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Full text of "A commentary on the whole Epistle to the Hebrews : being the substance of thirty years' Wednesday's lectures at Blackfriars, London"







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W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D., Professor of Theology, Congregational Union, Edinburgh. 

JAMES BEGG, D.D., Minister of Newington Free Church, Edinburgh. 

THOMAS J, ORAAVFORD, D.D., S.T.P., Professor of Divinity, University, Edinburgh. 

D. T. K. DRUMMOND, M.A., Minister of St Thomas's Episcopal Church, Edinburgli. 

AVILLIAM H. GOOLD, D.D., Professor of Biblical Literature and Church History, Reformed 

Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 
ANDREW THOMSON, D.D., Minister of Broughton Place United Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 

^tmxui ®irHor. 

REV. THOMAS SMITH, M.A., Edinbueoh. 









VOL. in. 





SEC. 1. Of the analysis of eleventh chapter. 
The apostle having prescribed faith in the latter 
end of the former chapter as au especial means of 
l^erseverance, in this chapter he doth farther de- 
scribe it, and set it out by the exceUout effects thereof. 
So as the sum of this chapter is a declaration of the 
excellency of faith. 
Hereof are two parts : 

1. A description of faith, ver. 1. 

2. Au exemplification of that description. 

The exemplification is set out by the effects of 
faith : and that in such as were endued therewith. 
These are set out, 

1. Indefinitely, ver. 2, 3. 

2. Expressly by name ; these may be ranked under 
four heads : 

1. Such as lived before the flood, from ver. 4-8. 

2. Such as continued from the flood to the time of 
the law, from ver. 8-30. 

3. They that were in the church of Israel tUl the 
captivity, from ver. 30-34. 

4. They that remained from the ca2)tivity till 
Christ's coming, from ver. 34 to the end. 

Of them that lived before the flood three are 

1. Abel, ver. 4. His faith was manifested by his 

2. Enoch, ver. 5, 6. His, by pleasing God. 

3. Noah, ver. 7. His, by building an ark. 

Of those that Uved betwdxt the flood and the 
law, there are mentioned six by name, and others 
indefinitely implied. 

1. Abraham ; whose faith is manifested by four 

(1.) His going whither God called him, ver. 8. 

(2.) His sojourning in a strange country, ver. 9. 
This is amplified by that heavenly city which he 
looked for, ver. 10. 

Vol. in. 

(3.) The numerous oflfspring that he had, ver. 

(4.) His ofl"ering up Isaac, ver. 17-19. 

2. Sarah ; whose faith is evidenced by bearing a 
child in her old age, ver. 1 1. 

The faith of these, and others that lived as they 
did, is amplified by their perseverance therein : for 
they 'died in faith,' ver. 13. This is proved, 

(1.) By their confession that they were strangers, 
ver. 13, 14. 

(2.) By omitting the opportunity of returning to 
their country, ver. 15. 

This is amplified by the kind of country which 
they sought, ver. IG. 

3. Isaac ; whose faith is set out by blessing his 
two sons, ver. 20. 

4. Jacob ; who in faith blessed the two sons of 
Joseph, ver. 21. 

5. Joseph ; who commanded his bones to be car- 
ried out of Egypt into Canaan, ver. 22. 

G. The parents of Moses ; whose faith showed 
itself in their preserving their son Moses against the 
king's edict, ver. 23. 

7. Moses ; his faith was demonstrated five ways. 
(1.) By refusing the honour of Egypt, ver. 24. 
(2.) By suffering aflliction, ver. 25. 

(3.) By highly esteeming the reproach of Christ, 
ver. 26. 

(4. ) By forsaking Egjrpt, ver. 27. 
(5.) By keeping the passover, ver. 28. 

8. The Israelites which came out of Egypt, and 
passed through the Eed Sea, ver. 29. 

Of those that were betwi.xt the law and the 
captivity, seven are numbered by name, and sundry 
others under general terms intended. 

1. Joshua, and the Israelites under his government, 
gave proof of their faith by the fall of the walls of 
Jericho, ver. 30. 



2. Rahab testified Lcr faith by entertaining the 
spies, ver. 31. 

3. Gideun. 4. Barak. 5. Samson. 6. Jephthah. 
7. David. 8. Samuel, are produced by name. 9. 
The prophets are indefinitely set down, ver 32. 

The etFects of sundry of these are set down, ver. 
33, 34. 

Of those that were from the beginning of the 
captivity to Christ's time, none are mentioned by 
name, but the faith of many of them is demonstrated 
by sundry great eftects. These etfects were their 
sufferings for maintaining tlio true faith ; whereof 
sundry distinct kinds are mentioned, ver. 3.5-38. 

The conclusion of tlie whole is .sot down by an 
approbation of their faith, ' they obtained a good 
report,' and an illustration thereof in this plirase, 
' received not the promise :' as if he had said, by 
faith they held out, though they received not the 

Of that illustration a reason is rendered, ver. 40, 
namely, God's reserving the better things to our 


Sec. 2. Of the infa-eiice o/Heb. xi. 1. 

Now faith is the substance of thiiit/s hoped for, the 
evidence of things not seen. 

In this Chapter is a large amplification of the fore- 
mentioned means of perseverance, which is faith ; 
wherein there is, first, a description of faith, in this 
first verse. 

Of the notation of the word faith ; of the general 
nature, and several kinds of it, see The Whole A)-mour 
of God, on Eph. vi. 16, Treat. 2, Part 6, Sec. 11, 
12, &c. 

Here is meant a true justifying and saving faith. 
The inference of this description upon the forenamed 
proposition of living by faith, and holding faith to 
the saving of tlie soul, gives proof hereunto. If the 
proof be not of the same faith whereof the proposi- 
tion is, it is to no purpose. 

OI)j. Many of the instances following in tliis chap- 
ter are of a miraculous faith. As Sarah bearing a 
child, ver. 11 ; Israel's jtassing through the Red Sea, 
ver. 29 ; the walls of Jericho falling down, ver. 30; 
and sundry others, ver. 33, 34, &c. 

Ans. The miraculous things there intim.ated were 
subordinate to the main promise of the Messiah ; 
for they, believing that princi[)al i)romise, did withal 
believe other things that for the present were requisite 
for them. 

Now the mixture of a miraculous faith doth not 
shoulder out a justifying and saving faith. There 
are many effects of a vegetative and sensitive soul in 
man, which are all comprised under the reason.able 
soul. So justifying faith e.vtends itself to all God's 

The first i)article in our English, nou>, is tlio note 
of an assumption in a syllogism. It is the interjjre- 

tation of the Greek conjunction bi, commonly trans- 
lated but, which is used to the same purpose. 

Tlie syllogism m.iy be thus framed : 

The just live by that which is the substance of 
things hoped for, ikc. 

Rut faith is the substance of things hoped for : 

Therefore the just live by faith. 

Sect. 3. Of faith being the substance of thiwjs \jiot'\ 

Of the Greek word hiroSTaeii, translated substance, 
see Chap. L 3, Sec. 21, and Chap. iii. 14, Sec. 152. 
In general, it sigiiifieth that which hath a subsistence 
or being ; that which is indeed, and .so subsisteth. 
Thus it is taken as it is simjily considered in itself. 
But as it hath reference to other things, it importeth 
that which giveth a kind of being to that whereunto 
it hath reference ; so as believers rest confident there- 
upon. In which respect this word is translated con- 
Jidence, Chap. iii. 14 ; 2 Cor. ix. 4, and xi. 17. 

This property or eftect, substance, is here attributed 
to faith in reference to the object thereof, which are 
things hoped for. Things hoped for are future, they 
are to come; but things to come have no present 

Quest. How can faith give a being to things that 
are not ? 

Ans. We speak not of a natural being in regard of 
the things themselves, as if faith did simply make 
that to be which is not : but of a being to tlie mind 
of the believer; which, if we may so speak, is a men- 
tal bci ng ; such a being as the believer is confident of, 
as if they had a natural present subsistence. This is 
not a mere imagination, but as true as anything can 
be. For faith resteth on the most principal and in- 
fallible truth that can be, namely, God's promise. 
What he promiscth shall without ijucstion be accom- 
jilishcd, and faith resteth upon it as accomplished. 

Th.at faith giveth a being to things that are not, 
is evident by the patriarchs' embracing the promises 
which they received not, ver. 13. ' In Christ are hid 
all the treasures of God;' and faith is that hand 
whereby Christ is received, Jvihn i. 12. Now all 
things tending to life, being in Christ, that which 
hath Christ hath all. 

Faith is herein much commended ; and that, 

1. By the excellency of it. It is a kind of creator, 
in giving a being to things. 

2. By the necessitj- ot it. Our chief happiness is 
to come; as perfection of sanctification, full freedom 
from all misery, resurrection of the body, eternal life. 
Faith gives a present being to all these. 

3. By the benefit thereof. Through faith we reap 
good by things before they are : for faith gives not 
only a title, but a kind of possession of that which 
we hope for. 

This giveth an answer to those that make temporal 
blessings the only ground of the faith of the ancient 

Yee. 1.] 


fathers: and that because evangelical and celestial 
blessings were not then exhibited. 

The answer is this — They hoped for those evan- 
gelical and celestial truths, and thereupon their faith 
gave a being unto them. In this respect 'the gospel 
was preached unto them,' Heb. iv. 2. 

Evangelical and celestial truths were promised be- 
forehand ; now faith giveth so full assent to that 
■which God hath promised, as it rests as confidently 
upon it before it be actually accomplished, as if it 
were indeed really accomplished. We may therefore 
conclude, that the ancient fathers who believed, made 
evangelical and celestial truths the object of their 
faith, and rested thereupon. 

A proper object of faith is that which is hoped for; 
and that is not seen, as is showed in Chap. vi. 19, 
Sec. 1.56. In this respect faith is the substance of it, 
and gives a being unto it. Thus there is a mutual 
relation betwixt faith and hope. ' We wait for the 
hope of righteousness by faith,' Gal. v. 5. See more 
hereof in The Whole Armour of God, Treat. 2, Part 7, 
on E]Dh. vi. 17, Sec. 3, 5. 

Sec. 4. Of faith an evidence of thimjs not seen. 

That faith which is the substance of things hoped 
for, is also 'an evidence of things not seen.' The 
noun 'iXiyynic, translated evidence, is derived from a 
verb i\iyy^(ii, that signifieth to convince, John viii. 9,46; 
James ii. 9. Thence this noun, that is here properly 
translated an evidence, which proveth and demon- 
strateth things to be so and so. Hereby it appeareth 
that faith doth as evidently convince the soul of the 
truth of things that are not seen, as if they were 
before a man, and he saw them with his eyes. Herein 
lieth a main difierence betwixt faith and sense, 2 Cor. 
V. 7. 

By things (oi jSXi'rro/ji.siuv) not seen are meant such 
as cannot be discerned with the eyes of the body ; be- 
cause they are either invisible in their nature, or kept 
some way or other from the eye of the body. Of 
this word, see Chap. ii. 9, Sec. 72. 

Quest. Wherein lieth the difference betwixt this 
fruit of faith, and the former part, and this ? 

Ans. The former speaks only of things to come: 
this of things past and present also, as well as to 
come. There are many things past and accomplished, 
which are not now seen ; as, the birth of Christ, his 
miracles, his death, and resurrection. There are also 
many things present that are not seen ; as, Christ's 
sitting at God's right hand, angels attending us, the 
souls of just men in heaven; yet faith gives evidence 
of the truth of all these, even such evidence, as they 
are as sure to believers that now live, as the things 
which Christ did on earth were to them who then 
saw them with their eyes, and as the things in heaven 
are to them in heaven. So as faith works assurance. 
This apostle attributes ' full assurance' to faith. See 
Chap X. 22, Sec. 65. 

In that the things whereof faith is an evidence are 
not seen, it is evident that invisibility maketh not 
things less credible; many evidences are given hereof 
in this chapter. This point is thus expressed to the 
life, ' Whom having not seen, ye love ; in whom, 
though ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice,* 
1 Peter i. 8. Christ taketh the point for granted in 
pronouncing them blessed ' who have not seen, and 
yet have believed,' John xx. 29. 

' Faith comes by hearing,' Rom. x. 17, not by 
sight, 2 Cor. v. 7 ; we hear of many things that we 
see not. 

This discovers the deceit of them, who so long as 
they see such and such objects, can believe, but will 
believe no further ; like Thomas, who said, ' Except 
I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, (fee, I 
will not believe,' John xx. 25. If God gave men 
health, peace, plenty, and all manner of pro.sperity, 
they will believe him to be their God : but if they 
see no external evidences of his favour, they will not 
believe on him. This is the common faith of most 
men. Herein they take away the difference betwixt 
fiiith and sight, 2 Cor. v. 7. 

It is faith's excellency to raise the soul above sight, 
and to support it against sense. True faith makes 
him that hath it believe that God is his loving Father, 
when he seems to be angry with him ; it makes him 
believe that he is in a blessed estate, though he be 
subject to many outward miseries. 

Well were the martyrs instructed herein. Had they 
not had evidence of things not seen, they wou'd never 
have endured what they did. This is rendered as the 
reason of Moses' enduring, ' He endured, as seeing 
him who is invisible,' ver. 27. Invisible comforts and 
recompenses swallowed up the terrors of those pre- 
sent trials which martyrs saw and felt. 

How much doth it now concern us to acquaint our- 
selves with things invisible, such as the word hath 
revealed for our stabihty ! This was it that kept 
Christians from fainting. They ' did look, not at the 
things which are seen, but at the things which are 
not seen,' 1 Cor. iv. 18. This made David, when he 
^Yas ' greatly distressed,' and saw no outward help, to 
' encourage himself in the Lord his God,' 1 Sam. 
XXX. 6. ' We know not what to do,' saith Jehosha- 
phat to God, in regard of outward helps, ' but our 
e)-es are upon thee,' 2 Chron. xx. 12. Thus may we 
be encouraged in all manner of cases that can here 
befaU us. 

Sec. 5. Of the resolution of, and observations from, 
Heb. xi. 1. 

Ver. 1. Xow faith is the substance of things hoped 
for, the evidence of things not seen. 

The sum of this verse is a description of faith. 

Herein two points are observable — 

1. The inference, in this note of assumption, Xow 
or but. 


I^Chap. XI. 

2. The substance ; whereof there are two branches. 

(1.) The point described, which isfiiit/t. 

(2.) The arguments wliereby it i.i described. These 
are two proiierties of faith, both amplified by their 
distinct object. 

The first pr^)perty is thus expressed, the substance. 

The object hereof is, things hoped for. 

The other property is thus expressed, the evidence. 

The object thereof is, things not seen. 

I. Helps prescribed are to he explained. This aris- 
eth from the inference, Now. See Sec. 2. 

II. Faith i'.5 a jirime grace. Tliis ariseth both from 
the description, and also from the large amplification 
thereof. See Sec. 2. 

III. Faith gii'es a being to future things. The 
word, substance, intends as much. See Sec. 3. 

IV. There is a miitnal relation betivi.rt faith and 
hope ; for they are future things hoped for, whereof 
faith is the substance. See Sec. 3. 

V. Faith U'orlcs a.^surance. This propert}', evidence, 
intends as much. Sec Sec. 4. 

VI. Things invisible are not incredible. Thoulgh 
they be not seen, yet is faith an evidence of them. 
See Sec. 4. 

Sec. G. Of the meaning of Hob. xi. 2. 

By it the elders obtained a good report. 

In this and the other verses following, the foresaid 
definition of faith is ami)lified and exemplified, and 
that by the virtue and efficacy of faith, manifested in 
sundry particulars. 

The first is a good report which it brought to 
saints that lived in former times. 

This relative, sv rai/rri, by it, or, in it, hath reference 
to that grace described in the former verse, which is 

The persons whoso faith is here commended, are 
styled T^ia^iiTisoi, elders. Both our English, and also 
the Greek word, is of the comparative degree. The 
positive, m'isjBu;, crjsffSiiT?ij, signifieth an old man, Luke 
i. 18. Men in place of dignity or authority have 
this title given unto them in the jjlural number,* 
and that in two especial respects : 

1. Because old men were fittest to have dignity and 
authority, by reason of their experience, which teach- 
eth wisdom, Job xxxii. 7, 1 Kings xii. 6. 

2. Because such honour was done unto them as 
useth to be done unto old men ; for old men, carry- 
ing gravity in their faces, use to be reverenced ; yea, 
the law requireth as much. Lev. xix. 32. 

The comparative here translated, elder, is attributed 
to men in regard of their age or office. In reference 
to age, both tliose that have attiuned to many years 
are so called, 1 Tim. v. 1, 1 Pet. v. 5, — in which 
sense ancient women have tliis title in the feminine 

' irpcapns. Trincipcs quil)iis ea icvercutia cxbibctur qure 
Bcnibus cxhiberi Bolet. — Ileaych. 

gender, •^r^ie^Cniai, given unto them, 1 Tim. v. 2, — 
and also they who are elder than others, in reference 
to the younger, are called elder, though they be not 
old in age, Luke xv. 2.5. They also who have lived 
in former times are called elders, in tliat the times 
wherein they lived were ancienter than our times ; 
especially such as were men of parts, of worth, of 
dignity, authority, or any other esteem. Thus is the 
word frequently used in the New Testament, JIat. xv. 2. 

In regard of office, men were called elders in refer- 
ence to civil and ecclesiastical matters. We read of 
'elders of the people,' Exod. xix. 7, Mat. xxi. 23, 
'elders of the town,' 1 Sam. xvi. 4, 'elders of the 
city,' Deut. xxi. 3, 'elders of the lands,' I Kings xx. 
7. These were elders for civil affairs. 

The elders of the Jews, who, in the Evangelists and 
Acts, are said to meet with priests, scribes, and other 
rulers, were for ecclesiastical aftairs ; for the civil 
power was then taken from the Jews. 

There were a number of these elders, which may 
be called senators, that made up a councO, which the 
Jews called Sanhedrim. Their greatest council con- 
sisted of seventy-one senators, which number is sup- 
posed to be ordered according to this direction which 
God gave to ]\Ioses, 'Gather unto me seventy men of 
the elders of Israel,' &c.. Num. xi. IG. Moses being 
added to these maketh up seventy-one. By elders ia 
this text are meant such as lived in former ages, be- 
fore the times wherein these Hebrews lived. We call 
such, ancestors, predecessors. 

The Rhemists translate them old men, which is ab- 
surd, obscure, and untnie. For all those elders that 
obtained a good report were not old men ; witness 
Enoch, compared to the other patriarchs before the 
flood. Gen. v. 23, Jonathan, Saul's son, 1 Sam. xxxi. 
2, Josiah, 2 Kings xxii. 1, Jeroboam's son, 1 Kings 
xiv. 13. They might be therefore young men, as 
well as old men, that are comprised under this word, 

The apostle useth this indefinite word, which ex- 
cludeth none that in former times believed, because 
there were many more that manifested the truth and 
vigour of their faith, besides those that are mentioned 
in the catalogue following. 

Of all of them it is said, they obtained a good re- 
port. This is the interpretation of one Greek word. 
The verb whence it is derived signifieth to witness a 
thing. See Chap. ii. 4, Sec. 30, and Chap. iii. 5, 
Sec. 53. 

It is here of the passive voice, and may word for 
word be thus translated, iiJ-a^ruiijOriaav, 2'estimonio or- 
7>ati sunt, were witnessed ; that is, had witness or testi- 
mony given unto them : they were approved, and 
honoured with testimony. Testiinonj' given is, under 
this jiassive word, frequcntlj' used in the New Testa- 
ment, in the better part, for a good and honourable 
testimony, as vcr. 4, Acts vi. 3, : nd xiii. 12, 1 Tim. 
V. 10. 

Vek. 2.] 


Quest. By what kind of testimony were those an- 
cients so honoured ? 

A ns. Both by God's testimony, and also by men's. 
God three ways gave good testimony unto them : 

1. He enabled them to do things worthy of good 

2. God gave inward testimony to their souls of his 
approving them, Acts xv. 8. 

3. God caused their names and memorable acts to 
be registered in the everlasting record, the sacred 

Men gave testimony of them, both while they lived 
and after they were dead. Such as lived in their 
time approved and commended them. Thus was wit- 
ness given to Cornelius by those that lived with him, 
Acts X. 22 ; and David had honourable testimony 
given to him by those that lived in succeeding ages. 

The ground of this good report is here said to be 
faith; 'by it they obtained a good report.' The Greek 
preposition, sv, in ('in faith'), carrieth emphasis : it im- 
plieth that the ground of all that made them to have 
that good report which they had, was in their faith. 
I will not deny but that the preposition, in, may here 
be put for hi/, as our English doth translate it, and so 
makes it answerable to the many evidences of faith 
■which are set down without a preposition, but imply- 
ing, by the case in which it is used, as much as this 
preposition doth, ' By faith Abel,' &c., ' By faith 
Enoch,' ifec, so in the rest. 

The preposition in is, in other Greek authors, also 
put for bi/. It is oft joined with an instrument,' or 
means of eflfecting a thing. So Beth (2) in Hebrew. 

Sec. 7. 0/ the resolution of, and observations from, 
Heb. xi. 2. 

The sum of the second verse is, a commendation of 
God's ancient people. 

The parts are two : 

1. The persons commended, elders. 

2. The matter of their commendation. Herein 

(1.) A testimony given unto them. They obtained a 
good report. 

(2.) The ground thereof, Bij it, namely, by faith. 

I. There mere of old men of worth. Such were the 
elders here mentioned. 

II. Worth of men had due testimonij. They obtained 
good report. 

III. Faith especially makes men prctiseworthy. By 
I it they had their good testimony. 

IV. Faith is a Catholic doctrine. The elders from 
the beginning of the world had learned it, and it is 
continued to these our days. 

Sec. S. Of the meaning of Heb. xi. 3. 
Ver. 3. Through faith we understand that the worlds 
' iv ^eXei irXaym. Tela percussus, — Eurip. 

were framed by the word of God, so that things which 
are seen tvere not made of things lohicli do apjiear. 

This verse gives another general proof of the virtue 
and vigour of faith. It is somewhat more general 
than the former. 

The former was restrained to elders. Tliis is so 
indefinitely set down as it is extended to all believers 
in all ages. 

The persons are not distinctly expressed, but com- 
p)rised under the first person plural of the verb, thus, 
vooviMiv, We understand. 

The verb, toi-ji, translated, Understand, is derived 
from a noun, vooi loDj, that signifieth the mind, Tit. 
i. 15. It importeth, therefore, an action of the mind. 
But in that it is here inferred upon faith, it appears 
that such an act is here meant, as is not wrought by 
the strength of natural reason, but by that credence 
which is given to the word of God, and from a per- 
suasion of the heart concerning the truth thereof. 

The word Tisru, faith, is here indefinitely used in 
the dative case, without any preposition at all, as in 
the other verses following. 

For there is a rhetorical figure, ava^osa, whereby 
all the distinct commendations of faith, in the several 
instances thereof, are set down in the beginning of 
every clause which setteth down a new instance. 

The word roiii aiSiiiiag, translated tvorlds, is the 
same that was used. Chap. i. 3, Sec. 1 8, and taken in 
the same sense — namely, for all manner of creatures. 

Of the worlds, it is here said that they were framed, 

Of the derivation and composition of this word, 
see Chap. xiii. 21, Sec. 172. It implieth a full and 
perfect finishing of a thing, so as there remaineth no 
want, no defect, no imperfection therein. Thus much 
doth the Hebrew word intend in this phrase, ' Thus 
the heaven and the earth were finished,' i^y) per- 
fecti sunt. Gen. ii. 1. 

The means of framing the worlds is here said to 
be, 'gri/j.aTi, the word of God. Some by the word of 
God here understand the Son of God, who is called 
the Word, John i. 1, of whom it is also said, that 'all 
things were made by him,' John i. 2. But there are 
two different terms in that and in this place, g^,(ia, 
y.Lyoi, used by the penmen of the one and the other, 
whereby they are distinguished in the Greek, though 
not in our English. So as there the author or efficient 
may be set forth, here the means of making the 
world. The term here used, g^j.aa, was used before, 
and applied to the providence of God, called ' the 
word of his power,' rSi \f\<j.a.ri tTh duvafucii;. See 
Chap. i. 3, Sec. 2.5. 

By God's word is here meant the manifestation of 
God's will. It is metaphorically spoken of God, and 
that after the manner of men, who ordinarily mani- 
fest their mind and will by their word. 

This point, that the world was made by God's word, 
gives proof of faith, and of the vigour thereof. For 


[Chap. XI. 

it may be evinced by reason that the world was^ 
made. JIaiiy philo.sopliers have demonstrated as 
much by arguments fetched from reason, lint that 
it should be made merely by tlie word of God is a 
point of faith. This is believed, because in sacred 
(Scripture it is so revealed. From that evidence of 
faith the apostle inferreth this consequeuce, 'so that 
things which are seen,' ifcc. 

Here must be supplied {az'o xohou), to make up the 
sense full and clear, the principal verb, in the former 
part of the verse ; as if it were thus set down, ' So 
that we understand that things which are seen,' <tc. 

For things were not made because we believe them, 
but because we believe that tiny were made by God's 
word, we understand ' that things which are seen, 
were not made of things which do appear.' Things 
seen, ra /S/.sTo'.afia, comprise all visible things, whether 
they be actually seen or no. This is the same word 
that was used. Sec. 4. It is not to be taken exclu- 
sively, as if it did e.xclude things invisible ; for all 
things, visible and invisible, were created, Col. i. 16, 
and that of nothing. But because the greatest ques- 
tion is about things visible, and such as are seen, ifiid 
because there is the most direct opposition betwixt 
things which are seen, and things which do not appear, 
he fitly useth this phrase, ' things which are seen.' 
Thus doth Moses exemplify the creation of the world in 
and by things that are seen : and these are the things 
which by philosophers are accounted to be created. 

The negative in this phrase, were not made, is to 
be referred to this verb, f a;io/x£»w», appear, as if it 
had been thus placed, ' were made of things which do 
not appear.' Though they were made, yet they were 
not made of anything that did or could appear. 
There was no pre-existent matter whereof they were 
made ; so as this phrase directly implieth, that the 
worlds were made of nothing. 

Because the jihilosopher could not by natural 
reason discern how anything could be made of 
nothing, he denied the creation of the world. But 
by faith we believe it, because God's word hath re- 
vealed as much. 

The very first plirase in Scripture, ' In the begin- 
ning,' intendeth as much. For before the begiiming 
of things, there could be nothing, but the Creator 
who gave them a being. If there were anything 
before, that had not been the begiiming. 

Tills instance of believing the world to be made of 
nothing, giveth proof of the latter clause of the de- 
scription of faith, ver. 1, namely, that it is 'the evi- 
dence of things not seen.' 

Sec. 9. 0/ the resolution of, and observations from, 
Ileb. xi. 3. 

This verse gives an evidence of the world's creation. 
Hereof are two jjarts : 
1. The evidence it.self. 

' Plato in Timao. 

2. An inference made thereupon. 
In setting down the evidence, four points are ob- 
servable : 

1. The thing evidenced. The worlds were framed. 

2. The means thereof, J]i/ the word of God. 

3. The kind of evidence. Faith. 

4. The manifestation thereof, We understand. 

In .setting down the inference, one thing is granted, 
another is denied. 

That which is granted, is, Tlutt things seen were made. 

That which is denied, is. That they were made of 
things which appear; for they were not made of such. 

I. The U'orld liad a beginning. This is here taken 
for granted. 

II. The worlds were made in their full perfection. 
The word translated, /crtmerf, implieth as much. 

III. God's XL'ord leas the only means of making the 
u'orld. This means is here expressed. 

IV. AH things tvere made of nothing. This is 
intended under this jjhrase, tvere not made of things 
wliich do appear. 

V. Faith gives evidence to creation. This is the 
main intendment of this verse. 

VI. Faith is in the understanding. Not that it is 
only there. It is also in the will. It worketh affiance 
as well as assent. But by faith we understand. 

Sec. 10. Of Cain and AbeVs names. 

Ver. 4. By faith Abel offered unto God a metre excel- 
lent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness 
that he tvas righteous, God testifying of his gifts : for 
by it he being dead, yet speaheth. Or, is yet spoken of. 

Here beginneth a particular exemplification of the 
effects of faith. This is set forth by a distinct enu- 
meration of such worthies as gave proof of their faith. 

Though every worthy be not here set down, yet I 
may well say tliat the chief and most principal are 
named. Others are comprised under general words, 
as elders, ver. 2 ; all these, ver. 13 ; prophets, ver. 32. 
They passed through the Bed Sea, ver. 29. And 
sundry efi'ects common to manj', ver. 33, itc. 

The first of all is Abel, who was the first son of 
man born of man that was born again, and was endued 
with a true, justifying, saving faith, as his faith here 
mentioned was ; which is evidenced by God's accept- 
ing him, and his sacrifice ; for ' without such a faith 
it is impossible to please God,' ver. 6. 

Abel, according to the Hebrew notation, signifieth 
vanity; for it is derived from a verb, 7^n, \yliii-h 
signifieth to become vain, Jer. ii. 5. A noun, "7311, 
hence derived, is used by the wise man to set out the 
vanity of this world, Eccles. i. 2. 

Some say that this name was given by a prophetical 
spirit, in reference to Abel's untimely death. But I 
su])pose rather that this name was given in acknow- 
ledgment of that vain mortal and miserable condition 
Mhercuuto luaukiud was brought by the first sin. 

Ver. 4.] 


There may be the same reason of the name of Adam'3 
grandchild, ii'^J^}, £>ins, Homo mktr, vet moi-taUs, 
■which also signifieth mortal, or miserable, Gen. iv. 2(3. 

Adam and Eve had a son before Abel : his name 
was T'p, Cain, which is a noun derived from a 
Hebrew verb, iljp, which signifieth, to get or obtain, 
or to /)o.s-6Y«'.s' what is gotten. By this name an ac- 
knowledgment was made of God's mercy and truth, 
in giving seed ; that so the accomplishment of the 
promise concerning seed, Gen. iii. 15, might be in 
confidence expected. The interpretation of this name, 
Cain, is thus expressed, ' I have gotten a man of the 
Lord,' Gen. iv. 1. 

These two names do give us to understand, that 
God's goodness, and man's wretchedness, are both 
worthy of frequent and serious meditation. The 
former raiseth up man's heart to admire God's good- 
ness, and to be thankful unto him. The latter strippeth 
man of all self-conceit, and humbleth him before God. 

Sec. 11. Of the diference betwixt Abel and Cain. 

The aforesaid two brothers, Cain and Abel, came 
from the loins of the same father, and out of the 
womb of the same mother, uteri /li. ilany are of 
opinion, that they were twins of a birth : because, it 
is said, ' Adam knew bis wife, and she conceived and 
bare Cain ;' but it is only said, that ' she again bare 
his brother Abel,' Gen. iv. i. 2. It is not again said, 
that Adam knew her again, and that she conceived 

Ans. This argument does not necessarily infer the 
foresaid point. It is no matter of great consequence 
to know whether they were twins or no. I will not, 
therefore, stand to discuss it. This is evident by the 
text, that both of them were the sons of Adam and 
Eve, and that Cain was the elder ; and probable it is, 
that these two were the first that ever came out of a 
mother's womb. 

Of the two, the younger was the better ; yet being 
younger in birth, he was inferior in dignity: for 
God himself said to Cain, in reference to Abel, ' Thou 
shalt rule over him,' Gen. iv. 7. 

By this first instance of difference betwixt persons, 
it plainly appears, that spiritual grace doth not always 
accompany external prerogatives. As here, God ac- 
cepted Abel before Cain, so Shem before Japheth, Gen. 
V. 32, and x. 21 ; and Jacob before Esau, Gen. xxvW. 
37 ; and Judah before his brethren, Gen. xlix. 8; and 
Joseph also, Gen. xxxvii. 7; and E|ihraim before 
Manasseh, Gen. xlviii. 19; and David before his 
brethren ; and Solomon before his, 1 Chron. xxvui. 
4, 5. See Ver. 32, Sec. 193. 

God is free in bestowing his grace on whom it 
pleaseth him. From God's preferring the younger 
before the elder, the apostle proveth the free grace of 
God, Eom. ix. 11, 12. 

This, in particular, warranteth parents to observe 
how grace aboundeth in some children above others, 

and answerably esteem them. See Bomest. Duties ; 
of Parents, Treat. 6, Sec. 67. 

In general, it directeth all how to set their hearts 
upon any, even as they see them seasoned with grace, 
Prov. xiL 26. Take heed of res2)ectiug men upon 
outward respects, James ii. 1. 

Sec. 12. Of God's church in Adam's family, and 
different ojferin/js. 

Of Abel it is said, that noocriviy/.i rif) ©ii, he offered 
unto God. 

Of this phrase, offering, and that to God, see Chap, 
v. 1, Sec. C. 

This is here set down as an act of piety and service 
performed to God. The like is implied of Cain. For 
if Abel offered a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, 
then Cain also offered, such as it was. But the his- 
tory expressly sets down that Cain brought an offer- 
ing to the Lord. Gen. iv. 3. 

It is probable that these brothers were yet of their 
father's family, and there did service to God ; so as 
Adam's house was God's church: whereby we may 
see the antiquity of the church, even from Adam's 
time. As this fir.st family was a church, so other 
families of the ancient patriarchs were churches. 

The church herein hath a pre-eminence above other 

Though both the foresaid brothers offered to God, 
yet both of them did it not with the same mind, and 
in the same manner. This is implied under this word 
of comparison, ■j>.iiova, more crcellent. Of the posi- 
tive whereupon this comparative, more excellent, or 
greater, is grounded, see Chap. x. 12, Sec. 120. 
They were of different dispositions. One was an 
errant hypocrite, the other an upright worshipper of 
God. Thus from the beginning it was showed, that 
God's church on earth is a mixed assembly. 

That this may here more distinctly appear, I will 

1. Wherein these two agreed. 

2. Wherein they differed. 
They agreed in three points : 

1. In their general action. They both drew near 
to God, and worshipped him. 

2. In the general matter of that action. They 
both brought an offering. 

3. In the general kind of their offering, which was 
of that which belonged to each of tht-m. Cain was a 
tiller of the ground, and he brought of the fruit of the 
ground ; Abel was a keeper of sheep, and he brought 
of his flock. Gen. iv. 3, 4. 

They differed, 1. In the distinct kinds of offering. 
Cain's was of the fruit of the ground, which was but 
a mere gift. Abel's was of the flock, which was a 
sacrifice slain. The notation of the Greek word in 
my text, 6ij«ia, translated sacrifice, implies as much. 
See Chap. v. 1, Sec. 7. 

2. la the manner of offering. Abel offered up his 


[Chap. XI. 

Bacrifice in faith, whereby he believed that God would 
pardon his sins, and accept of his person and ser\'ice. 
No such thing is imijlied of Cain. 

3. In the quality of their offering. ' Cain brought 
of the fruit of the ground : ' we read of no choice of 
any excellent fruit that he sliould bring. But Abel 
brought ' of the firstlings of his flock, and of the fat 
thereof.' These were the best and choicest. 

Sec. 1 3. Of the testimony tvhich faith brings. 

As Abel testified a good respect to God, so likewise 
God testified a good respect to him ; for ' he obtained 
witness that ho was riglitcous.' The ground hereof 
was his faith. For this relative, &i' rj;, lii/ ivhich, hath 
reference, not to sacrifice, but to faith: for this is an 
exemplification of that wluch was said of the elders, 
' By faith they obtained a good report :' as others, so 
Abel : as he obtained a good report, so he obtained it 
by faith. By a trvie justifying faith, the believer so 
applies Christ unto himself, as he resteth upon him, 
to be enabled to do that which is acceptable unto 
God, and therein to be accepted of God. 

This faith put Iiim on to offer a more excelleni*. 
sacrifice than Cain ; this faith in Christ moved God 
to give a gracious testimony of him. 

This phrase, he obtained tvitness, is the interpreta- 
tion of one Greek word, namely, lfjt.asTu^ri6ri, that which 
is before translated, obtained a good report, Ver. 2, 
Sec. 6. 

The testimony, or witness which he obtained, is 
thus expressed, ' that he was righteous.' Of this 
word, b'r/Mioi, righteous, see Chap. x. 38, Sec. 14:4. 

By faith lie applied to himself that righteousness of 
Christ, which made him righteous before God : and 
by the same faith he was put on to endeavour to do 
such duties of piety towards God, which appertained to 
him in his place, and withal .such duties of justice and 
mercy as made him be accounted righteous before men. 

This Tvitness of Abel's righteousness was given by 
God especially ; as it was before said of the witness 
which the elders received, Ver. 2, Sec. 6, so it may be 
here said of this witness which Abel received. 

This giveth instance, that even in God's account 
men in tliis world may be righteous. See more here- 
of, Chap. X. 38, Sec. 144. This testimony, 'that he 
was righteous,' hath an especial respect to his person, 
and tliat mu.st be by faith in the Lord Jesus. Thus 
it is said, that ' the Lord had respect unto Abel,' 
Gen. iv. 4, namely, unto his person. Nothing can 
here make us righteous before God but the righteous- 
ness of Christ applied by faith, 2 Cor. v. 21. 

To set out the foresaid witness more fully, the 
apostle addeth this, God testifying of his gifts. How- 
soever distinction may be made between sacrifices and 
gifts, as hath been showed in Chap. v. 1, Sec. 7, yet 
they arc also both taken in the same general sense. 
Sacrifices wore brought to God, and offered up to 
him, and in that respect were called gifts : so as God 

himself doth here witness, that men may give gifts to 
him. Hereof see,^ 

God's testifying of those gifts, was a manifestation 
of his accepting thereof : for it is expressly said, that 
God had respect to his offering. 

In two respects are the things which Abel offered 
to God called gifts. 

1. In regard of Abel's mind, he brought them in 
testimony of thankfulnes.s. 

2. In regard of God's mind, who accepted them as 

The twofold mentioning of witness conaavnmg Abel, 
hath reference to that double respect that in the his- 
tory of Abel the Li^rd is said to have. He ' had 
respect unto Abel,' namely, to his person, 'and to his 
offering :' this was his gift. 

By this witness it appears that God will have his 
children to know his mind towards them, that so they 
may be the better encouraged to go on in that course 
which is accei)table to God. 

Sec. 14. Of Abets spealdng, being dead. 

For greater commendation of Abel's faith, another 
kind of testimony is added, iu these words. By it, he 
being dead, yet speaketh. 

This is a perpetual testimony from Abel's death 
till the time that the apostle wrote, and so will 
continue to the end of the world. For the verb 
XaXiTrai, speaheth, being of the present tense, im- 
plieth a continued act ; so also doth this adverb 'in, yet. 

Of the word translated dead, see Chap. vii. 8, Sec. 
51. It is here meant of the death of his body, being 
slain by his brother Cain, Gen. iv. 8. 

Quest. How doth he speak, being dead ? 

A)is. 1. In that his faith, and the fruits thereof, 
are registered in the everlasting records of the Holy 
Scripture : and thereby he speaketh as evidently as if 
we heard his voice. 

2. In that his innocent blood being wrongfully 
spilt, cried to God for vengeance, Gen. iv. 10. Yea, 
still it remaineth crying against all such fratricides 
and homicides, as Cain was : in which respect Christ 
saith to the murdering Jews, that ' upon them should 
come all the righteous blood slied upon the earth, 
from the blood of righteous Abel,' Mat. xxiii. 3J. 

3. In that his soul is among those souls wliich cry 
aloud, saying, ' How long, O Lord, dost thou not 
judge and avenge our blood?' &c., Kev. vi. 9. 

He is said to speak by faith: because, as he offered 
his sacrifice by faith, and by faith obtained witness; 
so by faith he connnended himself to God, even when 
he was under his brother's hands, as Stephen did when 
the malicious Jews stoned him. Acts vii. 59, and there- 
upon God took special care of him, to testify not only 
of his gifts while he lived, but also of his innocency 
in his death, and causeth all to be remembered iu his 
church throughout all generations. 

' Kcfercnce omitted in original edition.— En. 

Vee. 5.] 


Sec. 15. Of the resolution of , and observations fro7n, 
Heb. si. L 

la this verse is a commendation of Abel's faith. 
His faith is commended two ways, 

1. Comparatively. 

2. Simply. 

The comparisor>. Is betwixt him and his brother. 
Wherein '■t;,erve, 

1 . i'he persons, set down by their names — A bel, Ca in. 

2. By their act. Herein observe, 
(1.) Wherein they agreed. 

(2.) Wherein they differed. 

They agreed, 

[1.] In their act. They offered unto God. 

[2.] In the subject-matter of the act — a sacrifice. 

They differed, 

[1.] In the matter of their sacrifice, implied in this 
word of comparison, more excellent. 

[2.] In the manner of offering; Abel did it by 
faith, Cain not so. 

The commendation of Abel's faith simply set down, 
is by witness. This is twofold ; partly while he was 
alive, partly after he was dead. 

The former is, 

1. Propounded. 

2. Amplified ; and that by two ways. 

(1.) By the subject-matter which was witnessed. 
This is double. 

[1.1 Concerning his person, that he was righteous. 

[2.J Concerning his gifts. 

(2.) By the author of the witness, God testifying. 

The testimony given after he was dead, is set out 
two ways. 

1. By the evidence of his innocency, he speal-etk. 

2. By the continuance thereof, in this particle, yet. 
Both these are ampUfied by the ground of them, 

■which was faith, in this relative, by it. 

I. God's truth, in accomplishing his loord, is to be 
remembered. The meaning of this name, Cain, im- 
porteth thus much. 

II. Man's vanity is to be oft considered. The mean- 
ing of this name, Abel, importeth so much. 

III. The church is an ancient society; it hath been 
from the beginning of the loorld. That which is here 
noted of Cain's and Abel's offering, implieth that the 
first family that ever was, was a church. 

IV. God's church did ever consist of a mixed society ; 
there were good and evil persons in it. This was 
evidenced in the first church that ever was. 

v. It is faith that commends a nuin and his actions. 
Thus is Abel here commended. 

VI. Believers tvill offer lohat is due to God. It is 
here said of Abel, he offered unto God. 

VII. Expiation for sin was sought by believers from 
the beginning of the world. Abel by offering a sacri- 
fice shewed as much. 

VIII. A hyiMcrite may perform external loorship. 

So did Cain. For this particle ■nu^a, tluin, taketh it 
for granted that Cain offered. 

IX. Hypocrites can be at some cost with God. For 
Cain offered. 

X. Hypocrites can bring to God of that which is 
their own. For the history testifieth that Cain brought 
of the fruit of the ground, whereof he was a tiller, 
Gen. iv. 2, 3. 

XI. Believers give their best to God. This is implied 
under this comparative, more excellent, and expressly 
set down in the history. Gen. iv. 4. 

XII. Believers content not themselves with that which 
hypocrites do. Abel's sacrifice was more excellent. 

XIII. Faith addeth worth to the duties tee do. By 
faith was Abel's sacrifice the greater. 

XIV. Grace followeth not external privileges. Cain 
was the elder, but Abel the better, Prov. xii. 2G. See 
Sec. 11. 

XV. Faith is a means of gaining good testimony. 
By it Abel obtained witness. 

XVI. Men may in this world be righteous. So was 

XVII. 3Ien's pel-sons are first a2)2)roved of God. God 
witnessed that Abel was righteous, thereupon his sacri- 
fice was accounted e.xcellent. ' The Lord had respect 
unto Abel and his offering.' Fh'st to his person, then 
to his service. Gen. iv. 4. 

XVIII. God ivill that saints know his mind. This 
was the end of God's testifying of Abel. 

XIX. Gifts may by men be given to God. Abel gave 
gifts to God. 

XX. Saints are subject to death. It is here said of 
righteous Abel that he was dead. 

XXI. Saints are subject to a violent death. Abel 
was slain by his brother Cain, Gen. iv. 8. 

XXII. Saints live after death. That particular of 
Abel's speaking being dead, giveth proof to this general. 

XXIII. Innocent blood crieth for vengeance after it 
is shed. This is one respect wherein Abel is said to 
speak being dead. In reference hereunto, the dif- 
ference is made betwixt the blood of Christ and the 
blood of Abel, Heb. xii 24. 

XXIV. C)\>/ of blood continueth to the tvorld's end. 
This particle, yet, intends as much. 

XXV. Faith causeth a good memorial after death. 
By it Abel stiU speaketh. 

Sec. 16. Of Enoch, and his name. 

Ver. 5. By faith Enoch was translated that he 
should not see death; and toas not found, because God 
had translated him : for before his translation he had 
this testimony, that he had jjleased God. 

The second worthy produced for exemplification of 
the \irtue of faith is Enoch. He was indeed the 
seventh from Adam, Jude 14. And no doubt but that 
Adam himself, and the five betwixt Adam and Enoch, 
were all pious men and believers. But the Holy 
Ghost having recorded no memorable effects of their 



[Chap. XI. 

faith, the apostle passeth them over. See ver. 32, 
See. 192. 

After Knos was born, it is said, that ' then began 
men to call upon the name of the Lord,' Gen. iv. 26. 
But it is not said that Enos brought them so to do. 
Therefore tliat act cannot properly and necessarily be 
ap])lied to him. 

From the apostle's passing over so many betwixt 
Abel and Ent)ch, and others in other places, we may 
infer, that it is a point of wisdom to content our- 
selves with such matters as the Holy Ghost hath 
thought meet to relate. This is to ' be wise,' or to 
imderstanil ' according to sobriety,' f)^civtTii ii; to eta- 
fiovuv, Worn. xii. 3. 

The particular person here commended is Enoch. 
Thi.s is a Hebrew name, derived from a verb that 
signifieth to deJictte, and may be interpreted, dedi- 
cated. His condition did fitly answer his name ; for 
of all the patriarchs he was most especially dedicated 
to God : as the tcstimonj' of his walking with God, 
and of God's taking him to himself, giveth evidence. 

There were others of his name, as Cain's first son : 
who also gave the same name to a city that he built,* 
Gen. iv. 1 8. And Abraham's grandchild by Keturah, 
Gon. XXV. 4, and Reuben's eldest son, Gen. xlvi. 9. 
But the translating of that Enoch which is here 
mentioned, sheweth that it is he which was the 
seventh from Adam who is here meant. 

The same faith before spoken of, even a justifying 
faith, resting <m the promised Messiah, is here with- 
out all contradiction meant. For by it he pleased God. 

Sec. 1 7. Of Enoch's translation. 

The evidence of Enoch's faith is thus expressed, 
Enocli was translated. 

Of the meaning of the word f/,iTeTi6ri, see Chap. vi. 
17, Sec. 13.5, and Chap. vii. 12, Sec. 07. It is 
applied sometimes to things translated from one kind 
or condition unto another, as where it is said, ' the 
priesthood was changed,' Heb. vii. 12. And the 
Galatians were removed from their former teacher, 
Gal. i. G. Or from one place to another, as the 
patriarchs were carried out of Egypt into Sychcm, 
Acts vii. IG. Here it imi)licth both. For Enoch 
was translated from earth to heaven, and the mortality 
of his body was translated into immortality. For 
this end of his translation is thus expressed, that he 
should not see death. 

The translation here meant was both in body and 
soul ; from earth into heaven. Such a translation as 
Elijah's was, 2 Kings ii. 11. 

'I'lie distinct manner of translating Enoch, is not so 
punctually set down as that of Elijah's, 2 Kings ii. 11. 

We read of Christ, that he also was taken up body 
and soul into heaven ; but it was after his diath and 
resurrection, wherein his ascension differed from the 
translation of these two, Acts i. 9. 

These two, Enoch and Elijah, arc the only instances 

that have been given of God's extraordinary power in 
this kind since the beginning of the world. 

Papists have fabulously recorded much of the as- 
sumption of the Virgin Mary, but without all warrant. 

Those two before menti<med were before Christ's 
time ; and that they might be special evidences of the 
body's fruition of eternal life, together with the soul 
in heaven. 

Enoch was in the first age of the world, before 
there was distinction of Jew and Gentile : and so an 
instance of the glorification of body and soul to the 
whole world. To assure them the more thereof, 
while he was on earth, ho ]irophcsicd of the Lord's 
coming to judgment, Jude 11. 

Elijah was in that age wherein the partition wall 
stood between the Jew and Gentile : so as he was a 
special instance thereof to the church of Israel 

ChrLst's ascension was yet a more pregnant proof 
thereof, and that to all nations to the end of the 
world. For as he was seen in his body animated by 
his soul, to ascend into heaven : so after his ascension 
was he seen in that body to be in heaven by Stephen, 
Acts vii. 5G. And by Paul, Acts xxii. 14, 17. 

There shall be at the moment of Christ's coming 
to judgment, a like, but a more universal rapture ; 
for all then li\-ing shall with their bodies and souls 
united, be rapt up to the judgment-seat of Christ. 
' We shall be changed,' saith tlie apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 
52, changed both in our place and in our condition, 
as Enoch was. 

Sec. 18. Of Enoch's not seeing death. 

The translation of Enoch is much amplified by this 
end thereof, ' that he should not see death.' 

This phrase, ,«.!? Iduv, not see death, is a Hebra- 
ism ;' death thereby is resembled to an enemy : not 
seeing, to an absolute freedom. He should be so 
far from being taken and seized upon by death, as he 
should not see death ; death should not come near 
him. Thus it is .said of those that have nothing to 
do with the kingdom of God, ' they cannot see the 
kingdom of God,' John iii. 3. To clear this a little 
further, Christ useth these two phrases, 'shall never 
see death,' 'shall never taste of death,' John viii. 51, 
52, at the same time, as setting forth one and the 
same thing, one expounding the other. A'oi to taste 
of a thing, is to have nothing at all to do with it. 
To taste is the least degree of i)articipation. Because 
that no other but only those which have been men- 
tioned shall be free from death (for it is appointed 
unto men once to die, Heb. ix. 27), it is said, 'What 
man is he that livetli, and shall not see death?' into 
whose sight death shall not come, and seize upon him, 
Ps. Ixxxix. 48. The psalmist c.xchideth all men, except 
before excepted, from the privilege of not seeing death ; 
so as it was a singular and an especial prerogative. 

As an evidence that Enoch was taken away in bis 
I iSciy, Videre ab ipdu, Chap. iii. 8, Sec. C8. 

Ver. 5.] 



very body, so as bis soul only was not translated, and 
his body left on eiU-tb (for that had been, to be dead) : 
but that his body also was transhitcd, whereby he 
was freed from deiith, it is here added, that ovy^ 
ib--i(!KiTo, lie ?('((« not fowid. 

The Hebrew thus expresseth it, 1jJ''X1, and he icns 
not. This phrase is put for such as are missing, and 
can hardly, if at all, be had again ; being either on 
earth kept from one, as Simeon was in Egypt kept 
fast from his father ; or by death taken away, as 
Jacob supposed Joseph to be. Gen. xlii. 3G. 

The LXX.i interpret that phrase, he was not, 
thus : lui/tsy.iro, he was not found. Whom the apostle 
f(_)lluweth : well knowing that it fully expresseth the 
sense of the text. For it is probable that they who 
lived with Enoch, missing liim, did search for him, as 
the children of the prophets did for Elijah after he 
was taken into heaven, 2 Kings ii. 17. 

This phrase then sheweth that he was no more on 
earth, nor ever shall be. If the living cannot be 
found amongst the dead, Luke xxiv. 5, much less can 
saints glorified in heaven be found here on earth. 

This, among other arguments, doth clearly disprove 
the Popish conceit about Enoch and Elias, their reser- 
vation in the earthly paradise, and their being the 
two witnesses that shall oppose Antichrist, and be 
slain.^ Because that which is related of Enoch is 
extraordinary, the apostle renders such a reason 
thereof as is enough to stop the mouth of any gain- 
sayer, and to work credence in those who bear any 
respect to God. The reason is thus expressed, ' be- 
cause God had translated him.' 

This word, /i£r£()»;x£, translated, is the same verb 
that was before used in this verse, and to be taken in 
the same sense. 

He was translated from a mortal condition to an 
immortal, and from place to place, even from earth to 

The Hebrew word, r(p7, used in this point, signi- 
fieth to take, and it is frequently used of taking a 
person or a thing to one's self : as Isaac tooh Rebekah, 
Gen. XXV. 20. Now it was God that thus translated 
him, and took him to himself, for God hath power to 
preserve from death whom he will, and to settle any 
man where he will. He hath not tied himself to 
those bounds wherewith he hath limited his creatures. 
Enoch by faith in God was translated, and we by 
faith do understand that he was translated. 

Sec. 1 9. Of Enodis pleasing God. 

As the apostle rendered the reason of Enoch's trans- 
lation, to rest in God, who translated him ; so he 
further renders the reason why God translated him, 
namelj', because he had pleased God. The causal par- 
ticle, yao, for, demonstrateth as much. 

' Of the LXX., see Cbap. i. 6, Sec. 72. 
' Bellarm. De Bom. Pontif, p. iii. cap. 6. Sander. De- 
monst., 26. Bliemist. Annot. on Apoc, xi. 3. 

This is further manifested by the order of setting 
down this point, in this phrase, before his translation. 

This noun, //.irdheii, translation, is derived from 
the same verb that was used twice before. It is also 
used before, Chap. vii. 12, Sec. G7. 

Before this act of God, Enoch did that which 
moved God to translate him. So much is here ex- 
pressly set down in the reference of this preposition, 
C3^, before, and implied by the verb of the time past, 
had pleased. So as in his lifetime, before he received 
any recompense, he did that which was acceptable to 
the Lord. Work must be done before reward can be 
expected. See Chap. x. 36, Sec. 130. 

That which Enoch did is expressed under this 
phrase, luriotarrixitai rcJ 0sw, pleased God. 

The verb is a compound. The simple verb, a^Ksnu 
out of which it is ct)mpounded, signifieth to 2ilease, 
Gal. i. 10. The preposition, eu, with which it is 
compounded, signifieth well. So as it addeth much 
emphasis to the word, and implieth that Enoch was 
very circumspect over himself, and careful in all 
things to do that which was acceptable unto God ; 
that was, well to please him. This word is used to 
set out God's approbation of works of mercy, Chap, 
xiii. 16, Sec. 146. 

Enoch did the rather please God, because he 
' walked before God,' and that continually ; for so 
much doth that conjugation, Ilithpael, wherein the 
Hebrew word is expressed, imply, as is largely shewed 
in the Saint's Sacrifice, on Ps. cxvi. 9, Sec. 58. 

Enoch had God always in his eyes, whether he were 
alone, or in company, about duties of piety, or other 

Thereby he was moved carefully and conscionably 
to avoid w-hat might be displeasing unto God, and dili- 
gently to do what was agreeable to the will of God. 

To give further evidence to the truth hereof, it is 
said that he had testimony hereof. The same verb 
in Greek, /n/iagTUirsTai, is here used, that was before 
used, ver. 2, Sec. G, and taken in that sense. He 
had the testimony of men and God. Of men, by 
bearing witness unto him, and highly esteeming him ; 
of God, by an inward witness of God's Spirit in his 
own conscience, and by God's ajiproving him. 

Enoch in his lifetime prophesied of the coming of 
the Lord to judgment, Jude 14. 'Wliereby it ap- 
pears that he had the day of judgment in his mind ; 
and by a consideration thereof, he might be the rather 
moved to seek in all things, well to please the Lord. 

Sec. 20. Of the resolution of, and observations from, 
Heb. xi. 5. 

In this verse we have a reward of Enoch's faith. 
Hereof are two parts, 

1. The kind of reward. 

2. The ground thereof. 
The kind of reward is, 

(1.) Propounded in this phrase, he was translated. 



[Chap. XI. 

(2.) Amplified l)y the end, and Ly the author of his 

In declaring the end, is set out, 

[1.] The e.xtent of his translation; he was so trans- 
lated, as he shonld not see death. 

[2.] The evidence thereof; lie toas not found. 

The author of his translation was God, who is here 
named, to manifest the truth thereof; because God 
had translated him. 

In setting forth the ground of his reward, is de- 

[1.1 What Enoch had done; he had 2)leased God. 

[2.J The time when he did it ; hefore his transla- 

[3.] The evidence thereof; he had testimony. 

I. Faith hringeth reward. By faith Enoch had the 
reward here mentioned. 

II. To be translated from earth to heaven is a great 
reward. In this sense it is here set down. 

III. The best livers are not the longest livers. Enoch 
■was one of the best of the patriarchs that lived before 
the flood, yet lived the fewest years of them aU. 

IV. It is a great favour to be exempted from death. 
Herein God testified his favour to Enoch. 

V. They who are in heaven cannot be found on earth. 
Enoch, being translated, toas not found. 

VI. God can give extraordinary reicards. This 
reward was extraordinary; therefore it is said that 
God translated him. 

VII. Work is before reward. So much is here 

VIII. They that please God shall surely be rewarded. 
This is here noted as the ground of Enoch's reward. 

IX. Who ivalk ivith God jilease him. This apjiears 
by the apostle's interpreting Enoch's walking with 
God, to be a pleasing of him. 

X. They who 2)lease God shall not want witness. 
Enoch, which did so, had testimony thereof. 

Sec. 21. Of pleasing God by faith. 

Ver. 6. But ivithout faith it is impossible to please 
him : for he that cometh to God must believe that he 
is, and that he is a reivarder of them that diligently 
seek him. 

This verse hath especial reference to the last clause 
of the former verse, and is a j)roof of this main point, 
that Enoch by faith pleased God. The argument is 
drawn from tlie impossibility of the contrary. It is 
impossible without faith to please God. Therefore 
Enoch, who had this testimony that he pleased God, 
had faith. Faith in this place is to be taken as it 
was in the first verse, .and in other verses following : 
and in all those places it is taken, as hero, for a justi- 
fying faith, as the effects thereof, following in this 
verse, do prove. 

Of this word, imjiossible, see Chap. vi. 4, Sec. 38. 

Here it is taken ou supposition of man's corrupt 

nature. So corrupt is man in soul and body, in every 
power and part of either, and so polluted is every- 
thing that passeth from him, as it Ls not po.ssible that 
he sliould of and by himself do anything that is ac- 
ceptable unto God : but fixith lookcth upon Christ, 
applieth Christ and his righteousness, and doth all 
things wherein he hath to do with God, in the name 
and through tlie mediation of Jesus Christ. Thus 
man by faith pleaseth God. Out of Christ, which is 
without faith, it is impossible to please God. This 
mauifesteth an absolute necessity of faith. See The 
Whole Armour of God, Treat. 2, Part 6, on Eph. vi. 
IG, Sec. 8, of Faith. 

That which is not possible to attain unto, is to 
please God. As the English, so the Greek word, fiajs- 
(STr,<sai, translated to please, is the same that was used 
in the former verse, i-jrisieTr^xivai, and here taken in 
the same sense, with the same emphasis. It implieth 
a performance in the agent, or him that doeth a thing; 
and an acceptance in the object, or him to whom it 
is done. 

That object is here implied under this relative /a';«; 
which hath reference to God, mentioned in the last 
words of the former verse, and in the clause next fol- 
lowing in this verse : for it is God whom Enoch 
jsleased, whereof this verse is made a jsroof, and it is 
he whom we ought all to please. 

There are four things which nmst concur to please 
God; all which are accomplished by faith, and by 
nothing else. 

1 . The person of him that pleaseth God, must be 
accepted of God. ' Unto the pure all things are pure,' 
Titus i. 15. ' God had respect unto Abel,' Gfu. iv. 4. 

2. The matter that pleaseth God must be agreeable 
to his will, Heb. xiii. 21. The ajrostle thereupon 
exhorteth to ' prove what is the good, and acceptable, 
and perfect will of God,' IJom. xii. 2. 

3. The manner of doing that which pleaseth God, 
must be with due respect to God : and that is in 
these and other like particulars : — 

(1.) In obedience to God : because he hath com- 
manded it. In this ease we must say as Peter did, 
' At thy word I will do it,' Luke v. 5. This is to do 
it ' for conscience' sake,' and 'for the Lord's sake,' 
Rom. xiii. 5; 1 Peter ii. 13. 

(2.) In humility, denying of ourselves, and all 
conceit in ourselves, as he that said, ' Not I, but tho 
grace of God which is with me,' 1 Cor. xv. 10. 

(3.) In sincerity, as having to do with him that 
searchetli the heart. Thus did Ilezeldah, Isa. xx.x\'iii. 3. 

(4.) With sedulity : like the two faithful servants 
with whom the Lord was well jjleased ; but not like 
the slothful servant. Mat. xxv. 20, iSrc. 

(5.) With alacrity and cheerfulness : forGodloveth 
a clieerful giver, 2 Cor. ix. 7. 

(G.) Within compass of our calling, 1 Cor. vu. 17. 

(7.) With constancj'. If any draw back, God's 
soul will have no pleasure iu him, Heb. ix. 38. 

Ver. 6.] 



(8.) In assurance, that God, who accepteth the 
person, accepteth also the work that is done. Hereby 
did Manoah's wife infer that God was pleased with 
that which they did, Judges xiii. 23. 

4. The end, which is God's glory, 1 Cor. x. 31. 

The foresaid four general points are those four 
causes whereby everything is made perfect. 

Faith is the means whereby all of them may be 
effected and accomplished. 

1. By faith in Christ the person is accepted of 
God, Eph. i. G. 

2. Faith makes men subject themselves to God's 

3. Faith makes men have respect, even to the 
manner of what they do to Godward ; that it be done 
in obedience, in humility, in sincerity, with sedulity, 
with alacrity, orderly, constantly, and with assurance 
of God's acceptance. All these may be exemplified 
in Enoch. 

4. Faith, of all graces, most aimeth at God's glory. 
Abraham, ' being strong in faith, gave glory to 

Sec. 22. Of believing that God is. 

The apostle giveth a proof of this assertion, that it 
is impossible without faith to please God. His proof 
is this, ' For he that cometh unto God, must believe 
that he is.' 

The proof is applied to such as come to God. This 
word, 'jroosis^o/j.svov, he that cometh, is metaphorical, 
setting forth such as have to do with God in prayer, 
in praise, or in any other service. Of the composi- 
tion of it, and further meaning of it, see Chap. vii. 
25, Sec. 104. 

That which is required of such as come to God, is, 
to believe that God is. It is in vain for any to go to 
one whom they do not believe to be. But this is not 
simply and barely to be taken of the being of God : 
for by reason, and philosophical arguments, it may be 
demonstrated that there is a God, and that God is ; 
but that which is here spoken of, is an act of faith. 
It must, therefore, more distinctly be taken ; namely, 
that he is the true God, the only true God, such a God 
as he hath revealed himself to be.i If we repeat this 
title, God, and set it after this relative, he, thus, 'He 
that cometh unto God must believe that he is God,' 
the sense will somewhat more clearly appear. So as 
God must be believed to be as he is, or as he hath 
manifested himself to be. Thus Abraham believed 
God to be. Gen. xv. 6. 

To believe God otherwise, is to make him an idol, 
Rom. i. 21, that is, to beHeve him to be nothing, 1 
Cor. viii. 4. 

It standeth us, therefore, in hand well to be in- 
formed about God : and that as he hath made himself 

' Debitor est is qui accedit ad Dcum ut credat quod sit, et 
lis qui quEerunt se futurus sit remuncrator. — Sic Trcmel. In- 
terpret. Syrum. 

known to us in his word. 'Search the Scriptures;' 
they are they which testify of him, John v. 39. 

Here might occasion be taken of setting forth God 
in his nature, persons, properties, and works, whereby 
in the word he is made known unto us. 

This point is the rather to be observed, because of 
the necessity that lieth upon it, implied in this word, 
hiT, must ; it will be otherwise altogether in vain to 
come unto God. 

Of the word translated must, as it setteth forth 
sometimes a necessity, sometimes a duty, see Chap, 
ii. 1, Sec. 3. 

Sec. 23. Of God a reioarder. 

The apostle setteth forth another evidence of a true 
believer ; namely, that he believeth that God is a re- 
warder of them that seek him. So as by faith a man 
doth not only understand God to be the true God, as 
he hath set forth himself in his word ; but also rest- 
eth on him for acceptance: which the apostle thus 
expresseth, that he is a rewarder, &c. 

The Greek word, ij,i(!0a^ob6rrii, is a compound, 
whereof see Chap. ii. 2, Sec. IG ; word for word it 
signifieth a giver of a reivard. The noun carrieth a 
kind of emphasis with it, and sheweth that God 
layeth this as a charge upon himself, and takcth it as 
his function, to render a reward, Ps. Ixii. 12. This 
is an undoubted evidence of his being well pleased 
with them among whom he executeth his function. 

This God taketh upon him, 

1. That every one might have a reward. No crea- 
ture can be too great to be rewarded of him, and the 
greatest needs his reward ; yea, he can reward wlwlo 
families, churches, and nations. On the other side, 
God is so gracious, as he accounteth none too moan 
to be rewarded of liim. ' He raiseth up the poor out 
of the dust, and Ufteth up the beggar from the dung- 
hill,' 1 Sam. ii. 8. When Dives and all his house 
neglected Lazarus, the Lord looked upon him, and 
gave his angels charge over him, Luke xvi. 21, 22. 

2. That believers might be sure of their reward. 
For God is faithful, Heb. x. 23. He will not fail to 
perform what he undertaketh. This the apostle 
would have Christians to know, Eph. vi. 8. 

3. That the reward might be worth the having. 
For God in his rewards considereth what is meet for 
his excellency to give, and accordingly proportions his 
reward. As a king, when he would reward a faithful 
servant, he contents not himself to give him a little 
money, but rather gives high honours and dignities, 
great lordships, fair possessions, many immunities and 
pri\'ileges, gainful offices, and other like royal rewards 
which beseem a king to give. Instance Pharaoh's 
reward to Joseph, Gen. xli. 41 ; Nebuchadnezzar's 
to Daniel and his three companions ; Darius's also to 
Daniel ; and Ahasuerus's to Jlordecai. As God ex- 
ceedeth these and all other monarchs in greatness, so 
will he exceed them in this kind of goodness. 



[Chat. XI. 

1. This givcth evidence, that 'the eyes of the Lord 
are in every place, beholding the evil and the good,' 
Prov. XV. .'i, and that he kiioweth how to put differ- 
ence betwixt the good and evil, 2 Pet. ii. 9. 

2. This may encourage believer.s against the ignor- 
ance, inipotcncy, forgetfulness, ingratitude, mis-con- 
ceit, envy, malice, and persecution of men. 

(1.) Some men are ignorant of the faithfulness of 
them whom they should reward ; as Potiphar was 
ignorant of Joseph's faithfulness. Gen. xxxix. 19. 

(2.) Others are not able to do what is meet. 

(3.) Others forget kindnesses done; as Pharaoh's 
butler. Gen. xl. 23. 

(4.) Others are ungrateful. 

(5.) Others wink at, and will not see that which 
should be rewarded ; as Nabal, 1 Sum. xxv. 10. 

(G.) Others envy at goodness and faithfulness; as 
Saul, 1 Sam. xviii. 9. 

(7.) Others malign men for their goodness ; as the 
Pharisees did Christ, Mark iii. 22. 

(8.) Others persecute them ; as the Jews did 
Jeremiah, Jcr. xxvi. 8. 

It is in these and sundry other respects requisite,^ 
that we believe God to be a rewarder. 

The apostle setting this down as a duty, giveth 
evident proof that reward may be aimed at. See 
Chap. vi. 15, Sec. 1-19. 

Sec. 24. Of seeking God. 

The persons that may expect reward from God, are 
thus sot down, them that diUcjenthj seek him. This is 
the interpretation of one Greek word, but a compound 
one, Ez^jjroCiJ;. The simple verb, Zrynii, signifieth to 
seek, Mat. vii. 7. The preposition ix, with which it is 
compounded, signifieth out. The compound ex^riTiai, 
signifieth to seek out, to seek till one find ; to seek 
earnestly and diligently. Thus men are said to 'seek 
after the Lord,' Acts xv. 17, and the prophets are 
said thus to seek after the salvation promised, 1 Pet. 
i. 10. 

To express the emphasis of the word, our English 
translators insert this adverb, ddigently. To these is 
the reward here appropriated. Closes doth to the 
life thus express this point; 'If thou shalt seek the 
Lord thy God, thou shalt find him, if thou seek him 
with all thy heart, and with all thy soul,' Deut. iv. 
29. In reference to the reward here appropriated to 
such, it is said, ' They that seek the Lord shall not 
•want any good thing,' I's. xxxiv. 10. 

1. Let none but such e.vpect reward from God. 

2. Let this stir us up to use our best endeavour so 
to find the Lord, as we may rest upon hiui, and make 
him our reward. Of man's endeavour after that which 
is for his own advantage, see Chap. iv. 11, Sec. 03. 

Sec. 25. Of the resolution of, anil observations from, 
Heb. xL 6. 

litU without faith it is impossible to plexse him : 

for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and 
that he is a rewarder of them that diligetitly seek him. 
This declaretii the benefit of faith. This is, 

1. Pro])ounded. 

2. Confirmed. 

In jiropounding of it, there is set down, 

1. The matter wherein that benefit consisteth, that 
is, to pleaise God. 

2. The necessity of the means for attaining that 
benefit. This is set down in two negatives, ivithout 
it, it is imposaihle. 

The confirmation is taken from the reward of faith. 
For attaining hereunto, two acts of faith are set 

1. To believe that God is God. This is amplified 
two ways, 

(1.) By the person that so believes, lie that cometh 
unto God. 

(2.) By the necessity of it, in this word, must. 

2. To believe that God is a reiuarder. This is 
amplified by the object, or persons whom he reward- 
eth, them that diliijenlli/ seek him. 


I. By faith men please God. This is here taken 
for granted. 

II. There is a necessity of using warrantable means. 
It is impossible otherwise to prevail. 

III. Men have access to God. This is here taken 
for granted under this phrase, he that cometh to God. 

IV. God is to be believed to be as he is. This 
phrase, that he is, intends as much. 

V. It is no arbitrary matter to believe in God aright. 
A must is put upon it. It is a bounden duty. 

VI. God is the rewarder. This must be believed. 

VII. God rtwardeth such as seek him. This is 
here jilainly expressed. 

VIII. God must be sought out. The emphasis of 
the Greek word implies as much. AVe must do our 
uttermost in seeking him till we find him. 

IX. Men may aim at reward in approaching to 
God. For he that cometh to God must believe that 
he is a rewarder. 

Sec. 26. Of Nonh and his faith. 

Ver. 7. By faith Noah, being warned of God of 
things not seen as yet, moved with fear, jyrepared an 
ark to the saving of his house ; by the which he con- 
demned the world, and became heir of the righteousness 
which is by faith. 

The third worthy produced for exemplification of 
the vigour of faith, is Noah, who lived in two ages 
of the world : before the flood, and after the flood, 
lie lived six hundred years before the flood. Gen. vii. 
G, and three hundred and fifty after the flood. Thus 
he lived in all- nine hundred and fifty years, Gen. ix. 
28, 29. 

Tlie name of Noah, TM, properly signifies rest. 
A reason of the name is thus given, IJOnj, ' lie shall 

Vee. 7.] 



comfort us,' Gen. v. 29. The name is taken out of 
the two first letters of that word □PU, cotisolatus est, 
which signifieth (o comfort. 

Others read that phrase translated ' he shall com- 
fort US,' thus, ^yny, ' he shall give us rest ' (m^ 
quientj: both tend to the same end. 

This name was given by a spirit of prophecy : for 
by building the ark he brought refreshing, comfort, 
and rest to the world ; and that in these respects : — 

1. Thereby was aflbrded a lively type of Christ, 
■who is the comfort and rest of man. 

2. By Noah was the seminary of the world and 
church preserved. This was a matter of great com- 
fort and rest. 

3. By the sacrifice which he offered up, ' God 
smelled a savour of rest,' Gen. viii. 21. 

4. To him God renewed a covenant of rest and 
peace, no more to drown the world. Gen. ix. 9, 11. 

Thus if ever any name were fit and answerable to 
the intent thereof, this was. 

In setting out the faith of this noble patriarch, 
who was the last of the old world, and the first of the 
new world, many memorable histories are pithily and 
elegantly couched in few words. 

That Noah's faith was a justifying and a saving 
faith, is evident by producing it, as he did the faith 
of the elders, of Abel and Enoch, for i)roof of the 
faith described in the first verse. 

Ol'J. The main thing for which Noah's faith is 
commended is but a temporary deliverance. 

A lis. 1. Justifj-ing faith, even in temi)oral bless- 
ings, eyeth God as a Father in Christ : and receiveth 
the things of this world by a right from Christ, and 
as a pledge of heavenly things. 

Ans. 2. The ark, in making whereof he testified 
Lis faith, was an especial type of Christ, and his 
preservation from the flood a type of redemption from 
damnation, and of eternal salvation. So as his faith 
was fixed on Christ, and on salvation by Christ. 

Ans. 3. The apostle inferreth that he 'became 
heir of righteousness which is by faith:' and that 
must needs be a justifying and saving faith. 

Sec. 27. Of Xoalis faith ahout things not seen upon 
God's warniiiff. 

The ground of Noah's giving that evidence of faith, 
which is here set down, is thus expressed, ^^ri,u,a.Tic^ii;, 
being warned of God. 

This phrase is the interpretation of one Greek word, 
whereof see Chap. viii. .5, Sec. 14. It sheweth that his 
faith was founded ou the manifestation of God's wUl. 

Of the many ways of revealing God's will, see 
Chap. i. 1, Sec. 11. 

God's will revealed, hath ever put on saints to give 
evidence of their faith, for it is the proper ground of 
divine faith. This was the grouud of Abraham's 
faith. Gen. xv. 6, and of the faith of the Israelites, 
Exod. iv. 31, and of the Gentiles, Acts .\v. 7. 

God himself is the supreme Lord over all, and his 
word is the highest and surest truth that can be, 
whereunto all ought to subject themselves : and they 
who well know him, will upon his warning in faith 
do anything. Requisite it is that we should acquaint 
ourselves with the oracles of God. We have them 
established, printed, read, and preached unto us. 
Let -us learn by this instance of Noah to act our 
faiths according to the manifold warnings; of God. 
See Sec. 37. 

That whereof Noah is said to be warned, is thus 
expressed, .aridiiru ^Xi^oij-ituv, things not seen. The 
negative carries some emphasis with it, and is oft 
translated ' never before,' Luke xxiii. 53, or ' not 
yet,' John vii. 39. Therefore these two particles, as 
yet, are here fitly added in our English. 

The things not seen, here intended, were, the 
general deluge, and the ark for preservation of them 
that should enter thereinto. These were not seen 
when they were first revealed unto Noah, and when 
first he believed that they should be. Thus his faith 
doth verify that which was said in the first verse 
concerning faith in general, it is ' the evidence of 
things not seen.' The rest of the world believed 
not ; they scorned Noah's word, and laughed at his 
attempting to make an ark. They are in that respect 
called ' tLie world of the ungodly,' 2 Pet. ii. 7. There 
were a hundred and twenty years from the first giv- 
ing of the warning to Noah, unto the bringing in of 
the flood. Gen. vi. 3. Yet did not Noah stagger in 
his faith, but continued to believe till all was fully 
accomplished. Of faith, as it is an evidence of things 
not seen, see ver. 1, Sec. 4. 

Sec. 28. Of being moved with fear to duty. 

The forementioned warning of God so wrought 
upon Noah, as it possessed him with a holy fear of 
God : and thereupon it is here said that he was siXa- 
jSti^iig, moved with fear, to do what God required. 

This phrase, moved with fear, is the interpretation 
of one Greek word, which is a compound one. Of 
the composition and interpretation thereof, see Chap, 
v. 7, Sec. 44. Here it implieth such a religious fear 
as kept Noah from opposing against God's charge, 
though it seemed very strange, and though he were 
mocked by the world for observing the same. 

Fear, in relation to God, is a reverent respect of 
the Divine Majesty, opposed to all light esteem there- 
of, Mai. i. 6. 

It worketh in man's soul two things, 

1. A holy awx, whereby he is careful to please God, 
2 Chron. xix. 2. 

2. A holy dread, whereby he is fearful of offending 
God, Prov. xiv. 6, Job i. 1. 

This awful dre.ad, and dreadful awe ariseth, as from 
knowledge of God, so from faith in him, as he maketh 
known himself and his wUl unto us. Fur faith work 
oth fear, Exod. xiv. 31. 



[Chap. XL 

By such a fear as is here noted to be of Noah, we 
may gain assurance of a true faith ; yea, it will give 
evideuco thereof to others, for it is the ground of all 
duty ; God, therefore, wisheth it to be in the hearts 
of his people, Deut. v. 29, and inviteth such to praise 
liim, Ps. xxii. 23. We are hereupon directed to '.serve 
the Lord in fear,' Ps. ii. II, and to 'work out our sal- 
vation with fear,' Phil. ii. 12. 

Sec. 29. Of preparing means of safetij. 

That which Noah was moved with fear to do is 
thus set down, he prepared an ark. That word, xaTi- 
eyiiuadi, which is here translated prepared, is the same 
that is used in Chap. iii. 3, Sec. 4(;, and turned, iiu'Afo/. 
There sec the comi^osition and meaning of the word. 
Fitly is the word prepared here used, in regard of the 
long time wherein Noah was framing the ark, which 
was a hundred and twenty years, as hath been before 
shewed. In this very sense is this word used, 1 Pet. 
iu. 20. 

That which was to be done was such a work as re- 
quired much time, and many hands to do it. And, 
that it might not be to finish when the flood .should 
come, Noah, that believed that the flood would coi/ie, 
prepared the ark beforehand. Thus Joseph before- 
hand prepared food without measure against the seven 
years' famine that was to come. Gen. xli. 49 ; and 
David prepared in abundance for the temple, 1 Chron. 
xxii. 3, ifcc. The wise virgins also prepared oil for 
their lamps against their bridegroom's coming. 

Surely they have but little faith, if they have any 
at all, who neglect to prepare for their appearing be- 
fore the great Judge. How many are like the foolish 
virgins ! Mat. xxv. 3. The unjust steward shall con- 
demn all such, Luke xvi. 8. Well might Christ say, 
' The children of this world are in their generation 
wiser than the children of light;' for they will take 
pains in their youth that they may have a liveliliood 
in their old age : they will beforehand lay up for 
their children ; they will provide against a dear year. 
Are men as wise for their souls, and the eternal sal- 
vation of them ? Very few, if any. 

Let us give proof of our faith in preparing before- 
hand against dangers, that we may be saved when 
others jjerish, as Noah was. 

Sec. 30. Of Noalhs ark 

That which Noah is here said to prepare is styled, 
xi^i)T>i\i, an arl: Of the divers acceptions and mean- 
ing of the word, see Chap. ix. 4, Sec. 20. 

This ark was the rarest fabric that ever was made 
to swim on water. It is probable that it was the first 
vessel that ever was put to sea. 

1. The matter of it is said to bo go]ihcr, a kind of 
wood as fit, if not fitter, than our oak for such a pur- 
pose. The tree out of which that wood was taken 
was tall, big, and lasting. The planks thereof were 
80 set and jointed together as they kept out water ; 

and for that end they are also said to be pitched 
within and without. Gen. vi. 14. 

2. For the magnitude of it, it was the greatest ves- 
sel that ever was borne on waters. The length of it 
was three hundred cubits, the breadth fifty, the height 
thirty, Gen. vi. 15. Compare it with Solomon's 
temple, which was a very fair and spacious building, 
1 Kings vi. 2, and you will find it far to exceed that. 
In height it was equal with the temple, in breadth 
two times and a half wider, in length five times longer. 

An ordinary cubit, from the elbow to the top of the 
longest finger, is counted half a yard. After this ordi- 
nary cubit, it was a hundred and fifty yards long, five 
and twenty yards broad, and fifteen yards high. 

Many think that the cubits at that time were taken 
according to the stature of men in those days, and 
that a cubit made a yard : so it would prove to be 
three hundred yards long, fifty yards broad, and thirty 
yards high. By this account it would prove to be in 
length above a quarter of a mile. Never was the hke 
heard of. Much is spoken of the wooden Trojan 
horse ; but, besides that there is no certainty whether 
there ever was such a thing or no, it cannot be ima- 
gined to be like unto this. That is said to hold a 
multitude of captains and soldiers ; but this held of 
all kinds of creatures flying iu the air or going or 
creeping on or in the earth. 

Some, to am{)lify the greatness of this vessel, say, 
that, among other creatures, whales were also therein. 

This is but a foolish conceit, for in Scrijjture there 
is no mention of any fish being therein. Neither was 
there any need that they should enter into it ; for the 
element which destroyed other creatures was their 
proper element to dwell in, and to be preserved b}'. 

3. For the form of it, it was flat-bottomed, from 
the top somewhat shelving, three stories high. It 
had a multitude of cabins, for several creatures, and 
for several kinds of food meet for each of them. It 
was so artificially made, as though there were a door, 
if not more doors than one, for all kinds of creatures 
to come in and out thereat, yea, and window.s, or other 
means to let in light ; yet no water from above or be- 
low could come in to annoy them. There is no men- 
tion made of masts, tackliugs, rudder, oars, anchor, or 
other like things which are useful to other ships ; for 
it could not be moved or guided by the art of man, 
but only by divine providence. 

Atheists have sundry ways cavilled against it, as 
Apelles against the smallness of it to hold so many 
creatures and so much food so long a time as that is 
said to do. Celsus cavilled against the greatness of 
it, as being impossible for so great a vessel to be made 
for such a purpose. 

Faith passeth by all such diflficulties and seeming 
impossibilities. By faith we believe that the whole 
world was made of nothing. 

The use of it gives an instance of God's wi.sdom in 
using means for effecting that which he intends ; not 

Vek. 7.] 



that he is tied to means ; for as he made the world 
without means, so he can preserve and destroy whom 
and what he will without means. 

The kind of means being such a one as hath been 
set forth, and as the like never was before, nor shall 
be, giveth farther proof that God can raise up and 
use extraordinary means. See Chap, il 4, Sec. 28. 

Sec. 31. Of saving Noah's Jwiise in the arlc. 

One end of Noah's making the ark is thus expressed, 
to the saving of his house. The word in Greek, ffwTjj- 
g/af, translated saving, is a noun, and properly signi- 
fieth salvation, or 2^>'(servation. Hereof see Chap. L 
U, Sec. 159. 

God intending to bring such a flood upon the 
earth as should s\Yeep away the whole world, the ark 
so flouted and swam upon the waters, as all that were 
therein were saved alive thereby. Now Noah, who 
believed thus much himself, persuaded his wife, his 
three sons and their wives, of the truth thereof, and 
moved them to enter thereinto, whereby they were 
saved. All these were of his household; therefore 
olxoi, house, is metonymically put for his household. 
It is not to be thought that only these were of his 
family. It is probable that he had a very great family ; 
but he wrought upon none but these ; none but these 
were persuaded to enter into the ark. So Lot could 
prevail with none but his wife and two daughters to 
go out of Sodom. 

Because he was assured that all that entered into 
the ark should be saved alive, and he observed that 
none would believe him but they of his household ; 
this is fitly set down as an end of his making the ark, 
to the saving of h is house. 

This word saving, may in this place be applied both 
to the preservation of their temporal lives, and also 
to the eternal salvation of their souls : for the ark 
was a type and a sacrament of their deliverance from 
eternal damnation. In this respect, baptism is styled 
in reference to the ark, avTh-ozo;, ' a like figure,' 
1 Peter iii. 21. When two types resembling one 
thing are compared together, they are set out by the 
Greek word, translated ' a like figure.' 

The ark, therefore, borne upon the waters, whereby 
Noah and his family were saved, and baptism, being 
both seals of our redemption by Christ, and of our 
deliverance from the destruction of the ungodly world, 
they are ' like figures.' Hereby it appears that they 
who entered into the ark, and believed as Noah did, 
were eternally saved. All that are baptized are not 
saved, though baptism be a means to help on their 
salvation : so neither all that entered into the ark 
can be concluded to be heirs of eternal salvation, for 
cursed Ham entered thereinto. Yet notwithstanding 
might Noah prepare it, both for the present preserva- 
tion, and also for the eternal salvation, of aU that 
should enter thereinto. 

The saving of those that were in the ark, typified 

Vol. III. 

that salvation which is brought to man by the media- 
tion of Jesus Christ. 

This giveth instance of the extent of God's provi- 
dence over his church, in saving body and soul — the 
body from temporal danger, the soul from eternal 
perdition. Thus far may Israel's passing through the 
Ked Sea be extended, Exod. xiv. 22, and the cloud, 
and the passover, and manna, and the water that 
came out of the rock. 

This saving of Noah and his family, giveth proof 
that the incredulity of the multitude is no prejudice 
to the faith of saints. For though the whole world 
of the ungodly perished by the flood, yet Noah and 
his family were saved in the ark. ' The Lord know- 
eth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and 
to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be 
punished,' 2 Peter ii. 9. The Red Sea, that was a wall 
of defence to the Israelites, overwhelmed the Egyp- 
tians, Exod. xiv. 22. ' The just shall live by his 
own faith.' As the believer is not prejudiced by 
another's unbelief, so neither shall the unbeliever be 
saved by another's faith. ' Two shall be in one bed, 
the one taken, the other left,' Luke xvii. 3i. 

It may further from hence be inferred, that there 
is no salvation out of the church, for there was no 
preservation out of the ark. See more hereof in 
JJomest. Duties, on Eph. v. 23, Sec. 23. 

Sec. 32. Of the world condemned ly the arl: 

Two effects are further observed to follow upon 
Noah's preparing the ark ; the first is in these words : 
£i/ ivhich (ii rii) he condemned the icorld. 

The most immediate and proper reference that this 
relative, ivhich, can have, is to the ark. They are 
both of the same gender {pi r,; xi!3mto-j). 

By Koc,aoc, the tcorld, metonymically are meant the 
inhabitants thereof, and the greater part of them. 
So it is oft used, John xii. 1 9. 

Upon the fall of Adam, he and all his posterity 
were deprived of that glorious image wherein God 
first created man, and depraved with a most vicious 
and pernicious disposition : whereupon it is said that 
'the whole world lieth in wickedness,' 1 John v. 19. 
And all except those whom Christ ' delivereth from 
this present evil world,' Gal. i. 4, are counted to be 
of the world. Such were all those that lived at the 
time of the flood, except they who entered into the 
ark : whereupon they are called ' the world of the 
ungodly,' 2 Peter ii. 9. 

Noah is said to condemn these. The word is fitly 
translated, for it is a compound. The simple verb 
zj/iw, siguifieth to judge, John viL 24, 51. This 
compound, xaraxihu, by judging to condemn, Mat. 
xii. 41, 42, and xxvii. 3, Kom. ii. 1. 

Noah is said to condemn the world by the ark — 

1 . Because it was a visible prediction of the flood : 
thereby they were foretold that such a judgment 
would fall out. 



[Chap. XI 

2. It shewed that they worthily perished, in that 
they simght not to prevent that destruction which 
was threatened. 

3. It was a demonstration that tliey were far unlike 
to Noah, in that they regarded not that whereabout 
he took .so much pains. 

4. Noah's making of the ark was a continual preach- 
in"; yea, together with working upon the ark, he did 
by word of mouth foretell what would fall out, 2 
Peter ii. .5. 

5. The very ark was a witnes.s of their infidelity, 
so as they were condemned thereby. 

C. It was an occasion of aggravating their unbelief, 
whereby they were the rather condemned. 

Thus we see that means given for preservation may 
prove means of destruction. As this proved true in 
Israel's passing through the Red Sea, E.TOd. xiv. 16, 
and in their eating quails, Num. xi. 33, and in sundry 
other temporal means : so also in spiritual means, as 
the word, 2 Cor. ii. IG ; the sacrament, 1 Cor. xi. 
29 ; yea, Christ himself, Isa. viii. 14, 1 Peter ii. 6, 
7, Luke ii. 34. 

This ariseth from the corrupt and perverse di^osi- 
tion of men, who, .spider-like, suck vermin^ out of 
sweet flowers, or rather turn the sweet juice of flowers 
into poison. 

This should bo carefully heeded of us, who have 
means of salvation afforded unto us, that we may duly 
observe the pro[ier end for which they are aflbrded, 
and make the best use tliat we can thereof. 

This condemnation of the world teachcth us to 
come out of the world, and to abandon the fashion 
and course thereof, lest we perish with it. See more 
hereof. Chap. xiii. 13, Sec. 133. 

This is the rather to be observed, by reason of the 
extent of this word, world, which ever have been, still 
are, and ever will be, the greater number. See Chap. 
ii. 10, Sec. 91. 

The way to destruction is a broad way, Mat. viL 
13, and withal there are many byways: whereas 
there is only one way. and that a narrow one, encum- 
bered with many difficulties, and so limited, as if we 
step out of it, we miss of life ; but there are no 
bounds set to the way that leadeth to destruction, 
Judges xxi. 2-5. In this way everytliing is agreeable 
to nature, which is downhill. It hath always wind 
and tide with it. It is stretched out by applause, 
jjromotion, profit, pleasure, and other like tempta- 
tions, which the devil frameth according to the par- 
ticular humours of men. 

Sec. 33. Of Xoah's hdng Iteir of (he righteousness 
hy faith. 

The other eiTect following upon Noah's preparing 

the ark is thus set down, And became htir of the 

righteousness which is by ftith. 'J'lie first copulative 

particle, v.ai, and, givetli evidence that the two clauses 

' Qu. ' venom'! — Ed. 

joined thereby have some agreement; and that is this 
general, that they arc both effects of the .same thing, 
yet in the kind of effect they much differ. The 
former was a great judgment upon the world : but 
this a great recompense to himself. 

There was before a great reward mentioned of 
Noah's faith in preparing the ark, which was ' the 
saving of his house.' Here is a greater. 

Every word iu this clause carrieth much emphasis. 

1. Tlie copulative was noted before. 

2. This verb, iyhiTo, became, or was made, im- 
jilicth that the occasion of the reward was taken from 
this evidence of faith th.-it is here set down ; at least 
occasion was thence taken of manifesting as much. 

3. This dignity, x'Aris6io,u,o;, heir, is no small one ; 
it implieth a singular and an especial prerogative.' 
Indeed, Noah was the supreme lord of the whole 
world, and his sons heirs imder him. There never 
was so absolute a monarch since Adam's time. It is 
said, that ' of the sons of Noah the whole earth was 
overspread,' Gen. xix. 9. But here is intended a 
greater dignity; for, 

4. Iiigliteousness, iixaiodonri, was it whereof he 
was an heir. Could the beauty and glory of right- 
eousness be thoroughly discerned or conceived, it 
would be found to be, as indeed it is, the greatest 
dignity that a creature can be advanced unto.^ It 
was man's chiefest excellency in his innocent estate ; 
for it was the most i>riiicipal part of God's image ia 
which man was at first created. Gen. i. 27. That 
which is said of holiness may be applied to righteous- 
ness. Chap. iii. 1, Sec. 7. 

To set out this dignity the more, the apostle useth 
this word syneedochically for that also which fol- 
lows upon it, righteousness together with eternal life : 
so as an heir of righteousness is an heir of that in- 
heritance which is obtained by righteousness. It is 
called ' a crown of righteousness,' 2 Tim. iv. 8. The 
glorious attire of glorified saints is ' the righteousness 
of saints,' Rev. xix. 8. Thus thej' are heirs of salva- 
tion. See Ch.ip. i. 14, Sees. 1.59, IGO. 

5. This righteousness is said to be hi/ faith. It 
was not a righteousness which arose from himself, or 
inherent in himself : it was, zara rrism, accordiiig to 
faith, or that righteousness which he attained by faith, 
and received from above. It was indeed the right- 
eousness of Christ himself, whom he beheld in the ark, 
that was a type of Christ. The apostle excellently 
settcth out the righteousness of faitli. and opposeth it 
to a man's own righteousne.s.s. He calleth it 'the 
righteousness of God,' Rom. x. 3, 6. 

Tlie righteousness which is by faith is that which 
ever)' believer hath, and that whereunto he is fitted 
by faith, and that which cannot be had without 

All are spoiled and for ever deprived of that in- 

> Sec Chap i. 14, Sees. 160, 162. 
» See Chap. i. 9, Sec. IH. 

Vee. 7.] 



herent righteousness wlierein God created Adam. 
God, instead thereof, makes his elect heirs of a far 
more excellent righteousness — the righteousness of 
God ; and leaves it not in their power to hold it, or 
let it go. 

It is the righteousness of faith, for the continuance 
■whereof we depend on Christ. ' We wait for the hope 
of righteousness by faith,' Gal. v. 5. 

Sec. S-t. 0/ tlu> resohitinn of Heb. xi. 7. 

Ver. 7. By faith Noah, being umnied of God of 
tilings not seen as yet, moved ivith fear, prepared an 
ark to the saving of his house, by the which lie con- 
demned the u'orld, and became lieir of tlie righteousness 
which is by faith. 

In this text is a commendation of Xoah's faith. 
Hereof are two parts, 

1. An evidence of his faith. 

2. A recompense thereof. 

. In the evidence two tilings are to be considered, 

1. The ground of his faith. 

2. The fruits thereof. 

The grounds are of two sorts, one concerning God, 
another concerning himself. 

In that which concerned God three things are noted, 

1. A charge of God, being warned of God. 

2. The subject of that charge, things not seen. 

3. The limitation thereof, as yet. 

The other kind of ground, concerning himself, was 
a holy fear, moi'ed with fear. 

The fruit of his faith was in general his obedience 
to God. This is set out by an act, he prepared an 
ark. Here we may distinguish 

The act, pirepared ; and the object, an ark. 

This effect is amplified two ways, 

1. By the advantage he brought to himself. 

2. By the damage that followed thereupon to 

The advantage'is propounded, in this word, saving ; 
and amplified by the extent thereof, his Iwuse. 
The damage to others is set forth, 

1. By the kind of it, in this word, condemned. 

2. The persons condemned, under this word, tlie 

The recompense of his faith is a great prerogative. 
Wherein we have, 

1. The kind of it, Iwir. 

2. The excellency of it. This is, 

(1.) Propounded, in this word, righteousness. 
(2.) Expounded, in this phrase, which is by faith. 

Sec. 35. Of observations gathered out o/Heb. xi. 7. 

I. Justifying faith manifesteth itself in temporal 
matters. This faith here spoken of was a justifying 
faith ; yet it was exercised about a corporal preserva- 
tion. See Sec. 26. 

II. A good name is to be made good. That is, he 
that hath a good name must answerably carry him- 

self. Noah signified re.st, and he was a man that 
procured rest. See Sec. 26. 

III. God foretold the deluge that came vpon the old 
world. This word, warned, intends as much. See 
Sec. 27. 

IV. God's warning is a sufficient ground for attempt- 
ing anything. This was Noah's ground. See Sec. 27. 

V. Faith is exercised about things not seen. In 
such things was Noah's faith exercised. See Sec. 27. 

VI. Future visible things are not seen till tltey be 
accomplished. This is imjjlied under this clause, as 
yet. See Sec. 27. 

VII. Faith U'orks a reverent 7-espect tou-ards God. 
This is that fear that is here set down as a fruit of 
Noah's faith. See Sec. 28. 

VIII. Fear of God works obedience to God. Noah, 
by liis fear of God, was moved to do that which God 
warned him of. See Sec. 28. 

IX. Jleans for safety are beforehand to be prepjared. 
So did Nuah here. See Sec. 29. 

X. God useth means for accomplishing his pnr2)0se. 
It was God's purpose to preserve Noah and some of 
all living creatures on earth, when he brought a gene- 
ral deluge, and thereupon appointed an ark, which 
was a fit means fur that purpose. See Sec. 30. 

XI. Fxtraordiuary cas(S require extrwirdinary 
means. The preservation of Noah and other crea- 
tures from the deluge was an extraordinary case, 
therefore the ark, which was an extraordinary means, 
was prepared. See Sec. 30. 

XII. God can make means of temporal preservation, 
means also of eternal salvation. The ark which pre- 
served them from the deluge was a sacrament, to 
seal up their redemption by Christ. See Sec. 30. 

XIII. Faith is manifested by obedience. Noah's 
preparing the ark upon God's warning was an act of 
obedience. He did it by faith. See Sec. 27. 

XIV. Believers may do what they see fit fur tlu pre- 
servation of tlveir lives. This was one end of Noah's 
preparing the ark. See Sec. 31. 

XV. A governor s care must extend to the preserva- 
tion of his house. So did Noah's. See Sec. 31. 

XVI. Believers are a blessing to those tliat belong 
■unto them. Noah's household that entered into the 
ark did jxirtake of that blessing through his faith. 
See Sec. 31. 

XVII. Such as belong to believers may miss of their 
blessing. So did all the rest of Noah's house that 
entered not into the ark. See Sec. 31. 

XVIII. 3Jost men are prone to reject means for their 
good. So did the old world refuse to enter into the 
ark. See Sec. 32. 

XIX. Saints are heirs. That which is here noted 
of Noah is true of all saints. 

XX. A'ighteous deeds are a condemnation of the 
wicked. Thus Noah condemned the world. See 
Sec. 32. 

XXI. Means of preservation may bring destruction. 



[Chap. XI. 

The waters that did bear up the ark, and them that 
were in it, destroyed the rest of the creatures on 
earth. See Sec. 32. 

XXII. The inheritance of saints is rif/kteoiisiiess. 

XXIII. T/ie n'f/hfeousness })roper to saints is hy faith. 
Both these are here plainly expressed of Noah's right- 
eousness. See Sec. 33. 

Sec. 3G. Of Abraham, hii faith and calling. 

Ver. 8. £i/ faith A hraham, when he was called to 
go ont into a jilace tvhich he should after receive for 
an inlieritance, obeyed ; and he went out, not knowing 
whither he went. 

The fourth worthy produced for proof of the vigour 
of faith is Abraham. The proof of liis faith is more 
largely set out by the apostle than the faith of any 
other of the worthies, for it continueth to the end of 
the nineteenth ver.se. Only two verses are inserted — 
viz., the eleventh and twelth — concerning Sarah's faith, 
which also tends to the amplification of Abraham's. 

As the faith of others before mentioned, so Abra- 
ham's was a true justifying faith, as is evident by the 
apostle's explanation thereof, Rom. iv. 1, 2, &c^, Gal. 
iii. 6. Though instances of sundry temporal things 
be brought in as evidences of his faith, yet many of 
them were types of spiritual and heavenly matters, 
vers. 10, IG ; and withal, the temporal things noted 
■were ap|)endices to spiritual and heavenly. 

Of the notation of Abraham's name, of the dignity 
of his person and excellency of his faith, see Chaj). 
vi. 13, Sees. 01-04. 

The first particular that the apostle settcth down is 
the warrant which Abraham had to do what he did, 
thus expressed, when he was called, or word for word, 
xa>.ov,atvo;, being called. 

This is the same word that is used. Chap. v. 4, 
Sec. 20. It ini[)lieth a manifestation of God's plea- 
sure, namely, that it was iiis will that Abraham 
should do that which is here said to be done by him. 
For it is thus in the history, ' The Lord said unto 
Abraham, Get thee out of thy country,' etc., Gen. 
xii. 1, Acts vii. 2, 3. Under this word is comprised 
a clear manifestation of God's mind to him, as if by 
name he had called him. Of the divers ways of God's 
revealing his will, see Chap. i. 1, Sec. 11. 

Hereby Abraham shewed that God's will was his 
rule, as was before noted of Noah, Sec. 27. 

This particle, called, is in Greek set immediately 
before this noun, Abraham. Hence many exposi- 
tors,' both ancient and modern, refer it to Abraham 
himself, and thus translate it. By faith he, which is 
called Abraham, obeyed. So the llhemists, in imita- 
tion of their vulgar Latin." Thus this participle is 
but as a complement, which may well bo left out. 
Besides, if we strictly consider circumstances, we 
shall find that he was not then called Abraham ; that 

' Clirysost., Tlieodor., Cecum., Erasra. 

' Fide qui vocutur Abraham obcdivit. — Vet. Lat. 

name was given unto him four and twenty years after 
this which is here set down. Gen. xvii. 5. 

Our English hath so set the words as the true sense 
is clearly manifested thereby, namely, that the reason 
of Abraham's leaving his country was God's calling 
him out of it. 

Have papi.sts this warrant for their pilgrimages to 
the place where the temple of Jerusalem was ? or 
the sejiulchre of our Saviour ? or to Rome to ^'isit 
the pope ] or to the Lady at Loretto or at Hales 1 or 
other like places where they conceive saints' relics to 
be 1 or to their shrines here and there set up ? 

Sec. 37. Of obeying God's call. 

That whereunto Abraham was called was to go out 
into a place. In the Greek the verb obeyed is put be- 
fore this act of going out — thus : 'A/Ssaa.n i/iDjxouffsi' 
i^i'/Jih, Abraham obeyed to go out into a place. 

By that placing of the Greek words it may be 
thought that Abraham's going out hath reference to 
his obedience ; but as our English have placed the 
words, that act of going out hath reference to God's 
calling him. 

Both tend to the same end ; for God called him 
to go out, and he obeying to go out, thereby sheweth 
that God called him thereunto, as is set down. Gen. 
xii. 1. 

Obj. His father Terah took him, Gen. xi. 31. How 
then did he obey upon God's call ? 

Ans. One reason doth not simply cross another, 
for many reasons may concur to enforce one and the 
same point. God's call was the first and principal 
moving cause. Terah's taking him was the instru- 
mental means. 

Obj. 2. God's call was after Terah's death, so as it 
was also after he was come out. Gen. xi. 32, and xii. 1. 

Ans. Though mention be made of God's call after 
Terah's death, yet was it before. Our English trans- 
lators have well turned the word of calling into the 
preterpluperfect tense, thus : ' The Lord had said 
unto Abraham,' Gen. xii. 1, which well might be be- 
fore Terah's death. Hereupon Stephen thus ex- 
prcsseth it : ' God appeared unto Abraham, when he 
was in Jlesopotamia, before he dwelt in Charran, and 
said unto him, Get thee out of thy country,' Acts 
vii. 2, 3. 

Thus, therefore, conceive the order of Abraham's 

1. God speaks to Abraham to go out. 

2. Abraham telleth his father Terah thereof. 

3. His father takes him with others to go out. 

4. In their journey Terah resteth, and dieth at 

5. Abraham goeth thence to Canaan. 

Thus the first ground of all was God's call. This 
was it to which Abraham yielded obedience. 

The word ob,-i/id is a comjiound, and properly 
signifieth to hearken and yield to a thing, or to yield 

Vek. 8.] 



to that whicli he heareth. Hereof see Chap. v. 8, 
Sec. 48. 

This giveth a further evidence that faith worketh 
obedience. That which he obeyed is thus set down, 
to go out into a place. Here is no particular place 
set down, for it is in the end of this verse said that 
' he knew not whither he went.' 

This obedience was a simple obedience, merely 
upon the manifestation of God's will ; he could not 
tell whether it wei'e a better or a worse place than 
that out of which he went. 

Such ought our obedience to be to God's call, and 
to any manifestation of his will. It must be a simple 
obedience in subjection to God's will, without inquir- 
ing after the reason thereof, or without objecting any 
scruples or difficulties against it. Such was Noah's 
faith. See Sec. 27. We must in this case do as 
blind men, who have skilful and faithful guides. 
They follow their guide, though they cannot see the 
way where they go. Much more we may, and must, 
follow God and his call. 

Sec. 38. Of the place out of tohich Ah-aluim ivas 

The word l^OJih, translated go out, is a compound, 
whereof see Chap. iii. 16, Sec. 163. It here Lm- 
plieth an utter leaving and departing from a 

Here are two terms intended : one from which he 
departed ; the other to which. 

The former is said to be ' his own country and 
his kindred,' Acts vii. 3. 

The other was ' a place that he knew not.' 

It could not but seem to him a hard matter to 
leave the place of his nativity, and, as it is probable, 
a place wherein he had a fair inheritance. But God 
oft calls his to leave the dearest outward things that 
they have. He called his disciples to leave their 
father and their calling, Mat. iv. 21. He called Levi 
from the receipt of custom, Mat. viii. 9. 

This he doth to try whether they respect him and 
his will more than external things, John xxi. 15. He 
that preferreth anything before God is not worthy of 
God, Mat. X. 37. 

Let us herein shew ourselves to be of Abraham's 
faith, ready to let go anything upon God's call. 

One special reason of God's calling Abraham out 
of his own country may be gathered from Joshua 
xxiv. 2, where it is said that the fathers of Abraham 
' served other gods.' So as God hereby called him 
from an idolatrous place, lest he should be infected 
therewith, herein we have an instance that idolaters 
and idolatrous places must be left. 

The very notation of the word idolatry giveth 
sufficient ground of abandoning communion with 

This word idolatry is taken from the Latan, idolola- 
Iria, and the Latin from the Greek, iiboiKoKaT^iia, 

which is a compound of two nouns. One, i1iu>.ov, 
signifieth an idol; the other, y.aron'a, service. 

The former is again compounded of a substantive, 
s'ibo^, species, spectrum, that signifieth a show, a fan- 
ta.-^y, a ghost, or, as the vulgar speak, a hobgoblin ; 
and an adjective, oXov, totum, that signifieth whole, or 
every whit, or nothing but: so as idol is but a mere 
show, ' an idol is nothing.' 

The latter, Xar^iia, which is service, from a verb, 
Xarfiuiiv, to serve, which hath a notation from an in- 
creasing particle, Xa, parlicula intensiva, and a verb, 
Toiu, trenip, that signifieth to fear or tremble. This 
notation setteth out an idolater in his proper colours. 
He is kept in awe by that which is indeed nothing — 
only a mere show and fantasy. 

The Lord, who meant to make Abraham a root out 
of which his church should sprout and grow, would 
not suffer him to be in danger of idolatry. Idolatry, 
in reference to that relation which is between God and 
professors, is a most heinous and hateful sin. God to 
them is a husband, John xsxi. 32. Idolatry is a 
spiritual adultery, Ezek. xxiii. 37. Adultery breaks 
the bond of wedlock, and gives cause of divorce, Jer. 
iii. 8. On this ground Ammi is called Lo-ammi, 
Hosea i. 9. They who were the people of God iu 
profession are accounted no jjeople. 

Sec. 39. Of gaining hy following Gods call. 

The place whither Abraham was to go is thus de- 
scribed, which hs should after receive for an in/ierit- 
ance. The land here meant was the land of Canaan, 
the fertilest land in all the world, and every way fittest 
for habitation. 

It is said that he should, \aij.^d>iii\i, receive. See 
Chap. ix. 15, Sec. 92. This hath reference to the 
giving of a thing; for receiving and giving are relates. 
See Chap. iv. 16, Sec. 96. In general it implieth that 
such as yield to God's call shall lose nothing thereb}'. 
Moses, who refused the honours of Egvpt, was made 
ruler of the people of God, Acts vii. 35. Christ ex- 
pressly saith, that he that forsaketh anything for his 
sake shall receive a hundredfold in this world, and in 
the world to come everhisting life, Mark x. 29, 30. 

This is sufficient to move us to trust to the divine 
providence in every course whereunto we shall there- 
by be called. This is more to be trusted unto than 
all the treasures of the world, or all that men can do. 
Earthly treasuresmay be exhausted,men's purposes may 
be frustrated, but God's counsel and will shall stand. 

That which he was to receive was not a present 
possession, for here is a word that sets out the time 
future thus : he should after. This is the interpreta- 
tion of one Greek word, i^^eXXe, and inteudeth the 
time to come ; so as faith believes things future. 
Thmgs to come are to faith as present. Hereby is 
confirmed that part of the description of faith that 
saith, ' Faith is the substance of things hoped for ;' 
which are things to come, Ver. 1, Sec. 3. 



[Chap. XI- 

Sec. 40. 0/ prom i.ics accomplished in men's posterity. 

It is added that Abraham should receive that place 
to which he went /or an inheritance. 

Of this word inheritance, and of sundry instruc- 
tions and directions thence arising, see Chap. i. 14, 
Sees. 160, 162. 

An inheritance intendcth a perpetual right to a 
thing, and that generation after generation, from 
parents to children. By God's law an inheritance 
was nut to he removed from one stock to another. 
Num. xxxvi. 7, &c. This was the reason why Naboth 
would not part with his inheritance, though his sove- 
reign would have purchased it of him, 1 Kings xxi. 3. 
It is noted as a blessing of a good man to ' leave an 
inheritance to his children's children,' Prov. xiii. 22. 

The Scripture testifieth that God gave no inherit- 
ance to Abraham in Canaan, ' no, not so much as to 
set his font on,' Acts vii. 5. This therefore hath 
reference to his posterity, in whom this was accom- 
jilished ; but a long while after he went out of his 
country, even almost five hundred years, when Joshua 
divided the land among them, Jo.sh. xiii. 7. Sb as 
God's promise may be accomplished in a man's pos- 
terity. It was given as a sign in the days of Ahaz, 
that ' a virgin should conceive, and bear a son,' Isa. 
vii. 14. But it was not accomplished tiU about seven 
hundred years after. 

God is the Lord of times and seasons, and hath 
them in his power. Acts i, 7 ; and in his unsearch- 
able wisdom can, and doth choose the fittest time for 
accomplishing every purpose, Ecclcs. iii. 1. The time 
wherein the great promise was accomplished is in this 
respect styled ' the fulness of time,' Gal. iv. 4. 

We are taught hereby to wait for the accomplish- 
ment of such promises as are not yet accomplished, 
even these, and such like : 

1. The recalling of the rejected Jews, Rom. xi. 26. 

2. The bringing iu of the fulness of the Gentiles, 
Kom. xi. 25. 

3. The destruction of Antichrist, 2 Thes. ii. 8. 

4. The perfection of the church, Ejih. v. 27. 

5. The resurrection of the bod}', John v. 29. 

6. Mansion places j)rovided by Christ, John xiv. 3. 

7. A kingdtmi, Luke xii. 32. 

The accomplishment of these and other like pro- 
mises, we must beli(^vo, pray for, wait for, and perse- 
vere iu all these, either till they be accomplished, or 
so long as we live. ' Though they tarry, wait,' Hab. 
iL 3. 'He that believeth maketh not haste,' Isa. 
xxviii. 16. 

Sec. 41. Of the kind of Ahrnliams obedience. 

The obedience which Abraham yielded to God's 
call is set down in the very word that was used in 
the call. God called him i^O.O-.Tv, to go out, and 
i|^>.<)t, he went out. 

Hereby it ia evidenced that true obedience is 
ordered according to the rule thereof, which is God's 

word. Compare the charge that was given about 
making the tabernacle and the appurtenances, Exod. 
XXV., itc, with the execution of that charge, Exod. 
xxxvi., lire, and you will find their obedience answerable 
to the rule. This doth God expressly conjoin, E.xod. 
XXV. 40. Hereof see more. Chap. viii. 5, Sec. 17. 

To commend Abraham's obedience the more, this 
clause is added, not knowing whither he went. 

It is probable that before Abraham came out of 
his country, God directed him to no particular jilace, 
nor made him any pnjraise, but only bade him go 
out, and that the more to try the truth of his faith and 
the extent of his obedience. Thu.s, when he ba<le 
Abraham to offer his son for a burnt-ofl'ering, he did 
not tell him how he would provide another offering, 
after he had laid his son upon the altar, ready to be 
sacrificed, merely to try his faith. See more hereof in 
the end of Sec. 37. 

Sec. 42. Of Abraham's continuing ivhere God called 

Ver 9. By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, 
as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles with 
Isaac and Jacob, the hehswith him of the same promise. 

Abraham's obedience to God's call is yet further 
amplified by continuing in a strange land. He speak- 
eth of the same faith that he did before, ami si'tteth 
out a continued vigour thereof. It moved Abraham, 
not only once to leave his country, but though he 
were a long time in a place unknown, where he had 
no settled habitation, yet he repented not of his com- 
ing out of his country, nor thought of returning to it 
again, as his children in the wilderness did think of 
returning to Egj'pt again. Num. xiv. 4, but con- 
tinued in a strange country all his days. 

The verb a-ocw'x);ff6, translated sojourned, is a com- 
pound. The root is a noun, aixoc, which signitieth 
a house. The simple verb, (ihiTt, signilieth to dwell, 
1 Cor. vii. 12. This compound, tusoixuv, signitieth 
to abide in a place. The word in my text importeth 
two things. 

1. A being in a strange land, and translated ' to be 
a stranger,' thus, eii /tovo; «raoo/xt7;, ' Art thou only a 
stranger,' Luke xxiv. 18. 

2. An abiding or tarrying in a place. In this re- 
spect the noun, craso/xio/, that is thence derived, is 
tlius tran.slatcd, ' When they dwelt as strangers,' and 
thus, 'sojourning,' 1 Pet. i. 17. And anotiicr noun, 
natdiKcc, incola, from the same verb, which is trans- 
lated, ' one tiiat sojourneth,' and ' a stranger,' Acts 
vii. G, 29. It signitieth one that is settled in a strange 

Ctrammarians do put this difference betwixt two 
words, /jLiroiX(7v, transmigi\ire, cajoixsTv, commorari, 
compounded with dilferent prepo.sitions, but the same 
veil). The former .'iignitieth to pass from one place 
to another ; the latter to abide in a place. Both 
these significations are here intended. 

Ver. 9.] 



In reference to the former, the land wliere he was 
is styled ' a strange land.' He had not been trained 
up there all his days, but was removed from another 
laud to that. 

In relation to the latter, he is said to dwell there. 

This eti'ect of faith, that he sojourned and con- 
tinued to dwell in the place whither God called him, 
giveth instance that faith maketh men hold out. In 
this respect we are said by faith ' to wait,' Gal. v. 5. 
Faith is said to ' overcome,' 1 John v. 4. By faith 
men 'inherit the promise,' Heb. vi. 12. By faith we 
are ' saved,' Eph. ii. 8. 

This is the best evidence of a true and sound faith 
that can be given. Hereof see more. Chap. x. 38, 
Sec. 146. Unbelief draws from God, Chap. iii. 12, 
Sees. 128, 129. 

Sec. 43. Of the land of promise. 

The place where Abralnam abode is styled tlie land 
of promise. Of the word i'^ayyiXia., translated pro- 
mise, see Chap. iv. 1, Sec. G. It is called the land 
of promise because it was promised to Abraham and 
his posterity, Gen. xiii. 15. There is an emphasis in 
this Hebraism, yrt l-ayyikiag, land of promise. It 
implieth more than if he had said, a promised land. 
Fur the phrase is exclusive, and implieth that of all 
the countries of the world, this especially was pro- 
mised, and thereupon carrieth this title, ' a land of 
promise,' as ' a man of war,' ' a man of might,' men 
excellent and eminent therein. 

This being added to the aforesaid effect of faith, 
sheweth that God's promise puts vigour to faith. He 
did the rather abide in that land, because God had 
promised to give it him. Closes doth often inculcate 
God's 2:)romise, to quicken the faith of the Israehtes, 
Deut. vi. 3, and xv. 6, 8, Josh, xxiii. 5. 

God's promise being the ground of faith, as hath 
been proved. Chap. vi. 96, it must nourish and 
strengthen the same. 

This may inform us in one special reason of faith's 
fainting, which is forgetfulness of God's promise, 
Heb. sii. 5, Ps. cxvi. 11. If the oil fail, the lamp 
cannot give light. 

God's promises are hereupon seriously and fre- 
quently to be meditated upon, that our faith may 
continue and increase. 

The emphasis of this phrase, the land of promise, 
impUeth that God's provision is for the best. Though 
he called Abraham out of one land, yet he brought 
him unto another, which, for excellency's sake, was 
styled the land of promise. 

Sec. 44. Of Abraham'' s ahidinr/ in a strange land. 

The aforesaid land of promise is also called «>.- 
XoToicc, a strange country. 

This noun, countrii, is not in the Greek. For this 
adjective, strange, hath reference to the former sub- 
stantive, land, and both these words, strange land, 

are joined together, Acts vii. 9. But land and coun- 
try set forth one and the same thing ; so us the true 
sense is rendered in our English. 

The adjective translated strange is the same that 
is turned others, Chap. ix. 25, Sec. 127. See there. 

That which is strange to one is not Ids own. And 
he that is in a place which is not his own, is in a 
place strange to him ; yea, such as are not free of 
a place, and thereupon have no right thereto, are 
strangers. Mat. xvii. io. 

The land or country here intended is called strange 
in a double respect. 

1. In reference to the land of his nativity whence 
he came — for herein he had never been before ; so 
as for the present it was strange to Abraham. 

2. In reference to that possession which his posterity 
had thereof in and after Joshua's time. Abraham 
himself, and liis son and grandson abode therein, but 
not as in their own inheritance ; for they sojourned 
among the people of the land, who then were the 
proper inhabitants thereof 

This particle, w;, as, doth much qualify that epithet, 
strange. He doth not simply say, A strange land, 
but As a strange land. It was strange upon the 
grounds before mentioned ; yet because he had a 
promise of it, and his posterity had the actual- posses- 
sion of it, it was but ' as a strange one.' He had a 
true right unto it, which was the gift of the great 
possessor of heaven and earth, who hath all lauds to 
dispose as it jjleaseth him. 

Thus are we that believe on Christ as strangers in 
this world, and the places of our abode are as a 
strange land to us ; yet have we a good right to 
that which God by his providence bestows upon 

It is further said that Abraham divelt there. The 
word TiaToir.riaac, translated dwelt, is a compound of 
the same simple verb, ohth, that was before trans- 
lated sojourned, Sec. 4 ; but with another preposition, 
which intends an abiding in a place, and is fitly trans- 
lated dli'elt. 

Though that particle, u;, as, having reference to 
God's promise, doth much qualify the matter, yet the 
countr}' being to Abraham himself, and that all his 
days, a strange country, he could not but meet with 
many difficulties — at least, he might fear many 
dangers in regard of the inhabitants of the land 
where he then dwelt. Yet his faith passed over all. 
For faith overcomes all difficulties ; and the history 
giveth instance of many that he met withal, whereby 
he was forced twice, in a kind, to deny his wife, at 
least to dissemble her, both among the Egyptians, 
Gen. xii. 14, <fec., and also among the Philistines, 
Gen. XX. 2, etc. He was also forced to arm all that 
were able in his house, and to get others to join with 
him, for rescuing of Lot. But in all these difficulties 
his eye was on God, that liad promised that land, and 
so his faith remained invincible. 



[Chap. XI. 

Sec. 45. Of Abraham! s abiding in tents. 

Tlie mansion places wherein Abraham is said to 
dwell arc here styled c/.r,ia.i;, tabernacles. As in our 
English, so in the Greek ; the same word is here used 
that was used before, Chap. viii. 2, Sec. 5. There 
see the meaning of the word. 

We usually call the mansions which are here 
styled tabernacles, ' tents.' They are made of cloth 
stretched out and held up with poles, and fastened 
with cords and pins to the ground, so as they may 
be soon set up, soon taken down, and easily removed 
from place to place. 

In these Abraham, and such as belonged to him, 
dwelt on these grounds — 

1. They had no present inheritance whereon to 
build houses. 

2. They had no assurance of long tarrying in one 
place. For Abraham first came out of Ur, in Chaldea, 
to Haran ; from Haran ho went to Canaan ; from 
Canaan to Egypt ; from Egypt to Canaan again ; from 
Canaan to Gerar of the Philistines ; and in Can.aan 
he oft removed from place to place; as from Shech^m 
to Bethel, thence to Mamre ; after that to Beersheba, 
to Hebron, and to other places. In regard of the 
many and sundry places whither he removed, it is 
.said that 'Abram journeyed in going and journey- 
ing,' Gen. xii. 9 ; that is, he was ever and anon 
journeying from one place to another. There was 
therefore a kind of necessity of his dwelling in tents, 
and he was well content therewith ; for believers in 
this world are content with any condition wherein 
God in this world shall set them. 1'he like might 
be instanced in the other patriarchs, in Moses, David, 
and sundry others. Pertinent to this purpose is this 
profession of the apostle, ' I have learned, in whatso- 
ever state I am, therewith to be contented,' <tc., 
Philip, iv. 12, 13. Of contenledness, see Chap. xiii. 5, 
Sec. 02. 

Tills kind of habitation shewed that they were as 
pilgrims, which is more expressly set down hereafter, 
Yer. 13. 

Sec. 40. Of Abrahanis sojourning with Isaac and 

For further confirmation of Abraham's continuing 
in that strange land, this clause is added, with Isaac 
and Jacob ; this hath reference to his dwelling in 
tabernacles. The phrase may be extended to the 
faith ; as of Abraham, so also of Ls.aac and Jacob. 

In the former respect it sheweth that Abraham 
continued to dwell in that strange land till Isaac and 
Jacob were both born. Thus the preposition, /itra, 
%nth, having reference to dwelling (as if he had said, 
dwelt with Isaac and Jacob), implieth a long cohabit- 
ation, which was an hundred years. This thus ap- 
pears : Abraham was seventy-five years old when he 
came first to Canann, Gen. xii. 4. Isaac was born 
when ho was an hundred years old, Geu. xxi. 5. 

Sixty years after was Jacob bom. Gen. xxv. 20. 
Abraham died when he was an hundred and seventy- 
five years old. Gen. xxv. 7. Thus Jacob was fifteen 
years old when his grandfather, Abraham, died. It 
is probable that, so long as Abraham lived, Isaac and 
Jacob were of his family. It is expressly said, that 
Isaac brought Eebekah into the tent of Sarah, his 
mother. Gen. xxiv. 07. 

Again, the foresaid preposition, with, may have 
reference to the mind and disposition of Isaac and 
Jacob, in that they did as Abraham, their father ; 
he dwelt in tents all his days, and so did they. Thus 
is tliis preposition, ivith, used in other authors.* 

In this latter tense it implieth, that Abraham so 
well instructed his son and grandson, as they were 
content to dwell as he did ; and withal, it giveth a 
])roof of the faith of Isaac and Jacob, who lived their 
days in tents. 

As a ground and reason of their dwelling in this 
strange land, the last clause is added, heirs with him 
of the sarne promise. This is to be taken in the 
largest extent that may be, in reference to Abraham. 

Abraham was an heir, so were they. Therefore 
they are called co-heirs, or joint-heirs. For this 
phrase, hei7-s loith him, is the interpretation of one 
Greek word, <niyxy^r,soU/ztii. Of the word heirs, see 
Chap. i. 14, Sec. 100. 

The ground that Abraham had for that prerogative, 
namely, God's promise, they also had. For it is ex- 
pressly said, rrii I'nayyO.iaQ rij; a'jrr,:, the same promise, 
or, as the emphasis of the Greek articles impl}-, the 
very same provme. Of the promise made to Abraham, 
read Gen. xii. 2, 3, 7. Of the like promise to Isaac, 
read Gen. xxvi. 3 ; and of the same to Jacob, read 
Gen. xxviii. 13, 14. 

Of this phrase, heirs of promise, see Chap. vi. 17, 
Sec. 133. 

Sec. 47. Of the city which Abraham looked for. 

Ver. 10. For he looked for a city ivhich hath founda- 
tions, whose builder and n}aker is God. 

