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Full text of "A commentary on the whole Epistle to the Hebrews : being the substance of thirty years' Wednesday's lectures at Blackfriars, London"










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VOL. I. 


W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D., Professor of Theology, Congregational Union, Edinbui-gh. 

JAMES BEGG, D.D., Jlinister of Newington Free Chuixh, Edinburgh. 

THOMAS J. CKAWrORD, D.D., S.T.P., Professor of Divinity, University, Edinburgh. 

D. T. K. DRUMMOND, U.A., Minister of St Thomas's Epi^copal Church, Edinburgh. 

WILLIAM n. GOOLD, D.D., Professor of BibUcal Literature and Chuich History, Pieformed 

Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 
ANDREW THOMSON, D.D., Minister of Broughton Place United Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 

6cncnil debitor. 

REV. THOMAS SMITH, JLA., Edinburgh. 
















WILLIAM GOUGE was born in Stratford-Bow, in the county of Middlesex, November 1. 1575. His 
father, Mr Thomas Gouge, was a pious gentleman.' His mother was a virtuous and pious daughter 
of one Mr Nicholas Culverel, a merchant in London ; she was a sister of those two famous preachers, Mr 
Samuel and Mr Ezekiel Culverel. And her two sisters were married unto those two famous divines, Dr 
Chaderton, the master of Emmanuel College ; and Dr Whitaker, the Regius Professor of Divinity in Cam- 
bridge. So as by the mother's side he came of a stock of preachers. 

In his younger years he was first trained up in Paul's School, London, and afterwards was sent to a 
free school at Felsted in Essex, where he was trained up three years under the public ministry of his uncle, 
Mr Ezekiel Culverel, and thereby much wi-onght upon,* and if not first begotten, yet much built up in his holy 
faith, as himself often expressed ; and then was sent to Eton, where he was trained up six years. During 
which time, he was more than ordinarily studious and industrious ; for when other scholars upon play 
days took their liberty for their sports and pastimes, he would be at his study, wherein he took morp 
delight than others could do at their recreations.' At this time, when he was a scholar of Eton, he was 
possessed with an holy fear of God, conscionable in secret prayer and sanctifying the Sabbath, and much 
grieved at the ordinary profanation thereof by public sports and recreations, then too much allowed ; as 
he did often in his lifetime, with much thankfulness unto God, express. 

From Eton he was chosen to King's College in Cambridge, whither he went anno 1595: where he 
first addicted himself to Ramus his logic, and therein grew so expert, as in the schools he publicly main- 
tained him ; insomuch as on a time divers sophisters, setting themselves to vilify Ramus, to which end the 
respondent put up this question, Nunqnaw eril matinm, ciii Ramus est mai/nns? which some of the sophisters 
then hearing, and knowing the said William Gouge to be an acute disputant, and a stifl" defender of Ramus, 
came to the divinity schools, where he was hearing an act, and told him how they were abusing Ramus. He 

» Qai m ungueuUina tabonia ruaeiieruut, et paulo ilintins ^«xa»i. Tc„i^,u,r, Si-^^-S, ««; iiuyti,u,.~Arist. ad Nicom. Etit 
commorati sunt, odorem loci secuiu ferunt. — Sen, Epist. |l. ii. c. xii. 


t'.ierenpon went into tho sophisters' schools, and upon the moderator's calling for another opponent, he stepped 
up, and brought such an argument as stumbled the respondent; whereupon the moderator took open 
him to answer, but could not satisfy the doubt. A sophister standing by said with a loud voice, ' Do you 
come to vilify Ramus, and cannot answer a Ramist's argument?' Whereupon the moderator rose up and 
gave him a box on the ear ; then the school was all hi an uproar, but the said William Gouge was safely con- 
veyed out from among them. 

In the time of his scholarship he was moderator of the sophisters' acts in the public schools, and began 
every act with a solemn speech of his ovm in Latin, whereby much grace was added to the act, which was 
not usual in those days. 

The said William Gouge took his degrees in order, performing for every one of them all the acts publicly 
ill the public schools, which the statute required.' 

He continued for three years together so close in the college, as he lay not one night out of the walls 
thereof. At three years' end he was made fellow, and then went to visit his friends. 

He was a very close student, for as he was a lover of learning,' so very laborious in his studies, sitting 
np late at night, and rising up early in the morning. 

He lived in the college nine years, and in all that time (but when he went out of town to his friends) he 
was never absent from morning prayers in the chapel, which used to be half an. horn- before six ; yet he used 
to rise so long before he went to the chapel, as he gained time for his secret devotions, and for reading 
his morning task of Scripture ; for he tied himself to read every day fifteen chapters in English of the sacred 
Scripture, five in the morning, five after dinner, before he fell upon his ordinary studies, and five before 
he v.ent to bed. He hath been often heard to say, that when he could not sleep in the night time, he 
would in bis mind run through distinct chapters of Scripture in their order, as if he had heard them read, 
so deceiving the tedionsness of his waking, and depriving himself also sometimes of the sweetness of his 
sleeping hours, though by a better and greater sweetness ; for he found the meditation of the word to be 
sweeter to him than sleep. 

This also he would do in the daytime, when he was alone, either within doors or without doors. For this 
end he did write in a little book, which ho always carried about him, the distinct heads of every particular 
passage in every chapter of the Bible ; that when in any place he meditated on the Scripture, and stuck, 
he presently helped himself by that little book. Whereby he made himself so expert in the text, as if 
he heard but a phrase of Scripture, he could tell tho place where it was. 

Besides, he had his times so to study the difiicult places of Scripture, as he might find out the true 
meaning of them, and by this means he attained to a great exactness in the knowledge of tho Scripture. 

He did not only cleave close to his own studies, but would also send for others whom he observed to bo 
ingenuous aud willing, to instruct tliem in scholastical ai-ts, whereby he was a great help to many, and brought 
them also to be better students. 

\Vhile he was a scholar in King's College, there was a Jew in Cambridge, who was entertained into sundry 
colleges to teach the Hebrew tongue,' and among others into lung's College. The said Wilham Gouge took 
the opportunity to be instructed by him, which many others of that college likewise did ; but many of them 
soon waxed weary and left him, only the said William Gouge held close to him as long as ho tarried. But 
when ho was gone, they that had left him, discerning their folly, came to tho said William Gouge, and en- 

' Adolescena admodum in sapicntite studiis cxcelluit et I 
ob id <nui<(/rri(» coguumentuin ubtinuit. — yicfphorui Je \ 'Ad iitcrnrum encrarum iutelligenliam nihil tam ncces- 
Macario, 1. ix. c. xiv. | sariuni quam cognitio linguie sanctio. — Dnuiui. 


treated bitn to instruct them in the grounds of Hebrew, which accordingly he did, whereby he became very 
expert therein. 

And as he was expert in the learned tongues, so likewise in the arts and all necessary literature, that 
he might have nothing of these to learn when be was to be a public teacher. 

Being chosen a reader both of logic and philosophy in the college, he made conscience of observing all the 
times appointed by the statute for reading, and never omitted any ; and his readings were with such exact- 
ness, as thereby he got much credit and applause from his auditors, but some envy from his successors, who, 
by his example, were now provoked to a more frequent reading of their lectures, which were seldom and slightly 
performed before. He was so strict and observant in the course of his life, as they then counted him an 
arch-Puritan, which was the term then given in scorn to those who were conscionable of their ways. 

In the first year of his fellowship he made his commonplace books for divinity, in which he made 
references of what he read. 

He had also white paper bound betwixt the leaves of the Bible, wherein he wrote such pithy interpreta- 
tions and observations on a text, as could not be referred to an head in his commonplace book. 

His mind was so addicted to the university, as he was resolved to have spent many more years than he 
did, if not all his life therein. 

But his father, after he had been two or three years Master of Arts, much against his mind, took him from 
the university upon a marriage which he had prepared for him. God by his providence turned this to the 
good of his church ; for by this means, though it were late before he entered upon his ministry, it is very 
probable that he entered upon and exercised that function many years sooner than otherwise he would. 

His wife was the daughter of Mr Henry Caulton. a citizen and mercer of London, but an orphan when he 
married her. 

To her care he committed the providing for of his family, himself only minding his studies and weighty 
affairs of his he. "enly calling. 

He lived with her twenty-two years in much love and peace, and had by her thirteen children, seven 
sons and six daughters, whereof eight lived to men's and women's estate, and were all well trained up and 
sufficiently provided for. 

It was his earnest desire and daily prayer to God, that his six sons that lived to men's estates might have 
been all preachers of the gospel, for he himself found such comfort and content in that calling as he thought 
there could be no gi-eater found in any other, having oft professed that the greatest pleasure he took in the 
world was in the employment of his calling; insomuch as he was wont to say to divers honourable persons, 
and particularly the Lord Coventry, keeper of the great seal, that he envied not his place nor employment. 

The government of his family was exemplary,' another Bethel ; for he did not only make conscience of 
morning and evening prayer, and reading the word in his family, but also of catechising his children and 
servants, wherein God gave him a singular gift ; for he did not teach them by any set form, but so as he 
brought them that were instructed to express the principle taught them in their own words. So that his 
children (as Gregory Nazianzen saith of his father) found him as well a spiritual as a bodily father.^ 
Yea, never any servant came to his house, but gained a great deal of knowledge. So likewise did sundry 
others whose parents desired the benefit of his instructing of them. 

He was in special manner conscionable of the Lord's day ; and that not only in the observation of the public 

' Doraua ejus, et couversatio quasi in speculo constituta, I ' Tvivfixrixii iuriv <rari(x iix", x«i ea/txTiKif. — Greg. 
magistraerat publicic disciplina). — Ilieroni/mus de Helioiioro. Naz. 
torn. i. 


duties, but also in continuing the sanctification theretf by private duties of piety in his family, and secret in 
his closet. 

As ho did forbear providing of suppers on the eve before the Sabbath, that servants might not be kept 
np too late ; so he would never suffer any servant to tarry at home for dressing any meat on the Lord's 
day for any friends, were they mean or great, few or many. 

After his public sermons were ended, divers neighbours (not having means in their own families) assem- 
bled in his house, where after such a familiar manner he repeated the public sermons, as divers have pro- 
fessed they were much more benefited by them in that repetition than in the fii-st hearing;' for he did 
not use word by word to read out of notes what was preached, but would, by questions and answers, draw 
from those that were under his charge such points as were delivered. After which his constant course was 
to visit such of his parish as were sick, or by pain and weakness disenabled to go to the public ordinances. 
With each of these he would discourse of some heavenly and spiritual subject suitable to their condition, and 
after that pray by them ; wherein he had a more than ordinai-y gift, being able, in apt words and expressions, 
to commend their several cases unto God, and to put up petitions suitable to their several needs. His 
usual course was to pray eight times in the public congregation on a Lord's day; for as he prayed before 
and after each sermon, so before and after his reading and expounding the Scripture, which he performed 
both in the forenoon and afternoon. And in his family his constant course was to pray thrice every 
Lord's day, and that in a solemn manner, viz., in the morning and evening, and after his repetition of the 

In the thirty-second year of his age he was ordained minister; and about a j-ear after, which was June 
1608, he was admitted minister into the church of Blackfriars, London, where he continued to his dying 
day, which was forty-five years and six months, never having any other ministerial emploj-ment, though he 
were offered many great ones. His manner of coming to Blackfriars was thus : the parish being destitute of 
a preaching minister, one Mr Hildersham, a pious and powerful preacher, being in company among some of 
the better sort of Blackfriars, told them that there was one who lived in Stratford Bow, and had no charge 
that might be fit for them. Hereupon divers of them went to Stratford Bow upon the Lord's day, where he 
frequently preached gi-atis, to help the minister that then was there ; and so well liked him, as upon their 
report, with an unanimous consent {nemitie coiitradicoiU'), he was chosen their minister. Ever since 
he was there chosen, he hath manifested a great good respect to the inhabitants of that place. Before 
his coming thither, they had not so much as a church of their own to hear the word of God in, nor any place 
to bury their dead ; but by means that he used, the church, the church porch, the minister's house, and 
churchyard (all which they had before upon courtesy), were purchased, so as now they all, as a proper in- 
heritance, belong to the parish of Blackfriars. Five years after his coming thither, the old church being 
found too little for the multitudes that thronged from all parts of the city to hear him, he was a means of 
purchasing certain rooms, whereby the church was enlarged almost as big again as it was before. The 
sum of purchasing, new building, and finishing the said church, amounted to above £'1500, which was procured 
partly by the collections at his lectures, partly by his letters written to his friends, and by the contributions 
of the parishioners, without any brief for public collections in other places. 

After this, there being sundrj' rooms under the said church, belonging to other landlords, he used means 
to purchase them also to the benefit of the parish ; the rather, to prevent all dangers that by evil minded per- 
sons might have befallen God's people in that church, by any contrivances in the rooms under the church. 

Thus they who had nothing of their own at his coming, have now the whole church, the church-porch, 

Nunquam eatia tlicitur, quod Dunquam sa 


the churchyard, a vault to bury their dead, a very fair vestry-house, and other rooms adjacent, the house 
wherein he himself dwelt so long as he lived. All these they hold as a perpetual inheritance. 

They have also a considerable lease of certain tenements for 300 years, all which were procured by his 

Such was his respect to his parish, as though he were oft offered places of far greater profit, yet he re- 
fused them all, oft saying that the height of his ambition was to go from Blackfriars to heaven. 

At his first coming to Blackfriars, being in the thirty-third year of his age, he constantly preached twice on 
the Lord's day, and once weekly, on Wednesday forenoon, which wa" for about thirty-five years very much 
frequented, and that by divers city ministers, and by sundry pious ana judicious gentlemen of the Inns of 
Court, besides many well-disposed citizens, who in multitudes flocked to his church; yea, such was the 
fame of Dr Gouge's ministry, that when the godly Christians of those times came out of the country unto 
London, they thought not their business done, unless they had been at Blackfriars' lecture. 

And such was the fruit of his ministry, that very many of his auditors, though living in other parishes, 
upon trial before sundry elderships, have confessed, that the first seed of grace was sown in their souls by 
his ministry. And herein God wonderfully honoured his ministry, in making him an aged father in Christ, 
and to beget many sons and daughters unto righteousness, for thousands have been converted and built up 
by his ministry. 

He used also monthly to preach a preparation sermon before the communion, on the eve before every 
monthly communion. 

He was indeed eminently faithful and laborious in the work of the ministry to his dying day, preaching 
so long as he was able to get up into the pulpit : ' As a tree planted in the house of the Lord, fruitful even 
in old age,' Ps. xcii. 13, 14. He was often wont to say in his latter days, that he could preach with more 
ease, than to get into the pulpit; the reason whereof was doubtless, as the increase of his asthma, which 
disenabled him to go, so the increase of his intellectuals, which enabled him to preach with more 
ease than in his younger days. ' 

His preaching it was always very distinct, first opening the true literal sense of the text, then giving 
the logical analysis thereof, and then gathering such proper observations as did thence arise, and profitably 
and pertinently applying the same ; so as his ministry proved very profitable to his hearers. Many have 
acknowledged, that in a logical resolution of his text, he went beyond all that ever they heard, as also in 
clearing of difiicult and doubtful places, as they came in his way. As his method was clear, so his expres- 
sions plain, always delivering the solid points of divinity in a familiar style, to the capacity of the meanest. 

And for his life and conversation it was most exemplary, practising what he preached unto others, and 
living over his sermons : so as his doctrine and his practice concurred,' and went hand in hand together. 

Before these times of examination before admission to the sacrament of the Lord's supper, he used to go 
to the houses of the better sort, and appoint a time for them and their whole families to meet together, 
when he might make trial of their fitness to the holy sacrament. Yea, he appointed sundry small families 
to meet together on a certain day, then to make trial of them also. In former times he never admitted any 
of the younger sort to the sacrament, till he found them in his judgment fit for it. 

Though he gave himself much to his studies, and carried himself peaceably, yet he wanted not those 
that did envy and malign him, and took all occasions of doing him what mischief they could. Instance 
Sergeant Finch his book about calling the Jews, which was only published by him, and the true author ac- 
knowledged ; yet, for publishing of it, was he committed nine weeks to prison. 

' .\»V«.- tai l^i's irut^xfinTts. — Tsid. Quod jiissit et ^e&sit.— Bernard. 

X A NAliRATlVE Of Till-; 

King James imagined that the sergeant had in that book declared, that the Jews should have a regimett 
above all other kingdoms, thereupon was beyond all patience impatient. And B. Neal and others putting 
him on especially against the publisher of the book, made him so fierce as he would admit no apology. 
Hereupon the said William Gouge was moved distinctly to declare his own opinion and judgment about 
the calling of the Jaws, which he did in these ensuing propositions, which were found fairly written amongst 
his papers: 

1. All that I can gather out of the holy Scripture, for the calling of the Jews, importeth no more than a 
spiritual calling to believe in Jesus Christ, and embrace the gospel. 

2. This their spiritual calling may be called an outward glorious calling, in regard of the visibility ana 
generality of it, to put a diflereuce betwixt the promised calling of the nation, and the continual calling 
of some few persons ; for in all ages since the rejection of the Jews, some few here and there have been 
called. Thus the calling of the Gentiles in the apostles' time, when Christians had no pompons civil govern- 
ment, was an outward glorious calling, by reason of the visible famous churches which they had. 

8. It is probable that, at or after their calling, they shall not be scattered as now they are ; but be gathered 
together into churches, and be freed from the bondage and slavery wherein they have been many years to- 

4. To give them a sovereignty over all the whole church, seemeth to me to be derogatory to that absolute 
sovereignty which Christ the head of his church hath, in whom the promises of the perpetuity of David's 
sceptre, of the extent of his dominion, of the subjection of all nations, are accomplished. 

5. To set down the distinct time, place, and other Uke cii'cumstances of their calling, needeth more than 
an ordinary spirit, and implieth too much curiosity. 

C. The point of the calling of the Jews, being no fundamental point of Christian religion, to be over- 
stiff in holding one thing or other therein, to the disturbance of the peace of the church, cometh near to 

Upon which being e.xamined by the Archbishop Abbot, and his answer approved, he was released from 
his imprisonment. 

Ordinarily in the summer vacation he was with his family in the country, but not for his own ease, but 
rather for the good of God's chuixh. For, besides his preaching every Lord's day where he was, he got time 
to publish these treatises which are now in print, viz. The Whole Armour oj God ; Domestical Duties ; An 
Explanation of the Lord' s Pray cr ; God's Three Arroirs, viz., plague, famine, and sword, upon occasion of the 
judgments then raging; The Saints' Sacrifice of Thanlcs/jiviiv/, upon his recovery from a dangerous 
sickness. To which is now added his Commentary upon the whole Epistle to the Hebrews, the subject of 
his Wednesday lectures for many years. 

While he was settled in Blackfriars, he took his Bachelor of Divinity's degree in the j"ear 1611, which 
was the eighth year of his Master of Arts degree. 

And in the year 1G28, he took his Doctor of Divinity's degree. In which year eight ministers of 
London proceeded doctors, which was the occasion that Doctor Collins, the then re;/ius -professor, put up 
his degree, and procured it to pass in the Regent House before he had any notice thereof, or consent of 
bis ; whereby he did in a manner force him to take his degree, yet so as when he heard that it was passed, 
he readily went to Cambridge, and there kept all his acts, which the statute requirelh, as ho had done iu 
all his former degrees. 

Such respect was shewed to him, as in sundry public employments he was chosen a trustee or feoffee. 
As in the year 1610, he was chosen one of the trustees for Mr Whctenhall's three lectures. 

In the year 1020, he was chosen one of the trustees for impropriations, and for many other pious and 


charitable uses, wherein he ever shewed himself a faithful trustee. And in some cases by his great 
pains and cost, he procured to be settled for ever such pious donations, as otherwise would have been wrested 

The foresaid case of impropriations was this : 

There was a select society of thirteen persons that joined themselves together as trustees, to stir up such 
as were piously affected to contribute towards the buying in of impropriations, and giving them freely 
towards the maintenance of the ministers of the word : who were so faithful in their trust, as albeit they 
met very frequently, and spent much time in consultation about that business, yet they never spent 
one penny of what was given for refreshing themselves. Yea, though they had sundry agents and 
messengers whom they employed in affairs concerning the same far and near, yet they never took one penny 
out of the stock wherewith they were entrusted, for the same ; but themselves, at least most of them, contri- 
buted towards the discharge of all manner of bye-expenses. And when they had an opportunity of 
buying in a great impropriation, and had not money in stock to do it, they did amongst themselves give, 
and lend so much as might effect the work. Among others, the said Dr Gouge at one time lent £800 
gratis to that use, besides the monthly contribution which he gave. Within a few years, thirteen impro- 
priations were bought in, which cost betwixt five and six thousand pounds, into which their care was to 
put able, orthodox, and conscionable ministers. Their aim was to plant a powerful ministry in cities and 
market-towns, here and there in the country, for the greater propagation of the gospel. 

This was it that raised up envy against them, and made Dr Laud, then bishop of London, to consult 
with Mr Noy, the king's attorney-general, about breaking this society. Hereupon Mr Noy brought 
them all into the Court of Exchequer, and upon this ground, that illegally they made themselves a body, 
without any grant from the king. Upon debating of the case by counsel on both sides, the decree of the 
court was, that their actings were illegal, that their trust should be taken from them, that what they had 
purchased should be made over to the king, and the king should appoint such as he thought meet for the 
disposing of those impropriations, which they had bought in. 

The foresaid attorney, that strictly examined all their receipts and disbursements, found that they had 
laid out of their own money, at the time when they were questioned, a thousand pounds more than they 
had received, and thereupon obtained an order of the court, that those debts should be first discharged out 
of the revenues of the impropriations, before they should be disposed to particular uses. Thus was 
their trust clean wrested out of their hands, and from that time they have had nothing to do therewith. 

In the year 1G43, he was, by authority of parliament, called to be a member of the Assembly of 
Divines, wherein his attendance was assiduous, not being observed during the whole time of that session 
to be one day absent, unless it were in case of more than ordinary wealmess, ever preferring that public 
employment before all private business whatsoever. 

Wherein he was not one to make up a number, but a chief one, E/; tuv toXO huiyy.owoy/. 

He sat as one of the assessors, and very frequently filled the chair in the moderator's absence. And 
such was his constant care and conscience of spending his time,i and improving it to the best advantage, 
that he would fill up the void spaces of his assembly affairs with his own private' studies. To which end 
it was his constant practice to bring his Bible and some other books in his pocket, which upon every 
occasion he would be reading; as was observed by many. 

He was likewise chosen by a Committee of Parliament, among others, to make Annotalions upon the 
Bible, being well known to be a judicious interpreter of Scripture. How well he hath performed his trust, 

' Miyio-Tov iviixufta xt'":- Periie oiiiiio tempus arbitrabatur quod aluiliis hod impertiretur.— /'Kh. Sec. dc Avuntulo 
auo .Ej'ist. lib. iii. 


is evident to all that read the annotations from the beginning of the first book of Kings unto Job, which 
was his part. 

In which the intelligent render will observe such skill in the original, such acquaintance with the 
sacred story, such judgment in giving the sense of the text, and such quickness and pertinency in raising 
observations, that without the help of any other comment, a man may accommodate himself with the 
sense, doctrines, and uses of most of those scriptures which came under his band, in those cursory annota- 

AVhen the Book of Sports and Recreations on the Lord's day was appointed by public authority to be 
read in several churches throughout the nation, as divers other faithful ministers, be utterly refused to 
read the same, resolving to suffer the utmost, rather than manifest the least approbation of such a wicked 
and ungodly thing, so contrary to the express letter of the Scripture. 

By reason of his ability and dexterity in resolving cases of conscience, he was much sought unto for 
resolving many doubts and scruples of conscience, and that not only by ordinary Christian?, but also by 
divers ministers in city and country, and that J)y word of mouth, and writing, being accounted the 
father of London divines, and oracle of his time.' 

He was likewise a sweet comforter of troubled consciences, wherein he was exceeding skilful and dex- 
terous, as many hundreds in the city have found time after time, being sought unto far and near by 
such as groaned under alllictious and temptations; many of whom, through God's blessing on his labours, 
were restored to joy and comfort out of unspeakable terrors and torments of conscience. 

He was of a most sweet and meek disposition ; yea, such was his meekness of spirit, that it seemeth 
unparalleled, for though he had lived with his wife above twenty years together, yet neither child nor 
servant could ever say, that thej' observed an angry countenance, or heard an angry word proceed from 
him towards her, all her life. 

Some have observed, that in his visage towards his latter end, he did much resemble the picture which 
usually passeth for Moses his effigies. Certainly he was the exact effigy of Moses his spirit, and in this 
resembled him to the life, that he was one of the meekest men this generation knew. 

He was as a great peace-keeper, so a great peace-maker, having an excellent dexterity in composing 
differences; far he was from doing others wrong, and far from revenging wrong done by others. 

He suffered much both by the speeches and also by the actions of evil and envious persons; yet he 
would pray for them, rather than in any harsh way requite them. He accounted revilers, and wrong- 
doers, to do more hurt to themselves than to him. 

Sundry scandalous and false aspersions have been cast upon him, particularly by such as have been 
guilty of those crimes, which they have laid to his charge.^ For some who have lived by an unwarrant- 
able trade of usury, for justifying their own unwarrantable practice, have not stuck to impute the same 
to him, from which he was ever free ; never putting any moneys out to use, either by himself, or any 
other for him ; neither directly or indirectly, as he hath been often heard to say, as in his life, so not 
long before his death. 

He was ever charita"blo, especially to the godly poor, according to the direction of the apostle Paul,' 
in Gal. vi. 10, where he exhorteth ns to ' do good nnto all, especially unto them who are of the house- 
hold of faith.' Ho maintained some poor scholars at the university, wholly at his own charge, and contri- 
bnt«d liberally towards the maintenance of others. 

' Sicut olim de Ilieroniino, cujus taiila erat uorainis celo- I • Regium est, cum bene focoris, male andire — Sen. 
britoa, lit ad uiium ex omnibua totius orbis regionibua veliit ' Non sunt profundcmln? opes sed dispensandte. 
certiusimum quoJdiira ornculum concurreretur. — Sraa. \ Ambroa. 


He was of such a charitable and bountiful disposition, that though his father left him a competent 
estate, yet such were his disbursements yearly for his kindred and others who stood in need of relief, that 
from the death of his father, till his children came to be of j'ears, and to call for their portions, he laid up 
nothing of all his comings in, so that they who out of envy cry up his estate to be greater than it was, do 
consequently cry up his bounty and charity ; because whatsoever his estate was, it was wholly laid out for the 
relief of such as stood in need (necessary expenses for his family only excepted), which, as it doth appear 
from the doctor's papers, so in his lifetime he expressed as much to some of his children. And truly, 
as in other things he excelled others, so in this, even himself.' 

He was very conscionable in spending his time, from his youth to his very death. He did use to rise very 
early both winter and summer. In the winter, he did constantly rise so long before da}-, as he performed all 
the exercises of his private devotions before daylight ; and in the summer time, about four of the clock in 
the morning, b}' which means he had done half-a-day's work before others had begun their studies. If he 
heard any at their work before he had got to his study, he would say (as Demosthenes spake concern- 
ing the smith), that he was much troubled that any should be at their calling before he at his. 

He was a man of much temperance and sobriety ; as in his eating and drinking, so in his apparel. 

As for recreations, howsoever many pious persons do spend time therein, and that lawfully, in warrant- 
able recreations, yet he spent none therein,^ insomuch as he was never expert in any kind of exercise for 
recreation. He hath been often heard to say, that he took not any journey merely for pleasure in all his 
hfetime ; study and pains having been always, both in youth and age, his chiefest pleasure and delight ; 
yea, it was his ' meat and drink to be doing the will of his heavenly Father,' wherein he took as much 
pleasure and delight as natural men do in their eating and in their drinking, or in their sports and pastimes. 

Such was his carriage and conversation, that there was scarce a lord or lady, or citizen of quality, in or 
about the city, that were piously aflfected, but they sought his acquaintance, and were ambitious of his 
company, wherein they took much content, and found much benefit to their soul's welfare. 

And whereas many persons of quality came out of their good respect to visit him, he would endeavour 
so to order their conference as it might be profitable to edification ; or if their visits were merely compli- 
mental, he accounted' it a great burden unto him. 

He was always of a very friendly and courteous disposition, whom the meanest, not only of his parish, 
but of the city, found easy of access ;^ and as easy to be entreated, yea, ready to do what he could to all. 

Among other graces, humility was eminent in him ; for he was not observed to be pufi'ed up either with 
the flocks of multitudes unto his ministry (which were many and great), nor with any applauses of men ; but 
would still say, he knew more of himself to abase him than any could know to extol him. 

He was much in communion with God, and contented not himself only with daily, constant, ordinary, 
holy exercises, but was also frequent in extraordinary duties. 

In the bishops' time, when it might not be permitted to keep a fast openly in the church, he was 
one of those ministers who frequently helped pious Christians in their private fasts. In times of fear and 
danger, he and others had sometimes weekly, sometimes monthly fasts, whereof many in his own house 
and vestry ; which he was eminently observed to perform with extraordinary reverence and awfulness of 
spirit. His confessions were accompanied with much sense of sin, brokenness of heart, self-abhorrency, 
judging of the creature, and justifying of God.* In petition very pertinent, judicious, spiritual, seasonable, 

* Kof^»s Tdi/ ri; n fMip^sritr, irTi xiti r'iiDut mat xati Wi{vu.at * Taiito mnjpr latis'eat igimseeutis, qtiauto major exag, 
lyxjarsia. — Plato, \ rutio est peecuta confiteutis. — Aug in J's. xciv. 


accompanied with faitb and fervour ; like a true sou of Jacob, wrestling with tears and supplications, as 
resolving not to let him go without a blessing. 

But none like him in thanksgiving. After a man would think he had spent the last drop of his spirit in 
confession and prayer, oh, how would ho revive and gather up his spirits when he came to the work of 
thanksgiving ! wherein he would be so large, particular, warm, and vigorous, that in the end of the day 
he would quicken the auditory, as if then the work had been but newly to begin, and that only had been 
the work of the day : wherein he may bo a pattern to all his surviving brethren in the ministry. 

He was very inquisitive after the good and welfare of the church of God ; as at home, so abroad ; that 
accordingly he might order his prayers in their behalf, being ever mindful of them in his prayers. And when 
he heard it went ill with the church of God in any place, like another Nehemiah, he ' sat him down, and 
wept, and mourned, and fasted, and prayed unto the God of heaven in their behalf.' 

Great was his patience under the visiting hand of God, especially in his old age, when God visited him 
with painful maladies. Though by reason of the bitterness of his pains by the stone, and sharpness of 
urine, and that lethalis arundo (as he oft called it), that deadly arrow in his side (which he knew could 
never be plucked out of it but by death), I mean his asthma, which he got by an excessive cold in attend- 
ing upon public employment, — notwithstanding, I say, by reason of these, he hath been often heard to groan, 
yet was he never heard once to grumble. But he would oft say. Soul, be silent ; soul, be patient ; it is 
thy God and Father that thus ordereth thy estate. Thou art his clay ; he may tread and trample on thee 
as it pleaseth him. Thou hast deserved much more ; it is enough that thou art kept out of hell. Though 
thy pain be grievous, yet it is tolerable ; thy God afl'ords some intermissions, he will turn it to thy good, 
and at length put an end to all : none of these can be expected in hell. He would oft make mention of the 
extent of obedience, which, he said, was not only to endeavour to do what God requireth, but also patiently 
to bear what God's will is to lay upon his creature ; as Christ himself, ' though he were the Son, yet 
learned obedience by the things which he sufiered.' In his greatest pangs, he oft used this speech of Job, 
' Shall we receive good from the hands of God, and not evil ?' He often commended his soul unto Christ, 
and would say, ' I am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed to him against that 
day.' When any of his friends went about to comfort him in those gifts which God had bestowed on him, 
and works which he had wrought by him, he would answer : I dare not think of any such thing for com- 
fort ; Jesus Christ, and what he hath done and endured, is the only ground of my sure comfort. Many 
that came to visit him in his weakness professed that they went away better than they came, by reason of 
those savoury and gi-aeious expressions that proceeded from him. 

Though towards his latter end his fits of the stone were frequent and sharp, having sometimes four or 
five in an hour, yet such was his desire to finish that so much desired Commentary of his upon the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, that so soon as the bitterness of the pain of a fit was over, ho returned to his work, and 
made some progress therein. And thus he continued labouring at his work, through much pain, till Tues- 
day, the 6th of December 1G53 ; about which time, as his natural strength was exceedingly decayed, so 
his intellectuals began to fail ; and for the three following days drowsiness seized upon him, insomuch 
that he could not hold up his head to look into a book, but slumbered away his time in his chair ; and upon 
the Friday, being the third day since he had given over his studies, inquiring what day it was, he cried 
out, Alas ! 1 have lost three days ! The day following being Saturday, he had no desire to arise out of 
his bed, neither indeed could, in regard of his wcnknoss, which was such as he said. Now I have not long 
to live in this world ; the time of my departure is at hand ; I am going to my desired haven : the appre- 
hension whereof was no little joy unto him ; for he had often said unto such of his friends as came 
to visit him in his sickness, I am most willing to die ; having, I bless God, nothing to do but to 


die.' Indeed, he seemed sometimes to be in Paul's strait between life and death, ' having a desire to depart, 
that he might be with Christ, which was best ;' but yet very desirous was he to finish his Commentary on the 
Epistle to the Hebrews, which he knew would be useful to the church of God, and in that respect was will- 
ing to live ; and God so far answered his desire in that particular, that he lived to finish it within half a 
chapter. But when he perceived that his time in this world could not be long, oh how sweet and joyful was 
the apprehension of death unto him ! which he often termed his best friend, next unto Jesus Christ. 

And that Saturday, though he kept his bed through weakness, yet was he more wakeful, and his spirit 
more lively and cheerful, than for several days before ; which questionless was from his joyful apprehension 
of his approaching departure. . 

His speeches that day were more than ordinarily heavenly ; speaking much in admiration of the free- 
ness of God's grace, and riches of his mercy in Jesus Christ. 

As while he lived he led an heavenly life, so about the time of his" death, by those comforts and joys 
which he found in his soul, he seemed to be in heaven while he was upon the earth ; and so continued, full 
of sweet comfort and heavenly expressions, to the last of his understanding and speech, which continued till 
Monday morning, when both failed him ; from which time he lay breathing, but shorter and shorter, till 
eight of the clock that night ; about which time, in the presence of all his children, and divers friends, he 
quietly slept in the Lord, making an happy change from earth to heaven, December 12. a7mo Chrisli, 
1653, — being seventy-nine years old, having served God faithfully and painfully in his generation. 

I'/ie Names of such Booh as this Author hath imtten. 

1. Of Domestical Duties, eight treatises, out of part of the fifth and sixth chapters of the Epistle to 
the Ephesians. 

2. The Whole Armour of God, on part of the sixth chapter of the Epistle to the Ephesians. 

3. A Treatise of the Sin against the Holy Ghost, out of Mat. xii. 31, 32, Mark iii. 28, 29. 

4. Two Catechisms, one handling the fundamental principles of Christian Religion, the other, brief 
answers to the chief Ai'ticles of Religion. 

5. A Guide to go to God, or an Explanation of the Lord's Prayer. 

6. God's Three Arrows, Plague, Famine, Sword, in three Treatises : 1. A Plaster for the Plague, on 
Num. xvi. 44 to the 50. 2. Dearth's Death, on 2 Sam. xxi. 1. 3. The Church's Conquest over the 

_ Sword, on Exod. xvii. 8 to the end. 

7. The Extent of God's Providence. A Sermon on Mat. x. 29-31, preached November 5. 1623, on 
occasion of the downfall of Papists in Blackfriars' ten days before, with the relation of the said downfall. 

8. The Dignity of Chivalry. A Sermon on 2 Chron. viii. 9, preached before the Artillery Company 
of London, June 13. 1626. 

9. The Saint's Sacrifice, or a Commentary on the 116th Psalm. 

10. Two Treatises. 1. The Sabbath Sanctification ; 2. A Treatise of Apostasy, on Luke xv. 31. 

11. The Saint's Support. A Sermon Neh. v. 19, preached before the Commons of Parliament, June 
29. 1645. 

' Vitam habuit in patientia, mortem in desiderio. 


12. Mercy's Memorial. A Sermon on Exod. xiii. 3, preached in Paul's Church, Londun, Nov. 17. 
lG-14, being the day of Queen Elizabeth's inauguration. 

13. The Progress of Divine Providence. A Sermon on Ezek. xxxv-. 11, preached before the House 
of Peers, Sep. 2.1. 1G45. 

1-t. A Sermon on Ezekicl xxiv. 16, preached at the funeral of Mrs Margaret Duck, with a large rela- 
tion of her life and death. 

15. The Right Way. A Sermon on Ezra viii. 21, preached before the Lords, Sept. 12. 1C48, the day 
of humiliation for a blessing on the Treaty between the King and Parliament. 

16. A Large Commentary and Exposition on the whole Epistle of St Paul to the Hebrews. 


CHRISTIAN Reader,— Thou bast here at length 
that so much desired and long looked for Com- 
mentary of Dr Gouge on the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
the largeness whereof may be a sufficient plea for the 
long stay thereof at the press. 

Though it be a poslhumus (a child brought into 
the world after the death of his father), yet I do assure 
thee it is his own. For though he set not upon this 
work for the fitting it to the press, till the latter end 
of his days, after he was seventy years of age, being 
kept from it by other public employments, as is well 
known, yet it pleased God so to lengthen out his life, 
that he lived to finish this Commentary upon the whole 
Epistle, excepting one half chapter ; the completing 
whereof, though it cost me some time and pains, that j 
it might be answerable to the rest, yet in respect both 
of its form and matter, it may well be accounted his 
own work. For as being his amanuensis to a great 
part of the work, I observed his method, so the matter 
and substance of that half chapter I found in his own 
notes, to which I have added no more than I thought 
necessary to make it like the rest. So that I may 
truly say, thou hast here Dr Gouge's Commentary 
upon the whole Epistle to the Hebrews ; and therein 
the substance of aliove a thousand sermons preached 
at that famous Wednesday Lecture in Blackfriar's, 
London, though now cast into a new mould by way of 
section. Yet I am persuaded, and that upon good 
grounds, that there is scarce a point in divinity 
which he handled upon any portion of Scripture in the 
whole course of his ministry, but he hath brought the 
substance of it into this Commentary. Several ser- 
mons, which upon the first view I thought fit to be 
published, and thereunto had designed them, I have 
since found fully handled in this Commentary ; wherein 
I conceive, thou mayest find as many points of 
divinity, cases of conscience and controversies, fully, 
clearly, though succinctly handled, as in any com- 
mentary whatsoever yet extant. 

As he was ever acknowledged by all scholars that 
heard him, or read any part of his works, to be most 
exact and accurate, iu the opening of the true sense 

of a text, in the resolving thereof, and raising of 
genuine observations from the same ; so in the giv- 
ing of the natural sense and meaning of the apostle in 
this epistle, and in the analysing, first of every chapter, 
then of every verse, and in raising of the proper 
deductions and conclusions from each word and par- 
ticle almost in this epistle, he hath shewed his skill to 
the utmost : it being the fruit, as of his younger, so 
of his elder years, ^ whenas he grew herein more and 
more acute and dexterous. 

Though the doctrines which he raised from each 
word and particle are not set down under the notions 
of doctrines, nor the reasons for the confirmation 
thereof under the terms of reasons, yet in the section 
where the Greek word or particle is opened, there are 
expressed, as the doctrines thence naturally arising, 
so the reasons for the contii-mation thereof, and likewise 
many practical inferences, ever holding il^ one part 
of his art to conceal his art ; especially in writing, 
though in preaching, as none more solid and judi- 
cious, so scarce any more clear and perspicuous, con- 
descending to the capacity of the meanest ; ever 
aflecting^ the simplicity of plain preaching, rather 
than obscure and lofty expressions. 

At the end of this Commentary, besides a large 
English table of all the material points treated of by 
the author, I have added an Alphabetical Index of 
above seven hundred Greek words, which thou mayest 
find learnedly and dexterously explicated, either by 
their etymologies, synonymas, or various acceptations 
(if they be crohuari/iara), or if not, yel thou hast the 
clearest and most familiar explication that each word 
is capable of. For it was one part of the author's 
excellency, that constantly in the course of his ministry 
he did endeavour to instil into the heads of his auditors 
the fullest sense of the Spirit in a familiar way, though 
veiled under many significant, simple, compound, or 
decomposite notions. Such was his depth of judg- 

' Discipulus est prioris posterior dies. — Seneca, ri^ajxai 
Ti usi ToXXx ^t^airxi/iiivos. — Solon. 

' Est caput artis artem dissimulare. — Erasm. 
^ Tov l^ituTuFfiov Tov u.T>.ovff~i^iiv KVi^vy f^ccmi . — Greg, Nyss. 


ment, that aft«r he had conferred place with place, he 
could suddenly methodise the different senses, and 
give forth the qnintcsseuee of all his collations, so as i 
the meanest capacitj' might bo edified by him. | 

That I may not exceed the bounds of an epistle, I 
shall only add this word concerning the narrative of 
my dear father's life and death. Though some things ' 
therein may seem scarce creditable, as his indefatigable 
pains, his unparalleled meekness, and the like, yet do 
I assure thee, there is not one particular expression 
in the whole, but upon mine own knowledge I can 
avouch for truth, having observed most of them my- 
self, and heard the rest often from his own mouth. ' 

Though ho be now dead, yet he still speaketh to 
us in this elaborate Commentary of his, of which he 
died in travail. Though it were bis Benoni, yet to 
the heedful reader it may justly become another Ben- 
jamin, a son of the right hand, to lead him fully into 
the bowels of the whole epistle. The author's sole 
aim in all his ministry being the same with Austin's,' 

' Sint castfe dclitite iriero, Scripturio turn; nee fallar in 
eis, ncc fallam ox eis.- Con/es. lib. ii. cap. 12. 

and in his Commentai-y like that of Jerome,' to hold 
out clearly the meaning of the Spirit, and not his owd 
fancies and conceits. 

And such was his happiness, that he had the incomes 
of the same Spirit in explaining the epistle, as the 
penman in writing, though not in the same measure. 
My prayer unto the God and Father of mercy is, that 
it may do as much or rather more good in the perusal, 
than it did in the first preaching, becoming a means 
of conversion to the unconverted, of edification, com- 
fort, support and establishment to all that are already 
brought into Jesus Christ. 

Thy servant in the work of the gospel, 

Tho. Gougb. 

Sr rui.cHRES, March 26. 1C56. 

' Propositum mihi erat non ad meam voluntafem Scrip- 
turas trahere, sed id dicere, quod Scripturas Telle intcUi- 
gebam. Commentatoris officium est, non quid ipse velit, 
sed quid sentiat ille quem iuterpretatur, exponere : alioqui 
si contraria dixerif, non tam interpres erit quam adv 
ejus quem nititur explanare- — llieron. ad Pammach. 


OuB welcome ship the wealth of heav'n hath brought, 

No Indian earth; and she so richly fraught, 

With worth our waiting pays ; an empty skiff 

Had sooner come, and with an easy whitf 

Of wind had sail'd ; our ship so fully laded 

Through the surges deeply plough'd, and slowly waded. 

His wares for houses claim our hearts ; may I 

Still rnnko my better part their library ; 

Yea, may these volumes turn'd into myself, 

Be chained faster to my soul than self. 

They burden shelves, in souls had they abndo. 

Like th' elements In place, they would not load. 

Nor crave I them alone ; our college cries 

To have a share in these commodities. 

These thousand sermons, Sion is content 

To quarter freely ; harmless regiment I 

Which with no foe contendest, but with sin, 

Which driv'st not students out, but draw'st them in, 

Which dost not eat, but art tho scholars' bread. 

And in a vacant desk can'st make thy bed ; 

Whose pistols only reasons are, whose swords 

Are framed only out of Scripture-words. 

Our Gouge who Christ i' the types so clearly shews. 

Gives light to th' Hebrews, knowledge to the Jews. 

Th' Hebrews so hard, a fort scarce ere obtain'd, 

We conquer now ; I'm sure the works we've gain'd. 

Finis in page the last, the end holds forth 

Of th' worthy comment, not the comment's worth. 

Its clear analysis the text unties, 

'Twas sad that death did th' writer analyse. 


The shady types are made in th' Hebrews plain. 

This comment clears the Hebrews, and again 

The life of Gouge expounds this comment, next 

We want one to explain his life; that text 

A pair of commentators join to clear, 

The dove and serpint both must comment thero : 

His pen goes sweetly, but had we our choice, 

We him would hear ; no music to the voice. 

He's gone ; yet sure, the worth of th' son will spread. 

Who serv'd his living father, serves him dead. 


SEC. 1. Of the authority of this epistle. 
That we may with the better warrant collect 
articles of faith and rules for life out of this epistle, it 
is requisite that we be well informed in the divine au- 
thority thereof, and also well weigh the excellency 
of it. 

These evidences following make clear the divine 
authority of this epistle. 

1. The matter of it, which is beyond the reach of 
human invention. So profound mysteries are revealed 
therein, as could not be known but by divine revela- 

2. The manner of unfolding those mysteries, which 
is with such majesty and gravity as argueth a divine 

3. The congruity of it with other canonical scrip- 
tures, so as, if all Scripture be given by inspiration of 
God, Haaa y^atpn '^iO'TtiudToi, 2 Tim. iii. 16, then this 

4. The direct refutation of pernicious heresies, 
which, since the writing of this epistle, have been 
forged, so as it must needs be inspired by a foreknow- 
ing Spirit. 

5. The whole tenor of this epistle, and manner of 
expressing the legal ordinances therein, shew that this 
epistle was written while the temple stood, and Leviti- 
cal rites were in use, which was in the apostles' time ; 
80 as, if it had not been canonical, it would question- 
less have been discovered by them. 

6. The penman of it, whom we shall shew here- 
after to be Paul the apostle. 

7. The express approbation which St Peter gives of 
it, for he makes mention of an epistle which St Paul 
wrote to them, to whom he himself wrote his epistles, 
'iy^a-]/iv uij.h, 2 Peter iii. 15, 16, who were Hebrews, 
1 Peter i. 1 ; 2 Peter iii. 1. 

These proofs of the divine authority of this epistle 
shew how justly it is accounted canonical, as it hath 

been in all ages of the church ; for where catalogues 
of canonical scriptures have been made,* this epistle 
hath been put into the number, and they have been 
accounted heretics that have denied it to be canonical.^ 

Sec. 2. Of the excellency of this epistle. 

Admirable is the excellency of every part of sacred 
Scripture, which savonreth of more than an human 
spirit. And this epistle hath sundry excellencies, 
which in a peculiar manner do commend it unto us ; 

1. The mysteries couched therein. The greatest 
and profoundest mysteries of our Christian religion 
are therein propounded : concerning God the Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost ; concerning the natures, per- 
son, and offices of Christ ; concerning the sufficiency 
of Christ's sacrifice, and efficacy of his intercession ; 
concerning the excellency of the new covenant ; con- 
cerning the life of faith ; and concerning the privilege 
of these latter times, &c. 

2. The variety of histories therein recollected. We 
have in it a rehearsal of most of the memorable his- 
tories from the beginning of the world to the last age 
thereof ; and not only of such as are registered in holy 
writ, but also of such as fell out since the prophets 
ceased to record any. 

8. Explication of legal types, and application of 
them to their distinct truths. No other book is here- 
in comparable to this epistle. 

4. Confutation of heresies.* It may be termed the 
maul of popery, which is a mass of heresies. Popish 
heresies are most against the offices of Christ, espe- 

' Athanas. in Synop3. S. Scrip.; Aug. de Doctr. Christ., 
1. ii. c. viii. ; Damasc. de fide, 1. iv. c. xviii. 

' Epiph. 1. i. hser. xlii. ; Philast. Catal. hferes. c. xlviii. 

' Vide Whitak. 'E^xvirnv, in quo fragmenta veterum hsere- 
eium, indioantur, ad constituendum ecclesisa pontificisa iTir- 
TXiriiv, collata. 


cially against his priesthood. Those heresies are so 
fully mot withal in this epistle, as if it had been written 
Binco popery began. God foreseeing what poisonous 
heresies would be broached, prepared this antidote 
against them. 

5. The pithy persuasions unto all holiness and new 
obedience ; the powerful encouragements to constancy 
and perseverance ; the di-eadful denunciations against 
apostasy and inipenitency ; the sweet consolations to 
such as for Christ's sake endure the cross, which are 
here and there throughout in this epistle mixed. 

Thus much in general to commend this epistle 
unto us. 

The title thereof is next to be considered. 

Sec. 3. Of thr title. 

The Epistle of Paul the apostle to the Hebrews. 

It is not probable that this title was set down by 
the first penman of this epistle ; for he might as well 
have premised his usual inscription with his name and 
calling (which apostles do in all other their epistles) 
as have prefixed the foresaid title. 

Titles before the apostles' epistles, and subscrip- 
tions after them, are not accounted canonical, as the 
epistles themselves, but supposed to be added by some 
that afterwards did transcribe the epistles. For there 
are gi-oss mistakings and palpable errors in many of 
them.' And though some of them may hit the mark, 
and declare the truth, j-et doth it not thereupon fol- 
low that they are canonical. Although everything 
that is canonical be most true, yet every truth is not 
canonical ; for that only is accounted canonical which 
was given by inspiration of God, SsoVvsi/ffT-os. 

Titles, thei'efore, and superscriptions added to the 
epistles of apostles, are no suflicient grounds of doc- 
trine, nor may articles of faith or rules for life be 
founded on them ; yet they give some light to the 
matter, and may be handled by way of preface. 

As for the title of this epistle, no just exception can 
be taken against it. Every particle therein is un- 
doubtedly most true. 

It plainly demonstrates both the parties, and the 
means of the author's declaring his mind. 

The parties are, 1, the penman or author; 2, the 
people to whom it was in special directed. 

Tlie author is described, 1, by his name, Paul; 2, by 
his calling, the apostle. 

The people are described hy their parentage, 

The means is by way of writing a letter, the epistle. 

Sec. 4. Of the author of this epislh. 

The proofs before produced for the divine authority 
of this epistle give evidence that an apostle, or some 
other extraordinarj' minister, immediately inspired and 

' See Cudworth's Supplement to Perkins's Comment on 
the Epistle to Gal. in the couclusiou. 

infallibly insisted' by the divine Spirit, was the author 
of it. 

Some have supposed it to be wi-itten by Luke the 
evangelist, or by Clemens ; ^ some by ApoUos, whose 
learning and eloquence, joined with great piety, is 
much commended,^ who also, in special, is said to 
have mightily convinced the Jews, Acts xviii. 24, 25, 

But the evidences following do more than probably 
evince that Paul the apostle was the author of this 

1. The ancient Greek churches accounted it to be 
St Paul's, and thereupon prefixed this title before it. 
The Epistle of Paul, &c.* And in the catalogue of St 
Paul's epistles this is reckoned up ; whereupon there 
are said to be fourteen epistles of St Paul. 

2. Both matter and manner of penning this epistle 
is agreeable to St Paul's other epistles.* 

3. That which St Paul styleth his ' token in every 
epistle,' 2 Thes. iii. 17, is also in the close of this 
epistle thus set down : ' Grace be with you all. Amen.' 
Indeed, in most of his epistles he styles it ' the grace 
of Jesus Christ ;' yet in both his epistles to Timothy 
and to Titus, it is as here. 

4. The mention which is made of Timothy, who 
was St Paul's associate, of whom he oft makes men- 
tion in his other epistles, and gives the same epithet 
to him that is hero, our brother Timothy. Compare 
with Heb. xiii. 23 ; 2 Cor. i. 1 ; PhUem". 1. 

To shew that that very Paul is here meant who 
was immediately called by Jesus Christ, and infallibly 
assisted by his Spirit, he is described by his extraor- 
dinary function, the apostle. Hereof see chap. iii. 1. 
Thus much of the author. 

Objections made against this penman of this epistle 
are answered in their due places. See Chap. II. Sec. 27. 

Sec. 5. Of the Ilebreus. 

The people to whom in special the apostle directed 
this epistle are styled Hebrews ; whereby that nation 
which descended from Abraham is meant. 

This title, Ilebreus, is oft used in the Old and New 
Testament. It was first given to Abraham himself. 
Gen. xiv. 18 ; then to Joseph, when he was a servant 
in Egypt, Gen. xxxix. 14, 17 ; afterwards to all that 
stock. Gen. xl. 15 ; Exod. ii. 6 ; 1 Sam. iv. 6, 9 ; 
Acts vi. 1 ; Philip, iii. 5. 

Abraham, the father of this people, was styled an 
Hebrew in two especial respects.* 

' Qu. ' assisted '? — Ed. 

• Originea, ut refert Kuseb. Hist. Eccl. 1. vi. c. xxv. 
' Bezii in Annot. mnjor. 

* nat;A.<i> T«E ' A<rtrTi\iu, &c. Ita scriptum invcnimus in 
omnibusnostriscodicibusexceptomio.— .B«a toe cilat.; Euteb. 
llist. Eccl. I. iii. c. iii. I'luriina patrum testimuuia. citan- 
lur ft Wliitakero. — Conlrov. i. de S. Script, q. i. c. xvi. 

'■ Vide Piscftt. ProleRom de authore hiijus Epist. 
« Vide August, de Civ. Dei. 1. xvi. c. iii. ; et Flor. Josep. 
Autiq. Jud. I. i. c. xiv. 


1. Because he came from Heber, who vmsproiiepns, 
the third from Shem, Gen. xi. 10, 14, 25. Sham, after 
the world was divided to the sons of Noah, was the 
first father of the blessed seed. Gen. ix. 26. After 
that the whole world began ngain to fall from God, 
and rebelliously conspired to build a tower that might 
keep them safe from another flood, so as God, to 
hinder that work, confounded their languages ; but 
Heber separated himself from that impious society, 
and thereupon the name Heber was given him, which 
importeth a passinrf over, or departiiui from. ; which 
name was gi¥en by a prophetical prediction before the 
thing was done, as Noah's name was. Gen. v. 29, or 
for a memorial of bis piety after he had given that 
proof thereof, as Israel's name was, Gen. xxxii. 28. 

Heber, separating himself from those rebels, is 
further manifested by his retaining the primary, pure 
language, when among all the rebels it was confounded. 
Gen. xi. 9 ; for that primary language is called the 
Hebrew tongue, which, in the confusion of tongues, 
Heber retained and propagated to his posterity."- 

Thus Heber became another father, and a preserver 
of the church. Hence is it that the first father, Shem, 
is said to be ' the father of all the children of Heber,' 
Gen. s. 21 ; that is, of the church which descended 
from Heber, which were the Hebrews. 

As Heber withdrew himself from the wicked world 
in his time, so did Abraham in his time, being called 
of God, Gen. xii. 1, and so became another father of 
the church ; whereupon, as he was called an Hebrew 
from Heber, so all his posterity were called Hebrews 
from him. 

2. The other respect why Abraham was called an 

Hebrew was, because 

from his own 

country to Canaan ; in which journey he passed over 
much land and sundry rivers, as Tigris, Euphrates, 
and Jordan : for the verb Hahar, l^y, transit, signi- 
fictb to pass over ; the noun Heber, "13^, transitus ; 
and the word Hebrew, ''"i^V, Iransilor, one that pass- 
eth over. 

The ancient Greek interpreters of the Old Testa- 
ment, commonly called the Septuagint, or Seventy, 
do thus interpret this title Hebrew, attributed to Ab- 
raham ;^ so do also sundry of the ancient fathers.^ 

By this name Hebrews, which was common to all 
the Jews,^ the posterity of Heber and of Abraham 
were put in mind of their fathers separating them- 
selves from profane persons and idolaters, and also 
were taught therein to imitate their fathers. 

Sec. 6. Of apostolical epistles. 

The means whereby the apostle declared his mind 
to these Hebrews was an epistle. 

' 131) ]Vch' lingua Heber. : n''"13V llE"^- Hebrrea lingua, 
quam in coufusione linguarum rotiuuit et projiagavit Heber. 

* aTtyytiy^i reu "Afi^afA ru -rsgaTJl, Geu. xiv. 13. 

' Orig. in Mat. xiv. ; Chrys. in 'Gen. xiv. Horn. 3-5. 

* Judicos initio vocarunt Hcbrseos. — Joseph. Antiq. Jicd. lib. 
i. cap. xiv. 

An epistle is a writing sent to absent friends, wherein 
is declared that which concerns them to know. 

The derivation of the Greek word shews it to be 
somewhat sent." The common use of the word shews 
it to be a writing or a letter sent, and sent to such as 
are absent ; because we cannot by word of mouth ex- 
press our mind to them. 

This is the benefit of an epistle, that thereby we may 
make known our minds one to another in absence as if 
we were present.^ All sorts of things use to be made 
known to absent friends by epistles. They are ordi- 
narily written in testimony of friends' mutual remem- 
brance one of another, and of that love and good 
respect which they continue to bear one to another. 
Thus much did St Paul testify in his epistle to 
Timothy, chap. i. 8. Epistles are oft sent to com- 
mend one to another (hereunto the apostle alludeth, 
2 Cor. iii. 1, in this phrase, ' Need we epistles of com- 
mendation ?'), and to intercede for others, as Paul for 
Onesimus in his epistle to Philemon. 

Epistles use to be more vulgar and loose than ora- 
tions or pleadings at a bar of justice f and among us, 
they use to be less accurate than sermons. Yet the 
apostles' epistles were no whit inferior to their ser- 
mons ; but in the matter contained in them, and in the 
manner of penning them, they were as full, ponderous, 
and accurate, as any other parts of sacred Scripture. 
All the mysteries of godliness are in them distinctly, 
plainly, and fully laid down. It is observed,* that the 
very inscriptions which the apostles premise before 
their epistles do with such an admirable and inimitable 
succinctness comprise the sum of the whole evangelical 
mystery, as they being kept safe, the church hath 
enough to oppose against all heretics ; what do then 
the whole bodies of those divine epistles ? 

The mysteries of the gospel are revealed by epistles, 
because that is the most familiar and friendly manner 
of making known a matter. Epistles use to be written 
to choice friends, as testimonies of singular afi"ection 
to them. 

Sec. 7. Of St Paul's affection to the Hebrews. 

By the way, we may here take notice of St Paul's 
great and entire respect which he bare to his country- 
men the Hebrews, in that he opens unto them the 
mysteries of salvation in the most friendly manner 
that could be, by writing an epistle unto them in parti- 
cular ; and sweetly persuading them to abide constant 
in the faith, that they might be the rather induced 
thereto. ■ And this he doth not only by general in- 
structions and exhortations in common to all of all 
sorts, but also by a familiar and friendly epistle in 
special directed to them. 

' 'E<r;rToA>i of imrrikXai, miito ad. 

" Bono literarum eadem fere absentee, quie si coram esse- 
mus consequemur. — Cic. Epist. Famil. lib. xv. epist. 14. 

' Quid simile habet epistola aut judicio aut concioni ? — 
Cic. Epist. Famil. lib. vii. epist. 21. 

■* Vide Annot. major, in Tit. i. 1. 


St Paul planted not any church of the Hebrews 
alone, as he did of the Corinthians, Galatiiins, 
Ephesians, and other Grecians, for he was after an 
especial manner the apostle of the Gentiles, Rom. 
xi. 18, yet he took all occasions to gain and establish 
the Jews; thereupon he saith, 1 Cor. vi. 20, ' Unto the 
Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews.' 
Hereby he giveth proof of that which he professeth : 
Rom. X. 1, ' Jly heart's desire and prayer to God for 
Israel is, that they might be saved ;' and Rom. ix. 4, 
' I could wish thiit myself were accursed from Christ 
for my brethren, my kinsmen after the flesh, who were 

Oh that this mind were in all Christians towards 
their brethren, their kindred, their countrymen, and 
others to whom by any special bonds of relation they 
are knit I This is the best use that can be made of 
such bonds, and the most principal end that we ought 
therein to aim at, namely, a mutual, spiritual edifica- 
tion. Happy are those countries that have many such 
countrymen, who, though they have charges over other 
countries, yet cannot be unmindl'ul of their own country ; 
but being absent from them, will notwithstanding write 
to them of the common salvation ; and that though 
the more abundantly they love them, the less they are 
loved of them ; yea, though they persecuted them with 
all eagerness wheresoever they met tbem. Thus Paul 
manifested a true Christian spirit, by overcoming evil 
with goodness. Behold a pattern worthy of all 

Sec. 8. Of the general intendment of particular 

Quest. Was this epistle written for the Hebrews 

Ans. Though it were in special manner directed to 
them, yet was it not written only for their use, but 
for the use also of the whole Christian church; and 
therefore it hath ever been read in all churches.' The 
apostle giveth a charge to particular churches, to whom 
in special he directed his epistles, to cause them to 
be read in other churches, Col. iv. 10; for the matter 
of apostolical epistles consisted of general doctrines 
and directions, fit for all Christians to know, believe, 
and obey. That which Christ saith of the word which 
he preached to his disciples in particular, Mark xiii. 
87, ' What I say unto you, I say unto all,' may be 
applied to the epistles of the apostles ; for in them 
they intended the good of all Christians. The parti- 
cular inscription of their epistles to particular churches 
or persons, was as the ordinarj' dedication of books to 
particular persons, which are intended to the good 
of all. 

St Luke dedicated his histories of the Gospel of 

' Memento npostolicoa opislnlas noii eis tantura scriptn?, 
qui tempore illo quo 8Cribebaiiturnudicbant,BPd ctiam nobis; 
non enim ob aliud in ecclcsia rccitantur.— .i4H<7. conlr. Cm- 
con, gram lib. i. cap 9. 

Christ and the Acts of the Apostles to one man, and 
by name to Theophilus, Luke i. 3, Acts i. 1 ; yet he 
intended them to the good of all. St Paul, in that 
epistle which he directed only to Titus by name, con- 
cludes with this general benediction, ' Grace bo with 
you all,' Titus iii. 15. The Epistle to Philemon was 
written upon a special occasion, yet so carried as 
sundry general instructions, meet for all Christians to 
Icnow, are couched therein. All Christians therefore 
are to read and hear the epistles of the apostles, as 
heedfully as they were bound to do, unto whom in 
special they were directed. 

As for this epistle to the Hebrews, it may seem, in 
sundry passages thereof, to be written in a prophetical 
spirit, to meet with sundry heresies that were in future 
times to be broached, rather than such as at that time 
were discovered. Such as these : a true, real, propi- 
tiatory sacrifice to be daily ofl'ered up, yea, such a 
sacrifice to be unbloody ; sons of men to be sacrificing 
priests properly so called; many intercessors and 
mediators to be under the gospel ; and sundry other 
which have been published by papists, long since this 
ei)istle was written. So as this epistle, in sundrj' 
respects, may be as useful to us who live in the time 
of popery, and are much infested with popish heresies, 
as to the Hebrews, if not more. Hitherto of the title. 

Sec. 9. Of the occasion of this epistle. 

The occasion of this epistle was twofold: 1, the 
immortal and insatiable malice of the unbelieving 
Jews against all that professed the name of Christ ; 
2, their inbred superstition about the Mosaical rites. 

So implacable was their hatred of all that main- 
tained the Christian faith, as in that cause they spared 
not their ovm countrymen, 1 Thes. ii. 14. St Paul, 
while he was of the Jewish religion, was highly esteemed 
of priests, rulers, and other Jews ; but when he became 
a Christian, none was more fiercely and violently per- 
secuted than he. So dealt they with all that were of 
that faith ; and where they had not sufticient power of 
themselves, they stirred up the unbelieving Gentiles 
against all that professed the Christian faith, especially 
if they were Jews, Acts xiv. 2, 19. Hence it came to 
pass that these Hebrews, to whom in particular this 
epistle was directed, suflVred much for their profession's 
sake, chap. x. 82, &c. AMiorefore to encourage them 
unto all perseverance in the faith, and to keep them 
from apostasy and falling away from the truth received, 
the apostle wrote this epistle, which is filled with many 
forcible encouragements, and with terrible denuncia- 
tions of sore vengeance against apostasy. St Paul's 
words were of old said to be thunders ;' which is most 
true in this epistle, where he \vrites against apostasy, 
chap. vi. 4, 6, 8 and chap. x. 20-28, &c., and chap, 
xii. 25, 29. This was one occasion of this epistle, to 
uphold them in the Christian faith. 

' Paulum quotiescunqne lego, videor mibi non verba audirc, 
sed tonitrua. — llieron. Apol. advert. Jwinian. 


2. The Jews that lived after the truth of the Mosaical 
types was exhibited, were notwithstanding so super- 
stitiously and pertinaciously addicted to those legal 
rites, as they would not endure to hear of the abroga- 
tion of them; but in maintenance of them, rejected 
the gospel. Yea, of those that believed in Christ, 
many thousands were too zealous of the law. Acts 
XV. 5 and xxi. 20. Wherefore, to root out that con- 
ceit, the apostle writes this epistle ; whereby he proves, 
that by bringing in the new testament of the gospel, 
the old covenant of the law was abrogated ; and that 
the law could not make perfect, chap, viii., ix., and x. 
And this was the other occasion of this epistle. 

Sec. 10. Of the scope and method oj this epistle. 

That main point which is aimed at throughout the 
whole sacred Scriptm-e, especially in the New Testa- 
ment, is the principal scope of this epistle, and the 
main mark whereat the apostle aimeth therein, namely 
this, that Jesus Christ is the all-sufficient and only 
Saviour of man. 

This was the sum of the first promise made to man 
after his fall. Gen. iii. 15. 

This was the truth of all sorts of types, whether 
they were choice persons, sacrifices, sacraments, sacred 
places, sacred instruments, sacred actions, or any other 
sacred things. 

This was the substance of the prophecies that were 
given by divine inspiration. 

This was intended by the great deliverances which 
from time to time God gave to his church and people. 

This was the end of writing the history of Christ 
by the evangelists. 

This was the sum of the sermons of the apostles, 
recorded in the Acts, and the ground of all their suf- 

Tliis is also the sum of their several epistles. 

That this may the more distinctly, clearly, and fully 
be demonstrated, the apostle doth to the life set out 
Christ's two natures, divine and human, in one person ; 
his three offices, princely, prophetical, and priestly ; 
together with the excellency and sufliciency of them. 
To this do tend all the divine instructions, refutations, 
exhortations, consolations, denunciations. 

The several points of this epistle may all be com- 
prised under two heads: 1, grounds of faith; 2, 
rules for life. 

The grounds of faith are laid down from the begin- 
ning of the epistle to the 2'2d verse of the 10th chapter. 
Yet sometimes he falleth into pertinent digressions, 
by way of exhortation, consolation, and reprehension ; 
to make them thereby to give the more diligent heed 
to those grounds of faith. 

The rules for life are set out in the latter part of 
the 10th chapter, beginning at the 22d verse, and in 
the three last chapters. 

The grounds of faith are alj about Christ. These 

1. Summarily propounded in the three first verses. 

2. Largely amplified in the other parts of this 

In the first general proposition, these grounds of 
faith are noted. 

1. Christ's divine nature. This is manifested in 
this title, Son ; and in this divine work, making the 
world, ver. 2. 

2. Christ's human nature. This is intimated under 
this phrase, pureed our sins, which presupposeth 
blood ; for blood only purgeth sin, chap. ix. 22, and 
blood demonstrateth Christ's human nature. 

3. The distinction of Christ's person from the per- 
son of the Father. This also is cleared by the title 
Son in this particle by, h, dia, twice used in the 
second verse, and by those phrases, brightness of hi» 
glory, image of his person. 

4. The union of Christ's two natures in one person. 
This phrase, by himself purged our sins, declares the 
sufierings of his human nature, and means it of his 
divine nature in one and the same person. 

5. His princely or regal office. This is set out in 
these three phrases, heir of all things ; upholding all 
things by the might of his power ; sat down on the right 
hand of the Majesty on high. 

G. His prophetical office. This is apparent in this 
phi-ase, God spake unto us by his Son. 

7. His priestly ofiice. For it appertains to a priest 
to purge away sins, and to be ever at God's right hand 
for us. 

These points are further prosecuted in this epistle. 

1. The divine nature, together with the princely 
office of Christ, are described in the 1st chapter. 

2. His human nature in the 2d chapter. 

8. His prophetical function in the 3d and 4th 

4. His priestly oflice, from the 14th verse of the 
4th chapter to tne 22d of the 10th chapter. 

The priestly office of Christ is simply and generally 
propounded in the three last verses of the 4th chap- 
ter, and also comparatively exemplified by two great 

The first is of Melchisedec, to whpm Christ is 
resembled, in the 5th, 6th, and former part of the 7th 

The other is of Aaron, before whom Christ is pre- 
ferred, from the 11th verse of the 7th chapter, to the 
22d of the 10th chapter. 

There are sundry digressions here and there in- 
serted, which we shall observe as we meet with them. 

The rules for life are, 1, persevering in the truth ; 
2, walking worthy thereof. 

Persevering in the truth is much insisted upon, from 
the 22d verse of the 10th chapter to the 14th of the 
12th chapter. 

Walking worthy thereof, is set out in sundry di- 
vine admonitions, from the 14th verse to the end ; 


[ClIAP. I. 

which in their distinct places shall particularly he 

Sec. 11. (y the nieanimi of the first verse. 

God, uho lit sundry times, and in divers manners, 
spake in time past, unto the fathers by the prophets, 
hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, ivhom 
he hath appointed heir of all thinijs, by uhoin he also 
made the vorlds ; irho, being the brightness of his glory, 
and the e.rpress image of his pereon, and upholding all 
things by the word of his power, when he had by him- 
self purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the 
Majesty on high. — Hah. i. 1-3. 

These words, as they contain the sum of the doc- 
trinal part of this epistle, so they serve for a preface 
thereto ; which is here premised, to stir up al! that 
should read it to a more diligent heeding thereof; for 
therein is set down the excellency of the New Testa- 
ment ahove the Old. 

True it is, that there is the same authority, even a 
divine authority, of both ; and that they are both a 
manifestation of God's will. Therefore God is said 
to speak by the ministers of both. God being the 
author of the one and the other, they are both of the 
like authority : and God speaking in both, both de- 
clare the will of God. God spake in times past, and 
God spake in these last days : the same God by the 
prophets and by his Son. 

The relation of this title God, 6 eih;, to the Son, 
sheweth, that the first person in sacred Trinity, the 
Father, is in particular meant ; yet the other per- 
sons are not excluded. For the Son, Exod. iii. 2, 6, 
and the Holy Ghost also. Acts xxviii. 2G, spake to 
the fathers. The same work may be done by the 
blessed Trinity, the order and manner of working 
Being rightly applied to each person. For as the Son 
is from the Father, and the Holy Ghost from the 
Father and the Son ; so the Father workcth by the 
Son, and the Son from the Father. Thus Jeliovah 
the Son is said to rain fire from Jehovah the Father, 
Gen. xix. 24. Some of the ancient fathers, assem- 
bled in a council, were so confident of the truth of the 
application of that title Jehovah, twice used, once to 
the Father, and again to the Son, as they denounced 
anathema against such as should expound it other- 
wise. ^ 

Thus though the Son spake to the fathers, yet may 
the Father, as here, be said to speak to the fathers 
by the Son ; and ' by him to make the worlds,' as 
ver. 2. 

How God of old manifested his will by parts, is 
thus further expressed, ' at sundry times.' This phrase 
is the exposition of one Greek word, but a compound 

' Si quis illuri, plnit Dominuf a Domino, non de Patre no 
Filio accipit. Bed cundem a so ipso depluisse dicir, Ann- 
Ihomasit. Pluit ftnim Hominiis Filing n I >oniiiio Patre. Sic 
Patros in concil. Sirm. ut Socrat. Hist. L'ecles. I. ii. c. 30. 

word. According to the notation of it, it signifieth, 
by many 'parts or parcels, ToXn/isew;, multifariam, 
miiltis vicibus, which necessarily implieth a distinction 
of times ; some at one time, some at another. There- 
fore it is not unfitly translated at many times. 

God made known to Adam a Saviour of the seed of 
the woman, to overcome the devil, Gen. iii. 16. He 
confirmed the same by sacrifices. Gen. iv. 4. To Noah 
God by the ark declared, that few should be saved in 
comparison of the multitude that should perish ; and 
that they who were to be saved, should be saved in 
the ark of Christ's church, 1 Peter iii. 20, 21. To 
Abraham God revealed his purpose of extending mercy 
to all nations. Gen. xxii. 18. To Jacob it was made 
known that the Messiah should come of the tribe of 
Judah, Gen. xlix. 10, Heb. vii. 14 ; to Moses, that 
he should be a prophet, Deut. xviii. 18 ; to David, 
that he should be a king, Ps. ii. 6, and a priest, Ps. 
ex. 4 ; to Isaiah, that he should be born of a virgin, 
Isa. vii. 14 ; to Micah, that he should be born in 
Lethlehem, Micah v. 2. Before the law, God gave to 
the fathers particular revelations fit for their times 
and their needs. Under the law, God delivered many 
ordinances, rites, types, ceremonies, and shadows, to 
foreshew evangelical truths, and to uphold their faith 
therein. For these ends also God sent divers pro- 
phets from time to time till the fulness of time. 

This manifesting of God's will by parts, is here 
noted by way of distinction and difl'erence from God's 
revealing of his will under the gospel ; which was all 
at one time, namely, the time of his Son's being on 
earth ; for then the whole counsel of God was made 
known, so far as was meet for the church to know it 
while this world continueth. In this respect Christ 
saith, John xv. 15, ' All things that I have heard of 
my Father, I have made known to you :' and John 
xiv. 26, ' The Comforter shall teach you all things, 
and bring all things to yonr remembrance, whatso- 
ever I have said unto you.' The woman of Samaria 
understood thus much, John iv. 25, when she said, 
' When the Messias is come, he will tell us all things." 

Obj. The apostles had many things revealed unto 
them. Gal. i. 12. 

Ans. Those were no other things than what Christ 
had revealed before while he lived. 

There is another dilference in the word following, 
ToXvr^orT'ji;, multimodis, translated ' in divers man- 
ners ;' for that God, who was pleased to reveal his 
will part by part, was also pleased to reveal it after 
divers ways. These were either extraordinary or or- 
dinary. Extraordinarily God manifested his mind 
sometimes outwardly, sometimes inwardly ; outwardly 
by voice or signs, bnt inwardly by revelation or 
inspiration. To give particular instances of all 
these : 

1. God oft himself spake with his own voice, and 
that when men were awake or at sleep. God spake 
to Adam when he was awake, Gen. iii. 9, &c ; and to 

Ver. 1-3.] 


Solomon in a dream when he was asleep, 1 Iviugs 
iii. 5. 

2. God spake hy the voice of angels to Lot, Gen. 
xix. 1, &c. This phrase, chap. ii. ver. 2, ' the word 
spoken by angels,' sheweth that God oft revealed his 
will to men by angels. 

3. God most freqaently declared his mind by chil- 
dren of men, whom he oft endued with an extraordi- 
nary spirit. This much is intended in this phrase, 
' God spake by the prophets.' 

4. God's mind was sometimes made known by 
signs. In this respect a voice is attributed to signs ; 
as when God thus said to Moses, ' If thej' will not 
hearken to the voice of the first sign, they will believe 
the voice of the latter sign,' Exod. iv. 8. Thus also 
God spake by his judgments ; whereupon saith a pro- 
phet, ' Hear ye the rod, and who hath appointed it,' 
Micah vi. 9. Under this head sacrifices may be com- 
prised ; for God spake to Abel and to Cain by their 
sacrifices. Gen. iv. 4, 5; so to David by his, 1 Chron. 
xxi. 26 ; and to Solomon by his, 2 Chron. vii. 1 ; 
and to Elijah by his, 1 Kings xviii. 24, 38. By sundry 
other types did God also use to speak to his people : 
Esod. xxix. 42, and xxx. 6; 1 Sam. sxviii. 6; Judges 
vi. 37, &c. Visions also may be referred to this head ; 
visions were visible representations of things presented 
to men's eyes, Isa. vi. 1, Ezek. i, 1. 

5. God used to declare his mind inwardly by reve- 
lations, Isa. xxxviii. 4, 5, and by inspiration. Thus 
' holy men of God spake as they were moved by the 
Holy Ghost,' 1 Peter i. 21. A difference betwixt 
revelation and inspiration was this, that revelations 
were of some particular matters, Dan. ii. 19 ; but in- 
spiration implieth a more general assistance, 2 Tim. 
iii. 16. 

6. The most usual and ordinary means of God's 
declaring his will to his people was by ordinary minis- 
ters (which were among the Jews, priests and Levites, 
Ezra viii. 4), and by the written word, Luke xvi. 31. 

This vai'iety of means whereby God spake to his 
people of old, is here intimated to shew that God doth 
now, under the gospel, more uniformly and constantly 
declare his mind ; for the word whereby God speaking 
of old is set out is in the Greek a participle, Xaknaag, 
and hath reference to the verb eXaXijire, ver. 2 ; word 
for word it may thus be translated : ' At sundry times, 
and divers manners, God, speaking in time past,' &c., 
' hath in these last days spoken,' &c. This relative 
expression of God speaking, implieth a difference be- 
twixt God speaking then and now. Then variously, 
so many ways as we heard before ; now uniformly, 
after one and the same manner, which is by preaching. 
So Christ made known the will of his Father, Mark 
i. 14, 38 ; so did his apostles, Mark vi. 12. Christ, 
after his resm-rection, made them also so to do through- 
out the whole world, Mark xvi. 15. So they did, Acts 
viii. 4 ; for ' it pleased God by preaching to save 
them that believe,' 1 Cor. i. 21. 

Ohj. Paul and other apostles wrote sundry epistles, 
whereby they declared the will of God. 

Ans. They wrote no other things than what they 
had preached. Such things they wrote, that they 
might remain upon perpetual record for the continual 
good of the church. 

God is said to speak, both of old and now, by way 
of resemblance, after the manner of men. Men by 
speaking use to manifest their mind. This is the 
most frequent and accustomed manner of expressing 
a man's inward conceptions, even such things as they 
would have others to know and take notice of. In 
allusion hereunto, God's manifesting his mind is 
styled speakinr/. At the beginning, when God mani- 
fested his mind every day, this phrase is used, God 
said, Gen. i. 6, which is all one as this, he spake ; and 
so it is translated, Ps. xxxiii. 9. 

The time wherein God declared his mind, part by 
part, and sundry ways, is here styled ' the time past,' 
TaXoci, nlim, old times, whereby he meaneth all that 
time that passed from the beginning of the world till 
the exhibition of the Son of God in the flesh. This 
is evident by the opposition of this phrase, in time 
past, to the last daijs mentioned in the next verse. 
The Greek word may thus be translated of old; whereby 
is hinted such a time as should be altered. What the 
apostle saith of the old covenant, may be applied to 
this old time, ' That which is old is ready to vanish 
away,' Heb. viii. 13 ; and we that live since that old 
time may say, ' Old things are passed away,' 2 Cor. 
V. 17. This sheweth that those were not times of 
perfection ; if they bad been perfect, no place should 
have been sought for other times. This style of those 
former times amplifieth the times whereunto we are 

They who lived in those times are styled fathers, 
7(iTi Tar^dniv ; and by them are intended such as lived 
before the fulness of time, who may also be called 
ancestors. For it is usual in all sorts of authors to 
set out ancestors under this title fathers ; because 
posterity by lineal degrees come from ancestors, as 
children fi-om fathers. Thus is this title expressly 
expounded, Luke i. 55 ; for mention being made of 
God speaking to the fathers, by way of exposition it 
is added, to ' Abraham, and to his seed.' Now, be- 
cause Abraham and his posterity were of old the only 
people of God, they are by a property styled fathers ; 
and God is said in an especial manner to be the ' God 
of the fathers,' Acts v. 30. Thus is this title a title 
of honour, yet here it is used by way of diminution, 
intending such as lived out their course, and ended 
their days before the joyful and glorious times foretold 
by the prophets, and expected by those fathers, were 
come, Luke x. 24 ; John viii. 56 ; 1 Peter i. 11. The 
greatest that then lived was less than the least of the 
kingdom of God, which began with the manifestation 
of the gospel, Mat. xi. 11. 

To these fathers God spake (as it is in the original) 


[C'HAr. I. 

ii roTi rrpofrjTCiii, ' iu the prophets,' and so in the 

1 ext verso, sv uif, ' in the Son.' Both these phrases 
have an especial and distinct emphasis. The former 
iniporteth that God was after an especial manner in 
the prophets inspiring their minds, and ordering their 
tongues, so as they spake not their own words, but 
the very words of God. 

As for the Son, all the fulness of the Godhead 
dwelleth in him bodily, eu/jidrixui, Col. ii. 9. Not as 
iu mere men, by assistance, eflicacj', or power, but 
essentially and personally ; that is, by union of the 
deity with the humanity in one person. Many in- 
terpreters, both ancient and modern,' do change this 
particle iu to l/ij, whom our English do follow. The 
transmutation of these two prepositions is usual in 
all sorts of authors, especially in sacred Scripture. 
Not unfitly may it so stand in this place ; and because 
the prophets, who were indeed children of men, but 
sent of God, and by God instructed in his will, by 
speaking made known God's will, God is said to speak 
by the prophets. 

Sec. 12. 0/ prophcU. 

The title prophet in English, and Latin propheta, 
is taken from the Greek, n^o^^jrjij ii a^6 et <prifj,i, which, 
according to the notation thereof, siguifieth one that 
foretelleth things to come ; so doth also the Hebrew 
word.^ Now, he that foretelleth things to come, 
must needs be instructed therein by God ; for it is a 
divine property to foretell things future, Isa. xli. 22, 
and xlviii. 5. Hence is it that, in a large significa- 
tion, he that was chosen of God to be his messenger, 
and to declare his will unto people, was called a 

With this title prophet, sundry sorts of men were 
dignified and distinguished. As, 

1. Heads of families; for it was their duty to in- 
struct others in God's will. Gen. xviii. 19. Such an 
one was Abraham, Gen. xx. 7. 

2. Such as gave themselves to be more than ordi- 
narily instructed in God's will, that on all occasions 
they might declare it to others. Of these there were 
companies or societies, 1 Sam. x. 5, 10, and xix. 20. 
These had their colleges, 2 Kings xxii. 14. Among 
tbem some were masters or seniors, others juniors, 
called ' sons of the prophets,' 2 Kings ii. 8. 

8. Such as God used to pen sacred Scriptures, 

2 Peter i. 19. 

4. Such as were endued with a special gift of in- 
terpreting Scripture," 1 Cor. xii. 29. These were 
especially in the apostles' times. 

6. All sorts of true preachers and ministers of God's 
words, Mat. x. 41, and xiii. 57. 

' ChryBost. Theoph. Vatabl. Tr. 

' N33, Ka/iciiia<«»<»(. ti2i, propheta, Jei.xxviVi. 9. Pro- 
pheta Dei est enuncialor vcrborura Dei hominibus. — Aug. 
ijuait. 17 in Eio. 

' ProphctiB sunt quibua jam Bub apostolis per gratiam 
rlonabatur interpretatio scri]>lurarum. — Aug- Ep. C8. 

6. Most strictly and properly such are styled pro- 
phets as were immediately stirred up of God, and 
extraordinarily assisted by his Spirit to such weighty 
matters as could not but by divine assistance be 
efl'ected, John iii. 2. They are therefore set out by 
an ancient father under such a title as signifieth 
bearers of the Spirit.' 

Some of these read such writings as by no learning 
or skill of man could be read, Dan. v. 17. 

Others discovered secret counsels, 2 Kings vi. 

Others brought such things to men's minds as the 
men themselves had forgotten, Dan. ii. 24. 

Others interpreted dreams, Gen. xl. 14, and xli. 88. 
Though the dreams which set out things to come were 
other men's dreams,^ and in those dreams God shewed 
things to come to them that dreamed them (as to 
Pharaoh, Gen. xli. 25, and to Nebuchadnezzar, Dan. 
ii. 29), yet because they wanted understanding to con- 
ceive the meaning of those dreams, they cannot be said 
to have the spirit of prophecy, but they rather who 
expounded them ; for prophecy appertaineth especially 
to the mind and the understanding. 

Finally, Others did many extraordinary and miracu- 
lous works. Among these Moses excelled, and is in 
that respect said to be ' mighty in words and deeds,' 
Acts vii. 22. 

There were also others said to prophecy, and called 
prophets, but improperly. As, 

1. They who were used to foretell mysteries which 
they themselves understood not. Thus Caiaphas is 
said to prophesy, John xi. 51. 

