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Full text of "Tropologia [microform] : a key to open scripture metaphors... : to which are prefixed, arguments to prove the divine authority of the Holy Bible : together with types of the Old Testament"



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Industrial Schools, 

Bonmahon, Co. Waterford, 

Nov. 1857. 


I beg to enclose you a small Pamphlet containing an Outline 

of the Industrial and Educational Work with which I have been for some years con- 
nected in this Parish, which is situated, as you will learn from the said Pamphlet, in 
an exceedingly wild and obscure part of Ireland. 

The advantages which these Schools have afforded have been great; and the 
progress both in the habits and appearance of the youth, most marked. Since the 
establishment of these Institutions, they have been visited by numberless persons from 
all parts of the Kingdom, who, without a solitary exception, have expressed themselves 
in the highest terms of surprize and satisfaction, at such a work being carried on in a 
district labouring under so many disadvantages. 

With a view to giving continued employment to the Schools, and to the spread- 
in<* far and wide the truth as it is in Jesus, I propose (as you will perceive by the annexed 
I can only effect this by securing a sufficient Number of Subscribers to cover the cost. 
Will you allow me to enrol your Name among the List ? 

For the manner in which the voluminous COMMENTARY OF DR. GILL was 
printed in these Schools, I would refer you to the numberless approving Notices of both 
the London and Provincial Press. That large Work is now nearly out of print. With 
the exception of about Fifty Sets, the whole of the Bonmahon Edition is in the hands of 
the Public, and it occupies a prominent position in hundreds of Libraries, as a memorial 
of what may be effected by the blessing of God, under the most trying and difficult 

I want (if the Lord will) to perpetuate this good work, and therefore appeal 
to you to help me, by your name and influence, to do so. As an Englishman, now eleven 
years resident in Ireland, I am thoroughly convinced that nothing is so conducive to her 
temporal well-being and her spiritual interests, as the working, upon her own soil, and 
among her own sons, of Christian Protestantism. Acting upon the great principle, 
" Forasmuch as in you lies, do good unto all men, but especially to those that are of the 
household of faith," will, I believe, in due time TELL upon the once-dark, superstitious, 
and deeply-prejudiced minds of the Irish Roman Catholics. 

Means are ours results God's; and, as in the Providence of God, my lot is cast 
in this lonesome part of His vast creation, I desire (as an humble instrument in His hands) 
to spend and be spent for His glory, and for the good of my fellow-creatures. The work 
is not (as you may imagine) carried on without many difficulties and much responsibility ; 
my life has been threatened again and again; still "having obtained help of God, I 
continue unto this day." 

I would ask you, in conclusion, not to encourage the thought that your name 
may have but little weight in. the proposed undertaking. It is one name will turn the 
scale, and decide the matter whether DE. GOODWIN'S WORKS are to be reprinted or not. 
Possibly that name may be yours that one Subscriber yourself ! Under these circum- 
stances, therefore, I respectfully ask you to return your name at once. Do not delay. 
Ito not postpone your intentions ; but (if you think these Schools have any claims; if you 
Believe, from my simple and unvarnished statement, as contained in the enclosed Pamphlet, 
I have been and am engaged in a great and good work) then come to my aid ; yea, 
" Come to the help of the Lord to the help of the Lord against the mighty." 

I am, 

Dear Sir, or Madam, 
Yours, most respectfully, 

Vicar of Kilcash, and Curate of Monksland. 

P. S. Reports of the working and general progress of these Schools are given, month 
after month, in two Periodicals which are issued from the Bonmahon Press. The 
GOSPEL MAGAZINE contains 64-pages, Demy 8vo., price six shillings, yearly, stamped ; 
and the " OLD JONATHAN," or District and Parish Helper, is a Penny Pictorial Broad 
Sheet ; a great favourite among the Poor, as well as with the Sunday School Teacher, 
and to the District Visitor. 

Bonmahon Industrial Printing School, 





In Six Royal 8vo. Volumes, Superfine Paper, in clear new Long Primer Type, 
containing above Eight Hundred Pages each, and corresponding in size with the 
Bonmahon Edition of "Dr. Gill's Commentary on the Bible." 

To be Published AT HALF-A- GUINEA per Volume to those Subscribers only whose 
names are received before the Subscription List is closed, and the Work put to Press. 
The price to future Subscribers will then be raised. 

It will be obvious to all who are concerned in the important work of issuing cheapEditions 
of the great monuments of pure, spiritual, Gospel truth, raised by the giants in divinity 
of other days, that such an undertaking involves very extensive commercial responsibility. 
Therefore the present Editor, since he is not in a position in which he would be justified 
in running risk in the matter, as the work is printed at the Missionary School, confidently 
appeals to all who value, or are interested in, DB. GOODWIN'S WOBKS, whether MINIS- 
EFFORT in helping forward the Publication, under such circumstances, of so great a 
"Work. So scarce is the Work that it seldom can be obtained under Eight or Ten Guineas, 
which renders DB. GOODWIN comparatively unknown. However, the following, which 
are but a few from among a multitude of testimonies to the invaluable character of the 
DOCIOB'S writings, will tend to show how desirable it is they should be put within the 
reach of all : 

The venerable DB. HAWKEB, in his preface to " Goodwin's Mediator," which was pub- 
lished in 1819, under his editorship, says : " Indeed, I am not a little selfish upon this 
occasion. For to be in the least degree instrumental in bringing forward to the church 
such writings as DE. GOODWIN'S, is, in my esteem, no common honour. Nay, the very 
permission to hold the torch, while its pages on the sublime Discourse of the GLORIOUS 
MEDIATOR, are read by His redeemed ones, is a dignity which every faithful servant of 
JESUS ought highly to value." 

SAMUEL EY.LES PIEBCE, in many parts of his writings, speaks of Dr. Goodwin in the 
highest terms, and most emphatically so, in writing to a young minister : he says, " Let 
Goodwin be your commentator." 

DB. E. WILLIAMS says, " His works are, in point of sentiment, invaluable. He was 
a good scholar, and an eminent divine and textuary." 

BICKEBSTETH says, " Goodwin is a puritan divine of very superior powers, whose wri- 
tings cast much light on the Scriptures on which he treats." 

" HEBVEY, Author of Theron and Aspasio, speaks most highly of Dr. Goodwin ; thus, 
" Coupled with sentiments truly evangelical, he possessed a most happy talent of opening, 
sifting, and displaying the hidden riches of the Scripture." 

LOWNDES. " This eminent Nonconformist's works, which consists of expositions 
and sermons, have ever maintained the highest station among those of the Calvinistic 

ORME, the author of Dr. Owen's life, and editor of his works, says, " Dr. Goodwin was a 
learned man, excellent in expounding the scriptures. He delights to search into abstruse 
and difficult texts. The least particle of speech came under Ms notice, and in numerous 
instances he has made it appear how much depends upon the connecting particles in Scrip- 
ture, which are generally overlooked." 

Several pieces published by the Doctor during his lifetime, are not found in his 
collected works ; these will be included in the present Edition. The following are among 
the number: the Child of Light "Walking in Darkness; Eeturn of Prayers; Trial of 
Growth in Grace ; Aggravation of Sin and Sinning ; Christ Set Forth ; The Heart of 
Christ, and Encouragements to Faith. 

Goodwin's glorious views of the Person of Christ are those alone which will 
tend to bring- the poor and needy up out of bondag-e into the glorious liberty of 
the Children of God ! 

It is proposed to commence the Work as early as possible, therefore an earnest appeal 
is made to all lovers of pure, old-fashioned Divinity, to send in their NAMES AS SUB- 

Here the Editor ventures to suggest that every Minister who cannot afford to purchase, 
should have a copy presented to him, either by some rich member of his congregation, or 
by the poorer members contributing together. 

Again, the Editor suggests, that on the principal of the Reading Societies, many may 
be able to pay for a Volume who cannot afford the whole. Each Volume is complete in 
itself; let then six LOVERS OF TRUTH agree together and subscribe, and lend their Vo- 
lumes to each other. These hints are thrown out, in the hope that the Lord will stir up 
many of his people to act upon it. The Editor, however, especially urges his friends to 
act promptly in forwarding their names. The Subscription to be paid thus : on the deli- 
very ,of the First Volume, one Guinea. On the delivery of the Third Volume another 
Guinea ; and the last Guinea on the delivery of the Fifth Volume. Booksellers who for- 
ward their names at once, receive the usual subscription discount. 

A list of Subscribers will be appended to the last Volume. 

Subscribers' names, WITH FULL ADDRESS, may be sent, either to the Eev. D. A. 
DOUDNEY, Vicar of Kilcash, Industrial Printing School, Bonmahon, Co. Waterford, 
Ireland ; Ogle and Murray, South Bridge, Edinburgh ; or to W. H. COLLINGEIDGE, 
City Press, Long Lane, London. 

Recently Printed at the Bonmahon Industrial Printing School, 

Two Important Works for Ministers, Bible 
Students, and Teachers. 

Just published, price 12s. 6d. each, cloth ; calf, 17s. 6d., royal 8vo., each 1000 pp., 

(Carriage free.) 

J\_ Books. To which are prefixed, Arguments to Prove the Divine Authority of the 
Holy Bible ; together with the Types of the Old Testament. 

JV tudes of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Wherein also many things are doc- 
tonally handled and improved by way of application. 

*** These Works had become so scarce as to be seldom obtainable under ,3 per copy. 
Printed verbatim from the original editions, at the Bonmahon Industrial Printing School. 
Specimen pages, gratis per post, of W. H. COLLINGKIDGE, City Press, Long Lane, Lon- 
don, E.G. 

- < * * * 


Well, you live under both law and Gospel : I assure you this, that all of you by nature, 
though you have never so much outward light by the preaching -of the Word; though 
you think yourselves living men, and you frame to yourselves what is faith, and what is 
repentance, and what will save you; that you will live, and think yourselves to be living 
men; yet if you have not an inward spiritual light struck upon your hearts, you are 
but dead still. 

Now, my brethren, in the second place, whensoever God cometh to work faith in 
any man's heart, what doth He? He killeth him, strikes him dead; whereas, naturally, 
through self-flattery, a man apprehendeth (whatsoever the Word saith,) that he is a 
living man. "I was alive (saith he,) without the law," that is, without the true spiritual 
knowledge of the law, God cometh and Mlleth him, slayeth him. In Gal. ii. 19, 20, 
saith he, "I through the law, am dead to the law." This was when Paul came to under- 
stand it aright, he was struck stark dead with it ; he that thought that if any man living 
should have gone to heaven, he should; he received the sentence of death in himself, 
and now you may know where to have him; "Behold he prayeth," saith he. He was 
struck off Ms horse, and there he lay .stark dead ; that is, all the sinews and principles of 
life, the heart root of it was struck; he saw that interpretation of the law of God, 
that made him to see that he was a dead man, and that if any man in the world 
went to hell, he should. This was Paul's case, my brethren, you may find this in 
Rom. vii., (it followeth there in the same place,) how he was struck dead; "I was 
alive (saith he,) without the law once, but when the commandment came and arrested 
me; sin (saith he,) revived, and I died; and the commandment that was ordained 
to life, I found to be unto death." I went upon a mistake (saith he,) I thought I 
should have been saved by my works, by doing, " Do this and live." I was mistaken, 
I saw the law did nothing but condemn me, and that all my works were all dead 
works ; the commandment came, came in the spiritual knowledge of it ; he saw the 
spiritual holiness the law required, when this commandment came into his heart, (as you 
see the sun cometh and shines into a house,) then it struck him stark dead. Now, 
my brethren, to work this ; to kill a natural man thus, that is alive through self-flattery, 
and to lay him for dead, it is a mighty work. Why? Because every man having 
self-love in Mm ; self-flattery will never give up the ghost of itself; all the reason 
a man hath will fight for arguments to prove himself a living man: this same self- 
flattery (which you are all born with,) will struggle for life ; it must be killed, it 
will never yield of itself, and to kill it is a mighty power. What ! to kill the Benjamin ' 
of original sin! What is a man's Benjamin? To tMnk well of Mmself, that he shall be 
happy. Now to make him think that the state he is in is a state of damnation, if 
he go on in it, and to strike all self-flattery at the root, to lay the axe at the root 
of the tree, and kill it. My brethren, what saith the soul ? Nay then, saith he, if 
this Benjamin be once killed, I shall go with sorrow to my grave ; I shall never 
recover that; I shall never have good day more if I entertain such a conceit, that I 
am in a state of death. To keep up tMs opinion in a man's heart, that he is a living: 
man, all in a man will fight for it : so that first, to kill the man is a mighty work. 

And the truth is, my brethren, it is never thoroughly done, till there cometh in 
a spiritual light created in a man's heart. For my part, I think that which strikes 
a man dead, and dead to purpose, and prepareth ultimately for grace, it is a spiritual 
light, the same light wherewith I see Christ afterward; there is nothing else will 
kUl a man. God indeed may come with terror upon a man's conscience, knock him 
into a swoon; but self-flattery will revive again when the terrors are off, and he will 
have a good opinion of Mmself again. But to kill a man wholly from ever rising 
again, that a man shall say as Paul, "I am dead to the law for ever; I can never 
recover this wound ; I can never have a good opinion of my former estate more, or 
of myself more." NotMng can do this but a spiritual life; the commandment must 
come ; there must be a spiritual light to discover a man's sin, and Ms state of death, or he 
will never die. 

Well, when a man is thus laid dead, what followeth? Saith the Apostle, "Sin 
revived." Why, I was guilty of sin before, it never troubled me; I had thoughts of 
God's being merciful ; I could set my good works amongst them, and one should answer 
the other; but when God had laid me for dead thus, all my sins revived. I looked upon 
my sins before as dead serpents that had no stings; but now they are all. living serpents, 
and they begin to revive, and to kill me, and sting me worse: for when a man seeth Mm- 
self in a state of death, all his sins come hi. upon him ; " I died, (saith he,) and sin revived." 


y / ffiv uss*- s 






Slrgmtmtte ta ytm f fie Iraitie Mlwritt} nf tyt 3$nhj 





" I have used similitudes " ri'l"\VT ptn Proposui simWMdines.'^'Hosea. xii. 10. 

" If I have told you earthly things, and ye believed not ; how shall ye believe, if 1 tell you of heavenly things?" 
John. iii. 12. 

El Ta eiriyeia eiifov vjj.iv, K&t av Trifeuere, TTWJ, eav etirca vfuv TO. eirovpai'ia vifevcrere ; 
Si terrena disci vdbis, et non creditws ; quomodo, si dixero vobis caelestia, creditus? 
Existimo Tropos Oratorios multo sublimfores, efficadoresque in Sacra lectione inveniri, quam inpriscorum Grcecarum 

et Latinorum Monumentis,possegueoratoriamphrasinjieri ea lectione multo locupletiorem." Budaus ex Citat. 

Cl. Kivet. 
" Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and they are they which testify of me." John 

v. 39. 






I / 



THE Divine Authority of the 
Holy Scriptures . . ix 


I. Of a Metonomy of the 
cause 1 

II. Effect" . .12 

III. Subject . . 14 

IV. Adjunct . . 19 
V. Of an Irony . 29 

VI. Of a Metaphor in gene- 
ral ... 36 

VII. Of an Anthropopathy 40 
The parts and members 

of a man attributed to 
God ibib. 

Human affections as- 
cribed to God . . 48 
actions ascribed to 
God. . . 50 

Adjuncts ascribed to God 65 

VIII. Metaphors translated 
from other creatures 

to God. . . 76 

Actions of living creatures 
ascribed to God . . 77 
Some members or parts 
of a living creature are 
ascribed to God. . 78 

IX. Of a ProsopopaBia . 88 
X. Metaphors taken from 

God, &c. . 97 

Angels 99 

Heaven . . 100 

Light 104 

Time . . . 106 

Mre 109 

Air ... 113 

Water 117 

Earth . . . 124 

XI. Minerals, Plants, 

and living creatures 128 

,, Inanimate bodies ibid. 

Things growing out of 

the earth . .131 

The olive tree and its 

fruit . .135 

The Vine . 136 

Corn, &c. . .138 

The Parts and members 

of living creatures . 141 
Metaphors taken from the 
kinds of living creatures 147 

XII. Man and what be- 
longs to him . 155 

A human body and its 
members ibid 

Such things as concern 

the life of man . .161 
Human sense . 162 




The various differences 
of mankind . . . 165 

The various A.ctions of 
Men ... .168 

The containing sub- 
jects . . _. 170 

The various adjuncts 
of men . . 173 

XIII. Sacred persons and 
things . . . 178 
Men sacred to God 179 

Places sacred to God ibid. 
Sacred rites . 181 

XIV. Of a Synecdoche . 184 

XV. A Synecdoche of the 
species . . . . 185 

XVI. Whole 186 

XVII. Part . .187 

XVIII. Of a Catachresis 188 

XIX. Of an Hyperbole . 189 

XX. Of an Allegory 192 

XXI. Of a Proverb . 196 

XXII. Of an Enigma . 197 


I. Of the figures of a Word 199 

II. Of a Paronomasia . 201 

III. Of Antanaclasis . 202 

IV. Of the figures of a sen- 
tence in Logism . 203 

V. Of an Erotesis, or inter- 
rogation . . 210 

VI. Of the figures of a sen- 
tence in Dialogism . 212 

VII. Of other schemes of Sen- 
tences and amplifications 213 

1. Schemes taken from 

Causes ibid. 

2. Adjuncts and 
circumstances ibid. 

3. Disparates or 
different Things 214 

4. Opposites or 
Contraries . . 215 

5. Comparates 216 

6. ,, Division ibid. 

7. Definition ibid. 

8. Testimony 217 


Article I. The Definition of 

a type . . 225 
II. Of the Division of 

Types . . 228 
III. Of prophetical Types 
and typical and 
symbolical ac- 
tions ibid. 



IV. Of prophetical and 
typical Visions . 226 
V. Of an historical Type 
and its first 

division . . 231 

VI. Other Divisions of 

an historical Type 232 
VII. Nine Canons or 

rules expounding 
Type . . 233 


1. The definition of the 
Word and Thing . 238 

2. Its Division ibid. 

3. Canons respecting it 239 

B K 1 1. 

Metaphors, &c., respecting 
God the Father . . 241 
Christ . .314 

Spirit . . . 492 


Metaphors, &c., that relate to 

the Word of God .526 


Metaphors, &c., respecting 

grace . . . 599 

Baptism a burial . 029 

The Lord's Supper . 632 
The holy angels of God, 
and the soul and spirit 
of man . . . 642 
The Church of God 666 
Men . .736 

Saints . . . 718 
Wicked Men . 777 
True Ministers . 828 
False Teachers . 858 
The Church of Rome 

Mystery Babylon 862 

Sin ... 894 

The Devil . 920 

The Day of grace 928 

The means of grace 929 

Godliness . 931 

Afflictions 937 

The World, the life 

of Man, and the four 

last things 951 

Moses 5 Vail removed ; or Types of 

the Old Testament explained 972 

! - 


THE divine wisdom treasured up in the Bible, although unadorned with the paint of 
human eloquence, gives us a rich profusion of a grave, genuine, and majestic dignity of 
elocution, suitable to those sacred mysteries it unfolds. The best evidence of which is, 
the taste and experience of that sweetness, which many have found in it. Augustine 
says, That the Scriptures seemed rude, and unpolished to him, in comparison of Cicero's 
adorned style, because he did not then understand its Interiora, i. e. inward beauty ; but 
when his mind was illuminated to understand them, no writing appeared so wise or even 
eloquent. Gregory Nanzianzen, a man of prodigious wit and learning, when he came to 
take to the study of this sacred philosophy, vilifies all other ornaments of literature 
amongst the Greek philosophers. And not only Nanzianzen did so, but the learned Paul 
also. By the very precepts of Rhetoric, which may be one man's eloquence, may be 
another's folly, because the style must be suited to the various circumstances of 
persons and things. The lawyer pleads eloquently, and strives to move the affections of 
others ; the judge pronounces the sentence gravely, and the king commands. But if the 
king persuades, or the judge contends, they throw off the person of a king or judge, and 
assume the person of a subject and pleader. What then is the law of the King of kings, 
and Lord of lords ? Do we think that Jehovah will use inductions as Plato, syllogisms as 
Aristotle, epiphonemas as Cicero, subtleties as Seneca, or any artificial syntax ? If a 
royal edict was published in school syllogisms, every wise man would laugh at it. The 
more plain the word and law of the Almighty is, the more becoming the divine Author 
and Lawgiver, and profitable for mankind, as more easily understood, and being like bread 
accommodated to every palate. Yet there is in God's word a peculiar elegance, which 
even a Homer, or a Cicero's language, when justly compared, is but puerile. The very 
exordium of the book of Isaias, is a full demonstration of this, to every candid reader. 
And it may be safely asserted, that considering the method and style, that was thought 
most convenient by the sovereign Dictator, that the argument which it treats of, and the 
manner of expression used, no other writing can parallel it. That which is holy is also 
venerable, and such things need no flourishing illustrations, and because the multitude of 
readers is promiscuous, it was needful that it should be understood by all, because every, 
man is concerned to believe and observe it. And hence the scriptures were written in the 
common language, viz., the Old Testament in Hebrew, the mother-tongue of the Jews, 
and the New in Greek, which was the most universal language of that time. Here we 
may note the impiety of such as prohibit translations of it, or keep it from the common 
people, so as they are not to read God's word, but as the priests please. Blessed be God, 
we have the scriptures translated in our mother tongue, and it is the duty and interest of 


every soul to converse with the word of God. Is wisdom and understanding man's most 
invaluable jewel ? Where is he to find it ? Let wisdom herself be the guide " Search 
the scriptures," &c.> which, as the beloved apostle saith, " are able to make us wise unto 
salvation through faith in Jesus Christ," John v. 39. How to obtain it we are elsewhere 
told, " We must ask it of God, who giveth liberally, and upbraideth not, and it shall be 
given to us," James i. 5. It is to be " Sought for as silver, and searched for as hid 
treasure," Prov. ii. 3. He who sincerely gives himself to prayer and meditation, and re- 
solves to be in the pursuit of this chief of blessings, may assure himself of success, having 
the promise of a faithful God who cannot lie. 

The means are great, and the encouragement great, beyond comparison, it is therefore 
the interest of every one to converse with the word of God, to obtain a purchase so emi- 
nently dignified with the title of Principal Tiling. The scripture is a large field for 
spiritual employment, and it is obvious to every one's observation, that it abounds with 
metaphors, allegories, and other tropes and figures of speech. And having a particular 
inclination to study the nature of metaphors, tropes, and figures, principally for the edifi- 
cation of my hearers, I betook myself to preach upon some metaphors, which, by the 
aid of divine Goodness, wanted neither success, nor the general satisfaction of my auditory. 
And having many brief heads of my notes by me, it was judged worthy my time and 
pains to compile the work before thee ; and to render the utility of the work as valuable 
as I could, I applied for the assistance of men most eminent in piety and literature, and 
was so happy as to succeed in the application. I must confess my own inability for the 
undertaking, but the Christian, and candid reader, will cast a veil over human frailties, 
and accept the will for the deed. As for carpers and censuring critics, that are pleased 
with nothing but their own performances, such gentlemen are beneath regard. I have 
jaet with an objection against my method, viz., that no parallels are to be drawn beyond 
the scope of the text To which I answer, that I have endeavoured with all diligence, 
to conform, all my parallels to plain scripture, and the analogy of the orthodox faith. If 
I go beyond what the scope of a particular text is, yet I agree with the general tenor of 
God's word. 

And as metaphors are terms borrowed from things that have divers properties, as far as 
they yield parities, or disparities, with the object represented, they may be safely used. 
As for example, God (in a metaphorical notion) is called a Father ; how can a parallel be 
limited, till you apply all the beneficial properties of a natural father ? It is therefore 
demonstrable to every one, .that the volume of God's word abounds with metaphors, 
allegories, and other tropes and figures of speech. Similitudes or metaphors are borrowed 
from visible things, to display and illustrate the excellent nature of invisible things. Yea, 
heavenly things are often called by the very names, that material or earthly things are ; 
which is not to obscure, or hide the meaning of them from us, but to accommodate them 
to our understanding. God by a gracious a-wyxoAczGacris, or condescension, conveys the 
knowledge of himself, and spiritual things, by preaching them by their respective earthly 
or terrestrial similitudes. " If I have told you of earthly things, and ye believe not ; how 
shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things," 2 John iii. 12. 

The Sacra PMlologia, was more particularly designed for the benefit and assistance of 

. PREFACE. vli 

young students and ministers. And it is certain, that no class of men have more need of 
learning than the ministers^of the Gospel, because their employment is of the highest 
concern, viz., rightly to divide the truth, and therefore that sacred office is not to be intru- 
ded into, but by persons duly qualified, and called. And most certain it is, that human 
literature without grace, has often proved a dangerous enemy to the Christian, religion, 
and barely considered in itself, gives no right to the exercise of that sacred function, any 
more than the meanest of mechanical arts. For, as Dr. Carlton, formerly bishop of Chi- 
chester, well says, " That a layman that hath the Spirit of God, is better able to judge of 
the church, and its members, than a man in ecclesiastical function, that hath not the 
Spirit of God." 

And Justin Martyr excellently says, " Infelix est sapientia extra verbum Dei sapere," 
So that it is not the formality of academical degrees, nor any philosophical dexterity, which 
is to be exercised in the things that may be known by the light of natural reason, nor 
variety of languages, that qualifies a preacher. He that ministers the word, ought prin- 
cipally to experience the grace of God in his own heart, and the power of it, in that 
grand and evangelical work of regeneration ; as also to understand those blessed mysteries 
of the sacred scriptures, that he may unfold them to others, and have a lawful call, which 
altogether constitutes, though he never saw a university. This reason was given by the 
royal Psalmist, " I have believed, and therefore have I spoken." His faith being the 
authority for his prophesying, or preaching ; yet I would not be understood to disparage 
human learning, for it is excellent in its place, when rightly employed. The knowledge 
of the original languages, in which the scriptures are penned, is of very great utility, that 
we may converse with that sacred book in its own emphatical and native idiom ; so that 
this kind of literature is good as a handmaid, Hagar-like ; but if it must needs be mistress, 
and usurp authority in the family ; if like scoffing Ishmael, it will mock at the Spirit, and 
the simplicity of the Gospel, let it be cast out. To aid such whose Christian minds incline 
them to instruct others, when their tender years have lost the education of languages, I 
should rejoice : But at the same time would strongly recommend them to be indefatigable 
towards the attainment of the Hebrew and Greek languages. 

And Reader, as I have introduced the types into the work, it is necessary to inform 
thee, that I believe there is a great difference between metaphorical and typical scriptures ; 
yet I flattered myself, that the work, instead of being injured, would be more acceptable 
thereby. And because some may not readily understand the difference, I will give you 
the opinion of the learned. 1. Types, suppose the verity of some history, as Jonah's 
being three days and three nights in the whale's belly. "When it is applied to Christ in 
the New Testament, it supposeth such a thing was once done. Allegories have no such 
supposition, but are as parables, propounded for some mystical end. 2. Types look only 
to matter of fact, and compare one fact with another, as Christ's being slain, and lying 
three days in the grave, to Jonah's lying so long in the whales' belly. But allegories take 
in words, sentences, and doctrines, both of faith and manners. For instance, I will refer 
you to the marriage of the king's son, as recorded in the twenty-first chapter of Matthew. 
3. Types compare persons and facts under the Old Testament, with persons and facts 
under the New, thus prefiguring another to come. Allegories regard matters in hand, 
and intend the explaining some mystical sense upon the word, which at present they do 
not seem to bear. 4. Types are only historical, and the truth of fact agreeing in the 
antitype, makes them up. But allegories are not intended to clear facts, but to explain 


doctrines, affect the heart, and convince the conscience. As Nathan made use of a parable to 
convince David. Hence many learned and judicious persons are of opinion, that allegories 
and metaphors are more extensive and comprehensive in their meaning, and application 
than types ; though care ought to be had that they are not run beyond the analogy of faith. 
And now reader, thou mayest perceive that what I have received, I am. willing to commu- 
nicate. Talents must not be hid in napkins. And that this compilation may bring glory 
to God, advantage to thee, and to the church of Christ in general, even for ages to come, 
is, and shall be the constant prayer of him, who is willing to serve thee in the work of 
the Gospel for Christ's sake. 






THE main scope of this work, being to offer some assistance towards the explaining 
and finding out the true sense and meaning of the Holy Scriptures, it will be convenient, 
according to our promise in our specimen of this undertaking, to premise something 
touching the divine authority of -that blessed book. For though it be commonly owned 
by Christians to be the word of G-od, yet since on the one hand, there are, especially 
in this atheistical age, too many amongst us, whose love of sin, and resolutions to continue 
therein, tempt them to seek for shelter in bold contempt of, or subtle cavils against 
those heavenly oracles; and on the other hand, not a few poor souls are sometimes 
shaken with temptations, and know not how to discharge themselves from the ensnaring 
questions that they are often attacked with, touching the divine original and authority of 
those sacred records ; not so much for want of assent thereunto, as of a right understand- 
ing or consideration of the grounds of that assent, and the true formal reason thereof ; 
therefore that with a perfect security to our present and future welfare, we may rely on 
that book, as the infallible storehouse of heavenly verities, that great and only Eevelation, 
whereby God does inform, rule, and will judge the world ; we shall set forth some consi- 
derations evincing this most important truth : but finding that divers able and worthy men 
have of late written most learnedly and excellently upon this subject, we shall upon that 
account be the more concise ; and though we have said but little, yet we hope enough to 
satisfy any rational considering man, and confute the vain cavils of the adversary ; for all 
along in this essay we strive to join perspicuity with brevity, and to speak so plainly and 
familiarly, that the weakest capacity may with ease gather it up ; the neglect hereof 
having rendered the labours of some others On the same subject less serviceable to the vul- 
gar unlearned reader. It being our great design to endeavour the help and establishment 
of the unskilful, and to assist weak. Christians ; knowing, that if Satan can once bring them 
into a diffidence of the truth and authority of God's Word, he at the same instant shakes 
the very foundation of all their hope and religion : " And if the foundation fail, what shall 
the righteous do ?" Psal. xi. 3. 

That the Scripture or book called the Bible, is of divine original, inspired by the Spirit \ 
of God, and therefore of infallible truth and authority, appears, \. 

I. By the contents, or matters therein discovered and treated of, which are so trail- / 
scendently sublime and mysterious that they could never be the product of human in- { 
vention, or discovery ; and therefore though written by men, as instruments, must j 
needs be revealed from above : for what human brain could ever have imagined a 
Trinity -in the Deity, Matt, xxviii. 19, 1 John v. 7 ; or such an existence of one simple 
essence as this book acquaints us withal ? It describes the person of Christ, eo plainly, 
fitly, and excellently, that if the mind of man consider it attentively, of necessity it 
must needs acknowledge, it doth far exceed the reach of a finite under standing. It 
discovers unto us the misery and corruption of man by nature, together with that 
general defect of the whole creation, which though some of the heathen had some 
glimpse of, yet could never find out the cause, nor how it came to pass ; no finite in- 
tellect could ever have travelled into such heights and depths, touching the nature 
of God and his eternal counsels, that stupendous contrivement for the salvation of 
men, that the second Person should descend from, heaven, and assume human nature 
into a conjunction with the divine, take upon him in his own Person the sin of man- 
land, and die for the world, thereby making a satisfaction proportionate to infinite 



justice, so that God may show the utmost act of mercy, in a conjunction with the highest 
exercise, of justice : nothing less than an infinite understanding could have found out ex- 
pedients to reconcile those two infinite attributes, in his dealings with an apostate creature. 
It unfolds the covenant of grace, which God made after the fall, all which can he drawn 
from no other fountain but divine Revelation, 1 Cor. ii. 7, Eph. iii. 4, 5. It contains the 
law of God, which is wise and just, the Gentiles themselves being judges, Dan. iv. 5, 6, 7. 
In its precepts shines forth its divinity ; 1. The surpassing excellency of the act, requiring 
that we should deny ourselves in all those things which the corrupt nature of man cleaveth 
to, and hateth to forego. 2. The wonderful equity that doth appear in every command. 
3. The admirable strangeness of some acts, which a natural man would account foolish- 
ness, and yet prescribed as absolutely necessary, John iii. 36, and viii. 24 : shows its di- 
vine original. 4. The manner how obedience is required, viz., that it proceeds from a pure 
heart, a good conscience, and faith unfeigned, Deut. vi. 5, 1 Cor. xiii. 1, 1 Tim. i. 4, 5. 
Take a view of the ten commandments, are they not plain, brief, perfect, just, extending 
to all, binding the conscience, and reaching to the very thoughts ? And do not all these 
things commend unto us the justice, wisdom, holiness, omnipotence, omniscience, perfec- 
tion, and absolute sovereignty of the Law-maker. 

It is a book that comprehends an universal history of the world, past, present, and 
to come : its contents reach as far as the first foundations of the earth aiid heavens, 
give us an account of God's Revelations to man ever since his first make, and the particu- 
lars of an intercourse between God and the world, for near upon two thousand and five 
hundred years, before they were any where extant upon record ; what other book, since 
the world began, so much as pretended to do this ? A book ! which as it was sixteen 
hundred years a writing, (for so long it was from the time of Moses, till John closed it 
with the Revelations ;) so the matters it treats of, are of the most excellent nature and 
highest concernment. 

To give the world a satisfactory account not only of its original, but of its end too ; to 
bring man. acquainted with his true sovereign happiness, and a most wonderful and aston- 
ishing method of reconciliation with his Maker : its promises are everlasting glory, and 
never-fading crowns : its precepts perfect righteousness, Gal. iii. 10, and altogether such as 
tend most to the honour of God, the happiness of a man's self, and the quiet of the world : 
its threatenings are of miseries that are endless : its whole tendency is to a prospect beyond 
the grave : what heathen ever so much as dreamed of the resurrection ? Who but the 
Lord could be author of such laws, that only can give eternal life, and inflict eternal death ? 
These things can move the "conscience of none, but such who acknowledge the precepts 
thereof to be divine. In a word, its general subjects are mysteries no where else to be 
heard of, and without such a manifestation, inconceivable. Now considering the premises, 
what less than infinite wisdom, can be the supposed author of such a book ? 
/ II. By its antiquity. The Books of Moses, wherein in promises, prophecies, types, 
(and shadows, the sum and substance of all the rest of the Bible is comprised, were the 
I first writings in the world, next to those by the finger of God on Mount Sinai. This is 
fully proved by Justin Martyr, an ancient writer, that lived within one hundred and 
thirty years after Christ, in his Parcenetic to the Greeks ; who comparing the times of 
all human writers, poets, philosophers, historians, and lawgivers, esteemed most ancient, 
demonstates them all to be but punies to Moses. Eusebius also, who followed Justin 
Martyr at about two hundred years distance, in the second and third books of his evan- 
gelical preparation, prosecutes the same argument at large, and from abundance of tes- 
'timonies and confessions, out of the best and most authentic Heathen authors themselves, 
undeniably evinces, that Moses was the most ancient of all the writers that were known 
or named amongst them. And Tertullian so confidently upbraids the Gentiles in this 
matter, that we think it not amiss to recite his words, in the Itith chapter of his apology. 
" Our religion," saith he, speaking to the Heathens, " far outdoes all that you can boast 
of in that kind : for the books of one of our prophets only, viz., Moses, wherein it seems 
God hath enclosed, as in a treasury, all the Christian religion preceding so many ages to- 
gether, reach beyond the ancientest you have, even all your public monuments, the 
antiquity of your originals, the establishments of your estates, the foundations of your 
cities, all that are most advanced by you in all ages in history, and memory of times : 
the invention even of the characters, which are interpreters of sciences, and the guar- 
dians of all things excellent : I think I may say more, they are elder than your very 
gods, your temples, oracles, and sacrifices. Have you not heard mention made of that 


great prophet, Moses ? He was cotemporary with Inachus, and preceded Danaus, (the 
ancientest of all that have a name in your histories,) 393 years" : he lived some hundreds 
of years before the ruin of Troy. [And Homer, the eldest writer amongst the Grecians, 
lived, as Pliny saith, 250 years after the subversion of that city.] Every of the other 
prophets succeeded Moses, and yet the last of them was of the same age as your prime 
wise-men, law-givers, and historians were." 

So that it is a thing out of dispute, that for antiquity, neither the writings of Orpheus, 
or Homer, or Trismegistus, or Pythagoras, or Berosus, nor any other, can compare with 
the Pentateuch. These gray-hairs show them to be the offspring of the Ancient of days ; 
for truth is always the first-born. 

And -if we consider, how low, how mean, and imperfect all human inventions were in 
those times; and what foolish, irrational, and absurd conceptions, both the Egyptians 
and Grecians, nations most celebrated for wisdom, had of things divine, and the duty 
and happiness of man ; we cannot but conclude, that so clear an account of the 
world's beginning, depravation, destruction by the flood, and re-peopling ; such a 
most excellent law and doctrine, in reference both to God and man, &c., could not 
be of human extract, but must needs be in truth, which it pretends itself to .be, a 
divine revelation. Besides, who can believe the first religion should be the worst, or 
-the most timely notions of God the falsest ? Were this so, and the Bible not a divine 
book, but composed by impostors, then it follows, that the most primitive account 
we have of religion is counterfeit ; that the devil set up his chapel, before God built 
his church ; that in the earliest notices we have of God, of the world's original, man's 
fall, and the way of his recovery, the world is deceived and abused; and that God 
suffered the devil, in the first place, (and without any thing publicly extant from him, 
either before or since, to contradict it,) in his name, and under pretence of his autho- 
rity, to delude and mislead mankind, with a false account of all those things which 
they are most concerned to know, and upon the right knowledge of which then* present 
and future happiness depends : all which, as it is unworthy of God, so it is no less re- 
pugnant to the dictates of reason. But on the contrary, it is most rational to believe, 
that God's revelations were as early as man's necessities ; and that the Bible being the 
most ancient, as well as the wisest book in the world, is also the truest, and proceeded 
from the God of Truth. 

III. This royal descent, or divinity of the Scriptures, further appears by that ma- \ 
jesty and authoritative ness of the Spirit of God speaking in them, and that extraordinary j 
and inimitable style wherein they are written. As it is said of our blessed Lord, Matt. / 
vii. 28, " That he taught as one having authoritj 7 , and not as the scribes :" so the Scrip- 
tures teach with an awful authority. The style of the sacred Scripture is singular, and 
has peculiar properties, not elsewhere to be found ; its simplicity is joined with majesty, 
commanding the veneration of all serious men. Augustine says,* That the holy Scriptures 
seemed rude and unpolished to him, in comparison of Cicero's adorned style, because he did 
not then understand its interiora, or inward beauty : but when he was converted to Chris- 
tianity, declared,-]- That when he understood them, no writing appeared more wise and 
eloquent. Greg. Nazianzen, J a man of prodigious wit, learning, and eloquence, when he 
came to study the sacred Scriptures, vilifies all ornaments of literature amongst the Greek 
philosophers, as infinitely below those divine oracles. Illyricus says, That although we 
find not in the holy Scripture that idle or delicate itch of words, that external sweetness 
or allurement, that numerosity of sounds, or those pleasing trifles, which vain-glorious ora- 
tors of Greece and Kome beautified their so much famed harangues with ; yet we find there 
a grave and masculine eloquence, exceeding all others. And shall we indeed think, that 
the great God would use inductions, as Plato ; syllogisms, as Aristotle ; elenchs, as the 
Carmeades ; epiphonemas, as Cicero ; subtleties, as Seneca ; or words far fetched, joined 
together with an artificial syntax, with, respect to weight, number, and sound ? If a royal 
edict were published in that kind of speech, consisting of school-follies, every wise man 
would laugh at it. The more plain therefore the word and law of the great God is, it is, 
we say, the more becoming the Author thereof, and an evidence of his divine stamp and 
authority. Yet in that humility of style in Scripture, there is far more height and loftiness, 
and more profoundness in its simplicity, more beauty in its nakedness, and more vigour 
and acuteness in its seeming rudeness, than in those other things men so much praise . and 

* Lid. 3. Confess. Gap. 5. f Lib. 4, de Doctrin. Christ, cap. 6. 

\ Bndoeus, Lib. 5. de asse, et partibus f jits, p. 754. 

a 2 


admire, &c. Easiness and plainness doth best "become the truth. A pearl needs no paint- 
ing : it becomes not the majesty of a prince to play the orator. In the holy Scripture is 
a peculiar and admirable eloquence. "What are all the elaborate blandishments of human 
writers, to that grave, lively, and venerable majesty of the prophet Isaiah's style, as the 
exordium of his prophecy shows, also in chap, xxv,, xxvi., &c. That which critics admire 
in Homer, Pindar, &c., singly, are universally found here, though not that elegancy that 
tickles the ear and fancy, and relishes with the flesh, but the noble and immortal part, viz., 
an illuminated soul. Commandments are here given forth, and subjection peremptorily 
required, with great severity, and with no stronger arguments than the will of the Law- 
maker. Promises above likelihood are made ; to assure of performance, no reason is al- 
leged, but " I the Lord have spoken," Isa. li. 22, and Hi. 4. And to encourage against 
difficulties, &c., divine assistance is promised, both as necessary and sufficient, in the man- 
ner of its threats, Gen. xvii. 1, Exod. xii., Josh. i. 9. Also the divinity of the style may 
be observed, that without respect of persons, all degrees of men are concerned, high and 
low, rich and poor, noble and ignoble, kings and peasants, commanding wbat is distasteful 
to their natures, and forbidding what they approve : promising not terrene honour, but life 
everlasting ; threatening not with rack and gibbet, but eternal pain, and torment in hell- 

Of all writings in the world, the sacred Scriptures assume most unto themselves ; they 
tell us, that they are the " Words of eternal life," John vi. 68 ; that they are by the in- 
spiration of the. Holy Ghost, the testimony of Jesus Christ, the faithful Witness ; that they 
shall judge the world ; that they are able to make wise unto salvation, 2 Tim. iii. 16, Rev. 
iii. 14; that they are the immortal seed, of which the sons and daughters of God must be 
begotten, 1 Pet. i. 23. Their terror is, " Thus saith the Lord ;" and no conclusion, bat, 
" The Lord hath spoken ; Hear the word of the Lord ; He that hath ears to hear, let him 
hear," &c., Exod. xx. 1, 2. The nature, quality, or composure of the style or phrase, we 
say, is emphatically and signally different from that of all human writings whatsoever. 
.Here are no apologies, begging pardon of the reader, or insinuating into his good opinion 
by devices of rhetoric, but a stately plainness, and mysterious simplicity. " We also 
speak," saith the apostle, 1 Cor. ii. 13, " not in the words which man's wisdom teachetb, 
but which the Holy Ghost, comparing, (or rather suiting or fitting, o-vyKgivovrts} spirituals 
with spirituals, (for so only the original runs -arvev/MiTiKa TsrvevnaTiKots) that is, matter or 
things, which for their nature and substance are spiritual, with words or phrases which 
are spiritual also, 'and so suitable to them. Hence, says Augustine, " The Scripture so 
speaketh, that with the height of it, it laughs proud and lofty-spirited men to scorn ; with 
the depth of it, it terrifies those who with attention look into it ; with the truth of it, it 
feeds men of the greatest knowledge and understanding ; and with the sweetness of it, it 
^nourisheth babes and' sucklings." 

/ IV. That excellent spirit of holiness, which every where breathes in and from the 
I Scriptures, is another fan: lineament of the hand of God in the framing them. To this 
holiness they most powerfully persuade men, by express commands. " Ye shall be holy, 
for I am holy," Lev. xi. 44. " As he who hath called you is holy; so be ye holy .in all 
manner of conversation," 1 Pet. i. 15. And by threatenings, " Without holiness no man 
shall see God," Heb. xii. 1 4. And by a multitude of examples of holy men, as Abraham, 
David, and all the prophets and apostles, and especially of that immaculate Lamb of God, 
the blessed JESUS. As on the other side, it sets before us the dreadful vengeance that 
attends all profaneness, unrighteousness, uncleanness, pride, and worldly lusts ; requires 
not only an abstinence from the gross outward acts of sin, but searches the heart, and 
condemns the very thoughts and inclinations : " He that hateth his brother is a mur- 
derer." " He that lusteth after a woman, hath committed adultery." The doctrine 
taught every where in this book, is directly opposite to the whole corporation of debauched 
and wicked men ; destructive to all impiety, and corrupt doctrines and practices whatso- 
ever, and perfectly ruinous and destructive to the interests of the devil in the world ; a 
doctrine that has visibly the highest tendency to those two great ends of all religion, 
the honour of God, and man's present and future happiness. What pitiful, crooked, 
and imperfect lines have the wisest and best of mere men, as Socrates, Plato, Aris- 
totle, Tully, Seneca, Plutarch, or any others, drawn in their fairest documents, both 
moral and divine, compared with this complete and transcendent rule of holy living ! 
What undefiled religion, what pure and spiritual worship is here ! How suitable 
to the holy nature of God! What superlative piety and virtue, without any spot of 


vice ! What punctual and perpetual truth and honesty is here required ! yet without 
the least taint of base means, or unworthy sordid ends ! No vain-glory ! no esteem 
of men ! no corrupt advantages ! But on the contrary, what charity is here required ! 
What repeated commands not to offend weak ones ! What mutual forgiveness ! What 
provocations to love ! With what patience and meekness, justice and modesty, are we 
taught to behave ourselves ! In a word, it is such a doctrine as makes a man perfect, 
thoroughly furnished to every good work ; which brings .men to the best way of living, 
the noblest way of suffering, and the most comfortable way of dying. Now must not such 
pure streams needs flow from the Fountain of all perfection ? Does such a serious and 
effectual advancement of holiness in the world, look like an intrigue of polluted man, or 
any unclean spirit ? How can we better judge of a law, that declares it proceeds from 
God, and is of divine obligation, than by its nature, tendency, and influence on human 
life ? Whether it be suitable to those pretensions, and such an adorable and unspotted 
original ? And when we find so holy and excellent a design, as appears throughout this 
whole book, for the honour of God, and completing the happiness of men, by methods so 
agreeable, and yet above the reach of human invention ; what can we judge, unless we 
will be obstinately perverse, but that such a book's testimony of itself is true, and that it 
is indeed of God, and not of men ? ( 

V. The sweet and admirable agreement, consent, dependence, and harmony, that we 
find ha all and every part of Scripture, though there are so many books thereof, written 
by so many .different persons, of various conditions, many ages removed, in several places, 
and in different languages, yet all agreeing with each other, and every part with the 
whole, which could not be foreseen or contrived by any human wisdom or cunning, in the 
writing of any one part ; for all the histories, prophecies, promises, types, and doctrines, 
in an orderly connection, tend to promote the same thing ; and every age proves a fresh 
interpreter, and reveals to us more and more of this admirable concord, which could not be 
the effect of human artifice, nor of any other cause, but an infinite comprehension and 
foresight, and that the several writers of this book were in all times guided in what they 
wrote by the supreme wisdom of that one God, who is always constant to himself, " And 
the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever." 

VI. This further appears from the credit and sincerity of those that were the penmen. | 
If the Scriptures were not what they pretend to be, viz., the Word of God, and dictated! 
to the writers thereof by his Holy Spirit, it would be the greatest affront to the Divinel 
Majesty, and the grossest cheat towards mankind, that ever was put upon the world. But * 
if we consider the penmen thereof, we shall find them all of undoubted credit, generally 
esteemed holy and good men in the ages they lived in, so no way to be suspected of im- 
posture. Some of them were kings, and of the deepest learning, not likely to be guilty of 
such a mean-spirited baseness, as lying and forgery. Many of the prophets, and most of 
the apostles were men illiterate, of parts and education so mean, that of themselves they 
seem no way capable to write so profoundly, or lay so deep a contrivance for deluding the 
world. And as it is incredible, that so many men, of such distant times, qualities, and 
abilities, should all agree in the same imposture, and so harmonize in promoting it; so 
neither could any interest or ambition prompt them thereunto ; for as the main tendency 
}f this book is, to mortify men's ambitions and lusts ; so most of them exposed themselves, 
yy publishing these writings, to great hazards' and persecutions. Nor have several of them 
Jeen shy to record the great failings and imperfections of themselves, or their brethren. 
Thus Moses, Exod. iii., and iv., chapters, relates his own infidelity, and averseness to 
submit to the extraordinary call of God. In another place, Numb. xi. 21, he records the 
shame of his distrustfulness, or at least the carnality of his conceit or apprehension of the 
'ower of God. Again, Numb. xx. 12, he inserts God's heavy sentence, and the ground 
hereof, against him. The same Moses did not set up any of his own posterity to succeed 
iun in the guidance of- Israel, but left Joshua to succeed him, &c., and placed the kingly 
superiority over that people in another tribe from his own, viz., the tribe of Judah. Indeed, 
hroughout the whole book there is a visible antipathy to all self-seeking flattery or com- 
^h'aace: God alone is exalted, and all men's persons, actions, and reputations are laid in 
he dust, in respect of his honour, and the truths therein delivered. Besides, these very 
vriters appear themselves to be under a subjection to the doctrine they taught, and no 

~ y masters of it, as their own. All which plainly shows, that they were inspired from 
>ve, and wrote not their own words, or for their own honour, but as inspired, and for 
he honour of God. 


'' VII. Another demonstration or proof, that the Scriptures are from God, is the exact 
and punctual fulfilling of the prophecies therein contained. To foretel events, is the 
! prerogative of God, Isa. xli. 22. " Let them bring forth, (safth God, the Lord expostu- 
lating with his people ahout the vanity of idols) and show us, what shall happen, show us 
the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know that ye are god's." Now the 
body of the scriptures is enlivened with the Spirit of prophecy, almost, throughout. That 
of Jacob, recorded by Moses, Gen. xlix. 10, " That the sceptre should not depart from 
Judah, nor a law-giver from between his feet until Shiloh come ; and to him shall the 
gathering of the people be ;" was not completely fulfilled till well near two thousand 
years after, though made good during a great part of that time, viz., from the entrance of 
the tribe of Judah upon the government, in king David, until the going of it out again in 
the person of Hircanus, whom Herod slew, as Josephus testifies. But when the time ap- 
pointed was expired, the prophecy itself was completely fulfilled : for when Herod, a 
stranger, and of another nation, had cut off the house and line of Judah from the govern- 
ment of Jewry, then and at that time Shiloh, the long expected Messiah, our Lord Christ, 
punctually came into the world ; for that by Shiloh is meant the Messiah, the Jewish 
Rabbies do not deny. Now at the time of Jacob's uttering these words, there was little 
probability, that any of his posterity should have a sceptre, or any kingly power, being 
poor, few, and in a strange land ; or, if they should thrive so as to become a kingdom, or 
nation, why should Judah have the government, seeing there were three elder brothers, 
Reuben, Simeon, and Levi ? Nor was there likelihood of this prophecy's being accom- 
plished, when Moses set it down in writing; for then he himself, who was of the tribe of 
Levi, was in the actual possession of the government, and put into it by God himself, who 
appointed for his successor, Joshua, not of the tribe of Judah, but of Ephraim. Whence 
we have a notable evidence of the truth and sincerity of this prediction ; for had not Jacob 
really uttered it, we cannot imagine Moses would have put such a prophecy in writing, to 
the disparagement of his own tribe. How accurately are the four great monarchies of the 
world described by Daniel ? Dan. vii. 3, so lively, as if he had lived under them, and had 
that experience of them all respectively, which the world hath since had of them. How 
wonderful is that prophecy of Isaiah, at the end of his xlivth, and the beginning of the 
xlvth chapter, touching Cyrus, delivered at least an hundred years, some say, two hun- 
dred, before he was born, wherein yet he is not only expressly named, " Thus saith the 
Lord to his anointed Cyrus ;" but it is foretold, he should conquer Babylon, and rebuild 
the temple of Jerusalem : which came to pass accordingly. Nor can this prophecy be sus- 
pected of forgery, or to be suppositions in any kind, since it was pronounced openly, as 
other prophecies were, in the hearing of all the people, and so divulged into many hands, 
before the captivity, and then also carried into Babylon, where no doubt it was pursued by 
many, long before the accomplishment of it. And that there was such a man as Cyrus 
many years afterwards, that so conquered Babylon, and restored the Jews from their cap- 
tivity, and furthered the building of the temple, all heathen authors, that write of those] 
times, do affirm. And indeed one great inducement of his kindness to the Jews, was, be- 
cause he understood how his successes had been thus prophesied of, so long before, by one I 
of that nation. So that it appears the said prophecy was then publicly known, and its I 
truth and authenticity no way doubted of. How manifestly are the many prophecies of I 
the Old Testament, concerning our Saviour, fulfilled. And how dreadfully his prophecy] 
of the destruction of Jerusalem, was made good about forty years after his crucifixion, w 
find in the history of Josephus, exactly corresponding to what is foretold in Matt. xxiv. 
And how many other prophecies of the New Testament, and especially of the Revelations, 
do we daily find verified in and by the apostacy, and wicked usurpations of the church of! 
Rome. Since therefore to foretel so plainly, particulars and events so remote, and de-j 
pending on the mere motions and acts of the wills of particular persons, yet unborn, is an I 
evident mark of omnisciency ; we cannot but conclude that the Scriptures, which are filled! 
with so many evident and certain predictions, must certainly proceed from the finger of God. I 
I VIII. Those writings, and that doctrine, which were confirmed by many and reall 
\ miracles, must needs be of God : but the books and doctrines of canonical Scriptures J 
x were so confirmed. Many and great wonders, such as Satan himself cannot imitate,! 
such as exceed the power of any, yea, of all the creatures in the world; such as the! 
most malicious enemies could not deny to be divine, hath the Lord openly wrought! 
by the hands of Moses and the prophets, Christ and his apostles, for the confirmation off 
this truth, Numb. xi. 9, Exod. xix. Id, 1 Kings xvii. 24, Mark xvi. 20, Acts v. 12. Thesef 


miracles are recorded and attested by persons of unquestionable credit, that were eye and 
ear witnesses. The things done, as raising the dead to life, curing the blind, &c., were 
matters of fact, easy to be discerned. They were not done once or twice, but very often; 
not in the night, or in a corner, but in the open light, in the midst of the people, in the 
presence of great multitudes, who were generally enemies to those that wrought these 
miracles : so that if the relations of them were false, they would presently have disproved 
them ; or if there had been any deceit, they would soon have detected it. 

" When God puts forth his miracle-working power, in the confirmation of any word or 
doctrine, he avows it to be of and from himself, to be absolutely and infallibly true; 
setting the fullest and openest seal unto it, which men, who cannot discern his essence or 
being, are capable of receiving or discerning. And therefore when any doctrine, which in 
itself is such as becometh the holiness and righteousness of God, is confirmed by the ema- 
nation of his divine power in working of miracles, there can no greater assurance, even by 
God himself, be given to confirm the truth of it. 

"And as we. have the testimony of the evangelists, to confirm the many miracles that 
Jesus did : we also plead the notoriety of those miracles wrought by him, and the tradi- 
tions delivering them down to us : they were openly wrought, and were all or most of 
them performed before the eyes of multitudes, who envied, hated, and persecuted him, and 
that in the most knowing days of the vrorld, when reason and learning had improved the light 
of the minds of men to the utmost of their capacity ; in and upon multitudes for sundry 
years together, being all of them, sifted by his adversaries, to try if they could discover any 
thing of deceit in them." 

Besides, the very enemies have not had the impudence to deny such notorious matters . 
of fact, as our Saviour's miracles ; only they ascribe them to other causes. * Even to this 
day, the Jews acknowledge much of the works of Christ, but slanderously and blasphem- 
ously father them on the power of the devil, or upon the force of the name of God sowed 
up in his thigh ; and such like ridiculous stories they have. Even the Turks confess much 
of the miracles of our Lord, and believe him to be a great prophet, though they are pro- 
fessed enemies to the Christian name. Nor could all the adversaries of these miracles 
and relations, with all their arguments or violence, hinder thousands from believing them, 
and even exposing their lives on that belief, in the very time and country where they were 
done. So that we must say, either they were miracles, or not : if they were, why do you 
not believe ? If they were not, behold the greatest miracle of all, that so many thousands 
(even of the beholders) should be so blind, as to believe things that never were, especially 
in those very times, when it was the easiest matter in the world to have disproved such 
falsehoods. Indeed the miracles of Jesus, and those of his disciples and servants, in 
the primitive times, were in fact so many, so eminent, so visible, and lasted so long, 
(for they continued in the church two or three hundred years) and the account of them 
has descended down to us by such a constant, uninterrupted, written and unwritten, 
tradition, that scarce any man has assumed impudence enough to gainsay them. Irenaeus 
(who lived about the year of our Lord '200] affirmeth, that in his time the working of 
miracles, the raising of the dead, the casting out of devils, healing the sick by mere 
laying oh of hands, and prophesying, were still in force ; and that some that were so raised 
from the dead, remained alive amongst them long after. And Cyprian and Tertullian 
mention the ordinary casting out of devils, and challenge the heathen to come and see it. 
Remarkable are those words of the latter ,-f " Let any one be brought before your tribu- 
nals, who is apparently possessed with a devil, that spirit being commanded by any 
Christian shall confess of truth himself to be a devil, as at other times he boasts himself a 
god." And in his book to Scapula, the procurator of Afric, cap. 4. he repeats several 
miraculous cures done by Christians : Quanti honesti viri, &c. How many persons of good 
quality and esteem, says he, for we speak not of the vulgar sort, have been remedied either 
from devils or diseases ? Severus himself, the father of Antoninus, was recovered by 
Christians, &c., so that here we have the best doctrine under the highest attestation, God 
himself setting thereunto his supernatural seals, to convince us of the truth thereof. And 
this was the great argument, whereby Christ alJ along convinced tlie world : for upon 
his beginning of miracles, at Cana in Galilee, " He manifested his glory, and his disciples 

* Josephus, in his antiquity of the Jews, makes mention of the mighty miracles that Jesus did. See p. 
t Tertullian Apol. cap. 31. 


believed in him," John i. 48. The Jews therefore enquired for signs, as that which must 
confirm any new revelation to be of God, John ii. IB. And though Christ blames them 
1 for their unreasonable unsatisfied expectations herein, and would not humour them in each 
particular ; yet he continued to give them miracles as great as they desired. They that 
saw the miracles of the loaves, said, " This is of a truth the prophet that should come into 
the world," John vi. 14. " Many believed, when they saw the miracles which he did," 
John x. 41, Acts iv. 16, Heb. ii. 4, "If I had not done the works that no man else could 
do, ye had not had -sin," in not believing, John xv. 24. And the way of bringing men to 
believe in these days is expressed, Heb. ii. 3, 4, "How shall we escape, if we neglect so 
great salvation, which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed to 
us by those that heard him, [there is the evidence of sense to the first receivers, and their 
tradition to the next] God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and 
divers miracles ?" Let us conclude this argument with that smart interrogation of that blind 
man, John xix. 16. " Can a man that is a sinner do such miracles ?" Natural reason 
showing us, that God being the true and merciful Governor of the world, the course of na- 
ture cannot be -altered, but by his special appointment ; and that he will never set the seal 
of his omnipotency to a lie, nor suffer the last and greatest inducement to belief, to be used 
to draw men to embrace falsehood and forgeries. 

/ IX. To these astonishing miracles we may fitly add, the preservation of these holy 
/writings for so many ages, being itself little less than miraculous, and such as is a great 
| argument, that they belong to God, as the Author and Parent of them: it being rea- 
sonable to derive that from God, as a book of his own dictates, about which he has 
exercised a peculiar care. Were not the Bible what it pretends to be, there had been 
nothing more suitable to the nature of God, and more becoming divine Providence, than 
long since to have blotted it out of the world : for why should He suffer a book to continue 
from the beginning of times, falsely pretending his name and authority ? How do learned 
men accuse time of injuries, for swallowing up the works of many excellent authors; and 
bewail the loss of divers of Livy's decades, and other choice books, which are now no where 
to be found ! Nay, though the Romans were so careful for the preservation of the books 
of the Sybils, that they locked them up in places of greatest safety, and appointed special 
officers to look after them ; yet many ages since they are gone and perished, and only some 
few fragments do now remain. Whereas, on the contrary, the Bible, notwithstanding part 
of it was the first book in the world, (as we proved in the second argument) and though the 
craft of Satan, and the rage. of mankind, have from time to time combined utterly to sup- 
press it ; yet it has borne up its head, and remains not only extant, but whole and entire, 
without the least mutilation or corruption. Antiochus Ephiphanes, when he set up the 
abomination of desolation in the Jewish temple, in the days of Maccabees, with utmost 
diligence made search after their law, and wheresoever he found it, immediately burnt 
or destroyed it, and threatened death, with exquisite tortures, to any that should conceal 
or retain it. In like manner, since Christ, the tyrant Dioclesian, about the year 300, with 
a full purpose to root out Christianity for ever out of the world, publishes an edict, that 
the Scriptures should everywhere be burnt and destroyed ; and whosoever should presume 
to keep them, should be most severely tormented : yet God permitted them not to quench 
the light of these divine laws. But the Old Testament, above two hundred years before 
the incarnation of Christ, was translated into Greek, the most flourishing and spreading 
language at that time in the world : and about thirty years before Christ, it was paraphrased 
into (Jhaldee ; and at this day, both Old and New Testaments are extant, not only in their 
original languages, but in most other tongues and languages that are spoken upon the face 
of the earth, which no other book can pretend to. So that all endeavours that have from 
the very first been bent against it, have been vanquished ; and remarkable judgments and 
vengeance showed on all such as have been the most violent oppressors of it. And further, 
whereas even those to whom it was outwardly committed, as the Jews first, and the anti- 
Christian church of apostatized Rome afterwards, not only fell into opinions and practices 
absolutely inconsistent with it, but also built all their present and future interests on those 
opinions and practices ; yet none of them could ever obliterate one line in it, not even of 
those places which make most against their obstinate errors and defections : but for their 
own plea, they both are forced to pretend additional traditions, for the Mishna, Talmud, 
and Cubala of the Jews, and the oral traditions of the Papists, all proceed from one 
and the same ground, viz., a -wicked pretence, that the Scriptures, though divine 
truths, and the Word of God, yet do not contain all God's will ; but that there are these 


other unwritten verities handed down, one says from Moses, and the other says from St. 
Peter, &c., by word of mouth. 

Since therefore the Bihle has thus wonderfully surmounted all difficulties and opposi- 
tions, for so many generations, and in so many dangers, and against so many endeavours 
to root it out of the world, we may, (according to that maxim in philosophy, Eadem est 
causa procreans et conservans ; the procreating and conserving cause of things, is one and 
the same) conclude, that the same God is the Author of it, who hath thus by his special 
providence preserved it, and faithfully promised, and cannot lie, that heaven and earth 
shall pass away, hut one iota or tittle of his word shall not pass away. 

X. The Scriptures did not only survive, but have triumphed over, all the oppositions of j 
the devil and the world. That success wherewith the Gospel was attended even in its in- . 
fancy, the mighty and marvellous prevailings of it wherever it came, notwithstanding the ; 
many and great disadvantages it was to encounter, are a strong and irresistible argument i 
that it was from heaven. That a doctrine directly opposite to the whole corrupt interest { 
of human nature, and to the wisdom and will of man, 1 Cor. i. 21, Horn. viii. 7, carried on ' 
and published by but a few, and those, to outward appearance, weak, ignorant, and simple 
persons, illiterate fishermen, tent-makers, &c., without any force of arms, or temporal sup- 
port, but on the contrary against both wind and tide, the cruelties of raging powers, and 
affronts of vaunting wisdom ; a doctrine against which the whole world, Jews and Gentiles, 
perfectly concurred, those hating it as a stumbling block, and these counting it foolishness ; 
that such an improbable and unpleasing, such a friendless, unwelcome, slighted, opposed 
doctrine, by such instruments, and under such circumstances, should make its way in the 
world, and subject so many nations to the obedience of the cross, and make those who to- 
day persecuted it, to-morrow ready to lay down their lives in defence and justification of 
it : evidently shows it to be owned by omnipotency, and not to be of human extract. 

XI. But besides these outward and more visible trophies of the sacred Scriptures how \ 
marvellous is their empire, efficacy, and power within, upon the hearts and consciences of ) 
men ! It is this that converts the soul, enlighi ens the eye, Psal. xix. 7 ; discovers sin, ' 
Rom. vii. 7 ; convinces gainsayers, 2 Tim. iii. 16 ; killeth and terrifieth, 2 Cor. iii. 6 ; re- 
joiceth the heart,. Psal. xix. 8, and cxix. 103 ; quickeneth, Psal. cxix. 50 ; comforteth, 
Rom. xv. 4 ; manifesteth the thoughts, overthrows false religions, casteth down strong- 
holds, and subverts the whole kingdom of Satan, 2 Cor. x. 4. What consolations at some 
times ! What terrors at others, do proceed from the sacred book ! How are the poor 
souls of men by it mightily refreshed ! Their weak hearts wonderfully strengthened ! 
Their dead spirits raised, and made to live again ! Those that sat in darkness, and the 
shadow of death, are enlightened ! Many that were in chains and fetters, of fears and 
terrors of soul, are delivered and set at liberty ! Is it reasonable to conceive that a tree 
that bears such wonderful fruit, was planted by any other hand than that of God ? Who 
can speak words that shall restrain and repel all powers of darkness, when falling in to 
make havoc and desolation in the souls of men? That shall be able to give laws to the 
terrors of death, nay, eternal death, when they have taken hold, of the consciences of sin- 
ners ? Are not all these wonders performed by the holy Scriptures ? And do they not 
often, on the other side, breathe thunder and lightnings ? throw down the mighty from 
their seats, and destroy the thrones of the proud and confident ? Do they not turn 
the security of many into trembling and horror, and make their consciences to bui-n as if 
the fire of hell had already taken hold of them ? These things are evident from the ex- 
perience of thousands that have felt and'undergone such powerful effects of the word : nay, 
I verily believe, there are few that have read the Scriptures with attention and seriousness, 
but can more or less witness the same : and whence should such mighty operations pro- 
ceed, but because the Almighty Author has endued them with such virtue through the 
Spirit, whereby they become the power of God unto salvation. 

XII. Add to all these arguments, the testimony of the Church, and her holy mar- f 
tyrs, who have sealed this truth with their blood. By the Church we do not mean the ' 
Pope, whom the Papists call the Church virtual, nor his cardinals, bishops, &c., met in 
general council, whom they call the Church representative : but the whole company 
of believers in all ages who have professed the true faith. The penman of the Scriptures, 
good, pious, honest, holy men, delivered it out as the Word of the Lord, and ever since 
there have been thousands, and hundreds of thousands, thathavebelieved arid testiefid the 
same down from age to age in a continual uninterrupted succession; the Church of the 
Jews, to whom were committed the oracles of God, Rom. viii. 3, professed the doctrine, 



and received the books of the Old Testament, and testified of them that they were divine, 
and in great misery they have constantly confessed the same ; when as by the only deny- 
ing thereof, they might have been partakers both of liberty and rule. And remarkable it 
is, both, that notwithstanding the high priests and others of that nation persecuted the pro- 
phets while they lived, yet received their writings as prophetical and divine ; as also, that 
since the spirit of blindness and obstinancy is come upon Israel, and notwithstanding their 
great hatred to the Christian religion, the holy Scripture of the Old Testament is kept pure 
and uncorrupt amongst them, even in those places which do evidently confirm the truth of 
the Christian religion, as Isa. liii. 3. And as for the Christian Church, it hath with great 
constancy and sweet consent, received and acknowledged the books of the Old and New 
Testament for the universal church, which from the beginning thereof until these times 
professed the Christian religion to be divine, did and doth also profess that these books are 
of God : and the several primitive churches which first received the books of the Old Tes- 
tament, and the gospels, the epistles written from the Apostles to them, their pastors, or 
some they knew, did receive them as the oracles of God, and delivered them afterwards 
under the same title to their successors and other churches : and all the pastors and 
doctors, who being furnished with skill both in the languages and matters, have tried 
and searched into them, and all pious Christians, who by experience have felt their 
divine operation, on their own. souls, have asserted the same. So that whoever rejects 
the Bible, obliges himself to believe no other books in the world whatsoever ; for since 
none of them have any such great and universal attestations, if he shall credit them, 
and not this, it will show apparent disingenuity and peevish obstinancy. And secondly, 
he that does credit the Author of this book, with the same credit wherewith he credits 
other authors, whom he supposes men of common honesty that would not knowingly 
write an untruth, cannot then refuse to receive this as a book divine and infallible, upon 
as good terms of credibility, as he believes any the best human author in its kind 
to be true ; because they themselves tell us that it is so, (which were it otherwise, 
without most apparent falsehood they would not do ;) they affirming that God himself 
inspired them to write it, and that it was no product of their own, but every part of it the 
genuine dictate of the Holy Ghost. 

And-this argument is abundantly reinforced and strengthened from the consideration 
of that glorious company of martyrs, those innumerable multitudes, who in the flames and 
rage of persecution, have with the loss of their lives maintained the Scriptures to be the 
sacred "Word of God, and had the same in such veneration, that in the primitive ages the 
traditors, (deliverers up of their Bibles to the Heathen to be destroyed,) were always es- 
teemed as bad as professed apostates. Since therefore they did so constantly, and with 
such hazards affirm this truth, what shadow of reason is there to suspect such a cloud 
of witnesses of folly, weakness, credulity, wickedness, or conspiracy among themselves, 
which such a diffused multitude was absolutely incapable of ? Nor can we suppose that 
popular esteem on earth, and vain glory, could be the ground upon which they suffered, 
since they gave up their lives for a religion, which -both utterly condemned such vanity, 
and was every where in the world at that time odious and detestable, and whose profession 
brought nothing but outward shame and contempt. 

XIII. But the doctrines and matters of fact in the Scriptures, which if true, its 
divine original will be undeniable, and not only avouched by its own votaries, but 
many most considerable parts of it acknowledged by its enemies : as appears by this 
brief induction of particulars. The creation of the world is intimated by Ovid in his 
Metamorphosis, lib. 1. The extraordinary long lives of the patriarchs in the first ages 
of the Avorld, by Manetho the Egyptian, Berosus the Chaldean, and others ; who add, 
that they were ordered to live so long that they might study sciences, and invent arts, espe- 
cially that they might observe the celestial motions, and enrich the world with the know- 
ledge of astronomy ; wherein, say they, they would have done little good, if' they had lived 
less than six hundred years, because the great year, as they call it, is so long in going about 
and coming to a period. The flood is mentioned by the same Berosus, whose words 
are recited by Josephus. lib. 1. antiq. cap. 4. Of Noah, under the notion of bifront- 
ed Janus, because he lived in both worlds, we read in Berosus and Herodotus : and 
of the ark sailing over America, and the letting forth of birds that found no dry ground, 
in Polyhistor, and others. Of the destruction of Sodom ; or the asphaltic Lake, we have 
some account in Pliny, lib. 5. cap. 16, and Justin, lib. 36. That there was such a 
man as Moses, such a people as the Israelites ; that this Moses was their Captain, and 


led them out of Egypt, wrote their story, and gave them laws, s testified by the most 
ancient records of the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Chaldeans, and Grecians. And Manetho 
speaks very particularly both of -their coming into Egypt, and departure thence. Of 
circumcision, Herodotus, Strabo, Diodorus, Siculus, and Tacitus, lib. 2. Of the coming 
of the Israelites into Canaan, Procopius, lib. 4. Of Solomon, we read in Dionysius Cas- 
sius ; of the slaughter of Sennacherib, in Herodotus, lib. 2. The great Koman Historian 
Tacitus, in his annals, speaking of the Christians being persecuted by Nero, on pre- 
tence of burning of Kome, which he set on fire himself, says expressly,* the Author of 
that name or sect was CHRIST, who, when Tiberius was emperor, was put to death 
by Pontius Pilate, the then procurator of Judea. The star that appeared at our Saviour's 
birth, is taken notice of by Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 5. But more particularly by Cal- 
cidius, an Heathen philosopher, in his comment on Plato's Timseus : whose words, 
as I find them cited by Cardinal Baronius, that learned Annalist, are these :-f- There is 
another more venerable and holy history, .which tells us of the rise of a certain unwonted 
star, riot threatening diseases and death, but the descent of the venerable god, to con- 
verse with men, and mortal affairs : which star, when certain wise men of Chaldea 
saw in their journey by night, being sufficiently acquainted with astronomy, and consider- 
ation of celestial things, they are reported to have sought out this new birth of God, and 
the majesty of this child being found, to have worshipped him, and offered gifts suitable to 
so great a God. Herod's slaughtering of the children is notorious, by that joke passed 
upon him on that occasion by the emperor Augustus, recorded by Macrobius,J when 
he heard, that amongst those children under two years old, whom Herod the king of 
the Jews had commanded to be slain in Syria, his, the said Herod's own son was slain 
also, he said, " It is better to be Herod's hog than his son ;" alluding to the Jew's abhor- 
rence of swine's flesh, which it seems Herod, though not of that nation, yet, pretend- 
ing himself a kind of proselyte, did likewise observe. Touching the preternatural de- 
fect of the sun at our Lord's crucifixion, it was with amazement seen and recorded 
by Dionysius the Areopagite. And Tertullian, in his apology, cap. 21, appeals to the 
Boman records for the certainty of it. And Origen affirms, that one Phlegon,. secre- 
tary to the emperor Adrian, did write thereof in his chronicles. "What an illustrious 
testimony is that extorted by truth from the mouth of an enemy, I mean Josephus, a 
Jew in religion, as well as by nation, though he wrote in Greek, born not above five or 
six years after Christ's passion ! In his 1 8th book, and 4th chapter, speaking of the 
reign of Tiberius, he hath these words : " In those days there was one Jesus, a wise man, 
if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a worker of great miracles, and a teacher of 
such as readily receive the truth, and had many followers, as well Jews as Gentiles. 
" This is that CHRIST, who, though he was. accused by the chief of our nation, and by 
Pilate condemned to be crucified ; yet did not they who had first loved him, forsake him ; for 
he appeared unto them the third day alive again : the holy prophets foretelling these, and 
many other wonderful things of him. And even to this day the Christian sect, so named 
from him, continues. Nor is it less clear of Lentulus, in his epistle to the emperor Ti> 
berius, recited by Eutropius, in his annals of the Boman Senators, and now commonly 
extant in the Bibliolheca Patrum. \\ He thus begins, " There hath appeared in our days, 
and yet is living, a man of great virtue, or power, named Jesus Christ, who is called of 
the nations, the prophet of truth, whom his disciples call the Son of God, a Baiser of the 
dead, and an healer of all manner of diseases." 

To all which we might add the prophecies of the sybils, amongst the Heathens, who 
most plainly foretold the coming of Christ, the Son of God, into the world, and expressed 
his very name and quality in certain acrostic verses, recited by the great Augustine, in the 
23rd chapter of the ninth book of the City of God. 

*~^iuthor iiominis ejus Clmstus; qui, Tiberio iinperante, per procuratorem Poutium Pilatum supplicio 
affectus erat. Tacit. Aimal. 1. 15. 

f Est quoque alia venerabilior and sanctior historia, qua; perhibet de ortu stellse cujusdam insolitee, non 
morbos mortesq ; denuuciante, sed descensum Dei venerabilis ad humanse conversation's, rerurnq ; rnorcalium. 
gratiarn ; Quam Stellam cum nocturne itinere suspexissent Caldoeorutn profecto sapientes riri, and considera- 
tione reruin coslestium satis exereitati, quassisse dicuniur recentein Dei ortum, repertaq; iUa majestate 
puerili, venerati esse, and vota Deo tan to conveuientia nuncupasse. Bar. Tom. I. p. 52. 

Cum audisset inter eos, quos in Syria Herodes Rex Judseorum inter Binatum jussit iuterfiei, filinm 
quoq ; ejus occisum, ait, melius est Herodis porcum esse quani filimn. Macrob. Saturnal. lib. 4. 

li Apparuit temporibus nostris, and adhuc est, homo magua; virtutis, nomiriatus Jesus Clmstus, qui di- 
citur a gentibus propheta veritatis, quein ejus discipuli vocanl filinm Dei, suscitans mortuous, and saimns 
omnes languores. 

b 2 


/* XIV. He that disowns the Bible to be of divine authority, must either think there 
/ is some revelation from God to the world, how he will be worshipped, and how they 
| ought to conduct themselves ; or he thinks there is none : if he thinks there is none, he 
Slot only gives the lie to the Christian and Jewish, but generally to all religion, that has 
been, or is in the world : for they all have pretended, and do allege the same as their 
foundation. And besides, he must confess, that God, (who has made man the noblest 
of creatures, and lord of the whole world), has left him in a worse condition, in the 
present posture we find him, than the meanest creatures, to whom he has given sufficient 
means to attain the highest end of their beings : but that infinite wisdom should deal thus, 
is absurd and unreasonable to conceive. If he grant, there is any where a revelation from 
God to the world, let it be produced, and judge if it be any way able to vie with the Scrip- 
tures, for all those glorious characters and marks of divine authority, power, and excel- 
lency, which we have enumerated. 

[ XV. If the Scriptures be neither the invention of devils nor men, then it can be 
jfrom none but God : but they are not from devils ; for neither could they work miracles, 
nor deliver true prophecies to confirm them ; nor would it consist with God's sovereignty 
over them, or with his goodness, wisdom, or faithfulness of governing the world ; nor 
would Satan speak so much for God, nor lay such a design for man's salvation, and against 
his own kingdom, nor be so industrious to draw the world to unbelief of it. Nor were 
the Scriptures the invention of men ; for they must be either good men, or bad men : 
good men they could not be ; for nothing could be more opposite to goodness, nay, even 
common honesty, than to assume the name of God falsely, feign miracles, and cheat 
people with promises of another world. And then on the other side, it is as impossible ill 
men could be the devisers of so holy a book : for can any rational man think, that wicked 
deceivers would so highly advance the glory of God ? would they so villify themselves, 
and brand and stigmatize their own practices ? Could such an admirable undeniable spirit 
of holiness, righteousness, and self-denial, as runs through every vein of Scripture, proceed 
from the invention of the wicked ? would they ever have extolled their enemies, the godly, 
and framed such perfect spiritual laws ? or laid such a design against the flesh, and all 
their worldly happiness, as everywhere the scope of the Scripture doth carry on ? If we 
cannot gather grapes of thorns, and figs of thistles, then may we be assured, that no ill 
men had an hand in writing and promoting this good and holy book. 

XVI. The divine composition of this blessed book is not a little manifested by the 
continual rage of the devil against it, which appears not only in stirring up his instru- 
ments utterly to suppress it, (for what book in the world ever met with such opposition ? as 
aforesaid), but also in those temptations with which he assaults the hearts of men, when 
they apply themselves to the serious study of it. We can read any other history, and 
readily entertain and credit it ; but when we once come to the Bible, strange objections, 
doubts, and curiosities arise, and presently we are apt to question the truth and possibility 
of every passage : these are the suggestions of Satan, to render that holy book ineffectual 
to us, the scope and purport of which he knows tends directly to the overthrow of his 
kingdom of darkness. 

Some of the most frequent objections against the Bible, are these that follow : 

Object. 1. How men, in the respective ages wherein the several parts of the Bible were 
written, could know that they were written by an infallible Spirit ; and so distinguish them 
from other writings ? 

Answ. Two ways ; First, by the quality of the persons ; and secondly, from the 
nature and quality of the matter. As for Moses, there could not be the least cause 
of doubting his being inspired by God, since he .wrought such miracles, and had a 
visible and "audible intercourse with the Lord, as we read, Exod. xix. 9, that the 
Lord said unto him, " Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, that the people may hear 
when I speak with thee, and believe thee for ever." The other parts of the Old Testa- 
ment were written by prophets, and holy men. And though several of them were 
not received and hearkened to as such, by the corrupt ruling part of the Jews, whilst 
they lived ; yet they were acknowledged afterwards, as well for the sanctity of their 
lives, and the fulfilling of those things mentioned, the judgments which they foretold 
coming to pass, and the agreeableness of what they delivered to the established wor- 
ship of God. For two ways God himself had provided, for discovering all pretences to 
Revelation: First, if any such pretender went about to seduce the people to idolatry, he 
was to be rejected. " The prophet that shall speak in the name of other gods, shall die," 


Deut. xix. 20. Secondly, if the matter came not to pass, as we have it in the next 
verse save one ; " when a prophet speaketh in the* name of the Lord, if the thing follow 
not, nor come to pass, that is the thing which the Lord hath not spoken, hut the prophet 
hath spoken it pi-esurnptuously." And a final decision, what was to be received for the 
Old Testament, God was pleased to make, after the Bahylonish captivity, in the days of 
Ezra, and that famous synagogue, several of the last prophets heing personally present, 
where by a divine direction, all the parts of the Old Testament were collected, and a sepa- 
ration made, not only between the works of true prophets and false ; and such writings as 
came by divine inspiration, from those that were of divine extraction ; and such as were 
to be a perpetual rule to the Church, from such as relating only to particular cases, were 
not so. And in this settlement the Jewish Church did acquiesce, and from that time to 
this have had no further disputes, but received those very books, and none others, for 
those called Apocrypha, which the papists would obtrude upon us, were never received as 
canonical by the Jews. Then as for the books of the New Testament, they were all writ- 
ten either by apostles, or apostolical men, known by their being called to that office, and 
the gift of tongues, and power of working miracles, to be guided by the Holy Ghost. And 
as the writing of the Old Testament ended with the prophets, (for after Malachi, to the 
time of John the Baptist, which was near four hundred years, there arose not a prophet in 
Israel ;) so the New Testament begins with the accomplishment of Malachi's prophecy, by 
the birth of the said John, predicted under the type of Elias, and ends with the 
apostles, for John, who wrote the Revelation, outlived all the rest of the apostles, for he died 
not till the time of Trajan, in the ( J9th year of "our Lord, and almost thirty years after 
the destruction of Jerusalem, and he closes the canon of the New Testament with a denun- 
ciation of a curse " to any that should add thereunto," Rev. xxii. 18. 

Objec. 2. But how are we sure that we have now at this day all the books that were 
anciently esteemed canonical ? it seems not : for there is mention made of Solomon's three 
thousand parables or proverbs, and songs an hundred and five, 1 Kings iv. 32 ; of Nathan 
the prophet, and of Gad the seer, 2 Chron. xxix. 29 ; the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, 
and the visions of Iddo the seer, 2 Chron. ix. And in the New Testament, of the epistle 
to the Laodiceans, Col. iv. 16. Now where are any of these extant ? 

Ans. Those books mentioned in the Old Testament, were either books of a common 
nature, and not divinely inspired : or else they are yet extant under another name : for 
how do we know, but the books called Samuel might be written partly by himself, whilst 
he lived, and partly by Gad and Nathan, after his death? And for the other writings of 
Nathan, Ahijah, and Iddo, they may very probably be the same that we call the books of 
the kings. And for that epistle to the Laodiceans the original is, &t AaoSiKems, [from] not 
[to] as some transactions would have it, Laodicea : and it is probable it was some letter 
written from the Laodiceans to Paul, wherein there, might be something that concerned 
the Colossians, and therefore the apostle advised them to read it. 

But the Papists say, that the very fountains, the Hebrew and Greek originals themselves, 
are corrupted, depraved, and troubled ; and if so, how shall we be at any certainty ? 

Ans. It is true, they do say so, but most falsely and wickedly, only to the dishonour 
of the Word of God, to make way for their own traditions, and the authority of their 
church ; though by this suggestion they blaspheme the providence of God, and also 
lay an insufferable scandal on the Church ; for if the Scriptures were committed to her 
charge, and she hath suffered any part of them to be either lost or corrupted, has she 
not grossly abused her trust ? But they are not able to give one instance where any 
such corruption has happened. As for the Old Testament, it is well enough known how 
strictly careful the Jews were, and are to this day, to preserve it, insomuch that they 
took an account how oft every letter in the alphabet was used in every book thereof. 
And Philo the Jew, an ancient, learned, and approved author of that nation, af- 
firms, " That from the giving of the law to his time, which was above two thousand 
years, there was not so much as one word changed or varied ; yea, that there was 
not any Jew, but would rather die a thousand times over, than suffer their law to be 
changed in the least." And Arius Montanus, a person extremely skilled in the Hebrew, 
in his preface to the interlineary Bible, assures us, that as in these Hebrew Bibles which 
are without vowels, we find a certain constant agreement of all the manuscripts and prints, 
and a like writing in each : so in all those too that have the points added, we have not ob- 
served the least variation or difference of pointing : nor is there any man can affirm, that 
he ever in any place saw different exemplars of the Hebrew text. And indeed had the 


Jews ever corrupted any part of it, no doubt they would have done it in those texts that 
plainly refer to our Saviour ; and had any Christians done it, the Jews would soon have 
discovered the forgery. But neither of these things have happened, therefore to say the 
same is any way corrupted, is false. And for the New Testament, it is true, there have 
in ancient manuscripts some various readings been observed, but not such as to cause any 
dispute touching the sum or substance of the doctrine therein delivered, or considerably to 
alter the sense of the text. 

Obj. 4. But suppose the originals be pure, how shall the unlearned, who are the far 
greater part of mankind, be sure that the translations they have, and can only make use 
of, are well and honestly done, and do contain the word of God ? 

Answ. The Word of God is the doctrine and revelation of God's will, the sense and 
meaning, not barely or strictly the words, letters, and syllables. This is contained exactly 
and most purely in the originals, and in all translations, so far as they agree therewith. 
Now though some translations may exceed others in propriety, and significant rendering, 
the originals ; yet they generally, (even the most imperfect that we know of,) express and 
hold forth so much of the mind, will, and counsel of God, as is sufficient, by the blessing of 
God upon a conscientious reading thereof, to acquaint a man with the mysteries of salvation, 
to work in a true faith, and bring him to live godly, righteously, and soberly in this present 
world, and to salvation in the next. The translators generally, as they have been men of. 
learning, so likewise have they been honest, and for the most part godly men. and therefore 
would not, for their own honour's sake, and much more for conscience sake, abuse the 
world with any wilful false versions, to lead souls into error, in a matter of that im- 
portance : Or, if some should have been so wicked, others as learned, and of better prin- 
ciples, would soon have discovered the imposture. Now if we consider how many men of 
different persuasions, have translated the Bible, and harmoniously agree in all things of 
moment, is it possible to imagine they should all combine, so impertinently, as well as 
wickedly, to put a fallacy on mankind, which every one, that has but bestowed a very few 
years in the study of the languages, can presently detect ? 

Obj. 5. How can we think the whole Bible to be of divine inspiration, when some 
parts of it contradict others ? The divine Spirit cannot be contrary to itself; yet is there 
any thing more opposite than the two evangelists, in reckoning up our Saviour's genealogy? 
St. Matthew, chap. i. 16, says, " Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary ;" and St. Luke 
chap. iii. 23, says, " Joseph the son of Eli." 

Answ. The seeming contradictions of Scripture, for they are really no more, are an 
argument, that in the writing of this book there was no corrupt design or confederacy to 
engage the opinions of men ; and upon a due scrutiny, there will appear in them a deep 
and unthought-of concord, and an unanimous tendency towards the great end of the whole. 
It is our inadvertency, or shallow apprehension, makes us think the Scripture is at variance 
with itself. In the two texts cited, a natural father is one thing, a legal father another ; 
for you must know, that Joseph and Mary were both of one house and family ; he de- 
scended from David by Solomon, she by Nathan, but in the posterity of Zerobabel they 
were divided into two several families, whereof one was the royal race, and that lineage 
Joseph was of, which Matthew follows : the other family Luke follows, whereof Mary was, 
whom Joseph marries, and by that means is called the son of her father Eli. So that here 
is no contradiction, but on the contrary, an excellent discovery of our Saviour's line drawn 
down on both sides, whereby it appears, that as he was Joseph's reputed Son, so he had a 
title to be King of the Jews : and as he was born of Mary, so likewise on her side he 
descended from David, as was promised of the Messias. But for reconciling all such seem- 
ing contradictions, see Mr. S treat's book, entitled, " The dividing of the hoof," a very 
useful piece, and worthy perusal. 

I have but one argument more to add, from a very learned author, and then I shall 
close up all with the testimony of the reverend and learned Mr. John Calvin. 

XY1I. And now it may not be amiss to add one thing more, which I could not 

pass by, i. e., notwithstanding the great force and strength of external arguments 

and motives .to evince the divine authority of the holy Scripture : yet it is absolutely 

I necessary, to the stability and assurance of our faith, in order to eternal life, to have 

| the internal testimony of the Holy Spirit upon our hearts, or the effectual operations 

j thereof ; for if he does no otherwise work in and upon our hearts, but by the common 

communication of spiritual light into our minds, enabling us to discern the evidences 

that are in the Scripture of its own divine original, we should be often shaken in our 


assent, and moved from our stability. Therefore considering the great darkness and 
blindness which remains upon the minds of men, all things believed having some 
sort of obscurity attending . them, besides the manifold temptations of Satan, who 
strives to disturb our peace, and weaken our faith, and cause doubtings : happy are 
such who can experience the powerful establishment and assurance of the Holy Ghost, 
who gives them a spiritual sense of the power and reality of those things believed, 
whereby their faith is greatly confirmed. This is that which brings us unto the riches 
of the full assurance of understanding, Col. ii. 2, 1 Thess. i. 5, and on the account 
of this spiritual experience is our perception of spiritual things, so often expressed 
by acts of sense, as tasting, seeing, feeling, &c., which are the greatest evidences of 
the property of things natural. It is the Holy Spirit that assists, helps, and relieves 
us against temptations that may arise in us, so that they shall not be prevalent. And 
indeed without this, our first prime assent unto the divine authority of the Scriptures 
will not secure us ; but the influence and assistance of the Spirit in the midst of 
dangers, so strengthens the sincere Christian, that it makes him stand as firm as a 
rock, who has no skill to defend the truth by force of arguments, against those 
subtle and sophistical artificers, who on all occasions strive to insinuate objections 
against it, from its obscurity, imperfection, want of order, difficulties, and seeming 
contradictions contained therein, &c. Moreover, there are other special and gracious 
actings of the Holy Ghost on the minds of believers, which belong also to this internal 
testimony, whereby their faith is established, viz., his anointing and sealing of them, his 
witnessing with them, and his being an earnest in them. Wherefore although no 
internal work of the Spirit can be the formal reason of our faith, or that 
which it is resolved into ; yet it is such, as without it we can . never sincerely believe as 
we ought, nor be established in believing, against the temptation of. the devil, and objec- 
tions of evil men. 

" It hath been already declared, (saith Dr. Owen,) that it is the authority and veracity 
of God, revealing themselves in the Scripture, and by it, that is, the formal reason of our 
faith, or supernatural assent unto it, as it is the word- of God. 

" It remains only that we enquire, in the second place, into the way and means whereby 
they evidence themselves unto us, and the Scriptures thereby to be of God, so as that 
we may undoubtedly and infallibly believe them so to be. Now because faith, as we have 
showed, is an assent upon testimony ; and consequently, divine faith is an assent upon 
divine testimony ; there must be some testimony or witness in this case, whereon faith 
doth rest : and this, we say, is the testimony of the Holy Ghost, the Author of the Scrip- 
tures. And this work and testimony of the Spirit may be reduced into two heads, &c. 

"The impressions or characters, which .are subjectively left in the Scripture, and 
upon it, by the Holy Ghost its Author, of all the divine excellencies or properties of the 
divine nature, are the first means evidencing that testimony of the Spirit which our faith 
rests upon, or they give the first evidence of its divine original, whereon we do believe it. 
The way whereby we learn the eternal power and deity of God from the works of creation, 
is no otherwise, but by those marks, tokens, and impressions of his divine power, wisdom, 
and goodness that are upon them ; for from the consideration of their subsistence, great- 
ness, order, and use, reason doth necessarily conclude an infinite subsisting Being, of whose 
power and wisdom these things are the manifest effects : these are clearly seen and under- 
stood by the things that are made, so that we need no other arguments to prove that God 
made the world, but itself, &c., Psal. civ. 

" .Now there are greater and more evident impressions of divine excellencies left on 
the written word, from the infinite wisdom of the Author of it, than any that are commu- 
nicated unto the works of God in the creation of the world. Hence David comparing the 
works and word of God, as to their instructive efficacy, doth prefer the word incompara- 
bly before them, Psal. xix. 1 10. And these do manifest the word to our faith to be 
his, more clearly than the other do the works to be his, to our reason, &c. God, as the 
immediate Author of the Scriptures hath' left in the very Word itself evident tokens and im- 
pressions of his wisdom, prescience, omniscience, power, goodness, holiness, truth, and other 
divine infinite excellencies, sufficiently evidenced unto the enlightened minds of believers, &c." 
.:,,, _ This is that whereon we believe the Scriptures to be the word of God, with a faith 
k divine and supernatural. And this evidence is manifest unto the meanest and most un- 
learned, no less than unto the wisest philosophers ; and the truth is, if rational arguments 
and external motives were the sole ground of receiving the Scripture to be the word of 


God, it could not be but the learned men and philosophers would always have been the 
forwardest and most ready to admit it, and most firmly to adhere unto it ; because such 
arguments do prevail on the minds of men, according as they are able aright to discern 
their force, and judge of them. But how apparent the contrary is, is evident ; ". You see 
your calling, brethren ; not many wise men after the flesh," &c., 1 Cor. i. 26. 

" 2. The Spirit of God evidenceth the divine original and authority of the Scripture, by 
the power and authority which he puts forth in it and by it, over the minds and con- 
sciences of men, with its operation of divine effects thereon. This the apostle expressly 
affirms to be the reason and cause of faith," 1 Cor. xiv. 24, 25, " And thus are the secrets 
of his heart made manifest," &c. It was not the force of external arguments, it was not 
the testimony of this or that Church, nor was it the use of miracles, that wrought upon 
them, ver. 23, 24. "Wherefore the only evidence whereon they received the Word, and 
acknowledged it to be of God, was that divine power and efficacy in themselves. " He 
is convinced of all, and thus the secrets of his heart are made manifest," &c. He cannot 
deny but there is a divine efficacy in it, or accompanying of it. And thus the woman of 
Samaria was convinced of the truth of Christ's words, and believed in him, i. e., because 
" He told her all things that ever she did," John iv. 29, 1 John v. 10. The Word of 
God is, as all sincere souls find, quick and powerful, &c., so that " He that believeth, hath 
the witness in himself," John vii. 16, 17. " Jesus answered them, and said, my doctrine 
is not mine, but his that sent me. If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doc- 
trine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself." 

" In a word, let it be granted, that all who are really converted unto God, by the 
power of the "Word, have that infallible evidence and testimony of its divine original, 
authority, and power in their own souls and consciences, that they thereon believe it 
with faith divine and supernatural, in conjunction with the other evidences before men- 
tioned, and largely demonstrated, as parts of the same divine testimony ; and it is all I 
aim at herein." 

This testimony, though it is not common unto all, noi can it convince another, yet is it 
very forcible to those who experience the virtue and efficacy thereof, which we, having 
in another place more largely opened, we shall conclude this last argument, entreating all 
to labour after a taste of its divine, powerful, and soul-changing operations, and then they 
will need no further arguments to prove it is of God. 

We shall therefore conclude this brief discourse on this subject, with those excellent 
words of a learned man upon the same occasion : " Let this remain and be re- 
ceived as an established truth, that those whom the Spirit hath inwardly taught, do 
solidly acquiesce in the Scripture ; and that the same is (aimnrts-oy) self-credible, or for 
its own sake worthy of belief, and that it obtains that certainty which it justly deserves 
with us, by the testimony of the Spirit. For though its own majesty does of itself 
conciliate a reverence, yet then only does it seriously affect us, when by the Spirit it is 
sealed in and upon our hearts. With whose truth being enlightened, we no longer believe 
that the Scripture is from God by our own judgment, or that of other men, but most 
certainly above all human judgments, we are assured thereof no otherwise, than as if 
there we beheld the very voice of God by the ministry of men, flowing from the mouth 
of God to us. No longer do we then seek for arguments, and probable proofs, whereon 
our judgments may rely, but subject our judgment and understanding thereunto, as to a 
matter already out of all doubt or debate ; yet not so, as wretched men are wont to addict 
their captive minds to superstitions, but because we find and feel the undoubted power of 
God there to breathe and flourish ; to obey which, we are drawn and inflamed, knowingly 
and willingly, but more lively and efficaciously/than either human ivill or knowledge could 
affect us. It is therefore such a persuasion as does not require reasons, (and yet it does 
not want them neither) such a knowledge, to which the best reason appears and agrees, 
as being such as therein the mind can acquiesce more securely and constantly, than in any 
reasons. It is, in fine, such a sense, such a taste, as can proceed from nothing, but a re- 
velation divine. Nor do I speak any thing but what every true believer can bear witness 
to from his own experience, save only that words are too short and unable to express a 
just explication of the thing." Calv. Instit. lib. 2. 







SCRIPTURE RHETORIC, or SACRED ELOCUTION, may he reduced to two principal heads or 

1. The first of Tropes. 

2. The second of Figures. 

First, Tropes ; which concern the sense of words, viz. " When they are drawn from 
their proper and genuine signification to that which is different or contrary ; which 
the Etymology of the word shows ; for rpovos is derived from rpewca signifying, verto, 
muto, to turn or change. 

Second, Figures ; which the Greeks call xw*, signifying the habit or ornament of 
speech, do not alter or vary the sense of words, but embellish, beautify, or adorn 

Of the first we will treat under two heads : 

1. The kinds 

2. The affections 

The kinds of tropes are four, viz., Metonymy, Irony, Metaphor, and Synecdoche, which 
order depends upon logical topics, from whence Tropes are deduced, as # 

1. Metonymy, from Causes and Effects. 

(2.) From Subjects and Adjuncts. 

2. Irony, from Contraries. 

3. Metaphor., from Comparates. 

4. Synecdoche, from the distribution of the Whole into its parts. 

;ff (2.) Of the Genus* into its Species.^ 


| -~ _ 

s| Genus est quod de plurilus differ entibus effentialiter pr&dicatur in quid, non conversim, ut animal 

'$ genus est hondnis. 

| i Species est pars generi suljecta, ut homo est species animalis, eiSos ecrrt TO Ta.rroyi.evoe viro TOV yevovs, 

|S i- e. Species est yhcs collocatitr su& genere ab eiSco, video. 


Genus is a more general title, which comprehends some things more special under it, 
as Substance, which comprehends : 1. Living creatures. 2. Metals. 3. Elements, &c. 

Species is a more special title, attributed to diverse particulars under it, as a Man, to 
John, Peter, James, or any other individual. 
The Affections of tropes, are three. 


1. Catachresis. 

2. Hyperbole. 

3. Allegory. 

Of which there are certain Species, as, 

1. Parcemia, or & Proverb, and 

2. ^Enigma. 

Of these, with God's help, we shall treat in order. 



A Metonymy* is a trope when a cause is put for the effect, or the effect for the cause, 
the Subject for the Adjunct, or the Adjunct for the Subject. 

There are four kinds of Metonymies, answering to the four kinds of causes, viz. 

1. Efficient. 

2. Material. 

3. Formal. 

4. Final. 

A Metonymy of the- Cause is used in scripture, when, 

1. The person acting is put for the thing done. 

2. When the instrument by which a thing is done, is put for the thing effected. 

3. When a thing or action is put for the e^ectf produced by that action, of which 
in order. 

1. The Person acting for the Thing acted or effected. 

1. THE HOLY SPIRIT is put for his effects and operations, as 2 Cor. iii. 6, " Who bath 
made us able ministers of the New Testament, not of the letter, but of the 
Spirit, for the letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life." Where by the term 
letter, we are to understand the law written in tables of stone, which required perfect 
obedience, and which no man can perform because of corruption, therefore that law 
can pronounce nothing but a sentence of death : but by Spirit is meant the saving doc- 
trine of the gospel, which derives its original from the Spirit (considered as a most mer- 
ciful Comforter) who sets it home upon the soul, fitting and preparing it thereby for eter- 
nal life ; suitable to John vi. 63. " The words that I speak are spirit and life ; that is, 
they are from the Spirit of God, and being received by faith confer salvation, through 
the grace of God, Rom. viii. 2. " By the law of the Spirit of life," as Illyricus saysf is 
meant the doctrine of the gospel, because it is a peculiar instrument or means of its opera- 
tion, which, by a divine efficacy, changes the heart, and writes his law there, which now 
is not only inscribed in tables or parchments, but penetrates the inward parts, quickening 

* Meroyvpta, ttansnominatio, a change of names or transmutatio, Slve nominisjpro nomine prositio ex 
pera, trans and ovvjict, JEolice pro avo^a. Nomen, "c. 
t Parti. Column "H62. 


the soul to spiritual motions and actions. See Gal. iii. 2, 5, Isa. xi. 4, 2 Thess. ii. 8, Isa. 
xlii. 1, and Ixi. 1, 2, Jphn iii. 34, &c. 

2. 7%e &% Spirit is put for regeneration, Psal. li. 10, "Renew a right spirit 
within me." Ezek. xxxvi. 26, " A new spirit will I put within you." Hence the apostle says, 
"Be ye renewed in the spirit," &c., Eph. iv. 23, Which is expounded, Rom. xii. 2, " Be not 
conformed to this world, but he ye transformed hy the renewing of your mind," &c. Hence 
arises an opposition of flesh and spirit, John iii. 6, " That which is born of the flesh is 
flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit," where* by flesh is meant man de- 
nied by sin, and by Spirit the grace of renovation, or (which is the same thing) the 
regenerate man. The Apostle (1 Thess. v. 19,) exhorts " not to quench the Spirit," that is 
the gifts of the Spirit, as Illumination, and Eenovation, suitable to 2 Tim. i. 6, fC- 
irupew ro xf>" r f ta eov, suscitare instar ignis, Donum Dei ;) stir up, as fire or coals "are 
stirred up, for so the word ava&xvpeiv signifies, " the gift of God which is in thee." For 
true faith and godliness may be likened to a little flame kindled by the Spirit in the hearts 
of believers, which the devil and carnal corruptions endeavour to smother, but is to be 
cherished and stirred up as fire is by more fuel ; this feeding and quickening fuel is the 
word of God ; in this sense the soul is distinguished from the spirit in man : for spirit de- 
notes a divine power and energy in a regenerate and sanctified soul, by which it is carried 
to and united with God, as Luke i. 46, 47, " My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my 
spirit rejoiced in God my Saviour," expounded, 1 Thess. y. 23, " The very God of peace 
sanctify you wholly ; and I pray God your whole spirit, and soul, and body, be preserved 
blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ :" for other places where the Spirit is 
put for the new man, and spiritual strength, see Psal. li. 17, Isa. xxvi. 9, Ezek. xviii. 31, 
Matt. v. 3, and xxvi. 41, Acts xvii. 16, and xix. 21, and xx. 22, Rom. i. 9, 1 Cor. v. 3, 
4, 5, and vi. 20, Gal. iii. 8, &c. 

More especially the Spirit is put for those peculiar or extraordinary gifts of the Spirit, 
which for various uses, whether public or private, spiritual or external, are bestowed on 
man, as Numb. xi. 17, "I will take off (or separate part of, for so the Hebrew is) the 
spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them," (viz., the seventy Elders, who, 
as verse 25 thereupon, " prophesied and did not cease,) upon which Vatablus says, " The 
" Lord so abstracted from the spirit of Moses, that he took away nothing, as one candle 
" (which Rab. Salomon calls a most elegant similitude) lights several, yet loses nothing of 
" its original light." To this may the request of Elisha be referred, 2 Kings ii. 9, " I 
pray thee let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me," where thereis an evident allusion 
to the right of primogeniture, or first-born, Deut. xxi. 17, where the first-born was to 
have a double portion, &c. ; as if Elisha had said, " I am your first disciple, received into 
your school, therefore ask of God a greater measure of spirit for me, than any one of your 
disciples." " Daniel had a more excellent spirit," (Dan. v. 12, with vi. 3, for so the 
Hebrew text runs) and more knowledge and understanding, &e., than the presidents and 
princes, that is, more excellent and higher gifts of the Spirit, see Luke i. 17, 80, and.ii. 
40, Acts xix. 2, John vii. 39, Acts i. 5. 
pi To this may be referred, what is spoken of revelations, visions, or ecstacies, whether 
if| real or pretended, as Ezek. xxxvii. 1, " The hand of the Lord carried me out in the Spirit 
?||| of the Lord ;" that is, by a vision, or rapture of spirit, so 2 Thess. ii. 2, " That ye be not 
||| shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter, as from us," 
pi &c., that is, by revelations, which are pretended to come from the Spirit,' so Rev. i. 10, 
llf! " I was in the Spirit, that is, in an ecstacy or immediate revelation of the Spirit," as 2 
f|i Cor. xii. 2, Rev. iv. 2, &c., and xvii. 3, and xxi. 10, is described. 

j;$$ The Spirit is also put for doctrines revealed from heaven, whether a\n6cas truly, 
5|| or 8oa<rriKeus by vain boasting so pretended, as 1 Cor. xiv. 32, " The spirits of the prophets 
^f|j are subject to the prophets," that is, the doctrine, or scripture interpretation proposed by 
8| some prophets, are subject to the judgment of the rest; for it would favour of haughti- 
||| ness, ambition, and disdain for any individual to usurp an infallibility, and reject the 
!;i| judgment of the brethren, as verse 29, " Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the 
; | other judge. If any thing be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace, 

loco vox Spiritus denotat ipsum spiritum sanctum, gratiose per ver&um et baptismum oper- 
7 anlem ; posteriori loco spiritus sancti sveprrjjua salutare intelligitur. 

;1 ' ' ' B 2 


1 John iv. 1. We are thus exhorted, " Believe not every spirit, but try the spirits," &c. 
The marks of what are given, verses the second and third, &c. Here it is evident that the 
Spirit is put for doctrine, whether really revealed or pretended to be so. And by seducing 
spirits, 1 Tim. iv. 1, are meant false teachers, that pretend their doctrine to be from God's 
Spirit, but is indeed of the devil. 

Parents or ancestors are put for their .children, or posterity, as Gen. ix. 27, 
Japhet and Shem, Jacob and Israel, for the Israelites, Exod. v. 2, Numb, xxiii. 21, and 
xxiv. 5, 17, Deut. xxxiii. 28, &c. Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, of whom according to the flesh, 
Christ came, are put for Christ, Gen. xii. 3. " Inthee, [which the Chaldee translates "for 
thee," and the Targ. Jerusal. "In thy righteousness or holiness"! shall all the families of 
the earth be blessed." And Gen. xviii. 18, " All the nations of the earth shall be blessed in 
him," which is meant of his seed,* as Gen. xxii. 18 ; which seed is Christ, who took on 
him the seed of Abraham, Heb. ii, 16 ; " through whom the blessing of Abraham is come on 
the Gentiles," Gal. iii. 14. 

The writer or author is put for his writing, look, or work, Luke xvi. 29, 31, " They 
have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them ;" that is, they have what Moses and the 
prophets by inspiration from God have written, and delivered to posterity for the canon 
and rule of faith.. So Luke xxiv. 27, Acts xv. 21, and xxi. 21, 2 Cor. iii. 15, " But even 
unto this day when Moses is read," that is, the Mosaical writings, &c. 

The soul, the noblest part of man is put for life, which is its effect, Gen. ix. 5. What 
we translate blood of your lives is in the Hebrew "blood of your souls;" and Gen. 
xxxvii. 2, Reuben said, " Let us not kill him," the Hebrew says, " Let us not smite him 
in the soul;" so Lev. xvii. 11, life of the flesh, in the Hebrew is " soul of the flesh;" see 
Psal. Ivi. 13, 14, 15, Jer. xl. 14. 

1. This term is sometimes put for the whole person of man, consisting of soul and 
body, Gen. xlvi. 27, Acts xxvii. 37 ; *" * ir^oiu ai irturai uxat, " All the souls in the ship." 
(2.) For the body only, Psal. cv. 18, "Iron enter into his soul," we translate it, " He was laid 
in iron," that is, the iron fetters made dints in his flesh. (3.) It is put for life (as, be- 
fore) Psal. xciv. 21, and vii. 1, 2, 5. (4.) It is put for a carcase, Lev. xix. 28, " Ye 
shall not make any cutting in your flesh for the dead," the Hebrew is, " for the soul ;" and 
so it is taken, Lev. xxi. 1, and Hag. ii. 4. (5.) It is put for the rational soul, Psal. xix. 
7, Deut. xi. 18, &c. 

2. The soul is put for the will, affections, and desires, which are operations of the 
soul, as Gen. xxiii. 8, " If it be your mind," in the Hebrew it is " with your soul," as Psal. 
xxvii. 12, and xli. 3, and cv. 22. The Septuagint translates it, " If ye have in your soul," the 
Chaldee, " if it be the pleasure of your soul." So Exod. xxiii. 9, "Ye know the heart 
.of a stranger," Heb. the " soul of a stranger," that is, his mind or affection. See Deut. 
xxiii. 24, 1 Kings xix. 3, 2 Kings vii. 7, Psal. xvii. 10, and xxvii. 12, and xli. 3, Prov. 
xxiii. 2, Jer. xxxiv. 16, John xx. i>4, EWS irore TOV yvx-nv nii.uv aipeis, "how long dost thou 
hold our soul in suspense ?" That is, as our translation hath it, " how long dost thou 
make us to doubt ?" 

It may be referred hither, when the Spirit, which is often put for man's soul, is used 
to express the motions or affections of the soul, whether good or evil, as Gen. xlv. 27, 
ft The spirit of Jacob their father revived;" Numb. xiv. 24, " My servant Caleb had 
another spirit ;" Judg. viii. 3, " Their anger was abated," it is in the Hebrew " their 
spirit was abated ;" 2 Chron. xxi. 16, " The Lord stirred up the spirit of the Philistines," 
&c. ; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 22, " The Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus," &c., see Psal. Ixxvi. 
13, and Ixxvii. 4, Prov. i. 23, andj xviii. 4, and xxix. 11, Eccl. vii. 9, Isa. xxix. 10,' and 
xxxvii. 7, Jer. Ii. 11, Ezek. xiii. '6, Dan. v. 20, Hagg. i. 14, Hab. i. 11, Rom. xi. 8, 1 
Cor. ii. 12, &c., " God hath given the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, 
.and ears that they should not hear." " Now you have received, not the spirit of the 
world, but the spirit which is of God," &c. 

* In tc aud in ferulae tuo, Copulativa (et) idem est ac, id est, &c. 


2. The Organical Cause or Instrument is put for the Thing effected by it. 

The mouth is put for speech, or testimony, as Deut. xvii. 6,' " At the mouth of two 
lor three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death he put to death, hut at the mouth 
I of one witness, he shall not be put to death," that is, by the witness or testimony of two 
for three* &c., so Deut. six. 15, " One witness shall not arise against a man for any irii- 
Iquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth : at the mouth of two witnesses or at the 
I mouth of three- witnesses " shall the matter be established" which is expounded, Matt. 
1 xviii. 16, and John viii. 17. 

2. The mouth is put for a command or prescription, Gen. xlv. 21, " And Joseph 
gave them waggons according to the mouth of Pharaoh," &c., that is, as we translate it, 
according to the commandment of Pharaoh, Exod. xvii. 1, " And the children of Israel 
journeyed according to the mouth, that is, the commandment of the Lord." So Num. iii. 

16, 39, and xx. 24, and xvii. 14, Deut. i. 26, 43, and xxxiv. 5, " So Moses the servant 
of the Lord, died there in the land of Moab, according to the mouth of the Lord," that is, 
according to the word of the Lord. Upon which, Sanctius says in his comment on Isa. 
xlix, " Therefore they do not rightly judge, who from the Hebrew reading say, that Moses 
died in the kiss of the Lord : for that tradition is not from the Hebrew text, but from the 
Targum, which is attributed to Jonath. Uziel, who renders vte, at the mouth of the Lord, 
ad oscutum verbi domini, that is, according to the kiss of the mouth of the Lord. But 
what is spoken of the mouth of the Lord, is better to be referred to the Trope Anthropo- 
pathia, of which we shall hear hereafter. 

The tongue is put for speech, Prov. xxv. 15, "A soft tongue breaketh the bones," 
that is, a mild, civil, and courteous speech so Jer. xviii. 18,* " Let us smite him for that 
tongue," STorta, that is, for his importunate, unseasonable, and odious speech. But more 
especially for the idiom or particular language of nations. Acts ii. 4, 11, "And they 
were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit 
gave them, utterance. Cretes and Arabians do we hear them speak in our tongues the 
great things or (wonderful works) of God." It is also put for the gift of strange languages. 
" In my name shall they cast out devils, they shall speak with new tongues," Mark xvi. 

17, and 1 Cor. xiv. 19, " Yet in the church I had rather speak five words with my under- 
standing, that by my voice I might teach others also, than ten thousand words hi an un- 
known tongue." That is, in a language which the people understand not, &c. 

The Up is put for speech, Gen. xi. 1, " And the whole earth was of one lip, and of one 
| word," that is, of one language, and of one speech, or idiom of speaking ; the Chaldee 
I says of one tongue, and one speech. That the Hebrew language is meant here, 
I (which in Isa. xix. 18, is called the lip of Canaan, we translate it language by the 

same trope : and which by the Targ. Jerusal and R. Salomon, upon the place is 
|i called the holy tongue) is showed elsewhere. Neither was Hebrew the peculiar name 
f of ^ that language in those times, because there was no need of a term of distinction, there 
i being no other speech in the world, till after the confusion of tongues, and scattering of the 

people at Babel. 

_Prov. xvii. 7, " A lip of excellency does not become a fool, much less a lip of lying, a 
prince ; that is, a worthy and excellent speech does not become, or is not to be expected 
m a fool, much less should a noble or brave mind tell lies. 

"^ sa : xxx iii- 19, " A people of a deeper lip," so the Hebrew, " thanthou canst perceive," 
t * s > suc h as speak so obscurely, that you cannot understand them ; as Pagniuus ren- 
ers fr- See Prov. xii. 19. " The lip of truth shall be established for ever, but a lying 
tongue is but for a moment." Job xii. 20, " He removeth away the lip of the faithful," 
,. ff c., so it is in the Hebrew. 

t| fercutiamus earn propter istam Liny/iam, hoc est, sermonem ilium importunwn et nulls odiosum. 
;-j| So some translate this passage, and so it is ia the margin of our Bibles. 


The palate is put for speech, Prov. v. 2, " For the lips of a strange woman drop as a 
honey-comb," " and her palate,*' so the Hebrew, "is smoother than oil;" that is, her 
words or speech. 

The throat is put also for loud speaking, Isa. Iviii. 1, " Cry with the throat," so the 
Hebrew, " spare not," &c., by which the organ of crying or speaking is to be understood, 
for the explication follows, viz, " lift up thy voice like a trumpet ;" and what the scope or 
argument of that loud speech, or shrill cry, was to be, is added in these words, " and show 
my people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins." 

The hand is put for actions done by it, where there is also a Synecdoche, for by the 
actions of the hands, some other things, as also principles or beginnings of actions, are un- 
derstood, as counsel, machination, or contrivance ; thought, endeavours, care, &c., as 1 
Sam. xxii. 17, " Slay the priests of the Lord, for their hand is also with David," that is, 
they help him with their counsel, so 2 Sam. iii. 12, and xiv. 19, 1 Kings x. 29, Psal. vii. 
4, Isa. i. 15. 

The hand is put for writing, 1 Cor. xvi. 21, " The salutation of me, Paul, with mine 
own hand," that is, mine own writing, and Col. iv. 18, " The salutation by the hand" 
(that is, the writing) " of me," Paul. This is ordinary, (viz., for a man's, writing to be 
called his hand) among the Greeks as Pollux and Suidas say, and among the Latins, see 
Cicero lib. vii. Epist, ad Attic, as also in our own language. 

The hand is put for a gift reached by the hand, Psal. Ixviii. 32, " Ethiopia shall mate 
her hands run to God," so the Hebrew, that is, Ethiopia shall speedily transmit her gifts; 
as Psal. Ixxii. 10, Isa. Ix. 6, to which relates that of Pliny* the ancient Greeks called 
Doron the palm or fist, and therefore they called the hand gifts, that word so signifying, 
because they were given thereby. See Psal. xxii. 35, 36. And more under the head or 
title Metaphors. 

A sword is put for war or slaughter, which are in a great measure performed thereby. 
Exod. v. 3, " Let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert, and sacrifice 
unto the Lord our God. lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword." Levit. 
xxvi. 6, " Neither shall the sword go through your land," so Isa. i. 20, Jer. xxiv. 12, 13, 
15, 16, and xliii. 11, Psal. cxliv. 10, Rom. viii. 35, and several other places. It is said, 
Matt. x. 34, " I came not to send peace, but a sword " that is, no such peace as that 
men will rest contented and quiet in Paganism, or irreligion, but contend earnestly for the 
true religion in their confessions and preaching of the Gospel, even through sufferings, per- 
secution, and blood, &c. 

A line, or tan measuring rope, is put for a country, or tract of land, because it was mea- 
sured by it, as Amos vii. 17, Micah ii. 5, Zech. ii. 1. For it was a custom to measure 
land by an extended cord, and distribute inheritances, as in Palestine, which is done in 
modern times by a rod or perch, therefore the word tan, a cord, rope, or line, is put for 
the bounds, space or quantity of the portion of land given, Deut. iii. 4, " All the line of 
Argob,-j- the kingdom of Og in Bashan." The Chaldee says, all the house or place of the 
province, &c., see Joshua xvii. 14, Psal. cv. 10, 11, Zeph. ii. 5, &c. 

Sometimes it is also a Metaphor, Deut. xxii. 9, " For the Lord's portion is his people, 
Jacob is the cord of his inheritance," that is, a people peculiar to himself, and separated 
or divided from, the world, see Psal. xvi. 6, " The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant 
places, yea, I have a goodly heritage." Our Saviour, who is here speaking by the pro- 
phet, uses this metaphor to express the figure or delineation of the church, &c. Hence 
it is said, 2 Cor. x. 15, 16, " Not boasting of things without our measure, that is, of other 
men's labours ; but having hope, when your faith is increased, that we shall be enlarged by 
you according to our rule abundantly to preach the Gospel in the regions beyond you, and 
not to boast in another man's line or rule of things made ready to our hand," where KO.VWV 

* Lib. 35. cap. 14. Greed Anliqui doron palmam vocabant,'etideo DoraMunera, gitia, Manu darentur. 
t So it is in the Hebrew. 



, a rule, signifies that space measured by it, as if God had divided the world 
among' the apostles, that they should preach in their particular and respective precincts or 
allotted places. 

Money is put for property or estate purchased by money, Exod. xxi. 21, " For he is 
his money," that is, he purchased or bought him with his money, and is to him as good as 


3. A Thing or Action is put for the Effect produced by that Thing or Action. 

This kind of Metonymy is to be found distinctly in nouns and verbs, of which we 
are 1 to note, that some are referred hither, ayaxoyws or by way of analogy, in which 
as I may speak, there is a o-vtro"nna<na, connotation, or consignification, that is, when the 
thing or action is not to be understood strictly for the effect, but together with its effect 
and consequent. 

In nouns ; certain terms which signify affection are put for then* effects, as 1 John 
iii. 1, " Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should 
be called the sons of God." The emphasis is great here, as if Jehovah had said that he 
hath graciously given us his own very love, whilst he adopts us into the privilege of 
sonship. By bestowing this blessing he bestows himself, and makes himself one with us, 
" for he is love," 1 John iv. 8. 

Mercy is put for the benefit and commiseration that proceeds from it, Gen. xx. 13, and 
xxxii. I'd, " I am less than the (or I am not worthy of the) least of thy mercies," 2 Chron. 
xxxv. 16. By the same trope the Greeks call e\etui.offvviiv,* Alms " what they give in 
charity to the poor," Matt. vi. 1, Luke xi. 41, Acts x. 2, 4. Motum internum significant, 
quo inclinentur nomines ad miserendum pauperisChamiej: ; that is, it signifies an internal 
motion by which men are inclined to pity the poor. 

Anger is put for punishment or vengeance which proceeds from anger, Psal. Ixxix. 6, 
" Pour out thy wrath (or anger) upon the heathen," &c., Micah vii. 9, " I will bear the 
anger or indignation of the Lord," &c., Horn. ii. 5, " But after thy hardness and impeni- 
tent heart treasureth up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath," &c. See Eom. iii. 
5, and iv. 15, and xiii. 4, 5, Eph. v. 6, &c. 

Anger is put for a command given in anger, 1 Sam. xxviii. 18, " Because thpu obeyedst 
not the voice of the Lord, nor executedst his fierce wrath (or anger) upon Amalek," &c. 

Judgment is put for punishment and castigation or correction, Exod. vi. 6, " I will 
redeem you (Israelites) with great judgments," that is, great punishments upon Pharaoh. 
Prov. xix. 29, " Judgments (that is, punishments) are prepared for scorners," &c. when 
I send my sore judgments upon Jerusalem, that is, punishments, &c. See Ezek. xiv. 21, 
Rom. ii. 3, 1 Cor. xi. 29, 1 Pet. iv. 17 ; it is put for condemnation, Jer. xxvi. 1 1, John 
iii. 18, 19, 2 Pet. ii. 3 ; in 1 Cor. xi. 29, it is said, " He that eateth and drinketh un- 
worthily, eateth and drinketh damnation," but in the Greek it is ?'/* which signifies 

Sin, with the synonymous terms, is put for the punishment of sin, Gen. xix. 15, " The 
a ngels hastened Lot, saying, Arise, take thy wife and thy two daughters which are here, 
lest thou be consumed in the iniquity of the city," that is, in. the punishment of the city, 
Psal. vii. 16, " His sin (or mischief) shall return upon his own head," that is, the merited 
r condign punishment. See Jer. xiv. 16, Zech. xiv. 19. 

With a verb, that signifies to bear or carry, it intimates the guilt and conviction 
that precedes punishment, which must certainly follow, as Exod. xxviii. 43, Lev. v. 1, 

^CIJJUOOWTJ Eleemosyna, est genus omne beneficii quod in miseros confertur, Beza. The word sigui- 
e tu mercy and pity, therefore all our alms must proceed from a merciful and pitiful heart, 


and xx. 20, and xxii. 9, Numb. xiv. 33, Ezek. xxiii. 35, 49, and xviii. 20, and other 

Work is put for its reward, Lev. xix. 13, " The work of him that is hired," so the 
Hebrew, " shall not abide with thee all night, until the morning," Jer. xxii. 13, Rev. xiv, 
13, " That they may rest from their labours, and their works follow them." Sometimes it 
is put for the merit of the work, Rom. xi. 6, " And if by grace, then it is no more of 
works ; otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then it is no more 
grace ; otherwise work is no more work," here grace and work, that is to say, merit, are 
opposed to each other. 

Divination, or augury, QDp is put for the price and reward of it, Numb. xxii. 7. And 
" The divinations Q'nop were in their hands," that is, as in our translation, the rewards 
of divination, which were to be given to Balaam. 