In this verse is declared a recompense, which 
Abraham, by faith, expected. The first particle, /or, 
sheweth that it is a reason of his abiding all his days 
in a strange land, even because he looked for a better 

The verb s^iify^m, translated looked for, is a com- 
pound. Of the composition and signification thereof, 
see Chap. x. 27, Sec. 90. It implieth, as a hope of 
attaining a thing, so a willingness to tarry and wait 
for it. It is applied to Chri.sfs looking for the utter 
overthrow of all his enemies, Hcb. .x. 13 ; and to God's 
waiting for the repentance of the old world, 1 Peter 
iii. 20. 

Thus it appears that faith m.adc Abraham wait 
for that which he saw not, but hoped for. Thus it 
is a proof of the description of faith, Ver. 1, Sec. 3. 
' AoKtiy /itri. IlXdrwi-ot, cum Platone consenlire. 

Vek. 10.] 



That -wHcli he looked for was a city. Of a city, 
see Chap. xiii. 14, Sec. 138. A city is commonly 
taken for a distinct place compassed about with 
walls, and so importeth a place of safety and .secu- 
rity. Besides, cities use to have many privileges, 
for the benefit of those that appertain thereunto ; 
which makes many desire to be free thereof. It is 
here metaphorically use ; and lest we should straiten 
the place intended thereby too narrowly, that which 
Abraham looked for is called a country, and expressly 
said to be a heavenli/ country, ver. 16, so as by this 
city heaven itself is meant. Canaan also, which was 
that country, was a type of heaven. 

Heaven is styled a city, to set out the excellency 
and benefits thereof. 

There is a fit resemblance betwixt heaven and a city 
in these and other like respects — 

1. A city is a place of safety. It useth to be com- 
passed with walls and gates, Neh. iii. 1, &c. In 
time of invasions by enemies, thither will subjects fly, 
as Jer. xxxv. 11. No place more safe than heaven. 

2. A city is compact of many habitations ; so 
heaven, John xiv. 2. 

3. A city hath sundry degrees of persons apper- 
taining unto it, as magistrates, officers of sundry 
sorts, and commoners ; so in heaven is God the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, angels and saints. 

4. In a city useth to be all manner of provision, 
and other useful commodities ; so in heaven, nothing 
is there wanting that is needful and useful. 

5. A city hath statutes and orders for the better 
government thereof ; so in heaven — as is evident by 
this clause of the Lord's prayer, ' Thy will be done 
on earth as it is in heaven ' — the Lord's will is per- 
fectly done in heaven. 

6. A city hath particular privileges and immuni- 
ties. This is implied in this promise of Christ, ' I 
will write upon him the name of the city of my God,' 
Rev. iii. 12. 

7. None but freemen may trade and keep open a 
shop in a city : thus none shall have anything to do 
in heaven, but ' they which are written in the Lamb's 
book of life,' Rev. xxi. 27. These are enrolled as 
freemen in the records of the heavenly city. 

This sheweth that Abraham had good cause to 
abide for a while in tents, seeing he had a city where- 
unto he looked, and for which he hoped. That we 
may be content to abide in that place wherein God 
setteth us on earth, let us make this city our hope, 
and look to it, and seek to enter into it. Let us 
make our freedom sure unto us, and get our names 
to be enrolled therein. 

Meditation on this city may be a good comfort and 
stay to such as in this world are without house and 

This also giveth unto us just cause to inquire after 
the statutes, orders, and ordinances of this city, that 
we may conform ourselves thereto. 

Sec. 48. Of having foundations. 

The foresaid city is described, by the stability of it, 
in this phrase, ivhich hath foundations. 

Of the divers acceptions of the word hfiOJo;, 
trunslnted foundation, see Chap. vi. 1, Sec. G. 

A good foundation maketh an edifice firm and 
stable ; in which respect Christ setteth forth a house 
that cannot be overthrown by winds, floods, or rain, 
to a house well founded, or set upon a good found- 
ation, Mat. vii. 24, 25. 

To amiilify this point the more, the plural number 
is here used, SiimKIov;, foundations. This number is 
oft used for emphasis' sake : as, ' mercies of God,' 
Rom. xii. 1 ; ' multitude of tender mercies,' Ps. li. 1 ; 
Christ maketh mention of ' many mansions' in heaven, 
John xiv. 2. This plural number implieth that none 
of them are without foundations. 

This city and the mansions therein are thus set 
out with foundations, in opposition to the taber- 
nacles or tents wherein Abraham and the other 
patriarchs dwelt while they were on earth. They 
were movable, and might be carried from place to 
place, and might be pulled down or overthrown ; 
yea, also they were corruptible, and could not always 
last : but heaven is immovable, firm, stable, and ever- 
lasting. See Chap. xiii. 14, Sec. 139. 

Sec. 40. Of the place made by God. 

As a further commendation of the foresaid city, 
the author of it is thus set down, whose builder and 
maher is God. Excellent things, in Canaan's lan- 
guage, are said to be of God. As ' a prince of God,' 
Gen. xxiii. 6 ; ' cedars of God,' Ps. Ixxx. 10 ; ' moun- 
tains of God,' Ps. xxxvi. 6 j ' an army of God,' 1 
Chron. xii. 22. 

This is here spoken in opposition to cities on earth, 
which are made by men. Such a difference was 
made betwixt tabernacles. Chap. viiL 4, 2, and Chap, 
ix. 11. 

Here are two words used, which much set out the 
workmanship of God. 

The former, TiynlTric, translated builder, according 
to the notation of the Greek word, signifieth an artist, 
one that doth a thing according to art, or artificially : 
for it is derived from a word, rlyvi), that signifieth 
art. The other word, ori/iiougyoc, implieth, according 
to the notation of it, a public ivorlcman, one that so 
openly sets out his work as he is not ashamed 
thereof. It is compounded of an adjective, &>!,u.io;, 
that signifieth public, and a noun, i;'/ov, that signifieth 
work. The governors among the Peloponnenses had 
their title, irnxiov^yo;, given unto them from this 
word. Both words in general intend one and the 
same thing : yet the former may point at the excel- 
lency and perfection of the work itself; the latter at 
the manifestation thereof, or at God's setting it out 
to be seen of men and angels. 

The third heaven, which is the place of the 



[Chap. XI. 

blessed, and where Christ in bis human nature now 
is, is the place that is here said to be made by God. 
This is it that Abraham looked for ; so as he looked 
far above Canaan. 

Of God's making these heavens, see Chap. i. 10, 
Sees. 132, 134. 

Sec. 50. Of llie resolution of llah. xi. 8-10. 

Ver. 8. By faith Abralmm, ivlien Ite was called to 
to go out to a place which fte should after receive for 
an in/ieritance, obeyed, and lie went out, not knowimj 
whither lie went. 

Ver. 9. By faith fie sojourned in tlie land of pro- 
mise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles 
with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same 

Ver. 10. For lie looked for a city which hathfouml- 
ations, whose builder and maker is God. 

Ill these verses is set down a commendation of 
Abraham's faith. Here observe, 

1. Tbe point described. 

2. The description itself, ver. 9. 

The thing described is faitli, amplified by tte 
author or person whose faith it was, Abraham's. 
The description consistcth of two effects. 
One, that he went out of a place, ver. 8. 
The other, that he abode in a place, ver. 9. 
In setting down the former, there is expressed, 

1. The cause, which was God's call, he was called. 

2. The ctfuct itself. 

His calling is amplified by two terms — from whence, 
and whither. 

The term or place from whence is implied under 
this phrase, to r/o out. It importeth the place where 
before he had lived, even his own country. 

The term, or place whither he went, is set out two 

1. Indefinitely, into a jihtce. 

2. More determinately, in this phrase, which he 
should after receive for an inheritance. 

Here we may observe, 

1. An intended possession, which he should after 

2. The kind of jiossession, for an inheritance. 
The effect is, 

1. Generally set down, in this word, obeyed. 

2. Particularly expressed, in this phrase, he went out. 
This is amplified by his absolute yielding thereto, 

in this phrase, not knotvin;/ tfhilher he went. 

In setting down the second part of the description, 
the thing described is repeated. By faith, ver. 9. 

His abode is set forth, 

1. By the act itself, ver 9. 

2. ]5y the motive whereby he was incited thereto, 
ver. 10. 

The act is set out, 

1. By the kind of it, which was a sojourning, he 

2. By the place where he abode. This is set out, 

(1.) By the excellency of it, the land of promise, 

(2.) J5y his manner of abiding there. ThLs is, 

[l.j Generally propounded, in this phrase, as in a 
strange country. 

This general noteth out. 

First, The condition of the place while Abraham 
was in it, stranye. 

Secondly, The qualification of it, in this particle, as. 

[2.] Particularly expounded ; wherein is declared, 

First, His continuing there, in this word, dwelling. 

Secondly, The kind of mansions wherein he dwelt, 

Thirdly, The company. This is manifested, 

First, By their names, Isaac and Jacob. 

Secondly, By their common title, heirs ivith him. 

Thirdly, The ground of that title, ]>romise, ampli- 
fied by the like privilege of all, in this particle, t/ie 

The motive whereby Abraham was incited to the 
foresaid effects, was his expectation of a better place. 
For, ver. 10. 

His expectation is, 

1. Expressed, in this word, he looked for. 

2. Amplified by the object that he looked for. 
This is, 

1. Expressed, under the metaphor of a city. 

2. Amplified, two ways. 

(1.) By the stability of it, in this phrase, which 
hath foundaliuns. 

(2.) By the founder of it, in these words, whose 
builder and maker is God. 

Sec. 51. Of observations raised out of Heb. xL 

I. Faith commends the best. Abraham was one of 
the best that are registered in the Old Testament, 
and he by faith is commended, ver. 8. 

II. God is careful to establish his servants in tfieir 
faith. This was the end of changing the name of 
Abram into Abraham. See Chap. vi. 19, Sec. 133. 

III. God's call is a believer's tvarrant. Abraham 
being called of God, testified his fsiith, as is here 
set down. See Sec. 36. 

IV. God oft calls to forsake the dearest tliat men 
liere have. Thus Abraham was called to leave the 
land of his nativity and his kindred. See Sec. 38. 

V. Places of idolatry are to be left. This was one 
reason why God called Abraliam from his country. 
See Sec. 38. 

VI. God will proi'ide fir such as follow his call. 
This is exemplified in this phrase, whieh he s/iould 
after receive. See Sec. 39. 

VII. God's promise may be performed in one's pos- 
terity. This is implied under this phrase, which lie 
should after. See Sec. 40. 

VIII. Faith believes things future. For that was 
to come whcrcuuto Abraham was called. Sec Sec. 39. 

Vee. 11.] 



IX. God makes his gifts sure. So is an inheritance. 
See Sec. 40. _ 

X. True faith is manifested hy obedience. By faith 
Abraham obeyed. See Sec. 41. 

XL Ti-ue obedience is manifested in that partiadar 
which is given in cliarge. God's charge and Abra- 
ham's obedience are set down in the same word. See 
Sec. 41. 

XII. Obedience to God must he a simple or absolute 
obedience. Abraham tliiis yielded to follow God he 
knew not whither. See Sec. 41. 

XIII. Faith makes hold out, ver. 9. As Abraham 
by faith went out of his country, so by the same 
faith he abides out of his country. See Sec. 42. 

XIV. God's promise puts vigour to faith. Because 
Canaan was promised, therefore Abraham believes it, 
though he could not then see how he should obtain 
it. It is therefore called ' the land of promise.' See 
Sec. 43. 

XV. Faith 2Msseth over man;/ difficulties. They 
who are in a strange land are subject to many straits, 
yet Abraham's faith made him abide in a strange 
country. See Sec. 44. 

XVI. Believers are content with ani/ condition. The 
patriarchs were content to dwell in tents. See Sec. 

XVII. Believers can all their days live as God 
appoints them. Abraham dwelt in tents till Jacob 
was born, which was all his days. See Sec. 46. 

XVIII. Believers are careful to train up their chil- 
dren to their mind. Abraham brought Isaac and 
Jacob to dweU with him in tents. See Sec. 46. 

XIX. God's p)-omise extends to believers and their 
children. This is one end why mention is here made 
of Abraham's son and grandsim. See Sec. 46. 

XX. Believers are heirs. Such were Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob. See Sec. 46. 

XXI. God's piromise is the ground of that right that 
tee have to anythinrj. These were ' heirs of promise.' 
See Sec. 46. 

XXII. Heaven was the hope of ancient believers, ver. 
10. The city here described which Abraham looked 
for was heaven. See Sec. 47. 

XXIII. Heaven is a city. So it is here called. 
See Sec. 47. 

XXIV. Heaven is a stable place. It is a place that 
hath foundations. See Sec. 48. 

XXV. The invisible heavens ivere nuide. 

XXVI. Tlie heavens ivere God's special rvorkmanship. 
Both these two latter doctrines are intended in the 
last clause of this verse. See Sec. 49. 

XXVII. Hope of reward may staml with faith. By 
faith this reward was hoped for. See Sec. 36. 

XXVIII. Faith makes men wait. The word trans- 
lated looked for, intends as much. See Sec. 47. 

XXIX. J/ope of heaven makes men undergo any- 
thing. This ariseth from the inference of this verse 
(wherein his hope of heaven is set down) upon the 

former verses, wherein is declared what he under- 
went. See Sec. 47. 

Sec. 52. Of Sara, and her name. 

Ver. 11. Through faith also Sara herself received 
strength to conceive seed, and zvas delivered of a child 
ivhen she was past age, because sJte judged him faithf'd 
wlio had promised. 

The fifth instance produced for the proof of the 
vigour of faith is Sara. It is the second instance 
after the flood, and the first of the female sex. 

Though our English vary the first word, and put 
through instead of by, yet in the Greek it is set 
down as all the other instances were, rrisTn ; and the 
anaphora, that is, the same word, in the beginning 
of every instance is here continued. 

The faith here attributed to Sara is the same tbat 
was attributed to Abraham, and others before him ; 
and therefore this copulative, xa), also, is added : as 
if he had said, Sara also had such a faith, though she 
were a woman, as the other worthies which were 
men had. 

There is also a pronoun of emphasis added, thus, 
aurri, herself. As if he had said, not her husband 
only, by whose faith she might receive the blessing, 
but herself also, even by her own faith, received 
strength, itc. 

Sara, Sajia, was the name that was given to the 
woman here spoken of ; but it was afterwards changed 
by God himself. 

In Hebrew, her first name was '>')1i}, Sarai, Gen. 
xi. 29. The last letter of that name in Hebrew, 
which is ^ {jod), is a limitation, and restraineth the 
meaning of the name. The root, T\'VVi p'rincipatu7)i 
obtinuit, vet exercuit, whence that name cometh, signi- 
fieth to obtain or exercise principality, Est. i. 22. 
Thence a noun, i;i>, princeps, which signifieth a 
prince in the masculine gender, Dout. xv. 1, and 
rrvHt domina, princess in the feminine, 1 Kings xi. 3. 
The name ^"liir, Sarai, signifieth my j^rincess ; whereby 
her dignity was restrained to a family that might so 
call her. 

But God turned the name Sarai to JTVU, Sarah, 
Gen. xvii. 15. The same letter, n, that is added in the 
midst of Abraham's name, is put in the end of Sarah. 

Sarah hath all theradical letters init, and indefinitely, 
without any limitation, signifieth a ^^rincess. Hereby 
the Lord would shew that she should be a mother 
of many people and nations. God's own interpreta- 
tions of this name giveth proof hereto ; for it is thus 
said, ' She shall be a mother of nations,' Gen. sviL 16. 
So Abraham signified, ' a father of many nations,' 
Gen. xvii. 5. 

There was the same end of changing Sarai her 
name, as there was of Abram his name ; for hereby 
God would support the faith of the one and of the 
other, in that great promise concerning a numerous 
seed ; and that the rather because the one was old, 



[Chap. XI. 

and the other was old and barren. Thus God him- 
self helps bis children in regard of their weakness, 
and affords means to strengthen tlicm and their 
graces, especially their faith in unlikely promises. 

Sec. 53. Of women proving God's wnrthies. 

This instance of Sarah giveth proof, that women 
may be worthies. They may be excellent and eminent 
in faith and other graces. Besides this particular 
here noted of Sarah, other worthy things also are re- 
corded of her, as, 

1. She left all other her kindred to go with her 
husband, Gen. xi. 31, and xii. '> ; she did nut look 
back, as Lot's wife. Gen. xix. 26. 

2. After they were come into a strange land, she 
went from place to place with her husband, as she 
saw occasion, Gen. xii. 11, and xx. 2 ; so as Abraham 
may be said to abide here and go thither with Sarah 
his wife. 

3. She reverenced and obeyed her husband, 1 Pet. 
iii. 6. 

4. She did not only conceive, bear, and bring fort^j 
her son, but gave him suck also. Gen. xxi. 7. 

5. She would not suffer her maid to be imperious 
or impetuous, Gen. xvi. 4, 5. 

6. She accepted her maid upon humbling herself. 
Gen. xvi. 9, 15. 

7. She was zealous against the bondwoman and 
her son, which God approved, Gen. xxi. 10, 12. 

8. She in her place was diligent in entertaining 
the angels. Gen. xviii. G. 

To this instance of Sarah, others are added in this 
catalogue ; as Moses his mother, ver. 23, and Rahab, 
ver. 31, and the women that received their dead 
raised to life, ver. 35. 

Both the Old and New Testament are full of many 
instances of worthy women. Histories also, of all 
nations and all ages, give further proof to the point. 

1. Woman was created after the same image that 
man was, Gen. i. 27. 

2. She is redeemed by the same price, Luke i. 47. 

3. She is sanctified by the same Spirit, 1 Pet. 
iii. 5. 

4. She is co-heir with man of the grace of life, 
1 Pet. iu. 7. 

5. In all spiritual privileges she is all one as man. 
Gal. iii. 28. 

1. Most unjust, therefore, and undue, are the invec- 
tives of many men against the female sex, as if they 
were the corruption of nature, as if they were without 
souls, as if they were an imperfect kind, and many the 
like more than monstrous absurdities. 

2. This ministereth much comfort against that 
blemish which the first woman brought upon that 
sex, 1 Tim. ii. 14; yea, and against the subjection 
and other consequences following upon the woman's 
sin, Gen. iii. 16. There are but two things from 
which women are barred wherein men have a liberty 

and power. One is, authority over a husband ; the 
other is, to exercise a ministerial function, 1 Tim. 
ii. 12, 1 Cor. xiv. 34. But instead of them he hath 
given two great prerogatives. One is, an extra- 
ordinary spirit, whereby they have been prophetesses, 
as Miriam, Exod. xv. ; Deborah, Judges iv. 4 ; Han- 
nah, 1 Sam. ii. 1 ; Huldah, 2 Kings xxii. 14; and 
others. The other is, a power and authority over 
nations and kingdoms ; for it is prophesied that 
queens .shall be nurses to the church, Isa. xlix. 23. 

3. This affords an admonition to husbands and 
other men, to esteem women as having a right to all 
the spiritual privileges that they have, and as ' heirs 
together with them of the grace of life,' 1 Pet. iii. 7. 

4. This ought to quicken up women to labour 
after knowledge, faith, love, and other graces, and to 
use all means for attaining the same. 

Sec. 54. Of Sarah's receiving strength to conceive 

The particular wherein Sarah is here said to give 
proof of her faith is, that she received strength to con- 
ceive seed. 

The word translated, to conceive, is in Greek a 
noun, KaTa(3o}.n, and is usually put for a foundation. 
Of the derivation tliereof, see Chap. iv. 3, Sec. 29. 
It may here be taken of receiving and retaining 
seed, as seed-corn is received and contained by the 

Some' take it for Sarah's conferring seed of her 
own ; whereupon this question is started, whether 
women have seed as well as men, and a child con- 
ceived of the mixture of them both. But the resolu- 
tion of such questions I leave to physicians. The 
meaning of the apostle is clear, that notwithstanding 
she had been long barren, and very aged,- having 
lived forty years beyond the ordinary time of women's 
bearing children, yet by faith she conceived seed, 
whereby she came to be with child, even as a child- 
bearing woman. 

This she could not do of herself, nor by any strength 
or vigour of nature, and thereupon it is said that, 
b'jmij.iv 'i>M^i, she received strength. She beheved that 
God, who had promised, would, above the course of 
nature, give her ability to conceive with child, and to 
bring forth a child. So as faith will work vigour 
where it was not before. 

The apostle exemplifieth this in sundry particulars, 
2 Cor. iv. 8-10 ; but especially is this verified in 
sundry cures that Christ did. Among others, take 
for instance the woman that was cured of her issue of 
blood, Mark v. 25, 26, kc. 

We certainly fail of many good things that we 
might receive from the promises of God, for want of 
faith. Christ did not many mighty works in his own 
country, because of their unbelief. Mat. xiii. 58. 

' Vide Dan. Heinsii, Exercilat. Sacr. in loc. 
' Ninety years old, Qen. xvii. 17. 

Vek. ] 1.] 



How should tills stir us up to use all means for 
getting, increasing, and strengthening faith, so much 
commended in this chapter ! See for this purpose 
The Whole Arvwur of God, on Eph. vi. 17, Of Faith, 
Treat. 2, Part 6, Sec. 17, i-c. 

This gives a further proof that children are the 
blessing of God. See Chap. vi. 1, Sec. 105. For Sarah 
received strength to conceive seed, she received it 
from the Lord. For it was the Lord that had pro- 
mised it, Gen. xvii. 16, and xviii. 10. This is ex- 
pressly observed, Ps. cxxvii. 3, and cxxviii. 3. 

1. Children, as a blessing, have been craved of 
God, Gen. xxv. 21, 1 Sam. i. 10. 

2. They have been promised as a blessing, Gen. 
xvii. 19. 

3. As for a blessing, praise hath been given to God 
for them. Gen. xxix. 35, 1 Sam. ii. 1. 

4. Directions have been given well to use them, 
even as a divine blessing, Eph. vi. 4. 

5. It hath been counted a great fault to seek them 
otherwise than of God, Gen. xxx. 1, 2. 

6. God hath severely upbraided them that have 
•abused these blessings, Ezek. xvi. 20, 21. 

7. Want of them hath been threatened as a curse, 
Hosea ix. 14; and inflicted as a judgment, 2 Sam. 
vi. 23. 

8. Children are an especial means of propagating 
their parents' virtues ; j-ea, of continuing the world, 
and especially the church in the world ; and a suc- 
cession of them, generation after generation, is the 
only way of continiung perpetual service by mortal 
men to the immortal God. 

It is therefore a very evil disposition to be discon- 
tent for having children. It is to be discontent at 
God's blessing, as the Israehtes were at manna, Num. 
xi. 16. 

This discontent is many ways manifested. 

1. Some will not marry because they would not 
have children. 

2. Others for that end marry such as are past 

3. Others will have two beds, to forbear lying with 
their wives. 

4. Others fret at their wives, because they bring 
forth many children. 

6. Others, having many children, wish them 

6. There are that unnaturally make away their 
children after they are born, yea, some in the very 

All these fruits of discontent arise from distrast- 
fulness. Had men faith in God's providence, they 
would account children an especial blessing. 

Children being a blessing, we ought to pray for 
them, and to praise God for them when we have 
them, and to use them as a divine blessing, by well 
educating of them. Hereof see Domestic Duties, Treat, 
vi. Sec. 6, &c. 

Sec. 55. 0/ Sarah's bringing forth a child, being 
barren and past age. 

To Sarah's conceiving, it is added, that sJie was de- 
livered of a child. This is the interpretation of one 
Greek word, hiy.i, peperit. We have not one English 
word to express the full sense of it. Some thus trans- 
late it, she brought forth. Of the Greek word, see 
Chap. vi. 7, Sec. 47. 

This is added to shew the continuance of God's 
blessing, and of her faith. She did not only believe 
unto conception, but also unto delivery. Answerably 
God blessed her in conceiving and in bringing forth. 

Concerning Sarah's faith, this giveth instance, that 
true faith continueth tiU that which is believed be 

Faith resteth on God, on his properties, on his 
promises, and thereupon is supported and kept from 

To amplify the gift of God, and faith of Sarah, 
this phrase is added, when she ivas past a<je, or, as it 
is in the Greek, beyond or above the time of .age. 
The word r,>.r/.ia, translated age, doth also signify 
stature, Luke xii. 25, and xix. 3. It is derived from 
a word riXixo;, quantus, that implieth measure, Eph. 
iv. 13, and signifieth ' how great,' James iii. 5. But 
here, as in other places (John ix. 21, 23), it signifieth 
age; and the word premised before it, xai^o;, time, 
implieth that time wherein women, according to the 
ordinary course of nature, are child-bearing. The 
preposition, Taja, premised before both the other 
words, which signifieth beside, or beyond, sheweth 
that the time of age here meant was beyond and above 
that time wherein women use to be child-bearing, as 
was before noted. Sec. 54. This preposition is in 
this case translated against (Rom. iv. IS) ; thus, ^aj 
iy.'zi&a, ' against hope,' or ' beyond,' or ' above hope.' 

Our English hath fully expressed the apostle's 
meaning in this phrase, u'hen she was past age. 

The sacred history further testifieth that she was 
barren, Gen. xi. 30. Some here insert it thus :^ 
' Sarah, being barren, received strength,' <tc. Hereby it 
appeareth that her faith passed over many difSculties, 
as was before noted of Abraham's faith, Sec. 44. 

Sec. 5G. Of the ground of a strong faith. 

The reason of Sarah's strong faith is thus expressed, 
Because she judged him faithful that had promised. 

Of the conjunction, M, translated because, see 
Chap. ii. 14, Sec. 136. It in general intends the 
true ground and cause of her faith, which was her 
persuasion of God's truth and faithfulness in making 
good his word. God's promise is in itself a sufficient 
ground for faith ; and it is the more sure ground, be- 
cause he that maketh it is faithful Yet these work 
not faith but in such as judge him so to be ; and this 
will work an invincible faith. 

Of the Greek word ^yiiffaro, tTanslntei Judged, see 
' Claromont. Cod. Complut. Edit. Vet. Latin. 



[Chap. XI. 

Chap. xiii. 7, Sec. 96. The word is oft translated 
counteil, or accounted, Pliilii). iii. 7, 8. It iniplicth 
an assent of the mind to the truth of a thin;,' ; and 
here a full assent, without any doubting at all, as it 
is said of her husband, ' lie staggered not at the pro- 
mise of God through unbelief, ttc, being fully per- 
.suaded, that what God had promised he was able also 
to perform,' Iloni. iv. 20, 21. 

Ohj. The history niakcth mention of her question- 
ing the truth of the i)romise, and doubting of the 
accomplishment thereof, Gen. xviii. 12. 

Alls. Distinguish times, and her doubting and be- 
lieving may be reconciled. For when first she heard 
the message, through weakness she distrusted the 
event ; but the promise being again repeated, and 
she put in mind of God's almighty power, she stead- 
fastly believed, Gen. xviii. 14. Thus Zacharias at 
first believed not, but afterwards he was strengthened 
in faith, Luke i. 20. 

Herein we have a proof that weak ones may attain 
to a steadfast faith. Tliis maybe by reason of further 
means afforded for strengthening faith, and by reason 
of God's blessing upon those means. 

It is therefore needful and useful to continue the 
use of means for strengthening faith, and increasing 
other graces. We do not here, while we are in this 
world, attain to the full measure of faith, or of any 
other grace. We may not, therefore, give over the 
use of means, but continue to use them so long as 
we live. 

Let such as are weak in faith, and subject to doubt- 
ings, take notice that weak ones may be strong in 
faith, and thereupon use means for strength. 

Let ministers, parents, and others that have the 
charge of any soul under them, when they observe 
any of their charge weak and wavering and doubt- 
ing, do their best for strengthening and establishing 
them, and that upon this ground, that weak ones 
may be made strong. 

Two things are joined together, which added much 
to the strengthening of her faith : one was the pro- 
miser, the other was his property. 

The promiser is set down with some emphasis thus, 
he that li/id j^romiied. This is the interpretation of 
one Greek word, rh fVayyt/Xa/iEKjv, and it pointeth 
at God himself, who is here thus described, to shew 
the ground of her faith, which was no vain fantas)' 
of her own brain, but an express jiromi-sc, and that of 
God himself. Of the word translated /))vw«i««^, see 
Chap. iv. I, Sec. fi, and (Iliaj.. vi. 13, Sec. 94. 

The property that is here noted of God is irisrh, 
faithful. Hereof see Chap. ii. 17, Sec. 177. 

Tills epithet, faithful, is added to shew the height 
of the reason of her believing so incredible a promise, 
which was God's truth and faitii fulness in accoiu- 
plLshing whatsoever he promiseth, being great or mean, 
likely or unlikely. 

Of God's promise the ground of faith, and of 

God's faithfulness a strong pillar to support it, see 
Chap. X. 23, Sec. 73. 

Sec. 57. Of the increase and continuance of GotCs 

Ver. 12. Tlierefjre sprang t/tere even of one, and 
him as good as dead, so mang as tlu stars of t/te sly in 
multitude, ami as t/ie sand which is bg the sea-slutre 

The first illative particle, bih, therefore, sheweth that 
this verse is inferred as a consequence following upon 
Sarah's faith, which consequence is the recompense 
therefor. Whereas before she had lived ninety years 
without having any child at all, because she believed 
God's promise of giving her a son ; the benefit of that 
promise is e.vtended to a numerous, yea, even an in- 
numerable offspring. 

This is a great encouragement to believe the truth 
of God's i)romises, and to rest upon the accomplish- 
ment of them. 

The benefit of God's promise shall be far extended 
unto such, so as faith shall not lose her recompense. 

The word 'iyinnHrisav, translated sprang, is of vari- 
ous acceptations and significations ; and among others, 
it signifieth to he born, or brought forth, in reference 
to children that come out of the mother's womb. 
Our English hath well expressed the sense of it in 
this place by tliis word, sprang, to shew that not the 
immediate children of Abraham by Sarah are here 
only meant, (fur that was only one,) but his posterity, 
generation after generation. Some' translate it thus, 
there proceeded a posteri/g. 

This implieth the continuance of God's blessing, 
that it was not only for one chUd, but for jiosterity, 
generation after generation, and also itgiveth evidence 
that God can raise great matters out of small begin- 
nings, as the waters that came from the sanctuary in- 
creased from ankle-deep to a river that could not be 
passed over, Ezek. xlvii. 3, .5. This God doth, 

1. To manifest and maguifj' his divine power. 

2. To make men more thankful. Take instance 
hereof in Jacob, Gen. xx.xii. 10. A continual increase 
of a blessing causeth thanks to God to be continued 
time after time. 

3. To keep men from being too much pnfTed up 
with the blessing of God. For if they had the ful- 
ness of the blessing at first, they would boast too 
much thereof ; but blessing increasing by degrees pre- 
vents high conceits. 

4. Hereby God brings men to use warrantable 
means for the increase of his blessing, whenas they 
observe that blessing to increase more and more. As 
the widow by the increase of oil was moved to call 
for vessel after vessel, 2 Kings iv. 5, 6. 

This teacheth us to take heed of ' despising the day 
of small thiiig,s,' Zcch. iv. 10. Men are too prone 
hereunto. This was it that made the Jews despise 
' Nati sunt posteri. — Jieza. 

Vee. 12.] 



Christ. This is it that makes many to scorn the 
ministers of C'hrist and their ministry. They are 
ready to scoff at the power of God manifested in such 
as are wrought upon by the ministry, as Tobiah the 
Ammonite did at the Jews for rearing up the wall of 
their city, Keh. iv. 3. 

Sec. 58. Of the mutual good that a believing hus- 
band and u'ife mai/ do each otlier. 

The foresaid small beginning of a numerous issue 
intended is thus expressed, ap hii, of one. To shew 
that this circumstance is remarkable, an eniphatical 
particle is set before it, which is the ordinary particle, 
y.ai, and ; but here it intends an emphasis, which our 
English hath well expressed by this jjarticle, ecen, as 
if he had said, only one. 

Question is made of the person that should be in- 
tended under this word, one. The coherence seems 
to refer it to Sarah ; but it is of the masculine gender, 
and thereupon supposed to intend Abraham. This 
is further confirmed by the next clause, which is also 
the masculine gender, xui \isviy.ocii,'j,':toii, and him as good 
a3 dead. Which word is applied, even in this case, 
to the body of Abraham, Eom. iv. 19. 

They that apply it to Abraham say that thus much 
concerning Sarah is intended in the former verse, and 
therefore the apostle here joineth her husband with 
her, as if the copulative were to be translated also, 
and thus read, Tlierefore sprang there also of one, and 
him as good as dead, &c. 

I take it that both of them are here meant, for 
husband and wife make but one person, according to 
the law of marriage. Gen. ii. 2-1, and that the mascu- 
line gender is here used, because, according to the 
grammar rule, it is the worthier. Certainly this 
numerous issue was a recompense of the faith of 
them both, and inferred upon the commendation of 
Sarah's faith, because Abraham had in this case be- 
lieved in vain, if Sarah also had not believed. For 
the promise was approfiriated to Sarah as well as to 
Abraham, thus, ' 1 will give thee a son of Sarah,' 
Gen. xvii. IG. 

By this it is evidenced that a husband may receive 
benefit by the faith of his wife, and so likewise a wife 
by the faith of her husband, 1 Cor. vii. 14, IG. This 
holds especially where both husband and wife are 
believers. Judges xiii. 23, 1 Sam. ii. 20. 

This conies to pass by reason of their near union, 
for by the matrimonial bond two are made one flesh, 
Eph. V. 21. 

This ought the rather to quicken np the husband 
and wife to faith, and the fruits thereof, both for 
their own sakes, and also for the sake of their yoke- 

Sec. 59. Of God's vsing iinlihehj means. 
The foresaid faith, both of Abraham and of Sarah, 
is further amplified by the seeming impossibility of 

having a child, implied in this phrase, aTid him as 
good as dead. 

The root, fsxpo's, mortitus, from whence this participle, 
mixi^MfMiiov, sprouteth, signifieth one that is properly 
and actually dead. Acts v. 1 0. Here it is used meta- 
phorically, by way of resemblance, in that he had no 
more vigour for the begetting of children, than a 
dead man to do that which belongs to the liWng. It 
cannot here properly be taken, because Abraham was 
then living : and the apostle, speaking of this very 
thing, and using the same word, thus expresseth his 
mind, Abraham ' considered not his own body, now 
dead, when he was about a hundred years old,' 
Eom. iv. 19. 

To make this the more clear the apostle useth a 
word of mitigation, raZra, id est, Kara. raZra, which 
our English hath thus expressed, as good as; which 
implieth that he was not indeed dead, but as it were 
dead, and that in reference to the point in hand. 

The resemblance may be taken from a tree, wliich 
when it ceaseth to bear fruit, and there is no hope that 
it should bear any, we say it is dead ; for the vigour 
of a tree to sprout forth and bear fruit is accounted 
the life of it. 

This proves that God can work not only by weak 
and unlikely means, or without means, but also by 
contrary means ; for this resemblance sheweth that 
the living arose from the dead — yet death is contrary 
to life. See Chap. ii. 4, Sec. 28, of the various 
means which God useth. 

Sec. 60. Of hi/perbolical e.rpressions. 

The extent of God's blessing is set out to the life ; 
first, by resemblances to stars and sand; and then 
simply in this word, innumerable. 

The two metaphors are proverbial and hyperbolical, 
used to set out such things as cannot by man be 

These two kinds, stars and sand, are innumerable 
to men (hereu}ion God, taking Abraham out in a starry 
night, bid him number the stars, if he were able, 
Gen. XV. 5), but to God they are not, for God 
' telleth the number of the stars,' Ps. cxlvii. 4. 

ObJ. Astronomers and philosophers set out the 
number of stars by the distinct constellations, and 
particular stars in their several constellations. 

A71S. Though they may by observation set out 
many of the most conspicaous stars, yet there are 
many more which may be hid from tlieir sight ; or 
by reason of their closeness together, in man's ap- 
pearance, cannot be set forth or numbered. Much 
less can the several sands of the sea be numbered. 
Wherefore, to make a nation as manj- as the stars of 
heaven and the sand of the sea is hyjierbolical. 

Some only make a general resemblance betwixt 
Abraham's seed and the stars of the sky and sands 
by the sea-shore, thus, as those two are innumerable, 
so should Abraham's posterity be innumerable. 


[Chap. XI. 

Neither of those senses do directly cross the other, 
but both may stand with the intent and scope of the 

These two comparisons, stars of the sky and sand 
by the sea-shore, are frequently used to set forth 
innumerable things. ' Thou hast multiplied thy 
merchants above the stars of heaven, saith the Lord,' 
Nah. iii. IG. It is said of Josejih, that he 'gathered 
corn as the saud of tlie sea,' Gen. xli. 49. It is said 
of the quails which God gave in the wilderness, that 
they were ' like as the sand of the sea,' Ps. l.x.\viii. 27. 
God's mercies are said to be ' more tlian the sand,' 
Ps. cx.xxix. 18. The armies of the Canaanites are 
said to be ' as the sand that is upon the sea-shore in 
multitude,' Josh. xi. 4. So the army of the Philis- 
tines, 1 Sam. xiiL 5. Hushai advised Absalom to 
' gather all Israel as the sand that is by the sea,' 2 
Sam. xvii. 11. Thus the multitudes of widows are 
said to be increased ' above the sand of the sea,' Jer. 
XV. 8. The Babylonians are said to ' gather the cap- 
tivity as the sands,' Hab. i. 9. And Solomon's wis- 
dom is said to be ' as the sand that is by the sea-shore,' 
1 Kings iv. 24. ' * 

As for the number of Abraham's offspring, it is set 
forth by resemblance to the stars eleven times : thrice 
by way of promise, Gen. xv. 5, and xxiii. 17, and 
xxvi. 4 ; twice by rehearsing that promise, Exod. 
xxxi. 13, 1 Chron. xxvii. 23 ; six times by manifes- 
tation of the performance thereof, Deut. i. 10, and 
X. 22, and xxviiL G2, Neh. ix. 23, Jer. x.xxiii. 22, and 
in this place. 

It is also set forth by resemblance of sands nine 
times : thrice by promise, Gen. xxii. 1 7, and xxxii. 
12, Hosca i. 10; thrice by performance, 1 Kings 
iv. 20, Jer. x.xxiii. 22, and in this place ; thrice by 
supposition, Isa. x. 22, and xlviii. li), Kom. ix. 27. 

Ques. Was Abraham's seed indeed as many as stars 
and sand ? 

Ans. 1. Proverbial and hyperbolical phrases are 
not simply to be taken ; and therefore it is not 
necessary that the things compared should in the 
letter be answerable unto them. They are used to 
set out an exceeding great number, Deut i. 10. 

2. If all that have descended from Abraham, and 
shall descend from him, be duly weighed, they will 
be found exceeding many. 

3. All that profess tlie faith of Abraham, that is, 
all Christians in all generations, are comprised under 
the seed of Abraham, Gal. iii. 29, Hosea i. 10. 

4. The apostle here showcth that he intends no 
more but that they were innumerable, as he expresseth 
in the last word of this verse. 

The foresaid hyperboles, and other like unto them, 
are used to make things worthy of all observation, 
to be the more heeded and better regarded. 

1. It appears hereby, th.at to t.ax all hyperbolical 
speeches of falsehood and lying savoureth too much 
of ignorance of the arts, which the word of God ap- 

proveth. Hyperbolical speeches are to move men 
not to believe untruths, but to make them the better 
to conceive the depth of truth in weighty matters. 

2. That hyperboles may not be perverted and 
abused, these rules that follow, and others like unto 
them, are to be observed. 

(1.) Hyperboles must be used of such things as 
are indeed true in the substance of them. To say of 
things that are in numVjer but small, and of the 
increase of them there is no great admiration, they 
are as stars and sands, is an abuse. So to say of an 
army that is a little discomfited (as the army of the 
Israelites was before Ai, Josh. vii. 4, 5), they are 
beaten as small as the dust of the earth, 2 Sam. xxii. 

(2.) They must be used in weighty truths, which 
are worthy of a more than ordinary consideration. 
Such are all the h3'perboles used in Scripture ; other- 
wise they fail of their main and principal end. 

(3.) They must, so near as may, be set out in pro- 
verbial sentences. Proverbs are, by common use and 
experience, well known, and the meaning of them well 
understood. Such are the byperbules of this text. 

(4.) !Men must therein shew that they aim more 
at the sense and meaning of the matter, than at the 
.sound and measure of words. This will be discerned 
by an indefinite expressing of them, without words of 
infallible certainty : such as these, — just as many as 
stars ; full as high as heaven ; eveiy way as small as 
dust. Hyperboles are set forth by words of simi- 
litude and dissimilitude, rather than by words of 
equality and inequality. 

(o.) The end of them must be to inform, not to 
flatter, as they did who said of Herod's oration, ' It 
is the voice of God, and not of a man,' Acts xii. 22. 
Herein Cicero much failed in his hyperbolical phrases 
of Pompey and Cresar. 

(6.) They must be kept in measure. Though they 
have a far reach, yet there is a decorum to be kept. 
The tales of Garamantus are in this respect most 

(7.) They may not be brought in comparison with 
God, thus, ' as true as God,' 

Sec. 61. Of the great increase of God's llessinff. 

This last word of the verse, d>a»/'il,ajir(i;, i«n«- 
merable, sheweth the end of the two forementioned 
hyperboles, stars and sand, which was to set out the 
surpassing great number of Abraham's and Sarah's 

The English word fitly answereth the Greek. Both 
of them are compounds. The Greek is derived from 
a noun, aj/il.ai;, that significth number, Acts \\. 7. 
Thence a verb, a^iO/nu), to number. 

The preposition, d»', is privative ; so as this com- 
pound setteth out that which cannot be numbered. 

This giveth instance that God can increase his 
blessing beyond man's apprehension. This may fur- 

Vee. 11, 12.] 



ther be exemplified in particular persons, in whole 
churclies, in the graces that are bestowed upon men, 
and in divine ordinances. 

1. For persons : how wonderful great was the 
increase of God's blessing upon Joseph, Jloses, David, 
Daniel, Esther, Mordecai, sundry prophets and 
apostles, but especially upon Christ himself, who was 
that ' little stone that was cut out of the mountain 
without hands, and became a great mountain, and 
filled the whole earth !' Dan. ii. 35. 

2. For churches : that church which at first was 
comprised in one family, and afterwards increased 
into twelve tribes, became a very great nation ; but 
the Christian church did much more increase. 

3. For gifts and graces : they use to grow as 
mustard-seed, which is the least of all seeds, but be- 
cometh a tree, Mat. xui. 31, 32. 

4r. For the ordinances of God : they seem at first 
to many contemptible, and are counted foolishness, 
1 Cor. i. 1 8 ; but they appear to be ' the p)ower of 
God to salvation,' Kom. i. 16. 

There is no stint that can be put to the blessing of 
God. This is it ' that maketh rich,' Prov. x. 22. 
Hence this proverb. Cast me into the sea, and give 
me God's blessing, and I shall do well enough. 

This giveth us, in small and mean beginnings, to 
call and depend upon God for his increase thereof; 
and to be persuaded of this, that he can, and will, as 
he seeth just cause, give an increase according to, 
yea, and beyond our expectation. See more hereof. 
Sec. 57. 

Sec. 62. OftJie resolution o/Heb. xi. 11, 12. 

Ver. 11. Through faith also Sarah herself received 
strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of a child 
when she was past age, because she judged him faithful 
rvho Imd promised, 

12. Therefore sprang there even of one, and him 
as good as dead, so many as the stars of the sky in 
multitude, and as the sand ivhich is by the sea-shore 

In these two verses there is a commendation of a 
woman's faith. In it is set down — 

1. The thing commended. 

2. The arguments by which it is commended. 
In the former there is expressed — 

1. The particular grace, faith. 

2. The name of the person in whom that grace 
was, Sarah. 

The commendation itself is taken from two argu- 
ments — 

1. From the effects of her faith. 

2. From the consequence that followed thereupon. 
Two effects are — 

1. Propounded. 

2. Amplified. 

The effects propounded were — 
1. To conceive seed. 
Vol. m. 

2. To be delivered of a child. 
These are amplified three ways — 

1. By the ground of them, she received strength. 

2. By the seeming impossibility, %vlien site was 
past age. 

3. By the proper cause of all, because she judged, 

In setting down the cause, we may observe — 

1. Her act, she judged. 

2. The object of that act, which was God, who ia 
described — 

(1.) By his goodness, in making /j?w?i?«?. 
(2.) By his faithfulness, in performing what he 

The consequence of Sarah's faith is, 

1. Generally hinted, in this particle of reference, 

2. Particularly exemplified. 

The exemplification noteth out — 

1. The kind of blessing, in this word, sprang tliere. 

2. The greatness of it. This is set dovm two 
wa3's — 

(1.) By the meanness of the beginning. 

(2.) By the greatness of the issue. 

The meanness of the beginning is manifested — 

1. By the singularity of the person, even of one. 

2. By the improbabihty of the means, aiid him cU 
good as dead. 

The greatness of the issue is set out two ways — 

1. Comparatively. 

2. Simply. 

The comparison is taken from two innumerable 
things — 

1. Stars of the slry. 

2. The sand which is by the sea-shore. 

The simple expression of the issue is in this word, 

Sec. 63. Of observations raised out of Heb. xi, 
11, 12. 

I. Women may prove worthies. Sarah, a woman, 
is here put in the catalogue of God's ancient wor- 
thies. See Sec. 53. 

II. God is careful to support weak ones. This was 
the end why God turned this name Sarai into Sarah. 
See Sec. 52. 

III. Faith worh vigour. It was by faith that 
Sarah manifested such vigour as is set down in this 
verse. See Sec. 52. 

IV. Believers receive that which they have not of 
themselves. Sarah received strength for that which ia 
here noted of her. See Sec. 54. 

V. Children are an especial blessing. Under these 
phrases, conceiving seed, and delivered of a child, that 
blessing is meant. See Sec. 54. 

VI. Faith continueth till that which is blessed'^ be 
accomplished. Sarah, by faith, did not only conceive 

1 Qu. ' believed' ?— Ed. 



[C'HAr. XT. 

seed, but also was delivered of a child. See Sec. 

VII. A weak faith mat/ become strong. Sarah, 
■who at first doubted, is here noted to be strong in 
faith. See Sec. 50. 

VIII. No difficulty hinders tlie viHue of true faith. 
Sarah had been long barren, and was past age, yet 
by faith was delivered of a child. See Sec. 5G. 

IX. Persuasion of the truth of God's 2}romise makes 
it powerful to the helievtr. Sarah's judging God to be 
faithful, was it that made the i)romise effectual to 
her. See Sec. 56. 

X. God's jiromise is the ground of faith. This 
moved Sarah to believe, because God had promised. 
See Sec. 50. 

XI. God's faithfulness is an especial prop to faith. 
Sarah judged God to be faithful, and thereupon be- 
lieved. See Sec. 50. 

XII. Faith liath a recompense. The inference of 
the twelfth verse upon the eleventh, by this particle, 
therefore, gives proof hereof. See Sec. 57. 

XIII. A numerous ofsprinr/ is a blessing. This 
ariseth in general from the main scope of this verije, 
and in particular from this word sjnxtng. See 
Sec. 57. 

XIV. God can with small means effect great matters. 
Out of 07ie he raised an innumerable company. See 
Sec. 57. 

XV. Husbands and wives may prove a blessing each 
to other. This ariseth from the change of the gender. 
He had before spoken of Sarah in the feminine gen- 
der ; but he applies the blessing to her husband in 
the masculine gender. Sec Sec. 58. 

XVI. God can bring his 2'mrp)ose to pass by unlikely 
means. Sarah's husband was a^ good as dead, j'et 
an innumerable issue proceeded from him. See 
Sec. 61. 

XVII. Old age makes men as dead. In this re- 
spect is Abraham said to be as good as dead. See 
Sec. 57. 

XVIII. Hyperbolical speeches are not iinlavful. 
These phrases, as the stars, as the sand, are hyper- 
bolical, yet used by the apostle. See Sec. 00. 

XIX. God can increase his blessing beyond man's 
apprehension. This word, innumerable, and these 
metaphors, as the stars, as the sand, prove as much. 
See Sec. 61. 

Sec. 04. Of 2^ersevering in faith. 

Ver. 13. These all died in faith, not having received 
the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were 
persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed 
that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. 

The apostle, from the beginning of this verse to the 
Bevcnteentli, insertcth a general commendation both of 
those whom he had named, and of others also. 

This commendation is proj)oundcd in this verse, and 
amplified in the three verses following. 

Some extend this general phrase, outci tuvti;, these 
all, both forwards and backwards. Forwards, to such 
as were named before ; backwards, to such as are 
named in the other part of the chapter. He useth 
this relative, these, because he wrote this epistle, and 
expressed all the names in this chaj)ter, before they to 
whom it was sent should read it. So as to them he 
might say, all these that are set down in this catalogue. 
This is the rather supposed to be the extent of this 
phrase, because it is agreeable to the two last verses 
of this chapter. 

By this it appeareth that true faith exerciseth the 
like vigour in all of all sorts ; for under this general 
particle, all, sundry sorts of persons are comprised — as 
male, female, old, young, great, mean, and other sorts. 

It is the same Spirit that worketh in all, and 
sheweth forth his power in all, 2 Cor. iv. 13. 

The perseverance of all the believers here intended 
is set down in this phrase, died in faith. This word, 
u'TtiOa.Mov, died, is in Greek a compound ; whereof see 
Chap. vii. 8, Sec. 1. 

It here implieth that their faith continued all the 
days of their Ufe, so long as they had use thereof, 
even till death, when in soul they attained to the 
fruition of that which they believed. 

The faith wherein they died is the same that is 
described in the first verse — a justifjing, saving faith. 
In this faith they are said to die, because they pos- 
sessed not the things promised in this life. 

The preposition ■xara, secundum, translated in, 
properly signifieth according to, — implying that their 
faith remained in them till death. 

Ohj. It is expres.sly said of Enoch, that he was 
' translated that he should not see death,' ver. 5. 

Ans. 1. This may be taken of all that died, as it 
is said that Jacob brought all his seed with him into 
Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 7), namely, all that were with 
him ; for Joseph was before him in Egy[)t. 

2. The phrase may be taken synecdochically for 
the greatest part, only one being excepted. Thus it 
is said that Athaliah destroyed ' all the seed royal,' 
yet Joash, the youngest of the king's sons, was not 
destroyed, 2 Kings si. 1, 2. 

3. Though Enoch did not die as others, yet he was 
translated, and his mortality turned into immortality, 
which was a kind of death. 

4. As long as he lived he continued to live by 
faith, which is the main thing here intended. 

5. While he lived he had not the fruition of what 
he believed. 

Of persevering in faith, which is the main thing 
here intended, see Chap. iii. 6, Sec. 08. 

Sec. 05. Of believers resting on that ichich tlvey enjoy 

To amplify their continuing in faith, the apostle 
addcth this clause, — )iot having received the promises. 

The word ).aj3otTig, received, is the same that was 

Vek. 13.] 



used, Ver. 8, Sec. 39. It implietli an actual possess- 
ing and enjoying of a thing. 

Tlie other word, l-ayyt'kiai, promises, is that which 
is used, Ver. 9, Sees. -13, 46. It is here taken metony- 
mically for the things promised. 

And because they were many, the plural number 
is used, promises: as, 1. A numerous seed; 2. The 
land of Canaan ; 3. Christ himself ; 4. Heaven also. 

Besides, the same promise was oft repeated : as to 
Abraham, Gen. xii. 2, xv. 5, and xxii. 1 7 ; then to 
Isaac, Gen. xxvi. 3, 4 ; after that to Jacob, Gen. xxviii. 
13, 14. None of these, nor any of their children that 
came immediately from their loins, enjoyed the par- 
ticulars promised while they lived on earth. In this 
respect they died in faith, still believing that every 
promise should in due time be accomplished. 

Quest. How can believers that lived before Abraham 
be here intended, whenas the special promises of 
seed and Canaan were not made unto them t 

Ans. 1. The blessed seed, Christ Jesus, which is 
the principal seed intended, was made to them all. 
Gen. iii. 15. 

2. The truth typified by Canaan, which was heaven, 
was by faith expected of them all ; and the ark did in 
a manner typify the same. 

3. They also had special promises, which were 

4. It is not necessary that every proof should be 
applied to every believer. This general is true of 
them all, — all died in faith. To prove this, some 
proofs belong to some, other to others. 

By this proof — not Imving received the promises — it 
is evident that faith resteth on that which it en- 
joyeth not. Hereof, see Ver. 1, Sec. 4. 

Sec. 66. Of believers emhi-acing proynises a far off. 

Though believers enjoy not what they do believe, 
yet by faith they see them ; therefore he addeth. 
But having seen them. This conjunction aXXa, but, 
manifesteth a distinction between receiving and seeing. 
They received not the things which they saw. 

Of the word i&o>7-ig ab han, translated seen, see 
Chap. ii. 8, Sees. 68, 72. 

Men see two ways — 

1 . With the eyes of their body. 

2. With the eyes of their soul ; whereof there are 
two sorts : 

(1.) The eye of the understanding, Eph. i. IS. 

(2.) The eye of faith, Heb. xi. 27. 

It is the spiritual sight that is here meant, and 
that in both the former respects ; for they well under- 
stood what things were promised, and withal they 
believed that they should be accomplished ; but with 
their bodily ej'es they did not see them. 

This word that is added, ffogJ*^:*, afar off, joined 
with the former verb of seeing, is a metaphor taken 
from seamen, which use to see the countries where- 
unto they are sailing afar off. 

It is a fit metaphor : for the world is as a sea, the 
church therein as a ship, saints as passengers in that 
ship ; heaven, and other things promised, are as the 
country whereunto they sail. Well may it be said of 
those that are here intended, that they saw them 
afar off, because they lived in the former ages of the 

Besides, a long date was put to the accomplish- 
ment of most of the promises, in which respect they 
were afar off. 

This doth much illustrate their faith, that a long 
date for accomplishing what was promised did not 
weaken it. 

For it is further added, that thej' were persuaded 
of them. Of the word 'sueihrii, which we tr.mslate 
persuaded, see Chap. vi. 9, Sec. 56. It here impheth 
confidence in the accomplishment of what is pro- 
mised, and assurance of enjoying the same. This 
assurance the apostle doth exemplify in Abraham, 
Bom. V. 19. 

Hereby we are given to understand that faith 
worketh assurance. Full assurance is expressly attri- 
buted to faith, Chap. x. 22, Sec. 65. 

In regard of that assurance, it is said of these 
believers that they embraced them. Of the notation 
of the Greek word uS'jra.aa./ievoi, see Chap. xiii. 24, 
Sec. 191. 

It is ordinarily translated to salute, Rom. xvi. 5, 
and the noun derived from this verb, aa-aa/ihi, sigui- 
fieth salutation, Luke i. 29. 

In salutations men use to embrace one another. 
Fitly and properly is it here translated embraced. 
The phrase implieth a thankful and joyful resting 
on a thing. In testimony hereof, God's people, 
when a special promise was brought unto them, were 
wont to ' bow down and worship,' Exod. iv. 31. 

ObJ. They received not the promises ; how could 
they then embrace them ? 

Alls. 1. We must distinguish betwixt possession 
and expectation. In present possession they did not 
receive the promises, but in an assured expectation 
they did. For faith gives a being to things future, 
ver. 1. 

2. This here may metaphorically be taken, follow- 
ing the former metaphor of seeing things afar off. 
For mariners, and others that sail to a country, so 
soon as they espy that country, though afar off, seem 
joyfully to embrace it.'- 

This verifieth that which was noted, Ver. 1, Sec. 4, 
of faith giving an evidence to that which is not ; for 
faith resteth on God's word, which is as true as if it 
were a deed. What is promised is altogether as true 
as if it were accomplished. 

Sec. 67. Of believers confessing their viean. estate. 
The patriarchs well knew what their present con- 
dition was, as is implied under this word, confessed. 
' Italiam Isto socii clamore salutant.'— Virg. .^neid. iii. 



[Chap. XI. 

Of the composition and meaning of the Greek word 
6/jt.oXoyriaavTi:, see Chap. iii. 1, Sec. 27, and Chap. xiii. 
15, Sec. Hi. It here iinplieth a free and open pro- 
fession of that condition -wherein they ■were, and 
giveth evidence that believers are not ashamed of 
that condition wherein they are, though it be a mean 
and despicable condition. 

This may be exemplified in Abraham professing 
bis present estate'; yea, and Jacob tcK), Gen. x.\iii. 4, 
and xlvii. 9. Oft doth the apostle thus make pro- 
fession of his imprisonment, and of his chaiji and 
bonds, Eph. iii. 1, and iv. 1, and vi. 20. 

Faith pierceth through the thick clouds of all mean- 
ness in this world, and bcholdeth that glory which is 
prepared for believers : and in that respect makes 
the believer not ashamed of a present mean condition, 
but ready on all occasions to make profession thereof. 

Were we thoroughly acquainted with the invisible, 
spiritual, and celestial prerogatives that belong to be- 
lievers, and did we believe them, we should not be 
ashamed of any mean condition in this world, but, 
as occasion recjuireth, be ready to make profession 
thereof. » 

Sec. C8. Of sfranf/ers and 2nk/ri7ns. 

That condition which the aforesaid believers con- 
fessed is expressed in these two words, straiigers, 
pilgi-ims. Of the former, ^ao/, strangers, see Chap, 
xiii. 2, Sec. 14. 

The other word, rraoi's-idrifj.oi, pilgrims, in Greek is 
a compound. Tlie root 5^/j.o;, whence the simple 
noun is derived, signifieth people. 

The word used here is a double compound ; for 
there are two prepositions, et;', 'Tra^a, with which 
it is compounded. It signifieth a going from peoj)le 
to people, or from place to place, as pilgrims use to do. 
It is translated strangers, 1 Pet. i. 1 ; and strangers 
and pilgrims are joined together, 1 Pet. ii. 11. 

They do in general imply one and the same thing ; 
yet tlicy may be distinguished. For strangers arc so 
called in regard of their situation, which was out of 
their country ; but pilgrims in regard of their con- 
dition, which was to travel towards their country. 

Hereby we have instance that saints are as strangers. 
This was prefigured in the patriarchs, Exod. vi. 4, 
Gen. XV. 13, Ps. xxxi.x. 12. The apostle intimateth 
as much of Christians, 1 Pet. ii. 11. 

Ohj. Wicked ones arc strangers as well as saints. 

Ans. I. They arc not so in their opinion, Ps. xlix. 
7, 9, 11 ; Luke xii. 18. 

2. Saints are strangers here in reference to their 
proper country, which is heaven. In that respect 
wicked ones are not strangers. 

We that would give evidence that we are true 
believers must be as strangers ; and that in these 

1. We must ' u.sc this world as not abusing it,' 
1 Cor. vii. 31. 

2. We must pass by wrongs, as Isaac did, Gen. 
xxvi. 18. 

3. We must be content, though we want, PhiL 
iv. 11. 

4. If we abound, we must be the more thankful, 
1 Chron. xxix. 15. 

5. We must not be ' busybodies in other men's 
matters,' 1 Pet. iv. 15. 

6. Our speech, attire, and conversation must shew 
that we are of another country, Phil. iii. 20. 

7. We must ' abstain from fleshly lusts,' 1 Pet. 
ii. 11. 

8. We must love strangers, Deut. x. 19. 

9. We must do good while we are here. Gal. vi. 10; 
we shall hereby gain love. 

10. We must be willing to die, 2 Cor. v. 1, 2. 
The addition of this other metaphor, pilgrims, to 

strangers, giveth proof that saints are as well pilgrims 
as strangers. 

Hereupon Jacob styleth the course of his life a 
' pilgrimage,' Gen. xlvii. 9. 

Here they have no resting-place, Heb. xiii. 14. 

Besides sundry of the directions before given con- 
cerning strangers, these may be added concerning this 
metaphor oi pilgrims. 

1. That we still press on towards our country, 
Phil. iii. 14. 

2. That we cast off every weighty thing, Heb. 
xii. 1. 

3. That we be inquisitive after the way, as Je- 
hoshaphat was, 1 Kings xxii. 5, Isa. xxx. 21. 

4. That our eye be upon heaven, as they who 
desired a heavenly countrj', ver. 16. 

Howsoever these two metaphors, strangers, jnl- 
grims, may seem a great discouragement, yet the 
word affordeth many comforts to uphold our spirits 
in these conditions, as, 

1. AVe have a city to come, Heb. xiii. 14. 

2. Here we are freemen and citizens in reference 
to that cit}', Eph. ii. 19. 

3. We have an excellent guide, Jesus Christ, Heb. 
xii. 2. 

4. We have a goodly company, Heb. xii. 1 . 

5. We have a sufficient light, which is God's word, 
Ps. cxi.x. 105. 

6. We have excellent attendants, God's angels, 
Ps. xxxiv. 7, and xci. 11. 

7. We have sufficient provision. 

8. God taketh especial care of strangers and 
pilgrims, Deut. x. 18. 

9. This condition is not long. The days of our 
pilgrimage are but few, Gen. xlvii. 9. 

10. There is a rest to come, Heb. iv. 9, Rev. 
xiv. 13. 

Sec. 69. Saints' meanness only on earth. 
By way of limitation the apostle adileth this last 
clause, on the earth, Ps, cxix. 19. To that end other 

Vkk. 14.] 



like clauses in other places are added ; as ^liere 
Abraham acknowledgeth himself a stranger, he addeth 
this clause, ' with you,' Gen. xxiii. 4 ; and where Jacob 
mentioneth the days of the years of his pilgrimage, 
he thus expoundeth that phrase, the days of the years 
of my life, Gen. xlvii. 9. 

1. This world is the time and place of probation. 
After it, is the time and place of remuneration. 

2. God affords this limitation to shew that this 
condition of strangers and pilgrims is not the main 
end whereunto we are ordained. 

Let this limitation teach us not to overween this 
world, which is the time of our being on earth ; but 
rather to be content and patient while we are on 
earth, and to be willing to depart from it. 

Sec. 70. Of professing one's condition. 

Ver. 14. For they that say such things, declare 
plainly that they seek a country. 

This causal, yap, Jor, giveth evidence that this verse 
is a reason of that which w-ent before. The most 
proper reference that it can have is to the last clause 
of the former verse. For this phrase, they that say 
such things, is a general expression of the confession 
of the patriarchs, that they were strangers and pil- 
grims on earth. The argument may be thus framed : 

They who profess that they are strangers and pil- 
grims on earth, declare plainly that they seek a 
country : 

But the patriarchs say such things : 

Therefore they declare plainly that they seek a 

This participle, Xsyoi/re;, sa-yinrj, or, they that say, 
intendeth both the truth of the thing, and also the 
truth of their heart. As they are indeed strangers 
and pilgrims, so in their minds they know it, and in 
the sincerity of their heart they acknowledge it. 

This phrase, declare plainly, is the interpretation of 
one Greek word, f.acawi^ouff/. Of the notation of that 
word, see Chap. ix. 24, Sec. 124. 

It signifieth so conspicuously and clearly to set out 
a thing, as others may plainly discern it, so as no 
doubt can be made of it. Our English therefore, to 
manifest the emphasis thereof, have added this word, 
plainly, ' declare plainly.' 

This word is used of those that came put of the 
graves after Christ's resurrection, JIat. xxvii. 53. It 
is there translated, appeared. 

Hers then it is manifested that a true profession 
is an evident declaration of one's mind. I say true, 
because so much is here intended, and because if a 
profession be not true, but dissembled, men are de- 
ceived thereby ; and that is declared which is not so. 
The Shechemites were deceived with the feigned pro- 
fession of the sons of Jacob, Gen. xxxiv. 13, Ac. ; and 
Abner and Amasa with the feigned profession of 
Joab, 2 Sam. iii. 27, and xx. 9, 10. 

Now that is a true profession which, ariseth from 

the judgment well enlightened, and from the heart 
rightly affected. Thus, ' With the heart man be- 
lieveth unto righteousness ; and with the mouth con- 
fession is made unto salvation,' Rom. x. 10. Thus 
saith the psalmist, as he was a type of Christ, ' Thy 
law is within my heart. I have preached righteous- 
ness,' Ps. xl. 8, 9. 

Thus in all ages have saints, by an open profession, 
made declaration of their mind, as Josh. xxiv. 15, 
Ruth i. 16; and the people of God after their re- 
turn from captivity, Ezra v. 1 1 ; and the apostles in 
all their epistles, Rom. i. 1. 

Tlie heart is as a treasure. If it be a good heart, 
and a true heart, the mouth will utter good and true 
things. Mat. xii. 3-5. Hereupon the wise man saith 
that ' the heart of the wise teacheth his hps,' Prov. 
xvi. 23. 

Contrary to this is the profession of many, whose 
heart thinketh one thing, and their tongue utters an- 
other. For, 

1. Many are forward to promise what they intend 
not, as Saul promised his elder daughter to David, 

1 Sam. xviii. 17 ; and the Jews, who promised 
liberty to their servants, Jer. xxxiv. 1 6. 

2. Flatterers, who give to men more than their 
due, as they who said to Herod, ' It is the voice of a 
god ;' and the Herodians, who professed that Christ 
taught the way of God in truth, Mat. xxii. 16, which 
they did to entangle him. 

3. Complimenters, who, to get repute to them- 
selves, complain of others' injustice, and profess that 
integrity in themselves which is not, as Absalom, 

2 Sam. XV. 3, 4. 

4. Hypocrites, who draw near God with their 
mouth, but remove their heart far from him, Isa. 
xxix. 13, 

All these, and other like them, pervert the end of 
speech, which is plainly to declare the intent of the 
heart. One man kuoweth not the things of another 
(1 Cor. ii. 11), namely, such things as he inwardly 
conceiveth. By a man's own profession of thcni, 
they are made known to others. Though there bo 
other means of making known a man's mind, as 
writing, and signs of sundry sorts, yet the most usual 
and ready means is speech. And for this end espe- 
cially is an articulate and distinct speech given unto 

It becomes us therefore, who are informed in the 
mind of God, and in our own condition, plainly to 
declare to others as much, and that as occasion is 
offered, for the glory of God and good of others ; and 
to be so faithful and constant therein, as it may be 
said of us, i,u,f>avi'l^oiisi, they declare plainly. 

Sec. 71. Of seeking u'hat ive desire. 

Upon that mean condition wherein the patriarchs 
were on earth, it is said that they seek a country. The 
word, hi^rjTom, translated seek, is a compound. Of 



[Chap. XI. 

the emphasis thereof, see Chap. xiii. 14, Sec. 139. 
It implieth an earnest seeking, and that with desire 
to obtain what they seek for. It is attributed to 
Hcrod'.s seeking after Peter (when he had escaped out 
of his clutches), Acts xii. 19. It sctteth out a be- 
liever's earnest seeking after that wliich he desireth. 
Such was his seeking who said, ' One thing have I 
desired of the Lord, that I will seek after,' Ps. xxvii. 4. 
And again, ' With my whole heart have I sought thee,' 
Ps. cxix. 10. 

1. Faith, as it works assurance of attaining that 
which it desires, so a persuasion also of the course 
that it taketh, and means which it useth for that 
end. And this puts life in seeking after it. 

2. Faith hath a holy heat in it, and it adds fer- 
vour to other graces. 'This makes believers the more 
earnest in seeking till they find. 

Surely they deceive themselves who pretend faith, 
yet are secure and careless in seeking out that which 
they pretend to believe. Herein lieth a main differ- 
ence betwixt the true believer and him who only 
is enlightened in the benefit of that which is to Ije 
believed. They may desire that which is good for 
themselves, but they seek it not aright — as Balaam, 
who desired to ' die the death of the righteous,' Num. 
xxiii. 10. 

For our better direction in that kind of seeking, I 
will distinctly set down both the aberrations in seek- 
ing, and also directions for so seeking, as we may ob- 
tain. ' Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss,' 
saith an aj)ostle, James iv. 3. 

Men use to seek amiss in the means, in the matter, 
and in the time. 

1. They fail in the means, who use either no means, 
or indirect means. They use no means who rest upon 
a bare hope, and a vain wish, as Balaam, Num. 
xxiii. 10. Or so rest upun supposed predestination, 
as they inquire not after tlie way to salvation. 
They rest in false means who use any other means 
than such as are prescribed in God's word. As 
ignorant persons, who think it enough to have a good 
meaning ; and superstitious persons, who rest upon 
outward performances ; and idolaters, who trust to 
means of tlieir own, or other men's inventions. 

2. They fail in the manner, who seek feignedly or 
carelessly. They seek feignedly who cither outwardly 
seem to seek heaven, but inwardly have their hearts 
set upon this world, namely, the profits and glory 
thereof. All Itjpocrites seek feignedly. As a painted 
man is no man, "eo a hypocritical seeking is no seek- 
ing. They seek Varclessly who are slothful in seek- 
ing, who ' do the work of the Lord negligently,' Jer. 
xlviii. 10, and sucft as are negligent in hearing and 
cold in prayer. As good not at all as so loosely. 

3. They fail in the time, who seek not soon enough, 
or long enough. They seek not soon enough, who 
neglect the ])rescnt oijportunity. See Chap. iii. 7, 
Sec. 76. They seek not long enough, who wax weary, 

and leave ofif before they find what they seek. See 
Chap. X. 38, Sec. 148. 

Most that miss of finding, fail in one of these aber- 
rations of seeking. 

Directions for right seeking are such as these : — 

1. In general, that we set ourselves to do some- 
thing. Though our doing be no matter of merit, yet 
it may be a means of obtaining our desire. 

2. Inquire after the right means. These are, in 
the case that we have in hand about a country, prin- 
cipal and subordinate. The principal means is Christ 
himself, John xiv. 6. Subordinate means are the 
word and sacraments, and other divine ordinances. 
In these is Christ to be found. 

3. Seek sincerely. ' With my whole heart have I 
sought thee,' saith he who found the Lord, Ps. cxix. 
10. 'Whatsoever you do, do it heartUy, as to the 
Lord,' Col. iii. 23. 

4. Seek with all diligence, 2 Pet. i. 10, Mat. vi. 
33. See Chap. iv. 11, Sec. 64. 

5. Lay hold of the first opportunity. See Chap, 
iii. 7, Sec. 75. 

6. Persevere in seeking till thou obtain. See 
Chap. iii. 6, Sec. 68. 

See. 72. Of tJie country of believers. 

That which the patriarchs sought is here said to be 
a country. The Greek word, Tar^ida, is derived from 
another noun, rrarr,^, that signLfieth afit/ur, so as it 
implieth the place where our father dwelt, and where 
he was born. It is in this respect called ' the land 
of one's nativity,' Gen. xi. 28. It is also put for the 
place where one hath been brought up. Thus, though 
Christ were born at Bethlehem in Judea, yet Naza- 
reth, where he was brought up, was called his coun- 
try, Luke iv. 23, 24 : yea, it is put also for the 
place of a man's present habitation, whereunto upon 
all occasions he hath resort. Thus Capernaum, where 
Christ dwelt after he was thrust out of Nazareth, was 
called his country, Mark vi. 14. 

The place here intended is called a country, because 
it is prepared by our Father as a perpetual habitation. 
It is expressly said to be ' a heavenly country,' ver. 
16. Thereby he means lieaven itself. It is here 
called a country, in ojiposition to the condition where- 
in tlie patriarchs were when thej- sought this. They 
were then stramjcrs, out of the land of their nativity 
and jilace of habitation. They were also pi/tfrims, 
travelling to a country. They then, ' professing them- 
selves to be strangers and pilgrims, did plainly de- 
clare thereby that they sought a country.' 

They being men of understanding, and of great 
faith, give us hereby to understand that there is a 
country for such as are strangers and pilgrims on 
earth. The substance of this point is set out by sun- 
dry other metaphors, as ' a kingdom,' Luke xii. 32 j 
'a city,' ver. K! ; 'an house,' 2 Cor. v. 2 ; 'a build- 
ing,' 2 Cor. v. 1 ; ' au habitation,' Luke xvi. 9 ; a 

Vee. 15.] 



place of ' mansions,' John xiv. 2 ; ' an inheritance,' 
1 Pet. i. 4. 

This God thus disposeth to shew that the condi- 
tion of believers in this world is not that main end 
whereunto God hath ordained them. This world is 
Christ's school. It is the place and time of education, 
and for probation, that we may be fitted for the city, 
country, and kingdom here intended. 

1. Knowledge hereof and faith herein is sufficient 
to uphold us against all the hardness and hazards 
that we may meet with in this world. 

2. It is a forcible motive to patience, contentment, 
and other like graces. Who would not be content a 
while, having assurance of such a country ? 

3. This is of force to dissuade us from settling our 
rest here on earth. Will a traveller who hath a coun- 
try to go into, and a fair inheritance therein, set up 
his rest in a strange land ? 

4. Knowledge of this country should put us on to 
walk in the way which leadeth thereunto. God's 
word giveth us a good dir^tion herein, Ps. cxix. 105. 

5. This is a great encouragement against death, which 
is the very gate through which we go into this country. 

Sec. 73. Of believers' disi-espect of things beloio. 

Ver. 15. And truly, if they had been mindful of 
that country from whence they came out, they might 
have had opportunity to have returned. 

This text may here be brought in, to prevent this 
objection, the country which they sought might be 
that whence they came. This the apostle proveth to 
be most improbable, iu that they had opportunity to 
have returned thither, if they had been mindful of it. 

Of the Greek conjunction, fj.h, translated truly, 
see Chap. vii. 5, Sec. 37. 

It Ls sometimes translated verily. It is a word 
that doth somewhat heighten the thing affirmed. 

This phrase, they had been mindful, is the inter- 
pretation of one Greek word, i/Mria6v;ijo\i ; of the 
meaning whereof, see Chap. xiii. 3, 7, Sees. 24, 95. 
The mindfulness here meant is a remembrance of for- 
mer things, with desire to enjoy them again. 

The word country is not expressed in the Greek, 
but understood in the relative particle, ixi/vnc, tluit ; 
for it is of the same gender that the word country is. 
And the verb Jg^Xdot, came out, is the same that was 
used of Abraham's coming out of his country, ver. 8. 

This country, then, was the place where they were 
born and brought up ; where their kindred, alliance, 
and other friends were ; where they had, or might 
have had, houses, lands, and hereditaments, and many 
more external delights, profits, preferments, and con- 
tents, than in the place where they were. 

But this giveth proof that believers do not much 
respect the things here below. Like instances might 
be given of Lot, Gen. xix. 26, of Kuth, Ruth i. 16, 
and of the disciples. Mat, xix. 27, and of these 
Hebrews, chap. x. 34, and of all sorts of martyrs. 

Faith persuades the soul of better things than tliis 
world affords, Hcb. x. 35, 2 Cor. iv. 17. No mar- 
vel, then, that they do not much respect things below. 

1. False, therefore, is that pretence which they 
make of faith whose hearts are wholly and only set 
upon this world and tlie things thereof. They are 
contrary to things above, 1 John ii. 16. And cau 
contraries stand together ? 

2. Surely, when the heart is once brought to con- 
temn the world, sound faith is wrought therein, espe- 
cially if it be upon persuasion of a better. Very rea- 
son makes a man choose that which he is persuaded 
is the better. 

Sec. 74. Of the patriarchs neglecting opportunities 
of returning to their country. 

The patriarchs' foresaid disrespect of their country 
is much amplified by this phrase, they might lutve had 
opportunity to have relumed. 

There is a little particle joined with this verb, had, 
iiyjii a,v, which shews it to be of the potential mood, 
and is rightly interpreted might have had. Some 
Greek copies, and the Syriac and vulgar Latin, and 
sundry interpreters, read it the indicative mood, thus, 
they had, but not so properly. 

Our English have also fitly interpreted this noun, 
opportunity, which signifieth a fit season; for the 
Grecians do put such a difference betwixt two words, 
xaifog, xifii'ii, which signify time, as we do betwixt 
season and time. Acts i. 7. 

The patriarchs may be said to have had oppor- 
tunity of returning to their country in these respects : 

1. There were many external allurements to move 
them to return. 

2. There were no external impediments to hinder 
them. The Canaanites, among whom they dwelt, 
did not seek to hold them, as the Egyptians did the 
Israelites in Egypt ; nor did their countrynieu use 
means to keep them out after they were gone. 

3. They had no great external allurements to keep 
them where they were. 

4. They were not held back by any external em- 

5. In that long time that they lived as strangers, 
they might have taken some season or other — if not 
in cold of winter or in heat of summer, yet in spring 
or autumn, if not in times of scarcity, yet iu time of 
plenty — to have returned. 

6. They had time and means to accommodate 
themselves with all things needful, for all that be- 
longed unto them, to help them in their journey. 

But this neglect of worldly opportunities was an 
evidence that their hearts were not set upon this 
world, but that they sought another countrj'. This 
the apostle doth clearly exemplify in Moses, ver. 24. 

The world hath an adamantine force to draw men's 
hearts to it, and a gluish quality to hold them close 
to it. 



[Chap. XI- 

This is a conviction of such as omit no opportunity 
of heaping honours, offices, and livings one upon 
another, of gaining goods excessively, of pursuing 
pleasures without hoe, that they have not another 
country to seek after. 

Let us learn to give such evidence of seeking after 
another home, by taking off our hearts from this 
world, and passing by the opportunities which others 
take of gaining the world. 

Sec. 75. Of believers desiring tlie better. 
Ver. 16. But now they desire a better coxmtry, 
that is, a heavenly : wherefore God is not ashamed to 
be called their God: for lie Juith 2>rq)ared for them a 

This verse doth plainly declare what country it 
was that the patriarchs sought ; so as it hath an 
especial reference to ver. 14. 

Of these two particles, vuv'i dl, hut noio, sec Chap, 
viii. G, Sec. 22. 

They imply an assumption of one thing upon the 
rejection of another. 

The patriarchs desired not a country on earth, but 
a better in heaven. 

The verb, hiyoirai, translated desire, is derived 
from another, ofiycii, porrigo, that signitieth to reach 
out. It is api)lied to stretching out of the hand 
with desire of having such and such a thing ; and it 
implies an earnest desire — yea, it includes a care in 
using means for obtaining that desire. 

The philosopher opposeth the Greek word, o-AyiaSai, 
appetere, which signitieth to desire, to another, f suyt/n, 
fugere, which signifieth to shun, or Jly from. 

It is applied to the desire of a covetous man 
(1 Tim. vi. 10), which useth to be great. It is also 
applied to a desire of the ministerial function 
(1 Tim. iii. 1). A noun, o^^i;, libido, which signifieth 
lust, that is, an earnest desire, is derived from this 
verb, Rom. i. 27. 

This is here noted as a fruit of faith, which ear- 
nestly desireth what it doth desire. For true faith 
is placed upon such objects as draw the heart of man 

Hereby wc may know whether our desire of 
spiritual and heavenly things be of faith or uo. 

That which the patriarchs so desired is said to be 
a better country. The word country is not in the 
Greek, but by the elegance of that tongue understood 
under this word better, which hath reference to the 
word country, ver. 14. 

Of this epithet, Ksiirront, better, see Chap. i. 4, 
Sec. 39. 

The country here meant is styled better, in opposi- 
tion to that earthly country which fhcy left. It is 
thus indefinitely set down better, becau.se the excel- 
lency of it cannot be cxjircsscd. Wherein any 
country hath an excellency, therein this is better. 
Thia general givcth us to understand, that be- 

lievers, in neglecting anything here below, aim at a 

These Hebrews ' took joyfully the spoiling of their 
goods, knowing that they had a better substance,' 
Heb. X. 34. 

Martyrs accepted not deliverance, that they might 
obtain a better resurrection, ver. 35. David pre- 
ferred the law ' before thousands of gold and silver,' 
because it was better, Ps. c.xLx. 72. The like is said 
of wisdom in reference to rubies, Prov. viii. 11. 

Christ is ' made wisdom ' to believers, 1 Cor. i. 30. 
And they have ' the spirit of wisdom, and revelation 
in the knowledge of Christ,' Eph. 1. 8, 17. 

How preposterous is the censure of worldlings con- 
cerning believers, who account believers egregious 
fools in that very respect wherein their wisdom is 
most manifested ! 

For it is an especial point of wisdom well to dis- 
cern the things that are most excellent, and answer- 
ably to desire them. 

Let us herein give proof of our faith, by under- 
standing what are the better things ; and by affecting 
them so as we may desire the better, and endeavour 
after the better, Phil. iii. 7, 8, <tc. 

Sec. 7G. Of heaven the hope of beliei'ers. 

That the apostle might plainly declare what kind 
of countrj'it was that they sought, he thus expresseth 
it — that is, a heavenly. This phrase, rouTiaTi, that is, 
is a general note of explanation, whereof see Chap. x. 
20, Sec. 58. In general, it sheweth that ambiguous 
points are to be made clear and plain. 

This word, heavenly, doth distinctly shew the kind 
of country. 

Of the word translated heavenly, see Chap. iii. 1, 
Sec. 15. It is a compound, and eniphatical ; word 
for word it may be translated supercelestiul, above the 
heavens, namely, the visible heavens. It is that 
place which is called ' the third heaven,' 2 Cor. xii. 2. 

Hereby it appeareth that heaven was the aim of 
ancient believers. Jacob expected as much. Gen. 
xlix. 18, and Job, chap. xix. 2G, and David, Ps. 
xvii. 15. 

In heaven is the best manifestation of God's pre- 
sence ; there the beatifical vision is to be enjoyed ; 
there is Christ in his human nature ; there is an un- 
mixed society of saints ; there is fulness of glory. 
What can be desired that is not there ? 

A due consideration hereof would put us on to 
sundry duties. 

1. It will raise our hearts aloft, and make us soar 
above this world, Col. iii. 1, 2. 

2. It w^U conform the whole man to those in 
heaven, Phil. iii. 20, Mat. vi. 10. 

3. It will enlarge the heart to all thankfulness, 
1 Pet. i. 3, 4. 

4. It will direct us to a wise choice of the best 
treasure, Mat. vi. 20. 

Vee. 16.] 



5. It will -nean us from this world, and make us 
the less esteem it, 1 Cor. vii. 31. 

6. It will support us in all losses, Heb. x. 31. 

7. It will encourage against all fears, Luke xii. 32. 

8. It will keep from fainting, 2 Cor. iv. 16, IS. 

9. It makes death welcome, Phil. i. 21, 2 Cor. v. 
1, 2 Tim. iv. 7. 

10. It moderates mourning for believers dejiarted, 
1 Thes. iv. 14. 

Of heaven the reward of saint.?, see Chap. s. 31, 
Sec. 131. 

Sec. 77. Of God!s not being ashamed of believers. 

So well did God approve of the foresaid desire of 
the patriarchs, as he was moved thereby to give evi- 
dence of his special respect unto them. That that 
which follows is a recompense of the foresaid desire, 
is evident by this illative conjunction, bi'o, wherefore. 
Thereof, see Chap. iii. 7, Sec. 73. 

This iiarticle doth oft set out an evidence of a 
cau.se ; as when "we see trees bud, we say, therefore 
they have life ; or when there is a smoke in the 
chimney, therefore there is fire. 

Here it setteth forth a consequence of their faith, 
they so and so believed, ' therefore God was not 
ashamed of them.' 

By this it is evidenced that the faith of believers 
is not in vain. As in sundry otlier particulars, so in 
the cures which Christ wrought while he was on 
earth, this is manifested. But most of all in this 
which here foUoweth, God is not ashamed to he called 
their God. Of the word, iTona-^vvfrai, translated 
ashamed, see Chap. ii. 11, Sec. 108. To speak ac- 
cording to the meaning of the word, God blusheth 
not through shame of them, as if he thought him- 
self disgraced by them. This is spoken of God, di^sw- 
ffoVo^fcij, after the manner of man. It implieth a joy- 
ful acknowledgment of them,'as a father of a gracious 
son. The negative expression, oix /craiff^/uisra/, is not 
ashamed, hath an emphasis, and implieth that their 
disposition was no matter of di-sgrace, to make God 
ashamed of them. The hke is noted of Christ, that 
' he was not ashamed to call them brethren.' Chap, 
ii. 11, Sec. 108. Sundry points there delivered may 
be here applied. 

Sec. 78. Of God's being the specird God of believers. 

The evidence whereby it is manifested that God 
was not ashamed of them, was this: to be called their 
God. The Greek I'zr/.aXiTsSoii is a compound. Of 
the simple verb which signifieth to call, see Chap. 
iii. 1, Sec. 13. The preposition with which it is here 
compounded signifieth to, or iqion. Tliis compound 
word is oft used to set out the surname, or some title 
added to a man's name, as Joses, who was surnamed 
Barnabas, Acts iv. 36 ; and Judas, surnamed Iscariot, 
Luke sxii. 3. Thus this title, their God, is a kind of 

It implieth that the Lord is in special manner the 
God of believers — such are the members of his church. 
This special relation is applied to God in all persons of 
both numbers ; as. 

My God, I'^x, Ps. xxii. 1 ; thy God, '^''nbii. Ps. 
1. 7 ; his God, in'?K, Num. xxv. 13 ; our God, 
^J''^7^<. Ps. xlvill. U; your God, DD'n'^N, Gen. 
xUii. 23 ; their God, □H'Tl'^f*, Lev. xxi. ; the God 
of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, Exod. iii. 6 ; the God of 
Elias, 2 Kings ii. 14 ; the God of Daniel, Dan. vi. 26; 
the God of Shadrach, Meshech, and Abediiego, Dan. 
iii. 28 ; the God of Israel, Exod. v. 1 ; the God of 
the Hebrews, Exod. v. 3 ; the God of the Jews, Rom. 
iii. 29 ; the God of the Gentiles, Rom. iiL 29 ; the 
God of Jeshurun, or of the righteous, Deut. xxxiii.26 j 
the God of the living, Mat. xxii. 32. 

Of the special relation, see Chap. viii. 10, Sec. 67. 

This aflFords matter of admiration, exhortation, direc- 
tion, and consolation. 

1. If the psalmist had cause to admire God's good- 
ness, in regard of that dignity which God conferred on 
man at his first creation, Ps. viii. 1, how much more 
ought we to admire this dignity 1 In this respect, 
said the disciple of Christ, ' How is it that thou wilt 
manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world?' 
John xiv. 22. In us, as we are of ourselves, there 
is no more than in others, it is God's grace which 
makes the difference. 

2. Just cause there is of exhorting one another to 
get assurance of this dignity : it is a matter worthy 
our best diligence. 

(1.) It distinguish eth a true justifying faith from 
all other kinds of faith. 

(2.) It emboldeneth us to go to God in all our 
needs. ' I will go to my father,' saith the prodigal, 
Luke XV. 18. 

(3.) It makes us rest upon God for all needful pro- 
vision and protection, Ps. xci. 2, 3. 

(4.) It enlarge th the heart in prayer and praise, 
Ps. xviii. 2, 3. 

(5.) It makes us cleave to God when others fly 
from him, Ps. xlvi. 5-7. 

3. For direction. Take notice of the fruits of 
God's special favour to thee. For God bestoweth 
common favours upon all of all sorts, Mat. v. 45. 
Yet he hath special favours for those whose God ia 
peculiar he is ; as, 

(1.) AU spiritual blessings, Eph. i. 3. 

(2.) Sundry particular graces : as, 

'1.1 Understanding of God's will. Col. i. 9. 

2.1 Justifying faith, Rom. v. 1 . 

3. J Saving hope, Rom. viii. 24. 

4.1 Brotherly love, 1 John iv. 18. 

5.1 Repentance, Acts ii. 38. 

6.1 Xew obedience. 

7. J Patience, James V. 11. 
(3.) The effects of these, as, peace of conscience, 
joy in the Holy Ghost, comfort in spirit. 



[Chap. XI. 

All these, and others like unto them, proceed from 
the spirit, whcrcliy we are united to Christ, and so 
may be assured that God is our God in special. 

4. Nothing can minister unto a man sounder and 
greater comfort than this prerogative, that God is his 
God. What can such a one want 1 What danger 
need he fear 1 What good may not be expected t 
What can more be desired ] Wherein may a man 
more solace himself 1 AVlicreon may he be more con- 
fident 1 On this ground we may well say, ' Our lines 
are fallen to us iu a fair place,' Ps. xvi. 5, 6. 

Sec. 79. Of God's jyreparing a ntij. 

An evidence that God was not ashamed to be called 
the God of the patriarchs is thus expressed, for he 
Imth jirepnred for thein a city. This causal, ya?, for, 
implieth a reason ; and the reason is taken from God's 
care of them. He was carefid to provide for them a 
place where they might ever be with hira. This also 
might be a reason why they sought the aforesaid 
heavenly country, even because God had prepared it 
as a city for them to abide in. 

The verb, ^TO//xaffs, translated prepared, is derived 
from a noun, 'eToi,u,oi, that signifieth ready, ot prepared. 
Mat. XXV. 10. It implieth a precedent act, Mat. 
xxvi. 19, John xiv. 2, 3. Thus God is said to pre- 
pare, because iu his eternal counsel he did appoint it 
for them. Mat. xx. 23, 1 Cor. ii. 9, Mat. xxxv. 24. 
This God did, 

1. In regard of himself, to give evidence of his 
free grace in ordaining so great a matter for those 
who were not yet born, and in that respect could not 
be imagined to deserve anything, Rom. ix. 11. 

0>>j. It might be prepared to be bestowed on such 
as might afterwards merit it. 

A7ts. 1. This clean thwarts the end of God's pro- 
mise, wliich was the glory of his grace and mercy, 
Eph. i. 6, Rom. ix. 15. 

2. As God prepared the place, so likewise the per- 
sons for whom it was prepared, who are styled 
' vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto 
glory,' Rom. ix. 23. 

2. God prepared this place beforehand, to encou- 
rage men to walk in that way wherein they may 
attain to this place. A reward prepared and set 
before one much puts him on to do what he can 
for attaining thereunto. This encouraged Moses, 
ver. 20, yea, and Christ himself, chap. xii. 2. 

This preparation puts us on to sundry duties : 

1. To inqiiire after this place, that we may know 
what is prepared for us, Jcr. vi. 16. 

2. To search after the way and means whereby we 
may attain thereunto. God's word is a good help 
herein, Ps. cxix. 10.5. 

3. The way being found out, to walk in it, Isa. 
XXX. 21. The two former are in vain without this, 
Luke xii. 48. 

i. To keep straight on in this way, for there are 

divers by-paths. AVe must therefore turn neither to 
the right hand nor to the left, Deut. v. 32, Heb. 
xii. 13. 

5. To go on in this way well prepared, and that with 
the whole armour of God, Eph. vi. 13, ifec. Wise 
travellers will not go abroad without a sword. 
Thieves and wolves are emboldened to set upon him 
that hath no weapon. 

G. To i)ersevcre and hold on in this way tiU thou 
come to this city, otherwise thou mayest miss of it, 
Mat. X. 22. 

The place which is prepared for them is styled 
a citi/. By city is here meant that heavenlj' country, 
whereof before. Sec. 7G. This addeth some more 
emphasis. There was not only in general a country, 
but more particularly a cily, for them to be free of. 
Heaven is styled a city by reason of the fit resem- 
blance betwixt it and a city; whereof, see Ver. 10, 
Sec. 47. 

Sec. 80. Of the persons for who/n the heavenly ciiy 
is prepared. 

There is a relative particle, concerning the persons 
for whom the aforesaid city is prepared, that wants 
not emphasis : it is thus expressed, alroT;, for them. 
It hath reference to those whose faith is here com- 
mended ; even those concerning whom it is said, 
' God is not ashamed to be called their God.' Thus 
it appeareth that heaven is prepared for God's pecu- 
liar people. These are they whom Christ caUeth 
' a little flock,' to whom ' it is their Father's pleasure 
to give them a kingdom,' Luke xii. 32 ; and they 
whom Christ styleth ' the blessed of his Father.' 
The usual notes of distinction betwixt persons give 
further proof hereof; as ' elect,' Col. iii. 12 ; ' heirs 
of salvation,' Heb. i. 14; 'heirs of the kingdom,* 
James ii. 5 ; ' heirs of the grace of life,' 1 Pet. iii. 7 ; 
'children of the resurrection,' Luke xx. 36; 'chil- 
dren of the kingdom,' Mat. xiii. 38. 

Ohj. Such as shall be cast out into utter dark- 
ness are also styled children of the kingdom, Mat. 
viii. 12. 

Ans. They are so called, not in regard of their 
spiritual condition or disposition, but merely in re- 
gard of their seeming profession and external voca- 

God prepareth a place for a peculiar people, to 
shew that what he doth towards the children of men 
he doth upon his own mere good pleasure. Mat. xi. 
28, Luke xii. 32, Rom. ix. 23. 

1. This doth much amplify that great privilege 
of the Lord's being God to a peculiar people, and 
of that reward that followeth thereupon. It is not 
a common privilege for all of all sorts, but for them 
that believe. This was it that enlarged Christ's 
heart to give thanks unto God for those on whom 
this privilege was conferred, Mat. xi. 28. 

2. This tcacheth believers to be content with their 

Ver. IS-IC] 



present condition, and not to envj' the wealtli, and 
honours, and other privileges of them for whom this 
city is not prepared. 

3. This inciteth us to 'give all diligence to make 
our calling and election sure.' If once we gain assur- 
ance that the Lord is in special our God, we may 
rest upon it that we have a right to this city, that 
it is prepared for us, that we are ordained to it, 
that we shall be admitted into it, and ever abide 
in it. 

Sec. 81. Of the resolution q/^"Heb. si. 13-16. 

Ver.' 1 3. These all died in faith, not having received 
the promises, hut having seen thei?i afar off, and were 
persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed 
that they tvere st7-angers and pi/griyns on the earth. 

14. For they tluit say such things declare j^lainly 
tJtat th^y seeh a country. 

15. And tridy, if they luid been mindful of that 
country from vlience they came out, ilvey might have 
Juid opportunity to Jiave returned. 

16. But noiv tliey desire a better country, tfuit is, 
a heavenly; wJierefore God is not asliamed to he 
cidled their God; for he hath pn'epared for them a 

The sum of these four verses is a commendation of 
the patriarchs. 

Hereof are two parts : 

1. The substance of the commendation, vers. 

2. A consequence following thereupon, ver. 16. 
The substance is, 

1. Propounded, ver. 13. 

2. Confirmed, ver. 14, 15. 

In propounding it are set down, 

1. The persons commended, these all. 

2. The point for which they are commended ; 
which is, 

(1.) Expressed. 

(2.) Illustrated. 

Two things are expressed, 

[1.] The kind of grace for which they are com- 
mended, faith. 

[2.] Their continuing therein, in this word, di^d. 

The point is illustrated two ways : 

[1.] Negatively; thus, not having received the p>ro- 

[2.] Affirmatively ; and that by four eflfects : 

First, I'liey saw the promises afar off. 

Secondly, They were persuaded of tliem. 

Thirdly, They embraced them. 

Fourthly, They confessed their present condition. 

Their condition is, 

First, Described by two metaphors, strangers, pil- 

Secondly, Limited, in this phrase, on the earth. 

The last of the four effects is confirmed, vers. 14, 
1 5 ; wherein we have, 

1. The kind of argument, ver. 14. 

2. The force thereof, ver. 15. 

The kind of argument is taken from their intend- 
ment. In setting down whereof, 

1. Their profession is repeated, in this phrase, 
they that say such things. 

2. Their intendment is declared. 
The declaration is, 

(1.) Generally hinted, thus, declare plainly. 

(2.) Particularly expressed. 

In the expression is noted, 

[1.1 Their endeavours, they seel: 

[2.] The object that they seek, a country. 

The force of the argument consisteth in their for- 
bearing to return. 

Tills is set out by way of supposition ; wherein is 
set down, 

1. The kind of supposition. 

2. A consequence inferred thereupon. 

In setting down the kind, we may distinguish, 
(1.) The act supposed, if they had been mindful. 
(2.) The object of that act. This is, 

1. Generally propounded, that country. 

2. Particularly exemplified, from whence they came 

In the consequence is manifested, 

1. What they might have done; they might have 

2. The ground thereof; they had opportunity to 
do it. 

The consequence following upon their foresaid faith 
was a remuneration, ver. 1 6. 
Here observe, 

1. The ground. 

2. The kind thereo£ 
The ground is, 

1. Propounded. 

2. Explained. 

In propounding the ground is noted, 

1. Their desire. 

2. The thing desired, which was, a country. 
That country is illustrated, 

1. Comparatively, a better, namely, tlyin that which 
they left. 

2. Simply, in this word, heavenly. 

The kind of remuneration consisteth of two parts. 

1. A special relation betwixt God and them. 

2. An especial provision for them. 

In setting down the relation, we may observe, 

1. The inference of it, in this illative conjunction, 

2. The substance of it. This is set out, 
(1.) By the matter, God is their God. 

(2.) By the manner of expressing it, and that two 

[1.] He is not ashamed thereof. 
[2.] He is willing to be so called. 
The provision is set out, 



[CilAP. XI. 

1. By the divine act, God hath prepared. 

2. By the subject that is prepared, a city. 

3. By the persons for whom, fur tlinn. 

Sec. 82. Of observations raised out of Heb. xi. 

I. Faith manifesteth her vigour in all sorts of people. 
This general jiarticle, tlt^se all, giveth proof hereunto. 
See Sec. 64. 

II. True faith fails not. For believers die in faith. 
See Sec. 64. 

III. Believers rest on that which tlieij enjoy not. 
This phrase, not having received the promises, giveth 
evidence hereof. See Sec. 65. 

IV. Believers see things afar off. So did the pa- 
triarchs. See Sec. 66. 

V. True faith pjroduceth assurance. The word 
persuaded intends as much. See Sec. 66. 

VI. Faith gives evidence to that which yet is not. 
This metaphor, tmhrojced, implies as much. See 
Sec. 66. 

VII. Faith makes men not asJiamed of tluir condi- 
tion. They who freely confess their condition are 
not ashamed of it. See Sec. 67. 

VIII. Saints are strangers. So they are here 
called. See Sec. 68. 

IX. Saints are pilgrims. Thus also are they here 
called. See Sec. 68. 

X. The mean condition of saints is only in this 
world, for it is on the earth. See Sec. 09. 

XI. A true profession is an evident declaration of 
one's mind. Thus much doth the apostle infer from 
the profession of the patriarchs. See Sec. 70. 

XII. Believers seek after that which tlwy desire. 
The apostle inferreth this from the patriarchs' desire. 
See Sec. 71. 

XIII. Tlvere is a country for sai7its who are strangers 
and pilgri)ns. They that professed themselves strangers 
and pUgrims sought this country. See Sec. 72. 

XIV. Believers do not much respect things below. 
This phrase, if they had been mindful of titat country, 
giveth instance thereof. See Sec. 73. 

XV. Neglect of worldly opportunities is an evidence 
that the lieart is not set on the world. Hereby the 
patriarchs shewed that their heart was not set upon 
their earthly country. See Sec. 74. 

XVI. Believers aim at better things in neglecting 
things 2}>'fsent. By the patriarchs' neglect of their 
own country, the apostle infers that they desired a 
better. See Sec. 75. 

XVII. Heaven is tlve aim of believers. That coun- 
try which believers of old desired is here styled 
heavenly. See Sec. 76. 

XVIII. Mans respect to God is an evidence of God's 
respect to man. This ariseth from tliis illative particle, 
wlurefore. Sec Sec. 77. 

XIX. Goil accounteth believers on him no di.igrace 
uiUo him. He is not ashamed of them. Sec Sec. 77. 

XX. The Lord is- in specicd manner the God of be- 
lievers. He is called their God. See Sec. 78. 

XX. Heaven is a true city. So it is here called. 
See Sec. 79. 

XXI. Heaven is beforehand prepared. For God 
hath prepared it. See Sec. 79. 

XXII. Heaven is prepared for a peculiar people. 
See Sec. 80. 

XXIII. Believers' recompense is answerable to their 

XXIV. Believers recompense far exceeds their damage. 
The believers mentioned by the apostle left their 

own country, and had another i)repared for them, 
and that other was a heavenly, which was far bet- 
ter. Of these two, see Chap. x. 34, Sec. 130. 

Sec. 83. Of God's trying Abrahctm. 

Ver. 17. By faith Abraham, when lie zvas tried, 
offered up Isaac: and he that had received tlie pro- 
mises offered up his only-begotten son, 

18. Of whom it ivas said, T/tat in Isaac shall thy 
seed be called: 

19. Accounting tJutt God toas able to raise him up, 
even from tJie dead ; from whence also lie received him 
ill afgure. 

In these three verses the apostle produceth a fur- 
ther confirmation of Abraham's faith. The verses 
betwixt the tenth and the first of these may be in- 
cluded in a parenthesis, and so these verses follow 
upon those which before set forth the faith of Abra- 
ham in particular. Two eWdences were given before 
of the truth and soundness of his faith. 

One was, his leaving of his own countr)-, ver. 8. 

The other was, his sojourning in a strange country, 
vers. 9, 10. 

This is a third evidence, and though the last, yet 
not the least of the three, but rather the greatest ; 
yea, the greatest of all that are given of others' faith. 
I suppose I may further say, the greatest that ever 
was given by any mere man. 

Of the kind of faith, and of the name of the per- 
son, Abraham, see Ver. 8, Sec. 36. 

This instance of Abraham's obedience, together 
with others going before and following after, being 
attributed to faith, in this phrase, by filth, sheweth 
that faith puts one on to any kind of obedience, even 
to do that which otherwise he would not. 

For faith persuades the soul of God's sovereignty, 
wisdom, righteousness, faithfulness, power, truth, pro- 
vidence, and other excellencies. 

We may from hence infer an cspeci;d reason of the 
scantiness of men's obedience, namely, want of faith. 

The idolater that will not leave his idols, or the 
swearer his oaths, or the voluptuous person his pleasures, 
or the lustful person his lusts, or the proud person his 
strange attire, or other sinners their sins, want faith. 

Among other motives, this is an especial one to 
stir us up to get, preserve, and exercise faith. 

Ver. 17-19.] 



Herein appears the greatness of his faith, that he 
believed the promise of Isaac's seed, and yet by faith 
is read}' to null that promise by sacrificing Isaac be- 
fore he had any seed at all. How admirable is the 
power of faith ! 

This phrase, TE;j«^(),aevo?, u'lien he 7fas tried (or 
leiiH/ li-ied), sets forth the mind of God in that case — 
namely, that God enjoined him to oifer up Isaac, not 
simpl}" that he should so do, but to try whether he 
T\-ere ■willing, upon God's command, to do so or no. 
Abraham then knew not that God commanded him 
to offer up Isaac merely upon trial. 

The apostle, that relates as much, setteth down 
this end of God, because the event did demonstrate as 
much ; but before the event, nor Abraham nor any 
other did know the mind of God. But the history 
that was penned after God's mind was manifested, 
doth expressly saj', that ' God did tempt Abraham,' 
Gen. xxii. 1. Therefore the apostle might well say- 
that Abraham was tried ; for to tempt is to try. 

Of the meaning of the word here used by the apostle, 
and of divers kinds of trying or tempting, see T/ie 
Guide to go to God ; or. An Krplanation of the Lord's 
Prai/er, on the sixth petition. Sec. 170. Of the 
many ways of tempting man, see Chap. ii. IS, Sec. 

The trial or proving here meant, hath reference to 
God's charge about offering up Isaac, Gen. xxii. 2. 

OhJ. It was an unnatural murder to do so. 

Ans. 1. God's will is not only the rule, but also 
the ground of goodness ; whatsoever God willeth is, in 
that respect, good and just. 

2. A special charge of GodVith dispense with a 
general law, and that in regard of particular and pre- 
sent circumstances. Witness the Israelites' spoiling 
of the Egyptians, Exod. xii. 35, 36 ; and the wound- 
ing of the man of God, 1 Kings xx. 35, 36. 

3. God did not intend the taking away of Isaac's 
life ; he meant to prevent Abraham therein. 

Quest. 1. Did God know Abraham's mind, that he 
■woidd indeed have sacrificed his son if he had not 
been prevented ? 

Ans. Surely he did, even as he did know the pa- 
tience and faith of Job. ' He understandeth our 
thoughts afar off,' Ps. cxxxix. 2. 

Quest. 2. What need was there that God should try 
Abraham ? 

Ans. 1. For Abraham's owii sake, that he might 
the better know the power of that grace which God 
had conferred on him ; for as God tries some to dis- 
cover their weakness unto themselves (so he tried 
Hezekiah, 2 Chron. xxxii. 31), so he tries others to 
manifest that grace that is in them, as he did the 
Canaanitish woman. Mat. xv. 2-5. 

2. For the sake of others, that Abraham might be 
an example to them. It pleased God to cull out 
Abraham to be a father of the faithful ; therefore he 
would shew to all ages what grace he had conferred 

upon him — what a worthy father, and what a worthy 
pattern he was. 

By this it is manifest that God tries his best chil- 
dren. He began with Adam, and that in his inno- 
cency,- and hath continued so to do in all ages. 
Among others, Abraham was oft tempted, as appears 
by these texts : Gen. xii. 1, 11, xiii. 7, xiv. 14, xv. 
13, xvi. 5, xvii. 24, xviii. 12, 13, six. 24, xs. 2, and 
xxi. 11, but never so sorely as in this particular. 

Two special ends there be hereof : — one, to manifest 
the grace that is in his children, as in the case of 
Job ; the other, to discover inward corruptions, as in 
the case of Hezekiah. 

We may not therefore think it strange that God's 
children are tried. 

We ought rather so to purge out our corruptions, 
and so to labour for strength of grace, as our trials 
may be our glory. 

Sec. 84. 0/ the benefit of a true intent. 

Upon the trial, it is said that Abraham offered iip 
Isaac. The word, crjoirttjjvoj/?, translated offered, is the 
same that is used for slaying and offering up of sac- 
rifices. See Chap. V. 1, Sees. G, 7. So is the Hebrew 
word, Gen. xxii. 2. It is set down in the time past, as 
if he had actually offered him up, by reason of the 
truth of his intention ; for Abraham did fully intend 
to offer him up, in that he knew no other concerning 
the purpose of God. So as a true intent is, in God's 
account, as a real act. So was David's intent to 
build God's house ; it was therefore commended, 
1 Kings viii. 18; and rewarded, 2 Sam. vii. 16. 
Hereupon the apostle saith, that ' if there be first a 
willing mind, it is accepted according to that a man 
hath, and not according to that he hath not,' 2 Cor. 
viii. 12. AVitness the poor widow, Luke xxi. 3. 

1. God searcheth the heart, Jer. xvii. 10. 

2. He desireth the heart, Deut. v. 29. 

3. He hath most and best respect to the he.art, Ps. 
li. 6. Hereof see more, Chap. iii. 12, See. 126. 

1. This is a matter of great comfort to honest 
hearts, Isa. xxxviii. 3. Though we be hindered from 
external acts, yet God accepts the inward intent. 

2. Give therefore to God that which he doth above 
all desire, Prov. xxiii. 26. 

Sec. 85. 0/ Abrahavi^s receiving the promises about 

To amplify this evidence of Abraham's faith, both 
Abraham himself is described, and also his son about 
whom he was tempted. 

Abraham is described, in this phrase, he th<tt had 
received the jjromi.'ies. This description is joined to 
Abraham's name by the copulative y.ai, and, which 
doth not here join different persons, but distinct pro- 
perties of the same person, as his name and his 
privilege. His name, Abraham; and this privilege, 
he received the promises. In this respect the copula- 



[Chap. XL 

tive and is emphatical ; and, to express the emphasis, 
it may be translated even — even he that had re- 
ceived, &c. 

This phrase, received the promises, is the same in 
our English that is set down negatively, Yer. 13, 
Sec. Go ; but the Greek verb receive is one (Xa/Son-s;) 
in one place, and another (utaii^uiiivoi) in the other. 
In this place the Greek word is a compound. The 
.simple verb, hi'/j>,u,ai, signifieth to (uk-e or receive. 
This compound, a.tahi-/oij.a.i, hath a further emphasis : 
it intendeth a receiving to one's self, and a good 
entertaining of a thing. It is but once more used in 
the New Testament, and applied to Publius his en- 
tertaining Paul and his comi)any, and thus trans- 
lated, ' who received us,' Acts xxviii. 7. 

The promises here intended were made by God 
immediately to Abraham himself Abraham heard 
them with his own ears, from God's own mouth. 
They were not brought to him by an uncertain mes- 
senger, or by common report, but by the surest evi- 
dence that could be, in which respect (as he had just 
cause) lie applied them to himself, and steadfastly be- 
lieved the truth of them, that they should be assur- 
edly accomplished. Thus he received them to himself. 

Of the composition and meaning of the word trans- 
lated i^romises, see Chap. iv. 1, Sec. G. Here, under 
the word promises, are comprised, not only general 
promises made to all believers — that God will be their 
God, and that God would bless them and provide for 
them (which were likewise in special made to Abra- 
ham, Gen. xii. 7, xv. 1, xvii. 7) — but also such particular 
promises as this act of offering Isaac seemed to cross, 
namely this, that God would establish his covenant 
with Isaac for an everlasting covenant, and with his 
seed after him. Gen. xvii. 19. Isaac was that seed 
■which God intended, in whose posterity Canaan should 
be possessed, Gen. xii. 7, and whose posterity should 
be for number as the stars. Gen. xv. 5, and that 
seed with whom God would establish his covenant, 
and in whom all nations should be blessed, Gen. xvii. 
7. The accomplishment of these and other like pro- 
mises depended upon the preservation of Isaac's life, 
at least till Isaac should have a child, in whom the 
hope of the said promises might be continued till 
they should be fully accomplished ; for Abraham 
then, who in special received these promises, to offer 
up him by whom they should be accomplished, must 
needs be an evidence of more than ordinary faith ; 
and this privilege of receiving the promises a great 
amplification hereof. It giveth instance that no ob- 
stacle can hinder the vigour of true faith. 

I suppose that a greater instance cannot be given 
than this of Abraham's receiving the promises ; and 
yet doing that which seemed to take away the effect 
and fruit of all the promises. Though the act in 
itself had been a matter of great admiration, yet had 
it not been so great for any other to have done it, as 
for him who had received the aforesaid promises. 

Sec. 86. Of this title Isaac. 

The description of him that is said to be offered 
up is yet a further amplification of Abraham's faith. 

First, his name is here expressed, which was pns'> 
Isaac. This is set down, 

1. For distinction's sake from other sons; for at 
that time he had another son by his maid, wfiich 
was Ishraael. 

2. For amplification's sake ; for it shews him to be 
a son of joy. This name Isaac is derived from a 
verb, pn2J, that signifieth (o lauffh. It is applied to 
Abraham's expression of his joy when God promised 
this son, Gen. xvii. 17 ; and to Sarah's expression of 
her distrust, as of an impossible thing, Gen. xviii 12 j 
and to Ishmacl's manifestation of his deriding humour, 
and translated mocking. Gen. xxi. 9. It hath the 
very letters that Abraham's laughter is expressed 
witlial, pnS'1, Gen. xvii. 17. In relation thereunto 
was this name first instituted ; yet also it had rela- 
tion to future times, as is evident by this phrase pro- 
phetically uttered by Sarah, ' God hath made me to 
laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me,' Gen. 
xxi. G. Thus the very name of the child addeth 
much to the trial. It was a child of joy — of joy to 
parents, and of joy to others, even to all his posterity, 
and to the whole church of God in all generations. 

Sec. 87. Of the relations betwixt Abraham and 

The foresaid child of joy is further described by 
the special relation that was betwixt him and Abra- 
ham ; and that in sundry branches. 

1. He was a son, in general a sou of man. To 
have sacrificed him had been murder. 

2. He was his son. Thus he had a speciiU charge 
of him ; in which respect that act might seem to bo 

3. He was his own son ; begotten of him, not 
adopted, as Eliezer was. Gen. xv. 2. This makes it 
seem unnatural to offer him up. 

4r. He was his onUi-hegotttn son ; and so there was 
no hope of another in that kind. This made it seem 
the more strange. 

5. In the history this clause is added, whom thou 
lorest, Gen. xxii. 2. 

The LXX do there translate that phrase by a 
word, iyanTiTri;, that signifieth one on whom .all love 
is cast. See Chap. iii. 1, Sec 17. Yea, they double 
that word of affection, thus, ' Thy beloved son, whom 
thou Invest.' He was a beloved one, both in his 
father's affection, and also by his own desert. 

If we add to these relations sundry circumstances 
expressly noted in the histor)', about Abraham's 
going about this strange act, we shall find his faith 
the more rare ; for, 

1. He ' rose up early in the morning ;' a note of his 

2. The place where he was to offer up his son was 

Vee. 17-19.] 



three days' journey from him ; an evidence of his 

3. The wood wherewith Isaac should be burnt 
upon the altar was laid on Isaac's shoulders. Isaac 
himself carried it. 

4. Abi'aham himself carried the fire to kindle it. 

5. The child in this journey asketh his father 
where the offering was ; which question could not 
but pierce the bowels of a tender father. 

6. The father and child being both come to the 
top of the mount, the father erects an altar, layeth 
wood thereon, binds his son, layeth him on the altar 
upon the wood, stretcheth forth his hand, and takes 
the knife to slay his son. 

Was ever the like heard ? Yet behold more. 

Sec. 88. Of j^romifes appointed to Isaac. 

It is added, ' Of whom it was said, That in Isaac 
shall thy seed be called.' 

This hath express reference to God's promise con- 
cerning Isaac when Ishmael was to be cast out, 
Gon. xxi. 12. This promise was made to Abraham, 
to comfort him against that grief which afflicted him 
upon the thought of casting out I.'iihmael. It is as if 
God had said to Abraham, What needest thou be so 
perplexed for parting with Ishmael ? Thou hast Isaac ; 
Isaac shall abide with thee ; Isaac, Isaac, I say, and 
none but Isaac, is that particular person who shall 
bring forth that seed, even that blessed seed, which 
I have promised thee, wherein all nations shall be 

If casting out Ishmael grieved Abraham, what did 
it to think of sacrificing Isaac ? 

Of the meaning of this word seed, see Chap. ii. IG, 
Sec. 161. 

This seed, that is here referred to Isaac, intendeth, 

1. That posterity which God had chosen for his 
church, Gal. iv. 23, 26-28. 

2. Christ Jesus, the Saviour of mankind. Gal. 
iii. 16. 

The word, xAri6r,g:Tai, which we translate called, 
is the same here that is used. Chap. ii. 11, Sec. 107. 
There see the emphasis of it. It here implieth that 
from Isaac should proceed that which is accounted 
and taken for the blessed seed promised to Abraham. 

The apostle sets out the same thing in another word 
thus, Xoyi'^^irai, are counted for the seed, Rom. ix. 8. 
In regard of the promise of a blessed seed annexed 
to Isaac's person, a greater trial could not have been 
than this. Job endured much ; but he had express 
promises to support and comfort him. Abraham's 
fa:t was against the promises. To have offered up 
all his cattle, all his servants, the son of his con- 
cubine, yea, his dear wife, and his own self, had not 
been so great a trial — no, not to have ofiered up all 
the world, as to offer up Isaac ; Isaac living, a blessed 
seed and offspring might have come from him, though 
Abraham himself and all others had been offered ujd ; 

but Isaac being taken away without seed, nor Abra- 
ham, nor any in the world could be saved. The sal- 
vation of Abraham, of Isaac himself, and of aU man- 
kind, was put in hazard by this temptation. Thus 
this circumstance doth of all other most amplify the 
faith of Abraham, and giveth demonstration of the 
high pitch thereof. 

In this case what might one think? Here is a 
promise and a commandment that seem to thwart 
one another. 

The promise, that from Isaac should descend a 
blessed seed. 

The commandment, that Isaac should be oflered 
for a burnt-offering before he had any seed. 

What now might Abraham think i 

To sacrifice Isaac was to disannul God's promi.se. 

To refuse to sacrifice him was to disobey God's 

What mortal wight could in this case have recon- 
ciled these two 1 

But Abraham was assured that the charge was 
divine, given by God himself. He resolves therefore 
to perform it. Yet he believes the promise. He 
knows not how it should be accomplished; but be- 
lieves that it should be accomplished. 

Hereupon, in the height of his faith, he saith to 
his son, ' God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt- 
offering,' Gen. xxii. 8. Oh, admirable, oh, incredible 
faith ! 

Of all patterns of yielding absolute and simple 
obedience to God's command, this is the most remark- 
able. Noah's obedience in building the ark (Sec. 27), 
and Abraham's, in leaving his country and dwelling in 
a strange land (Sees. 37, 41), were good patterns, but 
not comparable to this. This therefore is the more 
thoroughly to be pondered. 

First, The Lord who commands is so absolute and 
supreme a Lord, as no question ought to be made of 
his command, and the rea.son thereof, Rom. ix. 20. 

Secondly, So just and equal in the matter are all 
the things which God connnands, as no just excep- 
tion can be taken against them, Ezek. xviii. 25. 

Thirdly, So wisely in regard of the manner doth 
God order his commands, as it will be a man's wis- 
dom to yield obedience thereunto, Deut. iv. 6. 

Fourthly, The ends of God's commands are the best 
that can be, namely, the manifestation of his own 
glory, and procuring good to his people. 

How doth this readiness of Abraham to sacrifice 
his son condemn the whole world, who, upon his 
command, will not sacrifice their filthy lusts ! 

Let us so acquamt ourselves with God and his 
excellencies, that any notice of his will may be enough 
to put us on to fulfil it. 

Sec. 89. Of God's revealiny his will unto /lis saints. 
Before the appropriating of the aforesaid seed to 
Isaac, this preface is premised, of tvhom it teas said. 



[Chap. XI. 

The iireposition, together with the relative to 
which it is joined in Greek, tjJs ov, most properly 
soundeth (o vltom. Thus it is applied to Abraham, 
mentioned in the former verse. Most cojiies and 
most translations so apply it ; and our English, w ho 
translate it of whom, and .so ap}ily it to Isaac, do note 
the other reading in the margin thus, or to. 

The history whcreunto this hath relation thus 
setteth it down, 'God said to Abrah.am,' Gen. xxi. 12. 

As for sen.se, both the one and the other reading 
tend to the same scope, and give an especial instance 
of his revealing his counsel to his saints. The word, 
fXayJiOr], translated it wax said, is the same that was 
used. Chap. i. 1, Sec. 11, ?.a>.^irar, and translated 
spake : it implieth God's revealing and making 
known his mind. It was a part of God's secret 
counsel that the blessed seed should in Isaac be 
called ; and that he here makes known to Abraham. 
This God hath done from the beginning, Gen. iii. 15 ; 
and so from time to time. ' Surely the Lord God will 
do nothing, but be revealeth his secret unto his ser- 
vants the prophets,' Amos iii. 7. Hereof see more, 
Chap. i. 1, Sec. 11. 

1 . This instructeth us in that good respect which 
God beareth to his people. To make known one's 
counsel and secret beforehand to any, is accounted 
a great favour. It useth not to be done but to 
friends. Samson's wife there inferred that he loved 
her not, because he would not open his mind to her. 
Judges xiv. IG. But God opencth his whole mind 
to his saints. 

2. The best use we can make of this favour is to 
acquaint ourselves with that which God revealeth to 
us of his mind. His word is the storehouse wherein 
the records and revelations of his will are laid up. 
Therefore ' search the Scriptures,' John v. 39. 

Sec. 90. Of God's specuid dHerminiinj whom to 

The express naming of Isaac, and that to difference 
him from all others, and to make him the stock of the 
blessed seed, giveth instance that God hath in special 
determined whom to bless, and on whom to bestow this 
or that privilege. The apo.stle teacheth us from this 
very promise to make this inference, thus : ' Not be- 
cause they are the seed of Abraham, are they all 
children : but in Isaac shall thy seed be called — that 
is, the children of the promise are counted for the 
seed,' Kom. ix. 7. 

The writing of men's names in the book of life, 
Dan. xii. 1, Philip, iv. 3, Rev. xxii. 23, giveth 
further proof hereunto. Like to which is writing 
men's names in heaven, Luke x. 20 ; and this title, 
ehd; and this seal, 'The Lord knoweth them that 
are his,' 1 Tim. ii. 19 ; and that golilon chain whereof 
the apostle makcth mention, Rom. viii. 29, 30. 

1. Thus God doth to give evidence that all bless- 
ing comes from him, and from his free grace. 

2. To make such as have evidences of this his 

special love, to rest on him the more confidently. 
Two errors arc hereby discovered : 

1 . That election is indefinite, of no special persons, 
but of such as shall believe and repent, and persevere 

2. That election is uncertain ; so as it cannot be 
affirmed of any that they are elect while here they 

To what tends the one and the other po.sition, but 
to make God's counsel depend on man's will ? 

The special determinate counsel of God is a matter 
of great consolation to such as have evidence of their 
election. They may rest upon it, that God will so 
order all things as in that course which is prescribed 
in bis word ; and by such means as are there revealed, 
he will bless them, and bring them to eternal life. lu 
the midst of all the storms and tempests of this world, 
this is of force to uphold us. 

Sec. 91. Of the extent of God's llessitiff to the seed 
of believers. 

This phrase, soi ffTEs/ia, thy seed, or, the seed that I 
tvill give to thee, hath reference to Abraham. The word 
seed is collective, and compriseth under it an unde- 
termined issue or posterity ; and it setteth out the 
extent of God's promise and blessing, reaching not 
only to Abraham's immediate son, but also to the 
seed of his son ; as if he had said, I have given thee 
a son, even Isaac. But that is not enough ; from 
this Isaac shall a seed sprout, which shall be ac- 
counted thi/ seed; so as God extends the blessing of 
his .saints to their posterity, and that from generation 
to generation. This God himself doth thus explain 
to Abraham : ' In blessing I will bless thee, and 
multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of 
heaven,' itc, Gen. xxii. 17. It is hereupon said, 
' The generation of the upright shall be blessed,' Ps. 
cxii. 2, Prov. xx. 7. 

This God doth to manifest the riches of his mercy, 
and that high account wherein he hath his saints. 
He thinketli it not enough to confer blessing upon 
one, but extends it to his seed, age after age. 

1. This is a good inducement to parents to be 
pious themselves, that God in the riches of his mercy 
may extend his blessing to them and their posterity. 

2. It giveth also just cause to children to rejoice 
in their pious parents, and to bless God for them ; for 
they may expect divine blessing to descend to them- 
selves also, if at least they walk in the steps of their 
pious parents. Yea, they maj' plead their relation to 
their parents, as the psalmist did, Ps. cxvi. IC. 

Sec. 92. Of the seed promised in Isaac. 

Isaac is made the stock of the blessed seed, but 
the privilege is applied to Abraham in this relative, 
thy, especially as it hath reference to the verb called, 
thus, x.\n()r,<Sirai eoi, shall be called to thee; that is, ac- 

Ver. 17-19.] 



counted unto thee for that seed, T\liicli, as a blessing, 
hath been promised to thee ; so doth the apostle ex- 
pound it in this phrase, the children of the promise, 
"Koyi^irai, are coxinied for the seed, Eom. Lx. 8. 

This importeth an especial prerogative ; and so it 
was in sundry respects. 

1. It was that numerous seed that was promised, 
Gen. XV. 5. 

Ohj. That seed is nowhere called by Isaac's name. 
Ans. 1. They are styled 'the seed of Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob,' Jar. xxxiii. 26. 

2. They are expressly comprised under this name, 
Isaac ; and they are styled, ' the house of Isaac,' 
Amos vii. 16. Indeed, there is a change of two 
Hebrew letters, which is usual in other words ; both 
names set out the same thing. 