2. They who, if they understood what they foretold, 
yet had no good liking thereto.' They neither feared 
God, whose counsel they revealed, nor regarded God's 
people, for whose sake that gift was conferred upon 
them. Such an one was Balaam, who ' taught Balak 
to cast a stumbling-block before the children of Israel, 
and loved the wages of unrighteousness,' and j-et is 
styled a prophet, 2 Peter ii. 15, 16. 

3. Tlicj- who pretended to know the counsel of the 
Lord, and to foretell what he had revealed to them, 
when there was no such matter. Such were Zede- 
kiah, and the four hundred that conspired with him, 
all called prophets, 1 Kings xxii. 6, 10. 

4. They who among the heathen noted such oracles 
and predictions of matters as were supposed in future 
times to fall out, as they were foretold. In such a 
sense Epimenidcs* is called a prophet, Titus i. 12. 

But to leave those who are improperly called pro- 

' Proplietic aunt T>w/txTtfifu, i e. portantcs spiritum, sive 
spiritualcB. — Ilieron. Com. in Saph. c. 3. 

' Lego Aug. do Gon. ad lit. 1, xii. c. 9. 

' Proiilietarum nonien secundum rejjulam scripturarum 
honia malisque commune est. — Ilieron. Comment, lib. iv. in 
Eiek. xiii. 

* Epimenidem proplietam voeavit, quia de oraculis scri|isit 
Btque rcaponsis, quse et ipsa futura prssnunoiont. — Hieron. in 
Tit. i. 17*. Heza Annot. in Tit. i. 12. 

Ver. 1-3.] 


phets, and to return to those who most strictly and 
properly were so called; God, for the clearer mani- 
festation of his divine power in them, raised them up 
out of all sorts of people : many of them were of the 
priests, as Jer. i. 1, Ezek, i. 3 ; and Levites, as 
2 Chron. xx. 14. Yea, also there were prophets of 
other tribes. Daniel was of Judah,-Dan. i. 6 ; Elijah 
of Gad, 1 Kings xvii. 1 ; Elisha of Ephraim, 1 Kings 
xix. 16 ; Jonah of Zebulon, 2 Kings xiv. 25 ; others 
of other tribes. As respect in choosing prophets was 
not had to any one tribe, so nor to age, for children 
were chosen prophets, 1 Sam. ii. 18, and iii. 4, &a., 
Jer. i. 6 ; nor to education, for an herdsman was 
made a prophet, Amos vii. 14; nor to sex, for women 
were prophetesses. Judges iv. 4 ; Isa. viii. 3; 2 Kings 
xxii. 14 ; Luke ii. 83. 

These extraordinary prophets were raised up, when 
the ordinary spiritual guides of the people, as priests 
and Levites, failed in a due performance of their duty ; 
as in Eli's time, 1 Sam. ii. 12, and in Jeremiah's, 
Jer. xxvi. 8, or when such employments were to be 
performed as ordinary ministers could not or would 
not perform. 

The employments were such as these : 

1. To tell kings, priests, princes, yea, and a whole 
kingdom, of their sins and rebellions against God. 
Micaiah told Ahab the truth, when all besides flattered 
him, 1 Kings xxii. 13, 14. Elijah told Ahab of his 
bloody sin, and denounced God's judgment against 
bim, 1 Kings xxi. 20, &c., when all the people con- 
spired to shed innocent blood with him. Jeremiah 
told king, priests, princes, and all the people, of their 
apostasy, Jer. i. 18. 

2. To restore religion, it being turned into idolatry. 
So did Samuel, 1 Sam. vii. 3, and Elijah, 1 Kings 
xviii. 21, &c. 

3. To foretell God's judgments beforehand, that 
believers might be prepared the better to bear them : 
that impenitent might be made the more inexcusable; 
and that the severity of God's judgments might be the 
more justified, Jer. v. 13, Ezek. v. 8. 

4. To make known God's mercies in the midst of 
judgments, and God's mind of doing good to them, 
after they have been scourged for their sins ; thereby 
to provoke them to return to the Lord, Isa. iv. 2, 
Hosea vi. 1, 2. 

5. To give evidences of the Messiah, thereby to 
establish the hope of such as should live and die be- 
fore that fulness of time, and to direct them how to 
build their faith on him ; and that by setting out his 
eternal deity, his true humanity, his conception, birth, 
growth, doctrine, miracles, passion, resurrection, as- 
cension, intercession ; his first and second coming ; 
his spiritual and eternal kingdom. Acts x. 48 : that 
such as should live when and after the Messiah was 
exhibited, might be assured that he was indeed the 

6. To assure the Jews of a recalling after their 

rejection ; and to reveal the calling of the Gentiles, 
Ezek. xxxvii. 19, Isa. ii. 2, 3, and liv. 1, 2, &c. 

The chief of these extraordinary prophets was 
Moses, after whose time they were very rare till 
Samuel's time ; but after kings were once anointed 
and set over the people, prophets were plentiful. 
There was never a king under whose reign there were 
not some prophets ; and so continued till the captivity : 
yea, in and after the captivity, till the second temple 
was new built, God aflbrded extraordinary prophets to 
his church, Ezra v. 1. 

Concerning the prophets here meant, all they whom 
God employed ordinarily or extraordinarily to declare 
bis mind to his people, are to be understood in this 

Of the evidences of the prophets' faith, see Chap, 
si. 32, Sec. 225. 

Sec. 13. Of the last days. 

It was a great benefit that the fathers received 
from God speaking to them by his prophets. But 
behold a greater reserved to their children, even to all 
sorts of Christians, whether Jews or Gentiles, com- 
prised under this particle us ; for he meaneth all 
behevers of the Christian faith, that have lived or 
shall live in these last days ;' that is, from the begin- 
ning of Christ's executing his ministerial function, to 
the end of the world. These have now continued 
above sixteen hundred years ; and how much longer 
they may continue, God knowcth. 

it hath pleased God that these last days should be 
many, that the world might the longer enjoy the bright 
light of the gospel, and that all that are ordained to life 
might in their due time be called. 

Quest. Why are they called the last days, as here, 
the last time, 1 John ii. 18 ; the ends of the world 
1 Cor. X. 11 ; and why in the beginning of this time 
was the coming of the Lord said to draw nigh, James 
V. 8 ; and the end of all things to be at baud ? 1 Peter 
iv. 7. 

Ans. 1. By the exhibition of Christ, the prophecies 
and promises that in former times were made of Christ 
were accomplished ; therefore, as the days wherein 
these promises and prophecies were first made known 
were counted the first days, so these wherein they 
were accomplished the last. 

2. The new covenant of grace is in these last days 
fully revealed by the gospel, and ratified by the death 
of Christ, so as no clearer revelation nor former^ 
ratification can be expected ; and in this respect also 
they are fitly styled the last days. 

3. No alteration of the state and order of God's 
church is to be expected after Christ exhibited ; but 
a final end of all by Christ's second coming unto 

' Ex hoc superiores existiraus, qnod nobis Dominus sit 
locutus, illis servi. — Chrys. in loc. Novissima hora dicitur 
tenipus firlei Go-nimm.—Hier. com. in Micah iv. 

» Qu. 'firmer?'— Ed. 


[Chap. I. 

judgment ; therefore these days may be accounted the 
ends of the world, and the end of all things to be at 

4. As God at first made all things in six days, and 
rested the seventh ; so he continueth to govern the 
world in six distinct times,' which may be accounted 
as six days of the great week of the world ; and 
eternity following an everlasting Sabbath. 

The first of these days was from Adam to Noah ; in 
it the covenant of grace was first made to man. 

To second was from Noah to Abraham ; in it that 
covenant was renewed. 

The third was from Abraham to David ; in it that 
covenant was appropriated to Abraham and his seed. 

The fourth was from David to the captivity of Israel ; 
in it that covenant was established in a royal line. 

The fifth was from their captivity to Christ's coming 
in the flesh ; in it, as the brightness of that covenant 
was eclipsed by the captivity, so it was revived by 
Israel's return out of the captivity, and re-edifying the 

The sixth was and still is, and shall be from Christ's 
first coming in the flesh, to his second coming in 
glory, even to the end of the world. In it that 
covenant, most clearly and fully laid open, was most 
firmly and inviolably ratified. Now, when the sixth 
day, which is the last day, is come, then the end of 
the week may well be said to be at hand, and the 
coming of the Lord, following thereupon, to draw 

Sec. 14. Of Grid's speah-inr/ hi/ his Son. 

Ill these last days, that is, all the days of the gospel, 
it is said, he hath spoken. No limitation is here 
added, as before, in these phrases, ' at divers times 
and in sundry manners ;' so as God's spealcinr/ is here 
to be taken simply for a full revelation of his whole 
will; not one part by one messenger, and another by 
another. These words, at dirers times and in swulni 
manners, are extenuating words. God did once, fully, 
clearly, without such types, visions, and other obscure 
means, which were used in the time of the law, de- 
clare his whole counsel, so far as it is requisite to be 
known by man in this world. 

Quest. Hath not God also spoken in these last days 
by men, as apostles and others? 

Ans. 1. Till these last days, God spake not all by 
his Son incarnate. 

2. This Son of God first made known to his apostles 
all things that ho had heard of his Father, John xv. 
15, Acts i. 7. 

8. The Son sent his Spirit to instruct them, and 
that Spirit brought to their mind all things that Christ 
bad said to them before, John xiv. 26. 

' Sex nftrttibus liiimnnnm pcnus hoc fpchIo per snecossioncs 
tpmponim Dei njera insigniunt: qimnim prima eat ttb 
Adttmo usque ad Nocn, &c. — Aug. emit. Faust. Manic. 1. xii. 
c. viii. 

4. Whereas St Paul had heard nothing of Christ on 
earth, he was rapt into heaven, and there was by 
Christ himself instructed in the counsel of God, Gal. 
i. 1, 12; Acts xxvi. 16; 2 Cor. xii. 2. Hence is it 
that St Paul and others prefix this title before their 
epistles, ' An Apostle of Jesus Christ.' 

5. Other ministers declare that the apostles have 
revealed to them from Christ, 2 Tim ii. 2, Heb. ii. 3, 
so as now God hath made known all by his Son. 

This is a very great commendation of the gospel ; 
for never was there such a minister as the Son of 
God ; never shall there be, nor can be the like. The 
description of the Son of God here following proveth 
as much. The use hereof is distinctly set down by 
this apostle, chap. ii. 1-3. See in particular Chap, 
ii. 22, Sec. 112. 

Quest. Why doth he not say, The Son spake ; but 
God spake by the Son ! 

Ans. 1. To add the more authority, for their sake 
who were not well instructed in the deity of the Son.' 

2. Because he speaks of his Son incarnate. 

This he did, ^/i/V, to us, who have, do, and shall 
live in the last days ; who are the children and suc- 
cessors of the fathers ; being now in our time, as they 
were in their times, of the true church : so as the best 
things are reserved for us Christians, who are in that 
respect greater than thoy. The gospel is further 
commended to us by the immediate author thereof, 
the Son, even the Son of God, who became also a son 
of man, by assuming our nature; and so shewed him- 
self to be the true Immanuel, God with us.' So is 
this name expounded, Mat. i. 23. 

See. 15. OJ Christ's Soxship. 

The particle of relation his, inserted in our English, 
is not expressed in the Greek, yet necessarily under- 
stood, and therefore well supplied, for it hath rela- 
tion to God before mentioned. Indeed, a simple 
expression of the phrase thus, ' by the Son,' wants 
not emphasis ; for so it implieth a Son in a singular 
and peculiar excellency ; such a Son as none like 
him. True it is, that this title son is attributed to 
sundry creatures, and that in relation to God ; yet 
not properly, but only in regard of some special grace 
or dignity conferred npon them : and that, as God 
had given them their being, in which respect all crea- 
tures are God's sons ; or as he has set his image on 
some of them above others, as on angels, on Adam, 
on governors, and such as are adopted sons and re- 
generated ; but Christ is truly, ct/.j;il2f, 3Iat. iv. 88, 
the one, j7j, Mark xii. 6, own, 'taurou, Rom. vi. 3, 
proper, !6ioi, Rom. viii. 32, begotten, Ps. ii. 7, 

' Non dixit, Chrisfus locntus est. qiioninm adliuc aniniio 
corum dcbilcs erant, &c. — C/iryt. in loc. 

' 13Dy, Xohitaim 7N Deus. Sco my explnnation of the 
Lord's_Prnyer, entitled. A Guide to go to Ood, see. 7. Dono 
grntiae Spirilus S. filii Dei vocantur.— i^MT. Ci>mmtnt. in 
John, cap. i. 

Ver. 1-3.] 


only begotten, /j^dwyv/ni, John i. 18, Son of God's 
love, iJ/ss rrii dyuTri;, Col. i. 13. These and other like 
notes of distinction being expressly attriLiuted to Christ 
as the Son of God, give evident proof that he is 
such an one, as none but he is or can be ; whereas all 
others styled God's sons, have their title given them 
by favour, Christ hath it of due, even by nature.^ 

Christ is styled the Son of God in two especial 
respects : 

1. As the second person in sacred Trinity, true 

2. As God manifested in the flesh, God-man, Qsdv- 

In the former respect, he is the Son of God by 
eternal generation, as is evident in the first verse of 
this chapter, where we shall have a more fit occasion 
to speak of it. 

In the latter respect, as God-man, he is the Son of 
God by the union of his human nature with the fore- 
mentioned second person, who only is of all the per- 
sons the Son of God. For as neither the Father nor 
the Holy Ghost is the Son, so nor the Father nor the 
Holy Ghost did assume human natui-e, but the Son 
only. In regard of the nature, true it is, that God 
and man were united in one person : ' God was mani- 
fested in the flesh,' 1 Tim. iii. 16. But in regard of 
the person, the Son of God was also Son of man : 
' The word was made flesh,' John i. 14. In this re- 
spect an angel saith of him that was born of the 
Virgin Mary, Luke i. 35, ' He shall be called the 
Son of God.' 

So near is this union of God and man, as, though 
they be two distinct natures, and more different than 
any two other distinct things can be, yet they make 
but one person ; as man's body and soul, which are 
different natures, make but one person. In this re- 
spect the union of Christ's natures is called an 
hypostatical union, that is, such an union as makes 
one subsistence or one person. Hence is it that the 
properties and effects of the one nature are attributed 
to the other : John iii. 18, ' The Son of man is in 

Son of man properly designs Christ's human nature, 
which was not in heaven while it was on earth, as 
then it was ; but that person, in regard of his divine 
nature, was in heaven. So on the other side, God is 
said to purchase his church ' with his own blood,' 
Acts XX. 28. God, in regard of his divine nature, 
hath no blood ; but he assumed an human nature, 
which had blood, and in that respect blood is attri- 
buted to God, by reason of the personal union of 
man with God. Thus is Christ God-man, the Son 
of God ; and thus h.ath God in these days spoken to 
us in or by him. The Son, as God and second^ per- 
son, spake in times past by the prophets; yea, the 

' Ille quidetn natur.a filius est, noa vero adoptit 
Jlier. Comment, in Eph. i. 

Father also in that respect then spake by him.' For 
as God and second person he is o Xo'yo;, the word, and 
so was in the beginning, John i. 1. But in these 
last days he began to be God-man, and to be God's 
Son by union of his human nature with his divine. 
In this sense, therefore, the title Son is here used ; 
so as in these last days God spake to us by his Son 

Of instructions and directions arising from this re- 
lation of Christ to God, see Chap. iii. ver. 6, Sec. 55. 

Sec. 16. Of CItrist beinr/ appointed. 

To magnify the ministry of the gospel, and thereby 
the more to commend unto us the gospel itself, the 
apostle goeth on in describing the author thereof, the 
Son of God ; and that both in a dignity conferred 
upon him, and also in his own divine worth. 

The dignity is thus expressed,' iii/ 'i^rixi, ' whom he 
hath appointed heir of all things.' This must needs 
be meant of Christ as mediator, even as the title Son 
before was meant ; for as God he was not deputed or 
appointed to a thing. 

God is said to appoint his Son, 

1. By ordaining in his eternal counsel that his Son 
should be heir. As Christ was ' delivered by the de- 
terminate counsel of God to be slain,' Acts ii. 23, so 
was he appointed to be heir, 1 Peter i. 20. 

2. By sending him into the world, or by giving him 
to be incarnate for that very end, Philip, ii. 7-9. 

3. By raising him from the dead, and setting him 
at his right hand in heaven. On these grounds, St 
Peter thus saith, ' God hath made him both Lord and 
Christ,' Acts ii. 36. 

This word appointed sheweth the right that Christ 
hath to his supreme dignity. That which is said of 
Christ's being priest, chap. v. 5, may be applied to 
this dignity : ' Christ glorified not himself ' to be an 
heir ; ' but he that said to him. Thou art my Son, to- 
day have I begotten thee;' appointed him heir. 

Sec. 17. Of Christ the heir, xXrisov6>j,ov. 

An heir,^ saith the apostle. Gal. iv. 1, is Lord of 
all. On this ground the son of the bondwoman was 
cast out, that he might not be heir with the son of 
Sarah, nor part share with him. Gen. xxi. 10, 12. 
This title heir setteth out a dignity and dominion 
together, with the best right thereto that can be. 

The dignity and dominion is the same that his 
Father hath. For an heir is a successor to his father 
in all that the fother hath. In this metaphor caution 
must be put that it be not extended too far, by ex- 
cluding the Father from any dignity or dominion. 

' Si attendaa distinctionem substantiarum, Filius Dei de 
eoelo descendit. Filius hominis cruciflxus est. Si unitate7u 
personiB, et Filius hominis descendit de coelo, et Filius Dei 
est cruciflxus. —^aj. cont. Maxim. 1. iii. c. xx. See Chap. iv. 
ver. 12, Sec. C9. 

» See ver. 4, Sec, 43, and ver. 14, Sec. ICO. 


[Chap. I. 

Indeed, among men, the son hath not such dominion 
and possession of an inheritance till the father relin- 
quish it (as Jehoshaphat gave the kingdom to Jeho- 
ram, his first-born, 2 Chron. xxi. 7 ; in which respect 
Jehoram is said to reign, 2 Kings viii. 16, even v^hilc 
Jehoshaphat was king), or till the father be through 
impotency excluded (as Uzziah when he became 
leprous, 2 Chron. xxvi. 21), or till he be forced from 
it (as Johoahaz was, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 2, 4), or be dead, 
as David, though ho were anointed and so made heir- 
apparent by God's appointment, yet would not take 
the kingdom npon him till Saul were dead, 1 Sam. 
xxvi. 10. But none of these can or may be imagined 
of God the Father : he neither will nor can give over 
his supreme jurisdiction, nor become impotent, nor be 
forced, nor die ; yet hath Christ an absolute jurisdic- 
tion, and a full possession of his inheritance together 
with the Father. The supreme sovereignty of the 
one, no whit at all hindereth the supreme sovereignty 
of the other : ' What things soever the Father doth, 
these also doth the Son likewise,' John v. 1!). The 
difference is only in the manner. The Father doth 
all by the Son, and the Son doth all from the Father. 
The apostle here sets out the dignity of Christ 
under this title Iwii ' rather than Lord, as Acts ii. 3G. 

1. To give proof of that relation which he noted 
before, that Christ was truly and properly a Son ; for 
he was the heir. 

2. To shew the perpetuity thereof ; for the heir 
ever abideth in the house. Gen. xxi. 10, John viii. 35. 

3. To manifest the right that we have to be adopted 
sons and heirs : John viii. 36, ' If the Son shall make 
you free, ye shall bo free indeed.' In this respect 
we are styled joint-heirs with Christ, suvx'kriscio/ioi 
Xj/ffroS, Rom. viii. 17. 

This dignity of Christ to be heir, is farther ampli- 
fied by the extent thereof, in these words, of all thinris. 
The Greek rruvruv may be restrained to persons, as 
being of the masculine gender ; or extended to things, 
as of the neuter. This latter includeth the former ; 
for if ho be heir of all things, then also of all persons, 
for he that is heir and Lord of all things, must needs 
also be so of all persons: besides, it is more proper 
to say an heir of things than of persons. Well, there- 
fore, hath our English taken away the ambiguity, by 
translating it, ' heir of all things ;' and thus it answers 
the prophetical promise, Ps. ii. 8, ' I shall give thee 
the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost 
parts of the earth for thy possession.' 

Sec. 18. Of Christ the creator of the tiorhh. 

The apostle goeth on in setting out the dignity of 
Christ ; and to that excellency which appertained to him 
as mediator betwixt God and man, he addeth a greater, 
being proper to him as he is God almighty, in these 
words, ' By whom also he made the worlds.' 

' Hieredis utitur nomine, quod proprius sit filius, et quod 
dominationis illi nulla contingat amiasio. — Chrya. in loc. 

Though this word cTiiriCtv, made, be a common 
work, attributed in other places to men's works as 
well as to God's, yet in this place it is taken for that 
divine work which is proper to God alone, create, as 
Acts xiv. 15, and xvii. 2-1, so as it pointeth at that 
first great work of God which is mentioned Gen. i. 1. 

This is evident by the things made, comprised under 
this word uorlds, roii; aiutui. 

The Greek word, according to the proper notation 
and most usual acceptation' thereof, signifieth eter- 
nity. It is oft put for an age. 

The Hebrew hath a word D'?W, which is every way 
taken in the same sense. The root or verb whence it 
Cometh signifieth to hide. Thereupon time, the date 
whereof is hidden, is set out thereby, and that in these 
considerations following : 

1. Eternity, Ps. xc. 2. 

2. A long date, the end whereof was not known, 
Deut. xiii. 16. 

3. Continuance of legal rites till they ended in their 
truth, Exod. xii. 24. 

4. Continuance of rights till they determined in the 
jubilee, Exod. xxi. 6, Lev. xxv. 40. 

5. The time of a man's life, 1 Sam. xii. 22. 

By a metonymy, the same word setteth out the 
world, that was made in the beginning of time, and 
hath been continued throughout all times and ages. 

And because the world (which compriseth under it 
all things that ever were made) is distinguished into 
three parts : 

1. 'The invisible, glorious world of the blessed in 
heaven, called the highest world, P'Vn D'PIV, superior 

2. The staiTy sky, wherein all that the Scripture 
styleth the host of heaven are contained ; and this is 
called the middle world, ps'nn D71V, medius niundus. 

8. The elements and all things compounded of 
them, or contained in them ; even all that space 
which is under the moon, and whatsoever is comprised 
therein. This is called the inferior world, '?2iyn D^IV, 
inferior mitndiis. 

In regard of this distinction of parts, the plural 
number, uorlds, is used. Answerably in Greek, a word 
of the same signification is used in the plural number, 
He made the worlds.^ 

These three words are distinguished into two, namely 
heaven and earth. Col. i. 16. 

Thus we see how, under this word worlds, all things 

I that ever were made, above and below, visible and 

invisible, are comprised, so as the making of the 

worlds setteth out the divine power of Christ. 

j Where it is said that God, hy him, made the worlds, 

the Son is not set out as a mere instrument in this 

'■ work, but as a primary and principal agent therein, 

j together with the Father, for ' what thing soever the 

' iii/f quasi iii'i it. — 4riat i. de calo. See my explanation 
of the Lord's prayer, entitled A Guide to go to God, sec. 224. 
I • T.t/j a'titai. Of uKtvfiitv, se8 Cliap. ii. Sec. 41. 

ver. 1-n: 


Father doth, these doth also the Son 
V. 19. That particle, 6/io/'w$, likewise, is not to be 
taken of doing different things like to another, for he 
there speaketh of the very same thing,' but of doing 
them by the same power, authority, dignity, with the 
same mind and will, after the same manner, to the 
same end, and that jointly together, the Father and 
the Son. Therefore, what the Father is said to do 
by the Son is in other places said to be done by the 
Son simply considered in and by himself, without 
relation to the Father, as John i. 3, ' All things were 
made by him,' Tdtra d! aurou syhiro ; and Col. i. 16, 
' All things were created by him,' rd •javra d! auroZ 

The Father is said to do this and that by the Son 
for these reasons : 

1. To give proof of the distinction of persons. 

2. To set out the order of the persons : the Father 
first, the Son second. 

3. To declare their manner of working : the Father 
by the Son, and the Son from the Father, Gen. xix. 24. 

4. To shew the consent of the distinct persons, 
Father and Son. 

5. To demonstrate the identity of the essence of 
Father and Son, that both are one divine nature and 
essence, in that the same divine nature is attributed to 
both. This consequence is inferred upon a like ground, 
John v. 17, 18. 

As the Father is here said to make the worlds by 
his Son, so of God in reference to the Son indefinitely 
it is said, ' By whom are all things,' chap. ii. 10. 

The Son therefore is here declared to be true God. 

Sec. 19. Of Christ, the brightness of God's (jlory. 

Still doth the apostle proceed in setting out the 
divine glory of that Son by whom the Father hath 
made known his will to us under the gospel, in these 
words spoken of the Son in relation to the Father, 
' who, being the brightness of his glory,' &c. 

The word a^ravyaafLa, translated brightness, is 
metaphorical, but very fit for the point in hand. The 
verb whence it is derived- signifieth to send forth 
brijihtness, or hght, and the noun here used, such 
brightness as cometh from light, as the brightness, or 
light, or sunbeams issuing from the sun. 

No resemblance taken from any other creature can 
more fully set out the mutual relation between the 
Father and the Son. For, 

1. The brightness issuing from the sun is of the 
same nature that the sun is. 

2. It is of as long continuance as the sun. Never 
was the sun without the brightness of it.^ 

' TsiJ-a xura riv llivrixi ifiarifdiet. — Greff. Naz, Vid. Allff. 
cont. Serv. Adrian., cap. xiv. et xv. 

' irxvyiiiiti, splendorem reddere, seu lucem emittere. 

' Sicut flamma splendorem quern gignit tempore non 
preecodit ; ita Pater nunqiiam sine Filio fuit, — Ambr. de Fide, 

3. This brightness cannot be separated from the 
sun. The sun may as well be made no sun, as have 
the brightness thereof severed from it. 

4. 'This brightness is from the sun, not the sun 
from it. 

5. This brightness cometh naturally and neces- 
sarily from the sun, not voluntarily and at pleasure. 

6. The sun and the brightness are distinct each 
from other ; the one is not the other. 

7. All the glory of the sun is in this brightness. 

8. The light which the sun giveth to the world is 
by this brightness. 

How distinctly and clearly doth this metaphor set 
out the great mysteries of our Christian faith con- 
cerning God the Father and Son ! For they are, 

1. Of one and the same essence, John. s. 80. 

2. Co-eternal, John. i. 1. 

3. Inseparable, Prov. viii. BO. 

4. The Son is from the Father : God of God, 
Light of light, very God of very God.' 

5. The Son is begotten of the Father by nature, 
not by will, favour, or good pleasure,' Rom. viii. 7, 32, 

6. The person of the one is distinct from the other. 
For the Father is not the Son, nor the Son the Father, 
John V. 17. 

7. The incomprehensible glory of the Father most 
brightly shineth forth in the Son, John xvii. 5. 

8. All that the Father doth in relation to creatures 
he doth by the Son. As in these respects Christ is 
fitly and justly styled brightness, so in regard of his 
surpassing excellency, he is said to be the brightness 
of glory. Of the Hebrew and Greek words translated 
(jlonj, see chap ii. 7, sec. 60. 

Glory attributed to a thing, in the Hebrew dialect, 
importeth the surpassing excellency thereof: as a 
crown of glory, Prov. xvi. 31 ; ^133 XD3, ijloria solium, 
a throne of glory ; rilNQn DC, gloria; nomen, a name 
of glory, Isa. Ixiii. 14 ; a most excellent and glorious 
crown, throne, and name. Thus to set out the sur- 
passing excellency and most glorious majesty of God, 
he is styled ' the God of glory,' Acts vii. 2 ; 'the 
Father of glory,' Eph. i. 17. And his Son, ' the 
Lord of glory,' ' the liing of glory,' 1 Cor. ii. 8, 
Ps. xxiv. 7. Never was any brightness like to the 
brightness here mentioned ; well therefore might it in 
regard of the excellency of it be styled ' brightness of 
glory.' Glory and excellency are set together, Isa. 
iv. 2, signifying the same thing. See more of glory. 
Chap. ii. Sees. 60, 93. 

Our English doth here well insert this relative par- 
ticle his in reference to the Father, thus, ' the bright- 
ness of his glory,' for the particle his, expressed by 
the original in the next clause, ' his person,' may have 

' eiJ; 'iK 6lm : xx) fas ix ipuri;, 6£»j iXn/ivoi ix Ssou iXn- 
litaZ. — Fidci Confes. Synod. Nicoen. 

' Generatio non in voluntatis possibilitate, sed in jure 
quodam et proprietato paterni videtur esse secreti. — Ambr. 
de Fide, lib. iv. cap. iv. 


[Chap. I. 

reference to both the branches, as ' his glory, his 
person.' This much amplifioth the point in hand, 
and sheweth that the Sou was iu his Father's greatest 
excellency no whit inferior to him, but every way 
equal.* He was brightness, the brightness of his 
Father, yea, also the brightness of hi% Father's glory. 
What excellency soever was in the Father, the same 
was likewise in the Sou, and that iu the most trans- 
plendent manner. Glory sets out excellency^ ; bright- 
ness of glory, the excellency of excellency. 

Sec. 20. OJ Christ the excellency of his Father's 
person . 

To make the fore-named mystery the more clear, 
the apostle addeth another resemblance in these words, 
and the express intake of his person. 

This in the general importeth the same thing which 
the former did ; so as the two metaphors are like the 
two visions which Pharaoh saw in a dream ; they are 
doubled to shew that the point intended thereby is 
most certain aud sure, Gen. xli. 32. 

This phrase, the express imarie, is the exposition of one 
Greek word, ya^a;i.rr,o, which may thus filly be trans- 
lated character. The verb whence the word is derived, 
^asuTTii)/, insciilpere, signifieth to enr/ravc; and the 
word here used, the stamp or print of a thing en- 
gravened, as the stamp on money coined, the print on 
paper pressed by the printer, the mark made by a seal, 
or any like impression. There is another like word, 
y^a.cay/j.a, coming from the same root, oft used in the 
book of the Revelation, and translated ' a mark,' Rev. 
xiii. IC, 17, and xiv. 9, 11, and xv. 2 ; and in Acts 
xvii. 29 it is translated ' stone r/ravened.' But the former 
significations of the word, stamp, print, seal, or mark, 
are most proper to this place. Nothing can be more 
like another than the picture or image on the thing 
stamped or printed, is to the picture or image on the 
tool, mould, seal, or instrument wherewith it is made ; 
the one carrieth the very form of the other. Very 
fitly therefore is it by our English translated the ex- 
press imai/e. 

Sec. 21. Of the Son a distinct person. 

The next word is fitly translated person, r?; ivoa-- 
Tueiui airoZ. According to the proper notation and 
derivation of the word, it signifieth a substance or 
subsistence,^ which are in a manner Latin words, and 
Bet out the being of a thing ; even a particular and 
distinct being, w hich is most properly called a person. 
The simple verb from whence this compound is de- 
rived * signifieth to set, to settle, to establish, Mat. 
XXV. 33, xii. 25. 

' Iu hoc nppnri'bit ninjestatis (cqunlitns, si ncc inferiorem 
patrc, nee posteriorem euspexeris. — Jiem. evper Cant. Serm. 

' See the Guide to go (o God ; or my explanation of the 
Lord's Prayer, sec. 216, &c. 

• irifrarK ab iiT'itTciatxi, tuhfittete. Substantia, subsis- 
tentia, * iVrr/i/, Blutun, stubilio. ' 

Essence or nature importeth a common being, as 
Deity or Godhead, which is common to the Father, 
Son, Holy Ghost. For the Father is God, the Son 
is God, and the Holy Ghost is God. But subsistence 
or person implieth a ditl'ereut, distinct, individual, in- 
communicable, property ; such are these three, Father, 
Son, Holy Ghost. For the Father is difl'erent from 
the Son and Holy Ghost, so the Son from the Father 
and the Holy Ghost, and so the Holy Ghost from the 
Father and the Son ; and every of those distinct in 
himself, and so incommunicable, as neither of these 
persons is, or can be, the other. 

Thus we see how these two words, subsistence and 
person, import one and the same thing ; yet our Eng- ' 
lish, for perspicuity's sake, hath rather used this title 
person, and that in imitation of the Latin fathers. 
For what in this mystery of the Trinity the Greek 
fathers called substances or subsistences, the Latin 
called persons.' They said that there were three sub- 
stances and one essence, as we say there were three ^ 
persons and one essence. 

This relative particle his, added to the word person, 
hath relation to God mentioned in the first verse, as 
if ho had more plainly thus said, ' the express image 
of the person of God.' 

This Christ is in a double respect : 

1. As he is the second person in the sacred and in- 
divisible Trinity. 

2. As he is Immanuel, God with us, God mani- 
fested in the flesh. 

As he is the Son of God, the second person in 
Trinity, the whole divine essence, and all the divine 
properties are communicated to him. In this respect, 
the two fore-mentioned resemblances of brightness and 
character, and also all other resemblances which, by 
the wit of man, can be imagined, come short in setting 
out the relation betwixt the Father and the Son. 
They are not only like each other, but they are both 
the very same in nature. Resemblances may be some 
help to us, who are better acquainted with earthly and 
sensible things than with heavenly and divine ; but 
they cannot possibly set out divine mysteries, espe- 
cially such as are of all the deepest and profoundest, as 
the mysteries of the trinity of persons in the unity of 
essence, and the union of God and man, two distinct 
natures, in one person. Therefore, sundry resem- 
blances are used : one to set out one point, another 
another ; and yet all that can be used cannot, to the 
life and full, set out the mystery. 

Again, As Christ's human nature is hypostatically 
united to the divine nature, Christ is visibly the 
character or express image of God. For in Christ 
incarnate the divine properties were made most con- 

' Quod de personis secundum nostram, hoc de substantiis 
secundum Oriecorum consuetudinem iutelligitur. Sic enim 
illi dicunt tres substantias unam cssentiam : quemadmo- 
dura nos dicimus tres personas unam essentiam.— ^wy. de 
Trin. lib. vii. cap. iv. 

Ver. 1-3] 


spicuous, as almighty power, infinite wisdom, truth, 
justice, mercy, and the like. In Christ, as God man, 
'dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead bodily,' Col. ii. 9. 
In this respect, the glory of Christ made flesh is said to 
be ' the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,' 
John i. 14 ; and in that flesh, saith Christ of himself, 
' he that hath seen me hath seen the Father,' John 
xiv. 9. Thus the resemblance here used is very fit ; 
for he that seeth the character or figure which is on 
the thing stamped or printed, sees therein the figure 
that is on the instrument wherewith it was stamped. 

Sec. 22. Of the benefits arising from the relation of 
the Son to the Father. 

By the resemblance of a character, we see what is 
to be sought in Christ, namely, whatsoever is in the 
Father. As the former metaphor implieth that the 
glory of the Father is invisible till it shine forth and 
shew itself ia the Son, so this likewise declareth that 
the Father's excellency is, as it were, hid, and could 
not be known unless it were revealed and laid open in 
this character or express image. Again, as the for- 
mer metaphor implieth that out of Christ, who is that 
brightness, there is no light at all, but mere palpable 
darkness (for God, who only is, as the sun, light in 
himself, and the fountain of all light to all creatures, 
doth by this brightness only shine out to us, John i. 
9), so this metaphor importeth that in Christ the 
Father is truly and thoroughly to be known ; for a 
character well made doth not only in part and ob- 
scurely, but fully and to the life, demonstrate the im- 
age that is on the stamp. It is truly and properly an 
' express image.' 

Sec. 23. Of the Jit resemblance of the Son to a cha- 

To exemplify this latter resemblance of a character, 
as we have done the former of brir/htness in some par- 
ticulars, take, for instance, the character or stamp that 
is on coin, and the engravement that is on the tool 
wherewith the character on the coin is made. 

1. The character cometh from the engravement on 
the tool. 

2. The character is most like to that engi-avement. 

3. Whatsoever is on the engravement is also on the 

4. The engravement and the character are distinct 
each from the other. 

All these were before set down in the former meta- 
phor of brightness. Sec. 19, but yet this of a character 
is not unnecessarily added ; for by the vulgar sort it 
is better conceived, and it doth more sensibly set 
down the likeness and equality betwixt the Father and 
the Son than that of brightness doth, which is the 
principal end of using these resemblances. 

To apply this resemblance : It doth, so far as an 
earthly resemblance can, set out these mysteries fol- 
lowing concerning God the Father and God the Son. 

1. The Son is begotten of the Father, Ps. ii. 7. 

2. The Father is made manifest in the Son, Col. 
i. 15. 

3. The Son is equal to the Father, Philip, ii. 6. 

4. The Father and the Son are distinct each from 
other, John v. 82, and viii. 18. 

These mysteries are expressly revealed in the sacred 
Scriptures, otherwise all the wits in the world could 
not have found them out by the fore-mentioned, or by 
any other resemblances. Resemblances are for some 
illustration of such things as may upon surer grounds 
be proved. 

Sec. 24. Of Christ upholding all thinr/s. 

As a further demonstration of Christ's dignity and 
dominion, the apostle attributes another divine efl'ect 
to him. One was in these words, made the worlds ; 
the other in these, and upholding all things bij ike word 
of his poiver. 

The copulative particle and sheweth that, as the 
fore-mentioned resemblances of brightness and express 
image set out a divine dignity (for copulatives are 
used to join together things of like nature), so these 
words set out a divine dominion : they are all 

The word upholding, tpi^aiv, is metaphorical, and by 
way of resemblance applied to Christ. It signifieth 
to bear, carry, or uphold a thing, as the friends who 
took up and brought to Christ a palsy man, (p'sootng, 
Mark ii. 8 ; and also to move, carry, order, and dis- 
pose a thing, as the winds drive and carry ships hither 
and thither.^ The LXX use this word to set out the 
Spirit's moving upon the waters at the first forming 
and creating things, Tln\J/j,a Qiou i'^sf^sro. Gen. i. 2. 
And the apostle useth it to set out the Spirit's guid- 
ing and disposing the prophets in penning the sacred 
Scriptures, <pi^6/Mm, 2 Peter i. 21. The word may 
fitly be here taken in all these significations ; for 
neither do cross the other, but all well and truly stand 

It is most clear that the divine providence is here 
described, being distinguished from the former work 
of creation. Now, God's providence is manifested in 
two things : 

1. In sustaining all things that he made. 

2. In governing them. 

In that this divine work of providence is attributed 
to Christ, he is thereby declared to be true God. 

To shew that that phrase which the apostle used 
before in a mutual relatiou between the Father and 
the Son about making the worlds thus, ' by whom he 
made,' derogateth nothing from Christ's supreme 
sovereignty or absolute power in that work, as if he 
had been used for a minister therein, here most simply, 
without any such relation, he attributeth the divine 
work to him, and extendeth it to all things that were 
made, excepting nothing at all, in this general phrase, 
' Vifle Erasmi Annotat. in Acta xxvii. 15, 17. 



TO. TatTOL, ' all things,' whether visible or invisible, in 
heaven, on earth, or under the earth, Col. i. IG. 

To give j'ct more evidence to Christ's true deity, he 
further adds this clause, ' by the word of his power.' 

Sec. 25. Of Chrisl's nord of power. 

The parlicle translated n-ord is not, in the Greek, 
that whereby Christ the Son of God is oft set out, 
Xoyo;, John i. 1 ; especially by St John both in his 
Gospel and Epistle, 1 John i. 1, but another, fij/ia. 
Mat. iv. 4, Heb. xi. 3, which importeth a command ; 
in wliich sense it is used, Luke v. 5, for Christ is 
herein resembled to an absolute monarch, who at his 
word hath what he will [ have] done. He needs no more 
but command. Thus it is said : Ps. xxxiii. 6, ' By the 
word of the Lord were the heavens made ;' and in the 
way of exposition it is added (vor. 9), ' He spake and it 
was done : ho commanded and it stood fast.' 

Yet further, to amplify the sovereignty of Christ, 
the apostle addeth this epithet of power, rri: dwddiug, 
which after the Hebrew manner is so expressed, to 
shew the prevalency of Christ's word ; nothing can 
hinder it, it is a most mighty word. For the Hebrews 
use to set out a surpassing excellency, and an exceed- 
ing vileness of things by substantives. Thus the most 
mighty voice, arm, hand, and rod of the Lord is styled 
a voice, arm, hand, rod of power ; and the mighty 
angels, angels of power. Yea, to amplify the al- 
mightiness of God's power, it is styled a power of 
might. On the other side, to set out the excessive- 
ness of evil, the most wicked spirits are called spirits 
of wickedness, and most rebellious men, children of 
disobedience. Thus we see what the emphasis of this 
Hebrew phrase is, which sets out the irresistible power 
of Christ's word, whereby he supports and disposelh 
all things. 

And that such is the power of Christ's own word, is 
evident by this reciprocal particle his, airoij, cum spiritu 
dense ; for it hath not relation to the Father, as it 
hath in this phrase, ' his person,' airo'i, cum spiritu 
tenui : but it retlecteth upon Christ's own person. 
The Greek makes an apparent distinction by a dif- 
ferent spirit over the head of the first letter. Our 
English oft makcth a difference, by adding to the 
reciprocal word this particle own, as if here it had 
been thus translated, ' by the word of his own power,' 
or ' by his own word of power.' 

Thus is the royal function of Christ set out to the 

Sec. 26. Of Christ's sufficiency for his priesthood. 

The manner of expressing the fore-mentioned excel- 
lencies of Christ is observable : they are set down in 
participles thus, ' who being, Ct, the brightness,' &c., 
and ' upholding, ^.=ow>, all things,' Ac. This sheweth 
that they have relation to that which follows, and that 
as an especial cause thereof. Now that which follows, 
sets out Christ's priesthood, and that in both the 

parts thereof, which are, 1, expiation of our sins; 
2, intercession at God's right hand. 

For the full efl'ecting of those, divine dignity and 
ability were requisite. Therefore to give evidence of 
Christ's sufficiency to that groat function, he premiseth 
that excellent description of Christ's dignity and 
dominion, and that in such a manner, as shews him 
to be a most able and sufficient priest. For these 
phrases, ' being the brightness,' and ' upholding all 
things,' imply the ground of this sufficiency, as if he 
had more fully and plainly said. Seeing Christ is, 
or because he is, the brightness, iS:c. And because be 
upholdeth all things, &c. By himself he purgeth our 
sins ; and having done that, he sat down on the right 
hand of the Majesty on high. Had he not been such 
a brightness, and bad he not had such power as to 
uphold all things, he could not have purged away our 
sins (this work required a divine efficacy), nor could 
he have sat at God's right hand. This advancement 
required a divine dignity. Thus we see what respect 
the apostle had to the order of his words, and manner 
of framing his phi-ases. 

Sec. 27. Of Christ's puri/inff. 

From the regal function of Christ, the apostle pro- 
ceeds to his priesthood ; the first part whereof is 
noted in these words, H7i6'» he had by himself puryed 
our sins. 

The purging here mentioned, compriseth under it 
the expiation which Christ made by his death on the 
cross, which was an especial act of his priestly func- 
tion, for it belonged to the priests under the law to 
ofl'er up sacrifices, whereby expiation was made for 
people's sins. 

The metaphor of purying is taken from the law, 
for ' almost all things are by the law purged with 
blood,' Heb. ix. 22. The word' here used is some- 
times put for the means of purging, John ii. 6, and 
sometimes for the act itself of being purged, Mark 
i. 44. To make puryation (as the Greek phrase here 
soundeth), is to do that which is sufficient to purge, 
and by a metonymy of the cause, it also impUeth the 
very act of purging. Now Christ, by shedding his 
blood, hath done that which is sufficient to purge 
away sin ; yea, that which he bath done, doth indeed 
purge the soul, when it is rightly applied. In both 
these respects it is said, ' The blood of Christ cleanseth 
from all sin,' 1 John i. 7. 

The purging therefore here meant, compriseth under 
it both the merit of Christ's sacrifice, whereby the 
guilt and punishment of sin is taken away, and also 
the efficacy thereof, whereby the power and dominion 
of sin is subdued. 

This word pwyed, expounds two words of the ori- 
ginal Greek, zai'aj/u.aov c(//);(r«^£kOs, which the Rhemists, 
in imitation of the vulgar Latin, translating, as they 
suppose verbatim, word for word, do extenuate the 
' *alx(ir/ii(. Sec Cliap. ix. 13, Sec. 75. 

Ver. 1-3.] 


sense and come short of the mind of the apostle. 
They translate it thus, purriatioiiem peccatorum fuciens, 
making purgation of sins. Herein first they miss 
the emphasis of the tense, aoristitm prius medii, which 
implieth a thing finished. The Latins wanting that 
tense, are forced to use the passive, and to change 
the case, thus, pwgatione facta,' or a periphrasis, by 
premising a conjunction of the time past, thus, post- 
quam purgationemfecisset. So our English, ' when he 
had purged ;' very fitly according to the sense. But 
we have in our tongue a particle, which, joined to the 
verb, doth fully express the emphasis of the tense and 
voice, thus, having purged. Besides, they that trans- 
late it by the present tense, thus, ' making purgation,' 
imply that Christ is still tempering the medicine, as 
if the purgation were not absolutely finished while 
Christ was on earth. I deny not but that Christ still 
continueth to apply the merit and efficacy of this 
purgation ; but there is difference betwixt making and 
applying a thing. 

The verb xaiJaw'^u, whence the Greek word xa^a- 
^/ff^'js is derived, is sometimes put for cleansing or 
purging the soul fj-om the guilt of sin, and it im- 
porteth justification, and is distinguished from sancti- 
fication ; as, where it is said, that Christ gave himself 
for the church, ' that he might sanctify it, having 
cleansed,' or purged it, /Va a\jrr,</ ayidsr), xa$a^iaac, 
Eph. V. 26.* Sometimes it is put for purging the 
soul from the inherent filth of sin ; as, where it is 
said, Christ gave himself for us, ' that he might re- 
deem us from all iniquity' (this notes out our justifi- 
cation), ' and purify' or purge us, x.ai -/.a^aoiar}, Titus 
ii. 14, this notes out om- sanctification. And some- 
times it compriseth under it both these benefits, as 
where mention is made of God's purifying or purging 
our hearts by faith, r^ 'z-iarii za^ag/ua; rag xct^diag, 
Acts XV. 9. Faith applies the merit of Christ's sac- 
rifice for our justification, and draws virtue from him 
for our sanctification. In this last and largest signi- 
fication is this metaphor of purging here used, whereby 
it appears that Christ's purging is a perfect purging. 

Sec. 28. Of our sins purged hg Christ. 

To discover the filth that by Christ is purged away, 
the purgation here mentioned is styled a pm-gation of 
sins,^ aij!,a^Tiuiii. Sin is the worst filth that ever be- 
smeared a creature. It makes the creature loathsome 
and odious in God's sight. It makes it most wretched 
and cursed, for it puUeth upon the sinner God's wrath, 
which is an unsupportable burden, and presseth the 
soul down to hell. By sin angels of light became 
devils, and by reason of sin they are called foul and 

' Trausferri poterii.t,purffalione peccatorum facta,neaedendo 
videatur purgare. Prius enim purgavit morte sua, deinde 
conaedit.— Eras. Annot. in hunc loc. 

' See Domest. Dut. Treat, i., sec. 36. 

' Of the notation of this word see Chap. viii. ver. 12, Sec. 
76 ; see Chap. x. ver. 12, Sec. 35. 

unclean spirits, Mark ix. 25, Rev. xviii. 2, Mat. x. 1. 
By purging away this kind of filth, Christ's sacrifice is 
distinguished from all the legal sacrifices and purifi- 
cations. None of them can purge away sin. Sin 
makes too deep a stain even into the very soul of man 
to be purged away by an external and earthly thing. 
That which the apostle saith, Heb. x. 1, ' of the blood 
of bulls and goats,' which were the greatest and most 
efficacious sacrifices of the law, may be said of all 
external means of purifying. It is not possible that 
they should take away sins ; therefore they are said to 
'sanctify to the purifying of the flesh,' Heb. ix. 18, 
not to the purifying of the soul. 

Quest. Was not legal uncleanness a sinful pollution ? 

Ans. Not simply as it was legal ; that is, as by the 
ceremonial law it was judged uncleanness. For, 

1. There were sundry personal diseases which by 
that law made those that were infected therewith un- 
clean, as leprosy, Lev. xiii. 3, running of the reins. 
Lev. xxii. 4, issue from the flesh, Lev. xv. 2, and 
other the like. 

2. There were also natural infirmities, which were 
counted uncleanness, yet not sins in themselves, as 
women's ordinary flowers, Lev. xv. 33, their lying in 
childhood. Lev. xii. 2. 

3. Casual matters that fell out unawares, and could 
not be avoided, caused uncleanness, Lev. v. 2, Num. 
xix. 14. 

4. So also did sundry bounden duties ; for the priest 
who slew and burnt the red cow, and he who gathered 
up her ashes, were unclean ; yea, and he who touched a 
dead corpse (which some were bound to do for a decent 
burial thereof). Num. xix. 7, 10, 11. 

Quest. 2. Was it not a sin to remain in such un- 
cleanness, and not to be cleansed from it ? 

Ans. It was ; and thereupon he that purified not 
himself was to be cut oft'. Num. xix. 13, 26. But 
this sin was not simply in the legal uncleanness, but 
in the contempt of that order which God had pre- 
scribed, Lev. xxii. 9, or at least in neglect of God's 

The like may be said of an unclean person touching 
any holy thing. Lev. xxii. 3. It was sin if he came 
to knowledge of it. Lev. v. 3, because therein he 
wittingly transgressed God's ordinance. 

Quest. 3. Were not sins also taken away by the ob- 
lation of legal sacrifices ? 

Ans. True it is, that by the offering up of those 
sacrifices, people were assured of the pardon of sin, 
but not as they were external things, but as they were 
types of the all-sufficient sacrifice of Christ. It was 
then people's faith in the mystical substance of those 
sacrifices (which was Christ) whereby they came to 
assurance of the pardon of sin. 

It therefore remains a true conclusion, that sin is 
purged away by Christ's sacrifice alone ; so as herein 
the sacrifice of Christ surpasseth all other sacrifices. 

Whereas the apostle further addeth this relative par- 



[Chap. I. 

tide ^/iCn, our, — ' our sins,' — he maketh a difference 
therein also betwixt the priests under the law, with their 
sacrifices, and Christ with his. For thB_y offered for 
their own sins. Lev. xvi. G, as well as for others ; but 
Christ had no sin of his own to offer for. His sacrifice 
was to purge away our sins ; our sins only, not his 
own. Thus is this phrase to be taken exclusively in 
relation to Christ himself ; but in relation to others, 
inclusively : none, no, not the best, excepted. For 
the apostle, using the plural number indefinitely, in- 
cludes all of all sorts, and, using the first person, puts 
in also himself, though an apostle, and so one of the 
most eminent Christians. 

Sec. 29. Of Christ' s 2ni,rging our sins hi/ himself. 
A third difference betwjxt Christ and the legal 
priest is in the sacrifice by which the one and the 
other purged people. The priest's sacrifice was of 
unreasonable beasts; Christ of himself : he ' by him- 
self purged our sins.' 

The 'first particle of this verse, oc, who, having re- 
ference to that excellent person who is described in 
the words before it and after it, noteth out the priest. 
This clause, 6i cavroii, bij himself, sheweth the sacrifice 
or means of purging. The Son of God,' the creator 
of all things, the sustaincr and governor of all, is the 
priest ; and this priest oflored himself, and so by him- 
self purged our sins. 

True it is that the human nature of Christ only was 
offered up, whereupon it is said that he was ' put to 
death in the flesh,' 1 Peter iii. 18, and ' suffered for 
us in the flesh,' 1 Peter iv. 1 ; yet by reason of the 
hypostntical union of his two natures in one person, 
he is said to ' give himself,' Eph. v. 2, and to ' offer 
up himself,' Heb. vii. 27 ; and thereupon it is s;iid 
that ' he put away sin by the sacrifice of himself,' 
Heb. ix. 20 ; and, as here, purged our sins by himself. 
Forasmuch as it was impossible that the Word should 
die, being the immortal Son of the Father, he assumed 
a body that he might die for all, and yet remain the 
incorruptible Word.^ 

Great is the emphasis of that phrase ; it sheweth 
that this work of purging our sins was above human 
strain, though an human act, or rather passion, were 
requisite thereto, as to suffer, to shed blood, to die ; 
yet a divine value and virtue must needs accompany 
the same, to purge sin. It must be done even by 
him himself, who is God-man. He himself must be 
offered up. In which respect it is s;iid that God 
' hath purchased the church with his own blood,' 
Acts XX. 28. 
This title himself, having reference to that person who 
' See more hereof iu Domest. Duties, treat. 1, sec. 81, on 
Eph. V. 25. 

• Cum non eaaet possibilo ipsum Verbum mori, quippe 
immortalem patris filiiim corpus sibi quod mori possit accepit, 
ita corpus Verbi particops factum, et moreretur pro omnibus, 
et inhabitans Verbum incorruptibilemaiieret. — Alhan<u. lib. 
<U Tncam. 

is both God and man, includes both the natures. 
This person, himself, offered up himself to purge our 
sins by himself. 'This is a great mystery ; the like 
was never heard of. The priest that offereth, the 
sacrifice that is offered, one and the same. The same 
m3-stery isimplied.unaertbis phrase, Christ 'sanctified 
the people with his own blood,' Heb. xiii. 12. But 
this of sanctifying or purging with or by himself hath 
the greater emphasis. More cannot be said to set out 
the invaluable price of our redemption, the indelible 
stain of sin, and available means of purging it. See 
Chap. ix. 12, Sec. 57. 

Sec. 30. Of Christ's (ilortj after his suffering. 

A fourth difference betwixt Christ and the Levitical 
priesthood, is in these words. He sat down at the right 
hand of the Mn/esti/ on high. 

Hereby is implied a continuance of Christ's priest- 
hood after his death. This is denied of the priesthood 
under the law, chap. vii. 23. But Christ having by 
his death offered up a sufficient sacrifice for all our 
sins, and by his burial sanctified the grave, and that 
estate wherein the bodies of believers after death are 
detained till the day of consummating all things, rose 
from the dead, and ascended into heaven, there to 
continue an high priest for ever. 

This then notes out another part of Christ's priest- 
hood. The former was of subjection and suffering, 
this of dignity and reigning. By that was the work 
wrought, and price laid down ; by this is the efficacy 
and virtue thereof applied, and the benefit conferred. 

Fitly is this added to the former, to shew that 
Christ was so far from being vanquished and swallowed 
up by his sufierings for our sins, as thereby way was 
made for an entrance into the highest degree of glory 
that could be attained unto. 

Sec. 81. Of Christ's sittin/f and standing in heaven. 

The apostle, in setting down the high degree of 
Christ's exaltation, well poised his words, for every 
word hath its weight. 

This, ixdiieiv, he sat down, importeth high honour, 
and a settled continuance therein. Sitting is a posture 
of dignity :' superiors sit when inferiors stand. Job 
xxix. 7, 8. Thus is 'the Ancient of days,' said to sit; 
and ten thousand thousands (ministering spirits) to 
stand before him, Dan. vii. 9, 10. In way of honour 
is the Highest thus set out, ' He that silteth upon the 
throne,' Rev. v. 13. In this sense saith God to his 
Son, 'Sit at my right hand,' Ps. ex. 1. The authority 
also and power which Christ hath over all is hereby 
noted. For in this sense is this phrase oft used, as 
Ps. ix. 4, and xxix. 10, and xlvii. 8, Rev. xxi. 5. 

Obj. Christ is said to stand on the right hand of 
God, Acts vii. 65. 

' Sedero raagistri demonstrat personam. — Aup. lib. Ixxx. 
Qui It. q. 64. Sedere Dei est potentialiter super omnem 
creaturam rationalem prresidere.— ^ uj. de eumt. diviu. 

Vek. 1-3.] 


Ans. Divers phrases may be used of the same thing 
in divers respects, and imply no contrafliction ; for, 
first, to speak according to the letter, a king may be 
said to sit on his throne, because that is his ordinary 
posture ; and to stand at some special times ; as Eglon 
arose out of his seat when Ehud said to him, I have 
a message from God to thee, Judges iii. 20. 

There are three limitations wherein different acts 
cannot be attributed to the same thing. 

1 . In the same part, Kara to duro, secundum idem. 
In the very same part a man cannot be sore and sound. 

2. In the same respect, Troof j-6 axiro, ad idem, a man 
cannot be alive and dead together in the same respect, 
but in diflerent respects one may be so; for 'she that 
liveth in pleasure is dead while she liveth,' 1 Tim. v. 6. 

3. At the same time, h ru auria xidr^, eodem tem- 
pore, one cannot sit and stand together at the same 
time ; at several times he may. 

Again, to take this phrase metaphorically (as it is 
here to be taken), Christ may be said to sit, to shew 
his authority (as before) ; and to stand, to shew his 
readiness to hear and help.' In this respect did 
Christ most fitly present himself standing to Stephen, 
Acts vii. 55. 

Sitting doth further set out continuance in a thing :^ 
where Jacob saith of Joseph, 'His bow sat in strength,' 
DKTll, et sedit, we fitly, according to the true sense, 
translate it thus, ' his bow abode,' &c.. Gen. slis. 24. 
In like manner where Moses saith to Aaron and his 
sons, ' ye shall sit at the door of the tabernacle seven 
days,' we, according to the true meaning' of [the 
word in that place, thus turn it, ' ye shall abide,' Lev. 
viii. 35. 

Standing also importeth as much, namely, continu- 
ance and perseverance in a thing.' To express this 
emphasis of the word, we do oft translate it thus, 
'standfast;' as 1 Cor. xvi. 13, 'Stand fast in the faith;' 
and Gal. v. 1, ' Stand fast in the liberty,' &c. Where 
the original Greek saith of the devil, John viii. 44, 'he 
stood not in the truth,' our English hath it thus, ' he 
abode not,' &c. 

Wherefore by both these metaphors (sitting and 
standing) Christ's abode and continuance in heaven, 
as our high priest, prince, and prophet, and that for 
us, is plainly set out. 

And to shew that this, his abode and continuance, 
hath no set date, this indefinite and everlasting phrase, 
for ever, is in other places added ; as chap. vii. 25, 
and X. 12. 

' Sedere judioantis est; stare adjuvantig. — Greg. Mn<t- Ilom. 
29, in. feat, ascen. vide plura ibid. Stare Deus dicitur cum 
infirmos austinet, &c. Stetit ad subvenieudum. — Aug. de 
Essent. Divin. 

'■* Locutio Scripturarum sessionem pro commoratione posuit. 
— Avff. qucest. super Lev. lib. iii. cap. xxiv. Vide plura ibid, 
hac de re. 

' Quid est, qui ttatii f Qui perseveratis : quia dicitur de 
qiiodam qui arcliangehis fuil, I't in veritate stetit.— ^!*?.«!3)t. 
n I'i cxxxiii. 

Finally, These metaphors note out Christ's rest 
and cessation from all his travails, labours, services, 
sufl'erings, and works of ministry, which on earth he 
underwent. Christ is now entered into rest, and so 

This implieth that nothing now remaineth more to 
be done or endured for purchase of man's redemption, 
his sacrifice was full and perfect; therefore going out 
of the world, he saith, ' It is finished,' John xix. 30. 

Sec. 32. 0/ the dii-ine Majesty. 

To amplify the fore-mentioned dignity and sove- 
reignty of Christ, the place where Christ sitteth is set 
out in two phrases : 

1. ' On the right hand of the Majesty.' 

2. ' On high.' 

By the Majesty is meant God himself, as more 
plainly is expressed in other places, where Christ is 
said to be 'at the right hand of God,' Kom. viii. 34, and 
to be 'set down on the right hand of God,' Heb. x. 12. 

Majesty, /iiya'Aoie'Jr/i, importeth such greatness and 
excellency as makes one to be honoured of all, and 
preferred before all. It is a title proper to kings, 
who, in their dominions, are above all and over all. 
By way of excellency^ a king is styled majesty itself;^ 
as when we speak of a king, we say, Jlis Majesty ; 
when to him, Your Majesty. A word like to this 
coming from the same root, fj^syaXnoTr,-., Acts xix. 27, 
is translated ' magnificence,' which also is applied to 
God, and translated, as the word here, Majesty, 
2 Peter i. 16. 

To none can this title be so properly applied as to 
God himself, for all created greatness and excellency 
is derived from, and dependeth upon, God's greatness 
and excellency. Whereas majesty is attributed to 
created monarchs, it is because they bear God's image, 
and stand in God's stead. In this respect they are 
also styled cfods, Ps. Ixsxii. 6. 

In this place this title is used, 

1. To set out the high and supreme sovereignty of 
God, importing him to be ' King of kings, and Lord 
of lords ;' for, to speak properly, God only hath ma- 
jesty ; and therefore by a property is styled the 

2. To magnify the exaltation of Christ, which is 
the highest degree that possibly can be, even to the 
right hand of him, or next to him, that only and justly 
is styled the Majesty. 

3. To shew an especial end of Christ's high advance- 
ment, which was to reign and rule. "This is the 
property of majesty ; and for this end was Christ ad- 
vanced next to the Majesty. 

This is further evident by the addition of this word 
throne, as some do read it, thus, ' He sat down on the 
right hand of the throne of the Majesty on high.'' 

' xxt' i|»;j;>i». ' In abstracto. 

Complnt. codfz. Of Christ's throne, see Vcr. 8, Sec. 106. 


[Chap. I. 

So is it read, chaps, viii. 1 and xii. 2, and that with 
an unanimous consent of all copies ; so in Mat. six. 28, 
and XXV. 81, and Acts ii. 30. So much also is here 
without question intended. 

Now to sit on a throne of majesty, is to have power 
of reigning and ruling. This is yet furtlier made clear 
by the end which the Holy Ghost setteth down hereof, 
Ps. ex. 1, which is to subdue his enemies ; wherefore 
the apostle thus expliiineth that phrase, 1 Cor. xv. 25, 
' He must reign till he hath put all his enemies under 
his feet.' For sitlinp on the rifiht hand of Majesli/, 
the apostle puts rek/ninff. So as to sit on the right 
hand of Majesty, and to reign, are equivalent terms. 

Sec. 83. Of Christ's advancement to God's right 

This phrase right hand, attributed to God, must 
needs be metaphorically spoken ; for God is not a 
body, nor hath any parts of a body properly apper- 
taining unto him. He is a simple, pure, spiritual, 
indivisible essence. To imagine that God hath a 
body, or any parts of a body properly, is to make him 
no God.' Whosoever doth conceit any such thing of 
God, doth frame an idol for God in his heart. Such 
things are attributed to God in sacred Scripture for 
teaching's sake, to make us somewhat the better con- 
ceive divine things by such human resemblances as 
are familiar to us, and we well acquainted withal. 

As for this particular metaphor of a right hand, it 
is very frequently attributed to God ; and that in two 
respects : 

1. To set out his power ; 2. his glory. 

There is no part of the body whereby men can bet- 
ter manifest their power than by their right hand. 
By their hands they lift, they strike, they do the 
things which require and declare strength. Of the 
two hands, the right useth to be the more ready, 
steady, and strong, in acting this or that. Therefore 
after the manner of men, atC^wro'^Tadui;, thus speaketh 
Moses of God, ' Thy right hand, Lord, is become 
glorious in power : thy right hand, Lord, hath 
dashed in pieces the enemy,' Exod. xv. 6. In like 
manner many admirable works are in other places 
attributed to God's right hand, that is, to his power. 

Again, Because God's majesty is of all the most 
glorious, his right hand is accounted the greatest 
glory that can be.^ In this latter respect is the me- 
taphor here used. It is taken from monarchs, whose 
throne is the highest place for dignity in ii kingdom. 

To set one at the right hand of his majesty, is to 
advance him above all subjects, next to the king him- 
self : as Pharaoh said to Joseph, Gen. xli. 40, ' Thou 
shalt be over my house, and according to thy word 

' Si quia in Deo liumana mombra, sen motus animro more 
liumano inessc credit, proculdubio in corde suo idola fabri- 
cat. — Avg. de Etaent. Divinit. 

' Dextra domiiii gloriani Patrissignificat.— .4i/y. rfe Easml. 

shall all my people be ruled : only in the throne will 
I be greater than thou.' 

In places of state, the middle useth to be the 
highest ; the right hand the next, the left the third.' 
In this respect the mother of Zebedee's children, 
leaving to Christ the highest place, desireth that one 
of her sons might be at his right hand, the other at 
his left, in his kingdom, Mat. xx. 21. Solomon, to 
shew he preferred his mother before all his subjects, 
set her on his right hand, 1 Kings ii. 16. So doth 
Christ manifest his respect to his spouse, Ps. xlv. 9. 
So doth God here in this place to his Son. For to 
sit on the right hand of the divine Majesty, is the 
highest honour that any can be advanced to. 

Sec. 34. 0/ Christ advanced as God-man. 

Christ's advancement is properly of his human na- 
ture.^ For ' the Son of man' is said to sit at God's 
right hand. Mat. xxvi. 64, and Stephen with his bo- 
dily eyes saw him there. Acts vii. 56. That nature 
wherein Christ was crucified, was exalted ;' for God, 
being [the Most High, needs not be exalted.* Yet 
the human nature, in this exaltation, is not singly 
and simply considered in itself, but united to the 
Deity; so as it is the person, consisting of two natures, 
even God-mau, which is thus dignified, next to God, 
far above all mere creatures. For as the human na- 
ture of Christ is inferior to God, and is capable of 
advancement, so also the person, consisting of a divine 
and human nature. Christ, as the Son of God, the 
second person in the sacred Trinity, is in regard of 
his deity no whit inferior to his Father, but every 
way equal ; yet as he assumed our nature, and became 
a mediator betwixt God and man, ho hnmbled him- 
self, and made himself inferior to his Father. His 
Father therefore exalted him above all creatures, Philip, 
ii. 8, 9. The Scripture expressly testifieth that the 
Father advanced his Son ; for he said to his Son, 
' Sit at my right hand,' Ps. ex. 1. ' He set him at 
his right hand,' Eph. i. 20. ' God exalted him," Acts 
V. 31. ' God hath given him a name which is above 
every name,' Philip, ii. 9. Now he that giveth is 
greater than he that receiveth." 

Sec. 35. 0/ heaven the place of Christ's exaltation. 
The place where Christ is exalted is here inde- 
finitely set down to be ' on high,' h uv}/>j>.o7j. Though 

' Ad dextram locari magnus est hones habitus, in medio 
vero maximus. — Alex. 1. ii. Genial, dierum. 

« Beatitudinis Christi munera acquisita non possunt se- 
cundum quod natura Deus est, sed secundum quod natura 
liomo factus est convenire. — Viriil. cont. Eulych. lib. v. 

" In qua forma crucifixus est, ipsa exaltatus est. — Aug. 
contr. Maxim. 

* 'O ei« i^aitntai ti itTrai, S'i„rTts i'- — Greg, Nyt. cont. 

' In statu exaltationis Pater Filium ad dextram suam col- 
locavit, eique nomen donavit, &c. Donans autem major est 
acoipiente donum.— //»7ar. de Trin. lib. ix. 

Ver. 1-3.] 


the word be but of the positive degree, yet is it to be 
understood of the highest degree that can be ; so high 
as none higher. Therefore the superlative degree is 
elsewhere used to set out the very same place that is 
here meant ; as where the angels say, glory to God 
in the highest, iv v-^iaroig, Luke ii. 14. The apostle, 
to shew that this place, and withal this dignity where- 
unto Christ was exalted, far surpasseth all other, useth 
a compound word, i/'rsgii-vj/wffs, which is not through- 
out all the New Testament used, but in this only case ; 
and it implieth an exaltation above all other exaltations. 
The word is used Philip, ii. 9 ; it may be thus trans- 
lated, ' super-exalted.' Our English, to express the 
emphasis of that compound word, useth these two 
words, ' highly exalted.' If ever any were highly 
exalted, much more Christ. Therefore other trans- 
lators' thus express the foresaid emphasis, exalted 
into the highest height. The word is used to set out 
the highest exaltation that can be, even beyond all 
expression or comprehension. 

To shew that Christ's exaltation is indeed a super- 
exaltation, the apostle advanceth it far above all other, 
even the highest and most excellent creatures that be, 
Eph. i. 21. Thus he is said to be ' higher than the 
heavens.' See Chap. vii. 26, Sec. 110. 

More expressly this supereminent place is said to 
be the heavens, h roTg oxj^avoT;,"^ chap. viii. 1. The 
plural number is used to shew that he meaneth the 
highest heavens ; that which in Canaan's dialect is 
styled the heaven of heavens, 2 Chron. ii. G, and vi. 
18, Neh. ix. 6, even that which compriseth in it all 
the other heavens, it being over all. In relation to 
two inferior heavens, it is stj'led ' the third heaven,' 
2 Cor. xii. 2. For the Scripture maketh mention of 
three heavens. The first and lowest is the airy 
heaven, in which feathered fowls fly. Gen. i. 8 ; the 
second and middlemost is the starry heaven, in which 
the sun, the moon, and all the stars are contained. 
Gen. XV. 5 ; the third and highest is that where 
Christ now sitteth. This distinction giveth light to 
that phrase, ' far above all heavens,' Eph. iv. 10, 
whereby the supereminent height of Christ's exalta- 
tion is set forth. He there meaneth all the visible 
heavens, whether under or above the moon. For the 
human nature of Christ is contained within the third 
heaven, Acts iii. 21. 

This place, as well as the other fore-mentioned 
points, amplifieth the exaltation of Christ. 

Sum up the particulars, and we shall find verified 
what was said before, that every word hath its weight, 
and adds something to the excellency of Christ's 

1. He sits: namely as a Lord ; and so continueth. 

2. He sits by the Majesty : a great honour. 

' In summam'tulit sublimitatem. — Beza. In^u^iu, Exalto 
supra quara dici possit. 

' 111 regia coelorum scdct Jesus ad de.xtram Patris. — 
Tertul. dc Resur. cum. 

3. He sits on the rirjht hand of the Majesty ; next 
to him above all others. 

4. He so sits on high : namely, as high as can be. 

' When he had by himself purged our sins ' (to do 
which, he humbled himself and became obedient unto 
death, even the death of the cross, Phihp. ii. 8), ' he 
sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high.' 

Hitherto of the meaning of the words. The 
analysis or resolution of the three first verses foUoweth. 

See. 36. Of the resolution of the three fist verses. 

Ver. 1. Tlie three first verses of the first chapter 
contain the substance of all those mysteries which are 
more largely prosecuted in the body of the epistle. 

The sum of all is, the excellency of the gospel. 

The argument whereby the apostle doth demon- 
strate this point is comparative. The comparison is 
of unequals ; which are the law and the gospel. 

This kind of argument the apostle doth here the 
rather use, because of that high account which the 
Hebrews had of the law. 

1. The comparison is first propounded in the first 
verse and former part of the second verse. 

2. It is ampHfied in the latter part of the second 

In the proposition the apostle declares two points : 

1. Wherein the law and the gospel agree. 

2. Wherein they difler. 
They agree in two things : 

1. In the principal author, which is God : ' God 
spake in time past;' and ' God hath spoken in these 
last days.' 

2. They agree in the general matter, which is, a 
declaration of God's will, implied under this word 
' spake,' or ' hath spoken.' 

The distinct points wherein they differ are five : 

1. The measure of that which was revealed. Then 
God's will was revealed part by part ; one part at 
one time and another at another ; but under the 
gospel all at once. 

2. The manner of revealing it : then after divers 
manners ; under the gospel after one constant manner. 

3. The time: that was the old time, which was to 
be translated into another, even a better time ; this 
is styled ' the last days,' which shall have no better 
after them in this world. 

4. The subject, or persons to whom the one and 
the other was delivered. 

The former were ' the fathers,' so called by reason 
of their antiquity ; but yet children who were in 
bondage under the elements of the world. Gal. iv. 3. 
The latter are comprised under this phrase ' unto us :' 
the least of whom is greater than the greatest of the 
fathers. Mat. xi. 11. 

5. The ministers by whom the one and the other 
were delivered : the law by prophets ; the gospel by 
the Son. 

Ver. 2. The amplification of the comparison is by 


[Chap. I. 

a description of the Son, and that by his excellency 
and dignity. This is the main substance of the 
greatest part of this epistle ; as it is in this and the 
next verse propounded, so it is prosecuted and further 
proved in the other verses of this chapter. 
In these two versos Christ is set out, 

1. By his relation to his Father. 

2. By his dinne works. 

His relation is noted, 1, simplv ; 2, compara- 

Simply under two titles : 

The lirst title is Son : ' his Son ;' this pointeth at 
the divine essence. 

The second title, heir: this pointeth to his right of 
Bovereigntj' ; and it is amplified, 1, by the ground 
thereof, in this phrase, ' whom he hath appointed ;' 
2, by the extent thereof, in this, ' all things.' 

Ver. 3. The comparative relation is in two resem- 

1. Brightness: amplified by the surpassing excel- 
lency thereof, in this phrase, ' of his glory.' 

2. Character, or express image: illustrated under 
this phrase, ' of his person.' 

The works whereby Christ's excellency is described 
are of two sorts : 

1. Tbey are such as appertain to his divine nature. 

2. Such as appertain to his mediatorship. 

Of the former two sorts are mentioned : 1, creation ; 
2, providence. 

Creation is set forth, 

1. By the manner of working; in this phrase, bg 

2. By the general matter, the uvrlds. 
Providence is hinted in this word upholding. It is 

further illustrated by the extent, all things; and by 
the means, the uord : amplified by the power thereof, 
of his power. 

In Christ's work appertaining to his mediatorship, 

1. The order, in this phrase, when he had. 

2. The kinds. These concern, 1, Christ's humiha- 
tion ; 2, his exaltation. 

A special work of Christ's humiliation was to 

This is amplified, 1, by the means, by himself ; 2, 
by the matter, otir sins. 

In Christ's exaltation is set down, 

1. His act, sat doiim. 

2. The place. This is noted, 1, indefinitely, an 
high ; 2, determinatcly, at the right hand. 

This is amplified by the person at whose right hand 
he sat, thus expressed, of the majesty. 

Sec. 87. Of the heads of doctrines raised out of the 
Ut verse. 

I. God is the author of the Old Testament. That 
which the apostle here setteth down in this first verse 
is concerning such things as are registered in the Old 

Testament, of which he saith, ' God spake ;' so as 
the Old Testament is of divine authority. 

II. God hath been pleased to make known his will. 
This word spake inteudeth as much. God's will is a 
secret kept close in himself, till he be pleased to make 
it known. In this respect it is said, that ' No man 
hath seen God at any time,' John i. 18 ; that is, no 
man hath known his mind, namely, till God make it 

III. Of old God made known his will by parts, 
One time one part, another time another part, namely. 
as the church bad need thereof, and as God in lus 
wisdom saw it meet to be revealed. 

IV. God's will was of old made known- divers ways. 
Of the divers ways, see Sec. 11 ; for God ever accom- 
modated himself to the capacity of his people. 

v. God's ivill was made known to men even from 
the beginning. So far, even to the beginning, may 
this phrase, in time past, be extended. Thus the 
church was never without some means or other of 
knowing the will of God. 

VI. The Old Testament was for such as lived in 
ancienter times, even before the fulness of time came, 
who are here called fathers ; who, together with their 
seed, were but a little part of the world. 

VII. God made sons of men to be his ministers be- 
fore Christ' s'time. Thus much is intended under this 

word prophets, as here opposed to the Son of God. 
To them God first made known his mind, that they 
should declare it to his people. 

VIII. God endued his choice ministers ii>ith extra- 
ordinary gijts. This word prophets intendeth as much. 

AH these points are more fully opened, Sect. 11. 

Sec. 38. Of the Jieads of doctrines raised out of the 
2d verse. 

IX. The best things are reserved for the last times. 
The opposition which the apostle here maketh betwixt 
the time past and these last days, demonstrateth as 

X. The gospel also is of divine authority. It is the 
gospel which the apostle intendeth under this phrase 
' hath spoken ;' and it hath reference to God, men- 
tioned in the former verse. 

XI. The gospel was revealed to men by the Sc^n of 
God. God spake by his Son. The Son of God in- 
carnate was the first publisher of the gospel, John 
i. 18. 

XII. Under the gospel, God's whole will is revealed. 
Herein lieth the opposition betwixt that phrase, ' at 
sundry times,' ver. 1, being spoken of God's former 
dispensing of his will by parts, and his revealing of it 
under the gospel, John xiv. 26, Acts xx. 27. Here- 
upon a curse is denounced against such as shall teach 
any other gospel. Gal. i. 8, 9 ; and against such as 
shall take from or add to this gospel, Rev. xxii. 18, 19. 

XIII. Under the gospel, there is one only way of 
making knoivn God's will. This appears by the oppo- 

Vkr. 4 ] 


sition of this phrase, ver. 1, ' in divers manners.' 
That only way is preaching, as hath been before 
shewed, Sec. 11. 

XIV. Christ was a prophet, for God spake by him. 
He was (as he is styled, Luke vii. 16) a great prophet. 

XV. Christ hath an absolute jurisdiction. He is an 
heir ; an heu- to the gi-eat King of heaven and earth. 
This sets forth Christ's kingly office. 

XVI. Christ as mediator received his dominion from 
his Father. He • appointed him heir.' 

XVII. Christ's dominion extendeth itself to all things. 
T^is is expressly set down under this phrase, ' Heir 
of all things,' Ps. ii. 8. 

XVIII. Christ is the Creator, John i. 2 ; Col. i. 16. 

XIX. The Father created by the Son. This is ex- 
pressly here set down, and it is to be taken in respect 
of the distinction that is betwixt their persons, and the 
order of their working. The Father worketh by the 
Sod, and the Son from the Father. 

XX. All thinr/s in heaven and earth were created by 
the Son. The word worlds implieth as much ; for the 
plural number is used, to shew that the world above, 
and the world beneath, — even heaven, and all things 
therein, and earth, and all things therein, — were 
created by him. 

Sec. 39. Of the heads of doctrines raised out of the 
3d verse. 

XXI. Divine mysteries may he illustrated by sensible 
resemblances. These two resemblances, brightness, 
character, are for that end here produced. There is 
in many visible and sensible creatures a kind of divine 
stamp. In that they are sensible, we that are best 
acquainted with visible and sensible matters are much 
helped in apprehending things mystical that are any 
ways like them. 

XXII. The Son is of the same essence xvilh the 

XXIII. Tlie Son is light of light, very God of very 

XXIV. The Son is co-eternal with the Father. 

XXV. The person of the Son is distinct from the 
person of the Father. 

XXVI. The incomprehensible glory of the Father 
most brightly shineth forth in the Son, so as the Father 
is made conspicuous in the Son. 

These and other like mysteries are very pertinently 
set forth under these two resemblances, brightness, 
character ; whereof see Sec. 19, &c. 

XXVII. Christ is the preserver and governor of all 
things. This phrase, upholding all things, intendeth 
as much. 

XXVIII. Christ ordereth all things by his command. 
The Greek word translated word importeth as much. 
See Sec. 2-5. 

XXIX. Christ's command is irresistible. It is here 
styled ' the word of his power,' whereby he disposeth 
all things according to his own will, Ps. cxv. 3. 

XXX. Christ is a true priest. The act o{ purging, 
applied to him, demonstrateth as much. For it is 
proper to a priest to purge, Lev. xiv. 14, &c., 
and xvi. 16. 

XXXI. Christ was a true man. This phrase, by 
himself, sheweth that the sacrifice by which Christ 
purged was himself, namely, his body, or his human 
nature. For Christ ' hath given himself for us an 
offering and a sacrifice to God,' Fph. v. 2. 

XXXII. Christ was God and man in one person. 
As man, he suffered and was made a sacrifice ; as 
God, he added much merit to his sacrifice, as it purged 
away sin, chap. ix. 14. 

XXXIII. Christ's sacrifice was effectual to take away 
sin. For it is directly said that ' he purged our sins,' 
chap. ix. 14. 

XXXIV. Christ was exalted after he had humbled 
himself. His purging sin, implieth his humbling of 
himself unto death. When he had done this, then he 
sat, &c. This implieth his exaltation, Luke xxiv. 
26, 46, Philip, ii. 8, 9. 

XXXV. Christ having finished his sufferings, ceased 
to suffer any more. He sat down and rested, Kom. 
vi. 9, 10. As God, when he had finished all the 
works of creation, rested. Gen. ii. 2, Heb. iv. 10, so 
Christ after his suiierings. 

XXXVI. Christ as our priest ever presents himself 
before God for us, namely, to make intercession for 
us. Christ's sitting implieth abode. This abode 
being at God's right hand, is before God, even in his 
sight. This is he that purged our sins, therefore he 
is there as our priest, and to make intercession for us. 
And because there is no hmitation of his sitting or 
abode, it is to be taken for a perpetual act. All these 
are plainly expressed in other places, as chap. ix. 24, 
and X. 12, Eom. viii. 34. 

XXXVII. Christ as mediator is inferior to the 
Father. The right hand is below him that sits on the 
throne, Mark x. 37. 

XXXVIII. Christ as mediator is advanced above all 
creatures. The right hand is the next place to him 
that sits upon the throne, and above all that stand 
about the throne, as all creatures do, 1 Kings ii. 19, 
Gen. xli. 40, Eph. i. 20, 21, Philip, ii. 9. 

XXXIX. Christ is a king. He sits on the right 
hand of the Majesty, or of the throne of the Majesty, 
chap. viii. 1. This is a royal kingly seat, Ps. ex. 1, 2, 
1 Cor. XV. 25. 

XL. The highest heaven is the place of Christ's rest 
and glory. This phrase, on high, intendeth as much. 
It is expressl}' said, that he is ' set on the right hand 
of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens,' chap, 
viii. 1. And it is also said, that ' the heaven must 
receive him until the time of restitution of all things,' 
Acts iii. 21. 

Sec. 39 [bis]. Of Christ's excellency. 

Ver. 4. Being made so much better than the angels, 


[Chap. I. 

as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent 
name than they. 

Though the apostle premised the three former verses 
as a, proem, and therein couched the sum of the doc- 
trinal part of this epistle, yet he passelh from that 
general sum to the particulars, so as he maketh the 
one depend upon the other, as is evident by the par- 
ticiple yeti/Miog, 'being made,' whereby that which 
followeth is knit to that which goeth before. 

This verse, therefore, is a trausition from the 
general to the particulars ; for it followeth as a just 
consequence and necessary conclusion from the pre- 
mises ; and it is premised as the principal proposition 
of all that followeth in this chapter. 

The excellency of Christ's person is the principal 
point proved from this verse to the end of this chapter, 
and that by an argument of unequals. The inequahty 
is betwixt Christ and angels ; he is infinitely preferred 
before them. 

The apostle in the former verses proved Christ to 
be more excellent than the excellentest men ; even 
such as God extraordinarily inspired with his holy 
Spirit, and to whom he immediately revealed his will, 
that they might make it known to others. Such were 
the patriarchs, prophets, and the heads of the people. 
But these, as all other men, notwithstanding their 
excellencies, were on earth mortal. Therefore he 
ascendeth higher, and culleth out the celestial and 
immortal spirits, which are called angels. 

Angels are of all mere creatures the most excellent. 
If Christ then be more excellent than the most excel- 
lent, he must needs be the most excellent of all. This 
excellency of Christ is so set out, as thereby the glory 
and royalty of Christ's kingly office is magnified. For 
this is the first of Christ's offices which the apostle 
doth in particular exemplify : in which exemplification 
he giveth many proofs of Christ's divine nature, and 
eheweth him so to be man as he is God also; and 
in the next chapter, so to be God as he is man also : 
' like to his brethren,' chap. ii. 17. 

The comparison here made betwixt Christ and 
angels, is not a mere simple comparison, thus, Christ 
is more excellent than angels ; but it is comparatively 
propounded as a comparison of a comparison, thus : 
Christ is ' so much better than angels, as he hath ob- 
tained a more excellent name.'' This comparative 
comparison much sets out the transcendency of the 
point, that he is beyond all comparisons, even infinitely 

The word translated made, ytvi/iivoi, is sometimes 
useddeclaratively,to shew that the thing spoken of is so 
and 80, as where it is said, ' when Jesus was in Bethany,' 
Itjgou yivo/jiitov ill BnOavicj,, Mat. xxvi. ; and some- 
times efficiently, as where it is said, Jesus was 'made 
an high priest,' dfp^isjei; yit6/ji,ivoc, Heb. vi. 20. How- 
soever, this word, in relation to Christ's deity, cannot 

' TtrnTx—SfK, Sec Chap. vii. 22, Sec. 98. 

be taken but in the first sense only, declaratively ; 
yet in regard of his human nature, and of his person, 
consisting of both natures, and of his offices, it may 
be taken in both senses ; for in those three respects 
he was advanced, and made so and so excellent. 
Now the apostle speaks of him, not simply as God, 
but as God-man, king, priest, and prophet. Thus it 
is fitly and truly translated heiiifi made, namely, by 
his Father, who begat him, sent him into the world, 
and advanced him above all the world. 

