and infallibility is God's prerogative. 
And it is said of the saints that ' we know but in part,' 1 Cor. xiii. 9. 

Ans. This universal particle must be restrained to the matter in 
hand. Two restrictions all will grant 

1. All divine things. Not secrets of nature, mysteries of trade and 
policy, or skill in worldly affairs. Heathens may excel God's children 
in these things. No ; the holy Spirit, with his gifts and graces, is not 
given us for these ends : 1 Cor. ii. 12, ' We have received not the 
spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God, that we may know 
the things which are freely given us of God.' We have this Spirit to 
know our privileges by the gospel and the duties which belong 
thereunto, what is required and what granted in the charter of the new 

2. There is another restriction which all will assent unto : all divine 
things which are revealed unto men : for Deut. xxix. 1 9, ' Secret things 
belong unto the Lord our God ; but those things which he hath re 
vealed, to us, and our children for ever.' Hidden things, not revealed 
in the word are to be left unto Jehovah, to do with them as he pleaseth ; 
but it is our care only to regard those things which concern our duty 
and happiness ; and for events or the government of his providence, to 
leave it to God. 

3. In things revealed we must distinguish between matters that 


belong to the plentitude of knowledge, and matters necessary either to 
salvation or establishment in the points controverted in that age. 

[1.] Matters that belong to the plentitude and fulness of knowledge, 
as the gift of interpretation of tongues, knowledge of words, and the art 
of reasoning many matters in scripture. These things depend upon 
wit, industry, secular learning, and the common gifts of the Spirit. 
There are dona ministrantia, and dona sanctificantia, ministering gifts 
and sanctifying gifts. The carnal may come behind in no gift ; for 
these things are for the good of the body rather than the person that 
hath them : 1 Cor. i. 7, ' He came behind in no gift/ And yet they 
were not the best sort of Christians which the gospel speaketh of. But 
the Spirit of holiness is given us to another purpose, to bring us safe 
to heaven by drawing off our hearts from the creature to God, and 
from sin to holiness, and from self to Christ. A carnal man may 
excel in one sort of gifts above the sanctified in opening the significa 
tion of words and phrases, methodically disposing truths, and in framing 
such rational deductions and pressing such arguments as are most apt 
to work on the heart of man. Indeed, where both meet together, 
ministering gifts and sanctifying gifts, there a Christian is most accom 
plished ; and when grace governeth his parts and quickeneth his parts, 
he bringeth most honour to Christ, and doth not expose religion to con 
tempt, as others do ; but everything must be regarded in its proper 

[2.] Matters necessary. These are of two sorts ; either 

(1.) Essential to Christianity, and absolutely necessary to salvation. 
In these things the unction prevaileth : Ps. xxv. 14, ' The secret 
of the Lord is with them that fear him, and he will show them his 
covenant.' God will not conceal from them the knowledge of his will, 
so far as their salvation is concerned in it, the secret of the Lord, 
that way wherein we ought to walk, if ever we would be accepted by 
him. So that in the great fundamental truths the sincere Christian 
hath the advantage ; Mat. xxiv. 24, * Insomuch that if it were possible, 
they shall deceive the very elect.' When learned, subtle men are 
deceived, the Spirit will keep the elect right. 

(2.) Necessary to escape seduction, or the cheats of those antichrists 
that were then gone abroad, or might afterwards break into the church, 
to pervert the flock of Christ. In points not absolutely necessary, a 
godly man is more likely to be in the right rather than the ungodly ; 
he is under the promise of God when, according to light received, he 
walketh in God's ways : John vii. 17, ' If any man will do his will, he 
shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God.' He is most faithful 
to his end, which shineth to him all along his way : Mat. vi. 22, * If 
thine eye be single, thy whole body is full of light.' Having a single 
eye, he is most serious and industrious in the use of means ; and God's 
blessing usually goeth along with diligence. And so in improvement of 
common helps : Prov. ii. 3, 4, ' If thou criest after knowledge, and 
liftest up thy voice for understanding : if thou seekest her as silver, 
and searchest for her as for hid treasures ; then shalt thou understand 
the fear of the Lord/ He hath a measure and touchstone within him, 
the work of grace upon his heart, by which he can try doctrines, which 
do most obstruct or further the work of godliness ; not which please or 


displease the flesh ; though yet good men, in some cases, may be misled 
with error. 

2. Why this anointing doth confirm us in the truths of the gospel. 

[1.] From the Spirit, who is the anointing which we have from the 
Holy One. And his effects suit with the nature of God. The conceptions 
which we have of God may be reduced to these heads Wisdom, power, 
and goodness : these are the most obvious notions. Now the regenera 
ting Spirit giveth us the effect of all these : 2 Tim. i. 7, ' God hath not 
given us the spirit of fear but of power, and of love, and of a sound 

(1.) Wisdom, in making wise the simple by the doctrine of the 
gospel, Ps. xix. 7, as teaching the way to true happiness and salvation, 
and enabling them to walk in it. The wise men of the world cannot 
but applaud this course ; and the dying are all of this mind, and 
acknowledge their own folly in doing otherwise. 

(2.) Power : Phil. iv. 13, ' I can do all things through Christ which 
strengthen eth me.' In overcoming those appetites and desires by 
which the rest of the world are mastered and captivated. To be con 
tented with their portion ; to animate them against all the terrors of 
the world, and subdue the delights of the flesh, that they may mind the 
things of another world, and so have comfort in life and death. 

(3.) Goodness. It discovereth the greatest love to mankind that 
possibly can be conceived, both in the way and the end ; redemption 
by Christ, and the glory prepared for believers. Love becometh the 
very constitution of our souls : 1 John iv. 7, 8, ' Let us love one another : 
for love is of God; and every one that loveth is born of God, and 
knoweth God. He that loveth not, knoweth not God,' &c. And moral 
goodness in the way we are to walk in, which is the way of holiness, 
without any respect to fleshly pleasure or interest, and through obedi 
ence to God : 1 Peter iv. 2, 'That he no longer should live the rest of 
his time in the flesh, to the lusts of men, but to the will of God.' Now 
the soul thus formed by the Spirit, where shall he find such a discovery 
of God ? What profession is there that can possess us with a new 
spirit, and such a spirit as the Christian religion doth ? This begets 
a spirit that beareth the lively image and impress of God, where it hath 
its natural effects on the souls of men. Half Christians go beyond others 
in such gifts as God giveth not to the heathen world ; but especially 
through Christians, therefore rejecteth other ways. 

[2.] From the nature of this enlightening or knowledge of the truth 
which the Spirit worketh in us. It is not a bare conjecture, but a cer 
tain establishing knowledge : John vi. 69, ' We believe, and are sure, 
that thou art Christ, the Son of the living God; ' John xvii. 8, ' They 
have known surely that I came out from thee/ So that the soul IS N 
willing to adhere to it with the loss of all. A slight perfunctory appre 
hension is soon shaken, either by subtlety or violence ; but this is firm 
and strong. 

[3.] Those who are anointed are sanctified and consecrated to God, i s y 
and so under the care and protection of his special providence. 
Anointing hath the notion of consecrating, and setting apa'vt for some 
holy use, for God's special service. As Christ as mediator ; and so 
Christians in their proportion, as his servants, and instruments of mV^ 


glory in the world ; they are qualified for it by the gifts and graces of 
his Spirit : 2 Peter ii. 9, ' Ye are a chosen generation, a royal priest 
hood, an holy nation, a peculiar people, that ye should show forth the 
praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into light.' Now 
God is very chary and tender of such : Ps. cv. 15, ' Touch not mine 
anointed.' They are particularly owned by God, that none might dare 
to do them the least injury. Now as it is so in God's outward govern 
ment by his providence, so in his internal government by his Spirit ; 
God looketh after them more than others, that they may take no hurt 
nor annoyance. 

[4.] This anointing giveth them familiar acquaintance with God, 
Christ, and the Spirit. - Christ's sheep will hear his voice, and will not 
hear the voice of strangers, John x. 5. They have a spirit of discern 
ing : John xiv. 17, ' Ye know him ; for he dwelleth in you, and shall be 
in you.' The poor infant knoweth his mother's milk, puketh if suckled 
by a strange nurse, 1 Peter ii. 2, a8o\ov <yd\a. Hominem olet homo, 
the man in it : * The world heareth them,' 1 John iv. 5. Besides literal 
instruction, they have the advantage of knowledge and experience. 

Use 1. To persuade us to get this anointing. If we pretend to 
Christianity, where is our unction, the virtue and efficacy of it, for the 
renewing and sanctifying of our hearts ? 

1. You are Christians only in name if you want it ; of the letter, and 
not of the spirit ; that take up your religion upon trust, have only the 
form of it. Ignorant and profane persons, have they this choice anoint 
ing ? May you not as well call a dunghill a perfume, or tainted grease 
a sweet oil, as to count them to have this spiritual anointing who roll 
themselves in the filth and vomit of sin, as the common rabble of 
nominal Christians do ? If you have this anointing indeed, your whole 
life will be a sweet savour or a precious odour. One dead fly, one base 
lust cherished, spoileth the whole box of ointment, Eccles. x. 1. 

2. If you have this unction, you have a great advantage against error 
and infidelity. We live in a time wherein there are many antichrists ; 
now he that hath an unction from the Holy One hath an evidence always 
at hand to refute what is contrary to sound doctrine ; something in his 
bosom that will not permit him to hearken to popery and other errors. 
Disputes are long, and managed with great subtlety ; and as they are 
backed with violence, we may be strangely perverted and blinded by 
interests ; nothing will be our safety but a sound experience of the re 
ligion we do profess, of the virtue, power, comfort, and sweetness of it. 
God's Spirit is the seal of any doctrine, and our anointing is our estab 
lishment : 2 Cor. i. 21, ' He which establisheth us with you in Christ, 
and hath anointed us, is God.' I do not say you should not look after 
other things, a sound understanding of the truth in controversy ; but 
there will be your best preservative, which will not. easily suffer them 
to change their religion. 

3. If you ^iave this unction, your own interest in Christ and eternal 
life is secured to you : 2 Cor. i. 22, ' Who hath also sealed us, and given 
the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts ; ' Eph. i. 13, 14, ' In whom also, 
after that ye believed, ye were sealed with the holy Spirit of promise 
which is the earnest of our inheritance.' That which is the seal of re 
ligion is the seal of those that profess it. The Spirit of sanctification 


subduing our corruptions, sanctifying our natures, and enabling us to 
do the will of God, and causing us to live in the sweet and delightful 
forethoughts of the life to come. This is your seal and earnest, and 
this is nothing but the unction spoken of in the text. Ordinary men 
have a reasonable nature ; common Christians, those common gifts which 
he giveth not to the heathen world ; but the true Christians have a divine 
nature, or the sanctifying Spirit, as their great evidence. This is given 
unto none but God's children. The case is determined against you if 
you have not this anointing : Eom. viii. 9, ' If any man have not the 
Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.' But for you, if you have, 1 John 
iv. 13, 'Hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because 
he hath given us of his Spirit.' Therefore without this you can have 
no sound comfort ; but have it, and you carry about the matter of 
continual joy. 

4. By having this unction we are more quickened to do what we 
know, and to be true to the religion which we do profess ; because the 
truth then lieth near our hearts, and so likely to work more effectually 
than what is at a great distance : 1 Thes. i. 5, 6, ' Our gospel came to 
you not in word only, but in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in 
much assurance. And ye became followers of us, and of the Lord, 
having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy 
Ghost;' 1 Thes. ii. 13, 'We thank God without ceasing, because when 
ye received the word of God, ye received it not as the word of men, 
but as the word of God, which effectually worketh in you that believe.' 
This unction maketh a real change in the soul : 2 Cor. iii. 8, c We are 
changed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit 
ef the Lord.' If there be but a form of knowledge, there will be but 
a form of godliness. But where this anointing is, there we are made 
partakers of the divine nature, and live an holy life. 

What shall we do to get this unction ? I answer 

1. Beg it of God for Christ's sake, who purchased it for you, and 
who is ready to give you this spiritual eye-salve : Kev. iii. 18, ' Anoint 
thine eyes with eye-salve, that thou mayest see.' It is his office to dis 
pense this oil, and he will dispense it freely and liberally ; for he had 
this power to this end and purpose. Christ taught us to pray for the 

2. Be diligent in the use of the means of grace, whereby you get the 
Spirit, or further measures and degrees of it. The ministration of the 
Spirit : 2 Cor. iii. 8 ; the word : Acts x. 44, ' The Holy Ghost fell on 
all them which heard the word ; ' the Lord's supper : 1 Cor. xii. 13, 
' By one Spirit we are all baptized into one body.' Manna came down 
in the dew, so the Spirit in the doctrine which distils as the dew ; so 
communion with the saints in all the ordinances of Christ : Ps. cxxxiii. 
2, ' It is like the precious ointment on the head, that ran down upon 
the beard, even Aaron's, which ran down on the skirts of his garment.' 
The Spirit of grace is a spirit of communion. Therefore we read of 
the unity of the Spirit, Eph. iv. 3. When they were of one heart and 
one mind, then had they most plentiful effusion of the Holy Ghost. 

3. Do not grieve the Spirit : Eph. iv. 30, ' Grieve not the holy Spirit 
of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.' How is 
the Spirit grieved ? By some one heinous provoking transgression, or 


by living in a course of known sin, pride, worldliness, or sensuality. 
If we wound conscience, and be secretly false to the religion which we 
do profess, or have pleasure in unrighteousness, we lie open to temp 
tations, to error and falsehood, provoke God to withhold discerning 
light, and cannot know whether we have the Spirit of God or no. 
Loose and careless Christians are always weak in the knowledge of the 

4. Let us improve our anointing, and discover it in all companies, 
temptations, exercises, businesses. Wherever you come, show forth 
the fragrancy of your good ointments. In your converse with God, pray 
in the Holy Ghost, Jude 20 ; that is, pray as one that hath an unction, 
with a savoury spirit, and enlarged affections. In thy converse with 
men, all thy words and actions must savour of this ointment : Prov. 
xxvii. 9, ' Ointment and perfume rejoice the heart ; so doth the sweet 
ness of a man's friend by hearty counsel.' In your temptations to 
sluggish negligence in the spiritual life : Heb. ii. 3, ' How shall we 
escape, if we neglect so great salvation ? ' If to downright unbelief, 
there is somewhat written upon his heart that is contrary, a sense of 
God and heaven there that cannot be blotted out. If by a seducer 
without, it is not the regenerate, well-grounded, and experienced chris- 
tians, but the loose and superficial sort, that are in most danger, like 
light chaff. They that know the truth, and are made free by the truth, 
the word of God will abide in them. Disciples indeed will not start 
from Christ, though those in name and title often did : John viii. 31, 
32, ' If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed ; and 
ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free/ 

5. Do not abuse or make an ill use of this teaching which you have 
by the anointing. 

[1.] Not to rashness and self-confidence. We may be apt to do so. 
Though the anointing teacheth us all things, yet three things are still 
necessary (1.) Scripture, or an outward word ; for that is still God's 
instrument to beget and increase faith and obedience : John xvii. 20, 
' Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe 
on me through their word.' There is but one gospel, and no other to 
be expected : Gal. i. 7, 8, * Which is not another ; but there be some 
that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ : but though 
we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that 
which we have preached unto you, let Mm be accursed.' The Spirit is 
never given to detract anything from the authority of the word. (2.) 
Ministers and teachers : Eph. iv. 11, * And he gave some apostles, and 
some pastors and teachers.' These are instituted by Christ, so appointed 
by the Spirit : Acts xx. 28, ' Take heed to yourselves, and to the flock 
over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers.' The Spirit 
would never contradict himself. (3.) The Spirit himself : 1 Cor. iii. 
7, ' So neither is he that planteth anything, nor he that watereth,' &c. 
The spirit must breathe on his own graces, and assist the soul in the 
exercise of them. It is our advantage that he is at hand to excite our 
faith, that there is a preparation already. 

[2.] Do not abuse it to pride and boasting that we have the Spirit, 
and contemning those who excel us in useful knowledge : Jude 19, 
4 These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the 


Spirit.' Those men have not most of the Spirit who boast most of it : 
1 Cor. viii. 2, ' If a man think he knoweth anything, he knoweth nothing 
yet as he ought to know.' This anointing is given us to see our sinful- 
ness, and need of Christ and his grace, and the excellency of the life to 
come. There are several ages : 1 John ii. 13, 14, ' I write unto you, 
fathers, because ye have known him that is from the beginning. I 
write unto you, young men, because ye have overcome the wicked one,' 
&c., Heb. xii. 13, 14. Some have senses exercised more than others ; all 
have not a full measure of knowledge at first. Babes, young men, 
fathers ; some truths harder, some easier. 

[3.] Not to security, as if infallible. Though he that hath this anoint 
ing be not so easily carried into error, and do not so obstinately continue 
in it, for it is impossible for him to live in a gross error as well as in a 
gross sin, yet they may err in lesser things, which may occasion much 
trouble to the church. Yea, they may be led into some dangerous 
error for a while, especially when they have grieved the Spirit, and 
blotted that character of gospel-truth which was impressed upon their 
souls ; therefore must live in a constant dependence, and holy jealousy of 
themselves : 1 Cor. x. 12, ' Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed 
lest he fall.' 

[4.] Not to idleness and laziness ; for still we must cry for know 
ledge, and dig for understanding as for choice silver, Prov. ii. 3, 4, 5. 
And it is the character of the good man, Ps. i. 2, ' His delight is in the 
law of the Lord, and in his law doth he meditate day and night.' It is 
a vile abuse of this heavenly privilege to make the Spirit a patron of 
negligence, and indulging the ease of the flesh ; as if a good wit in 
secular learning should never study. So as if meditation were needless 
because they have the Spirit. Avoid these things, handle the matter 
as the new nature directs, and it will be a great help to you. 


And to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh letter things than that of 
Abel HEB. xii. 24. 

In the context, the privileges of our being brought into a gospel 
state are reckoned up. Among other things, these two are of principal 
regard That we are acquainted with the true Mediator, and the true 
ransom which he hath paid for our souls. (1.) The true Mediator ; 
in the former part of the verse, ' And to Jesus, the mediator of the 
new covenant.' (2.) The true ransom ; that is in the text, ' And to the 
blood of sprinkling,' &c. In which words the blood of Christ is sef 
forth by two things 

1. By the application of it, ' The blood of sprinkling/ 

2. By the virtue and efficacy of it, ' Which speaketh better things 
than the blood of Abel.' 

The worth and value of it is set forth by a comparison, where take 
notice (1.) Of the things compared, Christ's blood and Abel's blood. 
(2.) Wherein they agree ; they both speak. (3.) The preference of 
Christ's blood ; KpelrTova, the blood of Christ speaketh better things. 

The doctrines are two 

1. Those who have entered into the gospel state have the blood of 
Christ applied to their hearts and consciences. 

2. The blood of Christ applied to the penitent believer's heart and 
conscience is of great value and efficacy with God. 

The first point is grounded upon that term, ' The blood of sprinkling.' 
The second upon the other branch, ' That it speaketh better things.' 

For the first, we read in scripture of blood shed and blood sprinkled. 
(1.) Of blood shed : Heb. ix. 22, ' Without the shedding of blood there 
is no remission.' Therefore Christ's blood was shed for the remission 
of sins. There can be no propitiation for sin without the expiation of it. 
The expiation of sin is by suffering the punishment due to it. Now the 
punishment was suffered when Christ was made sin for us : 2 Cor. v. 21, 
* He hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin, that we might 
be made the righteousness of God in him.' A curse for us : Gal. iii. 
13, 'Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a 
curse for us.' (2.) We are to speak of blood sprinkled, that is, actually 
applied, for all believers are sprinkled with it. Blood shed hath a 
cleansing power and virtue, but blood sprinkled doth actually cleanse 
and purify from sin, when this is applied to us in particular. The 


' blood of sprinkling ' is not only spoken of in the text, but in many 
other places : 1 Peter i. 2, ' Through the sanctification of the Spirit 
unto obedience, and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus.' This sprink 
ling relateth unto the law customs, wherein, after the shedding of the 
blood of the sacrifice, it was sprinkled. A threefold sprinkling I shall 
take notice of 

1. The first was the sprinkling of the door-posts with the blood of 
the paschal lamb, to save the house from the stroke of the revenging 
angel : Heb. xi. 28, c Through faith he kept the passover, and the 
sprinkling of blood, lest he that destroyed the first-born should touch 
them ; ' with Exod. xii. 22, ' Ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and 
dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two 
side-posts with the blood that is in the bason/ which was a type of 
our deliverance by Christ. Blood sprinkled was a mark of preservation ; 
and the scripture often sets out the heart by>a door, which, being 
opened, giveth entrance to God. Christ hath borne all that wrath 
which was due to the elect for their breach of the law, that so deserved 
wrath might pass over all his redeemed ones, to whom his blood is 
applied ; as the destroying angel passed by all those whose door-posts 
were sprinkled with the blood of the paschal lamb. 

2. Another solemn sprinkling that I shall take notice of was when 
God entered into covenant with the people of the Jews ; and the' blood 
of the sacrifice, called there ' the blood of the covenant,' was to be 
sprinkled half upon the altar and half upon the people, Exod. xxiv. 8. 
You have the story of it there at large. There was an altar built 
to represent God, the first and chief party in the covenant. The 
altera pars paciscens were the people represented by twelve pillars, 
according to the twelve tribes, Exod. xxxiv. 4. Now the words of the 
law were to be read, and the people were to promise obedience, and 
God would promise to be their God ; for the covenant between God 
and his Israel was to be established by mutual and willing consent. 
Well, then, to ratify it, blood was to be sprinkled upon the altar and 
upon the people, that is, upon the twelve stones which were set to re 
present the people, or upon the people themselves, to show that God 
took an obligation to bless, they to obey. Now the new administration 
of the covenant is also ratified by the blood of sprinkling. God 
accepted the blood of Christ, and is satisfied with it, and ready to give 
out grace ; and we, by the sprinkling of the same blood, are comforted 
and enabled to serve him. This many think is the chief sprinkling 
alluded unto by the apostle, for the former part of the verse speaketh 
of Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and then of the blood of 
sprinkling, by which God is reconciled to us and we to God. We 
must all be sprinkled with Christ's blood before we can be admitted 
into covenant with him ; and being once sprinkled, it doth powerfully 
draw down mercy on the penitent believer. In short, Christ Jby his 
blood confirmeth the new covenant. One thing I cannot omit, that 
presently upon that sprinkling the nobles saw the God of Israel in his 
majestic appearance, and did eat and drink in his presence, Exod. xxiv. 
10, 11. They saw the glory and presence of God in a clear and 
heavenly appearance, which is a sign of the favour of God towards 
them that keep his covenant ; as, on the contrary, a dark or cloudy 


heaven is a sign of God's displeasure. This did not hurt them nor 
affright them ; and their eating and drinking is a token of our joyful 
communion with God, being reconciled to him by Christ. When the 
altar is sprinkled, and the people sprinkled, when the atonement is 
made, and the atonement is received and owned, that is matter of 
rejoicing : Eom. v. 11, ' We joy in God through Christ, by whom we 
have received the atonement.' Then it is a blessed time, a time of 
holy rejoicing ; then we may eat before him, and he will not lay his 
hand upon us, neither affright nor hurt us. 

3. There was another solemn sprinkling, that is spoken of by the 
apostle, Heb. ix. 13, 14, * For if the blood of bulls and goats, and the 
ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying 
of the flesh ; how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through 
the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your 
consciences from dead works to serve the living God ? ' To the type 
of the red heifer spoken of Num. xix. There was a solemn sprinkling 
there for the purifying of the unclean, to which answereth the purging 
of our consciences by the blood of Christ ; the one sanctifieth the flesh, 
the other the conscience ; the one freed from such penalties as were 
by the law imposed upon souls for legal and ceremonial offences, the 
other from dead works, which pollute us before God; and so from 
spiritual evils and eternal penalties, and consequently that fit us for 
communion with God. 

But from all these sprinklings this we find, that it noteth approba 

Now in this first point consider (1.) The persons; those that are 
entered into the gospel estate. (2.) The manner of application ; how 
it is applied. (3.) The subject to which it is applied ; their hearts and 
consciences. (4.) The certainty of the effect. 

[1.] The persons. The apostle speaketh of such as are come to the 
new Jerusalem, to God the judge of all, to Jesus the mediator of the 
new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling; that is, such as are entered 
into the gospel estate. Now the way of entering into the gospel 
estate is by faith and repentance : Acts xx. 21, ' Kepentance towards 
God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ.' That was the sum of his 
preaching to Jew and gentile, to bring them to enter into the gospel 
estate. Kepentance towards God, because we had revolted from our 
duty to him. And then faith in our Lord Jesus Christ is necessary, 
that those that have benefit by Christ should own the author of 
their deliverance, and put their cause into his hands, that he 
may reconcile them unto God. Kepentance that we may acknow 
ledge our obligation to his law, bemoaning our former misery, and 
devoting ourselves anew to God, to do his will and walk in his 
ways. Well, then, repentance is our consent of returning to God, 
as faith is our thankful owning of our Redeemer. It is Christ's busi 
ness to bring us back again to God, from whom we have fallen and 
strayed. Our great end in entering into the gospel estate is that we 
may put ourselves into a posture and capacity of pleasing and enjoying 
God ; and this is God's end in our pardon and reconciliation, and in 
offering us the benefits of the gospel. And therefore there must be a 
relenting towards God and a serious owning of Christ, or an hearty 


consent to his conduct, to be brought home to God by him, and so fully 
recover our lapsed condition. So Mark i. 14, 15, ' Jesus came into 
Galilee, preaching the gospel, and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the 
kingdom of God is at hand : repent ye, and believe the gospel.' When 
the gospel estate, or the kingdom of the Messiah, was to be set up, this 
is the way of entering into it, ' Kepent and believe.' Which repentance, 
properly and distinctly taken, looketh towards God the Father, and 
faith towards Christ as mediator. To God we return, from whom we 
were gone astray by sin ; and to Christ, the means and way of our 
returning, without whom we cannot be reconciled to our heavenly 
Father, nor perform any acceptable service to him. Now surely wher 
ever these two are, faith working by love, and repentance mortifying 
our sinful lusts, that in newness of life we may glorify God, there men 
unquestionably are entered into the gospel state, and are capable of the 
privileges thereof. 

[2.] How is the blood of Christ sprinkled or applied to us ? Many 

(1.) On God's part by the Spirit, as the fruit of Christ's intercession. 
Therefore it is said : 1 John v. 8, ' There are three that bear witness 
on earth, the Spirit, the water, and the blood, these three agree in one/ 
The TO tcpwopevov, or thing to be proved there, is, that Jesus is the 
Son of God. Now the Spirit beareth witness to this, applying the 
blood of Christ to the conscience, and purifying and sanctifying them 
as with clean water. These are not one, as the three first ; but these 
agree in one ; partly as they establish the same conclusion ; partly as 
they do concurrently establish it; not singly and apart; not water apart, 
nor blood apart, nor the Spirit apart; but they all concur; the Spirit by 
water and blood appeasing our guilty consciences, and washing away 
the filth of sin, either comforting, or sanctifying, or regenerating us. 
So again : Eom. v. 5, ' The love of God is shed abroad in our hearts 
by the Holy Ghost which is given to us/ The business is what is 
meant there by the love of God ? I take it for the great instance of his 
love in reconciling the world to himself by Christ ; for it immediately 
follows, * For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ 
died for the ungodly.' Surely it is not taken for our love to God, but 
his love to us, which was chiefly seen in that great instance ; this is 
shed abroad in our hearts ; we have the effect, the feeling, and sense 
of the comfort of it by the Spirit. 

(2.) By faith on our part ; for till we believe, the blood of Christ 
produceth not its effect in our souls : Kom. iii. 25, ' Whom God hath 
set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood/ Faith, believ 
ing the great love of Jesus Christ in shedding his blood for us, for the 
expiation of our sins, doth comfort us, and excite us to live in a con 
stant course of new obedience to him who died for us: Eom. v. 1, 
' Being justified by faith, we have peace with God, through our Lord 
Jesus Christ/ All that sincerely embrace the gospel are freely accepted 
with God in Christ ; have their sins pardoned, live in a sweet amity with 
God. In short, Christ, as the means of expiation of sin and reconcili 
ation with God, is only appliable to a man by faith. We enjoy this 
reconciliation by faith. God doth not actually admit any to the privi 
leges of Christ's death till they do believe. 


(3.) As a middle between both, it is sprinkled or applied by the 
ordinances of the gospel ; as the preaching of the word, and the sacra 

(1st.) In the preaching of the word. As it is the great duty of the 
ministers of the gospel to sprinkle the hearts of the people with the blood 
of Christ, so to discover God's love and the virtue of his death, as to excite 
the hearers more earnestly to apply Christ, and take him home to them 
selves for their comfort and salvation. As Philip preached Jesus to the 
eunuch, so that he ravished his heart with him, and he could no longer 
be held from him : Acts viii. 36, l As they went on their way, they 
came unto a certain water : and the eunuch said, See, here is water ; 
what doth hinder me to be baptized? And Philip said, If thou believest 
with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe 
that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.' The apostle telleth the Galatians 
that in the gospel Christ is evidently set forth and crucified among 
them, Gal. iii. 1, when he is represented with such perspicuity and plain 
ness, and with such power and liveliness, as if painted out before their 
eyes ; and Col. i. 27, ' Christ in you the hope of glory, warning every 
man, teaching every man ; ' Gal. iv. 19, ' My little children, of whom I 
travail in birth, till Christ be formed in you.' To have Christ so 
applied as that his virtue may be felt. 

(2d) By the sacraments. They are a means on God's part, and an 
help on yours, for the applying of Christ, or sprinkling his blood on 
your consciences. Baptism is the laver of regeneration, or a means to 
make way for the renewing of the Holy Ghost, shed on us abundantly 
through Jesus Christ our Lord, Titus iii. 5, 6. The blood of Christ is 
the fountain of all the grace communicated to us by the Spirit, though 
the water of baptism have an immediate respect to regeneration by the 
Spirit. In the Lord's supper, ov^l /coivcovid, 1 Cor. x. 16, ' The cup 
of blessing, which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of 
Christ ? ' There we come to apply it. In short, all the ordinances 
are helps instituted by God to make way for the participation of Christ. 

(3d) The subject to which it is applied, the hearts and consciences 
of penitent believers. Under the law, the flesh was cleansed by the 
sprinklings there, but now the heart and conscience : Heb. x. 22, 
1 Having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies 
washed as with pure water/ That is, from that inward impurity and 
corruption whereof every man's conscience is judge and witness. Con 
science is the most quick, lively, and sensible power of a man's soul ; 
so that when the heart is said to be sprinkled from an evil conscience, 
it is meant of a conscience unquiet by reason of sin, when a poor sinner, 
being sensible of sin, maketh hearty application of the blood of Christ 
for remission and pardon, and in all the disquiets of his soul runneth 
to the blood of Christ, as the only fountain which God hath opened for 
uncleanness : 1 John i. 7, ' If we walk in the light, as he is in the 
light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ 
his Son cleanseth us from all sin.' Once more : Heb. ix. 14, ' Purge 
your consciences from dead works, that you may serve the living God.' 
The poor soul that is conscious to its own disobedience, and sensible of 
having displeased God by sin, is grievously afraid of him, shy of coming 
into his presence, till the blood of Christ be sprinkled and applied to 


it ; that freeth the soul thus conscious of sin from the guilt, impurity, 
and other sad consequences of it, whereupon it begins to have peace 
with God, and fitness for communion with him. 

(4.) The certainty of the effect to all that come under the gospel. 
It must needs be so, for they are partakers of Christ ; Heb. iii. 14, 
with the 6th verse. How are men affected at the first receiving of 
Christianity with great hope and confidence in Jesus Christ, that he 
will do their work for them : to be partakers of Christ is to have his 
benefits applied to us. More particularly, they are justified and 
sanctified in his name, and by his Spirit: 1 Cor. vi. 11, 'Such were 
some of you : but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are 
justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God/ 
We are assured that, if we are capable, if we have a conscience sensible 
of sin, and appealing to the throne of grace, and plead this blood, God 
will make us feel the fruits of it : 1 John i. 9, ' If we confess our sins, 
he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all 
unrighteousness/ When with brokenness of heart, as feeling the 
weight and power of sin, we bemoan ourselves to God, he hath left his 
faithfulness and justice at pledge with us that the stormy conscience 
shall be quieted, the filthy soul shall be washed and prepared for com 
munion with God. But those who, being senseless of sin, are careless 
of the remedy, these feel no great effects of Christ's death in their own 

Use. Have you been sensibly acquainted with the power and virtue 
of Christ's death ? Hath his blood been sprinkled upon your hearts 
and consciences ? 

1. Consider it is said: 1 John v. 10, 'He that believeth hath the 
testimony in himself/ What testimony was that ? Look back to the 
8th verse. The Spirit, by the blood of Christ pacifying his conscience, 
sanctifying his heart. Christianity is not only a matter to be believed, 
but felt. There is experience and spiritual sense, which serveth as a 
back and confirmation to faith, as a whet and incitement to love. 
Many hear of a mighty Christ, but feel nothing ; these are without 
their testimony of religion, so in danger of atheism. 

2. Consider how uncomfortable it will be for you if you only should 
be a stranger in Israel ; if the price be paid by Christ, and accepted 
by God for the ransom of our souls, and the liberty be proclaimed to 
us, and we through our own default and non-performance of the con 
ditions, should remain yet in bonds : John viii. 32, ( Ye shall know the 
truth, and the truth shall make you free/ If he came to heal us, and 
we still remain, not only weak, but sick unto death, how uncomfortable 
will this be ? Shall we receive this grace in vain, the offers and 
tenders of reconciliation and peace? 2 Cor. vi. 1, ' God was in Christ 
reconciling the world to himself/ It is that he speaketh of there. 

3. Learn that it is a disparagement to Jesus Christ that you should 
so long profess his name, and not feel his blood applied to your hearts 
and consciences ; that you should rest in talk and notions, and find no 
more of his virtue and power, either in converting an hard heart, or in 
comforting a dejected spirit, or in sanctifying and cleansing a filthy 
soul : * The kingdom of God standeth not in word, but in power/ 
1 Cor. iv. 20. What ! hath the gospel neither quieted thy conscience 


nor changed thy heart ? Hast thou neither effects nor sense ; neither 
sanctification nor comfort ? 

4. You disparage the gospel, as if it were but a literal instruction, 
even as the law is to fallen man. No ; there is a mighty spirit goeth 
along with it, to apply the truths of it to the soul: Gal. iii. 2, 'This 
only would I learn of you, Keceived ye the Spirit by the works of the 
law or the hearing of faith ? ' That is, by the doctrine of justification, 
by the works of the law, or by faith. He appealeth to their conscience 
and experience, that God giveth his Spirit to all that are reconciled to 
him. By the doctrine of the gospel saving grace is conveyed. The 
hearing of the law worketh conviction of sin, terror of conscience ; but 
it doth not give you that Spirit that breedeth comfort and enableth 
you to holiness. It is by the hearing of faith, and from Christ, that 
we receive grace for grace. 

5. If Christ's blood be not sprinkled upon you, it argueth some great 
fault in you. Either a senselessness of your spiritual condition ; for 
till men be convinced of sin and misery there is no need of the blood 
of sprinkling, or careless despising of the fruits of Christ's death, and 
filling our hearts with the tumults of worldly business, that we cannot 
listen to the peace Christ's blood speaketh to our souls ; or indulgence 
of some secret lusts, which darken all in our souls ; or contenting our 
selves with a literal Christianity, resting in a traditionary knowledge of 
gospel truths, or bare rational reflections upon them, and so sucking at 
our own bottle, and neglecting the Spirit, who is wont by the ordi 
nances to apply Christ to our souls. 

And how shall we know that Christ's blood is sprinkled on our 

I answer The immediate fruit of his purging the conscience is 
serving the true and living God, Heb. ix. 14 ; that is the end of it. 
Under the law, a man, if he worshipped in his uncleanness, and before 
he was legally purged, defiled the tabernacle and sanctuary of God, 
and that soul was to be cut off. We cannot have free access with con 
fidence and boldness to the throne of grace, nor serve the Lord with 
any expectation to receive mercies and blessings from him, till the 
blood of sprinkling hath been upon them. There are degrees of 
cleansing, so also of serving God. When we are fully cleansed from 
all sin, then we shall have full communion with God, and serve him 
more perfectly in the temple of heaven; but so far as Christ hath 
washed us in his blood, so far is he acting the part of a spiritual priest: 
Rev. i. 5, 6, ' And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and 
the first-begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth, 
and him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, 
and hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father/ &c. 
Peace maketh way for liberty of commerce ; trading is revived again. 

Doct. 2. That the blood of Christ applied to the penitent believer's 
heart is of great value and efficacy with God. 

1. I shall explain it in the notions of the text. 

2. Give the reasons why. 

1. The value and efficacy of Christ's blood is set forth by a com 
parison with Abel's blood. It will be good a little to examine it (1.) 
Wherein these two bloods agree ; (2.) Wherein they differ. 


[1.] They agree in these things 

(1.) That as Abel's blood was shed, so Christ's. Abel's blood, being 
shed, speaketh; so Christ's. Of Abel's blood it is said, Gen. iv. 10, 
* What hast thou done ? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto 
me from the ground.' Christ's blood hath a voice ; it was not shed in 
vain ; it pleadeth before the throne of grace on our behalf. Christ's 
intercession is not vocal, but real. The presenting of his blood before 
the throne of grace is enough ; for that speaketh to God in our behalf. 
As the high priest under the law appeared before the mercy-seat with 
the blood of the sacrifices, we do not read of anything he spake : ' So 
Jesus with his own blood is not entered into the holy place made with 
hands, which are the figures of the true ; but into heaven itself, now to 
appear before God for us/ Heb. ix. 24. 

(2.) Both bloods speak ; in the conscience of the sinner, and unto 
God. Abel's blood did speak in Cain's conscience, so that he was 
filled with terror and unrest ; so that he went about trembling, saying, 
' Mine iniquity is greater than can be forgiven/ Gen. iv. 13. Words of 
despair. And it spake to God ; for he saith, ' Thy brother's blood 
crieth unto me/ And it is * bloods ' in the Hebrew, as if every drop 
of it had a voice to call for vengeance on Cain. So Christ's blood 
speaketh in the consciences of them to whom it is applied ; it speaketh 
pardon, peace, comfort. It quieteth the soul as much as the other 
terrified Cain's conscience : Kom. v. 1, 'Being justified by faith, we 
have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ.' And it 
speaketh to God, for he is pacified, reconciled by it: Heb. xiii. 20, 
'The God of peace brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus 
Christ, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the 
everlasting covenant.' As having done his work, having pacified God 
for us. He was before an angry, an offended God with us, but now, 
by the blood of the everlasting covenant, he is propitiated and become 
the God of peace ; by this blood our surety is enlarged, our bond can 
celled, our peace is restored. 

(3.) They both speak loud, and cry, so that God heareth. In Abel 
it is true, God is very tender of his Abels, of righteous persons ; the 
injuries done to them he deeply resenteth : Ps. cxvi. 15, ' Precious in 
the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints ;' Ps. Ixxii. 14, 'He 
shall redeem their soul from deceit and violence ; and precious shall 
their blood be in his sight;' that is, he so considereth it, and it is rated 
at so high a price by God, that he will not put it up. The cry of their 
blood is soon heard in heaven. Now the blood of the Son of God is 
far more precious ; surely the cry of it will be heard in heaven : 1 Peter 
i. 19, ' With the precious blood of the Son of God, as of a lamb without 
spot and blemish.' If this blood be offered for the sin of man, it will 
be heard ; it crieth loud in God's ears ; for it is very precious, and will 
be esteemed there, however it is slighted in the world, counted KQIVQV, 
a common thing, Heb. x. 29. His blood tot Jiabet linguas pro nobis 
loquentes, quot pro nobis vulnera accepit ; every drop is precious. 

(4.) It is a continual cry. Abel's blood did not cry once, but con 
tinually ; for it is said, Heb. xi. 4, ' By it, being dead, he yet speaketh.' 
As he was the protomartyr, and Cain on the other side the patriarch 
of unbelievers: Jude 11, ' These go in the way of Cain ;' but for Abel, 



see Mat. xxiii. 35, ' That upon you may come all the righteous blood 
shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel, to the blood of 
Zacharias,' &c. Abel was the first we read of that offered lamb's blood 
for sacrifice, professing thereby to seek his righteousness in the blood 
of the Messiah ; and for this sacrifice he was made a martyr, the first 
of the order that suffered for the righteousness of faith. His blood 
crieth with the rest of the martyrs, to avenge his innocency. The 
carnal seed cannot endure such, but in all ages persecute them : Rev. 
vi. 9, 10, 'And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the 
altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for 
the testimony which they held. And they cried with a loud voice, say 
ing, How long, Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge 
our blood on them that dwell on the earth ? ' So 'Christ's blood as 
yet speaketh, as if it were shed afresh : Heb. xiii. 8, ' Jesus Christ is 
the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever/ The virtue of it is 
everlasting. The cry of this blood God daily heareth; it still speaketh 
to him, to pacify his wrath and to pardon us ; and it speaks in ou? 
conscience, to cleanse it, and make it quiet within us ; the efficacy and 
virtue of it is everlasting, to all those who are made partakers of it. 

[2.] The difference : ' It speaketh better things.' The one crieth 
for mercy, the other for judgment. There is a difference in the end 
of the cry. To understand this, we must look' upon Christ under a 
twofold notion as a martyr and as a mediator. 

(1.) As a martyr. So his blood speaketh as Abel's did, the same 
things : 1 Thes. ii. 14, 15, ' They killed the Lord Jesus, therefore 
wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.' As Cain's murder did so- 
much offend God that it moved him to avenge it ; so Christ's blood 
did so far offend God, that he punished them and their children, who- 
had said, Mat. xxvii. 25, 'His blood be upon us, and upon our children/ 
They defied God's justice, and therein by their own mouth pronounced 
their own doom, and wrath is come upon them ever since. But mark, 
even here Christ prayed for them : Luke xxiii. 34, ' Then said Jesus, 
Father, forgive them ; for they know not what they do/ That prayer 
fetched in many. Their nation was not destroyed till they rejected 
the gospel, of which they had the refusal and morning market, and 
had killed the Lord Jesus and persecuted the apostles, forbidding them 
to preach, and so filled up the measure of their sins. 

(2.) As mediator. So it speaketh better things, is presented before 
God, not to desire vengeance on the murderous Jews, as Abel's blood 
against Cain, but to obtain pardon and favour for believers and penitent 
sinners. Abel's blood cried against Cain that shed it, but Christ's cried 
for men, whose sins did cause it to be shed. Though we by our sins 
did make the Lord to serve and die also, yet doth not his blood speak 
against us, but for us. Our sins call for vengeance and condemnation, 
but Christ's blood for pardon and reconciliation. This blood, as suffered 
for the sin of man, and offered unto God, is so pleasing, so precious, 
so highly accepted, that God for and in consideration of it is effectually 
moved to pardon for evermore all that humbly seek benefit by it. la 
short, this blood spake then when it was shed, and still speaketh 
effectually before the eternal judge, as it is pleaded by Christ in his 
intercession, by us in our prayers. 


2. Why? Whence cometh the blood of Christ to have such a 
virtue and efficacy ? I answer 

fl.] Partly from the institution of God. 
2.] From its own intrinsic worth and value, which lieth (1.) 
Partly in the dignity of his person ; (2.) The nature of the work. It 
was the highest degree of obedience that ever was performed to God. 
There was in it so much love to God, so much love to man, so much 
self-denial, humility, patience, such a resignation of himself to God, 
as could never be paralleled ; and therefore was most powerful to move 
God to mercy, who is so inclined to show mercy of his own accord. 

[3.] This blood was shed with the greatest pain, and willingly, out of 
love to man. The sufferings were most intense ; he was made a curse 
for us, Gal. iii. 13. They were attended with desertion, penal disturb 
ance, and all that the law put upon sinners, either of loss or sense : 
Isa. liii. 4, 5, ' He hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows, yet 
we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. But he was 
wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities, the 
chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we are 
healed/ His soul was heavy to death, Mat. xxvi. 38 ; he was deserted : 
Mat. xxvii. 46, ' My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? ' So 
that as it sufficiently demonstrated God's displeasure against sin, so it 
was very pleasing and highly accepted of God. He omitted nothing 
that divine justice required. 

Use 1. For information. 

First, To show us the nature of Christ's intercession. On the one 
side it will not be enough to say that his merit and sufferings continue 
to deserve such things at the hand of God as we stand in need of, as if 
the pleading were only figurative and metaphorical ; that as the blood 
of Abel pleaded against Cain, so the blood of Christ pleads for us to 
God. No ; there is somewhat more in Christ's intercession and acting 
the part of an advocate for us. On the other side, it cannot be thought 
that he intercedeth with such gestures and verbal expressions as men 
use with men, or as he himself did in the days of his flesh, when ' he 
offered up prayers, with strong cries and tears,' Heb. v. 7, which did 
become the state of his humiliation, but not glorification. He inter 
cedeth non voce sed miseratione. These are the two extremes ; but 
what is the true notion of it ? 

There is in it (1.) A presenting of himself before God ; (2.) A 
declaration of his will ; (3.) An entering of his plea ; (4.) A recom 
mending of our suits. 

[1.] His intercession may be conceived to consist in his appearing 
in heaven in our name, where the Son of God in our nature presenteth 
himself as ready to answer for such and such sinners. His very being 
there in our nature speaketh his purpose ; for there he is as one that 
hath made satisfaction for our offences, and performed his sacrifice 
without the camp, now gone within the veil, to bring blood to the 
mercy-seat : Heb. ix. 12, ' By his own blood he entered in once into 
the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us.' 

[2.] It may be supposed also to include a declared willingness and 
desire in our behalf to have such requests granted, such sins pardoned. 
The declaring of his will is a part of his intercession : John xvii 24, 


* Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given me may be with 
me where I am.' The like may be conceived in heaven. So Aquinas 
Interpellat pro nobis primo humanitatem quam pro nobis assumpsit 
representando ; item animce suce sanctissimce desiderium, quod de salute 
nostra habuit, exprimendo. He intercedes for us partly by presenting 
there his human nature, which he assumed for our sakes, and also by 
declaring the desire of his holy soul for our welfare. But is there not 
more ? Certain it is that a proper and formal prayer is not contrary 
to the human nature of Christ in that glorious estate in which now it 
is, neither as hypostatically united to the Godhead, nor as glorified. 
Not to the first, for that he had in via ; yet he offered prayers with 
tears and strong cries. Not to the second, for Christ's human nature, 
though glorified, is still a creature inferior to God, and therefore 
capable of prayer. Indeed, when he was in the form of a servant, 
there was more subjection than now in heaven, but still he prayeth. 

[3.] There is an holy, reverend, though inconceivable, act of adora 
tion of the sovereign majesty of God, whereby the Mediator, now at 
the Father's right hand, doth in all his appearing for us, as being the 
head of the body, adore the power, sovereignty, goodness, and wisdom 
of God, with respect to the covenant of redemption, and his having 
merited the benefits due to him thereby, namely, the pardon of our sins, 
our comfort and peace, the enlargement, safety, and success of his own 
kingdom : Ps. ii. 8, ' Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for 
thine inheritance.' By virtue of his paid ransom he may call for 
those blessings which are necessary for those who come to God by him 
His saying to the disciples oftener than once, ' I will pray the Father 
for you,' John xiv. 16, implieth some address to God, even in respect 
to particular persons and particular cases ; an entering of his plea, or 
a suing out of his own right in their behalf. 

[4.] His presenting our prayers and supplications, which we make 
in the behalf of ourselves to God, after he hath set us a-work by his 
own Spirit : Kev. viii. 3, ' Another angel came and stood at the altar, 
having a golden censer, and there was given unto him much incense, 
that he should offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden 
altar, which was before the throne ; ' and Heb. viii. 2, \eirovpyos wyLcw, 
1 A minister of holy things.' By his Spirit he furnisheth us with sighs 
and groans, and then presenteth them to his Father perfumed by his 
own merit. 

Secondly, To instruct us what use to make of this 'blood of 

1. When we are confessing of sin, or reflecting upon sin, and arraign 
ing ourselves, as it were, at the bar of our judge, remember, though these 
sins deserve ill, and speak much ill against us, yet the 'blood of 
sprinkling' speaks better things. There is hope, and comfort, and 
peace, and pardon there. Plead Christ's satisfaction to God's justice. 
Say, Our Lord Jesus Christ did take our sinful debts upon him, and 
undertake to satisfy for them ; and I know he made ' full satisfaction. 
I renounce all other hope of pardon, and rest my soul upon his pre 
cious blood. If he be not able to save me, I am contented to perish ; 
but he is able to save to the utmost all that come to God by him. 


Let this be in your thoughts when God makes you feel the terrors of 
his justice by an involuntary impression, or you are in a broken-hearted 
manner moaning for sin. 

2. Kemember it when you hear the offers of grace in the gospel ; 
that God desires not the death of sinners : John v. 24, ' He that hears 
my word, and believes on me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come 
into condemnation, but is passed from death to life.' Surely this is 
true ; for ' the blood of Christ speaks better things than the blood of 
Abel.' It is exacted of you to sprinkle it on your consciences. Christ 
shed it that it might be sprinkled. 

3. Kemember it in the Lord's supper, as often as that is celebrated, 
and you hear it repeated, ' Behold the blood of the covenant which was 
shed for the remission of sins ! ' then say, Surely it is so ; for ' the 
blood of Christ speaketh better things than the blood of Abel/ 

4. Kemember it in your prayers, when you come to God for pardon 
or any blessing, that you may come with the more confidence : you 
have the blood of Christ to speak for you. Christ pleads it in heaven, 
and you must plead it on earth : Heb. x. 19, ' Having boldness to enter 
into the holiest by the blood of Jesus/ That bespeaks welcome anr* 
audience. Present unto God his Son's blood, and sue for the benefit 
of it. 

5. Kemember it in your last agonies. When you are summoned 
into God's presence, when every moment you look to come immediately 
before him : Let me with confidence go to him, and say, I have been 
a sinner ; but the blood of Christ speaks better things, and I expect 
the full fruit of it ; that it shall indeed cleanse me from all sin : 1 John 
i. 7, ' The blood of his Son Jesus Christ cleanses from all sin/ 

Use 2. If the blood of Christ speaketh better things than the blood 
of Abel, it exhorteth us to many duties. 

First, To enter ourselves into the gospel state, and to qualify our 
selves to receive this benefit. The apostle saith, ' Ye are come to the 
blood of sprinkling/ Who are come? Penitent believers. The more 
you exercise faith and repentance towards God, repentance ; towards 
Christ, faith or come to God by him, Heb. xi. 15, the more experience 
you will have of the virtue and efficacy of Christ's blood. Because 
these two are intermixed in the soul's return to God, and it would be 
too long to speak of the whole nature of them, I shall give you a few 

1. Know yourselves to be sinners, condemned by the law. Till this 
be there is no work either for repentance or faith ; for what need of 
turning to God till we know that we are turned from him ? And the 
Kedeemer hath nothing to do for stupid and senseless souls, that know 
not their misery, and regard not their remedy. There is a great deal 
of difference between our condition and our qualification. Our con 
dition, when Christ cometh to bring us to God, is sinful and miserable ; 
our qualification is lively faith. The being of faith is enough, though 
we have not the knowledge of it ; but the being in misery is not 
enough ; that must be known and lamented. It is enough for our 
safety that we have faith, though we know it not ; but it is not enough 
that we are in misery, though we know it not. The covenant of God 
runneth thus : He that belie veth shall be saved ; not, He that knoweth 


he believeth shall be saved ; for many have faith though they doubt 
of their sincerity. Ay ! but it is not enough that I am a sinner ; but 
I must know myself a sinner, be deeply sensible that I am a sinner ; 
for the offers of the gospel are made to the sensible, the broken-hearted, 
the weary and heavy-laden. A man never thinketh of returning to 
God, doth not lie humbly at the feet of grace, cannot be thankful for 
a redeemer, till he knoweth his misery and bewaileth it. Many have 
been welcome to Christ, that knew not themselves penitent believers, ' 
but never were any welcome that knew not themselves condemned 
sinners. Therefore there the work beginneth. The first awakening 
of the soul is by a sense of our misery and lostness ; and this sense 
must be often renewed, for without Christ we are still in hazard to 
perish for ever, because of the continual failings in our duty. 

2. A resolved will and purpose to devote ourselves to the Lord, to 
please him, and enjoy him : 1 Chron. xxii. 19, ' Now set your hearts 
to seek the Lord ; ' Acts xxvi. 20, ' He exhorted them that they 
should repent and turn to the Lord, and do works meet for repentance ; ' 
Heb. x. 22, ' Let us draw near with a true heart, in full assurance of 
faith/ The heart is bent and set towards the Lord, put into a fitness 
and capacity of pleasing and enjoying him, which we have lost by our 
folly and sin. By the fall we lost the favour of God and the image of 
God, and so were unfit both for service and fruition. The penitent 
soul findeth both. 

3. It is Christ only taketh away sin, reconcileth us unto his Father, 
puts us into a capacity to please and enjoy God. Through him we 
may turn to God, and perform service and obedience acceptable unto 
eternal life : John xiv. 6, ' I am the way, the truth, and the life : no 
man cometh unto the Father but by me ; ' 1 Peter iii. 18, ' For Christ 
also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might 
bring us to God ; ' Heb. ix. 14, ' How much more shall the blood of 
Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to 
God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God ? ' 
1 Peter ii. 24, ' Who himself bear our sins in his own body on the tree, 
that we, being dead to sin, should live unto righteousness.' He died to 
weaken the love of sin in our hearts, and to advance the life and power of 
grace and righteousness. We usually make use of Jesus Christ for re 
conciliation with God, but not so often for service and obedience. No ; 
we do by Christ come to God, that we may walk before him in all new 
ness of life. In short, when we turn from the creature to God, from self to 
Christ, from sin to holiness, we come under the gospel state ; and true 
gospel faith is a faith that beginneth in brokenness of heart : Mat. ix. 
13, * I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.' And 
it is carried with an earnest appetite to the gospel : Heb. vi. 18, ' That 
we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay 
hold upon the hope set before us.' Thus are the heirs of promise 
described. And then it endeth in newness of life : Kom. vii. 6, ' But 
now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were 
held ; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness 
of the letter ; ' for Christ died, not only to free us from that sin and 
misery whereunto we had brought ourselves, Gal. iii. 13, but ' we are 
married to him, that we may bring forth fruit unto God,' Kom. vii. 4. 


Secondly, The next work is to sprinkle your hearts with this precious 
blood ; for it is the blood of sprinkling that speaketh better things than 
the blood of Abel ; and Christ shed it that it might be sprinkled, that it 
may not run a-wasting. The sprinkling or applying of it to ourselves 
in particular is by the Spirit on God's part, and by faith on our part, 
and by the ordinances as a middle thing between both, as a means 
on God's part to convey the Spirit, and an help on our part to excite 
and increase faith. Therefore this sprinkling! must be interpreted 
with respect to the Spirit, faith, and the ordinances, as the word and 

1. Our duty with respect to the Spirit in this sprinkling is when we 
content not ourselves with a literal and exterior Christianity, with being 
Christians in the letter rather than the spirit, Eom. ii. 29, but look after 
the virtue, power, and life of the truths which we do believe, when, 
together with the doctrine of Christ, we receive the sanctifying and 
comforting Spirit : Christianity is a thing without us, and at a distance, 
till that be done. The great bane of the Christian world is that they 
satisfy themselves with notions, and do not wait for the power ; and 
talk of Christ, rather than feel him, and taste that the Lord is gracious. 
Therefore our business is earnestly to wait for the stirring of the waters, 
and to seek after that life and peace which is the fruit of Christ's 
death ; for the gospel is ' the ministration of the Spirit unto life,' 2 Cor. 
iii. 8. Here we get a taste : 1 Peter ii. 3, ' If so be that ye have tasted 
that the Lord is gracious.' We feel the power, know him and the 
power of his resurrection, Phil. iii. 10 ; when Christ is formed in us, 
when we are changed into his image, have a living principle in our own 
souls. Therefore our duty is to beg for this Spirit, to seek and wait for 
this Spirit, till the Lord Jesus pour it on us. 

2. With respect to faith. Our duty is to be firmly persuaded of the 
sufficiency of all that Christ hath done and endured for man's redemp 
tion, and to apply it to ourselves. This blood is fully expiatory of sin, 
and a full ransom given to divine justice for all our wrongs. The 
blood of bulls and goats could not satisfy divine justice, nor expiate 
sin, nor purge the conscience, nor remove the curse ; but when the 
Son of God shall come, and die an accursed death, and shed his blood 
for us, there is enough done to repair God in point of honour, that he 
may be no loser by it, to signify God's purest holiness, to express his 
utter hatred and detestation of sin, to declare his love of justice, and to 
keep up the authority of his law ; enough to teach all the world that it 
is a dangerous thing to transgress it. Now this must be tried, and 
applied to the soul, that we may be able to say, ' He is the propitiation 
for our sins/ 1 John ii. 2 ; that we may build upon the foundation which 
God hath laid in Sion. By this faith he cometh to dwell and work in 
our hearts : Gal. iii. 29, ' If ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, 
and heirs according to the promise ; ' Eph. iii. 17, ' That Christ may 
dwell in your hearts by faith.' 

3. With respect to the ordinances, the word and sacraments. 

[1.] The word. When you hear the offers of grace in the gospel, 
that God desireth not the death of a sinner, that he is willing to save 
all those that believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, or come to God by him, 
and to pardon and bless them ; let all this excite you to sprinkle it on 


your own conscience. These blessings are held forth to ine : 1 Tir 
i. 15, * This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ 
Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.' Here- 
God calleth upon me to put in for my share : Kom. viii. 31, ' What 
shall we then say to these things ? ' Job v. 27, * Know thou it for thy 
good/ Bring it home to thine own heart. 

[2.] Sacraments. By baptism we put on Christ, Gal. iii. 27. The 
Lord's supper: 1 Cor. x. 16, * The cup of blessing which we bless, is it 
not the communion of the blood of Christ ? The bread which we break, 
is it not the communion of the body of Christ ? ' In the Lord's supper we 
solemnly remember the death of Christ, as the price given for the life 
of our souls ; we come to behold him as the Lamb of God taking away 
sin. There we hear of the blood of the new testament, which was shed 
for the remission of sins. Say, Surely it is so, for ' the blood of Christ 
speaketh better things than the blood of Abel.' You take it and drink 
it for your own comfort ; there it is brought nigher to you, and if you 
do not delude yourselves, in quieting your consciences with an outward 
form, you may go away with much comfort. Christ representeth it to 
God in his intercession, and we represent it to God in our prayers and 
desires, beseeching him to be reconciled to us for Christ's sake. By 
these means is the blood of Christ sprinkled and applied to us, and we 
receive more of the Spirit, and our faith is increased and strengthened. 

Thirdly, Observe the fruits that accrue to you by this crying blood. 

1. A comfortable sense of your pardon and discharge. When it is 
so, then is the redemption applied : ' In whom we have redemption 
through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins/ Eph. i. 7 ; Kom. v 
9, ' Being justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through 
him ; ' as the sprinkled door-posts were from the destroying angel. 

2. The sanctification of his Spirit : 1 Peter i. 2, ' Elect according to 
the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit 
unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ/ The 
power of the Spirit goeth along with the application of Christ ; where 
the one is the other is, and where the one is not the other is not. 

3. Nearness and communion with God : Eph. ii. 13, 'Ye were afar 
off, but now are made near by the blood of Christ/ Two things kept 
us off from God. The rigour of divine justice ; when we go to a God 
offended, and appeased by no satisfaction ; and the terror of our con 
sciences, or our own guilty fear. But God is now propitiated; the 
grand scruple is satisfied : Micah vi. 6-8, ' Wherewith shall I come 
before the Lord, and bow myself before the high God ? shall I come 
before him with burnt-offerings, with calves of a year old ? Will the 
Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, or ten thousands of rivers of 
oil ? shall I give my first-born for my transgression, the fruit of my 
body for the sin of my soul ? He hath showed thee, man, what is 
good ; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to- 
love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God ? ' 

4. Keady access in prayer, with assurance of welcome and audience. 
In the name of the Lord Jesus, we may present our persons and sacri 
fices and prayers to God: Heb. x. 19, 'Having therefore, brethren, 
boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus/ When you come 
for any blessing, you may come with the more confidence ; you have- 


the blood of Christ to speak for you. Christ pleadeth it in heaven, and 
you must plead it on earth ; present to him his Son's blood as the 
ground of your request. 

Use 3. Of caution. Let us take heed of the slighting of the blood 
of Christ, and counting it a common thing, Heb. x. 29, KOWOV. So we 
count it when we think it hath no expiating or purging power, no better 
than the blood of bulls and goats, or the blood of an ordinary man, yea, 
of a malefactor. But who are so vile to think so ? 

1. It is done most grossly by all wicked apostates, who, for the fear 
and love of the world, cast off the truth. These seem formally to 
renounce their interest in Christ, and prefer every base thing before 
him : Heb. xii. 15, ' Looking diligently lest any man fail of the grace 
of God ; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and 
thereby many be defiled/ 

2. It is done by those who despise the benefits purchased thereby, the 
favour of God, the image of God. They that slight anything purchased 
by Christ's blood slight the blood of Christ itself. Our respect to the 
blood is judged by our respect to the benefits. He that despiseth the 
favour of God doth not make it his business to get it and keep it, but 
preferreth every paltry vanity and poor corruptible thing before it ; 
hath no esteem of Christ's merit and God's design, who sent his Son 
to procure it for us. So whosoever doth not esteem the image of God, 
which standeth in righteousness and true holiness, doth not esteem the 
blood of Christ : ' Knowing that ye were not redeemed with corruptible 
things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tra 
dition from your fathers ; but with the precious blood of Christ, as of 
a lamb without blemish and without spot,' 1 Peter i. 18, 19. It argueth 
lessening thoughts of Christ's blood, as if it were shed for trifles. 

3. Those who lessen the virtue, merit, and efficacy of this blood by 
their distrustful thoughts. We cannot think high enough of this 
sacred and precious blood. It is that blood by which Christ, ' entering 
into the holy place, obtained eternal redemption for us,' Heb. ix. 12 ; 
that ' blood which purgeth the conscience from dead works to serve 
the living God/ ver. 14 ; that blood that washeth away all stains, 1 
John i. 7 ; that blood which is the blood of the new testament, the 
ground of the everlasting covenant, Heb. xii. 24, wherein God promis- 
eth remission of sin, eternal life, and all needful grace, upon condition 
of repentance and faith in Christ. Upon this blood the covenant is 
grounded, and all the promises of it made firm, unalterable, and effec 
tual. Let us, therefore, with strong confidence trust to the efficacy 
thereof, and be encouraged thereby to wait upon God for grace, mercy, 
reconciliation, pardon, and finally eternal salvation. It is surely a great 
fault to think diniinishingly of Christ's love and mercy. 

4. Those who converse with the seals of the new covenant without 
preparation : 1 Cor. xi. 29, ' He that eateth and drinketh unworthily, 
eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's 
body ; ' prj Suuepfaw, not putting a difference. There is a discern 
ing speculatively and a discerning practically. The discerning specula- 
tively is when we are able to discourse of the meaning of these mystical 
rites ; practically, when we are suitably affected ; not discerning when 
we carry ourselves as if it were common meat and common food. The 


impressions of reverence, delight, holy awe, discover our practical dis 
cerning. To stamp upon the king's picture or coin in contempt is a 
contumely to the king. The injuries done to man, or killing a man, 
is aggravated because man is the image of God, Gen. ix. 6, James 
iii. 9. 

Use 4. Direction to us what to do when troubled with the terror of 
sin. There is a cry attributed to our sins ; the cry of our sins is gone 
up over our heads unto heaven. Sometimes they clamour in our con 
sciences. Oh ! remember the cry of Christ's blood; that speaks aloud in 
heaven, let it also speak in our consciences. Inanimate things speak 
by our thoughts ; Abel's blood by Cain's despairing fears, so Christ's 
blood by the joy of our faith. Kemember the apostle's challenge and 
triumph : Eom. viii. 33, 34, ' Who shall lay anything to the charge of 
God's elect ? It is God that justifieth ; who is he that condemneth ? 
It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at 
the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.' And 
Paul's boast : Gal. vi. 14, ' God forbid that I should glory, save in the 
cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto 
me, and I unto the world.' If you have felt the virtue of it, you will 
remember it. 







And so shall tve ever be with the Lord. 1 THES. iv. 17, the last clause. 

THE words are a consolation, brought by the apostle from the third 
heaven, where he was, by extraordinary privilege, raised, and saw and 
understood how great an happiness it is to be with Christ. And they 
are addressed to believers, to moderate and allay their sorrows for the 
death of those saints, who, by their conjunction in blood or friendship, 
were most dear to them. Thus he speaks in the thirteenth verse, ' I 
would not have you be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are 
asleep, that ye sorrow not as others which have no hope.' The heathens, 
that were strangers to a future state, and thought that, after a short course 
through the world, mankind would be lost for ever in the dead sea, might 
with some pretence abandon themselves to the extremity of their pas 
sions ; but Christians, to whom life and immortality are revealed by the 
gospel, who believed 'that as Jesus died and rose again, so all that sleep 
in Jesus/ that persevere in faith and holiness to the end, ' God will 
bring with him/ are forbid, upon the most weighty reasons, to indulge 
their grief in excess. The union between Christ and believers is inviol 
able ; and from thence it follows, they shall be partakers with him in 
his glory. The soul immediately after death shall be with Christ. 
While the body reposes in the grave, it is in his presence who is life 
and light, and has a vital, joyful rest in communion with him. And 
in the appointed time the bodies of the saints, those happy spoils, shall 
be rescued from the dark prison of the grave, and be sharers with their 
souls in immortal glory. 

This consummate happiness of the saints the apostle assures from 
highest the authority, * The word of the Lord ; ' and describes his glorious 
appearance so as to make the strongest impression on our minds : 'For 
the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the 
voice of an archangel, and with the trump of God ; and the dead in 
Christ shall rise first. Then we which are alive, and remain, shall be 
caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the 
air : and so shall we ever be with the Lord/ Then death, the last 
enemy, so fearful and feared by men, shall be destroyed ; and the cap 
tive prince of the world, with all the powers of darkness, and all other 
rebellious sinners that obstinately joined with him, shall be brought 
in chains before his dreadful tribunal ; and after the great act of the 
universal judgment shall be completed, then all the saints shall make 


their triumphant entry with the captain of their salvation into his 
kingdom, and ' shall ever be with the Lord/ 

The general proposition from the words is this : The saints after the 
resurrection shall be completely and eternally happy in the presence of 

To make this supernatural blessedness more easy and intelligible to 
us, the scripture describes it by sensible representations ; for whil 
the soul is clothed with flesh, fancy has such a dominion that we 
conceive of nothing but by comparisons and images taken from material 
things. It is therefore set forth by a feast and a kingdom, to signify 
the joy and glory of that state. But to prevent all gross conceits, it 
tells us that the bodies of the saints shall be spiritual ; not capable of 
hunger and thirst, nor consequently of any refreshment that is caused by 
the satisfaction of those appetites. The objects of the most noble senses, 
seeing and hearing, the pleasure of which is mixed with reason, and 
not common to the brutes, are more frequently made use of to reconcile 
that glorious state to the proportion of our minds. Thus sometimes 
the blessed are represented placed ' on thrones, with crowns on their 
heads ; ' sometimes ' clothed in white, with palms in their hands ; ' 
sometimes singing songs of triumph to ' him that sits on the throne/ 
and to their Saviour. But the reality of this blessedness infinitely 
exceeds all those faint metaphors. Heaven is lessened by comparisons 
from earthly things. The apostle who was dignified with the revela 
tion of the successes that shall happen to the church till time shall be 
no more, tells us, ' it does not appear what we shall be in eternity/ 
' The things that God has prepared for those that love him ' are far 
more above the highest ascent of our thoughts than the marriage-feast 
of a great prince exceeds in splendour and magnificence the imagination 
of one that has always lived in an obscure village, and never saw any 
ornaments of state, nor tasted wine in his life. We can think of those 
things but according to the poverty of our understandings. But so 
much we know that is able to sweeten all the bitterness, and render 
insipid all the sweetness of this world. 

This will appear by considering, that whatever is requisite to con 
stitute the perfect blessedness of man is fully enjoyed in the divine 

First, An exemption from all evils is the first condition of perfect 
blessedness. The sentence of wise Solon is true in another sense than 
he intended. 

Dicique beatus 

Ante obitum nemo, supremaque f unera debet. 

No man can be named happy whilst in this valley of tears. But uporo 
the entrance into heaven, all those evils that by their number, variety, 
or weight disquiet and oppress us, are at an end. 

Sin, of all evils the most hateful, shall be abolished, and all temp 
tations that surround us and endanger our innocence will cease. Here 
the best men lament the weakness of the flesh, and sometimes the 
violent assaults of spiritual enemies. St Paul himself breaks forth into 
a mournful complaint, ' wretched man that I am ! who shall deliver 
me from this body of d/eath ? ' And, when harassed with the bufferings- 


of Satan, renews his most earnest addresses to God to be freed from: 
them. Here our purity is not absolute ; we must be always cleansing 
ourselves from the relics of that deep defilement that cleaves to our 
nature. Here our peace is preserved with the sword in our hand, by 
a continual warfare against Satan and the world. But in heaven no 
ignorance darkens the mind, no passions rebel against the sanctified 
will, no inherent pollution remains. The church is c without spot or 
wrinkle, or any such thing/ And all temptations 'that war against 
the soul ' shall then cease. The tempter was cast out of heaven, and 
none of his poisoned arrows can reach that purified company. Glorious 
liberty ! here ardently desired, but fully enjoyed by the sons of God 

And as sin, so all the penal consequences of it are quite taken away. 
The present life is an incurable disease, and sometimes attended with 
that sharp sense that death is desired as a remedy and accepted as a 
benefit. And though the saints have reviving cordials, yet their joys 
are mixed with sorrows, nay, caused by sorrows. The tears of repent 
ance are their sweetest refreshment. Here the living stones are cut and 
wounded, and made fit by sufferings for a temple unto God in the 
new Jerusalem. But as in the building of Solomon's temple the noise 
of a hammer was not heard, for all the parts were framed before with 
that exact design and correspondence that they firmly combined 
together ; they were hewn in another place, and nothing remained 
but the putting them one upon another in the temple, and then, as 
sacred, they were inviolable ; so God, the architect, having prepared 
the saints here by many cutting afflictions, places them in the eternal 
building, where no voice of sorrow is heard. Of the innumerable com 
pany above, is there any eye that weeps, any breast that sighs, any 
tongue that complains, or appearance of grief ? The heavenly state is 
called ' life/ as only worthy of that title. There is no infirmity of 
body, no poverty, no disgrace, treachery of friends, no persecution of 
enemies : ' There is no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying, nor shall 
there be any more pain ; for former things are passed away/ Kev. xxi. 4; 
'God will wipe away all tears from the eyes of his people/ Their 
salvation is complete in all degrees. Pure joy is the privilege of heaven, 
unmixed sorrows the punishment of hell. 

A concurrence of all positive excellences is requisite to blessedness, 
and these are to be considered with respect to the entire man. 

I. The body shall be awaked out of its dead sleep, and quickened 
into a glorious immortal life. The soul and body are the essential parts 
of man ; and though the inequality be great in their operations thatj 
respect holiness, yet their concourse is necessary. Good actions are 
designed by the counsel and resolution of the Spirit, but performed by 
the ministry of the flesh. Every grace expresses itself in visible actions 
by the body. In the sorrows of repentance it supplies tears; in fastings 
its appetites are restrained ; in thanksgivings the tongue breaks forth 
into the joyful praises of God. All the victories over sensible pleasure 
and pain are obtained by the soul in conjunction with the body. Now 
it is most becoming the divine goodness not to deal so differently that 
the soul should be everlastingly happy, and the body lost in forgetful- 
ness; the one glorified in heaven, the other remain in the dust. From 


their first setting out in the world to the grave, they ran the same race, 
and shall enjoy the same reward. Here the body is the comfort of the 
soul in obedience and sufferings, hereafter in fruition. When the crown 
of purity or palm of martyrdom shall be given by the great Judge in 
the view of all, they shall both partake in the honour. Of this we 
have an earnest in the resurrection of Christ in his true body, who ' is 
the first-fruits of them that sleep/ 1 Cor. xv.21 ; ' He shall change our 
vile bodies, that they may be fashioned like to his glorious body, accord 
ing to the working of his power, whereby he is able to subdue all things 
to himself,' Phil. iii. 21. A substantial, unfading glory will shine in them 
infinitely above the perishing pride of this world, that is but in appear 
ance, like the false colours painted on the feathers of a dove by the 
reflection of the light, which presently vanish when it changeth its 
posture, or the light is withdrawn. Indeed, what can be more glorious 
than to be conformed to the humanity of Christ, the seat of all beauty 
and perfection ? This conformity shall be the work of his own hands. 
And when omnipotence interposes, nothing is difficult. The raising 
the body to an unchangeable state of glory is as easy to the divine 
power as the forming it at first in the womb ; as the sun labours no 
more in the mines in the forming gold and silver, the most precious 
&nd durable metals, than in the production of a poor short-lived flower. 

II. The soul shall be made perfect in all its faculties. 

1. The understanding shall clearly see the most excellent objects : 
' Now we know but in part/ 1 Cor. xiii. The naked beauty of divine 
things is veiled, and of impossible discovery ; and the weakness of the 
mind is not proportionable to their dazzling brightness. But when 
that which is perfect is come, ' then that which is in part shall be done 
away/ In that enlightened state the glorious manifestation of the 
objects shall as much exceed the clearest revealing of them here, as the 
Bun in its full lustre one beam of light strained through a crevice in 
the wall. And the understanding shall be prepared to take a full 
view of them. Therefore the apostle compares the several periods of 
the church, in respect of the degrees of knowledge, to the several ages 
of this life : * When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a 
child, I thought as a child ; but when I became a man, I put away 
childish things.' In children the organs, either from an excess of 
moisture or their smallness, are indisposed for the vigorous exercise of 
the mind ; some strictures of reason appear, a presaging sign what will 
be, but mixed with much obscurity ; but when the organs are come to 
their just proportion and temperament, the soul displays its strength 
and activity. 

All things of a supernatural order shall then be clearly discovered. 
The contrivance of our salvation, the ways of conducting us to blessed 
ness, which are objects of a sublime nature, will afford an exquisite plea 
sure to the understanding. All the secrets of our redemption shall be 
unsealed. The great mystery of godliness, the incarnation of the eter 
nal Son, and his according justice with mercy, shall then be apparent. 
The divine counsels in governing the world are now only visible in 
their wonderful effects, either of mercy or justice, and those most dread 
ful ; but the reasons of them are past finding out. But what our 
Saviour said to Peter, ' What I do thou knowest not now, but shalt 


know hereafter,' is applicable to these impenetrable dispensations. 
All the original fountains of wisdom, as clear as deep, shall then be 
opened. We shall then see the beauty of providence in disposing tem 
poral things in order to our eternal felicity. We now see, as it were, 
the rough part and knots of that curious embroidery, but then the 
whole work shall be unfolded, the sweetness of the colours and pro 
portion of the figures appear. There we shall be able to expound the 
perplexing riddle, how ' out of the eater came meat, and out of the 
strong came sweetness ; ' for ' we shall know as we are known.' 

We shall see God. Our Saviour tells us, ' This is life eternal, to 
know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.' 
The beginning and perfection of our happiness consists in this know 
ledge. The Deity is spiritual and invisible to the eye of the body, in 
finite and incomprehensible to the soul. But we shall then so clearly 
understand the divine perfections, that our present knowledge, compared 
to that, is but as the seeing a dark resemblance in a glass to the clear 
view of a person in the native beauty of his face. God is most glori 
ously present in heaven ; for according to the degrees of excellence in 
the work, such are the impressions and discoveries of the virtues of the 
cause. Now all sensible things in the low order of nature are but weak 
resultances from his perfections in comparison of their illustrious effects 
in the divine world. The glories of the place and of the inhabitants, 
the angels and saints, clearly express his majesty, goodness, and power. 
But in a transcendent manner he exhibits himself in the glorified 
Mediator. He is styled c the brightness of his Father's glory, and the 
express image of his person ; ' not only for his equal perfections in re 
spect of the unity of their nature, but to signify that God in the person 
of the incarnate Mediator is so fully represented to us, that by the sight 
of him we see God himself in his unchangeable excellences. This ap 
pears by the following words, that ' having purged us from our sins, he 
sat down on the right hand of the majesty on high ; * for they respect 
the Son of God as united to the human nature, in which he performed 
the office of the priesthood, and took possession of his glorious kingdom. 
During his humble state, the divine virtues, wisdom, goodness, holiness, 
power, were so visible in his person, life, revelations, and miraculous 
works, that when Philip so longed for the sight of the Father, as the 
only consummate blessedness, ' Show us the Father, and it suffices,' 
he told him, ' He that has seen me has seen the Father also/ But how 
brightly do they appear in his triumphant exaltation ! It was his 
prayer on earth, ' Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given 
me be with me where I am, that they may behold my glory.' Ines 
timable felicity ! Whether we consider him in the respect of an object 
that incomparably transcends all the created glory of heaven, or in the 
relation of our head, on a double account ; partly because he was de 
based into the form of a servant, and suffered all indignities and cruel 
ties of sinners for us, has received the recompense of his meritorious 
sufferings, the triumph of his victory, ' being glorified with the Father 
with the glory he had before the world was ; ' and partly because every 
member shall be conformed to him in his glory : ' We shall be like him, 
for we shall see him as he is.' And all felicity and glory is comprised 
in that promise. The sight of the face of Moses when radiant had no 



transforming efficacy, for the light of it was not in him as its source- 
but by derivation.- But God is light essentially, and the sight of h im 
perfections will be productive of his likeness in us, so far as it may be 
in a restrained subject. When our Saviour was upon the holy mount, and 
one vanishing beam of glory appeared in his transfiguration, Peter was 
so transported at the sight that he forgot the world and himself. How 
ravishing, then, will the sight of him be in his triumphant majesty, when 
we shall be transfigured ourselves ! 

2. As we shall behold God's face, know his most amiable excellences, 
so they shall love him as perfectly as they know him. To the illus 
trations of the mind there are correspondent impressions on the heart. 
In the present state our love is imperfect, and as fire out of its sphere,, 
dies away by our neglect to feed it with proper materials, enamouring 
considerations of God. But it is not so in heaven ; there the divine- 
sun attracts every eye with the light of its beauty, and inflames every 
heart with the heat of his love. The continual presence of God is in 
different respects the cause and effect of our love to him ; for there is 
no more powerful attractive to love him than to see him ; and love keeps 
the thoughts undivided from him. ' God is love,' and will kindle in 
us a pure affection that eternity shall never lessen. 

Our affections, that are now scattered on many things, wherein soma 
small reflections of his goodness appear, shall join in one full current 
in heaven, where God is all in all. We shall then understand the riches 
of his love, that God, who is infinitely happy in himself, should make 
man for such a glory, and such a glory for man ; and that when for 
his rebellion he was justly expelled from paradise, and under a sentence 
of eternal death, God should please to restore him to his favour, and to- 
give him a better state than was forfeited. We shall then understand our 
infinite obligations to the Son of God who descended from the heaven 
of heavens to our earth, and, which is more, from the majesty wherein 
he there reigned, from the glory wherein he was visible to the angelical 
minds, and became man for men, redemption for the lost, to purchase 
immortal life for those who were dead to that blessed life. In short, 
then God will express his love to us in the highest degrees that a 
finite creature is capable to receive from love itself, and we shall love- 
him with all the strength of our glorified powers. 

3. Complete satisfaction flows from union with God by knowledge- 
and love : ' In his presence is fulness of joy, and at his right hand 
are pleasures for ever/ The causes and excellences of the heavenly 
life are in those words expressed. The causes are the influxive pre 
sence of God, the revelation of his attractive perfections, the beholding 
his face, the declaration of his peculiar favour. This our blessed Lord 
himself had a respect to, as the complete reward of his sufferings : 
* Thou shalt make me full of joy with thy countenance.' And his 
right hand his bounty, that dispenses, and his power that secures, that 
felicity. The excellences of this state are fulness of joy, and that 
without diminution or end. 

When the soul opens its eyes to the clear discoveries of the first 
truth, and its breast to the dear and intimate embraces of the supreme 
good, beyond which nothing remains to be known, nothing to be en 
joyed, what a deluge of the purest pleasures will overflow it ! We- 


cannot ascend in our thoughts so high as to conceive the excess of joy 
that attends those operations of the glorified soul upon its proper object. 
But something we may conjecture. 

[1.] Those who are possessed with a noble passion for knowledge, how 
do they despise all lower pleasures in comparison of it ! how do they 
forget themselves, neglect the body, and retire into the mind, the 
highest part of man, and nearest to God ! The bare apprehension of 
such things that by their internal nature have no attractive influence 
upon the affections is pleasant to the understanding. As the appear 
ance of light, though not attended with any other visible beauties, 
refreshes the eye after long darkness ; so the clear discovery of truths, 
how abstract soever, that were before unknown, is grateful to the intel 
lective faculty. Thus some have been strangely transported with the 
pleasures of a mathematical demonstration, when the evidence, not the 
importance of the thing, was so ravishing ; for what is more dry and 
barren of delight than the speculation of figures and numbers ? Solon, 
when near his end, and some of his friends that visited him were 
speaking softly of a point of philosophy, by a sound of wisdom was 
awakened from the sleep of death that was just seizing on him, and 
opening his eyes, and raising his head to give attention, being asked 
the reason of it, answered, That when I understand what you are dis 
coursing of, I may die. 1 Such was his delight in knowledge, that a 
little of it made his agony insensible. But here are many imperfec 
tions that lessen this intellectual pleasure, which shall cease in heaven. 
Here the acquisition of knowledge is often with the expense of health ; 
the flower of the spirits, necessary for natural operations, is wasted by 
intense thoughts. How often are the learned sickly! As the flint 
when it is struck gives not a spark without consuming itself, so know 
ledge is obtained by studies that waste our faint, sensitive faculties. 
But then our knowledge shall be a free emanation from the spring of 
truth, without our labour and pains. Here we learn by circuit, and 
discern by comparing things ; our ignorance is dispelled by a gradual 
succession of light ; but then universal knowledge shall be infused in a 
moment. Here, after all our labour and toil, how little knowledge do 
we gain! Every question is a labyrinth, out of which the nimblest 
and most searching minds cannot extricate themselves. How many 
specious errors impose upon our understandings ! We look on things 
by false lights, through deceiving spectacles. But then our knowledge 
shall be certain and complete. There is no forbidden tree in the 
celestial paradise, as no inordinate affection. But suppose that all 
things in the compass of the world were known, yet still there would 
be emptiness and anguish in the mind ; for the most comprehensive 
knowledge of things that are insufficient to make us happy cannot 
afford true satisfaction. But then we shall see God in all his excel 
lences, the supreme object and end, the only felicity of the soul. _ How 
will the sight of his glory, personally shining in our Kedeemer, in the 
first moment quench our extreme thirst, and fill us with joy and 
admiration ! It is not as the naked conception of treasures, that only 
makes rich in ideas ; but that divine sight gives a real interest in him. 