3. They are frequently called by the name of 
Isaac's son, which was Israel, and this is all one. 

4. The like may be objected against Abraham, for 
his name is not put for the posterity. 

2. It was that truly and properly blessed seed who 
was blessed in himself, and in whom all nations are 
blessed; even Jesus Christ, Gal. iii. 16. 

3. It was that confederate seed with which God 
entered into special covenant. Gen. xvii. 7 ; and to 
which appertained the prerogatives mentioned, Eom. 
ix. 4, Gen. xvii. 19. 

4. It was that spiritual seed which, by reason of 
faith, are called ' the children of Abraham,' Gal. iii. 7, 
and ' the Israel of God,' Gal. vi. 16. For proof hereof 
read Eom. ix. 7, <Src. 

The word, xXT^SfjueTcci, translated s/mU be called, in- 
tendeth two things, 

1. A real performance of a thing. 

2. A manifestation thereof. It here, then, intendeth 
that God'a purpose shall in time be manifestly accom- 
plished. In this sense it is said of Christ, before he 
was born, ' he shall be called the Son of God,' Luke 
i. 35. This is expressly in the sense affirmed, Acts 
xiii. 32, 33. 

1 . Perfect is the purpose and counsel of God ; 
therefore it shall stand, Ps. xxxiii. 11. 

2. The truth of God is unchangeable ; it is as his 
essence, Mai. iii. 6, James i. 17. See Chap. vi. IS, 
Sec. 135, (fee. 

1. This teacheth us to acquaint ourselves with the 
counsel of God, so far as it is revealed ; for ' revealed 
things belong to us and our children,' Deut. xxix. 29. 

2. In faith to pray for the accomplishment thereof. 
Certainty of accomplishing that for which we pray is 
a strong motive to pray for it. See a worthy pattern 
hereof, Dan. ix. 2 : and the ground hereof, Ezek. 
xxxvi. 37. 

3. With patience to wait for it, Hab. ii. 3. 

Sec. 93. 0/ yielding the dearest to God. 
From all the forementioned relations betwixt Abra- 
ham and Isaac, and circumstances about Abraham's 
Vol, III. 

going to sacrifice Isaac, we may well infer that the 
dearest are to be yielded up to God ; for that which 
was to be offered up was, 

1. A c/iild. A child is one of the dearest things 
that one can have. A child compriseth under it all 
love. Of all temporal blessings, none more desired, 
Gen. XV. 2, and sxx. 1 ; none more lamented when 
it is taken away, Gen. xxxvii. 35, Jer. xxxi. 15. For 
what do men take more care 1 about what do they 
take more pains ? on what do they bestow more 

2. A soil. Among children a son hath the pre- 
eminency. A son is most desired, most cared for, 
and the loss of it most lamented, 1 Sam. i. 14, 
2 Kings iv. 14. All children of promise have been 

3. His own son : begotten of him ; not an adopted 
son. Such a son is as a man's own bowels. Very 
nature draws a parent's heart to his own son. ' What, 
my son? and what, the son of my womb?' Prov. 
xxxi. 2. ' He that shall come forth out of thine own 
bowels shall be thine heir,' saith God to Abraham, 
Gen. XV. 4. 

4. His only-begotten son. This was more than one 
of many. Where there are many, a parent's love is 
divided : one only child draws all love to him. 

5. A S071 of his old age; even when he was out of 
hope of having a child, Gen. xv. 3, and xviii. 12. In 
this respect he must needs be the dearer. Parents 
use most to affect such children. Joseph and Ben- 
jamin were of all Jacob's children the dearest to him ; 
not only because they were the children of his choicest 
wife, but also of his old age, Gen. xxxvii. 3. 

6. He was gromi to some years; for he was able to 
carry such a burthen of wood as required the strength 
of a young man, even so much as might consume a 
burnt-offering to ashes, and that up a hill. Thus it 
appears that the greatest pains, care, and fear of his 
education was past. He was not only a child of hope, 
but also a child of proof. Good hope worketh a deep 
impression in a parent about the loss of a child ; but 
good proof a far deeper. Very good proof had this 
young man Isaac given of his good disposition and 
conversation ; for this it was that profane Ishmael 
scoffed at him. Gen. xxi. 9, Gal. iv. 29. 

7. A beloved son, Gen. xxii. 2. Had his father 
hated him, or not most entirely loved him, the force 
of all the former degrees had lost their force ; for 
nothing not loved can be deemed dear ; but anything, 
be it never so mean, if it be loved, is accounted dear 
and precious. 

8. An Isaac. A child that, when first he was pro- 
mised, made Abraham through great joy to laugh. 
Gen. xvii. 17 ; a child that made Sarah laugh, as 
being a thing too good to be true. Gen. xviii. 12; a 
child that made not only his mother when he was 
born, but also all that heard of him, to laugh for joy. 
Gen. xsi. 6. 



[Chap. XI. 

9. A child promised to be a slorl- of a numerous 
teed, which should be multiplied as the stars and 
sand, Gen. xxii. 17 : and from whom kings should 
descend, Gen. xvii. 6. 

10. A child of promise; of the greatest promise 
that ever was made to man — a promise of blessing, 
and of blessing to all nations. Gen. xxii. 18. 

Another like instance cannot be given among men. 
The instance of Job's blessing God when he took 
away his cattle, servants, children, and all, cometh 
the nearest to this. Though they were taken away 
by other means, and not offered up by Job's own 
hands, yet Job's willing .submitting of himself to the 
good guiding providence of God, was as much ac- 
cepted of God as if he had offered up all to God 
with his own hands ; and thereupon, as God returned 
Isaac to Abraham, so he returned other children, ser- 
vants, and goods to Job. Another instance may be 
of the disciples, who forsook all and followed Jesus, 
Mat. xix. 27. Thus much is required of all, Mat. 
X. 37, Luke xiv. 26. 

The grounds of our yielding thus far to God are 
such as these : 

1. The supreme sovereignty of God, whereby he 
hath power to command us and all ours ; and what 
he may command we must yield, 1 Chron. xxix. 11. 

2. The right that God hath to all we have. All 
comes from him. We hold all from him, and for 
him, to be .at his dispose, 1 Chron. xxix. 14, Rom. 
xi. 36. 

3. The might and power that God hath to take 
away all, will we nill we, Dan. iv. 35. Willingly to 
yield what he will have, is to make a virtue of neces- 

4. The due which, in way of gratitude, we owe 
unto God. Besides our being, life, health, and every 
other good thing which we have received from him, 
lie hath given us his Son, who is infinitely more 
worth than all we can give to him. In this respect 
they that hold anything too dear for God are not 
worthy of God. 

5. 'The bounty of God, who can and will beyond 
comparison recompense whatsoever is given to him. 
Mat. xix. 29. None shall lose by giving to God. 

1. This discovereth the folly and imjucty of such 
as hold anything too dear for the Lord ; who are loth 
to let go such things as they delight in, though they 
be entreated for the Lord's sake. Such are most in 
the world, wlio entertain some Inst or other. Can it 
be imagined that such would ofler up an Lsaac f 

2. It manifests the weakness of their faith, who 
are discontent and imiiatient <ipon the loss of goods, 
children, husbands, wives, friends, or anything dear 
unto them. As God's word declareth his approving 
will, so events his determinable will and counsel. 
To bo discontent at that which by the divine jirovi- 
dence falleth out, is to do as much as in us lieth to 
withhold it from God; it sheweth what we would 

do if we could. But patience and contentedness is a 
kind of obedience ; God accepteth it as if we ourselves 
offered up to him what is taken from us. 

3. This pattern of Abraham teacheth us to deny 
ourselves in everything which is as dear to us as 
ourselves, for the Lord's sake. Mat. xvi. 26. 

4. We ought hereupon to ob.serve what God would 
have of us. This we may knoAV j)artly by God's 
word, and partly by his ordering providence. What 
we find to withdraw our hearts from God, we ought 
to withdraw our hearts from. If God be poised 
against all things else, we shall find no comparison 
betwixt them. All other things are ' as the small 
dust of the balance ' compared to him. They .are as 
' nothing, and are counted to him less than nothing, 
and vanity,' Isa. xl. 1.5, 17. 

Sec. 94. Of God comjxtred with Ahralmvi in offer- 
ing vp his ijon. 

This instance of Abraham's offering up Isaac doth 
lively set before us God's great and good respect to 
man in offering up Christ Jesus for us. 

For the further clearing hereof, I will first endea- 
vour to shew the likeness betwixt them, and then the 
infinite difference. 

The likeness shall be exemplified in the particular 
circumstances before mentioned — 

1. Abraham ofiFered up a child; so was Jesus 
God's ' child,' Acts iv. 27. 

2. Abraham a son ; so God, Luke i. 35. 

3. Abraham his own son ; so God, Rom. viiL 32. 

4. Abraham his only-begotten son ; so God, John 
iii. 16. 

5. Abraham had no hope of any more ; there is no 
possibility that God .should have any more, Heb. L 5. 

6. Abraham's son was a son of promise ; much 
more God's Son, Gen. iii. 15. 

7. Abraham's son was a son of proof; so was God's 
Son most of all, John xvii. 4. 

S. Abraham's son was a beloved one ; so God's 
Son, Mat. iii. 17. 

9. Abraham's son was an Isaac ; Christ a Jesus, 
Luke ii. 10. 

10. Abraham's son w.is the stock of the blessed 
seed ; much more the Son of God, Mat. xxi. 9. 

The difference betwLxt these was — 

1. In the persons offering and offered. 

2. In the motive wherewith the one and the other 
was set on work. 

3. In the manner of doing the one and the other. 

4. In the benefits that redound from the one and 
the other. 

1 . The persons offering were God and Abraham — 
the Creator and a creature. There can be no such 
difference betwixt any one creature and otiier ; not 
betwixt a man and a worm ; no, nor betwixt an angel 
and a man ; yea, I may further add, not betwixt an 
angel and a devil. 

Ver. 17-19.] 



There was as great a disparity betwixt the persons 
offered, Jesus and Isaac. Isaac was a mere man, a 
sinful man, a man that deserved death ; death was a 
debt once to be paid, Heb. ix. 27 ; but Jesus was 
true God, Rom. ix. 5 ; he was ' God manifest in the 
flesh,' 1 Tim. iii. 16 ; he was perfectly pure, and that 
as God, 1 John i. 1.5, and as man also, Heb. vii. 26 ; 
he was no ways guilty of death in himself, nor sub- 
ject to death, further than he voluntarOy subjected 
himself, John x. 18. 

Isaac was indeed a begotten son, but begotten of 
man, and part of his substance. Jesus was the only- 
begotten of God, the same in substance with the 
Father, John x. 30. 

Isaac was a beloved son, whom his father loved, 
Gen. xxii. 1. Jesus was infinitely more beloved, and 
that of God, Mat. xviL 5. 

Isaac was a child of joy. Of Jesus, when he came 
into the world, an angel thus saith, ' Behold, I bring 
you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all 
people ; ' and thereupon a multitude of the heavenly 
host thus praised God, ' Glory to God in the highest,' 
&c., Luke ii. 10, 14. 

Isaac was a child of blessing. But why 1 Even 
because Jesus was of his seed. Gal. iii. 16. Jesus is 
he in whom truly and properly Abraham himself, 
Isaac, and all others are blessed. 

Most of the excellencies of Isaac consist in this, 
that he was a type of Jesus ; but Jesus is the truth 
of all types, and the truth far surpasseth the 

2. The motive which put on God to offer up his 
Son went far beyond that wherewith Abraham was 
moved to offer uj) his son. Abraham was tried — he 
was tried by an express charge frona God, Gen. xxii. 
2. He might not therefore forbear to do it ; it was 
a bounden duty ; necessity lay upon him ; he had 
sinned if he had refused it. But there was no such 
motive to put on God to offer his Son. He was under 
no such command. It was his own good pleasure 
and superabundant love that moved him, John iii. 16. 
Besides, Abraham might expect approbation and 
remuneration from God ; from whom could God ex- 
pect any recompense 1 

3. There was as great a difference in the manner 
of the one and the other's offering his son. Abraham 
laid the wood to burn the sacrifice on Isaac to be 
sacrificed ; the cross whereon Christ was to be cruci- 
fied was laid on Jesus, John xix. 17. Isaac was 
bound to be laid on the altar ; but Jesus was nailed 
to the cross, John xx. 25. Isaac was offered up only 
in his father's intent and purpose ; but Jesus was 
actually and really offered up. If Isaac had been 
offered up, it would have been but a speedy death ; 
but Jesus was put to a torturing and cursed death, 
Gal. iii. 13. What tongue can utter, what heart can 
conceive, the bitterness of the agonj' whereunto Jesus 
■was brought ! He was a surety for sinners ; aud as 

a surety, having all the sins of all the elect laid on 
him, he was offered up. 

4. The benefit of the oblation of the one and of 
the other do differ as much as the other points. The 
benefit of Isaac's being offered, was a proof of the 
father's obedience to God, and of the son's patience. 
These were indeed very acceptable to God, and they 
were abundantly rewarded by him. Gen. xxii. 12, 16, 
17 ; but by the ofl'ering up of Jesus, an atonement is 
made for sin, God's wrath is pacified, his justice satis- 
fied, his favour procured, and he that had the power 
of death, the devil, vanquished ; the law, as an in- 
dictment against us, cancelled, the curse thereof re- 
moved ; we freed from damnation, and made heirs of 
eternal salvation. 

Nothing that ever was done in the world gives 
such cause of admiration. 

There never was, nor can be, the like matter of 

The offering up of Jesus is the only true ground of 
all consolation. 

This is such a pattern of imitation as cannot pos- 
sibly be paralleled. 

Of all things it most confirms this main point — 
■nothing is to he held too dear for God. 

Sec. 95. Of Isaacs yielding to he offered up. 

There are about this offering up of Isaac sundry 
circumstances which do much set out Isaac's patience 
in yielding to be oftered up. 

1. His age. Some say that this was in the thirty- 
seventh year of his jige. That was the year of 
Sarah's death ; for Sarah was ninety years old when 
Isaac was born, and a hundred and seven and 
twenty when she died. 

Others, in the five and twentieth ; others, in the 
fifteenth year of his age. 

There are no certain proofs for any of these ; but 
this is certain, that he was of a good growth and 
strength, in that he could carry up hUl such a bur- 
den of wood as was enough to have burnt him to 
ashes, Gen. xxii. 6. 

2. The age of his father, who was a hundred 
years old when Isaac was born. Gen. xxi. 5, so as be 
must at this time be much above a hundred 3'ears. 

3. The solitariness of these two, who were alone, 
and nobodj' with them ; for Abraham left the com- 
pany that came with him and his son below the 
hill, and that afar off', Gen. xxii. 4, 5 ; thus there was 
none at all to assist Abraham in doing what he was 

4. Abraham bound Isaac, and laid him on the 
altar upon the wood. Gen. xxii. 9. This could not 
be without Isaac's voluntary submitting of himself, 
for he was strong enough to have resisted his old 
father, and to have kept himself from being a sacri- 
fice ; but it is more than probable, that when they 
came to the place where Isaac was to be offered up. 



[Chap. XI. 

Abraham made him acquainted with God's charge, 
for no other motive could have made him yield him- 
self so far as he did. Had it not been for tliat 
charge, prudence, piety, justice, charity, humanity, 
and other like virtues had moved him not only to 
dissuade, but also to hinder his father from such an 
unnatural act. That, therefore, which moved the 
father to attempt such a fact, moved also the son to 
yield unto it, which was God's charge. 

Hereby it appeareth that what God will must be 
endured. ' It is the Lord, let him do what seemeth 
him good,' 1 Sam. iii. 18 ; 'Let the Lord do to me 
as seemeth good to him,' 2 Sam. xv. 26. In this the 
pattern of Christ goes beyond all others, who in his 
loitter agony said to his Father, ' Not as I wiU, but 
as thou wilt,' JIat. xxvi. 39. 

This giveth instance of the extent of that obedi- 
ence which we owe unto God, which is not only 
readily to do what he requireth, but also patiently to 
endure what his pleasure is to call us unto. 

God hath a greater power over us than the potter 
over the clay, Isa. Ixiv. 8. But the potter may 
order the clay as it pleaseth him, Jer. xviii. 4-6. 
The Lord may beat, may bruise, may break us after 
his own pleasure. No man may op)en his mouth 
against God, Eom. ix. 20, 21. 

But such is the wisdom of God, as he wdl not use 
his power further than may be fit. He best knoweth 
when peace, when trouble, when ease, when pain, 
when liberty, when restraint, when life, when death 
is fittest, Isa. xxviii. 24, &c. 

Yea, such is the goodne.ss of God, as that shall be 
an ingredient in all his dealings with his children. 
' We know that all things work together for good to 
them that love God,' Ilom viii. 20. 

In these and other like grounds we see just cause 
to submit to the good pleasure of God, even in suffer- 
ing. Hereof see more, Sec. 88 in the end, and Chap. 
V. 8, Sec. 48. 

Sec. 96. 0/ reasoning with ones self about the 
grounds of faith. 

Ver. 19. Accounting that Ood was able to raise him 
up, even from the dead ; from whence also he received 
him in a figure. 

The inward ground or reason of that great evi- 
dence, which is before given of Abraham's faith, is 
here noted to be a persuasion of God's power in rais- 
ing the dead. 

The word, Xoyisd/avo;, translated accounting, im- 
plieth a reasoning or discoursing with one's self about 
a matter. It is derived from a noun that signifieth 
both speech and reason, 1 Cor. ii. 1, 1 Pet. iii. 15; 
and also an account, Luke .xiv. 2. 

This verb is thus interi)reted, ' they reasoned,' 
Mark xi. 31. 

Here it implicth that Abraham seriously consulted 
with himself about the seeming diflerence betwixt 

God's promise and God's command ; but holding this 
for an undoubted principle, that God's promise should 
be accomplished ; and in his reasoning meditating on 
God's infallible truth, unsearchable wisdom, incom- 
prehensible mercy, almighty power, and other divine 
properties, this cometh to his mind — if there be no 
other way for accomplishing God's {)romise but that 
which is extraordinary, he will work a miracle rather 
than fail of his promise ; God will raise Isaac from 
the dead, for he is able so to do. 

Abraham did not simply and absolutely believe 
that Isaac should be raised from the dead, for he had 
no promise so to believe ; and the text saith not that 
he accounted that God would raise him, but that he 
was duiaroi, able so to do. Fitly, therefore, doth the 
apostle insert this copulative conjunction xa), and, 
which in this place carrieth emphasis, and is well 
translated even ; as if he had said, Abraham believed 
that though Isaac were offered up, and burnt to 
ashes, yet even then could God raise him up again. 

This, then, is the intendment of Abraham's con- 
sultation and resolution with himself, that God would, 
some way or other, accomplish his promise concern- 
ing Isaac. Thus much is evident by this answer of 
Abraham to his son, ' God will provide himself a 
lamb for a burnt-offering,' Gen. xxiL 8. Not that he 
knew what would fall out, but that he knew and 
believed that God could and would work above that 
which he himself could imagine. Now because 
Abraham made full account to sacrifice his son, and 
being sacrificed, he must needs be raised from the 
dead, that in him the promised seed might be called ; 
therefore he believed that God was able to raise him 
up even from the dead. 

By this account or reasoning which is here noted of 
Abraham, the apostle giveth us to understand that a 
due discourse of the mind, on the grounds of faith, 
doth much establish faith. The apostle doth largely 
exemjilify this in Abraham's faith, concerning the birth 
of Isaac, when he and his wife were both old, Rom. 
iv. 19-21. So Jacob, Gen. xxxii. 9-12. So Moses, 
Exod. xxxii. 10, 12, 13. So Joshua, Josh. vii. 7-9. 
So David, oft in the Psalms discoursing of God's 
promises, of his mercies, of his power, of his truth, 
and of his former works, and pleading them before 
God, was much strengthened in faith. 

A due discourse and meditation brings to mind 
and memory the grounds of faith. Whilst those 
grounds are fresh in memory they work on the heart ; 
and b}' affecting the heart the soul is settled and 
quieted ; and a settled and resolved soul adds much 
to the vigour of faith. 

This dirccteth such as are well instructed in the 
grounds of faith seriously and frequently to meditate 
tliereon. See more hereof in I'/ie Whole Armour of 
God, on Eph. vi. 16, Of Faith, Treat. 2, Part 6, 
Sec. 71. 

This doth more specially direct Christians in time 

Vee. 19.] 



of temptation, when the soul is heavy and perplexed 
■with doubts and fears, to reason with themselves, as 
if they had to do with others ; and by arguments to 
endeavour to convince the soul of those sure grounds 
which the word affordeth for settling our faith on 
God. Hereof see the Church's Conquest, on Exod. 
xvii. 11, Sec. 43, 7. 

Sec. 97. Of resting on God's power for strengtliening 
of faith. 

That which Abraham in his reasoning did espe- 
cially fix upon for strengthening his faith was God's 
power, which is thus expressed, o-i ^uvarij o ©fs';, 
that God loas able. For God's power is an especial 
prop to faith. The faith of saints hath in all ages 
been much strengthened hereby, Kom. iv. 21, Dan. 
iii. 17, and vi. 20. 

This therefore hath been pressed to that end. 
Gen. xviii. 14, Luke i. 37, Jer. xxxii. 27, Jlark x. 

Consideration of God's power is an especial means 
to remove all stumbling-blocks that he in the way of 
a believer, and to take away all doubts and fears. If 
travellers be well guarded, if soldiers have a good 
convoy, if men be in a sure castle, they will not fear. 
God's power is the best guard, the safest convoy, and 
surest castle that any can have. 

Quest. May a believer so rest on God's power as 
to expect what God is able to do ? 

A lis. No. God is able to do more than ever he 
will. Mat. iii., and xxvi. 53. 

Besides, God's promises are the proper ground of 
faith. We have no ground to expect more than God 
hath promised, though God be able to do more. 

Quest. How then is God's power a prop to faith 1 

Ans. It assureth that God, who is able, will do 
what he hath promised, though heaven and earth 
seem to make against it. 

This doth more particularly direct us how to fix 
our meditation on God for strengthening our faith, 
and that, among other divine excellencies, on the 
power of God. See more hereof in The Whole 
Armour of God, on Eph. vi. 16, Treat. 2, Part 4, 
Of Faith, Sec. 26. 

Sec. 98. Of faith's 2'>rescrihing nothing to God. 

The apostle's indefinite expression of the ground of 
Abraham's faith in this phrase, on b-jva.To; a &t6;, that 
God was able, giveth evidence that faith prescribes 
nothing to God. It rests upon this, that God is able 
to make his word good. Abraham prescribed nothing 
when he said, ' God will provide,' Gen. xxii. 8 ; nor 
Jehoshaphat, when he said to God, ' Our eyes are upon 
thee,' 2 Chron. xx. 12 ; nor Daniel's three companions, 
when they said, ' Our God is able to deliver us,' Dan. 
iii. 17; nor Christ, when he said, ' Not as I will, but 
as thou wilt,' Mat. xxvi. 39. 

1 . Faith works in a mansuch an esteem of God, as 

it persuades the soul that God is the wisest, and best 
knoweth what to do. 

2. Faith looks beyond all subordinate means, 
knowing that God is tied to none, and thereupon 
dares not prescribe any. 

1. This sheweth that it is a fruit of infidelity to 
prescribe time, means, or any circumstances to God. 
This makes them faint, and fail in faith, when in 
their appearance means fail ; as the Israelites did in 
the wilderness. 

2. If we would well acquaint ourselves with God 
and his excellencies, we would so trust to God's power 
as to submit to his will, and wait his good pleasure. 

Sec. 99. Of the resurrection from the dead as an 
evidence of God's power. 

The particular whereupon Abraham pitched his 
faith concerning God's power was, ' raising from the 
dead;' for faith herein emboldens a believer to any- 
thing. Abraham is hereby emboldened to ofi'er his 
son for a burnt-ofi'ering. Martyrs have hereby been 
emboldened to endure what tyrants and persecutors 
could inflict upon them. ' Many were tortured, not 
accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better 
resurrection,' ver. 35. This emboldened Daniel and his 
three companions, Dan. iii. 17, and vi. 10. On this 
ground the apostle saith of himself and other believers, 
' We stand in jeopardy every hour,' 1 Cor. xv. 30. 

Resurrection from the dead implieth a full restora- 
tion of that which may seem to be lost. Hereby the 
widow of Zarephath's son, 1 Kings xvii. 23, and the 
Shunammite's, 2 Kings iv. 36, were restored again 
sound, as before they died. So all that were raised 
by Christ and his apostles, and, above all, Christ him- 
self ; so all believers at the general resurrection, 1 Cor. 
XV. 42, &c. 

Among other evidences of God's power, meditate 
on this especially. It is the greatest that ever God 
gave. Where mention is made of this instance, men- 
tion also useth to be made of God's power, Eph. i. 19, 
20, Rom. i. 4, and vi. 4, 1 Cor. vi. 14. Death is that 
that tameth the stoutest. AVhat are armies of men, 
troops of beasts, yea, aU creatures gathered together, 
what are they to death ? 

If death seize on them, where is their strength ? 
When death cometh, we say. There is no hope. He 
that is able to deliver from death, what can he not 
deliver from ? There is no meditation like to this. 

Sec. 100. Of believers receiving what theij give to 

In regard of that true intent and fuU purpose 
■which Abraham had to sacrifice Ids son, he is said 
from thence to receive him, oOm Uo/iiiraro. 

This relative, /?-o»i whence, hath reference to the 
word which in our English goeth immediately before, 
namely, the dead. 

To receive him is to have Lim restored again to life. 



[CH.VP. XI. 

as tho widow of Zarei)liath, the Shunammite, the 
widow in the Gospel, Luke vii. 15, and others, re- 
ceived their sons being dead. 

The phrase is here fitly used, in that it giveth an 
instance of God's retunnng to men what tliey offer to 
him. To this purpose tend those proverbs : ' What a 
man sowcth, that shall he reap,' Gal. vi. 7. ' Wbat- 
Boever good thing any man doth, the same shall he 
receive (■/.o/jlhItui) of the Lord,' Eph. vi. 8. 'That 
which a man hath given, the Lord will pay him 
again,' Prov. xix. 17. Thus is the word in my text 
used, 1 Peter i. 9, Exod. v. 4. 

This God doth, either in the very same, as Isaac 
was returned the very same. So Daniel, and his three 
companions, and all that were raised from the dead. 

Or he doth it by a like, and that too the better ; 
as he gave to David a Solomon, instead of the child 
born in adultery. For David, by ceasing to mourn 
for that child when the event had manifested God's 
will, shewed that he willingly yielded him to God, 
2 Sam. xii. 20, 24, 2-5. 

Thus Hannah, giving her Samuel to God, had 
many more children, 1 Sam. ii. 20, 21; so Job, chap, 
xlii. 10, ifec. Joseph, upon loss of his master's 
favour, through God's disposing jsrovidence obtained 
the king's favour, Gen xli. 40. 

Yea, God returns with advantage, as many of the 
foronamed instances do shew. And Abraham here 
receives Isaac as a type of the resurrection. For ad- 
vantage in God's returnings, note Mat. xix. 29, Heb. 
X. 34. 

The Lord, in his dealings with children of men, 
hath respect to himself, to his own goodness, bounty, 
and glory every way. 

He needeth not our gifts, nor will he be beholden 
to his creatures. They shall have as much, yea, and 
far more, than they bring to him. 

1. How great is their folly that withhold from 
God anything that God would have ! They hereby 
stand in their own light, aiul hinder their own good. 
AVill children deal so with their parents ? or servants 
with their masters ? or subjects with their governors? 
Yet these may require such things as may be pre- 
judicial to their inferiors, which God will never do. 

2. Let us learn to understand what is the good 
will of God, pleasing and acceptable unto him, Rom. 
xii. 2, Eph. V. 17, and then be willing to part with 
anything for him. What greater motive can we have 
than God's return ? 

Sec. 101. Of the vieaning of this pla-ase, 'in a 

Because Isaac was not indeed slain, the apostle adds 
this jihrase, h ^raoa/SoXr, in a f (/lire, or /h a parable. 

Of the composition and meaning of the Greek 
word translated. /?i/i(JT, sec Chap. ix. 9, Sec. 48. 

Many of the ancients' interpret this as a type of 
' Chrjsoat., Thcophyl., fficum. 

Christ's rising from the dead, thus : As Isaac was as 
a sacrifice laid \i\xm the altar, but rose from it alive ; 
so Christ was offered up a sacrifice, yet restored to 
life again. 

Both these parts of the comparison are true in 
themselves ; neither will I deny but that the one 
might be a tyjie of the other. 

Others' expound it as a resemblance of the general 
resurrection, because the word translated ^^wre im- 
plieth a resemblance. 

Our ancient English translation thus turns it, ' In 
a certain similitude of the resurrection ;' so also 
Erasmus.'' This may in some respects be a fit re- 
semblance, thus : As Isaac, laid for dead on the altar, 
was by God's voice raised ; so such as are dead in 
the grave shall be raised by the voice of Christ. 

Nor this last, nor the other interpretation, nor any 
tho like, are pertinent to the apostle's intent, which is 
to shew how Abraham received his son from the dead, 
who was not indeed dead, namely, in a similitude 
and likeness, or as our later English translators, 
' after a sort,' or, ' in a figure.' 

Judicious Calvin, who used in expounding Scrip- 
ture to have an eye to the penman's scope, and to the 
main intent of the place, and thereby came the better 
to discover the mind and meaning of the Holy Ghost, ■ 
thus expounded it ;^ and many have since followed 
him ; and questionless this is the proper sense of the 
place ; and it giveth a further confirmation of that 
which was cited before, Ycr. 17, Sec, 84, about a true 
intent, namely, that what is truly intended is in a 
manner effected. 

Sec. 102. Of the resolution of Eeh.:!d. 17-19. 

Yer. 17. By faith Abraham, irhen he was tried, 
offered up Isaac ; and he tluit had received the pro- 
mises offered up hi.s only-begotten son. 

18. Of u'hom it ivas said, Tliat in Isaac sltall thy 
seed be called : 

19. Accounting that God was able to raise him up 
erenfi'om tlie dead ; from whence also he received him 
in a figure. 

The sum of these three verses is a further declara- 
tion of the jiower of faith. 

Hereabout two things are expressed : 

1. The i)arty whose faith is commended, Abraham. 

2. The proof of the j)ower of his faith. This is 
first propounded ; secondly, amplified. 

In jiropnunding the point is noted, 

1. The occasion of the proof, ^vhcn he was iritd. 

2. The kind of proof, he offered up. 
.3. The .subject offered, Isaac. 

In the amplification there is, 
1. A further descrijition of the parties concerned ; 
which are of two sorts — agent and patient. 

' Thcotlorct. 

- riide ilium etiam rcsurrcctionis typo rcdtixit.— ^i-osm. 

' Nomen vapa^oXijs pro Bimllitui.linia nota accipitur. 

Vek. 20.J 



2. An express declaration of the imvard motive 
that put on Abraham to give this proof of his faith. 

The agent or person that oifered up is described 
by a double relation. 

1. By his relation to the promises ; thus, he that 
lutd received the promises. 

2. By his relation to the sacrifice, which was, his 
onhi-hegoiten son. 

Here is set down a fourfold gradation — 1. A son; 
2. His son ; 3. A begotten son ; 4. His only-begotten 

The patient is also described by a double rela- 
tion : 

One, to his father, in the foresaid phrase, his only- 
begotten son. 

The other, to his posterity, ver. 18. In setting 
down this latter relation is noted, 

1. The ground thereof, which was God's appoint- 
ment, in these words, to whom it was said. 

2. The kind thereof. Herein observe, 

(1.) The parties betwixt whom this latter relation 
passeth. These are, 

EL] The stock, Isaac. 
2.] The sprouts, in this word, seed. 
(2.) The manifestation thereof, in this word, shall 
be called. 

The inward motive that put on Abraham to give 
the aforesaid proof of his faith is declared, ver. 19. 
About it we may observe, 

1. The substance thereof. 

2. An inference made thereupon. 
The substance setteth out, 

1 . An act of Abraham, in this word, accounted. 

2. The object of that act. This is, 

(1.) Generally propounded, in this phrase, t!iat God 
was able. 

(2.) Particularly exemplified ; thus, to raise him 
up from the dead. 

In the inference there are two points, 

1. A benefit received. 

2. The manner of receiving it. 

The benefit is, 1. Propounded ; 2. Amplified. 

It is propounded in this word, received. 

It is amplified, 1. By the object, /jm/ 2. By the 
danger, in this word, f)-om whence. 

The manner of receiving the benefit is thus ex- 
pressed, in a figure. 

Sect. 103. Of observations raised out of Heb. xi. 

I. Faith puts on to do what othervnse ivoidd not be 
done. It is here said that Abraham did that which 
certainly he would not otherwise have done, by faith. 
See Sec. 83. 

II. The best may be tried. We may well judge 
Abraham to be the best man that lived in his days ; 
yet is he here said to be tried. See Sec. 83. 

III. A true intent is accepted for tlie deed. In this 

sense it is here said that Abraham offered up. See 
Sec. 84. 

IV Believers in special manner receive divine pro- 
mises. Thus Abraham, the father of believers, is 
described, he received the promises. See Sec. 84. 

V. Ko obstacle hinders true faith. Many and great 
were the obstacles which might have hindered Abra- 
ham from what he did ; but by faith he passed over 
all. See Sec. 85. 

VI. Isaac was a son of joy. His name intends as 
much. See Sec. 86. 

VII. Simple and absolute obedience is to be yielded 
to God. Such was Abraham's obedience. See Sec. S3. 

VIII. God reveals his secret counsel to his saints. 
This is gathered out of this phrase, of whom it was 
said. See Sec. 89. 

IX. God hath a determined number to bless. This 
is implied under Isaac's seed. See Sec. 90. 

X. God's blessing is extended to the seed of believers. 
This is here plainly expressed. See Sec. 91. 

XI. Our dearest are to be given to God. Who or 
what could be dearer to Abraham than Isaac ? yet 
Abraham was ready to offer up Isaac to God. See 
Sec. 93. 

XII. God^s offering his Son far sur passeth Abra- 
ham's offering his son. See this exemplified. Sec. 94. 

XIII. Passive obedience is to be yielded unto God. 
This is gathered from Isaac's submitting himself to 
be bound and laid upon the altar. See Sec. 95. 

XIV. A due ineditation on the grounds of faith 
much establisheth faith. That accounting which is 
here noted of Abraham gives proof hereunto. See 
Sec. 96. 

XV. God^s 2Mtver is an esjjecial prop to faith. 
Meditation hereon, namelj', thai God was able, estab- 
lished Abraham's faith. See Sec. 97. 

XVI. Faith prescribes nothing to God. Abraham 
believed that God was able to make good his promise, 
though he knew not how. See Sec. 98. 

XVII. Faith in the resurrection of the dead emboldens 
to anything. This was it that emboldened Abraham 
to offer up his son, See Sec. 99. 

XVIII. God returneth what is given to him. Abra- 
ham offered up his son to God, and from God he 
received him again. See Sec. 100, 

XIX. God can raise the dead. Abraham believed 
thus much, and answerably from hence he received 
his son. See Sec. 99. 

XX. What is truly intended is as performed in 
God's account. The word translated in a figure, 
intends as much, See Sec, 101. 

Sec. 104. Of tJie commendation of Isaac. 

Ver. 20. By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau 
concerning things to come. 

the sixth instance for proof of the vigour of faith, 
is of Isaac's faith ; it is the third instance given after 
the flood, and that of the second great patriarch j 



[Chap. XI. 

whose name, by reason of God's covenant made in 
special to him with his father and his son, was 
brought into God's style ; thus, ' I am the God of 
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob,' 
Exod. iii. 6. 

The proof of his faith is an especial act, in blessing 
his son. 

His faith here mentioned is such a faitli as was 
described, ver. 1, and exemplified in all the worthies 
before mentioned. It was a true, justifying faith, 
which extends itself to celestial, spiritual, and tem- 
poral blessings. 

Of Isaac's name, see Sec. 8G. 

Much hath been spoken of Isaac, as he was a son, 
in relation to his father Abraham. Here he is to be 
considered as a father, in relation to his two sons. 

1. Of the three patriarchs, Isaac was the longest 
liver; for Abraham lived 175 years, Gen. xxv. 7, 
Jacob 147, Gen. xlvii. 28, but Isaac 180, Gen. xxxv. 28. 

2. He was, of the three patriarchs, the most con- 
tinent. He never had but one wife. With her he 
long lived most comfortably. Isaac's sporting with 
Kebekah his wife, Gen. xxvi. 8, giveth instance of 
that matrimonial delight they took one in another. 
The ancient Liturgy hath fitly culled out this couple 
as a pattern for man and wife, in this phrase, ' As 
Isaac and Rebekah lived faithfully together.' 

3. It is probable that he attained to more wealth 
than his father or son ; for he ' received a hundred- 
fold of that which he sowed, and he waxed great, 
and he had such possessions as the Philistines envied 
him,' Gen. xxvi. 12-14. 

i. He lived more quietly, and had more rest than 
the other two patriarchs. He was not forced from 
place to place, as the others were. We read only of 
his being forced by famine to go to Gerar, Gen. 
xxvi. 1. 

5. Fewer failings are noted of Isaac than of either 
of the other two. We read only of the weakness of his 
faith in di.sserabling his wife. Gen. xxvi. 7, and of 
his overmuch indulgency to his profane son Esau, 
Gen. xxvii. 3. 

Indeed his name, after his death, was least six)ken 
of. I take the reason to be this, that he neither was 
the first root, as Abraham was, nor had immediately 
issuing from him the heads of the twelve tribes, as 
Jacob had. 

Sec. 105. Of Jsa/ic's faith in blessitiff his children. 

The act whereby Isaac manifested his faith is ex- 
pres.sed in this verb, tuy.oyriae, blessed. 

Of the composition and vari(jus acceptation of this 
verb blessed, see Chap. vii. 1, Sec. 12. 

It is here taken for a prophetical prediction, and pa- 
ternal confirmation of the future estate of his children. 

This act of Isaac was partly extraordinary, as he 
was a prophet like to his father, Gen. xx., endued 
with an extraordinary spirit, whereby he could cer- 

tainly foretell what should befall his children in future 
ages ; it was also partly ordinary, which he did as a 
father, and that by desiring and praying for the good 
of his children. 

The extraordinary giveth proof that true faith pnt8 
on believers to make known the mind of God, how- 
soever it may seem pleasing or distasteful to men. 

Isaac, in his fatherly affection, had a great mind 
to confer the main blessing upon his eldest son. Gen. 
xxvii. But God, by a special instinct, revealed unto 
him that Jacob should have that blessing ; accord- 
ingly, he blessed the younger. His faith moved him 
to deny himself in yielding to the Lord. 

This act of I.saac, as he was a father, and blessed 
his children, giveth instance that it is the duty of 
parents to bless their children. See more hereof in 
Domestical Duties, Treat. 6, Of Parents, Sec. 59. 

By just and necessary consequence, it will hence 
follow that children ought to seek their parents' bless- 
ing. Hereof also see Domestical Duties, Treat. 5, Of 
Children, Sec. 9. 

Sec. 106. Of Jacoh'and Esau's names, relation, and 
different blessing. 

The parties blessed are set down by name, Jacob 
and Esau. 

The name ^pi?*, Jacob, is derived from a noun, 
Hpy, that signitieth a heel. He was so called, be- 
cause, in coming out of the womb he held his brother 
by the heel, Gen. xxv. 26. 

The verb 2py, whence that noun is derived, signi- 
fieth to sup2ilaiit, or to tri[) down, which is oft done 
with the heel. Hereupon this notation of Jacob's 
name is confirmed by these words of his brother, ' Is 
he not rightly called Jacob ? for he hath supplanted 
me these two times,' itc. Gen. xxvii. 36. So as this 
name Jacob sigiiifieth a supplanter. 

Two notations are given of Esau's name, 'W^. One 
is taken from a Hebrew word, li'tf, that signifieth 
hair or hairi/. In this notation there is a transmu- 
tation of the two first letters, and a taking away of 
the last letter. It is said that ' Esau was an hairy 
man,' Gen. xxvii. 11, and tliereupon this notation of 
his name is given. The other notation is taken from 
a Hebrew verb, nti'i', which signifieth to make ; and 
they say that he was called Esau because he came 
out of the womb as a full made man, or as a grown 
man, full of hairs on his body. He was also called 
DIIN, Edom, which signifieth 7-ed, Gen. xxv. 25. 
And this both in allusion to the colour with which 
he came out of his mother's womb, and also in refer- 
ence to his disposition, which was bloody and cruel. 
Yea, also, the name Edom was given by way of de- 
rision, in reference to the colour of the broth for which 
he sold his birthright, Gen. xxv. 30. 

Thus we see how both their names were fitted to 
occasions. See more hereof in Domett. Duties, Treat. 6, 
Of Parents, Sec. 20. 

Vee. 20.] 



These two children were brothers, coming out of 
the same womb, iiterini. They were of the same 
father and mother — twins, and that of one birth — only 
one came out before the other, namely, Esau, and in 
that respect was counted and called the elder. Gen. 
xxvii. 1. Thereupon the birthright belonged to him, 
till he sold it for a song, as we say, even for a mess 
of broth ; or, as the apostle expresseth it, ' for one 
morsel of meat,' in which respect he is styled 'pro- 
fane,' Heb. xii. 16. 

Though Esau were the elder, yet is Jacob set be- 
fore him ; for he was a gracious son, and in God's 
account more honourable than his elder brother ; for 
grace adds more honour than all outward privileges 
and dignities can do. Hereof see more, Ver. 4, Sec. 1 1 . 

Both these sons, though they were of different dis- 
positions, are here said to be blessed by their father, 
but with different blessings. The father neither did 
nor would bless the profane son with that blessing 
wherewith he blessed his pious son ; whereupon he 
saith, ' I have blessed him,' (meaning the younger,) 
' yea, and he shall be blessed,' Gen. xxvii. 33. But 
Esau was blessed with temporal blessings, Jacob with 
temporal and spiritual also. 

Thus there are blessings for all, of all sorts. Here- 
upon it is said that God ' satisfieth the desire of every 
living thing.'Ps. cxlv. 16. And our heavenly Father 
is said to ' cause his sun to rise on the evil and on 
the good,' Mat. v. 45. In this respect the living 
God is said to be ' the Saviour of all men,' 1 Tim. 
iv. 10. 

This the Lord doth to manifest his bounty, and 
to try if wicked ones may be wrought upon by mercy ; 
and by consequence, to aggravate their just condem- 

1. Christ teacheth us herein to set our heavenly- 
Father before us, and to ' bless them that curse us,' 
Mat. V. 44. 

2. This teacheth us to put difference between bless- 
ings, and not to rest upon God's fatherly love, in 
that he doth bestow temporal blessings upon us. 
These may be given in wrath, and taken away in 
wrath, as a king was given to Israel, and taken away 
from them, Hosea xiii. 11. They are spiritual bless- 
ings that are the sure evidences of God's fatherly 

Sec. 107. Of Isaac s faith about things to come. 

The subject-matter, whereabout Isaac blessed his 
two sons, is expressed in these general terms, moi 
/MtWoiiTuv, concerninri things to come. These things 
to come had respect to the posterity of both these. 
The posterity of both of them were blessed with tem- 
poral blessings, in these phrases, ' The dew of heaven, 
and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and 
wine,' Gen. xxvii. 28, 39. There was this difference, 
that Jacob's posterity should be lords over Esau's, 
which continued from David's time, 2 Sam. viii. 1 4, 

■till the reign of Jeroboam, 2 Kings viii. 20, when the 
posterity of Esau ' brake the yoke from off their neck,' 
as Isaac had foretold. Gen. xxvii. 40. 

That faith which Isaac had in the inspirations 
and revelations of the Lord concerning future things, 
settled his heart in assurance of the accomplishment 
of them, and thereupon he blessed his sons there- 
about. The like did Noah, Gen. ix. 26, 27, and 
Jacob, Gen. xlix. 1, &c. 

Such is God's truth, as his promises are as per- 
formances, and predictions as accomplishments. 

It would be useful hereupon well to acquaint our- 
selves with the promises of God, even such promise3 
as concern things yet to come, and to rest upon them 
so far as they may concern ourselves, and likewise to 
assure our posterity of the accomplishment of them 
after our days, and to persuade them with patience to 
wait for them, and with confidence to rest upon 
them. Herein may we bless our posterity, as Isaac 
did his. 

Sec. 108. Of llie resolution of, and of the observa- 
tions frotn, Heb. xi. 20. 

Ver. 20. £i/ faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau 
concerning tilings to come. 

In this verse is set down another commendation of 
faith. Hereof are two parts, 

1. The persons who are here concerned. 

2. The evidence of faith. 
The persons are of two sorts, 

1. A father, who is set out by his name Isaac. 

2. His two sons, concerning whom we may observe, 
(1.) Their names, Jacob and Esaii. 

(2.) Their order, the younger before the elder. 
The evidence of Isaac's faith is manifested, 

1. By his act, he blessed. 

2. By the subject-matter thereof, concerning things 
to come. 


I. Faith extends itself to spirittial and temporal 
blessings. In both these did Isaac here give evidence 
of his faith. See Sec. 106. 

II. God is careful to establish the faith of his saintt. 
For this end was Jacob blessed by his father. See 
Sec. 105. 

III. Parents may and must bless their children. 
This act of blessing, attributed to Isaac in reference 
to his sons, giveth proof hereof. See Sec. 105. 

IV. Names of old were fitted to special occasions. 
So were the names of Jacob and Esau. See Sec. 

V. Grace maketh more honourable than outward 
2irivileges. In this respect is Jacob set before his 
elder brother. See Sec. 106. 

VI. Tliere are blessings for all of all sorts. Jacob 
and Esau were of different dispositions, yet both of 
them were blessed. See Sec. 106. 

VII. Faith persuades the heart of things to come. 



[Ch.u'. XI. 

On this ground did Isaac bless his sons concerning 
things to come. See Sec. 107. 

Sec. 109. Of Jacob and his preror/alives. 

Ver. 21. By faith Jacob, when he tvas a dying, 
blessed both the sons of Joseph; and worshipped, lean- 
ing upon the top cf Ins staff. 

The seventh instance of the vigour of faith is 
manifested in the faith of Jacob. 

The faith here mentioned is such a faith as was the 
faith of other worthies before mentioned. 

Of Jacob's name, see Sec. lOG. 

Jacob had another name, which was Israel. This 
of the two was the more honourable, and all his pos- 
terity was called thereby, and thereby distinguished 
from all other nations. Hereof see more in The 
Church's Conquest, on Exod. xvii. 8, Sec. 5. 

Though Jacob were the last of the three patriarchs, 
and was brought to more trials than his fathers, and 
his life were the shortest of them all, yet had he these 
prerogatives above the rest : 

1. He had more children. Isaac had but two 
only ; Abraham had but one by his first and dearest 
wife, he had another by his maid Hagar, Gen. xvi. 15, 
and six more by Keturah his concubine. Gen. xxv. 2 ; 
but Jacob had twelve sons, besides his daughter, 

2. All Jacob's children were God's confederates, in 
covenant with him : all of them were holy ones 
(though they had their failings, as Abraham himself 
and Isaac had.) Nor all Abraham's sons, nor both 
the sons of Isaac were so. 

3. Jacob's twelve sons were twelve heads of so 
many tribes, into which the church was distinguished. 

4. Jacob had the honour to prevail over man and 
God. In reference to the former he was called Jacob, 
and in reference to the latter he was called Israel, 
Gen. xxxii. 28. 

5. By the name Israel the church of God was 
styled, Ps. IxxiiL 1 ; yea, the true church among the 
Gentiles also, Gal. vi. 16. 

Sec. 110. Of Jacob' s trials. 

Though Abraham were brought to one greater trial 
than Jacob, which was the ofi'ering up of his son 
(whereof .see Sec. 03), yet the trials of Jacob in num- 
ber exceeded those whcreunto both the other patri- 
archs, his father and grandfather, were brought. 
They were these that follow, and such like : 

1. Jacob had war in his mother's womb, Gen. 
xxv. 22. 

2. His good father set his heart more upon pro- 
fane Esau than upon himself; which could not be but 
a great grief to him, Gen. xxv. 28. 

3. He was forced to get the blessing by deceit. 
Gen. xxvii. C, ikc. 

4. He was thereupon in fear of his life, by reason 
of Esau's envy, Gen. xxvii. 41. 

5. He was sent, with his staff alone, without other 
company, a long journey, Gen. xxrai. 5, and xxxii. 10. 

6. He was fain to serve an apprenticeship for a 
wife, Gen. xxix. 18. 

7. He was deceived in his wife, though he had 
served for her. Gen. xxix. '25. 

8. His wages w.is changed ten times, notwith- 
standing his hard service, Gen. xxxi. 40, 41. 

9. By his wives' importunity he was forced to go 
in to their maids, Gen. xxx. 3, 9. 

10. He was forced to fly by stealth from his 
uncle. Gen. xxxi. 20. 

1 1. He was in great danger by his uncle's jmrsuing 
him. Gen. xxxi. 23. 

12. He was also in danger by his brother Esau's 
pursuing him. Gen. xxxii. 6. 

13. His daughter was ravished, Gen. xxxiv. 2. 

14. His sons so cruelly slaughtered and plundered 
a city as the nations round about might have been in- 
censed to have destroyed them all. Gen. xxxiv. 25, «fec. 

15. His eldest son defiled his concubine. Gen. 
XXXV. 22. 

16. He lost his beloved Rachel in his journey, and 
in her travail, Gen. xxxv. 19. 

17. The rest of his sons so envied Joseph, whom 
he most loved, as they sold him to strangers, and 
made Jacob believe that he was torn with beasts, 
wherewith Jacob was as much perplexed as if indeed 
it had been so, Gen. xxxiv. 

18. Simeon, another of his sons, was given by him 
for lost, Gen. xlii. 36. 

19. He was forced, to the great grief of his heart, 
to let go his youngest son, the son of his old age, 
even Benjamin, Gen. xliii. 11. 

20. Through famine he was forced, with aU his 
family, to go into Egypt, Gen. xlvi. 5. 

On these and other like grounds he might well 
say, ' Few and evil have the days of the years of my 
life been,' Gen. xlvii. 9. 

Behold here into what trials a true saint may be 
brought, and ^rithal consider how his faith and pa- 
tience remained light and sound. 

Behold also how God recompensed his trials in the 
privileges which he gave him above the other patri- 
archs : whereof see Sec. 109. 

Sec. 111. Of Jacob's blessing Ephraim and Manasseh . 

Jacob's faith is here commended, by such an act as 
Isaac's faith was, in this word, iu\6yr,(S!, blessed. Here- 
of see Sec. 105. 

The parties whom he blessed were not his imme- 
diate sons, but his son's sons, the sons of Joseph — for 
Josejjh was his youngest son save one ; so as Jacob 
was a grandfather to these whom he is here said to 
bless. Hereby we are given to understand that 
grandfathers ought to bear such respect to their chil- 
dren's children as to their own. The like is noted of 
a grandmother 3 for ' Naomi took the child of her 

Vek. 21.] 



daughter-in-law, and laid it in her bosom,' &c., Euth 
iv. 16. 

Grandfathers are as fathers. In the right line 
there are no degrees. If Adam were now living he 
should, so far as he was able, take care of the whole 
world, as he did of Cain and Abel. 

1. This instructeth us in the extent of a grand- 
father's duty. 

3. This directeth children to manifest a childlike 
afiection to their grandfathers and grandmothers, and 
that by reverence, obedience, all manner of subjection, 
and recompense also. 

In setting down the persons blessed, the apostle 
useth an indefinite particle, 'ixaSTOv, which signifieth 
everi/ one, which may intend many sons ; but because 
the history maketh mention only of two, Ephraim 
and ilanasseh (Gen. xlviii. 20), our translators, for 
perspicuity's sake, have translated it both. It is pro- 
bable that at that time he had but these two sons. 
Other sons that he should have after these had a 
kind of general blessing, Gen. xlviii. G. 

These two here intended were Ephraim and Ma- 
nasseh. Ephraim was the younger, but purposely 
named before his elder brother Manasseh, because 
God intended more honour to him. See Ver. 4, 
Sec. 11. 

Ephraim, D^"13K, according to the derivation of 
the word rT^E), fructum edidit, signifieth fruitful. 
This reason Joseph himself rendereth of that name, 
that ' God had caused him to be fruitful in the land 
of his affliction,' Gen. xli. 52. That name might also 
be given by a prophetical spirit, for he proved the 
most fruitful of all Jacob's sons ; the tribe of Ephraim 
was the greatest tribe. Ephraim is of the dual num- 
ber, because Joseph then had two sons. 

3Ia>iasseh, r\\D}i2, signifieth 7\''V'h, oblitus est, forget- 
ful. That name was given by the father in memorial 
of that advancement whereunto God had brought 
him, and thereby ' made him forget all his toil,' &c., 
Gen. xli. 51. 

These two were by this blessing made heads of 
two distinct tribes, whereby it came to pass that 
Joseph had two portions, which was the privilege of 
the eldest son, 2 Chron. v. 1 ; for Joseph was the 
eldest son by [her] whom Jacob first and most loved, 
and who was his truest wife. 

Though Manasseh and Ephraim were the two par- 
ticular persons blessed, yet they are not expressed by 
their own names, but by that relation which they 
had to their father, and thus styled rut iiiojv 'laafi^, the 
sons of Joseph. Joseph is here named — 

1. For honour's sake ; for it was an honour to 
Joseph to have two sons blessed as two distinct heads 
of several tribes ; which honour none of the brethren 
of Joseph had. 

2. To shew a ground of that blessing, which was 
because they were the sons of Joseph, hereby God 
would maniest that his goodness extends itself to 

the children of believers. Joseph was a believer pos- 
sessed ■with a true fear of God, who by no trials 
could be drawn from his God ; therefore, though he 
might seem to be cast out of the church, yet is he 
preserved as a head and stock thereof among others ; 
and his children, though born of a woman that was a 
stranger and in a strange land, are here naturalised 
by Jacob, and made free denizens of the church — yea, 
stocks out of which the church should sprout. Thus 
said God to Abraham, ' I am thy God, and the God 
of thy seed,' Gen. xvii. 7 ; and an apostle saith to be- 
lieving Christians, ' The promise is unto you, and to 
your children,' Acts ii. 39. 

Sec. 112. Of taking care of iwsierity at the time of 
our death. 

The time of Jacob's blessuig the sons of Joseph is 
here said to be ivhen he tvas, a-^oiiriaKuv, a-di/ing. Of 
the composition and meaning of the word translated 
dying, see Chap. vii. 8, Sec. 51. 

The participle here used implieth not only the 
moment of giving up the ghost, but also the near 
approach of death, manifested by old age, sickness, or 
any other like occasion. 

The circumstance of the time here noted, sheweth 
that the time of a man's departing out of this world 
is a seasonable time to think of posterity, and to do 
what Ueth in his power for their good. In the his- 
tory it is said, that ' the time drew nigh that Israel 
must die ; ' and again, ' It was told Joseph that his 
father was sick' (Gen. xlvLi. 29, xlviii. 1), when Jacob 
took order about matters after his death. So Isaac, 
when he intended to bless his sons, thus saith, 
' Behold now, I am old, I know not the day of my 
death,' Gen. xxvii. 2. When God had told Moses 
that he should be gathered to his people, then Moses 
thought of a successor, Num. xxvii. 13, 16. Yea, 
Moses himself rendered this reason concerning his 
declaration of the future estate of Israel, that he was 
' a hundred and twenty years old, and could no 
more go out and come in among them,' Deut. xxxi. 
2. This reason Joshua rendered on the like occasion : 
' I am old and stricken in age,' Josh, xxiii. 2. At 
such a time God appointed such a duty to Hezekiah, 
2 Kings XX. 1. Yea, Christ himself, when he was 
upon the cross, takes care for his mother, John xix. 
27. So Peter at such a time manifesteth his care of 
the churches, 2 Peter i. 14 ; and other apostles. 

1 . The duty itself of taking care for posterity is an 
evidence of a holy zeal of God's glory, and of true 
love to his church, in that it contenteth us not to pro- 
mote the one and the other in ourselves or in our own 
time, but also endeavour to have it done by others 
after our time. 

2. The time of one's death is in this respect the 
fittest, because, if that time be let slip, there remains 
no time after it for us to do anything. ' There is no 
work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the 



[Chap. XL 

grave,' Eccles. ix. 10. ' When the night cometh, no 
man can work,' John ix. 4. 

3. The time of a man's departure is the most 
seasonable time, because the words of a dying man 
make the deeper impression. 

1. How many are there who, as if the world were 
only for themselves, take no care for their posterity ! 
They neither care to instruct, nor to direct, nor to 
pray in reference to future times, nor to make their 
will. About making a wLU, see Chap. ix. IG, Sec. 
94. See also Domestic. Duties, Treat.' 6, Of Parents, 
Sec. 62. 

2. A general instruction may be here raised for all 
who are mortal, and ought to learn to die daily — daily 
to testify a care of posterity by instruction, exhortation, 
encouragement in good things, admonitions against 
evil, and predictions of such things as we have good 
ground beforehand to make known. See Sec. 119. 

Sec. 113. Of Jacob's worshippinf/ upon his staff. 

Another effect of Jacob's faith is thus set down, 
and zvorshipped, leaning upon the top of his staff. 
The copulative x.a.1, and, sheweth that this act hath 
reference to Jacob's faith, as well as the former of 
blessing. By faith he blessed Joseph's sons, and by 
faith he worshipped God. His faith wrought in him 
a due respect to God, to yield unto him due service, 
as well as care of his posterity. 

God is the proper object of faith ; to honour whom 
faith doth much put men on. 

Hereby we may gain evidence of the truth of faith. 

This latter effect hath reference to these words, 
'Israel bowed himself upon the bed's-head,' Gen. 
xlvii. 31. 

Of the Hebrew word, inJ1iy^1> translated bowed 
himself, and of the Greek word, •n^oaix.mrtst, wor- 
shipped, see Chap. i. 6, Sees. 74, 75. 

By worshipping, the apostle here meaneth an action 
of piety done to God, in testimony of thankfulness for 
that oath whereby Joseph had bound himself to bury 
him with his fathers. His heart being cheered with 
the assurance which his son had given him thereof, 
he liftoth it up to God, and worshipped him ; and to 
testify his reverent respect to God in worshipping 
him, he boweth his body towards or upon the bed's- 
head ; not upon any superstitious conceit of the 
place, as if his bed's-head had stood east, or towards 
the mount where Jerusalem should be built, or many 
other like respects, but to shew how he reared up 
himself purposely to bow his body. 

Some take the bed's-head to be his bolster, or 
pillow, whereupon he raised up himself. 

Because a word coming from the same root, ntOJi 
incliiuwil, Prov. ii. 2, and consisting of the same 
letters, differing only in the points under them, sig- 
nifieth both a hed,'^ 2 Kings iv. 10, and a staff," Num. 

' nJOO, lectun, 2 Kings iv. 10. 
' nJOOi baculum, Num. xvii. 2. 

xvii. 2, some interpret the word, a bed; others, a 
stuff. The Hebrew text u.seth that word which 
signifieth a bed, Gen. xlvii. 31. The LXX translate 
it by a word which signifieth a staff. Because there 
was no difference in sense, but rather a fit exposition 
of tiie word, the apostle quoteth the words of the 
LXX. See Cliap. i. 5, Sec. 72. Both words, bed 
and staff, do fully set out the meaning of the Holy 
Ghost ; and to the life do manifest the old man's 
desire to testify the inward devotion of his soul by a 
reverent composing of his body to worship God ; for 
rising up on his bed's-head, he leans on his staff, and 
so bows his body in worshipping God. He was in 
his bed, and raised himself to sit upright against his 
bed'.s-head ; and that, in bowing his body, he might 
be supported, he leaned upon his staff, and so wor- 
shipped. The word leaning is not in the Greek text, 
but implied under the preposition, et/, translated 
upon, and fitly inserted by our translators to make 
the sense of the place more clear. The word, axjo;, 
translated top, signifieth the uppermost part of a 
thing, as the tip of a finger, or the uttermost part. 

This instance of Jacob, in worshipping God, gives 
evidence of the disposition of a true saint, which is 
a readiness on all occasions to worship God. Hereof 
see more in The Saint's Sacrijice, on Pa, cxvi. 17, 
Sec. 112. 

The apostle's expressed mention of Jacob's reverent 
gesture in worshipping God, manifested by his ' lean- 
ing on the top of his staff,' giveth us to understand 
that it well becometh a worshipper of God to mani- 
fest the inward devotion of his soul by a fit com- 
position of his body. 

Thus God is honoured in soul and body. 

Others are provoked to do the like. 

Our own spirits are the more affected therewith. 

See more of this point in The Church's Conquest, 
on Exod. xvii. 9, Sees. 22, 29. 

Of using a hcl[) for our weakness in worshipping 
God, as Jacob did by leaning on his staff, see The 
Church's Conquest, on Exod. xvii. 12, Sees. 48, 51. 

Sec. 114. Of the resohttion of, and observations 
from, Heb. xi. 21. 

Ver. 21. £// faith Jacob, wlien he tvas a dying, 
blessed both the so)is of Joseph ; and worshipped, lean- 
ing upon the top of his staff. 

The sum of this verse is, faith's proof. 

The proof is drawn from a double effect. 

The former hath respect to men, which was bless- 
ing them. 

The latter hath respect to God, which was a tvor- 
shipping of him. 

The former is illustrated by the parties, and by 
the time. 

The j)arties were he that blessed, Jacob; and they 
who were blessed, the sons if Joseph. 

The timo was, when he was a dying. 

Vee. 22.] 



The other effect, of worshipping, is amplified by his 
manner of doing it, thus, leaning iqyon the top of his 


I. A grandfather must be as careful of the children 
of his son as of his own. So was Jacob. See Sec. 

II. God's goodness extends itself to the children of 
his saints. This is here exemplified in the example 
of Joseph. See Sec. 111. 

III. It is an honour to he the parent of children 
iinder God's covenant. For honour's sake is Joseph here 
mentioned in reference to such sons. See Sec. 111. 

IV. Parents may ami must bless their childreti. 
Jacob is here accounted as a parent. See Sec. 111. 

V. Approach of death is a season to seek the good 
of posterity. This phrase, lohen he ivas dying, in- 
tends as much. See Sec. 112. 

VI. Saints are ready on all occasions to ivorship 
God. Instance Jacob. See Sec. 113. 

VII. Inward devotion must be accompanied with 
an answerable composition of body. Thus did Jacob 
manifest his. See Sec. 113. 

Sec. 115. Of Joseph and his name. 

Ver. 22. By faith Joseph, when he died, made men- 
tion of the departing of the children of Israel, and 
gave commandment concerning his bones. 

The eighth instance of the vigour of faith here 
produced is of Joseph. 

His faith is of the same kind that the faith of the 
others was. 

The name Joseph, ah t]D"i, addidit, is derived from 
a verb that siguitieth to add, and this reason is ren- 
dered thereof by his mother, ' the Lord shall add to 
me another sou,' Gen. xxx. 24. His mother had 
been long barren ; and her sister, who was another 
wife of Jacob, had many children, which aggravated 
her grief for her barrenness ; but at length ' the 
Lord remembered her, and hearkened to her, and 
opened her womb,' and gave her this son. Here- 
upon, either by a prophetical spirit, or upon strong 
confidence that God would yet give her another son, 
she gave this son this name Joseph. 

The name, therefore, was an evidence of Rachel's 
faith. It fell out according to her faith ; she had 
another son, though he cost her dearly, even her life. 

Joseph, whose faith is here commended, is worthy 
due consideration, and that in three especial re- 

1. In regard of the trials whereunto he was 

2. In regard of the graces wherewith he was 

3. In regard of the dignities wherewith he was 

There is not a history of any other wherein 
the rare passages of the divine providence are more 

clearly manifested th.in the history of Joseph, both 
in regard of that low estate whereunto he was brought, 
and also of that high dignity whereunto he was 

Sec. 116. Of Joseph's trials. 

1. Joseph, being young, was hated of his brethren, 
and so hated as they could not give him a good word ; 
and that not for any desert of his, but because his 
father loved him, even deservedly, Gen. xxxvii. 4. 

2. He, coming to inquire of the welfare of bis bre- 
thren, they, upon the first sight of him, conspire to 
slay him ; but, being kept from that unnatural fratri- 
cide by the eldest among them, they strip him, and 
cast him into a pit, where, when he had lain some 
while, they take him up, and sell him to strange 
merchants for a slave. Gen. xxxvii. 23, 24, 28, Ps. 
cv. 17. 

3. He was brought into Egypt by the foresaid 
merchants, and there sold to the captain of the guard, 
Gen. xxxix. 4. 

4. In his master's house he was impudently 
tempted by his mistress. 

5. He was falsely accused and maliciously slandered 
by her that tempted him. 

6. He was unjustly cast into prison. Gen. xxxix. 
7, &c. 

7. In prison they so manacled and fettered him as 
they hurt his feet with iron fetters, Ps. cv. 18. 

8. The kindness that he shewed to a fellow- 
prisoner, whom he desired to remember him, was for- 
gotten, Gen. xl. 23. 

9. He was kept all his life, after he was once sold, 
out of the visible church, which was his father's 
family, in a strange land, where he had his wife, and 
where he died, and where his bones remained for a 
long while. Gen. 1. 26. 

Who may think himself free from trials, whenas 
such a man as Joseph had such trials as he had ? 

Sec. 117. Of the graces that were in Joseph. 
The graces wherewith Joseph was endowed were 
many and excellent, such as these that follow : 

1 . Faith : this is here in special commended. 

2. Fear of God : this he himself doth profess of 
himself. Gen. xlii. IS. 

3. Faithfulness : this was manifested in all his re- 
lations, as — 

(1.) To God, by declaring that which God had 
made known to him in dreams. Gen. xxxvii. 5. 

(2.) To his father, by bringing to him the evil re- 
port of his brethren. 

(3.) To his master, who trusted him over all he 
had. Gen. xxxix. 6. 

(4.) To his mistress, in dissuading her from un- 
faithfulness. Gen. xxxix. 8. 

(o.) To the king, for what he did was to the 
king's emolument, Gen. .xlvii. 20. 



[Chap. XI. 

4. Chastity, wliich was brought to <a thorough 
proof, Gen. xxxLx. 10. 

5. Sincerity : he could not in secret be brought to 
sin, Gen. xxxix. 11. 

G. Patience under crosses, Ps. cv. 18, 19. 

7. Bearing with wrongs. Gen. 1. 21. 

8. Forgiving injuries, Gen. 1. 17, 19. 

9. Overcoming evil with goodnes.% Gen. xlii. 25, 
and 1. 21. 

10. Wisdom in ordering his affairs. This was 
manifested — 

(1.) In his master's house. Gen. xxxix. 4. 

(2.) In the pri.son, Gen. xxxix. 22. 

(3.) In the kingdom. Gen. xli. 39, and xlvii. 14. 

11. Providence against future wants, Gen. xli. 

12. Bowels of compassion, Gen. xlii. 24, and 
xliii. 30. 

13. Pieverence to his father, and that when he was 
advanced to outward dignity above his father, Gen. 
xlvi. 29, and xlviii. 12. 

14. Obedience to his father. Gen. xxxvii. 14, 15, 
and xlvii. 31. 

1.5. Kecomjionse to his father, and that — 

(1.) While his father lived. Gen. xlvii. 12. 

(2.) When he was dead. Gen. 1. 2. 

1 G. Care of posterity, and that — 

(1.) In reference to his own children. Gen. xlviii. 
1, &c. 

(2.) In reference to his brethren and their chil- 
dren, Gen. 1. 24. 

Joseph may be a pattern for servants, children, 
brethren, subjects, governors, prisoners, exiles, such 
as are unduly slandered and wronged, yea, and for all 

Sec. 118. 0/ Joseph's prernc/atives. 
The prerogatives wherewith Joseph was honoured 
and blessed, were these following : — 

1. His comely feature, Gen. xxxix. G. 

2. His father's love, Gen. xxxvii. 3. 

3. His birthright, 2 Chron. v. 1, 2. 

4. God's blessing on his afiairs. Gen. xxxix. 2, 23. 
r>. The favour of all that were over him, Gen. 

xxxix. 4, 21, and xli. 38. 

G. An extraordinary divine spirit. Gen. xxxvii 6, 
itc, xl. 8, and xli. 2.5. 

7. High honour, even next to the king. Gen. xli. 

8. Ability and opportunity of doing good, Gen. 
xli. 57. 

9. A reservation of his own and children's right to 
the church of God, though he lived most of his days 
in a strange land, where he was a prime governor, 
and where his children were born and brought up, 
Ps. xlviii. G. 

10. A reputation to be as his father Jacob, and 
other his forefathers, a stock and heald of the church, 

the members whereof are styled, ' the sons of Jacob 
and Joseph,' Ps. Ixxvii. 15. 

11. A numerous progeny. Gen. xlix. 22. Two 
tribes issued from him, and one of them, namely 
Ephraim, was more numerous than most of the 

12. The many years that he lived, which were a 
hundred and ten, Gen. 1. 22. 

13. An honourable laying him in a coffin, wherein 
he continued hundreds of years, Gen. 1. 2G. 

14. The carrying of his bones in the aforesaid 
coffin with the Israelites when they were delivered 
out of Egypt, Exod. xiLi. 19. 

15. His burial in that part of Canaan which by 
lot fell to Ephraim, and became the inheritance of 
the children of Joseph. 

In these prerogatives of Joseph, we have an in- 
stance of the providence and bounty of God towards 
such as fear him. 

Sec. 119. Of savoury speeches of dying men. 

The first point of the commendation of Joseph's 
faith is about the time of shewing it forth, thus ex- 
pressed, TEAEi/rtui', when he died, or dying. 

In the Greek another word is used than was in the 
former verse, aToDf/riaxuv, translated ' when he was a 
dying,' but of the same signification ; both of them 
are participles of the same tense. The root, rsXc?, 
finis, from whence this word cometh, significth an 
end ; for death puts an end to our life here in this 
world. The negative is used of that which never 
shall have end, as ' their worm dicth not,' Mat. is. 
44. It hero intendeth the very s.ime thing that was 
implied of Joseph's father, in this phrase, ' when ho 
was a dying.' 

The phrase in this text hath reference to that 
which Joseph himself said (Gen. 1. 24), SX2 03^*, ' I 
die,' or, ' I am dying.' This Joseph saith in regard 
of his age, being a hundred and ten years old, and 
in regard of the weakness of his body, and some sick- 
ness that befell him, and readiness of his mind to 
yield to the good pleasure of God. Having apparent 
signs of the near approach of his de|)arture, he used 
that phrase to move them the rather to attend to 
that which he should say unto them, for the words of 
a dying man use most to be heeded. The prefaces 
which dying men have used give good proof to the 
point. Read for this purjio-se Gen. xlix. 1, 2, Deut. 
xxxii. 1, Josh. xxiv. 1, 2, 1 Sam. .\ii. 3, 2 Sam. xxiii. 
1, 1 Kings, ii 1-3. 

Then the speeches of understanding and wise men 
use to be most pertinent, most hearty, most impar- 
tial, and most profitable. Then they consider what 
lessons are fittest to be remembered after death. 

1. As this is commended in others of former 
times, so it ought to be our care in our days to con- 
sider what may be fit to give in charge to our pos- 
terity, or to counsel and advise them concerning 

Ver. 22.] 



future times, even after our departure, especially in 
regard of those that are under our charge, and those 
to whom we have any special relation. 

2. This is a motive to such as are present at the 
time of the departure of such persons, to give more 
than ordinary heed to their directions, exhortations, 
admonitions, and other kind of speeches. 

Hereof see more in Domest. Duties, Treat. G, Of 
Parents, Sec. 58. 

Sec. 120. Of heUevers persuading olliers that tvldch 
tlumselves believe. 

The first evidence of Joseph's faith here specified 
is this, he made mention of the departure of the chil- 
dren of Israel. In the history this is thus expressed, 
' God will surely visit you, and bring you out of this 
land,' ifec, Gen. 1. 24. Hereof he was confident, by 
reason of the express promises which God had made 
to his forefathers, Gen. xv. 13, 14, xxvi. 3, and xlvi. 4. 

Hereby we have an instance that they who do 
themselves believe God's promises are careful to per- 
suade others of the truth of them. This was the 
end of that mention that he made of the point in 

The Greek word, lfi,triij:,6viuet, here used, is the same 
that was before used, ver. 15, and translated mindful ; 
and it is also used, chap. xiii. 7, and translated 

The malcinij mention here intended is a calling to 
mind such a thing as should afterward come to pass ; 
■which he would have them now to take notice of, 
and hereafter to remember. The like to this is noted 
of Moses, Deut. xxxi. 3, Josh, xxiii. 5, 6, 1 Chron. 
xxii. 11, 2 Chron. xx. 20, 2 Cor. v. 11. 

The like is noted of other prophets and apostles ; 
and it is the duty, and ought to be the practice of 
all ministers ; yea, and of other saints. 

Faith, apprehending the truth of God in his pro- 
mises, worketh in the heart a zeal of God's glory, 
and love to others. These graces are operative, and 
put on men to communicate to others what they 
know and believe themselves, as Andrew and Philip, 
John L 41, 45. 

Sec. 121. Of God's delivering his out of trouble. 

That whereof Joseph here made mention was flie 
departing of the children of Israel. 

By the children of Israel are meant that numerous 
and holy seed which was promised to Abraham, 
Gen. XV. 5, and to Isaac, Gen. xxvi. 4, and to Jacob, 
Gen. xxviii. 24. 

Jacob was also styled Israel, Gen. xxxii. 28 ; and 
because he was the immediate progenitor of those 
twelve sons which were the heads of the twelve 
tribes, his name is mentioned — and of his two names 
that which was the more honourable, namely Israel. 

The departing here intended was their freedom 
from a miserable bondage, under which those chil- 

dren of Israel were pressed — yea, even oppressed, 
Exod. i. 13. 

So as their departing out of Egypt was a great 
deliverance from a miserable bondage, and it giveth 
instance that God will deliver his out of their 

TMs is oft exemplified in time of the Judges — yea, 
and of the Kings also, and especially in the return of 
the Jews from the Babylonish captivity. See more 
hereof in Tlu Guide to go to God, or Explanation of the 
Lord's Prayer, on the Eighth Petition, Sec. 1 88, and 
in The Church's Conquest, on Exod. xviL 15, Sec. 77. 

Sec. 122. Of reserving Joseph's bones. 

Another evidence of Joseph's faith is a charge 
that he gave concerning his bones. 

The word, SHriiXa.ro, which we translate gave com- 
mandment, is' the same that is used. Chap. ix. 20, 
Sec. 106, and translated enjoined. It implieth a 
strict charge, which by no means he would have 
omitted or neglected. This hath reference to that 
oath which Joseph imposed upon the children of 
Israel, Gen. 1. 25. It must needs, therefore, be a 
strict charge, whereunto they were bound by oath. 
A like charge, with a like bond, did Jacob lay upon 
his son Joseph, Gen. xlvii. 31. So as herein this 
pious son imitated his pious father, as the said father 
imitated his father Isaac, in blessing his son. 

The manner of commanding by an oath doth give 
warrant for requiring an oath, and for taking an 
oath. Hereof see more. Chap, vi IG, Sees. 116, 119. 

The matter which so strictly Joseph commanded 
concerned his bones — namely, that they should carry 
his bones out of Egypt. 

Joseph believed that God would bring the children 
of Israel out of Egypt into the land of Canaan, pro- 
mised to their fathers. To give them assurance of 
his faith therein, and also to strengthen their faith, 
he giveth this charge. He foresaw that they should 
abide in Egypt a long while- — yea, and that they 
should there be much oppressed ; but )'et he believed 
that they should be delivered, and that in Canaan 
should be the continual residency of the church. 
There, therefore, he would have his bones perpetually 
to lie, as his predecessors desired to be buried in a 
cave that was in that country. Gen. xlix. 31. 

He maketh mention, moi iariiiii, of bones, rather 
than of body ; because they were long to continue in 
Egypt. For after Joseph's death they there abode 
a hundred and forty years, and after that they were 
forty years in the wilderness, and they were also 
sundry years in conquering Canaan ; so as from the 
death of Joseph to the burial of his bones (Josh, 
xxiv. 32), might be about two hundred years. In 
this time his flesh, though it were embalmed, could 
not but be clean wasted away ; yet his bones might 
remain, being kept dry. 

In general we here see that care of one's dead 



[Chap. XI. 

coq)se is a fruit of faith. This made Abraham so 
careful of a place for the burial of his wives' and 
his own corpse, and Isaac and Jacob careful to have 
their own and their wives' corpses buried where 
Abraham and Sarah's bodies were, Gen. xlvii. 30. 

Hereby hope of the resurrection of the body is 

This warranteth a decent funeral. This is pro- 
mised as a blessing, 1 Kings xiv. 13. But the con- 
trary is threatened as a curse (Jer. xxii. 19). 

1. By this means is manifested a difl'erence be- 
twixt the bodies of men and beasts. 

2. This ministeretii comfort against death, both in 
regard of our own departure, and also in regard of 
our friends that depart before us. 

3. This is the rather to be done among God's 
people, because their bodies, while they were living, 
were temples of the Holy Ghost, 1 Cor. vi. 19. 

4. The dead bodies of believers still remain mem- 
bers of Christ. 

This, therefore, as a duty lieth upon surviving 
friends, who hereby may give testimony of a good 
respect to their deceased friends. 

Nearest and dearest friends have taken special 
care hereof, as children who have survived their 
p.arents, 1 Gen. xxv. 9 ; and parents that have sur- 
vived their children, Luke vii. 12; and husbands, 
Gen. xxiii. 4 ; and friends, John xi. 17, and xix. 
39, 40, Acts viii. 2. 

See more hereof in Domest. Duties, Treat. 5, Of 
Children, Sec. 45. 

Papists here raise a use about reserving the 
relics of saints, and ground it upon this instance 
about reserving Joseph's bones. But to shew the 
non-consequence thereof, let them know that, 

1. There is not the like occasion of keeping the 
bones of Christians, as was of keeping Joseph's bones. 

2. Joseph's bones were to be kept as if they had 
been buried. 

3. Joseph's bones were not carried uj) and down 
for ostentation. 

4. There was no adoration done to Joseph's bones. 

5. False bones were not substituted instead of 
Joseph's true bones, as are in many Popish relics. 

Sec. 123. Of tlie resolution of, and observations 
from, Heb. xi. 22. 

Ver. 22. By faith Joseph, wlien he died, made men- 
tion of the departing of the children of Israel, and gave 
commandment conceriiinij his I/ones. 

Tlie general sum of this verse is, as of the former, 
faith's proof. Hereabout is set down, 

1. The person whose faitii was proved, Joseph. 

2. The arguments whereby it is proved. These 
are two, 

(1.) His mention of things future. 

(2.) His charge. 

The former is amplified. 

1.1 By the time, which was wJien he died. 
2.J By the matter whereof he made mention, the 
departing of the children of Israel. 
In his charge we may observe, 
[1.] The manner of it, which was by imposing an 
oath. Gen. 1. 25. 

[2.] The matter thereof, his bones. 

I. Faith manifesteth her vigour when a believer is 
dying. So did Joseph's faith. See Sec. 119. 

II. Dying men must s/iew their care of tlieir pos- 
terity. Herein is Joseph set before us as a pattern. 
Sec. 119. 

III. Faith resieth upon deliverances to cmne. 
Joseph's mention of the Israelites' departure out of 
Egypt gives proof hereof. See Sec. 121. 

IV. Believers will be careful to persuade others of 
that tvhich tluy themselves believe. This doth Joseph 
endeavour, by mentioning the departure of the 
Israelites. See Sec. 120. 

V. God will deliver his. The departing of Israel 
out of Egypt is an instance hereof. See Sec. 121. 

YI. Care about mens dead corpses is a fruit of 
faith. See Sec. 122. 

Sec. 124. Of tlie honour that redounds to parents by 
worthy children, and of tlieir care over them. 

Ver. 23. By faith Moses, when he was boiti, was 
hid three months of his parents, because tiny saw lie 
was a proper child; and they were not afraid of the 
king's commandment. 

Not the faith of Hoses, but of his parents, is here 

This is the ninth instance which the apostle hath 

The word, variotc, translated jonreji^*, properly sig- 
nifieth fathers, but according to the mind and mean- 
ing of the apostle, fitly translated parents; under 
whom father and mother are comprised. 

The mother may not here be excluded, for the his- 
tory maketh express mention of her, and of her alone, 
for tlie mother was the actor of all ; but questionless 
all that the mother did was with the father's consent, 
if not upon his advice, and it is no more than prob- 
able that he had his part also in acting many things 
about the preservation of JMoscs. Of the notation of 
this name Moses, see Chap. iii. 2, Sec. 37 ; and T/it 
Church's Conquest, on Exod. xvii. 9, Sec. 9. 

These parents are expressly named in the historj'. 
The father was DIDyi Amiam, which signifieth a 
numerous people ; it containeth in it a great part of 
Abraham's name. 

The mother's name was ^23V, Jochebed, which 
signifieth glorious, for she was glorious in bringing 
forth and preserving such sons as Aaron and Moses. 

They were both of the tribe of Levi, and of the 
same family. The said Amram and Jochebed were 
near of kin. For Jochebed was Amram's father's 

Vee. 23.] 



sister; so as Amram married his aunt, and of her 
had Aaron and Moses. But this was before the law 
of prohibiting degrees of marriage, and before the 
commonwealth of Israel was sufficiently peopled. 

The parties whose faith is here commended are de- 
scribed by their relation to their son, Moses ; thus, 
his parents, rather than by their own names, for 
honour's sake. For Moses was a man of great note 
and name, and his memorial was very honourable in 
the church of God. Hereby then it appears that 
parents are much honoured by having worthy chil- 
dren. Solomon therefore styleth himself ' the son 
of David,' Eccles. i. 1. And David pleadeth this as a 
matter of honour and dignity, ' I am the son of thine 
handmaid,' Ps. cxvi. 1 6. Hereupon it is said that ' a 
wise son maketh a glad father,' Prov. x. 1. 

1. If a son prove praiseworthy, by virtue of his 
education, praise useth to be ascribed to his parents 
that have so educated him, even as the praise of 
Solomon's servants was ascribed to the wisdom of 
Solomon, 1 Kings x. 5. 

2. If the gifts, parts, or dignities of a son be ex- 
traordinary, and immediate from God, they use to be 
evidences of God's good respect unto the parents. 

1. This may be a motive unto parents to do the 
best that they can for their children, that they may 
be of eminent use to the church and state where 
they Uve ; and that among other ends for this, the 
honour and glory of parents themselves. 

2. This should put on children to do the best that 
they can to be faiiious in Israel, even for the honour 
of their parents. 

This title, his parents, in reference to that care 
that Moses's parents had of him, being their child, 
giveth us further to understand that parents espe- 
cially ought to have a care of their children. 

For this we have sundry precepts, as Eph. vi. 4, 
and 2 Cor. xii. 14; and patterns, as Prov. iv. 3, 4. 

Parents are, under God, the means of their chil- 
dren's being. On this ground natural instinct teacheth 
all creatures to be careful of their young ones. 

Parents therefore ought to observe, 

1. What dangers their children are subject unto, 
to prevent them. 

2. What good they may do unto them, and to 
endeavour that with all their power. 

The plural number, wherein this word parents is ex- 
pressed, doth plainly evidence that both father and 
mother must have a joint care of their children. In 
this respect, saith a father, in reference to himself and 
his wife, ' How shall we order the child 1 and how 
shall we do unto him V Judges xiii. 12. And a son 
saith of both parents, ' I was my father's son, tender 
and only beloved in the sight of my mother,' Prov. 
iv. 3. ' Behold, thy father and I have sought thee 
sorrowing,' saith a mother to her son, Luke ii. 43. 

1. Both parents have a joint part in the being and 
bringing forth of their child. 

Vol. III. 

2. The law requireth the like honour to both, 
Exod. XX. 12. 

3. For this end are parents so nearly Linked to- 
gether as to make one flesh. Gen. ii. IS. 

It will be therefore a good point of wisdom for 
both parents to observe what duties belong unto each 
of them in reference to their children, and wherein 
they may be best helpful one to another for the good 
of their children. 

Sec. 125. Of hiding such as are in danger. 

The act whereby the faith of Moses's parents is 
commended is implied in this phrase, ix^-JiSij, %vas hid. 

The word hid is attributed to concealing of matters 
from the eyes of men, so as they should not see them 
or find them out. 

The hid treasure and pearl in the Gospel is set 
forth by this word, ]\Iat. xiii. 44 ; and the slothful 
servant's talent that was put into the earth. Mat. 
XXV. 25. Thus Jesus is said to ' hide himself from 
the Jews, John viii. 59, and xii. 36 ; and they who 
are afraid of the Judge are said to ' hide themselves," 
Rev. vi. 15, 16. 

The reason why Moses's parents hid him was a 
cruel edict of the king of Egypt, ' That every son 
that was born of an Israelite should be cast into the 
river,' Exod. i. 22. To prevent this destruction of 
Moses, his parents hid him ; so as persons in danger 
may be concealed from uiischievous attempts. Thus 
Rebekah used means to conceal Jacolj from the fury 
of liis brother. Gen. xxvii. 43 ; thus Piahab hid the 
spies, Josh. ii. 4 ; and a woman hid Jonathan and 
Ahimaaz, 2 Sam. xvii. 19. To omit other instances, 
it is said of God himself that he hid Jeremiah and 
Baruch, Jer. xxxvL 26. 

Obj. These were extraordinary cases, and they that 
did it were guided by an extraordinary spirit. 

Ans. 1. They were special cases, not extraordinary. 
All examples are a kind of special instances, yet in a 
like case are for our warrant. 

2. Though in some particulars they might be ex- 
traordinary, and might be done by an extraordinary 
spirit, yet the general equity of them is ordinary 
and imitable. Hereupon Rahab's example is set 
before us as a pattern, ver. 31, James ii. 25. 

The spies that searched Jericho were employed in 
a good cause, warranted by God, whereof Rahab 
was assured, partly by the common fame that God 
had devoted all Canaan to destruction, and partly by 
an inward inspiration of the Spirit. In this respect 
her act is imitable. It was extraordinary to hide 
spies that came to search her country. This she did 
by an extraordinary spirit. But to hide such as 
were in God's work, and in a warranted course, was 
ordinary and imitable. 

1. To hide one's self from foreseen evil is a point 
of prudence, Prov. xxii. 3, and ought to be extended 
to others. 



[Chap. XI. 

2. It is a fruit of charity to prevent the danger of 

3. Many benefits may thence arise, as, 
(1.) Protecting the innocent. 

(2.) Preventing wrongs. 

(3.) Disappointing Satan's instruments. 

(4.) Preserving such as may be useful to men and 
honourable to God. 

But hurt comes to none hereby. 

Quest. 1. What if such as are hid be inquired after 
by authority t may they then be concealed ? 

Ans. If it may be done without impeachment of 
truth. Otherwise, I make question of this question. 

1. All lying is a sin, Eph. iv. 25. 

2. Though good may come thereby to man, yet it 
is against God and his truth. 

3. It impeacheth the power and prudence of God, 
as if he could not maintain his own servants without 

4. It prevents the providence of God in his own 

5. We m.iy not talk deceitfully for God, Job 
xiii. 7. 

Quest. 2. What if a good end follow upon some 
untruth ? 

A71S. A good end is not sufBcient to justify a 
matter. If a thing be ill in the matter or manner, 
or end, it is not to be done. 

Obj. A bad end mars a good thing. By conse- 
quence of contraries a good end may justify an evil 

Ans. That is no good consequence; for there is 
difference betwixt good and evil. One circumstance 
maketh a thing evil ; but all circnm.stanccs must 
concur to make it good. One kind of poison is 
enough to take away life ; but there must be many 
ingredients to make a potion for preserving life. 

Quest. 3. Wliat, then, is to be done when innocents 
and .saints are unjustly sought after? 

Ans. AVe must bo silent, and say nothing one way 
or other, or courageously refuse to betray him, or so 
prudently order our answer as nor the party be en- 
dangered nor truth impoaclicd. 

The application of this point concerneth such espe- 
cially as live among those who, like Pharaoh and the 
Egyptians, are persecutors of the church, oppressors 
of men, inhuman and cruel. It doth not justify 
concealers of malefactors. Christians must take heed 
of making such inferences from such approved patterns 
as this i.s. 

Thereby thoy pervert the word of God, scandalise 
the profession of the gospel, open the mouths of 
enemies, bring themselves under the penalty of good 
laws, and suffer as malefactors, which is expressly 
forbidden, 1 Pet. iv. 15. 

On the other side, their undue timidity and over- 
much fear of danger is manifested, who ■are ready, 

upon undue respects, to bring others into danger; 

1. They who, Doeg-like, discover God's servants to 
their enemies, 1 Sam. xxii. 9; and this in hatred of 
and malice against them. 

2. They who discover such to curry favour with 
great men, as the Ziphites, 1 Sam. xxiii. 19. 

3. They who, for fear of incurring danger them- 
selves, refuse to stand to God's cause when they are 
questioned about it, as the parents of the man that 
was born blind, John xix. 22. 

4. They that deny that succour which they might 
and ought to [afford to] their brethren, for fear of men. 

Those and such like shew how little faith they 

Sec. 126. Of preventing danger heilmes. 

That act of their faith, in hiding their son, is am- 
plified by the time, both when they began, and how 
long they continued. In regard of the former, the 
apostle saith that they did it, yinrjSsig, when he was 
born. This imiilieth a timely doing of that act, even 
so soon as he was born. They did not invite their 
neighbours at her travail ; nor, when the child was 
brought forth, they did not make known that they 
had a child born ; so as they prevented the danger be- 
times. This w'as an especial point of wisdom. An 
angel admonished Joseph to carry his reputed son 
Jesus out of Herod's reach before he could know 
that he was mocked of the wise men, Mark ii. 13. 
' Slack not thy hand from thy servants ; come up to 
us quickly, and save us, and help us,' say the men of 
Gibeon to Joshua, Josh. x. 6. It is commended in 
Saul, that he came to succour Jabesh-gilead ' in the 
morning watch,' 1 Sam. xi. 11. 

Otherwise all pains, all endeavours may prove to 
be in vain, being too late. It is too late to shut the 
stable door when the steed is stolen. &Wa est in 
/undo parsimonia. 

It is, therefore, a point of wisdom carefuUy to 
observe what danger we ourselves or others, especially 
such as are under our charge, are in, and to afford 
them seasonable succour. 

It is noted that the man-child which the dragon 
sought to devtiur, as soon as it was born, was ])re- 
sently caught up unto God, Kev. xii. 4, 5. The 
apostle exhorteth us to be vigilant, because ' the 
devil seeketh whom he may devour.' 

On this groiuid we ought, by faithful prayer, to 
lift up our children to God so soon as thej' are born ; 
to bring them to the .sacrament of baptism so soon as 
conveniently we may ; to instruct them so soon as 
they are cajiablo ; to train tlicm up to good callings, 
and to perform other duties bctimea Resist all 
Satan's temjitations in the beginning. Many fair 
advantages are lost by dehiy. The two great con- 
querors, Alexander and Ca'sar, were careful in taking 
the first opportunity, and in using all the expedition 

Vee. 23.] 



they could. The motto of the one was /iridsv arro- 
/SaXXo'.asto;, that he let slip no season ; and of the 
other, Veni, vidi, vici, that as soon as he came and 
saw, he overcame. These principles are of special 
use in spiritual dangers. 

Sec. 127. Of continuing in ivhat is well herfiin. 

The time of their continuing to hide their son is 
set down in this phrase, Tsi/j,riiov, three montJis, which 
is expressed by one word in Greek. The Grecians 
have like words for other months, as nr^dfirivov, for 
four months, John iv. 35, and five months, and so 
others. They have one general word, ^ra/i/ijjm;, to 
comprise all months under it. 

Those three months were as long a time as they 
could hide him. Some say that the Egyptians 
searched the Israelites' houses every three months. 
It appears that some discovery began to be made of 
their child; or, at least, that there was some sus- 
picion of such a child ; for the hi.story saith, ' she 
could not longer hide him,' Exod. ii. 3. Questionless 
diligent inquisition was made by the Egyptians con- 
cerning the Israelitish women that were with child ; 
from which inquisition, though for a while they 
might conceal their child, yet long they could not ; 
for wicked men (as their father, 1 Pet. v. 8.) are dili- 
gent and sedulous in pursuing their malicious and 
mischievous courses. Thus was Herod in seeking 
the life of Jesus, Mat. ii. 8, 16, and Ahab in seeking 
after Elijah, 1 Kings xviii. 10. 

This circumstance sheweth that care in preventing 
danger is to be continued as long as may be. It 
is said of the mother of Moses, ' when she could not 
longer hide him,' Exod. iL 3 ; so as she hid him as 
long as she could. Kahab hid the spies till they who 
sought them were out of sight. Josh. ii. 15, 16. So 
Joseph abode in Egypt, to keep Jesus there safe 
* untU the death of Herod,' Mat. ii. 15. 

The benefit of preventing danger consisteth in con- 
tinuing so to do tUl fear of danger be overpast. If 
such as are bid for a time be left, and fall into the 
danger, what good cometh by the former hiding ? 

Surely it is a point of unfaithfulness to fall from 
those whom we have begun to protect and succour. 
Such were the men of KeUah, who would have de- 
livered David into the hands of Saul, 1 Sam. xxiii. 
12; or rather that timorous and servile king of Israel, 
who, after he had taken some care of Jeremiah, and 
freed him out of the prison, where he was like to die, 
and caused bread to be allowed him every day, upon 
the instigation of the princes, delivered him up into 
their hands, Jer. xxxviii. 5. 

This unfaithfuhiess is much greater in the spiritual 
dangers of our souls : as when governors shall begin 
to protect their people from idolatry, and after give 
them up thereto, as Joash did, 2 Chron. xxiv. 17, 18, 
and ministers that shall well begin to keep their people 
from Satan's snares, and after suffer them to slide 

back by negligence, or by any corruption in life or 
doctrine, as sundry false brethren and apostles in the 
primitive church. So parents and governors of fami- 
lies : so friends and neighbours ; yea, and all back- 
sliders, that neglect their own souls, which for some 
time they have begun to keep. An apostle's verdict 
of such is, that 'it had been better for them not 
to have known the way of righteousness,' 2 Pet. ii. 
21, 22. 

This particidar sheweth how necessary constancy 
and perseverance is in the good things that wc do 
enterprise. Hereof see more. Chap. ui. 6, Sec. G8. 

Sec. 128. Of respecting children tlmt carry Gods 

One special reason of the aforesaid care that the 
parents of Moses had of him is thus expressed, be- 
cause they saw he was a proper child. 

This word, dion, because, doth in general intend a 

The particular reason was, a visible stamp of God's 
respect to this child in the very favour and feature 
of it. 

The Hebrew expresseth it by a general word, 3itO, 
that signifieth good, and compriseth under it every 
kind of goodness. Hereof, see Chap. xiii. 9, Sec. 

It setteth out the beauty and comeliness of persons, 
and is translated /VaV, Gen. vi. 2, and xxiv. 16. 

The Greek word here used signifieth comely and 
beautiful. It is used in this very case, Acts vii. 20, 
asTilog Tw QiM. There the word God is added to it ; 
and the title God being added, it is translated very 
fair ; for the addition of God to things in Canaan's 
language addeth an excelleney unto them, as cedars 
of God, tall cedars; mount of God, a great mount; 
and so in other things. Or else this phrase, fair to 
God, may imply a divine stamp, whereby it was 
evident that God had marked him for some great 
work. This might God set on him to move both his 
parents, and also Pharaoh's daughter, to respect him. 
In this respect it was not fondness in the parents, 
by reason of the prettiness, comeliness, and fairness 
of the child, that moved them to do what they did, 
but that divine stamp, and their faith thereupon. 

God oft setteth a stamp on such as are by him 
deputed to weighty works. Jacob's holding his 
brother by the heel was such a kind of stamp. Gen. 
XXV. 26, and John Baptist springing in his mother's 
beUy, Luke i. 41. So Samson's strength. Judges xiv. 
6, and David's courage, 1 Sam. xvii. 34. 

This God doth to raise up in men beforehand an 
expectation of some great matter : that thereby they 
may be moved to call upon God, to depend on him, 
and to ascribe the praise and glory of that which is 
done by such to God. Moses his brethren are herein 
blamed that they did not understand that God would 
deliver them by Moses, when Moses avenged one of 



[Chap. XI. 

his brothers that was oppressed, and smote an Egyp- 
tian, Acts vii. 24, 25. 

This is the reason that moved the parents of Moses 
to take such cure as they did of preserving him ; and 
thereby it appears that it ought to be the care of 
parents to take special notice of such chiklren as God 
doth set any special mark upon. The name which 
God gave to the second child of Bathsheba, which 
was Solomon, 1 Chron. xxiii. 9, and Jedidiah, 2 Sara, 
xii. 25, gave David to understand tliat that son was 
a select child of God : hereupon both David was the 
more careful of his education, Prov. iv. 3, 4, and 
Bathsheba also, Prov. xxxi. 1, 2. On that ground 
David is careful to give his son sundry instructions, 
1 Chron. xxii. 7, &c., and to give his princes a charge 
concerning him, 1 Chron. xxii. 17, ic, and xxviii., 
&c. This phrase (which is oft applied to the Virgin 
Mary), ' she laid up those tilings in her heart,' Luke 
ii. 19, 51, hath reference to extraordinary evidences 
of divine glory in her son, and made her more care- 
ful over him. 

1. Care upon such a ground importeth an eye of 
the soul on God's providence, and faith in effecting 
some great matter. This, as it manifesteth a good 
and due respect to God, so it must needs be accept- 
able to him. 

2. God useth to bring his counsel to pass by 
means. Parents' care over their children, and such 
especially as are marked by God to special employ- 
ments, is a principal means to bring on children to 
accomplish those works. 

3. This may be applied to parents that have chil- 
dren of good capacity, quick wits, ready invention, 
hajipy memories, and other special parts, whereby 
they arc, as it were, stamped and sealed for special 
employments. They ought to be the more careful 
over such, both in their good education, and also in 
fitting them to eminent and excellent callings. Surely 
both church and commonwealth might be furnished 
with worthy instruments of much good, if parents 
were careful to take notice of God's stamp in their 
children, and answerably to take care of their train- 
ing up. 

Sec. 129. Of believers not fearing man. 

These words, and they ioere not afraid, admit a 
double reference ; one to the words immediately going 
before, and so imply another reason of Moses's parents 
hiding him. One reason was the beauty of the child : 
thei/ saw he was a proper child. 

Another is their courage : tfiei/ ivere not afraid. 
The copulative, xal, and, importeth a connexion of 
those two reasons. 

The other reference is to the main virtue com- 
mended, which is fiilh. Thus it is another effect or 
evidence of the faitli of Moses's parents. One eflect 
was, that they hid their child ; the other was, that 
they were not afraid, itc. 

Thus it answereth a question, namely, how they 
durst conceal their child so long against the king's 
commandment. The answer is, ' They feared not 

Of the notation of the verb, ffo^f,dr,eaii, translated 
fear, see Chap. ii. 15, Sec. 149. Of the difference 
betwixt a fear of God and men, see Chap. iii. 1, 
Sec. 5. Of fear of men, see Chap. xiii. 6, Sec. 84, &c. 

It is the fear of men that is here meant, and that 
an evil fear, and therefore set down negatively as a 
matter shunned, ci/x, not afraid. 

That whereof they were not afraid is here styled 
6idTay/j,a, comrtiaiulment. It is a compound. The 
simple verb, rarru, whence it is derived, signifieth to 
ordain, or appoint, Acts xiii. 48. 

The compound verb, o/ararrw, whence the word 
here used is derived, signifieth to command. The 
word of this test, harayixa, implieth an edict peremp- 
torily determined, set down, and proclaimed, so as 
none may do against it without a severe penalty. It 
here hath special reference to this cruel edict, ' Pha- 
raoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is 
born ye shall cast into the river,' Exod. i. 22. 

The king here meant was that cruel tyrant Pha- 
raoh, king of Egypt, who used the Israelites worse 
than slaves or beasts. By the foresaid cruel edict 
Pharaoh sought utterly to put out the memory of 

This evidence of faith, that Moses's parents were 
not afraid of the king's charge, giveth proof that faith 
in God expels fear of man. See Chap. xiii. C, Sees. 
84, 91. 

Sec. 130. Of not fearing evil edicts of kings. 

The subject-matter whereof Moses's parents were not 
afraid is here said to be a commandment. But this 
is not so indefinitely or generally to be taken, as if 
no commandment or edict of men were to be feared : 
but it hath reference to the forementioned command- 
ment, which was an evil, cruel, and bloody command- 
ment ; so as evil edicts are not to be feared, nor through 
fear to be yielded unto. No, though they be the 
edicts of the highest ou earth ; for who higher than 
a king in his dominion, and what straiter bond can 
lie upim a subject than a public edict or proclama- 
tion of a king 1 

From these two circumstances, of the straitness of 
the charge, and greatness of the person that gave it, 
the pattern of Moses's parents in not fearing it giveth 
evidence that the straitest edicts of the greatest on 
earth, being evil, are not to be yielded unto. And 
as the not yielding hereunto is produced as an evi- 
dence of faith, it gives proof that a true believer will 
not yield in such a case. Take for further proof 
hereof, Jonathan's denying to bring David to Saul, 
1 Sam. XX. 31, 33, and Daniel's three companions 
refusing to yield to the idolatrous edict of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, Dau. iii. 1(3, &c., and of Daniel himself, 

Vee. 24.] 



who, notwithstanding a contrary edict of the king 
and princes of Persia, prayed to his God, Dan. vi. 10. 
The former refused to bow to an idol upon the king's 
edict ; the latter would not forbear to call upon God, 
though it were against the king's edict. None of 
them were 'afraid of the king's commandment.' 

Believers know (which all of us ought to know) 
that there is a straiter edict, and a higher Lord, where- 
uuto we are more bound than to any edict or lord on 
earth. The apostles laid down this as a duty, ' We 
ought to obey God rather than men,' Acts v. 29. 
Yea, so equal and agreeable to the light of nature is 
this point, as the apostles refer it to the very judg- 
ment of those who would have had them do other- 
wise, thus, ' Whether it be right in the sight of God 
to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye,' 
Acts iv. 19. This difference betwixt God and man 
doth Joseph press against his mistress's temptation, 
' How can I do this great wickedness, and sin against 
God?' Gen. xxxLs. 9. 

1. Most undue are the pretences which many bring 
for justifying evil acts, as, the king commands it ; it is 
my master's charge ; my father wUl have me do it, 
and such like. All these, and other like pretences, 
savour too rankly of Adam's cursed folly, who made 
this pretence for his sin against God, ' The woman 
whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the 
tree, and I did eat,' Gen. iii. 13. 

2. Well weigh what is commanded by superiors. 
Observe whether they be against God's command or 
no; if yea, be not afraid of the commandment, let it 
not move thee. See more hereof in Dnmest. Duties, 
Treat. 3, Sees. 51, 63, and Treat, 5, Sec. 37, and 
Treat. 7, Sec. 38. 

3. Take an invincible resolution to hold close to 
God, and not to transgress his commandment for 
any man's commandment. There is no comparison 
betwixt God and man. See more hereof, Chap. xiii. 
6, Sec. 86. 

Sec. 131. Of the resolution of , and observations from, 
Heb. xi. 23. 

Ver. 23. By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid 
three montlis of his parents, because they saw he was a 
proper child, and they were not afraid of the king's 

This verse in sum declareth faith's vigour. Hereof 
are two parts, 

1. A description of the parties. 

2. A declaration of the kinds of proofs. 

The parties are described by their relation to their 
son Moses, parents. 

The proofs of their faith are two effects. 
The former is, 

1. Propounded. 

2. Confirmed. 

In propounding the effect, is noted, 
1. Their act. 

2. The reason thereof. 

Their act was their hiding of their child, amplified 
by the time. 

The time is set forth two ways, 

1. By the beginning, u<hen he was born. 

2. By the continuance, t/n-ee months. 

The reason was, a divine stamp upon the child. 
They saw he was a proper child. 

The latter proof of their faith was their courage, 
which is, 

1. Manifested by the contrary: they were not 

2. Amplified, 

(1.) By the subject-matter which they feared not, 
a commandment. 

(2.) By the author of that commandment, the king. 

I. Parents are honoured by worthy children. For 
honour's sake the parties are here described by their 
relation to their son Moses. See Sec. 124. 

II. Parents especially ought to have care of their 
childivn. So had Moses's parents. See Sec. 124. 

III. There ought to be a joint care of fathers and 
mothers. For both these are comprised under the word 
parents. See Sec. 124. 

IV. Persons in danger may be concealed from mis- 
chievous persons. So was Moses from the Egyptians. 
See Sec. 125. 

V. Danger is to be prevented betimes. So soon as 
Moses was born, he was hid. See Sec. 126. 

VI. Care in preventing danger 7nust be continued. 
This phrase, three monUis, intendeth as much. See 
Sec. 127. 

VII. God sets a stamp on such as he deputes to a 
special work. Thus he did here on Moses. See Sec. 

VIII. God's stamp %oorks a good esteem. So did 
this about Moses. See Sec. 1 28. 

IX. Faith expels fear. It was faith that made 
these not afraid. See Sec. 129. 

X. Unlawful edicts fright ivat believers. Moses's 
parents were not afraid of such commandments. See 
Sec. 130. 

XI. Kings in sinful things are not to be obeyed. It 
was the king's commandment that was not feared. 
See Sec. 130. 

Sec. 132. Oj Moses acting when he was of years. 

Ver. 24. By faith Moses, when he u'os come to 
years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's 

■The tenth instance to demonstrate the vigour of 
faith is Moses himself. 

Of the notation of this name Moses, see Chap. iii. 
2, Sec. 37. 

His faith is largely set forth : three times by an 
elegant anaphora, in tliis phrase, by faith, used in 
setting out the fruits of Moses's faith, vers. 24, 27, 28. 



[Chap. XI. 

The first fruit is contempt of the world. This he 
began to manifest betimes, even lohen he came to 
years. In Greek it is word for word, thus, fitya.; 
yivo/Minc, u'hen he ivas qreat. This is here diversely 
taken, for some refer it to dignity, others to age. 

They who are advanced to honour, are said to be 
great, Mat. xx. 26. 

They also who are grown up to years are said to 
be grown great, or become great. 

That here it is to be referred to Closes his age, is 
evident — 

1. By the history, Exod. ii. 11. There the He- 
brew liath such a word, "PTJI, that signifieth great, as 
the Greek here hath. The Hebrews do oft use that 
word in reference to age, as where it is said, ' the 
boys grew,' Gen. xxv. 27; and 'the child Samuel 
grew,' namely, in years. 

2. Stephen, having reference to this circumstance, 
saith, ' !Moses was full forty years old,' Acts vii. 23. 
In that respect he became great. 

This is noted to shew that Moses was of mature 
judgment wlien he did what he did. He was not 
spurred on thereto by rash youth, for ' years teach 
wisdom,' Job xsxii. 7, 1 Cor. xui. 11. It is said of 
Christ that ' he increased in wisdom and stature,' 
Luke ii. f 2 OF in T"'iodv32:i and. age ; as in the one, 
so in the other. 

As parts of the body grow in bigness and strength, 
so the faculties of the soul grow more capable of their 
several endowments, and more active in exercising 
the same. 

This instance sheweth that weighty things are to 
bo cntcrprised when men arc able well to manage the 
same. It is a judgment that children shall be 
people's princes, Isa. iii. 4 ; and the wise man de- 
nounccth a woe against that land whose king is a 
child, Ecclcs. x. 16. 

The like may be applied to other functions. I 
will not deny but that there may be a Josiah, an 
Edward the Sixth, a Samuel, a Timothy ; but these 
are not ordinary. By continuing to some ripeness of 
years, means of fitting one to a function are multi- 
plied, and thereby a man is better fitted thereto. 

They who come to years, and remain children in 
understanding, wisdom, and other Christian graces, 
are a sliame to their profession. This is upbraided as 
a great disgrace, chap. v. 12, 1 Cor. iii. 1. 

Sec. 133. Of Moses his triah. 

Before I come to handle those particulars wherein 
the apo.stle doth here set out the faith of Moses, it 
will not be impertinent to note out the heads of 
Moses his trials, gifts, and privileges, as we have done 
in other worthies. 

1 . The trials of Moses Vere these, and such like : 

(1.) So soon as he was bfem, his life was in hazard, 
Exod. ii. 3, ikc. 

(2.) He was in great da igcr to have been cut off 

from the church by being accounted the son of 
Pharaoh's daughter, E.xod. ii. 10. 

(3.) He was trained up forty years in an idolatrous 
court. Acts vii. 22, 23. 

(4.) Though he himself lived as a prince, yet his 
whole nation lay in a miserable bondage, which could 
not but be a great trial to him, as the like was to 
Nehemiah, Neh. i. 4, ic. 

(.5.) His own people, though he sought their good, 
regarded him not, Exod. ii. 14, Acts vii. 25, 27. 

(6.) He was forced from the place of his education, 
yea, and from his own nation, which was the church, 
to save his life, Exod. ii. 1.5. 

(7.) He served forty years in a strange land, Exod. 
ii. 22, Acts vii. 29, 30. 

(8.) God himself was incensed against him for 
neglecting to circumcise his son, Exod. iv. 24. 

(9.) He was sent to a cruel king with a displeasing 
message, Exod. v. 2. 

(10.) His own people, for whose good he was sent, 
murmured against him, E.xod. v. 21, and vi. 9. 

(11.) His people, whom he brought out of Egypt, 
revolted from God and from him, Exod. xxxii. 1, <kc. 

(12.) His people, in their straits, were ready to 
stone him. Gen. xvii. 4. 

(13.) Korah and sundry others made head against 
him, Num. xvi. 1, etc. 

(14.) Hard charges were laid to his charge. Num. 
XX. 8. 

(15.) He was provoked to speak unadvisedly with 
his lips, Ps. cvi. 33. 

(16.) He was excluded out of Canaan. 

By these, as by other saints' trials, we see what 
saints on earth are subject unto ; answerably it be- 
cometh us to expect trials, to prepare for them, pa- 
tiently to bear them, and to be comforted under them. 

Sec. 134. Of Moses his gifts. 

1. He was learned in all the wisdom of the 
Egyptians, Acts vii. 22. 

2. He was mighty in words and deeds. Acts 
vii. 22. 

3. He was a man of great faith. This is here 

4. He had great zeal for God's glory, Exod. xxxii. 

5. He was of great courage in God's cause, ver. 

6. He had great indignation against idolaters, 
Exod. xxxii. 19. 

7. He was of a meek spirit in his own cause. Num. 
xii. 3. 

8. Great was his love of his brethren, Exod. ii. 12, 
and xxxii. 32. 

9. He contemned the world. This is here at large 

1 0. Great was his patience iu reference to wrongs 
done by men, Exod. xiv. 13, 

Vek. 21] 



11. He was far from enx-y and ambition, Num. 
xi. 29. 

12. Great was his respect to his father-in-law, 
Exod. xviii. 7. 

13. He was willing to take and foUow good advice, 
Exod. xviii. 21. 

14. He was very faithful, Num. xii. 7. Of the 
particulars of Moses's faithfulness, see Chap. iii. 2, 
Sec. 39. 

15. He put himself out to the uttermost for the 
people's good, Exod. xviii. 13. 

16. He had care for the good of liis posterity, 
Num. xxvii. 16, 17. 

The gifts and graces of Moses are for imitation, 
and that by aU sorts of people in like places, as ser- 
vants, children, parents, courtiers, rich men, noble- 
men, ministers, magistrates, princes, exiles, and 

Sec. 135. Of Moses hi4 2irivilei;/es. 

1. God set a stamp upon him in his infancy, 
Exod. ii. 2. 

2. He was extraordinarily preserved, Exod. ii. 5. 

3. He was advanced to high honour, Exod. ii. 10. 

4. He was made a deliverer of God's people, 
Exod. iii. 10. 

5. He was made a ruler and governor of God's 
people, Exod. xviii. 13. 

6. God maintained his authority against gain- 
sayers, Num. xvi. 28. 

7. He was an extraordinary prophet; none like 
him, Deut. xxxiv. 10. 

8. He was the iirst and largest penman of sacred 
Scripture ; he declared the state of the world and 
church for the space of two thousand seven hundred 
and fifty years. Num. xxi. 18. All the sacred rites 
whereby God of old was worshipped were delivered 
by him. 

9. God spake to him face to face, mouth to mouth, 
so familiarly as to no other prophet, Num. xii. 8, 
Exod. xxxiii. 23. 

10. He was more mighty in miracles than any 
before Christ, Acts vii. 36. 

11. His prayer was powerful with God, Exod. 
xxxii. 10, Jer. xv. 1. 

12. Twice he fasted forty days and forty nights 
together, Deut. ix. 18. 

13. He was thrice forty years preserved : forty in 
Pharaoh's court, Acts vii. 23 ; forty in Midian, a 
strange land, Acts vii. 30; and forty in the wilderness. 

14. Old age did not dim his sight, nor abate his 
natural force, Deut. xxxiv. 7. 

15. He was buried by God himself, Deut. xxxiv. 
6. The like is not noted of any other. 

1 6. His memorial was very precious in the church 
of God, and still remains. 

17. He was a special type of Christ j and that 
in these respects : 

(1.) As Moses had God's stamp at his birth; so 
an extraordinary star in heaven manifested Christ to 
be of special use for God's church. 

(2.) As Moses's hfc was sought, so soon as he was 
born, by Pharaoh ; so Christ'-s, by Herod. 

(3.) As Moses was saved in Pharaoh's court ; so 
was Chi'ist in the land of Egypt. 

(4.) Both Moses and Christ were born in the 
lowest ebb of the church. 

(5.) As Moses his face did shine, when he had 
been upon the mount ; so Christ's, Mat. xvii. 2. 

(6.) As Moses was a deliverer of God's people ; so 

(7.) As Moses was a prince, to govern ; a priest, 
to offer sacrifice ; and a prophet, to instruct : so 

(8.) As the law was given by Moses ; so grace and 
truth came by Jesus Christ, John i 17. 

(9.) Moses was a mediator. Gal. iii. 19 ; so Christ, 
1 Tim. ii. 5. 

(10.) Moses was grieved at the sins of people, 
Exod. xxxii. 1 9 ; so Christ, Jlark ui. 5. 

(11.) As Moses was punished for the peojile, 
Deut. i. 37 ; so Christ suffered for them. 

The foresaid privileges do inform us in the pro- 
vidence and bounty of God. 

Sec. 136. Of refusing of honour. 

The first effect whereby Moses his faith is evidenced 
was his refusing of honour. The word, r,ivn(saro, 
which we translate refused, is opposed to confessing 
or acknowledging a thing ; and we commonly trans- 
late it denied, as it is said of John the Baptist, ' he con- 
fessed, and denied not,' John i. 2U. This refusing is 
not here to be taken of any plain or apparent ex- 
pression of his mind by word of mouth ; but rather 
of his behaviour, whereby it might easily be inferred 
that he refused the honours of Egypt ; for he went 
day after day out of the court and conversed among 
the children of>'Israel which were in bondage, and at 
length clean left court, land, and aU. 

Obj. Moses was forced to leave court and king- 
dom for fear of his life, Exod. ii 15. 

Ans. 1. He voluntarily brought upon himself that 
occasion of flying out of Egypt, and that by defend- 
ing one of his brethren against an Egyptian. Had 
he preferred his own honour before his respect to 
his poor brethren, he would never have adventured 
to have killed an Egyptian in the quarrel of an 

2. '\^Tien he heard that that fact was known, he 
made no means to obtain protection or pardon, which 
questionless he might have obtained, if he had con- 
cealed his relation and respect to the Israelites his 
brethren ; but rather took the advantage to free 
himself from that -n-icked course. Therefore this 
word refused, which implieth a voluntary act, is 



[Chap. XI. 

That which by his carriage lie so refused was to 

be ca/lerl the son of Pharaoh's daughter. 

The word '/.iyiuSai, called, implieth a reputing or 
accounting one to be such and such a one, as when 
we tliink and account such a one to be rich, or 
honourable, or learned, we use to say of him that he 
is a rich, or an honourable, or a learned man, and so 
call him. 

Pharaoh here mentioned was the king of Egyjit. 
His daughter w;vs a great princess. It seemeth that 
she had been married, and either had at this time a 
husband, or was a widow ; but had no child of her 
own, and thereupon adopted JIoscs to be her child ; 
which is implied in this phrase, ' He became her 
son,' Exod. iL 10. 

If she had a husband, this might be done with 
his consent ; if she were a widow, she did it of her 
own accord. Howsoever, hereby was Moses made a 
great man and a great heir, if not an heir to the 
crown, which was no small honour. If Pharaoh had 
no other child, his daughter was heir to the kingdom, 
and Hoses her heir. 

This is here brought in as an effect of Moses his 
faith, whereby it is manifested that faith is of force 
to make believers slight the highest honours on earth. 
Joseph was in Egypt advanced next to the king ; 
and his children might by his means have attained 
great and honourable places : but he rather chose to 
have them incorporated into the society of God's 
saints, than to have the highest honours in Egypt ; 
therefore he brought them to his father to be blessed, 
Gen. xlviii. 1. Daniel refused honours offered unto 
him by a great monarch, Dan. v. 17. 

1. Faith raiseth a man's mind and heart above 
this world, and the honours thereof; it presents unto 
him heavenly honours. 

2. Faith so cleareth the eye, in beholding the 
things of this world, as it makes a man discern them 
in their own proper colours — vain, transitory, full of 
vexation, and subject to many temptations : thus it 
makes a man to slight them. 

This sheweth that ambitious persons have very 
little faith, if they have any at all. ' How can ye be- 
lieve,' saith Christ, ' which receive (or affect) honour 
one of another?' John v. 44. Many that saw cause 
to believe on Christ professed him not, because they 
loved the praise of men, John xii. 42, 43. 

That this sin of ambition may be better discerned, 
I will endeavour distinctly to declare what it is. 

Ambition is a corrupt puffing up of man above 
that which is meet. 

1. It is a branch of the corruption of nature; for 
it was not in that entire estate wherein God at first 
made man after his own image, though he was then 
endowed with most excellent abilities. The first 
occasion thereof was this suggestion of Satan, ' Ye 
shall be as god.s,' Gen. iii. 5. 

2. The scripture doth set it out in this phrase of 

' puffing up,' 1 Cor. iv. 18, 19, and viii. 1, Col. ii. 18. 
This metaphor of puffing up doth fitly set out the 
nature of ambition, which is as a wind, nothing but 
a vapour, yet makes a man swell, as if there were 
abundance of solid Hesh. 

3. It puffeth up ' above that which is meet ; ' for 
ambition liath no bounds. If it had, it were not am- 
bition. The notation of the word, VTCfpalteadai, im- 
plieth a super-appearing. Herein it ditfereth from 
sundry lawful things, as, 

(1.) From knowledge and acknowledgment of a 
man's gifts and place, 2 Cor. xii. 1. 

(2.) From preferment, Esth. vi. 11, 12. 

(3.) From endeavour to excel, 1 Cor. xii. 31, and 
xiv. 12. 

(4.) From seeking and accepting honour. 

Qiies. May honour be sought and accepted 1 

j4«.?. 1. For accepting honour, being duly and de- 
servedly conferred, no question may be made. The 
example of Joseph, and Daniel and his three com- 
panions, and Mordecai and Esther, give sufficient 
proof hereof. 

2. About seeking honour is the greater doubt ; be- 
cause Christ seems to forbid it, Mat. xxiii. 8, &c. 
But Christ doth not there simply forbid all seeking 
of honour, but such a manner as the Pharisees did, 
ambitiously and vaingloriously. 

Due honour, rightly sought, is among those things 
which are ' honest, just, and of good report,' Phil. 
iv. 8, and in that respect may be sought. He may 
' seek to excel,' so it be ' to the edifjing of the 
church,' 1 Cor. xiv. 12. Mordecai did what he 
could for the advancement of Esther, Esth. ii. 10, 
11 ; and Esther procured Mordecai's advancements, 
Esth. viiL 1, &c. Daniel also spake for the adrance- 
ment of his three companions, Dan. ii. 49. 

1. Honour is an especial gift of God, Ps. Ixxv. 6, 7, 
1 Chron. xxix. 12. * 

2. It is promised of God as a blessing and a recom- 
pense, 1 Sam. ii. 30, Ps. xxi. 5, and xci. 15. 

3. It is one of those rewards that wisdom setteth 
before such as seek her, Prov. iv. 8. 

4. It is an especial means of doing good. Instance 
the good that Joseph, David, Daniel, Mordecai, and 
Esther did, by being advanced unto high honour. 

Quest. How, then, is it a fruit of faith to deny 
honour 1 

Alls. 1. As it is considered in itself, and one of the 
world's allurements, it is but vanity. 

2. Comparatively, in reference to spiritual things, 
it is also vanity. 

3. In reference to the good thingswhich are hindered 
thereby, or the evils which are thereby committed, it 
is worse than vanity, and on these grounds to be re- 

Cautions, therefore, are to be observed about seek- 
ing or accepting honour ; for if it be sought, it must 
be sought, 

Vee. 25.1 



1 . Not simply for itself, but for the good that may 
be effected thereby. 

The philosopheri granteth as much, upon this rea- 
son, that the means which tend to good should be 
made the end to which it tends. 

2. Not preposterously, before the things which 
may make us worthy of honour, and enable us to 
do good by that honour whereto we attain. The 
heathen that dedicated a temple to Honour made the 
entrance thereinto by Virtue. Honour is made the 
fruit of righteousness, Prov. xxi. 21. 'Honour is not 
seemly for a fool,' Prov. xxvi. 1. 

3. Not immoderately in the manner of seeking it ; 
so as disquietness of mind, carking care, and vexation 
of spirit arise thereabouts. We may not thus seek 
food and raiment, Mat. vi. 25, much less honour. 

4. Not immeasurably, so as never to be satisfied. 
The heathen condemned in Alexander, that he was 
grieved there was no more worlds but one for him to 
overcome. Such is the disposition of many, who 
heap offices, dignities, and livings one upon another. 

5. Not indirectly, by bribery, by undermining 
others, by any unjust or unlawful means. Simon 
Jtlagus did this way fail in seeking an apostolical 
honour. Acts viii. 18, 19. 

6. Not ambitiously, to have a name among men. 
This was the fault of the Scribes and Pharisees in all 
their undertakings. Mat. ^^. 1, 2, ifec. 

7. Not mischievously, for any bad ends ; as Judas, 
John xii. 6. Thus Haman desired the king's letters 
and ring, Esth. iii. 9. 