In this respect he is said to be better, that is, more 
excellent. For this comparison hath not so much 
relation to the goodness of Christ's person, as to the 
dignity thereof. In this sense is this word oft used 
in this epistle, and translated by some ' more excel- 
lent.' Yea, chap. vii. 7, it is opposed to less, and so 
signifieth greater: 'the less is blessed of the better,' 
that is, the greater in dignity or in office. So in our 
English, we style such as are more excellent to be 
better men. 

The Greek comparative, xsiiTTuv, is derived from a 
noun that signifieth power, x^dro; ; but it is frequently 
used for the comparative of the Greek positive, which 
signifieth rjooil, aya^oc, and in that respect it is oft 
translated hetier. It is a general word, and applied 
to sundry kinds of excellencies : as to such things as 
are more commodious, 1 Cor. vii. 38; and more use- 
ful to others, 1 Cor. xii. 31 ; and more beneficial to 
one's self, Philip, i. 23 ; and more eft'ectual, Heb. ix. 
23; and more comfortable, 1 Peter iii. 17; and less 
damageable, 2 Peter ii. 21 ; and more excellent, Heb. 
X. 34 ; and more eminent or greater in dignity, Heb. 
vii. 7; and thus it is here to be taken. 

Sec. 40. 0/ angeW exceUencies. 

The persons before whom Christ is here in excel- 
lency preferred, are styled angels : ' better than the 

The signification of this name aiiiiel, tie nature of 
angels, their special office and quality, is by this our 
apostle himself distinctly set down, ver. 7. Yet 
here it is meet that we consider some of the angels' 
excellencies, that so we may the better discern both 
the reason why the apostle doth give this instance of 
angels ; and withal the surpassing excellency of Christ, 
who excels such excellent creatures. 

Some of the angels' excellencies are such as fol- 

1. Atujeh are spirits. The substance whereof they 
consist is spiritual. This is the most excellent sub- 
stance that any creature can have, and that which 
oometh the nearest to the divine nature ; for ' God is 
a spirit,' John iv. 24. A spirit is of substances the 
simplest, and freest from mixture and composition ; 
the purest and finest, and every way in the kind of it 
the most excellent. A spirit is not subject to gross- 
ness, drowsiness, weariness, heaviness, fuintness, sick- 
ness, diminution, alteration, putrefaction, consumption. 

Vi;i!. 4..] 


or any like imperfections, which bodies, as bodies, are 
subject unto. 

2. Angels, as at first created, and so remaining, are 
after the imatje of God; the purest, holiest, and readiest 
to all goodness of any mere creature. In regard of 
their Ukeness to God, they are styled ' sons of God,' 
Job i. 6. In regard of their promptness to goodness 
they are thus set out, ' Ye that do his commandments, 
hearkening to the voice of his words,' Ps. ciii. 20. 

3. Angels are the most glorious of all God's creatures. 
In glory they sui-pass the brightness of the sun. To 
set out the gloiy of an angel, his countenance is said 
to be like lightning, and his raiment white as snow, 
and shining, Mat. ssviii. 3, Luke xxiv. 4. Upon an 
angel's approach into a dark prison, a light is said to 
shine in the prison. Acts xii. 7. The glory of the Lord 
(that is, surpassing, incomprehensible glory) is said 
to shine round about upon the apparition of an angel, 
Luke ii. 9. So resplendent is an angel's brightness, 
as it hath much affrighted worthy saints, Luke i. 12 
and ii. 9. Yea, St John was so amazed at the appa- 
rition of an angel, as he fell at his feet to worship him. 
Rev. xix. 10 and xxii. 8. 

4. Angels have the highest habitations of all creatures ; 
far above the moon, sun, and all the glorious host of 
the highest visible heaven. They are in the invisible 
heavens, where the divine glory is most conspicuously 
manifested. In regard of the place of their residency, 
they are styled ' angels of heaven,' Mat. xxiv. 36. 

5. Angels have the most honourable function ; for 
' they always behold the face of God in heaven,' Mat. 
xviii. 10. They are as the gentlemen of the bedcham- 
ber to a king ; they minister to the Most High in an 
especial manner, Dan. vii. 10. Their principal attend- 
ance is upon the Son of God made man, John i. 51 ; 
and upon his mystical body, ver. 14. 

Sec. 41. Of Christ's excellencies above angels. 

In all the fore-mentioned excellencies is Christ more 
excellent than angels. For, 1, Christ's divine nature 
is infinitely more excellent than an angelical spirit ; 
yea, his human nature, by the hypostatical union of 
it with the divine, hath likewise a dignity infinitely 
surpassingly an angel's nature. 

2. Christ is the express image of the person of his 
Father, which is more than to be created, as angels 
were, after God's image. 

3. Christ is the brightness of God's glory, therefore 
more glorious than the most glorious angels. 

4. Christ-is in heaven, at the right hand of the throne 
of the Majesty, therefore in place of residency higher 
than angels. 

5. Christ's function, to be a mediator betwixt God 
and man, is greater than any of the functions of 

Therefore Christ is more excellent than angels in 
their greatest excellencies. Yet there is a greater ex- 
cellency wherein Christ doth farther excel angels, com- 

prised under this phrase, a more excellent name. This 
doth the apostle largely insist upon and copiously prove, 
and that upon this ground. Superstitious persons, 
especially the Jews, among whom many extraordinary 
things were done by the ministry of angels, had in all 
ages too high an admiration of angels ; so as they have 
deified them, and yielded divine worship unto tbem, 
whereby the glory of God hath been obscured, and 
Christ the less esteemed. It was therefore requisite 
to set out Christ's glory so as it might appear how, 
beyond comparison, Christ escelleth them ; which in 
the general is thus expressed, ' He hath by inheritance 
obtained a more excellent name than they.' 

Sec. 42. Of Christ's name. 

A name is that whereby a thing is made known and 
distinguished from others. Gen. ii. 19, 20. It is 
sometimes taken for a mere titular distinction, as 
where the degenerate and apostate Jews are called 
the people of God, the children of Israel. God ex- 
pressly saith, ' They are not my people,' Hosea i. 9; 
and Christ proveth that they are not Abraham's chil- 
dren, John viii. 39. Where it is said, Micah ii. 7, 
' thou that art named the house of Jacob,' a mere 
titular name is meant ; and where Christ saith of 
Sardis, ' Thou hast a name that thou livest, and art 
dead,' Rev. iii. 1. 

But the name here spoken of containeth a reality in 
it, Christ being indeed what he is named and said to 
be. It is not simply any of his titles, but that true 
relation which is betwixt God the Father and him ; 
such a relation as no mere creature is capable of. 
What it is, is expressly set down in the next verse, 
namely, to be the ' Son of God.' True it is, that 
through grace and favour, God vouchsafed this name 
to sundry creatures, but not so properly as unto 
Christ. See Sec. 15. 

This is that ' name which is above every name, at 
W'hich every knee should bow,' Philip, ii. 9, 10. By 
virtue of this name, he became a fit mediator between 
God and man, a fit saviour and redeemer of man, a 
fit king, priest, and prophet of his chiurch ; yea, and 
by virtue of this name, supreme sovereignty and ab- 
solute dominion over all creatures, infinite majesty, 
divine dignity, and all honour and glory is his ; all 
worship, service, subjection, and duty is due unto him. 
This name, therefore, must needs be, beyond all com- 
parison, a most excellent name ; and in this respect, 
Christ may well be said to have ' a more excellent 
name ' (&a^o3w7-sPov) than angels, because there is uo 
comparison between them. The comparative epithet, 
translated ' more excellent,' is derived from a com- 
pound verb, bioLfUui, that signifieth to difler in excel- 
lency, or to excel, 1 Cor. xv. 41. It is translated to ' be 
better,' Mat. vi. 26, or to ' be of more value,' Mat. x. 
31. The positive of this comparative, biapo^o:, sig- 
nifieth diverse or different, Rom. xii. 6. Of God's 
name, see Chap. ii. Sec. 112. 


[Chap. I. 

This word of comparison, more excellent, is not to 
be taken of an exceeding in the same nature and kind, 
as one man is more excellent than another ; but in 
difl'erent natures and kinds (the notation of the word 
imports as much), for Christ, as the Son of God, is of 
a divine nature, even the creator of all, and preferred 
before all created spirits, which, though they be the 
most excellent of created substances, yet not to be 
compared with the Son of God. His name is infinitely 
more excellent than theirs ; for, by reason of this 
name, he is the Lord of angels. 

Sec. 43. Of the right which Christ hnth to his 

The right which Christ had to his foresaid name is 
thus set down : ' He hath by inheritance obtained.' 
Ail this is the interpretation of one Greek word, xskXtj- 
fi)vo>?jx£», which by this periphrasis is set out to the 
full. The right of inheritance which Sarah would not 
that the son of the bondwoman should have, is set out 
by this word,' and is thus expounded : ' shall not be 
heir,' or ' shall not by inheritance obtain,' or shall 
not inherit,' ou /j.^ y.inoovoiir,ets, Gal. iv. 30. This 
right Christ hath in a double respect : 

1. As he is the true, proper, only begotten Son by 
eternal generation. For the Father, in communicat- 
ing his essence to him, communicated also this excel- 
lent name here intended. 

2. As his human nature was hypostatieally united 
to his divine nature ; for though, according to the 
flesh, he was not born of God the Father — in that re- 
spect he was without Father, uTaruo, Heb. vii. 8, born 
of a virgin — yet, that flesh being personally united to 
the only begotten Son of God, he was born the Son 
of God. In this respect an angel, speaking of his con- 
ception and birth, saith, ' That holy thing which shall 
be bom of thee shall be called the Son of God,' Luke 
i. 35. 

He was not then by grace and favour of no son 
made the Son of God, but as God, and as God man, 
he was the true begotten Son of God ; and in both 
these respects the name here spoken of, by right of 
inheritance, belonged to him. Of Christ the heir, see 
Ver. 2, Sec. 17. 

Sec. 41. Of the resolutiim nf the ith rfrxe. 

It was shewed before that the excellency of the gos- 
pel was much commended by the excellency of Christ, 
the author and matter thereof.^ Thereupon the apostle 
did set out Christ's excellency to the life. This point 
he prosecutcth in this and the verses following, so as 
the sum of all is, a proof of Christ's excellency. This 
proof is by an argument of the greater compared with 
the less. The greater or more excellent is Christ, the 
less or inferior are angels. Now, angels are the most 
excellent of creatures. He, therefore, that is more ex- 

' myntnifiti, haret ; «x>i(.»^i;», Jure haredilario consequi. 
• Soc. 46. 

cellent than they, must needs be most excellent. The 
argument may thus be framed : 

He that is greater than angels is most excellent ; 
but Christ is greater than angels ; therefore he is most 

This argument is first propounded in this verso ; 
secondly, exemplified in the versos following. 

In the general here propounded, two points are set 
down : 

1. The degree of Christ's dignity. 

2. Christ's right thereunto. 
In the degree observe, 

1. The creatures before whom Christ is preferred, 

2. The extent, how far Christ is preferred before 
them, in this phrase, so much better. 

In Christ's right is set down, 

1. The kind thereof, he hath by inheritance obtained. 

2. The matter or thing obtained, a more ejccellent 

Sec. 4.5. Of the observations of the ith verse. 

I. Anf/els are the most excellent of creatures. This 
is the reason why the apostle brings them into this 
comparison. If there had been any creatures more 
excellent than angels, Christ's excellency had not been ( 
so far set out as now it is ; for it might have been ob- 
jected that, though Christ were more excellent than 
angels, yet he was not the most excellent of all, there 
being other creatures more excellent than angels. 

II. Christ's excellency abore anf/els is beyond all com- 
parison. This phrase, so much better, &c., implies as 

III. Christ's excellencies made him hionn to be what 
he is. They gave him a name whereby he is so made 
known as he is distinguished from all others. Thns 
God's excellencies are st^'led his name, Exod. zsxiv. 
5, 6. 

IV. Christ hath a just rir/ht to his excellency. His 
right is a right of inheritance, which is the best right 
that can be. 

V. According to that excellency, which of right be- 
longs to any, he is to be esteemed. This is the end of 
setting out Christ's excellencies and his right to them, 
namely, to work in us an high esteem of him. Thus 
magistrates, ministers, masters, parents, and others, 
are to be esteemed according to that name which they 
have obtained. 

Sec. 46. Of the meaning of these words, ' For unto 
which of the angels said he at any time.' 

Ver. 5. For unto which of the angels said he at any 
time. Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee ! 
And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be 
to me a Son. 

In this verse the particular instance of the fore- 
mentioned excellent name is given, which is Son, in 
reference to God. 

Ver. 5,] 



This causal particle for, ya^, sheweth that that 
which followeth is a proof of that which went before. 
The proof is from an induction of a special name. 

The proof is taken from testimonies of Scripture. 
A testimony of Scripture is a sound proof. This was 
it whereunto a prophet thus directed God's people : 
' To the law and to the testimony,' Isa. viii. 20. 
Christ prefers it before the testimony of one risen 
from the dead, Luke xvi. 31 ; yea, before the testi- 
mony of John the Baptist, of his own works, and of 
his Father. For after he had produced those three 
testimonies, he advised to ' search the Scriptures,' and 
that because they testified of him, John v. 36-39. 

Obj. 1. A testimony is but an artificial argument, 
■which is counted.the last and lightest of all arguments. 

Ans. A testimony receivelh his force from the wit- 
ness-bearer. An human testimony is not counted 
infallible, because men are subject to ignorance, error, 
and manifold corruptions. But a divine testimony is 
infallible, in that it resteth on the highest and soundest 
ground of truth, which is the word of God ; for it is 
impossible for God to lie, Heb. vi. 18. See Chap. 
iii. 3, Sec. 26. 

As for sacred Scripture, it is all ' given by inspira- 
tion of God,' 2 Tim. iii. 16, and ' holy men of God 
spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost,' 2 Pet. 
i. 21. 

The Scripture is as a long continued, approved 
record, it is as a law written, and hath continued 
many generations, and thereby gained the greater con- 
firmation. Thus this proof is more sure and sound 
than any logical or mathematical demonstration can 
be. Nothing more convinceth a believer, or more 
prevaileth with him, tlian a Scripture proof. 

Ohj. 2. Heretics allege Scripture to prove their 

Ans. This doth yet further confirm Scripture proofs, 
in that all of all sorts fly to it, as all fly to the law, 
and plead it. But did the Scripture ever make for 
any heresy ? The devil himself alleged Scripture, Mat. 
iv. 6, but was confounded thereby, and so have all 
heretics been in all ages. Of heretics perverting 
Scripture, see The Whole Armourof God, ixea.i.i\.,^isx\, 
viii. Of God's word, on Eph. vi. 17, Sec. 16. 

What cause have we in this respect to observe this 
direction, ' Search the Scriptures,' John v. 39, and 
in hearing the word preached, to ' Search the Scrip- 
tures, whether the things we hear be so,' as the men 
of Berea did. Acts xvii. 11. 

We ought hereupon to have our judgments grounded 
on the Scriptures, our opinions ordered, and our doubts 
resolved thereby. Nothing ought to be taken as an 
article of faith, but that which may be proved thereby. 
The kind of argument here used is negative, it stands 
thus : the Scripture nowhere declareth angels to be 
sons of God. Therefore that name belongeth not to 

In regard of an article of faith, a negative argument 

from Scripture is sound and good, because all articles 
of faith requisite to be believed are therein set down, 
so as if it be not to be found in the Scripture, we may 
well conclude that it is no article of faith. 

The name which here is denied to belong to angels, 
is thus set down under an interrogation, ' Unto which 
of the angels said he ?' &c. This interrogation im- 
porteth a strong negation, somewhat more than if he 
had in a plain negative thus said, ' Unto none of the 
angels said he,' &c. For hereby he putteth the matter 
to their consideration, and maketh them judges thereof, 
as if he had said. Think with yourselves, and call to 
mind what anywhere you have read in sacred Scrip- 
ture ; and tell me, if any such thing be spoken of an 
angel therein. 

The distributive particle w/uc/t, thi, unto which, im- 
plieth a number of angels ; and by way of grant, a 
difl'erence of degrees: as if he had said, Grant that 
there are difl'erent degrees of angels, and that some of 
them are more excellent than others ; yet to none of 
them, no not to the most excellent, said he. Thou art 
my Son, &c. 

The relative particle he hath reference to God the 
Father, as is evident by this, that he saith, ' Thou 
art my Son,' &c. Though David uttered the words, 
yet, as the assembly of apostles and disciples expound 
it, Acts iv. 25, ' God by the mouth of his servant 
David said.' 

This manner of expression, said he, hath reference 
to the Old Testament, which, before Christ's time, 
was the only written word of God. And the extension 
of time in this phrase, at any time, con, hath relation 
to the whole history of the Bible, from the beginning 
of Genesis to the end of IVIalachi. Not once in any 
part of any of these books is this name. Son of God, 
applied to angels. 

Sec. 47. Of the various acceptions of this title 'Son 
of God: 

True it is, that where sons of God are said to pre- 
sent themselves before the Lord, Job i. 6 and ii. 1, 
angels are meant. ^ Angels also are meant, where it 
is said, ' All the sons of God shouted for joy,' Job 
xxxviii. 7. They are also stj'led, ' sons of the 
iVIighty,' Ps. Ixxxix. 6 f or, as many do translate it, 
' sons of God.' It is manifest, then, that angels are 
called sons of God. Or if angels be not meant, then 
men are called sons of God.^ If either angels or men 
be called sons of God, how can it be accounted a 
prerogative proper to Christ alone to be God's Son ? 

Ans. This title, son of God, is in sacred Scripture 
used two ways. See Sec. 15. 

' Venerunt angeli Dei. — Orig. in he. Qui Dei filii nisi 
electi angeli '? — Greff. Mag. in loc. 

'^ D'''?N '33' Sancti angeli qui sunt stabiles et deificati. — 
Ham. in Fa. Ixxxviii. 

» Kilii Dei vel angeli vel sancti intelligeudi sixui.—Uier. 
comment, in Job i. 


[Chap. I. 

1. Most properly, by nature and eternal generation. 

2. By mere grace and favour, God accounting them 
to be his sons, and accepting them as sons. In this 
latter respect many mere creatures are styled God's 
bods;' but in the former respect, none but the second 
person in sacred trinity, who assumed our nature, and 
BO became God-man in one person. 

In this proper and peculiar respect angels are de- 
nied to be sous of God, and Christ alone affirmed to 
be the Son of God, as is evident by the words follow- 
ing, 'Thou art my Son,' &c. This was most pro- 
perly applied to Christ, to whom God the Father, in 
a most proper and peculiar respect, so said. That 
apostrophe of the Father to his Son, and emphatical 
expression of the relative thou, nnx, au, sheweth that an 
especial Son is meant ; such a Sou as none is or can 
be but he alone that is there meant. Of the diflerence 
betwixt Christ and other sons of God, see Sec. 15. 

Sec. 48. Of the scope of the second Psalm. 

This testimony, ' Thou art my Son, this day have I 
begotten thee,' is taken out of Ps. ii. 7. That psalm 
is wholly prophetical. There is never a clause therein 
but may most fitly be applied to Christ.^ 

The Jews, who make it altogether historical, and 
apply it only to David and his kingdom, shoot clean 
beside the mark, and mistake the sense of the psalm, 
and scope of the inditer thereof. Nor this text here 
alleged, nor the extent of the dominion promised (to 
the uttermost parts of the earth), nor the power pro- 
niished of dashing all to pieces, nor the exhortation to 
all kings to fear him, nor the title Jehovah, ver. 11, 
nor the vengeance nor the blessedness mentioned in 
the last verse, can historically and properly be applied 
to David. 

It is much more to the purpose of the Holy Ghost 
that if anything be there spoken of David, it be taken 
to be spoken of him as of a type of Christ, and so, not by 
way of allegory or allusion, but truly and principally, 
prophesied of Christ. 

For this we have good proof, even from those that 
were immediately and infallibly assisted by the same 
Spirit that inspired the penman of the psalm, and 
knew his just and true moaning.' For the two first 
verses are by a joint consent of all the apostles applied 
to Christ, Acts iv. 25, 2G. The 7th vorse is also ap- 
plied to him, as here, so Acts xiii. 33. The 8th verse 
is applied to him by an angel sent from heaven, who 
Baith, Luke i. 83, that of Christ's kingdom there shall 
be no end,* no limit or bound, but extended to the 
uttermost part of the earth. He shall reign over the 

' lUe natus, nos ndnptnii, illo ab icterno filius unigenitua 
per naturani ; nos a tempore fiicti per gratiam. — Aug. Enar. 
in Pi. Ixxxviii. 

• Aspice universas nationes,&c.,et, si audes, nega propheta- 
tum, &c. — Tertul. adv. Marcion, lib. iii- 

' A udacisest hunc Psalmum interpretari vellc post Petrum ; 
imo de co sentire aliud quam in Actibus Apostolicis diierit 
Petnu. — liter, comment, in P: 2. * Syr. f\'\0, terminut. 

Gentiles, Rom. xv. 12. Yea, the 8th and 9th verses 
are by Christ himself applied to himself. Rev. ii. 26, 
27, where he promiseth to him that kcepeth his works 
unto the end power over the nations, and he shall rule 
them with a rod of iron ; as the vessels of a potter, 
shall they be broken to shivers. The groimd of this 
promise is thus expressed by Christ himself ' even as 
t received of my Father.' To this Son of God, there- 
fore, did God the Father say, ' I will give thee the 
heathen,' &c., Ps. ii. 8, 9. 

The eleventh verse, of serving the Lord with fear 
and trembling, is applied to Christ, Philip, ii. 12 ; 
yea, and the beginning of the 12th verse, Philip, ii. 
10, 11. For to kiss the Son, and to bow the knee to 
him, and to confess him, are equivalent phrases, which 
in eflect import one and the same thing. 

The middle of the 12th verse, concerning their 
perishing, wth whom the Son is angry, is appUed to 
kings and great men. Rev. vi. 15, 16. 

The last clause, of trusting in him, and of blessed- 
ness thence arising, is oft applied to Christ, as John 
xiv. 1, and vi. 47 ; Mat. xi. 6, Rev. xix. 9. 

By all these particular apphcations it is most evi- 
dent that the second Psalm is a proper prophecy of 
Christ. Hence it foUoweth that the proof here alleged 
truly and properly concerneth Christ, and is very per- 
tinent to the purpose, as will further appear, by open- 
ing the meaning of these words, ' This day have I be- 
gotten thee.' 

Sec. 49. Of God's henettimj his Son. 

This testimony, ' Thou art my Son, this day have I 
begotten thee,' is alleged to prove that Christ excelleth 
the most excellent creatures ; and it sheweth that 
some high transcendent matter, which can no way be 
apphed to any mere creature, is spoken of Christ, and 
tliat is to be a Son eternally begotten of God the 

To beget, in usual signification, is out of one's own 
essence to produce another like being. Thus Adam is 
said to beget a Son in his own likeness. Gen. v. 3. 
In allusion hereunto, these words be;ii't, begotten, are 
applied to the first and second persons of the sacred 
Trinity in a mutual relation of one to the other, and 
that for teaching's sake, to make ns by resemblances 
(such as we are well acquainted withal) somewhat ac- 
cording to our capacity, to understand of that mystery 
which is in itself unutterable, unconceivable, and in- 

No resemblances can to the life and full set out the 
profound mysteries of the Trinity of persons in the 
unity of nature, of the first person's begetting, of the 
second being begotten, of the third's proceeding. 

Comparisons and resemblances are but dark shadows 
of those bright lights. We may not expect that earthly 
and human things should in every respect answer 
heavenly and divine mysteries. They are only to help 
our dull and weak understanding. 

Ver. a ] 


It is a great matter indeed to conceive a begetting 
which is not in time, but eternal,' as is God the Father's 
begetting God the Son, which implieth the Father's 
eternal communicating his whole essence to the Son. 
As this test, and Ps. ii. 7, so all the texts of Scripture, 
which stj'le Christ the begotten Son of God, prove the 
point in general. 

Sec. 50. Of the special kind of God's begetting. 
In the divine generation, these distinct points fol- 
lowing are observable : 

1. God is a Father, even the first person in Trinity, 
begetteth. In this respect the Son of God is called 

-the begotten of the Father, John i. 14. 

2. God the Father^ begat the Son of his very sub- 
stance, ' very God of very God.' The title God pro- 
perly taken and frequently applied to this Son, gives 
proof hereto, as John i. 1, Eom. ix. 5, and especially 
the title Jehovah, which is given to none but to the 
true God, Gen. xix. 24, John v. 14. 

3. God the Father communicated his whole essence 
to the Son.^ He begat another self of himself, even 
that which he himself is. In which respect this Son 
of God saith, ' I and my Father are one ;' ' The 
Father is in me, and I in him,' John x. 30, 38. 

4. God the Father's begetting his Son, is truly and 
properly eternal. It was before all time, it continueth 
throughout all times, it shall never have any date or 
end. la relation hereunto saith this Son of God, ' I 
was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or 
ever the earth was. When there were no depths, I 
was brought forth ; before the hills was I brought 
forth,' &c., Prov. viii. 23-25. In this sense he was 
called ' the first-born,' Col. i. 15 : first-born, because 
he was begotten before all things ; and only-begotten, 
because he alone was properly begotten of God.* 

Some of the ancient fathers and later divines do in 
this sense take this word hodie, to-day ; for it signi- 
fieth the present time ; and in divine things there is 
a continual presence or presentness, as I may so 
speak ; neither is there anything past, as if it ceased 
to be ; or to come, as if it were not yet, or as if there 
had been a time when it was not.* The Greek word 

* ©ids a^' EayTflu lyivtift rov f^oyoyivtj ecfpi^Tots, xxi uKara- 
kriTTius, icui i^^xvTus. — Epiph. advers. At. Hoer., 69, sec. 15. 
Generationem Filii enarrabilem existentem nemo novit, &c., 
nisi solus qui generavit Pater, et qui natus est Filius. — Irm. 
advers. Hour., lib. ii., cap. xlviii. Revera magnum est mente 
concipere generationem, qute non fit ex aliquo tempore, sed 
seterna est. — Aug de Agon. Christian., c. xvi. 

' Unigenitum Filium de sua substantia genuit Pater 

Aug. Epist 66. 

' Gignit hypostasis.— ^<Aan Dialog, ii. de Trin. Ex ipsa 
essentia Patris est genitus — Chrysosl. Bom. ii. in Heb. i. 

Genuit de se alteram se. Genuit id quod ipse est Aug. 

Epist. Ixvi. Sic genuit ex se Filium. ut totura quod in se 
erat, esset et maneret in filio — Chrysol. Serm. Ix. 

♦ Primogenitus, ut ante omnia genitus ; unigenitus, ut 
Bolus ex Deo genitus. — Tertul. advers. Frax. 

' Quod dicit, ego hodii, Dens heri et eras non liabet, sed 

whereby eternity is set out (a/wv quasi ahi uv, Arist. 
lib. i. de Ccelo), signifieth a continual being of things. 
5. God the Father's begetting his Son manifesteth 
an equality of Father and Son ; for if the nature of 
both be inquired after, it will hereby be found to be 
God, and not one greater than another.' This also 
did the Son receive of the Father. He did not beget 
him equal," and then add to him, when he was be- 
gotten, equality ; but in begetting him he made him 
equal. For being in the form of God,^ to be equal 
with God was no robbery, Philip, ii. 6, but nature ; 
because he obtained it by being begotten, he did not 
usm-p it by a proud advancing of himself. Where 
equality is, there is the same nature, and one sub- 

Sec. 51. Of the Father's and Son's one and the same 

The Father's begetting of the Son giveth evidence 
to the two great mysteries of our Christian faith, which 
were implied under these two metaphors, brightness 
of his glory, and express image of his person.* 

The two mysteries are these : 

1. The Son is of the same essence with the Father. 

2. The Son is a distinct person from the Father. 
For the first : to beget doth in general imply a 

communicating of his essence that begetteth to him 
that is begotten. But the special begetting here in- 
tended declareth a communicating of the whole essence. 
Hence, by undeniable consequence, it foUoweth, that 
the begotten Son of God is of the same essence with 
the Father. 

To make this mystery the more clear, the Greek 
church used a compound Greek word, which signifieth 
consubstantial, o/Mousiog, or of the same essence ; a 
word which hath been used by the ancientest fathers,* 
and put into the Nicene creed* (which was ratified by 
the subscription of three hundred and eighteen bishops 
there assembled), and thus translated in our English 
Liturgy, ' Of one substance with the Father.' All 

semper hodie habet. — Arnob. in Ps. ii. ; Aug. Enar. in Ps. 
ii. Quo sempiternam generationem ut cathclica fides prs- 
dicat. — Hier. in Ps. ii. ; Haymo in Ps. ii. Per hodii ieter- 
nitatem intelligi yoXxdt.—Zanch. de trihus Eloh. lib. ii. cap. 
iv. ; MoUerus prcelecl. in Ps. ii. 8, aliique. Of this day, see 
Sec. 58, &c. 

' In Deo Patre et Deo Filio, si utriusque natura quseratur, 
uterque Deus ; nee magis magnus alter altero Deus. — Aug. 
Epist. Ixvi. ; Lege plura ibid. 

2 Qu. 'unequal"? — Ed. 

' In forma Dei jequalem esse Deo non ei rapina fuit, sed 
natura ; quouiam id nasceudo sumpsit, non superbiendo prse- 
sumpsit. — Aug. ibid. Ubi ajqualitas est, ibi eadem natura, 
unaque substantia. — Eier. lib. ix. Comment, in Quest. 28. 

* Quem constat de Patre naturaliter genitum, constat non 
aliud esse quam Deum. Hie itaque de Patre sempiternus 
existens, unam tenuit cum Deo Patre naturam, &c. — Ful- 

gent, ad Trasim. Reg. lii 

, cap. m. 


■' vtov rov Vlou Tov fAovoyivn Oftoovffioi Teo Uar^i. — Ruffin. Eccl. 

Bist. lib. i. cap. 1, 9 ; Epiph. advers. Boer. Art. Beer. Ixix. sec. 


[I'lIAI'. 1. 

the places that set out the unity of the Father and the 
Son,' such as these, ' I came forth from the Father,' 
John xvi. 28 ; 'I and my Father arc one,' John x. 
80 ; and all the places that style the Son God, give 
proof hereunto. So do the divine incommunicable 
properties attributed to the Son ; as eternitj', Isa. ix. 
6, Col. i. 17 ; ubiquity. Mat. xviii. 20, and xxviii. 20 ; 
omnipotency, Philip, iii. 21 ; immutability, Heb. i. 
12 ; omniscience, John i. 48, and xxi. 17. The like 
may be said of divine effects done by the Son ; as 
creation, John i. 3; susteutation, Col. i. 17; miracles, 
John XV. 24 ; remitting sin. Mat. ix. 6 ; quickening 
the dead in sin, John v. 21 ; raising himself, Rom. 
i. 4 ; raising others, John v. 28, 29. 

Sec. 52. OJ the Father and the Son. distinct persons. 
The other mystery is this, the Son is a distinct 
person from the Father. 

These two relative considerations, be(/et, begotten, 
necessarily imply a distinction.^ It hath been before 
shewed that the distinction is not in nature, essence, 
or substance ; therefore the fathers have of old used 
this word person to shew wherein the distinction con- 
eisteth. Of this word person, see Sec. 21. 

That the Son is a person or subsistence, is evident 
by these phrases in Scripture which give him a par- 
ticular and proper subsistence ; as this title, / am, 
which Christ applieth to himself, John viii. 58 ; and 
this, ' The Son hath life in himself,' John v. 26; and 
this, ' What thing soever the Father doth, those also 
doth the Son likewise,' John v. 19 ; and many the like. 
That the person of the Son is distinct from the 
person of the Father, is manifest by these correlative 
titles,' Father, Son, and correlative actions, hei/et, be- 
gotten ; and such phrases as these : ' The Word was 
with God,' John i. 1 ; ' The Son is in the bosom of 
the Father,' John i. 18 ; 'I came forth from the 
Father,' John xvi. 28. And such as set out their 
distinct order and manner of working : as, ' God 
made the worlds by the Son,' vcr. 2 ; 'He hath 
chosen us in him,' Eph. i. 4 ; ' The Lord rained 
from the Lord,' Gen. xviii. 24 ; ' The Lord said unto 
my Lord,' Ps. ex. 1. 

For further clearing this great mystery of the gene- 
ration of the Son of God, let us consider the difference 
betwixt it and other generations and operations. 

Sec. 53. Of the difference betwixt the t/eneralion of 
the same person as Son of God and Son of man, 

1. The generation of the Son of God was eternal 

• Aliud non est liomooiision, quam quod dicit, ego Deo 
Ptttro exivi ; et ego et Pater unum sumus. — Anibr. de Fide 
contra A rr. cup. v. 

• Pater alius a Filio, duin alius qui general, alius qui 
generatur. — Ttrtul. adiers. I'rax ; Justin Mart. loc. cit. ; Ter- 
lul.aduert. Prar.; Lad. de vera Sap. lib. iv. c,ip. xxxix., aliique. 

• Pater et Kilius personarum sunt ab invicem proprietate 
(listincti — Aug. de Fide ad P. Diac. cap. i. ; Lege Fulg. ad 
Tramim. Rig. lib. iii. cap. iii. 

before the world, but of the Son of man in the last 
days of the world, 1 Peter i. 20. This was that ful- 
ness of time which the apostle mentioneth, Gal. iv. 4. 

2. The former was without mother, the latter with- 
out father. Thus may we reconcile these different 
terms, ' without father, without mother,' Heb. vii. 3. 

3. By the former, Christ did really and fully par- 
take of the divine nature ; he was true God, very God 
of very God ; yet being a distinct person, he became 
fit to assume man's nature. By the latter, he so really 
assumed man's nature as he became a true man, — man 
of the substance of his mother ; and that after such a 
manner as he was declared thereby to be true God, 
and in that respect ' called the Son of God,' Luke 
i. 35 ; yea, he was ' God manifested in the flesh,' 
1 Tim. iii. 16. 

4. By the former he became fit to be a mediator in 
all things which required divine dignity, authority, 
power, worth, merit, and efficacy ; by the latter he 
became fit to be a mediator in all such things as re- 
quired infirmity, ministry, service, or any kind of 

Sec. 54. Of the difference betuixt divine regeneration'' 
and predestination. 

There are among other divine operations three, 
which are in themselves very remarkable, yet not to 
be compared to the divine generation of the Son of 
God. Those three are these, predestination, creation, 
regeneration. A due consideration of the difference 
betwixt them and this, will much iUustrato this. 

1. The generation of the Son of God doth differ 
from predestination, which is an internal and eternal 
work of God, in that it is a personal act,, proper to 
the Father alone,* and that only in relation to the Son. 
But predestination is an essential act, if I may so use 
this word, common to all the persons. Father, Son, 
Holy Ghost; and that iu relation to angels and men. 

Besides, predestination, as all other works of God 
towards creatures, is an act of God's will, merely vol- 
untary; God might if he would have forborne to do 
it : ' Ho wrought all things after the counsel of his 
own will,' Eph. i. 11. But the divine generation, 
though it be a free act, without any constraint, yet is 
it not a work of counsel and will, but of nature and 
necessity.' The Father cannot but beget the Son. 

Sec. 55. Of the difference betuixt divine generation 
and creation. 

Besides the fore-mentioned differences, there are 
others also betwixt divine generation and creation. 

1. Creation was a work out of God, in and upon 

' Qu. ' generation '? — Ed. 

' Generatio solius patris propria est. — Fulgent. Res. 2. ad 

' Oeneratio non est voluntatis opus, sed naturae proprietas. 
—Cytil. T/ietau. lib. i. cap. iii. 

Ver. 5.] 



creatures. But divine generation is an internal work,' 
in God himself, upon the very Creator, if I may so 

2. Creation is a making of that which was not, and 
that out of nothing ; but divine generation is of that 
which ever was, and that of the very substance of God. 

8. Creation was a work in the beginning, (>en. i. 1. 
Divine generation was before that beginning, even 
eternal, Prov. viii. 22, 23. Not as ' In the beginning 
God created the heaven and the earth,' so In the be- 
ginning he made the Word,^ but ' In the beginning was 
the Word,' John i. 1. 

4. Creation had an end. Gen. ii. 1, 2. The divine 
generation continueth ever, without all end. 

5. Creation was of many things diverse from the 
Creator, not like to him ; the divine generation is of 
that which is most like, yea, of the very same essence. 

Sec. 56. Of the difference hetivixt divine generatinn 
and regeneration. 

There are other differences than those mentioned 
before, betwixt the divine generation of the Son of 
God, and the spiritual regeneration of sons of men. 

1. There is a time for regeneration; for the time 
was when they that are regenerate were no children 
of God, Eph. ii. 12 ; and many that yet are not born 
again shall be regenerate, John x. 16 and xvii. 20. 
But in divine generation, there never was a time 
wherein the Son of God was no Son.' 

2. Kegeneration presupposeth a former birth and 
being. The very word, which signifieth to be born 
again, John iii. 8, importeth as much ; but no such 
matter may be imagined of the divine, eternal gene- 

3. Regeneration respecteth not the substance of 
the party regenerate, for the body and soul, and all 
the parts of the one, and powers or faculties of the 
other, are the very same before and after generation.'' 
But divine generation is in regard of the very essence 
oftheSonof God. 

4. Regeneration is an alteration of the person re- 
generate, and that in his condition and in his disposi- 
tion. In regard of his condition, of a child of wrath, 
Eph. ii. 3, he is made an heir of the grace of life, 
1 Peter iii. 7 ; in regard of his disposition, of dark- 
ness he is made light, Eph. v. 8. But in divine 
generation there is no alteration at all ; the Son is 
ever the same, ver. 12. 

5. In regeneration there is a growth and increase, 
1 Peter, ii. 2. But divine generation is ever most 
absolutely and infinitely perfect. 

' iiit lyinrKm iun i\uht ixurai. — Epiph.advers. hceres.Arrian. 
hceres. 69, sec. 26. 

= Non aicut in principio fecit Deua ccelum et terrain, ita 
in principio fecit Verbum, sed in principio erat Verbum. — 
Auff. Ep. 69. 

' lUe nunquam filius non fuit. Nos tunc Spiritum adop- 
tionia accepinius quando credidimus in iiliuni Yiei.— Bier. 
Commm. in Eph. i. • Qu. ' regeneration '?— Ed. 

6. Regeneration is of God's mere will and free 
grace, James i. 18. No mere man is by nature the 
son of God ;' but it hath been shewed that divine 
generation is of nature. See Sec. 50. 

Sec. 57. Of the difference heluixt divine and human 

Many of the differences betwixt the divine genera- 
tion of the Son of God, and human generations of sons 
of men, are such as were noted before. I will there- 
fore give but a touch of them, as being pertinent to 
the present point, and add some others thereunto. 

1. The generation of the Son of God is eternal, 
but of sons of men temporal. 

2. That is an internal work of the Father, this ex- 

3. That is a perpetual permanent act, this transient. 

4. That importeth a necessary mutual subsistence 
of him that begettetb, and him that is begotten, in and 
with one another : ' Thou in me, and I in thee,' saith 
the Son unto his Father, John xvii. 21. But in 
human generation, he that begetteth subsisteth with- 
out him that is begotten. 

5. That setteth out an equality of persons ; in this, 
children as children are inferior to their parents. 

6. That doth not presuppose no-being, as if the 
Son of God had of no son been begotten a son ; this 
is a begetting of him to be a son, which was no son 
before. In human generation that is which was not 

7. In divine generation none is before or after the 

In human generation, he that begetteth is before the 
begotten, and that not only in order of cause, but also 
in time. 

8. That is without all passion : this cannot be so ; 
for as there is an action in that which begetteth, so a 
passion in that which is begotten. 

9. In that he which begetteth and he which is 
begotten is the very same in substance, o/ioouu/og. In 
this, father and son may be and are of the like nature 
or essence, o/jMoUioi, but not the very same. The one 
is both alius and aliud, another person, and another 
substance distinct from the other. They are two. ■ 

10. In that, the whole substance is communicated; 
in this, but a part. 

11. In that, there is no diminution at all ; in this, 
there is. 

12. In that, all is divine and supernatural, both 
the substance and also the manner of working ; in this, 
all is natural and sensible. 

Sec. 58. Of the particle ' this day,' applied to 
Christ's incarnation. 

Hitherto of this great mystery of divine generation 
set down in this phrase, ' I have begotten thee ;' we 

' Non est naturae filius sed arbitrio Dei. — Hier. Comment. 
Mat. V. lib. X. 



[Chap. I. 

will further consider the just sense of the particle this 
day, annexed thereunto. 

It was shewed before, Sec. 50, how that might set 
out eternity, in that it importetb a continual present 
time, without respect to the time past or future.' In 
this sense it would best agree with this mystery of the 
divine generation, simply considered in itself. But 
here the apostle settcth out the Son of God, as ' God 
manifest in the flesh,' Immanuel, God with us, God- 
man, God-man in one person. 

Thus (as the Word was made flesh, and dwelt 
among us) ' God hath spoken unto us in these last 
days by his Son ;' thus hath God ' appointed him heir 
of all things ;' thus hath he purged our sins ; thus sits 
he down at the right hand of the Majesty on high ; 
yea, thus in the second Psalm, this Son of God (as 
God -man) is styled the Lord's Anointed ; thus God 
saith of him, ' I have set my King upon my holy hill 
of Siou ;' thus also he saith to him, ' Ask of me, and 
I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance.' 

Seeing therefore that both the psalmist and the 
apostle speak of the Son of God incarnate, and made 
a Son of man, the particle this daij may not unfitly 
be applied to such times as the Son of man was on 
earth manifested to be the Son of God, especially at 
the time of his incarnation. For then was the Word 
first made flesh ; so as then might the Father say of 
a Son of man, ' Tiiis day have I begotten thee ;' that 
is, even now it is manifest that a son of man is the 
begotten Son of God. 

Besides, Christ's incarnation was so strange, his 
mother being a pure virgin, as she herself said, 'How 
shall this be ?' At that time therefore said the angel 
to the Virgin Mai-y, ' That holy thing which shall be 
born of thee, shall be called the Son of God,' Luke i. 
84, 85. 

After his conception, before his birth, his name 
was set down Jesns, and that upon this ground, ' He 
shall save his people from their sins,' Mat. i. 21, 
which none could do but the begotten Son of God. 

Answerably at the day of his birth an angel said, 
'To-day is bom a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord,' 
Luke ii. IL Could so much be said of any but of the 
begotten Son of God ? Here by an angel's voice the 
hodii, to-day, is expressly set down of the day of 
Christ's birth. Hereupon on that day a multitude of 
the heavenly host sang, ' Glory be to God in the 
highest,' Luke ii. 14. 

Where a prophet of old prophesied of the birth of 
this God-man, thus he sets it out, Isa. ix. 6, ' Unto 
us a child is bom, unto us a son is given ; and the 
government shall be upon his shoulder : and his name 
Bhall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty 
Gjd, The everlasting Father, The Prince of peace.' 

' Quod dictnm est, AodiV, procsentis eat temporis: potest 
tamen et seeunduni caruem hoc accipi dictum — Chri/t. llum. 
ji. in Ut\>. i. 

Can this possibly be meant of any but the begotten 
Son of God ? 

Thus we see how fitly this particle, this day, may 
be applied to the time of Christ's incarnation, which 
was first wrought in and by his conception, and then 
manifested to the world in and by his birth. 

Sec. 69. OJ the ■particle 'this day applied to Chmt's 

There was another time wherein Christ was on 
earth manifested to be truly and properly begotten of 
God, and that was at his resurrection ; for when he 
had so far subjected himself to the power of his 
enemies, as to sufl'er them to do to the very uttermost 
what possibly they could — for men, ' after they have 
killed the body, have no more than they can do,' 
Luke xii. 5 — to shew that by his divine nature he 
could undo all, and make all void, he rose again from 
the dead. Thus was he ' declared to be the Son of 
God with power,' namely, ' by the resuirection from 
the dead, Rom. i. 4 ; 'for it was not possible' that 
the Son of God ' should be holden of death,' Acts ii. 

Sundry both ancient and later divines' do apply 
these words, ' This day have I begotten thee,' to the 
resurrection of Christ ; for by that power which Christ 
had to raise himself from the dead, it evidently 
appeared that he was indeed the begotten Son of 
God ; of such power as the Father had ; and therefore 
of the very substance of the Father: true God in 
power, true God in essence. This they do the rather 
thus apply, because St Paul himself seemeth bo to 
do. Acts xiii. 33. 

Concerning St Paul's particular application of this 
text to Christ's rcsuixection, much is disputed pro et 
con, for it and against it. 

There are two principal points which the apostle 
laboureth to prove in that sermon, Acts xiii. 17 : one, 
that God ' according to his promise raised unto Israel 
a Saviour,' verse 23 ; the other, that this Saviour 
being put to death, God raised him from the dead, 
verse 30. Now, in verse 83, the former of these two 
points seemeth to be proved by this testimony, ' Thou 
art my Son, this day have I begotten thee ;' and the 
latter by two other testimonies, verse 84, 85. But to 
which of those two points soever that text be applied, 
either to God's raising unto Israel a Saviour Jesus, 
or to God's raising this Jesus from the dead, it is 
most clear that the apostle produceth this text, ' Thou 
art my Sou, this day have I begotten thee,' unto the 
Son of God manifested in the flesh ; and that he 
applieth this day to that distinct time wherein God 
manifested his Son, or shewed him forth to the world.* 

' Ad resiirrcctionein si)ectnre vidctur. — Amb. de. Sacram, 
lib. iii. cap. i. Ita Uilarius et Theodorus Antioch. Flaminiut 
in Explan. Ps. ii., Valab. Annot. in Ps. ii. 7. Calvin Comm. 
in Acts xiii. 88, aliique pbtrimi. 

* Solcnnc et Icgitimum mauifestationis tempus Spiritus S. 
hie designat.— Ca<». Cvmmmt. in Ps. ii. 7. 

Ver. 5.] 



Sec. 60. Of the 'many evidences of Christ's divine 

Quest. 1. Were there not other times wherein Christ 
was manifested to be the Son of God, besides his con- 
ception, birth, and resurrection ? 

Ans. Yes, very many. He was manifested to be 
the Son of God, and that after his wonderful birth : 

1. By Simeon's and Anna's testimonies when he 
was presented in the temple, Luke ii. 29, 38. 

2. By the star that conducted the three wise men 
out of the east to him, and by their worshipping him, 
and ofl'ering gifts to him, Mat. ii. 2, 11. 

3. By his disputing with the doctors in the temple 
at twelve years old ; and telling his mother that he 
must be about his Father's business, Luke ii. 42, 

46, 49. 

4. By John the Baptist's testimony of him, Luke 
iii. 16, 17, John i. 29, and iii. 29, &c. 

5. By the Father's testimony of him at his bap- 
tism ; and by the Holy Ghost's lighting upon him. 
Mat. iii. 16, 17. The like testimony was given at 
his transfiguration, Mat. xvii. 5, and a little before his 
passion, John xii. 28. 

6. By his manner of resisting and commanding the 
devil away, Mat. iv. 3, &c. 

7. By discovering men's inward disposition, John i. 

47, and ii. 25, and vi. 70 ; and thoughts, Mat. ix. 4, 
and xvi. 7, 8. 

8. By his divine doctrine, John vii. 46. 

9. By his many mighty miracles, John xv. 24. 

10. By his manner of forgiving sin, Mat. ix. 2, 6. 

11. By the power which he gave to his disciples. 
Mat. X. 1, Mark xvi. 17, Mat. xvi. 19 ; yea, and by 
breathing the Holy Ghost into them, John xx. 22. 

12. By overthrowing them that were sent to appre- 
hend him, John xviii. 6. 

13. By his manner of giving up the ghost, and the 
wonders thereat. Mat. xxvii. 54, Mark xv. 39. 

14. By his ascension. Acts i. 9. 

15. By the gifts he gave after his ascension, Eph. 
iv. 8. 

16. By the functions of King, Prophet, and Priest, 
conferred on him, Heb. v. 5. 

By these and other notable evidences the eternal 
Son of God (who from the beginning did, as it were, 
lie hid in the bosom of the Father, and under the law 
was shadowed over), was manifested to be the begot- 
ten Son of God.' 

Sec. 61. Of the extent of ' this day.' 

Quest. 2. If there be so many days wherein Christ 
was manifested to be the Son of God, how is it said, 
eiifie^ov, ' this day,' as if there were but one only day ? 

Ans. This day is not always strictly referred to one 

' Significat eum qui fuerat ab initio absconditus in arcano 
Patris sinu, et obscure deinde sub lege adumbratus, ex quo 

prodiit cum Claris insignibus, cognitum fuisse Dei filium. 

Vat. Annot. in Paahn ii. 7. 

set day, consisting of twelve or twenty-four hours, but 
to a determined present time, which may consist of 
many hours, days, and years. 

Moses oft setteth down the time of Israel's abode 
in the wilderness under ' this day,' as Deut. x. 15, 
and xxvi. 16-18, and xxvii. 19. 

It is usually put for that time wherein they live, 
concerning whom it is spoken ; as 1 Chron. xxviii. 7, 
Jer. xliv. 2, Dan. ix. 7, Luke iv. 21. And it is used 
to distinguish present times from former times ; as 
1 Sam. ix. 9, ' He that is this day' called a prophet, 
was before that time called a seer.' In hke sense, 
yesterday is put for former times, as where the Lord 
saith, ' yesterday my people ;' ^ that is, ' of late my 
people,' or heretofore. Thus yesterday is opposed to 
this day ; as where Christ is said to be the same yes- 
terday (in former times before he was exhibited in the 
flesh), and to-day (now since his incarnation), and for 
ever, Heb. xiii. 8. 

That this day may have a long date, is evident by 
the apostle's own explication thereof; for where the 
psalmist had said, Ps. scv. 7, ' To-day if you will 
hear his voice,' the apostle, who lived above a thou- 
sand years after him, applieth this day to his own 
times, and saith, Heb. iii. 13, ' Exhort one another 
daily, while it is called to-day.' 

Thus we see how this day may, according to the 
use of it in sacred Scripture, be applied to a long date ; 
and particularly to the whole time of Christ's mani- 
festing himself in the flesh, to be the begotten Son of 
God, from the beginning of his incarnation to his 
ascension into heaven ; yea, and to future times also, 
by reason of the evidences which he giveth of his true 
deity. For he promised to send the Holy Ghost to 
his disciples, John xvi. 7, and to be with his church 
alway even unto the end of the world, ^ Mat. xxviii. 20. 
The accomplishment hereof is an undeniable evidence 
of Christ's true deity. 

How ' this day' may be extended to eternity, was 
shewed before in Sec. 50. 

Sec. 62. Of manifesting Christ's divine generation. 

Quest. 3. How can the limitation of this day to the 
time of Christ's incarnation, stand with Christ's eter- 
nal generation, set out under this phrase, ' I have be- 
gotten thee.' 

Ans. In Scripture, matters are then said to be done, 
when they are manifested to be done. Whereas, 
Heb. viii. 13, by bringing in a new covenant, the for- 
mer is said to be made old ; the meaning is, that it is 
manifested to be old. But more pertinently to our 
present purpose, Christ, at the moment of his concep- 

' DVn> hodie. 

' 'Dy ^lOriN' fferi popiilus mens — Micah ii. 8. 

' Pulchre Pater dicit ad Filium, Ego hodie genuite, hoc est, 
quando redemisti populum, quando ad cooli regnum vocasti, 
quando implesti Toluntatem meam, probasti meum te esse 
Filium. — Anib. de Sacr. lib. iii. cap. 1. 

iorciE o\ hb:rrew- 

[Chap. I. 

tion, is said to be ' called the Son of God,' Luke i. 35, 
because then he began to be manifested so to be. In 
this sense, this high transcendent propbec}', ' Unto us 
a child is born, unto us a Son is given, and the govern- 
ment shall be upon his shoulder ; and his name 
shall be called Wonderful,' &c., Isa. ix. G, 7, is to be 

This manifestation of Christ's divine generation in 
set and certain times, by visible and conspicuous evi- 
dences, doth no whit cross or impeach the eternity 
and incomprehensibleness thereof. For to declare 
and manifest a thing to be, presupposeth that it was 
before it was manifested ; neither doth it necessarily 
imply any beginning of that before ; no more than 
those phrases, ' Before the mountains were brought 
forth, thou art God,' Ps. xc. 2 ; ' Before the bills I was 
brought forth,' Prov. viii. 25. 

The full meaning therefore of the apostle in alleg- 
ing this testimony, ' Thou art my Son, this day have 
I begotten thee,' may, for perspicuity's sake, be thus 
paraphrased, as if God the Father had thus said to 
God the Son : Thou, and thou alone, art my true 
proper Son, not by grace or adoption, bnt by nature 
and eternal generation ; and now I do in this last age 
of the world declare thee so to be by thine incarna- 
tion, doctrine, works, resurrection from the dead, 
and ascension into heaven, whereby it manifestly ap- 
peareth that thou infinitely dost surpass all the angels 

Sec. 63. OJ Solomon a ti/pe of Clirisl. 

To the fore-named testimony, which provetb Christ 
to be the begotten Son of God, another is added to the 
very same purpose,' as these copulative particles xal, 
and, -rraKiv, again, import. Hereby it is evident that 
sundry testimonies may be produced to prove the same 
point, Rom. v. 10, &c. 

1. This sheweth consent of Scripture. 

2. It more works, as many blows knock a nail up 
to the head. 

8. Many testimonies may better cleai- the point, and 
one place be a commentary to another. 

Though this be lawful, yet a mean must be kept 
theiein, and care be taken wisely to observe when 
there is need of adding testimony to testimony. See 
Sec. 77. 

This latter testimony is taken out of a promise 
made to David ; it is twice recorded, as 2 Sam. vii. 
14, 1 Chron. xvii. 18, and it is repeated by David 
the third time, 1 Chron. sxii. 10. 

The apostle faithfully quoteth the very words of the 
promise, which are these, ' I will be to him a Father, 
and he shall bo to me a Son.' 

Our English makes a little difference in translating 
the Hebrew and the Greek. For that thoy turn the 
Hebrew, ' I will bo his Father, and ho shall be my 
Bon,' which is in effect the same, his Father, and a 
Father to him, his Hon, and a Hon to hiw, are all one 

in sense. The two original languages do directly 
answer one another.' 

]n the repetition of this promise, 1 Chron. ii. 10, 
the order is inverted, for it is thus set down, ' He 
shall be my Son, and I will be bis Father.' This in- 
version of words no whit at all altereth the sense, 
but atfordetb unto us this observable instruction, that 
the Father was not before the Son, nor the Son be- 
fore the Father, nor in time, nor in order, both co- 
eternal, both equal : the glory equal, the majesty 
co-eternal, as it is in Athanasius his creed.'' There- 
fore in one place the Father is first set down, in 
another the Son ; for the Son was always with the 
Father, and always in the Father:^ with the Father, 
by an inseparable distinction of the eternal Trinity ; 
in the Father, by a divine unity of nature. This is 
further manifest by a distinct expression of both the 
relatives ; for he contents not himself to say, ' I will 
be a Father to him,' but he adds, ' he shall be a Son 
to me,' to shew that the Father never was without 
the Son. 

The fore-mentioned promise, as it is a promise, 
hath immediate relation to the Son of David, even to 
Solomon by name, 1 Chi-on. xxii. 9, and thereupon 
this threatening (' if be commit iniquity I will chasten 
him ') is added, 2 Sam. vii. 14, for Christ was not 
subject to sin. 

There be that say that Solomon in his sins might 
be a tjpe of Christ, as Christ is an head of a body, and 
considered with the body, as Mat. xxv. 40 ; Acts ix. 
4 ; 1 Cor. sii. 12 ; and so this threatening, ' If he 
commit iniquity I will chasten him,' applied to Christ ; 
or else as Christ was our surety, and took our sins 
upon him, and was chastened for.them.* 

But it is not necessary that all things which were in 
such persons as were types of Christ should be applied 
to Chi-ist. Not Solomon, nor David, nor ;Aaron, as 
sinners in regard of their sins, were types of Christ ; 
though he was ' in alljpoints tempted like as we are, 
yet without sin,' chap. iv. 14. No kind of persons 
were more proper types of Christ than the high-priests, 
yet were they not types in all things that pertained 
to them ; they were of the tribe of Levi ; they offered 
sacrifices for their own sins ; they oft renewed their 
sacrifices ; they had successors when they died. In 
none of these were they types of Christ. See Chap. 
L 6, Sec. 12. 

' ph '^ n<n^ Nini as^ \hn'nH ':n •Ej.i u.f,a, i«T. i„ 

treiri^a, xai etvris ttrTett fitoi us wov. 

* Cum I'atre semper, et in Patre eemper est Filius ; cum 
Patre per distinctioncm indissooiabilem Trinitatis retcrna." : 
in Patre per divinam unitatem naturte. — Amb. de fide, lib. 
iv. cap. iv. 

* Cbristus dupliciter potest intelligi liabere peccatum : ve! 
quia susccpit in so, et Init peccata nostra in suo corpore ; v<l 
quia peccata qua; hterent in corpore et in membris vickri 
possunt aliquo mode portinere ad caput. — P. Mart. Comment. 
in 2 Sam. vii. 14. Sic fere Osiander et Lava. Comment, in 
2 Paralip. xvii. 13, aliique. 

Ver. 5,] 



But the excellent prerogatives heaped up together 
have not relation to Solomon alone. The preroga- 
tives as they are propounded to David in the name of 
the Lord, are these in order. 

1. I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall 
succeed out of thy bowels, 2 Sam. vii. 12. 

2. I will estabhsh his kingdom, ibid. 

3. He shall build a house for my name, 2 Sam. 
vii. 13. 

4. I will establish the throne of his kingdom for 
ever, ibid. 

5. I will be his Father, and he shall be my Son, 
2 Sam. vii. 14. 

6. I will settle him in my house, and in my king- 
dom for ever, 1 Chron. xvii. 14. 

7. He shall be a man of rest, and I will give ^him 
rest from all his enemies, &c., 1 Chron. xxii. 9. 

These, at least most of them, were Uterally meant 
of him, who by name is expressed, Solomon ; yet not 
singly and simply considered in himself alone, but as 
a type of Christ.' For David and his posterity had 
their royal dignity conferred upon them, not so much 
for their own sakes, as that they might be a foregoing 
type and a visible representation of Christ's royal 
dignity, and of that redemption and salvation which 
he should bring to the people of God. So as those 
excellencies which in the letter are spoken of David, 
Solomon, and others, are mystically, truly, and prin- 
cipally foretold of Christ, whereby the benefit of those 
promises was infinitely increased, and the comfort of 
true believers above measure enlarged. This the 
apostles, who were inspired with a divine Spirit, well 
knew ; and thereupon on all occasions applied those 
types to their intended truth, as here in this place. 

True it is that David's son by Bathsheba was 
named Solomon ;- but the mystical truth of his name 
(as of the name of Melchisedec, chap. vii. ver. 7) was 
manifested in Christ Jesus. Read the 72d Psalm, 
which carrieth this title, ' for Solomon,' and it will be 
found that Christ is the true Prince of peace, which 
Solomon's name importeth, and that all things there 
Bet down are fulfilled in Christ. 

But to compare the tj^pe and truth together in such 
particulars as are mentioned in the promise made to 
David, 2 S.im. vii. 12, these instances following are 
to be observed. 

1. Solomon was a man of rest ; and Christ was the 
Prince of peace, Isa. ix. 6. God ' gave Solomon rest 
from all his enemies,' such as were the Philistines, 
Aramites, Moabites, Ammonites, and others like them ; 
but Christ so judgeth among the nations as they 'beat 

' Promissi series Christum spopondit. — Amb. lib. iii. Com- 

'' Totutn psalimim, qui figurate tanquam in Salomonem di- 
citur, si legere vellet, inveniret Christum vere regem Paci- 
ficum: hoc enira Salomonis nomen interpretatur : in quo 
cognosceret completa omnia quaj ibi dicuntur, &c. — Aug. 
contra Faust. Munich, lib xiii. cup. vii. Lege Aug. Ennr. in 
Ps. Ixxi. and in Ps. cxxvi. 

their swords into ploughshares,' &c., Isa. ii. 4, and 
' the wolf shall dwell with the lamb,' &c., Isa. xi. 6-9; 
yea, God in giving Christ ' hath raised up an horn of 
salvation for us in the house of his servant David, that 
we should be saved from our enemies, and from the 
hand of all that hate us,' Luke i. 69, 71 ; not only 
fi-om men but from devils also, for he hath ' spoiled 
principalities and powers,' Col. ii. 15. 

2. God gave peace and quietness to Israel in 
Solomon's days ; but Christ is our peace, Eph. ii. 14 ; 
and it pleased the Father to reconcile all things to 
himself by Christ, Col. i. 20. 

3. Solomon was the seed that proceeded out of 
David's bowels, whom God set up after David ; but 
Christ was that promised seed that by an excellency 
and property was called the son of David, Mat. i. 1, 
who also by lineal descent proceeded out of David's 
bowels. An ancient father expounding this phrase, 
Out of thy bowels, thus. Out of thy belly (as the LXX 
and vulgar Latin do), hath this comment upon it : — 
If you simply take this of Solomon it is ridiculous, 
for then might David be thought to have brought forth 
Solomon as a mother. Hereupon he applieth this to 
the Virgin Mary, out of whose womb Christ came.i 
But that father mistook the mark, for the Hebrew 
word properly signifieth the bowels (as our English 
turns it) ; and it is elsewhere appHed to men, as Gen. 
XV. 4, 2 Sam. xvi. 11. And in 1 Chron. svii. 11 it 
is thus expressed, ' which shall be one of thy sons ;' 
therefore Solomon must not be clean excluded, but be 
immediately intended, yet as a type, and Christ most 
principally, as the truth and substance. 

4. God established Solomon's kingdom, but much 
more Christ's, ' whose kingdom cannot be moved,' 
Heb. xii. 28, as Solomon's was ; for first ten tribes 
fell away from his son, 1 Kings xii. 20, and after- 
wards the whole kingdom was translated from Solo- 
mon's race to Nathan's. Compare Mat. i. 12 with 
Luke iii. 27, where therefore it is further said, ' I will 
establish the throne of his kingdom for ever.' If this 
be applied to Solomon, it must be taken improperly for 
long date, but applied to Christ it is most truly and 
properly spoken : ' For he shall reign over the house 
of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be 
no end,' Luke i. 33 ; so as this extent of the promise 
to everlastingness evidently proves that Christ is here 
principally intended.- 

5. Where it is further said that the promised sou 
of David should build an house for the name of the 
Lord, this is true of the earthly temple built of stone 
and timber, and garnished with gold, silver, silk, and 

> 1''JJDD : LXX, i,. rh Kcxix, <r»i/; Vet. Lat. ex ventre luo. 
Si in Salomone simpliciter edisseres, risum mihi incuties. 
Videbitur enim David peperisse Salomonem. At et hie 
Christus signiiicatur, ex eo ventre semen David, qui est ex 
David, id est Mariaj. — Tertul. adver. Marcion, lib. iii. 

'■* Thronus in sevum et regnum in sevum magis Christo 
competit, quam Salomoni temporali scil. regi. — Tert. loc. citat. 


[Chap. I. 

other like ornaments, which was a typical house for 
God's name, 1 Kings v. 5; but Christ built the 
mystical, spiritual, ti-ue bouse of God, which is the 
church of the living God,' Heb. iii. 3, C, 1 Tim. iii. 15. 

Well, therefore, aud that most fitly and properly, 
may this part of the promise, ' I will be a Father to 
him, and he shall be a son to me,' be applied to Christ. | 
To Solomon it was spoken in a type ; to him indeed 
God was a father in favour and love, aud he was a 
son to God, as ho bare God's image, being a king, 
and through the grace of adoption and regeneration. 
But God is a father to Christ by begetting him, and 
communicating his whole essence to him ; and Christ 
is a son to God by being properly begotten of God, 
of the same essence with him.- 

Thus is this testimony as pertinent to the apostle's 
purpose as the former. Father and Svn being here 
properly taken in a like mutual relation of one to 

Quest. How then is this set down in the future 
tense, as of a thing to come, / will be, He shall he, 
seeing the divine generation is eternal ? 

Alls. As in the former testimonies, so in this, the 
apostle setteth out the Son of God incarnate, whereby 
he was visibly manifested to be the true, proper, only 
begotten Son of God, so as this promise is of a future, 
conspicuous declaration of an eternal relation ; as if 
the promise had been thus made, I will manifest that 
I am the Father of that Son which I will raise up to 
thee, and that he is my Son. In like manner saith 
the angel to the Virgin Mary, ' That holy thing which 
shall be bom of thee shall be called the Son of God,' 
Lnke i. 85. 


Sec. 64. Of the resolution of the fifth reise. | 

The exemplification of the former comparison (ver. 4) I 
here begins, and continueth to the end of this chapter, i 

In this exemplification there are suudi-y proofs given, I 
both of Christ's excellency above angels, and also of i 
angels' inferiority to Christ. 

Christ's excellency is exemplified in eight particu- 
lars, which are these : 

1, That relation which is betwixt God the Father 
and the Son, in this verse; 2, that worship which is 
due unto Christ, ver. 6 ; 3, Christ's divine nature, 
ver. 8; 4, Christ's royal function, ver. 8; 5, the 
eminency of Christ's gifts above others, ver. 9 ; 
f), Christ's great work of creation, ver. 10 ; 7, Christ's 
immutabiUty, vers. 11, 12 ; 8, Christ's glory and dig- 
nity, ver. 18. 

' Quinsdem Dei magis Christiis edificaturus esset, horai- 
nem scil. sanctmn, iu quo imtioro templo inhabitaret Dei 
S|iiritU8, in Doi Filium mngis Christ us liabenJus essot, quam 
Siilomon Alius Dnvid.— 7>r<. loc. cWU. Salomon .•cdificavit 
templum Domino in typo quidem et in figura futuise eccle- 
sia), &c. — Aug. Enar. in Pa. cxxvi. 

* Quis est isto proprius Dei Filius, nisi cui dictum est, Filius 
mcus es tu, Ego hodie genui te? — Aml>r. lib. iii. Comment, in 

The inferiority of angels is exemplified in three 
particulars : 

1, That duty which they owe to Chi-ist, namely, to 
worship him, ver. 6 ; 2, their created nature, ver. 7 ; 
3, their office to attend upon saints, ver. 14. 

In this verse the first branch of the exemplification 
of Christ's excellency above angels is set down. 

The sum of it is, the relation betwixt God the 
Father and Christ. 

In setting down hereof we are to observe, 1, the 
proof; 2, the point. 

The proof is taken from testimonies of Scripture, 
which are two. 

The first is taken out of Ps. ii. 7, wherem observe, 

1, The manner of producing the testimony; 2, the 
matter whereof it consisted. 

The manner is noted two ways : 

1. Negatively. Because no mention is made in 
Scripture of any angel to be God's son, the apostle 
concludes that no angel is God's son. 

2. Interrogatively, whereby he propounds the case 
to them to judge of it : ' Unto which of the angels 
said he,' &c. 

The matter of the testimony consisteth of a rela- 
tion, whereof observe : 

1, The circumstances; 2, the substance. 
The circumstances are two : 

1. An apostrophe of the Father to the Son, Thou art. 

2. The time. This day. 

The substance of the testimony sets out : 

1. The kind of relation, viy Son. 

2. The ground of it, / hare ber/otteii thee. 

The other testimony of Scripture is taken out of 
2 Sam. vii. 14. 

In producing this testimony observe : 

1. The connection of it with the former in this 
phrase. And aijain. 

2. The substance thereof. Wherein again observe, 
(1.) The manner of expressing it, by way of promise, 

1 will lie, &c. 

(2.) The matter thereof WTiich e.xpresseth, 
[1.] The relative, a Father. 
[2.] The co-relative, a Sou. 

Sec. 65. Of the doctrines arising out of the fifth verse. 

I. A ttslimony of Scripture is a sound proof. See 
Sec. 46. 

II. A neyntire argument from Scripture is a good 
argument. This is to be taken of articles of faith, and 
such things as are necessary to be known by Chris- 
tians ; for in such things the whole counsel and will 
of God is made known unto us by the Scriptures. 
Hereupon a curse is denounced against such as take 
from or add to the Scriptures, Rev. xxii. 18, 19. 

III. Christians ought to be so expert in the Scriptures 
as to know what is therein set doion, or tvhat not. This 
I gather from the apostle's interrogation, ' Unto which 
of the angels,' kc. Hereby he would have them judge 

Vkr. (].] 


of the truth of what he said, which they could not do 
unless they had been well exercised in the Scriptures. 

IV. No anael is properhj God's Son. For they are 
angels concerning whom the apostle propounded this 
question, and that by way of negation. 

V. Christ is the true and proper and only Son of God. 
This is the main scope of this testimony. See 
Sec. 15. 

VI. The Father achnowledgeth Christ to he his Son. 
This apostrophe, ' thou art,' c&c, expressly sets down 
the Father's acknowledgment. This is to strengthen 
our faith the more in this great article, as Mat. iii. 17, 
and xvii. 5. 

VII. Tlie true Son of God is begotten of God. The 
inference of the latter part of this testimony upon the 
former plainly proveth the doctrine of this gi-eat mys- 
tery. See Sec. 49, &e. 

VIII. The generation of the Son of God is an eter- 
nal generation. This is gathered from one significa- 
tion of the particle, this day. See Sec. 50. 

IX. God gave visible evidences of his Son's eternal 
generation. This also ariseth from this word, this 
day. See Sec. 58, &c. 

X. Stmdry testimonies may be alleged for one and 
the same point. Here the apostle joineth several tes- 
timonies by these conjunctives, and again. 

XI. God continueth to be the same to his Son. This 
word of promise, ' I will be to him a Father,' intends 
as much. As he is ever the same in his essence, so 
also in his will and affection towards his Son. 

XII. The Son of God is such to his Father as his 
Father is to him. The addition of this co-relative, 
' He shall be to me a Son,' upon the former part, ' I 
will be his Father,' imports so much. 

XIII. The truth of what was promised to Solomon 
as a type was accomplished in Christ. This applica- 
tion unto Christ of that which was first spoken unto 
Solomon proves as much. 

Sec. 66. Of bringing Christ into the world. 

Ver. 6. And again, when he bringeth in the first- 
begotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels 
of Ood worship him. 

Here the apostle prodnceth another argument to 
prove the excellency of Christ above angels. The first 
clause, xa; 'xaXn, and again, importeth as much. Such 
a phrase was used before (Sec. 63) to note a connec- 
tion of two confinnations of one and the same argu- 
ment. Here it is used to distinguish two arguments 
produced for proof of the main point. 

The point is, that Christ is more excellent than 
angels. The argument is, because he is the only true 
Son of God. This argument was confirmed, first by 
one testimony out of Ps. ii. 7 ; and then by another 
argument out of 2 Sam. vii. 14. Before this latter, 
to shew that it tendeth to the same purpose that the 
former did, he promiseth this clause, and again. 

Here to that argument taken from Christ's dignity. 

he added another, taken from the subjection of angels 
to Christ. And because it proveth as much as the 
former did, he saith. And again. 

In the Greek a particle of opposition {hi, but) is 
used, which is here well turned into a copulative, and; 
for all the testimonies tend to the same scope. 

In the Greek also the words are somewhat otherwise 
placed than in our English, word for word thus, oVan 
hi iraXiv, &c., ' but when again he bringeth in,' &c. 
This may seem to imply that Christ was twice brought 
into the world. And there be that apply this to 
Christ's second coming in his glory, and all the holy 
angels with him. Mat. xxv. 81, and say that then again 
God brought him into the world.' But that second 
coming of Christ is not agreeable to the scope of that 
psalm out of which this testimony is taken, nor yet to 
the scope of the apostle in this chapter, which is to 
set out the dignity and excellency of the Son of God 
made flesh, and so sent into the world. 

Wherefore, to avoid that mistake, most translators^ 
and expositors turn it as our English hath done, and 
so place this particle again as it may have reference 
to this verb, Xiyn, he saith ; as if it had been thus 
expressed : 'And again he saith, when he bringeth in,' 

The notation of the Greek word here translated 
world, ol-Mv/j.ivn", sheweth that he understandeth the 
habitable part of the earth, ■' where men abide ; so as 
the Son of God was unto sons of men to be as one 
among them. 

By bringing into the world is meant a manifestation 
in the world. Then was Christ fii'st manifested when 
he was incarnate, or born ;* as we say of a child new 
born, it is brought into the world. Yet is not this 
phrase to be restrained only to that time, or to that 
act ; but also to he extended to all those evidences 
whereby, in^the world, he was manifested to be the 
Son of God, especially to that dignity and dominion 
which the Father gave him over the whole world, in 
that he made him ' heir of all things,' ver. 2 ; ' gave 
him the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession,' 
Ps. ii. 8 ; yea, and ' all power in heaven and earth,' 
Mat. xxviii. 18, so as the bringing him into the world 
may imply a setting of him a king in the world, and 
over all the world, even over all things that be under 

By virtue of this high dignity and supreme sove- 
reignty, the Father subjected all creatures to his Son, 
as he was God manifested in the flesh. The angels 
themselves were not exempted ; for he hath set him 

' Loquitur de secundo Christi adventu, cum ad judican- 
dum veniet, quiB est secunda introductio in hunc mundum 
inferiorem. — Ribera, Comment, in Heb. i. 6. 

' Syr. Heb. Lat. aliique. 

' Ea mundi para quaj est habitabilis. — See Chap. ii. Sec, 
41. ' Introitum assumptionem carnis appellat. — Chrys. 

^ Introducit in orbem, cum ei committit orbem terrarum. 
— Chnjs. 


[Chap. I. 

' far above nil principality and power, and might, and 
dominion, and every name that is named, not only in 
this world, but also in that which is to come,' Eph. 
i. 21. 

If the 97th Psalm, whercunto the apostle hath re- 
lation, be observantly read, that which I have said will 
be found to be especially there intended ; for it is a 
prophecy of Christ's royalty, the magnificence whereof 
being set out in the six first verses, in the seventh he 
denounceth confusion on such as worship false gods, 
and chargeth all that, by reason of any divine excel- 
lency conferred on them, have this glorious title gods 
attributed unto them, to worship this true God, the 
Lord Christ, so exalted. 

Sec. 67. Of Christ the Jirst-hcijotteii. 

Him whom before the apostle styled the Son, the 
Son whom the Father begat, he here calleth the 'first- 
begotten,' TgUTOTOXOf. 

How Christ is begotten of the Father, hath been be- 
fore showed, Sec. 49, &c. Here we are to declare 
how he is the first- begotten ; for by way of excellency 
and property is this title here given unto him. 

The word translated Jti-st-bcf/otten is a compound of 
a verb that signifieth to bring forth, or to beget, rixroi, 
pario; and of an adjective that signifieth first, Tjoiiros, 
fi-inuix. It is translated also first-born. It is in 
encred Scriptare applied to sons of men, as well as to 
the Son of God. 

When it is spoken of mere men, it is translated 
first-bom. They are so called for order or honour's 

In regard of order, sons of men are styled first-born, 
simply and relatively. 

1. Simply, for such as first open the womb, though 
no other come out of the same womb.' Thus is it ex- 
pounded Exod. xiii. 2. In this sense Israel, who at 
that time was God's only son, is styled his first-bora, 
Exod. iv. 22 ; and Jesus, as bom of the virgin Marj', 
is thus styled her first-born. Mat. i. 25. 

2. Relativelj', in relation to others that follow after 
out of the same womb; as 1 Sam. xvii. 13, 'Eliabthe 
first-born, and next unto him Abinadab,' &c. In re- 
gard of this relative consideration, some translate it 
thus, ' Eliab the eldest.' 

For honour's sake, they are styled first-born to 
whom the pre-eminency and privileges of the first-born 
do belong. 

The pre-eminency was, to be as a lord and ruler 
over the family. 

In this respect Cain is said to have the excellency, 
and to rule over his brother. Gen. iv. 7. 

The priviledge of the firstborn was to have the 
inheritance, or at least a double portion, Deut. xxiii. 

' Mo8 est divinarum Scripturarum ut primogenitum non 
Piim vocent quern friitrcs scqmintur, scd oum qui primus 
uatuB eit. — hier. Comment, in Mat. i. 

Both these, namely, the pre-eminency and the in- 
heritance, upon just ground might be transferred from 
the eldest to the better deserving son. Thus were both 
translated from Esau to Jacob, Gen. xxvii. 28, 29 ; 
and the former was translated from Reuben to Judah ; 
and the latter from Reuben to Joseph,' 1 Chron. v. 
1, 2. 

In relation to the honour of first-bom saints, as 
having reference to God, and mystically and spiritually 
styled first-born, Heb. xii. 23. 

This title is attributed to the Son of God in regard 
of his natures and person. 

1. In relation to his divine nature, he is the first- 
begotten of God, in regard of the eternity of his 
Sonship. Thus is he styled ' the first-born of every 
creature,' Col. i. 15 ; tliat is, begotten before any 
creature was made, even eternally. He is said to be 
born or begotten, to set out his divine nature (being 
the very same with the Father, whereas all creatures 
are made) ; and first-born or first-begotten, to shew 
that he was before all, even eternal. And thus is he 
also the only begotten Son of God, John iii. IG. 

2. In relation to his human nature, he is said to be 
the first-born of his mother, the virgin Mary, Mat. i. 
25, for he first opened her womb ; yea, he was the first 
that ever was conceived of the Holy Ghost, and born 
of a virgin. 

3. In regard of his person, consisting of two natures, 
God and man hypostatically united together, he is said 
to be ' the first-born from the dead,' Col. i. 18; or the 
' first-begotten of the dead,' Rev. i. 5 ; for as man he 
died, as God he raised himself from the dead, Rom. 
i. 4. He is said to be the first-begotten of the dead 
in respect of honour and order. 

(1.) In honour. In that he rose as a priest and Lord 
to ascend up into heaven, and to sit at his Father's 
right hand, there to make intercession for his church, 
Rom. viii. 34 ; and to rule and govern the same, Acts 
ii. 32, 33, &c. These are the privileges of the fij-st- 

(2.) In order. In that none rose to glory, never to 
die again, before him.^ Many were raised from the 
dead before he rose again ; but they were raised to 
such a life as they had before, a mortal life subject to 
death ; and, answerably, they died again. But Christ 
' being raised from the dead, dieth no more,' Rom. 
vi. 9. Very probable it is that they who were raised 
out of tlieir graves at Christ's resurrection went after 
him into heaven, and returned not to death again. In 

' I'rimogcnifus Esau, sod bencdictionom patris Jacob 
prajripuit ; priraogenitus Rcubin, sed tamen benedictio 
seminis Christi transfertur ad Judam.— //ler. Comment, in 
Isft. i. Primogenitus, inquit, non primo croatus, ut et geni- 
tu9 pro natura, nt primus pro perpetuitate, credatur. — Amb. 
de Fide ad Oral. lib. i. cap. iv. 

• Primogc^nitum a mortuis dicit, resurrectio cnim mortu- 
orumutjam non moriatur, ante ilium nulla. — Aug. Expos, 
qucttt. ex Epitt. ad Horn. 66. 

Ver. G.] 


this respect Christ is such a first-bora as many will 
follow after him, so as ho may well be said to be 'the 
first-born among many brethren,' Eom. viii. 29. 

Though Christ, in regard of his divine nature, and 
by virtue of his eternal generation, be the only begotten 
Son of his Father; and in regard of his human nature, 
by reason of the perpetual virginity of his mother, her 
only begotten Son ; yet may he well be said to have 
brethren, and that in two especial respects : 

1. Because the Son of God and sons of men are of 
one, even of one and the same nature ; therefore ' he 
is not ashamed to call them brethren,' Heb. ii. 11. 

2. Because he hath adopted them to be the sons of 
his Father ; for we children of men are said to have 
the ' adoption of children by Jesus Christ,' ' Eph. i. 5. 

In this respect Christ styles his disciples whom he 
had adopted 'brethren,' Mat. xxviii. 20. For he him- 
self renders this reason for calling them brethren, my 
Father is their Father, John xx. 17. 

That which the apostle here intendeth under this 
title first-begotten, is to set forth the excellency of the 
person of Christ as God-man, and that, 

1. In his priority, which is eternity as he is God, 
Prov. viii. 24, 25. 

2. In his dignity, being the most excellent of all, 
Gen. xlix. 3. 

3. In regard of his dominion over all, Ps. ii. 6, 7. 

4. In regard of the largeness of his inheritance, Ps. 
ii. 8. 

In these respects it might well be said to the most 
excellent of creatures, ' Let all the angels of God wor- 
ship him ;' for the eternal, the most excellent, the Lord 
of all, and the heir of a'l, is to be worshipped by all 
creatures, not the angels excepted. 

Sec. 68. Of saints being first-born. 

Obj. Sons of men, even mere men, are also styled 
first-bom, Exod. iv. 21, Jer. xxxi. 9, Heb. xii. 23. 

Am. They are not so styled absolutely, as considered 
in themselves, but relatively, as they are mystically 
united to Christ, and are his members. By virtue of 
that union, the privilege and prerogative of the Head 
is attributed to the members. In this respect they are 
said to be ' heirs of God, joint heirs with Christ,' Rom. 
viii. 17. Thus also hath he made them ' kings and 
priests unto God,' Eev. i. 6. 

2. Men are not styled first-bom properly, as Christ 
is the first-born ; but metapliorically, by way of resem- 
blance. Saints are to God as first-bom in regard of 
God's respect to them. God esteemeth them all his 
first-born ; he loveth them, he honours them, he gives 
an inheritance to them as to his first-born. Thus is 
the phrase expounded Jer. xxxi. 9, where God saith, 
' I am a Father to Israel, and Ephraim is my first- 

' .lus filionim acioiitionemque cajteria conciliavit. — Atha. 
term. 4, contra Ariun. 

3. Men are not styled first-bom simjjhj, aa so born 
from the womb, but comparatively, in regard of those 
that are without Christ, ' children of disobedience,' 
and 'heirs of wrath,' Eph. ii. 2, 3. Thus Israel was 
God's first-born, Exod. iv. 22, in comparison of the 
Egyptians and other people, that were aliens from the 
commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the cove- 
nant of promise. 

4. No son of man is God's first-born eternally, before 
all times, but respectively, in reference to future times. 
Thus the whole stock 'of Israel (who were the first 
general assembly of saints, among whom God con- 
tinued his church till the Gentiles were called) are, in 
reference to the Gentiles, who were grafted in the 
stock for the Jews that were broken off, styled ' first- 
fruits,' Rom. xi. 16; and 'first-born,' Exodus iv. 
22, 23. 

Sec. 69. Of David God's first-born. 

Obj. 2. David, by a kind of property and excellency, 
is called God's first-born, Ps. Ixxxix. 27 ; where God 
thus saith of him, ' I will make him my first-born, 
higher than the kings of the earth.' 

Ans. Howsoever that may in some respects be applied 
to David, who was a true adopted child of God, the 
first of God's faithful ones that as king reigned over 
that ancient people of God, who was also the head of 
those kings on whom the kingdom over Israel was 
established, and more excellent than all the kings of 
the earth in his time ; yet those excellent prerogatives 
which are mentioned in that psalm, were but poor and 
slender in comparison of what they are, if they should 
be no other than what rested in David's person. 

We are therefore to know that David was an especial 
type of Christ, and that many super-excellent prero- 
gatives, which are proper to the only begotten Son of 
God, are there apphed to David, merely as a type of that 
Son of God, and as a dark shadow of his incompar- 
able and incomprehensible excellencies ; that so God's 
people, who lived before Chi'ist was exhibited, might 
have some representations (so far forth as in mortal 
men they could be set out) of Christ's surpassing 
glory, and infinite blessings that in him were brought 
to men. That therefore which is promised, Ps. 
Ixxxix. 27, is properly meant of Christ, and typically 
applied to David. 