1 Ut cum istud quicquid est de quo disputatis percepero, moriar. VAL. MAX. 


The angels are so ravished with the beauties and wonders of his face 
that they never divert a moment from the contemplation of it. 

[2.] The pure love of the saints to God is then fully satisfied. Love, 
considered as an affection of friendship, is always attended with two 
desires to be assured of reciprocal love, and to enjoy the conversation 
of the person beloved, the testimony of his esteem and good-will. This 
kind of affection 1 seems to be inconsistent with that infinite distance 
that is between God and the creature. But though it is disproportion- 
able to the divine majesty, it is proportionable to his goodness. 
Accordingly our Saviour promises, ' He that loves me shall be loved 
of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself unto him.' 
And to confirm our belief of this astonishing condescension, repeats it, 
' If a man love me, my Father will love him, and we will come to him, 
and make our abode with him/ In the present state, the signs of 
God's special favour are exhibited to his friends. Now he bestows on 
them the honour of being his sons, the graces and comforts of his 
Spirit, the precious earnests of his love, and 'seal of their redemption.' 
But in eminency of degrees, the effects of his love are incomparably 
more glorious in heaven. Here the saints are adopted, there crowned. 
There he opens all the bright treasure of his wisdom, the riches of his 
goodness, the beauties of his holiness, the glories of his power, and by 
the intimate application of his presence, makes his love most sensible 
to them. Oh the mutual Delights between God and glorified souls ! 
God looks on them with an engaged eye, as his own by many dear 
titles, and is well-pleased in his own goodness to them, and ravished 
with the reflex of his own excellences shining in them : ' As the 
bridegroom rejoices over the bride ' (it is the language of divine love), 
' so their God rejoices over them.' And what a blessed rest do they 
find in the complete fruition of their beloved \ All their desires 
quietly expire in his bosom. What triumphs of joy follow I Can we 
frame a fuller conception of happiness than to be perfectly loved by 
infinite goodness, and perfectly to love him ? 

The supreme joy of the saints is for the felicity and glory of God 
himself ; for as the holy soul feels no more powerful motive to love 
God than because he is most worthy of it, as he is God, a being of 
infinite excellences, and therefore to be loved above the dearest persons 
and things, even itself, so the highest joy it partakes of is from this 
consideration, that God is infinitely blessed and glorious. For in this 
the supreme desire of love is accomplished, that the most beloved object 
is perfectly honoured and pleased. In heaven the love of the saints to 
God is in its highest perfection, and they see his glory in the most 
perfect manner, which causes a transcendent joy to them. And this 
is one reason why the saints, though shining with unequal degrees of 
^lory, are equally content. For their most ardent love being set on 
God, that he is pleased to glorify himself by such various communica 
tions of his goodness, is full satisfaction to their desires. Besides, in 
those different degrees .of glory every one is so content with his own 2 
that there is no possible desire of being but what he is. 

1 Aristotle. 

2 Sic itaque habebit donum aliud alio minus, ut hie quoque donuin habeat ne velit 
amplius. AUG. 


4. The full joy of heaven shall continue without diminution or end. 

First, The number of possessors cannot lessen it. The divine pre 
sence is an unwasted spring of pleasure, equally full and open to all, 
and abundantly sufficient to satisfy the immensity of their desires. 
Envy reigns in this world, because earthly things are so imperfect in 
their nature, and so peculiar in their possession, that they cannot 
suffice, nor be enjoyed by all. But in heaven none is touched with 
that low, base passion ; for God contains all that is precious and 
desirable in the highest degrees of perfection, and all partake of the 
influence of his universal goodness without intercepting one another. 
In the kingdom above there is no cause for the elder brother to repine 
at the Father's bounty to the younger, nor for the younger to supplant 
the elder to obtain the birthright. The heirs of God are all raised to 
sovereign glory. Every one enjoys him as entirely and fully as if 
solely his felicity. God is a good, as indivisible as infinite, and not 
diminished by the most liberal communications of himself. We may 
illustrate this by comparing the price of our redemption and the 
reward. The death of Christ is an universal benefit to all the saints, 
yet it is so applied to every believer for his perfect redemption, as if 
our Saviour in all his agonies and sufferings had no other in his eye 
and heart ; as if all his prayers, his tears, his blood, were offered up to 
his Father only for that person. The common respect of it the apostle 
declares in those admirable words, that signify such an excess of God's 
love to us, ' He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for 
us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things ? ' But 
to imagine that 1 the propriety of every believer is thereby prejudiced, 
is not only false, but extremely injurious to the merit and dignity, and 
to the infinite love of Christ. Therefore the same apostle tells us, 
' The life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son 
of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me ; ' as if he were the 
sole object of Christ's love, the end and reward of his sufferings. And 
this appropriating of it to himself is no prejudice to the rights of all 
others. St John describes himself by that truly glorious title, ' The 
disciple whom Jesus loved.' Could he speak this of himself without 
the injury and indignation of the other disciples ? Certainly he might; 
for if we consider that incomprehensible love of Christ, expressed to them 
all at his last supper, after Judas was gone forth, * As the Father hath 
loved me, so have I loved you,' we may easily understand that every 
one of them might justly believe that he was singularly beloved of 
Christ. They were all received in the heart, though (with John) they 
did not all lean on the breast of their divine master. Thus in heaven 
God is the universal treasure of all the saints, and the peculiar portion 
of every one. 2 As by his essence he equally fills the whole world, 
and every part of it, and by his providence equally regards all and 
every particular creature ; so in heaven he dispenses the riches of his 
love to all, that they cannot desire more, if every one of them were (if 

1 Et totum se dedit universis et totum singulis. Ac per hoc quicquid passione sua 
Salvator prsestitit, sicut totum ei debent universi, sic singuli ; nisi quod prope hoc plus 
singuli quam universi, quod totum acceperunt singuli quantum universi. SALVIAN. 

2 Si audiat multitudo silens, non inter se particulatim comminunt sonos, tanquam 
cibos : sed omne quod sonat et omnibus totum est et singulis totum. AUGUST, in Epist. 
ad Volusian. 


I may so express it) the only-begotten of the Only-begotten himself, 
the sole heir of all the merits of his Son. Every saint may, with the 
inflamed spouse, break forth in that triumph of love, ' My beloved is 
mine, and I am his.' Nay, the great number of the glorified saints is 
so far from lessening their joy, that it unspeakably increases it : ' The 
innumerable company of angels, and the general assembly of the 
church of the First-born/ next to the happiness of enjoying God, are 
a chief part of heaven. An unfeigned ardent affection unites that pure 
society. Our love is now kindled, either from a relation in nature, or 
some visible excellences that render a person worthy of our choice and 
friendship ; but in heaven the reasons are greater, and the degrees of 
love incomparably more fervent. All carnal alliances and respects 
cease in that supernatural state. The apostle tells us, ' If I have 
known Christ after the flesh, I know him so no more/ By the resur 
rection and ascension of Christ he was transported into another world, " 
and had communion with him as an heavenly king, without low 
regards to the temporal privilege of conversing with him on earth. 
The spiritual relation is more near and permanent than the strictest 
band of nature. The saints have all relation to the same heavenly 
Father, and to Jesus Christ the Prince of peace, and head of that 
happy fraternity. The principal motive of love here is for the inherent 
excellences of a person. Wisdom, goodness, holiness, are mighty 
attractives, and produce a more worthy affection, a more intimate con 
federacy of souls, than propinquity in nature. David declares that 
'all his delight was in the excellent.' But there are allays of this 
noble love here. For 

[1.] There are relics of frailty in the best men on earth, some 
blemishes that render them less amiable when discovered. Here their 
graces are mixed infirmities, and but ascending to glory. Accordingly 
our love to them must be regular and serene ; not clouded with error, 
mistaking defects for amiable qualities. But in heaven the image 
of God is complete, by the union of all the glorious virtues requisite 
to its perfection. Every saint there exactly agrees with the first 
exemplar, is transformed according to the primitive beauty of holiness. 
No spot or wrinkle remains, or any such thing, that may cast the least 

^ect of deformity upon them. 
2.] In the present state, the least part of the saint's worth is visible ; 
as the earth is fruitful in plants and flowers, but its riches are in the 
mines of precious metals, the veins of marble hidden in its bosom. 
True grace appears in sensible actions, but its glory is within. The 
sincerity of aims, the purity of affections, the impresses of the Spirit 
on the heart, the interior beauties of holiness, are only seen by God. 
Besides, such is the humility of eminent saints, that the more they 
abound in spiritual treasures, the less they show; as the heavenly 
bodies, when in nearest conjunction with the sun, and fullest of light, 
make the least appearance to our sight. But all their excellences 
shall then be in view : ' The glory of God shall be revealed in them.' 
And how attractive is the divine likeness to an holy eye ! How will 
it ravish the saints to behold an immortal loveliness shining in one 
another ! Their love is mutual and reflexive, proportionable to the 
cause of it. An equal, constant flame is preserved by pure materials. 


Every one is perfectly amiable, and perfectly enamoured with all. 
Now can we frame a fuller conception of happiness than such a state 
of love, wherein whatever is pleasant in friendship is in perfection, and 
whatever is distasteful by men's folly and weakness is abolished. The 
psalmist breaks out in a rapture, ' Behold, how good and pleasant it is 
for brethren to dwell together in unity ! ' Love is the beauty and 
strength of societies, the pleasure of life. How excellent is the joy of 
the blessed, when the prayer of Christ shall be accomplished, that they 
till may be one ! ' As thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they 
also may be one in us.' God is absolutely one in his glorious nature 
and will, and therefore unalterably happy ; and their inviolable union 
in love is a ray of the essential unity between the sacred persons. 
There are no divisions of heart and tongues, as in this Babel, but the 
most perfect and sweetest concord, an eternal agreement in tempers 
and inclinations. There are no envious comparisons; for love, that 
affectively transforms one into another, causes the glory of every saint 
to redound to the joy of all. Every one takes his share in the felicity 
of all, and adds to it. Such is the power of that celestial fire wherein 
they all burn, that it melts, and mixes souls in such an entire union, 
that, by complaisance and an intimate joy, the blessedness of all is, as 
it were, proper to every one ; as if every one were placed in the hearts 
of all, and all in the heart of every one. If in the church of the first 
born Christians, in the earthly Jerusalem, the band of charity was so 
strict that it is said, ' the multitude of believers were of one heart and 
one soul ; ' how much more intimate and inseparable is the union of 
the saints in Jerusalem above, where every one loves another as 
himself ! 

It is recorded of Alexander, that entering with Hephasstion, his 
favourite, into the pavilion of Darius' mother, then his prisoner, she 
bowed to the favourite, as having a greater appearance of majesty, 
thinking him to be Alexander ; but advised of her error, she humbly 
begged his pardon ; to whom the generous king replied, 1 ' You did not 
<3rr, mother, for this is also Alexander.' Such was their affection, that 
whoever was taken of them, the other was taken in him ; the less 
ascending in the greater, without degrading the greater in the less. 
This is a copy of the holy love of the blessed ; but with the same dif 
ference as between the description of a star with a coal and its beauty 
in its proper aspect. And where all is love, all is delight. Oh, how 
do they enjoy and triumph in the happiness of one another ! With 
what an unimaginable tenderness do they embrace ! What recipro 
cations of endearments are between them ! Oh their ravishing conver 
sation and sweet intercourse ! for their presence together in heaven 
is not a silent show. In the transfiguration Moses and Elias talked 
with Christ. With what excellent discourses do they entertain one 
another ! If David felt such inward pleasure from the sense of God's 
favours that he could not restrain the expression of it, but invites the 
saints, ' Come and hear, all ye that fear the Lord, and I will tell you 
what he has done for my soul ; ' certainly in heaven, the blessed with 
-overflowing affections recount the divine benefits, the admirable methods 

1 Non errasti, mater, nam hie Alexander est. CUET. 1. 3. 


whereby the life of grace was begun, preserved, and carried on in the 
midst of temptations ; the continual succession of mercies in the time 
of their hopes, and the consummation of all in the time of their enjoy 
ment. How joyfully do they concur in their thanksgivings to God for 
the goodness of creation, in making them reasonable creatures, capable 
to know, love, and enjoy him when they might have been of the lowest 
order in the whole sphere of beings ; for his compassionate care and 
providence over them in this world. But especially for his sovereign* 
mercy in electing them to be vessels of honour ; for his powerful grace 
in rescuing them from the cruel and ignominious bondage of sin ; for 
his most free love, that justified them from all their guilt by the death 
of his only Son, and glorified them with himself. They are never 
weary in this delightful exercise, but continually bless him for his 
mercy that endures for ever. We may judge by the saints here, 
when they are in a fit disposition to praise God, what fervours they 
feel in their united praises of him in heaven. The psalmist in an 
ecstasy calls to all the parts of the world to join with him : ' The 
Lord reigns, let the heavens rejoice, and the earth be glad : let the 
sea roar, let the fields be joyful, and all that dwell therein.' He desires 
that nature should be elevated above itself, that the dead parts be inspired 
with life, the insensible feel motions of joy, and those that want a 
voice break forth in praises to adorn the divine triumph. With what 
life and alacrity will the saints in their blessed communion celebrate 
the object of their love and praises ! The seraphims about the throne 
cried to one another, to express their zeal and joy in celebrating his 
eternal purity and power, and the glory of his goodness. Oh the 
unspeakable pleasure of this concert, when every soul is harmonious^ 
and contributes his part to the full music of heaven ! Oh, could we 
hear but some echo of those songs wherewith the heaven of heavens re 
sounds, some remains of those voices wherewith the saints above triumph 
in the praises, in the solemn adoration of the King of spirits, how would 
it inflame our desires to be joined with them ! ' Blessed are those that 
are in thy house, they always praise thee.' 

[3.] The fulness of joy in heaven is undecaying, for the causes of it 
are always equal ; and those are, the beatific obj ect revealed, and the 
uninterrupted contemplation of it. 

Whilst we are here below, the sun of righteousness, as to our per 
ception and sense, has ascensions and declinations, accesses and recesses; 
and our earth is not so purified but some vapours arise that intercept 
his cheerful, refreshing light. From hence there are alternate succes 
sions of spiritual comforts and sorrows, of doubts and filial confidence 
in the saints. It is a rare favour of heaven when an humble believer 
in his whole course is so circumspect as not to provoke God to appear 
displeased against him ; when a Christian (as those tutelar angels 
spoken of in the gospel) always beholds the face of his heavenly 
Father, and converses with him with an holy liberty. And what a 
torment the hiding of God's face is to a deserted soul, only they know 
who feel it. External troubles are many times attended with more 
consolations to the spirit than afflictions to sense; but to love God 
with a transcendent affection, and to fear he is our enemy, no punish 
ment exceeds or is equal to it. As his loving-kindness in their esteem* 


is better than life, so his displeasure is worse than death. How do- 
they wrestle with God by prayers and tears, and offer, as it were, a 
holy violence to the king of heaven, to recover their first serenity of 
mind, the lost peace of heart ! How passionately do they cry out r 
with Job in the book of his patience, Job xxix. 2-4 ' Oh that I were as 
in months past, as in the days when God preserved me : when his 
candle shined upon my head, and when by his light I walked through 
darkness : as I was in the days of my youth, when the secret of God 
was upon my tabernacle.' And sometimes God delays the revealing 
himself even to his dearest children ; not that he does not see their 
necessities and hear their prayers, or is so hard that till their extremities 
he is not moved with compassion, but for wise and holy reasons ; either 
that they may not return to folly, if by any presumptuous sin they for 
feited their peace ; or if they have been careful to please him, yet he 
may deprive them of spiritual comforts for a time, to keep them humble, 
and that with an obedient resignation to his sovereign pleasure they 
may wait for his reviving presence. And then joy returns greater than 
before. For thus God usually renders with interest what he suspended 
only for trial. But the saints above are for ever enlightened with the 
vital splendour and dear regards of his countenance, always enjoy his 
beamy smiles. A continual effusion of glory illustrates heaven and all 
its blessed inhabitants. 

And their contemplation of God is fixed. If the object, though 
extraordinary glorious, were transient, or the eye so weak that it could 
only see it but by glances, the height of joy would not be perpetual ; 
but the mind is prepared with supernatural vigour to see the brightness 
of God's face, and by the most attentive application always converses 
with that blessed object, so that the joy of heaven is never intermitted 
for a moment. They always see, and love, and rejoice, and praise 

It is possible a carnal suspicion may arise in some, as if the uniform 
perpetual vision of the same glory might lose its perfect delightfulness ; 
for those who seek for happiness in the vanity of the creatures are always 
desirous of change, and have their judgments so corrupted, that while 
they languish with a secret desire after an unchangeable good, yet they 
conceive no good as desirable that is not changed. 

But to correct this gross error of fancy, let us a little inquire into 
the causes of dissatisfaction, that make the constant fruition of the same 
thing here to be tedious. 

(1.) Sensible things are of such a limited goodness, that not any of 
them can supply all our present wants, so that it is necessary to leave 
one for another. And the most of them are remedies of our diseased 
appetites, and, if not temperately used, are destructive evils. Eating 
and drinking are to extinguish hunger and thirst, but continued beyond 
just measure become nauseous. 

Besides the insufficiency of their objects, the senses themselves can 
not be satisfied all at once. The ear cannot attend to delightful sounds, 
and the eye cannot be intent on beautiful colours at the same time.- 
The satisfaction of one sense defeats another of enjoying its proper 
good ; therefore the same object is not constantly pleasant, but the^heart 
is distempered from as many causes as there are desires unaccomplished, 


Add further, all things under the sun afford only a superficial delight, 
and miserably deceive the expectations raised of them ; and many 
times there is a mixture of some evil in them that is more offensive 
than the good is delightful. The honey is attended with a sting, so 
that often those things we sigh after through vehement desire, when 
they are obtained, we sigh for grief. Now all these causes of dissatisfac 
tion cease in heaven ; for 1 God is an infinite good, and whatever is truly 
-desirable and precious is in him in all degrees of perfection. And in 
his presence all the powers of the soul are drawn out in their most plea 
sant exercise, and always enjoy their entire happiness. The fruition 
of him exceeds our most raised hopes, as much as he is more glorious 
in himself than in any borrowed representations. God will be to us 
incomparably above what we can ask or think. The compass of our 
thoughts, the depth of our desires, are imperfect measures of his per 
fections. As he is a pure good in himself, so he is prevalent over all 
evil. It is evident, therefore, that nothing can allay the joys of saints 
when they are in God's presence. 

(2.) Novelty is not requisite to ingratiate every good, and make it 
perfectly delightful. 2 God is infinitely happy, to whom no good was 
ever new. It is indeed the sauce that gives a delicious taste to inferior 
tilings ; for men relish only what is eminent, and the good things of 
this world are so truly mean, that they are fain to borrow a show of 
greatness by comparison with a worse estate preceding. But an infinite 
good produces always the same pure, equal, complete joy, because it 
arises from its intrinsic perfection, that wants no foil to commend it. 
The psalmist breaks forth, ' Whom have I in heaven but thee ? ' This 
is no vanishing rapture, but a constant joyful height of affection. God, 
the essential happiness of the saints, is always perfectly lovely and de- 
lightly to them. 

(3.) The glorified saints, in every period of their happy state, have 
as lively a perception of it as in the beginning. To make this evident, 
we must consider that the pleasure of novelty springs from a quick 
sense of the opposite terms between our condition in the want of some 
<lesired good and after our obtaining it. Now the mind is more intense 
on the advantage, and more strongly affected at first. One newly freed 
from the torments of a sharp disease feels a greater pleasure than from 
a constant tenor of health. Those who are raised from a low state to 
an eminent dignity are transported with their first change ; but in tract 
of time the remembrance of their mean condition is so weakened and 
spent, that it is like the shadow of a dream, and proportionably their 
joy is lessened. Honours, like perfumes, by custom are less sensible to 
those that carry them. But the saints above always consider and feel 
the excellent difference between their suffering and triumphant state. 
They never lose that ravishing part of felicity, the vivid sense of past 
evils. Their reflections are always as strong on the misery from whence 

1 Vitse nos tsedium tenet, timor mortis natat omne consilium, nee implere nos ulla 
fcelicitas potest. Causa autem est, quod non pervenimus ad illud bonum immensum et 
insuperabile, ubi necesse est consistat nobis voluntas nostra, quia ultra summum non est 
locus. SEN. Ep. 74. 

Et ij (pijffis ttTrX?) elrj i) ai/TT) irpd^is ydtcrrrj cTQ.l. Alb 6 Qeos alei p.iav /cat curX?}?' ^atpei 
v. AEIST. ETH. lib. vii. c. ult. 


they were raised to the pitch of happiness as in their first glorious tran 
slation. In what an ecstasy of wonder and pleasure will they be, from 
the fresh memory of what they were, and the joyful sense of what they 
are ! I was (says the admiring soul) poor, blind, and naked ; but, 
miraculous and happy alteration I I am full of light, enriched with the 
treasures of heaven, adorned with divine glory. I was under the 
tyrannous power of Satan, but he is bruised under my feet. I was 
sentenced to an everlasting separation from the presence of God, my 
only life and joy ; but now am possessed of my supreme good. Oh, 
how transporting is the comparison of these wide and contrary extremes ! 
How beautiful and pleasant is the day of eternity after such a dark, 
tempestuous night ! How does the remembrance of such evils produce 
a more lively and feeling fruition of such happiness ! How strangely 
and mightily does salvation with eternal glory affect the soul ! This 
gives a sprightly accent to their everlasting hallelujahs. This preserves 
an affectionate heat in their thanksgiving to their victorious deliverer. 
And thus their happiness is always the same, and always new. Their 
pleasure is continued in its perfection. 

Lastly, The blessedness of the saints is without end; this makes 
heaven to be itself. There is no satiety of the present, no solicitude 
for the future. Were there a possibility or the least suspicion of losing 
that happy state, it would cast an aspersion of bitterness upon all their 
delights ; they could not enjoy one moment's repose. But the more 
excellent their happiness is, the more stinging would their fear be of 
parting with it. But ' the inheritance reserved in heaven is immortal, 
undefined, and fades not away ; ' and the tenure of their possession is 
infinitely firm by the divine power, the true support of their everlasting 
duration: 'With God is the fountain of life.' They enjoy a better 
immortality than the tree of life could have preserved in Adam. The 
revolutions of the heavens andTages are under their feet, and cannot iri 
the least alter or determine their happiness. After the passing of 
millions of years, still an entire eternity remains of their enjoying God. 
O most desirable state ! where blessedness and eternity are inseparably 
united. joyful harmony! when the full chorus of heaven shall 
sing, * This God is our God for ever and ever.' This adds an infinite 
weight to their glory. This redoubles their unspeakable joys with in 
finite sweetness and security. They repose themselves in the complete 
fruition of their happiness. God reigns in the saints, and they live in 
him for ever. 

From what has been discoursed we should 

1. Consider the woful folly of men in refusing such an happiness, that, 
by the admirable favour of God, is offered to their choice. Can there 
be an expectation or desire or capacity in man of enjoying an happi 
ness beyond what is infinite and eternal ? blind and wretched 
world ! so careless of everlasting felicity ! Who can behold without 
compassion and indignation men vainly seeking for happiness where 
it is not to be found, and after innumerable disappointments, fly to an 
impossibility, and neglect their sovereign and final blessedness ? 
Astonishing madness, that God and heaven should be despised in com 
parison of painted trifles ! This adds the greatest contumely to their 
impiety. What powerful charm obstructs their true j udgirig of things ? 



3 am 

What spirit of error possesses them ? Alas ! eternal ' things are 
unseen,' not of conspicuous moment, and therefore in the carnal 
balance are esteemed light against temporal things present to the 
sense : ' It does not appear what we shall be.' The veil of the visible 
heavens covers the sanctuary, where Jesus, our high priest, is entered, 
and stops the inquiring eye. 

But have we not assurance by the most infallible principles of faith 
that the Son of God came down from heaven to live with us and die 
for us, and that he rose again to confirm our belief in his ' exceeding 
great and precious promises ' concerning this happiness in the future 
state ? And do not the most evident principles of reason and universal 
experience prove that this world cannot afford true happiness to us ?' 
How wretchedly do we forfeit the prerogative of the reasonable nature 
by neglecting our last and blessed end ! If the mind be darkened that 
it does not see the amiable excellences of God, and the will so depraved 
that it does not feel their ravishing power, the man ceases to be a man, 
and becomes like the beasts that perish ; as a blind eye is no longer an 
eye, being absolutely useless to that end for which it was made. And 
though in this present state men are stupid and unconcerned, yet 
hereafter their misery will awaken them, discover what is that supreme 
good wherein their perfection and felicity consists. When their folly 
shall be exposed before God, angels, and saints, in what extreme con 
fusion will they appear before that glorious and immense theatre !" 
Our Saviour told the unbelieving Jews, ' There shall be weeping and 
gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob; 
and all the prophets in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves turned 
out.' They shall be tortured with the desire of happiness without 
possible satisfaction. It is most just that those who err without excuse 
should repent without remedy. 

2. Let us be excited seriously to apply ourselves in the use of effec 
tual means for the obtaining this happiness. Indeed the original cause 
of it is the pure, rich mercy of God; the meritorious is the most 
precious obedience of^ our Saviour, by whom we obtain plenteous 
redemption. His abasement is the cause of our exaltation. The 
wounds he received in his body, the character of ignominy, and footsteps 
of death, are the fountains of our glory : ' Eternal life is the gift of 
God through Jesus Christ our Lord.' But the gospel declares, ' that 
without holiness no man shall see God.' An holy change of our 
natures, and perseverance in the course of universal obedience, are 
indispensably requisite in order to our obtaining heaven : ' Those who 
by patient continuance in well-doing seek for glory, honour, and 
immortality, shall partake of eternal life.' Now, were there no other 
reason of this constitution but the sovereign will of God, it were suffi 
cient. But the foundation of it is laid in the nature of the things 
themselves. Therefore our Saviour does not simply declare that an 
unregenerate person shall not see the kingdom of God, but with the 
greatest emphasis, cannot, to signify an absolute impossibility of it. 
Beside the legal bar that excludes unsanctified persons from the 
beatific vision of God, there is a moral incapacity. Suppose that 
justice should allow omnipotence to translate such a sinner to heaven, 
would the place make him happy? Can two incongruous natures 


delight in one another ? The happiness of sense is by an impression of 
pleasure from a suitable object. The happiness of intellectual Beings arises 
from an entire conformity of dispositions. So that unless God recede 
from his holiness, which is absolutely impossible, or man be purified 
and changed into his likeness, there can be no sweet communion 
"between them. Our Saviour assigns this reason of the necessity of 
regeneration in order to our admission into heaven : ' That which is 
born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit/ 
According to the quality of the principle, such is what proceeds from it. 
The flesh is a corrupt principle, and accordingly the natural man is 
wholly carnal in his propensions, operations, and end. The disease is 
turned into his constitution. He is dead to the spiritual life, to the 
actions and enjoyments that are proper to it. Nay, there is in him a 
surviving principle of enmity to that life ; not only a mortal coldness to 
God, but a stiff aversion from him, a perpetual resistance and impa 
tience of the divine presence that would disturb his voluptuous enjoy 
ments. The exercises of heaven would be as the torments of hell to 
liim, while in the midst of those pure joys his inward inclinations 
vehemently run into the lowest lees of sensuality. And therefore till 
this contrariety, so deep and predominant in an unholy person, be 
removed, it is utterly impossible he should enjoy God with satisfaction. 
Holiness alone prepares men for the possession of celestial happiness 
that is against the corruption and above the perfection of mere nature. 

' Let us then, having such a joy set before us, lay aside every weight, 
^nd the sin which doth so easily beset us, and run with patience the 
race that is set before us, looking to Jesus, the author and finisher of 
our faith.' Methinks the sight of worldly men, so active and vigilant 
to prosecute their low designs, should quicken us to seek with the 
greater diligence and alacrity ' the kingdom of heaven, and the right 
eousness thereof.' A carnal wretch, urged by the sting of a brutish 
desire, with what impatience does he pursue ' the pleasure of sin, which 
is but for a season ! ' An ambitious person, with what an intemperate 
height of passion does he chase a feather ! A covetous man, how 
greedily does he prosecute the advantages of the present world that 
pass away, and the lusts thereof ! Ah ! how do they upbraid our 
indifferent desires, or dull delays, and cold endeavours, when such an 
high prize is set before us ! Who is able to conceive the excess of 
pleasure the soul feels when it first enters through the beautiful gate 
of paradise, and sees before it that incomprehensible glory, and hears 
a voice from him that sits upon the throne, ' Enter into thy Master's 
joy,' for ever to be happy with him ? The serious belief of this will 
draw forth all our active powers in the service 01 God. The feeding by 
lively thoughts on this supernatural food will add new vigour and 
lustre to our graces, and make our victory easy over the world. If we 
believe indeed that our bodies shall be spiritual, and our souls divine 
in their perfections, it will make us resolute to subdue the rebel flesh 
and rescue the captived spirit from all entanglements of iniquity: 
* Having the promise of such an excellent reward, let us always abound 
in the work of the Lord.' 

3. The lively hope of this blessedness is powerful to support us 
tinder the greatest troubles can befall us in this our mortal condition. 


fter we 

Here we are tossed upon the alternate waves of time, but hereafter 
shall arrive at the port, the blessed bosom of our Saviour, and enjoy a 
peaceful calm : ' And so we shall ever be with the Lord.' Words of 
infinite sweetness I This is the song of our prosperity and charm of our 
adversity : ' We shall ever be with the Lord/ Well might the apostle 
add immediately after, ' Therefore comfort one another with these 

More particularly, they are a lenitive to moderate our sorrows upon 
the departure of our dearest friends who die in the Lord ; for they 
ascend from this valley of tears to the happy land of the living. What 
father is so deserted of reason as to bear impatiently the parting with 
his son, that goes over a narrow part of the sea to a rich and pleasant 
country, and receives the investiture and peaceable possession of a 
kingdom ? Nay, by how much the stronger his love is, so much the 
more transporting is his joy ; especially if he expects shortly to be 
with him, to see him on the throne, in the state of a king, and to par 
take of his happiness. If, then, it be impossible to nature to be 
grieved at the felicity of one that is loved, according to what principle 
of nature or faith do believers so uncomfortably lament the death of 
friends, of whom they have assurance that, after their leaving our 
earth, they enter into an everlasting kingdom, to receive a crown of 
glory from Christ himself ? Our Saviour tells the disciples, ' If ye 
loved me, ye would rejoice because I said I go to my Father/ to sit 
down at his right hand in majesty. A pure affection directly ter 
minates in the happiness and exaltation of the person that is loved. 
I am not speaking against the exercise of tender affections on the loss 
of our dear friends, and the pensive feeling of God's hand in it, which 
is a natural and necessary duty. There is a great difference between 
stupidity and patience ; but violent passion or unremitting sorrow is- 
most unbecoming the blessed hope assured to us in the gospel. 

Chrysostom, treating of this argument, and reflecting upon the 
custom of those times, wherein at funeral solemnities a train of mourn 
ing women attended the corpse, tearing their hair and face, and crying 
out with all the expressions of desperate sorrow, breaks forth, ' Ah, 
Christian faith and religion ! that was triumphant over thine enemies 
in so many battles and victories by the blood and death of the martyrs, 
how art thou contradicted by the practice of these who profess thee in 
words ! Is this not to be sorrowful as those that have no hope ? Are 
these the affections, the expressions of one that believes the blessedness 
of immortal life? What will the heathens say? How will they be 
induced to believe the promises of Christ to his servants of a glorious 
kingdom, when those who are so in title, behave themselves as if they 
had no steadfast faith in them ? ' 

4. The hopes of this blessed state is able to free us from the fear of 
death. This last enemy gives a hot alarm to mankind, both as it 
deprives them of all that is pleasant here, and for the terrible con 
sequences that attend it. To the eye of sense, a dead body is a spectacle 
of fearful appearance. He that a little before heard and discoursed, 
and with a cheerful air conversed and enjoyed the world, now is dead, 
and all his senses in him ; the eyes are dead to light, and the ears to 
sounds, the tongue to words, the heart to feel any affections, and the 


countenance to discover them; nothing remains but silence, horror, 
and corruption. Besides, ' after death comes judgment,' and a state of 
unrelenting torments to the wicked. But a true believer, that has 
been obedient to his Saviour, sees things by another light than that of 
sense, and has living hopes in his dying agonies. He knows that 
death to the saints is but a sleep ; and while the body rests in the 
grave, the soul is, as it were, all act, continually exercising its most 
noble faculties on the best objects. Does the soul sleep in that all- 
enlightened world, that sees with open face the infinite beauty of God ? 
that hears and bears a part in the hymns of the angels and saints 
encircling his throne ? that drinks of the rivers of pleasure that flow 
from his presence? that freely and joyfully converses with all the 
celestial courtiers, the princes of that kingdom, the favourites of God ? 
Then it truly lives. This reconciles death to a Christian, who has 
nothing more in his wishes than to be with Christ, and knows that 
diseases and pains, the forerrunners of it, are but as breaking down 
the walls of this earthly dark prison, that the soul may take its flight 
to the happy region, and for ever enjoy the liberty of the sons of God. 
And for his body, that shall be reunited to the soul in glory. Me- 
thinks God speaks to a dying believer as he did to Jacob when he was 
to descend to Egypt, ' Fear not to go down into the grave ; I will go 
down with thee, and I will bring thee up again.' The same almighty 
voice that gave being to the world shall awake those who sleep in the 
dust, and reform them according to the example of Christ's glorified body. 
Oh, how should we long for that triumphant day, and with most ardent 
aspirings pray, ' Thy kingdom come in its full power and glory ? ' 

I shall now come to speak of the mournful subject, the cause of my 
appearing here at this time, the deceased reverend and excellent 
divine, Dr Thomas Manton, a name worthy of precious and eternal 
memory. And I shall consider him both in the quality of his office, 
as he was an ambassador of Christ, declaring his mind and represent 
ing his authority, and in the holiness of his person, showing forth the 
graces and virtues of his divine Master. 

God had furnished him with a rare union of those parts that are 
requisite to form an excellent minister of his word. A clear judgment, 
rich fancy, strong memory, and happy elocution met in him, and were 
excellently improved by his diligent study. 

The preaching of the word is the principal part of the minister's- 
duty, most essential to his calling, and most necessaiy to the church. 
For this end chiefly the several orders in the ministerial office were 
instituted (Eph. iv.) ; and upon our Saviour's triumphant ascent and 
reception into heaven, an abundant effusion of the Spirit in graces and 
abilities descended upon men. Now, in the performing this work he^ 
was of that conspicuous eminence that none could detract from him 
but from ignorance or envy. 

He was endowed with extraordinary knowledge in the scriptures, 
those holy oracles from whence all spiritual light is derived ; and in his 
preaching gave such a perspicuous account of the order and depend 
ence of divine truths, and with that felicity applied the scriptures to 
confirm them, that every subject by his management was cultivated 


and improved. His discourses were so clear and convincing, that 
none, without offering voluntary violence to conscience, could resist 
their evidence. And from hence they were effectual, not only to in 
spire a sudden shame, and raise a short commotion in the affections, 
but to make a lasting change in the life. For in the human soul, 
such is the composition of its faculties, that till the understanding be 
rectified in its apprehensions and estimations, the will is never induced 
to make an entire, firm choice of what is necessary for the obtaining 
perfect happiness. A sincere, persevering conversion is effected by 
weighty reasons, that sink and settle in the heart. 

His doctrine was uncorrupt and pure, c The truth according to god 
liness.' He was far from a guilty, vile intention to prostitute that 
sacred ordinance for the acquiring any private secular advantage. 
Neither did he entertain his hearers with impertinent subtleties, empty 
notions, intricate disputes, dry and barren without productive virtue ; 
-but as one that always had before his eyes the great end of the min 
istry, the glory of God and the salvation of men, his sermons were 
directed to open their eyes, that they might see their wretched con 
dition as sinners, to hasten their flight from the wrath to come, to 
.make them humbly, thankfully, and entirely receive Christ as their 
prince and all-sufficient saviour, and to 'build up the converted in 
their most holy faith, and more excellent love,' that is ' the fulfilling 
-of the law.' In short, to make true Christians eminent in knowledge 
-and universal obedience. 

As the matter of his sermons was designed for the good of souls, 
so his way of expression was proper to that end. Words are the 
vehicle of the heavenly light. As the divine wisdom was incarnate to 
Teveal the eternal counsels of God to the world, so spiritual wisdom in 
the mind must be clothed with words to make it sensible to others. 
And in this he had a singular talent. His style was not exquisitely 
studied, not consisting of harmonious periods, but far distant from 
vulgar meanness. His expression was natural and free, clear and 
-eloquent, quick and powerful, without any spice of folly, and always 
suitable to the simplicity and majesty of divine truths. His sermons 
afforded substantial food with delight, so that a fastidious mind could 
not disrelish them. He abhorred a vain ostentation of wit in handling 
-sacred things, so venerable and grave, and of eternal consequence. 
Indeed, what is more unbecoming a minister of Christ than to waste 
the spirits of his brain, as a spider does his bowels, to spin a web only 
to catch flies, to get vain applause by foolishly pleasing the ignorant ? 
And what cruelty is it to the -souls of men ! It is recorded as an 
instance of Nero's savage temper (Suetonius), that in a general famine, 
when many perished by hunger, he ordered a ship should come from 
Egypt (the granary of Italy) laden with sand for the use of wrestlers. 
In such extremity to provide only for delight, that there might be 
spectacles on the theatre, when the city of Eome was a spectacle of 
such misery as to melt the heart of any but a Nero, was most barbarous 
cruelty. But it is cruelty of a heavier imputation for a minister to 
prepare his sermons to please the foolish curiosity of fancy with flashy 
conceits ; nay, such light vanities that would scarce be endured in a 
scene, whiles hungry souls languish for want of solid nourishment. 


"His fervour and earnestness in preaching was such as might soften 
and make pliant the most stubborn, obdurate spirits. I am not speak 
ing of one whose talent was only in voice, that labours in the pulpit as 
if the end of preaching were for the exercise of the body, and not for 
the profit of souls ; 1 but this man of God was inflamed with an holy 
zeal, and from thence such ardent expressions broke forth as were 
capable to procure attention and consent in his hearers. He spake as 
one that had a living faith within him of divine truths. From this 
union of zeal with his knowledge he was excellently qualified to convince 
and convert souls. The sound of words only strikes the ear, but the 
mind reasons with the mind, and the heart speaks to the heart. 

His unparalleled assiduity in preaching declared him very sensible of 
those dear and strong obligations that lie upon ministers to be very 
diligent in that blessed work. What a powerful motive our Saviour 
urged upon St Peter ! John xxi. 'As thou lovest me, feed my sheep, 
feed my lambs.' And can any feed too much when none can love 
enough ? Can any pains be sufficient for the salvation of souls, for 
which the Son of God did not esteem his blood too costly a price ? Is 
not incessant, unwearied industry requisite to advance the work of grace 
in them to perfection ? In this the work of a minister has its peculiar 
disadvantage. That whereas an artificer, how curious and difficult 
soever his work be, yet has this encouragement, that what is begun 
with art and care he finds in the same state wherein it was left ; a 
painter, that designs an exact piece, draws many lines, often touches 
it with his pencil to give it life and beauty, and though unfinished, it 
is not spoiled by his intermission ; a sculptor, that carves a statue, 
though his labour be hard from the resistance of the matter, yet his 
work remains firm and durable ; but the heart of man is of a strange 
temper, hard as marble, not easily receptive of heavenly impressions, 
yet fluid as water. Those impressions are easily defaced in it ; it is 
exposed to so many temptations that induce an oblivion of eternal 
things, that without frequent excitations to quicken and confirm its 
holy purposes, it grows careless, and all the labour is lost that was 
spent on it. This faithful minister ' abounded in the work of the 
Lord ;' and, which is truly admirable, though so frequent in preaching, 
yet was always superior to others, and equal to himself. In his last 
time, when declining to death, yet he would not leave his beloved 
work, the vigour of his mind supporting the weakness of his body. I 
remember when, oppressed with an obstinate hoarseness, a friend desir 
ing him to spare himself, he rejected the advice with indignation. 

He was no fomenter of faction, but studious of the public tranquillity. 
He knew what a blessing peace is, and wisely foresaw the pernicious 
consequences that attend divisions. By peace, the bond of mutual 
harmony, the weakest things are preserved and prosper ; but where 
discord reigns, the strongest are near to ruin. The heavenly consent 
in the primitive church was a principal cause of its miraculous increase 
and flourishing; but after dissensions prevailed amongst Christians, 
that was destroyed in a short time which was built by the divine union 
and heroic patience of the primitive Christians, and the glorious begin- 

1 Si sudare aliter non potes, est aliud. 


nings that promised the reformation of all Europe were more obstructed 
by the dissensions of some employed in that blessed work, than by all 
the power and subtlety, the arms and artifices of Korae itself. How 
afflictive is the consideration of our divided church ! Sweet peace ! 
whither art thou fled ? Blessed Saviour ! who didst by thy precious 
blood reconcile heaven and earth, sent down thy Spirit to inspire us 
with that wisdom that is pure and peaceable, that those who agree in 
the same principles of faith, in the same substantial parts of worship, 
in asserting the same indispensable necessity of holiness, may receive 
one another in love. I am affectionately engaged in a matter that so 
nearly touches all those that value the Protestant interest. 

Briefly, Consider him as a Christian ; his life was answerable to his 
doctrine. It is applicable to some ministers, what is observed of the 
carbuncle, by its colour, lustre, and fiery sparklings, it seems to be 
actually a fire, but it has only the name and appearance of it. Thus 
some in the pulpit seem to be all on fire with zeal, yet their hearts 
are as cold as a stone, without holy affections, and their lives are 
unworthy their divine ministration. But this servant of God was like 
a fruitful tree, that produces in its branches what it contains in the 
root ; his inward grace was made visible in a conversation becoming 
the gospel of Christ. 

His resolute contempt of the world secured him from being wrought 
on by those motives that tempt low spirits from their duty. He would 
not rashly throw himself into troubles, nor, spreta conscientia, avoid 
them. His generous constancy of mind in resisting the current of 
popular humour declared his loyalty to his divine Master. His charity 
Avas eminent in procuring supplies for others when in mean circum 
stances himself. But he had great experience of God's fatherly provision, 
to which his filial confidence was correspondent. 

His conversation in his family was holy and exemplary, every day 
instructing them from the scriptures in their duty. 

I shall finish my character of him with observing his humility. He 
was deeply affected with the sense of his frailties and un worthiness. 
He considered the infinite purity of God, the perfection of his law, the 
rule of our duty, and by that humbling light discovered his manifold 
defects. He expressed his thoughts to me a little before his death : If 
the holy prophets were under strong impressions of fear upon the 
extraordinary discovery of the divine presence, how shall we poor 
creatures appear before that holy and dread majesty ? Isaiah, after his 
glorious vision of God, reflecting upon himself, as not retired from the 
commerce and corruption of the world, breaks forth, ' Woe is me, for 
I am undone ! because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in 
the midst of a people of unclean lips ; for mine eyes have seen the 
King, the Lord of hosts/ It is infinitely terrible to appear ' before 
God, the judge of all,' without the protection of * the blood of the 
sprinkling, that speaks better things than the blood of Abel.' This 
alone relieved him, and supported his hopes. Though his labours were 
abundant, yet he knew that the work of God, passing through our 
hands, is so blemished, that, without an appeal to pardoning mercy and 
grace, we cannot stand in judgment. This was the subject of his last 
public sermon. 


He languished many months, bnt presuming he should be too strong 
for his infirmity, neglected it, till at last it became insuperable and 
mortal. Many pathetical aggravations heighten our great and dear 
loss; that such a faithful minister of Christ should be taken away, 
whose preaching was so powerful to repair the woful ruins of godliness 
and virtue in a degenerate age ; whose prudent, pacific spirit rendered 
him so useful in these divided times, when professors of the same 
religion are alienated from one another, as if they had been baptized 
with the waters of strife ; that before our tears had dried up for the 
loss of other worthy ministers, the fountain of sorrow should be opened 
again by this afflicting stroke. But it becomes us to receive the dispen 
sations of heaven with humble and quiet submission, to reflect upon 
our sins with an holy grief , that provoke God to remove such an excel 
lent instrument of his glory from us. Let us pray to the Lord of the 
harvest, that he will send forth faithful labourers into it. Oh that sur 
viving ministers might be animated with a zeal more pure and fervent 
in their divine work, and that people would be wise, while a price is 
put it into their hands to improve it for their eternal advantage ! The 
neglected gospel will at last be a terrible witness against the disobedient, 
to justify and aggravate their condemnation. 





Abasements, great, often go before glory, iii. 459. 

Abasures and sufferings for Christ, the greatest, are an honour to us, iv. 65. 

Abel, the first pattern of faith, xiii. 435 ; a type of Christ, 436. 

Abilities, men of great, unsanctified, are ordinarily the devil's greatest agents, 

and factors for his kingdom, ii. 320. 
Natural, soon depraved with evil habits, v. 267. 

Abraham, the prime example arid ideal of justification, iv. 244 ; on the offer 
ing of Isaac received a justification of his faith, though thirty years 
before he had received the justification of his person, 245. 
Received the promises with all humility, and improved them with much 

fidelity, iv. 246. 

The greatness of his temptation, iv. 252 ; the readiness of his obedi 
ence, ib. 

His life a continual practice of faith, xiv. 224 ; the ground of his faith, 
ib. ; the nature of his call, ib. the effect and influence of his faith 
upon this call, 226 ; the excellency of his obedience, ib. 
In his faith three things were notable his patience, his contentment, 

and his constancy, xiv. 252 ; this the property of all faith, 253. 
Absent from the Lord, how believers are, while yet he dwelleth in them, xiii. 8. 
Abundance of the rich doth not excuse their living in luxury, iv. 412. 

The comfort of our lives lieth not in, xviii. 198 ; there is danger in, ib. ; 
brings greater cares and troubles, 199 ; involves greater accounts, 
ib. ; at death, not the possession, but the use, will comfort, ib. 
Worldly, man's happiness lieth not in, but in God's presence with him 

and providence over him, xviii. 449. 
Acceptance, all the price of God's gifts, iv. 42. , 

With God, terms of our, viii. 113 ; our persons are by Christ reconciled 
to God, 114; our infirmities are covered with his righteousness, ib ; 
by his intercession our duties are commended to God, ib. 
Wicked men, although not accepted, must not refrain from religious 
duties, xiv. 24 ; since God rewards many wicked men, how their 
duties can be said to be accepted, 24. 

With God, the way of, clearly stated in the gospel, xviii. 240 ; to know 
the way of, is the mightiest matter in the world, ib. ; that is the best 
religion which doth most provide for this peace and rest of soul, 241 ; 
the Christian religion doth abundantly provide for true peace of con 
science and ease of mind, ib. 
Accesses to God in Christ, gracious hearts should be always renewing, iv. 370. 

152 INDEX. 

Account to be given at the day of judgment is certain, ix. 448 ; personal, 

449 ; impartial, 450 ; exact, ib. 

Accounts, necessity of hastening preparation for the day of, ix. 407 ; it makes 
a necessary work sure, and puts it out of doubt and hazard, ib. ; in 
point of obedience, God presseth to it now, ib. ; in point of ingenuity, 
we receive a plenteous recompense for a small service, ib. ; it is our 
advantage, both here and hereafter, to begin betimes, 408. 
Accursed, is it lawful to wish to be ? i. 73. 

Accusations, railing, come from an evil principle, v. 259 ; are most unsuitable 
to matters of religion, ib. ; are flatly against the word, ib. ; exasperate 
rather than convince, 260. 

Accusers, the devil, the world, and our consciences, are, xiL 349. 
Acknowledgment, thankful, of the good that God hath done for us, an im 
portant duty, vii. 198 ; in such acknowledgments we should take 
notice of his truth, as well as his goodness, 201. 
Acquaintance with God in Christ the true riches, ii. 306. 
Actions, corrupt, founded in some vain thought, and this vain thought 

strengthened by some vain word, iv. 53. 
Are seed ; they fall to the ground, not to be lost, but to grow up again, 

iv. 323. 
And recreations not to be taken in hand, but such as we can commend 

to God in prayer, iv. 238. 
Ordinary, are gracious when they flow from faith, and are done in 

obedience, iv. 268. 

Good, the internal principle of, is verity and purity of heart, vi. 15. 
A better discovery of our thoughts than words, vi. 19. 
Adam in innocency could not merit aught at God's hand, i. 156. 

And Noah, our two common parents j one miscarried by eating, the 

other by drinking, i. 163. 
Not only left us guilty, but conveyed to us an evil nature \ both these 

evils done away by Christ, ii. 205. 
How alone till Eve was made, ii. 391. 
The guilt of his sin imputed to us, iii. 297 ; as we sprang from him, 

and were in him as a common person, and sinned in him, 298. 
Addresses to heaven begin at the sense of our need, iv. 89. 
Admiration, having men's persons in, because of advantage, v. 318. 
Adoption, spirit of, may be shown in a childlike inclination where there is 
not a childlike familiarity and boldness, i. 34 ; in a childlike reverence 
where there is not a childlike confidence, 35 ; in a childlike depen 
dence on God's general offer, though we have not any evidence of the 
sincerity of our particular claim, ib. ; in a childlike love to God, 
whom we have not seen, and assurance of his patient love to us, ib. 
What it is, i. 43 ; privileges of, 44 ; consequents of, ib. j a child of God 
may have the effects and fruits of, while he has not always the feeling 
of it, 50 ; evidences of, 51. 

Fruits of the spirit of, i. 53 ; a kind of naturalness or delight in prayer, 
ib. ; a carrying out to the heavenly inheritance, ib. a childlike reve 
rence and dread of God, and a fear of offending him, ib. 
Into God's family, worth all the world, iv. 64. 
Comfort of, to be maintained in affliction, x. 116. 
State of, what it is, xii. Ill ; grounds of, 112. 

Spirit of, what it is, xii. 113 ; distinction between this spirit and the 
spirit of regeneration, ib. ; implieth a childlike love, obedience, and 
dependence, 114 ; do all that live under the gospel dispensation have 

INDEX. 153 

this spirit 1 116 ; do all that have it know they have it 1 ib. why it 
is the fruit of the new covenant dispensation, 118; persuasives to 
look after this spirit, 119 ; privileges to be derived from it, ib. ; how 
this spirit is to be obtained, 120 ; how we shall know that we have 
obtained it, ib. 

Adoption, a great privilege, xii. 122 ; the person adopting, ib. ; the persons 
who are adopted, ib. ; the dignity itself compared with the honours 
of the world, and with God's relation to other creatures, ib ; the 
manner how it is brought about, 123 ; the benefits accruing to us 
thereby, 124; the gift of the Spirit, ib. ; temporal mercies, ib. ; 
eternal bliss, 125. 

And redemption of our bodies, those that have the first-fruits of the 
Spirit look for a better estate, called ' the adoption and redemption 
of our bodies,' xii. 188 ; why called adoption, ib. ; why redemption of 
our bodies, ib. 

Adoration of images, absurdity of, iii 89, 

Adulterers and adulteresses (James iv. 4) to be understood spiritually, iv. 342. 

Adulterous uncleanness doth much displease God, v. 223 ; defiles not only 
the soul but the body, ib. ; brawneth the soul, ib. ; biotteth the name, 
224 ; blasteth the estate, ib. ; exceedingly perverteth the order of 
human societies, ib. ; usually accompanied with impenitency, ib. 

Adversity maketh men serious, xii. 271, 

A/ectedness of expression, a usual mark of seducers, v. 318. 

A/ection, any carnal unmodified, lays us opeo. to the devil, i. 208. 
Of the disciples to Paul, ii. 328. 

Carnal, doleful condition of those that indulge, ii. 233 ; the more in 
dulged, the more increased, ii. 476. 
When damped, grace falleth into a consumption, iil 181. 
Of God's children towards his word, vi. 184; is earnest, 185; and 
constant, ib. ; draws off the heart from other things, 186 ; maketh 
diligent and patient in the use of means, ib. ; vehemence of, proceeds 
from natural instinct, 187; experience, ib. necessity, 188; is con 
stant because it is natural and kindly to the regenerate, 189 ; because 
they love the word for its own sake, as it is God's word ; therefore 
they ever love it, ib. 

God looks after, rather than action ; sometimes takes the will for the 
deed, but never the deed for the will, vii, 369. 

Affections, ill, divide men as much as ill opinions, iv. 309, v, 396. 
Christianity doth not abrogate, but regulate, iv. 419. 
Follow apprehensions, viii. 61. 

And desires, God's children have strong and vehement after the comfort 
and benefit of the word of God, viii. 358 ; the soul never worketh 
better than in the strength of some eminent affection, ib. ; of all 
affections, desires are most earnest and vehment, 359 ; of all desires, 
those which carry us out to holy things should bear sway, ib. ; where- 
ever these desires bear sway, it will be sensibly discovered by the 
effects both to ourselves and others, 360 ; God's children have these 
desires because they see more in the word of God than others do or 
can do, 361 ; the more godly any are, the more they feel these strong 
affections, 362 ; though this desire should always continue in some 
degree, yet there are some seasons when it is more vehement, and 
more notably stirred and raised, 363. 
When sanctified, are subservient and useful to faith, xiv. 419. 

AFFLICTED, is tiie Church's name (Isa. Iv. 11, 12), ix. 16. 

154 INDEX. 

Afflicted, a man after God's own heart may be, vii. 421 ; because God hath 
chosen another way of expressing his love to his people than by out 
ward things, ib. afflictions are necessary to the best, that the worth 
and benefit of God's word may be known, 422. 

They see more in the scriptures than others do (Luther), xii. 272. 
Afflicting, the end of God in, is to reduce his straying people into the right 
way, vii. 223 ; man is of a straying nature, ib. ; the straying humour 
is much increased and encouraged by prosperity, 224 ; when it is 
thus with us, God seeth meet to send afflictions, 225 ; the affliction so 
sent hath a notable use to reduce us to a sense and care of our duty, 226 ; 
a means of the first conversion of many, 227 ; a great help to those 
that are converted already, 228 ; the affliction doth not work thus of 
itself, but as sanctified and accompanied with the Spirit of God, 229 ; 
this benefit should be owned, and thankfully acknowledged as a great 
testimony and expression of God's love to us, ib. ; at the first coming 
of the affliction we do not see the benefit so well as in the review 
of the whole dispensation, 231 ; the profit is not only when the 
affliction is upon us, but after it is over a fruit of it must remain, ib. 
Affliction, great comfort to the saints in, to know that they have a redeemer 
living in heaven, ii. 294 ; this comfort applicable in all, 300. 

A special allowance of comfort for God's children in, iii. 168. 

Called temptation, in the proper sense of trial, iv. 27. 

Comfort under, iv. 31 ; God's aim not destruction, but trial, ib. ; time 
of trial appointed, ib. j God sitteth by the furnace looking after his 
metal, ib. ; trial not only to approve but to improve, ib. ; great 
wisdom needed for the right management of, 39. 

In itself a punishment of sin, to the godly but a trial, iv. 75 ; cannot 
diminish a Christian's happiness, 77 ; may sometimes increase it, ib. ; 
especially those he endures for Christ's sake, 78. 

No disgrace, but sin is, vi. 494. 

All things considered, is rather good than evil, vii. 251 ; good, as it is 
minus malum, keepeth us from greater evils, 255 ; because the evil 
in it is counterpoised by a greater amount of good, 256 ; time of, a 
serious thinking time, ib. j a special hearing time, ib. ; an awakening, 
quickening time, 257 ; to acknowledge the good of, needs faith, 
259 ; love, 260 ; spiritual wisdom, ib. ; diligence to observe and im 
prove affliction, ib. 

Not only determined by God in the general, but all the circumstances, 
time, measure, instruments, x. 118. 

The greatest, better than the least sin, xiv. 450 ; reasons why, 451 ; 
why this is the choice of the people of God, 454. 

The need of faith in, xv. 121 ; the grounds and principles of faith in, 
124 ; sometimes for our temporal good, usually for our spiritual 
good, but certainly for our eternal good, 128 j the work of faith 
under, 131. 

Afflictions, why saints are subject to so many, i. 197 ; not to the completing 
of their justification, but to the furtherance of their sanctification, ib. 

Humble us, but not so much as temptation, i. 214. 

Sent to remove sin, i. 241 ; the effect of God's love, ib. 

Not to be measured by the smart, but the end of them, i. 326. 

To God's people, not only occasions of patience, but of all joy, iv. 23 ; 
how to be rejoiced in, ib. - } not barely in the evil of them, ib. ; but iu 
the happy effects, or consequents, or comforts, occasioned by them, 
24 ; in those we suffer for Christ's sake, the honour done to us, ib. ; 

INDEX. 155 

the benefit the church receiveth, ib. ; the special comforts that God 
bestows, ib. ; in those that come from providence we are to rejoice, 
as they serve for the exercise and increase of grace, 25. 
lictions,of God's children, not to be considered in their nature and beginning, 
but in their issue and end, iv. 432 ; the Lord will give a happy end 
to them all, a temporal end, a gracious end, a glorious end, ib. 

Light on all ranks of saints, but especially on the prophets, iv. 427 ; 
almost as necessary a character of a minister to be much in, as to be 
much in spirit and much in labours, ib. ; meek patience in, a taking 
thing even in the eyes of men, 428 ; different judgment of the saints 
and of the world about, 429 ; make saints eminent, 430. 

Comfort under, vi. 226 ; their author is our father, ib. ; they are neces 
sary, 227 ; a medicine, not a poison, ib. ; they are in measure, ib. ; 
are an occasion for the comforts of the Spirit, ib. ; and for the sup 
ports and influences of grace, ib. the fruit and final issue of, 228. 

Great, may come upon God's children, vi. 235 ; in their inward con 
dition, ib. ; or their outward, 236 ; to correct them for past sins, 
ib. ; to humble them, ib. ; to try their graces, ib. ; to awaken the 
spirit of prayer, ib. ; to show God's glory, and the riches of His 
goodness in their recovery, ib. 

Unless the children of God were subject to, a full third of the scrip 
tures would be useless, vii. 35. 

Not to be slighted, vii. 232 ; their author is God, ib. ; their meritorious 
cause is sin, 233 ; their end is our repentance and amendment, ib. ; 
not to be fainted under, ib. ; to be valued, 234 ; to be watched, ib. 

Faithfulness of God in, of his people, vii. 295 ; real and principal 
mercies promised absolutely in the covenant of grace, other things con 
ditionally, ib. ; in order to make his people eternally happy, God is 
obliged in point of fidelity to use all the means necessary thereto, 
296 ; one of these means is affliction, yea, sharp affliction, ib. ; God 
faithful in bringing on the affliction, and in guiding it, 297. 

Make us understand the word more fully and clearly than before, vii. 
334 ; purge the taste, and give a spiritual relish, 335 ; quicken the 
heart to duty, ib. 

Of God's people may be long and grievous before any comfort or 
deliverance come, vii. 351 ; God does not give a gracious answer at 
the first call, to try our faith, ib. ; to awaken our importunity, ib. ; 
to make us sensible of our weakness, ib. ; for his own glory, and that 
his work may be the more remarkable and conspicuous, 352 ; it is 
the devil's design to tire and weary out the people of God, ib. ; men 
are unreasonable in their oppositions, and will not relent nor abate 
anything of their rigour, ib. 

Why God's people suffer in this world, viii. 94 ; because they are not 
in heaven, 95 ; not in their eternal rest, ib. ; to purge out sin, ib. ; 
to humble them, ib. 

Of God's people may not only be many, but very sore and heavy, viii. 
96 ; many and strong lusts are to be subdued, 97 ; that God may 
have the more experience and trial of his people, ib. ; that they may 
have the more experience of God, ib. 

Will teach men to pray that never prayed before, ix. 62 ; good ones, 
that prayed before, will pray with greater earnestness and serious 
ness, ib. 

God's choicest servants in this world have, ix. 126 ; as men, ib. j as 
Christians, ib. 

l. r )G INDEX. 

Afflictions, all have not Abel's cross, but usually have Isaac's, xii. 132 ; though 
all suffer not, yet all must be prepared to suffer, ib. ; when God seetli 
fit, we must actually suffer the loss of all things, and obey God at the 
dearest rates, ib. 

It is not enough to be good in, we must get good by, xii. 267 ; they 
come as a blessing when they are improved, 268 ; it is our part to 
get benefit by, but God's to remove, 269 ; if our hearts were right, 
we would desire to profit by, rather than to get rid of them, ib. ; 
murmuring against, bewrayeth a despising of God and a despising of 
holiness, 270; what profit may be got by afflictions, 271 ; that the 
time of afflictions is a serious, awakening, learning, repenting, weaning 
time, and a time of increasing our love to God, ib. ; the necessity 
of, 275. 

Are so far from infringing our happiness that they promote it, xii. 263. 
A double argument why all, must turn to good, from the purpose of 

God, and as in Christ so in us, xii. 301. 

The usual portion of a Christian in the discharge of his duty, xii. 375 ; 
the primitive Christians notable instances of this, ib. ; seven kinds 
of, enumerated, ib. ; reasons why afflictions are permitted to fail on 
the people of God, 376 ; we have no reason to doubt of God's favour 
and presence when exercised by, 377 ; no excuse to exempt us from 
our duty, ib. ; how thankful we should be if not called to severe 
trials, 378 ; what use we should make of this indulgence, ib. ; can 
never dissolve the union between Christ and believers, 380. 
See Sins incident to, &c, 

Agabus, only mentioned as a prophet of evil, ii. 327. 

Aggravations of sorrow, iii, 275 ; to have our woe brought about by those of 
our own family and cherishing, ib. ; to be forsaken of friends, ib. ; to 
be an object of common hatred, ib. ; to be denied the benefit of law, 
ib. ; to be handled with a degree of contempt, 276. 

Aims of men, not regenerate or sanctified, are either carnal, or natural, or 
legal, v. 30. 

Alienation from God natural to all, but increased more and more by evil 
practices and evil affections, iv, 366. 

All, in what sense the iniquities of, laid on Christ, iii, 328 ; all men in 
some sort have benefit by him, ib. ; there is a sufficiency in his merits 
for all, 329 ; all conditions of men are included, ib. ; that no man 
might accuse God, as if he had not made a sufficient provision for his 
soul, 330 ; to denote the multitude that should come to Christ, ib. ; 
to denote the oneness of the reconciliation of all who are reconciled, 

Allegorisers of the statements of scripture, reproof of, viii. 343. 

Alldujahs should sound as loud as supplications, i. 254. 

All-sufficiency, God's, a sound belief of, the only way to defeat Satan's temp 
tations, i. 275. 

God's, a thorough persuasion of, encourageth and feedeth both our 
dependence upon God and our subjection to him, vii. 417; implied 
in his making the world out of nothing, ib. ; in maintaining all things 
in their order, 418 ; in using them for his purposes, ib. ; a ground 
of trust, ib. ; of submission to his disposing will, 419; to his 
commanding will, 420. 

Alternations in the condition of God's children on earth, now vexed by the 
coming of the tempter, then cheered by the presence of angels, i. 326. 
Ambassadors for Christ,' the nature of their office, xiii. 290. 

INDEX. 157 

Ambition, the true, is spiritual ambition, xiv. 446. 

Amen is either an affectionate desire or a great asseveration, i. 111. 

Signifies either So let it be, or So it shall be, i. 253. 

Sifjnaculum fidei, et votum desiderii nostri, v. 375 ; should be to our 

praises as well as our prayers, ib. 

Amiss, we pray, when our ends and aims are not right in prayer, iv. 338 ; 

when we ask blessings for the use and encouragement of our lusts, 

339 ; when our prayers are framed out of a carnal intention they are 

seldom successful ; we miss when we ask arniss, 341. 

Amphilochius, Bishop of Iconium, his argument with Theodosius the Great 

against toleration of the Arians, x. 259. 
Ancients (Ps. cxix. 100), may either mean men of former times, or aged men 

of the same time, viii. 15 ; preferably the latter, ib. 

Angels serve God readily, i. 148; cheerfully, ib. ; constantly, ib. ; faithfully, 
not picking and choosing, 149. 

Everywhere in scripture shown to be the first instruments of God's 
providence, i. 284 : not ministers of conversion and sanctification, ib. ; 
question as to special guardian angels, ib. 

Their visible ministry extraordinary, but their invisible ordinary and 
perpetual, i. 285 ; this invisible ministry matter of faith, 286. 

Why they did not come to Christ till the devil had departed, i. 324 ; 
to show that Christ had no help but his own when he grappled 
with Satan, ib. ; to show that the going of the one is the coming of 
the other, ib. ; why they ministered to him after his temptation, 
ib. ; to put honour on him, who is their head and lord, ib. ; for his 
consolation, inward and outward, 325. 

God maketh use of their ministry in supporting and comforting his 
afflicted servants, i. 333 ; delight in the preaching of the gospel, 334 ; 
in the holy conversation of the godly, ib. ', fight against the devil, and 
defend the godly in their extreme dangers, ib. ; why God uses their 
ministry, ib. ; to manifest unto them the greatness and glory of his 
work in recovering mankind, ib. ; to maintain a society and com 
munion between all the parts of the family of God, 335 ; to preserve 
his people from many dangers and casualties which fall not within 
the foresight of men, ib. ; many blessings and benefits conveyed 
through their ministry, 336 ; their office at death and judgment, ib. 

Whether good or bad, often called in scripture thrones, i. 435 ; owe 
their being to Christ, 436 ; when created, 437 ; subject to Christ 
438 ; why their creation so particularly and expressly ascribed to 
Christ, 439 \ to show his glory and majesty, ib. ; to obviate the 
Gnostic errors, ib. ; to show his right to their ministry, 440. 

Christ did not die for, nor is their head as he is of the church, i. 462. 

Romish worship of, is idolatry, iii. 99. 

Acknowledged Christ, but men would not, iii. 249. 

And archangels, God hath, always ready to defend a good cause, v. 

Originally created in holiness and happiness, v. 190 ; fallen through 
sin, 191 ; cannot tell how sin got access to them, 192 ; their number 
great, 193 ; time of their fall, ib. ; their punishment, 196. 

In the election of, is shown grace, but. not mercy, v. 195. 

Ministry of, v. 246 ; certain that they had a great care about the people 
of God in ancient times, ib. ; not wholly ceased, though not so 
visible and sensible now, ib. ; children of God the proper object of, 
ib. ; all the children of God, without exception, 247 ; all angels so 



employed, ib. ; not certain that each child of God has a special 
angel, ib. ; yet all have all, 248 ; continues from the first conception 
till the entrance into glory, ib. ; ever administered according to God's 
pleasure, 249 ; order amongst both good and bad, 251. 

Angels, are they to be judged at the day of judgment ? x. 29 ; the bad, but 
apparently not the good, ib. 

The holy, contemplate and admire the mystery of redemption, xviii. 203; 
the person of the Redeemer, 204 ; the way of redemption, ib. ', the 
grace vouchsafed to sinful men, ib. ; the mission of the Spirit, 205 ; 
the gracious providences of God in leading on the church to their 
eternal happiness, ib. ; the final glorious estate of the saints, ib. ; 
desire to look into these things, not out of curiosity, 206 ; nor from 
total ignorance of the mystery before it was brought about, 207 ; 
because they have such a deep sense of the worth of these things 
that they desire to know more, ib. ; delight in the mystery of redemp 
tion because of the glory of God discovered therein, 208 ; and the 
good of men promoted thereby, ib. 
Anger and sorrow, God's command reacheth, ii. 336. 

Groweth not by degrees like other passions, therefore the best cure is 
deliberation, iv. 137 ; is the worst thing we can bring to a religious 
controversy, 138 ; is often justified when it is not justifiable, 139 ; 
sometimes lawful, 140 ; sometimes necessary, ib. ; when the principle 
is right, 141 ; when it has a right object, ib. ; when the manner is 
right, ib. ; sinful when hasty and undeliberate, ib. ; immoderate, 
142; causeless, ib. ; without a good end, 143 ; nothing more makes 
room for Satan, ib. ; much woundeth our own peace, ib. ; disparageth 
Christianity, ib. 

Different from hatred, viii. 332. 

Animal and spiritual life distinguished and described, xv. 47. 
Anointing the sick with oil in the name of the Lord, not a standing ordinance 
in the church, iv. 448 ; even in the apostles' time it was not abso 
lutely necessary, ib. ; was not promiscuously used, 449 ; ceased when 
the miraculous gift ceased, ib. ; Popish, or extreme unction, a mere 
hypocritical pageantry, 450. 

Of Christ signifieth the nature of his offices as king, priest, and prophet, 
v. 160 ; and the authority on which it is founded, 161. 

Of Christ, was not typical, but real, x. 167 ; implieth the giving of 
power and authority, 168 ; the bestowing on him of the Holy Ghost, 
who might make the human nature fit for the work, ib. ; was to the 
office of mediator in general, particularly to be king, priest, and 
prophet of the church, ib. 
Answers to prayer, importance of observing, vi. 252. 

To prayer, God's children are earnest for, ix. 46 ; because they dare not 
take God's name in vain, ib. ; not looking for, proceedeth from an ill 
course, 47 ; heedlessness, ib. ; a touch of atheism, ib. ; distrust, which 
is akin to atheism, ib. ; some disesteem of God's favour and accept 
ance, ib. ; if we do not look after, our loss is exceeding great, 48 ; we 
lose our labour in prayer, ib. ; lose excitements to love and obedience, 
ib. : lose encouragements to pray again, ib. ; lose the benefit of sensible 
communion with God, ib. ; Godloseth honour, and praise, and thanks 
giving, ib. ; how God grants, 50 ; extraordinarily, as in ancient times, 
ib. ; ordinarily, either by granting the mercy prayed for, ib. ; or by 
giving spiritual manifestations to the soul, ib. ; or by commutation or 
exchange, giving another thing that is as good or better, 51. 

INDEX. 159 

Ant, the, a pattern of diligence, xxii. 3. 

Anthony the Hermit, his study in the desert, xiii. 395. 


Antichrist, the head patron of the great apostasy, iii. 28 ; revelation of, 31 ; 
names or titles of, ib. ; man of sin, ib. ; son of perdition, 32 ; not a 
single person, but a society or succession of men, ib. 
Opposite to Christ, chiefly in respect of pride, iii. 37 ; exalteth himself 
above all human persons, 39 ; and above all that is reverenced, ib. ; 
usurps divine honours, 40 ; shows himself that he is God, 42 ; every 
tittle of this description fulfilled in the Bishop of Rome, 44 ; his 
manifestation stayed by the Roman Empire, 49 ; this taken out of 
the way about A.D. 600, 50 ; grew to its monstrous excess and height 
in Boniface III., 56. 
Doctrine of, profitable, and very necessary to be preached and known, 

iii. 46. 

Sets up his kingdom by Satan's agency and influence, iii. 66 ; by pre 
tence of miracles, ib. ; sophistical reasonings, 67; fawning or threat 
ening, preferment or persecution, ib. 

Antichristian state, subjects of, are drawn into it with all deceivableness of 

unrighteousness, iii. 76 ; their misery, those that perish, ib. ; the 

reason of this shown, they received not the love of the truth, 77, 79. 

State, called Babylon for idolatry, Sodom for filthiness, and Egypt for 

ignorance and darkness, v. 254. 

Antigonus' advice to the governor of a rebellious city, xil 60. 

Antinomianism, refutation of, xi. 158 ; it is an unjust illation from the doc 
trine of free justification, ib. ; it is absurd, and contrary to the doctrine 
of grace, ib. ; it is wicked and blasphemous, 160; caution against, 

Antinomians, doctrine of the, as to grace giving freedom from the moral law, 
xvi. 46. 

Apostasies from God in heathenism, and from Christ in Romanism, are of 
the kingdom of the devil, which is to be destroyed, xviii. 32. 

Apostasy, temptations to, errors, scandals, persecutions, ii. 88. 

General, before Christ's coming to judgment, iii. 26 ; is any defection 
from him to whom we owe and have performed subjection, ib. ; that 
foretold, not civil, but of the visible church from the Lord of the 
church, ib. ; will consist in undermining his authority, 27 ; and cor 
rupting and destroying the interests of his kingdom, ib. is notable 
and discernible, and its head is Antichrist, 28 ; Popery this apostasy, 

The covenant of grace a comfort against fears of, iii. 384. 
Danger and mischievous effects of, vi. 315 ; more dishonourable to God 
than a simple refusal, ib. ; falling off after a taste of the sweetness 
and practice of godliness a worse condition than to have never begun, 

Apostate,. Luther confesses that he is from the devil's service, iii. 178. 

Apostles, even in their private and familiar letters, very spiritual, v. 99. 
Their words the rule of faith, v. 322. 

Their proficiency in Christ's school, x. 220 ; had sufficient means to con 
vince the world of the certainty of Christ's doctrine, 221. 

Appeal from God's justice to his mercy, a scarcely warrantable expression, iii. 

Appearance, outward, divine things not to be judged by, iii. 227 ; anything 
of Christ not to be cast away because it is despised or discounte- 


nanced, ib. ; because it is an afflicted way, ib. ; because poor men are 
of that way, 228 ; because we may seem to hazard our burden by 
closing with it, ib. 

Appearance, Christ's, in the world, and state of life among men, was not 
only very mean, but very miserable, iii. 249. 

Application of grace to believers, wisdom and prudence of God in, ii. 262 ; 
in the way he taketh to convert souls to himself, ib. ; in taking the 
likely course to gain the heart of man, ib. ; in the effect itself, 263. 
And appropriation of Christ., the comfort in, and love to, Christ, ii. 297. 

Apprehending, Christ's, of us, implieth that any motion towards that which 
is spiritually good proceedeth first and wholly from Christ, xx. 85 ; 
implieth a subordinate operation on our part, 86 ; the infusion of a 
life which tends towards God and heaven, ib. ; is followed up by his 
keeping us in his own hand, 87 ; should be answered by an exact, 
resolved, diligent pursuit of eternal life, ib. 

Approbation evidenced by imitation, v. 169. 

Of men, how far to be minded or made a motive by us, xviii. 120. 

Appropriation of Christ and dedication to his service mutually dependent, 
i. 491. 

Approving of ourselves to God in all our actions our great interest, vi. 229 ; 
for this we need good counsel and direction, ib. ; this we can only get 
from God in his word, 230 ; this counsel sufficient and full to all our 
necessities, ib. 

Arguments, those that cannot be moved by, God teacheth by blows, vii. 133. 

Aristotle's opinions as to a first cause in creation, xiii. 411, 412. 

On the worship of the ancients (Ethics, lib. viii. c. 8), xiii. 437. 

Ark, the, a type of Christ, xiv. 203. 

Arm of the Lord, revelation of, is the inward manifestation of the gospel by 
the Spirit, iii. 193, 204. See Gospel. 

Arminian doctrine of merit, de congruo- and de condigno, answered, ix. 486. 

Armour, the Christian's, pieces of, i. 228. 
Christian, and the use of it, xi. 298. 

Articles of faith, ministers not to prescribe, but explain, iv. 17. 
Of the Christian religion, the devils assent to, iv. 241. 

Ascension of Christ, x. 270; the time, when he had finished his work and 
instructed his disciples, ib. ; the place, Mount Olivet, whence he had 
gone to his cross and to his crown, ib. ; to the third heaven, 271; the 
witnesses, the eleven apostles, ib. ; while he was blessing them, ib. 
on a cloud, ib. ; as a conqueror, triumphing over his enemies, and 
giving gifts to his friends, ib. ; his reception by the angels, 272 ; his 
welcome by God, ib. ; end of, 273; that we may look upon him as 
in a greater capacity to do us good, ib. ; to prepare a place for us, ib. ; 
to represent his satisfaction, 274 ; fruits and benefits of, 275. 

Ashamed, men are, when they should be bold, and bold and confident when 
they should be ashamed, vi. 495. 

Asking, God giveth nothing without, iv. 41 ; yieldeth a remedy for the 
greatest wants, ib. 

Assembly (Gwayuyri), not for worship, but for deciding ecclesiastical matters, 
iv. 186. 

Assent, speculative, may be without faith, ii. 303. 

To the articles of religion doth not infer true faith, iv. 240. 

A part of faith, but not all, iv. 349 ; must be firm, ib. ; and cordial, 


Degrees of, conjecture, opinion, weak faith, stronger faith, and the full 
assurance of understanding, vi. 401. 

INDEX. 161 

Assurance, why so few of God's children have, v. 19 ; possible that God's power 
may work in us, and we not be sensible of it, ib. sometimes through 
carelessness, sometimes through peevishness, God's children not sen 
sible of the power that worketh in them, ib. ; God doth not call all 
in a like violent and sensible manner, ib. this different dispensation 
God useth according to his own pleasure, ib. ; though a different dis 
pensation used in the calling, yet there is enough to distinguish the 
uncalled from the called, ib. 

It is a ground of sure confidence that a Christian shall have heaven 
at last, that he hath it for the present, xii. 431 ; it is not only we 
think or hope, but we know, 432 ; our assurance of salvation is 
not equal to that we have of the promises of the gospel, 433; it 
is a common privilege, ib. ; it fortifies the soul against all the 
difficulties of the present life, yea, against death itself, 434 ; it 
is a twofold confidence, of the thing and of the person, ib. ; of 
the thing itself all true Christians have, and should have, a certain 
knowledge, ib. ; why and wherefore, 435 ; reasons why we should 
attend upon the work of assurance, 439 ; the force and virtue of this 
work, 440. 

Directions to those who want, xiv. 27. 

A believer's, God's word and oath the immutable grounds of, xvi. 294 ; 
the power and certainty of God's word, ib. ; reasons why God gives 
his oath over and above his word, 295 ; the advantages we have by 
God's oath, 303 ; application, 305 ; objections answered, 310 ; the 
fruit of this assurance is strong consolation, 314 ; what is meant 
by * strong consolation,' ib. ; how this ariseth from assurance, 316; 
how it is dispensed on God's part, and how far required on ours, 318 ; 
exhortation to look after this consolation, 325 ; how to get it, 328 ; 
how to keep it, 333. 

Of good estate before God, his children may have, xx. 76 ; when grace 
is in some degree of eminency, ib. ; when their evidences are not 
blotted by frequent sins, ib. ; when they have the spirit of adoption in 
a more eminent degree, 77 ; when they have a more abundant sense 
of the love of God, ib. ; when the change wrought in them by grace 
is most sensible, ib. ; yet they cannot look upon themselves as out of 
all danger, and past all care and holy solicitude, 79 ; because there is 
no period put to our duty but life, ib. ; because all through their life 
they are imperfect, ib. nature of, is to exclude the fear which hath 
torment, but not the fear of caution and diligence, 80 ; gotten 
with diligence and kept with watchfulness, 81 ; in order to, we need 
diligence, ib. ; caution and watchfulness, 82 ; self-denial, 83. 
Graces really and soundly exercised beget assurance of our con 
dition before God, xxi. 155 ; graces thus really, constantly, and 
self-denyingly exercised leave a suitable impression on the con 
science, 161. 

Atheism not so bad as blasphemy, iv. 84. 

Contemplation of creation an antidote to, xiii. 398. 

Atheistical men deride reliance upon God in distress, vii. 39 ; and obedience 
to his precepts, 40. 

Atheists are of all men most credulous, xii. 220. 

Atonement required by the holiness of God's nature, i. ; 496; the honour 

of his governing justice, ib. ; to keep up the authority of his law, 

497 ; to make sin odious, and obedience more acceptable to us, 498 ; 

to commend the love of God to us, ib. to give us hope, ib. ; proofs 


162 INDEX. 

of its acceptance, 499 ; Christ's resurrection and ascension into -glory, 
ib. ; the grant of the new covenant, ib. ; the pouring out of the- 
Spirit, 500 ; peace enjoyed by believers, ib. 

Atonement, satisfaction by the blood of Christ causes a glorious soul- 
appeasing light to break upon the hearts of men, vi. 85; 

Attention, serious, to the doctrine of the gospel the means appointed for 
the attaining of saving grace and a plentiful increase therein, xviii. 
421 ; the gospel deserveth, ib. ; our profiting requireth, 422 ; con- 
sisteth in sound belief, serious consideration, and close application, ibt. 

Attributes, a thorough belief of God's, as revealed in Christ, taketh off all 

disquiets and perplexities of spirit, iv. 51. 
God's, in themselves terrible and dreadful to c^ sinner, being derived to 

us through Christ, yield comfort and sweetness, iv. 242. 
Of God seen in creation, vii. 85 ; his goodness, ib. ; his power, ib. ' r 
his wisdom, ib. these manifested in the whole structure of hi& 
word, 86 ; in his daily providence, 87 ; these three suit with his 
threefold relation to us power as our creator, wisdom as our 
governor, goodness as our benefactor, 88 ; do most bind our duty 
on us, ib. 

Auricular confession, the great artifice and engine by which Popish priests 
keep the people in devotion to their interests, knowledge of secrets- 
rendering them the more feared, iv. 458 ; disproof of the absolute 
necessity of it, ib. ; the improbability of making such a confession as 
is required, 459 ; their making it part of a sacrament of divine in 
stitution, ib. ; the manner it is used, and the consequences of it, make 
it justly odious, ib. 

Authority, supreme, two acts of, legislation and judgment, usurped by the 

Pope, iii. 41. 

Or dominion, God's, is his right over all things, to dispose of them at 
his pleasure, vii. 414; a right of making or forming anything as he 
willeth, ib. ; of having or possessing all things so made by him, ib. ;. 
of using, disposing, and governing all things thus in his possession 
according to his pleasure, 415. 

Of Christ's mediation, the object of justifying faith, x. 239. 
It doth not become a private man to resist, xix. 3. 

Awe of God's majesty called for in worship, i. 407 ; suitable to faith and 
love, ib. ; must not degenerate into servile fear and discouragement, 

Babel, purpose of the tower of, i. 85. 

Babes and sucklings, who they are, xviii. 13 ; man in general, 14 ; David in 
particular, ib. ; more especially our Lord Jesus Christ, ib. ; the apostles r 
ib. ; the children who cried Hosanna to Christ, ib. ; all that fight under 
Christ's banner, ib. 

Backbiting, different forms of, ii. 280 ; its heinousness, 282. 

Backslider in heart contrasted with the good man, ii. 233. 

In heart, is he that turneth his heart from God and his ways, and daily 
groweth worse and worse, xviii. 465 ; meant chiefly of the ordinary 
wicked person, ib. may be understood to comprise the apostate, ib. 

Backsliding cometh from losing complacency in, or desire of, God, iii. 177. 

Preventives of, ix. 216 ; be sure that your resolutions for good and 

the world to come be thoroughly fixed and settled, ib. ; sit down and 

count the cost of being holy Christians, ib. ; consider the necessity 

of standing to God's law, whatever persecutions and sufferings you 

INDEX. 163 

meet witli, 217 ; be established in the peace of God, and never break 
this peace to obtain outward peace, ib. ; when troubles surprise you, 
consider how unbeseeming it is to take offence at God's providence, 
ib. consider that the hurt Satan intendeth you is not to hurt your 
bodies, but your souls, ib. ; consider how short is the prosperity of 
the wicked, ib. 