Labour is put for the profit or fruit it produces, Deut. xxviii. 33, " All thy labours shall 
a nation which thou knowest not, eat up." Psal. Ixxviii. 46, " He gave their labour unto the 
locust." Psal. cv. 44, " They inherited the labour of the people." Psal. cxxviii.2, "For thou 
shalt eat the labour of thine hands." Prov. v. 10, Eccl. ii. 19, Isa. xiv. 14, Jer. iii. 24, 
Ezek. xxiii. 29. Hunting is put for venison, got by hunting, Gen. xxv. 28, " And 
Isaac loved Esau because he did eat of his hunting," that is, his venison. See Gen. xxvii. 3.H 

*V ; 'M 

So much- of nouns. There are some Metonymies in verbs, as verbs of knowing, -and suchjlf 
as betoken affection or operation, of which kind are,- || 

Verbs that signify to know, which besides the bare -yvcaaiv, or knowing, denote the|| 
motions, affections, and effects, that are joined with knowledge, as Psal. xc. 11, " Who|! 
knoweth the power of thine anger?" that is, who considers, or regards the power of|| 
thine anger ? so as to awake from the sleep of sin, and seriously to repent ! " Israel |^ 
doth not know," &c., Isa. i. "6, that is, considers not, nor takes notice of the blessings the||j 
Lord gave it. Jer. viii. 7, Luke xix. 41, John viii. 43, " Why do ye not know my speech,"|| 
that is, approve it, and with a faithful assent receive it ? the answer of Christ (giv-|| 
ing the reason of this) follows, viz., " Even because ye cannot hear my words," that is, sof|| 
understand them, as to embrace and close with them, for through the devil's blinding of|| 
you, and your wilful choice, " Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your fatheiffj 
ye will do." '^ 

To know, is put for approbation, as. Rom. vii. 15, " For that which I do, I know not,"jjf|j 

that is, as our translation hath it, allow not, Rev. ii. 24, " But unto you I say, and untojjif 

the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine," and which have not known tliep| 
depths of Satan (that is have not approved of his snares and deep temptations). To||| 
be conscious signifies more than barely to know, which differ as much as knowledge?!!! 
and conscience, as Psal. xxxv. 11, " False witnesses did rise up, and they asked me things);'|| 
that I knew not," that is, of which I am not conscious to myself, as Psal. Ii. 3, " Becausej||| 
I know mine iniquities, and ray sin is ever before me ;" where the prophet includes the|;|| 
terror of conscience, and serious contrition, 2 Cor. v. 21, it is said, " He (that is, God||| 
the Father) hath made him (that is, Christ) to be sin for us, who knew no sin," that is,^H 
who was not guilty of any sin, for he was most perfectly holy, and without sin so^fl 
that he was made sin in this sense, viz., the Father imputed our sins to him, accord- ; ;;|i 
ing to Isa. liii. 6, " And the Lord hath laid on him the iniquities of us all," or hath made . :| 
the iniquities of us all to meet on him, &c. ;| 

: >!> 
.'- ; :>! 

To know is put for estimation, or judgment with any thing with respect to it's value -j| 
or worth, as 2 Cor. v. 16, " Henceforth know we no man after the flesh," that is, we do. ;:| 
not value or esteem any man for external things, as riches, poverty, honour, 
grace, legal privileges, &c., after which follows, " yea, though we have known C 
after the flesh, yet now henceforth we know him, (viz., that way) no more ;" he speaks 
the estimation of Christ carnally or in a fleshly way, viz., in that state of humi 
wherein he was placed during his sojourning here for in that respect we shall know 
no more, but in his state of exaltation, grace, and glory, we shall know, that is, . 


value, esteem, and prize him ; not for any legal derivation, or pedigree, with respect to 
his human nature, hut because he is the great Saviour and Intercessor exalted to glory at 
the right hand of the Father, from -whom we expect our great and glorious deliverance, 
| &c. To this belongs that phrase, Prov. xxiv. 23, " It is not good to know the face of 
! judgment ; in which is a vpoa-cDTroK^ta, viz., and respecting of persons, or an estimation or 
I judgment by external appearance without respect to equity; as ver. 24, " He that saith 
' unto the wicked thou art righteous, him shall the people curse," &c., that is, from a 
wpoo-wiroA.Tjif'ia, or a partial respect of persons, whereas we are advised, Prov. xxv. 21, " If 
thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat : and if he be thirsty, give him water to 
drink for thou shalt heap coals of fire upon his head, and the Lord shall reward thee ;" 
this is a right Gospel spirit, because it is so far from a revengeful retaliation, that it com- 
mands good for evil. 

That which is said by Moses in his publication of the commands of God, Deut. i. 17, 
viz., " Ye shall not know faces in judgment," so the Hebrew. Deut. xvi. 19, " Thou 
shalt not wrest judgment, thou shalt not know persons ;" and Job xxxiv. 19, " That ac- 
cepteth nott(or knows not) the persons of princes, nor regardeth the rich more than the 
poor, is a speech of Jehovah, and agrees with Acts x. 34, " Of a truth I perceive that 
God is no Respecter of persons." 

2. Verbs of cognition, or knowledge, also concern the will and affections of the heart. 
And so to know is to love, cherish, and take care for, &c., as Exod. i. 8, "And there arose 
a new king, which knew not Joseph," that is, he regarded him not, rior the good acts 
which he had done in the kingdom ; the Chaldee says, " One that did not confirm the de- 
cree of Joseph," so Gen. xxxix. 6, Jud. ii. 10, Prov. xii. 10, and xxix. 7, 1 Thess. v. 1 2. In 
other places -on to know is of the same signification, as Deut. xxxiii. 9, Ruth ii. 10, 19, 
Psal. cxlii. 4, 5. 

By a special and singular manner of the Holy Spirit's speaking, the phrase to 
know is attributed to God, which denotes his special providence, love, and paternal care, 
as Exod. ii. 25, " And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God knew them, that 
is, as we translate it, he had respect unto them, 1 Chron. xvii. 18, Psal. i. 6, 6, and 
xxxvii. 17, 18, Jer. i. 5, and xxiv. 5, Amos iii. 2, (see Deut. iv. 20,) John x. 27, 1 Cor. 
viii.3, 2 Tim. ii. 19, &c. 

fjl! This term to know, denotes also a true and hearty confidence (v\-npo<$>opia.) or a certain 
persuasion, faith, or assurance, given by the Holy Spirit to men endued with a saving 

;{j|g faith, as Job xix. 25, " I know, that my Redeemer liveth," that is, I have an absolute 
faith and confidence that it is so, and acquiesce in it, &c. 

To know the name of the Lord, is by true faith to adhere to him, Psal. ix. 10, " For 
1 they that know thy name will put their trust in thee." To know the Lord, is to believe 
[and hope in him," Jer. ix. 34, and xxxi. 24, Hosea ii. 20, John xvii. 3, &c. " This is the 
|||f knowledge by which many shall be justified;" Isa. liii. 11, " The knowledge of salva- 
'p||tion," Luke i. 77. * " The knowledge of the truth which is after godliness," Tit. i. 1. 

: ri 3. The very work or act, when to know, is put for to be able, or the interior faculty 
:;||of operation, which is the principle of actions. Isa. Ivi. 10, 11, " His watchmen are 
;:,|| greedy dogs which can never have enough," the Hebrew says, which knew not fulness. 
,.;||" Shepherds that cannot understand;" or as the Hebrew has it, that knew not to under- 
'H stand; the meaning is, that for their covetousness, they cannot be satisfied, and for their 

i|j blindness and want of skill, cannot comprehend divine things aright. 


It is said, Matth. vii. 11, "If ye then being evil,f know how to give good things unto 
| your children," &c., that is, ye can (or are able) notwithstanding your natural wickedness, 
| to do good to your own. This trope is very frequent also in the Latin tongue, &c. 

* KO.I cmyfci}ffti> a\7]0eia.s rrjs KO.T eucrejSeja- t oiSarf. 


It is put for an experimental sense of a fact done, Mark v. 29, * eyvto ro> 
et> scivit corpore, and [she knew in her body], in our translation it is, " she felt in her body 
that she was healed of that plague." Hence by the same trope, or manner of speaking, 
it is said of Christ, verse 80, " And Jesus eiriyvovs ev eaurca, cognoscens in semitipso" knowing 
in himself that virtue had gone out of him, that is, feeling and experiencing it." 

1 Cor. iv. 19, " I will know, not the speech of them which are puffed up, but the power," 
that is, I will experience how strong they are in the faith, what zeal they have, and how 
powerfully the Holy Spirit has influenced them. 

More especially by the term knowing, conjugal society is noted, as Gen. iv. 1, and xix. ^ 
5, 8, Numb. xxxi. 17, Matt. i. 25, Luke i. 34. This was common with the Greeks jj 
and Latins, as Pint, in Alex. Neque aliam eyvw cognoscebat mulierem, that is, he knew no it 
other woman. Horat. Ignara mariti, ignorant of a husband. 

To remember is put for the will and desire, Heb. xi. 15, " If they had remembered 
that country from whence they came, they might have had opportunity to have returned," || 
that is, if they had a mind or desire to have returned thither, &c., which exposition is || 
cleared in the following verse, viz., " But now they desire a better country, that is, an fl 
heavenly." See Isa. xliv. 21, John ii. 7. So Cant. i. 4, " We will remember thy love more || 
than wine," that is, by true faith and sincere love, we will cleave to thee for the great af- |f 
fection thou hast vouchsafed us, which we esteem above all that is delightsome and preci- 1| 
ous (for such things are synecdochically noted by wine) in this world ; for the upright love f| 
thee, that is, the regenerate sons of God, who truly know, and love Christ, and in life fol- 1| 
low him, 2 Tim. ii. 8, 19, Luke xxii. 19, 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25. In a word, to remember f| 
Christ is in a due and faithful sense and apprehension to be united to him, and to live to |!f 
him alone ; whereas, on the contrary, *$ 

To forget God imports unbelief, wickedness and stubbornness of heart, as Hos. iv. 6, jj| 
" My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge :" " Because thou hast rejected know- pi 
ledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me ; seeing thou hast forgotten the $$ 
law of thy God, I will also forget thy children.- See 2 Pet. i. 9, Jam. i. 25, Ezek. xxii. 12, &c. || 


Sometimes to remember signifies a consequent speech, or an external real effect, as i ;| 
Esth. ii. 1, " Ahasuerus remembered Vashto," when by the second verse it is evident that jjj! 
he was discoursing of her with his ministers. Ezek. xxiii. 19, " Yet she multiplied her |;| 
whoredoms in calling to mind the days of her youth," &c., that is, both calls to mind, and |ff 
in that very act exercises her former spiritual whoredom. In what sense remembrance and [:|| 
oblivion are attributed to God, will be seen hereafter. 1 1 


Verbs of affections, as to love or to hate, are put for the actions themselves, which |;K| 
either really, or according to the custom or opinions of men, [are the results of such ;.f| 
affections The verbs odi and diligo, to hate and love, do sometimes denote contrary ja| 

1. To love signifies seeking and desiring, as Luke xi. 43, " Ye love," (that is, ye seek | 

or desire the uppermost seats," &c., John in. 39, and xii. 43, 2 Tim. iv. 8. :| 

It is put for to be wont, as Matt. vi. 5, "Hypocrites love (that is, they are wont) to | 

pray standing." ;J 

See Psal. xi. 5, Prov. xxi. 17, 2 Tim. iv. 10, " Denias hath forsaken me, (a-ycmnffas) '| 

having loved this present world," which Erasmus well renders hath embraced this present ;| 

world; that is, Demas would not be a companion of sufferers, but his desire and seeking 

was to have good and happy days in this world. > 

2. To love signifies to prefer, regard, or take care of one thing more than another, 5; 
to which, to hate, is opposed, which signifies disregard, less care, and neglect of | 
one thing more than another, as Gen. xxix. 31, with verse 30, John xii. 25, "He 

* Oblivisci Jehova cordis caufumaciam inUdeliiatem et impietatem imporlat. 


loveth his life* shall lose it; and he that hateth his life, in this world shall keep it 
unto eternal life." This is expressed, Matt. xvi. 25, thus, " for whosoever will save his 
life, (in the Greek it is his soul) shall lose it, and whosoever will lose his life, (or soul,) 
for 'my sake, shall find it." By the phrase, to love his soul, is meant a will and resolu- 
tion to preserve life, even by the denial or abnegation of the name of Christ. And to hate 
his soul, signifies, that in comparison of the name, profession, and truth of Christ, the pre- 
servation of this life is a thing not at all to be 'valued, but that we are ready rather than 
deny him to suffer even unto death. 

It is said, Luke xiv. 26, " If any man come unto me, and hate not his father, and mo- 
ther, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own soul fyt/x'?*') a ^ so " 
he cannot be my disciple." This text doth not enjoin us to hate our relations (for we 
are commanded to love even our enemies,) Matt. v. 44, Luke vi. 27 ; but the meaning is, 
that he that can or will prefer the comfort of society of his natural relations before Christ 
and his Gospel, is not worthy to be his disciple. See Psal. cix. 16, 17, Prov. viii. 36, 
and xvii. 19, and xiii. 24. 

3. It denotes a declaration of an external gesture, which is wont to be the result of 
love, as Mark x. 21, " Then Jesus beholding him loved him " Tj-ycMnjo-ej/ mrrov, which signi- 
fies not that Christ approved his answer, or had therefore any singular or peculiar respect 
for him, but, as it were sweetly smiled upon him, looking upon his talk to be childish and 
ridiculous, even as we smile upon children, when they prattle of such things as are in them- 
selves simple. 

Verbs of operation, as to do, are put for acquisition or gain, which is the effect of 
action and labour, as Gen. xii. 5, " The souls they had made in Charan," that is, acquired 
| or -gotten there, Gen. xxx. 30, " And now when shall I-j- make for my house also ?" that 
is, when shall I provide or take care to get so much as will be sufficient for my family. 
Hence it is said, Matt. xxv. 16, " Then he that had received the five talents went and 
traded with the same, J and made them other five talents," that is, eKepSijo-e, he gained 
them, as verses 17, 20, 22, it is expounded. 

To judge, besides its proper signification, denotes also the consequent actions, as castiga- 
ition and. punishment, Gen. xv. 14, 2 Chron. xx. 12, Psal. ix. 19, 20, Acts vii. 7, Heb. 
[ xiii. 4, condemnation, John iii. 18, Rom. xiv. 3, freeing, delivering or absolving, Psal. 
| xxxv. 24, Rom. vi. 7, &c. 

The Matter of which a Thing is made, is put for the Thing made. 

THE FIR-TREE of which lances were made, is put for lances, Nah. .iii. 3, " The fir-trees 
shall be terribly shaken." It is put for musical instruments, 2 Sam. vi. 5, " And David 
and all the House of Israel, played before the Lord on all fir-wood," so the Hebrew, that 
iff* 8 ' as * n our translation, on all instruments made of fir-wood, as the following words 
lit show, y i z ' n harps, and on psalteries, and on timbrels, and on cornets, and on 
;!$| cymbals. 

|f| Brass is put for fetters or shackles made of brass, Lam. iii. 7, " He hath made my 
|| brass heavy," that is, my chain, or fetters, whereby my legs are shackled. See Judg. xvi. 
If 21, 2 Sam. iii. 34, Ezek. xxiv. 11, and xvi. 36. 

;;| _ You may see more examples, Psal. Ixviii. 30, 2 Sam. vii, 2, Jeremiah iv. 20, Habak- 

.'.'4! iii. 7. 

and silver\\ are put for things made of them, 1 Chron. xxix. 2, Psal. cxv. 4, 
Their idols are silver and gold," that is, made of silver and gold. 

In the Greek it is <f>i\o>v rijv ^v^v avrov, &c. that is, he that loveth his soul, &c. and hateth his soul, &c. 
t Qu&ndo faciam ego pro domo mea. 

4. Tr_ 

4. n-oti e7ronf]ffev 
JEs meum fecit aggravari. 

II Ubicung Auro et Argento (qua nomina, ut et religuorum metattorum, apud Hebraos, plurali carent) 
j/>jvr7j nomina juncta, leguntur,pro siclis ejusdem Metalli usurfantur. Junius in Gen. xxiv. 22. 

C 2 


2 For money or current coin, Gen. xxiii. 9, 16, Gen. xxiv. 22, 2 Bangs v. 5, 1 Chron. 
xxi. 22, 24, Gen. xx. 16, Deut. xxii. 19, 29. Cedar is put for cedar-work, or tables 
made of that wood, Zeph. ii. 14. Iron is but for an ax, 2 Kings vi. 5. For fetters, 
Psalm cv. 18. Corn is but for bread, Lam. ii. 12, with chap. iv. ver. 4. Wood and 
stone are put for vessels made of them, Exod. vii. 19. Stone is put for an idol made of 
stone, Jer. ii. 27, and iii. 9. And for a pound weight, Deut. xxv. 13, 2 Sam. xiv. 26, 
ProT. xi. 1. See more examples, Isa. xxxiv. 11, Zech. iv. 10, and v. 8, Gen. xxviii. 
18, 22, with ver. 11. Wood is put for a house made of wood, Jer. xxi. 14, " I will 
kindle a fire in the forest thereof," that is, in the house of Jehovah, in the house of 
the king, and in the houses of the nobles, which were built of precious materials 
.brought from the forest of Lebanon, Jer. xxii. 7, 2 Kings xxv. 9, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 19, 
Jer. Iii. 13, &c. 




A Metonymy of the effect is, when the effect is put for the efficient cause, which is done || 
three ways, as, 

1. When the action or the effect is put for the author or person effecting. 

2. When a thing effected by an instrument, is put for the instrument or organical || 

2. When the effect is put for the thing or action effecting. 

1. The Action or Effect is put for the Author or Person effecting. 

As Gen. xv. 1, " I am (says Jehovah to Abraham) thy exceeding great reward," that is, 
I am a most liberal Giver of reward, Deut. xxx. 23, " He is thy life and length of 
days," that is, he is the cause of it. Gen. xlix. 18, " I have waited for thy salvation," 
that is, the promised Messiah, the Author of salvation, as Luke ii. 30, where Simeon 
says, " Mine eyes have seen my salvation," that is Christ. All the flesh shall see TO vur-npiov 
TOV eov the salvation of God, that is, a Saviour. See Isa. xlix 6, &c., Psalm iii. 3, 4, and 
cvi. 20, and xxvii. 1, " Thou art my light, salvation, strength," &c., that is, the Author 
and cause of them ; so Psalm xviii. 2, and xxii. 20, and xxxiii. 20, and xlvi. 2, Jer. 
xvi. 19, and xxiii. 6, John xi. 25, and xiv. 16, 1 Cor. i. 30, Eph. ii. 14, 1 John v. 20, 
and Heb. v. 9, Rom. xv. 5, 13, 2 Cor. i. 3, Luke i. 50. 

Luke xi. 14, " And he (viz. Jesus) was casting out a devil, and it was dumb ;" that is, 
he made the man (in whom he was) dumb, or suffered him not to speak, and so was the 
cause of dumbness. See Matt. ix. 32, 33, and Mark ix. 17, 25, Luke xiii. 1 1. 

It is said, Gen. xxvi. 35, " That Esau's wives were a grief of mind," or as the Hebrew 
says, (bitterness of spirit) unto Isaac and Rebecca, that is the cause of sadness and trouble 
of spirit. See Gen. xxv. 23, Neh. xii. 31, Rom. xiii. 3, " Rulers are not a terror (that 
is a cause of terror) to good men," 2 Cor. i. 14, " We are your rejoicing, as ye are ours." 
The Greek is Kavxru^a, which signifies (glorifying or boasting,) that is, the cause of your 
rejoicing and glorying, inasmuch as we instructed you in the Gospel, which is the way of 
salvation, and you likewise are our glory, inasmuch as we have won you to Christ, 1 
Thess. ii. 19, 20, Rom. v. 5. 

2. When a Thing effected by an Instrument, is put for the Instrument or Organical Cause. 

Glory is put for the tongue, Psal. xvi. 9, " My heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth," 
that is, my tongue, because it is the organ by which God is and ought to be glorified, 
suitable to Acts ii. 26, " Therefore did my heart rejoice, and my tongue was glad." See 
Psalm xxx. la, 13, and v. 7, 9. 


Power is put for the organ exerting power, as Rom. i. 16, " The gospel is (Swapls) the 
power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth ;" that is,jthe gospel is the means 
or organ by which God exerts or puts forth the power of his salvation to believers, Eph. 



Victory is put for the instrument of overcoming, as 1 John v. 4, " This is the vic- 
tory that overcometh the world, even your faith ;" that is, the instrument of victory, 
Eph. vi. 16. 

Life is put for the means of its preservation, Deut. xxiv. 6, " No man shall take the 
nether, or the upper millstone to pledge, for he taketh a man's life (or ran, soul) to 
pledge," that is, the instruments that are necessary for the preservation of life, Prov. 
vii. 27; life is put for food and maintenance, Luke xv. 12, "He divided unto them," 
Ms life, that is, his estate ; or, as we translate it, " his living." Hesiod, Lib. 2. 
calls money the soul of a man : 

XprifMiTa yap tyvxiq TreAerat BeiXoi<r: jSporotert. 

3. When the Effect is put for the Thing or Action effecting. 

This species of a Metonymy is distinctly found in nouns and verbs, as when the effect 
is put for the cause materially, as 2 Kings iv. 10, " There is death in the pot," that is, 
deadly poison, which will cause death. So death is put for great perils and dangers, 
troubles or calamities, which cause death, Exod. x. 17, Bom. vii. 24, 2 Cor. i. 10, and xi. 
23. And for the plague, Rev. vi. 8. See Prov. xi. 23, Jer. iii. 24. Shame is put for an 

[ idol, Jer. xi. 13, Hos. ix. 10. The reason of the name you may see Jer. xlviii. 13, " And 
Moab shall be ashamed of Chemosh, as the house of Israel was ashamed of Bethel their 

I confidence. See Ezek. xliv. 18, Hos. xii. 1, "Ephraim daily increaseth lies and desola- 

| tion ;" that is, he commits such evils, that nothing can be expected but desolation and 

i calamity. 

See more examples, Lam. ii. 14, 1 Cor, xii. 6, 8, 1 Cor. xiv. 3, " He that prophesieth, 
ispeaketh unto men edification, (so the Greek, **- oueoSop.rtv KO.I, &c.,) and exhortation, and 
1 comfort," that is, an edifying, exhorting, and comforting speech. 

Sometimes the effect is put formally for the cause, as Deut. xxx. 15, " I have set before 
thee this day, life and good, death and evil ;" that is, I have clearly showed and laid 
before thee what is the cause and original of each, or for what cause and reason, 
either of these was to come upon thee, viz., to love and obey God brings life and 
good ; but rebellion, sin, and disobedience bring death and evil, as the following 
verses made evident. This is called, Jer. xxi. 8, "The way of life and death." See 
:|j| more Deut. xxxii. 47, Prov. xix. 3, and xx. 1, Isa. xxviii., 12, " This is rest," that is, 
?k e cause of rest, or the way and manner of arriving at it. Hos. iv. 18, " Their drink 
18 SOU1 %" ( r gone;) that is, their cause of recess from God, or that which made them 
backslide, as ver. 11, " Whoredom andwine, and new wine taketh away the heart." Which 
words, (viz., take away the heart) are emphatical, for they denote that they were (as it 
were) wallowing in these evils, when they gave themselves to whoredom and drunken- 
ness. They saw and knew what was better, and approved them,* but they followed 
the worse, and so the devil keeps them that are drowned in these wickednesses (as it 
w were ) captives, 2 Tim. ii. 26 ; for the Hebrew word here, is used when they speak of 
;||such^as are taken and detained by force, Gen. xiv. 11, 12, Josh. xi. 19, 23, &c., Micah 
H i. 5, " what is the transgression of Jacob ? Is it not Samaria ? And what are the high places 
of Judah ? Are they not Jerusalem ?' : That is, as Kimchi (in lib. Radicum) expounds it, 
was the cause of the defection of Jacob? was it not the cities of Samaria, &c. : see 
ii- ^f.J otui "i- 19> "And this is the judgment or condemnation ;" that is, the cause of 

. - > , 

it, John xii. 50, " And I know that his commandment is life everlasting ; that is, the 
cause or organ by which everlasting life is obtained, for he speaks of saving knowledge 
gospel, Rom, vii. 7, " Is the law sin?" that is, the cause of sin in or by itself. So 

* Video meliora, proboque ; deteriora Sequor. Ovid. 


Kom. viii. 6, " For to be carnally minded is death ; but to be spiritually minded is life and 
peace ;" that is, the cause of death, and the cause of life and peace, as ver. 10. See Phil, 
i. 13, Heb. vi. 1, and xix. 14, and Bom. vi. 23. 

In verbs, to joy and rejoice are put for to be freed, or delivered from evil, and to be or 
do well, -which is the cause of joy, Psal. Ixx. 4, " Let all those that seek thee rejoice, and 
be glad in thee ; that is, let them be freed from all evil, that they may have cause of joy. 
The cause and effect are joined, Psal. v. 11, 12. To be ashamed and confounded, signifies 
*a falling into calamities, and be exposed to violence which is the cause of confusion, Psal. 
xxv. 1, 2, and iii. 19, 20, and xxxi. 2, and cxix. 115, 116, &e. 

To please signifies good behaviour and honest respect, which is the cause of complacency, 
as Eom. xv. 2, " Let every one of us please his neighbour for good to edification." See 
Erasmus upon the place, 1 Cor. x. 33. 

Haste QIC flight is put for shame and confusion, Isa. xxviii. 16, " He that believeth shall 
not make haste ;" that is, he shall not be confounded, as Eom. ix. 33, and x. 11, 1 Pet. ii. 
6. The effect and consequence of confusion is flight, or a hasty getting away from the 
sight of men this also signifies calamities and punishments, as limited before, see Psal. 
Ixxiv. 15, Isa. xxviii. 28, Eccl. xi. 1, Job xxviii. 5, Psal. civ. 13, 14, Isa. xlvii. 2, and 
xxxiii. 12, Josh. xi. 8, and xiii. 6. 



This kind of Metonymy shall be handled under five heads. 

1. More generally when the recipient, or receiving subject is put for the adjunct. 

2. More especially, when the thing containing is put for the thing contained, or place for 
the thing placed. 

3. When the possesser is put for the thing possessed. 

4. When the occupant object or subject is put for that which it is concerned about. 
5.' When the thing signed is put for the sign. 

1. The Recipient or Receiving Subject is put for the Adjunct. 

The heart is put for wisdom, (where the scripture tells us the seat of wisdom is) as Prov. | 
ii. 10, and xi. 29, and xv. 13, and xxi. 21, Prov. vi. 32, " Whoso committeth adultery (' 
with a woman, lacketh a heart," so the Hebrew is, that is, lacketh wisdom and under- > j 
standing: see Prov. vii. 7, and ix. 4, 16, and x. 13, 21, in which places, the phrase want- || 
ing a heart, is to be understood of an unwise person or a fool, by which words the scrip- : 
ture expresses unbelieving and wicked men, as Prov. viii. 5, " O ye simple understand Hi 
subtilty, and ye fools understand," an heart, so the Hebrew, that is wisdom ! Prov. xv. 32, <;* 
" He that heareth reproof possesseth or (acquireth) an heart," that is, as the Chaldee ren- ;!} 
ders it, Wisdom. See Prov. xxviii. 16, "He that trusteth in his own heart is a fool," H 
that is, he that depends on or confides in his own understanding and prudence, or he that || 
is wise in his own eyes, as Isa. v. 21 ; so Hos. vii. 11, and iv. 11. 

The heart and reins are put for inward thoughts and affections, Psal. Ixxiii. 20, 21, and p 
Ii. 7, 8, Prov. xxiii. 16, " God searches the heart and reins," Psal. vii. 9, 10, and xxvi. 1, || 

2, Jer. xi. 20, and xvii. 10, and xx. 12. This is to be KapSioyvaarrns, as Acts i. 24, " The 
knower of hearts," Matt. xxvi. 21. 



It is put for the desires of the soul expressed in prayer, as Psal. Ixii. 8, 
I heart hefore him," that is, the desires of your heart, Lam. ii. 19. 


Pour out your 

The new or inward man is put for the condition or state of the converted or regenerate 
\ soul. An old or outward man is opposed to it. See Eom. vi. 6, Eph. iv. 22, 1 Cor. vii. 1, 
Heb. xxiii. 1, 2 Cor. v, 17, Kom. xii. 2, and viii. 2, 5, Cor. iv. 16. 

2. The Thing containing is put for the Thing contained, and Place for the Thing placed. 

Mount Carmel is put for the trees there, Jer. xlvi. 18, "As Carmel by sea," that is, as 
j the trees of Mount Carmel are drawn by sea, so shall he lead them captives : so says Eab. 

Kimchi, " Blessed be thy basket," Deut. xxviii. 5, that is, the meat or provision in it. A 
\ desert is put for the wild beasts there, Psal. xxix. 8, with Deut. viii. 15. A house is put 
| for a family, children, and domestics, Gen. vii. 1, " Come thou and all thy house into 
' the ark." 2 Sam. vii. 2. " The Lord telleth thee that he will make thee an house," that 

is, give thee an offspring or posterity to possess the royal dignity, 1 Chron. x. 6, Psal. xlix. 

12, Luke xix. 9, &c. It is also put for a people or tribe sprung from any family, as Exod. 

ii. 1, Ezek. iii. 1, and xxvii. 14, &c. 

Islands are put for their inhabitants, and so for the Gentiles which possessed all the 
islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Isa. xii. i. 5, " Keep silence before me, islands The 
isles saw it and feared," &c. See Isa. xlii. 4. " The isles shall wait for his law," Isa. Ii. 
" The isles shall wait upon me." 

The- sea is put for maritime inhabitants, or seamen that dwelt near the shore, 
Ezek. xxvi. 17, "How art thou destroyed that wast inhabited" of the seas, so the Hebrew ; 
so Isa. Ix. 5, " The abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee," that is, the Gentiles 
which dwell near the sea, as the following words show ; see Hag. ii. 7, 8, Deut. xxxiii. 
19, " They shall suck the abundance of the seas," that is, goods and merchandize brought 
by sea. 

A table is put for meat, Psal. xxiii. iv. 5, Psal. Ixxviii. 19. A mountain for 
mountainous places, Josh. xiii. 6, Judges vii. 24, &c. Mountains and hills are put for 
idols, which were worshipped there, Jer. iii. 23. Mountains and vallies for their inha- 
bitants, Micah i. iv. " Mountains shall be molten under him, and the valleys shall be 
cleft" that is, the hearts of those that inhabit them shall wax soft. See Psal. Ixviii. 2, 
3, and Psal. xcvii. 4, 5, " They put to flight the vallies towards the east, and towards the 
west," that is such as dwelt in the valleys, 1 Chron. xii. 15. 

The world is put for mankind, John iii. 16, and xi. 19, 2 Cor. v. 19, 1 John ii. 

2, and v. 19. It is put for the wicked who are the greatest part of mankind, John i. 

10, and vii. 7, and xiv. 17, and xv. 19, and xvi. 20, 23, and xvii. 9, 14, 1 Cor. xi. 
i 32, 1 John iii. 1, and iv. 5, and v. 4, 5. Hence the devil is called the prince of this 
| world, John iii. 31, and xiv. 30, and xvi. 11. Koa-poKQaTogas "princes of the world," Eph. 

vi. 12, " The god of this world," 2 Cor. iv. 4. Which is expounded, Eph. ii. 5, " In time 
fpast ye walked according to this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the 
j spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience." 

The world is put sometimes for those that are converted and believe, John vi. 33, 
The bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world, 
this is to believers, and John xiv. 31, " But that the world may know that I love the 
I Father," &c. Yet Glassius thinks that the whole race of mankind is rather to be un- 
derstood, in both places, as verse 51, " The bread which I will give is my flesh, which I 
will give for the life of the world," for (1) this giving of life, is not an actual conferring 
of it by faith, but rather an acquisition or purchase of life for them, in which sense 
Christ is called the light that enlightens every man that cometh into the world. In the 
other text, John xiv. 31, Christ signifies by those words, that he was therefore to die, 
that he might deliver mankind from the power of Satan. (2.) That this redemption 
of mankind should, by the word of the Gospel, be revealed to the whole world. For 
he says not, let me die that I may show that I love the Father, but that the world may 



[BOOK 1 

know that I love the Father : which [knowledge was had, when the Gospel was pro. 
mulgated through the whole world by the apostles. 

Camararius in his notes on John xvii. 21, " That the world may believe that thou hast 
sent me," says, by KOO-HOV, the world, we are to understand, <rovs ffu&pevovs ev ro> KOO-HU, 
such shall be saved But Glassius says, that it signifies all men universally, as John 
iii. 17, " For God sent his Son that the world through him might be saved." For though 
all men are not actually saved, in regard of their own stubbornness and impenitency, 
yet a spiritual unity for believers is prayed for, and that the world might believe, that 
is, that all men should be converted to the true knowledge of the Messiah ; although 
very many remain in unbelief and wickedness, who shall have no share in his Re- 

Ships are put for the men in them, Isa. xxiii. 1, " Howl, ye ships of Tarshish," that is 
ye mariners and merchants, &c. So verses x. 14. 

A nest is put for the young ones, Dent, xxxii. 11, "As an eagle stirreth up her nest, 
that is, the young eagles, as is clearly showed in the following words. 

Ophir (a country in India abounding with gold) is put for gold brought from thence 
Job xxii. 24, " Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust, and Ophir as the stones of the brooks/ 
that is, gold brought from Ophir ; abundance of gold is denoted by the whole phrase, and, 
metaphorically, great felicity. 

A cup is put for the wine or liquor in it, Jer. xlix. 12, Ezek. xxiii. 32, 1 Cor. x. 21, 
" Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cupof devils." Luke xxii. 17, it is said 
in the last paschal supper, " And he took the cup and gave thanks, and said, "Take 
this, and divide it amongst yourselves," that is, the wine not the cup ; for verse 18, 
he says, " I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come." 
So Luke xxii. 20. We have the same Metonymy about the eucharistical cup of the 
Lord's supper, and 1 Cor. xi. 25, 26, 27. Of this cup Christ says, that it is the New 
Testament in his blood, but the containing vessel cannot be understood, but the thing 
contained, viz. the wine, which is sacramentally the blood of Christ, Matt. xxvi. 28, 
Mark xiv. 24. See more I Cor. x. 16, 21, 1 Cor. xi. 26, 27, Matt. xxvi. 27, Mark ! 
xiv. 23, 1 Cor. xi. 28. 

The names of countries are frequently put for their inhabitants, as Egypt for 
Egyptians, Gen. xvii. 15, Psal. cv. 38. Ethiopia for Ethiopians, Psalm Ixvii. 31, 32. 
Sheba for Sabeans, Job i. 15, and vi. 19, see Isa. xliii. 3, 4. Judea and the ad- 
jacent countries about Jordan, are put for their inhabitants, Matt. iii. 5. Macedonia 
and Achaia for Christians living there, Eom. xi. 26. The land of Egypt is put for 
spoils brought from thence, Jer. xliii. 12. 

The grave is put for the dead that are buried in it, as Isa. xxxviii. 18, " The 
grave cannot praise thee, death cannot celebrate thee," that is, they that are dead and 
buried ; the reason follows, " They that go down into the pit cannot hope for thy truth," 
ver. 19, " The living, the living, he shall praise thee." See Psalm vi. 6, and cxv. 117. 

The earth is put for the inhabitants of the earth, Gen. vi. 11, " The earth was also 
corrupt before God, and- the earth was filled with violence," which is expounded in the 
next verse, " For all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth." So Gen. *i. 1, and 
xviii. 25, and xix. 31, and xiv. 30, 1 Sam. xiv. 29, 2 Sam. xv. 23, Prov. xxviii. 2, Isa. 
xxiv. 20, Matt. v. 13. 

The ends of the earth are put for the inhabitants of the extremest parts thereof, Psalm 
xxii.. 27, 28, and Ixvii. 8. 

A theatre (the place where plays and shows are seen) is put for the sight itself, 
1 Cor. iv. 9, where the apostle Paul metaphorically says of himself, "For we are 
made a theatre (so the Greek) unto the world, and to angels, and to men" as if he had 


said, we are derided, hated, and abused by the world, and that not in a corner, but as if 
the whole earth were gathered together in one theatre to satiate and please themselves 
w ith beholding our miseries. 

A city is put for citizens, Jer. iv. 29, " The whole city shall flee shall go into thickets 
a nd climb upon the rocks," so Isa. xiv. 31, Jer. xxvi. 2, &c., Jerusalem, Chorazin, Beth- 
saida, Capernaum, are put for their inhabitants, Matt. iii. 5, Mark i. 5, Matt, xxiii. 37, and 
xi. 21, 23, Acts xviii. 25, Judg. v. 7, 11, &c. 

To this by analogy may be referred these that follow. 

JJeaven, is put for God, who is said to dwell in the heavens, and there manifests his 
glory and majesty to angels, and glorified spirits, Psal. Ixxiii. 9, " They set their mouth 
against the heavens, and their tongue walketh through the earth," that is, they licen- 
tiously vent their blasphemies against God, and contumelious words against mankind. 
See more examples, in Dan. iv. 23, with verse 22, and 29, 1 Kings viii. 32, Matt. xxi. 
25, " The baptism of John, whence is it? from heaven or of men ?" that is, from God, 
or men, so Luke xx. 4, Luke xv. 18, " Father, I have sinned against heaven," that is, 
against God. 

The heart is put for the soul, which is radically in the heart as its proper seat, Psal. xiv. 
3, 4, arid Ixxxiv. 2, 1 Pet. iii. 4, Heb. xiii. 9, &c. The belly is put for the heart, which 
(viz. heart) is likewise put for the soul and its acts and cogitations, Job xv. 35, Prov. xviii. 
8, and xx. 27, and xxvi. 22, and xxii. 18, Hab. iii. 16, John vii. 38. 

3. The Possessor is put for the Thing possessed, 

Gen. xv. 3, " Behold the son of mine house," so the Hebrew, " inherits me," that is, 
my goods and estate. Deut. ix. 1, " To possess nations greater and mightier than thy- 
self," that is, the countries of the Gentiles, for the people themselves were not to be pos- 
sessed, but cut off by the command of God, as verse 2, 3, see 2 Sam. viii. 2, Psal. Ixxix. 
7, " For they have devoured Jacob," that is, his riches and goods. 

The prince is put for his jurisdiction, Matt. ii. 6, " And thou, Bethlehem, in the land 
of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda," that is, the principalities or perfec- 
tures of Juda, which were distinguished by thousands, as 1 Sam. x. 19. 

The name of God is put for oblations offered to him, as Josh. xiii. 33, " The Lord God 
of Israel was their inheritance," (viz. the Levites) which is expounded, -verse 14, " Only 
unto the tribe of Levi he gave no inheritance, the sacrifices of the Lord God of- Israel 
niade by fire are their inheritance," &c., and Josh, xviii. 7, " The priesthood of the Lord 
is their (the Levites) inheritance" Deut. x. 9, " The Lord is his inheritance," &c., see 
Ezek. xliv. 28. 

Christ is put for the Church (or believers, who are his peculiar people, Tit. ii. 14, 
1 Pet. ii. 9 5 ) Matt. xxv. 35, " For I was an hungered, and ye gave me meat," &c., says 
Christ, and verse 40, it is thus expounded, " Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the 
least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me." Acts ix. 4, 5, " Saul, Saul, why per- 
secutest thou me? I am Jesus, whom thou persecutest," whereas verse 1, 2, it is said that 
Saul persecuted the disciples of Christ, so 1 Cor. xii. 12, " So also is Christ," that is, " his 
Church, hath many members, and many believers do constitute one body of Christ," or one 
Church, for it follows, verse 13, " For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body ;" 
Christ therefore is put for his mystical body, or, which is the same thing, that which 
properly belongs to a body is attributed to Christ, because of his mystical union with 
believers. For the same reason the afflictions of Christ are called the afflictions of the 
saints, Col. i. 24.* Upon which place Lyranus says thus, " The passions or sufferings of 
Christ are two-fold, one he endured in his own proper body, as hunger, thirst, yea, even 
death, and in this sense there was nothing to be filled up-r the other he. suffers in his 
who are believers, when they are persecuted, afflicted, and oppressed for his sake." . 

* See more, Acts xx. 28, Phil. iii. 12, Psal. xvi. 6, Eph. v. 30 3 32. 



And this is the meaning of the apostle here when he says, ".Who now rejoice in my suf- 
ferings for you, and fill up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for 
his body's sake, which is the church." 

4. The Object is put for that which it is conversant about. 

CHKIST JESTJS is put for his doctrine, 2 Cor. xi. 4, " For if he that cometh preacheth. 
another Jesus whom we have not preached," that is, another better doctrine of Christ, 
which he calls another gospel, &c., Eph. iv. 20, " But ye have not so learned Christ ; if 
so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus," 
&c. ; this is to be understood of the doctrine of Christ. 

God is put for worship appointed for his honour, as Exod. xxxii. 1, " And they (that 
is, the Israelites) said unto them (viz., Aaron), up, make us a'rr 1 ?** gods, that is, as* Brentius, 
Gerhard, and others expound it, institue nobis publica sacra, &c., institute some public form 
of worship for us, or some visible sign of God's presence (as afterwards was the tabernacle, 
the ark and mercy-seat, Exod. xl. 34, 35, Numb. vii. 84,) possibly some such thing as 
they had seen in Egypt; for now they were turned in their hearts to Egypt. Acts vii 
39, 40. 

Glory and strengih are put for the praise and celebration of glory and strength 
as Psal. Ixix. 1, " Give unto the Lord glory and strength," that is, give him the 
praise of his glory and strength. See Psal. viii. 2, " Out of the mouths of babes and 
sucklings, hast thou ordained strength," that is, the praise and celebration of his 
strength and omnipotency, as it is expounded, Matt. xxi. 16. So Psal. xcvi. 6, 7, 

Sin is put for sacrifice or sin-offering, Exod. xxix. 14, " The flesh of the bullock, &c. t 
thou shalt not burn without the camp, it is a sin," so the Hebrew, that is, as our 
translation renders it, a sin-offering. Hos. iv. 8, " They eat up the sin of my people," that 
is, the sacrifice, or sin-offering, for sin has a three-fold acceptation. (1.) It signifies 
the transgression of God's law, 1 Join iii. 4. (2.) Punishment for sin, " he shall bear 
his sin," Lev. xx. 20, and 29, and xxiv. 15, Numb. ix. 13, and xviii. 22, Ezek. xxiii. 49. 
(3.) Sacrifice offered for sin, Lev. x. 17, " Why do you not eat the sin of the holy place," 
for so the words are to be read, that is, the sin-offering. In this sense that text is to be 
understood, 2 Cor. v. 21, " Christ was made sin for us," that is, a sin-offering, according 
to Isa. liii. 10, "If thou shalt make his soul sin," delictum, reatus, ODK. Our transla- 
tion renders it, " when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin ;" explained, Eph. v. 
2, " Christ hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling 
savour :" for he is the true propitiatory sacrifice for our sins whom the old typical oblation 
adumbrated or shadowed forth. 

That phrase of the Apostle Paul's, 2 Cor. v. 21, " For he hath made him to be sin for 
us, who knew no sin," is borrowed from Isaias, upon which D. Franzius thus expresses 
himself. " How Christ was made sins may be plainly and perfectly declared from the beasts 
allotted for sacrifices, when by imputation of the sins of the people to them they became un- 
clean, yea sin, and so were slain and sacrificed," &c. By which words the reason of this 
tropical speech, whereby sin is taken for sacrifice is noted ; Illyricus says, " These sacri- 
fices were so called, because the sins of the people (with respect to punishment) were after 
a certain manner by imputation transferred upon them," not that the verb n signifies to 
expiate, Cl. Script, part 1, cof. 858. 

Promise is put for faith, which embraces or receives the gracious promise of God, Rom. 
ix. 8, " Children of the promise," that is, of faith, which receives the gracious and free 
promise of Christ. They are called sons by a metaphor, with respect to Abraham, who is 
by the Holy Spirit called the " father of believers," Horn. iv. 16. As if he had said, they 
that tread in the steps of Abraham, and are alike unto him in faith. See Bom. iv. 12, 
Gal. iii. 7, 29, and iv. 28, &c. 

* Brent, Com. in loc. Gerhard. Tom. 3. Jocor. de lege Dei S. 92. 


Blood is put for bloody men, or those that are malicious and ready to spill blgod," 
or perpetrate any villany, Isa. xxxiii. 5, " That stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood," 
that is, hearkens not to them who conspire or confederate to commit murder, slaughter, 
or other wickedness (for that is synecdochially noted by the word blood.) See Prov. i. 
10, 11, 12, Ac. 

The subject or argument of writing is put for the writing itself, 1 Kings viii. 21, 
" The ark wherein is the covenant of the Lord," tha't is, the tables wherein the covenant 
was written, Exod. xxxiv. 28, so Kom. ix. 4, * Awdij/cew, " the testaments or covenants," 
that is, the two tables of the covenants, as they are expressly called, Heb. ix. 4. So the 
Old Testament is taken for the books wherein it was written and contained, 2 Cor. iii. 14, 
which is common in our vulgar speech to take the Old and New Testament for the books 
wherein they are written. 

5. The Thing signified is put for the Sign. 

The thing signified is sometimes put for the sign materially, that is, for the thing 
itself, which is the sign, 1 Chron. xvi. 11, " Seek the Lord and his strength," that is, 
the ark of the covenant, which was a sign and symbol of his presence and strength. 
So Psal. Ixxviii. 61, Psal. cv. 4. Whence it is expressly called the ark of the strength 
of God, Psal. cxxxii. 8, Ezek. vii. 27, " The prince shall be clothed with desolation," that 
is, with a garment denoting mourning and desolation, 1 Cor. xi. 10, " A woman ought 
to have efcwo-iew power on her head," that is, a garment signifying that she was under the 
power of her husband. 

Sometimes the thing signified is formally put for the sign, that is, for the term or 
appellation of the sign, as Exod. viii. 23, " And I will put redemption between my people 
and thy people," that is, the sign or token of redemption. Deut. xvi. 3, " Seven days shalt 
thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction," that is, a sign, monu- 
ment, or memorial of the affliction, which you endured in Egypt. By this trope bread is 
called the body of Christ, and wine is called his blood, Matt. xxvi. 26, 28, Mark xiv. 22, 
24, 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, that is, a sacramental sign and symbol of his body and blood, insti- 
tuted in remembrance of him. 



A METONYMY of the adjunct is seven-fold. 

1. When the accident is put for its subject in kind. 

2. When the thing contained is put for the thing containing, or a thing hi a place, is put 
for the place. 

3. When time is put for things done or existing in time. 

4. When the opinion of men is put for the thing itself. 

5. When the occupatum, or subject concerned, is put for its object. 

6. When the sign is put for the thing signified. 

7. When a name is put for a person or thing. 
Of these in order. 

1. Wnen the Accident is put for its Subject in kind. 

THE abstract is put for the concrete, Gen. xlii. 38, " Shall ye bring down my hoariness 
(or grey headiness, so the Hebrew) with sorrow to the grave," that is., me that am now 
a Q old man, grey and decrepit with age, 1 Sam. xv. 29, " The eternity (or strength 

D 2 


of Israel shall not lie," that is, the eternal and strong God of Israel, 2 Sam. xL 12, 
" And all the habitation of the house of Ziba were servants unto Mephibosheth," that is, 
Ms whole family, or all that dwelt in his house, as we translate it. Jobjj v. 16, " Ini- 
quity stoppeth her mouth," that is, wicked men are compelled to be silent before God, 
Job xxxii. 7, " Days should speak, and multitude of years should teach wisdom," that is, 
ancient men that are arrived to a great age, or many days. See Psalm xii. 1, and 
Ixviii. 18, " Thou hast led captivity captive," that is, such as were in captivity, as Isa. 
xlix. 24, and Jer. xxix. 14, or actively, making those captives, that kept us in captivity, as 
the world, sin, death, and the devil. So Eph. iv. 8, Col. ii. 12, 13, 14, 15, &c., Psalm ex. 
2, 3, " From the dew of the morning thou hast the dew of thy nativity," that is, thy chil- 
dren, who, as dew seems to be generated of the morning moist air, and then appears scat- 
tered in innumerable drops, so shall thy children be begotten by the preaching of the 
Gospel in innumerable numbers. More examples you may see, Prov. xxiii. 21, Isa. Ivii. 
13, Psalm cxliv. 3, 4, and xc. 8, 9, Jer. ii. 5, Ezek. xliv. 6, "And you shall say to the" 
[rebellion]] so the Hebrew, that is, to the rebellious people. Luke i. 78, "the day-spring 
from on high hath visited us " An epithet of the incarnate Messiah taken from those 
places where he is compared to the sun and light, Isa. ix. 2, and Ix. 1, 2, Mai. iv. 2, &c. 
John xi. 40, " If thou wouldst believe, thou shoeldst see 'the glory of God/' that is, his 
glorious works, Rom. xi. 7, Eph. i. 21, Phil. i. 16, " Supposing to add affliction to 
my bonds," that is, to me in bondage and captivity, 1 Pet. ii. 17, " Love the brotherhood," 
that is, the brethren, or the congregation or assemblies of the faithful, 1 Pet. v. 9. So 
circumcision is put for the circumcised Jews, Rom. iii. 30, and xv. 16, which is a metonymy 
of the sign, and for the spiritually circumcised, Col. ik". 3, which is a metaphor. 

Other adjuncts are put for their subjects, Ezek. xxvi. 8, " He shall s'tir up the buckler 
against thee," that is, soldiers that wear bucklers or targets in war. See Isa. xix. 9, 
Zech. ix. 15. 

Light is put for the sun, KO.T f^ox^v, by way of eminency, because it is the fountain and 
original of light, Job xxxi. 26, Hab. iii. 4. It is put for fire, Mark xiv. 54, " And he sat 
with the servants and warmed himself, ^pos TO <f><es, by the light," that is,, the fire, which 
gives light as well as heat. See John xviii. 18. 

Oil or ointment is put for one singularly anointed, Isa. x. 27, " The yoke shall be 
destroyed, because of the anointing ;" in the Hebrew it is [from the face of oil] or because 
of oil, that is, for the anointing of the Lord and his grace. Junius and Tremellius 
expound it thus : the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing, that is, by and 
through Chribt thou shalt be set free, in whom the Spirit of Jehovah rests, who anointed 
him, Gap. Ixi. 1. Illyricus says, that this is properly fulfilled at the coming of the Mes- 
siah, and the redemption purchased by him, who has broken the yoke, cancelled the hand- 
writing, and taken away the tyranny of the law, of sin, death, and Satan. See chap. 
ix. 4, 6. 

Sin is put for sinners, Isa. i. 18, " Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white 
as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool," that is, the sinners by 
having their iniquities pardoned, shall be cleansed and purified from the guilt and 
condemnation of sin, for sin properly and in itself cannot be made clean, Psalm Ii. 9. 
Matt. viii. 3, " His leprosy was cleansed," that is, the leprous man was healed, Psalm 
xxv. 11, Exod. xiv. 4, Gen. xxxiv. 29, Deut. viii. 17, Job xv. 29, Prov. xxxi. 29, Isa. x. 
14, and xxx. 6, Rev. xviii. 3, Prov. xv. 6,. Jer. xx. 5, &c., Job vi. 22, Prov. v. 10, &c. 

2. The Thing contained is put for the Thing containing, and a Thing in a Place for the 


Gen. xxviii. 22, " And this stone which I have set for a pillar shall be God's house," 
that is, this place where I have erected a statue of stone, Josh. xv. 19, " Give me 
springs of water," that is, some portion of land where there may be springs of water, 
for it is added, that he gave her the upper springs and the nether springs, that is, a field 

PABT 1.] 


in which there were springs in the higher and lower part. See Ezek. xxvi. 5, 14, Hos. 
ix. 6, Amos viii. 5. 

Matt. ii. 11, " They opened their treasures and offered him gifts," that is, they opened 
their cabinets, (for so says Kirstemius upon the place, the Arabic word signifies), or 
purses, where their treasure or precious things were kept. See Psalm cxxxv. 7, 
Matt. xii. 35, and xxii. 13, " Cast him into outer darkness," that is, hell, the place of 
darkness. See more examples, Matt. xxv. 10, " They that were ready went with him," 
tts rovs ya/iovs, "into the marriage," that is, into the place where the marriage was to be 
celebrated. It is said in the same chapter, ver. 21, 23, " Enter thou into the joy of thy 
Lord," that is, into the place of joy, the celestial kingdom, Mark iii. 11. " And unclean 
spirits when they saw him, fell down before him," (viz. Jesus) that is, men possessed with 
unclean spirits. Luke xxi, "For all these have of their abundance cast, s T s<opa eov, 
into the gifts of God," that is, into the (^po <t>v\aKiov, or Gazophylacium) the place where 
those offerings were put, which were bestowed upon God. It is therefore called Corban, 
i. e., a gift, Matt, xxvii. 6. See more, Acts xvi. 13, lfc>, where prayer is put for the place 
of prayer, as also Luke vi. 12, Heb. xii. 1, " Let us run with patience the (aywa., certamen, 
strife, or) race that is set before us," that is, our course in this place of strife, of racing. 
Rev. viii. 3, " And another angel came and stood at the altar, having *.I&O.VTDV > golden in- 
cense, that is, a golden censer," as we translate it. See verse 5. 

To this kind of metonymy may be referred when the wind is put for that quarter of the 
world from whence it blows, 1 Chron. ix. 24, Jer. xlix. 32, and Iii. 23, Ezek. v* 12, 
Matt. xxiv. 14. And where any river is put for the bordering country by which it runs, 
Isa. xxiii. 3, Jer. xii. 5, Zech. xi. 3. See also Jer. ii. 18, where it is withal a metaphor. 

3. Time is put for Things done, or existing in time. 

This is to be understood of the word time itself, as also of names which express parts of 
time, whether it be naturally or by institution, divided. 

Time, 1 Chron. xii. 32, " And the children of Issachar which were men that had under- 
standing of the times to know what Israel ought to do" that is, they were skilful and well- 
instructed in prudence, whereby they know what to do, and when to do it, and there 1 - 
forewent before the Israelites, 1 Chron. xxix. 30, " With all his reign, and his, (viz. 
David's might, and the times that went over him, and over Israel, and over all the king- 
doms of the countries," that is, the various negotiations' and chances, whether prosperous 
or adverse, which in any of those times happened to them. Esth. i. 13, " Then the king 
said to the wise men which knew the times," that is, who knew past transactions which 
happened in the respective times, or who knew how prudently to manage, and act all things 
in season, Job xi. 17, " And thy time shall arise above the noon day," so the Hebrew, that 
is, thy meridian prosperity shall be clearer than the light, or most illustrious. Psal. xxxi. 
15, " My times are in thine hands" that is, my life, health, and the whole state and course 
of my life, for whatsoever changes come, thou governest them by thy providence. See 
Psal. cxxxix. 1, 2, 3, &c., 2 Tim. iii. 1, &c. 

An age, which is a part of time, as Heb. i. 2, " By whom also he hath made aieava, 
the ages," that is, the world, which endures for ages, and therefore all things existing, 
in time, so Heb. xi. 3. This signification comes from, the Hebrew word, chw, which 
signifies both ages and world, Horn. xii. 2. " Be not confirmed to this age," that is, the 
impiety of this world, or the wicked men living in this age. For so C| '> is taken, Matt, 
xiii. 22, Mark iv. 19, Luke xvi. 8, 2 Cor. iv. 4, Gal. i. 4, Eph. ii. 2, and vi. 12, 2 Tim. 
iv. 10, &c. 

Years, Prov. v. 9, " Lest thou give thine honour unto others, and thy years unto the 
cruel," lest thou give thy life unto a jealous husband, who will kill thee, whereas other- 
wise thou mayest be safe and secure. See Chap, vi. 32, 33. 

Days, Deut. iv. 32, " Ask. now of the days that are past, winch were before thee," &c., 
that is, the histories and transactions of former times, search the Annals, I Sam. xxiv. 19. 


" Wherefore tlie Lord reward thee good for this day, which thouhast done unto me," (so 
the original) that is, for the benefit and good I received from thee this day, Mark xiii. 

19, *" Those days shall he such an affliction, as was not from the beginning," that is, 
what shall come to pass in those days or in that time. This denotes such prodigious cala- 
mities, as if that time were even misery itself. 1 Cor. iv. 3, " But with me it is a very 
small thing, that I should be judged of you," or of Man's Day, n vvo avOpwinvus wepas, that 
is, .as we translate it, man's judgment, because there are certain days allotted for judg- 

Eph. v. 16, "Kedeeming the time, because the days are evil," that is, very many evils, 
scandals, and sins, are perpetrated in these times : the Books of Chronicles are called 
the words of days,-^ that is, a repetition, narrative, or rehearsal of the deeds and trans- 
actions of those times. 

The days of any one in scripture phrase is called that time wherein any signal thing 
for good or evil, happens to him. Tor good, as Hos. i. 11, Luke xix. 42, 44. For 
evil, as Job xviii. 20, Psal. cxxxvii. 6, 7, Eccl. v. 19, Jer. xvii. 16, with John i. 3, 
and iii. 10, and iv. 1, 5, 9, 10, 11, Jer. xiv. 7, 20, 21, &c., Ezek. xxi. 19, and xxii. 
4, Obad. 12, Micah vii. 4, Psal. xxxvii. 12, 13. With respect to the effect, calamities, 
and misfortunes, are called the days of the Lord, because he justly punishes men for their 
malignity and wickedness, Job xxiv. 1, Isa. xiii. 6, Joel i. 15, and ii. 1, 2, Amos v. 

20, Zeph. ii. 2, and i. 14, 15, 16, 18. By way of eminency KO.T e^oxrjv, the last judgment, 
when God shall reward every man according to his works, is called the day of the Lord, 
Joel ii. 32, Acts ii. 20, 1 Cor. i. 7, 1 Thess. v. 2, &c. 

The day of the Son of Man. Luke xvii. 24, 26, is expounded, verse 30, to be the 
day wherein the Son of Man shall be revealed. That appellation (by an Antanaclasis) is 
taken otherwise, verse 22, " The days will come when ye shall desire to see one of the 
days of the Son of Man, and ye shall not see it." Brentius upon the place says " The 
" sense, is, because things are now in tranquillity, the Son of Man is despised and re- 
" jected : but so great calamities shall come upon Judea, that men shall desire but for one 
*' day to see me, and enjoy my help, but shall not compass their desires." Illyricus says, 
Ye shall desire to see, that is, enjoy for a small season those good things, and that good 
state you are in whilst I am present with you, but, &c. See verse 23, and Matt. xxiv. 

21, 23, &c. 

Christ calls his day the season of his coming into the flesh, in the fulness of time, 
John viii. 56, " Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day, and he saw it, and was glad," 
that is, he saw it by a peculiar appearance, and believed ; upon which D. Franzius 
says, " None may doubt but a prospect of the face and person of Christ was shown and ex- 
hibited to Abraham in his divine vision, viz., " As he was born of a virgin, came of Abra- 
ham's seed, beginning with miraculous ministrations, exalted from his passion to the right- 
hand of the Father, and to come in the last day, and to crown him in another life." J 

The day of the exhibition of Christ in the flesh is called, Mai. iv. 5, " The great and 
terrible day of the Lord," or as others render it, honourable and fearful, as Jacob adorned 
the place where the heavenly manifestation was made with the same epithet. Gen. xxviii. 
17, " How dreadful is this place? This is no other than the house of God, and the gate 
of heaven." 

This day (viz. the manifestation of the Messiah} is dreadful or terrible to devils, because 
by his power their kingdom is destroyed, John xii. 31, 1 John iii. 8. As also to the im- 
pious and rebellious enemies of Christ, see Mai. iii. 2, and Matt. ii. 3. 

An hour, Mark xix. 35. He (that is, Christ) prayed ; " that if it were possible the 
hour might pass from him," that is, that most bitter passion, the thoughts of which, at 
that time troubled and oppressed him, John xii. 27, " Father, save me from this hour," 
that is from the anxiety and agony, which I shall suffer in the time of my passion. Christ 
spoke of the time of his passion and death, at the thoughts of which (as a true and real 
man) he seemed to be in a great trembling and consternation. 

* Eowrat,' ya,ff at rjfjLepai e>ceu>ai 0\ityis. f naTtm'!! Verba, dierian. De interpret. Script* Orao. 47- 


The end or last time is put for reward, which is wont to he given when one has done 
his work, as Prov. xxiii. 18, and xxiv. 14, 20, Jer. xxix. 11, so 1 Pet. i. 9, " Keceiving 
the re\&, the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls," which the Syriac ren- 
ders reward, or retribution. But this reward given by God is not a debt, but of free grace 
and mercy, because a merited reward or wages must bear proportion to the service done ; 
but no service of ours can bear proportion to everlasting life and happiness, so that it 
necessarily follows, that the reward is purely of grace. 

Feast is put for the sacrifice, which is offered upon the feast-day, as Exod. xxiii. 18' 
" Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread, neither shall the * 
fat of my feast remain until the morning," that is, the fat of the lamb to be sacrificed, or* 
of the sacrifice of my feast, as Junius and Tremellius render it. As also the Chaldee. So 
Isa. xxix. 8, " Let them kill (feasts,) that is, as we translate it, sacrifices." See Mai. ii. 

3.' Psal. cxviii. 27, " Bind the (feast) so the Hebrew, with cords, even unto the horns 

of the altar," that is, the sacrifice of the feast or festival day, &c. 

The Passover is put for the lamb which was slain and eaten on that festival in memorial 
of the deliverance from Egypt, Exod. xii. 21, " and kill the passover," that is, the Paschal 
Lamb, 2 Chron. xxx. 17, Mark xiv. 12, 14, Matt. xxvi. 17, 18, 19, Luke xxii. 8, 11, 
13, 16. 

Summer is put for summer-fruit, Isa. xvi. 9, Jer. xl. 10, Amos viii. 1, '2 Sam. xvi. 2, 
for in these places the Hebrew is only summer. 

Harvest is put for fruit gathered in the time of harvest, Exod. xxiii. 10, Deut. xxiv. 19, 
Isa. xvi. 9, Joel iii. 18. " It is also put for the reaper," Isa. xvii. 5, which we translate 

4. The Opinion of men is put for the Thing itself. 

In Holy Scriptures sometimes things are named and described according to appearance or 
men's opinion (Qcuvoufvws KCU Kara 5o|aj/) and not, (Kara, ro eij'at /cat aA.Tj0eicw) as they are, in 
their own nature. This happens. 1. In single words, as Nouns and Verbs. 2. In a 
conjunct phrase. 

In Nouns, 1 Sam. xxviii. 14, 15, 16, 20. That diabolical spectrum or apparition raised 
by the witch of Endor in the likeness of Samuel, is called Samuel, because he falsely gav e 
out that he was Samuel, and the deluded spectators thought him so. Hananiah is called 
a prophet, Jer. xxviii. 1, 5, 10, not that he was truly so, but so reputed. It is said, Ezek. 
xxi. 3, " I will cut from thee the righteous and the wicked," whereby righteous are meant 
persons that were only so in appearance, having an external form of righteousness which 
begat the good opinion of men, but with respect to God's notice that knows the inward 
frame of the heart, to be unsound, that is, to be unrighteous, Matt. viii. 12. The Jews 
are called the children of the kingdom, because they seemed to be such, and Christ says, 
Matt. ix. 13, "I am not come to call the righteous, (viz., such as are so in their own eyes,) 
but sinners to repentance," Luke xviii. 9, Horn. x. 2, 3, &c. 

Luke ii. 48, Joseph is said to be the father of Jesus (and verse 41, he is said to be his 
parent) because he was thought to be so by men, which is expressly said, Luke iii. 23. 
See John vi. 42. 1 Cor. i. 21, " It pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save 
them that believe " Verse 25, " Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men," &c. 
Where preaching of the Gospel, &c., is called foolishness, not that it was really so, but 
because the worldly wise reputed it so, as verse . 18, viz., to teach salvation by the cross, 
to seek life in death, and glory in disgrace, which the carnal worldling thought folly, as 
verse 23. 

* Adepts festi mei. 


The Devil is said to be the god of this world, 2 Cor. iv. 4, because he boasts that the 
kingdoms of this world are at his disposal, Matt. iv. 8, 9, Luke iv. 6, 7, and because ido- 
.laters esteemed him a god, viz., in their idols, as Chemnitius * says. He is called the 
god of this world, as a dog is called the god of Egypt, because he was worshipped for a 
god. So the belly is called God, because men took more care to provide for it, than to 
serve God, Phil. iii. 19, &c. 

Gal. i. 6. false teaching is called another Gospel, because some men thought it so, 
whereas it is really (as verse 7,) a perverting the Gospel. Epimenides is called the pro- 
phet of the Cretans, Tit. i. 12, because they accounted him so, and after his death sacrificed 
to him, as Laertius witnesses. External profession is called faith, Jam. ii. 14, 17, 20, 24, 
26, because men are apt to rest in it as sufficient for salvation, see Jude xii. 3, &c. 

In verbs, Matt. iv. 9, " The king (viz. Herod) was sorry," that is, he counterfeited sor- 
row ; for verse 5, it is said, " he feared the multitude," when he would put John Baptist 
to death, of whom the people had a very great esteem; so that this sorrow was nothing 
else but artificial and feigned. 

It is said, Mark vi. 48, " That Christ would have passed by them," (viz. his disciples 
at sea) that is, he seemed to pass by, or such was the posture and motion of his body as 
if he would pass by, John iii. 30, " He must increase, but I must decrease ;" this increas- 
ing and decreasing is spoken with respect to the opinion of men, who had extraordinary 
esteem of John hitherto, and vilified Christ, otherwise speaking according to the nature of 
the thing, John Baptist was not diminished by the increasings of Christ, but afterwards 
derived his own increasings from his fulness. 

Acts xxvii. 27, " The shipmen deemed that some country drew near to them," (so it 
is in the Greek irpoa-ayeiv, appropinquare sibi aliquam Regionem) because the shore seems 
to move and draw near to them which are at sea ; but it is to be understood that they 
drew near land, so Virgil 3, &neid Provehimur portu, terraegue urbesque recedunt, that is, 
we sail from the port, and the lands and the cities go back. 

Enjoined words, or an entire phrase, Psal. Ixxii. 9, " his enemies shall lick the dust," 
that is, they shall be so inclining and prostrate towards the earth, that they shall seem to 
lick the dust of the earth, which is a description of fear and subjection. So Isa, xlix. 23, 
and Micah vii. 17, &c. Isa. xiii. 5, " they shall come from a far country, from the end 
(or extreme part) of heaven." This phrase is taken from the opinion of the vulgar, who 
(led by the guess of the eye) think that heaven is not spherical or round, but hemispheri- 
cal, ending at the extremes of the earth, upon which the end or extremes of heaven seem 
to lean, or be staid upon, so that the end of heaven is put for the end of the earth, or re- 
motest places ; you have the same phrase, Deut. iv. 32, and xxx. 4, Neh. i. 9, } Matt. 
xxiv. 31. This exposition maybe confirmed by the places where mountains are called the 
foundations of heayen, as 2 Sam. xxii. 8. Because at a great distance the heavens seem 
as it were to rest upon them. They are called the pillars of heaven, Job xxvi. 1 1 , be- 
cause heaven seems to be propt by them as by pillars. 

5. The Occupate put for the Object. 

Sense is put for its object, or the thing which is perceived by sense, as hearing 
is put for doctrine or speech, Isa. xxviii. 9, " Whom shall he teach knowledge ? And 
whom shall he make to understand hearing ?" so the Hebrew, that is, doctrine, or the 
word, Isa. liii. 1 , " Who hath believed our hearing ?" that is, our doctrine or speech, or 
as we translate it, report ? So is O.KO-II, hearing, taken, John xii. 38, Eom. x. 1 6, Gal. 
iii. 2, 5. Hearing is put for rumour or fame. Psal. cxii. 7, Isa. xxviii. 1 9, Ezek. vii. 26, 

* Loco de creatione, p. 119. 

f Vatablus in Neh. i. 9, Finitor slve horizon noslri hemisphcerii u detur contingere earn Regionem, 
quant ierminat. 


Obad. i., Hab. iii. 2, Matt; iv. 24, and xiv. 1, and xxiv. 6, Mark i. 28, and xiii. 7, &c. 
By the same trope the eye is put for colours seen by the eye, and are the object of sight, 
as in the original text of the following places, Numb. xi. 7, Lev. xiii. 55, Prov. xxiii. 31, 
Bzek. i. 4, and viii. 2, and x. 9. So two eyes are put for a double way, which give occa- 
sion to look upon both, Gen. xxxviii. 14, 21. Some say this' is a proper name, some say 
it is- two fountains. 

Affections, and what bear analogy with them, are put for their object, as faith for the 
doctrine, which is received and believed by faith, Acts vi. 7, Gal. i. 23, Eph. iv. 5,1 Tim. 
iv. I, Tit. i. 13, Jude 3, Rev. ii. 13, See Gal. iii. 23, 25. 

is put for God, hi whom we hope, and from whom we expect every good thing, 
Psal. Ixxi. 5, " For thou art my hope, O Lord," that is, he in whom I hope, the support 
of my hope, and the God of my strength. See Jer. xiv. 8, Psal. Ixv. 5, 6, Jer. xvii. 7, 
13, &c. 

It is put for the Messiah or Christ specially, Acts xxviii. 20, " For the hope of Israel I 
am bound with this chain," that is, for the Messiah, who is hoped for and desired by Is- 
rael, or (which is the same thing) for the good hoped for from the Messiah, Acts xxvi. 6, 
7, 8, so Col. i. 27, and 1 Tim. i. 1, Christ is called our Hope. 

It is put for men, from whom we expect good or confide in, as Isa. xx. 5, " They shall 
be ashamed of Ethiopia their hope," as verse 6. Likewise hope is put for the thing hoped 
for, as Prov. xiii. 12, " Hope deferred maketh the heart sick, but when the desire cometh, 
it is a tree of life," that is, the thing hoped for and desired, Bom. viii. 24, " Hope that is 
seen, is not hope," that is, the thing hoped for, &c., Gal. v. 5, " For we through the 
Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith," that is, eternal life, promised to the just 
by faith,,so Tit. m 13. 

Love is put for the person or thing beloved, Jer. ii. 33, " Why trimmest thou thy way 
to seek love ?" that is, that which thou lovest, Jer. xii. 7, " I have given the love of my 
soul into the hand of her enemies," that is, the people dearly beloved by me, as the Chal- 
dee renders it, Hos. ix. 10, " And then: abominations were as their love," that is, the idols 
which they love. 

Desire is put for the person, or thing desired and loved, Ezek. xxiv. 16, " Son of man, 
behold, I take away the desire of thine eyes from thee with a stroke," that is, thy de- 
sired and beloved wife, as verse 18, so verse 21, " Behold I will profane my sanctuary, 
the excellency of your strength, the desire of your eyes," that is, that- which you love 
and delight in, as verse 25, for that which the mind longs after is ascribed to the 
eyes, as, " the lust of the eyes " is put, 1 John ii. 16. This may give some' light to that 
passage, Hag. ii. 7, where Christ is called the " desire of all nations " the sense is, that 
the nations will extremely desire him, love him, embrace him, and hope in him, that is, 
when they are converted to the kingdom of Christ by the voice of the Gospel (to whom 
the name Gentiles is ascribed, Kom. xi. 13, and other places). The term desire is some- 
times put for the affection of love ; for to be desired, signifies to be loved and esteemed, 
(by a metonymy of the eftect for the cause), for as much as love begets desire after the 
thing beloved, of which you have examples, in Gen. xxvii. 15, Psal. xix, 10, 11, (with 
cxix. 126, 127), Prov. xxi. 20, Cant. v. 6, Isa. i. 29, and xxxii. 12, and xliv. 9, Jer. iii. 
19, Lam. i. 7, 10, and ii. 4, Dan. ix. 23, and x. 11, 1'J, Hos. ix. 6, Amos v. 11, Zech. 
vii.,14, &c. 

Fear is put for God, who is feared, Gen. xxxi. 42, " The fear of Isaac," that is, the 
God whom Isaac feared and worshipped, so verse 53. Junius and Tremellius think this 
phrase alludes to that fear, by which God (as it were with a bridle) restrained Isaac from, 
revoking or recalling that blessing he gave to Jacob, chap, xxvii. 35, &c. 

Isa. viii. 13, " Let him be your fear, and let him be your dread," that is, let God be 
feared and dreaded by you. 

Fear is put for the evil feared, Psal. liii. 5, " They feared a fear, where no fear was," 
that is, they feared where there was no evil nor clanger, which is the object and cause 
f fear. Prov. i. 26, " / will mock when your fear cometh," that is, that which you fear and 
tremble at, as verse 27, "When your fear cometh as desolation, and your destruction c 



eth as a whirlwind ; when distress and anguish cometh upon you.' ? See Prov. iii. 25, &c., 
2 Cor. v. 11, " Knowing rov QoBov the fear of the Lord," that is, the terrihle judgment of 
the Lord. 

An action is put for its object, Exod. xv. 2, " The Lord is my strength and praise," 
that is, the God whom I praise, and who is the scope or argument of my song. 
The like we have, Psal. cxviii. 14, expounded, verse 15, 16, Jer. xvii. 14, the pro- 
phet calls the Lord his praise, that is, the object of his praise, and thanksgiving, for 
his great goodness. See Deut. xxviii. 8, and xii. 7, &c., 1 Sam. i. 27, "And the Lord gava 
me my petition," that is, the thing I asked, so Job vi. 8, 2 Thess. i. 11, Heb. xi. 13, 
Acts i. 4, " Wait for the promise of the Father," that is, the Holy Spirit promised by the 

6. The Sign is put for the Thing signified. 

IN nouns, Gen. xlix., " The sceptre shall not depart from Judah," that is, the royal au- 
thority, so Isa. xiv. 5, Zech. x. 11, &c., A throne is also put for regal authority, Psal. 
Ixxxix. 4, and a crown or diadem, Psal. Ixxxix. 39, Ezek, xxi. 26, &c., unction is put for 
the priesthood, Numb, xviii. 8, altars for divine worship, 1 Kings xix. 10, Psal. xxiii. 4, 
" Thy rod and thy staff comfort me," that is, thy care and love towards me ; for a rod 
and a staff were a sign of pastoral care and office of the shepherd to his flock ; this is 
withal an Anthropopathy, whereby God is represented as a Shepherd, and things relating 
to a shepherd attributed to him, Psal. cxl. 8, " Thou hast covered my head in the day of 
arms," so the Hebrew, that is, in the day of battle, and adversities which hostility brings, 
the signs and instruments whereof are arms, Psal. xliv. 6, "For I will not trust in my bow, 
neither shall my sword save me," that is, my military skill, fortitude, prudence, or stra- 
tagems, of which the signs and instruments of exercise were a bow, and a sword. To 
which the divine strength and goodness is opposed, verse 7, " But thou, Lord, hast 
saved us from our enemies." 

So elsewhere a sword is put for war and hostile violence, Exod. xviii. 10, Isa. i. 10, and 
ii. 4, 2 Sam. xii. 10, Lam. v. 9, Ezek. xxi. 3, 4, 9, &c.,in which there is also a metonymy 
of the organical or instrumental cause, as before. See other examples, Psai. cxliv. 11, and 
Matt. x. 34, &c. 

Matt, xxiii. 2, " The Scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' chair." The chair of 
Moses metonymically denotes the power of teaching, judging, and ruling the people, of 
which it was a symbol; which things are expressed by the name of Moses, who was 
instructed by God to teach and govern, and who exercised both by the authority 
of God, and left the rules in writing for the posterity of the Jews to observe. The 
term to sit also aptly notes both; for the public teachers, for the most part sat, 
Matt. xxvi. 55, Luke iv. 20, John viii. 2, Acts xxii. 3. " The judges also sat in a 
chair or tribunal/' Exod. xviii. 13, Judg. v. iO, Matt, xxvii. 19, from whence to sit is 
put for ruling and judging, Psal. xxix. 9, 10, and ex. 1, (see 1 Cor. xv. 25), 2 Thess. 
ii. 4, and whereas the Priests, Scribes, and Pharisees sat in the seat or chair of Moses, 
and did conform to the way of teaching, and government of the -^people, according to the 
rule of the divine law given by Moses. Christ, ver. 3, commands obedience to them ; but 
gives a caution to take heed of their leaven, that is, their false doctrines, and feigned tra- 
ditions, as Matt. xvi. 6, 12, for that did not belong to the seat of Moses, but to the seat of 
the scornful, or chair of pestilence, as Jerome renders it, Psal. i. 1, the throne of iniquity, 
Psal. xciv. 20, &c., Eom. iii. 30, and xv. 8, Col. iii. 11. The Jews are called the circum- 
cision, because that was the sign whereby they -were distinguished from other nations ; and 
the Gentiles are called the uncircumcision, because it distinguished them from the Jews, 
Gal. ii. 7, 8, Eph. ii. 11, Bom. ii. 26, 27, and iii. 30, Col. iii. 11, &c. 

In verbs, sometimes to hide,-\ signifies to protect, and put in a safe place, sometimes to 
leave or depart from another, for hiding is a sign of both. Of the former we have 
examples, Job v. 21, Psal. xxvii. 4, 5, and xxxi. 20, 21, and Ixiv. 2, 3, &c., where 
there is also an Anthropopathy, when the speech is of God. Of the latter we have ex- 
amples, Gen. xxxi. 49, " when we are hid one from another," so the Hebrew, that is, when 

* Gram. Sacr. p. 283. f Aliscondere. 


. W e depart or are absent from one another, Deut. xxii. 1, " Thou shalt not see thy brother's 
ox, or his sheep go astray, and hide thyself from them," that is, thou shalt not go away 
and let them alone, but bring them back, so Isa. Iviii. 7. 

To sleep is put for to be secure, because sound and pleasant sleep is an evident 
sign of security, Psal. iii. 5, and iv. 8, puffing is put for contempt, for a slight puff 
of the mouth denotes when a matter is despised as an inconsiderable thing, Psal. x. 5, 
and xii. 5. 

To kiss signifies love, obedience, obsequiousness, and submissive respect, of 
which in ancient times a kiss was a sign, as Gen. xli. 40, 1 Kings xix. 18, Psal. ii. 
12. To this some refer that phrase, Matt. v. 47, Heb. xi. 13, atnmfaOcu, osculo salutqre ; 
for aenrafouat signifies to salute with kissing, and embracing, and so is put for a receiving 
or embracing in love, or faith in hope.* 

To laugh is put for to be joyful, which is the sign of laughter, Job viii. 21, 
Psal. cxxvi. 1, 2, Gen. xxi. 6, Luke vi. 21, 25, and to be secure, Job v. 22, to stand 
is put for to minister, Ezek. viii. 11, Zech. iii. 1. For it is the sign of a servant to 
stand, see Deut. x. 8. To anoint signifies to make a king, or chief lord, Judg. ix. 8. 
For unction was in times past the rite and symbol of the solemn inaugurations of kings, 
as in many places of the Old Testament appears. 

In conjunct phrases, to shut and open, none resisting, signifies a full and free power of 
administration, Isa. xxii. 22, " To speak with a stiff neck," signifies proudly to resist and 
blaspheme God, Psal. Ixxv. 5. For an erected neck is the indication of a proud mind. 
To give "cleanness of teeth, signifies famine, Amos iv. 6, because in eating, something of 
the meat sticks in the teeth ; for where that uncleanness of teeth is not found, it 
signifies there was no meat eaten, or a. defect of aliment. To lift up the eyes, sig- 
nifies worship and adoration, Psal. cxxi. 1, and cxxiii. 1, Ezek. xviii. 6, for whom 
we reverence and worship, we attentively behold. To lift up the head, signifies an 
erection of mind, animosity, and joy, as Judg. viii. 28, Psal. Ixxxiii. .1, 2, Luke xxi. 
28, &c. 

The face waxing pale, denotes fear, for shame causes one to blush, and then for fear 
the blood retires from the outward parts to the heart, as Isa. xxix. 22, " Jacob shall not 
now be ashamed, neither shall his face now wax pale." See Job ix. 24. To have a whore's 
forehead notes impudence, for the indications of that appear in the face as well as 
modesty and bashfulness, Jer. iii. 3. 

To bow the knee, signifies subjection and obedience or divine worship, Isa. xlr. 
23, Phil. ii. 10, Eph. iii. 14. Of which genuflexion is a sign, to give the hand some- 
times notes voluntary subjection, as 1 Chron. xxix. 24, 2 Chron. xxx, 8, where the 
Hebrew signifies to give the hand, as in the margin of our Bibles. Sometimes it notes 
begging and imploring, s Lam. v. 6. Sometimes confederacy, as Jer. i. 15, she (that is. 
Babylon) hath given her hand that is, she hath confederated with Croesus King of the 
Lydians, as Herodotus, lib. 1, says, see Ezek. xvii. 1?, Levit. vi. 2, with Gal, ii. 9, 
Job xvii. 2. "To put the hand upon the head," signifies grief, calamity, a.nd sadness, 
Jer. ii. 37, that being a sign of it, as 2 Sam. xiii. 19. " To put a hand upon the mouth, 
signifies silence, or that one cannot answer, Job xl. 33, Micah vii. 16, &o. See other 
examples, 2 Kings iii. 11, Exod. xxviii. 41, and xxix. 9, and xxxii. 29, Numb. iii. 3.. 
Jud. xvii. 12. 

To lift up the hand, is put for swearing, Exod. vi. 8, so the Hebrew, Psal. cvi. 25, 
26, and elsewhere, because such as swore lifted up their hands towards heavea, as, 
Virgil says, 12 JEneid. 

-Deiride Latiuus, 

Suspiciens cselura, tenditque ad sydera dextram ; 
Haec eadem, JEnea, terram, mare, sydera, juro. 

L.eigb. Grit. Sacra. 

K -2 


Sometimes it signifies to pray, as Psalm xxviii. 1, 2, Ixviii. 31, 32, and cxli. 2, 1 Tim. 
ii. 8. And to ~b!ess, Psalm exxxiv., for by that ceremony they used to bless of old. Also 
to indicate, or give notice, Isa. xlix. 22. 

To this may be referred where eating and drinking is put for health and life, as 
Exod. xxiv. 11. See Gen. xvi. 13, Psalm ii. 3, " Let tts break their bands asunder, and 
cast their cords from us," that is, let us remove this troublesome servitude, which by 
bonds and cords, as by certain signs, is noted. See Psalm xlvi. 9, " He breaketh the 
bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder, he burneth the chariot in the fire," verse 10, " Be 
still and know that 1 am God," that is, he which puts an end to wars, and tameth the 
enemy, of which (viz., hostility) these things were dismal signs. See Psalm Iviii. 10, 
and Ixix. 11. See Job xvi. 15, Psalm xxxv. 12, Joel i. 3, Amos viii. 10, &c. 

Isa. ii. 4, " And they shall beat their swords into plough-shares, and their spears into 
scythes," or pruning-hooks ; that is, there will be a constant peace, of which there is 
not a more certain sign than when arms are turned into rustic or country instruments, 
which are useful in the time of peace. And because the prophet speaks of a spiritual 
peace in the time of the Messiah, here is also a metaphorical Allegory. 

Isa. xlix. 28, " They shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth and lick 
up the dust of thy feet," that is, they will give thee honour and reverence, for the sake 
of Christ thy head, who dwells in thee : for this speech is of the New Testament 
church. See Psalm Ixxii. 8, 9, &c., Jer. xxxi. 19, " After I was instructed, I smote upon 
my thigh," that is, after my sin was shown unto me I was affected with grief of mind. 
For smiting the thigh was an indication of grief, as Homer, Iliad II. says of Aehillis, 
that JM?P< -Jfyn^fifvos, when he had smote his thighs, he spoke' to Patroclus, Odyss. 5. 
" He cries out, miserable ! and struck his thighs," &c., Lam. ii. 10. 

Lam. ii. 10, " The elders of the daughter of Sion sit upon the ground and keep silence, 
thfy have cast up dust upon their heads, they have girt themselves with sackcloth, the 
virgins of Jerusalem hang down their heads to the ground " by these signs a most ex- 
treme grief is described. Jonah iv. 11, " That cannot discern between their right hand 
and their left hand," that is, that are not come to the years or age of discretion. The 
signs and effects of reason and judgment are said to be wanting, yea, even judgment 
itself and the use., of reason, and convenient age for the exercise of it. 

In entire speech, hither may be conferred that custom of speaking in sacred 
scripture, whereby in commands or promises such things are put, which men were 
wont to do, and are only the signs of those things which are intended and understood 
by that speech, as when the prophet Elisha commands Gehazi his servant, 2 Kings 
iv. 29, and Christ his disciples, Luke x. 4, " To salute no man by the way/' by which 
is intimated that they were with all expedition and dispatch to do their errands, and 
to avoid all interruptions by the way. For it is a sign of great haste among men if 
they are so intent upon the end of their journey or business, that they take no notice 
of any body -they meet, so as to salute him or discourse with him. Otherwise mild, 
courteous, and civil salutations are reckoned among Christian duties, &c. 

Jer. jx. 17, " Thus saith the Lord of hosts,, consider ye. and call for the mourning 
women, that they may come, and send for cunning women that they may come," and 
verse 18, " And let them make haste and take up a wailing for us," &c. The Lord does 
not approve of the dissembled wailing-women in mourning at funerals, but speaks 
according to the vulgar custom, denoting by this, and informing the people of the 
bitteraess of the present calamities. See Amos v. 16, &c. Jer. x. 17, " Gather up thy 
wares out of the land, O inhabitant of the fortress," that is, bundle and bind up your 
precious things together, as verse 9. The sense is, that they were not to remain 
there, but to be led into captivity, as chap, xviii. where the reason of this judgment 
is to be read at large. For they that are in a garrison, and doubt its strength, do 
convey their precious things to places of more security. This also may be an. irony, 
as if the Lord bad said, ye cannot effectually bring to pass any thing to free you and 
yours. 'We have the like place, Jer. xlvi. 19, &c. By destroying the weapons, Ezek. 
xxxix. 9, 10. The certainty of the promised victory, and the peace that would ensue 
is denoted, as Isa. ii. 4. 

Matt. xxiv. 20, " But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, noron the sabbath- 
day," The disciples are commanded, with respect to the dreaclfulness and peril of 
the siege of Jerusalem, to do those things which belonged to the Jews, who thought 

PART 1-1 OF AN HtONT. 29 

that it was not lawful for them on the sabbath to go above * 1000 greater (or 2000 
lesser) paces ; and therefore they ought to pray, that they may not be necessitated to fly 
on the sabbath, because the accustomed sabbath-day's journey would not be enough to 
convey them beyond the danger of the Roman soldiers.- And by this the grievousness of 
the calamity is indicated. 

Luke xxii. 36, " Then said he (that is Christ) unto them, but now he that hath a purse, 
let him take it and likewise his scrip : and he that hath no sword, let him sell bis gar- 
ment, and buy one." By this speech is signified, that to that quiet and comfortable way 
of living, which the apostles hath hitherto enjoyed in the school of Christ, should im- 
mediately succeed a most grievous persecution, even to be begun that very night, and 
that the enemy with swords and clubs, were at hand, so that such as confide in an 
arm of flesh, and would consult (as men) about the security of themselves and theirs, 
could have no better way, than to dispose of all, even to their very coats, and provide 
themselves with military defences to resist the enemy's violence. By this sign there- 
fore, the thing signified is to be understood ; for Christ does not require, that his 
apostles should buy swords and defend themselves ; but by the necessity of a sword, 
he symbolically insinuates or intimates the grievousness of that danger, which threatens 
them from the enemy. So says Theophylact and Enthymius upon the place. The 
apostles understood these words of Christ properly, and therefore say, ver. 38, " Lord, 
here are two swords, to whom he said it is enough." By which answer he modestly 
and tacitly reprehends the absurdity of his disciples ; as if he had said, I perceive you 
do not apprehend die meaning of my parabolical speech, therefore it is enough to have admon- 
ished you thus much ; your experience, and the fulfilling of my prediction, will supply the 
place of an exposition, when in a little time a military host shall invade, to repel which a 
hundred swords shall not be enough. See Brentius and Erasmus upon the place. 

7. A Name is put for the Person, or Thing. 

THE name of God is put for God himself, Deut. xxviii. 58, " That thou mayest fear this 
glorious and fearful name," (viz. the Lord thy God,) Psalm xx. 1, " The name of the 
God of Jacob defend thee," that is, the God of Jacob. So Psalm cxv. 1, Isa. xxx. 27, 
Mic. v. 4, and frequently elsewhere, John iii. 18, " Because he hath not believed in the 
name of the only begotten Son of God," that is, Son of God himself. So John xvii. 6, 
Acts iii. 16, and x. 43, 1 John ii. 12, &c. 

Name is put for man, Acts i. 15, " The number of the names together, were about one 
hundred and twenty," that is, so many men. So Rev. iii. 4, and xi. 1 3. Erasmus says, 
the reason of this speech is, that when men are numbered, their names are called over. 

Name is put for son, for posterity, because they are called, by the name or sirname of 
their ancestors, Deut. xxv. 7, 1 Sam. xxiv. 22, 2 Sam. xiv. 7, &c. 

Name is put for the thing itself, Acts iv. 12, " For there is none other name % under 
heaven given unto men whereby we must be saved," that is, there is no other way or 
means of salvation but by Christ. Eph. i. 21, " Every name that is named," that is, every 
thing in nature. It notes also dignity or eminence, Phil. ii. 9, " Wherefore God also 
hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name," &c. 



AN irony is a trope whereby contraries or opposites are put for one another, or when by 
the thing named a contrary thing must be understood. The word properly signifies 
dissimulation or cavilling, Foxeipwveia,proprie dissimulationem, et elusionem sen cavillationem 

Goodwin iii his Moses and .Aaron says, that 2000 geometrical cubits is a Sabbath day's journey. Lib. 3. 


significat. This trope may more rightly be called Antiphrasis, which uses words contrary 
to their proper meaning, or original and genuine sense ; avrifyacris, sermo per contrarium 
intelligendus, ex *"" contra, et <j>pa& dico. It may be distinguished into, 

1. "Words singly or by themselves, considered, which is called Antiphrasis. 

2. Words so placed or disposed in a sentence, as denote derision, or a kind of a 

mock, which vulgarly is called an Irony, of which Sarcasmus is a certain kind, 
which is sharper than an Irony, as when one insults over them that are op- 
pressed with calamities. 

Antiphrasis of words singly or by themselves considered. 

Sometimes^ one and the same word has contrary significations, as T 1 ^ Barak, whicli 
properly signifies to bless, as Gen. xii. 3, and xxiv. So, 2 Sam. viii. 10, Psal. xxxiv. 1, 
and many other places, is used in a contrary sense by an Antiphrasis, as 1 Kings xxi. 10, 
" Set two men before him, sons of Belial, to bear witness against him, saying, Thou 
didst bless God and the king," which Pagninus, the Chald. Paraph, and our version do 
render, thou didst curse or blaspheme God and the king. So verse 13, where the 
execution of this wicked Jezebel's command is described. Job i. 5, " Peradventure my 
sons have sinned and blessed God in their hearts," (which Pagninus renders, have cursed,) 
and the Chald. that they have provoked or stirred him to anger. Upon which place 
Vatablus says, that the ancients did so abhor blasphemy, that they durst not even name 
it, chap. i. 11, and ii. 5, "If he will not bless thee to thy face, Pagninus says, curse 
thee, &c. (the Chald. provoke thee, &c.) After the same manner they expound the words 
of Job's wife, Job ii. 9, " Dost thou still retain thine integrity, bless (Pagninus says 
curse) God and die ;* of these words some make a good construction, affirming that 
she gave her husband good counsel, to this sense ; what, dost thou still stand upon terms 
with God ? Wilt thou not humble thyself, and desist from the conceits and imaginations 
of thine own integrity, since these grievous and sudden afflictions are sent for your sins 
from an angry God ? therefore rather bless him, that is, pray to him, and in humility 
seek his face, (for so to bless signifies to pray, or make supplication) and beg him to release 
thee of this miserable life, since it is better for thee to die once, than to die daily. 

Beza and others say, that it is not likely that the governess of such a holy family as 
Job's, and the wife and companion of so good a man, should be so impudently wicked as 
to give that abominable advice to their husband, as either to curse God, or destroy himself. 
Her error (say they) was, she judged him wicked, because thus smitten, and that he 
trusted upon his own integrity, &c. 

But others with greater probability judge this counsel to be very wicked, for he 
reproves her for it plainly " Thou speakest as one of the foolish women speaketh," and 
certainly Job would never have said 'so, if her speech had only imported an humble pre- 
paration for his approaching death It was rather a speaking the devil's mind, to 
bid him curse God and die, viz. curse God, that the magistrate taking notice of it, 
thou inayest be cut off by the sword of justice, for blasphemers were sentenced to 
death without mercy by the law of Moses, and it is not improbable that the light of 
nature might carry those nations to as high and severe a revenge against that highest 
sin And die, that is, die by thine hand, or destroy thyself, &c. so that the word 
must of necessity be'understood to curse by an Antiphrasis ; as the same word is used 
by the devil, Job i.'ll, " He will curse thee to thy face." The word that signifies 
to be effected or accomplished, Prov. xiii. 19, denotes (to be interrupted or broken,) Dan. 
ii. 1, " And I Daniel was refreshed," Dan. viii.. 27. But Pagninus and our translation 
render it, / fainted, for it follows, I ivas sick. It also signifies to shine, Job xxix. 3, 
xxxi. 26, Isa. xiii. 10. Also to praise or celebrate, Psalm cxvii. 1, Isa. Ixiv. 11, &c. And 
by an Antiphrasis, to be inglorious or fools, Psalm Ixxv. 4, Job xii. 17, Isa. xliy. 25, &c. 

* See Caryl upon the place. 


The word tort that signifies benignity, mercy, and gratitude, Deut. v. 10, Judg. viii. 35, 
2 Sam. ix. 1, Psal. cxli. 4, 5. By an Antiphrasis signifies the quite contrary, Lev. xx. 
17, Prov. xiv. 34. 

The word which signifies to possess an inheritance, Gen. xv. 3, Deut. ii. 24, 31, 1 Kings 
xxi. 15, Isa. xiv. 21, signifies to be destroyed or thrown out of possession, Deut. ii. 21, 
22, Judg. xiv. 15, Josh. viii. 7, and xxiii. 5. 

The word toa that signifies inconstancy, levity, and folly, Psal. Ixxxv. 8, Prov. ix. 13, 
Eccl. vii. 26. By this figure signifies constancy, confidence, and hope, as Job xxxi. 24, 
Psal. Ixxviii. 7, Prov. iit. 26. 

TDD: Nephesh, which signifies the soul, Gen. i. 30, &c., (and synecdochially the per- 
son itself, Gen. ii. 7, and xvii. 14, Psal. xi. 1, and more generally an animate body or a 
living creature, Gen. i. 24, &c.,) by an Antiphrasis signifies a carcase, or a lifeless 
body, Lev. xix. 28, so xxi. 1, and xxii. 4, Numb. vi. 11, and v. 2, Hag. ii. 14. To this 
signification some refer, Psal. xvi. 10, " Thou shalt not leave iny soul in the grave," that 
is, my body. 


The word *npi which signifies to be sanctified or made holy, Exod. xxix. 37, 43, &c., 
signifies also to be defiled, Deut. xxii. 9, Isa. Ixv. 5, O'ST Bephaim, giants, signifies 
sound and strong persons, Gen. xiv. 5, Deut. ii. 11, and by Antiphrasis men dead or 
that no medicine can cure (from BI sanavit, he hath cured,) Psal. Ixxxviii. 10, Isa. 
xxvi. 14, 19, Prov. xxi. 16, &c. To this may be referred the word eoAoyra, which signifies 
a virtue, as benediction, praise, a free gift, &c., Bom. xv. 29, 2 Cor. ix. 5, 6, Eph. i. 3, 
Heb. vi. 7, Jam. iii. 10, Bev. v. 12, 13, and vii. 12, &c., and also a vice, as an hypocriti- 
cal conformity or dissembling praise in order to deceive, as Bom. xvi. 18. Several other 
examples occur,, as of words which have one signification in the root or primitive, and 
another in the derivative, some which signify one thing in one conjugation, and a different 
injanother, which for brevity's sake are left to the observation of the learned, as Isa. xl. 
with Numb. iii. 22, Job xxii. 25, Psal. xev. 3, 4, Gen. xxxviii. 21, Deut. xxiii. 17, Job 
xxxvi. 14, 1 Kings xiv. 24, and xv. 11, 2 Eangs xxiii. 4 7, &c., Josh. xvii. 15, 18, Psal. 
cxix. 40, with Amos vi. 8, &c. 

An Irony of tvords in a sentence. 

In a speech of God and Christ, a thing is said, or commanded, which must be un- 
derstood in a contrary sense, that the'. literal meaning may be found, as Gen. iii. 22, and 
the Lord God said, " Behold the man is become as one of us ;" that* is, he is no ways like 
us, but rather to be abominated for his sin ; it alludes also to the devil's words, verse 5, 
"Ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil." Gesner upon the place says, " Deus 
ejusmodi ironia et indignatione mendacium Diaboli et ambitionem Adami execrdtur," &c., 
that is, " God uses this irony by way of execration oT the Devil's lie and Adam's ambition, 
and aptly inculcates the foulness of his sin, that he may learn to beware ever after." Ambros, 
Ae Elia et Jejun. cap. 4. Irridens Deus, non approbans haec dicit, that God spoke these 
"Words by way of derision, not approbation. Thou thoughtest thou should be like us, but 
because thou wouldest be what thou wast not, thou art fallen from what thou wast, so thy 
ambition to aspire beyond thyself has thrown thee beneath thyself. 

Deut. xxxii. 37, 38, "Where are their gods, their rock in whom they trusted, which 
did eat of the fat of their sacrifices-, and drank the wine of their drink-offerings, let them 
rise up and help you now, and be your protection," as also Judg. x. 14, " Go and cry unto 
the gods ye have chosen, let them deliver you in the time of your tribulation." Jehovah 
in these words does sharply chide the rebellious Israelites, and illustrates the impiety and 
blindness of their idolatries, who had hitherto worshipped such things as gods which now 
m their extremity were not able to deliver them from evil or desolation. 

Job xxxviii. 5, " "Who hath laid the measures of the earth, if thou knowest," &c., God 
speaks these words to Job. as if he had said, you cannot reach to so extraordinary a 

32 OF AN IRONY. . [BOOK 1. 

pitch of knowledge; as to know how God laid the foundations of the earth, and made all 
things of nothing, verse 20, " That thou shouldest take it (viz. the way where light and 
darkness dwell, as verse 19,) at the bound thereof, and that thou shouldest know the way 
to the paths thereof." This is an ironical concession, resulting from the words of the third 
verse, "I will ask thee, and thou shalt make me know," &c. 

Isa. xvii. 3, " The fortress also. shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damas- 
cus, and the remnant of Syria : they shall be as the glory of the children of Israel." Je- 
rome in his comment says, that glory is by an irony here put for ignominy and disgrace. 

Isa. xxix. 1, "Add ye year to year, let them kill sacrifices," upon which Luther says,* that 
the prophet mocks them, as if he had said, go to, proceed in your sacrifices stoutly, it shall 
happen, that you together with your sacrifices shall perish. See more examples, Isa. Ivii. 
12, Jer. vii. 21. xi. 15, srii. 7, xxii. 20, 2 Kings xxiv. 7, Jer. xxii. 23. 

It is said, Ezek. xx. 39, " O house of Israel, thus saith the Lord God, save ye every 
one his idols, and hereafter also, if ye will not hearken unto me " Here is an ironical 
abdication or casting, wherein tacitly they are invited to the quite contrary, viz., true piety 
and the worship of God, Ezek. xxviii. 3, " Behold thou art wiser than Daniel ; there is no 
secret that they can hide from thee." This is an ironical hyperbole, by which the prince 
of Tyrus is checked. For Daniel at that time was accounted the wisest of men, because 
of the most excellent gifts that God gave him, so that it grew to a proverb, &c. So 
that it is only spoken with respect to the opinion or esteem that king had of himself, 
which by this irony is reproved. In Amos iv. 4, 5, is an ironical and sarcastic exhor- 
tation, as appears by the conclusion, verse 12, where they are advised " to prepare to 
meet their God." He alludes to the law of God, Deut. xiv. 28, of tythes : and Lev. 
vii. 13. The offering of leavened bread, which the Israelites in their impure wor- 
ship of idols did iinitate, &c. See Nah. iii. 14, " Draw the waters for the siege, fortify 
thy strong holds : go into clay, and tread the mortar, make strong the brick kiln." An 
ironical exhortation to the enemy, intimating that whatever they attempted to secure 
themselves would be in vain. Zech. xi. 13, " A goodly price that I was prized at of them," 
&c., this was an ironical speech of Christ concerning the price for which Judas sold 

Matt. xxvi. 45, " Christ commands his disciples to sleep on, and take their rest," when 
he means the contrary, it being then rather a time of watchfulness, because he was 
then to be betrayed, and it was therefore a more seasonable time to learn more hea- 
venly instruction before his leaving them. Matt. xxvi. 50, "And Jesus said unto him, 
Friend, wherefore art thou come ?" This is an irony, for he was his treacherous 

Mark vii. 9, " Full well ye reject (or make void) the commandment of God," that is, 
very wickedly. See more, Luke xi. 41, John iii. 10, and vii. 2d, with viii. 14. 

In the speech of saints there are ironies, as David's speech to Abner, " Art thou 
not a man ? we translate it valiant man) and who is like to thee in Israel ? wherefore 
then hast thou not kept thy lord the king?" &c. His meaning is that he behaved him- 
self cowardly and basely in not preserving the king as he ought. 1 Kings xviii. 27, 
Elijah mocked Baal's prophets, bidding them " Cry aloud, because their god may possibly 
be talking, pursuing, journeying, or sleeping, and so should be awaked ;" this is a most 
clear and evident irony, as if he had said, that he is neither a god, nor living, nor capa- 
ble of operation. The like irony we read, 1 Kings xxii. 15, where Micaiah bids Ah ah go 
and prosper, &c., although he knew that he would not prosper. So 2 Kings viii. 10, 
*' Go, say unto him, thou mayest certainly recover, howbeit the Lord hath showed me, 
that he shall surely die ;" this is an irony to delude an impious king, that was enemy to the 
people of God. 

Job xii. 2, " No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you," this is a 
sarcastic irony, as if he had said, ye take upon you to be the wise men, in comparison 
of whom I am as a wild ass's colt, Job xi.- 12, and think when you die, wisdom 

* Tom. 3. fol. 35G in Exotic, h. I. 


must depart with you, Job xxvi. 2, 3, " How hast thou helped him that is without power ? 
How savest thou the arm that hath no strength ? How hast thou counselled him that hath 
no wisdom ? And how hast thou plentifully declared the thing as it is ?" This is an ironi- 
cal confutation. As if he had said, your sayings are most comfortable and excellent, 
as they seem to you, when you have to do with an infirm, abject, and ignorant per- 
gon _ The meaning is, that they are of no effect to judge, preserve, counsel, or teach 
me. Psalm xl. 8, " Philistia, triumph thou over me." This is an ironical apostrophe, 
whereby David checks the insolence of the old Philistines, who for a long time vexed the 

Eccles. xi. 9, " Kejoice, young man, in -thy youth, and let thy heart cheer thee in 
tlie days of thy youth, and walk in the \vays of thy heart, and in the sight of thine eyes," 
&c., which is an ironical concession to the young man that gives himself a loose liberty, to 
follow his sinful pleasure in his young years, and, in a haughty pride and confidence, slights 
God and good things, neglecting his soul for sensuality and (an imaginary ) earthly felicity ; 
but his check and correction follows " But know thou that for all these things God will 
bring thee to judgment." 

Isa. ii. 10, " Enter into some rock, and hide thee in the dust, for fear of the Lord, and 
for the glory of his majesty." This is spoken by way of sarcasm, as if he had said, fly 
from God, and his incensed face, or terrible hand if thou canst, but it is to no purpose, as 
the following verses show. So Isa. viii. 9, 10, see Isa. xxi. 5, compared with Dan. v. 
Jer. viii. 24, iv. 9, 15, and xlvi. 9, 11, where there are sarcasms against the king of Egypt 
and his host, that were puffed up for the conquest of Josias The like Jer. li. 8, 11, about 
Babylon's fall. See Lam. iv. 20, Mai. i. 9, 1 Cor. iv. 8. 

2 Cor. x. 12, " For we dare not make ourselves of the number, or compare ourselves 
with some that commend themselves," &c. The apostle speaks ironically, checking the 
false apostles, who had such magnificent thoughts (and gloried so much) of themselves, 
as if he were nothing to them The like irony he uses to the conceited Corinthians, 
2 Cor. xi. 19, " For ye suffer fools gladly, seeing ye yourselves are wise ; upon which 
Aretius says This speech is a sharp irony, as if he had said, it becomes such principal 
persons as you are to esteem those fools who speak truth, 2 Cor. xii. 13, " What is it 
wherein ye were inferior to other churches, except it be that I myself was not burdensome 
to you ? Forgive me this wrong." He calls that ironically a wrong which indeed was 
none at all, but rather an instance of innocency. 

Moreover, to an Irony are referred, 

(1.) Some things spoken feignedly, and jreipaa-riKus, or uttered by way of trial, as Gen. 
xix. 2, where the angels say to Lot who invited them, " Nay, but we will abide in 
the street all night ;" whereas they were to tarry with Lot,, and preserve him and his 
family from the conflagration of Sodom, as by the thing itself and the event, as also 
from the angel's words, verse 12, 13, is manifest. Gen. xxii. 2, and he said, (that 
is, God to Abraham) " Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and 
get thee into the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the 
mountains, which I will show thee." That this was only by way of trial appears by the 
first verse, and the event ; this passage was intended for a good end, as well with re- 
spect to God, who requires obedience and a perfect resignation of man, although his 
precepts may seem, absurd to our reason, as also with respect to Abraham and his 
son Isaac, who became examples of faith, submission, and constancy to God's will, 
without scruple, questions, or murmuring; besides, there is. respect had to the 
Messiah, whose passion, death, and resurrection is prefigured in this mystical 

Matt. xv. 24, 25, 26, " 1 am not sent but to the lost sheep of the house of Israel 
It is not lawful to give the children's bread to dogs " That this speech was also by 
'way of trial of the woman's faith, appears by the event, and the eulogy which 
Christ gave her, verse 28, " woman, great is thy faith !" The mind differs from 
the speech He seems externally to segregate or distinguish her from the sheep, and 
a t the same instant occultly cherishes and comforts her as his. He compares her 
to a dog, but places her at the same time at the children's table. This passage 



intimates the good and salvation of the -woman and all believers, for we are hereby 
eminently informed by way of sweet consolation of the certainty of divine help, 
though it he for a while delayed by crosses and calamities, as appears by that trying 
silence of Christ, verse 23, viz., " But he answered her not a word," upon which Chry- 
sostom says, " The Lord knew that there was a hidden jewel, which he would not conceal 
from us, but delayed Ms answer, that the woman's sedulity or diligence might become an 
example and doctrine to posterity,''* &c. 

2i Some things are dissetnblingly and hypocritically spoken (and sometimes with a bit- 
ter sarcasm) which are true in themselves, but not comformable to the mind of 
the speaker, as Gen. xxvii. 19, " Joseph's brethren said one to another, behold this 
master of dreams cometh," &c. Such indeed Joseph was, for, verse 5,. &c. he gave infor- 
mation of ihings to come, and had the gift of interpreting other dreams, as chapters xl. 
and xli., but his brethren did not so repute him, but call him so in a way of mockery and 

2 Sam. vi. 20, Michael said to David her husband, " How glorious was the king of 
Israel to day," &c. David was truly glorious in that sacred gesture and art, as he himself 
says, verse 21, 22, but to her it seemed to be lightness and scurrility, void of royal 
gravity, for it is said, verse 16, that she despised him in her heart, Psal. xxii. 8, " He 
trusted in the Lord, that he would deliver him, let him deliver him, seeing he delighted in 
him." These things were most true in themselves, but in the opinion of those mockers 
false, who by this bitter sarcasm denied Christ hanging on the cross, as Matt, xxvii. 43. 
See Isa. v. 19. 

Matt. xxii. 16, the disciples of the Pharisees being sent to Christ say, " Master, we 
know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any 
man : for thou regardest not the person of men." These words were true of our Saviour 
Christ, but not conformable to the mind of the Pharisees, who spoke by way of snare 
and irony ; as Luke xx. 20, appears. See Matt, xxvii. 29, 40, 42, 43, Mark xv. 
29, &c. 

3. Some things manifestly false, and spoken with an intention to deceive, by such as 
knew it to be otherwise, are set forth by way of -j-history and narration, as Gen. iii. 
4, " And the serpent (that is, the devil in the serpent) said unto the woman, Ye shall not 
surely die," for verse 5, " God doth know, that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes 
shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil." This the father 
of lies knew to be quite otherwise, but would by that falsehood circumvent and deceive 
Eve. By the opening of their eyes, which he by a fallacy promises, is intimated the 
aeuteness of the mind and understanding, in comparison of which the former con- 
created wisdom may seem to be blindness. Thus the deceiver plays his game to 
the destruction of Adam and his posterity, had not immense grace stepped in to pre- 
vent it. 

Matt. ii. 8, Herod says to the wise men, " Go and search diligently for the young child, 
and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also." 
His intention was to destroy the Child Jesus, which by the inhuman and execrable mas- 
sacre of the . children afterwards, is evident ; but by this irony and hypocrisy, he would 
delude the wise men. 

Lastly, There are some things where there seems to be an irony, but when, the thing 
is more exactly considered, there is none, as Jer. iv. 16, " The watchers (or keepers) 
eorae from a far country," &c. Some think that by a watchman, or keepers (by an Anti- 
phrasis or irony) we are to understand destroyers. But in truth the Babylonians are to 
be understood, who for their own safety and profit were watchers, lying in wait about 
the fields, lest any thing should escape away, or get from them, as hunters, who watch 
every place of egress out of a wood, lest the beasts they hunt should escape into the open 
fields, as verse 17. 

Horn. 44. ?"?/ Gen. f isoptttcos /cai fju/j-yriKus. 

I.] OF AN IRONY. 35 

Ezek. iii. 24, " Then the Spirit 'entered into me, and set me upon my feet, and spake unto 
me, and said unto me, go shut thyself within thy house." Junius and Tremellius allege, 
that these and the following words are to be understood by an irony ; as if he had said, 
it is a prophet's office to hide himself, when I bid him go forth. There are others which 
say, that it was spoken by way of sarcasm and indignation, paraphrasing thus : if thou 
art resolved to disobey my command, go into thine own house, and experience what it 
is to contend with me : such sarcasms are found, Judg. x. 14, Isa. 1. 11. But the truth 
is, that, because God had sufficiently instructed the prophet by his Spirit, and gave 
him courage to publish his will, and because we do not read that this prophet used any 
tergiversation or shuffling to avoid the work appointed him (as we read of Moses, 
Exod. iii. 11, and iv. 10, 13, of Jeremy, chap i. 6, and xx. 9, of Jonah, chap. i. 3,) 
the best way is to interpret these words properly as they sound, viz. That it is a se- 
rious command of God, that he should shut himself up in his house, and dispatch his 
prophetical actions, mentioned chap. iv. (see also chap. viii. 1,) to which belongs 
what is added "of the binding of men (as it were with cords) by angels at the command 
of God," as verse 25, for God uses these ministering spirits in his government of men ; 
and that which is spoken, chap. iv. belongs to these, is evident by the 8th verse of that 
chapter, &c. 

Matt. iv. 3, " The tempter says to Jesus, if thou be the Son of God, command that these 
stones may be made bread." In which words Theophylact says, there is an irony, as if he 
had said, neither art thou the Son of God, neither canst thou do this. But more truly 
it is to be interpreted a diabolical fraud, for trial of a thing by him not certainly 
known, as D. Chemnitius, in his Evangelical Harmony, says, chap. 19, viz., " The 
" devil had a double purpose. 

" (1.)' To know whether Jesus was really the Son of God, by this reason, that if by 
" his bare word or command he could turn stone into bread, then of certain he is 
" the Son of God ; therefore he says not pray, but command, but if in the extremity 
" of his hunger and necessity, he cannot do this, then he cannot be the Son of God, 
" and therefore Satan would take occasion to despise and mock him, thus, in vain do 
" you trust to that heavenly voice (Matt. iii. 17,) and believe, or hope that others 
" shall believe thee to be the Son of God. 

" (2.) By that temptation the devil endeavours to entice Christ into some sin, or 
" distrust of the divine oracle, or into a vain ostentation, or empty glory, if by the 
" devil's suggestion he should work a miracle, &." 

John xviii. 38, " Pilate said unto him, what is truth ?" In which words some say there 
is an irony. But in exact speaking (of this trope) there appears to be no repug- 
nancy betwixt the words and the mind of the speaker, rather a supine or careless 
contempt and disdain of truth in the heart of Pilate, who argues by way of dimi- 
nution (eAaTTwriKT?) or slight of the matter, as if he had said, If there be a dispute betwixt 
the Jews and thee, about the truth of religion, I do not judge it of that weight, as to lose 
my time to hear your altercations (or frivolous contentions,) &c. 

John xiv. 4, " And he (Pilate) saith unto the Jews, behold your king," which is taken 
as ironically spoken, by many as if he had mocked the Jews, then accusing so abject, low, 
and contemptible a man, who would aspire at the government, and threaten the mo- 
narchy of the Caesars. But it is more proper to say. that Pilate had respect to the pub- 
lic acclamation of the people four days before (when they saluted Jesus as their king, 
Luke xix. 38, John xii. 12, 13.) In this sense they are the words of the excellent D. 
Gerhard,* Jam olim, expectatis Regem vaibis promissum, fyc. " For some time past you have 
expected your promised King, but so soon as. he appears do you wish him dead ? Con- 
sult your own honour, and let it not be said that you furiously persecuted him, to whom you 
have given royal honour. Csesar does not fear this king ; do you rather pity him and give 
over your thoughts of crucifying him. If he be really your King, why, with so great fury 
do you design him for such heavy punishments, whom you ought rather to defend ? But if he 
hath falsely boasted himself to be a King, dismiss him with stripes, which (for his temerity) 
be enough to the sufferer." So therefore by a secret instinct of God, Pilate confesses 

* Harmo. Evangel, iii histor. pass. c. 11. 


Jesus to be a King, even before his crucifixion, as he afterwards attributed a royal name 
and honour to him in the inscription upon the cross, that we may understand that he there- 
fore died, because he is our King, and that the government is upon his shoulders, Isa. ix. 
6, &o. 

Acts xxiii. 5, " Then said Paul, I wist not brethren, that he was the high-priest," upon 
which words we will transcribe the paraphrase of the learned Rivet. " I know there 
are many who assert that the apostle spoke this by an Irony, because when he lived a- 
mong the Pharisees, and being himself a pharisee, although the person should be un- 
known to him, yet by the manner of that court's sitting, he could not but judge who 
among them who was chief or high-priest, having said, verse 3, ' That he sat to judge him 
after the law.' But to me it seems more probable, that Paul, hearing a voice from 
some of those that sat to judge for the priests and all the council came, as Acts xxii. 
30,) and not knowing from whom it came, spoke so. He judged it not to come therefore 
from the high-priest, because so hasty and rash a signification of offence did not be- 
come his office and authority, nor was such a speech of (at least dissembled sanctity like 
to proceed from him. It is therefore plain that this council was not convened in the ac- 
customed place, where the judicatory order and debates were designed or assigned to be 
according to every one's dignity and merit, but near the tower, whither they were called 
from the tribunal where Paul was, which is indicated in the 30th verse of the preceding 
chapter. And he commanded the chief-priest and all the council to appear (in the Greek 
it is e\fle>, to come :) Paul therefore hearing a voice from that company, denounces God's 
punishment to the speaker ; for all they that came with the high-priest sat to judge."* 
See also Fr. Junius paral. i. 98, &c. 

1 Cor. vi. 4," If then ye have judgment (or judicatories) of things pertaining to this life, 
set them to judge who are least esteemed in the church." Some say that these words are 
an irony, because Paul says, verse 5, "I speak to your shame" or blushing.) But it is more 
probable that the apostle spoke seriously. Erasmus upon the place says, " The apostle 
speaks thus, because he would not have Christians to contend before the wicked, but that they 
should rather choose the meanest Christian as an arbitrator of their cause, than wrangle 
before those tribunals." Aretius upon the place says, " The apostle delivers his mind about 
what they should do, for they allege thus, you prohibit us to try our controversies before 
the Heathen tribunals, but where shall we have a competent and capable Judge ? The 
church not only wants a magistracy, but also persons fit to determine and compose such dif- 
ferences as ours. The apostle answers, that the latter is untrue, because the meanest Chris- 
tian in these matters has a right of equality with the greatest. The dignity of the church 
is great, for Paul judges the meanest worthy of the office of being judges, rather than ap- 
peal to a heathen judge, what shall we not therefore hope from superiors ? But that phrase, 
verse 5, *pos evrpairtiv vp.iv Ae-yco (I speak it to your shame) is thus well expounded by Are- 
tius : " This is a new argument taken from public shame ; for to wrangle or go to law, be- 
fore a pagan judge, was no less than to bring a scandal upon the church : therefore there 
is a caution given against that, and because it brought occasion of shame upon the church, 
therefore the apostle says deservedly, I speak it to your shame, &c." 



Of a Metaphor in general, let the following things be noted ; 

1. As to its definition, it is said to be a trope, when a word is translated from its 
proper and genuine signification to another less proper. Or when lilce is signified ly tike. 
Fabius Lib. 8, c. 6. calls it a short similitude. There are other definitions, but all to 
this sense. Some in handling the definition of this trope tell us, that a Metaphor 

* In Isagog. ad Scriptur. Sao: c. 21. Sect. 8, 


may be taken, either from a simple similitude, or from analogy or proportion. And 
that these two are different, because there may be a similitude betwixt two, as between 
a living and a painted man, whence the ,name of the man is ascribed to the picture. 
But in proportion, two answers two, as Aristotle in his second book of the soul com- 
pares a root to the mouth, because it performs the same office to a plant, as the mouth 
does to a living creature. Here is indeed a double similitude, for a "plant is compared to 
a living creature, and the root to his mouth, because plants receive their nourishment 
from tbe root, as a living creature does by the mouth. Of the first sort is that metaphor, 
when drops of dew are called pearls, when flowers are called stars, or a gross corpulent 
man is called a hog. Of the latter are, when the master of a ship has been by poets 
compared to a waggoner, and e contra, because he takes the same care of his waggon, as 
the master does of his ship. In scripture metaphors we shall observe the same distinction, 
but promiscuously. 

2. As to its difference from a similitude and parable, the difference is either contracted, 
or more large ; for in a similitude there is a manifest comparison of one thing with another, 
and so it is a logical argument ; but in a metaphor there is one thing put for another that's 
like it, which nevertheless in its explication is to be handled by an apparent similitude. 
And we are to note here, that frequently in scripture (especially in the Proverbs of Solo- 
mon) a word or phrase may be expounded by the deficient particle. And in such it is 
rather a contracted similitude, than a metaphor ; and therefore many things of that nature 
are not hereafter reckoned amongst metaphors. 

3. As to its dignity, as this trope is the most frequent, so it is the most florid and plea- 
sant, giving a most wonderful energy or power, and evidence to the style of Holy Scrip- 
ture, so that it may be truly called, " the academy or school, where God * communicates 
the knowledge of nature and the creation to his scholars," affording matter enough for their 
most serious and diligent study, making plain those divine and glorious matters therein re- 
vealed, in terms which call for deep scrutiny and search into their nature and properties. 
For, as Rivet tells us, Isag. ad Script. Sacr. cap. 5, p. 49, " The scripture chiefly treating 
about things relating to grace and glory, yet affords occasion for the perfection and study 
of all philosophical knowledge, and borrows so much of natural things, as may serve for a 
looking-glass to represent divine things to our eyes," &c. 

4. As to the manner of handling, whereas the properties of things from whence they 
are deduced, are many and various, there must be great care and accuracy used to find 
out the reason of the similitude, and the scope or intention of the comparison, lest there 
may be an aberration from the proper coherence of the text, or the analogy of faith ; to do 
this it is needful that a person be well acquainted with the respective natures, and the 
philosophical notions and theories of all things from whence this trope is taken, as also with 
the peculiar customs, and distinct qualities of other nations, particularly the ancient Jewish 
state in their ecclesiastical and civil government and economy ; besides the knowledge of 
the original languages, (in which the scriptures were penned, as Hebrew and Greek) which 
very frequently csrry a native grace and emphatical fulness, hardly 'expressible (with the 
same beauty and significancy) in a translation. 

More particularly there oiight to be care taken, that one metaphor be not strained 
to express things in themselves quite opposite, nor make the parallels run till they grow 
lame ; for one metaphor may be brought to signify many things, with respect to some 
different qualities and diverse attributes. Thus Christ is called a lion, Rev. v. 5, because 
noble, heroic, and unconquerable : the devil is called a lion, because roaring, rapacious, 
and devouring, 1 Pet. v.<8 ; wicked men and tyrants are called so, Job iv. 10, 11, 2 Tim. 
iv- 17, because they are fierce, outrageous, and cruel to weaker men, as the lion is to 
weaker creatures. 

By the like reason a unicorn is compared to the godly, with respect to its strength and 
courage, Psal. xcii. 10 ; and to the wicked because of its desperate boldness and spiteful- 
ness, Psal. xxii. 21. 

* Tns <pv<re<os /cat KTiffecas eou <ppovriST\piov (cat TTJS Qeoyvco<ria.s icaiSevrripioi', &c. 


Leaven expresses the wonderful force and penetrating virtue of the word, and 
kingdom of God, Matt. xiii. 33, with respect to its piercing and diffusive quality 
but it is applied to corrupt and evil doctrine, Matt. xvi. 6, 1 Cor. v. 6, 7, because of 
its malignant and souring quality, which is also very spreading, and insinuates itself into 
all the parts. 

Sleep metaphorically denotes the quiet and peaceable death of the godly, 1 Thess. iv. 
13, 14; and the carnal security, carelessness, and infidelity of sinners, Rom. xiii. H 
Eph. v. 14. 

The sun amongst other things denotes happiness, because of its light and splendour, 
Judg. v. 31 ; and infelicity or misfortune, because of its scorching and excessive heat, Psal- 
cxxi. 6, Matt. xiii. 6, 21, &c. 

A shadow signifies protection against evils, as Isa. xlix. 2, and many other places, because 
it defends from intemperate heat. It also denotes great perils and calamities (as Psal. 
xxiii. 4, Luke i. 79,) because of its darkness and fogginess, which are symbols of sorrow 
and evil. 

A river metaphorically denotes plenty of good and desirable things, Psal. xxxvi. 8, 
xlvi. 4, Isa. Ixvi. 12, because of the abundance of its waters and the usefulness thereof 
well-known. It also denotes terrors, perils, and overwhelmings, Psal. xviii. 4, and cxxiv. 
4, because of the danger of its rapid and sudden inundations. 

The harvest is used in a good sense, Psal. cxxvi. 4, 5, 6, Matt. ix. 37, and elsewhere 
because of the great profit and necessity of the gathered fruit. It is also used in a bad 
sense, Jer. li. 33, Joel iii. 13, because it is cut down and destroyed. 

Treasure and treasurer are also to be understood in a good sense, Matt. vi. 20, &c., and 
in a bad sense, Horn. ii. 5 ; both are joined, Matt. xii. 35. 

Sometimes metaphors taken from diverse things, are joined together, where there 
is a necessity of a distinct enumeration ; an evident example of this we have, Lam. iii. 
to the l<3th verse ; here metaphors are taken sometimes from, men of different 
circumstances and capacities ; sometimes from beasts to set forth the punishments in- 
flicted by God. So in Eph. ii. 20, the metaphors taken from civil society, and from 
building are joined together, to set forth the mystical conjunction of the godly in 
Christ, &c. 