But subordinately to virtue, upon worth, mode- 
rately in the manner and measure, duly in humility, 
and for good ends, honour maj' be sought and ac- 
cepted ; otherwise it must be refused, as Moses did, 
to whom we ought to be like-minded, in not regard- 
ing the greatest honours that in this world can be 
afforded, so far forth as they may prove temptations 
and snares unto us, or keep us from better courses. 
This is the ready way to obtain greater and better 
honour from God, Mat. xvi. 25, and six. 29. 

To leave honour or anything else in a good cause 
is the more commendable, if it be done as Moses here 
did, voluntarily; for so much doth the word ri^triaaTo, 
refused, imply. His honour Tvas not wrested from 
him, but he willingly let it go. It may be said of 
him, as was of the governors of Israel, lie 'offered 
himself willingly among the people,' Judges v. 9. God 
would have the offerings for his tabernacle ' of them 
who were of a willing heart,' Exod. xxxv. 5 : such 
were they that offered to the temple, 1 Chron. xxix. 9. 

1. God loveth such, 2 Cor. ix. 7. 

2. God accepteth such, though it be but little that 
they let go, 2 Cor. viii. 12. 

1. They fail exceedingly, who think that that which 
is taken from them perforce is acceptable to God. 
Unless their mind be wUling to yield to the divine 
' Arist. in Ethic. 

providence, there can be no commendation of what 
they let go, nor comfort therein. That which is done 
on necessity is in itself no virtue; yet by a willing 
yielding to let go that which we cannot hold, a virtue 
may be made of necessity. 

2. In losses, in castings down, in all alterations, it 
becometh us to examine our inward disposition, and 
to observe whether we can willingly yield to God's 
will, made known unto us by events ; as Job did when 
he said, ' The Lord giveth, and the Lord taketh away,' 
Jobi. 21. 

3. Be exhorted to bring your wills to God : this 
is the way to have better things than what ye let 
go. Moses, that refused the honours of Egypt, had a 
greater honour amongst God's people here on earth, 
besides his heavenly recompense. And 'the Lord 
blessed the latter end of Job more than his begin- 
ning,' Job xlii. 12. But, on the other side, God is 
oft provoked to take away more from them who 
are unwilling to let go what God intends to take 

Of men's willingness to do their duty, see Chap. 
xiii. 18, Sec. 156. Of Christ's willingness in im 
imdertakings, see Chap. ix. H, Sec. 79. 

Sec. 137. Of Moses choosing the better. 

Ver. 25. Clwosing rath-er to suffer affliction with the 
people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a 

A second instance of Moses's contempt of the world 
was, his light esteem of pleasure. This is set out 
comparatively, whereby the high degree of his slight- 
ing pleasure is manifested : he so slighted it, as he 
chose alHiction before it. 

The word, j>.o',a=«oj, translated choosing, implieth a 
voluntary act, and that upon due consideration. It 
is but twice more used in the New Testament. Once 
of Paul's choosing to be with Christ, Phil. i. 22. Be- 
twixt two things he did not wot what to choose; yet 
in regard of himself, he took it to be far better to be 
with Christ. The other is of God's choosing men to 
salvation, 2 Thess. ii. 13. 

Here the word is set down in a participle, choosing, 
to shew that it dependeth on the former as a cause 
thereof. His choice of affliction was one cause of his 
refusing honour. 

This manner of setting down his suffering of afflic- 
tion, by choosing to suffer, was noted in the latter 
end of the former section, about a wUling doing or 
enduring what we do and endure ; and it doth won- 
derfully commend his pious mind and good respect 
to the people of God, that he chose to suffer affliction 
with them. 

The conjunction or note of comparison added here- 
unto, fiaXXov, rather, amplifieth his contempt of plea- 
sure; for it importeth that he so far despised pleasure, 
as he rather chose affliction ; not that affliction was 
as pleasure, delightsome and joyous, and in those 


[Chap. XI. 

respects pleasing ; for this apostle granteth that ' no 
affliction for the present .seemeth to be joyous,' chap, 
xii. 1 1 ; but in that upon a due consideration of the 
many ill consequences that might follow upon plea- 
sures, and the many benefits and blessings that might 
be found among the j)eople of God, he preferred to 
be in their case with them than to remain in Egypt 
with the fruition of pleasures. 

This manifested his wisdom, in choo.sing that which 
was indeed the more excellent. 

Sec. 138. Of suffering aMlction with God's people. 

This phrase, to suffer affliction ii'ith, is the inter- 
pretation of one Greek word, euyxanovy^iTatJai. It is a 
double compound. The first compound is of a verb, 
£%w, that .signifieth to have, or to handle and deal ; 
and a noun, r.ay.oi, that signifieth evil. Both joined 
{KaxoijyjTt), signify to deal ill, or to handle hardly. 
The passive (of which voice the word here used is) 
signifieth to he ill handled. Our English translate it 
' tormented,' ver. 37, and ' suffering adversity,' chap. 
xiiL 3. 

The double compound is with a proposition, aiiv, 
that signifieth with, so as it intendeth a joint suffer- 
ing together with others, or a participation with 
others' sufferings, or being a companion with them in 
their sufferings. This the apostle commended in these 
Hebrews. Wlereof see more. Chap. x. 33, Sec. 126. 

The persons with whom Moses chose to suffer 
affliction are here said to be rCi XaiZ rtiu ©eoC, the 
people of God. Of the notation of the Greek word 
translated peo2yle, and of the respects wherein they 
are styled people of God, see Chap. iv. 9, Sec. 57. 
They were the children of Israel, mentioned. Ver. 22, 
Sec. 121. These are called the people of God, because 
God had chosen them to be a peculiar people to him- 
self, Exod. xbc. 5. And at this time, and for many 
ages after, they were the only church of God, the 
only people that professed the name of the true God. 

This is here added, to shew an especial reason why 
Moses was so wUling to suffer with them ; not so 
much because they were of his stock and alliance and 
his kindred, as because they were God's people. 

It is here taken for granted that God's people, even 
they who are saints, may be under afflictions. Hereof 
see more in The ,*iaint's Sacrijice, on Ps. cxvi. 3, 
Sec. IG. 

The prophet's choosing to suffer affliction with 
them, giveth proof that afflictions keep not believers 
from communion one witli another. This was the 
ground of the prophet's associating himself with the 
Israelites, that they were the people of God ; and 
this was the ground why these Hebrews became com- 
panions with them that suffered, because they were 
believers, and .so the people of God. This also was 
the reason why Josejjh, though he foresaw the oppres- 
sions of the children of Israel in Egypt, yet would 
have hia sons incorporated into that communion. 

This moved Esther to adventure her life, because it 
was in tiie cause of God's people, Esth. iv. 16. 

True believers well discern betwixt outward crosses 
(which only touch the body, and extend only to the 
time of this life) and the privileges that apjiertain to 
the communion of saints, which are spiritual, tending 
to the good of the soul, and eternal felicity thereof. 
Therefore, as the soul is more excellent than the body, 
heaven than earth, the glory of the world to come 
than the misery of this world, so they prefer that 
estate where the soul is quickened, nourished, decked 
with grace, and ])repared for glory, though the body 
be afflicted, before freedom from that affliction, and 
before the loss of the foresaid privileges. 

Great, therefore, is their foUy who either, on the one 
side, associate themselves with idolaters, heretics, or 
any other wicked persons, because they are, as they 
suppose, honoured with popular applause, honour, 
promotion, wealth, or liberty to do what they list ; or, 
on the other side, shrink from the society of saints, 
for fear of reproach, or hindering their profit or pre- 
ferment, or of restraint of their liberty, or of any 
such like thing. If such would well weigh the ad- 
vantage of good society, or the damage of ill com- 
pany, they would soon discern their folly in forsaking 
the one, and seeking after the other. 

I will, therefore, endeavour to set down the heads 
of each of the.se. 

Advantages of society with God's people are such 
as these — 

1. Means of daily edification, 1 Thes. v. 11. 

2. Encouragement in good courses, Neh. ii. 18. 

3. Participation of mutual prayers, James v. 16. 

4. Benefit by the gifts of one another, Prov. xiiL 20, 
Isa. 1. 4. 

5. Divine blessings, 2 Kings iii. 14, Gen. xxxix. 5. 

6. Avoiding judgments, Gen. xviii. 26, <S:c. 
Damages upon associating with wicked ones are 

such as these — 

1. Infection with evil. He that touchcth pitch 
must needs be defiled, Gen. xlii. 1 6. 

2. Discouragement from a holy profession, John 
xviii. 18. 

3. Hindrance in duties. David thought that if he 
were among the wicked, he could not keep the com- 
mandments of God, Ps. cxix. 115. 

4. Ajiatronismg and emboldening the wicked, among 
whom we arc, in their wicked courses, 2 Chron. xix. 2. 

5. Offending and grieving the upright, 1 Cor. viii. 10. 

6. Pulling on our own pates judgments due to the 
wicked, llev. xviii. 4. 

Let us therefore set before us the pattern of iloses 
in this particular that is here noted, and in truth say, 
as the psalmist did, ' I am a companion of all them 
that fear thee, and of tliem that keep thy precepts,* 
Ps. cxix. 63. For this end, 

1. Inquire after God's people. 

2. Associate thyself with them. 

Ver, 25.] 



3. Frequent their assembKes. 

4. Set thy heart upon them. 

5. Take all occasions of testifying thy love to them. 

6. Pass by all discouragements, yea, though they 
be great affiictions. 

Sec. 139. Of pleasures occasioning sin. 

The reddition or other part of the comparison is 
in these words, than to enjoy, (fee. 

This word, ri, than, is the note of the second part of 
a comparison ; and it shews that that which followeth 
is meaner and less to be regarded than that which 
was before mentioned. 

The thing disrespected, yea, even contemned by 
Moses, is thus expressed, to enjoy the pleasures of sin 
for a season. The first words, to en^'oy the pleasures, 
are in Greek only thus, £%£»' a^roXauir/v, to have frui- 
tion. The word translated to enjoy, is a substan- 
tive ; but it is translated by a verb, ' to enjoy,' 1 Tim. 
vi. 17. The noun is derived from a verb, Xaw, vel 
Xaiiu, that signifieth to enjoy. It is taken for using 
or enjoying a thing wdth delight or pleasure ; and 
another noun, a.'^oKa\jeij.a, from the same root, signi- 
fieth delight, and two adjectives, likewise from the 
same root, acroAausro; and a.'ro'KavSTi/i.oc, signify ap- 
pertaiiiinr/ to pleasure, or given to pleasure. The 
apostle, therefore, hath used a word fit to his pur- 
pose, and it is in our English fitly translated, to enjoy 
the p)leasures. 

This word, a.ij.aPTiac, sin, is here added by the 
apostle, to shew what kind of pleasure he intended, 
even such as occasioned and produced sin, and also 
to intimate that the delights and pleasures where- 
unto worldly men give themselves are tainted with 
sin. They who follow worldly pleasures can as hardly 
be freed from sin as they who handle pitch or tar be 
freed from besmearing their hands. In a like respect 
riches are called, ' ilammon of unrighteousness,' Luke 
xvi. 9, because ordinarily they occasion much un- 

Sin may be well attributed to the pleasures here 
intended, because they were about such things as are 
used and practised in the court of a heathen king, 
among heathen people, such as feared not God. It 
was like the court where Abraham was, Gen. xx. 11. 

The apostle doth hereby give us to understand that 
•worldly pleasures are occasions of sin. They brought 
Esau to sell his birthright. Gen. xxv. 27, &c. It is 
made one cause of Babel's sins, that she was given to 
pleasure, Isa. xlvii. 8, and a cause of Dives's neglecting 
his soul, Luke xvi. 25, and of the unrighteousness 
of them that followed Antichrist, ' they had pleasure 
in unrighteousness,' 2 Tim. ii. 12. 

Pleasures are so dehghtsome to the corrupt heart 
of man, as they draw him from such means as might 
restrain him from sin. They draw him from dili- 
gence in his lawful calling, whereupon the wise man 
saith, that ' he that loveth pleasure shall be a poor 

man,' Prov. xxi. 17, implying that he neglecteth the 
means of thriving ; yea, pleasures use to withdraw 
men's hearts from God. They are ' lovers of ple;isure 
more than lovers of God,' 2 Tim. iii. 4. 

This title, pleasures of sin, plainly demonstrateth 
the folly and absurdity of the Epicurean opinion, that 
pleasure is a man's cliiefest good. ^Many of the heathen 
philosophers have discovered the senselessness of that 
opinion, and manifested it to be a conceit more be- 
seeming sensual beasts than reasonable men. 

Let us take heed of giving ourselves to pleasures ; 
they are Satan's baits to allure us, his .snares to hold 
us fast, his hooks to puU us down to destruction. 

Quest. Are all pleasures and delights unlawful ? 

A 7is. No, not all ; for many are warranted unto ua 
by sacred scriptures, as, 

1. Shooting in the bow, 2 Sa,m. i. 18. 

2. rUnging and slinging stones, Judges xx. 16, 
1 Chron. xiL 2. 

3. Hunting, Gen. xxvii. 3. 

4. Music, and that vocal, Eccles. ii. 8, and instru- 
mental, 1 Sam. xvi. 23, 2 Kings iii. 15. 

5. Feasting, Neh. vui. 10. 

6. Anointing one's self, 2 Sam. xii. 20. 

7. Putting out riddles. Judges xiv. 12. 

8. Dancing, 2 Sam. vi. IG. 

Both body and mind, while we live in this frail 
flesh, are prone to dulness and heaviness : but lawful 
and delightful pleasures arc a means to quicken them. 
This questionless was one end why Elisha called for a 
minstrel, 2 Kings iii. 15. 

They may be also occasions of taking notice of the 
divine bounty, in affording unto us, not only for neces- 
sity, but also delight. 

But because sin useth so much to cleave unto plea- 
sures as it doth, it will not be impertinent to set 
down some cautions about using pleasures. These 
shall have respect to the matter, mind, manner, time, 
conscience of others, God's presence, and better things. 

1. The pleasures which we use, in the matter of 
them, must be lawful : else do we what we can, it 
will be pleasure of sin. An unlawful thing cannot be 
used without sin. The lawfulness hath a double 

(1.) To God's law. 

(2.) To such human laws as we live under. We 
must not take pleasure in the things that are against 
either of those. 

2. He that useth pleasures must in his own mind 
and conscience be persuaded of the lawfulness thereof, 
Kom. xiv. 11, 22. 

3. In regard of the manner, pleasures must be 
moderately and sparingly used : nor too much time 
must be spent, nor too much pains taken about them. 
They must be as sauce, not as meat ; a little to 
sharpen, not much to glut the appetite. To ' sit 
down to eat and drink, and to rise up to play,' is a 
fault, Exod. xxxii. 6. We have too little time for 



[Chap. XL 

necessary duties ; were it not for necessity, in regard 
of our heavy bodies and dull spirits, all pleasures 
might be spared. To take overmuch pains in plea- 
sures crosscth the main end thereof : which is, not to 
weary and weaken, but to refresh and strengthen 
body and spirit. 

4. In regard of the time, pleasures must be season- 
ably used, when we are not tied to a bounden duty. 
Therefore they are not to be used on the Lord's days, 
nor too early in the morning, or too late in the even- 
ing, lest they hinder our morning and evening sacri- 
fice. Nor yet on days of humiliation ; nor when the 
main duties of our calling are to be performed — espe- 
cially when those duties tend to others' good, as the 
duty of magistrates, ministers, lawyers, jshysicians, 
and others. 

5. In using pleasures, respect must be had to the 
conscience of others, that we offend not them, espe- 
cially if they be our superiors, and have authority 
over us, and wise men, and pious. The apostle, in 
matters indifferent, would have us tender of other 
men's consciences, Rom. xiv. 15, I Cor. x. 29. 

6. Especially respect must be had to God, in 
whose presence we are at all times, and who seeth 
us in all our actions, Prov. xv. 3. Pleasures, there- 
fore, ought so to be used as therein we may approve 
ourselves unto God. We must so use them, as we 
may in faith call upon God for a sanctified use ; and 
give him thanks for indulging such a liberty unto us. 
We must use them in a holy fear, not breaking out 
into passion, nor using any indirect course; but with 
a humble submission to that end, which, by the 
divine providence, shall fall out, especially in trying 

7. They must not be preferred before better things. 
Hereof we have a great instance in Moses : he dis- 
cerned afflictions with God's people to be better than 
pleasures in Pharaoh's court; therefore he chose afflic- 
tion before pleasures. 

Sec. 140. Of pleasures being temporary. 

To discover men's vanity in doting upon pleasures, 
the apostle addeth this epithet unto them, 'K^icx.ai^ov, 
for a season, or temporary; for it is but one word in 
Greek, and translated ' temporal,' and opi)osed to 
eternal, 2 Cor. iv. 18. It is a[)plied to the corn sown 
in stony ground, which continueth but ' a while,' Mat. 
xiii. 21, Mark iv. 17. Worldly jileasurcs, therefore, 
are but momentary. The wise man comparcth the 
laughter of fools to the crackling of thorns under a 
pot, Eccles. vii. 6. Inst.ance that delight which the 
fool took in his abundance; he thought he should 
enjoy them many years, but he did not enjoy them 
one night, Luke xii. 20. The wise man by experi- 
ence found them to be vanity, Eccles. ii. 1. 

They must needs be temporary, because they are, 

1. Of this world, which pasacth away, 1 John ii. 
16, 17, 1 Cor. viL 31. 

2. They are only for the time of this life. But 
this life is transitory ; it is as a flower, a vapour, a 
shadow, a bubble, a thought. Those and other like 
resemblances are fit, both in regard of the uncertainty 
of life — it may on a sudden vanish, as soon as the 
foresaid resemblances — and also in reference to eter- 
nity. Thus all resemblances come short in setting 
out man's life. 

3. They continue not all the time of this life. 
There are many occasions of interrupting them; as 
sundry sorts of sicknesses, other casualties, inward 
perplexities of soul, oppressions of men, manifold 
losses, and other crosses. It oft falleth out that ' even 
in laughter the heart is sorrowful,' Prov. xiv. 13. 
Instance Belshazzar, Dan. v. 5. 

This surely is a great aggravation of their folly, 
who pursue pleasures with the uttermost of their 
power; and though they may in words detest the 
foresaid opinion of Epicures, about placing happiness 
in pleasures, yet by their deeds they give too great 
approbation thereunto. I may apply to pleasures 
that which the wise man saith of riches, Prov. xxiii. 
5. They who give themselves most thereunto, find a 
sting in the tail of them. Let such note that answer 
that was given, Luke xvi. 23. 

The foresaid epithets of sinful and temporary 
should move us to seek after other pleasures, which 
are neither sinful nor temporary, but both lawfid and 
eternal. As Christ saith of meat, 1 may say of plea- 
sure, ' Labour for that which endureth to eternal life,' 
John vi. 27. 

Sec. 141. Of believers' esteem of what they choose. 

Ver. 26. Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater 
riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect 
unto the recompense of the reward. 

A third instance of Moses's contempt of the world 
is about riches. This, as the former, is set down com- 
paratively, to shew how far he went in contempt of 

The first word, ^yjjffa/itvof, translated esteeming, 
setteth out his opinion and judgment. Of the mean- 
ing of the word, see Ver. 11, Sec. 56. There it is 
translated 'judged ;' it is used to set out the apostle's 
opinion and judgment of other things compared to 
Christ, Phil. iii. 7, S. It implieth that Moses did 
not rashly what is here mentioned, but on mature 
consideration and good judgment. 

The word is here set down in the participle, esteem- 
ing, to shew that it is added to the former, as a like 
reason to that. He refused the honour of Egypt, be- 
cause he preferred the communion of saints before it, 
ver. 25. Here he is content to ' suffer affliction with 
God's people,' because he ' esteemed the rejjroach of 
Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt.' 

This giveth instance that a believer doth what he 
doth upon good ground. Peter's profession is an 
evident proof hereof, John vi. 68, 69. 

Vee. 26.] 



For believers have both, the word, as a light to shew 
unto them what is most excellent ; and also the Spirit, 
to enligliteu their understandings, and make them per- 
ceive what is to be esteemed, and withal to persuade 
them to esteem that which is worthy of esteem. 

Take notice of this evidence of faith. 

Sec. 142. Of enduring the reproach of Christ. 

That which Moses esteemed so highly as to prefer 
it before treasures, is here styled, tov OH/O/cr/xo*, re- 

Reproach is taken two ways. 

1. For that disgrace which a man justly brings 
upon himself by his ill-behaviour, and so is a just 
punishment. This is intended by the apostle, where 
he sheweth that a bishop must have a good report, 
' lest he fall into reproach,' 1 Tim. iii. 7. 

2. For that disgrace which is unjustly cast upon 
one for doing his duty, or for that which is good. 
Thus it is taken. Chap. x. 33, Sec. 124:. In this sense 
reproach may be, and hath been, cast upon God him- 
self, and upon Christ Jesus, Rom. xv. 3. In this 
sense it is here taken, and taken as a kind of perse- 
cution ; for so is reproach, as hath been shewn, Chap. 
X. 33, Sec. 124. 

To prove that this kind of reproach is here meant, 
it is styled ' the reproach of Christ : ' even that re- 
proach which for Clirist's sake was cast upon him. 

Quest. Christ was not then exhibited ; how could 
then the reproach of Christ fall upon ]\Ioses ? 

Ans. 1. Christ was promised anon after man's fall 
to Adam and his posterity, Gen. iii. 15. On that 
ground he was known, and believed on. 

2. Christ was many ways typiiied before he was 
exhibited : and thereby the faith of God's peojjle was 
confirmed on him. 

3. By Christ may be meant his mystical body, 
which compriseth under it the whole number of the 
elect, which were given to Christ by God's eternal 
counsel, Eph. i. 4. Thus is this title Christ used, 
Gal. iiL 16, 1 Cor. xii. 12. In this respect, re- 
proach of Christ signifieth the reproach of the church 
of God : so as Moses was reproached for joining him- 
self with the people of God. Hereof see more, Chap, 
xiii. 13, Sec. 13.5. 

By the way, we may here observe that Christ was 
of old made known to believers : and that he was ac- 
knowledged and believed in before he was made 
manifest in the flesh. It hath been shewed that he 
was comprised under the great promises made to Abra- 
ham, Chap. vi. 13, Sec. 95, and that he was typified 
before he was exhibited. Chap. vii. 3, Sec. 25. And 
that he is ever the same. Chap, vii 24, Sec. 98, and 
Chap. xiii. 8, Sec. 112. 

Sec. 143. Of reproaches preferred before riches. 
To amplify the high esteem which Moses had of 
the reproach of Christ, it is said to be greater riches 

than the treamres of Egypt. Every word in this com- 
parison carrieth emphasis. 

1. Riches, tXoZtov, use to be in high esteem among 
men — that which they use most of all to desire, and 
for which they do most bend their studies and bestow 
their pains. Kiches are the main end that most men 
aim at in getting ofiices, in managing trades, and in 
following their several callings, of what kind soever 
they be. Such, even of such price did Moses account 
the aforesaid reproach of Christ. 

2. This comparative, u.ii'Ctiia, greater, doth further 
amplify the point, for it hath reference to treasures. 
The riches here mentioned were not small riches, as 
the riches of one tradesman may be greater than 
another, and yet those greater riches not very great : 
but the riches which are meant were greater than 
treasures, that is, more worth, more highly to be 

3. Treasures, Srisaviiut,'^ imply abundance of precious 
things. A treasure is a heap or store of many things. 
It is derived from a verlj that signifieth to heap up, 
or as we speak, to treasure up. Mat. vi. 19, 20. 
Things treasured up use not to be mean, common, 
and ordinary, but choice and precious, of great worth 
and high account — as silver, gold, pearls, jewels, and 
all sorts of precious stones : even before these did 
Moses prefer the foresaid reproach. 

4. The place of these treasures, sv 'A/yu^rry, in 
Egypt, is specified. 

(1.) Because at that time Egypt was one of the 
richest nations of the world, where the greatest store 
of the choicest treasures were to be found. 

(2.) Because Moses was then of such esteem in 
Egypt as he might have had the choicest of the trea- 
sures thereof : yet he chose reproaches of Christ before 
these treasures. 

Here then we have an instance that reproaches of 
Christ are precious to believers. I may apply there- 
unto the words of the psalmist, they are 'better 
than thousands of gold or silver,' Ps. cxix. 72 ; yea, 
they are ' sweeter than honey, and the honeycomb.' 
This is evident by Matthew, Zaccheus, and other rich 
men's leaving their wealth to follow Christ, or to asso- 
ciate themselves with the church of Christ, Mat. ix. 
9, Luke xLx. 6, <tc., Acts iv. 34. 

Such reproaches procure an exceeding recompense 
of reward, Mat. v. 11, 12, and xix. 29. By this reason 
were the Hebrews moved to endure reproach, chap. 
X. 34. He that knows of what worth a diamond, 
pearl, or jewel is, will have it in high esteem, and 
endure much for it. 

It is therefore a point of singular wisdom to ac- 
quaint ourselves with the benefit and advantage that 
reproach for Christ's sake doth bring, that we may 
the more patiently, contentedly, and joyfuUy endure 
the same. 

This direction is the rather to be observed, because 
' $ri(ravpis quia Ti'Sexai la avpibv. 



[Chap. XI. 

by nature we are of a swinish disposition, to tramjile 
precious things under our feet. Most men are like 
the cock in the fable, which preferred a barley corn 
before a pearl. Ignorance of the worth of reproach 
for the gospel is that which doth much disquiet the 
spirits of many, by reason of that reproach, and dis- 
courageth theiu from making open profession thereof. 
Only let us take heed that we do not by any undue 
courses bring just reproach upon ourselves. 

Sec. 14-i. Of believers discerning betwixt things that 

Moses preferring one thing before another, namely, 
Christ, though accompanied with reproach, before all 
earthly pleasures, giveth proof that believers well 
discern betwixt things that differ. Thus Abraham 
discerned the difference betwixt following God's call 
and abiding in his own country. Gen. xii. 1. So 
Joseph discerned the difference betwixt that which 
God required and his mistress. This might be exem- 
plified in many others, as Ps. Ixxxiv. 10, Dan. ui. 17, 
18, Lukex. i-2, Acts iv. 19. 

The proper object of faith is God's word : the true 
believer niaketh that his counsellor, his judge, his 
guide, his instructor ; it is to him all in all. Now 
God's word layeth down the true difference betwixt 
things — nothing else so truly. Well therefore is it 
called 'the word of truth,' James i. 18. This word 
hath also a virtue in it, to enlighten the eyes of those 
that exercise themselves therein, Ps. cxix. 105. 

By t'nis we may discern the reason of the different 
opinions of believers and worldlings. They judge by 
faith : these by sense. They discern all things as 
they are cleared up unto them by the light of God's 
word : but these behold all things through the coloured 
glass of corrupt reason — yea, which is worse, of carnal 
sense. No marvel, therefore, that their opinions are 
so contrary as they are : one highly esteeming what 
the other basely accounteth of. Thus they wonder 
one at another; but let the world judge as it list : let 
us labour for faith, and that rightly grounded on God's 
word, that by it we may understand and choose the 
things that arc indeed most excellent. 

Sec. 145. Of the recompense of reivard. 

An especial motive whereby Moses was induced to 
prefer the society of God's people, and Christ him- 
self, though accompanied with affliction and reproach, 
is thus expressed, /or Ae Aarf respect unto the recom- 
pense of reward. This causal, yas, for, apparently 
noteth out a reason or motive of that which goeth 

This phrase, the recompense of reward, is the inter- 
pretation of one Greek word, /jLiaia-^o&oaioc ; whereof, 
see Chap. ii. 2, Sec. 16. According to the notation 
of the word, it properly signifieth a reward, whereby 
one is recompensed. This recompense of reward being 
applied to man, in reference to God who gives it, as 

is shewed, Ver. 6, Sec. 23, doth not import any desert 
on man's part, but abundant kindness on God's part, 
who will not suffer anything to be done or endured 
for his sake without recompense. 

That reward may stand with free grace, is shewed, 
Chap. viii. 8, Sec. 43. 

Quest. What may be the reward here intended ? 

Anx. It is not here distinctly set down: but by 
the inference of the reward upon that which went 
before, as the occasion of the reward, it may be col- 
lected in general, that it was higher honour, better 
pleasure, more precious treasures than could be had 
in Egypt. 

More particularly, the recompense might be both 
in the militant church on earth, and also in the tri- 
umphant church in heaven. 

In the militant church he was the chief governor; 
and he had much delight in the manifestation of 
God's glory to him, and much pleasure in the assur- 
ance of God's favour, and the precious treasures of 
the graces of God's Spirit. 

In the triumphant church there are honours, plea- 
sures, and treasures unutterable, unconceivable. 

By this it appears that there is a reward for the 

Of the reward of good works, see Chap. vi. 9, Sec. 57. 

Of the reward of patience, see Chap. vL 12, Sec. 88. 

Of the reward of suffering, see Chap. x. 34, Sees. 
130, 132. 

Sec. 14G. Of a believer's 7-especl to reward. 

By the aforesaid reward Moses was the more en- 
couraged, because his eye was still upon it. That is 
implied under this phrase, aa-s/SAJTS, he had respect. 

The Greek word is a compound, and properly sig- 
nifieth to look from one thing to another. 

Of the simple verb, /S/.s^w, which signifieth to see, 
we have spoken, on Chap. iL 9, Sec. 72 : and there 
shewed how it is sometimes properly used, for seeing 
with the eye of the body, and sometimes metaphori- 
cally, for seeing with the eye of the soul. This com- 
pound, afro/SXsn-w, is here to be taken metaphorically, 
for the sight of the soul. 

Thus a like word of the same signification, aosara, 
is used in the next verse, and applied to that which is 
invisible. To see him who is invisible, must needs 
be meant of a metaphorical and spiritual sight. 

In setting down this sight, there are two preposi- 
tions : one, cczo, signifieth from, with which this verb 
is compounded ; the other, £/;, signifieth to, and is 
joined by way of reference unto the recompense of 
reward. These two prepositions, from, to, imply 
two terms of motion ; one, from which one turueth ; 
the other, to which he turncth. It importeth a re- 
moving of the eye from one object to another. Hereby 
the mind of Moses is excellently set out ; he turned 
his mind and heart from the honours, pleasures, and 
treasures of Egypt, and fixed them upon the honours, 

Vee. 27.] 



pleasures, and treasures of God's church here on earth, 
and of his church above in heaven. 

Thus was he moved to prefer these before those. 

This act of Moses, in ha\'ing respect to the recom- 
pense of reward, is here approved ; and it demon- 
strateth that respect may be had to reward. See 
more hereof, Chap. vi. IS, Sec. 149. 

The inference of this act of Moses, as a reason of 
that which lie did before — namely, that he suffered 
affliction with the people of God, and refused to be 
called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, and esteemed 
the reproach of Christ greater riches than the trea- 
sures of Egypt — giveth proof that respect to reward 
maketh a believer deny anything, or endure anything; 
as those Hebrews ' suffered afflictions, and took joy- 
fully the spoiling of their goods,' Heb. x. 33, 34. 

They know that God can and will abundantly re- 
compense all. 

This sheweth one reason why so little is done and 
endured for Christ. Men do not look from that 
which is present to that which is to come. They 
consider not the recompense of reward. 

Let us therefore acquaint ourselves therewith, and 
oft meditate thereon, and duly weigh who is the 
rewarder, and what is the reward, both for the great- 
ness, and also for the continuance thereof : then shall 
we know that ' our light affliction, which is but for a 
moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and 
eternal weight of glory,' 2 Cor. iv. 17. This is it 
that will make us ' steadfast, unmovable, always 
abounding in the work of the Lord,' 1 Cor. xv. 58. 

Sec. 147. Of Moses forsaking Egypt. 

Ver. 27. By faith Ive forsook Egypt, not fearing the 
wrath of the king: for he endured, as seeing him who 
is invisible. 

One evidence of Moses's faith was his contempt of 
the world, manifested by refusing honour, ver. 24, 
pleasures, ver. 26, and treasures, ver. 26. 

Another evidence is here set down in this verse, 
■which was an undaunted spirit, in not fearing the 
u'rath of a king. 

A proof of this evidence is premised in this phrase, 
he forsook Egypt. This is here made a fruit of faith. 
By faith he did it. As he refused honour, pileasure, 
and wealth by f;\ith : so, by the same faith, he shewed 
himself to be of an invincible courage. 

The word translated forsook, is the same that is 
used, Chap. iv. 1, Sec. 7, and translated left. Thereof 
see more in that place. 

Concerning his forsaking' Egj'pt, the Scripture men- 
tioneth two times, betwixt which forty years passed 
(Acts vii. 30). 

One, when he fled into Midian, Exod. ii. 1.5. 

The other, when he led the people of Israel out of 
Egypt into the wilderness, Exod. xii. 31, ifcc. 

Interpreters differ about the time which should be 
here meant. 

Both ancient and modern expositors' apply it to 
the former, namely, his flying out of Egypt to Midian. 
Their reasons are these ; — 

1. The order of setting down this point by. the 
apostle. For the other leaving of Egypt was after 
the passover, ver. 28, 29. 

2. The emphasis of the word forsook, which im- 
plieth a flying from Egypt as a banished man. 

3. The other departure out of Egypt is set down 
by the apostle in another place, ver. 29, therefore it 
cannot be here intended. 

Many of our later expositors apply this to the latter 
forsaking of Egypt. Their reasons are these : — 

1. Moses then so forsook Egj'pt as he never re- 
turned to it again. 

2. Then was the king's wrath most incensed 
against hira. 

3. Then he shewed greatest courage against the 
king's wrath. 

To take up this ditference I see no necessity to 
oppose one against the other ; for, 

1. At both times great faith was manifested — yea, 
and an undaunted spirit. 

2. At both times he did forsake Egyjit. 

3. The wrath of the king was at both times in- 
censed against him ; for at first he sought to slay 
Moses, Exod. ii. 13. 

At the second time, he charged Moses to see his 
face no more — threatening death if he saw him again, 
Exod. X. 29. 

Ohj. At the first, it is said that Moses fled from 
Pharaoh, Exod. ii. 15. This cannot be accounted a 
matter of courage, but rather of prudence, that he 
wisely used a means to avoid danger. 

Ans. That prudence may stand with courage, 
where Christ again and again stirreth up his disciples 
not to fear man, he adviseth them to fly from city to 
city when they are persecuted. Mat. x. 23, 26 ; so 
as a wise avoiding of danger may stand with good 
courage. Christ himself did oft keep himself from 
danger, Luke iv. 30, John viii. 59. 

Herein his courage appeared, that he maintained 
the cause of his countrymen, and slew an Egyptian 
in the quarrel, which he well knew could not but 
incense the king. 

This evidence of faith, that Moses forsook Egypt, 
wherein he had such honour and wealth and free- 
dom as he enjoyed in Eg)'pt, giveth proof that faith 
will put on a man to forsake any place. This made 
Abraham leave his native country, ver. 8 ; so did 
Euth, Kuth i. 16. Faith assures a Christian of a 
better place than that which is left in God's cause, 
ver. 16, 35. 

Hereby we may discern a true faith, if being born 
and brought up in an idolatrous or profane place, 
where honours, pleasures, and treasures may be en- 

' Chrysost., Theodoret., Theophyl., OJcumen., Junius in 
Paral., Aug., Marlorat. in Eccles. Expos. 



[ClIAP. XI. 

joyed, yiit, for cnnnclpnco' wikc, wr ('iirimlK^ tlml placr, 
Miiii'ly w(i li/ivi' a Kii"'l fiiit'i- 

Sir. MH. Of not fi-iiriinj t/ir vnil/i nf n hiiii/. 

Hiirli II prixif iiH wiiH K'v'ii "f 111" I'liill' "f M'ihuh'h 
]iiiri'nlM, llmt tlii'y wfin 'mil, iifiniil (.I'IIki kifiK't <'<i'"i- 
iimiitliiKml,' Ih liciT nivim uf tim I'liilli of Mcihch liiiii- 
Mcir, ' not fciiliiiK till' wnilli of llin kiliK-' ll«r<) lliii 
|iiiiiil in Hi't. nut. with iiiiii'li i'iri|iliiiHis ; I'ur, 

I. Men imi' I" li" miiihI. Iriinii wlicii Uicir clinlcr is 
Hlini'il ii|i mid Willi li iiicciiMcd, Wiiilli iiiulnn iiiin 
HiioU (Im KroiitcHt nivon^o ; yc^ iMiphi'h diil imiI in Mirh 
II ciiMci I'l'iir. 

1!. 'I'll" wnil.li iif a Itliu; iiHi'l.li In l>ii iiinici fcmcd 

tliiiii 111!' Willi li 111 (illicT III mid lliat. liy ic^iihiiii nl' 

liJH Hiiini'iiiii iiulliiirily, and id' liin jiiiwiir In wink tlm 
l^i'ciitrr iiiiHidiiff. ''I'll" kiiiK'M wnilli w an tlm niariiij; 
III' a linn,' I'liiv. xix. \'l. And 'an iiiohmoiiuci'm of 
dl'Mtil,' I'iciv. xvi. I I. 

'riiiiH, tlidii, 111" niiinit.Mi (if MoHiiH in luiiiiiilii'd liy 
u f{nidiiliiiii. 

I. II « fi'iiicd lint, iiulii. 

;i. 11(1 fcari'd mil. Ili" grciitcut of men, a //'»//. 

;i, Mil fnari'd nof liiiil. wliicli iiiomI, iilViiidilM iii"ii, 
tlm wi-iilh of a kiii)j;. 

It wan liiH fiiiUi in lind Hiid "X|.cllcd tliiM Iriir of 

'I'lial. KrculcHl, I'diu-H an'i'iL;lil iml iMlicvciM ; fur wli.il 
nuimi ol' nitMil"!' f"iil' I'duld llirr" I"' lli.m IIk' wriilli 
of Hiicli a kiiiK an i'liariinli was '( Sec more licKid, 
Vor. 2;i, NiT. \'1\K 

H(io. M!>. t\t' II li,'li<i<n'» irmniiiiiiii iiii'liin'l>/<: 

To Hlirw tlml. it wan no l>locki«li Hliiiiidily, nor 
oliHliiml" iniiiiiiUnu'", Unit. wiiMif-lit. Hiidi a rcMnliitioii 
in MoMim, iiH not, to I'nar llm wiatli of tlm king, tlic 
iiiawiii tlicrcof in IliiiH rimdi'iiid, fur If niilinol, ii.i 
ffriiiij him wild if iin'inililf, 

'I'll" ai>;immiit. iH taken Iroiii Urn diirenin"" l)('^\vixt. 
(loii and man ; for lliiM iiIhiihh, who in iiivisitilr, xn a 
d('MCli|ilinM of (lod. 

'I'lic aiKMiiiciil lliiMi may !«< tlnm framed. 

He tliiil eiiii Hce liiiii lliiil w ilivi.tiliie will not fear 
llm wrath of a viMiiiln kiiij; ; 

Hill MiweH Hiiw liiiii tlial WMM iiivisililn; 

•I'lieref.ile lie would not. feiir, .\:e. 

Ill (lellim; down Huh ii'iihoii, llieio is iinollier act. of 
Mourn tliiiH cxinvMNed, iKt^ri^r^ni, hf eiulund. TliiM 
vorli, x«{rt{iw, Ih derived from a noun, xfaro;, wliieli 
Minnilielh ntvfitilth, |iowi>r, eourai;o ; ho as llio word 
of Iiiin li'Xi. tiiiluriil, imiilielli lliat MoseH eontinued 
rcNoliile mid iiiiuiovulile , li" wan no wliil daunted, 
liiil. reliiiiied an inviiuilile eouni^e. 

liy tliitt we nee tlial. a trim and Hound I'liith maken 
tlm lieliever inviiu'ildo, ho aH no eaUHe of liiiman fear 
will daiiiit liim. lie thai naid. even in ivfereiiee to 
(lod. ■ llioiif^li he Hhiy me. yet 1 will IriiMl in him," 
luul Mueh mi iuvineiliie Hiiiiil, .lol> xiii. Ifl. So, in 

reference to iiinii, had Danicl'i) throe companions, 
Dim. iii. 17. 'I'liiH \n In tho lifo cxjircsHed by him 
thai miid, ' lii all ihcKe tliiii^H wo nro iiioru tliun con- 
i|iiernrH t,hl'nu;{li him thallnveduH. l''nr I am perHiiadrd, 
lliiil nciliu'r death, nor life, nor ari^clH, iVe., hIihII IiO 
alihi tn KeiHinite us frniii the lovo nf God,' llniii. viii. 
:J7, ito. 

'rriiu faith never fiiilrlli, luit nlainelli a perpotunl 
vif{(iiir ; and Ihereiipnii it makutli men eiiduru niid 
relli:iill ilivilicilihr. 

lliM'e liehnld tho roaHoii of incirH fainting upon 
vinliiiil nppo.sition, and nf HhrinkiiiK in their lioitds 
llirniiv;h eniitiniianco nf Hindi nppnHitinn. 'I'liey oitlior 
have not, nr exenti.ne lint faith ii.s they Bliould. Thoy 
ai'ipiiiint not tlieniHelveH with the ^roiind.s of faith, 
wiiieli aro (Ind'H pi'(i[iertie.i, prniiiiHeM, and porfnr- 
niancuH. ' If tlinu faint in tho day of iidvorHity, thy 
Htrength Ih Hiiiall,' I'rov. xxiv. 10. The day of advor- 
iiity i.i the lime to act fiiitli ; if tlicii a man faint when 
lie Hiiiiiild iiiiiMt iii.'iiiifi'.sl IiIh fuitli, there may lie Jii.st 
.■m:ipii-iiiii of Ihe Inilli, or, at lenst, of the vigour of 
hi.s l;iilli. 

See. I.M). Of l„li,-t;ri> siriiKj llo,l. 

The gidlind of Mohch endiiriiif; an he did in thus 
.Mel. down, lis nviiiiij him ivha in iiii'inili/i: 

Of tho word, o^iuv, trauHlatcd siiiiii/, hoo Chap. ii. H, 
See. IiH, and Ver. !», Sec. 72. 

It in here net down in a participle nf the jiresont 
teii.se.'to declare a continued act. 

Tlii.s Keeing mUHt needn lie meant of a .spiritual 
NiL'Jil liy tho eyo nf tho Hold, which in faith. For ho 
whom he eyed in Kiiid to ho iiivitihle ; lint nn ill- 
visilile thiiij,' caiiuot lie neon with a onrpninl eye. 
That wniild imply cnntiadiclinn. l''nr that which 
may lie di.Mcerncd with a Imdily oyo Ih vi.siblo ; but 
vi.iihlf ami iiiri.iili/r uro contradictory. 

This piirliil(>, ii;, (in, in proiniHod, not by wny of 
diminution, a.s if it were a Hoemiiig to hcc, but rathvr 
by way of amplilicalinii. l'"or, 

I. Tlii.H parliclii doth HnniotimcH imply an identify 
mill reality of a thin;; ; and it Im uned to not forth tho 
pei'.spieuily and eleiirne.sH tlioroof ; as where it is said, 
' tho nlory <(.■" of the ouly-bogotton son of (!od,' ,101111 
i. M. 

'2. It implieth a kind nf spiritual ra]itur(-, as if 
Mo.ses had been rapt into the highest heaven, and 
tlii>re beheld (lod hiiu.nelf oncnnragiiij^ him in what 
he did. 

This act of MoaoH ^ivcth nn iuHtmico of the virtue 
nf fiiilli, which is to net a man always before Und. 
\ true believer is like I'lnncli, wlin walked with Clod, 
mid that colli iiiually, as tho omphasiH of tho Hebrew 
woitl implieth, lien. v. HI. ' I have set tho Lord 
always before luo,' saith a bolievor, I'.s. xvi. S. It 
was .Miniham's speech, ' The Lord before whom I 
walk,' (leu. xxiv. U'. 

tiod is the |iropcr object of faith ; tho object 

Vku. 2,S.J 

ClDTinK ON limUlKWH. 


wliurein it doliglita ; tlio object on which it rp.stN ; 
tho object from whom it txpcctH cvoiy ffood tliiiif^ ; 
the object to whjcli it ivtiiniM the ultny of alh 

llcic liciioiil th(! rciison of a bulicvcr'.s cdiinif^u. 
'I'lic world wonders lit it, nnd no imhi'vcI, for it .seelh 
liot him wJiom buiiovorH hoc. 

(hid's ]irc«oneo i.s tiiat vvhicii cndioldenpth bolicvoi-H, 
iiH liero MoHcs whm emboidtiiicd tiiuroby. iSoo nioro 
hereof, Cliap. xiii. (!, See. 7S. 

Roc. 1/51, (y'sfciiii/ liim 'I'ho II iiivinili/f, 

Tliis utti-ibiite, a/i^atov, iiivuiJilt:, is (h:rived from 
tlie former vv<ird, 'Jfin', translated aocinij ; for ji priva- 
tive! particle is joined vvitli it, so as it implielh the 
contrary to seeing, even that which cannot bo seen. 

'I'he t'liitliet is attributed to (!oil, (Jol. i. IT), 1 Tim. 
i. 17, and tliat in a double roH[)ec,t^ 

i. In rej^ard (jf tho divine; substance, whii-li is 
spiritual. ICvery s[iirit is invisibh;, Luke .\.\iv. .'i'J ; 
much rnoro tho purest spirit of all. 

2. In regard of a divine property, which is to be 
incomprehensibli!, in which respet^t (!hrist saith, 'No 
man hath seen (iod at any time,' .bilin i. 18 ; and ho 
is said to 'dwell in tho li^ht which no man c.ui ap- 
pro.ich ni)to,' 1 Tim. vi. 10. 

I. This is a strong argiinieiit against all the (•un- 
coils of aj)thr()i)omorj)hites, who would make (Iod 
like unto man. >Seo jiioro of tliosu, Chap. i. 10, Sec. 


'2. It is a« strong an argument against all roi)rcHunt- 
atiotis of (Jod. (Jod himself thus pressoth this argu- 
ment, ' Yo saw no nuumcr of similitude on llie day 
that tho Lord spake unto you,' Deut. iv. l/i. 

3. It is also ag.-iinst all apprehensions, in the mind, 
of (Iod in the likc^ness of any visible object. 

4. It sli(!ws that we must conceive <Jod as he is re. 
voided in his word. Ilo, being invisible, is an object 
not for tho eyes but for tho ears, not for the brain 
but for tho heart, Tho mystery of iiidty in trinity, 
nnd tho divine [jroiiertie.s, <luly considered in the 
mind, will raiso up a great admiration and a high 
esteem of (Jod, and a due respect towards him. 

.11. 'I'his invisibility of (!od doth not keep him from 
Bccing us. Though visible things cannot see; things 
invisible, yet he that is invisibhj can and (hitli see 
them that an! visible : ' Tho eyes of tho Lord in 
every [)laco behold tin; evil and tho good,' I'rov. xv. .'1. 
No obstacle hineh^reth tho sight oi him who is in- 
visible. How should this stir us up so to carry onr- 
Rclvos in all [ilaciM, and at all timi^s, and in all actions, 
(18 scon by him whom with our bodily i^yes we sco 
not I lie that is invisible seeth thee, when thou 
neither sccst him nor thinkost of him. 

Sec. 1.12. Of fiiUli, rdiiiiiii) <i riKin ahove ieniie. 

This joining together of things tli.at seem to bo 
i;ontradictory, namely, seehitj and invliihlc, in this 
l)hra8e, si-.einij him %oho ia invisible, givcth an evident 

Vol.. IIL 

proof of tho vigour of faith in raising a man nbovo 


On tills groinid, M.iilh the .-ipdMlle, 'whom having 
not seen, ye love, in wIkjui, thon).;li now ye see him 
ncit, yet believing, yo rejoice with joy unspeakable,' 
1 l'<itor i. H. On this ground (!hiist himself pro- 
iKiuncoth them blessed ' who have not hooii, and yet 
have believed,' .lolin xx. 29. 

Ood's word is th(! proper object of faith ; what 
(iod's word reveid<!th, faith Ixdievith. 

1. Ilej(!by we have a demonslralion of tho oxci^l- 
lency of faith. It is of an infinite capacity ; for they 
ar(! infinite and inc,ompreh(Misiblo mysteries whicli 
the word reveah^th, yet faith believelh them all ; no 
grace is like unto it. 

2. This shewolh the reason of faith's vigour in 
supporting against sense. It sccith beyond things 
seen and visible, (hid by many juilgmenls seems to 
bii angry ; faith S(!eth him pacilicd in (!hrist. Wo 
an; hc^ro in this world subject to many visible miseries ; 
faith seeth a spirituid happiness in Iheni, and ii 
C(!lestial felicity following upon them. Our bodies 
putrefy in tho grave, yet faith beholdeth a resurrco- 
tiiin of them. 

.'!. Hereby learn how suro a ground tho martyrs 
liiiil of snU'cring so much as they did, and that with 
constancy to tho end. They saw (as Christ did, Ilol). 
xii. 2) a joy that was set before tli<'.m, whieh swal- 
lowed up tho terror of all things sensible. 

4. Have we not good aii<l great reason to do wh.at 
wo can to get, ]n:r\>, nourish, and strengthen f.ulh ( 

Sec. i;5.'t. Of /■ill/,'.'! wndi,,;/ ohn/inir.e. 

Vv.i: 2K. Tliiiiiiiili, J'aiili. In- h;/,! i/i,: piimmr, awl 
tint njirlii/i-/i/ii/ (if liliKiil, Iml In: lluit dinlroi/cd lite Jiral- 
hum. xli.oidil tdiirh lliiiii. 

Hen! is set down tho third evidence of Moses's 
faith (soo S(!<!. 147 in tho b(!ginning), which was his 
ob<!di(!n('.e to (Jod's charge. 

Though our Mnglish do Hoin(!what alter tho ac- 
customed phrase, which is, hy fitlh, and therein alter 
the (ilegant (indjihurd, or beginning s(!Ver.d ])roofH 
with tho same jihraso, thus, li;/ fiilh, yet the (Jreok is 
constant in hohling the samo word, without any varia- 
tion. Such an alteration was noti!d in the b(!ginning 
of vcr. I I ; l>ut those two phrases, lliruiiijli, fiitk, and 
hi) ftilh, intend one nnd the uamo thing. 

Th(! repeating of IIk! woni in th<i beginning shewcth 
that this is aiKither and a distini'.t evidence of faitli, 
and that, t.akeil in tins same sense as it was before, for 
a true justifying faith ; which so apprehends Ood's 
respei^t to man, as it makes man to take all occasions 
of testifying all duo respect to Ood, which Moses 
hen: did in his faithful observing of that which Uod 
Ii.'kI (!Xiiressly (!njoined him. 

The |)articular act of Moses's obedience is thus ox- 
[)ress<!d, he kepi the piinHiivfr. 

Tho word of obedience hero used, voiiu, Hignifieth 



[Chap. XI. 

to make, as if it had been thus translated, ni'^olri^.i, 
he made the passover. 

This word, mdkiiuj, hath a double reference. 

One, to the primary institution whereby Moses de- 
livered it as a divine ordinance to the people. He 
first made it known to the people, and, in that re- 
spect, may be said to make it. In this sense, our 
former English translation thus renders it, ' He or- 

Obj. God, not Moses, was the ordainer of it. 

Ans. The Holy Ghost doth oft attribute divine 
works to the ministers whom God is pleased to use 
about them, John vii. 19. See more hereof, Chap, 
iv. 8, Sec. 48. 

Tlie other reference of this word, made, is to the 
observation and celebration of the passover; for 
Moses both observed it in his own person, and also 
caused all the people to observe it. Thereupon our 
translators thus render it, /t« kept. 

Herein we have a pattern — 

1. Of obedience ; for faith puts men on to do what 
God enjoineth. So did the faith of Noah, ver. 7; of 
Abraham, and of others. See Ver. 8, Sec. 37. 

2. Of faithfulness in declaring God's ordinances to 
others, that they may observe them, see Chap. iii. 
2, Sees. 32, 40. 

Sec. 154. Of the passover. 

That object whereabout Moses testified his obe- 
dience, and manifested his faith, is here styled '^oidya., 
the passover. Some would have this Greek word 
from a verb, 'jraayjiv, that signifieth to suffer. That 
derivation might be fit enough, but that it is evident 
that the Greek, as also the Latin, are taken from the 
Hebrew, nD3, transiliit. The Hebrew root signifieth 
to pass over; thence a noun, nD3, iransitus, which 
signifieth a passing over. The Chaldce and Syriac do 
hold the .s.ime letters, but add thereunto another 
letter, which we pronounce A, XPIDE). In like man- 
ner, both the Greek, r:d'!'/a., and the Latin, pascha, re- 
tain a word of the like pronunciation, which is 
pascha. Our English passover fitly setteth out the 
meaning of the name. 

The occasion of giving this name passover to the 
ordinance intended, is double. 

1 . In reference to the first time that it was observed, 
namely, to be a sign unto them, and an assurance 
that the destroyer, which slew the firstborn in every 
liouse of the Egyptians, w'ould pass over the houses 
of the Israelites, and destroy none in thorn, if they 
observed that which was enjoined about this pass- 
over, Exod. xii. 11-13. 

2. In reference to after times, to put people in mind 
of God's passing over, and delivering the houses of 
the children of Israel, when he smote the Egyptians, 
E.xod. .xii. 27, 28. 

I find this word passover used in four distinct 
respects : 

1. In reference to the whole feast, with all the 
rites and circumstances thereof, Exod. xii. 11. 

2. In reference to the sacrifices that were offered 
up at that feast, Deut. xvi. 2. 

3. In reference to the lamb that was then to be 
killed and eaten. In this respect, it is said, ' they 
roasted the passover with fire,' 2 Chron. xixv. 13 — 
that is, the lamb, which was the sacramental element 

4. In reference to the truth and substance of that 
type, which was Christ, of whom it is thus said, 
' Christ our passover is sacrificed for us,' 1 Cor. v. 7. 

The word passover is here taken in the first and 
largest sense, namely, for the whole feast, with all 
the rites of it. In this sense it may be thus de- 
scribed : 

The passover was an ordinary sacrament of the 
Jews, wherein, by eating a lamb after the manner 
prescribed, under a temporal deliverance, man's 
spiritual and eternal deUverauce was sigiufied and 
sealed up unto them. 

Ten distinct points are observable in this distinc- 
tion : 

1. It was a sacrament ; for the Lord's supper was 
substituted in the room thereof. Mat. xxvi. 19, 26; 
and it had like rites to the Lord's supper, Luke xxii. 
15-17 ; and the same substance was sealed up by 
both, namely Christ, 1 Cor. v. 7. 

2. It was a sacrament of the Jews, to distinguish it 
from the sacraments of Christians. The sacraments 
of the Jews were types of things to come ; but the 
sacraments of Christians are memorials of things to 

3. It was one of their ordinari/ sacraments, to dis- 
tinguish it from their extraordinary sacraments, which 
were but for the time of their abode in the wilder- 
ness. Of the several kinds of sacraments, see Chap, 
ix. 20, Sec. 108. 

4. It is said to be one of their ordinary sacraments, 
to distinguish it from circumcision, which was the 
other. Gen. xvii. 9. 

5. The outward element therein was a lamb, Exod. 
xii. 3 ; for this creature did very fitly set out Christ, 
the substance of that sacrament ; therefore he is oft 
styled the Lamb, John i. 29, 1 Pet. i. 19. 

(). That lamb was to be eaten, to shew their partici- 
pation of Christ, John vi. 53. 

7. That it was to be celebrated after the manner 
prescribed, is evident by this injunction, ' Ye shall 
keep tlie passover in his appointed season, according 
to all the rites of it,' itc. Num. ix. 3. The distinct 
rites are exprcsslj- set down, Exod. xii. 3, etc. ; they 
concerned citlicr the [)reparation to the passover, or 
the partaking thereof. 

Kites concerumg the preparation to the passover 
were these : 

(1.) A choice lamb, ver. 5. 

' Qu. ' 0£ things come' f— Ed. 

Vee. 28.] 



(2.) A keeping of that lamb from the dam four 
days, ver. 6. 

(3.) Killing that lamb, yer. 6. 

(4r.) Sprinkling the blood thereof, ver. 7. 

(5.) Roasting it whole, vers. 8, 9. 

Rites concerning the partaking of the passover were 
these : 

(1.) Eating the flesh of the lamb, and that all of 
it, vers. 8, 10. 

(2.) Eating it with unleavened bread and bitter 
herbs, ver. 8. 

(3.) It must be eaten with their loins girded, their 
shoes on their feet, their staff in their hand, and that 
in haste, ver. 1 1 . 

(4.) It was to be eaten in one house, ver. 46. 

8. Those rites were to be a sign and seal, ver. 13. 

9. The temporal deliverance thereby intended was 
preservation of their firstborn from that destruction 
which feU upon the firstborn of the Egyptians, and 
from the place and state of their bondage, vers. 17, 
27, Exod. siii. 3. 

10. The spuitual deliverance typified hereby was 
their deliverance from their bondage under sin and 
Satan, 1 Cor. v. 7, John i. 29. 

Sec. 1.55. Of a sacramental union. 

This word passover, being here put for the sacra- 
mental rites thereabout used, giveth instance that, in 
sacraments, the sign and thing signified are mutually 
put one for another. 

1. Here the thing signified is put for the sign. In 
this sense, ' God's covenant' is said to be ' in the flesh ' 
of them that were circumcised, Gen. xvii. 13. 

2. The sign is put for the thing signified ; as the 
)-oci: for Christ, 1 Cor. x. 4. 

3. The property of the thing for the property of 
the sign ; as baptism is said to save us, 1 Pet. iii. 21. 

4. The property of the sign for the property of the 
thing ; as washing, which is the property of outward 
baptism, applied to that which taketh away sin. Acts 
xxii. IG. 

The reason hereof is a sacramental union betwixt 
the sign and thing signified. As a hypostatical union 
of the two natures of Christ gave occasion to attribute 
the properties of the one nature to the other, so doth 
a sacramental union. By virtue of the hypostatical 
union, the ' Son of man,' even when he was on earth, 
was said to be 'in heaven,' John iii. 13 ; and on the 
other side, the blood wherewith we were redeemed is 
said to be the ' blood of God,' Acts xx. 28. 

Hereby it appeareth that the inference which 
Papists and Ubiquitaries make of transubstantiation 
and consubstantiation from this phrase, this is my 
iody, is unsound. See Chap. ix. 20, Sec. 107. 

The passover being a like figure to the Lord's 
supper (which succeeded the passover. Mat. xxvi. 26), 
I hold it meet distinctly to set down, 

1. The agreement bet-ivixt these two sacraments. 

2. The difi'erence betwixt them. 

1. They agree in these particulars following : 

(1.) In the same author; they are both of divine 
institution, Exod. xLi. 1, I Cor. xi. 23. 

(2.) In the general properties of a sacrament. Both 
had their signs and things signified ; both had their 
sacramental rites ; both were annexed to a covenant 
and to promises, as seals. 

(3.) The particular thing signified of both was 
Christ, 1 Cor. v. 7, and x. IG. 

(4.) There was the same benefit of both, which 
was deliverance from death, and reconciliation vdih 

(5.) Both had the same means of application, and 
participation of the benefit of them, which was fiiith. 

(6.) Both had the same ends ; which were, 

il.l To seal God's promises. 
2.1 To testify our faith and obedience. 
3. J To be a badge of our profession. 
4.] To distinguish from such as were not God's 

[5.] To maintain love. 

2. The difterences betwixt the passover and the 
Lord's supper are these : 

(1.) The outward element in that was a lamb ; in 
this, bread and wine, which are more common, usual, 
and sooner prepared, 

(2.) Particular rites ; that had many, and those 
difficult ones ; whereof before. This, fewer and more 
easily performed, 

(3.) The manner of setting forth Christ. That, set 
him forth to come ; this, past. 

(4.) The perspicuity and clearness. As a decla- 
ration of a thing is more perspicuous than a predic- 
tion of it, and an accomplishment of a thine more 
evident than a prophecy of it, so is our sacrament 
more perspicuous and clear than the Jews'. 

Ohj. Killing of a lamb and shedding blood do more 
plainly and lively set forth a sacrifice, than breaking 
bread and pouring out wine. 

Ans. 1. That may be granted in regard of the out- 
ward manner; and it was needful it should be so, 
because they were children in comparison of us, and 
the thing signified not then accomplished, so as it 
could not be so easily conceived and discerned. But 
perspicuity of a sacrament is not so much in the out- 
ward element or rites, as in the word annexed thereto, 
whereby the meaning of what is done is distinctly 

Ans. 2. The elements and rites of the Lord's sup- 
per are more significant than the element and rites of 
the passover, and they do more lively set forth the 
whole benefit that we receive by Christ, which is not 
only to have sin removed, but to be nourished and 
refreshed by him. Bread better compriseth all man- 
ner of food under it than flesh : bread is the strength 
and stay of a man's life. Wine may be drunk, but 
blood canuot. Wine cheereth the heart of man. A 



[Chap. XI. 

participation of Christ is more lively set forth in the 
rites of the Lord's supper than of the passover. 

(5.) The efficacy. As the Lord's supper doth 
more lively set forth our participation of Christ, so 
the efficacy thereof must needs be the greater, accord- 
ing to man's apprehension in Christ, and is more or 
less affected. 

(fi.) The amplitude. The passover was only for 
the .Jews, Exod. xii. 43 ; the Lord's supper is for all 

(7.) The continuance. The passover had a date ; 
this is to continue ' tUl the Lord's coming,' 1 Cor. xi. 26. 

Sec. 156. Of sacraments heing means to strengtlien 
our faith. 

One special end of this passover, in reference to 
the first observation thereof, was to assure them of 
their preservation from that destruction which should 
be in every house of the Egyptians. God afforded 
them this means for strengthening their faith. This 
general, to strengthen faith, is the end of aU sacra- 
ments. It was an end of circumcision, Rom. iv. 11. 
It is indeed the end of those extraordinary signs which 
God of old afforded to his people, Exod. iv. 5, 8, 9, 
Judges vi. 37, and vii. 10, 11. This was the end of 
God's entering into covenant with his people. Gen. 
xvii. 17, and of binding himself by oath to make 
good his promise, Heb. vi. 17, 18. 

1. God knoweth man's backwardness to believe, 
and proneness to distrust. 

2. He hath an earnest desire that we should par- 
take of the benefit of his promises. 

On these grounds he useth means for strengthen- 
ing our faith. 

1. On^ the tender-heartedness of God towards 
man ! How should this bind us to God ! 

2. Let us carefully observe the means which God 
affordeth for strengthening our faith, and use them 

As this passover was continued in future years 
after that deliverance given, it was a memorial thereof, 
and giveth proof that God's memorable mercies are 
to be held in perpetual memory. See more hereof.'' 

As the keeping of this passover is here produced 
for an evidence of the faith of Moses, who by faith 
kept the passover, it giveth proof that sacraments arc 
to be solemnised by faith : as one sacrament, so all 
sacraments are to be solemnised ; and in the parti- 
cular here set down, b;/ faith every part of God's 
worship is to be performed. ' By faith Abel offered 
his sacrifice,' ver. 4. 'What things soever you desire 
when you pray, believe,' (fee, Mark xi. 24. 

Faith makes both our persons and works accept- 
able to God, ver. 6, otherwise our persons are odious, 
and our works are abominable in God's sight. 

Li sacraments this is tlie rather to be observed, 
because thereof are two parts. 

' Qu. ' Oh ' (—Ed. ' Ecfcrcncc omitted. - Ed. 

One is God's offer. 

The other is our receiving. This is done by faith, 
without which God's offer is altogether in vain. 

1. Hereby take notice of the reason of that small, 
or rather no profit which many receive from God'8 
ordinances in general, and from the sacraments in 
particular. They want that eye of the soul whereby 
they might perceive the g(jod tendered to them by 
God, and the liand whereby they might receive it. 
Faith is both that cj'e and hand. 

2. Hereby learn how to prepare thyself to a due 
partaking of the sacrament. By faith observe it. 
Let thy heart be seasoned and filled therewith. For 
this end take notice of God's promises, particularly 
of those that are sealed up by the sacrament. Thus 
may faith be wrought in thee. Meditate on them ; 
so may thy faith be strengthened, so will the sacra- 
ment be profitable unto thee. 

Sec. 157. Of sprinkling blood. 

To the former evidence of Moses his faith, by keep- 
ing the passover, the apostle addeth another, which 
was sprinkling of blood. Those two are joined to- 
gether by the ordinary copulative, za;', and. And 
well may they be joined, for the one was observed 
with the other : when the lamb was slaiu, they were 
enjoined to ' take of the blood, and strike it on the 
two side posts,' Exod. xii. 7. The noun, crsoeyjjai*, 
translated .sprinkling, is derived from a verb, rrsoayyu, 
that significth to 2wur out: for the blood wa.s poured 
into a basin, and carried to their door, and there 
sprinkled upon the posts thereof. 

Of the derivation of the noun translated sprinkling, 
see Chap ix. 22, Sec. 11. 

Blood was there used to be a sign unto them that 
blood should not be shed in their houses. Blood 
under the law typified the means of atonement. 
Hereof see Chap. ix. 7, Sec. 43, and Ver. 18, Sec. 99. 

The sprinkling of blood did typify the application 
of the means of atonement to a man's own sel£ 
Hereof see Chap. ix. 12, Sees. 71, 72. 

Blood was the ground of atonement ; sprinkling 
was the means of reaping benefit thereby. 

The rite of sprinkling blood was used only the first 
time of celebrating the passover, because it was a sign 
of that particular cLslivcrance which then only was 
given. There was iLot the like occasion for it at 
other passovers ; for such a destroyer, as is noted 
in the words following, was only sent at that 

Sec. 158. Of him t/utt destroyed l/u Jirsthorn in 

One special reason of the foresaid rite of sprinkling 
blood is thus expressed, lest he that destroyed, ic. ; 
so as it was for preventing a great danger. This 
particle, ha /Mri, lest, or as it is in the Greek, that not 
(meaning that the destroyer might not touch them), 

Vee. 28.] 



iniplieth that what was done w'as to prevent danger, 
that such or such an evil might not surprise them. 

So as faith may stand with prudence in preventing 
danger, both in reference to ourselves and also in re- 
ference to others. For Moses hereby prevented both 
the danger of his own house, and also of every house 
amongst the Israelites. Prudence in this case may 
especially be used, when such means are used as God 
prescribeth for preventing danger. We heard before, 
Ver. 23, Sec. 125, that danger might be prevented in 
others. And Moses forsaking Egypt, sheweth that 
men may avoid the danger whereunto themselves are 

How fear and faith may stand together, see Chap. 
V. 7, Sec. 45. 

This phrase, o ohoSsi-liiav, he that destroj/eJ, cometh 
from the same root that the word, aTruXua, trans- 
lated perdition, did. Whereof see Chap. x. 39, Sec. 

It is here a participle of the present tense, and 
implieth that he was much in destroying. He spared 
never a house of any of the Egyptians. 

Quest. AVho was this destroyer ? 

Ans. 1. Principally and primarily, it was God him- 
self ; for he saith, ' I wUl smite all the firstborn,' ic. 
And Moses saith, ' The Lord will pass through to 
smite the Egyptians,' Exod, xii. 12, 23, 

2. Instrumentally and secondarily, an angel might 
do it, as an angel smote Israel with a plague, 2 Sam. 
xxiv. 16, and the Assyrians with a sudden destruc- 
tion, 2 Kings xix. 35. 

Whether one or more angels were implied ^ is not 
expressly determined ; and it is too curious to search 
after it. It might be done by the ministry of one, 
or many might be employed about it. Whosoever 
they were, they were God"s instruments, and, as it 
were, God's hand ; so as hereby it is manifest that 
God avengeth. He hath many ways, means, and 
instruments of vengeance, but they are all ordered by 
him. Hereof see Chap. x. 30, Sec. 112. 

Sec. 159. Of the extent of God's veiigeance on all, 
of all sorts. 

The parties destroyed are here said to be ra rr^uro- 
Toxa, the Jirstborn — such as first opened the womb. 

Of the derivation and composition of the Greek 
word, see Chap, i, 6, Sec. 67. 

Under this word, Jirstborn, are here comprised not 
only the firstborn of men, but alao of beasts, Exod. 
xi. 5. Yea, and their gods also were destroyed, 
Exod. xii. 12. 

The firstborn of their children were most dear 
unto them. 

Their beasts were very profitable unto them. Their 
gods were in high account amongst them. 

We have here an instance that God can take away 
the dearest and the usefulest things, yea, and things 
' Qu. 'employed'? — Ed. 

which wc have in highest account. This is further 
exemplified in Job, chap. i. 19, and in the Jews, Ezek. 
xxiv. 25, 

1. God is a high supreme Lord over all. All are 
under his jurisdiction, as children, cattle, and such 
as we esteem as god.s. 

2. He doth sometime in this extent manifest his 
power, to aggravate his terror. 

3. He doth so in some persons, to prevent future 
mischiefs that they might do. Thus he took away 
David's dear Absalom, 2 Sam. xviii. 15. 

4. He sometimes so dealeth with liis children to 
try them, Gen. xsii. 2. Yea, and to manifest that 
grace that is in them. This was the end of God's 
dealing with Job so as he did — that faith, patience, 
and other graces that were in him might be mani- 
fested to be in him. 

1. What cause have all of all sorts to take heed of 
provoking such a one as the Lord is ! He can make 
the stoutest to stoop ; witness Pharaoh and all Egypt, 
Exod. xii. 31, &c. If there be anything that men 
set their heart upon, God can spoil them of it, and 
make them repent their opposing against God. 

2. This may admonish us to take heed of setting 
our heart, and doting too much upon anything here 
below. We ought to account all things that here we 
enjoy to be such as may be taken from us. Besides 
the foremontioned instances of chilchen, beasts, and 
gods, the Lord may take away his ordinances, as he 
suffered the ark to be taken from Israel, 1 Sam. iv. 11. 

3. Well use all things that are dear and useful unto 
thee, that thou provoke not God to take them away 
from thee. This judgment is aggravated by the ex- 
tent thereof, implied in the plural number, tsutotoxu. 
The history thus expresseth the circumstance, ' All 
the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the 
firstborn of Pharaoh, that sitteth upon his throne, 
even unto the firstborn of the maid-servant that is 
behind the miU, and all the firstborn of beasts,' 
Exod. xi. 5. It is further added in the execution of 
this judgment, that ' there was not an house where 
there wa.s not one dead,' Exod. xii. 30. 

Thus we see how God can extend his judgment to 
all of all sorts. In another place mention is made of 
' old and young, maids, little children, and women, 
to be destroyed,' Ezek. ix. 6. Yea, of the 'priest 
and jirophet, of virgins and young men,' Lam. ii. 
20-22. Read Lam. v. 11-14. 

To God aU are alike ; with him is no respect of 

It therefore concerneth all of ail sorts to fear and 
to take heed of provoking th; wrath of the Lord. 
This extent prevents all vain pretences, as if God 
would spare the prince, or the honourable person, or 
the rich, or the poor, or the mean, or any other kind. 
No outward condition can exempt us from God's 
in - • 1 ; and as God can, so he will keep under 

^ 1. By the. 



[Chap. XI. 

Sec. 1 GO. Of GocCs ordering judgments amweraUe 
to sins. 

Tliis kind of judgment in destroying the firstborn 
is the more observable, in that it was answerable to 
their great sin. 

Their sin was to seek the extirpation of the chil- 
dren of Israel, for which end the king commanded 
the niidwives to kill all the male children of the 
Israelites in the birth ; which cruel edict, because it 
took not effect, therefore he made another as cruel, 
(if not more cruel,) that all his people should cast 
every son that is born of an Israelite into the water, 
Exod. i. IG, 22. God therefore destroycth all their 
firstborn, and thus ordereth the juda;mcnt answerable 
to their sin. The Lord further followed the Egyp- 
tians in this kind ; for they sought to drown the 
children of the Israelites, and their king, and all his 
mighty host, were drowned in the Bed Sea. Many 
are the instances which the Scripture giveth in this 
kind. Nadab and Abihu offered incense with strange 
fire, and were themselves devoured with .strange fire, 
Lev. X. 1, 2. Memorable is the instance of Adoni- 
bezek, Judges i. 7. 

And of Eli's sons, who profaned the holy things of 
God, and were destroyed in bearing the ark of the 
Lord, 1 Sam. iv. 11. 

Agag was thus dealt -withal in his kind, 1 Sam. 
XV. 33. And David in sundry cases, as 2 Sam xii. 
11, and x.\iv. 1, 15. 

God hath expressly threatened thus much, Lev. 
xxvi. 23, 21, Ps. xviii. 26. 

1. Thus God dealeth to manifest the equity of his 
proceeding against men, that so he may be the more 

2. The Lord doth this in mercy, to afford unto 
men a means to find out the cause of judgment, that 
so they may take away the cause by true repentance, 
and thereupon the judgment be removed ; or other- 
vrise, that they may be made the more inexcus- 

Let us, therefore, take occasion, from the kind of 
God's judgments, to search after the causes thereof. 
Hereof see more in the FUtster for a Plague, on 
Num. xvL 44, Sees. 4, 5. 

Sec. 161. Of children 2iunished for their fathers' 

It is more than probable that among those first- 
born very many were young children, which never 
bad done themselves any hurt to the Israelites ; so as 
children may suffer for their fathers' sins. The kw 
tlireatencth as much, Exod. xx. .5. And God herein 
manifesteth the extent of his justice, Exod. xxxiv. 5. 
Tliis may be exemplified in the children of Dathan 
and liis accomplices, Num. xvi. 27, 32, and in the 
children of Jeroboam, 1 Kings sv. 21), and sundry 

Divine vengeance is hereby much nr-iiltcd.— Ed. \ 3 

God's mercy, by the extent thereof to the seed and 
children of such as believe on him, is much amplified, 
Gen. xvii. 7, Prov. xx. 7, Fs. cxii. 2, so is the judg- 
ment aggravated by this extent. 

Ohj. This may seem to be against justice, and 
against God's express word, who hath said it, and 
sworn it, that ' the child shall not die for the sin of 
the father,' Ezck. xviii. 2, 3, (kc. 

Aus. 1. The justice of God is manifested by the 
universal contagion and corruption of all children of 
men. Is it not just with men to destroy the young 
cubs of foxes, wolves, and other mischievous creatures, 
by reason of their ravenous nature ? 

Aim. 2. Besides, children appertain to parents; 
they are theirs. In this respect it is not against 
justice to punish them in their parents' case. Chil- 
dren of traitors are deprived of their patrimony by 
reason of their parents' demerit. 

As for God's avouching not to punish the child for 
the father, that is spoken of penitent children, and 
withal it is intended of the personal sins of parents, 
and the eternal punishment thereof : which punish- 
ment no child shall bear simply for his parents' per- 
sonal sin. 

This should the rather move parents to take heed 
of provoking God's wrath in respect of their children. 
Have pity, O parents, on yourselves and children, 
and take heed of treasuring up wrath for them. 

This also gives occasion to children to be humbled, 
even for their parents' sin. This was it that much 
humbled good Josiah, 2 Kings xxii. 19, and it was 
acceptable in God's sight. 

Sec. 162. Of God's preserving his from common 

The end why the foresaid blood was sprinkled, was 
the preservation of the people of God, who are com- 
prised under tliis relative, a'uruv, them, for this hath 
reference to the Israelites, who are styled, ' the people 
of God,' ver. 2o. 

Theextcnt of their preservation is setoutinthisword, 
S/yj), touch: which implicth, that the destroyer should 
be so fiir from slaying them, or any of theirs, as he 
should not come near, so much as to touch them. In 
this sense is this word used concerning a beast, that 
should come near mount Sinai whereon the law was 
delivered, Heb. xiL 20. This word is also used of 
being far from doing a thing, and therefore it is joined 
with a metaphor of a like extent, namely, taste : thus, 
'touch not, taste not,' Col. ii. 21. Be so far from 
eating, as not to t;iste of such a thing. The history 
thus exprcsseth the extent of this i)reservation, ' the 
Lord will pass over the door, and will not sufl'er the 
destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you,' 
Exod. -xii. 23. 

This giveth proof that God can deliver his from 
common judgments. See more hereof in the I'laster 
for a I'lague, in Num. xvi. 45, Sec. 12-14. 

Ver. 24-28.] 



Sec. 163. Of the resolution o/Heb. xi. 24-28. 

Ver. 24. By faith Moses, when he was come to years, 
refused to he called the son of Plmraoh's dam/hter: 

23. Choosiiiff rather to suffer affliction with tlie peo- 
ple of God, than to enjoy tlis pleasures of sin for a 

26. Esteeming the reproach for Christ greater riches 
than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto 
the recompense of the reward. 

27. By faith lie fo7-sooh Egypt, not fearing tlie 
wrath of the king: for lie endured, as seeing him who 
is invisible. 

28. Through faith he kept the passover, and the 
sprinkling of blood, lest he tluit destroyed the firstborn 
should touch them. 

The sum of these five verses is a commendation of 
Moses's faith. 

It is commended by three effects. 

One was, his contempt of the world. 

Another, his courage. 

The third was, his obedience. 

His contempt of the world is manifested by turn- 
ing from the three great allurements of the world : 
which were, 

1. Honours, ver. 24. 

2. Pleasures, ver. 25. 

3. Riches, ver. 26. 

His despising of honour is set out two ways, 

1. By the time when he manifested as much, even 
\vhen he was come to years. 

2. By the kind of honour, which was very great, to 
be called the son of PharaoKs daughter. 

Both these are amplified b}' the manner of rejecting 
honour, which was voluntarily, in this word, refused. 

A second particular wherein his contempt of the 
world was manifested, was about pleasure. This is 
set down comparatively. The comparison is of un- 
equals. Here observe, 

1. The things compared. 

2. The manner of comparing them. 

The things compared are, afflictions and pleasures. 
Afflictions are set out by the patients : which were, 

1. The people of God. 

2. Moses himself, who is comprised under this 
phrase, sufered with. 

Pleasures are set out by two properties. 

1. Sinful. 

2. Momentary. 

The manner of preferring afflictions before pleasures 
is declared in these words, choosing rather than. 

The third particular instance of contemning the 
world is about riches. Here is noted, 

1. The effect of faith. 

2. The ground thereof. 

This eflect also is set down comparatively. 
In the comparison we are to consider, 

1. The things compared. 

2. The manner of comparing them together. 

The things compared are reproach and riches. 
Reproaches are illustrated by the principal object, 
who was Christ. 

Riches are amplified, 

1. By the kind of them, treasures. 

2. By the subject or place where they were, in 

The manner is manifested two ways. 

1. Simply, in this word, esteeming. 

2. Comparatively, greater riches than. 

The ground of preferring the one before the other, 
was reward. 
This is set out, 

1. By the kind of reward, in this phrase, the reconir 
p>ense of the reward. 

2. By the affection of Moses thereunto, lie had 
respect unto it. 

A second evidence of Moses his faith is set out, 
ver. 27. 

Here is declared, 

1. The kind of evidence. 

2. The ground thereof. 

The kind of evidence was an invincible courage. 
This is, 

1. Propounded. 

2. Amphfied. 

In propounding it, is noted, 

1. His act, lie forsook. 

2. The place which he forsook, Egypt. 

The amplification is by denial of a contrary disposi- 
tion, wherein we have, 

1. The affection denied, not fearing. 

2. The object of that fear, set out by a threefold 

(1.) A man. This is implied under the word king. 

(2.) The greatest of men, a king. 

(3.) That which maketh a king most terrible, his 

A third evidence of Moses his faith, was his obedi- 

This was manifested two ways. 

1. In reference to God. 

2. In reference to God's people. 

In that which hath reference to God we have, 

1. His act, he kept. 

2. The object thereof, tlie passover. 

In that which hath reference to God's people is set 

1. The thing done, sprinkling of blood. 

2. The reason thereof, which was to prevent 

Here is declared, 

1. The kind of danger. 

2. The extent of preservation from it. 

The kind of danger was destruction, amplified by 
the persons destroyed, the firstUirn. 
The extent of preservation is set out, 
1. By the act denied, should not touch. 


[Chap. XI. 

2. By the object, or persons not touched, them — 
namely, the Israelites. 

Sec. 164. Of observations raised out of Heb. xi. 
24-20, &c. 

I. Metnorahle matters are to he kept in memory. 
This the name, Moses, intendeth. See Sec. 132. 

II. Weighty matters are to he attempted as men are 
able. This phrase, %vhen he tvas come to years, implies 
thus much. See Sec. 132. 

III. Difficult duties must be willingly done. This 
■word, refused, hath reference to a difficult task, but 
implicth ^villinguess. See Sec. 136. 

IV. Faith makes worldly honour to be lightly 
esteemed. By faith Moses refused honour. See Sec. 

V. Greatness of honour moveth not believers. It 
was a great honour ' to be called the son of Pharaoh's 
daughter,' but Moses was no whit moved therewith. 
See Sec. 136. 

VI. Affliction may be chosen, or it may be wDl- 
iugly undergone. Moses did c/toose it. See Sec. 137. 

VII. God's people may he -under affliction. This is 
here taken for granted. See Sec. 138. 

VIII. Afflictions keep not believers from communion 
with saints. Though the people of God were afflicted, 
yet Moses would be of their communion. See Sec. 

IX. Pleasures occasion sin. Here they are styled 
pleasures of sin. See Secs 139. 

X. Pleasures are momentary. They are hnt for a 
season. See Sec. 140. 

XI. Faith makes afflictions to he preferred before 
pleasures. Moses by faith preferred afflictions. See 
Sec. 137. 

XII. Matters must be enterprised on good ground. 
This word, esteeming, intends as much. See Sec. 

XIII. Christ was known of old. For he was 
known to Moses. See Sec. 142. 

XIV. Christ was reproached before he was exhibited. 
In this respect tliis phrase is here used, tJie reproach 
of Christ. See Sec. 142. 

XV. Believers prefer Christ's reproach before riches. 
Witness Moses. See Sec. 143. 

XVI. Believers discern betwixt things tlutt differ. 
This phrase, greater riclus than, giveth proof here- 
unto. See Sec. 144. 

XVII. There is a reward. This is here taken for 
granted. See Sec. 145. 

XVIII. Jiespect may he laid to reivard. So Moses 
had. See Sec. 146. 

XIX. lieu'ard puts on to endure. Moses was 
hereby put on. See Sec. 146. 

XX. Danger may he avoided. For this end Jloses 
for.souk Egypt. See Sec. 157. 

XXI. Faith crpels fear. Faith nuide Moses not 
to fear. See Sec 148. 

XXII. Tli^ most terrible ones are not to be feared. 
Mo.ses feared not the king's wrath. See Sec. 148. 

XXIII. Faith makes invincible. The expression 
of that which Moses feared not, which was the im-ath 
cjf a king, giveth proof hereunto. See Sec. 149. 

XXIV. Faith seeth God. Thus Moses saw God. 
See Sec. 150. 

XXV. God is invisible. So is he here set down 
to be. See Sec. 151. 

XXVI. Faith raiseth the mind above sense. For 
sense cannot see that that is invisible. See Sec. 

XXVII. SigfU of God keeps from fear of man. 
Thus was Moses kept from fear of Pharaoh. See 
Sec. 149. 

XXVIII. Faith works obedience. By faith Moses 
was moved to do what God required about the pass- 
over. See Sec. 153. 

XXIX. What God enjoins must be observed. God 
commanded Moses to observe the passover, and so 
he did. See Sec. 153. 

XXX. God's ivorks are oft attributed to his ministers. 
As this word, ktpt, implieth an ordaining, it proves 
the point. See Sec. 153. 

XXXI. Deliverances are to be remembered. This 
was the end of the passover. See Sec. 154. 

XXXII. 7m sacraments the sign and things signified 
are oft mutually jmt each for other. The passover 
was the thing signified, yet it is here put for the 
external celebration thereof.- See Sec. 155i 

XXXIII. God affords means for strengthening 
faith. This was one end of the passorer. See Sec. 

XXXIV. Sacraments are to be solemnised in faith. 
So did Moses keep the passover. See Sec. 156. 

XXXV. Blood is the means of atonement. It was 
blood that kept the destroyer from entering into the 
Israelites' houses. See Sec. 157. 

XXXVI. A right application makes meaits useful. 
Sprinkling of the blood intends so much. See Sec. 

XXXVII. Faith and prudence in preventing danger 
mrii/ stand together. By faith Moses used that means 
that kept out the destroyer. See Sec. 158. 

XXXVIII. The Lord revengeth. He it was that 
destroyed. See Sec. 158. 

XXXIX. Tlie dearest and usefulest that men have 
may he taken from them. Who dearer than the first- 
born ] Who more useful than their cattle ? Yet 
were these destroyed. See Sec. 159. 

XL. God can extend judgment to all of all sorts. 
The firstborn here destroyed are set down in the 
plural number ; none e.\empted. See Sec. 139. 

XLI. God ordereth punishment according to sin. The 
Egyptians destroyed the male children of the Israelites, 
and their firetborn are destroyed. See Sec. 160. 

XLII. Children may he punished for th<ir fathers^ 
sins. So were these firstborn. See Sec. 161. 

Vek. 29.] 



XLIII. God can preserve his from common j'tidg- 
vieiits. So were tlie firstborn of the Israelites pre- 
served. See Sec. 162. 

XLIV. God can keep judgment far off from, his ; 
even so as the judgment may not touch them. See 
Sec. 162. 

Sec. 105. Of Israel's passing through the Red Sea. 

Ver. 29. By faith they passed through the Red Sea 
as by dry land : which tloe Egyptians assaying to do 
were droioned. 

The eleventh instance which the apostle produceth 
to prove the vigour of faith is exemphfied in Moses, 
together with all those that under his guidance went 
out of Egypt. It is indefinitely said, and that in the 
plural number, d/£/3?j<rav, they passed through. 

The word translated passed through is a compound. 
The simple verb, Bai^a, signifieth to go. The pre- 
position, dia, implieth through. So, as it is well 
translated, they passed through. 

Here are intended the whole multitude of be- 
lievers ; not only some of the eminent persons, as 
Moses, Aaron, Hur, Joshua, Caleb, and such others, 
but also all of all sorts. So as faith is a grace apper- 
taining not only to extraordinary persons, but also 
to persons of the meaner rank. 

This, in brief, should stir up all, great and mean, 
learned and unlearned, governors and subjects, male 
and female, young and old, to labour after faith. 

Quest: What kind of faith was this? 

Ans. Surely such a faith as hath hitherto been set 
forth — a true, justifying, and saving faith. 

It cannot be denied but that there was in Moses, 
and some others, a miraculous faith, which may stand 
with a justifying faith, as a sensitive soul is in a rea- 
sonable man. 

OliJ. 1. It is said of them who passed through the 
Red Sea, that they murmured, and wished they had 
not been brought out of Egypt, Exod. xiv. 11, 12. 

Ans: 1. That might be said of some of them, as it 
is said afterwards, the mixed multitude that was 
among them, Num; xi. i. 

2. Though upon the sight of Pharaoh's host they 
might distrust, yet upon Moses's exhortation, and upon 
sight of the path that was made in the sea, they be- 

Obj. 2. God sware to them that believed not, ' that 
they should not enter into his rest,' Heb. iiii 18. 

Ans. By virtue of the true faith of some, aU might 
be made partakers of the external and temporal bless- 
ing. God in this preservation would manifest a dif- 
ference betwixt such as professed his name and such 
as openly opposed against him. 

The place of danger whereinto they went, and 
through which they passed, and thereby were pre- 
served from the fury of their enemies, is here styled 
Eoudja 3aXaff(ja, the Red Sea. In Hebrew it is styled 
^ID D^, the sea of reed, or a bulrush, by reason of reeds 

or rushes growing on the banks thereof, or of weeds 
in the bottom of it. Those weeds, ^)D, which Jonah 
doth thus mention (' The weeds were wrapt about my 
head,' Jonah ii. .3), are expressed under this Hebrew 
word, which signifieth reed or rush. 

The Chaldee paraphrase and the Greek LXX 
translate it Red Sea. 

The apostle followeth them ; so doth Luke in re- 
lating Stephen's speech. Acts vii. 36. In all nations 
at and since the several translations of the Bible called 
this sea the Red Sea, hereupon that it might be the 
better known what sea was here meant, they translated 
it Eed Sea. Thus they translated the asterisms and 
constellations which are mentioned, Job ix. 9, and 
xxxviii. 32, by the common names with which they 
were then called, as Arcturus, Orion, Pleiades, which 
are not the Hebrew names there used, but names taken 
from the Grecians. 

This sea is called the Eed Sea on these grounds — 

1. The sand on the shores thereof were red. 

2. The mountains bordering thereon were reddish. 

3. By reason of the foresaid sands and mountains 
there appeared a reddish lustre upon the waters. 

This title. Red Sea, is here expressed for dis- 
tinction's sake, to shew that it was not as the Sea of 
Tiberias, John vi. 1, a narrow, shallow sea, but a 
broad, deep sea, as the Red Sea is. 

The word, iiilSriaav, which we translate pa.ssed 
through, implieth that they passed from one side to 

Some of the Jewish rabbins, whom many Christian 
interpreters follow, say that they did only pass on 
one side of the sea from one place to another, in way 
of a half circle, to avoid the fury of Pharaoh's host, 
and to be a means of drtiwning them, as if one should 
go into the Thames at Westminster and come out at 
the Temple, not touching the other side of the 

Their reasons for tliis assertion are these — 

1. The Israelites had not time enough to pass 
from one side of the sea to the other. They were on 
foot, and had many little children with them, so as 
they could not in one night pass over so broad a sea. 

2. The place from whence they went before they 
passed over is called Etham, Exod. xiLL 20 ; and the 
place to which they came after they had ended their 
journey is also called Etham^ Num. xxsiii. 8. 

Ans. To the first — (1.) The sea in the place where 
they passed might be so narrow as in a night it 
might be passed over, esiDecially by such as fled from 
their enemies. 

(2.) It is nowhere said that they were but one 
night in passing it over. Indeed it is said, Exod. 
xiv. 24, that ' in the morning watch the Lord looked 
unto the host of the Egyjitians, and troubled them.' 
This might be about six iu the morning ; and God 
then began to trouble the Egyptians : but at that 
time might the Israelites be in the sea : and though 



[Chap. XI. 

God caused tlic ■u-.iter.s behind them, wliere the 
Egyptians were, to full down, j'ct he might uphold 
them before the Israelites as they passed on. 

To the second — The same name might be given to 
two places, which is freqnent in Scriptures, and in all 
ages and places of the world, especially one being on 
one side, the other on the other side of the sea. 

Near London there is on one side of the river of 
Lea a town called Stratford, and on the other side 
another town called Stratford, and these two distinct 
towns, in different parishes, and difTerent counties. 
Besides the notation of the name, DJIN, Etluun, on 
the one and other side of the sea, may be given upon 
a like occasion ; for Elham signilieth their coming. 
It is derived from a verb, HDN, venit, that signiticth 
to come, and the last letter of Etlmm implieth a relative 
pronoun, their or them. Wherefore becaiise out of 
Egypt they came to such a place, when they entered 
into the sea, it was called Elham; and having passed 
through the sea, the place whither they first came was 
also called Etham. 

That they clean crossed the Ked Sea, from one 
side to another, appears by these reasons — 

1. The word here used by the apostle, 6/s/3?j(rav, 
they passed throiKjh, intends as much. 

2. It is three times noted in the history that they 
were ' in the midst of the sea,' Exod. xiv. 16, 22, 29. 

3. As they passed through Jordan, so they passed 
through the Red Sea, Josh. iv. 23. 

4. Mount Sinai, whither the Israelites came after 
they had passed through the sea, Exod. xix. 1, was 
on the other side of that sea, in the desert of Arabia, 
Gal. iv. 24. So also were other places whither they 
came after they had passed through the Red Sea. 

5. If they had come out on the same side of the 
sea on which they went into it, they might have 
lived in fear of the Egyptians to gather another army 
against them ; but the Red Sea being betwixt them, 
they are freed from those fears. 

6. Going in and coming out of the sea on the 
same side would open too wide a gap for Julianists, 
Porphyrians, and other like atheists, to elude this 
miraculous work by saying that Moses marked the 
low ebb of the sea, and so led the people along, and 
the Eg}i)tians following when the tide began to arise, 
were drowned. 

This miracle is amplified by this phrase following, 
u; iia. ^ri'ui, as by dri/ land. 'The word land is not 
in the Greek, but yet understood. When the word 
dri/ is applied to other things, that other thing uscth 
to be expressed, as, j^E'ja §»!»«►, a dry hand, !Mat. xii. 
10, or a withered hand ; ^uXov 5i)»o>, a dry tree, Luke 
xxiii. 3 1 ; but when it is attributed to the earth, the 
substantive useth to be left out, as Mat. xxiii. 15, 
• ye compass sea and land.' The wt)rd translated 
land is the word that is here used in the text, and 
signifieth dry. 

This is here noted, 

To give evidence of the divine providence, In mak- 
ing the bottom of the sea on which they went as fit 
to travel on as a hard, plain, beaten highway in dry 
weather. In tlie history it is said that the sea was 
made dry land, and that ' they went into the midst of 
the .sea upon the dry ground,' Exod. xiv. 21, 22. 

This I note to meet with the conceit of tliem who 
refer this circumstance of dry land to the boldness of 
the Israelites, as if they had gone through thick 
and thin as lustily as if the}' had gone on dry, hard 
ground. They ground their opinion on this particle, 
w;, as; but we observed before, Ver. 27, Sec. 152, 
that that particle did not always imply a diminution 
or a mere seeming of a thing, but a reality thereof. 

See. 166. Of faith makinff bold and strony. 

The forementioned evidence of faith, that by faith 
th4;y passed through the Red Sea, giveth evidence of 
that holy boldness which faith putteth into men. 
As here these Israelites passed through the Red Sea, 
so their children, by faith, passed through Jordan, 
Josh. iii. 17; and Jonathan with his armour- bearer 
set upon a garrison of the Philistines, 1 Sam. xiv. 
1 3 ; and David set upon a lion, a bear, and a giant, 
1 Sam. xvii. 3o, 45. 

Faith raiseth up the mind and heart of man to 
him who is a sure rock, fortress, buckler, and high 
tower, Ps. xviii. 2. 

Such defences, especially if they be impregnable, 
make men bold ; but God is the Lord of hosts, more 
to be trusted unto than all other defences or armies 
of creatures. 

On this ground be moved to take the shield of 
faith, and well to wield it ; this above all will make 
thee trulj' bold. 

This is further amplified by the persons com- 
prised under this relative, thfy. Men, women, chil- 
dren, great and mean, all of all sorts, are here in- 
tended. Among them there must needs be many 
weak ones, so as the weak may be made strong in 
faith. Many of these murmured before they saw 
this way opened for them, Exod. xiv. 11, 31, Ps. cvi 
12. Compare Gen. xviii. 12, with the 11th verse of 
this chapter, and you may find the like exemplified in 
Sarah; so also in Gideon, Judges vi. 13, and vii. 15. 

The ajH)stle renders this ground thereof, ' God is 
able to make him stand,' Rom. xiv. 4 ; and this God 
doth, ' that the excellency of the power may be of 
God, and not of us,' 2 Cor. iv. 7. 

This is a good encouragement for such as are weak 
in faith to pray and saj', ' Lord, help my unbelief,' 
Mark ix. 24, and ' Lord, strengtlien our faith,' Luke 
xvii. 5 ; and as men pray, so they must use all 
warrantable means for increasing, strengthening, and 
establishing faith. 

This also may put on ministers, and others who 
have to do with doubting minds and unbelieving 
spirits, to essay the uttermost that they can to work 

Veb. 29.] 



and to strengthen the faith of such. So did Moses. In 
this case he advised distrustful and murmuring spirits 
' not to fear, but to stand still, and see the salvation 
of the Lord,' Exod. xiv. 13. 

Among this multitude there were many that re- 
mained unfaithful, and retained a rebellious disposi- 
tion against the Lord. Witness their murmuriugs 
and rebellious in the wilderness, yet they all passed 
through the Ked Sea ; whence we may infer that 
wicked men may receive temporal good things by their 
mixture with the godly. Hereof see more in TIte 
Plaster for a Plague, on Num. xvi. 45, Sec. 20. 

Sec. 167. Of believers venturing iipon terrible things. 

It could not be but a most terrible sight to see 
such waters as were in the sea on the one hand 
and on the other, though there were a dry path 
betwixt them : yet faith made these Israelites adven- 
ture to go to the bottom of the sea, for terrible 
things do not atfright believers. The waters that 
drowned the whole world aft'righted not Noah and 
them that were with him in the ark, Gen. vii. 7 ; 
and David was not aft'righted with the terror of the 
giant in his armour, and with his target of brass, 
and spear like a weaver's beam, 1 Sam. xvii. 45 ; 
nor lions nor fire affrighted Daniel and his com- 
panions, Dan. iii. IG, and vL 10. The courage of 
sundry martyrs gives further proof hereunto. 

Their confidence in God — in his divine properties, 
in his presence, in his providence — is the ground of 
this courage, Isa. xUii. 2, Ps. xci. 4, Heb. xiii. 5, 6. 

Surely men's doubtings and fears and perplexities 
arise from want of faith. Mat. viii. 26, and xiv. 31, 
Prov. xxiv. 10. 

To expel such fears, get faith, and use faith. Faith 
lifts a man above himself; it putteth a spirit more 
than human into a man ; it soars above sense, rea- 
son, and human capacity — even as high as the throne 
of God : no grace comparable to it. 

Sec. 168. Of God's carrying his through danger 
into safeti/. 

This phrase oi passing through the Red Sea, sheweth 
God's care in carrying his through the greatest dan- 
gers. To the eye of flesh and blood, what could be 
more dangerous than to venture into the Red Sea ? A 
proof of the danger hereof was manifested upon the 
Egyptians. But these were God's people, and there- 
upon he carried them through. Thus God preserved 
Noah, and them that were in the ark, till the earth 
was fit for habitation, and then they came forth. 
Gen. viii. 16. Thus God preserved Jacob after he de- 
parted from his father's house, tiU he brought him to 
it again. 

God is stUl present with his, and that in all 
their dangers, Isa. xliii. 2. The cloud and pillar in 
the wilderness was a visible evidence hereof, Exod. 
xiii. 22. 

This is a good inducement to venture upon anything 
whereunto God calleth us; and to rest upon this, 
that God, who openeth a way for safety, will carry 
us through all difticulties and dangers. As, there- 
fore, we begin, so let us hold out, that we may pass 
through the Red Sea. 

This passing through hath a double reference — one, 
to the continuance of God's providence ; the other, to 
their perseverance. Such as look for the benefit of 
the former must be careful of the latter, and take 
heed of Peter's failing after he had adventured to 
walk on the water to go to Jesus, Mat. xiv. 29, 30. 

We have the greater cause to rest upon God's pro- 
vidence, because it is here said that they passed as by 
dry land ; so as God made a most dangerous place 
to be the safest — he made the sea as land, the bot- 
tom of the sea as a beaten path. ' He turneth rivers 
into a wilderness, and the water-springs into dry 
ground,' Ps. cvii. 33. God made the land of the 
Philistines, where were David's greatest enemies, a 
place of refuge for him, 1 Sam. xxvii. 3 ; yea, he 
made the belly of a whale a place of security for 

God hath a supreme and absolute power, and doth 
what he will everywhere. ' There is not any rock 
like our God,' 1 Sam. ii. 2. 

1. Herein is manifested a difference betwixt the 
power of the Creator and creatures. The Creator 
can make the sea as dry land ; they only can use the 
benefit of dry land. He is tied to no course ; crea- 
tures are tied to that course that he prescribeth unto 

This instance giveth proof of the power of God 
above the course of nature ; for water is of a fluent 
nature, running downward, and spreading itself aU 
abroad ; but here it stood on each hand as two walls. 

2. This affordeth ground of encouragement in all 
places, difficulties, and distresses, to trust in God, 
Jonah ii. 2, Ps. cxsx. 1 . We ought, on this ground, 
to be so far from fainting, by reason of the greatness 
of danger, as the more confidently to trust unto him ; 
because man's extremity is God's opportunity. This 
is not to make us neglect means, but, in the use of 
lawful means, to expect a good issue from God ; and 
if our case be such as we know not what to do, then 
to say, as Jehoshaphat did, ' our eyes are upon thee,' 
2 Chron. xx. 12. 

Sec. 169. Of xnclced men's boldness in pursuing evil 
to thtir ovm destruction. 

The aforesaid preservation of the Israelites through 
the Red Sea is much amplified by the destruction of 
the Egyptians therein. 

Under this word, Egyptians, are comprised Pharaoh 
and that great host w^hich he had gathered together 
to pursue the Israelites. It is .said that ' he took six 
hundred chosen chariots, and aU the chariots of Egypt, 
and captains over every one of them,' Exod. xiv. 7. 



[Chap. XI. 

This implieth that Pharaoh's army was a very great 
one. All these seeing a way made in the sea, wherein 
the Israelites went before them, little considered the 
mighty power of God in destroying many among their 
countrymen, and the wise providence of God in putting 
difference betwixt the Egyptians and the Israelites, 
whereof they had had many jiarticular instances be- 
fore, Exod. viii. 22, 23, ix. C, 20, and x. 23, but 
presumptuously thrust themselves into the sea in 
that way that they saw opened for the Israelites, and 
thereby brought destruction u])on themselves. 

The Greek word, thsk, signifieth experience or 
trial, and it is so translated, ver. 36. It implieth 
that the Egyptians would yet make a further trial 
whether God would yet still defend his people, or 
could protect them against this army, and thereupon 
rush on into the sea. 

Herein we may behold the boldness of enemies in 
pursuing the people of God. The like may be noted 
of the Amalekites, who, not long after the destruction 
of this great host of the Egyptians, set upon this 
people whom God had so preserved, Exod. xvii. 8. 
And the like also of Sihon, king of the Amorites, and 
Og, the king of Bashan, Num. xxi. 23, 33. 

Malice and hatred so blindeth the minds of the 
enemies of God's church, and so iutoxicateth their 
understanding, as they cannot discern the danger 
whereinto they venture. They can neither think of 
things past, nor foresee and forecast matters to come. 
Our proverb saith, ' Who so bold as blind Bayard?' 

1. Tliis giveth proof of that satanical spirit which 
ruleth in wicked men, setteth their spirits on fire to do 
mischief, not regarding into what danger they im- 
plunge themselves. They are like mad bulls, who 
will run their career, though they break their own 
necks. How do bloody-minded men venture their 
own lives to take away the lives of others ! How do 
all sinners run headlong down to their eternal perdi- 
tion, to accomplish their mischievous plots ! 

2. This doth much check the backvvfirdness, cold- 
ness, and fearfulnes* of such as profe-ss the truth, in 
maintaining the same. How little will men venture 
in God's cause ! How doth every show of danger 
discourage them ! Shall adversaries be so audacious 
and venturous in opposing the truth, and in persecut- 
ing the professors thereof, and shall professors be 
timorous in maintaining it ? 

3. Let this put us on to a holy zeal in the cause 
of God and of his church, and of our own and others' 
salvation. Let the boldness of the wicked in their 
mischievous courses animate and embolden us in pious 

This is not to make us blind and mad, as the wicked 
are, by hnplunging ourselves into apparent danger, 
but to make us cast off the cloaks of sluggishness and 
timorousness, pretending danger where is no ju.st 
cause of pretence, Prov. xxii. 13, and xxvi. 13. Let 
UB shew that there is more power in the divine Spirit 

to embolden us to good, than can be in a satanical 
spirit to embolden men to evil. 

Sec. 170. Of enemies perishing hy that which jore- 
serveth saints. 

The issue of the Eyptians' forenamed boldness is 
expressed ui this word, xanTodrigav, were drowned. 
This word is compounded of a simple verb, rrhu, bibo, 
that signifieth to drink, and a preposition, xara, that 
intendeth a thorough doing of a thing ; so as this com- 
pound signifieth to drink up, or, as it is ordinarily 
translated, to ' swallow,' as Mat. xxiii. 24, 1 Cor. 
XV. 54. It is attributed to the devU, and translated 
' devcmr.' It being here applied to waters, it is fitly 
translated, ' were dro^vned ;' for waters swallowing 
ujj men do drown them. Thus we see that the 
presumption of the Egyptians caused their destruc- 
tion. The like may be exemplified in the foremen- 
tioned instances of Amalek, Sihon, and Og, and might 
be in a multitude of others. 

The just vengeance of God causeth this ; for hereby 
they are brought as beasts into snares, and as birds 
into pits, Ps. ix„ 15, IG, and xxxv. 8. 

This is enough to dissuade such as have any care, 
even of themselves and their own safety, from over- 
much boldness and forwardness in jjersecuting such 
as God will protect. They have cause to fear, lest 
God should make them visible spectacles of his ven- 
geance. Let such consider God's just dealing with 
these Egyiitians. 

To aggravate this evidence of God's just vengeance, 
it is worthy our observation to consider that means 
of the church's preservation proved to be the means 
of their enemies' destruction ; for those waters that 
were a wall unto the Israelites returned and covered all 
the host of Pharaoh, Exod. xiv. 28, 29. The lions 
that preserved Daniel from the plots of the princes 
of the Persians were a means of devouring those 
princes, Dan. vi. 22, 24. 

This also provcth true in the means of salvation ; 
for that word which is r savour of life to believers is 
a savour of death to others, 2 Cor. ii. 1 6. Thus may 
some, iu the sacrament of the Lord's supper, ' eat 
judgment to themselves,' 1 Cor. xi. 29 ; so Christ him- 
self, who is ' a chief corner-stone, elect and precious 
to them that believe,' is, ' unto them that be disobe- 
dient, a stumbling-block of offence,' 1 Pet. ii. G-8. 

1. This comes to pass through man's abuse of the 
means which God afi'ords for his good, as Saul abused 
his sword, wherewith formerly he had destroyed the 
enemies of the church, by thrusting it into his own 
bowels, 1 Sam. xxxi. 4. 

2. God being provoked by such men, turns bless- 
ings into curses. 

This may afiford us a good direction about the use 
of those means which we see to be useful and success- 
ful to others. For this end, 

1. Be sure of thy warrant for the use of such and 

Vek. 29.] 



sucli means. These Egyptians had no warrant so to 
rush into the sea as they did. When the Israelites 
presumed to go up against the Amalckites and Ca- 
naanites ■without God's warrant, they were discom- 
fited. Num. xiv. 44, 45. 

2. Use warrantable means after a right manner. 
Herein Daml failed, 1 Chron. xv. 13. 

3. Aim at a right end. The king of Assyria aimed 
at a wrong end in the successes that God gave him, 
Isa. X. 12, 13. 

4. In all lawful things seek God's blessing ; for it 
is not means, but God's blessing on means, whereby 
we come to prosper, Deut. viii. 3, Prov. x. 22. 

Sec. 171. Of 2>ussing through the Red Sea, sacrO' 
mentally consiilered. 

The apostle maketh this passing of the Israelites 
through the Eed Sea to be such a sacrament unto 
them as baptism is unto us, where he saith, ' they were 
all baptized in the sea,' 1 Cor. x. 2. 

Hereupon, ha%ing distinctly noted tlie main points 
of the history, I hold it meet to open the mystery, 
and for that end, 

1. To shew what kind of sacrament their passing 
through the Ked Sea was, 

2. To manifest wherein that sacrament agreeth 
with baptism. 

That sacrament may thus be described : It was 
one of the Jews' extraordinary sacraments, wherein, 
by their safe passing through the sea, their preserva- 
tion from the common destruction of mankind was 
represented and sealed up unto them. 

1. That it was a sacrament is evident by this 
phrase, ' they were baptized in the sea,' 1 Cor. x. 2, 
and in that it had the essential parts of a sacrament, 
as we shall shew in comparing it with baptism. 

2. It was a sacrament of the Jews, appertaining 
to that church alone. It was not for the Egy^Jtians : 
they were drowned in the sea. Hereby it is dis- 
tinguished from the ark, which was a general sacra- 
ment for the whole world ; and also from Christian 

3. It was an extraordinary sacrament, in that it 
was but once for all used. 

Hereby it was distinguished from the Jews' ordi- 
nary sacraments, which were circumcision and the 

4. It is said to be one of their extraordinary sacra- 
ments, to shew that the Jews had more extrordinary 
sacraments than this. They had four. Two answered 
baptism, this and the cloud, 1 Cor. x. 2. The two 
other answered the Lord's supper, which were manna, 
and the water that came out of the rock. 

5. The outward sign of this sacrament was the Eed 
Sea. They passed through it. 

6. The thing signified was Christ's blood. Christ's 
blood is the sea that keeps us safe from that destruc- 
tion that falls upon others. 

7. The fit resemblance betwixt the sign and thing 
signified sheweth that this was represented by that 
—namely, that our spiritual preservation was repre- 
sented by the manner of that temporal preservation. 

8. The adding of the means to the promise sheweth 
that this was a seal. The promise was first made to 
Abraham, Gen. xv. 14; and confirmed, E.xod. iii. 8, 
xiv. 13 ; and, by this passing through the Red Sea, 
ratified. Tliis was an especial means of strengthening 
their faith, Exod. xiv. 31. 

Sec. 172. Of the agreement hetu'ixt I sraeVs passin-g 
through the Bed Sea and bajitism. 

1 . The passing through the Red Sea, and baptism, 
had both the same outward signs, which, was water, 
Mat. iii. 6. 

2. They had like rites, which were entering into the 
water, and coming out of it. Acts viii. 38, 39. 

3. They both had the same inward substance, 
which was salvation by Christ, Rom. vi. 3, 4. 

4. They both had the same ground, which was 
God's commandment and God's promise, Exod. xiv. 
13, 16, Mat. xxviii. 19, Mark xvi. 16. 

5. They were both for the same people, which 
were God's confederates. Mat. xxviii. 1 9. 

G. Both were but once administered, Eph. iv. 5, 
John xiii. 10. 

7. By both, persons were incorporated into God's 
church. They who passed through the Red Sea 
were the only people of God ; so they who are 

8. Both sacraments are unprofitable to such as 
start from the covenant, 1 Cor. x. 5, 2 Pet. ii. 20. 

9. Both are sacraments to prepare people for further 
grace. Therefore they that passed through the Red 
Sea had manna, and the water coming out of the 
rock prepared for them ; and such as are baptized 
have the Lord's supper, as a sacrament of spiritual 

10. In both there was a diS'erence betwixt God's 
people and his enemies. Israelites were saved, but 
Egyptians drowned. So by baptism believers are 
saved, the flesh with the corrupt lusts thereof are 

11. As the Egyptians, being drowned, lay on the 
shore ; so the old man, with his corrupt lusts, lies as 
drowned in believers. 

12. As the Israelites passed through the sea by 
the wilderness into Canaan ; so believers that are 
baptized pass by this world into heaven, Mark xvL 

Sec. 173. Of the resolution of , and observation from, 
Heb. xi. 29. 

Yer. 29. By faith </i<y ^ja«.«fcf through the Red Sea 
as by dry land; which the Egyptians assaying to do 
loere drowned. 

The sum of this verse is a proof of the faith of the 



[Chap. XI. 

Israelites under tlie conduct of Moses, llcrcof are 
two parts, 

1. A preservation. 

2. A destruction. 

In setting down the preservation, observe, 

1. The persons preserved, in this relative, tliey. 

2. The kind of preservation. 
Here again observe, 

1. The matter, manifested two ways. 
(1.) By an act, thet/ paused through. 
(2.) By the object, the lied Sea. 

2. The manner, under this phrase, i7.s hy dry land. 
In setting down the destruction, observe, 

1. The persons destroyed, the Egyptians. 

2. Their attempt, assaying to do. 

3. The issue, were drowned. 


I. Faith is common to all sorts of persons. The 
relative particle, they, extendeth itself to all sorts 
among the Israelites. See Sec. 165. 

II. T/ie faith of some may be beneficial to others. 
Though all did not believe, yet all received this 
benefit by the faith of them that believed, that they 
were preserved. See Sees. 165, 166. 

III. Faith makes bold. By faith the Israelites 
were emboldened to adventure through the sea. See 
Sec. 106. 

IV. Weak in faith may become strong in faith. 
Many of those who upon the sight of Pharaoh's 
host murmured, now confidently go into the sea. 
See Sec. 160. 

V. Terrible things affright not believers. The 
rising up of the waters of the sea could not but seem 
terrible, yet these believers are not affrighted. See 
Sec. 107. 

VI. God can carry his through great dangers. 
He carried these Israelites through the Ked Sea. See 
Sec. 168. 

VII. God can make the most dangerous places to be 
the safest. He made the bottom of the sea to be as 
dry land. See Sec. 108. 

VIII. Enemies boldly venture in tJw pursuit of God's 
saints. So did the Egyptians when they entered into 
the sea upon pursuit of the Israelites. See Sec. 109. 

IX. Preswmplion is the ready u'ay of destruction. 
The presumiition of the Egj-tians in entering into the 
sea caused the destruction. See Sec. 170. 

X. The same means may cause j^reservaiion to some, 
and destruction to others. Instance the Ked Sea, 
wherein the Israelites were preserved, and the Egyp- 
tians were destroyed. See Sec. 170. 

XL Israel's passing through (he lied Sea was a 
like figure to Christians' baptism. See Sees. 171, 

Sec. 174. Of the meaning of Hoh. xi. 30. 
Ver. 30. By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, 
after Ihty were compassed about seven days. 

The twelfth instance for proof of the vigour of 
faith is of the Israelites, under the government and 
conduct of Joshua. 

This is the ninth instance from the flood, and the 

first after the law. 

By faith is here meant the same kind of faith that 
was before mentioned in the other instances. 

Jericho here mentioned was a strong and well- 
fenced city, a frontier town, the first that kept them 
from entering far into Canaan. It was one of those 
cities which affrighted the spies that were first 
sent to search the land ; because, as they said, ' they 
were walled, and exceeding great,' Num. xiii. 28 ; 
' great, and walled up to heaven,' Dent. i. 28. So 
as to man's eyes it was impregnable. Had this city 
stood in the strength thereof, it might have been a 
refuge for others that had been overcome ; yea, it 
might have been such a block in the passage of the 
Israelites, as might have kej)t them from entering 
further. Therefore the Lord, by destroying this city 
in the first place, would make a ready way, and open 
passage for his people, and withal give them hope of 
prevailing over others, by laying thb flat to the 

That this great work might appear to be of the 
Lord, it is said that by faith the walls fell doivn — 
that is, Joshua and the Israelites that followed him, 
believing that the Lord was their God, and that he 
would accomplish all his promises made to his church 
in Christ, and particularl}' this of Jericho, answerably 
it fell out. That they had a particular charge and 
promise to march about Jericho, and that the walls 
of it should fall down, is evident in the five first 
verses of the sixth of Joshua. 

Their faith is manifested by their obedience, in the 
verses following ; and the fruit and effect thereof is 
thus plainly expressed, ' the walls fell down flat,' 
Josh. ii. 20 ; so as by inserting the persons that arc 
here intended, the full sense of the apostle wiU clearly 
appear thus : 

By the faith of Joshua, and the rest of the host of 
Israel, the walls of Jericho fell down. 

The Jewish rabbins and Chaldee interpreters are of 
opinion that those high and thick walls sunk down 
right into the ground, and were swallowed up of the 
earth, that the stones and rubbish of the walls might 
be no hindrance to the Israehtes entering into the 
city. But for this we have no sure ground out of the 
record of sacred Scripture. 

These particulars are expressly set down. 

1. The walls fell Aovra. flat. 

2. All living creatures in the city, man and beast, 
male and female, young and old, were slain with the 
sword, except llahab and those who were in her 

3. Whatsoever was combustible was burnt, as 
linen, woollen, wooden, and other like things. 

4. Metals that could endure the fire, as silver, gold, 


Vee. 30.] 


brass, and iron, were consecrated to the Lord. For 
God would have the firstfruits. None of the people 
might take any part thereof, to try whether they 
would rest on God for sufficient provision or no. 

5. The city itself was burnt with fire. 

6. A curse was laid on him that should build it 
up again. Thus was this great block clean removed 
out of their way, and that with no violence used by 
them : for it is said of those walls, 'i'lriai, tltei/ fell 
down. The verb is of the active voice ; and for 
aught that any man could see, they tumbled down of 
themselves ; but this was not done till the army had 
used such means as God had prescribed unto them; 
which were these — 

1. The men of arms march along in order. They 
make no trenches to keep themselves safe ; they 
stand not in battle array to repel the excursions of 
their enemies ; they set no engines against the walls, 
nor assault the city, but march on one after another, 
whereby they lie the more open to their enemies. 

2. Seven priests go before with seven trumpets of 
rams' horns, sounding with them. Had they sounded 
with the silver trumpets, which were consecrated, and 
to the alarm whereof in war a blessing was promised, 
Num. X. 9 — an evident performance whereof is re- 
corded, 2 Chron. xiii. 14, 15 — some spirit might have 
been put into the Israelites, and a more seeming 
ground of faith : but God would thus try them, by so 
mean a means as sounding of rams' horns, which we 
read not before or after to be used for triumph. 

3. The ark followeth the priests. The ark was but 
a little chest, Exod. xxv. 10. It could not hold any 
store of ammunition, neither was there a sword or any 
warlike instrument therein ; so as to the eye of flesh 
and blood, this ark could stand them in little stead. 
Yet to such as believed, it was a great prop for their 
faith. For the ark was an especial evidence of God's 
presence among them. It had in it the book of God's 
covenant betwixt him and his people, and thereupon 
it is called ' the ark of the covenant,' Heb. ix. 4. 
Yea, it was called 'by the name of the Lord of 
hosts,' 2 Sam. vi. 2. When it was lift up, the priest 
said, ' Let God arise,' Num. x. 3-5. The Lord is said 
to ' dwell betwixt the cherubims ' over it, 2 Kings 
xix. 15. From it the Lord used to deliver his oracles, 
Exod. xxv. 22. And before it they used to fall and 
pray, Josh. vii. 6. God's blessing accompanied it, 2 
Sam. vi. 12. On those and other like grounds the 
Lord caused the ark to be carried in their march, to 
establish their faith. Of this ark, see Chap. xi. 30, 
Sec. 20. 

4. In their march the foresaid trumpets only 
sounded. The people were commanded to be silent, 
to shew that they needed not consult one with an- 
other what to do, but attend the pleasure of God. 

5. The rear, or gathering host, went last ; with it 
all their provision was carried, whereby it is evident 
that they did not fear any attempt of the enemy. 

6. In this order they went round about the city 
once a day for six days together, and on the seventh 
day they went round about it seven times ; in which 
respect the walls are here said to be compassed about 
seven days; not by a seven days' siege against it, for 
every day after they had gone about it, they returned 
to the camp and there lodged. But on the .seventh 
day, after they had marched about it seven times, 
they gave a great shout, whereupon the walls fell flat 
to the ground, and the army entered into the city 
and destroyed it. 

The seven days' circuit, and seven times on the 
seventh day, was to prove their f;iith the more, and 
to try their obedience and patience. 

Flesh and blood might thus have objected : while 
we compass the city they may sally out against part 
of owT army ; yea, six days compassing the city may 
make us weary, in that we are so long without suc- 
cess ; so as herein their faith is proved. 

God in this course doth also tender their weakness, 
in giving the city within the space of seven days, 
without any great pains of their own, into their hands. 
For they were now come into Canaan : they had no 
store of provision beforehand : a long siege might 
have brought them to great want ; God doth, therefore, 
herein keep them from fainting before the work was 

Sec. 175. Of God's removinrj stiimhling-hloclcs out of 
his people's way. 

This phrase, hy faith the ivalls of Jericlio fell down, 
giveth proof that faith may work upon senseless crea- 
tures. Not that senseless creatures are capable of re- 
ceiving or rejecting faith ; but that believers by their 
faith may have power even over senseless creatures. 
The other phrase, ' quenched the violence of fire,' 
ver. 34, is attributed to faith, in such a sense as the 
point in hand is. 

That which is said of senseless, may be applied to 
unreasonable creatures ; for believers by their faith 
have ' stopped the mouths of lions,' ver. 33. 

Faith is set on him who hath an absolute power 
over reasonable, unreasonable, senseless, and aU sorts 
of creatures ; that what he can do, faith, in that 
course which he prescribeth, may be said to do, in 
that it is the means which he hath sanctified for the 
manifestation of his power. 

The falling of the walls of Jericho doth further 
shew that God can and will remove such stumbling- 
blocks as lie in that way through which he will have 
his people to pass. The city was a block in their 
way to the other part of Canaan ; and the walls of 
the city were a block to keep them from entering into 
the city. Therefore he caused the walls to fall, and 
the city to be destroyed. Thus he divided the sea, 
E.i^od. xiv. 21; and Jordan, 2 Kings ii. 8. Christ 
setteth down this in two extraordinary instances : 
one is, in removing a mountain, Mat. x^ii. 20; the 



[C'UAP. XI. 

other is, in plucking up a sycamore tree by the roots 
and planting it in the sea, Luke xvii. G. 

OIjJ. All these are extraordinary. 

Ans. Yet they are of force, and fit to prove God's 
power and goodness in removing ordinary obstacles ; 
and that by an argument from the greater to the less, 
which may be thus framed : 

If God upon an extraordinary faith work extraor- 
dinary matters, much more will he work ordinary 
matters upon an ordinary faith. Christ himself 
maketh this inference, Mark xi. 23, 2'1. So doth his 
apostle, James v. lG-18. Both of them from extra- 
ordinary instances prove the ordinary power of prayer. 

Wherefore when Satan, or wicked men, or our own 
sins, or any kind of temptations stand, as Jericho, in 
our way to Canaan, pray to him that is able to re- 
move these stumbling-blocks, and believe as Christ 
adviseth, Mat. xi. 2-1. 

We have the more cause to believe in such cases, 
because men's greatest defences are nothing against 
God. The walls of Jericho were thick and high, 
and ' they were straitly shut up because of the chil- 
dren of Israel,' Josh. vi. 1; yet those walls of that 
city fell dowm when God would have it so. So did 
Goliath, that great giant, fall, 1 Sam. xvii. 49, and 
Sennacherib with all his host, 2 Kings xix. 35, 

Man's preparations and defences, without a divine 
blessing, are as ' walls daubed with untempered mor- 
tar,' Ezek. xiii. 11, 13, and as ' an house built upon 
the sand,' Mat. vii. 26, 27. 

It is therefore an egregious point of folly to spend 
a man's wit, to use all his pains, to put forth his ut- 
most strength, and to make the greatest defence that 
he can, against or without the Lord, Isa. xxx. 1, 
Num. xiv. 40. 

Men, in matters against God, are like blind Bay- 
ards, which rush on to their own destruction. The 
men of Jericho might have considered that it was as 
easy for God to break open their gates, or beat down 
their walls, as to divide the Red Sea and Jordan. 
Rahab considered as much, Josh. ii. 10. And the 
Gibeonites, Josh. ix. 3, &c. But where men's minds 
are blinded, and their senses stupefied, folly bewrays 
itself. Such folly manifesteth itself in most men : 
they trust to their wit, skill, strength, multitude of 
men, and preparations which themselves make, but 
seek not to the Lord. In sicknesses, like Asa, they 
trust to physicians, and not unto the Lord, 2 Chron. 
xvL 12. If the enemies come against them, they do 
as the men of Jericho did, Jo.sh vi. 1, but seek not 
to the Lord. This is it that God doth much tax in 
his own people, Isa. xxii. 8, 9, &c. 