Bad times, to be good in, requires much holiness and heavenly-mindedness, 
viii. 312 ; faith, or foresight of things to come, 313; Zealand love 
to God, ib. caution, ib. ; sincerity, 314 ; a fixed resolution, ib. ; a 
true sight of the worth of spiritual things above carnal, ib. 

Salaam a notable instance of a natural conscience, i. 135. 

Balaam's counsel did more hurt than his curse, xviii. 45. 


Baptism, our initiation into the service of God, doth not only imply work, but 

fight, i. 260. 

Implies a dedication and giving up ourselves to the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost, according to their personal relations, ii. 104 j a 
badge and a bond, 107, 
Implieth a renunciation of sins, v. 313. 

A perpetual bond upon us, obliging us to repentance and holy life, v. 
469 ; improvement of, the best preparation for the Lord's supper, ib. 
if not improved, will be a witness to solicit vengeance against us, ib. ; 
how to improve, ib. ; personally and solemnly own the covenant made 
with God in infancy, 470 ; often renew the sense of obligation, 
ib. ; use frequent self-reflection, ib. use it as a great help in all 
temptation, 471. 

Signifieth Christ's death for sin, and our death to sin, xi. 171 ; also 
Christ's resurrection and our newness of life, 172 ; strongly obligeth us 
to walk in newness of life, 173 ; is representing, 175 ; sealing, 177 ; 
obliging, ib. 

An engagement upon Christians to abhor carnal living, xii. 47. 
A solemn vow and profession to look after the benefits of Christ's death 

and mortify the deeds of the body, xiii. 194. 
The use and respect of, with reference to remission of sin, xxi. 280. 

Baptismal vow, wilful sin a renouncing of, viii. 393. 

Baptist, his message to Christ not for his own satisfaction, but his disciples', 

ii. 79. 

Obstacles to the success of his preaching, iii. 195 ; the levity and rash 
ness of the people, 196 ; evil influence of the scribes and pharisees, 
ib. ; offence at John's boldness, ib. 

Basil the Great, reply to Modestus when threatened with banishment, 
xiil 8. 

Beasts, their tractableness to man contrasted with man's disobedience to God, 
iv. 291 ; art and skill to subdue, a relic and argument of our old 
superiority, 292. 

Beauty not always a sign of excellency, xiv. 423 ; a gift of God, but not to 
be rested in or abused to feed pride, 424. 

Beginning, a title of Christ (Col. i. 18), means that he is the root and the 
beginning of the renewed state, i. 454. 

Belief of the truth, not a cold assent, but such a lively faith as brings us 
under the power of it, iii. 107 ; consists of fiducial assent and obedi- 
ential confidence, 116. 

Believer, sad condition of, under God's corrective discipline, though lie do 
not vacate his justified state, ii. 234. 

164 INDEX. 

Believers, why so few, iii. 198 ; ignorance, ib. ; easy slightness, ib. ; careless 
security, 199; light esteem of Christ, 200; presumptuous conceit 
that we have entertained Christ already, ib. ; hardness of heart, 20 1 ; 
self-confidence, ib. ; carnal fears, 202 ; carnal reasonings from our sins, 
ib. j carnal apprehensions of Christ, ib. ; fewness of, no disgrace to the 
gospel, 203. 

True, cannot wholly fall away, iii. 359. 

Are the seed of Christ, iii. 388 ; by reason of the gift of the Father, 
389 ; by purchase, ib. ; because begotten by his power and efficacy, 
390 ; by his image formed in them, ib. 

Are friends of God, iv. 258 ; as they are perfectly reconciled unto 
him in Christ, ib. ; all dispensations and duties that pass between 
them are passed in a friendly way, ib. ; communication of goods, ib. ; 
communication of secrets, 259 ; conformity and correspondency of 
will and affection, ib. ; mutual delight and complacency, ib. ; the 
special favour and respect God beareth them, 260. 

Given to Christ as subjects of his kingdom, x. 206, 318 ; as scholars in 
his school, 208, 319 ; as children of his family, ib. as the wife of his 
bosom, 209, 319 ; as members of his body, 209, 320; given to him 
in charge, 210 ; those thus given are the elect and none other, ib. ; 
he undertook for them to die for them, and that they should be con 
verted, justified, sanctified, guided to glory, and that not one of them 
should miscarry, 212 ; the Father did not save by his own power, but 
committed to the Son, partly in majesty, ib. ; in justice, 213; in 
love and mercy, ib. 

Commensurablenessof the distinct propriety of the three persons of the God 
head in, x. 256 ; all of them and none other are elected by the Father, 
all of them and none other are redeemed by the Son, all of them and 
none other are sanctified by the Spirit, ib. ; follows from the unity of 
essence, ib. from the unity and agreement in will and design, 257 ; 
denied by the Arminians in doctrine, and by common people in 
practice, ib. 

Private, th^ honour put upon them, xi. 16. 

Their condition better than if Adam had not fallen, xi. 58. 

Eeckoned sufferers with Christ, xiii. 191 ; what their being crucified 
with Christ implieth, 192. 

The merits of Christ's obedience and death are applied and made bene 
ficial to penitent, xviii. 218 ; and working, ib. 
Believing, is that which gives most honour to God, i. 85. 

A holy obstinacy in, viii. 269 ; the less sensible evidence there is of the 
object of faith, the greater and stronger is the faith, if we believe 
it upon God's word, 270. 

In Christ, implies a lively sense of our own misery and the wrath of 
God due for sin, xi, 19 ; its explicit act is when a soul thus humbled 
casts itself upon Christ for grace, mercy, and salvation, 20 ; must be 
wrought by the word, 21. 

With the heart, implieth not a dead faith, but operative, xviii. 244. 
Benefactor, God is a, to all men in the way of creation and providence, vii. 394; 

to his people in the way of grace and recovery by Christ, 395. 
Benefits, memory of former, an encouragement to ask anew, x. 129. 
Bernard's note on Martha's complaining of Mary, xiv. 71. 

Reply to the devil when tempted to vaingloriousness, xiii. 125. 
Bible, nothing but a book of precedents, v. 168. 

Not only for novices and young Christians, but for all, viii. 78. 

INDEX. 165 

Blackness of darkness, a Hebraism for exceeding great darkness, v. 287. 

Mrs Jane, her character, ii. 473. 
Blasphemy, wicked rich men above all others prone to, iv. 204 ; they who 

love God must hate blasphemers, ib. 
Against the Holy Ghost, what it is, xxi. 398 ; why against the Holy 

Ghost, 399 ; cautions against, 403. 

Blessed, God may be said to be, either objectively, as he is the object of our 
blessedness, vi. 108 ; or subjectively, and so either in an active or a 
passive sense, ib. in himself, as he hath the fulness of perfection and 
contentment, ib. ; as he is the fountain of all blessedness to us, 
110 ; passively as he is blessed by us, or as worthy of all praise from 
us, ib. 

' Messed of my Father,' x. 47 ; opposed to the world's judgment of them, 
ib. opposed to the sentence of the law, ib. ; opposed to their own 
fears, 48 ; the fountain-cause of all their happiness, ib. ; shows how 
the divine persons do glorify one another, ib. 

Blessedness, perfect, consists in a complete vision of God and Christ, a complete 
possession and fruition of God, a complete similitude and transfor 
mation into the image of Christ, a complete delectation arising from 
all these, ii. 65. 
A great degree and step towards, yea, a considerable part of, is to obtain 

the pardon of our sins by Christ Jesus, ii. 178. 
Includes the removal of all evils, ii. 462 ; of sin, ib. \ and of suffering, 

463 ; and a confluence of all good, 464. 
Future, fulness of, v. 355 ; certainty of, ib. 

And blessed men, important to have a true notion of, vi. 5 ; all desire 
it, ib. ; all without grace are much mistaken in, 6 ; mistakes about 
it will cost us dear, 7 ; sincere, constant, uniform obedience to God's 
law the only way to, 9 ; of a close walker not only future, but 
present, 14. 
Blessing, God's of us is operative, ours of him declarative, i. 244. 

In every, conferred on a sinner, there is not only bounty, but pardon, 

iv. Ill ; spiritual, the best, 112. 
Blessings, to be milked out by prayer, i. 29 ; this necessary for God's honour, 

30 ; and for our profit, ib. 

Common, twofold right to, providential and covenant, i. 151. 
Temporal, may be prayed for, i. 158 ; but not in the first place, nor in 
immoderate proportion, but with humility and submission, and for 
good ends, 159. 

Outward, matter of thankfulness, i. 160; as good in themselves, ib. ; 
as coming from God, ib. ; as coming from his free grace and mercy, 

Most proper to Christ as mediator are spiritual, ii. 207. 
When God meaneth to bestow, he stirreth up the hearts of his people 

to pray for them, iv. 471. 

There is a blessing by way of prayer, and a blessing by way of pro 
phecy, xiv. 380 ; blessings and curses of parents, if uttered in a right 
spirit, are not spoken in vain, 381 ; in the blessing of Jacob and 
Esau, the younger brother preferred, ib. ; other instances of the like 
in scripture, 382 ; wherein lay the peculiarity of the blessing of Jacob 
over that of Esau, 383; this difference founded in an eternal 

166 INDEX. 

decree and purpose of God, 387; accomplished notwithstanding 
Isaac's reluctance, ib. ; Esau not actually rejected till he had himself 
rejected the blessing, 388 ; wherein lay the strength of Isaac's faith 
in blessing Jacob and Esau concerning things to come, 389 ; lessons 
from hence, 391. 

Blessings, there is a difference not only between the blessings of the wicked 

and the godly, but between those of the godly themselves, xiv. 399. 
Prayer gets, but thankfulness keeps, xviii. 38. 

MlindnetSf spiritual, caution against, iii. 93 ; take heed of sinning against light, 
ib. ; take heed of hypocrisy in the profession of the truth, ib. ; take 
heed of pride and carnal self-sufficiency, 94. 

Spiritual, natural to us, vi. 167 ; worse than bodily, 168 ; God alone 
can remove, ib. j though in part cured, we need that God should open 
our eyes to the last, 170. 

Blood of Christ, the only sufficient ransom for lost sinners, ii. 295. 

1 Blood of sprinkling ' (Heb. xii. 24), the persons to whom it is applied, 
xxii. 108; the manner of application, 109 ; the subject to which it is 
applied, 110; the certainty of the effect, 111 ; the value and efficacy 
of it, 112; reasons why, 115. 

Boasting, what lawful and what unlawful for a Christian, iv. 63. 
A usual sin of the tongue, iv. 284. 

Bodies of the saints, honour put upon, i. 475 ; they are members of Christ, 

and temples of the Holy Ghost, ib. 

What care we should take how we employ, xi. 254 ; the senses, ib. ; the 
tongue, 255. 

Bodily presence of Christ, withdrawal of from the world, x. 278 ; that he 
might try the world, and yet in a way suitable to his glorious estate, 
ib. ; that way might be made for his spiritual presence, ib. ; confuta 
tion of the Lutherans, 279. 

Body, God in covenant with, as well as with the soul, i. 157. 

Resurrection of the saints is incorruptible, ii. 465 ; glorious, ib. ; spiri 
tual, ib. 

Plainly seen to have some indirect operation upon the soul, iii. 304. 
Of sin, means the whole stock and mass of corruption, xi. 193; must 
not only have its face scratched, but must be destroyed, 194 ; serious 
reflection on the death of Christ the true way of subduing, 197. 
Why called vile, xx. 169 ; in respect of its original, ib. ; sustentation 
and supports, 170 ; the many miseries to which it is obnoxious, ib. ; 
often made the instrument of sin, ib. ; vile in death, ib. ; more so 
after death, ib. ; its future condition, 171. 

( Born of God,' what it is to be, XXL 63. 

Bottle in the smoke, the suffering believer compared to, vii. 372 ; it is dry, 
and wrinkled, and shrunk, so his bodily strength decays, 373 ; it is 
blacked and smutched, so his beauty is wasted as well as his strength, 
374 ; it is contemned and cast aside as useless, so he loses his esteem 
and regard among men, ib. 

Bounty, God's common, easier to believe than his special love, i. 157. 
Of God, general, dispensed liberally, but not specially, iv. 38. 
And mercy of God an encouragement in asking spiritual gifts, vii. 186. 

Brazen serpent, a type of salvation by Christ, xvii. 454 ; its history, 455 ; 
the typical use of it, 456 ; the resemblance between Christ and it, 
458 ; the super-excellency of Christ above this and all other types and 
shadows of him, 460 ; the lesson in faith to be derived from, 461. 

Bread , petition for daily, why put first of those that relate to ourselves, i. 149. 

INDEX. 107 

Bread, in the sacraments, Romish adoration of, is idolatry, iii. 100. 
brethren, a word implying love and equality, xii. 28. 

Christ, having taken our nature, accepts and acknowledges us as his, 

xviii. 435 ; may we call him our brother ? 436 ; brotherhood only 

reckoned to the sanctified, 438. 
Brotherhood of Christ, a real privilege to us, x. 73 ; a comfort against a 

sense of our own un worthiness, ib. 
wr den, believers in this mortal body are burdened with a heavy load of sin 

and affliction, xii. 469 ; why affliction is a burden, ib. ; why sin, 470; 

it shows our folly that we are so loath to leave this world and prepare 

for a better, 471 ; the saints, being burthened, do in a holy manner 

groan and long for a better life, ib. ; that this desire is not unnatural, 

ib. ; nor the result of discontent or desperation, 472 ; the holiness of 

these groans and desires, ib. 
Burial, in holy or consecrated places not necessary, xiv. 416; in places of 

worship, as it is very unhealthy and unseemly, so very modern, ib. ; 

the decent burial of the saints agreeable to the word of God, 417. 

C cesar's virtues more amiable than Cato's, xii. 277. 

Cain, the devil's patriarch, the first root of the seed of the serpent, v. 269. 
The first-fruits of the reprobate, the patriarch of unbelievers (Tertullian), 
x. 90, xiii. 435. 

Calamities, the greatest, to be undergone rather than the smallest sin com 
mitted, vi. 223 ; the greatest nothing in comparison with desertions 
of God and terrors of conscience, ib. ; meek suffering of, concluceth 
much to God's glory, ib. 

Of the faithful, not incompatible with the divine justice, viii. 447 ; God 
has an absolute dominion over us and our comforts, and may give and 
take them away according to his pleasure, ib. ; intending to bestow 
eternal blessings upon them, he will take a liberty in disposing of 
outward things, ib. ; it is fit, before they go to heaven, that they 
should be tried, 448 ; afflictions have their profit and use, and con- 
duce to their good, 449 ; good men are but in part good, and it is fit 
their carnal part should be chastised, ib. 

In all, we should look to God, xix. 5 ; because nothing falleth out 
without his particular providence, 6 ; cross issues and punishments, 
as well as benefits and prosperous successes, come from him, ib. ; a 
great advantage to patience under, when we can consider God not as 
an angry judge, but a gracious father, 7 ; not inconsistent with 
adoption, 9. 


Calling, effectual, God the author of, iii. 112 ; none else hath authority, ib. ; 
or power, 113 ; is by the gospel, 114 ; is to faith, holiness, and sal 
vation, 115 ; its glory, 118 ; all who are elected thus called, 119. 
Of a soul to God is a new begetting and regeneration, iv. 117. 
All that the saints have and enjcy is from God, v. 15 ; gives us a war 
rant that we may possess our privileges in Christ without intrusion 
and usurpation,^.; gives us encouragement, ib.' } in calling, God worketh 
iii a way suitable to his nature and ours, strongly and sweetly, ib. ; 
is from self to Christ, from sin to holiness, from misery to happiness, 
16 ; is but election put in act, 18. 

Effectual, notes and marks of, v. 21 ; the preparations made for it, ib. 
the instrument or means, the word, 22 ; the formal means or corre 
spondent act of the creature to the call of God, 23 ; the concomitant 

168 INDEX. 

dispositions of the soul that go along with such a return, 24 ; godly 
sorrow, ib. ; holy wonder, ib. free resolution and confidence, ib. ; the- 
fruits and effects, ib. ; a change in the whole heart, ib. ; a change in 
the life, 25. 

Calling, several kinds of, distinguished, xii. 285 ; there is a proper and an im 
proper calling, ib. the improper call general to all men by the works 
of creation and providence, ib. ; the use of this call to those who- 
have no other, 287 ; the proper call is the voice of God in the word 
of his grace, ib. ; why it is not vouchsafed to all, ib. \ is either ex 
ternal or internal, 288 ; may be either ineffectual or effectual, ib. ;. 
what these two kinds of calling consist in, ib. 

Upon a divine call we must obey, though we know not what will corns 
of it, xiv. 232 ; how we shall know that we are called of God, ib. 
every man must have a particular calling, ib. ; this calling must be- 
agreeable to the word of God, 234 ; we must see God in it, ib. ; in? 
the higher callings of ministry and magistracy, our call from God 
must be more solemn and clear, 235 ; the calling of magistrates must 
not be undertaken without invitation from those that have power to 
call, 235 ; ministers must look for both an internal and external call,. 
236 ; for ordinary callings, what is to be looked on as a call, 237 ; 
how we should behave ourselves in our callings, that we may manifest 
the obedience of faith, ib. ; some cases of difficulty determined, 239 ; 
how we shall know the place which God hath called us to concerning 
the fixing of our abode, 242 ; concerning flying in times of perse 
cution, 245 ; more particularly concerning ministers, what is to bo- 
observed in fixing their station and place of service, 246 ; for gentle 
men who travel to get knowledge and experience, 247 ; for mer 
chants who remove for traffic, 248. 

Of Christ is outward, by the ministry of the word, or inward, by the- 

effectual working of the blessed Spirit, xviii. 6. 
Calumnies of the Komanists against the Reformers, iii. 91. 
Calvin, his forbearance regarding Luther, v. 260. 

Canticles, a mystical scripture expressing the intercourse which passeth be 
tween God and the church in the world, i. 111. 
Cares, ours are needless, fruitless, burdensome, but God's are assiduous,, 

powerful, blessed, i. 37. 
Carnal men cannot say the Lord's prayer without being afraid, i. 119. 

Vain hopes of, ii. 210. 

Confidence, dissuasion from, ii. 326. 

Men do not look upon Christ as worthy of any esteem from them, ilL 
255 ; because they look altogether upon the dark part of him, and 
do not consider the light and glorious part, ib. ; because they want 
the Spirit's discovery, ib. ; and the eye of faith, 256 ; because the 
perverse inclinations of their hearts carry their souls another way, ib. ; 
because they do not know what it is to want Christ, ib. ; they do not 
know what it is to have an interest in Christ, ib. j they esteem him 
hypocritically in their words, indefinitely, partially, customarily, 257 ; 
but not all of Christ, ib. ; nor always, 258 ; prefer every base lust 
before him, ib. ; prefer the pleasing of men before him, 259 ; are 
ashamed of his cause, ib. 

Confidence rooted in some vain principle and thought, iv. 53. 

Men's hearts rise and fall with the news they hear, iv. 56. 

Wisdom, either earthly, sensual, or devilish, iv. 307 ; that wisdom to be- 
suspected for naught which is found to be earthly, 308 ; sensual 


wisdom but folly, ib. ; that devilish which serveth envy and strife, 

Carnal men send out their thoughts to forestall and fore-enjoy their content 
ments ere they obtain them, iv. 387 ; their confidence of future 
events, ib. 

Men make a scorn of a holy life, vii. 41 ; seriousness in religion they 
count mopishness and melancholy, ib. ; self-denial, humorous folly, 
ib. ; zeal in a good cause, distemper and excess, ib. ; holy singularity, 
factiousness, ib. ; fervour of devotion, imposture and enthusiasm, ib. \ 
serious speaking of God and heavenly things, canting, 42 ; faith in 
a future eternal state, fond credulity, ib. ; humility and forgiveness, 
simplicity or stupidness, ib. ; exact walking, scrupulosity and per- 
verseness, ib. ; reasons, ib. 
And spiritual draw contrary conclusions from the same principles, vii, 


Men do not, and cannot, please God, xi. 478 ; it is man's duty and 
happiness to please God, ib; should be our work and scope, 473 ; no 
easy matter to make it so, ib. ; good actions of, do not please God, 
481 ; there is a defect in their state, ib. ; a defect in the root of the 
actions, ib. ; a defect in the manner, ib. ; a defect in the end, ib. ; 
why they think so meanly of the people of God, 490. 
Men are fools ; proved from scripture and their own course of life, xiii. 

Men may for a time be raised to extraordinary quickness in duties of 

worship, xiii. 462. 

Men are incapable of anything well-pleasing to God, xiv. 90 ; the grounds- 
we have to press men to the use of means although they themselves 
are distasteful to God, 99. 

Men, God useth to give many temporal good things to, xviii. 298 ; be.- 
cause all his creatures shall have some taste of his bounty, ib. ; that 
he may reward some good in them, ib. ; to show that these are not 
the chief good things by which his special love is manifested to us, 
299 ; misery of, before death, 302 ; at death, 303 ; after death, 304. 
Men may be deeply affected with the Christian doctrine, even to great 

agonies of conscience, and yet finally miscarry, xviii. 359. 
Things, man naturally addicted to, more than spiritual, and to worldly 
vanities rather than heavenly enjoyments, to the creature rather than 
to God, xviii. 468. 

Carnalists, proud, who scorn the simplicity of the word, reproof of, viii. 342. 

Casual and fortuitous things do certainly and infallibly fall out by God's 
providence and heavenly government, ii. 320. 

Catechising, want of, a cause of decay of godliness, v. 435. 

Cause of his people, God should be desired to plead when they have to da 
with unjust and wicked adversaries, ix. 135 ; he pleads as a judge. 
137; his pleading not verbal or vocal, but real and active, 138; 
the effect is the clearing of his people, and convincing of their 
adversaries, 139 ; necessity of this pleading, 140; because the people 
of God are often in such a condition that none will plead their cause 
unless God plead it, ib. ; though we have a good cause and hopeful 
instruments, yet we cannot plead it with any effect till God show 
himself from heaven, 141. 

Causes, second, God does not leave, to their power and force, as if he were only 

an idle spectator in the world, i. 151 ; not to be confided in, 159. 
Second, a mutual dependence and subordination between all, iv. 472. 

170 INDEX. 

Celsus 1 objection against Origen, that faith introduced error into the world 

and cast out science, answered, xiii. 371. 

Censurers usually have their own measure returned into their bosoms, iv. 271. 

Censuring, wrong when we do it out of pride and conceit, iv. 272 ; when we 

do it as vaunting over their infirmities and frailties, ib. ; when the 

censure is unmerciful, 273 ; when we infringe Christian liberty, and 

condemn others for things merely indifferent, ib. ; when we do not 

consider what may stand with charity as well as what will agree with 

truth, ib. ; when we do it to set off ourselves, ib. 

'Chance, what is, to men, is providence to God, ii. 317. 

Change, godly men wait for, on others it cometh unexpected, iv. 391. 

Charity and doing good with our estates a fruit of faith, ii. 150. 

To the poor must be performed as worship, out of respect to God, iv. 

176 ; and unspotted life must go together, 177. 
A sign and argument of the forgiveness of our sins, but not a cause, 

iv. 473. 

Excess of, is a betrayal of the faith, vi. 291. 

Works of, done out of faith and love to God, of great weight and con 
sequence, x. 65 j a command of God requireth, ib. ; the trial of our 
love to Christ, 66 ; the great question interrogated by Christ at the 
great day of accounts, ib. 
Use of faith in the duties of, xiii. 357. 
Is that love wherewith we love God for himself, and our neighbour for 

God's sake, xviii. 135. 

Excellency and necessity of, above all other gifts, xviii. 306 ; nature 
and properties of, ib. ; with or without, we are something or nothing 
in religion, 312. 

And purity true notes of a believer, xxi. 82. 

Chastisements are not in anger when they make us better, vii. 259. 
Chief end of man as a subject for meditation, xvii. 306. 
Child-bearing, though bringing forth children be according to the course of 
nature, yet God hath a great hand in it, xiv. 275 ; faith the best mid 
wife, 276. 
Child of God hath all the divine perfections in some measure in his soul, 

i. 188. 

Children, can never merit of their parents (Aristotle), xii. 33. 

Of God, the privilege of being, assured to us by a double testimony, 
that of the Holy Ghost and of a renewed conscience, xii. 125 ; 
marks in scripture whereby we may determine our sonship, 127 ; the 
Spirit and our consciences concur to produce the same conclusion, 
129; the necessity of this conjunction, ib. ; directions to ensure this 
twofold testimony, ib. 

Of God, why they act in a manner different from others, xiii. 452 ; 
wherein lies the difference between the worship of, and that of nominal 
professors, 453. 
'Of believing parents partakers in the privileges of the covenant for 

their parents' sake, xiv. 205. 
Of believers, though born in sin and under the curse, are endowed with 

special privileges, xiv. 406. 

Of believers, how far a blessing may be looked for on, xv. 465 ; rea 
sons, 468 ; how this can be reconciled with experience, 469 ; to whom 
the promise is most eminently fulfilled, ib. ; advice to parents, 470 ; 
advice to children, 471. 

INDEX. 171 

Children, a blessing from God, xviii. 86 ; muck of God's providence exer 
cised about, ib. ; in giving strength to conceive, ib. ; in framing the 
child in the womb, ib. ; in giving strength to bring forth, 87 ; are 
a great blessing in themselves, and the more of them the greater, ib. ; 
a gift and blessing dispensed as a reward and heritage, 89 ; of godly 
parents, in better case than the seed of infidels, 91 ; dying before they 
come to the use of reason, no cause to doubt of their salvation, ib. 
living to years of discretion, have greater advantages of being godly 
than others, ib. \ if they fear and love God, their blessings are 
increased, ib. 

We often forget the duty of, but God doth not forget the mercy of a 
father, xviii. 337 ; God spareth his, in withdrawing or modifying 
deserved judgments, 338 ; in pardoning the manifold imperfections 
of their services, ib. \ this a choice privilege, ib. ; grounds of sparing, 
340 ; his merciful nature, ib. ; the satisfaction of Christ, 341 ; his 
gracious covenant, ib. ; his comfortable relation to us, 342. 

Of God, in what sense it is said that they do not and cannot sin (1 John 
iii. 9), xxi. 59. 

Of God, there is, and should be, a broad difference between, and the 
children of the devil, xxi. 76 ; this difference should be manifest to 
themselves and others, ib. ; reasons, 77. 

Choosing Christ, a clear understanding, an unbiassed will, and serious con 
sideration necessary to, xiv. 466. 

Christ, his example in secret prayer both engaging and encouraging, i. 1 1 ; out 
advocate to present our petitions in court, the Spirit the notary to 
draw them up, 12. 

Received from God in the word, presented to God in prayer, i. 30. 

A king different from other kings, i. 34 ; a king of kings, ib. 

Took a mother on earth that we might have a father in heaven, i. 45. 

His future coming little regarded by epicures and atheists, i. 110 ; his 
coining either virtual or personal, ib. 

His voice and the voice of the church are unisons, i. 112; his second 
coming really and heartily desired by the church and all the faithful 
members of it, ib. j reasons of their longing, 113 : yet they do not 
always long for it as they ought, 118 ; this longing produces heavenly 
conversation, 120. 

.Sanctified every condition that he passed through, as poverty, tempta 
tion, death, &c., i. 217. 

.Subjected himself to the moral law, i. 287 ; was the angel who led the 
Israelites in the wilderness, 289. 

As an instance of temptation, so a pattern of victory and conquest, 
i. 323. 

His death, as to men an act of violence, to his Father of obedience, to 
us of love, i. 363. 

The beloved Son of God, both as second person and as Mediator, i. 384. 

His tender care over his disciples in their faintings and discouragements, 
i. 409. 

In relation to God, is the Lamb slain ; in dealing with Satan, he doth 
as a lion recover the prey, i. 420 ; his divinity essential to his re 
demption, 421. 

172 INDEX. 

Christ, in what respects the image of God, i. 428 ; in respect of his eternal 
generation, ib. ; in respect of the perfections of God shining forth in 
him in his incarnation, ib. ; in his person, word, works, ib. 

In what sense the first-born of every creature, i. 430 ; doth not imply 
that he is to be accounted a creature, 431. 

The creator of all things, i. 434. 

His pre-existence before all creatures, i. 445 ; his true divinity, 446. 

Sustaineth all things, i. 448 ; not only meritoriously, but efficiently, ib. ; 
not only indirectly, but directly, 449 ; not only mediately, but im 
mediately, ib. ; yet so that he doth not overturn their nature, ib. ; in 
sustaining the creatures, is not a bare instrument, but a coequal agent 
with God. 450 ; reasons why all things must subsist by him, ib. 

The head of the Church, i. 453. 

As creator, by power brought us out of nothing ; as redeemer, by mercy 
he recovereth us from sin, i. 453. 

The beginning of the new creation, not passively, but actively, i. 464 ; 
in a way of order and dignity, ib. ; in a way of causality, 465 ; 
giving life and likeness, ib. ; why Christ the beginning, 466 ; for his 
honour, ib. ; suited to our condition, ib. 

What it is to be offended in, ii. 81 : dislike and displeasure with some 
thing in him, ib. ; either keeping men off from him, or drawing them 
off from him, ib. ; occasion of offence to the Jews in his day, 82 ; his 
person, his doctrines, his sufferings, ib. ; danger of offence still, 83 ; 
through the many calamities that attend the profession of the gospel, 
84 j the purity, the self-denial, the simplicity, the mysteriousness of 
the gospel, 85. 

Ate and drank like other men, but with great piety, and with great 
temperance and sobriety, ii. 95 ; conversed with the meanest, the 
poorest, and the worst, as was needful for their cure, 96 ; reasons 
why he chose this kind of life, ib. ; he would not place religion in 
outward austerities and observance, ib. ; he would not countenance 
an inclosing spirit, ib. ; he followed that course of life which is fit for 
all, 97; his form of life must be suitable with the nature of his 
kingdom, ib. ; he would not gratify human wisdom, 98 ; he would 
show the true nature of mortification, ib. 

His great poverty, ii. 120 ; increases the value and merit of his satis 
faction, ib. ; shows that he came to draw minds and hearts to the 
other world, ib. ; to season and sanctify a mean estate, ib. 

Given for us, and given to us, ii. 344. 

Without, there is no recovery of what we lost, ii. 346 ; no removal of 
the misery we incurred, 347 ; no obtaining what we should desire and 
pursue as our proper happiness, ib. 

Invoked together with the Father as an author of grace ; thereby his 
godhead proved, iii. 138; lordship of, belongeth to him as creator, 
and is common to him with the Father and Spirit, 141 ; as redeemer, 
by donation of God, and by his own purchase, ib. ; requires submis 
sion, obedience, dependence, 142. 

Jewish prejudices against, iii. 196 ; from erroneous opinions of the 
Messiah, ib. fond reverence for Moses and the prophets, ib. ; offence 
at his outward meanness, 197 ; Gentile prejudices, ib. ; from pride in 
the understanding, ib. ; the meanness of the apostles, ib. ; the hard 
conditions on which they were to entertain Christ, ib. 

Having no form nor comeliness, and fairer than the sons of men, recon 
ciled, iii. 222. 

INDEX. 173 

Christ was not esteemed among men, iii. 249 ; everything else acknowledged 
him, angels, fish, wild beasts, devils, but not man, ib. ; was despised, 
and became an object of scorn and contempt, 250 ; in their thoughts, 
ib. : words, ib. ; general carriage towards him, 251; was a man of 
sorrows, ib. ', acquainted with grief, 252 ; why so miserable, ib. ; 
that God's promises might be fulfilled, ib. ; that he might declare his 
obedience to God's decrees and appointment, 253 ; that he might 
set off his love to man, ib. \ that he might be a perfect mediator 
for us, ib. - } that he might be able to comfort his people in like dis 
tresses, ib. 

An abject to the carnal, a jewel to the people of God, iii. 258. 

Suffered for sin, iii. 263 ; not for his own, but ours, ib. ; bore the 
guilt of them, 265. 

The physician of the soul, iii. 292 ; cureth us not by doctrine and ex 
ample only, but by merit and suffering, ib. ; his merits and sufferings 
do effect our cure, as they purchased the Spirit for us, who reneweth 
and healeth our sick souls, 293. 

Acted altogether by the Father's power, iii 317 ; and by the Father's 
appointment, 318. 

His readiness to accomplish the office of the rnediatorship, iii. 339 ; 
shown by express assertions of scripture, ib. \ by several passages in 
the history of his life, ib. ; his longing for it before it came, ib. ; his 
not preventing it when he knew it, ib. ; his cheerful casting himself 
upon it, ib. ; his submitting to his Father's will in his highest agonies 
and conflicts, 340 ; his silence, ib. j his forbidding all violence for his 
rescue, ib. ; his prayers that the cup might pass from him not incon 
sistent with this, 341. 

His life a praxis of divinity and the rules of religion exemplified, iii. 

Hose as a resurrection, and liveth as a life, iii. 357 ; being risen, liveth 
a numberless term of years, even for ever, with God in glory, ib. , not 
as God, but as Mediator, as God-man, ib. ; at his resurrection cleared 
from sin, and so no more liable to death, ib. ; that he might become 
a principle and fountain of life to us, 358 ; that he might be doing 
something continually in heaven for the elect of God, ib. ; intercedes 
for them, ib. \ administers his kingdom to the destruction of his 
adversaries, 359 - } dispenses all necessary supplies to the needs of his 
servants, ib. 

Honoured as soon as he died, iii. 365. 

His love, care and mercy, and kingdom, are eternal, iii. 396 ; all the 
will and pleasure of God shall prosper and be effectual in his hands, 
397 ; because he is the choice instrument of God, the special servant 
of his decrees, ib. \ because he is so qualified that he must succeed in 
what he undertakes, 398 ; willing and ready to comply with the will 
of the Father, ib. ; able and mighty, so that he must needs effectuate 
that will, ib. 

Will infallibly, and without miscarrying, obtain the end of his death, iii. 

Taketh an infinite contentment and satisfaction in the salvation of 
sinners, iii. 408. See Salvation. 

Innocent, and accounted a transgressor ; men of the world transgressors, 
would fain be accounted innocent, iii. 478 ; cause of his sufferings 
was his bearing our sins, 479 ; merit of his death not extended to 
all 482. 

174 INDEX'. 

Christ t called Lord and Jesus ; lie came to rule, and he came to save, v. 15 71 

More able to save than Adam to destroy, v. 47o. 

In believers, notwithstanding death, a sure pledge and earnest of eter 
nal life, xii. 1 1 ; a true Christian doth not only profess Christ, but 
hath Christ in him, ib. ; Christ is in us two ways, objectively and 
effectively, ib. ; some notes of Christ's presence in us, 1 2. 

Death of, laid the foundation of a large superstructure of grace, freely 
dispensed to all having interest in him, xii. '337; how the death 
of Christ laid this foundation, ib. considerations which might have 
moved God to withhold his Son, 338 ; the persons concerned in 
this act of grace, ib.; the act itself, what it consisted in, 339 ; the 
superstructure of grace built on this foundation, 340 ; the largeness 
of it, ib. ; the strength and sufficiency of this foundation demonstrated, 
341 ; the persons interested, 343. 

The dignity of his person, xii. 368 ; the unity of his office and sacrifice, 
ib. ; the greatness of his sufferings, ib. ; his resurrection an assurance 
of forgiveness of sin, 370 ; his exaltation a confirmation of the truth 
and dignity of his office, ib. ; the peculiar benefits arising from his 
resurrection, 371 ; his intercession a notable prop to faith, 373 ; the 
abundant cause we have of glorying in Christ, 374. 

His delight in the creatures, xiii. 10. 

His interest concerned in the truth of the resurrection and a future state 
of punishment and reward, xiii. 49 ; his qualifications as a judge to 
judge the world, 51 ; the nature in which he exercises this judgment, 

A notable instance of preferring God's honour above all other interests, 
xiii. 136. 

Represented as a common person (Rom. v. 14), xiii. 180; as made sin 
(2 Cor. v. 21), ib. ; as made a curse for us (Gal. iii. 13), ib. 

Death of, Christ dying, one for all, the great instance and argument to 
be improved by us, xiii. 179 ; what dying one for all signifieth, 180 ; 
proveth two things, the verity of his satisfaction, and the sufficiency 
of it, ib. ; how the great love of God appeareth in this, 183 ; how 
suitable this argument is to beget in us that love which God expects, 
even a thankful return of obedience, 185 ; from the end of Christ's 
death, ib. ; the right which accrueth to the Redeemer by virtue of 
the price paid for us, ib. ; the pardon ensuing and depending on his 
death, ib. ; the greatness of his sufferings, ib. ; the terribleness of 
God's wrath, 186 ; but above all, from a grateful sense of our obliga 
tion to God and Christ, ib. ; how all this must be improved, ib. ; ex 
hortation to affect our hearts and thoughts with the greatness of this 
instance of the love of God, 187. 

Was that to us in grace which Adam was in nature, xiii. 193. 

Death of, the sacrifice of atonement, xiii. 259, 261. 

The benefits we have by, distinguished, xiii. 272. 

His prophetical office as* necessary for our comfort as his sacerdotal, xiii. 

Spirit, ministry, this conjunction must not be separated, xiii. 289. 

How he must be esteemed, xiv. 463 ; reasons why this esteem must be 
such that Christ's worst may be better to us than the world's best, 

What it is to sit down under the shadow of, xv. 359 : the acts of faith 
in seeking shelter in Christ, 361 ; what the fruits of Christ are, 362 ;, 
why called his fruits, 364 ; their sweetness, 365. 

INDEX. 175 

Christ, the true notion of his doctrine is that of a testimony, xv. 380 ; the 
nature of it, ib. ; the value of it, 381 ; the use of it, 384 ; the respect 
that is due to it, 385 ; its reception as a testimony is a ratification of 
the truth of God, 387 ; the manner of ratification, ib. ; the matter,. 

Why he is called God, xvi. 230 ; that he is God proved from the nature 
of his offices and work, and from scripture, 234 ; why he is called a 
Saviour, 237 ; his willingness to suffer for fallen man demonstrated, 
241 ; the grounds of his willingness, 243 ; the necessity of it, ib. 

Why and how he loved the -rich young man in the Gospel (Mark x.), 
xvi. 456. 

In some respects loves those that are influenced by moral virtues merely,, 
xvi. 462. 

Holiness of, as to his person and office, xvii. 408 ; as to the particular 
functions of his office as prophet, priest, and king, 410 ; the unction 
which is the consequent and fruit of Christ's holiness, 412 ; its author, 
413; the privilege itself, 414; the persons anointed, 415; exhorta 
tion to holiness, 416. 

The seed of the woman, the necessity of his becoming, xvii. 243. 

As a physician, prescribeth repentance as the means of cure, xviii. 4 ; 
his work is with sinners, 5 ; all are now in a state of lapse from 
primitive integrity, none are righteous till he calleth them, ib. ; out 
of this state man is unable to deliver and recover himself, ib. ; those 
who are sensible of this are nextly called, 6. 

His growth in wisdom and stature, xviii. 116; not in grace, but in wis 
dom, ib. ; proof from scripture, 117; and from reason, ib. 

Behoved to be of the same nature and stock with those whom he re 
deemed or sanctified to God, xviii. 432; that by the law of propinquity 
of blood he might have right to redeem us, ib. ; to give us a pledge of 
the tenderness of his love and compassion towards us, ib. ; that the 
same nature that sinned should suffer for sin, ib. ; that we might find 
a fountain of holiness in our nature, ib. ; to answer the types of the 
law, 433 ; to make a way for nearness between God and us, ib. ; to 
be a fit head of the mystical body, ib. See Incarnation of Christ. 

His dying prayer for his persecutors a moral action, xix. 16 ; a taste 
and pledge of his mediation and intercession, 24. 

His exact knowledge of all his sufferings, xix. 29. 

Why so willing to die, xix. 44 ; out of obedience to his Father, ib. ; 
out of love to us, ib. ; this would finish his labours, 45 ; this furthered 
his triumph, ib. ; he was hastening to his own glory, ib. 

To look upon as a lawgiver only, and not as a Saviour, is not to evan 
gelise, but to legalise, xix. 447 ; his being head of the church 
importeth oneness of nature, 448 ; eminency, ib. ; fulness of perfec 
tion, 449 ; authority and power to govern, ib. ; a strict union between 
him and the church, ib.- } no other may usurp this honour and office, 451. 

Interceding with God, xx. 158 ; powerfully administering the media 
torial kingdom, ib. ; at the end of time will come from heaven and 
judge the world, 159 ; to true Christians he will come as a saviour, 161. 

Having laid down his life for us, we ought to be ready to lay down 
our lives for the brethren, xxi. 139 ; in what cases a man is to die 
for another, 140. 

What he will be to us if we choose his ways and walk in them, xxii. 17. 

The occasion of piercing his side, xxii. 33 ; the circumstance considered 
under a threefold aspect, 35 ; a symbol and type of his office, 39. 

170 INDEX. 



Christ's death set forth as a ransom and as a mediatorial sacrifice, i. 366 ; 
necessity of, 367; the sins and guilty fears of men need such a 
remedy, ib. ; the glory of God requires it, ib. 

Indwelling in his people, xi. 66 ; not essentially, for so he is everywhere, 
ib. ; nor personally, for that would involve a personal union, ib. ; 
but mystically, with respect to some peculiar operations which he 
worketh in them and not in others, ib. ; benefits of, ib. ; if Christ be 
not in us, the devil is, ib. ; where Christ is all the Trinity are, ib. ; 
where the Trinity are there is a blessing, 67 ; it is a pledge we shall 
have more, ib. 

Death, exhortation to improve, xii. 79 ; a lively and effectual pattern of 
our dying to sin, 80 ; an act of self-denial, ib. ; an act of pain and 
sorrow, ib. ; a price paid, ib. 

Death set forth by the notions of a ransom and a sacrifice, xiii. 180. 

Death, the end of, xiii. 195; a pattern to Christians of dying unto 
sin, 196. 

Innocency and purity, xiii. 305. 

Second coming, it is the duty of God's children to look and long for, 
xvi. 208; reasons why, 209; objections answered, 214; the glory 
of it, 218; the preparation, ib. ; the appearance itself, 220; the con 
sequences, 224 ; why the appearance of Christ will be so glorious, 
226 ; comfort and advice, 228. 

Victory in our nature over Satan, matter of great praise and thankful 
ness to God, xviii. 16. 

Coming into the world for our redemption sometimes represented as an 
act of obedience to God, sometimes of love to us, xix. 180. 

Desertion by his father. See Desertion. 

Christian, is a sacrifice to God, ii. 223 ; as separated from common use, ib. ; 
and dedicated to God, ib. 

Has God's law for his rule, God's Spirit for his guide, the promises for 
his encouragement, God's glory for his end, vi. 13. 

Life, all Christians may have the approbation of God, the testimony of 
their own consciences, and the witness of the consciences of others, 
xiii. 104 ; the approbation of God should be chiefly sought after, but 
the others must not be disregarded, 106 ; how far the testimony of 
the consciences of others is to be regarded, 108. 

AMONG, ii. 1. 

Christians to be like a die in the hand of providence, content whether they be 
cast high or low, i. 77. 

Kings in respect of power and privileges, i. 95. 

Have to pray for the pardon of their sins, i. 176. 

Must expect not only to be tempted, but to be often tempted, i. 307 ; 
the best may be tempted to the most execrable sins, ib. 

Weak, are more swayed by fear, advanced by the love of God, ii. 66. 

Should be a transcript of their religion, ii. 109. 

The best, are those who have their corruptions most mortified, ii. 211 ; 
should now improve their Christianity to get power and strength 
against sin, 212. 

Real, comparatively few, but absolutely many, iii. 13 

INDEX. ] 77 

Christians, weak, have sometimes gone through great temptations when strong 
ones have failed, iii. 177. 

Eternal in Christ's eternity, iii. 370. 

The very name of, presses us to care and holiness, iv. 204. 

Private, should mutually confer for comfort and edification, iv. 475. 

The best, but scholars and students in the knowledge and obedience of 
God's word, vi. 65. 

Under the influence of the fear of God, are alike everywhere, because 
God is alike everywhere, vii. 174. 

Are much affected with one another's mercies, vii. 280. 

Think works never can have enough of their care, or too little of their 
trust, x. 64. 

Some exposed to necessity, others in a capacity to relieve them, x. 65. 

Are under a double law, of nature and grace, xiii. 76. 

Their end far more noble than the designs of the best of the world, 
xix. 146 ; aim at glory, honour, immortality, ib. ; these they heartily 
desire, 148 ; and earnestly endeavour after, ib. ; this by patient con 
tinuance in well-doing, 149 ; their reward is eternal life, 152. 
Christians life a constant hymn to God, or a continued act of worship, ii. 25. 

Indentures (Matt. xvi. 24), xvii. 5. 

Christianity, the very knowledge of, breedeth joy, ii. 31 ; everything in it fitted 
to fill our hearts with joy, ib. ; the wonderful mysteries of our redemp 
tion by Christ, ib. ; the promises, 32 ; the enjoyments, 33 ; the pre 
cepts of Christ, ib. ; the duties which concern our neighour, 35. 

Its humanity, goodness, and kindness, with respect to ourselves and 
others, ii. 99. 

Its excellence above the heathen religions, ii. 187 above the Jewish, 
188 ; exhortation to embrace, ib. 

Its good nature, ii. 283. 

Perfection of, to carry an equal mind in all conditions, iv. 440. 

Excellence of, lieth in the fulness of its reward, the purity of its precepts, 
and the sureness of its principles of trust, v. 167. 

Doctrine of, is a tradition, v. 490. 

Not to be judged of by the character of nominal Christians, ix. 262. 

Life, its scope and work, xiii. 35 ; in what these consist, 36 ; we cannot 
be sincere unless our main design be the approval of God, ib. ; this a 
mark of difference between the sincere and the hypocrite, ib. ; must 
be carried on with great earnestness and industry, 39. 

Doth adopt moralities into its frame and constitution, xviii. 96 because 
grace doth not abolish so much of nature as is good, but refines and 
sublimates it, by causing us to act from higher principles and to 
higher ends, 101 ; because these conduce to the honour of religion, 
ib. ; they make for our peace and safety, 102 ; they flow from the 
grace of regeneration, ib. their contraries are condemned by the law 
of God, ib. ; they are not small things, 103. 

Advanceth righteousness to a greater height, xix. 270; deduceth 
things from a higher principle, ib. measureth and directeth things 
by a perfect rule, 271 ; preferreth them to a more noble end, 

Light of, shining forth in the word of God and the lives and actions of 
Christians, a great means of reproving and condemning the world, 
xix. 320 j Christians have a heavenly light communicated to them, 
ib. ; true Christians walk as children of the light, 321 ; this light 
shineth forth both in their words and deeds, ib. ; this light is a re- 

178 INDEX. 

proving light to the wicked and carnal world, 322 ; God is thereby 
glorified, 323 ; and men benefited, 324. 
Church compared, not to the sun, but to the moon and stars, i. 80. 

Government of, is monarchical in regard of Christ the head, aristocra- 
tical in regard of officers, and in some respects democratical, with 
reference to the consent of the people in all church acts, i. 95. 

However afflicted, is beloved and pitied by God's servants, i. 107. 

What we should seek for, i. 109 ; her enlargement throughout the world, 
ib. ; the preservation and defence of those already planted, ib. ; comfort 
and deliverance in her afflictions, ib. a supply to her of all good 
furniture, internal and external, ib. 

Mystical, all such as are called out of the world to be a peculiar people- 
to God, i. 454. 

What it is, i. 455 ; a society composed of all the elect, who have been, 
are, or shall be on earth, ib. ; divided into the church militant and 
the church triumphant, 456 ; the former called the universal church, 
ib. ; the universal visible church, ib. particular churches, ib. ; called 
a body in regard of the union of all the parts, 457 ; and of depen/- 
dence on one head, ib. 

Why it must have a divine and human head, i. 461. 

Smallness of, not a ground of discouragement, iii. 395. 

The heir of the cross, v. 432. 

Of God hath suffered not only from the persecutions of enemies, but 
from the folly, rashness, and injudiciousness of friends, vii. 208. 

Visible, so mixed that the greater part of it is unsound, viii. 224 
judgments upon, are to leaven the dross from the gold, 227. 

Visible, contains members that are wise, and others that are foolish, 
who will come short of the blessedness that they expect, ix. 323. 

Duty of, to the word, x. 450 ; to see that it be published to the present 
age, and transmitted pure to the next, ib. ; hath witnessed in all ages- 
to the truth, by tradition and by martyrdom, 451. 

If we would aim at God's glory we must seek the good of the church, 
xiii. 122. 

Compared to an army, a house, and the human body, xiii. 425. 

Many vicissitudes and changes in the outward condition of, xviii. 26. 
Churches, particular, are not many bodies, but members of one body, i. 454. 

Civility, or a fair demeanour in the world, usually accompanied with igno 
rance and little knowledge of God's institutions, v. 35 ; little of Christ 
in such souls, ib. ; usually some great prevailing sin, 36 ; greater care 
about actions than lusts, ib. 

Coldness in duty and boldness in sinning come from unbelief, vi. 402. 
Combinations of wicked men are a faction and conspiracy; of Christians, a 

brotherhood, iv. 58. 

Comfortable doctrines of scripture, vii. 32 ; concerning particular providences, 
ib. ; God's fatherly care over his people, 33 ; his unchangeable love to 
his people, ib. ; the true doctrine about afflictions, the author, cause, 
and end of them all, ib. 

Comfort, God hath given to all true believers solid grounds of perpetual and 
endless, iii. 151 ; the comforts propounded are of an everlasting ten 
dency and benefit, ib. ; they depend on everlasting foundations, 152 ; 
they are sufficient to do their work, 154. 

All true and solid is of God, iii. 167 ; what it is, ib. ; our natural refresh 
ment and support in troubles, ib. God can give his people, in the 

INDEX. 179 

greatest tribulations, 168 ; there is a special allowance of comfort for 
God's children in their afflictions, ib. ; our comforts carry proportion 
with our sorrows, ib. ; the heart the proper seat of spiritual comfort, ib. 
is of God when it is allowed by him and warranted by him, 169 ; when 
the matter is provided by him, 170 ; when it is wrought in us by him, 
ib. ; God challengeth as his own right to comfort the heart of men, 171 ; 
his Spirit alone can comfort the heart, ib. ; he is ready to comfort 
poor afflicted creatures that humbly submit to him, 172 ; his comforts 
come with authority, ib. ; are full and strong, ib. ; follows holiness as 
heat doth fire, 173 j a singular way of, beside the word, not to be 
expected, ib. ; to be sought in the use of God's ordinances, 174 ; end 
why God giveth us, to fortify us against the enemies of our salvation, 
ib. ; hath a latitude in it, including support, peace, and joy, 176. 
Comfort apt to divorce from duty, iv. 8. 

Sometimes put for the object or thing comfortable, as deliverance and 
temporal blessings, pardon of sins, &c., vii. 304 ; sometimes subjec 
tively, for the strengthening of the mind when it is apt to be weak 
ened by doubts, fears, and sorrows, 305 ; by patience we are kept 
from murmuring, by comfort from fainting, ib. j peace is a fuller 
degree of, ib. ; joy the fullest, 306 j though not absolutely necessary 
to salvation, yet conduces much to the well-being of a Christian, ib. ; 
follows holiness, as heat doth fire, ib. ; is a pledge of more to ensue, 
ib. ; is to be asked of God, for it is his proper gift, ib. ; conveyed 
through his word, 307 ; received on our part by prayer, 308 ; is all 
from mercy, and tender mercy, 310. 
Comforts, under temptation, i. 217 ; Christ hath overcome all his enemies, and 

. we are interested in his victory, ib. ; he hath a tender sense and know 
ledge of our estate, 218 ; he is engaged in the battle, and fights with 
us, ib. ; he will reward us when we have done, ib. j even before the 
battle, the believer may be sure of victory, 219. 

Worldly, a glut and fulness of, much more dangerous than hunger, i. 274. 

We cannot have perpetual, i. 411. 

When God has laid in a great store of, against sufferings, usually there 
is a time of expense to lay them out again, iii. 62. 

Carnal, God hath many ways to blast, iv. 405. 

In affliction, all others are nothing to those which we have from the 
word of God, vii. 28 ; they are divine, 29 ; strong, ib. ; full in mea 
sure, ib. ; full in matter, 30 ; reviving, 31 ; are applied by the Spirit 
and received by faith, 35. 

When God's children ask, they also beg grace to receive them acceptably, 
viii. 416. 

The word holds out, to us in affliction, ix. 23 ; the privileges of the 
afflicted, ib. ; the blessedness of another world, ib. j what is acceptable 
to God, ib. ; notable precepts that ease the heart, ib. ; many promises 
of God's being with us, and strengthening us, and giving us a gra 
cious issue out of all our troubles, ib.- } bindeth faith, which fixeth tha 
heart, 24 ; afflictions do rather increase than diminish, ib. 

Never prized but in their season, x. 309 ; in great troubles, ib. ; in the 
hour of temptation and hard conflict with doubt and corruption, 
ib. ; in times of great danger and defection, through terror and perse 
cution, 310; in times of disheartening because of the difficulties of 
religion, ib. ; in the hour of death, ib. 

Coming of Christ, patient waiting for, what it is, ii. 246; looking, 247 ; longing, 
ib. j inseparable from love to God, 249 ; its influence on the spiritual 

180 INDEX. 

life, 250; necessity of divine concurrence to, 253; should be con 
tinually expected, 255. 

Coming of Christ to judgment, a truth well known, firmly believed, and 
earnestly desired by all the saints, iii. 6 ; why earnestly desired, 8 ; 
objection answered, 10; belief and desire of, tends to heavenly- 
mindedness, 1 1 ; at his coming all his saints shall be gathered to 
him, ib. ; time of, to be patiently expected, not rashly defined or 
determined, 15. 

Of the Lord, every manifestation of grace or judgment so called, iv. 419. 

Of Christ, thought of, a burden and torment to the wicked, v. 348 ; a 
ground of trial whether we love God and Christ or not, ib. ; privileges 
to be enjoyed, 349 ; a day of manifestation, ib. ; of perfection, ib. ; 
of congregation, ib. 

Of Christ, our whole life a preparation for, ix. 330. 

Of Christ, second, ix. 361 ; reason saith he may come, ib. ; from the 
nature of God, ib.; from the providence of God, 362 ; from the feel 
ings of conscience, ib. ; from the conveniency of such a day, to 
vindicate truth and honesty from the false judgments of the world, 
ib. ; that the counsels and courses of God's manifold wisdom and 
justice may be solemnly applauded, ib. ; that God may fit us with all 
kinds of arguments against sin, 363 ; faith says he must come, ib. ; 
from Christ's merit and purchase, ib. : from his affection to us, ib. ; 
from the affection of the saints to him, 364 ; from the constitution of 
the church, ib. ; from his promise, ib. ; confirmed by an outward sign 
and memorial, 365 ; by a real pledge, his Spirit dwelling in us, ib. ; 
delayed, that there may be space to the world to repent, 366 ; 
that all the elect may be gathered, ib. ; to exercise our patience to 
the full, ib. ; not enough to believe the doctrine, but must improve it 
to the use of holy living, 371. 

Of Christ shall be as of a bridegroom, ix. 392 ; between Christ and 
believers there is a mutual tie, consent, and obligation to each other, 
notably represented by the marriage covenant, ib. ; this relation begun, 
but not publicly solemnised, 395 ; perfected at his second coming, 
396 ; there is a personal meeting, ib. ; the bridegroom and bride do 
both deck and adorn themselves, ib. ; there is an open manifestation 
of his dearest love, ib. ; we are brought home to his house, 397; 
there is an everlasting cohabitation and living with him, ib. See 
Preparation for, &c. 

To God, what it is, xiv. 123 ; no coining to God but by Christ, 124. 

Delay of Christ's, is not from want of kindness, or backwardness to our 
good, xviii. 229 ; nor from ignorance, as not knowing the fittest time 
to put a period to the course of the world or of our lives, ib. ; nor 
from forgetfulness of his promise, ib. ; nor from change of counsel, ib. ; 
nor from impotency and weakness, ib. 

Of Christ, a day of manifestation, xx. 160; of perfection, ib. ; of 
gathering, 161 ; of glorification, ib. ; its end is to perfect our sal 
vation, 162 ; is certainly and earnestly looked for by the godly, ib. ; 
looking for, implieth love, faith, hope, 163 ; preparation for, 166. 
Comings of Christ, tho two, frequently mixed in the prophetical writings, 

xviii. 74. 

Commandment, a good man feareth (Prov. xiii. 13), another feareth a punish 
ment, i. 103. 

Of God in the way, as terrible to a gracious heart as an angel with a 
flaming sword, vi. 43. 

INDEX. 181 

Commandment, exceeding broadness of, means the exceeding fulness of scrip 
ture, vii. 459 ; breadth for use, ib. ; for duration and continuance, 461. 
Commandments, God gives us, which we cannot obey by our own strength, vi. 
47 ; to keep up his right, ib. ; to convince us of our impotency, ib. ; 
to have us will, though we cannot do, ib. ; to bring us to lie at his 
feet for grace, 48. 

Of God, all must be had respect to, vi. 54 ; small and great, ib. ; those 
that require public and those that require private duties, ib. ; those 
that concern the inward as well as those that concern the outward 
man, ib. ; to be equally had respect to in vow and purpose, 55 ; in 
affection, ib. ; in endeavour, 56 ; all ratified by the same authority, 
ib. ; grace given in conversion to observe all, ib. ; a Christian cannot 
be perfect in degrees if he be not in parts, 57 ; they who do not 
obey all, will not long obey any, ib. 

Path of the, at first conversion God maketh us go in, vi. 361 ; by giving 
an inclination and tendency towards what is good, 362 ; preparation 
of heart for holy actions, ib. ; power and ability to do good works, 
363 ; these principles he improves by vouchsafing his quickening, 
actuating, assisting grace, ib. 

Goodness of, appeareth from the admission of those who will not submit 
to them, vii. 8 ; from the sentiments which men have of a holy, sober, 
godly life, when they come to die, ib. ; by supposing the contrary of 
all that God hath commanded, ib. 

Of God, not enough to approve or commend, but we must carefully set 
ourselves to the practice of them, vii. 13; hearing without doing 
disapproved, ib. ; knowledge without practice not right, ib. ; love not 
right unless it end in practice, ib. ; delight not right, ib. ; com 
mendation not right, ib. ; obedience must be universal, 14; serious 
and diligent, ib. ; settled and ordinary, ib. ; persevering and patient, 
ib. ; must flow from faith and love, 15 ; such observance necessary 
in respect of God the Father, who will not only be known and 
worshipped, but served by a full and entire obedience, ib. ; in respect 
of the Son, who is the author of eternal life to them that obey him, 
16 ; in respect of the Holy Ghost, who is given to make graces 
operative, ib. ; in respect of ordinances, which are all means to this 
end, ib. ; in respect of graces, which are all imperfect till they end in 
action, 17 ; in respect of the judgment, which is not only by what is 
believed, but by what is done, ib. 

As much to be believed as the promises, vii. 213; that God is 
their author, ib. ; that they are to be received with reverence as 
his, 214 ; that they are holy, just, and good, ib. ; that obedience is 
indispensably required of us, 216 ; that God loveth those who obey, 
and hateth those who despise his law, without respect of persons, 
ib. ; that one day we shall be called to account, 217 ; necessity of 
believing, ib. ; they are parts of the divine revelation, ib. ; they have 
a necessary connection with the promises, ib. ; gratitude resulting 
from faith in the promises will put us upon it, 218 ; our trust in the 
promises is commensurable to our fidelity to the commandments, ib. ; 
faith in the promises is itself obedience to a command, 219 ; utility 
of believing, ib. ; that we may begin with God, to yield up our wills 
absolutely to his will, ib. ; that we may hold on with God in our 
awef ul, watchful, serious course of godliness, ib. ; results of believing, 
221 ; we will not please ourselves with a naked trust in the promises 
while we neglect our duty to God, ib. ; our faith will be lively and 

182 INDEX. 

operative, ib. ; we shall obey the commandments as God's command 
ments, ib. 

Commandments, God's, it is the property of a gracious soul to delight in, ix. 20 ; 
because of the proportion and suitableness of the object to the grace in 
his heart, ib. ; because of possession of it and communion with it, ib. ; 
because of precedent love to it, ib. ; effects of this delight, 21 ; en 
largement of heart, ib. j a thirst for more of it, ib. ; makes the opera 
tion to the object more perfect than it would be, 22. 

To keep, is a laborious thing, and requireth great diligence, ix. 204 ; 
requireth spirit and courage, ib. ; much self-denial and submission, 

Keeping of, is legal or evangelical, ix. 223. 

What it is to keep the, xxi. 201 ; how this is a gospel conscience, 205 ; 

reasons why this constitutes a good and quiet conscience, 206. 
Commands of God, legal and evangelical, vi. 337. 
Common work of grace may go far as to faith, ix. 324 ; as to hope, 327 ; 
as to love, 328 ; is not likely to hold out, ib. ; even if it do not 
fall out, is not enough to qualify for heaven and everlasting happi 
ness, 329. 
Communion with God lieth in fruition and familiarity, i. 16. 

An hour's, with God, better than all the world, i. 117. 

With God breedeth some assimilation to him, i. 349. 

With God, conformity the ground of, iv. 371. 

Of saints, excellency of, vii. 285. 

With the death of Christ signifieth, by way of privilege, that we are 
partakers of the benefits of his death, xi. 163 ; by way of duty, that 
we are bound to renounce sin, ib. ; the sacraments are a solemn 
means of, 164; union with Christ the ground of, ib. ; this union 
and communion signified and sealed by the sacraments, 165 ; the 
sacraments chiefly relate to our communion with Christ's death, 
166; shown by the interpretation of both in scripture, ib. ; and by 
the rites used in both, 167 ; by the nature of the case, 168. 

With the church no small privilege, xiv. 398; should be earnestly 
sought both for ourselves and our children, 399. 

With Christ, the nature and character of, xxi. 219 ; why a privilege 

peculiar to those who keep his commandments, 224. 

Companions of them that fear the Lord, in what sense we are to be, vii. 176 ; 
we must join with them in the profession of the same faith and obed 
ience to God, ib. ; must often meet together to join in the same 
worship, 177; must love them and prize them, and converse with 
them intimately for mutual edification, ib. ; must own them in all 
conditions, and take part and lot with them, ib. ; to this companion 
ship our relation enforceth us, 178; the new nature welcometh us, 
179 ; gratitude to Christ maketh us prize all that belong to him, ib. ; 
profit and utility redounding, ib. 
Company, we are sooner made evil by evil, than good by good, i. 342. 

In heaven, part of the blessedness of those who die in the Lord, ii. 468. 

Ill, a man that keepeth, is like him that walketh in the sun, tanned 
insensibly, iv. 178. 

And fellowship of his people, Christ taketh great delight in, xi. 98. 
Complaint to God the best resource when we fail in our efforts to do good to 
a people, iii. 193. 

INDEX. 183 

Complaints should not be of God, but to God, vii. 371. 

Extorted under affliction, viii. 98 ; that none were ever afflicted as we 

are, ib. ; that God is unfaithful, ib. ; that we are cut off, ib. 
Concurrence of God as a judge in sending strong delusions, iii. 87 ; consists 
in his withdrawing the light and direction of his Holy Spirit, ib. ; 
delivering us up to the power of Satan, 88 ; raising such instruments 
and propounding such objects as, meeting with a haughty heart, do 
sorely blind it, ib. 

Of God to sinful actions, but not to the sin of the actions, iii. 372 ; 
takes not away the sinner's blame, 373 ; nor casts it upon God, 374. 
Concurrent grace, not only a habit, but actual help in the work of obedience, 
i. 145 ; this endeareth God to a gracious soul, ib. ; engageth to con 
stant dependence on God and communion with him, 146; keeps 
humble, ib. ; is for the honour of the Lord's grace, 147. 
Condemnation, in the general, is a sentence dooming us to punishment, xi. 
385 ; exemption from, is upon account of Christ's satisfaction to God's 
justice, 387 ; upon account of the new covenant grant, 388 ; free 
dom from, is the portion of those that are in Christ, ib. ; remaineth 
upon all that are out of Christ, 394. 
Of sin in the flesh, equivalent to the destruction of sin in our nature, xi. 


Freedom from the fears of, a privilege of true believers, xii. 359 ; 
the greatness of this privilege appeareth from the dreadfulness of 
the sentence, the difficulty of getting rid of these fears, and the 
sure and solid grounds of a believer's peace, ib. ; in order to this, 
three things must be done, God's honour secured, the law satisfied, 
and the conditions of the gospel fulfilled, 362 ; the course we should 
take to assure ourselves of escape from condemnation, 364 ; our 
triumph over the fears of condemnation mainly ariseth from the seve 
ral acts of Christ's mediation, and especially his death, 366 ; this 
appeareth from the notions by which it is set forth, the effects 
ascribed to it, and the sufficiency of it to these ends and effects, ib. 
Condescension of Christ, xviii. 431. 
Condition, the vilest and most abject, does not justify murmuring, iv. 62. 

Every, is as the heart is, vii. 259. 
Conference, mutual, a means of perseverance, v. 336. 

Holy, exhortation to, both occasional and set, vii. 127. 

Confession the ready way to pardon, iv. 456 ; auricular, has no authority 
from scripture, 458 ; in what cases necessary to be made to man, 
459. See Auricular confession. 

Of sin, made to be one of the conditions of pardon, vi. 245 ; the only 
means to have our peace settled, ib. ; prevents Satan's accusations 
and God's judgments, 246 ; argueth sincerity, ib. ; somewhat of the 
spirit of adoption, 247 ; makes us serious and affected with our con 
dition, 248 ; is of great advantage to the spiritual life, ib. 
X3f truth very necessary, and in a time of dangers and distresses very 
difficult, vi. 459 ; required by express law, 460 ; is of great use, con 
ducing much to the glory of God and the good of others, 461. 
Is both in word and deed, and the one must not contradict the other, 

xviii. 244. 

"With the mouth is a solemn outward declaration that we take Christ 
for our Lord and Saviour, xviii. 252 ; the matter to be confessed 
is the great truths which we do believe, ib. ; is verbal or real, 253 ; 
its necessity to salvation, 257. 

184 INDEX. 

Confidence, false, which keeps men from God and Christ, ii. 50 ; imaginary 
happiness and counterfeit righteousness, ib. 

False, reasons of, ix. 378 ; self-love, ib. ; an overly sense of duty, ib. ; 
want of self-examination, ib. ; building upon false evidences, ib. 

And comfort arise from a good conscience, or from sanctification as well 
as justification, ix. 453 ; the review of a well-spent life a great 
comfort in death, ib. 

Towards God, what it is, xxi. 185; the nature of the privilege, 186; 

the influence of a good conscience upon communion with God, 188. 
Conflict, the day of the church's, is mixed, and yieldeth great variety of pro 
vidences, xv. 415 ; reasons of this mixture of providences, 416. 
Conflicts and trials of Christians, God will give a happy end to, that he may 
be known to be pitiful and merciful, i. 326 ; and faithful, ib. 

Eminent, those who come out of, are usually delivered by God in a. 

glorious manner, i. 332. 

Conformity to Christ, the grounds of the conformity of believers are God's- 
foreknowledge and predestination, xii. 301 ; the reason of this con 
formity, that 'he might be the first-born among many brethren/ 
302 ; exhortation to look after conformity to Christ, 308. 
Conquest of Christ, benefits we have by, iii. 468 ; banishment of distracting 
fears, ib. ; encouragement to the spiritual conflict, 469 ; joy unspeak 
able and glorious, ib. ; hopes of glory, ib. ; great comfort in his exal 
tation, 470 ; is a token, earnest, and pledge of our victory, ib. ; what 
he did in, he did for our sakes, ib. \ usefulness and serviceableness of 
all that befalls us, ib. 

Conscience, natural, usually smites more for sins of commission than of omis 
sion, i. 14 ; yet omissions argue as great contempt of God's authority, 
15 ; and as much hatred of God, ib. ; and are as much an argument 
of unregeneracy, ib. 

One of God's books of record, i. 170. 

A good, is entire and universal ; of hypocrites, partial, ii. 13. 

The force of, usually felt after the fact, more than before or in the 
fact, ii. 179. 

Hath a sense of eternal life and death, ii. 364. 

Peace of, founded on Christ's satisfaction, but only found in his service, 
iv. 126. 

Is a rule, a witness, and a judge, iv. 154 ; how to be used in these offices, 

God alone can give laws to, iv. 384. 

To keep a good conscience, and to be faithful with God, though our temporal 
interests be endangered thereby, requires a lively faith concerning the 
world to come, vii. 157 ; a sincere love to Christ, 158 ; a well-grounded 
resolution in the truth, ib. ; a contempt of the world, 159 ; a sound 
belief of God's providence, ib. 

To smother and stifle the checks of, doth but increase our misery, xii. 

The testimony of, that we are the children of God, xii. 125 ; a secret 
spy within us, that observeth all our thoughts and actions, ib. ; called 
'the candle of the Lord'(Prov. xx. 27), 126; the legal conscience 
condemneth, but the evangelical conscience acquitteth, ib. ; by nature 
is blind, partial, stupid, but by grace is pure, tender, pliant, ib. 

A good or a bad, the beginning of heaven or hell, xii. 465. 

In the guilty, an evidence of the certainty of eternal punishment, xiii.. 

INDEX. 185 

Conscience, its operations in awakening to a sense of sin, xiii. 277. 

The nature of, xvii. 431 ; is God's vicegerent and deputy, 433 ; our best 
friend and worst enemy, 434 ; is corrupt as well as other faculties, 
and from a judge may become an advocate, excusing our partialities, 
437 ; how we should exercise ourselves that conscience may perform 
its office aright, 439. 

The nature and office of, xxi. 167 ; conduceth much to the glory of 
God and the safety of man, ib. ; the value of the judgment of, and 
how it should be regarded by us, 168 ; objections answered, 169. 
The influence of a good, upon our communion with God, xxi. 188. 
How keeping the commandments constitutes a gospel conscience, xxi. 
205 ; reasons why this constitutes a good and quiet conscience, 206. 

Consent to receive Christ a part of faith, ii. 350 ; must be deliberate, ib. ; 
voluntary, ib. ; resolved, 351 ; total, ib. 

Consequences, the use of, xiv. 331 ; doctrine not expressed in plain scripture 
may yet be deduced thence by just consequence, ib. 

Consideration, serious, necessity of, in order to repentance, vii. 125 ; of our 
past estate, 127; our present actions, ib. ; the tendency and issue of 
things, ib. '; who made thee, 128; why did he make thee, 129; 
how hast thou answered this end, ib. ; what is the character of 
such a course, 130 ; what will it come to, ib. ; how doth it concern 
you to come out of this condition speedily, ib. ; how happy will ib 
be for you when you change your course, 131 ; what hopes by 
Christ, ib. ; necessity of, ib. ; special reasons for, 134. 
God's, of the afflictions of his people, what it means, ix. 131. 
A great help to the improvement of spiritual truths, xiii. 186. 

Consolation the fruit of assurance, xvi. 314 ; what is meant by, ib. ; how it 
ariseth from assurance, 316 ; how it is dispensed on God's part, and 
how far required on ours, 318 ; exhortation to look after, 325 ; how 
to get it, 328 ; how to keep it, 331. 

Constancy of mind necessary to Christians, iii. 19 ; what produces, 20 ; a> 
clear conviction of the truth, ib. ; resolution to adhere to the truth, 
ib. ; opposite is levity and inconstancy, ib. ; its causes, 21. 

Constantius Chlorus, though a heathen, his respect for the consistency of 
Christians, v. 284. 

Consubstantiation, Lutheran doctrine of, confuted, x. 279. 

Contentment is a quiet temper of mind about outward things, ii. 306 ; opposite 
to murmurings, ib. ; to distrustful and distracting cares, 307; to 
covetous desires, ib. ; motives to, ib. ; Goo! is a sovereign Lord, ib. ; it 
is the wisdom and the will of God not to give to all alike, 308 ; earthly 
things are only useful to us in the present life, ib. ; comfort, safety, 
and happiness of this life lies not in abundance, 309 ; nothing abso 
lutely necessary besides food and raiment, ib. ; these not hard to be 
obtained, 310 ; felicity of this life must be measured by its bearing 
upon a better, ib. ; a moderate estate freest from temptation, 311 ; 
God knows best what will do us good or hurt, ib. ; is only learned in 
Christ's school, 312 ; grounded in faith, humility, and weanedness 
from the world, ib. ; its fruits, 313. 
A necessary part of a holy life, xiii. 337. 

Continuing in prayer, reasons for, ix. 54 ; because the force of importunity 
is very great, ib. ; a deliverance is never so sweet, nor so thankfully 
improved, if it come at the first call, 55 ; because things often and 
earnestly asked of God come with the greater fulness of blessing when 
they come, ib. ; it argues an ill spirit when we will not continue pray- 

186 INDEX. 

ing, 56 ; disobedience, ib. weakness of faith, ib. want of love, or 
coldness of love, ib. ; want of patience, or tarrying God's season till 
tlie promise bring forth, 57 ; we must not only continue, but continue 
instant, 58 ; because it is not enough to keep up the duty, unless we 
keep up the affections that must accompany the duty, ib. ; a seeming 
repulse or denial should make us more vehement, ib. ; God's dearest 
children are not admitted at the first knock, ib. ; we must not only 
continue praying when Christ seemeth to neglect us, but when he 
giveth a contrary answer, ib. ; whether God answereth or no, it is 
the duty of faith to answer itself, 59. 
{Controversies about trifles, great evil of, v. 117. 

Religious, cautions as to conducting, v. 262. 

The word to be made the judge of all, x. 460. 

Of the present age, importance of a clear and satisfactory knowledge in, 

xi. 123; rules regarding, ib. 

Controversy, every private Christian not bound to study, vi. 293. 
Conversation, w r hat kind of, honoureth religion, ii. 107 ; such as is carried on 
with diligence and seriousness, ib. j such as is governed by the respects 
of the other world, 108 ; such as is characterised by exact purity 
and holiness, 109. 

i Is generally either profane and sinful, vi. 126 ; or idle and vain, ib. ; or 
tattling, ib. ; or worldly, ib. 

Should be edifying, xviii. 392 ; because our tongue is our glory, ib. ; 
because holy conference and edifying discourse is a means of spiritual 
improvement, ib. because it is a great comfort and quickening to 
confer together of holy things, ib. ; because the well-ordering of our 
words is a great point of Christianity, 393 ; in order to, we must get 
a good stock of sound scriptural knowledge, 394. 
Converse and conference of godly persons comfortable and pleasant, and much 

excelleth the merriest meetings of the carnal, vii. 287. 
Conversion, God keeps, in his own hand, i. 79. 

In the work of, God doeth all ; after, he still concurreth, i. 138 ; and 
that not only in the general, but in every act from the beginning of 
the spiritual life to the end, 139. 

How described in scripture, i. 141 ; enlightening the mind, ib. open 
ing the heart, ib. ; regeneration, ib. ; resurrection, ib. ; creation, 142 ; 
not in power of man to convert himself, ib. ; objections answered, 143. 

In producing, God works according to man's nature and the principles 
thereof, i. 144 ; and to men's particular characters and tempers, ib. ; 
almighty power goes along with persuasion, 145 ; this power secret, 
but prevailing, ib. 

Of a sinner more pleasing to God than his destruction, i. 388. 

More hard to continue in, than to convert ourselves at first, iii. 179. 

Of a soul, how difficult, iii. 207 j obstacles to, ib. ; Satan, ib. ; the 
perverseness of man's heart, ib. 

Beginning of, not in man's power, iv. 369. 

Of a sinner properly God's work, yet ascribed to men as the ministers 
and instruments of it, iv. 473, 478. 

Evident in fruit if not in feeling, v. 20. 

So described in scripture as to indicate the helplessness of man, 
v. 479. 

Causes of putting off, vii. 144 ; unbelief, ib. ; security, ib. ; averseness 
of heart from God, ib. ; love of the world and of present delights 
and contentments, 145 heinousness of putting off, ib. ; it is flat 

INDEX. 187 

disobedience to God, ib. ; ingratitude and unthankfulness for God's 
eternal love, ib. ; base disingenuity, ib. base self-love, when we can 
be content to dishonour God longer, provided that at length we may 
be saved, 146 ; great injustice and injury to God, ib. 

'Conversion, does everyone know his own, or the way of it ? vii. 439 ; usually, 
yet there are exceptions, ib. manner of, ib. ; none converted but are 
first convinced of their danger and evil estate, ib. ; conviction, when 
it is strong and serious, cannot be without some compunction, ib. \ 
but the degrees of compunction are various, 440 ; as to the degrees, 
because no certain rule can be given, the measure must not be looked 
after, but the effects, 441 ; these are a hearty welcoming of Jesus 
Christ into the soul, ib. ; a thorough hatred of sin, ib. ; lively diligence 
in the spiritual life, ib. 

Is a turning from the creature to God, xi. 391 ; from self to Christ, ib. ; 
from sin to holiness, both in heart and life, 392. 

Requires a supernatural work upon us to cure our unholiness, as well as 
a supernatural work without us to overcome our guiltiness, xiii. 243. 

If the grace given us in, were only that we might be converted if we 

would, divers absurdities would follow, xiii. 246. 
Conviction of sin goes before conviction of righteousness, iii. 201. 

Of the world, a matter of great importance, xi. 44 ; it is much for 
Christ's honour that even his enemies should have some esteem of 
him, ib. ; for the clearing of his process at the last day, ib. ; their 
conviction conduceth to others' conversion, 45 ; for the safety of the 
church, ib. they may be brought so far as to give the church the 
benefit of their gifts and abilities, power, and authority, 46 ; they 
serve as a warning to the saints, ib. serveth to lessen the judgment 
of some, to increase that of others, ib. 

Not improved usually maketh a man turn devil, xviii. 359. 

May come to nothing, xviii. 363 ; through levity, ib. addictedness to 
lusts, ib. unskilf ulness in handling wounds of conscience, 364 ; want 
of God's grace, ib. 
Convictions but occasion greater hardness of heart, vii. 132. 

Of sin not to be slighted, xi. 48 ; but not to be rested in, 49. 
Corrections, necessary, and contemptuous speeches or reproofs, differences 

between, iv. 243. 
Corruption more exasperated when conviction begins, i. 102. 

Sin so called, because it is a blasting of our primitive excellency and 
purity, ii. 215. 

In man, hindering his believing in Christ, cannot be done away 
without the Spirit's manifestation, iii. 21 ; in the mind, ignorance, 
ib. ; and unteachableness, 213 ; m the heart, carelessness, ib. ; and 
stubbornness, 214. 

Counsel of God in the gospel despised, slighted, and contradicted by the 
carnal world, ii. 105. 

And intents of God, men set themselves to frustrate, when they will 
do things in despite of providence, iv. 337 ; when they seek by 
carnal policies to make void God's promises or threatenings, ib. ; 
when they, when crossed by providence, seek happiness elsewhere by 
unlawful acts and means, ib. ; when they say, / will, without God's 
leave, ib. ; when they make reiterated endeavours against the 
church, ib. 

The scriptures give us good, for our general choice, vi. 230 ; and for 

188 INDEX. 

particular actions, ib. ; in perplexed and doubtful cases, help us to 
understand how far we are concerned in point of duty and conscience, 
231 ; teach us to go to God for wisdom, ib. ; to ask God's leave and 
God's blessing, ib. ; to submit the event to God, ib. ; to make use 
of this counsel we need the fear of God, 233 ; meekness, ib. ; 
dependence, 234 ; obedience, ib. 

Countenance } God's people may want the light of his, viii. 410 ; to teach 
them that earth is not heaven, ib. to conform them to Jesus Christ, 
ib. ; his justice requires it, when we surfeit of our comforts, and play 
the wanton with them, ib. ; to raise our value of spiritual comforts, 
411 ; when the children of God want this light, they will pray and 
seek for the restoration of it, 412 ; because of the value of the 
privilege, ib. ; because they deal with God by faith, as others 
deal with men, 413 ; because they have tasted the sweetness of 
it, ib. 

Courage, Christian, is a power to suffer, as military is a power to do, great 
things, viii. 126 ; Peter exhibited the military when he ventured on 
a band of men, but failed in the Christian when he was foiled by a 
damsel's question, ib. ; requires a heart weaned from the world, ib. \ 
a heart entirely devoted to God, 127; a heart purged from sin, 
ib. ; a heart that lieth under a deep sense of eternity and things to* 
come, ib. 
Covenant, new, not merely a law or commandment, i. 104. 

Entrance into, is by a fixed, unbounded resignation of ourselves to God r 

ii. 134. 

New, contains the only solid grounds of rejoicing, iii. 155. 
Mercy and grace of, iii. 164; in the frame of it, ib. ; in the dispensation 

of it, ib. ; at the very close of all, 165. 

That there was between the Father and the Son appeareth by such titles 
given to Christ as do infer it, iii. 376 ; by the words recorded in 
scripture that passed between God and Christ, ib. ; by the carriage of 
Christ, 377 ; what it is, ib. ; Christ's engagement to do something by 
way of merit and impetration, ib. ; and in the application of his 
merit, 378 ; God's promise that he shall have the help of the Spirit, 
379 ; and success in his work, and final glory for himself and his 
people, ib. ; covenant with believers founded on this eternal covenant, 
381 ; that with Christ a covenant of works, with believers of grace, 
ib. ; these two covenants give the most comfortable representation of 
Christ that can be made, 382. 

Of works, condition of man under, very miserable, iv. 227 ; how we 
may know under which covenant we are, 228 ; a shrewd presumption 
that we are under the old bond if we cannot discern how our copy 
and tenure is changed, ib. ; much may be discerned from the present 
state of our hearts, 229 ; much of the suitableness or unsuitableness 
of our hearts to a state of grace, ib. 

God hath ever delighted to deal with his creatures in the way of, v. 
462 ; duties and privileges of the new, 463 ; privileges are pardon 
and life, ib. ; duties on entering into, are repentance and faith, 464 ; 
in our progress, there must be a constant renouncing and forsaking the 
enemies of God and our souls, 465 ; loving, following, and serving 
God, ib. ; living in the hope of the coming of Christ and of eternal 
glory, ib. 

Not to be interpreted by providence, but providence by the covenant, 
vii. 258. 

INDEX. 189 

Covenant, new, exacts perfect, but accepts sincere, obedience, vii. 319. 

New, quickening and enlivening grace promised in, ix. 94 ; both 
generally and particularly, ib. ; encouragement to pray for grace, 

A manifest abuse of, to imagine that it countenanceth any licentious 
ness or liberty in sin, xi. 300 ; shown from God's desigu in setting it 
up, ib. ; from its tenor and constitution, 301. 