Thus we see that (albeit sons of men in some im- 
proper respects are styled God's first-born) properly 
Christ Jesus is only his first-born; even that first- 
born who only is worthy to have the honour intended 
in these words, ' Let ail the angels of God worship 

Thus it may appear that the honour of being first- 
born is due unto him. It is confirmed by divine 
testimony in this phrase, \syii, ' he saith ;' he, that 
is, God the Father. For it is the Father that taketh 
such and such care of the Son, and commandeth all to 
honour him. 


[Chap. I. 

Sec. 70. Of God's title fiiven to anf/els. 

Before the testimony alleged, this copulative particle 
xai, and, is prefixed thus, ' and worship him,' &c., to 
shew that this is not the only argument whereby 
Christ's divine excellency is proved ; but it is as one 
added to others, with which it may be coupled, and it 
implieth, that as all sorts of men, so and all angels 
also are to worship Christ. 

The testimony itself is taken out of Ps. xcvii. 7, 
the last clause of which verse is, as our English and 
sundry other translators turn it, ' Worship him, all ye 

The original Hebrew word D'n?S, which the LXX 
Greek translators turn amjeh, is one of God's titles. 
The first title that in sacred Scripture is attributed to 
God is this, O-nW Nia, Gen. i. 1, ' God created.' 

Among the leu titles that in the Old Testament are 
given as names to God,' two of them are common to 
creatures, which are tHN, Adon, and D'nPN, Elohim. 
The former of these is attributed to a governor of a 
family, or of a polity, and ordinarily translated Lord, 
as Gen. xviii. 12 and xl. 1. Governors bear God's 
image, are in his place, and therefore have his style 
given to them. 

The latter, being of the plural number, is attri- 
buted to God, to set out the plurality of persons, but 
oft joined with a verb of the singular number to note 
the unity of nature ; DTIPK IDN'1, Gen. i. 3. 

2. It is applied to idols. Judges xvii. 5. For wor- 
shippers of idols do account them gods; and to set 
out their superstitious conceit of them, they are styled 

3. It is given to men of eminent place and excellent 
parts, Exod. xxii. 28, vii. 1, Ps. Ixxxil. 6 ; for these 
after an especial manner bear the image of God. 

4. It is ascribed to angels, Ps. viii. 5, because 
they are of all creatures the most excellent, and the 
fairest representation of God's excellency. See Sec. 

Therefore, not without cause is the word by the 
ancient Greek translators turned aiifirls ; and the 
apostle, who was guided by the same Spirit that the 
psalmist was, quoting it so, gives evident proof that 
angels are there meant. 

So again is the verj' same Hebrew word by the 
same Greek interpreters translated (iiuit'l, P.s. viii. 5, 
and justified by the apostle, Hcb. ii. 7. 

The Chaldee paraphrase doth in sundry other 
places so expound it.^ 

So much also will follow by just and necessary con- 
sequence ; for if all gods, that is, all creatures that 
in any respect may bo called gods, are to worship 
Christ, then angels also. 

' Vide Hioron cpist ad Marcol, de decern Dei nominibua. 

« Ps. Ixxxvi. 8, D'H^Xa; Targum., 3^J3N3 ; Job i. fi, 
DWK'33: r-wxm, K'SN^O <n<3; ISam. ixviii. 18, D'H^N; 
Targum, tOK7D. 

Sec. 71. OJ angels' relation to God. 

The angels here spoken of are called angels of God 
in sundry respects. 

1. They are of God, as created by him, the work oi 
his hands, Col. i. 16. 

They bear God's image, and of all creatures are 
most like unto God in the kind of their substance, 
which is spiritual, and in the glory thereof. In this 
respect they are styled sons of God, Job i. 6. 

3. They are God's special and principal servants, 
continually attending upon him, Ps. Ixviii. 17 and 
ciii. 20, 21, Dan. vii. 10, Mai. xviii. 10. 

4. They have ever remained stedfast with God, 
notwithstanding other angels ' left their own habita- 
tion,' Jude 6. Therefore, for distinction's sake, the 
good angels are called ' angels of God,' but evil angels, 
' angels of the devil,' Mat. xxv. 41, 2 Cor. xii. 7. 

Sec. 72. Of van/inff from the letter of the te.rt. 

Obj. This correlative o/ God, is not in the original 
Hebrew text, Ps. xcvii. 7. 

Ans. It is not against the text, but rather implied 
therein. For, 

1. They that are styled gods, may justly be said 
to be of God. 

2. Christ would not accept worship done to him by 
angels of the devil, Mark iii. 11, 12. Can we then 
think that the Father would command such angels to 
worship his Son ? And if angels of the devil be not 
there meant, then they must needs be angels of God 
which are intended in the place quoted. 

3. To take away all ambiguity, the LXX adds this 
relative particle his thus, ' Worship hiai, all ye his 
angels,' ayyiKai cturoS ; and the apostle, to make the 
point appear more clear, expresseth the correlative 
thus, ' angels of God.' See Chap. xiii. ver. 6, Sec. 

Because I shall oft have occasion to make mention 
of the seventy interpreters of the Old Testament into 
Greek, who are oft expressed by these letters LXX, I 
think it meet, at this first mention of them, distinctly 
to set down their history, as an ancient father' hath 
left it upon record, thus : Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, 
desirous that the library which he had made in Alex- 
antkia might be replenished with worthy books of all 
sorts, prayed the ttews at Jerusalem to have their 
Scriptures interpreted into the Greek tongue ; there- 
upon, thoy who were then under the Macedoniaas ,, 
sent to Ptolemy seventy elders, such as perfectly 
understood the Scriptures, and the Hebrew and Greek 
tongue, according to bis desire. He, willing to make 
proof of thom, and fearing lest they should conceal by 
their interpretation that truth which was in the Scrip- 
tures, by a mutual consent severed them one firom 
another, and commanded every one of them to inter- 
pret the same scripture ; and this they did in all the 
books. But when they met together in one before 
' Ironseus advers. hrerea. lib. iii. cap. xxv. 

Vi;r. (),] 


Ptolemy, and compared their intei-pretations, God was 
glorified, and the Scriptures believed to be truly 
divine ; all of them rehearsing the same scripture, 
both in the same words, and in the same names, from 
the beginning to the end, that even the present Gentiles 
might know, that by the inspiration of God, the Scrip- 
tures were interpreted. 

Such additions of words or alterations of phrases, as 
make to a more perspicuous expression of the author's 
mind, may well be done by such as quote his sayings ;' 
for such as only cite testimonies for proof of a point 
are not so strictly tied to the words as translators are. 
It is enough for the former to retain and express the 
true meaning of the text which they cite, though it be 
in other words. 

Thus, change of phrase doth oft better express the 
mind and meaning of the author than a translation 
word for word ; therefore, a faithful interpreter stands 
not over strictly upon the letter. That which the 
apostles aimed at, was not to hunt after letters and 
syllables, but to prove doctrines. See Chap. Ill, 
ver. 9, Sec. 100. and Chap. IX. ver. 20, Sec. 106. 

This raay serve in general to answer the alteration of the 
person in expressing worship : for the psalmist useth the 
second person, as speaking to the angels, thus, ' wor- 
ship him, all ye angels,' linncn, 'x^osxvr^aars, adorate. 
And the apostle useth the third person as speaking of 
the angels thus, 'let all the angels worship him,' «goff«u- 
vrisdriaea,!/, adorent. Both phrases set forth one and 
the same sense. 

As for the difference, this reason may be given. 
The psalmist, endeavouring to set out the magnifi- 
cence of Christ in the best manner that he could, 
amongst other very elegant expressions, useth this 
rhetorical apostrophe to the angels, ' Worship him, all 
ye gods.' But the scope of the apostle is only to give 
a proof of Christ's excellency above angels. For this 
purpose, it was the fittest expression to set it down 
positively thus, ' Let all the angels of God worship him.' 

Sec. 73. Of all anrjeh alike subject to Christ. 
This general particle all is expressed because there 
are many angels ; for Michael had an army of angels 
to fight against the dragon and his angels. Rev. xii. 7, 
and Christ could have had ' more than twelve legions,' 
"that is, 79,992, to have guarded him, Mat. xxvi. 53. 
Daniel makes mention of ' thousand thousands,' yea, 
often thousand thousands,' Dan. vii. 10. And to 
shew that their number exceeds all number, the 
apostle styles them ' an innumerable company of an- 
gels,' Heb. xii. 22. But be they never so many, they 
are comprised under this particle all, so as all and 
every one of them must worship Christ. 

' Npc verbum do verbo curabit reddere fidua interpres.— 
Uor. de Art. Poet. Curaj fuit non verba et syllabas aucu- 
pari, sed aententias dogmatum ponere. — Hier. ad Fan. de opt. 
Gen. Interpret. See the Whole Armour of God on Eph. vi. 
17, treat, ii. par. 2, sec. 8. 

Yea, if there be distinct and different degrees among 
them, and several orders, all those degrees and orders, 
whether more or less eminent, superior or inferior, 
are comprehended under this universal particle all ; 
for, as the apostle noteth in the last verse of this 
chapter, they are ' all ministering spirits.' If they 
be ' all ministering spirits for them who shall be heirs 
of salvation,' much more are they all to worship 
Christ ; for he is the creator of all, even of thrones 
and dominions, and principalities and powers. Col. 
i. 16. He is the head of all, Col. ii. 10, and he is 
advanced far above them all, Eph. i. 21. 

If, therefore, these titles of distinction, principalities, 
powers, &c., give any pre-eminence to some of the 
angels above others, yet that pre-eminency doth not 
exempt them from this duty of worshipping Christ 
Jesus, at whose name ' every knee must bow, of things 
in heaven or earth,' Philip, ii. 10. 

Not without cause therefore this general particle all 
is here used : ' Let all the angels of God worship him.' 
He that saith all, excepteth none at all. 

Sec. 74. OJ worship. 

The evidence here noted whereby Christ is declared 
to be more excellent than all the angels is in this act, 
worship, enjoined to angels ; for he that is worshipped 
is thereby manifested to be far more excellent than 
they who worship him. Worshipping one is much 
diflerent from blessing one. That is an act of the in- 
ferior, this of the superior : 'Without all contradiction, 
the less is blessed of the better,' Heb. vii. 7. And 
without all contradiction the better is worshipped of 
the less, especially if worship be taken as here in this 

The Hebrew word used by the psalmist, nn^', pro- 
cuhitit, incwTatus est, and translated worship, cometh 
from a root that signifieth to bow down ; as Isa. li. 
23, ' Bow down, that we may go over thee.' It is 
most frequently used in the last conjugation, ^ which 
addeth much emphasis, and importeth both a reci- 
procal action, reflecting upon one's self, thus, ' He bowed 
himself,' 1 Sam. xx. 41, and also a thorough, serious 
performance thereof, even to the ground ; and there- 
fore the word earth is oft added thereto, to sliew a 
bowing as low as can be, even to the earth or ground, 
Gen. xxsiii. 3. It is most frequently used for an 
expression of honour and reverence to another, namely, 
to him unto whom or before whom this gesture is 
performed, which some translators set out by this para- 
phrase,^ ' They bowed themselves, presenting honour,' 
and others express it by this one word,^ adore or 

' Hithpael. In hac conjugatione actio fere est recriproca. 
—Martin. Gram., Heb. cap. xvi., et vehementia signiiicatur. — 
Fatin- Instil. Heb. cap. xxxvii. 

' Inciirvarunt ae, honorem exhibentea — Tremel. et Jun. in 
Gen. xxxiii. 6. 

3 Adoravit. Vet. Lai, in Gen. xviii. 2, et .\ix. 1, et xxiii. 7. 



The Greek word here used by the apostle is some- 
what answerable to the Hebi-cvv, for it is compounded 
of a word' that signifieth to kiss; for they that do 
honour or reverence to others, use to kiss their mouth,' 
as of old tbcy wore wont ; yea (as now), their* hands, 
knees, and (as it is done to the pope) feet and shoes ; 
yea, the very earth where they stand. 

The frequent mention of kissing, to set out reverent 
and humble subjection in sacred Scripture, sheweth 
that this was an accustomed gesture of testifying reve- 
rence and honour. 

When Pharaoh advanced Joseph next to himself, 
and would that all his people should yield reverent 
subjection to him, thus he expressed it : 'On thy 
mouth shall all my people kiss, Gen. xli. 40 ; that is, 
as the last English translators have turned it, shall be 
ruled, or as others,* shall obey, or shall be subject. 

Thus when Samuel had anointed Saul to be king, 
he kissed him, 1 Sam. x. 1, in testimony of reverence 
and subjection. In this respect Moses kissed his 
father-in-law, Exod. xviii. 7. And idolaters in this 
respect are said^ to ' kiss the calves,' Hosea xiii. 2 ; 
and they who would not yield honour and subjection 
to Baal are thus set out, ' Their mouth hath not kissed 
him,' 1 Kings xix. 18; yea, the reverence and obe- 
dience which is required of sons of men to the Son of 
God is thus expressed, ' Iviss the Son,' Ps. ii. 12. 

But to let pass the metaphor, the word used by the 
apostle doth usually signify, as here it is translated, 

Worship is a reverent manifestation of that high 
esteem which we have of another, and it is divine or 

Sec. 75. Of the difference betu-ecn divine and civil 

Divine worship is that which is performed in acknow- 
ledgment of Deity, or any divine excellency in that to 
whom it is performed. This is due to God alone,* for 
it is written, ' Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, 
and him only shalt thou serve,' Mat. iv. 10. That 
exclusive particle only must be referred to u-orship 
as well as to serve, or else it gives not a full answer to 
the devil's temptation ; for where the devil tempted 
Christ to worahip him, Christ repels it with this 

' Kin et Ktititi, oicidor. Gestus eornm qui venerantur ali- 
quem. Olim solcbaiit, 03 et oculos oculari ; nunc manus, 
genua, pedes. Populi orientales demittunt se pronos in 
ferrnm, eamque ubi ore attigerint, rursus se erigunt, et semel 
iterumque vunenibnndi saluntautesque incurvant corpora. 
Hinc rr^iffxuiiv^ ad(>ro, veneror. 

' 'Dir73 pE" "I'D'PJJ mper os tutim otculibilur omnia popu- 
liu meitt. [Gen xli. 40.— Ed ] 

' Qui adoraut deosculari sclent manuin.—//iVr. Comment, 
in Ilotea xiii. 

* LXX, U<^n,i„rm. Vet. Lat., Obediet. 
' Adorantes vitulos. — Hier. 

• Adorari non creaturaj, sed Domini est — Chnjt. Horn. 
xxxii. in John iv. 

answer, ' Thou shalt worship the Lord.' Nowthe sense 
of the answer lieth in this, that God only is to be wor- 
shipped ; therefore none else. Ncr apostle, Acts x. 
2G, nor angel, Rev. xix. 10, would accept such wor- 
ship tendered to them, because it was proper to God 
alone. Yea, Mordecai would rather hazard his own 
and -all the Jews' lives than yield such worship to a 
mere man, Esther iii. 2. The fiery furnace could not 
move Daniel's three companions to yield worship to an 
imago, Dan. iii. 18. 

Civil worship is that which is performed in acknow- 
ledgment of some eminency or excellency in them to 
whom it is performed.' Thus it hath been performed 
to angels in regard of their eminency in glory, Gen. 
xix. 1 ; to kings for their eminency in dignity and 
authority, 2 Sam. xxiv. 20. So also in like respect to 
other governors, Gen. xiii. 6 ; and to parents, Exod. 
xviii. 7, 1 Kings ii. 19 ; and to masters, 2 Sam. xviii. 
21. Such worship hath also been performed to men 
for the excellency of parts and gifts wherewith God 
hath endowed them, 2 Kings ii. 15. 

In all these and other places, where reverence is 
shewed to men, the very word which the psalmist useth, 
Ps. xcvii. 7, and is translated worship, is used ; so as 
of necessity we must distinguish betwixt the kinds of 
worship, when it is done to the Creator and when to 

In the psalm quoted, and in this text, it is most 
manifest that divine worship is meant, which angels 
are commanded to yield to Christ, whereupon by an 
undeniable consequence it followeth that Christ is in- 
finitely more excellent than angels. 

It is further observable that this duty of worship- 
ping Christ is not left as an arbitrary matter to the 
angels, to do it, or not to do it, but it is put as a duty 
upon them, and that by way of command : ' Let all 
the angels of God worship him.' If angels, much 
more men must worship Christ. See See. 128. 

Sec. 76. Of the resolution of the sixth verse. 

Ver 0. And again, when he bringeth in the first he- 
gotten into the luorld, he sailh, And let all the angels of 
God worship him. 

The second argument to prove Christ's excellency 
above angels is in this verse. It is taken from that 
worship which is due to Christ ; and it is so set down 
as withal the inferiority of angels to Christ is proved 

Two arguments, proving two distinct points, are 
here couched together. 

The first is to prove Christ's superiority. It may 
be thus framed : he who is to be worshipped is greater 
than Ihej^ who are to worship him. But Christ is to 
be worshipped by angels; therefore Christ is greater 
than angels. 

' Adoratio hominibus lionorificentisB causa exhiberi solet 
a patribus, sicut de Abraham scriptuin est, adoravit filioa 
lUlli.— .4ti^. (^uett. mper Exo. lib. ii. sec 99. 

Vek, 7.J 


The second is to prove angels' inferiority. It may 
be thus framed : They who are to worship, are in- 
ferior to him that is to [be] worshipped by them. But 
angels are to worship Christ; therefore angels are 
inferior to Christ. 

In setting down these arguments, such a connection 
is used as was before, ver. 5, in producing two testi- 
monies, thus, and ai/ain. The main argument is set 
down in a charge, about which two points are noted : 

1. The time when the charge was given. 

2. The duty charged. 

The time is set out by an act of God, ' when he 
bringeth.' This is amplified, 1, by the object, 'the 
first begotten; 2, by the place, ' into the world.' 

In the duty is expressed, 1, the kind, worship; 2, 
the persons. These are of two sorts : 

(1.) They who are to perform the duty, angels. 
Angels are here described, 

[1.] By theu- generality, all. 

[2.] By their excellency, of God. 

(2.) The person to whom the duty is to be per- 
formed, is expressed in this relative him, namely, the 
first begotten. 

Sec. 77. Of the doctrines arising out of the sixth 

I. Argument must be added to argument to prove 
the same point. For here is another argument than 
that which was produced, ver. 5, to prove the excel- 
lency of Christ. This is evident by this transition, 
and again. In the former verse, testimony was added 
to testimony, to confirm the same argument ; here 
argument is added to argument, to prove the same 
point. That which God saith to Moses concerning 
two signs, Esod iv. 8, ' It shall come to pass, if they 
will not believe thee, neither hearken to the voice of 
the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the 
latter sign,' may be applied to two arguments. See 
Sec. 63. 

II. TJie Son of God is begotten of the Father. See 
the 7th Doctrine on ver. 5, Sec. 65. 

III. Christ is the first-begotten of the Father. In 
what respects this is to be taken, is distinctly shewed, 
Sec. 67. 

IV. God visibly manifested his Son to men on earth. 
The word of bringing in implieth a manifestation. 

"Under world men on earth are comprised. Read 
John i. 14 ; 1 Tim. iii. 16 ; 1 John i. 1. 

V. God speaketh in the word. Ver. 1, Chap. iii. 7, 
Acts iv. 25. 

VI. Divine worship is due to Christ. Ps. ii. 11 ; 
Mat. ii. 11 and v. 2 ; Luke xxiv. 52. For Christ is 
the Son of God, true God ; and the Father wills ' that 
all men should honour the Son, even as they should 
honour the Father,' John v. 23. 

VII. Creatures are bound to worship Christ. The 
charge here set down importeth as much. 

VIII. The most excellent creatures must worship 

Christ. For angels are of all creatures the most 
excellent, and they are here enjoined to do it. 

IX. No degree among angels exempteth any of them 
from subjection to Christ. For this duty is enjoined 
to them all, none exempted. 

X. Angels are God's special attendants. In this 
respect they are here styled angels of God. 

Sec. 78. Of the coherence of the seventh verse. 

Ver. 7. And of the angels he saith, Who maketh hia 
angels sjnrits, and his ministers a fame of fire. 

To amplify the former argument, whereby the 
apostle proved the excellency of Christ above angels, 
taken from the inferiority of angels, manifested by 
their worshipping him, he addeth another evidence of 
their inferiority, manifested by their manner of serv- 
ing him. And to shew that there is as good ground 
and reason for this as for the former, and that angels 
are as much bound to this as to that, he premiseth 
in this verse the like preface as in the former, thus, 
' And of the angels he saith,' even he that said, ' Let 
all the angels worship him,' saith also, ' He maketh 
them spirits.' 

Thus may this verse have relation to that which 
goeth before, as a fit dependence thereon, and so this 
copulative and join two evidences of the inferiority of 
angels together. 

It may also have a fit reference to that which fol- 
loweth in the 8th verse ; and that as an evidence of 
the infinite disparity betwixt angels and Christ, which 
the apostle proveth by a third argument, taken from 
the high sovereignty of Christ, in the verses following. 
In this verse there is one part of the dissimilitude or 
disparity betwixt Christ and angels ; the other parts 
are in the 8th and 9th verses. The disparity is this, 
angels arej ministers, but Christ a Lord and ICng. 
The adversative particle but, in the beginning of the 
8th verse, which is a note of an assumption or of 
opposition, importeth this latter reference. 

In this preface, ' of the angels he saith,' there is 
some ambiguity in the particle translated of, w^hg, for 
properly and usually it signifieth to ; but it [is] apparent 
in the test quoted that he speaketh not to angels, for 
he useth not the second but the third person. The 
apostle therefore imitateth the Hebrew, who put the 
particle which signifieth to, for that which signifieth of 
or concerning (7^ jaro ?V), Gen. xx. 2, 2 Sam. sxi. 2. 

He expresseth the title angels, to shew distinctly 
what kind of spirits and ministers the psalmist meaneth, 
and also how pertinent the text which he quoteth is 
to the point in hand. 

There is in the Greek an ordinary note of assevera- 
tion, f/,h, as is oft translated verily. See Chap. iii. 5, 
Sec. 50. 

Sec. 79. Of the various acception of angels, spirits, 
ministers, fame of fire. 

This text is taken out of Ps. civ. 4, and word for 


[Chap. I. 

word translated by the apostle, as it was long before 
by the Greek LXX. But because many of the words 
are of diverse significations, sundry expositors do other- 
wise take thorn. For, 

1. The word translated angels, lt<^0, missus, nun- 
cius, legatus, angdus, is oft put indefinitely for mes- 
sengers ; even such as are sent of man. Gen. xxxii. 3, 
or of God, and these both corporal substances, Isa. 
xlii. 19, Blal. iii. 1, and also spii-itual, Gen. xxxii. 1. 

2. The word translated spirits, ninn, sptritus, is 
put for winds, Ezek. xxxvii. 9 ; for souls of men, Num. 
xxvii. 16 ; for angels, ver. 14 ; and for the Holy 
Ghost, Gen. i. 2, Mat. iv. 1. 

S. The Hebrew word translated ministers, D*mL''D, 
ininistri, is applied to such as do service to God, 
whether in the invisible heaven, as angels, or in the 
visible heavens, as stars, winds, clouds, and other 
meteors, Ps. ciii. 21, or on earth, as children of men, 
Isa. Isi. 6. 

The Greek word, XnTov^youc, according to the nota- 
tion of it,' setteth out such as are deputed to public 
services, in which respect their ministry is the more 
honourable. I find it five times used in the New 
Testament, in every of which places it importeth a 
public employment. Epaphroditus, who was publicly 
employed by the church, is so styled, Philip, ii. 25, and 
governors of commonwealths, Rom. xiii. 6, and an 
apostle of Jesus Christ, Rom. xv. 15, and Christ him- 
self, Heb. viii. 2, and the angels here in this place. 
The more honourable their function was, the more is 
Christ's dignity amplified thereby, in that such hon- 
ourable ministers were inferior to him. See Chap. 
vUi. 2, Sec. 3. , 

4. This phrase, a flame of fire, bnx'N, ignis flam- 
mans, or, flaming fire, as it is literally taken for 
flaming fire on earth, Ps. Lxxxiii. 14, and for the 
lightning falling down from heaven, Ps. xxix. 7, so it 
is mystically used to set out the glory of God, Dan. 
vii. 9, and the fierceness of his wrath, Isa. xxix. 6, 
2 Thes. i. 8, and for fervour and zeal, Ps. xxxix. 3. 

Sec. 80. Of the meaning of the 4:th verse of the lOith 

In regard of the diverse acceptations of these words, 
some apply them to airy and fiery meteors, as to 
winds and lightning. Thus most of the Jewish, and 
many of our modern expositors^ take these words, as 
if we should translate them according to their sense, 
' Who maketh the winds his messengers, and the 
lightning his ministers.' Thus they invert the plain 
order of the words,^ putting that in the first place, 
namely, spirits or winds, which in the text is in the 
latter place, and angels or messengers in the latter, 
which are in the first. The like inverting of order is 

' Quasi, ytiiTtv^yti/i, qui publicum nuinus obierunt. 
* Vide Vatabl. Annot. iu Pa. civ. 4. Oalvinus, Musculus, 
Beza, FlaminiuB. Aliiqne in euiuietn Psa. 
' Prtedicatum loco eubjecti, et subjectum loco pricdicati. 

in the second clause, and in both places without any 

Ohj. In the former verse the psalmist speaks of 
the winds. 

Ans. It followeth not thereupon that he must needs 
speak of the winds in this verse, for the scope of the 
psalmist is not to treat only of the winds, but to set 
out the magnificence of God iu the variety of creatures. 
The scope of that psalm is in the first clause of the 
first verse noted in these words, ' Bless the Lord.' 

The sum thereof is in these, ' My God, thou art 
great,' &c. 

In the sequel of the psalm he exemplifieth that 
sum, in sundiy particular great and glorious works of 

He beginneth with that visible glorious work which 
God first made, the light ; to which he addeth the 
highest visible heaven, ver. 2 ; then he mentioneth 
the waters, clouds, and winds, under the foresaid 
heavens, ver. 3 ; and before he descendeth lower, to 
the earth, and the things thereon, he bringeth in the 
angels, whom God useth to do his works, in heaven 
and on earth, ver. 4. In the verses following he sets 
out God's gi-eat works on the earth and waters below. 
Thus we see how fitly the testimony quoted may, 
according to the most plain, proper, literal, and gram- 
matical sense, be applied to angels. To make this 
the clearer, the Greek interpreters set such an article 
before these two words, am/els, ministers, as declare 
those other words, spirits, flame of fire, to be attributed 
to them, rode dyysAouf, roii; Xnrou^oic. 

Many of the ancient fathers' acknowledge that which 
the Greek and the last English translators have set 
down to be the true literal meaning of the psalmist ; 
and thereupon infer, that both the nature and office 
of those celestial creatures is noted. For the word 
angel points at their office ; spirit, at their nature. 
In that they are or have a being, they are spirits ; in 
that they do this or that, they are angels. - 

Thus the testimony taken from the psalmist being 
apphed to angels, is most pertinent to the proof of 
the point for which the apostle doth produce it. But 
applied to winds and lightnings, it is little to the 

It is said that' the apostle applioth that which is 
spoken of winds and lightnings, to angels, by way of 
analogy and resemblance, comparing angels to winds 
and lightnings ; and in similitude referreth that to the 
invisible creatures, which the psalmist attributeth to 

• Hieron. August. Amob. Prosp. Theod. aliique. 

" Quroris nomen ejus naturae ? Spiritus est. Quteris 
oificium ? Angelus est. £x eo quod est, spiritus est : £x eo 
quod agit, angelus est. — Aug. JSnar. in Pi. ciii. 

' Sic fere Prosp. Argumentum a simili esse videtur, cum 
ad angelos transfert apostolus quod propria de ventis dictum 
eat.— Calvin in Dtb. i. 7. Chaldaaus item exponit Pe. civ. 4, 
per similitudincra. 

Ver. 7.] 



Ans. 1. It is the best and safest to take the Scrip- 
tures literally, when the text will well bear it. 

2. Similitudes are no sound proof ; they are usually 
produced rather to illustrate a point, than to prove it. 
But here the apostle citeth the testimony for a proof of 
the inferiority of angels to Christ ; as to the like 
purpose he cited the former testimony out of Ps. 
xcvii. 7. 

3. The apostle being guided by the same Spirit that 
the psalmist was, was not ignorant of the true sense 
of the psalmist's words. We ought therefore to 
intei-pret them both ia one and the same sense, the 
rather because in the letter they do punctually agree. 

Sec. 81. Of angels' inferiority to Christ. 

These three words, made, angels, ministers, import 

In that they are said to be made, they are declared 
to be creatures ; and also to be ordered to be such as 
they are, by him that made them ; which was the Son 
of God. So as this relative ivJw hath reference to 
this clause in the second verse, ' By whom he made 
the worlds.' 

This phrase, who maketh, nCJ?, 6 mZv, being of 
the present tense, leadeth us to a consideration of that 
primary work of creation, as if it were still in doing ; 
that so it might be the better heeded. For things in 
their first doing are most regarded. In like manner 
are the other phrases of the psalmist, in the verses 
going before, Ps. civ. 2, 3, all set down in the present 

The word maketh, having relation to God, intimateth 
two things : 

1. Creation. For where God is said to have rested 
from all his works which he had made, Gen. ii. 2, and 
to have made the heaven and the earth. Rev. xiv. 7, 
it is meant created. Express mention is made of the 
creation of angels. Col. i. 16. 

2. Ordination, or disposing things to this or that 
use. Thus God is said to have made his Anointed the 
head of the heathen, Ps. xviii. 43, and to have made 
his saints kings and priests, Eev. i. 6 ; that is, to have 
ordered and disposed them to such and such digni- 

In both these senses is this phrase, ' he maketh,' 
here used. He maketh them spirits, that is, he 
createth them spiritual substances ; he maketh them 
a flame of fire, that is, he ordereth and disposeth them 
to be as a tlame of fire in doing his will. 

That this word is here in both these senses to be 
taken, is evident by that which in the verses following 
isjspoken of Christ in opposition to angels. Here 
they are styled messengers and ministers ; but he, 
God and King, verse 8. They made ; but he the 
Lord and IMaker, verse 10. So as there is here noted 
as great a difference betwixt Christ and angels as be- 
twixt king and ministers. Creator and creatures. The 
inferiority therefore of angels to Christ is very great. 

Sec. 82. Of the title angel. 

The title angel, whereby they who are here spoken 
of are difl'erenced from other sorts of creatm-es, implieth 
also inferiority and subjection. 

The title (though used in most languages) is taken 
from the Greek tongue ; and according to the most 
proper notation of it, signifieth a messenger :' for it 
is derived from a verb that signifieth to tell, report, 
or declare a message. So also the Hebrew word, 
which signifieth an ambassador or messenger,* is put 
for an angel. So as in the original languages of sacred 
Scripture, any kind of messenger is styled angel, 
whether sent of God or man. 

The Hebrew frequently useth the word for a mes- 
senger of men, and that sent in public employments,^ 
commonly called an ambassador : or on any other 
message ; as he that brought the evil tidings to Job, 
i. 14 ; and John's messengers, Luke vii. 24.* 

Thus may the word be expounded. Acts xii. 15, 
where the disciples, upon a maid's affirming that Peter 
was at the door, say, ' It is his angel ;' that is, his 
messenger, or one sent from him. 

Angel being put for one sent of God, is put for a 
created or uncreated messenger. Created messengers 
are visible or invisible ; visible are extraordinary or 

Ordinary created visible messengers of God called 
angels, are priests under the law, Mai. ii. 7, and 
ministers under the gospel. Rev. i. 20. 

Extraordinary ones were prophets. Judges ii. 1, 4. 
In particular, John, the forerunner of Christ, Mai. 
iii. 1, Mark i. 2. 

Invisible messengers of God are the celestial spirits 
that are here meant. All those spirits were at first 
made good ; and so messengers according to God's 
mind and heart ; but many of them sinned and kept 
not their first habitation, 2 Peter ii. 4, Jude 6, and 
became devils ; yet are they sent and used of God as 
messengers and ministers of his just vengeance ; and 
thereupon first called angels, 1 Cor. vi. 3. And 
where it is said that the Sadducees say, ' There is 
neither angel nor spirit,' Acts xxiii. 8, both good and 
evil angels is meant ; so also Rom. viii. 30. But for 
the most part where this title angel is attributed to 
an evil spirit, some note of distinction is added thereto, 
to demonstrate what kind of angel is meant; as 'angels 
of the devil,' Mat. xxv. 41 ; ' angels of the dragon,' 
Rev. xii. 9 ; ' angel of the bottomless pit,' Rev. ix. 
11 ; ' angels that sinned,' 2 Peter ii. 4 ; ' angels that 
kept not their first estate,' Jude 6. 

Sec. 83. Of the title angel given to Christ. 

There is one eternal, uncreated angel, oft mentioned 

* ayyiXa; NunciuS^ aTO TOU ayyiXXm^ nunciafe, 

^ 'INPD Angelus, Nunciua, Legatus. Nuncii Grseci Angeli 
dicuutur. — Aug. de Gen. ad lit. cap. xix. 
' D"?ty 'DS?D, Legati pads, Isa. xxxiii. 7. 

^ uyyi^o; luavvov. 


[Chap. I. 

in Scripture, even the Son of God, the second person 
in sacred Trinity. For it pleased the Father to com- 
municate his sacred counsel and sacred will to sons 
of men by his own Son ; who was in that respect a 
kind of messenger from his Father to men, and styled 
an angel ;' yea, and appeared to men before his incar- 
nation, in that form and manner which angels did ; 
yet are there manifest evidences to demonstrate that 
the Son of God is meant, when this title amjel is 
attributed to him ; such as these that follow : 

1. Archangel, Jude 9. By this title the prince 
and head of angels, which is Christ Jesus, is set out; 
for he is there called Michael, which name is given to 
Christ, Dan. x. 13, 21, and xii. 1, Rev. sii. 7. The 
notation of the name Michael, 7N'3'D, uho as God? 
importeth as much.^ He is also called Jehovah, Zech. 
iii. 2 ; it is said, that Jehovah buried Moses, Deut. 
xxxiv. 5, 6. And surely the same Jehovah, this 
Michael, suflered not Satan to discover the place where 
Moses was buried. AVe read but of one archangel 
in sacred Scripture. 

2. Head of principalities and powers, Col. ii. 10. 
This the apostle speaketh of Christ. 

3. Angel of the covenant, Mai. iii. 1. That angel 
in whom God's covenant with man is made and con- 

4., Angel of God's presence, Isa. Ixiii. 9. Or, word 
for word, ' angel of his face,' that is, the ' express 
image of his person,' who is ever before God's face to 
make intercession for us. 

5. God's proper title, which is Jehovah ; whereso- 
ever he that appeared as an angel, and is styled an 
angel, hath this title Jehovah attributed to him, there 
Christ Jesus is meant. On this ground it is evident 
that the angel which appeared to Moses in the bm-n- 
ing bush was Christ, because he is called Jehovah, 
Exod. iii. 3, 4. By a like evidence it is manifest that 
the angel which spake to Jacob in a dream was Christ, 
because he said of himself, ' I am the God of Bethel,' 
&c.. Gen. xxxi. 11, 19. 

6. When the name is declared to be secret or ivon- 
derj'id, as Judges siii. 8. Wonderful is one of the 
titles whereby the Son of God, true Jehovah, is set 
out, Isa. ix. G. 

7. When divine effects are wrought by him that is 
styled angel ; as, to deliver from all evil, Cien. xlviii. 
16 ; to put fear and terror into the heart of stout 
enemies, Exod. xiv. 19, 24, 25 ; and to bring Israel 
out of Egyjjt after such a manner as they were brought 
out. Num. XX. IG. 

8. When divine worship is rightly given to him that 
is called angel ; I say rightly, because divine worship 

' In inultia looia domiiuis uoslcjr atquo salvator angeluB 
Dei dicitur. — Uier. Comment, in Agg. i. 

» Quis sicut Deus, vel quia par Ueo? Michaelom Christum 
intelligo. — Aug. in Apoc. Horn. ix. 

' Salvator angolua tealuiacuti apollalur. — Uier. Com. in 
Mai. iii. 

may and hath been given to created angels. Col. ii. 
18, Rev. xix. 10, and xxii. 8, 9. But by divine wor- 
ship rightly and duly given, one of the angels that 
appeared to Abraham is manifested to be Jehovah, 
Gen. xviii. 2 ; and the angel with whom Jacob 
wrestled. Gen. xxxii. 2G ; for Jacob made supphca- 
tion unto him, Hosea xii. 4. 

This uncreated angel, the Son of God, true Jeho- 
vah, is not meant by the apostle in this text ; for he 
speaks in the plural number, amjels, as of many, and 
those made or created, yea, and ministers. Nor doth 
he mean sons of men ; for he styles them spirits, 
meaning angelical and celestial spirits, who are usually 
and properly called angels. These are here intended. 

Sec. 84. Of the names given to angels. 

That we may the better discern the excellency of 
these angels, and therewithal the excellency of Christ, 
who is preferred before them, I will distinctly note, 

1. The titles attributed to them in Scripture. 

2. Their nature ; for they are spirits. See Sec. 8G. 

3. Their properties ; for they are a flame of fire. 
See Sec. 93. 

4. Theii- functions ; for they are ministers. See 
Sec. 9G, &c. 

One, and but one, proper name is in sacred Scrip- 
ture attributed to an angel, that is, Gabriel, Dan. viii. 
16, and ix. 21 ; Luke i. 19, 26. According to the 
notation of this name, it signifieth a strong man of 
God. It may be a name common to any angel deputed 
of God to any special function, or sent on any special 

There is another name attributed to him that is 
styled archangel, who is Christ, as we shewed before, 
Sec. 83. 

There are other names mentioned in the books 
called Apocrypha : as Raphael, physic of God, Tobit 
iii. 17 ; Uriel, /ire of God, 2 Esdras iv. 1 ; Jeremiel, 
mercy of God, 2 Esdras iv. 36; Salathiel, ashed of God, 
2 Esdras v. 16. 

There are also sundry other names reckoned up by 
the Jewish rabbins, which, because they want suffi- 
cient authority, I pass by. 

Other titles are attributed to them in sacred Scrip- 
ture to set out their nature or offices, or excellency in 
one kind or another. They are these which follow : 

1. Spirits. This title declares the common nature 
of them all, which is spiritual. 

2. Ministers. This poiutoth at their general office, 
which is to minister to God himself, to the Son of 
God, and to sons of men, as we shall hereafter more 
distinctly shew. 

8. Men of God. So was the angel that appeared to 
Manoah styled. Judges xiii. 6, 9. He is called a man, 
because he appeared in the shape of a man ; and a 
man of God, because he came from God, and was sent 
by God. Though this angel were the Son of God, 
yet the title is given nnto him, as he appeared like an 



angel, and may be well reckoned among the titles 
given to angels. 

4. Sons of God, Job i. 6. Thus they are called, 
not only because they received their being from God, 
and are sustained by him, but also, being once made 
after the image of God, they still retain that image. 

5. Gods.^ So doth that word signify which we 
translate angels, Ps. viii. 5. It is attributed to angels 
to set out their excellency ; for excellent things are in 
Canaan's dialect styled gods, Ps. Ixxxii. 1, 6. The 
same title is given them Ps. xcvii. 7, and translated gods. 

6. Cherubim, Gen. iii. 24, Ezek. x. 1. Cherub 
taken indefinitely importeth a figure or image ; most 
usually a resemblance of a young man. So were 
angels set out when a resemblance or picture was made 
of them, and when they appeared in a visible shape. 
They appeared in the shape of a man, to shew they 
were creatures of knowledge and understanding^ (as 
men endued with reasonable souls are) ; and of a 
young man, to set out their beauty, vigour, strength, 
and other like excellencies appertaining to youth. 

7. Seraphims. This title is twice, and only twice, 
attributed to angels, Isa. vi. 2, 6. The title cometh 
from an Hebrew root,^ that signifieth to burn. It is 
attributed to those fiery serpents which in the wilder- 
ness bit and stung the people to death, Num. xxi. 6. 

Angels are called seraphim,* either from the par- 
ticular act of theirs in touching the prophet's lips with 
a burning coal, Isa. vi. 6, or else more indefinitely 
from their fervent zeal in executing the will of their 
Lord. In allusion hereunto, it is thus written : ' He 
maketh his angels spirits ; his ministers a flame of 
fire,' Ps. civ. 4. 

8. Watchers.^ He that is styled a watcher, Dan. 
iv. 13, was an angel, and by the ancient Greek trans- 
lators of the Old Testament is so called. The plural 
number, watchers," is used Dan. iv. 17. This title 
is given to angels, 

(1.) In regard of their nature ; for they being spirits 
are not subject to heaviness, drowsiness, and sleepi- 
ness, but wake and watch continually day and night. 

(2.) In regard of their function, which is ' alwaj's 
to behold the face of God,' Mat. xviii. 10, and to be 

' D'npS. In Hebi-seo pro eo quod est ab angelis, qui 
dicuntur, D'Dxbo, Deum habet, hoc est, D»n'?X.« 

^ Cherubim interpretantur scientim multitudo — Hier. Com- 
ment, in Ezek. xxviii. Ita fere Chrys. de iiicompr. Dei Nat. 
Horn. iii. See Chap. ix. ver. 4, Sec. 32. 
_ ' eipE*, seraphim. Prseterhuuc locum in Soripturis canoni- 
cis alibi legisse me nescio. — Ilicr. in Isa. vi. 

* Seraphim interpretaui m ;,- .,7^ : qnnd nos dicers pos- 
sumus incendenles, she . ;vt;, iHud quod alibi 
legimus, 'qui facit auK.; . ,; u,, et miiiistros suos 
ignem urentem.'— /iici-. Cuj,u„u.l. m Uu. vi. Sic Clirys. loc. 
«''"'• ^ TJ?, «yya«. 

* P"l'y. 1'y, significat angelos, quod semper vigilent, et 
ad Dei imperium sint parati.— //!«-. Comment, in Dan. iv. 

understand i 

it stands in llie original, tliough 

ever ready at hand to do his will, Ps. ciii. 20. This 
they cannot do without continual watching. 

(3.) In regard of that constant continual care which 
they have to keep saints from the manifold dangers 
whereunto they are subject. Saints have enemies 
which continually watch night and day to do them 
some mischief : ' Your adversary the devil,' saith an 
apostle, 1 Peter v. 8, ' as a roaring Hon, walketh 
about, seeking whom he may devour.' The good 
angels therefore continually watch to keep them safe 
from his clutches. In relation to their continual 
watchfulness, angels are said to be ' full of eyes round 
about,' Ezek. i. 18. 

9. Holy ones. So they are called Dan. iv. 13, 17. 
There these two titles, u-atcher and holy one, are ap- 
plied to one and the same person. This title is given 
unto them in regard of that holiness wherein they 
were at first created, and m which they still abide ; 
which maketh them to delight in hohness, and to 
practise holiness. Therefore they are justly styled 
holy angels, Mark viii. 38, Mat. xxv. 31. 

10. God's host. Angels are so called, ' Gen. xxxii. 
ii. ; Ps. ciii. 21 ; Luke ii. 13 ; and that because God 
useth them as an host to protect his saints, 2 Kings 
vi. 17 ; and to destroy his enemies, 2 Chron. xxxii. 
21 ; Eev. sii. 7. 

11. Thrones; Soo'ra/, Col. i. 16. This word must 
needs be expounded metonymically (if it be applied as 
many ancient and later divines apply it,^ to angels) ; 
for thrones, properly taken, are royal seats, made for 
kings to sit upon, and then especially when they shew 
forth their magnificence. In this proper signification 
many judicious divines' take this word thrones to be 
used, Col. i. 16, and apply it to the invisible heavens, 
where God especially setteth out the glory of his 
majesty. Therefore heaven is said to be God's 
throne. Mat. v. 34 ; and for excellency's sake the plural 
number may be used. But applied to angels, they 
are so called in regard of their dignity and excellency ; 
being fit to sit on thrones, at least in comparison to 
other creatures. Thus, tropically, thrones are put for 
such as sit, or are worthy to sit, on thrones. 

12. Dominions; KuoioTr,T£i, Col. i. 16. This title 
is fitly added to the former, to shew that God, who 
hath conferred such excellency and dignity on angels, 
as the fore-mentioned title thrones implieth, hath also 
given them dominion and rule ; whereby, as lords 
under God, they order and govern matters and per- 
sons in the world. The devils have a dominion and 
government over wicked ones ; in which respect they 
are styled ' rulers of the darkness of the world,' Eph. 
vi. 12, and that for executing greater vengeance on 

' Castia Dei quae vidit Jacob in itinere, nulla dubitatio 
est, quin angelorum fuerit multitudo : ea quipi)e in Scrip- 
turis militia Cttli nominatur. — Axg. qucest. super Gen. cap. 

2 Chrys. Hier. Theoph. Aug. Erasm. Zanch., aliique. 
s Calv. Comment, in Col. i. 16. Dan. Isagog. Chr Par. 
ii. cap. 14. 




[Chap. I. 

them. In like manner may good angels have domi- 
nion for procuring and effecting greater good. 

13. Piindpatilics ; a^-^a.). Col. i. 16. This title 
is Bomewhnt more special than the former. Domi- 
iiioim indfCiiiiloly and generally note such as have au- 
thority, without respect to any particular jurisdiction ; 
hvit pniivijialilies are such as have a special and peculiar 
jurisdiction. In this sense the apostle admonisheth 
Christians to be ' subject to principalities,' Titus iii. 1, 
that is, to such as have authority over them in parti- 
cular ; for every one is not bound to be subject to 
every dominion. This title is attributed to good 
angels, Eph. iii. 10, Col. i. 10, because God doth 
oft set some of them over particular polities, and 
kingdoms, and persons. It is also applied to evil 
angels, Eph. vi. 12, Col. i. 15, because for their 
greater advantage they take to themselves special ju- 
risdiction over particular places and persons. 

14. Pollers; i^ouaScci, Col. i. IG. The Greek 
word properly signifieth that right which governors 
have to exercise their authority :' so is our English 
word power oft used; as John x. 18, where Christ 
thus saith, ' I have power,' i^ouaiav "^yjti, ' to lay down 
my hfe, and I have power to take it again ;' and where 
Peter saith to Ananias, of the price which he had for 
his land, ' Was it not in thy power ?' h rp arj i'^oveicf, 
Acts V. 4. This title then sheweth that angels have 
a good right to that government which they take upon 

OliJ. These titles, principalities and powers, are at- 
tributed to devils, Eph. vi. 12, Col. ii. 15. 

Ans. The same titles may be applied to different 
persons in different respects. This great title God is 
attributed to the Creator, to angels and men ; yea, 
and to the devil too, 2 Cor. iv. 4. The different 
respects wherein the foresaid titles are given to good 
and evil angels are these : 

(1.) Good angels are principalities and powers by 
God's special appointment. God hath given them 
the dominion which they have, and a right thereunto. 
Devils have thehs by a divine permission ; yet they 
are but usurpers thereof. 

(2.) Good angels are principalities and powers over 
saints especially, and most properly for their good ; 
but devils are over the wicked, in which respect they 
are said to be ' rulers of the darkness of this world,' 
Eph. vi. 12 ; and that in judgment, to execute ven- 
geance on them ; and in this respect God may be said 
to make them principalities and powers, to bo his exe- 
cutioners to inflict the sorer vengeance. 

15. Miijhtx; ium/isii, Rom. viii. 38. This title 
imports strength and ability to accomplish what they 
undertake. In this respect they are said to be ' mighty 
in strength ;' ns »13J, or, as our English translate it, 
to ' excel in strength,' Ps. ciii. 20. Many instances 
are throughout the Scriptures given of their might 
and strength. 

' iliTtxi, lieere. Inde, iJtuWa,' licentia, jus, pottitat. 

Sec. 61. 0/ the like excellencies of every anf/el. 
Concerning the fore-mentioned titles, two things are 
to be observed : 

1. That many of them are not simply and properly 
to be taken (as if angels were indeed flames of fire, 
or fair youths, or sat on thrones), but by way of simi- 
litude, the more conspicuously to set out sundry 
excellencies in them. 

2. That the distinct titles do not so much set out 
distinct persons, or orders, or degrees among the 
angels, as distinct properties, gifts, and excellencies in 
them ; as is evident by this phrase applied to angels 
in four several apparitions : ' they four had the face 
of a man and the face of a lion on the right side ; and 
they four had the face of an ox on the left side ; they 
four also had the face of an eagle,' Ezek. i. 10. So 
as one was not as a man alone, and another as a lion, 
and a third as arl ox, and a fourth as an eagle ; bnt 
all four had one likeness. Hereby it was implied, 
that every angel was prudent as a man, courageous as 
a Hon, laborious as an ox, swift as an eagle. In like 
respects the same person was called a prophet, a man 
of God, and a seer, 1 Sam. iii. 20 and ix. 6, 11. And 
the same thing a dream, a vision, a revelation, Dan. 
ii. 28 ; see chap. ii. 

Thus much of the titles attributed to angels. 

Sec. 86. Of the nature of angels. 

Angels are created spirits subsisting in themselves. 
Every word m this brief description so makes to the 
nature of angels, as it distinguisheth them from all 

1. They are spirits ; so they are expressly called in 
thisverse andverscl4. This importeth both their being, 
and also the kind of their being. Spirits are sub- 
stances, and have a true real being, as the souls of 
men have, which are styled spirits, Eccles. xii. 7, 
Heb. xii. 9, 23. 

The offices deputed by God to angels, the great 
works done by them, the excellent gifts wherewith 
they are endued (as knowledge, wisdom, holiness, 
strength, &c.), do plainly demonstrate that they are 
true real substances. 

Hereby they are distinguished from all mere imagi- 
nations and phantasies, which are conceptions in men's 
minds of such things as never were, nor ever had any 
true being at all ; as those intelliflenliw which, philoso- 
phers conceit, do turn the celestial orbs. 

They are also hereby distinguished from physical 
qualities, philosophical accidents, and from mere mo- 
tions, affections, inspirations, and such other things 
as have no true real being at all. 

The title spirit doth further import their kind of 
being to be spiritual, which is the most excellent btini,' 
that can be. Heroin it is like to the divine being ; 
for ' God is a spirit,' John iv. 24. 

Hereby the being of angels is distinguished from all 
kind of corporeal substances, which are sensible, i 

Vkk. 7.] 


visible, subject to drowsiness, wearmess, 

fainting, diminutions, decay, destruction, and sundry 

other infirmities, to which spirits are not subject. 

2. They are created. This was proved before, 
Sec. 81. 

Hereby angels are distinguished from their Creator, 
who is a spii'it, but uncreated. Angels are styled 
gods, and sons of God (as was shewed Sec. 70), and 
endued with sundry excellencies above other crea- 
tures ; yet, being created, neither are they to be ac- 
counted truly and properly gods, nor anything proper 
to the Deity is to be attributed or done to them. 

3. They subsist in themselves. Though they have 
their being from God, and are preserved, sustained, 
and every way upheld by God, so as they have their 
subsistence from God, yet God hath so ordered it as 
it is in themselves. Angelical spirits have neither 
bodies nor any other like thing to subsist in. 

Hereby they are distinguished from the souls of 
men, which are spirits, Luke xxiii. 46, Heb. xii. 23, 
but have their subsistence properly in their bodies. 
This phrase. Gen. ii. 7, ' God breathed into man's 
nostrils the breath of life, and he became a living 
soul,' imports as much. So doth this philosophical 
principle. The soul in infusing it into the body is 
created, and in the creation of it is infused.^ 

True it is that the soul may be separated from the 
body, and retain the spiritual being which it hath ; 
but so as it longeth after the body, and is restless till 
it be reunited to the body : ' We would not be un- 
clothed,' that is, we do not simply desire a putting oil' 
the body from the soul, ' but clothed upon,' that is, 
have immortality put upon our bodies, without sepa- 
rating their souls from them, 2 Cor. v, 4. As for the 
souls which are separated from their bodies, they cry, 
' How long, Lord, holy and true,' Rev. vi. 10. This 
shews a desire of union with their bodies again. 

Angels being God's special messengers, they were 
thus constituted spirits subsisting in themselves, that 
they might be the more fit messengers and ministers 
to execute God's will more readily, more speedily, and 
every way more thoroughly. For, being spirits, they 
are not hindered by such incumbrances and infirmities 
as bodies are ; and, subsisting in themselves, they 
need not such otymia, such instruments and parts of 
a body, as the souls of men do. 

This of the nature of angels. 

Sec. 87. Of the knowledge of anr/els. 

The properties of angels are many, and those very 
excellent ones. Some of the principal are these which 
follow : 

1. Great knowledge. For they are intellectual or 
understanding creatures, able to conceive any mys- 
teries that are or shall be revealed. They understand 
according to the spiritual power of an angelical mind, 

' Creaudo infunditur, ct infuuilendo creatur. 

comprehending all things that they will together most 
easily.^ Angels, being in heaven, know all the counsel 
of God that is there made known. That which Christ 
saith of them. Mat. xviii. 10, ' In heaven they do 
always behold the face of my Father,' implieth that 
they are privy to the whole counsel of God revealed 
in heaven ; yea, on earth also they frequent the as- 
sembly of saints. Thereby they come to know the 
whole counsel of God on earth made known to the 
church. In this respect the apostle saith, that 'Unto 
the principalities and powers in heavenly places is 
made known by the church the manifold wisdom of 
God,' Eph. iii. 10. They are very inquisitive after 
all divine mysteries ; for of those things which pro- 
phets foretold, and apostles preached, it is thus said, 
' which things the angels desire to look into,' 1 Peter 
i. 12. This restrictive phrase, ' no, not the angels,' 
Mark xiii. 32, importeth the great measure of know- 
ledge which angels have ; for it followeth, ' nor the 
Son :' ' Of that day and that hour knoweth no man, 
no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the 
Son.' By the two last phrases it is implied that if 
any creatures knew that secret, surely the Son and 
the angels would know it. 

Obj. It is an impeachment of their knowledge not to 
know all things. 

Ans. It is no impeachment of a creature's know- 
ledge not to know such things as belong not to him to 
know ; which are such as ' the Father hath put into 
his own power,' Acts i. 7 ; and many things to come, 
Isa. xli. 23 ; and the thoughts of men's hearts, 
1 Kings viii. 39 ; and any secret which belongs to the 
Lord, Deut. xxix. 29. 

Satan deluded our first parents by suggesting to 
them a conceit of knowledge of more than was meet 
to be known. 

The gift of knowledge which angels have is the 
rather necessary, because their main function is to 
be God's messengers, to declare and execute his 
will ; which they cannot well do without knowledge 

Sec. 88. Of the prudence of angels. 

A second property of angels is prudence. This is 
usually joined with knowledge ; for knowledge works 
prudence, and prudence directeth knowledge. An 
apostle, therefore, thus coupleth them together, ' Who 
is a wise man, and endued with knowledge ? ' James 
iii. 13. Wisdom presupposeth knowledge, yea, also 
it ' findeth out knowledge of witty inventions,' Prov. 
viii. 12. It maketh men find out more and more 
knowledge, and that of more than ordinary and vulgar 
things. In regard of that excellent wisdom which 
angels have, Tyrus, which was counted very wise, is 
styled a cherub, that is, an angel, Ezek. xxviii. 3, 4, 

' Secundum potentiam spiritalem mentis angelicse, cuncta 
qiioo -voluerit, simul notitia facillima compreliendeutem — 
A iiij. de Gen. ad lit. lib. iv. cap. xxsii. 



[Chap. I. 

16, 17. The ancient Grecians styled all sorts of 
angels Aa/'/xoi/s:, b}' reason of their wit and wisdom.' 
That prudence which good angels have, is the more 
necessarj', because the evil angels, against whom good 
angels have a charge to defend saints, are exceeding 
crafty and subtle. The devil hath his wiles, his mani- 
fold windings and turnings ; he is as crafty as a fox. 
There is need, therefore, of a prudent Hushai to bring 
to nought the plots of such a crafty Ahilhophel. 

Sec. 89. Of the 2mrity of angels. 

A third property of angels is purity. Their purity 
is a perfect purity, without mixture of any impurity or 
sin. This is set out by that pure and white linen 
wherewith thoy are said to be clothed. Rev. xv. fi. In 
this respect they are styled 'holy angels,' Mark viii. 38. 

Under this head is comprised their sincerity ; for 
' in their mouth is found no guile : they are without 
fault before the throne of God,' Rev. xiv. 5. What- 
soever those heavenly spirits make show of, they in- 
deed intend and do it from the heart. 

Hereunto may be added their integrity, which is an 
universal subjection to every part of God's will. In 
all places they attend upon their Lord, and always be- 
hold his face. Mat. xviii. 10, to know what his will is 
that [they] may do it. They are therefore said, Ps. 
ciii. 20, to ' do his commandments, hearkening to his 
word.' Hereby they shew that they are yet still ready 
further to do whatsoever he shall require. 

These properties are necessary to make angels fit 
to appear in the presence of the pure and holy God in 
heaven. But ' there shall in no wise enter into 
heaven any thing that defileth,' Rev. ssi. 17. God is 
' of purer eyes than to behold evil ; he cannot look on 
iniquity,' Hab. i. 13 ; ' Neither shall evil dwell with 
him,' Ps. V. 4. 

Sec. 90. Of the glory of angels, 

A fourth property of angels is, glory. They are 
vei'y glorious. Such is the briglitness of their glory 
as it is resembled to lightning, JIat. xxviii. 8. Just 
men are said to shine as the sun in the kingdom of 
their Father, Mat. xiii. 43 ; much more angels. 

Children of men on earth cannot cndiiro the bright- 
ness of an angel's presence when he appearcth in his 
glory. When Balaam saw an angel stand in the way 
before him, ' he fell flat on his face ;' and his ass did 
what it could to shun the angel, Num. xxii. 31-83. 
The keepers of Christ's sepulchre, at the sight of an 
angel, did ' shake and become as dead men,' Mat. 
xxviii. 4. Not only wicked men have been dazzled, 
amazed, and allrightud with the appearance of an 
angel, but also pious men, men of great faith and 
courage. The shepherds that durst tarry all night 
with their sheep in the field, at the sight of an angel 

' Aai/iut, quasi iiiti/iv; doctiis, pm'/us, prudent. Illte vir- 
tutes nomina sortiuntur, quio sniiientiam, &c., consignatis- 
eime indicent. — Chryi. de incomp. Dei Nat. Uoni. iii. 

were 'sore afraid,' Luke ii. 9. Zechariah, a good 
priest, at the like sight, ' was troubled, and fear fell 
on him,' Luke i. 12. John the divine was so amazed 
at the sight of an angel as he ' fell at his feet to wor- 
ship him,' Rev. xix. 10, and xxii. 8 ; yea, Daniel, ' a 
man greatly beloved,' at the sight of an angel, ' was 
afraid, and fell upon his face,' Dan. viii. 17. The glory, 
therefore, of angels must needs be surpassing great. 

Angels are the chiefest servants and most principal 
attendants on God. Now, courtiers, who are the king's 
special attendants, as gentlemen of his bed-chamber 
and privy-chamber, use to be, for the honour of their 
sovereign, most gorgeously attired. In allusion to 
that ancient custom, thus saith the Lord, ' Behold, 
they that wear soft clothing are in kings' houses,' 
Mat. xi. 8. Answerably, it is requisite that angels, 
even for the glory of their Lord, be of all creatures the 
most glorious. 

Sec. 91. Of the power of angels. 

A fifth property of angels is, power. They are 
mighty in power. Hereupon there are attributed to 
them these and such like titles : ' mighty,' 2 Thes. 
i. 7 ; ' strong,' Rev. v. 2. And they are said to ' ex- 
cel in strength,' Ps. ciii. 20. They are resembled to 
horses and chariots of fire, 2 Kings vi. 17. Horses 
and chariots are powerful ; horses and chariots of fire 
are invincible. 

Angels protected Elisha against an army of enemies ; 
yea, one angel destroyed in one night 185,000 soldiers 
in their one camp, 2 Kings xvii. 35. Do not these 
evidences demonstrate that angels are mighty in power, 
and that both to offend and defend ? 

It is necessary that they should be so, because the 
church and children of God, over whom the angels 
have a charge, have in this world against them not 
only mighty, malicious, fierce, cruel children of men, 
but principalities, powers, rulers of the darkness of 
this world, spiritual wickedness in high places,' £ph. 
vi. 12. 

Sec. 92. Of the speed of angels. 

A sixth property of angels is speed, or quickness in 
motion ; ■ by reason of their extraordinary speed, they 
are said to have wings to fly, Isa. vi. 2. In the time 
of Daniel's making a prayer, an angel came from the 
highest heaven to him on earth ; for in the beginning 
of Daniel's supplication the angel was sent forth, and 
while he was praying the angel was come to him ; in 
which respect the angel is said to fly swiftly, Daniel 
ix. 21, 23. 

They must needs be exceeding swift, swifter than 
any corporal substances in these especial respects. 

1. They cannot be hindered by any bodily impedi- 

' Of the power of the devil, see the Whole Armour of 
God, on Eph. vi. 12, sec. 12, 14, 20. 

' Angeli terram circuiiicunt adinstar avium, Hitr. in 
Ecc 8. 

Veu. 7.] 


ments ; no corporal substance can any whit stay 
their course, or slacken their enterprise ; they can 
pass through and pass over all such things as would 
stop and hinder any bodies ; as castles, cities, stone 
walls, iron gates, rivers of waters, seas, woods, or any 
other like things. 

2. They have no corporal gravity, nor any other 
like quaUty to slacken their motion. 

3. They need not such space of time to pass from 
place to place, as bodies need ; even on a sudden they 
can be in divers places which are millions of miles 
asunder ; as the highest heaven and earth is. 

4. They have a greater propensity and forwardness 
to do any task enjoined by their Lord, than other 
creatures : this is a gi-eat means of putting them on 
to do what they are enjoined with all celerity. 

On these grounds we may well think that the sun 
in his course cannot be swifter than they, nor the 
sight of the eye, nor the Jightning from heaven more 
quick than they. 

It is necessary that angels be so quick. 

1. Because the extremes of heaven, and betwixt 
heaven and earth, are far remote, one from another : 
and oft occasions are offered for angels to go suddenly 
from one extreme to another. 

2. Because many samts in the world (whose dis- 
tress requires present succour) are very far distant 
one from another. 

8. Because devils are swift unto mischief ; and it 
is meet the good angels be as quick to protect, as 
evil ones to annoy. 

Sec. 93. Of the zeal of angels. 

A seventh property of angels is zeal. Their zeal is 
most fervent ; in this respect they are called seraphim, 
Isa. vi. 2, 6.' Saraph signifieth to burn ; thence seraphim, 
such as burn with zeal. Hereunto the Holy Ghost 
alludeth in this phrase, a flame of &ce ; for zeal is a 
fervour :^ it is attributed to fire, to set out the burn- 
ing heat of it ; and it is ordinarily used to set out the 
ardour or fervency of the affections. Now, because 
angels are forward and fervent in accomplishing what 
they undertake ; zeal may well be reckoned up among 
their properties. 

Zeal puts hfe and heat into them, and that in every 
thing that they do ; it makes earnest in whatsoever is 
good ; it makes them (to use the word as it is oft used 
in a good sense) impatient at every dishonour done to 
God, and wrong to any of his saints. 

This zeal is necessary for them, by reason of the 
fiery fury and mahcious madness of devils and their 
instruments, in plotting and practising against God 
and his glory, and against saints and their good. It 
is requisite that angels, being messengers of God and 
ministers for saints, be, in maintaining the cause of 

' ei-|B>, ussit ; D'Q-IB', urmtea. 

' lieb. X. 27- Tu^is ^SXoj, ignis fervor- ^ir. fervere, inde 

God and his saints, as zealous as devils and wicked 
ones are furious against that cause. 

Sec. 94. Of angels' constancy. 

The eighth property of angels is constancy. They 
are unalterably constant in good ; their constancy hath 
respect both to their condition, and also unto their 

In regard of their condition, they are immortal, 
everlasting, and never decay. In this respect (as well 
as in other repects) men and women after the resur- 
rection, when there shall be no more death or any 
alteration, are said to be equal unto the angels, Luke 
XX. 36. Their nature giveth proof hereof. For 
spirits are not subject to decay. 

In regard of their disposition, as it hath hitherto, 
so it will for ever remain good, and very forward there- 
unto ; they never yet yielded to any evil, nor ever waxed 
weary of any good, nor ever repented them of doing 
the good which they had done. They have hitherto 
constantly persisted, and will for ever hereafter with 
hke constancy persist, in doing the will of their Lord ; 
and that without any interruption or intromission for 
a time, or without revolt and apostasy for ever. In 
regard of their constancy, they are said to serve God 
day and night, Eev. vii. 15, and always to behold 
his face. Mat. xviii. 10. 

Their unalterable constancy is requisite, because 
their Lord whom they serve is Jehovah, that changeth 
not, Mai- iii. 6, even ' the Father of lights, with 
whom is no variableness neither shadow of turning,' 
James i. 17. Should the good angels decay or fall 
away, where should the immortal and immutable God 
have constant servants ? Man proved a rebel against 
his Lord : so did many of the angels, which are turned 
into devils. By reason of their fall, God established 
the good angels that stand, and this is the true cause 
of their unalterable constancy. 

Sec. 95. Of divine expressions of the excellency oj 

The excellency of angels is further set out by 
sundry divine expressions, whereby excellent things 
are illustrated by applying them to angels, as ' the 
tongue of angels,' 1 Cor. xiii. 1 ; ' angels' food,' Ps. 
Ixxviii. 25. Thereby is meant the most excellent tongue 
and the most excellent food that can be ; as if angels 
did speak with a tongue, they would speak with such 
a tongue ; or if they did eat any food they would eat 
such food. 

The excellency of God is set out by such like 
phrases as, ' a prince of God,' Gen. sxiii. 6 ; ' an 
host of God,' 1 Chron. xii. 22 ; 'a city of God,' 
Jonah, iii. 3; 'a mountain of God,' Ps. xxxvi. 6.; 
' cedars of God,' Ps. Ixxx. 10. By these phrases it 
is declared, that the more excellent anything is, the 
more it appertaineth to God ; and the more anything 
appertains to God, the more excellent it is. If God's 


[Chap. I. 

excellency be thus set forth, surelj' the excellency of 
angels must needs be very much amplified by the 
fore-mentioned phrases. 

Sec. 9G. O/ihe/imctiotis of anr/els in relation to God. 

The functions of angels are comprised under the 
signification of this word angels, which signifieth mes- 
sengers : and under that other word ministers. 

Their functions are many ; they may all be brought 
to three heads, for they are such as are performed, 

1. To God their supreme Lord. 

2. To the Son of God, their head. 

3. To sons of men, Christ's members. 

First, The functions which angels perform to God 
are these : 

1. They attend God's presence. This they do for 
the honour of his majesty, and to set out his magni- 
ficence ; this, their attendance, is thus set out, 1 
Kings xxii. 19, ' I saw the Lord sitting on his 
throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him 
on his right .hand and on his left.' Bj the host of 
heaven, angels are meant. 

2. They follow the Lord whithersoever he goeth. 
In this respect they are styled the ' chariots of God ; ' 
that is, such as follow him for his service. That angels 
are thereby meant, is evident by the psalmist's own 
expression of himself, Ps. kviii. 17, ' The chariots of 
God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels ; ' 
and the Lord is there said to be ' among them,' be- 
cause they are ever about him whithersoever he 

8. They are God's messengers, to be sent up and 
down on God's errands. Their usual title angel im- 
porteth as much ; and so much is expressly set down, 
Ps. civ. 4. In this respect they are said to ' minister 
to him,' Daniel vii. 10. 

4. They are much employed about declaring the 
will of God. By angels God delivered his law on 
mount Sinai, Acts vii. 53, Gal. iii. 19. To this hath 
the apostle relation, Heb. ii. 2. 

Olij. God himself ' spake all these words,' Exod. 
XX. 1. 

Ans. God was indeed the true, primary, principal 
author of the law. Angels were his ministers in de- 
livering it ; they were as heralds, who in the presence 
of the king publish his proclamation. The word 
spoken by prophets is styled ' the word of the 
Lord,' Isa. i. 10. Of that which prophets uttered it 
is said, ' Thus saith the Lord,' Exod. xi. 4. Angels 
were God's ministers in delivering his law sundi-y 
ways. See more of this in Chap. ii. Sec. 9. 

(1.) They were attendants on God when it was de- 
livered. They earnestly desire to be where God's 
counsel is made known ; thoy were therefore in the 
assemblies of God's people where the mysteries of the 
gospel were published, Eph. iii. 10. 

(2.) They were witnesses and approvers of the law. 
In this respect saints are said to judge the world, 

1 Cor. vi. 2, in that they are witnesses and approvers 
of Christ's judgment. So Mat. xix. 28. 

(3.) They were as the mouth and voice of God in 
delivering the law. In this respect, saith the apostle, 
' As though God did beseech you in us, we pray you 
in Christ's stead to be reconciled unto God,' 2 Cor. 
V. 20. In this sense, saith the apostle, the word 
spoken by angels was stedfast, Ileb. ii. 2. 

It is also manifest that in sundry other particulars 
God used to make known his will by angels, as Gen. 
xvi. 7, 9, and xix. 1 ; 1 Kings xix. 5 ; 2 Kings i. 8 ; 
Daniel vii. 16 ; Luke i. 13, 26, and ii. 10 ; Acts i. 
11, and V. 19, 20, and viii. 20, and x. 3 ; Rev. i. 1. 

5. They are God's ministers, to execute and per- 
form what God will have done. In this respect angels 
are said to ' ascend and descend on the ladder that 
reached from earth to heaven,' Gen. xxviii. 12, and to 
' do his commandments, hearkening to the voice of 
his word,' Ps. ciii. 20. This is further evident by 
the many particular employments mentioned in sacred 
Scripture whereunto God put them : as to bring Lot 
out of Sodom, Gen. xix. 1, &c. ; Israel out of Egypt, 
Num. sx. 10 ; to stop Balaam's course. Num. xxii. 
22 ; to stop lions' mouths, Daniel vi. 22. 

6. They are executioners of God's judgments ; 
witness the angel that slew seventy thousand with the 
pestilence in three days, 2 Sam. xxiv. 15, 16; and 
the angel that slew an hundred and eighty-five thou- 
sand in one night, 2 Kings xix. 35. In this respect 
angels are said to have the vials full of the wrath of 
God, Rev. XV. 7. They are mighty and terrible, and 
one angel is able to do more than millions of men ; 
therefore God useth them for the greater terror to , 

7. They are special instruments of praising God. 
Excellently are they set forth in performing this duty. 
Rev. vii. 11, 12. And they are said, Rev. iv. 8, in 
extolling the name of the Lord, not to rest day or 
night, that is, never to cease in performing that duty. 
Because this is an especial work of theirs, the psalmi.st 
oft calls upon them to perform it, as Ps. ciii. 20, and 
cxUi. 2. Not as if they were negligent therein ; ' but ' 
thereby he sheweth how ready they are to perform it, 
and so commends them for it, and therein makes them 
examples to others. 

Sec. 97. Of the functions of angels in relation to 
Jesus Christ. 

Tlie functions which angels perform to the Son of 
God distinctly are especially such as they perform to 
him being incarnate, even as he is also Son of man. 

In general it is said, that the angels ascend and 
descend upon the Son of man, John i. 51 ; relation 
is therein had to Gen. xxviii. 12. By that ladder 
Christ is meant, who by his human nature touched 
the earth, and by his divine nature reached up to 

• Qui monet ut facias quod jam facis, ille monendo 
Laudat, et hortatu coinprubat acta suo. — Ooid <U Trial. 

Veu. 7.] 


heaven. The angels ascending and descending imports 
the continual service they do to him ; and that they 
are deputed of the Father thereunto the apostle proveth, 
Hab. i. 6, and the psalmist also, Ps. xci. 11. 

Particular functions expressed to be done by angels 
to Christ are these. 

1. To foretell his conception, Luke i. 80, 31. 

2. To declare his birth, Luke ii. 9-11. 

3. To prevent his danger, Mat. ii. 13, 14. 

4. To minister unto him in his need, Mark i. 13. 

5. To protect him from enemies. Mat. xxvi. 53. 

6. To contu'm and comfort him in his agony, Luke 
xxii. 43. 

7. To open his grave at the time of his resurrec- 
tion. Mat. xxviii. 2. 

8. To witness his resurrection to them that looked 
for him, Luke xxiv. 5, 6, 23. 

9. To confirm his ascension into heaven, Acts i. 

10, 11. 

10. To accompany him into heaven, Ps. Isviii. 17, 
18 ; Eph. iv. 8. 

11. To attend and magnify him in heaven, Rev. v. 

11, 12. 

12. To reveal what he will have done, Piev. i. 1, 
and xxii. 16. 

13. To fight with him against his enemies, Rev. 
xii. 7. 

14. To gather out of his kingdom all things that 
offend. Mat. xiii. 49, 50. 

15. To accompany him at his last coming, Mark 
viii. 38; Blat. xxv. 31. 

16. To execute his last judgment, Mat. xiii. 49, 50. 

Sec. 98. Of the function of amjch in relation to the 
bodies of men in this life. 

The functions which angels perform to men are per- 
formed to them especially as they are adopted of God, 
and members of Chi-ist ; for all saints have angels at- 
tending on them.' 

Functions of angels to such have respect to them 
in this world, or in the world to come. In this life 
they tend to the good of their bodies or of their- souls, 
and that either by procuring positive good things, or 
preventing and redressing of evils. 

In general, it is the function of angels to attend on 
saints, and to minister unto them,* ver. 14. In this 
respect they are styled ' their angels,' Mat. xviii. 10. 
They are as those servants who are appointed by a 
king to attend his children, and thereupon are called 
the prince's servants. 

Particular functions of angels which concern the 
good of saints' bodies in this Ufe, are these that fol- 
low : 

1. Angels are as stewards, to provide for men in 

' Omnes sancti angeloa habent.—Chn/s. in Mnt. xviiii. 
Horn. GO. 

^ Ipsi angeli nobis servire dicuntnr, dum propter nos in 
ninisterium mittuntur.— ^»jr. medit. lib. ii. cap. iii. 

time of need. Hereof we have a memorable history, 
1 Kings xix. 5-7. 

2. They are as physicians, to cure their maladies, 
John V. 4. 

3. They are as nurses, to bear them, as it were, in 
their arms, and to keep them from hurt, Ps. xci. 
11, 12. 

4. They are as guides, to direct- them in the right 
course, and to keep them from wandering. Gen. xxiv. 
7, and sxxii. 1. 

5. They are as soldiers, to guard them, and to keep 
them safe from danger, Ps. xxxiv. 7. Hereof we have 
a great instance, 2 Kings vi. 17. They are also as 
soldiers, to destroy the enemies of the church, 2 Kings 
xix. 35. 

6. They are as rescuers, saviours, and deliverers, 
to pull saints out of danger, and to set them free. Acts 
V. 19, and xii. 7, 8, &c. 

To these may be referred their restraining of things 
hurtful by nature from doing hurt, Dan. vi. 22. 

Ohj. How may these extraordinary instances be 
ordinarily applied ? 

Ans. 1. Extraordinary instances do shew what 
angelsare able and ready to do at the pleasure of the 

2. They shew what God will put them to as he 
seeth cause ; so as on these grounds we may expect 
the like, if God see it good. 

3. These extraordinary instances are as pertinent to 
our pm-pose as that reason which the apostle useth, 
Heb. xiii. 2, to press the duty of hospitality, namely, 
their receiving of angels unawares. 

4. These are visible and sensible demonstrations of 
their invisible and sensible care over us. 

5. The argument follows from the gi'eater to the 
less ; for if angels did such extraordinary matters for 
saints, much more may we expect ordinary matters. 
Such an argument is pressed, James v. 1 7, to quicken 
us up to pray. 

Sec. 99. Of angels' functions over men's souls in 
this Ufe. 

In regard of men's souls in this hfe, angels are, 

1. As prophets or teachers, to instruct them,' Dan. 
viii. 16, 17, and ix. 22; Luke i. 14, 15, 34, 35; 
Acts i. 11. 

2. As consolators, to comfort them in their fears 
and perplexities. Gen. xxi. 17 ; Isa. vi. 6, 7. 

3. As coadjutors, to stand with them against Satan, 
Jude 9 ; Zech. iii. 1. 

4. As fellow-members, to rejoice at the conversion of 
sinners, Luke xv. 10. 

5. As tutors, to punish them for their ofl'ences, that 
so they might be roused out of their sins, and brought 

" Sam. xxiv. 16. 

' Sancti angeli hominum saluti ministraut— CAcys. de 
Patien. Job, Horn. iii. 



[Chap. I. 

Sec. 100. Of angeW functions to saints in the life 
to come. 

In regard of saints after this life, angels are, 

1. As watchers, to attend the separation of body 
and soul, and instantly to take their souls and carry 
them to heaven,* Luke xvi. 22. 

2. As keepers,- at the last day to gather all the 
elect together. Mat. xxiv. 31. 

8. As fanners or fishers, to separate the evil from 
the good. Mat. xiii. 49. 

4. As companions in heaven, to join with saints in 
praising God, Rev. vii. 9-11. 

The fore-mentioned distinct functions of angels do 
lead us on further to consider the benefits which wc 
reap by them. 

Sec. 101. 0/ the benefits which saints receive hy the 
ministry of angels. 

The benefits which we receive by the ministry of 
angels concern the good of our bodies or of our souls, 
and that in this life and in the life to come. They 
may all be reduced to these heads : 

1. An exceeding high honour to have such attend- 
ants ; for they are ' ministering spirits for us,' ver. 
14. It was counted the highest honour that could be 
done to him whom the king delighted to honour, that 
one of his noble princes should wait upon him ; but 
all the noble princes of God attend on saints. Well, 
weigh their fore-mentioned properties (Sec. 87), and 
this honour will conspicuousl}' appear to be the greater. 
Surely this is an undoubted evidence that saints are 
the spouse of Christ, members of his body, and adopted 
to be God's children, and heirs of his kingdom. These 
are the true and proper grounds of this high honour. 
Mortal kings use so to honour their spouses and 
children. Adam in his innocency had not such hon- 

2. Protection from dangers ; for ' the angel of the 
Lord encampeth round about them that fear him, and 
delivereth them,' Ps. xxxiv. 7. And God hath given 
them a charge to keep his saints in all their ways, itc, 
Ps. xci. 11, 12. There are many, many dangers 
from which we are, time after time, protected by angels, 
though we do not visibly see it. That which the 
Scripture revealeth, wo may as safely, and ought as 
confidently, believe as if visibly we saw it. The bene- 
fit of this protection is the greater, in that it is against 
spiritual enemies and spiritual assaults, Eph. vi. 12. 
This is a great amplification of the benefit ; for good 
angels arc more in number than devils, and stronger 
in power. Thoy are more prudent than devils are 
Bubtle ; they are more speedy in coming to our suc- 
cour than devils are, or can be, in coming to annoy ns ; 
they are more fervent and zealous for our good than 
devils are, or can bo, fierce and malicious to our hurt ; 

' AnReli nunc hie, nunc ibi esse potuorunt, (jui liinc illinc 
quera Ueus voluit abatulorunt. — Avg. de cura pro mor. gcrend. 
cap. XV. ' Qu. 'reapers'?— Ed. 

they do more carefully and constantly watch for onr 
safety thau devils do, or can do, for our destruction, 
though, like roaring lions, they walk about seeking 
whom they may devour. In regard of these angelical 
protectors, we may say, as Elisha did, 2 Kings vi. 16, 
* They that be with us are more than they that are 
against us ;' yea, though all the wicked of the world 
and all the fiends of hell be against us. 

3. Supply of all our wants. They can do it ; they 
are willing and ready to do it ; yea, they do indeed 
actually do it, though we do not sensibly discern it. 
Abraham's servaat saw not the angel which went be- 
fore him and prospered his journey, yet an angel did 
so. Gen. xxiv. 7. Angels invisibly do many good ofiSces 
for us. As devils do oft work in us doubting and de- 
spair, so the good angels do oft put life and spirit into 
us, whereby we are comforted and established. An 
angel strengthened Christ in the extremity of his 
agony, Luke xxii. 43. The like they do to the mem- 
bers of Christ : they are sent forth to minister for 
them, ver. 4. Surely their ministry extendeth to such 
things as are needful for saints and useful unto them. 

Sec. 102. Of the resolution of the seventh verse. 

Ver. 7. And of the angels he saith, Who maketli his 
angels spirits, and his 7ninisters a flame of fire. 

In this verse is laid down the second argument,' 
whereby the apostle proveth angels to be inferior to 
Christ, and thereupon Christ to be more excellent than 
angels. The argument may be thus framed : They who 
are made spirits and ministers are inl'erior to him that 
made him so ; 

But angels are made spirits and ministers by Christ ; 

Therefore angels are inferior to Christ. 

That angels are so made, is in express terms set 

That Christ made them so is implied in this phrase, 
ivho malccth, for it hath reference to the last clause of 
the second verse. 

The sum of this verse is, a description of angels. 

Two points are observable therein : 

1. The connection of this verse with the former in 
this phrase, ' And of the angels he saith.' 

2. The description itself. This consists of two 
parts : 

The first sets down the nature of angels, spirits. 
The second, their office, ministers. 
Both those are amplified, 

1. By their principal eflicient, the Son of God, who 
made them. 

2. By their quality, in this metaphor, aflame of fire. 

Sec. 103. Of the observations arising out of the 
seventh verse. 

I. God hath made known what is to be known of 
angels. This he hath made known in his word ; for 
theroauto the apostle refers us in this phrase, ' And 
' Of the first argument, see Sec. 76. 


R. 8.] 


of the angels lie saith ;' even he that made known in 
his -word what is to be known of his Son, made known 
also what is to be known of angels. Angels are invi- 
sible, spiritual, and celestial substances, so as we could 
not know anything to the purpose concerning them, 
except God had revealed it. Search therefore the 
Scriptures, thereby to learn what thou wouldst know 
of them, and content thyself with that which is revealed 
in the Scriptures concerning them. 

II. Christ is the Creator of angeh. This relative 
who hath reference to Christ, This doctrine is ex- 
pressly set down, Col. i. 16. 

III. Christ is theLord of angels. He ordereth and 
disposeth them to such offices and services as he 
pleaseth. The particle of the present tense, ivho 
maketh, implieth a continual act of providence. In 
this respect Christ is said to be ' the head of all 
principality and power,' Col. ii. 10. 

IV. Angels are spirits. They are here expressly 
80 called. See Sec. 86. 

V. Angels are ministers. See Sec. 96, &c. 

VI. Angels are very fervent in their enterprises. 
This metaphor, a flame of fire, imports as much. See 
Sec. 93. 

Sec. 104. Of the connection of the eighth verse ivith 
the former. 

But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, God, is for 
ever and ever ; a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre 
of thy kingdom. — Heb. i. 8. 

The inferiority of angels to Christ being sufficiently 
proved in the former verses, the superiority and dignity 
of Christ is further prosecuted in the six verses fol- 

The first particle hit, importeth an opposition 
betwixt this that is here set down, and that which 
went before, for the dominion of Christ is here opposed 
to the subjection of angels. 

The Son here meant is that very Son of God, of 
whom mention was made before, vers. 2, 5, 6. See 
Sees. 15, 49, 51. 

This phrase he saith is not in the original, yet of 
necessity to be understood, to make the sentence per- 
fect. The learned languages, when they have occa- 
sion in divers sentences together to use the same verb, 
account it an elegancy to leave it out in the latter 
clauses. It is here to be taken in the same sense 
wherein it was taken vers. 6, 7, and it implieth that 
there is as good proof of the dignity of Christ as there 
was of the inferiority of angels, even divine testi- 
mony ; God that testiiieth the one testifieth the other, 
he saith of the one as well as he saith of the other. 

Sec. 105. Of the main scope of the iSth Psalm. 

The testimony intended under this phrase, he saith, 
is taken out of Ps. xlv. 6, 7. That psalm is an ex- 
press prophecy of Christ. 