This may stir up such as have the Lord on their 
side, and are by him .set apart to any work, boldly to 
go on, notwithstanding the opposition that is made 
against them. 

Man's oppositions arc no more than the high and 

strong walls of Jericho. Note Jonathan's resolution, 
1 Sam. xiv. 21. 

The like is noted of Asa, 2 Chron. xiv. 11. 

Sec. 17G. Of ojjposiiions giving place of themselves. 

This act, 'i'^ia-, fell doivn, giveth proof that God 
can make the strongest opposition to yield of itself. 
It is said that ' the sea fled,' Ps. cxiv. 3, and that 
' Peter's chains fell off from his hands,' and that ' an 
iron gate opened of its own accord,' Acts xii. 7, 10. 
As senseless, so reasonable creatures have done thus; 
as the great host of Midian ' ran and fled' from 
Gideon with his three hundred men, Judges viL 21. 

The like is noted of the Philistines, 1 Sam. xiv. 
15, and of the Assyrians, 2 Kings vii. 7, and of the 
men that came to apprehend Christ, John xviii. 8. 

God's power is such as if he say to any creature, 
Stand, it stands ; Go, it goes. The sun stood still 
when God would have it. Josh. x. 13, and ran back- 
wards when God would have it so, 2 Kings xx. 11. 

It is said of all the creatures which God used to 
plague the Egyptians with, ' they rebelled not against 
his word,' Ps. cv. 28. 

This is a great encouragement to God's people 
against all oppositions in God's way ; though they 
see no means for removing them, yet God can make 
them remove of themselves. What chains or cords 
had Daniel to tie the lions among whom he was cast 1 
What water had his three comjsanions to quench the 
fire into which they were cast ? Wh^t angels were 
used to pull the devils out of their holds when Christ 
commanded them to come out? These and other 
like things are recorded, not to make us neglect 
means, nor to expect such miracles, but when we 
see no means, to rely on God, and in faith say, 'God 
will provide.' 

Sec. 177. Of great ivories done hi/ weak means. 

The means prescribed for making way to enter into 
Jericho were, to the eye of flesh and blood, very un- 
likely — the means are distinctly noted. Sec. 174 — 
yet they were effectual : so was Moses's striking of 
the sea, and a rock with his rod, Exod. xiv. 16, and 
xvii. 6. The like may be observed of many means 
which God from time to time hath caused to be 

1. God prescribeth means, to try our obedience; 
but unlikely means, to try our faith. 

2. He prescribeth means, to be occasions of looking 
to him for his blessing only; but strange and mean 
means, to draw our hearts from depending on crea- 

3. Means are prescribed, to give evidence of the 
divine providence : but weak means, to give evidence 
of God's almighty power ; for his power is manifested 
in weakness, 2 Cor. xii. 5. 

Let us learn hereby to take heed of doting on 
means. In use of means look to God : submit to 

Vee. 30.] 



his will ; prescribe nothing unto him, but rest on his 
power and blessing. 

We may and ought carefully to observe what 
means God hath sanctified for the effecting of any- 
thing, and conscionably use the same. To contemn 
or neglect means, is to oppose our shallow conceit to 
God's unsearchable wisdom. Had not Naaman been 
better advised by his servants, he might have gone 
away from the prophet as foul a leper as he came, 2 
Kings V. 11. Men's greatest failing in this kind is 
about weightiest matters : such as concern their soul's 
salvation. Therefore herein especially take heed of 
Satan's subtlety. Go on in God's way, observe his 
course, and then all Satan's attempts shall be as the 
walls of Jericho — they shall fall down flat. 

Sec. 178. Of the walls of Jericho falling down in 
the seventh day. 

The apostle taketh notice of the number of days 
in which they compassed the city before the walls 
fell down ; whereby he would have us take notice, 
that God hath a set time to do what he intendeth. 
It was a longer time, but a set time, which he ap- 
pointed for preparing the ark, even a hundred and 
twenty j'ears, Gen. vi. 3, compared with 1 Pet. iii. 20. 

God had his set time for bringing his people out 
of the Egyptian bondage. Gen. xv. 13, Exod. xii. 41, 
and out of the Babylonish captivity, Jer. xxv. 11, 
12. He had a set time both fur plenty and also for 
famine in Egypt, Gen. xli. 2G. So set is this time, 
as it is styled ' an hour,' John ii. 4, and vii. 30. As 
God hath his hour for effecting his own acts, so like- 
wise for permitting wicked ones to do what they do, 
Mark xiv. 41, Luke xxii. 15. 

' The Father hath put times and seasons in his own 
power,' Acts i. 7 ; and he teacheth children of men to 
do things in their season, Isa. xxviii. 26. Much more 
will he himself order matters in their fittest season. 

1. This gives evidence of the divine providence in 
ordering matters, and sheweth that they fall not out 
by chance. 

2. This giveth ground of contentment and comfort 
in all events. They fall out in the fittest time and 
season. When any that are dear or useful unto us 
are taken away (be they governor.?, ministers, parents, 
husbands, wives, children, friends, or any other), they 
are taken away in the time appointed by God, which 
is the fittest time. It is in vain to seek either to 
prevent or to put ofi' God's time. As it cannot be 
prevented, so it shall not be overslipped. On the 
seventh day, the walls that held out seven days' com- 
passing, fell down. 

3. AVe have hereupon good ground to wait for the 
Lord's time : as the host of Israel did, ' wait because 
it will surely come,' Hab. ii. 3 ; ' he that believeth 
shall not make haste,' Isa. xxviii. 16. This was it 
which Christ intended under this phrase, ' Mine hour 
is not yet come,' John ii. 5. 

Vol. IIL 

4. This should put us on cheerfully to get on in 
the work and way of the I^ord : though for a time 
we may meet with many discouragements from the 
threatenings and attempts of men. When the Phari- 
sees told Christ that Herod would kill him, Christ 
returns this answer, ' I must walk to-day and to- 
morrow, and the day following,' Luke xiii. 33, 33. 
God hath a time for thee to work, and in that time 
he will uphold thee ; and what God appoints shall in 
time be accomplished. 

Divine truth is infallible, Tit. i. 2; Heb. vi. 18. 
And that divine truth doth manifest itself both in 
the substance of matters, and in their circumstances, 
as manner, means, time. All which are here verified. 

There being seven days spent in the army's march- 
ing about Jericho, one of them must needs be the 
Sabbath. Now this was the strictest time of observ- 
ing the Sabbath : yet on a Sabbath the whole array 
marched at least once about Jericho. This marching 
was not simply a work of piety, but a servile work, 
yet by God's appointment performed on a Sabbath- 
day ; which giveth instance, that in some cases some 
servile works may be done on the Sabbath. Hereof 
see more in my treatise of the Sabbath's Sanctijica- 
tion, quest. 37. 

Sec. 179. Of the resolution of, and observation 
from, Heb. xi. 30. 

In this verse there is a proof of the fiiith of the 
Israelites, under the conduct of Joshua. Here we are 
to consider, 

1. The thing proved. 

2. The kind of proof. 

In the former, one thing is expressed, which is 
faith. The other is implied, which sets out the ■per- 
sons whose faith is commended. ^ 

The latter is, 1. Propounded ; 2. Amplified. 

In that which is propounded, we may observe, 

1. The subject whereon their faith was manifested, 
the u'alls of Jericho. 

2. The effect whereby it was manifested, fell 

In amplifying the proof, we may observe, 

1. The means used, thei/ were compassed about. 

2. The time how long, seven days. 


I. Faith may work upon senseless creatures. The 
walls of Jericho, which by faith fell down, were such 
creatures. See Sec. 175. 

II. Stumbling blocks in the way which God hath 
appointed shall be removed. Jericho was a stumbling- 
block to the Israelites entering into Canaan, but de- 
stroyed. See Sec. 175. 

III. Man's best defences against God are nothing. 
The high and thick walls of Jericho fell down before 
God's people. See Sec. 175. 

IV. God can make such things as stand against his 
people to yield of themselves. The walls of Jericho 



[Chap. XI. 

fell down of themselves without any battering. Sec 
Sec. 17G. 

V. Greot,t matters may he effected by mean means. 
The means used for entering into Jericho were in 
man's appreliension very mean : yet the walls of the 
city round about fell down, which was a great matter. 
See Sec. 177. 

VI. God hath a set time for his works. The expres- 
sion of seven days intends as much. See Sec. 178. 

VII. WImt God appoints shall in his time be accom- 
plished. In tlie seventh day, which God appointed, 
Jericho fell down. See Sec. 178. 

VIII. In some cases, some servile worTcs may be done 
upon the Sabbath. One of the seven days wherein 
they compassed the city must needs be upon the 
Sabbath. See Sec. 178. 

Sec. 180. Of the apostWs method in setting down 
tlie example of Baliab. 

Vcr. 3 1 . By faith tlie harlot Rahab perished not 
with them that believed not, [or, that were disobedient^ 
when she had received the spies with pence. 

The thirteenth instance of the proof of the vigour 
of faith, and tenth after the flood, and second after 
the law, and last of the anaph.ora, which carrieth 
this word before it, by faith, is Rahab. 

In setting down this instance, the method and 
order of the apostle in producing examples to com- 
mend unto us this precious gift of fiiith, is worthy to 
be observed. 

1. He culls out eminent persons, such as Abel, 
Enoch, Noah, Abraham, <tc., which are the more 
perfect patterns. 

2. He inserts women, as Sarah, and the mother 
of Moses, to prove that even women may become 

3. He produceth multitudes, as they who passed 
through the Tied Sea, and marched about Jericho, to 
shew that faith is a common gift for all sorts of 

4. He giveth instance of a notorious sinner, which 
was Rahab, to provoke the worst to repent and be- 
lieve. This is a strong inducement thereunto : for 
if the faith of eminent persons, if the faith of weak 
women, if the faith of uniltitudes work not upon u.s, 
let us be ashamed to come short of one that was a 

Though the spies were received by Rahab before 
the walls of Jericho fell down, yet she and her family 
were not preserved before. 

That ])reservation was the fruit and effect of her 
faith : and in tliat respect also this instance of faith 
is fitly set down after the former. 

Sec. 181. Of God's accepting the seed offaitL 
Concerning the faith here mentioned, great ques- 
tion is made whether it were a true justifying faith 
or no. 

Some deny it to be so, because she was not of the 
church, nor had heard God's word, which is the true 
ground of such a faith. 

But I answer, that she had heard of God's works, 
Jo.sh. ii. 9, (fcc, and thereby she was brought to be- 
lieve and acknowledge that the God of Israel was the 
true God, and a merciful God, and that to sinners : 
whereupon she was induced to trust in God, and to 
desire communion with his people. Hereby she 
attained a true faith, whereof this was the seed : and 
so accepted of God for a true faith. She believed 
that the Lord had given the Israelites the land of 
Canaan ; and that they should possess it ; and that 
they were the true and only people of God : and was 
resolved to live and die with them. Thus there was 
the seed of faith in her : and this was accounted a 
true faith, which would grow and increase more and 
more. Such a faith had Naaman, 2 Kings v. 15 ; 
and Nicodemus, John iii. 2 ; and the father of the 
lunatic, Mark ix. 24. 

God beholds such a substance in such a kind of 
faith as will bring forth glorious fruits. For the Spirit, 
that worketh this, ever abideth, and he having begun 
a good work will perform it unto the end, Phil. i. G. 

1. This is sweet comfort to such as find the true 
seed and beginning of grace in them. For this in- 
ward working is an evidence of the Spirit : and every 
true evidence thereof is a matter of much comfort. 
When a woman that desireth children first discerneth 
that she conceiveth with child, she is much comforted, 
and rejoiceth in hope of bringing forth a perfect child. 
The Israelites much rejoiced when the foundation of 
the house of the Lord was laid after their captivity, 
Ezra iii. 11, in hope that the whole house in time 
would be perfected. For the present, God hath the 
seed of faith in high account : and for the future, 
God will so bless it, as a grain of mustard-seed shall 
become a tree, Mat. xiii. 31, 32. 

2. They who find the beginnings of grace in them, 
who earnestly desire true grace, who sensibly feel the 
want of it, who are truly grieved for that want, may 
hence receive comfort. True grace, though small, 
will be accepted. 

3. Two sorts of people may receive direction from 

(1.) They who have but small means, let such im- 
prove those means to the best advantage that they 
can ; so did Rahab. If men will use what they have, 
they shall have more. ' Unto every one which hath, 
shall be given,' Luke xix. 20. 

(2.) They who have powerful means, as they find 
any inward working of the Spirit in and by those 
means, let them endeavour to grow thereby, and 
answer plentiful means of grace with some competent 
measure of grace. This is an evidence of the truth of 
grace. Though small grace may be true, yet true grace 
will not ever be small. Thhigs of God's kingdom do 
grow, and that to admiration, Ezck. xlvii. 3-5. 

Vjje. 31.] 



Sec. 182. Of the fruits of Rahab's faith. 

The person whose faith is here commended is thus 
set out, the harlot Rahah. Her example is the more 

1. By reason of her sex, manifested in the feminine 
gender, ij coV>»), she was a woman. That women may 
prove worthies hath been proved, Ver. ] 1, Sec. 53. 

2. By reason of her nation : she was a GentOe — yea, 
she was of the cursed .stock of the Canaanites ; so as 
God can call out into his church the most unlikely 
that may be. 

3. By reason of her external condition or filthy pro- 
fession, she was a harlot. This doth much confirm 
the point last noted. 

Her name is here said to be ^nii Rahah, which in 
Hebrew signifieth broad or large. It fitly answereth 
both to her former and later condition. 

To her former, in regard of her impudency — makuig 
herself as a broad street for any to come into. 

To the later, in regard of the largeness of her heart 
and soul, in receiving a large apprehension of God's 
works : and those both of his justice and mercy, 
Josh. ii. 9, (fee. 

There is mention made of Rahah, Ps. Ixxxvii. 4, 
and Ixxxix. 10, and Isa. IL 9. But though in English 
the names are of the same letters, 3'et in Hebrew 
they have different letters, and come from different 
roots : one, ^rni signifieth broad ; the other, ^ni; 
proud, and is put for Egypt. 

The fruits of her faith were such as these, mani- 
fested. Josh. ii. 

1. She entertaineth those that were of the true 
church, ver. 1. 

2. She hides them from danger, ver. 4. 

3. She refuseth to betray them, ver. 4. 

4. She beguUes those that sought to apprehend 
them, ver. 5. 

5. She acknowledgeth the true God, ver. 11. 

6. She coufesseth that God had affrighted the 
nations, ver. 9. 

7. She ascribeth to God, and to his power, the 
great works which he had done, ver. 10. 

8. She is persuaded that what God had said 
should be, ver. 9. 

9. She adjures them by the true God, ver. 12. 

10. She desires mercy of God's people, when others 
stood out : wherein she looked further than others, 
and more profited by what she had heard, ver. 12. 

11. Her desire of mercy is extended to all hers, 
ver. 13. 

12. She keeps covenant, ver. 14, 21. 

13. She provides a means for the escape of God's 
people, ver. 15. 

14. She incorporated herself into God's church for 
ever, Josh. vi. 25, Mat. i. 5. 

This instance of Eahab giveth evidence that God 
had Gentiles among his people, and accounted mem- 
bers of the true church. 

Jewish writers reckon up nine famous women. 

1. Hagar, an Egyptian in Abraham's family, Gen. 
xvi. 1. 

2. Asenath, Joseph's wife, Gen. xli. 50. 

3. Shiprah. 4. Puah. 'These two were the mid- 
wives that preserved the children of the Hebrews 
alive against the king's command, Exod. i. 15. 

5. Pharaoh's daughter, Exod. ii. 5. Their order 
sheweth that they mean her who took up Moses, 
though Solomon's wife may more fitly be meant. 

6. Zipporah, Moses's wife, Exod. ii. 21. 

7. This Eahab mentioned in my text. 

8. Kuth, the daughter-m-law of Naomi, Ruth i. 1 G. 

9. Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, Judges iv. 

All these did worthy facts : but whether all these 
were effectually converted, is a question. Besides 
these there were many others, both men and women. 
Witness the laws that were made for strangers of both 
sexes, and their admittance to the passover and to other 
sacred rites. 

God hereby gave evidences and pledges of the 
extent of his goodness to all of all sorts : and of 
the truth of Lis promise made to Abraham, that ' in 
his seed all nations should be blessed,' Gen. xxii. 

Hereby the Lord sheweth himself to be no respecter 
of persons. 

The like he doth now concerning the recalling of 
the rejected Jews, Rom. xi. 25, 26. There ever have 
been since their rejection some Jews professuig the 
Christian faith, Koni. xi. 1, (fee. 

The promise which God made for calling the 
Gentries, moved the Jews to entertain such Gentiles 
as came in to them, and to pray for others. 

The like ground have we to do the like duty on 
the behalf of Jews. 

Sec. 183. Of RaJiabhiing aharlot : and of h^r jjre- 

That woman who yielded forth such fruits of faith 
is expressly said to be a harlot, which brandeth her 
for an infamous woman. 

Some question is made by the Jewish rabbins about 
the Hebrew word n31T> whether it should signify a 
harlot or a hostess. They suppose it a matter impro- 
bable and dishonourable for Israelites coming among 
Gentiles to enter into the house of a harlot, not con- 
sidering how God's glory was much more magnified 
by her conversion — for, 

1. By a secret providence and divine instinct was 
this thus ordered. 

2. She is called a harlot, not in reference to her 
present, but to her former past condition ; as ' Mat- 
thew the publican,' Mat. x. 3. 

This may be explained by an infamous title given 
to a woman, but in reference to the time past ; which 
is thus expressed, ' a woman which was a sinner/ 



[Chap. XI. 

Luke vii. 37. For God had purified her heart by 
faith, Acts xv. 9. 

3. They went not to her house because it was a 
public stews, but because it was a remote and secret 
place ; for it was upon the town-wall, Josh. ii. 15. 

For the point in hand, there are two roots from 
whence the Hebrew word may be derived, ]3T and 
njt, which expressly signify to play the harlot, or 
to commit fornication. 

There is also another Hebrew word, pt, which signi- 
fieth meat ; whence they would derive the word, nj1T> 
attributed to this woman, and expound it hostess, 
or victualler, that sclloth meat : but they cannot give 
any express instance thereof. They produce some 
places where this word is used : but if the sense of 
place be well observed, it will appear, that in all those 
places the word may be more fitly translated harlot 
than hostess, as Judges xi. 1, 1 Kings iii. 16, Joel 
iii. 3. 

This word in Hebrew is in other places put for 
a harlot by their own confession : nor can it be taken 
for a hostess or victualler, as Gen. xxxiv. 31, Lev. xxi. 
7, Ezek. xvi. 41, Prov. xxiii. 27. Besides, the LXX, 
who well understood the meaning of the Hebrew 
words, ever translate it with a word, -jroitri, that 
properly signifieth a harlot. And two apostles ex- 
pound it so — namely, this apostle here, and James 
ii. 25. 

Surely this much tendeth to the magnifying of 
God's almighty power, free grace, and rich mercy, that 
a harlot should attain to such faith, and be made 
partaker of such favour and honour as she was ; as, 

1. To profit by God's works so far beyond all her 
country as she did. 

2. To be a hostess to the people of God. 

3. To be a means of preserving not herself only, 
but all hers, from a common destruction. 

4. To be admitted, though a Gentile, into the com- 
monwealth of Israel. 

5. To be incor[)orated into the true church of God. 

6. To be married to a prime prince in Israel, which 
was Salmon. 

7. To be one of those progenitors from whom the 
promised Jlessiah, by luieal descent, should come, 
Mat. i. 5. 

8. To be culled out by an apostle, and by name to 
be put into the catalogue of God's worthies. 

9. To be produced by another apostle as a prime 
pattern of manifesting her faith by works, James ii. 

10. To be an heir of eternal life, as all Christ's 
progenitors, from whom in a direct line he descended, 
are supposed to be, and as all true believers are. 

These shew how forward God is to honour penitent 
sinners ; and how much mercy such may receive from 
him. Tlie names of such as are registered in sacred 
Scripture give further evidence hereof : Ruth, Naa- 
nian, Matthew, Zaccheus, the woman that washed 

Christ's feet with her tears, Paul, and others. Mat. 
xxi. 32. 

God's high account of such is manifested many 

1. By sending his Son to call such, Mat. ix. 13, 
yea, to seek and to save them. 

2. By aflfording his gospel, and ministers to preach 
it unto them. Acts xxvi. 17, 18. 

3. By Christ's patient waiting upon them, Rev. iiL 

4. By God's readiness to receive sinners when they 
are coming to him, even afar ofif, Luke xv. 20, Ps. 
xxxii. 5. 

5. By that joy which angels express upon the 
conversion of sinners, Luke xv. 10. 

6. By that glory and praise which the church 
giveth fur such. Gal. i. 22, 23, Acts xi. IS. 

7. By that recompense which God confers upon 
them. This consisteth of sundry branches, as, 

(1.) A free discharge of their whole debt, and full 
remission of all their sins, Luke xviii. 13, 14. 

(2.) His sanctifying, comforting, and supporting 
Spirit in an abundant measure, 1 Cor. xv. 10. 

(3.) E.'cternal honours : instance, Rahab, Ruth, and 
the prodigal, Luke xv. 23. 

(4.) Eternal life, and it may be a great degree of 
glory in heaven ; for if notorious sinners after their 
conversion remain faithful, and give forth fruits meet 
for repentance, their former wicked course .shall not 
be remembered to impair their heavenly glory, Ezek. 
xviii. 21. Yea, many such converts are, by a con- 
sideration of their former wickedness, stirred up to 
labour in God's work more abundantly than others, 
1 Cor. XV. 10. 

1. This giveth a clear demonstration of the free 
grace and rich mercy of our God ; for sin to God is 
more than any rebellion or high treason against the 
greatest monarch on earth. 

2. It giveth also a demonstration of the equity and 
justice of God upon impenitent sinners, Ezek. xviii. 
27, &c. We may from hence infer that the destruc- 
tion of every impenitent sinner is of himself, Hosea 
xiii. 9. 

3. This mercy of God to Rahab should stir up 
others to do as Rahab did. Though all Jericho stood 
out, yet would not she ; she had heard, and she be- 
lieved, that there was no standing out against God ; 
she therefore comes in ; she seeks mercy and finds 
mercy : 'go and do thou likewise,' Luke x. 37. 

Sec. 184. Of Rahah not perishing with others. 

Among many other evidences of God's mercy to 
this penitent, one is thus expressed, she perished not 
ivith them that believed not. This phrase, oi ffuvaTcuXiro, 
she perished not leith, is the interpretation of one 
Greek word, which is a double compound. 

Of the simple verb, oXXu,a/, perdo, and of the first 
composition, otoXXi/.u.;, see Chap. x. 39, Sec. 151. 

Ver. 31.] 



The other preposition, nij-j, which maketh it a double 
compound, signifieth with, and hath reference to 
others, which are said not to believe; so as she was pre- 
served from a common destruction. 

By her not perishing, is meant her preservation 
from death. Under it is comprised not only the pre- 
servation of her person, but also of all that were with 
her in her house, Josh. vi. 23-25. 

The manner of her preservation was this : 

1. When the walls of the city fell down, and 
thereby a way was made for the whole army to enter 
into the city, Joshua sends to her the spies, who knew 
where her house was, and promised preservation to 
her, and all in her house. This is a worthy precedent 
for generals and other commanders, to ratify the 
engagements of such as are employed by them. 

2. The spies that were preserved by her readily go 
and accompKsh what she had made them promise 
and swear. This is a good example for such as have 
received kindness, especially when they are bound by 
promise and oath to a particular retribution. 

3. All in her house are .saved, so as covenant and 
oaths are to be performed to the full 

4. They were for a time left without the camp of 
Israel, to shew that all to whom external favour is 
shewed are not presently to be made partakers of all 
the privileges of the church. There must be a time 
for such as have been of a false religion, to give good 
evidence of their true faith and repentance. 

5. She and hers dwelt for ever among the Israel- 
ites : so as true converts, though strangers, after good 
proof are to be accounted as those who are born in 
the church. 

Quest. 1. Why is no mention made of her husband 
and children ? 

A lis. It is probable that she being a harlot, had 
neither husband nor child. 

Quest. 2. How is this, that she perished not, attri- 
buted to her faith, seeing it was an act of Joshua and 
the Israelites ! 

Ans. 1. Her faith made her expect preservation. 

2. It made her shew that kindness to the spies 
which was the procuring cause of her preservation. 

3. It made her capitulate with them about her 

i. It made her bind them by promise and oath to 
save her. 

5. It made her tie the scarlet thread to her window 
as a sign. 

6. It made her, with all her kindred, to abide in 
her house, whereby she and they were saved. 

This fruit of faith giveth a proof that faith may 
keep believers from common destruction. Thus Noah 
and they that were with him in the ark were pre- 
served from the general deluge. See more hereof in 
the Plaster for a Plague, on Num. xvi. 45, Sees. 
12, 13, Ac. 

Under this preservation iill those that were in 

Eahab's family were preserved, Josh. vi. 22, 23. It 
giveth proof that they who belong to believers may 
reap much good by them, Acts xxvii. 24, Luke xix. 
9, Acts xvi. 15, 31. 

This ariseth not from any desert of faith, but 
merely from that respect which God beareth to 

1. This teacheth such as belong to believers, 

(1.) To bless God for that lot that is fallen unto 

(2.) There to abide, John vi. 68. 

(3.) To be subject to such as believe, 1 Tim. vi. 2. 

(4.) To pray fur them. Gen. xxiv. 12. 

2. This directeth such as have liberty to choose 
their habitation in a nation, city, parish, or house, 
to choose it where believers are, as Ruth i. 16, 
John i. 38, Exod. xii. 38. Thus may they expect a 

Sec. 185. Of the danger of obstinate infidelity. 

The parties who perished are said to be, a.miSriSa.si, 
they that believed not. This phrase is the interpreta- 
tion of one Greek compound, whereof see Chap. iii. 
18, Sec. 171. There it is shewn how it signifieth 
both mibelief, and also disobedience. Both these 
significations are here noted by our English trans- 
lators, one in the text, the other in the margin ; both 
of them may here very well stand. 

The former, of unbelief, may have reference to her 
faith : she believed that the God of Israel was the 
only true God, and that he had given them the land 
of Canaan ; answerably she desired to live among 
them, and to be of the communion of saints, and 
thereupon she was preserved ; thoy believed no such 
thing, and thereupon were destroyed. 

The latter, of disobedience, may have reference 
both to their former lewd conversation (which was a 
disobedience against God's holy law written in their 
hearts), and also to their stiff standing out all the 
seven days that the city was compassed about, wherein 
they did not yield any whit at all, nor hold out any 
white flag of agreement. 

This giveth proof that infidelity and obstinacy 
cause destruction. 

An apostle rendereth this to be the reason of the 
de.struction of the old world, 1 Peter iii. 20 ; and our 
apostle rendereth this to be the reason of their de- 
struction who perished in the wilderness, Chap. iii. 
18, Sees. 170, 171. 

1. This layeth a sinner open to God's wrath, John 
iii. 36. 

2. It maketh men neglect means of preservation, 
John Lii. 18. 

3. It occasioneth men to implunge themselves into 
danger, Exod. ix. 21, and xiv. 23. 

1. This informs us in the fearful nature of in- 
fidelity and obstinacy. 

The temporal destructions which they bring are 



[Chap. XI. 

enough to manifest them to be very fearful : but much 
more eternal, Rev. xxi. 8. 

2. Learn hereby to take heed of standing out 
against God. ' It is hard to kick against pricks,' 
Acts ix. 5. 

Sec. 18G. Of the laivfulriess of spies. 

An especial fruit of Rahab's faith is thus set down, 
when she had received the sjiies loith peace. 

This plu-ase, when she had received, is set down in 
a particijjle, thus, 8i^a/j,itri, haiiing received ; she first 
received the spies, and afterwards was preserved from 

They whom she received are here styled, xarasxo- 
crouf, spies. 

This noun is a compound ; the simple verb, exoTiu, 
whence it cometh, signifieth to mark, Eom. xvi. 17, 
Phil. iii. 17, and to consider, Gal. vi. 1. 

The compound verb, xaTuaxoTsa, signifieth to spi/ 
out. Gal. ii. 4 ; thence this noun, xarciaxoTou;, fitly 
translated spies. 

This hath reference to those two men whom Joshua 
sent forth to spy out the land secretly. Another 
apostle calleth them, ay/'shov;, messengers, James ii. 
25. They are called messengers by reason of their 
warrant : they went not of themselves, but upon his 
ordering whu had the chief command over them. 
They are called sjries by reason of the end why they 
were sent, even privily to spy out the land. 

Quest. Seeing God had promised the land to them, 
■what need they send .spies beforehand ? 

Ans. 1. To use warrantable means for the accom- 
plishment of God's promises, Dan. ix. 2, ?>. 

2. To strengthen the faith of the people by under- 
standing the fear of their enemies, whereof those 
spies gave them notice, Josh. ii. 24. Thus dealt God 
with Gideon, Judges vii. 9-1 1. 

Here we have two things to be observed — 

1. Joshua's prudence and providence in ordering 
matters so, as his soldiers might be the better encour- 
aged to go on. 

2. The negligence of the enemy, who, notwith- 
standing the ftime of the Israelites coming over Jor- 
dan with a purpose to possess Canaan, are so careless 
of their city, as spies had advantage to come in and 
view their city. Indeed, afterwards they did ' straitly 
shut up their city,' Josh. vi. 1 ; but that was too 
late, the spies then had done their work. Thus God, 
to accomplisli his work, can give wisdom to some, and 
stupefy others. 

I'hat which is here noted concerning Rahab's re- 
ceiving spies as a fruit of her faith, givetli proof that 
spies are warrantable. It cannot be doubted but that 
Jo.shua herein had God's approbation ; yea, the Lord 
himself doth expressly command tliis. Num. xiii. 2, 3. 

Ohj. A very evil event followed upcm the return 
of the spies that were first sent to search Canaan, 
Num. xiii. 32, <fec., and xiv. 1, ifec. 

Ans. Lawfulness of actions are not to be judged 
by events. There may be failings in sundry circum- 
stances about warrantable actions, whereby the Lord 
may be provoked to cross them : instance Judges xx. 
21, 15. It was the cowardice and faithlessness of 
the spies, not the unlawfulness of their action, that 
caused the fearful events that followed thereupon. 
God's people much used this kind of policy against 
their enemies, as Judges i. 23, 24, and xviii. 2, 1 Sam. 
xxvi. 4. 

This may be an es[>ecial means to find out the 
counsels, intents, plots, and policies of enemies, the 
knowledge whereof is a great advantage in war, but 
ignorance thereof a great disadvantage, 2 Kings vL 

This therefore hath ever been counted one of the 
lawful stratagems of war, as Abraham's pursuing 
enemies by night. Gen. xiv. 15, and Joshua's laying 
men in ambush, Josh. viii. 3, &c., so Judges xx. 
29, &c. 

By this means men have preserved themselves, as 
David, 1 Sam. xxvi. 3, 4, and enemies have been de- 
stroyed, as Judges xviii. 9, 10, 27. 

Obj. This seems to be a treacherous circumventing 
of men. 

Ans. There is no- treachery therein, because it is 
not against trust and truth. Where the war is just, 
enemies may be surprised or vanquished by fraud or 
force, openly or secretly.^ It stands both with pru- 
dence and valour to entrap or beat down an enemy 
any way. 

On the other side, it argues much improvidence to 
be circumvented for want of spies. 

The application of this point especially concerneth 
governors of states and commanders in wars. 

Sec. 187. Of RahaUs receiving the spies. 
Concerning Rahab's receiving the forenamed spies, 
the history expresseth these particular circumstances : 

1. She gave them entertainment in her house. 

2. Inquiry being made after them, she hid them. 

3. By her cunning speech .she kept them who were 
sent to search for them [not] to seek any further in 
her house for them. 

4. She used means for their fair escape. 

5. She gave them advice, after they were to be 
gone from her, how to remain in safety. 

Quest. \V:is it lawful thus to receive spies against 
her own countr}' 1 

Ans. 1. These were the people of God whom she 

2. Her countrymen were by God himself devoted 
to destmction. 

3. Their land was by the supreme Lord given to 
the IsraeUtes. 

4. She knew that the death of the spies might 

' 7) SoXifi TJt ^ir). — Anfigoiw. 
Dolus an virtus, quis in hoste rcquirit! — Virg. 

Vek. 31.] 



more exasperate the Israelites, and that their life 
could not prejudice her countrymen. 

5. She did it in no treachery or hatred, nor for 
any filthy lucre, or any other by-rcspect. 

6. That which she did was by special instinct, and 
by an extraordinary spirit. 

On the forcmentioned grounds she is said to receive 
them, liiT iiirjiri;, n'ith peace : that is, as special 
friends, kindly, safely, securely, not as enemies, 
treacherously — not practising any ill against them, 
but sending them away in peace. 

This pattern sheweth that men in danger are to be 
preserved from such as seek their lives. Hereof see 
more, Ver. 23, Sec. 125. 

Sec. 188. Of dismissing in. peace such a^ confide in ns. 

The addition of this last phrase, ivith jjeace, added 
to Rahab's act in receiving the spies, giveth a clear 
proof that they who are taken into protection must, 
as far as may be, be dismissed in safety. ^Memorable 
in this respect is the example of Lot, in entertaining 
the two that he took into his house, Gen. xix. 7, ifec. 
The like is noted of the old man of Gibeah, Judges 
xix. 22, (tc. ; and of the woman in Bahurim, 2 Sam. 
xvii. 18, 19, ifec. ; and of Jonathan, 1 Sam. xx. 42; 
and of Obadiah, 1 Kings xviii. 13; and of Jeho- 
shabeath, 2 Chron. xxii. 11. We have for this the 
pattern of God himself, Jer. xxxvi. 26. And his 
express charge for ' hiding the outcasts, and not be- 
wraying him that wandereth,' Isa. xvi. 3. 

1. Truth and fidelity requireth as much. 

2. This is the main end of undertaking protection, 
to dismiss them in safety. ' Do nothing to these 
men,' saith Lot, ' for therefore came they under the 
shadow of my roof,' Gen. xLx. 8. 

Great therefore is their treachery who bewray such 
as put themselves under their protection. This was 
the sin of the Ziphites (1 Sam. xxiii. 19) which occa- 
sioned David to pen the fifty-foui-th Psalm against 
them. This was it, that as a perpetual infamy occa- 
sioned this style, ' Judas the traitor,' Luke vi. 1 6. 

Sec. 189. Of equivocation. 

About Rahab's receiving and dismissing the spies 
in peace, it is noted in the history, that she answered 
the officers whom the king sent to apjjrehend the 
spies, with these words, ' I wist not whence they 
were, and whither the men went I wot not,' Josh. ii. 4, 5. 

Here a question is raised, whether these words may 
be justified or no 1 

Ans. Surely no ; for she did well know that they 
came from the camp of Israel, and she herself directed 
them in the way whither they went ; so as her an- 
swer was against a known truth. 

Obj. Her example is here produced, even in receiv- 
ing and dismissing the spies, as an effect of faith. 

A ns. In the general, that was an act of faith, and 
so approved, but not in the particular circumstances 

thereof. Rahab's answer is somewhat like to the 
direction which Rebekah gave to her son Jacob : in 
the general, Rebekah's direction and intent was a 
fruit of great faith, for it had respect unto the pro- 
mise of God made unto Jacob, in these words, ' the 
elder shall serve the younger,' Gen. xxv. 23 ; but 
in sundry circumstances it can no way be approved, 
Gen. xxvii. 6, 7, ic. It pleaseth the Lord in tender 
compassion to pass by many infirmities of his children, 
when he observeth an upright heart, and an aim to 
accomplish his promises. Thus did God here accept 
of Rahab's faith, manifested by many fruits, Sec. 
182, and graciously pass over her infirmities. 

There are some that do excuse Eahab, even in the 
circumstance before noted ; and that two ways. 

1. By freeing it from all untruth; thus, Rahab's 
house being a common inn, and divers passengers 
lodging therein, some might then come into her house, 
and of them she might say, ' I wist not whence they 
were ;' for innkeepers do not know whence all the 
guests that come to their house are : she might also 
say of them, ' whither the men went I wot not.' 
Thus by her speaking of other persons, she might 
speak the truth. 

Ans. 1. There is no expression in the history of 
any such matter. 

2. There is little probability thereof. 

3. That had been no direct answer to the question 
propounded about the spies, and in that respect an 

2. By making up that which Rahab uttered with a 
mental reservation, thus, I wist not whence they 
were, to make them known to you, and whither the 
men went I wot not, to betray them to you. 

This Jesuits call equivocation. 

Because in these latter years a great controversy hath 
been raised by popish Jesuits about equivocation, I 
will endeavour plainly to set down the state of the 
question and arguments, jjro and con. 

Equivocation, taken in the most ancient and accus- 
tomed sense, is an ambiguous signification of a word, 
or a doubtful disposition of a sentence. To equivo- 
cate is, in general, to use a word or sentence so am- 
biguously as it may be taken diversely, in this sense, 
or that sense. Thus saith Christ, ' Lazarus sleepeth,' 
John xi. 11. Christ meaneth the sleep of death : the 
disciples take It of the natural sleep of the body. 
Equivocation in a sentence is, when a sentence is so 
composed as it may be diversely taken. Thus it is 
said that ' Ahaziah was forty and two years old when 
he began to reign,' 2 Chron. xxii. 2. This may be 
taken either of Ahaziah's own person, or otherwise of 
the stock whence he came by the mother's side, which 
had continued till that time, forty and two years. 

This kind of equivocation is a rhetorical figure, 
and intendeth the same that a homonymy doth.' 

1 See the English Annotations on 2 Chron. xxii. 1, oiii^ivvjila. 



[Chap. XI 

This figure is frequently used in Scripture. It is 
nothing but an ambiguity in speech ; such a one 
Christ useth in these words, ' If I will that he tarry 
till I come, what is that to thee V John xxi. 22, 23. 

These are not unlawful ; for, 

1. There is no untruth in them. 

2. There are rules to find out the true and full 
sense of them. 

3. They are of good use to exercise a man's under- 
standing, to sharpen his wit, to make him search 
after the meaning of what he reads and hears : yea, 
and to discover men's dullness, as Mark viii. 17, ic. 

To this head may be referred all manner of tropes, 

Metonymies, when a place is put for the inhabit- 
ants. Lam. i. 1, 2. 

Ironies, when the contrary is then expressed, 1 
Kings xviii. 27, and xxii. 15. 

Metaj)hors, to which may be referred all sorts of 

Synecdoches, as when the general is put for some 
particulars. Christ healed all sicknes.ses, and all dis- 
eases, which is aU kind of sicknesses, Mat. xxiv. 23. 
, So figures, as, prosopopteias, when persons are brought 
in speaking, which do not so speak ; as in the story 
of Dives and Lazarus, Luke xvi. 21, &c. 

Aposiopesies, when a sentence is broken off, and a 
part thereof left to be understood, which was usual 
in forms of oaths, Ps. xcv. 11. 'I sware in my wrath, 
if they enter into my rest;' this was God's oath. A 
like is noted of man's oath. See Cluip. iii. 11, Sec. 

The like may be said of concealing a part of truth, 
which the prophet did, Jer. xxxviii. 27 ; and of 
riddles, Judges xiv. 14; and of hyperboles. See Ver. 
12, Sec. GO. 

Jesuits, besides these and others like unto them, 
have invented and broached another kind of ccjuivo- 
cation, which they themselves do term « mental equivo- 
cation; that is, when a false speech is uttered, yet so 
as something is reserved in the mind, which if it were 
offered, would make the speech true. An instance 
hereof is thus given : one is asked concerning another, 
whom he hath oft seen, oft talked withj and with 
whom he hath been very familiar, whether he ever 
saw him or no ; he answereth, that he never saw 
him. This is a clear untruth : but to make that 
answer true, this clause, in heaven, is reserved in his 
mind, which expressed would make the answer full 
and true, thus, I never saw him in heaven. We can- 
not find throughout the whole Scripture one proof 
for such a mental equivocation. 

Because at the first hearing of it, it seemeth very 
strange, they propound sundry cautions thereabout : 
such as these, 

1. The mental reservation must be such as it may 
make the sentence true, if it were uttered. Yet by 
the way, that great Jesuit and priest, called by 

them Father Parsons, giveth an instance, that though 
it were uttered yet cannot make a true sense. It ia 
this ; a man being desired to lend his friend a horse, 
answereth that he hath never a one — meaning an ox. 
Put this reservation to the sentence uttered, and then 
mark what truth, yea, what congruity there is therein. 

2. Equivocation must be before an incompetent • 
judge : which is, as they expound it, any magistrate ■ 
that is not of the Catholic, whereby they mean the " 
Romish, religion. By the way, let me here again 
note that some of their priests have affirmed that 
Jesuits have used mental equivocation before the 
pope himself, and before cardinals. 

3. Equivocation must be in weighty causes, namely, 
to conceal a priest or other papist, to keep him from 
taking, or to save the credit of such as have entered 
into their holy orders, or any way to succour the 
Romish faith. Yet some of them permit it in a 
money matter, as if one should come to borrow a 
hundred pounds, who is not like to repay it, he may 
be put off with an equivocation. 

They go so far in this point of equivocation, as if 
they be demanded whether they do equivocate or no, 
they may answer by another equivocation, that they 
do not. If they be demanded the third time, whether 
they do not then equivocate, they may answer the 
third time negatively by a third equivocation, and 
thus proceed without stint. 

Yea, further, they avouch that a man may not only 
simply equivocate, but also confirm his equivocation 
by oath. 

As for our parts, though we grant that ambiguity 
of speech, which is a verbal equivocation, may be 
used, as hath been before proved, yet there are re- 
straints and limitations to be added thereto, such as 
these : 

1. That the ambiguity be such as may by due ob- 
servation of some circumstance or other be discerned, 
as where Christ said, ' Take heed of the leaven of the 
Pharisees and Sadducees,' Mat. xvi. 6. Though at 
finst the disciples mistook him, yet Christ, putting 
them in mind of his miracles in feeding five thousand 
with five loaves, they presently perceived that he 
meant the leaven of doctrine. All the ambiguous 
speeches in Scripture are such as, by diligent obser- 
vation of the words and circumstances about them, 
may be found out. 

2. That the ambiguity of speech be not against the 
intent and conceit of him who propounds the ques- 
tion ; especially if it be propounded b}' a magistrate, or 
by one that is in authority to require an answer ; yea, 
also if it be propounded by any to whom I think it 
meet to give an answer. Thus the Baptist, though 
he answered by ambiguity of speech when he denied 
that he was that prophet, John i. 21, yet he an- 
swered according to the true intent of them who pro- 
pounded the question. 

3. That it be without any purpose of any wrong; 

Ver. 31.] 



for a malicious end turns that action, whicli might 
otherwise be good, into sin. 

Upon these cautions it may be lawful to use ambi- 
guity of speech, whether it be by tropes or figvares. 

Our adversaries" positions are clean contrary to these 
limitations. For they say, 

1. That such ambiguity may be used as is impos- 
sible to be found out by any but by him that utters 
it. For instance, if a priest be asked whether he be 
a priest or no, he may answer negatively, with this 
reservation, of Diana, or of the devils: he is no such 
priest ; who can imfold this ? 

2. That such ambiguity be used before an incom- 
petent magistrate. By this rule no magistrate of 
another profession shall be competent. Papists hold 
protestant magistrates to be incompetent. What if 
protestauts hold the like of popish magistrates ? 
What if infidels hold the like of Christian magis- 
trates ? and Christians of infidels 1 Nay, liberty is 
hereby given to except against the competency of 
magistrates that are of the same religion : and to say 
they came in by bribery, or they have not sufficient 
parts for their place, or they are partial and unjust, 
and therefore not competent. 

3. That if a man's main intent and principal end 
be not to deceive, it skilleth not, though both he that 
propounds the question, and the hearers also, be de- 
ceived. Thus they profess to deceive wittingly, 
though not principally. 

That their mental equivocation, even as they them- 
selves have set it down, is unlawful and sinful, may 
be proved by these arguments. 

1. It is a new device, nor warranted by sacred 
Scriptures, nor by ancient heathen authors. The 
great philosopher,! ^j^j^^ jj^j]^ -written much of sundry 
kinds of ambiguity, never dreamt of this. 

2. It justifieth an apparent lie, which is expressly 
forbidden, Eph. iv. 2o. 

3. It being confirmed by an oath, will prove to be 
plain perjury. 

4. Many gross absurdities do follow thereupon ; 
such as these, 

(1.) Thus aU manner of lies may be made truth. 

(2.) Thus no man can know whom to believe. 

(3.) Thus all honest and faithful commerce, con- 
tracts, and other like dealing would be destroyed. 
For all depend upon the truth of men's words. If 
words be contrary to their mind, what shall men rest 
upon ? 

(4.) Thus there could be no end of controversies ; 
at least of such controversies as cannot be confirmed 
by witness, for the only means to end such contro- 
versies is an oath, Heb. vi. 16. But equivocation 
causeth a judge to be in doubt, whether that which is 
sworn be true or no. 

(5.) Christian apology, or open confession of the 
truth of religion, is hereby taken away; for men are 
' Aristotle. 

hereby taught by word to deny their religion, so they 
have a mental reservation to salve up the matter. 

(6.) Christians hereby make their profession odious 
to Turks, Jews, other infidels, and pagans, who never 
imagined any such mental reservation, but would 
take us at our words. 

The arguments which Jesuits produce to prove 
this absurd position are such as these : 

1. Unreasonable creatures are cunning in deceiving 
their hunters, as foxes, hares, badger.s, and sundry 
other ; would God then leave man without such cun- 
ning evasions as may deceive their persecutors ? 

Alls. 1. It can carry but an unreasonable form of 
an argument that is so taken from unreasonable crea- 

2. Unreasonable creatures have no rule prescribed 
them to go by, as reasonable men have. 

3. Unreasonable creatures are not called to suflFer 
as reasonable men are. 

4. Hunters know, and can find out the means 
which unreasonable creatures use : but no persecutors 
can find out the depth of equivocation. 

5. There are many other means which God hath 
afforded his servants to escape by, besides mental- 

6. God oft calls his servants by suffering to bear 
witness to his truth : should men in such a case 
equivocate 1 

Arg. 2. Stratagems in war are lawful, Josh. viii. 

Am. There is a great difierence betwixt stratagems 
and equivocations ; for, 

1. Actions, whereof stratagems consist, do expressly 
affirm nothing, nor deny anything, as words do. 

2. In a stratagem there is only a seeming to do 
this or that when a contrary is intended, but no 
express asseveration to do it. 

3. Stratagems are used by open enemies, who pro- 
fess to use all the sleights they can to overcome. The 
fault therefore is in the adverse party if he be deceived, 
in that he was no more warj' and circumspect. But 
in the case of equivocation a man professeth no deceit, 
but naked truth. 

4. If stratagems be against promise, or performed 
by lying, they are unlawful ; and this the heathens 
themselves have judged. 

Arg. 3. They press the many rhetorical figures in 

Ans. There are rules to find out the fuU sense of 
those figures ; but for finding out the full sense of 
mental equivocation no rule can be given. 

Arg. 4. They produce sundry particular instances 
of saints thai have, as they say, equivocated — as, 

(1.) Rebekah's and Jacob's dissembling with Isaac, 
Gen. sxvii. G, &c. 

Ans. That is an instance of their infirmity, and 
no pattern for imitation. The like may be said of 
Rahab's answering the king's oflScers, whereof before. 



[Chap. XI. 

(2.) Eiisua's answer to the men of Syria that came 
to apprehend him, 2 Kings vi. 19. 

Ans. 1. This was a stratagem against a professed 

2. He was not demanded any question, and so not 
bound to answer tliis or that. 

(3.) Isaiah's message to Hezekiah, ' Thou shalt 
die, and not live,' Isa. xxxviii. 1 . 

Ans. There is nothing but plain and open truth 
herein ; for Isaiah spake as he was commanded, and 
as he himself thought ; for Hezekiah's .sickness was 
indeed deadly, according to the nature of it ; and 
if God had not extraordinarily wrought upon him, he 
had died. That Isaiah knew no other but that Heze- 
kiah should die of that disease, is evident, in that the 
word of God came again to him, when he carried 
the news of the king's recovery, ver. 4. 

(4.) Jeremiah's answer to the princes, Jer. xxxviii. 27. 

Ans. His answer is plain, no show of untruth 
therein ; only there was some truth concealed, whicli 
makes nothing for equivocation, because he was not 
demanded whether the king spake to him of yielding 
to the Chaldeans, or any other thing, beside what he 

(5.) John's answer to the Jews, John i. 21. 

Ans. John answered the truth, and that according 
to the meaning of the Jews, as this particle of em- 
phasis, ' that prophet,' implieth ; for John neither 
was a prophet, as others, to foretell things to come, 
nor was he that prophet which Moses spake of, nor 
was he Elijah, as they meant, in body or soul, but 
only in spirit and power. That he spake according 
to their intent, and that plainly, is evident, in that 
when they asked who he was, he directly answered 
the truth, saying, ' I am the voice of one crying in 
the wUderness,' John i. 23. 

(6.) The speech of Christ, ' The Son knoweth not 
the day and hour of judgment,' Mark xiii. 32. 

Ans. 1. Here is no question propounded to our 
Saviour : so as it maketh nothing to the point in hand. 

2. Christ declareth the truth plainly ; for as he 
was man, he knew not that day and hour. Many 
other speeches of Christ are alleged, whereof not 
one maketh for mental reservation ; for the ambiguity 
of them is cither in divers acceptions of the word, or 
in circumstances, which with study and due observa- 
tion may be found out. 

Sec 190. Of preferring the church before one's 

All the effects that are noted of Rahab's faith did 
give a plain demonstration that she preferred God's 
church before licr own country. This is a case that 
admits some limitations. It will not, therefore, be 
impertinent to shew wherein one's country is to be 
preferred, and wherein the church. 

One's own country is to be preferred in these 
cases : — 

1. In civil affairs: as if a professor of the true 
religion be a subject in an idolatrous country that 
joineth near to that other country whereof he is a 
subject, and both requires his aid against their 
enemies, or for any other secular affairs, he is bound 
to prefer liis own country before the other. 

2. In differences betwixt his own country and an- 
other of the true religicm, about their rights of titles 
in secular matters and privileges, he is to prefer his 
own country ; as if there be war betwixt those two 
nations about such secular rights, he may bear arms 
under his sovereign, though an idolater, against the 
other, though of the true religion. 

3. In secret differences betwixt his country and 
the other of the true religion, where the cause is not 
openly known by the common subjects, a subject is 
bound to the command of those whose subject he is.' 

The church may be preferred in such cases as 
follow : 

1. When there is special warrant, either by inward 
divine instinct (which Eahab had) or by express 
command. About this point of instinct men must 
take heed of conceited fantasies and diabolical sugges- 

2. When one's country is by God devoted to de- 
struction. In this case the inhabitants of Babylon 
are commanded to ' come out of her,' Rev. xviiL 4. 

3. When some members of one's country are to be 
punished for intolerable impiety, and the church is 
stirred up by God to be an instrument therein. Be- 
cause the Benjamites took part with the city of 
Gibeah, who were of their own tribe in this case, they 
sinned, and were destroyed. Judges xx. 1 2, &c. 

4. When one's country seeks the ruin of the church 
merely for religion's sake, he that is of that true 
religion may take part with the church. 

5. When there is such deadly feud betwixt one's 
country and the church as they cannot both stand 
together, a true believer may take part with the true 

In such cases a man may say to those of his 
country, as Levi did to his father, mother, brethren, 
and sisters, ' I have not seen them, nor will I acknow- 
ledge them,' Deut. xxxiii. 9. A man herein prefers 
true religion before natural affection, spiritual amity 
before civil society ; yea, God before man. 

We are, therefore, in the foresaid cases to pull out 
the bowels of natural affection, and in the cause of 
God to prefer him before all, Luke xiv. 2G. 

The apostle St James, from these effects of Rahab's 
faith, inferreth that she was 'justified by works,' 
James ii. 25 — meaning that that faith wherewith she 
was justified was not a bare, naked faith, without 
works, but a faith that manifested itself by works ; 
and in that respect her works did declare her to 
be justified ; so as a man's inward faith in God, 
and love of him, must be manifested by works. See 
' August, contra. Faust. Manich., lib. xxii. cap. 15. 

Ver. 31,32.] 



more hereof in the Saint's Sacrifice, on Ps. cxvi. 9, 
Sec. 59. 

Sec. 191. 0/ tlis resolution of, and observation 
from, Heb. si. 31. 

Ver. 31. By faith the harlot Raliah perished not 
with them, that believed not (or, that were disobedient), 
tvheii she had received the spies with peace. 

The sum of this verse is in two words, fciith's proof. 
Hereof are two parts : 

1. The poiut proved. 

2. The kind of proof. 
In the former we have, 

1. The particular grace, /«i<^. 

2. The person whose faith it was. 
The person is described, 

1. By her name, Rahab. 

2. By her condition, a harlot. 

The latter, which is the kind of proof, admits two 
considerations : 

1. An event that fell out. This is, 

(1.) Propounded, in this phrase, she p)erished not. 

(2.) Amplified, by the contrary event, which befell 

In the amplification is set down, 

[1.] The kind of judgment imjilied, in this phrase, 
ivitlv them. 

[2.] Thecausethereofjin this phrase, ihatbelieved not. 

2. An efl'ect. In setting down whereof three 
branches are expressed : 

(1.) The particular act, she received. 
(2.) The object or persons whom she received, the 

(3.) The manner how, toith peace. 

I. The seed of faith is accounted for faith. Such 
was the faith here mentioned. See Sec. 181. 

II. God takes notice of pienitents by nam.e. Witness 
Rahab. See Sec. 182. 

III. Some Gentiles under the law were called. Such 
a one was Rahab. See Sec. 182. 

IV. Women may prove worthies. Rahab was a 
woman, and here reckoned amongst worthies. See 
Sec. 182. 

V. Notorious sinners may obtain much mercy. A 
harlot here so did. See Sec. 183. 

VI. God hath penitents in high account. Rahab 
was a true penitent. See Sec. 183. 

VII. Faith keep)s from common destruction. See 
Sec. 184. 

VIII. Others may reajo benefit from the faith of 
some. By Rahab's faith, all that were in her house 
were preserved. See Sec. 184. 

IX. God can put difference betwixt different persons. 
Rahab perished not with others in the city. See 
Sec. 184. 

X. Infidelity is the cause of destruction. They 
perished who believed not. See Sec. 185. 

XI. Spies are lawful. This is here implied by the 
mention of spies in this place. See Sec. 186. 

XII. Men in danger are to be preserved from such 
as seek their lives. Thus did Rahab preserve these 
spies. See Sec. 187. 

XIII. They who are taken under protection must 
be dismissed in peace. So were these spies. See 
Sec. 188. 

XIV. Mental equ.ivncatinn i^ «••/-'. goe Sec. l89. 

XV. There are cases wherein the church is to be 
2»'eferred before one's own country. Rahab's case was 
such a one. See Sec. 190. 

XVI. Faith is justified by ivorks. So did Rahab 
here justify her faith. See Sec. 190. 

Sec. 192. Of registering som^ specials in p)id>lic 

Ver. 32. And what shall I more say? for the time 
tvould fail me to tell of Gedeon, and of Barak, and of 
Samson, and of Jepthae, and of David also, and 
Samuel, and of the prophets. 

The apostle having long insisted on a distinct nar- 
ration of the fruits of the faith of sundry worthies, 
he here contracts his catalogue, that his epistle might 
not swell too much. 

The sacred Scripture setteth out the examples of 
many other worthies, which the apostle supposed to 
be very pertinent to his purpose. Therefore he doth 
not abruptly break off his induction of particulars, 
but elegantly contracts it, and that, 

1. By a bare expression of their names, ver. 32. 

2. By a concise declaration of the common efiects 
of their faith, in the verses following. 

He passeth from his distinct description of parti- 
culars to a brief enumeration of others, by a transi- 
tion in these words. What shall I more say ? the time 
tvould fail, itc. 

This transition consists of a rhetorical communica- 
tion, wherein a question is propounded, and an answer 
made by himself, which maketh it to be a rhetorical 

This question, What shcdl I more say? impUeth 
that he had much more to say. In the Greek it runs 
thus word for word, xa'i r! 'in Kiyu, and what do I yet 
say? which implieth a purpose to break off his for- 
mer distinct expression of the fruits of the faith of 
particular persons, though he had much more to say. 
For in the former catalogue he culled out some only 
of those who are recorded in the five books of Moses 
and in Joshua, till the church was brought into the 
promised land. He passed over Enoch, Shem or 
Jlelchisedech, Rebekah, Aaron, Caleb, and sundry 
others, whereby he hinteth that God had more 
worthies than are requisite to be made known. 

1. There were more recorded in the Old Testament, 
j-ea, and in the books of Moses and Joshua, than are 
here recited. 

2. There were without question many more in the 



[Chap. XI. 

several ages of the world than are recorded in the 
foresaid books, or in any other part of the Bible. It 
is said of Enos, that ' then began men to call upon 
the name of the Lord,' Gen. iv. 26. Yet none of tlie 
men that did so are by name registered. It is said 
of all those pious long-lived patriarchs that lived 
before and after the flood, that ' they begat sons and 
daughters,' Gen. v. 4, &o., and xi. 11, &c. No doubt 
but iiiaL iuar.y of those sons and daughters gave 
good proof of their true faith : yet are they not by 
name registered. It is of persons as of things. !Many 
commendable things were done which are not set 
down, Heb. v. 11, John xx. 31, and xxi. 25; so many 
persons that did worthily are not in public records. 

(1.) In regard of those saints themselves, it was 
enough that God took special notice of them, regis- 
tered their name in his book of life, gave them evi- 
dences of his favour while they lived, received their 
souls to glory when they died, and gave them assur- 
ance of the resurrection of their bodies. 

(2.) In regard of others that from time to time 
lived after them, it is sufficient that God hath afforded 
them so many patterns and examples registered in 
his book as he hath done. By them direction and 
encouragement sufficient are given to run the race as 
they did. They who are not moved by them would 
not be moved with millions more, if they were regis- 

1. Considering that many worthies have had their 
names buried with their bodies, let not us be over 
solicitous about memorials after our death, but leave 
it to the divine providence, and to the wisdom of our 
survivors. There may be a good use of chronicles 
and of memorials of some men's names and acts, yet 
there may be too great excess therein : some things 
that in their compass are very useful, may beyond 
their compass be unuseful, if not hurtful. Should 
there be memorials of all good men's names, I sup- 
pose the world would not contain them, especially if 
thereto were added their meditations, sermons, con- 
ferences, works, and labours. 

2. This may stay those who, in their time and 
generation, do the will of God, faithfully employing 
their talent, and doing much good by their words 
and works, and yet nothing thereof remembered 
after death. It is enough that in their generation 
they have been enabled to do good, and that the 
present age in which they lived had the benefit 
thereof. They may so much the more rest herein, in 
that the ever-living God knows it, remembers it, and 
will abundantly recompense it. Their works will fol- 
low them. Rev. xiv. 13. 

The answer which the apostle himself gives to his 
own question, thus, for the time will fail vie, being 
a reason of his forbearing to go on in setting down 
more particular examples, as he had done before, 
giveth us to understand that there were very many 
more whom he might have produced. The multi- 

tude of believers is very great : very many are regis- 
tered in sacred Scripture, which the apostle styleth 
a ' cloud of witnesses,' Heb. xii. 1 ; but questionless 
there were many more, age after age, whose names 
are concealed. When Elijah thought that he had 
been left alone, God knew seven thousand more, and 
that in Israel, 1 Kings xix. 18, besides those that 
were in Judah. If there were, before Christ was 
exhibited, multitudes of believers, what are there 
since ? considering these promises, ' I will pour out 
my Spirit upon all flesh,' Joel ii. 28 ; ' and many 
shall come from the east and west, and sit down 
with Abraham,' (tc. Mat. viii. 11. See Chap. ii. 10, 
Sec. 91. 

. This reason, as it hath reference to the altering of 
the style, in contracting such points as he more en- 
larged himself upon in the former examples, sheweth 
that tediousncss must wisely be avoided. ' Having 
many things to write unto you,' saith an apostle to an 
elect lady, 'I would not write w'ith paper and ink,' 
2 John 1 2 ; the like he saith to Gaius, 3 John 1 3. 

Tediousness dulls the mind, wearies the spirit, 
hinders devotion, draws away aflcction, yea, and 
m:my times deprives people of that comfort which 
otherwise they might receive from God's ordinances. 
Some who have some while given good attention, and 
that with cheerful aS'ection, by overmuch tediousness 
have been so dulled in their devotion as their former 
comfort hath been taken away. 

It is therefore a point of prudence somewhat care- 
fully to observe ordinary times limited for sacred 

There are times wherein men may enlarge them- 
selves both in praying and preaching — namely, when 
days are set apart for those duties ; for then people 
come prepared to hold out the day. 

As for private duties performed by one alone, as 
any finds the vigour of his spirit to be in him, he 
may enlarge himself. But we must not measure 
others' spirits by our own. Christ, when he was 
alone, spent nights in prayer, Luke vi. 12. But we 
do not read that he did so with his disciples. 

;' Sec. 192. Of the ajMstlt's setting tlie viore excellent 
before others. 

Upon the foresaid transition the apostle continues 
his catalogue of worthies, but much contracted. 

In this verse he sets them down two ways, 

1. By their particular name. 

2. By the function of some of them, in this word, 

'There are six set dowTi by name, whereof four were 
judges, one a king, one a judge iind a prophet both, 
which is Samuel. 

The four judges are, as the apostle hath set them 
down, Gideon, Barak, Samson, and Jephthah. 

There were in all, betwixt Joshua, their general, 
and Saul, their first king, fifteen judges — 1. Othniel; 

Ver. 32.] 



2. Ehud; 3. Shamgar; 4. Barak; 5. Gideon; 6. Abime- 
lech; 7. Tola; 8. Jair ; 9. Jephthah ; 10. Ibzan ; 11. 
Elou ; 12. Abdon ; 13. Samson ; 14. Eli ; 15. Samuel. 

Out of these only five are called ; the rest Tvere 
either not worthy to be named (as Abimelech, who 
usurped that dignity by fraud and blood), or had no 
memorable matter rec(3rded of them in their histories, 
as Tola, Jair, Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon. The others, 
as Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, and Eli, did no greater 
matters than those which were done by those who 
are named ; therefore there was no great need to 
mention them, especially in this place, where the 
apostle labours to contract his discourse. 

In the particulars which are set down, the precise 
order of the history is not observed ; for Gideon, who 
is in the first place, was after Barak ; and Samson, 
the third, was after Jephthah ; and David, the fifth, 
was after Samuel. 

Hereupon some say that the apostle had an eye 
only on his matter, to set down some choice worthies 
as they came to his head, but had no respect to 
method or order ; but I suppose that he rather aimed 
at some special thing in altering the order of these, 
and that might be to prefer the more excellent ; for 
there is a double method. 

One of time, which he observed in the former part 
of his catalogue. 

The other of worth ; for Gideon had a more ex- 
cellent spirit than Barak, and Samson than Jeph- 

As for Samuel, he is put after king David, imme- 
diately before the prophets, because he was a prime 

We may hence infer, that the greater grace men 
are endued withal, the more honourably they are to 
be esteemed. 

Grace is the best, the most excellent, most divine, 
and most honourable quality that any can be endued 

Labour, therefore, to abound and excel in grace. 
See Ver. 4, Sec. 11, and Chap. ii. 10, Sec. 91. 

Sec. 194. Of men's Jifness to their function. 

All the six worthies that are here mentioned agree 
in one general, that they were endued with an extra- 
ordinary spirit. 

Of their distinct and different gifts we shall speak 
when we come severally to touch them. 

They all jointly, and every one in particular, give 
proof that God enables men to that whereunto he 
calls them. 

The four first were extraordinarily called of Gud 
to be judges or generals over his people. Three were 
judges — Gideon, Samson, and Jephthah. Barak was 
a general under Deborah; for she judged Israel, Judges 
iv. 4, 6. 

Gideon was called by an angel, Judges vi. 14; 
Barak by Deborah, a prophetess, Judges iv. 6 ; Sam- 

son by an angel at his first conception, Judges xiii. 5 ; 
Jephthah by the choice of the people testified before 
the Lord, Judges xi. 11. As for David, he was ex- 
pressly anointed by God's commandment, 1 Sam. 
xvi. 12. 

And Samuel was called of God, 1 Sam. iiL 20, 21. 
In like manner Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, 
and other judges, and the prophets, were extraor- 
dinarily gifted, because they were called to extraor- 
dinary functions. 

Only Abimelech, who was not called of God, but 
treacherously thrust in himself. Judges ix. 1 , 5, was 
not endued with any spiritual gift, but rather with a 
diabolical spirit of dissension. 

The extraordinary gifts wherewith such as were 
called of God were endued, are apparent evidences of 
God's prudence and providence. 

Thus God gifted them, that his work might be the 
better effected by them. 

1. This extraordinary work of God affords an ordi- 
nary rule to such as enter upon any work of God, to 
have good assurance that they are in some competent 
mea.sure enabled thereto. 

2. It directeth those that are in place to set any 
apart unto God's work, to make good piroof of them, 
whether they be enabled thereunto or no. 

Sec. 19.5. Of Gideon's names. 

The first particular person here mentioned by the 
apostle is Gideon, concerning whom we will consider, 
as we find in his history, three points. 

1. His names. 

2. His infirmity, 

3. His excellencies. 
He had two names. 

One was Gideon, which is derived from a Hebrew 
word, i^U, that signifieth to cut doivii; so as Gideon, 
]'\y]X importeth a destroyer. 

How fitly this name agreed to him, it is evident by 
that great destruction that he brought upon the 
enemies of God's church. 

The other name was Jerub-baal. This is com- 
pounded of two Hebrew words. The former, Jerub, 
is derived from a verb, ^n vel 3^1, that signifieth to 
contend, or to plead against. The latter part, baal, 
is derived from a word, 7^^, that signifieth husband 
or lord, and it was usually attributed to an idol. 
The meaning, then, of the wLole name, '?J7I1"1\ is, a 
pleader against Baal. 

The reason of this name was given him from his 
act in throwing down the altar of Baal ; and it was 
by way of derision, that no man might touch him for 
that act. Judges vi. 31, 32. 

Both of those names were fit names, whereby a 
memorial of his zeal and success against false gods, 
and enemies of God's church, was preserved. 

This giveth proof of their prudence who give signi- 
ficant and pertinent names to persons. 



[Chap. XL 

Sec. 196. Of Gideon's iitfirmitjea. 
Though Gideon were in many respects a worthy 
man, yet he had manifold infirmities, .such as these : 

1. Doubting of God's presence in his church, by 
reason of the afflictions thereof, Judges vi. 13. 

2. Opposing his meanness against God's express 
charge. Judges vi. 15. 

.3. Itequiring a sign, after God's will was expressly 
manifested. Judges vi. 16, 17. 

4. Fearing death, because he had seen the face of 
an angel. Judges vi. 22, 23. 

5. Fearing to do in the day that which he was 
commanded by God to do, Judges vi. 21. 

6. Not contenting himself with one sign, but ask- 
ing sign upon sign, Judges vi. 17, 37, 39, and vii. 

7. Setting up a dangerous monument, which was 
an ephod, Judges viii. 27. An ephod was a holy vest- 
ment, and it being so costly a one as he made it, it 
could not be but very dangerous. People are prone 
to idolatry and superstition. 

a. Polygamy, Judges viii. 30. 

9. Taking a concubine to many wives. Judges 
viii. 31. 

10. His dotage on his concubine, manifested by 
the name given to the chUd which he had by her. 
Judges viii. 31. The name was Abimelech, which sig- 
nifieth father of a /ci)i(f, or a chief king. It was a 
common name of the kings of the Philistines. It was 
in itself too high a name, and it might add somewhat 
to his son's ambition after the kingdom. 

These infirmities in such a man give instance that 
true justifying ftiith, yea, that a strong and great 
faith, may stand with many and great infirmities. 

Sec. 197. Of Gideon's excellencies. 
The excellencies noted of Gideon in his history are 
these : 

1. His providence in time of extremity. When 
enemies in great troops invaded the land, and spoiled 
what they could come by, he got corn, and threshed 
it in a secret place, to keep it from the enemy, that 
so he might thereby sustain himself and his father's 
house, Judges vi. 11. This point of providence is 
commended in Joseph, Gen. xli. 48, and pressed by 
the wise man, Prov. vi. 8. 

2. His valour. Judges vi. 12. This'by the heathen 
is reckoned amongst their cardinal virtues. Such as 
were set apart to a weighty employment are com- 
manded to be valorous, Deut. xxxi. 7 ; Josh. i. 6, 9. 
It is of excellent use for the managing of weighty 

3. His acknowledgment of God to be the disposer 
of all, Judges vi. 13; for tlmugh he do somewhat too 
diffidently expostulate about Israel's present case, yet 
there is an apparent acknowledgment of God to be 
their former preserver and deliverer — yea, and to be 
he who brought them into trouble. Persuasion hereof 

is an especial means to keep in our souls a true fear 
of God. 

4. His humble lowly mind. Judges vi. 15. Though 
it were a weakness in him to oppose his mean estate 
against God's express word, yet his acknowledgment 
of his meanness argued a humble mind, which is in 
itself a principal grace, and addeth a grace to all other 

5. His desire to have his faith strengthened in 
God's promise. Judges vi.''17. It was a weakness to 
need strengthening ; but his care to have that which 
was weak made strong was commendable. 

6. His gratitude to him that brought him the glad 
tidings of his delivering Israel, Judges vi. 18. He 
took him to be a man of God, and answerably desired 
to give him such entertainment as he thought fit for 
him. This gratitude is very acceptable, both to God 
and man. 

7. His liberal hospitality. Judges vi. 19. Bounty 
and liberality much magnify a courtesy. 

8. His fear and trembling at God's presence, Judges 
vi. 22. Indeed, there was too much excess therein. 
Yet take away the excess, and the affection is com- 
mendable. We ought to fear and tremble at God's 
presence, as Gen. xxviii. 17. It wUl work in us a 
reverent respect towards God. 

9. His piety towards God, manifested both by 
building an altar to God (which was in those days a 
solemn rite of worshipping God thereby), and also 
by the name he gave to the altar, QlVi' mil', which 
signifieth the Lord giving peace. Thus he caused 
a memorial of God's kindness to be continued to 
posterity, Judges vi. 24. 

10. His obedience to God's charge, and that both 
in the general substance and particular circumstances 
thereof, Judges vi. 27, 28. This is a real demonstra- 
tion of that high esteem which we have of God, and 
of that good respect we bear to him. This is further 
manifested by his reducing his army to the number 
of three hundred. 

11. His prudence, in making preparation for that 
work whereuuto God had called him, Judges ^^. 34, 35. 
This care of preparing means may well stand with 
true faith ; yea, it is a fruit thereof. 

12. His care to encourage others to that whereof 
himself was confident, Judges vii. 15. This argueth 
true Christian love, whereof we have a worthy pat- 
tern. Acts xxvi. 29. 

13. His care to raise up the hearts of his soldiers 
to God, Judges vii. 1 8. Though he would have them 
acknowledge himself (whom God had deputed) for 
their general, yet would he have them rest on God, 
as the first mover, and chief author of that which 
they went about. Thus he makes God the principal, 
himself only the instrument ; and so gives unto God 
that which is God's, and reserves to Ciusar that which 
was CK.sar's, as Mat. xxii. 21. 

14. His meek spirit and soft answer, whereby he 

Vee. 32.] 



pacified the furious rage of the Ephraimites, Judges 
viiL 1-3. A blessed effect followed thereupon, con- 
trary to that which is noted of Jephthah, Judges xii. 
1, &c. Hereby is verified that of the wise man, Prov. 

XV. 1. 

15. His constancy, in pursuing a victory well be- 
gun, Judges viii. 4, 11, 12. Many failing herein 
lose the glory and benefit of their former good success, 
which the prophet implieth, 2 Kings, xiii. 19. 

16. His care to refresh his soldiers, weary with 
pursuing their eneniies, Judges viii. 5, 8. Jonathan 
doth set out the benefit hereof, 1 Sam. xiv. 27. 

17. His just revenge on the inhuman and scornful 
men of Succoth and Penuel, Judges viii. 15, &c. 
However he might seem therein cruel, yet it was both 
just and expedient. 

18. His modesty, in refusing that honour which 
the people would have conferred upon him. Judges 
viii. 23. How few are of that mind ! 

19. His care to preserve peace, after he had got 
full conquest upon his enemies; for it is noted, that 
after that conquest the country was in quietness all 
his days. Judges xviii. 28. This is the most proper 
end of war. 

20. His contentcdness with his own private means, 
Judges viii. 29. In which resp)ect he is said to 
' dwell in his own house.' 

The principal observation concerning Gideon's 
faith is, that it made him with three hundred un- 
armed men, upon God's command, set upon an army 
of many thousands. Judges vii. 7 ; so as faith resteth 
on God with small means as confidently as, with 
great, 1 Sam. xiv. 6, 2 Chron. xiv. 11. 

Sec. 198. Of BaraFs name, injinnities, and virtues. 

The second particular is Barak, which, according 
to the notation of the Hebrew word, p')2, signifies 
lightning, Ezek. i. 13. He was a terrible lightning 
to Sisera and his host. 

He was chosen general against the army of Jabin, 
king of Canaan, who had oppressed Israel twenty 
years. Judges iv. 2, 3. 

One infirmity is noted of him, which was this, that 
being called of God he refused to go, except Deborah 
would go with him. Judges iv. 8. This shewed both 
diffidence in God's power and truth, and also diso- 
bedience to God's charge. But it seemeth that these 
came rather from the weakness of his flesh, than from 
the obstinacy of his disposition ; for he quickly re- 
covered himself. 

His virtues were these : 

1. Prudence, in preparing an army out of those 
among whom he dwelt, and whom he might best 
command, and in whom he might best confide. 

2. Obedience, in ordering matters according to the 
charge given unto him. Judges iv. 6, 10. 

3. Courage, in setting upon a huge host well pre- 
pared with so few as he did, Judges iv. 3, 1-1. 

4. Constancy, in pursuing the victoiy, Judges iv. 

5. Piety, in returning the praise to God, Judges 
v. 1. 

In Barak's example we have a proof that such as 
are weak in faith may become strong. 

Sec. 199. Of Samsoiis name, and sin. 

The third particular is of Samson. 

Some will h.ave his name, litt'Oiy, derived from a 
noun, lyati', which signifieth the sun. The last letter 
save one of the name (i, affixum relativiim,) is relative, 
as intimating his sun, in reference to God. The last 
letter of all, ], is the note of a noun. Thus it implieth 
two things, 

1. That he was appointed of God. 

2. That he was set amongst the people as the sun 
among the stars, more excellent- than any of them : 
and that by reason of the power of God's Spirit on 

This was a fit name : for by reason of his unparal- 
leled strength, his fame shined throughout the world. 
Never was there such a man heard of for strength. 

The heathen report much of Hercules. Certainly 
the ground of that strength which they divulge about 
their Hercules, arose from some fragments that they 
had heard concerning this Samson. 

Many of their reports concerning Hercules are 
fabulous ; but if all were true, yet are they not com- 
parable to that which is recorded in the word of 
truth of Samson. 

One notorious fruit of the flesh is noted of him, 
which was his strange dotage on strange flesh. 

For once and agam he went in to harlots. Judges 
xvi. 1, 4. Hereby he implunged himself into great 
dangers. Once by his great strength he escaped the 
danger; but afterwards by the impudent importunity 
of his cursed Delilah, whom he too too much doted 
upon, he was brought to bewray wherein his great 
strength lay. Thus he fell into his enemies' hands. 

Hereby it is manifest that God will not suffer 
scandalous crimes to pass unpunished — no, not in his 
dearest children. ' I will visit their transgression 
with the rod, and their iniquities with stripes,' saith 
the Lord of his dear children, Ps. Ixxxix. 32. 

This is a good item to such as have evidences of 
the Spirit's abode in them ; that they be not too proud, 
too bold, too secure, too loose. 

Sec. 200. Of SaTnson's excellencies. 
The special excellencies commended in Samson 
were two — 

1. His great strength. 

2. His right use thereof. 

The greatness of his strength was manifested two 

1. By the things which he did. 

2. By the means, and manner of doing them. 



[Chap. XI. 

For the things which he accomplished, they were 
such as thereby nothing seemed too strong for him : 
he vanquished .and removed whatsoever stood against 

1. He tore a lion, Judges xiv. 6. 

2. He oft slew multitudes of men, and that by 
himself alone, Judges xiv. 19, and xv. 8, 15. 

3. He carried away the gates and posts of a city. 
These were, questionless, very massy, and fast fixed 

in their places. Judges xvi. 4. 

4. He brake cords, withes, and all other bonds 
whereby they sought to bind him, as flax burntwith fire. 

5. Ho pulled do-mi at once two strong pillars of a 
great house, the roof whereof could bear three thou- 
sand people, Judges xvi. 29, 30. 

The means and manner of doing many of these 
were with his own hands; so he tore a lion, Judges 
xiv. 6, and took the-doors and posts of the gate of a 
city, and carried them away u])on his own shoulders. 
Judges xvi. 3. And by himself alone brake all the 
bands wherewith he was bound. All the means that 
we read that ever he used, was once the jaw-bone of 
an ass, wherewith he slew a thousand men. Judges 
XV. 15. It is said, that he 'smote his enemies hip 
and thigh, with a great slaughter,' Judges xv. 8 ; 
that is, with kicking and spurning them. 

As Samson's excellency was manifested by the 
greatness of his strength, so also by the right use 

This was manifested two ways. 

1. By using it against the enemies of God and his 
church. Though his own countrj'men provoked him 
much, by coming to bind him, and to deliver him 
into the hands of his enemies, yet ho was so far from 
taking revenge of them, as voluntarily he suflfered 
them to bind him, and to deliver him up to his ene- 
mies, Judges XV. 1 3. 

2. In all his conflicts with enemies he never put 
any to hazard but himself. Other judges, generals, 
and commanders, in war against their enemies, have 
put their soldiers upon the greatest dangers. 

This instance of Samson giveth evidence of God's 
power in enabling his people against their enemies. 
This general might be proved by many other in- 
stances, but none like to this. 

In God is all power. He can derive it to whom 
he pleaseth, and in as great measure as seemeth good 
to himself, so as a divine power shall be manifested 
in human weakness. 

A great encouragement this is against all sorts of 
enemies, and against all their assaults, especially 

In these doth God most usually manifest his greatest 

Sec. 201. 0/ Siansoris streni/th lying in his hair. 
About Samson four memorable matters are worthy 
our due consideration — 

1 . How his strength lay in his hair. 

2. How fur he recovered after his fall. 

3. Whether he were a self-murderer. 

4. Wherein he was a type of Christ. 
Concerning that which he himself saith, 'If I be 

shaven, then my strength will go from me,' Judges 
xvi. 17; it is not to be taken as if his hair were a 
natural cause of his strength. That cannot be in 
these respects, 

1. Hair is no integral or essential part of the body : 
it is a mere excrement. 

2. It hath no stability in itself, as bones have, but 
is exceeding weak. 

3. Hair draweth strength out of a man's body, as 
weeds out of the ground. Therefore they use to 
shave off the hair of weak ones, especially when they 
are much wasted with a consumption or other sick- 

Yet to Samson, in particular, his hair was a sign, 
yea, and a means of his extraordinary strength, and that 
by God's voluntary appointment. For this is to be 
granted, that his strength came from God. God 
enabled him to do what he did. When he was not 
able to do as he had done before, God took away his 
strength. That his strength was of God, is evident 
by this phrase, ' the Spirit of the Lord came upon 
him,' which is used upon his achieving great matters, 
Judges xiii. 25, xiv. 6, 19, and xv. 14. And upon 
failing of his strength it is said, ' the Lord departed 
from him,' Judges xvi. 20. 

God sanctified Samson, from his mother's womb, 
to be a Nazarite, Judges xiii. 5. And according to 
the law of Nazarites, the Lord charged that no razor 
should come upon his head, Num. vL 5. Answer- 
ably, Hannah, who vowed Samuel as a Nazarite to 
the Lord, U3ed this phrase, ' there shall no razor 
come upon his head,' 1 Sara. i. 11. 

That rite implied, 

1. Comeliness. For the hair is an ornament by 
nature. Had not man sinned, his hair would have 
had no need of polling. By sin it is that long hair 
becomes uncomely. 

2. Purity. For the keeping of the razor from the 
hair shewed that they were clean, and needed not to 
be shaven, as the leper that was unclean needed, Lev. 
xiv. 8, 9. Yea, if a Nazarite by any occasion became 
unclean, he was to shave his hair. Num. vi. 9. 

3. Subjection. For as the woman's hair is a token 
of her subjection, 1 Cor. xi. 10, so the Nazarite's 
hair of his special subjection to God, to which sub- 
jection he had by vow bound himself. This was 
sometimes by the vow of the parties themselves, 
Num. vL 2 ; scmietimes by the vow of their parents, 
1 Sam. i. 1 1 ; sometimes by God's own special ap- 
pointment. Judges xiii. 5. 

Samson's hair beuig thus a sign of more than ordi- 
nary comeliness, puritj', and subjection, so long as, 
in testimony of his inward piety, that external rite 

Ver. 32.] 



■was observed, God's Spirit continued his assistance 
to him, and gave that evidence thereof, his extraordi- 
nary strength. But when, by a violation of that rite, 
he manifested his impure, disobedient, and rebellious 
disposition against God, God took away his Spirit, 
and, as an evidence thereof, his extraordinary strength ; 
but when, by the judgment that followed thereupon, 
he repented, the sign being renewed, the Spirit re- 
turned, Judges xvi. 22. 

This example of Samson in provoking the Spirit 
to depart from him, and take away his strength, giveth 
proof that prime professors may so far grieve the 
Spirit as he may be moved to forsake them, and 
withdraw his assistance. Hereof see Chap. iii. 12, 
Sec. 131, &c. 

Sec. 202. Of Sanison's recovery. 

Thougli Samson's fall were very great, j'et it is said 
that ' the hair of his head began to grow again after 
he was shaven,' which was a sign of the Spirit's re- 
turn unto him. Judges xvi. 22. This was yet fur- 
ther manifested by the extraordinary strength where- 
with he was endued. It was no less than before, if 
not greater ; for the last evidence of his strength was 
the greatest. More was done thereby than all his 
life before. Judges xvi. 30. 

This giveth proof that grace decayed may, by re- 
pentance, be recovered, and that with the greater 
advantage. Instance David, and the psalms that he 
penned after his great sin. Instance also Peter, mani- 
fested by Christ's question to him, and his answer 
thereupon, John xxi. 15-17. For true saving grace 
cannot be utterly lost. See more hereof. Chap. iii. 
12, Sec. 132, &c. 

This is a great enforcement to such as by any occa- 
sion have fallen from grace, and grieved God's good 
Spirit, thoroughly to repent thereof, and to turn to 
their God again. 

Sec. 203. Of Samson's kind of death. 

The last act of Samson was the greatest and best. 
It was the greatest evidence of his faith, and the 
most profitable to God's church. Yet out of it a 
double question ariseth. 

1. Whether it were a lawful act. 

2. Whether the like may lawfully be done by 

His act was this, that he pulled down a great 
house where he was, upon himself, and upon the ene- 
mies of the church which were in and upon that 
house. Judges xvi. 27, &c. This personal act was in 
itself, as he did it, la-wf ul. For, 

1. He did it with true devotion and invocation of 
God's name. Judges xvi. 28. So true, so hearty, so 
entire was his devotion, as God had respect thereto, 
even as he had to his prophet, Jonah ii. 2. 

2. He did it with a true and steadfast faith ; for it 
was his last act, and he is here brought in as a pat- 


tern of faith. Of him, as well as of others, it is said, 
' these all ha^g obtained a good report through 
faith,' (fee, ver. 39. 

3. He did it by virtue of his vocation and func- 
tion, which was deputed to him from his mother's 
womb, Judges xiii. .3, which was to deliver Israel out 
of the hands of the Philistines. If a valiant soldier 
should cut asunder a post of a bridge whereon an army 
of enemies stand, though the bridge should fall upon 
himself, yet he did but what his calling required. 

4. He did it with a well-composed mind — not in 
any such passion or perplexity of mind as self-mur- 
derers do. It was a zeal of God's glory, love of the 
church, of his, and of his own country, due and just 
revenge on the church's enemies, and a recompense of 
his former folly. 

5. He did it with a special warrant, which was the 
immediate and extraordinary motion of God's Spirit. 

He did it with such a spirit as Elijah did, when 
he called for fire upon the messengers that came to 
apprehend him, 2 Kings i. 10. 

6. He did it as a type of Christ. Hereof see 
Sec. 206. 

Sec. 204. Of self-murder. 

Concerning the second question (Sec. 203), whether 
the like may be lawful in others, a negative answer 
must be given, unless they have such a spirit. This 
answer of Christ, ' Ye know not of what manner of 
spirit ye are of,' Luke ix. 55, is pertinent to the 
point in hand. 

Self-murder is in itself a capital and damnable 
sin ; for, 

1. It is apparently against the very letter and sense 
of the moral law, Exod. xx. 13. 

2. It is against the rule of charity. For this 
phrase, ' thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself,' 
Mat. xxii. 39, sheweth that a man's self is the rule 
of loving another. For a man therefore to destroy 
himself, is to break the very rule of love. 

3. Divine revenge is expressly threatened against 
it. For this distinction of God's requiring blood 
' at the hand of man,' and ' at the hand of every 
man's brother,' pen. ix. 5, sheweth that God will re- 
quire that blood which one man sheds of himself, as 
well as of his brother. 

4. Self-murder is the highest pitch of tempting 
God. This was it which the devil essayed to bring 
Christ unto, Mat. iv. 6, 7. It provoketh God to let 
the soul sink into hell, or in an unusual and strange 
manner to save it. 

5. It is a presumptuous usurpation of God's prero- 
gative, unto whom ' belong the issues of death,' Ps. 
Ixviii. 20. 

6. It is a preposterous prevention of God's call, 
thrusting a man's self out of that place wherein his 
Lord hath set him. 

7. It sets a dam against God's mercy, for 'who 



[Chap. XI. 

can tell if God will turn and repent, and turn away 
from his fierce anger, that wo perish not 1 ' Jonah iii. 
9. But self-murderers give judgment against them- 
selves, as if they knew that God would not turn away 
from his anger. 

8. It is a violent preniption of the place, time, and 
means of one's own repentance. The place is a body 
animated by the soul : a dead carcass cannot repent. 
The time is this life, II eb. iii. 13. The means are 
God's word. Christian conference, invocation, and such 
like; whereof the self-murderer depriveth himself. 

9. It is against the most principal principle of 
nature, which is to preserve its own being. 

10. It is against that remainder of God's image 
which is reserved in man : by virtue whereof sundry 
of the heathen philosophers^ and others have con- 
demned it. The Roman orator- excludes them out 
of heaven. The prime of Roman poets" placeth them 
in hell, wishing that they might be on earth to en- 
dure any want or hard labour. 

iScc. 205. Of the future estate of self-imirderers. 

A question is moved of self-murderers, whether 
there is any hope of their .salvation, or no. 

Ans. 1. All the instances that the Scripture giveth 
of self-murderers are branded for reprobates, — as 
Saul, Ahithophel, and Judas. 

2. We have as little ground of hope for them as 
for any. 

3. The order of the church in denying them Chris- 
tian burial imports as much. 

4. The very heathen had such a law, which forbid 
their burial.'' 

Yet because the ways of the Lord are un.scarchable, 
and the mercies of the Lord infinite, and the work of 
his Spirit unconceivable (for at the moment of death 
the Spirit can work faith and repentance), we cannot, 
we may not, pass a peremptory sentence on them. 

Pretences alleged for the hope of the salvation of 
many of thcni, are these— 

1. They may be distracted in their wits. 

Ans. Such are not to be accounted self-murderers. 
Our law doth acquit such. 

2. They do it to avoid sin, or to jxrevent such tor- 
tures as, they fear, may draw them from the profes- 
sion of tlic true faith.'' 

Ans. 1. They arc undue pretences. For — 

(1.) No evil is to be done upon pretence of good, 
luim. iii. 8. 

(2.) A mere pa-ssivc evU is not sin. 

(3.) The pretended evil may, by the divine provi- 
dence, be prevented. 

' Plato, in Crit. ; Ariet. ia Ktliic; Scnec. 
' Cic. in .Somn. .Sclp. 

• Qu.-im vellcnt oetherc in alto 

Nunc ct pauperiem et duros perfcrre labores ! 

— Virg. JEn. 6. 

• Inscpultiis alijiciatur. — Senec. Controvcrs., lib. viii. 

• Euscb. Ecclca. Hist., lib. viii. cap. 12. 

(4.) The remedy used is the worst of evils. It is 
like the flounders leaping out of hot water into 
flaming fire. 

The pretence of preventing torments that might 
cause apostasy, implieth pusillanimity and infidelity; 
as if God could not prevent or mitigate, or give suf- 
ficient strength, courage, and comfort in all tortures. 

3. Some pretend a hastening of their heavenly 
glory thereby. Heathen authors ^ give instances 
hereof, — namely, of Clcombrotus and Cato. 

A ns. That is no way to hasten, but for ever to ex- 
clude, one's self from heavenly glory. 

4. Some, thinking to give evidences of their sal- 
vation, set down the confidence they have in God's 
mercy, and leave it written in their pockets, that it 
may be seen by survivors. 

Ans. It is a plain mockage of God to crave pardon 
for a sin to be committed. It is like the prayers of 
single combatants, who, immediately before their 
seeking to kill one another, make pretence of praying 
to God. This, their pretence, is an evidence against 

This should move people to take heed of tempting 
God. It was the answer that Christ gave to the 
devil when he tempted him to cast himself down 
from a pinnacle of the temple, whereby he might 
have killed himself. Mat. iv. 7. 

For preventing this sin — 

1. Give no place to the de\-il, Eph. iv. 27. 

2. Resist the devil, steadfast in the faith, 1 Pet. 
v. 9. 

3. Pray against spiritual desertions, Ps. li. 11. 

4. Oft meditate on the horrible nature and fearful 
issue of this sin. 

5. Take heed of solitariness. 

6. Set God always before thee, and reason as 
Joseph did. Gen. xxxix. 9. 

Sec. 20G. Of Samson heinr; a ti/pe of Christ. 

Samson and David were two of the mo.st eminent 
types of Christ that arc registered in the Old Testa- 
ment. It will therefore be meet distinctly to declare 
in this jplace wherein Samson was a type of Christ. 
This will appear in the particulars following — 

1. The name Samson, and notation thereof, which 
i.s, hk sun. See Sec. 199. Christ is called ' the Sun 
of righteousness,' Mai. iv. 2. 

2. The prediction of his conception; compare 
Judges xiii. 3, &c.,with Luke i. 31. 

3. His sanctification in his mother's womb ; com- 
pare Judges xiii. 5 with Luke i. 32. 

4. His special separation to be a Nazarite ; com- 
pare Judges xiii. 5 with Mat. ii. 23. 

5. His miraculous birth. Samson was born of a 
barren woman. Judges xiii. 3 ; Christ was born of 
a virgin, Luke i. 34, 35. 

' Cic. Tusc. Quest. 1, lib. i. Senec. Epist. 24. 

Veh. 32.] 



6. His principal function, which was to deliver 
God's people, Judges xiii. 5 ; so Christ, JIatt. i. 

7. His growth to admiration, Judges xiii. 2-t ; so 
Christ, Luke ii. 52. 

8. His marriage to a Philistine, Judges xiv. 1, ifec; 
so Christ was espoused to the Gentiles. 

9. His great strength, Judges xiii. 25. Christ is 
said to ' travail in his strength,' Isa. Ixiii. 1. 

10. The subject whereabout his strength was mani- 
fested, as a lion, Judges xiv. 5, 6, and the enemies of 
God's people, who were the Philistines, Judges xiv. i. 
So Christ exercised his strength upon the devil, who 
is a roaring lion, 1 Pet. v. 7, and in rescuing God's 
people from their enemies, Luke i. 71. 

IL His manner of teaching by riddles, Judges xiv. 
12. So Christ by parables. 

12. The honey that Samson took out of the lion 
whom he had slain. Judges xiv. 8. Much sweetness 
comes from the destruction of the devil. 

13. Samson's binding, Judges xv. 13, and xvi. 8. 
So Christ was bound when they apprehended him, 
John xviii. 12. 

14. His breaking the bonds with which he was 
bound, Judges xv. 14. So Christ brake the bonds of 
death, Acts ii. 24. 

15. His thirst, Judges XV. 18. So Christ thirsted, 
John xix. 28. 

16. His subjection under his enemies for a time, 
Judges xvi. 21. So was Christ for a while under the 
power of his enemies. Mat. xxvii. 2. 

17. His being sold for a sum of money. Judges 
xvi. 18. So was Christ, Mat. xxvi. 15. 

18. God's seeming to forsake him for a time. Judges 
xvi. 20. Christ complained hereof. Mat. xxvii. 46. 

19. The scorn whereunto he was put by men. 
Judges xvi. 25. So Christ was scorned of men, Mat. 
xxvii. 39. 

20. His victorious death. Judges xvi. 30. ]\Iuch 
more victorious was Christ's death. Col. ii. 15. 

Sec. 207. Of Jephthalis name and birth. 

The fourth particular mentioned in this brief cata- 
logue is Jephthah. His history is recorded. Judges 
XL and xii. About him we are to consider, 

1. His name. 

2. His birth. 

3. His infirmities. 

4. His excellencies. 

I. His name is derived from a Hebrew verb, TM^^, 
which signifieth to open. It is oft used of drawing a 
sword out of the scabbard, Ps. xxxvii. 14. The first 
letter, i, useth to be prefixed before nouns ; according 
to the notation, n713''> Jephthah implieth one tluit 
openeth. It was a fit name, for in his time the 
Israelites were so kept under by the Ammonites as 
there was none to open a way of liberty for them, 
none to draw a sword in their defence. Jephthah 

first drew out his sword, vanquished the enemies, and 
opened a free passage for the Israelites. 

II. His birth was infamous, for he was basely bom, 
Judges xi. 1, 2. Bastardy hath in all ages been ac- 
counted a great infamy. God by his law barred them 
from public functions, even unto the tenth generation, 
Deut. xxiiL 2. This number of years is the greatest 
that we read of any sort of people so barred. 

Bastards, by the law of many nations, have been 
excluded from inheritances. He is not accounted an 
heir by our law. He is said to be milliiis Jilius, no 
man's child. 

States have thus judged them in sundry respects, 

1. In detestation of the foul sin of uncleanne.ss. 

2. In reference to that evil disposition that is for 
the most part in them ; God laying a curse on such 
a corrupt brood. 

3. In respect of their dissolute education. Bastards 
use much to be neglected therein. This phrase of the 
apostle, ' if ye be without chastisement, then are ye 
bastards,' Heb. xii. 8. seemeth to allude thereunto. 

Yet God here in an especial and extraordinary 
manner couferreth his Spirit on this Jephthah, and 
advanceth him to the highest dignity and function 
amongst his people, and prospered him exceed- 

By this it appeareth, that no outward condition, be 
it never so base, is a hinderance to God's grace : mt- 
ness Rahab, a harlot ; Ruth, a Gentile ; Judah and 
Thamar, adulterers ; Phares, born in incest. All these 
reckoned up in the catalogue of Christ's progenitors, 
Mat. i. 3-5. Many like instances are registered in 
sacred Scripture. 

God hereby sheweth the freeness of his grace, ex- 
tended to unworthy ones, and the riches of his mercy 
conferred upon the worst kind of sinners, and the 
power of his Spirit, whereby ' valleys are exalted, 
and crooked things made straight, and rough places 
plain,' Isa. xl. 4. 

1. This may be an encouragement, even to those 
who are base born, to be diligent in using means of 
grace, and fervent in prayer for grace, setting before 
their eyes this instance of Jephthah. 

2. This may be a direction to others, as they see 
any evidences of God's Spirit, even in such as are 
base born, to take notice thereof, and to make the 
best use thereof that they can. The elders of Gilead 
took notice of a more than ordinary spirit in Jephthah, 
and answerably made use thereof, and had good suc- 
cess thereby, Judges xi. 6, 29. 

3. This should quicken up such as being base born 
are made partakers of a new birth, to be the more 
thankful, and to walk the more worthy of that privi- 
lege, 1 Tim. i. 12-14, and say, 'thus hath the Lord 
dealt with me, to take away my reproach among men.' 
It is a great means to enlarge the heart unto all thank- 
fulness, well to weigh our former vile condition, Eph. 
ii. 11-13. 



[Chap. XI. 

'Sec. 208. Of J ejMialCs infirmities, and of his rash 

III. Some reckon up Jephthah's entertaining vain 
men, Judges xi. 3, to be one of his infirmities. But 
that rightly taken is rather to be reckoned among his 
excellencies, as we shall hear hereafter. 

There are two apisarent infirmities registered of 
liim : 

1. His rash vow, Judges xi. 30, 31. 

2. His hasty and fierce revenge, Judges xii. 4, 6. 
His vow is on all sides granted to be over rash, but 

for the extent of it great question is made, whether he 
did absolutely vow to sacrifice whatsoever should first 
meet him. 

Arguments produced for that large extent thereof 
are these and such like : 

1. These express words thereof, 'whatsoever cometh 
forth of the doors of my house to meet me, shall surely 
be the Lord's, and I will ofier it up for a burnt-oifer- 
ing,' Judges xi. 31. 

Ans. The copulative, 1, betwixt the two sentences 
of the vow, thus, ' and I will,' is oft used dis- 
junctively. So it is used, Exod. xxi. 17, and trans- 
lated or. The evangelist, Mat. xv. 4, quoting that 
text, plainly setteth down this disjunctive particle, 
or, n, Greek. So it is uised, Lev. x. 3, when God 
thus saith, ' I will be sanctified in them that come 
nigh me, or before all the people I will be glorified ;' 
and Gen. xxvi. 11, in these words, ' He that toucheth 
this man or his wife.' 

2. The extreme passion of Jophthah upon behold- 
ing his daughter to be the first that came to meet him 
out of his house. Judges xi. 35. 

A lis. That passion arose from this, that his daughter 
was his only child ; and that by dedicating her to the 
Lord, all hope of issue was taken away. Children 
were always, among the seed of Abraham, accounted 
a gteat blessing. Abraham himself said to the Lord, 
when he promised him an exceeding great reward, 
' What wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless?' Gen. 
XV. 1 , 2. And Jacob's wife said to her husband, ' Give 
me children, or else I die,' Gen. xxx. 1. They 
counted it to be a reproach to die without children, 
1 Sam. i. 6, 2 Sam. vi. 23, Luke i. 2.5. 

3. The daughters of Israel much lamented the 
daughter of Jephthah upon her father's performing 
his vow upon her. 

Ans. 1. The Hebrew word translated to lament, is 
nowhere else in that sense used. 

2. There was great cause to lament her, though 
.she were not offered up a sacrifice ; even because by 
her father's vow she was kept from marriage. 

Arguments to prove that Jephthah did not offer up 
his daughter for a burnt-oflfering are these : 

1. Such an act had been .against the light of 

2. It is expressly forbidden by God's word, Exod. 
K. 13. 

Obj. Why then did God command Abraham to 
offer up Isaac ? Gen. xxii. 2. 

Am. 1. That was only for trial of Abraham's 
obedience; God never intended that Abraham should 
so do. 

2. God's express charge in a particular case giveth 
a dispensation against general laws. 

3. Such an act is against the evidence of that faith 
which is here hinted of Jephthah. 

4. Nor priests nor i>eople would have suffered 
Jephthah to have committed such a fact. 'When 
Uzziah, a king, would have burnt incense upon the 
altar of incense, Azariah the priest, and fourscore 
other priests, withstood the king, 2 Chron. xxvi. 16, 
(fee. ; when Saul would have unjustly put liis son 
Jonathan to death, the peojile kept him from it, 1 
Sam. xiv. 45. 

5. It is said that Jephthah's daughter desired leave 
of her father to ' bewail her virginity,' Judges xi. 37. 
It would have been said, to bewail her death, if she 
had been to be offered up. 

6. She is said to know no man. Judges xi. 39. 
■What doth this imply, but that being dedicated to 
the Lord she continued a virgin all her days ? 

7. It is expressly said that the daughters of Israel 
went yearly to lament the daughter of Jephthah, Judges 
xi. 40. Had she been sacrificed, they would rather 
have buried such a fact in perpetual oblivion, than 
have revived it by an annual memorial. 

The word, JTUd"?, translated to lament, Judges xi. 
40, is nowhere used in that sense throughout the 
whole Old Testament. It properly signitieth to de- 
clare, or to rehearse, Judges v. 11. It here signifieth 
to talk ivith: for the daughters of Israel went yearly j_ 

to confer with the daughter of Jephthah, and to com- 
fort her, in that she was kept from marriage. This 
affordeth a strong argument against sacrificing 

9. Such a one as Jephthah could not be so far be- 
sotted as to vow that anything, whatsoever it was, that 
came forth of the doors of his house to meet him,should 
be offered up as a burnt-offering. What if one of the 
princes had come out? or another man? What if a 
dog or a swine, which were unclean, had first come 
out, would he have oft'cred up any of these ? God 
expressly forbade the hire of a whore, or the price of 
a dog to be brought into his house, Deut. xxiii. 1 S. 

Quest. 1. If it be granted that he only dedicated his 
daughter to God, to live unmarried, as a virgin all 
the days of her life, was that lawful ? 

A ns. No, for we do not read that to consecrate a 
female to God is anywhere warranted. Neither is 
this answer here alleged to justify Jephthah's vow, but 
only to mitigate his fa\ilt, Excxstit nnn a toto, sed a 
tanto, and to excuse him from such an abominable 
fact as sacrificing his own child. Papists, therefore, 
can from this example have no warrant for a vow of 
perpetual virginity. Jephthah's vow, take it in the 

Vef. 32.] 



best sense that you can, was exceeding rash, and no 
good pattern. 

Quest. 2. Was his vow, being ra.shly made, to be 
performed ? 

Alls. Xo, it failing in the matter of a vow, the per- 
forming of it proved a double iniquity; one in making 
it, another in performing it. When David was put 
in mind of a rash vow he forbore to perform it, yea, 
and blessed God for aflording means to keep him from 
the performance thereof, 1 Sam. xxv. 32. 

Here learn to take heed' of rash vows, and to be 
well advised about vowing. See more hereof in The 
Saint's Sacrifice, on Ps. cxvL 14, Sec. 91. 

Sec. 209. Of Jephtluih' s fierce revenge. 

Another infirmity of Jephthah was his too great 
revenge of the Ephraimites' insolency. Judges xii. 

True it is that the Ephraimites first provoked him, 
and in such a manner as they justly deserved that 
sore revenge ; so as, what I shall sa}' of Jephthah's 
revenge is not to excuse the Ephraimites. 

But that Jephthah failed in the excess of his wrath 
is evident by Gideon's contrary carriage in a like case 
with the predecessors of these Ephraimites, whereof 
see Sec. 197. Had Jephthah dealt so mildly with 
the Ephraimites as Gideon did, he might have pacified 
them and saved the lives of forty and two thousand 
of the people of God. 

By this instance of Jephthah it is verified that 
' wrath is cruel and anger outrageous,' Prov. xxvii. 4. 
Old Jacob upon such a ground thus checked the rage 
of two of his sons, ' Cursed be their anger, for it was 
fierce ; and their wrath, for it was cruel,' Gen. xlix. 
7. Wrath is like an unbridled sturdy horse that 
carrieth his rider whither it list, even to his own and 
Lis rider's destruction. As the passion itself is very 
violent, so the eft'ects thereof are very fearful. 

It will be our wisdom to repress and redress it. 

Sec. 210. Of Jephthah's excellencies. 
IV. Many excellencies are in the history of Jeph- 
thah expressly registered. 

1. His valour; he was 'a mighty man of valour,' 
Judges xi. 1. That phrase implieth that he was a 
man of a strong body and courageous mind. Valour 
rightly used is of much use against the enemies of the 
church and commonwealth in time of war, and 
against impudent offenders in time of peace, and 
against persecutors in time of persecution. God 
himself exhorteth Joshua hereunto, Josh. i. 6. David 
and his worthies are commended for it by the Holy 
Ghost. It is reckoned up as one of the prime graces 
of faith, ver. 33. 

2. His improvement of liis valour against enemies 
— though he were disgracefully thrust out by his 
countrymen — as is implied in this phrase went out, 
Judges xi. 3. He spent not his time in base idleness, 

nor in more base robbing and stealing ; nor yet in 
plotting treason, or practising revenge. A worthy 
precedent this is for high minds that are disgracefully 
dealt with. 

3. His care of others like himself. ' He went out 
with them that were gathered to him,' Judges xi. 3 ; 
so dealt David with his, 1 Sam. xxii. 1, 2. 

4. His providence in securing himself and his 
country for the future, which was manifested by 
binding them to make him their head, Judges xi. 
9-11. So long as he was head he had power to 
order matters, and he was privy to his own purpose 
and the integrity thereof. 

5. His fair dealing with his enemies, Judges xi. 
12, 13, (fee. He expostulates their wrongs; he ad- 
viseth them to desist ; he manifesteth the equity and 
necessity of the engagements. All these he did to 
obtain peace without bloodshed. Herein he followed 
the direction of the law, Deut. xx. 10, a commend- 
able pattern this is for commanders in war. 

(j. His piety in waging war. Judges xi. 30, 31. 
Though he failed in the manner by reason of his rash 
vow, yet his course was commendable. It becomes 
God's people to begin all their weighty affairs with 
God. The heathen do it. A Jove principium. 

7. His faith, which herein had an excellency, that 
he had no special and extraordinary charge or pro- 
mise ; but he rested on God's general promise, Deut. 
XXX. 1-3, ifec, and upon the people's repentance mani- 
fested, Judges X. 15, 16. 

Ohj. It is said that ' the Spirit of the Lord came 
upon him,' Judges xi. 29, whereby a special, extraor- 
dinary motion and instinct is implied. 

Ans. That is noted after his resolution and pre- 
paration for the war, which were the effects of his 
faith. That of the Spirit's coming upon him sheweth 
God's approbation of what he undertook, and his 
encouragement thereunto, and his assistance therein. 

Sec. 211. Of David's Tiame and frailties. 

The fifth particular instance of the apostle's general 
catalogue is David. Of all the worthies before men- 
tioned, his histor)' is the most copiously set down. It 
is as a large and thick wood, out of which a passage 
is not easily found after one is entered into it. But 
as, by a long thread, a man that is entered into a 
great labyrinth may be brought out of it again, so, 
by the help of method, a passage will be made out of 
this copious matter. The method which I propound 
in handling the points that concern David is distinctly 
to declare, 

1. His name. 

2. His frailties and failings, that in him we may 
see what the best are subject to. 

3. His crosses, partly for trial and partly for 
punishments, to make us the more wary. 

4. His graces, that we may understand what to 
endeavour after. 



[Chap. XI. 

6. His privileges, or the recompenses which God 
gave him to encourage us in our warrantable endea- 

I. His name, Ti~j and TH, 1 Chron. xi. 1, accord- 
ing to the notation of it, importeth a lovdy or friendly 
one. It is derived from a noun, 'y]'-^, amiom, di- 
lectus, Cant. v. 9, that denoteth a friend : thence this 
name, David. The name implicth such a one as he 
was — amiable and lovely before God and man, and 
friendly to all God's people. He was ' a man after 
God's own heart,' 1 Sam. xiii. 14; 'all I.srael and 
Judah loved him,' 1 Sam. xviii. IG; 'in the saints 
was all his delight,' Ps. xvi. 3. 

II. His frailties were these : 

1. His r;ish anger and too great desire of revenge, 
aggravated by an undue binding of himself thereto, 
even by an oath. That he sinned herein is evident 
by his after-repentance thereof, and by blessing God, 
and the instrument that kept him from accomplishing 
his rash purpose of revenge, 1 Sam. xxv. 22, 32, 33. 

2. His wavering in faith. Though God had en- 
dued him with a great measure of faith, yet manifold 
trials made him waver. Once, in distrust, he said, 
' I shall perish one day by the hand of Saul,' 1 Sara, 
xxvii. 1. This was spoken in diffidence: so also 
this, ' I said in my heart, All men are liars ; ' hereof 
see The Saint's Sacrijice, on Ps. cxvi. 11. 

3. His polygamy, or taking many wives and concu- 
bines together, 2 Sam. v. 13. That this was ever a 
sin, Christ himself doth manifest, !Mat. xix. 4-G. 

4. His undue removing of God's ark. The law 
required that the ark should be carried on the priests' 
shoulders, Exod. xxv. 14, la, Num. iv. 1."), and vii. 
9, Josh. iii. 14. So as David herein consulted not 
with the law of God, but rather imitated the uncir- 
cumcised Philistines, 1 Sam. vi. 7. He himself after- 
wards discerned how he failed herein, 1 Chron. xv. 

5. His adultery and murder ; the former drew on 
the latter, 2 Sam. xi. 2, ic. These were two notori- 
ous crimes, accounted most heinous by the very 
heathen. They were sorely punished. 

G. His foolish indulgency to his children, 1 Kings 
i. G, 2 Sam. xviii. 5, 33, for which God sorely pun- 
ished liim in those children. 

7. His sudden and undue sentence before both 
parties were heard, 2 Sam. xvi. 4. Much injustice 
and great wrong oft foUoweth hereupon. Kead Prov. 
xviii. 17. 

8. Pride in the multitude of his soldiers, 2 Sam. 
xxiv. 2. The issue sheweth how far God was pro- 
voked therewith. 

Sec. 212. 0/ Dai'id's crosses. 
III. David's crosses were of two sorts — 1. Trial ; 
2. Punishments. 

His trials were these — 

1. His brother's envious interpretation of that 

which he did by divine instinct, 1 Sam. xvii. 28. 
This kind of trials pierceth deep in the soul. 

2. Saul's fierce persecution of him. Persecution in 
itself is a great trial, but David's was aggravated by 
many circumstances — 

(1.) By the person who persecuted him, his own 
sovereign, ' the Lord's anointed.' In this respect, he 
could not get such assistance as otherwise he might 
have had ; nor might he do that to free himself which 
otherwise he might have done, 1 Sam. xxiv. 17, and 
XX vi. 11. 

(2.) By the undue cause, which was no wrong on 
his part, Ps. xxxv. 7, 19, x. 3, cxix. IGl, and Ixi.x. 4. 
The cau.ses which Saul took to persecute him were 
those — 

His valour, wisdom, succe.ss ; people's acknow- 
ledgment thereof ; the love which the king's son and 
servants bare him ; and the notice which Saul had 
that David should be king after him. 

(3.) By the extent of his persecution ; it was unto 
blood. For this cause Saul raised up armies to pur- 
sue him. 

(4.) By the consequences following thereon, which 
were — 

[1.] The destruction of the Lord's priests, 1 Sam. 
xxii. 18, 19. 

[2.] The danger of his parents and kindred, I Sam. 
xxii. 3. 

[3.] His own expulsion from the people of God, 
and from the house of God, 1 Sam. xxi. 10, and xxvii. 
2. This pierced deepest to his soul, Ps. Ixxxiv. 1, 
1 Sam. XX vi. 19. 

3. The jealousy which they had of him to whom he 
fled for succour, 1 Sam. xxi. 11, and xxix. 4. How 
great this trial was is evident by changing his be- 
haviour, 1 Sam. xxi. 13, and by the psalms which he 
penned thereupon, as Ps. xxxiv. 1, and Ivi. 1. 

4. The spoiling of the city which he had allotted 
to him for himself, his soldiers, and all that belonged 
to him. This trial was the greater because his sol- 
diers thereby were stirred ujj to mutiny against him, 
1 Sam. XXX. 1, G. 

5. The setting up of Ish-bosheth, the son of Saul, 
after Saul was dead, against him, and that by the 
General Abuer and the greatest part of Israel, 2 Sam. 
ii. 8. 

Those trials David was brought unto betwixt the 
time that he w;vs first anointed and well settled in his 

Hereby we see that God will not have great 
preferments easily attained to ; witness Joseph's case. 

To those trials may be added others which befell 
him in his kingdom, as, 

G. The indignity which was offered to his ambas- 
sadors (2 Sam. X. 4), whereby his intended kindness 
was misintcriirctcd and perverted. 

7. David's fainting in the battle, 2 Sam. xxi. 15; 
such was the consequence thereof, that if one of his 

Vee. 32.] 



■worthies had not rescued him, he might have then 
perished, 2 Sam. xxi. 15. 

The trials which arose from his sons, as Amnon, 
Absalom, Adouijah, were punishments of his sins, as 
we shall afterwards see. 

Sec. 213. Of 2)i»iishmenis injlicted on David for his 

Other kind of trials whereunto David was brought 
■were apparent punishments of his sins, which, being 
public, God would not suffer to go unpunished. I 
will therefore distinctly note both his particular sins, 
and also the punishments that were inflicted there- 
upon. They were these that foUow ; — 

1. His rash anger : this stirred up a purpose of 
revenge on Nabal and all his house, 1 Sam. ssv. 
22. He did not put that his purpose into execution, 
but repented thereof, and blessed God for preventing 
Lim in shedding blood ; so as we do not read of any 
punishment inflicted for that sin, yet it may be that 
Saul's uusatiable desire of revenge on him and all 
his was a punishment of his foresaid purpose of re- 

2. His distrust, 1 Sam. xxvii. 1 : this was 
punished with the jealouisy of the princes of the 
Philistines on him, 1 Sam. xxix. 4, and with the 
sacking of Ziklag, and the insurrection of the soldiers 
against him, 1 Sam. xxx. 1, 6. 

3. His polygamy, 2 Sam. v. 13 : the children of 
those various wives proved great crosses unto him. 

4. His undue manner of carrying the ark : this 
was so punished as David was afraid of the Lord, 
2 Sam. vi. 3, 7, 9. 

5. His adultery with Bathsheba, and murder of her 
husband : as these were most heinous sins, so 
punishments inflicted for these were the most grievous. 
The heads of them are generally set down, 2 Sam. xii. 
10, 11, 14. The sequel of the hi.story declareth the 
accomplishment of them. They were these that fol- 
low : 

1. His child died, 2 Sam. xiL 18. 

2. His daughter was deflowered by her brother, 
2 Sam. xiii. 14. 

3. His son lay with his concubines on the roof of 
a house in the sight of all the people, 2 Sam. xvi. 22. 

4. The sword departed not from his house, for — 
(1.) One of his sons killed another, 2 Sam. xiii. 

28, 29. 

(2.) That son of his thrust David out of his king- 
dom ; whereupon such a battle was fought as twenty 
thousands were slain, together with that ungracious 
son, 2 Sam. xviii., itc. 

(3.) Another battle arose thereupon through the 
indignation of Sheba, 2 Sam. xx. 1. 

(4.) Another son took the crown before his father's 
death, and that against his mind, 1 Kings i. 5. 

{■').) His inward troubles were yet greater, for — 

[1.] The Spirit withdrew his presence, so as to 

David's present sense it clean departed from him. 
Thereupon David thus prayeth, ' Create in me a clean 
heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within me,' 
Ps. li. 10. 

[2.] A deprivation of that joy and comfort which 
formerly he had. Whereupon in his prayer he thus 
addeth, ' Piestore unto me the joy of thy salvation,' 
Ps. li. 12. 

[3.] No sense of any assistance of the Spirit for 
growth in grace, but only a bare, formal profession re- 
mained. This is intended under this phrase, ' uphold 
me with thy free Spirit,' Ps. li. 1 2. 

[4.] He apprehended God's wrath, and feared a 
dereliction, in this phrase, ' hide thy face from my 
sins,' Ps. li. 9 ; but more fuUy is this thus expressed, 
' Lord, rebuke me not in thine anger,' Ps. vi. 1. 

[5.] His conscience was a rack unto him, which 
made him use this e.xpression, ' the bones which thou 
hast broken.' Behold here what a fearful thing it is 
for such as profess the name of God to grieve the 
good Spirit of God ! 

(C.) His undue cockering of his children, 1 Sam. 
xiii. 39, 1 Kings xvi. Two of his children so cockered 
proved a heavj' cross to him, and a fearful curse to 
themselve.5. They both proved traitors to their fa- 
ther, and brought themselves to an untimely death — 
namely, Absalom and Adonijah. 

(7.) His hasty sentence against Mephibosheth. 
Compare 2 Sam. xvi. 4 with ver. 8. 

(8.) His pride in numbering of his people was 
punished with the loss of threescore and ten thousand 
in three days. 

Sec. 214. Of David's //races in reference to God. 
IV. The graces of David were many and great. 
They may be ranked into two heads — 

1. Such as had an immediate respect to God. 

2. Such as had respect to man. 

The graces which had immediate respect to God 
were these — 

1. His care to be instructed in and directed by 
God's word, and that both ordinaril)', Ps. cxix. 24, 
105, and also extraordinarily, 1 Sam. xxiii. 2, 2 Sam. 
vii. 2, and xxi. 1. This made him to walk with a 
right foot, and this kept him from many by-paths. 

2. His faith. Most of those evidences which the 
apostle in the verses following, to set forth the faith 
of God's ancient worthies indetinitelj-, may be in par- 
ticular applied to David. For David by faith, 

(1.) Subdued kingdoms. None more, after the 
Israelites were settled in Canaan, 2 Sam. viii. 12, 

(2.) Wrought righteousness — that is, justly go- 
verned his people, doing right to all, 2 Sam. viii. 15, 
Ps. Ixxviii. 72. 

(3.) Obtained promises — namely, of being king, 
and having a wise son to build God's temple, and the 
descending of the Messiah from him. 



[Chap. XL 

(4.) Stopped the moutbs of lions. David killed a 
lion indeed, and lion-like men. 

(5.) Quenched the violence of fire — that is, of fiery 
persecutors, of fiery slanderers, and of other fiery 
enemies ; yea, he rescued Ziklag that was burnt with 

(6.) Escaped the edge of the sword — namely, of 
Saul's sword, or the swords of the Philistines, and 

(7.) Out of weakness was made strong. Being 
weakened by sickness, weakened by persecution, 
•weakened by jealousy of enemies, by mutiny of his 
own soldiers, by insurrections and rebellions, he re- 
covered strength. 

(8.) Waxed valiant in fight, against Goliath, against 
the Philistines, and others. 

(9.) Turned to flight the armies of the aliens, even 
of all that were round about Israel, and enemies 

3. His repentance. Many sins were before noted 
of him, Sec. 113. His repentance for them all is ex- 
pressly registered, as— 

(1.) For his rash anger and intent of revenge. 
Upon intimation of that .sin, he blessed God for with- 
holding him, and did forbear to execute his wrath. 
A true penitent will not persist in sirL Kepentance 
is an alteration of the mind. 

(2.) For his distrust. He confesseth it to be in haste, 
and after believed, Ps. cxvi. 10, 11. Yea, he checketh 
and rouseth up his soul, and that again and again, Ps. 
xlii. 5, 1 1, and xliii. 5. Repentance makes men care- 
ful to redress what is done amiss. 

(3.) For his polygamy. This being according to 
the error of the times, his repentance hereof may be 
comprised under this phrase, ' Who can understand 
his errors? — Cleanse thou me from secret faults,' Ps. 
xix. 12; and under this, ' blot out all mine iniquities,' 
Ps. U. 9. When a penitent, upon confessing of some 
sins, craveth pardon for all sins, it implieth penitency 
for the sin whereof he is ignorant, and yet guilty. 

(4.) For liis miscarriage about the ark, his repent- 
ance was manifested — 

[1.] By grief at the judgment and cause thereof, 
2 Sam. vi. 8. 

[2.] By his future redress of that sin, 1 Chron. xv. 
1, 2, 12, 13, &c. Kepentance makes men observant 
of the cause of the sin, and inquisitive after the 

(.').) For his indulgency towards Absalom and 
Adonijah, his repentance for this is manifested by 
his prudent and pious care over Solomon, Prov. iv. 
3, 4, 1 Chron. xxii. 7, and xxviii. 9. llcpentance 
makes men amend in others what they have done 
amiss in some. 

(6.) For his adultery and murder, 2 Sam. xii. 13, 
the fifty-first Psalm is a suflScient proof hereof. 

(7.) For his rash and unjust judgment against 
Mephibosheth, his repentance herein is manifested by 

restoring to Mephibosheth what he had unduly caused 
to be taken from him. Restitution in case of wrong 
is a note of repentance. 

(8.) For his pride. This is manifest by the con- 
trition of his heart, confession of his sin, supplication 
for pardon, so soon as it was committed, and by lay- 
ing the load of the sin upon himself rather than upon 
the people, and by following a prophet's direction for 
appeasing God's wrath, 2 Sam. xxiv. 10, 17, 18. 

To this head of repentance may be referred the 
tenderness of his conscience, manifested in this phrase 
(which is pro|)er to David), ' his heart smote him,' 
1 Sam. xxiv. 5, 2 Sam. xxiv. 10. 

4. His sincerity and soundness of heart. This is 
that innocency, pureness, uprightness, and perfection 
for which he is much commended, and wherein he is 
made a pattern to others; insomuch as if any of his 
posterity were upright and perfect in heart, they are 
said to be ' as David their father,' 2 Kings xviii. 3, 
and xxii. 6 ; and, on the contrary, they that were 
not upright are said not to be as David their father, 
1 Kings XV. 3, and 2 Kings xiv. 3. 

5. His integrity, which was a due respect to every- 
thing that is pleasing to God. Sincerity hath respect 
to the manner of doing good ; integrity to the extent 
thereof. This integrity David professeth of himself 
both afiirmatively and negatively, Ps. cxix. 128. 
Hereunto David exhorteth his princes and his son, 

1 Chron. xxviii. 8. 

Excejition is made about the case of Uriah, 1 Kings 
XV. 5. 

Ans. As one swallow maketh not a summer, so 
one sin daslieth not a constant course. 

2. That sin was not committed with the full bent 
of his will, but through the violence of temptation. 

3. By his faith and repentance that sin, as others, 
was washed awaj'. 

C. His delight in God's law. It was his love and 
his joy ; sweeter than honey, prized above gold. 
Therefore his meditation was thereon day and night. 

7. His fervent zeal of God's glory. This was 

(1.) By many divine forms of praising God. Never 
were all the figures of rhetoric so expressed to the 
life as in David's psalms. 

(2.) By his forwardness and cheerfulness in bring- 
ing God's ark, the evidence of the Lord's presence, 
into a fit place, 2 Sam. vi. 13, 14. 

(3.) By his great desire to build a temple to God, 

2 Sam. vii. 1, whicli, because he was not himself per- 
mitted to do, he made great preparations for his sou 
to do it, and prescribes a pattern thereof, and both 
instructs his son and princes how to do it, and also 
incited them to be conscionable therein. 