3. As to the variety of the metaphors Bartholinus rightly says, that they may be taken 
from all things in the world, whether substances or accidents, natural or artificial things. 
And Cicero says, nihil est in rerum natura, unde simile dud non possit,* that there is no- 
thing in nature from whence a similitude may not be brought, adding, that a variety of 
metaphors is almost infinite. 

Others say, that it is as possible to empty the sea with a sieve, as to reduce or con- 
fine metaphors to certain classes or bounds. The like may (in a manner) be said of 
the metaphors in Holy Scripture. But inasmuch as it is very profitable for such as 
are studious in that sacred writing, it shall be endeavoured so to dispose of most, u 
not all, the metaphors (as much as may be done among such a multitude of them) 
found there, especially the most frequent and illustrious, as that they may be reduced of 
a certain order, under their respective heads, which will enable us to give a sound 
judgment of the most elegant and rhetorical part o the Bible. And if any be mis- 
sing, the harvest being large, it may stir up others to gather up and improve the 

6. As to the right distribution or distinction of metaphors into their right classes or 
heads, some take the method of Plutarch and Quintilian (who to avoid confusion 

* Lid. 3. de. Orationci. 


uch an infinite variety, which can scarce be concluded or terminated by art, rightly say, 
that the most illustrious sort of metaphors are to be expounded and distinguished under 
certain heads, and they make them four, viz. 

1. From animate things (viz. such as have life) to animate, as when God is put for a 
magistrate, or a shepherd for a prince or ruler. 

2. From animate things, to inanimate (viz., things which have no life) as when the 
earth is said to groan, and the olive to lie. 

3. Or from inanimate things to animate, as when Christ is called a door, a vine, &c. 

4. Or from inanimate things to inanimate, as when the mystery of salvation is called a 
foundation, 1 Tim. vi. 19, 2 Tim. ii. 19, &c. 

Others not respecting things as they are in nature, observe a grammatical series, or 
order, because metaphors are found in nouns, verbs, and adverbs. 

In nouns substantives, as where it is said, Deut. xxii. 14, " The fat of the kidnies of 
wheat," for choice grains of wheat, where is a double metaphor. 

First, in fat, for the choiceness or preciousness, and 

Secondly, in reins, which is put for grains, because they are like them in form ; and 
both are joined, because the reins in a living creature are covered with fat. 

Thus Christ is called the "light of the world," John viii. 12; "the good shepherd," 
John x. 11. The apostles are called " the salt of the earth," Matt. v. 13, &c. 

In nouns adjectives, as when one is said to be of uncircumcised lips, ears, heart, as Exod. 
vi. 12, Jer. vi. 10, and ix. 26, for to be of an impure and sinful heart. When the un- 
believing and worldly-minded man is said to be dead, Matt. viii. 22. "When the word 
or heavenly doctrine is said to be sound ; 1 Tim. i. 10, and vi. "6, 2 Tim. i. 1 3, and iv. 
3, &c. ' 

In verbs, as when it is said of the wicked they shall wither, Psal. xxxvii. 2, that is, they 
shall perish. The soul is said to thirst, when it earnestly and vehemently desires any 
thing, Psal. xlii. 2. So when putting on is taken for assuming, as Eph. iv. 24. 

In adverbs, as when to take a thing hardly is put for grief and sorrow, as Gen. xxi. 11. 
To speak hardly is put for roughly or severely, as Gen. xlii. 7. To be grievously wounded 
is put for very much, 1 Kings xxii. 34. Thus in the vulgar Latin edition, but the He- 
brew is without adverbs there. 

But a more proper example, as in Matt. xxvi. 75, he wept viKptas, bitterly, that is, very 
much ; a metaphor taken from taste :' so \afurpcos, splendidly, is put for eminently or sumptu- 
ously, Luke xvi. 1 9. 

But waving these, our method shall be to consider this trope, 
(I.) More specially. 
(^.) More generally. 

1. More specially, which shall be about things that are translated to God, which pro- 
perly belong to man, chap. vii. The 

2. About what things belonging to other creatures are ascribed to God, ch. viii. The 

3. When things properly ascribable to persons, are attributed to things that are not 
persons, chap. ix. 

4. More generally, which shall be to lay down the distinct heads and classes of meta- 
phors, with succinct explications of each. 

o. We shall produce such metaphors taken from God and the creatures, as are obvious 

in universal nature, chap, x., xi., xii. 
6. Such as are taken from sacred persons and things, as divine worship, &c., chap. xiii. 


Of Metaphors translated from, Man to God, which kind is called 

Anthr&popatheia is a metaphor by which things properly belonging to creatures, espe- 
cialiy man, are by a certain similitude attributed to God and divine things. It is lite- 
wise called wyKarapaa-is, condescension, because God in his holy word descends as it 
were, so low as our capacities, expressing bis heavenly mysteries after the manner of 
men, which the Hebrews elegantly call the way of the sons of men. 
. In this metaphor it is very necessary to take great heed that no mean, base, or indecent 
thing be attributed to the most high and holy majesty, but that the reason of the simili- 
tude be always improved with this caution or canon of divinity, viz. 

Whatsoever is translated from creatures to God, must first be separated from all im- 
perfections, and then that which is perfect may safely be ascribed to God.* To under- 
stand these similitudes, as the Lord descends graciously to us, so let us with a devout 
mind (by faith and prayer) ascend unto him, comparing spiritual things with spiritual, 1 
Cor. ii. 13, that we may have honourable apprehensions of him and his divine mysteries, 
which cannot be done without the aid of the Holy Spirit, who only knows the things of 
God, and the depths of his wisdom, revealing them to men by the word, 1 Cor. ii. 10, 11. 

To this may our Saviour's speech be referred, John vi. 53, when by a similitude of 
human things he speaks of the participation of heavenly things. Some of the disciples 
being of gross and carnal understandings, said, this is a hard speech, who can hear it ?f 
abhorring such flesh-eating, and blood-drinking, to whom Christ says, verse 63, " It is the 
Spirit that tniickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing : the words that I speak unto you, they 
are spirit and they are life." That is. my words are not to be received in the mode and 
measure of vulgar or earthly things, but waving such thoughts, by the aid and guidance of 
the Spirit, as things spiritually spoken they are to be spiritually understood, and by faith 
to be believed, for so they are life and give life, &e. 

In proceeding we shall not only show those metaphors that respect God, considered 
singly in his essence and divine majesty, but also as manifest in the flesh. 

Some metaphors are taken from man, and some from other creatures. 

From man as 1. His parts and members. 

2. His affections. 

3. His actions. 

4. His adjuncts. Of which in order. 

The Parts and Members of a Man attributed to God. 

A soul is attributed to God, by which his life, essence, and will, and therefore 
himself, is understood : for as man lives and operates by the soul, so God in himself is 
essential life, and a most pure act "My soul shall not abhor you," Lev. xxvi. 11, " The 
wicked his soul hateth," Psal. xi. 5. See Isa. i. 14, and xlii. 1, Jer. v. 9, 29, Matt. xii. 
8, Heb. x. 38. Hence the Lord is said to swear by his soul, Jer. Ii. 14, Amos vi- 8, 
that is, by himself, as our translation renders it, and agreeable to Isa. xlv. 23, Jer. xxii. 
5, Heb. vi. 13, where it is expounded. 

* Quacunque a creaturis transferuntur ad Deum, repurganda priiis stint ab omnibus imperfectionioAS, 
et turn demum id, quod p erf ectuw. est, Deo atlribuendum. 

f Qtiis ceqito animo audiat, et non potius dbhorreat ab istiusmodi Kpeoxpayta /cai aip-wroiroffia, qnan v 1 ' 
cuJcat ? D. Calixti paraphr. pay. 255. Harmon. Evangel. 


A body, by reason of Ms incorporeal essence, is no where attributed to God, but it is 
ascribed to our Saviour Christ in a twofold respect. 

1. As opposed to the shadows, figures, and types in the Old Testament, the truth, com- 
plement, or fulfilling of the things prefigured by these shadows, being held forth in him, 
Col. ii. 17, " Which are a shadow of things to come, but the body is of Christ," that is, 
the truth and complement is in Christ. And Col. ii. 9, it is said, " That in him dwelleth 
all the fulness of the Godhead, <r/itm:s, bodily," that is, most really, perfectly, and 
solidly, and not hi a typical or shadowy manner, as God manifested himself in the Old 

2. The church is called the body of Christ, Eph. i. 22, 23, " And God gave him to 
be the head over all tilings to the Church, which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth 
all in all." It is called his body, because he rules it, giving sense, life, and spiritual 
motion to it, as a man's head does to his body. It is called his fulness, because 
(though Christ is absolutely perfect in himself and has no need of us) his love is so great 
to his Church, that he will not be without it, any more than a head would be willing 
to want his members. " Father, I will that they also whom thou hast given rue, be with 
me where I am," &c., John xvii. 24, Eph. iv. 12, 15, 16. So much for Christ's mystical 
body. As for the human body of our Lord, it being really, and not metaphorically such, 
it concerns not this place. 

God is called the Head of Christ, I Cor. xi. 3. 
(1.) With respect to his human nature, for in that sense Christ says, the Father is 

greater than he, John xiv. 28. 
(2.) With respect to his office as Mediator and Redeemer, for all the actions of 

Christ were done by the will, order, and commission of the Deity. 
The apostle by the figure climax, or a certain gradation in the same text, calls 
Christ the head of the man, because he chose that sex when he took human nature upon 
him, so becoming the first-born among many brethren, Rom. viii. 29 ; he also calls man 
the head of the woman, because of the pre-eminence of sex, and being ordered her 
Lord and superior. In these places the word is metaphorical, in respect of eminency, 
because the head in the natural body is seated highest, excelling the whole body in 
dignity of sense and reason. 

(3.) In respect of rule and government, the natural body being ruled by it, &e., 
More generally Christ is called the Head of the church, Eph. i. 22, and iv. 15, Col. 
i. 18, &c., in which sense man has no prerogative over the woman as to the partici- 
pation of the benefits of Christ, and mystical union with him, Gal. in. 28, " Neither 
male nor female, for ye are all one in Christ Jesus." Hence it is said, Eph. i. 10, " That 
he might gather together in one head,* all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and 
which are on earth ;" which Chrysostom well interprets, viz., " It is done by the mystery 
of redemption, that celestial and terrestrial things, that is, angels and men, should have one 
head ;" that is, Christ, whereas before by reason of man's sin, heavenly things are sepa- 
rated from earthly. 

A face is attributed to God, by which the manifestation of himself to angels and 
m en, and the various workings of his providence are to be understood : for so God is 
known to us,asone manis known by his face to another: thefaceof God signifies manifestation. 

1. In the blessed state of eternity, Psalm xvi. 11, " With thy face is fulness of joys," 
so the Hebrew, and Psalm xvii. 15, "I will behold thy face in righteousness : I shall be 
satisfied when I awake in thy likeness." Matt, xviii. 10, " Their angels do always be- 
hold the face of my Father, which is in heaven." In this sense, no man can see God's face 
and live, Exod. xxxiii. 20, 23. "For now we see through a glass darkly, but then face 
to face," 1 Cor. xiii. 12, &c. 

2. In the state of mortality, when God in any measure reveals himself. As 

(!) By the face of God, his presence and propitious aspect is noted, as Exod. xiii. 
?' " The Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, and by night in a pillar of 
fre." Exod. xxxiii. 14, " My face," so the Hebrew, " shall go with thee, and I will give 
hee rest," and verse 15, Moses said, " If thy face go not (with us) cause us not to go up 
le uce," &c., that is, if you be not present as heretofore in the pillar of a cloud and fire. 


Hence that appellation given to Christ is deduced, Isa. Ixiii. 9, " The angel of his face/' 
or presence, because by the pillar of a cloud and fire in a visible manner, he led the Is- 
raelites of old, 'and made the face of God, as it were, conspicuous to them : others say, it jg 
because " he is the image of the invisible God," by whom we know the^Father as one man 
is known by his face to another, Col. i. 15, John xiv. 9, 10 ; which cannot be said of any 

The face of God signifies also that glorious appearance of God to the people on 
Mount Sinai, Deut. v. 4, and that more illustrious manner of his revealing himself to 
Moses above any other, Deut. xxxiv. 10. See Numb. xii. 6, 7, 8, &c. Sometimes the 
face of God is put for the place where God reveals himself, and where the ministry of 
the word flourishes ; or as Jehovah himself words it, Exod. xx. 24, " "Where he records 
his name," &c. Thus Cain is said to go forth from the face of God, Gen. iv. 14, 16, 
that is, from the place where his parents worshipped him ; and Jonah rose up to flee 
from the face of the Lord that is, left the church and people of God, to go to 
Tarshish among infidels ; not, but that he knew, that none can so fly from the face of 
God, as to be unseen by him, but he thought that there was no place for divine reve- 
lations besides the holy land,* and therefore hoped that in those strange places God 
would no longer trouble him, nor impose so hard a province upon him as to- preach 
against Nineveh, &c. See Exod. xxiii. 1 5, and xxv. 30, Psalm c, 1, 2, 3, and civ. 4, 
2 Sam. xxi. 1, Psalm cxxxix. 7, Lev. xvii. 10, Psalm ix. 4, &c. Sometimes wrath 
and divine punishment is noted by the face of God, as Psalm Ixviii. 1, " Let them that 
hate him flee before his face " Jer. xxi. 10, "I have set my face against this city for 
evil," &c. Lam. iv. 16, " The face of the Lord hath divided them," &c., 2 Thess. i. 9, 
1 Pet. iii. 12. 

Sometimes the grace, favour, and mercy of God 'j.s ^expressed by it, as Dan. ix. 17, 
Psalm xiii. 2, Ezek. xxxix. 24, Psalm xxxi. 20, and xvii. 2, 2 Chron. xxix. 12, Numh. 
vi. 25, 26, Psalm iv. 7, xxxi. 17, Ixvii. 1, 2, 3, and Ixxx. 4, 8, 20. It is said of men 
to seek the face of God, that is, Ms grace and favour by prayer, Psalm xxvii. 8, 2 Chron. 
vii. 14, 17, Isa. xviii. 3, &c. 

God is said to have eyes, by which we are to understand his most exact knowledge, 
Psalm xi. 4, " His eyes behold, his eye-lids try the children of men " in the word eye- 
brows, there is also a synecdoche., Job xxxiv. 21, " For his eyesf are upon the ways of 
man, and he seeth all his goings ;" that is, he clearly discerns and understands the ways 
of man, which intimates, 1. A present act, (they are). 2. A continued act, his 
eyes are never off the ways of man. 3. An intentive and serious act, this denotes not 
only a bare sight, but also that which is operative, as being done with most exact scrutiny 
and disquisition God looks through and discerns men to the utmost, he beholds not only 
the external acts of men, but also the soul and spirit of them. 

Isa. i. 16, " Put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes," that is, be ye 
pure inwardly as well as outwardly, for I see through you, &c. 

It is said Hos. xiii. 14, " Repentance shall be hid from mine eyes " that is, they do 
not repent ^at all, therefore will I not respite the sentence, but execute it certainly for 
that which is hid from the eyes or knowledge of the omniscient God, is not, nor can have 
existence, Psal. ex. 4, Rom. xi. 29, Isa. Ixv. 16. 

Heb. iv. 13 " All things are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we 
have to do " the word J Terpa.x'n^icr/j.eva, rendered in our translation opened, as very empha- 
tical; for it signifies a dissection, quartering, or cleaving asunder through the backbone, as 
they do in anatomy, wherein they are very curious to find out every little vein or muscle, 
though never so close, so as nothing can be hid The apostle therefore translates this 
word to his purpose, to signify that all the secrets of hearts are so exposed to the notice 
and view of God, as if all were dissected and opened like a mere anatomy. 

2. By the eyes of God may be understood his providential grace and divine 
benevolence 'to men, Deut. xi. 12, " A land which the Lord thy God careth for (or 

* Vide Brotttinra iu loc. f S ee Caryl on the place, Vol. 10. p. 656. 

raofuti, m coif urn sen cermcem resvpino. vpn.^*, tot am spiuam dorsi sicjnificat. Hemming in Com- 


seeketh) " The eyes of the Lord thy God are always upon it, from the beginning of the 
year, even unto the end of the year " that is, he graciously cherishes, takes care for and 
defends it, v l Kings ix. 3, " I have hallowed this house which thou hast huilt, to put my 
name there forever, and mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually" that is, my 
presence and blessing shall be there with you. 2 Chron. xvi. 9, " For the eyes of the 
Lord run to and fro throughout the whole earth, to shew himself strong in the behalf 
of them whose heart is perfect towards him" and Ezra v. 5, "The eye of their God was 
upon the elders of the Jews," &e.," that is, they are under his care and gracious protection, 
while they build the house of the Lord. Psalm xxxii. 8, " I will guide thee with mine 
eye," that is, I will inform thee by my Spirit, and will lead thee in a right way. See 
Psalm, xxxiv. 15, 1 Pet. iii. 12, Ezek. xx. 17, v. 11, and vii. 4, Deut. xxxii. 10, Psalm 
xrii. 8, Zech. ii. 8, iii. 9, and iv. 10. 

3. Sometimes the eye of God signifies divine wrath and punishment, as Amos ix. 4, 
"I will set mine eyes upon them for evil, and not for good." And Isa. iii. 8, "Their 
tongue and their doings are against the Lord, to provoke the eyes of his glory." 

Ears are attributed to God, which denotes not only his knowledge of all things done 
on earth, but also that he understands, approves of, and gives gracious returns to .the 
prayers and applications of his people, Psal. x. 17, xxxi. 3, Iv. 1, 2, Ixxi. 2, and cxxx. 2. 
By the ears of God we are to understand that, 

2. He knows the sins of men, which are said to cry, and enter into the ears of the Lord, 
Jam. v. 4, Isa. v. 9. 

There is a veiy ernphatical phrase of the promise of the Messiah, Psal. xl. 6, " Mine 
ears * -hast thou digged " that is, thou hast marked me as a faithful servant to thyself 
by this the most perfect servitude and obedience is noted from the Son as incarnate or 
- made flesh to the Father. The metaphor is taken from a custom amongst the Jews, that 
the servant's ear should be bored through with an awl, and serve for ever, unless he would 
be made free the seventh year, Exod. xxi. 6, Deut. xv. 17, see Isa. 1. 4, 5, Heb. x. 5. 

A nose is attributed to God, Deut. xxxiii. 10. " They," that is, the Levites, " shall 
put incense before thee," in the Hebrew to thy nose some interpret it, to thy face, that 
is, before thee, Chaldee -ymp The Ixx evoinov o<rv. 

Ezek. viii. 17, " And lo they put the branch to their nose ;" this is rendered, and lo, 
they send a stench to their nose,-j- which the textual Masora says, should be 'S my nose 
(viz., God's nose) which opinion is taken up by Galatinus, Vatablus, and Schindler. 
But the word translated stench signifies also, a branch, so that the meaning of the text 
(as Jerom says) must be this. It was a custom for twenty-five men in the likeness of 
idols to hold a branch to their noses, doubtless of palms, which the Greeks call T a Puia, 
that it may by these be signified that they worship the idols. See Ezra xv. 2. 

A mouth, the instrument of speech, is attributed to God, by which his will, 
word, sentence, command, &c., is understood ; as Josh. ix. 14, 1 Sam. xv. ^4, 
2 Kings xxiv. 3, Isa. xxx. 2, &c. There is a notable place, Deut. viii. B, " Man doth 
Dot live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord 
doth man live," that is, as God hath appointed and administered the means of living, whe- 
ther ordinary or extraordinary, (as that in the desert was when they were fed with, 
ffianna) upon which' place Vatablus J says thus, " Some understand these words of spi- 
ritual life, as if it had been said, that souls are not fed by visible bread, but by the 
word of God ; which indeed is true in itself, but Moses had another meaning ; for 
whereas no person had bread, he alludes to the manna, which was sent as an ex- 
traordinary supply to the people, that it might be received as an evident truth in all 
jjps, that man's life depends not upon bread or any external provision, but upon 
" e good pleasure and providence of God, which preserves nature's order, and the 
feature's being. So that the word of God is not put for doctrine, but the decree 

Messias in duali de auribus suis loquitur, ad eminentiam. spiritualis suce servitutis et oledieHtiai 
andam. -j- fif ecce ip s i inittunt fcetorem ad naauni suuin. 

+ Quidain /also hcec aerba ad spiritualem vitam detorquent, ac si dictum esstil, animas non ali visibili 
e > se <i &d vcrbo, cst id yuidem in se verum, sed alio respexit Moses, &c. Vatublus in loc. 

G 2 


published by God in order to that end. For the Lord throws not off his creatures, for as 
he gives them life, so he sustains it." Heb. i. 3. This speech of Moses is repeated by 
v Ohrist, and opposed to Satan's temptation, Matt. iv. 4. Upon which D. Calixtus* has 
tJiese words. " Our Saviour neither affirms nor denies himself to be the Son of God, but 
urges a most proper argument out of Deut. viii. 3, where Moses puts the Israelites in 
mind how they were fed for forty years, not by usual bread, but by heavenly manna, as if 
he had said, I have no reason to despair, as I must die for want of bread, neither is there 
any necessity that bread should be produced by miracle, because such are not to be Wrought 
at the pleasure or curiosity of every body, but then only when the glory of God requires 
it, and when needful in order to men's salvation : for man lives not by bread alone, but 
by every word which proceeds out of the mouth of God ; that is, by any other way, which 
God in his immense power and unconstrained will has constituted and appointed, that 
thereby the life of man may be supported." 

It is said of Christ, Isa. xi. 4, f " That he shall smite the earth with the rod of his 
mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay "the wicked," agreeable to 2 Thess. 
ii. 8, " Whom (viz., the wicked one) the Lord shall consume with the Spirit of his mouth," 
by which is understood the word of Christ, who shall judge and condemn the wicked. John 
xii. 48. The Chaldee translates it thus : [ J By the speech of his lips will he slay the 
anti-Christ or wicked anti-God] as Guido Fabricus in Ms Syriac and Chaldee Lexicon 
renders it. 

Lips are ascribed to God, Job. xi. 5, when speech or external manifestation of his mind 
are attributed to him " that God would speak and open his lips against thee." Some- 
times lips and a tongue are attributed to God, when he is angry, as Isa. xxx. 27, " His 
lips are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring fire, and his breath as an over- 
flowing stream," &c. Upon which Musculus [| thus paraphraseth, " These things are 
ascribed to God after the manner of men, and are terms borrowed from a warrior vehe- 
mently provoked against his enemy, his face burns, that is, his eyes are inflamed, his lips 
and other gesture betokening a violent indignation," &c., Psal. xviii. 8. In the descrip- 
tion of God's anger, there are many similitudes borrowed from tempests, lightning, and 
other dreadful things to terrify man. "When God is said to speak to any mouth to mouth, 
it denotes familiarity and intimacy, which prerogative the Lord granted to Moses, Numb. 
xii. 8. 

It is said, Jer. xviii. 17, "I will shew them the ^[ back and not the face, in the day of 
their calamity ;" whereby is signified a denial of his grace and favour, which is to be un- 
derstood by face ; the word translated back, signifies the hinder part, of the neck, and in- 
dicates God's anger, as if he had said, I will not vouchsafe to hear them when they call, 
nor look upon them when they implore my help. 

An arm is attributed to God, by which his strength and power is signified ; be- 
cause the strength of a man is known by the strength of his arm, whether it be 
labour, fight, &e., Exod. xv. 16, Job xl. 4. Psal. Ixxvii. 16, Ixxix. 11, Ixxxix. 11, 
14, Isa. xxx. '60, II 9, lix. 16, Ixii. 8, and Ixiii. 5, Luke i. 51, &c. A stretched-out 
arm is ascribed to God, in his delivery of his people from Egypt, Psal. cxxxvi. 
11, 12, and Jer. xxxii. 17, " Thou hast made the heaven and the earth by thy great 
power and stretched-out arm," &c. This ** metaphor is taken from men fighting or when 
engaged in hard labour, who with all their strength and force employ their arms 
which sometimes they make bare to remove the impediments of garments. Hence 
God says to the prophet Ezekiel, chap. iv. 7, " Therefore shalt thou set thy face before the 
siege of Jerusalem, and thine arm shall be uncovered, and thou shalt prophesy against it, 

* Servator filium Dei se esse, neque ait, negat, sed ex loco convenientissimo, Deut. viii. 3, &c. la 
nion.Evang.110. -f Ek eloqui labiorum suorum interfaiet. 

$ DW "TON anti- Christum seu anii-Deum impium. 

Per prosopographiam. 

[] Humane rtwre tribuit UK quasi bellatoria, vehementi in hastes commoto,faciem ardentem, id ? s > 
oculosfiammant.es, laliafrementia, et summam indignationem in increpando prce sefereniia, linguam a 
vomndum exstrtam, et iynis iustar flammeam, fyc. Muscul. in loc. 

^ Cervix the hinder part of the neck. 

** Metaphor a bellator ibus pugnantibus vel alijs vehemcniius labori incumbentibus desumpta. 


that is, thou shalt* preach against it with all thy might, as eagerly as a warrior goes to 

Sometimes by the arm of God the doctrine of the Gospel is noted, as Isa. lii. 10, 
" The Lord hath made hare his holy arm, in the eyes of all the nations, and all the ends 
of the earth shall see the salvation of our God." See verse 7, 8, &c. So Isa. liii. 1, it 
is said, " Who hath helieved our report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed ?" 
which is repeated, John xii. 38. Some in these places (and Isa. li. 9, and lix. 16), by the 
arm of the Lord, do understand (and not improperly) the Messiah, who is the Power and 
Wisdom of God, 1 Cor. i. 24. 

A hand is attributed to God, by which is understood his power, exerting itself in 
strong and marvellous operations, as Numb. xi. 23, Job x. 8, and xii. 9, 10, Psalm 
viii. 7, and xcv. 5, Isa. xi. 11, and lix. 1. Or his strong and gracious protection, Psal. 
xxxi. 6, and cxliv. 7, John x. 28, 29, Acts iv. 30. Or infliction of punishment, as 
Exod. ix. 3, Job xix. 21, Psal. xxi. 9, xvii. 14, and xxxviii. 3, Acts xiif.'ll. From 
hence it is put nietonymically for the punishment itself inflicted by God, as Job xxiii. 2, 
" My stroke (in the Hebrew, it is hand) is heavier than my groaning." And Job xxvii. 
11, " I will teach you by the hand of God," that is, the stroke or punishment of God. 
So Ezek. xxxix. 21. The " phrase I will stretch forth mine hand," signifies, " I will 
punish." Exod. vii. 5, Isa. v. 25, ix. 12, 17, 21, x. 4, xiv. 27, and xxxi. 3, Jer. vi. 12, 
Ezek. xvi. 27, and xxv. 7, Zeph. i. 4, and ii. 13. So putting forth the hand, Job i. 11, 
and ii. 5, Psalm cxxxviii. 7. So the shaking- of the hand of the Lord, Isa. xix. 16, signi- 
fies to be more grievously punished, as Psal. xxxii. 4. So to lighten the hand signifies to 
mitigate punishment, 1 Sam. vi. 5, See Ezek. xx. 20, Isa. i. 25. 

Acts iv. 28. The hand of God is put for his counsel and purpose. Isa. xlix. 22, 
" To lift up the hand to the Gentiles," signifies a merciful calling them to repentance, 
Prov. i. 24, Isa. Ixv. 2, because we lift up our hands to such as we would embrace, or 
whose presence we desire. . To smite the hands together (as Ezek. xxi. 17, and xxii. 13,) 
signifies a great-j- detestation and aversion. To lift up the hand (as Exod. vi. 8, for 
so the Hebrew is) signifies to swear, as also, Deut. xxxii. 40, Ezek. xx. 5, 6, and xxxvi. 
7, &c., B. Salomon and Aben-Ezra expound^ Exod. xvii. 16, of God's oath, viz., " Be- 
cause the hand of the Lord hath sworn (so the Hebrew) that the Lord will have war 
with Amalek from generation to generation," that is, the Lord hath sworn by his throne. 
The Chaldee expounds' it thus, it is asserted by an oath, that is by the terrible One, 
whose Majesty dwells in the throne of glory, that there shall be a war waged by the 
Lord, against the house of Amalek to cut them off for ever, &c. Moses uses this 
phrase in allusion to what is spoken before, verse 11, " And it came to pass that when 
Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed, and when he let down his hand, Amalek 
prevailed," &c. 

It is said, John iii. 35, " The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his 
hand," denoting a communication of the fulness of the Godhead to his human nature. 
See Matt. xi. 27, and Col. ii, 9. 

A right-hand is ascribed to God, by which his divine power is understood, or indeed 
the omnipotent God himself, as Exod. xv. 6, " Thy right-hand, Lord, hath become 
glorious in power ; thy right-hand, Lord, hath dashed in pieces the enemy." Psal. 
Ixxx. 10, "I will remember the years of the right-hand of the Most High.'' Psal. cxviii. 
15, 16, " The right-hand of the Lord doeth valiantly. The right-hand of the Lord is 
exalted, the right-hand of the Lord doeth valiantly." Psal. cxxxix. 10, " Even there shall 
% hand lead me, and thy right-hand shall hold me," th?tis, thy power which is unlimited 
a ud diffused every where, Isa. xlviii. 13. 

More especially the right-hand of God notes his power, which he exerts in mercy and 
bounty to believers, Psalm xx. 7, xviii. 35, xliv. 4, Ixiii. 9, andlxxx. 16, 18. Sometimes 
his wrath and vengeance to his enemies, as Exod. xv. 6, 12, &c. 

Instar fortis et ardentis bellatoris pugnabis tuis concionibus contra earn, etc. 
T Ciijus signum apud homines manuum complosio esse solet. 
+ ^ CO b3> T '3 rnan-us super solium Jah. 

s Netavhora ab homine ducta. qui quod manu ipsa apnrehendit tenetque sibi datum, omnium certissime 


The phrase of Christ's sitting. at the right-hand of God, being exalted in his human 
nature, as Psalm ex. 1, Matt. xxvi. 64, Mark xvi. 19, Acts ii. 33, 34, and vii. 55, 56, 
Rom. viii. 34, Col. iii. 1, &c., is not to be understood properly, as if there were a local si- 
tuation in a certain place of heaven, but by an Anthropopathy* or scripture way of speak- 
ing, and is to be understood of a dominion and power most powerfully and immediately 
operating and governing, as it is explained, 1 Cor. xv. 25, Eph. i. 20 22, and iv. 1Q ) 
Heb. i. 3, 4, aud viii. 1. 

A finger is ascribed to God, by which likewise his power and operating virtue is noted, 
as men work by the help of their fingers, Exod. viii. 19, and xxxi. 18, Psalm viii. 3, 
" When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers," &c. Some apprehend that 
there is a metaphorical emphasis in this place, because the heavens were created with 
extraordinary facility by God, and built very artificially, as the finest and most precious 
sorts of workmanship are wrought by excellent artists, not by strength of body, nor- with 
their arms and hands, but by the dexterity of their fingers. 

By the finger of God, the Holy Spirit is understood, if you compare Luke xi. 20, 
with Matt. xii. 28, because it respects the virtue and power of its operation, as Acts x. 
38, &c. 

If a man's fingers^ be contracted, it is called the hollow of his hand, if extended, 
a span, which by an Anthropopathy are ascribed to God, Isa. xl. 12, " Who hath mea- 
sured the waters in the hollow of his hand ; a'nd meted out the heavens with a span," &c., 
that is to say, the Lord hath done it ; denoting how easy it is to create all things, and 
most powerfully to support and govern what he has created: for as men by engines 
and devices to lift up and advance huge weights, &c., so it is much more easy for God 
to rule and dispose the whole universe at his pleasure, Prov. xxx. 4, &c., Isa. xlviii. 
13, &c. ' 

A heart is attributed to God, by which either his lively essence is denoted, as the 
heart in man is judged to be the principle or beginning of life, Gen. vi. 6, " It grieved 
him at the heart," that is, in himself or else his will and decree, as Gen. viii. 21, " The 
Lord said in his heart," that is, he decreed and appointed, Chald. he said in his word, Jer. 
xix. 5, " It came not up into mine heart," so the Hebrew, that is, I did neither will nor 
command it : for the scripture makes the heart the seat of the soul x whose property it is to 
think, will, and discern. 

More especially it signifies the good pleasure and approbation of God, 1 Sam. xiii. 14, 
" The Lord sought him a man after his own heart," that is, hisj favour, or good will. 
So Acts xiii. 22, &c., Jer. xxxii. 41, " I will plant them in this land assuredly, with my 
whole heart, and with my whole soul," that is, with the greatest benevolence, regard, and 
good will. 

Bowels are attributed to God, by which his mercy and most ardent love is expressed, 
Isa. Ixiii. 15, " Where is thy zeal and thy strength, the sounding of thy bowels, and 
of thy mercies towards me?" Jer. xxxi. 20, " My bowels are troubled for him," that is, 
for Ephraim. Luke i. 78, " Through the bowels]] of the mercy of our God, whereby the 
day-spring from on high hath visited us." Hence comes the verb <nr*.ayxvieQM, miseri- 
cordia commoveri, to be moved with compassion, which is frequently said of Christ, as 
Matt. ix. 36, xiv. 14, and xv. 32, Mark i. 41, and vi. 34, &c. See Gen. xliii. 29, 
1 Kings iii. 26, Psalm li. 3, see Isa. Ixiii. 7, &c., where the Hebrew word that signifies 
bowels and compassionate love is ascribed to God. Illyricus^y upon the place says, - 
that this metaphor is deduced from the love of mothers to their children, which they 
bear in their wombs, (the same Hebrew word signifying bowels and womb) because the 
seat of aifection is in the bowels, and so metonymically the thing containing is put for 
the thing contained, or the cause or instrument for the effect agreeable to Isa. xlvi. 3, 

* avQponroTraQtas deoirpeircas, intelliyenda et expticanda est. 

} Digitii humanis constituitur ymgillas, si contrahantur, e spitkama, si extendaniur. 

% Hoc est, euSoKiKf, favorem, leneplacitum suum. 

\ So the Greek runs. Sin airXayxya, per viscera misericordite Dei nostri. 

oni, significat uterum. The word signifies the mother's womb. 

^ Flat. Illyr. Clav. Script. 


are borne by me from the belly, which are carried from the womb ;" which the 
Chaldee * expresses, " You who are beloved by me beyond all people, and dear beyond all 
jaBffdoms." Others by the term (womb} would properly understand the time of con- 
ception and nativity, so denoting God's constant care and preservation even from the 

4 bosom is in three places attributed to God, Psalm Ixxiv. 11, " Why withdrawest thou 
thy hand, even thy right ? pluck it out of thy bosom," that is, suffer thy right hand to be 
no longer idle, but employ it, (as if it were drawn from thy bosom) in finishing thy glo- 
rious work, against thine and our enemies. , See Prov. six. 24, and xxvi. 15. Kabbi 
Kimchi,f by the bosom of God, understands a sanctuary, which is (as it were) a certain 
lading-place for God, as a man's bosom. 

Isa. xl. 11, "He shall feed his flock like a shepherd, he shall gather the lambs with 
his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young."' 
This is spoken of the Messias,^ who is here compared to a shepherd, and his tender care 
of the sheep and lambs, metaphorically sets forth his extraordinary philanthrophy, or love, 
mildness, and compassion to miserable sinners, who are broken under the sense of God's 
wrath, and weak in faith. Shepherds are wont to bear their little and weak lambs gently 
in their bosom, as they carry the great sheep upon their backs or shoulders, &c., so does 
Christ in a spiritual sense, &c. 

John i. 18, " The only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father." This phrase 
metaphorically sets forth the most intimate communion that is betwixt God the Son and 
God the Father, which consists, 

1. With respect to eternal generation, ion: parents are said to bear their children in 
their bosoms, Numb. xi. 12, " Have I begotten them, that thou shouldst say unto me, 
carry them in thy bosom," (as a nursing father beareth the sucking child,) fyc. For the 
like reason, Prov. viii. 30, the Son of God is figured in the similitude of a child playing, 
before his father. 

2. With respect to nearest and strictest relation, or rather indeed unity of na- 
ture and essence, as John xiv. 10, it is said, that " he is in the Father, and the Father in 

3. With respect to the dearest and superlative degree of love ; for, that which is dear 
unto men is carried usually in their bosom. And it is said of the disciple whom Jesus loved. 
John xiii. 23, That " he was leaning on his bosom," &c. 

4. With respect to the most secret communication ; for the Son only knew, and perfectly 
sees the Father, and therefore he alone reveals him and his heavenly mysteries to man- 
kind. To which last particular, John chiefly had respect, as appears by the context. 

. Feet are attributed to God, by which (1.) his immensity and omnipresence upon the earth 
is noted or signified, as Isa. Ixvi. 1. 

(2.) His operation or activity in crushing, supplanting, or destroying his enemies, as 
isalni Ixxiv. 3, " Lift up thy feet unto the perpetual desolations." See Psalm ex. 1, &c. 
The church is called the place of his feet, Isa. Ix. 13, because he exhibits his grace and 
glory there, as if he had walked in it, agreeable to Deut. xxxiii. 3, " All thy saints sat 
down at thy feet. Every one shall receive of thy words." This metaphor is taken from 
toe custom of scholars, who sat at the master's feet, Acts xxii. 3, as Paul was at the feet 
| Gamaliel. And (Luke x. 39,) Mary who sat at Jesus' feet and heard his words. The 
^ouds are called the dust of his feet, that is, as if he had walked upon the clouds, as men 
"P upon the dust of the earth, and with extraordinary swiftness, as the clouds fly in the 
air - See Isa. xix. 1, and Ix. 8, and Psalm civ. 3. 

Dilacti mijii pree omnibus pnpnlis, et cJiari prts omnibus regnis. 

| ^ Kimohi per sinum Dei Sanctuarium intelliget, quodqueedam quasi latelra Dei est, ut sinus Jiominis. 
+ C/iristi QiXavdpanria erya, peccaloras dcnolatur. 


Steps are attributed to Christ before his incarnation, Psalm Ixxxix. 51. Wherewith 
they have reproached the footsteps of thine anointed, that is, the documents of the Mes- 
siah* dwelling in us, who by his word raises us up, and comforts us in his promises of 
coming in the flesh, and to judgment, &c. Others say, that it is meant of some, who, by 
way of derision, reproached the Messias for the delay of his coming, as proceeding with 
too slow a pace, that is, that he would never come. The Chaldee " They reproach and 
disgrace the slow steps of the feet of thy Christ," &c. 

Thus much of the parts of a man, and the members of his body, which I shall con- 
clude in the remarkable words of Tertullian's-j- (if that book of the Trinity be his) Divines 
efficacies (says he) are shown by members, not the habit or corporeal lineaments of God 
" By his eyes we are to understand that he sees all things," and by his ears that he hears 
all things ; by his fingers some significations of his will and mind ; by his nostrils, his 
savoury reception of prayers- and sweet odours ; by his hand, his active and creating power ; 
by his arm, his irresistible strength ; by his feet, his ubiquity, &c. For members or their 
particular offices are not necessary to him, whose tacit pleasure commands a ready obedi- 
ence from all things. What needs he eyes who is light itself? What needs he feet who 
is every where ? Why would he go in, when there is not a place out of which he can go ? 
What occasion has he for hands, when his silent will is the builder, contriver, or architect 
of all things ? What needs he ears, who knows even the most secret thoughts ? or a 
tongue, when his very thoughts are commands ? These members are necessary, for men 
not for God, because man's purposes are ineffectual, without the assistance of organs to act 
by, but God's bare will is action producing effects at his mere pleasure. To conclude, 
he is all eye, because every part of him sees all ! all ear, because every part of hivn hears 
all," &c. 

Human Affections ascribed to God. 

Here we must note the difference of human affections, for some are attributed to God, as 
being truly in him, yet not in that imperfect manner or J way of accident, as they are in 
man, but far more purely and eminently, and that essentially and substantially too. And 
so all words which express human affections, are first to be separated from all imperfec- 
tions, and then understood of God. The words of Augustin|,| are notable : " The anger of 
a man (says he) causes a disturbance and a torment in his mind ; but the wrath of God 
executes its vengeance with a perfect equity and tranquillity, void of all disturbances ; the 
mercy of man has some mixture of heart-misery, and from thence in the Latin tongue hath 
its derivation. The apostle exhorts not only to rejoice with rejoicing, but also to weep 
with them that weep. But what man of a sound mind can say that God can be touched 
with any anxiety or torture of mind, the scripture every where affirming him to be full of 
mercy. The zeal of men is often tainted with a mixture of spite, envy, or some other 
disorderly passion ; but it is not so with God, for though his zeal is expressed by the same 
word, yet it is not in the same manner with the sons of men." 

The words of Chemmtius^[ deserve notice. "Scholars (saith he) by a depraved appli- 
cation of that rule, that** accidents have no place in God, have taken away all affections 
from him ; and that most sweet consolation, Hos. xi. 8, 9, ' My heart is turned within me, 
my repentings are kindled together. I will not execute the fierceness of mine anger, I 
will not return to destroy Ephraim," (for I am God and not man) they affirm should be 
taken according to effection, not affection. It is true indeed, that accidents have no place 
in God, his commiseration is not such an. affection as ours ; but in regard his mercy 

* Documenta liabitantis in nobis Messiez, ut quod verbo suo, erigit et solatur, <"c. 

f Tertul. Lib. de Trinit. Eolio, 601. Efficacies Divinte per membra monstrantur, $ 

\ Per modum accidentis: 

Per modum essential sen substantial. 

|| Tom; iv. lib. 2. ad Siraplicianum. qujest. 2. Misericordia, quasi miseria cordis, 

^T In loc. Tlieolog. p. 29. ** In Deum won cadit accidens. 


is not distinguished from his Essence, it is certain, that it must be much more ardently in 
God, than we are able to think, &c. 

When joy or rejoicing are attributed to God, it either denotes his delight and pleasure 
in his creatures, Psal. civ. 31, " The Lord shall rejoice in his works ;" or else his gracious 
favour and propensity to his Church, as men take joy in things very dear to them, Isa. 
Ixii. 5, " As the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee." 
So Deut. xxviii. 63, and xxx. 9, Jer. xxxii. 41, &c. There is a joy in God, which exerts 
itself in gracious effects, but which is infinitely greater than it is in men, or can be thought 
by them. ' - 

2. There are certain human affections, which according to their descriptions in a proper 
way of speaking are not in God, but are used by way of similitude to signify something di- 
vine (as we said about human members), and on that account are ascribed to God, of which 
kind in order. 

Sadness and grief of mind is attributed to God, by which his displeasure, and 
the withdrawings of his grace and favour are signified, Isa. Ixiii. 10, " But they re- 
belled and vexed his Holy Spirit : therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought 
against them," that is, they have perpetrated such wickedness against their proper con- . 
sciences, that the Holy Spirit has forsaken them, and justly withdrawn his grace. The 
like is said, Psal. Ixxviii. 40, " How often did they provoke him in the wilderness, and grieve 
him in the desert ?" so.Eph. iv. 30, * " Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are 
sealed unto the day of redemption," that is, speak not so corruptly and profanely as to 
provoke the Holy Spirit to withdraw his gracious gifts and operations from you, and 
instead thereof to inflict wrath and punishment upon you. So Gen. vi. 6, " And it 
repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his 
heart," that is, their malignity so displeased him, that he manifested his divine decree 
to punish them. The Chaldee-f- renders it, "And he said in his word that he would break 
their power according to his will." 

So Judg. x. 15, " And his soul wasj grieved for the misery of Israel," that is, as the 
Chaldee renders it, Qie grieved, or his soul was aifected with anguish;] by which grief the 
commiseration and compassion of God, for the afflictions and calamities of Israel is 
noted. The like phrase of the indignation and averseness of God is used, Zech. xi. 8. 
The word broken when ascribed to God is also of the same sense, as Ezek. vi. 9, " I am 
broken with their whorish heart which hath departed from me," that is, I am affected with 
grief, and as it were compelled to decree their punishment, as verse the 10th. 

Repentance is ascribed to God, by which likewise his divine displeasure against man's 
iniquities, and the infliction of punishment is noted, Gen. vi. 6, 1 Sam. xv. 35, Jer. xviii. 

Sometimes (if the speech be with reference to men that by serious repentance are con- 
verted to God) it denotes divine commiseration, and a taking away of punishment Exod. 
xxxii. 12, 14, 2 Sam. xxiv. 1G, Psal. cvi. 45, Jer. xviii. 3, and xxvii. 3, Hos. xi. 8, Joel 
ii. 13, 14. Upon which place Tarnovius thus expresses himself, " The condition of men 
being changed, the immutable God is not changed, but the thing itself ; for he willeth al- 
ways, that it should go ill with the obstinate, and that they should perish eternally, but 
that the holy and regenerate should be truly happy in this and the other world." When 
God to converted souls, remits that punishment which he denounced to wicked and nefari- 
ous sinners, he is said to repent of the evil by an anthropopathy, because he seems to do 
that which repeating men do, otherwise cannot properly repent because he is not a man, 
1 Sam. xv. 29. 

Augustin sa}s, that the repentance of God' is not after any error, but the change * 
of things and constitutions in his power is noted, as when it is said, that he repents, 
the change of things is signified, the diviue prescience remaining immutable ; and when 
he is said not to repent, it is to be understood, that things are unchanged. 

* fj.r) AvTrerre TO jrj'v j ua, &u. Ne coutristutis syiriltim, #'C. 

f Et dixlt verbo suo, sc confracturum potentlaw eonim secioiidum volanlatem. suum. 

$ Or shortened, so it is iu tlic Hebrew. 

Lib. 17. de Civit. Dei. 


50 AN ANTimorOPATHY. [BOOK 1, 

Polanus * says, that the repentance of God is not a perturbation or grief arising from 
any sense of error in his counsel or divine decree, which is immutable, 1 Sam. xv. 29. 
But the change of his works, the divine will remaining unchanged, &c. Its causes are 
the sins or repentance of men, &c. 

Anger, revenge, hatred, when attributed to God, are by some referred to this head. 
Where we are to note, that these words are not ascribed to God by way of anthropopathy, 
for God most truly, properly, and for infinite reasons, is justly angry with sinners, takes 
vengeance on them, or afflicts them, Jer. ix. 9, Nahum i. 2, &c. He truly hates sinners 
and hypocrites, Psal. v. vi., Isa. i. 14, &c., (-f although these things are ascribed to him 
without any perturbation, confusion, or imperfection,) yet there is an Anthropopathy in 
certain words and phrases by which these affections are wont to be expressed. Thus 
breath, or to breathe, do sometimes note the anger of God, by a metaphor taken from men, 
who in the vehement commotion of anger, do draw their breath more strongly than ordi- 
nary, Exod. xv. 8, Job iv. 9, Isa. xxx. 28, Ezek. 21, 31. 

Where it is said, Deut. xxviii. 63, J " The Lord will rejoice over you to destroy you," &c., 
it denotes his alacrity to inflict punishment, answering to his rejoicing over them to do 
them good. When a thing is said to be burdensome or wearisome to the Lord, Isa. i. 
14, it notes his aversation and hatred. He is said to receive consolation, when he 
avenged himself of his enemies, as revenge is wont to be sweet to abused and angry 
persons, Isa. i. 24, and Ivii. 6, Ezek. v. 13. . 

Zeal or jealousy is ascribed to God, to denote 'his most ardent love to be- 
lievers, and his care of their safety joined with an indignation against their enemies, 
Isa. ix. 7, Zech. i. 14, 15, Joel ii. 18. It also sometimes notes God's vehement anger 
against stubborn, rebellious sinners, who violating that faith, by which God espoused 
them to himself, commit spiritual adultery, Exod. xx. 5, Numb. xxv. 11, Zech. viii. 2. 
So in Hiphil, men are said to provoke God to jealousy by their idolatry and sins, Deut. 
xxxii. 16, 21, 1 Kings xiv. 22, Ezek. viii. 3. 

Human Actions ascribed to God. 

THESE we shall distribute according to those more eminent faculties. 

(1.) That which is intelligent and rational. 

(2.) That which is sentient or animal. 

Actions which respect the intellect and reason, and from which (as from the first 
principles) things flow, are either internal or external, the internal which by anthropopathy 
are attributed to God, are 

Knowledge, which must not be generically understood, for that most properly, and most 
perfectly belongs to the omniscient God, but such a knowledge as is experimental, and ar- 
rived unto, by some special acts, or new acquisitions, as Gen. xviii. 21, " I will go down 
now, and see whether they have done altogether according to the cry of it, which is come 
unto me, and if not, I will know." The omniscient Jehovah speaks of himself after the 
manner of men, who when they would know a thing, repair to the place where it was done, 
that by autopsy or personal sight, and other mediums, they may be assured that it is so. 

Gen. xxii. 12, " For now do I know that thou fearest God," &c. God knew it before, 
and had a most exact prospect into Abraham's heart, but such an illustrious example of 
faith and obedience, was never externally shown ; which done Jehovah says by the 
angel, Now I know, &c., that is, by a manifest and external proof, thy hearty faith 

> " - 

* In syntag. Theol. p. 194. 

f Licet alsque ulla perturb atione, arafm aut imperfectione tcec sint Deo triluenda. 
% in this text there is a figure called Antanaclasis, which is when the sarae word is repeated in a various 
or contrary signification ; here is a rejoicing to do good, and a rejoicing to destroy. 
, aKisque mediis certi de eafitmt. 




and obedience is now apparent. See Gen. xi. 25, Deut. viii. 2, and xiii. 3, Psal. xiv. 2. 
To this may be referred what Paul says, Phil. iv. 0, "la every thing by prayer and sup- 
plication let your requests be made, known * unto God." By prayers being made known 
unto God, he intimates that they are grateful to him, and assuredly heard. See Acts x. 
4, Psal. i. 6, and xxsi. 2, 8, 19. 

Ignorance, which is the opposite to knowledge, is attributed to God, by which is denoted 
his displeasure, hatred, anger, and aversation, Isa. xl. 27, " Why sayest thou, Jacob, 
and speakest, Israel, my way is hid from the Lord ?" &c., that is, we are hated and 
neglected by God, neither does he regard our affairs. Hence Christ says to the reprobates 
in the day of their judgment, Matt. vii. 23, " I never knew you, depart from me, ye that 
work iniquity." See Matt. xxv. 12, Luke xiii. 25, 27, &c. 

To this head may. be referred those questions which God asks as if he had been igno- 
rant, whereas in proper speaking there is nothing hid from him, neither has he any need 
of being informed,'as Gen. iii. 9, " And the Lord called unto Adam, and said unto him, 
where art thou ?" This was no interrogation of ignorance, but a summons to an unwilling 
appearance, reducing into Adam's mind how much he was changed from that blessed state 
of immortality, after his. fall. 

Ambrose f upon the place says, " Where is that (well-known guilty) confidence of 
thine ? Thy fear argues a crime, and thy skulking, prevarication. Therefore where art 
thou ? I do not ask in what place, but in what state ? whither has thy sin hurried thee, 
that thou hidest thyself from God, whom before thou hast sought." This is more a 
chiding, than a question ; from what good, from what blessedness, from what grace, and 
into what misery, art thou fallen ? Gen. iv. 9, " And the Lord said unto Cain, where is Abel 
thy brother ? : ' AugustinJ says, he asks not as an ignorant, that would fain know, but as 
a Judge to punish the guilty See Gen. xxxii. 27, Numb. xxii. 9, 1 Kings xix. 9, 13, 
2 Kings xx. 14, 15, Isa. xxxix. 3, 4. So the questions of Christ, Matt. xxii. 20, 45, 
Luke viii. 45, &c. 

To this' may also be referred when God seems to deliberate, as if he had not known 
(or doubts) what to do. " 

Junius in his commentary, on Ezek. xx. 8, says thus "God, that he may more amply 
show the wonders of his mercy, seems in Scripture to use a consultation with himself 
after the manner of men, and then, as if swayed by mercy to his creature, though a 
sinner, after his disputes in his own mind, and a (seemingly) doubtful conflict, in- 
clines at last to a sentence of mercy." of which there is an eminent instance in Hos. 
xi. 8, 9, " How shall I give thee up, Ephraini ? How shall I deliver thee, Israel? My 
heart is turned within me, my repentings are kindled together. I will not execute the 
fierceness of niy anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim, for I am God, and not man," 
&c. So when God is said to " search the heart and reins," which must not be under- 
stood as if they were before unknown to him, but a most exact and infinite knowledge 
is denoted by this phrase. So Paul says of the Holy Spirit, " that it searcheth all 
tilings, yea, the deep things God," 1 Cor. ii. 10. Search and inquiry goes before 
knowledge in men, and without it they can scarce arrive at any certain excellency in 
science, therefore this phrase is only used to signify the infinite perfection of knowledge 
in the Holy Spirit by an. anthropopathy. 

Remembrance is attributed to God, sometimes in good part, signifying that he will 
give help and relief unto men after hard calamities, in which he seemed "to forget them, 
as Gen. viii. .1, " And God remembered Noah, and every beast or living tiling :" upon 
which Luther in his comment, says, " Although it be true, that God always remembers 
his, even when he seems to forsake them, yet Moses here signifies, that he was mindful of 
them, even with respect to sense, that is, so far as to make a signal and manifest discovery 
thereof, which before by his Word and Spirit he had promised. See Gen. xxx. 22, Exod. 
ii. 24, 1 Sam. i. 11, 19, and several other places. 

Divine remembrance towards men denotes the benevolence, affection, grace, and 
good will of Jehovah towards them, Psalm cxv. 12, and cxxxvi. 23, Neh. v. 19, 

Lib. 12. coutra Faustttm Manick. Cap. 10. 

f De parttd. C. 14. 
Atr<a\es-aT77, cerlissima scietitia. 

H 2 


and xiii. 22, 31, Luke xxiii. 42, Acts x. 4. After .the same manner, the remembrance 
of his covenant is attributed to God, by the sight of which he becomes a gracious 
Benefactor to men, Gen. ix. 15, 16, and vi. 5, " And the remembrance of his mercy," 
Psal. sxv. 6, " Of his word," Psal. cxix. 49. 

Jerome in his comment on Lament, v. 1, saith, "Remembrance is ascribed to him, who 
could never forget any. It is not to refresh his memory, that the Divinity is so prayed 
to, for all things past and to come are present with him. It is unbecoming, to attribute 
oblivion to so great a Majesty, but he is prayed to remember that he would quickly 
afford help to the needy, and that his grace may be made manifest which before was 
hidden." . 

To remember, when it is applied to God with respect to bad men, signifies the execu- 
tion of punishment and vengeance upon them, Psalm xxv. 7, Ixxix. 8, and cxxxvii. 7, 
Isa. xlv. 25, Rev. xviii. 5. He is said " to remember the blood of the innocent," when 
he revenges its violent effusion, or unjust slaughter, Psal. ix. 13. 

Forgetfulness or oblivion is attributed to God, which signifies that he disregards, and 
leaves men exposed to evils, without any comfort or help, as if he had quite forgotten 
them, 1 Sam. i. 11, Psal. ix. 18, xiii. 1, and xlii. 9, 10, Isa. xlix. 15, Jer. xxiii. 39, Hos. 
iv. 6, &c., Luke xii. 6, "Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings ? and not one is 
forgotten before God," that is, God has a care of every individual creature and sustains 
them. Sometimes God is said to forget when he delays and defers the punishment of 
the wicked, for their deeds, Psal. Ixxiv. 22, 23, Amos viii. 7, Job xii-. 7, " And know 
that God hath forgotten thee (so HTD signifies) for thine iniquity," that is, he delays your 
punishment, and does not rigidly exact, according to their greatness, agreeing in sense 
with our translation, which runs thus " And know therefore that God exacteth of thee 
less than thine iniquity deserveth." 

Thought/illness or thinking is ascribed to God, by which his will, sentence, or decree is 
understood, Gen. 1. 20, " You thought evil against me, but the Lord thought it into 
good," so the original has it, that is, he turned it into good, or as our translation hath 
it, " meant it unto good." Here is an antanaclasis of one verb properly applied to 
malignant men, but to God by an anthropopathy, alluding to the former. See Psal. 
Ix. 5, 6, and xcii. 5, t>, and cxxxix. 16, 17, Isa. Iv. 8, 9, Jer. iv. 28, xxix. 11, and li. 
12, &c. 

Hitherto of the inward acts of man The external or outward acts, which are obvious 
to the notice of sense, for order's sake, may be distinguished into the actions. 

(1.) Of the mouth. 
(2.) Of the hands. 
(3.) Of the feet. 

Hissing is attributed to God, by which, a divine call, or summons of God, for men to 
gather together, and appear in a certain place, is noted, as Isa. v. 26, and vii. 18. For 
it is customary with men oftentimes to call certain beasts to them that way. This hissing 
of God is used in a good sense, Zech. x. 8, " I will hiss for them, and gather them, for I 
have redeemed them, and they shall increase as they have increased," which is understood 
of the gathering of the church by the voice of the Gospel. 

Breathing is ascribed to God, Gen. ii. 7, " And he breathed into his face the breath 
of life," that is, he. endued the body he had formed with a living soul, in the image of God. 
Sometimes it denotes God's anger, the metaphor being taken from angry men, who then 
puff and blow strongly, as Ezek. xxi. 31, "I will pour out mine indignation upon thee, I 
will blow or breathe against thee," &c. See Acts ix. 1. 

Laughing and deriding are attribiited to God, Psal. ii. 4, " He ihat sitteth in the 
heavens shall laugh, the Lord shall have them in derision." Psal. xxxvii. 12, " The wicked 
plotteth against the just, and gnasheth upon him with his teeth." Verse 13, " The 
Lord shall laugh at him, for he seeth that his day is coming." This is spoken by an 
anthropopathy, the metaphor being taken from a wise and prudent man, who (when he 
sees some heady and inconsiderate undertaker, rush on towards his fancied exploits, 




without deliberation, or a solid foundation laid, and bragging of extraordinary matters) 
has him in contempt, and, as it were laughing in his sleeve, expects an unhappy 
event, that is to say, when this mountain shall bring forth a mouse, as is vulgarly spoken. 
So men deride an enemy that threatens, when he has no strength or power to execute his 
menaces. But this phrase notes the most wise providence of God which slights the 
folly of his enemies,. whom he tolerates for a time, and to whose malice he hath appointed 
hounds, and at the appointed season, confounds, tramples on, and destroys them. As it 
is is said of wicked and stubborn men, Prov. i. 26, " I will also laugh at your calamity, I 
will mock when your fear cometh." By which is to be understood, the neglect and rejection 
of the wicked in their adversity. As if he had said even as you neglect and despise my 
wholesome admonitions, so will I despise aad neglect your applications, and reject you 
when your calamities come, &c. 

Kissing is ascribed to God, when the speech is of the Son of God incarnate, as Cant. i. 

2. Where the optative words of the mystical spouse, viz., the church, are had, " Let him 
kiss me with the kisses of his mouth." Upon which place the Cbaldee says, that it is 
allusive to God's speaking face to face to the Israelites, as a man does to his friend, and 
kisses him for love. But more truly it is to be understood or expounded of the promulga- 
tion or publishing of the Gospel by the Son of God made man, John i. 17, 18, 1 Tim. i. 
10, 11, Heb. i. 1, &c. 

Solomon says,-J?rov. xxiv. 26, " That every man shall kiss his lips that giveth a right 
answer, which by* way of eminency is applicable to him, of whom it is said, Isa. 1. 
4, " The Lord hath given him the tongue of the learned, that he should know how to 
speak a word in season to him that is weary " and Psal. xlv. 2, " Into whose lips grace is 
poured." Jehovah kissed (that is, showed intimate tokens of his love to) his people in the 
Old Testament times, by many appearances, and by Moses, prophets, and angels em- 
ployed to make discoveries of him, but this came short of this kiss, which the church (under 
the term of spouse) here desires. " Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth," that 
is, let him comfort me with a manifestation more eminent than the former, viz., of Christ's 
coming into the flesh, and completing the work of redemption. 

The paraphrase of Origen-f- upon this text is liow long will my spouse send me kisses 
by Moses, and the prophets ? Now I long to have them, personally of himself let him 
assume my natural shape, and kiss me in the flesh according to the prophecies, Isa. vii. 
14, " Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a Son, and shall call his name Immanuel," 
so that this is a prayer for the incarnation of Christ, the blessed spouse, and Bridegroom 
of our souls, Heb. i. 1. To this divine kiss by a mutual relation faith answers, Cant. viii. 
1, " that thou wert as nay brother, that sucked the breast of my mother ; when I should 
find thee without, I would kiss thee." .But which the sincere love of the Church, and the 
unblemished obedience of faith, is "understood. 

Psal. ii. 12, " Kiss the Son lest he be angry," by which the kings of the earth, and the 
potentates in the world, are instructed to yield homage and obedience to the King of 
Glory, Christ the Son of God, being exhibited in the world. For in former times subjection 
was signified by a kiss, as Gen. xli. 40, 1 Sam. x. 1, 1 Kings xix. 18, Hosea xiti.. 2. 

A military clamour, or the crying of a travailing woman, is attributed to God, Isa. Ixiii. 

3, 4. By which is noted that his lenity, patience, and long forbearance, are changed 
into a severe vengeance. Junius and Tremellius do remark from Vegetius, that the Ilo- 
man soldiers were wont in the beginning of battle to fall on with a horrible clamour to 
daunt the enemy. 

Also a travailing woman, though in great pain, yet patiently endures it to the utmost 
extremities of her throes, and then being overcome by the violence of her grief breaks out 
into cries and vociferation, which most elegantly expresses the patience and forbearance of 
God, and the extremity of his wrath when provoked. See Psal. Ixxviii. 65, 66, Rom. ii. 4, 5. 

* Kar e|o%rji/. 

t Hornil. iu Cant. Jcrom. interpr. Tom. 4. fol. 80. 

J Pulcherrime divines fj.a.KpoQufj.ia.1, et subsequently vindictai gravissima condilio exprimitur. 

. * 

Speaking and speech, are attributed to God. "Where we must note that those places 
of scripture wherein God is said to speak or titter certain words, that he might manifest 
his divine pleasure to men that way, do not belong to this place. God sometimes thus 
spake immediately as to our first parents, Gen. ii. 16, and iii. 9 ; to Noah, Gen. vi. 13 ; 
to Abraham, Gen. xii. 1, chap. xvi. xvii. and xviii. ; to Moses, Exod. iii. 4, 5, and the fol- 
lowing verses ; and to patriarchs, prophets, &c., in the Old Testament. 

2. Sometimes God did speak mediately, by divinely-inspired men, in whom a mind 
enlightened by the Spirit of God was formed into words. An account of such* is found 
every where in scripture, as also of angels who are his ministering spirits. Now God does 
not speak thus by way of anthropopathy or metaphor, but truly and properly, although in 
a far different and more excellent manner than men do, or can think. 

But that speaking of God which belongs to this figure is, 

(1.) When the effectual or efficacious decree of the divine will about the creature, and 
the executions thereof, is revealed or expressed after the manner of human speech, as Gen. 
L 3, " And God said, let there be light, and there was light," (suitable to Cor. iv. 6, 
where it is written, " And God who said, or commanded the light to shine out of darkness ;" 
verse 6, " And God said, let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters," and verse 
9, " And God said, let the waters under the heaven be gathered together," &c. ; &id verse 
11, " And God said, let the earth bring forth grass," &c. ; verse 14, " And God said, let 
there be lights in the firmament of the heaveus ;" and verse 20, " And God said, let the 
waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature ;" and verse 24, " And God said, let the 
earth bring forth the living creature," &c. Kab. Mos. Maimon.-}- says, that this phrase in 
the creation (and God said) is to be understood of the will, and not of speech ; because 
speech by which a thing is commanded, must of necessity be directed to some being or 
object capable to execute his commands, but no objects of such a capacity had then being ; 
therefore of necessity it must be understood only of God's will. 

Museulus in his comment, says, that Moses speaks of God after the manner of men, 
not that God spoke so. For by his word the virtue and efficacy of his will is ex- 
pressed, &c., for what we would have done. That it might be understood, believed, or 
done, we express ourselves by the prolation of a word ; and when God's will is ex- 
pressed, it is called a word. God is a Spirit, and uses no corporeal or organical speech, 
no transient voice, nor Hebrew, Greek, or other idiom, unless in some temporary dispen- 
sation he was pleased to utter himself organically, which has no place here, &c. So the 
appellation of names given to the creatures, verses 5, 8, 10, which is ascribed to God, 
notes only his decree and divine constitution that men should so call them. 

So the blessing of God to fishes, fowl, &c., verse 22, denotes his real appointment of the 
multiplication of their respective kinds. Upon which MusculusJ very well says, " If you 
consider that God speaks to Aquatiles or watery creatures, you will judge it a wonderful 
kind of speech ; but he speaks not to their ears, but to their natures, to which by the vir- 
tue of his word he hath given a power and efficacy to propagate their own kinds." 

From this description of the creation, the divine force and efficacy of God's will in the 
creation and conservation of the creatures (which is so conspicuous) is called the Word of 
God, Psal. xxxiii. 5, 6, cvii.. 20, and cxlvii. 15, 18, Heb. i. 3, and xi. 3, 2 Pet. iii. 5, 7, 
&c. So in other decrees of the divine will, God is said to speak, Gen. viii. 21, " And the 
Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground," that is, he so constituted and 
decreed it, that by Noah it should be so manifested unto the world. 

Psal. ii. 5, " Then shall he speak to them in his wrath," that is, he will crush his ene- 
mies with horrible judgments and punishments. 

Sometimes the decrees and appointments of the Trinity by way of dialogue or 
colloquy, among the Divine Persons, as Gen. i. 26, " And God said, let us make man in 

* Quorum -no\i 6pv\\riToy ulivis prostat. 

f Cum efficax divince voluntatis de Creaturis decretum, ejusve JSxecutio per modum loqitela humuna 
erpnmilur, %-c., In more Nebochim, Part 1. Cap. 65. 

| Scnedictio divina, quee ad pisces, et aves prolata esse a Deo dicitur, Versu 22. realis est muttiplica- 
tionis specierum illarum conslitutio. 




our likeness or image, &c., and chap. ii. 18, " And the Lord said, it is not good that the 
man should be alone; I will make him an help meet, for him ;" and Gen. iii. 22, "And 
the Lord God said, behold, the man is become as one of us," &c. ; Gen. xi. 6, " And the 
Lord said, behold, the people is one, and have one language go, let us go down, and 
there confound their language." By this deliberate way of expression, the decrees of the 
Holy Trinity, and their effectual power of operation, are noted, Psal. ii. 7, " I will declare 
the decree, the Lord said unto me, thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee 
ask of me and I will give thee the Heathen for thine inheritance." Psal. ex. 1, " The 
Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand," &c. These phrases signify the most 
holy and most efficacious discerning and efficiency of God's will. 

To this speaking of the Father answers the hearing attributed to Christ, John viii. 26, 
40, and xv. 15, and to the Holy Spirit, John xvi. 13. 

For this cause (among others) the Son of God is called the word, 76A- for by him a 
manifestation of the internal speech of the Holy Trinity (that is their divine decrees) for 
man's salvation is made unto us, John i. 1, 13, 14, &c. 

So much of speech in general. More particularly rebuking or chiding is attributed to 
God, by which its real effect, or destruction, is noted, of which you may see examples, 
Psal. xviii. 15, 2 Sam. xxii. 16. Where tempests, earthquakes, &c., are said to be at 
God's rebukes, and Psal. civ. 7, that at his rebuke the waters fled, that is, were separated 
from the earth, Gen. i. 2. 

To rebuke, in proper speaking, two things are requisite. 

(1.) That that which is reprehensible, may be checked. 

(2. That it maybe corrected or amended ; these maybe aptly applied to God's creating 
word, for when he said, " Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together into one 
place, and let the dry land appear ;" in the first the indigested confusion of things is re- 
prehended, and in the second they are corrected, and rightly disposed of into their proper 
places. Musculos on this place annexes this marginal note " that it is an invincible ar- 
gument of Christ's divinity, that at his rebuke the winds and seas were obedient," Mark 
iv. 39, Luke viii. 24. See Psal. ix. 5, Ixxvi. 6, and Ixviii. 30, Isa. xvii. 13, Zech. iii. 2. 

Rebuke signifies destruction, Deut. xxviii. 20. Calling, when ascribed to God, signi- 
fies its real product or effect, as 2 Kings viii. 1, " The Lord hath called for a famine, and 
it shall also come upon the land for seven years." Psal. cv. 1 6. 

Rom. iv. 7, God's commanding inanimate or irrational creatures denotes a direction for 
some certain work to be done or omitted, as Isa. v. 6, "I will also command the clouds, 
that they rain no more upon it." See Isa. xlv. 12. 

Answering is attributed to God, when he is said to answer men's prayers, 1 Kings ix. 
3, Psal. iii. 4, 5, Isa. Iviii. 8, &c. lllyricus says, that in hearing God answers in a three- 
fold manner. 

[1.) By the very hearing, for every man that prays earnestly, requests that. 
By some testimony of his Spirit, that we are heard. 
By granting the petition, which is the most real and apparent answer. 

Contrary to this, is God's silence when his people pray, by which his delay in comfort- 
ing and helping them is noted, as Psal. xxviii. 1, " Unto thee, Lord, do I cry be not 
deaf toward me," &c. So Psal. Ixxxiii. 1. And God is said to answer when he takes 
pleasure in man, Eccl. v. 20, and ix. 7. 

The Lord is said to be a witness, when he declares the truth of a thing in fact, or justly 
punishes liars, 1 Sam. xii. 5, Jer. xlii. 5, Mai. iii. 5, &c. " The Lord hath been a witness 
between thee and the wife of thy youth," Mai ii. 14, that is, to join them in an individual 
society of life. 

A judicial inquisition, which inflicts revenge and punishment upon the guilty, is noted 
in these texts, Gen. ix. 5, Josh. xxii. 23, Psal. ix. 12, and x. 14, 15. The metaphor is 
taken from the custom of judges, who, by the examination and weighing of testimonies, 
first inquire into the case, and then proceed to sentence. 


By numbering the most exact care and providence of God is noted, as men keep accounts 
of affairs that concern them much,-, Psal. Ivi. 8, " Thou tellest my wanderings, put thou 
my tears into thy bottle, are they not in thy book?" Matt. x. 30, " But the very hairs of 
your head are numbered." Also his most exact knowledge of things that are innu- 
merable to us, Psal. cxlvii. 4, " He telleth the number of the stars, he calleth them all by 
their names." Isa. xl. 26, " He bringeth out their host by number, he?ealleth them all by 
their names, by the greatness of his might," &c. 

By the term selling, a delivery into the power of the enemy, by an offended God, is 
noted, as things that are sold by men, are translated into the right, power, and property 
of another, as Deut. xxxii. 30, " How should one chase a thousand and two put ten thou- 
sand to flight, except their rock had sold them ?" Judg. ii. 14, " And the anger of the 
Lord was hot against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of spoilers, that spoiled 
them, and he sold them into the hands of their enemies round about," &c., and chap. iv. 
9, " The Lord shall sell Sisera into the hand of a woman," &c. See Psal. xliv. 12, Isa. 1. 
1, Ezek. xxx. 12, &c. 

By the term buying is signified redemption, by and through Christ, as 1 Cor. vi. 20, 
" For ye are bought with a price, therefore glorify God," &c., and 1 Cor. vii. 23, " Ye are 
bought with a price, be ye not the servants of men." So Gal. iii. 13, and iv. 5, 2 Pet. ii. 
1', Rev. xiv. 3, 4. The price which purchases this mystical buying is the blood, death, 
passion, and merit of our blessed Saviour. 

The second kind of 'actions, which are proper to the hands, are either general or special. 
In general there is ascribed to God by an anthropopa'thy. 

Labour, in the work of the creation. So Job calls himself the " Labour of his hands," 
Job. x. 3, that is, fashioned and formed him in his mother's womb, of which he emphati- 
cally speaks in verse 8, " Thine hands have made me, and fashioned me together round 
about." The Hebrew word '3i32 properly signifies the forming of a thing with great labour, 
art, and diligence : in other places it denotes anxiety, grief, and trouble ; setting forth 
the exceeding wisdom of God in the creation, or forming of man, which is expounded in 
the 10th and llth verses, with more special and emphatical words, " Hast thou not poured 
me out as milk, and curdled me like cheese. Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, 
and hast fenced me with bones and sinews," &c. Psal. cxxxix. 13, 14, 15. This divine 
work is spoken of, " Thou hast covered me in my mother's womb I will praise thee, for 
I am. fearfully and wonderfully made ; marvellous are thy works, and that my soul know- 
eth right -well My substance was not hid from thee, when I was made in secret, and 
curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth," &c. The Hebrew translated opn (cu- 
riously wrought) is very emphatical, for it properly signifies to paint with a needle, or the 
texture or weaving various figures and pictures, in arras or tapestry hangings, or garments 
interwoven or wrought with many curious colours. The formation of man is therefore 
compared to such a work, because * of its marvellous order, symmetry, and contexture 
of various members, veins, arteries, bones, flesh, skin, &c. 

In the work of redemption, the passion and death of Christ is called labour, as Isa. xliii. 
24, " Thou hast made me labour in thine iniquities " (so the Hebrew.) " He shall see 
the labour (or travail) of his soul," Isa. liii. 11; This conies to pass in a two-fold respect 
which attends labour, as 

(1.) Anxiety and toil : then 

(2.) The utility and profit that follows, for the word comprehends both, according to 
that saying, Gen. iii. 19, "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread," where the toil 
and profit are joined. The toil and anxiety of Christ in the work of our redemption is 
largely described by the Evangelists ; and how great the profit and benefit of it (with 
respect to the unspeakable blessing it brought to poor mankind) is evident to every soul 
that has tasted of his grace. 

* Ob mirabilem, ex tarn variis, memlris, vents, arteriis, ossibus, came, cute quasi contexluram . 


To labour is opposed rest and recreation, which by this figure is attributed to God, Gen. 
ii. 2, " And God rested on the seventh day from all his work, which he had made" and 
verse 3, " And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it ; because that in it he had 
rested," &c. This rest in God, presupposes no weariness (as it does in men) but the com- 
pleting, end, and perfection, of his admirable work, of this great and incomprehensible fa- 
bric, and so only a cessation from his creating work is to be understood. For among men, 
the more arduous, laborious, and profitable the work is, the more pleasing and delectable 
the artificer's rest is, when he completes it. 

Some say that the word J~u rest, is properly attributed to God, which does not strictly 
signify rest, as nis does, but a bare and simple cessation, as Josh. v. 12, Job xxxii. 9, Rev* 
iv. 8, &c. And commonly it is said, that he that ceases from his work, does rest, although 
not weary, but in full strength and vigour. 

Be it so, but for nro the word rn: is put for the very rest here spoken of, Exod. xx. 11, 
" For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and all that hi them is, and rested the 
seventh day," &c. And if the word signifies a mere cessation without any previous weari- 
ness, 1 Sam. xxv. 9, it is to be heedfully noted that it is said, Exod. xxxi. 17, "For in 
six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he* rested," was re- 
freshed (or took breath ;) which word is also used, Exod. xxiii. 12, of the weary servant 
after his labour, viz., on the seventh day shalt thou rest, and 2 Sam. xvi. 14, it is ex- 
pressly opposed to weariness. Sion and the church is called the place of his rest, Psal. 
cxxxii. 14, and Isa. xi. 10, which denotes Ms gracious presence, operation, and compla- 

Of the special actions of men, a great many are attributed to God, by which his various 
works of grace, righteousness, and wrath, are to be understood. As 

1. He is said to wash away filth and sin, when he graciously remits it, Psal. Ii. 2, 
"Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin." Isa.iv. 4, " When 
the Lord shall. have washed away the filth of the daughter of Sion," &c. 

2. He is said to hide the godly and believers when he protects and defends them, Psal. 
xxxi. 20, "Thou shalt hide them in the secret of thy presence." Psal. Ixiv. 2, " Hide me 
from the secret counsel of the wicked, from the insurrection of the workers of iniquity." 
Psal.*ci. 9. 

3. He is said to wipe when he destroys, 2 Kings xxi. 13, a"metaphor taken from dishes, 
which are wiped or made clean by rubbing with the hands. He is said to wipe away 
tears from off their faces, when he comforts and rejoices his people, Isa. xxv. 8, Rev. 
vii. 17. 

4. He is said to gird with strength when he comforts and supports, as Psal. xviii. 32, 
and xxx. 11, 12. 

5. He is said to build when he produces a being by way of creation, Gen. ii. 22, " And 
the rib which the Lord God had taken from him, builded he a woman." See Exod. i. 
21, 2 Sam. vii. 11. 

6. He is said to bind up wounds, when he spiritually heals men and secures them from 
mischief, Job v. 18, Psal. cxlvii. 2, 3, Isa. Ixi. 1, Hosea vi. 1, '" Come, let us return unto 
the Lord ; for he had torn, and he will heal us ; he hath smitten, and he will bind us 

7. He is said to open the gates of heaven, when he bestows divine and miraculous 
blessings, Psal. Ixxviii. 22, 23, 24, " Though he had commanded the clouds from above, 
and opened the doors of heaven, and had rained down manna upon them to eat, and had 
given them of the corn of heaven," &c. And also when he sends down rain, Deut. xxviii. 
12. He is said to open the door of speech, when he affords a fit occasion, and saving 
means to his Ministers of preaching the Gospel, 1 Cor. xvi. 9, 2 Cor. ii. 12, Col. iv. 3. 
" To open the door of faith," when he calls and admits men to the faith and communion of 
the church, Acts xiv. 27. " To open the heart and mind," when he gives the saving under- 
standing of his word, Luke xxiv. 45, Acts xvi. 14, Psal. cxix. 129, 130. 

8. He is said to hold the right hand of Cyrus, when he gave him a prosperous success in 
ins warlike expedition against Babylon, Isa. xlv. 1. 


* rat?. 


9. He is said to conclude men in sin and unbelief, when, as a most just Judge, lie 
declares them obnoxious to shij : and therefore liable to eternal damnation, Horn. xi. 3^, 
Gal. iii. 22. 

10. He said to try and prove, as silver is tried, (after the manner of goldsmiths, or 
others concerned in metals,) when he purifies and tries the godly with crosses and afflic- 
tions, Psal. xvii. 3, and Ixvi. 10, Zech. xiii. 9. So when he purifies and reforms doctrines. 
Mai. iii. 2, 3, or destroys such as are obstinately wicked, Ezek. xxii. 18, &c. 

11. He is said to break with a rod of iron, when he chastises and destroys, Psal. ii. 9, 
and iii. 7, Isa. xxxviii. 13, and Lam. iii. 4, &c. 

12. He is said to sift in a sieve, when he tries his people by calamities, and yet pre- 
serves them, Amos ix. 9. And when he scatters or disperses his enemies like chaff, Isa. 
xxx. 2ti. " To sift the nations with the sieve of vanity" that is, they shall be cast on 
the eart.li, as through a sieve, that so dispersed they shall no longer appear. He compares 
the multitude of the Gentiles, by whom Jerusalem was to be distressed, to dust or chaff, 
which -is easily blown away, so that little will remain of a great heap. 

13. He is said to make bald the head, when he despoils men of their ornaments, Isa. iii. 
17 i!4, for the chief adorning of women was in their hair, as 1 Pet. iii. 3. 

14. He is said to blot out of the book of life, which men are not accounted in the num- 
ber of the saved, Exod. xxxii. 32, 33, Psal. Ixix. 28, 29. He is said to blot out sins, 
when he remits or forgives them, Psal. xxxvii. 2, 3. For the scripture speaks as if there 
were an account kept of them, in a certain written book, which because the Messias has 
made satisfaction, are blotted or crossed out. See Col. ii. 13, 14. 

15. He is said to devour or swallow, when he totally destroys, as Exod. xv. 7, Isa. xxv. 
8, 1 Cor. xv. 54. He is said to make room or enlarge, when he vouchsafes deliverance 
from difficulties and troubles, Gen. xxvi. 22, Psal. iv. 1, 2j and cxix. 31, 32. 

He is said to direct or make plain the way, when he gives a happy issue and conclusion 
to the endeavours of men, as Psal. T. 8, 9, Isa. xlv. 2, 13. 

To loose or ungird the lions, when he makes men feeble and unarmed, and so incapable 
of defence or offence, Isa. xlv. 1. 

To pour out his anger, when he punishes, Psal. Ixxix. 5, 6, Ezek. ix. 8, and xx. 13, 
21, 33. 

To pour out his Spirit, when he largely distributes his gifts, Joel iii. 1, 2, Zech. xii. 
10, Acts ii. 17, 18, 33, Kom. v. 5, Tit. iii. 5, 6. 

To make void counsel, when he disappoints and blasts the purposes of men, Jer. 
xix. 7. 

To pour out a blessing, when lie plentifully distributes his benefits, Mai. iii. 10. 

He is said to hew by the prophets, when he terrifies men by fearful admonitions, 
and legal threatenings, as Hos. vi. 5 ; and when he spiritually kills them, as in the fol- 
lowing verses. 

He is said to stretch out the line of confusion, and the stones of emptiness, when he 
leaves kingdoms and nations to the desolations of the enemy, Isa. xxxiv. 11. This meta- 
phor is taken from architects, who use lines, perpendiculars, and little ropes, &c. 

He is said to bear or carry, when he preserves, sustains, supports, and governs his 
people, as Deut. i. 31, Exod. xix. 4, Isa. xlvi. 3, 4, Heb. i. 3. 

He is said to break the head, when his wrath falls heavy and destroys men, Psal. ex. 
5, 0, Iltb. iii. 13. 

He is said to sling out the souls of David's enemies, as out of a sling, 1 Sam. xxv. 29, 
that is, he will violently take it away, (as a stone out of a sling flies with greater force a 
greater way, without further regard of him that throws it.) The metaphor is taken from 
the weapons of David, which was a sling, &c. On the contrary, the soul of David is said 
to be bound up in the bundle of life, denoting God's fatherly care of him in securing him 
from death, which his enemies designed, and preserving him so safe, that nothing could be 
forced away from Mm. 


He is P.aid to make way to his anger, when with just judgments he recompenses 
the uiijas: stubbornness and contumacy of the wicked, Psul. Ixxviii. 50, " He made way 


for his anger, he spared not their souls from death, but gave their life over to the 

He is Said " to weigh the mountain in scales, and the hills in a balance," Isa. xl. 12, 
which notes with what facility and ease the Lord can sustain, and manage the whole 
universe, even as men do a small pair of scales. The Lord is said " to weigh spirits," 
Prov. xvi. 2, by which his most exact knowledge of our minds and inward frames 
is noted. This metaphor is taken from men, who do with a great deal of exactness 
weigh things that they may know their value. See Prov. v. 21, xxi. 2, and 
xxiv. 12. 

God is said " to put his hook in the nose, and his bridle in the lips of his enemies/" 
when he stops their fury, thwarts their purposes, and keeps them under, 2 Kings xix. 28, 
Isa. xxxvii. 29. 

He is said " to put the tears of the godly hi a bottle/' when he suffers them not to be 
shed in vain, but preserving their memory, turns them to everlasting joy, Psal. Ivi. 8. 

Christ is peculiarly said " to bear our sins," Isa. liii. 4, 12, by which their imputation to 
him, and a full satisfaction is understood,* 1 Pet. ii. 24, " Who his own self bare our sins 
in his own body on the tree, that we being dead to sin, should live unto righteousness, by 
whose stripes ye were healed." 

God is said " to cast our sins behind his back," when he forgives them, and remits the 
punishment, Isa. xxxviii. 17, to which there is a contrary phrase, Psal. xc. 8, " Thou hast . 
set our iniquities before thee, our secret sins in the light of thy countenance." 

He is said " to shave with a razor, the head, and the hair of the feet, and the beard," 
when he makes a spoil and devastation of the land, and scatters small and great from 
thence, Isa. vii. 20.-f- God here intimates that by the king of Assyria he would punish 
the Israelites, so as that men, beasts, buildings, plants, &c., should be destroyed. " He says 
" with a razor that is hired/' that they may know it would exact its own reward ; that is, 
that the Assyrians, through greediness of prey and spoil, would make havoc of, and sweep 
away all things. The Lord is said " to break forth upon his enemies/' when he disperses, 
crushes, and slays them, 2 Sam. v. 20, and vi. 8. 

He is said to shoot with an arrow, when he heaps swift and speedy vengeance upon the 
wicked, Psal. Ixiv. 7, " But God shall shoot at them with an arrow, suddenly shall they 
be wounded." 

God is said " to write," which denotes his knowledge and providence, with respect to 
grace and benignity, as when he is said to " write the godly in the book of Life," or his 
book, Isa. iv. 3, Dan. xii. 1, or when he " writes his law in their hearts," Jer. xxxi. 33, 
Heb. viii. 10, by which a renovation by the Holy Spirit is noted, that believers should 
know, and. willingly obey the will of God, 2 Cor. iii. 3. Hence he is said " to grave 
them upon the palm of his hands," Isa. xlix. 16, which shows his most faithful care and 
eminent grace towards them. See Rev. iii. 12. 

Sometimes his writing signifies his wrath and punishment of sinners, as when Job 
says, " Thou writest bitter things against me," Job xiii. 26, that is, thou dost afflict me 
with bitter and heavy strokes ; a metaphor taken from courts of judicature, where legal 
sentences are recorded, Isa. Ixv. 6, " Behold it is written before me, I will not keep silence, 
but I will recompense, even recompense into their bosom," by which divine knowledge is 
noted ; a metaphor taken from men, who write down in a book or paper what they would 

It is said, Jer. xvii. 13, " They that depart from thee shall be written in the earth, be- 
cause they have forsaken the Lord, the Fountain of living waters," that is, such apostates 
shall be excluded from heaven, and destined to eternal destruction. 

God is said to " search Jerusalem with candles," that is, all their secret sins shall be 
brought to light and punished, Zeph. i. 12. 

* Q'fff, imp.-ilalio if./i frtotn, et plena, satisfactio inteltiyititr, 1 Pet. ii. 4. 

']' Jiidicut so oprra lieyis Assyria .Isra.c.!i1as puniturum, ita ut homines, et inuincdia, etc. cedijir.ia c.t plttnire 
vug It nl ur. Idea aitleui addil, cmiductitia, id sciaut ilfani novaculam suant iifi-cedcm fiat/id ff/tnr in, Ac. 


He is said " to engrave the graving of one stone," &c. 5 Zech. iii. 9 ; which betokens the 
wounds, languor, and passion of Christ, who is figured by that stone. 

He is said "to put a hedge round about one," when he preserves him from the ma- 
lignity of malicious spirits, Job i. 10 ; and to remove the hedge, signifies, that he 
will leave them naked, exposed, and defenceless, Isa. v. 5, Psal. viii. 12, 13, and Ixxxix, 
40, 41. When, he is said " to inclose man's way with hewn stones," it denotes a being 
environed with afflictions and calamities, as Lam. iii. 9. " To hedge up the way with 
thorns," as' Hos. ii. 6, signifies that God will by afflictions, and other means, hinder and 
divert men from an intended sin and iniquity. 

God is said " to seal up the hand of every man," Job xxxvii. 7, when he prohibits or 
hinders their actions. It is said that " God the Father sealed Christ," John vi. 27, that is, 
sent him forth, with divine authority for the good of men. See Cant. iv. 12, and viii. 
6, Hag. ii. 24, where by seal is betokened that he confirms and preserves believers, in 
truth and piety, 2 Cor. i. 22, Eph. i. 13, and iv. 30, as men fix their seal to that which 
they would ratify and- confirm. 

The Father is said " to draw men to Christ," John vi. 44, 45, 65, when he illuminates 
the mind with his word, and bestows the true knowledge of salvation. So Cant. i. 4, Jer. 
xxxi. 2, Hosea -si. 4, John xii. 32, 2 Thess. iii. 5. This is no violent compulsion, but a 
benevolent flexion, bending, or disposition of a mind averse to goodness, and that by means, 
as the word revealed and preached, &c. 

It is said, Jer. xv. 7, " I will fan them with a fan," &c., that is, in my anger I will 
disperse and destroy them. The word is properly taken, Isa. xxx. 24. It is said of 
Christ, Matt. iii. 12, Luke iii. 17, " That his fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly 
purge his floor, and gather his wheat in his garner, but he will burn up the chaff with 
unquenchable fire ;" that is, by the word of his power, and by afflictions and tribulations 
he will segregate or separate the godly from the wicked, as by a fan or. winnowing, the 
pure grain is divided from the chaff. 

God is said " to sweep with the besom of destruction," Isa. xiv. 23, which intimates an 
utter desolation, and spoil of inhabitants to the land. 

It is said, Psal. Ixxvi. 12, "He shall cut of the spirit of princes;" the word translated 
" cut off" is emphatical, and signifies, the lopping off the branches of a vine, leaving it 
naked and desolate, and so it notes a deprivation of strength, courage, or life itself. 

God is said " to anoint," when he comforts, lifts up, or makes glad his people, Psal. 
xxiii. 4, 5, 2 Cor. i. 21 ; but most large, extensive, and copious is the unction of Christ, 
our blessed Saviour, wherewith he is by the Father anointed for the salvation of poor sin- 
ners, Psal. xlv. 7, 8, Isa. Ixi. 1, Luke iv. 18, Heb. i. 9, John iii. 34, Acts x. 38, &c. 

A third kind of actions, which properly belong to the feet, are ascribed to God, as Gen. 
iii. 15, "A breaking the serpent's head" whereby the serpent is meant the devil, who 
seduced Eve in that form : and by the serpent's head, his power, and diabolical fierceness. 
So the breaking of his head is to be performed by the Messias,* God-man, and signifies the 
destruction of the power and kingdom of the Devil, and Man's redemption, from, its tyranny 
and vassalage. Our Saviour is figured here as a magnificent hero, who with his feet 
tramples upon the serpent or dragon, and breaks his head. But it is said that " the ser- 
pent shall bruise his heel," by which phrase the passion and death of Christ is meant. To 
this passage, the Apostle Paul alludes, Kom. xvi. i-0, " And the God of peace shall bruise 
Satan under your feet shortly," &c. 

Such a treading under foot as is used in a wine-press, is ascribed to Lam. i. 5, 
by which the extreme oppression and affliction of men is noted. To this may be referred, 
that emphatical phrase, Isa. Ixiii. 3, " I have trodden the wine-press alone," &c., which is 
spoken of Christ, who by his merit and satisfaction freed us from our enemies, whom 
he crushed under his feet. 

Hitherto of actions which concern the rational soul, and such as concern the animal 
faculty follow, which are threefold, as it respects the present purpose. 

1. The actions of the external senses, which are five. 




2. The actions of the locomotive faculty, or which respect motion, and local 

3. Actions procreating or generating, which physicians call vegetative, but we reduce 
it to the animal, for vegetatives are comprehended under it. 

Seeing or sight is attributed to God, by which, (as was said before when we treated of 
eyes) his most exact knowledge is intimated, Exod. xxxii. 9, " I have seen this people, 
and behold it is a stiff-necked people," that is, I very well know how wicked they are. 
1 Sam. xvi. 7, "A man* looketh on what is before his eye, but the Lord sees to the 
heart," that is, he hath an exact prospect into the very thoughts of the heart, and 
the whole inward frame of the mind, and accordingly judges. Psal. xi. 4, " The Lord's, 
eyes behold, his eye-lids try the children of men." It is a singular passage which we find, 
John v. 19, where Christ says of himself, " Verily, verily, I say unto you, the Son'can 
do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do ; for what things soever he doeth, 
these also doeth the Son likewise." Here the sight of Christ is equal with the omniscient 
Father's, and consequently His omnipotence is equal and his evepysm, energy, or power, 
in operation. Upon this and the following verse, Erasmus thus paraphrases,f " I 
affirm it again, and again, that the Son, who wholly depends on the Father, can of 
himself do nothing, forasmuch as he is not of himself, but what he sees the Father 
do, the same does he ; their will and power is the vory same : with the Father there 
is authority, and whatsoever the Son is or can do is derived from him. Whatsoever 
therefore the Father hath done, the same in the like manner is wrought by the Son, 
because of the equality of the communicated power. Amongst men the sons often- 
times degenerate from the fathers, neither have they always the same will and faculty ; 
but the matter is otherwise here, the Father loves the Son alone, and begot him 
most like himself, and transferred an equal power of operation into him, showing him 
all things that are to done -by himself; he is sent forth as the great exemplar by 
him ; in all other matters the operation of each is common, &c. 

2. By the sight of God, his providence over his creatures is to be understood, some- 
times denoting his approbation, favour, grace, and good will, as Gen. i. 4, " And God 
saw that the light was good," &c. So verses 10, 12, 18, 21, 25. After which is annex- 
ed a general sentence, verse 31, "And God saw every thing that he had made, and behold 
it was very good." Which signifies his divine approbation of his created ! works, and 
his sanction of the duration of nature's order to the end of the world. See Psal. civ. 
30, 31, &c. Hence comes that form of speech, when God is said to see, denoting his 
providence of certain persons or things, under his immediate care and government, 
as Gen. xvi. 13, " Thou God seest me," that is, thou providest for me. And Gen. xxii. 8, 
" God will see (that is, provide) himself a lamb for a burnt- offering." It is not to be un- 
derstood that Abraham knew before-hand, that he should find a ram to offer for a 
sacrifice to God instead of Isaac, but that he would quiet his son by that kind of answer, 
be being solicitous and inquisitive for the lamb that should be offered for a burnt- 
offering, therefore he intimates that Isaac should leave it to the care of divine providence; 
and as Abraham spoke, the event happened, for "he lifted up his eyes," verse 13, 
and beheld the sacrifice to be offered, and so he gave the place a name, viz., " Jehovah- 
jireh, that is, God shall see," verse 14, &c. So 1 Sam. xvi. 1, I have seen me a king 
among his sons," that is, as our translation has it, " I hare provided and chosen me a 

More specially the TO respicere, or seeing, or respect of God, as it concerns men, 
denotes his approbation, mercy, care, and help. Of which Illyricus in Clave. 
jThere is in this a twofold figure, viz., an antliropopatliy, inasmuch as sight is ascribed 
to God, then a metalepsis or metonymy, because the external motion of the eyes, the effect 
being put for the cause, signifies the inward affection of the mind : for it takes in the ex- 
ternal help which is the consequent of the internal affection, and the external motion of the 

* Homo videt qua &unt pr<s oculis, Dominus autem videt ad Cor. 

i Ill-ud etiam atque eliam affirmo voois,filius qui iotus a patre pendet, non polest quicquam ezsefacere, 
cum ex se non sit, fyc. Erat. Parap'ir. in loc. 

\ Est in his duplicate figura, nempe turn anthropopathia, quod Deo aspectus inbuitur, turn etiam Meta- 
tfpsis aut Melonymia, quod externus oculorum motas consequent est, &c. 


eyes, so that here is a third trope. Gen. iv. 4, " And the Lord had respect unto Abel 
and to his offering," and verse 5. " but unto Cain, and his offering he had not respect," 
that is, he accepted and approved of the one, but not of the other. See Numb. xvi. 1 5, 

1 Sam. i. .11, Psal, ix. 13, 14, x. 13, 14, Ixxxiv. 9, 10, cii. 17, 18, Ixxiv. 19, 20, and 
cxiii. 6, Isa. Ixvi. 2, Lam. iv. 16, and v. 1, Jon. iii. 10, Luke i. 25, 48, &c., Deut. xxvi. 
15, Psal. Ixxx. 14, 15, and cii. 20, Lam. iii. 50, &c. 

Hitherto * the phrase of God's seeing or respecting, denotes his favour and love, 
which is sometimes directed to the object/, as when he is said to have respect to the man, 
or his offering : sometimes to an internal cause, as when he is said to have respect to his 
covenant, that is, the declaration of his mercy and grace that way expressed to man, 
Psal. Ixxiv. 19, 20, Likewise when he is said to look upon the face of his anointed (that 
is, Christ) who is our Mediator and Saviour, for whose sake David prays for a blessing, 
calling him the servant of the Lord, 2 Chron. xvii. 19. And the word of the Lord, 

2 Sam. vii. 21, see 1 Chron. xvii. 17. 

2. It denotes evil, as wrath, vengeance, and punishment, as Exod. xiv. 24, " And it 
came to pass that in the morning watch, the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyp- 
tians, through the pillar of fire, and of the cloud, and troubled them," &c. 1 Chron. 
xii. 17, Psal. civ. 31, 32, Jer. iii. 8, Lam. iii. 36, Ezek. xvi. 50, &c. 

Hearing is attributed tp God, in which likewise his grace and benevolence in 
satisfying the desires of his people, and in a ready hearing their prayers and sighs is 
-denoted, as Gen. xvi. 11 " The Lord hath heard thy affliction." Exod. ii. 24, " And God 
heard their groaning." 2 Kings xx. 5, " I have heard thy prayer," &c. So Psal. iv. 3, 
4, v. 1, 2, 3, 4, and cxxx. 1, 2, Isa. Ixv. 24, 1 John v. 14, &c. Thus God is said to 
hear the heavens, Hos. ii. 21 ; when he gives the blessings (as Paul mentions, Acts xiv. 
17,) of rain from heaven, and fruitful seasons are granted, which heaven as it were 
silently desires and begs God for. 

The scripture uses the term of God's attention, hearkening as it were to the prayers and 
desires of the godly, by way of illustration of the greatness of his compassion, Psal. x. 16, 
17, Ixvi. 18, 19, and cxxx. 1, 2, &c. On the contrary, God is said to shut prayers, 
Lam. iii. 8. " And to cover himself with a cloud," that prayers could not pass through, 
verse 44, when he rejects the petitions of any ; see Isa. i. 15, and lix. 2, &c. 

Smelling is attributed to God, by which in like manner his complacency and grace 
are noted, as a man is refreshed and pleased with a sweet smell, as Gen. viii. 21, 
" And the Lord, smelled a savour of rest," so the Hebrew. The Chaldee says, and the 
Lord received their sacrifice very pleasingly. Upon which place Luther* says thus "As 
physicians sometimes recover fainting or swooning persons, by the fragrancy of odours, 
and, on the contrary, as a horrible stench does vehemently offend nature, and sometimes 
makes men faint,, so God may be said to be offended with the ill savour of impiety, and 
tp be delighted, and as it were refreshed, when he sees Noah prepare himself to sa- 
crifice, as a specimen of his gratitude, and by a public example manifest himself not 
to be wicked, but a true and cordial worshipper and reverencer of God, which was 
the proper end of sacrifices. 

Musculus, in his comment upon the place, says very excellently, that " Moses by an-j- an- 
thropopathy ascribes the faculty of smelling to God, and writes not of the sacrifice of 
Noah, for it is not said that the Lord smelled the. odour of the burnt-offering, but a 
sweet savour ; for God smells not by the organ of nostrils as man does, for it was not 
the smell of the sacrifice of beasts that yielded that fragrancy, such being in themselves 
rather nauseous than sweet. Hence we learn that our works of what kind soever they 
'be, have a certain smell which ascends to the nostrils of God, and is either approved 
by him as sweet and pleasing, or disapproved as noisome and unsavoury. The odour is, 
not what our external works repi'esent to sense, but what results from the spirituality 
of our hearts ; for good acts proceeding from a good and pious intention smells 
sweetly, but bad ones the contrary. In the sacrifice of Noah, there was a corporal 
external savour, which was obvious to the notice of men, but the piety of his 

* In aiirdo cGtumetilario, hoc loco sictit mudici nnnnunqiiam. nxairlnii'S suavifate odoruni revoeant, &c. 
f Per attLkrapojiaUdam Moses Deo tribuib odorandi fa f " J laleM et de saciiiicio Noe nunscribit, fyc. 




heart was pleasing to God, whilst in the sincerity and faithfulness of a pious mind, he 
acknowledged and celebrated the goodness of his Lord, &c." To this may be referred 
several other places where this phrase (of a sweet-smelling savour) is found, as Exod. 
xxix. 18, 25, 41, Levit. i. 9, ii. 12, iii.16, and viii. 21, Numb, xxviii. 2, Ezek. xx. 28, 41, &c. 
Doubtless in these places respect is had to the Messias, whom the sacrifices of the Old 
Testament typified, as Eph. v. 2, " Christ Jesus also hath loved us, and hath given him- 
self for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savour." So Isa. xi. 3, 
where it is said, " that he shall make him of a scent or a smell, (so the Hebrew,) in the 
fear of the Lord," which is expounded of the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ, and his obe- 
dience to the Father even unto death, which the prophet calls the fear of the Lord, accord- 
ing to 2 Cor. ii. 15, " For we are made of God a sweet savour of Christ," that is, our 
ministry to God through Christ, is as it were accepted as a sweet sacrifice. See Eom. xv. 
16, Psal. xlv. 8, 9, Cant. i. 3, &c. 

Tasting and touching are ascribed to God, of which there are not many examples, Psal. 
civ. 34, " My meditation shall be sweet to him," so the Hebrew, that is, grateful and ac- 
ceptable. Hosea ix. 4, " They shall not offer wine (offerings) to the Lord, for they shall 
not be sweet unto him," that is, not pleasing nor accepted. See Mai. iii. 4, Jer. xxx. 21, 
Psal. xl. 8, 9, John iv. 32, 34. 

It is said, Psal. civ. 32, " He toucheth the hills and they smoke," as if it were said, by 
his touch only he can destroy the loftiest and most firm things. So some say that the 
phrase, Psal. cxliv. 5, alludes to the smoking of Mount Sinai at the promulgation of the 
law, Exod. xix. and xx. Also some phrases may be reduced hither that are mentioned, 
where a hand is attributed to God, as before. 

So much of the external actions of sense, whose affections are sleep and watchfulness ; 
for as in sleep the actions of sense are still and quiet, so in watchfulness they are provoked 
to their respective operations, as Aristotle * says. 

Both these are by an anthropopathy attributed to God, Psal. xliv. 23, 24, " Awake, 
why sleepest thou, Lord, cast us not off ever." Psal. Ixxviii. 65, "Then the Lord 
awaked as one out of sleep." Jer. xxxi. 26, "Upon this I awaked and beheld, and ruy 
sleep was sweet unto me," by the former a delay of divine help is noted, by the latter his 
strength and power against his enemies, and his favour and grace towards his church after 
that delay. A waking without the mention of sleep is expressed, Psal. xxx. 22, 23, Isa. 
Ii. 9, &c. It is said, Psal. cxxi. 3, 4, " He that keepeth thee, will not slumber behold 
he that keepeth Israel, shall neither slumber nor sleep," by which phrase the absolute and 
undoubted certainty of divine help is declared. So watching -J- is attributed to God, and 
denotes his assiduity or despatch, in inflicting punishments or granting benefits, Jer. xxxi. 
28, and xliv. 27. 

Actions of the second laud, as local motion, are ascribed to God by an anthropopathy as 
coming unto believers, whereby the exhibition of his grace and blessings is to be under- 
stood, Exod. xx. 24, John xiv. 23. There is also a coming to judge and punish, Isa. iii. 
13, 14. To which belongs that in Hos. xi. 9, " I will not come (or enter) into the city," 
that is, in an hostile manner, or to destroy it, as Sodom. 

Walking is attributed to God, whereby his gracious presence and help is signified. Levit. 
xxix. 12, " And I will walk in the midst of you," that is, ye shall have my present help 
and protection. So Deut. xxiii. 14, 2 Cor. vi. 16, Lev. xxvi. 24, It is said, " Then will 
I also walk contrary to you and punish you," that is without distinction of persons, I will 
let the reins of mine anger loose upon you. 

God is said to come down from heaven, when he takes apparent and especial cognizance 
of the actions of men, and that sometimes out of grace and favour, as Exod. iii. S, or to 
punish in wrath and anger, as Gen. xi. 5, 7, and xviii. 21, Psal. xviii. 9, 10, Isa. Ixiv. 1, 


Lib. de sonuio $" Virgil, c. ] . 

', vigilamt. 


The Sen of God is said to come down from heaven, when he assumed human nature 
and manifested himself to men in order to their salvation, John iii. 13, and vi. 38, 42, 
50. The Holy Spirit is said to come down, when in the visible appearance of a dove he 
manifested himself resting upon Christ, Matt. iii. 16, Mark i. 10, Luke iii. 22, John i. 32, 
33. In another signification God promised that he would go down with Jacob into Egypt,' 
that is, that Ms grace and protection should accompany him in that way, Gen. xlvi. 4. 

Riding is ascribed unto God, by which his glorious operation is noted, which he exerts 
in the heavens, in tempests and otherwise, Deut. xxxi. ~2Q, " There is none like unto the 
God of Jeshurun, who rideth upon the heaven." Psal. Ixviii. 33, " To him that rideth 
upon the heaven of heavens." Likewise his speed and celerity, in the execution of his 
judgments, Psal. xviii. 10, " He rode upon a cherub, and did fly, yea he did fly upon the 
wings of the wind." So Isa. xix. 1, &c. 

To meet or meeting with a person is ascribed to God, and signifies either his manifesta- 
tion, as Numb, xxiii. 4, 16, or his grace and beneficence, as Isa. Ixiv. 5. God is said to 
return to his place, which signifies a sending of punishment, Hos. v. 15, for when men 
are afflicted, and help is delayed, God seems to be absent from them. 

Judg. xvi. 13, Lam. iii. 43, 44. A returning on high, signifies his going into his judi- 
cial throne, or divine judgment itself, Psal. vii. 7. A returning to the godly, signifies the 
taking away of sin and the exhibition of grace, Psal. vi. 4, o, Zech. i. 3. 

By his rising up, his divine purpose with respect to his great works is noted, Numb. x. 
35, Psal. xii. 5, 6, xliv. 26, 27, Ixviii. 1, 2, and cii. 14, Isa. xxxiii. 10. 

The Holy Ghost coming upon one, signifies that he works in a singular manner in and 
by him, Luke i. 35, Acts i. 8, which Luke xiv. 49, is to be endued with power from on 

A passing through, or passing over, is attributed to God, Exocl. xii. 13, Amosv. 17, 
by which divine punishment is noted ; sometimes a forbearance from punishing, as Amos 
vii. 8, viii. 2, with i. 3, Micah vii. 18, Prov. xix. 11, FIDS, Pesach or Pascha, the Passover 
takes its name from hence, Exod. xii. 13, 23. So it is used in the deliverance of the peo- 
ple from the Babylonish captivity, Isa. xxxi. 5, Dan. .v. 30. 

Visitation is ascribed to God, by which either his exploration, that is, a diligent search, 
notice, or knowledge of things, Psal. xvii. 3, or a real exhibition of his grace and benefits, 
is noted, Gen. xxi. 1, Psal. Ixv. 9, 10, and cvi. 4, Jer xxix. 10, Luke xix. 44, &c. 
Sometimes it denotes wrath and punishment, Exod. xxxiv. 7, Psal. lix. 6, Isa. xxvii. 1, Jer. 
vi. 6, and xv. iii. 

Sometimes a diligent search is attributed to God, Ezek. xx. 6, " To bring them forth 
out of the land of Egypt, to the land which I searched out for them, (so it is in the He- 
brew,) flowing with milk and honey ;" the land of Judea is commended (says Junius *) 
by the providence and choice of the eternal God, because (as if it were by search) he had 
provided it for a most commodious seat, where after they had cast out their enemies they 
were to rest, &c. ; the like is said of the ark of the covenant, Num. x. 33. . 

Seeking, which is done by going up and down, is also ascribed to God, signifying his 
desire and serious will, Ezek. xxii. 30, John iv. 23, &c. 

Finding out iniquity is attributed likewise to God, when he chastises and punishes in 
wrath, Gen. xliv. 16. He is said to find his enemies, when he lays condign punishment 
upon them. He is said to find David his servant, when out of singular love and provi- 
dence he elected and made choice of him, Psal. Ixxxix. 20, Acts xiii. 22. In which sense 
he is also said to seek him, 1 Sam. xiii. 14. 

* Iu Comment, hoc loco. 




The third kind of action is generative, not that eternal -generation, by which God the 
Father from everlasting begat the Son, co-eternal and con-substantial with himself, for 
that is not metaphorical, but most proper, Psal. ii. 7, Prov. viii. '24,, 25, Heb. i. 5. But 
that spiritual and mystical generation, by which he is said to "beget his believing peo- 
ple," when he remits their sins, renews his own image upon them, and adopts them into 
the privilege of sonship, through Christ the Saviour. Of which see Isa. Ixvi. 6, John i. 
13, and iii. 5, 6, Tit. iii. 5, 1 Pet. i. 3, 23, I John iii. 9, James i. 18, &c. 

God is said to be a Father with respect to certain inanimate creatures, Job xxxviii. 28, 
" Hath the rain a father ? or who hath begotten the drops of the dew ?" that is, besides 
me. For there is no other can send it upon the earth, by which God intimates, that he 
only can give this benefit, and that men cannot imitate it. And verse 29, " Out of whose 
womb came the ice ? (that is, where is the artist besides me, that can make it ?) and the 
hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?" viz., beside me. 

To this may be referred that phrase, Zeph. ii. 2, where God says, " Before the decree 
bring forth." Upon which place the learned Tarnovius* thus paraphrases. "Prepare 
yourselves to meet the Lord, who was not yet brought forth, produced, or executed his 
decree, or statute, which he (as if he were pregnant with punishment) goes now big with. 
For as the birth does not immediately follow conception, but has a certain allotted arid 
prescribed time by nature's law, for its ripening, or maturity ; so God, although he hath 
certainly decreed to punish, and has established and conceived the sentence in his own 
mind ; yet he defers execution for a certain space, that he may give opportunity for re- 
pentance, which, if sinners will by no means do, ^hen their iniquity grows ripe, and God's 
punishment mature, and fit for execution. And as the birth must of necessity follow con- 
ception, when the time limited by nature is expired ; so the judgments of God are inevitable, 
when the determinate time comes." 

Human adjuncts ascribed to God. 

THESE are either private, -f- or positive. Of the first sort are these, viz., when some- 
thing of impotency or inability is (after the manner of men) attributed to God, or when 
God says of himself, that he cannot do a thing, being as it were prohibited by his truth, 
goodness, and holiness, as Gen. xix. 2'2, "Haste thee, escape thither; for I camot do 
any thing until thou be come thither." These are the words of the Son of God, who, 
when he departed from Abraham, turned towards Sodom to destroy the cities, and says 
thus to Lot, viz.,, whereas it is the immutable and certain determination of God, out of a 
gracious and favourable respect to you, to deliver you from this destruction, therefore be- 
fore you be placed in safety, the execution of the sentence by which Sodom must be burnt, 
shall be delayed. Upon which place D. Hunnius J says, " The execution of God's absolute 
decree or power no creature can retard, but here he speaks of his power as it is tempered, 
qualified, and allayed, by the favour of his fatherly mercy towards men, and as accommo- 
dated for the profit of believers, that nothing which he does shall hurt them." 


To this may be referred that speech of God, which of all is most sweet and gracious, 
and full of comfort (inasmuch as it was spoken, in the very swelling, as it were, of 
anger.) When he speaks to Moses of the grievous sin and apostacy of the people, 
Exod. xxxii. 10, " Now therefore let me alone, that my wrath may wax hot against them, 
and that I may consume them," &c., Jehovah speaks as if he had been bound and con- 
strained by the faith and prayer of Moses, so as that he could not destroy the people unless 
he had asked him leave, as Psal. cvi. 23, " Therefore he said that he would destroy them, 
had net Moses his chosen, stood before him. in the breach, to turn away his wrath lest he 
should destroy them." Of so great a virtue and efficacy are the prayers of the just 
before the Lord, James v. 16. See Gen. xxxii. 28, Hosea xii. 4, Josh. x. 12 14, 
&c., Isa. i. 13, " The calling of assemblies I cannot away with : (or more properly I can- 
not bear) it is iniquity." This is expounded with respect to the sanctity of God, and 

* Parate vos in occursum Domini, cum. nondum parit, seu in Lucem edit bt ezeqidtur decretum sen statu- 
tum quod poenis veJut praignans Deus fecit, easquejamparturit, etc. Tarnovius iu loco. 

t ffreTpr)TiKa, privateva ; et 06-riKa positiva. 

% Potentiam Dei absolutam nulla creatitra retardare potest. Hie vero loquitur de suet potentia-, pront 
ilia, &c. 



his abomination of iniquity, as verse 14, " Your new-moons, and your appointed feasts, my 
soul hateth," which is intimated by these phrases of human abhorrence. 

Something also of loosened or disjointed members, after the manner of men, is attributed 
to God, as Jer. vi: 8, " Be thou instructed, Jerusalem, lest my soul be loosened* or dis- 
jointed from thee," so the Hebrew ; that is, lest after the manner of a member that is 
broken, or out of joint, it depart from, or be separate from thee, and thou as a strange 
member be cut off, or divided from me. 

Ezek. xxiii. IS, " She discovered her whoredoms, and discovered her nakedness ; then 
my mind was, pni, disjointed from her." By this phrase the communion of God-j- with 
believers, is most excellently expressed ; for if for their wilful and contumacious rebellions 
God departs from them, the head is, as it were, separated or plucked off the putrified 
members, as the Lord, by a like metaphor, speaks to the wicked synagogue, Jer. xv. 
6, " For thou hast forsaken me, saith the Lord, thou art gone backward ; therefore 
will I stretch out my hand against thee, and destroy thee ; I am weary with repenting." 
Much and great were the forbearance and patience of God, before this desertion, which is 
indeed the filling the measure of iniquity spoken of, Gen. xv. 16, Matt, xxiii. 32. To 
these privatives in man may be referred diseases, by which is signified the punishment of 
sin, which Christ bore in our stead, Isa. liii. 4, 10, suitable to Hos. xiii. 14, " I will ran- 
som them from the power of the grave ; I will redeem them from death : death, I will 
be thy plagues ! grave, I will be thy destruction ! repentance shall be hid from mine 
eyes." Thus he speaks with respect to his sacerdotal or priestly office, as Heb. ii. 14, 
"Forasmuch as the children are made partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself took 
part of the same, that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, 
that is, the devil." 

(2.) With respect to his prophetical office, 2 Tim. i. 10, "Because by the gospel he hath 
abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light:" for he strongly defends his 
Church, so as that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it, and 1 Cor. xv. 26, "The 
last enemy that shall be destroyed is death." Here is a most evident symbol of the resur- 
rection, as Junius and Tremellius upon the place rightly conclude. Paul upon these words 
of Hosea, 1 Cor. xv. 55, thus speaks, " death, where is thy sting ? grave, where is 
thy victory?" &c. 

Of the second sort of men's actions, which -are ascribed to God, there may be a dis- 
tinction made, viz., such as are internal, and such as are external. The internal are with 
respect to the diverse states, circumstances, or conditions of men ; and so God is said to 
be a Husbandman;"^, that is, (synecdochially) a vine-dresser, John xv. 1. The rea- 
son of the comparison follows in the next verses, and is largely expounded, Isa. v. 
and Matt, xx., &e., Christ, who is the hypostatical wisdom of God, and his eternal Son, 
calls himself a workman, when he speaks of the creation, Cant. vii. 1. "For by him were 
all things made, and without him was nothing made that was made," John i. 3, Col. i. 16, 

So God is said to be the Builder^ and Maker of a city, which hath foundations, Heb. 
xi. 10, that is, the Cause, Fountain, and Aiithor of eternal life- and heavenly joy. 

So he is called a Man of war, Exod. xv. 3, from that Almighty work of his overwhelm- 
ing and drowning Pharaoh and his Egyptian host. Besides in wars waged among men, he 
is the chief General, and Captain, giving victory to whom he pleases, and scattering, root- 
ing, or destroying whom he pleases. See Psal. xlvi. and Ixxvi. &c. 

Christ is called a Counsellor, Isa. ix. 6, with respect to his most wise decree in 
restoring salvation, at whose disposal it was, 1 Tim. i. .9, " Who hath saved us, and called 
us with au holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and 
grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus, before the world began." Likewise with respect 
to his most holy office, in manifesting the divine will to our capacities in. order to 
salvation, and his obedience to the Father, &c. The Lord is called a Physician, Exod. 
xv. 26, because he frees men from all perils of souls, and bodies (which are frequently 

* 3>pn. } Juniits. ^ yewp-y. Te^virrts Kai S^faiovpyos artift-x et conditor. 


compared to diseases,) Psal. cxlvii. 2, 3, &c. This is peculiarly ascribed to Christ the 
Bedeemer, for the blessing of spiritual health, which we receive from him, Matt. is. 12, 
Mark ii. 17, see Isa. Ixi. 1. 

He is called a Shepherd, Psal. xxiii. 1, which appellation is also peculiarly attributed 
to Christ, with respect to his office as a Saviour, Cant. i. 7, ii. 16, and vi. 2, Ezek. xxxiv. 
23, and xxxvii. 24, Micah v. 3, and vii. 14, Zech. xiii. 7, John x. 11, Heb. xiii. 20, 
1 Pet. ii. 25, v. 4, and elsewhere. 

He is called a Father, Deut. xxxii. 6, Psal. Ixviii. 6, Isa. Ixiv. 8, Matt. vi. 1, 6, 8, 9, 
Bom. viii. 15 ; which term is most full of comfort and joy, declaring the love and affection 
of the omnipotent God towards men. So he is called Father of Spirits, Heb. xii. 9, &c. 
Christ is called the everlasting Father, .or as in the Hebrew, the Father of eternity, Isa. ix. 
6, because he most sincerely loves believers, and glorifies them in a blessed eternity. The 
seventy have most elegantly translated this place vwnip rov ^eAAovTos aicov(&, pater futuri 
seculi, the Father of the age to come. 

He is called the First-born, Psal. Ixxxix. 27, Col. i. 1 5, 18, Bev. i. 5. Jehovah, and 
Christ, are frequently called, Prince, Captain, King, Isa. ix. 6, Iv. 4, xxxii. 1, and xxxiii. 
22, to denote their majesty and celestial dominion ; of which more elsewhere. 

He is called a Bridegroom, -Matt. ix. 15, and xxv. 1, Mark ii. 19, Luke v. 34, John iii. 
29. This title is ascribed to Christ, for many causes, principally for his unspeakable love 
to his church, which is by faith espoused to him, Hosea ii. 19, Eph. v. 26, 27, 28, &c. 

He is called a Witness, which term is applied to the Messiah, Isa. xliii. 10, and Iv. 4, 
Bev. i. 5, and iii. 14, because of a certainty he discovers heavenly truth to us, John 
xviii. 37. As also because he hath most exactly fulfilled whatsoever the prophets of the 
Old Testament -have foretold concerning him, John i. 17, &c. 

External adjuncts of a man are either inseparable, or separable. The inseparable are, 
being in a place and time. Each of these is attributed to God, (who in his own nature is 
eternal, and not circumscribed to place) by an anthropopathy. First, 

. More generally Place, is ascribed to God, Psal. xxiv. 3, " Who shall stand in his holy 
place," viz., the holy kingdom where the scriptures say his habitation is. He is said " to 
go out of his place," when he manifests his conspicuous and apparent presence, as Isa. 
xxvi. 21, Micah i. 3. He is said to retire or return to his place, when. he withdraws the 
benefit of his grace, and as it were hides himself in order to punish offenders, Hosea v. 15. 

More especially a seat, or Throne, is attributed to God, Exod. xvii. 16, (of which before) 
Psal. ix. 7, 8, xi. 3, 4, and xlvii. 8, 9, Isa. Ixvi. 1, Matt. v. 34, by which his most super- 
excellent majesty, sublimity, and authority is intimated. The prophet, Jer. xiv. 21, prays 
God, that he would not abhor, or disgrace the throne of his glory. By which Judea is 
understood, wherein the visible or peculiar kingdom of God was contained, and where God 
vouchsafed the most eminent appearances of his power and glory. Or else the temple of 
Jerusalem, as in chap. xvii. 12. It is taken, upon which Babbi Moses Mairnou.* Every 
place which God hath appointed for the manifestation of his power and glory is called his 
throne. For great and powerful men, as kings and princes, sit on their thrones, when 
they make a solemn appearance ; so are we to understand this word (NDD kiss., solemn) 
throne, of the magnificence, power, and dignity of him, to whom it is attributed. 

When a throne, and sitting upon it, is attributed to Christ, we are to understand that 
heavenly kingdom and government to which he was exalted in his human nature, as Psal. 
xlv. 6, 7, Isa. xvi. 5, Matt. xix. 28, Heb. i. 8, iv. 16, and viii. 1, &c. 

* Lt More Nebochim. 

K 2 


The earth is said to be the Lord's Footstool, Isa. Ixvi. 1, Matt. v. 35; by which 
is noted his immensity, for he is present in the lowermost part of the world. Or the 
ark of the covenant, in which by special revelation, he was to manifest his presence, 
according to 1 Chron. xxviii. 2, Psal. xcix. 4, 5, and cxxxii. 6, 7, Lam. ii. 1 ; some 
by this appellation would understand the sanctuary of God. See Psal. xcix. 4, 5, 8, 9. 
Upon which Illyricus says, the sense is, " know, that no where else, nor with any of the 
Gentiles, is the true worship of God, and his propitious presence to be found. There- 
fore seek him here, according to his word and promises." When it is said of Christ, 
Psal. ex. 1, " The Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou on my right hand, until I have made 
thine enemies thy footstool," and 1 Cor. xv. 25, " For he must reign, until he hath put his 
enemies all under his feet," and Heb. i. 13, it intimates, that he will most perfectly con- 
quer and subdue his enemies, as it is said, Psal. viii. 6, Eph. i. 22, Heb. ii. 8, &c., " That 
all things are put under his feet." 

Neither is Place only ascribed to God, but a local posture or situation also, as Psal. 
x. 1, " Why standest thou afar off," by which the delay of divine help is noted; a 
metaphor taken from men, who when they stand at a great distance cannot lend a help- 
ing hand. " To stand at the right hand," notes his powerful help and favour, as Psal. 
xvi. 8, " Because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved." So Acts ii. 25. God is 
said to sit, Psal. xxix. 10, and other places, in the same sense that a throne is ascribed to 
him ; by which his government, divine judgment, and exercises in peculiar actions are sig- 

He is said to " sit upon a cherub, Psal. Ixxx. 1, xcix. 1, because of the .peculiar mani- 
festation of his presence in that place. 

He is said to " sit upon the circle of the earth," Isa. xl. 22, because of his majesty in 
glory, which infinitely excels all the glories of the world ; and therefore the inhabitants 
of the earth are called grasshoppers, &c. 

Of the " sitting of Christ at the right hand of God," we have spoken before. God is 
said to dwell on high, in Sion, in the church, and in contrite hearts, &c., Psal. Ixviii. 16, 
17, cxxxii. 12, 13, 14, and cxxxv. 20, 21, Isa. Ivii. 19, Ezek. xxxvii. 27, John xiv. 23, 
2 Cor. vi. 16; by which the gracious manifestation, action, defence, illumination, consola- 
tion, and salvation, of his divine presence to his people, is to be understood. 

It is an emphatical word which Paul uses, 2 Cor. xii. 9, * " That the power of Christ 
may rest upon me," the words properly are, that the virtue or power of my God may 
dwell upon me, or that he would place his tabernacle upon me, and as an umbrage or 
shadow may surround, clothe, and protect me. When the cloud of glory had filled the 
temple, Solomon said, 1 Kings viii. 1 2, " The Lord said that he would dwell in the thick 
darkness ;" that is, by this sign he manifests himself to be present, as he said to Moses, 
Lev. xvi. 2, " I will appear in the cloud upon the mercy-seat." See Exod. xix. 9, and 
xvi. 10, Numb. ix. 15, Isa. vi. 4, Matt. xvii. 5, &c. 