New, is a law, xi. 398 ; man, being God's creature, is his subject, and 
standeth related to him as his rightful governor, and therefore is to 
receive what laws he is pleased to impose upon him, ib. ; man, as a 
reasonable and free agent, is bound voluntarily to yield up himself in 
subjection to his proper Lord, ib. ; man, being bound to obey the will 
of God, needeth a law from God to constitute his duty, and direct 
him in it, ib. ; the gospel, which is both our rule and charter, is the 
law which in Christ's name is given to the world, 399 ; agreeth with 
human laws in the promulgation of it with full authority, 400 ; in 
obligation and force, ib. ; in having a sanction, ib. ; in the sanction 
supposing an exercise of government according to law, 401 ; differs 
from ordinary human laws in that man in these laws barely enjoins 
authoritatively, but God condescends to reason, persuade, and beseech, 
402 ; in that the law of God binds the conscience and the immortal 
souls of men, ib. 

Of works, what it is, xvi. 438 ; all are by nature under this covenant, 
ib. ; this is that which natural conscience sticks to, 439 ; this cove 
nant, rightly understood, is the most ready way to convince justi 
ciaries, and to prepare men for Christ, ib. 

Prod's, with his people, xviii. 75 ; made to show the freeness of his grace, 
ib. ; and the sureness of his mercy, 76 ; to leave the greater bond 
and obligation upon us, ib. ; to make us more willing to serve him, 
entering upon his service by choice, 77 ; to put an honour upon his 
creatures, ib. ; that both parties might be engaged to each other by 
mutual consent, ib. ; none can be made with God without the inter 
posing of a sacrifice, 78. 

Legal, tenor of, xviii. 237 ; life promised to perfect obedience, a curse 
threatened to disobedience, 238. 

God's people not only keep covenant with him, but the covenant 
keepeth them, xviii. 351 ; seal of, 352 ; those in covenant with him 
are his, ib. ; by eternal election, ib. ; by effectual calling, 353 ; by 
entering into covenant with him, ib. ; he knoweth them, ib. ; as 
elected, called in covenant, ib. ; taketh notice of them with love, 
delight, approbation, 354 ; communicates to them saving benefits, 
ib. -, their obligation to depart from all iniquity, 355. 

-Covenants, two, agree in their author, viii. 371 ; in the moving cause, which 
in both was the grace of God, 372 ; in the parties, God and man in 
both, ib. in that God giveth sufficiency of strength to the parties 
with whom he made them to fulfil the conditions thereof, ib. ; in 
that in both God kept up his sovereignty, and did not by his con 
descension part with anything of his dominion over men, 373; in 
both there is a mutual obligation on both parties, ib. ; the conditions 
in both were suitable to the ends and scope appointed, ib. ; differ in 
the ends, that of the first being to preserve and continue man in the 
happiness in which it found him ; of the second, to restore him to the 
happiness which he had lost, 374 as to God, the glory of his creating 
bounty was the end of the first, the glory of his redeeming grace of 

190 INDEX. 

the second, ib. ; in their nature, the first stood more by commands 
and less by promises, the second more by promises and less by com 
mands, 375 ; in the terms ; unsinning obedience the condition of the 
first, pardon offered in the second, 376. 

Covenanting with God pressed, viii. 90 ; God's laws holy, just, and good, 
therefore we should not be backward to swear to him, ib. ; we are- 
obliged by God's command, ib. ; actual consent and resolution quickens 
our sense of duty, ib. ; profitable to choose the strictest engagements, 
91 ; necessity of, because of our laziness, ib. ; fickleness, ib. See 
Oath and Resolution. 

Govetousness sold Christ, and envy delivered him ; these two sins still enemies 
to the Christian profession, iv. 303. 

And carnality compared, v. 272. 

A base affection, that will put a man upon the basest and most un 
worthy practices, iv. 336. 

Bringeth God's curse upon our estates, iv. 404. 

Is an inordinate desire of having more wealth than the Lord alloweth in 
the fair course of his providence, vi. 379 ; and a delight in worldly 
things as our chief est good, ib. ; its causes, 380 ; distrust of God's 
providence, and discontent with God's allowance, ib. ; shown by 
greedy getting, 381 ; and unworthy detention, 382 ; a great hin 
drance to compliance with God's testimonies, 383. 

Scripture always representeth as an odious and detestable thing, xix. 

Creation distinguished from emanation, i. 436. 

Should be nothing in our esteem, so far as it would be something 
separate from God, or in co-ordination with God, i. 276. 

And providence, God's greatness and majesty seen in, i. 403. 

Is either out of nothing, or ex inhabili materia, ii. 387. 

New, is more than a moral change, ii. 386 ; or a temporary change, ib. ; 
or a change of outward form, ib. ; or a partial change, ib. ; belongeth 
to God, ib. -, far surpasseth that which maketh us creatures only, 387; 
God's way of concurrence to, ib. ; the mediation of Christ concerned 
in with respect to his merit, 388 ; and in regard of efficacy, 389 ; 
necessity of, ib. ; because of the badness of our former estate, ib. ; 
from the nature of God's work, 390; with respect to Christ, 391 ; 
with respect to the use which it serveth, ib. ; in order to present 
communion with God, ib. ; to service and obedience to God, 392 ; to 
future enjoyment of God, ib.; known by a new mind, a new heart, 
and a new life, 394. 

The new, doth carry a great correspondence with the old, iii. 183. 

As a well-tuned instrument, but man maketh the music, iv. 294. 

The morning of, xii. 180. 

A work of omnipotency, xiii. 242. 

Consideration of, a necessary exercise for the children of God, xiii. 389 ; 
discovers much of the essence and attributes of God, his goodness, 
power, and wisdom, ib. ; a wonderful advantage to faith in giving us 
hope and consolation in distress, 391 ; puts us in mind of our duty, 
ib. ; motives to quicken us to this necessary work of reflecting on 
creation, 392 ; directions how to improve it to comfort and profit, 
397 ; special occasions when we should propose to ourselves thoughts 
of creation, 398 ; proper objects of meditation on God's several and 
special excellences, 400 ; the ends of the creation, 404 ; the fruits of 
solemn and serious thoughts on creation, 406; the truths and won- 


ders of, understood by faith, and not by reason, 409 ; the world 
framed in an accurate, orderly, and perfect manner, 415 ; wherein 
this order and beauty consists, 416; objection answered, whence 
come all those disorders that are in the world 1 420 ; the wisdom and 
majesty of God discovered in the order of causes and admirable con 
trivance of the wf>rld, 422 ; shows how pleasing order and method are 
to God, 424 ; discovers the odiousness of sin, that disjointed the 
frame of nature, 426 ; the instrument in creation was ' the word of 
God,' 429 ; meaning of the term, 430 ; quest., whether all things 
were created in the twinkling of an eye by God's will and pleasure, 
or were done by distinct days, as the history in Genesis seemeth to 
intimate 1 ? 431 ; the matter or term from which the world was made, 

Creation, opinions of the ancients concerning, xiii. 412. 
Creature, God defrauded by over-delight in, i. 238. 

Greatest glory of, to serve the will and set forth the praise of the- 
Creator, i. 438. 

In what sense nothing, ii. 321 ; in comparison with God, 322 ; in 
exclusion of God, ib. ; in opposition to God, ib. ; the true apprehen 
sion of this mightily useful for the spiritual life, 323. 

Cannot yield us any comfort without God's gift or grant, iii. 167. 

Vanity of, matter of sense and plain experience, vii. 455 ; should be 
observed and improved by faith, 456 ; should moderate our desires, 
457 ; our sorrows and fears, 458 ; our delights, ib. ; stability of the 
word of God often opposed to, ib. 

Meaning of the word in relation to waiting for the manifestation of 
the sons of God, xii. 148 ; how the creature waiteth, ib. for what r 

In what sense made subject to vanity, xii. 157 ; by order of its natural 
estate, 158; in regard of the vanity of corruption, 159; in regard 
of its final dissolution and last change, ib.- } in regard of its end 
and use, ib.; the way in which the creature came into the present 
state, negatively and positively expressed, 161 ; by man as a sinner, 
162; by the will and power of the Creator, ib. ; reasons why the 
innocent creature is punished for man's sin, 163; the creature still 
an instrument of sin, 164 ; in the curse on the creature man is 
punished, ib. ; how far the creature shall be made partaker of the 
same glory with God's children, 167. 

The new, produced by the Spirit, and cannot subsist without his con 
tinual presence, xix. 399. 
Creatures are sanctified to us when we enjoy God in them, i. 153. 

All, put us in mind of God, vii. 82. 

Men as, are some way encouraged to ask of God the grace of the new 
creature, vii. 271 ; man is God's immediate workmanship, ib. ; the 
making of man now is the work of God, as well as the making of 
the first man was, 272 ; man was created to serve God, 273 ; men 
are now strangely disabled to serve and please him, ib. ; must be 
new made and born again before we can know or do the will of God, 
274 ; when we seek this grace, or any degree of it, it is a proper 
argument to urge that we are God's creatures, 275 ; it is asking 
another gift, because we have received one already, ib.- } God beareth 
much affection to man as he is his creature, ib. ; creation implieth 
some hope, because God forsaketh none but those who first forsake 

192 INDEX. 

him, 276 ; there is encouragement to faith from the resemblance 
between creation and regeneration, 277 ; the manner of pleading thus 
some preparatory work of grace, ib. 

Credulity, uncharitable, leads to detraction, ii, 277. 

Cross, how to be taken up daily, ii. 116. 

Romish worship of, is idolatry, iii. 100. 

The inheritance of the Church (Ecdesia est hceres crucis Luther), iv, 


We never advance more in Christianity than under, vi. 223. 
What it is to take up the, xvii. 3 ; how daily, 5 ; reasons why followers 
of Christ must prepare their shoulders for, 6 ; it is not enough to 
bear, but we must take it, 9. 

Crosses, Christians should look for, ix. 127; be prepared for, ib. ; bear with 
patience when they come, 128. 

Crying sins, what so called, iv. 409. 


Curse, upon the impenitent and obstinate sinner, vi. 200 ; the knowledge of 
this duty doth but the more irritate corruption, 201 ; the exaction of 
duty doth either terrify or stupefy the conscience, ib. ; is upon all 
that he hath, ib. and all that he doeth, ib. ; he is bound over, body 
and soul, to everlasting torment, ib. 

Every man is by nature under, x. 89 ; there is no way to come out 
from, but in closing with Christ, ib. ; there must be an unfeigned 
love to him, else the curse doth remain, ib. ; this love must be 
expressed by sincere obedience, 90 ; God's, is very dreadful, ib. ; we 
know not how soon God may carry it out, and cut us off from the 
possibility of grace, 91 5 is ratified at the last day by Christ's sen 
tence, ib. ; shall be presently executed, ib. ; motives to come to Christ 
for removal of, ib. 

Daily bread, why we are taught to pray for, i. 165 ; that we may pray daily, 
ib. that there may be family prayer, ib. ; to make way for our gra 
titude, ib. ; to show us every day that we should renew our depend 
ence on God, 166 ; that we may not burden ourselves with overmuch 
thoughtfulness, ib. ; to teach us that worldly things are to be sought 
in a moderate proportion, ib. ; to make us think of the uncertainty 
of our lives, ib. ; to awaken us after heavenly things, ib. 

Danger, secure hearts cannot endure to think of ; believers do, but more of 

Christ, iii. 200. 

Of life, God's children may be in, from day to day, viii. 116; why God 
permits this, 117 ; to check security, ib. ; to wean us from creature 
confidences and dependency, ib. ; to check worldliness, ib. ; that they 
may value eternal life the more, 118; to try their affections to him 
and his word, 119 ; to show his power in their preservation, ib. ; and 
in overruling all that befalls them for the increase and benefit of his 
church and people, ib. 

No kind of, should make iis warp and turn aside from the directions ol 
God's word, viii. 124 ; a Christian should be above all temporal acci 
dents, ib. ; God can preserve us, ib. ; we renounced all at our first 
coming to Christ, ib. ; our sufferings shall be abundantly recom 
pensed and made up in the world to come, 125 ; constancy is neces 
sary, ib. 
Of a nation doth not lie in outward probabilities so much as in the 

INDEX. 193 

threatenings of the word, viii. 434 ; no armies so strong as to with 
stand the threatenings of the gospel, ib. 
Danger, extreme, may sometimes tread on the heels of God's people, ix. 96 ; 
from the implacable malice of their enemies, ib. ; from the providence 
of God, who permitteth it for holy and righteous ends, 97 ; to exer 
cise their trust and dependence, ib. ; to quicken to prayer, 98 ; that 
their deliverance may be more glorious, ib. 

Of believers in their worldly state, x. 281 ; from within, 282 ; from 
without, ib. ; the god of this world, ib. ; the powers of the world, ib. ; 
the men of the world, 283 ; the things of the world, 284 ; Christ's 
apprehension of, 287; by reason of his interest, 288; his love, ib. ; 
his charge, ib. ; his experience, 289. 

Darkness, in scripture, representeth ignorance, sin, and misery, v. 206 ; of 
sin, punished with that of misery, 208. 

We are said to walk in, when we want either the light of direction or 
consolation, xviii. 51 ; believers may walk in, 53 ; supports under, 
55 ; in our darkest condition God seeth us, though we see not him, 
ib. ; in our distresses we darken our estate more than needeth, 56 ; a 
dark hour is often the forerunner of a comfortable morning, ib. ; how 
ever matters go, it will certainly be well with them that fear God, ib. ; 
we must not dote upon sensible consolation, 57 ; God can draw light 
out of darkness, and give light in darkness, and turn darkness into 
light, ib. ; when we cannot interpret God's promises by his provi 
dences, we must interpret his providences by his promises, ib. ; we 
must distinguish between a part of God's work and the entire frame 
of it, 58 ; that is not best for us which we think best, ib. ; God's 
greatest severity to his people is consistent with his covenant love, ib. 

Cursed estate is an estate of,, xix. 247 ; ignorance in the understanding, 
ib. ; wandering from God, 249 ; outer darkness the end, ib. 

Works of, so called because they are done by men in their natural 
state, xix. 300 ; because they are suggested by the temptations of the 
devil, 301 ; because they cannot endure the light, but seek the veil 
and covert of secrecy, ib. ; because they subject their doers to con 
demnation in everlasting darkness, 302 ; are unfruitful, ib. ; must 
have no fellowship with, 304 ; must reprove, 306. 
David, his fall, mischief done to the church by, i. 108. 

And Josiah instances of the infirmities of the saints reconciled through 
grace, xiii. 171. 

Instances of his humility, xxi. 407. 

Day of the Lord, why his second coming so called, i. 92, 99 ; an invisible 
kingdom, 100 ; until Satan be cast out of the throne, Christ hath 
no entertainment in the heart, ib. 

Of the Lord, how it might be said to be at hand in the apostles' day, 
iii. 16; with respect of faith, ib. ; and love, ib. ; as comparing time 
with eternity, ib. ; as to particular men, ib. ; evil of inquiring after, 
and endeavouring to fix the time of, 17. 

Of the Lord, comfort and happiness of, the coming of, v. 382 ; in the pro 
pagation of the gospel, ib. ; the reign of Christ, ib. ; the unity of the 
church, ib. 

Of judgment, the necessity of it, xiii. 46 ; the certainty of it, ib. ; rea 
son showeth that it may be, 47 ; faith showeth that it shall be, 48 ; 
Christ's interest concerned in it, 49 ; its universality illustrated by 
considering the several distinctions of mankind, 50 ; the person by 
whom we shall be judged, 51 ; why this honour is put upon the 

] 94 INDEX. 

second person in the Trinity, ib. ; the manner of it, 63 ; that all must 
appear is evidenced by the wisdom and justice of the judge, ib. ; the 
power, impartiality, and faithfulness of his ministers, the angels, 64 ; 
the nature of the business, ib. ; and the ends of the judgment, 65 ; 
how we shall be made manifest, 66 j the matter about which we 
shall be judged, 72 ; why works are produced as the fittest way to 
glorify God and convince the creature, ib. ; how these are considered 
with respect to our sentence and doom, 77 ; what room and place 
these have with respect to punishment and reward, 79 ; the end as to 
different persons and rewards, 81. 

Day of judgment, meaning of the word ' day/ xvi. 400. 
Dead in the Lord are not perished, but live for ever with God in heaven, 

i. 368. 

' Bury their dead,' meaning of the expression, ii. 122. 
In Christ, when Christ died all believers became dead in him to sin and 
the world, xiii. 189 ; instances of this asserted in scripture, ib. ; how 
all believers died to sin when Christ died, although most were not 
then born, 192 ; how they can be dead to sin and the world, since 
after conversion they feel so many carnal motions, 194 ; the use of 
Christ's death to make us die unto sin and the world, 195 j by way 
of obligation, engagement, and encouragement, 197. 
' Yet speaketh,' meaning of the phrase, xiv. 29. 
Deadness and indisposition, case of conscience regarding, vi. 240. See Duty, 

whether we are to do, &c. 

God's children sometimes under, vii. 429 ; by reason of some sin com 
mitted and not repented of, or not fully repented of, ib. ; by reason of 
some good omitted, 430 ; by unthankfulness for benefits received, 
especially spiritual, 431 ; pride in gifts, ib. ; great and heavy 
troubles, ib. ; carnal liberty, or intermeddling with worldly vanities, 
Of spirit, occasioned by negligence and sloth in the spiritual life, viii. 

103 ; by carnal liberty, ib. 
Death, is it lawful to desire? i. 105 ; yes, but not to grow weary of life, ib. ; 

do all who have interest in Christ desire 1 106. 
Of Christ, a double motive of ransom for the delivery of a captive, and 

a price given for eternal life, i. 173. 
Of Christ, why the subject of converse on the mount of transfiguration, 

i. 361. 

In the greatest advancements we should think of, i. 362. 
How Christ delivered us from, ii. 444 ; as a redeemer, ib. ; and a con 
queror, 445 ; to believers the habitude and nature of it is changed, 
ib. the hurt of it is prevented, 447 ; they are eased from its terrors 
and horrors, 448 ; will be utterly abolished at the last day, ib. 
In the Lord, may mean death for the Lord's sake, as of the martyrs, ii. 
458 ; generally to die in the favour of God, 459 ; to die in a gracious 
manner, ib. \ in faith, ib. love, ib. ; zeal for God's glory, 460 ; 
obedience, ib. ; blessedness of, ib. ; presently the soul is with Christ, 
ib. ; completely blest at the resurrection, 461 ; secured by union with 
Christ and God's covenant with them, 469. 
And hell, Satan, lusts, the world, vain fears of, to be checked by thought 

of Christ's conquest, iii. 471. 
Case of conscience about wishing for, x. 393, 

INDEX. 195 

Death of Christ, they do not improve aright who seek comfort from it, and 
not holiness, xi. 12. 

Of Christ recommended to us as a wonderful act of love, xi. 168 ; as 
a price and ransom for our souls arid the blessings we stand in need 
of, 169 ; commemorated in the Lord's supper, not as a tragical story, 
but as a mystery of godliness, 170 ; was not only for our good, but 
in our room, 192 ; was not only to expiate our guilt, but to destroy 
the power of sin, ib. 

Of Christ, serious reflection on, the sure way of subduing sin, xi. 197 ; 

. a pattern to teach us how to deny the pleasures of the senses, ib. : an 
act of love, which should beget in us love to God, and so make us 
tender of sinning, 198; the best glass wherein to view the evil of 
sin, ib. ; showeth us what a great benefit mortification is, ib. ; the 
sins of Christians, who profess a communion with his death, are more 
criminal and scandalous than the sins of heathens, 199 ; a Christian's 
living in sin is a greater injury to Christ than the persecution of the 
Jews who crucified him, ib. ; was the merit and price by which grace 
sufficient was purchased to mortify and subdue our old man, 200. 

With Christ, a condition absolutely necessary to obtain subsequent 
grace, xi. 213. 

And life, both endless, xi. 370 ; are the final issue of men's several 
ways, 371 ; equally certain, ib. ; the one wages, the other a gift, ib. 

Temporal, the fruit of sin, xi. 373 ; eternal, consisteth of loss and pain, 
374; the wages of sin, ib.- } the righteousness of it, ib. ; the certainty 
of it, 375. 

Its suitableness to sin, xi. 414 ; the certainty of its connection with sin, 
415 ; terribleness of, 416. 

There is a twofold end and use of, to those that are in Christ, xii. 14; 
Christianity affordeth the proper comfort against, 17. 

Preparedness for, Christians must be prepared to give their lives for the 
maintenance of their religion when God calls them to it, xii. 385 ; 
Christ requireth it, ib. ; such have been the trials of God's children 
in all ages, ib. ; it is neither strange nor grievous, 386 ; it is necessary 
to manifest the truth and reality of our graces, our faith in Christ, 
and love to him, and hope of salvation, ib. ; it may be for the pro 
fession of particular truths or particular duties, 388 ; considerations 
to press us to be prepared for death, 391. 

The comfort of a well-spent life to a dying Christian, xiii. 133. 

Of Christ, its cause, xviii. 329 ; its occasion, 330 ; its effects, 331. 

Of Christ for his people, its end was to sanctify and cleanse them, and 
make them a holy and peculiar people unto God, xix. 481. 

A great gain and advantage to those who dedicate their lives to Christ, 
xx. 188 ; as soon as a man dieth, he is capable of this gain, ib. ; be 
cause the soul is distinct from the body, 189 ; can live and exercise 
its operations apart from the body, 190 ; the souls of saints do so 
live, ib. are in a blessed state, 192 ; pardon from all misery, ib. ; 
freedom from sin, 193 ; the vision of God, ib. ; full fruition of God, 
ib. ; comfortable adjuncts, 194; nothing lost but will be made up, 
195 ; friends, ordinances, communion with God, comforts, 196. 
Debt, sin comes under the notion of, i. 168; in respect of danger, 169 ; God 
our creditor, partly as a creator, partly as a lawgiver, and partly as a 
judge, ib. ; we are bound to him as the debtor to the creditor, 170 ; 
he hath his book of account, ib. ; a day of reckoning will come, ib. ; 
after the reckoning there is execution, ib. 

196 INDEX. 

Debt, difference between sin and all other, i. 171 ; none so great, ib. ; no 
day of payment is set, ib. ; the whole person liable for this debt, ib. ; 
there is no shifting or avoiding the danger, ib. ; all other debts cease 
at death, but not this, ib. 

Sin comes under the notion of, in respect of the method of delivery, 
i. 172 ; Christ comes under the notion of a surety, ib. ; he made full 
satisfaction, ib. ; all who have interest in his death are set free from 
the great debt owed, ib. ; Christ hath also procured favour for us, 
173 ; freedom is proclaimed in his name, ib. \ all who come to God 
through Christ may plead with God about their discharge, ib. 

Debtors, to be forgiven, are all who have offended us in word or deed, i. 182. 
Believers are debtors not to the flesh but the Spirit, xii. 28 ; with 
respect to the order of nature, 29 ; by the condition of their spiritual 
being, 32. 

Deceit is in the heart, in the mouth, or in practice ; none in Christ, iii. 367. 

Deceitful dealing with God, an excellent way to discover, is to put the case 
in a sensible instance, or to parallel it with our dealings with one 
another, iv. 235. 

Declaring our ways unto God, notes the laying open of our businesses or 
undertakings before him, vi. 243 ; all our straits, sorrows, and 
dangers, 244 ; our temptations and sins, 245. 

Declinings, necessary to watch against the first, viii. 40. 

Decree of election is of both end and means, iii. 105 ; sanctification of the 
Spirit and belief of the truth, not causes but fruits of, 106 ; these 
being necessary fruits, are also evidences of, ib. 

Decrees, God's, do not compel men to evil, iii. 374. 

Of God, do not exclude the duty of creatures, and the work of second 

causes, iv. 338. 

Of God, respect not only actions and events, but persons also, v. 125. 
Of God showeth what shall be, his law what must be, v. 133. 

Defection and apostasy, considerations to dissuade from, vi. 474 ; it is equal 
that our duty lasts as long as we would have God's blessing last, ib. ; 
we have the same reason to continue that we had to begin, ib. ; dan 
ger and mischievous effects of, 475 ; loss of the crown, ib. ; falling off 
more dishonourable to God than a simple refusal, ib. \ position after 
defection worse than at first, 476 ; all the promises are made to per 
severance, ib. ; essential to assurance, ib. 

In times of, when others contemn and forsake the ways of God, we 
should esteem them the more, viii. 320 ; to make amends for the 
contempt of others, ib. ; to show that we do not choose the ways of 
God upon foreign reasons, for fashion's sake, 321 ; there is an anti^ 
peristasis in grace as well as nature, ib. ; to show the difference between 
God's people and others, ib. ; to defeat the enemies' purpose, ib. 

Dejection and discouragement, in times of great, the work of a Christian is 
not to try, but to believe, iv. 250. 

Delay in turning to God, dangers of, vii. 138 ; life is uncertain, ib. ; the 
means of grace may not be continued, or not with the same power, 
139 ; uncertainty of grace, ib. 

Of religion, reproof of, ix. 408 ; your hearts are not like to be better, 
409 ; the terms of the gospel will not be easier, ib. ; the suspicion 
that is upon a late repentance, ib. 

Delays, in following Christ, exhortation against, ii. 128 ; causes of delay, 130; 

unbelief, ib. ; security, ib. ; averseness of heart, ib. 
God's, to answer prayer designed to exercise our faith, vi. 250 : to 

INDEX. 197 

exercise our patience, 251 ; to try our love, ib. ; to enlarge our 

desires, ib. 
Delight, God's, is in himself and all his attributes, and the manifestation of 

them in the world, but above all in his mercy, i. 195. 
In God, one of the radical acts of love to him, ii. 237. 
The saints', in God's statutes, vi. 148 ; in reading the word, in hearing, 

in conferring of it, in meditating and exercising the mind upon it ; in 

practice, ib. 
In God implies a new nature, vi. 367 ; peace of conscience, or a sense 

of our reconciliation with God, ib. j a good frame of heart, 368 ; some 

experience, ib. ; effects of. ib. 
And complacency, the most acceptable to God of all our affections, 

vi. 369. 
In God's love implieth obedience, vii. 317 ; love to the work for the 

work's sake, ib. ; they who have this are alone fit to ask mercy, 318 ; 

alone qualified to receive it, ib. 
Delights which the godly find in God and a holy life far greater than all 

the pleasures and delights of the earth, vii. 4 ; more substantial, ib. 

more perfective, ib. their object is the commandments of God, 5 ; 

not folly or filthiness, ib. ; not only the promissory, but also the 

mandatory parts of the word, ib. ; not the study or contemplation 

of the justice of the commandments, but the obedience and 

practice of them, 6 ; reasons, 7 ; the matter of the commandments, 

ib. \ the state and frame of a renewed heart suited -to them, ib. ; 

the helps and assistance of the Spirit, ib. ; the great encouragements 

which attend obedience, ib. ; present comfortable experiences, 10 ; 

because of their love of God, they have a value for all that cometh 

from God, and that leadeth to him, 11. 
Deliverance of his people, God cometh in for, in times of greatest despair 

and unlikelihood, iii. 245. 
From trouble never to be sought by carnal compliance, or the use of 

indirect means, vii. 357. 
Or release from our troubles, we may beg of God, provided we do not 

beg it out of impatiency of the flesh, but a desire of God's glory, ix. 

From temporal troubles, we may ask, ix. 133 ; God has promised it, ib. ; 

much of God is seen in it, ib. ; we have thereby greater opportunities 

to serve God, 134. 

Delphos, oracle of, silenced at the coming of Christ, iii 206. 
Deluge, similitude between, and the day of judgment, xiv. 175. 

Whether all that were drowned in, were eternally lost, xiv. 216. 
Delusion, the punishment in this world of those seduced by antichrist, iii, 

85 ; God the author of it, ib. ; sense in which he is, 87. 
Denying the Lord is either open or covert, v. 156 ; in opinion, 164 ; and in 

practice, ib. 
Departing of mankind from God fitly represented by the straying of sheep, 

iii. 300 ; implieth that we are brutish in our sin and defection from 

God, ib. proneness to err, ib. ; inability to return, 301 ; readiness 

to follow evil example, ib. ; exposure to danger, ib. 
Dependence upon Christ, persuasions unto, i. 391 ; nothing can be done without 

him ; all things can be done by him for the good of his redeemed 

ones, ib. 
Is that which keepeth up the acknowledgment of God in the .world, 

i. 451. 

198 INDEX. 

Dependence upon God implieth a committing ourselves to his power, vii. 54 ; 
submitting ourselves to Ms will, ib. ; tarrying or waiting for his 
leisure, ib. 


Desertion of Christ by his Father the passion of his passion, ii. 264 ; what it 
was, 266 ; not in appearance or conceit only, but real, ib. } not a 
separation of the Father from the Son, ib. ; nor a dissolution of the 
union of the two natures of Christ, ib. nor a cessation of God's love 
to him, ib. ; nor an abatement of his personal holiness,. 267 ; nor an 
entire withdrawal of God's assistance and sustaining grace, ib. ; was a 
withdrawal of all happiness, 268 ; such desertion possible notwith 
standing the union between the two natures, 269 ; was incomparably 
grievous, 270 ; carrieth a suitableness and respect to our sins, 271 ; 
our punishment, 272: our blessedness, 273. 

Of Christ on the cross, what it was, iii. 403 ; personal union, not dis 
solved, ib. assisting and sustaining grace not wholly withdrawn, ib. ; 
he knew how to value the comfort of the union, ib. ; so near an inte 
rest and relation to God, ib. ; his trouble more than a believer's, be 
cause it was to be satisfactory, 404. 

By God may be real or seeming, vi. 77 ; internal or external, ib. as to 
comfort or as to grace, 78 ; for correction or for instruction, ib. ; felt or 
not felt, 79 ; total or partial, ib. ; temporary or eternal, 80 ; reasons of, 
ib. ; incident to the most heavenly spirits, 81 ; directions regarding, ib. 
Of his servants by God is in appearance, through the misgivings of their 
hearts, viii. 409 ; or real when he is angry for sin, 410. 

Designs, God accomplisheth his greatest, by the most unlikely and de 
spised means, iii. 242 ; that his glory may more appear, ib. ; that 
we may not see the end of his counsels, ib. ; that he may declare his 
displeasure against the pomp of the world, 243 ; that he may shame 
his enemies in their security, ib. ; that he may take off all cause of 
boasting from the creature, ib. ; that he may provide for the esteem 
of the meanest, 244. 

Desire after God one of the radical acts of love to him, ii. 236. 

Of Christ, not for ease, but for the rare beauty and perfection that are 
found in him, iii. 236 ; effects of, ib. j a holy impatiency in the want 
of Christ, ib. ; a holy indignation at anything that would rival him 
in the affections, 237 ; or anything that would hinder the enjoyment 
of him, ib. ; a holy waiting, 238 ; a powerful command over the 
whole man, ib. 

Holiness the proper object of, vi. 424 ; temper and constitution of the 
heart seen in, more than in doing, 425. 

Desires, supreme end of, the glory of God, in conjunction with our own happi 
ness, i. 3. 

Much evil would ensue if all were granted, i. 379. 
Against God's secret will not unlawful, when we afterwards submit to 

his revealed will, ii. 328. 
Corrupt, make a corrupt mind, iii. 223. 
When they mistake their object, miss their end, iv. 334. 
A man is known by, as the temper of the body by the pulse, vii. 247. 

Despair, as there is a raging, so there is a sottish, xviii. 293. 

Despairing fears and blasphemous thoughts injected by Satan are not our 
sins, but may be punishments for our sins, i. 231. 

Despised, God's people, when they are brought low, are usually, viii. 493 ; 
considerations to support under this trial, 494. 

INDEX, 199 

Despondency under difficulties, condemnation of, viii. 101. 
Detraction venteth itself either by whispering or backbiting, ii. 275 ; what 
it is, ib. ; an unjust violation of another's fame, reputation, or that 
good report which is due to him, ib. ; is a sin against God, 276 ; a 
wrong to man, ib. ; proceedeth from malice and ill-will, ib. ; or from 
uncharitable credulity, 277 ; comes through rashness and unruliness 
of tongue, ib. ; or from carnal zeal, ib. ; whispering is when it is done 
privily, 278 ; backbiting when more publicly, 280 ; heinousness of 
the sin, 282. 

Deuteronomy, Christ's answers to the three temptations taken from, i. 314. 
Deuteronomy vi. 5, one of the four paragraphs the Jews were wont to write 
on their phylacteries and on their door-posts, and read in their houses 
twice a day, xiii. 169. 

Devil, like a fly, which, if driven from one place, pitcheth upon another, i. 7. 
Fitly called the evil one, i. 232 ; every sin of his is a sin against the 
Holy Ghost, ib. ; unconverted men under his power, 234 j God's 
children sometimes caught by his wiles, 235. 
Held in the chains of an irresistible providence, i. 259. 
Not lord of the world, i. 303 ; is the prince of this world, and the god 

of this world, not by right, but usurpation, 304. 
Departeth when thoroughly and resolutely resisted, i. 330 ; hath only 

weapons offensive, none defensive, ib. ; how to be resisted, ib. 
How set forth in scripture, iii. 67 ; by ignorance, ib. ; error, 68 ; 

idolatry, ib. ; bloody cruelty, 69 ; being the god of this world, ib. 
His envy and malice most bent against them that have most grace, 

v. 49. 
The great architect of wickedness, as Christ is of life and righteousness, 

v. 258. 
Governeth the dark parts of the world by slavish fear, but God governeth 

by love, ix. 469. 

His vaunt against Christians (Cyprian), xii. 444. 
Devils assent to the articles of the Christian religion, iv. 241 ; horror the 

effect of their knowledge, 242. 

Shall be in a worse estate after the day of judgment than now, v. 209 ; 
fear the day of judgment, 211 ; tremble at that at which the athe 
istical loose Christian scoffs, ib. 

Differences of opinion, may be, and often are, about lesser things in the church, 
ii. 68 ; care to be taken that these come not to a rupture and open 
breach, 69 ; to prevent this, all lenity and mutual forbearance must 
be used, 70. 
Among Christians, may be so far heightened as that they shall groan one 

against another, as much as against the common enemy, iv. 424. 
Aggravated when carnal men intermeddle in religious controversies, v. 

Among Protestants, we should choose the best way, but hold charity 

towards dissenters, vi. 301. 

Difficulties, God never leaveth his people to utter and unsupportable, xviii. 446. 
Diffusion, rapid, of Christianity, the result of its power, viii. 338. 
Diligence, necessity and seasonableness of, ii. 124. 

Kequired in keeping God's precepts, vi. 44 ; striving to keep the law 
in all the points of it, 46 ; at all times and places and in all com 
panies, ib. ; with the whole man, ib. 

200 INDEX. 

Diligence required of Christians in improving the present season in order 
to eternal life, xxii. 7. 

Disappointment, reflections proper on occasions of, iv. 335. 

Disciples, Christ loveth all, but not all equally, i. 340. 

Of Christ, what it is to become, xvi. 483 ; must follow him or imitate 
his example, 487 ; wherein we should follow Christ, 489. 

Discord, among brethren, sowers of, are the devil's factors, agents for the 
kingdom of darkness, x. 329. 

Discords and estrangements between those that fear God, frequent, vii. 337 ; 
through carnal fear, ib. ; prejudice, ib. some offence may be given 
by us, ib. ; difference in judgment about lesser things, ib. ; the pro 
vidence of God permitting it for wise reasons, 338 ; all due means 
should be used to heal, ib. ; one great means is prayer, ib. 

Discourse, a Christian's, must not be profane, ix. 255 ; obscene or scurrilous, 
ib. ; calumnious and censorious, ib. ; proud and arrogant, 256 ; angry 
and bitter, ib. ; nor idle, which tendeth not to the glory of God and 
the edification of our neighbour, 257 ; must be edifying, 258 ; be 
cause our tongue is our glory, ib. ; because conference and edifying 
discourse is one means of spiritual growth and improvement to our 
selves and others, ib. ; it is a mighty comfortable duty to confer to 
gether of holy things, 259 ; the well-ordering of our words is a great 
point of Christianity, and argueth a good degree of grace, ib. means 
to, 260 ; divine illumination, ib. ; a sight of the excellency of the 
word, ib. ; a stock of spiritual knowledge, ib. ; zeal for the glory of 
God, and love to the souls of others, 261 ; wisdom, ib. ; watchful 
ness and heed, ib. 


Diseases, Christ's action of taking away, a type of his taking away sin, iii. 


The soul hath its, as well as the body, iii. 286 ; of the soul greater than 
of the body, ib. ; sin the great sickness of the soul, 287. See Sin. 

Disobedience, children of, xix. 232 ; stubborn, obstinate, and ignorant sinners, 
ib. ; disobey either the light of nature or the light of the gospel, ib. 
misery of, 237 ; God's people must not be partakers with, 239. 

Dispensations of God are right as to the cause, the measure, and the end, vii. 
289 ; to consider the justice and faithfulness of, would much quiet 
the minds of God's people, 291. 

Disputes against the grace and promises of God, man's nature much given 
to, iv. 50. 

Distinctions, civil, Christianity doth not abolish, xix. 428. 


Distraction of thoughts in worship, a great sin, and a degree of hypocrisy, v. 
443 ; causes, 449 ; Satan, who lieth in wait to hinder the prayers of 
the saints, ib. : the natural levity of our spirits, 450 ; practical 
atheism, ib. ; strong and unmodified lusts, ib. want of love to 
God and holy things, 451 ; slightness and irreverence, or want of 
a sense of God's presence, ib. ; the curiosity of the senses, 452 ; 
carking and distrustful cares, ib. ; remedies, 453 ; go to God and 
wait for the power of his grace, ib. meditate on the greatness of him 
before whom we are, ib. mortify those lusts that withdraw the 
mind, 454 ; prepare for the duty, ib. ; be nearer to your purpose, ib. ; 
bring to every holy service strong spiritual affections, 455 ; remember 
the weight and consequence of the duties of religion, ib. let every 
wandering make you more humble and careful, 456 ; cultivate a 

INDEX. 201 

constant heavenliness and holiness of heart, ib. practise frequent 
solemn meditation, ib. 

Distraction and ruin, men usually most secure and carnal before their own, 
iv. 408. 

Diversity of rank and degree, rich and poor, high and low, an act of the 
will of God, xxi. 146 ; this ought the more to move us to attend to 
the wants of the poor and needy, 148. 

Divine things, good to illustrate, by similitudes taken from earthly, iv. 282. 
Truths are received and improved by sound belief, serious consideration, 
and close application, xii. 319; they challenge our faith, 320; we 
should not pass them by with a few running and glancing thoughts, 
ib. ; their application is both direct and reflexive, ib. ; we should 
awaken ourselves to more earnest and serious consideration on par 
ticular occasions, 321. 

Divinity of Christ, no greater proof of, than his resurrection, iiL 351. 
Of Christ proved, v. 161. 

Division and dissentiency among God's people a great cause of the decay of 
godliness, v. 433. 

Doctrine, the drawing of the bow, application the hitting of the mark, iv. 357. 
Corrupt, produceth corrupt fruits, v. 280. 
Perverse, and a perverse aim are seldom severed, x. 219. 
None so sound but a corrupt heart will abuse it, xi. 306. 

Doctrines and points of divinity, we should not precipitate our judgment 

concerning, iv. 135. 
Fundamental, and necessary for salvation, are plain, viii. 348. 

Dominion, God's sovereign, a great prop to faith, i. 328. 

Double-minded man, one that hath two souls, may imply either a hypocrite 
or one that is distracted and divided in his thoughts, or one whose 
mind is tossed to and fro with various and uncertain motives, iv. 

Doubt, not a duty, iii. 281. 

Doubtfulness of mind, the cause of uncertainty in life and conversation, iv. 

Doubting, doctrine of, keepeth conscience on the rack, and leaveth men to 
the torment of their own distracted thoughts, iv. 51. 

Drawing near to God, what it is, iv. 367 ; how effected, 368 ; special acts 
in, ib. 

Dreams, waking, two sorts of, v. 231 ; of opinion, when we hug error 
instead of truth, ib. ; of hope, when we cherish presumption instead 
of faith, 232. 

Drunkenness, nature of, xix. 391 ; heinousness of, 393 ; a wasteful pro 
fusion of the blessings of God's providence, ib. ; of our fame, ib. ; of 
our bodies, ib. ; of our souls, 394. 



Duties, particular and private, not to be done in public, i. 5. 
We may use accustomed, but not out of custom, i. 21. 
Preference of, ii. 6 ; all that God commandeth must be respected, ib. ; 
yet all are not equal, nor all sins equal, 7 ; simple of the first table 
greater than of the second, ib. ; moral and substantial take precedence 
of ceremonial observances, though these belong to the first table, 8 ; 
when the breach of a ceremonial precept bringeth with it the trans 
gression of a moral precept, then we are not to transgress in the 
smallest externals, 10 ; if the externals of God's worship, instituted by 

202 INDEX. 

himself, must give place to mercy^, much more ought externals of 
human institution, 11. 

Duties, slight, suit best with a heart that is unwilling to come under the power 
of religion, ii. 16. 

Performed by the Christian as a thank-offering rather than a sin-offer 
ing, out of love to God rather than fear, ii. 55. 

Of Christianity, cannot be rightly discharged while the heart cleaveth 
to earthly things, ii. 134. 

All human, must give place to the duty we owe to God, ii. 122. 

Praiseworthy to be easy to be entreated in, but not from, ii. 329. 

A Christian never turns second-table into first-table, ii. 373. 

Must be done, events referred to God, ii. 382. 

Christ honoured in, when we look for their acceptance in him, iv. 19 ; 
when we look for assistance from him, ib. 

Commendation of, is the ready discharge of them, iv. 131 ; when the 
soul deliberateth about, it neglecteth, ib. 

Done truly when done in God's sight, iv. 378. 

Whether we are to do, under deadness and indisposition, vi. 240 ; in 
fluence of grace not the warrant of duty, but the help, ib. ; sinful 
indisposition cannot excuse us, 241 ; natural men commanded to pray 
and perform duties, therefore renewed men, ib. outward acts of duty 
commanded as well as inward, ib. ; we are to wait humbly in the use 
of means for the power of grace, ib. ; acting in spiritual duties fits us 
for them, ib. a supply cometh in ere we are aware, 242 ; we are to 
rouse ourselves, ib. 

To be done, though we be in a state of deadness, indisposition, and 
straits of spirit, vi. 334. 

How we honour Christ in performing, xiii. 438. 

Where faith gives a willing mind, bodily infirmities will be no let or 

hindrance, xiv. 404. 

Duty, three things incline the soul to : a forcible principle, a mighty aid, a 
high aim, ii. 233 ; all these are where faith is, ib. 

And privilege, connection of, ii. 348. 

A great part of man's, dependeth on prayer seriously performed, iii. 136. 

In the institution of, there is a word of command and a word of pro 
mise, iv. 128. 

Not only the work of, but all the circumstances of, must be regarded, 
iv. 216. 

Coming immediately out of our hands would yield an ill savour, there 
fore Christ intercepteth it in the passage, and so it is perfumed in 
the hands of a mediator, iv. 254. 

One, cannot excuse the omission of another, vi. 57. 

Cautions about, vii. 148 ; do not believe the devil, that there will be a 
more convenient season, ib. ; let not the world choke the word, ib. ; 
consult not with the flesh, 149 ; be not discouraged with tediousness 
and difficulty, ib. ; be not discouraged by apparent withholding of 
God's grace, 150. 

The end of deliverance, vii. 216. 

And obedience, God's children think of, when they think of mercy, ix. 53. 

Persistence in, a ground of confidence before God, ix. 134. 
Dwelling in tents, of the patriarchs, teaches us a variety of lessons, xiv. 265. 
Dwelling-place, God is his people's, xviii. 171; for defence, 174; comforts, 

177 j rest, ib. ; none sure for us on this side God, 184. 
Dying, the words of, apt to be much observed, xix. 14. 

INDEX. 203 

Early turning to God's ways, advantage of, vii. 136. 

Coming to Christ, the desirableness and advantages of, xvi. 412, 446. 

Earnest, the nature of an earnest, xii. 484 ; its end and use, 485 ; they who 
have the earnest of the Spirit are and may be confident of their 
future glorious estate, 487 ; the nature of this confidence, ib. ; the 
opposites of it, 488 ; its effects, 489 ; its properties, 491 ; how this 
confidence ariseth from having the earnest of the Spirit in our heart, 

Eartli y stability of, an emblem of the stability of God's promises, vii. 411 ; is 
the effect of God's word, ib. ; nothing appeareth whereon the globe can 
lean and rest, ib. ; its stability perpetual, 412 ; in the midst of changes, 
ib. ; in upholding, all those attributes are seen which are a stay to a 
believer's heart, as wisdom, power, goodness, ib. 

Earthly-mindedness, the temper and disposition of such men as are for the 
present in a state of damnation, xx. 134 ; is minding of earthly 
things only, ib. or chiefly, 135 ; is a renouncing of the true God, 
137; is a glorying in shame, 139; endeth in everlasting destruc 
tion, 142 ; exhortation against, 143 ; dissuasives from, 145. 

Easiness to be entreated, different from flexibility, iv. 319 ; must be shown 
in condescension to all honest and just motives and requests, ib. ; 
yielding to the persuasions of the word, ib. ; yielding to the counsels 
of others when better reason is discovered, ib. ; in matters of dispute, 
not jangling beyond sobriety, ib. 


Effectual calling, faith the fruit of, xii. 281 ; the fruit of God's eternal pur 
pose, which he purposed in himself, to save us by Christ, 282 ; love 
to God a sure and sensible note of, 283. 

Calling, the properties of, xii. 288 ; the ends of, both on God's part and 
the creature's, 289 ; in this calling God showeth forth his love and 
grace, 290 ; it is an act of power, 291 ; exhortations to make our 
calling and election sure, 292 ; signs by which the sureness of our 
calling may be made known to us, 293. 


Elect, do not all at once obey the heavenly call, ii. 121. 

Given to Christ by way of reward, iii. 407 ; and by way of charge, ib. 
Certainty of their salvation, x. 213 ; Christ's notice of, 214. 
Are in time distinguished from others by being conformed to the 
image of Christ, xii. 303 ; this conformity consisteth in three 
things in sufferings and afflictions, in righteousness and holiness, 
and in felicity and glory, 304 ; why this conformity to the image of 
Christ is the distinction between the elect and others, 305 ; i* suiteth 
with God's design of recovering man out of his lapsed estate, ib. ; they 
are all called Christians after Christ's name, 306 ; they are sealed by 
the Spirit, ib. ; Christ is their example, ib. ; they who are no way 
like Christ have little hope of getting to heaven, 307. 

Election, eternal, of ourselves and others, the great matter of our thanksgiving 

to God, iii. 104 ; arises from the mere love of God, ib. 
Doctrine of, should be preached, to detect the pride of man, to extol the 
glory of God in our salvation, as a great incentive to holiness, as a 
ground of solid comfort, iii. 110. 

Refusal to accept the gospel on the ground of the uncertainty of, iii. 333 ; 
enough in Christ's death to merit pardon for ten thousand times more 
than are, or ever shall be, in the world, ib. ; though sufficient for all, 
the efficacy and benefit intended for believers, ib. ; God intended him 

204 INDEX. 

such a sufficient sacrifice to the world, 334 ; God serious and earnest 
in the offer of Christ to all, ib. 

Election, calling, or promise of God, does not supersede the use of means, 
v. 488 ; God hath bidden us believe his promises, but forbidden us to 
tempt his providence, 489. 

To privileges of grace, matter of great thankfulness, x. 197. 
The purpose of God in election is the calling of certain persons accord 
ing to his supreme will, xii. 295 ; arguments in confirmation of this 
doctrine, 298 ; exhortation to admiration of elective grace, 300. 
Since all men sinned in Adam, God had done us no injury if he had 
left us to perish in this estate, xx. 354 ; it was of the great love 
of God that he provided a redeemer and saviour for us, 355 ; to bring 
about faith in Christ crucified, he sends messengers with the glad 
tidings where he will and to whom he will, 356 ; the gospel, where it 
is sent, prevaileth not on all alike, 356 ; the cause of this, 357 ; God's 
call is earnestly and affectionately managed by warning, teaching, and 
persuasion, ib. ; besides outward means, there is much common grace 
to help, 359 ; if men do all that they can, will God give them grace 1 
360; faith in Christ and salvation by him is the mere gift of God, 
ib. ; that this grace is given to some and not to others floweth from 
God's eternal decree, 362 ; exhortation to make our calling and elec 
tion sure, ib. 

Ends, the Christian's, ix. 438 ; the glory of God, ib. ; the saving of his own 
soul, ib. ; the good of others, 439. 

Enemies, of our souls, conquered by Christ, cannot harm us, but rather do us 

good, iii. 468. 

Love of, is a high grace, and recommended to us by Christ's own 
example, xix. 19. 


Engrafting, wherein the natural process is unlike the mystery of union to 
Christ, xi. 183 ; wherein it is like, ib. 

Enjoyment of God is mediately in this world, immediately in heaven, vi. 112. 

Enjoyments, the blessing of all, in God's hand, i. 163. 

Worldly, their uncertainty, iv. 69 ; they may leave us, we must leave 
them, ib. ; resembled to a flower, beautiful, but fading, 70 ; the 
fairest are the most fading, 71 ; perishing in themselves, but espe 
cially when the hand of Providence is stretched out against them, 72. 

Enlargement of heart is general or particular, vi. 325 ; general, is at regene 
ration or conversion to God, ib. ; consists in freedom from the power 
of sin, ib. ; and from the bondage of conscience, or fears of deatfc. 
and hell, 326 ; particular, is the actual assistance of the Lord's grace, 
carrying us on in the duties of our heavenly calling with more suc 
cess, 327; an effect of wisdom and knowledge, ib.; of faith, 328; 
of comfort and joy, through the assurance of God's love, ib. ; a fruit 
of love, 329 ; necessary in order to our running the way of God's 
commandments, ib. ; hindrances of, 330 ; mistakes regarding, 331. 

Enlightenment by the Spirit, is not giving a new revelation, vi. 164 ; is nega 
tive and positive, taking away the veil, and infusion of light, ib. ; 
necessary to give us a clear sight of the truths of God, 166 ; and 
an applicative sight, ib. ; an affective sight, 167 ; a transforming 
sight, ib. ; a lust-destroying light, ib. 

Enmity, the whole world the enemies of Christians, xii. 325 ; how far this 
enmity is permitted to extend, ib. ; reasons why we need not be 
troubled at this opposition, 326 ; objections answered, 330. 
Between Christ and Satan, on Satan's part is both of nature and 

INDEX. 203 

design, on Christ's part, of nature and office, xviii. 17; such, is be 
tween the confederates on either side, 18. 
Enmity to God, different kinds of, described, xiii. 296. 
Enoch, book of his prophecy considered spurious and apocryphal, v. 290. 

A type of the ascension of Christ, and an example of the fruits of 
faith, xiv. 33 ; whether he was translated in soul and body, ib. ; 
whether he died in the translation, ib. ; whither he was translated, 
36 ; an assurance to the fathers of eternal life, as Christ in gospel 
times to believers, 37. 

Envy argueth either a nullity or a poverty of grace, a nullity when it 
reigneth, a weakness when it is resisted and not overcome, iv. 303 ; 
ariseth from pride, is carried out in covetousness and evil desire, and 
ends in discontent, 304. 

Natural corruption doth most of all bewray itself by, iv. 348. 
Is a sin whereby we grieve at another's good, whether hurtful to us or 
no, xviii. 376 ; at the prosperity of the wicked, 377 ; people of God 
subject to fall into, 378 ; should not be so affected, 379 ; mischievous 
effects of, 383 ; remedies for, 385. 
Epictetus, his saying as to glorifying God, xiii. 130. 
Equality of all men by nature, xix. 435 ; possible in the course of God's 

providence, 436. 

Equivocation, Jesuitical, unjustifiable, vi. 286. 
Erring from God's commandments is either of frailty or obstinacy, vi. 

Error, not good to brand things with the name of, till we have proved them 

to be so, iv. 105 ; to be as carefully avoided as vice, 106. 
Is taking and catching, of a marvellous compliance with our natural 

thoughts, iv. 474. 

Proceedeth either from ignorance or from judicial blindness, viii. 54. 
Errors in the church, breed atheism in the world, ii. 88. 
In doctrine breed troubles of mind, iii. 18. 
Damnable, take not effect on God's elect, iii. 77. 
Popish, some more capital, others not so deadly, iii. 79. 
Of judgment, as well as sins of practice, may bring damnation on the 
souls of men, iii. 95 ; some more than others especially damning, ib. ; 
from the matter, if destructive of the way of salvation by Christ, 96 ; 
from the manner, when men profess what they do not believe, ib. ; 
when they are vented to the seducing of others, and rending the 
church, 97 ; when, though they do not err fundamentally, they de 
bauch Christianity, ib. ; when there is gross negligence, or no pains 
taken to know better, ib. ; ways and errors of Popery damnable, ib. 
If all, and the memorials of them, annihilated by the power of God, 
enough in the heart of one man to revive them next day, v. 115 ; 
first appearance of, many times modest, 1 1 7. 
Come in blushing, with a modest dress, but usually go out of the 

world with a great deal of shame, v. 285. 
Usually not long-lived, v. 393 ; in judgment as carefully to be avoided 

as vice in conversation, 397. 

Establishment is confirmation in grace received, iii. 177 ; is habitual or actual, 
ib. ; is in the doctrine of faith, 178 ; in every good work, or in holi 
ness of life, ib. ; very difficult, 179 ; its subject the soul with its 
faculties, ib. ; the mind or understanding, ib. ; the will, 180 ; the 
affections, 181, necessary for duties, ib. ; afflictions, ib. ; conflicts, 
182 ; prevents not only falling away, but shaking, ib. ; its necessity, 

206 INDEX, 

183 ; to be sought of God, 184; especially to be sought when we 
begin to decline, 185 ; in unsettled times, 186. 


Esteem, Christians should not religiously value others for external and carnal 
advantages, xiii. 220 ; not to deny civil regard and honour to the 
wicked and carnal, but render that respect which is due to their rank 
and quality, ib. ; the cause of God must not be abandoned because 
those of the other side have more outward advantages, 221. 
Of Christ, how Christ must be esteemed, speculatively and practically, 
xiv. 463 ; reasons why Christ must be so esteemed that his worst 
may be better to us than the world's best, 465. 


Eternal punishment may, without injustice, be inflicted for sin of short con 
tinuance, v. 288. 

As God is, so is his word, vii. 391. 
Life not a chimera, vii. 405 ; not upon impossible terms, ib. ; not upon 

a defective conveyance, ib. 

Life everywhere propounded in scripture as the great encouragement of 
our endeavours either in subduing sin or perfecting holiness, xii. 83 ; 
reasons proving that the life promised as the reward of mortification 
is eternal life, 83 ; the expediency of the promise of eternal life as 
the fruit of the mortification of sin, 86 ; the nature of this life, its 
personal benefit and happiness, ib. ; a threefold use of the reward of 
eternal life in the work of mortification, 87 ; the sufficiency and 
powerfulness of the motive, because of its certainty and excellence, 
88 ; compared with life natural and spiritual, 89. 
Life must be expected in the way of God's promise, xii. 198 ; its expec 
tation is certain and desirous, 199. 

Life, the qualifications of those who shall enjoy this blessed estate, xii. 
436 ; different persuasions in point of certainty as to interest in, 438 ; 
reasons why we should attend upon the work of assuring ourselves 
the possession of eternal life, 439 the virtue and force of this assur 
ance, 440 ; exhortation to belief in the promised glory, 442 ; the 
necessity of this belief, ib. ; it constituteth a main difference between 
the animal and spiritual life, 443 ; it is little credited in the world. 
ib.', evidence of this, 444 j how faith in the gospel worketh us to the 
other world, 446 ; how we should rouse up our faith, and more firmly 
believe the promised glory, 447 ; next to a sound belief of it there 
must be an earnest expectation of it, ib. ; we should diligently pre 
pare and seek after it in the way of holiness, 448 ; clear up our in 
terest in it, 449 ; and improve it to the vanquishing of temptations, 

Punishments and rewards, their end is that every man may receive ac 
cording to his deserts, xiii. 81 ; the distinction of persons, ib. ; as 
there are different persons, so there are different recompenses, 82 ; the 
notions by which these different states are expressed, 83 ; they are 
alike eternal, 85; how it can stand with the justice of God to cast 
men into everlasting torment, ib. ; the sentence certain, speedy, and 
unavoidable, 87 ; executed upon the wicked first, 88. 
Life, the right and interest of believers in, proved from scripture and 
by reason, xiv. 40 ; persuasions to faith on this ground and motive, 
42 ; directions how to exercise and act faith in order to eternal life, 
43 ; the love and grace of God in providing such an estate, 46 ; a 
comfort to God's children against want, trouble, and death, ib. 

INDEX. 207 

Eternal life, the work of faith respecting, xv. 75. 
Life, what it is to have, xxi. 131. 

Eternity is of infinite, interminable duration, without beginning or ending, vii. 
391 ; as without beginning and end, so without change, 392 ; of God, 
proved by scripture and reason, ib. ; seen in his wisdom, ib. ; his power, 
393 ; his goodness and mercy, ib. ; belongs to him as a governor, ib. ; 
as a benefactor, 394 ; of creatures must be understood as communi 
cated, dependent, and extending to the future, but not to the past, 
395 ; thoughts of God should lessen our estimation of all other things, 
Frequent and serious meditation upon, doth greatly promote the great 

ends of the gospel, vii. 399. 
And time, things of, compared, xiv. 468. 

We were made for, xviii. 284 ; puts a value upon things in themselves 
small, whether good or evil, 288. 

EucUtes, the ancient, their error as to prayer, xvii. 492. 

Eusebius on the Chocabites and Nazarites, xiii. 228 ; the Epistle to the Gala- 
tiaiis supposed to be written against these sects, ib. 

Evangelists, their narratives of the temptation of Christ reconciled, i. 270. 

Events, the glory of, belongs to God himself, i. 81. 

Everlasting life, Enoch an assurance of, to the fathers, as Christ to believers, 
xiv. 37. 

Evidence (sAgy^os), meaning of the word, xiii. 345. 


Evil, may either be 'the evil one' or ' the evil thing' (Mat. vi. 13), i. 232. 
Deliverance from, implies God's weakening the strength of inbred cor 
ruption, that we may not be foiled by it, i. 239 ; if we be foiled by 
it, that we may not lie in it, nor cease to resist it, ib. 
Speaking, of another, not always unlawful, yet hard to keep from sin, 

ii. 277 ; cautions regarding, ib. 

Must we in no case speak, of another? vi. 420 ; be sure that it is not a 
downright slander, ib. ; speak not o/him, but to him, 421 ; if of him, 
it should be with tenderness and grief, ib. 

Must be kept at a distance, as it is evil, and contrary to the holy nature 
and will of God, viii. 28 ; must refrain from every sinful course, ib. ; 
not only from notorious sins, but those that are plausible and of 
reputation in the world, 29 ; from outward and inward, ib. ; from 
profitable and pleasant, ib. ; from sins against either table, ib. \ from 
great sins and small sins, 30 ; from evil though done out of a good 
intention, ib. ; from our own special sins, 31 ; from the sins of the 
times wherein we live, ib. ; from all the occasions and appearances of, 
ib. ; reasons, 32 ; sins will weaken our graces, ib. ; and weaken our 
comforts, 33. 

Evil-doers, separation from, is necessary for a conjunction with God, viii. 

Evil-speaking is either whispering or backbiting, iv. 380. 

Evil times, sad symptoms of, vii. 353 ; when reformation is rejected, and 
corruptions settle upon their own base, ib. ; when our deliverance 
is likely to prove a mischief and a misery, because we are not pre 
pared to receive it, ib. ; when there is a damp upon the spirit of 
prayer, and men give over seeking to God for deliverance as a hope 
less thing, ib. ; when God is upon his judicial process, and no course 
is taken to reconcile ourselves to him, 354 ; when dispensations tend, 
or seem to tend, to the removal of the candlestick, ib. 


Evils of this life, how far God hath undertaken to keep his people from, i. 240. 
Better borne when they are undeserved and involuntary, when we fall 

into them, rather than draw them upon ourselves, iv. 26. 
Exact or circumspect walking, the duty of God's children, xix. 346 ; have 

a strict rule, ib. ; a holy God, 347 ; he is our witness, ib. ; and our 

approver and judge, ib. ; are children of light, 348 ; helps to, 356. 
Exaltation of Christ began with his resurrection, x. 191 ; advanced in his 

ascension, ib. ; his sitting at the Father's right hand, ib. useful for 

our comfort and our instruction, 193. 

Example of Christ of great support to us in all our troubles, ii. 345. 
Of Christ, the heavenliness of it and the courage of it, x. 385. 
Examples of suffering saints in the word a comfort in affliction, vii. 34. 

Good, should be given and taken, xx. 116; responsibility for others, 

117 ; encouragements to follow good, 118 ; caution against evil, 119 ; 

helps to make us exemplary, 120. 


Excuses, common, for putting off acceptance of the gospel, ii. 124; the difficulty 
of religion, ib.; the danger of it, 125; want of time to attend to it, 
ib. ; want of power to do good, ib. ; insufficiency of, 126. 
Always the sign of a haughty heart, ix. 206. 

For negligence in God's service, ix. 476 ; carnal men are ill versed in 
the art of excusing evil, and that which they think maketh for them 
usually maketh against them, 477 ; argue an ill spirit and an unwilling 
heart, 478 ; specimens of, 479. 

Exhortations, to mingle, with prayer, a great abuse, i. 25. 

Expectation of the promised future blessedness must be serious and earnest, 
vii. 364; lively, ib.; constant and unconquerable, ib. ; sure and cer 
tain, as built upon God's truth and faithfulness, ib. 
Experience, hope wrought by, produceth not only a conditional certainty, but 

an actual confidence of our own salvation, iii. 159. 
Comfortable, that flows from obedience, vii. 10 ; peace, ib. ; joy in the 
Holy Ghost, ib. ; particular, when borne out in confession of truth in 
time of trial, 11. 

Of God's grace in preserving s from sin and danger should encourage 
us in his ways, viii. 206 ; because of the obligation, ib. ; this is such 
a mercy as gives us hope of more mercy in that kind, 207. 
Of former times, an encouragement to trust God for the future, ix. 123. 
Experiences, of the saints, carnal men not fit to judge of, vi. 267. 

How the word is accomplished in the course of God's providence, and 

inward feelings of our own hearts, to be observed, vi. 403. 
Of the Lord's quickening and awakening our hearts will be remembered, 

vii. 434 ; and should be, 435. 

Expositions, false, confuted by inspection of the context, scope of the writer, 

comparing of obscure places with clear, iii. 25. 
Externals, in religion, either commanded by God, ii. 47 ; or invented by 

men, 48. 

Over-doing in, is usually an undoing in religion, ii. 96. 
Eyes, lifting up of, implies faith, hope, and patience, viii. 268. 

Lifting up to heaven, indicates the raising of the heart to God in 

INDEX. 209 

prayer, x. Ill ; spiritual reverence of God, 112; confidence in God, 
and a disclaiming of all sublunary confidences, ib. ; taking off the heart 
from the world, and from carnal desires, ib. 

Fainting, of the soul is when comfort is quite gone, vii. 354 ; arises from the 
tediousness of present sorrows and pressures, 355 ; or from a fervent 
and strong desire, ib. ; either causeth great trouble and dejection of 
spirit, or defection and falling off from God, ib. ; considerations to 
preserve us from, 356. 

It is a great infirmity and weakness if a Christian should faint in a 
time of trouble, xii. 227 ; reasons why, ib. ; weariness and fainting 
compared, ib. ; in this weakness, if left to ourselves, we should fail 
but for the help of the Holy Spirit, 228 ; they who rouse themselves 
up and use all means are in a nearer capacity to receive this help than 
others, 229 ; exhortations against fainting under troubles, 230. 
Faith, begotten in the word, exercised in prayer, i. 30. 

Its nature is to appropriate and apply, i. 55. 

Hope, love, and zeal, lead Christians to desire Christ's second coming, 
i. 115 ; also their experiences, 116. 

Three things in, assent, acceptance, dependence, i. 390. 

Convinces us of the worth and truth of the things promised by God 
through Christ, ii. 141 ; what that is by which the just do live, 142 ; 
it looketh mainly to heaven, ib. ; the sure ground which it goeth 
upon is God's promise through Jesus Christ, 143 ; its nature is trust 
and confidence, 145 ; its immediate fruit and effect is a forsaking 
all other hopes and happiness for Christ's sake for the blessedness 
which he offereth, 146. 

Doth not merit salvation as a reward, ii. 153 ; is assent, consent, and 
affiance, 154; is a believing in Christ, 155 ; the prime benefits which 
it respecteth are reconciliation with God, and the everlasting fruition 
of him in glory, 156 ; immediate acts and effects of, 158. 

And repentance, in what they agree, ii. 194 ; in what they differ, 195 ; 
reasons why these are required in order to pardon, 196. 

A firm and cordial assent to truth, ii. 349 ; a consent to receive Chris' 
as offered, 350 ; trust in him for the blessings he hath procured for 
us and promised to us, 351. 

Why required that we may receive benefit by Christ, ii. 353 ; in respect 
of God, that our hearts may be possessed with a full apprehension of 
his grace, ib. ; with respect to Christ, because it alone can appre 
hend the whole dispensation of grace by him, 354 ; because till we 
believe in him, we can have no comfort or use of all his offices, ib. ; 
with respect to that holiness and obedience which God expecteth from 
the creature, 355 ; with respect to our comfort, ib. ', confutation of 
presumptions regarding, 356. 

Alone is but as sight, with love as taste, iii. 81. 

Though the gift of God, yet we must labour for, iii. 215 ; to see our 
own weakness, ib. ; to manifest our obedience to God, and meet him 
in his own way, ib. ; to manifest our desires after it, 216 ; because, 
although we may not get faith by using the means, we shall not with 
out using them, ib. likely that God will meet us in his own way, 
ib. ', his usual way to meet those that seek him, ib. 

Is to a godly, as reason is to a natural man, iii. 226. 

210 INDEX. 

Faith, a knowledge or apprehension of Jesus Christ, iii. 421 ; yet there is a 
knowledge, and there are apprehensions, of Christ, which are not 
faith, ib. ; effects of faith ascribed to knowledge, ib. ; most con 
siderable acts of faith expressed by words proper to knowledge, ib. 
some objects of faith are things to be known and apprehended 
according to the revelation of God, 422 ; faith opposed to such things 
as imply a defect of knowledge, ib. God's work in reference to the 
begetting of faith plainly expressed to be a work upon the under 
standing, ib. 

Why, of all other graces, the one that justifies, iii. 435 ; it is the most 
receptive grace, ib. ; most loyal and true to God, ib. ; makes the way 
more sure, ib. -, it was by unbelief that we fell, so by faith we are re 
stored, ib. ; acts of justifying, 436 ; two implied, a sight of ourselves, 
and of our inability to help ourselves, ib. ; formal explicit acts, 437 ; 
knowledge of Christ, his goodness and excellency, ib. ; desire, ib. ; 
seeking of Christ, ib. ; receiving and resting upon Christ, ib. i 
always renewing its own acts, 438 ; aimeth at the increase of itself, 
ib. ; humbleth and smiteth for sin, 439 ; purgeth the heart from sin y 
ib. ', sets a high price and value upon Christ, ib. ; worketh by love, 
ib. ; how it justifies, 440 ; not as a joint cause with works, ib. ; not as 
an act of grace in us, ib. ; not as merely receiving the witness of our 
justification, ib. ; as an instrument which God hath deputed to the 
apprehension and application of Christ's righteousness, ib. 

Those who have faith must look for trials, iv. 32 ; those that are under 
trials must look to their faith, ib. 

Pretences of, easy and usual, iv. 233. 

The life of our lives, the soul that animateth the whole body of obed 
ience, iv. 237. 

Barren, is dead, iv. 244 ; because it may stand with a natural state, in 
which we are dead in trespasses and sins, ib. ; because it receiveth 
not the quickening influences of the Spirit, ib. because it wanteth 
the effect of life, which is operative, ib. ; because it is unavailable 
to eternal life, ib. 

And presumption, the difference between, doth not lie in the security 
of persuasion, but the grounds of it, iv. 247. 

How made perfect by works, iv. 253, 255 ; works do not perfect by 
communication and imputation of their perfection to it, but by stirring, 
exercising, and intending the natural vigour of it, 254 ; its influence 
upon all a Christian's actings, ib. because it hath the advantage of a- 
sweet principle, working by love, ib. ; presents strong encouragements, 
ib. ; breaketh the force of opposite propensions, 255. 

Purifieth, not in the Popish sense, as a most perfect grace, or as a good 
work done by us, but in its relation to Christ, as it receiveth Christ 
and his satisfactory righteousness, iv. 257. 

Dead, cannot be true, and true cannot be without works, iv. 269. 

Doctrine of, mercy of God in delivering, v. 106 ; in committing to 
writing, 107 ; in preserving, 108 ; in stirring up men for its opening 
and application, ib. ; that it is given to our nation, ib. ; and to be 
lievers, in the power and efficacy of it, 109 ; duty of the church to- 
publish, own, and defend, 110 ; and to preserve and transmit in purity 
to the next age, ib. 

Often expressed by the terms motion, coming, running, going, seeking,, 
vi. 22. 

The advention of, vi. 454 ; waiting of, ib. ; obstinacy and resolution of, 

INDEX, 211 

455 ; submission and resignation of, ib. prudence of, ib. ; obedience 
of, ib. 

Faith in a promise, how we may know that it is of God's raising, vii. 25 ; 
if the promise be not mistaken, and we do presume of that absolutely 
which God hath promised conditionally, ib. ; when the qualification 
of the person is not clear, we must not absolutely promise ourselves 
the effect, 26 ; in the promises of spiritual and eternal mercies, when 
God's conditions are performed by us, ib. ; when God raiseth in our 
minds some particular express hope to things of a temporal nature, 
and where our qualification is clear, ib. 

True, includes in it an election and choice of Christ, not only as good, 
but as more excellent, more necessary for us, more beneficial to us, 
than all other things, vii. 154. 

Planted in the heart is nourished and increased by more knowledge and 
understanding, vii. 222. 

Opening the eyes of, argueth a closing of the eye of sense, so that we 
are not withdrawn by vain objects, vii. 362 ; nor discouraged with 
contrary appearances, ib. 

Necessary to make application of the blessings promised in the word of 
God, viii. 173. 

Hope, and patience are apt to fail, viii. 271 j because these graces are 
weak in the best, and may fail under long and sharp trials, ib. ; be 
cause temptations raise strange clouds and mists in the soul, ib. ; 
carnal affections are hasty and impetuous, 272 ; man's mutability, 
ib. this failing but an infirmity of the saints ; though their hope be 
weak and ready to faint, it is not quite dead, ib. 

And obedience must be well grounded, or else they will have no 
stability, viii. 455 ; they cannot be well grounded but upon such a 
doctrine as is true and righteous, ib. ; the true and righteous doctrine 
must be backed with a strong and powerful authority, strictly and 
severely enjoined, ib. ; this divine authority, truth and righteousness, 
is only to be found in God's testimonies or in his word, 456 ; they 
that would receive the word as the word of God must be soundly 
convinced of, and seriously consider, this righteousness and faithful 
ness in the testimonies which he has commanded, 461. See Testi 
monies which God, &c. 

And hope, distinction between ; we believe things past, present, and 
future, but hope for things to come only ; of things to come, we 
believe both promises and threatenings, but hope only for things 
desirable, ix. 220. 

To the working of, there usually concur the light of the Spirit, ex 
ternal confirmation, and the use of fit instruments, x. 221. 

The word is the proper means to work, x. 227 ; miracles neither neces 
sary nor to be expected, ib. ; illapses of the Spirit, without waiting 
on the word, not to be expected, ib. ; cannot be without knowledge, 
229 light of, is serious and considerate, 230 ; realising, ib. ; wrought 
by the Spirit, ib. transforming, 231 ; undoubted certain, ib. ; is a 
receiving the word, 232 ; as the word of God, ib. ; the whole word, 
ib. ; with the whole heart, 233 ; implieth an act of the will, ib. ; 
accomp'anied with some sensible objection, ib. this affection accom 
panied with a pursuit, or serious making after these hopes, 234 ; 
these endeavours supported by affiance, ib. ; is a receiving Christ, 
ib. ; implieth that our whole and sole dependence must be entirely 
carried out to him, 235; that he is received as an all-sufficient 

212 INDEX. 

Saviour, every faculty seeking contentment in him, ib. making after 
him with the earnest motions and lively affections of the soul, as 
desire and delight, 236. 
Faith, the necessity of, in temporal affliction, xii. 145. 

And hope, the cognation that is between, xii. 202 ; wherein they 
differ, ib. 

And love, exercise great influence on our victory over the world, xii. 399. 

Is such a belief of God's love to us in Christ as giveth us a lively sense 
of it in our souls, xii. 281 ; faith is the fruit of effectual calling, ib. 

Hope, and love, evidence to the Christian that heaven is his home, 
xiii. 5. 

And sight contrasted and distinguished, xiii. 12 ; the one is for earth, 
the other for heaven, 14 ; until we have sight it is a great advantage 
to have faith, 1 6 ; the relief faith yields in prospect of eternal life, ib. ; 
reasons why those having faith are not satisfied till they have sight, 
17; sight either ocular or contemplative, 18; if we have faith we 
may be sure we shall have sight, ib. ; prepares us for, and gives us a 
title to, the things expressed by sight, 19 ; we must walk or live by 
faith, 20 ; reasons why, ib. ; the advantages of living by faith, 21. 

Spiritual life a matter of, xiii. 207. 

Hope, and love, our light, life, and power, implanted in us in the new 
creation, xiii. 244. 

Difference between the acts and the effects of, xiii. 323 ; the word 
sometimes taken for the doctrine, sometimes for the grace, 324 ; faith 
and hope distinguished, 325 ; gives such a reality to things hoped 
for as if they were actually enjoyed, 326 ; this is done four ways 
by hope, by the promises, by Christ, and by the first-fruits, ib. ; the 
first-fruits of faith are union with Christ, the joys of the Spirit, and 
grace, 330 ; the benefit and advantage of this act, and the use of 
faith in the spiritual life, 332 ; it is very necessary, ib. ; it gives 
strength to all the graces of the spiritual life, 333 ; Quest, whether 
suffering or active faith manifests the greater love to God ? ib. ; how 
we may discern whether we have that faith which is the evidence of 
things hoped for, 339 ; exhortation to work up faith to such an effect 
that it may be the substance of things hoped for, 342 ; means and 
duties to this end, 343 ; true faith an evidence or convincing light 
concerning eternal verities, 346 ; there are in faith four things a 
clear apprehension, ib. ; a convictive light, 348 ; an overpowering con 
viction, 349 ; and a practical conviction, 350 ; exhortation to exa 
mination and trial whether we have such a faith as is an evidence or 
convincing light, 351 ; difference between the light of faith and com 
mon knowledge, ib. ; the evidence of faith is conversant about things 
unseen by sense or reason, 354 ; the advantage of this in the spiritual 
life, 356 ; encouragements to living by faith, 360 ; reproof of those 
that are all for sense and present appearance, ib. ; directions to dis 
cover whether we have that faith that can believe things unseen, 363 ; 
persuasives to get it, 369 ; directions to get and increase it, 372 ; 
objection answered, that faith makes way for fond credulity, 371 ; the 
fathers under the law had the same kind of faith that we have, 374; free 
grace no novel doctrine, ib. ; by faith the fathers obtained renown in 
the church, 375 ; to get and maintain faith should be our principal 
care, ib. ; means to this end, 376 ; the faith of the elders was an 
active faith, that discovered itself in good fruits and gracious actions, 
377 ; a good report one of the rewards of faith, 379 ; the manner in 

INDEX. 213 

which this reward is dispensed, 382 ; whether eying a good report in 
the exercise of faith is not vainglory, 384. 

Faith of Abel, what it was, xiii. 465 ; nature of the testimony he received, 

Differences believers from the world in the duties of religion, xiii. 466 ; 
how it does so, ib. 

Cases of conscience (1.) Concerning the discerning work of faith, how 
shall we do to see him that is invisible, and rightly conceive of God 
in prayer so as to find an awe of him upon our spirits? xiii. 471 ; (2.) 
Concerning the receiving part of faith, how shall we do to interest 
ourselves in the assistance of Jesus Christ, and borrow help from 
heaven when we are employed in duties of worship ? 472 ; (3.) Con 
cerning the reasoning work of faith, how far assurance is necessary, 
that we may set faith on arguing when our evidences are dark ? 473. 

How we are justified by, xiii. 477 ; different respects in which God, 
Christ, and faith are said to justify in scripture, ib. ; does not justify- 
in the sense of the Antinomians, as receiving witness of the Spirit's 
testimony, 478 ; the fruit of effectual calling, ib. ; how God looks 
upon us as justified, 479 ; reasons why faith is deputed to this ser 
vice, 480 ; what kind of faith it is that justifies, 481 j in the acts 
of, there are some things implied and some things express and 
formal, ib. ; that which is implied is knowledge and feeling, ib. j that 
which is express is resting upon Christ or a closing with Christ, 483 ; 
this last usually expressed in scripture as coming to Christ, running 
to Christ, seeking Christ, and receiving Christ, ib. rules concerning 
these acts of faith, 485. 

Without faith it is impossible to please God, xiv. 72 ; the kind of faith 
here implied, 73 \ a mere general faith in the being of God not 
enough, ib. ; opinions of the ancients as to faith, 74; no saving faith 
but in Jesus Christ, 76 ; objections answered, 77. 

Of infants, opinions of the fathers as to, xiv. 81 ; subjects of election 
before birth, 82 ; difference between the children of believers and of 
unbelievers, 83 ; children dying in infancy have faith, 84 ; what kind 
of faith this is, ib. ; is a work of the Holy Ghost, 86. 

The excellency of, xiv. 101 ; the necessity of, 102 ; why God hath 
put so much honour on this grace, 103 ; is the mother of obedience, 
105 y knowledge, assent, and affiance necessary parts of, 106 ; differ 
ent degrees of, 110 ; the lowest degree of saving faith, what it is, 111 ; 
leaning on the Lord, what it is, 115 ; faith bringeth God most glory 
and us most good, 118 ; how we must do to get faith, 119. 

Ground of Noah's, xiv. 177 ; God usually gives warning of ap 
proaching judgments, ib. ; God usually revealed himself to holy 
and righteous persons, 179 ; revelation the ground of faith, 180 ; the 
word of God the revelation of the Spirit, ib. ; threatenings and pro 
mises alike objects of faith, 183 ; necessity of the threatenings, 185 ; 
Quest, whether the children of God, those especially that have received 
the first-fruits of the Spirit, may make use of the threatenings aiid 
terrors of the Lord 1 186 ; directions how to use the threatenings, 

The strength and force of Noah's, xiv. 189 ; reasons why it is the 
property of faith to be moved by such things as are not liable to 
sense, 190 ; reproof of the security of the world with respect both to 
particular and general judgments, 191 ; the fruits and consequences 
of Noah's faith, 195 ; godly fear a fruit and effect of faith, ib. 



as it works upon the promises, begets love and hope ; it works 
upon the threatenings, begets fears, 195 ; what this godly fear 
is, 196 the difference between servile and filial fear, 197 ; as 
the fear of Noah was the fruit of his faith, so his preparing the ark 
was the fruit of his fear, 201 ; this act considered in several regards, 
ib.-, the ark a type of Christ, 203 ; as Noah was buried alive in the 
ark, so are we ' buried with Christ in baptism,' 204 ; wicked children 
of believing parents are partakers in the temporal blessings of the 
covenant for their fathers' sakes, 205; encouragements to godly parents 
concerning their children, ib.; since children are beloved of God for 
their parents' sakes, this should serve to shame and terrify those born 
of godly parents who are not so themselves, 206 ; how the faith of 
Noah condemned the world, 207 ; the advantages derived from the 
example of the godly, 208 ; Christians should walk so that they may 
condemn the world, not by their censures, but by their lives, 212 ; 
directions, ib. ; motives, 213 ; whether all that were drowned in the 
flood were eternally lost, 216. 

Faith, wherever it is, bringeth forth true obedience, xiv. 227 ; the ground of 
this obedience is the call of God, which usually consists of a command 
and a promise, ib. ; this call is of grace, 228 ; when God calls us to 
grace, we are not only to leave sin and the world, but all things that 
are dear to us, 229 ; when we give up ourselves to Christ, God would 
have us sit down and count the charges, 230 ; faith may sometimes 
make a halt and grow weary, but it rouseth itself up again, 231, 423 ; 
it constantly adheres to God, though it doth not presently find what 
it believes and expects, 231 ; how we shall know that we are called 
of God, 232 ; how we should behave ourselves in our calling, that we 
may manifest the obedience of faith, 237. 

It is not enough that we live by faith, we must also die by faith, xiv. 
281 ; reasons why, ib. ; what it is to die in faith, 284 ; reasons why 
they that would die in faith must live in faith, 290. 

Is contented with the promises though it cannot have actual possession, 
xiv. 293 ; the advantage of the promises to, ib. ; there is not only a 
work of faith upon the promise, but upon the heart of the believer, 
295 ; is an act of apprehension, 298 ; it apprehends the blessings as 
real, ib. ; it pondereth the worth of them, ib., there is actual expec 
tation, 299 ; that there is assent and persuasion proved from scripture, 
ib. ; this persuasion rests on God's truth and power, 300 ; is an act 
of the will as well as of the understanding, 302 ; the affection that 
is exercised in embracing the promises is joy, 303 ; this joy is mani 
fested partly by the lively act of it in meditation, partly by the solid 
effects of it in our conversation, 303 ; the need there is of the power 
of the Spirit in the whole business of faith, 305 ; the difference be 
tween faith and other things, ib . 

The trial of Abraham's faith, xiv. 353 ; the greatness of it, ib. ; his 
behaviour under it, 354. 

In difficult cases, we must do our duty, and refer the event and success 
to the power of God, xiv. 369. 

Spieth light at a little hole, xiv. 420. 

Teaches men openly to renounce all worldly honours, advancements, and 
preferments, when God calls us from them, or when we cannot enjoy 
them with a good conscience, xiv. 431 ; how far the honours and 
glories of the world are to be renounced, ib. ; how faith operates in 
this renunciation, 434 ; use of this doctrine, 439 ; sundry considera- 

INDEX. 215 

tions and motives to check ambition and affectation of worldy great 
ness, 443 ; exhortation to those in honour to be of Moses' spirit, 446. 
Faitli, whoever would have commerce with God must have faith, xiv. 476 ; as 
necessary to religion in general, so also in duties of worship, ib. ; but 
especially in the sacraments, 478. 

Living by, what it is, xv. 48 ; implies assent, consent, and affiance, ib. ; 
how and when we are said to live by faith, ib. ; this life must be 
extended not only to spiritual duties and acts of immediate worship, 
but to all the actions of our natural and temporal life, 51 ; we never 
act nobly or live comfortably till we live by faith, ib. ; this life is 
glory begun, 52 ; if we would have this life begun in us, we must 
study the grounds of faith in the promises of the gospel, wait for 
God's power to settle our hearts on these grounds, and look for the 
operations of the Spirit, 53 ; the effects of it, 54 ; how we may im 
prove this life to a cheerful walking with God in a course of obedience, 

The work of, with respect to justification, in what it consists, xv. 58 ; 
how we must set faith a- work, 61. 