Many take that psalm to be a congratulatory hymn 

upon the marriage of Solomon, and so expound it his- 
torically. Most of the Jewish rabbins apply it wholly 
that way. But there are many points therein, which 
cannot with any probabiHty be applied to Solomon. 
To let pass sundry other passages in other parts of 
the psalm, few of the points noted in the two verses 
which the apostle hath quoted out of that psalm can 
fully come up to Solomon. Nay, some of them can- 
not well and truly be applied to him, as this apos- 
trophe, God, as here (see Sec. 107), simply set 
down ; nor that continuance of time comprised under 
this phrase (see Sec. 108), for ever and ever ; for Solo- 
mon's throne did not properly for ever continue. 
Besides, his sceptre was not in all things a sceptre of 
righteousness ; witness the many wives and concubines 
that he had, many of them being strangers, which was 
directly against the law ; witness also the idolatry that 
he yielded to, 1 Kings xi. 1, &c. ; and witness the 
heavy burdens which he laid upon the people, inti- 
mated 1 Kings xii. 4. Finally, the extent of that 
anointing above all others, mentioned in the psalm, 
cannot properly be applied to Solomon, though he had 
many endowments above sundry other men. Such 
transcendent excellencies are applied to the person 
intended in this psalm, as some of the Jews themselves 
do apply them to the Messiah, and two or three times 
use this phrase, Iving Messiah, in applying sundry 
passages to him. 

It is sufficient for us Christians to persuade us, 
that the Son of God and his excellency is set out in 
this psalm, because an apostle guided by the same 
Spirit that the psalmist was, doth so directly and 
expressly apply it to Christ, as here it is applied. 

Sec. 106. Of Christ's throne. 

The manner of setting out Christ's dignity is very 
elegant and emphatical. It is by a rhetorical apos- 
trophe : ' Thy throne, God.' It imports a joyful 
congratulation of Christ's glory and dignity, for this 
relative thy hath reference to the Son, mentioned 
in the beginning of the verse. An apostrophe, when 
it is used in commendation of a person, addeth much 
emphasis, and putteth life into the speech. It doth 
in a manner single out the person to whom it is de- 
clared, to be observed of all. As here it is applied to 
Christ, it further shews, that Christ's excellencies may 
be spoken of to himself even face to face, for they are 
his due, and there is no fear of vain-glory in him. 
Rev. iv. 10, 11. See 125 in the end. 

A throne is a royal seat, a seat proper to a king. So 
much is intended by this phrase, ' Only in the throne 
will I be greater than thou,' Gen. xli. 40. That was 
spoken by a king upon advancing one above all his 
subjects ; only he excepts his own royal dignity, which 
he setteth out under this word throne. These two 
words, throne, kingdom, are oft joined together ; thus, 
'the throne of his kingdom,' 2 Sam. vii. 13, Deut, 
xvii. 18 ; and it is called a ' ro\al throne,' Esther v. 1 ; 



a ' kingly throne,' Daniol v. 20. A throne is mcto- 
nj-mically put for a kingdom, 2 Sam. vii. 16, 1 Kings 
i. 37. Kings used to sit on their throne when they 
would set out their royalty, 1 Kings xxii. 10, 19, Acts 
xii. 21 ; and when they executed public judgment, 
1 Kings vii. 7. In this respect it is styled a ' throne 
of judgment,' Prov. xx. 8 ; and thrones are said to be 
prepared for judgment, Ps. ix. 7 and cxxii. 5 ; and 
God is said to ' sit on a throne judging,' Ps. ix. 4. 
In allusion to this right, Christ thus saith to his dis- 
ciples, 'Ye shall sit upon twelve thrones judging,' 
Mat. xix. 28. 

This metaphor is here applied to Christ, to set out 
his kingly office, together with his dignity, royalty, 
and majesty ; for the throne whereon Christ is said to 
sit is styled a ' throne of majesty,' Heb. viii. 1 ; yea, 
also, Christ's supreme function of judging is hereby 
intimated, for God ordained him to be judge. Acts 
X. 42. 

Now, Christ is truly and properly a king, the most 
high, supreme sovereign over all. And this he is, 

1. As he is true God ; for the Lord is king, Ps. x. 
IG ; God is king, Ps. xlvii. 7, 8. 

2. As he is the Son of God, the second person in 
sacred Trinity, Ps. xcviii. 6, Isa. xxxiii. 22. 

8. As he is God-man, the Messiah, Zech. ix. 0. 

This last respect is here especially intended ; for it 
is the main scope of the apostle to set out the 
excellency of Christ as God manifested in the flesh, 
preached unto the Gentiles, and believed on in the 

Sec. 107. OJ the title God applied to Christ. 

The title God, &ihs, is here properly to be taken. 
It setteth out the divine nature of Christ. It is thus 
oft attributed to Christ in the Now Testament ; as John 
i. 1, llom. ix. 5, 1 Tim. iii. 1(5, Hob. iii. 4. 

The word used Ps. xlv. G (whence this testimony is 
taken) is of the plural number, D*n7X (as was shewed 
on ver. G, Sec. 70), and attributed to creatures ; see 
Sec. 118. When it is applied to creatures, it is 
spoken of many together ; as to idols, Exod. xxii. 20; 
or angels, Ps. viii. 5; or men, Ps. Ixxxii. 1, G. If 
at any time it be applied to one single creature, some 
circumstance or other is added thereto, to demonstrate 
that a creature is intended thereby ; as where it is 
applied to one calf, it is styled a 'god of gold,' Exod. 
xxxii. 81 ; and the name of the idol is expressed, 
Judges xvi. 28, thus, ' Dagou their god.' So where 
Moses is styled god, his name is expressed; and the 
person to whom he was a god, namely, Pharaoh, 
Exodus vii. 1. But in this place there is no circum- 
stance that restrains it to a creature ; therefore it is 
to be applied to him that is truly, properly, and 6ssen- 
tially God. 

This apostrophe, God, may be used by the 
psalmist, inspired and guided by the holy God, as by 
himself spoken to the Messiah, as Ps. Ixviii. 7, or the 

first person in Trinity may be brought in speaking to 
the second, even the Father to his Son, as Ps. ex. 1. 
All tends to the same end, namely, to declare Christ 
to be true God. 

This is further manifest by the title Jehovah, which 
is a name so proper to the true God, as it is not in any 
part of Scripture attributed to any but to the true 
God ;' and it is attributed to the Son of God, and that 
as a distinct person from the Father, Gen. xix. 24. 
So as the Son is most true God, most properly so 
called in this and sundry other places. So he is called 
Lord, ver. 10, Sec. 128. 

Sec. 108. Of the everlastingness nf Christ's kingdom. 

These words, ' for ever and ever,' s/'j rJv a'lSna mD 
aiSvoj, have reference to the throne of Christ, whereby 
his kingdom is set out ; so as it declai-es the everlast- 
ingness of Christ's kingdom. 

The Greek word here translated ercr is the same 
that was translated ivorlds, ver. 2. According to the 
notation of the Greek word, ali! tSv, it signifieth ever- 
being, namely, one and the same; see Sec. 18. Some- 
times the singular number is singly used, as Mark 
iii. 29, t!( rov aiSita ; and sometimes doubled, as hero. 
Ofttimes the plural number is singly used, as Luke i. 
82, iii •ro-jc aiuva; ; but most frequently doubled, £/'; 
To-jg aiSita; riv aiuvuii, especially in the book of the 
Revelations, whore it is fifteen times doubled. 

The doubling of the word addeth emphasis, and 
ratifieth the certainty of the point, as the doubling of 
Pharaoh's dreams did, Gen. xli. 32. 

This word hath reference sometimes to former times, 
and intendeth eternity without beginning, as Eph. iii. 
11, xara. 'r^ihan Tt^v aiuvov, and is translated ctcrtnd. 
It hath also reference to future times, and intendeth 
everlastingness ; as John vi. 51, 'He shall live for 
ever,' ^^ffsra/ iii rov aiUta,. Sometimes it implieth a 
continuance to the end of the world, as Luke i. 55 ; or 
the end of a man's life, as John viii. 35. 

Though the word crer, singly used, may synecdocbi- 
cally be put for a time that hath a date or period, \< : 
whenever it is doubled it signifieth an everlasting ct'ii 
tiuuauce, without any date or end at all. 

In the Hebrew test, which is here quoted, there is 
a particle' added to the word ever, which in that use 
always intendeth a proper everlastingness, without any 
period or end at all, and thereupon translated ' for evor 
and ever.' 

Christ, in regard of his divine nature, as the Sen 
of God, is a king for ever in the largest sense, haviiii; 
respect to former and future continuance, before and 
after all times, even ' from everlasting to everlasting,' 
Ps. xc. 2. 

' Of the title Jehovah, see the Church's Conquest, on 
Exodus xvii. 15, sec. 72. 

' ^V1 D^IV- In BecuUim et upqiie, notat tempns longius 
quam seculum : aiteruum. In immensum augct orationis 

Vek. 8.] 


But in regard of his office, as God-man, aud 
mediator betwixt God and man, this continuance hath 
respect to the future, and implieth an everlasting con- 
tinuance. And that, 

1. From his ascension, when he was actually set 
upon his throne in heaven. This exaltation of Christ 
is frequently noted to be after his humiliation and 
subjection unto death. Acts ii. 86, and v. 30,i31; 
Rom. viii. 34 ; Philip, ii. 8, 9. 

2. From his incarnation. For so soon as his 
human nature was united to his divine (which was at 
his first conception) he had right to his royal dignity. 
Thereupon it is said, ver. 6, ' when he bringeth in 
the first-begotten into the world,' &e. So soon as he 
was born he was acknowledged a king, and answer- 
ably he was worshipped, and presents brought to him. 
Mat. ii. 2, 11. 

3. From the beginning of the world, even so soon 
as man fell, as Mediator he was also King. That 
which was said of Christ in regard of his sacrifice, he 
was a ' Lamb slain from the foundation of the world,' 
Rev. xiii. 8, may be applied to his royalty, he was a 
King from the foundation of the world. For in every 
point of his Mediatorship he was the ' same yesterday, 
and to-day, and for ever,' Heb. xv. 8 ; that is, in all 
former times, in the present time, and for all future 
times. This was Christ in four especial respects. 

f (1.) In regard of God's decree, which wasj before 
all times. 

(2.) In regard of God's promise. Gen. iii. 15. 

(3.) In regard of the efficacy of Christ's mediator- 
ship, for it was eflectual to all purposes so soon as 
God had promised him. 

(4.) In regard of the vii-tue of faith, which is ' the 
substance of things hoped for,' Heb. xi. 1. 

From what time soever we take the rise or begin- 
ning of Christ's kingdom, as he is Mediator, the con- 
tinuance of it is everlasting ; it hath no date at all, 
Ps. cxlv. 13 ; Daniel vii. 4 ; Luke i. 33. 

Sec. 109. Of Christ's givinrj up his kingdom to his 

Against the eternity of Christ's kingdom may be 
objected, that Christ shall deliver up the kingdom to 
God the Father, and that the Son himself shall he 
subject unto him that put all things under him, 1 Cor. 
XV. 24, 28. 

Aus. 1. That which is spoken of Christ's deliver- 
ing up the kingdom to the Father, is meant of that 
full victory and conquest which Christ shall get, and 
thereby, as it were, bring unto his Father a settled and 
an established kingdom. In this respect he may be 
said to settle his Father in his kingdom, in reference 
to such as rebelled against him or fell from him. 

2. That phrase of delivering up the kingdom to 
the Father may be understood of the manner of Christ's 
regiment by his ministers, ordinances, and other like 
means; all things being accomplished by these for 

which they were ordained, they shall cease, and in 
this respect be said to be delivered up to God. 

3. All enemies being subdued, Christ hath no oc- 
casion of using authority over them. There is no 
fear of their rising against him. 

4. As for this phrase, ' The Son also himself shall 
be subject,' it is to be taken in regard of his human 
nature aud office of mediation, in which respect he is 
subject to the Father. 

If hereupon it be objected that in these respects 
Christ was always subject to the Father, I answer, 

That the excellency of his deity being till then as 
it were clouded under the veil of his flesh and of his 
office, it did not so conspicuously, fully, and perfectly 
appear, as at the end of the world it shall. This sub- 
jection then is to be taken comparatively, in refer- 
ence to that infinite difterence which then shall be 
manifested betwixt the divine and human nature of 

When the Son of God assumed human nature to 
the unity of his divine nature, ' the Word was made 
flesh,' John i. 14, and ' God was manifested in the 
flesh,' 1 Tim. iv. 16. Now though it pleased the 
Deity to make itself in a manner visible in that flesh, 
John xiv. 9, yet was the flesh as a veil obscuring the 
surpassing brightness of the deity. And although 
by divine words and works uttered and done in this 
flesh, by enduring that heavy burden which was laid 
on it for our sins, by the resurrection of it from the 
dead, by the ascension of it into heaven, and by the 
high exaltation of it at the right hand of God, the 
deity did by degrees more and more ^!brightly and 
clearly shew itself forth, yet still the flesh remained 
as a veil and a cloud. But when the enemies of all 
sorts shall be subdued, then will the deity of the Son so 
brightly and conspicuously shew itself, as the humanity 
shall be no veil unto it, but rather it shall appear to 
be infinitely inferior to it, and in this respect subject 
unto it ; so as the human nature of Christ shall not 
lose any dignity which it had before, but the divine 
nature shall more clearly manifest itself in itself, and 
(as we speak) in its own likeness. The subjection 
therefore of the Son is to be taken of the clear mani- 
festation of the excellency/ of the deity, not of any 
diminution of the dignity of the humanity. 

5. The subjection before mentioned may be under- 
stood of the body of Christ ; and Christ, because he is 
the head of that body, be said to be subject ; for this 
subjection to the Father is set down as a high degree 
of honour and happiness. To what higher degree 
can any creature attain unto than to be God's sub- 
ject '? Now because the whole body of Christ shall 
not be fully brought into the protection and tuition of 
the Father before that day, therefore by a kind of ex- 
cellency the Son, in regard of his mystical body, is 
said then to be subject. 

6. All may be taken of Christ's kingdom of inter- 
cession and grace, whereof the church, so long as it 


[Chap. I. 

was militant, had nfied, but not of his kingdom of 
glory, in which his church shall triumph. 

Sec. 110. O/the necessity of Christ's continual silting 
upon his throne. 

There is an absolute necessity that Christ's throne 
should bo ' for ever and ever,' because there never 
was nor can be any worthy, meet, or able to succeed 
Christ in the throne, and to go forward with that work 
which he had begun ; wherefore, that his good begin- 
ning might not prove vain, it was necessary that he 
should have an everlasting kingdom. Among men a 
good supply may be made, and one man may go on 
with that good work which another hath begun, and 
perfect the same. David made great prepai'ation for 
the temple, 1 Chron. xxii. 2, &c., and sxviii. 11, &c., 
but his son Solomon perfected the temple after the 
death of his father, 2 Chron. v. 1. But there is one 
only true natural Son of God, one Mediator between 
God and man, so as there can be none hke to him to 
succeed him on the throne. Besides, Christ ever 
liveth, and therefore needeth no successor ; but aO 
men are mortal, and are not suHered to continue by 
reason of death. This reason the apostle rendereth 
of the difference betwixt the priesthood of men, which 
was changeable, and the unchangeable ' priesthood of 
Christ, Heb. vii. 23, 24. 

This everlastingness of Christ's kingdom doth much 
commend the same, and sheweth it to be far more 
excellent than all the kingdoms of men, and that it 
shall stand when all others are brought to nought. 
Christ shall be the conqueror over all. 

In this respect he is to be feared above all, and to 
be trusted unto more than all, Daniel vi. 26, and vii. 
14 ; 1 Tim. iv. 10. 

Sec. 111. Of Christ's Sceptre. 

There is another sign here used to set out Christ's 
kingdom, that is, a ' sceptre: ' indeed the Greek word 
(il ja/3oo5. See Chap. ix. 4, Sec. 28) used by the 
apostle, signifieth a wand, or stick, or staff; it is by 
the Septuagint oft used, as here, for a sceptre. So 
the Hebrew word t23C, is indefinitely put for a staff 
or a stick, but more especially for a sceptre, as Gen. 
xlix. 10 ; Num. xxiv. 17. 

In the book of Esther there is oft used a compound 
Hebrew word,^ which signifieth such instrument as 
kings used to sway, which is properly a sceptre ; this 
is so proper to a king as he is called a sccptro-holder 
or sceptre-bearer,^ Amos i. 5-8. As a throne and a 

• »«■«(«/!««>. Quod pralerire non potest, i.e. pcrpetuum. 
Perpetuum aulem sacerdolium dicitur sacerdotis perpetui 
respectn.— ^«a Annot- in Ueb- vii. 24. 

« ta'aiC compoiiitur ex nC el tSaC virga el principe ; 
Bigniiicatque virgam qualcm princepa solet tenere, Dimirum 
»x«TT(»», tceplrum. 

' t33C 1Din rKtirTftvx'i, teeplritehem, r*nrT(»fi(ii, icep- 
trum fereiu. Sicut Tnronus regni est symbolum et tessera, 

crown, so a sceptre are all ensigns proper to a king, 
and that to set out his majesty and authority. There- 
fore, when a king was chosen, and inaugurated, and 
anointed, they^were wont to put a sceptre into his 

A king, by swaying his sceptre this way or that 
way, manifesteth his mind. When he inviteth any to 
como to him, or would have silence made, or vouch- 
safe grace and favour to any, or declare his dislike of 
a thing and displeasure, he doth it by the motion of 
his sceptre, so as his mind may be discerned thereby. 
When Ahasuerus would give an evidence of his favour 
to Esther, he held out his sceptre to her, Esther v. 2, 
and viii. 4. Because a sceptre is proper to a king, 
by a metonymj' i: is oft put for a kingdom or royal 
dignity, as Gen. xlix. 10, Num. xxiv. 17. And the 
destruction of a king and kingdom is set out by break- 
ing a sceptre, Isa. xiv. 5, Zech. x. 11. 

That a royal sceptre is here meant, is evident by 
the word kingdom annexed to it, ' the sceptre of thy 
kingdom.' And that by this sceptre the government 
of a kingdom is here meant, is manifest by the epithet 
of righteousness added thereto, a ' sceptre of righteous- 
ness,' that is, a righteous government of a kingdom. 
In this respect a king is said to have a sceptre to rule, 
Ezek. xix. 14. 

There are two things whereby the apostle com- 
mendeth the foresaid sceptre : one is, the dignity of 
it ; the other is, the equity of it. 

The diiinity is the greatest that can be implied in 
this word kingdom. A sceptre of a kingdom is a royal 
sceptre, such as kings only sway. Other commanders 
may have sceptres (though not so properly as a king), 
for mention is made of ' sceptres of rulers ' in the 
plural number, as Isa. xiv. 5, Ezek. xix. 11. Such 
a sceptre may be a sceptre of a city, of a tribe, of a 
province, or of such a jurisdiction as he possesseth 
who holdeth the sceptre. 

The equity of the former sceptre is thus set out, ' a 
sceptre of righteousness,' which implieth that the 
king who swayeth the sceptre, ordereth all things in 
his kingdom most justlj' and righteously. 

Order of matter requireth that the latter clause 
should be in the former place, thus, ' the sceptre of 
thy kingdom is a sceptre of righteousness ; ' but the 
learned languages place an elegancy in transposing the 
parts of a sentence. 

According to the order of matter, we will first speak 
of the kingdom of Christ, and then of the equity 

Sec. 112. Of Christ's kingdom. 

Christ's kingdom is expressly mentioned in this 
phrase, ' the sceptre of thy kingdom. ' The relative 
particle thy hath reference to Christ, as was before 
shewed on this phrase, ' thy throne,' Sec. lOG. 
ita etiam virga tarn regise quam judiciarite potestatie est indi- 
cium. — Battl magn. expUc. P». xliv. 

Ver. 8.] 


Frequent mention is made of Christ's kingdom, and 
that before he was exhibited in the flesh, and since. 

Before it was typified, as by the kingdom of other 
kings of Judah, so in particular by the kingdom of 
David, 2 Sam. vii. 12-16; Isa. ix. 7, and ivi. 5; 
Jar. xxiii. 5, 6, and xxsiii. 17. 

This kingdom of Christ was also prophesied of 
before bis incarnation, Gen. xlix. 11-13 ; Num. xxiv. 
17 ; Daniel ii. 44 ; Micah iv. 8. After his exhibition 
in the flesh, this kingdom of Christ was published by 
bis forerunner, Mat. iii. 2 ; by Christ himself, Luke 
iv. 43, and viii. 1 ; and by his apostles, Luke ix. 2. 
This kingdom did the apostles most set forth after 
Christ's ascension. Acts viii. 12, and xx. 23, and xxviii. 
81. Christ's kingdom is that estate where Christ 

As God, by his absolute power he reigneth over all 
creatures everywhere, Ps. ciii. 19. 

As Christ is God-man, God manifested in the flesh, 
' all power is given unto him in heaven and earth,' 
Mat. xxviii. 18 ; yet hath Christ a peculiar kingdom, 
wherein be reigneth over a select people called out of 
tbe world, who are a willing people, Ps. ex. 5. 

This kingdom is sometimes called ' the kingdom of 
God,' Mark i. 14, 15 ; and that in five especial re- 
spects : 

1. By a kind of excellency; for excellent and 
eminent things are said to be of God, as Gen. xxiii. 
6 ; Ps. Ixxxvii. 3 ; 1 Chron. xii. 22 ; Ps. Ixxx. 10, 
and xxxvi. 6 ; Gen. xxx. 8. 

2. In relation to tbe king thereof, Christ Jesus, who 
is true God, John i. 49, Kom. ix. 5. 

3. In opposition to kingdoms of men, Dan. v. 21, 
John xviii. 36. 

4. In regard of tbe laws, privileges, and immunities 
thereof, which are all divine and of God, Deut. iv. 8, 
Rom. xiv. 17. 

5. In reference to the end thereof, which is God's 
glory, Philip ii. 9-11. 

It is also called ' the kingdom of heaven,' Mat. iii. 
2, and iv. 17 ; and that in five other respects: 

1. To distinguish it from the kingdoms of the world, 
which the devil shewed to Christ, Mat. iv. 8. 

2. To shew the kind of laws, ordinances, and ap- 
purtenances thereof, which are all heavenly, Heb. 
ix. 23. 

8. To demonstrate tbe qualification of the subjects 
thereof, whose inward disposition and outward con- 
versation is heavenly, Heb iii. 1, Ps. iii. 20. 

4. To set out the extent thereof. It doth not only 
reach from Euphrates to Sihor, as Solomon's kingdom 
did, 1 Kings iv. 21, or from India to Ethiopia, over 
an hundred and twenty-seven provinces, as Ahasuerus 
bis kingdom did, Esther i. 1, but to heaven itself, 
yea, and that throughout the whole earth and tbe 
whole heaven, Ps. cxxxv. 6, Mat. xxviii. 18. 

' Of Christ's kingdom, see my Gnide to go to God or 
E.\i)lun. of tlie Lord'a Prayer, 2 Petit., sec. 35. 

5. To manifest the end of calling men into the 
church, which is Christ's kingdom of grace on earth, 
that they might be fitted for heaven, which is the 
kingdom of glory. Col. i. 12, 13, 1 Peter i. 3, 4. 

Well may the estate where Christ ruletb be accounted 
and called a kingdom, because all things which con- 
stitute a kingdom appertain thereto ; such as these : 

1. An high supreme sovereign, who is a true, proper 
king, an absolute monarch, which Christ is, Isa. ix. 6 ; 
Ps. ii. 6 ; 1 Tim. vi. 15. 

2. There be subjects that take him for their king, 
and willingly subject themselves to him, Ps. xviii. 44, 
and ex. 8. 

8. There is a distinct particular dominion or state, 
in which that king reigneth and ruleth, Ps. ii. 6. 

4. There be laws and statutes whereby this kingdom 
is governed, the most righteous, equal, and prudent 
laws that ever were. These are registered in God's 
word, the holy Bible : read what is said of them, 
Deut. iv. 8 ; Ps. xix. 7 ; 2 Tim. iii. 15-17. 

5. There [be] privileges and immunities appertain- 
ing to this kingdom, such as never any kingdom had 
the like. Some of tbe privileges are these : 

(1.) A right to the things of this world, 1 Cor. iii. 
22, 28. 

(2.) A free access to the throne of grace at all times, 
Eph. ii. 18, and iii. 12, Heb. iv. 16. This privilege 
will appear to be a great one, if we well weigh the 
readiness of him that sits on the throne to accept us ; 
the abundance of blessings that are there treasured 
up, and the assurance that the subjects of this king- 
dom have to attain their desires. 

(3.) A right to Christ himself, and in bim to all 
things that are bis. And what is not bis ? Eom. viii. 

(4.) Aright to heaven itself, 1 Peter i. 4; Luke xii. 
32 ; Mat. xxv. 34. 

The immunities of Christ's kingdom are such as 
these : 

1. Freedom from all inconvenient and burdensome 
laws, whether ceremonial, judicial, or moral, Rom. 
vii. 4, Gal. iv. 5. 

2. From sin, Rom. vi. 18, 22. We are freed from 
sin, — 

(1.) In regard of tbe guilt of it, Rom. viii. 83. 
(2.) In regard of the dominion and power of it, 
Rom. vi. 14. 

(8.) In regard of tbe punishment of it, Eom. viii. 1. 

3. From the sting of death, 1 Cor. xv. 53. 

4. From tbe power of Satan, Heb. ii. 14. 

Who would not be of this kingdom ? What care 
should they have that are of it to abide in it, and to 
say, ' The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant 
places ; yea, I have a goodly heritage,' Ps. xvi. 6. 
How sedulous should they be to bring others there- 
into. Cant. viii. 8. How conscionable ought tbe 
subjects of this kingdom to be in walking worthy 
thereof, Eph. iv. 1, Col. i. 10. 


[(.'HAP. I. 

Sec. 118. Of the riijhtcousncss of Christ's kingdom. 

The Greek word' joined by the apostle to the 
sceptre hero mentioned, siguifieth rectitude, straight- 
ness, evenness ; it is opposed to crookedness, rough- 
ness, unevcnuess. So doth the Hebrew word^ also 
signify ; it is titly applied to a sceptre, which useth 
to be straight and upright, not crooked, nor inclining 
this way or that way ; so as that which is set out by 
a sceptre, namely, government, is hereby implied to 
be right and upright, just and equal, not partially in- 
clining to any side. The government of a good king 
is frequently set out by this phrase, 'He did that 
which was right,' TJ"n, 1 Kings xv. 5, 11, and xxii. 
43 ; and it is opposed to declining to the right hand 
or to the left, 2 Kings xxii. 2. According to the tiue 
meaning of the word in this place, it is not unfitly 
translated ' righteousness ;' and so it is expounded in 
the next verse. These two words in Hebrew, which 
signify righteousness, pIV, and rectitude or equity, 
D^t^"Dl, are oft joined together, as importing the same 
thing, Prov. ii. 9, Ps. Iviii. 1. 

This phrase, a ' sceptre of righteousness,'^ is a 
rhetorical phrase, very elegant and emphatical. It 
impHeth a most jnst and equal ordering all things in 
the kingdom, so as nothing but that which is right, 
without all appearance of any unrighteousness, is to 
be found in Christ's administration of his kingdom. 
The substantive rv/htcoiisncss,* is oft put for the 
adjective righteous ; and that to declare the super- 
lative degree thereof, as Deut. xxiv. 13: Ps. cxix. 172; 
Isa. i. 20 ; Jer. xxxiii. 15 ; 2 Tim. iv.'s ; Heb. vii. 1. 

Hereby it appeareth that Christ doth most right- 
eously order the affairs of his kingdom. In this re- 
spect ho is styled a ' righteous judge,' 2 Tim. iv. 8, 
and a ' righteous branch ;' and ' this is his name 
whereby he shall be called, The Lord our righteous- 
ness,' Jer. xxiii. 5,0;' Justice and judgment are the 
habitation of his throne,' Ps. Ixxxix. 14. His laws 
and statutes are all righteous, Ps. xix. -7, &c. His 
word, which in special is counted to be his sceptre, 
teacheth all righteousness, maketh his subjects right- 
eous, and leadeth them in that only right way which 
briugcth them to the crown of righteousness. There 
is no true righteousness but that which is found in 
this kingdom. The members of this kingdom are the 
only true righteous men, all others are but righteous 
in show. The rewards which Christ giveth, and the 
judgments which ho oxecuteth, are all righteous. 

Thus he brings most glory to himself, and doth 
most good to others, which are two main ends whereat 
Christ aimeth. 

Happy are those men, happy are those subjects 
which arc of this kingdom, and governed by the laws 

' Ivfirris, rectUudo, infill rectus, e,h tZ et Tltnfti. 
" IIC'D. * Sec Sec. 26, on Ihis plirasp, vonl o/powr. 

* Abstractum pro coiicrcto. In regno Cliristi est pura 
U8titia. — Jiaitl. Nag. Lxplk. Ps. xliv. 

Blessed be the Lord which delighted in his church 
to set his Son on the throne thereof; and to put this 
sceptre of righteouness into his hand ; because the 
Lord love d his church for ever, therefore made he his 
Son king, to do judgment and justice. 

How should this allure us to come to this kingdom, 
to abide therein, to [be] subject to the laws and ordi- 
nances thereof. 

Oh the folly of those who will not have this man to 
rule over them, Luke xix. 14, 27, but will break his 
bands, Ps. ii. 3. They are like to the trees, Judges 
ix. 14, 15. 

Sec. 114. Of the e.r tent of righteousness. 

Thou hast loved rii/hteousness, and hated iniquitij ; 
therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee icith 
the oil of (jladnrss above thy fellows. — Heb. i. 9. 

In the beginning of this verse, the apostle further 
amplifieth the righteousness of Christ's kingdom. It 
might be thought that the mention of the everlasting 
throne of Christ had been sufficient to the apostle's 
purpose, which was to demonstrate Christ's excellency 
above angels. But to move the Hebrews the rather 
to submit themselves to Christ's government, he doth 
not only give au hint of Christ's righteous sceptre, 
but also produceth all that the prophet had foretold of 
Christ's righteous government ; and that both in re- 
gard of the canse thereof, which was his love of right- 
eousness, and also in regard of the parts thereof, which 
are to love righteousness and hate iniquity, that so 
they whom he instructed herein might themselves 
follow after righteousness, and avoid and fly from all 
iniquity. It was a great matter that he had spoken 
of, the government of Christ's kingdom, therefore he 
returns to it again.! 

The manner of laying down this exemplification is 
the same that he used in propounding the point itself, 
namely, by way of apostrophe, speaking unto Christ 
himself, ' Thou hast loved,' &c. This adds much 

Though our English use one and the same word 
in the former verse, and in this verse too, namely, 
riyhteousnesx ; yet both by the psalmist in Hebrew, and 
by the apostle in Greek, two several words are used. 

In the three learned languages, Hebrew, Greek, 
and Latin, one and the same word is put for justice 
and righteousness.'^ 

The notation of the Greek word used by the apostle 
will bo a good help to find out the nature of the thing. 

A learned philosopher makes the notation of the 
word translated riyhteoiis, to be from dividing into 
two equal parts,'' because by justice or righteousness 

' Quod jam magnum quiddam locutus est, itornm illnd 
so curnie festiunt. — Chri/s. Jlom. 3, in cap. i. ad llrb. 

' \>'Vi,'iiiitLuttm,justUia. 

^ AVtf^ta^Jraf VixtLin »ti Si';^« Wtiv, wvtrt^ Rr Itrtt itvti %txai-v. 

— Arist. Elhic. lib. v. cap. vii. Ju.-<tilia ust virtus, quu .^u,i 
cuique tribuuntur. — Aug. dt lib. arhit. lib. i. Sic Arist. loc. 
citat. Sic Cic. de Finib. lib. v. Aliique plurimi. 

Vkk. 9.] 


matters are so equally poised and distributed, as 
every one batli that which belongs to him, or is meet 
for him. Thus it compriseth both reward and re- 
venge ; the one and the other being by righteousness 
BO ordered as it is meet to be ordered. The notation 
of our English word rir/hleousiiess is agreeable to the 
meaning and sense of that notation ; for righteousness 
is to do right to every one. Thus both philosophers 
and divines, ancient and modern, have defined it : 
righteousness is a virtue whereby to every one his 
due is given. On the contrary, wrong done to any 
is called unrighteousness or injustice, abi/.m. 

Thus is that righteousness whereby Christ ordereth 
the aftairs of his kingdom, as was shewed before, 
See. 113. 

Of righteousness put for God's faithfulness, see 
Chap. vi. 10, Sec. 61. 

Sec. 115. Of Christ's love of rirfhieousiiess. 

That which puts on Christ to sway his sceptre 
righteously, and righteously to govern his people, is 
not so much any advantage which himself expects 
from his subjects, as an inward inclination in himself 
thereunto, and a delight therein. So much doth this 
word love, ' Thou hast loved righteousness,' intend. 
In this did the man after God's own heart manifest 
his love of God's commandments, in that he delighted 
in them : 'I will delight myself,' saith he, 'in thy 
commandments, which I have loved,' Ps. cxis. 47 ; 
yea, they who love a thing will also earnestly and 
zealously put themselves on to practise and exercise 
the same. So much is intended in this phrase, ' My 
hands will I lift unto thy commandments, which I 
have loved,' Ps. cxix. 48. When the soul of a man 
is duly affected with righteousness, and his heart set 
upon it to love it, he will take all occasions to practise 
it ; nothing more puts on one to do a thing than love : 
' My soul hath kept thy testimonies, and I love them 
exceedingly, saith the psalmist,' Ps. cxix. 167. 

This love of righteousness rested not only in that 
which was in Christ, and practised by him, but also 
it extended itself to the righteousness of his subjects ; 
even to their righteous disposition and righteous con- 
versation : so as the righteous government of this King 
is manifested both in his own righteous ordering the 
affairs of his kingdom, and also in his subjects order- 
ing their affairs, when they have to do with their 
sovereign and their fellow- subjects. Christ loveth and 
delighteth in the righteous, and will thereupon reward 
their righteousness : thus saith the psalmist to this 
purpose, ' The righteous Lord loveth righteousness ; 
his countenance doth behold the upright,' Ps. xi. 7. 
And again, ' The Lord loveth the righteous,' Ps. 
cxlvi. 8. 

Sec. lie. 0/ Christ's hatred of itiiquifij. 
To Christ's love of righteousness is added his latrcd 
of iniquity, because these two are contrary one ;o 

another. Men use to be contrarily affected to contrary 
objects ; vain intentions and God's law are directly 
contrary one to another ; thereupon saith the psalmist, 
' I hate vain thoughts, but thy law do I love,' Ps. 
cxix. 113. We are commanded to ' hate the evil and 
love the good,' Amos v. 5. 

The word translated iniqidly is a general word, which 
signifieth a transgression of the law, dtio/j,!a,,^ and it is 
so translated, 1 John iii. 4 ; it is also translated 
unrighteousness, and directly opposed to righteousness, 
2 Cor. vi. 14 ; for righteousness is a conformity to 
the law, which is the rule of righteousness, so as 
transgression must needs be contrary thereunto. 

The word iniquity is of as largo an extent as un- 
righteousness, and implieth an unequal dealing, which 
is contrary to the rule or law of God. 

This sheweth that Christ was so far from dealing 
unjustly and doing any unrighteousness, as he hated 
it even in others. 

Hatred is directly contraiy to love; and as love 
importeth a delight in a thing, so hatred a loathing 
and detesting of it. A prophet giveth this advice, 
' Hate the evil,' Amos v. 15 ; an apostle thus ex- 
presseth it, ' Abhor that which is evil,' Kom. xii. 9. 
Therefore that which God hateth is said to be an 
abomination unto him, Isa. i. 13, 14 ; Prov. vi. 16. 

By this hatred of iniquity an evident proof both of 
the truth of Christ's love and also of the greatness 
thereof is given ; it was so great as it made him hate 
the contrary. This is a great amplification of love, 
and it shews that they which hate not iniquity do not 
in truth and fervency love righteousness : it is there- 
fore set down as a note of an unrighteous man, that 
he abhors not evil, Ps. sxxvi. 4. 

Hereby may righteous magistrates, righteous minis- 
ters, righteous masters, and all righteous persons be 

That which is said of righteousness itself may be 
applied to persons qualified therewith. Christ loveth 
the righteous, and hateth the unrighteous : ' The way 
of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord ; but he 
loveth him that followeth after righteousness,' Prov. 
XV. 9. So may we do, so must we do ; we may, we 
must love the righteous, 2 John 1, and hate the 
unrighteous, Ps. cxxxix. 21, 22; not simply their 
persons, but their evil qualities. In regard of men's 
persons, we are commanded to love our enemies, yea, 
though they be wicked ; even such as curse us and 
persecute us. Mat. v. 44. But in regard of their 
quality, we must hate even the garment spotted with 
the flesh, Jude 23. 

Christ's love of righteous and hatred of unright- 
eous persons, manifesteth the righteous government 
of his kingdom, in that he dealeth with every one 
according to his works, rewarding the righteous (which 
is a fruit of his love) and punishing the unrighteous, 
which is an effect of his hatred, and both according 
^ ' avo(^5i coinponitur ab a. pricaiivo et vifios.—Lcj;. 




to their works, which is the evidence of his justice and 

Thus is Christ set forth as righteous in himself, and 
righteous in the administration of his kingdom. He 
is a righteous person and a righteous king, who also 
maketh his kingdom and the subjects thereof all 

Sec. 117. Of the meaning of this relative particle 
< therefore: 

Upon the former description of Christ's righteous- 
ness this inference is made, ' Therefore God hath 
anointed thee.' This may be taken as the cause of 
Christ's righteousness, or as a consequence following 
from thence. . 

The Hebrew phrase, 13 'V, is oft used to set out 
the cause of a thing, as Gen. sviii. 5, omav P"'?^, 
' Therefore are ye come,' that is, for this cause. The 
same phrase is translated with a causal particle. Gen. 
xxxviii. 26, n*nnrN7 \2"7V, ' Because I gave her not,' 
&c. It is also used to d<»clare a consequence or 
an effect, as Ps. i. 5, IDp-.s'? p'hv, ' Therefore the 
ungodly,' &c. So Gen. ii. 24, 3rV' 12-"?V, ' There- 
fore shall a man leave,' &e. The Greek phrase, bla 
TouTo, also used by the apostle, is sometimes put for 
a cause, as Mat. xiii. 13, ' Therefore spake I to them 
in parables;' and it is thus translated, 'for, this cause,' 
John xii. 27, 1 Tim. i. 16. It is also put for an 
effect or consequence, as Mat. xiv. 2. 

It may in the one or the other sense be here taken. 
As a cause, it implieth that God's anointing Christ, 
that is, pouring his Spirit upon him, made him to be 
so fit and able a king as he was. As an effect, it in- 
tendeth that Christ, being most righteous, and every 
way able and fit to govern the kingdom, God therefore 
anointed, that is, deputed, him thereto. 

In this respect it must have reference to Christ's 
human nature, or to his person as mediator, God-man : 
thus, ' God gave the Spirit unto him, not by measure,' 
John iii. 84 ; and ' the Spirit of the Lord was upon 
him,' Luke iv. 18. 

This word of inference, therefore, may also be taken 
as a manifestation of God's anointing him : thus, 
Christ loved righteousness, therefore it was manifest 
that God anointed him ; as where Christ saith, ' (Jiere- 
fore the kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain 
king,' Mat. xviii. 23 ; it is manifest that the king- 
dom of heaven is like, &c. 

This relative therefore, as it noteth a cause, hath 
reference to the former part; thus, God hath anointed 
thee, therefore thou lovest righteousness. As it de- 
claroth a consequence, it halh reference to the latter 
part; thus, ' Thou lovest righteousness, therefore God 
hatli anointed thee,' that is, saw it meet to anoint thee. 

None of these senses cross the other, but they may 
well stand together ; for God may anoint Christ, and 
depute him to his function, because he loveth right- 

eousness ; and Christ may manifest his love of right- 
eousness because God hath anointed him. 

Finally, both the Hebrew and Greek phrase, trans- 
lated therefore, is sometimes used for ornament's sake, 
or to begin a sentence, as in EngUsh we use this 
phrase, Now then. It is also used to couple sentences 
together. Gen. xxxiii. 10, John vii. 22, 

Sec. 118. Of the meaning of this phrase, ' God, thy 

The author of the anointing here mentioned, is set 
out very emphatically (at least as our English and 
some other translators express it) by a rhetorical 
figure, doubling the same word in the same sense, 
thus, ' God, even thy God.' Hereby it is intimated 
that the matter here set down is true, faithful, and 
worthy of all observation and acceptation. In like 
manner doth the Lord set out himself in relation to 
his church, saying, Ps. 1. 7, 'I am God, even thy 
God.' This he doth that his people might take the 
more thorough notice thereof, and that their faith 
might be the more strengthened thereupon. 

The notation of the Hebrew title thus translated 
God, implieth God to be of might and power,' and is 
by some translated the strong God.^ 

The Hebrew noun is of the plural number, D'nPN, 
but the verb anointed, to which the Hebrew title hath 
reference, is of the singular number, "inC'O, which in- 
timateth a plurahty of persons, and unity of essence. 

The title God, as here used, in the first place, may 
be of the vocative case, as it is in the former verse, and 
translated O God ; and by an apostrophe applied to 
Christ ; for this particle even (which is a note of ap- 
position, joining two words together, which have 
reference to one and the same thing) is neither in 
the Hebrew nor Greek text, but inserted by our Eng- 
lish translators. In Hebrew, D'n^N, Greek, ©so;, 
and Latin, Deus, this title is both in the nominative 
and vocative case, the very same for syllnbles and let- 
ters. In the nominative case it is spoken of the 
Father, as our English sets it down ; in the vocative 
case it is spoken to the Son. Many of the ancient 
fathers' and pater-e\fositor&* take it in the vocative 
as spoken to the Son. 

It may be objected that thence it will follow that 
God is of God. 

Jns. I deny not, but that it will so follow, and 
therein is nothing against the orthodox faith ; for the 
Sou of God is very God of very God ; see Sec. 19. 
In regard of his divine essence he is very God, Kev. 
iv. 8. In regard of his distinct persons, as the Son 
in relation to his Father, he is of God ; in this re- 

> ^N al) ^*X polens, forlis. 

' Aquila, Ux^i"' Treinel. et Jan. Deum fortem. ' 
xiv. 22. ' August. Chrys. Theopli. Harm, aliiiii 

* Bucer, MoUer. Scultet. aliique. Deus, unxit to 1 
tuuB. Deus uugitur a Deo. Sic acciidte, sic intelligite, sic 
a Ortecis evidentissimum est. — Aug. Enarr. in P>. xliv. 


Ver. 9.] 


spect, as we may say, Son, thy Father, so God, 
thy God. 

Besides, the Son of God assumed man's nature ; 
hereby God and man became one person. Thus he 
is God, and God is his God. He is God in regard of 
his divine nature, and God is his God in regard of 
his human nature, yea, and in regard of both natures 
united in one person. 

In this latter respect, as Christ is God-man, God 
may be said to be his God three ways : 

1. As Christ's human nature was created of God, 
and preserved by him like other creatures. 

2. As Christ is mediator, he is deputed and sent 
of God, John iii. 34, and he subjected himself to God, 
and set himself to do the will of God, and such works 
as God appointed him to do, John iv. 3i and ix. 4. 
In these respects also God is his God. 

3. As Christ God-man was given by God to be an 
head to a mystical body, which is the church, Eph. 
V. 22. God thereupon entered into covenant with 
him in the behalf of that body, Isa. xlii. 6 and xlis. 8. 

! Thus he is called the messenger, Mai. iii. 1, and 
mediator of the covenant, Heb. viii. 6. Now God is 
in an especial manner their God, with whom he doth 
enter into covenant ; as he said unto Abraham, ' I 
will establish my covenant between me and thee,' &c., 
' to be a God unto thee,' &c.. Gen. svii. 7. As God 
made a covenant with Abraham and his seed, so also 
with Christ and his seed, which are all the elect of God, 
even the whole catholic church. This is the seed 
mentioned, Isa. liii. 10. So as by special relation be- 
twixt God and Christ, God is his God in covenant 
with him. God also is, in especial manner, the God 
of the elect through Christ. 
f This special relation, thy God, having reference to 
; Christ, is under the gospel, God's memorial; as under 
I the law his title was, ' the God of Abraham, the God 
[ of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' For with them God 
I made his covenant, and in them with their seed. Gen. 

xvii. 7, and xxvi 3, 4, and xxviii. 13, 14. 
1 This title, ' the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,' 
God assumed to himself, Esod. iii. 15, 16 ; and the 
seed of those patriarchs oft called on God by that 
title, and pleaded it before him, to enlarge their de- 
sires, and to strengthen their foith. This they did by 
calling to mind that relation w hich was betwixt God and 
their fathers, with whom God had made an everlast- 
ing covenant, to extend to them and then- seed, Exod. 
. xxxii. 11, 1 Kings xviii. 36, 1 Chron. xxix. 18. 

How much more may we have our desires enlarged, 
and faith strengthened, in that relation which is be- 
twixt God and Christ, and how may we plead it, and 
say, God of thy Son Jesus Christ, remember thy 
covenant made with him and in him. Hereupon it 
is that Christ saith, ' Verily, verily, I say unto you. 
Whatsoever ye shall ask the Father in my name, he 
will give it you,' John xvi. 23. When the children 
of Israel were in great distress, ' the Lord was gra- 

cious unto them, and had compassion on them, and 
respect unto them, because of his covenant with Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob,' &c., 2 Kings xiii. 23. How 
much more will God be gracious to us because of his 
covenant with his Son Christ ! This is the truest and 
surest ground of Christian confidence and boldness in 
approaching to the throne of grace. 

The psalmist, who lived many hundred years before 
the apostles, having by the Spirit of truth registered 
this relation betwixt God and the promised Messiah, 
giveth evidence thereby, that the understanding and 
believing Jews conceived that Messiah to be true God, 
the Son of God ; and that God was the God of that 
Messiah in special, and by virtue thereof, ' the God 
of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,' Exod. iv. 5 ; ' the 
Lord God of Israel,' Exod. v. 1 ; ' the Lord God of 
the Hebrews,' Exod. ix. 1 ; ' the God of the Jews,' 
Kom. iii. 29 ; ' the God of Jeshurun,' Deut. xxsiii. 
26 ; ' the Lord of Elijah,' 2 Kings ii. 14 ; ' the God 
of Daniel,' Dan. vi. 20 ; ' the God of Shadrach, 
Meshach, and Abed-nego,' Dan. iii. 28 ; ' Gentiles,' 
Rom. iii. 29 ; 'my God,' Exod. xv. 2 ; ' oiu- God,' 
Exod. V. 8 ; ' thy God,' Deut. x. 14 ; ' your God,' 
Gen. xliii. 23 ; 'his God,' Exod. xxxii. il ; ' their 
God,' Gen. xvii. 8. All these, and other special rela- 
tions to God, do give evidence of God's singular re- 
spect to those who are in covenant with him, and 
whose God he is. 

In reference hereunto they are called God's pent- 
lium,^ a peculiar treasure unto him, his proper stock 
or flock, Exod. ix. 15, Mai. iii. 17. They are also 
called a peculiar people, 1 Peter ii. 9. All this ariseth 
from that special relation which Christ hath to God, 
that God is his God : ' Ye are Christ's, and Christ is 
God's,' saith the apostle, 1 Cor. iii. 21. Hereupon 
it was that Chi-ist said, ' I ascend to my Father and 
your Father, and to my God and your God,' John 
XX. 17. 

Sec. 119. 0/ God's anointing his Son. 

God, who was in special the God of his Son, is 
here said to have anointed him, E%jfff£'. See Chap, 
iii. 6, Sec. 54. This is metaphorically spoken in 
reference to an ancient, continued inaugm-ating and 
settling of kings in their kingdom, which was by 
anointing them, or pouring oil upon their heads : as 
Saul, 1 Sam. x. 1 ; David three times, iirst by 
Samuel, 1 Sam. xvi. 13 ; secondly, by the men of 
Judah, 2 Sam. ii. 4 ; thirdly, by the elders of Israel, 
2 Sam. V. 3 ; Solomon twice, 1 Kings i. 39, 1 Chron. 
xxix. 22; Jehu, 2 Kings ix. 6; Joash, 2 Kings xi. 12; 
Jehoahiiz, 2 Iviugs xxiii. 30 ; yea, they who chose 
Absalom to be king anointed him, 2 Sam. xix. 10. 
In allusion hereunto kings are styled ' anointed,' even 
the Lord's anointed, 2 Sam. xix. 21, Lam. iv. 20. 

Anointing being performed by God's appointment, 
implieth two things, 

' 11730. Id quod proprium et singulariter charum est. 




[Chap. I. 

1. A deputation to the kingdom.' 

2. An ability to execute the royal function. 

Both these are evident in the first kin? that was 
set oyer Israel. By Samuel's anointing Saul, Saul 
was deputed to the kingdom ; and being anointed, ' the 
Spirit of the Lord came upon him, and God gave him 
another heart,' 1 Sam. vi. 9. 

That wherewith kings were anointed was oil. Samuel 
took a vial of oil and poured it on Saul's head, 1 Sam. 
X. 1. He also took an horn of oil and anointed David, 
1 Sam. svi. 13. So did Zadok anoint Solomon, 
1 Kings i. 39 ; so did he that anointed Jehu, 2 lungs 
ix. 6 ; and others that anointed other kings. All 
these were anointed with external material oil ; but 
to shew that anointing had a mystical signification, 
they who had not such oil poured on them are called 
the Lord's anointed, Ps. cv. 15. 

Oil, and anointing therewith, being ■ mystically 
taken, as here they arc, setteth out the Spirit, and the 
gifts and gi-aces thereof. Li this respect Christ saith 
of himself, ' The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, be- 
cause he hath anointed me to preach,' &c., Luke iv. 
18. And the apostle Peter saith of him, ' God 
anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost, and 
with power,' Acts x. 38. 

This is in special to be applied to the human nature 
of Christ, yet so as united to the divine nature, both 
making one person ; for God, singly and simply con- 
sidered in himself, never was nor can be anointed, no, 
not metaphorically, as here the word is taken. God 
cannot be deputed to any function. God needs not 
the Spirit to be poured on him, nor needs he any gift 
of the Spirit to be enabled to anything that he doth. 
He is of himself all-sufficient. 

But Christ, as man, and as mediator between God 
and man, was by God his Father deputed unto his 
royal function, Ps. ii. G, as ho was to his priestly 
office, Heb. v. 5 ; yea, and in that respect also, God 
gave him the Spirit, though not by measure, John 
iii. 84. 

Both the Hebrew name Messiah, and the Greek 
name Christ, do signify anointed. They remain me- 
morials of the anointing here specified. See Chap, 
iii. ver. 6, Sec. 64. 

Bee. 120. OJ the fit resemblance of anointing icith oil. 

Very fitly is this metaphor of anointing with oil 
used to set out the mystery of the Spirit and the gifts 
thereof, especially if it be extended to the mystical 
body of Christ, in reference both to the head thereof 
and also to the members ; for the oil wherewith Christ 
was anointed was like the oil poured on Aaron's head, 
' It ran down upon the beard, and went to the skirts 
of his garment,' Ps. cxxxiii. 2, 8. So the Spirit 
poured on Christ, as head of the church, ran down 
upon his body, and upon the several members thereof. 

' Of God's deputing Christ to his fuuctiou, see Cliap. 
ii. 3, Sec. 2. 

This is to be observed, because many of the par- 
ticular resemblances here following cannot be applied 
to the anointing of the head alone, but may be applied 
to the anointing of the body and members. 

The resemblances betwixt oil and the Spirit shall be 
set forth in ten distinct particulars. 

1. Oil is a nourishing kind of food, as honey and 
butter. Hereupon it is often joined with them. Job 
xxix. C, Ezck. xvi. 13. It is also joined with meat 
and drink, Ezra iii. 7 ; with meal, 1 Kings xvii. 12 ; 
with bread, Hosea ii. 5 ; fine Hour, Lev. ii. 4 ; and 
with wine, 2 Chron. xi. 11. AU these are nourishing 
food. Oil is very wholesome to be eaten : it much 
helpeth digestion ; it is therefore eaten with raw herbs 
and other cold things. It is also a means to expel 
such things as annoy the stomach ; and it is an anti- 
dote against poison. 

Nothing is more nourishing and wholesome to the 
soul than the Spirit and the graces thereof. It mak- 
eth God's word to give a good relish ; it helps the 
soul well to digest the word ; yea, it makes it sweet 
and pleasant, JPs. cxix. 103. The Spirit expels car- 
nal lusts of all sorts, and it is a most sovereign anti- 
dote against all poisonous corruptions. 

2. Oil is of singular use to supple hard, swelling 
tumours, to ease pains in the flesh or bones, to keep 
sores from rankling, and to heal wounds, Luke x. 84, 
Isa. i. G. 

The Spirit mollifieth hard hearts, assuageth per- 
plexed spirits, caseth troubled consciences, and heal- 
eth the wounds of the soul made by Satan's assault, 
Isa. Ixi. 1-3. 

3. Oil is useful to strengthen weak joints, to make 
them quick and nimble. They, therefore, that strive 
for the mastery in wrestling, running, and other like 
exercises, use to anoint their joints. 

The Spirit helpeth our infirmities, Rom. viii. 26. 
It putteth life and spirit into us ; for it is a spirit of 
life, Rom. viii. 2. 

4. Oil makes the countenance fresh and comely ; 
it makes the face to shine, Ps. iv. 15 ; Mat. vi. 17. 
It revives the spirit within, and makes it cheerful. 

It is the Spirit and the graces thereof that makes 
men comely and amiable before God, angels, and 
saints. Of the inward joy of the Spirit we shall spoak 
in the next Section. 

5. Oil hath not only a sweet smell in itself, but also 
it sendeth forth a fragrant and pleasing savour. The 
house was filled with the sweet savour of the ointment 
that was poured on Christ's head, John xii. 8. 

The Spirit, both in Christ, Cant. i. 2, and also in 
his members, causcth a sweet savour. Ministers are 
a sweet savour of Christ, 2 Cor. ii. 15. The prayers 
of saints are sweet as incense, Ps. cxli. 2, Rev. viii. 
3 ; their beneficence is as an odour of a sweet smell, 
Philip, iv. 18. 

6. Oil maintains the light of lamps. It causetb 
them to give light, and, by a continual supply of oil, 

Ver. 9.] 



lamps continue to burn, and to send forth their light. 
Under the law, oil was prepared for the light of the 
tabernacle, Exod. xxv. 6 ; and this preparation was 
continued day after day. Lev. xxiv. 2, 3. 

It is by the Spirit whereby our minds are enlight- 
ened, and by the continual operation thereof the light 
of understanding increaseth more and more. It is 
therefore called ' the spirit of revelation in the know- 
ledge of Christ ;' and it is given ' that the eyes of our 
understanding might be enlightened,' Eph. i. 17, 18. 
Believers also are said to ' have an unction from the 
Holy One to know all things ; the same anointing 
teacheth them of all things,' &e., 1 John ii. iiO, 27. 

7. Oil is of a searching and piercing nature ; it will 
pierce even into the bones, Ps. cix. 18. 

But the Spirit is of ail things the most searching ; 
for ' the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep 
things of God,' 1 Cor. ii. 10. 

8. Oil was one of the things which of old were 
offered unto God for sacrifices. When Jacob set up a 
pillar as an altar, he poured oil upon the top of it. 
Gen. xxviii. 18, and xxxv. 11. Under the law, it was 
offered up with their meat-offerings. Lev. ii. 1, 16. 
Hence is it that Jotham bringeth in the olive-tree thus 
speaking, ' Should I leave my fatness wherewith, by 
me, they honour God and man,' &c. The fatness of 
that tree is oil. God was honoured thereby in that it 
was offered up to him for sacrifice ; man was honoured 
thereby in that he was consecrated by it to an high 
office, as of a king, or priest, or prophet. 

Christ was a ' sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling 
savour,' Eph. v. 1 ; and the very bodies of his mem- 
bers are a living sacrifice to God, Rom. xii. 1, Philip, 
ii. 17. So are their works of charity, Philip, iv. 18 ; 
and their praising of God, Heb. xiii. 15. 

9. Oil, and anointing dead corpses therewith, pre- 
serveth them from putrefaction. Of old, therefore, 
they were wont to anoint dead corpses therewith, Mark 
xvi. 1, Luke xxiii. 56. The Spirit subdues corrup- 
tion and keeps men from sending forth ill savours, as 
filthy communication, and a filthy conversation. 

10. Oil is a most precious thing. This epithet 
I'liriotis is oft attributed to ointment, as 2 Kings xx. 
IH; Ps. cxxxiii. 1; Eccles. vii. 1; Mat. xxvi. 7. 
Kings were wont to treasure it up among other pre- 
cious things, Isa. xxxix. 2 ; and among things useful 
and necessary for man, 2 Chron. xxxii. 28, Hosea 
ii. 8. 

What more precious than the Spirit of G-od, than 
the gifts and graces thereof! What more needful, 
and what more useful I 

Sec. 121. Of oil of ffladneas. 

The oil wherewith Christ was anointed is here 
called the nil of /jladness. Wo heard before that this 
oil setteth out the Spirit of God, and the gifts and 
graces thereof. Now, joy is in Scripture said to be 
'joy of the Holy Ghost,' 1 Thes. i. 6 ; 'joy in the 

Holy Ghost,' Rom. xiv. 17 ; and joy is reckoned up 
among the fruits of the Spirit, Gal. v. 22. So as it 
is that Spirit that is in Christ and his members which 
maketh this to be oil of gladness. 

This phrase oil of gladness is an Hebraism, like to 
that which is before set down, ver. 8, sceptre of 
righteousness . See Sec. 113. 

This Hebraism here intendeth two things : 

1. The excellency of this gladness. No external 
joy is to be compared to it. 

2. The quantity of that joy, it is exceeding great ; 
it far surpasseth all the joy that ever was or can be, 
which is further manifested in this phrase following, 
' above thy fellows.' 

This epithet gladness is here attributed to this oil 
in relation to Christ the head, and to all believers his 

It hath relation to Christ in two respects : 

1. As it quickened him up and made him joyful in 
all his undertakings for our redemption. Christ being 
by his Father deputed to his function, most willingly 
and joyfully undertook it and managed it : ' As a 
bridegroom coming out of his chamber, he rejoiced as 
a strong man to run his race,' Ps. xix. 5. When he 
cometh into the world, he saith, ' I delight to do thy 
will, my God,' Ps. xl. 8. When he was in the 
world, he said, ' My meat is to do the will of him that 
sent me, and to finish his work,' John iv. 34. 

2. Gladness hath relation to Christ, by reason of 
the fruit that sprouted out from thence. His coming 
into the world, and doing, and enduring what he did, 
was matter of rejoicing to others ; in which respect, 
the prophet exhorteth ' the daughter of Zion to shout, 
and to be glad and rejoice with all the heart,' Zeph. 
iii. 14, Zech. ix. 9. And the angels that brought 
the first news of Christ's bii-th, do thus proclaim it : 
' Behold, I bring j'ou good tidings of great joy, which 
shall be to all people,' Luke ii. 10. 

2. This epithet gladness hath relation to the mem- 
bers of Christ in two respects : 

(1.) As the things whereof in Christ they are made 
partakers are matters of great joy ; for so many and so 
great are the benefits which behevers receive from 
Christ, by virtue of that anointing, as they very much 
rejoice their hearts. Many of these benefits are ex- 
pressly set down, Isa. Ixi. 1-3. Other benefits are in 
other places distinctly noted, as redemption from sin, 
reconciliation with God, justification in his sight, 
adoption, regeneration, sanctification, and the end of 
all, eternal salvation. If any things in the world cause 
true joy and gladness, surely these effects which flow 
from the anointing of Christ will do it. 

(2.) As the members of Christ are quickened up by 
that Spirit which cometh from him, do and endure 
readily, willingly, cheerfully, joyfully, what the Lord 
calls them unto, as Ps. cxxii. 1, 1 Chron. xxix. 9, 17. 
It is said of those on whom the Spirit rested, that 
' they received the word gladly,' and mutually com- 


[Chap. I. 

municated together with gladness. On a like ground, 
the eunuch whom Philip baptized, and Paul's jailor, 
are said to rejoice, Acts viii. 39, and xvi. 3-1. 

This fruit of joy gives evidence of a believer's union 
with Christ, and of the abode of Christ's Spirit in him, 
for the Spirit is as oil, of a diflusing nature. Hereby 
we may gain assurance to our own souls, and give 
evidence to others of the spirit that is in us. So did 
the Jews of old, 1 Chrou. xxix. 9, and Christ's dis- 
ciples, Luke X. 17, and Christians in the primitive 
church, H.b. X. 34, Philip, ii. 17, 18. 

To shew ourselves true members of Christ, we ought 
further so to carry om-selves in our several functions, 
as we may cause others to rejoice. So did Solomon,^ 
1 Kings v. 7, and Hezekiah, 2 Chron. xxix. 3G, and 
the apostles. Acts xv._31. This we shall do bydiligence, 
faithfulness, justice, equity, uprightness, mercifulness, 
and by disposing of our aflairs to the good of others ; 
so did Christ. 

Sec. 122. Of the fellowship hetwixt Christ and saints. 

The abundant measure of the Spirit in Christ is 
further amplified by comparing it with that measure 
which is in others. It far exceeds all others. 

The persons with whom the comparison is made, 
are styled Christ's fellows. Bolh the Hebrew' and 
and Greek- word imply such as partake of one and 
the same condition. See Chap. iii. 1, Sec. 17. 

Hereby in special professors of the true faith are 
meant : 

In general, this word fellows may be extended to 
all, men and angels. All are styled his fellows, in 
regard of that low degree whereunto the Sou of God, 
Creator of all things, humbled himself by assuming a 
created substance, so that as ho was a creature, 
angels were his fellows ; yea, it is said, chap. ii. 9, 
that he was ' made a little lower than angels, for the 
Bufifering of death,' yet all the gifts and endowments 
of all the angels are not comparable to those which 
Christ had : ' He was crowned with honour and glory 
above them,' chap. ii. 7. 

But to let the angels pass, we will insist upon the 
comparison, as it hath relation to the church, and to 
the several members thereof. These may be said to 
be Christ's fellows in eight distinct respects : 

1. As fellow-creatures. Job i. 12, Heb. ii. 14. 

2. As joint-members of the same mystical body. 
Christ is indeed the head, Eph. i. 22, 23, but the 
head is a part of the body, and the body is said to be 
the fulness of Christ, Eph. i. 23. 

8. As made under the law. Gal. iv. 4. 

4. As a Son of one and the same Father, John 
XX. 17. Hereupon he and they are fellow-brethren, 
chap. ii. 11, 12. 

' '^'yZPiO a '\'2T\ conjunetut ent. Usurpaturde iis qui sunt 
cjuaJem conditioiiis. Eccl. iv. 10. 

» ftirix'ui, participea consorlet, a fiirlx,!", habere cum nliix, 
partem h there, participem esse. See Chap..ii. 14, Sec. 139. 

5. As co-heirs or joint-heirs, Kom. viii. 17. 

G. As subject to the same infirmities, chap. iv. 1.5. 

7. As liable to death, chap. ii. 14, 15, ix. 27, 28. 

8. As honouring his members to reign with him, 
2 Tim. ii. 12, 1 Cor. vi. 2. 

As this fellowship betwixt Christ and his members 
setteth out the low degree of Christ's humiliation, so 
the high degree of the exaltation of saints. 

For the Son of God to be a fellow with sons of men 
is a great debasement, and for sous of men to be fel- 
lows with the Son of God, is as great an advancement. 

What love hath Christ shewed to us herein ! 

How are we bound to Christ hereby ! 

Should not we imitate Christ, and condescend to 
men of low estate ! Rom. xii. 16. 

Sec. 123. Of the pre-eminency of Christ's gifts above 

This phrase, above th;/ fellows, sets down a fifih proof 
of Christ's excellency above angels. 

Though it pleased Christ to condescend so low as 
to become a fellow with us, yet even in that low estate 
did his Father so dignify him, as he poured his 
Spirit on him more abundantly than on all others 
whatsoever. ' Thou art fairer than the children of 
men,' saith the psalmist of him, Ps. xlv. 2. The 
phrase may be extended to all manner of excellencies : 
' He is mightier than I,' saith he, that was greater 
than any born of women before him. Mat. iii. 11. 
None of the angels ever had such gifts as Christ. 
They learned of the church what Christ revealed to 
the church, Eph. iii. 10. Both men and angels had 
their stint and measm-e, but ' God gives not the Spirit 
by measure unto Christ,' John iii. 34. ' It pleased 
the Father that in him should all fulness dwell,' Col. 
i. 19. ' In him are hid all the treasures of wisdom 
and knowledge,' Col. ii. 3. 

Christ is an head from whom the members must 
be supplied, so as he receives not for himself alone, 
but for his whole bodj' : ' Of his fulness have we all 
received, and grace for grace,' John i. 16. 

Particular members of the mystical body may have 
the fulness of vessels, but this is the fulness of a 

Here lieth a main difference between the Mediator 
and mere men. The most that can be said of the best 
of them is, that they have but enough for themselves, 
as the wise virgins said, Mat. xxv. 9. Christ alone 
is that overflowing spring who hath enough for all 
others, John i. 10. 

This is the true treasure of the church, which was 
typified by the ark. The ark was as a little chest or 
cabinet, in which jewels and other precious things 
and treasures are kept. In this respect it set out 
Christ to be as a treasure, in which all the precious 
things tending to salvation are hid. 

This is matter of great comfort in regard of our 
own emptiness or scantiness. This is enough to 



embolden ns to go to Christ. He is not like to those 
pits where they who are sent unto them can find no 
water, Jer. xiv. 3. 

Oh the folly of papists, who ' forsake the fountain of 
living waters, and hew them out cisterns, broken cis- 
terns, that caQ hold no water,' Jer. ii. 13. 

Had we sense of our own spiritual need, and faith 
in the all-sufficiency of Christ, we should ourselves 
readily go to him, and bring unto him all such as are 
in any spiritual need ; even as they did who flocked 
to Christ in regard of their spiritual' maladies. 

Sec. 12-4. Of sundry heresies confuted bij that which 
is noted of Christ. 

An ancient father- hath out of the testimony taken from 
Ps. xlv., and applied by the apostle to Christ, confuted 
sundry ancient heresies, after this manner following. 

The apostle hath here smitten the Jews, and Paulus 
Samo^atenus, and Arians, and Marcellus, and Sabel- 
lius, and Marcion, and Photinus also. How so? The 
Jews, by shewing them that there are two persons and 
one God ; other Jews, I say the disciples of Paulus 
Samosatenus, while he here sheweth that testimony 
that speaketh of an eternal and uncreated substance. 
For that he might shew that a thing made differeth 
from the eternity of the Creator, he saith, ' Thy throne, 
God, is for ever.' He smiteth the Ai-ians, in shew- 
ing that he was neither a servant nor creature ; and 
Marcellus and others, because the two persons, accord- 
ing to their subsistencies, are distinct one from another. 
He smiteth the Marcionites, while he sheweth, that 
not the deity but the humanity was anointed. 

Sec. 125. Of the resolution of verses 8, 9. 

Ver. 8. But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, 
Cod, is for ever and ever ; a sceptre of righteousness is 
the sceptre of thy kingdom. 

Ver. 9. Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated 
iniquity ; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed 
thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. 

Two proofs are here couched together of Christ's 
excellency above angels. See Sec. 64, ver. 8. 

One is taken from his divine nature. 

The other from his royal dignity. 

The sum of this verse is a testimony of Christ's 
excellency. Therein observe two points : 

1. The proof produced. 

2. The points proved. 

In the proof is observable, 

1. The manner of producing it. 

2. The kind of proof. 

The manner of producing it is by way of opposition, 
implied in the particle but ; the opposition is to that 
which he had said before of angels, that they are mini- 
sters, but to the Son, he is a King. 

' Qii. ' bodily '?— Ed. 

' Chrys. Iloni. 3 in cap i. ad Hcb. Istos etiam haireticos 
l{ eodem testimonio refellit. — Theophylactus Enar- in Heb. 

The kind of proof is a testimony ; hereof see Sees. 
46 and 65. 

In the testimony are to be considered both the 
persons and the point. 

The persons are of two sorts : 

1. The author that giveth the testimony. 

2. The object to whom the testimony is given. 
The author is not expressed in the original, but yet 

necessarily implied ; and our English hath made a good 
supply in this phrase, He saith. • 

The object to whom the testimony is given, is ex- 
pressed under this word of relation, Son, unto the 

The points proved are, 

1. Christ's divine nature, God. 

2. His royal dignity. This is first propounded, 
then amplified. 

(1.) It is propounded, impHcitly, under two signs, 
a throne, a sceptre ; and expressly under this word 

(2.) It is amplified by two properties : 

[l.J Eternity, /oc ever and ever. 

[2.] Equity, righteousness. 

In the ninth verse is an illustration of the foresaid 

In this illustration are two branches : 

1. The cause of Christ's righteous dealing. 

2. A consequence following thereupon. 

The cause is double ; each cause is set out by a 
distinct affection, and a distinct object. 

The former affection is love, the latter hatred. 

The object of the former is righteousness, of the 
latter iniquity. As the afl'ections love and hatred are 
contrary, so the the objects, righteousness and iniquity. 
In this respect they may well stand together, and that 
as two causes. For love of righteousness moves a 
man to deal righteously, so also doth hatred of 

In the consequence we are to observe, 

1. The manner of expressing it. 

2. The matter whereof it eonsisteth. 

The manner is by an apostrophe to Christ, God. 
The matter consists of an honour done to Christ. 
This is set out, 

1. By the author that doth him that honour. 

2. By the kind of honour done to him. 

The author is God, amplified by a special relation 
to Christ, his God. 

The kind of honour eonsisteth of two parts : 

1. Deputing Christ to a royal function. 

2. Enabling him well to manage it. 

Both these are implied under this metaphor, an- 
ointed with oil. 

They are also both amplified by the quality and 
quantity of them. 

The quality is gladness. 

The quantity is beyond all others, above thy fellows. 

All these points are amplified by an apostrophe 


[Chap. I. 

which runneth through the whole testimony, and is 
seven times expressed in these notes, 0, thy, thou, 
thee ; thy is four times expressed. 

Sec. 126. 0/ the doctrines arising out of the 8lh and 
2th verses. 

I. More excellent things are spoken of the Son of 
God than of anyels. This particle lut, being here 
used in opposition to that which was before said of 
angels, declares as much. See Sec. 104. 

II. God would have the excellencies of his Son to he 
known. ' For to the Son he saith,' namely, that others 
might hear it and know it. So Ps. ii. 6, 7 ; John v. 
20, 23. 

III. Christ is tmc God. The title God is here 
properly applied to him. See Sec. 107. 

IV. Christ is a king. The ensigns of a king, 
throne and sceptre, are attributed to him ; yea, an 
express mention is made of his kingdom, see Sec. 112. 
Christ, therefore, is every way to be esteemed as a 

V. Christ as king judgeth. A throne is a place of 
judgment, 1 Kings vii. 7. Christ now judgeth the 
world, John v. 22, 23. But his full and final judgment 
will be at the end of the world, Acts xvii. 31. 

VI. Christ is an everlasting king, see Sees. 108, 
110. His throne is for ever and ever. 

VII. Christ hath a peculiar kingdom. This rela- 
tive thy is discriminative and appropriative. It putteth 
a difference between his and others' kingdom ; it 
sheweth that this kingdom is proper to Christ. See 
Sec. 112. 

VIII. Christ orders the matters of his kingdom as 
he will. The sceptre attributed to Christ intendeth, 
that as a king by moving his sceptre he manifesteth his 
mind, and that answerably obedience is yielded to him. 
See Sec. 111. 

IX. Christ orderelh the afj'airs of his kingdom most 
ujirightly. His sceptre is in that respect styled a 
sceptre of rectitude. See Sec. 113. 

X. Righteousness is to he loved. 

XI. Iniquity is to be hated. Both these are here 
commended in Chrisfs example. 

XII. Love of righteousness jmt Christ on to deal 
uprightly. The inference of this verso upon the for- 
mer, dcmonstratoth as much ; see Sec' 115. Love of 
righteousness will put us on to do the like. 

XIII. Love of righteousness and hatred of iniquity go 
together. They arc here joined together in Christ ; and 
wheresoever the one is, there will bo the other. Right- 
eousness and iniquity are so directly opposed, and 
contrary each to anotlier, as they do in a manner force 
from men contrary affections. See Sec. 116. 

XIV. God is in an especial manner the God of 
Christ. See Sec. 118. 

XV. God hath the power of deputing and enaJling 
men to their function. Anointing, which is here attri- 
buted to God, implieth both these. See Sec. 119. 

XVI. Christ was deputed by God to his function. 

XVII. Christ was enabled by God well to execute his 
function. God, that anointed him, did both these. 
They are both grounds of faith to trust in Christ, and 
of obedience to submit to him. 

XVIII. The Spirit was in Christ. This may be 
gathered from the metaphor of oil. To give a visible 
evidence hereof, the Spirit from heaven descended 
like a dove, and lighted upon Christ, Mat. iii. 16. 
Hence is it that the Spirit is also communicated to 
believers, for they are members of his body. 

XIX. The Holy Ghost causelh gladness. He is this 
' oil of gladness.' See Sec. 121. 

XX. Christ with much alacrity did and endured 
whatsoever he undertook. See Sec. 121. 

XXI. The Son of God made himself equal to sons of 
men. They are ' his fellows,' Ps. xii. 9 and Iv. 18. 
See Sec. 122. 

XXII. The gifts of Christ far surpassed the gifts o 
all others. See Sec. 123. 

XXIII. Christ's glory may, and must, be declared 
even to himself. This I gather from the apostrophe, 
whereof see Sec. 106, and 125 in the end of it. 

Sec. 127. Of the fit application of Ps. cii. 25 to 

And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foun- 
dation of the earth ; and the heavens are the works of 
thine hands. — Heb. I. 10. 

The first particle, and, being copulative, sheweth 
that the apostle goeth on in proving the point in hand, 
so as 

A sixth proof of Christ's excellency is here pro- 
duced. It is taken from a divine work proper to God, 
which is creation. The kind of argument is, as the 
former, a divine testimony ; it is taken out of Ps. cii. 
25. The argument may be thus framed : 

The Creator is more excellent than creatures ; 

But Christ is tlie Creator, and angels creatures ; 

Therefore Christ is more excellent than angels. 

That Christ was the creator is here proved ; that 
angels are creatures was proved, ver. 7. See Sees. 
81, 86. 

Against this proof concerning Christ, two things are 
excepted : 

1. That the title Lord is not in the Hebrew text. 

2. That the psalm out of which the proof is taken 
makes no mention of Christ. 

To the first, I answer, that though it be not ex- 
pressed, yet it is necessarily understood. For this 
relative thou must have an antecedent. The ante- 
cedent in the verso immediately before is God, to 
whom the prophet by an apostrophe turneth his 
speech, ' God ;' and in two verses before, this title 
Lord is twice expressed. Neither is there any other 
antecedent to which this relative thou can have any 
show of reference. Now, because the psalmist had in 
the verse immediately before named God, he needed 

Ver. 10.] 


not name him again. He was sufficiently understood 
under this relative tliou; but the apostle, quoting this 
verse alone, must, to make the sense full, and to shew 
whom he meant, insert this title Lord. This he did 
the rather because the LXX (those ancient Greek in- 
terpreters of the Old Testament, which the Greek 
churches then used, as we do now the English trans- 
lations) had inserted it. 

To the second exception, that the psalmist maketh no 
mention of Christ in that psalm, I answer three things : 

1. That the three persons in sacred Trinity are one in 
essence, mind, will, and work, John v. 17-20. What 
the one doth, the other also doth, so as the same act 
may be appUed to any one of them. 

2. Wheresoever mention is made of any act of God 
in reference to a creature, it is most properly the act 
of the Son, for the Father doth all by the Son. In 
particular, ' by him he made the worlds,' ver. 2. 

3. The kingdom of Christ is expressly described in 
the latter part of the psalm, ver. 12, &c. And that 
for the comfort of the chui-ch, to support her in her 
great distress, being much overwhelmed with sore 
affliction by reason of the Babylonish captivity. To 
exemplify this in a few particulars : AVho had mercy 
on Zion ? Who built up Zion ? Was it not the 
Lord Christ ? Whose name do the converted Gen- 
tiles fear ? Whom do the kingdoms serve ? Is it 
not the Lord Christ? Ps. cii. 13, 15, 16, 22. 

It is therefore evident that this test (as the former 
were) is most fitly applied to Christ. 

The apostle had before, ver. 2, said, that God by 
the Son made the worlds. Here, to shew that the 
Son was not (as Arius taught) an instrument or 
minister in that gi-eat work, but the principal author, 
he doth in special thus apply it to the Son : ' Thou, 
Lord, in the beginning hast laid,' &c. 

The first particle, and, hath reference to the first 
clause of the 8th verse, namely, to these words, ' Unto 
the Son he saith ;' which words are here understood 
as if he repeated them again, 'And unto the Son he 
Baith, Thou, Lord,' &c.; 'Unto the Son' there 'he 
saith. Thy throne,' &c. ; ' And unto the Son' here 'he 
Baith, Thou, Lord,' &c. There is the same author 
of that and this testimony. 

The Greek word Lord, Kuo/s, is apparently of the 
vocative case, and further declared to be by an apos- 
trophe directed to the Lord, by this particle of the 
Becond person, thou. See Sec. 106. 

Sec. 128. Of the title • Lord' applied to Christ. 

The Greek word translated Lord, Kig/o;, being ap- 
plied to God, is ordinarily put for Jehovah, which is 
the most proper name of God,' and never attributed 
to any but to the true God. True it is, that in the 
Hebrew there is another name of God, IHN, Exod. 
xxiii. 17, Joshua, iii. 11, which is translated Lord, 
and ofttimes attributed to man, as Gen. xviii 12, and 

' See the Church's Conquest on Exod. xvii. 15, sec. 72. 

xlv. 8 ; yet usually this name, when it is put for God, 
is pointed with such pricks or vowels as Jehovah is, 
'^"l?? and with these points it is never attributed to any 
but to God. 

In this text the title Lord is, without question, the 
interpretation of Jehovah ; for the title Jehovah is in 
that psalm seven times used, as ver. 1, 12, 15, 16, 19, 
21, 23, and once Jah, HJ, ver. 18, which is an abbre- 
viation of Jehovah. 

Wherefore the title Lord doth here intend Jehovah, 
and being applied to Christ, setteth out his divine 
nature, and declareth him to be true God, even that 
God who hath his being of himself, and ever con- 
tinueth of and by himself, the eternal and immut- 
able God, even ' he which is, which was, and which 
is to come," Kev. i. 4; 'the Lord that changeth 
not,' Mai. iii. 6, who, in regard of his self-existency, 
giveth to himself this title, H^ns X'S ^'^^?, ' I am that 
I am;' and also this, n^HX, 'I am,' Exod. iii. 14. 
Thus this title Lord in relation to Jehovah giveth 
further proof of the true and proper divinity of Christ. 

To Christ, by an excellency and property, is this 
title Lord frequently attributed. David, long before 
Christ's incarnation, in the Spirit called him Lord, 
Mat. xxii. 43. The angel that brought the first news 
of his birth, styles him ' Christ the Lord,' Lukeii. 11. 
Both his disciples and others in his life so called him. 
After his resurrection, when he was discerned by John, 
John said to Peter of him, 'It is the Lord,' John xxi. 7. 
Christ himself thus saith, ' Ye call me Lord, and ye 
say well, for so I am,' John xiii. 13. It was usual with 
the apostles in their epistles thus to style him ' the 
Lord Jesus,' Kom. i. 8 ; and he is said to be ' the one 
Lord Jesus Christ,' 1 Cor. viii. 6. A prophetess 
called him Lord, anon after he was conceived, even 
while he was in his mother's womb, Luke i. 43. 

Christ is Lord in sundry respects. 

1. As God, in regard of his divine nature. God 
said, ' I am the Lord,' Exod. vi. 2. 

2. As the Son of God, in regard of his person ; for 
of the Son in relation to the Father it is said, ' The 
Lord rained fire from the Lord,' Gen. xix. 24. 

3. As God-man, in regard of the hypostatical union 
of Christ's two natures in one person. Thus saith 
Thomas to Christ on earth, ' My Lord and my God,' 
John XX. 28. 

4. As king of the church, in regard of that authority 
and dignity whereunto God hath advanced him : ' I 
have set my King upon my holy hill of Sion,' saith the 
Father to the Son, Ps. ii. 6 ; ' God hath made him 
both Lord and Christ,' Acts ii. 36. 

On these grounds divine worship hath been yielded 
unto him on earth as unto the Lord. In his infancy, 
Mat. ii. 11 ; in his man-age, Mat. viii. 2; after his 
resurrection, Mat.xxviii. 9; in the time of his ascension, 
Luke xxiv. 52 ; and now also, Christ being in heaven, 
and sitting as Lord on his throne, is worshipped, Rev. 

' i »», KCii h, XXI i i^x^fiivts. 


[Chap. I. 

iv. 10, and v. 11. Thus he is still, nnd ever shall be, 
worshipped as the true Lord by his church. 

Answerably all other divine respect is to be yielded 
to him. He is to [be] loved with all the soul, with all 
the heart, with all the mind, and with all the strength. 
Accordingly is he to be feared, admired, adored, called 
upon, believed in, served, obeyed, subjected unto, 
praised for all things, in all things glorified, preferred 
before all, advanced above all, and every way esteemed 
as a Lord, even our Lord, the most high supreme 
Sovereign over all. 

Sec. 129. Of Christ's ctcrnihj. 

The eternity of this Lord is further set out in this 
phrase xar a.o-^ai, ' in the beginning,' namely, in the 
beginning of time, so as that which was before that 
beginning, was without beginning, properly eternal. 
Thus is the eternity of God manifested in the very 
first word of the holy Bible, Gen. i. 1, and the eternity 
also of the Son of God, John i. 1. He that in the be- 
ginning laid the foundation of the earth, was before that 
foundation was laid, and before that beginning. In that 
respect saith the Son of God of himself: 'The Lord pos- 
sessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works 
of old : I was set up from everlasting, from the bcgiu- 
ning, or ever the earth was,' &c., Prov. viii. 22, 23, &c. 

As the eternity of the Creator is by this phrase, in 
the beginning/, intended, so the plain contrary concern- 
ing creatures is expressed. Creatures being made in 
the beginning, then first began to bo ; they were not 
before, therefore not eternal. But the Creator then 
being, and making the world, was before the beginning, 
and had no beginning ; therefore eternal. Here, then, 
is manifested the difference betwixt the Creator and 
creatures in reference to the beginning. The Creator 
then was even as he was before. He did not then begin 
to be, but manifested himself to be what he was before ; 
but creatures then began to be what they were not before. 

As the former reference of this phrase, in the he- 
(jinninrj, to the Son refutes Samosatenus, Macedonius, 
Arius, and other heretics, tliat denied the eternity of 
the Son of God, so the latter reference thereof to 
creatures refutes Aristotle' and other philosophers, who 
held the world to be eternal, which is a point not only 
improbable, but also impossible," for then should there 
be no creatures. A creature cannot be but created. 
If no creature, then all a creator, even one and the 
same with God himself. Eternity and unity arc con- 
vertible terms. There can be but one eternal, as there 
is but one almighty, one infinite ; yet from that posi- 
tion of the world's eternity, there would bo more than 
one infinite ; for there must be an infinite number of 
souls of men and other things if the world were eternal 
in Adam's time, and all that have been since added to 
the world would make up more than infinite. 

' Arist. do Ccelo, lib. iii. cap. ix. x. 

' Mundiim ab astcrno constare improbnbile et impossibile 
c&i.—Arig. Quail, ex Vet. Tetl., q. 28. 

That gross error of the world's eternity is so express 
agaiubt the light of nature, as by many solid arguments, 
drawn from natural principles, other heathen philoso- 
phers have refuted it. 

There were other heretics who had this conceit, that 
the matter of the elements of which the world was 
made, was not made of God, but was co-eternal with 
God.' This conceit of the eternity of prima materia, 
the first matter out of which they say all things were 
at first created, is as much against the light of God's 
word and the light of nature, and as derogatory to the 
eternity of God, as the former of the world's eternity. 
Eternity is one of God's incommunicable properties. 
Whatsoever is made eternal beside God is made equal 
to God, yea, a very God. 

Sec. 180. 0/the extent of heaven and earth. 

In setting down the creation, two words are used, 
which comprise in them all things that were made, 
namely heaven and earth, and that by two tropes : one 
is a metonymy, whereby the continent is put for all 
things contained therein ; the other is a synecdoche, 
whereby a part is put for the whole. The earth is 
the middle centre of the whole world, and the heaven 
is the uttermost circumference that compasseth all 
about, so as all between them are comprised under 
them. In this large sense these two words are oft 
used, as Gen. i. 1, 2 Kings xix. 15, 2 Chron. ii. 12, 
Ps. cxxi. 2, Jer. xxsii. 17. 