The phrase of God's sitting in the heavens, or dwelling there, as Psal. ii. 4, and ciii. 18, 
19, 1 Kings viii. 39, 43, Illyricus thus expounds,-]- " Heaven neither ought nor can, when 
it is called the habitation of God, be understood of a certain real or material place, but it 
has rather a metaphorical signification, and .denotes that spiritual kingdom, glory, and 
felicity, in which God with his holy angels and other blessed spirits lives and reigns," as 
Psal. cxv. 16, '" The heaven, even the heavens, are the Lord's, but the earth hath he 
given to the children of men," that is, he requires and commands spiritual good, and divine 
worship, to be given to him, and leaves them to enjoy the good things of the world, for 
he in a proper sense requires not money, calves, kids, &c. 

And the learned Gerhard says, " God is everywhere, with respect to his essence, but 
he is said to dwell in heaven with respect to the more ample appearance of his 

* Ii/a eiri(rK7]i>cacrr) sir efte TJ Swa/jus TOV eov, quod proprie est, ut superkabiiel super me virtus Dei, vel, 
ul sztpi'r me tabernaculum suum collocet. 

f Non potiist nee debet Cesium, cum pro habitotione Dei accipitur, intettigi de loco aUquo cerlo reali 
ant mateiiali ; sed potius est metapkorica signijicatio, &c. Illyr. in Exea. Tom. 1. p. 831. 


majesty and glory ; so the whole soul is in every part of the body, but most radically in 
the heart, most effectively in the head, because, its most excellent effects are from 
thence produced." So Alcunius.* " God is therefore said to dwell in the heavens, be- 
cause the angels and the souls of blessed saints have a clearer and more illustrious pros- 
pect and knowledge of him, than the saints on earth can have, by reason of their dwelling 
in so gross a habitation." Likewise Polanus.-j- " The scripture oftentimes says, that God 
dwells in the heavens, not that he is there included, but to intimate, that he is above all 
in majesty, power, and operation, so as that he cannot be hindered by any on earth ; as 
also that our minds may be elevated above the world, so as that we may have no low, or 
carnal, or worldly thoughts of God," &c. 

To this may be also referred, when it is said, " That the Holy Ghost doth rest upon 
any," as Numb. xi. 25, 26, 2 Kings ii. 15, by which the distribution, and energy, or power, 
of his gifts is intimated. This Spirit is said to rest upon the Messiah, Isa. xi. 2, and Ixi. 
1, which is to be understood of the communication of his gifts, in their absolute fulness 
to Christ, according to his humanity, Psal. xlv. 7, 8, John iii. 34. The visible symbol was 
the resting of the Holy Spirit upon Christ hi the likeness of a dove, Matt. iii. 16, &c. 

Time is ascribed to God ai8punru>ws (in a way of human) speaking, but is to be understood 
tieoirpeircos (in a way of divine dialect) of his absolute eternity ; sometimes the description 
of God's eternity is taken from the names and differences of seasons, as years are ascribed 
unto God, which nevertheless are said to be, " Throughout all generations," Psal. cii. 24, 
" And shall have no end," ver. 27. " That he is the same, and that his years shall not fail," 
Heb. i. 12. " And that the number of his years cannot be searched out," as Job 
xxxvi. 26. 

Days are also attributed to him, whence he is called the ancient of days, Dan. vii. 9, 
which are called the days 'of eternity, Micah v. 1, 2 Pet. iii. 18. Eternity is described by 
eternal time or times, Bom. xvi. 25, 2 Tim. i. 9, Tit. i. 2, and auaves, secula, ages, by 
which term properly, times, and things done in time, are noted. Eph. iii. 9, Col. i. 
26, &c. 

Sometimes two or three differences of time, that eternity which wants beginning, inter- 
ruption, and end, may be expressed, Heb. xiii. 8, " Jesus Christ the same (that is, always 
like himself, invariable,. and immutable) yesterday, to-day, and for ever," that is, from 
eternity to eternity. Rev. i. 4, " Grace be unto you, and peace, from him which is, and 
which was, and which is to come," (or will be) that is, who is the eternal God ; so in the 
8th verse, there is another symbol of eternity " I am <* and ">, Alpha and Omega," the first 
and last letters of the Greek alphabet, which denote the beginning and end of any thing, 
which are the bounds and notes of time, brought to express him who is the beginning with- 
out beginning, and the end without end, that is, who is indeed absolutely eternal ; so Christ 
speaks; Chap. xxi. xxii. 13, as is- apparent from the context. 

To this may be referred, where the scripture uses words concerning God which respect 
the time to come, whereas in eternity there is not properly any time past, or to come, as 
Psal. cxxxix. 2, " Thou understandest my thought afar off;" that is, long before it came 
in my mind, as verse 4, " For there is not a word in my tongue, but lo, Lord, thou 
knowest it altogether." It is said, Rom. viii. 29, " For whom he did trposyvco, foreknow, 
he also did predistinate," &c. Rom. xi. 2, " God hath not cast away his people which he 
foreknew," &c. 1 Pet. i. 2, " Elected according to the foreknowledge of God the Father," 

D. Mylius, upon Rom. viii., says thus, God is said to foreknow such as he foresaw would 
believe in his Son, not that there is any future time properly ascribable to God, in whom 
no accident, condition, or circumstance, of time, and place, can be admitted, but these things 
are spoken of God by an anthropopathy, that is, after the manner of men. 

This prescience of God, .inamuch as it is certain and never fails, therefore such as he 
foreknew he also predestinated, for this foreknowledge is never without predestination. 

* Deus est ubique ratione ess entice, etc. lib. de Irinit. cap. 50. 
t In Synlaym. Tlieol. p. 195. 


Ambrose confirms this interpretation, in these words: "those whom God foreknew, would 
embrace the faith, he elected them, to the promised rewards, that they that seem to believe, 
and either are not really such as they pretend to be, or forsake the faith, may be excluded, 
for such as God hath elected to himself do remain his." 1 Pet. i. 20, It is said of Christ 
the Lamb of God, and the Redeemer of the world, that he was ^poeyvcaa-fiei'os, "foreknown 
before the foundation of the world," that is, he was ordained by the eternal decree of God, 
to be offered as a sacrifice for the sins of men. 


Hitherto of inseparable adjuncts, the separable are various, we shall recite some. 

Armour and weapons are attributed to God, for he is sometimes said to be clad in arms 
to denote the exertion, or execution of his wrath and vengeance, Psal. xxxv. 2, 3, " Take 
hold of shield and buckler, and stand up for mine help.' Draw out also the spear, and stop 
the way against them that prosecute me," &c. Isa. lix. 17, 18, " For he put on righteous- 
ness as a breast-plate, and an helmet of salvation upon his head ; and he put on the gar- 
ments of vengeance for clothing, and was clad with zeal as a cloak," &c. Jer. 1. 25, it is 
said, " The Lord hath opened his armoury, and hath brought forth the weapons of his in- 
dignation ; for this is the work of the Lord God of hosts in the land of the Chaldeans ;" 
when by the enemy he brings punishment, and a general destruction* upon a people ; thus 
the king of Babylon is called God's battle-axe and weapons of war, for with him will he 
break in pieces the nations, and with him will he destroy kingdoms, Jer. Ii. 20, because by 
him, and his host, the Lord did afflict, and make desolate several countries. 

More especially a bow, arrows, and strings, are attributed to God, Psal. xxi. 12, Lam. 
ii. 4, and iii. 12, " He hath bent his bow like an enemy he hath set me as a mark for 
the arrow" by which the effects of his divine wrath against the wicked are noted. By 
the arrows of God are meant swift, and unlocked for calamities sent for sin, Deut. xxxii. 
22, 23, 24, " I will heap mischiefs upon them ; I will spend mine arrows upon them," Job 
vi. 4, Psal. xxxviii. 2, 3, and Ixiv. 7, b, Zech. ix. 14, Lam. iii. 13. And more particu- 
larly the arrows of God are said to be hail-stones, thunder, lightnings, coals of fire, &c., 
Psal. xviii. 13, 14, and cxliv. 6, Hab. iii. 11. Sometimes the inspired efficacy of the Gosr 
pel in saving the godly, and judging and condemning the wicked, Psal. xlv. 5, Isa. xlix. 
2, John xii. 47, 48, 2 Cor. ii. 15, 16. 

A sword is ascribed to God, by which likewise is intimated his wrath, and vengeance, 
of which that is an index and symbol, Deut. xxxii. 41, Judg. vii. 20, Psal. xvii. 18, Isa. 
. xxvii. 1, and xxxiv. 5, 6, Ezek. xxi. 8, 9, 10, Zech. xiii. 7. Munsterus upon Isa. xxxiv. 
says, " that the sword of the Lord is his divine decree, which none can change," Psal. xxxv. 
2, 3. By these weapons, divine vengeance is metaphorically described. See Rev. xix. 
15, 21. The term sword is applied also to God with respect to its penetrating force, of 
which more hereafter in its proper place. 

A glittering spear, or lightning spear, is attributed to God, Hab. iii. 11, 
stones, hail, thunder, lightning, ' &c., sent from heaven are thereby noted, as Josh. 
x. 11. 

When a shield or target is ascribed to God, it is to be understood of his propitious 
favour, and mercy, to men through Christ, becoming their defence, protection, and 
security warding (as a shield does blows) all assaults and violences of the enemy, 
and converting all into good for his people, Gen. xv. 1, Deut. xxxiii. 29, Psal. iii. 3, 
xviii. 2, 3, xxviii. 6, 7, Ixxxiv. 11, 12, and v. 12, " For thou, Lord, will bless the righ- 
teous ; with favour wilt thou compass them as with a shield." The word of God is called 
a shield, Psal. xci. 4, Prov. xxx. 5, Eph. vi. 16, because when it is received by faith, its 
virtue is exerted in the defence of believers. 

The Holy Spirit is called an earnest given by God to believers, 2 Cor. i. .22, 
and chap. v. 5, Eph. i. 14. The Hebrew call pis (of whom the Greeks borrowed 
v, the Latins Arrhabo) any thing that is given to confirm a promise, or bind a 

* Panolethria. 


bargain, therefore some translate it a pledge. According to Suidas " Arrhabo or an 
earnest, is a piece of money given by the buyer to the seller, to ascertain the payment 
of the residue." Jerome says, " it is a certain testimony, evidence, or obligation to secure 
the bargain made. " It differs from a pledge, which is left as a security for the 
return of borrowed money, and upon payment is returned to the owner. The Holy 
Spirit is thus called because he assures believers, that they shall obtain eternal life." 
Some refer this metaphor to nuptials or marriage, as the bridegroom pledges his faith 
to the bride, and gives her an espousal token, as a pledge to assure her that he will marry 
her ; so when God espouses himself to believers, Hos. ii. 19, "I will betroth thee unto 
me for ever ; yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in 
loving-kindness, and in mercies," &c. But the nuptials of the Lamb did not yet appear, 
Rev. xix. 7. Therefore God gives them a most noble earnest, viz., the Holy Spirit, to 
comfort their hearts, and confirm their faith, that they shall in due season be admitted to 
the marriage of the Lamb. 

It is said, Psal. Ixxv. 8, " For in the hand of the Lord there is a cup, and the wine is 
red ; it is full of mixture, and he poureth out the same : but the dregs thereof, all the 
wicked of the earth shall wring them out, and drink them " by which the various kinds 
of divine afflictions are intimated. 

The like metaphor we meet with Isa. Ii. 17, 22, &c. Chariots are. attributed to God, 
by which either his divine magnificence is manifested to men, as Hab. iii. 8, " Thou didst 
ride upon thine horses, and thy chariots of salvation," or else it denotes those myriads of 
ministering angels mentioned, Psal. Ixviii. 17, " The chariots of God are twenty thousand, 
even many thousands of angels." 

The wheels by which a chariot or cart moves, are by an elegant metaphor attributed to 
God, Psal. Ixv. 11, " Thy* cart-wheels drop fatness," (so the Hebrew,) that is, thy clouds 
distil down rain and snow, which refresh and fertilize the ground, so that with the bless- 
ing of God it produces various, profitable, and necessary fruits. The clouds are called the 
chariots and horses of God, and rain is said to make the earth fat and fruitful, Psal. xviii. 

10, 11, 12, and cxliv. 2, 3, Isa. xix. 1. 

Riches are attributed to God, by which the abundance of his divine majesty and 
glory, as also his mercy and grace are noted, Prov. viii. 18, Eom. ii. 4, ix. 23, x. 12, 
and xi. 33, 2 Cor. viii. 9, Eph. i. 7, 8 5 18, ii. 4, 7, and iii. 8, 16, Col. i. 27, Phil. iv. 
19. Such as receive these in true faith, are called rich in God, Luke xii. 21, and Jam. 

11. 5. 

Windows are ascribed to heaven, the habitation of God, out of which he has, as 
it were, a prospect, and sends good or evil upon men, Gen. vii. 11, and viii. 2, 
2 Kings vii. 2, Isa. xxiv. 18, Mai. iii. 10, Deut. xxvi. 15, Psal. xiv. 2, and cii. 19, 20, 
Lam. iii. 8, 50. 

A furnace is attributed to God, Isa. xxxi. 9, by which the divine vengeance, whereby 
God, as it were in a fiery oven, consumes the enemies of his church is intimated, Isa. xxx. 
30, 33, Psal. xxi. 8, 9, 10. 

Lot, portion, or inheritance is attributed to God, when it is said that the people and 
land of Israel is his heritage, Deut. xxxii. 9, Jer. ii. 7, xii. 7, 8, and xvi. 18, &c., by which 
his great love, and singular care and providence is intimated. See Exod xix. 6, Deut. 
xi. 12, and when it is said of Christ, that " he is constituted heir of all things," Heb. i. 
2, and that " he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than angels," verse 
4, it is with respect to his right of primogeniture and divine title of command over all 

A look is ascribed to God, by which his most exact knowledge and providence is 
noted. The metaphor is taken from wise men, who are wont diligently to note down 

Orbitee tuee siillant pitiffuedinem. 


in their books such persons, things, and memorable actions, which they would re. 

The book of God's providence, generally considered, concerns every creature, as 
Psal. cxxxix. 16 ; to this belongs the book of life, out of which death is to be blotted, 
which we find mentioned, Exod. xxxii. 32, 33, compared with verse 10, Numb. xi. 5. 
And sometimes more specially it concerns the church and believers, Psal. Ivi. 8, 9, 
Mai. iii. 16. " The book of life," so often mentioned in scripture, as Isa. iv. 3, Dan. xii. 

I, Psal. hdx. 28, 29, Phil. iv. 3, Luke x. 20, Kev. iii. 5, xiii. 8, xvii. 8, xx. 12, 15, and 

II, ult., is nothing else but the singular knowledge God has of such as shall be saved, 
of which see 2 Tim. ii. 19, " The Lord knoweth them that are his," &c., or as it were 
a catalogue which God keeps of those, who by faith in Christ are elected to everlasting 
life. In the vision of Daniel, chap. vii. 10, and John, B.ev. xx. ~L'2, we find books 
of judgment, mentioned, by which that divine and most exact knowledge of men's deeds, 
and words, are symbolically denoted. And whereas the scripture uses a plural expression, 
Jerome and others do understand that there are two books of judgment, one for believers, 
the other for unbelievers, for the world is wont to be distinguished into these two sorts, 
John iii. IS, 36, &c. To this relates that saying, Isa. Ixvi, Jude iv. viz., " Behold it is 
written before me, I will not keep silence," &c. 

Oil or anointing is attributed to God, Psal. xlv, 7, " Thy God hath anointed thee 
with the oil of gladness above thy fellows," Heb. i. 9, Cant. i. 3, " where the Holy 
Spirit with his gifts is understood, which appears by comparing the place with Isa. Ixi. 
1, Acts x. 38, John iii. 34 ; where the unction of Christ as a king and priest is treated 
of, hence comes the derivation of the name of our Saviour, who is called rnco Xpia-ros, 
Unctus, anointed, John i. 42, and iv. 25, KaT e &X"nv, by way of eminency. Believers in 
a measure are made partakers of this unction, who by true faith adhere to Christ the chief 
head, as Isa. Ixi. 3, 2 Cor. i. 21, 1 John ii. 20, 27. Whence they also are rightly 
denominated, Xpurriavot, Christians, (with respect to their primitive vocation or original) 
from the anointed Saviour Christ. See Eom. v. 5, Tit. iii. 5, 6, Zech. xii. 10, &c. 

Bread is attributed to God, and sacrifices, with which it is said he is pleased as a 
man, with meat, and drink, Numb, xxviii. 2. Upon which place, Vatablus says, " By the 
term bread, flesh is understood, as verse 24, and the sense is, keep up the rights of 
offering flesh, and victims, which are sacrificed that they may be a pleasure to me, there- 
fore let me be refreshed with the savour of it as I appointed." God calls sacrifices his 
meat, after the manner of men, who are chiefly fed with flesh, wine, oil, meal, bread, 
&c. So God would have those things in his sacrifices, not that he feeds on them, or 
(in proper speaking) is delighted with them, but that they are grateful to him upon ano- 
ther account, viz., for their faith in his beloved Son, who was typified and shadowed by 
all the sacrifices. Christ is called the bread of life frequently, John vi. 35, 48, and 
other places for his quickening, strengthening, and salutiferous energy, and power, which 
is exerted or communicated to believers, who by true faith do spiritually eat Christ, that 
is, receive him, and apply his benefits to their own souls. 

By this trope God, in a hypothetical speech, attributes a signet, or seal to him- 
self. Jer. xxii. 24, " Though Coniah were the signet upon my right hand, yet would 
I pluck thee thence," that is, although he were most dear to me, and always in my sight, 
&c. For a sealing ring, or signet, is a symbol of love and singular care, as Cant. viii. 6, 
Hag. ii. 24. 

The character of* the substance of God, Heb. i. i, is an appellation given to Christ. 
The term character is a metaphor taken from the image, figure, or impression 
of a seal, representing the prototype or first pattern itself in every thing: Bullinger 
in his comment says, " As the seal is most properly expressed in the wax, so the sub- 
sistency of the Father most properly shines forth in Christ." Xapa/n-?^ (which comes 
from Xa/)aTTeif, insculpere, to engrave) in this place, does not so much respect the image 
or impression taken, as the seal itself. The Father has, as it were, most indelibly en- 

* Heb. i. 3. The character of his substance, x a P nKT7 J/> rr l s virooTcurews avrov, character siibstaniia fjus. 


graven, Ms whole essence and majesty upon this his eternal Son, and has drawn his 
own effigies upon him from everlasting, being his substantial image and exact repre- 
sentation, which explication fairly agrees with this mystery, leading our mind to such 
discoveries as will stir us up to desire the gracious participation of its fruit and 
efficacy. For it opens the secret of eternal generation, and shows us the love of the 
heavenly Father. A seal is highly valued, and more closely kept than other things."' 
Of the Father's most fervent love to the Son, we have instances, Isa. xlii. 1, Matt, 
iii. 17, and xvii. 3, John iii. 35, and xvii. 24. By Zerubbabel, Hag. ii. 23, is meant 
Christ (of whom that captain of the people was a type) the phrase " I will make thee as 
a signet" is thus to be understood, viz., I will take care of thee, in thee ; will I rest in 
love, thpu shalt be always in mine eye, worn in my hand, for I have chosen thee, al- 
luding to Isa. xlii. 1. 

The use of a seal is to make impression in wax, by which covenants are sealed, 
ratified, and confirmed. Christ is the heavenly signet who has the glory of the Father, 
and the most express figure of his Majesty instamped upon him from eternity. " The 
foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal," 2 Tim. ii. 19, by which believers are 
sealed, 2 Cor. i. 22, Eph. i. 13, and iv. 30, John iii. 33, with vi. 27. A signet leaves 
the impression in the wax. By Christ the lost image of God is restored in believers, 
now inchoatively or with respect of beginning ; after death consumatively, or with respect 
to perfection, Col. iii. 10, " Eenewed in knowledge after the image of him that created 
him ;" in him, and by him, believers are made " partakers of the divine nature," 1 Pet. i. 
4, not by essential transmutation, but by a mystical union. 

Treasures are ascribed to God, which is sometimes applied for good, so the heavens 
are called his treasures, Deut. xxviii. 12, which is expounded. Acts xiv. 17, " He did 
good, and gave us rain from heaven, and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with food and 

Sometimes it is put for vengeance or divine wrath, Deut. xxxii. 34, 35, " Is not this 
laid up in store with me, and sealed up among my treasures ? To me belongeth ven- 
geance and recompence," &c. Here is noted the certainty of divine punishment, because 
it is hoarded and laid up by God as it were in a treasury, and sealed up, so as that it 
becomes most certain. 

(2.) His justice and righteousness, for by the infidelity and stubbornness of men their 
punishment is treasured up, and they exposed to the wrath of God, &c., Born. ii. 5. 

(3.) The long forbearance and patience of God in his delays of executing vengeance ; 
for those things only are laid aside, of which there is not a present, but a future 
use, &c. 

(4.) His severity, for which, see Jer. 1. 25, and Born. ii. 8, 9. This sealed treasure will 
be opened at the great judgment, &c. 

God is said " to bring the wind out of his treasuries," Psal. cxxxv. 7, Jer. x. 13, and 
Ii. 16 ; by which not only its hidden original is declared, John iii. d, but also its utility, 
and efficacy, and those other rare qualities which are in the wind. Job xxxviii. 22, there 
is mention made of the treasures of snow and hail, for the same reason. 

Heavenly and eternal good things are called (and indeed they are the best) treasures, 
Isa. xxxiii. 6, Matt. vi. 20, and xix. 21, Mark x. 2i, Luke xii. 33, and xviii. 22, 2 Cor. 
iv. 7. This is a treasure that never faileth, and they that use it become the friends of 
God, &c. Col. ii. 3. All the treasures of wisdom and knowledge axe said to be hid in 
Christ, that is, the whole fulness, or eminent plenty of divine wisdom. 

Clothing is ascribed to God, Psal. xciii. 1, " The Lord reigneth, he is clothed with 
majesty, the Lord is clothed with strength, wherewith he hath girded himself." Psal. civ. 
1, " Thou art clothed with honour and majesty ;" verse 2, " Who coverest thyself with 
light as with a garment," &c. By this is signified the infinite and admirable majesty and 
beauty of God, who in his creation of light, and other great works, gave himself to be 
seen as it were by men ; See Isa. Ii. 9, and lix. 17 ; for in these places certain garments are 
ascribed to God, in his execution of vengeance against his enemies, by an elegant 
hopothesis. The metaphor is taken from a warrior completely armed who conies into 
the field to encounter his enemy. In both places Christ the Captain of our salvation 
is to be understood by the analogy of the text. He is said to be the Arm of the Lord, 


because he is the power of God, 1 Cor. i., 24, and Isa. lix. 14. It is said that there 
was no intercessor of the race of man (that was dead in sin) that could free him from the 
power of Satan, which is a plain intimation Christ himself would he the Intercessor, the 
Conqueror of Satan and death, and our Saviour. See verses 20, 21, where the pro- 
mise of the Redeemer is plainly given. " And the Kedeemer shall coine to Sion, and 
unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord," &c. Psal. xlv. 8, the 
mystical habit of Christ the celestial Spouse is described, upon which place Brentius thus 

" All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, 
whereby they have made thee glad," that is, all the garments wherewith thou art ap- 
parelled and which can be produced for thy use,, are not composed of wooden or vile 
materials, but brought from ivory (and most precious) repositories ; (for these are called 
the houses or palaces of garments) they yield no other odour but myrrh, aloes, and 
cassia, that is, a most fragrant and odoriferous scent in which thou takest pleasure ; 
that is, that most sweet fume which Christ himself and his apostles by preaching the 
gospel have spread not only in Judea, but in all parts of the world, Luke x. 17, 18, 19, 
&c. 2 Cor. ii. 15, 16. 

Christ is said passively to be put on by believers, Rom. xiii. 14, Gal. iii. 27 ; when 
he dwells in their hearts by faith, Eph. iii. 17, and makes them partakers of his ce- 
lestial benefits. 

The apostles are said to be endued with strength from on high, Luke xxiv. 49, when 
they receive the gift of the Holy Spirit as it is expounded, Acts i. 8. On the other side, 
a man is said to put on the Spirit of God, when it powerfully speaks or operates in or by 
him, as a man that goes forth in order to any work amongst men covers himself with a 
garment, Judg. vi. 34, 1 'Chron. xii. 18, 2 Chron. xxiv. 20. 

Moses calls Johovah a Banner, when he gave the altar he erected a name, 
'D3 Jehovah-nissi, " The Lord my banner," Exod. xvii. 15, that is, the Lord is my helper 
both now and hereafter, against the Arnalekites, and all other adversaries. . Isa. xi. 10, it 
is said the " Messiah shall stand for an ensign (or banner) of the people," by which his 
kingly office is noted, as this passage is quoted, Rom. xv. 12, " He shall rise to reign over 
the Gentiles ;" for a banner or trophy is a sign of victory, superiority, and lordship, inas- 
much as the people are said to act under the banner of the prince. Christ is the only 
asylum or refuge, where such as fly to him by faith are protected, and kept safe from the 
spiritual enemy, as the soldiery repair to the standard of their general, where they are 
secure. See Cant. ii. 4. 

Psal. Ix. 4, " Thou hast given a banner to them that fear thee, that it may be displayed 
because of the truth," which may be truly applied to Christ ; upon these words Ainsworth 
says, " that the word (banner) is applied to the flag or ensign of the gospel," Isa. xi. 12, 
xlix. 22, and Ixii. 10. Here to David and his victory, to be high displayed, or to use 
for a banner, which hath the name of lifting high, Isa. lix. 19, " The Spirit of the Lord 
shall lift up a standard against him ;" that is, he shall bring to pass, that Christ shall be 
that standard (or banner) of the people ; for as soldiers convene or repair to the military 
standard, so the saints are gathered together by the knowledge of Christ, the Captain of 
their salvation. 

A rod and staff is attributed to God, and our Saviour Christ, Psal. xxiii. 4, " Thy rod 
and thy staff comfort me," of which we have spoken in the metonymy of the sign for the 
thing signified, Psal. xlv. 6, and ex. 2, Heb. i. 8. The rod or sceptre of Christ, signifies 
his saving word whereby he directs Ms church and people. See Isa. ii. 3. 

The rod of God signifies also castigation and punishment, Job ix. 34, and xxi. 9, 
in both which places the Chaldee renders it, a stroke. The king of Assyria is called the 
" Rod of God's anger," Isa. x. 5, because by him, as with a rod, he was to chastise the 
people, and declare his wrath against sin ; see verse 24. The word has almost the same 
signification, Psal. ii. 9, where (the epithet of iron being added) it is a symbol of 
a more grievous and severe punishment, " Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron," viz., 
such contumacious and stubborn enemies, that despise thy kingdom, whether they be 


Jews or Gentiles, as verse 1, 2 ; these are prophetical words of God the Father, re- 
specting Christ his only begotten Son, who was constituted Mug of Sion, and (as it. were) 
inaugurated to the sacred offices of Judge and Eedeemer. See Acts iv. 25, 26, 27. All 
those were to be broken with an iron rod by Christ the Judge, who would not submit to 
the sceptre of his saving grace, Psal. xlv. 6, 7, and ex. 6, Isa. ii. 3, but stubbornly resis- 
ted him, and therefore by the sword of his anger (which is that iron sceptre or rod,) as of 
a severe Judge they were to be destroyed. 

To this place of the psalmist there seems to be an allusion, Ezek, xxi. 10, 13. In 
our translation, thus, " a sword is sharpened to make a sore slaughter, it is furbished that 
it may glitter : Should we then make mirth ? it contemneth the rod of my Son as every 
tree," (or as in the marginal reading,) the rod of my son despiseth every tree, and 
verse 13, " What if the sword contemn even the rod ?" &c. Where an obscure periphrasis 
in the original Hebrew, has begot diverse interpretations. What seems to me to be 
most proper and suitable I will lay down, and submit it to the judgment of the 
godly and learned. 

1. It is certain that the prophets do frequently cut off their speech, introducing even in 
the very context, then this, and then another, speaking, upon which Jerome* says, " that 
the change of persons, especially hi the writings of the Prophets, makes the text difficult 
to be understood ; which, if delivered with a clearer distinction of places, causes, and times, 
would render those things plain which seem to be obscure," Nahum ii. Hence the 
prophets are so obscure, because, when one thing is treated of, there is suddenly a change 
to another thing, or person, as Psal. ii. 1. The New Testament is introduced, as speaking 
and complaining of Christ's enemies ; (see Acts iv. 24, 25, &c.) and verse 3, the wicked 
themselves speak ; verse 4, the church's or the Psalmist's words are set down : verse 6, 
God the Father speaks : verse 7, God the Son ; then again the Father ; verse 10, and 
then the royal psalmist speaks the conclusion. 

Isa. Ii. 1. Jehovah is represented as speaking ; verse 3, the Prophet ; verse 4, Jehovah ; 
again verse 9, the Prophet ; verse 12, then Jehovah, and so on. Something of the like 
nature may be observed, Isa. liii. 1, 4, 14, and in the whole Book of the Canticles, 
wherein there is a vicissitude and change of persons continued. 

2. There are frequent allusions in the prophetical writings to things written by Divine 
Kevelation before them, as shall be showed, Chap. xx. following. 

3. In the very text of Ezek. xxi. 27, he prophesies of Christ the Son of God, as 
constituted a judge by the Father, and in the stead of God attributes judgment and 
the power of judging to him ; as our Saviour himself says, John v. 22, that all judg- 
ment was committed to him by the Father. These things presupposed, the explica- 
tion of these words will not be difficult. The prophet declares the vindictive anger 
of| God against the rebellious Jews, by the similitude of a furbished and sharpened 
sword delivered into the violent enemies, hand in order to slay, but suddenly chang- 
ing his speech, by the change of persons, and alluding to Psal. ii. 9, thus speaks, verse 
10, ." A sword is sharpened to make a sore slaughter, it is furbished that it may glitter," 
(so far the words of Jehovah, to which a short but divine parsenesis (or exhortation) of 
the -prophet's, is subjoined, advising the people what they should do to avoid that de- 
struction,) " should we, or shall we then make mirth ?" that is, shall we vaunt proudly ? 
let us rather tremble, and submitting to, and serving the Lord as enjoined, Psal. ii. 11. 
" Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling ;" let us rejoice and work righte- 
ousness, as true conversion, and piety towards God is expressed, Isa. Ixiv. 5. If you do 
this, it will be well, but if not, says Jehovah again,-j- " the rod of my Son, despising every 
tree," (so the Hebrew) shall come upon you, as Jehovah is at hand, as verse 1 3. And 
whereas it is said that this rod despises every tree, we are to understand that it con- 
sists of more lasting materials than any sort of wood, being of iron, which is very 
hard and difficult to be broken, as Psal. ii. 9, see Isa. xxx. 32. This, but more con- 
cisely, is laid down, verse 13, " When there was a trial, what then ?" (as if he had said, 
whilst by my castigations they were in a fatherly manner corrected, have they hitherto 
repented? Or what effect has it produced? Even nothing at all) shall not therefore a 

* In Cap. S. Jerem. t Virgo, Jilii mei speruens omne lignum. 

L 2 


rod despising (viz. that iron rod despising, [or hard in comparison of] all other wood) 
come upon them, (that is, shall I not deservedly save that iron rod of my son as a 
sharpened sword amongst them, and so, rather deal with them as open enemies, than 
transgressing children ? " says the Lord God." So much for that place. But observe 
that as Ezekiel alludes to the second verse of that psalm in this place ; so Isa. xiii. 14, 
alludes to the latter part, " he shall break it as the potter's vessel," &c.,in a like description 
of punishment upon a stuhhorn and refractory people. 



THE things existing in nature hesides man are either animate or inanimate. The animate 
are such as have a sensitive life, as beasts; or a vegetative, as plants. From beasts are 
taken and attributed to God, 

1. Certain names of living creatures, as when Christ is called a Lamb, John i. 29, 
Rev. xiii. 8, because he was made an immolation or sacrifice for the sins of the whole 
world, which the sacrifice of lambs in the Old Testament typically prefigured, 
1 Cor. v. 7, 1 Pet. i. 16, Rev. v. 6 ; as also with respect to his mildness, patience, 
innocence, and beneficence, &c., see Isa. xvi. 1, 2 Sam. viii. 2, with 2 Kings iii. 
4, &e. 

Christ is called a lion, Rev. v. 5, " Behold the Lion of the tribe of Judah, hath over- 
come." He is so called, because of his great and divine fortitude in his resurrection from 
the dead, and his victory over the devil, the world, and hell. D. Franzius, in Hist. 
Animal, pag. 73, Gen. xlix. 9, says,* " The whole polity of the Jews is called a lion, 
and a lion's whelp, because of the great firmness of that empire, which endured even 
until Christ's time, and was esteemed then the most famous among the governments of 
the world ; and although in some respective seasons they had kings, eminent for power 
and wisdom. Yet Christ only is called a lion (" e&xw or) by way of eminency, that 
is, he was the most powerful, most wise, and most excellent of the kings, that ever 
ruled in Juda," &c. And Drusius, lib. x. p. 410. " The Lion of the tribe of Juda, 
whose coat of armour was a lion, which was painted in the banner of that tribe in three 
colours ; with these words, ' Arise, Lord, let such as hate thee be scattered, and thine 
enemies fly from before thee,' " &c. 

The coats of armour of the four principal tribes of Israel, as R. Kimchi, on Ezek. i. ult., 
recites them from the Talmud, were thus, " In the banner of Judah the shape of a lion, 
according to that which is written, Gen. xlix. 9, ' Judah is a lion's whelp.' In the 
banner of Reuben, the shape of a man, according to what is said of it. Gen. xxx. 14, ' and 
Reuben found mandrakes in the field, which are of a man's shape.' In the banner of 
Epbraim, the similitude of a cow, according to Deut. xxxiii. 17, ' his Glory is like the 
firstling of his bullock or cow.' And in the banner of Dan, the shape of an eagle, as it is 
said, Gen. xlix. 17, ' Dan shall be a serpent by the way,' and it is said here, as Isa. xxx. 

6, ' The viper and fiery flying serpent.' " 

Psal. xxii., in the title, Luther and , other interpreters say, that Christ is called n: 
Ajelefh, the morning hind ; upon which see Luth. Tom. 2. Lot. Jen. Fol. 233. Iltyri- 
c^ls in Clav. Script. Col. 112, 113. D. Gerhard. Harm. Histor. passionis Dominicce, Cap. 

7. p. 310. D. Franz. Hist. Animal, p. 163, &c. To which also some refer the Chald. 
Parphr. which says, " for thy everlasting and morning sacrifice, by which the end or rea- 
son for which this afflicted hind was slain, seems to be fairly expressed." For the obligation 
of Christ upon the cross is truly an everlasting and most perfect sacrifice, Heb. x. 
12, 14, 26. It is called the morning (hind) because his virtue and prefiguration, began 
about the beginning of the world, after the fall of our first parents, Rev. xiii. d, 
Heb. xiii. 8, typified by the morning sacrifices wont to be offered, in the Old Testa- 

* Tula. yolUla Jud-aorum dicitur leo et caliiltis leonis,propler swnmam <1> tsutatem ipsius Jmperii,^c. 


ment, Numb, xxviii. 4. The appellation of a morning hind, is thus expounded, viz., by it 
is denoted a hind, which the hunters, in the morning when it goes abroad to feed, lie in 
wait for, take and slay ; so Christ with his disciples going abroad in Judea in the morning 
season, that is, in the beginning of his kingdom, or the first beamings of his divine and 
' evangelical light, to the pastures of life, (not so much to feed himself, as to administer to 
others,," was hunted by the devils, and by their setting dogs, the Jews, and his apostles 
being as hinds dispersed, he was at last taken and slain by them, which seems to be in- 
timated, verse 16, "for dogs have compassed me, the assembly of the wicked have 
inclosed me, they pierced my hands and my feet." 

To this phrase some apply the search that Herod made for him even in his infancy, 
and his being driven into Egypt, Matt. ii. 14, 15, and the gathering together of the 
chief priests, Scribes, and elders of the people early in the morning to condemn Christ, 
as Mark xv. 1. And as the morning hind is not taken and slain merely to destroy it, as 
wolves are wont to be killed, but that it may serve for pleasant food : so Christ in the 
sacrifice of his cross and death becomes most sweet food of life and salvation for us, 
to be sacramentally and spiritually eaten. Upon which Musculus says thus. " flesh of 
Christ truly like that of a hind's, but more exceedingly sweet to the faithful soul, than any 
things the nobles of this world taste in their greatest dainties. And that there may be 
nothing wanting to give it a delicate savour and relish, he was not merely slain but well' 
turmoiled, hunted, and tired before, as our great men are wont to do in hunting and 
chasing their deer before they kill them, that the flesh may become more sweet, tender, 
and delicate," &c. Adding, " and see how agreeable this comparison is to the death of 
Christ, for as the side of the pursued hind is exposed to the hunter's dart, Christ's side was 
upon the cross pierced with a spear." 

Psal. xxii. 6 ; Christ calls himself a Worm, with respect to his debased state, and 
the extreme contempt to which he was exposed in the world ; upon which Franzius 
in the aforesaid book, p. 826, says, Sicut vermis habetar pro villissimo excremento, &c., 
"As a worm is accounted a most vile excrement, which men will not so much as handle, 
or if they do will wash their hands after it, and if they see them lie upon the earth will 
remove them from, the sight of men ; so was Christ treated with extreme contempt, when 
he hung upon the cross." 

It may not be amiss here to insert the paraphrase of Weidnerus* upon Prov. xxx. 19, 
" Difficilia mihi sunt ista tria cognoscere : Viam Aguilce in Coelo, i. e. Viam Christi ascen- 
dentis in ccelum cum came assumpta," &c. Those three things are difficult for me to know : 
The way of an eagle in the air, that is, the way of Christ ascending into heaven, 
in his human nature : the way of a serpent upon a rock, that is, the way of Christ 
from the cross to the sepulchre, which was cut out of a rock, and from whence he rose 
the third day, whence Christ himself .says, as Moses lifted up the brazen serpent, &c. The 
way of a ship in the middle of the sea, that is, the way of Christ passing through the 
world in tempests and storms. The way of a man with a maid, that is, the way of 
Christ in his incarnation in the womb of a virgin, &c. It is added, verse 20, the " way 
of an adulterous woman," that is, the treacheries and machinations of the synagogue 
against Christ, see Burgensis upon Isa. vii. addit. 5. fol. 21. What is spoken of the eagle 
by Gregor. Nazianzen,-f- is accommodated to the deity of Christ, which is ineffable, as D. 
Franzius cites it, page 327, &c. 

2. Some actions of living creatures ascribed to God. 

As roaring, which is the property of lions, Joel iii. 16, Amos i. 2, by which the power 
and efficacy of his anger, and his word is intimated, see Amos iii. 8, Hosea xi. 10, Isa. 
v. 29, &c. 

Upon which Illyricus says, " it is a metaphor, for as the voice of a roaring lion is terrible 
to all other living creatures, so men ought to Jbe moved and tremble, when the divine 
majesty speaks to them from heaven by thunder and lightning." 

Jer. xxv. 30, " The Lord shall roar from on high, and utter his voice from his holy 

* De pracipuis fidei Myster. Tract, ii. p. 256. ~\ Super Orat. 6. de Spir. S. 


habitation, roaring he "shall roar upon his habitation; that is, like a lion ready to seize 
upon his prey, he shall thunder horribly, see verse 38 ; in all this speech to the end of 
the chapter, God is compared by an allegory to a lion, kings and princes to shepherds, the 
people to flocks, and the nations to pastures and sheepfolds. 

Job xxxvii. 4, roaring is applied to thunder (which is called the voice of God.) To 
the cry of Christ, Psal. xxii. 1, "why art thou so far from my salvation (or helping me) 
and the words of my roaring," see Heb. v. 7, and Psal. xxxviii. 8. 

God is said to fly, 2 Sam. xxii. 11, Psal. xviii. 10, because of the most swift and im- 
petuous motion of the wind, and sudden tempests of which he here speaks. The Spirit of 
God is said ha the first creation to " move or rest upon the waters," Gen. i. 2 ; which by 
its operative and vital power it cherished, and as it were made the waters apt for the 
production of all things, (together with heaven and earth, which then were mixed together.) 
A metaphor taken from birds, who sit upon their eggs, and by their vital heat bring their 
young to maturity and perfection.* 

Some members or parts of a living creature are ascribed to God. 

As the Horn of Salvation, 2 Sam. xxii. 3, Psal. xviii. 2. To Christ, Luke i. 69. For 
as a horn defends beasts, and thereby then* strength is exercised ; so God is the most 
strong defence of the godly. Chemnitius, on Luke i. 69, " By the word horn, strength 
and power is understood, as Psal. Ixxv. 10, and cxii. 9, Lam. ii. 3. By the word lifting 
up is described its solid strength and invincible stability, against which even the gates 
of hell shall not prevail. It is called, the horn of salvation, that is, it is salutiferous, ob- 
taining victory against the enemy, and bringing safety to captives, &c. As bulls or cows 
strike, gore, or push down their enemies, so we by faith in the Mediator, are sufficiently 
armed against the power of the devil." 

Wings are attributed to God, by which that singular defence, patronage, care, and 
protection which he affords his people is signified, Psal. xci. 4, " He shall cover thee with 
his feathers, and under his wings shalt thou trust," whence it is called " the shadow of his 
wings," Psal. xvii. 8, xx'xvi. 7, Ivii. 1 , Ixiii. 7. " The covert of his wings," Psal. Ixi. 4, a meta- 
phor taken from birds or fowls, especially hens, who gather their chickens under them, cher- 
ish them, and protect them from being seized upon by kites or other birds of prey. The 
whole similitude is to be read, Deut. xxxii. 11, Isa. xxxi. 5, Matt, xxiii. 37. As to Exod. 
xix. 4, " I bare you on eagles' wings," see Gram. Sacr. p. 483. 

There are some metaphors taken from Plants, and attributed to God, as a Branch, 
Isa. iv. 2, Isa. xi. 1, Jer. xxiii. 5, and xxxiii. 15, Zech. iii. 8, and vi. 12, which places by 
the Chaldee interpreter, are elegantly expounded of Christ the Messiah. Here principally 
his temporal nativity or pedigree according to the flesh is noted, as a branch derives its 
original from the earth, and having that (as it were) for its mother. It intimates also the 
greenness, felicity, and perpetuity of his kingdom, as the Hebrew word (nas, germinavit, 
crevit,] he hath bubbed, grown, or increased, is used of the kingdom of Christ, and the 
blessings thereof, Isa. xliii. 19, "and Ixi. 11, Psal. Ixxxv. 11, 12, Zech. vi. 12. The 
Messiah is called the " Fruit of the earth," Isa. iv. 2, with respect as well to his original 
as to his humanity, Psal. Ixvii. 6, " Then shall the earth yield her increase or fruit." This 
whole psalm treats of the blessings and benefits that will accrue to believers from Christ. 

Luke xxiii. 31, Christ calls himself a Green-tree, opposing to himself a Dry -tree, by 
which we are to understand the wicked " If they do these things in a green- tree, what 
shall be done in the dry," that is, if God suffers me, that am innocent, and like a green 
and fruit-bearing tree, to be so grievously afflicted, and cut down as a dry or barren 
tree, how much more grievously will he permit you to be afflicted who are guilty 
persons, and sinners, and like dry trees, that will bear no fruit ? Some by the " Tree of 
Life," Rev. xx. 7, and xxii. 2, 14, understand Christ, others Life itself and eternal hap- 
piness, which is almost the same, that consisting solely in Christ, 1 John v. 11, 12, 20. 

* ffram. Sacra, p. 299. 


Christ is called the Root of Jesse and David, Isa. xi. 10, Eom. xv. 12, Rev. 
v. 5, and xxii. 16, which some expound by a metonymy, as the root is put for that 
which springs from the root, as Isa. xi. 1. Others say it is spoken with respect to his 
divinity. Bernard * says, " it is not said that David is his root, but he the root of Da- 
vid, because he bears, and is not borne by any. Fitly therefore, holy David, dost 
thou call thy Son, thy Lord, because you did not bear the root, but the root thee." 
Some derive the reason of this appellation from these places, Jsa. xiv. #0, " I will kill 
thy root with famine," the Chaldee renders it, (thy sou) ; the Septuagint, (thy seed) : Mai. 
iv. 1, " He shall leave them neither root nor branch," the Chaldee renders it, neither son, 
nor son's son, or nephew, whence it appears that a son, especially the first-born, is as it 
were, the root of the family, from whom such as are sprung, are like branches. Hence 
the Patriarchs, from whom the people of Israel sprung, and with whom God first entered 
into covenant, are called a root, and their posterity branches, Eom. xi. 16. Christ is there- 
fore called the root of Jesse and David, because he is that first-born, Psal. Ixxxix. 27, 
(also, " I will make him my first-born, higher than the kings of the earth,") issued, as to 
his humanity, from the family of Jesse and David, and was the foundation or root of all 
the spiritual family of God, whence he is called " the first-born among .many brethren," 
Eom. viii. 29 ; which reason seems to be hinted, Isa. xi. 10, where he is said to " stand 
for an ensign of the people, to which the Gentiles shall seek," by which the call and con- 
version of that people is described, and the constitution of the New Testament church 
foretold, which is like a fruit-bearing tree, standing upon Christ as a root, drawing juice, 
nourishment, and life from him. 

Christ is called a Vine, John xv. 1, 5, by which metaphor, principally, his most 
strict and close union with his disciples, and all believers is intimated, hence they are 
called branches engrafted in him, verse 2, 4, 5. The vine is homogeneal, or of the same 
nature with the branches, so is Christ according to his humanity with believers, Eph. 
v. 30, Heb. ii. 14. The vine imbibes or drinks in a copious humour, and plenty of 
moisture, which it after communicates to the branches : so " Of the fulness of Christ we 
all receive and grace for grace," John i. 16. By a vital juice derived from the vine, the 
branches are animated, vegetated and fertilized, so as to bear sweet fruit : by the 
virtue of. Christ and his spirit given to believers they are enlivened, quickened, and 
made apt to bear the fruits of piety to God (which fruit cheereth God and man,. 
Judg. ix. 13,) but in the manner of this conjunction, there is a diversity or difference, 
for branches grow upon the vine naturally ; but believers are engrafted in the true Vine 
spiritually, &c. 

This is the primary reason of this metaphor ; but by way of inference other things 
are intimated, viz., the meanness of the vine, as to outward aspect ; Ezek. xv. 2, 3, 
quadrates very well with Christ in his state of humiliation, Isa. liii. 2, 3. The dignity of 
the vine, before other plants, the delicate smell of its flowers, and the excellency and 
preciousness of its fruit, &c., with other things may be congruously applied to Christ the 
true and celestial Vine. 

Christ is called a bundle of myrrh, (Cant. i. 13) ; of which abundance grows in Arabia ; 
myrrh is indeed better, but most fragrant, and of singular profit, in cleansing and healing 
of wounds, in expelling of corrupt humours out of the body, in easing pains or griefs, in 
comforting the heart, and most effectual in preserving the body from putrefaction. All 
which may be most fairly accommodated and improved in parallels applied to our blessed 
Saviour's passion, most holy merits, and their fruit and efficacy to the saints when im- 
proved in faith. 

Exod. xxx. 23. There is mention made of the myrrh of liberty (so the Hebrew,) the 
Chaldee, pure, incorrupt, our version, pure myrrh, of which was made the holy ointment 
with which the chief priests were wont to be anointed, which prefigured the holy unction 
of Christ, the sacrifice of whose death is that myrrh of liberty, affording a heavenly deli- 
verance from Satan, death, sin, and hell, John viii. 36, &c. 

In die Pasc/t. Serin. 1. 


He is called " a cluster of Camphire," Cant. i. 14, this tree is said to be odori- 
ferous, bearing clusters of an exceeding greatness, Plin. lib. 12, cap. 24. Some in- 
terpret it cypress, for its sweetness, fragrancy, and plenty of glorious fruit, which things 
also may be attributed by way of improvement to Christ. Some paraphrase it thus, 
"Jesus is myrrh to me in his bitter passion, and a cluster of caruphire, in his glorious 

He is called " the Rose, (or flower) of Sharon, and the Lily of the tallies," by 
which his true humanity, his purity and sanctity, as also the amiability of his office, 
and blessings he bestows are intimated, as shall be treated of elsewhere more at large. 
See Dn. D. Gerhard. Meditat. in Postilla Salomonea Dominic, guinquages. fest. purtfic. 
17. post tr. fest. 

What metaphors are deduced from inanimate things in nature, and transferred to 
God, clo belong either universally, or severally to those things. To the former class 

When there is a certain dimension ascribed to the infinite and immeasurable God, 
and a comparison with this whole universe, whereas betwixt finite and infinite, there 
is properly no proportion, Job xi. 8, "It is (viz. Jehovah) the heights of heaven, the 
deeps (which is the perfection of God, as verse 7,) beyond hell, what canst thou know ?" 
verse 9, " The measure thereof (is) longer than the earth, and broader than the sea ;" by 
which the infiniteness and 'immensity, of God, and his wisdom, is intimated, of which 
verse 7, " Canst thou by searching find out God ? " (others render it, canst thou find out 
the depth," viz. of the wisdom of God ?") " Canst thou find out to the perfection of the 
Almighty?" (others say, " Canst thou find out the end of Almighty wisdom ?") to this 
belongs that sacred mathematical expression of Paul, speaking of the love of God, and 
our Saviour Christ, Eph. iii. 18, " That ye may be able to comprehend with all saints, 
what is the breadth, the length, and depth, and height," viz., of the love of Christ, as 
verse 19, " Which passeth knowledge," showing by an anthropopathy, the unrneasur- 
ableness, and immensity of that love, as if he had said, it is higher than the heavens, 
deeper than the sea, larger than the earth, longer than any time, enduring even to all 
.eternity. Upon which place Osiander says, " the sense is, I pray God that ye may be 
able with other sincere Christians, after a certain manner, to comprehend the unnieasur- 
able love of Christ towards you, which, that I may use a metaphor, extends itself to all 
dimensions." And Hyperius in his comment very excellently. " The sense is, (says he,) 
My prayer is that you may have a full, certain, and absolute knowledge of the love of 
Christ in all its parts." Geometricians are wont to observe these differences of dimen- 
sions, when they inquire into the magnitude of solid bodies. Such therefore as belong to 
corporeal things, the Apostle artificially compares with things, incorporeal and spiritual ; 
and signifies that he earnestly desires that they should arrive to an equal certainty and 
perfection in the knowledge of spiritual things, chiefly of the love of Christ, as the mathe- 
maticians do in the measure of solid bodies, &c. 

Here we are to note, that when magnitude is attributed to God, not the quantity of 
a corporeal or bodily size and bigness, but the very infiniteness of his essence, and es- 
sential properties is to be understood, Exod. xv. 16, and xviii. 11, Numb. xiv. 19, 
Deut. iii. 24, Exod. v. 8, Psal. xlviii. 1, 2, and cxlvii. 4, 5, Jer. xxxii. 17, 18, 19, 
Dan. ii. 45, Mai. i. 14, &c., Job xxxiii. 12. There is a comparison of God with man 
with respect to greatness, whereby the unsearchable immensity of God is intimated, 
(as if he had said) God, not only in majesty and power, but also in truth, justice, 
wisdom, and mercy, infinitely excels all mortals, therefore thy presumption is unjust to 
contend with him. 

1 John iii. 20, it is said that " God is greater than our hearts," when the speech is of a 
guilty conscience, as if he had said, if conscience, which in many is blind, convinces us 
of hypocrisy, how much more will God, who is the greatest of all things, and infinite iii 
knowledge, charge us in his judgment. 1 John iv. 4, God is said to be " greater than him 
that is in the world," that is, Antichrist, as verse 3, whom believers by the power of the 
infinite and invincible God, by grace in them do overcome. 

John x. 29, God is said to be " greater than all," that is, that he (beyond comparison) 
excels the whole universe in power and majesty. 


By the same reason a descriptive quantity, or plenty, is ascribed to God, as Psal. 
Ixxxvi. 15, .IT much (or plentiful) in mercy and truth, Psal. ciii. 8, great (or plenteous) 
in 'mercy, Psal. cxxx. 7, " With him. is plenteous redemption," by which is noted the infi- 
niteness of God and his attributes, as it is described, Psal. cxlvii. 5, " Great is our Lord, 
and of great power, and of his understanding (there is) no number," so the Hebrew. See 
Psal. xxvi. 6, Eom. xi. 33, 1 Cor. ii. 1. 

In speaking of things inanimate severally, we will distribute them, 

1. Into things celestial. And, 

2. Things elementary. 

To the first kind belongs when God is said to look down from heaven, and sit in, or 
inhabit heaven, as his throne. Of which before. 

Also when God is called light, 1 John i. 5, by which his majesty, holiness, per- 
fection, and blessedness is noted, as when celestial light is transmitted to us, there is 
nothing fairer, clearer, purer, or more comfortable, whence it is said, Eccl. xi. 7, 
< Truly the light is sweet, and a pleasant thing it is for the eyes to behold the sun." The 
Greeks had an adagy, or proverb, V^VKV *> dulee lumen soils, sweet is the light of 
the sun. 

1 Tim. vi. 16, " God is said to dwell in (<f>as an-poo-wc) lucem inaccessibilem, inaccessible 
or unapproachable light," or, as our English translation renders it, " the light which no 
man can approach unto," that is, to act with, that glory, majesty, and felicity which 
no creature either can have, or comprehend. Upon which Chrysostom * says, " the Apos- 
tle says, that God dwells in inaccessible light, which is more than if he had said incompre- 
hensible, for that which by inquiry and search we cannot find out, we call incomprehensi- 
ble, but that which prohibits all essay of search, and to which none can come near we call 

Some with inaccessible light, compare an opposite phrase, where the difficulty of fully 
knowing God in his majesty and essence is described by his dwelling in mists and clouds ; 
for every corporeal light, which for its exceeding brightness cannot be beheld, may be truly 
styled a mist, and therefore inaccessible, &c. 

To this is referred, where God, Jam. i. 17, is called " the Father of lights, with whom 
is no variableness nor shadow of turning ;" in which phrase is denoted his essential ma- 
jesty, and immutability in acting. Some (and very fitly,) judge that the phrase 
Father of lights," is a periphrasis of the sun, attributed to God, a^comi/cos, O r after the 
manner of men : for as that super- celestial sun is distinguished from the corporeal, and 
visible sun, it is added, " that with him is no variableness, nor shadow of turning." When 
the sun is in the opposite hemisphere it leaves ours darkened and obscure, which vicissi- 
tude of darkness and light agrees not with God ; for he is never the cause of sin and * 
death, (which are noted by the term, darkness) but always the Author of good and life, 
(noted by the term light) and this is the scope of the apostle, as verse 13, " Let no man 
say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God : for God cannot be tempted of evils, 
neither tempteth he any man," &c. 

Salnieron upon the words, says, " in the words, Tr/oTrTjs airoo-Kiaa-pa, (viz., shadow of 
turning) he alludes to the sun, which by a certain vicissitude, and declination of itself 
from one tropic to the other, begets shadows of a different size, and the nearer it is to us, 
the greater are the shadows ; but these vicissitudes are not compatible with God" but 
the first interpretation is more comfortable to the apostle's scope. 

From this denomination of light attributed to God, with respect to his essence and 

. .1 r* . & /~* t * . n_-1 ^^ cc j-1- _ ^.^ 1 . _- 1 _ /_ i-ti ~\ 

* Horn. 3. de incompreJiens. Di:i Nat. 



eternity, * as light does from light : for cmmrya-W>, signifies, a shining again, or a res- 
plendency, as it were from the sun-beams ; and so by the force of the proposition, his 
eternal original from the Father is indicated or shown. Brightness oannot be separated 
from the sun, and is of equal age with it ; so, from the Father of lights, (of whom on 
Jam. i. 17, we have spoken) this brightness, viz., the Son, can never be separated, be- 
cause co-eternal with him, John xiv. 10. Lyranus, thus expresses himself, " The Son 
proceeds from the Father, as light or splendour from the sun, which splendour is of the 
same age with the sun, and would be eternal, if the sun were eternal." 

A secondary reason may be in respect of men, and that manifestation which the 
heavenly Father made to us by the Son. The light of the sun is sent on the earth to 
cherish, vegetate, and render it fruitful ; Christ the brightness of the Father's glory as- 
sent to illuminate, vivify, and save us. 

God is said to be a light and a sun, with respect to hi& energy, or power, and 
operation, amongst men, Psal. xxvii. 1, " The Lord is my light,' that is, who gives the 
true and saving light of his Spirit unto me, where the psalmist exegetically (or by way 
of exposition) adds, " The Lord is the strength of my life ;" Psal. Ixxxiv. 12, " The 
Lord God is a. sun and a shield," the exposition is annexed; " the Lord will give grace 
and glory, no good (thing) will he withhold from them that walk uprightly." Isa. x. 17, 
" And the light of Israel shall be for a fire, and his Holy One for a flame ;" that is, 
God shall illustrate, and sanctify the Israelites. From hence arise those different 
phrases, wherein the light of God signifies, 

(1.) His favour and grace, as when his face is said to shine, Numb. vi. 25, Psal, 
Ixxx. 3, &c. Or, 

(2.) His saving revelation of light and truth by the word, Psal. xliii. 3, " Send out 
thy light and thy truth : let them lead me :" <fcc., Psal. Ixvii. 1, " Let God cause Ms 
face to shine upon us ;" which is meant of the revelation of his way and doctrine, as 
verse 2 ; see Psal. xix. 8, 2 Cor. iv. 4, 6, &c. Or, 

(3.) Eternal glorifying, as Isa. Ix. 19, 20, " The Lord shall be to thee an everlasting 
light," which Rev. xxii. 5, is applied to eternal life. 

In general, the light of God is to be taken with reference to some celestial benefits, 
as Psal. xxxvi. 9, " In thy light shall we see light," where the preceding and following 
words show the sense to be, that by the grace of God manifested in his word, we come 
to true blessedness. By the light of God here Galatinus says, lib. 8, cap. 11, and 
Drusius lib. 15, observat. cap. 4, " that some ancient Rabbis understood the Messiah." 

Hence we come to our Saviour, who is particularly called the light add sun, not with 
respect to his divine essence and person, as distinct from the Father, as before, but 
with respect to his office, benefits, and operations, Isa. ix. 2, xlii. 6, xliy. 6, and Ix. 
,1, Matt. iv. 16, Luke ii. 23, John i. 4, 9, iii. 19, viii. 12, and xii. 35, 36, Acts xiii. 47, 
The metaphor of light, in scripture expresses information, whereby the darkness of 
the understanding is dispelled, as also, a taking away of sin,' which is compared 
to darkness, and a giving of comfort, all which our Saviour most eminently exhibits 
from himself to believers. 

Concerning the appellation of sun, these two places are most eminent. 

(1.) Mai. iv. 2, '* But unto you that fear my name, shall the Sun of righteousness 
arise with healing in his wings." That this is spoken of our Saviour Christ, plainly ap- 
pears from the scope and context of the prophet. See chap. iii. 1, 2, 3, and iv. 5, with 
Matt. xi. 10, and xvii. 11, 12, 13, Luke i. 17, &e. For there is a most fair and sweet 
comparison betwixt Christ and the natural sun. As, 

(1.) With respect to oneness, there is but one sun, which is the eye of the world., 
which is enough to enlighten and cherish all ; so there is but one mediator between God 
aud man, the man Christ Jesus, 1 Tim. ii. 5. 

(2.) That the sun only shines by its own light, and communicates brightness to the 
moon and stars, so Christ is the Fountain of true light, illuminating the church, and 

* Ut in Niceno siimbolo, est, ;is in the Nicene Creed. 


teachers of his word (which are compared to stars, Eev. i. 20) with his own proper 
light . 

(3.) As there is but one sun which excels and illuminates the inferior luminaries of 
heaven ; so Christ has the pre-eminence (vpwTevaiv) over all, Col. i. 18. 

1. With respect to efficacy ; for as the sun chases away darkness and clouds, illus- 
trating all things : so Christ dispels the darkness of the mind, hy the light of his word; 
the darkness of sin, by the light of his most holy merits ; and the darkness of calamity, 
by the light f his comforting grace. 

2. With respect to equality, for, " the sun rises on the evil and the good," (affording 
its light without distinction to all things sublunary,) Matt. v. 45, which nevertheless 
blind men, and such as sleep by day, do not enjoy : so Christ " illuminates every man 
that cometh into the world," (that is, he affords the means of illumination,) 1 John 
i. 9 ; yet unbelievers, who are blinded by the devil, and such as give themselves the 
liberty to sleep securely in sin (and, that by their proper fault, and particular vice) 
John iii. 19, and 2 Cor. iv. 4, do not enjoy that saving light or illumination ; which 
is the reason why the prophet Malachi, speaking of the actual illumination of the Sun 
of righteousness, says, " To them that fear the name of the Lord shall the sun of righte- 
ousness arise," &c. 

3. No man can resist or hinder the course and efficacy of the sun : so no devil or 
tyrant can retard or hinder the course and energy of the gospel of Christ, the Sun of 

4. The sun refreshes and quickens the world by its heat, winch nature demonstrates 
in the spring : so Christ quickens and makes alive those that are spiritually dead, Eph. ii. 
5, and causes a divine heat of love and devotion, Luke xxiv. 32. 

5. That which the prophet mentions, by the phrase, " with healing in his wings," is 
to be understood of the first beams or rays of light called the " wings of the morning," 
(or the first appearance of the sun) Psal. cxxxix. 9, that is, the first sun-beams. This 
celestial Sun is also a physician which can heal and deliver from spiritual death. The 
sun when it rises gives some ease and comfort to sick persons ; let all that are soul-sick, 
rejoice in this justifying and healing Sun of righteousness. 

6. The sun rising causes joy to all things, who were as it were immersed in the me- 
lancholy sadness of night, as the poet says, 

Phosphore redde diem, quid gaadia nostra moraris ? 

" Come, sweet Phosper, bring the day, 
Why dost thou our joys delay ?" 

So by this heavenly Sun of righteousness, true cause of joy is given unto men, Luke 
ii. 10, 11, Isa. ix. 2, 3. 

7. The sun doth make all sorts of earthly fruit ripe, to which it also gave the be- 
ginning of vegetation. So Christ is the " Author and Finisher of our faith," Heb. xii. 2, 
" He worketh in us to will and to do," Phil. ii. 13, " That we may walk worthy of the 
Lord, unto all well pleasing, being fruitful unto every good work, and increasing in the 
knowledge of G-od." Col. i. 10. 

8. It is said of the Heliotrope, or sunflower, that it always turns and inclines to the 
sun : so let our hearts always incline to Christ. 

9. There is nothing more pleasant to those in captivity, than to behold the sun : so 
there is nothing ought to be more comfortable to us in our spiritual captivity, than by the 
eyes of faith to behold Christ the Sun of righteousness, &c., 

The second place is Luke i. 78, " Through the bowels of the mercy of our 5rod ; (so 
the Greek) whereby the Day-spring from on high hath visited us." Some think that this 
metaphorical appellation, (viz., a va.To\v) e| v^ovs oriens ex alto) arising from on high, is 
taken from plants which are said (avarei^ai) to branch or sprout forth, when they grow, 
or begin to flourish, that so it might respect those places of the Old Testament, where 
Christ is called a plant or branch, Jer. xxii. 5, Zech. iii. 8, and vi 12, where the 
Septua^int renders nas by avaroKyv orien, arising, and that we are to understand here, 
the arising, or branch from on high, sent from heaven to us, and widely differing from 

M 1 


all earthly branches. - But the words immediately following show that Zacharias had 
respect rather to the similitude of the sun and light, as verse 79 of -this place, viz. 
ejri<pa.va.i, " to give light to them that sit in darkness, and in the shadow of death, to guide 
(as a clear light does) our feet into the ways of peace." By a good reason it is there- 
fore said, that the holy man respected the prophecy, Isa. ix. 2, (whence the phrase of 
sitting in the darkness, and shadow of death, is taken ;) and chap. Ix. 1, 2, Mai. iv. 2. 
To which places, Junius (Parallel. 1, 55.) does learnedly show that he had immediate 

&vareii\eiv, oriri, to arise, is proper to the sun, moon, and stars, from whence the 
noun, cu>a.To\a,. that, is, an arising, or the action or region of the orient sun, and 
nietonymically it is put for the rising sun itself to .which, *! vtyovs, from on high, 
for distinction's sake is added, by which Junius says, " we are to understand that meridian 
and powerful splendour, whereby the sun, (chiefly at noon) illustrates all things to 
difference it, ewro TTJS EWJJS waTox-ns, from its first uprising." But it seems to be re- 
ferred more truly to the first original of the Sun of righteousness, viz., his visiting (and 
shining upon) us on earth, and that from on high, viz., heaven, as 1 Cor. xv. 47, John 
iii. 31. 

That the Messiah is called a Star, Numb. xxiv. 17, is the judgment of many ; 
there shall come " a star out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel," which words 
are thus rendered by the Chaldee, " there shall arise a king out of Jacob, and the Messiah 
shall be exalted out of Israel, &c." The same exposition Galatinus, Lib. viii. cap. 1, 
produces from B, Solomon, and E. Moses Hadarson. Vatablus paraphrases the whole 
verse thus" Balak, my counsel is that you be quiet, and fear not at this time, for that 
which I fortel of things to come, shall not come to pass in thy time, but in the latter days, 
viz., in the time of the Messiah, whom I see, but not near me, for he is yet afar off, 
when he comes, he will be as a great light and vehement splendour, which is signified by 
the star," &c. So says Brentius. Junius and Tremellius in their notes say, " that by 
the name of a star and sceptre, is meant, the kingdom of God's people, begun in David, 
and completed in Christ, between whom, the interjected time was the progress of the star, 
&c." See Junius in analyt. explie. h. I. 

Such as understand this prophecy of Christ, paraphrase in this manner, " I shall see 
him, but not now, I shall behold him but not nigh," that is, my curses will be in vain 
against that people, whom God hath peculiarly chosen for himself, and from which ac- 
cording to the flesh the Messiah is to descend, but the time of that nativity is not yet 
come, therefore 'I seem to behold him. at a great distance, but that promise will be cer- 
tainly fulfilled, and God for his sake will preserve this kingdom so long ;" " there shall 
come a star out of Jacob," that is, the Son of God, manifested in the flesh, shall come of 
this people, and shall spread the beams of his doctrine and miracles far and near, 
arising as the day-star in the hearts of unbelievers, 2 Pet. i. 19, enlightening them to 
eternal life ; " and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel," that is, the Messiah shall not only 
be a Teacher of his people, but also a heavenly King ; " and he shall smite through the 
princes of Moab, and destroy all the children of Seth ;" that is, all such as will not obey 
his government, but remain unbelievers, he shall destroy with an eternal death, verse 18, 
" And Edom shall be a possession, Seir shall be a possession for his enemies ;" that is, all 
his enemies (who by the Iclumeaus, the capital enemies of Israel, inhabiting Seir, are set 
forth) shall be destroyed by the sword of the Spirit; " But Israel shall do valiently ;" that 
is, the church, which is the kingdom of the Messiah, shall be gloriously triumphant ; 
verse 19, " Out of Jacob shall come he that shall have dominion, and shall destroy him 
that remaineth of the city," that is, he shall rule in the house of Jacob for ever, and " of 
his kingdom there will be no end," Luke i. 33. " He shall put all his enemies under his 
feet," 1 Cor. xv. 25 -27, &c. 

Christ calls himself " the bright and morning star" Rev. xxii. 16, because of those 
shinings of saving knowledge which proceed from him, whence he is <paxr^>opos avaroXn, 
the light-bringer (usually translated Morning-star, or day-dawn,) " arising in the hearts 
of men by the sure word of prophecy." But more especially because of his pro- 
mise of life and salvation. : for as the morning-star is as it were the sun's har- 


binger, declaring its speedy approach ; so by the clearness of Christ's resurrection, 
and his sure word of promise, he discovers unto men what an extraordinary light of 
glory will be afforded to believers in the general resurrection, when they shall shine 
as stars for ever, Dan. xii. 3. The morning-star gives light, but much less in the 
sun ; so the light of the knowledge of Christ in this life, is not to be compared with 
that most illustrious and shining glory, which the saints shall enjoy in bliss, and which by 
faith they expect, 1 Cor. xiii. 12. 

Secondly, Elementary things. God is called fire, yea, a consuming fire, Deut. iv. 24, 
ix. 3, and xxxii. 22, Isa. x. 17, and Ixvi. 15, 16, Ezek. xxi. 31, &c., which denotes his 
wrath against sin, which consumes those miserable persons, against whom it burns, as 
fire does stubble. See Psal. xviii. 8, where by smoke also the wrath of God is signified, 
as also Psal. Ixxiv. 1, and Ixxx. 4, " How long wilt thou smoke against thy people ?" so 
the Hebrew, Deut. xxix. 20. 

God is said to be a Lamp, Candle, or Lanthorn, when he exhibits his grace and 
favour to any, 2 Sam. xxii/29, " Thou art my Lamp, Lord." Psal. xviii. 28, " For 
thou wilt light my candle (or lamp) ; the Lord my God will enlighten my darkness ;" that 
is, he is the Author of my light, felicity, and salvation. So the candle of God is said to 
" shine upon Job's head," Job xxix. 3, in the same sense, as the following words show, 
viz., " By his light I walked through darkness," where he subjoins a clear description of 
his former felicity. 

Prov. xx. 27, " The spirit of man is the candle of the Lord, searching all the inward 
parts of the belly," that is, the Lord kindles a light in man, by which he looks into the 
most inward things ; and therefore it shines in the mind of a wise king, that he may search 
out a matter, and take away the wicked, Prov. xxv. 2, 3. The word of God is called a 
lamp, or candle, Psal. cxix. 105, Prov. vi. 23, 2 Pet. i. 19, because of the light of saving 
institutions which it exhibits to believers. 

To the element of air belongs, when blowing, or a blast, or breathing is at- 
tributed to God, by which his divine grace and refection, is noted, as a cool breeze 
refreshes a man in summer's heat thus some aptly translate that passage, Isa. Ivii. 16, 
" For I will not contend tor' ever, neither will I be always wroth, the Spirit before me 
shall roll itself, and I will cause a blowing ;" that is, the Holy Spirit, which I will send 
to sorrowful and contrite believers, shall (as it were,) open itself to them, dwell in them, 
and in the heat of temptations, shall with a comfortable gust or breeze refresh their 
fainting spirits. 

Sometimes it denotes divine wrath and vengeance, as a strong wind overthrows 
what is before it, and inflames the fire, Job iv. 9, "By the blast of God they perish, 
(that is, the wicked) and by the breath of his nostrils are they consumed." Psal. xviii. 
15, " At thy rebuke, Lord, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils." Isa. xxx. '6%, 
" The breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone doth kindle it ;" that is, hell ; as 
brimstone is a great nourisher of fire, so the infinite and never-ceasing wrath of God, 
shall be (as it were) an eternal nourisher or continuer of hell ; for whilst a pair of bellows 
blow the fire, it burns ; so the breath of the Lord, (viz. his wrath) shall be always 
of efficacy to torment the souls and bodies of the damned in that infernal stream of 

To the element of water belongs where God is called a " Fountain of living waters," 
Jer. ii. 13, and xvii. 13, because he is the indeficient Author of all life and refresh- 
ment, here and hereafter. Psal. xxxvi. 9, " With thee is the fountain of life," which is 
to be understood in the same sense, which verse 8, is called " the river of his pleasures," 
The Spirit is called a " river of living water," John vii. 38, 39, to which belongs the 
expression of pouring out, Isa. xliv. 3, Joel iii. 28, Zech. xii. 10, Acts ii. 16, 17, 18, 33, 
Tit. iii. 5/6. 

Christ in general calls the blessings derived to men through him, living water, John 
iv. 10, 14. For he is that most abounding fountain of eternal life, John i. 16. Water 


cleanses, refreshes, quenches thirst, softens, or mollifies, &c., which with other good qua- 
lities, may be most fitly ascribed to the blessed Saviour in a spiritual sense ; see Isa. Iv. 1, 
Ezek. xxxvi. 25, Zech. xiv. 8, Psal. xxiii. 1, 2, &c. 

The heavens or clouds are called the " river of God full of water," Psal. Ixv. 9, because 
he sends plenty of rain from thence to make the earth fruitful. 

To the Earth, we will refer whatsoever (besides what was produced before ha their 
proper places) have a being in it, that are metaphorically transferred to God, whether they 
be natural productions, or made by human art. 

Christ is sometimes called a Stone and Rock, as Psal. cxviii. 22, " The stone which 
the builders refused is become the head of the corner," which expressly referred to Christ, 
Matt. xxi. 42, Acts iy. 11, 1 Pet. ii. 7. By the builders we are to understand the priests 
and great men, and others among the Israelites, whose office it was to build, not de- 
stroy the church of God. How these refused Christ, the evangelic history plentifully 
informs us ; yet notwithstanding he is " made the head of the corner, or the firm and 
chief corner-stone of the whole church, fitly framed together, and growing in him," 
Eph. ii. 20, 21 ; to wit, both of Jews and Gentiles, having broken down the partition- 
wall, verses 14, 15, 16, &c. Other places are, Isa. viii. 14, and xxviii. 16, Zech. iii. 9, 
Luke ii. 34, Kom. ix. 32, 33, 1 Pet. ii. 4, 6, 7, 8 ; where he is called a " Rock of offence, 
and a stumbling-stone," with respect to unbelievers and wicked men, &c., who ar 
apt to despise his mean worldly estate, and be offended at his severity against their sin- 
ful ways. 

God is called a Rock to such as trust in him, Deut. xxxii. 31, Psal. xviii. 2, xxxi. 2, 
3, xlii. 9, and Ixxiii. 26, Isa. xxvi. 4 ; that is, a most certain and invincible giver of help, 
for there were rocks in those countries, which for their height, strength, steepness, and 
difficulty of access, were reputed impregnable, &c. 

Matt. xvi. 18. Christ alluding to the name of Peter calls himself that " Eock upon 
which he was to build his church, that the " Gates of hell should not prevail against it." 
Upon which Brentius very well paraphrases : " I have called thee Cephas before, that is, 
a rock, (John i. 42,) and I do not yet repent of giving thee that title ; for now in your 
own and brethren's name, you acknowledge the true rock and foundation, in confessing, 
that I am Christ the Son of the living God This confession is the true rock, and upon 
it, as upon a rock and foundation, will I build my church." 

. D. Calixtus says, " that the words, the church is built upon a rock, are said by a 
metaphor, which is taken from the firmness, strength, or solidity of the rock, not 
from any rule or government it has, for there is no such thing in it, and denotes a 
solid, steadfast, and iminoveable foundation ;" but what needs any further explication, 
when Paul, an undoubted interpreter, says, 1 Cor. iii. 11, " For other foundation can no 
man lay, than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ," but upon this rock, are. laid other rocks, 
or stones, (for ^rpos, being an appellative, signifies a stone, not a rock) cut out of 
the living rock, which being single are not foundations, but many being joined, ce- 
mented, or united, constitute or make a secondary foundation, Eev. xxi. 14, " And the 
wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of 
the Lamb." Eph. ii. 20, " And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and pro- 
phets, &c." 

1 Cor. x. 4, Christ is called the Spiritual Rock, of which the Israelites did drink in the 
desert, that rock being a type of him, Exod. xvii. 8 : see Gram. Sacr. p. 504, 551. 

God is called a secret or Hiding-place, Psal. xci. 1, and cxix. 114, also a co- 
vert, refuge, or hiding, Isa. iv. 6 ; by which his gracious defence against all 
hostile violence is intimated. For the same reason he is called a munition, 
which signifies a fortification, or strong-hold, Psal. xxxi. 2, 3, 4, Ixxi. 3, xci. 2, 9, and 
cxliv. 2. 

He is called a Wall of Fire, Zech. ii. 5, where the epithet of fire is added, to show that 
he is not only the Defender of his church, but also a most terrible Avenger, that will con- 
sume its enemies, as fire does combustible matter. 




He is called a Strong Tower, Psal.lxi. 8, Prdv. xviii. 10, because of his divine protection 
also ; for as in high and well-fortified towers we are safe from the assaults of the enemy ; 
so much more eminently does Jehovah place them in safety, who trust in him, 2 Sam. 
xxii.,51; "He is the tower of salvation," (says David of God) which is called "great 
deliverance," Psal. xviii. 50. The tower is fortified, 

1. With warlike engines, which are his divine virtue and power, and all the creatures 
which he makes use of to the destruction and overthrow of his enemies, Psal. cxlviii. 8, 
" Fire and hail, snow and vapour, stormy wind fulfilling his word." 

2. With provision, as the bread and drink of life ; Psal. xxxvi. 8, 9, 10, " They shall 
be abundantly satisfied with the fitness of thy house, and thou shalt make them drink of 
the rivers of thy pleasures," &c. 

2. With a garrison of brave defendants, which are the holy angels, Psal. xci. 11, 12, 
Dan. vii. 10. So that this tower is impregnable, &c. 

The Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are called the Temple of the heavenly city, 
Rev. xxi. 22 ; by way of opposition to the outward and earthly temple, as if he had 
said, in eternity there will be no need of those visible and external signs, by which God 
manifested himself to his people under the Old Testament dispensation, in the temple and 
in the ark of the covenant ; for God will exhibit himself to be seen by his elect, face 
to face, that in this spiritual temple they may give him eternal and celestial praise, 
celebrating a festival of everlasting joy, &c. 

John xiv. 6, Christ calls himself " the Way" viz., by which there is a passage to the 
Father, as verse 2, 3, 4 ; the words of the^erse, " I am the way, and the truth, and . 
the life, no man cometh unto the Father but by me ;" that is, you say you know not the 
way to the Father, and heavenly felicity ; why I myself, whom you know, am the way, 
by which you can arrive there, nor am I only a way, but a guide also, by the truth which 
I teach ; and together with the Father, am the end of your journey, that is life, which 
the blessed enjoy. Calixt. in Harmon. Evangel. 

John Husse (as Wolfius cites him, Tom. 1. Lect. Memor. p. 750.) says, " Let the hum- 
ble passenger behold Christ, who says, " I am the way, the truth, and the life," here 
is a way for him that will go, for Christ is the way : a way whither he would go, for 
Christ is truth : and where he would tarry, for Christ is life." 

Tho. a Kempis. Lib. 3. de Imik Christi. Cap. 56, " I am the way, truth, and life." 
none can go without a way, nor know without truth, nor live without life. I am the 
way which you ought to follow, the truth which you ought to believe, and the life 
which you ought to hope for. I am the inviolable way, the infallible truth, and 
indeterminable life. I am the most right way, the most supreme truth, and most 
'certain, blessed, and increated life ; if thou tarry in my way, thou shalt know my truth, 
which shall deliver thee, and in it thou shalt find eternal life. The light and truth 
of God leads us, Psal. xliii. 3 ; which Christ applies to himself, John viii. 12, and xiv. 
IJ, for he leads us to himself, who is eternal life, 1 John v. 11, 12, in whom we have all 
things, Rom. viii. 32. How he leads to the Father is fairly expounded, Heb. x. 19, 20, 

1. The way of the Lord God signifies his heavenly doctrine, Psal. v. 8, xxv. 4, 9, 
10, Ixvii. 2, and cxix. 3, 14, 26, 30, &c., Isa. ii. 3, Hos. xiv. 10, Matt. xxii. 16, Acts 
xiii. 10, and xviii. 25, &c. Hence comes the phrase " to keep the ways of the Lord," 
Psal. xviii. 21., that is, to lead his life according to his word and precepts. 

2. His providence and divine government, more generally as the whole course of 
his will, counsels, endeavours, and actions, as Psal. xxv. 10, and Ixxvii. 13, Isa. lv. 8, 9, 
Hab. iii. 6. 

_ More particularly.it signifies some singular actions of God, Exod. xxxiii. 13, Psal. 
ciii. 7, Job xl. 14, Prov. viii. 22. John the Baptist is said " To prepare the way of the 
Lord," Mai. iii. 1, Luke i. 76, that is, to bear a serious testimony of his speedy coming, 
by preaching the word, and administering the holy ordinance of baptism. A metaphor 
taken from great men, at whose coming the ways are wont to be .made plain and level. 
See Isa. xl. 3, 4, &c. 

88 PEOsopoi'EiA. [BOOK 1, 

God is called a Shade, Psal. cxxi. 5, " The Lord is thy shade upon thy right hand ;" 
which denotes his heavenly protection, which he affords believers, as a shade refreshes 
and defends from the scorching heat of the sun ; hence such are said to " abide under 
the shadow of the Almighty," Psal. xci. 1. When it is said, the shadow of his wings, 
the metaphor becomes double and more emphatical, for he is not only a pleasant shade 
in dry and torrid places, but such a nourishing protecting shade as the hen's wings are 
to her chickens ; and so denotes a singular love and care. 

We read also of the " shadow of God's hand/' which also denotes a strong protection 
against all enemies, for a hand when attributed to God denotes so much. Of which 

There is an eminent emphasis in that text, Luke i. 35, "and the Angel answered and 
said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the highest 
shall overshadow thee," eina-Kiaa-fi <roi. Mary being astonished by the view of that angel- 
ical messenger, enquired, verse 34, " How shall this be, seeing I know not a man ?" viz., 
what was said, ver. 31, " And, behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth 
a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus. Pie shall be great, and shall be called the Son 
of the Highest :" &c., verse 32. To Mary wondering at this, the angel answers, that it 
should be by the supernatural, and most singular operation of the Holy Spirit, and power 
of the highest, which operation is by an anthropopathy expressed by overshadowing, 
describing the manner thereof, as that there should be divine protection, which is the 
metaphorical signification of a shadow, as before. For God being a consuming fire, would 
consume Mary, by filling her with his peculiar and majestical glory, unless there were 
some divine ob-umbretion or shade between ; as God covered Moses with his hand in 
that peculiar and extraordinary appearance'of his divine glory, lest by the dazzling 
and majesty of God's presence he should be consumed, Exod. xxxiii. 22. It may also 
respect that hidden formation of that most holy child in the virgin's womb, and his being 
secured from the least spot of sin, in his most admirable union with humanity. 

This emphasis the word (shadow) carries, .which being contrary to light, is a note of 
the incomprehensible and hidden energy of God ; intimated also by the " shadow of a 
cloud over the tabernacle," Exod. xl. 35 ; let this shade therefore be a prohibition from 
any rash or curious inquisitiveness into this adorable mystery. The cloud was put over 
the tabernacle, that we should not rashly rush in, and the cherubims covered the ark, 
2 Chron. v. 8, lest any body should be curiously prying into the majesty of God which 
dwelt upon it ; so the shadow of the highest, ob-unibrates this mystery, lest our foolish 
reason should be inquisitive into the manner of it. And so with a shadow of imperfect 
revelation of these divine things, we end this chapter. 




PROSOPOPEIA is, when any thing (which is not a person) is metaphorically introduced or 
proposed as a person r or when the properties of a man are attributed to other things, 
for things, for likeness and agreement's sake. Profane authors use very elegant meta- 
phors of this kind, as that of Cicero "What did that drawn sword of yours do in the 
Pharsalian field ? Whose side did that point seek ? What was the sense of your arms ?" 
Aristotle defines this metaphor, " that which is in act, bringing in inanimate things doing 
something, as if they had life and sense ;" but we will follow the distinct classes of scrip- 
ture examples. 

Some things are said of the members of a human body, which are properly the act 
of the mind, as Gen. xlviii. 14, "He made his hands to understand," (so the Hebrew*) that 
is, (as Vatablus and our translation notes) he guided or laid his hands knowingly, 




skilfully, and wittingly, when his eyes were dim with age, that he could not discern 
by seeing, which was the eldest son, therefore of set purpose did he lay his hands cross- 
wise ; and therefore Moses says, that he made his hands to understand, as if they (viz. his 
hands) could tell things to conie, because he did not hastily nor gropingly put them forth; 
but as one well knowing directs his right to Ephraim the youngest, and his left to the 
first-born, &c., see Tract. Cap. 2. following towards the end. 

Job xxix. 11, "When the ear heard, then it blessed me, and when the eye saw, it gave 
witness to me." Here to the ear and eye is attributed, what belongs to man. Job xxviii. 
4, " The flood breaketh out from the inhabitant ; forgotten of the foot :" where forgetful- 
ness is attributed to the foot, that is, (as Junius and Tremellius note) such floods as no foot 
ever experienced, because so deep as not to be waded or gone through. 

Psal. xxxv. 10, " All my bones shall say, Lord, who is like unto thee ?" Psal. li. 8, 
" The bones which thou hast broken shall rejoice," (so the Hebrew ;) here glorying and 
rejoicing in God is attributed to the bones which is the property of man ; as if he had said, 
I will inwardly and heartily glorify thee, and rejoice in thee. By the same reason it is 
said, Psal. ciii. 1, " Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within, (or my bowels), bless 
his holy name." Psal. Ixviii. 31, "Ethiopia shall make her hands to turn to God," (so 
the Hebrew) that is, shall with speed stretch them out in prayer ; as the Chald. expounds 
it : or shall quickly extend her hands to give gifts of gold to the Lord, as R. Aben Ezra ; 
and B. Salomon expound it. See Psal. Ixxii. 15. Some take this metonymically, where 
extending the hands is put for a gift, as before. 

Psal. Ixxiii. 9, " They set their mouth against the heavens," (that is, the foolish and 
wicked, as verse 3,) and their tongue walked through the earth," that is, they do rashly 
and licentiously throw reproaches upon God and man, neither sparing heavenly or earthly 
things. Psal. cxxxvii. 5, " If I forget thee, Jerusalem, let my right-hand forget" (that 
is, as Junius and Trernellius say, itself,) viz., " let it be rather dead or withered, than I 
should give over singing," or as Illyricus says, " let my right-hand forget its musical dex- 
terity," as in the next verse, " Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth ; if I prefer 
not Jerusalem above the head of my joy ;" that is, let the Lord vouchsafe, that I may 
never play upon music, or sing more, 'ere 1 should admit so great a wickedness, as to 
desert Jerusalem, and its religion and ministry, and give over to celebrate it with hymns, 
music, and voice ; yea, I will prefer thee to the chief esteem before all other things, joys, 
comforts, &c. 

Prov. x. 32, " The lips of the righteous, know what is acceptable ;" that is, they speak 
so prudently, as if knowledge resided 'in them, which Job xxxiv. 35, is in the negative 
expressed, " Job hath spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom." 
Matt. vi. 3, " But when thou givest alms, let not thy left-hand know what thy right-hand 
doeth ;" this is spoken to prohibit the vain glory of almsgiving, when done for praise, 
&c. Theophilact expounds it, " if it be possible, you are even to forget all your own 
good deeds, or at least by no means to glory in them, or rest upon them, lest you be 
vainly lifted up." To this may be referred, where anger is attributed to the eyes, Gen. 
xxxi. 35, and xlv, 5, Isa. iii. 8; and concupiscence, pleasure, or desire, 1 Kings xx. 6, 
Ezek. xxiv. 16, 21, 1 John ii. 16, (hence the phrase of the heart's walking after the eyes, 
Job xxxi. 7 ; that is, the desires and lusts follow, which the eyes moved by outward 
objects, endeavour to stir up in the heart. " The abominations of the eyes," Ezek. xx. 
7; that is, which were the object and scope of desire;) and adultery, 2 Pet. ii. 14, and 
compassion, as when the eye is said to pity, Deut. xiii. 8, Isa. xiii. 18, &c. ; the hope or 
expectation, Psal. cxix. 82, 1'2B, and cxlv. 14, 15, vid. Gram. Sacr. p. 282. 

2. Words are used of brutes which properly belong to man, as Job xii. 7, " But 
ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee ; and the fowls of the air, and they shall tell 
thee : or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee ; and the fishes of the sea shall declare 
unto thee." To ask and speak in this place signifies to meditate, search into, or contem- 
plate; for the teaching, telling, or narration, of beasts, fowls, the earth, and fishes, 
intimates that they are a real testimony and evidence of the wisdom of the Creator. 
What he said, verse 2, that he had understanding and skill in what his friends discoursed 
f> he prosecutes here, as if he had said, ye have talked much of the wisdom and 



power of God, and that he creates and preserves all things, as if they were unknown to 
me', but the very creatures tacitly inform me of that. See Job ix. 10, Rom. i. '20. 

Job xli. 29, "He (the leviathan or whale) laugheth at the shaking of a spear," that is, 
he cares not for it. Prov. xxx. 25, " The ants are a people not strong, 1 ' &c. ; verse 26, 
" The conies are hut a feeble people," &c. ; Joel i. 6, " For a nation is come upon my land, 
strong, and without number," &c. The speech here is of canker worms, locusts, or cater- 
pillars, mentioned, verse 4, and which by the same metaphor are called the great army of 
God, chap. ii. 11, 25. By the same reason the multitude of locusts are represented as an 
army, Prov. xxx. 27, Neh. iii. 17. Hieron.upon Joel ii.,tlms writes, "This we saw lately in this 
province (viz. Palestine,) for when whole troops of locusts came, and filled the air between 
heaven and earth, they flew with so great an order by the disposal of God, who commanded 
them, so that like square stones placed by the hand of an artificer in a pavement, they kept 
their places, that not one was observed to incline to the other, by any transvere or irre- 
gular motion." This was a great punishment upon enormous sinners, which Moses in 
God's stead threatens, Deut. xxviii. 38, 39 ; and Solomon prays against, 1 Kings viii. 37 ; 
and Pliny himself, a heathen writer, Lib. xi. Cap. 29, acknowledges the anger of the 
gods by the multitude of these insects ; some with these words of scripture, parallel Virgil's 
words, of bees, Lib. 4. Georg. 

" Magnanimosqne ducos, totiusque ex ordine gentis, 

Mores et studia, et populos, et prselia dicam." 
And of Ants, 

" It nigris campis agmen, prajdamque per herbas 

Conveetant calle angusto, pars grandia truduut 

Obnise frumenta humeris, pars agmina cogunt, 

Castigantque raoras, &c." Lib. 4. jEneid. 

To this class may be referred when the word son is ascribed to beasts, as Exod. xxix. 
1, " Take a young bullock the son of a cow," so the Hebrew, that is, a sucking calf or 
one not as yet weaned : Gen. xlix. 11. The son of an ass is put for its colt or foal,* 
Zech. Ix. 6. " A colt the son of asses,"* that is, one of the she asses, according to the 
icliotism of which see below. -f 

By another reason rams are called the sons of Bashan,* Deut. xxxii. 14, that is, fat 
rams of the breed of Bashan, because that was a good place for fattening. A hand is 
attributed to a dog,* Psal. xxii. 20 ;~ "to a lion and a bear," 1 Sam. xvii. 37. In 
general a hand is ascribed to every beast, Gen. ix. 5. In which places power and strength 
is to be understood, especially and more eminently in the last. See Gram. Sacr. p. 138. 
It is said, Prov. xxx. 28, " The spider taketh hold with her hands," that is, with her feet, 
which are on either side so pliable as a man's hand to spin their web, and seize upon their 
prey. Junius. 

3. Some things are spoken of things growing out of the earth, which properly belong 
to man, as Levit. xix. 23, " And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have 
planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as uncircumcised ; 
three years shall it be uncircumcised unto you ; it shall not he eaten of." The meaning 
is, that the fruit of the three first years shall be accounted unclean and rejected, as an un- 
circumcised man was accounted unclean before God, and was not to be received among 
the people. And in the fourth year that fruit was to be offered to God as a sign of thanks- 
giving, verse 24; but the fifth year the common use of it was allowed, verse 25. 

Job xiv. 7, 8, 9, Hope, old age, death, the scent of waters, are applied to the bough of 
a tree, which is cut off, and buds again ; and compared to a man once dead, who cannot 
return to revive again, viz., into this life, which was the scope of Job, as chap. vii. 7, 9, 
10, xiii. 15, 16, and xix. 25, 26, 27, where he evidently declares the resurrection of the 
dead to the enjoyment of everlasting life. 

Psal. Ixxviii. 4, killing and death is attributed to plants, as " he killed j,(so the 
Hebrew,) their vines with hail, and then: sycamores with great hail stones." Con- 

* Note, that iii the places marked with the asterisk it is not so in our English ; but it is so iii the 
original Hebrew. f Gram. Sacr. p. 138. 




trary to this is that faoTroirjtris, (zoopoiesis) quickening or living of the seed cast into the 
earth, by which its budding or growth is noted, as in the following verses, Ezek. xxxi. 9, 
envy or emulation ; verse 14, exalting or elevation of heart and drinking of water ; verse 
15, mourning or grief of mind ; verse 16, consolation and comfort are attributed to trees, 
by a certain prosopopeia, and in a way of comparison of a goodly tree with the king of 
Assyria. See Hos. ix. 6, Joel i. 10. " The new wine is ashamed or blushed ;" that is, 
there is so bad a vintage or wine harvest, that it is ashamed, because it did not answer the 
people's expectation. In the same verse languishing or a disease is attributed to oil, which 
properly belongs to man, Psal. vi. 2, 3, but metaphorically denotes a spoil and devastation 
of the fruit of the earth, as Isa. xvi. 8, &c. It is said, Habak. iii. 17, " That the labour 
of the olive shall lie," so the Hebrew, when it answers not the desires of men, but fails 
their expectation of much fruit, which is also ascribed to new wine, Hos. ix. 2. It is said, 
Psal. Iviii. 9, "Before your pots can feel the thorns, he shall take them away as with a 
whirlwind ;" that is, before your pots grow hot with a fire of thorns (which were wont 
to be used,) for that fire lasts but a little while, and will not boil the flesh, so shall they 
quickly perish, &c. 

4. Some things are spoken of inanimate creatures, which properly belong to a living 
man (or more generally to living creatures.) As, 

(1.) Of dead men, Gen. iv. 10, " The voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from 
the ground." Here a voice and crying is attributed to the blood of slain Abel by a very 
weighty emphasis. As to the phrase of a voice and crying directed to God, it manifestly 
intimates these two things. First, that he is a. just judge, and the avenger of wickedness ; 
and therefore the violent murder of Abel, could not but come to him for justice on the 
assassin, as it is said in the like case, 2 Chron. xxiv. 22, " The Lord look upon it, 
and require it," viz., the blood of Zechariah. The second is, that he is a gracious 
loving Father, and Defender of such as are his, and minds them as well in life as in death ; 
for he had not only a respect for Abel when alive, but hearkens also to the cry of his 
blood when dead, according to Rom. xiv. 8, " Whether we live, or die, we are the 

Some put an emphasis in bloods being in the plural number, intimating, as it were, that 
there were many slain in Abel, that is, such offspring as he might have had, which tacitly 
call for justice, hence the Chaldee translates it "The voice of the seeds of thy brother's 
blood, which were to come, and issue from thy brother," but seems to be far stretched. 
By the plural word of bloods, are noted slaughters, because the blood gushing from the 
veins scatters into diverse parts. Psal. v. 6, "The Lord will abhor the man of bloods, 
and deceit ;" so the Hebrew, Psal. li. 14, " Deliver me from bloods ;" we translate it blood- 
guiltiness ; Hos. iv. 2, " They break out and bloods touch bloods." But here, blood 
violently shed is understood by a synecdoche, and Matt, xxiii. 35, the blood of Abel is ex- 
pressed in the singular number, IM, (haima.) As to the sense and connexion, because 
Cain did not only not confess his sin, but also impudently denied that he was concerned in 
the care or keeping of his brother. God deals more openly, saying : " The voice of thy 
brother's blood cries to me from the earth," that is, thy brother is slain : I do not vainly 
inquire where he is, his blood demands vengeance of me, and I am concerned to call his 
murderer to account, therefore speak plainly ; what hast thou done ? that is, why didst 
thou dare or presume to lay violent hands on him ? Thou sayest, thou art not his keeper, 
as if the question were whether thou hast kept him ? Tell rather what thou hast designed 
against him ;" this is the paraphrase of Musculus upon the place. 

To this place, Heb. xii. 24, refers, where the crying blood of dead Abel is fairly com- 
pared to the living blood of Christ our Mediator and Intercessor.* 

Isa. xiv. 9, 10, the dead, are feigned to come from hell, or the graves, to deride 
the pride and haughtiness of that inhuman king of Babylon, speaking to him when 
fallen from his greatness, and upbraiding him for his monstrous pride, and shameful down- 

Jer. xxxi. 15, Rachel, the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, long before dead, is 
brought in as bitterly weeping for the. captivity of the people ; which prophecy is al- 
ledged to express the cruelty of Herod's massacre of the infants, Matt. ii. 18, for the 
agreement of that tyrannical fact with that place. Rachel's sepulchre was near Beth, 

* Gram, Sacr. p. 261. 

N 2 


lehem, in which and the adjacent places, that most cruel villany was committed, &c. See 
also Ezek. xxxii. 21, &c. 

2. Of other things void of life and soul, Gen. iv. 11, "And now art thou cursed from 
the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's hlood from thy hand ;" 
by this prosopopeia the wickedness of Cain is aggravated, as if he had said, the very 
earth, though destitute of sense and reason, yet was more humane and kind to thy 
brother than thou wert, because it received and laid up that blood which thou hast 
spilt, from the sight of men, lest it should cause horror in them. Others say, that this 
speech denotes the extreme grievousness of his wickedness, and the horror of his guilty 
conscience, rendering the very senseless creatures his enemies, as if he had said, 
the very earth which (as it were) with open mouth received the blood of thy brother 
from thy hand, will account thee as execrable, which agrees fairly with the following 

Gen. xlvii. 19, " Death is attributed to the land," which denotes desolation ; Exod. xix. 
18, it is said of mount Sinai, that Jehovah appearing, it quaked, that is, it had such com- 
motions, as if, like a man, it had trembled for feai? Levit. xviii. 28, " Spuing out its in- 
habitants," is attributed to the land, which signifies their expulsion for their wickedness ; 
Deut. xxxii. 42, God is said to make "his arrows drunk with blood," that is, that out of 
his just wrath, he would send the enemies of the land, to kill the wicked and rebellious 
people. See Isa. xxxiv. 5, Jer. xlvi. 10. 

Josh. xxiv. 27, " And Joshua said unto all the people, behold, this stone shall be a wit- 
ness unto us : for it hath heard all the words of the Lord, which he spake unto us :" &c. 
The stone erected there is by a prosopopeia, said to hear, because it was present, (as it 
were a witness) and was appointed, as a memorial and testimonial sign of the covenant 
God then made with his people. 

Judg. v. 20, " They fought from heaven, the stars in their courses (or degrees) fought 
against Sisera." The stars are said to fight, because they were instalments of exciting 
those hails and storms, which God probably used against his enemies. Josephus says, that 
when the Canaanites encountered with the Israelites, a violent shower fell, and much rain 
and hail by the force of the wind, was fiercely driven into the Canaanites' faces, so that 
their bows and slings became unprofitable and useless, neither could they, being so 
benumbed with cold, handle their swords ; which tempest, nevertheless, did no way pre- 
judice the Israelites. Brentius thus expounds it, " we simply expound it that God was no 
way favourable, but an enemy to the enterprise of Sisera, because he dwells in heaven, 
and terrified the host and chariots of Sisera," &c., chap. iv. 15. And whereas the stars 
are said to fight, it carries the show of a proverb, signifying that no prosperous fortune 
was on Sisera's side, for when any ill luck betides men, they are wont to say, that no star 
shines upon them, or that the stars resist them, by which is meant, that all creatures both 
earthly and heavenly threaten their destruction. Junius and Tremellius translate " that 
the stars (e suis aggeribus) from their sconces or bulwarks, fought against Sisera," that is, 
from the superior regions of the air, a speech translated from soldiers fighting from higher 

Job iii. 8, eye-lids, in the Hebrew text, are attributed to the morning, by which its 
early beams are understood, or the first shining of its rays arising from the approaching 
sun ; a metaphor taken from one newly awake that lifts up his eye-lids, or, as others say, 
from the swift motion and vibration of the eye-lids, because the sun -beams move swiftly, 
til] they are diffused to the ends of the hemisphere. 

Job xxxi. 38, " If my land cry against me, or that the furrows thereof weep." The 
good man declares that he is ready to bear judgment, censure, or curses, if any person can 
justly complain, that he has done them injury ; which by an elegant prosopopeia he ex- 
presses ; the explication follows, verse 39, " If I have eaten the fruits thereof without 
money, or have caused the souls of the owners thereof to expire," breathe out, or grieve, 
so the Hebrew. Illyricus says, "that the land and furrows are put metonymically for the 
husbandmen," but the former explication is the best. See Job xxxviii. 7, with Psal. cxlviii. 
2, 3, &c. 

A- nativity, or birth, is attributed to rain, dew, ice, and frost, Job xxxviii. 28, 29, for 
their production from God, where there is also an anthropopathy. 


Psal. xix. 1, " The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his 
handy- work," that is, they exhibit, show, and demonstrate, to the eyes of all things, a 
real testimony and instruction of the glorious power of God, verse 2, " Day unto day 
uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge," that is, hy that succession and 
vicissitude of days and nights, which is so certain, so constant, and so profitable, for men 
and other creatures, the glory of God, the Workman, is most evidently celebrated, see Psal. 
civ. 20 24. 

Some by a metonymy, understand day and night of those things which are done or 
happen by day and night, that the sense may be, that every day and every night, some 
new thing is discovered by which, to right observers, the glory of God may be illustrated, 
verse 3, "There is no speech nor language where their voice is not heard ;" .that is, there 
are no people, though of different languages, whom that speech of the heavens, and their 
real publication of praise, may not instruct in the glory and power of God. See Bom. i. 
19, 20, " Because that which may be known of God, is manifest in them, or to them ; for 
the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being under- 
stood by the tilings that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead, so that they are 
without excuse," verse 4 ; " Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words 
to the end of the world," that is, to the extremest parts of the earth, that stately fabric of 
celestial hodies is seen, as if it were exactly done by line and square, which serves instead 
of words, &c. Rom. x. 18. For their line we read their sound, because what is said in 
the Psalm of the motion of the celestial bodies, the apostle elegantly accomodates to the 
course of evangelical preaching. Genebrard says, that the Hebrew word signifies indeed 
a line, but the Septuagint respects the sense, whom the apostle followed, (that being the 
most used and received version). Verse 5, " The going forth of a bridegroom out of his 
chamber, and his rejoicing," is by the same metaphor ascribed to the rising sun, to his 
never ceasing, and most swift course. 

Psal. Ixv. 12, " The little hills are* girded with joy on every side ;" verse 13, " The 
pastures are clothed with flocks, the vallies are also covered over with corn ; they shout for 
joy, they also sing." The ornaments of the earth, which hy the blessing of God it every 
where enjoys, are expressed by this metaphor. Mathesius says, " that the metaphor of 
girding, verse 12, is to be expounded of the various and winding veins of metals in the 
bosom of the earth." 

Psal. Ixxvii. 16, " The waters saw thee, God, the waters saw thee : they were afraid ; 
the depths also were troubled." He speaks of the Red Sea's being divided, and the peo- 
ple of Israel's marching through the middle of it, which is described, Exod. xiv. But 
the sense of seeing, and the passion of fear, is attributed to the waters by a prosopopeia, 
for to see here signifies to experience ; as if he had said, they have experienced thee, and 
felt thy power, when by a strong wind they were cut, and the bottom of the sea became 
naked, to make a way, or passage for thy people. They are said to fear ; when at the 
command of God, like trembling persons, they fled from their place, against their nature, 
and by the tremendous omnipotency of God stood as a wall on either side, as it is said of 
the same miracle, Psal. cxiv. 3, " The sea saw it, and fled," &c., verse 5, '"What ailed 
thee, thou sea, that thou fteddest ?" &c. 

Psal. xcviii. 8, " Let the floods clap their hands : let the hills sing," so the Hebrew, 
These things are ascribed to inanimate creatures, to stir up men to a desire after the 
coming of the Lord. So Psal. xcvi. 11, 12, &c. More examples you may see, Psal. 
ciii. 16, with Job vii. 10, and viii. 18, Psal. civ. 19, Cant. i. 16, Isa. iii. 26, with Job i. 
20, and ii. 13. 

Isa. v. 14, " Hell (others translate it sepulchre) hath enlarged her soul," so the Hebrew, 
" and opened her mouth without measure." By a prosopopeia he compares the insatiable 
condition of hell, or the grave, with the unsatisfied gluttony and luxury of the 
Jews, and foretels the punishment, that God in his wrath will therefore inflict upon 
them. Jerome in his commentary upon this place says, " Hell is said to have a soul, 
Dot that it is a living creature, as some erroneously conceive, but because by words of 
human custom we may express the affection of things insensible : it is insatiable be- 

* Exultcttione colles uocinguniur. 


cause it can never be filled with the multitude of the dead. See more examples, 
Isa. xxiv. 4, and xxxiii. 9, Jer. iv. 28, and xii. 4, Lara. ii. 8, Hosea iv. 3, Joel i. 10, Amos 
i. 2, &c. 

Isa. xxiv. 23, " Then shall the moon blush, (so the Hebrew,) and the sun shall be ashamed, 
when the Lord of Hosts shall reign in Mount Sion," &c. This prosopopeia intimates the 
light of divine grace in the church ; as if he had said, the glory of the sun or moon 
will be nothing, if compared with the glory of him that rules in the ehurch of God. 
Isa. Iv. 12, " The mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, and all 
the trees of the field shall clap their hands." By this most elegant prosopopeia likewise 
spiritual joy in. the kingdom of Christ is figured, as ch. xlix. 13, where the heavens 
and mountains are excited to singing, by the same prophetical voice. And Jer. li. 
48, " Then the heaven and the earth, and all that is therein, shall sing for Babylon," &c. ; 
by which hyperbolical prosopopeia, an immensity of joy for the destruction of Babylon, and 
the deliverance of all true Israelites is set forth ; Lam. i. 4, " The ways of Sion do mourn, 
because none come to the solemn feast." This intimates a forsaking of the solemn worship 
of God. 

Hosea i. 21, 22, " And it shall come to pass in that day, I will hear, saith the Lord, I 
will hear the heavens, and they shall hear the earth ; and the earth shall hear the corn, 
and the wine and the oil : and they shall hear Jezreel." Besides the gracious blessing of 
God, the connexion of first and second causes is fairly intimated by this speech. Jez- 
reel, that is, the congregation of the faithful, (which according to this name, is the 
seed of God,) does as it were cry, that is, expects corn, wine, and oil ; and these, 
as it were, cry to the earth, that they may receive juice and nourishment from it, for 
their nourishment and increase. And the earth, as it were, invokes heaven for heat, 
rain, showers, dew, snow, winds, and celestial influences : and the heavens, as it 
were, invoke God, the chief Cause of all things, without whom no second causes can 
effect or produce any thing, and who when be hath a mind to punish, can " make the 
heavens as brass, and the earth as iron," Deut. xxviii. 23, and detain the fructifying 
rain, Jer. xiv. 22 ; but here being gracious and propitious to men, he is pleased to hear, 
giving power to heaven, that by clouds made of collected vapours, and by various 
fructifying ways it should influence the earth ; and " the heaven shall hear the earth," 
by giving rain, and other things needful to make it fruitful " And the earth shall hear 
the corn, the wine, and the oil," and other things growing upon the earth, whilst 
moistened from heaven it gives them juice and vigour : " and these shall hear Jezreel," 
that is, they shall answer the prayers or desires of the godly, and so shall divine blessing 
be conveyed to them, &c. 

Jonah i. 4, " But the Lord cast forth a great wind into the s'ea, and there was a mighty 
tempest in the sea, so that the ship thought to be broken," so the Hebrew, that is, it was 
like to be broken, as -if the ship had a mind. Some explain this by a metonymy of the 
thing containing ; that is, they that were in the ship thought that they must speedily suffer 

John iii. 8, " The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but 
canst not tell whence it cometh, nor whither it goeth ;" &c. A will and walking is attri- 
buted to the wind and air, to signify its various wonderful vicissitudes unknown to 
man ; upon which Erasmus in his paraphrase excellently says, " This air by which we 
are vegetated, and whose power and utility we only feel, is very subtle, and is called 
a spirit or wind ; and this spirit is not restrained at the pleasure of men, but is 
carried by its own force, by which it is known to diffuse itself through all things, 
having a wonderful power over all corporeal things : sometimes giving life, some- 
times death. Now calm and silent, then more violent, sometimes blowing from the 
East, sometimes from the West, and sometimes from other different quarters of the 
world. And discovers itself by the effect : you hear its voice, when you see nobody, 
neither can it be grasped by hands; you feel, it present, but you see it not coming, 
neither can you tell whither it goes at its departure. The new birth is like it. The 
minds of men by the Spirit of God are carried away, and transformed by secret 
breathings. The ineffable power and effect of it is felt, but what is done is not dis- 


cerned by the eyes. And so they that are born again, are not now actuated by a human 
and carnal spirit, but by the Spirit of God, who quickens and governs all things. See 
Bom. viii. 22. 

To this class belong some Nouns, and some Verbs. 

1. Nouns, as when arrows are called the sons of the quiver, Lam. iii. 13, because 
they lie hid there, as a child in the womb, Psal. cxxvii. 3, 4; so sparkles are called " sons 
of -burning coals," Job v. 7, (for in both places the Hebrew is so.) A tongue is ascribed 
to fire (Isa. v. 24,) and flame, because of some similitude betwixt a tongue and the 
tapering flame. See Acts ii. 3. A tongue is also attributed to the sea, Josh. xv. 2, 5, 
which is to be understood of a bay in form like a tongue ; so the tongue of the Egyptian 
sea, Isa. xi. 15, is a certain bay or river, &c. The (oblong) wedge which Achan took, is 
called, in the Hebrew, " a tongue of gold," Josh. vii. 21. A hand is attributed to a 
sword, Job v. 20 ; to a flame of fire, Isa. xlvii. 14 ; to hell, Hos. xiii. 14, by which (as 
in our translation) their power is understood. The beginning of a party- way is called 
the mother, and head of the way, Ezek. xxi. 21. 

2. Ferbs, bread is said " to be gone away," when it is spent, 1 Sam. ix. 7, see Rev. 
xviii. 14. A city is said to cry, Isa. xiv. 31 ; so is a stone, Habak. ii. 11. " The hire 
of labourers defrauded," Jam. v. 4, which denotes the grievousness of the sin or punish- 
ment. See Luke xix. 40. '' To eat," is ascribed to consuming fire, Levit. x. 2, Job i. 
16, Nah. iii. 15 ; to the destroying sword, 2 Sam. ii. 26, Isa. i. 20, Jer. ii. 30; and to 
a laud or region, Numb. xiii. 30, either because being hard it wasted men's strength in 
tilling, or because of the unwholesomeness of the air. To heal, cure, or revive, is put for 
repairing decayed buildings, 1 Chron. xi. 8, 2 Chron. xxiv. 13, Neh. iv. 2, 1 Kings xviii. 
30. Healing is put for blessing the land, 2 Chron. vii. 14, Psal. Ix. 3, 4 ; for making 
the waters wholesome, 2 Kings ii. 21, 22, Ezek. xlvii. 8. See more examples, Gen. xviii. 
10, 14, Cant. v. .5, Jer. xxiii. 9, and v. 28, &c. 

5. Sometimes kingdoms, provinces, and cities, (which are, as it were, incorporate 
bodies) are spoken of, as if they were a single person, as 

(1.) The people in general, as Isa. i. 5, 6, expounded ver. 7, 8, 9, Deut. xxxiii. 12, 
Isa. vii. 20, viii. 8, and xxx. .28. 

(2.) Of the whole people more specially, but less frequently, Lam. iii. 1, Isa. vii. 20. 

(3.) Of a whole city the scripture speaks as of a woman, Isa. xxxii. 9. An evident 
example of this prosopopeia you will find, Isa. i. and Lam., ii., see also Isa. xxxii. 11, 
with verse 9. Hence the people of the Jews are proposed as a faithless and adulterous 
woman, Jer. iii. 1, 3, 4, and iv. 30, Ezek. chap. xvi. and xxiii. by which the conjunction 
of the church with God is compared to human wedlock. God himself is proposed in this 
allegory as the husband, the commonwealth of Israel as the mother, out of which sprung 
the two kingdoms of Israel and Juda, which are compared with daughters (Ezek. xxxii. 
2, ' There were two women, the daughters of one mother ;" verse 3, " and they com- 
mitted whoredoms in Egj T pt ;)" and when they were espoused in a covenant- way to God, 
they most wickedly forsook him, and committed frequent adulteries, &c., for they are spi- 
ritual adulteries, and whoredoms, which Jehovah so often reprehends and detests by his 
prophets, when joined by impenitence, Exod. xxxiv. 15, 16, Deut. xxxi. 16, Judg. ii. 17, 
Isa. i. 21, and Ivii. 3, Nah. iii. 4, &c., Isa. xxiii. 15, 16, 17. 

(4.) The name of mother is attributed to a city, 2 Sam. xx. 1 9, by which the chief, 
or metropolitan city, is understood, from whence the rest derive their original, and owe 
subjection to, Josh. xvii. 16, Numb. xxi. 25, Judg. xi. 26, 2 Sam. viii. 1. The Whole 
people "of God are called mother, Isa. 1. 1, Hos. ii. 2, because it begets, or ought to beget 
spiritual sons to God. Hence it is translated to the heavenly " Jerusalem," the New Tes- 
tament church, Gal. iv. 26. 

(5.) The name of daughter and virgin, is often attributed to a people or city, either 
distinctly or conjunctly, Psal. xlv. 12, and cxxxvii. 8, " Daughter of Babylon," is put for 
the kingdom of Babylon ; so Lam. i. 6, and ii. 1, &c., " Daughter of Sion," for the people 
of the Jews, and hence, Lani. ii. 2, she is called the " Daughter of Juda," so Zech. ix. 9, 
Isa. i. 8, x. 32, xvi. 1, xxxvii. 22, Jer. iv. 31, vi. 2, Micah. iv. 10, 13, Zeph. iii. 10, 14, 
&c. So the virgin of Israel, Jer. xxxi. 4, 21, Amos v. 2, ; sometimes virgin and daughter 
are joined, as Isa. xxiii. 12, xxxvii. 22, xlvii. 1, Jer. xlvi. 11. 


1. When the name of virgin is attributed to the people of God, some say it is with 
respect to the true worship of God, observed by them, without corruption, because 
such as depart from its purity, are called whorish and adulterous, upon which Jerome * 
says, " Sion and Jerusalem is therefore called a virgin and daughter, because when all 
other nations adored images or idols, this alone preserved the chastity of religion, and 
the adoration of one divinity ;" but Drusius denies this (Lib. 16. obser. cap. 5,) from 
two reasons, first, because with respect to Israel she is rather called, the wife of God, 
and when she worships other gods, a whore. Secondly, because the scripture calls 
Israel a virgin, even when she adores false gods, Amos v. 2, and Jer. xviii. 13, " The vir- 
gin of Israel hath done, a very horrible thing ;" others, and a third reason, because Baby- 
lon and Egypt are also called virgins as before, which yet were full of idolatry and im- 
piety. But Drusius thinks she was called a virgin before the captivity ; and was so no 
more when she was subjected to a strange yoke. Brentius -f- says, " That Jerusalem was 
called a virgin, either because its kingdom was a free monarchy, and did not serve any 
foreign king, but had a king of its own nation, as a virgin is not subject to the yoke of 
any strange man : or because, as a virgin yet untouched or uncorrupted by man, the city 
Jerusalem was not yet spoiled by any enemy, nor her citizens translated elsewhere." But 
Drusius objects that place, Jer. xviii. 13, to himself, for Jeremy prophesied after the ten 
tribes were carried away, and yet he calls Israel a virgin, which doubt, says he, may be 
resolved, by understanding by virgin, the people of the Jews, so called in specie, as not 
yet exhausted by a total carrying away, as verse 11. But although this may satisfy 
that doubt, yet Lam. ii. 1 3, strongly confutes this interpretation of Drusius, where Jeru- 
salem is called the virgin and daughter of Sion after its total devastation by the Baby- 
lonians. So that virgin is put for the congregation of the people, under what circum- 
stance soever they were, by a prosopopeia. And hence the Chaldee translates it a con- 
gregation,- people, or kingdom. 

2. By Israel we are to understand the land, and by virgin or daughter the inhabitants ; 
for the ancients were wont to call their country, their mother. 

6. The scripture speaks of certain accidents, as if they were men, and had a 
body, which kind they call Somatopeia, as Gen. iv. 7, " And if thou doest not well, 
sin lieth at the door." Sin is here proposed as lying at the door like a night watchman ; 
whereby is noted that a sure punishment will follow ill-doing, as a watchman sleeps 
not, but observes all things and discovers what is evil or hurtful, in order to punishment. 

There are other places where the body, as it were a person, and its actions are attri- 
buted to sin, as Isa. lix. 12, Jer. xiv. 7, Acts vii. 60, Kom. vi. 6, It is emphatically 
called the " body of sin," because it struggles with so great, force, soliciting us strongly 
to do evil, as if it were a living body, or something existing by itself. 

Bom. vii. 9, " Sin revived and died." By the knowledge of the law, sin is known, 
then conscience makes a man tremble, and a fearful consternation follows, by which man 
sees nothing before his eyes, but eternal death, as the reward of his sin, for the con- 
sideration of the commandment broken by it, makes it " exceeding sinful," verse 13 ; and 
in the following verses it is brought in as a cruel tyrant detaining the miserable sinner 
captive, dwelling in him, and warring against the spirit, not that it will be a perpetual 
conqueror in the regenerate, for that will not be, Kom. vi. 6, 12, 14, &c., but for that 
unavoidable repugnancy which naturally remains in the flesh against the Spirit, whilst 
the regenerate man lives in this life, verse 24, see Col. ii. 11, and iii. 5 ; where the 
members of this body of sin, are recited as fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affections, 
evil concupiscence, covetousness, &c., by which the will and reason are depraved, as the 
body by its members. Compare the following texts together, Jam. i. 14, 15, 18, 1 Pet. 
ii. 11, Jam. iv. 1, Rev. xviii. 5. 

To this class also belong, Gen. xxx. 33, " So shall my righteousness answer (or wit- 
ness) for me, when it shall come for my hire before thy face ;" that is, the future event 
shall declare that God has an account of my righteousness, which you shall then evidently 
see, &c., here witnessing which is the proper action of a person is attributed to righteous- 
ness. Punishments are called witnesses, Job x. 17, with xvi. 8. 

* Commentary upon Isa. xxxvii. t Iii Isa. xxxvii. 22. 




Psal. Ixxxv. 10, " Mercy and truth are met together, righteousness and peace have 
Icissed each other ;" affinity and conjunction of those virtues or graces is set before our 
eyes by the similitude of Persons, who after the manner of their country, do at meeting 
embrace and kiss each other, in testimony of friendship. He speaks of the kingdom of 
Christ, expressing its blessings and manner of administration by this prosopopeia ; verse 
12. It is said, that " righteousness shall look down from heaven ; that is, the righteous- 
ness of Christ, through whose merits we become justified before God, Kom. i. 17 iii. 22. 
It is said, verse 13, " That righteousness shall walk before him," that is, to testify his 
gracious coming and presence ; Isa.lix. 14, " Judgment is turned away backward, and justice 
standeth afar off: for truth is fallen in the street, and equity cannot enter." Here is an 
elegant prosopopeia of virtue and piety, intimating how scarce they are, and how rarely 
found amongst men. 



IT was said, chap, vi., that there should be a general division of this trope into the 
distinct fountains and classes of metaphors, which with divine help, shall be essay- 
ed in the following chapters. The chief division of universal beings is into the 
Creator, and the creatures. From the Creator we shall produce some. But from the 
creatures there are abundance of metaphors taken in scripture, which we shall endeavour 
to make plain. 

Metaphors taken from God. 

As, sometimes from, his name, sometimes from his actions. His Hebrew name 
Elohim, when taken properly, belongs to none, but the only true and eternal God, and 
because it is of the plural number, it intimates the mystery of a plurality of persons in one 
most simple Deity. See Gram. Sacr. p. 87, 376. But metaphorically this name is attri- 
buted to creatures also, as, 

1. To Angels who are endued with more eminent power, and more abundant 
happiness, than any other creatures, as Psal. viii. 5, " Thou hast made him a little lower 
than (Elohim*) the angels," as the Ghaldee, the LXX interpreters, Pagninus, and our 
translation render it ; but we have a most certain interpreter, Heb. ii. 7, viz., the 
apostle, who expressly quoting this text says, " But thou hast made hirn-j- a little lower, 
TJ Trap ayyt\ovs, (ti par Angelous) than the angels," see verse 9, where the same is re- 
peated. In both places, it is spoken of Christ, with respect to his state of humiliation ; 
an evident specimen is the angel's comforting him, in his agony in the garden, Luke 
xxii. 43. So Psal. Ixxxvi. 8, and xcvii. 7, 9, where the word, Elohim, is put for angels, 
as it expressly appears, Heb. i. 6. The meaning is, that there is no power so sublime 
but must be subject to the sovereignty of Christ's kingdom. 

2. To men of eminent dignity and his substitutes on earth, by whom God governs, 
judges, informs, and helps men, as if he had metaphorically called them divine men, 
Gen. vi. 2, " The sons of God saw the daughters of men," &c. The Chaldee renders it, 
[sons of great men] or grandees : Pagninus, the sons of princes. Brentius in his com- 
ment, upon this place, thus expounds it, " the sons of God, J are the principal sons and 
heroes of the Patriarchs, in whose hands, because of the right of primogeniture and 
other gifts of God, the chief authority was lodged, and who in doctrine and example 
ought to go before others, as tho princes and heads of the people, as judges and 
Princes are in other places of scripture, called gods. But the daughters of men were 
either women of the families of the Cainites, or without difference, any maids or 

* The Gods. f Or a little while inferior to. 

t Filii Dei suntfilii Patriarchanim jpratciptti, et Heroes, penes fjuos erat, $"c. 



women of the common " and vulgar sort, that you may understand that the princes, 
who ought to be an honest example for others, took to themselves at their pleasure, 
any that they met and liked, whatever they were, whether kinswomen, or such as were 
of affinity to them, whether honest or dishonest. These things were wickedly done, 
for here was a neglect of consanguinity, which the law of nature commands, contempt 
of parents, and superiors, and an indulgence of polygamy, or having many wives, and 
rash and causeless divorces, &c." 

Exod. iv. 16, " He shall he to thee a mouth, and thou shalt he to him a God" (we trans- 
late instead of a mouth, and instead of a God,) the Chaldee renders it "for a prince or cap- 
tain," that is, thou shalt he his chief magistrate, telling him what he shall say to the peo- 
ple. So God speaks to Moses, Exod. vii. 1, " See, I have made thee a god unto Pharaoh," 
the explication follows, verse 2, " Thou shalt speak all that I command thee ; and Aaron 
thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh." Moses is called a god because of the commission 
or embassy he had to perform, in those wonderful works before Pharaoh. So judges are, 
in the Hebrew, called gods, Exod. xxi. 6, and xxii. 8, 9, 28, so 1 Sam. xxviii. 13, that 
spectrum or apparition in the likeness of Samuel, is so called, Psal. Ixxxii. 1, " He judgeth 
among the gods," that is, among the judges. See verse 6, " I have said ye are gods," 
from which Christ argues, John x. 34, 35, 36, that he, was much more the Son of God. 
See Psal. cxxxviii.' 1, 4, and cxix. 46, " I will speak of thy testimony before kings, and 
not be ashamed :" which kings are elsewhere called gods, &c. 