The work of, with respect to sanctification, in what it consists, xv. 69 ; 
with respect to the promises, 71 ; with respect to mortification and 
vivification, 72 ; with respect to the life of glorification, 75 ; how 
we must do that faith may have its perfect work with respect to this 
life of glory, 83 ; the work of faith with respect to this present life, 
85 ; some maxims and principles of faith that have an influence on 
this life, 88 ; the acts of faith with reference hereto, 93 ; how we 
may bring our hearts thus to live by faith, 98. 

The necessity of temptations to, xv. 102 ; is the great remedy against 
temptation, 104 ; the grounds and support of a Christian's faith in 
the midst of temptation, 107 ; the acts of faith with respect to temp 
tation by Satan, 110; in what sense faith is said to overcome the 
world, 113; what this faith is, 114 ; the necessity and profit of the 
work of faith respecting this kind of temptation, 115 ; the acts of 
faith in its victory over the world, 117 ; how we may bring our hearts 
into such a frame as will enable us to triumph over the temptations 
of the world, 119. 

The need of, in troubles and afflictions, xv. 121 ; the grounds and prin 
ciples of faith under affliction, 124; the work of faith under afflic 
tion, 131. 

The influence of, upon obedience, xv. 135 ; the obedience that is required 
of us, ib. ; the necessity of faith as to this obedience, 137 ; the work 
of faith in order to obedience, 141 ; what we must do that faith may 
have such an influence upon us, 143. 

The use of, in prayer, xv. 145 ; the kind of faith requisite in prayer, 
146 ; the necessity of faith in prayer, 150 ; reproof of those that do 
not pray in faith, 151 ; exhortation to faith in prayer, 152 ; how we 
may know that we pray in faith, 153. 

The use of, in hearing the word, xv. 154 ; the word a proper object of 
faith, 155 ; in order to profit, hearing must be accompanied by faith, 
ib. ; how many things come short of true faith, 160 ; what the true 
faith is that must be mingled with the word, 161 ; the necessity of 
this mixture in order to profit, 163 ; the efficacy of faith in the hear 
ing of the word, 169 ; whence faith hath this power, ib. ; reproof of 
divers sorts of hearers, 171 ; exhortation to entertaining the gospel 
with a sound and lively faith, ib. ; how we may get this faith, 172. 

216 INDEX. 

Faith, the work of, is to apply the promises, wait in the use of means, use- 
meditation, and so stir up love, xvi. 263. 

We must not measure faith by the person, but the person by his faith 
(Tertullian), xvi. 268. 

A means to allay trouble of heart, xvi. 352 ; fear and sorrow vanquished 
by, 353. 

The nature of, xvii. 110 ; the object, 111 ; the assent, 112; historical and 
temporary, to be excluded, 113; the kind of consent, 115; the properties 
of, 117 ; the sight ,of, considered as to its certainty and power, 118; 
the acts of, 119 ; self-denial essential to, 122 ; love, 125 ; relation of 
the word to faith, 126; the acts of faith as to the word, 129; the 
effects these acts produce, 131 ; notes of a strong and grown faith 
in respect to the word, 133; love of Christ, 135; victory over the 
world, 140; waiting on God, 144. 

Of the centurion, the nature of it, xvii. 147 ; how it was wrought in 
him, 149 ; the fruits of it, ib. ; encouragements from his example, 

The Syrophcenician woman an instance of, xvii. 155 ; the kind of 
woman she was, 156 ; her trials and temptations, 157 ; her victory 
over them, 161 ; application, 164. 

Abraham a pattern of, xvii. 167; the ground of his faith, 168, 179; 
what the seed was that was promised in the covenant, 169 ; what the 
blessings, ib. ; the strength of his faith, 170, 181 ; his clear vision 
and sight of Christ, 170; his rejoicing in Christ, 173 ; the grounds 
of this rejoicing, 174 ; the nature of it, 176 ; how far difficulties are 
to be considered, 183 ; the fruit of his faith, 188. 

The foundation of all true Christianity, xvii. 420 ; the requisites of a 
sound belief, 422; hope the immediate effect and product of, 
xvii. 423; godly conversation the consequent and fruit of sincere 
belief, 424 ; reasons why this is true Christianity, 427. 

The necessity of, xvii. 461 ; the nature of, 462 ; the objects proper 
to, 463 ; the kind of sight there is in, 464. 

' The eye of the soul,' xvii. 462. 

True and lively, doth apprehend all things as present in God that iii 
wanteth in the creature, xviii. 171. 

A means to be justified, confession a means to be saved, xviii. 245. 

Saving, determined partly by the object or matter believed, xviii. 251 > 
partly by the subject of it, or the acts of the soul about it, ib. 

And confession connected as cause and effect, xviii. 255 ; or as the sign 
and the thing signified, ib. 

Love and hope, the main pieces of the Christian armour, xviii. 454 ; 
their nature, 455 ; their mutual respect to one another, 458 ; their 
use in the spiritual conflict, 459 ; they impel us to do our duty with 
all diligence, ib. ; restrain and subdue corrupt inclinations, ib. ; fortify 
against evil without, 460 ; without them we cannot pray to God, or 
hold any sweet communion with him, ib. ; without them we are not 
prepared for death and judgment, 461 ; means of getting, 463. 

In Christ, the nature of it, xxi. 212 ; how faith in Christ and love to 

the brethren are conjoined, 216. 


Faithfulness of God in all the troubles and afflictions of his people, vii. 291 ; 

to be acknowledged, not only in the general, but with reference to- 

ourselves, ib. ; not only when we are at ease, but under the sharpest 

and smartest discipline, ib. ; this acknowledgment must be from the- 

INDEX. 217 

heart, 292 ; not enough to acknowledge justice, but faithfulness also, 
ib. ; must be fixed by faith as past all question, 293. See Affliction, 
Faithfulness, &c. 

Faithfulness of God relateth to his promises, whereby he hath engaged himself 
to his people, vii. 407 ; dependeth upon his unchangeable nature, but 
is confirmed to us by experience, ib. ; the experience of all generations 
doth confirm, ib. experience of, in former ages, of use to those that 
succeed, 409 ; to be satisfied of, of great importance to believers, 410. 
See Earth, stability of. 

Christ's, to his Father, in revealing his mind, and in referring all to his 
glory, x. 219. 

Fallen state of man, disorder of, xix. 57 ; the creature preferred before God, 
ib. ; the body before the soul, ib. ; earth before heaven, and time 
before eternity, 58 ; danger of, ib. 

Falling away from the power and practice of godliness, iii. 34 ; indicated by 
coldness in duties, ib. ; and boldness in sinning, 35 ; from a true 
religion to a false, ib. ; out of weakness of mind, ib. ; or out of vile 
affection, 36. 

Falsehood is either in point of opinion or practice, viii. 54. 

A man should say nothing but what he really thinks, xiv. 328; it 
is the right of our neighbour that we should speak the truth, ib. ; a 
lie is a perversion of the order of nature, ib. ; we resemble the devil 
in nothing so much as in falsehood and lies, 329 ; God never dis 
pensed with this precept, ib. ; nothing more odious to the light of 
nature, *ib. j especially odious in matters of religion, ib. ; cautions 
against dissimulation, 330. 


FAST SERMON ON ISAIAH xliii. 22, xv. 298. 

FAST SERMON ON MALACHI iii. 7, xv. 315. 


Father, in what sense God is, i. 40 ; of Christ, as the second person, and not 
only as incarnate and mediator, ib. ; of men, in a general considera 
tion and respect, by creation, 41 ; this gives some advantage in 
prayer, 42 ; more particularly, in Christ God is the father of believers, 
43 ; this conduceth to our confidence in prayer, 45 ; and furthereth 
our duty in prayer, 48. 

How God performs the part of, i. 46 ; giving his children free access to 

him, ib. ; supplying all their wants, ib. ; pitying their miseries, 47 ; 

disciplining them with indulgence, wisdom, and care, ib. ; providing 

guardians for them, ib. laying up an inheritance for them, ib. 

Called the only true God, to exclude the idols of the Gentiles, and to 

note the order and economy of salvation, x. 141. 

Being first in order of the persons, is to be looked upon as the party 
offended by sin, x. 223 ; as the highest judge, 224 ; as the supreme 
author, it was his contrivance and motion to Christ to regard the 
case of sinners, ib. ; as the supreme cause, he assisteth Christ in the 
accomplishment of his work, 225 ; as supreme judge, he appointeth 
his sufferings, and the measure of the satisfaction he is to make, ib. 
God is, in a general sense, of all by creation, xix. 7 ; more especially of 
his own people by adoption, 8 ; we must submit to his fatherly 
authority when we cannot see our interest in his special fatherly 
love, 10. 

Fatherhood of God, speaketh comfort to us, iii. 143; and duty, 144; his 
fatherly love floweth in the channel of redemption, 144. 

218 INDEX. 

Faults of men, two great, the one in point of choice, the other of pursuit, 

vi. 289. 

Favour, three things commend, ii. 342 ; the goodwill of the giver, ib. ; the 
greatness of the gift, ib. ; the unworthiness of the receiver, 343. 

God's, his people desire earnestly and constantly, above all things, vii. 
119; when they have not yet attained any sense of it, 120; when 
they have lost it by sin, ib. ; their earnestness in seeking, ib. ; reasons 
why they so prize, 121. 

God's, furnisheth us with a remedy against wants, troubles, sins, vii. 
315 ; is the fountain of all blessing, ib. ; sweetens every comfort, 316. 

And mercy, God's constant method to encourage all who serve him, by 
showing them all manner of expressions of, viii. 378 ; objections 
answered, ib. ; should encourage us in waiting upon him and praying 
to him, 380. 

And loving-kindness, God's, the main argument which his children 
have to plead in prayer, ix. 89 ; a modest, pious, and humble argu 
ment, ib. ; a comfortable, encouraging argument, 90. 

Fear, why excited in holy men by manifestations and appearances of God, i. 
402 ; to humble them to whom he vouchsafed so great a favour, ib. ; 
to prepare them for making known his will by leaving an impression 
of his excellency upon them, 403. 

Slavish, the cause of enmity to God, ii. 243. 

Of God, and regard of men, two restraints which God hath laid upon 
us, the one to preserve religion, the other to preserve human societies, 
iv. 336. 

Slavish, hateth God for his holiness, and feareth him for his wrath, 
v. 361. 

Of God is either servile, a fear of wrath, which the worst may have, vi. 
408 ; or filial, a fear of reverence, ib. ; the latter the great principle 
that both hindereth us from sin and quickeneth us to duty, 409. 

Of God is either servile, by which a man feareth God and hateth him, 
vii. 172; or filial, by which he feareth God and loveth him, ib. ; the 
latter includes the fear of reverence, 173 ; and the fear of caution, ib. ; 
is the grand principle of obedience, ib. ; the great pull-back and con 
stant preservative of the soul against sin, ib. ; the great excitement 
to obedience, 174; not contrary to our blessedness, 175 ; not contrary 
to our comfort and joy in the Lord, ib. ; not contrary to courage and 
holy boldness, ib. ; not contrary to the grace of the gospel. 

And knowledge maketh up a godly man ; knowledge without fear 
breedeth presumption, and fear without knowledge breedeth super 
stition and blind zeal, vii. 335. 

Carnal, caution against, viii. 7. 

Of God, double filial, which draweth us to him, and servile, which 
driveth us from him, viii. 231. 

Of God's judgments not an infirmity, but a duty, viii. 234; usefulness 
of, 235. 

Slavish, a great hindrance to the faithful discharge of our duty to God, 
ix. 462 ; begotten in us by a false opinion of God, 463 ; that he is 
tyrannical in his laws, 467 ; niggardly in his gifts and helps of grace, 
ib. ; hard to please and easy to offend, 468 ; these prejudices very 
natural to us, 469. 

There is a twofold filial and servile, childlike and slavish, xii. 101. 

Of the Lord an argument to persuade us to sincerity and obedience, 
xiii. 91 ; they who take the Lord for their father and themselves for 

INDEX. 219 

his children must consider him as an exact and impartial judge of all 
their actions, ib. ; the strictness and justice of his judgment, 92 ; his 
final sentence a matter of terror, 93 j the execution, in case of failure 
in our duty, terrible beyond expression, ib. ; the wrath of God the 
greatest evil that can befall us, ib. ; different kinds of fear distin 
guished, 96 ; reasons why true fear of the Lord should have an, 
influence upon us, 97; the means how this fear cometh to be raised 
in us, ib. 

fear that sanctifieth, and that only awakeneth for a time, distinction be 
tween, xviii. 360. 
Holy, is of two kinds of reverence, xviii. 411 ; of caution, 412. 

Fears, carnal, hinder the soul from closing with the mercy that is in Christ, iii. 
202 ; of God's anger, ib. ; of being too bold with the promises, ib. ; 
of the sin of presumption, ib. 
And cares relieved by consideration of God's faithfulness, vii. 298. 

fearlessness in owning the testimonies and ways of God before any sort of 
people in the world, incumbent on us, vi. 491 ; holy boldness in 
confession a special gift of God, ib. ; a duty contained in our first dedi 
cation and resignation of ourselves to Christ, ib. ; confirmed in us by 
faith, 492 ; love to God, ib. ; fear of God, ib. ; a deep sense of the 
world to come, 493. 

Felicity, temporal, Christians are not to reckon on, i. 333. 

Fervency in prayer arises from a broken-hearted sense of our wants, arid a 
desire of the blessing we need, i. 37. 

filthiness,&\\ sin is,iv. 148 ; but chiefly covetousness, lust, anger, and malice, ib. 

* Finished, it is,' in what sense said, xix. 31 ; all the scripture prophecies 
which spake of Christ's death and sufferings were now accomplished, 
ib. ; the substance of the types was accomplished, 33 ; all was finished 
that was necessary to make him a fit pattern of patience to us, ib. ; 
all was fulfilled which God determined to be done for the expiation 
of sin, 35. 

First-born from the dead, a title of Christ, i 455. 

first-fruits of the Spirit, what they are, xii. 186 ; what use they serve, 187; 
they that have received the first-fruits of the Spirit groan and wait for 
a better estate than they now enjoy, 188 ; they are more apprehensive 
of the misery of this life than others are or can be, 190; more 
sensible of sin as a burden, 191 ; they are confirmed in the belief of 
the certainty of this better estate, 192 ; do in part know the excel 
lency of it, ib. are prepared and fitted for it, ib. ; and their right 
and title to it is assured, 193 ; none but those who have the first- 
fruits of the Spirit will hope for eternal life, 194. 
Of faith, in what they consist, xiii. 330. 

' First shall be last,' not universally and necessarily, but for the most part, 
xxii. 42 ; not only persons, but nations and communities, ib. ; is to 
be understood with respect to matters of religion, ib. ; and last may 
be first, 48. 

flesh, confidence in, what it is, ii. 46; trusting in external privileges and 
performances, ib. ; this confidence natural to men, 49 ; why a good 
Christian should have none, 51. 

Lust of, means the inordinate motions of corrupt nature, ii. 285 ; derived 
to us from Adam in his apostasy, 287; prompts to do those things 
which are most acceptable to sense, or agreeable to worldly or carnal 
.ends, ib. ; still remains in the Christian, though not in full force, 



288 ; is importunate to be pleased, 289 ; lusts of, different in differ 
ent men, 292. 

Flesh and spirit, mean corrupt nature and the new nature, xi. 392 ; both 
serve, to those who are influenced by them, as a guiding and inciting 
principle, ib. ; those who are under the prevalency of the one principle 
cannot wholly obey and follow the other, ib. ; every Christian hath 
these two principles in himself, the one by nature, the other by grace, 
393 ; though both be in the children of God, yet the Spirit is in 
predominancy, ib. ; the prevalency of the principle is known, not 
only by the bent and habit of the will, but by the settled course of 
the life, ib. 

Or spirit, all men are after the one or the other, xi. 438 ; there is a 
twofold original, 439 ; producing a twofold principle, ib. ; supported 
and assisted by contrary powers, ib. ; under a distinct covenant, ib. ; 
issuing into two places or eternal states, heaven and hell, 440. 
Things of, are either things manifestly evil, as all vices and sins, xi. 
441 ; or things good in their own nature, but immoderately affected, 
ib. ; minding of, what ? 443. 

What is meant by, xii. 37 ; what it is to live after, ib. ; what is the 
death threatened to those who so live, 39 ; its consistency with the 
justice, wisdom, and goodness of God, 40 ; the certainty of its accom 
plishment, 44 ; the folly of those who would reconcile God and the 
flesh, 46 ; dissuasives from living a fleshly life, ib. ; means to come 
out of this estate and course of sin, 49. 

Knowing Christ after the, not the respect he looked for while on earth, 
but by faith, in the spirit, xiii. 222 ; there is a knowing Christ after 
the flesh since his ascension into heaven, 224 ; by a naked profession 
of his name without conformity to his laws, ib. ; by acts of sensitive 
affection in reading or meditating on the story of Christ's sufferings, 
or when you hear his passion laid open in a rhetorical manner, 225 ; 
by expressing our respect more in pomp and pageantry than serious 
devotion, or a hearty obedience to his laws, or worshipping him in 
spirit and in truth, 226 ; by herding with a stricter party whilst yet 
our hearts are unsubdued to God, 227 ; reasons why this knowing 
Christ after the flesh will do us no good as to the salvation of our 
souls, ib. j reproof of those who please themselves with this deceit of 
the heart, 228. 


Fool, none like the sinner, that ventureth his soul at every cast, and runneth 
blindfold upon the greatest hazard, iv. 300. 

Forbearance towards erring brethren enforced by lowliness, meekness, long- 
suffering, and love, ii. 71 j considerations to press to, 77. 
Brotherly, to be exercised towards those who hold the foundation, x. 

Forgiving our debtors not a meritorious cause of God's forgiving us, i. 182 ; 
nor a pattern or rule to him, 183; it doth not import priority of 
order, as if our acts had the precedency of God's, ib. ; it doth not 
import an exact equality, but some kind of resemblance, 184; it is a 
condition or moral qualification which is found in persons pardoned, 
ib. ; it is a sign or note of a pardoned sinner, ib. ; it is a necessary 
effect of pardoning mercy shed abroad in our hearts, ib. ; it is a duty 
incumbent on them that are pardoned, ib. ; it is an argument breed 
ing confidence in God's pardoning mercy, 185; consists in forbearing 

INDEX. 221 

others, ib. rooting out all desires of revenge, 186 ; and being ready 
to do to them all offices of love, ib. 

Forgiveness of sin includes the grant of a pardon, i. 177 ; the continuance of 
this privilege, 178 ; the sense of it, 179 ; the assurance of that sense, 
180 ; the effects of pardon, or freedom from those evils which are the 
fruits of sin, ib. 

Of injuries, cases respecting, i. 189; not incompatible with seeking 
reparation of wrongs in the way of justice, ib. ; yet this is to be done 
cautiously, 190. 

Necessity of treating with God about, i. 195 ; since man hath a con 
science, a conscience inferreth a law, a law inferreth a sanction, a 
sanction inferreth a judgment, a judgment inferreth a condemnation, 
to the fallen creature ; there is no avoiding this condemnation, unless 
God set up another court ; in that court our plea must be grace, ib. 
Invites to return to God, and inclines to serve him, ii. 186 ; lays the 
foundation for solid comfort and peace in the soul, ib. ; makes us 
capable of eternal happiness, ib. 

Of injuries implieth removal of inward grudges, and readiness to do all 
duties of love and kindness, ii. 376. 

Form of God means the divine essence, as clothed with honour and glory, 
xviii. 124. 

Formalist in the use of ordinances like a traveller, godly man like a mer 
chant, vi. 23. 

Formalists will make conscience of a tradition, while they dispense with a 
commandment, v. 443. 

Formality proceedeth from want of due thoughts of God's majesty, i. 405. 

Fornication, looked upon among the Gentiles as a thing indifferent, xix. 190 ; 
arguments against, ib. ; a common sin, 197 ; a grievous lie, 198. 

Forsaking all things in the world cannot be without faith, nor faith without 

it, ii. 159. 

The world, how far this is to be esteemed a duty, xvi. 470 ; reasons 
why we must do so when God by his providence calleth us to it, 473. 
Is either outward, inward in point of comfort, or inward in point of 
grace, xviii. 447. 

Fortitude, Christian, difference between, and military valour, xix. 3. 

Foundation of God (2 Tim. ii. 19), what it is, xviii. 349 ; a bond, obligation, or 
contract, 350 ; sure on God's part, ib. ; made sure on our parts, 351. 

Frailty, the Lord considereth his people's, natural and spiritual, i. 327. 

Fraudulency and hypocrisy hateful to God, viii. 218 ; falsehood in ordinary 
commerce, ib. ; in matters of religion, ib. 

Freedom of the redeemed is not from the duty of the law, but from sin and 

the curse, i. 423. 
From wrath and hell a privilege, from duty and obedience none, v. 145. 

Free grace no novel doctrine, xiii. 374. 

Friend, a true, is a foe to our sins, i. 345. 

Friends, pious, loss of, a ground of mourning, ii. 436 ; comfort under, 437. 

Friendship necessary for every one that would live in the world, i. 341 ; of the 
good should be with the good, ib. ; because like doth best sort with like, 
ib. ', because friendship with the bad would make the good like them, 
342 ; because love to God should put us on loving his people, ib. \ 
because that love which is built upon holiness is the most durable, 
343 ; though we owe, to all who fear God, yet some few may be 
chosen for intimacy and spiritual solace, 343 ; caution to be used in 

222 INDEX. 

the choice of these, ib. ; duties must be faithfully discharged in 
counsels and reproofs, 345 ; after all, but an outward help, 346. 

Friendship, sinful, as drunkard with drunkard, robber with robber, vii. 181 ; 
civil, when men converse together for trade or other civil ends, 182 ; 
religious, which is built on virtue and grace, ib. ; must be to all 
who fear God, ib. yet to some more intimately, ib. ; our converse 
with these must be improved to the use of edifying, ib. 
And fellowship with the godly a great blessing, vii. 336. 

Fruition of God in*glory one of the prime blessings of the gospel, ii. 157. 

Fundamentals and essentials in religion, ignorance of, damnable, and denial 
heretical, v. 118. 





Garments of salvation, to be had from Christ alone, xii. 463 ; why none but 
those who are clad with these can earnestly desire to be clothed upon 
with the house which is from heaven, ib. 

Of salvation, motives to press us to get clothed with the, xii. 465 ; 
what we must do that we may not be found naked, but clothed, 466. 

Generation, who shall declare, various interpretations, iii. 345 ; who can tell 
the endless ages that Christ shall live after his resurrection, ib. 

Gentleness of true wisdom opposed to severity of practice, rigour of censures, 

and insobriety of disputes, iv. 349. 
Christ's, in bearing with the failings of his disciples, x. 222. 

Gifts, good, descend or come down, not fall down, from heaven, iv. 110. 

Diversity and variety of Christ's, to his people, ix. 431 ; every one hath 
some talent or other to improve for God, ib. ; there is a great variety 
in the talents which we have, ib. ; diversity of employments or offices, 
ib. ; of kinds of gifts, ib. of measure and degree, 432 ; this diversity 
cometh from the same free love of God, ib. our account must be 
answerable to our receipts, ib. ; reasons of this diversity, ib. ; to show 
the liberty of his counsels, ib. that all may know that all fulness is 
only in him, 433 ; for grateful variety, ib. that every one in sight of 
his own wants may be kept humble, ib. ; to maintain love and mutual 
respect, ib. to strengthen the bonds of union, ib. 

All the good, which God hath bestowed upon men increase by good use, 
but wither and are lost by negligence, ix. 484 ; diligence is the means, 
and God's blessing the cause, of all increase, ib. ; this increase must 
be understood of the same talent, not in another kind, 485 ; this 
increase is given by degrees, 488 ; and continued till all be full and 
perfect, ib. 

Of his people by the Father to the Son gives us an interest both in God 
and Christ, x. 320 ; hath put the business of our salvation into safe 
hands, 321. 

Of the Spirit, various kinds of, xii. 3. 

All we have received from God is both a gift and a trust, xvi. 364 ; 
there are differences in the benefits and in the receivers, ib. ; all flow 
from the mere grace of God, ib. ; are all given as an estate in trust,, 
not for enjoyment merely, but for use and service, 368 ; the end of 
the distribution, 370 ; the encouragements God's stewards have to be 
faithful, 373 ; are not given to all in the same measure, 374 ; reasons 
why, 377 \ whether we receive little or much, all is in reference to 

INDEX. 223 

an account, 379 ; at the day of doom this account will be produced, 
and all without exception called to this reckoning, 381 ; our account 
will be answerable to our mercies, 382 ; how far it will be required 
of us, 383. 
Gladness in the hearts of his people allowed by God, xviii. 372 ; wrought 

by God, ib. 

Glorification taketh not away the substance and natural properties of the body, 
i. 357. x 

Of Christ, the comfort and salvation of men doth much depend on, x. 
127 j is a pledge of ours, 128 ; a pledge of his satisfaction, ib. ; a 
clearer ground of hope to the creature, ib. ; he is really put into a 
greater capacity to do us good, ib. ; all his offices have a new qualifi 
cation, and are exercised in another manner, 128. 

Of Christ is of the whole person of the Mediator, x. 185 ; is by 
a clearer manifestation of his Godhead, and the exaltation of his 
humanity, 186 ; Christ earnest for, for our sakes, 187 ; is the pledge 
and earnest of ours, 193. 

Glorify God, what it is to, x. 174; acknowledge his excellency upon all 
occasions, ib. ; perfect subjection and resignation of our wills to his 
will, 175 ; to his laws, ib. ; to his providence, ib. j entertaining the 
impressions of his glory upon us, ib. ; by an exemplary conversation, 
176 ; when we are active for his interest in the world, ib. ; doing the 
work which he hath given us to do, 177 ; when he is the great scope 
and end of our lives and actions, ib. 

Glorifying God, directions for, i. 89 ; be holy, ib. ; study his name, ib. ; sub 
mit to his providence without murmuring, ib. ; live to public ends, 
ib. do not endure the least profanation of God's name, ib. 

Christ, an evidence of our interest in the Father, x. 259 j and in the 
Son, 260 ; and in the Spirit, ib. ; is the great condition of the cove 
nant of grace, ib. ; is a carrying out of God's great end, 261 j a pledge 
of our interest in his intercession, ib. ; is by faith, 262 ; in accepting 
Christ, ib. ; and presenting Christ, 263 ; by holiness of conversation, 
ib. j in our enjoyments, 264 ; by doing and suffering for the advance 
ment of his interest and kingdom, ib. ; by zeal for his institutions, 
266 ; by solemn meditation and admiration of the excellency of his 
person and the fulness of his redemption, ib. 

Glory of God, why to be sought in the first place, and with the greatest affec 
tion, i. 69 ; marks of seeking, in the first place, 73. 

Due to God's name, i. 88. 

Degrees of, i. 368. 

Future, is for both body and soul, iii. 118 ; purchased by Christ, pro 
mised by Christ, prayed for by Christ, bestowed by Christ, 119; is 
not only by, but with Christ, ib. ; improvement of the belief of, 

And innocency itself beclouded, iii. 478. 

Of a rich man is his humility, iv. 68. 

In heaven, the continuance of, is of mercy, not merit, v. 54. 

In ascribing to God, we pray that his glory may be more sensibly mani 
fested, v. 373 ; more seriously and frequently acknowledged, ib. ; 
more deeply esteemed, ib. 

Degrees of, in heaven, ix. 459. 

God's, much advanced in Jesus Christ, x. 123 ; our respects to Christ 
must be so managed that the Father also may be glorified, 124. 

Of God, in redemption, more than in creation and providence, x. 170. 

224 INDEX. 

Glory already given by Christ to his people, though they have it not yet in 
possession, xi. 61. 

Of Christ in the excellency of his person, xi. 102 ; the charity of his 
human nature, ib. ; the beholding of, is our happiness in heaven, 103. 

Life of, an object of faith, xi. 216; grounds of believing, 217; the 
infinite love of God, ib. ; the everlasting merit of Christ, ib. ; the 
almighty power of the sanctifying Spirit both to change the soul 
and raise the body, ib. ; the immutable covenant or promises of the 
gospel, 218; the unquestionable right of those who are dead with 
Christ, ib. 

Of God, should be the main aim of a Christian in all his actions and 
thoughts, xiii. 121 ; love of Christ the root and principle of this, 122; 
how nearly the glory of God and the good of the church are conjoined, 
ib. ; whether in every action a Christian is always bound to consider 
the glory of God, 1 23 ; actions likely to be misinterpreted and tend 
to our dishonour, yet, if the glory of God call for them, they must 
not be omitted, 125 ; the interest God hath in us by creation, pre 
servation, redemption, and dedication, obligeth us to live to his glory, 
126 ; we are above all creatures fitted for this, 127 ; all our relations 
are disposed of for this end, 129 ; all our gifts and abilities, 130; 
we must take care not only, negatively, that God be not dishonoured, 
but, positively, that he be honoured and glorified in all states and 
conditions, businesses and employments, 131 ; motives to induce a 
more earnest regard of the glory of God, 133 ; means to this end, 

Of God, how far we are to intend the, in every action of our lives, 
xv. 280. 

Hope of eternal, should be ever cherished in us, xix. 142 ; because it is 
a special act of the new nature, ib. ; because the great end why the 
scriptures were written was to beget and cherish this hope in us, ib. ; 
because the keeping up of this hope is the distinguishing character 
between the temporary and the sincere convert, 143 ; because it is 
our great support against difficulties, ib. ; most needed when we come 
to die, ib. 

Put upon the saints is relative and adherent, xix. 491 ; inherent and 

internal, 492 ; circumstantial, ib. 
Gnostics, so called from their knowledge, were the impurest heretics, iii. 431. 

Feigned the world was made by angels, xiii. 432. 
Goats, the wicked compared to, by reason of their unruliness and uncleanness, 

x. 44. 
God a father, and that both by creation and covenant, i. 28. 

To be praised in every address to him, i. 243. 

Apprehended as a holy and happy being, and his communication of 
himself to a reasonable creature is either in a way of holiness or a 
way of happiness, ii. 267. 

All, and the creature nothing, a notion which the scripture much 
delighteth in, ii. 321. 

The Father, whatever was done by Christ as Mediator, or whatever was 
done to Christ, is attributed to his counsel and appointment, iii. 316 ; 
he designed the person, ib. ; qualified him for his office, ib. ; inflicted 
his sufferings, 317 ; exacted his obedience, ib. 

To be glorified for his mercy and goodness, iii. 321 ; in appointing 
Christ as Saviour, ib. ; in fitting him to bear sin, ib. ; in loving him 
for it, ib. ; in rewarding him for it, ib. ; he alone to be glorified, 322. 

INDEX. 225 

God cannot be tempted of evil, iv. 86 ; apparent exceptions not real, 87. 

So to be feared as also to be trusted, so trusted as also to be feared, 
vii. 281. 

His goodness, that he will be all things to his people, viii. 173. 

And Christ, what may be known concerning, x. 153 ; that there is a 
God, ib. ; evidenced by his works of creation, ib. ; of providence, 
154 ; from the common consent of all nations, ib. ; from our own 
consciences, ib. ; from several experiences, ib. ; that God is but one, 
156 ; that God is one in three persons, 158 ; that God, who is one in 
three persons, is the only true God, 161 ; concerning Christ, he is 
sent, ib. ; this implieth his divine original, ib. ; his distinct subsistence, 
162; his incarnation, 163 ; the quality of his office, ib. ; the autho 
rity of his office, 164; that he is Jesus, a saviour, 165 ; that he is 
Christ, an anointed saviour, 167. 

Being a creator, is also an owner, xii. -29 ; his being an owner qualifieth 
him for being a ruler, ib. ; his power and right in us cannot be alien 
ated by our sin, 30 ; nor made away by his bestowal of gifts on the 
creature, 31 ; this right so inherent in God that he cannot communi 
cate it to another, ib. 

A searcher of the hearts of men, xii. 243 ; in what sense he is said to 
know the mind of the spirit in prayer, 251. 

The patron of human societies and the refuge of the oppressed, xii. 
323 ; he is with and for his children, ib. ; his providence either 
external or internal, 324. 

The nature and providence of, an evidence of the certainty of eternal 
rewards and punishments, xiii. 47. 

A threefold justice of, distinguished, xiii. 73. 

His essence and attributes may be discovered in creation, xiii. 389. 

Method and order pleasing to, xiii. 424. 

What it is to please God, xiv. 48 ; what it is to come to God, 49 ; 
what it is to walk with God, 52 ; the necessity of pleasing God, 62 ; 
impossible without faith, 73. 

Belief in the being of, the first point of faith, xiv. 125 ; the advantage 
to the spiritual life derived from meditation on this truth, ib. ; the 
existence of God proved by reference to conscience, 127 ; the consent 
of all nations, 129 ; the book of creation, ib. ; providence, 131 ; and 
several experiences, 132 ; we should charge this truth upon our 
hearts to check whispering and suspicion against the being and glory 
of God, 133 ; reproof of those that either wish down or live down 
this supreme principle, 134; cautions against such opinions and prac 
tices as strike at the being of God, 135 ; religious libertinism, ib. ; 
denying particular providences, 136 ; denying the immortality of the 
soul, 137; Popery, $.; expectation of light beyond scripture, ib. ; 
hypocrisy, epicurism, and scoffing, 138 ; directions for times of strong 
temptation, 139 ; certain seasons when this principle is most liable 
to be assaulted, 140 ; direction to us in our addresses to God to avoid 
customariness, irreverence, and deadness, and to beget confidence, 
142 ; how we may keep our hearts in prayer under a sense of God's 
being, so as to conceive of him aright, 144. 

Is not ashamed to be called their God, meaning of the phrase, xiv. 338 ; 
what it is to have God for our God, 342 ; who they are that have 
God for their God, 344 ; this doctrine should be improved by us to 
contentment with our portion, comfort in distress, and dependence on 
God for future supplies, 346 ; but especially to a hope and expecta- 

226 INDEX. 

tion of better happiness than the world yields, 348 ; exhortation to 
take God for our portion, and to make sure that he is so, 349 ; how 
we may know whether God be our God, 351. 

God, truth of, meditation upon, a help to faith, xiv. 370 ; power of, the 
great encouragement of faith, 371 ; how hard a matter it is to 
believe in, 371 ; how sinful this is, 373 ; directions how to make use 
of God's power so as to find support in it, ib. ; how we may improve 
it in meditation, 374 ; God's power reacheth to and beyond the 
grave, even to giving life to the dead, 376 ; if we believed this as 
much as we should, we should not be so easily amazed at lesser diffi 
culties, ib. 

The cause we have to praise him above angels and men, xvi. 48. 

Why Christ is so called, xvi. 230 ; that he is God proved from the 
nature of his offices and work, and from scripture, 234. 

How he is said to have winked at ignorance in Acts xvii. 30, xvi. 

Of peace, in what sense God is said to be, xvii. 377 ; the grounds 
of this peace, 378 ; the evidences that God is pacified, ib. ; the con 
veyance of this peace to us, 380 ; reasons why all increase of grace 
comes from God as the God of peace, ib. 

To be loved not only for the goodness that floweth from him, but for 
the goodness that is in him, xviii. 135. 

And Satan in earnest competition for the heart, xviii 403. 

We should endeavour to resemble, as near as may be, xix. 169; in 
moral goodness and holiness, 170 ; in doing good to all, enemies not 
excepted, ib. ; and that either in giving or forgiving, 171. 

Delights not in the death of a sinner, but in his conversion to life, xxi. 
464 ; it is contrary to the nature of God to be otherwise affected, 
467 ; wherein God hath shown that he takes pleasure in our conver 
sion rather than in our ruin and destruction, 468 ; God not the cause 
of man's destruction, 471. 

God 's if we be, God is ours, vii. 447 j the former is first in our apprehension, 
ib. the best check to temptation, 448 ; the former most appropriate 
as a plea with God, the latter when we would revive our drooping 
souls, ib. ; the former the more humbling way, ib. 

Justice, power, and mercy, exemplified in his dealings with the crea 
tures, xii. 162. 

Forming us (6 xarsgyaffdpsvos sig avrb roDro), meaning of the expression, 
xii. 476. 

Giving us the earnest of his Spirit, meaning of the expression, xii. 

Enmity to sinners, xiii. 299 ; condescension in the work of reconcilia 
tion, 301. 

Being and bounty, two principles necessary to be firmly believed by all 
that would entertain communion with God, xiv. 153 ; we are bound 
to believe not only his essence but his providence, viz., that he 
regardeth human affairs, and will judge accordingly, 154 ; vengeance 
and punishment not so necessary to our faith as reward, 156 ; mean 
ing of the word, 157 ; this reward principally in the next life, 158. 

Dealing with Noah and the world in his time a pledge and type of his 
dealing with the world in all after ages, xiv. 173. 

Knowledge, its nature and properties, xxi. 174 ; scriptural reasons for 
belief in this knowledge, 178 ; how this truth is entertained by men, 
180 ; the use of it, 181. 

INDEX. 227 

Godliness in the use of lawful delights lieth in the mean between superstition 
and profaneness, ii. 100. 

A great point of, is contentment, ii. 306. 

True, grounded in faith, directed by knowledge, defended on the right 
hand by temperance against the allurements of the world, on the left, 
by patience against the hardships* of the world, iv. 33. 

The worst and most afflicted part of, better than all the joys and com 
forts of the world, iv. 376. 

Decay of, shown by the languishing of zeal and neglect of public 
duties, v. 425 ; by insipid formality and dead-heartedness, 426 ; by 
loathing of heavenly manna, 427 ; by plain apostasy, ib. ; by the 
wounds religion receives in the house of her friends, 428 ; by 
religion being made the stalking-horse to self-seeking designs, 429 ; 
by want of endeavours to diffuse religion, ib. ; by snarling at piety 
and purity, 430 ; by the currence of scandalous sins, 431. 

The way of, not a gloomy way, vii. 74. 

Not a holiday suit, but for constant wearing, viii. 384. 

And holiness, formal difference between holiness signifieth the purity of 
our actions, and godliness the respect they have to God, ix. 373. 

There is such a sin as antipathy against the power of, x. 371 ; scripture 
teacheth that it is so, 372 ; gives instances, 373 ; men will not own 
that they hate others for their goodness, ib. ; proofs that they do so, 
374 ; the servants of God are most hated and troubled by the worst 
men, ib. ; the best men are most hated and maligned, ib. religion 
escapeth not, though accompanied with meekness, &c., ib. ; invention 
of lies and ridiculous crimes to palliate their hatred, ib. ; if any are 
humble, mortified, serious, they are suspected, ib. ; the joy of wicked 
men when they have anything offered to justify their opposition, ib. 

What it is, xvi. 152 ; the necessary graces, 153 ; the ordinances about 
which it is conversant, 155; how it must be exercised in worship, 
158 j in conversation, 161 ; exhortation, 162. 

The greatest wisdom, xiii. 118. 

Godly, show their esteem of Christ by labouring after communion with him, 
iii. 259 ; by rejoicing in him when they have found him, ib. ; by 
prizing those things in which they find most of him, ib. ; by their 
boldness in professing him, ib. ; by seeking his honour and praise 
more than their own concernments, 260 ; by avoiding all things 
whereby he may be dishonoured and disesteemed, ib. ; by accounting 
reproaches and afflictions for his sake honourable, ib. 

Are the best neighbours, iv. 320. 

Life, since the fall, not known by perfection of grace so much as by 
conflicts with sin, iv. 360. 

Man can be satisfied with no portion but God himself, vi. 113 j his 
choice known by his endeavours to get anything of God into his 
heart, 117; by his prayers, ib. ; by his behaviour under trouble, 
when other things fail, ib. ; by his delight in God, ib. ; by his mourn 
ing for his absence, ib. 

Fear a fruit of faith, xiv. 195; what it is, 196; difference between 
servile and filial fear, 197. 

Advantages derived from the example of, xiv. 208 ; should walk so 
that they may condemn the world, not by their censures, but by 
their lives, xiv. 212. 

Calamities of, in this life, show that we have much more to hope for 
from Christ in the life to come, xix. 125. 

228 INDEX. 

Goel (kinsman-redeemer) suiteth with no person so well as Christ, ii. 293; 

meaning of the term, 294. 

Golden rule applies not only to actions, but to words and thoughts, ii. 373. 
Good, must be done well, i. 148. 

And evil, by what measure we are to determine, i. 379 ; not by our 
fancies and conceits, but by the wisdom of God, ib. ; with respect to 
the chief good, 380 ; not always the good of the flesh, or of outward 
prosperity, ib. ; a particular must give way to a general, 381 ; not 
to be determined by sense, but faith, ib. 

Delight of doing, much greater than the cost, ii. 35. 

All from above, yet there are pipes and conveyances through which it 
comes, iv. 110; thought that all is from above prevents glorying in 
ourselves, 111; vaunting over others, ib. ; envy of those who have 
received more than ourselves, ib. 

Chiefest, Augustine reckoneth two hundred and eighty-eight opinions of, 
iv. 122. 

Not enough to do, but must do with labour, care, and diligence, v. 97. 

God is, primitively and originally, the creature but derivatively, vii. 108 ; 
the chief est, and other things only in subordination, ib. ; infinitely, ib. ; 
eternally, 109. 

God doeth, to his servants, vii. 193 ; from the inclination of his own 
nature, ib. ; the obligation of his promise, 194 ; the preparation of his 
people, ib. ; persuasion of this truth one of the first things in religion, 
ib. ; arguments, 195; he doeth good to his enemies, therefore much 
more to his servants, ib. ; evil men give good gifts to their children, 
much more he to his, ib. ; he never giveth his people any discourage 
ment, or just cause to complain of him, ib. ; if he doth not give them 
the good things of this world, he giveth them better things in lieu of 
them, 196 ; the evil things of this world he turneth to good, ib.; he 
doth give them so much of the good things of the world as is con 
venient for them, ib. ; his doing them good is chiefly in the world to 
come, ib. 

And evil, by what measure to be determined, vii. 252 ; not our fancies 
and conceits, but the wisdom of God, ib. ; its respect to the chief good 
or true happiness, 253 ; not always the good of the flesh, or of out 
ward prosperity, 254 ; a particular good must give way to a general 
good, and our personal benefit to the advancement of Christ's king 
dom, ib. ; not to be determined by present feeling, but by the 
judgment of faith, 255. 

For Christians, is not always the good of the flesh, or of prosperity, viii. 
254 ; God knoweth what is good for us better than we do ourselves, 
ib. ; that which is not good in its nature may be in its fruit, 255 ; 
good is not to be determined by feeling, but faith, ib. ; that may be 
good for the glory of God which is not for our personal benefit, 257. 

That which is our chiefest, and last end, is our god, and occupies the 
place of God, viii. 390. 

And evil, a monstrous conceit to deny the distinction between, viii. 457. 

Some do, by chance, ix. 270 ; some by force, 271 ; some out of craft and 
design, 272 ; the man of God by choice, ib. 

In some sense no mere man is good, xvi. 423 ; in what sense men may 
be said to be good, ib. ; in what sense not, 424 ; the goodness of God 
explained, 428. 

Man is one that seeketh after the chief good, and adhereth constantly to 
God in Jesus Christ as his only felicity, xviii. 466 ; and chooseth the 

INDEX. 229 

way which God hath prescribed to him to walk in, ib. is sincerely, 
not perfectly good, ib. 

Good and evil, sense of, not wholly extinguished in the heart of man, xix. 
310; shown by shame and fear, 311; in the unconverted produceth 
hypocrisy, in the converted shyness and abhorrence of sin, 312. 

Goodness, all creature, but a stricture of that perfect good which is in God, 

vii. 108. 

God's, to all the creatures, should confirm his people in hoping for sav 
ing grace or spiritual good things, vii. 188 ; we may reason from the 
less to the greater, ib. ; they in their rank have their supplies, and we 
in our rank have ours, 189 ; God doeth good to every one according 
to their necessity and capacity, 190 ; the devil seeks to weaken our 
opinion of, 191 ; thoughts of, will be of great use in all afflictive 
providences, ib. ; a great motive to repentance, ib. ; sweetens the 
duties of holiness, 192 ; quickens and enhances prayers for grace, ib. ; 
and fidelity, the fountain of all that we have, ib. 

Of God is natural, vii. 236 ; moral, ib. ; beneficial and communicative, 
ib. ; God hath in him whatsoever is useful and comfortable to us, ib. ; 
he hath a strong inclination to let out his fulness, and is ready to do 
good on all occasions, 237 ; he is the fountain of all the good we have 
or are, ib. ; a time will come when he will be all in all, ib. ; his good' 
ness manifested to us in our creation, 238 ; in our redemption, ib. ; 
in daily providence, ib. ; those who come to God ought to have a deep 
sense of, 239 ; this sense must be the fruit of faith, ib. ; of constant 
observation of the effects of his goodness vouchsafed to us, ib. ; of deep 
and ponderous meditation, 240 ; of new and spiritual taste, ib. ; 
sense of, necessary to check our natural legalism, ib. ; to enable us to 
justify God against the prejudices of the unbelieving world, ib. ; to 
humble us, 241 ; to give life to faith and trust, ib. ; to move us to 
repentance, 242 ; to move us to love God, 243 ; to console and sup 
port us in affliction, 244 ; to be a ground of prayer, ib. 
God's, in creation, xviii. 136 ; in redemption, ib. ; in the mercies of 
daily providence, 137; in the rewards of grace provided for those 
that love him, ib. 

Righteousness, and truth, put for all the Christian graces, xix. 258 ; the 
Spirit, received by the gospel, worketh all, in the hearts of believers. 

Goods, the two bastard, with which the world is enchanted are pleasure and 
profit, viii. 307 ; old people are all for profit, young people all for 
pleasure, ib. 

Good report, qualifications necessary to obtain, xiii. 377 ; a reward of faith, 
379 ; how it is bestowed, 382 ; whether eyeing a good report is not 
vainglory, 384. 

Good works, walking in, implies spontaneity and progress, ii. 397 ; kinds of, 
398 ; works of worship, ib. ; of our calling, ib. ; of righteousness, ib. ; 
of charity, 399 ; of sobriety, watchfulness, mortification, self-denial, 
ib. ; requisites to, ib. ; new creatures obliged to, 400 ; fitted and pre 
pared for, ib. ; necessity of, 402. See Works. 

The more advisedly done the more commendable, xiv. 430 ; the greater 
the temptation the more self-denial, ib. ; the more thorough the self- 
denial the better, ib. ; the purer the principle the better the action, ib. 
What they are, xvi. 275 ; the requisites of a good work, 278 ; what 
it is to be zealous of, 279; the place of zeal with respect to, 280; 
exhortation, 283. 

230 INDEX, 

Gospel, proclamation of, compared to the jubilee, i. 173. 

The main and principal point of, that Jesus Christ is God's beloved Son, 
in whom he is well pleased, i. 383. 

Not merely gives good counsel, but hath the force of a new law from 
the great king and lawgiver of the world, i. 396. 

Sum of, ii. 102. 

How to be justified by its sincere professors, ii. 106 ; it must be 
approved and received by themselves, ib. ; must be professed and owned 
when it is vilified in the world, ib. ; this profession must be honoured, 
and recommended to others, by a holy conversation, 107 ; why it 
must be thus justified, 109 ; because of the charge that is put on us 
to testify for God, and justify his ways, ib. ; because it deserveth to 
be justified by us, ib. ; those who condemn it yet do in some manner 
at the same time justify it, 110 ; if we do not justify religion, we 
justify the world, ib. ; Christ will one day justify all his sincere fol 
lowers before men, angels, and devils, 111 ; because of the necessity 
of justifying wisdom in the times we live in, 112. 

God's hand seen in directing the course of, ii. 203. 

God's wisdom and prudence shown in, ii. 259 ; its privileges, pardon 
and life, ib. 

May be clearly preached, and yet few believe, iii. 194 ; so in the time 
of the prophets, 195 ; of John the Baptist, ib. ; of Christ in the 
flesh, 196 ; in our own times, 198; is the arm and power of God, 
203 ; in respect of the sense and meaning of it, 204 ; as it manifests 
his power, ib. ; as it is a glorious weapon in his hand, ib. ; because 
in one sense it worketh much even upon those oh whom it has least 
effect, ib. ; God's design by preaching it, 205 ; to purchase the 
world for a kingdom for Christ, ib. ; to conquer the enemies of Christ, 
206 ; to convert souls, 207 ; how to be heard, 209 ; none believe, 
but those to whom it is revealed by the Spirit, 210. 

What it doth for the justification of sinners, iii. 417 ; discovereth per 
fect righteousness, ib. ; and a way how this righteousness may be 
made ours, 418 ; and that way is a sure way, ib. ; by it God glori- 

. fied, ib. ; and the creature satisfied, ib. 

Certainty of, iv. 119; demands strong assent, 120; excellency of its 
rewards, 121 ; purity of its precepts, 122 ; sureness of its principles 
of trust, 123. 

Is a law, iv. 163; a law of liberty, 164; its matter freedom, ib. ; 
obedience is from free principles, gratitude and thankfulness for 
mercy and grace, 165 ; we have the assistance of a free Spirit, ib. ; 
we do it in a free state, a state of sonship and well-pleasing, 166. 

Doth as exactly require a care in our speeches and actions as the law, 
iv. 218. 

And grace of God, in itself not pliable to carnal purposes, v. 145 ; hath 
been abused to looseness, laziness, licentiousness, 146. 

Requireth our utmost endeavours, our bewailing infirmities and defects, 
but accepts of sincerity, vi. 28. 

Doctrines of, not only true, to work upon the understanding, but good, 
so as to move and draw the will, vi. 93. 

Every article of faith in, a mystery to be wondered at, vi. 262. 

Still danger of being ashamed of, though Christianity is in fashion, vi. 
494 ; simplicity of, contemned by the wise of the world, ib. ; the 
stricter profession of the ways of God is under reproach, ib. ; the 
stricter sort of Christians may be the poorer sort, ib. ; considerations 

INDEX, 231 

against being ashamed of, ib. short continuance of the world's glory, 
ib. ; God the fountain of honour, ib. shame argues insincerity, ib. ; 
the eternal recompense, 495 ; the world's judgment not to be stood 
upon, ib. 

Gospel covenant, stability of, vii. 401 ; emblem of, in the immutable con 
stancy of the heavens, 402. See Heavens, fit emblems, &c. 

Excellency of the doctrine of, in certainty and clearness, x. 199. 

Doctrine of, is the pattern and mould according to which the new crea 
tion is framed, xi. 318. 

Is a law, xi. 395 ; a law of the Spirit, ib. of the Spirit of life, 396 ; 
of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus, ib. j is both our rule and our 
charter, 399. See Covenant, new. 

Righteousness, what it is, xii. 461 : carrieth the notion of a garment, 

Called the ' word of reconciliation ' and the ' ministry of reconciliation ' 
(2 Cor. v. 18, 19), xiii. 282. 

What is said in, to whom, and by whom, xv. 52. 

The earliest, xvii. 241. 

As a subject for meditation, xvii. 331. 

What it doth to produce goodness in the world, xix. 261 ; by its laws 
and precepts, ib. ; by the discoveries it maketh, 262 ; the examples 
it propoundeth for our imitation, 263 ; the rewards and encourage 
ments which it offers, 264 ; Spirit's co-operation with, 265. 
Gospeller, carnal, dealt with, x. 63. 

Government, civil, is of God, but the special form not determined by him, v. 

God's moral, is by laws, vii. 415 j natural, is that order into which, by 
his positive decree, he hath necessitated and disposed all creatures 
for the benefit of the world, ib. ; is ordinary, 416 ; or extraordinary, 
ib. ; no creature can decline or avoid, ib. celestial bodies are his 
servants, ib. ; angels are his ministers and hosts, 417; winds, seas, 
and storms, ib. ; sickness and disease, ib. 

Of God is not for the ruler's benefit, but the subjects' welfare, xi. 335. 

Of the world, God's way of, both external and internal, xii. 8. 

God's governing power consists in legislation and judgment, xii. 30. 

God's, seen in rewarding, xviii. 418; in punishing, ib. ; in all acts of 
judicature, God is no respecter of persons, 419. 

Church, is directive rather than authoritative, xix. 429 ; must be meekly 

submitted to, ib. civil, 438 ; economical, ib. 
Grace, increase of, produces increased sense of want, i. 37. 

A diffusive, spreading thing, i. 79. 

And mercy, distinction between, i. 161. 

Revealed and offered in the most comprehensive terms, that none may 
be excluded, or have just cause to exclude themselves, i. 494. 

The more it is tried and exercised, the more it is evidenced to be right 
and sincere, i. 331 ; strengthened by trial, ib. 

Sanctifying, inseparable from pardoning, i. 424. 

Sanctifying and renewing, to be got from Christ, i 443. 

Exhibits not only the goodness, but also the wisdom and prudence of 
God, ii. 257. 

General, must in some way be made particular, else it cannot profit us, 
ii. 305. 

Every act of, hath a necessary dependence upon that work of Christ 
which is most suitable to it, iii. 353. 

232 INDEX. 

Grace, in the covenant of, Christ sustains several relations, iii. 385 ; the 
testator or author of the covenant, ib. ; the mediator of the covenant, 
ib. ; the surety of the covenant, 386 j the prime federate, ib. ; union 
with Christ entitles to benefit from his actings in all these re 
lations, 386. 

Has influence on every faculty, and especially on the understanding, 
iii. 423. 

Exercise of, must not be interrupted till it is full and perfect, iv. 35 - f 
they that have true, will not be satisfied with little, 36. 

Always, after a taste, longeth for more, iv. 129. 

Its glory not obvious to the senses, but inward and hidden, iv. 191. 

We have not a right apprehension of, till we can see it yieldeth us more 
than the world can yield us, iv. 351 ; those that would have, must 
take the right way to obtain, ib. 

Not impossible, or without passions and affections, iv. 468. 

True, differences between, and false, or formality, v. 37 ; restraining, is 
only an awe upon the conscience, inclining men to forbear sin, though 
they do not hate it, ib. ; common, may be in them that fall away and 
depart from God, 38 ; characteristics of in Heb. vi. 4, 5, ib. 

Immediately wrought by the Holy Spirit, yet our thoughts in believing 
must not stay till we ascend and come up to God the Father, v. 41 ; 
because all beginneth with the Father, ib. whatever is done by 
Christ is done with respect to the Father's love, ib. ; a great support and 
comfort to faith to consider of the Father in the act of believing, ib. 
in the Father's love are many circumstances which are very engaging 
to the soul, which are not to be found in the other divine persons, 42. 

Directing, necessity of, v. 51 ; from the blindness of our minds, 52; 
the forgetfulness of our memories, ib. ; the obstinacy of our hearts, 

Importance of growth in, v. 87 ; where there is life there will be growth, 
ib. if we do not grow, we go backward, ib. j an ill sign to be con 
tented with a little, ib. ; we cannot have too much, 88 ; according 
to our measure of, so will be our measure of glory, ib. ; suiteth with 
our present state, ib. ; suiteth with the bounty and munificence of 
God, ib. ', a necessary piece of gratitude, 89 ; may learn of our Lord 
Jesus, ib. may learn of worldly men, ib. ; observations concerning 
growth in, 90 ; infallible signs of, when we grow more spiritual, 
more solid, more humble, 91. 

Influence of, not the warrant of duty, but the help ; not the ground or 
rule, but the efficient working cause, vi. 240. 

Preventing, working, co- working, vi. 271. 

The great work of, is to make God our last end and our chief est good, 
vi. 373. 

Necessity of, to bring us into a state of doing God's will, vi. 377 ; 
Pelagian system, ib. 

Frees from the yoke of oppressing fears, and the tyranny of command 
ing lusts, vi. 483. 

Sanctifying, to understand and keep God's law, the best gift that God 
has to bestow, vii. 247. 

The life of, begun and carried on in a constant way of dependence upon 
God, vii. 433 vitality or liveliness of, not dispensed by a certain law, 
but according to the sovereign will and good pleasure of God, 434. 

God gives habitual, called the new heart, viii. 188 ; and actual, ib. ; 
uses of the latter, 189 ; to direct us in the exercise of grace formerly 

INDEX. 233 

received,' ib. ; to excite and quicken the habits of grace, ib. to 
strengthen us in work, ib. ; to sustain the grace that we have against 
the assaults and temptations, and varieties and casualties, of the 
present life, ib. ; necessary because of the natural changeableness of 
our spirits, ib. ; and of the daily assaults of Satan, 190 ; because 
of the great impression which our temporal condition makes upon 
us, ib. 

Grace, sustaining, to be asked earnestly of God because of our necessities, 
viii. 193; care lest it be forfeited by presumptuous sins, ib. ; must 
not expose ourselves to temptation, seeing it is not at our beck, ib. 

Sustaining, must be sought with all earnestness and importunity, viii. 
202 ; they will do so who have a sense of their own weakness, the evil 
of sin and the comfort of perseverance in obedience, 203 ; must be 
asked, because God will show his sovereignty, ib. ; renewed prayer is 
itself a means of perseverance, 204 ; constant safety of God's people 
lies in, 205. 

The great privilege of the covenant of, is to be taught God's statutes, 
so as to have a real impress of them upon the heart and mind, viii. 

Daily and hourly, necessity of, viii. 383 ; appears from the strictness of 
Christianity, ib. ; the necessity of the word of God, 384 ; they who 
make it their business to please God in all things, and take his word 
for their rule, soon see a need for divine direction, and establishing 
grace, 385 ; value of the blessings, 386 ; the children of God sensible 
of their need of, and cannot choose but pray for, 388. 

Throne of, set up everywhere in the church, ix. 112. 

A saving work of, is an inward principle of life, and that in such a 
degree and measure as the unsound, though the most glorious pro 
fessors of the gospel, do not attain unto, ix. 333 ; expressed some 
times with respect to the original author, pattern, and fountain of it, 
which is God, and so called the divine nature, 334 ; sometimes with 
respect to the meritorious and procuring cause, and so Christ is said to 
live in us, &c., ib. ; with respect to the immediate author and fountain, 
which is the Spirit who dwells in us, 335 ; with respect to the instru 
ment, the word of God, called the engrafted word, ib. ; effects of, 337 ; 
a habitual inclination of heart towards that which is good, ib. ; towards 
a godly life, ib. ; not only an inclination, but a readiness, and prepared 
ness, 338 ; an earnest impulsion, which quickeneth us to all holy 
endeavours of obedience, 339 ; a habitual aversion to all that is evil, 
ib. ; not a bare abstinence from sin, but a hatred of it, 340 ; a 
hatred of sin as sin, ib. ; this so strong, that sin is thereby more and 
more weakened and subdued in the soul, 341 ; how to be got, 345 ; 
from Christ, ib. ; in the use of the means of grace, ib. 

They who have most, have none to spare, ix. 387 ; with respect to our 
great hopes, ib. ; our great temptations, ib. j our comfort, ib. ; to the 
nature of grace, ib. ; a sign we have none if we think we have too much 
or enough, 388 ; all is too little to stand before the Lord, ib. ; every 
one is to be considered according to his own advantages, ib. ; the 
greatest have often the greatest corruptions and temptations to wrestle 
with, 389; may easily have too little, cannot have too much, ib. ; 
because of the conformity that should be between us and Christ, 
begun on earth, perfected in heaven, ib. ; because a little is not so 
honourable to God, ib. 

Means of, are sprinkled with the blood of Christ, xi. 12. 

234 INDEX. 

Grace does not depend upon foresight of faith, works, or perseverance, xi. 111. 
. Followed with grace, XL 214 ; and with glory, ib. ; life of, not matter 
of sense, but of faith, 216. 

Three doctrines of, apt to be abused, xi. 300 ; the free pardon or 
exemption from condemnation which the new covenant hath pro 
vided for sinners, ib. ; the liberty and exemption from the rigour of 
the law, ib. ; the doctrine of perseverance, ib. ; vindication of these 
doctrines, 302. 

Its work, xi. 320 ; the doctrine of the gospel is in conversion imprinted 
on the heart, ib. ; the fruit of this imprinting is obedience, 323 ; 
this obedience is from the heart, 324. 

It is much for the glory of God that he can maintain, in the hearts of 
his people, xi. 489. 

It concerneth us more to act, than to know whether we have, xiii. 

The earnest of glory, xiii. 331. 

Necessary to receiving the testimony of the Spirit, xiv. 15. 

Of God, what it is, xvi. 38 ; the moving cause of all the blessings of 
the covenant, 39 ; doth not exclude faith nor works, 41 ; error of 
Papists as to the merit of works through grace, ib. reasons why 
grace is the original cause of all the blessings we receive from God, 
42 ; cautions against abuse of grace, 44 ; the darkness there was in 
the world as to the knowledge of grace before its discovery in the 
gospel, 49 ; what and how much of grace is now discovered, 50 ; is 
the great means of salvation, 56 ; reasons, ib. ; motives and en 
couragements to a greater regard of the gospel, 59 directions, 63; 
the salvation which the grace of God bringeth is free to all, 65 ; 
reasons, ib. ; grace teacheth us holiness by way of direction, argu 
ment, and encouragement, 68 ; grace and corruption draw inferences 
and conclusions from the same premises, 69 ; the first thing grace 
teacheth is the renunciation of evil, 71. 

Men may go far in religion, yet come short of true grace, xvi. 410 ; 
instance in the rich young man in the gospel, ib. ; what was com 
mendable in him, ib. ; nature of the question put, ib. ; the kind of 
person, 412 ; the reasonableness, necessity, and profit in God having 
our first and best, ib. ; the manner of his address, 415 ; wherein lay 
his defect, 416 ; cautions against resting in a common work, 418; 
Christ's answer, 421 ; his expostulation, ib. ; his instruction of him, 
423 ; why Christ referred him to the commandments, 434 ; why the 
commandments of the second table only are mentioned, 436 ; why 
* defraud not ' and ' deprive not ' is put for the last commandment, 
437 ; the young man's reply, 444 ; why Jesus loved him, 456. 

They prosper best in, that most faithfully and diligently use the means, 
xviii. 423. 

Objective and subjective, distinguished, xxi. 67 ; the operation of sub 
jective grace in enabling believers to avoid sin, ib. 

Graces, perfection of, not discovered till we are put on heavy and great trials, 
iv. 35. 

Pretended, are fruitless and unprofitable, iv. 232. 

Directions how to reflect upon, as evidences of our estate, iv. 248 ; be 
loyal to Christ, ib. ; go to work evangelically, and with a spirit suit 
ing the gospel, 249 ; go to work prudently, understanding the nature 
of marks, and the time to use them, ib. ; be humbly thankful, be 
cause all is from God, 250. 

INDEX. 235 

traces, fundamental radical, are love, faith, and trust, reverence and fear, vii. 89. 
Of the Spirit, comprised under faith and repentance, ix. 336. 
Of the Spirit both an ornament and a defence, xii. 460. 

Gracious heart seeth all things in God, and God in all things, vi. 139. 

Gradation of evil, v. 282. 

Greatness of mind, to be able to live above the creature, ii. 435. 
Of station, the aggravation of baseness, iv. 182. 
Worldly, entitled to civil respect, iv. 189. 

Great ones of the world have most of God's bounty, and give him the least 
acknowledgment, i. 156. 

Grief to see God's law broken argueth a good spirit, vii. 56 ; for the sin 
that is committed, 57 ; and the punishment that is incurred, ib. ; 
argueth that they have a due sense of things, which others have not, 
60 ; a due sense of the evil of sin, ib. of the wrath of God, ib. ; of 
the certainty of the threatenings, 61 ; of the bane which cometh to 
communities from the increase of the wicked, ib. ; cometh from a good 
cause, ib. ; in the general, argueth a good constitution of soul, ib. ; a 
deep resentment of God's dishonour, ib. ; compassion to men, 62 ; 
produceth good effects, ib. ; deterreth us from sinning ourselves, ib. ; 
puts us upon mourning and humiliation, ib. j maketh us more care 
ful to reform others, ib. ; justifieth our zeal in reproving, 63 ; delivers 
us from the common judgment, ib. 

Groaning, of the creature, what it is, xii. 177 ; in what sense the creature is 
said to groan, 179 ; how we are concerned in this groaning, ib. ; how 
we become aware of the groaning of creation, 184 ; lessons to be de 
rived from it, ib. 
What it implies, xii. 187; why we should groan and long for a better 

estate than that which we now enjoy, 189. 

Exhortation to rouse up our languid and cold affections to more 
earnestly groan and long for heavenly things, xii. 195 ; directions 
how we may attain to this frame of heart, ib. 

The groans of believers more than the pompous petitions of hypocrites, 
xii. 252. 

Groan, those that sincerely believe and wait for a blessed immortality do also 
groan for it and earnestly desire it, xii. 451 ; the reasons for this 
groaning, ib. ; because of sin and misery, ib. ; the excellency of our 
future estate requireth it, 454 ; the three theological graces imply it, 
ib. ; the Holy Ghost stirreth up these groans in us, 455 ; these desires 
are necessary because of their effect, ib. ; the state of the present 
world sets the saints a groaning, 456. 

Grudgings, mutual, between brethren, a usual forerunner of judgment, 
iv. 425. 

Guilt, nothing but an obligation to punishment, i. 197. 

Of their own miscarriages, men would fain transfer to others, iv. 83 ; 
and to God himself, ib. ; blaming his providence, 84 ; ascribing sin to 
the defect and faint operation of divine grace, 85 ; laying miscarriages 
upon fate, &c., ib. ', being angry they know not why, ib. most 
grossly, when they think he useth any suggestion to their soul to 
persuade and incline it to evil, 86 ; when they suppose his decree to 
necessitate sin, ib. 
To be avoided as carefully as shame, iv. 303. 

Gunpowder Plot, two grounds of thanksgiving usual on the anniversary of : 
that the devices of the plotters came to nought, that the mischief 
returned back on themselves, viii. 130. 

236 INDEX. 

'-Hallowed be tliy name,' why this petition put first, i. 66. 

Hands, cleanness of, noteth good works, as pureness of heart implieth faith 
and holy affections, iv. 371. 

Happiness, false imaginary, keeps men from God, ii. 53. 

Our chief, consists in the vision and fruition of God, xii. 265. 
Worldly, the greatest misery that can light upon men to be condemned 

to, xviii. 296. 

The highest worldly, may consist with God's hatred, and the greatest 
adversity of the saints with his love, xviii. 305. 

Hardness of heart, what is meant by, xvii. 192 ; the nature of it, ib. ; the 
kinds of it, 196 ; the causes of it, 199 ; the heinousness of it, 202; 
observations concerning it, 205 ; application, 209 ; exhortation to 
beware of, 213; means to a cure, 214, 238; Pharaoh a notable 
instance of, 221 ; a judgment of God on obstinate sinners, ib. ; how 
God hardeneth the heart, 226 ; the causes of it, 231, 234, 236. 

Haste to keep the commandments of God, importance of, vii. 135 ; ready 
obedience is a good evidence of a sound impression of grace on our 
hearts, ib. ; the sooner we turn to the ways of God, the better we 
speed, 136; danger and hazard in delay, 137; mischief of delay, 
140; the reasons for delay are very inconsiderable, 141 ; there are 
very urgent reasons to quicken us to make haste, 143. 

Hatred of sin, our duty, viii. 56 ; because this is the true principle of resist^ 
ance against sin, ib. ; because it is a true distinctive evidence between 
the good and the evil, ib. ; implies a universal repugnancy in every 
part of a man against sin, ib. ; is a fixed and rooted enmity, ib. ; is an 
active enmity, ib. ; such an enmity as desires and endeavours to 
destroy it, both root and branch, 58 ; must be universal, 59 ; every 
sin hateful to God, and therefore should be to us, ib. ; our covenant 
relation with God implies that there be no reservation, 60 ; every sin 
doth damage and mischief to the soul, ib. ; is a part and fruit of true 
wisdom, ib. 

Two kinds of, viii. 330 ; of flight and aversation, ib. ; of enmity, 
331 ; with both, false ways must be hated, ib. ; different from mere 
anger, ib. 
The world's, Christians must expect, x. 365 ; especially ministers, 366 ; 

by the malice of men, 367 ; by the providence of God, ib. 
The world's, to the people of God, reasons of, x. 376 ; difference and 
estrangement in course of life is a provoking thing, ib. ; differences 
about religion are very deadly, ib. ; it is not only a difference about 
religion, but between the true religion and false, ib. ; causes of, 377 ; 
the devil's instigation, ib. ; on man's part pride, which is impatient 
of reproof, ib. ; and envy at God's favours bestowed upon them, 378 ; 
exhortation against, 379 ; advice to those who are the subjects of, 380. 
Of the world towards the children of God, a thing not to be wondered 
at, xxi. 103; what is meant by 'the world/ ib. ; who are God's 
children, 105 ; the nature of the hatred of the one to the other, 106; 
the reasons of this hatred, 107 ; how we are so apt to wonder at the 
hatred of the world, 108 ; why this is forbidden, 109 ; reasons to 
take off our wondering, ib. 

Of our brother, what it is, xxi. 123 ; what is meant by our 'brother, 
125 ; the nature of this hatred, 126 ; how it is murder, 127. 

Headship of Christ over his church, consists in government and influence, i. 
458 ; as governor, it belongs to him to make laws that shall bind all 
his people, ib. ; to institute ordinances for worship, 459 ; to appoint 

INDEX. 237 

officers, ib. ; to maintain and defend his people in the exercise of 
these things, ib. 

Headship, belongeth to Christ according to both his natures, i. 460 ; duties 
which this relation bindeth us to, 463. 

Of Christ over his church in regard of influence is by the gift of his 

Spirit, i. 460. 

Healing by Christ's stripes, iii. 286 ; implies a disease incurable by human 
art, ib. (see Disease and Sin) ; consists in delivering from sin, 290 ; 
its fault, 291; its stain, ib. ; its guilt, ib. ; its punishment, ib. 
begun when we repent and believe, ib. ; is carried on by degrees in 
sanctification, 292 ; completed in heaven, ib. ; means of, his stripes, 
ib. ; how to be got, 294. 

Hearing of Christ, what it imports, i. 395 ; requires a resolute consent or 
resignation to his teaching and instruction, 396 ; this resignation 
must be unbounded and without reserve, 397 ; it must be speedy as to 
the great solemn acts of submission, ib. ; must be real, practical, and 
obediential, 398 ; reasons why this prophet must be heard, ib. ; it is 
the beloved Son of God that speaks, ib. ; the matter which he speaketh 
is the best that can be spoken or heard, ib. ; danger of not hearing 
him, 399 ; questions for self-examination concerning, 400 ; advice to 
weak Christians regarding, 401. 

Of the word should be highly valued, iv. 131 ; should be ready to take 
all occasions of, 132 ; preparation necessary for, 144 ; chiefly the lay 
ing aside and dispossessing of evil powers, 146. 

Of sincere prayer, how God manifests, vi. 249 ; inwardly by his Spirit, 

ib. ; outwardly by his providence, 250. 
Heart , never right but when it lieth under the awe of a command, i. 130. 

May be overcharged when the stomach is not, i. 163. 

Corruption in, makes us liable to Satan's temptations, i. 239. 

Difference between one that is hard against God and soft for God, and 
one that is hard for God and soft against God, ii. 329. 

Stablishing of, implieth firmness of faith and constancy in grace, iv. 422. 

To do good, they who have, will soon find an occasion, v. 97. 

God requireth, in his service, vi. 354 ; external profession is nothing, 
ib. ; external conformity is nothing worth, ib. ; it is the heart wherein 
God dwelleth, not the tongue or the brain, 355 ; if Christ have it 
not, Satan will have it, ib. ; if we love any, we give them the heart, 
ib. j this is what all may give him, 356 ; the whole, ib. ; how shall 
we know that we give God all the heart in an evangelical sense 1 360. 

Of man set between two objects ; corruption inclineth it one way, and 
grace another, viii. 149 ; inclination of, to good is the fruit of grace, 
150; the ground of obedience, ib.', not a simple approbation of the 
ways of God, ib. ; not a bare desire or wish, 151 ; not a hypocritical 
will, ib. ; when so inclined, the judgment deterinineth for God, ib. ; 
the will is poised and swayed with love and delight, ib. ; the bent of 
the will is seconded with constant endeavours, ib. ; without this in 
clination obedience cannot be cheerful, 152 ; or uniform, ib. ; or con 
stant, ib. 

A worldly frame of, may be known by the working of the thoughts, 
counsels, and deliberations, x. 386 ; by esteem of worldly things, 387 ', 
the bent and resolution of the will, ib. ; a special sagacity and dex 
terity in the matters of the world, and a dulness in the things of 
God, ib. ; the stream of the desires, ib. ; grief at worldly losses and 
disappointments, 388; extraordinary solicitousness about outward 

238 INDEX, 

provision, ib. excessive delight in worldly comforts, ib. envying the 
worldly happiness of others, ib. 

Heart, is terminus actionum ad intra, etfons actionum ad extra, xi. 324. 
Hearts of men are under the dominion of God, i. 79. 

God alone sets right, or inclines them from their natural bent to his 
own testimonies, vi. 372 ; the heart of man must have an object to 
cleave to, ib. ; being destitute of grace, is wholly carried out to tem 
poral things, ib. cannot be set upon that which is spiritual and 
heavenly, 374 ; this frame of heart cannot be altered till we are 
changed by God's grace, 375 ; in this change there is a weakening of 
the old inclination to carnal vanities, and a new bent and frame of 
heart bestowed, 376 though thus changed, the heart is ever and 
anon apt to return to the old bent and bias again, 377. 
Heathens had a sense of the necessity of worship, as well as the being of a 
God, i. 26 ; ascribed to God weakness and harshness, 27. 

Moral, may have a cooler hell, iv. 214. 
Heaven, in what sense God is in, i. 57 ; why he dwells in, 59. 

How God's will is done in, i. 124. 

The redemption of the church by Christ the subject of the talk and dis 
course we shall have in, i. 362. 

Mutual recognition of the saints in,i. 369 j and their mutual conference, ib. 

The hope of, a comfort in all tribulations, i. 376 ; men would have, 
without considering the way that leadeth to, 377 ; considerations for 
the remedy of this, 378 ; God a governor as well as a benefactor, and 
must be respected in both relations, ib. ; the terms and means 
appointed conduce to mortify our love to false happiness, ib. ; the 
care and due observance of the means shows the value of the true 
happiness, ib. ', the difficulty of our salvation lies not in respect to 
the end, but the means, therefore the trial of our sincerity must rather 
be looked for there, ib. ; this self-denying resignation of ourselves to 
God, to bring us to heaven in his own way, is necessary, 379 j the 
end and the means are inseparably connected, ib. 

Our way to, lieth through the world, ii. 101. 

The perfection of holiness, ii. 207. 

We should live always either for or upon, iii. 159. 

One way to, many to hell, iii. 304. 

God will not give a double, iv. 402. 

As much of, as possible should be enjoyed here, vi. 181. 

Those that shall be finally rejected by the Lord may have a desire of 
the joys of, ix. 410 ; they desire good, happiness in the general, ib. ; 
they would not only have good in the general, but some eternal good,. 
411 ; yet their inclinations to it are but weak and ineffectual, ib. ; if 
they like the end, they dislike the means, ib. 

The proper home of a Christian, and not this present world, xiii. 3 ; rea 
sons why, 4 ; qualifications necessary for the enjoyment of heaven as 
our eternal home, 6 ; why God's children count themselves not at 
home till admitted into the perpetual society of Christ, 9. 

What the looking for, is that is practised by the saints, xiv. 270 ; the 
influence of looking for, on the Christian life, ib. 

Various metaphors by which it is expressed in scripture, xiv. 340 ; 
resemblances between heaven and a city, 270, 340 ; wherein it differs 
from other cities, 340 ; how it is a prepared city, 341. 

Our great employment in, will be to think of God, to rejoice in his 
glory, to love and praise him, xix. 103. 

INDEX. 239 

Heaven a city, as a place of habitation, xx. 147; as a community under 
the same laws, and enjoying the same privileges and immunities, 
148 ; as an estate of perfect peace and eternal happiness, ib. be 
lievers have a right to, 149 ; their manner of living should be suit 
able, ib. ; in the exercise of graces, ib. ; in the use of the means 
whereby they may attain it, 152 ; in courses suited to its properties, 
153 ; citizens of, mortify their members, ib. ; reasons, ib. ; motives to 
seek after, 156. 

Heavenly things, those who would be Christians indeed must make their scope 
xx. 98 ; habitually and actually, 99 ; explicitly and implicitly, ib. ; 
necessity of, 100 ; that we maybe sincere, ib. ; to direct our way, ib. ; 
to quicken our endeavours, 101 ; for our joy and solace, ib. ; to defeat 
the temptations of sense, ib. ; to make us constant, ib. ; to engage us 
in a uniform course of holiness, ib. ; persuasives to, ib. 

Heavens, fit emblems of the stability of the word of God, vii. 402 ; God's 
constancy and truth appear in, 403 ; profit of this comparison, ib. ; 
that we may set the sureness of the word against the diffidence and 
distrustfulness of our own hearts, ib. ; to comfort us when our hopes 
are delayed, ib. ; to support us against the various changes in the 
state of worldly things, ib. ; not only when our hopes are delayed and 
obscured, but when they are contradicted by present appearances, 404; 
to wean us from the fading vanities of the world, ib. 

Heinousness of sin best represented in the death and agonies of Christ, xiii, 

Heir, meaning of the word, xiv. 217. 

Heirs, all God's people are, iv. 195 ; to a kingdom, 198 ; a kingdom engaged 

by promise, 199 ; to those who love God, ib. 

Of promise, how they are distinguished from others, xii. 23 ; the use 
of this mark of distinction, ib. ; the time how long this abideth with 
us, ib. 

Heirship, the dignity of, inferred from our adoption as heirs of God and 
joint-heirs with Christ, xii. 131 ; the greatness and excellency of this 
inheritance, ib. ; is a comfort against adversities and afflictions, ib. 
the agreement between the children of God in respect of heirship 
and others, 132; wherein they differ, 134; the properties which 
show the greatness of this inheritance, ib. ; its gloriousness, ib. ; eternal 
and undefiled, 135 ; its blessedness, ib. 

Hell, a place and state of inexpressible torments, x. 4 ; deprivation of all 
consolation and happiness, 5 ; suffering of woe and misery, 6 ; grief 
and sorrow, ib. ; vexation and indignation, 7 ; against God, ib. ; 
against the saints, ib. ; against themselves. 

God hath ever told the world of, x. 78 ; sparingly in the Old Testament, 
ib. ; fully in the New, 79 ; heathens had a sense of eternity and 
fancies of a heaven and hell, ib. ; the devils are orthodox on this 
point, ib. ; not merely a state of death, but of torment, ib. ; is local, 
80 ; objections answered, ib. ; torments of, begin presently after 
death, 83 ; shall receive their full and final accomplishment at the 
last day, 84 ; eternity of, 87. 

Of hells, that the reprobates must all depart, and lose the fountain of 
God in Christ, x. 92 ; in this part of the torment all are equal, ib. ; 
is the greatest part of the punishment, ib. ; the more bitter because it 
is of their own procuring, 93 ; is irreparable, ib. 

Torments of, x. 95 ; real and horrible, such as are more terrible than 
fire, ib. ; extremity of, cannot be told, ib. ; the whole man, both 

240 INDEX. 

body and soul, under the pains of, ib. ; worm that never dieth, con 
science, 96 ; worketh on what is past, ib. ; fire that is not quenched, 
97 ; an active sense of the wrath of God, ib. ; everlasting, 98. 

Help, God's, needed from first to last for going in the way of his command 
ments, vi. 365 because he keeps the power in his own hand, that 
his grace may be all in all, ib. ; that we may be encouraged to set 
upon the exercise of grace in the midst of weaknesses, difficulties, 
and temptations, ib. j to keep us humble and lowly in our own con 
ceit, ib. to incline the heart to God, and God to the heart, by acts 
of friendship and familiarity, 366. 

And deliverance in time of trouble to be sought of God, ix. 63 ; because 
he is the author of our troubles, ib. ; he challengeth the prerogative 
to be the God of salvation, ib. ; there is comfort in dealing with 
God, whatever our case be, because of his all-sufficient power, and 
because of his goodness and readiness to help, 64. 

Helplessness of man set forth by emphatic expressions of scripture, v. 478 ; 
requires an almighty power and all-sufficient grace, 479. 

Helps, if God taketh away ordinary, he can supply us by means extraor 
dinary, i. 336. 

Henry III. of France slain in the same chamber where the massacre of the 
Protestants was contrived, ii. 381. 

Heresies, why so many against the gospel, none against the law, iii. 183. 

Heretics enter the church under a colour and show of profession, v. 122 \ in 
trude into the office of preaching, 123 ; creep into people's hearts 
and affections by plausible pretences and insinuations, ib. 
And libertines usually turn persecutors, v. 270. 

Heritage, God's testimonies are a believer's, viii. 135 (see Testimonies) ; 
questions for self-examination upon, 142; exhortation concerning, 144. 

Hidden life, the estate and happiness of God's children is hidden for the pre 
sent, xii. 150 ; how they are hidden, ib. ; as to their persons, ib. ; as 
to their life, 151 ; as to their privileges and the glory of their estate, 
152 ; from whom they are hidden, 153 ; from the world, ib. ; from 
themselves, ib. ; why their glory is hidden, 154. 

Hiding-place, divine protection set forth under the notion of, viii. 168 ; im 
plies secrecy, ib. ; capacity to receive us, 169 ; safety till the trouble 
be over, ib. ; not only safety, but comfort, ib. 

' Hind of the morning,' Christ so called, because from the very beginning of 
his days the days compassed him about, iii. 252. 

Holiest Christians are humblest, x. 69 ; none do duties with more care, and 
none are less mindful of what they have done, ib. 

Holiness of God, his special glory, i. 88 ; the attribute that men most forget, 


Necessity and excellence of, ii. 211. 

Effectual calling is to, iii. 116 ; that there may be a likeness between 

the caller and the called, ib. ; the nature of the calling enforceth, 117 ; 

the grace showed in the calling obliges to, in point of gratitude, ib. ; 

calling enables us to be holy, 118. 

Of God's people, the aim both of his special providence and of his grace, 

v. 32. 

Serious desire of God's people after, vi. 48 ; arises from the new nature 

that is in them, 49 ; from love to God, which implieth subjection 

and conformity to him, ib. ; from experience of the ways of God, of 

the goodness and enlargement of heart that is to be found in them, ib. 

Arguments by which the scripture urges, vi. 86. 

INDEX. 241 

Holiness a means of maintaining communion between us and God, and keeping 
up an interest in him as our only happiness, vii. 117. 

To be studious in practical, is the way to increase in spiritual under 
standing, viii. 23 ; these have God's promise, ib. ; they have a greater 
clearness of mind and understanding, ib. j the more we practise, the 
more religion is exemplified and made sensible, 24 ; they that prac 
tise, study things with more affection than others, ib, ; the more 
fruitful any grace is, the more doth it abound with us, ib. 