Under this word earth, the sea and all waters below 
are comprised ; for the earth and sea make but one 
globe, Gen. i. 9, 10. They were divided at first, and 
so continue, for the better use of man, and of other 
creatures living on earth. Thus not only all things 
that move upon the earth, or grow out of the earth, or 
are within the eai'th, but also whatsoever is in the sea, 
or swims thereupon, is to be understood under this 
word earth. 

There is mention made in Scripture of three heavens. 

1. The air, wherein birds and fowls do fly, wherein 
are the clouds also, so as all the space betwixt the 
earth and the moon is called the first heaven. 

2. The firmament, wherein are all sorts which are 
called the host of heaven, Deut. iv. 19, is the second 

3. That invisible place where are the angels and glori- 
fied saints, and the human nature of Christ, and where 
God doth most manifest his glory, is the third heaven, 
2 Cor. xii. 2. Boyond this is nothing at all. In re- 
gard of this distinction of heaven, the plural number 
heavens is used. 

Thus we see how these two words, earlli, heavens, 
may be put for all creatures. 

As for the order of the words, in setting earth before 
heaven, the Holy Ghost is not over strict or curious in 

' Seleuciani, vel Hermiani elcmentorum materiam de qua 
factn3 est mundus, non a Deo factam dicunt, sed Deo coeler- 
nam. — A ug. U<crcs. Uar. 59. 

Ver. 10.] 


his method. Though for the most part the heaven 
for excellency's sake be set before the earth, yet many 
times, as here, earth is put before heaven, Judges v. 4, 
Ps. kviii. 8, Isa. xlv. 12, Jer. li. 15. 

Some probable reasons may be given of putting 
earth before heaven, as, 

1. The earth was made before the visible heavens, 
Gen. i. 10, 14. 

2. The earth is set down as a foundation of the 
world, and foundations use to be first mentioned, 
1 Kings vi. 37, 38, Ezra iii. 11, Zech. iv. 9. 

3. The earth is the centre of the world, the heavens 
the circumference thereabout. He beginneth there- 
fore with the centre, and proceeds to the circumference. 

4. The earth is man's habitation. Acts xvii. 2G. 
From thence he beholdeth the heavens. Speaking, 
therefore, to men, he first sets out the place of their 

Sec. 131. Of the earth leing a foundation. 

The creation of the earth is thus set out : ' Thou 
hast laid the foundation thereof.' This is the inter- 
pretation of one Greek word, ih/j,eX'iuirag. A founda- 
tion,' from whence the verb is derived, sigaifieth 
that which is put under other things to support 
and bear them up. It useth, therefore, to be sound, 
solid, strong, and laid on firm and sure ground, 
Luke vi. 48. It is most frequently put for the 
foundation of an house, which beareth up all the 
rest of the building, 1 Cor. iii. 10-12. A foundation 
remaineth firm, stable, unmoveable. The word here 
used is also translated thus : ' grounded,' ■rihfj.sXicj/j^Bvoi, 
Eph. iii. 18, and ' settled,' 1 Peter v. 10. It is there 
joined with two other words which signify a fast fixing 
of a thing, ' stablish, strengthen, and settle,' erri^l^ai, 
eSiiZaai, ^efiiXiuirai. 

This phrase, laid the foundation, applied to the 
earth, implieth two things : 

1. That the earth is the lowest part of the world. 
It being the centre, whatsoever is about it is over it. 
Hereupon this word beareth is oft attributed to the 
earth, as Deut. iv. 39 ; Joshua ii. 11 ; 1 Kings viii. 
23 ; Isa. H. 6 ; Jer. sxxi. 37 ; Acts ii. 19. 

2. That the earth is immoveable. This inference is 
thus made upon this very phrase, 'Who laid the founda- 
tions of the earth, that it should not be removed,' Ps. 
civ. 5. 

In these and other like respects is this metaphor 
foundalion oft attributed to the earth, as Job xxxviii. 4, 
Ps. Ixxxii. 5. And the earth is said to be estabhshed, 
and thereupon to abide, Ps. cxix. 90, and Ixxviii. 69. 
By the stability of the earth sundry benefits accrue to 
the inhabitants thereof. 

1. The constancy of the motions of the heavens, 
and of the host thereof, is better observed, and the 

1 9i^iXiav of Tiiitxi, ponere ; ^t/ii\ix solent stnctiira: 
urtr'ihirliti, mpponi, seu imo loco pon i, nt cmlera strves possit 
CIS stiperslrni. 

admirable effects arising from thence, are the better 

2. The stability of the earth is very useful to plants, 
beasts, and men, that abide thereon. The damages 
and mischiefs that fall out upon earthquakes give 
further proof hereof. 

It is a gross error of Aristarchus, Samius, Coper- 
nicus, and other philosophers,' who imagine that the 
earth continually moveth, and that the heaven and the 
host thereof do but seem to our sight to move, as the 
banks and trees thereon do to such as are in a boat rowed 
with oars, or in a ship under sail. This conceit can- 
not stand with the metaphor of a foundation, here 
and in other places applied to the earth. 

Sec. 132. Of heaven the work of God's hand. 

That which is here spoken of the heavens in rela- 
tion to God, ' the heavens are the works of thy hands,' 
is to be taken metaphorical^, by way of resemblance 
to men, who use with their hands to make what they 
make. Of the second temple it is thus said, ' Zerub- 
babel hath laid the foundation of this house, his hand 
shall finish it,' Zech. iv. 9; and wonders are said to be 
done ' by the hands of the apostles,' Acts xiv. 3. 
Men work with their hands, Eph. iv. 27 ; and they 
do other things with their hands. Hereupon idolaters 
are said to make idols with their hands, Isa. sxxi. 17, 
and idols are styled ' the work of men's hands,' Isa. 
sxxvii. 19, Jer. x. 3, 9 ; yea, the benefit that ariseth 
from the thing men do, is called ' the fruit of their 
hands,' Prov. xxxi. 31, and ' the labour of their hands,' 
Ps. cxxviii. 2. 

In allusion hereunto, the things which God doth or 
maketh are said to be the work of his hands, and his 
hands are said to make them. Job x. 38. Because 
men know not how any should see without eyes, hear 
without ears, speak without a mouth, tread without 
feet, do this or that without hands ; eyes, ears, mouth, 
feet, hands, and other parts of man are attributed to 
God, 1 Pet. iii. 12 ; Num. xii. 8 ; Lam. iii. 34; Ps. 
cxix. 73. 

But to shew that properly God hath no hands, his 
works are oft said to be without hands, Dan. ii. 34, 45, 
and viii. 25, Job xxxiv. 20. Yea, herein lieth a dif- 
ference betwixt the things of God and men, that they 
are without hands, but these with hands, Col. ii. 11 ; 
Eph. ii. 11 ; Heb. ix. 11, 24. Yea, in proper speech 
the heaven itself, that here metaphorically is said to 
be the work of God's hand, is elsewhere said to be 
made without hands, 2 Cor. v. 1, Acts xvii. 24. 

Sec. 133. Of anthropomorphites. 

The anthropomorphites" do hereupon err, not know- 

%)a Tuvri; TiTa/ii.cv <ri}.<i>.—Arisl de Ccelo, lib. ii. Cfip. xiii. 

* Anthropomorphitas vocant, quoniam Deum sibi fiDgunt 
cogitatione carnali in similitudinem imaginis corniptibilis 
hoininis. — Auff. de Bcera. Horn. 1. Deum ipsum omninb 


[Chap. I. 

ing the Scriptures nor tho power of God, in that they 
literally and properly apply to God such parts of men 
as are metaphorically, and only by way of resemblance, 
for teaching's sake, attributed to him. They feign God 
to themselves by a carnal cogitation to be after the 
image of a corruptible man, and that God is altogether 
a body, imagining that whatsoever is not a body is no 
substance at all. But they are much deceived, for 
spirits are not only true substances, but every way the 
most excellent substances ; bodiliness doth but add 
grossness, heaviness, drowsiness, and sundry other 
weaknesses to a substance. 

Concerning the members of God which the Scrip- 
ture frequently mcntioneth, that no man should be- 
lieve that we, according to the form and figure of 
flesh, are like to God, the same scripture saith, that 
God hath wings, which wo have not. Therefore when 
we hear of wings, we understand protection, Ps. ix. i. 
So when we hear of hands, we must understand opera- 
tion ; and if the Scripture mentions any other like 
thing, I suppose it to be spiritually understood. 

Sec. 184. Of the reasons why the heavens are said 
to be the works of God's hands. 

The heavens are here, and in other scriptures, ex- 
pressly said to be the works of God's hands. In that, 

1. They were made as well as the earth. There 
be that grant that the earth and the things here below 
had a beginning ; but imagine that the heavens and 
the things therein were eternal, without beginning. 
The very first verse of the Bible expressly disproves 
this error, for there it is expressly said, that the 
heaven was created ; so also in sundry other places. 

2. God himself made the heavens. They were the 
work of his onto hands, made by his own power, not 
by angels, as the Mcnaudrians, Saturuinians, Cerin- 
thians, Merinthians, and other heretics thought.' Nor 
were they made by the casual concurrence of certain 
motes, which they caU rt^o»ii,asDemocritus, Leucippus, 
and other Epicurean philosophers dreamed. They 
imagined their ainmi to be small, indivisible bodies, 
such as appear in the sun-beams when the sunshineth 
through an hole. They say, that by the conjunction 
of these all things at first were made, and that into these 
all things at last shall be dis.'iolved. 

3. The heavens were made without inBtruments, 
even with God's hands, and nothing else. It is one 
of the Epicurean philosopher's arguments against the 

pus esse prwaumunt.putantes quicquid corpusnon est.prorsus 
nullam esse substantiain. — Aug. Ep. 112. Do membris Dei 
qute assidue Scripturn commemornt, ne qui^qunm secundum 
carnis hujus formam ct figuram nos esse crcderet similes 
Deo, propterea ot endem Scripturo et alas Deum Imbere 
dixit, quas nos utiquo non liabcnius, &c. — Aug. Ep. HI. 

' Menander mundum asscrcbat nb angelis factum. Sa- 
turninus ansclos septem fecisse mundum dicebat. Sic 
Ccrinthiani, Merinthiani, aliiqua. — Aug. de Bare: ArUt. de 
Ccelo. lib. iii. cap. iv, Cic de Nal. dear. lib. i., Idan dt tin. 
bon. et mat. lib. i. 

making of the heavens, that there could not be suffi- 
cient instruments for effecting so great a work : 
' What iron tools,' saith he, ' what levers, or crows, 
what ministers could be had to help on so vast a 
fabric ?'' blind and stupid philosopher, that can 
no better discern between divine and human works, 
betwixt the first creating of things by God, and the 
after-making of things by man ! God had no need of 
any help at all. 

4. The heavens are as a canopy to cover all the 
earth. For the use of hands, especially when both 
hands are used, is to stretch a thing and to spread it 
abroad. The Lord in express terms saith, ' My hands 
have stretched out the heavens,' Isa. xlv. 12. These 
phrases of stretching forth and spreading out the 
heavens art oft attributed unto God, as Isa. xl. 22 ; 
Jer. xli. 15 ; Ps. civ. 2 ; Job ix. 8, and xxxvii. 18. 

5. Great diligence was used in making the heavens. 
Mention of hands in the plural number implieth thus 
much, for careful and diligent persons will put both 
their hands to what they do ; slothful and careless 
persons will use but one hand, and put the other into 
their bosom or pocket, Prov. ix. 24, and xxvi. 15. 

6. The heavens being said to be the work of God's 
hand, imply the great power of God, who with his 
hands, that is, by himself, can make so fair and great 
a work as the heavens are. Therefore the heaven is 
called ' the fii-mament of his power,' Ps. cl. 1. And 
God is said to have ' made the heaven by his great 
power and stretched out arm ;' and thereupon it is 
inferred, that ' there is nothing too hard for him,' Jer. 
sxxii. 17. 

7. The heavens bear the clearest evidence of God's 
excellencies, Ps. viii. 3, and six. 1. Of a picture 
made by Apelles, which was admirable in all men's 
eyes, they said. This is the work of Apelles's hands. 

Sec. 135. Of the resolution of the tenth verse. 

Ver. 10. And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast 
laid the foundation of the earth ; and the heavens are 
the works of thine hands. 

The connection of this verse with the former, set 
out by this copulative particle and, manifesteth an 
addition of another argument to prove the same point. 
Hereof see Sec. 77. 

The sum of this text is, the creation of things. 

Two special points thereabout are here noted: 

1. Tho Creator that made all. 

2. Tho creatures that were made. 
In setting out tho Creator, observe, 

1. Tho manner of attributing this work unto him, 
by an apostrophe, thou. See 106, and 125, and 127 
in the end. 

2. The title given unto him. Lord. 
In the creatures note, 

1. WTiat is common to all. 

' Quic ferramcnta ? qui vcctes? quie machinie 7 qui mi- 
nistri tanti operis fuerunt ?— Cic. de Nat. dcor. 

Ver. 11, 12.] 


2. Wherein they are distinguished one from another. 
Two things are common to all : 

1. The same Lord that made all, implied in this 
copulative ami. 

2. The same time wherein all were made, in the 

There are also two things wherein the creatures 

1. Their distinct kinds, earth, heaven. 

2. Their distinct ends. 

One to be as a foundation, laid the foundation. 

The other to be as a cover over all, and conspicu- 
ously to manifest the glory of God, in this phrase, the 
uork of thine hands. 

Sec. 136. Of the observations arising of the tenth 

I. Christ is Jehovah. The title Lord importeth as 
much. See Sec. 128 

II. Christ is the Creator of all, John i. 2, Col. i. 16. 

III. The heginning of time ivas at the creation ; for 
this phrase in the heginning hath reference to the crea- 
tion. Before that there was no time. See Sec. 129. 

IV. Christ was eternal. He made the things that 
were made in the beginning. So as he was before 
them, and before the beginning, therefore without be- 
ginning, and eternal. See 119. 

v. 1 he earth was made. For when the foundation 
of it was laid, it was made. See 131. 

VI. The earth is immoveable. See 131. 

VII. The heavens were made as well as the earth. 
See 132. 

VIII. The same Lord that made earth made also the 
heavens. The copulative particle arid, which here 
knits heaven and earth together, demonstrates the 
truth of these two doctrines. 

IX. All creatures are within the compass of heaven 
and earth. These two kinds are here put for all crea- 
tures whatsoever. See 130. 

X. Christ can establish and turn about what he will. 
The earth is a massy and ponderous piece, and hath 
nothing to rest upon but the air ; yet it is there laid 
as a foundation, and remains unmoveable. The hea- 
vens are of an incomprehensible bigness, yet he maketh 
them continually to run about. 

Of other observations arising from this phrase, the 
work of thine hands, see Sec. 131. 

Sec. 137. Of the difference betwixt Christ's and crea- 
tures' immutability. 

They shall perish, but thou remainest ; and they all 
shall wax old as doth a garment ; and as a vesture shall 
thou fold them up, and they shall he changed: but thouart 
the same, and thy years shall iiot fail. — Heb. I. 11, 12. 

Out of Ps. cii. ver. 26, 27, the apostle produceth an- 
other proof of Christ's excellency, taken from his immuta- 
bility and unchangeableness ; and to shew that even 
herein Christ surpasseth all creatures, the point is set 

down by way of opposition : the creatures are mutable, 
but Christ is immutable ; therefore more excellent. 

This relative they being in Greek of the masculine 
gender, auroi, hath particular reference to the heavens, 
oii^ocioi', in the latter end of the former verse ; which 
word is also of the same gender. Yet withal it in- 
cludeth the earth before-mentioned, and all things in 
heaven and earth, not the angels themselves excepted ; 
for it is the most principal scope of the apostle to ad- 
vance Christ above angels, as ver. 4-7. 

Obj. There are many creatures that shall never 
perish :' ' The earth abideth for ever,' Eccles. i. 4. 
That which is said of the sun's and moon's continu- 
ance for ever, Ps. Ixxii. 5, 17, and Ixxxix. 37, may be 
applied to heaven and all the host thereof : ' The sun 
and moon endure throughout all generations ;' ' It shall 
be established for ever as the moon,' &c. The angels, 
also, even the good angels, are still, and ever will con- 
tinue, as they were at first created. They were the 
evil angels that ' kept not their first estate, but left 
their own habitation,' Jude 6. 

Ans. 1. This phrase for ever is sometimes put for 
the world's continuance, Mat. xi. 14. Thus, though 
the fore-mentioned creatures continue firm and stable 
all the time of this world, yet at the end of the world 
they may be altered, as the earth, and heaven, and 
hosts thereof. See Sees. 137, 139. 

2. As for angels, they have indeed from the begin- 
ning continued, and shall everlastingly continue in the 
same estate and condition ; yet there is a great difier- 
ence betwixt Christ's immutability and theirs ; for, 

(1.) Christ was as he is from all eternity, Ps. xc. 2, 
Prov. viii. 22, &c. But angels had a beginning. Col. 
i. 16, before which they were not what now they are. 

(2.) Christ was originally of and by himself as he is ; 
angels not so. Christ made them angels. He might 
have made them mortal and mutable creatures. 

(3.) Christ, by his own power and wisdom, con- 
tinueth the same as he is. Angels are confirmed and 
established by Christ, Eph. i. 10. 

(4.) Comparatively it is said of Christ, ' Who only 
hath immortality,' 1 Tim. vi. 16. The creatures' ex- 
cellencies, compared with the excellencies of Christ, 
are as the light of the moon and stars ; and as arti- 
ficial lights compared to the light of the sun, none of 
them are seen in the bright shining of the sun, so the 
immutability of the creatures is as no immutability 
compared to Christ's. 

Sec. 137. Of the different manner of creatures per- 

The Hebrew word translated joe)(s/(, IIDX, is put for 
any kind of perishing, whether by degrees or at once. 
Things that rot, consume by little and httle. In this 
sense this word is apphed to the memorial or name of 
wicked men, which is said to perish, ^3}<, Ps. ix. 6, 

' See the Guide to go to God, or an explanation of the 
Lord's Prayer, sec. 226. 


[Chap. I. 

in that by little and little they are clean forgotten, and 
thus said to rot, 3pT, Prov. x. 17. Things that rot 
by degrees come to nought. 

At once ; things arc said to perish when they are sud- 
denly destroyed. Thus a righteous man is said to 
perish, Isa. rii. 1 ; that is, suddenly to be taken away, 
as Ezckiel's wife was with a stroke, Ezek. xxiv. 16. 

So the Greek word used by the apostle acroXoDfra;, 
is sometimes put for a sudden destruction, as Luke 
xvii. 27-29, where it is applied to those that perished 
by the flood, and by fire and brimstone from heaven. 

It is also put for withering by degrees, as the grace 
of a flower perisheth, James i. 11. 

There are some who conceive that earth and heaven 
do waste by degrees, and through continuance of ages 
do wax old and fail. They say that there is not now 
that clearness of light nor vigour of stars that was in 
former times, and that the strength of the eai-th doth 
every year decay.' 

Others are of opinion that the heaven and all the 
host thereof still retain that virtue, vigour, and strength 
which they had when they were first made ; and that 
the earth, though in the superficies of it, whereon men 
and beasts tread, and which is daily digged and ploughed 
up, may have some of the strength thereof exhausted, 
yet in the main body and innermost part of it, it still 
remaineth the same, and so shall do to the end of the 
world. See Sec. 139. 

Yet in that at length they shall be changed, they 
may be said to perish ; in this sense it is said, that 
' heaven and earth shall pass away,' Mark xiii. 31. 

Thus one way or other all creatures perish. 

Lifeless and senseless creatures in the earth and 
water ; vegetable plants ; fish, fowls, beasts, and other 
creatures that have sense, together with the bodies of 
men, perish by little and little ; the heavens, with 
their hosts, and the substance of the earth, shall on a 
sudden be changed ; devils are in their quality altered 
from that they were at first made, so also souls of 
men. God's angels are in their nature alterable ; 
there is a possibility for the third, which is the in- 
visible and highest heaven, to be destroyed, if it 
seemed good to the supreme Sovereign so to deal with 
it. In these respects all creatures may be said to 

Sec. 188. Of Ihe manner of setting out Christ's im- 

Both the psalmist and the apostle turn from the 
creatures to the Creator, the Lord Christ; and by con- 
tinuing the apostrophe (whereof see Sees. lOG, 127), 
direct their speech to him, saying, ' Thou rcmainest.' 
This they do by way of opposition, as this particle but, 

' Miindum viilcmus passion! suhjecluni.et per secnia scnec- 
tute defiecr« crutlimiis ct (iiiiri. — Auy. quasi, fx Vel. Tett. 
q. 28. Non est nunc ilk clnritns luminis, ncc sunt illas stel- 
Inrum vires quie fuerunt, tirrii) cliain vires deficiunt qno- 
ie.iima.— Moll, prcelect. in P: cii. 27. 

hi, sheweth ; intimating thereby that Christ, in that 
which is here truly spoken of him, excelleth all crea- 
tures. See Sec. 141. This is further manifest by 
the express mention of the pronoun thou, nnx, ai,. 

The verb whereby the constancy and immutability 
of Christ is set down, in Hebrew, signifieth an unmove- 
able standing or abiding, T^V, stelit immotus. It is 
applied to idoh fast fixed, so as they cannot be re- 
moved, Isa. xlvi. 7 ; to a mountain, Ps. xxx. 7 ; and 
to the word and counsel of God, Ps. xxxiii. 9, 11. 
Fitly, therefore, is it here used to set out Christ's 

The Greek word, bia/jihug, is a compound word, 
and the composition adds much emphasis. The simple 
verb implieth a steady standing or abiding, but the 
compound a permanent or unalterable remaining to bo 
so or so. They who observed a constant abiding of 
creatures in that frame wherein at first God made 
them, thus express it : they continue, or remain as 
they were, 2 Peter iii. 4. 

Though the Hebrew and Greek words in their sig- 
nification do fitly answer each other, yet there is some 
diilcrence in their tenses. The Hebrew is of the 
future tense, ' shalt remain,' lDJ?n ; the Greek is of 
the present tense, or ' remainest,' diaf/.'tvsi;. But this 
difference may easily be reconciled. For, 

1. It is usual with the Hebrews to change tenses,' 
especially the perfect, present, and future tenses ; as, 
Exod. XV. 1, ' Then sang Moses ;' Hebrew, nC'D Tt;'», 
^[oses canil, ' Moscs shall sing.' So Isa. iii. 16. 

2. The difference betwixt the present and future 
tenses of the fifth conjugation in Greek is only in the 
accent, so as the accent being altered, the Greek maj' 
be of the same tense that the Hebrew is.* 

8. Either tense makes to the point in hand. The 
present tense, 'thou remainest,' implieth a continuance 
in that which Christ was before ; the future, ' thon i 
shalt remain,' implieth also as much. Either of them 1 
being taken (as in this testimony they are) in opposi- 
tion to things that perish, do demonstrate an unchan^'o 
able constancy in Christ. Hereof see more, Sec. 11-. 

Sec. 189. Of creatures waxing old. 

To make that point of the mutability of creatures 
more clear, two resemblances are used : one taken 
from the waxing old of a garment, the other from the 
folding up of a vesture. 

This particle all is added, to shew the extent of that 
relative thrg in tlie beginning of this verse. Of this 
extent) see Sec. 136. 

The resemblance of waxing old is taken from such 
things as by continuance do use to waste. The Hi>- 
brew, v3', is attributed to an old person. Gen. x^ 
12 ; to bones, Ps. xxxii. 3 ; to flesh and skin wa>' 
Lam. iii. 4 ; to man's form or beauty, Ps. xlix. i i , 

' Enallnge tcmporia. W 

' ii«/<i'>i<(, pricsent ; Jia/xmrt.'futu. ,| 

Ver. 11, 12.] 


to garments, shoes, sacks, and bottles. Josh. ix. 4, 5, 
13 ; to a vintage, Isa. xssii. 10. 

The Greek word ■xoi.'Kaiu6rjao>Tai is applied to money 
bags, Luke xii. 33 ; and to the covenant veiled over 
with legal rites, Heb. viii. 13. A noun, '^aXaiog, 
coming from the same root, is attributed to garments 
and bottles, Mat. ix. 16, 17 ; and to leaven, 1 Cor. 
V. 8. 

All the fore-mentioned instances by experience are 
known to consume by degrees ; so do all things here 
below. As for the heavens, they may be said to wax 
old as doth a garment, in that they are appointed to 
an end, — to an end, I say, of what they are now, 
2 Peter iii. 10. The longer, therefore, they have con- 
tinued, the nearer they approach to that end ; as a 
garment, the longer it is worn, the nearer it is to its 

The comparison betwixt heavens and garments is to 
be taken not simply of the manner of their coming to an 
end, by decaying and wasting more and more ; but in- 
definitely, in regard of the end itself, namely, that they 
shall have an end. 

The other comparison, ver. 12, is added to give 
further light to the point in hand. It is joined with 
a copulative and, xai, ' And as a vesture,' &c. 

These two words, riarmcnt, vesture, in general intend 
one and the same thing. The former, (/armeiit, both 
in Hebrew' and Greek,- siguifieth anything that one 
useth to put upon his body ; so doth also the latter,^ 
vesture. It is put for a covering over a woman's head, 
1 Cor. xi. 15. 

In reference to this latter, it is said, Thou shalt fold 
them up, iX/jf/;, volres. The Greek word here used 
is not elsewhere in the New Testament. 

1. Some take it for such a folding up of a large 
broad vesture as bringeth it into a very small compass, 
and maketh it appear very little in comparison of that 
which it seemed to be before. So the heavens, which 
are now spread over the whole world, shall be brought 
to little or nothing. It is said, that ' The heavens 
shall be rolled together as a scroll,' Isa. xxxiv. 4. A 
scroll was a fair piece of paper or parchment, or rather 
many pieces stitched and pasted one to another, where- 
in such things as use now to be printed were written, 
and then rolled up, as inventories of wills are ; and 
being rolled up, they were compacted in a small 
volume, and nothing therein written could be discerned. 
Mention is made of such scrolls or rolls, Ezra vi. 1, 2, 
Isa. viii. 1, Jcr. sxxvi. 2, Ezek. ii. 9. 

2. Others take the word for turning a thing; as when 
a garment is some while worn on the one side, the 
other side is turned. To this they apply these words, 
' We look for new heavens and a new earth,' 2 Peter 
iii. 13 : now, not in the substance, but in the quality 
thereof more glorious than before. 

*13X 2 i/^umtv ah tyvvfit indiio. 

» my> a c-a?, induu. 

xicn a 5r<j(/3aAX!iv, circtimji- 

Thus the phrase of rolling up, or turning the hea- 
vens, doth not intend an utter abolition, but a clear 
renovation of them. 

The Hebrew word gives proof hereunto ;' for it 
properly signifies, as by our English it is translated, 
to chaiu/e. Hereupon sundry expositors suppose an- 
other Greek word,^ somewhat like this, to be used by 
the apostle, a word that signifieth to chaivje. But 
seeing the former word, translated fold up, may in- 
clude that sense, why should any think of altering the 
text from the agreement of all the Greek copies there- 
in, and of the Seventy whom the apostle follows, and 
of sundry Greek fathers ? 

This that hath been distinctly and largely set down 
by the Holy Ghost, of the alteration of creatures, and 
that both simply thus, ' They shall perish,' and also 
symbolically, under the resemblances of a garment 
waxing old, and a vesture folded up, doth much am- 
plify the unchangeable constancy of Christ ; for con- 
traries laid together do illustrate each other,' as black 
andwhite, coarse and fine, pain and ease, heaven and 
hell ; so also vanity and stabiUty, mutability and 

Sec. 140. Of Christ's power about altering creatures. 

The author of the mutability of creatures is the 
Lord Jesus, to whom it is here said, ' Thou shalt fold 
them up.' He that createth all, hath an absolute 
power to preserve, alter, and destroy all, as it-pleaseth 
him. It was this Lord Jesus that said, ' Every liv- 
ing substance that I have made will I destroy,' Gen. 
vii. 4. And again, ' I will shake the heaven, and the 
earth shall remove out of its place ;' I will clothe the 
heaven with blackness ;' ' I create new heavens,' &c., 
Isa. xiii. 13, and 1. 3, and Ixv. 17. 

This Lord Jesus, being true God, is the most high 
supreme sovereign of all ; he doth all, ' that men may 
know, that he whose name alone is Jehovah, is the 
most high over aU,' Ps. kxxiii. 18. 

As he hath supreme authority, so he hath also 
almighty power ; he is able to bring to pass what he 
will : ' By the word of the Lord were the heavens 
made,' Ps. xxxiii. 6, and by the same word they may 
be changed. 

Therefore it is here added, ' and they shall be 
changed.' Because the Lord Jesus hath a mind to 
change them, they shall be changed ; for who hath 
resisted his will ? All things are alike to him. 
Whether is it easier to say to that that was not, ' Let 
there he light ' in the heaven. Gen. i. 14, or to say, 
' Let the heavens be folded up and changed ' ? Upon 
the same gi'ound that the former was efi'ected, the 
latter also shall be accomplished. 

As the power of the Lord Jesus in creating and 

' P|?n, mulaius est. InJe Pl'pnn miitavit. — Erasmus, Jieza, 
Rihera. ■ aXalm. — Chrysost. Theophylact. 

3 nafaXXBXa tZ ivavri's. fiiXuTO. <pxi<i:cSa.i, dixit Arist. Khet., 
lib. iii. cap. ii. 



[Chap. I. 

preserving (ill things tendeth much to the strengthen- 
ing of our faith in the accomplishment of all his pro- 
mises, and in obtaining our lawful desires of such 
things as are needful and useful, and in protecting us 
from matters hurtful and dangerous ; so his power in 
altering and abolishing what he pleaseth, is of use to 
make us stand in awe of him, and to be afraid of 
oflfending his majestj', and provoking his wrath. 

The Lord's power in creating and preserving things 
for strengthening our faith is pressed, Ps. cxlvi. 5, 6, 
Isa. xxxvii. 16, &c., Jer. xsxvii. 17, Acts iv. 24. 

His power in altering and abolishing the heaven and 
other things, for working fear and awe in us, is 
pressed, Isa. xiii. 13, and xsxiv. 1, 4, Luke xxi. 26, 
2 Peter iii. 10, 11. 

The former sheweth that he is the Lord of Hfe, and 
hath power to save and defend, therefore trust on him, 
Ps. cxsiv. 8. 

The latter, that he is the Lord of death, and can 
destroy, therefore fear him, Luke xii. 5. 

Sec. 141. OfChrid's immutahility. 

The immutability of creatures being distinctly set 
out, the apostle returneth to the main point intended, 
which is Christ's immutability. It was before gene- 
rally set down in this phrase, ' Thou remainest,' Sees. 
136-138. Here it is illustrated in these two other 
branches, ' thou art the same, thy years shall not 

Though all these three phrases in general intend 
one and the same thing, namely, immutability, yet, 
to shew that there is no tautology, no vain repetition 
of one and the same thing therein, they may be dis- 
tinguished one from another. 

1 . The first, thou remainest, pointeth at Christ's 
eternity before all times ; for it implieth his being be- 
fore, in which ho still abides. 

2. The second, thou art the same, declares Christ's 
constancy. There is no variableness with him ; thus, 
therefore, he saiih of himself, ' I am the Lord, I 
change not,' Mai. iii. 6. 

8. The third, thy years shall not fail, intendeth 
Christ's everlastingness ; that he who was before all 
times, and continueih in all ages, will bejond all times 
BO continue. 

Thus these three phrases do distinctly prove the 
three branches of this description of Christ, ' which is, 
and which was, and which is to come,' Rev. i. 4. 

This name that Christ assumeth to himself, I am, 
and this, I am that 1 am, Exod. iii. 14, and this also, 
Jehovah, Exod. vi. 3, do demonstrate a perpetual 
continuing to he the same. In this respect he thus 
saith, ' I the Lord, the first, and with the last, I am 
he,' Isa. xll 4, or, as some translate it, I am the 
same ; for it is the very same word both in Hel)rew 
and in Greek that is here translated the same.^ This 
immutable constancy of the Lord is confirmed by this 

testimony, ' with whom is no variableness nor shadow 
of turning,' James iii. 17, no show or appearance of 

This may be exemphfied in all the things that are 

1. His essence and being. This is especially here 
intended. So also Exod. iii. 14. 

2. His counsel. Immutability is expressly attributed 
thereunto, Heb. vi. 17. 'It shall stand,' Ps. sxxiii. 
11, Prov. six. 21, Isa. xlviii. 10. It shall stand im- 
mutably, inviolably. 

3. His attributes. Sundry attributes for teaching's 
sake,' by way of resemblance, are ascribed to the 
Lord. In this respect it is said, ' his compassions 
fail not,' Lam. iii. 22 ; ' his mercy endureth forever,' 
Ps. cxviii. 1 ; 'his love is everlastmg,' Jer. xxxi. 3 ; 
' his righteousness endureth for ever,' cxi. 3. So his 
truth, Ps. cxvii. 2 ; so his judgments, Ps. cxix. 160. 

4. His word endureth for ever, 1 Peter i. 25. This 
is manifested in the law, whereof not one tittle shall 
fail, Luke xvi. 17, and in the gospel, which is an ever- 
lasting gospel. 

5. His bonds whereby he binds himself to ns are 
unalterable, as promises and oaths. These are the 
two immutable things intended, Heb. vi. 18, and his 
covenant also, Jer. xxxiii. 20, 21. 

See more hereof. Chap. xiii. 8, Sec. 112. 

Sec. 142. 0/ objections against the Lord's immuta- 
hility answered. 

Ohj. Christ was made man in the fulness of time, 
and died. Gal. iv. 4, 1 Cor. xv. 3 ; yea, ' being in the 
form of God, he made himself of no reputation,' 
Philip, ii. 6, 7, or he brought himself to nothing.* 
From hence it is inferred that he was changed in his 
very essence. 

Ans. Immutability attributed to Christ is properly 
meant of his divine nature, which was no way altered 
by assuming his human nature ; for he became man, 
not by conversion of the Godhead into flesh, but by 
taking of the manhood into God,^ so as he remained 
in his divine nature, when ho was incarnate, the very 
same that he was before, without any addition, 
diminution, or alteration. 

Of other objections answered, see Chap. vi. 17, 
Sec. 136. 

Sec. 143. Of Christ's everlastingness. 

The last phrase whereby Christ's immutability is 
set out, is this, ' thy years shall not fail.' Years are 
not properly applied to the Lord ; for eternity admits 
no distinction of times, as things temporary do, 2 Pet. 
iii. 8. The Holy Ghost doth herein speak of the Lord 
as we mortal creatures use to speak one of another ; 

> ini'tori txinanivit, a xitic vacuus, inanin. 
•■•tutm ii"{ eitK—Sym. Athan. 

Ver. 11, 12.] 



for the continnance of temporary things which have a 
beginning, and shall have an end, are distinguished 
by hours, days, weeks, mouths, and years. The 
longest ordinary distinction of times is a year. That 
continuance which exceedeth that date useth to be set 
forth by multiplying years, as two years, ten years, an 
hundred years, a thousand years, and so forward. 
The fewer of these distinctions that any pass over, 
the shorter their continuance is ; the more they pass 
over, the longer is their continuance. If still they 
continue year after year, and that without date or 
end, so as still their years continue and cease not, 
they are counted everlasting, their years fail not, ovx 

In this respect, that we might the better discern 
the continuance of the Lord, years are attributed to 
him, as Job x. 5, ' Are thy years as the days of man?' 
Are they so short, or have thej- an end as man's days? 
' Can the number of his years be searched out ? Job 
xxxvi. 26. They are without number, and cannot be 
found out. His years are throughout all generations, 
Ps. cii. 24. They ever continue. In this respect 
the psalmist saith to the Lord, ' From everlasting to 
everlasting thou art God,' Ps. xc. 2. Fitly, there- 
fore, is this phrase, shall not fail, added to the years 
which are spoken of the Lord. 

The Hebrew word,' Ps. cii. 27, is diversely taken. 

1. It signifies the perfecting of a thing, as when 
the bud of a flower is grown to the maturity thereof, 
it is said to be perfect,^ Isa. xviii. 5. The perfection 
of God's law is set out by an adjective derived from 
this root, Ps. xix. 7. 

2. The finishing of a thing, and that in a fair 
manner, is expressed by this word, thus the work of 
Solomon's pillars are said to be finished,^ 1 Kings vii. 

3. Consuming and destroying a thing is declared 
by the same word, thus the rebellious people in the 
wilderness are said to be consumed,* in that they were 
destroyed, Deut. ii. 16. 

It is in this testimony used in the middle sense for 
ending and finishing a thing, and being negatively 
used, it implieth that the years of the Lord shall never 
be finished nor have any end. Thus they shew him 
to be everlasting. He shall for ever continue as he is. 

The Greek word here used by the apostle, ixXs/- 
•vj/ouff;, intendeth as much as the Hebrew doth. It is 
applied to the expiring of a man's life, Luke xvi. 9, 
' when you fail,' exX/tjjte ; that is, when you cease to 
be in this world, when you depart or die. Christ 
expresscth the perseverance of faith by such a negative 
phrase, as is in this text, thus, ' that thy faith fail 
not,' iJ-r, ijiXilTri, Luke xxii. 32. 

Sec. 144. 0/ Christ's everlasting continuance as he 
is mediator. 

As by way of resemblance this description of ever- 

' ion" a DDn 2 |-|-\a on ^ Qnn < ion. 

lastingness, 'Thy years shall not fail,' may be applied 
to the deity of Christ, so most properly to his human 
nature, to his mediatorship, as he was God-man ; to 
all his offices, to the merit, virtue, and efficacy of all 
that he did and endured for man's redemption, to his 
mystical body, and to the gifts and graces which he 
bestoweth on his members. 

1. In regard of his human nature, his years shall 
not fail, in that ' being raised from the dead he dieth 
no more,' Kom. vi. 9. He continueth ever, he ever 
livetb, Heb. vii. 24, 25. 

2. As mediator he is said to ' live ever to make 
intercession for us,' Heb. vii. 25. 

3. As king he shall reign for ever, and there shall 
be no end of his kingdom, Luke i. 38. 

4. He is ' a priest for ever,' Ps. ex. 4. 

5. In respect to his prophetical olfice, he is styled 
an ' everlasting hght,' to instruct and direct his people, 
Isa. Ix. 19, 20. 

6. In regard of the merit and virtue of what he 
did and sufi'ered, he is the same for ever, Heb. xiii. 8. 

7. His gifts are without repentance, Eom. xi. 29. 
They are such as he never repenteth the giving of 
them ; and thereupon he never takes them away. As 
for such apostates as have clean put them away, they 
never had any true, sound, sanctifying, saving grace, 
1 John ii. 19. 

8. That body whereof he is the head must also con- 
tinue for ever. If the years of the head shall not fail, 
can the years of the body fail ? On this ground it is 
that the gates of hell shall not prevail against the 
church. Mat. xvi. 18. 

Sec. 145. Of the uses of Christ's immutalility. 
The eternal and everlasting immutability 6f Christ 
our Kedeemer and Saviour is many ways of singular 

1. It demonstrateth Christ to be' true God, Mai. iii. 6. 

2. It distinguisheth him from all creatures (as here 
in this text), from idols especially, Isa. xli. 4 and 
xliv. 6. 

3. It strengtheneth our faith in all his divine pro- 
perties, promises, and former works, Ps. xliv. 1, 2, 
and xc. 1, 2; Gen. xxxii. 10-12; Heb. xiii. 5, 6. 

4. It instructeth us in an especial use of God's 
former dealings with men, which is in like good courses 
to expect like blessings, and in like evil courses to 
expect like judgments : for the Lord is ever the same, 
and ever of the same mind ; what in former times 
was right in his eyes and acceptable unto him, is so 
still, Rom. iv. 23, 24. What formerly ofl'ended him 
and provoked his wrath, still so doth, 1 Cor. x. 5, 6, 

5. It assureth us of his continual and perpetual 
care of his church. Mat. xxviii. 20, yea, and of the 
church's perpetual continuance. Mat. xvi. 18. 

6. It encourageth us against all attempts of enemies, 
present and to come, Ps. ex. 1, Rev. ii. 10. 



7. It teacheth us to do what in us lieth for per- ) 
petuating his praise ; and for this end both to set forth 
his praise ourselves all our days, Ps. civ. 33, and also 
to tench our posterit}' so to do, Ps. Ixxviii. 5, 6. 

8. It dirocteth us how to be like to Christ, namely, 
in constancy and unchangeableness in our lawful pro- 
mises, oaths, vows, and covenants, Neh. v. 12, 13 ; 
Ps. XV. 4 ; Eccles. v. 4 ; Jer. xxxiv. 10, 18, and in 
our warrantable enterprises, 1 Cor. xv. 58. 

9. It admonisheth us to submit ourselves to the 
Lord's ordering providence; all our strivings against 
the same cannot alter this purpose, 1 Sam. iii. 18. 

10. It establisheth such as have evidence of their 
election and calling, against all Satan's assaults and 
fears arising from our weak flesh, 2 Peter i. 10. 

Sec. 146. Ofilif. resolution o/Heb. i. 11, 12. 

Vor. 11. They shall perish, hut thou remainest ; and 
they all shall wax old as doth a garment ; 

Ver. 12. And as a vesture shalt Ihou fold them up, 
and they shall be changed : hut thou art the same, and 
thy years shall not fail. 

Christ's excellency is further set out in these two 
verses. See Sec. 64. The proof thereof is taken from 
Christ's immutability. The sum of this text is in these 
two words, Christ's immutability. The argument to 
prove Christ's excellency herein, is drawn from a 
comparison. The comparison is betwixt Christ and 
creatures. The argument may be thus framed ; — 

He who is immutable is more excellent than the 
things that are mutable ; 

But Christ is immutable, and all creatures mutable ; 

Therefore Christ is more excellent than all creatures. 

There are parts of text. 

1 . The mutability of creatures. 

2. The immutability of Christ. 

The mutability of creatures is declared two ways : 

1. Simply, 'They shall perish.' 

2. Symbolically, by two resemblances. 

One resemblance is taken from a garment, ' as a 

The other from a vesture, ' as a vesture.' 

The former importeth a corruption by degrees, 
' waxeth old.' 

The latter implioth a renovation, 'fold them up.' 

This latter is amplified, 

1. By the efficient, which is Christ, ' Thou shall.' 

2. By the ell'cct, ' They shall be changed.' 

The immutubihty of Christ is set out in three 
branches : 

1. His eternity, ' Thou remainest.' 

2. His stability, ' Thou art the same.' 

8. His perpetuity, ' Thy years shall not fail.' 

Sec. 147. Of the doctrines arisim/ out of Ileb. i. 
11, 12. 

I. Creatures decay. This is to bo applied most 

properly to things sublunary, which are in the air, 
earth, and waters. See Sec. 137. 

II. Tlie longer creatures continue, the nearer they 
are to their end. They wax old. See Sec. 139. 

III. Such creatures as decay not shall be renewed. 
This phrase /o/(/ed up intends as much. See Sec. 139. 

IV. All creatures are subject to alteration. This 
general particle all demonstrates as much ; either they 
shall decay or be renewed. 

V. Comparisons make points more clear. For this 
cud these two comparisons, of a vesture and garment, 
are here produced. 

VI. It is Christ that altereth creatures. This phrase, 
' Thou shalt fold them up,' is directed to Christ. Sea 
Sec. 140. 

VII. Creatures are at Christ's dispose. What Christ 
will alter ' shall be changed.' See Sec. 140. 

VIII. Christ is whatever he was. This phrase thou 
remainest implieth as much. See Sees. 138, 141. 

IX. There is no alteration in Christ. He is the 
same. See Sec. 141. 

X. Christ u-ill for ever continue the same. ' His 
years shall not fail.' See Sec. 143. 

Sec. 148. Of the VvQth Psalm applied to Christ. 

But unto which of the angels said he at any time. 
Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy 
footstool? Are they not all ministering spirits, sent 
forth to minister for them who shall he heirs of salva- 
tion?— Heb. I. is, 14. 

The apostle further proceedeth in setting out Christ's 
excellency above angels. This here he doth by de- 
claring the dignity whereunto his Father advanced 
him above'angels. 

This he here bringeth in by way of opposition, as 
the first particle but ' implieth. This opposition may 
have reference to that meanness which he had before 
said of the creatures about their perishing. But here 
a far greater matter is said of Christ ; or it may have 
reference to that which follows after, as if it had been 
thus expressed, He said to Christ, ' Sit on my right 
hand.' But to which of the angels did he say any 
such thing ? Or this particle of opposition, but, may 
be here put for the copulative and, and so have refer- 
ence to the former proofs of Christ's excellency above 
angels ; for it is a seventh proof of that point. See 
Sec. 64. 

The apostle bringeth in this proof after the same 

! manner that he did a former, ver. 5. ' To which of 

the angels said he at any time ?' Hereof see Sec. 46. 

The proof is taken from a different degree betwixt 
Christ and angels. The argument may be thus 
framed : 

Ho that sitteth at God's right hand is far more ex- 
cellent than ministers ; 

But Christ sitteth at God's right hand, and angels 
1 are ministers ; 

■ Ji. Seo Chap. ii. 6, Sec 50. 


Ver. 13, 14] 


Therefore Christ is far more excellent than ancels. 
The former part of the nssumption is in ver. 13. 
The latter part in ver. 14. 

This proof is set out by a divine testimony, taken 
out of Ps. ex. 1. 1'hat psalm is wholly prophetical. 
The prophecy therein contained is of Christ, especially 
of his kingly and priestly functions; for proof of them, 
it is oft quoted in the New Testament, as Mat. xxii. 
44 ; Heb. v. G, 10, and vii. 17, 21. 

There is also in this psalm an express prophecy of 
the calling of the Gentiles, ver. 6, which manifesteth 
the enlargement of Christ's kingilom. 

Concerning the point in hand, the psalmist ex- 
pressly sheweth the persons by whom and to whom 
that which in the text is set down was first spoken, in 
these words, ' The Lord said unto my Lord.' 

The former title, Lord, which is in the Hebrew 
nin', Jehovah, is spoken of the Father ; the latter, 
*3"1S?, of the Son, who was that Messiah whom the 
Jews expected. It was God the Father that said to 
God the Son, ' Sit at my right hand.' Indeed, the 
latter word, translated Lonl, is sometimes applied to 
men, as Gen. xxxii. 4. But it is in this place uttered 
by a king, who was under no man as to his Lord ; 
therefore it must be meant of him that was God. 

Christ, by this argument, proveth himself to be the 

Son of God, in that David, who was his father after 

the flesh, giveth him this title, )»// Lonl, Mat. xxii. 43. 

It appears that the teachers of the Jews held this 

psalm to be a prophecy of Christ, in that they denied 

not this testimony to be meant of Christ, when Christ 

produced it to prove the Messiah to be more than a 

I son of man. Otherwise they would readilyhave de- 

1 nied the proof, and said that David did not there speak 

■ of his Son, rather than be put to silence as they were, 

. Mat. xxii. 4G. 

Sec. 149. Of God's selling Christ on his right hand. 

The main substance of the proof is in this phrase, 

' Sit on my right hand.' This is to be taken of 

(,'liiist as mediator, God-man ; for in that respect 

lintli God exalted him. Him whom God raised from 

tin; dead, he set on his right hand, Eph. i. 20, Rom. 

viii. 34. But he was true man that was raised from 

, the dead ; therefore he was true man that was so ex- 

' alted next unto God, ' far above all principality, and 

power, and might, and dominion, and every name that 

is named, not only in this world, but in that which is 

to come,' Eph. i. 21. 

Of this phrase, sit at God's right hand, and of the 
dignity thereby intended, see Sees. 31-34. 

The ground of this high dignity was of God. 
Jehovah, the only true God, said to him, ' Sit on my 
rij^ht hand.' Christ pet not himself there ; he glori- 
fied not himself to sit at God's right hand, but Jehovah, 
that said to him, ' Sit on my right hand,' glorified 
him herein : ' God hath highly exalted him, and given 
him a name which is above every name.' 

God was pleased thus h'gbly to exalt his Son in 
sundry respects : 

1. In regard of that entire love which, as a Father, 
he did bear to a Son, John iii. 35, and v. 20. 

2. In regard of the low degree of Christ's humili- 
ation, Philip, ii. 8, 9 ; Eph. iv. 9, 10. 

3. In regard of that chargd which Christ undertook, 
to provide for his church, and to protect it. Hereunto 
is he the better enabled by that high advancement, Mat. 
xsviii. 18-20 ; John xvi'i. 2. 

4. In regard of the saints, who are Christ's members, 
that they might with stronger confidence depend on 
him, Ps. kxx. 17, 18 ; 2 Tim. i. 12. 

5. In regard of his enemies, that he might be the 
greater terror unto them, and be more able to subdue 
them, Ps. ex. 2. 

Sec. 150. Of Christ's conlimtance at God's right 

To the greatness of Christ's dignity is added his 
continuance therein, which is until one principal end 
of his hi,r;h advancement shall be accomplished, which 
is the subduing of all his enemies. 

This word lailil, bmc a», though it point at a time 
how long Christ shall retain his dignity, yet it setteth 
not down a date thereof or a period thereto ; for it 
bath not always reference to the future time as ex- 
cluding it, but to that whole space of time that is to 
pass to the accomplishing of the thing mentioned, in- 
cluding in it all that space of time ; and that because 
the question is concerning it alone ; as where Christ 
saith, ' Till heaven and earth pass, one jot, or one 
tittle, shall in no wise pass from the law,' Mat. v. 18, 
his meaning is not that the law shall pass when heaven 
and earth pass awaj', but that so long as the world 
continueth, the law shall remain to be the rule of 

This word witil oft implieth r.ather a denial of a 
determination than an affirmation thereof, as 2 Sam. 
vi. 23, where it is said that ' Michal had no child 
until the day of her death.' None will imagine that 
after her death she had any, but because the question 
of having a child must be about the time of her life, 
this phrase, ' until the day of her death,' is used. In 
the same sense a like phrase of the virgin Mary's 
bringing forth the Lord Jesus is used. Mat. i. 25. 
Joseph ' knew her not till she had brought forth her 
first-born son ;' that is, he never knew her. 

Thus is this word until here to be taken : ' Sit on 
my right hand until I make thine enemies my foot- 
stool.' Sit till then, and ever after that ; so as here 
is implied an everlasting continuance of Christ's dig- 
nity. If until all his enemies be subdued, then for 
ever ; for what shall hinder it when there be no ene- 
mies ? Will his subjects hinder it ? AViU his mem- 
bers that are advanced with him hinder it ? AVill 
good angels, whose ministry is made the more glo- 
rious thereby, hinder it ? Will his Father, whose 


[CllAP. I. 

love nnd respect to him is unchangeable and everlast- 
ing, hinder it ? 

Ol'j. Subduing of enemies is here set down as the 
end of Christ's sitting at God's right hand. When that 
end is accompUshcd, there will be no need of his sit- 
ting there. 

Alls. Though subduing of enemies be one end, yet 
it is not the only end. Sundry other ends have been 
noted before. Sec. 149. 

It will be requisite that Christ, having to the full 
accomplished all things that were to be done or en- 
dured for man's full redemption and eternal salvation, 
should for ever retain that dignity whereunto he was 
advanced after he had accomplished all. To depart 
from any part of his dignity at any time would bo 
some impeachment of his glory. 

Otij. 2. It is expressly said that when the end 
Cometh, ' the Son shall deliver up the kingdom to 
God the Father.' And ' when all things shall be sub- 
dued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be 
subject,' &c., 1 Cor. xv. 24, 28. 

The answer to these words is set down before, Sec. 

Sec. 151. Of Christ's enemies. 
The time of Christ's sitting at God's right hand 
being thus expressed, ' until I make thine enemies 
thy footstool,' plainly declareth that Christ hath ene- 
mies, and shall have enemies so long as this world con- 
tinueth. These enemies are not only such as directly 
oppose Christ himself, as the scribes and pharisees, 
priests and rulers among the Jews, who at length 
brought him to that shameful death upon the cross. 
Acts ii. 23; or as Saul, who afore his taking up into 
heaven, ' thought with himself that he ought to do 
many things contrary to the name of Jesus,' Acts 
xxvi. 9 ; and Julian, who with his breath breathed 
out this scornful title against Christ,' Vicisti Galiliee, 
O Galiteun, thou hast orcrcmne ; but also such as 
revile, wrong, oppress, or any way persecute the 
church of Christ, or any of the menibnrs oi his body. 
It was in relation unto them that Christ said to Saul, 
when he ' breathed out threatening and slaughter 
against the disciples of the Lord,' ' Saul, Saul, why 
persecutest thou me?' Acts ix. 1, 4; for believers 
are so united unto Christ, as members unto an head, 
Eph. i. 22, 23 ; and thereupon it is, that ' he that 
toucbeth them toucheth the apple of his eye,' Zech. 
ii. 8. 

That we tr>ay the better discern who and what these 
enemies are, I will endeavour to rank them out, as it 
were, in battle array. 

In a well set array there is a general, and under 
him colonels, captains, lieutenants, majors, corporals, 
ancients, trumpeters, drummers, scouts ; and of sol- 
diers there useth to bo a vanguard, main battalion, 
rear, right and left wings, and ambushmeuts. 
' Tlieodorot. Eccl. Hist. lib. iv. cap. xxv. 

The general is ' that great dragon and old serpent, 
which is called the devil and Satan,' Rev. xii. 9. 
Colonels, captains, and other commanders and officers, 
who whet on and embolden all such as take part with 
Satan, are all sorts of infernal spirits and tiends of 
hell. The van is made up of atheists, idolaters, per- 
secutors, and other like open and impudent enemies 
of the church. Tlie battalia consists of all manner of 
profane and licentious persons. In the right wing 
are all the lusts of the flesh, in the left all the honours 
and pleasures of the world. In the rear follow sin, 
death, grave, and hell itself, with such like mortal 
enemies, and their deadly instruments. In ambush- 
ment lie hypocrites, false brethren, coiTupt teachers, 
and treacherous politicians. 

There being such enemies, it much concerns us to 
be very watchful against them, and to take heed of 
security ; and we ought to be ' strong in the Lord, and 
in the power of his might,' Eph. vi. 10. Yea, we 
ought always to be prepared, and stand armed with 
the whole armour of God, Eph. vi. 13, &c. 

Ohj. Christ on his cross ' having spoiled principali- 
ties and powers, made a show of them openly, triumph- 
ing over them in it,' Col. ii. 14, 15. ' And when he 
ascended up on high, he led captivity captive,' Eph. 
iv. 8. By captivity are meant such spiritual enemies as 
held men in captivity. B}- leading captive is meant 
a conquest and triumph over them. If Christ dil 
this on his cross, and at his ascension, how do they 
still remain enemies ? 

Ans. 1. Though they be made captives, yet still 
they retain the mind and disposition of enemies, and 
so are indeed enemies. 

2. Though they be overcome and triumphed over, 
yet the Lord voluntarily sufl'crs them, to try what 
they can do. He suffers them to fight and to assault 
his members, but so as he himself remains the mode- 
rator of the fight, to pull them back, to beat tin m 
down as ho pleaseth ; as bear-herds that have tluir 
bears at command, will sufter them to figlit with tlnir 
dogs. But when the church is fully perfected, thi ii 
shall they bo so destroyed as they shall not samuch 
as assault any of the members of Christ. 

Sec. 152. Of the church's encouragement aijainst h, r 

It is a ground of great comfort and encouragement 
to the church, that her enemies are Christ's enemii s ; 
she may be sure of sufHcient protection. To Cini>t 
all the fiends of hell, and all the wicked in the world, 
are nothing. 

He that in the days of his flesh, with a word of his 
mouth, caused a multitude that came to apprehend 
him, to ' go backward, and fall to the ground,' John 
xviii. G, can, with a blast of his nostrils, now that ho 
is at the right hand of his Father, drive all his ene- 
mies into hell, how many and how mighty soever 
they be. 

Ver. 13, U.] 


Besides, the Lord Christ hath an absolute command 
over all in heaven aud earth, to use them as his in- 
struments to annoy his enemies. ' They fought from 
heaven, the stars in their courses fought against 
Sisera,' Judges i. 20. The waters above and below 
met together to drown the old world, Gen. vii. 11. 
Fire and brimstone fell from heaven and destroyed 
sundry cities. Gen. xix. 24. The earth opened and 
swallowed up sundry rebels, Num. xvi. 32. Frogs, 
lice, flies, gi-asshoppers, and sundry other creatures, 
destroyed the Egyptians, Exod. viii. 6, &c. The sea 
overwhelmed Pharaoh with his whole host, Exod. 
xiv. 28. The Lord can make his enemies destroy 
one another, 2 Chron. xx. 23, 24. Thus there wants 
no means for the Lord when he pleaseth to destroy 
his church's enemies. 

But yet, if by reason of the foresaid army of ene- 
mies, they seem terrible unto us, it will be useful to 
take notice of an army more mighty and better pre- 
pared and furnished for our defence ; for Michael 
hath his army, as well as the dragon hath his, Eev. 
xii. 7. 

This latter army, in opposition to the former, may 
be thus set forth : the general is the Lord Christ; his 
colonels, captains, and other officers, which direct and 
eucounige Christ's soldiers, are all sorts of angels. In 
the van are martyrs, confessors, and such as manifest 
more might and courage in suffering, than the stout- 
est enemies in persecuting. In the battalia stand all 
zealous professors of the truth : in the one wing, against 
the flesh and the lusts thereof stands the Spirit, and 
the gifts and graces of it ; in the other wing, against 
the world and the vanities thereof, stands faith, hope, 
and the powers of the world to come, with all manner 
-'' Messings accompanying the same. In the rear, 
i.ist sin, death, and the other mortal enemies, 
'Is Christ's obedience, passion, burial, resurreo- 
W.-.1J, ascension, intercession, with the merit, virtue, 
efficacy, aud power of them all. To prevent all 
amhushments, are such as are made wise by the word 
of God, as David was, Ps. cxix. 98, and Neh. vi. 
7, &c. 

Now set army to army, squadron to squadron, foot 
to foot, weapon to weapon, and judge on which side 
there is greatest assurance of victory. On the fore- 
mentioned grounds we have cause to say, ' Fear not, 
they that be with us are more than they that be with 
them,' 2 Kings vi. IG. 

Sec. 153. Of God's putliiiff dou-n Christ's eucmiea. 

Concerning the foresaid enemies, the Father sailh 
to his Son, ' I make, Si, thine enemies thy footstool ;' 
or as it is Ps. ex. 1, ' I will make,' rrC'S, &c. The pre- 
sent and future tenses are oft put one for the other. 
Both being used by the same Spirit, one by the pro- 
phet, the other by the apostle, implieth that God doth 
now, and ever will continue, to subdue the enemies of 

Ohj. It is said, 1 Cor. xv. 25, that ' Christ must 
reign until he haih put all enemies under his feet.' 

Ans. 1. Though the Father and the Son be distinct 
persons, yet they are of one and the same nature, and 
in that respect the same action is attributed to the 
one and the other ; ' My Father worketh hitherto, and 
I work ; ' and ' what things soever the Father doth, 
these also doth the Son likewise,' John v. 17, 19 ; for 
as they are one in essence, so in mind, and will, and 

2. Matters are spoken of Christ, sometimes in 
relation to his divine nature, sometimes to his human 
nature, and sometimes to his office or mediatorship, 
which he performeth in his person as God-man. 

In relation to his divine nature, he himself putteth 
all enemies under his feet, 1 Cor. xv. 25. 

In relation to his human nature, which retains tho 
essential properties of a man, the Father makes 
Christ's enemies his footstool ; for the human nature 
is finite, only in one place at once. All the excel- 
lencies thereof, though far surpassing the excellencies 
of other creatures, are in measure with a certain pro- 
portion. That which is said of God's giving the 
Spirit to Christ not by measure, John iii. 39, is to be 
understood comparatively in reference to all other 
creatures ; they have the measure of vessels, Christ 
hath the measure of a fountain, which may be ac- 
counted without measure. Notwithstanding this 
fulness of Christ, in relation to his human nature, 
God is said to advance him, to assist him, to do this 
and that for him ; so here God is said to make his 
enemies his footstool. This act of God may also have 
relation to the office of Christ as he is mediator ; for 
in that respect he is under the Father, and depends 
upon the Father, and is assisted by the Father. Be- 
cause, sometimes, in relation to Christ's human nature, 
this act of subduing Christ's enemies is attributed to 
the Father ; and sometimes in relation to his divine 
nature, it is attributed to himself, this apostle useth 
an indefinite word of the passive voice, he made, ' till 
his enemies be made his footstool,' Heb. x. 13. 

For the phrase here used and applied to the Father, 
it declareth this act of subduing all manner of enemies 
to be a divine act, done by a divine power ; so as all 
the power of al! enemies, if it could be united together, 
could not stand against this power. ' Who would set 
the briars and thorns against God in battle? He 
would go through them, he would burn them together,' 
Isa. xxvii. 4. This is it that makes the devils to 
tremble, James ii. ] 9, Luke viii. 28. 

Did wicked men, persecutors, profiine persons, and 
all that oppose Christ, his church, his gospel, or 
ordinances, know and believe as much as the devils 
do in this case, they could not but tremble. A great 
encouragement this is to the members of Christ, that 
the church is assisted with a divine power, able to 
subdue all the enemies ; so as they need not fear what 
I any of them or all of them can do. 


[Chap. I. 

Sec. 154. Of iiinliiiir/ enemiea a fnotxloi!. 

The manner of expressing the destruction of Christ's 
enemies is in this phrase, llii/ Jholstool, ' I will make 
thine enemies thy footstool.' 

Both the Hebrew' and the Greek ^ double the word 
foot, and thus express it, ' the footstool of thy feet ;' 
the Liitin^ also doth herein imitate them. 

The Hebrew word translated Jootstnol, is six times 
used in the Old Testament, and hath always the 
word Jeet added to it, as 1 Chron. xxviii. 2; Ps. 
xcix. 5, and cssxii. 7, and ex. 1 ; Isa. Ixvi. 1 ; Lam. 
ii. 1. 

The LXX, who trnnslated the Hebrew into Greek, 
do herein follow the Hebrew ; so do the penmen of 
New Testament, who wrote in Greek ; and that in 
eight several places, as Mat. v. 35, and xxii. 44 ; 
Mark xii. 86 ; Luke xx. 43 ; Acts ii. 35, and vii. 49 ; 
Heb. i. 13, and x. 13. Once the word footstool is 
singly, used without the addition of that other phrase 
of feet, James ii. 3, i-h ro i/c-OTo'o/on aim. 

The addition of the word/w/, ' under the footstool 
of thy feet,' importeth emphasis, and implieth the 
lowest dejection that can he. But because this addi- 
tion soundeth not well in our English, our translators 
leave it out. 

A footstool is that which one puts under his feet, 
and sets his feet upon. It is in Scripture used two 

1. In reference to a place. 

2. In reference to persons. 

1. To set out a place where one delights to set his 
feet, or to abide. 

2. To set out such persons as in indiijnation one 
tramples under his feet. 

When this metaphor of a footstool in relation to 
God is applied to a place, it intendeth his gracious 
presence. Thus the earth in general is styled his 
footstool, Isa. Ixvi. 1. From thence Christ maketh 
this inference, that men swear not by the earth, be- 
cause it is God's footstool. Mat. v. 34, 35. 

In particular the temple is styled God's footstool, 
1 Chron. xxviii. 2. In this respect the church is 
advised to ' worship at his f jotstool,' Ps. xcix. 5. 
And the church complaineth. Lam. ii. 1, that God 
' remembered not his footstool.' 

2. When in relation to God this metaphor of a 
footstool is applied to persons, it intendeth such 
encmios as God utterly suhdueth, and on whom he 
cxeculeth just and severe revenge, as Ps. ex. 1 ; which 
text is oft quoted in the New Testament, namely, by 
Christ, Mat. xxii. 44, by Peter, Acts ii. 35, aiid by 
Paul in this place. This apostle doth plainly express 
the meaning of it in this phrase, ' he hath put them 
under his feet,' 1 Cor. xv. 25. 

The metaphor is taken from the practice of men, 

' T^n"? mn. » i^,Tc%» rC, <r.s;;. «•-. 

' bcabellum pedum luorum. 

who, when they have uttc riy vanquished their deadly 
enemies, in testimony of that full conquest and aliso- 
lute power they have over them, yea also of their 
indignation against them, and revenge of them, will 
set their feel upon them, and trample on them ; so 
did Joshua make the cap'ains of his army put their 
feet upon the necks of the kings of those cursed 
Canaanites whom they subdued, Joshua x. 24. Thus 
Jehu also trod Jezebel under foot, 2 Kings ix. 33. 
Thus also it is said of Christ, ' I will tread them in 
mine anger, and trample them in my fury, Isa. 
Ixiii. 3. 

By this it appears that Christ's enemies shall be 
utterly subdued. In allusion hereunto, David, as a 
type of Christ, thus saith, ' Thou hast given me the 
necks of mine enemies, that 1 might destroy them that 
hate me ; I did beat them small as the dust before the 
wind, I did cast them out as the dirt in the streets,' 
Ps. xviii. 40, 42 ; and again, ' he it is that shall tread 
down our enemies.' 

This is so done that the whole mystical body of 
Christ might have rest and quiet, which were not pos- 
sible unless such malicious and mischievous enemies 
were totally and finally subdued. 

This is a strong inducement for us to stand and 
fight against these enemies, and to expect and wait 
for this day of conquest ; for this gives us assurance 
of a full and final conquest. The phrase importeth 
as much. 

Sec. 155. 0/ the apostle's manner of proving his 
point, rer. 14. 

The second part of the assumption (mentioned Sec. 
148) is here proved. It was this : angels are minis- 
ters ; that it may be the better discerned what kind of 
ministers they are, their nature, that they are spiriti, 
and their office ministeiinr/, and their warrant sent 
forth, and their charge for whom they minister, such 
n.< shiill be heirs oj salvation, are expressl}' set down, 
ver. 14. 

The manner of setting down these points is empha- 
tical, it is by way of interrogation. An interrogation 
about things alliimcd implies a strong affinnation ; as 
if it were a matter unquestionable, undeniable, and so 
clear, as whosoever duly considereth it, cannot but 
acknowledge it to be most true. Where God saith to 
Cain, 'If thou do well, shalt thou not be accepted?' 
Gen. iv. 7, he declares it to bo so manifestly true, 
that Cain himself could not deny the truth of it. By 
such a manner of declaring a matter, he that pro- 
pounds the point leaves it to the judgment of him to 
whom the question is propounded to judge of the truth 

Sec. 15G. Of the ercellcnci/ of the minixlers here 
mentioned, ami of tlieir irarrant. 

In setting down the ministry of angels, the apostle 
mentioueth their nature, that they are spirits, to 

Ver. ]3, U.] 



amplifj- their ministry. This epithet, iiiiiiisli'iiiKj, m 
Greek, Auro-j^yixa, is derived from that word which is 
translated ministers, Xurcv^yoi, ver. 7. It sheweth 
that their ministry is a special and public function, 
and that an honourable one also, and yet they are 
inferior to Christ. See Sec. 79. 

Spirits, CTfu/.tara, are the most excellent substances, 
of all creatures the most glorious, of best understand- 
ing, and greatest prudence ; the purest, the strongest, 
freest from all bodily infirmities, such as cannot be 
hindered by any incumbrances. Of all these excel- 
lencies, see Sec. 86, &c. 

The act attributed to them in this word to ininisttr, 
is in Greek i'rom another root, and so expressed as it 
also implieth an office, thus, ii; o/azov/av,i ' for the 
ministry ;' so is this phrase translated, 1 Cor. xvi. 15, 
2 Tim. iv. 11. A public officer of the church is set 
out by a title that is derived from dia/.ovog, the same 
root, and translated deacon, Philip, i. 1,1 Tim. iii. 8. 
Thus it inteudeth as much as the former did. Both 
of them are joined together, ij diay.oua Xsirousy/a;, and 
thus translated ' administration of service,' 2 Cor. 
ix. 12. This word then declareth that angels do not 
only some services for snints, but that they have an 
office to minister for them, as deacons had for the poor, 
Acts vi. 1, 3. That angels have a charge is evident, 
Ps. xci. 11, 12. 

The ground of their function or warrant to execute the 
same, is inthisphr<isesf»< /b)Y/i, aCTorsX/.o/xsva, namely, 
from God. The composition of the Greek word, clto 
and ir-i'/.^.iiv, iujplieth that they were sent from one. 
Now who can that be but their Lord in heaven ? 
For they have no other Lord that hath power to send 
them. They are therefore sent of God ; so are they 
oft said to be, as Gen. xxiv. 7, 40; Num. xx. 16 ; 
Dan. iii. 28, and vi. 22. In this respect they are 
styled ' angels of God,' ver. 6. See Sec. 71. 

This shews that they assume not this oifice to them- 

It also shews that upon God's pleasure they under- 
took it, Ps. ciii. 20. 

All the fure-mentioned points are applied to all the 
angels, as is evident by this general particle all, ' Are 
they not all ?' Thus much is implied in the seventh 
verse, where the creation and ministry of angels are 
joined together, ' He maketh his angels and his minis- 
ters,' &c. If amjels, then iiiiiiintcrs ; if made, then 
vnnisteis. What was said of the subjection of all 
angels to Christ, Sec. 73, may be applied to the minis- 
try of them all unto the members of Christ. 

Sec. 157. Of particular amjeh atlciuliiirj particular 

Concerning the ministry of angels, a question may 
be moved. Whether every heir of salvation have a pro- 
per and peculiar angel attending upon him ? Some of 

' Of tliis Greek word, see Chap. ii. 12, Sec. 70. 

the ancient fathers,' schoolmen,- and papists,' hold the 
affirmative, for which they protluce these arguments. 

Jn/. 1. Jacob thus saith of his angel : ' The angil 
which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads,' Gen. 
xlviii. 16. 

Ans. 1. How could this angel be Jacob's proper 
angel, when Jacob pravs that he would bless his 
grandchildren ? By this he should be their angel as 
well as his. 

2. That angel was Christ. Christ is the common 
protector of us all ; besides, it is Christ that redeemeth 
his from all evil, which no angel can do. 

3. Finally, Jacob hath in speech reference to Gen. 
xxxi. 11, 13, where the angel that appeared to him 
styled himself ' the God of Bethel,' which was Christ 
Jesus, and also to the angel that wrestled with him, 
of whom he saith, ' I have seen God face to face,' 
Gen. xxxii. 24, 30. This likewise was Christ. 

Ar;/. 2. Christ styled the particular angels of little 
ones their aiif/els, Mat. xviii. 10. Therefore every 
one hath a particular angel for his patronage.^ 

Ans, 1. It fuUoweth not, for Christ useth the plural 
number, their anfjels, which may imply many angels 
for every one, as one for one. 

2. They are called theirs, because they are appointed 
by their Father, among other functions, to take care 
of his little ones ; not only of one by one, but also of 
one by many, as an host did of Jacob, Gen. xxxii. 1, 
and also of many by one, as Acts v. 19. 

Anj. 3. The Christians said ia reference to Peter, 
'It is his angel,' Acts xii. 15.^ 

Ans. 1. That might be a sudden speech of men 
astonished, and then no sufficient ground for a sound 

2. They might be misled by a common error of the 
times, as Christ's disciples were, Mat. xvii. 10, Acts 
i. 6. 

3. They might use that phrase to put off the maid's 
persisting to affirm that Peter was there, with that 
vulgar opinion ; as if one should importunately say of 
my friend whom I knew to be dead and buriod, that 
he saw him alive, I to put him off should say it was his 
ghost then. 

4. They might think it to be an angol sent from 
God to comfort and encourage Peter, and by Peter 
desired to carry them word thereof, and yet not one 
that continually waited on him as his peculiar pro- 

5. The word amiel signifieth a messenger (as is 
before shewn, Sec. 82). Thus it may be taken for a 
man sent as a messenger from him. 

' Magna clignitas aniniarum, ut unaqusque habeat ab 
ortu nativitutis iu custoUiam sui augelura delegatum. — Hier. 
ill Mai. xviii. 

- Thorn, liar. i. q. 113, art. 2. 

3 Douay Aniiot. on Geu. xxviii. 16. 

* Khen'i. Annot. on Mat. .Kviii. 10. 

» Ehem. Anuot. on Acts xii. 15. 


[Chap. I. 

This conceit of every one's liaving a proper, peculiar 
angel to attend upon bim for his patronage, is not to 
be harboured in our breast. For, 

1. It liath no ground or warrant in God's word. I 
may in this case say, ' To which of the angels said 
God at any time,' Wait on such an one, and never 
leave him, night nor day ? 

2. One and the same angel hath attended upon 
divers persons, and brought several messages to the 
one and the other, as Gen. xviii. 21, Luke i. 19, 20. 

3. One and the same angel hath delivered sundiy 
persons at once. Acts v. 18, 19. 

4. Many angels have jointly together protected the 
same person, 2 Kings vi. 17, Ps. xci. 11. 

5. It lessens the comfort which Christians may 
receive from the guard of an host of angels, as Gen. 
xxxii. 1, or from legions of angels, as Mat. xxvi. 53, 
or from the innumerable company of angels, as Heb. 
xii. 22. It impaireth that comfort by appropriating 

single angel to a single person. 

6. It Cometh too near to the heathenish conceit of 
a good and e\il genius,' to attend each particular per- 
son. For there is as great probability for one devil 
as a tempter, continually to assault every one, as for 
one good angel to protect him. 

7. The dill'erence about the time of particular 
angels first undertaking this particular function,' is 
against them that hold it an argument of the uncertain 
truth thereof. Some' hold it to be at the time of one's 
nativity. Others at the time of one's baptism. Others 
at the time of one's conversion.' Some at one time, 
some at another. I find none of them to make men- 
tion of any angels guarding an infant in the mother's 
womb. An infant even in his mother's womb is subject 
to many dangers, and then needs such a guardian as 
well as after. But to let this conceit pass, it is enough 
to know and believe what the word of God hath re- 
vealed about this point, that the holy angels of God 
have a charge over us, and take an especial care of 
us, not one only but many. 

Sec. 1.58. Of the persons for iclwm angels minister. 

The foresaid ministry of angels is in special for 
saints, the members of Christ, who believe in him ; 
these are here styled ' heirs of salvation.' In this 
respect angels are by a property called ' their angels,' 
Mat. xviii. 10. And they are said to ' encamp about 
them that fear the Lord,' Ps. xxxiv. 7. This is further 
evident by the many services which angels do to them 
and for thim. Whereof, see Sec. 98, See. 

Saints are God's children, and joint-heirs with 
Christ, Kom. viii. IG, 17. God therefore appoints 
those his servants to attend them. They are all 
members of the mystical body of Christ, in which 

' Pliito ill Politic. ' Lege Origou. in Mat. Tract. 5. 

» Rliem. Annot. on Mat. xviii. 10. 

' Cum quis eusceperit fidfm, tunc Christus tradit cum 
angelo.— Origen in Mai. Tract. 6. 

respect that charge which extendeth itself to Christ 
and all his members is set down in the singular 
number as spoken of one ; thus, over thee: ' He shall 
give his angels charge over thee,' Ps. xci. 11. 

Of the benefits which redound to saints by angels' 
attendance on them, see See. 101. 

The persons to whom angels minister are thus de- 
scribed, ' who shall be heirs of salvation,' or as it is 
in the Greek, rsu; /ji,iy.>.oiTa; x/.r}ic,vcfi,iTv eurriiiav, 
' who shall inherit salvation ;' so as they are set out 
by that estate whereunto they were ordained, and by 
the right which they have thereunto. Salvation is that 
whereunto they are ordained, and their right is a right 
of inherit;ince. 

Sec. 159. Of sal rat ion. 

The word here translated salvation is frequently 
used in the New Testament. I find it three times put 
for temporal preservation or deliverance ; as Acts vii. 
25, where this phrase, bihMOi CDDjs/av, give salvation, 
is thus translated (according to the true meaning) 
' deliver ;' and Acts xxvii. 84, where the same word 
is turned ' health ;' and Heb. xi. 7, where this phrase, 
E/'s ffwrjjw'av, ' to the Salvation,' is thus expounded, ' to 
the saving.' 

The Hebrew word, nVIC" vel nvicn, which the LXX 
use to interpret by the word in this text translated 
salvation, sets out for the most part some temporary 
preservation and deliverance. But in the New Tes- 
tament it sets out (except the three fore-mentioned 
places) the eternal salvation of the soul ; and that as 
it is begun and helped on in this world, Luke xix. 9, 
2 Cor. xvi. 2 ; or perfected in the world to come, 
1 Peter i. 5, 9. 

There is another Greek word, ournsm, derived from 
the same root, and translated salvation, four times 
used in the New Testament,— namely, Luke ii. 30 and 
iii. G, Acts xxviii. 28, Eph. vi. 17, — but for the most 
part put metonymically for the author and procurer of 
salvation, the Lord Jesus Christ. 

The primary root, ffi.-, from whence all the Greek 
words are derived which' signify' not only safe, exempt, 
and free from all evil, danger, and fear, but also en- 
tire and perfect; so as itsetiethout both the privative 
part of blessedness, full freedom from sin, Satan, death, 
hell, and all fears ; and also the positive part thereof, 
integrity, and perfection of soul and body, and of all 
gifts and graces appertaining to them ; and withal im- 
mortality, agility, beauty, and other excellencies even 
of the body, Philip, iii. 21. 

By the salvation here mentioned is meant that 
blessed and glorious estate which is in heaven reserved 
for the whole mystical body of Christ. 

Well may that estate be called salvation, in that all 
that have attained, or shall attain, thereunto, are de- 
livered out of all dangers, freed from all enemies, and 
set safe and secure from all manner of evil. 
' Qu. ' doth '?— Ed. 

Ver. 13, 14.' 



Into heaven, where that rest, safety, security, and 
salvation is enjoyed, no devil, no evil instrument, can 
enter to disturb the same : ' There shall God wipe 
away all tears from their ej'es ; and there shall be no 
more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall 
there be any more pain,' Eev. sxi. 4. All content- 
ment, agreement, tranquillity, unanimity, joy, pleasure, 
and what can be desired, shall be there everlastingly 
enjoyed.' There shall be a continual communion 
with glorious angels, glorified saints ; yea, with Christ, 
the head and husband of his church, and with God 
himself, whom we shall in his glory so far behold as 
our nature is capable of beholding such glory. This 
beautiful vision will not only fill our heads with ad- 
miration, but our hearts with joy and delight. These 
are the things ' which eye hath not seen, nor ear 
I heard, neither have entered into the heart of man,' 
1 Cor. ii. 9. 

Sec. 160. Of our rifiht to salvation bi/ inheritriiice. 

The right which saints have to salvation is thus ex- 
pressed, roug fiiXXoiTag nXriooi/o/nTv, ' who shall inherit,' 
so as the right is by inheritance. 

The Greek word that signifieth to inherit, jiXjjsoi/o- 
,'Mui, is compounded of a noun, xXr,eog, that signifieth a 
l')t or portion, and a verb, vif/.ui, to give, distribute, or 
M't apart. For an inheritance is a lot or portion given 
:uid set apart for one ; most properly, such a portion 
;is a father sets apart for his sons to possess and enjoy, 
■ fM,liua xvii. 14, 1 Kings xsi. 3. Of all titles an in- 
li' ritiince useth to bo the surest, that which hath no 
n:ito. See ver. 2, Sec. 17. 

In this respect this metaphor of inheriting is applied 
til eterual life. Mat. xix. 23; to a kingdom, i\Iat. xxv. 
■ii ; to the promises, namely, to those blessed things 
in heaven which are promised, Heb. vi. 12 ; and to 
all things, namely, all the joys of heaven. Rev. xxi. 7. 

Salvation is also called an inheritance. Acts xx. 32, 
Eph. i. 14, 18, Col. iii. 24, 1 Peter i. 4 ; and they to 
whom salvation belongs are called heirs. Gal. iii. 29, 
Titus iii. 7, James ii. 5. 

This right of inheritance is the best thing that any 
can have. The groimd of it is the good will, grace, 
and favour of a Father, Luke xii. 32 ; and that from 
all eternity. Mat. xxv. 34. The persons to whom it 
belongs are children of God, Rom. viii. 17 ; such as 
are begotten again, 1 Peter i. 3, 4; and adopted, 
Rom. viii. 15, 17; and united to Christ, John xvii. 21. 

The time of enjoying that inheritance is everlasting, 
Heb. ix. 1.5, 1 Peter i. 4. Herein heth a diiference 
between leases, which have a date, and inheritances, 
which have no date. 

The quahty of this inheritance is incorruptible and 

' Of eternal salvation, see Chap. v. 9, Sec. 60, 51 ; of tlie 
glory (if it, see Chap. ii. 10, Sec. 03 ; that it is a reward, Chap. 

Sec. 161. Of the time and certainlij of inheriting 

The fruition of the aforesaid privileges is expressed 
is the future tense, iLitXnwai, ' shall inherit.' Saints 
are, while here they live, heirs. They have a right to 
salvation as soon as they are regenerate. The first- 
born is an heir while he is a child, before he come to 
possess the inheritance, Gal. iv. 1, 5, 7. We are 
therefore said to be ' begotten again to this inherit- 
ance,' 1 Peter i. 3, 4. And it is said to saints, ' Ye 
shall receive,' dvoy.rj-^l'eah, the reward of the inherit- 
ance. Col. iii. 24, namely, when this life is ended; 
for the soul, when it leaves the body, presently enjoys 
the inheritance. The apostle intcndeth the spirits of 
saints where in the time present he saith, ' they in- 
herit the promises,' Heb. vi. 12. And at the resur- 
rection, both body and soul shall enjoy the same ; for 
to such as are raised, and have their bodies and souls 
united, will the great God say, ' Inherit the kingdom,' 
Mat. xxv. 34. 

Though the possession of this inheritance be to 
come, while the heirs thereof here live, yet it is sure 
and certain. What title so sure among men as 
inheritance ? Much more sure is this inheritance 
of salvation than any earthly inheritance can be. 

1. It is prepared for us from the foundation of the 
world. Mat. ssv. 34. 

2. It is purchased by the greatest price that can be : 
' The precious blood of the Son of God,' Eph. i. 14, 
1 Peter i. 19. 

3. It is ratified by the greatest assurance that can 
be, the death of him that gives it, Heb. ix. 14. 

4. It is sealed up unto us by that Holy Spirit of 
promise, which is ' the earnest of our inheritance,' 
Eph. i. 13, 14. 

5. God's promise is engaged for it, therefore they 
who possess it are said to 'inherit the promises,' 
Heb. vi. 12. 

6. The faith of believers addeth another seal thereto, 
John iii. 33. 

7. It is reserved in heaven for us, 1 Peter i. 4. In 
heaven ' neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, nor thieves 
do break through, nor steal,' Mat. vi. 20. 

Sec. 162. Of instructions and directions arisinrj from 
the inheritance of salvation. 

Such an inheritance as salvation made sure to us, 
afibrds sundry instructions and directions. Instruc- 
tions are such as the>e : 

1. It commends God's philanthropy, his peculiar 
love to men, who by nature are children of wrath and 
heirs of hell, yet made to be partakers of the inheri- 
tance of salvation, Eph. ii. 2, 3 ; Col. i. 12 ; Titus 
iii. 3-5. 

2. It takes away all conceit of merit by man's 
works ; for an inheritance is the free gift of a father. 

3. It is enough to uphold our spirits against penury, 


[Chap. I. Ver. 13, 14. 

ignominv, nnd all manner of misery iu this worlJ. An 
Leir that, as louy as he is a child, tlifferelh nothing 
[from] a servant, hut is under tutors and governors, 
yet, because he is lord of all, will not be dejected, but 
will support himself with this, that he hath a fair in- 
heritance licl Miging to him. 

4. It is a great encouragement against all tilings 
that may threaten death, yea, and against death itself, 1 
in that death brings us to the possession of this excel- ' 
lent inheritance. 

Directions are such as these : j 

1. Subject thyself to thy Father's will, and to that 
government under which he sets thee, because thou 
art his heir. Gal. iv. 2. 

2. Raise up thy aflections to the place of thine in- 
heritance, and set thy heart thereon, Col. iii. 1 ; 
Mat. vi. 21. 

3. ' Love not the world, neither the things that are 
in the world,' 1 John ii. 15. Salvation is not there 
to be liad. 1 

4. Moderate thy care about earthly things ; thou 
hast a heavenly inheritance to care for. 

5. Sufl'er with joy all things for thy profession's 
sake, knowing that thou hast an heavenly inheritance, 
Heb. X. 34. 

6. Search thine evidences about this inheritance. 
There is great reason that in a matter of so fji'tat con- 
se'juence, thou shouldst be sure of thy evidence for 
thy right hereto, 2 Peter i. 10. 