It is also attributed to idols, Exod. xxiii. 24, Isa. xxxvi. 18. But it is by a meto- 
nymy of the adjunct, by which the opinion of men is put for the thing itself, as chap, 
iv. before-going. For idols are really things of no value, as Lev* xix. 4, Psal. xcvii. 7, 
Isa. x. 10, and xix. 3. Yea, no gods, 2 Chron. xiii. 9, (1 Cor. viii. 4, " an idol is nothing 
in the world") but they are worshipped by idolaters as gods, or at best, by them they 
pretend to worshop God. Hence they are called gods, with the addition of another word, 
as Exod. xx. 3, strange gods, Deut. v. 20, Josh, xxxii. 16 ; gods besides the Lord, Exod. 
xxii. 20 ; molten gods, Lev. xix. 14 ; new gods, Judg. v. 8. 

The Greek name of God is eos> Theos, which is metaphorically ascribed to the devil, 
2 Cor. iv. 4, " The god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not," 
&c. For as the true God administers the kingdom of grace to such as believe in him, and 
is by them religiously worshipped : so Satan infuses his malignity into unbelievers, Eph. 
ii. 2, 3 ; who obey his will, command, and seduction. Upon which Erasmus in his anno- 
tations, says thus, " the devil is not really a god, but he is so to them, who prefer him. 
before Christ, just as to covetous men, their money, or mammon is a god, and to their 
.heirs their luxury is a god, and (homo homini Deus] a man is a god to a man, as the 
proverb runs." And in the paraphrase " whatsoever any person hearkens to (obeys or 
prefers,) before, or more than God, he makes that his god." 

This name is also attributed to the belly, Phil. iii. 19, " "Whose god is their belly," 
that is, such as account their chief good and felicity to consist in the satisfaction of the 
desires of the fiesh, and prosperity in this world, without suffering any persecution for the 
sake of Christ. Whatsoever any person puts the chiefest value upon, is to him a god, 
if he slights his true God. In the New Testament also the name of God is attributed to 
idols, Acts vii. 43, and xiv. 11, by a metonymy, as was said of the name, Elohim, by 
the opinion of men, as Gal. iv. 8, w <u<re{ ovres Oeoi, (me phusei antes iheof] qui natura non 
sunt Dii, " who by nature are not gods," but by the depraved imagination of idolaters, 1 
Cor. viii. 5, Aeyo^wo/ 6eoi, (legomenoi tlieoi) who are called Gods by idolatrous men, but 
are not really so. And to these that one and true God is opposed, verse 6. So much 
for the name of God. To which metaphor some refer when the names of God, nyrfts 
(Elohim] mrp (Jehovali) *>** (El} are added in the room of an epithet for divine, chief, or 
most excellent. Vide Gram. Sacr. p. 58, seq. 

As to the actions of God, the word creation KG (Bard) properly signifies to make 
any thing of nothing, which God alone can do. But metaphorically it is translated to 
the other great works of God, as Exod. xxxiv. 10, " I will do marvels, which were not 
created in the whole earth," &c., that is, such wonders, and so many, as never yet 
were done in the world. Numb. xvi. 30, " If the Lord will create a creation," so the He- 


brew, that is, if he will afford a new and unheard of miracle, such as was the swallowing 
up of the earth, which then happened to the seditious. See Isa. xlv. 8. 

More especially it is taken for the restoration, and renovation of men, whether in this 
life by the word of faith ; or in the future, by a clear and beautiful vision of God, Psal. li. 
10, " Create in me a clean heart, (the explication) and renew a right spirit within me." 
It is as well the work of God to create a pure heart, that is, to convert and regenerate a 
man, cleanse him from sin, justify, and save him, as it is to create him. The impurity 
therefore, of our hearts can with no human strength or art be purged away, but we have 
need of the Creator's work, and the Redeemer's virtue and power to make us new creatures, 
John i. 12, " But to as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons 
of God, even to them that believe on his name." 

Psal. cii, 18, " and the people that shall be created shall praise the Lord," that is, the 
church that shall be restored and gathered by Christ. For this Psalm treats of that 
and his kingdom of grace, as is alleged, Heb. i. 10, 11, 12, Isa. Ixv. 18, " Be ye glad 
and rejoice for ever in that which I create : for, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and 
her people a joy." That he speaks of the glory of Christ's kingdom and church here, 
is evident by the following verses ; for its restitution and the whole celestial admi- 
nistration is expressed by the word creation, to indicate the omnipotency and most 
powerful operation of Christ .; verse 17, there is mention of the creation of a " new 
heaven, and a new earth," in the same sense, which promise shall be most perfectly 
fulfilled in eternal life, as Isa. Ixvi. 22, and 2 Pet. iii. 13, Eph. ii. 10, " For we are his 
workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works," &c. ; that is, regenerated, 
and renewed, in the image of God. See Psal. c. 3, Isa. xxix. 23, &c. This 
is that new creature of whom it is said, 2 Cor. v. 17, " If any man be in Christ, he is a new 
creature ;" that is, he is renewed by the Holy Spirit, to lead a new and holy life in 
the faith of Christ. What is corrupt in man by sin, is restored and reformed by re- 
generation and renovation; and so the image in which man was at first created, but 
lost it because of his sin, begins to be restored ; very fitly therefore is the regeneration 
and renovation of a man expressed by the term creation, for God alone is the Author and 
cause of both. 

Of Metaphors taken from Angels. 

The creatures of God are divided into invisible and visible. The invisible are spirits 
<ufia/j.aToi, (asomaiol) without bodies, and by them we understand angels, because being 
in their own nature incorporeal, they cannot be seen by human eyes. The visible are 
whatsoever things have an existence in this whole universe, whether they be simple 
or mixed bodies. There are good and bad angels, and from both, some, though not 
many metaphors are taken. 

1. From the good angels, some think that the ministers of the gospel are by a me- 
taphor called angels, Judg. ii. 1, Hag. i. 13, Mai. ii. 7, iii. 1, Matt. xi. 10, Mark 
i. 2, Luke vii. 27, 1 Cor. xi. 10, Rev. i. 20, ii. 1, 8, 12, 18, and iii. 1, 7, 14 ; and 
hence, not improperly imply an analogy, from the holy angels of God to the prophets, 
and other preachers of the Word. But the Hebrew word -p^n (MalacJ and the 
Greek a yye\os, (Angelas} being an indifferent and common noun, denoting any mes- 
senger or legate, it is better to understand that term properly, because ministers of the 
gospel are really, and not metaphorically God's ministers. 

Ezek. xviii. 14, The king of Tyrus, is called by a metaphor, the anointed 
C Cherub) by which term angels* are called, Gen. iii. 24, and Ezek. xxviii. 14, "the 
covering Cherub." As if God had said, as angels amongst created things are by 
nature and ministry commissioned by me, for the protection of men, so thou, (king of 
Tyrus) didst in thine own conceit and fancy, judge thyself. This metaphor alludes 
to Gen. iii. 24 ; as junius and Tremelh'us in their notes say. " This is a most elegant 

* They are called Cheruiims, from the hebrew word RaJicabh, to ride, because the Lord rode betwixt 
them, Psal. xviii. 10. 



description of that -Royal Majesty, by comparing it to that cherub, which was placed 
by God in the garden of Eden, Gen. iii. 24, for as an angel was appointed to keep that 
garden, and armed with that flaming sword- which turned every way, it was a ter- 
ror to all, so thou, king of Tyrus, since the kingdom became thine, didst fancy thy- 
self equal to the angels of God in glory." Some think it has respect to those angelical 
figures placed in the,_ sanctuary, Exod. xxv. 20, "covering the mercy-seat." .Biding 
upon a cherub is attributed to God, Psal. xviii. 10, 2 Sam. xxii. 11, when the speech 
is of " winds, storms, clouds, and tempests," to which this name is ascribed by reason of 
their vehement swiftness, and dreadful effects. The Chaldee renders it, " And he is re- 
vealed in his magnificence upon the most swift cherubs, and he is led in strength upon the 
wings of the wind." 

2. As to what respects evil angels or devils, Christ calls. Peter Satan, when he would 
dissuade him from suffering, Matt. xvi. 23, Mark viii. 33, "Get thee behind me, Satan." 
Some* take this as a noun appellative, and so, pou? (Satan) signifies any adversary, 
as if Christ had said ; " give over to contradict the will of my Father : it is thy part to 
follow., not to go before. Now thou gainsayest, studying to hinder what will save 
mankind, what the Father will have done, and what becomes me to do. Thou 
desirest to be a partaker of the kingdom, and yet thou hinderest me, that am has- 
tening willingly to the cross whereby it is to be purchased ; where you see me go, (viz. 
the kingdom of heaven,) there you ought also to bend your course. Thou dost not 
yet savour of God, but led by human affections, resistest the Divine will. Hinder me 
not therefore, thou unprofitable monitor, but follow behind me, and rather act the part 
of a disciple than a master." But because our Saviour uses not the Greek avruteifjievos. 
Antikeimenos) or (awriSmos ( Antidtkos) which signifies an adversary, or opposer, but 
the Hebrew, or Syriac, Satan, by which always the devil is understood in the New 
Testament, and Christ uses the same phrase to the devil, Luke iv. 8. . It is more rightly 
said that Christ calls Peter Satan by a metaphor, because in his .opposition he acted 
the devil's part, in giving satanical counsel, directly contrary to the will of God. 
From whence Luther-f- fairly infers this maxim, " that whatsoever Peter, with the uni- 
versal college of apostles, speaks from his own sense, in divine matters, and not by 
divine authority and revelation, as verse 16, 17, 18, is to be accounted diabolical 
and opposite to Christ : see 1 Cor. iii. 11, and xvi. 22, Gal. i. 8, 9, 2 Pet. i. 19, 20, &c. 
And then he adds, that Christ in this passage, with Peter and his apostles, prefigured 
the future history of his whole church, to wit, that there should be some true con- 
fessors of Christ, viz., good bishops, and martyrs, who should confess and preach Christ the 
Son of the living God purely, by the example of Peter speaking from the Revelation 
of the Father. But because the same Peter and the apostles a little after savour of the 
flesh, yea, and as Christ says, become Satans, it signifies that after the successors of the 
apostles and good bishops, there would come devilish bishops : and that at length he that 
would usurp the title of Peter's sole and only successor, should follow Satan as "his Father 
for revelation, and would seek not the kingdom of God, but of the world. Which pro- 
phecy we see most palpably and horribly fulfilled," so far Luther. 

John vi. 70, Christ calls Judas Iscariot a devil, - because he was like him in lies and 
treachery, and so signally malicious that the scripture says, he was of the devil, John viii. 
44, 1 John iii. 8 ; " And the son of the devil," Acts xiii. 10. 

Metaphors taken from Heaven. 

Corporeal or bodily creatures, according to their physical distinction, are either simple or 
mixed and. compounded. The simple are heaven and the elements, or the ethereal, and 
elementary region of the world. 

Heaven properly signifies that uttermost celestial body that incloses or compasses the 
elements, and is the receptacle of the stars and constellations, Gen. i. 8, 14, &c., Gen. xv. 
5. Psal. viii. 3, and xix. 1, 5, Isa. xiv. 13. 

* Erasm. Paraphrase. -j- Tom. 4. lat.fol. 363 

PABT 1-1 



Also the airy region which is above us, and this either in conjunction with the ethereal 
or starry heaven, Gen. i. 6, 7, 8, 9, (where hy the mention of the " waters being ga- 
thered together unto one place under the heavens," is intimated, that also, to be a heaven, 
which is next and immediately above them, which is the lower region of the air) or se- 
parately from it, and so only the air, Deut. xxviii. 23, 1 Kings viii. '65, 2 Chron. vii. 13, 
Job i. 1 6, and ii. 12, Psal. viii. 8, Matt. vi. .2.6, Luke ix. 54, and xii. 56. But metaphori- 
cally heaven is taken : 

1. For divine glory, and infinite majesty, which is called 0s Ktr^oa-iTdv, (phos aprosi- 
ton,} light inaccessible, or " which none can approach to," 1 Tim. vi. 16, by reason of si- 
militude, from the greatness, splendour, beauty, and elegance of heaven, to which we 
may refer the words of Bonaventure,* " Corpus quod est sursum dicitur Ccelum" &c. 
"The body which is above is called heaven, because it is capacious, secret, and quiet; and 
because this- threefold propriety is found in the celsitude of the divinity, it is therefore 
called heaven ; it is capacious, in the immensity of power ; secret, in the depth of know- 
ledge ; and quiet, in the tranquiiity of delight. This is superior to all heavens, not by 
situation, but dignity, and greater than every heaven, not by extension, but from his own 
immensity, by which he is beyond all, but not excluded," &c. 

So it is taken when " God is said to dwell in heaven," Psal. ii. 4, 1 Kings viii. 39, 43, 
&c., so Deut. xxvi. 15, " Look down from thy holy habitation, from heaven, and bless thy 
people," &c., so it is said of Christ that " He came down from heaven," John iii. 13, and 
vi. 33, 50, 51, 1 Cor. xv. 47, that is, he went forth from that inaccessible light of divine 
majesty, and .manifested himself in the flesh. And the same throne of majesty is in 
the heavens, Heb. viii. 1, and i. 3, to which. Christ as (God-man) in his state of ex- 
altation went. See John xvii. 5, Heb. vii. 26, " Made higher than the heavens ;" Eph. 
iv. 10, " ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things." See Psal. viii. 
1, 2, and eviii. 5, &c. By which places, not so much the height of the place, as the 
sublimity of the divine majesty is expressed. 

2. Heaven is metaphorically taken for the spiritual kingdom of God, and that state 
of happiness wherein he manifests, and communicates himself to angels and men. And 
that is, 

(1.) Of grace, viz., the gathering and gracious government of the church mili- 
tant in this life, to which belongs the appellation of the kingdom of heaven, often- 
times attributed to the church, Matt, xiii.- 11, 24, 31, 33, xx. 1, and xxii. 1, &c.- So 
when it is said, " To plant a heaven," Isa. Ii. 16, " and to create a new heaven," Isa. 
Ixv. 17, by which phrase the restoration of the church by Christ is noted, which is 
begun in . this life, and completed in eternity, 2 Pet. iii. 13 ; the reason of the com- 
parison is, because as the natural heaven is very far distant from the earth, so the ways of 
God in ruling his church, and giving blessedness to believers, do exceedingly surpass the 
manner of earthly administrations, Isa. Iv. 9. And as in the natural heaven all things 
are in the exactest order, full of light and radiance : so God in his church, is the God of 
order and peace, 1 Cor. xiv. 33, leading, teaching, and saving his people by a most con- 
venient order of mediums, and that by the light of his saving word. 

(2.) Of glory, viz., the eternal and unspeakable felicity of angels and holy men, in 
the beholding and perfect fruition of the glorious God. To which belong those phrases, 
Matt, xviii. 10, " Their angels in heaven behold the face of my Father," the speech is of 
the angels appointed as keepers of the little ones ; by which it appears that the angels, 
though acting on earth for the good of Christians, are nevertheless really in heaven, 
that is, in a celestial state of blessedness. Matt. vi. 20, " Treasures are said to be laid up in 
heaven;" Luke xii. 21, " To have treasures in heaven ;" Phil. iii. 20, " To have our con- 
versation in heaven ;" by which phrases faith-, and Christian hope, aspiring, and tending to 
eternal blessedness is to be understood. From this heaven Satan is said to fall like light- 
ning, Luke x. 18. " Satan (says Illyricus) fell not from a place, but from his degrees of 
dignity, to wit, from the favour of God and spiritual blessedness, into the greatest wicked- 
ness, punishments, and eternal and spiritual calamities." Of the scope of these words of 
Christ, Erasmus says thus, " Jesus, that he might fortify their minds, against that disease 
of vain glory, which even the saints are sometimes tainted with, proposes the example of 

* Lib. sentent. disl. 2. n. 33. 


Lucifer to them, who -for his pride was suddenly cast down from so great felicity. I 
(says he,) Satan falling from heaven like lightning. His dignity in heaven was very 
eminent, and yet for the swelling pride of his mind, he is slung from the highest (glory,) 
to the lowest (wretchedness ;) how much more ought you to beware of pride, who carry a 
mortal body about you, obnoxious to all perils." But others understand this of the power 
and efficacy of Christ, which by the preaching of the apostles he put forth, to which Satan 
against his will was -forced to give way, and was, as it were cast down from the height of 
that power which he exercised over men. 

In heaven, we are also to consider the ornaments of it, as the luminaries, as they 
are called, Gen. i. 14 ; the sun, moon, and stars, which are the organs of light. 
The sun and moon constantly shining, do metaphorically denote eternal blessedness in 
heaven. " Thy sun shall no more go down, neither shall thy moon withdraw itself :" Isa. 
Ix. 20, the explication follows, " for the Lord shall be thine everlasting light, and the 
days of thy mourning shall be ended." See Eev. xxii. 5. Such things as concern the 
state of the church in this life, and heaven, are mixed in this chapter of Isaiah, as 
an accurate inspection into it will show. The Chaldee in translating these words of 
the sun and moon, does (not inelegantly) expound them, " Thy kingdom shall no longer be 
abolished, nor thy glory transferred." The light of the sun denotes prosperity, as shall 
be shown hereafter; therefore on the contrary the setting or darkness of the sun, me- 
taphorically denotes calamity, sorrow, and misery, Jer. xv. 9, " Her sun is gone down 
while it was yet day ;" Chaldee, " their glory is translated in their life-time ;" that unex- 
pected and most heavy calamities are treated of here, the foregoing and following verses 
show. Amos viii. 9, " I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the 
.earth in a clear day ;" that is, I will suddenly overwhelm you with heavy strokes and 
calamities. So Micah iii. 6, Joel ii. 10, and iii. 4, Isa, xiii. -10. On the other side an 
increase of the sun and moon's light, metaphorically signifies great spiritual happiness ; 
Isa. xxx. 26, " The light of the moon shall be as the light of- the sun, and the light of 
the sun shall be seven-fold, as the light of seven days," &c., as if he had said, the help 
which I will afford you shall be so great and illustrious, that in that time the two lumi- 
naries of the world, the sun and moon (as if they would congratulate the deliverance of 
the people) will be more cheerful, and more shining than they were wont to be. Some 
refer this to an hyperbole. 

By the name of Stars, illustrious and principal men are understood, Dan. viii. 10, 
." And it (viz., that little horn by which Antiochus is understood) waxed great, even to 
the host of heaven ; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and 
stamped upon them." By the host of heaven, the people of God, or the church, some- 
times circumscribed in Judea, is understood ; but by stars, the princes or chief men, who 
by their administration in the church or commonwealth were of more eminency than 
others, are noted ; hence in verse 24, it is so expounded, " he shall destroy the mighty 
and the holy people ;" that is, he shall destroy, the highest and the lowest. See 1 Mic. 
i. 25. 

2. By the name of stars, the teachers of the word of God, and Church rulers, are 
figured, Eev. i. 16, 20, and iii. 1, which consideration fairly leads us to know ; 

(1.) Their Lord and Master, whose countenance is said " To shine as the sun in its 
strength," Kev. i. 16. 

1. As the sun communicates his light to the stars in heaven : so " Christ the sun of 
righteousness," Mai. iv. 2, imparts the light of saving knowledge to his faithful servants, 
2 Cor. iv. 6. 

2. " The Lord brings forth the host of the stars by number, and calleth them all by 
names," Isa. xl. 26. So Christ leads forth his ministers in his church as a sacred host, 

against Satan, and the world, and calleth them also by name, Psal. Ixviii. 11. 

(2.) Their office : God placed " The stars in the firmament, to enlighten the earth," 
Gen. i. 17. 

3. The light of doctrine, which the ministers bring to the church is from heaven, 
and taken out of the heavenly and divine word alone, 2 Pet. i. 16, 19, which is 

PART I."] 



sweeter than honey, to the souls of such as are taught of God," Psal. xix. 10, and cxix. 
103 ; but to others, as wormwood, Rev. viii. 11, because they taste nothing but bitter- 
ness and a denunciation of damnation in it. 

4. A Star led the wise men to Christ, Matt. ii. 9 ; ministers propose only that end in 
preaching, 1 Cor. ii. 2. 

5. It is said, Eccles. xliii. 10, " that at the commandment of the Holy One, they (viz., 
the stars) will stand in their order, and never faint in their watches." Of the ministers 
of the Word it is said, Heb. xiii. 17, " that they watch for the souls of men ;" nor ought 
they to be discouraged in their watches, nor faint because of the world's ingratitude, 
but both by doctrine and good example to keep the same order constantly, and so, they 
shall be quite different from these " wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of 
darkness for ever," Jude, verse 13, they are to take care that " all things be done decently, 
and in order" in the church, 1 Cor. xiv. 40. 

6. It is said of the stars " that they fought from heaven, against the enemies of the 
people of God," Judg. v. 20. So a most grievous fight against devils is proposed to the 
ministers of the Word, Eph. vi. 12 ; let them look to it therefore, that they manage their 
' warfare rightly, 2 Cor. x. 3, 4, 5 ; that they may be able to glory in the Lord, for the 
heavenly reward that will follow, 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8. 

7. It is said of the stars, that together with the sun and moon " they divide between the 
clay and between the night, and are for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and for years," 
Gen. i. 14 ; so ' it is the duty of gospel ministers to divide between the day and night, 
light and darkness ; that is, to inculcate and diligently show the difference between 
good and evil, piety and wickedness, Isa. v. 20, Jer. xv. 19, E,om. xiii. 12, 13, 
2 Cor. vi. 14, 15, &c. " Also to give signs and seasons," that is, to provide so as that the 
public worship of God be kept up timely and seasonably ; and in their ministerial function 
to impart their gifts, suitably to the wants of the flock in the respective seasons, that so, 
there may be no disorder or confusion to show also days and nights, that is, " to proclaim 
the acceptable year of our Lord," Isa. Ixi. 2, and eai'nestly to inculcate the appointed day 
in which the " Lord will judge the world in righteousness," Acts xvii. 31. 

8. It is said of the stars, that "they differ from one another in glory." " So there is a great 
diversity of the gifts of the Spirit, in the ministers of the Word," 1 Cor. xii. 4, &c. 

9. All the stars of light are commanded " to praise God," Psal. cxlviii. 3, with Job 
xxxviii. 7. So all the ministers of the word, what measure of grace soever they have re- 
ceived, or whatsoever gift they exercise in the church, ought with ardour of spirit to praise 
the Lord, to serve him heartily, and without selfishness or envy, to preserve mutual peace 
and concord among themselves, and their reward shall be certain, if they behave them- 
selves faithfully, and not only in this world, but also' in eternity. 

10. Stars were seen by John, worn in the right-hand of Christ, Rev. i. 20. So let the 
faithful labourers of the gospel, be certain of a most gracious protection by the omnipotent 
hand of Christ, Isa. Ii. 16, &c. ; and in the life to come " they that, turn many to righteous- 
ness shall shine as the stars for ever and ever," Dan. xii. '6. 

So much for ecclesiastical stars. The stars being obscured, sometimes denote calamity, 
Isa. xiii. 10, Ezek. xxxii. 7, Joel ii. 10, as was said before of the sun and moon. 

The brightest star that shines in our view is called in Greek <t>acr<popos, (phosporos,*) in - 
Latin, lucifer, both which words signify a bringer of light ; in Hebrew it is called 
y?n of the root, Wn (halal,) which signifies to shine, and is metaphorically translated, 
to describe the unexpected ruin and overthrow of the king of Babylon, Isa. xiv. 12, 
" How art thou fallen from heaven, lucifer, son of the morning." That star is called, 
son of the morning, because while it accompanies the morning, it seems, as it were, 
to be born of it. Its course is perpetual and constant, so that it was not feared that it 
should fall irom heaven. And therefore to appearance, it seemed impossible, and in- 
credible, that so great a king, illustrious, and splendid, in. power and majesty, beyond 
other kings, (as the morning star is before other stars) should fall from his lofty and 
magnificent grandeur. Pope Gregory (upon Ezekiel,) and other school doctors, expound 
this of the devil's fall, because the prince of devils is called lucifer. But this epi- 
thet does not belong to that malignant spirit in this place, for God himself confirms 
our explication, verse 4, saying, " thou shalt take up this parable, (proverb, or taunt- 
ing speech, for so the Hebrew is) against the king of Babylon," not against the devil, 


&c. Where Christ our Saviour, is called Lucifer, is expounded before in the chapter that 
treats of an anthropopathy. Besides the phrase aa-r-np -n-gcaifos, faster proinosj stella matu- 
tina, the morning star is a symbol of the glorious light in eternity, Rev. ii. 28. See also 
Dan. xii. 3,,1 Cor. xv. 41, 42. 

Metaphors taken from Light. 

There are two principal effects of the luminaries and ornaments of heaven,- viz., to give 
light to the world, and to distinguish times. In metaphors taken from light we will dis- 
tinctly treat of nouns and verbs, which are sometimes joined together. 
Generally light is taken, 

1. For life itself, Job iii. 20, " Wherefore (has God) given light to the miserable ;" so 
the Hebrew ; the explication follows, " and life to the bitter in soul ;" verse 21, " Which 
long for death, but it cometh not." Hence comes the phrase, " to see the light," that is, 
to live, or be born alive, Job iii. 16. " To walk in the -light of the living ;' that is, to act 
amongst the living, or to live, either a corporeal or spiritual life in God, Psal. Ivi. 13. So 
David prays, Psal. xiii. 3, "Lighten mine eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death.'' 

2. For any prosperity and joy of mind arising from thence, Esth. viii. 16, " The Jews 
had light, and gladness, and joy, and honour ;" where the synonomous terms make out 
that it signifies the eminency of the Jews' prosperity, and joy for their divine deli- 
verance. Job xxix. 3, " By his light I walk through darkness ;" that is, being free from 
calamities I led a happy life ; verse 24, " The light of my countenance they cast not down ;" 
that is, they grieved me not, but studied to please and gratify me in all things. Psal. 
xcvii. 11, " Light is sown for the righteous," the explication follows, " and gladness for 
the upright in heart." The word sowing is also emphatical, as if he had said, it is re- 
posited and hidden, as seed is in the ground, but in its own time it will certainly come 
forth. See Isa. Ixi. 11, Col. iii. 8, 4. It is sown with the seed of the heavenly word, and 
a most full and bright harvest of this celestial seed will follow in the resurrection to eternal 
life. So light is also taken, Psal. cxii. 4, Prov. xiii. 9, Isa. xlv. 7, Iviii. 8, and lix. 9. 
The reason of the comparison in this, and the foregoing passage is to be sought in the pro- 
fitableness and pleasure of light, Eccl. xi. 7, &c. 

3. For the open and manifest state of things, Matt. x. 27, "What I tell you in dark- 
ness, that speak ye in the light;" another metaphor of this publication follows, and "what 
ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon the house tops." The sense is, you are therefore 
called by me, that you may preach publicly to the whole world, what you privately heard 
from me. So Zeph. iii. 5, John iii. 21, 1 Cor. iv. 5. 

: 4. For grace, benevolence, or favour, Prov. xvi. 15, " In the light of the king's counte- 
nance is life ;" the exposition follows, " and his favour is as a cloud of the latter rain." So 
it is taken of God, as was said in the chapter of an anthropopathy. 

More especially the mystery 'of regeneration, renovation, and salvation, is frequently ex- 
pressed by the metaphor of light, and that respecting, 

1. The organical cause, which is the word of God, which is frequently called so, by a 
reason deduced from, the quality of light, which represents the difference and knowledge of 
things, to the eyes, Psal. xliii. 3, Prov. vi?23, Isa. ii. 5, and v. 20, 2 Cor. iv. 6, 1 John 
ii. 8. Thus the apostles, because of their preaching the word of God, are called the 
" light of the world." Matt. v. 14 ; and then: light is said " to shine before men," verse 
16 ; that is, the light -of doctrine, by diligent preaching, as also the light of a good life 
and example. 

2. The formal cause, which is the saving knowledge of Christ and true faith mani- 
fested by love and good works, Acts xxvi. Ib, Eph. v. 8, 1 Pet. ii. 9, 1 John i. 7. Hence 
believers are called " Sons of light," Luke xvi. 8, Eph. v. 8, 1 Thes. v. 5. And good 
works, " the armour' of light," Korn. xiii. 12. 

3. The final case, and the last scope and effect of faith, which is life eternal, often 
noted by the term of light, Isa. Ix. 19, 20, John viii. 12, Acts xxvi. 23, 2 Tim. i. 10, 
&c. From thence there may be an easy judgment made of certain verbs belonging to 




Psal. xiii. 3, "Lighten mine eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death." He prays for the 
light of heavenly wisdom from the word of God, also the light of watchfulness, and cir- 
cumspection, whereby he may avoid the snares of the adversary. He alludes to human 
sleep, which easily overcomes those that sit in darkness, or shut their eyes, whereas, if the 
light shines in our eyes we can hardly sleep. 

Psal. xix. 8, " The commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes," that is, 
the mind, by -giving understanding and knowledge as well of the divine will, as of our own 
corruption, and prudence, in the management of affairs, that a man may not be like a brute, 
which is void of rational intellectuals ; Psal. xxxiv. 6, " They looked unto him, and were 
enlightened," that is, believers, were made glad by the Lord, by his gracious and saving 

deliverance, lest ,they should be dejected and derided by the wicked. 
19, Eccl. viii. 1, : with 2 Cor. iii. 18, Isa; Ix. 5, John vii. 37, 38, 39. 

See Prov. iv. 18, 

John i. 9, " That (viz., Christ) was the true light, which lighteth every man that 
cometh (or coming) into the world :" upon these words Erasmus very fairly paraphrases, 
" In this darkness of the world, men, eminent for holiness shined, as little stars in the 
thick obscurity of night, and as it were through a cloud showed some light, but only to the 
Jews, and the adjacent parts. But this true light imparted its splendour not to a single 
nation only, but to all men, that come into this dark world. Pie came, that by a Gospel 
faith he should shine in, and give light, to the hearts of all men in the world. No Scy- 
thian, no Jew, no Spaniard, no Goth, no Briton, is excluded, neither king nor servant. 
There is a sufficiency of light for all, and if they remain in darkness, it is not the light's 
fault but their own, who perversely love darkness and abhor the light. He shines to all, 
lest any one should have a pretext of excuse ; for if they perish, they do it wilfully and 
knowingly, as if one would dispute against the sun-shine at noon, and will not lift up his 
eyes to be confuted," &c., 2 Cor. iv. 6. There is an eminent description of spiritual illumi- 
nation. See Eph. iii. 8, 9. 

To light by way of privation is opposed sometimes a shadow, which is light hindered 
from a total shining, by the interposition of some body. This metaphorically, signifies 
protection, and defence, against adversaries of any sort, as a shade defends from the sun's 
intemperate and scorching heat, Isa. xvi. 3, xxx. 2, 3, Lam. iv. 20, &c. For so it is 
attributed to God as before, 'chap. viii. towards the end. 

But where the ceremonies and types of the Old Testament are called shadows with 
respect to Christ, Col. ii. 17, Heb. x. 1 ; it is not to be understood that they are naturally 
so, but artificially, and like a picture, for painters first draw a shadow or an umbratile 
kind of delineation, and afterwards, perfect their picture with lively colours, the former 
vanishing out of sight. So it was with the sacrifices and ceremonies of the ancients, which 
figured Christ, and ceased when he came, which explication is evident by the opposition 
of shadows, and the very image of things, Heb. x. 1. 

Sometimes mists^ fogs, and darkness, are opposed to light, which hide the splendour and 
beauty of things, and hinder men from ma'king a right distinction, separation, or definition, 
of objects, begetting disturbance and confusion in the mind, and contain in themselves 
nothing pleasing or laudable, and therefore signify evil in scripture. But because there is 
the same reason of contraries, (which mutually answer each other,) we shall be able by the 
consideration of light to pass a judgment upon its opposite. 

1. As light signifies life, so darkness and a shadow, metaphorically denote death ; Job x. > 
21, "Before I go whence I shall not return, to the land of darkness, and the shadow of death ;" 
verse 22, "A land of darkness, as the gloominess of the shadow of death, and without order, 
aud it shineth as darkness." This is a periphrasis of death and the grave. Psal. Ixxxviii. 
12, " Shall thy wonders be known in the dark ?" see verse 10, 11, Job xxviii. 3. 

2. As light signifies prosperity and joy; so darkness denotes evils, unhappiness, and 
calamity, and consequently that sorrow, mourning, and grief, that follows. See Job v. 
14, xv. 22, xvii. 12, and xviii. 5, 6, Psal. xliv. 19, Ixxxviii. 18, and cxliii. 3, Isa. v. 30, 
x Mi. 5, 1. 10, and lix. 9, Jer. viii. 21, and xiii. 16, Lam. iii. 2, 6, Ezek. xxxii. 8, Joel ii. 
2, Amos v. 18, Micah vii. 8. Nahum i. 8, Zeph. i. 15, &c. 


3. As light is put for that which is manifest and apparent, so darkness is put for that 
which is hidden, secret, and unknown, Job xii. 22, Eccl. vi. 4, Isa. xlv. 19, Matt. x. 27. 
See John iii. 20, 21, Eph. v. 11, 12, 13. So, obscure or the meanest sort of men, is put 
for such as are of no eminent note or fame, JProv. xxii. 29. 

More especially as the mystery of regeneration, and the restoring of man to eternal sal- 
vation is expressed by light ; so by opposition, darkness denotes a state of corruption, sin, 
and damnation, and that also with respect to, 

(1.) The organieal cause, which is the truth revealed in the word of God, in which respect, 
darkness signifies errors, lies, and perverse doctrines, Isa. v. 20, ix. 2, and Ix. 2, 3, John xii. 
35, Rom. i. 21, 22. Although by way of consequence the things that follow are also noted in 
these places. 

(2.) The formal cause, which is the knowledge of Christ, and faith which works by 
piety ; in which respect darkness signifies infidelity, and an indulgence in sin, Psal. Ixxxii. 
5, Prov: ii. 13, John i. 5, and iii. I'J, Acts xxvi. 18, Rom. xiii. 12, 2 Cor. vi. 14, Eph. 
iv. 17, 18, 19, and v. 8, 11, 1 John i. 6, and ii. 9, 11. Although the antecedent member 
is also noted in these sayings, all infidelity, impiety, and sins, arising from ignorance and 
errors in doctrine. 

(3.) ThejfomZ cause and last effect ; in this respect darkness signifies eternal death and 
damnation, Matt. viii. 12, xxii. 13, 2 Pet. ii. 4, Jude, verse 6. And whereas the devil is 
the author of all those evils, he with his whole infernal society are called the power of dark- 
ness, Luke xxii. 53, Eph. vi. 12, Col. i. 13. 

Metaphors taken from Time. 

The other effect of the luminaries of heaven is the differencing of time, from which differ- 
ences some metaphors are deduced. 

( 1 .) A day, is taken for the profit and benefit of the time allotted, or granted, by God, 
1 Sam. xxv. 5, " We come in a good day," that is, seasonably and for our profit ; your pre- 
paration and store being such as that you can relieve our want. John ix. 4, " I must 
work the works of him that sent me, while it is day," that is, while the allotted season 
lasts, for that purpose given by heaven. Upon which Erasmus paraphrases, "I am there- 
fore sent into the world, that I should by deeds of this kind purchase glory for God, by 
convincing unbelievers that I speak true, that they may believe, and be cured of their 
blindness. This command I must diligently follow, while it is day ; for men that have any 
thing to do, work by day, the night being unseasonable for labour, in the meanwhile there- 
fore, while the present day. affords an opportunity of acting what is necessary for the ob- 
taining of eternal life, I must not give Over. For the night is coming, wherein men 
neither will nor can work." See Luke xiii. 51, 33, John xi. 9, 10, and xii'. 35, Rona. xiii. 
11, 12, 13, 2 Cor. vi. 2. 

2. For the knowledge of God and the season of grace. Rom. xiii. 12, " The night is 
far spent, the day is at hand." Here is an opposition between an unconverted state, which 
is compared to night, and a state of conversion to the kingdom of Christ, which he calls 
day, for the reason before given, 1 Thess. v. 5, 8, "Ye are the children of light, and child- 
ren of the day : we are not of the night, nor of darkness. But let us who are of the day, 
be sober." In this text there is an elegant antanaclasis, for the word day, verse 2, 4, is 
to be understood of the day of judgment, and verse 5, of the gift of gospel restoration by 
Christ, to which verse 7, the mention of the natural night opposite to the day is sub- 
joined. 2 Pet. i. 19, "until the day-dawn arise," &e.; here life and eternal glory seem to 
be noted, that in the words of the apostle there may be an opposition between this 
life, .and that which is to come ; this life being compared to an obscure place, which needs a 
candle to light it ; (which candle is the prophetical revelations,) but life to come is 
compared to a clear day, in which Christ our <}>w<r<t>opos (phosporos or) light-bringer, shall 
illuminate the eyes of believers with a most full and bright radiance. And thus the 
great perfection of the prophetical scriptures (as also of the apostolic, which are 
exactly conformable to them, and as it were an explanatory light to them) is proved, 
because most sufficient., (with the help of Divine grace,) for the obtaining of everlasting 
life, &c. 




The parts of the day are the morning, noon, and evening, Psal. Iv. 17, " Evening, 
and morning, and at noon, will I pray," &c. The morning season metaphorically denotes 
diligence, sedulity, and care, because men rise early to go about such business as 
they are careful of, and have much upon their hearts, Job viii. 5, 6, Psal. v. 3, xci. 5, 6, 
and ci. 8, Prov. viii. 17, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 15, Jer. xxxv. 14, Zeph. iii. 5, 7, Isa. xxi. 12, 
" The watchman saidj the morning cometh, and also the night," &c. Some understand 
that the morning- is here put for prosperity, as if he had said to jDumah, or the Iduuieans, 
" The yoke of the Israelites being shaken off of thy neck," (as it is said, Gen. xxvii. 40 ;) 
tkou shalt enjoy liberty, prosperity, and plenty, of good things : but another calamity 
haugs over thee from the Assyrian, by which, as with the darkness of night, thou shalt 
be obscured." Others take the word morning, properly, but not unlike the former 
sense ; the morning indeed comes, (as ye ask, verse 11, " Watchman, what of the night?" 
that is, when shall the day-dawn come? and what will happen then?) but together 
with it, that night comes, which is more dark and terrible. For when the days are 
calamitous, there arises with the sun, as it were, a new light, yet ending in a night 
more full of calamity than the former. Illyricus says, " Although the morning properly 
taken will come, yet the metaphorical morning will not come, but it will be a metaphorical 

The Chaldee takes it metaphorically, but applies it more generally ; thus it paraphrases 
the whole verse. " The prophet said, there is a reward provided for the just, and venge- 
ance for the wicked ; if you will repent, do it, while you may." 

Isa. xlvii. 11, " Therefore shall evil come upon thee ; the morning thereof thou knowest 
not ;" (so the Hebrew,) that is, whose sudden coming, or beginning, thou that shalt not at 
first mind, as in the morning betimes, the sun rises, and darts out its beams upon a 
sudden. Some think that the prophet derides the vanity of the Chaldean astrologers. 
Others thus, the morning or day-break gives an indication of the sun's coming, so 
this evil that was to come upon Babylon, was not without its marks and tokens that 
went before it, which were as illustrious as the dawn that ushers in, or harbingers, the 
day. But not known to Babylon because of its blindness and conceited security, Hos. 
x. 15. " In a morning shall the king of Babylon be utterly cut off," that is, swiftly, and 
suddenly. He speaks of Hosea, the son of Elah, 2 Kings xvii. 1, 5, &c. 

This term, moreover, denotes divine grace to believers, because . of the beauty and 
sweetness of the springing and arriving light. For as the morning brings the begin- 
ning of day-light after the tedious sadness of a dark night, and is no little comfort 
to them, especially if sick, they are weary of darkness, and earnestly long for day; 
so the grace of divine consolation does wonderfully re-create and refresh the hearts of 
such as are troubled and afflicted, &c. Of which take two examples, Psal. ex. 3, 
" From the womb of the morning : thou hast the dew of" Of which place many have said 
many things. It is certainly to be expounded by a metaphor, denoting the grace of 
God given in his word, which is compaied to the morning, Isa. Iviii. 8, Hos. vi. 3. 
A womb is attributed to the morning, because of the mystery of God, in his spiritual 
begetting of his children. The unfolding of this trope is thus, as the dew by a 
wonderful and invisible way is, as it were, born of the womb of the morning, that is, 
it plentifully falls at that time, without any help or assistance of man, Job xxxviii. 2S ; 
80 by the grace and mercy of God, and by the power of his heavenly word, (but 
i 11 a far more abstruse and mystical manner,) the youth of the Messiah, that is, that 
willing people in the day of his power, and in the beauties of holiness, of which 
the Psalmist speaks in the same verse. See Psal. xxii. 30, 31, and Ixxxvii. 4, 5, Isa. 
Eii. 10, and liv. 1, Micah. v. 7, John i. 1.2, 13, and iii. 5, 8, Jam. i. 18, &c. 

The other place is Isa. viii. 20, where the morning is put for the grace of God, and 
that comfort and peace of spirit which flows from it ; the words in Hebrew are, 
" because there is no morning in him." But interpreters do not agree whether this is to be 
understood of men, or the perverse doctrines of such, as consulted them that pretended 
to foretel things to come, by a devilish or familiar spirit. If it be referred to men, 
it bears this sense. " To the law and to the testimony :" if they speak not according to 
this word, they shall have no morning, that is, true light. This is true in itself, but the 
letter of the text is not altogether conformable to it, for it is not in the plural of them, 

r 2 


but in the singular to him (or it). But others expound this text better thus,* " To the 
law and the testimony," that is, recourse must be had thither, for the law and testimony 
must be consulted according to the will of God, otherwise, (that is, if they do not 
speak the truth of divine grace there,) let them speak, an ironical confession joined with 
indignation : " Let them speak," because they will not do otherwise, though seriously and 
frequently admonished, "let them speak, I say, according to this word," viz., "in which 
there is no morning ;" that is, no light of divine grace or comfort ; verse 21 ; " And let 
him pass through it (the earth) hardly bestead and hungry ;". the singular for the plural, 
" and it shall come to pass, that, when they shall be hungry, they shall fret themselves, and 
shall curse their king and their God," &c. 

Now whereas the prophet calls this speech, of that wicked people, (viz., that they were 
to seek counsel of them that had familiar spirits, &c., and not of the law and testimony) 
a word " without a morning," or void of the light of divine grace and consolation, it 
certainly follows, according to the intention of the prophet, that that morning of grace and 
comfort is to be found in that word of the law and testimony alone, with sure and safe 
counsel in tribulations and afflictions, which to distressed minds is like the morning sweet- 
ness, or the pleasure of a lovely clay-spring. Such as neglect or reject this word, walk 
in darkness, and are involved in errors, and perish everlastingly. The other interpreta- 
tion in substance agrees with this. 

Noon is taken for things most evident, Deut. xxviii. 29. The Latins have a proverb, 
meridiana lux, noon-light, which is put for a most clear and evident thing. There is a 
comparison with the noon-time, when there is mention made of the light and splendour of 
felicity, Job xi. 17, " And (thy) time shall arise above the noon-day," (so the Hebrew) that 
is, thy most illustrious glory shall shine all round or about thee. See Psal. xxxvii. 6. 

The Evening is elegantly opposed to the Morning, when the speech is of the vicis- 
situde of calamities and comfort which God observes in believers ; Psal. xxx. 5 ; " "Weep- 
ing may endure for a night," or as the Hebrew, may lodge for an evening, " but joy 
(cometh) in the morning :" that is, the godly are compelled to weep in the darkness of 
the cross and sufferings, but the most joyful morning and light of divine help will 
come again. See John xvi. 20, 22, Psal. cxxvi. 5, 6. So the word vesperascens, draw- 
ing towards an evening, is used for ceasing, Isa. xxiv. 11. The sun-setting in the evening 
leaves the darkness of night to succeed it; so when joy ceases, it leaves calamity and 

To the day, is opposed Night, by the same reason almost as darkness is, which in 
a moonless night and cloudly sky invades us, Job xvii. 12; "They change the night 
into day : the light (they said) is near because of darkness ;" he speaks of his thoughts, 
which verse 11, he called the possessions of his heart, because of his hope and expectation 
of good, as Christ commands us, Luke xxi. 19, "in patience (and hope) to possess our 
souls." Therefore he said that his thoughts or possessions of his heart, were broken off, 
denoting that all hope of good perished ; and then adds, that the same cogitations turned 
night into day, and that light was near, with respect to those dark dispensations (that 
is, he certainly hoped that those calamities, which he compares to an obscure night should 
be turned into prosperity,) which he shows by the word day, and that the light of long 
expected peace is near. This explication agrees with what follows, verse '13, " If I wait, 
the grave is mine house," &c. ; verse 15, "And where is now my hope? As for my hope, 
who shall see it ?" verse 16, ".They shall go down to the bars of the pit, when (our) rest 
together is in the dust." As if he had said, my expected hopes, together with my body, 
shall ere long be carried to the grave, and expire with this life ; Job xxxv. 10, " But he 
said not where is God my Maker ? who giveth songs in the night ;" that is, who in adver- 
sity giveth help and deliverance, for which praise and glory becomes due to him. See 
Micah iii. 6, &e. 

Sometimes the night signifies the reign or dominion of impiety and hell, Rom. xiii. 
12 ; but what we find, 1 Thess. v. 7, " For they that sleep, sleep in the night ; and they that 

* That this is the explication of the Hebrew text, which is word for word as here Englished. 


are drunken are drunken in the night," is understood by some of natural sleep and night ; 
but others interpret it of spiritual sleep, that is, carnal security in wickedness (Bom. 
xiii. 11, Eph. v. 14) and the night of infernal power. Erasmus in his paraphrase ele- 
gantly joins both, and thus unfolds this apostolical text: " The day of the last judgment 
is to be dreaded, by those who are blinded by vice, and lead a life like night. But 
you that are brethren are not to fear it, because it shall not find you unprovided ; for all 
you that follow Christ, do not belong to the kingdom of darkness, but to the kingdom of 
liffht, and God ; especially if in piety and reality ye walk close to the rule of your profes- 
sion, and so live as that it may appear, that ye watch in the light and not snort in dark- 
ness. Therefore if we would not be oppressed, let us not sleep as others do, who have 
not known the light of Christ : but let us be watchful and sober, having always a circum- 
spect mind, that we admit not any thing through incogitancy, which may prove offensive 
to the eyes of God or men. For as such as sleep a natural sleep, do it by night, and such 
as be drunk with wine, are usually so in the night : so they that sleep in sin, are involved 
in darkness of mind, and such as are drunk with carnal desires and delights (so called), 
are entangled in the mists of a dark mind. But it becomes us to whom the light of the 
gospel-day hath shined, to be sober and watchful," &c. 

Metaphors taken from fire . 

So much for heaven and what belongs to it. We shall now treat of the elements, which 
are four, viz., fire, air, water, and earth ; and produce what metaphors are taken from 
them. The metaphors taken from fire shall be considered with respect to its quality and 
eifects, viz., 

1. Its clearness, purity, splendour, and other attributes, and in that respect it is 
translated to angels, Psal. civ. 4, Heb. i. 7. Fire in its efficacy of acting and penetrat- 
ing, in agility and celerity, is eminent before other creatures of God, which quali- 
ties may be fitly applied to those holy ^ministers of God. The fire always moves up- 
wards : so all the actions of angels tend to the glory of God. By a flame of fire, 
charity or love is signified, Eccl. ix. 6. Angels are wholly inflamed with a divine 

From fire angels are called, otniD Seraphim, that is, flaming or fiery, from *p 
Saraph, in Latin, incendit, cremavit, in English, he burnt. Arias Montanus* says, " that 
Seraphim, signifies purity from any spot, filth, or heaviness, for so fire is, and there- 
fore those ministers of God, which Isaiah saw, have a purging and purifying efficacy, 
in their divine ministrations for the profit of men, Isa. vi. 3, 6, 7. In that vision one of 
the Seraphims, exercised his purifying virtue by applying the external symbol of a live 
coal to the prophet's lips. Musculus in his comment says, " That this vision of angels 
standing about the Lord sitting in his throne, was in fire, that they may be called 
burning (Seraphims,) which is very suitable to the thing in agitation. The Lord was 
angry with his wicked and rebellious people. To judge whom he sat in his judicatory 
throne. And therefore as that great session and tribunal is an argument of his wrath, 
so the fiery appearance of his ministering angels betokens his dreadful anger ; for that con- 
flagration which was to consume the wicked, was then and there burning/'' 

2. Fire also denotes the word of the gospel of Christ published among the Gentiles, 
Luke xii. 49. In treating of this we must have respect to the virtue and efficacy of 
fire, as well to its shining and enlightening quality, (wherein it agrees with what we 
said about light, which betokens conversion and the mystery of salvation,) as also its 
kindling quality ; for the word of Christ kindles the love of God, holiness, and hea- 
venly desires in the hearts of men, to which is referred, Jer. xx. 9, Luke xxiv. 32. 
And the appearance of the Holy Spirit in the likeness of fire, Acts ii. 3, Matt. iii. 
11. And lastly, its consuming and destroying quality. For the word of Christ shall 
consume all its adversaries, judge, condemn, and destroy them, John xii. 48. To 
which may be reduced, Jer. v. 14, and xxiii. 29. To this divine fire, there seems to be 
another strange fire opposed (as in the type, Lev. x. 1,) viz., of false doctrine and hu- 
man traditions, Isa. 1. 11 ; " Behold, all ye that kindle a fire, that compass yourselves 
about with sparks ; walk in the light of your fire, and in the sparks that ye have 
kindled," &c. Junius and Tremellius upon the place say, " That Christ in this place con- 

* In lib, Joseph. Sen de arcano sermone, p. 13. 


vinces the proud spirit of the Phariseees, and almost the whole Jewish church, of impiety, 
because in their spiritual darknesss they went about to kindle lights for themselves, 
neglecting the light of God's word, and that gospel illumination which Christ offered 
them, &c. They esteemed that a profitable fire and light, which really brought the fire 
of divine wrath, and eternal damnation, upon them. 

3. Because of its burning quality, fire is attributed to them who bring perdition, hurt, 
loss, or utter destruction ; hence fire is said to be before God the best judge, and avenger 
of his enemies, Psal. 1, 3, and xcvii. 3, Isa. xxvi. 11, xxix. 6, xxx. 33, and Ixvi. 15, 16, 
24, 2 Thes. i. 7, 8. But there is no doubt but in these and other places respect is had to 
hell-fire, of which Illyricus* says, " in the description of hell and eternal punishments, the 
scripture frequently inculcates that there is an eternal and unquenchable fire of brimstone, 
whether there be really any material fire, or that something bitter and direful is meta- 
phorically signified is left to inquiry ; because in this life there is nothing more violent, 
more tormenting, or more terrible, than a raging and prevailing fire. . But it is far better 
to endeavour the avoiding of that hellish fire, than in a spirit of contention to be too cu- 
riously inquisitive into its nature." 

Hither must be referred 5 those places where by the term (fire) we are to understand 
invading enemies and desolating wars, Psal. Ixxviii. 63, Isa. xlii. 25, Jer. xlviii. 45, 
and 1. 32, Ezek. xxi. 32, xxx. 8, (in which place the Chaldee for fire, puts " a people 
strong like fire,") Amos i. 4, 7, 10, 12, 14, and ii. 2, 5. Some think there may be a 
synecdoche, because wars are for the most part managed by fire and flame. 

It is also attributed to other things, by means of which terror, hurt, and death, 
are brought upon any, as Judg. ix. 15, 20, Isa. xxxiii. 11, 12, Obad. verse 18, James 
iii. 5, 6, Jude, verse 23. See Prov. xvi. 27, and compare Jer. li. 58, Joel i. 20, to- 

4. It agrees to this, that fire generally denotes any adversities which are the effects 
of divine wrath, as also calamities and afflictions, as Psal. Ixvi. 12, and-exl. 10, Isa. 
ix. 18, 19, x. 16, xxiv. 6, 15, and xliii. 2, Lam. i. 13, and iv. 11, by which significa- 
tion sometimes, respect is had to the purifying qualities of fire, for God tries and cleanses 
believers by crosses and calamities, as gold is tried in the fire, Zech. xiii. 9, 1 Pet. iv. 
12. See also Psal xvii. 3, and Ixvi. 10, 1 Pet. i. 6, 7 To this also are the two follow- 
ing texts referred, Mark ix. 49, " For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacri- 
fice shall be salted with salt." The particle Ka i, (kai,) and, is frequently put for as, or, 
even as. It is therefore an inverted similitude which is to be resolved in this sense. As 
every sacrifice in the Old Testament was wont to be salted with salt, by the appoint- 
ment of God, Lev. ii. 13, so every man that would avoid sin, or offences, and hell- 
fire, the consequence of it, (as appears by the foregoing verses, which have a co- 
herence with this,) must be salted with a certain wholesome fire, that is, seasoned by 
crosses, and afflictions : or, this fire will have the same efficacy on him, as salt has on 
flesh, viz., to preserve him frani the putrefaction of security in sin. Elegantly there- 
fore is salting attributed to fire, and both are joined, to denote the mystery of the 
cross ; because there is an agreement betwixt those two, both causing pain, and both 
abstracting and consuming that which is corrupt or putrefied ; as also because they were 
joined together in sacrifices. Scaliger in his Notes thinks that this should be read <ra- 
rcvpia ahiffOrjcreTai, that is, " every sacrifice shall be salted," that it may be the same with 
what follows, iraa-a ffva-ia a\i<ren<reTai, "every oblation shall be salted with salt," because 
Lev. ii. 13, there is a repetition of the same. 

The other place is, 1 Cor. iii. 13, 14, 15. Upon which Chemnitius thus expresses him- 
self " There is a fire of probation, or trial, sent by God, either by outward troubles, or 
inward temptations, or by a clearer manifestation of truth by the word ; that they should 
not. remain in the darkness of error and ignorance, who hold the fundamental articles of 
truth, but. that such opinions as are disagreeable to the foundation shall 'be purged away, 
either in life, or at the hour of death." Some by the terms day, and fire, understand, 
truth, shining from the word of God by the Holy Spirit, and enlightening the mind, Mai. 
iii. 3, but others, the day and fire, of the last judgment; 2 Thess. i 6. Of which 
obscure place, we are not concerned here to treat much. But the reader may peruse, 
Tom. S, locorum. Theolog. Dn. D. Gerharni, de morte, sect, 254. seqq. 

To the element of fire belong other things, which bear analogy or relation to it, as well 

nouns as verbs. 

* Clav. Script, p. 404. 




Of nouns ; a flame by a metaphor signifies a bright and shining blade, or plate, of 
that form, as Judg. iii. 22, 1 Sam. xyii. 7, where what we translate spear's-head, is in 
the Hebrew [spear's-flame.j So Job xxxix. 23, " The flame of the spear," we translate it 
" glittering spear." So also ton?" (flame,) is attributed to the sword, which turned every 
way, with which the cherubims, which were the keepers of paradise, were armed, 
Gen. iii. 24, See Isa. xiii. 8, Cant. viii. 6. Love is called the flame of the Lord, that is, 
such as the Lord by the light of Ms Spirit kindles, so as that it shall last perpetually. 
And for its continual energy, because it always tends upwards, and darts its splendour, 
and increases that way. What are the properties of a natural flame of fire, agree also to 
love. Isa. xlvii. 14, A flame signifies most heavy punishments inflicted by God. 

Lanthorn, candle and lamp, (1.) Denote prosperity, and a happy success of things, Job 
xxix. 3, PsaL xvii. 28. Hence the extinction, or putting out of a candle or lamp, signi- 
fies approaching adversities, Job xxi. 17, Prov. xiii. 19, and xx. 20. 

(2.) It more especially denotes the happiness of a kingdom, or government, 2 Sam. xxi. 17, 
"Thou shalt go no more out with us to battle, that thou quench not the candle or lamp of 
Israel." The sense is, lest thou be slain, and the kingdom of Israel, and its tranquility 
perish. So the conservation of David's kingdom in his posterity is called a lamp or candle, 
1 Kings xi. 36, and xv. 4, 2 Kings viii. 19, 2 Chron. xxi. 7, Psal. cxxxii. 17. In which 
last place there is respect had to Christ, the heavenly king, and David's son according to 
the flesh. Some refer to this head, Numb. xxi. 30, " and their lamp perished from Heshbon 
to Dibon," so the Hebrew, that is, their kingdom or sovereignty. 

(3.) This word is elegantly translated to signify the word of God, Psal. cxix. 105, 
Prov. vi. 23, 2 Pet. i. 19, of which we have treated before in the chapter of an anthropo- 
pathy. John the Baptist, that eminent preacher of the word of God, and forerunner of 
Christ, is called a burning and shining candle, John v. 35. For between him, (who was a 
candle lighted by the divine wisdom,) and Christ, the true Light of the World, there is a 
manifest difference put, John i. 8, U. To this notion, that passage which our Saviour in- 
culcates, Luke xii. 35, is very agreeable, viz., " Let your loins be girded about, and your 
candles (so the Greek,) burning ;" by which phrase the serious study of watchfulness and 
holiness is commanded, in pursuance to God's prescriptions. 

Burning coals sometimes denote calamities, and grievous punishments, Psal. cxl. 1 0, 
see Isa. xlvii. 14. Sometimes they signify lightning, Psal. xviii. 8. An holy son is called 
a coal, 2 Sam. xiv. 7 ; because as coals raked up in ashes are, as it were, a seed of fire 
so that one son would be a means to propagate a posterity, and continue a family, so that 
it should not be wholly extinguished. Prov. xxv. 21, and Rom. xii. 20, it is said that 
when we do good to an enemy we heap coals of fire upon his head-; that is, it will aggra- 
vate that guilt which will bring severer vengeance upon him, because of his causeless and 
ungrateful malice to such as do him good. 

A coal is put for the plague or any disease, that is, fiery and inflamed, like burning 
coals, Deut. xxxii. 24, Hab. iii. 5. For arrows which grow hot by motion, ami pierce 
like fire, Psal. Ixxvi. 3. For lightnings which burn like coals, Psal. Ixxviii. 48, and for 
love that is very fervent, Cant. viii. 6. 

A firebrand (or burning wood, taken out of the fire that it should burn 
no longer,) sometimes denotes contempt, because of the privation of fire and light, 
as Isa. vii. 4, "Let not thy heart be tender, or faint, for the two tails of these smoking 
firebrands ;" as if he had said, they are like firebrands, which (when extinguished) 
smoke but cannot burn. Neither are they barely called firebrands, but the tails of 
firebrands, as if he had said, they are like brands that are consumed even to the 
Very ends, or extremes, which have nothing but smoke, the remains of fire, which 
shall speedily cease. So it is with tyrants who oppose Christ, and his Gospel, who seem 
like great fires to us, that in a moment would consume all : but to God and faith, they 
are as the tails of smoking firebrands, who for all their threatening will in a mise- 
rable manner at length be destroyed. Yet Jerome in his comment upon this place 
gives another reason why the term tail, which is the extreraest member or part of a 


beast, is attributed to these two kings ; viz., that in them should be ended the kingdom 
of Syria, that is, Damascus, and the kingdom of Samaria, that is, of the ten tribes, which 
by another name were called Ephrann, according to what is related, 2 Kings xv. 29, xvi. 
7, 8, 9, xvii. 5, and the following verses. 

Sometimes it denotes divine deliverance from evil, as it were from fire, Zech. iii. 2, " Is 
not this a brand plucked out of the fire ?" he speaks of Joshua the high priest, who by the 
favour and grace of God, was delivered from the Babylonian captivity, came to Jerusalem, 
restored the temple, and exercised the priesthood. See Amos iv. 11, Jude verse 23, Job 
xii. 5, Isa. xlii. 3. 

Smoke, the excrement of fire, and a sign of itj is metaphorically put for punishments 
inflicted by God, and calamities, Isa. xiv. 31, " There shall come from the north a smoke;" 
the Chaldee renders it vengeance, revenge ; some understand this speech of Jzziah with 
his host, who subdued the Philistines, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6, 7. But Jerome in his comment 
upon the place, by smoke understands the king of Assyria, who, amongst other nations 
destroyed the Philistines, and he quotes, Jer. xlvii. 2. 

Smoke is used to signify any enemy, because it is very swift in invading, very pene- 
trating and searching, and can by none be resisted, and being a certain token of fire : 
so the fire of God's wrath once kindled, smokes after the same manner. See Psal. xxxvii. 
20, Isa. Ixv. 5, and xxxiv. 10, Rev. xiv. 11, Acts ii. 19, in which places smoke is a sym- 
bol of wrath and divine punishments, &c. 

Some verbs belong to this head, as to be hot, which is an effect of anger, which, as fire 
inflames the heart, Deut. xix. 6, Psal. xxxix. 3, and Ivii. 4. The anger of a godly man, 
proceeding from a holy zeal against sin, is said to burn, 2 Cor xi. 29. The like is said of 
lustful and depraved affections, 1 Cor. vii. 9. So Virgil says, Est mollis fiamma medullas, 
that is, a soft flame eats my marrow, and elsewhere et cteco carpitur igni, &c. The 
Syriac renders it, to burn with lust. 

Thus the Jews are said to inflame themselves with idolatry, which is spiritual whore- 
dom, Isa. Ivii. 5 ; whereby they are sharply rep/ roved for their vehement pursuit of idolatry, 
which was like burning lust, whereby the whore is inflamed with desires after the adul- 
terer, whence verse 3, they are called the seed of the adulterer and whore. . 

To this may be referred what is spoken of heretics forbidding the use of marriage viz., 
KeKavrripiacr/j.evwv vt]v iSiav ffweiSijcrw, " having their consciences seared with a hot iron," 1 
Tim. iv. 2, which imports two. things, 

(1.) The hurting and wounding of conscience, as if he had said, they teach and 
compel others to observe such things, which they ^themselves very well know, to be not 
only impossible but wicked, and therefore their own consciences reproach and check them, 
for the falsehood of what they deliver and impose, and hence in the same verse, they are 
said to " speak lies in hypocrisy." 

(2.) The cause of that hurt, viz., the heats or burning of various lusts, or both, 
as I said, are comprehended in that word, for it is delivered of Kwr^p, ( cauter ) that is, an 
instrument, whereby stigmatized persons are burnt ; which hurts and pains both flesh 
and skin ; and the manner of it is by fire and burning. Besides the apostle seems 
to have respect to spiritual infamy, which cannot but, in a matter of so great moment, 
wound the conscience ; as wicked men. that were stigmatized, carried a brand of infamy 
about them. Eph. vi. 16, " fiery darts" are attributed to the devil, by which inward 
temptation, and outward persecution, scandals and sins stirred up by the devil, are 

There is an emphasis in that word of Paul's translated from fire, 2 Tim. i. 6, " Where- 
fore I put thee in remembrance that thou * stir up the gift of God which is in thee," &c. 
The Greek word properly signifies to stir up fire, lest it go out, that it may flame. 
Beza upon the place says, " The gift of God is a certain live flame kindled in our hearts, 
which the flesh and Satan endeavour to suffocate or smother, but on the other side we are 
so much the more concerned to cherish it, and stir it up when it is as it were asleep. 
Where this divine little flame is not stirred up, love and charity waxes cold, Matt. xxiv. 
12; and then the fountain of love, which is saving faith, and eternal salvation, is lost, 
&c. Thus Paul exhorts not to " quench the Spirit," 1 Thess. v. 19. The saving light of 
the knowledge of God kindled by the Holy Spirit, is extinguished by neglects of the 
word of God, and devout, prayer ; by security, impiety, and ingratitude ; hence an 

* avafeirvpew, suscilare iynem instar sopiti, &c. 




exhortation to follow that which was good, verse 15, and to pray without ceasing, verse 
17, was premised; and despising prophesyings, that is, the interpretation of the word of 
God is immediately prohibited, verse "20. 

The word *p 2 Zaraph, which properly signifies to melt metals, in order to purify them 
from dross ; but is translated by an elegant metaphor to signify the purification and trial 
of the godly, which is done by crosses and sufferings. "Whence the similitude of melted, 
or burnt metal, is sometimes expressly added, Psal. Ixvi. 10, and cv. 19, Isa. i. 25, Jer. 
ix. 7, Dan. xi. #5, Zech. xiii. 9. Hence the furnace, where metals are melted and puri- 
fied, is put for afflictions sent by God, Deut. iv. 20, 1 Kings viii. 51, Jer. xi. 4 ; in which 
place the epithet of iron is added, to denote the tribulation, severity, or cruelty nature of 

A passage more notable than the rest we read, Isa. xlviii. 10, " Behold, I have refined 
thee, but not with silver ; I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction ;" Jehovah inti- 
mates that he purges his people moderately and gently, not as silver or gold are 
purged, because such are wont to be most exactly and wholly melted in order to their 
purifying, as if he had said, I do so temper and qualify corrections, that I suit them 
rather to their weakness, _ than proportion them to your wickedness, I do not deal with 
you with the utmost severity, for if you should be purged as silver and gold from all dross, 
you should totally perish. See 1 Cor. x. la. 

In general it is put for the inward proof or trial of the heart, which God alone 
can do, Psal. xxvi. 2, and xvii. 3 ; see Prov. xvii. 3. It is put for outward choice of 
some from others, which is done by an outward trial, Judg. vii. i. The word of God 
is said to be refined, or as it were tried in the fire, 2 Sam. xxii. 31, Psal. .xviii. 30, 
Prov. xxx. 5, Psalm cxix. 140 ; that, is most pure, most true, and most certain. Which 
is emphatically declared, Psalm xii. 6, " The words of the Lord are pure words ; as silver 
tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times ;" which passage without doubt 
respects the quick and lively experience of the saints, in whose hearts the truth of God's 
word is experimentally felt and approved to be of undoubted efficacy, by the fire 
of tribulation. Whence some, by furnace of earth, understand godly men, in 
whom the words of God are tried. The furnace burns in the fire ; the godly are 
seasoned by the fire of afflictions. By the same metaphor the office of Christ is described, 
Mal.iii. 2, 3. 

Metaphors taken from Air. 

The Hebrew word Ruach, a spirit, signifies air or wind. And whereas the motion 
of the air is uncertain, inconsistant, and vanishing, and that there is nothing solid or 
substantial in the wind, therefore they are metaphorically put to signify things that 
are vain and vanishing, Job vi. 26, " Do ye imagine to reprove my words, and turn 
the speeches of one that is desperate into wind ?" that is, do ye- think that I utter vain 
words and despise them as things of no weight or sense ? Job xv. 2, " Should a 
wise man utter knowledge of wind ?" that is, vain as the wind which has nothing but 
an empty sound resolving into wind ; he adds, " or fill his belly with the 'east- wind T' that 
is, admit vain and fluctuating thoughts in his mind inwardly. Eccl. v. 16. " What profit 
hath he that hath laboured for the wind ?" that is, who hath heaped together much 
riches, with great labour which is in vain, when he can have no benefit or profit by 
them. Jer. v. 13, " The prophets shall become wind, " that is as the Chaldee renders it, 
vain, and of no worth.' Jei. xxii. 22, " The wind shall eat up all thy pastors," that is, 
they shall vanish and perish. So on the other side, it is said, Hosea xii. 1, " Ephraim 
feedeth on wind and followeth after the east-wind ;" the meauing is, that the people of 
Israel shall feed upon a thing of nothing, viz., they shall commit idolatry, with^ great 
earnestness, which has no soui-feeding virtue in it ; (but the contrary,) for it proves as 
pernicious as it is to follow the east-wind ; wihich is immediately expounded of their 
making covenants with the Assyrians, a wicked and idolatrous people. 

Micah ii. 11, " A man walking in the wind and falsehood," is put for a vain and lying 

'oerson. See Isa. xii. 29, and Ivii. j 3, Hos. viii. 7. To this beLng the words of tha 

. apostle, 1 Cor. xiv. 9," For ye shall speak into the air," that is, in vain and to no purpose. 


He speaks of that prophesied in the church in an unknown tongue, and therefore 
could not be understood by the hearers, 1 Cor. ix. 26, " To beat the air," signifies when 
one undertakes a vain and unprofitable work. The metaphor is . taken from men that 
fight, who when they miss their stroke, spend their strength vainly against the wind or 
air. Eph. iv. 14," That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and car- 
ried about with every wind of doctrine ; " by this tossing to and fro in the wind instability 
and inconstancy of mind is denoted ; a metaphor taken from a ship, which is tossed and driven 
here and there by the violence of the winds and waves, as Heb. xiii. 9, " Be not carried 
about with divers and strange doctrines ; for it is a good thing that the heart be established 
with grace." 

More because vehement winds are hurtful, therefore enemies which annoy and commit 
devastations on the earth are called by this appellation, especially the east-wind, which 
blasts corn, and suffers it not to ripen, and if ripe scatters and blows it down, Psal. 
Iv. 8, Isa. xli. 16, "Jer. iv. 11, and li. 1,. Hosea xiii. 15, Job xxvii 21; see also 
Isa. xxvii. 8, Jonah iv. 8, Jer. xviii. 17, &c. Job says of God when he punished him, 
Job xxx. 22, " Thou liftest me up to the wind ; thou causest me to ride upon it, and dis- 
solveth my substance," that as a whirlwind scatters chaff or stubble; thou dost vigorously 
toss and consume me. 

To this class we shall reduce meteors, which are imperfect mixtures condensed 
in the air. The Hebrew TN {Mid) and the Greek arfus, (Atmis,) signifies a vapour or 
exhalation, but metaphorically denotes calamities and destruction ; because such things 
as vaporate, may be said to perish or be reduced to nothing : or as others say, because 
vapours cause darkness, and obscure the splendour and shining of the sun : or lastly, because 
vapours beget a certain sweet dew (conimonly called mill-dew) which is very hurtful to 
corn and plants. So T (dEid,} a vapour is put for vengeance or destruction, Deut. xxxii. 
35, Job xviii. 12, xxi. 30, xxx. 12, and xxxi. 3, 23, Psal. xviii. 18. Prov. i. 26, and 
vi. 15, Jer. xviii. 17, xlvi. 21, and xlix. 8, 32, Acts ii. 19, &c. So it is put for a 
thing that is frail and vanishing, Jam. iv. 14," What is your life ? It is even a vapour, 
that appeareth for a little time, then vanisheth away?" See Psal. cxliv. 4. A vapour 
and smoke ascending into the air, at length vanishes and perishes ; hence rto ( GnolahJ, 
to ascend, sometimes signifies the same with perishing and death, Psal. cii. 24, Jer. xlviii. 
15, &c. 

Clouds, because of their diverse attributes, have also different metaphorical nota- 
tions, as, 

1 . Calamities and rum, because men are deprived of the light and splendour of the 
sun and firmament by them, and cloudy days make men dull and melancholy, Lam. 
ii. 1, " How hath the Lord covered the daughter of Sion with a cloud, in his anger ? 
Some think that by a tacit antithesis, allusion is made to the cloud of glory which first 
appeared in Jerusalem at the dedication of the temple, 1 Kings viii. 1 0, to which this 
cloud and fog of present calamity is plainly contrary. Hence a day of clouds, or a 
cloudy day, is put for times of calamity, Ezek. xxx 3, and xxxiv. 12, Joel ii. 2, 
Zeph. i. 15 ; by which metaphor the poet said, Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris ; that 
is, if times be cloudy, thou shalt be alone ; because seeming friends will then forsake the 

2. Because of the number and multitude of the clouds, for in tempestuous weather a 
great plenty of thick clouds appear, Heb. xii. 1, " Wherefore seeing we also are compassed 
about with so great a cloud of witnesses," &c. ; that is, so numerous a company of wit- 
nesses, which are like a thick cloud. He speaks of those holy men of God mentioned 
particularly, chap, xi., who by their own example are testimonies that we are justified, 
and please God by faith. Clouds are likewise used in comparison, Jer. iv. 13, " Behold, 
he shall come as clouds ;" that is his army will make a vast appearance. The Targum 
says, as a cloud which conies aiid covers the earth. See Ezek. xxxviii. 9. In the 
same sense the Chalclee interprets that passage, Ezek. xxx. 18, "A cloud shall cover her," 
(viz. Egypt) thus it renders it A King with his hosts shall cover her, as a cloud which 
conies up and covers the earth. This may be also referred to the first signification. 
For by clouds and darkness calamity is denoted, whence it is said before " at Tehaphnehes 
also the day shall be restrained," that is, its light. 




3. Because of their vanity and inconstancy, as some clouds seem to promise rain, but 
being chased away by the wind, give none, 2 Pet. ii. 17. These are " Clouds that are 
carried away with a tempest." He speaks of false teachers, who fluctuate or are uncertain 
in their preachings and confessions, not affording the rain of saving doctrine and consola- 
tion, Jude verse 12, such are called clouds without water. The apostle therefore has re- 
spect to those clouds which seem to us to be rainy, but are condensed exhalations without 
water, as chap. iv. sect. 4, before : for false teachers seem to be orthodox to many, &c. 
The other appellations in each text do confirm this exposition. 

4. Their celerity or swiftness, because we see the clouds to be carried under heaven 
with very quick speed, as if they did fly, being hurried on by the impetuosity of the wind, 
Isa. xix. 1, " Behold the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt," that 
is, he will speedily and unexpectedly punish the Egyptians as if he did fly upon the clouds, 
see Isa. Ix. 8, Psal. civ. 3, Nahum i. 3. Some think that the prophet used this phrase 
because the Egyptians looked upon clouds of this kind to be ominous, whereas Egypt was 
not wont to be troubled with clouds. 

A tempest (which properly signifies a sudden and very strong wind or whirlwind, some.- 
times accompanied with thunders, rain, and hail,) when attributed to God, signifies that 
his dreadful wrath and tremendous punishments shall be poured out upon sinners: but if 
attributed to men, it metaphorically denotes disturbance, and violent invasions. There 
are * two principal words in the Hebrew, which are sometimes joined together, as ID, a 
whirlwind, or tempest, which denotes the wrath of God and punishment, Job ix. 17, Psal. 
Ixxxiii. 15, Isa. xU. 16, Jer. xxiii. 19, and xxx. 23, Ezek. xiii. 11, Amos i. 14, f Job 
xxvii. 21, Psal. 1. 3, and Iviii. 9, ZecL vii. 10. 

The church is said " to be tossed with tempest," (or overwhelmed with whirlwind) Isa. 
liv. 11, that is, it was afflicted and destitute of comfort. The other word TOID, is of the 
same signification, E Psal. Ixxxiii. 15, Isa. xxix. 6, Hosea viii. 7, Nah. i. 3, Amos i. 14, &c. 
And storms, (or an horrible, or burning tempest) Psal. xi. 6. Whence come terrors or 
storms of famine, Lam. v. 10 ; that is, a most vehement famine by which men are cruelly 
agitated and consumed, as if it were by a whirlwind or tempest. But if the word be 
attributed to men, it denotes confusion of mind, as the air is disturbed and troubled with 
whirlwinds and storms, 2 Kings vi. 11, and an hostile attack or ruinous invasion, Dan. xi. 
40, see Psal. Iv. 3, 8. 

Thunder, (to which lightning is joined) because they terrify, penetrate, and sometimes 
destroy the creatures, is only attributed to God, and by a metaphor signifies, 

1. His majesty and glory, Psal. Ixxxi. 7, " I answered thee in the secret place of 
thunder." The Chaldee, "in a hidden place, in the house of my majesty, where the spheres 
of fire resound before me." Illyricus : " The sense is, in my hidden seat, or hiding place, 
in a thick cloud, I heard thee in the Red sea, terrifying the Egyptians with thunder and 
lightning." See Exod. xix. 16, 18, Psal. Ixxvii. 18, 19. 

2. His wrath and punishment, 1 Sam. ii. 10, " The adversaries of the Lord shall be 
broken to pieces : out of heaven shall he thunder upon them ;" that is, in his anger he 
will grievously punish and destroy them. See Isa. xxix. 6, Psal. xviii, 8, and the follow- 
ing verses, Rev. xvi. 18, 21. 

3. His word, because in old times, Jehovah for the most part made known his 
will by thunder, as in the promulgation of the law, Exod. xix. 16 ; his manifestation to 
Job, chap, xxxvii. 2, and xxxviii. 1. And his voice to Christ, John xii. 28, 29. Thun- 
der itself is often called a voice, Exod. ix. 23, Jer. x. 13, Rev. iv. 5, vi. 1, and x. 3, 
&c. Sometimes the voice of the Lord, Psal. xxix. 3, &c. Thus the word of God is 
styled, wrjh respect to his inward or efficacious decree of creating things, Psal. civ. 
7, compared with verses 5, t>, Gen. i. 9 ; as also with respect to the Gospel of Christ, 
Psal. Ixviii. 34, (by the term voice, respect is had to the voice of thunder, Psal. xxix.) 
pursue^verse 12, 19, Eph. iv. 10, 11. To this belong the surnames which Christ gave 
John and James, p'oavep-yeis, sons of iJmnder, because they were principal and powerful 
preachers of his word. 


f El verbum "ffD frocellosum esse. 

Q, 2 


Lightning, P~n by a metaphor signifies the bright or furbished blade of a lance or sword, 
which shines and terrifies like lightning, Ezek. xxi. 13, Nahum iii. 3, to denote the anger 
of God, a glittering sword is attributed to him by an anthropopathy, Deut. xxxii. 41 ; so is 
a glittering spear, Hab. iii. 11. So it is said, Job xx. 25, the lightning cometh, (so the 
Hebrew,) that is, as our translation gives it, "a glittering sword," or, as Pagninus renders 
it, " iron, or a sword like lightning." 

Hail likewise, (as thunder and storms do,) carries the notion of anger, vengeance, 
and most heavy punishments ; and hence in that description of God in his great majesty 
and manifestation of his power and wrath, Psal. xviii. 1^, 13, 14, hail is joined with 
lightnings and thunder; Isa. xxviii. 1~, "And the hail shall sweep away the refuge of 
lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding-place ;" that is, the vengeance to come, shall 
overthrow the refuge in which you vainly hope.- just as if a storm of hail and overflowing 
of waters, should overthrow, and overwhelm the tents you inhabit in the fields. Isa. 
xxxii. 19, "And it shall hail in the descent (or steep part) of the wood, and the city 
shall be utterly abased." This has a coherence with the foregoing description, of the 
celestial happiness of the godly by an antithesis : as if he had said, although the whole 
world (which the prophet expresses syneedochically by a wood and city, that is, unmanured 
and habitable places) should be terrified for their wickedness, or should threaten, yet the 
godly shall be preserved safely from all the impending or menacing mischiefs. See Psal. 
xlvi. 2, 3, and the following verses. 

Bain, because it brings great profit to the earth, and yet if it be immoderate or un- 
seasonable, becomes hurtful, is therefore metaphorically used in a two-fold manner, viz., 
in a good and bad sense. Examples of the former are to be seen; Ezek. xxii. 24, " Thou 
art the land which is not cleansed, nor rained upon in the day of indignation," that is, 
thou shalt not feel any ease or relaxation of the pains or punishments which shall be 
inflicted on. thee from on high. Ezek. xxxiv. 26 ; the spiritual blessing in the kingdom 
of Christ is set down in the similitude of a shower (or rain) in season, as the fruit- 
fulness of the earth is, verse '27. Hosea x. 12, " It is time to seek the Lord, till he come 
and rain righteousness upon you :" or, as the Hebrew is, [wet you with the rain of right- 
eousness,] viz., of Christ, the liedeemer and Saviour, the sense and application of whom 
in the hearts of men, refreshes, rejoices, and makes them fruitful in good works, as 
rain refreshes the earth and renders it fruitful. The word is emphatical, and signifies 
both raining and teaching, (and therefore some translate it, that he may teach you 
righteousness,) to intimate that true saving righteousness cannot be obtained but through 
the word of God, which is a shower of ram in season to refresh contrite sinners ; and 
hence it is compared to rain because of the rain's usefulness, Isa. Iv. 10, 11, but that 
it signifies rain in the place cited, the foregoing allegory of raining derived from fertilizing 
the earth is very clear. See Hos. vi. 3, Zech. xiv. 7. 

2. Examples of the latter are to he read, Job xx. 23, " When he is about to fill his 
belly, God shall cast the fury of his wrath upon him, and shall rain it upon him while 
he is eating." By. this and the following metaphoi|s the plenty of punishments inflicted 
on the wicked, as the effects of God's anger, are denoted, Psal. xi. 6, " Upon the wicked 
he shall rain snares, fire, and brimstone," that is, he shall copiously exercise dreadful 
judgments upon them. See Eccl. xii. 2, Psal. xlii. 7, " Deep calleth unto deep at the 
noise of thy water-spouts." By the conduits or water-conveyances, for so the word signifies, 
are understood clouds which pour down much rain ; the meaning is, that one trouble brings 
on another ; and whilst the former is scarce over, another stands at the door, as if invited 
or called by the first. And as the clouds ses.d down great showers upon the earth, with 
much fierceness and noise, causing hurtful floods and sometimes dangerous deluges : so one 
calamity ushers another npon me, so that I am afflicted and terrified with great perils. 

Snow is put for glory, prosperity, and pleasantness, of Canaan when delivered from 
eneuiies, Psal. Ixviii. 14, and li. 7. For cleansing from sin, Isa. i. 18. And the eternal 
felicity of believers. 

Dew which falls from the air, moistening and fertilizing the earth, in two places^denotes 
the state of believers. 




(1.) In this world, as, Psal. ex. 3, " The dew of Christ's youth" is mentioned, that is, 
the church of believers adopted by the Spirit of Christ, which like dew is born again by 
the word and gospel ministrations, and may be fitly compared to dew, because a faithful 
concession and pious conversation are edifying to others, and win them for Christ, render- 
ing the church fruitful as the dew does the earth ; as also with respect to the mutual com- 
miseration, love, and benefits, with which Christians comfort each other, as dew sweetly 
refreshes, and as it were cheers the earth when scorched and dried up by the sun's intem- 
perate heat. See Micah v. 7, Hos. xiv. 5, Psal. cxxxiii. 3. 

(2.) In the world to come, and resurrection from the dead, Isa. xxvi. 19, " Thy dew is 
as the dew of herbs." This is an acclamation to God, whose gracious -power and most 
powerful grace which he exercises in the resurrection of believers is called dew, and com- 
pared to the dew that falls upon herbs : as if he had said, as the dew of heaven refreshes 
and raises up those herbs which were as it were ' dead and withered because of the 
sun's heat : so thy power, God, shall raise up and make thy dead to live, &c. For the 
connexion of the whole verse, and propriety of the words, show that the resurrection of the 
dead is here treated of. The Chaldee interprets it, the " dew of light," which gives 
the light of eternal blessedness. The paraphrase upon the whole verse is thus " Thou 
art he which quickens the dead, thou raisest the bones of their carcasses ; they shall live 
and praise thee before all, who were before converted into dust ; because the dew of light 
is thy dew to such as observe thy law ; but the wicked to whom thou gavest power, and 
yet transgressed thy law, thou wilt cast into hell." 

Metaphors taken from Water. 
These metaphor may be thus distinguished, 

(1.) Such things as concern the name or appellation of waters. 
(2r) The subjects or things containing water. 
(3.) Its adjuncts or qualities. 
(4.) Its operations or actions. 

1, As to what concerns the first, in waters two things are especially remarkable, 

First, their plenty, multitude, and depth, in which respect they are oftentimes preju- 
dicial and hurtful. 

Secondly, their profit and usefulness. So that the metaphors deduced from water 
signifies sometimes good, and sometimes hurt or evil. 

In the latter sense, (1.) It signifies a strong and numerous people, especially such as 
invade a country in . an hostile manner, ravaging and spoiling it : Isa. viii. 7, " Behold, 
the Lord brinyeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many." The Chaldee 
" An host of many people like a rapid and strong river" The interpretation follows, "even 
the king of Assyria and all his power : the allegory is continued, " and he shall come 
up over all his channels, and go over all his banks;" verse 8, " And he shall pass through 
all Judah ; he shall overflow and go over ; he shall reach even to the neck," that is, the 
king of Assyria, with his numerous armies, like swelling and strong waters, shall over-run 
and destroy all ; first the land of Israel, and afterwards the land of Judah, in which 
those waters are said to overflow into the neck ; that is, even to Jerusalem, wherein 
was the head of the kingdom, by a prosopopeia, whereby a kingdom is compared to 
a human body, &c. Jer. xlvii. 2, " Thus saith the Lord, Behold, waters shall arise up out 
f the north, and shall be an overflowing flood, and shall overflow the land, and th* ful- 
ness thereof." Chaldee : " Behold a people shall come from the north, and shall be as a 
strong flood, and shall prey upon the earth." The hosts of the Babylonians are meant, 
See Isa. xvii. 12, 13, Ezek. xxvi. 3, 19, where an hostile people are expressly com- 
pared with water. Also, Kev. xvii. 1, 15, the vision of a multitude of waters signifies 
many people. 

(2.) It denotes any great calamities and tribulations, 2 Sam. xxii. 17, Psal. xxvii. 
16, xxxii. t>, Ixvi. 12, cxxiv. 4, 5, and cxliv. 7, Isa. xxviii. 17, and xliii. 2, Lam. 
iii. 54. 

We are also^ to note, that the most bitter and exquisite passions of our Saviour are me- 
taphorically compared to deep and overflowing waters, Psal. Ixix. 2, 3, 14, 15. See 


Lightning, P~n by a -metaphor signifies the bright or furbished blade of a lance or sword, 
which shines and terrifies like lightning, Ezek. xxi. 13, Nahuin iii. 3, to denote the anger 
of God, a glittering sword is attributed to him by an anthropopathy, Deut. xxxii. 41 ; so is 
a glittering spear, Hab. iii. 11. So it is said, Job xx. 25, the lightning cometh, (so the 
Hebrew,) that is, as our translation gives it, " a glittering sword," or, as Pagninus renders 
it, "iron, or a sword like lightning/' 


Hail likewise, (as thunder and storms do,) carries the notion of anger, vengeance, 
and most heavy punishments ; and hence in that description of God in his great majesty 
and manifestation of his power and wrath, Psal. xviii. 12, 13, 14, hail is joined with 
lightnings and thunder ; Isa. xxviii. 1~, " And the hail shall sweep away the refuge of 
lies, and the waters shall overflow the hiding-place ;" that is, the vengeance to come, shall 
overthrow the refuge in which you vainly hope, just as if a storm of hail and overflowing 
of waters, should overthrow, and overwhelm the tents you inhabit in the fields. Isa. 
xxxii. 19, "And it shall hail in the descent (or steep part) of the wood, and the city 
shall be utterly ahased." This has a coherence with the foregoing description of 'the 
celestial happiness of the godly hy an antithesis : as if he had said, although the whole 
world (which the prophet expresses synecdochically by a wood and city, that is, unmanured 
and habitable places) should be terrified for their wickedness, or should threaten, yet the 
godly shall be preserved safely from all the impending or menacing mischiefs. See Psal. 
xlvi. 2, 3, and the following verses. 

Rain, because it brings great profit to the earth, and yet if it be immoderate or un- 
seasonable, becomes hurtful, is therefore metaphorically used in a two-fold manner, viz., 
in a good and bad sense. Examples of the former are to be seen; Ezek. xxii. 24, " Thou 
art the land which is not cleansed, nor rained upon in the day of indignation," that is, 
thou shalt not feel any ease or relaxation of the pains or punishments which shall be 
inflicted on thee from on high. Ezek. xxxiv. 26 ; the spiritual blessing in the kingdom 
of Clirist is set down in the similitude of a shower (or rain) in season, as the fruit- 
fulness of the earth is, verse '27. Hosea x. 12, "It is time to seek the Lord, till he come 
and rain righteousness upon you :" or, as the Hebrew is, [wet you with the rain of right- 
eousness,] viz., of Christ, the liedeemer and Saviour, the sense and application of whom 
in the hearts of men, refreshes, rejoices, and makes them fruitful in good works, as 
rain refreshes the earth and renders it fruitful. The word is emphatical, and signifies 
both raining and teaching, (and therefore some translate it, that he may teach you 
righteousness,) to intimate that true saving righteousness cannot be obtained but through 
the word of God, which is a shower of ram in season to refresh contrite sinners ; and 
hence it is compared to rain because of the rain's usefulness, Isa. Iv. 10, 11, but that 
it signifies rain in the place cited, the foregoing allegory of raining derived from fertilizing 
the earth is very clear. See Hos. vi. 3, Zech. xiv. 7. 

2. Examples of the latter are to be read, Job xx. 23, " When he is about to fill his 
belly, God shall cast the fury of his wrath upon him, and shall rain it upon him while 
he is eating." By this and the following metaphoifs the plenty, of punishments inflicted 
on the wicked, as the effects of God's anger, are denoted, Psal. xi. 6, "Upon the wicked 
he shall rain snares, fire, and brimstone," that is, he shall copiously exercise dreadful 
judgments upon them. See Eccl. xii. 2, Psal. xlii. 7, " Deep calleth unto deep at the 
noise of thy water-spouts." By the conduits or water-conveyances, for so the word signifies, 
are understood clouds which pour down much rain ; the meaning is, that one trouble brings 
on another ; and whilst the former is scarce over, another stands at the door, as if invited 
or called by the first. And as the clouds ses.d down great showers upon the earth, with 
much fierceness and noise, causing hurtful floods and sometimes dangerous deluges : so one 
calamity ushers another npon me, so that I am afflicted and terrified with great perils. 

Snow is put for glory, prosperity, and pleasantness, of Canaan when delivered from 
enemies, Psal. Ixviii. 14, and li. 7. For cleansing from sin, Isa. i. 18. And the eternal 
felicity of believers. 

Dew which falls from the air, moistening and fertilizing the earth, in two places a denotes 
the state of believers. 




(1.) In this world, as, Psal. ex. 3, " The dew of Christ's youth" is mentioned, that is, 
the church of believers adopted by the Spirit of Christ, which like dew is born again by 
the word and gospel ministrations, and may be fitly compared to dew, because a faithful 
concession and pious conversation are edifying to others, and win them for Christ, render- 
ing the church fruitful as the dew does the earth ; as also with respect to the mutual com- 
miseration, love, and benefits, with which Christians comfort each other, as dew sweetly 
refreshes, and as it were cheers the earth when scorched and dried up by the sun's intem- 
perate heat. See Mieah v. 7, Hos. xiv. 5, Psal. cxxxiii. 3. 

(2.) In the world to come, and resurrection from the dead, Isa. xxvi. 19, " Thy dew is 
as the dew of herbs." This is an acclamation to God, whose gracious- power and most 
powerful grace which he exercises in the resurrection of believers is called dew, and com- 
pared to the dew that falls upon herbs : as if he had said, as the dew of heaven refreshes 
and raises up those herbs which were as it were ' dead and withered because of the 
sun's heat : so thy power, God, shall raise up and make thy dead to live, &c. For the 
connexion of the whole verse, and propriety of the words, show that the resurrection of the 
dead is here treated of. The Ghaldee interprets it, the " dew of light," which gives 
the light of eternal blessedness. The paraphrase upon the whole verse is thus " Thou 
art he which quickens the dead, thou raisest the bones of their carcasses ; they shall live 
and praise thee before all, who were before converted into dust ; because the dew of light 
is thy dew to such as observe thy law ; but the wicked to whom thou gavest power, and 
yet transgressed thy law, thou wilt cast into hell." 

Metaphors taken from Water. 
These metaphors may be thus distinguished, 

(1.) Such things as concern the name or appellation of waters. 

(2>) The subjects or things containing water. 

(3.) Its adjuncts or qualities. 

(4.) Its operations or actions. 

1. As to what concerns the first, in waters two things are especially remarkable, 

First, their plenty, multitude, and depth, in which respect they are oftentimes preju- 
dicial and hurtful. 

Secondly, their profit and usefulness. So that the metaphors deduced from water 
signifies sometimes good, and sometimes hurt or evil. 

In the latter sense, (1.) It signifies a strong and numerous people, especially such as 
invade a country in ( an hostile manner, ravaging and spoiling it : Isa. viii. 7, "Behold, 
the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many." The Chaldee 
" An host of many people like a rapid and strong river" The interpretation follows, "even 
the king of Assyria and all his power : the allegory is continued, " and he shall come 
up over all his channels, and go over all his banks;" verse 8, " And he shall pass through 
all Judah ; he shall overflow and go over ; he shall reach even to the neck," that is, the 
king of Assyria, with his numerous armies, like swelling and strong waters, shall over-run 
and destroy all; first the land of Israel, and afterwards the land of Judah, in winch 
those waters are said to overflow into the neck ; that is, even to Jerusalem, wherein 
was the head of the kingdom, by a prosopopeia, whereby a kingdom is compared to 
a human body, &c. Jer. xlvii. 2, " Thus saith the Lord, Behold, waters shall arise up out 
of the north, and shall be an overflowing flood, and shall overflow the land, and th* ful- 
ness thereof." Chaldee : " Behold a people shall come from the north, and shall be as a 
strong flood, and shall prey upon the earth." The hosts of the Babylonians are meant, 
See Isa. xvii. 12, 13, Ezek. xxvi. 3, 19, where an hostile people are expressly com- 
pared with water. Also, Rev. xvii. 1, 15, the vision of a multitude of waters signifies 
many people. 

(2.) It denotes any great calamities and tribulations, 2 Sam. xxii. 17, Psal. xxvii. 
16, xxxii. (j, Ixvi. 12, cxxiv. 4, 5, and cxliv. 7, Isa. xxviii. 17, and xliii. 2, Lam. 
iu. 54. 

We are also* to note, that the most bitter and exquisite passions of our Saviour are me- 
taphorically compared to deep and overflowing waters, Psal. Ixix. 2, 3, 14, 15. See 


Psal. xl. 2, see also Psal. Ixxiii. 10. Some by the " waters of a full cup" would have 
the same thing understood ; but the usual exposition is, that it rather gives a description 
of the wicked, who enjoy prosperity and plenty. And this leads us to the acceptation of 
water wherein it signifies good, in which, as in the foregoing particular, we must con- 
sider it. 

(1.) As it refers to men. 

(2.) To things themselves, 

(1.) Water metaphorically signifies posterity, which is propagated from its own stock 
or head, as water flows from a fountain. Numb. xxiv. 7, " He shall pour the water out 
of his buckets ;" that is, God shall so bless the people of Israel (represented by Jacob) as 
that they shall have a numerous offspring, and increase into a great posterity. Another 
metaphor taken from water follows,. " And his seed shall be in many waters ;" which 
the Chaldee expounds of peoples: according to the above signification ; thus he paraphrases, 
" a King shall spring up who shall be magnified by his sons, and he shall rule over many 
people." But R. Salamon says, " That this signifies prosperity, as seed increases best 
that is sown beside the waters." 

To this sense we are to refer, Isa. xlviii. 1, " Hear ye this, house of Jacob, called 
by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah ;" that is, such 
as are descended of Jacob and Judah as from a fountain ; as Deut. xxxiii. 28, and 
Psal. Ixviii. 26. 

2. By the metaphor of waters the blessings of God and our. Saviour are often noted, as 
in the chapter of an anthropopathy. 

2. The subjects, or things containing waters, are various. The chief is the sea, 
which for the plenty of waters, the violence and impetuosity of its waves and storms, 
metaphorically denotes a multitude of enemies, Jer. li. 42, " The sea is come up upon 
Babylon : she is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof." Chaldee : The king 
with his numerous hosts, in plenty, like the sea came up against Babylon. So it is 
to be understood, Psal. Ixv. 7, Ixxxix. 9, and xciii. 3, 4. See also Isa. xvii. 12, 13, and 
Ivii. 20, Jer. vi. 23, and 1. 42, where there.is an express comparison. 

When our iniquities are said " to be cast into the depths of the sea," Micah vii. 19, it 
signifies a total remission and utter oblivion of them. 

Waves of the sea denote calamities and punishments, because they rush upon us, 
and are noxious, as the waves are troublesome to ships and seamen, Psal. xlii. 7, and 
Ixxxviii. 7, to which that phrase, Lam, i. ^0, and ii. 11, relates, Psal. iii. Isa. 
vii. 24. 

Jude verse 13, " Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame." This is 
spoken of unquiet, untamed vagabonds, or impetuous violent men, who, possessed with 
a spirit of giddiness by false doctrine, and wicked lives, disturb the church and raise scan- 
dals. A metaphor taken from a turbulent and frothing sea. See the express similitude, 
Isa. Ivii. 20, 21, to which place the apostle seems to have respect. 

Fluctuating, or being tossed to and fro, KM)5ai>iCetr0ai, Eph. iv. 14, is attributed to men 
unstable in the profession of Christianity. See Jam. i. 6. 

A Stream, fro (Naclial) which runs in a valley, (which is also denoted by the same 
Hebrew word,) and suddenly increases in tempestuous rainy weather, and brings not only 
terror, but loss and damage to men and other creatures, metaphorically signifies great 
afflictions, terrors, and dangers, Psal. xviii. 4, "The .floods of Belial terrified me." 
Chaldee ; " The multitude of oppressors made me afraid" Junius and Trenaellius : The 
floods of wicked men affrighting me ; he compares the persecutions and violence of the 
wicked who would prosecute him even unto death to floods, which violently, and, ere we 
are aware, break upon us." Musculus upon the place : " This flood of the wicked rightly 
agrees with the valley of Kidron, that is, the kingdom of darkness." 

Psal. ex. 7, " He shall drink of the brook in the way." This is diversely expounded, 
but most fitly of the passion of our Saviour Christ, which is elsewhere compared to 
drinking, for the drinking of his cup is in this place called " a drinking of the brook io 
the way." By the brook or torrent, the multitude and bitterness of Christ's suffering 8 




are noted, and also their shortness. For these torrents or streams quickly pass away, be- 
cause they have not their source from a lasting fountain, but from showers and snow : and 
therefore it is added, " Therefore shall he lift up the head;" that is, he shall be gloriously 
delivered from death and passion or suffering, and shall most eminently triumph in the 
resurrection. And the Prophet says, that Christ should drink [in the way], by which the 
course of this earthly life is signified, which is called the " day of the flesh," Heb. T. 7. 
Elias when banished and persecuted, and dwelling in a desert, drank of the brook by the 
command of God, 1 Kings xvii. 4, 6 ; Christ in his passion was placed as it were in a wide 
wilderness, and spiritually drank of the greatest torrent of all tribulations and dolours, 
which by his passing over the brook Kidron, (which had its name from its blackness and 
darkness,) is noted, John xviii. 1. So much of that. 

Sometimes a stream or brook is taken metaphorically in a good sense, either because 
of the abundance of waters, which are transferred to plenty of good things, Job xx. 
17; by the " brooks of honey and butter" (to which rivers and floods are added) is 
signified a confluence of prosperous, pleasant, and desirable things, even to full satisfac- 
tion, Psal. xxxvi. 8, " God is said to make believers drink of the rivers (or brooks) 
of his pleasures," that is, to bestow a plenty of blessed, sweet, and heavenly good upon 
them, which is that life and overplus (or more than abundance) which Christ promised to 
his sheep, John x. 10. 

Prov. xviii. 4, " The well-spring of wisdom," is called a flowing brook, that is, the 
mouth of a wise man does largely and abundantly utter and communicate wisdom. See 
Isa. Ixvi. 12, Amos v. 24 ; where there are express comparisons. 

Or else the reason of their being taken in a good sense is because in dry and unwatered 
countries, the inundation of brooks are very seasonable and profitable ; Isa. xxxv. 6, " In 
the wilderness waters shall break out, and streams in the desert ;" he adds, verse 7, " And 
the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water." This is a 
metaphorical description of the blessings of Christ's kingdom, and with respect to their 
sweetness and abundance. 

A river, if taken in an evil sense, signifies the frequent eruptions and invasions of ene- 
mies, Isa. xviii. 2, " A nation whose land the rivers have spoiled." Here is divine ven- 
geance foretold upon the wicked Ethiopians, by armed enemies, who (like mighty currents 
which none can resist) were to overwhelm their land. Some take this properly, hecause 
there are frequent inundations in Ethiopia, a country full of rivers. Others metonymically 
understand it of enemies, who by the -rivers would invade the country, as the Turks often 
do Hungary upon the Danube. See Isa. viii. 7. 

If it be taken in a good sense, it denotes the favour and blessing, of .God, Psal. xlvi. 4, 
" There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God." The holy 
habitation which God placed in that city, is intimated to be like a most sweet and pleasant 
river, whose rivulets or streams exhilarate and rejoice the whole city ; and therefore it is 
added, " The holy of the tabernacles of the Most High." 

By river, Jehovah himself (by his grace and protection inhabiting there) may aptly be 
understood ; and his streams are the special blessings or benefits we receive from his di- 
vine protection, which flow from his grace as rivulets from a river. Neither would it be 
any error, if it should be referred to the word of God, for where that is purely taught and 
flourishes, God himself cannot but be graciously present there, &c.. 

Isa. xli. 18, " I will open rivers in high places, and fountains in the midst of the val- 
h'es : I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water." This 
is a metaphorical description of the kingdom of Christ. Brentius upon the place : " By this 
metaphor of the desert, waters, fountains, and trees, verse 19, is understood ; that God was 
to give the Gentiles, who are called by the name of dry ground and desert, a most 
^ a rge and capacious fountain, that is, the preaching of his word in great plenty, that they 
Who are thirsty may drink of the Fountain, that is, Christ and eternal blessedness." 

John vii. 38, " He that believeth on me, as the scripture saith, out of his belly shall * 
flow rivers of living water." Christ speaking of his being to give the Spirit to his believ. 


ing apostles by a wonderful effusion, as verse 39, therefore flowing of water must be 
understood of the plentiful gifts and operations of the Holy Ghost, hy winch, the apostles 
and other ministers by preaching of the Gospel converted many unto Christ, and filled 
them with living comfort. "What Christ adds, viz., " as the Scripture saith," belongs to ' 
the following words, and the flowing of living waters out of their bellies, is inferred from 
some certain places of the Old Testament, such as Isa. Iviii. 11, "Thou shalt be like a 
watered garden, and like a spring whose waters lie not," that is, fail not, or do not wax 
dry ;) or from the whole substance of the universal gospel promises expounded or set forth 
by the allegory of rivers, fountains, and waters, such are, Isa. xliv. 3, and xlix. 10, Ezek. 
xxxvi. 25, 26, Joel iii. 1, and iii. 23, Zech. xii. 10, and xiv. 8. 

But Heinsius* elegantly joins the words, " as the scripture saith," with the words imme- 
diately going before : " He that belie veth on me, as the scripture saith." Christ has re- 
spect to that place, Deut. xviii. 15, 18, where the prophet is promised. Neither was there 
any place which was then more in their minds, John i. 21, and vi. 14, Acts iii. 22, John iv. 
14. So that the words which follow, " Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living waters," 
are really the words of Christ himself, as is clear, verse 39. See John iv. 14, so far he. 

The Hebrew word tis (Peleg) which 'signifies a rivulet, river, or stream, with a gentle 
or natural current, is much of the signification of the former, Job xxix. 6, " Bivers of oil," 
signifies abundance of good things ; Prov. xxi. 1, " The king's heart is in the hand of tlie 
Lord, (as) the rivulets of water," that is, he will incline it to what he pleases. This simili- 
tude shows that kings are carried with great impetuosity, where their inclinations prompt 
them. But yet that it is in the power of God to convert them from evil to good, as he 
dealt with the waters in the beginning, directing the way where every river must run. 

A fountain is generally taken in a good sense, with respect to temporals and spirituals. 
Examples of the former are Deut. xxxiii. 28, " The fountain of Jacob, (that is, the people 
of Israel, which sprung from Jacob,) shall remain like a lasting fountain." Jer. ix. 1, The 
eye is called a fountain (or a vein) of tears, that is, it sheds tears plentifully. See Mark v. 
29, Lev. xii. 7, an.d xx. 18, &c. 

Examples of the latter are, Psal. xxxvi. 9, " For with thee is the fountain of life ;" that 
is, thou, God, art the cause of all life and heavenly blessedness. Psal. Ixxxvii. 7, " All 
my springs, (or fountains,) are in thee." The sense is, that believers regenerated by the 
Spirit of God, (of whom he speaks, verse 4, 5,) should celebrate and sing praises to God 
in the kingdom of Christ, using this argument " All the fountains of our life are in thee, 
oh our blessed Saviour : thou alone art the Author, Fountain, and Original of temporal, 
spiritual, and eternal life." 

Prov. xiii. 14, " The doctrine of the wise is a fountain of life," that is, wholesome, 
or health-bringing, and full of comfort, like a clear fountain,- which never wants re- 
freshing or cooling water. The like, chap. x. 11, is said of the mouth " of a just or 
righteous man." And chap. xiv. 27, of the " fear of the Lord ;" whence it is manifest that 
this is to be understood of the preaching of the saving word of God by just and wise men, 
that is, believers. 

The word of Christ the Saviour is called a Fountain and Spring, Isa. xii. 3, (where 
the word is in the plural number, to denote abundance) Zech. xiii. 1, Joel iii. Id. 
With respect to this saving word, the church of Christ is called " A fountain of gardens, 
a well of living waters, and streams of Lebanon," Cant. iv. 15, Chaldee: "the words 
of the law are compared to a well of living waters." This fountain is only in the 
Church of Christ, and therefore this name is also attributed to it, and it is also called " A 
spring shut up, (or locked,) a fountain sealed," verse 12, because it is sealed and kept by 
the Holy Spirit through the word to eternal salvation; 2 Cor. i. 22, Eph. i. 13, and 
that in a manner utterly unknown to all human sense and reason. Peter calls false 
te'achers, "wells without water," 2 Pet. ii. 17; that is, such as make a specious show 
of divine truth, but really have no grace, or heavenly doctrine. God is called the 
" Fountain of life," but of that we have treated in the chapter of an anthropopathy. That 

* Iu Aristareho sacro, p. 406. 




life eternal is called fountains and springs of living water is plain, from Isa. xlix. 10, Rev. 
vii. 17, and xxi. 6, &c. 

More especially the fountain of water of Siloah is memorable, Isa. viii. 6, which is called 
the dragon or serpent's well, Neh. ii. 13 ; from its slow stream and windings like a ser- 
pent, whose stream made a pool, Neh. iiL 15, called Ko\vfj.pT)6pa. TOV StAwa^, the pool of 
Siloam, John ix. 11. From this well a metaphor is taken, Isa. viii. 6, " Forasmuch as this 
people despiseth the waters of Siloah that go softly," &c., by which some understand divine 
promises given to the Jewish people of a sure defence and protection against their 
enemies, in which the Jews having no confidence or acquiescence, betake themselves to 
the protection of foreign arms. Others by the waters of Siloah understand the kingdom 
of-Sion instituted or appointed by God, which was but small and weak in comparison of the 
kingdom of Syria and Israel, as the fountain glided with an easy and silent current. The 
Chaldee, " Forasmuch as this people despise the kingdom of the house of David leading 
them quietly, as Siloah flows quietly," &c. Of this fountain Jerome in his comment says, 
" that Siloah is a fountain at the bottom of the hill Sion, which bubbles out not with continual 
springs, but at uncertain hours and days, passing through the concaves of ,the earth and 
dens of hard stone, with much noise, we especially that dwell in this province cannot 

The fountain Siloah by another name is called pm, Gihon, 1 Kings i. 33, 38, as appears 
by the Chaldee paraphrase upon the place, which turns it nVnj Siloah. It is called Gihon 
fronj breaking or bursting out, hence called a brook overflowing ; 2 Chron. xxxii. 4, it is 
also observable that Solomon, David's son, was anointed king of Israel, by this fountain, so 
that there is reason for the allusion, that by this well is meant the kingdom of the house 

Brentius upon the place says, " Metaphora hujus fontis familiam Davidis intelligit, idque 
admodum apte. Nam Siloah" &c. By the metaphor of this fountain, he understands 
the family of David, and that in a manner aptly; for Siloah, though it comes with a 
great sound, yet it flows not always, but at certain days and hours : and when it bubbles 
forth, it overflows not the whole land, it destroys not the fields, but keeps itself in the 
concaves or hollow places of the earth, without danger to any, but flows almost hiddenly: 
so as the family of David, which for the government of the kingdom of Judah was sancti- 
fied by God. And although there be a great unlikeness between the kings of Judah, one 
being more merciful, more clement, and more godly than another, yet they were tolerable 
kings ; -neither were they hitherto over grievous to the people, but behaved themselves in 
the administration of the government modestly and temperately. Yet the common people 
in cities and country, desirous of novelty, would rather have strange kings though enemies, 
than the poor family of David, which was ordained by God himself to rule that people, &c. 
It appears in that war, that some would gladly have been disengaged from danger, and 
others resolved to repel it any way ; but -the commonalty, especially husbandmen, of 
Judah, would have the family of David dethroned, and that the king of Israel, or the king 
of Syria, should rule, &c. .Against these Isaiah sharply inveighs, and prophesies that the 
time will come, that because they would not be contented to live with satisfaction under 
the peaceable reign of their own kings, they should be exposed to endure the storms, and 
bear the scourge of tyranical, great, and turbulent enemies." To this interpretation R. 
Kimchi, Vatablus, and Jerome agree. 

A well, i*o> is sometimes taken in a good sense, as Prov. v. 15, 16, 17, 18, "Drink 
waters out of thine own cistern, and running water out of thine own well. Let thy foun- 
tains be dispersed abroad, and rivers of water in the streets, let them be to thee only : (so 
the Hebrew) and not to strangers with thee ; let thy fountain be blessed." This continued 
metaphor respects wedlock and its lawful familiarity. Aben Ezra thus expounds it " The 
sense is, that we must keep to our own proper wife, and to no other besides her, and by 
fountains dispersed abroad a multitude of children is noted " Munsterus, " The Hebrews 
e *pound it, forsake a stranger, and adhere to thy own wife, then shall thy fountains multiply 
a broad, that is, thy children with honour shall appear in public : for they shall be thine own, 
whereas if thou goest to another thy children will be bastards." &c. 

Others expound this text of two doctrines proposed to a pious man. 

First, that he should make good use of his proper goods, and by the blessings of God 
augment them, verse 15, 16, 17, 18. 



Psal. xl. 2, see also Psal. Ixxiii. 10. Some by the " waters of a full cup" would have 
the same thing understood ; hut the usual exposition is, that it rather gives a description 
of the wicked, who enjoy prosperity and plenty. And this leads us to the acceptation of 
water wherein it signifies good, in which, as in the foregoing particular, we must con- 
sider it. 

(1.) As it refers to men. 
(2.) To things themselves. 

(1.) Water metaphorically signifies posterity, which is propagated from its own stock 
or head, as water flows from a fountain. Numb. xxiv. 7, " He shall pour .the water out 
of his buckets ;" that is, God shall so bless the people of Israel (represented by Jacob) as 
that they shall have a numerous offspring, and increase into a great posterity. Another 
metaphor taken from water follows,. " And his seed shall be in many waters ;" which 
the Chaldee expounds of peoples: according to the above signification ; thus he paraphrases, 
" a King shall spring up who shall be magnified by his sons, and he shall rule over many 
people." But B. Salamon says, " That this signifies prosperity, as seed increases best 
that is sown beside the waters." 

To this sense we are to refer, Isa. xlviii. 1, "' Hear ye this, house of Jacob, called 
by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah ;" that is, such 
as are descended of Jacob and Judah as from a fountain ; as Deut. xxxiii. 28, and 
Psal. Ixviii. 26. 

2. By the metaphor of waters the blessings of God and our Saviour are often noted, as 
in the chapter of an anthropopathy. 

2. The subjects, or things containing waters, are various. The chief is the sea, 
which for the plenty of waters, the violence and impetuosity of its waves and storms, 
metaphorically denotes a multitude of enemies, Jer. li. 42, " The sea is come up upon 
Babylon : she is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof." Chaldee : The king 
with his numerous hosts, in. plenty, like the sea came up against Babylon. So it is 
to be understood, Psal. Ixv. 7, Ixxxix. 9, and xciii. 3, 4. See also Isa. xvii. 12, 13, and 
Ivii. 20, Jer. vi. 23, and 1. 42, where there.is an express comparison. 

When our iniquities are said " to be cast into the depths of the sea," Micah vii. 19, it 
signifies a total remission and utter oblivion of them. 

Waves of the sea denote calamities and punishments, because they rush upon us, 
and are noxious, as the waves are troublesome to ships and seamen, Psal. xlii. 7, and 
Ixxxviii. 7, to which that phrase, Lam. i. 20, and ii. 11, relates, Psal. iii. Isa. 
vii. 24. 

Jude verse 13, " Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame." This is 
spoken of unquiet, untamed vagabonds, or impetuous violent men, who, possessed with 
a spirit of giddiness by false doctrine, and wicked lives, disturb the church and raise scan- 
dals. A metaphor taken from a turbulent and frothing sea. See the express similitude, 
Isa. Ivii. 20, 21, to which place the apostle seems to have respect. 

Fluctuating, or being tossed to and fro, K^tSwi&ffeai, Eph. iv. 14, is attributed to men 
unstable in the profession of Christianity. See Jam. i. 6. 

A Stream, *>na (Nachal) which runs in a valley, (which is also denoted by the same 
Hebrew word,) and suddenly increases in tempestuous rainy weather, and brings not only 
terror, but loss and damage to men and other creatures, metaphorically signifies great 
afflictions, terrors, and dangers, Psal. xviii. 4, " The .floods of Belial terrified me." 
Chaldee ; " The multitude of oppressors made me afraid" Junius and Tremellius : The 
floods of wicked men affrighting me ; he compares the persecutions and violence of the 
wicked who would prosecute him even unto death to floods, which violently, and, ere we 
are aware, break upon us." Musculus upon the place : " This flood of the wicked rightly 
agrees with the valley of Kidron, that is, the kingdom of darkness." 

Psal. ex. 7, " He shall drink of the brook in the way." This is diversely expounded, 
but most fitly of the passion of our Saviour Christ, which is elsewhere compared to 
drinking, for the drinking of his cup is in this place called " a drinking of the brook i Q 
the \vay." I!y the brook or torrent, the multitude and bitterness of Christ's suffering 5 


are noted, and also their shortness. For these torrents or streams quickly pass away, be- 
cause they have not their source from a lasting fountain, but from showers and snow : and 
therefore it is added, " Therefore shall he lift up the head;" that is, he shall be gloriously 
delivered from death and passion or suffering, and shall most eminently triumph in the 
resurrection. And the Prophet says, that Christ should drink [in. the way], by which the 
course of this earthly life is signified, which is called the " day of the flesh," Heb. v. 7. 
Elias when banished and persecuted, and dwelling in a desert, drank of the brook by the 
command of God, 1 Kings xvii. 4, 6; Christ in his passion was placed as it were in a wide 
wilderness, and spiritually drank of the greatest torrent of all tribulations and dolours, 
which by his passing over the brook Kidron, (which had its name from its blackness and 
darkness,) is noted, John xviii. 1. So much of that. 

Sometimes a stream or brook is taken metaphorically in a good sense, either because 
of the abundance of waters, which are transferred to plenty of good things, Job xx. 
17; by the "brooks of honey and butter" (to which rivers and floods are added) is 
signified a confluence of prosperous, pleasant, and desirable things, even to full satisfac- 
tion, Psal. xxxvi. 8, " God is said to make believers drink of the rivers (or brooks) 
of his pleasures," that is, to bestow a plenty of blessed, sweet, and heavenly good upon 
them, which is that life and overplus (or more than abundance) which Christ promised to 
his sheep, John x. 10. 

Prov. xviii. 4, " The well-spring of wisdom," is called a flowing brook, that is, the 
mouth of a wise man does largely and abundantly utter and communicate wisdom. See 
Isa. Ixvi. 12, Amos v. 24; where there are express comparisons. 

Or else the reason of their being taken in a good sense is because in dry and unwatered 
countries, the inundation of brooks are very seasonable and profitable ; Isa. xxxv. 6, " In 
the wilderness waters shall break out, and streams in the desert ;" he adds, verse 7, " And 
the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water." This is a 
metaphorical description of the blessings of Christ's kingdom, and with respect to their 
sweetness and abundance. 

A river, if taken in an evil sense, signifies the frequent eruptions and invasions of ene- 
mies, Isa. xviii. 2, " A nation whose land the rivers have spoiled." Here is divine ven- 
geance foretold upon the wicked Ethiopians, by armed enemies, who (like mighty currents 
which none can resist) were to overwhelm their land. Some take this properly, because 
there are frequent inundations in Ethiopia, a country full of rivers. Others metonymically 
understand it of enemies, who by the rivers would invade the country, as the Turks often 
do Hungary upon the Danube. See Isa. viii. 7. 

If it be taken in a good sense, it denotes the favour and blessing, of .God, Psal. xlvi. 4, 
" There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God." The holy 
habitation which God placed in that city, is intimated to be like a most sweet and pleasant 
river, whose rivulets or streams exhilarate and rejoice the whole city ; and therefore it is 
added, " The holy of the tabernacles of the Most High." 

By river, Jehovah himself (by his grace and protection inhabiting there) may aptly be 
understood ; and his streams are the special blessings or benefits we receive from his di- 
vine protection, which flow from his grace as rivulets from a river. Neither would it be 
any error, if it should be referred to the word of God, for where that is purely taught and 
flourishes, God himself cannot but be graciously present there, &c. 

Isa. xli. 18, " I will open rivers in high places, and fountains in the midst of the val- 
lies : I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water." This 
is a metaphorical description of the kingdom of Christ. Brentius upon the place : " By this 
Metaphor of the desert, waters, fountains, and trees, verse 19, is understood ; that God was 
to give the Gentiles, who are called by the name of dry ground and desert, a most 
large and capacious fountain, that is, the preaching of his word in great plenty, that they 
Who are thirsty may drink of the Fountain, that is, Christ and eternal blessedness." 

John vii. 38, " He that believeth on me, as the scripture saith, out of his belly shall * 
flow rivers of living water." Christ speaking of his being to give the Spirit to his believ. 


ing apostles by a wonderful effusion, as verse 39, therefore flowing of water must be 
understood of the plentiful gifts and operations of the Holy Ghost, by which the apostles 
and other ministers by preaching of the Gospel converted many unto Christ, and filled 
them with living comfort. What Christ adds, viz., " as the Scripture saith," belongs to 
the following words, and the flowing of living waters out of their bellies, is inferred from 
some certain places of the Old Testament, such as Isa. Iviii. 11, " Thou shalt be like a 
watered garden, and like a spring whose waters lie not," that is, fail not, or do not wax 
dry ;) or from the whole substance of the universal gospel promises expounded or set forth 
by the allegory of rivers, fountains, and waters, such are, Isa. xliv. 3, and xlix. 10, Ezek. 
xxxvi. 25, 26, Joel iii. 1, and iii. 23, Zech. xii. 10, and xiv. 8. 

But Heinsius* elegantly joins the words, " as the scripture saith," with the words imme- 
diately going 'before : " He that belie veth on me, as the scripture saith." Christ has re- 
spect to that place, Deut. xviii. 15, 18, where the prophet is promised. Neither was there 
any place which was then more in their minds, John i. 21, and vi. 14, Acts iii. 22, John iv. 
14. So that the words which follow, " Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living waters," 
are really the words of Christ himself, as is clear, verse 39. See John iv. 14, so far he. 

The Hebrew word ate (Peleg) which 'signifies a rivulet, river, or stream, with a gentle 
or natural current, is much of the signification of the former, Job xxix. 6, " Rivers of oil," 
signifies abundance of good things; Prov. xxi. 1, " The king's heart is in the hand of the 
Lord, (as) the rivulets of water," that is, he will incline it to what he pleases. This simili- 
tude shows that kings are carried with great impetuosity, where their inclinations prompt 
them. But yet that it is in the power of God to convert them from evil to good, as he 
dealt with the waters in the beginning, directing the way where every river must run. 

A fountain is generally taken in a good sense, with respect to temporals and spirituals. 
Examples of the former are Deut. xxxiii. 28, " The fountain of Jacob, (that is, the people 
of Israel, which sprung from Jacob,) shall remain like a lasting fountain." Jer. ix. 1, The 
eye is called a fountain (or a vein) of tears, that is, it sheds tears plentifully. See Mark v. 
29, Lev. xii. 7, and xx. 18, &c. . 

Examples of the latter are, Psal. xxxvi. 9, " For with thee is the fountain of life ;" that 
is, thou, God, art the cause of all life and heavenly blessedness. Psal. Ixxxvii. 7, " All 
my springs, (or fountains,) are in thee." The sense is, that believers regenerated by the 
Spirit of God, (of whom he speaks, verse 4, 5,) should celebrate and sing praises to God 
in the kingdom of Christ, using this argument " All the fountains of our life are in thee, 
oh our blessed Saviour : thou alone art the Author, Fountain, and Original of temporal, 
spiritual, and eternal life." 

Prov. xiii. 14, " The doctrine of the wise is a fountain of life," that is, wholesome, 
or health-bringing, and full of comfort, like a clear fountain,, which never wants re- 
freshing or cooling water. The like, chap. x. 11, is said of the mouth "of a just or 
righteous man." And chap. xiv. 27, of the " fear of the Lord ;" whence it is manifest that 
this is to be understood of the preaching of the saving word of God by just and wise men, 
that is, believers. 

The word of Christ the Saviour is called a Fountain and Spring, Isa. xii. 3, (where 
the word is in the plural number, to denote abundance) Zech. xiii. 1, Joel iii. Id- 
With respect to this saving word, the church of Christ is called " A fountain of gardens, 
a well of living waters, and streams of Lebanon," Cant. iv. 15, Chaldee: "the words 
of the law are compared to a well of living waters." This fountain is only in the 
Church of Christ, and therefore this name is also attributed to it, and it is also called " A 
spring shut up, (or locked,) a fountain sealed," verse 12, because it is sealed and kept by 
the Holy Spirit through the word to eternal salvation; 2 Cor. i. 22, Eph. i. 13, and 
that iu a manner utterly unknown to all human sense and reason. Peter calls false 
teachers, " wells without water," 2 Pet. ii. 17 ; that is, such as make a specious show 
of divine truth, but really have no grace, or heavenly doctrine. God is called the 
" Fountain of life," but of that we have treated in the chapter of an anthropopathy. That 

Iu Anstarsho sauro, p. 406. 


life eternal is called fountains and springs of living water is plain, from Isa. xlix. 10, Eev. 
vii. 17, and xxi. 6, &c. 

More especially the fountain of water of Siloah is memorable, Isa. viii. 6, which is called 
the dragon or serpent's well, Neh. ii. 13 ; from its slow stream and windings like a ser- 
pent, whose stream made a pool, Neh. iii. 15, called KoKvufaepa. rov ^t\eaajj., the pool of 
Siloam, John ix. 11. From this well a metaphor is taken, Isa. viii. 6, " Forasmuch as this 
people despiseth the waters of Siloah that go softly," &c., by which some understand divine 
promises given to the Jewish people of a sure defence and protection against their 
enemies, in which the Jews having no confidence or acquiescence, betake themselves to 
the protection of foreign arms. Others by the waters of Siloah understand the kingdom 
of Sion instituted or appointed by God, which was but small and weak in comparison of the 
kingdom of Syria and Israel, as the fountain glided with an easy and silent current. The 
Chaldee, "Forasmuch as this people despise the kingdom of the house of David leading 
them quietly, as Siloah flows quietly," &c. Of this fountain Jerome in his comment says, 
" that Siloah is a fountain at the bottom of the hill Sion, which bubbles out not with continual 
springs, but at uncertain hours and days, passing through the concaves of the earth and 
dens of hard stone, with much noise, we especially that dwell in this province cannot 

The fountain Siloah by another name is called JIITJ, Gihon, 1 Kings i. 33, 38, as appears 
by the Chaldee paraphrase upon the place, which turns it NH^M? Siloah. It is called Gihon 
from breaking or bursting out, hence called a brook overflowing ; 2 Cbron. xxxii. 4, it is 
also observable that Solomon, David's son, was anointed king of Israel, by this fountain, so 
that there is reason for the allusion, that by this well is meant the kingdom of the house 

Brentius upon the place says, " Metaphor a hujus fontis familiam Davidis intelligit, idgue 
admodum apte. Nam Siloah" &c. By the metaphor of this fountain, he understands 
the family of David, and that in a manner aptly ; for Siloah, though it comes with a 
great sound, yet it flows not always, but at certain days and hours : and when it bubbles 
forth, it overflows not the whole land, it destroys not the fields, but keeps itself in the 
concaves or hollow places of the earth, without danger to any, but flows almost hiddenly: 
so as the family of David, which for the government of the kingdom of Judah was sancti- 
fied by God. And although there be a great unlikeness between the kings of Judah, one 
being more merciful, more clement, and more godly than another, yet they were tolerable 
kings ; neither were they hitherto over grievous to the people, but behaved themselves hi 
the administration of the government modestly and temperately. Yet the common people 
in cities and country, desirous of novelty, would rather have strange kings though enemies, 
than the poor family of David, which was ordained by God himself to rule that people, &c. 
It appears in that war, that some would gladly have been disengaged from danger, and 
others resolved to repel it any way; but -the commonalty, especially husbandmen, of 
Judah, would have the family of David dethroned, and that the king of Israel, or the king 
of Syria, should rule, &c. .Against these Isaiah sharply inveighs, and prophesies that the 
time will come, that because they would not be contented to live with satisfaction under 
the peaceable reign of then: own kings, they should be exposed to endure the storms, and 
bear the scourge of tyranical, great, and turbulent enemies." To this interpretation B. 
Kimchi, Vatablus, and Jerome agree. 