Implieth a freedom from sin and defilement, x.' 292 ; of God, ib. ; he is 
essentially holy, ib. ; infinitely holy, 293 ; originally holy, 294 ; 
should be so regarded in prayer, ib. ; to beget humility and godly 
fear, ib. ; to make us prize Christ, ib. , it is God's special glory, 295 ; 
especially when we deal with him for grace and sanctification, ib. ; 
God's worship must be holy, 296 ; the worshippers must be in a holy 
state, ib. ; with holy and prepared affection, 298 ; must converse with 
him in a holy manner, 299 ; worship should make us holier, ib. 

Preciousness of, xi. 13 ; the fruit of Christ's death, a thing dearly 
bought, ib. ; the beauty of God, ib. ; that which maketh us amiable 
in the sight of God, ib. ; much of our everlasting blessedness lieth in, 
ib. ; a great part of our salvation by Christ, 14 ; and a means to the 
rest, ib. 

Obligatory under the gospel, xi. 433 ; Christ came not to dissolve our 
obligation to God, but to promote it rather, ib. ; Christ, by virtue of 
his merit, dispenseth regeneration, or the spirit of holiness, 434 ; in 
entering into the gospel state, we entirely and readily give up our 
selves to do the will of God, ib. ; the more we obey the law, our par 
ticipation of the blessings of the gospel is fuller and our comfort 
stronger, ib. ; is part of our salvation, as well as remission of sins, 
437 ; is the better part of our deliverance, ib. ; is a means to the 
rest, ib. 

Of life, several arguments to, xii. 16. 

Grace a teacher of, xvi. 68. 

Of Christ, as to his person and office, xvii. 408 ; the unction which is 
the fruit and consequent of Christ's holiness, 412. 

What it is, xvii. 444 ; reasons why holiness, both of persons and actions, 
should be greater under the gospel dispensation than under that of 
the law, 447. 

Holy Ghost, reprobates and hypocrites may be said to be partakers of, as to 
common gifts, xii. 3 ; Balaam and Judas instances, ib. ; our cove 
nant with, implieth both our duty and our benefit, 5. 

The bond of union between us and Christ, xii. 22. 

His work doth either concern the duties of the new covenant, or the 
privileges of the new covenant, or what is common to them both, 
xviii. 220. 

Holy Spirit, right carriage towards, in mortifying the deeds of the body, xii. 80. 
Holy things, it argueth a gracious frame of heart to take all occasions to set 
our minds a-work on, ix. 81 ; argueth plenty of divine knowledge, 
ib. ; spiritual delight and strong love, 82 ; sincerity, ib. 
Home, people of God may be reduced to such exigencies that they have none 
on earth, xviii. 172; to correct and humble them for the dishonour 
done to God in their dwellings, ib. ; for their trial, to see how they 
will bear it for God's sake, 173 j to show God's sovereignty over 
them, 173 j to spread the knowledge of the gospel, ib. 

242 INDEX. 

Honour, God hath twisted his own, with our interest, and ordered both for 
his own glory, vii. 320 

Double, put upon man, that God hath ordained him to conquer his 

enemies, and hath made him lord over his other creatures, xviii. 13. 
Hope, Christian, not a devout sloth, but an encouragement to diligence, ii. 

Good, its objects, without excluding intervening blessings, are the coming 
of Christ to our comfort, iii. 157 j the resurrection of the dead, ib. ; 
the vision of God, ib. ; our heavenly inheritance, ib. ; as a grace, is 
twofold a hope which is the immediate effect of regeneration, and a 
hope which is the fruit of experience, 159 ; its effects, consolation in 
troubles and confirmation in holiness, ib. 

A. gift of God, not only as he giveth the objects, but as he wOrketh the 
grace, iii. 160 ; by illumination, ib. ; by inclination, ib. ; by excita 
tion, ib. ; his free gift, ib. ; the gift of hope an encouragement in 
prayer, 161 ; God would not raise a hope to disappoint it, ib.; he 
that giveth us hope will give us all things necessary to the thing 
hoped for, 162 ; they that have received good hope through grace 
have God's nature and promise to rest on, ib. ; they that have this 
hope are thereby exposed to the scorn of the world, and so God is in 
point of honour engaged to stand by them, and justify their hope and 
trust, 163 ; advantage to the spiritual life to have wrought in us by 
grace, 165 ; it maketh us diligent and serious, ib. ; patient and mor 
tified, 166; heavenly and holy, ib. ; how to get, ib. ; remove the 
impediments, ib. j wait on all means of profiting, and use the known 
means of grace more conscionably, ib. 

Distinguishes Christians from pagans, from temporary and slight be 
lievers, and from the glorified, iii. 164. 

Keepeth the believer alive in his fainting, vii. 357 ; draweth off the 
mind from things present to things future, 358 ; representeth the 
excellency and the certainty of these future things, ib. ; lays hold of 
the great promise of eternal salvation, ib. 

Bred or nourished in us by the word of God, vii. 360 j to expect things 
not promised, or not as they are promised, is groundless presumption, 

That will bring shame and confusion, viii. 199 ; worldly hope, ib. > 
carnal security, 200 ; of the wicked, characteristics of, ib. ', of God's 
,. children, characteristics, of, 201. 

Lively, grounded upon the word of God, will put us upon vigilancy and 
diligence in prayer, ix. 76. 

There is a vain and groundless, ix. 220 ; a rational and probable, ib. ; 
a firm and certain, ib. ; a full assurance or an assurance not full, ib. ; 
necessary to quicken and enliven our duties, 221 ; to sharpen our 
affections after heavenly things, ib. ; to set our heart at rest, so that 
we may go on cheerfully in God's service, ib. 

Cheereth itself by frequent and serious thoughts and delightful medita 
tions of the thing hoped for, x. 53 ; by hearty groans, sighs, and lan 
guage, 54 ; by lively tastes and feelings, ib. ; of heavenly blessedness 
should put us upon serious diligence and earnest pursuit after it, 
ib. j must moderate our fears, sorrows, and cares, so as no temporal 
thing should unreasonably affect us, 55. 

An effect of regeneration and also an effect of experience, xii. 118. 

In sorrow, creation teacheth us a lesson of, xii. 182. 

Is a desirous expectation of some promised good, xii. 197 ; the pro- 

INDEX. 243 

mises a ground of hope, ib. ; the great promise and object of our hope 
is salvation by Christ, or eternal life, 198 ; called the 'hope of salva 
tion,' ib. ; it is patient and earnest, 199; reasons proving that hope 
is a necessary grace, 200 ; from the state of the believer in this 
world, ib. ; from the new nature, ib. ; the uses for which it serves, 
ib. ; quickening our duties, ib. ; vanquishing temptations, 201 ; com 
fort in tribulations, ib. ; that we may die peaceably and with com 
fort, ib.', the cognation between faith and hope, 202 ; wherein they 
differ, ib. ; the excellency of hope, ib. ; none can be saved without 
hope, 203 ; how far all are bound to hope for salvation, ib. 
Hope, Several kinds of, distinguished, xii. 205 ; hope in the creature and 
hope in God, ib. ; carnal men hope for that in the creature which is 
only to be found in God, ib. ; hope in God is either irrational or 
rational, 206 ; irrational hope is vain and groundless, ib. rational 
hope is built on solid grounds, ib. ; there is a firm and certain hope, 
without which no man can be a Christian, 207 ; this certain hope is 
twofold one sort necessary, grounded upon the offers of the gospel, 
the other profitable, grounded upon the evidence of our sincerity, and 
is the fruit of assurance, ib. ; implieth a certain persuasion and an 
earnest expectation, 210 ; to strengthen the certainty of our persua 
sion we must often revive the grounds of hope, and encourage earnest 
expectation by a diligent pursuit after the thing hoped for by all holy 
means, ib. 

May be either a natural affection or a spiritual grace, xii. 216 ; the 
object of hope as a natural affection is a future benefit, possible but 
difficult to be attained, ib. ; the object of hope as a spiritual grace 
is something promised by God and believed by us, 217 ; reasons why 
we may surely hope for that which neither sense nor reason can 
inform us of, 218. 

They only hope for eternal life who continue in the pursuit of it with 
patience, xii. 222; this hope which produceth patience is well- 
grounded and lively, 223 ; how this hope produceth patience, 224 ; 
persuasions to this patience of hope, ib. 

There is a twofold hope the one necessary, the other profitable, the one 
the fruit of regeneration, the other of experience, xii. 448 ; the prin 
ciple of all human acts, ib. ; showeth itself both by looking and 
longing, ib. 

And faith distinguished, xiii. 325 ; not a presumptuous conceit, but a 
foretaste of eternal life, 326 ; a means to discern our faith, 340. 

Of Christians, is a blessed hope, xvi. 188 ; in this hope there is an 
absence of all evil and the enjoyment of all good, ib. 

1 Set before us/ the, what it is, xvi. 339 ; why it is said to be set 
before us, 340. 

Built upon the righteousness of faith, includes pardon and life, xviii. 

In God, the nature of this hope to which believers are invited, xxi. 453 ; 
reasons why they are to believe in God, 456 ; our hope and trust 
should be perpetual, 458. 

Hopes, of everlasting life, sufficient to reduce us from temporal and flesh- 
pleasing vanities, iii. 154 ; to make us steadfast in the truth, and 
cheerful under sufferings, ib. ; to produce in us an increase of holiness, 

Good to oppose the glory of, against the abasure of sufferings, iv. 79 ; 
consider the glory of them, 80 ; and the truth of them, 81. 

244 INDEX, 

Hospitality not festivity and expensive entertainments, iv. 211. 

House, the body of man so called, xii. 424 ; what kind of house it is, 
425 ; it is an earthly-tabernacle house in regard of its composition, 
sustentation, and dissolution, ib. ; the end and issue of this house, 
426 ; the state of glory called a house, 428 ; this house described, ib. 



Human wisdom wholly to be distrusted, xv. 216; if we would acknowledge 

God, we must make him our oracle and counsellor, 218. 
Humanity, real, of Christ, shown by his praying that the cup might pass 

from him, iii. 341. 

Humble persons most gracious, and gracious most humble, iv. 356. 
Humiliation, in every part of our Lord's, there is an emission of some 
beams of his Godhead, i. 267 ; humbled himself to purchase our 
mercies, but made a discovery of divine glory to assure our faith, ib. 
Of the Son of God was a hiding of his divine glory and majesty under 

the veil of our flesh, i. 432 ; and a lessening of his dignity, 433. 
Must be either active or passive, iv. 357 ; better that we should bring 
down our hearts before God, than that God should bring down our 
proud looks, ib. ; voluntary, best and sweetest, 373. 
Throughout his, Christ had the glory of his person, x. 189 ; and the 

glory of his office, 190 ; but this glory was veiled and concealed, ib. 
Of Christ lieth chiefly in obscuring his Godhead, xviii. 125 ; and 
abatement of his dignity, ib. ; made less than God, ib. ; less than 
the angels, 126 ; in the human nature depressed beyond the ordinary 
condition of man, ib. ; was his own voluntary act, 127 ; was for our 
sake, 128; as our mediator, ib. ; as our pattern, 129 ; to teach us 
patience under all indignities we undergo for God's sake, 130; hu 
mility, 131 ; more exact obedience, ib. ; self-denial, ib. ; contempt of 
the world and its glory, ib. 
Humility, exhortation to, ii. 326. 

Christ taught us, as in his meanness, so in his sufferings, iii. 254. 

A rich man's, is his glory, iv. 68. 

Of soul, the result of the true knowlege of God and ourselves, iv. 378 ; 

the true way to exaltation, 379. 

A humble heart can best trust in God, xxi. 406 ; reasons why, ib. 
humility in bad actions more pleasing to God than pride in good ones 
(Austin), 410. 

Humble souls do not exercise themselves in great matters, nor in things 
too high for them, xxi. 426 ; how many ways this may be done, ib. ; 
this affecting of great things argueth pride, 428, 434. 
Husband and wife should concur in the promotion of good, xiv. 421. 
Husbands, in what respect heads of their wives, xix. 466 ; directions to, 467. 
Hypocrisy and double dealing abhorrent to nature, iv. 298. 
And carnal pretences, the worst sort of lies, iv. 305. 
A practical blasphemy, v. 141. 
Hypocrite, difference between him and the upright in seeking God, i. 67. 

Note of, to be scanty in moral duties and abundant in ceremonial 

observances, ii. 8. 
Hypocrites may put themselves forth with vigour and warmth in public 

duties, but are slight and careless in private addresses to God, i. 16. 
Their guise, ii. 13 ; partial zeal, ib. ; godliness and righteousness placed 
in outward observances or external discipline, 14 ; more in love with 
ceremonies than with substance, 15 ; strain greatly at a small thing, 

INDEX. 245 

ib. ; make conscience not only of externals instituted by God, but 

mostly of those devised by themselves, 1 7 ; have a conceit of their 

own righteousness, and a disdain of others, 18. 

Hypocrites pretend to Christ, but live as if he were still in the grave, iii. 360. 
Cannot always be hidden, iv. 102. 
Come at length to deceive themselves, iv. 173. 
Defection of, should not shake our belief of the doctrine of perseverance, 

x. 340. 

The mortification of, external but not internal, xii. 57. 
The groans of believers more than their pompous petitions, xii. 252. 

Idleness and sin joined together, so idleness and destruction, iii. 199. 
Idolatry, Christ's indignation against, i. 313. 

Is a worshipping of a creature with divine worship, iii. 99 ; Papists 
guilty of, ib. ; worship angels, saints, the Virgin Mary, images, the 
cross, the bread in the sacrament, ib. 

Of the heathens, turned the glory of God into the image of a man ; of 
Christians, judges of God according to the model and size of their own 
minds and dispositions, iv. 43. 

Is not only worship of false gods, but worship of the true God in a 
false manner, v. 252 ; the most plausible and seductive is idolatrous 
respect to the bodies and relics of dead saints, 253. 
Idols must be renounced before our hearts can incline to God, ii. 104. 
Ignorance, an obstacle to the reception of the gospel, iii. 198. 

Is either necessary, through want of means, or through want of due 
means, iii. 428 ; or negligent, when men have means and do not use 
them, 429. 

Set forth by the notions of darkness and blindness, xiii. 284. 

From natural defect and imperfection, is no sin, xviii. 119. 

How far it excuseth from sin, xix. 27. 

Great danger of, to ourselves and others, xix. 384 ; pretences for re 
maining in, 385. 
Illumination cometh from God only, ii. 75 ; given by degrees, ib. 

By the Spirit accompanies the word, to make it effectual to us, to show 
us God as revealed in Christ, iii. 24. 

Even common, is from the Spirit, iii. 211. 

Divine, God's best servants think they can never enough beg, viii. Q24. 

Divine, a great gift, especially obliging to praise and thanksgiving, ix. 
245 ; for every mercy we should praise God, ib. ; and most for the 
best gifts, 246 ; especially for spiritual benefits, ib. j amongst these, 
divine illumination one of the best, 247 ; its worth appeareth in its 
author, 249 ; in the objects known, 250 ; in the use for which it 
serveth, 251 ; in the manner of knowing, 252. 
Image of God in man and in Christ, difference between, i. 430. 

Of God in man, iv. 295 ; his intellectual nature, ib. ; in the qualities 
of knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, ib. ; in his state, a 
happy confluence of all inward and outward blessings, 296 ; a dis 
suasive from evil-speaking and slandering, ib. ; images not to be wor 
shipped, yet the image of God not to be bespattered with re 
proaches, 297. 

Of God our primitive glory and excellency, xix. 172 ; its restoration 
the effect of our new creation, ib. ; its completion in heaven the object 
of our hope, 173 ; involved in our being his children, ib. ; and dear 
children, 174. 

246 INDEX. 

Images, Komish adoration of, idolatry of a foul kind, iii. 100. 

Imitation, of Christ, in those acts which he did for satisfying his Father's 
justice or proving his deity, were high presumption, ii. 100 ; but in 
actions moral we are bound to imitate him, ib. 
An evidence of approbation, v. 169. 

Immortality, a sense of, rooted in the minds of all nations, xii. 85 ; ex 
emplified in the ancient Goths, the Egyptians, in Peru, and ia 
Mexico, ib. 

Impatience under crosses, feeders of, ix. 129 ; men think none suffer as 
they do, ib. ; that they could bear any cross but that which is now 
upon them, ib. 

Impatiency is partly natural, and partly voluntary, i. 143 ; lies in obstinacy, ib. 
And obstinacy in a course of sin is pride, vi. 195 ; and the greatest 
of pride, 196. 


Impotency of man to obey the law of God doth not dissolve his obligation to 
obey it, v. 480 ; is voluntary, 481 ; though unable to convert himself, 
must be pressed to the use of means, 482. 

Incarnation of Christ, not for passion only, but for glorification, that therein 

he might be an instance and pattern to us, i. 357. 
Of Christ, xi. 423 ; his coming in the likeness of sinful flesh implieth 
that it was the nature of sinful men, but not a sinful nature, ib. ; he 
took not the human nature as it shall be in glory, ib. ; he was counted 
as a sinner, exposed to many afflictions, such as sinners endure, ib. ; 
came in the flesh that he might be under the law, 424; that he 
might suffer the penalty and cufse of the law, which, as God, he 
could not, ib. ; that he might cross and counterwork Satan's design, 
ib. to give us a pledge of the tenderness of his love and compassion 
towards us, 425 ; to be a pattern to us of what shall be done both 
in us and by us, ib. 

Of Christ affordeth an ample foundation for faith against the im 
probability of the blessedness offered, xviii. 433 ; we may the 
better expect the exaltation of the creature when we consider the 
abasement of the Son of God, ib. ; an answer to the plea of unworthi- 
ness, 434 ; supports against the terribleness of God's majesty, ib. ; 
against the pollution of our nature, ib. ; against the unbelieving 
supposition of God's mindfulness of human affairs, ib. ; against the 
doubt of strangeness, ib. ; against fear of arrogancy in assuming the 
privilege of adoption, ib. 

Inclination of the heart by God to his testimonies implies our natural 
obstinacy and disobedience to his law, vi. 370 ; and God's gracious 
and powerful acting upon the soul, ib. ; is by the word and Spirit, 
persuasion and power, 371. 

Inclinations, sinful, Satan observeth, and we should observe, xi. 455 ; should 
be weakened and subdued, 456. 

Inconstancy of Christians, ix. 116 j in faith, ib. ; in obedience, ib. ; in 
opinions and professions, ib. 

Increase, diligence is the means, and God's blessing the prime cause, of all, 
xviii. 425 ; of grace is given by degrees, 427. 

Indwelling of Christ in his people is not contiguity, but union, xi. 142 ; 
not a mere congregation or placing together, ib. ; not representation 
only, ib. ; not an objective union, as the thing seen may be said to 
be in the eye, or the thing thought of to be in the mind, 143 ; not 
merely a relation, ib. - } not only consent or agreement, ib. ; not a 

INDEX. 247 

union of dependence merely, such as is between cause and effect, ib. 
not merely a communion in the same nature, ib.j not a mixture, 144; 
not a personal union, ib. ; is a union of concretion and evolution, ib. ; 
difficulties regarding, stated, 145 ; should be our chief care, 147. 

Indwelling of the Spirit, what is meant by, xxi. 227 ; why this is a sure 
evidence of God's dwelling in us, 229 ; the operations of the Spirit 
as a proof of our communion with God, 232. 


Infants, salvation of, xiv. 81. 

Inferences, immediate, from scripture, as valid as express words, iv. 348. 

Ingratitude, danger of, i. 159. 

Iniquities, to be turned from, a main blessing we have by Christ, ii. 203. 
Mystery of, what ? iii. 50 ; opposed to the mystery of godliness, ib. ; 
the carnal life held in request and honour, 52 ; men turned from 
God to idols, ib. ; power usurped in Christ's name, 53 ; merits of 
Christ and his satisfaction lessened, ib. ; the new nature little thought 
of, ib. ; begun to work in the apostles' time, 54. 

Laid upon Christ by the Lord, abundant matter for faith to work 
on, iii. 318 ; because to the Lord belongeth forgiveness, 319 \ it is 
he whom we have wronged, ib. ; it is he whose will and word alone 
is to be looked to, 320 ; the Lord hath so great an interest in Christ 
that he can deny him nothing, 321. 

To do, is to continue in wilful disobedience, vi. 30 ; in God's account 
they do none, who are renewed by grace, and reconciled to God by 
Jesus Christ, ib. ; they make it their business to avoid all sin, 31. 

Injury, plenty begetteth, and when all things are possible, men think all 
things lawful, iv. 415. 

Innocency, oppressed, will get clear again, iii 347. 
Best tried by iniquity, iv. 30. 

Giveth confidence in prayer, when we are molested and troubled with 
out a cause, vii. 330. 

Innocent, any concurrence to the destruction of the, brings us under the guilt 

of their blood, iv. 416. 

Should not be much troubled to be maligned and hated by those who 
contemn God's laws, vii. 390. 

Instances both enliven and confirm faith, vii. 51. 

Institution, what it consists in, xiii. 440 ; what it is to do a duty in respect 
of, 441. 

Institutions, good to submit to God's, viii. 13. 

Intention, good, does not make the action good, but its conformity to the 

rule, iii. 312. 
General good, not sufficient for a holy life, vi. 312. 

Intercession, of Christ in heaven, is a pleading for the application of his 

merit, iii. 358. 

Christ's, for transgressors upon the cross, iii. 485 ; interceded as a holy, 
godly man, 486 ; and as a mediator, 487 ; the first for our imitation, 
ib. ; the second for our faith, 489. 

Of Christ, prevalence of, depends upon his person, x. 244 j its dignity, 
ib. ; its dearness, ib. upon the value of his satisfaction, ib. ; the 
sublimity of his office, 245 ; the articles of the covenant, 246 ; is a 
part of his priestly office, ib. ; fruits and benefits of, 247 ; secures 
our justification and the pardon of our sins, ib. ; the acceptation of 
our persons, works, and services, ib. ; encourages us to come to the 
throne of grace with boldness, 248. 

248 INDEX. 

Intercession, Christ's, his prayer in John xvii., a copy, model, or counterpart 

of, x. 353. 

Is the work of the Holy Spirit, xii. 254 ; the persons for whom he 
maketh intercession, ib. ; the nature of this intercession, 255 ; the 
manner of it, 256. 

Of Christ, coupled with his satisfaction, xix. 24 ; its nature, 25 ; its 
success, 26. 

Intercessor, Christ the only, for poor sinners, iii. 492 ; none else would, ib. ; 
none else could, 492 ; carried on partly in heaven, ib. ; partly in the 
hearts of his people, 494. 

Intercessory prayer commended by the example of Christ, x. 248. 

Interest, God's", in his people, the ground of his care for their safety, vii. 449 ; 
secures his knowledge of them, ib. ; his care over them, and his affec 
tion for them, ib. his preserving them for accomplishing the pur 
poses which he designs to serve by them, 450 ; his being willing to 
employ for their use all that is his, ib. 

The Father's, in his people, to be pleaded as an argument in prayer, x. 

Intermediate state, there are but two places of residence for the saints, either 
the place of exercise, that is, earth, or the place of reward and recom 
pense, that is, heaven, xiv. 332. 

Interposition of God in distresses, we have leave and encouragement to desire,, 
viii. 251 ; from God's covenant, ib. ; God's affection, ib. ; our relation, 
to him, 252 ; our very running to him, and committing ourselves 
into his hands, engages him, ib. should desire only so as may be 
for good to us, 254 ; because then we pray according to God's under 
taking, ib. ; and according to the new nature, ib. 

Isaac, the occasion of his first interview with Rebekah, xvii. 263. 


Isaiah, his fifty-third chapter may rather be called his gospel than his pro 
phecy, iii. 191. 

Israel of God, who they are, xxi. 452. 

Invocation of saints, a sottish error, iii. 89. 

Inventions sought out by men, xix. 50 ; insufficient to make us happy, ib. ; 
plunge us into further misery, 51 ; kinds of, 52 ; why many, 55. 

Jacob an example of secret prayer, i. 13. 

JacoVs ladder a type of Christ, i. 479. 

Worshipping leaning on his staff reconciled and explained, xiv. 401. 


James, divine authority of epistle of, iv. 9 ; some passages in Jerome and 
Eusebius seem to infringe its authority, ib. ; denied by Cajetan r 
Erasmus, and Luther, 10; but Luther afterwards retracted his con 
demnation of it, 11; who the author was, 1 2 ; James the Less, son 
of Alpheus, called the Lord's brother, ib. ; said to have been a hus 
bandman, 13 ; to have died A.D. 63, ib. ; time of writing not ascer- 
tainable, ib. ; main object to refute those who held that a bare naked 
faith is sufficient to salvation, though good works be neglected, 14 ; 
why called catholic ? ib. 

Jealousies of God, his people ought not to entertain, as if he watched oppor 
tunities and advantages to punish them, xviii. 345. 

'Jehu an instance of partial zeal, ii. 1 2. 

Jericho, why a curse was pronounced on the rebuilding of, xviii. 30. 

Jerusalem still called the holy city in the time of our Lord, i. 277. 

INDEX. 249 

Jesting, not all, unlawful, xix. 206 ; a hard matter to keep within the bounds 

of lawful and allowed mirth, 207. 

Jesus Christ, true God and true man in one person, i. 476 ; proved by 
testimonies of scripture, ib. ; by types, 479 ; by reasons taken from 
his office, 480. 

Jews, in the time of our Lord, their different opinions concerning him, i. 364. 
Why the first offer of the gospel was made to, ii. 201. 
Stubbornness of their unbelief, iii. 194. 
Had more of the carnal and outward blessing of the covenant than 

believers under the gospel, iv. 236. 
Were wont to write Deut. vi. 5 on their phylacteries and door-posts, 

and read in their houses twice a day, xiii. 169. 
Abraham's seed after the flesh, not after the spirit, xiii. 225. 
Jodb an example of loyalty, i. 78. 
Job was often impatient, yet God only makes mention of his patience, 

iv. 430. 

His impatience forgotten, his patience commended, vi. 20. 
His deprecation, Do not condemn me ' (Job x. 2), teaches that open 
and free dealing with God in trouble is better than smothering and 
stifling our griefs, or venting them in discontent on others, xxii. 63 ; 
the grievousness to a child of God to be condemned as a wicked man, 
65 ; it is a good thing to inquire into the cause of our afflictions, 67. 
Joseph of Arimathea the subject of prophecy (Isa. liii. 9), iii. 363. 
Joy, a man's, distinguishes him, ii. 36 ; carnal, reproof of, 37 ; spiritual, is 
an act of love, 38 ; begotten in us by a sense of the love of Christ, 
ib. ; by it we delight in the grace of the Redeemer more than in all 
other things whatsoever, 41 ; may be without assurance, 42 ; but ig 
more abundant when our sight is cleared, 43 ; profit of, ib. helps 
or means towards, 45. 

Carnal, to put away for godly sorrow, a good exchange, iv. 376. 
Of a child of God in God's word, vi. 224 ; is real, ib. ; cordial, ib. great, 
225 ; pure, ib. ends well, ib. ; doth not pervert the heart, ib. ; overcomes 
the sense of affliction, 226 ; the word requires, ib. ; and ministers, ib. 
Spiritual, warning against security of, vi. 268. 
A Christian's duty ; not his wages only, but his work also, vii. 4. 
Of the blessed, ix. 455 ; in the beatific vision, ib. their own glorified 
estate, ib. ; the company of the blessed, 456 ; called the joy of the 
Lord, either as provided by him, or as being such as he himself 

Great use of, in the spiritual life, to make us to do and to suffer, x. 
355; to mar the taste of carnal pleasures, ib. j is honourable to 
Christ, 356 ; is pleasing to him, ib. ; spiritual, ariseth more from hope 
than possession, ib. ; more felt in adversity than prosperity, ib. ; those 
have the highest feeling of, who have tasted the bitterness of sorrow,, 
357 ; feelings of, are up and down, yet when the feeling is gone, the 
sight remaineth, ib. 

In the Holy Ghost, the fruit of faith, xiii. 330. 

Spiritual, and temporal adversities, not incompatible, xviii. 373. 
Judas Iscariot, parallel between him and the Papacy, iii. 32. 

Not declared to be one of the elect lost, but not to have been one of 
the elect, x. 336 ; parallel between Antichrist and, 342. 

His sin, x. 343 ; his covetousness, ib. ; his hypocrisy, ik ; his treason,. 
344 ; his despair, ib. his punishment, 345 ; two ingredients wanting 
in his repentance, love to conversion and hope of mercy, 348. 

250 INDEX. 

Jude or Judas, called also Lebbseus and Thaddeus, all which names signify 

praise, v. 9 ; brother of James, therefore the Lord's cousin, 10. 
Judging the word, is done grossly by those who deny its divine authority, or 
accuse it, as the Papists do, as an uncertain rule, or examine the 
doctrines of it by their private rule, or the writings and precepts of 
men, iv. 383. 
Judgment, day of, why called the day of redemption, i. 114. 

At the day of, there shall be a congregation, iii. 11 ; a segregation, 12; 
an aggregation, ib. 

A great help to our Christian course to think of the day of, iv. 222. 

In the day of, the least circumstances of our sinful actions shall be 
brought forth as arguments of conviction, iv. 405 ; matter of our sin 
shall in hell become matter of punishment, 406. 

Day of, a great day, v. 211 ; because it is the consummate act of Christ's 
regal office, ib. ; because great things are then done, 212 ; great pre 
parations for, ib. ; great transactions in, 213 ; great consequences 
of, 215 ; should be looked for, 217 ; longed for, ib. ; provided for, 

Day of, implied in the sentence pronounced in Eden, prophesied of by 
Enoch, and taught ever since, v. 291. 

And justice, to do, a comely property in God's children, viii. 239 ; by 
it we are made like to God, ib. ; is acceptable and pleasing to God, 
240 ; fitteth for communion with God, ib. ; is as suitable to the new 
nature as fruits to their own tree, 241 ; is lovely and venerable in 
the eyes of the world, ib. ; it conduceth much to the good of human 
society, 242 ; a comfortable property, ib. ; comfort of, from peace of 
conscience, 243 ; from the many promises of God, both as to the world 
to come and this present life, ib. 

Day of, why delayed, ix. 447 ; not from any unreadiness in Christ, ib. ; 
on the part of the good, that the number of the elect may be 
gathered, ib. ; on the part of the wicked, that they may have a time of 
improvement, and be left without excuse, 448. 

The last, delineations of, in scripture, are partly literal and partly para 
bolical, x. 14 ; Christ the fittest judge, 16 ; by reason of his under 
standing, 17 ; his justice and righteousness, 18 ; his power, 19 ; his 
authority, ib. ; his appearance as judge shall be glorious and full of 
majesty, 23 ; appears from considering the dignity of his person, ib. ; 
the quality of his office, ib. ; the greatness of his work, 24 ; some of 
his foregone appearances, 25 ; his great glory will take off the scandal 
of the cross, and recompense him for his humiliation, 26 ; will beget 
reverence and fear in the hearts of those who are to be judged, 27 ; 
will be a comfort to his people, ib. ; angels to attend him, partly for 
a train, partly that by their ministry the work may be more speedily 
and powerfully despatched, 28 ; scoffing objections answered, 31. 

All who have lived in the world, from the beginning to the end of time, 
shall be present at, x. 33; grown persons and infants, 34 ; the dead, 
and those who shall be alive at the coming of Christ, 35 ; good and 
bad, ib. ; believers and unbelievers, 36 ; men of all conditions, 39 ; 
not some of all sorts, but every individual person, ib. 

Of the last day shall be according to works, x. 60 ; to glorify God's 
holiness, 61 ; his remunerating justice, ib. his veracity and faithful 
ness, ib. ; good works are perfectional accomplishments, ib. ; they are 
qualifications to make them capable of his remunerating justice, ib. ; 

INDEX. 251 

they are signs and tokens of their being accepted with God, 62 ; they 
are measures according to the degrees of grace, ib. 

Judgment, the great duty of a nation in danger of, is to give the Lord a 
compromise, or make up the breach between him and them, xvi. 26 ; 
what it is to give God a day of compromise, ib. ; the nature of the 
work, 28 ; the manner of it, 29 ; why this is the proper duty of a 
people in danger, 30; serious observations to awaken us out of 
security, 33. 

To come, to be insisted upon in preaching, xviii. 362 ; makes access 
into the hearts and consciences of men more easy, because of its suit 
ableness to natural light, ib. ; doth most befriend the great disco 
very of the gospel, 363 ; doth best solve doubts about present provi 
dences, ib. 

Future, demonstration of, from the sufferings of the godly, xx. 209. 
Judgments, spiritual, the sorest of all, ii. 275. 

God's internal, are chiefly blindness of mind and hardness of heart, 
iii. 86. 

Of God on the wicked do exceedingly amplify his mercies towards us, 
iii. 109. 

The way to escape, is to mourn for them before they come, iv. 401. 

God's, under the gospel, more spiritual, but not less severe, than of old; 
formerly he smote with death, now with deadness, v. 169 ; great, 
do usually follow great mercies, if great sins come between, 175. 

Of righteousness, God's precepts are, and are accounted by his people, 
vi. 61 ; because they are the judicial sentence of God concerning our 
state and actions, ib. j because of the suitable execution that is to 
follow, in this world and the next, 63. 

Of God (misliphatim), are either laws enacted, or judgments executed 
according to those laws, vii. 47. 

Of God upon the wicked compared to treading them down, viii. 209 ; 
implies a full punishment, 210 ; a disgraceful punishment, ib. ; cer 
tainty of, ib. j he can, ib. ; he hath, ib. ; he will, 211 ; because of his 
invariable justice, ib. ; because of the suitableness between judgment 
and sin, ib. ; for the undeceiving of the world, ib. ; to undeceive 
sinners themselves, ib. ; to check the insolency of those who abuse 
their power, 212. 

God's, upon others should be observed, viii. 214 ; the observation must 
be to a good end, ib. ; must be sure that we do not make providence 
speak the language of our fancies, ib. ; we may reason from the pro 
vocation to the judgment, but must not infer special wickedness from 
affliction, ib. ; when there are remarkable circumstances in which the 
sin and the judgment meet, 215 ; when judgments fall upon them in 
the very act of their provocation, ib. ; when they are the authors of 
their own destruction, 216 ; when they are brought down wonder 
fully, suddenly, ib. ; when judgments are executed by unlikely means, 
ib. ; when such accidents bring a great deal of glory to God, ib. ; when 
God supplies the defects of men's justice, ib. ; when the word, in the 
express letter, is made good upon men, ib. ; observation of, a mighty 
cure to atheism, ib. ; a notable curb to keep us from sin, 217. 

Of God in ancient times ought to be laid to heart by us, especially when 
like sins abound, viii. 232 ; that light upon other countries should be 
made use of, because usually they go in a circuit, 233 ; when executed 
before our eyes, must be the more considered, ib. ; though we be well 
at ease in our own persons, ib. ; though they pursue but a few, all 

252 INDEX. 

should fear, ib. ; though they light upon enemies to us and God, their 
fall is not to be insulted over, 234 ; much more should we tremble at 
his judgments upon his own people, ib. 

Judgments, when God's, were abroad in the earth, the church had con 
tinual thoughts of God, and her endeavours were early and earnest, 
xii. 275. 

Judiciousness, or soundness of mind, a great blessing, vii. 203 ; its office, to 
distinguish and judge rightly of things that differ, that we may not 
mistake error for truth and evil for good, ib. ; to determine and 
resolve, 204 ; to direct as well as decree, 205 ; a great defect in most 
Christians, 206 ; mischief arising from this defect, ib. j they are apt to 
be misled and deceived, ib. ; they are fickle and irresolute, both in the 
profession and practice of godliness, 207 ; they easily miscarry, and 
make religion a burden to themselves, or else a scorn to the world, 
ib. ; makes them troublesome to others, by preposterous carriage, rash 
censuring, needless intermeddling, 208 ; makes them troublers of the 
church of God, ib. ; must be sought of God, 209 ; must be sought in 
the word, 210; increased by long use and exercise, 211 ; by sense 
and experience, ib. ; hindrances, 212 ; a passionate or wild addicted- 
ness to any carnal things, ib. ; pride, ib. 

Jurisdiction, God hath an absolute, over us, vi. 197. 

Just man is a renewed man, xviii. 388 ; a man furnished with knowledge of 
the things that concern his duty, ib. ; a mortified man, ib. a man 
biassed with a love to God and Christ and heaven, 389 ; his tongue 
as choice silver, ib. ; for purity, ib. ; for profit, 391. 

Justice^ severity of God's, seen in the scattering of the twelve tribes, iv. 19. 
Divine, impartiality of, v. 170. See Righteousness. 
Much of, in all God's judgments, vii. 293; must be from God's nature, 
ib. ; judgment never without a cause, 294; judgment not immediately 
executed when there is a cause, 295 ; judgments inflicted always short 
of the cause, ib. 

An attribute that belongs to God as a governor, xx. 216 ; is legisla 
tive or judiciary, 217 ; rewarding or punishing, ib. ; exercised more 
darkly in this world, more plainly hereafter, 218. 

Justification, as opposed to crimination, is the work of an advocate ; to condem 
nation, of a judge, ii. 94. 

Of sinners, privilege of the gospel to discover a way for, iii. 416 ; can be 
done by no other way, doctrine, or knowledge in the world, ib. ; in the 
gospel fully and amply done, 417. See Gospel. 

Reconcilement of Paul and James regarding ; Paul speaketh of the 
justifying of a sinner from the curse of his natural condition, the 
accusations of the law, &c., and accepting him into the favour of 
God, which is of grace, and not of debt ; James, of the justifying and 
approbation of that faith by which we are thus accepted of God, iv. 
245 ; in Paul, is opposite to the condemnation of a sinner in general ; 
in James, opposite to the condemnation of a hypocrite in particular 
(Diodati), 246 ; Papists say that Paul speaketh of the first qualifica 
tion, and excludeth works done before baptism ; James, of the second 
justification, by which a justified man is made more just, and the 
works he speaketh of are performed in faith, and by the help of divine 
grace, 261 ; confutation of this, ib. ; Arminians and Socinians make 
new obedience the instrument of justification, and that the grace of 
God is seen only in the acceptance of our imperfect obedience, 262 ; 
confutation, ib. ; orthodox, though they differ somewhat in words and 

INDEX. 253 

phrases j agree that Paul speaketh of the office of faith, James of the 
quality of faith, 264. 

Justification, free, by faith in Christ, tendeth greatly to promote holiness, 
xi. 153. 

Opposed to accusation and condemnation, xii. 349 ; as opposed to 
accusation, it is the part of an advocate ; as to condemnation, that of 
a judge, ib. 

Consisteth in two things, the pardon of our sins, and our acceptation as 
righteous in Christ, xii. 350 ; four ways doth God especially justify, 
byway of constitution, estimation, sentence, and execution, 351 j how 
it standeth with the wisdom, justice, and holiness of God to justify a 
sinner, 352 several objections cleared, ib. ; reasons why no charge or 
accusation can lie against those whom God justifieth, 355. 

Requisite to eternal life, xii. 461. 

By faith and by works, the apostles James and Paul reconciled, xiii. 76. 

And sanctification, distinct privileges, but always go together, xiii. 274. 

How we are justified by faith, xiii. 477 ; reasons why faith is deputed 
to this service, 480 ; what kind of faith it is that justifies, 481. 

Works not the condition, but the evidence of, xiv. 5. 

A chief part of the life of faith, xv. 56 ; is the way to the life of 
sanctification, 57 j we are incapable of, and cannot hope for, the life 
of glorification without it, ib. ', the work of faith with respect to it, 
58 ; how we must set faith a-work, 61 ; the fruits of, 62. 

Must be distinguished, but not separated, from sanctification, xv. 65. 

Keeping God's word notes an exact and tender respect, keeping it as a jewel, 

or a precious treasure, that it may not be hazarded, vii. 106. 
Christ's, of his people, extends to corporal safety, x. 339. 
God's, of his people, is by his Spirit and by his providence, x. 400 ; 
necessary to us, 401. 

-Keys of the kingdom of heaven are of knowledge or doctrine, and of order 
and discipline, i. 192 j the former exercised about all sin as sin, the 
latter about sin only as it is scandalous and infectious, ib. 

Kindness, merciful, of God, noteth his bounty, or his free inclination to do us 
good without our merit, and against our merit, vii. 302. 

Kingdom of Christ has the nearest respect to the glory of God, i. 90 ; God's 
is twofold, universal, over all things, and special, ib. ; the latter has 
two branches, the kingdom of grace and the kingdom of glory, ib. ; of 
grace considered as externally administered, 91 ; and as internally 
received, ib. ; of glory is begun on our translation to heaven in the 
moment of death, ib. , consummated at the resurrection and general 
judgment, 92 ; what is implied in the prayer * Thy kingdom come,' 

The gospel state, why so called, i. 93 ; in regard of the king, Jesus 
Christ, ib. ; in regard of the subjects and their privileges, 94 ; in 
regard of the laws and manner of administration, 95 ; in regard of 
punishments and rewards, ib. j it is a spiritual kingdom, 96 ; how we 
must enter into it, 97. 

Of sin and Satan, Satan may be cast out in part, and yet retain a 
supreme interest in the heart, i. 101 ; difficulty of casting out Satan 
lieth partly in ourselves, and partly in the devil, ib. \ we can never 
be sure that Satan is wholly cast out until Christ dwell and rule in 
the heart, 102. 

254 INDEX. 

Kingdom of glory, when we pray for the coming of, we express our readiness 
for it, and our desire of it, i. 105. 

Of grace, public visible administration of, i. 107. 

Power, and glory, being God's, a ground of confidence in prayer, i. 246 ; 
directs and regulates prayer, 251. 

Of Christ, not of pomp, but of patience, ii. 115. 

Of glory, happy estate of the blessed expressed by the nature of, x. 50 ; 
partly with respect to Christ, whose glory they shall share, ib. ; a state 
of the highest dignity and dominion, the fullest joy and content, ib. ;. 
partly with respect to our loss by the fall, ib. ; prepared for them, 
51 ; by the Father's love, ib. ; the Son's merit and mediation, ib. ; 
the Spirit's work in preparing them for it, ib. ; prepared for them 
personally and determinatively, 52. 

Of darkness, to destroy the, Christ's purpose after his ascension, xv. 
21 ; this kingdom the state opposite to Christ's kingdom as mediator, 
ib. ; to demolish this corrupt estate we are all to be active in our several 
places, 22 ; our means in the eye of sense are very weak, whatever 
they are in the eye of faith, 23 ; our faith must be strong, for it is 
supported by the decree of God, the intercession of Christ, and the 
power of the Holy Ghost, 24 ; we must keep God's direction, and 
use only such means as he hath prescribed, 25 ; we must wait his 
leisure, and tarry for the season he hath appointed, 26. 

Gospel, is a kingdom of light, life, love, xviii. 31 ; of Satan is igno 
rance and error, shows and dead ceremonies, and uncharitableness, ib. 

Christ hath a spiritual, xviii. 105; the king is the Mediator, ib. ; 
the subjects are penitent believers, 106 ; the law is the gospel, ib. ; 
the sanctions are punishments and rewards, 107 ; in all reason, should 
be submitted to, ib. ; because of the right which Christ hath to 
govern, ib. ; subjection is comfortable and beneficial to us, 108 j it is 
by his kingly office that all his benefits are applied to us, ib. ; our 
personal title to all the benefits intended to us is mainly evidenced 
by our subjection to his regal authority, ib. ; we shall be unwillingly 
subject to his kingdom of power, if we be not willingly subject to his 
kingdom of grace, 109 ; his government is a blessed government, ib. ; 
carnal men greatly dislike, 110. 

Of God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, one true and only God ; besides 
this, there is the kingdom of Christ considered as mediator, xix. 213. 

Christ's, the title or right to the privileges of, is by way of inheritance, 

xix. 214. 
Kingly office of Christ requires that he be God and man, i. 482, 490. 

Office of Christ little exercised on earth during his humiliation, x. 468. 
Kings, princes, and magistrates, necessary for them to know God's testimonies, 
vi. 488; as men, ib. as rulers and potentates, ib. ; that they may 
understand their place and duty, ib. ; that they may be carried 
through their cares, and fears, and snares, 489 ; so they shall be a 
double blessing to the people, ib. 

Christians are made, xix. 90 ; here spiritually, in proportion as they 
vanquish the devil, the world, and the flesh, ib. ; hereafter, visibly, 
gloriously, and eternally, ib. 

Kinsman, great comfort that Christ is, by his incarnation, ii. 294 ; and by 
our regeneration, 295 ; as kinsman he is our redeemer, ib. ; pays the 
price and ransom of his captivated brethren, ib. ; revenges the quarrel 
of his slain kinsmen upon the murderer, 296. 
Knowledge, the first radical act of faith, iii. 415. See Faith. 

INDEX. 255 

Knowledge, true, is considerate, iii. 425 ; convincing, ib. ; wise, prudent, and 
directive, 426 ; affective, ib. ; practical, 427 ; spiritual, 428. 

Of God in Christ, means of growth in, iii. 433 ; reading the word, hear 
ing, prayer, meditation, laying aside prejudices, 434. 

Enables to bear trials, iv. 28. 

Of scripture, and delight in it, must be directed to practice, vi. 107. 

Of the things of God, degrees of, vi. 165 ; simple nescience, as in the 
heathen, ib.; a grammatical knowledge, but not a spiritual, 166; 
dogmatical knowledge, ib. ; gracious illumination, ib. 

Reproof of those who desire, only to inform their judgments or satisfy 
their curiosity, vi. 347, 352. 

Sound saving, is such as doth establish the heart against all delusions, 
and keepeth us on truth's side, vi. 256 ; such as causeth the soul to- 
lie under the dominion, life, and power of the truth, and aweth and 
commandeth the heart into obedience, ib. ; when it giveth us pru 
dence how to practise, ib. ; excellency of, 257 ; vastness and latitude 
of, ib. : profit that cometh by, 258. 

Man not led by, but by judgment, vii. 204. 

God's grace free in making a difference between man and man as to 
measures and degrees of, viii. 11 ; sovereignty of his distribution, 12; 
equity and proportion, ib. ; God giveth to whom he pleaseth, yet so 
that those who meditate most thrive most, ib. 

Saving, a benefit that must be asked of God, vii. 183 ; God is the pro 
per author of it, ib. ; it is a singular favour to them on whom he 
bestoweth it, 184 ; prayer is the appointed means to obtain it, ib. ; 
cannot be too often, or sufficiently often, asked of God, 185. 

In the general, is man's excellency, ix. 30 ; divine, is better than all others, 
31 ; of the knowledge of God, practical is better than speculative, *'&.; 
of practical, the best is transforming, regenerating, saving, 32 ; to be 
sought not only by beginners, but grown Christians, ib. -, that we may 
escape the deceits of a subtle devil, 33 ; that we may serve a holy 
God with such exactness and diligence as doth become his excellency, 
ib. ; that we may be prepared for an everlasting estate by degrees, 

Christ's, of his people, is as they fall under the purposes of his grace, ix. 
405 ; as they are under the care of his special providence, 406 ; as 
they are the subjects of his rewarding grace, ib. 

Of God, the way to life eternal, or life eternal begun, and is the root 
and foundation, x. 140, 142. 

Means to grow in, x. 144 ; wait upon the preaching of the word, ib. ; 
read the word with diligence, ib. ; read with prayer, 145 ; study the 
creatures, 146 ; spiritualise every outward advantage, ib. ; purge your 
heart more and more from carnal affections, ib. ; beware of novelism, 
ib. ; directions, 147 ; progress in knowledge is rather in degrees than 
in parts, ib. ; fundamentals in the scripture are clear and certain, ib. ; 
these necessary doctrines must be entertained without doubt and 
hesitancy, ib. ; we must be zealous for lesser truths when we have 
received them upon certain grounds, 148 ; take up no practices nor 
principles but upon full conviction, ib. ; no other knowledge but that 
of God and Christ sufficient to life eternal, ib. ; this is sufficient, 

Before faith, in faith, and after faith, x. 236. 

Of God, the only way to blessedness, xi. 118; because the foundation 
of the eternal state must be laid in this life, ib. ; there is no serving 

256 INDEX. 

or enjoying of God but by knowledge, 119 ; none without the know 
ledge of Christ as mediator, 120 ; because God will accept no honour 
from the creature but in and through Christ, ib. ; because God, out 
of Christ, is not comfortable, but terrible, ib. 

Knowledge, God's, of his people, importeth his eternal election of them before 
all time, xviii. 140 ; his gracious conversion of them in time, ib. ; his 
particular notice of them in the course of Ms providence, 141 ; the 
intimate familiarity that is between God and them in holy ordinances, 
and the whole couyse of their conversation, ib. ; acknowledgment of 
them at the last day, 142. 

' A form of/ what it is, xix. 381 ; a grammatical and mernorative 
knowledge, ib. ; dogmatical and opinionative knowledge, ib. ; such as 
produces some touch upon the heart, but slender and transitory, ib. 

Of Christ, even speculative, is a great privilege, xx. 21 ; saving, is 
such as is accompanied with faith, love, and obedience, ib. ; better than 
all others, 22 ; effect of, 24 ; necessity, pleasure, and profit of, 26. 

Of Christ, experimental, benefits of, xx. 52 ; experience gives us a 
more intimate knowledge, ib. ; a greater confirmation of the truth, 
ib. ; greater incitement to the love of Christ and his ways, 53 ; doth 
more engage to zeal and diligence in the heavenly life, 54 ; motives 
to get, 55 ; means of getting, 57. 

labour without God cannot prosper, against God will surely miscarry, iv. 

Lactantius peremptorily said that the world would last but two hundred 

years after his time, iii. 18. 

Lamb, Christ called, in scripture, for three reasons, iii. 338 ; as it is an 
emblem of innocence, meekness, and patience, ib. ; as it may import 
weakness and slenderness of appearance in the world, ib. ; it noteth 
the meekness and sweetness of Christ, willingly yielding to be a 
sacrifice for us, ib. 

Of God, Christ the true, xviii. 475 ; resembles a lamb in innocency, 
ib. ; in liableness to injuries, ib. j in meekness and patience, 476 ; 
the sacrificial lamb, ib. ; the paschal lamb, 477. See Paschal lamb. 

Lapses and falls, for recovery from, is required particular and express repent 
ance, ii. 199. 

Latitudinarians, reproof of, vi. 309. 
Law, a ceremony of the Levitical, must not hinder a necessary duty of the 

moral, ii. 5. 

How the strength of sin, ii. 442 ; by discovering it, ib. ; by binding 
over the sinner to the curse and wrath of God, ib. ; augmenteth it 
by forbidding it, ib. 

The natural man opposes both tables of the, iii. 310. 
Obedience required by, must be full and entire, iii. 418 ; must be of the 
whole man, soul and body, 419 ; must be constant and universal, 

Christ the giver of, as well as of the gospel, iv. 207. 
A crafty pretence when one part of it is pleaded to excuse obedience 

to another, iv. 211. 

In the hands of Christ, a law of liberty, iv. 219 j it is directive and 
imperative, ib. ; yet a law of liberty, ib. ; we are freed from the law 
as a covenant of works, ib. ; from the curse and condemnation, 220 ; 
from the irritation, ib. ; from bondage and terrors, ib. 

INDEX. 257 

Law presupposeth an innocent nature, and requires universal, perpetual, 
perfect obedience, v. 476 ; its penalty a universal and eternal curse, 
477 ; either terrifieth or stupefieth the conscience, ib. 

Of God, the rule of life, vi. 9 ; to be consulted with on all occasions for 
information, that we may neither act short nor over, ib. ; and to awe 
us, 11 ; obedience to, must be sincere, ib. ; constant, 12; uniform 
and entire, ib. ; such obedience the way to true blessedness, ib. 

Not obscure, but men blind, vi. 164. 

Odious to the flesh, acceptable to a gracious heart, vi. 287 ; writing 
upon our hearts, an act of grace, 288. 

To keep God's, needeth a great deal of understanding, vi. 348 ; that we 
may know his way, and understand what God commandeth or for- 
biddeth, ib. to avoid the snares that are laid for us in the course of 
our duty to God, ib. ; that we may respect things according to their 
order, and places, and proportions, 349 ; that we may judge aright of 
time, and place, and manner of doing, 350 ; because our affections 
answer our understanding, 351. 

Of God, to- forsake, is folly, vii. 57 ; is injury done to God, ib. ; is 
shameful ingratitude, 58 ; is a disowning his property in us, ib. ; is a 
contempt of his glorious majesty, ib. punishment of, 59 ; forfeiting all 
the promises of this world and the next, ib. ; endurance of eternal fire, 60. 

The moral obligation of, still lieth on God's servants that are taken 
into the covenant of grace, viii. 283. 

Made void, formally, when men deny the authority of God, viii. 297 ; 
interpretatively when they wilfully and consistently disobey it, ib. 

Of God is such a rule and direction as men would choose if they were 
at their own liberty, provided they were wise, and not brutified by 
inordinate passions, evil customs, and discomposure of soul, viii. 458. 

Is just and righteous, the violation of which men judge to be justly 
punished, viii. 459. 

Word of God hath the nature and force of, ix. 8 ; to man individually, 
ib. ; to the church, 9 ; agrees with the laws of man in that it is an 
act of power and sovereignty, by which a superior declareth his will 
to those that are subject to him, $. ; in that there is not only direction 
given to us, but obligation laid upon us, ib. ; in that it hath a sanction 
of rewards arid punishments, 10 ; in that this sanction is enforced by 
a judge, ib. ; differs from the laws of man, in that these only com 
mand, but God condescends to reason, and persuade, and entreat, ib. ; 
in that God's law binds the conscience and the immortal soul, the 
laws of man only the outward behaviour, 1 1 ; in that men may grant 
immunity from their laws, God granteth none from his, ib. ; in that 
man's laws propound only punishments, God's hath punishments and 
rewards, ib. God's, is truth, 12 j the chief truth, the only truth, the 
pure truth, the whole truth, ib. 

Of God, it is the property of God's children not only to keep, but to 
love, ix. 201 ; they love God, and therefore his law, ib. they find 
such excellency in, that they must needs love, 202 ; there is no proper 
keeping, without loving, 204. 

We must not only obey, but love, ix. 233 ; we can never thoroughly 
and constantly keep, without love to it, ib. except we obey because 
we love, our obedience is not sincere and acceptable, ib. ; the next 
object to God fit for our love is his law, 234 ; want of love to, is 
the reason why so many miscarry in the way of godliness, ib. ; our 
love to, must be exceeding strong, 235. 

258 INDEX. 

Law discovereth the multitude and heinous nature of our offences, xi. 157; 

gives an awakening sense of the punishment due to sin, ib. 
Exemption from the rigours and curse of, abused to licentiousness, xi. 

303 ; we are still under the law as a rule of obedience, ib. 
Of the spirit of life, and law of sin and death, mean the covenant of 

grace and the covenant of works, xi. 395. 
Can neither give justification nor sanctification, xi. 422. 
Of the cleansing the leper a type of the sacrifice and intercession of 

Christ and sanctification by the Spirit, xii. 73. 

Hath a twofold office, convincing of sin and threatening punish 
ment, xii. 102. 
1 And the prophets,' an expression commonly used in apostolic times to 

denote all the scriptures then extant, xvii. 420. 

Of God, all mankind are under, xx. 490 ; man being God's creature, is 
therefore his subject, ib. being God's subject, hath a certain law given 
to him, ib. ; being under a law, should be very tender of breaking it, 
491 ; reasons why, ib. ; the heinousness of sin is determined by its 
contrariety to this law, 493 ; how many ways this law may be trans 
gressed, ib. j those that live in any allowed breach of this law cannot 
look upon themselves as God's children, 495 ; the dangerous condition 
of those who live in a course of sin, 497. 
Lawful things must be disesteemed, discountenanced, and rejected, for Christ's 

sake, xx. 14. 
Laws, man's, do more incline to punishments than rewards, but God's pro- 

poundeth rewards equal to the punishments, xi. 367. 
Lazarus, not every, carried into Abraham's bosom, iv. 61. 
Leaning on God, what it is, xiv. 115. 

Legalism confuted, x. 62 ; works not the moving cause to incline God to 

give us Christ, or the grace of faith, or conversion, 63 ; not the 

righteousness by which sin is expiated, ib. ; not the instrument by 

which we apply the merits of Christ to ourselves, ib. 

Legality, partial in the regenerate, and in the carnal predominant, xii 


Levelling, God's providence contrary to, v. 308. 
Liberality of God in his gifts, iv. 42. 

Liberius, Bishop of Rome, an instance of inconstancy, iv. 35. 
Liberty, carnal, is but thraldom, vi. 479 ; it hindereth and disableth man 
from prosecuting his great end, 480 ; disordereth the constitution of 
the soul, ib. sin a powerful tyrant, 481 ; the bondage increased by 
custom, ib. ; fear of death and damnation doggeth sin at the heels, 
482 ; true, is in the ways of God, ib. ; we are directed how to attain 
our great end, ib. ; the noblest faculties are exercised in the noblest 
and most regular way of operation, ib. 
Holy and blessed, to be freed from the power of sin and the curse of 

the law, xi. 304 ; sinful, to be free from righteousness, ib. 
There is one kind of, which is the perfection of human nature, and 

another which is a defection from God, xi. 336. 

Christ procureth and purchaseth, both from the damning power of the 
law and the slavery of corruption, xi. 417 ; the new covenant offereth 
this grace to us, 418 ; and assures and establishes it, ib. ; the Spirit 
applieth to us, both as to the effects and the sense, ib. 
Of God's children in this world, what it is, xii. 170 ; such as becometh 
a creature in subjection to God, 171 ; such as will leave us in a 
capacity to pursue our chief good and last end, ib. ; such as will suit 

INDEX. 259 

with the dignity of a rational creature, 172 ; such as will bring us 
nearest to the state of innocency and the state of glory, ib. ; implies 
possession of the immunities and privileges of God's children, 173 ; 
their rights and prerogatives, 174; the glorious liberty of God's 
children in the world to come considered as to the soul and as to the 
body, 175 ; our liberty now and then contrasted, ib. 
Lie, if one, would save the world, we must not tell it, i. 134. 
Lies promissory, are worst of all, ii. 219. 

Are assertory, vi. 278 ; or promissory, 279 ; to God, ib. ; to man, 280 ; 
the sporting lie, ib. ; the officious, 281 ; the pernicious, ib. ; scripture 
condemns all without restriction, ib. ; greatness of the sin, 282, 
remedies against, 285. 

Life not to be valued but as it yieldeth opportunities to glorify God, i. 81. 

Of the Redeemer after his death, a visible demonstration of the truth of 
the gospel in general, and in particular of the article of eternal life, 
ii. 298 ; a token of the acceptation of his purchase, ib. ; implies his 
capacity to intercede for us, ib. ; it is the root and cause of our life, 

And death as the fruit of good and evil, ministers are to set before the 
people in a lively manner, ii. 358 ; conjunction dependent on the 
wisdom of God, 359 ; his justice, 360 ; and holiness, ib. ; both 
eternal, 361 ; certainty of, 362 ; shown by reason, ib. ; by conscience, 
364 ; by scripture, ib. 

Spiritual, foundation of, is the life of Christ, iii. 359 ; known by freeness, 
power, and likeness, 360. 

A Christian's, must be suitable to the purity and dignity of his calling 
v. 25. 

Prolongation of, in itself a blessing, vi. 155 ; is of God's gift, 156 ; 
of the mere bounty and free grace of God, ib. ; scope of, God's ser 
vice, 160. 

A Christian's, is a life of love and praise, a hymn to God, vii. 169. 

Spiritual, what it is, viii. 194; of justification, 195; of sanctification, 
ib. ; of glory, ib. ; distinct from life natural, ib. ; excellency above 
natural, 196 ; vitality of, lies in faith and love, 197. 

Natural, we do well to value, but not in competition with our duty and 
love to Christ, ix. 34 ; is better preserved in a way of obedience than 
by evil-doing, ib. ; spiritual, is twofold of justification and of sancti 
fication, 35 ; everlasting, is our blessed estate in heaven, ib. 

The principal end for which a man should desire, is to praise and 
glorify God, ix. 293 ; may be desired for this end, 295. 

Eternal, is Christ's gift, x. 133 ; not only bear subsistence for ever, but 
also tranquillity and happiness, ib. ; is begun and carried on by 
degrees, 135 ; the foundation laid in regeneration, ib. ; progress made 
presently after death, ib. ; consummation of all joy at the resurrection 
of the body, 136. 

Newness of, xi. 173 ; its foundation is the new birth or regeneration, 
ib. ; consisting of mortification and vivification, ib. ; its rule is the 
infallible revelation of God, 174 ; its end is the pleasing, glorifying, 
and enjoying of God, ib. ; is a godly life, ib. ; a holy life, ib. ; a 
heavenly life, 175 ; Christ both the cause and the pattern of it, 

The only amiable, is that which is spent in God's service, xi. 353 ; 
because of the pleasure of it, ib. ; and the profit, 354 ; God will for- 

260 INDEX. 

give their sins, ib. ; and assure them of his love, ib. ; conscience 
speaketh peace and comfort, 356 ; the title to the heavenly inherit 
ance is more clear, ib. ; easier access to God, 357 ; work is more easy, 
because not done against the bent of the heart, ib. ; mercies and com 
forts are more sweet, because they come from God's love, and are used 
to his glory, 358; because of the honour of it, 359; holiness is the 
image of God upon the soul, ib. ; high and noble ends, 360 ; a noble 
course, ib. ; the approbation of God, 361 ; the excellency is intrinsic, 
ib. ; the honour is everlasting, 362. 

Life eternal, what it is, xi. 363 ; life both in soul and body, 364 ; a good 
and happy state, 365 ; endless and everlasting, 366. 

Eternal, is the full fruition of eternal joys, without any possibility of 
losing them, xi. 377 ; is God's free and gracious gift to the sanctified, 
ib. ; the freest gift, 378 ; the richest gift, ib. 

Believers have, notwithstanding death, xii. 15 ; this to be understood of 
body and soul, ib. ; the righteousness of Christ the meritorious cause, 

Everlasting, a benefit of the new covenant, xii. 120. 

But a passage to eternity, xiii. 5. 

The happy condition of the godly ao called, xiii. 83 ; temporal and 
eternal compared, ib. 

Natural, what it is, xiii. 203. 

To come, proved from the righteousness of God, since else Christians were 
of all men most miserable, xix. 133 ; argued from God's wisdom, 134 ; 
and holiness, ib. , and justice, 135 ; and goodness, ib. ; from the 
nature, state, and condition of man, 137 ; as God's subjects, ib. ; as 
bound to be upright and sincere in God's service, 138 ; with respect 
to man's comfort and solace in his troubles, ib. ; with respect to the 
credit and esteem of God's servants in the world, 139 ; should sup 
port in sharp afflictions, ib. ; and in death, 140; nature saith it may 
be, faith saith it shall be, 141. 

The great end and business of a Christian, should be to honour and 
glorify Christ, xx. 179 ; is from him and should be to him, 180 ; we 
are his by creation, ib. ; preservation, 182; redemption, 183; con 
quest, 184 ; actual possession, ib. ; resignation and voluntary con 
sent, ib. ; only worth having when we can honour Christ by it, ib. ; 
directions, 185 ; motives, 186. 

Eternal, our present afflictions are as nothing in comparison of the hope 

of, xx. 372. 

Light gotten by the word of God is lux manifestans; it manifesteth itself and 
all things else, viii. 352; lux dirigens, ib.; lux vivificans, ib. ; lux 
exhilarans, 353. 

Necessity of divine, before we can understand the things of God, x. 201. 

Of faith and light of prophecy, wherein they differ and wherein they 
agree, xiv. 400. 

In the Lord, how Christians are, xix. 245 ; noteth not so much their 
perfection as the perfection of the dispensation they are under, ib. ; 
noteth some good measure and degree of participation, ib. ; noteth 
that they have received grace, not only for themselves, but for the 
good of others, 246. 

And darkness, children of, there should be a broad and sensible dif 
ference between, xix. 306 ; this difference discovered by those actions 
that are proper to either state, 307 ; this distinction to be kept up on 
the part of the godly, ib. ; the children of God are fitted and prepared 

INDEX. 261 

for this, 308 ; great inconveniences follow if the distinction be not 
maintained, ib. 

Lights, God the father of, iv. 112 ; lessons from this title, 113. 

Like for like, awarded even to God's children in this world, ii. 382. 

Likeness of believers to Christ as the eternal son of God, xi. 55 ; as Media 
tor, ib. 

To Christ, in what it consists, xx. 463 ; how it is the fruit of vision, 

Little children, Christians of all ranks and ages are and should be as, xx. 381 ; 
the term implieth newness of birth, ib. ; and remission of sins, 382. 

Living to God is making his glory the scope of our lives, vii. 441 ; walking 

so as God may own us with honour, ib. 

To God, the duty and property of the spiritual life is to refer all our 
actions not to self, but to God, xiii. 210 ; self-denial required as our 
first lesson, 211 ; as soon as we are alive by grace, our affections, 
respects, and endeavours are turned into a new channel, ib. ; we cannot 
live to ourselves and God too, ib. ; living to God doth not note one 
single action, but the whole course and conduct of our lives, 213; love 
to God the great principle that draweth us off from self to God, ib. ; 
the great thing that breedeth and feedeth this love is Christ's death, 
214 ; Christ's death considered as to the intention, the grace and help 
merited, and the obligation left on the creature to live not for them 
selves but unto God, ib. ; that we are not our own, but God's, proved 
by reasons, ib. ; the danger which will ensue if we live to ourselves 
and not to God, 216 ; motives to press us to this weighty duty of 
living to God and not to ourselves, 217 ; directions, 218. 
By faith, what it is, xv. 48 ; how and why we are said to live by faith, ib. 

Longing after holiness and subjection to God, motives to, vi. 431 ; these 
desires shall be granted, ib. ; the result of the granting of them will be 
only good, ib. ; how to awaken, 432 ; go to God, who giveth to will 
and to do, ib. ; cherish the sparks, and blow them up into a flame, ib. ; 
improve your tastes, ib. ; watch over other desires that would dull and 
blunt the edge of the spirit, 433 ; renew your desires every time you 
come to God, ib. ; consider your wants, ib. ; and the fulness that is 
in Christ, 434; and his readiness to give to you, ib. 

Long -suffer ing, creation teacheth us a lesson in, xii. 181. 

God's, an encouragement to repentance, xviii. 231 ; this forbearance 
showeth that he is gracious, merciful, willing to be reconciled, ib. ; 
so doth his continuance to us of forfeited mercies, ib. ; these mercies 
do not harden in their own nature, but merely by the sinner's abuse 
of them, 232 ; he hath provided a remedy for us by Jesus Christ, ib. ; 
affected scruples whether this be intended for us are a sin, and do not 
disoblige us from our duty, 233 ; he hath appointed means, ib. ; he 
warneth us against the abuse of mercies, ib. ; he defers punishment, ib. 

WARD, ii. 130. 

Looking back, what it is, ii. 132 ; pretending to follow Christ, while the heart 
hankers after the world, 133 ; being discouraged in his service by 
trials and difficulties, ib. ; respects either mortification or vivification, 
ib. ; how ill it becometh those who have put their hand to the 
spiritual plough, 134; in respect of the covenant into which they 
enter, or the manner of entrance into it, ib. ; with respect to the 
duties of Christianity, ib. ; in respect of the hurt that cometh both to 
themselves and to religion, 135; with respect to the disproportion 

262 INDEX. 

between the things that tempt us to look back, and the things set 
before us, 136 ; instructions to avoid, 137. 

Looking, God's, upon his people, implies his favour and providence, viii. 366; 
they apprehend it a great blessing, 367 ; because in our distresses 
the main thing to be desired is not the removal of the evil, but the 
renewed sense of God's love, 368 ; because that bringeth other things 
along with it, ib. ; his love and power are set a-work, ib. ; if we con 
tinue in our misery, his look will sweeten all, ib. ; when he looks 
upon the broken-hearted, the believer, the sincere, such as love his 
name, ib. 

' For that blessed hope,' what this looking is, xvi. 173 ; what it is not, 
ib. ; in what it shows itself, 175 ; the influence it hath upon the 
spiritual life, 177 ; exhortation, 183. 


Lord arid owner of persons and things, Christ Jesus is the great, ix. 424 ; 
his power as an owner and free lord to be distinguished from his 
power as a governer and ruler, 425 ; ownership accrueth to him by 
right of creation and redemption, ib. ; is entire and absolute, ib. ; 
inalienable, 426 ; set forth by a right of making or framing anything 
as he willeth, 427 ; a right of having and possessing things so made, 
ib. ; a right of using and disposing all things thus possessed, 428. 

Lord's day, time of, to be parted into meditation, prayer, hearing, and con 
ference, vi. 149. 


Lord's prayer, connection of the first three petitions of, i. 120. 

Lord's supper, a remembrance of God's goodness to us in Christ, vii. 245 ; 
to give us a more intimate and renewed taste of this goodness, ib. ; 
to stir up our love to God, ib. to lead us to desire more communion 
with him, ib. 

Preparation for, ix. 346 ; we come to meet the bridegroom in a way of 

grace, ib. ; there should be as serious preparation for, as for death or 

judgment, ib. ; we should come with oil, both in our lamps and in 

our vessels, 347. 

We come to, to remember Christ's death, and to interest ourselves in 

the fruit of it, xi. 15. 

What we are to do and what we are to expect in, xiii. 444. 
What we ought to do before coming to, xiv. 483 ; how we ought to 
come, 484 ; what we are to do in, 486 ; what we are to do after, 

At the table of the Lord our graces should be exercised in a special 

lively manner, xv. 429 ; the general use which a sacrament has 

beyond other duties, 430 ; the special use and intent of this duty, 

431 what graces are to be exercised, 432. 

Are we bound to have assurance of our sincerity before we come to the 

table of the Lord? xv. 461. 

In approaching the table of the Lord, we should consider our aim and 
what we are going about, xv. 488 ; the benefits arising from this, 
489 ; the ends of the Lord's supper, 490; the duties our profession 
bind us to in regard of it, 492. 

A commemoration of Christ's death, not as a tragical story, but as a 
mystery of godliness, xviii. 327; two affections most proper and 
seasonable, 328 ; mourning for sin, ib. ; rejoicing in Christ Jesus, 
329 ; reflection on the cause, occasion, and benefits of the death of 
Christ, ib. ; the act is annunciative or showing forth, 332 ; to our- 

INDEX. 263 

selves, ib. ; to others, ib. ; to God, 333 ; annunciation must be serious, 
334 ; applicative, ib. ; practical, ib. 

Lordship, Christ's, is a new right of propriety and government over all men 
and things, xx. 27 ; superadded to the dominion of the Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost as creator, ib. is derivative and subordinate, ib. ; 
is comfortable and beneficial to us, 28 ; accrues to him by his own 
purchase, and his Father's grant, ib. ; we come under, by voluntary 
submission, ib. ; privileges and duties of the subjects, 29. 
Loss, converted men count those things to be, which before they counted gain, 

xx. 4. 

Lost, in what sense we are said to be, xviii. 155 ; really and indeed, ib. ; in 

our own sense and apprehension, 156 ; Christ's seeking of, implieth 

his pity of us in our lost estate, 158 ; his diligence and pains to 

reduce us, ib. ; his saving of, is by merit and by power, 160. 

Lot's wife, her sin, xv. 370; her judgment, 371; the profitableness of 

meditation on this instance, 373. 
Love feasts not obligatory, but allowed, v. 274. 

How far they are warranted in scripture, xv. 345. 
Love both acted and increased in prayer, i. 30. 

By the world's maxim, should begin at home ; by Christ's direction it 
begins with God, i. 71. 

In God, is twofold, of benevolence and of complacency, i. 385. 

Of God and our neighbour, better exercised in the shop than in the 
cloister, ii. 97. 

To God, its radical and internal acts are desire after him, ii. 236 ; and 
delight in him, 237 ; its external effects are doing and suffering his 
will, 238 ; its properties, 239 ; not speculative, but practical, ib. ; 
transcendental, ib. ; must be directed by God himself, 240 ; necessity 
of this for the unregenerate, 242; and the regenerate, 243; sanctifying 
Spirit given for this end, 245 ; ordinances appointed for this end, ib. ; 
providences tend to this end, 246. 

At the bottom of all God's grace, should be at the bottom of all our 
duties, ii. 344. 

Of God to sinners, manifested in our redemption by Christ, giveth great 
boldness and encouragement in prayer, iii. 148. 

God's general, to a lost world, the devil seeketh to hide and obscure, 
iii. 150 ; special, when this grace is applied to us, ib. 

The freeness of God's, doth not exclude the fulness of Christ's merit, iii. 

God's, greatness of, iii. 375 ; ancientness of, ib. 

Is the effect of faith, and the ground of all duty, and so the best dis 
covery of a spiritual estate, iv. 199. 

A gracious and holy affection, v. 72 ; ariseth from the sense and appre 
hension of God's love in Christ, ib. its immediate cause the grace of 
God, 73 ; its object is God himself, ib. ; carried out to its object by 
desire and delight, ib. ; God hath commanded, 74 ; God hath de 
served, 75 ; nature of, showeth that God is its proper object, 82 ; 
evidences of, 85 ; helps to, 86. 

God's, to us, ancientness of, v. 75 ; freeness of, 76 ; frequency of the 
expressions of, ib. ; variety of the expressions of, 77 ; effects of, 78 ; 
creative, ib. ; preservative, 79 ; redemptive, 80. 

Mutual, between Christians, reasons for, v. 94 ; none can have better 
grounds to love one another, ib. ; none can have higher motives than 

264 INDEX. 

the love of Christ, 95 ; none have a greater charge Christ's new 
commandment, ib. ; directions, 96. 

Love, of all graces, most needs keeping, v. 344 ; decay of, seen in a remission 
of the degrees, 345 ; or an intermission of the acts and exercises, ib. ; 
rules to prevent declining in, 346 ; to God, will put us upon looking 
for Christ's second coming, 347. 

"Was made for God and all that is of God's side; hatred, for sin, viii. 155. 
Of God to Christ as God, xi. 74; as mediator, ib. ; to the saints, 76 ; 
between these two there is a disparity, 77 ; yet a likeness, 78 ; like 
grounds, nearness and likeness, ib. ; like properties, 79 ; both are 
free, ib. ; tender and affectionate, ib. ; eternal, 80, 109 ; unchangeable, 
80 ; fruits and effects, 81 ; communication of secrets, ib. ; spiritual 
gifts, ib. ; sustentation and gracious protection, ib. ; acceptance of 
service, 82 ; reward, ib. ; chiefly to be measured by his spiritual 
bounty, 83 ; importance of a sense and comfortable apprehension of, 
85 ; means of ensuring this, ib. ; comfort to those who have the 
effects, but not the sense of, 86 ; evidences of concernment in, 87. 
God's, in Christ, is the ground of all other favours and graces whatsoever, 
xi. 136 ; all the goodness that is in us cometh from, ib. ; the love of 
God in us is from his love to us, 137 ; his love to us is in us in the 
effects, and in the sense and feeling, ib. 
To Christ, preferring a public good before our own personal eternal 

interest, an undoubted evidence of, xii. 2. 

Of God, nothing so worthy of our love, xii. 273 ; cannot reign where 
the love of the world reigneth, ib. ; the comfort by which we are 
supported in all our distresses, ib. ; there are two acts in this love, 
desire after and delight in God, 274. 

Of God, what it is in its object, act, and properties, xii. 276 ; in the 
object there is a double motive to excite us to love God, because he 
is good and doeth good, ib. ; and this goodness is threefold, essential, 
moral, and beneficial, ib. ; the act, what it is and what it implies, 278 ; 
the properties of this love, what they are and what they are not, 279 ; 
why love to God is made the evidence of our interest in the privileges 
of the sons of God, 281 ; love of God a sure and sensible note of 
effectual calling, 283 ; exhortation to love of God, 285. 
Is of invincible force, xii. 400 ; is accompanied by desire, hope, and 
delight, ib. ; this ariseth partly from the real worth of the privilege, 
and partly from their esteem and value of it, 414 ; nothing can 
separate us from the fruition of this love, ib. ; we ought to be firmly 
persuaded of this, 415 ; means whereby this persuasion is bred in 
us, ib. ; the advantage those Christians have above others who make 
it their business to love God and count it their happiness to be loved 
by him, 418. 

Of Christ, the power which secures believers in their conflicts, and 
makes them triumph over all temptations, xii. 405 ; proof from scrip 
ture and the properties of Christ's love, 407 ; it is a transcendent, 
tender, and constant love, ib. ; it is an operative and effective love, 
Of God in Christ, what it is. xii. 413 ; the people of God apprehend it 

a blessed and comfortable position when assured of this love, ib. 
Of Christ, the root and principle of all sincere desires after the glory of 

God, xiii. 122. 

The strongest arguments and the greatest terrors inoperative without, 
xiii. 139. 

INDEX. 265 

Love of God largely taken for the duties of the first table, xiii. 140; more 
particularly for our complacency and delight in him, ib. 

Of Christ, what it is, xiii. 140 ; the love of God distinguished, ib. ; the 
general nature of it, 141 ; the special object of it, 142 ; its singular 
effects, ib. ; the influence it hath upon our duties and actions, 143 ; 
whence this love to Christ cometh to have such force upon us, or is 
wrought in us, 146 ; the worth of the object and the consequent 
benefits of it, 147 ; the manner how it is considered by and applied 
to us, 148 ; several degrees of, distinguished, 149 ; love to Christ 
for worldly advantages or carnal motives bewrays a sinful respect to 
the benefits and rewards of religion, 152. 

What it is, xiii. 143, 174, 178. 

Cases of conscience (1.) Whether God is to be loved for his beneficial 
goodness only, and not for his essential and moral perfections? xiii. 
149 ; (2.) As to the actual persuasion of God's love to us, 154; (3.) 
As to the intensity and degree of love in us, 156 ; (4.) As to the decay 
of love, 159 ; (5.) As to loving God with all the heart, 169 ; (6.) As 
to how we shall get or increase love, 175. 

Several degrees of, distinguished, xiii. 149 ; a particular persuasion of 
God's love to us very comfortable, but not absolutely necessary, 154 ; 
God's love to us the reason of our love to God, ib. ; assurance the 
fruit of love, rather than love of assurance, 155 ; comparison the best 
way to discover love, 156 ; not to be measured so much by the lively 
act as the solid esteem and settled constitution, 157 ; the effects of 
solid esteem, 158 ; leaving our first love a disease not only incident 
to hypocrites, but God's children, 159 ; though the disease be common 
to both, there is a difference as to the event and issue, ib. ; decay of 
love a great and common evil, 162 ; many that are surprised with it 
are little sensible of it, 163 ; this decay is seen in two things, the 
remission of degrees and the intermission of acts, ib. ; the causes and 
remedy of this decay, 166 ; how loving God with all the heart is to 
be reconciled with love to husband, wife, children, friends, and rela 
tions, 169 ; considered as an exaction of the law and as a rule of the 
gospel, 170 ; how far we are obliged to love God with all our heart, 
and soul, and mind, and strength, if we would not forfeit our covenant 
claim of sincerity, 171 ; God doth not require that we should think 
of nothing but himself, but must have all the heart so far that nothing 
be loved against, above, or equally with him, 172 ; how we may 
know we have the love of God in us, 173 ; the standing evidence of 
love is obedience, or a universal resolution and care to please God in 
all things, 174 ; this obedience must be active, constant, and pleasant, 
ib. ; in the course of our obedience God ordereth special trials of the 
sincerity of our love to him, 175 ; what we must do to get or increase 
love to God, ib. ; though we pray, we must not neglect to use the 
means, 176 ; in what the means of exciting our love consist, ib. ; ex 
hortation to the love of God, 177 ; the sad consequences of not hav 
ing this love, 178 ; the advantages we have by it, 179. 

Of the world, a main hindrance to love of God, xiii. 177. 

To our neighbour, a means to preserve our respects to God, xv. 287 ; 
the engagements to this love, 288 ; how far this love to our neigh 
bour is to extend, 289. 

Of the world, diverts the heart from and sets it against, Christ, xvii. 
18; disposeth the soul to all evil, 19; destroys the principle of 
obedience, ib. ; hinders the receiving of good, 21. 

266 INDEX. 

Love to God, taken largely for all the duties of the first table, xviii. 137 ; or 
strictly for that particular grace which is distinct from faith and 
hope, 138 ; desiring, ib. ; complacential, 139 ; returning, ib. 

God's, to question, because of affliction, is folly, xix. 15. 

Of Christ, greater than we can think or express, xix. 17. 

Christ's, is the ground of man's redemption, xix. 83 ; the property that 
shined forth most conspicuously in the work of redemption, 84 ; a 
free love, 85 ; a real love, ib. ; eminent and transcendent love, ib. j 
full love, 86. 

To walk in, signifieth not one act or two, but the perpetual tenor of our 
lives, xix. 183 ; love must be at the bottom of all our actions and 
duties, 184; love must dwell, and bear rule, and have dominion in 
our hearts, 185 ; showing love to others must be the business of our 
lives, ib. ; Christ's love to us hath a motive, 186 ; and a pattern, 

Of God, in adopting us into his family and acknowledging us for his 
children, is such an act of grace as cannot be sufficiently considered 
anrl admired, xx. 440 ; that there is such a relation between the 
parties proved, ib. ; that this is a blessed and glorious privilege, 441 ; 
the cause and fountain of this mercy and grace was love, 442 ; the 
benefits depending from it, ib. ; with respect to the present state, 444; 
with respect to the life to come, 445 ; believers ought to excite them 
selves to earnest consideration of this great love, 446. 

To others, one great duty of believers, xxi. 87 ; what it is to love one 
another, ib. ; the acts and fruits of this love, 88 ; what it is to love 
all men, 91 ; reasons why we should love all men, 92 ; how God hath 
recommended this duty of love to others to our obedience, 93. 

Of the brethren a sure note of passing from death to life, xxi. 114; 
what it is to pass from death to life, ib. ; what love of the brethren 
is to be understood, 117 ; why so much is ascribed to this love, 119. 

To the brethren, in what it consists, xxi. 215 ; how it is conjoined with 

faith in Christ, 216. 

Loving-kindness of God noteth his disposition to do good upon his own 
motives, or his self-inclination to do good to his creatures, especially 
his people, ix. 90 ; is general, to all his creatures, especially mankind, 
ib. j or special, towards believers in Christ, ib. ; proofs and demon 
strations of, 91 ; exercised for his own glory, 92. 

Lust, as a power, noteth that habitual, primitive, and radical indisposition to 
good, and disposition to evil, that is in all the faculties, iv. 94 ; as 
an act, is nothing else but the risings and motions of the fleshly 
nature in us, ib. ; ensnares the soul either by force or flattery, 96 ; 
violence of, 97 ; how to be stopped, 104. 

Noteth properly the earnest motion of the soul after sin ; pleasure the 
contentment it findeth in sin, iv. 325. 

Walking after, v. 312 ; a willing subjection to lust as a law and master, 
ib. ; customary practice and observance,^.; fond indulgence, 313; 
is a note of unregeneracy, ib. ; dissuasives from, 314. 

' Of the flesh,' in what it consists, xvi. 93, 94, 110. 

' Of the eyes,' in what it consists, xvi. 93, 95, 113. 

Lusts war in the heart even of a godly man, iv. 330 ; otherwise than in that 
of a wicked man, 331. 

Though they dispute every inch with grace, do easily give way to suc 
ceeding corruptions, iv. 412. 