7. Expect with patience the time appointed for the 
enjoying this inheritance. Through faith and patience 
the promises are inherited, Heb. vi. 12. 

8. Walk worthy of this high calling, Eph. iv. 1, 
and of God who hath called thee to his kingdom and 
glory, 2 Thes. ii. 12. 

9. Be ever thankful for this privilege especially. 
Col. i. 12 ; 1 Peter i. 3, 4. 

10. De.>pise not any of these he'iTS because they are 
here poor and mean, James ii. 5. Ishmael was cast 
out because he mocked the heir, Gen. xxi. 9, 10. 

Sec. 163. Of the resolution of the 13lh and lilh 

In these two last verses, the eighth and last proof 
of Christ's excellency is set down. See Sec. 64. 

Tho sum of them is a difl'erence betwixt Christ and 

The parts are two : 

The first is the dignity of Christ, vor. 13. 

The second is the inferiority of angels, ver. 14. 

Id setting down Christ's dignity, both the manner 
and matter is observable. 

Tho manner is in this phrase, ' Unto which of tho 
angels said he at any time ?' Hereof see Sec. 64. 

The matter declares two things : 

1. Tho kind of dignity. 

2. The continuance thereof. 

In the kind, we may observe, 1, the ground of it. 

God's will, God said Sit ; 2, the greatness of it. This 
is set down, 

1. By an act, sit ; 2, by the place. 

The place is set out under a metaphor, ' on my 
right hand.' 

This shews, 1, Christ's inferiority to God. 

2. His superiority above all creatures. 
The continuance noteih out a double end : 

1. The time how long : until. 

2. The reason why : to malce thine enemies, &C. 
In expressing this latter end, observe, 

1. A conce.isum, or thing taken for granted, enemies. 

2. A consequence, which is their utter destruction, 
in this phrase, ninlce thy footstool. 

In describing the inferiority of angels, two things are 
remarkable : 

1. The manner, by an interrogation, .he theij not? 

2. The matter. Wherein is dechired, 

1. The nature of angels, spirits. 

2. Their function. 

Both these are amplified by this particle of univer- 
sality, all. 

The function of angels is set out, 

1. By the kind thereof, ministering; 2, by the end. 
In the end is expressed, 1, an act, to minister. 

2. The persons, for whom. These are described, 

1. By their privilege, salvation. 

2. By their right thereunto, inheiit. This is illus- 

1. By the time of enjoying their inheritance, which 
is to come. 

2. By the certainty thereof. Both these are im- 
plied under a note of the future tense, fiiXXaira;, 

Sec. 164. Of the doctrines arising out of the V6lh and 
lith verses. 

Of the doctrines arising out of these words, ' To 
which of the angels said he at any time,' see Sec. 65. 

I. Gfd the Father is the author of Christ's exalta- 
tion. He said Hit. See Sec. 149. 

II. Christ as mediator is inferior to the Father. 

III. Christ as mediator is advanced above all crea- 
tures. These two doctrines are gathered out of this 
phrase, ' On my right hand.' See Doct. 87, 38, on 
ver. 4, Sec. 38. 

IV. Christ hath enemies. The mention of enemies 
shews as much. See Sec. 151. 

V. Christ's enemies ihall be subdued. God under- 
takes as much : 1 put. See Sec. 153. 

VI. Christ's enemies shall be tUterly subdued. The 
metaphor of making them his footstool proves this. 
See Sec. 154. 

Ver. 14. VII. Emphasis is to be added to weighty 
matters. This is manifest by the manner of expressing 
this point, by an interrogation, .ire they not ? 

VIII. Angels are spirits. 


Chap. II. Ver. 1.] 


IX. Angels are miniiUrs. These two are expressed 
in ibis phrase, iniiiisteiiiuj spirits. See Sec. 156. 

X. Angels' miiw.lry is especialh/ for saints. Saints 
are here intended under this phrase, which shall be 
heirs. See Sec. 158. 

XI. Ever;/ angel, of what degree soever, is a minister 
to saints. The general particle all implies as much. 
See Sec. 156. 

XII. Sahaiion helongs to saints. See Sec. 159. 

XIII. Salvation belongs to saints hij right of inherit- 
ance. See Sec. 160. 

XIV. 'J he fruition of saints inheritance is to come. 
See Sec. 101. 

XV. Saints are sure of salvation. These two last 
doctrines arise out of the note of the future tense, shall 
be. See Sec. 162. 


Sec. 1. Of I he resolution, of the second chapter. 

The apostle having distinctly and largely set out 
the excellency of Christ's divine nature aud royal 
function in the former chapter, in this he sets out 
his humnn nature, and the excellency of it. 

Elegantly he passeth from the one to the other by 
a transition, ^^herein he sheweth an especial use to be 
made of the former point. 

This is indeed a digression, in regard of the matter 
of doctrine ; but a most pertinent and profitable di- 
gression, and that in the five first verses of this 
chapter. In the rest of the chapter, the other article 
concerning Christ's human nature is distinctly demon- 

The sum of the transition is an exhortation to give 
good heed to the gospel. 

This exhortation is first propounded, verse 1, and 
then enforced in the four next verses. 

Two points are noted to enforce the duty. One 
is the damage ; the other, the vengeance which may 
follow upon the neglect of the gospel. 

The damage is intimated in this phrase, ' Lest we 
should let them slip.' 

The vengeance is first propounded in this phrase, 
' How shall we escape ;' and then aggravated. 

The aggravation is demonstrated, 1, by an argu- 
ment from the less; 2, by the excellency of the gospel. 

The argument from the less is concerning the word 
of angels, who are in the former chapter proved to be 
far inferior to Christ; which point is illustrated, 
ver. 5. 

The excellency of the gospel is set out, 

1. By the matter which it holdeth out, salvation, 
ver. 3. 

2. By the means of maliing it known. These 
means are, 1, the publishers; 2, the evidences thereof. 

The publishers were of two sorts : 1, the principal 
author ; 2, ear-witnesses thereof, ver. 3. 

The evidences were signs, &c., ver. 4. 

About Christ's human nature two things are demon- 
strated : 

1. The low degree of Christ's humiliation in assum- 
ing our nature: ' Thou madest him lower than angels,' 
ver. 7. 

2. The high exaltation thereof through Christ's 
assuming it: 'Thou crownedst him with glory,' ver. 7. 

For the better manifestation of these principles, the 
apostle proves the main point, that Christ was man, 
by sundry arguments. 

The first argument is a divine testimony ; that is, 
1, propounded, ver. 6-8; 2, applied to the person 
here spoken of, ver. 9. 

The second argument is taken from the end of 
Christ's incarnation, which was ' to taste death for 
every man.' This could he not have done if he had 
not been man, ver. 9. 

A third argument is raised from the equity and 
meetness of the matter, ' It became him,' ver. 10. 
God would bring his children to glory by suffering. 
It was therefore ' meet to make the Captain of their 
salvation perfect through sufferings ;' which could not 
be unless he bad been man. 

A fourth argument is taken from a special function 
which Christ undertook, namely, to sanctify the elect: 
' He that sanctitieth, and they who are sanctified, must 
be all of one,' ver. 11. Hence the apostle maketh this 
inference, ' He is not ashamed to call them brethren,' 
ver. 11. This may also he taken as a proof of the 
point, Christ's own witness thereof, confirmed in the 
next verse. 

The fifth argument is taken from that opportunity 
which Christ, being man, had to exercise his three 
great offices of prophet, prince, and priest. 

1. His prophetical office is set out in a divine pre- 
diction, ' I will declare thy name,' ver. 12. It is 
further amplified by the ground of his encouragement 
to hold out therein (which is expressed in a divine 
testimony, 'I will put my trust in him,' ver. 13); 
and by the fruit or effect thereof, expressed in another 
like testimony, 'Behold I, and the children,' &c., ver. 
13. These testimonies are further proofs of Christ's 
human nature. 

2. Christ's kingly office is set out in two especial 
effects thereof; one to ' destroy the devil,' which ho 
did by death, and therefore was man, ver. 14. 
The other to ' deliver them who were in bondage, 
ver. 15, which deliverance also he wrought by death. 
The two effects of Christ's kingly ofrijo are proved 
by the main point in hand, and set down by an 
opposition of two different natures, of angels and of 
Abraham. Christ destroyed not the devil for angels, 
but for men: he delivered not angels, but men; there- 



[Chap. II. 

fore he 'too knot the nature of angels, but men,' 
ver. 16. 

3. Christ's priestly office is set oat in this phrase, 
an high priest ; and it is amplified, 

(1.) By two needful qualities, merciful, Jaithf id. 

(2.) By two useful efl'ects : to make reconciliation, 
Ver. 17; to be able to succour, ver. 18. It was re- 
quisite in these respects that he should be man. 

Sec. 2. Of the inference made upon Christ's crcellency. 
There/ore ice ouyht to give the more earnest heed to 
the things which ue have heard, lest at any time we 
should let them slip. — Heb. ii. 1. 

In the five first verses of this chapter, the apostle 
declares a duly to be performed in regard of that 
excellent teacher which God sent (namely, his Son, 
more excellent than the excelieiitest mere creature) 
to reveal his gospel to men. This duty is to give 
more than ordinary heed unto that gospel. Thus 
much is intended under this particle of inference, 
therefore ; or as it is in the Greek, bia. roDro, for this, 
even for this cause. Because God had vouchsafed so 
excellent a teacher, he must be the more carefully 
attended unto. Of this particle of inference, see 
Chap. i. Sec. 117. 

Tliis here hath reference to all the branches of 
CUrist's excellency mentioned in the former chapter. 
Because he is God's Son, therefore give heed. Because 
he is the heir of all, therefore give heed. Because 
he made the worlds, therefore give heed. The like 
may be inferred upon all the other special excellencies 
of Christ. They are so many grounds of the apostle's 
exhortation ; and the inference may be added as a 
conclusion of every one of them severally, as here it 
is of all of them jointly. 

The emineucy of an author in dignity and authority, 
and the excellency of his parts in knowledge, wisdom, 
and other gifts, do much commend that which is 
spoken by him. If a king, prudent and learned, take 
upon him to instruct others, due attention and diligent 
heed will be given thereunto. ' The queen of the 
south came from the uttermost parts of the earth to 
hear the wisdom of Solomon,' Mat. xii. 42. She 
counted Solomon's servants, who stood continually 
before him and heard his wisdom, to be happy, 1 Kings 
X. 8. Job was the ' greatest of all the men of the 
east, and he was a perfect and upright man : thereupon 
' when the ear heard him it blessed him,' Job i. 1, 3, 
and xxix. 11. But behold a greater than Solomon, a 
greater than Job, is here intended by the apostle : 
' Therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed,' 
Heb. xii. 25. It was usual with the prophets to pro- 
mise before their prophecies such phrases as these, 
' The word of the Lord ;' ' Thus saith the Lord,' 
Hosea i. 1, 2, and iv. 1, Exod. iv. 22, and v. 1, and 
that purposely to work the more heed and attention 
in people to that which was spoken. This may be a 
forcible motive diligently to exercise ourselves in all 

the holy Scriptures ; because ' all Scripture is given 
by inspiration of God. 

Sec. 3. Of the necexsitij of performing duty. 

The foresaid inference is by the apostle made a 
matter of necessity, as the phrase, ue ought, im- 

The Greek verb is impersonal, diT, and may be thus 
translated, it behoreth ; and so it is translated Luke 
xxiv. 46. In regard of the necessity which it in- 
tendeth, it is oft translated must, and that in a double 
relation : one to God's decree, the other to God's 
charge. The former respecteth God's determinate 
counsel, his secret and absolute will ; the latter his 
revealed word and approving will. 

In the former relation it is said, ' Thus it must be,' 
Mat. sxvi. 54. 

In the latter thus, ' A bishop must be blameless,' 
1 Tim. iii. 2 ; that is, it is his duty to be so. 

Here it is used in this latter relation to duty, and 
in that respect well translated ice ought ; that is, it is 
our duty, yet so as a necessity lieth upon us. It is 
not an arbitrary matter, left to our own will to do or 
not to do ; but by reason of the sovereignty and power 
which God hath over us, and charge which he hath 
laid upon us, wc are bound to observe it. It may be 
said of hearing the gospel what Paul said of preaching 
it, ' Necessity is laid upon me ; yea, woe is unto me, 
if I preach not the gospel,' 1 Cor. ix. 16. It may be 
said in this case what Christ said to every of the seven 
churches of Asia, ' He that hath an ear, let him hear,' 
Rev. ii. 7, 11, 17, 29, and iii. 6, 13, 22. 

As God's ordinance and charge requireth as much, 
so our own good, our best good, the spiritual edifica- 
tion and eternal salvation of our souls. As it is o u' 
duty in regard of God's commandment, we ought i 
obey God, so it will be our wisdom so to do. ^\ 
ought to do the things which make to our own happi- 

Sec. 4. Of inciting ourselves to that whereitnto ue 
stir up others. 

It is observable how the apostle ranks himself in 
the number of those on whom he layeth this neces- 
sity. He speaketh not to them in the second person, 
ijc' ought, but in the first person and plural number, 
ue ought : I and you, you and I, even all of us. It 
is noted as a property of a good husband, who would 
have that to be well etl'ected whereupon he puts others, 
to go along himself, and to put to his own hand, 
that by his own practice and pattern he might the 
more quicken them whom he employeth.' This dif- 
ference useth to be put betwixt a man careful about 
his undertakings, and a man careless thereui. This 
latter may in a morning say to others. Go, sirs, to such 
a task, and he himself lie in his bed, or pursue his 

' Of practising ourselves, that whereunto we incite otliers, 
see The Saintt' Sacrifice, on P4. cxvi. 19, Sec. 121. 

Ver. 1.] 


pastime ; but the other saith, Gaw, sirs, that is, go 
we, let us go together, I will go with you. This ought 
to be the care of such as incite others to duty ; they 
must also speak to themselves, and quicken up their 
own spirits thereto. Hereby they shall much more 
effectually work upon their hearers ; for when hearers 
observe that their teachers lay no more on them than 
upon themselves, they willingly put their shoulder 
under the burden. A teacher's example prevails much 
with hearers, John xiii. 15. Joshua's pattern is per- 
tinent to this purpose ; for thus be saith of himself, 
and of such as were under his charge, ' We will serve 
the Lord,' Joshua xxiv. 18. 

Sec. 5. Of giving heed to the gospel. 

The duty which the apostle presseth upon himself 
and others, as a matter of necessity, is to ' give earnest 
heed to the things which they had heard.' Hereby 
he means the gospel, which he styles salvation, and of 
" which he saith, ' It was first spoken by the Lord, and 
afterwards by his apostles,' ver. 3, 4. Of these ex- 
cellencies of the gospel, we shall speak in their due 

By expressing the matter in the time past, ' things 
which we have heard,'' he giveth us to understand that 
j the gospel had been formerly preached unto them, even 
before he wrote this epistle ; so as he wrote no new 
doctrine, but rather endeavoured to establish them in 
that which they had received. He counts it safe to 
write the same things to them, Phihp. iii. 1 ; even the 
same which they had heard before. Hereby he 
watered what had been sown amongst them. Whether 
the seed of the gospel had been cast among these 
Hebrews by himself or some other, he doth not de- 
clare ; but certain it is, that that precious seed bad 
been cast among them. They had heard the gospel ; 
he doth here water it, that the crop may be the more 

For this end, he calls upon them to give heed 
thereto, 'j^oai^av, adhihere sc. animnm. This is the 
interpretation of one Greek word, but a compound one, 
which signifieth to set a man's mind on a thing. 

I find it used in the New Testament in a double 
relation : 1, to things hurtful ; 2, to things useful. 

In the former respect it signifieth to beware, or to 
take heed of a thing ; as 'jrgoff£;^£rs, ' Beware of false 
prophets,' Mat. vii. 15 ; '^r^oai-^iTi iauToTs, ' Take heed 
to yourselves,' Luke xxi. 34. 

In the latter respect it signifieth to give heed, or to 
attend ; as, ' They gave heed to those things which 
Philip spake,' Acts viii. G ; and ' Lydia attended to 
the things which were spoken of Paul,' Acts xvi. 14. 
It is also of attending to the duties of one's calling. 
Hob. vii. 13 ; 1 Tim. iv. 13. It is here taken in the 
latter sense, and intendeth more than a bare hearing 
of a matter. 

This being applied to God's word, is o] 
'roTi axovirhTffij aorist. particip. past. 

manner of slighting it, whether by contempt or neglect 
of it. He that despiseth the word of the Lord, Num. 
XV. 31, and they that speak against it, Acts xiii. 45, 
and they that turn away their ears from the truth, 
2 Tim. iv. 4, and they that make light of the offer of 
grace, Mat. xxii. 4, 5, and they whose hearts are to 
the word as the wayside, or the stony or thorny ground 
to the seed. Mat. xiii. 19, &c., do all of them that 
which is contrary to this duty ; they do not give such 
heed to the word as is here required. The duty here 
intended is a serious, firm, and fixed setting of the 
mind upon that which we hear; a bowing and bending 
of the will to yield unto it ; an applying of the heart 
to it, a placing of the affections upon it, and bringing 
the whole man into a holy conformity thereunto. 
Thus it compriseth knowledge of the word, faith 
therein, obedience thereto, and all other due respect 
that may any way concern it, 2 Tim. ii. 7 ; Mat. xv. 
10, and xiii. 23 ; Acts iv. 4, and xvi. 14. 

The comparative particle, ■n-ioiasorlou:, ' more ear- 
nest,' further sheweth that a diligent attention is here 
intended. The positive in Greek, ■^riPiaaov, signifieth 
that which is more than usual or ordinary ; that which 
excelleth or exceedeth. It is translated ' advantage,' 
Rom. iii. 1, and ' above measure,' Mark x. 26. It 
hath reference both to that which is good, and also to 
that which is evil, and signifieth an exceeding in the 
one and in the other. In setting out Christ's gift, it 
is translated ' abundantly,' •^eoiason iy^oiaiv, John x. 10 ; 
and in aggravating Paul's rage, it is translated ' ex- 
ceedingly,' 'nioiesui. Acts xxvi. 11 ; and in Peter's 
over-confident profession, ' vehemently,' 'va Tioiasou, 
Mark xiv. 31. 

The comparative degree addeth much emphasis, and 
intendeth a greater care and endeavour about the 
matter in hand than in any other thing ; as if he had 
said, More heed is to be given to the gospel than to 
the law ; more to the Son than to any servant ; for 
he speaks of the gospel preached by Christ. 

It may be here put for the superlative degree, and 
imply the greatest heed that may possibly be given, 
and the best care and diligence and utmost endeavour 
that can be used. Thus it is said of the Scriptures, 
' We have a more sure word,' /Ss/Sa/oVseoi/, that is, a 
most sure word, 2 Peter ii. 19. Thus this very word 
in my text is oft put for the superlative degree ; as 
where Paul saith of himself, ' In labours more abun- 
dant (vi^ifsoTsoioi), in prisons more frequent,' that is, 
most abundant, most frequent, 2 Cor. xi. 23. 

Hereby, as he doth incite them for the future to 
make the best use that possibly they can of the gospel 
that had been preached unto them, so he gives a secret 
and mild check to their former negligence, implying 
that they had not given formerly such heed as they 
should have done to so precious a word as had been 
preached unto them, but had been too careless there- 
abouts, which he would have them redi-ess for the 


[ClIAP. II. 

Sec. 6. OJ the daiiun/e of iieiikcliiir/ the (jn^jiel. 
To ei)fi)i-ce that dilig.'DCo in giving heed to the | 
gospel, the apostle addelh the damage which mnj- 
lollow upon neglect thereof, in these words, ' lest at ' 
ail}' time we should let them slip. I 

The Greek word T.a^aiiu>i/j.iv, translated let slip, is ; 
not elsewhere to be I'uund iu the New Testament. It 
siguilieth to ftmv besides,^ as waters that flow besides 
a place. The word preached, if it be not well heeded, 
w.ll pass clean besides us, and do us no good at all. 

The word also may signify to flow through a thing, i 
as water put into a colander or riven di^h, it slips 
through or runs out ; thus it is quickly lost and duth 
no good. The Greek word here used is' used by the 
Greek LXX, Th iJ-n -a.^iu>i;, Prov. iii. 21, and op- 
posed to keeping sound or safe. 

A forgetful memory may fitly be resembled to a 
colander ; a colander lets out water as fast as it re- 
ceiveth it. 

An apostle resembles a forgetful hearer to ' one 
that beholdeth his natural face in a glass, and goeth 
away, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man 
he was,' James i. 23, 24. Both resemblances tend 
to the same purpose, which is, to demonstrate the 
unprofitableness of negligent and careless hearers. 

The fault here intimated is contrary to that duty 
which is enjoined, in these words, ' settle it in your 
hearts,' Luke xxi. 14. 

Because this act of slipping out, or sliding by, is 
here spoken of persons, not of things, as if it had been 
thus translated, ' lest we slip out,' thus some expound 
it, lest we perish, as waters that slip out of the channel 
are soon dried tip. This interpretation is confirmed 
by these kind of speeches : ' We must needs die, 
and are as water spilt on the ground, and cannot be 
gathered up again,' 2 Sam. xiv. 14; 'I am poured 
out like water,' P.<. xxii. 14 ; ' The waters fail from 
the sea, and the flood decayetb and drieth up,' Job. 
xiv. 11 ; ' They are dried up, they are gone away from 
men,' Job. xxviii. 4. 

In the general both senses tend to the same pur- 
pose, namely, to demonstrate the damage that followeth 
upou neglect of the gospel. 

The preaching of the gospel is by God's institution 
' the power of God unto salvation,' Rom. i. 10. The 
damage, that it proves altogether fruitless. 

In the former sense the gospel is to them that hear 
it as lost. In the latter sense they themselves that hear 
it are lost, and miss of the salvatiun which the gospel 
bringeth unto them. Snch hearers were they of 
whom these and other like complaints have been 
made : ' Oh that my people had hearkened unto me ! ' 
Ps. Ixxxi. 13 ; ' Forty years long was I grieved with 
this generation," Ps." xcv. 10; 'I have laboured in 
vain, I have spent my strength for nought,' Isa. xlix. 
4 ; ' Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how oft would I have 

' rufi, printer, fuai,Jluo. 

gathered thee together, even as a hen gathereth her 
chickens under her wings, and je would not !' Mat. 
xxiii. 37. 

This phrase, lest at any time, is the interpretation 
of one Greek word, which though sometimes it im- 
ports a doubtfulness, or a peradventure, as we speak, 
and is translated kit hiijilij, Luke xiv. 29, if peradven- 
ture, 2 Tim. ii. 25, yet it doth not so always. AVhere 
it is said, ' lest at any time thou dash thy foot against 
a stone,' Mat. iv. 6, it is most certain that if the 
angels kept us not, we should dash our ftot against 
stones. And where it is said, ' lest at any time they 
should see with their eyes,' Mat. xiii. 15, it is certain 
that they whose eyes are closed shall not see with 
their ejes. And also where it is said, ' Tike heed 
lest there be an evil heart,' vcr. 12, assuredly there 
will be an evil heart in them that do not take heed. 
So assuredly they who are negligent hearers of the 
gospel will lose the profit thereof. And though for a 
while they may retain it in their minds and memories, 
yet it will some time or other be lost, unless they give 
"the more diligent heed thereto. Fitly, therel'ore, is 
this circumstance of time expressed, ' lest at any time.' 
Of this phrase see more Chap. iii. 12, Sec. 125. 

Sec. 7. 0/lhe resolutions and instructions o/Heb. 
ii. 1. 

Therefore tuc ovght to give thu more earnest heed to 
the Ihini/s whieh we have heard, lest at any time toe 
should let them slij}. 

This text doth iu part set out the use to be made 
of the gospel. There are two observable things there- 
in to bo considered : 

1. The inference of it upon that which goes before, 
dia toZto, therefore. 

2. 'J'he substance thereof in the rest of the verso. 
Concerning the substance there is observable : 

1. A duty prescribed. 

2. A motive used to enforce the same. 
About the duty we may distinctly note, 

1. The matter whereof it consisteth. 

2. The manner of expressing it. 
In the matter is distinctly noted, 

1. An act enjoined, '^ioesytiv, to give heed. 

2. The object thereof, anouciiiei, the things which 
tie hare heaid. 

Both these are amplified by the persons who exhort 
and are exhorted, ij.aa,-, ««. 
The manner declares, 

1. The necessity of the point, &u, ought. 

2. The diligence to bo used, !r£»/ffaori;w;, more 

The motive is taken from the damage that is like 
to follow upon neglect of the duty prescribed, /irj-on, 

That damage, as it is propounded, admits a doable 
consideration : 

1. The loss of the word that is heard. 

Ver. 2-t.] 



2. The loss of the parties tbat negligently Lear it, 
lest, wasajlui^ji/, ti-e .■i/ioiihl let them slip. 
This is amplified by the time, at any time. 

Doctrines arising out of verse 1. 

I. Use is to he added to doctrine. The five first 
verses of this chapter do expressly lay down a main 
use of the doctrine of Christ's excellency set out in 
the former chapter. 

II. Tlie more excellent tJie teacher is., the more is his 
word to he rerjarhd. This ariseth out of this infer- 
ence therefore. Because God spake to us Christians 
by his Son, therefore we must the more heed him. See 
Sec. 2. 

III. Due attention is to he </iven to God's word. The 
aft whereby the duty here required is expressed in 
this phrase, ' give heed," proves as much. See Sec. 5. 

IV. Greater attention is to be given to the rjospel. 
It is the gospel whereunto this word of comparison, 
more earnest, hath reference. See Sec. 5. 

v. Mutters of weight again and again delivered are 
to ho attended, unto. This is intended under the ex- 
pressing of the object here set down in the time past, 
have heard. ' The things which we have heard.' See 
Sec. 5. 

VI. We are hound to perform duttj ansv:erahh to the 
i; means afforded. There is a necessity intimated in 
11 this word ought. It is no arbitrary matter ; a neces- 
\\ Bity lieth upon us so to do. 

i VII. In provla'ng others to duty, lue ought to incite 

'! ourselves. See Sec. 3. The apostle includeth him- 
self together with others, by using the first person of 
the plural number, we. See Sec. 4. 

VIII. The henejil ofthegospel, if it heslighthj heedcrl, 
may he lost. See Sec. 6. 

IX. il/ert that hear the gospel may he lost. These 
two last doctrines I gather from the various acceptions 
ol' the word translated let slip. See Sec. 6. 

X. The fault of losing the henefit of the gospel is in 
l':ose that har it. The manner of inferring the motive 
11 1 111] the duty thus, lest loe shoxdd, declares as much. 

. Sec. G. 

'-. I. What is not at once lost, may he lost at another 
v. This is intended under this phrase, lest at any 
tunc. See Sec. 6. 

See. 8. 0/ the apostle's manner of enforcing his 

Ver. 2. For if the word spoken hy angels was sled- 
fast, and every transgression and disobedience received a 
just rocnmpence of reward ; 

Vor. 3. How shall ue escape, if ue neglect so great 
sid ration ; uhich at the first began to be spoken by the 
Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard 
him ; 

Ver. 4. God also bearing them witness, both with signs 
and uonders, and vilh divers miracles, and gifts of the 
Holy Ghost, according to Itis oun uill. 

The first particle of tliis text, as our English sets it 
down, being a causal conjunction y«f,/!/r, sheweth that it 
follows as a reason of thiit w-hich went before; a reason 
to per.suade the Hebrews to attend diligently to the 
gospel. The apostle useth one motive before, Sec. 6. 
He addeth this to enforce them the further to observe 
his instruction, and that not only by adding one reason 
to another, as two blows strike a nail deeper in than 
one, but by producing another more forcible motive 
than the former. 

The former motive waa taken from a damage, namely, 
loss of a benefit which might have been received by 
well heeding the gospel ; but this is vengeance, sore 
vengeance, even sorer than the vengeance which was 
wont to be executed under the law, as the interrogation 
in the third verse doth plainly demonstrate. 

The next particle h, if though it be a conditional 
conjunction, yet doth it not always leave a matter in 
suspense and doubt, as if there were question thereof 
whether it should be so or no. It is oft used to lay down 
a sure, certain, infallible, undeninble ground to infer an- 
othertruth thereupon. Where Christsaith, 'Iflsaythe 
truth, why do ye not believe me ?' John viii. 46. He 
maketh no question of what he spake, whether it were 
true or no, but layeth it down as an unquestionable 
point that he spake truth, and thereupon he aggravated 
their unbelief. 

If this manner of arguing be put into a syllogistical 
form, this will appear most clearly thus : 

If I speak truth, you ought to believe me ; 

But I speak truth ; therefore ye ought to believe me. 

So here, if slighting the woid of angels were sorely 
puuished, much more shall the slighting of Christ's 
word be punished. 

This manner of arguing shews that the apostle's 
argument is taken a minori ad majus, from the less 
to the greater ; for it was a less sin to slight the word 
of angels than the word of Christ. 

Of this kind of conditional expression, see Chap. iii. 
5, C, Sec. GO : see also The Saints' Hacrijice on Ps. 
exvi. 14, sec. 90. 

Sec. 9. Of the word spolcen ly angels. 

Viy the word spoken by angels, 6 &i dy/iXuv XaXrihii 
\6yo;, is in general meant that message or errand, as 
we speak, which angels brought from God to men, 
even so much of God's will as he was pleased to reveal 
to men by the ministry of angels. 

Of angels and their several functions, see chap. i. 
Sees. 70, 71, 82, &c. 

Some restrain the word here intended to the law 
delivered on mount Sinai, and for that purpose allege 
Acts vii. 53, and Gal. iii. 19. 

Again, some say that the law is not here meant, and 
that upon these grounds : 

1. That God himself delivered it; for it is ex- 
pressly said in relation to the moral law, ' God spake 
all these words,' Exod. xx. 1 ; and in the preface of 




that law, be tliat gave it saith, ' I am the Lord Ih}- 
God,' &c., Exod. XX. 2. 

2. That Christ the Son of God delivered it, for of 
him spcaketh this apostle in these words : ' Whose 
voice then shook the earth,' Heb. xii. 26. He there 
hath reference to the law. 

3. That Moses delivered it ; for it is expressly said, 
' The law was given by Moses,' John i. 17. 

The seeming differences about the giving of the law 
may easily be reconciled by a due observing of the 
different respect wherein the one and the other is said 
to deliver the law. 

1. The Son of God is true God, even Jehovah, as hath 
been shewed out of the former chapter, Sees. 107, 1*28, 
BO as what is done or said by the Son, is done or said 
by the true God. Besides, the Father doth what he 
doth, and speaketh what he speaketh, by the Son ; and 
the Son doth and speaketh all from the Father. So as 
the law may well be said to be delivered by God, and by 
the Son of God, without any seeming contradiction at all. 

2. As for that which is spoken of Moses, that the 
law was given by him, it is to be taken ministerially 
and secondarily. God having published the law on 
mount Sinai, afterwards wrote it in two tables, which 
he gave to Moses, and Moses in his name gave it to 
the people. In like manner God made known all the 
other laws, both ceremonial and judicial, to Moses 
fii'st, and then Moses from the Lord declared them to 
the people. 

3. Whatsoever can be said of angels delivering the 
law, it must needs be taken ministerially. This phrase, 
' They received the law by the disposition of angels,' 
may be thus taken, ' in the troops of angels,' or ' among 
the hosts of angels.' The Greek word translated dis- 
position is of the plural number, ii; /^larayac, and 
sometimes signifieth companies disposed together, or 
set in order.' It is said that in the delivering of the 
law, ' the Lord came with ten thousands of saints,' 
Deut. xxxiii. 2. These saints were holy angels, even 
those ' twenty thousand thousands of angels,' men- 
tioned on the like occasion, Ps. Ixviii. 17. 'This phrase 
also, ' the law was ordained by angels,' Gal. iii. 19, 
may be taken to be amonfj angels, who attended the 
Lord in delivering the law, as they will attend him in 
his coming to judgment. Mat. xxv. 81. Hereof see 
more on the first Chap. sec. 96. The apostle, there- 
fore, may hero have reference to the law, and that may 
be one ' word of angels ' here meant. But this must 
not be restrained only to the giving of the law, but 
rather extended to other particulars also, which at 
other times angels delivered from God to men ; for 
before the gospel was established in tlie Christian 
church, God frequently delivered his will to men by 
the ministry of angels, as we shewed in the first 
chapter. Sec. 90. And wheresoever any judgment was 
executed upon any person for any light esteem of that 

' }.*raTrii<,inordinet dispoiiert; ii>r>rri/rrf-;sr» — Herod 

message which was brought by an angel, the same may 
be here understood and applied to the point in hand. 

Sec. 10. 0/ the respect due to God's word by any 
minister delivered. 

Some' take the word angels in the larger sense, for 
any manner of messengers from God that brought his 
word to his people. 

Of this large extent of an'/eh, see on the first chap- 
ter. Sees. 79, 82. 

If angels be here thus largely taken, under the word 
of angels may be comprised everj^ declaration of God's 
will by any minister, whether ordinary, as prophets' 
and Levites, or extraordinary, as prophets, or celestial, 
as the heavenly spirits. For the word or message of 
any messenger sent of God is to be received as spoken 
by God himself, Isa. xiii. 20, Gal. iv. 14, 1 Thes. ii. 13. 

In this sense the comparison will lie betwixt the 
ministry of God's word before the exhibition of Christ 
and after it, and proves the ministry of the word since 
Christ was exhibited to be the more excellent. 

This comparison will well stand with the main scope 
of the apostle, which is to incite Christians to have 
the gospel and the ministry thereof in high esteem. 

But that which the apostle hath delivered in the 
former chapter, and further delivereth in this chapter, 
ver. 5, 7, 16, of celestial angels, clearly manifesteth 
that such heavenly spirits are here principally intended. 

By just and necessary consequence it may be in- 
ferred that the word of all God's ministers before the 
time of the gospel was such as the word of angels is 
here said to be, ' stedfast,' &c. 

See. 11. Of the stedfastness of God's irord. 

Of the foresaid word of angels, it is said that it was 
' stedfiist,'' BiZaiog, that is, firm, stable, inviolable, 
that which could not be altered, that which might not 
be opposed, gainsaid, or neglected. It is attributed to 
God's promise, which never failed, Rom. iv. 16, to an 
anchor that fast holdeth a ship, Heb. vi. 19, and to a 
testament ratified by the testator's death, which no 
man altcreth, Heb. is. 17, Gal. iii. 15. 

The reason hereof resteth not simply on the autho- 
rity or infallibility of angels who delivered the word, 
but rather on the authority and infallibility of the 
Lord their master who sent them. For the word of 
an angel was the word of God, as the word of the 
Lord's prophet was the word of the Lord, 1 Sam. xv. 
10, and as the word of an ambassador or of an herald 
is the word of the king or of him that appointed him ; 
for if they be faithful, as good angels are, they will de- 
liver nothing but that which is given them in charge ; 
and that they will also deliver in the name of their 
master that sent them. 

' Heinsius Exerc. Sncr. in loc. ' Qu. 'Priofts'? — Ed. 

' See Chap. iii. ver. 6, Sec. (i8. Of the word /}i^«i««. see 
Sec. 26 ; aud of the uoun fii^imm. Bee Chap. vi. 16, Sec. 

Ver. 2-4.J 


The word of angels therefore being the word of the 
Lord, it must needs be stedfast. For with the Lord 
• there is no variableness, neither shadow of turning,' 
James i. 17. ' I am the Lord,' saith God of himseU', 
' I change not,' Mai. iii. 6. 

Sec. 12. Of the sled/astness of the several kinds of 
God's laius. 

Some object the abrogation of the law, which is 
said to be delivered by angels, against the stedfast- 
ness thereof. 

For a fuller answer hereunto, I will endeavour to 
shew in what respect the several kinds of God's law 
may be said to be stedfast, notwithstanding any 
abrogation of any of them. 

God's law is distinguished into three kinds ; judi- 
cial, ceremonial, and moral. 

1. The judicial law was stedfast so long as the 
policy to which the Lord gave it continued. 

2. The ceremonial law was stedfast till it was 
fully accomplished in the truth and substance thereof, 
and in that accomplishment it remains everlastingly 

3. The moral law, which is here taken to be espe- 
cially intended, was ever, and ever shall be, a stedfast 
iind inviolable law. It ' endureth for ever,' Ps. xis. 
!i. This is it of which Christ thus saith, ' It is easier 
fi'i- heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law 
to fail,' Luke xvi. 17. 

Indeed, Christ bath purchased for such as believe 
in him, a freedom from the law, in regard of sundry 
circumstances, such as these : 

1. In regard of an end for which it was at first 
instituted, namely, to justify such as should in them- 
selves perfectly fulfil it. The end is thus expressed, 
' The man which doth those things shall live by them,' 
Uuui. X. 5. 2'lie wan, namely, he himself, in his own 
ji rs(in ; not by another, nor a surety for him. IVhich 
dutli, namely, perfectly, without failing in any parti- 
cular. Those Ihinr/s, namely, all the things in their 
substance and circumstances, that are comprised in 
ill'' law. Our freedom from the Liw is thus expressed : 
' Wo have beheved in Jesus Christ, that we might be 
justified by the faiih of Christ, and not by the works 
of the law,' Gal. ii. 16. 

2. In regard of the penalty of the law, which is a 
curse for every transgression ; according to this tenor 
till roof, ' Cursed is every one that continueth not in 
ill! things which are written in the book of the law to 
ilo them,' Gal. iii. 10. Our freedom from this curse 
is thus set down: ' Christ hath redeemed us from the 
cniso of the law, being made a curse for us,' Gal. iii. 
1:; ; and thus: 'There is no condemnation to them 
which are in Christ Jesus,' Rom. viii. 1. 

8. In regard of the rigour of the law, which accepts 
no endeavours without absolute perfection. The 
tenor of the curse imports as much ; for it pronounceth 
every one cursed that continueth not in all things. 

Gal. iii. 10. Our freedom from this rigour is thus 
exemplified : ' If there be first a willing mind, it is 
accepted according to that a man hath, and not 
according to that he hath not,' 2 Cor. viii. 12. 

4. In regard of an aggravating power which the 
law hfith over a natural man. For a natural man 
committeth sin, even because the law forbids it ; and 
in despite of the law ; and thus the law makes ' sin 
exceeding sinful,' Rom. vii. 13. From this we are 
freed by the grace of regeneration, whereby we are 
brought to ' delight in the law of God, after the 
inward man ;' and ' with the mind to serve the law of 
God,' Rom. vii. 22, 25. But notwithstanding our 
freedom from the moral law in such circumstances as 
have been mentioned, that law remaineth most sted- 
fast and inviolable in the substance of it ; which is an 
exact form and declaration of that which is good and 
evil, just and unjust, meet and unmeet; and of what 
is due to God or man ; and of what is a sin against 
the one, and a wrong unto the other. 

Herein lieth a main difference betwixt the divine 
law, and all human laws. These are subject to 
alterations and corrections, or amendments ; for 
which end parliaments and councils are oft cou- 

Sec. 13. Of the respects wheiein the word of angels 
mis stedfast. 

The word of angels may be said to be stedfast in 
three especial respects. 

1. In the event ; in that whatsoever they declared 
by prediction, promise, or threatening, was answerably 

Of predictions, take these instances. Gen. xvi. 11, 
12, and xxxi. 11, 12 ; Zech. i. 9, &c. ; Mat.xxviii. 5, 
7 ; Acts X. 3, &c. ; Rev. i. 1. 

Of promises, take these, Gen. xviii. 10 ; Judoes 
xiii. 3 ; Mat. i. 20 ; Acts xxvii. 23. 

Of threateniugs, take these, Gen. xix. 18 ; 2 Kings 
i. 3, 4. 

These particulars are sufficient to prove the point 
in hand. As for the general, I dare boldly say, that 
never was any matter of history, or promise of good, 
or threatening of judgment, declared by an angel, but 
answerably it was accomplished ; and in that respect 
an angel's word was stedfast. 

2. The word of angels was stedfast in regard of 
the bond which bound them to whom any duty was 
enjoined, or direction given, to observe the same. For 
they were extraordinarily sent from God ; yea, they 
were the chiefest of God's messengers. Saints there- 
upon believed their word, and obeyed their charge. 
As Manoah, Judges xiii. 8, 12 ; Elijah, 1 Kings x.x. 
8; 2 Kings i. 15; the Virgin Mary, Luke i. 88; 
Joseph, Mat. i. 24, and sundry others. 

3. Their word was stedfast in regard of the penalty 
which was inflicted on such as believed not, or obeyed 
not their word. Hereof see Sees. 16, 17. 


[Chap. II. 

Sec. 14. Oj Ihc ih'ffijrcnce lelwccn (ra)isrjrcssion and 

Upon the stedfastiiess of God's word, though 
spoken by angels, it is inferred that ' every trans- 
gression and disobedience received a just recompenee 
of reward.' This inference is joined to the sted- 
fastness of their word by a copulative particle, Kal, 
and ; which shcweth that this penalty is a motive to 
give good liced to their word, as well as the stedfist- 
ness thereof, and that it is an efi'ect that will assuredly 
follow thereupon. For because the word of angels 
was stedi'ast, therefore every transgression was pun- 

There are two words in this inference, hamely, caja- 
jSaci:, tiansriressioii, and rraiay.or,, disobedience, which 
in the general may intend one and the same thing ; 
and yet here be also distinguished by their degrees, 
yea, and by their kinds. The verb rracafSanuv, from 
whence the first word in Greek is derived, properly 
Bignifieth to puss over a thiuri ; metaphorically having 
reference to a law, or any other rule, it signifieth to 
swerve from that rule, or to violate and break that 
law, rraoalSahiiv tjji/ iiroXri-J, Mat. xv. 8. In this 
metaphorical sense this word is oft used in relation 
to the law of God, and put for any breach thereof, 
as Kom. iv. 15, Gal. iii. 19. It is put for the first 
sin of Adam, Rom. v. 14, aud for Eve's special sin, 
1 Tim. ii. 14. 

The other word, according to the notation of it in 
Greek, intimateth a turning of the ear from that which 
is spoken ; and that with a kind of obstinacy and 
contumacy ; as where Christ saith of an obstinate 
brother, ' if he neglect to hear,' ra^axoiiarj, Mat. sviii. 
17, or obstinately refuse to hear. 

I find the word •za^ay.orj, here translated disobedience, 
twice opposed to a willing and read// obedience, Ij'nay.rin, 
namely, of true saints, 2 Cor. x. 6, and of Christ, 
Rom. V. 19. This opposition importeth a wilful dis- 
obedience ; or a contumacy, as some* here translate 
the word. 

Others^ under the former word transfjression, com- 
prise sins of commission ; and under the latter word, 
disobedience, sins of omission. For the verb from 
whence the latter word is derived, signifieth to neglect 
or refuse to hear. Mat. xviii. 17. 

There is questionless a difil'erence betwixt these two 
words, either in the degrees, or in the kinds of dis- 
obedience ; in which respect the universal, or (as here 
it is used) distributive particle, rraira, erer;/, is pre- 
mised ; to shew that no transgression, great or mean, 
in one or other kind, passed unpunished. 

Let not any think, by mincing his sin, to escape 
pniiishment. A prophet having reckoned up a cata- 
logue of sins, some greater, some lighter, makcth this 
inference, ' If a man do the like to any one of these 

' Bozn. 

' trccfafiaeis, Iransgreasio prohililionum ; racaxif,, omissio 
praeeplorum — I'arxus in loc. 

things, he shall surely die,' Ezek. xviii. 10, 13. 
Every particular branch of God's law is as a distinct 
link of a chain ; if any one link fail, the whole chain 
is broken. The will of the law-maker is disobeyed in 
every transgression, James ii. 10, 11. Heroin lieth 
a main ditl'erence betwixt a faithful servant of God, 
and a formal possessor ; the former makes conscience 
of every sin, the latter of such only as are less agree- 
able to his own corrupt humour, or such as he con- 
ceiveth most damageable to himself. 

Sec. 15. Of punishments on transtjressors. 

The memorable judgments executed on the Israelites 
after the law was given unto them on mount Sinai, do 
give evident proof of the divine vengeance which was 
executed on the transgressors thereof. Many of those 
judgments are reckoned up together, 1 Cor. x. 5, <S:c. 

I will endeavour further to exemplifj- the same in 
particular judgments executed on the transgressors of 
every one of the particular precepts, or of denunci- 
ations of judgments against them. 

1 . Moses and Aaron, for their transgressions against 
the first commandment, because they believed not, but 
rebelled against God's word, died in the wilderness, 
and entered not into Canaan, Num. xx. 12, 34. 

2. The Israelites that worshipped the golden calf, 
Exod. xxxil. 6, 28, and joined themselves unto Baal- 
Peor, Num. xxv. 8-5, and the sons of Aaron, that 
offered strange fire, Lev. x. 1, 2, were all destroyed 
for their idolatry against the second commandment. 

3. The blasphemer against the third commandment 
was stoned. Lev. xxiv. 11, 23. 

4. He that gathered sticks upon the Sabbath day 
was also stoned for violating the fourth commandment. 
Num. XV. 32, 8G. 

5. Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, with such ns took 
part with them, perished for breaking the fifth com- 
mandment in rising up against Moses and Aaron, their 
governors in state and church. Num. xvi. 8, 82, 35. 

6. A murderer was to be put to death, and not 
spared, Num. xxxv. 31. 

7. Zimri and Cosbi were suddenly slain together 
for their impudent filthiness, and the people that com- 
mitted whoredom with the daughters of Moab, Num. 
xxv. 1, 8, 9. 

8. Achan, for coveting and stealing what God had 
forbidden, was destroyed, with all that belonged to 
him, Joshua vii. 21, 24, 25. 

9. A false witness was to be dealt withal, as he had 
thought to have done to his brother, Deut. six. 19. 
His doom is this, ' He shall not be unpunished ; he 
shall perish,' Prov. xix. 5, and xxi. 28. 

Not to insist on any more particulars, these and all 
other transgressions, together with their punishment, 
are comprised under these words, ' Cursed be he th it 
contirmetb not all the words of this law to do them,' 
Dent, xxvii. 2G. 

Instances of particular judgments on such as be- 

Ver. 2-4.] 



lieved not, or disobe5-ed the message that was brought 
unto them by angels, are old Zaeharias, who was 
struck dumb, Luke i. 20, and Lot's wife, who was 
turned into a pillar of salt. Gen. sis. 17, 26. 

' Now all these things were our esamples, and are 
written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of 
the world are come, 1 Cor. s. 6, 11. 

Angels are not now sent to us ; yet are the minis- 
ters of God's word sent unto us of God. The Lord 
that sends is rather to be respected than the mes- 
sengers that are sent. That, therefore, which is here 
said of recompensing disobedience to the word of 
angels, may be applied to all disobedience against any 
minister sent of God, John siii. 20, Luke s. 16. 

Sec. 16. Of the reward of transr/ressors. 

The judgment on transgressors is thus espressed, 
' received a just recompence of reward.' 

This phrase, recompence of reward, is the interpre- 
tation of one Greek word, /i/ffJaTo&ff/at, but a compound 
word, and so compriseth under it two words, whereof 
the one, d'TroSidotai, signifietb a rendering ; the other, 
/iieDog, a reward. The verb whence it is derived, /j^icSo- 
boTih, signiiieth to give a reward. 

These two words, render, reward, are sometimes 
distinctly set down without composition, as d^odos toi. 
[iiskti; boZwu rU /j.i'sky, Mat. xx. 8, Rev. si. 18. 

He that hath the office or power to give or render 
a reward is styled (iiaSaTodorrjC, a rewarder, Heb. si. 6. 
Sec. 23. 

The word used in this test, I find three several 
times in this epistle, as here, and chap. s. 35, Sec. 
132 ; and si. 26, Sec. 123 ; in all which it implieth a 
reward whereby somewhat is recompensed. 

The word /a/ eSo;, translated reward, is diversely taken, 
according to the persons to whom, and work for which, 
it is given. If to a person accepted of God, for a work 
approved by him, it importeth such a reward as com- 
priseth under it grace, mercy, blessing. If to a wicked 
person, for an evil work, it intendetb a fearful revenge, 
and compriseth under it anger, terror, curse. Christ 
useth this word in an indefinite sense, which in one 
case may be applied one way, in another case another 
way. ' My reward is with me,' saith Christ, ' to give 
every man according to his work,' Rev. xii. 12. As 
men and their works are diiferent, some good, some 
evil, so is Christ's reward diiferent. The reward of 
the good is eternal life ; and of the evil, indignation 
and wrath, Rom. ii. 6-8. 

In regard of this difference, we read of /t/ir^ov dixdiov, 
' the reward of a righteous man,' Mat. x. 41, and of 
/i/ffJoD 7^5 airA.la.g, ' the reward of iniquity,' Acts i. 18, 
or ' the reward of unrighteousness,' which is also 
called ' the wages of unrighteousness,' 2 Peter ii. 13, 
15. In this latter sense the word is here used, and 
importeth revenge. 

Judgment exL-cuted on the wicked for their wicked- 
ness, is called a reward, because it is as due unto him. 

as the reward which useth to be given to a diligent 
and a faithful labourer is due to him. 

This word in Greek is used to set out that which 
the labourers in the vineyard recjeived for their labour, 
and is translated hire, rh fiiaiov. Mat. sx. 8. 

There is another Greek word, o-^<j!iviov, translated 
wages (' the wages of sin is death,' Rom. vi. 23), 
which doth somewhat more fully set out the reason of 
this word reward, applied to workers of evil. It is 
taken from the allowance or pay which is given to 
soldiers. Annona qua niiUtihus in sinr/nlus menses da- 
hatur. In this proper signification it is used, Luke 
iii. 14, and translated wages or allowance. * It is also 
used, 1 Cor. is. 7, and translated charges. That word 
is likewise used for allowance due to a minister of the 
word, 2 Cor. si. 8. 

Both this word turned wages, and also the other, re- 
ward, intend that which is due to the thing for which 
it is given. Reward is due to the evil works of unbe- 
lievers upon desert ; but to the good works of believers 
upon God's gracious promise and faithfulness in mak- 
ing his word good. 

Sec. 17. Of the jnst punishment of transgressors. 

To shew that punishment on transgressors is most 
due, this epithet, hSixov, just, is premised, thus, ' a 
just recompence of reward.' Therefore, the damna- 
tion of such is also said to be just, &ixam, Rom. iii 
8, and that ' it is a righteous thing with God to re 
compense tribulation to them,' 2 Thes. i. 6. And in 
this respect the judgment of God is said to be right- 
eous, Rom. ii. 5. It is but one word in Greek, ir/.aia- 
x^ieia, that setteth out ' a righteous judgment.' It is 
compounded of these two words, righteous, judgmeit 
and shews that righteousness is inseparable from God's 
judgment : his judgment is always righteous. 

It must needs be so, because God, that rendereth 
the recompence, is a most just judge. Gen. sviii. 25, 
Ps. is. 8, Rom. iii. 6. 

"Why, then, may some say, are not all transgressors 
punished ? for experience of all ages giveth proof that 
many transgressions and transgressors have from time 
to time been passed over. 

To remove this scruple, we must distinguish be- 
twixt believers and others. 

Christ, as a surety, hath received a just recompence 
of reward for all the transgressions of all such as have 
believed in him, or shall believe in him. Besides, the 
Lord, in wisdom and love to such, olt taketh occasion 
from their transgressions, to inflict temporary punish- 
ments on them, not in revenge, nor for satisfaction, 
but for their spiritual profit, Heb. xii. 10. 

Unbelievers that receive not a recompence of reward 
for their evil deeds in this life, have their recompence 
treasured up to the full against that day which is 
styled ' the day of the righteous judgment of God,' 
Rom. ii. 5. 

' Tx i^uvia, salaria, stipend'.a merita milil.'oe. 



[Chap. II. 

Thus sooner or later, in one kind or other, ' every 
transgression and disobedience receiveth a just recom- 
pence of reward.' 

Transgression is said to receive a reward, because 
the transgressor receiveth it, and that for his trans- 

Transgression, therefore, by a metonymy of the 
effect, is put for a transgressor. A transgressor is 
said to receive the reward here intended, not as a will- 
ing act on his part, but as it is a due debt, and so to be 
received ; for punishment is as justly due to a trans- 
gressor, as any good reward to him that doth that 
which is required of him. Punishment is a satisfac- 
tion for a transgression, even as for a debt that is 
due ; in which respect sins and transgressions are 
styled debts, Mat. vi. 12 ; and they on whom the pun- 
ishment is inflicted, are in the Greek • and Latin - 
dialect said to junj the punishment ; because, by en- 
during punishment, a kind of satisfaction is made ; 
and they who make the satisfaction, pay the debt. 
This pajment doth not necessarily imply a voluntary 
act, but an act that is most due and just. The sense, 
the grief, the smart, the pain of a punishment or judg- 
ment, lieth on him that is punished or judged. These, 
therefore, may well be said to receive the rccompence 
that is or shall be inflicted. ' They that resist shall 
receive to themselves damnation,' Kom. xiii. 3. They 
cannot avoid it ; will they, nill they, they shall have 
it. He that is just in giving to every one their due, 
inflicts it. 

Thus every word in this clause setteth out the 
equity of the judgment here denounced. 1, it is a 
reward ; 2, it is a rendering of that which is due ; 
3, it is juM ; 4, it is received as that which is due 
and just. 

Sec. 18. Of the certainty of jiidf/ment. 

Ver. 3. From the just punishment which was in- 
flicted on such as transgressed the word of angels 
under the pedagogy of the law, the apostle makes this 
inference, ' How shall we escape if we neglect,' &c. 

The manner of expressing this inference (by an in- 
terrogation Tsus, how) addeth much emphasis ; and 
sheweth that the consequence inferred is a just conse- 
quence, and without all question most true ; even so 
as they themselves cannot deny it. It is somewhat 
like to this expression, ' Thinkest thou this, man, 
that judgest them which do such things, and doest 
the same, that thou shalt escape the judgment of 
God ?' Rom. ii. 3. See on Chap. i. Sec. 46 and 145. 

The word translated excuse, ixpu^o/jLiHa, useth to 
have reference to some evil of puni.><hment, or to some 
danger or damage ; and implieth a flying from it, or 
an avoiding of it. 

• Pccnns peni 
luerc, vapularo 

idere, cxpendere, depenJere, dare, persolyere, 

I find the Greek word seven times used in the New 
Testament ; twice for escaping out of the danger wherein 
men were. And it is translated, according to the nota- 
tion, of the word fled ; as where the jailor thought 
that his prisoners had been //«/, Acts xvi. 27 ; and 
where the exorcists //fJ out of the house where a de- 
moniac set upon them. Acts xix. IG. Once it sets 
out a preventing of danger intended by man ; as, 
where the apostle saith, ' I escaped his hands,' 2 Cor. 
xi. 83. Once also it sets out a preventing of divine 
judgment, Luke xxi. 30. Three times it is nega- 
tively used, to shew, that in such and such cases, 
judgment cannot be avoided, but shall assuredly be 
inflicted, as Rom. ii. 3, 1 Thes. v. 3, and in this 

This manner of expressing the sure and sore ven- 
geance here intended, is like to that commination 
which is denounced against the transgression of the 
third commandment, in these words, ' the Lord will 
not hold him guiltless,' Exod. xx. 7. He shall assu- 
redly be found guilty, and answerably judged. It is 
alsoHke to Heb. x. 29, and xii. 25." To shew that 
he himself as well as others, and others as well as him- 
self, are all, without exception of any, hable to the 
judgment, he expresseth the first person and plural 
number, we, miT;. 

This shews that there are degrees both of sin and 
judgment ; for, according to the heinousness of sin, 
will be the heaviness of judgment. ' Jerusalem was 
in all her ways corrupted more than Samaria or 
Sodom : therefore she did bear her own shame, for 
the sins which she committed more abominable than 
they,' Ezek. xvi. 47, 52. ' It shall be more tolerable 
for Tyre and Sidon than for Choraziu and Bethsaida, 
and for Sodom than for Capernaum, at the day of 
judgment,' Mat. xi. 22, 24. 

Hereby is the wisdom of God manifested, in put- 
ting diflerence betwixt the kinds of sin ; and his jus- 
tice, in proportioning punishment according to the 
kinds of sin. 

It will be therefore our wisdom, as to take heed of 
every transgression, so to take due notice of the ag- 
gravation of a transgression, to make us the more 
watchful and circumspect thereabout 

Sec. 19. Of netflcctinrj salvation. 

Neglecting, a/i.£Xr,6airic, is the act under which 
the thing here taxed is expressed. Ne/jlect may seem 
to intend a small degree of sin, especially as it is op- 
posed to contempt, and when it is distinguished from 
diligent care ; for we say of him that is not so diligent 
in his duty as ho ought to be, that he is negligent. 

In this extenuating sense, saith the apostle, oix 
a/MiXridca, ' 1 will not be negligent to put you in re- 
membrance,' 2 Peter i. 12 ; I will let slip no opportu- 
nity. St Paul in this sense adviseth Timothy, /ti^ 
a/iiXu, not to ' neglect the gift that was in him,' 
1 Tim. iv. 14. 

Vek. 2-1..] 



Thus may tbe word be here pertinently used, and 
that in regard of the worth of salvation here men- 
tioned ; for in the least degree or in the meanest man- 
Der to disrespect so precious, so needful, so useful a 
thing as salvation, is a great point of folly, of ingra- 
titude, yea, and of rebellion. And it sheweth, that 
they to whom this salvation is brought, ought not any 
way to disesteem it ; they ought not to neglect it. 

The word neglect may further, according to the no- 
tation of the Greek, imply a despising or despiting 
of a thing. For the simple verb fj^kXn, of which this 
is compounded, signifioth to have an especial care of 
a thing. It sets out that care which God hath of 
his children, for ' he careth for you,' auru fii>.ei 'irigi 
i/^Mv, 1 Peter v. 7. What greater care can there be, 
than that which God taketh of his ? 

The compound with a privative particle, a/isXih, as 
the word in my test is, letteth out a disposition so far 
from tender care and great respect, as it implieth the 
clean contrary ; namely, an utter rejecting (as where 
God saith of the Jews whom he cast otf), xayoj ruik- 
Xrisn auTuu, ' I regarded them not ;' or I cared not for 
them, Heb. viii. 9 ; yea, and a plain despising of a 
thing, and a scorning of it ; as where it is said of them 
that were invited to the wedding of the king's son, d/is- 
XrisavTii, ' they made light of it,' or they cared not 
for it. That this intended a despising of it, is evi- 
dent by the effects that are noted to follow thereupon ; 
which were, preferring their farm and merchandise 
before the king's son's marriage ; the entreating of the 
king's servants that were sent to them despitefully, 
and slaying them,' Mat. xsii. 5, 6. Doth not the 
hog, that prefers garbage, ofl'al, or any filthy refuse, 
before silver, gold, and pearl, contemn these precious 
things ? Do not dogs, that fly in the faces of such as 
bring things of great worth unto them, despise them ? 
This word then of neijleclinc/, here used and applied by 
the apostle to so precious a thing as sah^ation, can in- 
tend no less than a despising thereof. This therefore is 
a great aggravation of theii- sin, who live under the gos- 
pel, and any way slight the same. And it nearly con- 
cerns us to whom this salvation is tendered, to take 
heed of neglecting the same. 

Sec. 20. Of the word of salvation. 

That precious thing which is here said to be ne- 
glected, is ffwTjjg/a, salvation. Hereof see Chap. i. 
Sec. 159. 

The eternal salvation of the soul is the salvation 
here aimed at. But by a metonymy, the gospel that 
revealeth that salvation is here meant. 

As here, xar s^o^ri]/, by an excellency, it is called 
salvation ; so more especially it is styled ' the gospel 
of salvation,' Eph. i. 13; the 'word of salvation,' 
Acts xiii. 26 ; the ' power of God unto salvation,' 
Rom. i. 16 ; ' The grace of God which bringeth sal- 
vation,' Titus ii. 11. The time of the gospel is also 
called ' The day of salvation,' 2 Cor. vi. 2. Ministers 

of the gospel are ' they which shew unto us the way 
of salvation,' Acts xvi. 17. 

That under this word salvation, the gospel is here 
meant, is evident, by the opposition thereof to ' the 
word spoken by angels,' ver. 2. That word was be- 
fore the time of the gospel, and it is comprised under 
this title, law. Now, here he prefereth the gospel 
before the law ; therefore the gospel must needs be 
bere meant. 

Fitly may the gospel be styled salvation in sundry 
respects, as, 

1. In opposition to the law, which was a 'ministra- 
tion of condemnation,' 2 Cor. iii. 9. But this of 
salvation, Eph. i. 13. 

2. In regard of the author of the gospel, Jesus 
Christ, who is salvation itself, Luke ii. 30. 

8. In regard of the matter of the gospel, Acts xsviii. 
28. Whatsoever is needful to salvation is contained 
in the gospel, and whatsoever is contained in the 
gospel maketh to salvation. 

4. In regard of God's appointing the gospel to be 
the means of salvation : ' For it pleased God by 
preaching the gospel to save those that believe,' 
1 Cor. i. 21. 

5. In regard of the end of the gospel, which is to 
' give knowledge of salvation,' Luke i. 77, 1 Peter i. 9. 

6. In regard of the powerful efi'ects of the gospel : 
It is ' the power of God to salvation,' Rom. i. 16. 

Quest. If salvation be appropriated to the gospel, 
how were any of the Jews that lived before the time 
of the gospel saved ? 

Ans. They had the gospel, Heb. iv. 2, Gal. iii. 6. 
In this respect Christ is said to be ' slain from the 
foundation of the world,' Rev. xiii. 8; to be ' ever the 
same,' Heb. xiii. 8. 

The first promise made to man, in the judgment 
denounced against the devil immediately after man's 
fall. Gen. iii. 15, contained the sum of the gospel. 
Abel's sacrifice. Gen. iv. 4, and Noah's, Gen. viii. 20, 
21, and others, and the sundry types of the cere- 
monial law, and sundry prophecies and promises in 
the [prophets, set out Christ, the substance of the 
gospel ; but not so clearly, so fully, so powerfully as 
the ministry of the gospel. 

In this respect, not simply, but comparatively, 
salvation is appropriated to the ministry of the gospel ; 
and a main difl'erence made betwixt it and the ministi-y 
of the law, 2 Cor. iii. 6, 7. 

Oh how blind are they who trust to any other 
means of salvation than the gospel ! Such blind 
beetles were Jews, who would be justified and saved 
by the law ; and papists, by their works ; and enthu- 
siasts, by the inspiration of their own brains ; and the 
vulgar sort, by their'good meaning. 

It will be our wisdom to give good entertainment 
to the gospel, to be well instructed therein, to believe 
in it, to subject ourselves thereto, and to be con- 
formable to it in the whole man. 


[Chap. II. 

Our labour herein is not lost. Salvation is a 
sufficient recompence. I suppose tbere is none so 
desperate, but, like Balaam, ho could wish to die the 
death of the righteous, and that his last end might bo 
like his. Num. xxiii. 10. Lot our care be to use the 
means, as well as to desire the end. To us is the word 
of this salvation sent, Acts xiii. 20. If we neglect the 
gospel, we put away salvation, and 'judge ourselves 
unworthy of eternal life,' Acts siii. 46. 

Sec. 21. Of the great salvation of the r/ospel. 

The excellency of the aforesaid salvation is set out 
in this word, rnXixaurrig, ' so great.' The relative 
riXixo;, whence this is derived, is sometimes joined 
with a word of wonder, thus ; ^a-j,u.a<!T6g ^Xixog, Mirus 
qiiantus, how wondrous great. In hke manner this 
word here, so wondrous great. 

It is a relative, and withal a note of comparates ; yet 
hath it here no correlative nor redditiou to shew how 
great it is. 

I find in other places a reddition joined with it ; as 
where mention is made of a very great earthquake, it 
is thus e.xpressed, rriXixouTog m;, so mighty an earth- 
quake ; such an one as was not since men were upon 
the earth. Rev. xvi. 16. 

This manner of setting down the word without a 
co-relative wants not emphasis, for it implieth it to be 
wonderful great ; so great as cannot bo expressed. 

Where the apostle maketh nieution of a very great 
danger, wherein he despaired even of life, he thus 
sets it out, ' God delivered us from so great a death,' 
2 Cor. i. 10, so great, as one would have thought 
none could have been delivered from it. In like 
manner, this phrase here intimateth, that this salva- 
tion is so great, as never the like was brought uuto 
men before, nor can a greater be expected hereafter. 

Well may the salvation brought unto us by the 
gospel be styled, so <ircat, in three especial respects : 

1. In regard of the clear manifestation thereof. 
The types, prophecies, and promises under the law 
were very dark and obscure, in regard of the clear 
preaching of the gospel. Now salvation is so clearly 
revealed, as a clearer manifestation thereoi is not to be 
expected in this world. The veil which was upon the 
heart of the Jews is taken away under the gospel ; and 
now we all with open face behold as in a glass the 
glory of the Lord, 2 Cor. iii. 15, 16, 18. 

2. In regard of the largo spreading forth of this 
gospel. Thus said the Lord to his Son of old con- 
cerning this point ; ' It is a light thing that thou 
shouldest bo my servant, to raise up the tribes of 
Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel ; I will 
also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou 
mayest be my salvation unto the ends of the earth,' 
Isa. xlix. 0. 

8. In regard of the efficacy and the power of God. 
Prophets complained of the little fruit that they reaped 
of their labours, thus : ' I have laboured in vain, I 

have spent my strength for nought,' Isa. xlix. 4 ; 
' Who hath believed our report ?' Isa. liii. 1 ; ' The 
word of the Lord was made a reproach unto me, and 
a derision daily,' Jer. xx. 8. But the apostles in most 
of their epistles give thanks for the efficacy of the 
gospel in those churches to whom it was preached ; 
as Rom. i. 8 ; 1 Cor. iv. 1, 4, 5 ; Philip, i. 3, 5 ; 
Col. i. 3, 4 ; 1 Thes. i. 2, 3 ; 2 Thes. i. 3 ; 1 Peter 
i. 3 ; 2 John 4. 

This on the one side doth much amplify the bless- 
ibg of the gospel ; and it ratitieth the promise which 
God of old thus made to his church, ' I will do better 
unto you than at the beginning,' Ezek. xxxvi. 11. 
For under the gospel, ' God hath provided a better 
thing for us,' Heb. xi. 40, namely, 'a better covenant,' 
Heb. viii. 6 ; ' a better testament,' Heb. vii. 22 ; 
' better promises,' Heb. viii. 6 ; ' better sacrifices,' 
Heb. ix. 23 ; ' a better hope,' Heb. vii. 19. 

So great are the things by the gospel revealed unto 
the church, as in former ages were not made known, 
Eph. iii. 5. 'Many prophets, and kings, and righteous 
men desired to see these things, but saw them not,' 
Mat. xiii. 17, Luke x. 24. After this salvation, not 
only the prophets have inquired, but also 'the angels 
desire to look into it,' 1 Peter i. 10, 12. 

On the other side, this great salvation is a great 
aggravation of all neglect thereof. On this ground 
Christ aggravateth the Jews' contempt of the gospel 
in his time ; and plainly telleth them, that ' the men 
of Nineveh, and the queen of the south, shall rise up 
in judgment against them, because a greater than 
Jonas and a greater than Solomon was among them,' 
Mat. xii. 41, 42. ' This is the condemnation, that 
light is come into the world, and men loved darkness 
rather than light,' John iii. 19. 

This nearly concerns us, who live in this last age 
of the world, wherein this great salvation hath broken 
through the thick cloud of antichristianism, and 
brightly shined forth to us ; and who live in that place 
of the world where able ministers and powerful 
preachers abound. 

As God in this his goodness hath abounded to us, 
so should we abound in knowledge, in faith, in hope, 
in charity, in new obedience, and in all other gospel- 
graces. St Paul upon the apprehension of the abound- 
ing of God's grace towards him over and above others, 
maketh this inference, ' I laboured more abundantly 
than they all,' 1 Cor. xv. 10. Greater blessings 
require greater thankfulness. God had abounded to 
Judah in blessings more than to Israel ; thereupon a 
prophet maketh this inference, ' Though thou Israel 
play the harlot, yet let not Judah ofl'end,' Hosea iv. 15. 

Sec. 22. Of Christ the preacher of the (jospel 

The excellency of the fore-mentioned salvation is 

set out by the first publisher thereof, who is here 

styled the Lord, &id toZ K-jsIcu. Of this title Lord, 

given to Christ, see Chap. i. ver 10, Sec. 123. It is 

Vee. 2-4 ] 


here used to set out the dignity of the author of the 
gospel ; thereby to commend it the more unto us. 

Obj. God was the author of the word which angels 
spake unto his people, and in that respect that word 
was divine. Can there be any greater authority of a 
word than to be divine ? 

Ans. Though there be no greater authority than 
a divine authority, yet there may be sundry dilfer- 
ences between the things that are divine. For, 

1. Of divine truths there may be degrees : some 
may be of greater moment, or of greater consequence 
than others. To pay tithes under the law was a divine 
injunction; but 'judgment, mercy, and faith,' were 
' weightier matters of the law,' Mat. xxiii. 23. 

2. There were difl'erent kinds of revealing divers 
truths, some more obscurely, some more clearly, 2 
Cor. iv. 14, 18. 

3. Some divine truths were more strongly eon- 
firmed than others. Priests under the law were 
' made without an oath, but Christ with an oath ; ' so 
as Christ's priesthood was more strongly confirmed, 
Heb. vii. 20, 21. 

4. More excellent ministers may be used in dis- 
pensing some divine truths than in others. ' Behold 
a greater than Jonas is here,' ' Behold a greater than 
Solomon is here,' saith Christ of his own ministry. 
Mat. xii. 41, 42. 

In all these doth the latter word, here spoken of, 
excel the former. 

1. In the very matter thereof. Such mysteries are 
revealed by the gospel, as ' in other ages were not 
made knosvn,' Eph. iii. 5. ' The law made nothing 
perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did,' 
Eph. vii. 19. In this respect the gospel is here 
styled salvation, rather than the law. 

2. In the manner of revealing. The gospel is far 
more clear and effectual, 2 Cor. iii. 18. See Sees. 
20, 21. 

8. In the ratification. The gospel is much more 
firm than the law. See Sec. 86. 

4. In the minister. None comparable to the Son 
of God, the first preacher of the gospel. See Chap. i. 
Sec. 14. 

If Christ the Lord vouchsafed to be a minister of 
the gospel, who shall scorn this function ? The pope, 
cardinals, sundry bishops, and others that pretend to 
be Christ's vicars, are far from performing that which 
Christ did in this kind ; and many that lay claim to 
Peter's keys, are far from observing the advice which 
he, for the right use of them, thus gave : ' Feed the 
flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight 
thereof, not by constraint, but willingly ; not for 
filthy lucre, but of a ready mind ; neither as being 
lords over God's heritage, but being ensamples to the 
flock,' 1 Peter v. 2, 3. Many took more lordship upon 
them over God's tloek, than Christ the true Lord did 
while he was on earth ; yet it was he that brought 
this great salvation. 

Of Christ's being a prophet, see verse 12, Sec. 112. 
Of his being a minister, see Chap, viii., Sec. 8. 

Sec. 23. O/jireaching the gospel. 

The relation of the foresaid salvation is expressed in 
this word XaXucSai, spoken : namely, by voice or word 
of mouth. ' The mouth speaketh,' saith Christ, rh 
aro/jba XaXir, Mat. xii. 34. And of God it is said, 
iXdXndi bia SToixoLToi ; ' He spake by the mouth of his 
holy prophets,' Luke i. 70. So men are said to speak 
with the tongue, yXiimaaic, XaXi, 1 Cor. xiii. 1. 
And words are said to be spoken, ra ^ri/xara to\j 
0£o3 AaXsr, John iii. 34, and xiv. 10. 

The correlative to speaking is hearing ; ' We do hear 
them speak,' Acts ii. H. For by hearing that which 
is spoken by one is best understood by another ; and 
by a right understanding of the truth and good of that 
which is spoken, it comes to be believed. Hence is it 
that God hath appointed speaking of his word to be 
the ordinary means of salvation, 1 Cor. i. 21. 

Speaking the word is oft put for preaching it, and 
so translated, as Acts. viii. 25, ' When they had 
preached the word of God,' XaX^jtrairE?. And Acts 
xiii. 42, the Gentiles ' besought that these words might 
be preached,' Xakri^nmi. 

Thus, by our former English and others, it is trans- 
lated in this text ' which at the first began to be 
preached,' &c. Without all question, so much is here 
intended by the apostle. For he must needs mean 
such a speaking of the word as might make it power- 
ful to that great salvation which he mentioned before. 
For that pui-pose, no speaking is comparable to preach- 

Preaching is a clear revelation of the mystery of 
salvation by a lawful minister. 

No man can attain salvation except he know the 
way thereto. ' People are destroyed for lack of know- 
ledge,' Hosea iv. 6. But what good doth any reap 
by knowledge, unless he believe what he knoweth ? 
' The word preached did not profit them, not being 
mixed with faith in them that heard it,' Heb. iv. 2. 
' But how shall any believe in him of whom they have 
not heard ? and how shall they hear without a 
preacher ? and how shall they preach except they be 
sent?' Rom. x. 14, 1.5. 

He who is sent of God, that is, set apart, according 
to the rule of God's word, to be a minister of the 
gospel, doth himself understand the mysteries thereof, 
and is enabled to make them known to others ; he 
also standeth in God's room, and in God's name 
makes offer of salvation, 2 Cor. v. 20. This moves 
men to believe and to be saved. This is the ordinary 
way appointed of God for attaining salvation. This 
course Christ, who was sent of God, took ; ' He went 
throughout every city and village preaching, and 
shewing the glad tidings of the kingdom of God,' 
Luke viii. 1. He commanded those whom he sent 
so to do, Luke ix. 2, Mark xvi. 15. 



[Chap. II. 

So did they whom he immediately sent, Acts v. 42 ; 
BO have done others after them ; and so will do all 
true and faithful ministers of Christ to the world's 

Preaching being a means sanctified of God unto 
salvation, how diligent and faithful ought ministers of 
the gospel to be in pre.iching the same ! Thereby 
they may save themselves and them that hear them, 
1 Tim. iv. 16. But idol and idle ministers, such as 
cannot or cure not to preach the word, do much hin- 
der men from this great salvation. How beautiful 
ought the feet of them to be that preach the gospel of 
peace, and bring glad tidings of good things ! Rom. 
X. 15. If this great salvation, the effect of preaching, 
were duly weighed, ministers would be diligent in 
preaching, and people patient in hearing the same. 
For this is a strong motive to enforce the one and the 
other. Both preaching and hearing have need to be 
pressed upon men's consciences. 

See more of preaching God's word. Chap. siii. 
Sec. 97. 

Sec. 24. 0/ Christ's first publishing the gnspd. 

The first that clearly and fully preached the gospel 
of salvation, was the Lord Christ. It took beginning 
to be spoken by him ; according to the Greek phrase, 
^rig a.^'//iv XaZoZaa Xa'/.uisiai. Till he came and 
preached, people sat in darkness, and in the shadow 
and region of death ; but when he began to preach, 
they saw great hght, Mat. iv. 16. 

It cannot be denied but that the substance of the 
gospel, and therein salvation, was preached from the 
beginning of the world (as hath been shewed before. 
Sees. 20, 21), but so dark was that kind of light, as, 
like the Ught of the moon when the sun shineth, is 
accounted no light. The day taketh his beginning 
from the rising of the sun, and the light that cometh 
from thence. So salvation, here spoken of, taketh 
beginning from Christ's preaching the gospel. 

Besides, Christ is the substance and truih of all the 
shadows, figures, types, prophecies, and promises of 
that salvation which was set out by them. When 
Christ the Lord came, and declared himself to be the 
substance and truth of the law, he might well bo 
accounted the first publisher of salvation. 

Obj. It is said of the ministry of John the Baptist, 
_' The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ,' Mark 

Ans. John's ministry, in reference to the ministry 
of the law and the prophets, may be said compara- 
tively to be ' the beginning of the gospel ; ' because 
it was in the very time wherein Christ, the substance 
of the gospel, was exhiliited. John was Christ's mes- 
senger, sent before his face, to prepare the way before 
him, Mark i. 2. Thus it is said, tliat all the prophets 
and the law prophesied until John, Mat. xi. 13. 

In John's time was Christ actually exhibited. He 
was baptized by John, Mat. iii. 18, &c. And John 

declared him, pointing him out, as it were, with the 
finger, sajing, ' Behold the Lamb of God,' John i. 29. 
John also heard of the works of Christ, Mat. xi. 2. 
In this respect it is said, that, ' Among them that are 
born of women, there hath not risen a greater than 
John the Baptist,' Mat. xi. 11. 

John's ministry was a middle ministry between the 
law and the gospel, between the prophets and Christ. 
He took part of both kinds. He preached that the 
kingdom of heaven was at hand. Mat. iii. 2. But 
Christ, that ' the kingdom of God is come unto you,' 
Mat. xii. 22. 

Thus in regard of the fulness of the gospel, and of 
a distinct and clear manifestation of all things that ap- 
pertained to this great salvation, Christ most truly and 
properly is said to be the first that preached it. 

Behold here the benefit of Christ's being sent into 
the world. Then first came that true, full, and bright 
light of the world : ' He that followeth this light, shall 
not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life,' 
John viii. 12. Fitly to the point in hand may I apply 
that which is said, John i. 18, ' No man hath seen God 
at any time : the only begotten Son, which is in the 
bosom of the Father, he hath revealed him.' 

Sec. 25. Of confirming the uord. 

Though Christ's own publishing of the gospel were 
sufBcient to make it ' worthy of all acception,' yet is 
it said to be ' confirmed,' sZiZaiuOri. That is confirmed 
which is further proved or fulfilled, or made more sure 
and certain. Thus Christ is said to confirm the word 
of his apostles with signs, ^eZaioMToc, Mark xvi. 20 ; 
and God, by sending his Son, to ' confirm the promises 
made to the fathers,' ^iZaiuacu, Rom. xv. 8. That 
also which is kept from failing or from being altered, 
is said to be confirmed. So God doth confirm his 
unto the end, (SiZaiuien, 1 Cor. i. 8; and establijh 
them, jSsQaillv, 1 Cor. i. 21 ; and we are called upon 
to be estabUshed with grace, IStiaioiJaOai, Heb. xiii. 3. 

But that which Christ spake ncedeth not in any 
such respect to be confirmed. He is a ' faithful and 
true witness,' Rev. iii. 14. He is ' the way, the truth, 
and the life,' John xiv. 6 ; that only true way that 
leadeth imto Ufe. So as there was no fear of any un- 
certainty, or of any failing in his word. 

Christ's word therefore was confirmed for these and 
other like reasons. 

1. Because ho was not at all times, in all places, 
present with his church, to urge and press his word 
upon them. For this end he sent forth in his life- 
time disciples to preach, Luke ix. 2 and x. 1. And 
after his ascension he gave apostles and others, ' for 
the perfecting of the saints,' Eph. iv. 11, 12. 

2. Because of our weakness, Christ confirmed his 
word, to support us, ' that we might have strong con- 
solations.' For this end God confirmed his promise 
by an oath, Heb. vi. 17, 18. 

8. Because of the commendable custom of men. 

Ver. 2-4.] 


who use to confirm their own words by the consent 
and testimony of others. Thus St Paul, in his incrip- 
tions of his epistles, joins with himself Sosthenes, 
1 Cor. i. 1 ; Timothy, 2 Cor. i. 1 ; Silvanus and 
Timothy, 1 Thes. i. 1 ; Timothy with the bishops 
and deacons, Philip, i. 1 ; all the brethren which 
were with him. Gal. i. 2. 

4. Because by God's law and man's, ' at the mouth 
of two or three witnesses, every word shall be estab- 
lished,' Dent. xix. 15. 

Thus Christ's word was confirmed, 

1. In that there were many witnesses of the same 
truth wherein they all agreed, Luke xxiv. 48, Acts 
ii. 32. 

2. In that such as despised him in his lifetime, after 
his resurrection and ascension were wrought upon, 
Acts ii. 87. 

3. In that by reason of the power of the Spirit in 
them, they who preached the gospel of Christ after 
him were ' received as an angel of God, even as Christ 
Jesus,' Gal. iv. 14. 

4. In that many who never heard Christ themselves, 
believed that word that Christ had preached, but was 
made known to them by others, 1 Peter i. 8. 

Thus it appears that this confirming of Christ's 
word addeth nothing to the authority thereof. The 
church may confirm the sacred Scriptures to be the 
word of God, yet confer nothing to their authority. 
Divine mysteries may be confirmed by human testi- 
monies, yet no authority brought thereby to those 

God being pleased thus to confirm the gospel to us, 
it ought to be a stedfast word to us (see Sec. 11); we 
ought with all stedfastness of faith to receive it, and 
to continue stedfastly therein, as the Christians of the 
primitive church did in the apostles' doctrine. Acts 
ii. 42. 

Sec. 26. Of apostles. 

They by whom Christ's word was confii-med, were 
they that heard him, uto tuv axouadtTuv. Hereby are 
meant such as Christ chose to be his disciples, who 
continually followed him, who heard his sermons and 
saw his works ; whom he made apostles, Luke vi. 13. 

An apostle, a-TronToXog, according to the notation 
of the Greek word,' signifieth one that is sent from 
another. Thus an apostle saith, ' Christ sent me,' 
artisTuXi, 'to preach the gospel,' 1 Cor. i. 17. 

The Greek word is used for a messenger, and so 
translated, Philip, ii. 25. 

Most frequently in the New Testament an apostle 
is put for such an one as was sent and deputed to a 
peculiar function ; which was an extraordinary func- 
tion, endowed with many privileges. 

Apostles therefore were distinguished from other 


ii», ami mandatis miltere. MiUere 
qui miltiiuT mm mandatia. 

ministers, both by the manner of calling them, and 
also by the privileges confirmed ' on them. 

Their calling was immediate from Christ himself. 
That may be applied to all the apostles which St Paul 
saith of his own particular calling : ' An apostle, not of 
men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ,' Gal. i. 1. 

Their special privileges were these : 

1. To plant churches, and to lay the foundation. 
In this respect saith the apostle, ' I have laid the 
foundation,' 1 Cor. iii. 10. 

2. To be immediately inspired, John xiv. 26, Gal. 
i. 12. 

8. To be infallibly assisted by the Holy Ghost, John 
xvi. 13 and xxi. 24. 

4. To be limited to no place, but sent out into the 
whole world, Mat. xsviii. 19. 

5. To have a power to give the Holy Ghost, Acts 
viii. 17. 

6. To confirm their doctrines by miracles, Mat. x. 1, 
Acts ii. 43 and v. 12. 

7. To understand and speak all manner of tongues, 
Acts ii. 11. 

8. To execute visible judgments on notorious sinners, 
Acts V. 5 and xiii. 11. 

These privileges evidently demonstrate that the 
apostles were extraordinary ministers, of extraordinary 
abilities, whereby they were the better fitted to their 
extraordinary work. 

This gives evidence of the wisdom of Christ in 
ordering the aflairs of his church, and of his care 
thereabouts, in that he enableth, provideth, and pre- 
pareth for his church such ministers as may be fittest 
for the present estate and condition thereof. It is an 
especial part of wisdom to take due notice of the pre- 
sent particular charge which is under one, and answer- 
ably to provide for it. It is noted as a point of 
prudence in Saul, that ' when he saw any strong man, 
or any valiant man, he took him unto him,' 1 Sam. 
xiv. 52, namely, to be a leader, and to have a com- 
mand in his army. Christ in his wisdom doth not 
only find such, but also he makes such as the present 
state and need of his church requireth. 

Sec. 27. Of confirminq the qospel to them that then 

About confii-ming the gospel, this clause is added, 
£/'s jj/i&s, 'to us.' Hereby the penman of this epistle 
includes himself in the number of those to whom the 
gospel is here said to be confirmed, as he did before in 
the number of those whom he exhorted to give diligent 
heed to the gospel, and to beware that they let not slip 
what they had beard ; and whom he told, that they 
should not escape if they neglected so great salvation. 

From this expression, 'confirmed to us by them 
that heard him,' we may well infer that this epistle 
was written in the apostle's days ; yea, and by one of 
the apostles. 