A well, ">*, is sometimes taken in a good sense, as Prov. v. 15, 16, 17, 18, "Drink 
waters out of thine own cistern, and running water out of thine own well. Let thy foun- 
tains be dispersed abroad, and rivers of water in the streets, let them be to thee only : (so 
the Hebrew) and not to strangers with thee ; let thy fountain be blessed." This continued 
metaphor respects wedlock and its lawful familiarity. Aben Ezra thus expounds it " The 
sense is, that we must keep to our own proper wife, and to no other besides her, and by 
fountains dispersed abroad a multitude of children is noted" Munsterus, " The Hebrews 
expound it, forsake a stranger, and adhere to thy own wife, then shall thy fountains multiply 
Abroad, that is, thy children with honour shall appear in public : for they shall be thine own, 
Whereas if thou goest to another thy children will be bastards." &c. 

Others expound this text of two doctrines proposed to a pious man. 

First, that he should make good use of his proper goods, and by the blessings of God 
augment them, verse 15, 16, 17, 18. 



Secondly, that he should live chastely and continently with his own wife, and abstain 
from others, verse IS, 19, &c. Franzius says, " drink water out of thine own cistern, &c., 
that is, keep thy goods to thyself, and thine, and to help objects of charity ; but do not con- 
sume them upon whores," &c. 

A well is sometimes taken in a bad sense, as great perils and mischief, Psal. Iv. 23, 
" And thou, Lord, shalt bring them into the well, (so the Hebrew,) of destruction." 
The Chaldee, "into a deep hell," Psal. Ixix. 15, "Let not the well, (so the Hebrew,) shut 
its mouth upon me ;" Chaldee, " hell." Christ speaks there of his most bitter passion. 

Jer. ii. 13, " Broken cisterns that will hold no water," (out of which fractions the water 
goes not, as it comes in, failing the expectation of men that want water) this signifies the 
idolatries or apostacy of the people, to which God, the fountain of living water, is opposed. 

3. The qualities of water; of these we will note two. 

(1.) It is fluid and' liquid, and if congealed by cold, it is resolved and liquified again 
by heat. Hence a metaphor is taken, for when to melt, or to be liquid, is spoken "of men, 
it signifies fear, consternation, anxiety, and griefs, Exod. xv. 15, Deut. i. 28, and xx. 8, 
Josh. vii. 5, (where liquid water is added,) Josh. vii. 5, and ix. 13, Psal. Ixxv. 3, and cvii. 
26, Isa. x. 18, xiii. 7, and xxxi. 8, (where on signifies melting, the Chaldee, " breaking ;" 
con?ternation for fear. Others render it tribute, which is the other signification of the 
word,) Isa. vi. 4, 7, Ezek. xxi. 15, Job xxx. 22, So Ovid de ponto. 

Sic mea perpetuis liquescant pectora curis. 
" So may my_breast with constant sorrows melt." 

See Psal. Iviii. 7, 8, and xxii'. 14, 15. Where there is an express comparison, Psal. 
cxix. 28, " My soul melteth," in the Hebrew, [droppeth] " for heaviness," that is, consumes 
as if it were liquid The Chaldee, " my soul is sad for sorrow." Some say that this is an 
hyperbolical description of his tears, as if his soul was liquid and resolved into weeping. See 
Job vi. 14, 15, Jud. xv. 14. 

(2.) Water is capable of cold and heat, Horn. xii. 11, irvevp-an Ceovrss, "fervent in spirit," 
by which spiritual ardour, and the zeal of faith and piety, is denoted ; the Syriac expresses 
it by a word, nm, which signifies boiling water, Job xli. 22, Ezek. xxiv. 3, 5, see Job 
xxx. 27, Eev. iii. 15, "I know thy works that thou art neither cold nor hot ; I would thou 
wert cold or hot ;" verse 16, " So that then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold 
nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth." In this text there is a manifest translation 
from the qualities of water. He calls the cold such as are without any .interest in Christ, 
or the unconverted ; and the hot he calls such as are endued with the true knowledge of 
Christ in an eminent degree ; and the lukewarm are such as would be called Christians, 
but do not seriously stand by, or plead, the cause of religion ; nor lead a life conformable 
to their holy profession ; Zea-rovs, that is, God loves such as are hot or fervent with the 
zeal of piety : but the lukewarm, who are only Christians in name, and not in reality, he 
hates ; nor will he reckon them among his, which by a metaphorical allusion to warm 
water, is here expressed For by that a man is easily provoked to vomit ; so that Christ 
by the term vomiting expresses that he will reprobate such. 

Object. But what means this, where he wishes that he were cold ? Does that frame 
of spirit also please God ? 

Answer. This is to be understood respectively, or by way of comparison, in that 
tyvxpot the cold, with respect to the lukewarm, are more praise-worthy, because they 
openly profess what they are, not counterfeiting that sanctity which they have not, 
pretending one thing and doing another, but being under the blindness of a natural 
state, if they are taught, they frequently amend, and prove good men; whereas the 
lukewarm, making- a specious show of godliness, but denying the power, are in a far more 
hopeless condition. The sense therefore is, " it is fit that thou be put into the extreme 
degrees, that thou inayest be judged," &c. Prov. xvii. 27, "A man of understanding is of 
BU excellent spirit," (the Hebrew is,) " of a cool spirit ;" that is, of a sedate and quiet mind, 


who is not easily provoked to be disturbed with the fiery sallies, and intemperate heat of 

4. The actions of water are of two sorts, some (its own actions) as to " break forth," 
Job xxviii. 4, which signifies abundance of wealth, and a plentiful offspring, Gen. xviii. 
14, and xxx. 43, Exod. i. 12, Job i. 10, Hosea iv. 10 ; also a publishing of speech, 
1 Sam. iii. 1, 1 Chron. xiii. 2, 2 Chron. xxxi. 5 ; when the waters are said to " overflow," 
it signifies an irruption, or attacks of a multitude of enemies, and also, the celerity and 
speed of the invasion. Examples of the former are, Isa. viii. 8, and xxviii. 15, If, 18, 
Dan. xi. 22, Nah. i. 8; of the latter, Psal.xc. 5, Isa. x. 22, Jer. viii. 6, Isa. xx. 2, " All 
nations shall flow together to it ;" Jer. li. 44, Micah iv. 1 ; here the prophets treat of 
the conversion of the Gentiles to Christ, by a very significant metaphor. In the means 
of conversion, which is the evangelical word by his divine efficacy, the people willingly, 
without any compulsion, flock to him. Waters naturally descend, if they ave made to 
ascend, it is by engines or art. and not from any spontaneous motion or peculiar quality 
so inclining them ; so this people when they tend Sion- wards, and ascend that holy hill, 
are acted, animated, or strengthened, by the aid, art; and efficacy of the Holy Spirit by 
the Gospel of Christ. 
In men converted, 

(1.) This denotes diligence and fervour in piety, as waters gather together with ce- 
lerity and impetuosity. 

(2.) It denotes frequency and plenty, as many waters flow together. 
(3.) It denotes concord or agreement, as many streams come from, divers places, and 
whenfthey meet make up one homogeneous body, whose parts cannot be discerned from 
each other, &c. See Psal. xix. 3, Ixxix. 2, and cxix. 171, Prov. i. 23, xv. 2, 28, and 
xviii. 4. 

Psal. xlv. 1, " My heart is inditing a good matter;" the Hebrew is, " my heart bubbleth 
up a good word." The LXX, e&pevfcro, eructavit, pfbmpsit ; this is an elegant me'taphor 
of the speech of the heart well premeditated, which by the mouth and lips is uttered, as 
water when it boils, oftentimes bubbles over. 

To distil is ,put for speech, doctrine, or prophecy, either because like rain, or 
dew, it is every moment instilled into the ears, for all words and sentences are not. 
proposed at one and the same time, but distinctly, and as it were by drops : or be- 
cause,, as rain, and dew, water, refresh, and fructify the earth, so does heavenly 
doctrine render a soul fruitful &c. Examples are to be seen, Deut. xxxii. 2, Job 
xiix. 22, Ezek. xx. 46, and xxi. 2, Micah ii. 6, 11. The heavens and skies are said 
" To drop down righteousness," when God gives blessings from heaven, Isa. xlv. 8. See 
Joel iii. 18, Amos ix. 13, " The mountains shall drop new wine, and the hills flow with 
milk ;" by which is understood that plenty of celestial blessings purchased by the merits, 
of Christ. 

Some actions of a man about waters, as to pour out, which signifies evil, sometimes 
with respect to God, when he is said to " pour out his wrath," that is, when he grievously 
punishes, 2 Chron. xii. 7, Isa. xlii. 25, Psal. Ixxix. 6, Jer. xlii. 18, Ezek. ix. S,. and 
xxii. 31, Dan. ix. 11, Lam. ii. 4, Hos. v. 10. God is said " to pour contempt upon 
princes," Psal. cvii. 39, 40; that is, he will divest tyrants of all authority, and make 
them contemptible in exiles or banishment, as it follows there. See Job xvi. 13, 
Psal. cxli. 8. As it respects men, it signifies the evil of guilt and punishment, or af- 
flictions, &c. See examples, Job xxx. 16, Lam. ii. 11, 12, Psal. xxii. 14, 15, and Ixxiii. 
2, Ezek. xvi. 15. 

Sometimes it is taken in a good sense, sometimes of God, sometimes of man : of God, 
as when he is said " to pour out his Spirit and his grace," when he plentifully bestows the 
gift of the Holy Ghost upon believers, and exhibits his grace, Isa. xxxii. 15, and xliv. 3, 
Joel ii. 28, Zech. xii. 10, Acts ii. 17, 33, Kom. v. 5, Tit. iii. 6, see Psal. xlv. 3, 1 Sam 
i. 15, Psal. Ixii. 8, 9, Lam. ii. 19, Job iii. 24. 

To wash and make clean, (which is wont to be done with water) is often trans- 
lated to signify the justification of sinful man before God, and his sanctification and re- 
' novation. " To be washed from sin," (as from sordid filth) is to obtain remission of 

n 2 


sins through the Mediator, Christ, Psal. li. 8, 9, Isa. iv. 4, Ezek. xvi. 4, 9, andxxxvi. 25, 
Actsxxii. 16, 1 Cor. vi. 11, Heb. x. 22, Rev. i. 5, 7, 14; or that which is always joined 
with the antecedent benefit of God, to abstain from sin and practise holiness and purity 
of life, Job ix. 30, Psal. xxvi. 6, and Ixxiii. 13, Prov. xxx. 12, Isa. i. 16, Jer. iv. 14, 
James iv. 8, &c. 

Of Metaphors taken from the Earth. 

In the globe of the earth two things are to be considered, which afford as many meta- 
phorical acceptations. 

(1.) That it is opposite to heaven with respect to quantity and qualities. Hence as 
heaven denotes the spiritual kingdom of God, and the state of eternal felicity ; so on 
the contrary the earth denotes the state of corruption and sin in which man after the 

fall was involved, John iii. 31, o cav e/c TT?S yys, e TTJS yn?. eirrt, KO.I e/c Tt)s yrjs \a\ei, " He that 

is of the earth, is of the earth, and speaketh of the earth." A very fair antanaclasis ! The 
first phrase of the earth is properly taken and denotes an earthly original, that is, to be 
begotten by a natural man in a natural way, (to which is opposed tha t Christ is ctvcaBev 
egxf j ' e >'s Kat TO" ovgavov, " Come from above, and from heaven." See 1 Cor. xv. 47. 

The second phrase, of the earth, metaphorically taken, is to be carnally wise, ig- 
norant of divine things, lost in sin, and an absolute stranger to heaven and the spi- 
ritual kingdom of God, which elsewhere is phrased, T eiriyeta $poveiv, " to mind (that is, 
to only take care for) earthly things," Phil. iii. 19; T r-ns crap/cos Qpovew, "to take care for 
those things which are of the flesh," Rom. viii. 5. See ^John iii. 6, 1 Cor. ii. 14. To 
which in this place of John, viz. iii. 31, is opposed that Christ, ewavu travrtov etrrtv, "is above 
all," that is, the heavenly Lord and most holy God, void of all imperfection and 
worldly spot. 

The last phrase, " to speak of tb,e earth," is conformable to the first, and is to speak 
those things which are contrary to the kingdom of God, erroneous and lying. See 1 
John iv. 3, 5 ; (to which is opposed that Christ testifies that which he saw and heard, and 
speaks the words of God, which whosoever receives, he seals or witnesses that God 
is true, the like opposition Christ uses, speaking to the carnal Jews, John viii. 23. 

(2.) Because the earth affords men houses and convenient habitations, in that respect 
eternal life, and the heaven of the blessed is called " a new earth or land," Isa. Ixv. 
17, 22, 2 Pet. iii. 13, Rev. xxi. 1 ; because in it are those many mansions which are 
provided by Christ for believers, John xiv. 2 ; in this sense some of the fathers ex- 
pound, Matt. v. 5, " Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth." But this 
may be fitly interpreted of the earth on which we dwell: for this sentence seems 
to be borrowed from Psal. xxxvii. 11, " The meek shall inherit the earth, and shall delight 
themselves in the abundance of peace." The meaning may be, they who do violence to 
none, and when injured easily forgive, who choose rather to lose their right than vex- 
atiously to wrangle or contend, who value concord and tranquillity of mind before 
great estates, to whom a quiet poverty is more welcome, than brawling riches ; these, 
I say, will truly, and with a mind full of tranquillity, inhabit and possess this earth, 
and in it will enjoy the grace and blessing of God, to them and their posterity, whilst 
the goods of the wicked are by divine vengeance scattered as it were into the light 
winds, so that these (viz., the meek) are the true possessors of the land, and as it were 
the props or pillars that preserve it, whereas the wicked, together with the devils, are 
but possessors of a bad faith, and unjust ravishers, for whose malice every creature groans, 
and does, as it were, tacitly implore deliverance of the great Creator, Rom. viii. 20, 21, 
22, &c. 

So much in general, now we shall briefly show what metaphors are taken from the 
several parts of the earth. As, 

1. A mountain or hill, being a more high and elevated part of the earth metaphorically 

(1.) Heaven, the habitation of God, so called by an anthropopathy, as he is elsewhere 
said, " to dwell in the highest," Psal. iii. 4, " I cried unto the Lord with my voice, and 
he heard me out of his holy hill," that is, from heaven : as if he had said, " I am cast out 
from the place of the terrestrial sanctuary appointed in Jerusalem, but there is yet 


an open access to the holy hill of God, his heavenly habitation, where my prayers shall 
be beard, and shall implore the wished help against those rebellious and stubborn ene- 
mies." So Psal. xcix. 9, cxxi. 1, cxxiii. 1, xv. 1, and xviii. 9, 2 Sana. xxii. 8. 

2. Kingdoms and empires, which like mountains, have a pre-eminence in the world. 
Psal. xxx. 7, " Lord, by thy favour thou hast made my mountain to stand strong ;" 
that is, thou hast given my kingdom strength and tranquillity. Psal. Ixxvi. 4, " Thou 
art more glorious and excellent than the mountains of prey ;" that is, the kingdoms of 
the wicked, who unjustly plunder and prey upon the world. Jer. li. 25, " Behold I am 
against thee, destroying mountain, saith the Lord," &c. Illyricus, " So he calls Babylon, 
although it was situated in a plain, because of the loftinesss of its dignity and power, 
by which, as a very high mountain, it hung over other cities and people." But others 
tbink, that by the vast circuit and thickness of its walls it rose like a mountain ; 
for Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, and Diodorus Siculus, affirm tbat the walls of Babylon were 
50 cubits thick, and 200 royal cubits high. And that which is added in the same 
place, that " Babylon should be made a burning mountain," is to be understood of the 
rubbish and ruinous heap which was left like a mountain after the burning of that great 
city. Hab. iii. 6, " The everlasting mountains were scattered, and the perpetual hills did 
bow ;" that is, the kingdoms of the people were suddenly shaken and overthrown : he 
speaks of the blessing of God, which expelled the Canaanites and distributed their 
lands to his people by his ministers, Moses and Joshua. See Exod. xv. 14, &c. 

3. Any proud enemies of the kingdom of God, Isa. ii. 14, The day (of the anger) 
of the Lord, " upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up ;" that 
is, upon all such as are proud and lifted up, because of their power, as appears, verse 
11, 12, 17. Also by " the cedars of Lebanon that are lifted up, and the oaks of Bashan," 
verse 13 ; " And the high towers and fenced walls," verse 15. Isa. xl. 4, " Every valley 
shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low," &c. This is a meta- 
phorical description of the effect of John Baptist's preaching, of which the prophet speaks 
here. Upon which Musculus,* " The doctrine of repentance humbles mountains and hills, 
and makes plain the uneven and crooked, that is, brings down the proud, depraved, and 
wicked ; and the consolation of the kingdom of God, which is joined to the doctrine of re- 
pentance, lifts up the vallies, that is, it comforts and refreshes the humble, the poor in 
spirit, and the dejected." The forerunner of the Lord did exactly prosecute both these 
parts in preparing the way of our Lord, saying, " Ptepent, for the kingdom of heaven is 
at hand." Matt. iii. 2, &c. Isa. xli. 15, " Thou shalt thresh the mountains, and beat them 
small, and shalt.make the hills as chaff;" that is, thou shalt destroy thine enemies, though 
they be most proud and powerful, notwithstanding thou dost seem but as a worm, verse 
14. He. speaks by the Spirit to the church of Christ, which by virtue of the heavenly 
word, works these things gloriously : the Chaldee renders it, " Thou shalt slay those 
people, destroy their kingdoms, and make them as chaff." See Zech. iv. 7, &c. 

More especially there is mention of Bashan, (Psal. Ixviii. 15,) which was a mountain- 
ous country, famous for excellent pasture, the beasts that fed there being very fat, 
strong, and great hence the bulls, rams, or heifers of Bashan are metaphorically put 
for fat, Deut. xxxii. 14; which is also referred to men, Psal. xxii. 12, " Strong bulls 
of Bashan have beset me round," that is, the enemies of Christ who were strong and 
fierce, &c. See Amos iv. 1. The oaks of Bashan are used in the same sense, Isa. ii. 13, 
Zech. xi. 2. 

Carmel was a mountain famous for fields, vines, olive-trees, and fruit -bearing shrubs, 
and is by a metaphor put for any good and fruitful country, Isa. xvi. 10, Jer. ii. 7. 
Some think this translation is made because of the etymology of the word, alleging that 
ta"D Carmel is compounded of ona Kerem vinea, a vineyard, and *bv plenus, full, that is, 
full of vineyards. The word is also translated to spiritual things, Isa. xxxii. 15, and men- 
tion is made of it in the description of the New Testament church, and its vigour and 
glory, Isa. xxxv. 2. 

Lebanon, a mountain, denotes the grandees in the king of Assyria's army, be- 
cause of the height, stateliness, and plenty, of the trees there, Isa. x. 34, " And Le- 
banon shall fall by a mighty one ;" that is, even the stoutest and most valiant in that army 
shall be slain by the angel of the Lord. In the foregoing part of the verse it is said, 

* lit Comment. 11. L. 


" and lie shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron," where we are to understand 
the other part of the army, who together with their chief captains and champions were to 
be cut off. 

Hill, if added to mountains, is sometimes taken metaphorically in the sense given 
before. Some by " everlasting hills," Gen. xlix. 26, understand patriarchs, prophets, 
and illustrious saints, who exceed others as hills do vallies, but it is thought that the 
phrase " unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills," is better expounded unto the end 
of the world ; that is, until the hills be moved, which are always immoveable. And by 
this reason also, Isa. liv. 10, the covenant of divine grace is compared to hills and 
mountains immoveable. 

A rock (which" is a great stone, in height resembling a mountain,) by a metaphor 
denotes a firm, stable, or secure place from dangers, and consequently refuge and pro- 
tection, Psal. zl. 2, xxvii. 5, and Ixi. 2, Isa. xxxi. 9, and xxxiii. 16, Jer. li. 25, &c. 

A den is a cavity or hollow place of stones, or great rocks, in which thieves and robbers 
hide themselves, hence Christ calls the Temple of Jerusalem, " a den of thieves," 
Matt. xxi. 13, Mark xi. 17, Luke xix. 46, which is taken from Jer. vii. 11, because 
of their .false doctrine, perverse lives, oppressions, unrighteousness, &c., each of which 
is spiritual robbery. Neither is the allusion of a den to that spacious and vast temple 
insignificant ; for we find recorded by Josephus, Lib. xiv., c. 27, and by Strabo, Lib. xvi., 
" that there were dens in that country so great and spacious that 4000 men may at once 
hide themselves in one of them." 

A valley, because of its lownesss and the obscurity of its shade, which broken and 
hanging hills and trees cause, metaphorically denotes humiliation, griefs, and oppressions, 
Isa. xl. 4, Luke iii.. 5. Jerusalem is called " the valley of visions," Isa. xxii. 1, because 
it was the seminary of the prophets, &c. Psal. xxiii. 4, " Yea, though I walk in the 
valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil ;" that is, although I should fall into the 
utmost perils -of death. The metaphor is taken from sheep, who when they stray in 
those obscure and desolate vallies are in danger of being destroyed by ravenous beasts. 
See Psal. cxix. 176, " I have gone astray like a lost sheep," &c. 

Psal. Ixxxiv. 6, " Who passing through the valley of Baca make it a well : the rain also 
filleth the pools." This text in the Hebrew is thus : " Passing through the valley of mul- 
berry-trees they make him a well, and the rain with blessings (or most liberally) covereth 
them ;" that is, although the godly (whom verse 4, 5, he calls blessed, because they 
dwell in the house of the Lord, still praising him, and with a strong faith cleaving to 
him, &c..) should be involved in divers calamities, which is metaphorically expressed 
by passing through the valley of mulberry-trees, that being a barren and dry place t 
mulberry-trees usually growing in such ground, 2 Sam. v. 22, 23, 24,) yet they trust 
in God and make him their well, by whom as from the living stream of health and 
comfort they are abundantly refreshed, raised up, and comforted, and as it were with a 
wholesome rain made fruitful. It follows, verse 7, "They shall go from strength to 
strength ;" that is, by the power of God they shall subdue and overcome all enemies 
and evils that annoy them. It follows in the Hebrew thus : " The God of gods shall be 
seen of them in Sion ;" that is, in the church of believers, he will graciously manifest 
himself to them, both by the word of life, and by his excellent help ; compare Psal. 1. 23, 
with this text. 

There are other vallies metaphorically made use of, as Hos. ii. 15, " I will give the 
valley of Achor for a door of hope." This is a promise of Jehovah to the church ; by 
which phrase the consolation of his Spirit in adversity, and the comfort of hope is 
understood. Achor signifies perturbation or trouble, and received that name from the 
great perturbation of the people of Israel, Josh. vii. 24, 25, 26. It was in that valley 
which borders upon Jericho, that they had the first hope of possessing the land of Canaan. 
So they believing in the valley of Achor, that is, being full of trouble and disturbo.nce, 
they are raised up by a gracious consolation out of God's word, and are comforted by the 
hope of eternal life. 

The valley of Jehoshaphat is put for the church, Joel iii. 2. The valley of Gehinnon 
or Hinnon, from whence Gehenna (put for hell) comes, affords no other metaphors. 


A desert, which is a part of the earth little inhabited and manured, wanting pleasant 
rivers, elegant trees, fruits, &c., is often put for the Gentiles, who are strangers to the 
kingdom of God, and are destitute of the means of eternal life. Hence fountains of living 
waters, and good trees, are promised to the desert, hy which the calling of the Gentiles to 
the kingdom of Christ is intimated, Isa. xxxv. 1, 2, xli. 18, 19, and xliii. 19, 20, and 
by those fountains the saving doctrines of Christ ; but by trees the teachers of the word, 
and true believers,' are to be understood. 

The lower parts of the earth, Psal. cxxxix. 15, signify the mother's womb, and so the 
Chaldee translates it. By this phrase we are fairly informed what our original is, viz., 
the earth. 

Some say that the phrase, Ephes. iv. 9, " He also descended into Ka.rcare P a pepy rns 
yns, the lowest parts of the earth," is to be taken in this sense : but this is most properly 
to be understood of the state of his deep and profound humiliation; "his ascending 
on high," is to be understood of the state of his most super-eminent exaltation. 
Brentius upon Acts i, Pag. 19, says " See the miseries and calamities which man must 
of necessity endure for his sin, and you will find him as it were in the lowest part of 
the earth ; what is lower than the pit of death ? What is deeper than hell ? When 
David said, ' Out of the depths have I cried to thee, Lord,' surely he cries from no 
other place, than from the sense of death and hell, in which for his sins, he was compre- 
hended," &c. 

The deep of the earth and the terms that are analogical to it, as a pit, an abyss, or 
swallowing deep, metaphorically denote, 

1. The grievousness of evils, miseries, and calamities, Psal. Iv. 23, Ixxi. 20, and 
Ixxxviii. 6, Prov. xxii. 14, Isa. xxiv. 17, 22, Lam. iv. 20, and iii. 47, 53, Zech. ix. 11. 
Hence the phrase " to dig a pit for another," that is, to conspire mischief, and " to fall into 
the pit he digged for another," that is, to be overwhelmed with the same evil he provided 
for another. See Psal. vii. 15, 16, and ix. 15, 16, Prov. xxvi. 27, Jer. xviii. 20, Psal. 
xciv. 12, 13, 2 Thes. i. 5, &c. 

By sepulchres, which are under the earth, great calamities are likewise signified, Psal. 
Ixxxvi. 13, and Ixxxviii. 3, 4, &c. 

2. That which is abstruse, hid, or inscrutable, as an abyss, or bottomless pit, cannot be 
seen or known through, Psal. xxxvi. 6, Kom. xi. 33, 1 Cor. ii. 10, Pi.ev. ii. 24. See Isa. 
xxix. 15, and xxxi. 6, Hos. v. 2, and ix. 9, 1 Tim. vi. 9, &c. 

From mud, dirt, dust, and dung, also, metaphors are taken which denote, 

1. Men in a vile and contemptible condition, 1 Sam. ii. 8, Psal. cxiii. 7. Hither may 
we refer where the apostle calls himself ir^pi^-n^a, 1 Cor. iv. 13, "Made as the filth of 
the world, and the offscouring of all things," because of the ignominy and contempt 
which he suffered. Erasmus in his paraphrase, " Others are much honoured by you, but 
we for your sake to this clay, are accounted as the trash of this world, than which nothing 
can be more abject, or trampled upon." See Lam. iii. 45, to which place a great many 
say the apostle had respect. 

2. Evils and adversities, Psal. Ixix. 2, 14, Jer. xxxviii. 22, Lam. iv. 5. 

3. Death, or a most ignominious casting away, Psal. Ixxxiii. 10, which is called the 
burial of an ass, Jer. xxii. 19. See 2 Kings ix. 37, Jer. xvi. 4, &c. 

4. A thing had in great esteem among men, but is really vile, sordid, and noxious ; 
Hab. ii. 6, " That ladeth himself with thick clay or mud." By this is to be understood a 
vast power of riches, which do not profit, but rather prove grand snares and hurtful 
impediments to the wicked possessors, as if they had been emerged in thick mud, or 
would take it along, as their burden. As mud is an impediment to a traveller, by 
how little he can go forward, and by how often he endeavours to dispatch, by so much 
is he involved in a more dangerous intricacy : so great wealth, in the way of godliness, 
is a hindrance to him that sets his heart upon it, Mark x. 23, 24, Luke viii. 14. See Isa. 
xxiv. 20. 

Phil. iii. 8, " I count all things but loss, and dung, that I may win Christ." He speaks 
of those things, which before his conversion he magnified, and put his confidence 
of salvation in : but now being converted to Christ, he despises them as the most 
sordid and vilest things,. being not only unprofitable for salvation, but most pernicious 


if confided in. Others expound o-Kv0a\a, as if he had said Kva-ipa\a, that which is thrown 
to dogs so Suidas takes it. And it is to he noted that in the second verse false apostles 
are called " dogs," whose corrupt works the apostle cautions against. By mud, dirt, and 
other filth, the members and apparel of a man are polluted and contaminated ; which 
contamination is brought frequently to denote the filthy nature of sin, Isa. Ixiv. 6, 2 Cor. 
vii. 1, Eph. v. 27, Tit. i. 15, 2 Pet. ii. 10, 20, ,( with verse 13, 22,) Jude verse 23, James 
i. 21, Rev. iii. 4. To this washing and cleansing are contrary, by which the taking away 
of sin is noted. 

The dust of the earth likewise signifies contempt, abjection, misery, and mourning, 
1 Sam. ii. 8, Job xv. ]6, Psal. vii. 5, 6, xxii. 15, 16, 29, xliv. 25, 26, cxiii. 7, and 
cxix. 25, Isa. xlvii. 1, Iii. 2, Lam. iii. 16, 29. 

Ashes, in a metaphorical signification, and by allusion of the name, agrees with dust, 
with which it is sometimes joined, sometimes not. For the dust is indeed ashes, only that 
is a grosser matter into which a thing burnt is reduced. By this is signified frailty and 
vileness, Gen. xviii. 27, Eccles. x. 9, where nevertheless there is respect had to man's 
first original, which was dust and ashes sometimes it signifies great calamity, and the 
sadness and mourning that ensue, Isa. Ixi. 3, Ezek. xxviii. 18, Mai. iv. 3, Lam. iii. 16; 
for mourners were formerly wont to throw ashes upon their heads, yea, to lie in it, as 
appears, 2 Sam. xiii. 19, Job ii. 8, and xlii. 6, Isa. Iviii. 5, Jer. vi. 26, Ezek. xxvii. 30, 
John iii. 6, Matt. xi. 21, &c. The same metaphorical signification is in _the phrase, to 
feed on ashes ; Psal. cii. 9, " I have eaten ashes like bread," that is, I am in very great 
grief or trouble. Isa. xliv. 20, " He feedeth on ashes : a deceived heart hath turned him 
aside." He speaks of the idol, which can bring nothing but mourning and all evil to its 
adorers. So much of simple bodies and what bears analogy with them. Of compound 
we will treat in the following chapters. 



COMPOUND bodies, according to the physical distinction, are either inanimate or animate. 

Inanimate are metals, stones, and concrete juices, as salt 
Animate are either vegetative, sensitive, or rational. 

Of the first kind are plants, or things growing out of the earth. 

Of the second kind, brutes. 

Of the third kind, men and women. Of which distinctly and in order. 

Metaphors taken from inanimate Sadies. 

Gmld metaphoriaally signifies quoad naturalia, as it respects naturals, 
(1.) A clear and shining liquor like gold, viz., pure oil, Zech. iv. 12. 
(2.) Serenity of sky, when it is of a yellowish red, Job xxxvii. 22, " Fair weather 
cometh out of the north" in the Hebrew, it is gold cometh out of the north, that is, 
as Schindler says, " a clear air vnthout clouds," or a wind pure as gold, and purifying the 
air, making it as pure as gold : the north wind, hence called by Homer, aiep-n-yevn-ns, 
the causer of serenity. The Septuagint render it, ve^o-auyowra, clouds shining like gold- 
As it respects spirituals, gold signifies the pure doctrine of the gospel, as silver and 
precious stones do, 1 Cor. iii. 12. Also the grace and benefits of Christ our Saviour ; 
or, which is the same thing, true wisdom received by the word of Christ, Rev. iii. 18 ; 
and even life eternal, Rev. xxi. 18. 


Silver is taken or put for an excellent or very fair thing, whence the word of 
God is said to be as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times, Psal. xii. 
6, where respect is had to its great purity. Hence our Saviour is said, Mai. iii. 3, " To 
be a refiner and- purifier of gold and silver," that is, to institute a repurgation of his 
heavenly doctrine. The phrase in Isa. i. 22, " Thy silver is become drogs," denotes cor- 
rupt doctrine, and a depraved life. The rebellious people of the Jews are called re- 
probate silver, as if it were said; overmuch corrupt, and therefore godcl for nothing but to 
be reprobated, or cast away. 

The excrements of silver, as dross, tin, and lead, denote idolaters, wicked and reprobate 
people, Isa. i. 25, (see Psal. cxix. 119, Prov. xxv. 4, 5, Ezek. xxii. 18, and the following 
verses, -as? a fragment, or (by a syllepsis) fragments j Isa. i. .28, are called the particles or 
refuse, of that dross, with which the prophet compares the wicked, because, like that, not 
to be healed, &c. 

Brass and iron denote hardness and solidity, Deut. xxviii. 23, Isa. xlviii. 4, Jer. i. 
18, Mie. iv. 3. Iron also denotes great troubles and crosses, if a furnace (which because 
of the lire it contains, is a symbol of calamity) be added, Deut. iv. 20, 1 Kings viii. 51. 
The like is to be understood if it be added to a yoke, as Deut. xxviii. 48, and to a rod, 
Psal. ii. 9 ; each of which by itself, signifies a iction. 

There is an obscurer place, Jer. xv. 12, " Shall iron -break the northern iron, and the 
steel or brass ?" which some expound, that the northern enemy, viz., the Assyrian army 
was plainly invincible. Others on the contrary, that there would assuredly come another 
enemy, who should break and chastise the Assyrians, to wit, the Persians, &c. Vatablus 
chooses the former sense, " By the first iron understanding the Jews : he compares, says 
he, the strength of the Jews to pure iron and the strength of the Chalde ans to iron, 
which is mixed with much steel, and therefore stronger : as if he had said, shall the Jew- 
ish iron sword break the Chaldean, well-tempered with iron and steel ? No ; iron and 
brass, he calls iron mixed with brass, that is steel." 

Junius and Tremellius take it as a confirmation of the foregoing promise, verse 11, 
which God made by the prophet, that he would defend them from the hostility of the 
Chaldeans, and would make them intreat them well ; and therefore they expound " the 
first iron, the Chaldeans, and the latter iron and brass, (that is steel from the north 
of Chalybes, (for there was a people of that name in the northern parts of Pontus, 
from which Chalybs or steel, took its name, as Virgil in the 2nd book of his Geor- 
gics, and Strabo in his 12th book of Geography, witness) Jehovah himself ; as if he 
(viz., Jehovah) had said, these are iron, but I, who interpose or come to relieve thee am a 
wall of steel to thee ; therefore you have no cause to fear, that you should be broken by 
those enemies." 

It is said, Isa. Ix. 17, " For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, 
and for wood brass, and for stones iron," which signifies the restoration or redemption 
of mankind, and the change of the legal into an evangelical dispensation by the Messiah. 

A Stone, if transferred to a man, sometimes denotes a great stupidity of mind, 
1 Sam. xxv. 37 : sometimes hardness of heart, and the state of the sinner before 
conversion .to God, Ezek. xi. 19, and xxy.vi. 26. To which the contrary is, that such 
as are converted and believe are called living stones, 1 Pet. ii. 5, with respect to 
Christ, who is called the precious and elect stone, upon which they are spiritually built, 
Eph. ii. 20, 21, 22. This word stone is also used in a good sense, Gen. 'xlix. 
24, " But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong, by the 
hands of the mighty God of Jacob ; from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel :" 
that is, Joseph stood and was sent by the most powerful God to feed Israel and his 
family as a pastor, and to prop them as a stone, to wit, when he supplied and preserved 
his father's whole house from Egppt. Some think that this man of God did prophesy 
of times to come, and that by pastors we should understand prophets, and by a stone, 
eminent kings and princes that were to come of the family of Joseph among the peo- 


pie of Israel, which people they were to lead forth, and teach, and to support them, as a 
rock or foundation-stone supports a building. 

It is said, Zech. xii. 3, that Jerusalem will be made " a stone of burden for all people;" 
upon which words Jerome notes, " Formerly in little villages, little towns, and little 
castles, they were w^nt to place round stones of great weight, which the youth for exer- 
cise sake, were wont to strive who could lift them highest ; some could lift only to their 
knees, some to their navels, some to their shoulders and head, some (that made an osten- 
tation of their strength) with erected hands, threw them over their heads," &c. Hence 
the prophet alludes (say they) that if any nations will adventure to assault the church, to 
remove it from its place, and toss it at their pleasure, they shall sink under their burden, 
and be even crushed to pieces ; even by the power and strength of the chief corner-stone 
of the church, Luke xx. 17, Id. 

From quarries of stone an elegant metaphor is taken, Isa. li. 1, " Look unto the rock 
whence ye are hewn, and to the hole of the pit whence ye are digged." He speaks of the 
godly Israelites sprung from Abraham and Sarah, as verse 2. The reason of this meta- 
phorical phrase, Junius and Tremellius fairly deduce from the argument of this chapter. 
" Thus Christ argues, I promise that I will comfort and restore the church, although it 
be wasted and almost nothing, verse 3 ; and that you may the easier believe this, re- 
member that ye are come of parents,, that had never begot children, if God. by his power- 
ful word (as a hammer breaks stones out of a rock) had not done it : and therefore yon 
who are in the same covenant, are to experience the same virtue and power of God." See 
Ezek. iv. 1, Exod. xxiv. 10, Prov. xvii. 8, 23. 

More especially there is a metaphorical mention of gems in the description of the glory 
and the inward splendour of the church of Christ, Isa. liv. 11, " Behold I will lay thy 
stones with fair colours, and lay thy foundation with sapphires"' And verse 12, "I will 
make thy windows of crystal, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy borders of pleasant 
stones," that this relates to the New Testament times, appears by the following words, 
verse 13, " And all thy children shall be taught of the Lord," which words, John vi. 44, 
45, are cited by Christ, application being made to his church. Its foundation is said to be 
laid in sapphires and carbuncles, that is, in the true knowledge of Jesus Christ, who is the 
only foundation of the church, Matt. xvi. 16, 18, 1 Cor. iii. 12, Isa. liv. 11, and withal 
the most precious and resplendent gem. It is expounded, Isa. liv. 14, " In righteousness , 
shalt thou be established," which is the righteousness of Christ applied by true faith in 
order to salvation. Its windows are said to be of crystal, by which the apostles, evangel- 
ists, and other faithful preachers of the word of God, and their sacred preaching of Jesus 
Christ, are to be understood, through which, as by crystalline and most transparent.windows, 
heavenly light gets into the church. It's gates are said to be of carbuncles, (a gem of a 
flaming colour which derives its name from nip 'kindling,') by which the continual preaching 
of the word is understood, that door of utterance, Col. iv. 3, 1 Cor. xvi. 9, " The gates 
that shall be open continually," Isa. Ix. 11, by which such as enter are enlightened as by 
a sparkling gem, and kindled by a divine fire, Luke xxiv. 32, " Did not our heart burn 
within us ?" &c. 

Lastly, "All its borders are said to be of pleasant stones," that is, most lovely and de- 
sirable; by which the amplitude or largeness of the Church of Christ, gathered by 
the preaching of the Gospel in the whole world, built upon Christ himself, and his 
saving knowledge, is understood. But we must observe, that these things are to be 
most completely fulfilled in the heavenly Jerusalem and life eternal, as in its description, 
Rev. xxi. 10, 11, 18, &c. appears. 

By the metaphor of a pearl the saving word of God is expressed, Matt. vii. 6, so 
the kingdom of heaven, that is, the church gatheied by the word, is compared to a pearl, 
Matt. xiii. 45, 46. 

An adameut or diamond TOIS Adamas (a precious and most hard stone) is brought to 
denote the depravity and diabolical hardness of man's heart, Zech. vii. 12. 

Salt, that good creature of God, so called by the Evangelist, Luke xiv. 44, be- 
cause of its virtue to preserve from putrefaction ; and season, or give a relish unto meat, is 


by a metaphorical translation applied sometimes to the apostles, and other teachers of the 
word of God, Matt. v. 13, whose office it is to take care that by sound doctrine, and 
a blameless example of life, their auditors he preserved from any corruption, as well intlie 
fundamentals of religion, as also, (as far as may he,) from any hlemish in external life 
and conversation. For as salt applied to meat consumes the depraved or corrupt humours, 
and so preserves from putrefaction; so the ministers of the Gospel by sound doctrines, 
and' by a prudent application of legal reprehension preserve men from being putrified in 
sin, and are instruments to make them savoury, that is, that they may please God, and so 
obtain (through his mercy in Christ) eternal blessedness. 

Theophilact * on Mark ix. 50, says, " that as salt hinders the generation of worms in 
meat ; so the preaching of the Gospel, if quick and home, seasons carnal men so that the 
worm of restlessness shall not generate in them." 

Sometimes it signifies wisdom and prudence, Mark ix. 20, Col. iv. 6 ; upon which 
Illyrieus, " Wisdom keeps the actions, lives, and manners of men, from any fault, as salt 
does flesh and other things : and makes life, manners, and speech grateful and acceptable 
to all, as salt gives a grateful relish to meat." 

To this speech seasoned with salt, " corrupt communications " are opposed, Eph. iv. 29, 
that is, obscene, foolish, or impious talk, which for the want of this spiritual salt, as it 
were, stinks, and is unsavoury to God and holy men. What we translate Job i. 22, " In 
all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly," is (word for word) in the Hebrew thus, 
" In all these Job sinned not, nor gave unsavouriness -j- against God," viz., sinful 
words, as the Chaldee renders it. Impiety is noted by the same word, Job xxiv. 12. 

We have mention of a " covenant of salt," Numb, xviii. 19, 2 Cbron. xiii. 5 ; which 
signifies that which is lasting and perpetual ; the reason of this speech is, because 
things salted last very long and do not putrify. See Luth. Marginal. School, in Numb. 
xyiii. 19 

Sulphur or brimstone joined with fire, denotes most heavy punishments, Deut. 
xxix. 23, Job xviii. 15, Psal. xi. 6, Isa. xxxiv. 9, Ezek. xxxviii. 22 ; hence it is put 
in the description of hell, Isa. xxx. 33, Kev. xiv. 10, xx. 10, and xxi. 8 ; all which places 
(some say) allude to the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by fire and brimstone, 
Gen. xix. 24. 

Metaphors taken from things growing out of the Earth. 

THINGS growing out of the earth are to be considered distinctly, with respect to their 
parts, as also with respect to their kinds and species. The parts are these, 

1. Seeds, of which a plant grows, metaphorically signifies the word of God, by power 
and virtue of which a man is new-born, and becomes an acceptable tree or plant to God, 
(Isa. Ixi. 3,) 1 Pet. i. 23, " Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, 
by the word of God which liveth, and abideth for ever," 1 John iii. 9, " Whosoever is 
born of God, doth not commit sin ; for his seed remaineth in him ; and he cannot sin 
because he is born of God," which is expounded, Psal. cxix. 11, " Thy word have I hid 
in my heart, that I may not sin against thee ;" and Luke viii. 15, " But that sown in the 
good ground, are they, which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep 
it, and bring forth fruit with patience." To this may be compared the 5th and llth 
verses of this chapter, where it is expounded, that the seeed is the word of God. 

By the same metaphor, it is called *oyos e^vros, sermo insititius, " the engrafted word," 
Jam. i. 21, (mention being made of regeneration, verse 18,) that is, which God by the 
power of his Spirit, does, as it were, sow and plant in the hearts of men, that it may take 
root there, and bring forth fruit acceptable to God. 

(1.) Seed as to outward appearance is but a mean thing, neither is its virtue appa- 

* Qwemadmodum sal carnes eohibet, &c. rrrCBf instil.ritas, unsaovuriuess. 



rent or risible : so the word of God is much despised and contemned in the world, 
1 Cor. i. 21. 

(2.) Good seed, cast into good ground, does germinate, and put forth a plant, by 
whose virtue and power it continues its kind : so the word of God, received in a good 
heart, makes a man such as itself is, that is, spiritual, and quickened with a divine life, 
because that seed " is spirit and life," John vi. 63. 

(3.) That seed may grow, there is need of the sun's heat, and rain or dew : so God 
himself gives increase to the seed of the heavenly word, 1 Cor. iii. 6, 7, " The sun of 
righteousness " influenees it with his celestial heat, and waters it with the rain or dew of 
his Holy Spirit, Isa. xliv. 3, &c. 

When the verb to sow is attributed to God, it denotes a multiplication of blessings to 
men, Jer. xxxi. 27, Hos. ii. 23, Zech. x. 9, to which the phrase, Nah. i. 14, is contrary, 
" The Lord hath given a commandment concerning thee, that no more of thy name be 
sown," that is, thou shalt be slain, and shalt perish without recovery. 

When attributed to men, it signifies such things as are done in our life-time, from 
which good or evil is to be expected. And so expresses either the exercise or practice 
of piety or impiety. Examples of the former are to be read, Psal. cxxvi. 5, 6, Prov. 
xi. 8, Hos. x. 12, 2 Cor. ix. 6 ; of the latter, Prov. xxii. 8, Job iv. 8, Jer. iv. 3, Hos. 
viii. 7 ; of both, Gal. vi. 810. 

When it is said of human bodies that they are sown, it denotes their death and burial, 
1 Cor. xv. 42, 43, 44, to which the resurrection from the dead is opposed ; for the apostle 
metaphorically changes the word speaking, verse 36, of the seed as of the body : but here 
of the body as of seed. 

A root, which is the basis or lower part of the plant, and the principle or beginning 
of ancretion, is put for any original or foundation of a thing, Deut. xxix. 18, Isa. 
xiv. 30, Rom. xi. 16, 17, 18, 1 Tim. vi. 10, Heb. xii. 15 ; and for a prosperous state of 
things, Job xxix. 19. Hence comes the phrase, to take root, or to root, that is, to 
be in a good condition, or to multiply or thrive in any outward blessing, Job v. 3, 
Psal. Ixxx. 9, Isa. xxvii. 6, and xxxvii. 31, Jer. xii. 2. And, on the contrary, the " drying 
up of the root," denotes the destruction of the wicked, Job xviii. 1 6, Isa. v. 24, Hos. ix. 
16, Mai. iv. 1. 

More especially " the roots of the feet," for so it is in the Hebrew, Job xiii. 27 ; but 
in our English translation, " heels of my feet," an exposition rather than a translation, 
signify the heels or knuckle bones, because they are the lowest part, as a root is to a plant. 
The root of Jesse, Isa. xi. 1, seems to note the patriarchs from which Jesse and David 
were sprung. 

To be rooted, is spoken of the mystery of our regeneration, and a corroboration or strength- 
ening in faith and piety is signified thereby, Eph. iii. 17, Col. ii. 7, to which we may fitly 
compare Job xix. 28, " But ye should say, why persecute we him, seeing the'root of the 
matter is found in me ?" that is, when rooted by faith in God I keep mine integrity, as 
Junius and Tremellius expound it. 

A branch, with many synonymous terms, is frequently proposed in allegories, sig- 
nifying by the similitude of a growing, green, and thriving tree, prosperity ; and, on 
the contrary, by the similitude of a withering tree, misfortune, and calamity, Gen. xlix. 
22, Job xv. 32, and xxix. 19, (where Tsp, signifies a branch, as chap, xviii. 16,) Psal. 
Ixxx. 10, 11, Isa. xxv. 5, Ezek. xvii. 6, &c.. and xxxi. 3, &c., Mai. iv. 1, &c. By the 
term branches, Paul understands the Israelites of that time, Rom. xi. 16, 17, &c., who 
were descended (or proceeded) of the first patriarchs as from a root. The Church is 
called the " branch of God's planting," Isa. Ix. 21, because, (as it were planted in Christ 
the tree of life,) he has a singular love and care for it, vegetating, comforting, and preserv- 
ing it, by his Spirit, and at last eternally saving it. 

A leaf, because it easily falls and withers, carries the notion of vileness and vanity, 
Job xiii. 25, 26 ; but in regard the leaves of some trees are always green, under the 
similitude of such a tree, eternal life is described, . Ez.ek. xlvii. 12. See Rev. xxii. 2; 
also the righteous, who are heirs of eternal life, Psal. xcii. 12, 13, 14, with Psal. i. 3, and 
Iii. 8. 


The greenness of leaves is called a budding or germination, which word (viz.,* rras)- is 
by a metaphor brought to signify, sometimes natural things, as " the hairs of the head 
and beard," Lev. xiii. 37, 2 Sam. x. 5, Judg. xvi. 22, Ezek. xvi. 7. The word flourish- 
ing, reviving, or more properly growing green again, is elegantly translated, Phil. iv. 
10, to signify the mind of man stirred up by love and benevolence to do good. On 
the contrary, to " be dried up or withered," is put for death, or being taken away, 
Joel i. 12. 

A flower denotes prosperity, Isa. v. 24. See Job xv. 33. But because a flower 
is easily cut down, and withered, it is put for any thing that is frail, uncertain, or 
transitory, Isa. xxviii. 1, 4, Psal. ciii. 15, 16, Jam. i. 10, 11, 1 Pet. i. 24, Isa. xl. 
6, 7, 8. 

To flourish is put for a prosperous state of men, Psal. Ixxii. 7, 16, and cxxxii. 18, 
Prov. xiv. 11, Isa. xxvii. 6, Hos. xiv. 8. See also Isa. Ixvi. 14, Ezek. xxii. 24. 
What is said. Ezek. vii. 10, " The rod hath blossomed ; pride hath budded ;" is un- 
derstood by most interpreters of the king of the Assyrians, now growing to the^height 
of his empire and authority, and preparing to besiege Jerusalem. The Chaldee, " The 
empire flourishes, and the wicked is got up." But Junius and Tremellius refer it to 
the people of Israel, translating it thus, " That tribe flourishing did bud out pride, for 
rroo signifies both a rod and a tribe " to flourish is also used of ulcers and leprosies, 
Exod. ix. 9, 10, Lev. xiii. 39, &c. 

Fruit, the metaphorical acceptation of this word is well known, and obvious every 
where, viz., that it is put for the consequent or effect of a thing, whether for good or evil: 
It is put for the consequent reward of godliness, Psal. Iviii. 11, " Verily there is a fruit 
for the righteous," (so the Hebrew.) The Chaldee, " certainly there is a good reward for 
the just." So Isa. iii. 10, Heb. xii. 11, Jam. iii. 18. 

It is put for the punishment of impiety, Jer. vi. 19, " Behold I will bring >vil upon 
this people, even the fruit of their thoughts, because they have not hearkened unto my 
words, nor to my law, but rejected it." The Chaldee says, " the retribution or reward_pf 
their works." 

Good or evil works, are also called fruits, the good so called, Matt. iii. 8, see Acts 
xxvi. 20, Eom. vi. 22, Gal. v. 22, Eph. v. 9, Phil. i. 11. Bad works, so called, Isa. x. 
( 12, Jer. xxi. 14, Eom. vi. 21. The reason of the metaphor, is, because godly and 
wicked men are compared to good and bad trees, of which the one bring forth good, 
the other bad fruit, Matt. iii. 10, and vii. 16, and the following verses, chap. xii. 33, Jude, 
verse 12. 

Hence the verb to fructify, is put for the study of piety and good works, Hos. 
xiii. 15, Luke viii. 15, Roni. vii. 4, Col. i. 10; and inasmuch as that is the effect 
of the word of God, implanted by faith in the hearts of men, therefore fructifying 
is attributed to it, Col. i. 6. Hence the apostle Paul says, Kom. i. 13, " Now I would 
not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you, (but was let 
hitherto,) that I might have some fruit among you also (or in you)," &c. ; that is, that it 
may appear to me when present, to the comfort of my spirit, that the gospel is as fruitful 
among you, as others. As good masters repute that fruit theirs, when their disciples have 
coinmendably profited under their teachings. On the contrary, " to bring forth ;fruit unto 
death," is to be given up to wickedness, and perpetrate all evil works, Bom. vii. 5. 

By another metaphor the word preached is called the " fruit of the lips ;" Isa. Ivii. 19, 
" I create the fruit of the lips," the Chaldee, " the speech of the lips," as the verb to fruc- 
tify is put for speech, Prov. x. 31, Zech. ix. 17 ; so to be unfruitful is attributed to such 
as want faith, Tit. iii. 14, 2 Pet. i. 8; to evil works, Eph. v. 11; to the word of God, 
where it is not rightly received and kept, Matt. xiii. 22, Mark iv. 1'J. 

Hitherto we have treated of some parts of things growing out of the earth : now 
we shall proceed. 1. Generally. 2. Specially, of the rest, which we shall reckon in 

A plant if attributed to God, his church and believers are to be understood, 
Isa. v. 7, Ix. 21, and Ix:. 3, Ezek. xxxiv. 29. Hence Matt. xv. 13, " Every plantjwhich 

* Dicilur proprie de terra nascenlibus et plat/tis. 


my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up," which denotes such as are hete- 
rodox, impious, or hypocritical, in the garden of the church, or in its outward communion 
without the root of the matter. The word*planting attributed to God is sometimes taken 
generally, and signifies to form or make, Psal. xciv. 9, "He that planted the ear, shall he 
not hear ;" that is, he that formed it. Sometimes specially ; and signifies to carry on, 
bless, and increase with felicity, Exod. xv. 17, 2 Sam. vii. 10, Psal. xliv. 2, and Ixxx. 8, 
Isa. xl. 24, Jer. ,xii. 2, and xviii. 9, Ezek. xxxvi. 36, Amos ix. 15. ' 

On the contrary, to pluck up is put for to take away blessing, to destroy and punish, Deut. 
xxix. 28, 2 Chron. vii. 20, Jer. xviii. 7, and xxxi. 28, Amos ix. 15. 

Sometimes this plantation is most especially put to signify the restoration made by 
Christ, and the sanctification of men to life eternal, Isa. li. 16, Psal. xcii. 13, 14, Rom. vi. 
5 ; to which belongs the term engrafting, Kom. xi. 7, 19, 23, 24, put for the communion 
of saints in the church. And in regard these things are effected by the preaching of the 
word of God, therefore planting, (and watering, necessary thereunto) is attributed to the 
ministers thereof, 1 Cor. iii. 6, 7, 8, where there is a most elegant subordination of 
these planters and waterers to TOV av^avovra, him that gives the increase, viz., Jehovah, 
who by the ministry of the word effectually operates or works out, the faith and 
salvation of men. To plant is said of a tent or tabernacle, because the chords 
of a tent are^fastened to stakes fixed in the ground, as plants are fixed, &c., Dan. xi. 

A tree is often used by way of similitude ; but in a metaphor, which is a short or concise 
similitude, sometimes it refers to man, Jer. xi. 19, Isa. Ixi. 3, Ezek. xvii. 24, 'Matt. iii. 10, 
and xii. 33, Jude verse 12, by which is signified his condition whether good or evil. 
Sometimes it relates to some certain, wholesome, or profitable thing, called for that reason 
the tree of life, Prov. iii. 18, xi. 30, xiii. 12, and xv. 4. 

More especially some certain names of good trees are put, Isa. xli. 19, Iv. 13, and 
Ix. 13, to signify the amenity or pleasantness of the kingdom of Christ, and the va- 
riety of its heavenly gifts, Zech. xi. 1, 2. Men of various or indifferent estates in 
Israel; cedars, fir-trees, oaks, the trees of the wood are expressed by name, By 
cedars and. oaks mentioned, Isa. ii. 13, the nobility and great ones of the kingdom who 
were proud and elevated, are noted. Hence the Chaldee renders it, " The kings of 
the people strong and mighty, and the tyrants of the provinces." The royal family of 
David, from whence Christ according to the flesh was descended, is proposed by the 
allegory of a cedar, Ezek. xvii. 22. " The lopping off boughs, and cutting down the 
thickets of the forest," denotes the destruction of the people, Isa. x. 18, 33, 34, and xl. 
24, Zech. xi. 1, 2. 

That part of a cut tree, which is left above the earth is called the stock, stem, or trunk.*' 
Which word is metaphorically translated, to denote the mean and humble original of Christ 
according to the flesh, or his temporal nativity from the progeny of David, Isa. xi. 1, "And 
there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, &c." 

A beam SOKOS, and the disparate term icapQos, a mote, (which is a small splinter flying 
out of a cleft piece of wood ; Hesych. & Athen. Lib. 13) are used to express the difference 
and degrees of sinners, Matt. vii. 3, 4, 5, where Christ allegorically demonstrates the craft 
of calumniators, who are mighty curious and inquisitive into the failings or infirmities of 
others, (although slight like motes,) but very blind and dull in examining their own faults, 
(though grievous, great and weighty, like a beam.) Here we have also an admonition 
concerning our duty, which is first to search our own wallet, which hangs at our back, and 
having well shaken it, and cleared it, we may proceed to the examination of our brother's 



Thorns sometimes signify wicked and mischievous men, Numb, xxxiii. 55, Josh, 
xxiii. 13, (in which the enemies are emphatically called *" thorns and prickles in their 
eyes ;". that is, such as are of all things most troublesome and hurtful, so as that the 
eyes cannot endure, so much as a little chaff, mote, thofn, or prickle, without horrible 
torment,) Psal. Iviii. 9, Isa. ix. 18, x. 17, and xxvii. 4, Ezek. ii. 6, and xxviii. 24. See 
.also because of the similitude, 2 Sam. xxiii. 6, 7, Isa. xxxiii. 12, Nah. i. 10, Matt. 
vii. 16, Luke vi. 44, &c. Sometimes thorns signify impediments met withal, Hos. 
ii, 6, "I will hedge up thy way with thorns," &c. Jer. iv. 3, Matt, xiii 7, 22. 

* J?U stripes, tru.ncus. 


A reed is a weak shrub, easily agitated or shaken by a small gust of wind, 1 Kings 
xiv. lo ; sometimes denotes men that are inconstant, light, and of a doubtful faith, Matt. 
xi. 7, Luke vii. 24= ; sometimes men afflicted and penitent, called a " bruised reed," Isa. 
xlii- 3, viz., a reed of itself frail and weak, is much more weak if it be shaken and bruised. 
Our Saviour therefore promises that he will not by any means break such, but rather 
strengthen, consolidate, and heal them. 

Sometimes it signifies men, great indeed, but unable to help, that are more mischiev- 
ous and nought, on which some are apt to rely or depend, though to their loss, as such do, 
who lean on a weak and broken reed, to their own destruction, 2 Kings xviii. 21, Isa. 
xxxvi. 6, Ezek. xxix. 6, 7. A rush or bulrush signifies men of the basest and lowest con- 
dition, Isa. ix. 14, and xix. 15. 

Wormwood, because of its ungrateful taste and extreme bitterness, is by a metaphor 
brought to signify sometimes sin and evil, Deut. xxix 18, Amos v. 7, and vi. 12. See 
Deut. xxxii. S2, Isa. v. 20, Eev. xiii. 11. Sometimes punishment or torment, Jer. ix. 15, 
and xxiii. 15, Lam. iii. 15, 1 9. See Prov. v. 4. 

So much of the species of things growing out of the earth, which yield any meta- 
phors, to^ which we may fitly subjoin, where mention is made of the containing subject ; 
which is, 

(1.) A wood. 
(2.) A garden. 

A wood, inasmuch as it contains many barren trees, is a symbol of infidelity and impiety, 
Isa. xxxii. 15 ; and because it is full of trees and shrubs, it carries the notion of an entire 
anny, Isa. x. 34, of both of which we have spoken before in the 10th chap., where we 
spoke of Carmel and Lebanon. 

A garden is the place of the most eminent and choicest "plants and trees, especially 
that first garden which we call Paradise. The church of Christ, Cant. iv. 12, is called 
" a garden enclosed" (or barred.) A garden, because of it's spiritual fruitfulness ; barred 
because hid to the world, " hid with Christ in God/' Col. iii. 3, " The world knoweth us 
not," 1 John iii. 1. The same churoh with its fruits of the Spirit, verse 13, is called 
Paradise. Of which elsewhere. 

Heaven, or eternal life is called paradise, Luke xxiii. 43, 2 Cor. xii. 4, Rev. ii. 7 ; the 
reason of the metaphorical appellation being drawn from the extraordinary pleasantness of 
that garden, and the great plenty of good things there. 

Metaphors taken from the Olive Tree and its fruit. 

Amongst the things growing in the land of Canaan, three are most eminent, by which 
its goodness, fruitfulness, and other excellencies may be known, viz., the olive, which 
is a tree the vine, which is a shrub and grain or corn of all sorts. All which ar e 
joined together, Deut. xiv. 23, and xviii. 4, Psal. civ. 14, 15, 16, &c., Jer. xxxi. 12, Hos- 
ii. S, 22, Joel ii. 19, and in the common version, Gen xxvii. 37, Psal. iv. 7, S, where the 
Syriac interpreter expresses all three. 

From each of these, and things that bear affinity or relation to them, there are a great 
many delicate metaphors deduced in Scripture. 

The people of Israel are called an olive, because of the great dignity with which they 
were invested by God, Jer. xi. 16, " The Lord called thy name, a green olive tree, fair, 
and of goodly fruit;" as if he had said, thou hast besn like a green and leafy olive, which 
most beautifully flourishes, giving extraordinary hope of its fruit. But the antithesis fol- 
lows " With the noise of a great tumult, (or tempests,) he hath kindled fire upon it, and 
the branches of it were broken; that is, as Junius and Tremellius have interpreted it, " They 
shall be like encountering storms of winds, which rushing into this place shall shake down 
the flowers, break the branches, that is, they will destroy small and great. Afterwards they 
will consume with fire the very town, as if it were the stump of a tree. That these things 
Were transacted, the last chapters of the Kings, Chronicles, and Jeremiah do fully make it 
out ; verse 17, this olive is said to be " planted by the Lord," &c. 


Zech. iv., what are called "the two olives," verse 3, 11, 12, are said to be the "two. 
sons of oil," so the Hebrew, verse 1-1, that is, two olives, plentiful, fat, having as it were, 
a spring of oil, continually flowing. This metaphor signifies the perpetual supplies of spi- 
ritual gifts to the Church through Christ, who was beyond measure anointed " with the oil 
of gladness," Psal. xlv. 7, from whom believers have this unction, 1 John ii. 20, 27. 
But this was spoken to in the chapter of anthropopathy. 

Rom. xi. 17, " the church of Israel" is called an olive, eminent for fatness, whose root 
Abraham may be said to be, with respect to the covenant God entered into with him, and 
the promise of a blessed seed, divine benediction, and eternal life, made to his believing 
posterity, (that is, his sons by faith, who believe as he did, such being only the sons of 
Abraham), whether Jews or Gentiles, Gal. iii. 29. This being observed, it is easy for 
any one to understand why the Gentiles are compared to a wild olive, and what this en- 
grafting into the olive is ; and the partaking of its root and fatness, (that is, the fatness 
proceeding from the root, and diffused to the branches, by the hendiadys] as also the cut- 
ting off the branches. 

Rev. xi. 4, "the two witnesses" raised by God (by whom those sincere few teachers of the 
Church, in the midst of the antichristian tyranny and fury preserved by God, are under- 
stood, expressed by the number two, because "In the mouth of two or three witnesses 
shall every truth be established," Deut. xix. 15, 2 Cor. xiiL 1,) are called " two olives and 
two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth." In the former metaphor we are 
to understand the consolation of the word of God, given by the Holy Spirit, the oil of glad- 
ness, as also fruitfulness in good works, as the olive is a most fruitful tree ; and constancy 
and perseverance in the faith under persecutions, as the leaves of the olive do not wither, 
but are always green, and the wood of the olive-tree never rots through age. In the lat- 
ter metaphor divine illumination from the word of God is understood ; that this is taken 
from the fore-cited place of Zech. iv. is evident. 

Oil, the fruit of the said tree, is much valued, and much used amongst all sorts of peo- 
ple and nations. In scripture-metaphors, sometimes it denotes an abundance of pleasant 
and acceptable things, Deut. xxxii. 13, Job xxix. 6. Sometimes joy and refreshment of 
mind, if considered with respect to the anointing, Psal. xcii. 10, and cxli. 5, Cant. i. 3, Isa. 
Ixi. 3. The reason of the metaphor is taken from the fragrancy and wholesomeness of 
this fruit. From hence we may in a manner give a reason for the name of Christ and 
Christians, it being derived from the uaction or anointing of the Holy Spirit, which is 
compared to oil. 

Isa. x. 27, there is mention made of oil, " And it shall come to pass on that day, that 
his burden shall be removed from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck, and the 
yoke shall be destroyed from the face of oil, or from before the oil" which the Chaldee 
expounds of the Messiah ; Junius and Tremellius follow that expression : " Propter oleum, 
because of the oil, (or anointing,) that is, thou shalt be delivered by Christ, or for the 
sake of Christ, in whom rests the Spirit of Jehovah, who anointed him, chap. Ixi. 1." The 
cause of that deliverance and vengeance is intimated, viz., the promise sometimes made to 
this people, of sending Christ to them, who is signified by the word oil, because he was to 
be anointed with, " the oil of gladness above his fellows," &c. 

Metaphors from the Vine, fyc. 

A vineyard, the place where vines ars planted, in a continued metaphor and parable 
signifies the Church as well of the Old as New Testament, Cant. viii. 11, 12, Isa. iii. 14 
and v. 1, &c., Isa. xxvii. 2, 3, 6, Matt. xx. 1, &c., of which pleasant similitude many have 
written much. The quiet or free plantation of vineyards, exhibits the notion of spiritual 
peace in the kingdom of Christ, Isa. Ixv. -21, 22. See Deut. xxviii. 30, 39, 1 Kings iv. 
25, Micah iv. 4, &c. 

A vine sometimes signifies good, sometimes evil. Examples of the former are to be 
read, Psal. Ixxx. 8, 9, &c., Isa. v. 2, 7, Jer. ii. 21, where the people of Israel introduced 
into the land of Canaan, received as the people of God, that they may serve him constantly 
in righteousness and piety, is understood. But this becomes degenerate, offending God 
with foul idolatry and impiety ; all which by the metaphor of a vine, well planted but 
much corrupted, is expressed in the two last places. 


It is taken in an ill sense, Deut. xxxii. 32, 33, where mention is made of a vine, 
grapes, clusters, and wine, expressing the cruel abominable wickedness of sinners. 

Expositors are not agreed in what sense to take a vine, Hos. x. 1 ; but the most pro- 
per interpretation seems to be this, "Israel is an empty vine," that is, it plentifully brings , 
forth fruit like a luxuriant vine, as if it would at once empty itself of all its fruit. Yet it 
produces not good but bad fruit (it is the vine of Sodom and Gomorrah, Deut. xxxii. 32, 
33, plentifully bringing forth wild grapes, Isa. v. 2,) for it follows, " He bringeth forth 
fruit unto himself: according to the multitude of his fruit he hath increased the altars, &c. 
See metaphor of a vine in the second book. 

The phrase to sit under his own vine and fig-tree, is a description of security, peace, 
and tranquillity, 1 Kings iv. 25, 2 Kings xviii. 31, for the Jews were wont to love their 
vines and fig-trees beyond any other trees ; partly for the sweetness of the fruit, Judg. ix. 
11, 13, and partly for the conveniency of the shade. For (as Pliny* calls them,) 
branched or spreading vines, or (as Columella, Lib. iii. cap. 2, calls them,) such as are 
perched upon rails or galleries in the form of an arbour, covering it on all parts, do afford 
a cool and delightsome shade, for repose or bauquetting. 

As to the fig-tree, (as Pliny-f- has it) its leaf is very large, and consequently very 
shadowing, which may be gathered also from Gen. iii. 7.- This phrase " to sit under his 
own vine and fig-tree" is metonymical, inasmuch as it is a sign of public peace and 
tranquillity ; and synecdochical, inasmuch, as by these two species of trees and plants, 
all sorts of vineyards, gardens, fields, &c., are understood : but metaphorically the 
inward and spiritual peace of the kingdom of Christ is expressed by it, Micah iv. 4, 
Zech. iii. 10, &c. 

Wine, and new wine, signify as well the effects of divine mercy and grace, as 
of wrath and vengeance. Examples of the former are to be read, Prov. ix. 5, Cant. 
ii. 4, Isa. Iv. 1, Joel iii. 18, Zech. ix. 17; in which places by the metaphor of wine, 
the blessings or benefits of the kingdom of Christ are expressed ; which are righteous- 
ness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. As natural wine is said " to cheer or make glad 
the heart of man," Psal. civ. 15, and that "it cheers the heart of God and man," Judg. 
ix. 13 ; so Jehovah is (as it were) cheered and delighted, with the conversion, faith, and 
piety of men, Isa. Ixii. 5. 

Examples of the latter are to be read, Psal. Ix. 3, and Ixxv. 8, Illyricus says, that 
" by this similitude he signifies most heavy afHictions," &c. Key. xiv. 10, and. xviii. 6, 
&c. ; Isa. i. 22, " Thy wine mixed with water," denotes the corruption of all orders in 
Israel, as the foregoing and following words show. The Septuagint renders it 01 Ktur^oi, 
iroy mffyovfft TOV oivov vSan, " thy taverners mix wine with water," from whence they say that 
metaphorical speech of Paul is deduced, 2 Cor. ii. 17, " For we are not as many, 
Ka.v-fi\evovTs, TOV \oyov TOV eov, taverning the word of God." This word Kainri\eveiv (which 
our Bibles render corrupting the word of God) is very emphatical, J it is a metaphor 
taken from hosts, victuallers, innkeepers, or rather tavernkeepers, who corrupt and 
adulterate their wines ; by which the apostle elegantly inculcates two things, 

(1.) Their adulterating the word of God by the mixture of their own fancies. 

(2.) Their covetousness and study of filthy gain. 

The verb Ka,tri}\evu is properly understood of wine-sellers, and is metaphorically trans- 
lated to signify deceitful dealing, as it is expounded, 2 Cor. iv. 2. 

Chrysostom Says, TOVTO eo-Ti /camjA.eu<rat OTO.V TIS voBevi) TOV oivov, OTO.V ris ^p-qii.a.Tuv trcoXi} oirep 

peav eSei Sowai, in English, this is, (cauponari, to tavern, when any one adulterates wine, 
hen any one sells a thing of that kind for money, which he ought to give freely. The 
Syriae renders it, for we are not as the rest who mix, (or adulterate by mixtures, the 
of God, &c. Jer. xxiii. 28, 1 Tim. vi. 5, 2 Pet. ii. 3 

The dregs or lees of wine are metaphorically used two ways. 

1. Either denoting very great calamities, Psal. Ixxv. 8, Isa. Ii. 17; upon which Illy- 
r icus:|J "As the cup signifies its part of the cross and castigation, which God in his 

time distributes or gives out to every one : so the dregs of that draught do signify 
most bitter part of the calamity or punishment," see Ezek. xxiii. 32, 33, 34. 

2. Sometimes signifying secure tranquillity, as Zeph. i.-12, "I will punish the men 

settled (or concrete, curdled, thickened,) on their lees ;" that is. such as with great 

xvii. Cap. 2. vites compluviatts. t Xz6. xvi. Cap. 29. \ Arct. Dr. tSciat. \\ tiicut pocu/am, c. 




[BOOK 1 

my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up," which denotes such as are hete- 
rodox, impious, or hypocritical, in the garden of the church, or in its outward communion 
without the root of the matter. The word w planting attributed to God is sometimes taken 
generally, and signifies to form or make, Psal. xciv. 9, "He that planted the ear, shall he 
not hear;" that is, he that formed it. Sometimes specially; and signifies to carry on 
bless, and increase with felicity, Exod. xv. 17, 2 Sam. vii. 10, Psal. xliv. 2, and Ixxx. 8 
Isa. xl. 24, Jer. ,xii. 2, and xviii. 9, Ezek. KXXVI. 36, Amos ix. 15. ' ' 

On the contrary, to pluck up is put for to take away blessing, to destroy and punish, Deut. 
xxix. 28, 2 Chron. vii. 20, Jer. xviii. 7, and xxxi. 28, Amos ix. 15. 

Sometimes this plantation is most especially put to signify the restoration made by 
Christ, and the sanctification of men to life eternal, Isa. li. 16, Psal. xcii. 13, 14, Kom. vi. 
5 ; to which belongs the term engrafting, Bom. xi. 7, 19, 23, 24, put for the communion 
of saints in the church. And in regard these things are effected by the preaching of the 
word of God, therefore planting, (and watering, necessary thereunto) is attributed to the 
ministers thereof, 1 Cor. iii. 6, 7, 8, where there is a most elegant subordination of 
these planters and waterers to fov avfavovra, him that gives the increase, viz., Jehovah, 
who by the ministry of the word effectually operates or works out, the faith and 
salvation of men. To plant is said of a tent or tabernacle, because the chords 
of a tent are^fastened to stakes fixed in the ground, as plants are fixed,. &c., Dan. xi 

A tree is often used by way of similitude ; but in a metaphor, which is a short or concise 
similitude, sometimes it refers to man, Jer. xi. 19, Isa. Ixi. 3, Ezek. xvii. 24, 'Matt. iii. 10, 
and xii. 33, Jude verse 12, by which is signified his condition whether good or evil. 
Sometimes it relates to some certain, wholesome, or profitable thing, called for that reason 
the tree of life, Prov. iii. 18, xi. 30, xiii. 12, and xv. 4. 

More especially some certain names of good trees are put, Isa. xli. 19, Iv. 13, and 
Ix. 13, to signify the amenity or pleasantness of the kingdom of Christ, and the va- 
riety of its heavenly gifts, Zech. xi. 1, 2. Men of various or indifferent estates in 
Israel; cedars, fir-trees, oaks, the trees of the wood are expressed by name. By 
cedars a,nd. oaks mentioned, Isa. ii. 13, the nobility and great ones of the kingdom who 
were proud and elevated, are noted. Hence the Chaldee renders it, "-The kings of 
the people strong and mighty, and the tyrants of the provinces." The royal family of 
David, from whence Christ according to the flesh was descended, is proposed by the 
allegory of a cedar, Ezek. xvii. 22. " The lopping off boughs, and cutting down the 
thickets of the forest," denotes the destruction of the people, Isa. x. 18, 33, 34, and :d. 
24, Zech. xi. 1, 2. 

That part of a cut tree, which is left above the earth is called the stock, stem, or trunk.* 
Which word is metaphorically translated, to denote the mean and humble original of Christ 
according to the flesh, or his temporal nativity from the progeny of David, Isa. xi. 1, "And 
there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, &c." 

A beam SOKOS, and the disparate term itapQos, a mote, (which is a small splinter flying 
out of a cleft piece of wood ; Hesych. & Aihen. Lib. 13) are used to express the difference 
and degrees of sinners, Matt. vii. 3,4, 5, where Christ allegorically demonstrates the craft 
of calumniators, who are mighty curious and inquisitive into the failings or infirmities of 
others, (although slight like motes,) but very blind and dull in examining their own faults, 
(though grievous, great and weighty, like a beam.) Here we have also an admonition 
concerning our duty, which is first to search our own wallet, which hangs at our back, and 
having well shaken it, and cleared it, we may proceed to the examination of our brother's 

Thorns sometimes signify wicked and mischievous men, Numb, xxxiii. 55, Jo^- 
xxiii. 13, (in which the enemies are emphatically called *" thorns and prickles in their 
eyes ;" that is, such as are of all things most troublesome and hurtful, so as that the 
eyes cannot endure, so much as a little chaff, mote, thoi'n, or prickle, without horrible 
torment,) Psal. Iviii. 9, Jsa. ix. 18, x. 17, and xxvii. 4, Ezek. ii. 6, and xxviii. 24. Be- e 
, also because of the similitude, 2 Sam. xxiii. 6, 7, Isa. xxxiii. 12, Nah. i. 10, Matt. 
vii. 16, Luke vi. 44, itc. Sometimes thorns signify impediments met withal, HOS. 
ii, G, " I will hedge up thy way with thorns," &c. Jer. iv. 3, Matt, xiii 7, 22. 

slripts, truncxs. 



A. reed is a weak shrub, easily agitated or shaken by a small gust of wind, 1 Kings 
. ^5 . sometimes denotes men that are inconstant, light, and of a doubtful faith, Matt. 
X j V Luke vii. 24 ; sometimes men afflicted and penitent, called a " bruised reed," Isa. 
*$ 3, viz., a reed of itself frail and weak, is much more weak if it be shaken and bruised. 
Our Saviour therefore promises that he will not by any means break such, but rather 
strengthen, consolidate, and heal them. 

Sometimes it signifies men, great indeed, but unable to help, that are more mischiev- 
ous and nought, on which some are apt to rely or depend, though to their loss, as such do, 
ff ho lean on a weak and broken reed, to their own destruction, 2 Kings xviii. 21, Isa. 
xxxvi. 6, Ezek. xxix. 6, 7. A rush or bulrush signifies men of the basest and lowest con- 
dition, Isa. ix. 14, and xix. 1 5. 

Wormwood, because of its ungrateful taste and extreme bitterness, is by a metaphor 
brought to signify sometimes sin and evil, Deut. xxix 18, Amos v. 7, and vi. 12. See 
Deut xxxii. B'2, Isa. v. 20, Eev. xiii. 11. Sometimes punishment or torment, Jer. ix. 15, 
andxxiii. 15, Lam. iii. 15, 19. See Prov. v. 4. 

So much of the species of things growing out of the earth, which yield any meta- 
phors, to%hich we may fitly subjoin, where mention is made of the containing subject ; 
which is, 

(1.) A wood. 
(2.) A garden. 

A wood, inasmuch as it contains many barren trees, is a symbol of infidelity and impiety, 
Isa. xxxii. 15 ; and because it is full of trees and shrubs, it carries the notion of an entire 
army, Isa. x. B4, of both of which we have spoken before in the 10th chap., where we 
spoke of Carmel and Lebanon. 

A garden is the place of the most eminent and choicest plants and trees, especially 
that first garden which we call Paradise. The church of Christ, Cant. iv. 12, is called 
" a garden enclosed" (or barred.) A garden, because of it's spiritual fruitfulness ; barred 
because hid to the world, " hid with Christ in Gocl," Col. iii. 3, " The world knoweth us 
not," 1 John iii. 1. The same chunxh with its fruits of the Spirit, verse 13, is called 
Paradise. Of which elsewhere. 

Heaven, or eternal life is called paradise, Luke xxiii. 43, 2 Cor. xii. 4, Eev. ii. 7 ; the 
reason of the metaphorical appellation being drawn from the extraordinary pleasantness of 
that garden, and the great plenty of good things there. 

Metaphors taken from the Olive Tree and its fruit. 

Amongst the things growing in the land of Canaan, three are most eminent, by which 
its goodness, fruitfulness, and other excellencies may be known, viz., the olive, which 
is a tree the vine, which is a shrub and grain or corn of all sorts. All which are 
joined together, Deut. xiv. 23, and xviii. 4, Psal. civ. 14, 15, 16, &c., Jer. xxxi. 12, Hos. 
ii- 8, 22, Joel ii. 1 9, and in the common version, Gen xxvii. 37, Psal. iv. 7, 8, where the 
Syriac interpreter expresses all three. # 

From each of these, and things that bear affinity or relation to them, there are a great 
delicate metaphors deduced in Scripture. 

The people of Israel are called an olive, because of the great dignity with which they 
invested by God, Jer. xi. 16, " The Lord called thy name, a green olive tree, fair, 
and of goodly fruit;" as if he had said, thou hast been like a green and leafy olive, which 
m ost beautifully flourishes, giving extraordinary hope of its fruit. But the antithesis fol- 
lows " With the noise of a great tumult, (or tempests,) he hath kindled fire upon it, and 
toe branches of it were broken ; that is, as Junius and Tremellius have interpreted it, " They 
s hll be like encountering storms of winds, which rushing into this place shall shake down 
toe flowers, break the branches, that is, they will destroy small and great. Afterwards they 
^ill consume with fire the very town, as if it were the stump of a tree. That these things 
We re transacted, the last chapters of the Kings, Chronicles, and Jeremiah do fully make it 
Out ; verse 17, this olive is said to be " planted by the Lord," &c. 


Zech. iv., what are called "the two olives," verse 3, 11, 12, are said to be the "two 
sons of oil," so. the Hebrew, verse 14, that is, two olives, plentiful, fat, having as it were, 
a spring of oil, continually flowing. This metaphor signifies the perpetual supplies of spi- 
ritual gifts to the Church through Christ, who was beyond measure anointed " with the oil 
of gladness," Psal. xlv. 7, from whom believers have this unction, 1 John ii. 20, 27. 
But this was spoken to in the chapter of anthropopathy. 

Rom. xi. 17, " the church of Israel" is called an olive, eminent for fatness, whose root 
Abraham may be said to be, with respect to the covenant God entered into with him, and 
the promise of a blessed seed, divine benediction, and eternal life, made to his believing 
posterity, (that is, his sons by faith, who believe as he did, such being only the sons of 
Abraham), whether Jews or Gentiles, Gal. iii. 29. This being observed, it is easy for 
any one to understand why the Gentiles are compared to a wild olive, and what this en- 
grafting into the olive is ; and the partaking of its root, and fatness, (that is, the fatness 
proceeding from the root, and diffused to the branches, by the hendiadys) as also the cut- 
ting off the branches. 

Rev. xi. 4, " the two witnesses" raised by God (by whom those sincere few teachers of the 
Church, in the midst of the antichristian tyranny and fury preserved by God, are under- 
stood, expressed by the number two, because "In the mouth of two or three witnesses 
shall every truth be established," Deut. xix. 15, 2 Cor. xiil 1,) are called " two olives and 
two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth." In the former metaphor we are 
to understand the consolation of the word of God, given by the Holy Spirit, the oil of glad- 
ness, as also fruitfulness in good works, as the olive is a most fruitful tree ; and constancy 
and perseverance in the faith under persecutions, as the leaves of the olive do not wither, 
but are always green, and the wood of the olive-tree never rots through age. In the lat- 
ter metaphor divine illumination from the word of God is understood ; that this is taken 
from the fore-cited place of Zech. iv. is evident. 

Oil, the fruit of the said tree, is much valued, and much used amongst all sorts of peo- 
ple and nations. In scripture-metaphors, sometimes it denotes an abundance of pleasant 
and acceptable things, Deut. xxxii. 13, Job xxix. 6. Sometimes joy and refreshment of 
mind, if considered with respect to the anointing, Psal. xcii. 10, and cxli. 5, Cant. i. 3,Isa. 
Ixi. 3. The reason of the metaphor is taken from the fragrancy and wholesomeness of 
this fruit. From hence we may in a manner give a reason for the name of Christ and 
Christians, it being derived from the unction or anointing of the Holy Spirit, which is 
compared to oil. 

Isa. x. 27, there is mention made of oil, " And it shall come to pass on that day, that 
his burden shall be removed from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck, and the 
yoke shall be destroyed from the face of oil, or from before the oil" which the Chaldee 
expounds of the Messiah ; Junius and Tremellius follow that expression : " Propter oleum, 
because of the oil, (or anointing,) that is, thou shalt be delivered by Christ, or for the 
sake of Christ, in whom rests the Spirit of Jehovah, who anointed him, chap. Ixi. 1." The 
cause of that deliverance and vengeance is intimated, viz., the promise sometimes made to 
this people, of sending Christ to them, who is signified by the word oil, because he was to 
be anointed with, " the oil of gladness above his fellows," &c. 

Metaphors from the Vine, fyc. 

A vineyard, the place where vines ars planted, in a continued metaphor and parable 
signifies the Church as well of the Old as New Testament, Cant. viii. 11, 12, Isa. Hi. 1 
and v. 1, &c., Isa. xxvii. 2, 3, 6, Matt. xx. 1, &c., of which pleasant similitude many have 
written much. The quiet or free plantation of vineyards, exhibits the notion of spiritual 
peace in the kingdom of Christ, Isa. Ixv. 21, 22. .See Deut. xxviii. 30, 39, 1 Kings iv- 
25, Micah iv. 4, &c. 

A vine sometimes signifies good, sometimes evil. Examples of the former are to be 
read, Psal. Ixxx. 8, 9, &c., Isa. v. 2, 7, Jer. ii. 21, where the people of Israel introduced 
into the land of Canaan, received as the people of God, that they may serve him constantly 
in righteousness and piety, is understood. But this becomes degenerate, offending God 
with foul idolatry and impiety ; all which by the metaphor of a vine, well planted l> llt 
much corrupted, is expressed in the two last places. 

!] - 



It is taken in an ill sense, Dent, xxxii. 32, 33, where mention is made of a vine, 
grapes, clusters, and wine, expressing the cruel abominable wickedness of sinners. 

Expositors are not agreed in what sense to take a vine, Hos. x. 1 ; but the most pro- 
per interpretation seems to be this, " Israel is an empty vine," that is, it plentifully brings , 
forth fruit like a luxuriant vine, as if it would at once empty itself of all its fruit. Yet it 
produces not good but bad fruit (it is the vine of Sodom and Gomorrah, Deut. xxxii. 32, 
33, plentifully bringing forth wild grapes, Isa. v. 2,) for it follows, " He bringeth forth 
fruit unto himself: according to the multitude of his fruit he hath increased the altars, &c. 
See metaphor of a vine in the second book. 

The phrase to sit under his own vine and fig-tree, is a description of security, peace, 
and tranquillity, 1 Kings iv. 25, 2 Kings xviii. 31, for the Jews were wont to love their 
vines and fig-trees beyond any other trees ; partly for the sweetness of the fruit, Judg. ix. 
11, 13, and partly for the conveniency of the shade. For (as Pliny* calls them,) 
branched or spreading vines, or (as Columella, Lib. iii. cap. 2, calls them,) such as are 
perched upon rails or galleries in the form of an arbour, covering it on all parts, do afford 
a cool and delightsome shade, for repose or bauquetting. 

As to the fig-tree, (as Plinyf has it) its leaf' is very large, and consequently very 
shadowing, which may be gathered also from Gen. iii. 7.- This phrase " to sit under his 
own vine and fig-tree" is metonymical, inasmuch as it is a sign of public peace and 
tranquillity ; and synecdochical, inasmuch, as by these two species of trees and plants, 
all sorts of vineyards, gardens, fields, &c., are understood : but metaphorically the 
inward and spiritual peace of the kingdom of Christ is expressed by it, Micah iv. 4, 
Zech. iii. 10, &c. 

Wine, and new wine, signify as well the effects of divine mercy and grace, as 
of wrath and vengeance. Examples of the former are to be read, Prov. ix. 5, Cant. 
ii. 4, Isa. Iv. 1, Joel iii. 18, Zech. ix. 17; in which places by the metaphor of wine, 
the blessings or benefits of the kingdom of Christ are expressed ; which are righteous- 
ness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. As natural wine is said " to cheer or make glad 
the heart of man," Psal. civ. 15, and that "it cheers the heart of God and man," Judg. 
ix. 13 ; so Jehovah is (as it were) cheered and delighted, with the conversion, faith, and 
piety of men, Isa. Ixii. 5. 

Examples of the latter are to be read, Psal. Ix. 3, and Ixxv. 8, Illyricus says, that 
" by this similitude he signifies most heavy afflictions," &c. Rev. xiv. 10, and. xviii. 6, 
&c. ; Isa. i. 22, " Thy wine mixed with water," denotes the corruption of all orders in 
Israel, as the foregoing and following words show. The Septuagint renders it 01 /ca^Xoi, 
tuffyovffi roy oivov vSan, " thy taverners mix wine with water," from whence they say that 
metaphorical speech of Paul is deduced, 2 Cor. ii. 17, " For we are not as many, 
KTjjA.eu(>pT6s, TOV \oyov TOW eov, taverning the word of God." This word Kair-rt\5veiv (which 
our Bibles render corrupting the word of God) is very emphatical.J it is a metaphor 
taken from hosts, victuallers, innkeepers, or rather tavernkeepers, who corrupt and 
adulterate their wines ; by which the apostle elegantly inculcates two things, 

(!) Their adulterating the word of God by the mixture of their own fancies. 

(2.) Their covetousness and study of filthy gain. 

The verb /cavnyXejw is properly understood of wine-sellers, and is metaphorically trans- 
ited to signify deceitful dealing, as it is expounded, 2 Cor. iv. 2. 

Chrysostom Says, TOVTO ea-rt icairr]\ev(rai orav ris voOevy TOV oivov, ornv TIS XPW*' 1 ' "' ifu\ij oirep 

psttv eSet Sowai, in English, this is, (cauponari, to tavern, when any one adulterates wine, 
hen any one sells a thing of that kind for money, which he ought to give freely. The 

tyriac renders' it, for we are not as the rest who mix, (or adulterate by mixtures, the 

Wor d of God, &c. Jer. xxiii. 28, 1 Tim. vi. 5, 2 Pet. ii. 3 

The dregs or lees of wine are metaphorically used two ways. 

1- Either denoting very great calamities, Psal. Ixxv. 8, Isa. Ii. 17; upon which Illy- 
1CUS: I1 "As the cup signifies its part of the cross and castigation, which God in his 
n time distributes or gives out to every one : so the dregs of that draught do signify 
most bitter part of the calamity or punishment," see Ezek. xxiii. 32, 33, 34. 
Sometimes signifying secure tranquillity, as Zeph. i.- 12, "I will punish the men 
(or concrete, curdled, thickened,) on their lees ;" that is. such as with great 

Cap. 2. vites compluviattz. f Lib. xv i- C a P- 29. t Aret. Dr. 8clat. \\ tUcut poculum, c. 



security, tranquillity, and self-conceited firmness stick close to their wickedness, mocking 
and deriding both God and men. See Jer. xlviii. 11, with Isa. xxv. 6. 

A vintage and gleaning, Judg. viii. 2, " Is not the gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim 
better than the vintage of Abiezer ?" By the vintage he understands the fight itself' 
by the gleanings, the pursuit of the flying enemy; as if he' had said, we Abiezerites 
have not acquired so much honour by fighting, as you. Ephraimites have by your brave 
pursuit of those we routed, when ye took their leaders, who, had they been safe, (the 
enemy being not else truly overcome) might easily have recruited their army. 

The text, Jer. xlix. 9, is to be expounded by a metaphor, "If the grape-gatherers 
come to thee, will they not leave (some) gleaning grapes ?" The Chaldee renders it 
thieves or robbers; like grape-gatherers. The same form of speaking, Obad. verse 5, 
(properly to be understood) is proposed by way of interrogation : "If the grape-ga- 
therers came to thee, would they not leave some gleanings?" as if he had said they "would; 
but thine enemies sent by me, will carry away all that is yours, even to the very glean- 
ings, see Jer. vi. 9. In that symbolical vision, the vineyard denotes the judgment of 
God against the church's enemies, Rev. xiv,. 18, 19. The rea&on of this metaphor 
is, because in a vintage or wine harvest, the vineyard together with its fruit is stripped 
of all, and left as it were desolate. Hence it is that little gleanings, (small clusters 
remaining on the vine, after the vintage is over, because hid behind the leaf,) denote 
a small remnant of people after war or other public calamity, Isa. xvii. 6. 

So the verb (racemare,) to glean, (viz., to gather the little clusters after the vintage, 
Lev. xix. 10, Deut. xxiv. .21,) denotes the destruction of such as survived the former 
calamity, &c., Jer. vi. 9, &c. 5 Judg. xx. 45. 

A wine-press, (where the grapes are bruised, and the juice squeezed out,) denotes 
divine vengeance, Isa. Ixiii. 3, Lam. i. 15, Eev. xiv. 19; so Joel iii. 13, " Come, get 
you down, for the press is full, the fats overflow," &c. ; this is a divine call to the 
angels, (or strong ones of God,) to proceed to the execution of his vengeance against Ms 
impious enemies of whom he subjoins, " for their wickedness is great." 

Metaphors from Corn, &c. 

A field, the place of the production of corn or grain, denotes in a parable the 
people of God or the Church of Christ, Matt. xiii. 8, 23, 24, 31, 38, Luke viii. 8, 15, 
to which refers the similitude of the apostle, Heb. vi. 7, 8, whose* Apodosis, (reddition, 
or answering part of the comparison,) is not expressly set down, yet it is tacitly 
hinted at by the terms rejection, cursing, and burning, verse 8, that is, that un- 
believers and wicked men, who like a field untilled bring forth thorns and briars, 
and act nothing but evil, shall be reprobated of God, cursed and consumed in ever- 
lasting fire : whereas, on the contrary, believers and godly men shall receive the bles- 
sing of God, because like a fertile field of which he speaks, verse 7. The apostle 
Paul by a metaphor calls the church, thef husbandry or tillage of God, 1 Cor. iii. J > 
or rather a field, which is spiritually tilled by the apostles and other ministers of the 
word, as verse 6, 7, 8, is intimated. 

Ploughing is a preparation of the field for sowing ; by which calamity and affliction 
are sometimes noted, Psal. cxxix. 3, (see the express similitude, Isa. xxviii. 24, 26.) 
The reason is taken from the cutting or (as it were) wounding of the field, by the ploug"' 
share. Som'etimes the life and actions of men whether good or evil. 

Good, as Jer. iv. 3, " Break up your fallow-ground, and sow not among thorns." HOS- 
x. 12, " Sow to yourselves in righteousness, reap in mercy: br-eakup your fallow-ground) 
&c. ; where by the term ploughing, true repentance, and the culture or dressing of piety 
is understood : the reason is taken from the end and effect of ploughing, which^ is to 
pluck up and destroy thorns, briars, and the roots of bad herbs, and rightly to dispo se 
the field to bear good fruit. Examples are to be read, Job iv. 8, Hos. x. 13, P roV * 
xxi. 4. 

* airoSocris posterior jtars comparalionis opposila protasi. Cal. -f -yztapyiov, agricolationem- 


judg. xiv. 18, to plough with one's heifer, is to use another's help (where the reason 

I O f the continued metaphor is very congruous.) The speech is of the marriage of Samson, 

hose bride was fitly compared to an heifer, as being now under the same yoke with her 
husband, from whence the name, Conjugium, or yoke-fellow comes. Hence Horace Lib. ii. 
Carm. Od, 5, compares a proud and lascivious maid to an untamed heifer, &c. 

To plough is properly to turn the divided earth, so as that the inner or under part 
may be heaved up to the superficies, or stop ; and metaphorically (/iera^opt/cws) denotes 
a search or thorough inquisition into secret or inward things. The sense therefore of 
Samson's phrase is, that it would be impossible for them to have, found out the meaning of 
his riddle, unless they had drawn out (by some subtlety) the original and sense of it from 
Ms spouse. 

Luke ix. 62, " No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for 
the kingdom of God :" as if he had said (according to Erasmus's paraphrase,) " This is the 
most arduous and chief business, (viz., of my discipline and Gospel preaching,) that he who 
once enters into a profession, is concerned by continual care and study to proceed to more 
perfection, and not to suffer -his heart or mind to decline, or draw back to the sordid cares 
or desires of things past." This metaphor is taken from husbandmen, who are obliged 
to a continual and uninterrupted care and study, in tilling and ploughing their fields, which 
agrees well with 1 Cor. iii. 9, as before. 

Corn and wheat metaphorically denote whatsoever is good and profitable, Psal. Ixxii. 
16, " There shall be an handful of corn in the earth upon the top of the mountains ; the 
fruit thereof shall shake like Lebanon," &c. The sense or meaning is, that in the time of 
the Messiah, (of whom the whole Psalm treats) all things will be happily and divinely blest, 
which by the increase, (or multiplication of little corn,) in unfruitful fields, such as by 
mountain-tops increasing with great plenty, is expressed.. See Jer. xxiii. 28, " What is 
the chaff to the wheat ? saith the Lord," that is, wherein do the false prophets and their 
doctrine agree with the prophets and the word of the Lord ? The Chaldee expounds it of 
the righteous or believers : " Behold as chaff differs from the wheat ; so the righteous 
differ from the wicked, saith the Lord." With which exposition, Matt. iii. 12, and xiii. 
29, 30, agree. By wheat, the righteous and believers are understood, to whom in the 
first place chaff, in fhe latter tares, that is, impious, unbelieving, and condemned persons 
are opposed. In the former metaphor, manna rained from heaven is called the corn of 
heaven, Psal. Ixxviii. 24 ; because it was like corn or wheat, and was equally useful in 
point of nourishment. 

Harvest is the seasonable time. of gathering in corn or any other fruit ; from which some 
metaphors are deduced, and that in a two-fold manner. 

1. Men are proposed as the efficient cause or harvest-men. Or, 

2. As the object, that is, handfuls or fruits measured. 

. la the first sense, harvest, answering the expectation or hope of the husbandman, 
denotes the reward of piety, or the punishment of the ungodly ; for as every one sows so 
he shall reap, Gal. vi. 7, as the apostle speaks in general terms. And more especially 
subjoins the harvest and reward of good and bad works, verses 8, 9. The harvest is 
taken for the reward of piety, Psal. cxxvi. 5, 6, where the state of the godly sowing in 
this world, and the enjoyment of glory in the heavenly life, by harvest or reaping, is by a 
metaphorical phrase expressed. See Hos. x. 12, 2 Cor. ix. 6, &c., Job iv. 8, Prov. xxii. 
8, Hos. viii. 7, to set an harvest for any, Hos. vi. 11, is to seduce to idolatry, &c., and so 
give cause for being divinely punished, upon which place see Tarnovius in his comment, 
Junius, Tremellius, and Piscator. 

2. Because tw<5 things are most remarkable in harvest, viz., 

(!) That corn or fruits, are cut or plucked down, and so wither. 

.(2.) That they are deposited or placed in barns, &c., to be preserved for use, there 
ai 'ises a two-fold metaphorical notion from the term harvest. 
. I- To denote the judgments of God, Jer. li. 33, Joel iii. 13, Eev. xiv. 15, 16, 17, where 

II is evident from verse 19, that the wrath of God is noted. 

2 - The gathering -of the church, Matt. ix. 37, 38, Luke x: 2, John iv. 35, 38. In 
tlj e former places the wicked are (as it were) mowed or reaped clown, and like tares 


cast into the fire, as Christ speaks of the harvest of the last or eternal judgment, Matt, xiij 
39, &c. In the last place the godly are (as it were) placed in a garner fit for use, &c. 

Besides what is spoken of harvest denotes the /benefit of freedom, (or deliverance) 
Jer. viii. 20, " The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not saved ;" that is 
all the benefits of the hoped-for salvation and help fail us, and we consequently perish' 
For joy is commonly figured in scripture, by harvest and vintage, which is at the end of 
summer, Psal. iv. 7, Isa. ix. 3. In both those times, (viz., of the receiving corn and wine,) 
there is matter of joy to men. - , 

The ministers and preachers of the word of God are metaphorically called hy Christ 
harvest-men or reapers, in this spiritual harvest, which is the gathering of the church 
John iv. 36, 37, 38, where there is an eminent comparison of those which sow and those 
which reap, &c., where, by sowers understands the prophets of the Old Testament ; and 
hy reapers the apostles he sent in Gospel-times. The prophets promulgated the promises 
of Christ's heing to come, and so, as it were, did throw the seeds of universal Gospel- 
preaching. The patriarchs and prophets weeded, and cleared the field of God, of thorns 
and briars of idolatry, hy the preaching of the law, as before, &c. 

Matt. ix. 37, 38, Luke x. 2. The ministers of the word are called epyarai labourers, in 
this spiritual harvest. In which places we are taught the great necessity of a ministry in 
the church, as well as of labourers to save and gather the harvest-fruit. 

Threshing in scripture metaphorically denotes punishment and calamity, Isa. xxi. 10, 
" my threshing, and the son of my floor ;" we render it " corn of my floor ;" so hy an 
apostrophe, he calls the people of God, who were grievously afflicted in Babylon, and as it 
were threshed and winnowed upon a floor, till separated from its chaff and husks. See 
Jer. li. 33, Amos i. 3, Micah iv. 13, Hab. iii. 12, Judg. viii. 7, Isa. xxviii. 27, 28. 

Chaff and stubble which is separated from the corn by threshing, winnowing, or 
sifting, signifies the destruction of the wicked, Obad. verse 18, Mai. iv. 1, Matt. iii. 12, 
Luke iii. 17. It denotes false doctrine, 1 Cor. iii. 12, with which may be compared, Jer. 
xxiii. 28, see Psal. i. 3, 4, and Ixxxiii. 13, 14, Isa. xvii. 13, and xli. 2, Jer. xiii. 24, Hos. 
xiii. 3, Zeph. ii. 2, &c. 

"Winnowing denotes the scattering of enemies, as chaff is blown away from the grain 
when winnowed, Jer. li. 2, and xv. 7, also the separation of the godly from the reprobate, 
Matt. iii. 12, in which allegorical speech by a\wa, the floor, we are to understand the 
church of Christ, scattered through Judea and the whole world ; by TTVOV, the fan, the 
means by which Christ separates believers from hypocrites and wicked men, which means 
are the preaching of the Gospel, the cross and tribulation, and lastly eternal judgment ; by 
the purging of his floor, the very act of separating ; by wheat, believers ; by chaff, repro- 
bates ; by the garner or barn, the kingdom of heaven and eternal life : and by unquench- 
able fire, hellish and eternal punishment, &c. 

Sifting denotes diabolical temptation, Luke xxii. 31. The grain thereby is jum- 
bled and agitated, Amos ix. 9 ; and some get or drop through, and are lost among the 
chaff and dust. Thus Satan would confound the disciples of Christ, shake off then' 
faith, and by his temptations pluck them away from Christ. And as sifting is a means 
to cleanse the corn, so Christ by these trials and afflictions purges his disciples, as grain 
is cleared from chaff, and most wisely converts those malignant artifices of the devil 
unto good, &c. 

Grinding, by which grain is bruised, broken small, and reduced into meal fit to he 
made into bread, Isa. xlvii. 2, is used to describe most hard servitude and captivity-" 
" Take the millstones and grind meal " in the eastern countries, it was counted as 
a slavery or servitude to be committed to the mill, or bakehouses, as men esteem it 
to be committed to the gallies. (See Exod. xi. 5, Judg. xvi. 21.) By this speech the 
prophet would signify, that that queen of Babylon, the mistress of kingdoms, that is, tender 
and delicate, shall be obnoxious to most abject servitude, and that there will come an e3C " 
treme change of her splendour, &e. . 




Job xxxi. 10, "Let my wife grind to another," that is, as Illyricus expounds it, "le* 
r be the basest of servants to another," or as Vatablus says, " let her be forced away 

me and become another's," &c. 
Bread, made of meal, that staff of life, sometimes denotes joyful, sometimes mournful 


1. Joyful, as Psal. cv. 40, " He satisfied them with the bread of heaven ;" manna is 
called the bread of heaven, because it was food for the Israelites, and served for bread ; 
and Psal. Ixxviii. 25, it is called, "the bread of the mighty," (or of the strong,) that is, 
tyyehav Tpo<jrri, Angelorum, esca. Sap. 16, 20, as the Chaldee, the Septuagint, the Vulgate 
Version, and Luther render it, the " bread of angels ;" that is, such bread as the heavenly 
administrators of the divine will shall supply you with, and not any human help. And 
they are said to be strong, because God communicates such power to them, &c. When 
Christ calls himself the Bread of Life, having respect to manna, it is an evident metaphor, 
John vi. 32, 33. Life eternal is expressed " by the eating of bread in the kingdom of God," 
Luke xiv. 15, and xxii. 30. By eating of "stolen bread or drinking of stolen waters," 
prov. ix. 17, the breach of wedlock, or that short and wild lust of the flesh which is in 
adultery, is understood, and which destruction and eternal death accompany. See Job 
xx. 5, &c. 

2. It signifies mournful or sad things, Numb. xiv. 9, " Fear not the people of the land, 
for -they are bread for us ;" that is, we shall easily overcome and consume them, as if they 
were our bread. It agrees hereto that bread, and war, or fighting, come from the same 
Hebrew root and original; and that the sword is said to eat when it kills, 2 Sam. xi. 25. 
Affliction and calamity are expressed by the " bread of tears," Psal. Ixxx. 5, in which 
sense also tears are said to be the bread (or meat) of man, day and night, Psal. xlii. 

Leaven, (made of a sharp or sour mass) taken in an evil sense, denotes the cor- 
ruption of doctrine, Matt. xvi. 6, Luke xii. 1, Hypocrisy, (that is, a dissembling 
of true religion,) sometimes wickedness and depravity of life, 1 Cor. v. 7, 8. The reason of 
both is evident from the operation of ferment or leaven, a little of which penetrates 
the whole lump, making it sour and acid: so false doctrine and impiety of manners, 
easily penetrates to the seduction of others, and unless speedily prevented, will quickly 
infect and contaminate the whole. The text which we translate, " My heart was 
grieved," Psal. Ixxiii. 21, in the Hebrew is, my heart is fermented, (leavened or 
grown sharp,) that is, it is embittered, and full of perturbation The Chaldee, it is anxious 
or saddened, &c. 

Of Metaphors from the Parts aad Members of living Creatures. 

We are distinctly to consider of brutes. As, 

(1.) Their parts and members. 

(2.) Their general names, effects, and adjuncts. 

(3.) Then* several species or kinds. 

Their parts and members, we will recite in that order nature has disposed of them. 
What concerns the head of brutes we shall expound, when we treat of their respective 

The horn of some four-footed beasts, their principal ornament, and the instrument 
whereby they exercise their strength and defend themselves, is variously used in scripture 

1. It denotes power, strength, glory, and courage, 1 Sam. ii. 1, Job xvi. 15, Psal. Ixxv. 
10, Ixxxix. 17, 24, cxii. 9, and cxlviii. 14, Jer. xlviii. 25, Lam. ii. 3, 17, Ezek. xxix. 21, 
Amos vi. 13. An iron horn is a symbol of great power and strength, Micah iv. 13. So 

the horn of the unicorn is mentioned, a beast of more strength than others, Deut. 
17, Psal. xxii. 21, and xcii. 10. 

2. It denotes rule or government, the majesty of which consists in power, forti- 
and strength, (some say, because the king is eminent in dignity above all his 

People, as the horn is above all the members of the creature) 1 Sain. ii. 10, " He shall 
ex alt the horn of his anointed," where the holy woman, (viz. Hannah) has respect to the 


kingdom of the Messiah. The Chaldee renders it* kingdom, both here and in j eri 
xlviii. 25. 

Psal. cxxxii. 17, " There I will make the horn of David to bud ;" that is, I will am- 
plify, enlarge, and propagate the strength of his kingdom. This also most perfectly ap. 
pertains to the Messiah, David's Son. Chaldee : " There will I cause to bud a precious 
king to the house of David." See 1 Chron. xxv. 5. 

This signification of power, and a kingdom, is proposed, as it were, by a lively meta- 
phor and similitude, in that symbolical action of Zedekiah the false prophet, 1 Kings xxii. 
11, also in the prophetical visions, Dan. vii. 7, 8, 21, and viii. 3, &c., Zech. i. Id, & c<) 
where the fierce and strong enemies of .the church are understood, Kev. v. 6, xii. 3, xiii' 
1,11, and xvii. 3, 7, 12, 16. " . . 

To push with the liorn,f metaphorically signifies, an exerting or putting forth of 
strength or power against the enemy in fighting, Deut. xxxiii. 17, Psal. xliv. 5, 6, 1 
Kings xxii. 11, Dan. xi. 40. 

In other things a horn signifies, 

1. A more eminent place, Isa. v. 1, " My beloved hath a vineyard, in the horn of the 
son of oil ;"- so the Hebrew, that is, in a sublime and very fat place. The land of 
Canaan, which flowed with milk and honey, seems to be signified by this description; 
for. into this, the people of Israel were like a vine, transplanted or translated, Psal. 
Ixxx. 8. , 

2. Sometimes angles, corners, or eminences, having the form of horns, Exod. xxvii. 2, 
and xxix. 12, Lev. iv. 7, 1 Kings i. 51, Jer. xvii. 1, and elsewhere ; so in the Syriac and 
Chaldee tongues the extreme or angular point.J 

3. Splendour or a sparkling ray, like a horn, Hah. iii. 4, " And his brightness was as 
the light, he had horns (or as the Chaldee has it, bright beams) coming out of his hand." 
Hence the verb pp signifies to diffuse beams in the likeness of horns, Exod. xxxiv. 29, 
30, 85, where the speech is of Moses, when his face shined. Chaldee: " The splendour 
of the glory of his face was multiplied ;" to which version Paul seems to have respect, 2 
Cor. iii. 7, &e. 

A mouth, because it is hollow, concave, and open, and the beasts' instruments of biting, 
has therefore two metaphorical notions. 

(1.) The orifice of any thing, an entrance or gaping hole, and so it is said, Gen. xlii. 
27, " The sack's mouth," Gen. xxix. 2, 3, 8, 10, " The well's mouth." Also of a den, 
Josh. x. 18, 22, 27. Of- the robe and habergeon, Exod. xxxix. 24, for so the Hebrew, 
Psal. cxxxiii. 2. Of the gate of a city, Prov. viii. 3. Of the brook, Isa. xix. 7. The 
" edge of the sword," by which (as it were it bites,) hurts and cuts, Gen. xxxiv. 26, 
Exod. xvii. 13, Numb. xxi. 24, Deut. xiii. 15, and elsewhere. Of the file it is said, Sam. 
xiii. 21, " A file having mouths," that is, full of incisures, the better to sharpen iron. 
So when mouths in the plural are attributed to a sword, it denotes its two edges, Judg. 
iii. 16, Psal. cxlix. 5, 6, Prov. v. 4, so to a rake or harrow, Isa. xli. 15. See 2 Kings 
x. 25, ,and xxi. 16, Ezra. ix. 11, &c. 

What are done by the mouth, tongue, and teeth of beasts, we will here together dis- 

To bite)] (for the most part attributed to serpents, Numb, xxi 6, 7, 8, Gen. xlix. 17, 
Eccles. x. 8, 11, Jer. viii. 17, Amos ix. 3, &c.) is put for hostile invasion, spoil, and 
tearing in pieces, Hab. ii. 7. For the pains of body or mind, by reason of drunken- 
ness, or the relics of wine ; Prov. xxiii. 32. For usury, Exod. xxii. 25, Lev. xxv. 36, 
Deut. xxiii. 19, Psal. xv. 4, 5, Prov. xxviii. 8, Ezek. xviii. 8, 13, 17, and xxii. 12. So 
Lucian calls it devouring usury. It is said of false prophets that they " bite with their 
teeth," Micah iii. 5, that is, like wild beast they tear and destroy the flock. Others 
think this phrase to be no metaphor, but to be understood of the eating of pleasant food. 

To eat and devour, ta in a metaphorical signification, is the same with (to de- 
stroy and consume,) Exod. xv. 7, Isa. ix. 12, " The Syrians before, and the Philistines be- 
hind, and they shall devour Israel with the whole mouth " that is, after the manner of 
ravenous beasts, they shall most inhumanly .treat them, captivate, spoil, and consume them- 

* note, f Cornupetere rm \ Buxtorf. in Lexic. Chald. Syriaeo, p, 511,512. 


To swallow, gulch down, &c., is of the same metaphorical notation, 2 Sam. 
xvii. 16, Job x. 8; xx. 18, and xxxvii. 20, Psal. xxxv. 24, 25, lii. 5, 6, cvii. 
gg 27, and cxxiv. 3, Isa. iii. 12, and xxviii. 7, Lam. ii. 2, Hos. viii. 8, Hab. i. 13, 
1 Cor. xv. 54, 2 Cor. ii. 7, 1 Pet. v. 8, Numb. iv. 20, Prov'. xix. 28. To lick, has 
the same signification, Numb. xxii. 4, of which, and the tongue, we have treated 

A tooth, metaphorically denotes a promontory or sharp rock hanging over or formed 
like a tooth, 1 Sam. xiv. 4, Job xxxix. 28. But when teeth are attributed to men, it 
denotes virulence, and a.hostile power ; the metaphor being taken from beasts, who for 
the most part when they fight, use their teeth as offensive weapons to annoy those they 
set upon, Psal. iii. 7, Ivii. 4, Iviii. 6, 7, and cxxiv. 6, 7, Job xxix. 17, Prov. xxx. 
14, &e. 

A lip, metaphorically signifies a bank of a river, or the mouth of a vessel, Gen. xxii. 
17, and sli. 17, 1 Kings vii. 23, 24, 26. 2 Kings ii. 13, 2 Chron. xx. 2. 

The hinder part of the neck (cervix) if hard, [or to be hardened,] be added, metaphori- 
cally denotes contumacy, stubbornness, and a refractory mind ; the metaphor being taken 
from horses, or other untamed beasts, who being wild and ungovernable, will not suffer 
their necks to be bended as the rider would have it, Exod. xxxii. 9, xxxiii. 3, 5, andxxxiv. 
9, Deut.-ix. 6, 13, and xxxi. 27, 2 Kings xvii, 14, 2 Chron. xxx. 8, and xxxvi. 13, Isa. 
xlviii. 4, Jer. vii. 26, and xix, 15, Nehem. ix. 17, 29, Prov. xxix. 1, Psal. Ixxv. 5. 

The word to behead, metaphorically signifies, to demolish or break down, Hos. x. 2, 
" He (that is; God) shall behead their altars." They had certain altars placed', aloft, as 
if they had little heads, and also horns, &c. 

The wings of a bird, because 

1. They are its outward members. And 

2. Because they sometimes expanded at large. And 

3. Because they are the instruments of swift flight through the air ; do yield a threefold 

(1.) They denote the extreme or outward part of a garment, Numb. xv. 38, Kuth iii. 
9, 1 Sam. xxiv. 5, Jer. ii. 34, Hag. ii. 12, Zech. viii. 23. 

(2.) The sides or disposed ranks of a whole army, Isa. viii. 8, Dan. ix. 27. The ex- 
treme or remote parts of the eaxth, Job xxxvii. 3, Isa. xi. 12, and xxiv. 16, Ezek. vii. 2, 
&c. . . 

(3.) The wings of the sun and the morning are the first rays of light suddenly (like 
wings) expanded over the whole earth, Psalm cxxxix. 9, Mai. iv. 2. On the contrary, 
Virgil thus speaks, 

" Nox ruit, etfuscis tellurein amplectitur alis." . 

Night rushes on, and does the earth embrace 
With swarthy wings ; 

The wings of the wind denote its celerity and impetuous course, 2 Sam. xxii. 11, 
al. xviii. 10, -and civ. 3. These three attributes of wings meet in one text, Isa. xviii. 1, 
"Woe to the land the shadow of wings," so the Hebrew. Where by those shadowing 
wings, are understood the sails of ships, which are the extreme parts expanded in 
form of wings, and when filled with wind, are the cause of the ship's swift motion ; 
a nd are withal a shadow to the sailors : the Chaldee has it thus, woe to the land, to 
which men come from a far country in ships, and their sails are expanded like an eagle, 
which flies with his wings. Junius and Tremellius by wings understand the coasts of 
the land, that is, a land shady because of the great and opacous mountains that environ 
ttj such being every where about the Red Sea, as Strabo in his last book of o-eooraphy 
tells us. ~ . & 

.To fly, which is the property of birds, signifies in a metaphor to be carried or sen* 
With a swift and very speedy dispatch, Isa. vi. (5, and xi. 14, Dan. ix. 21, Psal". xci. 5, 


it is elegantly attributed to the eyes, Prov. xxiii. 5, " Wilt thou cause thine eyes to fly 
unto that" that is, wilt thou cast thine eye upon it, with most intent and earnest desire ? 
And to a sword, Ezek. xxxii. 10, " When I shall cause my sword to fly," so the Hebrew 
that is, when I shall flourish or brandish my sword. This is spoken of the true God bv 
an anthropopathy, when he threatens destruction and death. 

To fly signifies also to vanish and perish, Job xx. 8, Prov. xxiii. 5, Hos. ix. 11. "J 
fly upon, the property of rapacious creatures, signifies to rush suddenly upon a thing, as 1 
Sam. xiv. 32, " The people flew upon the spoil," &c. 

The heart of a living creature, because it is in a manner in the middle of the breast 
and within the body, by a metaphor is put for the middle of any thing, and also the 
inward part ; Deut. iv. 11, "And the mountain burnt with fire unto the heart of heaven," 
that is, the middle of the lower heavens. 2 Sam. xviii. 14, " In the heart of the oak,'" 
i. e. in the middle, &c. See more examples, Exod. xv. 8, Psal. xlvi. 2, 3, Prov. 
xxx. 19, Ezek. xxviii. 2, Jonah ii. 4, Jer. li. 1. So the belly, is put for the middle 
place of a thing, 1 Kings vii. 20. The reins, for grains of wheat, as before, chap. vi. 

The tail, the hindermost .part of the creature, is put for the extremes of any thing, 
Isa. vii. 4, " The tails of the firebrands," that is, the very ends almost burnt, which can 
do nothing but smoke, and will be quickly consumed. By which the two kings that 
were adversaries to the Jews are understood as before. Sometimes the head and tail 
are joined together, the first signifying dominion, the other subjection and servitude, 
Isa. ix. 14, " The Lord will cut off head and tail,'' that is, high and low, the courageous 
and the abject, .(which by another metaphor of branch and bush is also there expressed,) he 
adds, verse 15, " The eminent and honourable, he is the head: and the prophet that teach- 
eth lies, he is the tail," which phrase renders them most abject and detestalble before God. 
Illyricus,* " The tail is interpreted of seducers, whether because of the extreme vileness 
of their life, or because they voided the venomous excrements of Satan, or because they 
wagged when they flattered men, so as dogs fawn with a motion- of their tail." Deut. xxv. 
18, what we read in our English version, " he smote the hindmost of thee," in the Hebrew 
is, [he smote thy tail,] that is, the rear of the army. The Chaldee, <f and he slew all of 
thine that were loitering behind thee.*' See Josh. x. 19. 

The heel, the extreme part of the foot, by a metaphor signifies, the ends, bounds, or 
limits of a thing, Psal. cxix. 112, also the gain, fruit, of reward, which is the end of the 
work, Psal. xix. 11, &c. " To lift up the heel," Psal. xli. 9, is said of a refractory enemy, 
and a contriver of mischief, the metaphor being taken from the kickings of stubborn and 
angry horses. See John xiii. 18, Deut. xxxii. 15, 1 Sam. ii. 29. Of the phrase to kick 
against the pricks, we will treat hereafter. 

Here we will add some certain hornogeneal or similar part of an a.nimal, for what we 
have hitherto spoken of, are (according to a physical notion or distinction) heterogeneous, 
or dissimilar. 

A bone, because it is hard and white, has two metaphorical notions : And, 

1. Denotes hardness and inhumanity of mind, Prov. xxv. 15,-" A soft tongue break- 
eth the bone ;" that is, even the most hard-hearted and severe man, or the most grievous 
and rigid anger : so Gideon pacified the Ephraimites, Judg. viii. 1, 2, 3 ; and Abigail 
pacified David, when he intended to destroy Nabal, 1 Sam. xxv. 24, and the following 

2. It denotes white like a bone, 2 Kings ix. 13, " Then they hasted and took every 
man his garment, and put under him cnrlw upon the bone of the stairs;" that is, a step 
white as a bone. Others interpret this phrase as metonymical, imagining the steps to be 
of ivory, or some other sort of bone. The Chaldee turns it, upon the step of hours : un- 
derstanding (as Schindler thinks) a dial cut into the stone, in which were signed degrees, 
by which the hour of the day may be found by the sun-shine. E. Kimchi, " upon the 
highest step amongst the steps," &c. 

* Col. 110. 




Marrow, the inward fat of the bones, because it is the sweetest part of the flesh, 
communicating vigour to the bones, and all the body, affording it a grateful aliment, 
by a metaphor is put for any good thing, Isa. v. 17, and is mentioned in the description 
of the heavenly banquet, Isa. xxv. 6. Fat is of the same signification, Gen. xlv. Itf, 
Numb, xviii. 12, 29, 30, 32, Deut. xxxii. 14, Psal. Ixxxi. 16, and cxlvii. 14, in both which 
last places the Hebrew text is, " the fat of the wheat." 

Fat, is put for the goodness and fruitfulness of land, Gen. xxvii. 28, &c. ; for rich 
and powerful men, Psal. xxii. 29 ; and because fatness and full-feeding make beasts 
grow wanton and wild, therefore the term is translated to men enriched by God, and 
so grown rebellious and wicked, Deut. xxxii. lo, Job xv. 27, Psal. xvii. 10, and 
Ixxiii. 7, &c. See Isa. vi. 10. " The fatness of God's house," denotes plenty of heavenly 
blessings, the similitude taken from banquets. See Isa. xxxiv. 6, &c. 

Blood is metaphorically put for that which for redness is like a bloody colour, for 
which reason it is attributed to wine, Gen. xlix. 11, Deut. xxxii. 14. Of the place in 
Ezek. xix. 10, " Thy mother was as a vine * in thy blood," &c. Illyricus in 
Clave, Col. 1 087, thus says, " I believe that blood is there to be taken for wine, and we have 
heard before that it is sometimes so taken." Others understand it of native, (or natural) 
juice. Some also understand the beginning or birth : that is, when she first brought thee 
forth, she was strong and flourished. Junius and Tremellius render it, " in thy quiet (as 
derived of on siluit, quievit,} that is, in former tranquillity. Others, in thy likeness (from 
ncn similisfmt, he was like,) which the Chaldee also respects. It is said when the moon 
is eclipsed, that it shall be turned into blood, Joel ii. 31, with iii. 15, upon which 
Schindler,-}" in an eclipse, the moon is red like blood, because its proper light is mixed 
with the shadow of the earth, and causes redness. 

Flesh, made and nourished by blood, denotes a frail and weak thing, as that which 
is frail, and obnoxious to death and corruption, Psal. Ivi. 4, and Ixxviii. 39, Isa. xxxi. 
3, Jer. xvii. 5. It is likewise put for that which is mild, tractable, and obsequious, Ezek. 
xxxvi. 26. 

Milk, for its sweetness and very great use, is metaphorically brought to describe the 
blessings of the Messiah, Isa. Iv. 1, Joel iii. 18. In the New Testament, 

1. It denotes the most sweet and sincere word of Christ, 1 Pet. ii. 2. The word is 
called milk, and is compared to it in this place. 

(1.) Because of its unmixed simplicity, and whiteness or candour ; for as milk is not 
a liquor composed by human art, but made by nature itself, so the word of God owns not 
men for its author, or original, but Jehovah alone, 2 Pet. i. 21. 

(2.) Because of its sweetness and pleasantness, of which see Isa. KXV. 6, Psal. xix. 10, 
11, and cxix. 103, Prov. xxiv. 13, 14. 

(3.) Because of its utility in feeding and preserving our souls to eternal life, 2 Tim. 
iii- 16, 17. 