INDEX. 267 

Lusts must be prevented by mortification, and suppressed by watchfulness, 

and kept by resolution from execution, v. 316. 
The more they are mortified, the mose sincerely will we seek after the 

glory of God, xiii. 136. 

Foolish, xviii. 192 ; hurtful, ib. destroying our peace, ib. ; injurious 
to grace, 193 ; their tendency is ruin in this world, ib. ; perdition or 
eternal damnation, ib. 

Luxury, a sin very natural to us, iv. 412 ; chiefly incident to the rich, ib. ; 
tbeir abundance doth not excuse it, ib. 

Lying, the way of, either means generally the way of sin, vi. 276 ; or parti 
cularly the sin of falsehood, 277 ; men strongly inclined to, 278 ; 
most inconsistent with the temper and sincerity of a child of God, 

In the ordinary acceptation of it, is speaking that which is false, with an 
intention to deceive, ix. 187 ; or concealing the truth which ought to 
be confessed, 188 ; or when our practices do not correspond with our 
profession, ib. ; to be hated and abhorred. 

To God, argueth not only 'falsity and hypocrisy, but mischief or evil 
thoughts of God, xix. 279 ; to men, is assertory or promissory, 280 ; 
different kinds of, ib. ; the sporting lie, ib. ; the officious lie, 281 ; 
the pernicious lie, ib. ; in ordinary commerce, 282 ; in courts of jus 
tice, ib. 

A. sin most contrary to the nature of God, who is truth itself, xix. 283 ; 
Jesus Christ was eminent for sincerity and truth, ib. ; nothing maketh 
us more like the devil, ib. ; a sin most contrary to the new nature 
wrought in the saints, 284 ; a sin most contrary to human society, ib. ; 
a sin very hateful to God, 285 ; a sin shameful and odious in the 
eyes of men, ib. 

Magistrate, his official duty regarding religion, v. 237. 
Magistrates, their duty to suppress error, v. 120. 
Are under Christ as Mediator, x. 131. 
Must not be obeyed in things contrary to the word of God, xiv. 424 ; 

have not always been the best friends to Christ, 425. 
Majesty of God, great and glorious, i. 403 ; in the present state we are not 

able to bear any extraordinary manifestation of, 406. 
And composure of the scriptures, viii. 335. 
Malice and ill-will lead to detraction, ii. 276. 

Of the Jews, acts of, ascribed to the ordination of God, iii. 369. 
Of the wicked against the children of God ariseth from envy at their 
interests, their esteem and respect in the world, viii. 129; from 
hatred of their holiness, ib. 

Man, his natural condition as set forth in scripture, i. 139 ; born in sin, ib. ; 
greedy of sin, 140 ; sin the constant frame of his heart, ib. ; his 
inability to reclaim himself, ib. 
Christ called the Son of, not to deny his Godhead, but to express the 

verity of his human nature, xviii. 155. 

Manifestation of God's name by Christ to his people is by outward revela 
tion and inward illumination, x. 198. 

Of the saints, how the saints will be manifested, xii. 155 ; the circum 
stances attending their manifestation, ib. ; that this manifestation 
ought to be earnestly desired and expected by us, 156. 

Mankind universally gone astray from God and the way of true happiness, 
iii. 296 ; all sinners by nature, 297 ; all that come to the use of rea- 


son have actually sinned against God, 299 ; this departing from God 
fitly represented by the straying of sheep, 301. See Departing. 

Man of sin. the name given by the Jews to Antiochus, iii. 31 ; applicable to 
the Papacy, 32. 



Marriage, in its purity, may stand with the strictest rules of holiness, ii. 100. 
Holily entered into when the parties take one another out of God's 
hands, ii. 163 ; when the directions of God's word are observed as to 
the choice of parties, ib. ; as to consent of parents, 164 ; as to gain 
ing one another by warrantable, yea, religious ways, ib. j as to clear 
ing up our right and title by Christ, ib. ; as to the end, 165 ; God's 
providence to be owned in, ib. ; to enter into, holily, a necessary duty, 
166 ; in entering on, we are to ask his leave, 169 ; his direction, 170; 
his blessing, ib. ; advice to persons entering into, ib. ; that God be no 
loser, ib. ; that he be a gainer, 171. 
The apostle Paul's comparison of the law to, xii. 104. 

Mary, the Virgin, Romanists pray more to, than to God, iii. 99. 

Masters, the choice of, is the great business which belongeth to our duty, xi. 
309 ; in the choice we are guided by considerations of right and 
interest, 310 ; the two, are sinful self and holy God, ib. ; no man 
can serve both, 311 ; by nature all of us are servants of sin, grace 
maketh us servants of God, 312 ; both sorts of servants receive wages 
suitable and proportionable to the work they have done, 314 ; con 
siderations to choose God's service, ib. ; and to continue therein, 315. 
Two, divide the world between them, sin and God, xii. 248 ; both ser 
vices are entered into by consent, ib. ; sin a usurper, and our enemy 
as well as God's, 249 ; hence our duty to yield up ourselves to the 
Lord, ib. with hearty and full consent of will, 250 ; out of a deep 
sense of his love arid mercy, ib. \ with grief and shame that his right 
hath been so long detained from him, ib. ; the resolution must be 
full and entire, ib. ; to submit ourselves both to his disposing and 
commanding will, 251. 

Matches, three must be made ere the conscience can have solid rest and quiet, 
iv. 123 ; God and man must be brought together, ib. ; justice and 
mercy must be brought together, 124 j comfort and duty must be 
brought together, 126. 

Matheo Langi, Archbishop of Salzburg, on the reformation of the Catholic 
church, xiii. 221. 

Mean condition, they that fear God may be reduced to, viii. 490 ; that they 
may know their happiness is not in this world, ib. ; to cut off the 
visions of the flesh, and the fuel of their lust, 491 ; that they may 
be sensible of God's displeasure against their sins, ib. ; that they may 
learn to live upon the promises, and exercise suffering graces, 492 ; 
that God may convince his enemies that there is a people who serve 
him disinterestedly, ib. that his glory may be more seen in their 
deliverance, ib. 

Meanness and want of outward pomp and splendour, the great pre 
judice against the entertainment of Christ and the things of his king 
dom, iii. 223 ; yet is by the special appointment of God, 228 ; 
willingly taken up by him in his birth, and life, and manner of 
appearing among men, 229 ; his meanness a great mercy to mankind, 

Means, none can avail without God's blessing, i. 276. 

INDEX. 269 

Means, God worketh by, both in naturals and spirituals, ii. 318. 

Obligation to use, reconcilable with man's impotency, v. 482. 

The Lord both sendeth and blesseth, vii. 210. 

"Whether moral or ritual, no further effectual than they aro accom 
panied by faith, iv. 454. 

Meditation, occasional, an act by which the soul spiritualiseth every object 
about which it is conversant, vi. 139 ; set and solemn, 140 ; reflective, 
a solemn parley between a man and his own heart, ib. ; direct, when 
we exercise our minds in the word of God, and the matters contained 
therein, ib. 

A duty, vi. 141 ; a necessary duty, ib. ; a profitable duty, 142. 

And study necessary in order to obedience, vii. 18 ; to know the mind 
of God, and understand our duty, 19 ; to keep up a fresh remembrance 
of our duty, ib. \ to inkindle our affections, ib. ; to show our love, 

On God's precepts, necessity of, vii. 333 ; truths lie hid in the heart, 
without any efficacy, till improved by deep, serious, and pressing 
thoughts, ib. ; God will not be served by-the-bye and at haphazard, 
334 ; to divert our thoughts from other things, ib. j to keep our prin 
ciples in view and memory, ib. 

On the word of God proceeds from love of it, vii. 478 ; and increases 
this love, 479 ; exhortation to, 481. 

Three sorts of, viii. 12 ; of observation, when a man compares the word 
and providence, ib. ; of study and search, inquiring into the word of 
God to find out his mind, ib. ; of consideration, when we consider 
that which we read and hear, how it may be fit for use and practice, 
and of what moment it is for our eternal weal or woe, 13 ; private, 
must be joined with public hearing, ib. ; a great help towards gracious 
improvement, 14. 

A necessary duty, ix. 78 ; a great help to our natural faculties, 79 ; to 
our graces, ib. ; to our duties, 80 ; exhortation to, ib. 

The fuel of faith, xiii. 376. 

The fruits of, xiii. 406. 

0^/j ddohsffxftffaiy^ meaning of the word, xvii. 264 ; what it is, 267 ; 
the necessity and profit of it, 274 ; rules to guide us in this holy 
work, 277 ; lets or hindrances, 281 ; helps and remedies, ib. ; the 
meditation proper to the sacrament, 288 ; the time for meditation, 
298 ; the persons who are to meditate, 299 ; rules as to the choice 
of object, 300 ; the method and manner, 303 ; particular objects of 
meditation : the chief end of man, 306 ; the sinfulness of sin, 314 ; 
the excellency of the gospel, 331 ; providence, 339. 
Mediator, Christ's office as, required that he should be God and man, i. 480. 

Owning and worshipping God by Jesus Christ as, is the sum of the 
Christian religion, xviii. 260 ; necessity of, on account of our dis 
tance from God, 261 ; and our disagreements with him, ib. \ none 
but Christ fit for this office, 262 ; comforts and duties resulting from 
his mediatorship, 264 ; who receive the benefit of his mediation, 
266 ; those who take upon them the profession of being his servants 
and obedient subjects to Christ, ib. ; those who really enter into the 
evangelic estate, 267. 

Meekness inviteth injury, but always to its own cost, iv. 417. 
Meetness, God frameth his people unto that happy estate to which he hath 
appointed them, xii. 478 ; what this meetness implies, ib. 

270 INDEX. 

MelchisedeTc a type of Christ, i. 479. 

Memory, a bad, one great defect that the people of God are troubled with, 
v. 307. 

Sanctified, the Holy Ghost makes use of, bringing scriptures to our re 
membrance as we have need, vi. 104. 

Men, Christ useth the ministry of, in the work of salvation, and that not out 
of indigence, but indulgence, x. 196 ; it is most for the glory of God, 
ib. it trieth our obedience, ib. ; it is the most rational way, ib. ', the 
surest way, 197 ; a comfortable way, ib. 

Merchants very liable to thoughts and discourses savouring of carnal pre 
sumption and confidence, iv. 388. 

Mercies, common, God gives us possession of, i. 150 ; he gives a right and title 
to them, 151 ; he gives the continuance of them, 152 ; he gives us 
leave to use them, ib. \ he gives us ability to use them, 153 ; he gives 
us a sanctified use of them, ib. he gives the natural blessing on their 
holy use, 154 ; he gives us contentment with them, ib. 

Common, a kind of election and reprobation in giving to some and with 
holding from others, i. 162. 

Common, the Lord's goodness to be acknowledged in, vi. 157. 

Of God (plural), notes the plenty and perfection of this attribute in God, 
vi. 441 j the frequency of it, 442 ; the variety of our necessities, ib. ; 
the many favours to be bestowed on us, 443. 

Bestowed upon some of God's children, should be, and are, an occa 
sion of joy and comfort to all the rest, vii. 281 ; they are all members 
of one body, 282 ; it is for the honour and glory of God, 283 ; it is 
for the profit and comfort of all, ib. ; joy is communicative, 284. 

God's saving, not enough that we have of ; we must beg that we may 
have experience of them in our own souls, vii. 313 ; sense or partici 
pation of, is to believers the life of their lives, and the want of it as 
a kind of death to them, 314 ; better than life natural, the vitality of 
life spiritual, the beginning and pledge of life eternal, ib. 

Great and tender, are in the Lord Jehovah, ix. 159. 

Spiritual, the chief subject of thanksgiving, xi. 325 ; they are discrimi 
nating, ib. ; they concern the better part, ib. they are purchased at 
a dear rate, ib. ; they have a near connection with heaven, ib. ; they 
incline and fit the heart for praise and thanksgiving to God, ib. ; they 
are never given in anger, as outward mercies may be, ib. ; they render 
us acceptable to God, ib. ; we need acknowledge them, that God may 
have the sole glory of them, ib. 

Received, call for answerable returns, xvii. 386 ; what it is to render 
according to what we have received, ib. ; it is a sign we are unthank 
ful under mercies when the heart is lifted up upon the enjoyment of 
them, 390 ; cautions against the pride of self-dependence, 393. 

Old, especially national, should not be forgotten, xviii. 41. 

All swim to the believer in Christ's blood, xx. 186. 
Mercy and truth, the two pillars of the covenant, i. 67. 

God no loser by acts of, i. 68. 

All God's gifts are of, i. 155. 

By a kind of pardoning, we subsist every moment, i. 157. 

Value of, ii. 20 ; better than sacrifice, ib. ; preferred before the external 
observance of the sabbath, 21 ; more than gospel externals of wor 
ship, ib. ; more excellent than all the gifts of the gospel, ib. ; without 
it, faith and love to God are not genuine, ib. j the qualification of 
finding mercy, ib. 

INDEX, 271 

Mercy ) why men not more affected with, ii. 343 ; stupid carelessness, ib. ; 
unbelief, ib. ; inconsideration, ib. ; want of the Spirit's light, ib. 

Never obtained but in the use of means, iv. 9. 

One, from God, is but a step to another, iv. 44. 

'Kejoiceth over judgment,' different explanations of, iv. 225. 

God exerciseth acts of, with delight, iv. 231 ; in us, a sign of our interest 
in God ; s, ib. 

Shown either to those that offend, or to those that want, iv. 320. 

The rise and cause of all the good we have from God, v. 56 the aim 
of the whole scripture to represent God merciful, 57 ; represented as 
his delight and pleasure, ib. ; scripture representeth God as exercising, 
though with some present disadvantage to his glory, ib. ; speaketh 
much of his readiness to receive returning sinners, 58 ; God not only 
admits them to come, but of his own accord inviteth them that are 
slack and backward, ib. ; they that refuse the offers of his grace long 
borne with, 59 ; the aim, not only of the word, but of providence, and 
of all the dispensations of God to the creature, to represent him mer 
ciful, ib. represented to us in many notions, 60. 

Of the Lord Jesus Christ, looking for, implies patience, v. 349 ; but 
chiefly hope, ib. ; bewrayeth itself by frequent and serious thoughts, 
350; by hearty groans, and sighs, and longings, 351 ; by lively tastes 
and feelings, ib. ; sets us a-work to purge out .sin, ib. ; withdraweth 
our hearts from present things, ib. ; maketh us upright and sincere, 
ib. ; supporteth us under difficulties and afflictions, 352. 

Natural to God, vi. 446 ; pleasing to him, 447 ; plentiful in him, ib. 
is the great wonder of the divine nature, ib. ; he is communicative 
of, ib. 

The fountain of all that we expect from God, vii. 124. 

Of God, all men's minds possessed with an apprehension of, vii. 187 ; 
every creature a monument and witness of, ib. 

Noteth a propension and inclination to commiserate the afflicted, and the 
actual exhibition of help and relief to the miserable, vii. 301 ; its 
object is mercy, 302 ; scripture full of, 303. 

Of God, is more to his people than to others, vii. 303. 

God's best servants have no other and better plea than that God would 
deal with them in, viii. 274 \ because since the fall there is no claim 
ing but by the covenant of grace and mere mercy, ib. ; as there is no 
merit in the best saints, so there is much demerit, 275 ; from the 
humility of the saints, 276. 

God's, the cause of all his favour to us, or gracious dealing with us, viii. 
369 ; because there was nothing in us to move him to be gracious to 
us, 370 ; much to the contrary, both before and after conversion, ib. 

A form of the divine goodness, ix. 160 \ implies the ready inclination 
that is in God to relieve our misery, notwithstanding sin, ib. ; is either 
general, special, or peculiar, 161 j peculiar is to God's elect in Christ, 
and is seen in the first grace in pardoning all their sins, ib. ; and in 
all the subsequent graces that they stand in need of, ib. ; tenderness 
of, shown by the compassion of Christ, who is the image of his father, 
in the days of his flesh, 162 ; in his readiness to hear and help his 
people in their afflictions, ib. ; in the motives that induce him to show 
mercy, the bare sight of our misery, 163 ; greatness of, ib. ; shown by 
the multitudes to whom God hath done good, ib. ; the multitude of 
benefits he bestoweth on every one, 164 ; the greatness of these effects, 
the sending of his Son and the gift of the Spirit, ib. 

272 INDEX. 

Mercy and charity, works of, rather than of piety, assigned as the reason of the 
sentence of absolution, x. 58 ; the special is put for the general, ib. ; 
works of mercy are singled out, because the Jews were more negli 
gent of these than of acts of worship, 59 ; these are most evident and 
sensible, ib. ; the excellency of charity is represented, and commended 
to the covetous world, ib. 

God maketh one, to be the pledge of another, XL 135. 
God's, not wholly made void to his people, notwithstanding their many 

sins and failings, xviii. 46. 
And grace, distinction between, xx. 342. 
Merit, the intervention of Christ's, doth not hinder the freedom of forgiveness, 

i. 196. 
Of Christ, not the first cause of God's love, but the manifestation, fruit, 

and effect of it, ii. 341. 
Messiah promised in the Old Testament, to be God, i. 447. 

The Jews' erroneous opinion of, a reason of their rejection of Christ, iii. 


Michael, the archangel, not Christ, as some suppose, v. 243. 
Midnight, rising at, to give thanks, can neither be enforced as a duty, nor yet 

can be condemned, vi. 170. 

Mind, corruption of, and sensuality of heart, go together, v. 266. 
Minding of the flesh is the influence of the flesh upon all the faculties, the 
understanding, will, and affections, as also upon our practice and con 
versation, xi. 459. 

Minds, operations of, are either Xoyiffpot, discourses and reasonings, xviii. 

400 ; 6vfj,r)fftic, musings, 401 ; or vo^aara, contrivances and counsels, ib. 

Ministers, three things make prayer, meditation, and temptation (Luther), i. 


Peculiarly exposed to vainglory, iii. 305. 
Are remembrancers from the people to God, and from God to the people, 

v. 171. 

Exhortation to, to endeavour after unity, v. 400. 
Should pray for their charge, x. 248. 
Of the gospel persuaded to a greater concord and amity in the joint 

discharge of their work, x. 332. 

Are not only to study new things, but to inculcate those that are of a 
common use, x. 406 ; with these cautions, that it be in matters mainly 
necessary, and that it be with variety of enforcement, to avoid tedious- 
ness, ib. 

And people, their duty to one another, x. 479, 488. 
Are in esteem when men lie under distress of conscience, xxi. 254. 
Ministry, work of, to shake and batter the empire of the devil, i. 99. 

Evangelical, exceedeth the prophetical, both as to excellency and neces 
sity, ii. 131. 

And office about God, the lowest honourable, iv. 15. 
Work of, not to contend with ghosts and antiquated opinions, but the 

errors and sins of the present time, iv. 436. 
Holiness a good preparation for, x. 417 ; they who are designed to serve 

God in a special manner must look after special purity, ib. 
Necessity of a call to, x. 472 ; is extraordinary or ordinary, ib. ; ordi 
nary is both inward, ib. ; and outward, 473 ; election is the people's 
right, 474; ordination is the right of the elders, 475 ; confirmation, 
of the magistrate, ib. ; is an office, 477 ; a standing office, 478 ; excel 
lency and dignity of, 484 ; duty of, 485. 

INDEX. 273 

Ministry of reconciliation, ministers are l ambassadors for Christ ' to reconcile 
us to God, xiii. 290 ; the nature of their office explained, ib. ; the 
value and authority of it, 291 ; the credit and respect due to their 
message, ib. ; the manner how their office is to be executed, 293 ; with 
love and sweetness, meekness and patience, ib. ; the matter or mes 
sage about which they are sent, reconciliation to God through Christ, 
ib. ; exhortation to sinners to become reconciled to God, 295 ; the 
ir -essity of it, ib. ; God's condescension in it, 301 ; the value and 
worth of the privilege, 302 ; the benefits depending on it, 303 ; the 
great dishonour done to God in refusing it, ib. ; exhortation to chris- 
tians to become yet more reconciled to God, 304 ; persuasives to, ib. 

.Miracles done in one age for confirmation of the true religion should suffice 

for after ages, i. 298 ; why not necessary now, 299. 
Popish, reasons for rejecting, iii. 67. 

Are extraordinary works, iii. 71 ; their author God, either immediately 
or mediately, ib. ; their end to confirm some truth, ib. ; Christ's, 
necessary to confirm his person and office, 72 ; and sufficient, ib. \ 
ceased when the faith of Christ was sufficiently confirmed, 73 ; sus 
picion attaches to those who pretend to revive, ib. ; in attestation of 
false doctrines, are lying wonders, 74 ; such are those of Popery, ib. ; 
seven points in Popery sought to be confirmed by, ib. ; pilgrimages, 
prayers for the dead, purgatory, invocation of saints, adoration of 
images, of the host, the primacy of the Pope, 75. 
Wrought in Christ's name, were wrought by power, but ended in mercy, 

iv. 453. 

Are a solemn confirmation, or letters-patent brought from heaven, to 
authorise any person or doctrine, x. 441 ; not necessary now, because 
the same doctrine and rule is continued to us without change, 442 ; 
are sufficiently attested to us, 443. 

Mirth, the Christian's, should be thanksgiving, xix. 209. 

Miscarriages, real or supposed, of Christians, the shame of, redounds to God 

and religion itself, vi. 413. 
Of some members, the whole body not to be condemned for, x. 349. 

Miseries sweet or bitter according as we reckon them, iv. 22 ; not to be 
judged by sense, ib.' } but by supernatural light, ib. and on super 
natural grounds, ib. 


Misery, the common burden of the sons of Adam, xix. 126 ; virtuous good 
men more miserable than others from their temper and the state of 
the world, ib. ; of all good men, Christians most, ib. j to induce men 
to lead a godly life, motives are necessary which are greater than the 
temptations of the world, 127 ; Christ hath promised a happiness 
that will countervail all these afflictions, ib. ; this happiness is at the 
general resurrection, or Christ's coming to judgment, 128 ; Christians 
of all men most miserable, not in respect of their inward enjoyments, 
but their outward estate, 131. 

Mission of Christ is by the Father, x. 462 ; includes the designation of the 
person, 463 his qualification for the work, ib. his authority and 
power, 467 ; end of, ib. 

Missionaries to the heathen, may they, without tempting God, ask of him 
the gift of miracles ? i. 299. 

Mockers and scoffers, their prevalence in the last days, v. 323 j usually the 
worst of sinners, ib. 

Monasteries, &c., Popish, so many sties of filthiness, v. 275. 


274 INDEX, 

Morality, partial, is injurious to the law and opposite to the gospel, ii. 54. 
Morality, the best human, defective, vi. 85. 
More, Sir Thomas, his prayer, i. 294. 

Morning our golden time for prayer, and should not be neglected from 
sluggishness, whatever dispensation there be for weakness, ix. 70; 
shown by the example of Christ and his saints, ib. ; because whenever 
we have strong affections to anything, we make it our morning work, 
be it good or bad, ib. ; it is the choicest time of the day, and there 
fore should be allotted to the most serious and necessary employment, 
71 ; it is profitable to begin the day with God, ib. ; it will be some 
recompense for the time lost in sleeping, 72. 

Mortal, what sins the Papists reckon, iv. 103 ; none but such as are not mor 
tified, 104. 
Mortification consists not in a bare abstinence and retreat from temptations,. 

but in a spirit fortified against them, ii. 98. 

A fruit of faith, ii. 149 j concerneth our lusts, as self-denial our inte 
rests, ib. 

Impatience of the doctrine of, ii. 230 ; arises from sottish atheism and 
unbelief, ib. ; from libertinism, 231 ; from the passionateness of car 
nal affections, 232. 
Must go before quickening, vi. 389. 
And vivification inseparable, xi. 231. 

Of sin, what it is not, xii. 56 ; pagan mortification, ib. Popish and 
superstitious mortification, ib. ; mortification of the hypocrite, 57 ; 
what mortification is, 58 ; passive, ib. ; active, 59 ; general and par 
ticular, ib. j privative and positive, 60 ; ordinary and extraordinary, 
ib. why Christians must mortify the deeds of the body, 61 ; with 
respect to Christ, ib. with respect to sin, 62 ; in regard of grace 
received, 63 ; enforcements to the exercise of this duty, 65. 
Of sin, we and the Spirit must concur in, xii. 72 ; the manner of this 
co-operation, ib. ; the Spirit the principal agent in this work, ib. ; yet 
we must charge ourselves with the duty, 73 ; we must use the means 
which tend to, ib. ; in mortification the Spirit worketh in us as a 
spirit of light, life, and love, 74 ; the necessity of the Spirit's concur 
rence and operation in us, 76 j from the state of the sinner, ib. ; the 
honour of our Kedeemer requireth it, 77 ; the necessity of our co-opera 
tion, 78 ; that God may apply himself to us in our way, ib. ; that we 
may meet with God in his way, ib. exhortation to mortification of 
the deeds of the body, 79 ; means whereby we may attain it, 90. 
< The guard of sincerity, xiii. 136. 

The influence of faith upon, xv. 72. 
Mortifying of sin, motives to, xi. 180. 

Moses and Elias really present at the transfiguration, i. 358 ; why these two, 
':.: ib. appeared in their own bodies, 360. 

' Prophet like unto,' could only be Christ, i. 365. 
Dispute about his body, v. 241 j different explanations of, 242. 
Mourning a necessary duty, iv. 374 ; befitteth this life rather than rejoicing, 
375 ; some special seasons and occasions of, ib. ; God looketh not 
after the outward expressions of, but the humble heart, 377. 
Bitterly, even for other men's sins, the duty and property of a godly 
man, viii. 421 ; a matter of duty lying upon all Christians, 422 ; 
though it lies upon all, it chiefly concerns public persons, ib. ; tears 
not absolutely necessary for the expression of this grief and tender- 

INDEX. 275 

ness, 423 ; the greatest sinners, when they are once converted to God, 
have afterwards the greatest compassion towards other sinners, 424 ; 
there must be not only a constant disposition to mourn over the sins 
of others, but on special occasions it must be exercised and set a-work, 
425 ; in times of abundance of flagrant sin, ib. ; and when judgments 
are felt or feared, 426 ; God has laid it upon his people as a duty, 
that it may be an alloy to zeal, ib. ; to engage them to seek redress 
and reformation, 427 ; to keep their hearts more tender and upright, 
428 ; it is their disposition as well as their duty, ib. ; from the tender 
ness of God's glory, ib. ; from their compassion, and pity, and love to 
men, 429 ; from their antipathy and zealous displeasure against sin, 
ib. from the sagacity of faith, and serious foresight of the effects of 
sin, 430 ; from their public spirit and tender respect to the common 
good, ib. 

Murmuring at providence taxes God, instead of adoring him, i. 81. 

A great sin, v. 299 ; against men, ib. against God, 300 ; his decrees, 
ib. ; his laws, ib. ; his providence, 301 ; its causes, 302 ; pride and 
self-love, ib. ; impatience, ib. ; presumption of merit, 303 ; carnal 
affection, ib. ; unbelief and distrust, ib. ; injurious to God, ib. ; to others, 
304 ; to ourselves, ib. ; at the times, 305 ; is not godly sorrow, complain 
ing to God, and bewailing the corruptions of the times, ib. ; nor zeal 
in public reproof, ib. ; nor holy dislike and singularity, standing aloof 
from public corruptions, 306 ; but such a fond and unthankful admira 
tion of former times, that we have not a good word for the present, 
ib. passing over the good, and looking only on the evil, 307 ; charg 
ing our guilt on the times, ib. ; remedies, ib. ; private, 309 under 
wants, losses, pains, 310. 
And repining thoughts against God's providence, reproof of, vii. 297. 

Murmurings and taxings of God's providence, caution against, vii. 257. 

Musings, a class of vain thoughts, viii. 158 ; vanity appears in the slipperi- 
ness and inconstancy of them, ib. ; the unprofitableness and folly of 
them, 159 ; the carnality and fleshliness, ib. j the impiety and appar 
ent filthiness, ib. 

Mystery, every article of faith in the gospel is, vi. 171. 
Depth of, contained in the scriptures, viii. 336. 

Nakedness a type of sin and shame, xii. 462 ; our great business is to get 

the garments of salvation to cover our nakedness, 463. 
Name of God, means either God himself, i. 82 ; or anything whereby he is 
made known to us, 83; is hallowed or sanctified when it is used 
with that reverence and respect which is not given to anything 
else, ib. ; is hallowed by God himself, 84 ; by us, ib. ; and by others, 
ib. ; is sanctified upon us and by us, 86. 

Of God, study of, the best remembrance of him, vii. 83 ; of his essence, 
ib. ; his attributes, 84; see Attributes; increaseth love, faith, fear, 

In what sense believers are kept through God's (John xvii. 11), x. 
310 ; put for his attributes, because by them he is known, as a man 
by his name, ib. ; so by his truth, in opposition to their fickleness 
and falsehood, ib. ; his mercy in opposition to their unworthiness, 
311; his power against their weakness, ib. ; his holiness against 
their sinfulness, ib. ; nothing else could keep them but God's, ib. ; 
it is meet that none else should, 312. 

Of Christ, a holy God will accept nothing but as tendered in, xi. 63. 

276 INDEX. 

Name and title of God hath been made known by degrees, xi. 132 ; fully 

in the gospel, ib. ; none but Christ can discover, 133. 
Of Christ, how it is glorified in us by suffering, xx. 327. 
Narrowness of the way engageth believers to the exercise of care, iii. 307 ; 
to a great deal of pains and sorrow, ib. \ to a great deal of self- 
denial, ib. 

Nathan, his innocent and pious mistake, xviii. 62. 
Natural light chiefly reacheth to duties of the second table, i. 26. 

Men bound to pray and perform duties, vi. 241. 

Nature, divine, of which Christians are partakers, not the essence of God, 
but his communicable excellencies, ii. 214 ; considered as begun, 
increased, and perfected, 217. 
Can discover a God, and a reason that he should be worshipped, but 

not such a worship as is proper to him, ii. 371. 
Light of, antecedently to any external revelation, will sufficiently 

convince of the being of God, and our dependence on him, iii. 22. 
Whatever is good in, is from God, iii. 174. 
Our, horrid defilment and depravation of, iv. 117. 
They that plead for the power of, shut out the use of prayer, vi. 

Makes us sensible of the evil of trouble ; grace, of the evil of sin, viii. 


New, is the product of the Holy Ghost, xi. 405 ; is a spirit of love and 
power, and a sound mind, ib. ; answering to the nature of God, 
whom we apprehend under the notions of wisdom and goodness and 
power, 406; it belongeth to Christ to give, 408 ; given by the 
gospel, 409. 
Light of, sufficient for the condemnation of those who have not the 

gospel, xx. 246. 

A kind of election within the sphere of, xx. 291. 

Nearness of God to his people, ix. 102 ; not in regard of his essence, for so 
he is everywhere present, ib. ; nor in regard of his general providence 
and common sustentation, 103 ; but his friendly and gracious pre 
sence, ib. j his visible presence in his ordinances, ib. ; distinction 
between a state of, and acts of, 104 ; grounds of, 106 ; his covenant 
with them, ib. ; our union with Christ, ib. ; the inhabitation of the 
Spirit, 107 ; the mutual love between God and them, ib. ; result of 
God's readiness to hear our prayers, ib. ; our converse with God in 
holy duties, 108 ; and in a course of holiness, 109 ; brought about 
by Christ's merit, ib. and by our change of heart, 110. 
Necessaries of life, daily bread, daily pardon, daily strength, i. 230. 
Necessities of Christians, Satan takes advantage of, for temptations, i. 273 ; 
tempteth to unlawful means to supply our wants, ib. ; to question 
our adoption, 274 ; to distrust God's providence, ib. 
Lead us to the promises, the promises to Christ, Christ to God, vi. 

Necessity a time for duty, v. 102. 

Of mankind, the deep, xi. 420 ; met by Christ's incarnation, 423 ; and 

his passion, 427. 

Negatives not to be rested in, vi. 37. 
Neglect, voluntary and allowed, of any portion of the law, makes us guilty 

of the violation of the whole law, iv. 215. 

Of God will keep us out of heaven not less than profaneness, viii. 

INDEX. 277 

Neighbour, scripture requires us to love, as ourselves, iv. 207 ; who ? 208 ; 
every one to whom we may be helpful ib. ; more especially those who 
dwell by us, and first our wife, then our children, &c., ib. ; spiritual, 
ib. ; what love 1 209 ; as ourselves in manner, not in measure, ib. ; 
to mind the good of others, ib. j as truly, though not as much, as our 
own, 210. 

New creature, orderliness of, ii. 241 ; is the wisest creature on this side 

heaven, 263. 

What it is to be, xiii. 232 ; implies such a change wrought in us that 
we are other men and women than we were before, as if another 
soul came to dwell in our body, ib. ; this change must amount to a 
new creation, ib. ; some changes which do not go so far, ib. ; no 
change amounteth to the new creation which does not introduce the 
life and likeness of God, 234 j why called a new creation, 235 j how 
we are united to Christ in the new creation, 236 j how the new 
creation floweth from our union with Christ, ib. ; the necessity of it, 
237 j how ill they can make out their interest in Christ that are not 
sensible of any change wrought in them, 239 ; the new creation the 
work of God and the effect of the Spirit, 241 j this appeareth from 
the state of the person renewed, ib. ; the nature of the work, 242 ; 
its connection with reconciliation, 243 ; and the effect of it, 244 ; 
all things belonging to the new creation are ascribed by scripture 
to God, 245 ; the difference between the natural man and the new 
creature, 247; cautions against abuse of this doctrine, 248; it is 
not in vain to press people to become new creatures, 249 ; the true 
use to be made of the doctrine, 250 ; God the author of, as recon 
ciled to us in Christ, xiii. 251. 

New Testament testimonies to the divinity and humanity of Christ, i. 478. 

Night a special occasion for meditation on holy things, ix. 82 ; on account 
of its solitude and silence, ib. 

Niobe, the Christian, xvii. 217. 


Nulliftdians, the doctrine of the, disproved, xvii. 428. 

Oath, to bind ourselves by, to God and the duty we owe to him, concerns 
us sometimes, viii. 81 ; lawfulness of, appears from God's injunc 
tion, ib. and from the practice of the saints, ib. ; convenient to 
answer God's love and condescension to us in the covenant, 82 ; to 
testify our affection to his service, ib. ; very profitable because of 
our backwardness, ib. ; our fickleness and inconstancy, 83 ; our lazi 
ness, 84 ; should be used in a matter lawful, ib. ; and in a matter 
weighty, necessary, and acceptable to God, 85 ; must be religiously 
performed and observed, 86 ; the same motives which inclined us 
to make, should persuade us to keep, 87 ; our oath a further aggra 
vation of our sin, ib. God hath ever been a severe avenger of 
breach of covenants, ib. ; should be often revived and renewed, 88 ; 
because we are apt to forget, and have not a lively sense of a thing 
long since done, ib. ; this forgetfulness an occasion of many and 
great troubles, 89 ; when to be renewed ; ib. - } when we stand in 
need of some special favour from God, ib. ; after some special 
mercy, ib. ; when the state of religion is collapsed, either around 
us or within us, ib. ; when we are to draw nigh to God in the use 
of the seals of the new covenant, ib. See Covenanting. 

278 INDEX. 

Oaths in themselves are lawful, if taken without fraud, in a lawful matter, 
and upon a weighty occasion, iv. 436 ; by the creatures unlawful, 
437 ; rash and false, will bring a sure judgment, 439. 
Obedience , active, hath respect to God's commands ; passive, to his provi 
dence, i. 121. 

To God requires not only the quid, but the quomodo, i. 125 ; though it 
may not be like that of the angels in measure, it must be in man 
ner, 126. 

Evangelical, new life the principle of, ii. 27. 

New, required of the pardoned, ii. 198. 

Christ's, to his Father chiefly tried by his sufferings, iii. 253. 

Partial, an argument of insincerity, iv. 215. 

Serious purposes of, are accepted for, iv. 251 ; so of sin, ib. 

A full, to gain the heart to, it is good to consider the authority of 
God in his word, vi. 39 ; because there the heart would not be so 
loose, off and on in point of duty, 41 ; we cannot be so bold and 
venturesome in sinning when we remember how the authority of 
God stands in the way, ib. ; a sense of God's authority and com 
mand doth fortify the heart against discouragements, ib. ; in duties 
that are not evident by natural light, the heart is most bound to 
them by a command, 42 ; obedience is never right but when it is 
done out of a conscience of God's authority, ib. 

Obligation to, does not arise from our own purpose and promise, but 
from God's command, vi. 71. 

Necessity of constancy and perseverance in, vi. 471 ; the law of, God 
binds universally, ib. ; grace in the heart should be always work 
ing, 472 ; God's eye is always upon us, ib. God is always at work 
for us, 473 ; all our actions concern eternity, ib. ; to be off and on 
with God will cost us much sorrow, ib. ; by every intermission we 
lose ground, ib. See Defection. 

Ready, a good evidence of a sound impression of grace left upon the 
heart .vii. 135. 

Purposes and promises of, should not be lightly made, but with the 
greatest advertency and seriousness of mind, ix. 60 ; because we 
are usually too slight in devoting ourselves to God, ib. ; because it 
is a work of greatest moment, and so must be done with the great 
est deliberation, ib. because of the danger in regard of sin and 
judgment if we do it not aright, 61. 

Exhortations to, xii. 34. 

The kind of, that is required of a Christian, xv. 135 ; the necessity of 
faith to, 137 ; the work of faith in order to, 140 ; what we must 
do that faith may exercise influence upon our obedience, 143. 

To God, every man that hath a tender conscience would be accurate 
and exact in, xix. 379 ; we have no sure rule to walk by but the 
will of God, ib. ; this will is revealed to us in his word, 380 ; this 
word we need thoroughly to understand, else we shall not know 
our duty, ib. ; this understanding must not be idle, but reduced to 
use and practice, ib. ; this reducing to practice what we know is 
wisdom, ib. ; this wisdom is both a gift and a duty, 381. 

To Christ, the best impression or stamp of our religion upon us, xix. 
462 ; sometimes taken largely, as comprehending faith and repen 
tance, sometimes strictly, as distinct from these, 463. 

Christ stands upon, if we would obtain his promises, xx. 17 j Christ de 
serves, at our hands for what he is, 18; and what he hath done for us,ib. 

INDEX, 279 


Objects, common, how to be improved to a heavenly purpose, iv. 421 ; in 
an argumentative and representative way, ib. 

Obligation to obedience does not cease with power to obey, i. 143. 

Offence, in church, is either with contempt or discouragement, ii. 86 ; 
of ignorance and weakness, or of malice and opposition, 87 ; total 
or partial, ib. ; those who escape, are in the ready way to salvation, 
88 ; who are in danger of, 90 ; heinousness of, ib. ; means to 
avoid, 91. 

Offerings, spiritual, all God's people have their, viii. 107 ; are made priests to 
God, ib. ; their sacrifices not sin-offerings, but thank-offerings, ib. ; 
their thamk-offerings are spiritual, 108 ; the two great, are prayer 
and praise, ib. ; whatever was figured in the old sacrifices must be 
spiritually performed in the duty of prayer and praise, 109 ; must 
be free-will offerings, 112 ; are accepted of God, 114 ; this gracious 
acceptance must be sought and valued as a great blessing, ib. 

Offer of Christ, general, iii. 330 ; nothing hindereth the acceptance but 
unbelief, 332 ; not thy nation, ib. ; nor thy condition, ib. ; nor thy 
sins, ib. ; not that Christ was not intended for thee, 333. 

Offices of Christ as mediator, threefold, of king, priest, and prophet, i. 333; 
as a priest, he is the way; as a prophet, the truth ; as a king, the life, 
ib. ; as a prophet, he is made unto us wisdom ; as a priest, righteous 
ness and s an ctifi cation ; as a king, redemption, ib. 
Of Christ, their character, human and divine, xx. 306 ; the privileges 
offered by Christ in the covenant of grace, 308 ; means of attainment, 

Oil in the lamp and the vessel is repentance, mortifying our inward lusts, 
and faith working by love, ix. 336. 

Old and New Testament dispensations contrasted, xii. 105. 

Old Testament testimonies to the true divinity and true humanity of Christ, 
i. 476. 

-Omission, sins of, arise from not reviving the belief of God's command 
ments, vii. 220. 

Sins of, may be great sins, x. 11 ; there is in them the general nature 
of all sin, breach of the law and contempt of God's authority, ib. ; 
their general cause is corrupt nature, 12 ; through them gifts and 
graces languish for want of employment, ib. ; they bring on many 
temporal judgments, ib. ; they are threatened with eternal punish 
ment, ib.; some are greater than others, 13 ; in many cases may be 
more heinous and damning than sins of commission, ib. 
Sins of, wicked are described by, x. 102 ; may be great sins, ib. ; 
some greater than others, 103 ; in many cases may be more hein 
ous and damning than sins of commission, ib. 

Omissions make way for commissions, i. 17. 

Of necessary duties necessarily draw sins of commission along with 
them, ix. 157. 

Omnipotency of God proved from scripture and reason, xvii. 82 ; this 
power of God explained, 86 ; application, 87. 

Opinion, a man's, so changed by conversion, that what things were gain are 
accounted loss, xx. 3. 

Opinions, men's, are no ground of faith, iii. 101. 

Oppression a crying sin, especially of poor servants, iv. 409. 

Of wicked men, to be left under, a grievous calamity, and earnestly 
to be deprecated, viii. 247. 

280 INDEX, 

Oppression, a very grievous evil, often deprecated by the people of God, viii. 
259 ; is an abuse of power to unjust and uncharitable actions, 
ib. ; the oppressors are the proud, mighty, rich, great men, at least 
by comparison with those whom they oppress, ib. a grievous evil 
in itself, ib. ; odious to God, as being a perversion of the ends of 
his providence, ib. ; offensive to his people, and burdensome to 
them, 260 ; is both theft and murder, ib. aggravated when God's 
servants are oppressed for religion, ib. ; most of all when power and 
advantage is fetched from any ordinance of God to commit it, ib. ; 
dissuasion from, 261. 

Deliverance from, a blessing to be sought from God in prayer, viii. 
399 ; we have liberty to ask temporal things, ib. ; our spiritual 
welfare is concerned in such temporal deliverances, that we may 
serve God without impediment, 400; the glory of God is con 
cerned, ib. ; prayer engagethus to constancy, 401 ; seeking deliver 
ance at the hands of God doth ease the heart of a great deal of 
trouble, ib. ; not to be asked in the first place, as our main bless 
ing, 403 ; must be asked with submission, ib. ; with the end that 
God may be glorified, 404 ; in faith, that God can deliver, and will 
in due time, when it is good for us, ib. ; deliverance should quicken 
and encourage us in God's service, 406. 

Ordinances, their purity an honour to God, of great profit to the church, 
and a rejoicing to God's people, i. 109. 

Merit of Christ doth reach, that by them grace may be conveyed, and 
sin mortified and subdued in us, ii. 209. 

Their end to stir up love to God, ii. 245. 

Simple plainness of, an obstacle to men's believing, iii, 224 ; admin 
istered by weak men, ib. 

They who deny that they are useful to believers are ignorant of the 
nature of grace, which always, after a taste, longeth for more, iv. 
129 ; are ignorant of the intent and end of the word, which is not 
only to beget us, but to make the saints perfect, ib. j are ignorant 
of the state of their own hearts, 130. 

They that would have grace must have recourse to, ix. 391. 

God's people have a great value and esteem of, xviii. 147 ; by 
a spiritual instinct, ib. ; from experience, 148 ; from necessity, 149 ; 
from utility and profit, ib. esteem them above all other things, 150. 
Others, to do to, as we would have them do to us, a sure and a full rule, ii. 
370 ; Severus had it written in his palace, and engraved in golden 
letters in the courts of justice, ib. ; considered negatively, 371 ; 
positively, 374 j objections answered, 377 ; ground and equity of, 
378 ; in what sense the law and the prophets, 379. 

Our, force of, in ' Our Father,' i. 54 ; to comfort us in the sense of our inte 
rest in God, ib. ; to mind us of the common interest of all the saintg 
in the same God, 55. 

Pains, Christ not only bore, for our sakes, but those that we should have 
endured, or at least equivalent to what we should have borne, if 
we had suffered for sin, iii. 261. 

Papacy, its wickedness marks it out as the man of sin, iii. 31. 

Why not immediately destroyed, iii. 60 ; God hath uses for it, ib. to 
scourge his people for their sins, ib. ; to try his people, ib. ; to cure 
our divisions, 61 ; to keep up a remembrance of his mercies, ib. ; 
its pomp and height about A.D. 1500, ib. 

INDEX. 281 

Papists, their idolatry condemned, i. 320 ; their distinction between 3ouXe/a 
and Xr/a inept, 321. 

Their shameless usurpation in calling the Pope the head of the church, 
i. 462. 

Their distinction between precepts of necessary duty and counsels of 
perfection, ii. 59. 

So~ living and dying, great difficulty, if not impossibility of their 
salvation, iii. 78 ; distinction to be made of those who know no- 
better, ib. 

Their fault in regard to traditions, iii. 133. 

Their derogatory doctrine that Christ made full satisfaction only for 
sins committed before baptism, iii. 277. 

And Socinians, their account of the justification of Abraham, iv. 256. 

Their error about unwritten traditions, v. 497 ; set them far above scrip 
tures, 498. 

Afraid of the scriptures, as a thief of a candle, viii. 356. 

By a pageantry of ridiculous ceremonies make, religion contemptible, 
xiii. 118. 

Their plea as to apostolic succession a knowledge after the flesh and 
not after the Spirit, xiii. 221. 

Their error as to the merit of works, xvi. 41. 
Parables are either argumentative or representative, ix. 319. 
Paradise, the opinions of Augustine, Tertullian, and others upon, xiv. 36. 
Pardon, grounds of assurance of, i. 193; grounds of seeking and hcrping 
for, 194. 

Full, yet not always the sense of it, i. 196. 

Of sin, necessity of seeking, ii. 178 ; since a reasonable nature im 
plies a conscience, a conscience implies a law, 179 ; a law 
implies a sanction, or a confirmation by penalties and rewards, ib. ; 
a sanction implies a judge, 180; a judge implies a judgment-day, 
ib. ; this certainly infers a condemnation to a fallen creature, unless 
God set up another court for his relief, 181 ; this has been done 
conveniently to God's honour, and we must sue out our pardon, 
183 ; our misery without, 184; benefits consequent on, 185. 

Without, there is no blessing, ii. 190 ; nothing less than, will serve- 
the turn, ib. ; blessing of, showed by consideration of the evils we 
are freed from, 191 ; and the good depending on it, ib. ; what to 
be done in order to obtain, 192 ; for the glory of God that there 
should be stated terms of obtaining, 193 ; and for our comfort, ib. ; 
the terms are faith and repentance, 194. 

Absolute, without satisfaction, might have exposed God's laws to con 
tempt, ii. 259. 

And confession, a connection between, iv. 456. 

Freeness and readiness of, abused to licentiousness, xi. 302 ; offered 
to penitent sinners on purpose that they may forsake their sins, 
ib. ; belongeth only to the penitent, ib. ; they are expressly excluded 
that securely go on in sin, 303. 

A benefit of the new covenant, xii. 120. 

And life, the gospel teaches how we may be made partakers of, xviii. 
242 ; by telling us what Christ hath done, 243 ; and what we are 
to do, ib. 

Cannot be had without acceptance, but the acceptance may be doubt 
ful while it is real, xx. 32. 
Of sin, what Christ doth and hath done in order to, xxi. 271 ; why 

282 INDEX. 

no other but Christ can procure this benefit, 274 ; the necessity of 
faith that it may be applied to us, 277 ; the use of baptism in 
respect of, 180. 

Pardoning mercy the ground and foundation of all our hope and comfort 
in our restoration after distresses, xv. 438 ; reasons of this, ib. ; is 
the chief glory of God, 441 ; the excellency of the Christian reli 
gion above all others in this respect, 445 ; the effect this should 
have on us, 446. 

Parents should seek blessings for their children, xiv. 391 ; are guilty of more 
sin than they are aware of in depriving their children of the privi 
lege of baptism, 393 ; should strive to keep up religion in their 
families by the education of their children, 394. 

Their duty lieth greatly in providing meet callings for their children, 
xiv. 423. 

Exhorted to bring up their children for God, xviii. 93. 
Parliament exhorted to endeavour after unity, v. 404. 
Paschal lamb prefigured the person of Christ, xviii. 477 ; his death on the 

cross, ib. ; the fruits and benefits of his sacrifice, 480. 
Passing from death to life, what it is, xxi. 114 ; love of the brethren a sure 

sign of, 119. 

Passions, great and excessive inconvenience of, i. 373. 
Patience, threefold, ii. 248 ; hearing, ib. ; waiting, ib. ; working, 249 ; its 
influence upon religion, 252. 

In running the race set before us, needed because of the length of 
the race, ii. 420 ; the impediments, ib. ; the discouragements from 
the spectators, 421. 

Of Christ under oppression, iii. 337. 

A grace of excellent use and value, iv. 33. 

Christian, is a submission of the whole soul to the will of God, iv. 
419 ; the judgment subscribeth, then the will accepteth, then the 
affections are restrained, and anger and sorrow brought under the 
restraint of the word, ib. progress of, ib. the soul seeth God in 
the suffering, God acting with sovereignty, sovereignty modified 
and mitigated in the dispensation of it with justice, mercy, and 
faithfulness, ib. 

Persuaded by the example of the saints, iv. 426. 

Of God, in not taking a full revenge of his creatures till the last day, 
x. 86. 

Creation teacheth us a lesson in, xii. 181. 

The fruit of hope, as hope is of faith, xii. 222 ; is of a threefold 
character bearing, waiting, and working, ib. 

And comfort of the scriptures, a higher thing than what is learnt by 
the institutions of philosophy, xix. 12. 

A contrasted endurance of painful evils, xx. 203 ; under trials, is a 
manifestation of faith, 204. 

And constancy under troubles, the honour done to Christ by, xx. 


Patriarchs had the same kind of faith that we have, xiii. 374. 
Paul, commending himself to the Corinthians, furnishes an occasion of 
offence to the vainglorious, xiii. 100 ; his answer and defence, ib. 

Valued the glory of God above that personal contentment and happi 
ness that should come to him by his own salvation, xiii. 137. 

Though an eminent Christian, groaned under the relics of corruption, 
xiii. 172. 

INDEX. 283 

PauTs thorn in the flesh, what it was, xvii. 402. 

Apology against the accusation of Tertullus (Acts xxiv.), xvii. 419. 
Contempt of worldly and external privileges, xx. 13 ; universality of this 

contempt, ib. 

Peace purchased by the sufferings of Christ that reconciliation and amity 
wrought out between God and a sinner, iii. 279; Christ by his 
death hath slain all hatred, 280 ; the just wrath of God, and sin in 
us in its guilt and power, ib. ; he hath taken away all show of hatred, 
by abolishing the ceremonial law, ib. ; hath procured us favour, 281. 
False, grounds of, iii. 282 ; ignorance of our condition, ib. ; careless 
ness, ib. ; avoiding whatever may put us in mind of our misery, 
ib. ; distraction, 283. 
And healing must go together, iii. 294. 
With God, and peace of conscience, different, iv. 247. 
The purchase of Christ, the work of the Spirit, iv. 313; true chris- 
tians will strive to keep, 314 ; and to make, 315 ; may be broken in 
truth's quarrel, 316 ; for sake of, truth must never be violated, ib. 
Without righteousness is but a sordid compliance ; righteousness 

without peace but a rough austerity, iv. 324. 
By itself the Old Testament benediction ; in the New Testament, 

grace conjoined, v. 53. 

Is a tranquillity of mind arising from a sense of a sure estate with God, 
v. 67 ; man by nature at enmity with God, and upon ill terms with 
him, ib. ; man being at enmity with God, all God's creatures are at 
enmity with him, 68 ; being in this estate, we can only be recon 
ciled by Jesus Christ, ib. ; God being reconciled in Christ, all things 
else are at peace with us, 69; yet some troubles are left for our 
exercise, but not for our hurt or destruction, 70 ; in heaven perfect, ib. 
Of the church, a call to the more strictness and holiness, vi. 220 ; 
when not called to suffer for Christ, our active obedience should be 
the more strictly performed, ib. 

Is external in the house, city, country, society in which we live, ix. 
199 ; internal, arising either from justification or sanctification, 200 ; 
eternal in heaven, ib. 

They that love God's law have great, ix. 206 ; because the God of peace 
is their God, 207 ; Jesus Christ, the prince of peace, is their Saviour, 
ib. ; the Spirit worketh it in us as a sanctifier and as a comforter, 
ib. ; great as to the nature of it, 208 ; and the degree, ib. ; doth not 
exclude troubles in the world, ib. ; keeps from sin, 215. 
With God, the fruit of justification, xv. 62. 

Sound, cannot be enjoyed till sin be forgiven, xviii. 223 ; is more and 

more settled in the heart by waiting on the duties of the gospel, ib. 

With God, those who have found, may best invite others to the same 

course, xxi. 450. 

People, God hath a special, in the world, whom he will own for his, vii. 
442 ; trial of, belonging to, 443 ; when did you solemnly dedicate 
yourself to him ? ib. ; what have you that is peculiar 1 ib. ; doth 
your resignation appear in your living and acting for God ? 444. 
Their duty to endeavour after unity, v. 393. 
Perdition, son of, name given to Judas, iii. 32 ; and to Antichrist, ib. ; the 

Pope the successor, not of Peter, but Judas, ib. 
'Perfect' (Phil. iii. 12), an agonistical word, xx. 75. 

284 INDEX. 

Perfection, a kind of, attainable in this life, ii. 57 ; not of the reward which 
the saints shall have in heaven, ib. but of grace and holiness, ib. ; 
and that not legal, but evangelical, 58 ; not absolute, but compara 
tive, 59 ; not in degrees, but in parts, 61 ; reasons for seeking after 
absolute, 62 ; we have a perfect God, a perfect rule, a perfect Ke- 
deemer, a perfect reward, ib. ; means of attaining, 64 ; notes of 
perfection, 65. 

Enjoined on Christians is either sincerity, or constancy and persever 
ance, or the perfection of parts, iv. 34. 

Christians must aim at, and press on to, iv. 36. 

Of holiness probably attained in the moment of expiring, v. 27. 

It is a Popish error that some men endowed with special grace may 
keep the law perfectly, xvi. 426. 

All Christians must press forward to, xx. 83 ; reasons, ib. ; by this 
our title is assured, ib. j our hearts are more prepared in this life for 
happiness, ib. ; our glory and blessedness are increased, 84 ; means of, 
a strong faith, a fervent love, a lively hope, 85 ; a great encourage 
ment to strive after, that Christ apprehended us for this end and 
scope, that we should attain, ib. 

Perfections, all earthly, have their bounds and limits as to use and service, 
vii. 452 -, cannot give any solid peace of conscience and rest to our 
souls, 453 cannot make us acceptable to God, ib. cannot stead 
us in the greatest and deepest necessities, as trouble of conscience 
and the hour of death, ib. ; are of no use in the world to come, 454 ; 
in this world, will not prevent or remove a sickness, ib. all perish 
in the using, 455. 
Persecution, faith the grace chiefly tried in, iv. 31. 

Of his people by princes, God suffers, to show that he can carry on hi& 
work though authority be against him, vi. 216 ; that the patience of 
his people may be put to the utmost probation, ib. that his peopla 
may be weaned from fleshly dependence, ib. ; that their testimony 
and witness-bearing to God's truth may be the more public and 
authentic in the view of the world, 217 ; on the part of the perse 
cutors, the causes are ignorance and blind zeal, ib. ; prejudice lightly 
taken up against the people of God, 218 ; their erroneous principle 
in civil polity, ib. 

Has been in every age, viii. 120 ; more, greater, and longer in the 
New Testament than in the Old, 121 from pseudo-christians hot 
and violent, ib. if we do not suffer from, we ought to bless God for 
the mercy, 122 j be so much the more in active obedience, ib. bear 
lesser troubles with more patience ; ib. ; if it befall us, we must not 
shrink, 123. 

One of the ordinary trials of God's children ; as God chasteneth them 
because they are no better, so the world persecuteth them because 
they are so good, ix. 166. 
Persecutions which the godly suffer from the wicked a plain demonstration of 

judgment to come, xx. 207. 

Persecutors, the iniquity of, some matter of confidence to the oppressed, ix. 
100; because God and we are engaged in a common cause, ib. ; 
they are the more ripe for judgment, 101. 

Perseverance, doctrine of, stated, v. 43 ; seeming grace may be lost, ib. ; initial 
or preparative grace may fail, ib. j true grace may suffer a shrewd 
decay, but not an utter loss, 44 ; such grace as serveth to our well- 
being in Christ may be taken away, joy, peace, cheerfulness, &c., ib. ; 

INDEX. 285 

the operations of grace may be obstructed for a great while, ib. ; 
grace, if left to us, would soon be lost, ib. ; perseverance God's gift, 
not man's art, ib. ; not an encouragement to neglect of means, ib. ; 
or of wariness and self-jealousy, 45 ; or of prayer, ib. ; grounds 
of certainty of, 46 ; the Father's everlasting love and all-sufficient 
power, ib. ; Christ's everlasting merit, the close union between him 
and us, and his constant intercession, 47 ; the Spirit's continued 
influence, ib. 

JPerseverance is by the grace of God, yet requires a concurrence of our care 
and diligence, v. 341 ; because of our proneness to revolt, 342 ; con 
tinual temptations, ib. j aptness to security and negligence, as if 
danger were over, ib. ; encouragements to, 343. 

In the way of God, necessity of, vi. 315 ; we have the same reason to 
continue that we had to begin, ib. ; danger and mischievous effects 
of apostasy and falling of, ib. 

In order to, must be fortified against what may shake from without, 
vi. 317; especially errors, ib. ; persecutions, 318; scandals, ib, ; be 
fortified within by taking heed to 'the causes of apostasy, ib. ; un 
grounded assents, 319; want of solid rooting in grace, ib. ; un- 
mortified lusts, ib. ; faulty easiness, ib. ; self-confidence, 320 ; itch 
of novelty, ib. ; take heed of the first decays, ib. ; often review your 
first grounds, and compare them with your after experiences, ib. 

In some cases more difficult than conversion, viii. 192; sustaining 
grace necessary to, 193. 

Of the saints, or their conservation in the state of grace, is sure and 
certain, x. 300 ; seeming grace may be lost, 301 ; initial or preparative 
grace may fail, ib. ; true grace may suffer a shrewd decay, but not 
an utter loss, 302 ; such grace as serves to our well-being in Christ 
may be taken away, ib. ; certainty of, consistent with the necessity 
of the use of means, ib. ; and watchfulness, 303 ; and prayer, ib. ; 
is not discontinued, but constant, ib. 

Grounds of, x. 304; the Father's everlasting love and all-sufficient 
power, ib. ; Christ's everlasting merit, ib. ; and constant interces 
sion, ib. ; the Spirit's continual influence, 305. 

Doctrine of, abused to undue presumptuous security, xi. 305. 
Persons of the Godhead all engaged in the sanctification of believers, v. 39. 

Of the Godhead do all concur to the happiness and salvation of be 
lievers, xix. 157 ; the Father by love, ib. ; the Son by his grace, 
158; the Holy Ghost by his communion, ib. ; all imply riches of 
goodness, bounty, and liberality, 159 ; make way one for another, 
and work into each other's hand, ib. ; why they concur, 160 ; that 
we may have the higher esteem of the work, ib. ; that we may give 
equal glory to all the persons, ib. ; that we may with more confidence 
expect the beginning, progress, and consummation of our salvation, 
161 ; that the whole glory may redound to God alone, 162. 
Personal application of Christ may be dark and received, or clear and open, 
xx. 32; the one necessary, the other comfortable, 33; reasons, 
34 ; because things that nearly concern us do most affect us, ib. ; 
because general grace must be made particular, else it cannot profit 
us, ib. ; the scripture insisteth much upon a personal entering into 
covenant with God, ib. ; our interest in him is the ground of our 
comfort and confidence, 35. 

286 INDEX, 

Peter, his proposal to make three tabernacles had something that was good 
in it, i. 372 ; and something that was evil, 373 - } an instance of great 
and excessive passions, 374. 

Peter Martyr' 's discourse at Naples, and its effect, xiii. 113. 

Petitions in Lord's prayer, why fourth and fifth connected by l and,' i. 
167 j because without pardon all the good things of this life will do 
us no good, ib. ; to show us our unworthiness, 168 ; because sin is 
the great obstacle and hindrance of all the blessings which we expect 
from God, ib. 

Pharaoh cried, Take away this curse ; the sincere penitent, Take away this 

sin, ii. 206. 
A notable instance of hardness of heart, xvii. 221. 

Pharisaism very natural in the best, i. 7 

Pharisees' hypocrisy in giving alms, i. 4 ; and in prayers, ib. ; prayed rather 

to men than to God, 8. 

Submitted to John's baptism though they hated Christ, because it 
was then in esteem, xiii, 201. 

Philip, injured by Paul as a persecutor, easily reconciled to Paul as a 
convert, ii. 327. 

Philosophy inferior to Christianity, vii. 426 

Piety, a great fruit and token of, is provision for the afflicted, iv. 176. 

More instances of, in the married state than in monasteries and clois 
ters, xii. 57. 

Pilgrimage, the godly count this world, and their whole estate therein, a 
house of, vii. 66 ; here is no fixed abode, ib. ; they have no 
rest, ib. ; they believe and look for a better estate after this life, ib. ; 
they not only look for it, but seek after it, 67 ; they are dealt with 
as strangers, ib. 

Pilgrims, the great thing they should seek after is the straightest way to 

heaven, vi. 183. 

Find in God's word matter of rejoicing during their exile and 
absence from God, and all the inconveniences that attend it, vii. 71; 
in the word they have the discovery of eternal life, 72 ; and sure 
directions how they may obtain this blessedness promised, ib. ; the 
examples of their countrymen, ib. ; many seasonable cordials against 
fainting by the way, ib. 

Pillar of cloud and fire, a type of Christ, i. 480. 

Plant, tender, comparison of Christ to, refers to the meanness and poverty 
of his condition, iii. 220. 

Pleasing of God is, negatively, not pleasing the flesh, xi. 482 ; not pleasing 
men, 483 ; positively, is our great duty and business in the world, ib. 
Of God should be our great end and scope, xix. 290 ; his favour is our 
happiness, his wrath our misery, ib. ; as we are creatures, 291 ; as 
we are new creatures, ib. ; we cannot be sincere unless this be our 
aim and scope, 292 ; maketh us serious and watchful, ib. ; solaceth 
under the difficulties of obedience, ib. ; is by doing what he hath 
required of us in his word, ib. ; in order to know his mind we must 
make search and trial, 295. 

Pleasure of God in Christ as mediator, i. 386 ; as to the design, ib. ; as ta 
the terms, 387 ; as to the execution and management of it by Christ, 
388 ; propounded as the foundation on which God will build his- 
church, 389. 

Christ hath forbidden none but what may be a sin or a snare to- 
us, ii. 34. 


Pleasure of God, which prospers in the hand of Christ, is the whole decree 
of God about the good of the creatures, iii. 398 ; more general, in the 
evangelising of the world, 399 ; more special, in the reconciliation 
of sinners to God, ib. 

All sins rooted in love of, iv. 98. 

And outward comforts, much caution should be exercised in the use of, 
v. 77. 

Being enjoyed, do not satisfy, vi. 7 ; being inordinately loved, defile, 
8 ; being lost, increase our trouble and sorrow, ib. 

Bodily, God forbiddeth none, but as it hindereth our greater pleasure, 
xviii. 373 ; where the heart is mortified arid subdued to God, there 
is no such pleasure as the contempt of bodily, ib. 

Of God's goodness, when it is fulfilled in us, xx. 317 ; when grace 
is operative and vigorous, ib. ; when the Spirit dwelleth within us to 
keep grace a- work, 318 ; when internal and external acts of faith con 
cur, ib. ; advantages of this, ib. ; objective and subjective grace, 320 ; 
practice gives experience of the comfort of religion, ib. 
Pleasures, eternal, excel temporal, as holiness doth sin, xx. 17. 
Plots against the interests of God and his people in the world, an ancient 
practice, vii. 382 ; to foment divisions among themselves, ib. ; to 
divide between them and their rulers, 383 ; to divide between them 
and God, ib. ; to discourage and suppress religion, 384 ; to intro 
duce persecution, 385 ; against private persons, ib. ; usually begin 
in pride, 386; God can protect his people against, 387; by his 
wisdom, ib. ; the care and vigilancy of his providence, 388 ; he doth 
protect them, ib. ; God's law forbiddeth all, 389. 

And snares for the mischief and ruin of others, especially of God's 
people, the work of the wicked, viii. 131 ; it is a deliberate, volun 
tary sin, ib. ; it is a sign that evil is connatural to them, ib. ; they 
are of the devil's trade, 132 ; it is a sin contrary to the love of God 
and man, ib. ; contrary to the gentleness and simplicity of the 
Christian religion, ib. 
Policy, carnal, caution against, viii. 7 
Politicians, carnal, their opposition to the gospel, ii. 105. 
Poor and rich, grace maketh, alike before God, iv. 66. 

Of this world often chosen by God, iv. 193 ; may be spiritually rich, 
195 ; the Lord loveth only the godly, ib. 

Despising, is a sin not only against the word and written will of God, 
but against his mind and intent in his works and dispensations, iv. 
201 ; against his mind in their creation, ib. ; against his common 
providence, ib. ; against his special providence, ib. 

Oppressed, the Lord their avenger, iv. 411. 

To do good to, as poor, is a work of natural mercy; to do good to 
one, as to one of Christ's brethren, of Christian charity, x. 72. 

Three sorts of, x. 74 ; the devil's, the world's, Christ's, ib. ; reasons of 
charity to Christ's, 75 ; the near union between Christ and his 
people, ib. ; Christ hath commended them to us as his proxies and 
deputies, ib. ; it is a great honour put upon us to be instruments 
of divine providence and preservation of others, ib. ; profit of this 
duty, 76 ; the way to preserve an estate, ib. ; to increase it, ib. ; to 
cleanse it, ib. ; to possess it with a good conscience, ib. ; motives, 77. 
Pope and his adherents, in them the most odious pride set forth that ever 
the world saw, iii. 38 ; twenty kings and emperors trampled under 
foot by, 39 ; usurpeth the authority due to Christ, 40. 

288 INDEX, 

Pope, his universal bishopric impossible as to matter of fact, sacrilegious 

as to matter of right, vi. 308. 
Popedom, its rise, i. 462. 
Popery, to be detested, as of the devil, iii. 70. 
Cause to fear a return of, iii. 84. 

Absurdity of its errors, iii. 89 ; adoration of images, ib. ; invocation 

of saints, ib. ; works of supererogation, ib. ; obstinacy with which 

they cleave to them, 90 ; given over to believe a lie, 91 ; why so 

many learned men continue in, 92. 

Its ways and errors damnable, iii. 97 ; they live in wilful disobedience 

to God, ib. ; deprive the people of the means of salvation, 98. 
Popish and heathen idolatry little different, v. 254. 

Portion, God alone is the godly man's, vii. 107 ; a good portion, ib. ; one 
that he has an interest in and a title to, 109 ; a proper and suit 
able good, 110; sufficient, 111; satisfying, 112; and delightful, 
Poverty and meanness of condition not disgraceful, iiL 231 ; should not be 

irksome to us, 232. 
Power, omnipotent, can save to the utmost, infinite love can pardon to the 

utmost, if we can believe, iv. 54. 

God's, the great trouble of the soul ariseth from unbelief of, v. 363. 
God's, is his liberty and sufficiency to do whatever he may will, vii. 


That goes along with the word, viii. 340 ; to humble and terrify, ib. ; 
to convert and transform, 341 ; to comfort, 342 ; to confirm and 
strengthen, ib. 

Christ's, over all flesh, x. 130 ; is by grant and donation, ib. ; if not 

God, he would not have been capable of such power, ib. ; given to 

him as mediator, 131 ; not confined to the elect, ib. ; not confined 

to the church and things merely spiritual, ib. 

One of God's greatest perfections, xiii. 434 ; in creation no attribute 

so eminent, ib. 
Of God necessary to bring us into a state of grace, xx. 286 ; to keep 

and maintain us in a state of grace, 287 ; sufficiency of, 288. 
Practice, how much it exceeds speculation, viii. 24. 

Pleasure of, greater than of contemplation, xviii. 370 ; because prac 
tice giveth a more experimental knowledge, 371 ; the taste of 
things is kept up on our hearts by serious practice, ib. ; every holy 
action is rewarded by peace of conscience, ib. j our title to the hea 
venly inheritance more clearly made out, ib. ; our will is conformed 
to the will and law of God, ib. 

Praise, Christians more backward to, than to prayer, i. 76. 
Real (not merely verbal), is what God seeks, i. 78. 
And blessing God, distinction between, i. 244. 
The most effectual spiritual oratory or way of praying, i. 844 ; the 

noblest part of worship, 245, 

Every mercy received should lead us to, vi. 67 ; respecteth God's ex 
cellencies, as blessing or thanksgiving his benefits, ib. ; to be with 
an upright heart, 69. 

Ought continually, frequently, and on all occasions, to be offered to 
God, viii. Ill ; a nobler duty than prayer, ib. 

INDEX. 289 

Praise, blessing God and giving thanks sometimes used promiscuously, but 
strictly blessing and thanks relateth to benefits received, praise 
to God's excellencies, ix. 191 ; faith and love must be at the 
bottom of, ib. is an acknowledgment, by some outward expres 
sion, of the divine virtues, benefits, and perfections, ib. ; the fruit of, 
is holiness, 192 ; is good and profitable, ib. ; pleasant and delight 
ful, ib. ; comely and honourable, 193; should never cease, in re 
spect of the preparation of the heart, ib. ; should be for his word, 
194 ; for the dispensation of his providence, fulfilling his promises 
to the faithful, and executing his threatenings on the wicked, 195 ; 
for favours, ib. ; for afflictions, ib. ; causes of backwardness to, 197 ; 
little love to God, ib. ; neglect of observation,^. 
Prayer, the Lord's, analysis of, i. 3. 

Public, efficacy of, i. 8 ; private, encouragements to, from God's sight 
and God's reward, 9 ; how he openly rewards secret prayer, ib. 

Closet, a duty very necessary, i. 10 ; appears from God's precept, ib. ; 
from Christ's example, ib. ; from God's end in pouring out the Holy 
Ghost, 11 ; from the practice of the saints, 12 ; from our private 
necessities, ib. ; very profitable, 13 ; conduceth much to enlargement 
of heart, ib. ; makes way for secret manifestations of love on God's 
part, ib. ; is a mighty solace and support in affliction, ib. ; is a great 
trial of sincerity, faith, love, and obedience, 14 ; because of the 
great promises, made to it, ib. 

Neglect of secret, a sin of omission, i. 14; omission of a duty which 
is very natural to the saints, 15 ; secret should in some respects be 
more prized than other prayer, 16 ; mischief which follows neglect 
of, 17. 

Private, excuses for neglecting, i. 19; want of time, ib.; want of a 
place, ib. ; want of parts, ib. ; exhortation to frequency in, 20 ; its 
seriousness, cautions, and warnings, 21. 

Ought to be simple and plain, i. 28 ; vocal, useful to bound our 
thoughts, warm our affections, and strengthen our faith, ib. 

Increases faith, love, and hope, i. 30; five abuses in, 31 ; idle and 'foolish 
loquacity, ib. ; frothy eloquence and affected language, ib. ; heartless 
speaking, ib. ; mere outward vehemency and loud speech, 32 ; 
Popish repetition, and loose shreds of prayer often repeated, ib. ; 
directions in, ib. ; about our words, ib. ; thoughts, 33; affections, 37. 

Affections proper in, i. 37 ; fervency, ib. ; reverence, 38 ; confidence, ib. 

The Lord's, to be highly esteemed by Christians, i. 39 ; though we are 
not tied to it as a form, yet it may be humbly used, ib. ; preface 
to, 40. 

Incumbent as a duty on natural men, and yet they cannot discharge 
it, i. 49 ; duty with reference to, of those who do not know their 
adoption, 50. 

An act of the heart, not of the lips, i. 60. 

Lord's, contains four petitions for the bestowal of good, two for the 
removal of evil, i. 66. 

Is both an expression of a desire, and an implicit vow or solemn 
obligation that we take upon ourselves to prosecute what we ask, 
i. 66, 75. 

To be in love as well as in faith, i. 108. 

Is oftener from our memories than our consciences, and offcener from 

our consciences than our affections, i. 126. 

290 INDEX. 

Prayer, the Lord's, the glory of God the beginning and ending of, i. 245. 

Secret, usually most ardent, i. 339. 

Its use is not to inform the judgment, but to raise the affections, i. 
347 ; the nearest approach to God while we are in the flesh, 349. 

Agents in, the human spirit, the new nature, and the Holy Spirit, i. 
350 ; must be daily and constant, but also special on extraordinary 
occasions, 351 ; why no life in, 352. 

Often answered while it is facing offered, i. 353. 

Secret, every Christian should work conscious of, ii. 28. 

Spiritual blessings to be mainly sought in, ii. 210. 

A gracious soul delights in ; a hypocrite is incapable of, ii. 238. 

Must be made to God alone, iii. 137 ; Jesus Christ invoked together 
with the Father as an author of grace. 138. 

God's love giveth great boldness in, iii. 148 ; not a cold ineffectual, 
but an operative, active love, ib. ; such infinite love to give Christ 
to die for us as may raise our wonder and astonishment, ib. ; gift 
of Christ a gift in order to other things, and therefore he will com 
plete that gift, ib. ; the giving of Christ showeth how freely God 
will give all things to us, 149 ; in prayer, God to be conceived of as 
one that loveth us, ib. 

What is won by, usually worn with thanks, iv. 41. 

God always satisfies, though not carnal desires, iv. 45 ; we desire a 
knife, he giveth us bread, ib. ; encouragement in, to consider that 
not only is there bounty in God, but bounty, engaged by promise, 
46 ; trial of true, is by the faith of it, 47 ; requires an actual 
reliance on the grace and merits of Christ, ib. none must be put 
up but what can be put up in faith, 48 ; soul must magnify God's 
attributes in, ib. ; when we have a certain promise, we must have 
no doubt of his will, ib. ; when we have no certain assurance of his 
will, faith must glorify and apply his power, ib. and his love, 49 ; 
some that have more near communion with God may have a parti 
cular faith of some particular occurrence, 50. 

Fruit of, received from the hand of Christ, iv. 54. 

Not for God's information, but the creature's submission, iv. 338. 

The best remedy for sorrows, iv. 441. 

Should be nothing else but faith exercised, iv. 455. 

Intercessory, must be for the whole community of saints, every mem 
ber of Christ's body, iv. 461 ; those especially to whom we are more 
nearly related, ib. ; for magistrates and officers of the church, ib. ; 
the weak for the strong, and the strong for the weak, ib. 

True, must be earnest, fervent, iv. 463 ; must use much diligence to 
work our hearts to the duty, ib. ; not only by the qualification of the 
duty, but of the person, to be regarded, 464 ; infirmities do not 
hinder the success of, when the heart is upright, 469. 

A cure for murmuring, v. 311. 

The last refuge when things are otherwise irremediable, v. 394. 

Accepting and granting, great difference between, vi. 249. 

Without the heart is babbling, vii. 123 ; with half heart when it is a 
fruit of memory and invention, ib. ; when it is rather with the con 
science than the affections, ib. ; when the affections are devoted to 
carnal things, and the comfortable part of spiritual things, ib. 

Should be earnest, vii. 250 ; confident, ib. ; evangelically confident, 
ib. ; its impelling principle a strong bent to please God, 251; a 
desire to enjoy him, ib. 

INDEX. 291 

Affliction should put us on, viii. 99 ; it is with God we have to do, 
ib. ; he alone can help and relieve us, either by removing the trou 
ble or supporting us under it, ib. ; should seek that we may know 
his mind in all his providences, 100 ; that we may have strength to 
bear it, ib. ; wisdom to improve our chastisements, ib. ; deliverances 
and freedom from the trouble, ib. ; must not give over, though 
afflictions be ever so great and many, 101 ; nothing too hard for 
God, ib. 
Prayer and praise, the two great sacrifices required of us, viii. 108. 

A duty very kindly to the saints, viii. Ill ; as soon as they are con 
verted to God, they will fall a-praying, ib. 

A holy vehemency and fervour required in, ix. 37 ; we may cry, ib. ; 
we must cry, ib. ; the Spirit of grace given us for this end, ib. ; the 
saints have all done so, ib. ; their cries are heard and answered, ib. ; 
other prayers are not comely ib. this crying consisteth in the ear 
nestness of the affection, not in the loudness of the voice, 38 ; not 
the earnestness of the carnal affections, ib. ; not a mere natural 
fervency, ib. ; defects in, 39 ; children of God conscious to them 
selves of much deadness in, ib. ; causes, ib. ; want of sense, ib. ; siri 
and carnal liberty, 40 ; want of spiritual desire, ib. ; want of re 
verence to God, ib. ; want of faith, ib. ; signs of holy fervency in, 
41 ; when the heart worketh, ib. ; when we follow the suit, and 
will not give over praying, ib. ; when deaf to disappointments and 
discouragements, ib. ; when we are argumentative, and plead with 
God, ib. ; way to get fervency, 42 ; sincerity in, noteth seriousness, 
ib. ; a hearty desire, 43 ; the prevalency of these affections, ib. ; a 
universal care to please God in all things, ib. ; persuasion to pray 
with our whole heart, ib. ; directions, 44. 

For deliverance, should be accompanied with serious purposes of obed 
ience, ix. 65 ; because this is the best expression of gratitude and 
thankfulness, ib. ; it is a sign the rod hath done its work, ib. ; it 
shows a true notion of deliverance as an engaging mercy, ib. ; a 
gracious heart desires deliverance for this very end, that he may be 
in a better condition to keep God's commandments, ib. 

Secret, arguments for, ix. 68; all the precepts of prayer include 
closet prayer, ib. ; God's end in pouring out the Spirit, that we 
may pray apart and mourn apart (Zech. xii. 10-14), 69 ; the 
practice of the saints, ib. our own private necessities, which can 
not be so feelingly spoken to by others, ib. 

Is oftener from our memories than our consciences, and oftener from 
our consciences enlightened than hearts renewed by grace, ix. 187. 

A great stay in afflictions, xii. 225 ; the appointed means of comfort in 
distress, safety in danger, relief in want, and strength in weakness, 
ib. ; we know not what to pray for as we ought without the Spirit's 
enlightenment and direction, 226 ; the manner of this help and 
assistance, ib. ; the virtue of true prayer doth not consist in the 
number and artifice of words, ib. 

A special means by which the Holy Ghost helpeth us in trouble 
and affliction, xii. 231 ; troubles are sent for this end, ib. ; a spe 
cial means to ease the heait of burdensome cares and fears, ib. ; 
of acknowledging God as the fountain of our strength and the 
author of our blessings, ib. ; exhortation to prayer, 232 ; the 
prayers of the godly come from the Spirit of God, ib. ; the Spirit's 
gracious operations are specially manifested in prayer, ib. ; three 

292 INDEX. 

tilings concur in prayer the spirit of a man, the new nature, and 
the Spirit of God, ib. ; the manner in which the Spirit concurreth 
in the prayers of the faithful, 233 ; the necessity of this help and 
assistance, 235 : the order and economy of the divine persons re- 
quireth it, ib. ; that prayer may be proportionable with our other 
duties, ib. ; because of our impotency, ib. ; and with respect to ac 
ceptance, 236 ; cautions against abuses and mistakes in prayer, ib. ; 
not to be understood as if the matter and words of prayer were to 
be immediately inspired, ib. ; nor that we should never pray till 
the Spirit moveth us, ib. ; want of freedom of utterance no evidence 
of absence of spirit, 237 ; all that pray graciously have not the 
spirit in like measure, nor the same persons always in the same 
measure, ib. gifts more necessary when we join with others, but 
the spirit of most use when we are alone, 238 ; the kind of helps 
we have from the Spirit of God in prayer, ib. ; it is his office to 
quicken our affections and desires, 239 ; the motions of the Spirit 
a help, but not the rule or reason of prayer, ib. ; cautions to be 
observed, 240 ; what kind of prayers come from the Spirit, 241 ; 
exhortations to the spirit of prayer and supplication, 242. 
Prayer, reasons why, when made according to the will of God, must be 
acceptable to him, xii. 257. 

How to interpret, xii. 266. 

Direction in, to avoid customariness, irreverence, and deadness, and to 
beget confidence, xiv. 142 ; how we may keep our hearts in, under 
a sense of God's being, so as to conceive of him aright, 144 ; must 
renew and revive our faith in God's essence and presence, ib. ; there 
must be no carnal conceit and representation of God in our minds, 
145 ; must conceive of him according to his praises in his word, 
147 ; must have such thoughts of him as may increase our reverence, 
not weaken our delight, ib. ; considerations to keep the spirit awe- 
ful, 148 ; considerations to keep the heart cheerful, 149 ; rules to 
be observed in forming fit notions of the Trinity, 151. 

To God, must be reverent both as to the frame of the soul and the 
gesture of the body, xiv. 402. 

The kind of faith required in, xv. 146 ; what it is to ask according to 
the will of God, 148; the necessity of praying in faith, 150; re 
proof of those that pray with little or no faith, 151 ; exhortation 
to faith in prayer, 152 ; how we may know that we pray in faith. 

The ends for which this duty was appointed, xv. 298 ; causes why 
men neglect it, 302. 

The nature of, xvii. 491 ,- the kinds of, distinguished, 492 ; what it 
is to pray without ceasing, 492 ; reasons why constant and frequent 
prayer is a duty incumbent on all true Christians, 496 ; reproof of 
those who are infrequent in prayer, 500 ; wherein lieth a prayerful 
temper of heart, 502. 

The birthplace or proper rise of, is in the heart, xviii. 63 ; inducements 
to, 64 ; a sense of our wants, ib. esteem and value of the blessings 
askedj ib. ; desire, 65 ; habitual inclination of the mind towards 
God, ib. ; encouragements to, 66 ; God's merciful nature, ib. ; his 
great love, ib. ; his bountiful providence, ib. ; his promises, 67. 

The terms in which God invites and encourages us to prayer, xxi. 
193 ; how we should ask in order to ensure success, 194 ; success 
in prayer distinguished, 197; several ways of receiving answers to 

INDEX. 293 

prayer, 198; answers to prayer notable confirmations to faith, ex 
citements to love and obedience, and encouragements to pray again, 
Prayers, failing of the pharisees in their, i. 4. 

Long, not forbidden; i. 25 ; yet, in the general, prayer should be short, 
ib. ; affectation of prolixity is naught, ib. 

Should all be mingled "with a thankful sense and acknowledgment 
of God's mercies, vii. 165; thanksgiving is the kindly way of 
petitioning, 166. 

Of Christ, why he prayed, x. 113; this was the agreement between 
God and him, that he should first establish a right, and then sue 
it out in court, ib. ; that we might have a copy of his intercession, 
ib. ; that his prayers might be a constant fountain and foundation 
of spiritual blessings, ib. ; to commend the duty of prayer, 114; 
that our prayers might be effectual, ib. 