8. His great devotion, manifested by the ardency 
and frequency tliercof. His deep sighs and groans, 
his fijods of tears, his cryings, and sundry other 
expressions ; his constancy in praying, morning and 

Vee. 32.] 



evening — yea, and at noon too (Ps. Iv. 17), and at 
midnight on special occasions (Ps. cxix. 62) — yea, 
and seven times a day (Ps. cxis. 164). All these 
gave evidence to his great devotion. 

9. His humble and patient submission to God in 
his greatest distresses, Ps. xxxix. 9, 2 Sam. xv. 26. 
Under this may be comprised his acknowledgment of 
God's righteous dealing. Such a disposition nioveth 
pity in God, and procureth ease and deliverance. 

10. His renouncing of all worth or merit in him- 
self — yea, an acknowledgment of his own emptiness 
and unworthiness, 2 Sara. vii. 21, 1 Chron. xxix. 
14, 15, Ps. cxliii. 2. The contrary to this takes 
away the glory of whatsoever we do, Luke xviii. 

Sec. 215. Of David's graces in reference to man. 

The distinction of David's graces in reference to 
God and man is in regard of their end ; as the for- 
mer had immediate respect to God and his glory, 
so these to man and his good. Particulars are 
these ; — 

1. His loyalty to his sovereign, 1 Sam. xviii. 5, 
and xxii. 14. So far he excelled herein, as, though 
Saul persecuted him to death, yet he would not take 
any advantage of doing the least wrong to Saul, but 
rebuked those that advised him to lay hands on his 
king, or that offered to do it themselves, 1 Sam. xxiv. 
5-8, and xxvi. 8, 9. 

2. His faithfuhiess in his calling. So he was from 
his youth all his days. His father appointing him to 
keep his sheep, he did it diligently. Though there 
were a solemn meeting and a great sacrifice, whereat 
his father and all his brothers were, yet did not he 
stu- from his charge till he was sent for, 1 Sam. xvi. 
11. When his father sent him of an errand to his 
brethren at the camp, he rose early in the morning 
and went, but left his father's sheep with a keeper ; 
and when a lion and a bear fell upon the flock, he 
adventured his life upon them both, and killed them, 
1 Sam. xvii. 20, 34, (fee. Great also was his faith- 
fulness in other and higher callings. 

3. His putting forth himself to the uttermost for 
God's church. Witness his combat with Goliath 
(1 Sam. xvii. 32), and with the Philistines and other 
enemies on all occasions. God having given him 
extraordinary valour, he improved it to the best ad- 
vantage that he could for the good of others. He so 
improved other gifts, as his skill in music to the 
C]uieting of Saul's spirit, 1 Sam. xvi. 18. 

4. His justice. This is implied under this phrase, 
' he fed them according to the integrity of his heart,' 
Ps. Ixxvui. 72. 

5. His keeping covenant with men ; witness the 
kindness that he shewed to Jonathan's son, 2 Sam. ix. 1. 
This is a note of a righteous man, Ps. xv. 4. Fail- 
ing herein is accounted a heathenish abomination, 
Rom. i. 30. God's vengeance is manifested against 

covenant-breaking even with men, Jer. xxxiv. 18 
Ezek. xvii. 16. 

6. His mercy to the poor and needy. The fre- 
quent mention which he maketh of such giveth proof 
that he himself was such a one, Ps. xli. 1, and cxii. 
4, 9. 

7. His sympathy at others' distresses, Ps. xxxv. 
13, 14. 

8. His liberality and bounty, 1 Chron. xvi. 3. 

9. His retribution of kindness for kindness. This 
was it that moved him to send comforters to Hanun 
the king of Ammon, 2 Sam. x. 2, and to shew what 
kindness he could to Barzillai, 2 Sam. xix. 33, <fec. 

10. His meek and patient bearing of wrongs. 
Instance the case of Shimei. 

Ohj. He upon his death-bed advised Solomon his 
son to bring his hoar head down to the grave in 
blood, 1 Kings ii. 9. 

A)u. He did not bid his son revenge that wrong, 
but only take such notice thereof, as if he found him 
faulty in any other thing to punish him. So much 
is implied in David's charge ; and the sequel of the 
history doth ratify the same. 

2. David's patience towards him was sufficiently 
manifested in forbearing him for his own time. 
The charge which he gave to Solomon was but a 
fruit of justice. 

David's patient bearing of wrongs shewed that 
there was more than flesh and blood in him. 

11. His recompensing good for evil. This he oft 
professeth of himself, Ps. xxxv. 12-14, and cix. 4— 
yea, Saul acknowledgeth so much of David, 1 Sam. 
xxiv. 18. 

This proceedeth from a divine spirit ; this is of 
true spiritual virtue, which the apostle requireth, 
Eom. xii. 21. We have a worthy pattern hereof in 
Stephen, Acts vii. 60 ; but a more worthy pattern in 
Christ, Luke xxui. 34. 

This is it which will give us assurance of God's 
overcoming our evil with his goodness, Mat. vi. 12. 

Sec. 216. Of DaviiVs privileges. 

V. The fifth point about David concerneth those 
privileges which, in way of recompense, God be- 
stowed on him. In particular, they were these : 

1. His preferment before and above others; for, 
(1.) The tribe of Judah (whereof he was) was ac- 
counted the chief of the tribes, Ps. Ixxviii. 67, 68. 

(2.) His father's house was much advanced, 1 Sam. 
xvi. 1 : with this doth David beat down Michal's 
pride, 2 Sam. vi. 21. 

(3.) David himself was preferred beftire all his 
elder brethren, 1 Sam. xvi. 11. David's preferments 
are much amplified by a due con.sideration of the two 
terms of motion, jrum what to what : from a shep- 
herd to a king, 2 Sam. \\\. 8, Ps. Ixxviii. 70, 71. 
God's recompenses are to admiration. 

2. The favour which he had of all sorts. 



[Chap. XI. 

(1.) Jonathan loved liira, 1 Sam. xviii. 1. 

(2.) Michal, Saul's daughter, loved Lim also, 1 Sam. 
xiii. 20. 

(3.) He was accepted in the sight of all the people, 
yea, and of Saul's servants, 1 Sam. xviii. 5, 16. 

(-1.) Samuel the prophet, and Ahimclech the priest, 
even when Saul persecuted him, much respected him 
and succoured him, 1 Sam. xi.x. 18, and x.\i. G, 9. 

(5.) Acliish, king of Gath, bare good-will towards 
him, 1 Sam. sxvii. G. 

(G.) Other enemies sought his favour, 2 Sam. 
viii. 10. 

Thus God can turn the hearts of all sorts, even of 
enemies, towards his saints. 

3. Preservation against the atten)|)ts of all that 
sought his hurt ; as against Saul, Achish, his own 
soldiers, 1 Sam. xxx. 6, Absalom his son, Sheba, 
and others. 

To this head may be referred such recoveries he 
had from deadly distresses, whether by sickness or 
other ways, Ps. vi. 1, xx.\i. 21, and cxvi. 3. 

Such were the foresaid deliverances, as David 
penned many psalms in memorial of them ; witness 
the titles of Ps. iii., xviii., xxxiv., Ivi., Ivii, and lix. 

In David, see how safe they are whom the Lord 
doth keep. 

4. The puissant armies and brave commanders in 
war which he had. For multitude, he had fifteen 
hundred thousand, and seventy thousand men of war, 
in ten of his tribes ; for the number of two tribes was 
not given up, 1 Chron. xxi. 5. Vfe count thirty or forty 
thousand a very great army ; fifty thousand is counted 
a camp-royal ; what, then, a hundred thousand ? what 
a hundred thousand multiplied fifteen times, and 
seventy thousand added to them 1 Wise Solomon 
accounts it an honour to a king to have a multitude 
of people, Prov. xiv. 2S ; what is it, then, to have a 
multitude of such people as are men of war, able to 
defend their king and kingdom ( This must needs be 
a great honour, safety, and security. 

Among these there were very many such worthies as 
never any prince or state had : one of the least could 
resist a hundred, and one of the greatest a thousand, 
1 Chron. xii. 1-1 ; .so as in his time was accomplished 
that promise which is made. Josh, xxiii. 10. For 
j)articular instances, i)bserve 1 Chron. xi. 11, 18, 20, 
22, 23, and xx. 4, <tc. 

Where the Lord setteth a man apart to great mat- 
ters, he will raise up answerable means. 

5. Victories over all his enemies. Never the like 
from Joshua's days to his : he was never put to flight 
in any pitched battle ; indeed he fled from Saul and 
from Absalom, but not as overcome, but as a prudent 
man, to prevent danger and avoid effusion of the blood 
of God's people. David by himself alone overthrew 
Goliath ; so did sundry of his worthies destroy other 
giants. By David's victories the peace of the land 
was settled, and the safety of God's people secured. 

Thereby Solomon his son became such a man of peace 
as he himself was of war : so many and so great were 
his victories, as he is accounted one of the nine 
worthies of the world. The glory, fame, and triumph 
arising from conquest over enemies, hath ever been 
accounted one of the greatest. 

6. A great and a good name, and that while he 
lived, and after he was dead, among Jews and Chris- 
tians, to this very day. Upon the first shewing 
of himself against the enemy, his name was extolled 
above the king's, 1 Sam. xviii. 7. His fame was 
spread abroad, not only throughout all Israel, but 
al.so in otlier countries, even among the enemies, 

1 Sam. xxi. 1 1 , and xxix. 5 ; yea, it is said that ' his 
name was much set by,' 1 Sum. xviii. 30. 

The Lord himself saith, ' I have made thee a great 
name,' ifcc, 2 Sam. vii. 9. No man's name after his 
death was more famous than David's. If any were 
of good name or note, they were said to be like David, 

2 Kings xviii. 3, and xxii. 2. If any of his posterity 
degenerated, they were said to be unlike David, as 

1 Kings xi. 4, G, xiv. 8, and xv. 3 : yea, the royal 
throne and city was styled the throne and city of 
David, 1 Kings viii. 1 ; the sepulchres where kings 
were buried, sepulchres of David, Neh. iii. 16; and 
the promises concerning Christ arc called ' the sure 
mercies of David,' Isa. Iv. 3, Acts xiii. 34. When 
God .sj)eaketh of him, he ordinarily giveth him this 
title, 'David my servant.' 1 Kings xi. 13; and God 
is styled ' the God of David,' 2 Chron. x.xxiv. 4, ' the 
Lord God of David,' Isa. xxxviii. 5 ; and David is 
called ' the man of God,' Neh. xii. 36. 

They who desire a good name, let them endeavour 
to be like David. 

7. A stock of the regal line. One king there was 
before David, namely, Saul ; but he and his posterity 
were cut off. David's posterity continued to sit on 
his throne .so long as there was any king of Jerusalem. 
Herein a difference is made betwixt Saul and David, 

2 Sam. vii. 15, 16. Though many of his posterity 
deserved to be cut off, yet for David's sake Gt)d con- 
tinued them, 1 Kings xi. 11-13, 34, 35, and xv. 4, 
2 Chron. xxi. 7. 

8. A stock of Christ's kingdom. In this respect 
David's kingdom is said to endure for ever, 1 Sam. 
vii. 16, Jer. xxiii. 5, 6 ; therefore the evangelist Mat- 
thtw, who sets down the legal petligree of Christ, 
begins with David, Mat. i. 1. 

Sec. 217. 0/ David's being a type of Christ. 

David in sundry excellencies w;is an especial type 
of Christ, iis aj^peareth by the particulars follow- 
ing : 

1. His name ; for Christ is oft called by that name 
of David, Ezek. xxxiv. 23, 24, and xxxvii. 24, 25. 

Besides, David's name doth signify beloved (sec 
Sec. 211), and Christ was the beloved of God, Mat. 
iii. 17. 

Vek. 32.] 



2. His particular calling. David was a shepherd ; 
so Christ, John x. 11. 

3. His faithful keeping of his father's sheep, 1 Sam. 
xvii. S-t. In this respect Christ is called 'the good 
shepherd,' John x. 14. 

4. His manifold crosses. Christ was envied, 
scorned, persecuted, and other ways afflicted, as David 

5. His patient bearing of crosses. Of David's 
patience we heard before (Sec. 214); but Christ's far 
surpassed David's. 

6. His special functions, royal and prophetical. 
Christ also was a king and prophet. 

7. His duel with Goliath. Christ in like manner 
did combat with, and overcame that great Goliath, the 

8. His victories over all his enemies. So Christ 
hath and will subdue all. 

Sec. 218. Of the fruits of David's faith. 

A question may be moved, how those things before 
mentioned may be accounted fruits of David's faith. 
For he, as others, are brought in as patterns of 

Ans. 1. His name, which signifieth 5(7o;'f(/, shewed 
that he believed in God. 

2. His sins, though they came not from faith, yet 
they made way to the greater manifestation and exer- 
cise of his faith. 

3. His manifold crosses did much more manifest 
and exercise his faith. 

4. His graces were apparent fruits of faith. The 
apostle hath produced all the worthy works of other 
saints as fruits of faith ; in like manner were David's. 
Faith is a mother grace, from which all other graces 
do ijroceed. 

5. His privileges were a recompense of his faith ; 
as God's accepting Abel, translating Enoch, saving 
Noah ; and other recompenses of other saints fol- 
lowed ujjon their faith, and were evidences thereof. 

Sec. 219. Of SamueVs name. 

The sixth particular instance of the apostle's general 
catalogue is Samuel. David and Samuel are joined 
together by a double copulative, Aaj3i& n xa'i 2a,uov>;X. 
For besides that they lived together at the same time, 
they both sustained two great functions, — one civil, 
the supreme governor; the other ecclesiastical, an 
extraordinary prophet. 

In Samuel we may observe, 

1. His name. 

2. His birth. 

3. His education. 

4T His life and conversation. 

5. His crosses. 

6. His blessings. 

7. His rest in the typical resemblance of Christ in 
the grave. 

I. His name, 'pxi.^^ir, Samuel, is compounded of 
three words, the first letter only of some of them 
being used. The Hebrew word signifieth thus much, 
bSD 1/1K ^n'^N^i ^ asked him of the Lord, for he 
was a cliild of prayer. This reason is rendered, 1 
Sam. i. 20. 

By this name we see, 

1. What faithful and fervent prayer may do; even 
open a barren womb. 

2. Memorials of God's mercies are to be kept. 
This name preserved a memorial, both of God's mercy 
in giving a son, and also of the means of obtaining 
that mercy, which was prayer. 

3. Fit names are good memorials. They oft bring 
to mind the memorable matter for which the name 
is given. 

4. God's hearing prayer is a matter worthy to be 

Sec. 220. Of Samuel's hirth and education. 

II. Samuel's birth was extraordinary, for it was 
out of a barren womb. So was Isaac's, Gen. xi. 30 ; 
Jacob's, Gen. XXV. 21; Joseph's, Gen. xxix. 31; Sam- 
son's, Judges xiii. 2 ; the Shunamraite's son, 2 Kings 
iv. 14; John Baptist's, Luke i. 7. 

Hereby we see that matters above hope are under 
hope, Piom. iv. 18. This chapter giveth many evi- 
dences thereof. 

III. Samuel's education was from his childhood 
seasoned with piety. As upon prayer he was con- 
ceived, so for his birth solemn praise was given to 
God, I Sam. ii. 1. By vow, before he was conceived, 
he was devoted to God ; and in his infancy he was 
actually dedicated to God. From his childhood he 
was trained up in the house of Gi)d. 

These acts of piety in his parents God rewarded 
with sundry other children, and with extraordinary 
endowments on this Samuel. 

God spake to him while he was yet a child, and after 
so inspired him as he became an extraordinary projihct. 

Oh that parents would set the parents of Samuel 
as a pattern before them! Assuredly they should, 
some way or other, find an abundant recompense. 

Sec. 221. Of Samuel's life and conversation. 

IV. Samuel's life and conversation may be con- 
sidered two ways : 

1. In his younger years, while he was under 

2. In his riper and elder years, while he was a 

1. Wliile he was young he ministered unto the 
Lord before Eli, 1 Sam. ii. 11, and iii. 1. There he 
manifested his obedience, 

(1.) To his parents, by abiding in that place and 
calling wherein they settled him. 

(2.) To his tutor or master, to whom he was by 
his parents committed, as is intended under this 



[Chap .XI. 

phrase, 'he ministered before Eli,' 1 Sam. iii. 1. 
This is further confirmed by his readiness to run 
again and again, and tliat in the night time, when he 
supposed that Eli had called him, and by declaring 
ihe whole message which he had received from the 
Lord, to Eli, upon his charge, 1 Sam. iii. 18. 

A worthy pattern this is for such as are under au- 

2. When he came to riper years he became a pro- 
phet and a judge. 

As a prophet he was faithful, 1 Sam. iii. 20. This 
is an especial property of a good prophet, 1 Cor. iv. 2. 

His faithfulness was manifested two ways. 

(1.) In declaring God's mind to the people. 

(2.) In putting up the people's desire unto God, 
which was by prayer, wherein lie was very powerful, 
Jer. XV. 1, Ps. xci.x. 6. 

He took a right course to make his prayer available 
for the people, for, 

(1.) He brought the people together to join with 
him in public prayer. 

(2.) He fitted them to that public duty, by calling 
them to forsake their sins. 

(3.) He caused them deeply to humble themselves, 
and to pour out their .souls before God. In which 
respect they are said to ' draw water, and pour it out 
before the Lord.' 

(4.) He brought them further to sanctify and en- 
large their humiliatiim by fasting, 1 Sam. vii, 3, 4, &c. 

(5.) He proniiseth to pray for the people himself, 
and acknowlcdgcth it a sin to omit that duty, 1 Sam. 
xii. 23. 

(6.) His own prayer was so powerful, as thereby he 
did not only obtain preservation from enemies, but 
also such extraordinary thunder as scattered the 
enemies, 1 Sam. vii. 10. 

The other function, whereby Samuel's life in his 
elder years is set out, respecteth his government, as 
he was a judge. Hereof two things are especially 
recorded : 

1. His sedulity. 2. His integrity. To these two 
heads may all things becoming a good governor be 

Either of the.se without the other makes one's 
government very defective and fault}'. liCt a gover- 
nor take indefatigable pains, yet if he be corrupt, his 
pains may prove the more pernicious. Let him be 
upright; if he be negligent and idle, where is the 
glory of his uprightness ! But if both concur, much 
may be expected from the government of such a 
one ; for much will be performed thereby, as was by 
Samuel, in whom both concurred. 

This testified Lis diligence, that he stayed not at 
his own house for all the people to c<ime thither for 
judgment : but he went from jdace to jilace. He had 
his yearly progress and circuit, not for his own plea- 
sure, but for his people's case and good. The places 
whither he went in his yearly circuit were Bethel, 

and Gilgal, and Mizpeh, 1 Sam. vii. 16, all of them 
in the utmost wiistes of Israel. 

Concerning his incorruptness, he challengeth all 
the people, if any way they could impeach him. But 
they were so far from that, as they bare public wit- 
ness to his integrity. 

Oh that Christian magistrates would set Samuel 
as a pattern before them, in sedulity and integrity ! 

Sec. 222. 0/ Samuel's crosses. 

V. It could not be but that Samuel, living and 
ruling in such evil times as he did, should meet with 
many crosses. Among them two are most observable. 
One in the beginning, the other toward the end of 
his government. 

Samuel began with one of the most lamentable 
tragedies that had befallen that state since they were 
settled in Canaan. Israel was twice smitten before 
their enemies. Once about four thousand men were 
slain, and at another time three thousand, and withal 
the ark of God was taken, and the priests that carried 
it were slain. So dismal was this news, as old Eli, 
who then was judge, and whom Samuel succeeded, 
at the first news thereof fell from ofl'his seat backward, 
and brake his neck. Such an entrance into the 
government could not but be a heavy cross to Samuel, 
who was their governor. 

The other cross, about the end of his government, 
was his rejection : aggravated by the quarrel which 
was picked to colour the same — that it was his sons' 
ill governing, 1 Sam. viii. 5. 

To reject him whom God had chosen and settled 
for a judge over his people, could not be but a heavy 
cross to that good old man, and that two ways : 

1. In regard of himself, who was much disgraced 

2. In regard of the people, who herein manifested 
a tumultuous mind against God, and provoked hiui 
to give them a king in anger, Hosea xiii. 11. 

But that they should laj' the cause thereof on him 
and his sons must needs much m(n-e pierce his soul: 
therefore it is said that ' it displeased him,' 1 S;im. 
viii. (J. 

True it is that his sons were corrupt judges; but 
must the father be rejected thereupon? This was a 
remedy wor.se than the malady. 

Though it be said that ' he made his sons judges 
over Israel;' yet doth not that phrase intend that 
he gave over the whole government to them, much 
less that he justified them in their mal-government. 
The people might have made their complaint to him 
for redress, which if he had refused, or neglected to 
do, they might have had some more colour for what 
they did. 

The advantage which the people took at Samuel's 
sons' ill government, shcweth what pious parents may 
suffer for their impious children. This was before 
manifested in Eli's case. 

Ver. 32.] 



Sec. 223. Of blessings conferred on Samuel. 
VI. The blessings conferred on Samuel were many 
and great : as, 

1. His extraordinary birth. He was a child of 
prayer : and after an especial manner given of 

2. God's Son appearing unto him, even when he 
was a child. 

3. His high advancement to be a prophet and a 

4. God's continual abode with him, and fulfilling 
his prophecy, 1 Sam. iii. 19. 

5. God's hearing his pra3-ers. 

G. God's blessing his government with the conver- 
sion of his people, and confusion of his enemies, 1 
Sam. vii. 3, etc. 

7. God's associating himself with him when he 
was rejected, 1 Sam. viii. 7. 

8. God's sealing up his integrity by a visible sign, 
whereby the people were brought to see their sin, 1 
Sam. xii. 18, 19. 

9. The esteem wherein both king and people had 
him, even after Saul was made king, 1 Sam. xi. 7. 

10. The fulness of days whereto he attained, 1 
Sam. viii. 1, and xxviii. 14. 

11. An honourable funeral, 1 Sam. xxv. 1. 

12. Resting after his death. This I do the rather 
note in opposition to that popish position of Samuel's 
being raised by a woman that had a familiar spirit, 
1 Sam. xxviii. 11, 12, &c. For quietly to rest after 
death is a common privilege of all saints. 

True it is that the bodies of the best may be taken 
out of the grave, and may be hurried up and down : but 
the question here is, concerning the soul, which ani- 
mated the body while it lived, and is severed from it 
by death, whether it do, or can before the resurrec- 
tion enter into that body again, and in that body per- 
form any duty of a living man without a miracle, for 
papists teach that the soul of Samuel appeared unto 
Saul after he was dead.' For this they render these 
reasons : 

1. The Scripture expressly saith, that Saul per- 
ceived that it was Samuel, and that Samuel said to 
Saul, 1 Sam. xxviii. 14, 15. 

Ans. It is usual in Scripture to give the names of 
things to resemblances of them, even to such things 
as are like them. 

Besides, Saul might be deceived, and think that he 
perceived that to be Samuel which was not so. 

2. He that is called Samuel foretold things to 
come, even such things as did answerably fall out, 1 
Sam. xxviii. 19. 

Ans. 1. There was probability of that which he 
that appeared to Saul did foretell, namely, that Israel 
should be delivered into the hands of the Philistines 
the next day, and that Saul and his sons should be 
dead. For the enemies were very strong, well pre- 
' Bellarm. De Christ. Anim., lib. iv. cap. 11. 

pared to battle, and resolved to put it to the trial the 
next day : withal he knew that God had forsaken 
Saul, and supposed that God would leave him in that 
strait, and thereupon conclude that he and his sons 
should be destroyed. 

2. God might use evU spirits to declare some 
things to come, as well as evil men, Deut. xiii. 2. 

3. What did the devil care, if that which he fore- 
told had proved untrue? He is the father of lies, 
and cares not to be found a liar, so as he may work 
any mischief by his lie. 

That it was not the soul of Samuel, appears by 
these arguments : 

1. The souls of those that depart in the Lord are 
so preserved by the Lord, as nor witches, nor sor- 
cerers, nor the devil himself can disquiet them, and 
bring them to their bodies again. 

2. The uniting of body and soul again after they 
are separated by death, is a divine work, and cannot 
be done by a diabolical power. Elijah and Elisha 
were declared to be the prophets of God by a like 
work, 1 Kings xvii. 22, 2 Kings iv. 35, 36, and xiii. 
21. So Christ declared himself to be the Son of 
G«d by like acts. Mat. ix. 25, Luke vii. 15, John 
xi. 44. And Peter hereby shewed himself to be an 
apostle of Christ, Acts ix. 30 ; so did Paul, Acts 
XX. 10. 

3. Had he been Samuel indeed, he would not have 
suffered himself to be worshipped, as Saul worshipped 
that personage which appeared to him. An angel 
would not suffer divine worship to be done unto him. 
Rev. xix. 10 ; nor Peter, Acts x. 25, 26. 

We may therefore well conclude that Samuel him- 
self being dead, quietly rested, and could not be 
molested by the devil upon any one's motion, as is 

Sec. 224. Of Saynuel's beinc/ a type of Christ. 

VII. The last point to be observed about Samuel 
is to shew wherein he was a type of Christ. This 
will appear in the particulars following. 

1. In the ground of his birth, Samuel was'a child of 
prayer and a child of promise, intended in this phrase, 
' God grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of 
him,' 1 Sam. i. 17. This he spake as high priest, by 
the Spirit of God. So'was Christ, Isa. ix. 6, and 
xiv. 7. 

2. In the great favour and especial grace wherein 
he grew up after he was born, 1 Sam. ii. 26. So did 
Christ, Luke ii. 40, 52. 

3. In the rejoicing that was after his birth. A 
solemn form of praise was sprung thereupon, 1 Sam. 
ii. 1. So after Christ's birth, Luke ii. 13, 14. 

4. In the stock out of which he was brought forth, 
which was a barren woman, 1 Sam. i. 15. So Christ 
out of a virgin. Mat. i. 23, 25. 

5. In his worth and excellency, for so were all 
children of prayer and promise of singular worth, 




1 Sam. iii. 19, ic. But Christ herein infinitely sur- 
passed all. 

6. In God's timely manifesting him.self to him, 
even when he was but a child, 1 Sam. iii. 1, &c. So 
in Christ at twelve years old, Luke ii. 42. 

7. In his distinct offices ; for Samuel was a priest, 
I Sam. vii. 10, a prophet, 1 Sam. iii. 20, and a judge, 
1 Sam. vii. 1.5. So was Christ a priest, a prophet, 
and a king. 

8. In his faithfulness, 1 Sam. iii. 20. Christ sur- 
passed all sorts; as in other things, so in faithfulness, 
Heb. iii. 2. 

9. In the end of his raising up, which was to rescue 
God's people from their enemies, 1 Sam. vii. 13, 14. 
This was the end of Christ assuming our nature, 
Luke i. 71. Therefore at the time, when the one and 
the other were raised up, the peojile of God were in 
great .servitude. 

1 0. In that ingratitude of the people against him, 
notwithstanding his diligence in well governing them, 
and the great deliverances wrought by him, he was 
rejected, 1 Sam. viii. 5. So was Christ dealt withal, 
Luke xix. 14, Mat. xxi. 42. 

Sec. 225. Of iliA special evidences of the iwopliets 

The seventh and last particular is more indefinite 
than the former were. They were set down by their 
distinct roomes.^ 

These are many of them implied under this title of 
function, ■s-gopjjrSv, prophets. The word is of the 
plural number, because there were many included 
under it. 

Of this title prophet, of the function comprised 
under it, of the distinct kinds thereof, of their extra- 
ordinary endowments, of the reasons why they were 
raised up, and of sundry other points concerning them, 
see Chap. i. 1, Sec. 12. 

That which I here intend to add about them is 
concerning the .special evidences of their faith ; for 
for that end is mention here made of them. 

The evidences were these : 

1. Faithfulness in their function ; this is manifested 
two ways. 

(1.) They delivered nothing but what they had re- 
ceived; hereujjon many of their prophecies began with 
this style, ' Thus saith the Lord,' ' The word of the 
Lord,' Isa. vii. 7, Zech. iv. G. 

(2.) They concealed nothing they liad received, 
though it were a burden. This therefore was another 
phrase of prophets, ' The burden of the Lord,' MaL 
i. 1. When by reason of the people's unworthiness, 
Jeremiah had a thought of concealing God's word, it 
was in his heart as ' a burning fire shut up,' Jer. xx. 9. 

2. Diligence in their calling. This is set out by 
their rising betimes, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 15 ; and rising 
up early every day, Jer. vii. 25. 

' Qu. ' names' ?— Ed. 

3. Cour.ige ; they would not be daunted with peo- 
ple's oppositicm. Their faces were hardy, strong as 
an adamant, Ezek. iii. 8, 9. 

4. A humble submission, to whatsoever God should 
call them. Isaiah walked barefoot, Isa. xx. 3. Jere- 
miah went with a yoke about his neck, Jer. xxvii. 2, 
and xxviii. 10. Ezekiel ate his bread made of all 
sorts of coarse corn mingled together, and drunk 
water by a stinted measure, which was a very small 
measure, Ezek. iv. 11, 12. 

5. Patient bearing of all manner of persecution. 
Chri.st testifieth thus much of them. Mat. v. 12, and 
Stephen, Acts vii. 52, and an apostle, James v. 10. 

6. Power in prayer. Of Samuel's power we heard 
before. Sec. 221. An apostle giveth testimony of 
Elijah's power herein, James v. 17, 18. The like is 
noted of Isaiah, 2 Chron xxxii. 20, 21, and of Daniel, 
Dan. ii. 18, and ix. 23. 

Sec. 226. Of the analysis of, and observations frovi, 
Heb. xi. 32. 

Ver. 32. And what slmll I moi-e say? for the time 
would fail me to tell of Gedeon, aiul of Barak, and of 
Samson, and of Jepihihae; of Darid also, and Sanuiel, 
and of the prophets. 

The sum of this verse is a succinct catalogue of 
sundry worthies. Herein we may observe, 

1. A transition. 

2. An induction. 

In the transition, observe, 

1. The manner. 

2. The matter. 

The manner is by way of interrogation. 
The matter noteth out, 

1. An extent. 

2. A restraint. 

The extent implieth that there were more worthies 
than he reckoned up. 

The restraint implieth that it was not meet for him 
to reckon up all. 

The induction setteth down sundry particular per- 
sons, and that two ways, 

1. By their distinct names, which are in number 
six ; Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, David, 

2. By their function, prophets. 


I. Faith is the grace that much commends men. All 
here set down are commended by their faith, as the 
inference of this catalogue upon the former shcweth. 

II. Gud had more vvrlhies than are requisite to be 
made htown. This interrogation. What should I more 
satjl intendeth as much. See Sec. 192. 

III. Great is the multitude of believers. Time would 
fail to reckon them uii all. See Sec. 192. 

IV. Tediousncss is to be avoided. This is the rea- 
son why the apostle forbeareth to go on as largely as 
ho had done before. See Sec. 192. 

Ver. 83.] 



V. Grace, malceth honourable. All these that for 
honour's sake are put into this catalogue were endued 
with grace. 

VI. God enahhth men to accomplish 7i'hat he 
calleth thsm unto. All these here mentioned were 
called unto great achievements, and answerably en- 

VII. A mean vuxn may be enabled to great matters. 
So was Gideon. See Sec. 195, &c. 

VIII. Such as are loeah in faith may become strong. 
So did Barak. See Sec. 198. 

IX. God can give strength to admiration. Instance 

X. Grace lost may be recovered. So it was in Sam- 

XI. 3fe7i of eminent parts are subject to gross sins. 
So was Samson and other of the worthies here men- 
tioned. Of these three last doctrines, see Sec. 199, 

XII. Bastardy is no bar to regeneration. Jeph- 
thah was base born, yet new born. See Sec. 207. 

XIII. Rash vows are dangerous. Witness Jeph- 
thah's vow. See Sec. 208. 

XIV. Best saints are subject to sorest trials. Wit- 
ness David. See Sec. 212. 

XV. God punishes sin in liis dearest\children. So 
he did in David, and in Samson before him. See 
Sec. 213. 

XVI. God can make a child to be a pro2}het. So 
he made Samuel. See Sec. 220. 

XVII. The most faithful governor may be rejected. 
So was Samuel. See Sec. 222. 

XVIII. God, of old, had extraordinary ministers 
of hi^s word. See Sec. 225. 

XIX. Faith exerciseth itself hi men of extraordi- 
nary parts. Such were the prophets, and such were 
all the extraordinary persons who are commended. 
See Sec. 225. 

Sec. 227. Of subduing Hngdoms through faith. 

Ver. 33. Who through faith subdued kingdoms, 
VTOught righteousness, obtained jjromises, stopped the 
vwuths of lions. 

The faith of the forementioned worthies is in this, 
and the verses following, commended by sundry rare 
effects, which may be brought to two heads : 

1. Great things done, ver. 33, 3i. 

2. Sore things endured, ver. 35-37. 

This relative, c", wlio, hath reference to the wor- 
thies mentioned in the former verse, of whom some 
did some of the things here mentioned ; others did 
others, as we shall shew upon the particular acts. 

This phrase, ha, m'srsai;, through fiith, is set down 
in the beginning, to shew that faith extended itself 
to all those kinds of works done, and sufferings en- 
dured ; and it sheweth, that by faith matters above 
human power may be done. So were many of the 
following instances. 

Faith eyeth God, and resteth on him, yea, and 
draweth virtue from him, to do or endure whatsoever 
shall seem good to him. 

The first of the great things here mentioned to be 
done is thus expressed, subdued kinrjdoms. 

The Greek word, Karriyontsa^To, which we translate 
subdued, is a compound. The root whence it cometh, 
dyiiv, certameii, is a noun that signifieth strife, ox fight; 
and the simple verb thence derived, ay(,i1^(,!j,ai, signi- 
fieth to strive or to fight, 1 Tim. vi. 12. ""This com- 
pound, Karayoti^onai, implieth, by .striving or fight- 
ing, to subdue and destroy. 

As our English word kingdom hath his notation 
from a king, so the Greek word fiasiXiia, used by tlie 
apostle ; and by kingdoms he meaneth whole nations, 
consisting of many towns, cities, and people in them ; 
and those several nations under the government of 
several kings. 

This in.stance of subduing kingdoms being brought 
in as an effect of faith, giveth proof to the lawfulness 
of war ; for war is the ordinary means of subduing 
kingdoms. Hereof see more. Chap. vii. 1, Sec. 9. 

Yea, further, this giveth proof that by war nations 
may be subdued; and that either by bringing the 
inhabitants thereof under subjection, or by destroying 
of them. 

This effect hath in special reference to David. All 
the forementioned judges, as Gideon, Barak, Samson, 
Jephthah, and Samuel, subdued such kingdoms as in 
their time tyrannised over the people of God ; but 
none of them brought under and destroyed so many 
as David did. 

To subdue and destroy so many as David did, may 
imply a bloody and cruel disposition ; but such a dis- 
position may not be imagined to be in him who was 
so guided by faith as David was, and who was endued 
with such excellent graces as hath been observed to 
be in David, Sees. 214, 213. 

They who take a warrant from Joshua and the 
judges that succeeded him, or from David and the 
kings that succeeded him, must be sure of a good 
ground ; that it may be said of them, through faith 
they waged war, and subdued kingdoms. Thus may 
they with courage attempt such matters ; and upon 
their good success rejoice and give the praise to God. 

Of the just grounds of war, sec The Church's Con- 
quest, on Exod. wni. 9, Sees. 18, 19. 

Sec. 228. Of tvorking righteousness. 

A second effect of faith is thus set down, ivrought 
righteousness. The verb, iisydsatTo, translated ivrought, 
cometh from a noun, 'ioyov, that signifieth work, and 
the verb, hyd^oiMai, to tvork. Mat. xxvi. 10. It being 
applied to faith, as an effect thereof, plainly demon- 
strateth that faith is operative, James ii. 22, Gal. v. 
6, 1 Thes. i. 3. 

There is such a life, vigour, and spirit in it, as 
will not, as cannot, be wholly smothered. The spirit 



[Chap. XI. 

of faith forceth the believer to speak, 2 Cor. iv. 13 ; 
so also to walk, and to do. So long as a man hath 
life and spirit in him, there will be motion — at least 
there will be breatliing. 

By working, we may give evidence of the truth of 
faith in us. 

See more hereof in The Saint's Sacrifice, on Ps. 
cxvi. 9, Sec. 59. 

The proper work of faith is here said to be iixaio- 
ffun)«, rii/hieousness. 

Of righteousness, what it is, and of the distinct 
parts tliereof, see Chap. i. 9, Sec. IH. 

Of the excellency of righteousness, see Ver. 7, Sec. 

This effect of faith hath reference to all the fore- 
mentioned worthies ; for all of them wrought right- 
eousness, both in the good which they did for God's 
people, and also in the righteous vengeance which they 
executed on their enemies. So did Gideon, Barak, 
Samson, Jephthah, David, and Samuel. 

Of David, it is expressly said that ' he executed 
judgment and justice unto all his people,' 2 Sara. viii. 

Of righteousness in governors, which is here espe- 
cially meant, see Chap. vii. 2, Sec. 20. 

Sec. 229. Of receivinr/ promises. 

The third effect of the faith of the foresaid worthies 
was this, the// obtained promises. 

Of the Greek word, iwiruyjiv, translated obtained, 
see Chap. vi. 15, Sec. 109. 

Of the other word, I'jrayyiy.iw, translated promises, 
see Chap. iv. 1, Sec. 6. 

To obtain promises, implieth three things — 

1. To be accounted in the number of those to 
whom the promises belong, Acts ii. 39. In this re- 
spect, such are called 'heirs of the promise,' Heb.vi. 17. 

2. To believe those promises, and thereby to apply 
them as matters which concern ourselves in particu- 
lar. Thus, to believe and to receive are put for one 
and the same thing, John i. 12. 

3. To enjoy the things promised. Thus, promises 
are taken nietonymically; the efficient put for the 
effect, as Heb. vi. 12, and x. 36. 

All these may well stand together ; neither of 
them cross the other, but do very fitly de{)end one 
upon another, as so many links upon one and the 
same chain : for the gospel, assuring those that live 
under it and attend unto it that the promises belong to 
them and their children, they thereupon believe them, 
as Acts ii. 39, 41 ; and through this faith they come, 
in time, to enjoy the things promised, as the saints 
of old did, Heb. vi. 12. 

The last of the foresaid respects, which is to enjoy 
the things ])romised, is here csiieciully meant ; and 
that is most agreeable to the word of obtaining, or 
enjoying (£-£ni;^o»'), here u.sed by the .apostle. 
' Adepti sunt, Vulg. Lat. ; assccuti sunt, Beza. 

Ohj. It is said of the ancieut patriarchs, that they 
' received not the promises,' ver. 1 3 ; yea, as much is 
said of all that lived before Christ, ver. 39. 

Ans. 1. There are three distinct Greek words in this 
and the two other verses, out of which the objection 
is raised,- — '/.a^^vn;, ver. 13, irriruy^ot, ver. 33, ixo/ii- 
oavro, ver. 39 ; — yet I cannot deny but that those 
three words do oft signify one and the same thing. 

2. We must distinguish betwixt times. The 
worthies mentioned ver. 17, lived long before those 
that are intended in this text. In the former place 
he speaketh of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, and 
such as lived before Israel's entrance into Canaan ; 
but here of the judges, kings, and prophets, that 
pos.sessed that land. Thus tlie former received not 
the promises of driving out the Canaanites, inhabiting 
their land, and being a populous and settled polity. 
These did enjoy those promises. 

3. Observe the difference of promises. Some were 
of special matters belonging to themselves, as a pro- 
mise was made to Joshua of subduing the nations, 
Josh. i. 5. Promises to several judges of victory over 
those enemies, which in their days oppressed the 
people, Judges iv. 7, and vi. 14. To David a king- 
dom was promised, 1 Sam. xvi. 13. These they ob- 
tained. Other promises were of the mystical truth 
and spiritual substance of the external and typical 
promises. That truth and substance was Christ him- 
self actually exhibited, and all things which he did 
and endured for man's redemption and Sidvation. 
None that lived within the time that the apostle 
here speaketh of received these promises, as ver. 39. 

4. Put difference, inter speiti et rem, betwixt an 
assured expectation and a present fruition : and be- 
twixt that evidence which faith givetli, ver. 1, and 
that which is by sense. In the former respect, 
namely, in an a.ssured expectation, all the faithful 
embraced and received all the promises made to them, 
even before they were accomjilished. Abraham saw 
Christ's day, John viii. 56. Thus David saw Christ 
crucified (Ps. xxii. 1, &c.), raised (Ps. xvi. 10), 
ascended (Ps. Ixviii. 18), set at God's right hand 
(Ps. cxLx. 1). In the latter respect none received the 
promises, but they that lived when they were actually 
exhibited. Acts xiii. 32, 33. 

5. Distingiush betwixt Christ himself, and the 
things which he did and- endured on the one side ; 
and the benefits which flow from thence on the other 
side, which are remission of sins, and eternal salva- 
tion. Though they enjoyed not the former, yet they 
did these latter, Heb. vi. 12, Acts xv. 11. 

This that is here noted as a fruit of their faith, 
that they obtained the promises, clearly demon.strat- 
eth, that divine promises are the ground of faith, as 
hath been proved. Chap. vi. 13, Sec. 96. 

This also doth further demonstrate, that by faith 
things promised are obtained. By faith Abraham 
obtained the promised son. 

Ver. 34. 



By faith Moses carried tlie Israelites out of Egypt. 
By faitk JosLiua vanquished the nations, and divided 
their huid amongst the Israelites. The like might be 
exemplified in all other accomplishments of God's 
promises. Hereupon it is said, ' Believe in the Lord 
your God, so shall you be established,' 2 Chron. xx. 
20. On this ground, said old Elizabeth to tlie Virgin 
Mary, ' Blessed is she that believed ; for there shall 
be a performance of those things which were told her 
from the Lord,' Luke i. 45. 

Faith is that means which God hath sanctified to 
this end. Hereof see more in The Church's Conquest, 
on Exod. xvii. 27, Sec. 43. 

Sec. 230. Of stopping the mouths of lions. 

A fourth effect of the faith of the foresaid worthies 
is thus expressed, stopped the mouths of lions. 

The word, 'ipoa^at d, psarrw, ohturo, translated 
stojyped, signifieth the hindering of the force and 
violence of a thing. It is thrice only used in the 
New Testament. 

1. It is used in reference to a man's mouth, so as 
he cannot utter anything against this or that point, 
nor reason against the same, in this phrase, ' that 
every mouth may be stopped,' liom. iii. 19. 

2. In reference to a man's credit, thus, ' no man 
shall stop me of this boasting,' 2 Cor. xi. 10. 

3. In reference to the fierceness of lions ; so here. 
Thus it may be taken literally, and have reference to 
those lions among whom Daniel was cast ; their 
mouths were so shut as they could not hurt Daniel, 
Dan. vi. 22. It may be metonymically extended to 
every way of hindering lions from doing any hurt : 
as to Samson, who tore a lion, and so kept him from 
doing hurt to himself, or to any that were in his 
company, Judges xiv. 6 ; and to David, who slew a 
lion and a bear, that entered upon his father's Hock, 
1 Sam. xvii. 34, ifec. ; and to Benaiah, who also slew 
a lion, 2 Sam. xxiii. 20. 

Lions are of all living creatures the most fierce, 
cruel, and irresistible, Prov. xxx. 30. Their very 
roaring is terrible, Amos iii. 8. They live upon other 
living creatures, sparing none, no, not men, Ezek. 
xix. 3, Dan. vi. 24. Their walking is to devour, 1 
Pet. V. 8. They devour with their mouths : therefore 
by stopping their mouths, they are kept from devour- 
ing, Dan. vi. 22. 

Obj. They can with their claws tear their prey aU 
to pieces. 

Ans. Synecdochically their most dangerous part is 
put for all other parts wherewith they do mischief. 
Therefore to stop their mouths extendeth to a restrain- 
ing of them from doing hurt, yea, and to killing of 
them, as in some of the cases before propounded. 

Hereunto may be applied this promise, ' Thou shalt 
tread upon the lion and adder : the young lion and 
the dragon shalt thou trample under feet,' Ps. xci. 13. 
Metaphorically also, it may be applied to such men 

Vol. III. 

as for cruelty and strength are as lions. Thus it is 
said, that Benaiah ' slew two lion-like men,' 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 2. David thus expoundeth this metaplior, ' My 
soul is among lions, even the sons of men,' >fcc., Ps. 
Ivii. 4. Paul was delivered from such a lion, 2 Tim. 
iv. 17. Prayer is made against such, Ps. xxii. 21, 
XXXV. 17, and Iviii. 6. 

Yea, the metaphor may be extended to the devil, 
who by faith is vanquished, 1 Pet. v. 8, 9. 

This must needs be a fruit of faith, for man by hk 
strength is not able to stop the mouths of lions. 
Daniel was but one, yet he believing, the mouths of 
many Uons were stopt : but his adversaries and ac- 
cusers were many; when they and theirs were cast 
into the den of lions, the lions quickly had the mas- 
tery of them, Dan. vi. 22, 24. 

'Thus it appeareth, that that may be done by faith, 
which otherwise cannot be done. 

Sec. 231. Of quenching the violence of fire. 

Ver. 34. Quenched tlie violence of fire, escaped the 
edge of the sword, out of ive<ikness tvere made strong, 
tvaj:ed valiant in fghi, turned to fight the armies of 
the aliens. 

This verse dependeth on the former, as going on 
with an enumeration of other effects of the faith of 
the forenamed worthies ; so as a fit effect is thus ex- 
pressed, quenclied the violence of fire. 

The word, Eff/Sssa* cb ff.Ssnu.a/, extinguo, translated 
quetiched, is applied to the wasting of lamps and their 
going out. Mat. xxii. 8, and to the flax that taketh 
fire. Mat. xii. 20, and to fiery darts, Eph. vi. IG, 
yea, and to the fire of hell ; but negatively, because 
it can never be quenched, Mark ix. 44. Metaphori- 
cally it is applied to the Spirit, and to the fervour 
thereof, which we ought in no wise to quench, 1 Thess. 
V. 19. 

Here it is properly taken in that it is applied to 
fire ; for fire is properly said to be quenched, and thea 
especially when so much water is poured upon it as 
taketh away all the heat thereof; for water is a con- 
trary element, so as when fire and water meet, the 
stronger overcometh. 

It may also be extended to any manner of way or 
means of putting out fire, and taking away the heat 

Fire is of all senseless creatures the most terrible, 
dangerous, and pernicious. We say in our proverb, 
fire and water are merciless ; whole cities have been 
destroyed therewith. Josh. viii. 28, Judges xx. 47; 
yea, many cities together, Gen. xix. 24, 25. The 
whole world shall be destroyed with fire, 2 Pet. iii. 
10, 12. 

^Metaphorically God's wrath is so styled fire, 2 Sam. 
xxii. 9 ; yea, God himself, when he is incensed, is so 
styled (Dent. iv. 24), and divine vengeance (Heb. x. 
27), and hell torment. Mat. xxv. 41. 

The word, 5Jia,tti», translated violence, properly 



[Chap. XI. 

sigiiifieth force, or pou'cr. Fitly it is attributed to 
fire ; because fire overcometh cverjtliing, and nothing 
can withstand it. But then, especially, fire gctteth 
force, strength, and violence when much fuel is put 
to it, and when it is kept in, as in an oven, furnace, 
or any other like place. By keeping it in, the force 
and violence of it is much increased, as Dan. iii. 
19, 22. 

This violence of fire is, in general, said to be 
quenched, when it is kept from burning, and that is 
not only by pouring water upon it, but also when fuel 
is drawn from it, Prov. xxvi. 20. 

This eflect of faith hath an especial respect to the 
three companions of Daniel, who being cast into the 
midst of a burning, fiery furnace, were no whit at all 
hurt thereby, 1 Dan. iii. 21, 25. 

To them the fire was as quenched ; yea, this may 
be applied to the burning of martyrs, who (though 
they were consumed to ashes), by reason of their 
patient enduring thereof, may be said to Cjuench the 
violence of that fire. Many of them sang in the 
midst of the flames of fire, whereby it appears that 
they were not so terrified thereby as to deny that 
truth for which they suft'ered. 

This also is an evidence of a true and great faith. 
As the former instance, of stoi)ping the mouths of 
lions, gave proof of the power of faith over the 
fiercest and strongest of unreasonable creatures, so 
this instance giveth proof of the power thereof over 
the fiercest and strongest of senseless creatures. 

That which is said of fire may also be ajiplied to 
■water, another merciless creature, Jonah ii. 10, 2 Cor. 
xi. 25, Isa. xliii. 2. 

Sec. 232. Of escaping the edge of the sword. 

The sixth effect of the faith of the forenamed 
worthies is this, they escaped tJie edge of the 

A sword is a sharp, piercing, mortal instrument. 
Many have in all ages been destroyed thereby. 

The Greek word, fj.u.yu.i^a, is derived from a verb, 
(j,a.yfjii/,ai, that signifieth to Jig/it, or strive, James iv. 2, 
Acts vii. 2. Hence a noun, iJ'O.yji, which signifieth a 
fight, or strife, James iv. 1. A sword is used cither 
for defence, Luke xxii. 38, or offence. Mat. xxvi. 51. 
Magistrates use the sword against malefactors, Rom. 
xiii. 4. Others, against sucli as they are displeased 
■withal. Gen. xxxiv. 25. All have ever used it against 
their enemies, Exod. xvii. 13. 

The word, ffnj/iara, translated edge, properly signi- 
fieth mouth. 

In all the learned languages the edge of a sword 

is called the moutli of a sword ;' for as a mouth de- 

voureth that which entercth into it, so a fsword by 

he sharp edge of it destroyoth that which is smitten 

y it, and is said to devour, 2 Sam. ii. 2G, and 

. 25. 

' ^'in ^3 1 (TTOyuo /iaxa'paj; OS ffladii. 

In the Greek the plural number is used, thus, 
moutlis, or edges, either to shew a sword of two edges, 
which is the sharpest. Chap. iv. 12, Sec. 71, or many 
swords ; for faith makes men escape both the greatest 
dangers, and also many dangers. 

In Hebrew one and the same word signifieth a 
sword, and destruction. Sword is^liere synecdochically 
put for javelin, spear, stone, or any other mortal 

To escape the edge of the sword is to avoid that 
danger, which by a drawn sword, or other mortal 
instrument, is intended against one ; as if a naked 
sword were by an enemy held at one's breast, and yet 
he escape safe. Thus David escaped Saul's spear, 
which in regard of danger was as a naked sword, 

1 Sam. xviii. 11, and xix. 10; yea, though Saul 
commanded his servants to kill David (1 Sam. xix. 
1, 11), and pursued him himself (1 Sam. xix. 22), 
and that with an army (1 Sam. xxiii. 8), yet David 
escaped. So Elijah escaped the edge of Ahab's and 
Ahaziah's sword, 1 Kings xviiL 10, and xix. 2, 

2 Kings i. 9 ; so Micaiah, 1 Kings xxLL 28, and 
Elislia, 2 Kings vi. 14, 31. 

This instance sheweth that by faith desperate 
dangers may be escaped. I say desperate, not in 
regard of God and his power, as if there were no hope 
of help in him, but in regard of man ; the danger 
being above his strength to stand against it, and 
above his ability to overcome it, or to free himself 
from it. That which to sense is desperate, -without, 
beyond, above hope, to faith in God, is sperable, 
under hope, and recoverable. David was oft in 
danger of death, Ps. xviii. 4, 5, cxvi. 2 ; so Hezekiah, 
Isa. xxxviii. 10, 11, &c., and Paul, 2 Cor. iv. 8-10, 
and xi. 23, 24 ; yet -were they all delivered from 
those deadly dangers. 

Faith makes a man depend on him who is able to 
deliver him in the greatest straits. A heathenish 
king could say to Daniel, ' Thy God whom thou 
servest continually, he will deliver thee ;' and again, 
' Is thy God able to deliver thee from the lions V 
Dan. vi. IC, 20. But much more to the purpose is 
this of an apostle, ' We had the sentence of death in 
ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but 
God which raiseth the dead,' &c., 2 Cor. i. 9, 10. 

Quest. May saints in confidence expect every de- 
liverance that God can give ? 

Ahs. Not simply, but with submission unto liis 
will, as they who said, ' Our God whom we serve 
is able to deliver us ; and he will dehver us : but 
if not, -we will not serve thy gods,' ikc, Dan. iii. 
17, 18. See more hereof in The Sainfs Sacrifice, on 
Ps. cxvi. 8, Sec. 52. 

This is a great consolation and encouragement in 
the greatest straits and distresses whereunto in this 
world we are, or may be brought. None are or can 
be so great as to give just occasion of despair ; be- 
cause none do, or can exceed God's ability to help. 

Vee. 34.] 



On this ground tlie believer is confident, wlien that 
man that walketh only by sense utterly despaireth. 

Sec. 2.33. 0/ saints being weah 

A seventh effect of faith is thus set down, out of 
weakness were made strong. 

These words, were made strong, are the interpreta- 
tion of one Greek compound verb, insdmaij-uOtjaav. 
It is used both actively and passively. 

The simple verb, b\imij,ai, whence it is compounded, 
signifieth to he able. 

This compound, to inahe able, or to mahe strong. 
It is applied to God, 1 Tim. i. 12, 2 Tim. iv. 17. 

In the passive it is attributed to Abraham, Eoni. 
iv. 12 ; to Paul, Acts ix. 22 ; to Timothy, 2 Tim. 
ii. 1 ; and to all Christians, Eph. vi. 10. 

Here it is passively taken, and may be applied to 
sundry of God's worthies, who were brought to great 
weakness, but yet recovered, and made strong. 

Of the Greek word translated weakness, see Chajj. 
iv. IG, Sec. 89. 

To aggravate the weakness whereunto they were 
brought, the abstract is used. He doth not say, of 
weak (which is the concrete), but out of weakness 
(which is the abstract), were made strong. 

This carrieth emphasis, and implieth such an ex- 
tremity of weakness, as there was little or no hojie 
of recovery from the same. 

Tbis fruit of faith, in being made strong out of 
weakness, differeth from other fruits before men- 
tioned in this, that it setteth out the vigour of faith 
in a man's weakness. 

The former instances shewed the vigour of fiiith 
against other strong and violent things, as kingdoms, 
lions, fire, and sword, which presupposed strength in 
those that believed. But here is weakness, weakness 
in themselves, and out of that made strong. 

This may fitly be applied to the bodily weakness 
of Hezekiah, he was ' sick unto death.' And there- 
upon he received this message from the Lord, ' Thou 
shalt die, and not live,' 2 Kings xx. 1. It appears 
that he was sick of the plague or pestilence, for he 
had a boil, or plague-sore, which arose on his body, 
and was afterwards healed by a lump of figs. The 
venom of that sickness had seized on his vital parts ; 
and it is probable that the tokens apj)eared upon his 
body, which are counted apparent signs of death. In 
this respect it was truly said, according to the course 
of nature, ' Thou shalt die, and not live.' 

Thus was Hezekiah, very ' weakness ;' so weak as 
there was no hope of gathering strength. Yet out 
of this weakness was he made strong — that is, he 
recovered his health and strength again. This re- 
covery was extraordinary ; yet was it obtained by 
faith, as is evident by the faithful prayer which he 
made, 2 Kings xx. 3, and which was graciously heard, 
whereupon we may conclude that it was in faith, for 
' the prayer of faith shall save the sick,' James v. 15. 

ObJ. In his prayer he jjleads his walking with 
God, which implieth works. 

Ans. 1. He pleaded not the merit of liis works, 
but his sincerity in doing what he did, as an evidence 
of God's Spirit in him, and of his respect to God. 

2. He doth not plead his walking before God as a 
thing done by him, but as a condition prescribed by 
God, whereby it might be known to whom God's 
promise did belong ; for God had said that David 
' should not want one of his seed to sit on the throne 
of Israel, if they did take heed to their way, to walk 
before God in truth,' 1 Kings ii. 4. But Hezekiah, 
being conscious to his own integrity, and having at 
that time no son to succeed him on the throne, in his 
prayer calls God's promise to mind, and pleads that 
to God The word i-eimmber, in Hezekiah's prayer, 
sheweth that he had reference to God's promise, as 
Moses had in his prayer, Exod. xxxii. 13. 

This sheweth that by faith incurable diseases may 
be cured. 

Quest. May recovery of health and longer life, 
when one is sick, be prayed for '] 

A ns. Yes, with submission to God's wUl, and that 
on these grounds : 

1. They are comprised in the fourth petition. 

2. Christians are enjoined so to do, James v. 14, 15. 

3. Such things are promised as a blessing, Exod. 
xxiii. 25, Ps. xli. 3. 

4. Saints have prayed for those blessings, 2 Sam. 
xii. IG. 

5. God hath accepted and granted such prayers, 
Phil. ii. 27. 

6. Saints' recovery and continuance on earth is a 
blessing to the church, Phil. L 24. 

Though the weakness here intended may be ap- 
plied to bodily sickness, yet is it not to be restrained 
thereunto ; for the word zceahuss is such an indefinite 
word as may be appKed to all manner of weakness, 
whether of body or soul. Under weakness of soul 
are comprised all manner of troubled passions, as 
anger, grief, fear, with the hke ; so also Satan's mani- 
fold temptations, and sundry effects following there- 
upon, as trouble and anguish of mind, doubting, de- 
spairing, and other the hke. 

Under weakness of body are comprised external 
maladies, as blmdness, lameness, sores, boils, and 
such like. Job and Lazarus were much afthcted with 
such, Job ii. 7, Luke xvi. 20. 

Inward, are all manner of distempered humours 
and diseases within the body, as fevers, Mark i. 30, 
and other sicknesses. 

There are also weaknesses partly within and partly 
without a man's body, as hunger, thirst, wearisome- 
ness, and such like. 

The primary ground of all these was man's defec- 
tion from God. 

This subjection, even of saints, to manifold weak- 
nesses, admunisheth all of aU sorts to take heed of 



[Chap. XI. 

two dangerous extremes, ■which are security and 
insolency. These do commimly arise from health, 
strength, peace, and all manner of prosperity. David, 
in hi.s prosperity, said, ' I shall never be moved,' P;;. 
XXX. 6. We ought to be the more watchful against 
these, in that not only wicked worldlings, but also 
the best saints are subject thereunto. 

The former, which is security, niaketh men little to 
regard God, as they who say unto God, ' Depart from 
us ; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways,' 
Job xxi. 14. 

The latter, which is insolency, maketh God little 
regard them, for ' though the Lord be high, yet hath 
he respect unto the lowly ; but the proud he knoweth 
afar off,' Ps. cxxxviii. 6. 

Sec. 234. Of mahiiig strong such as are weak. 

The main end of the apostle's mentioning such as 
are weak, is to amplify the power of faith, in that 
they are imuU strun;/. 

By faith weak children have been made strong ; 
witness Josiah, 2 Kings xxii. 1, 2; and Samuel, 1 
Sam. iii. 1, 2; David, 1 Sam. xvii. 42; and others. 
So weak women were made strong, as Deborah and 
Jacl, Judges iv. 9, 21. And men, after they have 
been weakened, as Samson, Judges xvi. 22 ; Job, chap, 
xlii. 10; David, Ps. Ivi. 13; and Peter, John xxi. 15. 

The apostle expressly saith that ' God is able to 
make him' that is weak 'stand,' Rom. xiv. 4. 

Yea, God himself saith that his ' strength is made 
perfect in weakness,' 2 Cor. xii. 9. 

1. This is sufficient to keep such as are weak from 
despair. God is as near to all his in their greatest 
dangers, and in their greatest weakness, as Jesus was 
to Peter when he began to sink, and was in danger 
of drowning, Mat. xiv. 31. 

2. This dirL-cteth such as feel their weakness, and 
find themselves ready to faint, to look up unto God, 
and say, ' We know not what to do, but our eyes are 
upon thee,' 2 Cor. xx. 12. 

3. This should keep us from despising sucli as are 
weak, because the Lord is able to establish them, and 
to make them strong, llom. xiv. 4. 

4. Christ teacheth such as are out of weakness 
made strong to do what they can to strengthen their 
brethren, Luke xxii. 32. 

The apostle thus layeth down the end of God's 
strengthening and comforting such as have been weak, 
* God coniforteth us in all our tribulations, th.at we 
may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble,' 
2 Cor. i. 4. See more hereof in J'he Saint's Sacrifice, 
on Ps. cxvi. 8, Sec. 56. 

Sec. 235. Of waxing valiant infi/ht. 

The eighth effect of the vigour of faith is thus ex- 
I)re.':scd, wiured valiant in fight. 

The word, iywfir,(sai, translated waxed, is for the 
most part used as the verb substantive, to set out 

the being of a tiling, as if it were thus translated, 
wei-e valiant. 

The word, iayyso), translated valiant, is spoken of 
such things as are irresistible, and cannot be stood 
against. Of the derivation and emphasis of the word, 
see Chap. v. 7, Sec. 37. 

It is applied not only to bodily substances, but 
also to spiritual, as to angels, Ilev. v. 2, to Christ, the 
angel of the covenant, Kcv. x. 1, and to God himself, 
Kev. xviii. 8. Our translators, therefore, have well 
and fitly turned it valiant, which word hath especial 
relation to the mind and courage of man ; for a man 
little in stature, and not very strong-limbed, m.iy be 
of gre;it valour ; and on the other side, a tall and 
strong-limbed man may be a very coward. 

It is probable that David w;is but a little man, 
1 Sam. xvii. 33, yet of mighty valour ; so as he set 
upon a bear, a lion, a giant, and vanquished them, 
1 Sam. xvii. 36, 50. 

The apostle addeth this clause, h crc/.j.ttu, in fight, 
as a further proof of their valour. The word trans- 
lated fight, is derived from a verb that signifieth to 
turn, overturn, or destroy. It is ordinarily trans- 
lated war. 

By it more than by anything else, men, cities, nations 
have been overthrown. 

Others will have this word derived from a verb, 
oXXu.tt/, that signifieth to destroi/. 

Others will have it comjjounded of two words that 
signify much blood, rrok-o a'iij.a, ac si esset To/.ia/.aor. 

Whatsoever the original of the word be, experience 
sheweth that it importeth destruction. As it is taken 
indefinitely for war, so more especially for a battle or 
for fight, as our English have here translated it. Not 
for a mononiachy or duel, which is a single combat 
betwixt two on a private quarrel : that rather argueth 
choler than courage; vainglory, rather than valour; 
a fruit of natural aud corrupt flesh, than of true faith. 
But it importeth a pitched battle in field, a fight 
against jiublic enemies. Such a fight will prove the 
valour of a man. Many seem very valorous till they 
come into the field to the fight, who, when they see 
armies of men and horses well prepared against them 
with glittering swords and long spears, when they 
hear the sound of trumpet and drums and the thunder- 
ing of guns aud cannons, when they observe bullets 
fiying about their ears, and multitudes of men slain 
on this hand and on that, then tiieir s[iirits faint aud 
fail in them. Therefore in war ai\d in fight not to 
be daunted, but to retain spirit and courage, import- 
eth great valour. Such valour is here noted to be the 
fruit of faith, 'through faith they waxed valiant in 

Here then we have an exemplification of faith's 
vigour, in this phrase, wa.red valiant, aud an amplifi- 
cation thereof, in this word, fight. 

Tlie e.xempUfication giveth proof that true valour 
is praiseworthy. The application hereof to faith 

Ver. 34.] 



giveth further proof that faith makes valorous in 
greatest danger, even in fight. 

Sec. 236. Of valour. 

That true valour is praiseworthy is herein evident, 
that it is set down among those things for which ' the 
elders obtained a good report,' ver. 2. 

1. Valour is a grace which God expressly requires, 
Josh. i. 7. 

2. It is promised as a blessing, Lev. xxvL 8. 

3. A reward is promised to it, Deut. xxxi. 23. 

4. It is commended in those that had it, 1 Chron. 
xi. 10, ifcc, and xii. 1, 8, <fec. 

5. A recompense hath been given to it, Josh. xiv. 14. 
These particulars demonstrate God's approbation of 


6. Saints have prayed for it. Acts iv. 29. 

7. They have incited one another thereto, 2 Chron. 
xxxii. 7. 

8. Praises have been sung in commendation of it, 
1 Sam. xviii. 7. 

9. Thanks hath been given to God for it, Ps. 
cxliv. 1. 

True valour is an evidence of more than a human 
spirit, even of a divine one. When Samson did any 
valorous act, it is said that the Spirt of God came 
upon him. Judges xiv. 6, 19, and sv. 14. When that 
Spirit went from him be became weak as other men, 
Judges xvi. 17. 

Obj. 1. This was an extraordinary example. 

A ns. Yet it giveth evidence also of ordinary courage, 
for the same Spirit worketh ordinary and extra- 
ordinary valour. It is said of Caleb, whose courage 
was but ordinary, that he had another spirit. Num. 
xiv. 24, another than the other timorous and faint- 
hearted spies that discouraged the peopla 

Obj. 2. Sundry heathen men were men of great 
valour, as Hector, Achilles, Alexander, Scipio, Pom- 
pey, Cssar, and others. 

Ans. 1. That valour which they had was rather 
vainglory than true valour. 

2. What was good in it was by the Spirit ; for the 
Spirit worketh on the unregenerate as well as on the 
regenerate, though not in the same manner. The Spirit 
of God came upon Balaam, Num. xxiv. 2, and upon 
Saul, 1 Sam. x. 10. In this respect Cjtus is styled 
' God's anointed,' Isa. xiv. 1, that is, deputed and en- 
abled' of God to destroy the Babylonians, and to re- 
store Israel. 

True valour aimeth at God's glory and his church's 
good. It produceth many worthy effects. It daunt- 
eth the impudency of the wicked. It maintaineth 
good causes. It freeth the oppressed. It preveuteth 
man}' mischiefs. 

Heathen philosophers could say that true fortitude 
is always accompanied with justice and truth. Chris- 
tians may further add, that it is joined ■n'ith piety and 

What an incitation is this for every one to labour 
for this grace ! 

This is one of the things whereon the apostle would 
have us think, Phil. iv. S. 

In special and peculiar this is to be heeded of cap- 
tains and soldiers, whose calling is to go to war ; for 
here it is said, ' they waxed valiant in fi^ht ; ' see Ttve 
Dignity of Chivalry, on 2 Chrun. ii. 9, Sec. 10. 

It may also be aj)plied to all sorts of governors, 
who, by reason of men's rebellious disposition against 
good and wholesome laws, have great need of valour 
and courage ; therefore it is one of the characters of 
a good magistrate, Exod. xviii. 21. Ministers also, 
in regard of men's adverse disposition against God's 
laws, have great need hereof, Jer. i. 17, Ezek. ii. 6, 
1 Tim. V. 20, Tit. i. 9, 10. 

Yea, all Christians, in regard of the many stout 
enemies which continually fight against them, have 
great need hereof, see The Whole Armour of Go I, en 
Eph. vi. 10, Sec. 4, and on Eph. vi. 14, Sec. 3. 

Sec. 237. Of faith's making valorous. 

The means of attaining to the foresaid valour is 
implied, by this phrase, through faith, in the begin- 
ning of ver. 33, for all the particulars following after 
have reference thereunto. Faith makes so valorous 
as no fight, no pitched battle, can daunt him. If not 
fight, what other danger can do it ? 'I will not be 
afraid for ten thousands of people,' saith a believer, 
Ps. iii. 6. Many like passages hath that man of 
faith in his psalms. The like might be exemplified 
in Caleb and Joshua, Num. xiv. 9, in Jonathan, 1 
Sam. xiv. C, in Nehcmiah, chap. iv. 14, in Daniel 
and his three companions, Dan. vi. 10, and iii. 18. 

1. Faith looketh higher than the bodily sight can. 
In fights it beholdeth that Captain which appeared 
unto Joshua, Josh. y. 13, and from sight of him re- 
ceiveth much courage. 

2. Faith assureth a man of his reconciliation with 
God, of God's fatherly care over him, of God's wis- 
dom in ordering all tliing.s, and turning them to the 
best advantage for his children's good. This is it 
that makes a man valorous and venturous as a lion, 
ProT. xxviii. 1. The believer's conscience will not 
suffer him to adventure on anything but that which 
is lawful and warrantable, and his faith makes him 
valorous therein. They say that sundry jyassions 
will supply the want of blood in a wounded man ; 
but no passion can so support a man as the sjiirit of 
faith. This makes a man more regard the cause than 
the event. If he prevail in his attempt, he is an 
apparent conqueror. If he lose his life therein, he 
gains a more glorious, though a less visible, triumph : 
and that with the glorified saints in heaven. 

Among other points before noted, this sheweth the 
necessity and benefit of faith ; and that as in general 
for all men, so in particular for soldiers. All have 
need of courage, — magistrates, ministers, parents, 



[Chap. XT. 

masters, yea, subjects and other inferior.? ; for all in 
their places have need of courage : but without faith 
there can bo no true valour. The greater danger 
men are in, the more need they have of faith. 
Soldiers therefore nio.st of all. There can be no cour- 
ageous standing in the field without faith. Therefore 
I may say unto them, ' above ail take the shield of 
faith,' Eph. vi. IG. 

Sec. 238. Of turning to flijlit the armies of the 

The ninth effect of faith is in these words, turned 
to flight the armies of the aliens. 

The word, Tass/A/SoAa;, translated armies, signifieth 
a setting in order, or ranking soldiers, or pitching 
their tents, or armies set in array. 

Of the notation and divers acceptions of the word, 
see Chap. xiii. 3, Sec. 1 27. Here it setteth out such 
armies as are encamped, very strong, and well fenced ; 
so as it is an amplification of the valour of believers, 
who arc here said to put to flight {'ixKivav) such 
armies. The Greek verb, aXinta, properly signifieth 
to lai/, Luke ix. 58, and to hoiv down, Luke xxiv. 5, 
or to tvear away, Luke ix. 12. It is here used after 
the manner of the last conjugation in Hebrew (Hith- 
pael), to nuike one depart, and applied to soldiers in 
battle array, to make them give ground, or turn the 
back, which is to run or fly away. Thus the word 
is here fitly translated, turned to flight. 

The per.sons against whom they so prevailed are 
here styled aXKor^lav, aliens, in opposition to the 
people of God. Of the notation, and divers accep- 
tions of the Greek word, see Chap, ix^ 25, Sec. 127. 
Aliens arc properly opposed to free denizens or 
citizens ; they aro otherwise called strangers or 
foreigners : Christ opposeth these to children. Mat. 
xvii. 2.5. All the time of the law till Christ was 
ofifered up, all that were not of the commonwealth of 
Israel were counted aliens (Eph. ii. 12), because 
they had no right to the privileges of Israel, who were 
then the only visible church of God. This is here 
noted, to shew the ground of their overthrow — even 
because they were not of the people of God. God 
protected his people against aliens, who were not his 

This, and the former effect of faith, do much com- 
■"nd it. They shew that faith is of force, not only 
strcep men from danger (as these instances, stopping 
' God s of lions, quenching fire, escaping the sword, 
may be ''rom weakness, import), but al.so to enable 
2 Cor. L -ibdue others, in that it makcth valiant in 
on Ps. cxvmtteth to flight the armies of the aliens. 

^r of these two noteth out valour ; the 

Sec. 235. So as this latter is an effect of the 

The eighth ■ is an effect of valour : faith works 

j)rt'.sscd, waxed ur produceth victory. Hereby it is 

The word, sysur, arising from faith, proves victo- 

most part used atories of believing .saints give proof 

hereunto; as of Abraham, Gen. xiv. 15; of Moses, 
Num. xxi. 24, 35, and xxxv. 7, 8; of Joshua, and of 
the judges and kings after him. 

Faith brings God to be a party : believers will 
enterprise nothing without God. In effect they .say 
to God, as Barak did to Deborah, ' If thou wUt go 
with me, then I will go : but if thou wilt not go with 
me, I will not go,' Judges iv. 8. So said Moses to 
God, ' If thy presence go not with me, carry us not 
up hence,' Exod. xxxiii. 15, IG. 

Therefore God goeth with them. As a visible evi- 
dence hereof, the Lord ajjpeared to Joshua, and told 
him that, ' as captain of the host of the Lord, he was 
come,' Josh. v. 14. Hence is it that God is oft .styled 
the Lord of hosts : he goeth out with the armies of 
his people ; he ordereth them ; he giveth victory to 
them, Ps. xcviii. 1. Thus is God himself and his 
honour engaged in his saints' battles, which are styled 
' the battles of the Lord,' 1 Sam. xxv. 28. 

This therefore doth Joshua thus plead : ' O Lord, 
what shall I say, when Israel turneth their backs 
before their enemies? What wilt thou do unto thy 
great name?' Josh. vii. 8, 9. 

Hence may be inferred one reason of the ill success 
which many that profess the true faith have in war. 
In general this is it : they do not well exercise their 

Particulars to prove this are these that follow : 

1. Israel, in Joshua's time, fled before their ene- 
mies. Josh. vii. 4; for it is an especial fruit of faith 
to make men search into themselves, and into them 
who join with them, whether there he anything that 
might keep off God from them ; which they did not at 
that time; yet had they just cause to do so, because 
of the strict charge that was given them, and that 
upon pain of a curse, Josh. vi. 18. 

2. The eleven tribes that fought against Benjamin 
in a good cause, were twice overthrown, Judges xx. 
21, 25. For— 

(1.) It is probable that they were too confident in 
the number of their men, so as they fought not in 

(2.) They took upon them to punish other men's 
sins before they had repented of their own, which is 
not to fight in faith. After they had lost two and 
twenty thousand in one battle, and eighteen thousand 
in another, and thoroughly repented, with fasting and 
weeping (Judges xx. 2(i), they prevailed. 

3. Jonathan, a true believer, perished in war, 1 
Sam. xxxi. 2 ; for — 

Though Jonathan did in general believe, to the sal- 
vation of his soul, yet could he not, in faith, enter 
into that war, whereby he perished ; for he could not 
be ignorant of God's refusing to answer his father ; 
and he might also be privj' to his father's consulting 
with a witch, 1 Sam. xxviii. 6, 7. 

But, concerning Jonathan's cause — 

(1.) God may suffer an army to be overthrown for 

Ver. 35.] 



the sins of some, and in that overthrow sufifer believers 
to be slain for their good, as to free them from the 
evil to come. This was the case of Jonathan. God 
■would not suffer him, who was heir-apparent to the 
crown, see another sit upon the throne. 

(2.) God translates his saints in such overthrows 
from earth to heaven, where they triumph over all 
their enemies. 

4. Believing Josiah was slain in war, because he 
enterprised not that war in faitli, but against God's 
will, 2 Chron. xxxv. 21, 22. Saints may in their 
general course walk by faith, and yet in some parti- 
culars swerve from it, and God for that justly punish 
them ; so he dealt with Moses, Num. xx. 12. 

To conclude, if thorough examination be made of 
such battles as believing saints have lost, or wherein 
they have been slain, it will be found that their en- 
terprises have been without warrant, or unwarrantably 
prosecuted. In such cases, God makes enemies his 
rod to scourge his children. But what do enemies 
get thereby ? what do God's children lose thereby ? 
When God's work is done, the njd is cast into the 
fire ; they who were scourged, bettered thereby, re- 
ceived into grace and favour, and, in case they die, 
crowned with an incorruptible crown. They are 
'judged in this world, that they might not be con- 
demned in the world to come,' 1 Cor. xi. 32. 

A good direction hence ariseth for making war 
prosperous; which is to get faith, and rightly to use 
and exercise it. For this end, observe these rules : 

1. Acquaint thyself with God's word and pro- 
mises. Thereby thou mayest learn what wars are 
lawful ; how lawful wars are to be waged ; to what 
■wars God hath made a promise of victory, 2 Sam. 
V. 19. 

2. Be sure of peace with God, and take heed that 
he have no quarrel against thee, Deut. xxiii. 14. 

3. Eenew thy covenant with God, renew thy re- 
pentance. Judges XX. 26 ; for we are all prone to fall 
from our former steadfastness. 

4. In the best manner that thou canst, seek help 
of God, humble thy soul, sharpen thy prayer by fast- 
ing, 2 Chron. xx. 3. 

5. Let thy soul remain steady with God, and faint 
not, Exod. xvii. 11. 

6. The greater the danger is, the more confidently 
rest upon God, 2 Chron. xiii. 14. 

Sec. 239. Of loarring against aliens. 

The persons over whom faith makes men valor- 
ous and victorious are here said to be aliens : such as 
are strangers from the covenant of God, none of Ms 
confederates, but rather opposite to them. Jlost of 
the victorious wars before mentioned, and approved 
in Scripture, were such. 

They are God's enemies, and we may in that respect 
the more confidently rest upon God for his assistance. 
But for God's confederates to fight one against another 

without just cause, is to make God to fight against him- 
self : or rather to make God to be on neither part, 
but in justice to suffer them to devour one another, 
Gal. V. 15. 

ObJ. 1. After the division of the ten tribes from 
the house of David, there were wars bet^vixt Judah 
and Israel. 

Ayi^. Israel separated themselves from the ordi- 
nances of God, and became no people of God. They 
were like those who said they were Jews, but were 
not so, Eev. ii. 9. Such are papists, who carry the 
name of Christians. What can papists more plead 
for right to the church of God than the ten tribes 
after their division could ? 

OljJ. 2. There was long war betwixt the house of 
David and the house of Saul, 2 Sam. iii. 1. 

Ans. The cause is to be considered as well as the 
persons. If such as profess the true faith offend other 
professors and invade them, they who are so offended 
may defend themselves : or if they do notoriously sin 
against their profession, and provoke God's wrath, 
they may by that public sword of justice, which is 
war, be punished. Josh. xxii. 12, Judges xx. 10. In 
such cases professors make themselves to be 'as 
heathen men and publicans,' Mat. xviiL 17. 

Of war betwixt professors of the faith, see Tfie 
Church's Conquest, on Exod. xvii. 9, Sec. IG. 

1. By the foresaid point of warring with aliens, the 
ambitions, envies, jealousies, quarrels, and wars of 
Christians against Christians, and churches against 
churches, are justly taxed. This is a matter much to 
be lamented. Religion itself much suffers hereby : 
superstition, idolatry, heresj', and schism get too great 
ground hereby. While churches are at variance 
among themselves, enemies of the church get great 
advantage. Here that mind in us which was in Abra- 
ham (Gen. xiii. 8, die), the very consideration of this, 
that we are sons of the same father, the Lord God, 
and of the same mother, the church, would make us 
yield, as he did, from our right, rather than by bloody 
war seek to recover it. 

2. Oh let us pray for the peace of the church, and 
every way seek it ! If any desire to give proof of 
their valour, let them do it upon right objects : even 
such as are God's enemies, such as are aliens, idolaters, 
antichristians. Thus they may in faith expect and 
obtain such success and victory, as the weakening of 
enemies may prove to be the strengthening of the 

Sec. 240. Of the meaning of tliese words, ' Women 
received their dead raised to life again.' 

Ver. 35. Wo7nen received their dead raised to life 
again : and others were tortured, not accepting deliver- 
ance; tlmt tliey might obtain a better resurrection. 

A tenth effect of the vigour of faith is in these words, 
ivonien received their dead, &c. 

This diflfereth from the former nine, two ways. 



[Chap. XI. 

1. In the persons who manifested that effect, yw- 
alx-i;, women. 

2. In the strangeness of the effect, which was a 
receiving tlieir dead to life. 

The persons were of the weaker sex. This hath a 
particuhir respect to a widow at Zarephath, 1 Kings 
xvii. 23, and to a married wife at Shunam, 2 Kings 
iv. 3G, 37. For throughout the whole Old Testa- 
ment we read of no other women to whom this evi- 
dence of faith can be applied. 

Though these were of the weaker sex, yet the evi- 
dence here given is the greatest of all. For death is 
the most irresistible and irrecoverable that can be. 
Lions, fire, sword, armies of enemies, are nothing in 
comparison of death. That which makes those and 
other like terrible things formidable, is, that they are 
means to bring men to death. By strength, valour, 
agility, and cjuickness of body, or by wit, wariness, 
and such like properties of the mind, mouths of lions 
may be stopped, violence of fire may be quenched, 
the edge of the sword may be avoided, armies of men 
may be put to flight : but by no strength or wit of 
man can any be raised from the dead. Many of the 
other instances have been found among the heathen ; 
but this last, of being raised from death, was never 
heard of, but in those that were endued with divine 

The emphasis of this effect, which makes it to be 
applied to women, resteth upon this word, EAa/Sov, re- 
ceived, which is the proper signification of the Greek 

Olij. It was the faith of prophets who raised the 
dead children, rather than of the women, who received 
them being raised. 

Alls. The women first desired the prophets to re- 
store their children being dead, which argued their 
faith, 1 Kings xvii. 18, 2 Kings iv. 30. Had not 
they believed and made known their desires to the 
prophets, the prophets would not have attempted to 
raise them. Naj-, we may further say, that if the 
■women had not believed that the prophets could have 
restored their children, the prophets could not have 
raised them up. It is said of Christ himself, that in 
Lis own counti-y ' he could do no mighty work,' Mark 
vr. 5, the rcas<in whereof is thus rendered, ' because 
of their unbelief,' JIaf. .xiii. 58. Christ said to one 
who desired the devil to be cast out of his son, ' If 
thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that 
bclieveth,' Mark ix. 23. And it was usual for him to 
say to other.s, ' Be it unto you according to your faith,' 
Mat. ix. 29. And of the woman of Canaan, who ini- 
jjortuned him to dispossess her daughter, he said, ' O 
woman, great is thy faith,' Mat. xv. 28. So as faith 
is manifested in believing that the dead may be 
raised, even iti tho.se who received that benefit, though 
they be not themselves ministers or instruments to 
raise them. 

The Syriac translation takes away this amplifica- 

tion of faith by the persons, in turning the words 
thus, Ileddiderunt mulieribui mortuos e'lritm, They 
delivered to women their soM from the resurrection of 
t/ie dead. Thus this relative, they, hath reference to 
the prophets that rai.sed the dead, and not to the 
women that received them being raised. But the 
original Greek is as our English and other transla- 
tions have turned it. Only in the Greek it is, i^ diaa- 
rderciic, from, or out of the resurrection. This is an 
elegant hyperbole. Whereas death had taken away 
their children, resurrection restored them : for if they 
had not been raised, their mothers could not have 
had them .again. Our English hath plainly and fully 
expressed the meaning of the phrase by this para- 
phrase, raised to life af)ain. 

This phrase, roi); vExooi; aorm, their dead, hath 
reference to the sons of the foresaid women which 
were raised, and therefore well expressed in the mas- 
culine gender. 

Sec. 241. Of faith in raising tlie dead. 

The express mention of women in these great effects 
of faith giveth proof that women may give as good 
proof of faith as men. It hath been shewed in the 
former section, that this evidence of receiving their 
dead raised to life is the greatest effect that hath been 
noted of faith among all the worthies here set down. 
See more hereof, Ver. 11, Sec. 53. 

The particular effect of faith here mentioned giveth 
further proof that the vigour of faith extends itself to 
the. raising of the dead. Witness the two foreraen- 
tioned instances, of the widow of Zarephath, and the 
Shunammite. Witness also the faith of another widow, 
Luke vii. 15, and the faith of Jairus and his wife, 
Mark v. -10, and of Jlary and Martha, John xi. 3i, 
and of the widows that remained by Dorcas's dead 
cor[)se, Acts ix. 39. 

To raise the dead is within the compass of God's 
power, and not always against God's will, as the 
forementioned examples shew. 

Now, what God can do, faith, in a humble sub- 
mission to God's will, believeth. 

1. Herein we have a confirmation of the eleventh 
article of the creed, concerning the resurrection of the 

2. Here is a demonstration of the want, or at least 
the weakness, of their faith, who are affrighted with 
such dangers iis may prove deadly ; especially if they 
be so frighted as to renounce their holy profession, or 
any way sin against God. He that can raise from 
death can jjrevcnt death, or sufficiently sui>port a 
man in death. Faith in God's power of raising the 
dead will embolden a man to anything : witness 

3. It will be useful frequently and seriously to 
meditate on this evidence of faith : as it is the 
greatest evidence of God's power, so of the strength 
and vigour of man's faith. 

Ver. 35.] 



4. By way of allusion and inference, we may be 
here stirred up to use all means for quickening the 
dead in sin, and to use them in faith ; for we have 
more ground here in this world to believe the resur- 
rection from death in sin than from a natural death. 
When Dorcas was dead, Peter was sent for, Acts viii. 
38 ; so send for ministers, or at least carry thy children 
and other friends unto the means of quickening their 
souls, as the friends of him that had a dead palsy 
carried him unto Christ, Mark ii. 3. 

Sec. 242. Of believers receiving the henejit of otheri 

Though they were prophets that were the minis- 
ters of raising the dead, yet the women that believed 
the prophets in God's name could do it, received the 
benefit hereof : they ' received their dead.' Elijah 
delivered the child whom he raised unto his mother, 
1 Kings xvii. 23 ; so did Elisha, 2 Kings iv. 36 ; and 
Christ delivered the young man whom he raised 
to his mother, Luke vii. 15 ; and Peter presented 
Dorcas, whom he raised from the dead, to the widows. 
Acts ix. 41. The like is noted of other miracles 
■tt rought by Christ and his apostles. 

Yea, faith is of such power as it can draw virtue 
and benefit from the labiuir and gifts of others that 
receive not the benefit thereof themselves. They that 
entered into the ark enjoyed the benefit of their pains 
and skill who built the ark, though the builders 
thereof perished. The like may be said of those who 
were cured by ■wicked men's working miracles, Mat. 
vii. 22, 23, and who were wrought upon by the min- 
istry of Judas, Mark \i. 1 2. 

Faith hath an attractive virtue : it is to God's 
power, truth, mercy, and other like properties, where- 
soever they appear, as the loadstone to iron, diawing 
them, or rather the benefit of theiii, to itself 

1. This sheweth one reason of that httle or no 
profit which is reaped from those excellent endow- 
ments which God hath conferred on many of his ser- 
vants in tliese later days, and from those powerful' 
means of grace which he hath aflrorded. The reason 
is unbelief. 

2. To other motives of getting and nourishing faith, 
add this, thereby mayest thou partake of the benefit 
of all God's properties and excellencies in himself, in 
his Son, in his Spirit, in his saints, in other men, 
and in other creatures. Who would be without. so 
useful, so behoveful a gift ] 

Sec. 243. Of faith enabling saints to bear sore iruils. 

In the two verses immediately before this, and 
former part of this verse, the apostle hath noted ten 
distinct rare act.s whereby the vigour of the faith of 
God's ancient worthies was manifested. Here he be- 
ginneth to add great sufierings, whereby a like vigour 
is demonstrated ; they are ten in number, but may 
be drawn to three heads : 

1. Of such as were professors. 

2. Of such as were martyrs. 

3. Of such as were confessors. 

Of the first rank, five particulars are mentioned. 
The first is thus expressed, and others were tortured, 

This copulative, and, is in Greek, ii, hut, which 
being joined with this distributive particle, uM.oi, 
others, implieth that howsoever some may be enabled 
unto worthy exploits, yet God calls others to sore 
sufferings, and that faith is exercised and manifested 
in the one as well as in the other ; for faith enables 
to endure as well as to do ; and the excellency of this 
grace doth shine forth as much in the one as in the 
other ; for this phrase, through faith, ver. 33, must 
be extended to all the particulars following to ver. 
39. I cannot produce greater instances to prove the 
point than are here set down by our apostle ; they 
shew to what trials saints are subject (hereof see The 
Whole Armour of God, on Eph. vi. 15, Sec. 12), and 
how faith enables to pass through all. 

Faith persuades the soul of such principles as are 
sufficient to support it in the greatest trials, even such 
as these : 

1. God is our Father. 

2. God ordereth our estate. 

3. All our enemies can do no more than what our 
Father permits. 

4. Our Father is with ns in our greatest trial, even 
in fire and water, Isa. xliii. 2. 

5. Our Father knoweth the greatness of our pres- 

6. He is not ignorant of our strength or weakness. 

7. He can lighten the burden. 

8. He can give us sufficient strength to bear it. 

9. He will not suffer us to be tempted above that 
we are able to bear. 

10. He will with the temptation make a way to 
escape, 1 Cor. x. 13. 

11. He will make all things work together for our 
good, Rom. viii. 28. 

Sec. 244. Of the apostles quoting things out of 
human authors. 

The particular instances wherein and whereby the 
trials of the saints are exemplified are such as are 
not registered in any part of the Old Testament : 
hereupon some infer that the trials of Christians for 
the gospel are here intended ; but that is not pro- 
bable : for, 

1. This epistle was written by an apostle that lived 
in Christ's time. See Cliaj). ii. 3, Sec. 27. 

2. It is said of all those that were brought to these 
trials, that ' they received not the promises,' ver. 39 — 
namely, the promise of Christ exhibited, and of the 
full revelation of the gospel by Christ. 

If they which received not the promises endured 
so much, what should not we endure ? 



[ClIAP. XI. 

It is more than probable that the apostle doth, in 
the suffering of saints, set down in this and the verses 
following, aim at the persecutions of the church after 
the Jews' return from the Babylonish captivity. 

Quest. How could the apostle come to the know- 
ledge of them 1 

Ans. He might have them either out of human 
records, or from traditions conveyed from fathers to 
children, age after age. So had Paul the express 
names of Jannes and Jambrcs, 2 Tim. iii. 8 ; so had 
another apostle the striving of Michael with the devil 
.ibout the body of Moses; and the prophecy of Enoch, 
Jude 9, 14 ; and our apostle this of Moses, that he 
said, ' I fear and quake,' Hob. xii. 21. 

Quest. Doth not this make human records as au- 
thentic as sacred Scripture? and traditions equal to the 
written word ? 

Ans. In no wise. For though in human records 
there may bo and are many truths, yet we cannot 
absolutely rest upon thorn, because there may be 
falsehood in them ; but sacred Scripture is the word 
of truth, James i. 18. Yea, truth itself, John xvii. 17, 
and that in three respects : 

1. In regard of the author, who is the God of 
truth, Pa. .xxxi. 5, from whom nothing but truth can 
come. He ' cannot lie,' Tit. i. 2. 

2. In regard of the matter. There is nothing but 
truth in it, no falsehood, no ciTors, no uncertainty, 
Ps. xix. 8. 

3. In regard of the effect. It persuades a man of 
the truth revealed in it, so as what God's word 
revealeth may safely, and ought to be confidently, 
believed. It is not so with human writings. 

Quest. Why then doth the apostle produce matters 
to bo believed out of human writings ? 

Alls. The Holy Ghcst so assisted the apostles, as 
they were able to discern betwixt truth and false- 
hood, so as what they took out of human writers was 
without question most true, and by their quoting the 
same they have made them authentic. 

The like may be said of those testimonies which 
the apo.stle quoted out of heathen poets, as Aratus, 
Acts xvii. 28, Menander, 1 Cor. xv. 33, Epimenides, 
Tit. i. 12. The apostle's quoting these hath now 
made them to be sacred. Thus can none do but 
they who have such a Spirit. 

Tiie same judgment is to be given of traditions. 
Apostles, by the immediate assistance of God's Spirit, 
could judge what traditions were true and divine ; 
but we cannot. It sufficeth us that all things re- 
quisite to make us wise imto salvation are in sacred 
Scripture, 2 Tiin. iii. 1.5, Ac. 

Some say that tliose stories whercunto our apostle 
hath here relation might be part of canonical Scrip- 
ture, but now lost. 

Ans. That conceii, that jwrt of the canonical 
Scripture is lost, is noi to be admitted ; for, 

1. It impeacheth that Scripture which we have of 

imperfection, or else that which is lost of needless- 

2. It impeacheth the providence of God, in suffer- 
ing canonical Scrijiture to be lost. 

3. It layeth a blemish on the fidelity of the church, 
which is the pillar of truth. 

4. It takes away some means of our learning and 
grounds of our comfort and hope. For ' whatsoever 
things were written aforetime, were written for our 
learning,' itc, Horn. .xv. 4. 

As for the instances given of books of Scripture 
lost, they are either of politic records and chronicles, 
as 1 Kings xiv. 19, or of philosophical discourses, 
1 Kings iv. 33, or of such books as are yet extant, 
but under other titles, as 1 Chron. xxix. 29. 

Sec. 245. Of 2^rofessors' totinents. 

The first particular pressure wherewith saints of 
old hath their faith tried is thus set down : II'iTe 
tortured, not accepting ddiverance, that tlvey might ob- 
tain a letter resurrection. The pressure itself is in 
this word, tortured. The other words are an ampli- 
fication thereof. 

The Greek word, srvfirraitlahieav, translated tortured, 
signifieth to stretch out, or to beat with bats. The 
root, TU'7Tu, from whence it is derived, signifieth to 
beat, thence a noun, r-jfLrratov, which signifieth a hat 
or a st'iff. It signifieth also a drum, the heads whereof 
being skins, are stretched out very hard and stiff, 
and used to be beaten upon with drum-sticks. In 
reference hereunto, a rack, whereon men's bodies use 
to be stretched, and whereon, being so stretched, they 
were wont to be beaten ; such a rack, I say, or in- 
strument of torture, was called by the same name 
tliat a drum is, and they who are so racked and 
beaten were said to be ru,aTav;^o,a=K);, stretched and 
benten as a dnim, or to be drummed. Thereupon our 
former English translators thus turned this word, 
were racked, but our last translators, taking the word 
more generally, turned it thus, u<ere tortured ; so as 
here is a double trope. 

1. A metaphor taken from stretching and beating 
a drum. 

2. A synecdoche, a particular kind of torment 
being put for any kind. It is probable that the 
apostle here hath some reference to the sufterings of 
saints, registered in the Book of Maccabees, for the 
torment whereunto Eleazar was jjut is expressed under 
a Greek word, ru/iTuvov, that ordinarily signifieth a 
drum, but is there translated torment, 2 Mace. vi. 1 9, 28. 
Yea, it is said that Eleazar might have been delivered, 
and would not, vere. 22, 30. It is also noted of a 
mother and her seven sons that they would not, on 
their persecutor's promises, be dehvered, in hope to 
be raised up again, 2 Alacc. vii. 14, 29. 

This metaphor givcth an instance that professors 
of the truth may bo brought to exquisite torments 
for their profession's sake. It is said of Joseph that 




' they liurt liis feet with fetters,' Ps. cv. 1 8. True it 
is that he was so dealt withal' upon a false accusation, 
and upon suspicion of violence offered to his mistress ; 
but if his fear of God had not kept him from com- 
mitting folly with his mistress, he had escaped that 
torment. Jeremiah was apparently cast into a dun- 
geon, where he sunk in the mire for his faithfulness 
in delivering the word of the Lord, Jer. sxxviii. 6. 
Upon the same ground Jlicaiah was ' cast into pri- 
son, and fed with bread of affliction, and with water 
of affliction,' 1 Kings xsii. 27. Job also was miser- 
ably tormented even for his integrity's sake, Job ii. 3, 
&c. The things which Christ endured, and his 
apostles, and all sorts of martyrs after their time, give 
further proof hereunto. See Sec. 255. 

(1.) For the more thorough trial of his champions, 
that their courage, faith, patience, and other graces 
might be the more manifest. 

(2.) To seal up that truth which they profess more 

(•3.) To establish other professors. 

(i.) To give them some sensible evidence of what 
Christ endured for them. 

(5.) To make them tjiebetterto conceive the torments 
of hell, for if they whom God loves, and whom in love 
he suffereth to endure what they endure, be grievously 
tortured, what may we think of those torments which 
God in wrath inflictcth upon those whom he hateth ? 

2. Satan and his instruments inflict such torments 
on professors of the truth in malice. Their delight is 
in cruelty, and they have mischievous ends, which 
are to discourage professors, to draw them from their 
holy profession, and to triumph over them. 

1. This teacheth professors well to weigh what 
their profession may cost them ; what they may un- 
dergo and endure for it. This is it which Christ 
adviseth his unto, Luke xiv. 27, 28, ifcc. 

2. In that a holy profession may bring on it such 
torment, it becomes professors to take unto themselves 
an invincible courage, and resolve to endure whatso- 
ever by man or devil can be inflicted. A full resolu- 
tion in this case is of singular use. 

Sec. 246. Of suffering wUlingli/. 
The amplification of believers enduring the foresaid 
torment is set out two ways. 

1. By the manner of their suflfering, not accepting 

2. By the end which they aimed at, a better resur- 

Of the Greek word translated accepting, see Chap. 
X. 34r, Sec. 129. Of the other word translated de- 
liverance, see Chap. ix. 13, Sec. 89. 

This phrase of not accej^ting deliverance, hath refer- 
ence to their persecutors ofiering them freedom from 
those torments, in case they would renounce their 
profession (2 iLicc. vi. 21, <fec., and vii. 24, (fee), which 
offer on such condition they woidd not accept ; so as 

this phrase, tliei/ accepted not, is not simply to be 
taken, but relatively to such terms as they could no 
way approve. This deliverance in this place is taken 
for setting one free from torment intended. 

The wliole phrase, in general, implicth that true 
professors willingly endure torments for their pro- 
fession's sake. They are not as bears hauled to the 
stake, and brought perforce, to endure the baiting, 
biting, and tearing of persecuting dogs, but willingly 
yield. In another kind of suft'ering, it is said ot 
Moses, that he refused honours, and chose to suffer 
affliction. Vers. 24, 25, Sees. 13G, 137. It is in this 
respect said of Aquila and Priscilla, that they ' laid 
down their necks,' Rom. ivi. 4, which implieth a 
voluntary yielding to suffer. So doth this phrase, ' I 
am ready to die for the name of the Lord Jesus,' 
Acts xxi. 13. 

They discern much good and great advantage to 
accrue by their sufferings, and that, 

1. To God, whose glory in having such servants is 
set out, 1 Pet. iv. 14. 

2. To the truth, which is maintained and ratified 
thereby, Phil. i. 17. 

3. To other professors, who <are encouraged and 
emboldened thereby, PhU. i. 14. 

4. To succeeding ages, whose ground of faith, 
being by their predecessors left scaled unto them, 
they are made more confident iu standing to it. 
Hence arose this Christian proverb, 'The blood of 
martyrs is the seed of the church.' 

5. In reference to enemies, who cannot be but 
much daunted and disappointed hereby. 

6. To themselves, whose present joy and comfort 
is the more abundant, 2 Cor. i. 5, and whose recom- 
pense shall be great. Mat. v. 12. 

This is a worthy pattern for us to set before us 
when we are called to suffer for the name of Christ. 
By yielding thereto willingly and cheerfully, we make 
a virtue of necessity, and we make that which we 
endure more acceptable to God ; for God, who loveth 
a cheerful giver, 2 Cor. ix. 7, doth much more love 
a cheerful suS'ercr. All the sacrifices that we offer 
unto God must be freewUl-offerings ; much more this 
oblation of ourselves. 

Quest. Ought professors to offer themselves to 
martyrdom ? 

Ans. In this case we must distinguish betwixt the 
ordinary course, wherein all ought to walk, and ex- 
traordinary occasions. In an ordinary course pro- 
fessors are not bound to offer themselves. There is 
no precept nor approved pattern in God's word to 
enforce this. The liberty that is granted for escaping, 
when a fair way is opened by the divine providence, 
maketh against this conceit. Mat. x. 23. Yea, if perse- 
cutors do freely let them go, they may go and escape ; so 
did the apostles. Acts iv. 21, 23. Butif Goddo give to 
any such a spirit as openly to make known himself, 
and so to offer himself to any persecution, we are to 



[Chap. XI. 

account it a special motion, and not over-rashly to 
censure them. Verianus and Marcellianu.s, in the 
time of Decius the emperor, seeing Secundianus led 
to martyrdom, cried out that they also were Chris- 
tians, and thereupon were apprehended and cruelly 
tortured to death. 80 many others. I'olycarpus, 
being sought after, might have escaped, but would 
not — saying, as Paul did, Acts xxi. 1 4, ' Tlie will of 
the Lord be done.' Apollonia leaped into the fire 
■while they were hioving her to recant. God Lath in 
all ages been pleased to put more than an ordinary 
sjjirit into many of his servants. 

Sec. 2-47. Of perseculnrs oferingrdeitsefioni tortures. 

This phrase, )i(it accepting/ deliverance, presupposeth 
that deliverance was offered to them, otherwise they 
could not have rejected it ; for their not accepting 
was a rejecting. That offering of deliverance was by 
their persecutors ; but upon condition that they should 
yield to them. This is evident by that which Nebu- 
chadnezzar said to Daniel's three companions, when 
they were accused for not worshipping his idol, which 
was this, ' If ye be ready to fall down and worship 
the image.' He thereby implies that they should be 
spared : for he addcth, ' If you worship not, you 
shall be cast into a fiery furnace,' Dan. iii. 15. Most 
evident is this in those to whom this apostle hath 
reference, 2 Mace. vi. 22, 30, and vii. 24 ; so also 
Acts iv. 18. This was usual with the persecuting 
emperors, and governors under them, in the first ten 
persecutions against Christians, and also with anti- 
christian persecutors, and particularly with such per- 
secutors in England in Queen Mary's days. 

1. Their envy and malice is more against the truth 
professed than against the professors thereof. If, 
therefore, the professors will relinquish the truth, 
they shall find favour enough. That their malice is 
not so much against the persons of professors as 
against the truth professed, is evident, in that they per- 
secute strangers, whom they knew not before. It is said 
of Paul, that ' if he found any such he brought them 
bound,' Acts ix. 2. Yea, if the dearest to them, as 
fatlier, child, brother, or any others linked unto them 
by near bond, siiall profess the truth, they will per- 
secute them. Mat. x. 21. Truth is a light that dis- 
covcreth their darkness ; therefore they pereeeute all 
that hold out that light, John iii. 19. 

2. They aim at a corrupt triumph over the truth. 
In this resi)ect they can be content to spare such as 
they hate, that they may get matter of this boasting, 
thinking thereby to justify themselves. 

1. This is a great aggravation of the wretched and 
cursed disposition of persecutors. It is against God's 
truth, against God's manifested will, yea, and against 
God him.sci'f ; so a.s, indeed, they are haters of God. 
Will Gild let such go scot free f He may use them 
for a while as his rod; but at length the rod shall 
be c.ist into the fire. 

2. This may encourage professors of the truth 
more willingly and patiently to suflfer what shall be 
infiicted upon them, in that they suffer more for the 
truth, yea, and for God himself, than for themselves. 
Will not God stand by such 1 Will he not give 
sufficient assistance to them 1 Yea, and an abundant 
recompense too. 

3. It is a matter of great comfort and content to 
martyrs, that God's truth, yea, and God himself, 
suffers in them, and with them, and that more 
directly than they themselves. 

Sec. 248. Of the meaning of these words, ' That 
the// mir//it obtain a better resurrection,' 

The end of professors suffering what they do is 
thus set down, that they might obt<tin a letter re- 
surrection. Of the derivation of tliis word, rly^uai, 
obtain, see Chap. vi. 1.5, Sec. 109. It here importeth 
again that* they aimed at. For the verb here, ruy- 
yji-nis, to obtain, signifieth to get something by that 
which we do, undergo, or let go. To get, I say, not 
upon merit, but uj)on God's promise. 

To shew that it was no small gain, he expresseth 
it under this word, avaoTasic, resurrection. 

The Greek word translated resurrection, is a com- 
pound of a simple verb, 'iarrifi,!, that signifieth to 
settle or establish, ■ from thence a compound, dtierrnj,!, 
with a preposition, &va, that in composition signi- 
fieth again. The compound verb is sometimes used 
neutrally, and signifieth to rise, Rom. xiv. 9, and 
sometimes transitively, to rai-'te. Acts ii. 24. Thence 
this word, resurrection. It presujiposeth a former life ; 
so as such rise, or are raised again to a new life. 

Here in this place is meant the resurrection of the 
body at the last day, when the soul being united 
again with it, both shall enjo)- eternal glorj'. 

To amplify this pain'-' the more, it is set down com- 
paratively, in this word of comparison, x^iirrovot, 
belti'r, so as it hath reference to another resurrection, 
before \\hich this is preferred. Was it that resurrec- 
tion which is implied in the first clause of this verse, 
' Women received their dead from a resurrection '( 

A ns. They had no ground to expect such a resur- 
rection. Was it then a greater degree of glory for 
sufferings 1 

A us. This text maketh no comparison betwixt 
degrees of glory. 

Is the comparison then made betwixt the resurrec- 
tion of professors and persecutors ? 

Ans. No. The comparison is betwixt a resurrec- 
tion which professors rejected, and which they ob- 

What was the resurrection which they rejected 1 

Ans. The deliverance before mentioned, upon con- 
dition of renouncing their profession. For when jjro- 
fe.ssors are in the clutches of bloody persecutors, they 
arc as dead men ; to escape out of their clutches is as 

' Qu. ' a gain of that' ?— Ed. ' Qu. ' gain 'f— Ed. 

Vee. 35.] 



a resurrection from tbe dead. In this sense, but in 
another case, Abraham is said to receive Isaac from 
the dead, ver. 19, because he was deputed to death. 
In that the professors here mentioned would not be 
delivered on the persecutors' terms, they may be said 
to reject a resurrection. Now, they aimed therein at 
the resurrection to eternal life, and this was a far 
better resurrection than any resurrection from their 
persecutors could be. 

That this was the end of their suffering, is evident 
by the apostle's express setting it down so, with this 
final conjunction, iVa, that, so as they did it not 
rashly, but upon good advice, and to a good end. 
They had reason to do what they did. 

Sec. 249. Of believers sufferimj advisedly. 

The general expression of the end of saints' suffer- 
ings, noted in this causal particle, that, giveth us to 
understand that true believers advisedly endure what 
they endure for the fiiith's sake. ' So fight I,' saith 
the apostle, 1 Cor. ix. 26, ' not as one that beateth 
the air' — that is, not as a madman that fighteth with 
a shadow, not weighing what he doth, but as a man 
of understanding, that have good cause to do what I 
do. This advisedness with reference to the cause he 
doth here set out : ' For the which cause I suffer 
these things ; for I know whom I have believed,' 
2 Tim. i. 12. All those texts which set down the 
causes and motives why saints were induced to suffer, 
give proof hereof. 

Particulars were these — 

1. Submission to the will of God, Mat. xxvi. 42. 

2. Confirmation of the gospel, Phil. i. 17. 

3. Establishing the professors thereof, Phil. i. 14. 

4. That ' eternal weight of glory ' which foUowcth 
thereuiion, 2 Cor. iv. 17. 

Believers are endued not only with reason (which 
in general moves men to prefer the most excellent), 
but also with spiritual understanding and divine wis- 
dom, which makes them well weigh what they do and 
endure. Thereby also they are enabled to distinguish 
betwixt things that dift'er, and thereupon to choose 
and prefer the more excellent, needful, and useful. 

Take notice hereby of the perverse censure which 
the men of this world do in this case pass upon be- 
lievers. They judge them to be no better than sots, 
idiots, frantic, mad ; if they suffer imprisonment, 
loss of goods, reproach, or any kind of censure, What 
madmen are these ! say they, not knowing the ends 
which saints aim at, and that blessed fruit that will 
foUow thereupon. 

Sec. 250. Of believers suffering ivith an eye to the 
better resurrection. 

The end that is here set down doth apparently sur- 
pass all that they lose or endure by their suffering, 
so as they suffer upon advantage. They ' obtain,' 
they get, they gain thereby. Well did he understand 

this who said, ' Our light affliction workcth for us a 
far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory," 
2 Cor. iv. 17. All the rewards that are mentioned in 
Scripture of sufFermg, give proof hereunto. 

This may not be imagined to be any mercenary 
matter, as arising from a man's own merit, but from 
God's promise, wliich ariseth from his free grace and 
good pleasure. 

This sheweth that there is a mystery in this trade 
of suffering, which we shall do well to incpiire into. 
In the things of this world, if we observe men by 
such and such courses to thrive, we use to be in- 
quisitive after the same. Inquire therefore, and that 
with diligence, into God's word, and thou shalt find 
that by holding close to God, by holding fast a pro- 
fession of his truth, by sufiering for that same, thou 
shalt have an abundant recompense. God will not 
suffer anything to be done or endured for his sake in 
vain. The more and greater the suflerings be, the 
more ample and excellent will the reward be. 

This is here exemplified by the resurrection. A 
resurrection was the end they aimed at. 

Of the word translated resurrection, see Sec. 248. 

The resurrection emboldens believers to do what 
they do. 

This phrase, ' What advantagcth it me if the dead 
rise not ] ' 1 Cor. xv. 32, sheweth that the apostle in 
his sufferings had an eye upon the resurrection ; which 
also is implied, 2 Cor. iv. 14. 

By the resurrection we are fully exempted from all 
manner of misery, and estated in that felicity as ex- 
ceedeth all expression, all ajiprehension. 

This is it that the world doth not understand, 
they know not what the resurrection meaneth. They 
dote only on things present, like brute beasts. The 
heathen, who wanted the light of God's word, never 
believed the resurrection of the body, though they 
had some glimpse of the immortality of the soui. 
Their philosophers counted Paul a babbler, because 
he jireachcd the resurrection. Acts xvii. 18. 

Many that carry the name of Christians, and in 
general know and believe that there shall be a resur- 
rection of the body, do not understand the difference 
betwixt the distinct kinds of resurrection — namely 
that there is a ' resurrection of life,' and a ' resurrection 
of damnation,' John v. 29. Neither are they ac- 
quainted with the true grounds and sure evidences of 
that diflereuce. Hence it is that both heathen and 
comnion formal Christians do so wonder as they do, 
that believers should be so forward to suffer, and so 
prodigal of their lives as they are. Faith in the re- 
surrection of life will make a man less careful of pre- 
serving his mortal life in God's cause. 

That resurrection whereon true believers have 
their eye in suffering, is here said to be a better re- 
surrection — better than any deliverance in this world 
better than anything that can be enjoyed in this life. 
Thus much the apostle implies in this phrase, ' to be 



[Chap. XL 

■with Christ is far better,' Phil. L 23 ; and in this, 
' ye have in heaven a better substance,' Heb. x. S-i. 

This will the better appear by comparing this re- 
surrection with other resurrections mentioned in Scrip- 

1. We read of a ' first resurrection,' Rev. xx. 5, 6. 
This resurrection here spoken of by the apostle is the 
second resurrection, which is the end of the first. 
But the end of a thing is better than the means of 
attaining to it ; besides, the first resurrection is but 
in part, till it be made jjerfect by this second resurrec- 

2. We read of a resurrection in vision, Ezek. xxxvii. 
10 ; but this is a real resurrection, and in that respect 

3. We heard of a resurrection in a figure, ver. 9. 
That was but a supposition, or, at the best, a type ; 
but this is the thing itself. 

4. There is a resurrection from deadly danger. 
Such were many deliverances of the saints, as of 
Daniel and his three companions, Dan. iii. 26, and 
vL 23 ; and of Jonah, chap. ii. 10. Yet those have 
not been exempted from all future dangers, as they 
are who are made partakers of this resurrection. 

5. There hath been a resurrection of such as have 
been actually dead, but to this mortal life and to 
manifold infirmities, as 1 Kings xvii. 32 ; but this is 
a full freedom from every infirmity and from mor- 

C. There is a resurrection from the clutches of 
persecutors, whereof see Sec. 248. But the resurrec- 
tion here intended is expressly said to be better than 

What a folly is it so to dote on that resurrection 
from persecutors, as to forfeit this better resurrection ! 
Woeful in this respect is the case of all apostates, who 
forsake the truth to be free from sufi'ering for the 

To prevent this point of folly, let us advisedly 
g;neditate on the surpassing excellency of this better 
^ ,f I'frection. 


tcfii'^- Of mochings, a hind of po'secutioii. 
Q^oUi.-''"'' others had trial of cruel mockings 
Ver. OK). - y^^^^ moreover of bonds and imprison- 
and scourgintj 

'n^nt. t Ih on in setting down other kinds 

The apostle goet^"t 

of persecution. <=' j persons endured sundry 

And because hat suri _^ ^^jj.^ ^^^^ ^^ .^1^ ^^^^ ^^^_^^ J 
kinds of trials, he Joincth,^ ^^^ copulative and is a 
thus, and others j^^^^f^"^- down, mjo, &, brU 
disjunctive, ii, but: thus seW s 

otlifrs. ,,.,<• „„,„„«„f;,,n^)iere set down was 

The second kmd of persecu lonY 
mocUna ■ which, because of the vaYP^ty, anu several 
tods therrof, is ;et down in the plural^«;'""'ber, .^.u.y- 

'^'^.rSS word is a compound, ^-rived from a 

noun, r:ai:, that signifieth a child: thence a verb, 
•rdi'Qa, or rraioi^a, which signifieth to play as a child, 
1 Cor. X. 7 ; and from thence a comjtound, u.ta.'ra.iZia 
vcl ifiTuii^co, which signifieth to mock, Mark xv. 20, 
3 1 ; hence is derived the word used in this i>lace, l/j-Taiy- 
fioc, which signifieth mocking; and another noun of 
the same composition, litnaUrr,;, which signifieth 
mocker, 2 ]'et. iii. 3, Jude 18. 

To the word here used, our English add this epithet, 
cruel; which is not in the Greek, yet may it well be 
added to the mockings of the enemies of the gospel, 
because they use to be with all the despite that may 

This kind of persecution, and the three others 
following, are thus brought in, they had trial of 
mockings, &c. 

The word, ^rf'^a, translated trial, signifieth also 
experience. It is supposed to be derived from a 
verb, ce/sw, that signifieth to jxiss over. 

From that noun is derived a verb, misd^'ji, that 
signifieth to tri/ or to tempt. 

The word, tXa/3ov, translated had, properly signi- 
fieth received. They received those trials from their 
persecuting adversaries. 

The word received is used in a threefold respect : 

1. In that they were not only threatened with the 
kinds of persecutions, whereunto this phrase is an- 
nexed ; but they did indeed fall upon them, they were 
afilictcd -n-ith them, and so had experience of them. 

2. In that persecutors thereby tried and essayed to 
draw them from their profession. 

3. In that their faith was tried and proved thereby 
to be tight and sound. 

Of trials and temptations we shall speak more, on 
ver. 37. 

The setting down of mockings .amongst other kinds 
of persecutions, giveth apparent proof that mocking 
is a plain persecution. 

Hereof see more, Chap. xiii. ver. 13, Sec. 135. 

Sec. 252. Of scourging professors. 

The third kind of persecution is thus set down, 

This word scourgings doth properly set out the 
meaning of the Greek word, iio-aTiyiai. For a verb, 
ixaariyita, that is of the same notation, signifieth to 
scourge, Mat. x. 17, and xx. 19. 

The word of the text is also applied to painful and 
tormenting diseases, Mark iii. 10. 

This was a sore trial, very pivinful, and hard to be 
endured ; especially as persecutors used to scourge 
saints with scourges of whipcord, of wire, and other 
like things, that fetched blood, and tore the flesh of 
those who were scourged. In regard of this kind of 
punishment many a saint may say, ' the ploughers 
ploughed upon my back, and made long their fur- 
rows,' r.s. cxxix. 3. Thus this kind of i)ersecution 
may be reckoned up under torments. This was 

Vee. 37.] 



always counted a base kind of punisliment. Vassals, 
slaves, base, beastly persons, were wont thus to be 
punished. Under the law, if a man were so base as 
to lie with a bondmaid, he was to be scourged, Lev. 
xix. 20. 

Hereby we see that professors for their religion are 
punished in the basest and sorest manner that can be. 
So was Christ dealt withal, Mat. xxvii. 26, 29. So 
the apostles, Acts v. 40, and xvi. 23. So sorely were 
Paul and Silas scourged, as the wounds, made by the 
scourges, W'ere suppled and washed by the jailer. In 
persecutions against Christians by the heathens, many 
were scourged in open and public places for the 
greater disgrace, and so cruelly, as they died thereof. 
The like hath been done by antichristians. 

No such malice and hatred is ordinarily found in 
any, as in persecutors against professors of the gospel. 
For there is nothing so contrary to error, heresy, or 
idolatry, as God's truth. One error is not so contrary 
to another, nor one kind of heresy or idolatrj', as 
divine truth is unto them all. No marvel, then, that 
the hatred and malice of persecutors hath been so 
insatiable against professors of the truth — whom they 
handle as slaves, yea, as beasts. 

This teacheth us who are resolved to hold the truth, 
to be prepared against all kinds of trials, whether of 
shame or pain. It is said of Christ, that he ' endured 
the cross and despised the shame,' Heb. xii. 2. Look 
unto him, and consider the cause rather than the 
kind of suffering. It skilleth not how enemies of 
God's truth esteem us, and deal with us, so long as 
God, good angels, and holy men approve us. 

Sec. 253. Of using professors as malefactors. 

The fourth kind of persecution of professors was 
by bonds. The Greek word dia/ibg, is here fitly tran- 
slated bonds. For it is derived from a verb, 5jw, that 
signifieth to hind. The bonds here meant are cords, 
and iron chains, and fetters, and manacles, wherewith 
they held men fast, and kept them from running 
away, or any other way escaping. Of the many 
ways of keeping men fast, and restraining them from 
liberty, see Chap. xiii. 3, Sec. 2.3. 

The fifth kind of persecution is like unto this, 
which is said to be ipuXaxii, imjyrisnnmeiit. For men 
are cast into prison to be kept fast, that they should 
not flee away. The verb (fuXdrroi, that is of the same 
root, signifieth to hee}), and he that hath the charge 
of a prison, is called (ZuXaj, a keeper: yea, there is a 
verb of the same notation, puXaxi^w, which signifieth 
to cast into 2y>'ison. 

Because a prison is to hold men fast, prisons used 
to be as castles, strong built, of stone, or other like 
materials, with strong doors, iron bars, and grates, 
and jailers to look unto them. 

Bonds and prisons are for murderers, thieves, and 
other malefactors. Now in that professors of the true 
faith had trial by bonds and imprisonment, it giveth 

evidence that persecutors deal with professors of the 
truth, as with malefactors. Hereof see more in The 
Whole Armour of God, Treat. 3, Part 7, on EpL 
vi. 20, Sec. 189. 

1. This may be some comfort to such as are so 
handled in these our days. It is no worse with them 
than it was with their Lord and Master in his days, 
and with other his faithful servants in their days. 
' So persecuted they the prophets, which were before 
you,' Mat. v. 12, and so the apostles, and so other 
saints age after age. 

2. By way of allusion, professors of the truth may 
learn to keep their souls free from the bonds of sin ; 
then need they not much care for men's bonds, at 
least they shall then more comfortably lie bound with 
men's bonds, and if they have learned to make every 
place a temple to worship God therein, even in prison 
they may worship God. The more they are restrained 
In their bodies, the more they may exercise their 
souls in divine meditations and contemplations. 

3. Considering true saints are subject to bonds and 
imprisonments, and thereby kept from seeking need- 
ful and seasonable succour, it is our duty to inquire 
after such, and to afford them all the succour we can. 
Hereof see more, Chap. xiii. 3, Sees. 24, 26. 

The manner of setting down the four kinds of per- 
secution mentioned in this verse, thus, had trial, giveth 
us to understand that the persecutions of professors 
were real ; they had experience of them ; they had a 
sense and feeling of them, and in that respect haf" "^ 
triah See Sec. 251. 

If racking, if scourging, if bonds and imprisor 
be real persecutions, then were theirs real. ' , 

Such was the malice of persecutors, as ■' .7 , 
themselves to make professors to feel the ' § ^ 
their malice. *" , 

This sheweth the necessity of true sn ^. . -^ , "*^^' 

yea, and of the perfect work thereof '' . ' ,. ^. '^,, 
•^,. J ivii 1 ' extendms; itself 

only true and sound, but also larije. , ^ ? , , , 
. u e 4.- «iid constant, hold- 

to all manner ot persecutions; yea, „ . m, ',,r, , 

I * *i J Ti r More in The Whole 

ing out to the end. Hereof see.j^ ^^^^^^ 

Armour of God, on Lph. vi. > - "i 

Sees. 14-16, &c. 

Sec. 254. Of stoning praffT "^ '^' """'^ ^ 

Ver. 37. They u^erestot^'S'^Z"'-''''' 'TV'"''^'''' 

, J " , ■ f vnth the sword: they wan- 

toere tempted, were slaih'_ , ^ , . , .-' " 

, ; i ., • 7 7 /"*) <^nd goat-shms, heinq des- 

dcred about in sheep-skiL , " i v "^o 

titute, afflicted, tonnentL^' „ti . /. 

There are iA this vfc*^"'^;' ^°t' ^^ ^r'T"""^ 

set down, three of tfe,^"f . '\^°"S^' ^^^^^1!°'' 
1 *!, • f -ti ^ ^^t" t"eir blood : so as those 
to seal up their faitl^f^^_ 

were the sunerings ' „„ i ^i • ii i . j r 

rpi fi ,. f n° P' ^"d tue sixth kind of persecu- 

tion is thus°e^ ih^' ^'"^«"'''"^-. '^^'^ "'"•^ atoned. 
Uon, IS thus ey -» 're used is derived from a noun, Xiioi, 
The Greek verb heL, j,i,„ ^.-^ . ^^ they were 

wo^ntTo'ttw It- ^' ^-'' ^^' ^^-^^ ^^'^Z^^-- 




[Chap. XI. 

This kind of death was of old more in ii.se than 
now, and more common among the Jews than among 
other nati()n.s. 

It was a kind of death appointed by God himself 
to be indicted upon notorious malefactors, Lev. xx. 2. 

That this kind of death may be the better con- 
ceived, I will distinctly shew, 

1. How men were stoned. 

2. Why this kind of death was used. 

For the first, the manner of stoning was this : 
A malefactor being condemned, heaps of stones 
were prepared, and brought to the place of execution, 
where the malefactor was fiist bound to a stake, and 
then all the people took up stones, and threw at him 
till he was dead. In setting out this kind of death, 
it is said, ' the people shall stone them to death,' 
Lev. XX. 2 ; 'let all the congregation stone him,' 
Lev. xxiv. 14. For exemplification hereof, read Josh, 
vii. 24, 25. 

For the second, these reasons may be given of this 
kind of death : 

1. That all the people might testify their zeal and 
indignation against the crime so punished ; for in 
throwing stones against a malefactor, they strived 
who should be the forwardest. 

2. That the blame of condemning the malefactor 
might not lie wholly upon the judge ; for all the 
people, executing the sentence of the judge, thereby 
gave approbation of it. 

3. That there might be a more thorough expiation 
of the land from that crime for which the malefactor 
was stoned. As many men's conspiracy in sin, and 
making themselves accessory thereto, doth defile a 
land the more, so the zeal of many in punishing a 
public sin doth more cleanse the land. Josh. vii. 2G. 

This kind of death inflicted by persecutors on pro- 
fessors of tht truth giveth evidence of two points. 