(4.) Because it tends to the destruction of such as abuse it. Milk is not proper to 
taken by such as are feverish or plethoric ; because it exasperates the disease in a 
so ill disposed : so to such as are stubbornly wicked and unbelieving the word of 
profits nothing, but becomes their greater damnation, John xii. 48, 2 Cor. ii. 16, 17. 

2. If it be opposed to solid or strong meat, it denotes the 'first rudiments of the 
Christian religion; 1 Cor. iii. 2, Heb. v. 12, 13, of which Beza says thus : " Paul 
wakes mention of childhood and milk in a diverse sense : for he opposes infancy to 
a n adult age, and therefore by the word milk he signifies the initiation or first entrance 
1] ito the Christian religion. But here, (that is,) 1 Pet. ii. 2, " As new-born babes desire 
the sincere (or seasonable) milk of the word," &c., (he opposes infancy to the former 
corrupt life, and commends the perpetual use of milk, (that is) of the true and sincere 
doctrine of the Gospel). 

Of milk, butter is made, Prov. xxx. 33, whence buttered words are mentioned, PsaL 
fr- 21, that is, smooth and flattering words, &c. 

. f In ecHpsi rulet luna insiar sanguinis, &c. 
lac! 'ts divt-rso sen.su, &c. 

Paul-its mention em fucit pueritiece ei 


Metaphors taken from same Generalities of living Creatures. 

Living" creatures that are brutes, are distinguished into terrestrial, volatile, and aquatile. 
As to what concerns terrestrial generally, rrn fera, bestia, a wild- beast, sometimes signifies 
a convention, meeting, or gathering together ; which (Schindler says) is spoken by a 
metaphor taken from beasts gathered together, 2 Sam. xxiii. 11, of the Philistines, ga- 
thered together in a troop. By wild beasts of the field, Psal. Ixxx. 13, the unmerciful 
enemies of the church are metaphorically denoted. The Hebrew word here signifies a 
strong and fierce beast. 

The Apostle Paul (citing the poet Epimenides) calls the Cretans Sypia, evil beasts. 
For this verse is found in his works which he entitled De Oraculis, as Jerome in his com- 
mentary upon the place notes. Paul calls him a prophet, either ironically, or from the ar- 
gument of his writing, or because the Cretans, his countryman, thought him to be so, &e. 
See Psal. xlix. 10, Ixxiii. 22, and xcii. 6, Prov. xii. 1, and xxx. 2, Psal. xciv. 7, 8, Jer.x. 
8, 14, &c. See also Gen. xvi. 12. 

The apostle Paul says, 1 Cor. xv. 32, that he did (0ripto[*.ax < ral } " fight with beasts 
at Kpbesus." His words are E< Kara avdpcairov eBypiofiaxriira, et> E^effcu, &c., sisecundum hominem 
adversus bestias pugnavi Ephesi, &c., that is, if after the manner nf men (or to speak 
after the manner of men, or according to man) " I have fought with beasts at Ephesus ;" 
that is, as some say, with beastly men. Scaliger in his notes says, feres eC prcefracti in- 
genni viros quibuscum illi negatium et contentio fnit, vocat Q-npia, that is, " the men he had 
to do withal being of a stubborn and of an ungovernable mind, he calls them beasts." 
And therefore, for T avQpavov, as it is in our copies, should be read KO.T mBpuiawv in 
this sense : " If I have fought in Ephesus against men, as if against beasts," &c. 

And whereas he makes an express mention of Ephesus, some understand these words 
of the tumult and uproar there mentioned, Acts xix. Others expound it of the disputes 
which he had for three months with the unbelieving and stubborn Jews at Ephesus, 
Acts xix. 2, 9. 

1 Cor. xv. 29. "When he speaks of the resurrection of the dead, and such as deny it, 
fyet professing themselves Christians) he argues (in order to confute them) TOU armw 
from their own topic or maxim-; " If the dead rise not at all ? In vain was the bap- 
tism for the dead ;" that is, if there be no resurrection, that baptism is idle which is . 
made upon the graves of the dead for the confession of that article, viz., the resur- 
rection, &c. ; in vain are all my sufferings in Christ, verse 30, 31 : in vain is all our 
controversy for the Christian religion with the adversaries of truth, (who are like 
beasts for fierceness and unruliness,) verse 32, with verse 14, 15, &c. Such as un- 
derstand these words of Paul properly, that is, as if he had really fought with 
beasts, may be confuted by what he recites, 2 Cor. xi. 23, and the following verses, 
where he gives a narrative of his great sufferings, in which enumeration there is no 
mention of this fight with beasts. And certainly if it had been really so, and that he 
had been exposed to such an extraordinary cruel treatment, more inhuman indeed than 
any he relates, he would not forget to reckon it amongst his sufferings. Now if the 
verb A7 (I say,) be understood, (an ellipsis we meet with, 2 Cor. ix. 6, Isa. v. 9, Hos. 
xiv. 9,) as doubtless it is, the sense must be, as if he had said, si loquar secundum ho- 
minem, that is, if I speak according to (the manner of) men, viz., when they use si- 
militudes, Gal. iii. 15, Horn. vi. 19, then this speech must be taken metaphorically, and so 
all is. well. 

A certain mixture of clivers animals is proposed, Isa. xi. 6, 7, 8, 9, and Ixv. 25, by 
which the calling of the wild and barbarous nations, and the gathering of the church from 
the diverse sorts of people is denoted, which elegant metaphorical Irypotyposis, with, divine 
assistance,, shall under its proper head be expounded. 

To hunt, is almost every where taken in an ill sense, and is put for to ensnare, contrive, 
or devise mischief, Exod. xxi. 13, 1 Sam. xxiv. 12, Prov. vi. 26, Jer. xvi. 16, Lam. iii- 
52, and iv. 18, Ezek. xiii. 18, 20, Micah vii. 2. The reason of the metaphor is evident, 
for the various devices, traps, instruments, and arts, that are made use of by hunters to 
catch the beasts they seek for. 

He is called a mighty hunter, Gen. x. 9 ; who abuses his power violently to oppress 
and subdue men, or is a tyrant ; Illyricus,* Fenatio habet simile quiddam bello, &c., huiit- 

* In C/Hve script, col. 



jug has some resemblance to war, as Xenophon says in his instruction of Cyrus ; " yea, it 
j s a kind of war : and, on the other hand, war is a land of hunting of servile and 
disobedient men," as Aristotle in his last book of politics says : " Therefore when Min- 
rod is said to be a mighty hunter," it is to be interpreted a warrior, which appears from 
the text itself, for it is applied in this .place to the principal cities of that kingdom, 
which may not be properly said of a hunter, but of a king or general of an host who 
built strong cities, when he subdued the countries. The Chaldee plainly renders it, "a 
strong hero." Aben Ezra takes it properly of the hunting of beasts which Nimrocl of- 
fered in sacrifices to the Loi'd, from the phrase before the Lord. But Mercer notes, 
that all the Hebrews esteemed Nimrod as a tyrant, and that Aben Ezra should be re- 
buked, for that he alone would justify an impious man. But more rightly the phrase, 
"before the Lord," is to be understood, to denote an aggravation of his tyranny, be- 
cause he did not act obscurely or privately, but opetily and in the face of the sun, ini<- 
posing his government without respect to men or dread of the all-seeing Divinity. See 
Gen. vi. 11, and xiii. 13, &c. Lastly, it is to be observed, that 1 Chron. i. 10, Nimrod 
is said plainly to be " mighty" upon the earth, which is by any means to be understood 
of his rule over men.* 

The term hunting is attributed to God, when he requites the persecutors of 
the godly with those punishments they designed or inflicted upon others, Psal. cxl. 11, 
" The man of tongue (that is, one that curses or blasphemes) shall not be established 
in the earth," he (viz., God) shall hunt him, so the Hebrew, to precipices, or an overthrow, 
that is, as he hunted the - godly, verse 5, so God will, as it were, with punishments 
hunt him, till he rushes or falls headlong into everlasting destruction. See verse 10, 
and Hab. iii. 17. 

A snare, or to ensnare, f- are of the same metaphorical signification with hunting, and 
signify to intrap or destroy, Deut. vii. 16, 25, and xii. 30, Psal. ix. 15, 16, cxxiv. 7,. .cxl. 
5, xxxviii. 12, xci. 3, and cxli. 9, Eccl. ix. 12, Matt. xxii. 15. 

A snare is put for loss or destruction, or the cause or occasion thereof, Exod. x. 7, 1 Sairiv 
xviii. 2,1, Psal. Ixix. 22, and xviii. 5, Prov. xii. 13, xiii. 14, xxii. 5, and xxix. 6, Isa. xxiv. 
17, Ezek. xvii. 20, Hos. v. 1, andix. 8, Horn. xi. 9, 1 Tim. iii. 7, and vi. 9, 2 Tim. ii. 26. 

A net, such as hunters use, is of the same signification, Psal. ix. 15, 16, xxv. 15, XXXT. 6, 
7, Ivii. 6, and cxli. 10, Prov. xxix. 5, Eccl. vii. 26, Hos. v. 1, and ix. 8. See Job xix. 6, 
Psal. xi. 6, Jer. 1. 24, Ezek. xii. 13, and xxxii. 3. 

Of Metaphors taken from the kinds of living Creatures. 

THESE we shall recite thus. 

(1.) "Wild or savage beasts, that live in deserts or woods. 
(2.) Such as serve for man's use or feeding. 
(3.J Serpents, worms, and other insects. 

A lion, the king of beasts, Prov. xxx. 30; sometimes is to be understood in a good, 
sometimes in an evil sense, as was mentioned, chap, vi., yet more seldom in a good, Gen. 
xlix. 9, " Judah is called a h'on's whelp," by which the holy patriarch denotes the strength, 
power, and eininency of that tribe beyond the others; but of this we have spoken, chap. 
v iii-, when we expounded the text that calls Christ a lion. 

What we translate altar, Ezek. xliii. 15, 16, in the Hebrew is, [Ariel,] that is, 
the lion of God, a compounded word, put for the altar whereon sacrifices were of- 
fered, because it always consumed the oblations as a lion does his prey. The city 
Jerusalem, is called by this name, Isa. xxix. 1, 2, "Woe to Ariel, to Ariel," (viz., the lion 
i God,) upon which Musculus, "Jerusalem is called Ariel, because she became fierce and 
C1 'uel against God and his prophets, whom she had barbarously slain', as a lion does a 
tomb in the desert." And fitly applies to this sense what we read, Jer. xii. 8, of the 
people of the Jews. " In that place," he says, " there is an allusion, as if he had said, thou 
a rt not fa ITS the city of God, as thou wouldst fain seem to be ; but ^ -i the lion of 

Vul. Ze/merum, Cenlur 1. Aday. Sacr. 1. 

t C|73 

u 2 


God," &c. The Chaldee well expresses the sense of verse"2, " And I will straiten the 
city in which the altar is, and it shall be desolate and empty, and it shall be environed 
with the blood of the slain, as the altar is covered and encompassed with the blood of sg, 
orifices upon the feast day." 

A lion is metaphorically 'put for fierce, outrageous enemies or tyrants, Job iv. 10, Psal. 
xxii. 21, xxxiv. 10, Ivii. 4, and Iviii. 6, Jer. iv. 7; and v. 6, Ezek. xix. 2. Nah. ii. 
11, 12, Zeph. iii. 3, 2 Tim. iv. 17. Hence the devil is compared to a roaring lion, I 
Pet. v. 8. See Isa. xxxv. 9, and xi. 6, 7, Kom. viii. 38, 39. Eoaring, that is, the 
clamour or cry of the lion, is taken for violence or tumultuous hostility, Isa. v. 29, Zech. 
xi. 3. For thunder, Job xxxvii. 4. For the groans and cries of the sorrowful, Psal. 
xxii. 1, 2, and xxxviii. 8, 9. 

An unicorn, because of its fierceness and strength, is put for wicked and cruel 
enemies, Psal. xxii. 21, Isa. xxxiv. 7 ; but in an express comparison it is otherwise taken 

A boar signifies also the fierce enemies of God's people, Psal. Ixxx. 13. 

A bear, which is a cruel creature, denotes a cruel and merciless tyrant, Prov. xxviii. 15. 
Also God, when he executes heavy vengeance, Lam. iii. 10, but in both places it is rather 
an express comparison, there being an ellipsis of the comparative particle (as) which is to 
be understood, and so it is rendered in our English Bibles. 

A wolf, which is a strong, cruel, and ravenous beast, denotes powerful, fierce, and 
covetous men, Gen. xlix. 27; the tribe of Benjamin is called a ravening wolf, 
because strong and fierce, and is so described, Judg. xx. 21, &c. See Jer. v. 6, Zeph. 
iii. 3, Ezek. xxii. 27. 

In the New Testament, by wolves are understood seducers, and authors of wicked doc- 
trines, Matt. vii. 15, John x. 12, Acts xx. 29. Franzius,* in his history of beasts, says 
that John xxii., " by wolf, is meant the devil." Because, 

(1.) As a wolf is apt and willing to execute mischief against man and beast ; so the devil 
is the common enemy of mankind. 

(2.) As the wolf is greedy and unsatiable ; so the cruelty and rapacity of the devil is not 
to be satisfied. 

(3.) As the wolf is so sharp sighted, that he can see even in the darkest night, and 
when hungry, smell his prey at the distance of half a German mile, (that is, an English mile 
and half;) so the devil by long experience and use is become still more wicked and cruel, 
and well versed in the scent of his prey, that is, of such as are apt to be tempted 
to sin. 

(4.) As wolves sometimes devour whole sheep, sometimes only the flesh; so the 
devil sometimes hurts the corporeal faculties, sometimes destroys life, and sometimes 
(when God permits) health; and sometimes harries the wicked, soul and body, to 

(5.) As the wolf is most- crafty; so the devil wholly consists of deceit. The wolf 
invades the flock in a dark or cloudy time, the better to make his approaches undiscovered: 
so the devil sets upon men commonly in times of calamity and affliction, that by the ad- 
vantage of their troubles, he may the better exercise his tempting power. The wolf uses 
baits and stratagems to allure a herd to come within the danger of his fellows, enticing 
goats with green boughs, aiid playing with young pigs, casting them with his tail, making 
them run along, till he seduces them to the ambush ; so the devil presents false pleasures, 
to bewitch the senses of men, till they fall headlong into his snare. The wolf uses much 
policy when he sets upon bulls and horned beasts, and assaults them behind, where they 
are unprovided for defence ; so the devil has peculiar slights and devices to entrap the 
strongest and more experienced Christians, seeming to retreat when he cannot prevail, but 
quickly returning (when he thinks they are secure) with a new stratagem to undo them. 

(6.) It is said of a wolf that if he first sees a man, the man loses Ms voice and cannot 
cry out; so the devil, when he has set upon any unwary man that feared no danger, 
resisted not, makes an easy conquest and triumph. 

* Hutoria, Animal. p. 216. cap. 20. 


(7.) But if a man sees a wolf first, the beast loses both voice and courage : so 
oiily wen, wno f ear devilish temptations, and prepare themselves for resistance, can 
easily by prayer and divine cries put that malignant enemy to flight." 

(8.) The wolf mightily dreads fire and swords ; so the devil fears the light of God's 
Lord and prayer, &c., which are the church's weapons. Hence Chrysostom said, 
j 3 t " Swords are not so terrible to wolves as the prayers of the godly are to the devil." 

Seducers, and false teachers, are called wolves, Acts xx. 29, " I know that after my 
departure shall grievous (or ravenous wolves) enter in among you," where we are to note the 
epithet, for it is not said wolves, but ravenous wolves, for there are some more ra- 
pacious than others. Oppianus and other learned men say that there are a certain kind 
of wolves, which are called apTayes, snatchers or ravening wolves. These are the 
swiftest sort, and go out very early to prey, and invade with a terrible onset, they 
are very unsatiable and craving, 'and inhabit mountains, yet of such "impudence that 
I in the winter they come to the very cities, and behave themselves quietly till an op- 
portunity of seizing upon a lamb, young goat, or other prey, offers, which they carry away, 
to which the patriarch seems to allude, Gen. xlix. 27. 

1. As wolves are said to take away a man's voice ; so false teachers take away the 
purity of the heavenly doctrine and worship of God. 

2. The wolf is so cruel and devouring, that he kills not only what would serve his 
belly, but the whole flock, if let alone : so heretics aim not at the destruction of one 
or two, but the whole church. 

3. As the wolf is most crafty, and silently approaches the sheepfold to know whe- 
ther the clogs be asleep, or the shepherd wanting, or 'whether they are careless and 
negligent, and so watches a fit occasion to destroy the flock, and suck their blood ; 
so hereticks, before they propose their manifest and apparent errors, slily insinuate 
themselves into the good opinion of men, and with wretched hypocrisy and sophistry 
counterfeit much piety, humility, and angelical sanctimony, boasting of peculiar illu- 
minations and communion with God : thus when -they have purchased a good repute 
they instil their venom into the minds of their unwary proselytes, till they wholly corrupt 

4. It is said that even after death there remains a natural .antipathy between a wolf 
and a sheep, insomuch that if the skin of each be made into a drum, (as a learned 
naturalist* observes) the very sound of the wolf's skin breaks the other, and that 
if their guts be made into viol (or lute) strings, it is impossible to tune them to unisons 
or one sound: so the perverse doctrine of heretics does mischief in the church, even 
when the heretics themselves are dead. 

5. As the wolf at the approach of peril betakes himself to fight privately ; so heretics 
skulk in time of persecution, and withdraw most cowardly. 

6. By the attic laws, (and so in Ireland at this day), wolf -killers were considerably 
rewarded; so they deserve praise and encouragement that detect the fraud, sophistry, 
and impiety of those wolves, that would destroy the flock of Christ. The wolf 
Disappointed of his prey walks about with an open or gaping mouth ; so heretics thirst 
lor the blood of the orthodox. And as the cubs or whelps of wolves are killed, 
although they have yet committed no mischief ; so the fry and disciples of wicked he- 
retics ought to be bridled, and care taken to prevent, that they envenom not the church ; 
so far Frangius. 

A. leopard is a fierce and swift 
enmity in the scripture, Jer. v. 6. 

'Pl A. /> 1 i . . 1 * 

creature, and carries the notion of cruelty and 

That a fox denotes heretics, and the church's enemies, Cant. ii. 15, Lam. v. 18, 
13 -the judgment of interpreters. As Fransius Hist. Animal, p. 191, &c. That Christ 
called Herod a fox is evident from Luke xiii. 32, by reason of his treacherous plots, 
With, which he privately contrived to entrap him. Erasmus in his paraphrase " Go and 
tell that fox who confides in human craft, and believes he can do anything against the ma- 
jesty and counsel of God," &c. This was the fox that would betray that hen we read of 
Afott. xxiii. 37, which is produced by way of excellent similitude to denote the most gra- 
Cl ous care and loving-kindness of God to his church, &c. 

* Hist. Animal, pay. 213, 


A hind is commonly taken in a good sense, Gen. xlix. 21, " Naphtali is a hind let 
loose ;" that is, which flies most swiftly. This is expounded of a ready promptitude and 
activity in the happy dispatch and management of affairs. The Hebrews refer this to 
Barak the Naphtalite, who made a very speedy levy of 10,000 men of the tribe of Ze- 
bulun and Naphtali, and together with Deborah pursued Sisera their enemy, Judg. iv. 10. 
It is added in that text. (Gen. xlix. 21,) " he giveth goodly words," which they refer to 
the same history, and that sweet song of Barak and Deborah mentioned, Judg. v. 

Prov. v. 19, A good wife is called " a hind of loves, and a pleasant roe," so the He- 
brew, that is, a hind beloved : because men take a singular delight in wild beasts, that 
are made tame and sociable, &c. 

A horse and his neighing metaphorically denotes unbridled lust, Jer. v. 8. See 
Ezek. xxiii. 20. 

To ride signifies to rule, or to be in an eminent condition, Deut. xxxii. 13, Psal. Ixvi. 
12, Isa. Iviii. 14, where it is ascribed to God, is already shown. 

A bridle, or to bridle, which properly belongs to horses, James ii. 5, by which 
they are restrained and guided, Psal. xxxii. 8, 1), metaphorically denotes the curbing and 
averting the violence of enemies, sometimes when attributed to the tongue, it de- 
notes a prudent and becoming moderation, James iii. 2, and i. 26. See Job xxx. 11, 
Psal. Ixvi. 11, 12. 

An ass, besides the place cited, viz., Ezek. xxiii. 20, is found in a metaphor, Gen. 
xlix. 14, where the tribe of Issachar is called the " Ass of a bone," that is, of. big bones, 
and so strong, that though dull by nature, it shakes not off but bears what burdens are 
laid upon it ; hence it is subjoined, " couching down between two burdens," for they 
were wont to divide its load, and place it in two bundles on either side, the explication 
follows, verse 15. See Judg. v. 16. 

A bull denotes a violent, cruel, and proud enemy, that abuses and infests the miserable, 
Psal. xxii. 12, and Ixviii. 30, Isa. xxxiv. 7. By the name of kine, the grandees of the 
kingdom are expressed, Amos iv. 1 ; about which see chap, x., where we have treated 
of the hill Bashan. 

Isa. xv. 5, '* An heifer of three years old," seems to be a metaphorical epithet of tlie 
city Zoar belonging to the Moabites ; the same we read, Jer. xlviii. 34, and that it \vus 
near the city Horonaim. Upon which texts some expositors say, that it denotes the pride, 
luxury, and wantonness of the Moabites, because when a cow conies to be of that 
age, it begins to grow fierce and wanton. Others understand it, of plenty of pastures 
and other conveniences, with which that land abounded, as a heifer or cow of three 
years old, gives store of milk. Jerome in his Comment on Isaiah says, that we are 
to understand the " heifer of three years old, of perfect and full age. For as the thirtieth 
year completes a man's, so the third year does the like in those beasts." 

Lyranus says, that it is so called because of its luxuriant petulancy. and that the fe- 
minine gender is used to denote their filthy sodomy, which is a far fetched exposition. 
Junius and Trernellius expound it of the bawling Moabites, (who are so called by an 
eniphatical prosopopreia) when they laboured to confirm their flying and despairing 
friends. For as a heifer unaccustomed to the yoke, is therefore more impatient, and 
complains with louder and stronger bellowing at that age ; so they impatient of servi- 
tude, cry aloud, &c. 

Jer. xlvi. 20, " Egypt" is called " a very fair (or beautiful heifer, but destruction 
cometh out of the north to it." Here is a comparison of its perfect felicity (by a metaphor 
taken from a fattened and plump heifer) with its future disgrace and ruin. 

Hos. x. 11, " Ephraim," or the people of Israel, is called "an heifer taught or accus- 
tomed, loving to thread out the corn.' 5 Which metaphor, Brentius thus expounds, " This 
labour of treading out the corn was 'easy and pleasing to the heifers, for they were not 
bound, nor yoked, nor burdened, but had a full freedom of dancing about, and had food 
enough, according to Deut. xxv. 4. So is Israel hitherto unaccustomed to banishments, 
depredations, and utter devastations, but dwelling in their own kingdom, under their owu 
vine and fig-tree, enjoying what they possessed in peace, &c. 


A yoke, that instrument whereby oxeu are tied, to draw a plough, or cart, or coach, &c,, 
Luke xiv. 19, is used metaphorically ; as, 

1. It denotes doctrine and institution, for as oxen are thereby tied up and appointed to 
some certain kind of labour, to which in time they become accustomed, so Christians are 
obliged to the practice of divine precepts. Jer. v. 5, " But these have altogether broken 
the yoke, and burst the bonds," (wherewith the yoke was tied) ; the Chaldee renders it, 
" But these have altogether rebelled against the law, these have departed from the doc- 
trine." See Psal. ii. 3, Matt. xi. 29, " Take my yoke upon you," verse 30, " For my 
yoke is easy and my burden is light." That the evangelical doctrine of Christ our Saviour is 
to be understood, is evident by the application added, "Learn of me ; for I am meek and 
lowly in heart : and ye shall find rest for your souls." Now because" the gospel is the doc- 
trine or word of the cross, 1 Cor. i. 18 ; therefore is this metaphorical phrase used by 
Christ. That there are three things comprehended here, is plain from the words. 

(1.) Faith in Christ, begot by the word of the gospel. 

(2.) A pious life, comformable to the life of Christ in humility, meekness, and other fruits 
of the Spirit. 

(3.) Patience and constancy in bearing his cross. And where these are exercised the 
party shall find rest for his soul. Hence the devil is called * Belial, which signifies with- 
out yoke, because that apostate spirit cast off his allegiance to the laws of God. 

2. It denotes trouble, anguish, and affliction, but especially the oppression of cruel 
masters, magistrates, or tyrants, as oxen yoked, are heavy loaden, and compelled by 
slashing and pricking to draw through the most difficult ways by their hard-hearted 
owners, Lev. xxvi. 13, 1 Kings xii. 4, Isa. x. 4, ix. 27, xiv. 25, and xlvii. 6, Jer. ii. 20, 
xxviii. 2, 4, 1 1 , 14, and xxx. 8, Lam. i. 14, and iii. 27, 1 Tim. vi. 1, &c. 

It is put for a heavy and troublesome burden in spirituals, Acts xv. 10, Gal. v. 1, &c. 

3. It denotes conjunction, and conformity with others, as the oxen joined together 
by the yoke, draw the burden with the greater ease, because of their mutual aid 
to each other, 2 Cor. vi. 14, " Be ye not unequally yoked with unbelievers," by which 
idolatry, or any kind of impiety is understood. The word eTepofryowres is emphatical, and 
signifies to bear a strange yoke, which believers are, of all men, most obliged to keep the 
remotest distance from. 

The term crvgvyos, -j- Phil. iv. 3, which is well translated " yoke-fellow," is diversely in- 
terpreted by the learned ; Clemens Alexandrinus understood it of Paul's wife, and many 
follow him, as Erasmus, Musculus, Illyricus, and others : but Cajetan, Calvin, Beza, and 
Piseator, turn it socie, that is, companion, &c., the phrase is certainly metaphorical, whe- 
ther it be understood of Paul's wife, or any assistant preacher. The Syriac uses a mascu- 
line word '3't "ia fili jugi mei, " son of my yoke ;" by which it appears that 'they understood 
it of some man that was Paul's colleague. 

I A dog, because he is ravenous and given to biting, metaphorically denotes a violent and 
I bitter spiteful enemy, Psal. xxii. 16, 20 ; and because reputed a base creature among men, 
jit is used as a term of disgrace, or vilifying, 2 Kings viii. 13 ; so a dead dog, 1 Sam. xxiv. 
14, 2 Sam. ix. 8, andxvi. 9 ; and the head of a dog, 2 Sam. iii. 8 ; impudent whore-mon- 
gers or sodomites, are called so, Deut. xxiii. 17, 18. Though some understand this phrase 
properly, yet by the 17th verse it seems to be meant of sodomites. 

It denotes wicked men, who are stubbornly ungrateful and obstinate, Matt. vii. 6, where 
clogs and swine are joined, (as likewise in the proverb, 2 Pet. ii. 22,) which metaphors 
emphatically set forth the qualities, and acts of the sons of this world, who are strangers 
to the kingdom of God. 

1. Like ravenous curs, they bark at the heavenly doctrine, and its faithful ministers, whom 
they reproach with impudent scandals, and whose utter extirpation they study. 

^. Like swine J poppogaSy Ptov exovo-i, vitam impuram agunt, they led a filthy life, 
wallowing in beastly pleasures, as hogs do in mire. Christ therefore gives warning to 
his people, that they should take special care that the mysteries of his blessed sacra- 
ments should not be communicated to, or polluted by such blasphemers, persecutors, 

* Belial absque juyo. Hier. bs'bl, ex bull, id est non, el hoi id estjuffum. The Septuagint commonly 

inslsites it irapavofj-os, altogether irregular. 

t Mascidini et fnminmi generis est, siynificat Conjngatttm, Zan. t Theopilact. 


and epicurean hogs. But what the conclusion and reward of such dogs and swine will be, 
appears, Kev. xxii. 15, &c. 

Isa. Ivi. 10, " They are all dumb dogs, they cannot bark," this is a description of false 
teachers, who, when they ought to speak with respect to matter and time, were silent, 
and forsook their office. On the other hand, verse 11, it is said, " that they are greedy 
dogs, which can never be satisfied," which denotes their unsatiable covetousness. 

Phil. iii. 2, False apostles, and false prophets, are called dogs, because they have quali- 
ties like dogs, as impudence, calumny, or currish biting, and voracity, or covetousness. 
There are three lands of dogs. 

1. Such as are chained up, and bark at every passenger if known to them, bite the 
stones thrown at them, and yet are pacified by a bit of bread : so heretics that are the 
slaves or captives of Satan, bark to have the scripture theirs, though .the sense be 
unknown to them, and quarrel with scripture objections made against them, and as 
it were bite it, by their false interpretations, but yet are satisfied by the fat morsels of 
benefices, &c. 

2. Hunting dogs, who pursue and seize upon beasts : so the heretics persecute tlie 

3. Ravening or preying dogs, whom pertinacious arch-heretics imitate. 

A sheep is frequently used in a metaphor, as well as an allegory and express similitude. 
And because the explication of this metaphorical speech is obvious everywhere, we shall 
dispatch what we have to say here about it briefly. 

The faithful and godly are called sheep, and the church, the flock, Psal. Ixxviii. I 
52, and c. 3, Isa. v. 17, Ezek. xxxvi. 38, John x. 15, 16, 26, 27, and xxi. 15, 16, 17, 
Acts xx. 2$, Heb. xiii. 20, 1 Pet. v. 2. To this belong. entire allegories and parables,) 
taken from the state and keeping of sheep, Psal. xxiii. Ezek. xxxiv. John X; 

Sometimes by way of opposition, as sheep signify believers, because of their simplicity, I 
patience, purity, obedience, fruitfulness, and profit, Ezek. xxxiv. 16,17, Matt. xxv. 32, 
33. So goats or rams signify unbelievers, in the texts last cited, because of their petulancy 
or boldness. 

Goats or rams signify the captains or governors -of the people, Isa. xiv. 9, Zech. x. 3, 
see Jer. 1. 8. 

To feed, pascere, which term is properly spoken of flocks of sheep, is frequently trans- 
lated to men, and signifies to rule and govern, if applied to magistrates : but if spoken of 
ministers, it denotes to teach, and govern according to the rule of God's word. Examples 
of the former may be read, Gen. xlix. 24, 2 Sam. v. 2, 1 Chron. xi. 2, Psal. Ixxviii. 71, 
Isa. xliv. 28, Jer. xii. 10, xxiii. 1, 2, 4, and 1. 6, Zech. x. 3, and xi. 4, 9, Rev. ii. 27, \ 
and xix. 15. Of the latter, Jer. xvii. 16 ; and iii. 15, John xxi. 15, 16, Acts xx. 28, J 
Eph. iv. 11, 1 Pet. v. 2, 3, &c. See Prov. x. 21, xiii. 20, xxix. 3, and xxii. 24. 

A serpent is brought, Gen. iii. 13, to denote the devil, because (lurking in a natural 
serpent) he seduced man, and the head of the serpent denotes the chief power, 
rule, tyranny, and virulence of devils. The same appellation, as also that of a| 
dragon, we meet with, Pi-ev. xii. 7, 9, and xx. 2. Hence the wicked are called the ge- 
neration of vipers, Matt. iii. 7, xii. 34, and xxiii. 33, Luke ili. 7. See John viii. 44, 1 
1 John iii. 8. The eggs of an asp, adder, or cockatrice, out of which those venomous 
creatures are produced, are metaphorically put to signify the malice and preverseness of | 
their minds, Isa. lix. 5. The poison of asps, denotes filthy, naughty speeches, calum- 
nies and blasphemies, PsaL cxl. 3, Rom. iii. 13, Jer. viii. 17. Serpents, biting cock- 
atrices, signify the Chaldeans, the cruel and implacable enemies of ti;e Jews, Job xx. ! 
14, 16; the gall, head, and tongue of asps, is put for a very mischievous and deadly 
thing : so the asp and the basilisk, are put for extreme perils. In two other places a 
serpent has a, different signification from these, as Gen. xlix. 17. The appellation awl 
action oi' a serpent is attributed to the tribe of JJan, because of a certain likeness : for | 
as a serpent hurts men by craft and treachery, so the Danites made use of sub- 
tlety and stratagems as the sacred history testifies, as when they went to surprise Laisb, 
Judges xviii. And Sampson by stratagem, not by open war, destroyed so many of the | 
Philistines, Judges xiv. The papists wrest this text to denote antichrist, whic 


they say is to be of the tribe of Dan, and is the serpent here meant ; but that conceit 
is grounded upon some obsolete figments . of Jewish traditions, and upon no scripture 
foundation, &c. 

By the root of the serpent, Isa. xiv. 21, the progeny of king Uzziah is understood, 
who grievously afflicted the' Philistines, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6, and by the viper king Heze- 
kiah, who yet afflicted them more, and almost involved them in incurable mischiefs, 
2 Kings xviii. 8. Betwixt those two Ahaz reigned, by reason of whose sloth (God punish- 
ing his impiety) the Philistines became insolent, harassing and wasting Judea without 
control, 2 Chron. xxviii. 9 11. But the prophet here denounces that they should be no 
longer suffered to rage at that rate, but that they shall be destroyed, &c. 

Scorpions denote most malignant and perverse men, Ezek. ii. 6. Also most 
grievous and intolerable strokes, 1 Kings xii. 11, 14. Spiders' webs denote the vanity 
of wicked designs, Job viii. 14, Isa. lix. 5, 6. Moles, to which bats are joined, Isa. 
ii. 20, denote such as are spiritually blind and ignorant of God ; because motes live 
obscurely under ground; and bats in dark nights fly about, as if he had said, .when 
they are converted to Christ, they will leave their idols which they worshipped, to such 
as are obstinately blind and unbelieving ; but they themselves shall serve God, being 
divinely illuminated. 

A worm denotes a thing vile and contemptible, Psal. xxii. 6, Isa. xli. 14; some- 
times perpetual affliction, Isa. Ixvi. 24, Mark ix. 44, 46, 48 ; because it is always gnawing 
and consuming the wood, or living creature wherein it is. A flea denotes extraordinary 
vilifying, extenuation of worth, 1 Sam. xxiv. 14, and xxvi. 20. 

Hitherto we have treated of terrestrial creatures : now of volatile or flying creatures, 
and aquatile, that is, such as live in waters ; we will give what metaphors are 
met with, which are but few. Of the wings and flight of birds we have spoken before. 
Eccl. x. 20 ; fame or report (because of its swiftness) is expressed by the metaphor of 
a bird, " Curse not the king, no, not in thy conscience, and curse not the rich in thy bed- 
chamber. : for a bird of the air shall carry the voice, and that which hath wings shall 
tell the matter :" that is, because fame is an evil, than which nothing is, more swift, 
and shall with great speed, like a flying bird, convey thy words to the hearing of such 
as will create thee danger. Some refer tin's to a hyperbole, that the sense may be, 
that princes and great men are full of ears, so that there is scarce any thing done or 
said, but they have notice of it by their spies and observers. Hence came the Greek 
proverb, iro\\ot fiairi\e<as o<t>da\fju>i, KCU 7roAA.a (ara. ; the king has many eyes and, many 

Of the warlike host of the king of Assyria, it is said, Isa. viii. 8, " That the stretching 
out of his wings shall be the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel :" upon which Musculus in 
liis comment, h. 1. says, "that by this metaphor of a great bird, the multitude of his 
host is denoted, which is of so vast a body, and of such large and spreading wings, that 
nothing in the whole land can escape its depredations, &c." The Lord says, Isa. xlvi. 11, 
that " he will call a* ravenous bird from the east," that is, Cyrus, a leader of a notable 
expedition, who subdues all difficulties, as if he had wings to fly over them. The epithet 
(ravenous,) denotes his cruelty which he exercised in the destruction of Babylon, as wings 
signify the swiftness of the execution. 

Jer. xii. 9, " My possession is to me as a taloned bird," (or a bird with claws or talons.) 
In the former verse, he compared that stubborn people to a lion; and here to a rapa- 
cious fowl, which invades his prey with talons, as if they were fingers.f He proceeds 
in the metaphor, " the birds round about her, are against her ; come ye, assemble all the 
beasts of the field, come to devour ;" this is a summons to the Chaldeans and other Gen- 
tiles, to come against the Jews, &c. 

The chattering of birds is put for the groans of men in sickness, Isa. xxxviii. 14, 
"where some species of birds, as a crane, a swallow, and a dove, are mentioned. Also 

* ior Rapax volucris. See Pliny's Nat. Hist. lib. 11. c. 47. 


in the Hebrew text; Isa, viii. 19, of wizards, or .such as have familiar spirits, upon 
"which place the paraphrase of Junius and Tremellius* is excellent : " Those seducers are 
not endued with such a faculty, as to show openly and with a clear voice, or expound in 
plain terms, what should be said, as we the prophets relate the judgments of God in an 
intelligible and most evident phrase : "but they speak in their throat and keep a piping as 
chickens hardly hatched, or if they utter any thing with an audible voice, they do so mut- 
ter as the sybil out of her tripod :" which self-same reason the prophet explains, chap, 
xxix., verse 4, and historians almost every where. 

Musculus upon the place says, " Ecquid aliud vocandi sunt, qui inter missandum sic 
mussitant, &c., what shall we otherwise call them who mutter and murmur at that rate 
when they are a massing, as if they designed of set purpose to conceal their words 
from such as are present, and attribute a certain hidden virtue to that mussitation (or 
muttering) by which the substance of bread and wine are converted into the flesh 
and blood of Christ: that species of muttering and antic gesture bespeaks not an 
apostolical and Christian spirit, but rather that which consists of magic and legerde- 
main," &c." 


A nest, the habitation of a bird, is put for rooms or chambers, Gen. vi. 14, "nests 
shalt thou make in the ark," so the Hebrew, that is, separate lodgings for the respec- 
tive kinds of creatures in Noah's ark. Sometimes it is put for the dwellings on men, 
especially such as are built in high places, as ravenous birds build their nests in steep 
and craggy rocks, Job xxix. 18, Numb. xxiv. 21, Jer. xxii. 23, and xlix. 16, Obad. 
verse 4, Habak. ii. 9. 

Of the kinds of volatiles, the turtle dove denotes the people of Israel, or the 
church, Psal. Ixxiv. 19, "0 deliver not the soul of thy turtle dove unto the multitude;" 
(of which he spoke verse 18,) that is, thy church and people, who worship none but 
thee, as a turtle dove, that never entertains conjunction with another, and who in their 
affliction, like a turtle dove, (Isa. xxxviii. 14 ;) express their grief in solitary groans 
and sighs to thee : and which is unarmed, weak, simple, and meek like a dove, yea, 
like a turtle dove, which is esteemed the least among the species of doves as Aristo- 
tle says. The Chaldee renders it, " the soul of such as learn thy law," (that word Tin a 
turtle dove, being of some affinity with mm lctw,~) Christ calls Ms church a dove, Cant. ii. 
14, v. 2, and vi. 8. And its eyes, the eyes of doves, Cant. i. 15, and iv. 1, by which 
metaphor its simplicity, (as Matt. x. 6,) its chastity, brightness, and its view and desire of 
heavenly things are denoted, &c. 

Among insects, hornets denote terrors sent from God among men, by which the 
enemies of the people of God shall be as it were stung and rooted out, Exod. xxiii. 28, 
compared with verse 27, Dent. vii. 20, Josh. xxiv. 12. The enemies of the people of 
Israel are called flies and bees, Isa. yii. IB, because of their multitude and swiftness, 
or nimbleness as the flies, and the Swapis, or power of hurting as in bees. The 
word flies is attributed to the Egyptians, and bees to the Assyrians, which metaphor 
Jerome in his commentary elegantly expounds thus ; he calls the Egyptians flies, be- 
cause of their filthy idolatry (see Eccl. x. 1,) and because they were a weak people: but the 
Assyrians he calls a bee, because they had at that time a powerful kingdom, and were very 
warlike, (as bees represent, as it were, a very well ordered monarchy, and are very 
resolute to annoy their enemies ;) or because all the Persians and Assyrians went armed 
with darts, whose points were like the stings of bees. The metaphor is continued, 
verse 19, "and they shall come and rest all of them in -the desolate vallies, and in the 
holes of the rocks, and upon all thorns, and upon all bushes." Because he once 
named these, enemies flies and bees, he keeps to the same metaphor in the rest, as 
if all places were to be filled with those insects. Of the fulfilling of this prophecy 
thus writes Jerome in the same place let us read the books of the Kings and the Chro- 
nicles, and we will find that the good king Josiah was slain by the Egyptians, and the 
Israelites subdued to an Egyptian yoke, so that the}- appointed them a king. And not long 
after comes Nebuchadnezzar, with an innumerable multitude of soldiers, took Jerusalem, 
destroyed the other cities of Juclea. burnt the temple, and planted Assyrian inhabitants 

* Non sunt isti sedutlores tanta fa iiltate pnediti, $"c. f Lib. 5.de Hist. Animal, cap. 18. 


in the land," 2 Kings xxiv. and xxv.- 2 Ghron. xxv. and xxxvi., &c. The sting of an in- 
sect metaphorically denotes the power of death,! Cor. "xv. 55,56. Brentius upon the 
place says, " As a bee that has lost her sting may threaten to sting, yet cannot, so when 
sin is pardoned, which is the sting of death, death may terrify, but cannot hurt us." 

Aquatiles follow. By the metaphor of fishing, a falling into the hands of enemies and 
captivity is understood. Amos iv. 2, " He (that is, the enemy) will take you away with 
hooks, and your posterity with fish-hooks ;" as if he had said, you indeed are like fat kine, 
verse 1, but ye shall be dragged by the enemy, as if you had been little fishes, in spite of 
your pride and fatness. The same metaphor we find, Habak. i. 15, 16, 17. 

By fishers, Jer. xvi. 16, are understood the Egyptians, Isa. xix. 8, 9, 10. See 2 Kings 
xxiii. 29. By hunters, the Chaldeans and Babylonians, so called fromNimrod, the builder 
of Babylon, Gen. x. 9, which prophecy is fulfilled, 2 Kings xxiv. and xxv. 

Besides this translation of the terms fisher and fishing, the apostles are called fishers of 
men, Matt. iv. 19, and Mark i. 17, Luke v. 10, the explication is given elsewhere. See 
Ezek. xlvii. 12. 

Of the kinds of aquatiles wn (Thannin;) a huge serpent, and the leviathan, that is, 
a great dragon or whale, is used metaphorically, Psal. Ixxiv. 13, "Thou didst break the 
.sea by thy strength, thou brakest the heads -of whales in the waters ;" verse 14, " Thou 
brakest the heads of the leviathan in pieces. By whales (or crocodiles, as Ezek. xxix. 3,) 
the grandees and captains of Pharaoh are understood ; who persecuted the people of Israel, 
Exod. xv. 4. By the leviathan, Pharaoh himself, who with his entire host was swal- 
lowed up in the Bed Sea. But that which follows, " thou shalt give it to be meat to the 
people inhabiting the wilderness," is not to be referred to the words immediately going be- 
fore, but is a sentence by itself, and is to be understood of the manna and quails, which 
the people fed upon. See Isa. li. 9, and xxvii. 1. 



IN man we are to consider, what are 

(1.) Essential. 

(2.) What are accidental. 

The essentials are his body with its members ; and its union with the soul, which is 

The accidentals are partly internal, as some differences betwixt men, and their 
actions of divers kinds : partly external, as the containing subjects and various adjuncts. 

Of which in order. 

Metaphors from a human Body and its Members. 

The body a-apa, (Soma,) is frequently put in the New Testament, for the people of 
God or the church, Eom. xii. 5, 1 Cor. x. 17, and xii, 13, 27, Eph. i. 23, ii. 16, iv. 4, 12, 
16, v. 23, Col. i. 8, 21, ii. 19, and iii. 15. The explication of which trope is easy. And 
to speak concisely, we shall show it, 

1. With respect to Christ the- Head of the church, and whose body the church is 

(1.) As the head is not at a distance from a living body, but most closely joined 
to it : so there is a sacred and most mystical union betwixt Christ and his church, or be- 

(2.) As the head rules the whole body, and influences it with a vital power ; so Christ 
wisely directs, and moderates, strongly preserves, quickens by counsel, instructs and eter- 
nally saves his church, Eph. ii. 16, iv. 16, and v. 23, &c. 

x 2 


. * 

2. With respect to true .Christians, who are spiritual members of that tody. 
Of these the metaphor of a body signifies many things, chiefly these three, 
(i.) The various gifts and offices of Christians, especially the preachers of the 
gospel. For, 

1. As one hody has divers members, which, have their particular and distinct offices ; 
so there are peculiar gifts and offices in the church, which particular persons fitted for 
their exercise, are chosen for. 

2. As the memhers of a human body differ among themselves with respect to excellency 
and operation ; yet those of an inferior office, 'do not envy the superior, neither does the 
superior despise the inferior : so among true Christians there is a society and conversation 
without envy in the lowest, or scorn in the highest rank, to each other ; Rom. xii. 4, 5, 1 
Cor. xii. 12, &c. 

(2.) Of the bond of perfection, which is love, with its fruits and virtues. 'The members 
of a human body have a natural instinct of love and sympathy, one to another ; if one he 
in pain, the rest are unquiet and ill at ease : if one be well, the rest rejoice, and each con- 
tributes to supply the necessity of the other of its own accord, neither will one willingly 
part with, the other ; so true believers sincerely love each other, and by tender, sympa- 
thizing, compassionate, fellow-feeling, love, and mutual aid of each other, declare them- 
selves to be living members of .the mystical body of Christ, Bom. xii. 5, 1 Cor. xii. 14, 
27, Eph. iv. 3, 4, 16. 

3. With respect to the spiritual knowledge of faith and increase of godliness, from the 
similitude of a human body, which increases and grows greater and stronger, &c., Eph. iv. 
13, Col. ii. 19. 

The head of a man is his chief, supreme, and principal member, and therefore carries a 
threefold metaphorical notion. 

1. The beginning or original of any thing, Gen. ii. 10, Exod. xii. 2, Deut. xx. 9, Isa. 
xii. 4, and Ii. 20, Ezek. x. 11, and xl. 1, &c. 

2. Superiority and eminericy, as well with respect to quantity or place ; as quality 
and rule. n caput, a head, the very top or highest part of a thing, Gen. xxviii. 
12, 18, where what we translate " top of Jacob's ladder," in the Hebrew is head, Gen. 
xlvii. 31, Exod. xxxiv. 2, 2 Sam. xv. 32, and xvi. 1, 2 Kings i. 9, Psal. xxiv. 7, 9, and 
Ixxii. 16, Isa. ii. 2, Amos i. 2. " The head-stone," Zech. iv. 7, is the highest in a build- 
ing, which finishes the work. 

It denotes a superiority of government, as a prince or chief ruler, Numb. xiv. 4, and 
xxxvi. 1, Deut. i. 13, 15, and xxvii. 44, Judg. x. 18, and xi. 8, 2 Sam. xxii. 44, and 
xxiii. 13, 2 Chron. xxxi. 10, Job xii. 24, Psal. xviii. 43, and ex. 6, Jer. lii. 24, Lam. i. 
5, Eph. ii. 20, 1 Cor. xi. 3, &c. 

The head of the corner denotes the extreme corner-stone, which by another metaphor is 
attributed to Christ, Psal. cxviii. 22, Matt. xxi. 42, Luke xx. 17, Acts iv. 11, 1 Pet. ii. 7. 

3. The chiefest or most desirable in any thing, Ex^od. xxx. 23 ; the head species, that 
is, the best. See Cant. iv. 14, Ezek. xxvii. 22, Deut. xxxiii. 15, Psal. cxli. 5. (Head 
oil, that is, excellent oil) Psal. cxix. 160, Isa. vii. 8, 9. " The head of Syria is Damas- 
cus, the head of Ephraim is Samaria;" that is, the principal or metropolitan city. 
Head is put for the chief or principal place, 1 Sam. ix. 22, 1 Kings xxi. 9. It is put for 
the sum or contents of any thing, Exod. xxx. 12, Numb. i. 2, 49, iv. 2, 22, and 
xxxi. 26, Psal. cxxxix. 17. See Lev. vi. 5. Hence comes the word K6<t>a\atow, to re- 
duce into one sum, which is elegantly spoken of the precepts of the divine law of the 
second table, the sum, or whole contents of which is charity or love, as the apostle 
has it, Rom. xiii. 9." See Acts xxii. 28, Heb. viii. 1. The distinct squadrons of an army 
are called heads, because they consist of a certain or select number, Judges vii. 16, and 
ix. 34, 37, 43, 1 Sam. xi. 11, and xiii. 17, Job i. 17, Einally, the sections or divisions 
of books are called heads, (capita.} vulgarly chapters, to which we may refer what is 
spoken, Psal. xl. 7, " In the volume of thy book," which the apostle, Heb. x. 7, renders 
evxeQa^iSipipxiov," in the head (or chapter) of thy book." Upon which Cunseus, Lib. 3. 
?e Repub. Heb. cap. 1, says , " These Ke<fa\i5es are nothing else, but those which the Jews f 
and especially the Talmudists, call rap 1 ^ that is, the members or parts of books. Therefor* 
the apostle being himself a Jew, and writing to the Jews, very significantly makes use of that 


word. There is a synecdoche, joined with the metaphor here, and by Ke<t>a\i5a the whole 
tody and volume of the Old Testament, in which the prophecies and types of the Messiah 
are extant, is to he understood. Jerome on Isa. xxix. says, " In the head of the book (says 
our Saviour in the psalm,) it is written of nie, not of Jeremy or Isaiah, but in all the Holy 
Scripture, which is called one book." 

A face, the foremost part of a man's head ; bare and fit for seeing ; and apt to vary its 
posture or aspect according to the different actions of the mind, carries a threefold meta- 
phorical notion. 

1. It denotes the first part of anything, 2 Sam. x. 9, Jer. i. 43, Ezek. ii. 10. 

2. The superficies and external species of any substance, which appears to, or is beheld 
by men, Gen. i. 2, I Sam. xiv. 25, 2 Sam. xvii. 29, Isa. xiv. 21, Luke xxi. 35. 

3. The mind or inward faculty or affections, as anger, joy, benevolence, magnanimity, 
&c. Gen. xxxii. 20, 1 Sam. i. 5, 18, Job ix. 27, Prov. xvi. 15, and xvii. 17, Ezek. iii. 8. 

A forehead, the superior part of the face, is metaphorically brought to denote the interior 
affection of the mind. A hard forehead denotes obstinacy in wickedness, Isa. xlviii. 4, and 
a persevering magnanimous zeal against the wicked, Ezek. iii. 7, 8, 9. A whore's fore- 
head, Jer. iii. 3, signifies extreme impudence, the metaphor being taken from those grace- 
less, shameless, and immodest prostitutes. 

An eye, the organ of sight, by a metaphorical translation oftentimes denotes the mind, 
judgment, and knowledge; Gen. xvi. 4, 5, Deut. xv. 18, 2 Sam. xv. 17, and xviii. Sam. 
vi. 22, Job xxxii. 1, Psal. xv. 4, Prov. iii. 7, xxviii. 22, and xxx. 12, Isa. v. 21, Zech. 
viii. 6, Matt. vi. 22, John v. 35. Hence the right eye is put for the greatest prudence, 
Zech. xi. 17. "\An evil eye, for a persevere and malignant mind, Deut. xv. 9, Prov. x^iii. 
(3, and xxviii. 22, Matt. xx. 15, Mark vii. 22. A good eye, for a good and benevolent 
mind, Prov. xxii. 9, Eccl. xxxv. 9. 

An. eye signifies a providential carefulness, sometimes a solicitude in evil, as Psal. x. 8 
xvii. 8, (see 1 Sam. xviii. 9,) sometimes in good, Gen. xliv. 21, Num. x. 31, Ruthii. 9, 
Job xxix. 15, Prov. i. 25, and xx. 9, 12, Eccl. ii. 14. Sometimes it denotes experience, 
Gen. iii. 6. Sometimes spiritual illumination or renewing of heart, Psal. xiii. 3, and cxix. 
18, Isa. xxxii. 3, Eph. i. 18. Sometimes spiritual blindness, Psal. Ixix. 23, Isa. vi. 10, Matt, 
xiii. 15, John xii. 40, Acts xxviii. 27, Rom. xi. 8, 10. See Lam. v. 17. 

* It denotes a fountain, Gen. xlix. 22, Exod. xv. 27, Psal. Ixxxiv. 6, and cxiv. 8. 

A tear, a humour flowing from the eyes of such as weep, metaphorically denotes wine 
and oil, because they drop as tears do, when the grapes or olives are bruised in the press, 
Exod. xxii. 29, see Deut. vii. 13. 

Eye-salve denotes the spiritual healing of our natural darkness, Rev. iii. 18, three things 
are said of a man corrupted by sin, verse 17, viz., that he is poor, naked, and blind, and 
therefore miserable. To remove these three, verse 18, are medicines proposed ; 

(1.) Gold tried in fire, (that is heavenly treasure) which makes one divinely, rich. 

(2.) "White raiment (that is, the merits o Christ applied by faith) by which nakedness 
being covered, a man may be preciously adorned. 

(3.) Eye-salve to anoint the eyes (that is, the saving word of the Gospel, by which a man 
is illuminated) which restores or gives spiritual sight. 

A ear, as well as the eye, is translated to denote the mind, and when referred to the 
word of God, denotes a faithful attention and receiving of it, Psal. xlix. 4. Ixxviii. 1, and 
xiv. 10, Isa. Iv. 2, where you may note nevertheless that the external hearing of the word 
is not excluded, but presupposed. 

Heaviness or shutting of the ears, denotes hardness and stubbornness of heart, Isa. vi. 
10, Matt. xiii. 15, Acts xxviii. 27, Rom. xi. 8. Itching ears, denote such as with a per- 
verse curiosity study after'false opinions, 2 Tim. iv. '6, with Acts xvii. 21. 

* fy oculus et derivatum i'n. 


The phrase, Gal. vi. 7, "Be not deceived, God is not mocked," is emphatical, for the word 
/j.vKrrjpierai, signifies more than to mock, viz., to,yfleer with the nose and mouth. And in 
the times past (as Erasmus* and Pliny say,) they were wont to use gestures of derision or 
mockery by the nose, for which term (/ww/cr-i/p,) the word here is derived. By another me- 
taphor the Jews call their own king the " breath of their nostrils," Lam. iv. 20, that is, 
under whose protection they did hreathe and were refreshed, &c. 

A mouth is more used in a metonymy than a metaphor, yet sometimes it denotes the 
mind and will of man, Gen. xxiv. 57, "We will ask her mouth," that is, learn her mind 
and will, 2 Sam. xvii. 5. To fight with one mouth, so the Hebrew, Josh. is. 2, that is, 
with one consent. See Psal. cxxvi. 2, ciii. 4, 5, and Ixxxi. 10, 11, Exod. iv. 16. 

Prov. vi. 13, A perverse man is said to " speak with his feet, and teach with his fingers," 
which denotes some composed artificial gestures of deceit, as when by treading upon an- 
other's foot, he signifies something, which is metaphorically called speaking : and so by the 
gestures or numbering of his fingers, informs another of something he knows not, by way 
of confederacy to deceive a third person. 

A shoulder, because it bears burdens, signifies affliction and tribulation, Psal. xxi. 12, 
Isa. ix. 4, and xiv. 25 ; sometimes obedience, Zeph. iii. 9, Zech. vii. 11, Hos. vi. 9, Isa. 
xi. 14, Deut. xxxiii. 13. 

Isa. ix. 6, " The government shall be upon his shoulders." The sense of this fs variously 
given by interpreters. The Chaldee understands it of the fulfilling of God's law : thus 
rendering it, he took the law upon himself to keep it. Many of the fathers understand it 
of the cross of Christ, and quote Isa. xxii. 22. But it seems plainly to denote the whole 
administration of Christ's office. Brentius upon this place, says, Mundani Monarch^ non 
gestant principatum super humeros suos, sed, &c. " Worldly monarchs do not bear the 
burden of government on their own shoulders, but transfer it upon their servants, counsel- 
lors, and civil military officers," &c. But Christ is such a king, that he bears all the weight 
of government on his own shoulders ; for he alone 'rules, preserves, and governs his church. 
He only expiated sin. He had no helper, as earthly princes are wont to have, &c. 

An arm, because it exerts a man's strength, is put for power or strong aid, 1 Sam. ii. 31, 
Job xxii. 8, xxxv. 9, xxxviii. 15, and xl. 4, Psal. xliv. 3, Jer. xvii. 5, and xlviii. 25, 
Ezek. xxx. 22, xxxi. 17, and xxii. 6, Zech. xi. 17, Isa. ix. 20. " Thej^ shall eat every 
man the flesh of his own arm," that is, they will destroy and consume those of their friends 
and neighbours from whom they were wont to be supplied, <fec. 

A hand, the extreme part of the arm, by which works are promptly performed, is also 
put for strength, Exod. xviii. 9, Deut. xxxii. 36, Josh. viii. 20, Job xxxiv. 20, Psal. 
Ixxxix. 25, Isa. xxviii. 2, Dan. xii. 7. Hence it is proverbially said, 

An necis longas regibus esse manus f 
Dost thou not know that royal hands are long ? 

that is, the king's power reaches a great way. 

It is likewise put for help, ministry, and machination, which require power, Exod. xxiii. 1, 1 
Sam. xxii. 17, 2 Sam. iii. 12, and xiv. 19, 2 Kings xvii. 13, Isa. xxii. 2, Hag. i. 1, and 
ii. 1. In these last four texts, a hand signifies the ministry. For the prophets are the 
organs or instruments, of the Holy Spirit, and the dispensers of the mysteries of God, 
which they receive, to be communicated to the people, or to be reached forth as it were, 
by the hand. As if when one remits money or treasure, to be distributed or paid by him, 
it is said to be by such a hand, &c. 

Lev. xxv. 35, It is said, " and if thy brother waxeth poor and his hand faileth," (so the 
Hebrew) that is, if through poverty he be rendered incapable of business, trade, or 
employment, and so not able to provide for his family, &c., then relieve him. The 
metaphor being taken from a man that is consumed or weakened by a disease, who 
cannot labour with his hands. On the contrary, to strengthen the hand, is by counsel 

* fj.vKTrjp Authorc Palla.ce Nasum signijicat Erasm. 


and help to assist, 1 Sam. xxiii. 16, Job iv. 3, Isa. xxv. 3. When a hand is attribute 
to the earth, it signifies a certain place or space, JDeut. xxiii. 12, Nuinb. xxxiv. 3, 2 Samd 
viii. 3, Isa. Ivi.' 5, and Ivii. 9, Jer. vi. 3, &c. 

The back denotes alienation, estrangedness, or neglect, 1 Kings xiv. 9, Neh. ix. 26 
Sometimes it is a symbol of oppression and affliction, Psal. cxxix. 3, " The ploughers. 
ploughed on my back," &c., Eom. xi. 10, Jer. xxxii. 33. 

The loins, because the strength of the body 'consists in them, Job xl. 7, are metaphorically, 
(or it may be rather metonymically,) put for strength itself, Isa. xlv. 1, " I will loose (or 
dissolve) the loins of kings," the Septuagint has it KM i<rx vv ftcurfoewv Stapfai-ca, "And I will 
break the strength of kings."* See Psal. Ixix. 23, Eom. xi. 10. 

This metaphor chiefly respects the girding of the loins, which denotes a confirmation' 
of strength and activity, in order to run, labour, or fight, 1 Kings xviii. 46, 2 Kings iii. 21, 
Psal. xviii. 40, PrOv. xxxi. 17, Job xxxviii. 3, Jer. i. 10, Isa. v. 27, &c. Hence the 
phrase of girding the loins, is translated to spirituals, Isa. xi. 5, denoting the faithfulness, 
alacrity, and expedition, of the Messiah, in his great mediatorial and redeeming office, Psal. 
xlv. iii. In the faithful members of Christ, it denotes Christian vigilancy and perseverance 
in the profession of truth and piety, Luke xii. 35, 1 Pet. i. 13, Eph. vi. 14. Upon which 
place Hemingius says, " As the loins, in which is the chiefest strength of the body, are 
made more firm by girding, making the soldier in fight more steady and active : so the 
heart is made more firm by the truth of God, which causes, that in our doubts and hesita- 
tions, the devil cannot overthrow and destroy us." 

A navel, by which nourishment is conveyed to the infant in the womb, is. by an elegant 
metaphor transferred to the sons of the church, Prov. iii. 8, " It (that is, to fear the Lord, 
and depart from evil,) shall be health (or a medicine,) to thy navel ;" as if he had said, 
as the child is nourished by the navel, so the knowledge and fear of, and obedience to 
God, will, by the blessed Spirit feed, educate, and comfort. It is added, " and watering or 
moistening to thy bones," that is, it shall be thy whole strength, as the bones are moist- 
ened and strengthened by marrow, as Job xxi. 24 5 &c. Not cutting the navel, is 
allegorically translated to denote the primitive, miserable, and abominable state of the 
Jewish people, Ezek. xvi. 4. It signifies the middle or an eminent place in the earth, 
as the navel is in the midst, Judg. ix. 37. Hence God is said to work salvation in 
the midst of the earth, Psal. Ixxiv. 12, because Judea was esteemed so by the geogra- 
phers of those times. 

A bosom is put for the middle concavity of a chariot, 1 Kings xxii. 35, Ezek. 
xliii. 13, 14, 17. And because that part for modesty's sake is covered with a garment, 
it is applied to the hidden and inward parts of man, Job xix. 27, Eccl. viii 10, Psal. 
Ixxix. 12, and xxxv. 12, 13. It carries the notion of love, because of conjugal embraces, 
Deut. xiii. 6, and xxvii. 56. 

Eternal life, is called the bosom of Abraham, Luke xvi. 22. Upon which Brentius in 
his commentary : -|- "By the bosom of Abraham, you are not to understand a certain 
corporal or external place in this world, but either the promise of Christ made to Abra- 
ham ; ' In thy seed shall all nations be blessed ;' or Christ himself, who came of the 
seed of Abraham ; for in this sense all the godly that sleep in the Lord are deposited, 
or rest in Christ himself, till in the last clay they rise together with their bodies, 
Acts vii. 59, Phil. i. 23. Therefore when Lazarus is said to be carried by angels 
into Abraham's bosom, we are to understand, that he was in the enjoyment of supreme 
felicity in Christ, which in the latter day shall be revealed," &c. 

Abraham is proposed as the father of all believers, Rom. iv. 11, 12, because such as 
follow his steps, and constantly persevere in faith and godliness to tho end, shall, as our 
Saviour shows, be gathered together in immortal life : for tender children are wont to 
he carried and cherished in the bosom of their loving parents, Ruth iv. 16, 1 Kings 

This term denotes the condition of eternal life, for the carrying of infants in the 

ft fottitudinem reynrnfrangam. t S'mum AbraJue intelligas non corporal em quendam et 

Jiwjus seculi locum, &c. 


bosom of the parent, denotes love and intimate good will; so in the heaevnly life, 
there is most pure love, from whence arises true joy. In the hosom of the parent, 
the infant finds rest and defence, so in heaven, there is certain security and a most 
quiet tranquillity, &c. 

A bosom, by a metonymy signifies a garment, that covers it, which being loose, is con- 
venient to receive and carry things, Prov. vi. 27, and xvi. 33. Therefore metaphorically 
it is put for the retribution of reward or punishment. Of reward, as 2 Sam. xii. 8, 
Luke vi. 38. Of punishment, as Psal. Ixxix. 12, Isa. Ixv. 6, 7, Jer. xxxii. 18. 

To strengthen feeble knees, signifies to comfort such as are cast down by anguish or 
sorrow of mind, and confirm them by instruction and counsel, Job iv. 4, Isa. xxxv. 3, 
Heb. xii. 12 ; the metaphor being .taken from outward perils which invade upon a sudden, 
in which the knees of an affrighted and fearful man are weakened, because the 
strength of the nerves and muscles, by the terror of sudden danger, leaves its 
operation, which for bearing the body resides in the knees. Hence a sudden, or panic 
fear is expressed by the weakness or beating together of the knees, Psal. cix. 24, 
Ezek. vii. 17, Dan. v. 6, Nahum ii. 10. 

The feet are metaphorically (as well as by another trope) taken divers ways ; of which 
take some of the chief. 

1. With respect to externals, Job says, chap. xxix. 15, that " he was feet to the lame," 
that is, he relieved the miserable, as feet help men to get out of danger. See Gen. 
xxx. 30, noting the marginal reading. The foot of the pride, Psal. xxxvi. 11, denotes 
the violence of pioud enemies The slipping, halting, &c., of the feet, &c., denotes 
danger and calamity, Job xii. 5, Psal. xxxviii. 17, cxvi. 8, and cxl. 4, 11, &c. See 
Jer. xxx. 16. 

On contrary, to deliver the feet from falling, denotes divine protection against 
any malignant enemies, Psal. Ivi. 13, xviii. 36, and cxxi. 3, &c. To tread with the 
feet, denotes to disgrace, or insult over one, as an enemy, Psal. vii. 5, and xci. 12. 13, 
Ezek. xxxiv. 18, 19, Matt. vii. 6, Luke x. 19, Heb. x. 29. 

Lameness or halting, which is a disease, or accidental hurt of the feet, denotes 
calamity, affliction, and dangers, Psal. xxxv. 15, " In mine halting (we translate it 
adversity) they rejoiced." Psal. xxxviii. 17, Jer. xx. 10, Micah iv. 6, 7, Zeph. iii. 19. 
In which two last places the term nyte is feminine, alluding to sheep, upon which Illyricus 
says, " That it is a speech taken from sheep : for many of them in the summer, especially 
those of hotter countries, do halt, or go lame : or else it may relate to the people and 
church, of which the scripture speaks in the feminine gender, as before." 

2. With respect to internals and spirituals, because the life of man and the exercise 
of godliness is compared to walking or running, and so the feet translated to the mind, 
signify desire and a holy endeavour, as the outward running or hastening to a place 
is performed by the feet, Psal. xvii. 5, and cxix. 59, 105, with verse 32,) Prov. iv. 
26, 27, Eccl. v. 1. The beautifalness of the apostles' feet, Isa. Iii. 7, Horn. x. 15, 
is not to be understood of their bodily feet, but of the interior and divine, as well 
with respect to their mission, or being sent, as also the -rapp-ncrta., or fervour in teaching, 
-as a foot-man in an errand of great concern performs his journey speedily, Nahum 
ii. 1. Some interpret it thus : " It is not prancing horses, cathedral seats, costly and 
magnificent vestments, cardinals' hats, and other precious worldly accoutrements, that 
are commended, but simply the feet, which denotes the humility of their apostolical 
legation or embassy, and all their successors are exhorted to the same virtue, 1 Cor. ii. 3, 
4, GaLiv. 13, 14, &c. 

Eph. vi. 15, the feet are said to be shod, upon which a learned expositor says, " The 
feet signify the ministry of the Gospel, which must be shod, that is, defended with 
boots or shoes, from thorns, briars, and dirt," that is, that they may be able to go 
through all dangers in teaching and confessing the Gospel. See Ezek. xvi. 10. What 
we translate (uprightly) Gal. ii. 14, is in the Greek op6owo8ova-t, recto pede incederent, that 
is, walk with a right foot, viz., according to the rule and measure of the Gospel. See 
Heb. xii. 13. 

Hitherto we have treated of the clissimilary parts of a human body. The similary parts 
.yield but few metaphors. 



The biting of the flesh, Job xiii. 14, is transferred to the mind, " why should I take 
away my flesh with my teeth/ that is, consume myself with cares. See 1 Sam. xix. 5, 
Eccl. iv. 5. 

Blood in a metaphor, as Illyricus says, Cl. Script. Col. 1083, signifies spiritual death, 
or eternal destruction, Ezek. iii. 18, and xxxiii. 8, Acts xviii. 0, and xx. 26, &c. 

Of Metaphors from such things as concern the Life of Man. 

To the body, and its members, aptly succeeds its union with the soul, whence life proceeds. 
The word soul has no metaphorical notion, except when attributed to God, which belongs 
to an anthropopathy, as was before expounded. 

Life is used metaphorically : as living waters are put for such as flow briskly, and 
plentifully, Gen. xxvi. 19, Prov. x. 11, Jer. ii. 13, and xvii. 13, &c. Time is said 
to live, and a building to be quickened, of which before chap. 9, sect. 4. ,See Hab. iii. 2. 
To live, and life,, are put for happiness, strength, and health, 1 Kings i. 25, Psal. bdx. 32, 
33, Eccl. vi. 8. 

Health, or soundness, is put for the word or doctrine of God and eternal life, 
the consequence of receiving it, 1 Tim. i. 10, and vi. 3, 2 Tim. i. 13, and iv. 3, Tit. i. 9, 
13, and ii. 1, 2, 8. Hereby is denoted the condition and quality, as well as the fruit and 
efficacy of both, &c. 

To cure, or heal, metaphorically signifies a deliverance or restoration from calamity, 
adversity, or trouble, Exod. xv. 26, 2 Chron. vii. 14, and xxxvi. 16, John xiii. 4 12, 
Prov. iii. 8, xii. 18, xiii. 17, and xiv. 13, Isa. iii. 7, and Iviii. 8, Jer. viii. 22, and xxx. 
13, 14, 17, Lam. it 13, Hos. xiv. 4. And when translated to the soul, it denotes the 
free pardon and remission of sin, (that disease of the soul,) through the merits of our 
blessed Eedeemer. Psal. vi. 2, xli. 4, and cxlvii. 3, Isa. vi. 10, xix. 22, xxx. 26, and liii. 
5, Jer. iii. 22, Mai. iv. 2, Matt. xiii. 15, (with Mark iv. 12,) John xii. 40, Acts xxviii. 
2.7, 1 Pet. ii. 24, &c. 

And in regard the knowing and manifestation of the disease and its cause, is the 
beginning of a cure, therefore this term is elegantly transferred to the ministers of the 
word, whose office it is to show people their sins, and rebuke them, Jer. vi. 14, " They 
have healed the bruise of the daughter of my people slightly," that is, did not reprehend, 
as much as need was. 

To health, are opposed in general, diseases, griefs, pains, wounds, stripes, &c., in which 
there is a metaphorical translation, 

1. To Inanimates, 2 Kings iii. 19, " And ye shall grieve, (or pain,) every good piece of 
laud with stones ;" iiton, that is, cover, corrupt, or mar it. It denotes the irruptions of 
the enemies to annoy the whole Jewish polity, Deut. xxix. 22, 23, Isa. i. 5, 6, 7, 8. 

2. To man, denoting his depraved nature, Jer. xvii. 9, Psal. xxxviii. 3, 5, 7, 8, Isa. 
liii. 4, Matt. ix. 12, I'd, Mark ii. 17, Luke v. 31, 32, 1 Tim. vi. 4, a corrupt captious 
wrangler about words and questions is called voatav sick about questions, to which is ele- 
gantly opposed, verse 3, of the wholesome words (Ao-yaw vyuuvoixrt for sound speeches) of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. 

All human calamities which afflict a man, like a disease, are represented by this simili- 
tude, Psal. Ixxvii. 10, Jer. x. 19, Job ix. 17, Ecel. v. 12, 15, and vi. 2, Isa. i. 6, and 
xx. 26, Jer. xv. 8, and xxx. 12, 14, 15, Lam. ii. 13, Hos. v. 13. Wounds denote 
sharp reprehensions, Prov. xxvii. 6, see Psal. cxli. 5. 

More especially what are adverse to health, and metaphorically used are, 

Brands, or marks, or scars of wounds, are put for the persecution for the confession of 
Christ, which St. Paul gives an account of with respect to himself, as you may see by 
their catalogue, 1 Cor. iv. 10 13, 2 Cor. vi. 5 10, and xi. 23 30. What a seared 
conscience is, we have before spoken in metaphors taken from fire. 



Leanness, thinness, &c., are put for calamities, punishments and anguish, Isa. xvii. 4, 
and xxiv. 16, Ezek. xxxiii. 10, Zeph. ii. 11, (Psal. Ixxiii. 8,- it is spoken of tyrants.) Rot> 
tenness of hones, denotes dolours and terrors of mind, Prov. xiv. 30, Hah. iii. 16, Prov. 
xii. 4. To rot, is to perish, Prov. x. 7. 

The plague denotes a very mischievous and destroying man, Acts xxiv. 5, where Paul 
was accounted hy the wicked Jews a pestilent fellow. Poison, a very killing and fatal 
ingredient, that commonly destroys men, unless expelled by very sovereign and powerful 
antidotes, denotes devilish doctrine, as also the malice and malignity of the wicked, who 
(as far as they can") destroy the souls, bodies, and good name, of honest, pious men, Deut. 
xxxii. 33, Psal. lyiii. 4, Eom. iii. 13. 

To life is opposed death, which is either the privation of natural life, because of the 
separation of the soul from the body: or the privation of spiritual and heavenly life, 
because of the separation of the soul from God through sin. Both these not metaphorically, 
but properly, are to be understood, Gen. ii. 17. 

But to die is used metaphorically, when believers are said to die to sin, Eom. vi. 2, 7, 
11, that is to renounce it, and to be idle and unfruitful with respect to it, as a dead man 
naturally neither acts nor operates. 

But " to be dead in sins and trespasses " is quite another thing, Eph. ii. 1, 5 ; for that 
denotes spiritual death, when men by sin separate themselves from the grace of God, and 
the hope of eternal life, when their sins are not remitted : in which sense Matt. viii. 22, 
John v.'25, 1 Tim. v. 6, are taken. Paul asserts himself to " be dead to the law," Gal. 
ii. 19, that is, the accusation or curse of it, for he could not by that be justified, nor did he 
depend upon works, but upon free grace, and so was dead as to that hope, (viz., of a legal 
justification,) as a dead man has not the power of operation, see Kom. vii. 4, 10. To be 
dead from the elements of the world, Col. ii. 20, is to be freed by Christ from the observa- 
tion of the difference of Levitieal meats and the Mosaical ceremonies (this was the Jewish 
Paedogogy,) by which God informed the world, Gal. iv. 3, and Col. ii. 3, (see 1 John iii. 
1.) Believers are said to be dead to the world, &c., which denotes a renunciation of its 
depraved concupiscences, and mad pleasures. The text says, " for ye are dead, and your 
life is hid with Christ in God ;" that is, as Erasmus says in his paraphrase : " ye seem 
dead to this world, because ye do not relish the glories thereof, nor are moved with those 
vanities which worldlings admire. Therefore you do not live here, so as to attract the 
splendid notice of men, but you live in Christ with God, although your life is bid accord- 
ing to the judgment of the world, &c." 

Death is attributed to seed, or corn east into the earth, John xii. 24, 1 Cor. xv. 36, not 
because it perishes, but because of its change, it becoming the root of much fruit. In the 
first text, it tacitly denotes the death of Christ, and in the second the death of believers, 
whose resurrection is .also denoted by this similitude or metaphor of a corn, or grain. 

Of Metaphors from Human Sense. 

Generally, feeling, sense, or the instrument of sense, (called in Greek 
eua-enffis, ato-^TTj^oj/,) are transferred to the mind, which metaphor is frequent among 
the Latins, Luke ix. 45, " that they may not, aiffBuvrat, feel it" that is understand it, as 
it is expounded, chap, xviii. 34, Phil. i. 9, what we translate " judgment " in the Greek 
is curBeins, sense, viz., a lively faith in Christ. Tit. i. 1, 2, John xvii, 3, Isa. liii. 11. See 
Eom. v. 1, 5, viii. 10, 17, and xiv. 17. See also Heb. v. 14, with 1 Cor. ii. 13, 15. 

Sight, or seeing, denotes experience, or enjoyment, Exod. xx. 18, Psal. iv. 6, 7, xvi. 3, 
10, xxvii. 12, 13, xxxiv. 12, 13, xlix. 10, 11, Ixiii. 2, Ixxxix. 48, 49, xci. 15, 16, 
xcviii. 2, 3, and cxxviii. 6, EccL viii. 16 (where, to see sleep, denotes to sleep ; so, to see 
corruption in death, Psal. xvi. 9, 10,) EccL ix. 9, Isa. xliv. 16, Jer. xvi. 10, Lam. iii. 1? 
Luke ii. 26, (where to see death signifies to die,) Luke xvii. 22, John viii. 51, 56, Rev. 
xviii. 7, &"c. 


Especially the verb to see, is used to denote a real experience/ of promises of great 
things, Isa. liii. 11, lx. 5, and Ixvi. f 14 ; and of punishment under commination, Isa. 
xxvi. 11. 

2. It is transferred to the mind and intellect, and signifies to know or understand, 
Gen. xlii. 1, Eccl. L 16, Jer. ii. 31, Matt. ii. 16, and ix. 2, 4, Rom. vii. 23, with 
verse 7, Rev. i. 12 ; to think or consider, Gen. xx. 10, and xlix. 15, Eccl. i. 14, 
Isa. xxii. 9, and v. 12, Matt. vi. 26, (see Luke xii. 24,) Rom. xi. 22, Col. iv. 17, 
James i. 25 ; to provide carefully, Gen. xii. 33, &c., or, avoid hurt, Matt. ix. 30, Mark 
xii. 38, &c. 

;j. It signifies spiritual vision, as the prophecies, Numb. xxiv. 16, 17, 1 Sam. ix. 9, 
Isa. xxx. 10, &c. 

It is said of angels, that they desire irapcucvtyai to look into the mysteries of the Gospel, 
1 Pet. i. 12, that is, they coveted a full and perfect knowledge of it, such is the majesty 
and beauty of that blessed mystery. 

To sight, is opposed blindness, by which the want of true faith and Gospel illumination 
is noted, Isa. xlii. 18, 19, Lam. iv. 14, Matt. xv. 14, and xxiii. 16, 24, 26, John ix. 39, 
Rom. ii. 19, 2 Pet. i. 9, 1 John ii. 11, Rev. iii. 17. 

Blindness, attributed to the wicked denotes three things, as 

1. 1 John ii. 11, " Darkness hath blinded his eyes," that is the proximate and imme- 
diate cause, viz., a corrupt mind and will expressed by the term darkness, (see Eph. 
iv. Ib). 

2. 2 Cor. iv. 4, it is said, that " the god of this world hath blinded the eyes of them 
that believe not," &c., that is the first cause of all evil and condemnation, viz., the devil 
seducing and hardening men. 

3. John xii. 40, it is said, " He (that is God) hath blinded their eyes," in what re- 
spects this is attributed to God the great and sole Fountain of goodness and mercy, 
you may find expounded in Gram. Sacra, p. 285, 286. 

It is said, Exod. xxiii. 8, that " gifts blind the seeing," that is, bribes corrupt the wise 
and skilful to pervert justice. And therefore blindness with the synonymous terms is 
ascribed to the wicked that will not take counsel, Deut. xxviii. 28, Isa. viii. 21, 22, and 
lix. 9, 10, Zeph. i. 17. ~ 

The object of sight are colours. Of these whiteness is a most exact symbol of in- 
ward purity and cleansing from sin, Psal. Ii. V, Isa. i. 18, Rev. vii. 14. A nuetaphor taken 
from linen, which when foul is restored to its colour by washing, and cleansing it from 
all spots. 

. Outward whiteness, as by rubbing with chalk or washing with lime, denotes hypocrisy, 
Acts xxiii. 3, see Matt, xxiii. 27, Ezek. xiii. 10, and xxii. 28, &c. Of the white stone, 
Hev. ii. 17, we will treat anon. 

Redness, or a red colour, is attributed to sin, Isa. i., 18, where the prophet means 
blood, as verse 15, bj which, not only homicide or killing of men, is metonymically 
understood, but also all enormous sins, by a synecdoche. For as blood rashly spilt, con- 
taminates the homicide, and renders him guilty, 1 Kings ii. 5, 6, 31 33, so sins are 
nothing but an abominable spot and contamination in the sight of God. 

To this cursed redness, the blessed blood of Christ is opposed, which expiates sin, and 
converts it into whiteness. See Rev. i 5, and vii. 14, &c. 

Blackness with comeliness, is mentioned as the beauty of the spouse, Cant. i. 5. 
The first denoting sin and affliction, the latter divine grace, which regenerates and re- 
news. Ausustm* says, "Black by nature, fair- by grace; black in original sm fair by 
regeneration Beda, upon the place, " Black by the adversity of oppressions but fair 
by the beauty of virtues." Whiteness ajid redness are attributed to the heavenly 
spouse Cant v 10 denoting extraordinary beauty, loveliness, and health, the native 
sign of which that colour is. Some say, that he is called white, with respect to his 
divinity, and red, with respect to his humanity : white, because of his purity, and 
wwgTrKrw (that is,) being without sin and red, because his blood was poured 

out. &c. . ' ; : . 

. * Srrm-. 8. tin Temp. 

Y 2 


Hearing, and to hear, denotes, 

1. The inward understanding, intelligence, or discretion of the mind, Gen. xi. 7 } 
xli. 5, and xlii. 23, 2 Bongs xviii. 2,6, Isa. xxxvi. 11, Jer. v. 15, Matt. xiii. 13, 1 Gor. 
xiv. 2, &c. 

2. Approbation and obedience, Gen. iii. 17, and xxii, 12, Josh. i. 17, 18, Judg. ii. 17, 
20, Deut. xviii. 19, 1 Sam. ii. 25, Prov. IT. 1, Isa. xxxiii. 15, Matt. xvii. 5, John viii. 
47, ix. 27, and x. 27, 1 Tim. iv. 16, see James i. 22,. &e. 

To hearing is opposed deafness, denoting unbelieving, wicked, and obstinate sinners, 
Isa. xlii. 18, 19, with vi. 10 ; it is spoken of the converted, Isa. xxix. 18. 

Smell ; what relates to this sense we have in part shown before, a thread of tow is said 
to smell the fire, so the Hebrew, Judg. xvi. 9, when it touches it, and finds its "force. 
See chap. xv. 14, also Job xiv. 9, and xxxix. 25. Bad report is said to stink, Gen. 
xxxiv. 30, Exod. v. 21, 1 Sam. xiii. 4, 2 Sam. x. 6, and xvi. 21, Dan. vi. 14. 

To taste, is put for to understand, experience, or enjoy,. Psal. xxxiv. 8, 9, Prov. 
xxxi. 18, Matt. xvi. 28, John viii. 52, Heb. vi. 4, 5, 1 Pet. ii. 3. Hence the noun 
CID, ffustus, taste, translated to the mind, signifies counsel, judgment, or reason, 
1 Sam. xxi. 13, and xxv, 33, Psal. cxix. 66, Prov. xi. 22, Job xii. 20, Dan. iii. 10, 12, 
Jonah iii. 7. 

Sweetness, or to be sweet, is a metaphor well known, and signifies to delight, or to be 
well pleased in a thing, Job xx. 12. Psal. Iv. 14, Prov. iii. 24, and ix. 17, (where by a 
metaphor of stolen waters, which are said to be sweet, and bread of secrecies to be 
pleasant, wicked company-keeping with an adulteress is expressed,) .Cant. ii. 3, 14, and v. 
16, Jer. xxxi. 26, Psal xix. 10, 11, and cxix. 103. 


Bitterness, or to be bitter, denotes an overwhelming with calamity, which is 
as hateful to the mind and sense as bitterness is to the taste, Gen. xxvi. 35, Exod. 
i. 14, Ruth i. 20, 1 Sam. xxx. 6, and i. 10, 2 Kings iv. 27, Job xiii. 26, and xxi. 25, 
Prov. xvii. 25, Isa. xxxviii. 17, Lam. iii. 15, Ezek. iii. 14, Zech. xii. 10, &c., Isa. 
xxiv. 9. 

It betokens that which is evil and hurtful, Prov. v. 4, Jer. ii. 19, and so is applied to 
idols, Hos. xii. 14. More especially it denotes anger, or fierceness and cruelty of mind, 
Gen. xlix. 23, Judg. xviii. 25, 2 Sam. xvii. 8, Hab_i. 6, Eph. iv. 31,, Col. iii. 19. It de- 
notes calumny, Kom. iii. 14, James iii. 14, with verse 8 11 ; sin, as Acts viii. 23, 
Kom. iii. 14, Heb. xii. 15, Matt. xxvi. 75, Luke xxii. 62. 

The object of touch is hard and soft. Hardness is spoken, 

1. Of men ; and denotes, 

(1.) Depravity, pertinacy, and stubbornness of mind, Exod. vii. 3, and xiii. 15, Deut. 
ii. 30, and x. 16, Prov. xxviii. 14, Isa. xlviii. 4, and Ixiii. 17, Ezek. ii. 4, Matt. xix. 8, 
Mark x. 5, Acts xix. 9, Rom. ii. 5, and ix. 18, Heb. iii. 8, 13, 15, and iv. 7. 

(2.) It denotes cruelty and unmercifulness, Gen. xlix. 7, Judg. iv. 24, 1 Sam. v. 7, 
Isa. viii. 22, and xix. 4, Matt. xxv. 24. 

(3.) Afflictions and sadness, 1 Sam. i. 15, Job xxx. 25, Psal. Ix. 5, &c. 

2. Of things, and so their perplexity, difficulty, and grievousness, is intimated, 
Gen- xxxv. 16, 17, Deut. i. 17, and chap. xv. 18, 2 Sam. ii. 17, Acts ix. 5^ James 
iii. 4. 

3. Of speech, and words, as when they are bitter, xlii. 7, 2 Sam. xix. 43, 
Psal. xxxi. 18 ; when they are difficult to be understood, 2 Kings ii. 10, John vi. GO. 
He is called hard, who denounces evil or adversity, or any misfortune, 1 Kings 
xiv. 6. 


Softness is applied, 

1. To the heart of man, and denotes consternation and fear, Deut. xx. 3, Job xxiii. 
10, Jer. Ii. 46, Isa. vii. 4; also contrition and repentance, 2 Kings xxii. 19, with Ezek. 
xxxvi. 26. By softness or effeminacy, 1 Cor. vi. 9, are meant those impure wretches 
that unnaturally abuse themselves or others, as Illyricus says. 


2. To speech, as flattery, Psal. v. 9, xii. 3, and Iv. 21, Prov. ii. 16, vii. 5, xxvi. 28, 
xxviii. 23, xxix. 5. In which places the term pbn molle, mild, or soft, is used for flattery. 
Sometimes it notes mildness and humanity joined with prudence, Prov. xv. 1, and xxv. 15, 
where the word* -p is used. See Job xl. 4. 

Sleep is the cessation of the senses, hy which is signified, 

-1. Security, as that of faith, by those that depend upon and acquiesce in the Lord, Psal. 
iii. 5, and cxxvii. 2, Ezek. xxxiv. 25. Sometimes it denotes the carnal security of wicked 
and unbelieving men, Eom. xiii. 11, Eph. v. 14, 1 Thess. v. 6, 7. Hence it is said, Jsa. 
xxix. 10, " He hath poured on them the spirit of deep sleep," &c. 

2. Sloth, laziness, or sluggishness, which sleepy persons are very subject to, Prov. vi. 
9, 10, and xxiv. 33, Isa. Ivi. 10, Nah. iii. 18, Isa. v. 27, 2 Pet. ii. 3, &c. 

3. Death and destruction, Job iii. 13, and xiv. 12, with xvi. 22, Psal. xiii. 3, and 
Ixxvi. 6, Jer. Ii. 39. Hence the profane authors call sleep the " Image of death ;" Homer 
calls sleep and death twins, and Hesiod calls sleep the brother of death. 

Believers are said to sleep when they die a corporeal death, Matt, xxvii. 52, John xi. 11, 

13, Acts vii. 60, and xiii. 30, 1 Cor. xv. 18, 20, 51, 1 Thess. iv. 13, 14, 15. The rea- 
sons are elsewhere given, the substance of which is, that their souls have blessed rest, with 
God, and their bodies have rest in the grave, Isa. Ivii. 1, 2, in the certain hope 
of a future resurrection, Acts ii. 26, Rev. xiv. 13, Psal. xvii. 15. Sleep being 
a representation or figure of both, in which there is rest from labour, and a refreshing of 
strength, &c. 

To sleep is opposed watching, therefore the reason of it in signification is opposite with 
respect to sleep. 

1. As sleep denotes carnal security, so watchfulness signifies true repentance, and a 
serious and diligent exercise of piety, Matt. xxiv. 42, and xxv. 13, Mark xiii. 35, Luke 
xxi. 36, 1 Cor. xvi. 13, Eom. xiii. 11, 1 Cor. xv. 34, Eph. v. 14, and v. 18, Col. iv. 2, 
1 Thess. v. 6, 10, 1 Pet. v. 8, Kev. iii. 2, 3, and xvi. 15, &c. 

2. As sleep denotes sloth and laziness, so watchfulness signifies alacrity, diligence, 
and prudence, in the management of duty or office, Psal. cxxvii. 1, Acts xx. 31, Heb. xiii. 

3. As sleep denotes death, so watchfulness denotes life, both are joined together, 
1 Thess. v. 10. See Bom. xiv. 8, more comparisons might be made, but they are obvious. 

Metaphors from tjie various Differences of Mankind. 

WE will consider the differences of human kind with respect, 1. To sex. 2. Age. 
3. Relation. 4. Country or family. And although some of these belong to the head of 
adjuncts, yet for more commodious order we will place them here. 

1. As to sex; they are man and woman. A man XD>H metaphorically denotes 
a stout, courageous, eminent person. 1 Sam. xxvi. 15. In that irony of David, 
" Art not thou a man ?" that is, hast thou not behaved thyself gallantly ? Jer. v. 1, " Seek 
m the broad places thereof (that is, Jerusalem) if ye can find a man ;" that is, a wise man, 
&e. 1 Kings ii. 2, 3, Psal. xlix. 10, iv. 3, cxviii. 5, 6, cxliv. 3, 4, and Ixxxii. 6, 7, 1 Cor. 
iii. 21, vii. 23, and xvi. 13, &c. 

A woman on the contrary, denotes one that is timorous, weak, and dispirited, 
Isa. iii. 12, Jer. Ii. 30, Nah. iii. 13. See Jer. xlviii. 41, Isa. xix. 16. Hence a 
sort of men are called effeminate, &c. 

The church is likened to a chaste virgin ; 2 Cor. xi. 2, see Hos. ii. 19. This metaphor 
alludes to the legal type of the High-Priest, who might marry none but a virgin, Lev. xxi. 

14, see Cant. i. 3, Zech. ix. 17, Rev. xiv. 4. To which spiritual whoredom and adultery 
is opposed. ^ 

2. The age of man may be thus distinguished, viz., infants, boys, youths, men, old 
me n. A sucking infant and boy, metaphorically denote, 

(1.) True believers, Psal. viii. 2, 3, Matt. xi. 25, Luke x. 21, see Matt, xviii. 3, 4, 1 
Cor. xiv. 20, 1 Pet. ii. 1, 2, &c. 

* Mollis, tuild. 


(2.) Such as are ignorant in the faith, Rom. ii. 20, 1 Cor. iii. 1, 2, Heb. v. 12 14 
Gal. iv. 3. - 

(3.) Fools and wicked men destitute of the knowledge of truth, Isa. xxviii. 9, and Ixv. 
20, Eph. iv. 14. Sucking is attributed to the church, Isa. xlix. 23, and 1'x, 16, 2 Cor. viii. 
1 4. The consolation of the gospel which the faithful enjoy in the church, is compared 
to sucking, Isa. Ixvi. 11, 12. 

"When the term boy, or little one, is attributed to princes or magistrates, it denotes folly 
and lack of prudence, Eccl. x. 16, Isa. iii. 4, 12. 

Childhood signifies the time of Israel's departure out of Egypt, Jer. iii. 4, " Thou art 
the Guide of fay childhood." See Hos. ii. 15, and xi. 1, Ezek. xxiii. 19. It denotes 
. spiritual strength, Psal. ciii. 4, 5. " 

Manhood, Eph. iv. 13, denotes the perfection of wisdom and knowledge in believers, 
viz., so much as is attainable in this world, to which childhood is opposed, ver. 14. 

Old age sometimes has the notion of wisdom. Hence the term elders is applied to 
senators, in whom not always age, but prudence is respected, 2 Kings x. 1, &c. Hence 
also the term is used of the chief officers of the church, 1 Tim. v. 1, 17, 19, Tit. i. 5, 
Heb. xi. 2, James v. 14, 1 Pet. v. 1, 5. 

3. The relations which afford any metaphors are, a spouse, husband, wife, widow, 
father, mother, son, brother, sister ; lord, servant ; master, scholar. 

By the metaphor of espousals, (which is the most pleasant metaphor of all,) the spi- 
ritual union between Christ and the church is expressed, Hos. ii. 19, 20, Matt. xxii. 20, 
and the following verses, 2 Cor. xi. 2, Bev. xxi. 2, 9, 10. &c. See the metaphor of a 
bridegroom in the second book, where the parallel is run. 

From the names of husband and wife, a few metaphors are taken, as Isa. liv. 5, where 
God calls himself the toa husband of the church. The text is word for word from the 
Hebrew, " Thy Makers are thy Husbands," which plural phrase denotes the mystery of 
the Trinity. Hence the land of Sion, (that is the church,) is said to be nbwa, Seulah, that 
is married, Isa. Ixii. 4, &c. 

Widowhood denotes desolation, Isa. xlvii. 8, 9. Hence it is said, Jer. Ii. 5, " Israel 
hath not been tfo widowed (or left a widow) nor Judah of his God." 
A father w with respect to diverse attributes, yields diverse metaphors. 

1. With respect to begetting and production, he is put for the author of any thing, Gen. 
iv. 20, 21, Job xxxviii. 28, John viii. 4k 

2. With respect to the education of his children, he is put for a doctor, teacher, or 
master, Judg. xvii. 10, 2 Kings ii. 12. (Hence comes the appellation of the children of the 
prophets, 2 Kings vi. 1, and elsewhere, by which their disciples are understood,) Matt. 
xxiii. 9, 1 Cor. i. 17, Acts xviii. 8 1 1 . 

3. Because he governs his children, he is put for a prince or superior, 1 Sam. xxiv. 11, 
2 Kings v. 13, Isa. xxii. 21. Hence Deborah is called a mother, Judg. v. 7. 

4. Because of his conversation with his children, he is put for any thing most conjunct, 
Job xvii. 14. 

5. Because of his love, he is put for any thing loving or benevolent, Gen. xlv. 8, Job 
xxix. 16. 

6. He is put for an example (or exemplar rather,) proposed for imitation, Bom. iv. 11, 
12, 16, 18. Of the word (mother) see chap. ix. sect. 5, . 4. Babylon or the antichris- 
tian church is called the mother of fornications and abominations of the earth ; that is, that 
invented, confirmed, propogated, and defended the idolatries, damnable doctrines, errors, 
nefarious wickednesses of all sorts of men, which are mystical whoredom, and the greatest 
abomination in the sight of God. 

By allusion to the man's words that said to Christ, Matt. xii. 47, "Thy mother and thy 
brethren stand without, desiring to speak with thee ;" Christ calls his disciples, and all 
believers " his mother, brothers, and sisters," that is, they were as dear to him as such, 
and denotes, that spiritual relation is of higher value, than earthly. The parting of two 
waj's is called a mother, Ezek. xxi. 21, because two ways, as if they were two" daughters, 
proceed from it. 

A sun ;a, Sen, what signification this is of, may be read, chap. vii. All believers 



are called " the sons of God," John i. 12, 13, Rom. viii. 14, 16, 17, 19, 21, Gal. iii. 26, 
and iv. ">, <3, 1 Pet. i. 14, 23, 1 .John iii. 1, 2, &c., because of the mystery of regenera- 
tion, and because this is effected by preaching the word. Paul calls his converts his sons, 
1 Cor. iv. 14, 1 7, Philemon, verse 10. Thus such as believe as Abraham did, and only 
such, ale called his seed or children, and he their father, Rom. iv. 16. See Horn. ix. 7, 
y } 9, and Gal. iv. 22, &c. 

The impious and unbelieving, on the contrary, are called the children of the devil, 
Acts xiii. 10, 1 John iii. 10, (see verse 8,) and John viii. 44, because they imitate him in 

Princes and magistrates, are called sons of the Most High, Psal. Ixxxii. 6 ; not with re- 
spect to their faith, but ~ * 

(1.) Because they are on earth as it were God's heirs, succeeding in a certain part of 
judiciary authority. 

(2.) Because they are of such authority on earth that God tenders and loves them, and 
commands reverence and obedience to them, Born. xiii. 1, &c. 

First- begotten son, in a metaphor, obtains the notion of excellence and prerogative, and 
is put for one very dear and precious, as the eldest son is to the parent, Exod. iv. 22, Jer. 
xxxi. 9, 20. 

An orphan denotes a forlorn and helpless condition, Psal. x. 14, 18, Lam. v. 3. 
Hence John xiv. 18, Christ promises his disciples that he would not leave them (ap$a,vovs) 
orphans, that is, destitute of help. A brother is put for that which is like a thing, Job 
xxx. 2U, Prov. xviii. 9. A man and his brother denote society or mutual engagement, 
Geu. xxvi. 31, xxxvii. IS.), and x]ii. 2i, 28, Exod. xvi. 15, Numb. xiv. 4, Jer. xxiii. 25, 
and xxv. 26, Mai. ii. 10. See Exod. xxv. 20, Joel ii. 8 ; a woman and her sister, Exod. 
xxvi. 3, 5, 6, 17, Eiiek. i. 9, 23, and iii. 13, &c.. See also Jer. xxiii. 35, and xxxi. 34, 
Isa. xxxiv. 15, 16. 

A Lord, tei [Baal,~] the metaphorical significations hereof are at large given* else- 
where. The principle species of lordship is royalty, which to figure the eminency of hea- 
venly glory is attributed to believers, who are called kings, Rev. i. 6, and v. 10, see Matt, 
xxv. 34, Dan. vii. 22, 27, i Pet. ii. 9. Hence is the mention of thrones, Rev. iii. 21, 
and iv. 4, Matt. xix. 28, and xxiii. 20. Of royal government, Rev. ii. 26, 27. And a 
crown, verse 10, and elsewhere frequently. 

A servant, to serve, and servitude, have many metaphorical acceptations, denoting 
sometimes good, sometimes evil. 

1. Good, as the service of God, (of which there is frequent mention in scripture,) by 
which his sincere worship, in faith and obedience, is noted. So a man is said to be the 
servant of righteousness, when lie serves God in faith, holiness, and righteousness, 
Ixom. vi. 16, 18, 19, Luke i. 75. To serve other men, Matt. xx. 27, Markx. 43,4-1, Gal. 
v. 63, denotes an officious humility, and beneficence, the fruit of faith. So Paul was the 
servant of Christians ; 2 Cor. iv. 5, see 1 Cor. ix. 1 D. Paul says that he brought his body 
into SovKayaryew " servitude" 1 Cor. ix. 27, which denotes mortification. 

2. It denotes evil, when it respects sin, and what relates to it. To serve sin, de- 
notes impenitence, John viii. 34, Rom. vi. 6, 17, 19, 20, Tit. iii. 3, 2 Pet. ii. 19. To 
serve mammon, denotes worldly-mindedness, and a greedy desire after ill-gotten riches, 
Matt. vi. 24. To serve the belly, denotes an indulging one's self in carnal pleasures, 
Bom, xvi. 18, see Phil. iii. 19, Tit. ii. 3. To serve much wine ( oivu AA. 5e8ov\<a(*.evas) 
denotes drunkenness, Tit. ii. 3. To serve men, denotes an obedience to their pre- 
scriptions iii opposition to the commands of God ; 1 Cor. vii. 23, Gal. v. 1, and iv. 9, 
with Acts xv. 10, which two last texts respect the legal ceremonies, and hence that 
phrase is taken, Rom. viii. 15, " spirit of bondage," to which is opposed the " Spirit of ' 
adoption :" the one denotes legal strictness and terror, the other evangelical grace. See 
Heb. xii. 18, &c., also Heb. ii. 15. 

The law is called a school-master, because it taught the way to Christ, Gal. iii. 24. 
There is a very fair metaphor taken from a schoolmaster's instruction, Isa. xxviii. 10. 
" For precept must be (or hath been) upon precept, precept upon precept ; line upon line, 
line upon line ; here a little and there a little" (was added,) as rules and precepts are 
friven and inculcated into the minds of children, and their hands guided to write (as 

* Gnim. Sacr.f, 1~0. srq. 



[BOOK 1, 

in the old verse, Adde parum parvo superadde pitssillum, i. e. " Add little to little, 
and to little superadd very little, that at length they may acquire the whole treasure of 
learning ;" so God, by his prophets, (2 Chron. xxxvi. 15,) and ministers, instructs his peo- 
ple in divine learning, &c. ~ 

4. The metaphors from a country 01 family are these ; :.?*fr** 

A Canaanite, is put for a stranger or impure person, Zech. xiv. last verse, Isa. xxx. 
8. For a merchant, because their country was near the sea, Prov. xxxi. 24, Isa. xxii. 8, 
Jer. x. 67, Hos. xii. 8, Zeph. i. 11. 

An Arabian is put for a thief or robber, because they were infamous that way, 
Jer. iii. 2, Isa. xii. 20; the Edomites and Moabites are put for the church's enemies, 
because they were such to the Jews, (Psal. cxxxvii. 7, Lam. iv. 26, Amos i. 11, Obadiah 
verse 60, Ezek. xxv. 12,) Isa. xxxiv. 5, 6, Ixiii. 1, and xxv. 10. Chaldeans are put for 
mathematicians or fortune-tellers, because that nation was given to it, Dan. ii. 2, &c. The 
names of Sodom and Gomorrah are attributed to the rebellious and stubborn Jews, Isa. i. 
10, see* Isa. iii. 9, Ezek. xvi. 48, 49, 53. 

Home, the seat of Antichrist, is called Sodom and Egypt, Eev. xi. 8; Sodom, because 
of its corporeal and spiritual whoredom, and other enormous sins ; Egypt, because of its 
tyranny and cruelty against the people of God. 

Metaphors from the various Actions of Men. 

Such of the actions of men as we have not treated of before shall be briefly given, these 
may be distinguished into such as are necessary, and such as are contingent. 

1. Necessary actions, as to eat and drink, denotes, 

(1.) To consume or destroy, Gen. xxxi. 15, Exod. iii. 2, Deut. xxxi. 17, and vii. 16, 
Prov. xxx. 14, Psal. xiv. 4, and Ixix. 10, Isa. i. 20, Jer. xxx. 16, Gal. v. 1 5, James v. 
2, 3, &c, 

(2.) To enjoy, or receive benefit, as eating nourishes the body this enjoyment is 
either corporeal, as Gen. xiv. 18, Psal. cxxviii. 2, Isa. i. 19, and iii. 10, &c. ; or spiritual, 
Prov. ix. 6, and viii. 5, 6, 10, &c., Jer. xv. 16, 1 Tim. iv. 6. 

2. It denotes a participation of the merits and blessings of Christ, John vi. 60, &c., 
1 Cor. x. 16. 

3. The completing of eternal happiness, or everlasting life itself, Luke xiv. 15, and 
xxii. 30, John vi. 27, Kev. ii. 7, and iii. 20. &c. To be filled, that is after eating, de- 
notes any fulness, as when an old man is said to be aw (Sept. xtoipris iyiepa/) full of days, 
Gen. xxv. d, and xxxv. 29. See Hos. xiii. 6, Luke vi. 25, 1 Cor. iv. 8. It denotes a 
sufiicient enjoyment of things pleasing and profitable, Psal. xvi. 11, xvii. 15, Ixxxi. 10, 
ciii. 5, and cvii. 9, Matt. v. 6, Luke vi. 21. Sometimes it denotes loathing, as a full 
stomach does meat, Psal. Ixxxviii. 3, Hab. ii. 16. Hence by an anthropopathy it is attri- 
buted to God, Isa. i. 11. 

To hunger and thirst denotes an ardent desire in the godly after heavenly things, Psal. 
xlii. 2, and Ixiii. 1, Isa. xii. 17, and Iv. 1, Matt. v. 6, Luke vi. 21, and i. 53. In the 
wicked it denotes eternal malediction for the want of those blessings, Isa. Ixv. 13, Luke 
Vi. 25, see Luke xvi. 24, and Amos viii. 11. 

To drink denotes the enjoyment of good and pleasant things, Jer. ii. 18, victory, 
as Numb, xxiii. 24. See Prov. v. 15, Isa. xxxvii. 25 ; participation of heaven, Prov. 
ix. 5, Isa. Ixv. 13, John iv. 14, and vii. 38. See Kev. xxii. 17, &c. ; to suffer incon- 
veniences, as Job xxi. 20, Jer. xxv. 16, and xlix. 12, Obad. 16, Hab. ii. 16, Prov. xx. 5, 
Matt. xx.~22, and xxvi. 39, &c. ; to be accustomed to a thing, Job xv. 16, and xxxiv. 7, 
Rev. xviii. 3, Prov. ix. 5. 

To be drunk denotes to be filled with good things, Deut. xxix. 19, Psal. xxxvi. 8, 
9, Prov. v. 19, and xi. 25, Cant. v. 1, Jer. xxxi. 14; to be overwhelmed with cala- 
mities, Isa. Ii. 21, and Ixiii. 6, Jer. xlviii. 26, Ezek. xxiii. 33 ; to be obstinately con- 
firmed in impiety by the just judgment of God, Isa. xxix. 9, 10. Hence sobriety, on the 
contrary, both of body and mind, is attributed to a godly man, 1 Thess. v. 6, 8, 2 Tiffl. 
iv. 5, and ii. 25, 1 Pet. i. 13, iv. 17, and v. 8. 


To beget and bring forth is put for the production or event of any thing, Job xxxviii. 
28, Psal. xc. 2, Prov. xxv. 23, and xxvii. 1, Zeph. ii. 2, James i. 16, hence generations 
signify things done, or histories, Gen. ii. 4, v. I, and xxxvii. 2. It is attributed to spiritual 
renovation, Isa. Ixvi. 9, John i. 13. The church being as it were the mother of believers, 
Isa. liv.- l,>and Ixvi. 7, 8, Gal. iv. 26, 27; to the ministers of the gospel, 1 Cor. iv. 15, 
Gal. iv. 19, Philemon, verse 10, &e. When a man is said to bring forth wind, stubble, 
vanity, &c., it denotes the ffl success of his malignant endeavours, Job xv. 35, Psal. vii. 14, 
Isa. xxvi. 18, xxxiii. 11, and lix. 4. 

Hitherto of the necessary actions of men ; now we shall briefly touch such as are con- 
tingent, which are good or bad ; with respect to the agent or others. 

. What concerns site or local motion, as to go or walk, is put for the life, manners, and 
actions of men, Gen. xvii. 1, Psal. i. 1, and cxix. 1, 3, 9, &c., Kom. viii. 1, Eph. ii. 2, 
10, &c., 2 Cor. xii. 18. Hence " a way" is put for the course of life or conduct of men, 
Gen. xviii. 19, and xxxi. 35, Prov. xxviii. 6, Jer. vi. 16, Matt. xxi. 32, Acts xiv. 16, &c. 
To go signifies to die, Gen. xv. 2, Josh, xxiii. 14, Luke xxii. 22, &c. To stay or tarry 
signifies to live, John xxi. 22, Phil. i. 25. To follow signifies imitation and conformity in 
life and actions, 1 Kings xviii. 21, Matt. xvi. 24, John viii. 12, 1 Pet. ii. 21, 2 Pet. i. 16. 
To run betokens diligence, Psal. cxix. 32, Cant. i. 4, Jer. xii. 5, Kom. ix. 16, 1 Cor. ix. 
26, Gal. v. 7, Phil, ii; 16, 2 Tim. iv. 7, Heb. xii. 1. The. word of God is said to run, 
when it is largely propagated, 2 Thess. iii. 1, and when the will of God is fulfilled, Psal. 
cxlvii. 15. To hasten signifies temerity, rashness, precipitancy, and folly, Job v. 13, Isa. 
xxxv. 4. To stand signifies to be happy, or in a good condition, 1 Sam. xxiv. 21, Psal. 
xxx. 7, 8, Dan. xi. 2, Rom. xiv. 4; to believe firmly and persevere, Exod. xiv. 13, Born, 
v. 2, and xi. 20, I Cor. x. 12, and xvi. 13, 2 Cor. i. 24, Phil. iv. 1. 

It denotes perseverance in sin, Psal. i. 1, Eccl. viii. 3, Hos, x. 9. The confirmation or 
ratifying a word or decree, Lev. xxvii. 14, Deut. ix. 5, and xix. 15, Isa. xl. 8, Jer. xliv. 
28, 2 Cor. xiii. 1, &c. 

To sit denotes to be quiet and steadfast, Gen. xlix. 24, Psal. cxiii. 9, Micah v. 3, &c. 
To fall denotes to sin, Jer. viii. 4, 1 Cor. x. 1.2, and to be overwhelmed with calamities, 
Isa. xxiv. 16, 17, 18, Amos v. 2 ; to be despicable or low, Neh. vi. 16, Esth. vi. 13, John 
xii. 3 ; to die, Gen. xxv. 18, 1 Cor. x. 8. See more examples, Gal. v. 4, 2 Pet. iii. 17, 
Rev. ii. 5, Matt. viii. 11, Luke xiii. 29, Matt. xxii. 1, &c., Isa. xxv. 6, &e. 

To gird denotes fortitude, preparation, and dispatch of business, 1 Sam. ii. 4, Job 
xxxviii. 3, Prov. xxxi. 17, Jer. i. 17. To put on denotes a close union, Job x. 11, Jer. 
xliii. 12. Putting 'on, denotes regeneration or renovation, 2 Cor. v. 3, Horn. xiii. 12, 14, 
Eph. iv. 24, Col. iii. 9, 10, 1 Pet. v. 5. 

There are many transient actions of men used metaphorically, of which take a few ex- 
amples instead of many, by which you may judge of the rest. 

To take is put for to learn or understand, Job xxii. 22, Prov. i. 3, &c. To build (rt 
banah,'} for getting of children, Gen. xvi. 2, Deut. xxv. 9, Ruth iv. 11. To restore, 
exalt, or make prosperous, Job xxii. 28, Isa. Iviii. 12, Jer. xii. 16, and xxxi. 4, Mai. iii. 
15, (to which, to destroy, is opposed, Jer. xiii. 10, &c.) To establish and confirm, Psal. 
Ixxxix. 2, Matt. vii. 25. To inform by doctrine and example, Bom. xv. 20, 1 Cor. viii. 
1, x. 23, and xiv. 4, 17, Gal. ii. 18, 1 Thess. v. 11, Jude, verse 20. (Hence ocoSo W , 
edification, is put for information by word and life, Bom. xiv. 19, and xv. 2, 1 Cor. xiv. 
3, 5, 12, 2 Cor. x. 8, and xiii. 10.) Thus is the church built, which is the house and 
city of God, Psal. Ii. 18, and cii. 14, Isa. Ix. 10, and liv. 11, 12, Matt. xvi. 18, 1 Cor. iii. 
9, Eph. ii. 21, 22, and iv." 12, 1 Pet. ii. 5. Hence such as should preserve and restore 
the church are called builders, Psal. cxviii. 22, Matt. xxi. 42, Acts iv. 11, 1 Pet. ii. 7. To 
build is also put for seducing by false doctrine, 1 Cor. viii. 10, &c. 

To war, fight, &c., is put for the spiritual fight of believers against the cleviL 
the world, and the flesh, Isa. xl. 2, 2 Cor. x. 4, Eph. vi. 12, 1 Tim. i. 16, 2 Tim. ii- 
3> 4, and iv. 7, Phil. i. 27. It is said of such things as disagree amongst themselves, 
a s flesh and spirit, Bom. vii. 23, James iv. 1, 1 Pet. ij. 20. Prayers are spiritual 



weapons, Rom. xv. 30, Col. -iv. 12, &c. To commit adultery, or play the whore, is put 
for idolatry and impiety, of which there are abundance of examples in scripture, Exod. 
xxxiv. 15, 16, Deut. xxxi. 16, Judg. ii. 17, and viit. 27, 33, 2 Kings ix. 22, 1 Chron. v. 
25, Isa. i. 21, and Ivii. 3, 4, Jer. ii. 20, iii. 1, 6, 8, 9, xiii. 27, and xxiii. 14, Ezek. xvi. 
15, 20, and xxiii. 3, Hos. i. 2, iv. 12, v. 3, and vi. 10, Nahum iii. 4, Eev. ii. 20, 21, 22, 
xiv. 8, xvii. 2, and xviii. 3, &e. The reason of the metaphor is, because God hath joined, 
and as it were espoused his church to himself in a spiritual contract or covenant, that 
thereby he may beget spiritual children, to be eternally saved. If the church therefore 
will basely forsake him, and run to idols, without any respect to the violation of that con- 
jugal engagement, it is spiritual adultery, and the scripture so styles it, &c. To bewitch 
is put for to seduce by wicked doctrine, Gal. iii. 1. 

Apostates and such as persecute the saints are said, Heb. vi. 6, " To crucify the Son of 
God afresh." In which sense Rome, the seat of Antichrist is thus described, Rev. xi. 8, 
" The great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was 
crucified." Which periphrasis denotes the cruel persecution of true Christians, with all the 
oppression, and massacres, perpetrated by Rome and its instruments, whereby they have 
power to act. For whatsoever injuries are offered to believers, are by the Holy Spirit 
said to be offered to Christ himself; because none of the members can be hurt, but the head 
sympathizes and suffers with it, as was said before. * Origen says, " By every martyr's 
condemnation, Jesus is condemned : for if a Christian be condemned for this alone, that he 
is a Christian, it is Christ then, that is condemned ;" (and so crucified.) 

Metapftors taken from the containing Subjects. 

To this belong 

(1.) Generally place and its dimensions. 

(20 - -- - - 

Particularly the habitations of men. 

To the dimensions or differences of place, belongs altitude or height, which when referred 
to the mind and understanding of man, metaphorically denotes an abstruse thing, or that 
which is difficult to be understood, Prov. xxiv. 7, " Wisdom is too high for a fool," that is, 
he cannot attain it. See Prov. xiv. 6. A word that has affinity with this denotes the 
distraction of an irresolute mind, by reason of divers cares and doubts, Luke xii. 29, Kaiw 
tierecopie6e, " Be ye not lifted up on high," we translate it, " be ye not of a doubtful 
mind ;" this metaphor is taken from meteors, and denotes a mind as it were hung up in the 
air, apt to be blown hither and thither by every blast ; the meaning is, be not distracted 
with various cares for your sustentation, but acquiesce in the hope of divine help. 

Gen. xliii. 18, " We are brought in, that he may roll himself upon us, and fall upon us, 
and take us for bondmen." This is an elegant metaphor taken from the fall of a body 
from an high place or precipice, upon which Junius says, Metaphora duplex, a corporibus 
magnce et ponderosce molis, &c. " A double metaphor taken from bodies of a great and 
weighty bulk, which by wheeling (as it were) are tumbled down from on high, and the 
higher they are, with so much the more violence do they fall ; as if he had said, whereas 
he has no lawful cause of quarrel against us, he will make us captives, or bondmen, by 
this pretext of money," &c. 

To go backward denotes apostacy, Jer. vii. 24. To turn their hearts back again, signifies 
repentance, and their abhorring Baal whom they thought to be a God, 1 Kings xviii. 37, 
see Isa. 1. 5. 

To turn to the right hand, or left hand, Gen. xxiv. 49, signifies a desire what to do, or 
not to do ; the metaphor being taken from such as are doubtful, when they come to a part- 
ing-way, which to take, and are wont to be directed by that phrase, turn to the right or 
left hand. 

This phrase is used with respect to divine obedience, when men are commanded 
to walk neither to the right nor left hand, that is, to keep exactly to that rule and or- 
der with respect to God's worship, which he hath set down in his word, Deut. v. 32. 

* Homil. 11. in Jer, 


xvii. 11, 20, xxviii. 14, Josh. i. 7, xxiii. 6, Prov. iv. 27, Isa. xxx. 21, &c. The right 
side is a symbol of prudence, circumspection, and honesty ; and the left of imprudence, te- 
merity, and incogitancy, Eccl. x. 2, &c. 

Latitude or largeness gives some metaphors, arn dilatare, to enlarge, signifies a deliver- 
ance and help from calamity, Psal. iv. 1, xviii. 19, and xxxi. 8, 9, Prov. xviii. 16. So 
narrowness betokens trouble and affliction, Psal. xxv. 16, 17, xxxi. 9, cxxxviii. 6, 7, 
Prov. xi. 8, xxiv. 10. The metaphor being taken from narrow places, or men shut up, 
besieged, or surrounded by an enemy in a narrow compass, which exposes them to much 
distress and difficulties of deliverance. A heart enlarged signifies jov, Psal. cxix. 32, Isa. 
Ix. 5. See 2 Cor. vi. 1113, &c. 

This enlarging of heart, denotes sometimes great wisdom and virtue, 1 Kings iv. 29. 
Sometimes pride and audacity, Psal. ci. 4, 5, Prov. xxi. 4, and xxviii. 25. See 1 Sam. 
ii. 1, 2 Cor. vi. 11, Eph. vi. 19, Psal. Ixxxi. 10, 11, and cxix. 131, Ac. 

Of places where men dwell we will show, (1.) Their parts. (2.) Their species or 
kinds. The parts, from which metaphors are taken, are, 

1. Foundation, in which we are to consider, 

(1.) Its dignity, being the principal part of the edifice, which supports the whole 
weight of the building. Hence Christ is called the Foundation of the Church, which is 
Ms spiritual house, Isa. xxviii. 16, 1 Cor. iii. 10, 11, Eph. ii. 20. See Matt. xvi. 16, 
18, 1 Pet. ii. 4, 5, Jude verse 20, Rev. xxi. 14, because from him and by .him are all things, 
which are needful for the gathering, preserving, and saving of his church. 

(2.) Its steadfastness, stability, and firmness ; which makes the whole building strong 
and durable. Hence it is said of the creation of the earth, that solid and immoveable 
body, together with its parts, Exod. ix. 18, Job xxxviii. 4, Psal. xxiv. 1, 2, civ. 5, Prov. 
iii. 19, viii. 29, Heb. i. 10. Henee it is put for the ground, which we tread upon, Hab. 
iii. 13, " by making naked the foundation," (so the Hebrew,) that is, by clearing your 
land of its enemies, who so covered it, as if they had taken a perpetual root in 
inverse 6. More metaphors you may find, Prov. x. 25, 2 Tim. ii. 19, John vi. 27, 
Isa. xiv. 32, Eph. iii. 17, 18, Col. i. 23. It is put for to consult or deliberate, because 
every design must have a beginning, Psal. ii. 2, xxxi. 13, 14, and to appoint, decree, or 
ordain, so as that a thing should be firm and certain, 1 Chron. ix. 21, Esther i. 8, Psal. 
viii. 2, " Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings hast thou founded (so the Hebrew) 
strength." &c. 

(3.) Its order, because it is the first thing in a building, and the last in destroying 
of a house ; hence it is put for beginning with respect to time, Isa. vii. 9, and for the 
very extreme or end in the destruction or utter rooting out of the people, Psal. cxxxvii. 7. 

A wall is transferred to a human body, Jer. iv. 19, " I am pained at the walls of 
my heart," (so the Hebrew) that is, my bowels and sides which environ or encompass 
my heart, in which places, such as are troubled with an hypocondriac disease, are 
much pained, &c., Acts xxiii. 3, Paul calls the chief priest a " whited wall," that is, an 
hypocrite and vain speaker, who bragged of the dignity, and title of his office, whose 
outward appearance was gaudy and splendid, bespeaking much sanctity, whereas within 
be was full of impiety and uncleanness. See Matt, xxiii. 27. It seems this kind of wall 
which he alludes to, was made of mud, that is a slight wall of untempered mortar, as 
Ezek. xiii. 10, which had no solid or durable substance in the inside, .but was curiously 
whited with lime on the outside. 

Eph. ii. 14, fj-efforoixw intergerinus paries, " the middle wall of partition," denotes the 
Mosaical law, which like a partition divided the Jews from Gentiles, which being now- 
taken away they are all one in Christ. 

A wall, in a metaphor, is a symbol of strength and defence, 1 Sam. xxv. 16, Psal. 
xviii. 29, Isa. xxvi. 1, Jer. i. 18, and xv. 20. A hedge denotes also defence, Ezek. xiii. 
5, and xxii. 30, Jer. v. 10, Psal. cvi. 23. 


_ A step, stair, or degree, 8a.djj.os, is put for increase of spiritual gifts, 1 Tim- 
iii; 13. See Matt. xiii. 12. A pillar metaphorically signifies things like it, whether 
with respect to figure and shape, Exod. xiii. 21, 22, Judg. xx. 40, Rev. x. 1 ; or use, 
for it is firm, and bears great weight, and therefore denotes firmnefs, constancy, 



[BOOK 1, 

and lastingness, Prov. ix. -I, Jer. i. 18, Job ix. 6, and xxvi. 11, Tim. iii. 15, Rev. 
"iii. 12 ; dignity and pre-eminence in the church, Gal.' ii. 9 ; the commonwealth, Psal. 

Ixxv. 3. 

A comer denotes extremity, because it is the extreme part of the building, as 
, 1. The extremes of the earth, Exod. xxvii. y, Numb, xxxiv, 3, Neh. ix. 22, Jer. ix. 26, 
Deut. xxxii. 26. 

2. Of a field and country, Lev. xix. 19, Numb. xxiv. 17, where the Chaldee and Sep. 
tuagint understand princes. 

3. Of the head, as the forehead and temples, Lev. xiii. 41, and xix. 27. The 
outward corner of a house, signifies a prince or grandee, Judg. xx. 2, 1 Sam. xiv. 38, 
Isa. xix. 13. Hence Christ is called a Corner-stone, Psal. cxviii. 22, expounded Eph. ii. 
15, 16, 17, 20. 

A nail signifies one fixed for common good, Isa. xxii. 23. The Chaldee renders it faith- 
ful governor, and the Septuagint apx"> a prince. 

A gate or door, is put for a populous city, through which the passage of traffic 
or commerce is wont to be, Ezek. xxvi. 2 ; for the entrance into a country, Micah 
v. 5 ; for the lips, Job xli. 19, See Psal. cxli. 3, and Ixxviii. 22, 23, Job iii. 10. 
What a door of hope denotes is shown before in the mention of the valley of Achor, 
Hos. ii. 15. The opening of a door denotes preaching the gospel, Isa. xxvi. 2, and 
Ix. 11, Acts xiv. 27, 1 Cor. xvi. 9, 2 Cor. ii. 12, Col. iv. 3, Rev. iii. 8. " The door of 
heaven" denotes the means of arriving to blessedness, Geri. xxviii. 17, Matt. vii. 14, 
Luke xiii. 24. Christ calls himself a door, John x. 1, 2, 7, 9, because none can get into 
heaven or rightly into the church but through him. See metaphor Door in the second book. 

Matt, xxiii. 13, the Pharisees are said " to shut the kingdom of heaven and prohibit 
entrance therein," because they hindered men from looking after the saving graces of the 
Messiah, who is the only Door of salvation, and because they 'depraved his holy word : 
to be at the door denotes nearness of time, Matt. xxiv. 33, James v. 9. The gates 
of death denote extreme peril, Job xxxviii. 17, Psal. ix. 13, and cvii. Ib, Isa. 
xxxviii. 10. The gates of hell, Matt. xvi. 18, denote the stratagems, machinations, 
plots, and power of the devil and his ministers, &c. Believers are said to knock at the 
door, when they pray earnestly, Matt. vii. 7, 8, Luke xi. 9. God is said to knock at the 
door (of our heart) when he earnestly invites men to repentance, Rev. iii. 20, &c. 