Christ's, all believers, and they only, are interested in, xi. 17. 

To be directed to Christ with confidence, xi. 129; and with earnest 
ness, 130. 

Praying, manner of, should be with reverence, self -abhorrence, and submis 
sion, i. 252. 

In the Holy Ghost, what it is, v. 337 ; the right manner of, is with 
affection, 339 ; with confidence, 340 ; with reverence, ib. 

For grace yet sinning against it, is like those that sacrificed to 
Esculapius, praying for health, but kept up their riotous feasts, 
xiii. 464. 

Preachers, all Christians not called to be, but all are on meet occasions to 
declare the judgments of God's mouth, vi. 121 ; in their own fami 
lies, ib. ; in their converses, 122 ; reasons, ib. ; the lips and tongue 
are God's, and must be used for him, ib. ; it is the glory of the 
tongue to serve God in this kind, 123; every creature has a voice 
peculiar to itself, and so should the new creature have, ib. ; good 
is communicative, 124 ; it discovereth knowledge and good esteem 
of the word, ib. ; it is for our benefit to be talking of good things 
to others, 125. 
Preacher's best commendation is the hearer's life, iv. 153. 

Who are strict in doctrine and loose in practice, reproof of, vii. 17. 
Preaching of the word, men not to adventure upon, till they have a good 
spiritual furniture, or are stored with a sufficiency of gifts, iv. 133. 

Should be suited to the wants and circumstances of the hearers, 

v. 103. 

Precepts, show not what man will do, but what he ought to do ; are not 
measures of strength, iv. 369. 

Should be turned into prayers, vi. 47. 

Meditation on God's, and walking in God's ways, connection between, 
vi. 138. 

Keeping of God's, is legal or evangelical, vii. 96 ; benefit of keeping, 
97 ; peace of conscience, 98 ; joy in the Holy Ghost, 99 ; increase 
of grace, ib. ; gracious experiences and manifestations of God 
vouchsafed to us in the way of obedience, 100 ; protection in our 
work, 101 ; preservation in public and common judgments, ib. ; 
so much of sanctified prosperity as is good for us, 102 ; these 
benefits should be seen and observed, ib. ; to increase our esteem 
for God's grace, ib. ; to justify God against the reproaches of carnal 

294 INDEX. 

men, 103 to check our murmurings, ib. ; to encourage us in well 
doing, ib. 

Precepts of God, esteem of, presupposeth knowledge and a right discerning, 
viii. 323 ; advertency or application, 324 ; is such an approbation 
as doth engage affection, such an affection as doth engage practice, 
ib. ; not a simple, but comparative approbation, 325 ; not only a 
judgment of general esteem, but of particular application, ib. ; not 
slight and superficial, but deep and solid, ib. such as hath a lively 
and effectual influence upon our hearts and ways, 326 ; universal, 
not partial, 327. 

Choosing of God's, implies deliberation, ix. 265 ; esteem or prefer 
ence, ib. voluntary inclination, 266 ; firm and immutable purpose, 
ib. contentment and complacency in that which we have chosen, 
267 j reasons for choosing, ib. ; from the necessity of it, ib. ; the 
congruity and convenience of it, both to the honour of God and 
the nature of man, 268 ; the utility and benefit of it, 269. 

Predestination, God's eternal purpose, will, or decree is the first rise of all 
things, xii. 310 ; what God so willeth and purposeth doth in 
fallibly come to pass, 312 ; whatever so cometh to pass is brought 
about in the most convenient order, ib. ; God doth not find this 
order in causes, but maketh it, 313; this order of causes is so 
settled and joined together that none can separate them, 314 ; 
effectual calling is the fruit of predestination, ib. ; predestination 
is free, not depending on foreseen works and faith, 316 ; but does 
not exclude the means by which it is brought about, ib. ; the effects 
of predestination, 318. 


P "reparation, redemption needeth none, but conversion doth, v. 21. 

For the coming of Christ is either habitual, ix. 400 ; in the state 
of the person, ib. ; the frame of the heart, ib. ; the course of the 
conversation, ib. ; or actual, ib. ; this should be made clear, 
401 ; when God summons us by his providence to make up our 
accounts, ib. 
* Of the gospel of peace,' what it is, xii. 378. 


Present things, the wicked enjoy, more than the righteous, viii. 221. 

With the Lord, our happiness in the world to come lieth in being, 
xiii. 23 ; reasons why, ib. ; the excellency of this blessed estate, 26 ; 
that we are in the immediate presence of the Lord as soon as the 
soul flitteth from the body proved, ib. ; presence with the Lord 
should be earnestly desired by christians, 31. 

Presentation by Christ of his people to God, v. 364 ; as an account of his 
charge, ib. j as an act of delight and rejoicing in his own success, 
365 ; as an act of his love and recompense to the faithful, ib. 
Threefold spoken of in scripture, by believers themselves, by minis 
ters, by Christ, xix. 488. 

Preservation a daily renewal of creation, xx. 182. 

Presumers are either ignorant or inconsiderate, iv. 243. 

Presumptuous sins, their nature, xxi. 338 ; sins of infirmity and sins of 
presumption distinguished, 339 ; the heinousness of these, 343 ; 
the danger of them, 344 ; reproof of those that live in known sins, 
346 ; dissuasives, 347 j things men usually presume upon, 348 ; 
the danger of the regenerate in presumptuous sinning, 352 ; of 
such as persuade themselves their sins are but infirmities. 356. 

INDEX. 295 

Pretences, vain, by which sinners usually harden their hearts, xix. 222; that 
God will not call them to account, or punish them for their sins, ib. ; 
that God will not be severe against his creatures, 223 j that they 
are Christians, 224 ; that none is perfect, ib. ; that they depend on 
the righteousness of Christ, 225 ; that they hope to repent at last, 
ib. j that they make amends for a course of sin in one kind by 
abounding in other duties, ib. 

' PricJced in heart' (Acts ii. 37), considered as the fruit of sin and the begin 
ning of grace, xxi. 242 ; what it is, 244 ; God's course to bring home 
sinners to himself, 245 ; reasons why, ib. 

Pride gave us the first merit of death, and envy the first instance of it, 
iv. 309. 

Two sorts of, one in the mind, the other in the affections, iv. 354 ; 
nothing causeth madness so much as, 355. 

Good to shame, with consideration of God's power and our own base 
ness, iv. 386. 

Dissuasives from, v. 244. 

Is moral or spiritual, vi. 195. 

In mind, self-conceit; in affections, vainglory, vi. 414, 415. 

Puts wicked men upon being troublesome and injurious to the people 
of God, vii. 322. 

Acts of, vii. 325 ; wittingly and willingly opposing any command of 
God, ib. ; entertaining crosses with anger and blessings with dis 
dain, ib. ; despising any of Christ's little ones, ib. ; a lofty conceit 
of ourselves, with contempt of others, 326 ; disdain of inferiors, ib. ; 
contention with equals, ib. ; undutifulness to superiors, 327 ; impa 
tience of admonitions and reproofs, ib. ; building too securely upon 
earthly enjoyments, 328 ; remedies against, ib. 

Of life, in what it consists, xvi. 94, 95, 116. 

Why God is an enemy of, xxi. 411 ; what it is, 415 ; how it shows 
itself, ib. ; why it begins with the heart, 418 ; means to avoid, 421. 
Priesthood which we have by Christ concerneth our ministration in the 
heavenly temple, xix. 93 ; because a Christian is conformed to 
Christ, and made like him in all things, ib. ; this suiteth with the 
other privilege, that of being kings, 95 ; thus we are qualified and 
prepared, ib. ; till then we have not the full privilege of priests, 
intimacy, full communion, nearness of access to God, and ministra 
tion before him, 96 ; heaven is often represented as a temple, and 
therefore there must be priests, 98 ; the sacrifice of praise and 
thanksgiving remain eth to be everlastingly offered by us, ib. ; the 
scriptures plainly express that our service is not ended with our 
lives, ib. ; our estate in heaven hath the notion of a day or time in 
which our priesthood is to be exercised, 99. 
Priestly office of Christ requires that he be God and man, i. 489. 

Office of Christ, two acts of, oblation and intercession, x. 246. 
Principles, rank of, viii. 488 ; some false and rotten, as carnal example and 
custom, ib. ; some more tolerable, as the hope of temporal mercies, 
ib. ; some very good and sound, yet do not argue grace, as when 
duties are done out of the urgings of an enlightened conscience, ib. ; 
pure and excellent when we act with respect to God, 489. 

Carnal and spiritual, men draw opposite conclusions from the same, 

xx. 212. 

Prison and judgment, Christ taken from, many interpretations of, iii. 344 ; 
taken and assumed into glory from the prison of the grave, 345. 

296 INDEX. 

Private spirit, evil of, vii. 285. 

Privilege and duty of the godly, it is their privilege that they have a God to 
go to, their duty to make him their guardian and saviour in all their 
distress, ix. 64. 

Privileges, inward, the best and most honourable; spiritual kin to be pre 
ferred before carnal, iv. 17. 
Offered in God's word are everlasting, ix. 7. 

Privy council of a child of God, God's testimonies, vi. 224; books the best 
counsellors ; and of all books God's testimonies have the pre-emi 
nence, ib. 

Prize of eternal glory set before those whom God hath effectually called in 
Christ, xx. 94 ; all Christians deeply engaged to pursue after, 97. 

Profession showeth to what party we addict ourselves ; holiness, that we 

addict ourselves to God, iv. 246. 

Naked, in respect of true faith, is but as a dead body and carcase, iv. 
270 ; noisome as a rotten carcase ; useless as to all the purposes of 
faith, ib. 

Of Christ not enough, v. 165 ; without answerable practice, maketh us 
in worse case than the heathen, ib. accompanied with some rash 
and fond affection to Christ not enough, 166 ; means to discover 
false, 167. 

Necessity of, a matter intricate and perplexed, vi. 462 ; of great truths 
must be open and public, else Christ would not have a visible people 
in the world, 463 ; in the smallest matters we must do nothing to 
contradict the truth, ib. ; in lesser truths when they become testing 
questions, ib. ; when our non-profession would be interpreted as a 
denial, ib. ; when others are scandalised by our non-profession, ib. ; 
when an account of our faith is demanded, especially by magistrates, 
ib. ; when great opportunities are offered in God's providence, 464 ; 
to be forborne till you be fully persuaded of the truth you are to 
profess, ib. ; when the profession of a lesser truth proves an offence 
to the weak, ib. ; when the unseasonable venting of things will do 
more hurt than good, ib. ; how to made, ib. 

Not to be neglected, ix. 332 ; though never so glorious, should not be 
rested in without a saving work of grace upon the heart to maintain 
it, 333 ; will not serve for the present, ib. ; must fail for the future, ib. 
External, obligeth us to die unto sin, xii. 62. 

Without conviction, but a knowing Christ after the flesh, xiii. 224. 
The making an open confession of the truth a necessary duty, xiv. 
325 ; whether we are bound always to make this confession, ib. ; 
reasons why Christians should more plainly discover the profession 
of their hopes, 326 ; how they should do so, ib. ; reproof of those 
that are Nicodemites, 327. 

A man may go far, and fall away at last, xvii. 14 ; reasons why, ib. 
trials a means of discovery of our profession, 17 ; carnal men will 
renounce Christ rather than the world when it comes to a trial, 
18 ; yet be very sorrowful when they cannot win heaven in their own 
way, 22 ; worldliness a disease very incident to great men and per 
sons of quality, 23. 

Progress in Christian life is in three things conquest over the enemies of 

God and our souls, devotion of ourselves to God, and hope of the 

coming of Christ and our everlasting glory, ii. 104. 

They who have made furthest progress in Christianity are usually 

most sensible of their own imperfections, xx. 89 ; because as grace 

INDEX. 297 

iricreaseth, light increaseth, ib. ; as grace increaseth, their love to God 
increaseth, and so they hate sin more, ib. ; experience maketh them 
wise and provident, 90 ; they know more of the vanity of the world, 
ib. ; they are more acquainted with themselves, ib. ; by frequent com 
munion with God they know more of God, and so more of themselves, 
91 ; their work is now to look to the degree, ib. 
Prolegomena to the commentary on James, iv. 8. 

Promise, that it be immutable, three things necessary, iii. 152 ; that it be 
seriously and heartily made, ib. ; that the promiser continue in his 
purpose without change of mind, 153 ; that he is able to perform 
it, ib. 

The accomplishment of one, confirms another, vi. 399. 

Of mercy usually goeth before the bestowal of it, vii. 21 ; usually some 
time of delay between the promise and the fulfilment, ib. ; to try 
our faith, 22 ; our patience, ib. our love, 23 ; to enlarge our de 
sires, ib. 

Three things necessary that it may be certain and firm that it be made 
seriously and heartily, with a purpose to perform it ; that the 
promiser continue in his purpose ; that he has the power to fulfil 
it, vii. 364 ; these concur in the promises of God, 365, 401. 

Three things required in, viii. 263 ; veritas, sincerity, or truth in mak 
ing, ib ; fidelitas, faithfulness in keeping, 264 ; justitia, righteous 
ness in giving to him to whom the promise is made what the pro 
mise has made his, ib. See Righteousness, God's promise, &c. 
Promises, God's, their sufficiency and stability, i. 312. 

How they make us partakers of a divine nature, ii. 216 ; from their 
drift, 220; their matter, ib. ; their conditions or terms, 221; the 
power which accompanies them, ib. 

Particular application of general, is necessary, vi. 404. 

There are in the word of God, that we may believe, and others because 
we do believe ; to faith and for faith, vii. 23. 

Of scripture, comforting in affliction, vii. 34 ; particularly of par 
don of sin, ib. ; of eternal life, ib. ; concerning our temporal estate, 

To be made much of, vii. 202. 

The children of God make more of, than others do, because they value 
the blessings promised, and believe that they shall be fulfilled, vii. 

God may suspend the fulfilment of, not because he is unwilling to 
give, but because he will have us better prepared to receive, vii. 365 ; 
to awaken fervency of prayer, and that the blessing may be more 
earnestly desired and more highly valued, 366 ; to prove and exer 
cise our faith, ib. ; that patience may have its perfect work, ib. ; be 
cause the frame of his providence requires it, ib. 

Some have been made to one generation and fulfilled to another, vii. 
408 ; the same common, have been fulfilled to the faithful in all 
ages, ib. _ 

God's, motives to take, for our heritage, viii. 144 ; every man hath 
some heritage, a chief good, ib. ; this is a portion which will go along 
with us wherever we go, ib. all other things will never satisfy, 145 ; 
this heritage sanctifies all our heritages, ib. ; it is a good sign of 
adoption, ib. ; this is a peculiar heritage, and always goes along 
with the favour of God, ib. they that refuse this heritage, the 
Lord's vengeance will seize upon them, ib. 

298 INDEX. 

Promises, God's, to believe, and have the spirit of his saints, is enough for 

us, viii. 222. 
Meditation of, very seasonable, when the answer of our prayers is 

denied, ix. 83. 
Of God are good, ix. 283 ; and sure, ib. ; as promises, ib. ; as the 

promises of God, ib. 

Concern either this life or that which is to come, xii. 197. 
What they are, xiii. 328. 

From what inconsiderable beginnings they have their fulfilment illus 
trated in the case of Abraham, xiv. 250 ; not always made good in 
kind, ib. ; usually made good to the posterity of the faithful, 251. 
Are the overflowings of God's love, xiv. 293 ; the rule and warrant 
of faith, 294 ; a pledge of the thing promised, and must be held till 
performance come, ib. 

How we must believe, xiv. 410 ; helps to belief in, ib. 
The work of faith as to the, xv. 71, 58, 108. 
Of assistance, acceptance, and reward, the work of faith, xv. 141. 
Though made upon particular occasions to some of God's people, yet 

are of general use, xviii. 444. 
General, may be sought to be, applied to particular persons, rightly 

qualified, xx. 279. 
Property, should all, be in common 1 ? xvi. 146; have wicked men a right 

in, or may they be spoiled as the Canaanites ? ib. 
Prophecy, or preaching, an old ordinance, at least as old as Enoch, v. 291. 

Light of, and the light of faith compared, xiii. 364. 
Prophecies of scripture evince the truth of it, v. 322. 

Prophet, Christ the great, i. 393; his qualifications for this office, 394; 
absolute supreme authority, ib. ; all manner of sufficiency, and the 
power of God to execute the office, ib. ; power to make his doctrine 
effectual, 395. 

Prophetical office of Christ requires that he be God and man, i. 481 ; what 
he taught, 488 ; how he taught, ib. ; by what arguments he con 
firmed his doctrine, 489 ; how he received this doctrine from the 
Father, ib. 

Prophets got some knowledge by ordinary means, and some by immediate 
revelation, vi. 340 ; the latter as prophets, the former as believers, ib. 
Proselytes of the covenant and of the gate, distinction of, xviii. 406. 
Prosperity and adversity have each their snares ; the former the more 

dangerous, i. 237. 

And adversity, subject to, in outward things, viii. 191 ; each has its 

own snares and temptations, ib. ; some that have held well in one 

condition have failed in the other, ib. ; to have these conditions 

succeed one another makes the temptation the greater, ib. 

Of the wicked, no cause of dismay, viii. 213 ; not to be envied, 222; 

they are of the earth, ib. ; the uncertainty of their condition, 223. 
Ilgoffu-Tov, of the Jew, was his knowledge of the law ; of the Christian, his 

profession of respect and esteem to Christ, xiii. 227. 

Protection, divine, set forth under the notions of a hiding-place and a 
shield, viii. 166 ; extends to the soul, which is in danger of Satan 
and his temptations, 167 ; and the body, ib. ; a hiding-place to keep 
us from danger, a shield to keep us in danger, 168 ; arguments 
to depend upon, 174; every one must have a hiding-place, ib. ; 
our hearts will not be kept in safety unless we make God our 
strong defence, ib. ; it is a thing we owe to God by virtue of the 

INDEX. 299 

fundamental article of the covenant, ib. ; this trust ever succeedeth 
well, 175 ; no hurt can come to us without God's leave, ib. ; God 
hath expressed his singular affection, and his care and providence 
over his people, ib. ; many arguments to work us to this trust, 176. 
Protestantism the way of truth, vi. 299 ; compared with Popery, 300. 
Proud, God professeth open defiance and hostility against, iv. 353 ; judg 
ments upon, very shameful, ib. ; reasons, 354. 

Creatures, the worst sort of, are those who err from God's command 
ments, vi. 194. 

Wicked men and persecutors frequently so called, vii. 322 ] because 
they shake off the yoke of God, and will not be subject to their 
maker, ib. ; because they are drunk with worldly felicity, and never 
think of changes, ib. ; they affect a life of pomp, sense, and carnal 
greatness, and despise the afflictions and meanness and simplicity 
of the people of God, 323 ; because of their insolent carriage 
towards the Lord's people, 324. 
Providence, the success and event of all endeavours depends on, ii. 319. 

Doctrine and leading of, to be observed in dubious cases, ii. 332. 

God's, all things come within the guidance of, ii. 332 ; to be submitted 
to, 333. 

God meant to copy out all dispensations of, in the life of Christ, 
iii. 365. 

A vain thing to promise ourselves great things without leave of, 
iv. 389 ; principal ways of doing so, ib. ; undertaking things 
without prayer, ib. being too confident of future contingencies 
and events, ib. setting man's endeavours in God's stead, promising 
a time to repent hereafter, ib. 

Rebukes of God's, upon impenitent sinners, of great use to the saints, 
vi. 203 , arguments of his displeasure against the proud and im 
penitent, ib. ; a proof and document how tender God is of his 
word, ib. 

God's, establisheth the authority of his law, vii. 51. 

God's, cannot be understood till his work be done, vii. 258. 

Of God, observation of, will lead a gracious heart to love the word of 
God more than before, viii. 228. 

Excepting against, from the evils in the world, is vain and frivolous, 
xii. 266 ; cautions against misconstruction and non-improvement 
of, 267. 

Faith a key to the mysteries of, xiii. 357. 

How far we are to submit to the will of God in, xv. 249 ; the grounds 
of our submission, 254 ; helps to it, 256. 

As a subject for meditation, xvii. 339. 
Providences are blessed to Christians through the merit of Christ, ii. 210. 

Of God, all as fuel to keep up the fire of love, ii. 246. 

God's, a comment on the scriptures, vi. 119. 

The day of the church's conflict is mixed, and yieldeth great variety 
of, xv. 415 ; the reasons of this, 416. 

Use and benefit of observing God's, xix. 240 ; to cure atheism, 241 ; 
to make us more cautious of sin, ib. ; to make us more earnest in 
deprecating the wrath of God, and suing out our pardon in Christ, 
242 ; to make us thankful for our mercies and deliverances by 
Christ, ib. ; cautions regarding the observance of, ib. 
Prudence of God. See Wisdom. 

The queen of graces, v. 358. 

300 INDEX. 

Prudence and wisdom required to know how to converse profitably and 
christianly with all we have to do with, vii. 205. 

Psalm cxix., dependence of the verses in, neither to be neglected nor too 
curiously sought after, vii. 95. 

Psalms, singing of, an ordinance of God's worship under the gospel, xix. 
408 ; needs the help of the Spirit, 409 ; other songs, if grave and 
godly, may be sung in the church, 411 ; singing a clear and un 
questionable duty, 414 ; a delectable ordinance, 415 ; a profitable 
ordinance, ib. 


Punishment of the wicked may be a comfort to the godly, not as it im- 
porteth the calamity of any, but because the snare and allurement 
to sin is taken away, vii. 55 ; their derision and mockage of godli 
ness ceaseth, ib. ; the impediments of worshipping God are taken 
away, ib. ; way is made for the enlarging of Christ's kingdom, ib. ; 
God's justice is manifested, ib. 

Of the wicked a just recompense for their disobedience to God, and 
for their opposition to them that would obey God, xx. 220. 

Punishments and rewards, how far they may be reflected on as incentives 
in duties of religion, xiii. 459. 

Punon, in Idumea, the place where the brazen serpent was lifted up, xvii. 
459 ; Sylvanus and thirty-nine others martyred there, ib. 

Purgatory unknown to Paul, i. 495. 

Purification, the necessity of, in several respects, xvi. 260 ; the manner of 
it, 262 ; those that are purified are reckoned God's treasure and 
peculiar people, 265 ; meaning of /.aog veetweioc, ib. ; reasons why 
they are so esteemed, 266 ; exhortation to carnal men to look after 
purification, 269 ; to the people of God to walk as his peculiar ones, 

Purity and perfection of the scriptures, viii. 337. 

They who hate, can never love God and his ways, till their hearts 

be changed, viii. 487. 

And cleanness of heart becometh Christians, xix. 195 ; they are con 
secrated to the service of a holy God, ib. ; they profess the most 
holy faith, 196. 

Of life, the hope of a blessed estate hereafter should put us upon a 
serious endeavour after, xx. 471 ; with respect to God, 481 ; with 
respect to the ordinances, 483 ; with respect to graces, 484 direc 
tions as to the nature of the purity we should seek after, 485 ; means 
and helps, 487. 
And charity true notes of a believer, xxi. 82. 

Quakers by their practices bring religion into contempt, xiii. 118. 
Qualifications, gracious and good, wrought in us, we may mention, vi. 94 ; 

not by way of boasting, 95 ; nor pleading of merit, ib. ; but for God's 

glory, ib. ; for our comfort, ib. our vindication, ib. ; as an argument 

in prayer to obtain further grace, ib. 
Quenching of the Spirit, when men do not stir up the grace that is in them, 

iii. 217 ; when they return to their old ways, 218. 
Questioning of conscience, good for humiliation, faith, and obedience, iv. 

Quickening noteth the renewing of comfort, vi. 239 ; the actuation of grace, 

ib. ; God's children need, 240 ; by reason of their constant weakness, 

ib. ; and their frequent indispositions and distempers of soul, ib. 

INDEX. 301 

Quickening is put for regeneration or infusion of grace, vi. 395 ; and for the 
renewed excitation of grace, ib. in the latter sense it includes 
comfort in afflictions, and is opposed to fainting, ib. ; and enlivening 
in duty, 396 ; necessity of, ib. 

Is used in scripture for regeneration, or the first infusion of the life of 
grace, vi. 435 ; and for the vitality and vigour of grace, when the 
spiritual life is in good plight, ib. this vitality depends on the 
degree and measure of our faith, ib. and of our love, 436 ; they 
who long after God's precepts see a need of, ib. ; because of the 
diseases incident to the renewed state, ib. because, without quicken 
ing grace, they cannot serve God cheerfully, or do anything to pur 
pose in the heavenly life, 437 ; because it is both uncomfortable to 
themselves to act without quickening grace, and very hateful to God, 
ib. ; hindrances to, ib. ; heinous sin, ib. ; immoderate liberty, or 
vanities of the world, or pleasures of the flesh, ib. slothfulness and 
negligence in the spiritual life, 438 ; vain and dead-hearted company 
and converse, ib. 

Twofold, when from dead we are made living, or when from cold, and 
sad, and heavy, we are made lively, vii. 429 ; the word the only 
means of, 431 \ it contains the most quickening considerations, 432 ; 
the quickening Spirit delights to work by this means, 433 ; though 
the word be the means, the benefit comes from God, ib. 

Put for regeneration, or the first infusion of the life of grace, viii. 103 ; 
or for quickening in duties, ib. ; or for quickening in afflictions, 

Is either restitution to happiness, or the renewing and increasing the 
vigour of spiritual life, ix. 84 ; we should be sensible of the temper 
of our hearts, and see whether they want quickening or no, ib. ; when 
they want it, we must ask it of God, ib. ; ask it earnestly, ib. ; ex 
pect it in and through Jesus Christ, who came from heaven for this 
end, ib. consider how God worketh it in us, by the Spirit acting, 
the habit of grace or new nature acted on, and the word and sacra 
ments the instrument and means, 85 ; consider how willing God is 
to grant, ib. know when you have received, ib. ; signs of, 86 ; more 
sense of indwelling sin as a heavy burden, ib. ; appetite after Christ, 
his graces and comforts, ib. ; activity in duties, ib. ; why the children 
of God see a need to ask so often and so earnestly, ib. ; they know 
that God will be served in a lively manner, ib. they know the need 
of it, because of the instability of their hearts, ib. ; and the constant 
opposition of the flesh, 87 ; and the change wrought in us by our 
outward condition, ib. ; because we sin away our life and strength, 
88 ; because God giveth out by degrees, and would keep us in con 
stant dependence, ib. 

Rahab, the harlot, her justification, iv. 26o ; much faith in her actings in the 

matter of the spies, 267. 

Raising up of Jesus refers not to his resurrection, but his exaltation, ii. 23. 
Ransom paid by Christ, not to Satan, but to God, i. 420 ; why necessary, 


Rational creatures, God works on us as, ii. 240. 
Reading and meditation, scarce an instance of any converted by, that neglected 

prophesying when it was to be had, v. 22. 
Reason showeth certainly that there is eternal life and death, or torment and 

bliss, after this life, ii. 362. 

302 INDEX. 

Reason, carnal, faith's worst enemy, iv. 51. 

Its place in ascertaining the way of truth, vi. 310. 

Tells us of the existence of God, but faith doth more assure the soul 
of it, and impresseth the dread and awe of God upon our souls, vii. 

A middle faculty, that standeth between things above and things below, 
and may either be debased by sense or elevated by faith, xi. 218. 

Its place in regard to revelation, xiii. 354. 

The wonders of creation not understood by, but by faith, xiii. 409 ; not 
the judge of controversies in religion, 412. 

Not to be heard against scripture, xv. 214. 
Rebellion, total, not simply, and in itself, better than formal profession, iv. 


Rebuking for sin must be faithful, compassionate, and prudent, xix. 111. 
Receiver should remember, giver forget, iv. 39. 

Receiving, in the gospel, God is always on the giving and never on the receiv 
ing hand, x. 237. 

Recognition of the Lord's will in ordinary speech, iv. 392 ; good to accustom 
the tongue to holy forms of speech, ib. ; children of God use them 
frequently, ib. the very heathens wont to use them with some 
religion, ib. ; when used, the heart must go along with the tongue, 
otherwise they are profanations, ib. not necessary always to express, 
though there must be always implicitly or expressly a submission 
to the will of God, ib. 

Reconciliation with God, what it is, i. 495 ; how obtained, 496 ; the assur 
ance we have that it has been obtained, 498 ; how and on what terms 
applied to us, 501 ; exhortations to enter into, 502. 

With God, one of the prime benefits of the gospel, ii. 156 ; consists in 
pardon and sanctification, 157. 

By Christ the sum and substance of the gospel, xiii. 252 ; what it is, 
ib. ; sometimes ascribed to God, sometimes to Christ, and sometimes 
to believers themselves, 254 ; the nature of the foregoing breach, 255 ; 
the nature of the reconciliation, 257 ; the many blessings we derive 
from it, ib. our right to this privilege begins as soon as we believe 
in Christ, 259 ; how far Christ is concerned in it, and why, 260 ; 
exhortation to admiration of the love and mercy of God in reconcil 
ing the world to himself through Christ, 260. 

Implieth in its nature a pardon of sin, xiii. 271 ; pardon of sin very 
necessary to the end of reconciliation, 273 ; the end of reconciliation 
is walking in a course of holiness. 274 ; this holiness carried on in a 
state of love and friendship with God, 275 ; pardoning mercy in Christ 
the great argument which breedeth and feedeth this love, ib. is that 
which is most expressly, directly, and formally in view in the death of 
Christ, ib. ; this was the great difficulty, how sin might be remitted, 
276 ; the privilege of the covenant of grace, and the difference be 
tween it and the law, 276 ; -the necessity of obtaining this benefit, 
277 ; the readiness of God to bestow it, 278 the excellency of the 
privilege, 279. 

How the benefit of, is applied to us, xiii. 282 ; God would not do us 
good without our knowledge, therefore would give us notice, ib. ; as 
not without our knowledge, so not against our will and consent, 283 ; 
not by force, but persuasion, ib. ; to gain our consent the word an 
accommodate instrument, 284 ; it is not enough that the word be 
written, but it must be preached, 285 ; reasons of this, ib. ; to preach 

INDEX. 303 

the word to us God hath appointed men of the same mould as our 
selves, to whom he hath intrusted the ministry of reconciliation, 286 ; 
the love and wisdom of God herein, 287. 
Recreation, a Christian showeth himself to be a Christian in, as well as in his 

business, vi. 150. 

Redeemer, great comfort that there is a, ii. 294 ; that he is ours, 296 ; that he 
liveth, 297 j that there is a certainty of persuasion of all this, 299 ; 
this comfort applicable in all afflictions, 300. 

The person of our, a point of great concernment, to be often thought 
upon, xviii. 212 ; his relation to God, ib. ; and to the universal 
church, ib. 

' Redeeming the time,' what it means, xix. 359. 

Redemption supposeth captivity or bondage, i. 419 ; this bondage was to sin, 
Satan, and the wrath of God, 420 ; a price was paid by way of ransom 
to God, ib. ; none fit to give this ransom but Jesus Christ, who was 
God-man, 421 ; nothing done by Christ could be a sufficient ransom, 
unless he had crowned all by laying down his life, and undergoing a 
bloody and violent death, 422 ; from this ransom and act of obed 
ience there is a liberty resulting to us, ib. ; we are not partakers of 
this liberty till we are in him, and united to him by faith, 423 ; 
remission of sins a part, and a principal part, of redemption, ib. 
A visible effect and demonstration of God's love to us, iii. 147; an 
ample representation and commendation of the greatness of his love 
to sinners, ib. 
Completeness of, x. 172. 
Of our bodies, what is meant by, xii. 188 ; why it is applied to the 

body, ib. 

The nature of, explained, xvi. 251 ; how we are redeemed from the 
guilt of sin, 254 ; how from the power of sin, 256 ; does not exclude 
mortification, 258. 
Final end of, is that we may be presented at the la-st day glorious in 

purity and holiness, xix. 487. 

lied Sea, the passage of, by the Israelites, a notable pattern of providence, 
speaking comfort to believers in distress, xv. 4 ; a type of baptism, 5 ; 
showeth the true nature of faith, and commends the excellency of 
it, 6. 

Reformation, neither unjust nor unnecessary, vi. 302 ; not made rashly and 
lightly, without trying all good means, and offering to have com 
plaints debated in a free council, 303 ; separation from Rome still 
continued on good grounds, 304. 
Refreshments should be sanctified, ii. 95. 
Refuge, Christ the believer's, xvi. 334 ; what it implies, 337. 
Regenerate, dignity and prerogative of the, iv. 115. 

Men may sleep in sin, and need the call to awake to righteousness, xix. 
343 ; the flesh inclines to sleep, ib. ; their circumstances may cause 
drowsiness, ib. ; conversing with spiritual sluggards, ib. ; dead worship, 
ib. ; slumber leads to sleep, ib. ; not keeping graces in lively and con 
stant exercise, 344 ; grieving the Spirit, ib. ; immoderate liberty in 
worldly things, whether cares or pleasures, ib. ; evil of, ib. ; their 
sleep different from that of the unregenerate, 345. 
Regeneration, necessity of, i. 466 ; excellency of, 467 ; the fruit of reconciling 

grace, ib. ; applied by the almighty power of the Spirit, ib. 
Cometh from the virtue and influence of Christ's resurrection, iii. 353. 

304 INDEX. 

Regeneration, God engaged to the work of, merely by his own good pleasure, 
iv. 116. 

Honourable relation with which it invests us, iv. 118 ; gospel the ordi 
nary means of, 119. 

The habits of all grace brought into the heart by, v. 28. 

Figured by baptism, xi. 185. 

Goeth before pardon, xix. 227. 

What it is, xxi. 301, 315 ; the necessity of it, 303 ; exhortation, 304 ; 
is the work of God and the effect of the Spirit, 308 ; reasons why 
exhortation to, is not in vain, 309 ; how we may discover that such 
a work hath been wrought in us, 320 ; how the word concurreth to 
regeneration, 326 ; why the word is used as a means and instrument, 
329 ; why the word preached, 332. 
Reign, personal, of Christ, before his coming to judgment, a fond dream, 

i. 111. 

Rejoicing in Christ Jesus the great work of a Christian, ii. 30 ; implies an 
apprehension of the good, and benefit which we have by him, ib. ; due 
affections of contentment, joy, love, exultation of heart, following there 
upon, 31 ; expression of these affections by open profession of his 
name, in word and deed, at whatever cost, ib. ; absence of, argues that 
we are not duly sensible of our misery without him, 35 ; nor affected 
with his great love, and the benefits accruing thereby, 36. 

A Christian's reason for, x. 361 ; remembrance of his past estate, ib. ; 
his future hopes, ib. \ maintained by graces, faith, hope, obedience, 
362 ; by ordinances, the word, -prayer, sacraments, meditation, ib. 

In God, in what it consists, xvii. 469 \ how this rejoicing must be con 
stant and perpetual, 472 ; reasons why we should be oftener rejoicing 
in God than usually we do, 476 ; prejudices and objections removed, 
479 ; the necessity and utility of this rejoicing, 483 ; directions how 
to perform this great and necessary duty, 486. 

Relapses into sin are so frequent because the will is not thoroughly bent 
against sin, ix. 185 ; our purposes, strivings, and prayers do not come 
from a heart thoroughly set against sin, ib. 

Relation, God better known by the predicament of, than by his natural pro 
perties (Luther), i. 54. 
Religion dieth by degrees, i. 17. 

One half of, is dying to the world, the other living to God, ii. 65. 

Two things keep alive in the soul love of God and hearty intent upon 
the coming of Christ, ii. 235 ; all in effect love, 245. 

In the choice of, we must follow the light of nature and of scripture, iii. 

Christian, foundation of, matter of fact, itself matter of faith, iii. 127. 

None but the gospel, supplies a ground for trust in God, either for com 
mon or for saving mercy, iv. 123. 

Glory of, is its purity, iv. 175. 

Whether arms may ever be resorted to in defence of, iv. 330. 

Four notions the ground of, v. 135 ; that God is, and is one j that God 
is none of those things which are seen, but something more excellent ; 
that God hath a care of human affairs, and judge th with equity ; that 
the same God is maker of all things without himself, ib. ; to these 
notions are suited the four precepts of the first table of the law, ib. 

The repairing of, the best way to safety, v. 421 ; because without God 
man can do us no good, ib. ; with God man can do us no harm, 422 j 
having God, we have man too, 423. 

INDEX. 305 

Religion, like the pure vestal flame, which, if it went out, was to be kindled 
only by a sunbeam, v. 435. 

Verity of, not to be measured by the greatness of those who are for or 
against it, vi. 218. 

True, is but one, and all other ways false, noxious, and pestilent, 
vi. 291. 

None is fit to be chosen upon sound evidence but the Christian, vi. 296 j it 
alone revealed by God, ib. ; it notably performs all that a man would 
expect in a religion, and so suits the necessities of man as well as the 
honour of God, 297 ; draws off the mind from things temporal and 
earthly, to things celestial and eternal, ib. ; establisheth purity of heart 
and life, 298 ; provideth for peace of conscience, and freedom from 
perplexing fears, ib. 

Without self-denial, is Christianity of our own making, not of Christ's, 
vii. 155. 

True, the peaceablest and meekest thing that can be, vii. 390. 

Confutation of those who say that every man shall be saved in his own, 
x. 151. 

There is no salvation out of the true, x. 425. 

The sum of the Christian religion is, that ' God hath chosen us to salva 
tion through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth, where- 
unto he hath called you by our gospel, to the obtaining the glory of 
our Lord Jesus Christ ' (2 Thes. ii. 13, 14), xii. 442. 

Sinful respect to the benefits and rewards of religion bewrayeth itself in 
four things when Christ is loved for worldly advantages, xiii. 152 ; 
when we have a carnal notion of the true rewards of godliness, ib. ; 
when our respects to benefits are not in the frame wherein God hath 
set them, 153 ; when we rest in the lowest acts of love, and do not 
go on to perfection, ib, 

Not illiterate, xiii. 414. 

A friend to human societies, xix. 278. 

Must be our recreation, in opposition to tediousness and weariness, 
our business in opposition to slightness, xx. 105 ; to be regarded as 
a race or passage from earth to heaven, 107 ; correspondencies, ib. 

Folly of taking up, on a carnal design of honour, ease, and plenty in 

the world, xx. 201. 

Remembering God supposeth some knowledge of God, vii. 77 ; some faith, 
78 ; expresseth a reviving of these thoughts, ib. j is notional and 
speculative, or affective and practical, ib. ; the latter is either con 
stant, ib. ; occasional, 79 ; or set and solemn, ib. is a notable help 
to godliness, 80 ; doth encourage us, and quicken us to diligence in 
our work, 81 ; thoughts of God bridle and restrain the madness of 
our nature, ib. ; comfort and revive us in our faintings and dis 
couragements because of the evils of the present world, ib. j exhor 
tation to, ib. 

Remembrance of God's dealings with his people, and with their enemies, in 
all ages, a great relief in distress, vii. 48 ; a righteous God governeth 
the world, ib. ; he governs by a law, 49 ; from the beginning of the 
world the observance of this law bringeth blessings, and the violation 
of it judgments, ib. ; examples of his justice, power, and goodness 
should comfort us, though we do not perfectly feel the effects of his 
righteous government, ib. ; why his judgments of old are a comfort 
to us, 50. 

Remission, conversion, renovation, or repentance must precede, i. 423. 

306 INDEX, 

Renouncing the world, God's children do not contemn the world out of 
necessity, but choice, xiv. 333. 

When we have renounced the world and sin, we must take heed of 
hankering after these things again, xiv. 335 : it is not enough to 
despise this world, but we must have our hearts carried forth after 
better things, ib.; how we are to renounce the world, 336 ; how we 
are to look after better things, 337 ; those that renounce the world 
will be no losers, 339. 

denunciation of evil the first thing taught us by grace, xvi. 71. 
Repentance, Christ both requires and gives, i. 104. 

God's great pleasure in, i. 133. 

No merit in, i. 196 ; God both requireth and giveth, ib. 

A tormenting but a curing sorrow, ii. 34. 

And remission of sin cannot be separated, ii. 204. 

Late, is seldom sound, vii. 141. 

And humiliation, creation teacheth us a lesson of, xii. 182. 

What it is, xiii. 119 ; must be our main work, 120. 

The Jewish rabbi's answer to his disciple as to the fittest time for, 
xiv. 66. 

What it is, xvi. 361 ; what is offered in scripture to persuade us to, 
364 ; how we may improve the scriptures in this work, 370. 

What it is, xvi. 405 ; what the gospel doth to promote it, ib. ; the 
necessity of it, 406. 

Is a turning of the whole heart from sin and Satan to serve God in new 
ness of life, or a turning from sin, because God hath forbidden it, to 
that which is good, because God hath commanded it, xviii. 7 ; is 
general, ib. ; or occasional, ib. ; is the way of our recovery in order to 
the enjoyment of the privileges of the new covenant, 8 ; suitableness 
of the qualification, 9 ; it is much for the honour of God, ib. ; the 
duty of the creature is secured when he is so firmly bound to future 
obedience, ib. ; it is most for the comfort of the creature that a stated 
certain cause or remedy should be appointed for our peace, which may 
leave the greatest evidence upon our consciences, 10; motives to, ib. ; 
means of, 11. 

Lieth in a sensible sight of sin and deserved wrath, xviii. 228 ; such an 
apprehension of God's mercy in Christ as maketh us turn to him, ib. ; 
a grieving for and forsaking of our sins, and giving up ourselves to his 
service, ib. ; encouragements to, 231. 

Mistakes regarding, xix. 218; not some trouble for sin while we go on 
to commit it, ib. ; not some faint resistance or striving against sin, 
ib. ; not a hope to cry God mercy on a death-bed, ib. 

In what it consists, xxi. 263 ; why this is a special means instituted by 
God for the cure of wounded souls, 265 ; directions, 268 ; the duties 
required in the work of, 270. 
Repetition, Popish, in prayer, condemned, i. 32. 

Repetitions vain (iSarroXoy/a), what they are, i. 22 ; a heathenish custom, 23 ; 
inconsistent with the true nature of God, ib. ; a sin needlessly to affect, 
ib. ; two extremes shortness, out of barrenness or slightness, and 
length, out of affectation, 24 ; all are not vain, ib. 
' Reproach of Christ,' meaning of the phrase, xiv. 461. 
Reproaches for Christ matter for thanksgiving rather than discontent, iv. 65. 

A usual, but yet a great and grievous, affliction to the children of God, 
vi. 205 ; such as light upon religion itself, ib. ; or our own persons, 
206 ; a grievous affliction, 207 ; upon a natural account, because a 

INDEX. 307 

good name is a great blessing, ib. ; upon a spiritual account, ib. ; why 
God permits, 209 ; a proper cure for the sin of pride, ib. ; for carnal 
walking, ib. ; for censoriousness, 210 ; for trial of faith, ib. ; of pati 
ence, ib. ; of uprightness, 211 ; comfort under, 213. 
Reproaches, a usual affliction of the people of God, vi. 410; a grievous 

affliction, 411 ; as against nature, ib. ; and against grace, 412. 
Permitted to fall upon Christians to humble them, vi. 413 ; for the cure 
of pride, 414; careless walking, 415 ; censoriousness, 416 ; and for 
trial of faith, ib.' } mortification, 418 ; patience, ib. ; uprightness, 419 ; 
and for sanctification, ib. ; are like soap, which seems to defile the 
linen it cleanseth, ib. ; comforts against, 422. 
Reprobation, God's sealed book, iii. 333. 

Doctrine of, opened, v. 128 ; it is an eternal decree, ib. ; a decree and 
pre-ordination, not a naked foresight of them that perish, ib. ; this 
decree of God founded in his own good-will and pleasure, ib. ; con 
tains preterition and pre-damnation, ib. ; the former merely from the 
good pleasure of God, 129 ; the latter presupposeth consideration of 
the creature's sin, ib. ; those who are passed by, never attain to saving 
grace, ib. ; being left of God, and destitute of saving grace, they 
freely and of their own accord fall into such sins as render them 
obnoxious to the just wrath and vengeance of God, ib. ; God's decree 
concerning such persons immutable, ib. ; doctrine proved from scrip 
ture, ib. ; vindication of the doctrine, 130 ; application of the 
doctrine, 133. 

Doctrine of, stated and vindicated, x. 88. 

Reproof, brotherly, is a necessary duty, which all are bound to practise as 
well as they can, xix. 112; by the law of nature, which requires us 
to reduce to the right way those who have gone out of it, 113 ; posi 
tively commanded by God, 114; is a necessary precept, which we 
must obey, 115; bindeth all, even inferiors to their superiors, 116; 
yet the admonisher should have a calling to it, by some relation 
between him and the offender, 117 ; distinctions regarding, 119. 

Of those that err and go astray from duty to be more in compassion 

than in passion, xx. 121 ; Paul's example in, ib. 

Reproofs must be managed with compassion and holy grief, v. 357 ; must be 
administered gently to the ignorant and seduced, ib. ; to those that 
slip of infirmity, 358 ; to the afflicted in conscience, ib. ; to those 
that err in smaller matters, ib. ; to the tractable, and those of whom 
we have any hope, ib. See Severity. 

Resignation of ourselves to God, signs of, i. 55 ; when we choose and cleave 
to him as our all-sufficient portion, ib. ; when we set apart ourselves 
to his use, ib. 

Of ourselves to God, motions to, vii. 445 ; we owe ourselves to God, 
and therefore should give ourselves up to him, ib. ; God offers him 
self to us, and it is reasonable we should give ourselves to him, ib. ; 
there is no such enjoyment as in giving ourselves up to God, 446 ; 
we cannot give other things to him unless we give ourselves, ib. ; it 
is our honour to be in relation to him, ib. 

Of ourselves into Christ's hands should be whole and absolute, x. 214; 
must be an advanced act, 215 ; must still be accompanied with some 
confidence, ib. ; there must be a care of obedience, ib. ; must arise 
from a chief care of our souls, ib. ; must be of the body as well as the 
soul. 216. 

To the will of God, the nature of it, xxi. 442 ; the grounds of it, 443 ; 

308 INDEX. 

the opposites of it, ib. ; argueth humility and trust, 444 ; means to 
attain, 447. 

Resistance of the devil must not be faint and cold, i. 330 ; must be a 
thorough resistance of all sin, ib. ; must not be for a while, but con 
tinued, 331; arguments to persuade to, ib. ; graces that enable us 
in, 332. 

Resolution in a course of godliness, a great advantage to come to, vi. 71. 

In a course of godliness, good to engage us to come to God, vi. 335 ; to 
keep to God, ib. ; to be hearty in his service, ib. ; must be of the 
heart rather than of the tongue, 336 ; not weak and broken, but full, 
ib. ; not rash, but serious, ib. ; thorough, absolute, and peremptory, 
ib. ; present, not future, ib. ; made in a sense of our own insufficiency, 
and with dependence upon Christ, not in a confidence of our own 
strength, 337. 

To serve God must be of the heart rather than the tongue, viii. 92 ; 
must be full, ib. ; serious, 93 ; thorough, absolute, perfect, ib. ; for the 
present, not the future, ib. ; must be according to the covenant of 
grace, ib. ; motives for keeping, ib. 

Respect of persons, one sort of, is right and proper, iv. 180 ; is vicious when 
the judgment is blinded by some external glory or appearance, so that 
we cannot discern truth or right, ib. ; having the faith of Christ in, 
having too great a care of outward regards in church administrations, 
181 ; over- esteeming the rich and debasing the poor, ib. ; in religious 
matters is a sin, ib. ; ways in which we may be guilty of, ib. ; by 
making external things, not religion, the ground of our respect arid 
affection, ib. ; when we do not carry out the measure and proportion 
of affection according to the measures and proportions of grace, ib. ; 
when we can easily make greatness a cover for baseness, whereas it is 
its aggravation, 182 ; when we yield religious respects for advantage, 
ib. ; when church administrations are not carried on with an indiffer 
ent and even hand to rich and poor, ib. ; when we contemn the truths 
of God because of the persons that bring them to us, 183. 
Of persons, sinful, what it is, xiv. 23 ; cannot be imagined of God, ib. 
Of persons, is preference of one before another for something that is 
extrinsical, xviii. 408 ; as bodily gifts, strength, or beauty, ib. ; 
mental gifts, learning, prudence, ib. ; estate, rank, or quality, ib. ; 
nation or country, 409 ; externals in religion, ib. ; differences in lesser 
things, ib. ; denied of God in his government, 410 ; in his gifts of 
grace, ib. 

Rest, re ward of the faithful represented under the nature of, xx. 224; in allusion 
to the rest of Canaan, ib. ; to the sabbatic rest, ib. ; in opposition to 
the tedious conflicts which we have here about our spiritual estate and 
condition before God, 225 ; in opposition to whatever was grievous and 
burdensome in our duties, ib. ; in opposition to the calamities and 
troubles of the present life, ib. ; is a felicitating rest, ib. ; a holy and 
religious rest, 227 ; is for soul and body, 229. 

Restraining grace, God may bridle the hearts of men while yet they are 
unrenewed, xii. 58. 

Restraints, God puts upon the unconverted, that they are not able to do the 
evil that naturally they would, iii. 309. 

Resurrection of the body, argument for, i. 368. 

Of Christ, the evidence and assurance of a Christian's happy resurrec 
tion, i. 468 ; shows his victory over sin and over death, 471 ; is the 
great prop and foundation of our faith, 473. 

INDEX. 309 

Resurrection, certainty of, the foundation of all godliness, i. 470 ; Christ's makes 
ours possible, ib. ; easy, ib. certain and necessary, 471 ; of the faithful 
shall be blessed and glorious, 472 ; considerations to help the belief 
and hope of, 474 ; it is a work of omnipotency, ib. ; God's justice is 
involved in it, ib. ; and his unchangeable covenant love, which inclines 
him to seek the dust of his confederates, ib. ; the redemption of Christ 
extends to the bodies of the saints, 475 ; honour is put on their bodies 
now, ib. 

Of Cbrist, efficient cause of, iii. 348 ; his own prayer, ib. ; God's power 
put forth upon his prayer, ib. ; the power of his own Godhead, ib. ; 
final causes or ends of, 349 j the chief est ground of comfort to chris- 
tians in the scriptures, ib. all spiritual enemies subdued, ib. ; all 
spiritual blessings procured for us, 350 ; confirmeth the heart in the 
person of Christ, 351 ; and his office, ib. ; as an evidence, a clearing 
and justifying of his merits, 352 j a pledge or earnest of the raising 
of our bodies, ib. : as an influence, our life depending on his life, 

Of Christ, due consideration of, doth mightily promote the spiritual life 
in us, xi. 221 ; advantage we have by it, ib. \ evidenceth the verity 
of the Christian religion, ib. \ showeth us the perfection of his satisfac 
tion, 222 ; is a visible demonstration of the truth of the resurrection 
and life to come, 223 ; it is by his resurrection that Christ is the 
cause of our life, ib. ; his life after his resurrection is a pattern of 
ours, both as to the immortality and perfection of it, 224. 
The condition on which it is promised, xii. 18 ; the certainty of its per 
formance, 19 ; the bodies of believers shall be raised at the last day 
through the inhabitation of the Holy Spirit, ib. ; why this inhabita 
tion is the ground of a glorious resurrection, 20 ; is a work of divine 
power, ib. \ this divine power belongeth in common to Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost, ib. ; they all concur in a way proper to them, 21. 
There is something special in Christ's resurrection above his death which 
hath an influence upon our justification, xii. 368 ; it is a proof of the 
truth of his person and office, 369 ; a token of the acceptance of 
Christ as our mediator and surety, 370 ; and a victory over death, 
ib.) peculiar benefits derived from, 371. 
The respect that is between, and spiritual life, xiii. 203. 
Of Christ, power of, what it is, xx. 59 ; is the Lord's work in our 

regeneration, ib. 

Difference between that of the righteous and the wicked, xx. 62 ; a self- 
denying believer earnest to obtain the former, 63 ; blessedness of the 
saints in, 64. See Saints, blessedness of, &c. 

Is a work of omnipotency, xx. 173 ; required by the justice of God, 
174 ; by his unchanging covenant love, ib. ; by the redemption of 
Christ, which extendeth to the bodies of saints, ib. ; by the honour 
which is put upon the Hodies of saints, 175. 

Retaliation, God often uses, paying sinners in their own coin, i. 127. 
Returning to God, a people gone off from the ways of God are not easily 
brought to a sense of the necessity of returning to him, xv. 317 ; this 
is true of mankind in general, of nations, and of particular persons, ib. ; 
the shifts men use to divert a particular acknowledgment of sin, 
320 ; it is but a notional, and not a real repentance, when we profess 
to return to God and know not wherein we should return, 323. 
Revelation, not rational to expect new, now the canon and rule of faith is 
closed, iii. 25. 

310 INDEX. 

Revelation, necessity of, iii. 131 ; possible means of, ib. ; necessary to be com 
mitted to writing, 132 ; both a safe and a full rule to walk by, ib. 
Book of, contains as many mysteries as words, v. 415. 
Special, desire after, a temptation to be resisted, vii. 426. 
Necessity of, x. 427 ; for the honour of God, that he should give man a 
rule, ib. ; for the safety of religion, that fallen man might not obtrude 
fancies on his neighbours, 428 ; in respect of man, to repair the 
defects of nature, ib. ; to satisfy the desires of nature, 429. 
God hath plainly revealed his mind concerning the duty of the creature 
by the light of nature and the word, xv. 395 ; the revelation of God's 
mind in the word consists of two parts, the moral and the evangelical, 
396 ; whatever God hath so revealed is good, 397 ; several sorts of 
goodness distinguished, ib. ; in the revelation of our duty God 
exacteth nothing of us but what is good, proved from the design and 
structure of the Christian religion, 398 ; God only requireth from us 
that which is amiable, pleasant, profitable, and honourable, 402. 
The coming of Christ so called, xx. 234 ; reasons, 235 ; approach 
of, 236 ; will bring his mighty angels with him, 240 ; terrible 
'C'")' 1 manner of, in flaming fire, 245. 
Revenge, sweet to nature, contrary to grace, i. 185. 
Is often disguised as zeal for God, i. 236. 
And injury differ only in order, vi. 211. 
Christians are never to pray for, xix. 20. 

Revival of decayed religion, means of, v. 435 ; united and earnest prayer, ib. \ 
godly and peaceable walking before God and man, ib. ; stirring up 
ourselves, and provoking one another to more forwardness, 436 ; 
delighting in, and waiting on, the powerful ministry of the word, ib. 
by the ministry Christ must still be preached, 437 ; humbling 
doctrines must be duly pressed, 438 ; the duties of relations to be 
specially urged, ib. ; peace to be so compounded with purity, that 
neither may lose its due respect, ib. ; by the magistrates, 439 ; being 
holy and godly in their own persons, ib. ', giving encouragement to 
a godly ministry, ib. ; heartily establishing a holy government in the 
church, ib. ; countenancing godly persons, ib. ; honouring and 
sweetening religion by some release of the people's burdens, 440. 
Reivard, not a sin to desire, v. 352. 

Of faithful servants, is not only verbal commendation, but real remuner 
ation, ix. 454 ; preferment and advancement to a higher place in the 
family, ib. ; the joy of their Lord, 455. 

God's people will have great cause to wonder at their final, x. 67; at 
the reason alleged, ib. ; at the greatness of Christ's condescension, 68 ; 
at the greatness of the reward, ib. 
Rewards and punishments, how far they may be reflected on as incentives in 

duties of religion, xiii. 459. 

Rich, with whom Christ's grave was made, was Joseph of Arimathea, iii. 363. 
Men usually persecutors or oppressors, iv. 202 ; others have the will, 
but have no power, ib. ; and riches exalt the mind and efferate it, 
ib. ; wealth often leads to pride, ib. the gospel is distasteful to rich 
men, because it puts all on the same level, ib. 
Should help the poor, reasons why, xvi. 477. 

The difficulty of their salvation, xvii. 49 ; this difficulty ariseth because 
of the duties required of them in common with others, 49 ; so also 
because more is required of them than others, 53 ; reasons why 
this should be much pressed and seriously thought of, 55. 

INDEX. 311 

Rich, to have a will to be, bewrayed by intention or scope, xviii. 189 ; and 

by industrious prosecution, 190; danger of, 191. 

Riches compared to a flock of wild birds, which perch in a man's field to 
night, and are gone to-morrow, i. 152. 

Not altogether inconsistent with Christianity, iv. 67 j in themselves are 
God's blessings, 68. 

Hard to possess, without sin, iv. 399. 

Given by God as a means to escape wrath, by a liberal and chari 
table distribution of them to his glory ; should not be used as a 
means to treasure up wrath, iv. 407. 

What are true, vi. 133 ; gracious experiences or testimonies of the 
favour of God, ib. , knowledge, ib. ; faith, ib. ; good works, 134; 
why these are riches, ib. 

And honour do not hurt faith in themselves where there is a gracious 
heart to manage them, xiv. 407. 

It is a hard matter for such as abound in, to enter the kingdom of 
heaven, xvii. 26 ; the point explained, ib. ; whence this difficulty 
ariseth, 29 ; are apt to breed atheism, ib. ; keep men from being 
broken-hearted, 30 ; make men take up their rest here, and sit down 
satisfied with the world as their chief est good, 31. 

Trusting in, there is such a sin shown from scripture, xvii. 37 ; it is a 
very common and secret sin, 38 ; the heinousness of it, 39 ; the mis- 
chievousness of its effects, 40 ; signs and discoveries of it, 42 ; reme 
dies against it, 45. 

Whether we may desire and pray for, xviii. 194. 
Riddle, scriptural ; before we are able to speak, we speak lies, vi. 87. 
Right, a gracious way of, established between God and his people, according 
to which they may expect mercies, viii. 371 ; understood by compari 
son of the two covenants, ib. See. Covenants, two. 

Righteous, none of the sons of Adam are, before the throne of God, xviii. 4. 
Righteousness, superficial, keeps men from Christ, ii. 53. 

Of Christ, threefold, iii. 444 ; essential and divine as he is God, ib. ; 
absolute and personal as he is mediator and God-man, ib. ; dispensa 
tion and relation wrought out for us, 445 ; in his personal, two things 
remarkable the sincerity of his spirit, and the innocency of his con 
versation, ib. ; imputation of, denied by Papists and Socinians, 447 ; of 
the righteousness of his active obedience, denied by others, 448 ; in 
terest in, cometh by union, ib. 

A care of, bringeth peace with it, iv. 323. 

Of God, put for the whole perfection of the divine essence, vi. 423. 

God's promise a word of, viii. 264 ; because God hath in his promises 
pawned his truth with the creature, and so given us a holdfast upon 
him, ib. ', because none that depended on God's word were ever dis 
appointed, 265 ; because God standeth much on the credit of his 
word, ib. 

Of God, what it is, viii. 438 ; sometimes put for the whole rectitude and 
perfection of the divine nature, ib. j particular, with respect to his 
dealings with the creature, especially man, ib. ; as absolute lord, his 
righteousness is nothing but the absolute and free motion of his will 
concerning the estate of all creatures, ib. ; as governor and judge, his 
righteousness consists in giving all their due according to his law, 439 ; 
his governing justice is legislative or judicial, 440 ; judicial is remu 
nerative, ib. ; or vindictive, 441 ; proved from the perfection of the 
divine nature, 442 ; from his office as governor and judge of the 

312 INDEX. 

world, ib. ; from his giving Jesus Christ that he might be known to 
be a just God, ib. ; from the divine nature infused into us, 443. 
Righteousness, all righteousness, and nothing but righteousness, to be found in 
the word of God, ix. 261 ; no virtue which it commendeth riot, no duty 
which it commandeth not, no vice which it condemneth not, ib. ; the 
more the gospel is preached, the more righteousness is spread in the 
world, 262. 

Of God in the condemnation of the world, though they remain in their 
blindness, xi. 114; because God hath done enough, ib. ; they have 
not done their part, 115; in the reward of the righteous, 116; en 
gaged by Christ's merits, ib. ; by God's promise, 117; by positive 
ordinances, ib. 

In what sense it may be taken, xiii. 307 ; of Christ, the meritorious 
cause of our being made the righteousness of God in him, 311. 

Arguments to quicken us to seek after, xiii. 487 ; the fruit and benefits 
of, 488 ; means, 489. 

Of Christ, application of, to ourselves a means of justification, xiv. 3 ; 
how to be applied, ib. ; to justify is not to make righteous, but to 
account or accept as, 9 ; none accounted righteous but those that are 
indeed so, ib. ; every righteousness will not serve the turn, but such 
only as will satisfy the justice of God, ib. ; God's justice can never be 
satisfied till the law is satisfied, 10 ; the law can never be satisfied but 
by active and passive obedience, ib. ; this satisfaction only to be had 
in Christ, ib. ; there is no having this righteousness in Christ but by 
imputation, 1 1 ; there is no imputation but by union, ib. ; there is no 
union but by faith, ib. 

By faith opposite to the righteousness of the law, and to any act, virtue, 
or grace of our own, xiv. 217 ; is called a heritage because of its dig 
nity and excellence, 218 ; to note the largeness of our portion and 
spiritual estate, ib. ; to show the nature of our tenure, 220 ; to show 
the condition of our present state, 221 ; our title to this heritage is 
evidenced by faith, 222. 

Or justice, the nature of it, xvi. 143 ; we should give every one his due, 
ib. ; do injury to no man, 144 ; make restitution, 147; bear injuries 
with patience, 148 ; in many cases not demand our own extreme right, 
ib. ; do as we would be done by, 149 ; public good to be preferred 
before private, ib. ; according to our power be useful to others, 150 ; 
the reason we have to look after the grace of righteousness, 151. 

Of faith is the obedience and death of Christ apprehended by faith, 
xviii. 217. 

Its office, xix. 268 ; to seek the peace and welfare of the communities in 
which we live, 269 ; to give every man his due, ib. ; fidelity in our 
relations, ib. ; Christianity advanceth these things to a greater height, 

All unconverted men have some counterfeit, wherein they please 
themselves, xx. 6. 

Superficial, keepeth men from Christ, and maketh their conviction and 
conversion more difficult, xx. 10. 

Paul's own, was by the moral law, xx. 42 ; and the ceremonial 
law, 43 ; this he disclaimed, ib. ; that which he affected was of the 
new covenant, ib. ; founded upon Christ's obedience unto death, 44 ; 
applied by faith and new obedience, ib. ; in the day of judgment, 
which will be a day of exact search and trial, none can appear 
before God with safety and comfort without some righteousness, 45 ; 

INDEX. 313 

righteousness by the law of works we cannot have, 46 ; the loss of 

legal righteousness we cannot repair, ib. ; Christ by his sacrifice and 

ransom has provided a righteousness, ib. j this he dispenses on his own 

terms, 47 ; these terms are the new law of grace, ib. ; repentance, 

faith, and new obedience, 48. 
Righteousness, what it is, xxi. 33 ; what it is to do righteousness, ib. ; what 

it is to be righteous, 34 ; in the way of sanctification, he, and he 

only, is the upright Christian that doeth righteousness, ib. ; reasons 

why, ib. 
Of justification, what it is, xxi. 36 ; considered as to the threatenings 

and promises, 37 ; the respect this righteousness hath to the life of 

holiness, 38. 

Ritual, without serious devotion, but knowing Christ after the flesh, xiii. 

Romans, overcome in many battles, but not in any war, so Christians, i. 

Rome, church of, is it a church of Christ 1 iii. 40. 

State of, that necessitated the reformation, vi. 305. 
Root out of a dry ground, refers not to Christ's coming from the virgin's 

womb, but from the decayed family of David, iii. 221. 
Royal law, so called, either because it is the law of God, the king of kings, 

and of Christ, the king of saints, or because of its excellence, iv. 

206 ; hath a kingly author, 207 ; requires noble work, fit for kings, 

ib. ; there is royal wages, ib. 

Ruin, speedy, a special way to save a church and people from, is the repair 
ing of decayed godliness, v. 419. 
Rulers, religious, and well affected to religion, a precious gift of God, vi. 

Running the way of God's commandments, what it signifies, vi. 338, 

Sabaoth, Lord of, equivalent to Lord of hosts, iv. 410. 

Sabbath-breaking a mark of ungodliness, xvi. 158. 

Sabbath-day, a feast-day for souls, vi. 270. 

Sabbath, rare to delight in, xviii. 152. 




SACRAMENT SERMON ON LUKE xxii. 20, xv. 475. 


Sacrament, in those times in which there is much care had about the right 
celebration of a sacrament, there are yet many that are unworthy, 
xv. 333 ; reasons of this, ib. ; the need of humbling ourselves for 
sacrament sins, 334 ; exhortation to pastors and people, 335 ; how 
a man is said to be worthy, 336 ; unworthy receivers described, ib. 
no cause why we should abstain from the use of ordinances because 
of wicked men communicating, 338 ; reasons why so many rush 
upon the ordinances notwithstanding their unpreparedness, 339 ; 
the heinousness of unworthy receiving, 340 ; the grievousness of the 
punishment, 341. 

Sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper respect the whole tenor of 
the covenant of grace, v. 465 ; on God's part, a sign and a seal; on 
ours, a badge and a bond, ib. ; give us great advantages above the 
word and bare proposal of the covenant, 466. 

314 INDEX. 

Sacraments, a solemn means of our communion with the death of Christ, 

xi. 163. See Communion, &c. 
And sacrifice, difference between, xiii. 444. 
Sacrifice of Christ, its value commended by the dignity of his person , the 

greatness of his suffering, and the merit of his obedience, i. 431. 
Every Christian is, ii. 223 j mortification is the salt wherewith it must 

be salted, 226. 

Of Christ, the only true satisfactory and expiatory sacrifice for sin, 
iii. 387 ; because it was of God's own ordaining, ib. ; other sacrifices 
but types of it, ib. ; no other thing could be satisfactory and ex 
piatory, ib. ; it complied with God's design of discovering the glory 
of the Trinity, his love to the souls of men, and the Spirit's efficacy, 
388 ; and of magnifying his justice and displeasure against sin, ib. 
Instituted because of sin, xi. 427 ; the victims were substituted for 
the offender, and died for him, ib. ; the offerings presented to God 
in our stead were consumed and destroyed, ib. ; effects of, respect 
God, ib. ; or sin, 428 ; or the sinner, ib. 
Of Cain and Abel, the occasion of, xiii. 437 j the warrant of, 439 j 

wherein lay the difference between, 442. 
Christ's death hath the true notion and full virtue of, xviii. 79 ; the 

new covenant made and confirmed by virtue of this, 80. 
Christ's, accepted of God, xix. 182 ; the greatness of his sufferings, ib. ; 
from the dignity of his person, ib. ; the merit of his obedience, ib. ; 
God hath himself declared it, 183 ; by his resurrection, ib. 
Sacrifices, what was figured in the old, must be spiritually performed in the 
duty of prayer and praise, viii. 109 ; brokenness of heart, ib. ; eye 
ing of the Redeemer, ib. ; renewing of the covenant, 110. 
Legal, were glasses to represent their misery, and the debt contracted 
by sin, xviii. 81 ; were figures of the mercy of God and the merit 
of Christ, 82 ; were obligations to duty, ib. 

Sad, reproof of those who are always, x. 359 ; makes unfit for duty, dark- 
eneth the ways of God, and brings a scandal upon Christ's spiritual 
kingdom, 360. 

Saints, a praying people, i. 12. 

Their privileges and benefits in the world to come, i. 374 ; freedom from 

all evil, ib. ; enjoyment of all good, 375 ; their glorified bodies, ib. 
We must be here, or we shall never be hereafter, v. 33. 
In what sense they shall judge the world, v. 293. 
Cannot give grace, ix. 383 ; have not a sufficiency for themselves 
and us too, ib. have no power to transfuse and put over their 
righteousness to another, 384 ; nor authority and commission to 
do so, ib. 

Permitted so often to fall that they may stand the firmer, x. 337. 
Of all places and ages make but one perfect body, xi. 72. 
They only are acquainted with the operations of the Spirit, xii. 254 ; 

they only are fit to converse with God in prayer, ib. 
All believers are or ought to be, xix. 194; some are so only by exter 
nal dedication and profession, ib. ; others by internal regeneration, 

Blessedness of in the resurrection is complete felicity in body and 
soul, xx. 64 ; why the body shows the felicity, ib. ; because the man 
cannot be happy till the b >dy be raised, ib. the body had its share 
of the work, and shall have of the reward, 65 ; the estate of those 

INDEX. 315 

who die will not be worse than that of those who are changed, ib. ; 
in the heavenly state there are objects which only the bodily senses 
can discern, ib. ; as Christ's body is in heaven, so shall those of his 
people be, ib. ; felicity of the soul in the vision of God and the 
likeness of God, ib. ; perfection of justification, adoption, and re 
demption, 66 ; means of attaining, ib. ; holiness, dying to sin, and 
living to God, 67 ; sufferings, 68 ; rather than fail of, we must sub 
mit to any means which God hath appointed, 69. 

Saints, their examples set before us for our imitation, xx. 110 j those who 
lived in former ages, ib. ; their examples suited to persons of all 
degrees, and for all Christian ends, 111 ; show that there is nothing 
impossible in our duty, and nothing so difficult but can be overcome 
by Christ's help, ib. ; confirm by experience the truth and reality of 
our hopes, 112; those now living, ib. ; they are in our eye, ib. ; 
greater provocation in their examples, 113; their circumstances are 
more like our own, ib. ; how to be imitated, ib. ; how far, 114 ; why, 
In glory, all have the same felicity in substance, but not in degree, 

xx. 233. 

Glory reserved for, at the day of judgment, xx. 265 ; absolution pro 
nounced by the judge on the throne, ib. ; a participation of judicial 
power, ib. ; Christ's public owning of them before God and his 
angels, 266 ; in the immortality, charity, and spirituality of their 
bodies, 267 ; the full satisfaction of their souls, ib. 
And believers, identical, xx. 271. 

Salt, wherewith the Christian or a sacrifice is salted, is the grace of the Holy 
Spirit, by which sin is subdued and prevented, ii. 226 ; fitness of 
the comparison, ib. ; necessity of, 228. 
Salting with fire and with salt, what it means, ii. 222. 
Salvation, what it is, ii. 152 ; what the right of believers is to, 153 ; what 

the faith is that giveth a title to, 154. 
Beginning and first cause of, the mere love of God, ii. 340. 
Every well of, hath its proper stream, iii. 353 
Business of man's, transacted by way of covenant between God and 

Christ, iii. 376. 

Of sinners, Jesus Christ taketh an infinite contentment and satisfac 
tion in, iii. 408 ; pleased and entertained himself in the thought 
of it before the world was, ib. ; the end and aim of his coming into 
the world, 409 ; his rejoicing in heaven to see the work thrive, ib. 
shall be his triumph and his joy when he cometh to judge the world, 
ib. ; nature of this satisfaction, ib. 
We are not only to take care of our own, but of that of others, 

iv. 474. 

None but Christ, iv. 479 ; none can be saved by him but those that 
know him and believe in him, ib. ; and that according to the tenor 
of the scriptures, ib. ; lesser differences in and about the doctrine 
of the scriptures, though consistent with the main tenor of salva 
tion, yet if held up out of bye-ends, or against conscience, are 
damnable, ib. ; gross negligence, or not taking pains to know 
better, is equivalent to reluctation or standing out against light, 

Course of, first rise and spring in election, breaketh out in effectual 
calling, floweth down in the channels of faith and holiness, till it 
lose itself in the ocean of everlasting glory, v. 18. 

316 INDEX. 

Salvation, common, wherein all saints are concerned, v. 100; all chosen by 
the same grace, ib. ; all have the same Christ, ib. ; all equally justified 
by the same righteous one, ib. ; all by the same faith, ib. ; all under 
the same rule and direction, 101 ; all one in one mystical body, 
ministering supplies to one another, ib. beware of impotency, 102. 

Of God, the fruit of his mercy, effectually dispensed and applied to 
his people according to his word, vi. 439. 

Eternal, the ground of, is mercy, or pity of the creature's misery, vi. 
444 ; dispensed according to the word, 445. 

Is put for temporal deliverance, for the exhibition of Christ in the 
flesh, for the benefits we have by Christ on this side heaven, for 
everlasting life, vii. 349. 

Far from the wicked, ix. 146; temporal, ib. ; because all outward 
things are at God's disposal, ib. ; it belongeth to God, as judge of 
the world, to see that it be well with the good and ill with the bad, 
ib. ; in this covenant, declared in his word, he promiseth temporal 
happiness to the godly, and threateneth misery and punishment to 
the wicked, 147 ; objection stated, ib. ; and answered, 148; eternal, 
150 ; reasons, ib. ; the inseparable connection between privileges 
and duties, ib. ; the perfect contrariety between the temper of 
wicked men and this salvation, 151 ; they care not for God, who 
is the author of salvation, ib. ; they slight Christ, who is the pro 
curer of salvation, ib. ; they despise the word, in which we have 
the offer of this salvation, 152; they refuse the beginnings of sal 
vation, ib. 

None can and do rightly hope for, but those that keep the command 
ments, ix. 224 ; because God hath enjoined means and end, and 
offered the promises with a qualification, ib.; because true hope is 
operative, and hath an influence this way, 225 ; because there is 
no such thing to damp hope and weaken our confidence as sin, 
ib. ; because our hope is increased by our diligence in the holy 
life, ib. ; none do and can keep the commandments but those who 
hope for salvation, 226. 

Longing for God's temporal, implieth a sense of our impotency, ix. 
277 ; dependence upon God's fatherly care and powerful provi 
dence, 278 ; holy desires vented in prayer, ib. waiting God's 
leisure, and submission for the kind, time, and means of, ib. ; 
reasons and encouragements for, 279 ; God hath bound himself by 
covenant as our God, ib. ; he is able to make his covenant good 
through his power, ib. ; wisdom, 280 ; and love, ib. 

Longing for God's eternal, is the duty and property of God's children, 
ix. 285 ; reasons, from the object, ib. ; the subject, 286 ; the end 
and use of this longing, 287 ; the state and condition of the pre 
sent world, 288 ; motives to long for, ib. ; means to, 290. 

How far all are bound to hope for, xii. 203 ; no salvation without 
hope, ib. 

Of infants, xiv. 81. 

None can hope for, but those that keep God's way, xv. 15 ; none can 
keep God's way but those that hope for salvation, 16. 

By grace, the greatness of it, xvi. 59 ; its completeness, 60 ; excel 
lency, ib. ; the judgment on those that despise the offer, 62 ; direc 
tions, 63 ; reasons why salvation is said to appear to all men, 65. 

The difficulty of, xvii. 63 ; wherein the difficulty consists, 64 ; how 
this should be reflected on, 68 ; why, 69 ; is impossible for a man 

INDEX. 317 

of his own natural strength, 73 ; reasons why, 74 ; those who have 
a deep sense of their impotency and carnality should encourage 
themselves by reflecting on the power of God's grace, 79. 
Salvation consisteth of redemption and conversion, the one by way of im- 
petration, the other.of application, xviii. 161 ; was Christ's great end 
and business, 162 ; excellence and reality of, 166 ; thankfulness for, 
the great duty of Christians, 168. 

Christ's, is both privative and positive, xix. 453 ; both temporal and 
eternal, ib. ; eternal is begun here in justification and sanctification, 
454 ; is not typical, but real, ib. ; accompanied by satisfaction, merit, 
and power, 456. 

Means of, xix. 478 ; causes and means of, must not be separated from 
one another, nor confounded with one another, ib. 

The whole business of, floweth from the pleasure of God's good 
ness, xx. 284 ; and is accomplished by his almighty power, 286. 

The causes and means of, xx. 303 ; the love of God, ib. ; the satis 
faction of Christ, ib. ; the operation of the Spirit, ib. ; the conversion 
of the sinner, 304 ; the word and sacraments, ib. ; these must not 
be confounded one with another, ib. ' } nor separated, 305. 

We best promote our own, in promoting the glory of Christ, xx. 332. 

The effect of grace, xx. 342 ; mercy and grace distinguished, ib. ; is 
ascribed both to God and Christ, 343 ; the causes, means, and end, 
Sanctification begins with mortification, ii. 214. 

Not only an external dedication, but an internal and real change, iii. 
106 ; connection between, and belief of the truth, 107 ; of cause 
and effect, ib. ; of concomitancy, ib. ; of subordination, 108. 

A better evidence of God's favour than worldly comforts, viii. 416 ; a 
greater privilege than justification, 417. 

Is a setting apart by God and by ourselves, x. 411 ; a purging by 
degrees, and making free from sin, 412 ; endowing with God's 
image and likeness, ib. ; should be chiefly minded in prayer, ib. ; 
because of the excellency of it, ib. ; because God aimeth at it in 
all his dispensations, ib. ; God alone can sanctify, 415 ; we cannot 
ourselves, ib. ; the means cannot without God, ib. ; means of, 418. 
See Truth. 

Of believers is the setting them apart for the Lord, to glorify him iri 
all holy conversation and godliness, xi. 10; is in the truth, ib. ; for 
the truth, 1 1 ; through the truth, ib, 

Christ came for our, as well as for our justification, xi. 431 ; proved 
from the constant draft and tenor of the scriptures, ib. ; the plaster 
else would not be as broad as the sore, 432 ; Christ's undertaking 
would not else answer the trouble of a true penitent, nor remove 
our sorest burden, ib. ; to make way for the work of the Spirit, 433 ; 
for the glory of God, ib. 

Of heart, motives to seek after, xii. 26. 

Grace of, must be exercised, preserved, and increased, xii. 64. 

Requisite in order to glory, xii. 461. 

Must be carefully distinguished, but not separated, from justification, 
xv. 65 ; reasons why sanctification is the greater privilege of the 
two, 66 \ is the end of justification, as glorification is the end of 
sanctification, 67 ; the beginning of the life of glory, ib. ; a real 
moral perfection, ib. the work of faith with respect to it, 69. 

An error to think that it hath no influence upon our comfort and 

318 INDEX. 

peace, xviii. 414; true nature of that which giveth us hopes of 
acceptance with God, 416. 

Sanctification is meritorious, applicatory, practical, xviii. 439 ; consists in 
consecration and purification, ib. ; Christ the author of, 441 ; by 
his merit, ib. ; by his Spirit, ib. ; by blessing his word and sacraments 
to this end and purpose, 442. 

Sanctifying of God the great duty of Christians, i. 89. 

Is setting apart and dedicating, v. 26 ; cleansing, with its positive 
act, renewing and adorning with grace, 27 ; is habitual or actual, 
28 ; habitual, wrought in the heart, is thorough, but not full, ib. ; 
actual, in the life, thoughts, words, actions, 29 ; actions sanctified 
when they are performed on new principles, ib. ; and for new ends, 
30 ; necessity of, to the people of God, 31 ; for the honour of God, 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, ib. ; because of the hopes to which 
they are called, and the happiness which they expect, 33 ; coun 
terfeits of, 35 ; civility, ib. ; formality, 36 ; restraining grace, 37 ; 
common grace, 38 ; God the author of, 39. 

Of himself, Christ's, xi. 6 ; he separated himself from all other ends 
and uses but that of his work of redemption, ib. ; as God, he fitted 
himself for the work, 7 ; sanctified and consecrated himself as a 
sin-offering, that we might be sanctified and consecrated as a thank- 
offering, 10. 

Sanhedrim, account of the, v. 259. 

Sarah and Hagar, types of the covenants of grace and works, xii. 104. 

Sardis, church of, its state described by its repute and renown among 
other churches, v. 417 ; by the judgment of Christ, 418. 

Satan see Kingdom of sin and Satan. 

Has a hand in all sins, i. 206 ; but some are purely of his suggestion, 
ib. \ his sin in tempting must be distinguished from ours in con 
senting, 208. 
Assaults the children of God by stirring up their enemies to persecute 

them, and by inflaming their lusts and corruptions, i. 235. 
Strives to dissuade from good by representing the impossibility, 
trouble, and small necessity of it, and to persuade to evil by profit, 
pleasure, necessity, i. 266 ; fits his temptations to men's conditions, 

May have some power allowed him by God over the bodies of God's 
people, i. 281 ; to carry them from one place to another, ib. ; in 
possession, ib. ; in disease, ib. ; yet this power limited, ib. ; he seeks 
this power in order to draw them into sin, 282 ; his contrary temp 
tations, ib. 

His promises are false and fallacious, i. 309 ; and have a spiteful condi 
tion annexed, 310 ; never maketh a proffer to our advantage, but to 
our loss and hurt, ib. ; how to counterwork, 311 ; by mortification 
and growing dead to the world, ib. ; by considering how little sub 
stance and reality is in the world's fair appearance, ib. ; by opening 
the eye of faith, ib. j considering the falsity of his promises, 312 ; 
and the sufficiency and stability of God's promises, ib. 
Had a permitted power over Christ, and was the prime instrumental 
cause of his sufferings, i. 324; though he lost the victory, he retained 
his malice, ib. 

Cannot overcome us without our consent, i. 331. 
Usually a libertine ; when he professeth to be a saint, will be stricter 
than Christ himself, ii. 96. 

INDEX. 319 

Satan hath no power over death as a lord, but as an executioner, ii. 296. 

His grand design to lessen our opinion of God's goodness, ii. 342. 

Sometimes dresses up sins in the form and appearance of duty, at 
other times represents duty in the garb of sin, iv. 206. 

Hath a great hand and stroke in all sins, iv. 361 ; though a proud spirit, 
he careth not for praise or dispraise, he aims at homage and obed 
ience, ib. ; duty of Christians to resist, ib, ; how he works on men 
and insinuates his temptations, 362 ; resistance of, 363; by faith, 
prayer, sobriety, watchfulness, sincerity, ib. ; arguments to resist, 
364 ; resistance may not be immediately, but will be ultimately, 
successful, 365. 

Instigateth our enemies, and inflameth our lusts, x. 402. 

His enmity with Christ, xvii. 245 ; his power, 247, 251 ; his work, 
247 :; how Christ overcomes the power of, 252 ; how far his head 
was crushed in the conflict with Christ, 255. 

The various ways God's people may be vexed by, xvii. 399 ; special 
reasons why the devil is more terrible and dangerous than any 
human power, 400 ; why God permitteth this, 401 ; how God 
bridles and restrains his rage, 403. 

The enemy and avenger, stilled, xviii. 21 ; not in respect of his being, 
ib. ; or in respect of his malice and enmity, ib. ; but in regard of 
his power, ib. ; enough done by way of merit to break his power, 
22 ; Christ is upon the throne to counteract his working, ib. ; his 
throne is in an absolute subjection to the throne of the Mediator, 
ib. ; his reign will in time be utterly destroyed, 23 ; his power over 
individual man is broken on their conversion, ib. ; and gradually 
destroyed, ib. ; this does not exclude our duty, 24 ; but secures vic 
tory to the striving Christian, 25. 

Satan's weapons against us are either subtle wiles or fiery darts, i. 227 ; 
he suiteth every distemper of our souls with a proper diet or food, 
ib. ; he covers his base designs with plausible pretences, ib. ; hath 
only weapons offensive, the Christian both offensive and defensive, 
but none for the back, 228. 

Buffetings, many times better for us than a condition free from