1. That thev accounted profes.sors of the truth as 
notorious maleiactors, or at least that they would 
have the people so to account them. Hereof see 
Sec. 2.53. 

2. That many were brought to have their hands 
in the death of martyrs; for stoning was by the hands 
of many. The people were almost ready to stoiie 
Moses, Exod. xvii. 4 ; nay, they did stone Zechariah, 
2 Chron. xxiv. 21. 

The multitude cried to Pilate, and said of Jesus, 
» Let liim be crucified,' Mat. xxvii. 22. It was the 
multitude that stoned Stephen, Acts vii. 57, 58 ; so 
the people stoned I'aul, Acts xiv. 19; and the mul- 
titude of them at another time were ready to have 
torn him in pieces, Acts xxi. 30, &c. 

Experience of all ages have given too woeful proof 
hereof. o 

1. The greater sort of peopF j.'emain in their 
natural condition, and cannot e^^ *•■« the light of 
truth, which discovereth their dar ^ ( ■• 

2. They are of a foolish disposi; | ready to sway 

with the times, and to do as their guides do, though 
with them they run blindfold to their destruction. 
As silly sheep will follow one another, though it be 
into the water, where they may be all drowned, so 
the common people will follow one another even to 

1. Learn hereby to take heed of judging persons 
or matters according to the judgment and censure of 
the multitude. This is a caveat, which God in his 
law doth give, Exod. xxiii. 2. A multitude is prone 
to run downhill, as all evil is.* 

2. This may be a good item to pray for good 
guides in church and commonwealth, that thereby 
the common people may be brought into the right 

Where guides are idolaters, or otherwise corrupt, a 
pretence may be of taking away the life of God's 
saints by way of justice, though it be most unjustly, 
as in the case of Zechariah and others before men- 
tioned ; and likewise in the case of Naboth, 1 Kings 
xxi. 12, 13. 

Or otherwise, heady people may tumultuously rise 
against God's servants, as in David's case, 1 Sam. 
XXX. 6 ; and in Christ's case, John viii. 59, and x. 31. 

Sec. 255. Of sawing professors asunder. 

A seventh kind of jiersecution setteth out a second 
sort of death in this word, i'^oieSijeav, they were sawn 
asmidei: The Greek word may seem to be derived 
from a noun, rrsmv^ that signifieth a saw. The word 
here is properly translated according to the usual 
succession thereof. 

Some authors do also use it more generally for any 
cutting or pulling asunder; as in the story of Susanna, 
where it is said ' the angel waiteth with his sword to 
cut thee in two,' ver. 59 ; this word is used in the 
Greek. It is also used about cutting otf the tongue, 
and utmost parts of the eldest son's body, 2 Mace, 
iv. 7. 

We do not read in sacred Scriptures of any that 
were sawn asunder. But the Jews, among other 
their traditions, have this, that the prophet Isaiah 
was sawn asunder with a wooden saw in the time of 
king Manasseh. Epiphanius, in setting out Isaiah's 
life, noteth as much ; so doth Jerome, in the last close 
of the fifteenth book of his comment on Isaiah Ivii. 

Whether that be true of Isaiah or no, most sure it 
is that some have after such a manner been mart3'red, 
cither by sawing them asunder, or by pulling the mem- 
bers of their body asunder. This testimony of the 
aj)ostle is suflicient to assure us of the truth thereof, 
and it giveth an instance of the cruelty of persecutors, 
which sheweth itself even in the death of martyrs. 
They think it not enough to torment them before- 
hand, for trial's sake, to see if they can make them 
yield, nor after that to take away their lives, but to 
take them away with bitter and grievous torment, as 
sawing asunder, especially with a wooden saw. Thus 

Vek. 37.] 



Aiitiochus, after he had cut out the tongues, flayed 
oif the skins, pulled asunder many parts of the body 
of the seven brethren, fried them in pans to death. 
The Koman persecutors dealt as cruelJy with the 
martyr St Lawrence ; after they had scourged him, 
aud plucked off a great deal of his flesh with red hot 
pinchers, they broiled him to death on a gridiron. 
They roasted others to death on spits ; they boiled 
others to death in scalding lead ; they brake the 
bones of others, and let them lie on engines till they 
died. Other like cruel kinds of death they put others 

The ordinary kind of means whereby papists put 
niartyrs to death, is burning with fire, which is a 
cruel kind of death, especially as they used it; for 
Sdine martyrs were hours together burning in the fire, 
and some had limb after limb dried up with the fire 
bcfuie their breath was taken away. Some had bar- 
rels of pitch over their head set on fire, to drop down 
aud scald them on their head and other parts. Some 
were hanged upon a gibbet, with a pulley thereon, 
and a burning fire under them, into which they were 
let down till the lower part of their feet were burnt 
off; then drawn up and let down again, till other 
parts were consumed, and thus kept long under tor- 
ment. Time will not suffer to set down all their 
kinds of cruelty. See Sec. 2i5. 

The ground of all was their extreme hatred of 
truth, and malice against maintainers thereof, which 
made them cast out all bowels of pity, yea, it made 
them take a devilish dehght in cruelty. Herein lieth 
a difference betwixt cruelty that tends to death, and 
that which is in death. The former may be to make 
men yield, but this is on malice, and a mere devilish 

1 . This giveth instance of the depth of man's cor- 
ruption, which makes him as a devil incarnate, worse 
than the most savage beasts. Some tyrants have so 
far e.xeeeded in cruelty, as they have hired men to in- 
vent instruments for cruel kinds of death. Phalaris 
among the heathens is famous, or rather infamous, 
for this. Perillus, at his motion, made a bull of 
brass, hollow within, which with fire might be heated 
rod hot, and men put thereinto ; their crying out for 
that torture seemed to be as the lowing of a bull, and 
thereupon no pity taken of them. Other like things 
are noted of Dionysius, Kouseris, and other tyrants. 

2. These tortures do give demonstration of the un- 
conceivable supportance and comfort of the divine 
Spirit, whereby martyrs have been enabled with 
patience to endure what cruelties could be inflicted 
on them, and in the midst of torments meekly and 
sweetly to commend their spirits into God's hand, to 
the world's astonishment. 

3. How should this stir us up patiently to bear 
smaller trials, yea, not to be affrighted or discouraged 
with anything that man can do, but to rest upon this, 
that that God who hath enabled his servants in for- 

VoL. III. 

mer times to endure such exquisite tortures unto 
death, wiU enable us to endure what he shall bring 
us unto ! Pertinent to this purpose, is the advice of 
Christ, Luke xiv. i, 5. 

Sec. 2.5G. 0/ t/m danger of temptation on the right 

Betwixt the second and third kind of death, this 
is inserted, i'^nimaSridav, tvere tempted, which is the 
eighth kind of persecution. 

Great question is made concerning this word 
tempted; and concerning the apostle's inserting it in 
this place. 

Some conceive that it was not here inserted by 
the apostle, but put in the margin by some that 
would give a sum of all the trials here mentioned, 
and that afterwards it was by others put into the 
text. But thus it would imply a mixture of human 
inventions with sacred Scripture, which is not to be 

Others conceive the Greek word was mistaken, 
through the mistake of a letter (i/) ; instead whereof 
a vowel (.=/) is here used. For the Greek word with 
the single letter, £Tu;a.<!ir,aav, signifieth to be burnt. 
In sense this might well stand, and thus there would 
be four distinct kinds of death set down : 1. Stoned; 
2. Saivn asunder; 3. Burnt; i. Slain irith the sword. 
Many of our later expositors yield to this ; but see- 
ing all the Greek copies agree in the former, which 
is, were temjited, I suppose it is not safe to open such 
a gap to atheists and papists about the imperfection 
of the original. 

To take it, therefore, as it is in the text, were tempted, 
it may be inserted as a reason why they were put to 
such cruel deaths, even because, being tempted, they 
remained resolute, and would not yield to their per- 

Thus, in the next verse he inserts these words, of 
ivhom t/ie zcorld was not tvortli;/, as the reason why 
saints wandered up and down so as they did. 

In this sense it is agreeable to this phrase in the 
former verse, tluy had trinls of mockiiKjs, ifcc. 

Or else it may be taken for long and grievous 
oppressions, either by enemies in a strange land, or 
by cruel governors in their own couutr}', which by 
their long continuance, proved great trials and temp- 
tations, even worse than death, and therefore here 
set among the kinds of death. 

Yea, further, it may be taken for temptations on 
the right hand (as we speak), as riches, honours, pro- 
motions, immunities, pleasures, and other such like 
fair baits, and are here reckoned amongst the kinds 
of cruel death, because this kind of temptation was 
as dangerous as the cruellest death, if not more. For 
instance, take David, who, all the while he was per- 
secuted by Saul, and while ho had enemies in his 
kingdom, remained f;uthful and constant with his 
God; but peace and prosperity stole away his heart 



[Chap. XL 

to satisfy his lust, and to follow the same, to the 
taking away of the life of Uriah, 2 Sam. xi. 2, &c. 
Demas was an old disciple, and had long, in the time 
of fiery perseoitions, held the true faith ; yet, at 
length, the world made him revolt, 2 Tim.iv. 10. It 
is said of Antiochus, that ' by peace he should de- 
stroy many,' Dan. viii. 25. Though for many years 
after Christ was ascended the church was under fiery 
persecutions, yet then were the purest times thereof; 
and in that respect Satan is said to be bound. Rev. 
XX. 2. But when, through Constantino's and other 
emperors' largo donations to the church, they enjoyed 
peace, obtained much wealth, and attained to high 
honours, they proved, in time, to be antichristian. 
In this respect Satan is said to be loosed, Rev. xx. 3. 
Experience of all ages giveth further proof hereof. 
In the latter end of Queen Mary's days, there were 
sundry professors, who, for the truth they held, had 
patiently and courageously endured long and hard 
imprisonment, and other trials for the truth's sake, 
and had remained so constant therein, as they were 
condemned to death, and ready to be burned ; but 
by the sudden death of Queen Mary, were as brands 
pulled out of the fire, and set at liberty. Of these, 
many in the halcyon days of Queen Elizabeth, being 
preferred to high places, and having obtained much 
wealth, denied the power of godliness, and made 
shipwreck of faith and a good conscience. 
There are two especial grounds hereof — 

1 . The deceitfulness of these temptations. 

2. The foolishness of man's heart. 

1. This epithet, deceitfulness, is in general added 
to sin, comprising under sin all temptations that lead 
thereto, Ileb. iii. 13. In particular, it is attributed 
to riches. Mat. xiii. 22, and to pleasing lusts, Eph. 
iv. 22. Of the respects wherein sin is deceitful, see 
Chap. iii. 13, Sec. 148. 

2. The foolishness of man's mind herein appeareth, 
that it .so doteth on these temptations, as it is intox- 
icated therewith, and prefers them before all other 

Voluptuous persons are ' lovers of pleasures more 
than lovers of Ood,' 2 Tim. iii. 4. 

Covetous persons are ' idolaters,' Eph. v. 5 ; they 
make their wealth their god. 

Ambitious persons ' advance themselves above all 
that is called God,' 2 Thes. ii. 4. 

Baits are not more dangerous to the silly fish, fowl, 
and beasts, than these temptations to men. They 
are like a sweet poison, the venom whereof is not 
discerned till it hath soaked out the vital vigour in 
man, and become incurable. 

1. This informs us in the vigour of faith, that en- 
ables a man to stand against these temjjtations, as 
hath been exein[)lified in Mo.ses, vers. 24, 2.5, 26. 

2. This givotli proof of the subtlety of persecutors, 
who can so far fawn on them they hate, as to offer 
all pleasing things unto them. We have heard how 

persecutors could offer freedom to professors, if they 
would yield. Sec. 247. They shew themselves herein 
to be guided by the spirit of the old wily seqjcnt, 
who hath his wiles, Eph. vi. 11. Thus he tempted 
Christ, reserving this kind of temptation to the last 
place, which Christ resisted with greatest indignation, 
]\Iat. iv. 8-10. 

3. This instructoth us in the need, use, and benefit 
of crosses. They are especial means to keep us from 
those temptations, which are so dangerous. We have 
cause in this respect to bear crosses the more patiently, 
because they are means to wean us from this world. 

4. This teacheth us to moderate our de.sire of the 
things of this world, in that they are temptations so 
dangerous. ' They that will be rich fall into tempta- 
tion and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful 
lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition,' 
1 Tim. vi. 9. 

We ought, therefore, to be so far from an immo- 
derate desire of riches, as ' if they increase, not to set 
our hearts upon them,' Ps. Ixii. 10. 

5. This is enough to keep us from envying those 
that have this world at will, they deserve more pity, 
for they are subject to dangerous temptations. 

6. This also is enough to comfort such which want 
the preferments and profits and pleasures which 
others have. What want they? Nothing but dan- 
gerous temptations, snares, and such things as may 
make them for ever miserable. 

Sec. 257. Of persecutors seeking the blood of pro- 

The ninth kind of persecution, and last of the three 
which was to death, is thus set down, were slain with 
the sword, or word for word, '^v finiji /ia;^a/jaj aTetfam*, 
they died in the slauc/hter of the siooi'd. 

The sword hath in all ages been a usual instrument 
to put men to death therewith, and that by behead- 
ing them, or thrusting them through, or otherwise 
taking away their life. Much cruelty hath been 
shewed upon saints by the sword. 

I suppose that this kind of death is in the last 
place noted, to intimate the multitude of martyrs 
that by their blood have .sealed up God's truth. The 
apostle's phrase iuducoth me to suppose so much. The 
slaughter of the sword implieth a great slaughter. 

In this respect, a mouth, '3, os, is attributed to the 
swnnl; and the sword is said, 7DX, to cat or devour; 
and the same word, 2irr, which significth destruction, 
is put for a sword, beaiuse thereby many are destroyed. 
See Sec. 232. 

So many prophets and professors were slain with 
the sword in Ahab's time, as Elijah thought none to 
be left but himself, 1 Kings xix. 10. 

That which is here said of slain, or slaughter 
(fovifj), sheweth that professors may be brought to 
seal their profession by their blood. The first pro- 
fessor that ever was, was brought hereunto, namely, 

Vee. 37.] 



Abel, Gen. iv. 8; so was Zechariah, 2 Chron. xxiv. 
21. I have the rather named these two in particular, 
because Christ hath made especial mention of them. 
Yet so, as he implies many more betwixt them, under 
this phrase, 'all the lighteous blood shed upon the 
earth, from the blood of Abel unto the blood of 
Zacharias,' Mat. xxiii, 35. 

1. This ariseth from an immortal hatred of the 
truth, and an unsatiable thirst of the blood of pro- 
fessors thereof, in persecutors. 

2. From a secret fear that persecutors have of pro- 
fessors, thinking they can never be secure till they 
be sure of the death of professors. 

Hereby we see a necessity of preparing against the 
utmost that persecutors can do ; which is, to kill, 
Luke xii. 4. This caution is hinted, in this phrase, 
' ye have not yet resisted unto blood,' Heb. xii. 4. 
What advantage is it to have much resisted persecu- 
tors, if we yield before we die 1 

Sec. 258. Of the multitudes tvhich pei-secutois de- 

The instrument, whereby the forementioned slaugh- 
ter is made, is here set down to be the sword ; which 
gives a hint that a few martyrs satisfieth not perse- 
cutors: for slaying with the sword implieth the 
slaughter of many, Witness Ahab's persecution, 
which was so great as Elijah thought he had slain all 
that professed the name of God, 1 Kings xix, 10. 
Nimrod in this respect is said to be a mighty hunter, 
Gen. X. 9. It is said of Manasseh that he shed inno- 
cent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem 
from one end to another, 2 Kings xxL 16. An 
ancient father said, that there was no day in the 
year, except the first of January, wherein more than 
five thousand were not martyred, Papists have ex- 
ceeded pagans herein : witness their many cruel mas- 
sacres in France and other places ; witness their 
burning and otherwise destroying houses full, barns 
full, churches full, towns full, cities full, and countries 
full of professors of the truth. 

Their malice and thirst after the blood of professors 
of the faith is unsatiable. The Holy Ghost saith of 
the whore of Babylon, that she was drunk with the 
blood of saints, Eev. xvii. 6. It is said of Nero, that 
he wished all the necks of the inhabitants of Rome to 
be as one, that he might cut them all off at one 

1. This admonisheth those who live amongst such 
persecutors, and see their brethren martyred before 
them, to be the rather induced to prepare themselves 
for the like ; not thinking that persecutors will spare 
them, because they have exercised their cruelty on 
many others. We may as well think that a wolf will 
give over worrying sheep, because he hath worried 
many. The wolfish nature remaining in him, he will 
take all opportunity of devouring more. Conmionly 
wolves are made the more eager in seeking after 

others, by sucking out the blood of some : so is it 
with persecutors. 

2. This teacheth us to be the more earnest with 
God, in calling upon him to restrain the cruelty and 
unsatiable thirst of persecutors, and to keep the re- 
mainder of his flock from their clutches ; and thereby 
to shew himself the potent, pnulent, and provident 
pastor of his sheep. A good shepherd knowing the 
ravenous disposition of a wolf, when he observeth 
that the wolf hath worried some sheep, will with 
more vigilancy keep the other. But there is no such 
shejjherd as God : only he expects that we should 
take aU occasions of seeking help of him, Ps. Ixxix. 
1, 2, (fcc, Joel ii. 17. 

Sec. 239. Of flying in time of persecution. 

The third kind of sufferings here set down, are such 
as befell confessors. 

Confessors were such as professed the truth, and 
stood constantly to it ; but ha^dng a fair way made 
by the divine providence for escaping death, made 
use thereof : yet shrunk no whit at all from their 
holy profession. 

All their sufferings may be comprised under this 
word, tmndered about; but aggi-avated by many cir- 
cumstances, which we shall note in order. 

This phrase, teo/^X^ov, they vxtndered about, is the 
interpretation of one Greek compound word. The 
simple verb, 'ia-/oiJ.cti, significth to come, or yo. 

The preposition, teo/, about. It is very weU ac- 
cording to the meaning of the word, Ti^ihy^o/iai, cir- 
cumea, wandered about. They could not with safety 
abide in their own house, or home, and thereupon 
went into other places, and not knowing where to 
abide securely, they wandered up and down, as those 
that fled from persecution to save their lives. Here- 
upon a question is raised, whether a professor of the 
truth may fly from persecution. 

A71S. Yes, he may. The prophets have so done, 1 
Kings xix, 3, and xviii. 13. Yea, God is said to hide 
his servants from persecutors, Jer. xxxvi. 19, 26. 
Many Christians fled from Jerusalem by reason of the 
persecution there. Acts viii. 1. Paul also fled from 
persecution, Acts ix. 25 ; yea, an angel was sent to 
free Peter out of prison. Acts xii. 7. Chri-st con- 
veyed himself from persecutors, Luke iv. 30, John 
iv. 3, and viii. 59. Yea, Christ adviseth his disciples 
so to do. Mat. X. 23. 

Times m.ay alter, and more good may afterwards 
be done. 

The valiantest captain that is may see a fit occa- 
sion of leaving the field. That which the apostle said 
of his continuing to live, may be fitly applied to this 
case : to abide in the flesh is more needful for you, 
Phil. i. 24. 

Ohj. Christ proriounceth them blessed that .ire 
persecuted, ilat. v. 10, &c., and martpdom procureth 
a crown. 



[Chap. XI. 

Ann. These are grounds to move Christians to 
etand stoutly to their cause, when they are called, 
though it be by suffering death, the case so standing, 
as they must die or deny the truth. 

But as there is a season for all things, Eccles. iii. 1 , 
there is a time to fly, and a time to die. Christ, 
who oft avoided the danger of persecution, in the 
season of suffering, would not be dissuaded from it. 
Mat. xvi. :23, Luke ix. 51; but offered himself there- 
unto, .John xviii. 4. 

That we may the better apply this, we must duly 
weigh and well distinguish these circumstances fol- 
lowing : 

1. The persons. Private persons have more liberty 
than they who have a charge. These latter must 
stand to the utmost, even for their charge's sake. This 
Christ exeinplifieth in a good shepherd, John x. 11. 

2. The kind of persecution. There may be a per- 
sonal persecution against one particular person. In 
this case, Paul escaped from those that went about to 
slay him. Acts ix. 29, 30. There are also public per- 
secutions, in which professors by standing maintain 
the cause that is persecuted. 

3. The condition of persecutors. If sheep prove 
wolves, and people that are under good governors or 
ministers prove per.'iecutors of them, such shepherds, 
governors, or ministers, by flying, do no wrong to 
their flock and people, but good to themselves. Thus 
the Jews, even the common sort, proved persecutors 
of Christ, therefore he oft avoided their persecution. 

4. The time. Before a professor be taken, his 
hour of .suffering is not come. In that case he may 
prudently avoid : but being apprehended, as a pro- 
fessor, he must then stand to it, for that event shew- 
cth that then is his hour, Luke xxii. 53. 

5. The means of escaping. They must be lawful ; 
such as bj' the divine providence are afforded. If we 
use not such means, we may seem to neglect God's 
providence ; but to use unlawful means, as breaking 
bars of the prison window, forcing open of the doors, 
bribing the keepers, or any other like indirect means, 
is to make ourselves trespassers of the law, and 
malefactors. Thus the cause for which wc are first 
apprehended is lost, and such suffer as evil doers, 
which is exprcs.sly forbidden, 1 Peter iv. 15. 

Considering that there are cases wherein professors 
may avoid persecution, and cases wherein they must 
stand to it, 

1. Professors are to pray for wisdom, and also for 
a good conscience. Both are joined together by 
Christ, Mat. x. IG. By wisdom they may be kept 
from giving advantage to the adversaries of the gos- 
pel. By a good conscience they will be kept from 
giving offence to their bretliren. They must be .sure 
that the mark at which tlicy aim be good, whether 
they stand or fly. The ni;irk in general must be 
God's glory and the church's good ; for these two are 
inseparably linked. 

2. Charity is to be used in judging professors, 
whether they fly or die. As martyrs are not to bo 
condenmed for rashness, so, nor confessors for tinior- 
ousness. Prophets, apostles, yea, and Christ himself, 
saw a time when to escape danger, and when to stand 
to the uttermost danger. 

This land hath a great benefit, both by the courage 
of martyrs in Queen Mary's time, and also of confes- 
sors, that fled beyond the seas in her days. 

Sec. 260. Of confessors^ wanderings. 

This word, loander about, is taken both in a good 
and bad sense ; in a bad sense, for a sin or judg- 

For a sin, either in such as do wander, or in such 
as cause others to wander. 

1. In such as wander. It is a sin when men wan- 
der up and down from the charge or place where 
they should abide, or wherein they should be firm 
and constant. This the aj)ostle taxeth under this 
phrase, ' wandering about from house to house,' 1 
Tim. V. 13. In this respect the common course of 
beggars is questionless sinful ; but most sinful is their 
course who wander up and down to beguile such as 
know them not, as jugglers, sorcerers, and such as 
are called exorcists. The word here used, •zfsiis'^oij.itoi, 
is applied unto them, and translated ' vagabond.s,' or 
wanderers. Acts xix. 13. Like to these are Jesuits, 
friars, priests, and other popish vagrants, who wander 
up and down to ensnare men's souls, and to make 
them ' twofold more the children of hell, than them- 
selves are,' Mat. xxiii. 15. They are like those whom 
the apostle describes, 2 Tim. iii. G. 

2. Wandering is a sin in such as cause men to 
wander unjustly through tyranny, oppression, or per- 

Of these, the Lord thus saith, ' I will send unto 
him wanderers, that shall cause him to wander,' Jer. 
xlviii. 12, Lam. iv. IG. Such therefore are accursed, 
Deut. xxvii. 18, Ezek. xxxiv. 6. 

3. Wandering may be counted a sin in superfluous 
gentlemen, who upon mere curiosity travel from place 
to place, and that many times to idolatrous countries, 
where they are seduced to idolatry. 

Wandering is taken for a judgment when it is in- 
flicted as a punishment for sin. Thus the Israelites' 
wandering forty years in the wilderness was a judg- 
ment, Num. xxxii. 13, Ps. cvii. 40. It is threatened 
as a judgment, Ps. lix. 15. 

Wandering is taken in the better part, when men 
in God's cause, for maintaining his truth, keeping a 
good conscience, or for avoiding idolatry or any other 
evil, are forced to wander. Thus .4hraluim wandered, 
Gen. XX. 13 ; and sundry Levites and others in Jero- 
boam's time, 2 Chron. xi. 13, itc. In this sense is it 
here taken; so as believers may be wanderers; for 
this wandering is licre brought in as an effect of 
saints' faith j besides the instances before noted, this 

Ver. 37.] 



is exemplified in Elijah, 1 Kings xis. 3 ; yea, and in 
David, Ps. Ivi. 8. 

The grounds hereof are these, 

1. The envy and hatred of the world against them, 
which will not suffer them to sit safely and securely 
on their own nests. The men of this world are to 
believers as fowlers to fowls, and hunters to beasts ; 
so was Saul to David, 1 Sam. xxiv. 11, 14, and xxvi. 

Hereunto doth the prophet allude, Jer. xvi. 16, 
Micah vii. 2, Lam. iv. 18. 

2. Saints' high esteem of the truth of God, and of 
the peace and quiet of their own conscience, which 
they prefer before house and home, kindred and 
country. They had rather wander with a quiet con- 
science, holding the truth, than sit at ease in their 
own house, under their own vines and fig-trees, with a 
torturing conscience, upon denying the truth. 

3. God's wise providence, who opens a way for 
them to escape death ; yet so as their faith is proved to 
be sound by this kind of trial, which is a great one ; 
and in the consequence thereof may prove worse than 
a present death. Yea, further, God hereby kcepeth 
the light of his truth from being put out, and causeth 
it to shine up and down in more places, Acts viii. 
1, .1 

This being the condition whereunto believers may 
be brought, they who have settled places of abode 
ought to succour such wanderers. See Chap. xiii. 2, 
Sec. 12, &c. 

This may be a motive to such as are put to this 
trial, patiently to pass it through. It is no other 
condition than what the best saints have been brought 
unto. An apostle useth this argument to bear all 
manner of crosses, because no temptation taketh 
them ' but such as is common to man,' 1 Cor. x. 

This then must needs be a strong motive to endure 
this trial, because it is no other than what is common 
to all saints. 

That we may the better observe this, take notice 
of these rules : 

1. Be well instructed in the nature of this world, 
and vanity of all things under heaven ; how nothing 
is certain and sure. ' The fashion of this world 
passeth away,' 1 Cor. vii. 31. Why, then, should men 
seek a certain abiding in so uncertain a place 1 

2. Get assurance of that house, city, and country 
which is to come. Assurance thereof will make us 
more content to be without a house, city, and 
country here in this world. See Ver. 10, Sec. 17, 
and Ver. 13, Sec. 68, and Chap. xiii. 14, Sees. 138, 

3. In thy best security and most settled estate be 
a pilgrim in thy mind and disposition, as Abraham 
and other patriarchs were. See ver. 13. 

Herewith the apostle supports Christians, 1 Cor. 
X. 13. 

Sec. 201. 0/ ivamlerinij in sheepskins and (/oat- 

The first branch of the aggravation of confessors 
wandering, is by the kind of aiipurel which they wore, 
here said to be sheep-skins and ijofit-skiiis. The noun, 
dh/j,aTa, translated s/cins, derived from a verb, ohca, 
that signifieth to Jlc()/ : for skins <ire flayed off from 
beasts or other creatures. An adjective, ds>/j,dri\ioii, 
derived from the same verb, is translated leatliern, 
Mat. iii. 4. 

The two epithets, /ijjXwra??, a'r/iioic, joined with 
skins, thus, sheep-skins, goal-skins, shew what kind 
of skins they were. For the former is derived from 
a word, /j,fi\iv, that signifieth a s/ieep, and the latter 
from another word, o/^, that signifieth a goat. 

We call apparel made of such skins, leathern. 

Some apply this [to] coarse apparel made of the 
wool of sheep and hair of goats which many prophets 
and others did voluntarily wear, and that on these 
grounds : 

1. To shew their contempt of the world's vanity. 

2. To manifest their own content in the meanest 

3. To declare their compassion, sorrow, and mourn- 
ing for the iniquity of the times wherein they lived. 

4. To be distinguished thereby, and known from 
others. To these purposes it is said of Elijah that he 
was ' an hairy man, and girded with a girdle of 
leather,' 2 Kings i. 8 ; so of John Baptist, !Mat. iii. 4 ; 
so much is implied of Isaiah, chap. xx. 2, &c. In 
imitation of true prophets, false prophets so attired 
themselves, Zech. xiii. 4. To this may be ajjplied 
that which is spoken of sheeps' clothes. Mat. vii. 15. 

Others apply this to wearing of sackcloth, Ps. 
Ixix. 11, Joel i. 13. This of old in common judg- 
ments was much practised. 

Though the apostle's phrase may be applied to such 
kind of habits, yet his main scope is not so much to 
set out the attire, which sundry saints of old on 
special occasions did wear, and that voluntarily upon 
their own choice, but what through the violence of 
persecution they were forced unto, because they could 
get no better. This therefore maketh nothing for 
papists' superstition in wearing shirts of hair, grey- 
freeze, or other like coarse raiments. 

The apostle here meaneth such mean apparel as we 
call (somewhat answerable to these phrases) leathern 
pilches, or skuis of beasts cast over their back, and 
knit about their loins, so as they might be naked on 
many parts, and barefoot. 

Thus this implieth that saints may be brought to 
wear the meanest apparel, even to clothe themselves 
with sheep-skins and goat-skins. This phrase, ' They 
caused the naked to lodge without clothing,' ifec, 
Job xxiv. 7, may somewhat tend thereunto. The 
opposition made betwixt Dives and Lazarus, that 
Dives was ' clothed in purple and fine linen,' but 
Lazarus as a beggar (Luke xvL 20, 21), may intend as 



[Chap. XI. 

much ; so also tliiit wldch the apostle speaketh of 
cold and nakedness, 2 Cor. xi. 27. 

This giveth proof of the extent of the vigour of 
faith, whereby men are enabled, as patiently to bear 
reproaches, torments, and such other afflictions, so 
also want of apparel and such things as are needful 
for health ; and to put on anything that may liide 
their nakedness, be it never so coarse. 

This sheweth the vanity of over-brave and costly 
apparel. For if God's dear oue.s and worthies in tlie 
■world were .'^o meanly attired, as with sheep-skins and 
goat-skins, surely true glory and honour consisteth not 
in vain apparel. What the apostle saith of meat and 
drink, may fitly be applied to apparel. The kingdom 
of God is not therein, Kom. siv. 17. 

Take heed therefore of setting your hearts too 
much on outward deckings of the body ; you may be 
brought to such times and cases, as for keeping faith 
and a good conscience such bravery be abandoned. 
He whose heart is set upon apparel will hardly be 
brought to wander in sheep-skins and goat-skins to 
keep a good conscience. The young man that set his 
heart ou wealth, left Christ rather than he would let 
go his wealth. Mat. six. 21. 

This caveat is now the more seasonable and useful, 
by reason of that dotage which possesseth most men 
and women about apparel ; which yet is one of the 
basest dotages that can be : for it is not in anything 
that is in themselves, or done by themselves ; not in 
gifts of mind, not in parts of body, but in weavers, 
tailors, sempsters, and other like curiosities. This is 
such a bewitching dotage as makes many spend their 
estate thereupon, and pufFs them up far above that 
which is meet : preachers have just cause to take all 
occasions of beating down the pride of men and 
women herein. 

Sec. 262. Of the exlreme want whereunto coii/essors 
mail be hrowjht. 

The second branch of the aggravation of confessors' 
wanderings is, in this phrase, ior£joi/,u.sK)/, bthuj dtsti- 

Of the notation and derivation of the Geeek word, 
see Chap. iv. 1, Sec. 11. Here it implieth a want of 

When one wantcth this or that particular, then 
that particular useth to be joined with this word, as 
where it is said, CtrrEs^uajTo; oiujm, ' they wanted wine,' 
John ii. 3 ; but when it is put alone, it implieth a 
general want of all necessaries, as where it is said of 
the prodigal, ' he began to be in want,' Luke xv. 14. 
In this general sense it is here taken. Thus it is op- 
posed to a verb that signifieth to abound, as where it 
is said, -Tiiiaai-jiU, iariiiMai, ' to abound, and to suffer 
need,' Phil. iv. 12. 

Here it iuiiilieth that the intended confessors were 
left succourlcss ; they had no good apparel, as was 
noted in the former section, nor had they sufficient 

food nor other necessaries, nor yet did any pity them 
80 far as to supjtly their wants. 

Thus we see that saints may be brought to extreme 
exigencies. So was David, 1 Sam. xxi. 3. And Elijah, 

1 Kings xvii. 6 ; had not a raven brought him pro- 
vision, he might have starved ; and so again, had not 
an angel provided for him, 1 Kings xix. 7, 8. So 
Laearus, Luke xvi. 21 : and many others in all ages. 

1. God suffers this, that his children might be the 
rather moved to look up unto him, and wholly and 
only to depend upon him. External means are many 
times an occasion of drawing the hearts, even of 
saints, from God, Ps. xxx. 6. The wise man saith 
that ' the rich man's wealth is his strong city,' Prov. 
X. 15. 

2. God sufiFers this, that his succouring of them 
might be the more manifested and magnified. See 
more hereof in The Saint's Sacrifice, on Ps. cxvi. G, 
Sec. 41 ; and of uses that may be made hereof, see 
The Saint's Sacrifice, on Ps. cx\i. 3, Sec. 10. 

Sec. 263. Of ilie great perplexities whereunto con- 
fessors may he brought. 

The third branch whereby the wanderings of 
confessors is set forth, is in this word, 3X(,3&.u.£vc/, 
affiicieJ. Of the emphasis of the word, see Chap. x. 
33, Sec. 1 25. A noun, '^>.i-^ic, commonly translated 
ajiiction, is thence derived. 

The verb is applied to the pressing of grapes in a 
press, and to the pressing of people in a throng, and 
translated ' throng,' Mark iii. 9. It is oft metaphori- 
cally taken, to set forth some men's oppressing of 
others by violent injuries. It is applied both to 
outward oppressions and afflictions of the body, and 
also to inward perplexities and troubles of the mind, 

2 Cor. i. 6, and vii. 5. 

To join them both together, this sheweth that 
saints by persecutors' oppression may be brought to 
great perplexities, even to such as afflict them within 
and without, in mind and iu body, 2 Cor. vii. 5. 
Such were Elijah's pressures, as he wished to die, 1 
Kings xix. 4. The many complaints which David 
made, through Saul's persecuting him, give evident 
proof hereof, Ps. xviii. 3-5, and Ivi. 1, 2, &c. But 
the greatest pressures of all were Christ's, John xii. 27. 
See more hereof in T/ie Saint's Sacrifice, on Ps. cxvi. 
7, Sec. 44. 

Quest, How can perplexities of mind stand with 
faith 1 

Ans. Distinguish betwixt flesh and spirit, which 
are together in saints, and that doubt may easilj' be 
reconciled. Faith is a fruit of the spirit : perplexity 
of mind is a fruit of the flesh. Therefore, as the 
flesh and spirit are in the same subject together, 
so the fruits of the one and the other may manifest 
themselves in the same persons. 

Though these two may be together in the same 
person, yet believers must labour to subdue all the 

Vee. 38.] 



fruits of the flesh ; and in particular concerning this, 
they must take heed that outward crosses do not too 
much afflict their spirits. For this end, these rules 
are to be observed : 

1. Know that God hath a hand in all thy troubles, 
Ps. xxxix. 9, 2 Sam. xvi. 11, 12. 

2. Get assurance of God's favour to thee, Ps. xxiii. 

1, Heb. xiii 6, 2 Pet. i. 10. 

3. Acquaint thyself with God's promises, Isa. xliii. 

2, Heb. xiii. 5. 

4. Be instructed in the divine properties. 

5. Call to mind God's former works, and these 
both to others, Ps. xxii. 4, and also to thyself, Gen. 
xxxii. 10. 

6. Possess thy soul with patience, Luke xxi. 9. 

7. Stir up thy soul with wise expostulations, Ps. 
xliii. 5. See The Saint's Sacri^ce, on Ps. xi. 7, 
Sec. 48. 

Sec. 264. Of evil entreating confessors. 

A fourth aggravation of the wandering of confes- 
sors is in the last word of this verse, y.a.Ki,\jyoiiiiivoi, 
which we thus translate, tormented. It is a com- 
pound of a noun, xaxhc, that signifieth evil, and a 
verb, £;j^£o, that in the active signifieth to have, and 
in the passive, to be handled. According to the nota- 
tion of it, it signifieth he ill handled, or evilly dealt 
withal. See more of it on Chap. xiii. 3, Sec. 38. 
The signification which our translators give of it — 
thus, tormented — is an effect of the intent of the word ; 
for they that are ill treated, or ill handled, are oft 
tormented. In this sense, it may intend such points 
as were noted on this word, tortured, Ver. 35, Sec. 245. 

We will here handle this word in the proper signi- 
fication thereof, and shew that saints in their wander- 
ing find Ul usage. So soon as Israel came into the 
wilderness, the Amalekites set upon them, Deut. xxv. 
17, 18, 1 Sam. xv. 2. Edom, in the day of Israel's 
affliction, ill entreated them, Obad. 13, 14, Amos 
i. 11. Jeremiah much complaineth hereof. Lam. ii. 
16. The apostles, wheresoever they came, w-erevery 
ill entreated. 

There is but one naked, single, simple truth ; but im- 
piety, iniquity, falsehood, error, heresy, idolatry, and 
all infidelity, are hydras of innumerable heads. That 
one truth is light ; aU the forenamed hydras, and 
others like unto them, are darkness of several kinds, 
to all which light is contrary. Therefore, all that 
are of any kind of darkness do mortally hate and 
abominate both the light it.self, and all that hold 
it out, which confes-sors of the truth do wheresoever 
they go. Now, there being in every place some kind 
of darkness or other, how can it be but that confes- 
sors should be everywhere ill entreated 1 

Besides, Satan is the god of this world, and his 
dominion extendeth to every part thereof. He hath 
everywhere subjects that are guided by his spirit. 
But in confessors there is the spirit of Christ, which 

the spirit of Satan hath from the beginning resisted, 
Gen. iii. 15. How, then, can such look for any 
other than ill handling, wheresoever they are ? 

1. This should teach confessors not to be over-for- 
ward in removing from place to place, upon surmise 
that they may in this or that place be quiet from 
troubles. I will not deny but that in some places 
they may be more free than in others ; but, to be 
wholly free, they cannot be in any place of this world. 

2. This instructeth them that are forced to wander 
in sundry duties : 

(1.) To prepare themselves for evU entreatings, 
whithersoever they come. 

(2.) Not to think it strange when they meet with 

(3.) To bear them patiently. 

(4.) To get assurance of God's favour. 

3. This should stir up those that, professing the 
true fiiith, meet with confessors that wander, to shew 
them all the courtesy they can, and thereby declare 
that the Spirit of God is as powerful in them to shew 
kindness to others that have the same .Spirit, as the 
spirit of Satan can be to do any mischief to them. 

Of entertaining strangers, see Chap. xiii. 2, Sec. 15, 
ifec. ; see also Chap. xiii. 3, Sec. 28. 

Sec. 265. Of the world's xinworthiness of saints. 

Ver. 38. Of whom the world icas not loorthij : tliey 
tvandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in, dena 
and caves of the earth. 

In the former verse, the apostle having set forth 
the wanderings of confessors in habitable places, in 
this verse he further setteth them out in places un- 
habitable. But betwixt them, he rendereth a reason 
of theii- wanderings in the one and other kind of 
places, in these words, — of whom the world was not 
toorthy ; which in many Greek copies and sundry 
translations are included in a parenthesis. 

The reason is taken from the world's unworthiness 
of them, and compriseth a judgment inflicted on the 
world by this their wandering. 

The reason may be thus framed : 

It is just that they should be estranged from the 
world, of whom the world is not worthy : 

But the world is not worthy of confessors of the truth : 

Therefore, it is just that they be estranged from 
the world. 

The force of the argument lieth in God's just judg- 
ment against the world, manifested by removing such 
from it as might be means of much good to the world, 
if they were well entertained therein. 

This reason is here inserted, to remove an ofi"ence 
which might be taken at the wandering of confessors ; 
for many imagine that they are forced to w;uider 
from place to place, and are left destitute, afflicted, 
and ill entreated of all men, because they are an un- 
quiet generation, not worthy to live in any society 
among men. 



[Chap. XI. 

To remove this scandal, the apostle setteth the 
saddle on the riglit horse, and sheweth that [it] is 
not any unworthiness in them, but the world's un- 
worthiness of them, that causeth this dist;ince and 
separation betwixt them and the world 

That the form of this reason may the better appear, 
two points are to be cleared : 

1. Who arc meant by the u'orld. 

2. How the world is unworthy of confessors. 

Of the notation of the Greek word, x6e(j,o;, trans- 
lated lonrhl, see Ch.ap. iv. 3, Sec. 29. 

Of the nietonymical acception of the word worlJ, 
for the inhabitants thereof, and worser part of them, 
see Ver. 7, Sec. '32. 

Here in general it signifieth the company of evil 
men in the world ; and in particular, such as perse- 
cute and evil entreat confessors of the truth. In this 
respect t/ie world is opposed to such as confess Christ, 
and believe in him, John xv. 18, 19, and xvii. 14. 

The word, a^;o;, translated wortliy, is derived from 
a verb, v.yoi, which signifieth to jioise, and the meta- 
phor is taken from things poised : such things as, 
being equally poised, carry the same weight in each 
balance, are counted worthy of one another ; but such 
as are not of a like weight are counted unworthj'. 
Thus the world is very light in comparison of true 
believers, and therefore not worthy of them. They 
are not worthy in two respects : 

1. By reason of that worth which is in saints. 
A true believer, by reason of his interest in Christ, 
and of the abode of the Spirit of sanctification in 
him, is more worth than millions of worlds ; as a rich 
and precious jewel is more worth than many loads of 
filthy nmd. 

2. By reason of that benefit which saints bring to 
the places where they are. The world, through ignor- 
ance, taketh no notice of that benefit, or, through 

\ obstinacy, sconieth it, or, through malice, persecute 
them who bring that benefit ; and thus shew them- 
selves like hogs and dogs, and so are not worthy the 
society of saints. 

In this reason two things are necessarily implied, 
anH two others plainly expressed. 
(1:) The things implied are these : 

il.] The worth and benefit of saints. 
2. J 'li.e world's esteem of them. 
(2.) The 1 "<) things expressed are these : 

tl.l The worlu^'s vvleness. 
2.] The judgment toiA'Jwing thereon. 

See. 2G6. Of the worth of sulnts. ■ 

Of the first point employed, which is the worth 
and benefit of sjiints, see Chap. xiii. 1, Sec. 8. 

One special ground thereof is Cod's favour to them. 
A mortal king's favour may make a mean man pre- 
cious and of high account. I 

Instance Pharaoh's favour to Joseph, Gen. xli. 40, 
<kc. ; and Darius Lis favour to Daniel, Dan. vi. 3 ; | 

and Ahasuenis his favour to Esther and !Mordecai, 
Esth. ii. 17, and ix. 4; and the favour of other kings 
to their favourites in all ages. Much more will the 
favour of the eternal God, Almighty Lord, and King 
of kings, make men precious. There is a Hebrew 
word, D'TDn, which fitly answereth to our English 
\yc^vA favourite ; whereof see The Saint's Sacrijice, on 
Ps. cxvi. 15, Sees. 9.5, 9G. 

Another ground is their union with Christ. As 
Christ assumed man's nature in general, so he hath 
united in special their persons to that mystical body 
whereof he is the head : they are all called ' Christ,' 
1 Cor. xii. 12. In this respect they must needs be 
the most precious creatures of all. 

A third ground is the abode of the Spirit of God 
in them, whereby they are enabled to do much good 
wheresoever they come. 

1. This is a matter of high admiration, and re- 
quireth much gratulation. 

2. It is a great incitement to be of this society and 
fraternity : men will serve seven years or more to be 
of a good company ; but what company like to this 1 

3. This should make us content with this worthy 
estate and precious condition. With what estate shall 
any be content, if not with this ? The honourable 
man is in a slippery estate : witness Haman. The 
rich man holds an eel by the tail ; for ' riches fly away 
as an eagle,' Prov. xxiii. 5. The voluptuous man 
nourisheth an adder in his bosom ; for he that with- 
held nut liis heart from anj' joy, discerned 'all to be 
vanity and vexation of spirit,' Eccles. ii. 11. But 
believers, when they wander, have cause to be more 
content than they that dwell in stately palaces ; and 
they that are clothed with ' .sheep - skins and goat- 
skins,' have more cause to rejoice than Herod in his 
' royal apparel,' Acts xii. 21 ; when they are ' desti- 
tute,' they have more cause of content than Dives, 
who 'fared sumptuously every day,' Luke xvi. 19; 
when they are ' affiicted,' they are in a better condi- 
tion than Belshazzar, when he w;»s most ' merry with 
his princes, wives, and concubines,' Dan. v. 3, 4 ; when 
they are ' evil entreated,' they are better than they 
who are applauded as Herod was, Acts xii. 22 ; when 
they are ' tormented,' they are in a better case than 
they that ' stretch themselves upon beds of ivory,' 
Amos vi. 5. 

4. The worth of saints tcacheth them to walk 
worthy of that worth. The)' must be like the woman 
arrayed with the sun, which trampled the moon under 
her feet, Bev. xii. 1. Their wortliy walking is to be 
lieavenly-minded, and to have a h&ivenly conversa- 
tion. Their condition calls them to contemn the 
world ; and their want of a settled place in this world 
should put them on to wander heavenward, and to 
seek that city which is to come. So did wanderers of 
old, ver. 16. 

5. The aforesaid worth of saints is a great com- 
1 '"ort and encouragement against the scofl's and scorns 

Ver. 38.] 



of the men of this world. It i.s enough that (what- 
soever the world judge of them) they are precious in 
God's sight, that good angels answerably have them 
in high esteem, and that other saints account them 
as God's chiefest treasure. 

6. This affords a caveat to the men of this world 
to take heed of abusing these wanderers. These 
are they of whom the Lord saith, ' Touch not mine 
anointed,' Ps. cv. 15 ; and again, 'He that toucheth 
you toucheth the apple of mine eye,' Zech. ii. 8. God 
may in his unsearchable wisdom suffer his worthy 
ones to be tried, and thereupon suffer adversaries and 
persecutors to prevail against them for a while ; but 
assuredly, as God's precious ones shall not be utterly 
forsaken, so their adversaries shall not go scot free, 
2 Thes. i. 6, 7. 

Sec. 267. Of the uwliVs vile esteem of saints. 

The other thing implied is the world's esteem of 
saints, and that is a base and vile esteem, as if they 
were not to be regarded ; for the aforesaid instances, 
that ' they wandered in sheep skins,' itc, doth mani- 
fest a vile esteem of them. They neglected, they 
rejected, they iU entreated them. Lshmael had a 
mean esteem of Isaac, manifested by mocking him, 
Gen. xxi. 9 ; so had Saul of David, 1 Sam. xxii. 11 ; 
and Michal his daughter, 2 Sam. vi. IG. David's oft 
complaints hereof, Ps. cxix. 51, and Ixxix. 4 ; so Job, 
chap. xsx. 1, i&c. The prophets observe this to be the 
common conceit of the world, Isa. Ixii. 4, Jer. xxs. 
17 ; so doth an apostle, 1 Cor. iv. 13. Woeful ex- 
perience giveth too evident proof of the truth hereof 
even in these our days. 

This is so by reason of many corruptions in the 
■world : as, 

1. Ignorance, both of the true worth of saints, 
and also of God's high account of them. The world 
is blind in spiritual matters, 1 Cor. ii. 14. 

2. Unbelief. The world will give credit to nothing 
revealed out of God's word, Isa. liii. 1. 

3. False principles. As false rules of judging, 
which are outward show, sense, and worldly glory. 
The world sets too high a price on external and 
earthly things. 

4. Malice. This adds much to their blindness ; 
yea, it casts dust upon the eye of their reason. 

It becomes us to take heed of being beguiled with 
the -world's esteem and account of men ; yea, and to 
take heed that we be not over-credulous in believing 
the reports that t'ne world giveth, and rumours that 
it spreadeth abroad of saints. What vile reports did 
they give of John the Baptist, and of Christ himself ! 
Mat. xi. 12, 19. The like might be exemplified in 
every age of the world. 

Sec. 268. 0/ the world's unwotihiness, a cause of 
saints' u'andering. 

The first thing expressed in this reason of con- 

fessors' wandering, is, the world's vileness. The world 
is not worthy of them. 

This consequence is confirmed by this direction 
which Christ giveth to his disciples, ' inquire who is 
worthy, and there abide;' and, on the contrary, 'if 
the place be not worthy, let your peace return to 
you,' Mat. X. 11, 13; that is, let them receive no 
benefit from you. They who preferred the things of 
this world before communion with the great king, 
were counted not w'orthy of that favour to sit at his 
table. Mat. xxii. 4, 5. 

Christ accounteth them as swine who trample 
pearls under their feet, and as dogs who fly in the 
faces of them that bring precious things unto them, 
Mat. vii. 6. 

This should dissuade confessors of the truth to take 
heed of complying too much with the men of this 

This had almost cost Jehoshaphat his life, 2 Chron. 
xviii. 31. He was sharply reproved for it by a 
prophet, 2 Chron. xLx. 2. 

Saints do herein undervalue themselves, and give 
occasion to be trampled under foot, yea, and torn to 

The world may take great advantage hereby ; but 
saints may be sure to get no good. Should saints 
comply with them whom God thinks to be unworthy 
of them 1 

This is the second thing expressed ; for this phra.se, 
was not worthy, is here set down as a judgment, which 
followed upon saints' wandering from them ; so as 
the world's unworthiness depriveth them of the 
society of saints, which might be very beneficial unto 
them. On this ground Christ saith to the Jews, 
' The kingdom of God shall be taken from you,' 
Mat. xxi. 43. And it is expres.sly noted that Christ 
returned back again from the unworthy Gadarenes, 
where they besought him to depart from them, Luke 
viii. 37. 

This departing from the men of the world is some- 
times done by the world's forcing them. Thus, by 
reason of a great persecution of the church, professors 
are scattered abroad. Acts viii. 1. Sometimes by 
professors' voluntary leaving them ; for Christ gives 
this advice, ' when they persecute you in this city, 
fly you into another,' Mat. x. 23. 

Thus God, in his wise providence, maketh perse- 
cutors spoilers of themselves. Potiphar spoiled him- 
self of a very faithful and profitable servant, by cast- 
ing him into prison. Gen. xxxix. 20 ; so tlie Jews 
spoUed themselves of Christ, John vii. 33, 34 ; and 
of the apostles, who carried the light of the gospel 
from the Jews to the Gentiles, Acts xiii. 46, 47. 

1. Here we have one special reason of saints' 
suffering what they do by the world. It is not 
God's displeasure against them ; for in love to them, 
and for their present and future glory, are they here 
persecuted. It is for the punishment of the world, 



[Chap. XI. 

to deprive it of those that would be their greatest 
honour, comfort, and profit, if they were well enter- 
tained among theni. 

2. Herein ai)peareth the world's sottishness, in 
punishing themselves by their attempts to punish 

They may spoil saints of earthly habitations and 
revenues ; they may put them to bodily pains, and 
deprive them of life ; but they spoil themselves of 
the means of spiritual grace, of peace of conscience, 
and comfort of soul, yea, and of eternal life, and 
implunge themselves into easeless and endless tor- 

3. This sheweth whose case is the worst, whether 
theirs that arc persecuted, or theirs who do persecute. 
Surely if all things be duly weighed, we shall easily 
discern that the jjcrsecuturs' case is the worst. The 
persecuted, tlierefore, may say, ' weep not for us, but 
weep for yourselves,' Luke xxiii. 28. The persecuted 
arc as the figs, the good figs which were very good ; 
but persecutors like the evil figs. ' very evil, that 
cannot be eaten, they are so evil,' Jer. xxiv. 3. 

4. This giveth occasion to such as are deprived of 
faithful ministers, and godly neighbours, to examine 
themselves, and consider whether their unworthiness 
hath not been the cause thereof 

5. This exhorteth us to esteem ministers, saints, 
divine ordinances, and other holy things appertaining 
to the kingdom of God, so as God may account us 
wortiiy still to enjoy them, and not take them away 
by reason of our unworthiness. 

Sec. 2G9. Of the meaning of these tvorJs, ' They 
wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens 
and caves of the earth.' 

The apostle having shewed the true reason of 
saints' suffering in this world, returns to set out 
tlieir wanderings, not only from one habitable place 
to another, but also to desolate places, and habita- 
tions of wild beasts. Hereof he giveth four distinct 
instances : 

1. Deserts; 2. mountains; 3. dens; 4. caves of 
the earth. 

In expressing the main point of wandering, the 
apostle useth another word, r:\a\iJiiJ.ivoi, than before. 

Tiie former, Te»/^X()ov, implied a going up and down 
from one city, or town, or house, to anutiier, in hope 
somewhere to find succour ; but they utterly failed 
of their hope, as the forementioued aggravations 

The word here used implieth such a wandering 
as is without hope of succour — a wandering in un- 
known jilaces, when men know not whore they are, 
nor whither they may go, but are as blind men ; for 
they are said thus to wander. Lam. iv. 14, Deut. 
xxvii. 18. 

Tlic Hebrew word signifieth the very same thing. 
It is used of Abraham's wandering from his countrj', 

Gen. XX. 13, concerning which it is said, that ' he 
went out, not knowing whither he went,' ver. 8. It 
is also used of Hagar's wandering, she knew not 
whither. Gen. xxi. 12 ; and of Joseph's wandering 
in the field, Gen. xx.xvii. 15. 

The LXX do use to expound that Hebrew word 
with the word, rXaiaeiai, here used by the apo.stle. 
It is attributed to a sheep that goeth astray, called a 
wandering sheep, Ps. cxix. ult., Ezek. xxxiv. G, Mat. 
xviii. 12. 

The aggravation of this word by the places here 
expressed, sheweth that such a kind of wandering is 
here meant. 

The first is styled deserts, and that according to 
the true meaning and notation of the Greek and 
Latin word, iiri.aia, desertum — places deserted and 
forsaken of men, waste places, no way tilled ; none 
inhabiting there but wild bfasts. 

The second is, t'asa/, mountains. These, by reason 
of their height, are unfit fur habitation, and left 
desolate ; yet fit to hide from the sight of other men, 
Josh. ii. 16. 

The third, a-^rriXam:, dens. These were holes in 
rocks, which, by reason of the craggedness of stones, 
do many times grow naturally, and beasts oft take 
them for their resting-places. 

Sometimes holes in rocks are made by art of men, 
as the grave where Christ was laid. Mat. xxvii. 60. 
It is i)robable that Lazarus his grave was such a 
one ; it hath this name given unto it, azriXamv, John 
xi. 38, and we translate it ' a cave.' 

The apostle here seemeth so to take it, because the 
other place signifieth such a secret place, for 

The fourth place, according to the notation thereof, 
iTaT; rrn yri;, signifieth such a secret place as he that 
is in it may espy others, and not be seen himself; we 
translate it caves of the earth, so as this setteth out 
holes in the earth, as the former set out holes in 

Such as these, both men and beasts doth make. 

The former are oft in Scripture styled ' holes in 
rocks,' Isa. vii. 1 9, Jer. xvi 1 6 ; and they are dis- 
tinguished, as here, from caves of the earth. 

Some caves were so big as they could lodge fifty men 
together, 1 Kings xviii. 4 ; yea, six hundred ; fur 
David had an army of about six hundred men, 1 Sam. 
xxiii. 13, and they were in a cave together. When 
men were in dens and caves, it was when they durst 
abide nowhere else, as the Israelites, 1 Sam. xiii. 6, 
and the prophets, 1 Kings xviii. 4 ; therefore they 
are said to be hid therein. 

Ordinarily, and most usually, deserts, niountain.s, 
dens and caves of the earth, are the habitations of 
wild and savage beasts, Mark i. 13 ; which implieth 
that confessors of the true faith have less feared wild 
and savage beasts than persecuting men, for they have 
fled from the habitation of such men to the habitation 
of beasts. 

Vee. 33-38.] 



Sec. 270. Of confessors keeping out of the sight of 

The wandering of confessors in places not habited 
by men, such as were deserts, mountains, dens and 
caves of the earth, plainly denionstrateth that they 
lived in such times as they durst not be known where 
they were. This was the case of David, 1 Sam. xsiii. 
13, 16, and xxiv. 3 ; and of Elijah, 1 Kings xix. 3, 4 ; 
and of the hundred prophets whom Obadiah fed in 
two caves, 1 Kings xviii. 4 ; and of Jeremiah and 
Baruch, Jer. xxxvi. 26 : so of others in other ages. 

This so fell out, not upon any guilt or wrong done 
by them, but by the implacable hatred of the world 
against them. Could the men of this world get them 
into their clutches, they would do with them as dogs 
do with hares, even tear them all to pieces. As 
hares, therefore, and other like creatures, keep as 
much as they can out of the sight of hunters and 
hounds, so do these keep themselves from the sight 
of persecutors. 

1. Papists hence infer that it is lawful and com- 
mendable, yea, more than ordinarily meritorious, to 
live as hermits in deserts, dens and caves, to give 
themselves, as they pretend, to contemplation and de- 
votion ; but, to give a full answer to these — 

(1.) They clean mistake their grounds, for these 
did not voluntarily aflect such places ; they were 
forced to do what they did. 

(2.) Popish hermits and anchorites now dwell by 
towns, cities, and highways, to make a gain to them- 
selves thereby. 

(3.) They cast themselves out of all callings, where- 
by they might do more honour to God and good to 
men than by their pretended devotion. 

(4.) Their pretence of private devotion apparently 
liindereth public devotion, which is more honourable 
to God, so as they come under this censure of Christ, 
' Thus have ye made the commandment of God of 
none effect by your tradition,' Mat. xv. 6, 7. 

(5.) By solitariness men make themselves more 
subject to the devU. Then did the devil most 
fiercely set upon Christ, when he was alone in the 
wilderness, Mark i. 12, 13. 

2. This admouisheth us to get into acquaintance 
vdth God, to be well exercised in his word, to accustom 
ourselves \into divine contemplation and meditation, 
to be well instructed in the presence and attendance 
of angels or saints, that if we be ever forced thus to 
wander, we may have wherein to solace ourselves. 

3. Hereby we have a warrant of the lawfulness of 
saints concealing them.selves in time of persecution, 
Prov. xxii. 3. 

Sec. 271. Of pei-secu tors' cruelty exceedinghruteheasts. 

The places whereunto confessors wandered being 
for the most part such as wild beasts do accustom 
themselves unto, giveth instance that confessors ( f 
the truth have less feared savage beasts than per- 

secuting men. It is said of Christ, when he was in 
the wilderness, that ' he was with the wild beasts,' 
Mark. i. 13. 

Cruel men have been resembled to tlie most cniel 
beasts, as to a lion, 2 Tim. iv. 17, a wolf, a leopard, 
a bear, an ape, a cockatrice, Isa. xi. 6-8 ; yea, to such 
beasts as never were : such as are described, Dan. vii. 
4, ifec, because they exceed all beasts in savagenesa 
and cruelty. 

1 . Brute beasts make no difference betwixt profes- 
sors and others ; they discern not the image of God 
in man, nor the light of God's word, which do much 
incense adversaries of the truth. 

2. Brute beasts have not that wit to search after 
such as are out of their sight, as reasonable men have, 
nor can they so use the help one of another to find 
out such as they hate, as men can. 

3. Reason abused and perverted proves the more 
violent. Optimi corruptio pessima. As ordinary men 
are more violent than beasts to such as they hate, so 
false Christians, Dan. vi. 22, Luke xvi. 21. Auti- 
christians have proved more cruel than pagans. 

4. Satan puts on men to mischief mure than he 
puts on brute beasts. 

1. Herein we may see the power that Satan takes 
over men, when he is permitted. We may also see 
the depth of the corruption of man's heart, when man 
is left to himself and nut restrained. In such cases 
men are worse than brute beasts. Man's filthy de- 
light in sin is worse than any beast's delight in any- 

2. Hereupon we see great cause to pray, both on 
our own and others' behalf, to have our natural cor- 
ruption suppressed and altered. 

Sec. 272. Of the resolution o/Heb. xi. 33-38. 

Ver. 33. Who through faith subdued kingdoms, 
wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stojyped the 
moutliS of lions, 

34. Quenclied the violence of fire, escaped the edge 
of the sword, out qf weakness ivere made strong, waxed 
valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of tlie 

35. Women received their dead raised to life again : 
and others were tortured, not accejitiiig deliveraiice : 
that they might obtain a better resuiTection : 

36. And others had trial of cruel mockings and 
scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment : 

37. They were stoned, t/wy were sawed asunder, 
were tempted, were slain with the sword: they wan- 
dered about in sheep-skins and goat-skiris ; being 
destitute, afflicted, tormented : 

38. Of whom the world was not worthy : tliey wan- 
dered in deserts, and in mountains, aiid in dens and 
caves of the earth. 

The sum of these six verses is an enumeration of 
sundry effects of faith, all which may be brought to 
two heads — 



[Chap. XI. 

1. Great acts, vers. 33-3.5. 

2. Great sufferings, vers. 35-38. 

Great acts are in number, ten. Of them nine con- 
cern men, and one concerneth women. 

The nine concerning men are these in order — 

1. They subdued kingdoms. 

2. They wrought riffhteoiisiiess. 

3. Obtained promises. 

4. Stopped the moutlis of lions. 
H. Quenclied the violence of fire. 

6. Escaped the edge of the sword. 

In these si.x there is a distinct mention both of the 
several acts, and also of the subject whereon the dis- 
tinct acts were e.\ercised. 

7. Out of weakness were made strong. Here one 
thing is presupposed, namely, that believers were 
weak. Another expressed, that they were made strong. 

8. They waxed valiant in fight. Here we have an 
especial property of a believer, valiant; and the ex- 
tent thereof, in fight. 

9. Turned to fiight the armies of tJie aliens. Here 
■we have, 

(1.) The a,ct, put to flight. 

(2.) The subject whereupon it was exercised, 

(3.) The kind of persons whose armies they were, 

10. That effect of faith which concerned women 
is thus expressed, ivomen received their dead raised to 
life again. Here observe, 

(1.) The persons whose act it was, women. 

(2.) The act itself, received. 

(3.) The subject or thing which they received, their 

(4.) The great alteration of that subject, wliich 
was, to life again. 

The other head of fruits of faith are great suffer- 
ings, which are ten in number. Those may be re- 
duced to three heads. 

1. The sufferings of professors. 

2. The sufferings of martyrs. 

3. The sufferings of confessors, Sec. 259. 

Of the sufferings of professors, five distinct heads 
are set down. 

Of the sufferings of martyrs, four heads. 

Of the sufferings of confessors, one general one. 

The five effects of professors' sufferings were these : 

1 . They were tortured. This is amplified, 

(1.) By their willing undergoing their tortures, 
thus, not acce2>ting deliverance. 

(2.) By the end of their enduring, tliat they might 
obtain a better resurrection. 

2. They had trial of cruel mochings. Here observe, 
(1.) The reality of the thing, they liad trial. 

(2.) The kind of suffering, morkings. 

(3.) The extent of that kind, in this epithet, cruel. 

3. They were scourged. 

4. They were cast into bonds. 

5. They were imprisoned. 

Three effects of raartjTS were these : 

1. They were stoned. 

2. They w'ere sawn asunder. 

3. They were slain with tli^ sword. 

4. Before this last, this which was as dangerous as 
the other three, is inserted, thus, were tempted. 

The effect of confessors is expressed, in this phrase, 
wandered about; and it is aggravated, 

1. By the places whither they wandered. 

2. By the reason of their wandering. 

The places whither they wandered were of two sorts. 

1. Habitable by men. 

2. Habitable by beasts for the most part. 

The former sort of places is implied under other 
men's neglect of them. This is set down four ways. 

(1.) By their mean apparel, slteep-skins and goat- 

(2.) By their want, being destitute. 

(3.) By their affliction, afilicted. 

(4.) By men's evil entreating them, in this word, 

The reason of the wandering of confessors is taken 
from the world's unworthiness of them, thus expressed, 
of whom the world was not ivorthy. 

The places not inhabited by men, are expressed in 
these four kinds. 

1. Deserts. 

2. Mountains. 

3. Dens. 

4. Caves of the earth. 

Sec. 273. Of observations raised out of Heb. xL 

I. Faith doth things above human power. Such 
were many effects of faith here set down. See Sec. 

II. War is lawful. This act of faith, subdued, w.os 
by wars. See Sec. 227. 

III. Nations may be subdued by war. So much is 
implied under this word kingdonu. See Sec. 227. 

iV. Faith is operative. It is here said to work. 
See Sec. 228. 

V. The j>roper work of faith is rigfUeousness. 
Believers are here said to work righteousness. See 
Sec. 228. 

VI. Divine promises are tlie ground of faith. Those 
are they on which fiiith hath an eye. See Sec. 229. 

VII. Promises are received by faith. The)' are here 
expressly said to be obtained thereby. See Sec. 228. 

VIII. Faith can vanquish the fiercene.'is of unrea- 
sonable creatures. Lions are the fiercest of all, yet 
their mouths stopped by faith. See Sec. 230. 

IX. Faith freeth from the most violent, senseless 
crealure.9. Fire is that creature, yet by faith quenched. 
See Sec. 231. 

X. Faith prcserveth from the deadliest instrument; 
that is, the sword. See Sec. 232. 

Ver. 33-38.] 



XI. Saints may be toeak. This is here taken for 
granted, in this phrase, out of weakness. See Sec. 

XII. By faith such as are weak may be made strong. 
This is here plainly expressed. See Sec. 231. 

XIII. Valour is commendable. Believers are here 
commended for it, in this word, waxed valiant. See 
Sec. 236. 

XIV. Faith makes valiant. This is an effect here 
attributed to faith. See Sec. 237. 

XV. Faith makes valiant in greatest danger ; 
namely, infght. See Sec. 235. 

XVI. Faith makes victorious. This phrase, turned 
to flight, intends as much. See Sec. 238. 

XVII. War is especially to be against aliens. Their 
armies are here said to be turned to flight. See 
Sec. 239. 

XVIII. Women may have a strong fiiilli. The 
express mention of women proves as much. See 
Sees. 240, 241. 

XIX. By faith the dead have been raised. See 
Sec. 211. 

XX. Faith receives benefit from otliers' acts. Those 
believing women received their dead children raised 
by the prophets. See Sec. 242. 

XXI. Believers are enabled to endure -mre trials. 
Such were they which follow. See Sec. 243. 

XXII. J/atters of faith may be quoted out of human 
authors. Such were the authors out of whom the 
apostle quotes many of these acts of faith. See 
Sec. 244. 

XXIII. Professors of truth may be brought to ex- 
quisite torments for the truth's sake. Such were many 
of the torments here set down. See Sec. 245. 

XXIV. "True professors willingly endure their tor- 
ments. They would not be delivered. See Sec. 246. 

XXV. Persecutors can offer favour upon yielding. 
So much is here intended. See Sec. 247. 

XXVI. Faith in the resurrection makes 2^ofessors 
endure what they do. This end is here expressly set 
down. See Sec. 248. 

XXVII. The last resurrection is the best. It is 
here styled the better, in comparison of all other re- 
surrections. See Sec. 248. 

XXVIII. Believers suffer advisedly. The end 
which they propound to themselves demonstrateth as 
much, in this word, t/tat. See Sec. 249. 

XXIX. Believers suffer for their advantage. This 
phrase, t/iat they might obtain, intends as much. See 
Sec. 250. 

XXX. Mockings are a kind of persecution. It is 
[as] an instance of persecution they are here men- 
tioned. See Sec. 251. 

XXXI. Mockings pierce deep. Therefore this epi- 
thet, cruel, is added to them. See Sec. 251. 

XXXII. Professors are basely handled. For they 
are scourged. See Sec. 252. 

XXXIII. Professors of t/te truth are used as nude- 

factors. Witness their bonds aiui imprisonments. See 
Sec. 253. 

XXXIV. The things which professors endure are 
real. They have trial or experience thereof. See 
Sec. 254. 

XXXV. Stoning toas an ancient kind of death. 
Express mention is here made of it. See Sec. 254. 

XXXVI. Multitudes may luive their hands in per- 
secuting saints. For, in stoning, a multitude of 
people were used. See Sec. 255. 

XXXVII. Professors Iiave been sawn asunder. This 
is expressly set down. See Sec. 255. 

XXXVIII. The death of martyrs hath been with 
much cruelty. The distinct kinds of death here speci- 
fied demonstrate as much. See Sec. 256. 

XXXIX. Professors may prove martyrs. This 
word, slain, imports as much. See Sec. 257. 

XL. Persecutors make many martyrs. This instru- 
ment, sword, implies as much. See Sec. 258. 

XLI. Tempitations on the right liand are as danger- 
ous as cruel martyrdom. This word, were tempted, 
joined with sundry kinds of death, iutendeth as 
much. See Sec. 256. 

XLII. Such as suffer not as martyrs may prove 
confessors. For it is said that they xoandered, &c. 
See Sec. 259. 

XLIII. Believers may be wanderers. So much is 
here expressed of them. See Sec. 260. 

XLIV. Confessors may fly from persecution. The 
word ivandering, as here used, imports as much. See 
Sec. 259. 

XLV. Saints may be brought to loear leathern 
pilches. Sheep skins and goat-skins, here mentioned, 
imply as much. See Sec. 262. 

XLVI. Confessors may be brought to extreme want. 
They may be destitute. See Sec. 262. 

XLVII. Confessors may be brought to much per- 
plexiti/. The word, afflicted, implieth as much. See 
Sec. 263. 

XLVIII. Confessors are subject to ill usage. The 
word translated tormented, implieth as much. See 
Sec. 264. 

XLIX. Saints are precious and profitable. This is 
the reason why God suffers them to wander from the 
world. See Sec. 266. 

L. Tlie world hath a vile esteem of saints. There- 
fore it forceth them to wander. See Sec. 267. 

LI. T/te world u unwoithy of saints society. This 
is here plainly expressed. See Sec. 268. 

LII. The tvorld's uniro/ihiness of the society of 
saints, is a cause of their wandering. This is here 
expressed as a reason of their wandering. See Sec. 

LIII. Confessors have lived in such times as they 
durst not be known ivhere they were. The places not 
inhabited by men here mentioned, do prove as much. 
See Sec. 270. 

LIV. Confessors have feared persecutors more than 



[Chap. XL 

wilil beasts. For they have wandered in places where 
wild beasts were, rather than among persecutors. See 
Sec. 271. 

Sec. 274. Of (ill praiseivorthy having their due. 

Ver. 39. And these all, having obtained a good re- 
port tliroiigh faith, received not the promise. 

Tlic apostle, having distinctly and largely set out 
the vigour of faith by the admirable effects thereof, 
both in doing and enduring, in these two last verses 
he giveth the general sum of all ; so as here is avaxi- 
(pu.y.u,i!iii!ii, a recapitulation, or a brief recollection of 
the sura of all. 

The first word, xal, being a copulative, sheweth 
that all here meant did in general agree in one and 
the same faith, which made them all praiseworthy. 

This is made more clear by these general words of 
reference, oSro/ cavn;, these all. They have reference 
to all that were before named, and to all that are im- 
plied under any of the acts of faith before mentioned, 
and all others that wore, at any time before Christ was 
exhibited, of the true faith. 

This general particle, all, is a word of extent, and 
implieth all sorts of believers before Christ's time. 

This relative, these, is a word of restraint, and ex- 
cludeth all that are not of the faith before men- 

That for which they are here commended is, obtain- 
ing a good report. This is the interpretation of one 
Greek word, /iaPTUoriHsifTSi; whereof see Ver, 2, Sec, 6. 

The ground of that good report is here said to be 
faith, dia. TTii mdTiu:, even such a faith as is described, 
ver. 1 , 'for by it the elders obtained a good report,' 
Ver. 2, Sec. 6. 

This confirmeth that which hath been noted before, 
that faith esj)ecially makes men praiseworthy, and 
also that the worth of men hath had due testimony. 
See Ver. 2, Sec. 6. 

To shew that all that are praiseworthy have their 
due, he premiseth this general particle, all. He that 
saith all, cxccpteth none at all. Take a view of the 
before-mentioned catalogue, and you will find this 
general exemplified in all sorts of particulars : as in 
kings, instance David ; and in other governors, 
instance i\Ioscs, Joshua, Gideon, and others. In 
women, also, Sarah, Raluib, and others ; in old men, 
as Ntiah ; young men, as Isaac, when he suSered 
liimself to be bound and laid on the altar; honour- 
able men, as Jose[)h, the next in dignity to king Pha- 
raoh ; mean men, basely esteemed, as they that 
wandered up and down; rich men, as Isaac, Gen. 
xxvi. 13, 19 ; poor men, as they who were 'destitute.' 
There can hardly be named any sort of believers that 
have not obtained good report. 

There is no respect of persons with God, Eom. x. 
12, Eph. vi. 9. 

This is a good inducement to all of all sorts to do 
what they can to get faith. Let none sufler any ex- 

ternal condition to be an impediment thereunto. This 
incitation is so much the more needful, because men 
are too prone to pervert that extei-nal condition and 
state wherein they are, so as to hinder their spiritual 
good, and that by jjutting it off from one to another. 
Great men think it concerns mean men most, because 
they are well enough with their outward condition ; 
but wretched is that outward estate that is destitute 
of faith, though never so great. Mean men put it oflF 
to great ones, as having more leisure thereunto ; but 
a man were better find leisure to get faith, than food 
for his body. It is usual in other diflerent estates 
to put off all care of getting faith from one to an- 
other, which argueth egregious folly. 

Surely such plainly shew that they are not of the 
society of true saints. They are none of those, nor like 
those that are mentioned in this catalogue of praise- 
worthy persons, that obtained a good report through 
faith. They are not simply all, but, as is here ex- 
pressed, all these; those that are named, and others 
like unto them. Praiseworthy men are a choice 
sort, Many more than these lived before Christ ex- 
hibited, yea, lived in the time and place that some of 
these did, yet received no good report. Cain lived 
and offered a sacrifice with Abel, yet was none of 
those. Ham was in the ark with Shem ; Ishmael in 
Abraham's family with Isaac ; Esau in the same 
womb with Jacob ; Dathan and Abiram came 
through the Red Sea with Caleb and Joshua : many 
other wicked unbelievers were mixed with believers, 
yet they obtained not such good report as believers 

Though their outward condition were alike, yet 
their inward disposition was much different. Unbe- 
lievers had not the same matter of good report in 
them, as believers had. No marvel then that they 
had not such good report. 

Quest. ^lay not hypocrites carry themselves as the 
upright, and so gain such report? 

Alls. 1, Before men they may; but not in their 
own conscience, nor before good angels, much less 
before God, 

2. Hypocrites may appear for a time to be such 
and such ; but when, as corn that wants rooting, they 
wither, when the veil of their hypocrisy falls off, and 
they are discovered, then that report withereth. 

3. Though their hypocrisy should not be discovered 
in this world, yet in tiie world to come it shall be. 
Then they shall have shame and horror, instead of 
good report. 

Much are they deceived who conceive that they 
may partake of the privileges of believers, though 
they be no believers. At Christ's coming to judg- 
ment, two shall be in one bed, two grinding together, 
two in the field together, yet one taken, the other 
left, Luke xvii. 34, 35. An apostle giveth three 
famous instances hereof : one, of the angels that stood, 
and fell ; another, of them that entered into the ark, 

Vek. 39.] 



and that refused : the third, of the Sodomites, and 
Lot, 2 Pet. ii. 4-7. 

Therefore it stands every one in hand thoroughly 
to try himself, that if he find true faith in himself, 
he may have the more sound comfort, and expect 
this good report : if he have it not, then to labour 
for it. 

Sec. 275. Of Christ, th^e prime promise. 

The forementioned vigour of faith is much ampli- 
fied, in these words, received not the promise. As the 
words lie, they are a simple proposition, and a plain 
denial of a privilege ; but by the inference of the next 
verse, it appears that they are made a ground of a com- 
parison betwixt believers that lived before Christ was 
exhibited, and believers that lived after. They re- 
ceived not the promise, but ive have received it. 
Bring the foresaid simple proposition into a discretive, 
and the amplification will more clearly appear, thus, 
though they received not the promise, yet through 
faith they obtained a good report. 

Promise is here metonymically taken for the thing 
promised, as oft in this epistle. 

For the notation of the word, i'rrayyO.ioi, promise, 
see Chap. iv. 1, Sec. 6. 

Of the word, ixo/i/aavrsf, which we translate received, 
see Ver. 19, Sec. 100. 

Of receiving, and not receiving promises, see Ver. 
33, Sec. 229. 

Here the word promise, being of the singular num- 
ber, implieth some eminent, excellent thing promised, 
and this is Christ Jesus himself, who is elsewhere 
set forth under this word promise, as Acts iL 39, and 
xxvi. 6. Christ is said to be given according to the 
promise, Acts xiii. 23 ; and God's promise is said to 
be fulfilled in raising up Jesus, Acts xiii. 32. 

Christ must needs be the prime promise, in that 
he is the first promise since Adam's fall, Gen. ii. 15, 
and in that he is the complement, or accomplishment 
of all other promises, 2 Cor. i. 20. 

This might be exemplifi.ed by sundry promises 
made in the Old Testament, and manifested to be 
accomplished in the New, by this and such like 
phrases, ' All this was done that it might be fulfilled,' 
&c.. Mat. i. 22. 

1. This giveth evidence of the free grace, and rich 
mercy of God, in making and accomplishing such a 
promise. It must needs be free, in that there could 
be nothing in man to deserve such a promise. Glo- 
rious angels, glorified saints, man in his innocency, 
were not worthy of such a promise, much less may 
sinners be thought worthy. If Jacob were ' less than 
the least of God's mercies,' much more less is he 
than this, the greatest of all. 

2. The greatness of the promise doth manifest and 
magnify the rich mercy of God. Mention is made of 
' great and precious promises,' 2 Pet. i. 4, but in re- 
ference hereunto. Of all promises, this is the greatest 

and most precious. This is that treasure and pearl 
whereof Christ speaketh. Mat. xiii. 44, 46. 

3. This promise should make us faithfully promise 
and vow ourselves, all that we have, and all that we 
can do, unto God. 

4. This promise gives us good ground in all doubt- 
ings, when through weakness of the flesh we are 
brought to stagger, and to question the truth of any 
promise, to meditate thereon, and to reason with our- 
selves from the greater to the less — thus, God having 
made good this great promise, will not fail of others • 
all depend on this, Rom. viii. 32. 

Sec. 276. Of Christ, the prime proviise, not received 
hy true believers. 

Of the believers before mentioned, and of others 
that lived before Christ was exhibited, it is said that 
they received not the promise— that i.s, saints under 
the Old Testament had not an actual exhibition of 
Christ, This was one of the promises, concerning 
which it was said of the patriarchs, ' they received 
not the promises,' ver. 13. In this respect it is said 
that ' many prophets and righteous men desired to 
see those things,' Mat. xiii. 17, namely, Jesus Christ 
incarnate, living, preaching, working miracles, ic, 
and that ' the prophets inquired and searched dili- 
gently about those things,' 1 Pet. i. 10. Therefore 
they did not enjoy them. 

God was herein pleased to manifest his wisdom in 
reserving such a promise to a fulness of time, Gal. iv. 
4, and that — 

1. That his goodness might by degrees increase, as 
the sun doth, and so be the better discerned ; for by 
degrees it was more clearly revealed. 

2. That so great a blessing might be the more ex- 
pected, inquired after, and longed for. 

3. That the patience and other graces of saints 
might be the better exercised. 

4. That Christ himself might be the more honoured, 
in that he was reserved to the latter age of the world, 
as being a blessing which surpassed all other bless- 
ings before it. 

1. Hereby we have instruction in the nature of 
faith, which is to rest upon promises for things future, 
as if they were actually accomplished. 

2. This doth much amplify the faith of former 
believers, in that they did and endured so great thinga 
for Christ before they enjoyed him. 

3. It checks our backwardness and dulness in be- 
lieving, who live in the times wherein the promise 
may be and is received. 

4. This should stir us up to seek to excel them, in that 
we have received the promise, which they received not. 

Sec. 277. Of God's provi<knce in ordering men's 
different privilege. 

Ver. 40. God having provided some better thing for 
us, that tlt^y witlwul us should not be made perfect. 



[Chap. XI. 

In this last verse is laid down the privilege of be- 
lieving Cbii.stians above believing Jews. The author 
of that privilege is expressly said to be Qehi, God. 
God maketh the estates of men to differ. That 
which Eve said of a third son, ' God hath appouited 
me another seed instead of Abel,' gives proof hereof, 
Gen. iv. 25. So also doth that which is said to Noah 
finding grace in the eyes of the Lord, Gen. vi. 8. 
And the promi.se which God made to Abraham, Gen. 
xii. 1, 2; and renewed, Gen. xvii. 20, 21. This is 
most lively exemplified in Isaac's two sons, even when 
they were in their mother's womb. Gen. x.\v. 23, 
Mat. i. 2, 3. The apostle plainly cxpresseth the 
point, 1 Cor. iv. 7. Hence it is that they who are 
called out of the world are styled ' God's elect,' or 
' the elect of God,' Rom. viiL 33, Titus i. 1, Col. iii. 

The tniest and highest reason that can be given 
hereof is here set down by this word, 'Tr^ofSXi^afj-ivou, 
Juiving jnvi'kled. The Greek word is a compound, 
and signifieth, according to the true notation of it, to 
foresee. Our last English translators have noted as 
much in the margin. Now God's foresight is opera- 
tive ; what he foreseeth to be good and meet he efiect- 
eth, and therefore his foreseeing of this and that is 
justly styled a providing it. Thus also the Hebrew 
word, 7\VC\, which signifieth to see, being applied to 
God, implicth his providing this or that, and so is 
translated. Gen. xx. 8, 1 Sam. xvi. 1. 

Foresight cannot properly be attributed to God, 
because all things past and future are present to him. 
But for teaching's sake in relation to us, unto whom 
times are distinct, is it applied to God. Thus God 
is said to foresee such things as he doth determine 
and decree. For distinction's sake to our better under- 
standing, God determining and decreeing such things, 
doth thereupon foresee that answerably they will fall 
out : yea, thereupon he provideth that in their season 
they do infallibly so and so f:ill out. 

'Thus this word is here fitly used, to shew the 
reason and cause why the better things were reserved 
to the later times. Even because God having deter- 
mined them so to be, foresaid' it to be the fittest so 
to be ; for ' God worketh all things after the counsel 
of his own will,' Eph. i. 11. There can be nothing 
of'^ God to move him to do what he doth, Ps. cxv. 3. 

And in man there can be nothing : for in man's 
best estate he had what he had of God. God gave 
him his being, and God endued him with all that ex- 
cellency which then he had, comprised under tliis 
phrase, ' image of God,' Gen. i. 20, 27. 

But since man's fall, all are under sin: 'there is 
none righteous, no, not one,' lloni. iii. 10. Well 
therefore miglit the apostle say, ' it is not of him that 
wiUeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that 
sheweth mercy,' Rom. ix. 10. 

1. This directeth such as desire any excellency to 

' Qu. ' Foresaw' !— Ed. ' Qu. ' Out of ' ?— En. 

be di.stinguished from other common natural men, as 
excellency of knowledge, excellency of faith, or ex- 
cellency of any other grace, yea, or excellency of 
means of grace, to look to the author and fountain 
whence that excellency cometh, and to consider the 
ground that moveth God to do what he doth. ' If 
any hath [not] wisdom, let him seek it of God,' <fec., 
James i. 5. 

2. This may be a caveat to such as have obtained 
any excellency above others, to take heed that they 
boast not therein, 1 Cor. iv. 7. That excellency arose 
not from a man's self, neither was there anything in 
him to move God to confer what he hath done upon 
him. Dent. ix. 4-7, Rom. xi. 18. All Christians, 
who in the light of the gospel excel Jens, Turks, and 
all infidels, may apply this. So all Protestants to 
whom the errors of antichristianism are revealed ; so 
they who have the jiovver of godliness in them above 
ordinary formal professors. ' God is the judge : be 
putteth down one, andsettethup another,' Ps. Ixxv. 7. 

3. We hereby learn to return the glory of all that 
excellency which God hath provided for ns above 
others, unto the author thereof, who maketh thee so 
differ, Rom. xi. 3.5, 36; yea, also to use all to the 
glory of his name, 1 Cor. x. 31. Thus wiU the Lord 
never repent his conferring any excellency upon such 
grateful persons. Ingratitude is it which moves him 
to withdraw blessings bestowed; but gratitude moves 
him to increase them. 

Sec. 278. Of Gods providing the better things for 
the Cliristian church. 

That which God is said to have provided for 
Christians is thus expressed, some better thing, that is, 
a better estate, or better means for the church's 
good ; or rather, Christ himself exhibited. He is 
that better thing that excels all other better things 

Of the various acceptions of this word better, see 
Chap. i. 4, Sec. 30. 

Of better things reserved to the time of the gospel, 
see Chap. ii. 3, Sec. 21. 

This in general sheweth that God's providence is 
still to the better. Hereof see more in 'The Progress 
of God's Providence, on Ezek. xxxvi. 11. Hence is 
it that it is said of believers that they ' desire a better 
country,' Yer. 16, Sec. 75; and that their hope is 'a 
better hope,' see Chap. vii. 19, Sec. 87; and the cove- 
nant made to them a ' better covenant,' see Chap, 
viii. 8, Sec. 53. 

1 . Due notice is to be taken of God's wisdom, in 
causing his goodness so to increase for the better ; 
that so our hearts may be the more enlarged to admire 
and magnify the same. This is the end that God 
aimeth at herein. We must not suffer God to fail of 
his end. 

2. Herein we ought to shew ourselves children of 
God, wc must still grow and increase in all goodness. 

Ver. 40.] 



Thus shall we shew ourselves to be of the kingdom 
of God, in whom the Spirit of God is. For the king- 
dom of God, and things appertaining thereunto, are 
like mustard-seed, which, being of the least kind of 
seeds, groweth up to be as a tree, Mat. xiii. 31. 

The forementioned better thing, is expressly said 
to be provided for us. Under this phrase he com- 
priseth himself, that lived after Christ was exhibited, 
and all others that lived and believed from Christ's 
first coming in the flesh, and shall live and believe to 
his second coming : so as the best things have been 
provided for the Christian church ; even that church 
which hath been, and shall be under the New Testa- 
ment. ;Most of the great and glorious things that 
were prophesied of by the prophets of old. were con- 
cerning these times, which are styled ' the last days,' 
Isa. ii. 2, Acts ii. 17, Heb. i. 2. Hereupon an apostle 
saith of the better things here understood, that ' it 
was revealed unto the prophets, that not unto tliem- 
selves, but unto us they did minister the things, 
which are now reported,' I Peter i. 1 2. Hereof see 
more in The Progress of God's Providence, on Ezek. 
XXX vi. II. 

Sec. 279. Of the meaning of these words, ' That 
they withoxit us should not he made perfect. 

An especial end why God made so great a differ- 
ence betwixt former and later times is thus expressed, 
that thei/ without as should not be made perfect. 

By this relative, t/i^i/, are meant such believers as 
lived and died before Christ was exhibited. Indeed 
this relative, thei/, is not expressed in the Greek ; but 
yet necessarily understood, for the verb 7nade per- 
fect hath reference to the relative, ouro/, these, in the 
beginning of the former verse. 

By this other relative, ri'Muit, us (joithout us), are 
meant believing Christians. 

Of the word, nXnuSSiai, translated made perfect, 
see Chap. ii. 10, Sec. 97. 

There the derivation and diverse acception of the 
word is set down. 

Great question is here made about the meaning of 
the phrase. 

Because the perfection of a thing consisteth in the 
well finishing thereof, and a full accomplishment of 
all things appertaining thereto, this word, whose deri- 
vation is taken from t'sXo;, the end of a thing, is here 
and in sundry other places translated, to make per- 
fect in the active, and to be made perfect in the 

This, therefore, some apply to the glory of saints 
in heaven, wherein their perfection consisteth. Thus 
is this word used, chap. sii. 23. 

It may not be denied but that the eternal glory of 
saints in heaven is comprised under their perfection : 
for tUl then they are not fully perfected. 

But in regard of tlic degrees whereby that perfec- 
tion is attained, and the means of attaining thereunto, 

Vol. III. 

those means and degrees are not to be excluded. 
These are : 

1. The taking away of siu, which maketh man 
most imperfect ; and the putting on of righteousness, 
which makes us appear perfect before God. This is 
done by the obedience of Christ, both active and pas- 
sive, whereby we are justified hi God's sight, Eom. 
V. 19. 

2. The subduing of the power of sin in us, and en- 
abling u.s to walk in hoUness and righteousness. This 
is done by the Spirit of Christ conveyed into us ; 
whereby we are sanctified, Eom. viii. 11. 

3. The Spirit enableth such as are united to Christ 
to stand against all assaults, and to persevere in a 
spiritual growth till they come to be perfect men in 
Christ, Eph. iv. 13. 

4. The receiving of the soul to glory when it leaves 
the body. In assured confidence hereof, not only 
Christ, Luke xxiii. 4G, but Stephen also, Acts vii. 59, 
commended his soul to God. 

5. The resurrection of the body to eternal life, John 
V. 28, 29. 

6. The uniting of body and soul together again ; 
and settling them in glory eternally, ilat. xxLi. 32. 
Christ's argument, as it holdeth for the resurrection 
of the body, so for the union of them with their 
souls. For God is not the God of our bodies alone, 
but of our persons, consisting of body and soul. 

All these are the degrees of man's perfection. None 
of them may be left out. In all these were believing 
Jews made perfect ; and in all these are, and shall be, 
all believing Christians made perfect. And without 
eveiy one of them can none of them be made perfect. 

Quest. 1. How then is perfection denied to them, 
as it seemeth to be denied in this phrase, that they 
should not be made perfect 1 

Ans. It is not simply denied ; but restrictively in 
relation to us. Therefore it is added irithout us. 

Quest. 2. How doth their perfection dei)end on us, 
or on our perfection? 

Ans. 1. In that the resurrection of the bodies of 
all believers shall be at once, and so their perfect con- 
summation in body and soul, John v. 28, 29. Abel, 
the first believer that died, and all others after him, 
must rest ui their graves till the last of God's elect 
be perfected. 

2. In that the means of perfecting believing Jews 
were reserved to our times; which were Christ's incarna- 
tion, subjection to the law and accomplishment thereof, 
oblation of himself a sacrifice, resurrection from the 
dead, and ascension into heaven. All tiiese were in 
the last days ; in the time of the Jewish church they 
were not actually done. If in our days they had not 
been done, those ancient believers had not been per- 
fected. But being all actually done in our days, we 
thereby are perfected, and they also are perfected Ts-ith 
us. For they believed that in the latter days they 
should be accomplished, as indeed they were; and by 



[Chap. XI 

that faith they were justified and sanctified in tliis 
life, died a blessed death, had their souls received to 
heaven, shall have their bodies raised and united to 
their souls to enjoy eternal rest and glory : as we also 
who believe in Christ exhibited. 

This I take to be the clear meaning of the text. 

Hereby sundry errors raised from tlicnce are plainly 

1. None of the souls of the faithfid shall be in 
heaven till the last day. 

This was the opinion of many ancients — as of Tcr- 
tullian, Vigilantius, and others. Among other argu- 
ments they press this text. But they err, not knowing 
the Scriptures, nor the power of God, Mat. xxii. '2'J. 
For they apply that to the soul separated from the 
body, which belongeth to the last union of body and 
soul together. 

I deny not but that by Christ's entrance into 
heaven, there was a great access of joy and glory to 
such saints as were dead, in their souls glorified 
before. But that then their souls should first enter 
into heaven may and must be denied. 

Besides, they take that to be spoken of the efi"ect, 
■which is meant of the actual exhibition of the means. 
Whereas the means of making men perfect, which 
was Chri.st, was not actually exhibited before the last 
days, they deny the eff"ects thereof, which is the per- 
fecting of saints thereby. 

Quest. Could the efi"ect be before the cause? 

Ans. 1. The highest procuring cause was before the 
effect ; which was God's decree and purpose. 

2. So also was a primary efficient cause, God's jiro- 
mise, Gen. iii. 15. 

3. So likewise the virtue and efiicacy of the work- 
ing cause, Kcv. xiii. 4. 

4. The instrumental or applicatory cause, which is 
faith, Heb. xi. 1. 

As they who maintain the foresaid errors mistake 
the main ground thereof, which is this text, so they 
go against the current of other scriptures, which are 
these and other like, 2 Cor. v. 1,2, &c., Luke xxiii. 
43, Phil. i. 23. 

A second error is this : The souls of the faithful 
■were in a place in the uppermost part of hell, called 
Limhu.1 Patriim. Of this see Chap. viii. 8, Sec. 50. 

A third error is this : The souls of the fiiithful 
before Christ were in a place of beatifical vision, but 
not in heaven. 

This is the error of some Protestants, who cut but 
a thread betwixt themselves and papists. Hereof see 
more Chap. viii. 8, Sec. 50. 

Sec. 279. 0/ the insiifficienry of external means in 
case nf jierfection. 

The denial of iierfection to the Jews before Christ 
exhibited, is in regard of the means which they had. 
Those means were not sufficient to make them per- 
fect. All the means which they had may be com- 

prised under this word, law; but ' the law made 
nothing perfect,' Chap. vii. 19, Sec. 8G, which in this 
case must be the moral or ceremonial law. 

The moral law cannot make perfect by reason of 
our impotency, Horn. viii. 3. In reference to that 
h.\\ the ajjostle saith, ' No man is justified by the law 
in the .sight of God,' Gal. iii. 11. 

Of the ceremonial law it is expressly said that the 
offerings thereof ' could not make him, that did the 
service, perfect,' Chap. ix. 9, Sec. 49, and Chap. x. 1, 
Sec. 3. 

In this respect it is called a ' carnal commandment,' 
Chap. vii. IG, Sec. 21. And the ordinances thereof 
are styled 'weak and beggarly elements,' Gal. iv. 9. 

Quest. 1. Why was that law then ordained 1 

Ans. 1. To shew we stood in need of means to per- 
fect us. 

2. To point out those means. Therefore they are 
called ' a shadow of good things to come.' 

Quest. 2. Were not then believing Jews made per- 

Ans. Yes. But by the means which were typified 
under their rites. 

This gives a demonstration of their blindness and 
folly, who expected perfection from the observation 
of that law. Against such the prophets much in- 
veighed, Isa. i. ll,Micah vi. 6, 7; and Christ in his 
time, Luke xvi. 15; and the apostles in their time. Gal. 
iv. 9. Great also is their folly, who wish the con- 
tinuance of that external law, 3'et still ; and also of 
them who think to be perfected by human inventions. 
If external divine ordinances could not make perfect, 
much less can human. 

Sec. 280. Of perfecting all believers in all ages hy 
the same means. 

To .shew that God did not leave his people utterly 
destitute of all means of perfection, this phrase of 
limitation, ivithoitt vs, is inserted. Whereby we are 
given to understand that they had means to be made 
perfect ; but such as belong to us Christians, and are 
expressly manifested in our days. Hereof see more, 
Chap. vii. 19, Sec. 87. 

The foresaid limitation, without us, is the rather 
added to give evidence that God would have all be- 
lievers in aU ages perfected by the same means. In 
this respect, it is said that the ark and baptism are 
'like figures,' 1 Pet. iii. 21, setting out one and the 
same thing ; yet the ark was in the first age of the 
world, and bajjtism in the last. The like is noted of 
other sacraments in the ages betwixt these, 1 Cor. x. 
2-4. In this rc.si)ect the gospel is said to be preached 
to the Jews, Chap. iv. 2, Sec. 17. And we who live 
under the gospel are said to be saved, ' even as they,' 
Acts XV. 11. But most pertinent to this point is the 
end which the apo.stle hath noted of God's making 
known mito us the mystery of his will, in these words, 
' that in the dispensation of the fulness of time he 

Vek. 39, 40.] 



might gather together in one, all things in Christ,' 
&c., Eph. i. 10, Col. i. 20. This God hath so 
ordered — • 

1. To shew the all-sufficiency of that one only 
means, which is Christ Jesus, who is able to save to 
the uttermost, Heb. vii. 25, and that in regard of — 

(1.) His sufficiency. He of himself, without any 
assistance from any other, can save. 

(2.) The manifold miseries whereunto men are 
subject. He is able to save from all sins, and from 
all miseries that arise from their sins. 

(3.) The several persons that stand in need of sal- 
vation. He is able to save all of all sorts, such as 
lived before him or with him, or shall live after him, 
Heb. xiii. 8. 

2. To shew his impartial respect to all, Acts sv. 9, 
Gal. iii. 28. Thougii in wisdom God saw it meet 
that some should live in one age of the world and 
others in another, yet he prepared but one heaven for 
all, and one way for all to attain thereunto. 

3. To give evidence of the union of all believers in 
one mystical body. Had believers that lived before 
Christ been perfected without us, or by any other 
means than we are, they had been another body, and 
that body had been so perfected that no more mem- 
bers should have been added thereto ; but as there is 
but one head, so there is but one body, Eph. iv. 4. 
This is that catholic church which hath been from the 
beginning of the world, and shall continue to the end 

This is a forcible motive to incite us to imitate 
them, and to walk in that way to perfection, which 
they did. If they walked in that way which was but 
obscurely revealed to them, yet is clearly and fully 
made known to us, what a shame then would it be 
for us to come short of them ! They are gone, we 
yet live ; let us shew that their spirit lives'in us. See 
more hereof. Chap. vi. 12, Sec. 83, and Chap. xiii. 7, 
Sec. 100, (fee. 

Sec. 282. Of the resolution of, and observations 
/ro?re, Heb. si. '39, 40. 

The sum of these two verses is, a commendation of 
ancient saints. The parts are two — 

1. A general proposition. 

2. A particular amplification thereof. 
In the proposition there is — 

1 . An intimation of the persons commended, these all. 

2. A manifestation of the matter for which they 
are commended. 

This is set out — 

(1.) By the cimse, faith. 

(2.) By the effect, a good report. 

The amplification is set down comparatively. Of 
the comparison there are two parts. 

The first concerneth such as lived before Christ was 

The other concerneth such as lived after. 

That which concerneth the former is a privation of 
a privilege, in setting down whereof we have — 

1. The privilege itself, which was the promise. 

2. Their privation of it, received not. 

That part of the comparison which concerneth be- 
lievers since Christ was exhibited, is a fruition of the 
foresaid privilege. Hereof arc two jiarts — 

1. The kind of privilege, some better thing. 

2. The end thereof, that they witlutut us, <fcc. 
The kind of privilege is set out — 

1. By the author, God. 

2. By the procuring cause, having provided. 

3. By the subject-matter, some better thing. 

4. By the persons for -whom, for us. 

The end is a universal perfection, that they, <tc. 
In setting down this end we may observe, 

1. The manner of propounding it, negatively in re- 
ference to ancient Jews, should not be made j^erfect. 

2. Affirmatively, to Jews and Christians together, 
in this phrase, without us. 


I. Worth of men hath always had its due testimony. 
This ariseth from this phrase, obtained good report. 
See Sec. 274. 

II. Faith especially 7)ialies men praiseworthy. Good 
report is here said to be through faith. See Sec. 274. 

III. All that are piraueworthy have their due. 
Thus much doth the apostle here expressly affirm, 
these all. See Sec. 274. 

IV. Prai^eu'orthy men are a choice sort. This par- 
ticle of reference, these, imports as much. 

V. Christ is the j^rime promise. See Sec. 275. 

VI. God's promise is the ground of believers hope. 
This is here taken for granted, in the word, promise. 
Sec. 275. 

VII. It is a great privilege to receiiv a promise. Here- 
in Christians are preferred before Jews. See Sec. 275. 

VIII. Saints under the laiv had not the fruition of 
Christ. This is it that is here denied unto them, in 
tliis phrase, thei/ received not. See Sec. 275. 

IX. God is the author of the difference belwurt men. 
So he is here expressed to be. See Sec. 276. 

X. God's own providence moveth him to order mat- 
ters as he doth. See Sec. 276. 

XI. God's provision is to the better. This phrase, 
jirovided some better thing, intends as much. See 
Sec. 276. 

XII. The better things are reserved for the Christian 
church. The Christian church is intended, under this 
phrase, /or us. See Sec. 277. 

XIII. Saints, before Christ exhibited, had not then 
actually sufHcienl means to perfect them. This is im- 
plied, under this phrase, no< made perfect. SeeSec. 278. 

XIV. The perfection of those rvlio died before Christ 
r.rhibited, depended on the means which we enjoy. See 
Sec. 280. 

XV. God tvojdd have all, in all ages, to be perfected 
by the same means. See Sec. 280. 



[Chap. XII. 


Sec. 1. Of the resolution of Ylah. xii. 

There being two main ends of the apostle's setting 
out Christ in his excellency — namely, perseverance in 
the faith, and worthy walking thereof — in this chapter 
he finisheth the former, and sctteth upon the latter, of 
these two ends. See Chap. i. 1, Sec. 10, in the end. 

To enforce the former, of perseverance, he produceth 
many motives to encourage them against the many 
trials wliereunto they had been brought, and might 
further be brought, for their profession's sake. Then 
he raiseth an exhortation unto courage, vers. 12, 13. 

The apostle's motives are these : 

1. The pattern of former believers, to whom he 
hath reference, ver. 1. 

2. The example of Christ, concerning whom, 

(1.) He distinctly setteth out his sufferings, ver 2. 

(2.) He calleth Christians to a review, or to a 
more serious consideration, of him, ver. 3. 

(3.) He removeth an objection, which might be this : 

Ohj. We have already suffered much. 

Ails. Yet there remaineth more, in that 'ye have 
not resisted unto blood,' ver. 4. 

3. The author of Christians' sufferings ; this is, 

1. Propounded, ver. 5. It is ' the chastening of 
the Lord.' 

2. Amplified, in the six verses following. 
In the amplification is declared, 

1. The motive that puts on God to correct, love, 
ver. 6. 

2. The evidence that he so doth. About this he, 
(1.) Propoundeth the evidence itself, ver. 6. 

(2.) He maketh an inference thereupon, ver. 9. 

The evidence is propounded two ways : 

[1.] Affirmatively, under a ijaternal affection, by 
the mention of son, vers. 5-7. 

[2.] Negatively, by denying them to be sons, if 
they be without correction, ver. 8. 

The inference is, that we patiently submit ourselves. 

This is set down comparatively. The comparison 
is betwixt uncquals ; which are the ' Father of spirits" 
and ' fathers of our flesh,' ver. 9 ; so as the argument 
is from the less to the greater. In it, 

1. There is one thing taken for granted, that chil- 
dren are subject to the correction of the fathers of 
their flesh. 

2. Another thing is inferred thereupon. 
The inference is set down, 

(1.) With an interrogation : thus, 'Shall we not,'itc. 

(2.) It is confirmed two ways : 

[1.] P)y the different ends that the Father of spirits 
and fathers of the flesh aim at in correcting their 
children, ver. 9. 

[2.] I'y removing an objection. The objection is 
this : afflictions are grievous. 

This is answered by making known the cllect that 

follows from thence ; which is the ' jieaceable fruits 
of righteousnes.s,' ver. 11. 

The exhortation raised as a conclusion from the 
former motives, importcth two duties. 

One, to redress what has been amiss, ver. 12 ; the 
other, to endeavour after a better progress, ver. 13. 

Hitherto of the main duty of professors of the true 
faith. Hereunto are added other duties, which much 
grace a Christian profession. 

The particular duties mentioned by the apostle are 
these : 

1. Peace with men. 

2. Holiness towards God. This is pressed by the 
benefit thence arising, implied under a negative : 
without it no man shall see the Lord ; but with it 
they may, ver. 14. 

3. Circumspection against apostasy, ver. \'). 

4. Avoiding such sins as disgrace a professor. 
Hereof two sorts are mentioned. 

(1.) Uncleanness. Under this particular, /o7-njca<or. 

(2.) Profaneness. This latter is exemplified in 
Esau, concerning whom two points are noted. 

[1.] His sins : he sold his birthright, ver. 16. 

[2.] The punishment : he was rejected. 

To enforce the foresaid and other gospel dutie-s, 
the apostle falleth into a digression about the excel- 
lency of the gospel above the law. Therein he de- 
clareth two points : 

1. The kind of excellencj', ver. 18, ic. 

2. The use to be made thereof, ver. 25, <fcc. 

The kind of excellency is set down comj)aratively. 
The comparison is betwixt the law and the gospel. 
It consisteth of two parts : 

1. The terror of the law. 

2. The sweetness of the gospel. 

The terror of the law is manifested by ten signs : 

(1.) A mount that could not be' touched. 

(2.) A burning fire. 

(3.) Blackness. 

(4.) Darkness. 

(•'5.) Tempest, ver. 18. 

(G.) The sound of a trumpet. 

(7.) The voice of words, which the people could 
not endure, ver. 19. 

(8.) Beast not daring to touch the mountain. 

(9.) Striking such through as should touch it, 
ver. 20. 

(10.) Moses's fear, ver. 21. 

The sweetness of the gospel is set forth by the 
society wliereunto it bringeth us. Hereof are eleven 
particular instances : 

(1.) Mount Sion. 

(2.) The city of the living God. 

(3.) The heavenly Jerusalem. 

' Qu. 'could be'.' — Ed. 

Vek. 1.] 



(i.) An innumerable company of angels, ver. 22. 

(5.) The general assembly. 

(6.) The church of the firstborn. 

(7.) They ^ho are written iu heaven. 

(8.) God the judge of all. 

(9-.) Spirits of just men, ver. 23. 

(10.) Jesus the mediator of the new covenant. 

(11.) The blood of sprinkling, ifec. 

The use of the foresaid difference is twofold. 

One is set down negatively ; and it is, 

1. Generally propounded, ' See that ye refuse not,' 

2. Enforced by the damage which will follow upon 
neglect thereof. 

The damage is set down comparatively, and that 
by an argument from the less. Hereof are two parts : 

1. God's judgment on despisers of the law. 

2. His judgment on despisers of the gospel, ver. 15. 
Both these are amplified by the diti'crent manner 

of delivering the one and the other. The earth was 
shaken at delivering the ]aw ; earth and heaven at 
delivering the gospel. The point is propounded, 
ver. 26 ; and expounded, ver. 27. 

The other use is set down afiirmatively ; wherein 
we have, 

1. The ground of the duty, a kingdom tvhich can- 
not be moved. 

2. The kind of duty, to serve God acceptably, 
ver. 28. 

3. The motive to enforce it, God is a consuming 
fire, ver 29. 

Sec. 2. Of God's luitnesses. 
■ Ver. 1. Wherefore seeing ive also are compassed 
about with so great a cloud of ivitnesses, let vs lay 
aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily 
beset Its, and let us run with patience the race that is 
set before vs. 

The first word of this verse, roiya^ouv, translated 
wherefore, sheweth that this verse, and others follow- 
ing, depend ujion the former chapter as a just and 
necessary consequence. In the Greek word there are 
three several particles compounded together, which 
add emphasis. That word is once more used in the 
New Testament — namely, 1 Thes. iv. 8. It sheweth 
that that which foUoweth is inferred as a duty on 
our part, to endeavour to be like unto those excellent 
ones, whose examples have been set before us. And 
hereby he giveth us to understand that inferences and 
uses raised from general and indefinite points are 
lawful and useful, and that such general points as are 
in Scripture recorded of others, may and must be 
in particular applied to ourselves, so far as any way 
they concern us. See more hereof, Chap. x. 19, 
Sec. 52. 

This phraise, xal r,iJ.iT;, we also, hath a special 
reference to this clause, without vs (chap. xi. 40), 
and it coufirmeth that which was there noted con- 

cerning God's perfecting all of all sorts by the same 
means. See Chap. xi. 40, Sec. 280. Withal it 
sheweth that the good example of the Jews are 
required as well for us Christians as for the jiostcrity 
of the Jew.s. The apostle teacheth, as Cliri.stians, to 
apply that to ourselves which is registered of Joshua 
and David. See chap. xiii. 5, 8.^ 

This phrase, seeing we are compassed about with so 
great a cloud, &.C., is tlius iu the Greek, we having so 
great a cloud compa.ising vs. This manner of ex- 
pressing the point further confirmeth that right, 
which Christian Gentiles have to those things which 
are registered of believing Jews, ive have titem (^lyovTii) 
as witnesses fur us. In this respect we ought the 
more carefully to heed tliem, and to be followers of 
them. Of imitating such saints as have lived before 
us, see Chap. xiii. 7, Sec. 100. 

Those ancient worthies are the rather to be imitated, 
because they were witnesses to that faith which they 

The Greek word, /la^rupii, translated witnesses, is 
that which we in English sometimes translate inartyr, 
as Acts xxii. 20, Rev. ii. 13, and xvii. G. 

The word is ordinarily put for a bare witness, even 
such a one as giveth testimony to a thing, chap. x. 
28. See Chap. iii. 5, Sec. 63. 'When any so far 
standeth to the maintenance of the true faith as he 
loseth his life rather than renounce the truth, he 
is by a kind of excellency called a martyr. And 
such witnesses were many of these that are here 
pointed at. 

Though all believers be not brought to that extent 
of witness-bearing as to confirm their testimony with 
their blood, and so prove martyrs, yet are aU saints 
God's witnesses ; as, 

1. They who faithfully profess the truth. 

2. They who conform their lives according to the 
truth which they profess. 

3. They who declare and preach it unto others. 

4. They who maintain it against gainsayers. See 
more hereof, Chap. iiL 5, Sec. 53. 

This should stir us up to do what lieth in our 
power for bearing witness to God's truth, that we 
may be in the number of God's witnesses to oUr 

Sec. 3. Of the midtitude of God's ivitnesses. 

The apostle styled these a cloud of leitnesses. The 
Greek word, nifoi, translated cloud, is here only used 
throughout the New Testament ; but there is another 
word, vj^eXj], derived from it, which signifieth the 
same thing, and is frequently used. Mat. xvii. 6. 

A cloud is the gathering together of many vapours 
out of the earth and waters, which vapours do some- 
times wax dry and thin, and are driven away by 
winds ; sometimes they wax moist and thick, and 
melt out into rain. 

1 This reference seems to be inaccurate.— Ed. 

J 66 


The apostle here useth thLs metaphor in I'eferenoe 
to God's ancient witnesses, to shew, / 

1. Their penalty.' They are high/.,nd heavenly, 
as clouds are above in the heavens, a*d contain those 
waters which are said to be ab«^ve the finnanioiit. 
Gen. i. 7. ^ 

2. Their effects. Clonds./by the rain which they 
distil, make the earth fruit,?!!! : they also cool it. Thu.s 
do the forcmeiitioned xyi.Vfnesses make the church fruit- 
ful, and comfort it. 

3. Their end. We read of a cloud that guided the 
Israelites in th^ir way. Num. ix. Lo, ifec. Thus those 
witnesses guide the church in the right way to the 
heavenly Canaan. 

4. Their number. For a cloud containeth rancli 
water in it, even an innumerable company of droits. 

I suppose that this last respect is most esjjecially 
intended by the apostle. Thereupon he addeth this 
epithet, (TEwzE/.ttnon, compassed about. This implieth 
a thick cloud that covereth the whole fivco of the sky, 
so as wheresoever we look this cloud appeareth. 

The Greek word translated compassed about, is 
the same that is used. Chap. v. 2, Sec. 12. There 
is sliewed in what respect it is used. Thus it 
•appeareth that we need not .seek fiir for examples, 
they are everywhere before our eyes ; we cannot 
know them from this cloud. 

To amplify this point the more, he [ircmiseth this 
pronoun of an admirable number, roaouroi, so t/reat, 
whereof see Chap. i. 4, Sec. 31). Well might he 
here insert the word ; because the like catalogue and 
number of witnesses is not to be found together in 
any other place of Scripture ; yet here and there 
many more like examples are registered. For since 
the beginning of the world the multitude of believers 
hath been very great. See Vcr. 32, Sec. 11)2. 

Of the aforesaid great compassing cloud it is ex- 
pressed to be ri,a7>, for us, that is, for our use and 
benefit, for our learning, that wo should follow them ; 
so as the lives of former saints are for our imitation. 
See more hereof, Chap. xiii. 7, Sec. 100, iSjc. 

Sec. 4. Of removinri impediments. 

Upon the forcmentioned number of witnesses the 
apostle inferroth a duty on us Christians about run- 
ning our race, for the better effecting whereof he pre- 
niiseth certain means to lielp us in our Christian race, 
which are in general the removing of such tilings as 
might hinder us in our Christian course. This in 
general is implied under this word, lui/ a.iide. In 
the Greek it is set down with a participle, thus, aro- 
di,aitoi, laying aside, imi)lying thereby a necessity of 
using this course, in that we cannot well run our race 
except we lay aside such things as will otherwise hin- 
der us in our Christian com'.sc. This phrase, /ai/ 
aside, is the interpretation of one tJreek compound 
word, which properly signifieth to put from one. It 
' Qii. ' dignity ' ? — Ed. 

[Ch.vp. XII. 

is used of those who put off their clothes, and lay 
theni down. Acts vii. 58 ; but most frequently it is 
metajjliorically applied to the putting off, and casting 
away of the old man, and the several corrupt lusts 
thereof. Thus I find it five times used, besides this 
place, as Ei)h. iv. 22, 25, Col. iii. 8, James L 21, 
I Pet. ii. 1." 

That which is here intended under this removal of 
impediment.s, is the constant doctrine of the prophets, 
Isa. i. IG, Jer. iv. 4, of Christ himself, Mat. v. 29, 30, 
and of his apostles, 2 Cor. vii. 1, 1 Pet. ii. 1. 

All skilful arti.sts take this course, for the better 
effecting of that good which they intend. Physicians 
use to give preparatives ; chirurgeons will first draw 
out the festering matter from a wound ; husbandmen 
will root out briers, thorns, broou), and such like 
hindrances of good seed. 

Else all labour is lost. Thus much Christ implieth, 
by his double repetition of this phra.se, ' It is profit- 
able for thee, tliat one of thy members should perish, 
and not thy whole body should be cast into hell,' 
Mat. V. 29, 30. 

1. This mauifesteth a reason that men do make no 
better progress in their Christian course. Impedi- 
ments are not removed. 

2. This teacheth us diligently to search, and wisely 
to observe what stumbling-blocks lie in our way, that 
they prove not like the wounded body of Amasa in 
the midst of the highway, which made all the people 
stand still till lie was removed, 2 Sam. xx. 12. 

When impediments are found out, they must be 
utterly abandoned. They must, according to the 
notation of the Greek word, be put from us, for it 
is compounded of a verb, riOri/ii, that signifieth to put, 
and a jireposition, a-o, that signifieth from. As this 
word is a[iplied to the old man, and the several lusts 
thereof, it signifieth a thorough casting them off. 
Christ sets this forth under these phrases of ' pluck- 
ing out,' ' cutting off,' and 'casting from' one. 

It is an egregious point of folly to dally with temi)- 
tations. Such are like the fly that is soon burnt with 
the candle. 

Sec. 5. Of burdens to be cast off. 

The first impediment here mentioned is called, oyx«», 
a weight. The Greek word is not elsewhere in the 
New Testament used. It signifieth anything that 
lieth heavy on a man. So long as such a burden 
lieth on him, he cannot be free to go, or run, as other- 
wise he might be. 

Herein the apostle alludeth to the metaphor fol- 
lowing, of a race. If a man be to run a race, he will 
be sure to suffer no burden to lie upon his back, but 
he will cast it off from him. He will not run in a 
long side coat, which may dangle about his feet, and 
hinder him. 

Because there are many things which may prove 
burdeuuus, and so hinder us in our Christian course, 

Ver. 1.] 



the apostle addeth this general or indefinite particle, 
mavra, every. For there are veiy many burdens, both 
inward and outward. Particulars are these — 

1. Actual sins, especially if they be gross ones, 
Ps. xxxviii. 4. 

2. Cares of this life, Luke xxi. 34. 

3. The world, James iv. 4. Under it are comprised, 
(1.) Riches, Mark xi. 2.5, 2 Tim. iv. 10. 

(2.) Honours, John v. 44, 3 John 9. 

(3.) Pleasures, 2 Tim. iii. 4. 

These an apostle doth thus set out, ' All that is in 
the world, the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, 
and the pride of life,' 1 John ii. 1 G. 

(4.) Company. Many of an ingenuous disposition 
are clean drawn out of their Christian course hereby. 
Instance Eehoboam, 2 Chron. ii. 8, and Joash, 
2 Chron. sxiv. 17. 

(5.) Fashions. These steal away men's hearts, Isa. 
iii. 16. 

(6.) Sundry kinds of callings, especially such as 
are questionable. 

(7.) ^Multitude of businesses. This makes many 
find no leisure for piety. 

(8.) A man's self, namely, all his own corrupt de- 
sires. A man must deny himself, Mat. xvi. 24. 

Sec. 6. Of original corruption besetting us. 

To that word, weight, which compriseth under it 
all outward burdens, the apostle addeth another, which 
intendeth inward hindrance, translated the sin which 
doth so easili/ hes't us. This phrase, so easily beset us, 
is the interpretation of one Greek word, i'j-e^icTarov, 
which is a double compound. The simple verb, krri,u,i, 
signifieth to set, settle, or estabhyi, ^Mat. iv. 5. The 
first compound, ■jriiiiaTriai, signifieth to co7npass about, 
Acts XXV. 7. The double compound, iu-^iplararog, 
is here only in the New Testament used. It signi- 
fieth to be ready and' forward to compass one about. 

The sin, afia'-ria, whereunto this is here added as 
an epithet, is our original corruption, that inward 
natural pollution wherein we are conceived and born, 
and which we carry in us and about us as long as we 
live. This sin is ever readj' on all sides to assault 
and hinder us in every good course. This is it that 
moved the apostle thus to complain, ' I see another 
law in my members, warring against the law of my 
mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of 
sin ;' and ' when I would do good, evil is present 
with me,' Rom. vii. 21, 23. This sin lives in us, 
flows forth out of us, and poUuteth everything that 
passeth from us. In all our good purposes and en- 
deavours it is ever at hand, and ready to molest us, 
so as it becometh us to be very diligent in suppressing 
and keeping it down. ' Every one that striveth for 
the mastery is temperate in all things,' 1 Cor. ix. 25. 
He observeth a strict diet, to keep down corrupt 
humours within, which otherwise might make hiiu 
unwieldy, and unfit to accomplish his task. 

This taketh it for granted that original corruption 
is truly and properly a sin. It is here expressly so 
called, and in sundry other places, as Ps. Ii. 5, Rom. 
V. 12, and vii. 17. 

It is against the law, 1 Jnhn iii. 4. 

It is against the whole law, which is spiritual, and 
requireth such integrity in man as God in his creation 
endued him withal ; but original corruption is not 
only a want or deprivation of the same, but also an 
averseness or depravation of the whole man : for by 
reason thereof, ' there is none righteous, no not one,' 
for ' all have sinned, and come short of the glory of 
God,' Rom. iii. 10, 23. Yea, ' every imagination of 
the thoughts of man's heart is only evil continually,' 
Gen. vi. 5. 

In particular, original corruption is a special sin 
against the first commandment, which requireth an 
entire disposition towards God, and against the last, 
which requireth an entire disjiosition towards man. 

1. Hereby the position of Pelagians is refuted, who 
taught that man's nature was like a paper whereon 
nothing was written, but anything, good or evil, 
might be written thereon. Tiiey meant thereby that 
man's nature was neither endued with virtue nor 
infected with vice, and that Adam no further hurt 
his posterity than by example, and that all the evil 
which the posterity of Adam drew from him was by 
imitation. These gross errors have, by ancient fathers 
and later divines, been sufficiently refuted. 

2. Papists themselves^ do too much mince man's 
natural corruption. 

(1.) Some hold that original corruption hath not 
the true nature of sin in it, and that infants have no 
sin in themselves, but only bear the punishment of 
Adam's sin. 

(2.) Others say that it is less than any venial sin, 
which, according to their posititm, deserveth not dam- 
nation. Hereupon they have forged a Limbus Infan- 
tum for such infants as die in origin;d sin. See Chap. 
viii. 8, Sec. 50. 

(3.) Others hold that by baptism original sin ia 
clean washed away ; and that in the regenerate, such 
as they account all baptized to be, there is nothing 
that (Jod hates ; but that they are pure, and free from 
all sin, till by actual sins they defile themselves. 

None of these positions can stand with this text, 
which manifesteth this sin to compass them about 
who were baptized and believed. 

3. There be that dream of a perfection of sanctifi- 
cation in saints ; but so long as this besetting sin 
remains in man, which will be so long as he hero 
lives, there cannot be any such perfection in him. 

1. This besetting sin doth much aggravate the 
vileness of man's natural disposition. The disposi- 
tion of unreasonable creatures, no, not of the worst 
of them, is so vile. Sin is the vilest thing that can 
be ; it is contrary to the purity and perfection of God. 
' Pigb. iu coutrovera. de orig. pec. 



[Chap. XII. 

2. What cause hiive we then to be humbled for 
tlie same ! If John had cause to weep for man's im- 
potency in reference to divine matters, Rev. v. 4, 
■what cause have we to weep and howl for man's 
natural pravity ! Many can mourn for particular gross 
sins, but very few take notice of this besetting sin. 

If men well weighed what kind of sin this besetting 
sin i.s, they would cry out with the apostle, ' O 
wretclied man that I am ! who shall deliver me from 
the body of this death f Rom. vii. 24 ; for, 

(1.) It contains in it the seed of all sin. All par- 
ticular sins are counted works of the flesh. Gal. v. 19. 

(2.) It defiles the whole man, Gen. vi. 5. 

(3.) It is ever soliciting man to go on further and 
further in sin, Rom. vii. 23. 

In this respect it is said to lust against the Spirit ; 
that is, readily, eagerly, sorely to assault and fight 
against the new man, Gal. v. 17. 

3. The power of the divine Spirit is much mag- 
nified by restraining, suppressing, and renewing the 
corrupt nature of man. 

Sec. 7. Of suppressiiiff inward cori-iipiion. 

The foresaid besetting sin is here set down as an 
inward impediment of a Christian in his race, and 
joined with the former outward weight by this copu- 
lative, xai, and, so as it dependeth upon the j)arti- 
ciple, aTtiD;//,ttoi, lai/iiiff aside. Man's endeavour must 
be for suppressing of his inward, inbred corruption, 
as well as fcjr laying aside external weights. We 
must, as much as in us lieth, lay aside this besetting 

This title, a.aagr/'a, sin, in the singular number, is 
frequently put for our natural corruption : five times 
in Rom. vi., six times in Rom. vii., three times in 
Rom. viii. It is also called ' a body of sin,' ' a body 
of death,' ' flesh,' ' old man.' E.xhortations about this 
sin are, that we suffer it not to reign, Rom. vi. 12 ; 
that we destroy it, Rom. vi. G ; that we crucify it, 
Gal. V. 24 ; that we cast it off, Eph. iv. 24. 