Bars, which strengthen gates, 1 Sam. xxiii. 7, are metaphorically put for any kind of 
fortification or strength, Job xxxviii. 10, Psal. cxlvii. 13, Ezek. xxx. Amos i. 5, Isa. xv. 
5, and xliii. 14. 

A key denotes authority and power, Isa. xxii. 22. It is attributed to Christ with 
respect to hell and death, Rev. i. 18, and the church and heaven, Rev. iii. 7, which ' 
denotes chief dominion. The keys of the kingdom of heaven, Matt. xvi. 19, denote the 
ministry and office of the apostles, (Job xx. 23,) in retaining sins, (viz., excommunicating 
scandalous sinners) and remitting sins, (that is, receiving the penitent,) set forth by the 
metaphors of a key, which shuts or opens the door. 

The species of buildings, are (1.) A city, which metaphorically denotes the church 
militant, Isa. xxvi. 1, Heb. xii. 32, see Matt. v. 14. The church triumphant, Heb. xi. 
10, and xiii. 14, Rev. xxi. 2, &c. See Phil. iii. 20, and i. 27, where heavenly conversa- 
tion is" expressed by a word derived of iro\ts a city, as civility is from civis a citizen, be-' 
cause their conversation should be civil, in opposition to the rudeness and barbarity of such 
as live in the country. It is said of a fool, Eccl. x. 1 5, " that he knows not how to go 
to the city," that is, he cannot perfect what he undertook. 

Strong holds, or munitions, are elegantly used by the apostle, 2 Cor. x. 4, for all that 
which the church's enemies put their confidence in, as carnal wisdom^ learning, eloquence, 
&c., which those divine weapons pull down, &c. 

Towers sometimes denote proud tyrants, and worldly grandees, Isa. ii. 15, and xxx. 
2'5. Other 'significations of these, see before, chap, viii., and in the metaphorical parables, 
Book 2. 


A house denotes the church militant, Psal. xxvii. 3, 4, and Ixix. 9, (John ii. 17,) 
Ixxxiv. 4, and xcii. 13, Isa. Ivi. 5, 7, Eph. ii. 19, 22, 1 Tim. iii. 15, Heb. iii. 6, and 
x. 21, 1 Pet. ii 5, and iv. 17. Hence the apostles are called OIKOVO/J.OI, the house-servants 
or stewards of God, 1 Cor. iv. 1. The temple of Jerusalem is frequently called the house 
of God, 2 Sam. vii. 5, 6, Psal. xxvi. 7, 8, Jer. vii. 11, Matt. xxi. 13, &c. The church 
triumphant and eternal- life, is called a house, Psal. xxxvi. 8, John xiv. 2, 2 Cor. v. 1, 2. 
The reason is, hecause. 

(I.) God lives there with the blessed, as the master of a family with his domestics. 

(2.) Because it is a most quiet and secure habitation. 

(3.) Because of the perfect and clear vision of God. 

(4.) With respect to the glorious ornaments of his family ; for the grandees of the 
world maintain their families as splendidly as they can. 

(5.) Because all the spiritual sons of God are gathered into this house, where there is 
perfect harmony and. concord, &c. 

A tabernacle is almost of the same signification, and is put for the church militant, 
Psal. xv. 1, xxvii. 4, 5, and Ixxxiv. 1 ; for the church triumphant, Rev. xxi. 3. The 
tabernacle of David, Amos ix. 11, Acts xv. 16, denotes the kingdom and church of the 
Messiah, &c. 

The word " tabernacle" is said of the sun's tarrying in heaven, Psal. xix. 4 ; and of a 
human body, 2 Cor. v. 1, 4, 2 Pet. i. 14, because the soul dwells in it, as its habitation 
till death. 

*A chamber or inner room, which the Latins call Penetrate, is attributed to God, 
which is a symbol of- that divine and intimate communion which the saints enjoy with 
him, Cant. i. 4, see John xiv. 2, where the many mansions there, are thus to be meta- 
phorically understood, viz., variety of heavenly joys. 

Chambers of the south, Job ix. 9, and xxxvii. 9, this denotes that part of heaven 
tfhich is near the Antarctic pole, or. southern Axis, which being below our horizon cannot 
be seen of us. See Prov. xxiv. 4, and xviii. 8. 

By chambers of death, Prov. vii. 27, is denoted damnation. The chambers of the 
people, Isa. xxvi. 20, are temporal death, or the graves of the godly, from which at the 
last day there will be a resurrection. 

A prison and imprisonment, is most elegantly translated to denote God's vengeance 
against his enemies, Isa. xxiv. 21, " And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord 
shall visit (that is, take, notice of) the host of every high one, with him that is on high, 
and the kings of the earth with their land," (that is, he will punish high and low, 
king and subject,) verse 22, " And they shall be gathered together with the gathering of 
prisoners into the dungeon, and shall be shut up in prison (that is, they shall be held 
captive by the the power of God, whosoever they are that are his adversaries, for this 
shutting up in prison denotes any kind of punishment,) and after many days they shall be 
wanting," that is, they shall never be able to extol or lift themselves up more against God. 
See 2 Cor. x. 4, 5. A freeing from prison, denotes divine deliverance, Psal. cxli. 7. 

A ship, Isa. xxxiii. 21, denotes all the force of the church's enemies, Psal. xlviii. 7, 
" The breaking of the ships of Tarshish," betokens (as many interpreters say) the con- 
fusion of those enemies. See Isa. ii. 16, 17. Besides this va.va.yew to make shipwreck of 
faith, denotes apostacy from the faith, &c. 

A grave denotes the depraved nature of man, Psal. v. 9, Bom. iii. 13, " Their 
throat is an open sepulchre," the metaphor being taken from the noisome scent of a grave, 
"which is translated to the corrupt and wicked discourse of ill men. See Matt, xxiii, 27, 
28, &c. See also Isa. xiv. 11, " Thy pomp is brought down to the grave," that is, 
none will honour thee, &c. 

Metaphors from the various adjuncts of Men. 

These may be divided into internal and external ; of the internal we have before ex- 
pounded many ; of the external, by which the various utensils or instruments, &c., useful 
for human life are to be understood, we will here treat briefly. 

* Tin cheder. This word signifies the inmost and most retired part of any place. 


Arms are translated by a notable emphasis, to denote the spiritual fight or struggling of a 
pious soul against sin and temptation, Eom. vii. 23, and xiii. 12, 2 Cor. vi. 7, and x. 4, 
1 Pet. iv. 1. Of which the apostle treats most elegantly, -Eph. vi., upon which see Mr. 
Gurnal, who hath well handled the subject. 

The, devil is said to be a strong man armed, Luke, xi. 21, that is, well provided with 
craft, guile, and subtlety, to over-reach and overcome a soul. 

A sword denotes,!. A thing hurtful, because it is cutting, and so betokens most 
bitter griefs, Psal. xxii. 20, Luke ii. 35. Hence it is said of an ill-speaking and virulent 
tongue, Psal. lv. 21, Ivii. 4, and lix. 7, Job v. 15. see Psal. Ixiv. 3, &c. To put a knife 
to the throat, denotes extreme peril, Prov. xxiii. 2. 

2. It denotes, a thing very penetrating, and efficacious, Psal. cxlix. 6, Micah v. 5, 
Eph. vi. 17. It is said of the word of God. that it is " sharper than a two-edged sword," 
Heb. iv. 12, Gladio aneipiti Topwrepos, scindendo penetrabilius esse, which denotes its 
piercing efficacy, to reach the heart, when set home by the Spirit. See Isa. xlix. 2, Rev. 
i. 16, and ii. 12, 16, &c. 

A bow and arrows signify the same thing, that is, are put for an ill-speaking and lying 
tongue, Psal. Ixiv. 3, and cxx. 4, Jer. ix. 3. " An arrow flying by day," denotes any 
sudden or invading danger, Psal. xci. 5. How attributed to God, we have shown in the 
chapter of an anthropopathy, page 70. 

A quiver, wherein arrows are kept, is put for a family wherein children are well 
educated ; Psal. cxxvii. 5, (see verse 3, 4, and Psal viii. 2, Isa. xli. 16, Psal. xlv. 5, 
Isa. xlix. 2,) the Chaldee renders it, " It is good for that man that fills his school with 

A shield is put for princes, Psal. xlvii. 9, Hos. iv. 18 ; who defend their subjects 
as a shield does the body. Paul calls the word of God, " the shield of faith," Eph. 
vi. 16, which " quenches all the fiery darts of the wicked one ;" because when received 
in faith, it defends a soul from all the temptations of the devil, which are as 
darts, that would obstruct its passage to heaven. See Gurnal as before. See 1 Thess. v. 
8, &c. 

Elisha and Elijah are called the chariots and horsemen of Israel, 2 Kings ii. 12, 
and xiii. 14, that is, their principal strength, as chariots and horsemen are in war, 

A staff, because it is the supporter of a weak or lame man, denotes help and 
support, 2 Kings xviii. 21, Psal. xviii. 18. Hence the staff of bread, water, &c., 
is put for meat and drink, by which the life of man is supported and refreshed, 
Lev. xxvi. 26, Psal. cv. 16, Isa. iii. 1, Ezek. v. 16, and xiv. 13, &c. Hence bread 
is said to support (in our version, strengthen) the heart of man, as a staff does the 
body ; that is, comforts and refreshes him. Hence also tso fulcire, to prop, is put for 
eating, 1 Kings xiii. 7, &c. 

On the contrary, a staff is a symbol of meanness and poverty, as in the prayer of 
Jacob, Gen. xxxii. 10, " With my staff I passed over this Jordan," that is, weak and 
poor, the metaphor being taken from such as are taken captives in war, and despoiled of 
all their arms, and are dismissed with a staff. 

Because a staff is an instrument whereby men use to beat, it is put for tyranny, cruelty, 
and severe government, Prov. x. 13, xxii. 8, and xxvi. 3, 2 Sam. vii. 1 4, Psal. Ixxxix. 
32, Isa. x. 5, 24, and xiv. 5. 

A prize is put for the reward of the godly ; the metaphor being taken from such as win 
a race, or overcome any challenger or adversary that contended with them at any exercise, 
1 Cor. ix. 24, Phil. iii. 14. For the exercise of faith and piety is compared to a race or 
strife, 1 Cor. ix. 2426, Gal. v. 7, Heb. xii. 1, &c. 

Col. ii. 18, KKTupgufeveiv " signifies to defraud of that reward" the metaphor is taken 
from the custom of heathens, who in their games and public exercises of wrestling, 
and the like, had some that used to sit as umpires to give to them that did best, the 


reward of a garland or crown, or some such thing, yet were sometimes unjust, and 
defrauded, by some corrupt dealing, those that really won the prize. The sense is, 
that they should not trust the judgment of divine matters, and the mysteries of God's 
law with respect to worship, to the folly of human reason, and the comments of will- 
worshippers, lest they should lose truth, and consequently the prize of eternal salvation, 
Col. iii. 15. 

The white stone, Eev. ii. 17, is a symbol of. heavenly glory, " To him that overcometh 
will I give a white stone, and in the stone, a new name written," &c. The metaphor 
(as some conjecture) is taken from an ancient custom, that a white stone was given to an 
acquitted person that was accused and tried ; and a black one, to guilty and condemned, 
according to that of Ovid. 15. Metam. 

Mas erat Antiquis, niveis, atrisque lapillis 
His damnare reos, illis absolvere culpa, &c. 

"The custom was, by white and Wack small atones, 
T" acquit the guiltless ; and damn guilty ones." 

" The writing of a new name hi the white stone," is said by interpreters to denote, not 
only a freedom from condemnation, but also an adorning with heavenly glory, 1 John 
iii. 2. Others say that it is a symbol of victory, &c. 

A cup, 13-12 because the guests drink out of it, Jer. xvi. 7, Luke xxii. 17 ; and because 
it holds sometimes bitter liquor, sometimes sweet, metaphorically denotes sometimes 
a prosperous and happy condition, as Psal. xvi. 5, xxiii. 5, and cxvi. 13. Sometimes 
punishment and affliction, Psal. xi. 6, and Ixxv. 8, Isa. li. 17, 22, Lam. iv. 21, Jer. xxv. 
15, andli. 7/Ezek. xxiii. 33, 34, Matt. xx. 22, 23, and xxvi. 39, 42, &c. 

A hand-writing, commonly called a bond, Col. ii. 14, is put for an obligation, 
or that guilt that sinners incurred by sinning ; the cancelling of which, and fixing it 
upon the cross, is the full or plenary satisfaction for sin made by Christ, and applied to 
the soul by true faith, upon which see Erasmus in his paraphrase, who does excellently 
expound it. 

A crown, that peculiar and principal ornament of the head in general, denotes any 
beautiful or very pleasing ornament or profitable thing, Prov. iv. 9, and xvii. 6, Jer. xiii. 
18, Phil. iv.. 1, 1 Thes. ii. 19. Hence to crown is put for, to adorn, bless with good 
things, and so to make joyful, Psal. viii. 5, and ciii. 4, see Psal. Ixv. 11, Isa. xxiii. 8. 
Tyre is called the " crowning city," that is, a place that made its inhabitants great and 
wealthy ; for it is added, whose merchants are princes*whose traffickers are honourable 
of the earth." 

2. A crown is the symbol of an empire or a kingdom, hence the kingdom of Israel 
is called a crown of pride, Isa. xxviii. 1, (see Hos. v. 5, and vii. 10 ; ) viz., a most 
proud kingdom. More examples are to be read, Psal. xxi. 3, andlxxxix. 39, Lam. v. 56, 
Ezek. xxi. 26. But this rather belongs to a metonymy of the sign. But it is meta- 
phorically, when crowning is attributed to Christ the heavenly King, Zech. vi. 1 1 14, 
Psal. viii. 5, Heb. ii. 7, 9, &c. . 

% It denotes heavenly reward or eternal life, 1 Cor. ix. 25, 2 Tim. ii. 5, iv. 8, 
Jam. i. 12, 1 Pet. v. 4, Eev. ii. 10, and iii. 11, &c. 

Siches, TT\OVT&, are put for plenty of heavenly things, and the spiritual gifts received 
%ough Christ, Luke xii. 21, 1 Cor. i. 5, 2 Cor. vi, 10, and viii. 9, Heb. x. 34, and xi. 
f^, Col. ii. 2, James ii. 5, Kev. iii. 18. See Isa. liii. 9. Serious Piety, 2 Cor. viii. 2, and 
lx - 11,1 Tim. vi. 18; the conversion of the Gentiles, Rom. xi. 12. 

Treasure denotes plenty of heavenly good, Isa. xxxii. 6, Matt. vi. 20, &c.; 
which is called K^ngovopia the inheritance- of believers, Acts xx. 32, Eph. i. 14, 18, 
^1. iii. 24, Heb. ix. 15,1 Pet. i. 4. And believers themselves are called "heirs 'and 
c o-heirs with Christ," Rom. viii. 17, Gal. iv. 7, Tit. iii. 7, Heb. vi. 17, James ii. 5, 


1 Pet. iii. 7. Hence *,he phrase " to inherit the kingdom of heaven," Matt. xix. 29, and 
xxv. 34, and sundry other places ; the . metaphor is taken from the Jewish inheritance, 
which were kept very sacredly and strictly by the possessors, and left to their posterity' 
as appears by that heroic speech of Naboth, 1 Kings xxi. 3, who refused to exchange his 
vineyard for a better, &c. 

To riches, treasure, &c., are opposed poverty and begging, which denote the want of 
spiritual good things, Rev. iii. 17. Sometimes repentance and contrition, with a desire 
after them, Matt. v. 3, and xi. 5, Luke iv. 18, and vi. 20, &c. 

A debt denotes sin, Matt. vi. 12. (See Luke xi. 4,) Luke xiii. 4, because we become 
thereby obnoxious to the wrath of G-od, as a debtor does to the arrest and suit of his 
creditor. See the parables, Matt. v. 26, and xviii. 23, &c., Luke vii. 41, 42, 47, and 
the appellation of a bond, Col. ii. 14, of which before. 

A whip metaphorically denotes affliction, calamity, and loss, 1 Kings xii. 11, 14, Josh. 
xxiii. 13, Job v. 21, and ix. 23, Isa. x. 25, and xxviii. 16, Mark iii. 10, and v. 29, 
34, Luke vii. 21, Heh. xii. 6, &c. 

The hammer of the whole earth, is a metaphorical epithet of the Babylonian 
monarch, Jer. 1. 23, because God (as if it were with a great hammer) made use of 
him at that time to break in pieces the kingdoms of the whole world. See Jer. xxiii, 
29, andli. 20. 

A table denotes heavenly good things, Psal. xxiii. 5, and Ixix. 22, Prov. ix. 2, Rom- 
xi. 9. 

A Measure, ^rpov, metron, has three metaphorical significations, 

1. Because it contains part of an entire heap or parcel, it is put for that portion or 
proportion of the gifts of the Spirit which believers have, Rom. xii. 3, Eph. iv. 7, 16. 
Thus it is said of Christ, John iii. 34, " That God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto 
him ;" on which* Tertullian most elegantly, " Spiritus Sanctus habitat in Christo plenus et 
totu.?, nee in aliqua mensura, aut portione mutilatus sed cum iota sua redundantia cumulate 
admissus, ut ex illo delibationem, quandam gratiarum .cceteri . consequi possint, totius Sancli 
Spiritus, in Christo, fonte remanente, ut ex illo donorum atque operum vence ducerentur, 
Spiritu Sancto in Christo affluenter habitante ;" that is, "" The Holy Spirit dwells fully 
and entirely in Christ only, neither does he so in a defective way or measure, but 
heaped up to the full in the greatest redundancy, that others may receive the commu- 
nications of graces from him, the whole spring or fountain of the Spirit remaining in Christ, 
that the veins of gifts and works may convey influence from him, the Holy Spirit dwell- 
ing most abundantly ia him." 

2. In regard a measure is lled, when a thing is sold, it is put for a large remune- 
ration of benefits, (Luke vi. 38,) or blessings. As also the abundance or termination 
of evil and wickedness, Matt, xxiii. 32, (with 1 Thess. ii. 16,) " fill up then the measure 
of your fathers;" viz. of the sins of your fathers, as Erasmus paraphrases it, goon, 
imitate your ancestors, and what they wanted of extreme cruelty, do ye make it up ; 
they killed the prophets, and you him, by whom, and of whom they prophesied. The 
highest pitch of villany is noted by this phrase, beyond which there is no farther pro- 
gress, and makes ripe for divine vengeance, and severest punishment, which certainly 
follows it, as payment follows things fully measured and sold. See the examples of 
the Amorites, Gen. xv. 16. Of the Sodomites, Gen. xviii. 20, &c. Of the Amalekites, 
Exod. xvii. 14, 1 Sam. xv. 2, &c. 

3. Because there is a mutual equality and proportion, in giving and restoring, 
therefore it is metaphorically said in a proverb, "with what measure ye mete, it shall be 
measured to you again," which we find three times, with a different or diverse scope. 

(1.) Denoting just retaliation, either with respect to reward or punishment, Matt. 
vii. 2., Luke vi. 38, relating to our neighbour. 

(2.) A legitimate and saving handling of the word of God, Mark iv. 24. As Eu- 
thymius says, "As ye attend the word, so ye shall profit in knowledge." Or, 

Lib', de Ttin.it. f. 630. 


(3.) As Piscator says, " If ye communicate the word of God liberally, God will com- 
municate the knowledge of his divine mysteries more liberally to you, and augment your 
gifts," &c. For this heavenly talent is improved and multiplied by communicating it to 

A razor which shaves off hair, is put for the king of Assyria, Isa. vii. 20, denoting 
that God would permit him to destroy Israel. It is called " hired," with respect to the 
fact of Ahaz, who hired the king of Assyria to assist him against the king of Syria, 2 
Kings xvi. 7, 8. Moab is called a wash-pot by David, Psal. Ix. 9, denoting the baseness 
of those people, and that they were only fit for the vilest offices, 2 Sam. viii. 2. 

A burden denotes tilings troublesome and difficult, Exod. vi. 6, Psal. Iv. 22, Isa. ix. 4, 
x. 27, and xiv. 25, Matt, xxiii. 4, &c. 

Weight, Papos, signifies the greatness of heavenly glory, 2 Cor. iv. 17; frequently, 
trouble and misfortune, Acts xv. 28. Gal. vi. 2, 1 Thess. ii. 6, Eev. ii. 24. See Prov. 
xxvii. 3. Sin is called heavy, Heb. xii. 1, because it is an impediment in pur heavenly 
race or course to heaven. 

Of a seal we have treated before. 

A looking-glass denotes an imperfect knowledge of the mysteries of God in this life, 
1 Cor. xiii. 12, because it gives but an imperfect reflection of the figure or object, com- 
pared to the object itself. And because some looking glasses reflect the rays or beams 
of the sun when it shines on them to an object. The Apostle elegantly uses the verb 
(Ka.ToirTgie(r6ai,J beholding in the glass for a light of divine knowledge, 2 Cor. iii. 18, 
" But we with open face, beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into 
the same image (that is, are eminently illuminated, and communicate light to others) from 
glory to glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord. 

Spoils taken from an enemy, denote Christ's victory over Satan, Isa. liii. 12, 
Luke xi. 22, Col. ii. 15. A man's life is said to be to him for a prey, which denotes 
deliverance from present death, as he that takes a body exposes his life to danger, 
Jer. xxi. 9, xxxviii. 2, xxxix. 18, and xlv. 5. Stipend or wages given to a soldier, 
is attributed to sin, Bom. vi. 23, whose due wages is death eternal. A table is at- 
tributed to the heart, when it is fixed upon any thing, Prov. iii. ?, Jer. xvii. 1. A 
cover or covering, denotes ignorance, because if a thing be covered we cannot see it, Isa. 
xxv. 7, 2 Cor. iii. 14, 15, 16,. Lam. iii. 44. A sheath, or Scabbard, is put for the 
body, because the soul lodges there as a sword in the sheath, Dan. vii. 15. A vessel is 
put for a man's body, 1 Sam. xxi. 5, 1 Thess. iv. 4. Paul calls himself and his col- 
leagues earthen vessels, 2 Cor. iv. 7, because of the contempt, calamities and hazards 
that they were exposed to in the world ; as earthen vessels are more despised and more 
obnoxious to be broken, than such as are made of silver and gold, 1 Pet. iii, 7. Peter 
calls a woman the weaker vessel, because more subject to weaknesses and infirmities than 
men. Paul is called a " chosen vessel" by Christ, Acts ix. 15, that is, a most choice 
and excellent instrument whom he would use to convert the Gentiles. Vessels of grace 
or honour are such as are saved by grace ; and vessels of wrath and dishonour, such 
as are rejected and damned for their infidelity and contempt of the Messiah, Rom. ix. 
21 23. See 2 Tim. ii. 20, 21, where there is an express comparison. See Isa. xxii. 
8, &c. 

A garment which covers the body, defends and adorns it, yields a double 

1. It denotes salvation by the application and appropriation of the the great benefits of 
Christ as well in this life as in that which is to come, Psal. xlv. 8, 13, 14, Isa. Ixi. 10, 
. iii. 18, vii. 14, and xvi. 15. The reason of the comparison is excellent. 
1.) From the hiding of indecent nakedness, of which Psal. xxxii. 1, Rom. iv. 6, 7. 
^.) Because thereby the body is defended from cold, and other noxious things, Matt. 
. 12, Rorn. viii. 30, &c. 

(3.) Because it adorns and beautifies, Psal. ex. 3, &c. See the parables, Ezek. 
xvi. 10, &c., Matt. xxii. 11, 12, Luke xv. 22. The typical visi 

visions, Zech. iii. 3, &c., 
2 A 



[BOOK 1. 

Rev. vii. 13, 14, xix. 8, and xxi. 2. The typical actions, Gen. iii. 21, and xxiv. 53. 
The putting on and constant keeping of this spiritual garment is, primarily, by faith in 
Christ, Rom. xiii. 14, Gal. iii. 26, 27, and consequently, by the renovation of the Holy 
Spirit, and the conversation of a holy life, Rom. xiii. 12, Eph. iv. 24, Col. iii. 10, 
12, 1 Pet. iii. 3, 4. Contrary to this, is the " garment spotted with the flesh," Jude verse 
23 ; the defiling of garments, Rev. iii. 4, which is the old man, Eph. iv. 22, Col. iii. 8, 
9 : see Isa. lix. 5, 6, &c. 

2. With respect to outward conversation, "sheep's clothing" is attributed to the false 
prophets, and false teachers in the church, Matt. vii. 15, which denotes any outward 
things which are specious, and made use of craftily to acquire authority and popular 
favour, as when men make use of a dissembling, personated, or hypocritical sanctity, 
as a cloak to inveigle and deceive others; when they pretend to be called of God, 
Jer. xxiii. 25, 30, 1 Kings xiii. 18, Matt. vii. 22 ; when they make a flourish about 
the knowledge of tongues, universal learning, great eloquence, a.nd other acquired 
ornaments, Rom. xvi. 18, 1 Cor. xiii. 1, 2, and gifts, especially the working of 
miracles, whether truly done, or by mere imposture, Deut. xiii. 2, Matt. vii. 22, 2 Thess. 
ii. 9, see 1 Tim. iv. 1, 2, 3, 2 Tim. iii. 5, 6, Col. ii. 18. To this " sheep's clothing" is fitly 
opposed a wolfish mind, denoting, 

(1.) The quality of their doctrine, viz., it was damning, and a wolf is a destroyer 
of sheep. 

(2.) Their bloody principles, that would cruelly lord it, and tyrannize over men's 
consciences, &c. 

Matt. xi. 8, " a man clothed in soft raiment," that is, one given to pleasures, as ap- 
pears, Luke vii. 25, and withal a court flatterer, who either approves of, or at least 
connives at, the sins or debaucheries of grandees ; and if he admonishes, does it in 
fawning, flattering expressions, with all his artifice of extenuation. Christ says, that 
John is no such person, but was very remote from the pleasures of the flesh, living by a 
slender and coarse diet, Matt. iii. 4, and xi. 18, and was no flatterer, as appears by his 
reproof of Herod for his incest, Luke iii. 1 9. 

Bonds and ropes or cords are metaphorically symbols of oppression, calamity, and 
punishment, Psal. xviii. 5, 6, and cxvi. 3, Prov. v. 22, Isa. xxviii. 22, and xlix. 9, Iii. 
2, and Iviii. 6, Nahum i. 13 ; it denotes also a covenant, obedience and obligation 
prescribed by law, Psal. ii. 3, Jer. ii. 20, Ezek. xx. 37. God is said to lay bonds upon 
the prophet, Ezek. iv. 8; when he obliges him to a constant perseverance in his 
prophecy. See Ezek. iii. 15. Charity is called the bond of perfection, Col. iii. 14, by 
which is not meant that it makes us perfect in the sight of God, but that the faithful 
are so joined together by love, as members of the same body, which have a perfect 
harmony, sympathy, and concord towards each other. The same is called the bond of 
peace, Eph. iv. 3, see Zech. ix. 12, Acts xx. 22. Cords of iniquity or bonds of iniquity, 
Isa. v. 18, Acts viii. 23, denote the conspiracy of the wicked and the spiritual captivity 
of sin. 

A rod denotes any castigation or correction, Job xxi. 9, Isa. ix. 4, 1 Cor. iv. 21, 
see staff, for the Hebrew* word properly signifies both. See also chap, vii., towards the 




THESE may be reduced into three heads, 
(1.) Men. 
(2.) Places. 

(3.) Customs, rites, or ceremonies. 
Of which in order. 



Metaphors from Men sacred to God. 


Men that belong to this, are either singular or conjunct, viz., the whole people. Single 
or singular, as David a man according to God's own heart, who is put for the Messiah, 
Isa. lv, 3, " I will make an everlasting covenant with you, the most sure mercies of 
David." B. Karachi, clearly asserts, that the Messiah is to be understood here, and it evi-. 
dently appears from verse 4. Some understand by " the mercies of David," the blessings 
that God promised David, viz., that the Messiah and Saviour of the world should be 
born of his race ; which is the same thing in effect with the former explication. This 
text is applied to the resurrection of Christ, Acts xiii. 34. 

The name of David * and some of his attributes are ascribed to the Messiah, Psal. 
cxxxii. 10, Jer. xxx 9, Ezek. xxxiv. 23, 24, and xxxvii. 24, 25, Hos. iii. 5. The 
kingdom of David typified the kingdom of the Messiah, Isa. ix. 7, Luke i. 32, 33, see 
Isa. xi. 1, 2 Sam. vii. 12, 13, 14, (Heb. i'. 5,) Psal. Ixxxix. 20 27, Col. i. 15,) Amos, 
ix. 11, (Acts xv. 16,) Psal. xviii. 60, (Kom. xv. 9, 10. Hence the royal seat of David, 
Sion and Jerusalem, were types of the church of Christ, Psal. ii. 6, Isa. ii. 2, 3, &c. 

That the name of Solomon (the Son of David) is attributed to the Messiah, plainly 
appears from Cant. iii. 11. So in a certain and mystical sense of the promise made to 
David, 2 Sam. vii. 13, 14, and 1 Chron. xvii. 12 14, is understood. 

.Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel was also put for Christ, Hag. ii. 23, as interpreters 
show, because Christ came of his race, Matt', i. 12, 16, and because he was the captain 
of the Jews, Hag. ii. 21, as Christ is the Prince and Captain of his people. As he 
brought the people out of the Babylonish captivity ; so Christ, hath freed his people 
from the devil's captivity, &c. Zerubbabel sounds as if it were fra an nj that is, the 
great, or master of Babylon, or as others say, qui-\ dispersit Babylon, " who hath scat- 
tered Babylon ;" which name may be properly attributed to Christ, who hath conquered 
the spiritual kingdom of Babylon, (viz., of the devil, the world, and antichrist.) Shealtiel 
is derived of ^ petiit, he sought ; and ^* God, so Christ is passively ; for he receives 
the petitions of all the godly, who seek God, and by his merits renders them efficacious. 

John the Baptist is called Elias the prophet, Mai. iv. 5, as Christ himself expounds it ; 
Matt. xi. 14, and xvii. 11, 12, 13. 

Christ is called the church, which relates to a metonymy of the subject ; as chap. iii. 
sect. iii. There is a metaphor taken from the conception of Christ, to denote that the 
restoration of his church, and the renovation of men's. hearts is only through him, Gal. iv. 
19, see Rom. vi. 4, 5, 6, Gal. ii 20, Col. ii. 12, 14. To crucify the flesh, Gal. v. 24, 
denotes a subduing of its depraved lusts, which is painful and unpleasing, as if they were 
set upon a cross. Paul says, he was " Crucified to the world, and the world to him " 
Gal. vi. 14, that is, he judged the world condemned, and the world had no better opinion 
of him ;^ he execrated the actings of the unconverted world, and they likewise hated his 
doctrine, calling him pestilent fellow, so that there was no concord between him and the 
false deluding pleasures of the world. See Matt. x. 38, and xvi. 24, Mark viii. 34., and 
v. 21, Luke ix. 23, and xiv. 27, John xix. 17, Gal. vi. 12, where the cross is put for the 
afflictions and sufferings of believers, whereby their faith is tried, and their conformity to 
Christ is denoted, &c. 

The people of Israel and Judah are frequently put for the New Testament church ; see 
Gen. xxii. 17, 18, Jer. xxiii. 6, xxx. 10, and xxxiii. 14, 16, Ezek. xxxvii. 23, 28, Luke 
i. 33, Bom. iv. 13, 17, Gal. iv. 28, 31, 1 Pet. ii. 9, 10. The reason is, because of the 
old covenant made with them, which typified the kingdom of the Messiah, 

Metaphors taken from Places sacred to God. 

The land of Canaan, where the Israelites dwelt, because of its fruitfulness and the peace- 
able state of things there, is frequently put for the church ; Isa. xxvi. 1, xxxv. 1 , 2, Ivii. 
13, Ix. 13, and Ixv. 9, 10, Ezek. xxxvii. 25, Joel iii. 23, Amos ix. 13, 14, 15, Micah iv. 
4, Zech. iii. 10. 

* 1VT David, amabilis, amicus, a in dilectus arnicas, amator. \ a, mi dispersit et '"na. Babel. 

* Luther in comment, h. 1. 

2 A2 


Jerusalem, the metropolis of Judea, metaphorically denotes the church of Christ, be- 
cause God peculiarly revealed himself in that city, and gave promises of the Messiah 
there, Isa. iv. 3, xl. 2, 9, and Iii. 1, 2, Zech. ix. 9, and xii. 2, Gal. iv. 26, Heb. xii. 22. 

Sion was a hill in Jerusalem upon which stood David's royal palace, and is by way of 
eminency (r eCox'n"} sometimes called the mountain of the Lord, the holy hill, &c., is 
proposed metaphorically as a Symbol of the New Testament church, Psal. ii. 6, Ixviii. 15, 
16, Ixxxvii. 1, 2, 5, arid cxxxii. 13, 14, Isa. iv. 4, 5, xi. 9, xxviii. 16, xl. 9, xlix. 14, Ivi. 
7, lix. 20, Ixii. 11, and Ixv. 25, Zech. ix. 9, Heb. xii. 22. 

2. It denotes the church triumphant in heaven, Psal. xv. 1, and xxiv. 3, Isa. xxxv. 10, 
and Ii. 11, &c. 

The magnificent temple built by Solomon in Jerusalem is frequently called the house 
and habitation of God, and is metaphorically put for the heaven of God's glory, Psal. xi. 
4, Micah i. 2 ; for the church, Psal. xxvi. 8, xxvii. 4, xxix. 9, xlviii. 9, and Ixxxiv. 1, 2, 
4, Isa. Ivi. 7, Eph. ii. 21, 1 Cor. iii. 16, 17, ana vi. 17, 2 Cor, vi. 16, Heb. iii. 6, and x. 
21. God is said to be the temple of the elect, Rev. xxxi. 22, (of which see chap. viii. be- 
fore) Rev. xi. 19. 

A temple is put for the body of Christ, John ii. 19. In unity with the o \oyos the 
word, " for in him dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead bodily," Col. ii. 9, that is, most 
truly, perfectly and unchangeably, not typically or in a shadow, as in the temple of Jeru- 
salem, &c. See Heb. ix. 11, x. 19720", viii. 2,lx. 24, and vi. 19, 20. 

An altar is used to denote the whole mystery of Christ the Mediator, Heb. xiii. 10, 1 
Cor. x. 18, and ix. 13 ; sometimes divine worship in the New Testamet, Isa. xix. 19, the 
similitude being borrowed from the ancient rites, &c. 

Christ is called the propitiation, iXacrr-npiov (Tiilasterion) Rom. iii. 25, because he became 
the great sacrifice that satisfied for our sins. He is also called ^aa-/j.os (hilasmos) atone- 
ment, with respect to the type to which the apostle alludes, 1 John ii. 2, &c. 
The church is called " the pillar and stay of truth," 1 Tim. iii. 15. Some think that this 
metaphor is taken from the two pillars which were set up in Solomon's temple, 1 Kings 
vii. 21, 2 Chron. iii. 17, " The name of the one was van (Jachin) he shall establish, and 
of the other wi (Boaz) " In it is strength." By which names doubtless this most wise 
Icing had respect to the stability and firmness of the kingdom and church of the Messiah, 
which names Paul expresses by the word e8pai/*, stabilimentum, firmamentum, same 
stdbiliment, or firmament, adding a pillar in allusion to those typical pillars. Hence in the 
verse he mentions the house of God, that is the temple, by which he means the church of 
the living God. 

Verse 16. He says, " without controversy great is the mystery of godliness." But 
.what is that ? the description follows which alludes to the temple of Jerusalem ; for, 

1. In that old temple God appeared in a cloud and thick darkness, 1 Kings viii. 10, 
11, 12. Paul says of the truth of the New Testament, that " God is manifest in the flesh." 
Which illustrious manifestation, was adumbrated or shadowed out, by that obscure one. 

2. In the old temple the propitiatory or mercy-seat was placed upon the ark of the 
covenant in the Holy of Holies. Of Christ, Paul says, " that he is justified in Spirit :" viz., 
when he was risen from the dead, and so declared himself the true (kilasterion) atone- 
ment, having made satisfaction for the sins of the world, and perfectly fulfilled the divine 
law (the tables of which were contained in the ark of the covenant) Rom. iv. 25. 

3. In the old temple, there were cherubims over the propitiatory or mercy-seat, 1 Kings 
viii. 6, 7, Heb. ix. 5. Of Christ, Paul says that " he was seen of angels," who were glorious 
and true witnesses of his resurrection and glory, Matt, xxviii. 2, &c. See Pet. i. 2'. 

4. In the old temple the Jews were taught the doctrine of the Messiah, who was to 
come. Paul says of Christ, that " he was preached unto the Gentiles" (not to the Jews 
alone) " believed on in the world ;" (the sound of the apostles went out into all the earth, 
Rom. x. 18, and their doctrine was received by all true believers, Col. i. 5, 6.) 

5. In the old temple the visible appearance of God was not ordinary or perpetual. 
But Paul says of Christ, having manifested himself in the earth, that " he was received 
up in glory ;" as if he had said, he hath withdrawn his visible presence from his church, 
yet he is gloriously, truly, and invisibly (for that is received up in glory, viz., at the 
right hand of the Father) present with it to the end of the world, Matt, xxviii. 20, Eph. i- 




But what means T^S a\7jeetas, O f truth ?~\ 

Answer, 1. Either that 'word must be expounded in 'the concrete, that it should be 
the same with a\rie<ss, true, and opposed to that which, is typical and shadowy, of future 
realities, or antitypes, as John i. 17, vi. 32, and xv. 1, Heb. viii. 2, and ix. 24, where 
the word is so taken. So in Acts xxvi. 25, pn^nra. o\ij0eias, words of truth, that is, 
true words : so Eph. iv. 24, oa-tor-ns TTJS a^ffstas, holiness of truth, signifies true holiness. 

(2.) The word must be expounded in the abstract, to denote the doctrine of saving 
faith as it is taken, 2 Thess. ii. 10, 13, 1 Tim. ii. 4, and vi. 5, 2 Tim. ii. 18, Heb. x. 
26, Jam. i. 18, &c., in which sense, this genitive, of truth, notes the efficient cause, by 
-which the church is made firm and stedfast, being built upon Christ the true Rock ; for 
the cause of its firmness, is the heavenly truth, or the word of truth. See 1 Cor. xv. 58, 
Acts xx. 42, Rom. i. 16, Col. i. 23, 2 Thess. ii. 13, John xvii. 17, 1 Thess. v. 24. Some 
expound this, of the subjectum circa quod, the subject about which the church is employed, 
viz., to confess, publish, and keep carefully, that heavenly doctrine contained in the scrip- 
tures of truth, &c. 

Metaphors from Sacred Rites. 

These may be distinguished into two classes. 

First, holy rites ascribed to God as their immediate agent, or actor. 

Secondly, holy rites performed by men, according to God's command and 


To the first class belong the visions and dreams which God sent to men for more 
secret information, as to the patriarch Jacob, Gen. xxviii. 12, 13, viz., the ladder set upon 
the earth, " the top of which reached heaven," &c., which vision our Saviour applies to him- 
self, and uses metaphors taken from it, John i. 51, &c. 

From the divine prophecies, dreams, and visions, a metaphor is taken, Joel ii. 28, where 
the various gifts, and the clear light and revelation of the gospel to the evangelical preach- 
ers is noted, as Acts ii. 16, 17, where Peter quotes this very text of Joel ; that * bread 
sent from heaven to refresh the people in the desert is largely applied by Christ to himself, 
John vi. 31, &c., Bev. ii. 17, &c. 

The other kind of sacred rites, we thus distinguish, (1.) Persons. (2.) Actions. (3.) 
Times. Of persons, one directs, and is (as it were) the head of the rest, who are inferior, 
and ministering or serving. 

The director was the high priest, the eldest son of the posterity of Aaron, having a 
constant prerogative in the ecclesiastical government, Exod. xxviii. 1, &c., Hag. i. 1, 12, 
and ii. 4, Zech. iii. 1, 8 ; whose name and office is mystically transferred to Christ in the 
epistle to the Hebrews ; hence he is so often called px t6 P 6 "s. High Priest, Heb. ii. 17, iii. 
1, iv. 14, 15, v. 5, 10, vi. 20, vii. 26, viii. 1, ix. 11 ; and Great Priest, Heb. x. 21, (see 
Zech. vi. 12, 13,) the reason of the comparison may be read at large in the epistle. 

The appellation of priests is attributed to believers in Christ, Psal. cxxxii. 9, 16, 1 Pet. 
u. 5, 9, Rev. i. 6, v. 10, and xx. 6, because they sacrifice spiritually to him. 

The ministry of the Gospel is expressed by the name of the Levites, Isa. Ixvi. 21, Jer. 
xxxiii. 18, 21, 22. 

Paul is said, Rom. xv. 16, tepovpyeiv, sacra operari, vel sacredotio fungi, to act the priest- 
flood, whence the papists infer that he said mass, which is a ridiculous and false conclusion ; 
for he adds immediately the gospel of God, so that the term is metaphorical, and signifies 
the preaching of the gospel, as verse 19, 20. Upon which Illyricus well says, f "If the 
Apostle had not spoken so clearly of this metaphorical sacrifice of preaching, the adversaries 
Would by all means from thence have endeavoured to confirm their mass," &c. 

Secondly, sacred actions have either God, or men, immediately for their object. Of 
the first k m <j are sacrifices offered to God according to his word. This word metaphori- 
cally denotes the whole obedience, passion, and death of Christ, and so his satisfaction for 

Manna, Exod. xvi. Numb. si. t Si nan satis dare locutus fuisset Apostolus de melaphorieo 

St *crificio prtedicaiienis, omnino adversarii inde suam Missam confirmare conati fuissent. 


the sins of the world, Eph. v. 2, Heb. ix. 23, 26, 28, and x. 10, 12, 14, of which the old 
sacrifices were types and shadows. 

Then the whole worship of Christians is called a sacrifice, Isa. xix. 21, and Ivi. 7, and 
Ix. 7, 1 Pet. ii. 5. More particularly by the word sacrifice, is expressed serious contrition 
of heart, Psal. li. 18, 19; faith and holiness, Mai. i. 11, Rom. xv. 16, (see Rom. i. 5,) 
Phil. ii. 17 ; new obedience and mortification of the flesh, Rom. xii. 1. See Psal. iv. 5, 
" Sacrifice the sacrifices of righteousness." 

Devout prayer is called a sacrifice, Psal. cxli. 2, Isa. 1. 7. So is glorifying of God, Psal. 
1. 14, cvii. 22, Hos. xiv. 2, Heb. xiii. 15; helping our neighbour, Phil. iv. 18; Heb. xiii, 
16 ; martyrdom for the truth, Phil, ii, 17, 2 Tim. iv. 6 ; God's vengeance on his enemies, 
Isa. xxxvi. 6. 

The offering of first fruits mentioned, Lev. xxiii. 9, 10, Numb. xv. 21, Deut. xxvi. 2, 
&c., yields some metaphors, 1 Cor. xv. 20, it is said that Christ is cwapxi* "The first- 
fruits of them that sleep," that is, of the dead, that shall rise again ; verse 23, for as a 
plentiful harvest followed the offering of first-fruits ; so shall an universal resurrection (in 
due season) succeed or follow the resurrection of Christ. 

Some observe from Lev. xxiii. 11, that the first-fruits were to be offered to the Lord 
on the morrow after the sabbath, that is, our Christian sabbath or Lord's-day, (vulgarly after 
the custom of the heathens called Sunday,) and that in that very year, wherein Christ suf- 
fered, the day of offering first-fruits fell on that day, wherein our Lord rose from the dead, 
so making an excellent congruity with this allusive metaphor which Paul used. 

2. Believers are said to be first-fruits, (anapx-n, Aparche,*) that is, selected from the whole 
lump of mankind, and consecrated to himself into the adoption of the sons of God ; as the 
first-firuits were separated from the rest of the fruits, and consecrated to God. The glori- 
fied saints in heaven are so called, Rev. xiv. 4. Believers are said to have the first-fruits 
of the Spirit, Rom. viii. 23 ; for as the Israelites by the oblation of first-fruits, had hopes 
to receive the remaining part in the season by the blessing of God : so believers, by those 
gifts they receive in part, of the Holy Spirit, have hopes of a fulness of joy, and a full 
harvest of glory. 

Some understand this of the apostles only, who received the first-fruits of the Spirit mi- 
raculously, Acts ii., but the former explication is more conformable to the scope of the text. 

3. It is said of the Jews, Jer. ii. 3, that they were " the first-fruits of his increase," that 
is, chosen out of, and before, all other people of the world, and consecrated to him. The 
metaphor is. continued, " All that devour him shall be desolate," that is, because as any 
who converted the sacred provision of offerings to their own use, against God's order, were 
guilty, and punished, Lev. v., so the people that would eat, that is, make Israel desolate, 
shall themselves be destroyed. 

Rom. xi. 16, " If the first-fruit be holy, the lump is also holy ; and if the root be holy, 
so are the branches ;" that is, as the whole lump was holy according to the law, when the 
first-fruits were offered, so whereas the patriarchs and elders of the Jews were holy unto 
the Lord, or a people peculiarly separated from all people to him, this prerogative shall 
not expire with respect to their posterity, but these also shall enjoy the participation of 
heaven and blessedness, provided they believe the gospel and heartily embrace it.* Neither 
does the apostle speak of a spiritual, but of a legal holiness. 

Sacred actions of the latter kind, which have men immediately for their objects, (although 
primarily directed to the worship of God) are these. 

Circumcision, the peculiar character of the people of God, is put for regeneration, 
called the " circumcision of the heart, Deut. x. 16, and xxx. 6, Rom. ii. 28. Of 
which there is a fair periphrasis, Col. ii. 11, " In whom also ye are circumcised, with the 

* Neque enim de spirituali, sed leyali sanctitate Apostolus loquitur, Glass. SAef, sacra, p. 430. 




circumcision, axP<" ro "? Tft ' made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the 
flesh, by the circumcision of Christ," and verse 12, adjoins baptism a principal medium of 
renovation, &c. 

As the Jews were metonymically called the circumcision, of which we have spoken in 
the chapter of that trope, so Christians are metaphorically so called, Phil. iii. 3 ; and the 
profane and wicked, are called the uncircumcision, Lev. xxvi. 41, Isa. Iii. 1, Jer. iv. 4, vi. 
10, and ix. 26, Ezek. xliv. 9, Acts vii. 51, Col. ii. 13. 

Moses is said to be of uncircumcised lips, Exod. vi. 12, 30, that is, dull of speech or not 
eloquent. Of the circumcising of trees we have treated before. 

Sprinkling upon the people either by blood, as Exod. xxiv. 8, and xxix. 21, Lev. 
xiv. 7, &c. ; or by water mixed with the ashes of a red heifer, Numb. xix. 17, Heb. 
ix. 13, &c. ; because it was a type of cleansing by Christ from sin, is metaphorically 
put fur it, Isa. Hi. 15, Heb. x. 22, and xii. 24, 1 Pet. i. 2. In this are three things 

(1.) The satisfaction and merit of Christ, called the blood of sprinkling, Heb. xii. 4, 
compared, Heb. ix. 13, 14. 

(2.) The evangelical word of Christ which (is, as it were, hyssop, Psal. Ii. 7, which the 
priest sprinkled upon unclean things, as the Chaldee paraphrases it ; see the foregoing and 
following verses) is sprinkled (as it were) upon the soul in order to its cleansing from sin. 
See Kom. xvi. 25, 26, Gal. iii. 2, 5, &c. 

(3.) True faith, which is that very sprinkling of the blood of Christ by the Holy Spirit, 
or the application of his merits and satisfaction, therefore they are joined together, Heb. x. 

Anointing or unction, because it was used to kings, 1 Sam. x. 1, and xvi. 13; 
to the chief or high priest, Exod. xl. 12, &c; and to prophets, 1 Kings xix. 16; 
metaphorically denotes, any that have a singular call, or consecration to God, who 
are called OTTOO anointed, Psal. cv. 15, Isa. xlv. 1 ; and by way of excellency the 
Messiah (mtjo Xpio-ros, Unetus,} our chief Priest, King, and Prophet, blessed for ever, is 
so called as the word denotes, Dan. ix. 24, Psal. ii. 2, John i. 41, and iv. 25. Hence 
the name of the Anointed One, is commonly given him in the New Testament, Matt, 
i. 16, 17, ii. 4, xi. 2, and xxii. 42, Luke ii. 26. See also Psal. ii. 6, and xlv. 7, 
8, Isa. Ixi. 1, Dan. ix. 25, Luke iv. 18, Acts x. 38, 'Heb. i. 9. See Col. ii. 9, and John 
iii. 34, 35. 

From our Lord Christ we are called Christians, because we believe in him, Actsxi. 26; 
being made partakers * of that holy anointing, Heb. i. 9. Hence made kings and priests, 
Kev. i. 6. See Isa. Ixi. 3, 2 Cor. i. 21, 22, Kom. v. 5, &c. 

3. Holy days and times ; of these the sabbath is most eminent, being a day of rest, 
the seventh in a week, instituted by God upon the completing of his creating work, Gen. ii. 
3, and most exactly to be observed by the people of Israel by the command of God ; this 
is metaphorically translated to express New Testament worship, Isa. Ivi. 4, and to denote 
the rest of eternal blessedness, Isa. Ixvi. 23, (where there is mention also of a new moon 
in the same sense, which was a Jewish holiday likewise.) Hence it is said, Heb. iv. 9, 
that there is a sabbatism left for the people of God. 

From the Jewish passover, to which the days of unleavened bread were joined, the apostle 
makes a fair allegorical exhortation, 1 Cor. v. 7, 8, where Christ is called our passover, 
because he was sacrificed and slain for us, as the paschal lambs, which were types of the 
Messiah, were slain in the Old Testament. 

The feast of tabernacles is put for the whole spiritual worship of the Old Tes- 
tament, Zech. xiv. 16, 18, 19. All Christians, while they sojourn as strangers and 
Pdgriins in this world, do celebrate a feast of tabernacles, whilst they long for the 
heavenly city to which they hasten, not with the feet of the body, but by the affection 
f the heart, and the progress of piety and good works. See Gen. xlvii. 9, Psal. 

, consortes. 


xxxix. 12, and cxix. 19, 2 Cor. v. 4, 6, 8, Heb. xi. 13, 14. The -words of Augustin are 
memorable, * " Use the world (says he) but let it not insnare you ; that thou hast come 
into it, art upon thy journey out of it, and that thou didst come to depart, not to tarry is 
certain ; thou art then upon a journey, let this life be thy inn, use money as a traveller upon 
the road does a table, cup, pot, and bed, that is, to leave them,- not to tarry with them. 

So much of Old Testament rites ; those of the New Testament are two, Baptism and 
the Lord's supper. Baptism and to baptize are metaphorically put. 

(1.) For the miraculous effusion of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles and other believers 
in the primitive church : to the Holy Spirit is sometimes added fire, which is a symbol of 
its external manifestation, Acts ii. 3, Matt. iii. 11, Mark i. 8, Luke iii. 1 6, John i. 33, 
Acts i. 5, and xi. 16. Some give a reason of the appellation from the analogical immer- 
sion, or dipping (for so pa.Tm&iv, to baptize, signifies) because the house where the Holy 
Spirit came upon the apostles, was so filled, that they were as it were 'drowned in it. 

Others say that the reason of the appellation is, from the great plenty and abundance 
of these gifts, as the baptized were wont to be plunged or dipped in water, or that they 
were wholly immerged in this. Likewise because by the efficacy of the Holy Spirit, they 
were cleansed from sin, refreshed and purified, as water quenches thirst and washes away 
spots and filth, &c. 

2. It is put for calamities and afflictions, especially those of Christ, Matt. xx. 22, 23, 
Mark x. 38, 39, Luke xii. 50. The reason of this metaphor is likewise taken from mul- 
titude or abundance, as calamities are elsewhere compared to many and deep waters, Psal. 
xviii. 16, xxxii. 6, and Ixix. 1, 2, &c. 

3. For the miraculous passage of the Israelites through the Eed Sea, 1 Cor. x. 2, which 
was a type of gospel baptism, &c. 

From bread, (the other part of the Lord's Supper,) some think a metaphor is taken, 1 
Cor. x. 17, on eis apros, ev <rcafj.a, ot iro\\ot effpev quoniam unus panis, unum corpus, multi sumus, 
which is word for word (in English) thus, because one bread, we being many are one body, 
in our translation for being many and one body : upon which Erasmusf in his annotations, 
" The Greeks think that we understand that bread which is the body of the Lord : whereas 
all Christians are members of Christ, as if he had corrected what he before had spoken, 
(viz., we partake) for it is more to be one and the same, than partaker." And in his 
paraphrase, thus ; " We being all partakers of the same bread, do declare, that though we 
be many in number, yet in the consent (and harmony) of minds we are one bread and one 

Others (Glassius in Rhet. sacra, p. 434, says,) more truly understand the word bread 
properly, and that there is an ellipsis of the verb substantive (is) in this sense : there (is) 
one bread (in the holy supper:) "so likewise we being many are one body;" the Syriac 
clearly expresses it thus, "As that bread is therefore one, so all we are one body : for we 
all receive of the self- same bread" For that sameness of bread in the holy Supper, is 
to be understood with respect to the sacramental use of it, as well as the identity of 
matter, &c. 



HAVING largely gone through the most frequent and most eminent tropes in the 
scripture, principally metaphors, we will be more concise in what follows, and ill s ' 
trate each, with a few scripture examples, by which the rest of that kind may t> e 
easily understood. 

* Utere mundo, non te capiat inundus. Quod intrasti, &c. f Pvtant Greed nos, c. 




A synecdoche is a trope, by which the whole is put for part, or part for the whole. And 
whereas the whole is either the genus or entire thing, arid part is a species, or member ; 
we will treat of the four loads of synecdoches in order. 

A synecdoche of the genus, is when the genus is put for species, or an universal for a 
particular, as when, 

1. The term all, is put for the greatest part or many, as that rule of law in 
the pandects. quod Major. *" All seem to do that which the greater part does." In 
doing this, there must be great heed taken to the scope and right meaning of the text, 
take a few examples out of the Old Testament, Exod. ix. 6, " And all the cattle of 
Egypt died ;" that is, all that was in the field, as verse 3, and some were left, as verse 
19, chap. xiv. 26, 28, and ix. 29. Exod. xxxii. 3, " All the people ;" that is, the 
greatest part, as verse 26. Hence Paul uses a particular word, 1 Cor. x. 7, viz., 
some. See more sxamples, Exod. xxxii. 26, with verse 29, and Deut. xxxii. 9, 
Isa. ii. 2, 3, Deut. xxviii. 64, 2 Sam. xvi. 22, Hos. vii. 4, &c. In the New Testament, 
Matt. iii. 5, " Jerusalem and all Judea, and all the region about Jordan, went to be bap- 
tized ;" that is many men of those places. More examples are, Mark ix. 23, John x. 8, 
with verse 7, Acts ii. 5, Eph. i. 11, Phil. ii. 21, and iv. 13. 

2. The word all or every., is put for the kinds of singulars, as Gen. ii? 16, " Of 
every tree of the garden thou shalt eat," that is, of every kind of fruity Gen. xxiv. 10, 
"All the goods of his master were in his hands," that is, some of every sort; ; see verse 
52, 53, so 2 Kings viii. 9, Joel. ii. 8, with 1 Pet. ii. 9, and Acts ii. 17, Zeph. ii. 14, 
Matt. iv. 23, Luke xi. 42, Acts x. 12, Heb. xiii. 4. 

An universal negative is also sometimes to be restrained and understood by a parti- 
cular negative, as Exod. xx. 10, " No work to be done on the Sabbath," that is servile or 
mechanic : as appears, Lev. xxiii. 7, 8, Numb, xxviii. 18, see 1 Sam. xx. 26, with 1 
Kings xix. 11, 12, Jer. vii. 6, Matt. v. 34, "Ye shall not swear at all;" that is, rashly 
and lightly, Matt. x. 26, Luke vii. 28, John i. 31, iii. 32, 33, xv. 5, and xviii. 20, Acts 
xxvii. 33, 2 Thess. ii. 11. Always is put for often, Luke xviii. 1, and xxiv. 53, and 
every where for here and there. Acts xxviii. 22, 1 Cor. iv. 17. 

Names of a larger signification are put for "those which are of a narrower, as flesh 
is put for man, all flesh, that is, every man, Gen. vi. 12, Psal. cxlv. 21, Isa. xl. 5, and 
Ixvi. 23, Matt. xxiv. 22, Luke iii. 6, Rom. iii. 20. A creature is put for a man, 
Mark xvi. 15, Col. i. 23 ; see Acts xii. 7, Luke xi. 51, Job xiv. 14, Acts x. 12, 
&c. A common name is put for a proper, heuce God is often called fo (El) which 
signifies strong and powerful, "and that (far foxnv] by way of eminency, Gen. xiv. 22, 
andxxi. 33. So Christ is called Lord, Matt. xxi. 3, John xi. 3 12; and Master,. 
John xi. 28; the " Son of Man," Matt. viii. 20 ; " the angel," Gen. xlviii. 16, the " Angel 
of the Lord," Exod. iii. 2, Judg. vi. 11 ; so " the Seed of the woman," " Messiah," 
" Servant of God," " Prophet," &c. Moses is called a prophet, Hos. xii. 13. 

The plural number is sometimes put for the singular, as Gen. xx. 7, " Who would 
have said unto Abraham, Sarah shall give children suck ?" that is, one child, as in the 
next verse. Gen. xlvi. 7, it is said that there went down with Jacob into Egypt, all 
his daughters and all his sons 5 daughters, whereas, as verse 15, 17, appears, he had but 
one daughter, and one niece, or son's daughter. 

See Acts xiii. 40, 41, with Hab. i. 5, Matt. ii. 23. 

Some general verbs are put for special, as to say for to command or admonish ; 
Rom.. xii. 3 ; to open is put for to plough, Isa. xxviii. 24, to be is put for to live, Matt. ii. 
18 ; and to dwell, Ruth i. 2. To speak, for stipulation or promise, Deut. xxvi. 17, &c. 



A SYNECDOCHE of the species, is when the species is put for the genus, or particular for 
<t'he universal, .and its distinction is conformable to the former kind. As 

The word many is put for all, Dan. xii. 2, compared with John v. 26, Isa. Iii. 15 ; see 
Matt. xvi. 28, and xxvi. 28, Eom. v. 18, 19. 

* ,Q.nines videntur facers, quod facitMajir pars. 


1. Words of a narrower or more special signification are put for those of * more 
. large or universal signification. The word ww vir, a man, is the special attribute of the 

male sex, yet is put for any man or woman, Psal. i. 1, xxxii. 1, and cxii. 1, Jer. xyii. 
5, 7, Joel ii. 7, 8. Fathers are put for ancestors, Psal. xxii. 4, and cvi. 6. Father is 
put for a grandfather, 2 Sam. ix.- 7, and xix. 28, Dan. v. 11, 18. A mother for a 
grandmother, 1 Kings xv. 10, 13, see verse 2, &c. Brothers for kinsmen, Judg. ix. 1, 
1 Chron. xii. 32, Matt. xii. 46, 47. 

Jerom recites four kinds of brothers, or such as are so by nature, Gen. xxvii. 11, 
by country, Deut. xy. 3 ; by kindred, Gen. xiii. 8 ;"by affection or union of mind, Psal. 
exxxiii, 1. Hence the brotherhood of one faith in Christ, Kom. xiv. 10, 1 Pet. ii. 17. 
Sons and daughters for posterity, Exod. i. 7, Jer. xxxi. 29, A son for a nephew, and a 
daughter for a niece, Gen. xxix. 5, and xxiv. 48. See Josh. vii. 24, with verse -1. A 
son for more remote posterity. Hence Christ is called the Son of Abraham and David, 
Matt. i. 1 ; see Luke xix. 9. " 

2. A proper name is put for a common, as Abraham and Israel for the patriarchs, 
Isa. Ixii. 1(3 ; Paul and Apollos for any gospel ministers, 1 Cor. iii. 6, see Kom. ii. 17, 
and ix. 19, 20, 1 Cor. vii. 16, where a speech is directed to one that concerns all. 

3. The species is put for the genus ; as a bow and spear for all kinds of weapons, 
Psal. xliv. 6, and xlvi. 9, Zech. x. 4. Gold for any gift, Psal. Ixxii. 15, Isa. Ix. 6, 
A lion, for any great beast, Isa. xv. 9. A command, for any doctrine, 2 Pet. ii. 21, 
and iii. 2. Honey for any sweet thing, Exod, iii. 8, 17, and many other places. " A 
land flowing with milk and honey," Ezek. xx. 6, 15, denotes abundance of good 
things ; bread for any victuals, Gen. iii. 19, and xxxix. 6, Matt. vi. 11, Luke xiv. 1, 
&c. A garment for any necessaries, Isa. iii. 6, 7. A widow and orphan for any in dis- 
tress, Exod. xxii. 22, James i. 27. 

4. A certain species of number, is put for an undetermined multitude ; as two for 
many, Isa. xl. 2, and Ixi. 7, Jer. xvi. 18, Zech. ix. 12, Kev. xviii. 6. Twice, for as 
often, Psal. Ixii. 11. Five words, are put for a few, 1 Cor. xiv. 19 ; and ten thousand 
words for prolix speech. The number seven is frequently put for an indefinite mul- 
titude, Lev. xxvi. 18, 21, 24, 28, 1 Sam. ii. 5. Sevenfold for a vast number, Gen. 
iv. 24, Matt, xviii. 12. Ten for many, Gen. xxxi. 7, Numb. xiv. 22. A hundred for 
many; Eccl. vi. 3, and viii. 12, Prov. xvii. 10, Matt. xix. 29. Thousands for very 
many, Exod. xx. 6. Myriads or ten thousands for a vast number, 1 Sam. xvii. 7. See 
Gen. xxiv. 60, Numb. x. 36, Dan. vii. 10, Rev. v. 11, &c. 

5. The singular number is put for the plural, Gen. xxxii, 5, Exod. x. 12, Judg. 
iv. 5, Job xiv. 1, Isa. i. 3, and xvi. 1, Jer. viii. 7, Joel i. 4, Matt. vi. 17, Rom. 
ii. 18, &c. 

6. Special verbs are put for general, as to go in and out is for the actions of life, 
or for life in general, Numb, xxvii. 17, 21, Isa. xxxvil. 28, Acts i. 21, &c. To call 
upon God, is put for divine worship, Gen. iv. 26, Isa. xliii. 22, John iv. 23, 24, with many 

7. The scripture sometimes proposes any thing that is general, by some illustrious 
species, for evidence sake ; as, 

(1:) In the actions of men, Deut. xxx. 5, the example of the axe slipping from the 
helvej and killing a man by chance, is put for any involuntary man-slaughter. See 
Psal. cxii. 5, Prov. xx: 10, Matt. 22. 

(2.) In the precepts and divine admonitions, Exod. xx. 12, " Honour thy father and tby 
mother," denotes reverence to all superiors. See Exod. xxii. 22, 26, and xxiij. 4, 5, 
Deut. xxii. 3, &c., Lev. xix. 14, Prov. xxv. 21, Rom. xii. 20, Luke iii. 11, John xiii. 14, 
The " washing of feet," denotes all sincere offices of love and humility to each other. See 
1 Sam. xxv. 41, 1 Tim. x. 10. 

Of a Synecdoche of the Whole. 

A SYNECDOCHE of*the whole is, when an entire or integer is put for a member, or the 
whole for any part. Which may be distinguished as they respect, 





A person or men. 
Certain things. 

(4.) Times. 

1. The whole person is put for part of him, as a man for his soul, Luke xvi. 23 
where the rich man, Lazarus, and Abraham, are put for their souls. See Luke xxiii. 43 
Man is put for the body, Gen. iii. 19, (see Eccl. xii. 7,) Gen. xxiii. 19. So Jesus is pu* 
for his dead body, John xix. 42, and xx. 2, 13, see verse 12, and Luke xxiv. 3. 

Sometimes a thing is said of all, which yet concerns not some, as Matt. xix. 28, 
" sitting upon twelve thrones," belongs not to Judas Iscariot, who yet was included 
because of the number twelve. It is said of the church of Corinth, that they were 
" sanctified by faith in Christ Jesus, called saints, enriched in all utterance and know- 
ledge," 1 Cor. i. 2, 5, when yet the following chapters evidence, that there were many 
hypocrites and notorious sinners among them, &c. 

2. Part of a. thing is put for the whole; flesh is put for the skin, Psal. cii. 5, 
which text describes extreme leanness, (see Lam. iv. 8.) Hence the common proverb is, 
he is but skin and bone. 

3. A place is put for part of a place ; as the world for the earth, which is a part of the 
world, 2 Pet. iii. 6, John xii. 19, Rom. i. 8, 1 John v. 19. See chap. 3. sect. 2. It is 
put for the land of Canaan, Rom. iv. 13, with Numb, xxiii. 13. The whole earth is put 
for a great part thereof, Isa. xiii. 11. For Chaldea, Isa. xiii. 5. The land is put for 
Judea, Hos- i. 2, and iv. 1, Joel. i. 2. For a certain city, Matt ii. 6, " And thou 
Bethlem (yti) the land of Juda," that is, a city of Judea. 

The east is put for the" Medes and Persians, and other Oriental countries, Ezek. 
xxv. 4, 1 Kings iv. 30, Isa. ii. 6, Matt. ii. 1. The south of Egypt, with respect to 
Judea, Jer. xiii. 19, Dan xi. 5. Sometimes Judea is so called with respect to Babylon, 
Ezek. xx. 46, 47. The north, for Chaldea, and Babylon, with respect to Judea, Jer. i. 
13 15, xiii. 20, and xlvii. 2, Zeph. ii. 13. The temple is put for the prime synagogue, 
Luke ii. 46, see John xviii. 20. 

4. Time is put for part of time, Gen. vi. 4, " The giants from the age (so the He- 
brew) were men of renown ;" that is, of old, Gen. xvii. 8, " I will give unto thee, and 
thy seed after thee, the land of Canaan for an everlasting possession," that is, whilst the 
Jewish state remains, viz., to the coming of the Messiah, Gen. xlix. 10, &c., Exod. xxi. 
6, " He shall serve him for ever," that is, to the year of jubilee, as the learned expound 
it See 2 Sam. xii. 10, Dan. ii. 4, " King, live for ever," that is, we wish you a long 
life. See chap. vi. 21, xg>"> s , which signifies time, is put for a year, or some years, as 
Casauban thinks, Luke xx. 8. 

Of a Synecdoche of ike Part. 

A SYNECDOCHE of the member, is when a member is put for an integer, or part for the 
whole, thus distinguished ; 

.} With respect to men. 

(2.) Other things. 

(3.) The common accident of things, viz., time. 

(1.) In single men, the essential parts are put for the whole man ; as the soul 
Nephesh] for man, Gen. xii. 5, 13, and xvii. 14, Exod. xii. 19, Psal. iii. 2, xi. 1, 
and xxv. 13, Isa. Iviii. 5, Ezek. xviii. 4, Luke vi. 9, Acts ii. 43, and many other places, 
&c. Sometimes it is said that the soul, may die or be killed, Numb, xxiii. 10, Judg. xvi. 
30, Job xxxvi.. 14, John iv. 8, where the body must be understood. It is put for any 
brute, Gen. i. 24, &c. 

A body is put for man, Exod. xxi. 3, where the Hebrew is body; See Rom. xii, 1, 
1 Cor. vi. 15. James iii. 6. 

2 K 2 


The integral parts of man, are put for the man or his body or flesh ; Gen. xvii. 13, 
Psal. xvi. 9, Prov. xiv. 30. See Acts ii. 26, 31, John vi. 51, (which is expounded, 
Luke xxii. 19, 2 Cor. vii. 1.) Flesh is put for the whole man, Gen. vi. 12,,Luke iii. 6, 
Eom. iii. 20. 1 Cor. i. 29; for every living creature, Gen. vi. 13, 17. Blood, is put for 
man, Psal. xciv. 21, Prov. i. 11, Matt, xxvii. 4, Acts xvii. 29. 

The head is put for man, Judg. v. 30, 2 Kings ii. 3, 2 Sam. i. 16, Acts xviii. 6. 
See other examples, Gen. xix. 21, Matt. xiii. 1 6, Prov. viii. 13, .Tit. i. 12, Judg. v. 30, 
Gen. xxxi. 26, where the Hebrew is, " What hast thou done, that thou hast stolen 
away my heart?" when he meant himself, as verse 27, Chaldee, " Thou hast stole 

See Lnke xxi. 34, Prov. i. 16, and vi. 8, Isa. Iii. 7> Eom. x. 15, &c. 

The tribe of Ephraim is put for all Israel, Isa. vii. 2, 5, 8, 9, and ix. 9, because the 
royal seat, viz., Samaria was in it. -So is Joseph (of whom Ephraim descended) Psal. 
Ixxx. 1, and Ixxxi. 5. See Amos v. 15, and vi. 6, Jer. vi. 1. 

The general is put for the army; Exod. xvii. 13, Josh. x. 28, 40, 1 Sam. xviii., 7. 

2. Part of a thing is put for the entire thing. As rrrv a field, for a land or country, 
Gen. xiv. 7, 1 Sam. xxvii. 7. 

A corner for a tower, Zeph. i. 16, and iii. 6, Zech. x. 4, because it has strong 

The baptism of John, is put for his whole ministry, Acts i. 22, x. 37, and xviii. 25. 
&c. s 

A nail for tents ; because they are fastened with nails or stakes, Zech. x . 4. 

Stones are put for the entire building, Psal. cii. 14. 

The wall for a city, Amos i. 7, 10, 14, (with verse 12,) and ii. 2, 5. 

The gate, for a city, Gen. xxii. 17, Deut. xii. 12, and xiv. 27 29, and for the inha- 
bitants, Ruth iii. 11, and iv. 10, Isa. xiv. 31. 

A rafter is put for a roof, and consequently for a house, Gen. xix. 8. 

Part of time is put for time, either indefinite or certain. 

A year is put for time, Isa. Ixi. 2, and Ixiii. 4, Jer. xi. 23. 

A day is put for time, Gen. viii. 22, 2 Kings xx. 1, Psal. xviii. 18, Matt. ii. 1, Acts v. 
36, 37. 

A day is put for a year, when there is no addition of a numeral word, Gen. xl. 4, 
Exod. xiii. 10, 1 Sam. i. 3, Lev. xxv. 29, Judg. xvii. 10, 1 Sam. xxvii. 7. Yet Amos 
iv. 4, three days signify three years with respect to the law, Deut. xiv. 28. 

The Sabbath is put for the whole week, Luke xviii. 12. 

The morning for continued time, Psal. Ixxiii. 14, Isa. xxxiii. 2, Eccl. xi. 6, Lara. 
Hi. 23. 

Evening and morning are put for the wl-.ole day and night, Gen. i. 5, &c. 

An hour is put for time, John iv. 25, v. 25, xvi. 2, and xvii. 1, 

And for a little space of time indefinitely, Gal. ii. 5, 1 Thess. ii. 17, Phil, verse 15. 



HITHERTO we have expounded the kinds of tropes, now we are to treat briefly of 
their affections. Which are, 


Hyperbole, and an 

Allegory. Which three words signify in English 


Boldness, and 



Catachresis, is called in Latin abusio, an abuse, not as if the sacred scrip- 
ture had abused any words, but because the things that are cataehrestical, differ in some 
things from the custom of speaking tropically, and hare a harder utterance and .coherence. 
The style of scripture is most holy, and pure from any blemish, or indecency, of which 
take a few examples from a threefold kind. 

1. With respect to the acceptation and signification of words, Lev. xxvi. 30, the 
fragments of idols are called carcases, by a hard metaphor, alluding to the carcases of 
men before mentioned, Deut. xvi. 7. To boil toa is put for roasting the paschal lamb, 
which was not to be boiled, but roasted, by the command of God, Exod. xii. 9, &c. 
Live flesh, (in the Hebrew text,) is put for raw flesh. 1 Sam. ii. 15, the water, which 
the three worthies of David brought with the peril of their lives, is called (by a harder 
metonymy,) their blood. Job. iv. 12, " Now a word was brought by stealth to me," he 
speaks of an evangelical oracle that catne secretly to Eliphaz. See more examples, Psal. 
Ixxxviii. 5, where he calls [forsaken] " free," &c., Matt. xii. Eom. vii. 23, " Indwelling 
sin," is called a law, because it has a kind of command upon a man while he lives, 
unless the power of grace restrains it. See 1 Cor. xi. 10, the covering of a woman's 
head, is called efowtna, " power," (because it is passively a sign of her being under com- 
mand of the man,) by a catachrestical metonymy. 

Sin is called MS*??, the members, which are on the earth, by a metaphor, see Col. ii. 11. 

2. With respect to the joining of the words when some words (in a metaphor espe- 
cially,) are joined together, which seem not so well to correspond, as Exod. v. 21, where 
it is said to stink in the eyes, which better agrees with the nostrils, which denotes great 
averseness. Exod. xx. 18, " And all the people saw the thunder and lightnings, and the 
noise of the trumpet," of which only lightning is seen, the others are heard. So to 
see a voice, Eev. i. 12. See more examples, Matt. ^vii. 21, 22, and x. 15, 1 Tim. vi. 19. 
2 Cor. v. 7, 2 Tim. ii. 19, &c. 

With respect to the change of words. This belongs to the writings of the New 
Testament, and the Greek tongue, in which certain words are used to signify different 
things, because one and the same Hebrew word, (whence that speech was taken.) 
may so signify. Thus Atwres (Aiones) secula ages, are put for the world, Heb. i. 6, 
because the Hebrew tfro? signifies both ages and the world, Eccl. iii. 11. Aupeav, gratis, 
" freely," is put for nwr-nv, frustra, " in vain, " Gal. ii. 21, from the Hebrew word con which 
signifies both, viz., (freely,) as opposed to merit, price, or reward, and, (in vain) as it 
is contradistinguished, from the hoped effect or event, Psal. cix. 2, 3. See more exam- 
ples, Rev. xiv. 8, and xviii. 3, compared with Job vi. 4, Matt. vi. 34. A word that 
signifies malice, is put for affliction because the Hebrew word ran signifies both. See 
Amos iii. 6, 1 Cor. xv. 54, with Amos i. 11, Heb. xi. 31, James -ii. 25, 1 Cor, 
ii- 6, and xiv. 20, Col. iii. 14, and iv. 12, 1 John iv. 18 20, with Judges ix. 16, and 
Prov. xi. 3, &c. 



HYPERBOLE is that affection of a trope, by which, with greater access and enlarge- 
ment for to amplify or extenuate things, a word is carried, or used, very far from 
its proper and native signification. Here we are not to take away an hyperbole from the 
Holy Scripture by that pretext, that is, a kind of lie, extolling or depressing a thing 
Wore than is true : for we are to observe, that this kind of speech, (as tropes are) is ac- 
commodated more to make expressions efficacious and powerful, than with any purpose to 
deceive, for that is inconsistent with the goodness and truth of its most true and blessed 
Author, the Lord God ; and that there is no disagreement between the mind, and the. 
Words spoken, which is the thing that constitutes a lie. 
There is a twofold species of an hyperbole. 


(1.) Amplification, which the Greeks call av7j<m, Auxesis, and extenuation, which they 
call neiwffts, Meiosis. 

Examples of this auxesis or amplification are partly , rhetorical, partly logical. Such 
as relate to rhetoric are either in single words, or in a conjunct phrase. To single words 
these helong. 

War is put for any private strife, James iv. 1, which answers the Hebrew word 
which is taken in this sense, Jer. i. 19, and xv. 20. . Heaven is put for very 
great height, as on the contrary, an abyss or hell, for great depth ,or dejection, Gen. 
xi. 4, " Let us build us a city and a tower whose top, (or head) may reach heaven," that 
is, higher than any thing on earth. See Deut. 1. 28, and xi. 1, Psal. cvii. 26, " They 
mount up to heaven, they go down to the depths," which denotes the vehement and dread- 
ful tossing of waves in a storm. Isa. Ivii. 9, " Thou didst debase thyself to hell," that 
is, to he most abject of all : he speaks of the kingdom of Juda, who submitted themselves 
very basely by their king Ahaz to the Assyrians, because thy would be assisted by them, 
2 Kings xvi. 7, &c. See more examples, Matt. xi. 23, Lam. ii. 1, Luke x. 21, 1 Sam. 
v. 12, 2 Chron. xxviii. 9, Eev. xviii. 5, Isa. xiv. 13, Jer. li. 9, 53. 

To vomit up is put for recompence or payment of what a man has eaten, Prpv. 
xxiii. 8. 

Matt. xix. x2, " To make one's self a eunuch," is put for, to suppress irregular 
lusts, yea, there are some, who by the gift of God, have gift of continency ; this is a 
metaphorical hyperbole used by Christ, far avrava.if\aa-iv, \,j way of atanaclasis. James 
iii. ti, " The tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity," that is, a thing full of wickedness, as 
the world is full of many things ; see Jer. iv. 29, Ruth iv. 6. 

To rob eerutojo-ec, is put for to receive, 2 Cor. xi. 8. This is a great auxesis, for he 
names the acceptation of due and moderate salary, depredation or robbery. 

Rivers of oil are put for abundance of all good things, Job xxix. 6, 
Micah vi. 7, where there is a more 'illustrious exaggeration, "ten thousands of rivers 
of oil." 

Thunder is put for the strong neighing of a. horse. Job xxxix. 19. 

A tower is put for a very high place, Neh. viii. 4, &c. 

In a conjunct phrase, we have these hyperboles, Gen. xli. 47, " And in the seven 
plentiful years, the earth brought forth thy handfuls ;" as if he had said, that from one 
grain they had gathered a handful. This hyperbolical speech denotes great increase, see 
verse 49.. 

More examples you may read, Gen. xlii. 8, Exod. viii. 17, Judg. v. 4, 5, (with Numb. 
xx. 18 21,) xx. 16, 1 Sam. vii. 0, Psal. vi. 6, and cxix. 136, Jer. ix. 1, Lam. iii. 48, 
49, &c. 1 Sam. xxv. 37, 1 Kings i. 40, and x. 5, Isa. v. 25, with Deut. xxxii. 22, Lam. 
ii. 11, Ezek. xxvii. 28, 2 Sam. xvii. 13, 2 Kings xix. 24, Job xxix. 6, and xl. 18, Isa. 
xiii. 13, xiv. 14, xxxiv. 3, 4, 7, E;zek. xxvi. 4, xxxii. 58, and xxxix. 9, 10, Amos 
ix. 13, Nahum ii. 3, 4, Gal. iv. 15. 

A logical hyperbole, which is used in proper words, shall he considered, 

(1.) Witfi respect, 

1. To hyperbolical comparisons, when one thing is compared with another, which can 
bear no tolerable proportion with it, as Gen. xiii. 16, " And I will make thy seed as the 
dust of the earth, so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy 
seed also be numbered." The sense is, that the seed of Abraham should be a very great 
multitude, because innumerable, or not to be numbered. But inasmuch as it is com- 
pared to the dust of the earth, it is hyperbolical, because as Augustine* says, " it is obvio us 
to every one's sense, that the number of the sands (or dust) is incomparably beyond the num- 
ber of human kind, from Adam to the end of the world, much more beyond the number of 
Abraham's seed, whether natural Jews, or believers, who are called his seed, because 

* Lib. ]6. 


they believed as he did. The same comparison of the sand of the sea, and the dust of the 
earth, is to be read, Gen. xxii. 17, and xxviii. 14, Judg. vii. 12, 1 Sam. xiii. 5, 1 Kings 
iv. 20, 29, 2 Chron. i. 9, Job xxix. 18, Psal. Ixxviii. zG, 27, Isa. xxix. 5, Jer. xv. 8, Heb. 
xi. 12, &c. Soother comparisons, swifter than eagles, 2 Sam. i. 23, that is, Saul and 
Jonathan ; Jer. iv. 13, Lam. iv. 19. See 1 Kings x. 27, see ver. 21, 2 Chron. i. 15, ix. 
20, &c., Job vi. 3, xli. 9, Hab. ii. 5, Lam. iv. 7, 8. 

2. In certain hypothesis, where, for emphasis sake, the things are amplified more than 
really they are or can be, Psal. cxxxix. 8, 9, 10, " If I ascend up into heaven, thou art 
there ; if I make my bed in hell, behold thou art there. If I take the wings of the 
morning, and dwell in the uttermost part of the sea : even there shall thy hand lead me, 
and thy right hand shall hold me." Now no man living can ascend unto heaven, nor de- 
scend into hell, nor take wings, and fly as fast as the morning. But these things are men- 
tioned by way of hyperbolical fiction, to illustrate the infinileness and omnipresence of 
God, which no man can avoid or fly from. There is an hyperbolical expression or hypo- 
thesis, Prov. xxvii. 22, which denotes that no endeavours will reclaim or bring men ob- 
durate in folly to the right way. That hyperbole, Qbad. verse 4, denotes the certainty of 
divine judgment against the Edomites. See Jer. xlix. 16. 

Matt. xvi. 26, " But what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world and 
shall lose his own soul ?" by the word world, all the power, riches, pleasure, and precious 
things there, are to be understood in one word. And by this hypothetical hyperbole, 
the most .grievous state of the wicked, that (by those toys which are but transient) forfeit 
eternal life, is denoted 1 .'" See Mark viii. 36, Luke ix. 25, 1 Cor. iv. 15, and xiii. 1, 2, 
aTi. 8, &c. 

3. In some others, 1 Kings xx. 10, as that thrasonical or boasting speech of Benhadad 
king of Syria to the king of Israel is recorded, that " the dust of Samaria should not 
suffice for handfuls, for all the people that follow me," This is a high piece of hyperbo- 
lical boasting, as if he had said, all your land can be brought by handfulls, by my 
army, yea, shall not be enough for the numbers of bearers, (so great is my host) ; how 
easily therefore shall I overcome you ? Hos. ii. 17, there is an hyperbole which denotes 
the contempt of idolatory, that will be, and that their names shall not be used with any 
reverence, which must be the meaning, for Paul names Baal, Rom. xi. 4. See Acts vii. 
43, &c. . . 

Matt. v. 29, " If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee ;" verse . 
30, " If thy right hand offend thee cut it off, and cast it from thee," &c. Christ would 
not have a man maim his body, but by this hyperbolical precept intimates, the great * 
heinousness and extreme danger of scandal or offence, and that we are by any means to 
avoid it, and part from all occasions of giving it That hyperbolical expression, Matt. 
xxiv. 2, denotes extreme destruction and razing of the foundation. See Hag. ii. 16, 
Matt. i. 6, and Luke x. 4. Of which before, in the metonymy of a sign. 

John xxi. 25, " And there are also many other things, which Jesus did, the which, if 
ey should be written every one, I suppose that even the whole world itself could not con- 
tain the the books that should be written." Some expound this of the capacity of the under- 
standing, (hence Theophilact expounds x <y f"?' ai *>.v vot\aa.i to understand, as the same word 
rendered here contained, is taken, Matt. xix. 11, 12,) that the sense may be, that there 
would never be such an one in the world, that could comprehend all in his mind because 
of the variety and multitude of the things done, and spoken by Christ, the world being me- 
put for the men, and books for their contents. 

Others understand it of local capacity, properly so called, that the whole world was 
n t big enough to contain all the books, if in every circumstance all the sayings and 
actions of Christ were written, which explication is savoured by the pronoun (awro* itself} 
added to the world : take it which way you will, it is an hyperbolical expression, espe- 
cially in the latter sense. Some compare Amos vii. 10, with it, "the land is not able to 

ar all his words," &c. 

By that hyperbolical wish of the apostle, Rom. ix. 3, his great and exceeding love to 

e Israelites is noted. See Gal. iii. 13, 14, Jude verse 23, &c. 


Examples of a Meiosis, or Extenuation. 

1. To a rhetorical meiosis belong such things as are by any trope extenuated, or 
lessened, as Gen. xviii. 27, " Behold now I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, 
which am but dust and ashes," that is, a most low and abject creature. It is a metaphor 
or a metonymy, and alludes to the first creation of man, out of the earth. 

So to be exalted out of the dust, denotes to raise one of the meanest sort of men to 
honour, 1 Kings xvi. 2, Psal.- cxiii. 7, 8; 1 Sam. xxiv. 14, "Whom dost thou pursue? 
alter a dead dog, after a flea," as if he had said, that ^it was beneath (or unworthy) so 
great a king to pursue me, that am but weak and mean, with so great a troop. 

Psal. xxii. 6, " But 1 am a worm and no man," that is, a most afflicted man, trampled 
on by the enemy, like a worm, &c. so Job xxv. 6, Isa. xli. 14. 

2. A local meiosis is when for extenuation sake, a comparison is made with a very 
little thing, as Numb. xiii. 33, " "We saw men, and we were as grasshoppers before them:" 
that is, of small stature in comparison of those giants. See Isa. xl. 15, 17, Psal. 
cxliv. 3, 4. . 

3. Examples of grammatical meiosis, are 2 Kings xviii. 4, " and called it, (jrmm 
Nehushtan) little brass," by a diminutive word, by way of contempt of the brazen 
serpent that was made an idol, of these diminutives these are many in the Hebrew 
text, but we leave them for critics. 

Some is put for a great many, Bom. iii. 3, 1 Tim. iv. 1. 

Somebody, is put fur an eminent man, Acts v. 36, "Boasting himself somebody," as 
Acts viii. 9. So Pindar us says, " 8e ris , n 5e ovSeis ; a-Kias ovap avBpwiros, that is, what is 
somebody ? "What is nobody ? Man is the dream of a shadow. 

Sick is put for one dead in sin, or desperately bad in his spiritual state, for these that 
are said to be ungodly, Isa. i. 5, sinners, and enemies, verse 10. These few instances of 
many we note for the illustration of this trope. 




AAAHFOPIA, an allegory, with respect to its etymology or derivation, signifies that, when 

- one thing is said, another thing is understood. It is the continuation of a trope, espe- 
cially of a metaphor, and although metonymies, ironies, and synecdoches are likewise con- 
tinued, yet not so frequently, nor with that emphasis, as in the other florid tropes, there- 
fore we will in a particular chapter treat of this continued metaphor, net so much to show 
the fountains whence allegories are taken, (for that I presume is abundantly shown 
where we have treated of metaphors) but to discover aud explain some difficulties in it, 
and show its peculiar nature. 

These allegories we will distinguish into simple and allusive. The simple we call 
such as are taken from any natural things. The allusive we call such as respect other 
things, whether words or facts, and are from thence deduced into a translated description. 

Examples of a simple Allegory. 

Gen. iii. 15, " And I will put enmity between thee (0 serpent !) and the woman, 

between thy seed, and her seed ; it shall bruise thy head, aud thou shall bruise 
heel." The first promise of the Gospel and the whole mystery of redemption to come 

. is proposed by God himself in this allegory. Here are almost all tropes in these 

PART 1.'] 



especially the continuation .of a metaphor. When Jehovah speaks to the serpent, he 
understands the Devil, either by a metonymy, because the Devil lurked in the serpent, 
and by it spoke to Eve ; or by a metaphor, because the natural serpent was cursed by 
the word of God, verse 14. And so made abominable to the race of man, and so 
bore the figure of the Devil, whence the Devil is called a serpent and dragon, Eev. 
xx. 2. By the woman mankind is meant (by a synecdoche) because mankind was to 
spring froin those protoplasts or first-formed parents, Eve being called the mother of all 
living, Gen. iii. 20. The enmity denounced denotes the serious will of God to deliver men 
hi due time from the power of the Devil ; see Acts xvii. 26, 27, and xxvi. 18. He men- 
tions the woman only, because she was first seduced to sin, as she confesses, verse 13 ; and 
to provoke her the more against her conqueror. By the seed of the serpent, the whole 
power and troop of Devils and wicked men, who study the overthrow of Christ's kingdom, 
is metaphorically represented. By the seed of the woman, by way of eminency, far s^oxn", 
the Messiah, the Son of man, is metonymically understood, who also was to destroy 
the Devil's machinations. The enmity between him and the serpent's seed, intimates 
God's immutable decree of man's redemption by Christ. The metaphor is continued 
Nin ipsum, It (that is, the Jm semen, seed of the woman, mentioned immediately before) 
shall bruise thy head, .and thou shalt bruise its heel. The first phrase (it shall bruise 
thy head) metaphorically -declares, that Christ will destroy the power of the Devil, for 
as a venomous serpent when his head is bruised or broken, has neither strength or life ; 
so the Devil's power being broken, they can no longer hurt or destroy men. * But more 

By the head of the serpent is meant sin and death, for as the serpent's poison and 
power of biting lies in his head ; so the Devil's poison is sin, which infects and destroys 
hence it is deservedly called the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom 
xxxii. 33, where note, that, in the Hebrew wi a -f-head is put for 
venoin, and the epithet cruel, is added, as if there were a perfect allusion to the 
head of that most cruel serpent, Gen. iii. 15. Therefore when Christ takes away sin, 
he breaks the -head of that infernal serpent : see John iii. 8. And because the serpent's 
life and strength lies in his head, and because the head is the supreme and most 
noble member in a creature, by whose virtue and influence the whole body is govern- 
ed, it is put for power, dominion, and superiority, Deut. xxviii. '13, 44, Lam. i. 5. 
The power, strength, and dominion of the devil against men, consists in death 
or killing, Heb. iii. 14. Therefore when Christ abolishes spiritual death, he breaks 


the whole man 
of asps, Deut. 

the serpent's head, (viz. his power to destroy men spiritually,) See I Cor. xv. 54. The 
other phrase (and thou shalt bruise his heel) denotes the manner and medium of 
effecting men's salvation, viz. his passion, and most bitter death. Christ is proposed as 
a magnificent hero, who, as it were, with his feet tramples on the serpent, and breaks 
his head. And as a serpent when trampled upon, resists with all his strength, while he 
has any life, wresting and winding himself, spitting poison, and biting his enemy ; so 
Jehovah intimates, that the devil would do so, by his phrase ; as if he had said, thou 
shalt defend thyself with all thy might, and use all endeavours to destroy thine enemy, 
the Messiah, (whilst I indulge thee for fallen man's sake to use thy worst), neither shall 
he escape unhurt, for he shall suffer a most ignoxninous death, by thine instruments : 
out this will not profit thee, for thou shalt not be able to touch his head, *but only 
one of his heels, that is, the less principal part, will in some measure be hurted by thee ; 
out my divine omnipotence shall cure that wound, by giving him a glorious resurrection 
from death, and by my Gospel, declaring him to the whole world to be conquerer of hell, 
and all its powers : whereas thou shalt utterly perish ; not only thy heel, but the very 
head shall be broken. 

We have insisted the larger upon this great oracle of divine truth, because it is the 
foundation of the prophecies concerning the Messiah, and all our hope and comfort, which 
We hope shall not seem tedious to the pious reader. 

Gen. xlix. 11, 12, " Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice. 
vine ; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes, his eyes 
shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk." In the last words of the 
Patriarch Jacob, there are many things spoken allegorically in this chapter, of 
w hich these words are most emphatical, which are spoken ia the blessing of Jiulah ; 
rabbles and some Christians understand by an hyperbole of an earthly inlie- 

Grant, sucr. jiage 8tHJ. 

The same word in Geu. iii. 15. 

2 C 


ritance, and the great plenty and fecundity thereof; but -verse 10 shows this to be a 
clear prophecy of Shiloh or the Messiah to come of the tribe of Judah ; and surely 
the patriarch from so excellent a subject would not slip into the mention of those vain, 
earthly things, and what he says of " the redness of eyes with wine," it is reckoned 
amongst wickednesses, Prov. xxiii. 29, because a sign of drunkenness, which the 
patriarch (who severely taxed his son's sins, verse 4, 5,) would not reckon among his 

This is therefore an allegory, and is to this effect expounded by the learned Bren- 
tius. " Binding his foal to a vine, this is a description of peace and tranquillity in the 
kingdom of Christ." See- Jer. xxiii. 17, and Zech. iii. 10 ; for in wars, they do not 
bind foals or asses to the vines, when men cannot dwell under then- own vine and 
fig-tree, which are destroyed, which denotes the peaceable administration of Christ 
in his kingdom. See Isa. ix. 5. This is not to be understood of external tranquil- 
lity, but partly because Chiist establishes his kingdom without warlike arms, by the 
preaching of the Gospel; and partly because it brings peace and tranquillity of con- 
science. " He shall wash in wine," this is a description of abundance, and the vile esteem 
of worldly things in the kingdom of Christ. But we are to understand it of the abun- 
dance of spiritual things, as remission of sins, righteousness, &c. Matt. vi. 33, Psal. 
xlv. 2, &c. 

Some expound this of the passion of Christ ; the vineyard of Christ is his church, 
Isa. v. 1, xxvii. 2, and Ixv. 21, Matt. xx. 1 ; and Christ is the Vine into which the 
branches are grafted, John xv. 1, 4, 5, and the meaning, say they, is, Christ com- 
pares his church (because of its simplicity, humility, and the burdens of trouble 
which it is forced to bear in the world) to an ass, which he will feed with most sweet 
grapes and spiritual joy, or inebriate it, that, being rendered courageous, it should 
despise death, devils, hell, and persecutions, and so Christ will wash his garment 
in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes, that is, will pour his most precious 
blood upon his garments, viz., his flesh, which his Deity puts on as a clothing, 
which will afterwards be excellent spiritual wine to comfort and refresh the faithful. 
" His eyes will be red with wine," that is, in his passion, for then he had no form nor 
comeliness, Isa. liii. 2, viz., when whipped, spit upon, and crowned with thorns, 
and carried about in disgrace by Pilate's order ; so he was deformed for other's sins. 
But inasmuch as " in him was found no spot, nor was guile found in his mouth," 1 Pet. ii. 
22. His teeth are said to be white with milk, verse 12. Whiteness signifies purity 
and innocence, &c., see Isa. Ixiii. 1 3, &c. 

Eccl. xii. ; there is an allegorical description of old age and death. Verse 2, by 
" the darkness of the sun, light, moon, and stars," the languishing and consumption of 
vigour, strength, and judgment is denoted ; verse 3, "by the trembling of the keepers 
of the house, and the bowing of strong men," the weakness of the hands, knees, and 
arms is signified (see Isa. xxxv. 3,) which are keepers of the body from hurt. " The 
ceasing of the grinders, because few," denotes the decay of the teeth, or their being 
almost gone. " The darkening of those that look out at the windows," betokens 
dimness of sight, the eyes being the windows of the body ; verse 4, " the shutting of 
.doors in the streets," betokens the contraction of the lips, and tiresomeness in speech. 
" The Ipwness of the sound of grinding," signifies debility of voice. " Kising at the voice 
of the bird," denotes want of sleep, for old men scarce sleep half the night, and are easily 
awaked by the cock's crowing. " The bringing low of the daughters of music," denotes 
dulness of hearing, and that those ears that could judge of music, delight not in it. (See 
2 Sam. xix. 35.) Verse 5, " to be afraid of high places,'-" signifies difficulty of going. " The 
flower of the almond tree shall flourish," that is, grey hairs. " The grasshopper shall be a 
burden," that is, the back-bone shall bend and grow weak, so that it cannot bear any bur- 
den. " Desire shall 'fail," that is, appetite to meat, and other things, (2 Sam. xix. 35,) 
then follows a description of death, &c. In the book of Canticles there are many continued 
metaphors or allegories that are very emphatical and obscure, yet contain many deep mys- 
teries. It being a spiritual poem, setting forth the love of Christ to his church, &c., about 
which the reader is referred to our English expositors. See other allegories, Isa. xxviii- 
20, Amos iii. 12, Isa. xxxviii. 12, Jer. xi. 16, and xii. 5, Ezek. xvi. 3, Hos. xiii. 1^ 
Zech. xiv. 3, &c. 

In the Old Testament you may find these allegories besides, Deut. xxxii. 13, 15, 22, 
32, 33, 41, 42, and xxxiii. 19, 20, 24, 25, Juclg. viii. 2, and xiv. 18, 1 Kings xii. 11, 1 4 ' 


2 Kings xix. 3, Job iv. 10, 11, xx. 12, &c., xxvii. 20, &c., xxix. 14, &c., and xxxviii- 
9 10, Psal. xxiii. 1, &c., Ii. 8, 9, Ixix. 1, 2, 3, Ixxv. 8, 9, Ixxx. 8, &c., ex. 2, 3, 
and cxxiii. 3, Prov. iii. 8, and ix. 1, &c., Eccl. xi. 1, &c., Isa. i. 5, 6, 7, 22, Ixvi. 
6 7 xiv. 29, xxx. 33, xxxii. 22, xxxvi. 6, xlii. 3, xiv. 8, liv. 11, 12, Iv. 1, 2, 12, 

13, and lix. 5, 6, Jer. iv. 11, 12, v. 6, vi. 28, 29, 30, xii. 9, and 1. 17, Ezek. xiii. 10, 
&c., xvii. 3, &c., xxii. 19, &c., xxiii. 2, &c., xxix. 3, &c., xxxi. 5, xxxii. 3, &c., 
and xxxiv. &c. 

In the New Testament, Matt. iii. 10, 12, v. 13, vii. 3 6, ix. 15, &c., xii. 43, 
&c and xv. 13, Luke ix. 62, Kom. xi. 16 18, &c., and xiii. 1L, 12, 1 Cor. iii. 6, &c., 
v . 7, 8, and ix. 26, 27, 2 Cor. iii. 2, 3, v. 1, &c, 5 x. 36, and xi. 2, Gal. iv. 19, v. 15, 
and Vi. 8, 9, Eph. vi. 11, &c. The explication of all which, (at least for the most part) 
may be taken from our treatise of metaphors, that we shall leave them to be improved 
by the studious reader. 

Examples of an allusive Allegory. 

Psalm xi. 6, " Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, or coals, fire and brimstone, and 
the spirit of terrors, the portion of their cup," . (so the Hebrew). This is an allegorical 
description of the grievousness of their punishment, by allusion to the destruction of 
Sodom, as Isa. xxxiv. 9, 10, &c., see Psal. xx. 3, where by an allegory of " burnt-offer- 
ings," &c., prayers are meant. More examples, Psal. 1. 3, and Iv. . 9, Isa* x. 24, 
where he alludes to Moses's rod ; see verse 26, Isa. xxiv. 18, with Gen. vii. 11 ; Isa. xxvi. 

14, with Exod. xiv. 13 ; Isa. xxx. 22, with Exod. xv. 20, 1 Sam. xviii. 5, Psal. Ixviii. 25, 
26, with many others. 

In the New Testament you have these examples, Matt. v. 22, which allegory alludes 
to the form of civil judgments amongst the Jews, and their punishments. Matt. vi. 17, 
Christ alludes to the hypocritical practices of the Pharisees, who deformed their faces when 
they fasted, verse 16 ; the sense is, that you must not imitate them. 

In New Testament worship, there are frequent allusions to that which is proper to the 
Old Testament, as was shown, chap, xiii., of a metaphor, Isa. iv. 5, there is an allegorical 
description of God's protection of his church by allusion to the pillar of a cloud and fire, 
Exod. xiii. 21, see Isa. xi. 14 16, and hi. 11, with 2 Cor. vi. 17, Isa. liv. 1, 4, 5, 
6, see Gal. iv. 26, 27. There are other allegories, Isa. liv. 2, from enlarging 
of tents ; from the inhabiting of desolated cities, verse 3, 5 ; laying the magnificent 
foundation, verse 11, 12 ; (where there is withal an hyperbole,) see Matt. xvi. 18, Eph. 
ii. 20, 21, from the abolition of hostile instruments, verses 16, 17. See Isa. Ixi. 6 
9, see Hos. ii. 15, Amos ix. 13 15, Zech. xiv. 10, 11, 2 Cor. iii. 13, where 
is the description of the New Testament church ; there is an allusion to the vail of Moses, 
see John ix. 28, &c., the sense of which allegory is, that as the Jews could not behold 
the face of Moses because of the vail ; so the carnal Jews (those Xpio-ro^ax ', enemies of 
Christ) could not see the splendour of this spiritual Moses, (that is, the chief end and scope 
of his writers) and do not understand that Jesus Christ is our Saviour, because of their 
willing blindness of mind, which as a vail keeps the shinings of that light from their 
hearts, which cannot be taken away but by true conversion. Then, by way of antithesis, 
Sa y9, verse 18, that we (viz., his disciples) with open face behold his glory, &c. See verses 
79, 18, Gal. iv. 28, 31, with verses 22 24. See also another allegory, Rev. vii. 

15, where there is another allusion to the Levitical ministry in the Old Testament temple. 

2 c 2 




THE generical consideration of a trope with respect to its continuation we have treated 
of in the last chapter ; the special consideration of it, we will treat of in this. Which 
is either according to common use, and called parsemia, proverb, or an adagy ; or with 
respect to its obscurity, and is called senigma, or a riddle, or obscure allegory, 
The Hebrews call it "TOD, meshed, Ezek. xi. 22, and xviii. 2, from the root fan 
which takes its signification from comparing or ruling, that so too uaay be a 
proverb, or a comparative speech or likeness, or as it were K-vpia. 71^77, a ruling sentence, 
which has the principal place in a speech, and by its weight and gravity it makes 
it more illustrious. "What other acceptations this word hath, shall be shown (with 
divine assistance) in the second volume of this book. To the sense we hold, to, the 
word ira.poiiJ.ict, 2 Pet. ii. 22, exactly agrees, which some think is derived n-apa TO ot/tos, a 
via, from, or, out of the way ; that is, a. departing from the vulgar or common way of 
speaking, or as others think from TP oi^ov, * prteter vel juxta primum verbum, (for oi/ws 
signifies also a verb,) and from its sense is, as it were, another word and sense, as a pro- 
verb is called. 

In proverbs words properly taken, or tropes, or their affections are used ; which last 
only concern us in this place. And both are either entire sentences or proverbial phrases, 
which by common use, are brought into a sentence. 

Proverbial sentences are to be read in Gen, x. 9, and xxii. 14, Numb. xxi. 27, I Sam. 
x. 12, and xxiv. 14, 2 Sam. v. 8, and xx. 18, Jer. xxxi. 29,,Ezek. xvi. 44, and xviii. 
2, Luke iv. 23, John iv. 37, 2 Pet. ii. 22, in which places the Holy Spirit affirms that 
those sentences are become .proverbs. There are other phrases ifvpiai yvcapai, to which 
the title of proverbs is not annexed, yet because of their emphaticalness, they are so 
esteemed : as Deut. xxv. 4, 1 Bangs viii. 46, and xx. 11, 2 Chron. xxv. 9, Job vi. 5, 
xiv. 19, xxvii. 19, and xxviii. 18, Psal. xlii. 7, and Ixii. 9. Such is that famous sentence, 
Psal. cxi. 10, " The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." See Prov. i. 7, and 
ix. 10, with Job xxviii. 28. There are many in the book called 'too, the proverbs of 
Solomon, as Prov. i. 17, 32, iii. 12, vi. G, 27, x. 5, 13, 19, 25, xi. 15, 22, 27, xii. 11, 
15, xv. 2, 33, xvii. 1, 10, 19, 28, xix. 2, 24, xx. 4, 11, 14, 21, 25, xxii. 6, 13, xxv. 
11, 16, 27, xxvi. 4, 10, 11, 14, 17, 28, xxvii. 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 17, 22, xxviii. 21, xxx. 
15, &c. 

So in the book of Ecclesiastes, chap. i. 15, 18, iv. 5, 12, v. 2, 6, 810, vi. 9, vii. 17, 
ix. 4, 18, x. 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 19, 20, xi. 3, 4, 6, 7, xii. 12. 


In the prophets, Jer. xiii. 23, and xxiii. 28, Ezek. vii. 5, Micah vii. 5, 6, Habak. ii. 6, 
Mai. ii. 10. 

In the New Testament, Matt. v. 1315, vi. 3, 21, 24, 34, vii. 2, 5, 16, ix. 12, 16, 
x. 10, 22, 24, 26, xii. 34, xiii. 12, 57, xv. 14, xxiii. 23, xxiv. 28, Markix. 50, Luke 
ix. 62, xii. 48, xxiii. 31, Acts ix. 5, xx. 35, 1 Cor. v. 6, x. 12, xv. 33, 2 Cor. ix. 6, 1, 
2. Thess. iii. 10, Tit. i. 15. 

Here we must note that Christ and his apostles used several proverbs, or vulgar ways 
of speaking, common to the Jews, which were partly written in their old books, yea, even 
in the Talmud, as Matt. vii. 2, Mark iv. 24, Luke vi. 38, " With the same measure ye 
mete, the same shall be measured to you again," which is in the Talmud tract. Sanhedrim 
in these words, ^ cmm ru mo cnw rnna, " By the same measure which ye shall mea- 
sure, others will measure to you again." It is very plain in the Targum hierosolymitanum, 
Gen. xxxviii., in these words ; " By what measure a man measures, by the same will others 

* Buyoncl or besides Hie word. 

PART I.] ' O F AN ENIGMA. 197 

measure to him ; as to good measure or bad measure." So the sentence, Matt. xix. 24, 
" It is easier for a camel," &c., is in the Talmud as Aug. Caninius says"; " only it is said 
there, that an elephant cannot go through the eye of a needle, for which elephant, (a 
beast known to few) Christ said a camel, a heast well known in Syria." And the phrase, 
Luke vi. 42, Buxtorfius in Glossaiore Talmudico says, is also in the Talmud. And 2 
Thess. iii. 10, " If any will not work, neither shall he eat." Drusius, 2 Tract, in Gen. 
magn. Bereschiih Rabba Tract. Talmud ; says the same phrase is in the Talmud. And 
doubtless the apostle thence took it. See Adag. sacra, written by Zelmer from the whole 
Bible in 5. Centur. 

Of proverbial phrases. See examples, Exod. xi. 7, that " a dog should not move his 
tongue," was a proverbial speech, denoting profound silence and peace in that place. 
Some refer this to a meiosis. See 1 Sam. xxv. 22, 24, 1 Kings xiv. 10, and xvi. 11, 2 
Kings ix. tf, which last was also a proverbial phrase, denoting extreme destruction, even to 
the vilest animal. 

See other proverbial speeches, 2 Kings xiv. 26, Deut. xxxii. 36, Esth. i. 22, Job xvi. 
10, Psal. iii. 7, Lam. iii. 39, Mcah iv. 13. 

See Isa. iii. 15, 2 Cor. xi. 10, Matt. v. 39, Luke vi. 29, with 1 Kings xxii. 24, John 
xviii. 22, Acts xxiii. 2, 1 Cor. iv. 11, Prov. xxvL 17, and xxviii. 21, Ezek. xiii. 19, Matt, 
iii. 11, John. i. 27, Matt, xxiii. 24. 

To kick against the pricks, was a proverbial speech, Acts v. 39, ix. 5, xxiii. 9, xxvi. 14. 

The phrase, 1 Cor. xiii. 15, "But he shall be saved yet so as by fire," is a proverbial 
speech, as if he had escaped from a conflagration. That is, as Illyricus says,* " Such a 
teacher is together with his stubble in the midst of a terrible incendium (or fire,) these 
being condemned by the judgment of God shall perish, but he by the singular favour of 
God, shall be preserved, though 'with much hazard and difficulty." See Zech. iii. 2, 
Amos iv. H, &c. 



IN a continued trope, if there be a singular obscurity it is called aunyna, enigma, wloich 
signifies an obscure question, a knotty or dark speech ; it is derived of awo-d-eo-d-ai, which 
signifies to hint obscurely, and, as it were, to speak in the dark. And that comes from 
was, -which amongst other things denotes not only praise, but a saying worthy of praise 
and admiration, because it is a symbolical and sinewy way of expression. It is said of the 
queen of Sheba, 1 Kings x. 1, that " she came to try Solomon with hard questions," that 
is, enigmas, such as we now treat of. See Ezek. xvii. 2, Psal. Ixxviii. 2, with xlix. 4. 

Judg. xiv. 14, Sampson says to his guests, " Out of the eater came forth meat, and 
out of the strong came forth -sweetness," this is a continued synecdoche, with the addition 
of a metonymy. By the eater and strong is meant a lion, by a synecdoche of the genus ; 
by sweetness, honey, by a metonorny of the adjunct, as verse 18. Vossius after he 
had called this an enigma, Lib. iv. Instit. Orat. c. 11, thinks it was not really so, because 
J t was unknown to the Philistines, that Sampson had killed a lion, or got honey out 
f his carcass, being a thing he had told to no person, as Judg. xiv. 7, 10, 17. Psal. 
xlix. 5, " I will fear in the evil day, the iniquity of my heels shall compass me about," 
the question is, what this evil day is, and what is the sin of iniquity of the heels ? As 
to the first R. Aben Ezra, by " evil day," understands "old age," compared with Eccl. xii. 1. 
-hi this sense, " Why should I trouble myself with the cares of this world, for the solicitude 
f old age ?" E. Karachi would have it in this sense, " why should I be solicitous for 
the riches of this world, which are its glory ?" R. Solomon joining this with the next 

* Clao. Sript. Col. 870. 



verse, thus expounds it. If the sins, which I do, as it were, trample upon my 
heels, and esteem light transgressions, yet in the judgment of God condemn me, how 
much more do riches condemn such as trust in them ? See Eccl. ix. 10, &c. 

Prov. xxvi. 10. It is a very perplexed text, and rendei ed variously by interpreters, 
which we leave to the inquiry of the learned. Erasmus calls that paraholical passage, 
Matt. xii. 43, 44, 45, Luke xi. 14, 25, 26, an enigma, upon which see his paraphrase. 
See Glass. Rhet. Sacra, p. 508. 

To conclude, Franciscus Junius * says, that an enigma, is an ohscure parable or allegory, 
which is more difficultly understood. Hence every parable or allegory is not to be re- 
puted an enigma ; but every enigma is an allegory, &c. 

Lib. 1. Paral. S. 








Of the Figures of a Word. 

THE word 2%w Schema, principally and properly signifies the garb, habit, or ornament of 
the body ; and by a metaphor is translated to signify the beauty, or ornament of speech, 
as* Aristotle and-f- Cicero say. The Latins render it figure, (as some say) because stage- 
players, by the variation or shifting of their habit, represented divers figures of men : these 
igures are called rhetorical lights and ornaments, and do not change the sense of words, 
as tropes do, but give an embellishment or beauty to speech. 

There are figures TTJS Aeeais of a word, and figures ^s- Siavoms, of a sentence ; the first 
belong to the matter, or as it were, the body of an oration ; the latter, to the form, or as 
it were, the soul of a sentence. 

The former are, when a speech is figured in words repeated in a certain order, or 
that mutually agree in sound, for emphasis, or ornament's sake. The latter are such, 
whose emphaticalness consists not in words singly, but in the things themselves giving 
weight and gravity to the speech. JVossius says, " That a scheme properly signifies two 
things, viz. the exterior garb, and the gesture of the body; as dancers who caper 
a t the noise of musical instruments : for schemes of words may in this be resembled 
to habit, or garb, because without them the speech is naked, as a man without his clothes ; 
ffld schemes of sentences may be compared to artificial gestures, because, without these, 
l * will be like a man who moves or walks in his natural place or posture; of the first we 
will produce some examples. 

Lib. 3. Met. cap. S. 

t In Brulo et Oral. perf. 

Lib. 5. Inslit. Orat. c. 1. 


1. Epizeuxis eiri&vtis, in Latin Subjunctio, is when the same word or sound is con- 
tinued or repeated in the same sentence, as Exod. xxxiv. 6, " The Lord, the Lord, a God 
merciful and gracious," &c. Deut. xxviii. 43, " The stranger that is in thy middle (or with- 
in thee) shall ascend above th.ee, up, up, and thou shalt descend down, down," (so the He- 
brew) which denotes, that the servants or vassals of the sinning Israelites, above whom 
they bore such a sway, should become their masters, and bring them into thraldom. 2 
Kings iv. 19, ' And he (the son of the Shunamite) said to his father (when he began to be 
sick in the field) my head, my head :" that is, my head most grievously aches. Psal. 
xxii. 1, "*> ^>N " My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?" which repetition fervently 
denotes the overmuch cruelty of the enemy, and the mournful condition of Israel in cap- 
tivity : Isa. vi. 3, " Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God of Hosts ;" this triple repetition de- 
notes the mystery of the Trinity, or Three Persons in one divine essence ; see Jer. xxii. 
29, Ezek. xxi. 27, Matt, xxiii. 37, Luke xxii. 31, and xxiii. 21, John v. 24, Acts is. 4, 
Rev. xviii. 2, Lev. xxiv. 18, 2 Sam. xviii. 33, Isa. xxviii. 10, Hos. ii. 21, Ezek. xxxiv. 17, 
where you have examples of this figure. 

2. Anadiplosis ca>a.5nr\ucns (called in Latin reduplicatio, in English redoubling) is, when 
the last word of the former sentence is repeated in the beginning of the next : as Psal. 
cxxi. 1, 2, cxxii. 2, 3, and xcviii. 5, Bom. viii. 17, Psal. cxv. 12, Horn. ix. 30, and x. 17, 
Phil. ii. 8, James i. 3, Psal. cxiii. 8. This figure helps to evidence and expound things, 
as in the alleged examples. 

3. Climax K\ip.a., Gradatio, or a climbing by steps ; this is a continuation of the former 
figure* in more degrees, so as that the last of the antecedent sentence, must be a part of 
the following ; as Hos. ii. 21, " And it shall come to pass in that day, I will hear, saitli 
the Lord, I will hear the heavens, .and they (that is, the heavens) shall hear the earth, and 
the earth shall hear the corn, and the wine s and the oil, and they (that is, the corn, and 
the wine, and the oil) shall hear Jezreel." This gradation may be fitly called an epitome 
of physical theology, which by a fair prosopopaeia enumerates ail the causes of the conver- 
sation of universal nature, and particularly of man : see it at large expounded in our 
Philologid Sacra, Book I, Page 94. 

John i. 1, " In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was 
the Word this Word, was in the beginning with God." The true divinity of Christ, and 
his distinct subsistence from the Father, are most fairly expressed by this gradation. In 
the third proposition there is an inversion of the terms, viz.. a God was the Word, for tlic 
Word was God." A like climax, respecting his office and benefits, is subjoined, verse 4, 5, 
&c. See more examples, Joel i. 3, 4, Bom. v. 3, 4, 5, viii. 29, 30, and x. 14, 15, 1 Cor. 
xi. 3, James iv. 15, 2 Pet. i. 5, 6, 7, Matt. x. 40, 1 Cor. iii. 23. 

4. 'Ai>acj>opa Anaphora, from avafyepta refero, to bring back, or rehearse, is when the 
same word, or more, is repeated in the beginning of divers clauses or sentences : as 
Deut. xxviii. 3, " Blessed shalt thou be in the city, and blessed shalt thou be in the field;" 
verse 4, " Blessed shall be the fruit of thy belly, and the fruit of thy ground, and the 
fruit of thy cattle," &c. Verse 5, " Blessed shall be thy basket/' &c. Verse 6, " Blessed 
shalt thou be when thou comest in, and blessed shalt thou be when thou goest out." The 
like anaphora, respecting the curses of God upon the wicked and rebellious, we read 
verses 16 19. This figure is very frequent in scripture, take these few places instead of 
many; Psal. iii. 1, 2, xxix. 3, &c., Ixvii. 5, 6, 7, cxv. 12, 13, cxviii. 8, 9, 15, 16, cxlviii. 
1, &c., and cl. 1, &c., Isa. ii. 7, 8, Jer. iv. 23, 26, v. 17, 1. 35, 36, 37, and Ii. 20, 23, 
Micah v. 9, 12, and vii. 11, 12, Zeph. i. 2, 3, 1 Cor. xiii. 4, 7, 11, and xii. 8, 9, 10, 2 
Cor. xi. 26. And in the repetition of pronouns and particles. Psal. xciv. 5, Rom. viii. 35, 
38, 39, 2 Cor. vii. 11, Phil. iv. 8, &c. 

5. ETnrpocfrj Epistrophe, conversion, is a figure when the same word or phrase, is 
repeated in the end of divers sentences. Examples of the repetitions of single 
words (among which, we reckon the Hebrew affixes) are to be read, Deut. xxxii. 10, 
Ezek. xxvii. 23, 27, Rom. viii. 31, 6i 6 os vn-ep -rj/j.wv, m, KO.& rt^tav, " If God be for us, 
who can be against us?" 2 Cor. xi. 22, ' : Are they Hebrews ? so am I; are they 
Israelites? so am 1: are they the seed of Abraham? so am I;" &c., Examples of phrases, 
or little sentences are, Psal. cxv. 9, 10, 11, where their help, and their shield, & e ' 
quently concludes the sentence. Psal. cxxxvi. 1, 2, &c., see Deut. xxvii. 15, &c., Psal- 

* Viz. Anadiplosis. 




xxiv. 9, 10, Joel ii. 26, 27, Ezek. xxxiii. 25, 26, 27, and xxxvi. 23, &c., Amos iv. 
6, 8, &c., Hag. ii. 8; 9, Lam. iii. 41, &c., Matt. vii. 22. 

' 6. 5w/cwr\o/7 Symploce, complication, the word is derived of <n//rAt>, to wrap or 
couple together ; and is a figure, which the same word or phrase both begins and end 
a sentence, which joins the two last figures (viz., Anaphora and Epistrophe) together, 
Psal. cxviii. 2, 3, 4, " Let Israel now say, that his mercy endureth for ever," &c. So 
Psal. cxxxvi. 13, Jer. ix. 13, 1 Cor. xii. 46, and xiv. 15, 2 Cor. ix. 6, &c., Psal. 
xlvii. 6, Rom. xiv. 8. 

7. Evai'aXwj'i?, Epanalepsis, Resumptio, a taking back, is when the same word is 
repeated both in the beginning and end of a sentence, as Phil. iv. 4, " Rejoice in the 
Lord always, and again I say, Rejoice :" see Psal. liii. 2, 2 Kings xviii. 33, 54, 1 Cor. 
xi. 22, 2 Cor. iv. 3, 1 Cor. xii. 4 0, and xiv. 15, 2 Cor. ix. 6, Psal. viii. 1, 9, and 

xlvi. 1. 

8. ETrawSos, Epanados, regression or turning back, (derived of above, and 
ewoSos, an ascending, or climbing, from wa>, upwards, and oSos, a way?} is a figure, 
when the same word is repeated in the beginning and middle, or in the middle and 
end, so as that there is an inversion of them ; as Isa. v. 20, " Woe unto them who call 
good evil, and evil good ; who put darkness for light, and light for darkness ; that 
put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter," Ezek. vii. 6, 7, Gal. ii. 16, 2 Cor. ii. 10, 
15, 16, John viii. 47, Ezek. xxxvi. 6, Rom. vii. 19, Psal. cxiv. 3 6, Ezek. xxxii. 16, 
2 Thess. ii. 4. 

noKvirrcarov, Poluptoton, in Latin Casuum Varietas, a variety of cases, or the change 
of the case or termination (from \v variously, and TTTMTOV falling, derived from HTO to 
fall,) is when words of the same root, primitive, or original, are used in a different 
termination with respect to mood, tense, person, case, degree, gender, number, &c. 
As Psal. Ixviii. 15, 16, Isa. xxiv. 16, Hos. x. 1, Mich. ii. 4, Rom. ii. 21 23, and iv. 18, 
2 Cor. ix. 8, and x. 12, Gen. ii. 19, 20, Eph. i. 3. There is an elegant polytoton in those 
lines of the learned Picus, Earl of Mirandula. 

Namq; ttea est nostris major dementia, culpis ; 

Et dare non dignis, res mage digna. Dei 
Quanquam sat digni, si quos dignatur amare, 

Qui quos non dignos invenit, ipsefacit. 

Gen. 1. 24, " The Lord when he visiteth, in visiting, will visit you :" see Rom. xi. 36, 
Eccl. xii. 8, Dan. ii. 37, John iii. 13, 1 John iii. 7, 2 Tim. iii. 13, Heb. vi. 14, John xvii. 
25, Isa. xix. 2. 



HAPONOMASIA, Paronomasia, Agnomination, or likeness of words, (of p-, which 
*a composition, signifies with alteration, and wopa, a, name, or from -xa-povonafa 
to change, or allude to a name or word) is when by the change of one letter or 
Word, the signification thereof is also changed. This figure is frequent in the 
Latin, and is very ornamental, as Nata salo, suscepta solo, patre edita Coslo ab ex- 
rdio, ad exodium. And the native beauty of it being peculiar to the original 
languages can hardly be shown in English. There are many in the Hebrew, of the 
OW ; and the Greek of the New Testament, which the learned may find in Glassius ; 
take, however, a few English examples, by which you may judge of the rest ; as, 
friends turned fiends. You are like to have a bare gain out of this bargain. Bolder in 
a buttery than in a battery. Wine is the blood of the vine. No stumbling but tumbling ; 
errors will cause terrors. Scripture examples are many, as 2. Cor. x. 3, " Though 
we walk in the flesh, yet do we not war after the flesh ; 2 Cor. vi. 9, " As unknown, and 

2 D 


yet known;" see 2 Cor. iv. 8, Q, and Matt. viii. 22. Examples in the Hebrew, text are 
Isa. Ivii. 6, and Ixv. 12, Gen. xviii. 27, Exod. xxv. 27, and xxxii. 18, 1 Sam. xiii. 17, 
Psal. Ixix. 30 3'2, Isa. v. 7, and xiii. 6, Joel i. 15, Jer. i. 11, 12, and xlviii. 43, Isa. 
xxiv. 17, Gen. ix. 27, Isa. Ixv. 11. In the Greek text, Matt. xvi. 18. Tu es nerpos, & Ci) 
super Me nerpa cedificabo Ecclesiam meam, &c., where there is an allusion to the name of 
Peter, though Christ speaks of himself ; Peter having confessed him to be the Son of the 
living God, (1 Pet. ii. 4, 5, 6,) which plainly appears by the context ; As if Christ had 
said, the name I give thee is not in vain, for thou hast acted conformable to it, when in 
thy confession, thou hast expressed the true rock, upon which thou, and all believers, are 
to be built. Erasmus thus paraphrases it, " I also, because I would not have so magni- 
ficent a testimony unrequited, affirm, that thou art truly Peter, that is, a solid stone, so 
fixed that thou shalt not wave hither and thither, according to the giddy humour of the 
vulgar. And upon this rock of thy profession (viz., myself) will I build my church, that 
is, my house and'palace, as upon an irnrnoveable foundation, which all the open violence, 
or private stratagems of hell, shall not be able to destroy. Satan will employ his various 
artifices to ensnare you, and will stir up a wicked generation to circumvent, trepan, and 
persecute you ; but mine all-powerful protection shall be your invincible defence during 
your sound and solid profession ; the church is my heavenly kingdom, the unbelieving 
world is the devil's, none of the former have need to fear of the latter, if he be a Peter, 
that is like thee." In the Syriac tongue, in which Christ speaks, the same word NE^ s }g. 
nifies both Peter a proper name, and Petra a rock, a noun appellative. Hence Bellarmine 
clamours, saying, " We have what we would, viz., that Peter is that rock of whom Christ 
speaks. If Augustine, says he, had considered that Cephas signifies ^nothing but a rock, 
and that the Lord had said, thou art a rock, and upon this rock, &c., he had made no 
doubt of the truth of the sentence." But the Jesuit gains nothing by this s'3: as it is a 
proper name, it has a different signification from Cephas as it is a common name, as Abel. 
Deborah, Eachel, Jonah, &c., signify one thing when they are proper names ; and another 
when they are common names, although there be no change in the word or denomination; 
the Syriac joins a masculine