1. The condition of this enemy should the rather 
incite us to subdue and destroy it. It is an enemy 
within U.S. More danger ariseth from traitors that 
are within a nation or city, than from foreign enemies 
without. David was never in such danger by reason 
of any, or of all the nations without, as of those that 
rose against him in his own kingdom. 

As for this inbred enemy, no enemy without, nor 
world, nor devil, nor all the jwwer of hell, can hurt 
our souls, unless they get this traitor within to take 
part with them. 

2. This enemy is tumultuous and troublesome, 
never at rest. As it can easilj', so it will wilfully on 
every side set upon us. AVe cannot do, speak, or 
think anytiiing, but it will infest u.'', and that at all 
times, in all places, in company, when we are alone, 
at church, and at home, in duties of piety, charity, and 
justice, in duties of our calling, waking and sleeping. 

Great is their filly who let this enemy do what he 
please, who care not to hold him in, much less to cast 
him off. 

This is the cause of the many outward abominable 
enormities that men fall' into, that they sufler this 
enemy withni them to plot and practise what he lists. 

For suppressing of this besetting sin, observe these 
few rules : 

1. ' Keep thine heart with all diligence,' Prov. iv. 
23. The heart is as a spring. Mat. xii. 34, 35. 

2. Keep the doors of thy soul, by which good or 
evil is let into it. These arc thy senses, Job xxxi. 1. 

3. Use such means as in God's word are sanctified 
for subduing corruption ; they will be as water cast 
upon fire. Such are temperance, sobriety, diligence 
in calling, duties of piety, fasting, and other ways 
beating down thy bod\', 1 Cor. ix. 27. 

4. Set the bias of thy thoughts aright. Acquaint 
thyself with the divine art of meditation, esi)ecially 
when thou art alone, or awake in thy bed. Men's 
thoughts will be working, and that on evil, if they be 
not set on good matter. If good seed be not sown 
in the ground, it will send forth noisome weeds. 

5. Get the stronger man into thy house, Mat. xii. 
29. This is the Spirit, Gal. v. 17. For this pray, 
Luke xi. 13. Thus thou shalt be safe. 

Sec. S. 0/ a Chrislian's course resembled to a race. 

The main duty which the apostle intendeth, by 
setting before us the example of such as well finished 
their course, is in these words. Let tis run with pa- 
tience the race that is set before vs. 

He doth here set out a Christian's course of life 
by a race ; and answerably the manner of carrying 
themselves, to their beliaviour, who, in running a 
race, look to get the prize ; for they will make all 
the speed they can, with as much patience as they 
may, till they come to the end of that race which they 
are ajipointed to run, and where the jirize is to be had. 

In setting out the point, he appropriateth not the 
dutj' to himself, saying, / will run, nor putteth it off 
to others thus, do ye run, but by a word of the first 
person, and plural number, includes others with him- 
self, .and incites both others and himself by this 
phrase, let us run. Hereof see Chap. ii. 1, Sec. 4. 

In the foresaid exhortation every word hath an 
emphasis, and are all pertinent to the metajihor of a 
race, whercunto he doth resemble a Chrislian's course, 
which is somewhat nuire fully set out, 1 Cor. ix. 24. 

Particulars wherein they may be resembled are 
these : 

1. There is a distance betwixt the goal where they 
begin and tiie goal where they end. On earth we 
begin our race, at death it is finished, and in heaven 
is tlie prize. We may not think to be in heaven so 
soon as we enter into this race. 

2. Tlicre is a prize at the end of the race, 2 Tim. 
iv. 7, 8. 

Vee. 1.] 



3. An endeavour must be used to attain the prize, 
Luke xiii. 2-i. 

4. There are many runners, Luke xiiL 24. 

5. All that run do not obtain the prize. 

6. Runners fit themselves to the race, so do true 
Christians, 1 Cor. fx. 24. 

7. There are like duties to be observed by Chris- 
tians which runners in a race observe, 2 Tim. ii. 5. 

God hath thus ordered our Christian course; — 

1. To give proof of those graces T\hich he con- 
ferreth upon children of men. 

As of faith, hope, obedience, patience, courage, 
and other like. Our faith in God, our hope of heaven, 
our obedience to God's word, our subjection to his 
will, our patience in holding out, our courage against 
opposition, are hereby manifested, proved, and exer- 

2. To wean us from this world. Had we not a 
race to run, and a prize set before us, we should be 
like Peter, and think it is good to be here still, !Mat. 
xviL 4. 

3. To make us long for heaven, and to make death 
the more welcome. 

In these and other like respects our Christian 
course is also resembled to a journey, to a pilgrimage, 
to a battle, to a labour, and to other like things. 
Answerably, Christians are styled travellers, pilgrims, 
soldiers, labourers. 

Sec. 9. Of running our Christian race ivith patience. 

Of the Greek word, Tis'/jti't'-v, translated run, see 
Chap. vi. 20, Sec. 158. It is an act that importeth 
the best speed that a man can make. JIan hath not 
wings like fowls to flee ; it is by running that he 
dotli most put forth himself to the speedy attaining 
of a thing ; and in a race especially doth he most 
manifest his speed by running ; a little laziness may 
lose the prize. The apostle then doth here by this 
metaphor imply, that we may not be slothful in our 
Christian course ; but diligent, earnest, and zealous 
therein ; striving to outstrip others, as runners in a 
race do. See more hereof. Chap. iv. 11, Sec. G4, and 
Chap. vi. 11, Sec. 79. 

Every one in his Christian course is like to meet 
with many crosses, which may prove as sharp stones 
or stumps in the way, or as briers and thorns, or as 
stumbling-blocks, which may liinder him, and slacken 
his speed ; the apostle therefore preseribeth the best 
remedy that can be, to pass them over the more 
lightly, which is, i/ro.aoi)!, jMticnce. Hereof see Chap, 
vi. 12, Sec. 80, and Chap. x. 3G, Sec. 135. 

This phrase, Tsiyoiij.it 70» aydio., let us run the 
race, implietb a holding out in our Christian course 
till it be finished. A man may run in a race, and 
leave off before he come to the goal ; but he that 
runs the race, holds out till he come to the end thereof. 
So as to diligence, iiatience and perseverance must 
be added. 

Sec. 1 0. Of a race set before vs. 

To shew that diligence, patience, and perseverance 
must be in a right course, tlie apostle addeth this 
clause, that is set before us. Of the meaning of the 
Greek word, T^oxfif/.tvot, translated set befure, see Chap. 
vi. 18, Sec. 149. 

The word may be taken two ways. 

1. Passivel}', for that which by God is set before 

2. Actively, for that which a man sets before him- 
self, and hath an eye upon, for his encouragement. 
Thus it is especially taken ui the next verse, where it 
is said that Christ, ' for the joy that was set before 
him, endured the cross ;' that is, having his eye fixed 
upon that joy, endured. 

In this verse I take the former sense to be espe- 
cially intended, namely, for that which God doth 
prescribe unto us : after which we ought to endeavour : 
so as prudence must be added to diligence, patience, 
and perseverance. 

All must be in a right course. This doth the 
church promise, where she sayeth to Christ, ' I will 
run after thee,' Cant. i. 3 ; and David thus, ' I will 
run the way of thy commandments,' Ps. cxix. 32. 
The way of God's commandments is the race set be- 
fore us. The phrase of ' turiung neither to the right 
hand or to the left,' Deut. v. 32, importeth thus 
much, 1 Sara. xii. 6, 2 Kings xxii. 2. The riglit 
way is opposed both to the right and to the left hand, 
Isa. xxx. 21. 

1. The prize is oidy at the end of that course 
which is set before us. 

2. Whatsoever is done in a wrong course, is not 
only fruitless but damageable : and the more dili- 
gence, patience, and continuance is used in a wrong 
course, the worse it is. Thus it falls out with travel- 
lers out of their way. Paul's eagerness much in- 
creased his sin, Acts xxvi. 9, Phil. iii. C ; so the 
eagerness of Pharisees in a wrong course, Mat. xxiii. 

1. This limitation of running in a course set before 
us, demonstrates the grossness of this error, that a 
man may be saved in any religion. 

2. This discovereth the folly and vanity of all that 
zeal, patience, courage, and constancy, which papists 
pretend in their superstitious and idolatrous courses. 
The like may be said of all others that run in a race 
not set before them. 

3. This teacheth us to seek and search after the 
right way. God hath set the right way before us in 
his word. This is the main end why the Scriptures 
were written, 2 Tim. iii. IG. 

Out of God's word, we may know what race God 
hath set before us, these six ways : 

1. By precept. This is the surest rule of all ; for 
that which is commanded us is without contradiction 
set before us. 

2. By counsels, Eev. iii. 18. Under this I com- 



[CiJAP. xir. 

prise all advices, admonitions, exhortations, persua- 
sions, and incitations. 

3. By promise. That whereunto, if we do it, God 
promisetli a reward, is set before us to be done, tro- 
mise therefore is one of those ten words whereby the 
law of God is set out. 

4. By prayer. What God's faithful servants have 
prayed to be enabled thereto, is a duty set before us. 

5. By inhibiting the contrary. Where the apostle 
forbiddeth vainglory, he requireth humility. Gal. v. 

6. By example and practice : and that of God, 
God-man, and good men, Eph. v. 1, 1 Cor. xi. 1. 

Because a general warrant is not sufficient, unless 
it behmg to us in particular, the apostle addeth thi.s 
relative pronoun, iii/,Tv, 71s, 'set before us;' for every 
one must consider what in special belongeth unto 
himself. Hereof see more, Chap. vii. 13, Sec. 73. 

Sec. 11. Of the concatenation of all needful (/races. 

The concatenation, or chaining, and knitting of the 
foresaid graces together, sheweth that Christian 
graces depend one upon another ; they neither can 
be, nor will be, singly alone. They are all as several 
links (if one chain, and depend one upon another : 
the want of any one of them, makes all the rest fruit- 
less. If one link of a chain drawing up somewhat by 
it break, the whole chain is broken : and that which 
was held up thereby will fall down. Of what use 
can diligence be, if patience be wanting ? Crosses will 
soon cool the zeal and fervour of the most forward. 
What good will patience do, if we do not persevere ? 
The man that falleth from that whereunto he hath 
attained, loseth all the benefit thereof. What good 
will perseverance do, if it be in an unwarrantable 
course, but aggravate his folly the more? what good 
will a general warrant do, if it concern not us in par- 
ticular 1 

To shew that the latter duties depend upon the 
former, as well as the former ujion the latter, go 
backward, and consider whether pretence of a matter 
belonging to our ])lace, if in general it be not warrant- 
able, be a sufficient pretence. Again, what benefit is 
it to do that which is lawful, if it be done only for a 
time, and not finished t And canst thou finish any 
weighty and commendable matter without patience ? 
And will patience stand a luskish, lazy, slothful 
Chri-stian in any stead ? 

It is observable that blessedness is attributed to 
every needful grace, Mat. v. 3, <S:c., which could not 
be, unless he that hath one needful grace, had every 
needful grace ; for where one grace is that is requisite 
to blessedness, there are all graces that make up and 
consummate blessedness. 

God hath thus linked all sorts of graces together, 
and made them all in their kind necessar)', in regard 
of himself, and of us also. 

1. In regard of himself; to manifest his manifold 

wisdom, which lively appeareth by diflFerent graces, 
all tending to the same end. 

2. In regard of us; to produce the better trial of 
our obedience. 

Hereupon it becomes us, 

1. To be well in.structed in all those graces that 
are requisite for finishing our Christian course. 

2. To use all good means, and do our best endea- 
vour for attaining them. 

We may not be idle and slothful ; we must run: 
we may not be weary or discouraged ; we must run 
with patience: we may not think it enough with 
diligence and patience to enter upon the race ; we 
must run the race. 

We may not be fervent, patient, and constant in 
an unwarrantable course ; we must run with patience 
the race that is set before its. 

We may not think every warrant sufficient, but 
that which is proper, and pertinent to ourselves and 
to our own calling. 

Sec. 12. Of Jesus, a help in our Christinn race. 

Ver. 2. LooJcimi unto Jesus, the author and finisher 
of our faith; tcho for the joy that was set before him 
endured t/te cross, despising tlw shame, and is set down 
at the right lutnd of the throne of God. 

The manner of inferring this verse upon the former 
by a participle, thus, looking unto Jesus, sheweth that 
it dependeth thereon, as a further means to help us 
on in our Christian course. li'un, looking unto Jesus. 

The Greek word, a^ccfivrsc, translated looking, is a 
compound. Of the simple verb, i^dui, see Chap. ii. 
8, Sec. 68. That properly signifieth to see. This 
compound carrieth emphasis, and properly signifieth 
to look back, or see again : and j<iiiied with the pre- 
position, tl;, which signifieth unto (as here it is 
joined), intiniateth a withdrawing of the eyes from all 
other objects, and fastening them on that which they 

That the word, seeing or looking, is taken sometimes 
literally, sometimes metaphorically, hath been shewed, 
Chap. ii. 9, Sec. 72. 

Here it is taken metaphorically, and applied to the 
eyes of the mind, and settling them on Jesus. 

The eye of the soul is fiiith, wherewith tilings in- 
visible to the bodily eye may be seen, Heb. .\i. 27. 
Thus Abraham saw Christ before he was actually in- 
carnate, John viii. 50. So may we that live since his 
ascension look on him. Thus have, thus shall, all 
true believers look on Christ, from the beginning of 
the world to the end thereof. 

Of this title Jesus, see Chap. ii. 9, Sec. 73. It 
setteth forth the main end of Christ's assuming our 
nature, which is, to be our Saviour : and that to save 
from our sins, Mat. i. 21. It is here fitly used, in 
that thereby we are ]iut in mind of that help we may 
cxjicct from Josus : for this title shcwcth that Christ 
hath undertaken to be our Saviour, and to free us 

Vee. 2.] 



from all dangers, and from all things that may hinder 
us in our race to heaven. 

This direction of looking unto Jesus giveth us to 
understand that the ability which we have to run our 
Christian race is from Jesus. This is demonstrated, 

1. Affirmatively, thus, ' I can do all things through 
Christ, which strengtheneth me,' Phil. iv. 13. In this 
respect is Christ resembled to a vine, John xv. 1 ; 
and to a head, Eph. iv. 14. 

2. Negatively ; ' Without me,' saith Christ, ' ye can 
do nothing,' John xv. 5. 

By Christ, that disability which man at first by his 
sin brought upon himself to good, is taken away. 
His nature is altered, he is made a new creature, 2 Cor. 
V. 17. 

1. Much doth this commend the goodness of God, 
■who, though he hath set a hard race before us, 3'et he 
hath provided sufficient help. He deals not with his 
people as Pharaoh with the Israelites, who imposed a 
heavy task upon them, and yet denied ordinary means 
for the accomplishing the same, E.Kod. v. 7. 

2. This goodness of the Lord should encourage us 
against our own weakness, and encumbrances inward 
or outward. Jesus can do more for our help, than 
the devil and all his instruments for our hindrance. 
He is ready at hand to put out his hand to save us, 
as he did Peter, when we are ready to sink, Mark 
xiv. 31. 

This metaphor, looking, setting forth the act of 
faith, gives evidence that faith is the means of obtain- 
ing help from Jesus. This was lively represented by 
the Israelites looking upon the brazen serpent, Num. 
xxL 8, John iii. 14, 15. 

Christ is the fountain, faith the pipe whereby grace 
is conveyed to us. See The Church's Conquest, on 
Exod. xvii. 11, Sec. 43. 

Sec. 13. Of Christ, the author of faith. 

To enforce the foresaid dutj' of looking unto Jesus, he 
is here set forth to be the author anJjiuisher of faith. 

Of this word, io^riyoc, translated author, see Vha\x 
ii. 10, Sec. 95. There it is translated ' a captain,' 
but such a one, as is also the beginner and first 
author of a thing. It being here premised before the 
other title, finisher, it impUeth such an author as is 
the primary beginner, as hath the absolute ordering 
of that which he begiuneth : so as he can and will 
finish it according to his mind. Thus is Christ the 
author of our faith. This is evident by these and 
such like general proofs : faith is ' the gift of God,' 
Eph. ii. 8. ' It is given to you to believe,' Phil. i. 
29. But more particularly in that the apostle prayeth 
for faith ' from the Lord Jesus Christ,' Eph. vi. 23. 
On this ground this gift is styled ' the faith of Jesus 
Christ,' Rom. iii. 22, Gal. ii. IG, 20. For as Christ is 
the revealer of faith, and the object of faith, and the 
matter of faith, so also the author of it. 

The means whereby this grace is wrought are of 

Christ, as the principal outward means, which is, the 
preaching of the gospel, styled ' the word of faith,' 
Rom. X. 8. And the sacraments, which are ' seals of 
the righteousness of faith,' Rom. iv. 11. Yea, also 
the Spirit, which is styled ' the Siiirit of faitli,' 2 Cor. 
iv. 13. And faith is said to be given by the Spirit, 
1 Cor. xii. 9. All these mcan.s, outward and inward, 
are of Christ ; therefore the grace wrought by them 
must also be of him. 

It is not of man by nature, neither doth the law 
reveal or work it : but it is by Jesus. 

1. This clearly demonstrateth that without Christ, 
no faith, at least, no such faith as should bring men 
to salvation. For this author of faith is also styled, 
the captain or author of salvation, Chap, ii 10, and 
Chap. V. 9, Sec. 50. 

2. It inforiueth us in the kind of this gift, that it is 

The Son of God came from the bosom of his Father 
to reveal it, and to work it in us. 

3. It is our duty to use such means as Christ hath 
sanctified for attaining this gift. He that is the 
author of it will work it in his own way and course. 

Sec. 14. Of Christ, the finisher of faith. 

To shew that Christ goeth on in that good work of 
faith which he hath begun, the apostle addeth this 
other work of Christ, riX-iaTr,;, finishii): 

Of the Greek verb, riXs/oM, whence the noun here trans- 
lated /ZHw/if/- is derived, see Chap. ii. 10, Sec. 97. 

According to the notation of the word, it signifieth 
one that perfecteth what he taketh in hand : and so, 
as nothing needs be added thereto. So as faith is 
perfected by Clu-ist. With much confidence doth the 
apostle thus confirm this point, ' I am confident of 
this very thing, that he who hath begun a good work 
in you, will perform it until the day of Jesus,' Phil. i. 
6. But more expressly speaking of Christ, he thus 
sayeth, ' AVho shall contirm you unto the end, that ye 
may be blameless,' 1 Cor. i. 8. In this resjiect, saith 
Christ himself, ' Him that comcth to me, I will in no 
wise cast out,' John vi 37. 

Thus he giveth his sheep eternal life, John v. 28. 

Christ doth finish what he undertakes, because, 

1. It is his Father's will that he should so do, John 
vi 39, 40. 

2. To manifest his power, wisdom, faithfulness, and 
other like excellencies. He is far from a foolish 
builder, Luke xiv. 28, &c. 

3. To move men to depend on him, in that he wUI 
in no wise fail such as believe on him, 1 Pet. ii. 6. 

1. Here we have the true ground of a believer's 
confidence, and of persevering unto the end. Hereof 
see more. Chap. iii. 12, Sec. 133. 

2. This cannot but much encourage us against our 
own weakness, and manifold temptations whereunto 
we are subject, that he who is the author of our faith, 
is also the finisher thereof. 



[Chap. XII. 

3. This givcth proof of th;it sufficient help which 
we may liave from Clirist to finish our course aright. 
For he that is tlie author of our faith, and sets us in 
the way, is also the finisher thereof ; so as he will 
iiphold us till he brings us to tlie end tliercof. What 
can more be desired than to be brought into the right 
way, and to be enabled to hold out unto the end 1 
Christ is not only as other saints, a companion in our 
way with us, nor yet only as a guide to go before us, 
and shew us the right way, but a heli)er and sup- 
porter, enabling us to run and finish our race. 

Sec. 1 5. Of Christ's setting joy lefore Mm. 

The more to encourage us in our Christian race, to 
look unto Jesus, the apostle further setteth him forth 
in those things which he did, as a pattern for our 
imitation, in these words, lt« endured, <fcc. 

Of imitating Christ, see Chap. xiii. 13, Sec. 132. 

For our greater enc(mragement and better direction 
for following Christ, the apostle premiseth that which 
Christ aimed at in his snfl'eriugs, and whereby he was 
encouraged the more cheerfully to endure them, in 
these words, for the joy tliat was set before him. 

The preposition, d\/rl, translated for, is of a differ- 
ent signification. 

1. It signifieth, inslar, vice, loco, instead, or in the 
place or room ; as, where it is said, ' Archelaus reigned 
instend of Herod,' Mat. ii. 22 ; and thus, ' will he 
for a fisli give him a .serpent ? — that is, instead of a 
fish — Luke xi. 11. Thus do many take this phrase, 
' grace for grace,' John i. 1 G — one grace instead of 
another.! They who thus take it here, give this in- 
terpretation of it, Christ, instead of that glory which 
he had in heaven, voluntarily humbled himself to 
caith, and there endured the cross, and despised the 

In the general, this collection is a truth ; and the 
phrase, simply considered in itself, may well bear it. 
It is expressly set down, Phil. ii. G-8. 

2. It implieth a final cause, and here setteth down 
the prize wliich Christ aimed at in enduring the cross, 
and desj)i.sing the shame. 

That here it is so taken, is evident by these reasons : 

(1.) This preposition is frequently so used, as Eph. 
V. 31, Mat. XX. 28 ; and so it may be taken in the 
fifteenth verse of this chapter. 

(2.) The participle here used, Tfoxs/^sfJi;, set before, 
is tlie same that was used, Vcr. 1, Sec. 10. 

(3.) The corresiKindcncy of this pattern of Christ 
with that former pattern of saints, doth further con- 
firm the i)oint. 

(t.) The great encouragement that we may hence 
have in running our race ; for by tliis joy set before 
Clirist, we may know that we also have a joy set 
before us. 

Thus this shews that Christ, by having his eye set 
upon the joy which should follow upon his sufferings, 
' I'ro Icgia gratia, gratiam evangclii.— .4 kj., epist. 11. 

was thereby encouraged to endure what he did ; for, 
with the nature of our infirmities he assumed the in- 
firmities of our nature. In thLs respect it is said, 
that ' he trusted in God,' Chap. ii. 13, Sec. 119. On 
this ground it is said that an angel appeared to him 
in his agony, ' strengthening him,' Luke xxii. 43. 

This is a good warrant unto us to have an eye 
upon that recompense which will follow upon all our 
undertakings and sufferings in that course where- 
unto God calls us. See hereof, Chap. vi. 18., Sec. 
149, and Chap. xl. 26, Sec. 146. 

Sec. 16. Of thai joy which Christ set before him. 

That end which Christ especially aimed at, is here 
styled, %aja, joy, and is derived from a verb, X'^'i'^' 
that signifieth to rejoice, or be glad, John xi. 15. 

This grace of joj^ or rejoicing, is set down under 
another Greek word, y.a.j-/r,iJ.a, Chap. iii. 6, Sec. G3. 
There is distinctly shewed what rejoicing is, and what 

j^y is- . . 

Here joy is taken in a very high and transcendent 
degree ; as — 

1. For all that glory which Christ left when he 
descended into the lower parts of the earth, Eph. iv. 
9 ; therefore, a little before his ascension thereunto, 
he thus prayeth, ' O Father, glorify thou me with 
the glory which I had with thee before the world was,' 
John xvii. 5. 

2. All that was added by the work of redemption"; 
as — 

(1.) A clearer manifestation of God's divine pro- 

(2.) The exaltation of his human nature. 

(3.) Man's redemption and salvation, following 

(4.) The praises that through all ages should be 
given to him. 

(5.) The preaching the gospel through the whole 

These, and other particulars like to these, are 
expressed under this title joy, in four respects : 

(1.) In opposition to the cross and shame, which 
were very bitter and grievous. 

(2.) In regard of that true and great joy which 
that glory did give in itself ; for he was to be ever 
before his Father, in his presence, at his right hand, 
Ps. xvi. 11. 

(3.) In regard of that joy and delight which Christ 
took therein : the very expectation thereof was very 
joyous, Ps. xvi. 9, much more the fruition. 

(4.) In regard of the joy which it bringeth to all 
that are given him of his Father, Heb. iii. 16. 

By this we see that Christ's cross and shame had 
joy aijpertaiuing to it, even while he was on earth. 

Tlie place and time of his suffering and shame, 
' Jesus rejoiced in spirit,' Luke x. 21. This was fore- 
told, Ps. xvi. 9, 10. Christ cheerfully enduring the one 
and the other, giveth further proof hereunto. 

Vee. 2.] 



By this we are informed in sundry remarkable 
points : such as these — 

1. The kind of saints' sufferings : they are herein 
like to Christ ; therefore Christ biddeth them to re- 
joice, Mat. V. 12; so his apostle, 1 Pet. iv. 13. On 
this ground they have rejoiced. Acts v. 41, 1 Pet. i. 6. 

2. The difference betwixt saints' and others' suffer- 
ings. Saints suffer as members o£ Christ, with liim 
and for him ; and in tliat respect have joy accompany- 
ing them : others' sufferings are not so. 

3. The difference betwixt faith and sense. What 
is grievous to sense, is joyous to faith. 

4. God's tender care over his Son, and all that be- 
long unto him. Though in wisdom he see it meet to 
make them fulsome potions, and to swallow bitter 
pills, yet he so sweetens them, as they willingly and 
joyfully take them. 

5. The reason why so many shrink from the cross, 
or faint under the burden of it, and why they are 
troubled at shame. Surely it is want of a due appre- 
hension of this joy. They are either ignorant of it, 
or believe it not, or regard it not, or do not well poise 
the one with the other; the cross and shame with 
the joy. They walk by sense, and not by faith. 

Sec. 1 7. Of Christ s crosses. 

The things which moved Christ to set the foresaid 
joy before him, were two — cross and shame. 

A cross [arav^hi), properly taken, signifieth a frame 
of wood, wherein one piece is fastened across unto 
the other, fitted for malefactors to be stretched 
thereon. As we use to hang malefactors upon a gal- 
lows or gibbet, so the Komans were wont to naU 
them to a cross : so was Christ, being delivered by 
the Jews to the Eomans. So as here the instrument 
of Christ's death is metonymicaUy put for the kind 
of his death, which was a most painful and shameful 
death, yea, and a cursed death too, Gal. iii. 13. 

Here also, under this word cross, synecdochically, 
all Christ's sufferings, from his conception to his 
ascension, may be comprised; for this word cross, 
both in sacred Scripture and also in other authors, 
is put for all manner of afflictions. In this respect, 
Christ's whole life was a cross,' — that is, full of 

Christ's crosses were either connatural or acci- 

Connatural were such degrees of his humiliation 
as made him like unto man. Hereof see Chap. ii. 
17, Sec. 169. 

Accidental crosses were such as arose from external 
causes. Hereof see Chap. ii. 10, Sec. 96. 

His heaviest crosses were at the time of his death ; 
for that was the hour of his adversaries, and the power 
of darkness, Luke xxii. 53. 

Those crosses may be drawn to four heads. 
1. His apprehension. 

' Tola Christi vita crux f uit.— Bern, de Pass. Dom. C. 5. 

2. His examination. 

3. His condemnation. 

4. His execution. 

1. To apprehend him, one of those whom he had 
chosen to be his disciples, and an apostle, came as a 
guide. This was foretold as an aggravation of the 
point, Ps. Iv. 12-14. Others, that foUowed that 
traitor, came with swords and staves, as to a thief, 
Luke xxii. 52 ; and they bound him as a notorious 
malefactor, John xviii. 12. 

2. To examine him, they hurrj' him from one judge 
to another five several times. In all which places he 
is egregiously abused ; and kept waking all night, and 
the next day to his death. 

(1.) He is brought to Annas, John xviii. 13. There 
they smote him with a staff, or wand. 

(2.) From Annas to Caiaphas, John xviii. 28. There 
they spit in his face and buffet him. Mat. xxvi. 67. 

(3.) From Caiaphas they send him to Pilate, Luke 
xxiii. 1. 

(4.) From Pilate to Herod, Luke xxiii. 7. There 
he was ill-treated by Herod and his guard. 

(5.) From Herod to Pilate again, Luke xxiii. IL 
There they scourged him and platted a crown of 
thorns on his head, John xix. 1, 2, and smote him 
with their staves on the head so crowned. Mat. xxvii. 

3. He is condemned, 

(1.) By the senate of the Jews, who adjudged him 
worthy of death. Mat. \y.\\. 66. 

(2.) By the suffrage of the common people, a mur- 
derer and raiser of sedition is acquitted, rather than 

(3.) By the like suffrage, it is required that he 
should be crucified, 

(4.) By Pilate the judge he is condemned to the 
cross,, merely upon the importunity of the Jews ; for 
the judge professed that he found no fault in him, 
Mat. xxvii. 24. 

4. About his execution. 

(1.) They force him to carry his own cross, under 
which, by reason of his former ill usage, he even 
fainted : so as a stranger was forced to help him to 
bear it. Compare John xix. 1 7 with Luke xxiii. 26. 

(2.) They bring him to a most noisome place, Mat. 
xxvii. 33. 

(3.) They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with 
gall. So they did again whilst he was hanging on the 
cross. Mat. xxvii. 34, 48. 

(4.) They disrobe him and strip him naked to all 
kind of weather. Mat. xxvii. 35. 

(5. ) They nail to the cross his hands and feet, the 
most sensible parts of his body, where store of sinews 
and nerves meet together, John xx. 25. 

(6.) They caused him so nailed to hang on the cross 
tUl he died. 

B}' the aforesaid particulars we may observe how 
they offended all his senses. 



[Chap. XII. 

1. His hearing, by crj'ing, 'Crucify Lini, crucify 

2. His sight, with scoffing and scorning gestures. 

3. His smell, with the noisome place of Golgotha. 

4. His taste, with vinegar, gall, and myrrh. 

5. His feeling, with thorns on his head ; boxes and 
blows on his cheeks; filthy sjiittle on his face; piercing 
his hands and feet with nails ; cruel lashes on all his 
body. So torn was his flesh with whipping, as I'ilato 
thought it might have satisfied -the Jews. Thereupon 
bringing him out in that case, he said, ' Behold the 
man,' John xix. 1, 5. Thus from the crown of his 
head to the soles of his feet, there was no part not 
vexed, not tortured. 

Great and heavy were these crosses ; but his in- 
Wiird anguish of soul was infinitely more. Hereof 
see Chap. ii. 9, See. 7C, and Chap. v. 7, Sec. 38. 

An internal curse accompanied the kind of Christ's 
death, which was upon a cross. By the law this kind 
of death was accursed, Deut. xxi. 23. 

Quest. Why this kind of death rather than any other? 

A IIS. To be a type of that curse which Christ took 
upon him, as our surety, Gal. iii. 13. 

The heavy weight of Christ's cross doth, 

1. Much commend the transcendent love of God 
and of Christ to man. 

2. It doth aggravate the horrible nature of sin. 

3. It doth amplify the invaluable price of man's 

Sec. 18. Of Christ's enduring the a-oss. 

Of the aforesaid cross, collectively comprehending 
all Christ's sufferings, it is said that Christ, i-rrifj^iive, 
endured it. Of this verb, see Chap. x. 32, Sec. 121. 
The word is sometimes used to set out a courageous 
standing against a hostile power. Here it implieth 
a so bearing the cross as not to be discouraged or 
hindered thereby in his course. 

Among other virtues, it intendeth two especially, 
namely, patience and constancy. The verb is trans- 
lated to ' take patiently,' 1 Pet. ii. 20, and the noun, 
' patience,' Luke xxi. 19. 

It is also put for perseverance, Mat. x. 22, Acts 
xvii. H, Rom. ii. 7. 

Thus Christ most patiently endured his cross; and 
constantly abode under it. 

Christ's patience had respect to God himself, and 
liis enemies, the instruments of his troubles. 

1. In relation to God, Christ did, 

(1.) Obediently submit himself to God's will. This 
was the ground of all, Phil. ii. 8. In nothing did he 
thwart the same ; nor failed in fulfilling any part 
thereof, Heb. v. 8. 

(2.) Contentedly he endured what was the good 
pleasure of his Father to lay upon him ; though 
otherwise, through the great extremity of agony, he 
could have wished that it might have passed over, 
Mat. XX vi. 39. 

(3.) He willingly endured all. 

(4.) With much humihty he submitted himself 
' He humbled hini.self,' PhiL ii. 8. 

(.i5.) Confidently ho depended on God in his greatest 
extremity. This title, 'My father,' and the ingemina- 
tion of tliis phrase, 'My God, my God,' shew as much, 
Mat. xxvi. 39, and xxvii. 46. He neither doubted of 
his Father's favour, nor despaired of his succour. 

2. In relation to liimself, Christ most meekly and 
mildly endured the cross, without any inward fretting 
and vexing his .spirit. Indeed, his .soul was troubled 
and very heavy; but that was by some unexjiressible 
burthen that pressed upon his .soul, not by perplexing 
his soul through outward afHictions. They who deny 
that he suffered in soul, and apply all his inward 
agonies to external causes, come too near an undue 
charging of Christ with overmuch discontent. His 
not opening of his mouth, and the resemblance of him 
to a sheep, Isa. liii. 7, give evidence of his meek and 
quiet spirit. 

3. In relation to his enemies, Christ's patience was 
manifested, by his continuing to do all the good he 
could to them, notwithstanding their continual seek- 
ing to do all the evil they could to him ; for, 

(1.) He continued to instruct them. 

(2.) He miraculously helped them according to 
their needs. 

(3.) He forbade his disciples to strike them. 

(4.) He healed the wound that was rashly made by 
one of his disciples, Luke xxii. 49, 51. 

(5. ) He prayed for them. 

(G.) He excused them by their ignorance, Luke 
xxiii. 34. 

Christ's constancy under his suflferings was mani- 

1 . By his invincible resolution to endure the utter- 
most. He so set himself thereto, as he would not be 
kept from it, Luke ix. 51, and xii. 50, Mat xvi. 22, 

2. By his continuing to do the things which occa- 
sioned his sufierings ; and that was to discover the 
superstition, hypocrisy, pride, ambition, and other 
corrui)tions of priests, scribes, Pharisees, and others 
among the Jews. This he did, not long before his 
death, Mat. xxiii. 3, itc. 

3. By resisting unto blood ; that is, as long as he 
could suffer in this world. 

4. By finishing, and accomplishing all that was to be 
endured, as is evident by this phrase, ' It is finished,' 
Jolin xix. 30. 

1. Christ's enduring the cross is a motive to us 
to endure that cross which God shall lay upon us ; 
for shall not we be willing to do what Christ 
did 1 

2. Christ's manner of enduring the cross affordeth 
a good direction for well bearing our crosses. There- 
fore we ought duly to observe the several circum- 
stances of his enduring. 

Vee. 2.] 



Sec. 19. Of the sltame whereunto Christ teas put. 

One thing which moved Christ to set joy before 
him, was tlie ci'oss which he endured ; the other was 

Of the notation of the Greek word, akylntn, tran- 
slated shame, see Chap. ii. 11, Sec. 108. 

Shame properly taljen, is a disturbed passion upon 
conceit of disgrace. 

But here it is metonymically taken for that which 
causeth shame — namely, reproach or disgrace : the 
effect being put for the cause. So it is used, Phil. iii. 
19, 'their glory is their shame' — that is, in that 
which should make them ashamed, they glory. Thus 
here Christ with a kind of scorn passed by those re- 
proaches which ordinarUy cause shame. 

This, joined with the cross, sheweth that the cross 
useth to be accompanied with shame ; that is, with 
such reproaches, and disgraces, as are enough to work 
shame. This might be exemplified in sundry suffer- 
ings of saints ; but we will exemplify it only in the 
examples of Christ, who was put to as great shame as 
ever any. 

Shame was laid on him by words and deeds. 

By words, in these particulars : 

1. By upbraiding to him his- country, John vii. 52, 
and his kindred, and his education, Mark vi. 3. 

2. By casting his company into his teeth, and there- 
with .slandering him, Mat. ix. 11, and xi. 19. 

3. By cavilling at his doctrine, John vii. 12, !Mat. 
V. 17. 

4. By blaspheming his miracles. Mat. xii. 2-4. 

5. By slandering his whole life, John ix. 24. 

At his death, the flood-gates of shame were opened 
against him. 

1. Judas in scorn saith to him, ' Hail, master,' 
Mat. xxvi. 49. 

2. False witnesses charge him with false crimes. 
Mat. xxvi. 60, Luke xxiii. 2. 

3. They accuse him of blasphemy. Mat. xxvi. 65. 

4. They blindfolded him, and bid him prophesy 
who smote him, Luke xxii. 64. 

6. In scorn they say, ' Hail, king of the Jews,' Mat. 
XX vii. 29. 

6. One of the thieves that were crucified with him 
reviled him, Luke xxiii. 39. 

7. AVhen he was on the cross, they bid him in 
derision come down. Mat. xxvii. 41. 

8. Passers-by reproach him. Mat. xxvii. 39. 

9. When in the bitterness of his agony, he cried, 
' EH, Eli,' mockingly they replied, ' He caUeth for 
Elias ; let Elias come and save him,' Mat. xxvii. 46, 

By deeds they put him to shame, in these particu- 
lars : 

1. They lay hold on hira as if he had been beside 
himself, Mark iii. 21. 

2. They send officers, as a malefactor, to apprehend 
him, John vii. 32. 

3. They bind him as a thief, when they had taken 
him, John xviii. 12. 

4. The priests' men blindfold him, .spit in his face, 
and bufl'et him, Luke xxii. 64, Mat. .xxvi. 67. 

5. They preferred Barrabas, a murderer, before 
him. Mat. xxvii 21. 

6. Herod, with his men, in scorn array him with 
white, Luke xxiii 11. 

7. Pilate's soldiers strip him, array him in purple, 
plat a crown of thorns on his head, put a reed as a 
sceptre into his hand, bow their knees to him as to a 
king, but all in derision. Mat. xxvii. 28. 

8. For the greater disgrace, they made him bear 
his own cross, John xix. 17. 

9. They put hira to a rhr.n-'°^''l death, in a dis- 
graceful place, betwixt two thieves, at a soleuiu t.imp. 
when all sorts assembled to Jerusalem, Mat. xxvii. 
33, &c. 

1 0. They nod their heads in mockage of him, when 
he was on the cross. Mat. xxvii. 39. 

1 1 . They give him in derision vinegar and gall to 
drink, Mat. xxvii. 34, 48. 

12. They cause his sepulchre to be sealed and 
watched, as if he had been a seducer. Mat. xxvii 63. 

13. To conceal the power of his resurrection, they 
give it out that his disciples stole him away. Mat. 
xxviii. 13. 

Never was such shame laid on any, and that by all 
of all sorts, — great, mean, young, old, priest, people, 
rulers, subjects, countrymen, strangers. 

Sec. 20. Of the aggravation of Christ's shame. 
There are three circumstances which much aggra- 
vate the shame whereunto Christ was put. 

1 . The eminency of his person. 

2. The integrity of his life. 

3. The goodness of his dispo.sition. 

1. To lay shame upon a noble man, an honourable 
person, a great officer, is counted scandalum magna- 
tum, and maketh one liable to a heavy censure. To 
lay it on a king is little less than treason. AMio in 
eminency of place or calling, to be compared to Christ? 
Did ever any in nobility, in high and excellent offices, 
or in any other kind of greatness, excel him ? 

2. To lay shame on an innocent person, who hath 
no way deserved any blame, is a monstrous defama- 
tion. David doth oft aggravate the wrong which in 
this case w'as done unto him, Ps. Ixix. 4, and cix. 3. 

But who is to be compared unto Christ in iimocency 
and integrity ? He was ' holy, harmless, and undefiled.' 

3. To lay shame upon a good man, such a one 
that might win all of all sorts to speak well of him, 
is an exceeding shameful thing, ilore than barbar- 
ous inhumanity. Da^nd doth also much aggravate 
the undue shame that was laid on hira by this cir- 
cumstaucc, Ps. xxxviii 20, and cix. 4, 5. 

In goodness Christ exceeded all. Never did any 
more good. Never did any more freely and readily 



[Chap. XII. 

do the good which he did. He never put any back 
that came to him for any good ; but freely offered 
much good to many that sought it not. 

Shame is further aggravated by tlie persons that 
lay this shame on another, as, if they be of the same 
profession ; if familiars ; if such as have been made 
partakers of the goodness of those whom they seek to 
disgrace. By this circumstance was the shame laid 
on Christ much aggravated, as is evident by these 
typical complaints, which are most properly appUable 
to Christ, ' Mine own familiar friend, in whom I 
trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lift up his 
heel against me,' Ps. xlL 9. ' It was thou, a man, 
mine equal, my guide, and mine acquaintance ; we 
took sweet counsel 'agti-tLxir,' ifec, Ps. Iv. 13. Thus I 
.QiiT.nQst;, tnat the shame of Christ appears to be the 
greatest that ever was unduly laid upon any. 

Sec. 21. Of Christ's despising shame. 

Of the foresaid shame, it is said that Christ despised 
it. The Greek word, xarap5o>;i(raj, is a compound. 
The simi)le verb, ip^onlv, signifieth to mind a thing. 
The preposition, xara, against; thus this compound 
verb, to have one's mind set against a thing. So as it 
importeth a light esteem of a thing ; so light, as not 
to be moved at all therewith, but rather to pass it by, 
as a thing not to be regarded. 

It is taken in a bad, and in a good sense. 

1. When things worthy of high esteem are vilified 
and despised, the word is used in a bad sense, as to 
' despise government,' 2 Pet. ii. 10. 

That is a fault, and a sin. The more excellent the 
thing is, the greater is the sin in despising it. 

2. When things not to be regarded are despised, 
that kind of despising is good. The shame which 
Christ is said here to despise was despicable and 
contemptible, and in that respect well despised. 

Two things do clearly demonstrate that Christ de- 
spised the shame cast upon him : 

1. They did no whit distemper his mind. 

2. They did no way hinder his good course. 

His undistcmpered mind was manifested two ways. 

1. By his silence, in that he gave no answer at 
all to many disgraces. 

2. By the meekness of those answers that he gave. 
He was silent, 

1. Before the priests, when many false witnesses 
■were suborned against him, JIat. xxvi. 62, 63. 

2. Before Herod and his courtiers, though he were 
accused vehemently, Luke .xxiii. 9, 10. 

3. Before Pilate, so as the governor admired his 
patience. Mat. xxviL 14. 

4. Before all sorts that gathered about him, as 
soldiers, common people, and strangers, notwithstand- 
ing the reproaches were laid on him. 

This silence was expressly foretold, Lsa. liii. 7. 
The meekness of his answers may be exemplified 
in these particulars ;— 

1. Against their upbraiding to him his country 
and kindred, he only useth this proverbial speech, 
' A prophet is not without honour, save in his own 
country, and in his own house,' Mat. xiiL 57. 

2. To their exprobration of his comjiany, he an- 
swereth, ' I came to call siimers to repentance,' Mat. 
ix. 13. 

3. To their cavils at his doctrine, he thus replieth, 
' My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me,' 
John vii. 16. 

4. Their blaspheming of his miracles, he refuteth 
with sound arguments. Mat. xii. 2o, kc 

5. To all their reproaches on the cross, his answer 
is prayer for them, Luke xxiii. 34. 

Not to insist on more particulars, it is said, 'when 
he was reviled, he reviled not again,' &c., 1 Pet. 
ii. 22. 

The second evidence of his despising shame wa.s, 
that he was not hindered thereby from doing any 

1 . The upbraiding of his countrj', and kindred, 
kept him not from them ; but on all occasions he 
had recourse to them, and did good unto them. 

2. Their blaming his company, restrained him not 
from taking opportunity of calling sinners. 

3. Their slandering his doctrine and miracles, moved 
him not to forbear the one or the other. 

4. Their accusing him of breaking the Sabbath, 
hindered him not from doing works of mercy on the 

The like is verified of every good thing for which 
he was slandered. 

As the shame which Christ despised ministereth 
much comfort to the members of Christ, who for the 
profession of his truth are put to much shame, for 
therein they are made conformable to their he.id ; so 
it affordeth an excellent direction for their carriage 
in that case of shame. In which respect that which 
hath been noted of Christ is the more thoroughly to 
be considered. See Chap. xiii. 13, Sec. 137. 

Sec. 22. Of Christ's sitting at the right haiul of 
the throne of God. 

As Christ had an eye in his sufferings on the joy 
that was set before him ; so after he had suft'ered, ho 
was made partaker of that joy, which is expressed iii 
this high transcendent phrase, and is set down at the 
right hand of the throne of God. This containeth 
the recompense which followed upon his sufferings ; 
and, in general, it sctteth out an advancement above 
all creatures, next unto God himself. It is to be 
taken of Christ in that relation wherein he suffered 
— namely, in reference to his human nature ; but so 
as united to his di«ne nature, even tliat person which 
was God-man, as hath been shewed, Chap. i. 3, 
Sec. 34. 

Every word in this reward carricth an especial 

Vek. 3.] 



1. The particle of connexion being copulative, ri, 
and, slieweth that it followeth upon his cross and 

2. The verb, ly.diigi, translated is set down, is of 
the active voice, and is translated 'sat,' in reference 
to Christ himself, chap. i. 3, and x. 12. It im- 
plieth a joint act with his Father. His Father said 
unto him, xddoj, sit, and he sat. It intendeth a 
settled continuance in that honour. See Chap. i. 3, 
Sec. 31. 

3. Eight Jiand, 5.=g;'a, is here metaphorically taken, 
and setteth forth the high degree of Christ's dignity, 
whicli was next unto God himself, above all creatures. 
See Chap. i. 3, Sec. 33. 

4. Tlie throne, Sjoro?, is a royal seat, as hath been 
declared, Chap. i. 8, Sec. 106. 

5. This title, rou Qioij, of God, much amplifieth all 
the forenamed degrees of Christ's advancement. He 
was set by God ; he was set at the right hand of God ; 
he was set on the throne of God. To manifest that 
this, of God, is an amplification of Christ's advance- 
ment, it is thus expressed, ' of the Majesty,' chap. i. 3 ; 
'of the throne of the Majesty,' chap. viii. 1. Hereof 
see Chap. i. 3, Sec. 32. 

This recompense far exceeded all his sufferings. 
And by a due consideration of this, which Christ 
knew would follow upon his sufferings, was he en- 
couraged to endure what he did. 

It affordeth unto us sundry weighty considerations. 

1. Christ was advanced as high as ever he was 
brought low. 

2. He hath a supreme power. 

3. There is no more suffering for Christ. He is 
' set down on a throne.' 

4. Sufferings shall not lose their reward. 

5. The reward shall exceed all sufferings. 

These, and other like recompenses, which were 
conferred upon the head, may be expected by the 
several members of the mystical body, according to 
that degree that they are capable of, and is fit for 

Sec. 23. Of considering weighty matters. 

Ver. 3. For consider him t/uit endured such contra- 
diction of sinners against himself, lest ye be ivearied, 
and faint in your minds. 

This causal particle, yaj, for, sheweth that this 
verse is inferred upon the former as a reason thereof. 
The reason may be taken from the dignity of the 
person that was put to shame, implied in this em- 
phatical particle, rov, him, and in the kind of contra- 
diction against him in this relative, roiaiiTriv, snch ; 
and it thus lieth. We ought the more thoroughly to 
consider the shame whereunto Christ was put, be- 
cause he was so excellent a person, and yet the shame 
so great. 

The word, a.va'>.(iyiisach, translated consider, is a com- 
pound. The simple verb, Xoyiio/j,ai, siguifieth to think 

Vol. III. 

(1 Cor. xiiL 5), to reason (Mark xi. 31), to conclude 
(Rom. iii. 28). The preposition, dm, with which 
this word is compounded, in composition signifieth 
again ; so as this compound, di:a.>.oyi^o//,ai, signifieth 
to review, or to tliink .again and again upon a thing, 
to ponder upon it ; this is to consider. It is in other 
authors attributed to men's casting up, and to their 
reviewing of their accounts. 

Of considering weighty matters, and of Christ 
above all to be considered, see Chap. iii. 1 Sees. 21— 

The word here used, which Lmporteth a thinking 
on a thing again and again, declareth that it is not 
sufficient advisedly to heed a weighty matter at the 
first hearing or reading thereof, but that it must be 
pondered on again and again. 

For this end two especial duties are requisite. 

1. Meditation with ourselves thereupon. Of me- 
ditation, see Chap. xi. 19, Sec. 96. 

2. Conference with others thereabouts. 
Meditation is an especial part of consideration, 

whereby men call to mind what they have learned, 
and so come to conceive the same ; for that which is 
not thoroughly conceived at first, will be by medita- 
tion more thoroughly understood. Meditation, to 
man's mind, is as chewing the cud to beasts : that 
meat which is not at the first eating well digested by 
the beast, through chewing the cud is thoroughly con- 
cocted. It will therefore be useful to meditate on 
such weighty points as men hear and read ; 5-ea, and 
if they have time, to write down tlieir meditations. 

Conference about what we have heard may be 
more useful than meditation, in that thereby we 
have not only our own help, but also the help of 
others ; yea, we may also thereby bring much help 
to others. 

Sec. 24. Of the contradiction of sinners ivhich Christ 
endured against himself. 

The person whom we ought especially to consider 
is here described by his great patience. Before it is 
premised an emphatical particle, tov, which implieth 
such a one as none like unto him. 

We translate it him. Some, the more fully to 
express the emphasis, translate it with a paraphrase, 
thus, quis ille sit — who he was, or what manner 
of person he was. He was such a one as never 
the like was, will be, or can be in the world again. 
Yet he endured. 

The word, ucTo,!i;,a.£v)jxora, translated endured, is the 
same that was used. Sec. 1 8, and it impUeth patience 
and constancy. 

To amplify Christ's patience, the proof thereof is 
set out in this word, dvriKoyiai, contradiction. It is 
the same word that was used, Chap. vi. 16, Sec. 121, 
and translated ' strife ;' but Ch.ap. vii. 5, Sec. 46, it 
is translated as here, ' contradiction.' It implieth 
an opposition against Christ's doctrine and works. 



[Chap. XII. 

They opposed against Christ's doctrine in saying 
that he deceived the people, John vii. 12. They ac- 
cused him before Pilate for perverting the people, 
Luke xxiii. 14 ; and for speaking against C'jesar, 
John xix. 12 ; whereas he taught them to give to 
Caesar that which was Caesar's, Mat. xxii. 21. When 
by their ini|)()rtunity he plainly declared who he was, 
they accused him of blasphemy. Mat. xxvi. 65. The 
like they did when he j)ronounced remission of sin 
to a poor distres.sed sinner, Mat. ix. 3. When he de- 
clared who were of God and who were not, they said 
that he was a Samaritan, and had a devil, John viii. 
48. It is said of the Jews that ' they spake against 
those things which were spoken by Paul, contradict- 
ing and blaspheming,' Acts xiii. 45. So they did 
against Christ. 

They also spake against his works, as against 
■works of mercy on the Sabbath-day, Mark iii. 2 ; 
against his conversing with sinners, though it were 
for their conversion, Mat. ix. 11; against his miracles, 
as done by the prince of devils, Mat. xii. 24. 

In these and other like respects, this word, To/aiiT?jv, 
such, is fitly added. It carrieth emphasis. It was 
such contradiction, both in the matter and manner, 
as never the like offered to any other. It was such 
as may justly astonish and amaze those that hear it, 
such as cannot sufficiently be set out. This was part 
of that shame which is set out, Ver. 2, Sec. 19. 

This is much aggravated by the persons who did so 
contradict him. It is said to be the contradiction, 
iirti) Tuv a/iaorwXwc, of sinners. 

The word sinners is in the New Testament usually 
put for such as arc impudent and obstinate in sin ; who 
live and lic^ inipenitcntly therein ; who are so far from 
Christian contrition and godly sorrow for sins past, 
or from care to have their sins covered before God 
by faith in Christ, and before men by true repent- 
ance, as they account it nothing to be accounted 
sinners. In this sense, publicans and sinners are oft 
joined together. Mat. Lx. 10, 11, and xi. 19. This 
title is given to a notorious strumpet, Luke vii. 37, 
39, and to the chief among publicans, Luke xix. 2, 7. 
The Jews, in detestation of Christ, attribute this 
epithet, sinner, to Christ, John ix. 24. 

Sinners are ordinarily opj)osed to the righteous — 
that is, to such as, having repented of their sins 
past, endeavour to live righteously, 1 Tim. i. 9, 1 Pet. 
iv. 18. 

The sinners here intended were, 

1. The scribes and Pharisees. Howsoever the Phari- 
sees made a great show of sanctity before men, yet 
before God they were such sinners as are here in- 
tended. They were out of measure proud, covetous, 
superstitious, and cruel. In these and other like 
respects, John the Baptist and Christ himself styled 
them ' a generation of vipers,' Mat. iii. 7, and xii. 34. 
They were oft taxed for the foresaid vices, and yet 
' Qu. 'die'?— Ed. 

they obstinately continued in them ; they repented not, 
Mat. xxi. 31, 32. In their oppositions against Christ, 
and persecutions of him and Ms, they were most im- 

2. Sadducees, who were among the Jews as epi- 
cures among the heathen ; for they say ' that there is 
no resurrection, neither angel nor spirit,' Acts xxiii. 8. 

Therefore they gave themselves to all licentiousness. 

3. The high priest's men, Luke xxii. 63, 64. 

4. Herod and his men, Luke xxiii. 1 1. 

5. Pilate's soldiers, Mat. xxvii. 27. 

6. The thief crucified with him, Luke xxiii. 39. 

7. The common rabble that followed him to exe- 
cution, Mat. xxvii. 39. 

To be so thwarted by the worst sort of people must 
needs be a grievous contradiction. 

Further, to aggravate this contradiction, it is said 
to be i'li a.'\irh, against himself; indeed, sometimes 
they contradicted his disciples to blame him thereby, 
as in the case of not fasting. Mat. ix. 14, and rubbing 
corn on the Sabbath-day, Mat. xii. 1, and eating with 
unwashed hands. Mat. xv. 2. But even against his 
own self, against that doctrine which he himself 
preached, and the works which he himself wrought. 
They regarded not the dignity of his person, the in- 
tegrity of his life, the benefit of his works, nor any 
other thing in him which might have restrained them 
from their violent contradiction, but impudently they 
contradicted him himself. 

By this it appears that the most excellent and in- 
nocent persons may have the most virulent oppositions 
by the vDest among men. 

Sec. 25. Of being weary and fainting in our Chris- 
tian course. 

That Christ's pattern, in enduring such contradic- 
tions as he did, may be the more deeply weighed, the 
apostle declareth the damage that may follow upon 
neglect of th.at means. 

The damage is iu general hinted in this particle, lest, 
which is the interpretation of two Greek words, "iva 
firi, thai not: 'that ye faint not.' It is a word of 
caution and prevention, implying th.at such a damage 
of mischief is like to follow upon neglect of the 
foresaid duty. 

The damage consisteth of two branches. The first, 
xa.ajjrE, is thus translated, he xeearied. 

The metaphor is taken from runners in a race, or 
from such as labour and toil in any hard work, and 
with the difficulty thereof, or rather through their 
own sluggishness and laziness, wax weary, and give 
over the former course. 

I find this word used in two other places, as where 
it is said, ' the prayer of faith shall save him that is 
weary,' and ready to faint ; we translate it ' sick,' 
James v. 15, and where Christ saith, 'thou hast la- 
boured, and hast not fainted,' Eev. ii 3. 

Hero is added the subject, roT; -\i\j-)(a.Ti u/j,uf, your 

Vek. 4.] 



7ninds, wlicrcin such maybe wearied or faint. In the 
Greek it is so placed between two verbs, as it may 
be referred to either of them ; thereupon, some thus 
translate it, ' lest ye be wearied in your minds, and 
faint ; ' others thus, ' le.st you be wearied, and faint 
in your minds.' There is no great difference in re- 
ferring it to the one or the other : it hath reference 
to both, and is fitly fixed betwixt them. They who 
be wearied in their minds, faint in their minds ; and 
they who faint in their minds, are wearied in their 

The latter word, fxXu6,u,;voi, translated faint, signi- 
fieth to be loosed ; it is used of things fast knit, where- 
by they remain strong and steady, as a man's joints 
and limbs ; but if they be loosed, they lose their 
strength, and become feeble and weak. It is used of 
the fainting of the spirit or soul of man for want of 
food. Mat. ix. 36, and xv. 32 ; and to such a fainting 
under affliction, ver. 5. Here it is taken in a spiritual 
sense, as appears by joining it with this phrase, in 
your minds ; and thus it is taken, Gal. vi. 9. 

By the inference of this danger, the apostle giveth 
us to understand that virulent contradictions and 
strong oppositions may make men weary of good 
courses, Ps. Ixxiii. 13, 14, Jer. xx. 7-9. 

As those crosses are in their kind grievous, so 
human frailty is much perplexed therewith. And 
because good courses are occasions of such contradic- 
tions, many wax weary of their good courses. 

Well, therefore, did the apostle premise this note 
of caution and prevention — lest. We have cause to 
be circumspect over ourselves herein, and carefully 
use all means to encourage ourselves against those 

Hereof see more. Chap. iii. 12, Sec. 122. 

This last clause, and faint in your minds, is added 
as the reason of their wearisomeness in good courses. 
Howsoever the bitterness of contradiction may give oc- 
casion of being weary, yet the proper cause thereof 
resteth in ourselves, even in our own faint spirits. Here- 
upon, saith the wise man, ' If thou faint in the day 
of adversity, thy strength is small,' Prov. xxiv. 10. 
David acknowledgeth thus much of himself, ' I said, 
this is my infirmity,' Ps. Ixxvii. 1 0. It was inward 
fainting that made many of them who believed in 
Christ to be afraid to confess him, John xii. 42. 

That weariness ariseth from fainting in men's 
minds, is evident by the different disposition of men 
diversely minded ; for where there is the same oc- 
casion of weariness in all, there is not the same 
effect. In the time of the captivity many Levites 
went away from the Lord, but the sons of Zadok re- 
mained faithful, Ezek. xliv. 10, 15 ; and, in the time 
of the primitive persecution, many forsook Paul, 
2 Tim. iv. 16 ; yet not all. 

' The spirit of a man will sustain his infirmity,' 
Prov. xviii. 14. Nothing dismay eth a man of courage; 
instance Moses, David, Job, the prophets, the apostles, 

and martyrs in all ages. It is not simply contradiction, 
but pusillanimity, which causeth wearisomeness. It 
is an undue plea to pretend the grievousness of contra 
diction for excuse of men's wearisomeness in their 
Christian course. It becometh men rather to take 
notice of themselves and of their own faintheartedness, 
that they may be the more humbled and brought to 
repentance for the same, that so the Lord may be the 
more merciful unto them. When men duly load 
themselves, God will be ready to ease them ; but if 
men, by laying the blame elsewhere, think to ease 
themselves, the Lord will load them the more. Now, 
whether it be safe for a man to ease himself, and the 
Lord load him, or to load himself, and the Lord ease 
him, judge ye. 

This further sheweth how needful and useful it is 
to get an undaunted spirit and an invincible resolu- 
tion to go on in our Christian course, though all the 
world should contradict us. Courage and resolution 
doth much in temporal and earthly matters, yet they 
may in their bodies, notwithstanding all their courage, 
wax weary — as in war, in running a race, in tra- 
velling, in undertaking any other task ; but spiritual 
courage will so enable us, as we shall not only well 
begin, and hold out a good while, but go on to the 
end of our Christian race. 

Sec. 26. Of resisting iinio blood. 

Ver. 4. Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving 
against sin. 

The apostle doth in this verse declare how far the 
forementioned duty of imitating Christ in suffering is 
to be extended, even nnto blood. 

The word, atTi-KariaTriTi, which we tran.slate resitted, 
is a double compound. Of the simple compound 
xaSiBTr,iu, see Chap. ii. 7, Sec. 62. 

The preposition, avz'i, added in this double com- 
pound, signifieth against, and is well translated re- 
sisted. It is a soldierlike word, and importeth a 
manly standing against an enemy, pede pes, et cuspide 
cuspis — foot to foot, spear to spear — not yielding a 
foot, or hairbreadth, as we say, and that unto blood — 
that is, so long as blood or breath remains in our 
bodies, or so long as we live. Man's life remains in 
his blood ; when that is clean spilt, life is gone. 

He setteth down this extent of enduring negatively, 
thus, ye have not yet resisted, to meet with an objec- 
tion about that which they had already suffered ; for 
the apostle granteth that they had already suffered 
much, chap. x. 32-34, which he here implieth und<' 
this particle, oS-w, yet, as if he had said, ye hav • 
deed endured much, yet ye may endure nio", ; ' 

The objection may be thus framed ''^''^'^ ^^ "^S-"*' 

thou, O our apostle, so much me' . ^ . . , , 

,, .'^ ■ ., ar pomts considerable : 

as a pattern to us, seemg tho'" . ^ 

a great fight of affliction 7^ . ' , ,, , 
T *i • *i Ai thereof, unto blood. 

lo tins the apcx'tle ' 

brought.jlo endu 

^jccl thereof, against sin. 




BO were subject to more trials. Their blood was yet 
in them, so as they had ' not resisted unto blood.' 

Hereby it is evident that professors may bj brought 
to seal their profession with their blood. Hereof see 
more, Chap. xi. 37, Sec. 2.57. 

It is also as evident that professors cannot promise 
to themselves immunity from sufferings for their pro- 
fession so long as they live. 

Professors, therefore, have need to take heed of 
security by reason of some trials that they have passed 
through. Experience hath shewed how dangerous 
this hath been in reference tn temporal deliverances 
and victories. Much more dangerous is spiritual 
Becurity ; for Satan, being cast out, will seek to make 
a re-entry, !Mat. xii. 4-t ; and God is by spiritual 
security much provoked to give men over to their 
spiritual enemies, so as it is a great point of wisdom, 
after some trials, to prepare for others. 

Sec. 27. Of sirlviwj against sin. 

To avoid another extreme opposite to security, 
which is an uimecessary casting one's self into danger, 
the apostle adds a limitation about saints' suil'erings, 
in this phrase, striving against sin. 

The word, a.maywi?J>iJ.i^oi, translated striving, is a 
compound. It is derived from a root, ayiiv, that 
signifieth strife. It is the word that was used, Ver. 1, 
Sec. 8. 

The preposition, auri, with which it is compounded, 
signifieth against. It is fitly translated striae against. 
It is, as the former verb, a soldierlike word, which 
implieth an opposing or fighting, as an enemy, to whom 
a man will not yield. 

The opposed enemy is here styled, dfiaoTia, sin. 

Some here take sin raetonymically for sinners, who 
commit sin, as heretics, idolaters, or other impious 
persons that would draw us from the profession of 
the truth. This is a good sense ; but there is no 
need of using a trope here, for the sufferings^ of saints 
are for the most part not against the persons of men, 
but against vices themselves, as idolatry, heresy, error, 
or it may be impious and licentious liberty. Suffer- 
ings of .saints are because they will not yield to those 
and suchlike sins of their adversaries. 

Others apply the sins here meant to saints' own 
corruptions, which they say are by afflictions subdued. 
This also ia a truth in itself, but not pertinent to this 

The sins of the adversaries of professors of the 

ith are questionless here meant, and so they set out 

use of saints' sufferings, which is sin. We must 

t"^'^'^ ^'yinst sin, cither by fast holding the truth, 
tended, -inej. f^^,^^ j^ ^^ ^ji^ ^^^^ ^^ j^ ^^^^ -^.j^, 

superstitious, anu ^^ ^;,, j,^ .^^^^f_ 

respects, J,.hn the Ba,...^ ^„,, j„,jj(,^^j sufferings of 
them a genera ion of vipe.,,^1, find this verified. 
Ihey were oft taxed for the ,..„ j,^ ^^.^^j^ ^^^^ ^^^^3^ 
' Qu. • die ■ ?— Ed.- , . 


from calling upon his God, Dan. vi. 12; the apostles 
strove against sin when they would not forbear to 
preach the gospel, Acts iv. 2, 3, 19, and v. 29; 
believers in the apostles' time strove against sin 
when they would not renounce their profession of 
Christ, Acts ix. 2 ; so the martyrs that suffered in 
heathenish Rome, and in antichristian Rome. 

On the other side, Joseph strove against sin when 
he would not yield to commit foUy with his mistress, 
Gen. xxxix, 12 ; and Daniel's three companions, when 
they would not bow to Nebuchadnezzar's image, Dan. 
iii. 16. 

It is the cause, and not the suffering, which makes 
a martyr — causa, nan poena, facit mart i/rem ; therefore, 
to incitations to suffer, and remunerations of sufferings, 
the cause uscth to be added expressly or implicitly. 

Great is their folly who run a contrary course ; who 
strive for sin, and suffer in their striving, as heretics, 
idolaters, traitors, murderers, thieves, adulterers, and 
all such gross sinners ; yea, and busybodies also, 
1 Pet. iv. 1 .5 ; so did Achan suffer, Josh, vii ; and 
Ahab and Zcdekiah, Jer. xxLx. 21 ; so Servetus, Legat, 
Campion, and other jiopish traitors. They strove to 
uphold the man of sin and mischievous plots against 
the land of their nativitj'. 

It is a special pouit of wisdom, in all our striv- 
ings and sufferings, thoroughly to examine the cause 
thereof. He that shall fail in his cause, his sufferings 
wUl be so far from bringing comfort, as, without 
sound repentance, they will be the beginning of hell 
torments, and a means of aggravating the same. To 
suffer for sin, so as suffering draws him not from sin, 
importeth impudent obstinacy ; but if our cause be 
good that we strive against sin, then may we have 
much comfort in our sufferings. Thus striving against 
sin, let us resist unto blood. 

Sec. 28. Of the resolution of the four first verses of 
Heb. xii. 

Ver. 1. WJierefore, seeing we also are compassed 
about loith so great a cloud of witnesses, let ns lay 
aside every iveight, and the sin which doth so easily 
beset iis, and let us run with patience the race i/utt is 
set before us, 

2. Looking unto Jesus, tJie author and finisher of 
our faith ; who, for the joy that was set before him, 
endured the cross, despised the shame, and is set down 
at tlie right hand of the throne of God. 

3. For consiiler him not that endured such contra- 
diction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearieil 
and faint in your minds. 

4. Ye liave not yet resisted unto blood, striving against 

In these four verses arc declared helps for well 
finishing our Christian course. Herein we may observe, 

1. The inference, wherefore, 

2. The substance ; which sctteth down the kinds 
of helps. 

Ver. 1-4..] 



They are of two sorts : 

1. Examples of former saints, ver. 1. 

2. The pattern of Christ himself, vers. 2-4. 
The former setteth down, 

1. The motive to follow them. 

2. The matter wherein we slu)uld follow them. 
This latter is, 

1. Propounded, in the end why the pattern of 
former saints is registered, implied in this word, 

2. Amplified, and that two ways : 
(1.) By the multitude of them. 

(2.) By the right we have to use them. 

Their multitude is implied under this metaphor of 
a cloud, and amplified by this note of comjiarison, so 

Our right to them is intended in this phrase, we 
are compassed about, or, word for word, having com- 
passing us. 

The matter sets out two duties : 

1 . To cast off impediments. 

2. To use fit helps. 

Two sorts of impediments are here expressed. 

One outward, in this word weight; amplified by 
the extent thereof, in this word, every. 

The other, inward, styled the sin, and described by 
this effect, which doth easily beset us. 

In setting down the latter, about use of helps, we 
may note, 

1. The manner of propounding it, in the first per- 
son and plural number, lei us. 

2. The matter whereof it consisteth, which is set 
down in a metaphor of running a race, whereby is 
intended a right finishing of our Christian course, and 
it pointeth at four virtues. 

(1.) Diligence and speed, in this metaphor, »*a». 
(2.) Patience, which is plainly expressed. 
(3.) Perseverance, in this phrase, run the race. 
(4.) Prudence, in these words, set before us. 
This noteth out two points : 

1. The warrant we have for what we do, in this 
phrase, set before. 

2. The special right which concerneth us, in this 
word, us. 

The former sheweth a direction. 

The latter a limitation. 

The pattern of Christ himself is, 

1. Propounded, ver. 2. 

2. Amplified, vers. 3, 4. 

In setting down this help, the apostle noteth, 

1. A duty, which sheweth what we must do. 

2. A reason why we must do that duty. 
In setting do'wn the duty, observe, 

1. The action required, in this word, looking tin to. 

2. The object of that act, Jesus. 

The reason here alleged for looking unto Jesus is 
taken from that which Christ did ; which is of two 
sorts ; 

1. What he works in ns, faith. 

This is amplified by two kinds of working : 
(1.) His beginning it, the author. 
(2.) His perfecting it, t/w finisher. 

2. What he wrought, or rather endured, for us. 
This is, 

1. Propounded. 

2. Amplified. 

The proposition consisteth of two branches, in both 
which is set down the object and the action thereabout. 

The first object is, cross ; the action appertaining 
thereunto, endured. 

The other object is, shame; and the action there- 
about, despised. 

That which Christ endured for us is amplified two 
ways : 

1. By that which Christ set before him, which is 
here styled ^oy. 

2. By that which followed upon his suflfering. 
Here note, 

1. The method or order, in this copulative, and. 
He first suflered, and then was exalted. 

2. The matter, which was a high exaltation. 
This is described, 

1. By the stability of it, is set doivn. 

2. By the eminency of it, at the right hand. 

3. By the dignity or royalty of it, of the throne. 
All these are amplified by the person whose right 

hand and whose throne it was, namely, God's. 

The amplification of the foresaid pattern of Christ 
is set down two ways : 

1. By a review thereof, ver. 3. 

2. By the extent of following Christ, ver. 4. 
In the review we may observe, 

1. A duty enjoined. 

2. A reason to enforce the same. 
About the duty, observe, 

1. The act required, consider. 

2. The object thereof ; which is described, 
(1.) By the dignity of the person, him. 

(2.) By the kind of opposition against him, contra- 
diction, amplified by the greatness thereof, such. 

(3.) By the special person opposed, himself. 

(4.) By the condition of the persons who opposed 
him, sinners. 

(5.) By his manner of bearing it, endured. 

The reason is drawn from prevention of a great 
damage, wherein is set down, 

1. The kind of damage, lest ye he wearied, 

2. The cause thereof, and faint in your minds. 

In the extent of following Christ we are to observe, 

1. The manner of propounding it — which is nega- 
tively, ye have not. 

2. The matter, wherein are four points considerable : 
(1.) The act to be done, resist. 

(2.) The continuance thereof, unto blood. 

(3.) Another act, striving. 

(4.) The object thereof, against sin. 



[Chap. XII. 

Sec. 29. Of observations raised from Heh. xii. 1-4. 

I. Examples of saitits before ns are to he followed. 
The inference of this verse upon the former chapter, 
implied in this word, wJierefore, iutendeth as much. 
See Sec. 2. 

II. Former examples of Jews are registered for us 
Christians. Thus much is implied in this phrase, ive 
also. See Sec. 2. 

III. Suffering saints are God's witnesses. They are 
here so expres.'^ly called. See Sec. 2. 

IV. God hath a luidtitude of witnesses. This meta- 
phor, o cloud, and these two epithets, compassing, 
apd so great, do fully demonstrate this point. See 
Sec. 3. 

V. Impediments 7mist be removed. This is the first 
kind of helps here prescribed. See Sec. 4. 

VI. Impediments »«w.s< be clean abandoned. This 
■word, lai/ aside, intendeth as much. See Sec. 4. 

VII. Things burthensome hinder Christians in their 
race. This is implied under this word, toeight. See 
Sec. 5. 

VIII. Ui'erg burthen is to be laid aside. The uni- 
versal note, everg, is here expressly set down. See 
Sec. 5. 

IX. Original corruption is properly a siyi. That 
is the sin which is here intended. See Sec. 6. 

X. Onginal corru])tion is ready to stir us up to 
actual sins. This is the meaning of this phrase, doth 
so easily beset us. See Sec. 6. 

XL Inward and inbred corruption is to be subdued. 
The sin here spoken of must be laid aside. See 
Sec 7. 

XII. General directions are to be applied to our- 
selves. The manner of expressing the duty in the 
first person, vs, declares as much. See Sec. 8. 

XIII. Christians must draw on others to the duties 
which they p'ofcmi themselves. The manner of ex- 
pressing the duty in the plural number, which hath 
reference to others, proves this point. See Sec. 8. 

XIV. A Christians course is a race. The meta- 
phor of running a race here used, proveth as much. 
Sec Sec. 8. 

XV. Diligence is requisite for the finishing of our 
Christian course. This metaphor, run, intendeth as 
much. See Sec. 9. 

XVI. Patience must be added to diligejice. Thus 
much is plainly expressed. Sec Sec. 9. 

XVII. Perseverance is requisUe for finishing our 
Christian course. This jihrase, run the race, implieth 
perseverance till we come to the end of our race. 
See Sec. 9. 

XVIII. Prxidence is requisite for well ordering our 
Christian course. It is an especial jjoint of ])rudence 
to observe what is set before us, that is, what is war- 
ranted in God's word. See Sec. 9. 

XIX. That is viost warrantable which is prescribed 
to us in particular. This is that which is set before 
us. See Sec. 9. 

XX. Ability to run our Christian race is from 
Jesus. For this end is he here brought in, and de- 
scribed unto us. See Sec. 12. 

XXI. An especial menns of receiving grace from 
Christ is to know and believe on him. This ismtended 
under this word, looking unto. See Sec. 12. 

XXII. Jesus first worheth faith in us. In this 
respect he is the autlwr of our faith. See Sec. 13. 

XXIII. Jesus perfecteth the good tvork of faith 
which he hath begun. In this respect he is styled the 
finisher of otir faith. See Sec. 14. 

XXIV. Chriit is a pattern to Christians. For this 
end, that which he did and endured is set before us. 
See Sec. 15. 

XXV. Christ had joy set before him. This is here 
expressed. See Sec. 15. 

XXVI. By the joy that was set before Christ, lie 
•was encouraged to endure what he did. This prepo- 
sition, /or, intendeth so much. See Sees. 15, 16. 

XXVII. Christ had his cross. This is implied 
under this word, cross. See Sec. 17. 

XXVIII. Christ endured Ids cross to the full. The 
word endured intends as much. See Sec. 1 8. 

XXIX. Christ was ]mt to shame. This is here 
taken for granted. See Sees. 1 9, 20. 

XXX. Christ despiised the shame that was laid upon 
him. This is here plainly expressed. See Sec. 21. 

XXXI. After Christ's sufferings followed glory. 
This copulative and implieth as much. Sec Sec. 22. 

XXXII. Christ's glory is an established glory. 
Therefore it is here said, he is set down. See Sec. 22. 

XXXIII. Christ's glory is an eminent glory. It is 
at the right hand of God : above all creatures, next to 
God himself. See Sec. 2'2. 

XXXIV. Christ's glory is a royal dignity. He sits 
on a throne ; even the throne of God. See Sec. 22. 

XXXV. Matters of weight are to be tvell weighed. 
The word consider imports as much. See Sec. 23. 

XXXVI. Chi^st's deeds and sufferings are especially 
to be iveighed. This is gathered from this relative, 
him. See Sec. 23. 

XXXVII. Professors of the truth must look for 
contradictions. As the head was dealt withal, so 
shall his members. See Sec. 24. 

XXXVIII. T/ie vilest of men are subject to contra- 
dict the best, dinners contradicted Christ. See Sec. 

XXXIX. Chi-ist was so contradicted as nei'er any 
more. This particle of admiration, such, intendeth 
as much. See Sec. 24. 

XL. Christ hi/nself was not spai-ed. There were 
contradictions, not only against his disciples, but also 
against himself. See Sec. 24. 

XLI. Christ endured tJie contradictions that were 
against himself. Thus much is plainly expressed. 
See Sec. 24. 

XLII. Bangers are to be prevented. This particle, 
lest, intends as much. See Sec. 25. 

Vee. 5.] 



XLIII. Contradictions may make Christians iveary 
of their good courses. This inference, lest you be 
wearied, imports as much. See Sec. 25. 

XLIV. Weariness of good ariseth from, m,ens oimi 
imoard remissness. This clause, and faint in your 
minds, intends as much. See Sec. '15. 

XLV. A due consideration of Christ's enduring u'ill 
move us to endure. This I gather from the inference 
of this verse upon the former, by this causal particle, 
for. See Sec. 23. 

XLVI. Professors may he brought to seal their jiro- 
fession with their blood. This is here taken for 
granted. See Sec. 26. 

XLVII. Christians must stand to their cause so long 
as they have any blood in them. This phrase, ye have 
not yet resisted unto blood, implieth as much. See 
Sec. 26. 

XL VIII. Sin is the only true cause of saints' suffer- 
ings. They must strive against sin. See Sec. 27. 

Sec. 30. Of rememhenng encouragements to hold out. 

Ver. 5. And ye have forgotten the exhortation which 
speaketh unto you, as unto children, My son, despise 
not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when 
thou art rebuked of him. 

A third motive to stir us up to persevere in the 
faith, notwithstanding our suffering for the same, is 
taken from the author of our sufferings, which is God 

The first motive was taken from the example of 
former saints, ver. 1. 

The second from Christ's pattern, vers. 2-4. 

Thus this is the third. 

The first particle, xaJ, and, being a copulative, 
sheweth that that which followeth is in general of the 
same kind that that which went before was. 

The word, ixX'sXriah, which we thus translate, ye 
have forgotten, is a compound, and here only used in 
the New Testament. But the same simple verb, 
compounded with another preposition (smXaiiatofLai), 
which intendeth the same thing, is frequently used, 
and translated, as this word, to forget. It is used 
thrice in this epistle, chap. vi. 10, xiii. 2, 16. 

To forget is at least an infirmity, and so it is here 

Some, to aggravate the reprehension, set it down 
interrogatively, thus. Have ye forgot t But this 
phrase, ye have forgotten, is the more pertinent, be- 
cause the apostle here setteth himself with all mild- 
ness to manifest their weakness. 

Which way soever we read it, it is apparent that 
to forget the encouragements which God affords, is a 
fault. It is ta.xed in the ancient Jews, Ps. Ixxviii. 
11, and cvi. 13, 21. It is expressly forbidden, Dent, 
vi. 12. 

It is a branch of that corruption, which seized on 
man by his fall ; for thereby, as other powers of a 
man's soul, and parts of his body were depraved, so 

his memory, which was placed in man as a useful 
treasury, to lay up and fast hold the directions and 
consolations of God's word. 

1. People are to take heed of this fault ; for hereby 
the use of good directions and consolations is lo.st. 

2. Ministers, as they see occasion, must lovingly 
put their people in mind hereof. 

3. Jleans must be used for .strengthening memory. 
The inference of this taxation upon ver. 3, where 

he giveth a hint of their wearisomeness, and fainting 
in their minds, sheweth, that forgetting grounds of 
encouragements is an occasion of fainting. 

This was it that made the disciples afraid. Mat. 
viii. 25. Man by nature hath a fainting spirit in 
himself; he is like a lamp that will fail to give light 
if there be not a continual supply of oil. So a fire, 
without supply of fuel, will go out. 

This may be a motive well to heed the encourage- 
ments of God's word. While men well consider the 
same, they think all the power and terror of hell can- 
not make them shrink. But if those encouragements 
be forgotten, every little blast makes them shake Uke 
an ashen ^ leaf. 

Sec. 31. Of exhortations spoken to all of all sorts. 

That which the apostle taxeth them for forgetting 
is here styled the exhortation. Of the verb, Tctjaxa- 
Aew, whence this noun, exhortation, is derived, see 
Chap. iii. 13, Sec. U3. 

Some translate the noun, ^rajaxXjjff;;, here, consolor 
tion, and so it is oft used, as Luke ii. 28, 2 Cor. i. 3. 
So it doth also signify exhortations, as Acts xiii. 15, 
Eom. xii. 8. 

Here this word hath reference to the text of Scrip- 
ture that followeth ; which, in regard of this sweet 
compellation, My son, is a great consolation, and in 
reference to the manner of expressing the point, thus, 
despise not, nor faint, it is an exhortation. So as 
either signification may be used in this place. It is 
a consolatory exhortation, and an exhortatory consola- 
tion. To the metaphor of running here used by the 
apostle, the latter word, exhortation, is the more 
proper : for runners in a race, by exhortations and 
acclamations, are much quickened.^ Whereby it ap- 
peareth how useful exhortations are. See more here- 
of. Chap. iiL 13, Sec. 143. 

This relative, f,Tig, which, hath reference to that ex- 
hortation which is quoted in this verse. It is an 
elegant figure : for a voice, or faculty of speaking, is 
attributed to the exhortation recorded in Scripture. 
So as the word written is as a sermon preached, it 
hath a kind of voice whereby it speaketh to us : as 
Chap. iii. 7, Sec. 74, in the end. 

The word, diaXiyerai, translated speaketh, is a com- 
pound, and signifieth more than a simple speaking, 
namely a reasoning, or disputing, or convincing a man 

' Qu. ' aspen'? — Ed. 

' riausuque volat tremituque eecundo.— Virg. 



[Chap. XII 

of the cqHity of what he speaketh, Mark ix. .34, Acts 
xvii. 17, and xix. 8, 9. The title of the art of rea- 
soning, oia.'KixTixri, is sot down under a word derived 
from the same root. 

The persons to whom this was spoken are com- 
prised under this relative, i/.u", unto you. He means 
hereby those to whom he wrote ; which were, both 
these Hebrews, and all other Christians, that should 
read or hear this epistle ; for God, in his word, 
speaketh to all of all sorts, to all of all degrees, to all 
of all places, to all of all ages, to all of any other 
distinction whatsoever. This Christ thus plainly cx- 
presscth, ' What I s.ay unto you, I say unto all,' JIark 
xiii. 37 ; and Moses thus, ' Neither with you only do 
I make this covenant ; but with him that standeth 
here with us this day before the Lord our God, and 
also with him that is not here,' Dcut. xxi.x. 14, 1.5. 
Thus may, thus ought, every one to apply the word of 
God, wherein it concerneth him, to himself, though at 
first it were spoken to others. See Chap. xiiL 5, 
Sec. GS. 

Sec. 32. Of GocTs speakbtg to saints as to chil- 

This phrase, w; i//d7c, as unto children, hath refer- 
ence to that sweet compellation, u/l /jlou, My son, in 
the following exhortation. 

This giveth an evident instance that God respecteth 
saints, as a father his children, Ps. ciii. 13, Jer. iii. 19, 
and x.\xix. 9. 

1. This ariseth from his mere mercy and free grace. 
Princes when they gi'aut favours use to render this 
reason, out of our own special grace and mere motion 
we grant this ; yet may they have many inducements 
from their subjects ; but God can have nothing out 
of himself to move him to do what he doth. These 
therefore be frequent phrases in Scripture : ' For my 
own sake,' 'for my name's sake,' Isa. xlviii. 9, 11; 
'grace,' EpL ii. 5; 'free gift,' Kom. v. 15; 'rich 
mercy,' ' gre.at love,' Eph. ii. G. 

2. This relation of children to God, is by virtue of 
our union with Christ. Christ is his true proper Son ; 
but saints are one with Christ, members of his body, 
and in that respect his children. 

1. This is the ground of saints' confidence. If God 
speak to them as to chUdren, they have good ground 
to fly to God as to a father, and in all time of need 
to ask and seek of him all needful blessings. Mat. vii. 
11, yea, and in faith to depend on him for the same, 
Mat. vi. 31, 32. What useful thing shall such want? 
wh.at hurtful thing need such to fear? If God deal 
with them as with children, he will provide for them 
every good thing, he will protect them from every 
hurtful thing, he will hear their prayers, he will ac- 
cept their services, he will bear with their infirmities, 
he will support them under all their burthens, and 
assist them against all their assaults; though through 
their own weakness, or the violence of some tempta- 

tion, they should be drawn from him, yet will he be 
ready to meet, them in the midway, turning to him. 
Instance the mind of the father of the prodigal to- 
wards him. See more hereof in The Guide to go to 
God, or Explanation of the Lord's Prayer, Sec. 8. 

2. This is a forcible motive to stir us up to bear a 
childlike respect to God. The rule of relation rc- 
quireth as much, as is shewed in the place before 

Sec. 33. Of the paternal and childlike relation be- 
twixt pastor and people. 

To make the foresaid exhortation to be the more 
heeded, the apostle addeth the express words of Scrip- 
ture wherewith it was first set down, but quotctii 
neither book, chapter, nor verse. Hereof see Chap, 
ii. G, Sec. 50. 

The text is taken out of Prov. iii. 11, 12. In quot- 
ing it the apostle holdeth close to the interpretation 
of the ancient LXX; of whom see Chap. i. G, Sec. 
72. Only there is one little difference : for the LXX 
do not express this relative pronoun, viy, but yet by 
speaking to one in the vocative case do understand 
that pronoun. In the Hebrew it is expressly set 
down, ^J^. 

This title, 7ny son, as here used, and as used by the 
wise man, seemeth to have reference to the minister 
that utters it : because he hath herein reference to 
the Lord as to a third person : thus, ' ^ly son, despise 
not thou the chastening of the Lord.' 

I will not deny but that this compell.ition, my 
son, may be taken in reference to God : because minis- 
ters, both extraordinary and ordinary, stand in God's 
room ; and in God's room speak to God's people : 
yea, God in the mouth of his ministers speaketh to 
his people. Thus it confirms God's fatherly respect 
to his people, whereof see Sec. 32. 

If it be taken in reference to the prophet, it shew- 
eth that God's ministers are as fathers to God's people : 
and God's people as children to them. Frequently 
is this relation mentioned betwixt God's ministers 
and people. 

1. Jlinisters are means of their people's regenera- 
tion, 1 Cor. iv. 14, 15, Philem. 10. 

2. Ministers provide for the souls of people, as 
p.arents do for their children's bodies. Their care is 
to nourish and buUd them up in grace, 2 Cor. xii. 14. 

3. ^Ministers bear a fatherly affection and respect 
to God's people, 2 Cor. vi. 11, 13, Phil. iv. 1. 

This relation directeth both ministers and people 
how to be affected, and how to carry themselves one 
towards another. 

Sec. 34. Of general doctrines intended to particular 

The particular application of the former point, of 
well bearing alUiction.s, unto one particular person in 
the singular number and vocative case, thus, my son, 

Vee. 5.] 



giveth evidence tliat general doctrines are intended 
to every one in particular. 

We heard before, Sec. 31, that what was spoken 
to people of one age was intended to all ages. Here 
it is further shewed, that that which is common to 
many is intended to every one ; as if it had been in 
special directed to every one. Thus Christ by name 
enjoins that duty to Peter, which belongeth to all 
ministers, John sxi. 15. These indefinite phrases, 
' if any man thirst,' John vu. 37 ; ' all ye that labour,' 
Mat. xi. 28; 'whosoever wil!,' Rev. xxii. 17, do in- 
tend as much. For this end sacraments are applied 
to particular persons. 

1. This manifesteth the impartial respect of God 
to all. 

2. It giveth proof of God's wisdom, in leaving 
every one that receiveth not the word, without ex- 
cuse. God speaks to every one in particular; wliy 
tlien shall any put away from him that salvation, 
which in and by the word is ofl'ered unto him ? 

This shews what good ground of faith every one 

It is in this respect an incitation to every one to 
apply to himself what he heareth out of God's word. 
The power, the life of preaching consisteth herein. 

The premising of this title, my son, before the fol- 
lowing dissuasion, giveth instance that dissuasions, 
and other kind of instructions, are to be sweetened 
with mild insinuations. See Chap. iii. 12, Sec. 121. 

Sec. 35. 0/ reconciling Prov. iii. 11, 12, loitlt Heb. 
xii. 5, 6. 

There is some difference in words and phrases, be- 
twixt the testimony following, as it is in the Hebrew, 
and as it is in the Greek, yet in sense they both fully 

Some differences are more in the translation of the 
Hebrew than in the text itself. 

1. This negative, neither be wear;/, is thus trans- 
lated, neither faint. Both the Hebrew yip, and the 
Greek, oXiyo^n, import one and the same thing. For 
wearisomeness causeth fainting, and fainting implieth 

2. Where Solomon saith, neither he weary of his 
correction; the apostle thus, nor /rtini QxXuou) when 
thou art rebuked of him. Correction is a real rebuke, 
and rebuke is a verbal correction ; so as one may well 
be put for the other. 

To put the verb for the noun, thus, bein/j rebuked 
or corrected of God, for the correction of God, is but 
the different dialect of different tongues. 

In the next verse the first clause thereof in He- 
brew and Greek do fully agree. In the latter clause 
there is some difference in words and phrases. For 
where Solomon sayeth, 3X3"!, even as a father the son 
in ivhom he delighteth; the apostle thus [liasTiyol), 
he scourgeth every son xvhom he receiveth. The expres- 
sion of son, implieth God's fatherly respect ; so as in 

sense it is all one, as if he had said, even as a father; 
and to receive a child, importeth a delighting in 

The apostle agreeth with the Greek LXX, word 
for word. 

Of this LXX, and of varying from the letter where 
the sense is kept, see Chap. i. 6, Sec. 72. 

Sec. 36. Of God the author of saints' afflictions. 

In directing us well to bear afflictions, the apostle 
laboureth to remove two contrary impediments. 

One is in the excess, despise not. 

The other in the detect, faint not. 

The Hebrew word DNO, signifieth to reject, or 
detest a thing. 

It is used of those builders which (1DN2) refused 
the head stone of the corner, which was Christ him- 
self, Ps. cxviii. 22. 

The Greek word, IXiyoom, also carrieth emphasis 
with it : for according to the notation of it,i it signi- 
fieth, to have little care of a thinrf, to neglect it, or to 
contemn it. A fit word. It is used to express the 
fault of a child, or servant, in too light an esteem of 
his parent or master ; which is a plam contempt of 
them, opposed to that honour which is required in 
the fifth commandment. 

That which is here forbidden to be despised is 
styled, Taibiia, chastetiinff. 

The Greek word is derived from a root, Taj's, that 
signifieth a child: and in general it implieth a father's 
dealing with his child. It is used sometimes for instruc- 
tion, as 2 Tim. iii. 10; sometimes for correction, as 
here; and they who correct, Tai&s-jrai, have their 
notation from this word, ver. 9. And the act itself 
of correcting, is expressed under a verb, rraidvjiiv, 
sprouting out from the same root, Luke xxiii. 16, 22. 
A father's correction is for instruction. 

The notation of the Hebrew word nOID, intendeth 
as much as tlie Greek. It implieth such a correction 
as fathers give to their children, whereby they may 
be the better instructed. It is also oft used for in- 
struction, Prov. i. 3, 3. 

The Latin have a fit word, disciplina, to express 
both these senses, which we in English translate dis- 
cipline. For men are disciplined both by instruction 
and correction. 

The chastening here spoken of, is said to be of the 
Lord. God is the author and orderer thereof, Isa. x. 
5, 2 Sam. xvi. 11. 

Obj. Satan, men, other instruments, do much 
afflict saints. 

A ns. Yet God hath the ordering and disposing of 
them, that he may restrain them as he seeth cause, 
that he may turn all that they do to his own glory 
and his children's good. God's glory is the supreme 
end of all, John ix. 3 ; subordinate thereunto is his 

' dXlyiji/ Spav Ix^iv, parvam curam habere, negligere, con • 




[Chap. XII. 

children's good, Kom. viii. IS. See more hereof in 
The Whole Armour of God, on Eph. Chap. vi. 11, 
Sec. 2,and Ver. 11, Sec. 13. 

By this we are taught in all crosses to look up unto 
God, to search after the end which God aims at, and 
to call on him. 

This is a point much pressed by the prophets, Isa. 
xvii. 7, and xlv. 22, Micah vii. 7. 

This also giveth us a ground of patient bearing all 
crosses, because the Lord is author of them. 

Sec. 37. Of saints afflidinns heing chastisements. 

The word whereby tlie afflictions of saints are here 
set down is styled, rraioiia, chasteninr/, and according 
to the notation thereof, signitieth such correction as 
a parent giveth to his child, and that for his amend- 
ment, Kev. iii. 19, Ps. Ixxxix. 30, 31, 2 Sam. 
vii. 14. 

That they are such, is evident by the ends which 
God aimeth at therein. 

One general end is their good, Prov. viii. 28 ; 
therefore some of them have acknowledged it to be 
good for them, Ps. cxix. 71, Lam. iii. 27. 

Particular grounds have reference either to this 
life or the life to come. 

In this life, the grounds are either privative or 

Privative in regard of sin, and that, 

L To prevent sin, 2 Cor. xii. 7. 

2. To redress it, Ps. cxix. G9. 

The positive grounds have respect to grace ; namely, 
to prove it, 1 Pet. i. 7, or to exercise it. Job i. 12. 

The good of afflictions hath respect to the world to 
come two ways. 

1. To prevent damnation, 1 Cor. xi. 31. 

2. To increase heavenly glory, 2 Cor. iv. 1 7. 
This maketh an apparent difference betwixt the 

afflictions of saints and others. They may be all in 
their external appearance alike, for ' all things fall 
out alike to all,' Eccles. ix. 2, but yet there is a great 
difference betwixt the afflictions of the one and the 
other ; as, 

1. In the moving cause. Love putteth God on to 
chastise his children, ver. G, but wrath puts him on 
to judge the wicked, Deut. xxix. 23, &c. 

Obj. God was angry and wroth with Moses, Deut. 
L 37, and iii. 26. 

Ans. That anger and wrath was not -vindictive, 
but paternal. 

The words anc/er and wrath are used, 

(1.) To give evidence that God neither approveth 
nor justifieth sin in any, not in his beloved ones, 
2 Sam. xii. H. 

(2.) To prevent the like for the future. 

(3.) To be a warning to others, 1 Kings xiii. 23. 

(4.) To revenge others' sins in the chastisements of 
his children, 2 Kings x.vii. 20. 

2. In the ends, whereof we heard before. For God 

aimeth not at those ends in judging the wicked, at 
which he aimeth in chastising his children. 

3. In the effects ; for, 

(1.) Saints, by afflictions, have some sins prevented, 
and some redrcs.scd, Luke xv. 17; but others have 
thereby sins occasioned, Exod. xvi. 2, and increased, 
2 Kings xxviii. 22. 

(2.) Afflictions draw saints to God, Hosea v. 15, 
but they drive others from God, 2 Kings vi. 33. 

(3.) Saints, by afflictions, are the more humbled 
under God, and brought to acknowledge his divine 
justice, yea, and mercy, Dan. ix. 7, Lam. iii. 22. 
Others have their mouths opened against God, Rev. 
xvi. 9. 

This is a further invitation patiently to bear the 
afflictions which God is pleased to lay upon us, even 
because they are chastisements : they are for our in- 
struction. Though they be grievous to the flesh, yet 
they are needful and useful to the souL 

On these grounds we willingly take bitter pills and 
fulsome potions, and patiently endure corrosives, 
lancings, searings, and cutting off of members. Let 
judgment and faith help us in God's dealing with us. 
' Rebuke a wise man, and he will love thee,' Prov. 
ix. 8 : ' Hear ye the rod, and who hath appointed it,' 
Micah vi. 9. 

Sec. 38. Of avoiding extremes in reference to crosses. 

The expression of two extremes, namely, excess, by 
despising, and defect, by fainting, giveth us to un- 
derstand that both the extremes are conscionably to 
be avoided, ' It is good that thou shouldcst take hold 
of this : yea, also from this withdraw not thine hand,' 
Eccles. vii. 18. This is implied under this phrase, 
' You shall not turn aside to the right hand or to the 
left,' Deut. V. 32. 

Both extremes fail of that end which God aimeth 
at in chastising his children ; which is, to better them 
by afflictions, to raise up their heart to him, and to 
draw them unto him. Both the one and the other 
extreme draweth men from God, and depriveth them 
of the true comfort and profit of afflictions. 

We ought hereupon to be well instructed in that 
golden mean that lieth betwixt these extremes, that 
we may not, like fools, avoid one extreme so far as 
we fall into the other.' Virtue is placed in the midst, 
betwixt two extremes, as the temperate zones which 
are habitable betwixt the extreme cold and extreme 
hot zones, both which are unhabitable. The philo- 
sopher discerned by the light of nature the aberrations 
of both the extremes, the excess and the defect, and 
thereupon defined virtue to be the middle of two 
evils.- God's word doth plainly set out that middle 
way which lieth betwixt two extremes, wherein and 
whereby we maj' be brought to eternal life. 

The first extreme is in the excess ; it is to despise 

' Stulti dum fugiunt vitia, in contriria currunt — llorat. 
' MeffuTijj Ji'o KaKdCiv. — Arist. Ethic, lib. ii. 6. 


Vee. 6.' 



God's fatlierly dealing with us. Of the notation of 
the Greek and Hebrew word, see Sec. 36. 

This is a great fault. God by his prophets much 
complaineth against it, Jer. ii. 30, and v. 3. Ahaz 
is set out as a fearful instance hereof, 2 Chron. xxviii. 
22. Hereupon he is branded with this black mark, 
' this is that king Ahaz.' 

1. Great dishonour is hereby done to God. His 
authority and sovereignty is herein trampled upon. 

Great wrong is hereby done to man himself. It 
doth not only deprive him of the benefit of afHictions, 
but also turns mercy into wrath, Lev. xxvi. 1 S ; 
Amos iv. 5. 

The other extreme is in the defect, here translated 
faint. Of the notation hereof, see Sec. 35. 

Hereby it appears that it is a fault to faint under 

I confess it is not so blameworthy as the excess in 
despising affliction. The worse and the wickeder sort 
of people full into the former ; the weaker, and many 
times the better sort, yea, God's dear saints, oft fall 
into this latter : yet a fault and blameworthy it is. 

Of these two extremes, of directions to keep men 
from them, see The Whole Armour of God, ou Eph. 
vi. 15, Treat. 2, Part 5, Sees. 18, 19, kc. 

Sec. 39. Of afflictions convincing men of sin. 

The affliction of the Lord is set out in this word, 
ikiyyClMivoi, rebuked, and that the rather to aggravate 
the latter extreme, which may seem to be the lighter. 
The word is used of convincing one of a sin. 

Thus the very word is translated ' convicted,' John 
viii. 9 ; and a noun, 'i'Kiyyiii, coming from thence, is 
translated ' evidence,' Heb. xi. 1, Sec. 4. 

The Hebrew word in the derivation thereof sig- 
nifieth as much. 

This word is here used in two respects. 

1. In regard of the order which the Lord useth in 
rebuking. He first convinceth, and then rebuketh them. 

2. In regard of the effect that followeth. By God's 
rebuke men are convinced of sin. And because by 
afflictions men use to be rebuked and convinced, 
rthuhe is put for afflictions. Rev. iii. 19. Afflictions, 
then, convince men of somewhat that God would have 
them to take notice of. This may be well exemplified 
in Joseph's brethren. Gen. xlii. 21. The case of Israel 
about Achan may also be an instance thereof ; and 
about the fiery serpents, Num. xxi. 7; and iu their 
undertakings against the Benjamites, Judges xx. 26. 

Prosperity, as dust, flieth iu the eyes of men's un- 
derstandings, so as they cannot well see and discern 
their disposition. It is like a fawning flatterer, who 
speaketh nothing but well, according to the mind of 
him with whom he speaketh; as Ahab's false pro- 
phets, 1 Kings xxii. 13. 

1. Hereby we have an instance of the necessity of 
afflictions; we should be exceedingly bewitched if it 
were not for them. 

They are rebukers in the gate, Amos v. 10. And 
we have great need of such rebukers. 

2. This also sheweth the utility and benefit of 
afflictions. It is very useful to be convinced and 
rebuked, Prov. ix. 8, 9. 

3. This is a good ground of patience. Things so 
needful and useful ought to be patiently borne. 

4. This teacheth us well to observe in all afflic- 
tions, what it is for which the Lord rebuketh. Lam. 
iii. 40, 41, Josh. vii. 13. Want of this search makes 
many crosses to fail of their kindly work. 

Men have two helps about searching out their sins. 

One is God's word, which is a declaration of Gods 
mind, and sheweth why he doth so and so afflict men. 

The other is their own conscience, whereby they 
may know how to apply such generals as are revealed 
in God's word, to themselves in particular. 

Of searching out sins, see A Plaster for a Plague, 
on Num. xvi. 44, Sees. 4, 5, (fcc, and Dearth's Death, 
on 2 Sam. xxi. 1, Sec. 18. 

Sec. 40. Of the vieaning of Heb. xii. G. 

Ver. 6. For ■tchom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, 
and scourgeth every son ^vhom he receiveth. 

The more to keep us from the forementioned ex- 
tremes of despising afflictions, or fainting under them, 
the apostle produceth the procuring cause whereby 
God is moved to afflict his children, and this is his 
own love towards them. The first particle being 
causal, yu.0, for, giveth proof hereof. 

Of this affection of love in general, see The Saint's 
Sacrifice, on Ps. cxvi. 1, Sec. 4. 

God, by assuming to himself this affection of love 
(ayacT^), in reference to saints, sheweth that his heart 
is knit to them; and that they may be made the 
fitter for him, he chasteneth them. 

Of the word chastening, as it setteth out a parent's 
correcting of his child, see Sec. 3G. 

To this he addeth another verb, which implieth a 
severe kind of correction. For to scourge importeth 
more than to chastise. A child is ordinarily chastised 
with a rod, but scourged with a whip, and they are 
so dealt withal when they prove stubborn. 

The root, /Ldari^, from whence this Greek word, 
/lUdTiyo!, Cometh, signilieth a scourge, or a ivhip. Of 
this word, scourging, see more. Chap. xL 36, Sec. 

See an exemplification of the difference betwixt 
Christ's chastening and scourging, 2 Sam. viL 14, 
Ps. Ixxxix. 32. 

Though the latter of these two do intend more 
severity than the former, yet both of them being here 
applied to a father, are opposed to the usual practice 
of a judge, which is to take away the life of a male- 
factor, and is set out by these instruments of punish- 
ment, sword, halter, fire, ic. 

This last phrase, nhom he receiveth, is added as an- 
other motive whereby God is induced to scourge his 



Chap. XII. 

children. The Greek word, Ta^abi-^irai, is a com- 
pound. The simiilc verb, iey^o/j-ai, signifieth to receive. 
This compound addcth emphasis, and implieth so to 
receive one, as to acknowledge him to he his, and 
thereupon to take special care of him. Thus it is an 
amplification of the former motive concerning God's 
love. It is an evidence thereof. 

In Hebrew it is thus expressed : ' In whom he de- 
lightcth,' Prov. iii. 12. There is expression again 
made of a son, thus, ' The son in whom he delighteth,' 
or, ' whom he acceptetk' For the Hebrew word, 
TOTi signifieth to accei^t. So it is oft translated by 
our English : as Eccles. ix. 7, Deut. xxxiii. 11, and 
in sundry other places. 

As the former word cxpresseth the love of God, so 
this latter .sctteth forth his care of them. He re- 
ceiveth them for his sons, he calleth them into the 
communion of saints, which is his church, even his 
house, 1 Tim. iii. 15, and answcrably dealeth with 

Concerning this general phrase, iratra, u'llv, every 
son, two doubts are raised. 

1. Whether none but sons are scourged. 

2. Whether every child without exception is 

Ans. To the first, correcting children, doth not 
necessarily imply others' impunity. A father that 
correctcth his child, may also punish a slave. Yet 
take correction in the proper ends and fruits thereof, 
and it will be found proper to children. 

Ans. To the second, never was there, never shall 
there be, a child of God in this world without correc- 
tion, vers. 7, 8. 

Sec. 41. Of God's love in receiving those wJiom he 
doth correct. 

It is here taken for granted *hat God loves his 
children. God himself professeth as much, Mai. i. 2, 
Jer. xxxi. 3 ; and saints acknowledge as much, Deut. 
vii. 8, Eph. ii. 4. 

No ground of this can anywhere be found but in 
God himself. It is therefore said of him, that he set 
his love upon the Israelites, ' because he loved them,' 
Deut. vii. 7, 8. 

Of Christ's love to his church, the order, the truth, 
the cause, the quality, the quantity, and the con- 
tinuance thereof, see Domestic. Bulks, Treat. 4, Sees. 
CI, G3, 05, 07, 09, 72. 

Of love, the cause of God's chastening his children, 
see The Whole Armour of God, Treat. 2, on Eph. vi. 
15, Part 5, Sec. 25. 

It is said of those whom God loveth, that he re- 
ceiveth them also, he taketh them into his house, he 
taketh the esjjecial care of them. Tlie many invita- 
tions which the Lord maketh to such as come unto 
him, sheweth liow ready ho is to receive them, Isa. 
Iv. 1, John vi. 37. The cxanqile of tlie father of the 
prodigal is an evidence hereof, Luke xv. 20. Christ 

is said to ' receive sinners,' Luke xv. 2 : namely, 
penitent sinners, who thereby had evidence that they 
were loved of God. 

The Lord received them, to assure them of his 
special care for their good. Men use to take care of 
such as they do receive, as of wives, children, servants, 
friends, and others ; much more will God. This is 
one special reason of aU those relations which God 
vouchsafeth to pass betwixt himself and children of 

This is a forcible motive unto such as are received 
of God, to cast their care on him, Ps. Iv. 22, 1 Pet. 
V. 7. Children on this ground can depend on their 
parents. Christ doth much i)ress this point, Mat. vii. 

Sec. 42. Of God's scotirging his children. 

To the former word of chnsleniny, he addeth this 
other, scourgelh. Of the difference betwixt these 
two words, see Sees. 37, 40. It here implieth sore 
afflictions wherewith God afflicteth his children. He 
oft useth a whip instead of a rod, 2 Sam. vii. 14. 
David was a man after God's owm heart, yet severely 
scourged. His manifold complaints give proof hereof, 
as Ps. vi. G, and xxxi. 9, 10, and xx.xii. 4. But 
more grievous are Job's complaints. The histories of 
them both do shew what cause they had to complain 
as they did. 

1. Sometimes God scourgeth his for the more evi- 
dent proof of that true and great grace that is in 
them. This was Job's case. 

2. For manifestation of his detestation of their 
enormous and scandalous sins. This was David's 

1. This gives us just cause, when we are scourged 
of the Lord, to examine our carriage towards him, 
and to search after such sins as have provoked God 
to scourge us. Hereof see Sea 45. 

2. It admonisheth us to take heed of offending 
our loving Father too much, lest we so far grieve his 
Spirit as to scourge us. Though he do not clean 
withdraw his love from us, yet in love he may so 
scourge us, as to force us to repent again and again of 
our foolish carriage towards him. He can tame us, 
though he do not danm us. 

3. It teacheth us to carry ourselves, under scourg- 
ing, answerably to God's dealing with us ; that will 
be by a deeper degree of humili.ition. Josh. vii. C, 
Judges XX. 23, 1 Sam. vii. 0. A father expecteth as 
much. To the truth of humiliation must be added 
a greater measure of watchfulness against sin for the 
future, Num. xii. 14, Mat. iii. 8. An ingenuous and 
prudent child will so do, both for fear of smart (a burnt 
child dreads the fire), and also to prevent his father's 

4. Tills m.anifestcth the Undue censures of many 
concerning God's children, that they are no children 
of God because they are scourged of God. This was 

Ver. 7.] 



the censure of Jnb's wife and friends, and of many 
that beheld David in Ids troubles. 

5. It directeth us to be prepared, not for chasten- 
ing only, but for scourging also. Consider what hath 
been registered of God's ancient worthies, chap. xL 
35, &c 

6. This may comfort us in our sore afflictions 
whereunto we are subject, that God may receive us 
and take us for hi.s children, though he scourge us. 

It is not want of love, but great wisdom, that 
moveth him to deal with us as he doth. 

Sec. 43. Of conditions accomjjanyinr/ God's grayits. 

Ver. 7. If ye endure cluisiening, God dealelh with 
you as with sons: for what son is he whom the father 
chasteneth not i 

In this and some verses following, the apostle com- 
mon teth upon that text of Scripture which he had 
before quoted. 

From thence he inferreth the main point, which is, 
that God, in chastening men, dealeth with them as 
with sons : but upon this condition, that they endure 
his chastening. 

The manner of bringing in this evidence of God's 
love by way of condition, for something to be per- 
formed on our part, thus, if ye endure chastening, 
sheweth that there is a condition to be observed on 
man's part for obtaining the benefit of God's gracious 
dealing with him. In aU covenants betwLxt himself 
and man, it was so. In the first covenant, the con- 
dition was, 'do this,' Gal. iii. 12. Hereby was in- 
tended perfect obedience, which then man was enabled 
to perform. 

In the other covenant, of grace, the condition is, 
' believe and repent,' Mark i. 1.5. Faith hath respect 
to our justification, and compriseth under it all things 
tending thereto. Under repentance, all sanctifying 
graces are comprised, whether they respect mortifica- 
tion or vivification, the two parts of repentance. 

Quest. How can free grace stand with a condition 1 

Ans. 1. With a condition of works to be done by 
ourselves, it cannot stand. 

2. The condition of the gospel, wliich is faith and 
repentance, are the work and gift of God, Eph. ii. 8, 
Jer. X. 23, 2 Cor. iii. 5, Jer. xxxi. 18, 33. In this re- 
spect, they are so far from impeaching the grace of 
God, as they do much magnify the same. God, of 
his own free grace, works in us that which he requireth 
of us for attaining life. 

3. Faith is not to be considered, in this case, as a, 
work of man, but as a hand, or instrument, whereby 
we lay hold on Christ. 

4. Repentance is but a mere qualification for fitting 
us to enjoy that which Christ hath purchased for us. 

5. Both faith and repentance are e\ddences of our 
right to Christ Jesu.s, and therefore are enjoined, that 
we might have some sensible assurance of our eternal 

On this ground we are to inquire after the condi- 
tion which God rccpxireth for the partaking of that 
wliich he freely granteth us, as we do desire the bene- 
fit of the grant. 

Sec. 44. Of the benetlt of aMictioyis arising from 

The particular condition here required, on our part, 
is to endure cluistening. Under chastening, all man- 
ner of affliction that God layeth upon his children 
are comprised. They are called chastening, by reason 
of the end that God aimeth at in afflicting them, 
which is their good, as hath been shewed, Sees. 36, 37. 

Of the meaning of the word enduring, and of 
Christ's excellent pattern in enduring the cross, see 
Sec. 18. That is a worthy pattern for us; and it is 
the more to be heeded by reason of that inference 
which the apostle here maketh, that afflictions are 
made profitable by enduring them. Mat. x. 22, 2 Tim. 
ii. 12, .lames i. 12, and v. 11. This, therefore, did the 
apostle glory in, on the behalf of the Tliessalonians, 
2 Thes. i. 4. See more hereof iu Th^e Whole Annour 
of God, on Eph. vi. 15, Sees. 16, 17. 

1. By this we may discern an especial reason of 
that little good which many gain by crosses — they 
fail of observing this main condition. They may 
bear the cross because they cannot cast it off, but 
they do not endure it contentedly, willingly, in obe- 
dience to God. What they do is perforce, with much 
inward grudging and outward muttering. 

2. Thou mayest learn hereby how to gain good by 
afflictions, even by enduring them ; which, that thou 
mayest the rather do, observe well these few direc- 
tions : 

(1.) Look to God that smiteth, and duly weigh his 
supreme sovereignty, his almighty power, his unsearch- 
able wisdom, his free grace, his rich mercy, his great 
forbearance, and other like excellencies. 

(2.) Be circumspect over tlune inward disposition, 
to keep thyself from fretting, vexing, and perplexing 
thy spirit. 

(3.) Be watchful over thine outward behaviour, 
that thou manifest no discontent therein. 

(4.) Be well informed in the manifold trials where- 
unto the best are subject in this world. 

(5.) Take to thyself an invincible courage and 
resolution to hold out, and still prepare thyself for 
more when some are past. 

Sec. 45. Of the need and benefits of afflictions. 

Upon observing the foresaid condition of enduring 
chastisement, it is added, that God dealeth with them 
as with sons. 

The verb, ■zsoafsfirai, translated dealeth with, pro- 
perly signifieth to ofer to, see Chap. v. 1. 

Here it hath a reciprocal reference to God himself, 
as if it had been said, he oflfereth himself, or he is 
offered to you as to sons. 



[Chap. XII. 

Of God's respecting saints as children, sec Ver. 5, 
Sec. 32. 

The inference of God's fatherly respect to sons of 
men upon their enduring chastisement, gives further 
proof that afflictions are fruits of God's fatherly care 
over his children, as hath been proved, Ver. 5, Sec. 

It is further manifested by the need we have of 
correction, and by the good which coineth to saints 

1. The need ariseth from without us, and from 
■within us. 

Without us, the world, and the things thereof, as 
plenty, peace, pleasure, preferment, and such like 
allurements, do ordinarily make men secure, wanton, 
and loose; but afflictions take away the sweet of all 
those alluring baits, and experimentally discover the 
vanity of them. Witness the mind of men in pain 
of body, in sickness, in restraint of liberty, and other 
crosses, Isa. xxx. 22. 

Within us are proud thoughts, ambitious imagina- 
tions, covetous desires, noisome lusts, and many other 
abomin.able corruptions, which as festering matter lie 
in the soul, eating up the life thereof ; but afflictions 
are as a razor to lance the sores of the soul, and to let 
out the putrefying infecting matter : they are as purg- 
ing pills and potions to purge out noisome humours, 
and in that respect needful. 

2. The good that cometh to saints by afflictions, 
is an efibcting of those ends which their wise Father 
aimeth at, even such as these — ■ 

(1.) Examination of men's selves, to find out that 
corruption which is to be purged out. Lam. iii. 40. 

(2.) Humiliation under God's hand. Josh. vii. 
6, &c. 

(3.) Deprecation, not only of the judgment, but of 
the cause thereof, P.s. xxxii. 5. 

(4.) Conversion unto God, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 12. 

(.5.) Circumspection, that they offend not in the 
like again, Ps. cxix. 67. 

Of the good fruits of afflictions, see more, Ver. 5, 
Sec. 37. 

The principal duty hence arising is that which the 
apostle himself hath noted in the beginning of this 
verse, that wc endure afflictions. See Sec. 44. 

Sec. 46. Of all of all sm-U subject in trials. 

To commend God's dealing with his children, so as 
hath been set forth, by afflicting them, the extent 
thereof is tiius set out, for w/iat son is he whom the 
father chasteneth not 1 The manner of bringing in 
this extent with this causal particle, for, sheweth that 
it is a proof of the point. Tiie proof is taken from 
the constant course thereof. That which is done to 
every child, none excepted, must needs be needful 
and useful. Experience of the good it doth where it 
is used, moves a wise father impartially to use it to- 
wards every child. 

The phrase may either be comparatively used in re- 
ference to earthly i)arents, or simply to our heavenly 

In the former reference, thus: as earthly parents 
correct their children, so doth God all his. 

In the latter reference, thus : God doth impartially 
deal with all his children. There is none at all whom 
he suffereth to pass through this world without 

Yet, to add the more force to this assertion, he sets 
it down interrogatively, thus, xulmt son, &c. Hereby 
t'ne apostle doth challenge all to give an inst.ince of 
the contrary, as if he had said, Shew me the child of 
God who hath been freed from all manner of afflic- 
tions — nay, tell me if you have read of any such in 
the records of truth ? 

It is therefore most evident that afflictions are the 
common condition of all God's children. 

See more hereof in The Whole Armour of God, 
Treat. 2, Part .5, on Eph. vi. 15, Sec. 12. 

Hereupon it becomes every child of God to prepare 
for trials, and to treasure up consolations and en- 
couragements tending thereunto. 

Sec. 47. Of bastards being uithout correction. 

Ver. 8. But if ye be unthout chastisement, luhereof 
cdl are partakers, then are i/e bastards, and not sons. 

It appears that this point of enduring chastisement 
is of great concernment, in that the apostle so long 
insisteth upon it, and returueth unto it again and 

The former interrogative, ichat son, <fec., carried 
great emphasis, j-et behold here a more emphatical 
expression under the denial of the said point, if ;/e be 
ifithout chastise/nents, then are ye bastards, &c. This 
foUoweth as a necessarj" consequence from the former 
general point, and that by the rule of contraries. If 
all sons are chastised, then they who are not chastised 
are no sons. 

This particle of opposition, di, but, implieth the 
contrary consequence. 

Of the word, 'raibiia, chastisement, see Ver. 5, Sea 
36. It implieth such correction as is for in.struction, 
to prevent or redress evil : so as if God let loo.se the 
reins to a professor, and suffer him to run riot, and to 
follow his own carnal lust and worldly delights, and 
restrain him not bj' some afflictions, he is assuredly 
no child of God, but a bastard. 

The Greek word, tohi, spurius, is here^only in the 
New Testament used. It imjilieth one that is not 
born in lawful wedlock. He here mcaneth one that 
is supposed to be a child, being in the house in ai>- 
pearance as a child, but not begotten of the father of 
the hou.se ; thereupon not nurtured as a son, nor 
estranged of any unlawful liberty, but suffered to run 
into all looseness and licentiousness. 

The Greek word is by other authors put, not only for 
one born in adultery, but also for a strange child, a child 

Ver. 8.] 



that is not a man's own, and thereupon the less care 
taken of it. 

By some it is here taken for a changeling, aupposi- 
titius. They profess themselves, and answerably are 
taken, to be God's children, but never were put in by 

This is here brought in to meet with an objection, 
thus, There are in the church who are without 

Ans. It may be so, but then they are not of the 
church, they are bastards or changelings. 

To make this argument more full and clear, the 
apostle inserteth the general point as in a parenthesis, 
thus, /j;^iro;/o; ysyotaaiirdtTiS, whereof all are peirteikers. 

By way of explanation, he addeth, not sons, as if 
he had said, Though they may be thought, by reason 
of some outward profession, to be sons, yet indeed 
they are none. 

The main point here intended, is to shew that im- 
munity from crosses is a bastard's prerogative. If it 
be a prerogative, it is of such a one as may be in the 
church, partake of divine ordinances, profess himself 
to be a saint, and be so supposed by others, but not 
so accounted by God himself. Dives may be sup- 
posed to be such a one, Luke xvi. 25 ; so the rich 
fool, Luke xii. 19. 

Not correcting when there is need — and who is he 
that liveth in the flesh and needeth not correction ? — 
implieth a neglect of him, as if he were not cared for. 
' A child left to himself brings his mother to shame,' 
Prov. xxLx. 15. Thereupon father and mother are ac- 
counted careless of their duty. If two children be 
committing evil together, a wise father will take his 
own child and correct him, but will let the other 
alone. Who more wise, who more righteous, who 
more merciful than God ? 

1. By just consequence, that false note of continual 
peace and prosperity, or temporal felicity, as they 
call it, of the church, is manifested. Surely, if this 
text be true, as true it is, that cannot be a true note 
of a true church. That hath hithei'to been the true 
church which hath suftered for the truth, purity, and 
power of religion. 

2. This sheweth their condition to be in tnith a 
miserable condition, who so boast of all things accord- 
ing to their heart's desire, as they know not what 
paiu is, or sickness, or loss, or restraint of liberty, or 
any other cross. Such are to the life described. Job 
xxi. 8, 9, itc. By this apostle's verdict, if they live 
in the church, they are bastards. 

If any state give us just cause to question God's 
fatherly care over us, it is all manner of external 
contentment to the flesh, and freedom from all crosses. 
A heathen man, that had all his lifetime enjoyed 
much prosperity, being delivered from an accidental 
cal.amity with which many others were destroyed, thus 
cried out, O fortune, to what misfortune hast thou 
reserved me ? 

Sec. 48. Of the apostle's much pressing the henefita 
of afflictions. 

This clause, wliereof all are partakers, hath been 
before, and is hereafter again and again inculcated, 
and that at least twelve times. 

1. By the apostle's intimation of God's mind, ver. 
5, he speaketh unto you as unto children. 

2. By the title which in the name of the Lord is 
given to the afflicted, thus, mi/ son, ver. 5. 

3. By making correction a fruit of love, whom the 
Lord loveth, ver. 6. 

4. By extending it to every son, ver. 6. 

5. By making affliction an evidence of God's re- 
spect, ver. 7. 

6. By inculcating God's usual dealing, interroga- 
tively, what son is it, (fee, ver. 7. 

7. By accounting such as are not so dealt withal 
to be bastards, ver. 8. 

8. By returning to the same again, in this phrase, 
wliereof all are partakers, ver. 8. 

9. By paralleling the like dealing of earthly parents 
with their children, ver. 9. 

10. By noting the different ends of earthly parents 
and Ood's, ver. 10. 

11. By removing what might be objected against 
it, ver. 11. 

12. By shewing the blessed fruits of afflictions, 
ver. 12. 

We may not think that these are so many tauto- 
logies, or vain repetitions of the same things ; for the 
apostle was guided by a divine Spirit, which made 
him well to poise all his words, and not set down a 
phrase or word rashly. 

There are sundry weighty reasons for repeating and 
inculcating one and the same thing ; whereof see The 
Saint's Sacrifice, on Ps. cxvi. 16, Sec. 48. 

A special point hence to be observed is thi.s, that 
men are hardly brought to believe that afflictions are 
fruits of God's love. It is not a novice's lesson ; it 
is not learned at first entrance into Christ's school. 
Christ's disciples, though they had Christ himself to 
be their instructor, could not at first apprehend it. 
This made Christ very frequently inculcate this prin- 
ciple, of taking up the cross and following him. Ignor- 
ance of this made many Christians in the apostles' 
times faint and fall away, 2 Tim. iv. 16 ; yea, some 
of God's worthies have in the trial made doubt 
hereof, Ps. Ixxvii. 7-9, Job. xxiii. 14, 15, Lam. ii. 4. 

This principle is against common sense and natural 
reason ; yea, against experimental feeling. I may say 
of them, who are persuaded of the truth thereof, as 
Christ did of Peter, ' Flesh and blood hath not re- 
vealed it unto you, but my Father which is in heaven,' 
Mat. xvi. 17. The rule according to which natural 
men judge matters is bodily sight, outward sense, such 
experience as flesh and blood useth to take. No mar- 
vel, then, though they be so hardly brought to believe 
this truth. 



[Chap. XIL 

This may be a good incitement to labour after 
faith, that we may walk by it rather than by sense. 

Sec. 49. Of fathers of the flesh correcting tlieir 
chill Ire 71. 

Ver. 9. Furthermore, we have Iwd fathers of our flesh 
which C07Tected us, and we gave them reverence : shall 
we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father 
of spirits, and live ? 

That which the apostle had formerly set down 
simply in reference to Gud, he doth further amplify 
by way of comparison, and that betwixt our earthly 
fathers and our heavenly Father. 

The first particle, iJra, furthermore, sheweth that 
this is a further proceeding in the same point. The 
argument which the apostle addeth is takeu from the 
less to the greater ; and it is so laid down, as the 
equity of our duty in enduring God's cha.stisement 
is thereby proved ; for the apostle here declareth 
what subjection nature teacheth children to yield to 
their earthly parents, even in corre