1 Qu. ' conferrod ' ?— Ed. 


[Chap. II. 

Of the author of this epistle, see the title, Sec. 4. 

But, on the coutrary, it is bj- many' hence inferred 
that neither Paul nor any other of the apostles was the 
author thereof, because he saith thut it was confirmed 
to them by the apostles. Whence they gather, that 
the penman hereof received not the gospel from Christ, 
which Paul did. Gal. i. 12 ; and all the other apostles, 
Mat. xxviii. 20, Acts i. 8. 

Many answers may be given to this objection. 

1. The two Greek pronouns of the first and second 
persons plui-al, jj/xe/";, i/.as/j, have so small a difference, 
and that in one only letter, as one may soon be put 
for the other. Judicious Bcza- saith that he hath 
oft noted this mistake. If, therefore, the second 
person plural were here put, thus, ' was confirmed to 
you,' tig i/jLoig, that scruple is clean taken away. 

2. This phrase, unto us, may be referred to the 
time as well as to the persons; as if it had been 
thus translated, until us, or to our (Inijs, fw; I'li 
ilfia; ; implying that the gospel, from Christ's own 
preaching thereof, was confirmed by the apostles to 
their very days. 

8. The apostle may use the first person, as he was 
a member of that mystical body, whereof they, to 
whom he wrote, were also members, and by virtue of 
that communion, included himself; though it did not 
in'particular concern himself. Thus he puts himself 
in the number of those who shall be living at Christ's 
last coming, where he saith, ' we shall not all sleep,' 
1 Cor. sv. 51, yet he himself slept many hundred 
years ago. So 1 Thess. iv, 17. 

4. The gospel might be confirmed to Paul by other 
apostles, though it was immediately revealed unto him 
by Jesus Christ. Not that that confirmation wrought 
in him any greater assurance of the truth thereof, but 
that it established the church more therein, by the 
mutual consent of other apostles with him ; to this 
purpose, saith the apostle, ' I communicated unto 
them the gospel, &c., lest by any means I should 
run, or had run in vain,' Gal. ii. 2. 

5. The confirmation here intended may have re- 
ference to the miracles which were wrought by the 
apostles. Thus might the gospel be confirmed, not 
only to other believers, but also to the apostles them- 
Belves ; even by the miracles which they themselves 
and others also did. To this purpose tends the 
prayer of the apostles. Acts iv. 29, 80. 

6. The words do not necessarily imply that the pen- 
man of this epistle, or any other person, was confirmed, 
but rather that the gospel itself was confirmed. Here- 
of see Sec. 25. 

Sec. 28. Of God working miraclea. 

The apostle yet further proceeds in setting down 
another confirmation of the gospel. It was first 
preached by Christ, then confirmed by the apostles, 
and now again by God himself, roZ QioZ ; namely, by 
' Cajetan, Calvin, Hosman. ' Beza Annotat. major, in loc. 

such divine works as could not be performed, but by a 
divine power, the very power of God. For God hath 
restrained the power of all creatures within a eompa-^s. 
They cannot do anything above or beyond the course 
of nature, much less against it. This prerogative the 
Lord of nature hath reserved to himself; ' that nitii 
may see and know and consider, and understand to- 
gether that the hand of the Lord hath done this,' 
Isa. xli. 20. ' The things which are impossible with 
men, are possible with God,' Luke xviii. 27. ' For 
with God all things are possible, Mark x. 27. ' No- 
thing shall be impossible with him,' Luke i. 87. 

As God can and doth daily work by means, so, 
when it pleaseth him, he can work without means, by 
extraordinary means, and by contrary means. 

1. Without means, God made tlie world. Gen. i. 
3, Ps. xxxiii. 9. Moses remained alive forty days 
and forty nights, and neither ate bread nor drank 
water, Deut. is. 9. So Elijah, 1 Ivings xix. 8. And 
Christ, Mat. iv. 2. 

2. The extraordinary means which God hath used 
have been manifold ; as, 

(1.) In the very thing itself or kind of means. 
Manna, wherewith the Lord fed the Israelites forty 
years together, was a grain that fell from heaven, 
Exod. xvi. 4, &c. The like was never heard of before, 
or since. 

(2.) In the quantity of the means. The meal and 
oil wherewith the prophet Elijah and the widow of 
Zarephath and her household were nourished for three 
years together, was in the kind of it ordinary, 1 Kings 
xvii. 12, &,c. ; but that so little meal as could make 
but one little cake, and so little oil as was but sulH- 
cient for that cake, should feed so many, so long, was 
extraordinary and miraculous. The like may be said 
of the five loaves and two fishes wherewith Christ fed 
five thousand men, besides women and children, Mat. 
xiv. 17, &c. 

(8.) In the quality of the means. That Daniel and 
his three companions, should for throe years, feed on 
pulse only, and drink water only, and yet their coun- 
tenances appear fairer and fatter than they who did 
eat of the choicest meat and drink that could be pro- 
vided for that end, was also miraculous, and appeared 
to be an especial work of God, Daniel i. 5, &c. 

(4.) In the manner of providing means. That ravens 
should be Elijah's caterers, constantly to provide him 
bread and flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh 
in the evening, was extraordinary, 1 Kings xvii. 6. 
So also that water, upon striking of a rock with Moses 
his rod, should flow forth and run like a river, Exod. 
xvii. 6, Ps. cv. 41. 

3. That the three servants of God should be pre- 
served safe in the midst of an hot fiery furnace, was 
against means, or by contrary means ; for fire is an 
ordinary means to consume things cast thereinto, 
Daniel iii. 27. The like may be said of Daniel's pre- 
servation in the den of lions, Daniel vi. 22. 

Ver. 2-4.] 


All these, and other like works, that are heyond the 
course of nature, are done by God himself. Of them 
all it may be said, ' This is the finger of God,' Exod. 
viii. 19. 

Sec. 29. 0/ creatures' disability about miracles. 
Sundry objections are made against the foresaid 
truth, but they may all easily and readily be an- 

Obj. 1. Christ, in the days of his flesh, wrought 

Ans. Christ, in the lowest degree of his humilia- 
tion, retained his divine dignity, and ever remained to 
be true God, ' one with the Father," John x. 30. 
' He being in the form of God, thought it not robbery 
to be equal with God, but made himself of no reputa- 
tion,' Philip, ii. 6, 7. ' What thing soever the Father 
doth, these also doth the Son likewise,' John v. 19. 
Christ, by his miracles, proved himself to be true God, 
Mat. ix. 6. This, therefore, confirmeth the point, 
that Christ the true God wrought miracles. 

Obj. 2. Prophets, apostles, and others, who were 
mere men, wrought miracles, as Moses, Exod. iv. 8 ; 
Elijah, 1 Kings svii. 21, 22 ; Elisha, 2 Kings iv. 25 ; 
all the apostles. Mat. x. 1. 

Ans. God wrought those miracles by them. They 
were but God's ministers and instruments therein. 
Peter acknowledges as much. Acts iii. 12, 16. There- 
upon, Peter, when he miraculously cured Jilneas, 
thus saith unto him, ' jEneas, Jesus Christ maketh 
thee whole,' Acts ix. 34. 

Obj. 3. Wicked men have wrought miracles, as 
Judas, Mat. x. 1, 4; and such as followed not 
Christ, Luke ix. 49 ; and they of whom Christ saith, 
' Depart from me, ye that work iniquity,' Mat. vii. 
22, 23. 

Alts. God may and oft doth use wicked men to 
confirm his truth by miracles, as well as to preach it. 

Obj. 4. Miracles may be wrought against the truth ; 
for in the law it is said, ' If there arise among you a 
prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and giveth thee a 
sign or a wonder ; and the sign or the wonder come to 
pass, whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go 
after other gods; thou shalt not hearken,' Deut. xiii. 

Ans. 1. In the text there is only a supposition 
made, if there be; which doth not necessarily imply 
that such a thing may be. 

2. There may be signs and wonders done, which are 
not true miracles. 

3. Their foretelling of a thing may be upon mere 
conjecture, as fortune-tellers guess at things to come. 
But herein is nothing extraordinary. 

4. God may work by such evil instruments, in 
such an evil cause, to try whether his people will be 
drawn by any means from a known truth. This may 
seem to be implied in these words, ' For the Lord your 
God proveth you, to laiow whether yon love the Lord 

your God, with all your heart, and with all your 
soul,' Deut. xiii. 8. 

Obj. 5. The sorcerers in Egypt wrought miracles. 
For it is said that ' they also did in like manner with 
their enchantments,' Exod. vii. 11, 12, 22, and viii. 
7 ; they did as Moses had done before ; they turned 
the rods into serpents, and water into blood ; and 
they brought abundance of frogs. 

Ans. In outward appearance, there was some like- 
ness betwixt the things which Moses did, and which 
the sorcerers did ; but in the truth and substance of 
the things, there was a very great diflerence. 

The things which Moses did were true and proper 
miracles ; but the things which the sorcerers did, they 
did only appear unto man's eye to be so ; ' for the 
devil can present to the ej'e of man shows and shapes 
of such things as indeed are not. But suppose that 
the things which the sorcerers pretended were real ; 
that there were true serpents, true blood, true frogs ; 
the devil might secretly bring from other places such 
things, and present them before Pharaoh, and before 
them that were present with him : and this not above, 
much less against, the course of nature. 

Obj. 6. A woman that had a familiar spirit raised 
Samuel after he was dead, 1 Sam. xxviii. 11, 12. 

Ans. That which appeared to be like unto Samuel, 
was not Samuel himself, but the devil presented unto 
Saul a shape like unto Samuel ; in which the devil 
himself spake unto Saul. Though he pretended to fore- 
tell things future, yet he did it but by guess. He saw 
the Philistines very well prepared, and he observed 
that God had utterly forsaken Saul ; and thereupon 
took the boldness to foretell, that the Lord would de- 
liver Israel into the hand of the Philistines, and that 
Saul and his sons should be with Samuel, who was 
then dead ; that is, they should be dead also, 1 Sam. 
xxviii. 19. 

Obj. 7. St Paul saith, that the coming of antichrist 
is ' after the working of Satan, with all power and 
signs,' 2 Thes. ii. 9. 

Ans. In the next clause it is added, 'and lying 
wonders.' This last clause shews that the signs be- 
fore mentioned were but counterfeit, not true miracles. 

Papists, who are the antichristians, do exceed above 
all others in counterfeiting miracles, which are but 
plain deceits and illusions. 

It remains, notwithstanding all that hath been or 
can be objected, that God alone doth true miracles. 
' Whatsoever the Lord pleased, that did he in heaven, 
and in the earth, in the seas and all deep places,' Ps. 
cxxxv. 6, and so can he still do. 

While we have God for our God, we need not fear, 
nor faint by reason of any danger or want for means ; 
but when we know not what we do, to ' lift up our 
eyes upon him,' 2 Chron. xx. 12, and in faith to say, 

' Magorum serpentes, qui per Moysis serpentem devoran- 
tur, imaginarii fuerunt — Aug. de Mirab- S. Scrip, lib. i. 
cap. xvii. 


[Chap. II. 

' God will provide,' Gen. xxii. 8. We ought on this 
ground to ho of the mind of those three faithful ser- 
vants of God, who hy a king were threatened with a 
burning fiery furnace, and say, ' Our God whom we 
serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery fur- 
nace, and he will deliver us.' Ps. xlvi. is worthy our 
serious and frequent meditation for this purpose. It 
is by many styled Luther a Psalm; because Luther 
oft said it and sung it, especially in the time of any 
trouble. So trust to the power of God in all straits, 
as ye subject to his will, and prescribe no means to 
him ; but refer the manner of working to his wisdom. 
For he hath said, ' I will never leave thee nor forsake 
thee,' Heb. xiii. 5. 

Sec. 30. Of God's bearing witness to his word hy his 

Of those works, which could not be done but by God 
himself, it is said, that God 'did bear witness' thereby. 
For such works do evidently demonstrate that such a 
word is divine, God's word sent from God himself. 
The greater the works are, the more excellent and 
more sure is the word that is ratified thereby. 

To bear witness to a thing is to confirm the truth 
of it. 

The word which the apostle here useth is a double 
compound, o-onTriixaoTv^oZvroi. The simple verb, /*««- 
ru^(iv, signifieth to witness a thing, John i. 7. The 
compound, sm/^a^Tu^erf, to add testimony to testi- 
mony; or to add a testimony to some other confirma- 
tion, as 1 Peter i. 12. The double compound, ffunEw;- 
IMu^TuPiTv, to give a joint testimony ; or to give witness 
together with one another. So much signifies another 
like Greek compound, aufi/j-a^Tuiuii, used by the apos- 
tle, Rom. viii. 16, and translated ' bear witness with.' 

Thus God by his works did witness with his Son, 
and with his apostles, to that gospel which they 
preached. God's works give a most clear and sure 
evidence to that for which they are wrought or pro- 
duced. When the people saw how God had led 
them through the depths, and how the waters had 
covered their enemies, ' then they believed his words,' 
Ps. cvi. 9-12. When others saw the fire that upon 
Elijah's prayer fell from heaven, they fell on their 
faces, and said, ' The Lord he is God, the Lord he is 
God,' 1 Kings xviii. 39. When the widow of Zare- 
phath saw her son that was dead restored to life by 
Elijah, she said, ' Now by this I know that thou art a 
man of God, and that the word of the Lord in thy 
mouth is truth,' 1 Kings xvii. 24. On such a ground 
said Nicodemus to Christ, ' We know that thou art a 
teacher come from God ; for no man can do these 
miracles that thou doest, except God be with him,' 
John iii. 2. When the Jews had seen the miracle 
that Jesus did, they said, ' This is of a truth that pro- 
phet that should come into the world,' John vi. 14. 
On this ground doth Christ oft produce his works to 
witness who and what he was : ' The works which the 

Father hath given me to finish, the same works tha 
I do, bear witness of me that the Father hath sen 
me,' saith Christ, John v. 36. And again, ' The 
works that I do in my Father's name, they bear wit 
ness of me ;' thereupon he addeth, ' Though ye be 
lieve not me, believe the works,' John x. 2.5, 38. 
; This witness that God hath given, gives good evi 
i dence of his special care over his church, in that b( 
I laboureth so much to establish her in the word of sal 
vation. For he thought it not enough to have the 
gospel once published, though it were by his Son ; or to 
have it further confirmed by other witnesses, and those 
many ; but he further addeth other witnesses, even 
his own divine works ; which may well be accounted 
witnesses, for they have a kind of voice ; according to 
that which the Lord himself saith, ' It shall come to 
pass, if they will not believe thee, neither hearken to 
the voice of the first sign, that they will beheve the 
voice of the latter sign. 

Papists, upon this kind of witness by miracles, do 
exceedingly insult against protestants, and that in two 
especial respects. 

1. In regard of a pretence of many miracles wrought 
for confirmation of their church and their doctrines. 

2. In regard of the want of miracles among pro- 
testants ; whence they infer, that we have neither true 
church nor true ministry. 

To the first ground of their insultation, I answer, 
that they prove themselves thereby, if at least the 
kind of their miracles be thoroughly examined, to be 
plain anticbristians. For whosoever shall judiciously 
read their legends and authors,' that have written of 
their miracles, shall find them so ridiculous, as they 
plainly appear to be lying wonders ; and the apostle 
saith, that the coming of antichrist is after such a 
manner, 2 Thes. ii. 9. 

As for the other part of their insultation, I answer, 
that we have all the miracles that Christ and his 
apostles did to confirm our church, our ministry, and 
doctrine. For our church is built upon Christ the 
chief corner-stone, and upon that foundation which 
his apostles laid. And our ministry is according to 
the order which Christ and his apostles have ascribed' 
unto us ; and our doctrine is the same which Christ 
and his apostles preached. What need we, then, any 
other confirmation than that which is here set down 
by our apostle ? Indeed, if we joined new articles of 
faith, or preached another gospel than they did, or 
had another way of ordaining ministers than they 
have warranted unto us, miracles would be necessary 
for confirming such new things. 

Sec. 81. (]f signs, ironders, and miracles. 
The means whereby God did bear witness to the 
gospel, are set out in four words : signs, wonders, 

' Brist. in Motiv. Coster. Encliir. cap. ii. Boz. do Sif,'ii. 
cap. i. * Qu. ' prescribed ' ? — En. 

Ver. -l-i.] 


miracles, gifts. The three former set out the same 

1. Sipns, according to the notation of the word, im- 
ply such external visible things, as signify and declare 
some memorable matter which otherwise could not be 
so well discerned, nor would be believed. ' We would 
see a sign from thee,' say the pharisees to Christ, 
Mat. xii. 38. And they desired him that he would 
'shew them a sign,' Mat. xvi. 1. 

These two words, nee,' slicw, imply that a sign is of 
some external visible thing that may be shewed and 
seen. And extraordinary it must be, because it useth 
to be for confirmation of some secret and divine mat- 
ter. Thus the pharisees would have a sign ' from 
heaven,' Mat. xvi. 1, which must needs be extraordi- 
nary. Thereupon sir/iis and voiiders are oft joined to- 
gether, as John iv. 48, Acts ii. 43, and iv. 30, and vii. 
86. Our last translators do oft translate this Greek 
word, which properly signifieth sir/ns, they translate 
it miracles, as Luke xxiii. 8, John ii. 11 and John 
aii. 2. 

2. The Greek word translated wonders, is used by 
all sorts of authors for some strange thing, that may 
seem to foretell some other thing to come. ' I will 
shew wonders in heaven,' saith the Lord, Acts ii. 19. 
Those strange things which by the ministry of Moses 
were done in Egypt, in the Red Sea, and in the 
wilderness, are set out under this word wonders. Acts 
vii. 86. Our English doth fitly translate the Greek 
word wonders. By reason of the eflect, they cause won- 
der ; and by reason of the strangeness of them, they 
are wonderful, Mat. xv. 31 ; Mark vi. 51; Acts iii. 10. 
Our English word miracle, according to the notation 
of the Latin word whence it is taken, signifieth a 
matter of wonder. 

8. The Greek word here translated miracles, properly 
signifieth powers. It is derived from a verb that sig- 
nifieth to he able. This word in the singular number 
is put for a man's ability. Mat. xxv. 15, for bis strength, 
2 Cor. i. 8 ; and also for strength in the sun. Rev. i. 
16; and in sin, 1 Cor. xv. 56. It is also put for 
virtue in one, Mark v. 30 ; and for the power of man, 
1 Cor. iv. 19 ; of a prophet, Luke i. 17 ; of the spirit, 
Eph. iii. 16 ; of Christ, 2 Cor. xii. 9 ; and of God, 
Mat. xxii. 29. In the plural number it is put for 
angels, Rom. viii. 88, 1 Peter iii. 22, which excel in 
strength, Ps. ciii. 20 ; and for the firm and stable 
things in heaven, Mat. xxiv. 29 ; and for extraordi- 
nary works. Hereupon they|are styled in our,English 
mighty deeds, 2 Cor. xii. 12 ; mighty works. Mat. xi. 
20-23; wonderful works. Mat. vii. 21 ; and frequently, 
as here in this text, miracles. Acts ii. 22, and xix. 11, 
1 Cor. xii. 10, 28, 29. For miracles (as hath been 
shewed, Sec. 28) cannot be wTought but by an extra- 
ordinary power, even the power of God himself. Fitly 
therefore is this word jioucrs used to set out miracles; 
and fitly is it here, and in other places, translated 

Sec. 32. Of the distinction betwixt sii/ns, wonders, 

Some distinguish these three words into three sorts 
of mu-acles, each exceeding others in greatness or 
degrees ; as 

1. Signs, the least kind of miracles, as healing 

2. Wonders, a greater kind, as opening the eyes of 
the blind, ears of the deaf, giving speech to the dumb, 
and other like, which cause wonder. 

3. Powers, or miracles, the greatest kind of them ; 
as giving sight to the born blind, raising the dead, 
even one four days dead, and dispossessing the 

This distinction is too carious. For every true 
miracle requires a divine and almighty power ; and to 
the Lord it is as easy to give sight to him that was born 
blind, as to restore it to him that had it before : 
' There is no restraint to the Lord to save by many 
or by few,' 1 Sam. xiv. 6. 

Besides, the penmen of the New Testament do pro- 
miscuously use these words for the same things. 
Sometime all sorts of mu'acles are comprised under 
signs, John xx. 30 ; sometimes under powers, and 
translated mighty tmrks, Mat. xi. 20; sometimes under 
signs and wonders, as Acts ii. 43; and sometimes under 
all the three words that are here mentioned, as Acts 
ii. 22, 2 Cor. xii. 12. 

I suppose that all these three words may have 
reference to the same mighty works. 

This variety of words setteth out the diverse pro- 
perties of the same things. 

Signs shew that they must be external and visible, 
that they may the better signify and manifest some 
other thing, not so visible. 

Wonders shew that by reason of the strangeness of 
them, being above or against the course of nature, 
they cause wonder. 

Powers (here translated miracles) shew that they are 
done by an extraordinary and almighty power. 

Thus the same extraordinary things were in the Old 
Testament set out by divers words, dreams, visions, 
revelations. Dreams, because men in their sleep dream 
of them. Visions, because some visible objects were 
represented to them. Revelations, because God 
thereby revealed some unknown matter to come. 
Thus ' God, that revealeth secrets, made known to 
Nebuchadnezzar what should be in the latter days in 
a dream by vision,' Dan. ii. 22. Thus are divers 
names given to angels, which do set out distinct pro- 
perties in the same angels, rather than several persons, 
as hath been shewed, Chap. i. Sec. 85. 

Sec. 83. Of a miracle. 

A miracle, according to the notation of the Latin 
word miracuhim, from whence this English word is 
taken, signifieth such a thing as causeth wonder, or is 
in itself wonderful. In the common use of it, it sig- 


[ClIAP. II. 

nifieth a wonder in the highest degree, which ariseth 
from something that is supernatural. 

From the fore-mentioned three words, and the end 
of setting them down here, this description of a miracle 
may be raised. 

A miracle is a visible, wonderful work, done by the 
almightj' power of God, above, or against the course 
of nature, to con6rm some divine truth. 

1. A miracle is a work or a true act, not a mere 
show or appearance of that which is not. Herein it 
differs from such an appearance as was represented to 
Saul, 1 Sam. xxviii. 12 : and from all juggling delu- 
sions ; such as the sorcerers of Egypt used, Exod. vii. 
11, 12, and viii. 7. 

2. It is a visible work, such an one as men may 
pee, and thereupon be moved therewith, as the 
Israelites were, 1 Kings xviii. 39. The pretence of 
transubstantiation, wherein no visible alteration of the 
creature is to be seen, is against the nature of a 
miracle, which is a sign. 

3. It is above the course of nature, or against it. 
Herein lieth the very form of a miracle ; whereby it 
is distinguished from other wonders, which may be 
extraordinary, though not simply supernatural ; such 
as the second beast did, liev. xiii. 13. 

4. It is done by the almighty power of God. No 
man, no angel, whether good or evil, can alter the 
course which the Creator hath set to his creature. 
That power God hath reserved to himself. Pretended 
miracles wrought by the power of the devil, are but 

5. The proper end of a true miracle is to confirm a 
divine truth ; this was proved before, Sec. 30. All 
the miracles boasted of by papists, for proof of any of 
their heretical and idolatrous positions, or practices, 
are counterfeit. 

Sec. 84. Of the ditrrsiln nf miracles. 

The miracles whereby the gospel was confirmed are 
here said to be tlirers, rroiy.iXan. This may be referred 
to the multitude of them. For though very many of 
them be registered in the New Testament, yet it is 
said that Christ did many other signs, John xxi. 80. 

To the multitude of Christ's miracles may this also 
be applied, ' There are many other things which Jesus 
did, the which, if they should be written every one, I 
suppose that even the world itself could not contain 
the books that should be written,' John xx. 25. 

But this word direfx hath reference most properly 
to the diflerent kind of miracles ; as, curing diseases, 
restoring senses and limbs, raising the dead, dispos- 
sessing devils, &c. 

This word is attributed to such things as are many 
in their number, and various in their kinds : as to 
pleasures, Titus iii. 8 ; to lusts, 2 Tim. iii. 6 ; to 
doctrines, Heb. xiii. 9 ; to temptations, James i. 2 ; 
yea, and to such diseases as Christ cured. Mat. iv. 24. 
All these are said to be divers; and they are every way 

so diverse, as neither the number nor the several 
kinds of them can be reckoned up. 

Concerning the diversity of miracles, whereby the 
gospel was confirmed, God had therein respect to 
men's backwardness in believing, and to the manifold 
oppositions against the gospel. If a few miracles 
would not serve the turn, there were many; if this 
or that kind of miracles wrought not on men, yet 
other kinds might, according to that which is recorded 
of the diverse signs which God commanded Moses to 
shew: ' It shall come to pass, if they will not believe 
thee, neither hearken to the voice of the first sign, 
that they will believe the voice of the latter sign. 
And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe also 
these two signs, that thou shalt take of the water of 
the river, and pour it upon the dry land, and it shall 
become blood,' Exod. iv. 8, 9. 

Though Pharaoh's heart were out of measure hard, 
and by nine several plagues was not moved to let 
Israel go, yet by another, which was diverse from all 
the rest, he was moved, Exod. xii. 30, 31. Many 
blows, especially with divers hammers, one heavier 
than another, will drive a great spike up to the head 
into such a rough piece of timber as a few blows with 
one light hammer could not make entrance thereunto. 

It appears that it was the multitude and diversity of 
miracles that wrought upon the Jews in that they said, 
' When Christ cometh, will he do more miracles than 
these which this man hath done ?' John vii. 31. 

This is one end why God in all ages hath furnished 
his church with variety of ministers, endued with divers 
gifts, that the church might he more edified thereby. 
When Barnabas, a son of consolation. Acts iv. 86, 
little moves people, Boanerges, sons of thunder, may 
work upon them, Mark iii. 17. Sometimes an Apollos, 
an eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures, and 
fenent in the spirit, may much help such as believe 
through gi-ace, aud may convince the gainsayers. Acts 
xxiv. 25, 27, 28. 

Sec. 35. Of the fll/ls of the Holy Ghost. 

The fourth means whereby God confirmed the 
gospel were (jifis of the Holt/ Ghost ; that is, such gifts 
as the Spirit of God wrought in men. 

The Greek word /Mtsia/jLoTg, here translated gifts, pro- 
perly signifieth dirisiotis or distributions. This very 
word in the singular number is translated dividing 
asunder, a^jj /isj;n/iov, Heb. iv. 12. 

Another word, inoiSTr,;, derived from the same root 
that this is, is transhited a divider, Luke xii. 14. 

The verb /«.£;/^e;v signifieth to divide (as where it is 
said of Christ, ' He divided, ifi'isiei, the two fishes 
among them,' Mark vi. 41) or to distribute, as where 
it is said, ' God hath distributed (c/iieidf) to every man,' 
1 Cor. vii. 17 ; so 2 Cor. x. 13. 

Now, the church being as a body consisting of many 
members, the Holy Ghost doth divide and distribute 
gifts needful for the whole body to and among the 

\'i;r. 2-1.] 


Several members thereof, to one one gift, to another 
another, 1 Cor. xii. 8, &c. Hence in Greek they are 
called divisions, ij,i^iaij.h, or distributions ; and because 
they arise not from ourselves, but are given by an- 
other, and that most freely, they are not unfitly trans- 
lated (lift!:. 

In other places another word {■^ao!s/j,ixra) is used to 
set out the very same things that are here intended, 
and it properly signifieth free rjifts, Eom. xii. G. 

The word that signifieth distributions is here trans- 
lated gifts, because they confirm the gospel (which is 
the main end why mention is here made of them), as 
they are gifts extraordinarily given by the Holy Ghost. 

Ghost is an ancient EngUsh word, that signifieth the 
same thing that spirit doth. The word that in Greek 
signifieth spirit, n>Eu,!ia, is oft translated yhost, espe- 
cially when it is spoken of the departing of a man's 
soul or spirit from his body. Of Christ it is said, ' He 
gave up the ghost,' Mat. sxvii. 50, John xix. 30. 

He that here and in many other places is called Holy 
Ghost, is also called Holy Spirit, nesC/ia ay/on, Luke 
xi. 13, Eph. i. 13, and iv. 30. Here the third person 
in sacred Trinity is meant. 

This epithet hohf is attributed to the Spirit, 

1. In regard of his divine property, in which respect 
I the Father, John xvii. 11, and Son also is styled holy, 
I Acts iv. 27, 30. 

! 2. In regard of his special function or operation, 

I which is to make holy. In this respect he is called 
I ' the Spirit of holiness,' Kom. i. 4, and sanctification 
I is appropriated unto him, 2 Thes. ii. 13, 1 Peter i. 2. 
1 Of the Holy Ghost, see more, Chap. iii. 7, Sec. 74. 

Though every good gift be of the Holy Ghost, Gal. 
V. 22, yet here such extraordinary gifts as in the 
apostles' times were conferred on any are especially 
meant, such as were before Christ's exhibition fore- 
told, Joel ii. 28, 29, and after Christ's ascension were 
abundantly poured out. Acts ii. 8. 

That extraordinary gifts are here intended is evident, 
in that they are here joined with signs, wonders, Ifcd 
miracles, and because they are brought in for the very 
same end, namely, for confirmation of the gospel. 

Those miracles were extraordinary, and gave evident 
proof of the divine calling of them who are endued 
therewith, and of the divine truth of that doctrine for 
which they were given. 

By the gifts of the Holy Ghost poured on them, 
who on the day of pentecost were assembled together, 
an apostle proves to the Jews that that Jesus whona 
they had crucified was both ' Lord and Christ,' Acts 
ii. 33, 36. By like gifts did he confirm the calling of 
the Gentiles, Acts xi. 15-17. 

Those gifts were diverse, as well as the miracles before 
mentioned. This is particularly exemplified, 1 Cor. j 
xii. 4, &c. They are distributed into three general 
heads : 1, gifts ; 2, administrations ; 3, operations. 

1. Under i/ifts, yaikij.a.ra, are comprised such abih- 
' Of this epHhet holy, see Chap. iii. 1, Sec. 6. 

ties as the Spirit freely giveth unto men to perform 
the duties of their functions. Of these gifts the 
apostle reckoneth up sundry particulars, as wisdom, 
knowledge, faith, &c. 

2. Under administrations, biay.o'iiat, are comprised 
such callings and functions as God hath ordained for 
the good of his church. Of these sundry kinds are 
reckoned up, 1 Cor. xii. 28. 

3. Under operations, in^yriiJ.a.ra., such fruits and 
effects as issue from the forenaraed gifts, well employed 
in men's several functions. The notation of the word' 
intimates as much. 

Sec. 36. Of the difference betwixt the wonders under 
the law and under the rjospel. 

There were indeed at the delivery of the law thunder 
and lightning, and other great signs, distinctly set 
set down, Esod. xix. 16, &c., and Heb. xii. 18, &c. 
Moses also did very great wonders, Deut. xxxiv. 11, 
12, Ps. Ixxviii. 12, "&c., Acts Vii. 36. So did other 
prophets, especially Elijah and Elisha ; but the gospel 
was confirmed with more and greater miracles, John 
vii. 31, and is. 32, and xv. 24. 

The miracles which Christ did excelled all the mira- 
cles done before him, in five especial respects : 

1. In the ground or power of doing them ; for Christ 
did what he did by his own power, in his own name, 
Mark i. 27, and ii. 5, 6, &c. ; but others did their great 
works by power received from God, and in the name 
of the Lord. The Lord sent Moses to do all the signs 
and wonders which he did, Deut. xxxiv. 11. 

2. In the very matter and kind of works which 
Christ did. Never any restored sight to one that was 
born blind but Christ, Jnhn ix. 32. This very work 
was greater than all the works that Moses did in 
Egypt, the Ked Sea, and wilderness; and than the 
standing still of the sun and moon upon -loshua's 
prayer, Joshua x. 12,13; or than the sun's going back 
at Isaiah's prayer, 2 Kings xx. 11 ; or than the mira- 
cles done by the ministry of Elijah and Elisha ; for in 
these and other miracles recorded before Christ's time 
there was but an alteration of the ordinary course of 
nature ; but in giving sight to a man that never had 
sight before, was a new creation. Besides, we never 
read of any devils dispossessed before Christ's time. 
This is most certain, that never any raised himself from 
the dead by his own power before Christ ; but herein 
Christ ' declared himself to be the Son of God with 
power,' Rom. i. 4. 

3. In the manner of working his gi-eat works. Christ 
did what he did with authority and command, Mark 
i. 27, and ii. 11, and v. 41 ; others did what they did 
with prayer and submission to God's will, 1 Kings 
xvii. 20, 2 Kings iv. 33, and v. 11. 

4. In the end. Christ's end in working miracles 
was to set out his glory together with his Father's, to 
shew that he was the Son of God, true God, Mark ii. 

' hi^yuy, eficaciter ogere. 


[ClIAP. II. 

10, and that men might be bronght to believe in him. 
This is evident by the question which Christ pro- 
pounded to the man that was born blind, and had 
Bight given him by Christ. The question was this : 
' Dost thou believe on the Son of God ?' John ix. 85. 
The prophets did what they did with respect to God 
alone, and to shew that what they did or spake was 
by commission from the Lord, 1 lungs xviii. 80, 87. 

5. In the e.rteiit. Christ's cures of many men's 
bodies extended also to the cure of their souls. This 
is evident by the pardon of sin which he gave to the 
man whom he cured of his palsy, Mat. ix. 2 ; and also 
by this exhortation to another man whom he cured, 
' Behold, thou ai-t made whole ; sin no more,' John 
V. 14. 

But the gifts of the Holy Ghost which are here 
mentioned, do beyond all exception demonstrate that 
the gospel had a greater conlii-mation than the law, 
because never were such gifts given before Christ's 
time. Of these gifts, see Sec. 85. 

Sec. 37. Of God's will in ordering tiorks and gifts. 

The fore-mentioned diversity of miracles and disfri- 
bntion of gifts, were ordered and disposed, xard rriv 
avTou yiXzaiv, 'according to the will' of God. This 
act of distributing is attributed to God, 1 Cor. vii. 
17; to his Son, Eph. iv. 7 ; and to his Spirit, 1 Cor. 
sii. 11. And for kind, number, and measure of gifts, 
all are ordered by the will of this one God, ' according 
to his oun will,' auroD, not another's. The Greek word 
intends as much. 

The will of God is that rule whereby all things are 
ordered that he himself doth, and whereby all things 
ought to be ordered that creatures do. 

Hereupon God's will is distinguished into his secret 
and revealed will. This distinction is grounded on 
these words, ' The secret things belong unto the Lord 
our God, but those things that are revealed belong unto 
ns,' Deut. xxix. 29. 

The secret will of God is called his ' counsel,' Isa. 
xlvi. 10; 'the counsel of his will,' Eph. i. 11 ; 'his 
purpose,' Rom. viii. 28; ' his pleasure,' Isa. xlvi. 10; 
' his good pleasure,' Eph. i. 9 ; ' the good pleasure of 
his will,' Epb. i. 5. 

The other is commonly called God's word, and 
that after the manner of men, because the ordinary 
means whereby men make known their minds is the 
word of their mouth; therefore the revelation of God's 
will is called God's word, whether it be by an audible 
voice from God himself, as Mat. iii. 17 ; or by the 
ministry of angels, ver. 2 ; or by the ministry of men, 
Hosea i. 2. 

This is also called ' the good, and acceptable, and 
perfect will of God,' Rom. xii. 2. 

This revealed will of God is that which is princi- 
pally intended in the second petition of the Lord's 

Hero God's secret will is meant ; this is that supreme 

and absolute will of God, by which all things are, and 
without which nothing can be, Ps. cxv. 8, Eph. i. 11, 
Rom. xi. 34. 

This is God's only rule ; he hath nothing else to 
regulate any purpose or act of his but his own will. 
As therefore he disposeth all things, so in special the 
gifts of the Holy Ghost, ' according to his will.' See 
verse 9, Sec. 78 ; and Chap. vi. 17, Sec. 130. 

The grounds following do demonstrate the equity 

1. God is the fountain whence all gifts flow: ' Every 
good gift, and every perfect gift, is from above, and 
Cometh down from the Father of lights,' James i. 17. 
All are his. Hereupon he thus presseth his right 
against such as were not contented with that portion 
which he gave them : ' Is it nut lawful for me to do 
what I will with mine own?' Mat. xx. 15. 

2. God is the most supreme sovereign over all, he 
is the Lord and Master of all ; he therefore hath power 
to order the places, and duties, and parts of all, as he 
pleaseth, according to his own will. In reference here- 
unto thus saith David, ' The Lord God of Israel chose 
me before all the house of my father, to be king over 
Israel for ever. For he hath chosen Judah to be the 
ruler : and of the house of Judah, the house of my 
father : and among the sons of my father, he liked 
me to make me king over all Israel : and of all my 
sons, he hath chosen Solomon my son to sit upon his 
throne,' &c., 1 Chron. xxviii. 4, 5. 

8. God is the wisest of all. He is wise in heart. 
Job ix. 4; yea, mighty in wisdom. Job xxxvi. 5; 'his 
understanding is infinite,' Ps. cxlvii. 5 ; he is ' only 
wise,' Rom. xvi. 27. He therefore best knoweth 
what is fittest for every one ; and he is fittest to order 
it according to his will. 

4. God's will is the rule of righteousness. What- 
soever is ordered thereby, and agreeable thereto, is 
righteous ; and whatsoever cometh from it is altogether 
righteous : ' The Lord is righteous in all his ways.' 
Qi^ ordering therefore of matters must needs be 
according to right and equity. 

5. The Lord fitteth gifts and functions one to an- 
other ; such gifts as are needful for such a function, 
and such a function as is fittest for such gifts. The 
Lord gave talents to every of his servants, ' according 
to bis several ability,' Mat. xxv. 15 ; and having called 
Bezaleel to the work of the tabernacle, he ' filled him 
with the Spirit of God in wisdom, and in understand- 
ing, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workman- 
ship, to devise cunning works,' Exodus xxxi. 2, 8, &c. 

This teacheth us every one to be content with our 
own measure which God hath proportioned to us, for 
we may be assured thereupon that it is the fittest and 
best for us. Hast thou a small measure ? Bear it 
patiently, that measure is fittest for thee. Hast thou 
a great measure ? Use it couscionably, that is fittest 
for thee. If thou grudgest, thou grudgest against the 
most high, wise, righteous God, the fountain of all 

Vek. 2-4.] 


blessings. Remember Aaron's and Miriam's fault, 
and God's answer thereto, Num. xii. 2, 8. Let the 
coLsideration hereof suppress in thee all murmuriug 
and repining against that measure which others have 

Obj. We are exhorted ' earnestl_y to covet the best 
gifts,' 1 Cor. xii. 31 ; and to ' seek to excel,' 1 Cor. 
xiv. 12 ; and to ' grow up in all things,' Eph. iv. 15. 

Ans. None of these, nor any such like exhortations, 
are contrary to Christian contentedness. For, 

1. Though a man covet a more excellent gift than 
God hath ordained for him, yet when he seeth that 
God hath bestowed such and such a gift upon him, 
less than his desire, he may quietly subject himself to 
God's wise disposition, and rest contented therewith ; 
for the will of God being now made known to him, he 
may persuade himself, that the gift he hath is best for 

2. Seeking to excel, is not ambitiously to strive for 
the highest places and greatest offices in the church, 
as Diotrephes did, 3 John 9 ; but evei-y one to strive 
in his own place to do most good in God's church. 
This therefore is the full exhortation, ' Seek that you 
may excel to the edifying of the church,' 1 Cor. xiv. 
12. So as this teacheth us how to make the best use 
of the place wherein God hath set us, and of the parts 
which he hath given us. 

3. A continual growth in grace is no more opposite 
to Christian contentedness, than the growth of the 
little finger is to the place wherein it is set. Growth 
and contentedness may well stand together ; yea, they 
always go together. Growth in grace received, sheweth 
our good liking thereof, and that we think it the fittest 
for US, and are thereupon stirred up to nourish and 
cherish it, to keep it from decay, and to increase it 
more and more. 

Sec. 38. 0/ the resolution of the Id, M, and ith 
verses oj the second chapter. 

The sum of these verses is, a motive to enforce a 
diligent heeding of the gospel. Two general points 
are to be observed : 

1. The inference. 

2. The substance. 

Ver. 2. The inference is in this causal particle, yd^, 

The substance setteth out an argument, a minore ad 
mnjus, from the less to the greater. 

In laying down that argument we are to observe, 

1. The manner of propounding it. 

2. The matter whereof it consisteth. 

The manner is by way of supposition ; in this con- 
ditional particle, ti, if. 

The matter declares the two parts of the argument. 

The argument is comparative. 

The first part thereof setteth out just vengeance on 
trHnsgressors of the word of angels. This is the less, 

The second part setteth out greater vengeance on 
transgressors of the gospel, ver. 3, 4. 
In the former we have, 

1 . A description of that whereupon vengeance was 

2. A declaration of the kind of vengeance. 
The thing described is set out, 

1. By the means of making it known, XaXrtskii >.o'- 
yoi, the word spokei 

2. By the ministry thereof, ii' ayj'iKm 


the stedfastness of it, iyivsro /SsSa/os, was 

In the declaration of the vengeance is set down, 

1. The fault. 

2. The punishment. 

The fault is expressed in two kinds : 

1. Transgression, 'ira^dZaeii. 

2. Disobedience, 'za^ax.ori. 

Both these are manifested by their extent, in this 
particle every, vaaa. 

The punishment is set out, 

1. By the kind of it, (Lieiantoioaiav, recompence of 

2. By the equity, in these two words, hdixov, just, 
'iXaZsv, received. 

Ver. 3. In the second part of the comparison we 
are likewise to observe : 

1. The manner of setting it down, by an interroga- 
tion, nZg, how ? 

2. The manner. Herein is declared, 

1. The judgment. 

2. The cause thereof. 

In the judgment are noted, 

1. The persons liable thereunto, in this pronoun of 
the first person plural, ri/^Tg, ive. 

2. The kind of judgment is expressed in this word, 
sxipeu^Ofii^a, escape. 

The cause is, 1, propounded ; 2, aggravated. 
In the proposition there is noted, 

1. The act wherein the sin consisteth, d/aXrjgaiiT-si, 

2. The object. Which manifesteth, 

1. The benefit neglected, aurri^ia;, salvation. 

2. The excellency of that benefit, TrfKixavTng, so great. 
The aggravation thereof is manifested, 

1. By the publication of that salvation. 

2. By the ratification thereof. 

The publication of salvation is here commended by 
the principal author thereof; who is set out, 

1. By his dignity, iid roZ Kuslov, the Lord. 

2. By his ministry. Herein is expressed, 

1 . The kind of it, in this word spoken, XaXeTaSai. 

2. The pre-eminence of it, at jirst began, af^^ijv 

The ratification is there expressed, lZiZai<Ji6n, was 
confirmed. About which is further set down, 

1. The persons that confirm it. 

2. The means whereby it was confirmed. 


[Chap. II. 

The persons admit a double consideration : 

1. Who confirmed it. 

2. To whom it was confirmed. 

The persons confirming it were,' 1, men ; 2, God. 

The men were such as heard Christ, i'rh fuv axoXi- 

The persons to whom they confirmed it are expressed 
in this pronoun of the plural number and fii-st person, 
t<.', iig f;/j,&i, to us. 

Ver. 4. The other person confirming is set out, 

1. By his title God, ro~^ 0tou. 

2. By the kind of ratification, bearing them witness, 

In setting down the means of ratification are noted, 

1. The kind of them. 

2. The rule whereby they are ordered. 

The kind of means are of two sorts : I, works ; 2, 

Works are here set out, 

By their distinct sorts, which are three : 1 , signs, 
arifiilois ; 2, wonders, riiaai ; 3, miracles, i\)ta.u,im. 

2. By their variety, in this word divers, 'r 017.1X0.1 i. 

Gifts are described, 1, by their author, the Holy 
Ghost, IlvsiittaVo; aylov. 

2. By their distribution, /j.i^iefi.o!' g. This is implied 
in the Greek word used by the apostle. 

The rule is thus manifested, according to his own 
will, Kara, rnt i>i>.»iff«. 

Here obstrve, 

1. The kind of rule, will. 

2. The property of it, bis own, ai/rou. 

Sec. 39. Of the doctrines arising out of the 2d, dd, 
and ith verses of the second chapter. 

I. Motive may he added to motive. To that motive 
in the former verse, taken from the damage of not 
heeding the gospel, in these verses another motive is 
added, taken from the vengeance that will follow 
thereupon. For men are hardly brought to believe 
divine truths. 

II. Suppositions may imply unquestionable tniths. 
The manner of the apostle's arguing by way of sup- 
position, if, proveth as nuich. See Sec. 8. 

III. Anyels were of old God's ministers to his church. 
They ' spake his word.' See Sec. 10. 

IV. God's word is sUdfast. So is it here expressly 
said to be. See Sees. U, 12. 

V. Divine vengeance may he a motive to forhear sin. 
The inference of the vengeance upon the word spoken 
proves as much ; for it is here to that verj' end 

VI. There are different kinds of sin. The distinc- 
tion betwixt transgression and disobedience imports 
thus much. See Sec. 14. 

VII. No sin shall pass unrevcngcd. This general 
particle, every, intends this. 

VIII. Punislimenl is due to transgression. It is 
therefore styled' a recoinpence of reward.' See Sec. IG. 

IX. Divine vengeance is most just. So it is here 
expressly said to be. See Sec. 17. 

X. Transgressors shall receive vengeance, will they 
nill they. This verb received intimates this point. 
See Sec. 17. 

XI. Revenge of sin is most sure. This interrogative 
how intimates as much. See Sec. 18. 

XII. Tliere are degrees of sin and judgment. The 
inference of the latter part of the comparison upon the 
former, declares the truth of this point. For neglect 
of the gospel is made a greater sin than neglect of the 
law ; and a greater judgment is thereupon infen-ed. 
See Sec. 18. 

XIII. It is very dangerous to neglect the gospel. 
There is no way of escaping for such. See Sec. 19. 

XIV. The greatest as ivell as the meanest, falling info 
the same sin, are liable to the same judgment. This 
pronoun we includes the apostle himself and all to 
whom he wrote. See Sec. 18. 

XV. The gospel brings salvation. It is thereupon 
styled salvation. See Sec. 20. 

XVI. The salvation wrought by the gospel is very 
great. This word so great intends as much. It is 
far greater than that which by the ministry under the 
law was brought to people. See Sec. 21. 

XVII. Christ uas ^a preadier. He is here said to 
preach. See Sec. 22. 

XVIII. The word is made profitahle by preaching. 
For this end Christ preached it. See Sec. 23. 

XIX. Christ was the first preacher of the gospel. 
This is here expressly asserted. See Sec. 24. 

XX. God would have his word confirmed. See 
Sec. 25. 

XXI. 3Iany preachers of tlte same truth confirm it 
the more. Thus, by other preachers, the gospel 
which Christ first preached was confirmed. See Sec. 

XXII. Apostles succeeded Christ. These were they 
who heard him. See Sec. 26. 

XXIII. Preachers confirm the gospel to others. It 
was confirmed unto us, saith the text. See Sec. 27. 

XXIV. God addeth his witness to the ministry of 
his serva7its. This is here expressly set down. See 
Sec. 28. 

XXV. God only can work miracles. This is here 
set down as God's proper act. See Sec. 28. 

XXVI. Miracles are above the potver of creatures. 
This foUoweth from the former by just consequence. 
See Sec. 29. 

XXVII. ]Vorks are witnesses to God's word. God, 
by his works, bare witness to his apostles. See Sec. 

XXVIII. Signs, by visible objects, confirm divine 

XXIX. Wonders, by the strangeness of them, do the 

XXX. Miracles also do so hy a divine power marii- 
fested in them. These three last doctrines arise out 

Veu. 5.] 


of the notation of those words, si'/ns, wonders, mi- 
racles. See Sees. 31, 32. 

XXXI. Divers miracles were wrought to confirm the 
gospel. See Sec. 84. 

XXXII. Mens gifts are of the Holy Ghost. He 
gives them, 1 Cor. xii. 11. Therefore they are here 
styled ' gifts of the Holy Ghost.' See Sec. 35. 

XXXIII. Extraordinary gifts were abundantly given 
at the first preaching of the gospel. The church had 
need of them. See Sec. 35. 

XXXIV. Gifts of the Holy Ghost were confirmations 
of the gospel. They are in this respect joined with 
miracles. See Sec. 35. 

XXXV. Men's functions and abilities are of God. 

XXXVI. 2'he gospel had greater confirmation than 
the law. See Sec. 36. 

XXXVII. God hath no other rule than his own will. 
This relative, his own, implies as much. 

XXXVIII. God orders men's parts and places accord- 
ing to his will. See Sec. 37. 

Sec. 40. Of the inference of the fifth verse upon that 
which goeth before. 

Ver. 5. For unto the angels hath he not put in sub- 
jection the uorld to come, whereof ice speak. 

In this verse the apostle hath an eye to that main 
point which he insisted upon in the former chapter ; 
(which was, that Christ is more excellent than angels), 
and also to the argument in the verse immediately 
going before, whereby he proved that more heed is to 
be given to the word of Christ, than to the word of 

In reference to the former chapter, a ninth argu- 
ment is in this verse added to those eight which were 
produced in the former chapter, to prove the foresaid 
excellency of Christ above angels. See Chap, i., Sec. 64. 

In reference to the former part of this chapter, this 
verse containeth a reason why Christ's word is to be 
preferred before the word of angels : namely, because 
God hath given a greater authority to Christ, than ever 
he did to angels. The first particle of this \exse,for, 
sheweth that a reason is contained therein. 

This reason is here set down as a double transition. 

The first is from Christ's excellency in reference to 
his divine nature, unto his excellency in reference to 
his human nature. 

The other is, from the apostle's exhortatory digres- 
sion, unto his doctrinal point about Christ's excellency. 

In the former chapter the apostle sets out the excel- 
lency of Christ being God, yet so as he considered 
him also to be man, oven God-man. 

In this chapter he sets out the excellency of Christ 
being man, yet so as he considereth him also to be 
God, even God-man. 

The reason here produced is comparative. The 
comparison is of uneijuals : for it is betwixt Christ and 

1. The inferiority of angels is declared in this 


2. The superiority of Christ is proved. Verses 6-9. 
The manner of expressing the inferiority of angels is 

like that which was used Chap. i. Sec. 46. It is ex- 
pressed negatively, ' Unto the angels hath he not put,' 

In this place the kind of argument is the stronger, 
in that it is denied to them by him who only hath 
the supreme and absolute power to confer jurisdiction 
upon any, or to withhold it from any, and that is God. 
For this relative he hath reference to him that is men- 
tioned in the verse immediately going before, thus, 
' God bearing witness.' 

The argument may be thus framed. 

He to whom God hath put in subjection the world 
to come, is more excellent than they to whom he hath 
not put it in subjection ; but God hath put the world 
to come in subjection to Christ, and not to angels ; 
therefore Christ is more excellent than angels. 

The latter part of the assumption is in this verse. 

The former part in the verses following. 

Sec. 41. Of the world to come. 

The word translated world, oiy.ov/j.ivni'j properly sigui- 
iieth a place inhabited. For it is derived from a noun 
that siguifieth a house or habitation, 'oixog, and from 
a verb that signifieth to dwell or inhabit, oixiu. It is 
another word than that which was used. Chap. i. 
verse 2, and translated worlds, a'iZjmi. For that word 
hath reference to the time wherein all things were 
made and continue (see Chap. i. Sec. 18). But this 
hath reference to the place wherein men dwell. It is 
the same word that is used Chap. i. Sec. 66. But 
it is here used in another sense. There it was put for 
the earth, but here it is metonymically put for inha- 
bitants, not in earth only, but in heaven also. And 
in reference to earth, by a synecdoche, the better part 
of inhabitants thereon are meant, namely, saints, Ps. 
xxxvii. 11, Mat. v. 5. In this sense another word 
translated world is also used, y.6aij.o;, 2 Cor. v. 19. 

The world, then, in this pliice, is put for the church, 
which compriseth under it the whole number of God's 
elect, called or to be called. In this sense it is also 
called 'the kingdom of God,' Mat. vi. 83 ; ' the king- 
dom of his Son,' Col. i. 13; 'the kingdom of heaven,' 
Mat. iii. 8. 

That this word world is in this place so used, is 
evident by this epithet to come, added thereto. For 
this world is to be considered, either in the inchoation 
and progress thereof, or in the consummation and per- 
fection of it. 

In the former respect it is styled ' the world to 
come,' /isXXouffav, in reference to the saints that lived 
before Christ was exhibited in the flesh, and longed to 
see this world. Mat. xiii. 17 ; John viii. 56 ; 1 Pet. i. 
10, 11. Thus John the Baptist, after he was born 
and exercised his ministry, is said to be ' Elias to 



[Chap. II. 

■ xiome,' Mat. xi. 14, in reference to a former prophecy, 
aial. iv. 5. 

In the latter respect, this world is said to come, in 
reference to such saints as have grace begun in them, 
but cannot have it perfected till this life be ended. 
.So as in regard of the perfection, both of particular 
members, and also of the whole mystical body, this 
world, even now since Christ exhibited, is truly said 
to come. Thus is this title, to come, oft used, as 
Mat. xii. 32; Eph. i. 21. 

In like respects all things under the gospel are said 
t/O ' become new,'' 2 Cor. v. 17. 

Sec. 42. Of aiiprojuiatiiKj the 'world to come' to the 
Matter times. 

Considering that the saints who lived before Christ 
•was exhibited, were members of the true church and 
■nystical body of Christ, this question may be moved. 
How, in reference to them, the world is said to come ? 

Ans. Many things, in case of difl'ercnce betwixt 
:;he time of the law and gospel, are to bo taken 
twmparatively, and that, as in other cases, so in this 

1. Christ, under the law, was in so many types and 
tshadows typified out unto saints then living, as they 
«onld not so fully and clearly discern him, as now we do. 

2. Their faith in the Messiah was grounded on pro- 
aiises of his to come ; but our faith is settled on Christ 
itctually exhibited. He is now in his human nature 
really settled on his throne ; and in that respect this 
'£^irhl, that was then to come, is more fully made sub- 
ject to him. 

3. In regard of the number of those that under 
the gospel are made subject to Christ, the Christian 
i-hurch may be counted a world, and that in com- 
:;iarison of the number of those that were under the 
iaw- For they made but a small nation. 

'Sec. 43. Of being put in subjection. 

This phrase, put in subjection, is the interpretation 
-..-^Tone Greek word, i/crlrags, but a compound one, which 
;.«ignilieth, to put under. 

The simple verb, Tdmiv, signifieth to appoint, place, 
<eKxei in order. It is used to set out God's ordaining 
jwrsonstolife, — 'As many as were ordained (rfray^jtw) 
to eternal life, believed,' Acts xiii. 48, — and men's de- 
termining matters. Acts xv. 2, tTa^av ; and appoint- 
ing place and times, ira^aro. Mat. xxviii. 10, Acts 
j^viii. 23. 

The preposition Oto, with which the word is com- 
vouud, signifieth under. Answerably it is translated, 
'put under.' We see not yet all things put under 
Siiai, {/':TOTiTay/j,ha, verse 8. Now they who are by him 
sSiiat liath authority put under another, are brought to 
ifci in subjection to him. It is therefore in this sense 
applied to subjects and servants, 1 Pet. ii. 13, 18 ; to 
■ Of llie things under tlio Rospcl called niK, see my sermon 
•as Ezck. ixx\ i. 1 1 , entitled, The Progras of God's Providence. 

wives, 1 Pet. iii. 1 ; to children, Ltike ii. 51 ; to the 
church, Eph. v. 24. 

It here importeth two things ; — 

1. Sovereignty and authority on God's part, who is 
here said to put under. This is exemplified, verse 8. 
Thus may such as are most unwilhng to be brought 
under, be put in subjection, as the devils themselves, 
Luke X. 17, 20. 

2. Duty on the church's part, in a willing sub- 
mitting of itself to Christ. In this respect wives are 
charged to submit themselves to their own husbands, 
'as the church is subject unto Christ,' Eph. v. 22, 24. 

In both these respects are the good angels subject 
unto Christ, 1 Pet. iii. 23. 

Sec. 44. Of the suhjeclinn denied to angels. 

This honour, to have the church put into subjection 
to them, is expressly denied to augels; so saith this 
text, ' he hath not put in subjection unto angels the 
world to come.' That honour, which God, the most 
high, supreme sovereign over all, vouchsafeth not to 
a creature, is denied to him ; he hath no right to it. 
Were it meet that he should have it, the wise God 
would bestow it on him. 

Angels are of creatures the most excellent ; (Of the 
excellency of angels, see Chap. i. Sec. 40, 85) ; yet 
this world to come, consisting of such inhabitants as 
are mystically so united to Christ, as they make one 
body with him (which body is called Christ, 1 Cor. 
xii. 12), are too excellent to be put in subjection to 
any but Christ, who is the true and only head of the 
church. Though angels be more excellent than any 
children of men, singly and simply considered in them- 
selves, yet children of men, as they are united to 
Christ, and make one body with him, are far more 
excellent than all the angels. It is therefore very 
incongruous that they who are the more excellent 
should be put in subjection to those who are less ex- 
cellent, yea, to those who ai-o appointed to be minis- 
ters and, as I may so speak, servants unto him.' 

Sec. 45. Of arguments for angels' authority over llie 
church answered. 

The fore-mentioned point will appear more clear 
by answering such arguments as are alleged to prove 
the authority of angels over Christ's church. 

.irg. 1. Angels are styled 'thrones, dominions, 
principalities, and powers,' Col. i. IG, all which titles 
imply superiority and authority over others. 

Ans. 1. Those titles ai-e used to set out the excel- 
lency and dignity of angels, rather than their autho- 
rity and command over others. They who have do- 
minion, principality, and power, and who sit on 
thrones, are among men the most excellent. These 
titles, thou, shew that angels ai-e the most excellent 
among all creatures. 

A 'IS. 2. If authority be yielded unto them, yet that 
' Qu. 'them'? Ed. 

Veh. 5.] 


authority is only deputative in reference to that mes- 
sage or work which is enjoined on them ; such an 
authority as kings' ambassadors and messengers have. 

Aty. 2. They are called princes of particular coun- 
tries, as of Persia and Gra3cia, Dan. x. 13, 20. Now 
princes have subjects put into subjection unto them. 

Am. 1. Persia and Grajcia were then of this world; 
but we speak of the world to come, which is the 

Alls. 2. It cannot be proved that those princes there 
meant were angels ; they were the monarchs of those 
nations ; as Cambyses or Darius of Persia, and Alex- 
ander of Greece. 

A r<j. 8. Michael the angel was prince of the Jews, 
Dan.'x. 12, 21. 

Ans. Indeed Michael is styled an archangel ; but 
thereby is meant the head of angels, the Lord Jesus 
Christ. See Chap. i. Sec. 83. 

Arg. 4. Evil angels are ' rulers of the darkness of 
this world,' Eph. vi. 12; why may not then good 
angels be rulers of the world to come ? 

Ans. 1. Evil angels usm-p power and authority above 
that which is meet, which the good angels will never do. 

Ans. 2. The children of this world put themselves 
in subjection to evil angels, and so become their 
slaves, but the children of the world to come will sub- 
ject themselves to none but to Christ, no, not to the 
good angels. 

Arij. 5. The men of this world are put in subjection 
to Christ ; therefore the subjection of the world to 
come is no good proof of Christ's excellency. 

Ans. 1. Though the men of this world are put into 
subjection to Christ, yet not after such a manner as 
the world to come, who are put in subjection to Christ 
as members to their head, so as from their head they 
receive such a spirit as makes them willingly and 
cheerfully submit themselves to him ; but the men of 
this world are per force made subject to Christ, as to 
an absolute, supreme, almighty Lord over them, who 
can and will keep them under. 

Ans. 2. The question here being principally about 
the church, the apostle thought it sufficient to exem- 
pUfy the point in the world to come. 

Sec. 46. Of the unlawfulness of icorshippinij ani/els 
or any other creatures. 

God having reserved this as a privilege to his 
chnrch, not to bo put in subjection to angels, how 
basely and unworthily do they carry themselves, who, 
pretending to be of this world to come, do notwith- 
standing put themselves into subjection to angels ! So 
do such as worship angels. It appears that men were 
too much addicted to tliis kind of superstition in the 
apostles' time, for it is condemned by an apostle, and 
the vain pretence for it is discovered. Col. ii. 18. That 
pretence is styled ' voluntary humility,' which is, as of 
old it was called, will-humility and hypocritical humi- 
lity. Indeed it is an high presumption against God, 

who only is to be worshipped, and against his Son 
Christ, who only is advanced to the right hand of God 
(see Chap. i. Sec. 13), and against the saints, who arc 
of this world to come, and in that respect not put in 
subjection unto angels. To make pretence of worship 
for which there is no warrant in the word of God, 
favoureth too rankly of intolerable insolency. Angels 
themselves, who well understand what is due or not 
due unto them, have utterly refused to be worshipped 
by men, Rev. xix. 10, and xxii. 9. 

In this it is manifest that papists are not of this 
world to come, because in their doctrine they maintain 
that angels are to be worshipped, and in their daily 
practice do worship angels. 

The pope of Rome doth also heroin shew himself 
to be plain antichrist, in that he putteth all that ad- 
here to him in subjection to himself, as to Christ's 
vicar, and as to the head of the church, which is 
Christ's prerogative, given unto him by the Father, 
Eph. i. 22. J?o what bishop said God at any time. 
Be thou the head of my church ? or, Let my church 
be put in subjection to thee ? Is not this to ' oppose 
and exalt himself above all that is called God, or that 
is worshipped ' ? 2 Thes. ii. 4. 

Let us, brethren, ' stand fast in the liberty where- 
with Christ hath made us free,' Gal. v. 1. Let us not 
slavishly put ourselves in subjection to any to whom 
God hath not put us in subjection, but let us reserve 
ourselves free for him alone to whom God hath put us 
in subjection. He is the only Lord of om- conscience, 
to him only let us be in subjection. 

Sec. 47. Of addiny this clause, ' whereof we speak.' 

This correlative tvherenf hath reference to the word 
world going before, for they are both of the same 
gender, namely, the feminine. The word here trans- 
lated iiorld, is the very same that is used, chap. i. ver. G, 
in this phrase, ' When he bringeth in the first begotten 
into the world.' The world may there be taken in a 
larger extent than here, by reason of that restrictive 
epithet, to come. 

Though world in the former place may comprise 
under it the whole earth and all the inhabitants 
thereon, yet doth it most especially intend the militant 
church. For as Christ gave himself for the church, 
Eph. V. 25, so God in special gave Christ to his 
church ; and he brought his first-begotten into the 
world for his church's sake. Had not the church 
been in the world, God would not have brought his 
first- begotten into the world. 

Besides, the world there spoken of may well be 
accounted the same that is here meant, even the 
' world to come ;' because God's first-begotten was 
then brought into the world, when it began to be 
actually that world to come which was before prophe- 
sied of. It was the exhibition of Christ that made it 
another world, a new world, a world to come ; in 
that Christ, by being brought into the world, accom- 

[Chap. II. 

plisheil all the types, shndows, prophecies, and 
promises concerning himself. The world then was 
accounted the world to come. 

In regard of the sense and intent of the apostle, 
this phrase, ' whereof wo speak,' may also have 
reference to the last days, mentioned in chap. i. ver. 2. 
For this world to come is iu those last days, in which 
God speaks unto us by his Son. 

It may further have reference to the last clause of 
the last verse of the first chapter. For the ' heirs of 
salvation' arc the most special and principal inhabi- 
tants iu this world to come : yea, they are the only 
true members thereof; so as in speaking of the world 
to come he speaks of the heirs of salvation. 

Finally, All that in the former part of this chapter 
is spoken of the gospel, and of the duty that belongs 
to those that enjoy the privilege thereof, and of the 
manifold means whereby God confirmed it unto us, 
all these things concern this world to come. So as in 
all these also he speaketh of the world to come. 

The apostle here useth a verb of the present tense 
(thus, ' whereof we speak'), not of the preter tense, 
or time past (whereof we have spoken), to shew that 
all his discourse appertains to this world to come. 

Sec. 48. Of lly moliilion nf the fifth rme <f the 
second chapter. 

The sum of this verse is, a restraint of angels' 

Two points are herein to be observed, 

1. The inference set out in this causal particle /"oc. 

2. The substance, wherein is noted, 

1. The kind of authority here intimated. 

2. The restraint thereof. 

In setting down the kind of authority he sbeweth, 

1. The persons whom it concerns. 

2. The act wherein it consistetb. 
The persons are, 

1. Propounded in this phrase, uoHd to come. 

2. Amplified in this, iihereof ire speah\ 

The authority is thus expressed, put in siil'jecti('n. 
In the restraint we are to observe, 

1. The persons, both who restrains, he, and also 
who are restrained, finz/elt. 

2. The form of restraint in these words, halh not 
put, U. 

Sec. 49. Of the instruction arisiii// out of Heb. ii. 5. 

I. l^ie wore excellent the persona are, the ijreater hecil 
is to be ijircn to their uord. This ariscth from the 
causal particle for. Therefore more diligent heed is 
to be given to Christ's word than to the word of angels, 
because be is more excellent than they. 

II. (lod i/ires authoritij and diynitij. This relative 
//(■ hath reference to (iod, who putteth iu subjection 
whom he will and to whom he will. 

III. None have riyhl to an;/ authority that have it \ 
not of God. Because God bath not put the world to ' 

' come in subjection to angels, therefore angels have no 
authority over the world to come. 

IV. There u-as a church to come after the e.rpiratioti 
of the Jewish siinaiioi/ne. In this respect the Christian 
church is here called the world to come. 

V. The full perfection of the church is i/et e.rpected. 
, For this phrase uorld to come hath also reference to 
I a time yet to come ; and that after the last day. 

I VI. Anijels have not aulhorttij over Christ's church. 

I It is Christ's church of whom the apostle here saith, 

' that it is not put in subjection to angels. 

I VII. The prcroiiftlivc of the Christian church is a very 
ureal one. For it is much spoken of by the apostle. 
This is it that is mainly intended iu this phrase, 
ivhcreof ice speak. He is here and there, even every- 
where, speaking of it. 

Sec. 50. Of the apostle's manner of jirodiicinij a 
divine testimony. 

Ver. G-8. But one in a certain place testified, saijiny, 
What isman, that thou art mindful of him? or the Son 
of man, that thou visitest him > Thou madest him a 
little lower than the anyels ; thou croirnedst him with 
f/lory and honour, and didst set him over the works of 
thy hands : Thou hast put all thinys in suhjection under 
his feet, it'c. 

The apostle here begms to set out the excellency 
of Christ's human nature ; in amplifying whereof, he 
eontinneth to the end of this chapter. 

In the four verses following, he proveth Christ to be 
more excellent than angels. Now, angels are of all 
mere creatures the most excellent. Christ therefore 
must needs be the most excellent of all. 

This argument of unequals the apostle began in the 
former verse, where he gave proof of the inferiority of 
angels. Here he sbeweth that that which was denied 
to angels is granted to Christ. Therefore he bringeth 
in that which is spoken of Christ, with this particle 
of opposition, hut, is ;' which is here made the note of 
an assumption, thus, God put not the world to come 
in subjection to angels, but to Christ he did. Though 
that assumption be not in express terms set down, yet 
to make it the more clear and evident, the apostle 
sets it down in a divine testimony, which in general 
terms he thus produceth, ' One in a certain place 
testifieth.' If upon that which was asserted in the 
former verse, it should be demanded, seeing God hath 
not put in subjection to angels the world to come, to 
whom hath be put it '? The answer is this, ' One (Wc) 
iu a certain jilace testifieth,' &i'. He expresseth not 
the author, but indefinitely saith, one (or a certain 
man, as the Greek particle here used is translated in 
other places, Luke ix. 57, and xiii. C) ; nor the book, 
but saith, crou, ' in a certain place.' This is the 
interpretation of one Greek particle, which being 
accented (ct/J), signifieth, i(7iw?Mat. ii. 2, ortchither? 
' See ver. 8, See. C3, and Chap. i. 18, Si.c. 140, niul Cliap. 
xi. 1, Sec. 2. 

Ver. 6-8.] 



1 John ii. 11 ; but without an accent it signifieth a 
certain place, as here, and chap. iv. 4, and xi. 8. 

This was usual with the penmen of sacredScripture. 
Sometimes they only set down a text of Scripture, 
giving no note of author, or place, as Rom. x. 18. 
Sometimes this indefinite phrase is used, ' lie saitli,' 
Heb. xiii. 5. Sometimes this, 'The Holy;|Ghost saith,' 
Heb. iii. 7. Sometimes this phrase, ' It is written,' 
Mat. xxi. 13. Sometimes this, ' In the law it is 
written,' John viii.|17. Sometimes 'a prophet' is in- 
definitely set down, Mat. i. 22. Sometimes the name 
of the prophet is expressed. Mat. ii. 17. Sometimes 
the ' book of Moses,' Mark xii. 26 ; and the ' book of 
Psalms,' Acts i. 20. Once ' the second Psalm' is 
mentioned. Acts xiii. 33. 

Scriptures might be thus indefinitely quoted, because 
the churches to whom the evangelists and apostles 
wrote, were so well acquainted with the Scriptures, as 
the naming of a scripture might be sufficient for them 
readily to find it out, because they well knew where 
it was written ; or it may be that the apostles did it 
purposely, to move them more diligently to search the 
Scriptures, that so they might the better acquaint 
themselves therewithal. /> 

It is said of the Jews, that they were so versed in 
the Hebrew text (which was their mother language), 
as they could readily tell how many times such and 
such a word was used in the Hebrew Bible ; and that 
they trained up their children to be as expert therein. 
To them there needed no more but the very naming 
of a text of Scripture. 

Were our people as expert in the Scriptures, which 
we have translated in our mother tongue, a great deal 
of pains might be spared by our ministers in quoting 
the book, chapter and verse, wherein the text that we 
quote is set down. 

Let us be stirred up so diligently to exercise our- 
selves in the holy Scriptures, and to be so well ac- 
quainted therewith, as it may be sufficient to hear a 
testimony or a phrase of Scripture, though the par- 
ticular place be not expressed. 

Sec. 51. OJ the Scriptures testifijiiif/. 

This word translated testified, o/E.aaorugaro, is a 
compound word. The simple verb, ,a,aPTuo£rv, signifieth 
to testify, John iii. 11 ; or to bear witness, John i. 7. 

The compound, dia/j-a^rwieSai, addeth emphasis, 
and implieth more than a bare affirming or witnessing 
a thing. It also signifieth a confirming and adding 
further witness to a truth.' It is therefore added to 
preaching. He commanded us to preach and to tes- 
tify, Acts X. 12. After that Peter hadjpreached to 
the Jews, it is atlded, that, ' with many other words 
he did testify,' Acts ii. 10. 

I find this compound word fourteen times used 

in the New Testament. In every of those places it 

carrieth an especial emphasis, as where Dives desires 

■ Soc verse 4, Sec. 30. 

that Lazarus, who was then dead, might be sent to 
his brethren, 'to testify]unto them,' Luke xvi. 28, that 
is, by an unquestionable evidence to convince them of 
hell's torment. 

Here it implieth a confirmation of the point in 
question, namely, that the world to come was pat in 
subjection to Jesus. It is one special end of sacred 
Scripture to testify the truth, such truths especially as 
concern Jesus Christ, John v. 39 ; Luke xxiv. 27 ; Acts 
X. 43. , _ 

The psalm out of which this testimony is taken, is 
the eighth psalm. That it testifieth of Jesus,_ is 
evident by the many passages that are therein applied 
to Christ in the New Testament : as this, ' Out of the 
mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast ordained 
strength ;'■ or as the LXX (whom the Evangelist fol- 
loweth) y.arr,^Tiaa clivov, ' hast perfected praise,' Mat. 
xxi. 10. And this, ' Thou hast put all things under 
his feet,' is three times applied to Jesus, as 1 Cor. xv. 
27, Eph. i. 22 ; and here, in this text, where the 
apostle proves that this can be meant of no other, 
verses 8, 9. Thus he first produceth the testimony 
itself, verses G-8, and then applieth it to Jesus, the 
person intended therein, verses 8, 9. 

Take we a brief view of the whole psalm, and it will 
evidently appear that Christ is set out therein. 

The main scope of the psalm is, to magnify the 
glory of God ; this is evident by the first and last 
verses thereof. That main point is proved by the 
works of God, which in general he declares to be so 
conspicuous, as very babes can magnify God in them 
to the astonishment of his enemies, verse 2. 

In pai-ticular, he first produceth those visible glo- 
rious works that are above ; which manifest God's 
eternal power and Godhead, verse 3. Then he ampli- 
fieth God's goodness to man (who had made himself 
a mortal miserable creature, verse 4), by setting forth 
the high advancement of man above all other creatures, 
not the angels excepted, verses 5-8. This cannot be 
found verified in any but in the man Christ Jesus. 

This evidence of God's goodness to man so ravished 
the prophet's spirit, as with an high admiration he 
thus expresseth it, ' What is man,' &c. Hereupon he 
concludeth that psalm as he began it, with extolling 
the glorious excellency of the Lord. 

Sec. 52. ty the Scripture's siilJicieiU aiithoritij in 

Though, in setting down this testimony, the apostle 
nameth not the author or penman of the psalm, yet in 
the title it is expressly said to be, 'A Psalm of David.' 
The apostle concealeth his name, not upon any doubt 
that he had of David's penning it, or in any disrespect 
(for he expressly nameth him, chap. iv. 7 ; and put- 
teth him into the catalogue of God's worthies, chap. xi. 
32) but to shew that the sacred Scripture hath sutticient 
authority in itself, and needs not any farther authority 



[Chap. II. 

from any man. Many books arc compiled iu the Bible, 
whose penmau or publisher is not named, as the book 
of Judges, and lluth, the two books of Kings and 
Chronicles, Esther, and this epistle. 

The apostle hath quoted this testimony word for 
word, not varying from the psalmist in sense or syl- 
lables, cspcciallv as the LXX have translated it (see 
Chap. i. 6, Sec' 72.) 

By this expressing of his mind in the very words 
of Scripture, he maketh the point to be more hooded 
and regarded. 

Sec. 53. Of Christ's wcaiiiicss anijili/i/liiii his iiienl/icss. 

The main intent of the apostle in quoting the fore- 
said testimony, is, to set out the excellency and dignity 
of Christ; yet he beginneth with his low degree, man, 
son of man. 

This he doth in three especial respects. 

1. That ho might set out Christ's excellency, as he 
was man ; for in the former chapter, he had set forth 
his exceUencj' as he was God. 

2. That his excellency might be the more magnified. 
For the low degree whoreunto Christ subjected himself^ 
doth much amplify his glorious exaltation, as Philip ii. 
8, 9. To this very end the Holy Ghost doth oft set 
down the low degree of those whom God hath highly 
advanced. Israel was advanced above all nations ; to 
magnify God's goodness therein they are oft put in 
mind of their former low condition ; yea, they are 
enjoined to make an annual commemoration thereof, 
Dcut. xxvi. 1, 2, etc. David doth this way amplify 
God's goodness to himself, Ps. Ixsviii. 70, 71 ; so doth 
the Virgin Mary, Luke i. 48. 

'6. That the exception made against Christ's mean- 
ness might appear to be but a frivolous exception. 
For the apostle here grants that Christ in his human 
estate was as mean as the meanest ; j-et withal in- 
ferreth that it was no hindrance to the height of his 

Some suppose that that which is here spoken of 
as man, is meant of the first man in his pure and in- 
nocent estate j^because God then gave him ' dominion 
over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, 
and over the cattle, and over all the earth,' &c.. Gen. 
i. 20. 

Ans. 1. I deny not, but that' such a dominion in 
regard of sundry of those particulars which are men- 
tioned, Ps. viii. 0-8, was given to the man here de- 
scribed. But it doth not hence follow that the first 
Adam should bo hero meant ; for he forfeited that 
dominion by his transgression. 

2. The first title which is given to the man here 
meant, cannot be applied to the first Adam in his pure 
estate : for then he was not a mortal miserable man. 

3. Adam was not a son of man, as this man is here 
said to be ; Adam was not born of man, but created 
of God, Gen. ii. 7. 

4. Adam being made immortal, he was not then iu 

that respect lower than angels, as the man bore meant 
is said to be, verse 'J. 

5. The glory and honour with which this man is 
here said to be crowned, far exceeded all that glory and 
honom- which was then confei-red upon Adam. 

0. All thint/s, simply taken without any restraint (as 
here they are taken) were not put in subjection to 
Adam. Angels were never put in subjection to Adam, 
but they are to this man, verse 8. 

In the two latter respects no mere mnu sii.ca the 
fall, nor the whole stock of mankind, simply con- 
sidered in itself, can be here meant. It remains, 
therefore, that the man here spoken of is more than 
man, even the man Jesus Christ, who is God-man. 

Yet I will not deny but that the whole mj'stical 
body of Jesus Christ may be here included ; namely, 
all that by faith are united unto Christ ; for all they, 
together with their head, have this title Christ given 
unto them, 1 Cor. xii. 12. In this respect the dlj- 
nities belonging unto Christ, as the head of that boJ.\ , 
appertain also to the body of Christ. Hence it is thu 
all things ai-e said to be theirs, because they arc 
Christ's, 1 Cor. iii. 22, 23, and they are said to be 
' quickeiicd together with Christ, and raised up to- 
gether, and made to sit together in heavenly places in 
Christ Jesus,' Eph. ii. 5, ; they are also ' heirs of 
God, and jomt heirs with Christ,' llom. viii. 17. 

Sec. 54. Of these titles, man, son of man. 

The person here spoken of is set forth by two titles, 
man, son of man. The fii-st of these titles, C'UN, in 
Hebrew siguitieth a mortal, miserable man. It cometh 
from a verb, t,''3N, aqrotavit desperate, that importeth 
a desperate case. It is oft translated desperate, as 
'desperate sorrow,' Isa. xvii. 11, and ' incurable sor- 
row,' Jer. XXX. 15. This word is used where ^the 
psalmist saith, ' Put them in fear, Lord, that the 
nations may know themselves to be but men,' Ps. is. 
20, that is, weak, mortal, miserable. Of this title 
man, in another sense, see my sermon on 2 Chron. 
viii. 9, Of the diijnitij of Chivalry, Sec. 3. 

The other title, son of man, is added as a diminu- 
tion, for man in the second place is Adam. Adam 
was the proper name given to the first man, the father 
of us all, and that by reason of the red eai-lh,' out of 
which he was made. Gen. ii. 7. After man's fall, it 
became a common name to all his posterity, by reason 
of that mortality which seized on them all, whereby 
they came to return to that out of which they were 
made, according to this doom, ' Dust thou art, and to 
dust shalt thou return,' Gen. iii. 19. Thus this title 
Adam sets out the common frail condition of man- 
kind ; so doth the Greek word here used, according 
to the notation of it. It signifieth one that looks up- 
ward.- Being succourless iu himself, he looks up for 
help elsewheie, as 2 Chron. xs. 12. In this respect 

' DIS, ruhruit; DDIX, terra tubru/a; DIS, homo. 

' ithirii dicilur iraji to itu af(t7t, a tuspiciendo snrsum. 

Ver. 6-8.] 


Bildad styleth him a worm, Job xxv. 6. This word 
son, annexed unto man, son of man, adds a further 
diminution, and implieth somewhat less than a mean 

This particle son prefixed, D1X t^, son of man, doth 
farther shew that he was born of man, and that he 
did not, as some heretics' have imagined, bring his 
body from heaven. See more of this title in my 
treatise Of the Sin afiainst the Holy Ghost, sec. 11. 

The meanness of Christ's estate here in this world 
is thus further described by a prophet : ' His visage 
was marred more than any man, and his form more 
than the sons of men,' Isa. lii. 14. Yea, Christ him- 
self is brought in, thus speaking of himself, ' I am a 
worm, and no man,' Ps. xxii. 6. 

To add more emphasis to his low degree, those 
titles are interrogatively thus expressed, ' What is 
man, the son of man ?' Hereby two things are in- 

1. The nothingness of that man in himself to de- 
serve anything at God's hand. This must be taken 
of the human nature of Christ, and that abstracted 
from the divine nature ; not of his person, in which 
the two natures were united. Or else it must be taken 
of the mystical body of Christ here warfaring on earth, 
consisting of weak, unworthy children of men. 

2. The freeness of God's grace and riches of his 
mercy, that was extended to such a mean, weak, un- 
worthy one. 

This cannot but cause much admiration, and that 
admiration is couched under the interrogation, ' What 
is man ?' 

If the eS'ects of God's kindness to man, which fol- 
low in the testimony, be duly observed, we shall find 
it to be a matter of more than ordinary admiration. 
It was a matter far less than this which made Job, 
with a hke expostulatory admiration, to say unto God, 
' What is man, that thou shouldst magnify him, and 
that thou shouldst set thine heart upon him?' Job 
vii. 17. 

Sec. 55. Of God's being mindful of man. 

That wherein God manifested his free grace and 
rich mercy to man is expressed under these two words, 
mindful, visit. 

Both these words have reference to God, as is 
evidmt by this apostrophe, ' Thou art mindful.' The 
psalmist Ijegins the psalm with an apostrophe to God 
thus, ' Lord our Lord,' and continueth the same 
to the end of the psalm, so as he must needs here be 
taken in this verse to direct his speech unto God. 
This apostrophe doth also amplify the grace here in- 
tended, namely, that so great an one as the Lord should 
be so gracious unto so mean a man as is here described. 

Both the Hebrew 1^13tn, and the Greek word, 

/j,ifj,vrits!iri, translated mindful, do signify to remember. 

The Hebrew word is so translated, Ps. ix. 12, ' He 

' Marciauitae, Origeuists, Docette. 

remembereth them ;' and the Greek word, Luke i. 72,, 
' to remember his holy covenant.' 
To remember importeth two things. 

1. To hold fast what is once known. 

2. To call to mind what is forgotten. Of these 
two acts of memory, see Chap. xiii. Sec. 12, 24. 

This act of remembering is applied not to man only^ 
but to God also. 

To God it is most properly applied in the former 
signification ; for God ever fast holds in memory, and 
never forgets what he once knows : ' Known unto God 
are all his works from the beginning of the worlds' 
Acts XV. 18. 

Yea, also in the latter signification, that act of re- 
membering is attributed unto God ; as where it is 
said, ' Did not the Lord remember them ? and cam& 
it not into his mind?' Jer. xliv. 21. The latter 
phrase sheweth that the act of remembering attributed 
to God in the former clause, is meant of calling to 
mind what was formerly known. Job oft calleth or- 
God to remember him, "IST, in this sense, chap. vi. 7, 
and X. 9, and xiv. 13. In this respect God is said to 
have remembrancers, D'"l3ton, rememorantes, Isa, 
Ixii. 6, to whom he thus saith, ' Put me in remem- 
brance,' Isa. xliii. 26; and to this end he is said to 
have ' a book of remembrance,' !ll3t 130, memorim liber, 
Mai. iii. 17. But surely these things cannot properly 
be spoken of God ; they are to be taken tropically, by 
way of resemblance, after the manner of man. 

There is also a third act that is comprised under 
this word to remember, which is, seriously to think on,, 
and consider such and such a person or case. Thus 
is the foresaid Hebrew word, translated, Neh. v. 19, 
' Think upon me, my God.' So Gen. xl. 14, ' Think 
on me.' 

To apply all to the point in hand : God never forgat 
the man here spoken of, but still held him in mind^ 
and memory. And though by extremity of misery and 
long lying therein God might seem to have forgotten 
him (as the church complaineth, Lam. v. 20), yet by 
aflbrding seasonable succour, God shewed that he ever 
held him in memory, oft thought on him, and in his 
greatest need in special manner called him to mind - 
thus was God every way mindful of him. Behold how 
this mindfulness of God is set out to the life, Isa. xlix. 
15, 16. It is not man's low estate that makes God 
unmindful of him, Ps. csxxvi. 23, and cxvi. 6. This 
is a ground of comfort and confidence in our mean 
estate, Ps. Ixxix. 8. 

Sec. 56. Of God's risitin/i man. 

This other word, inpsn, Imo-Ai'jrTn, visitest, doth 
intend a further care of God. To visit one, signifieth 
to go to the place where he is, to see him ; and that 
not once only, but often. Thus the Hebrew word 
"ipS is used, Ps. Ixxx. 14 ; and the Greek word too. 
I'Xieyi.i^a.oh, Mat. xxv. 36. 

Now, because sight of misery works compassion, and 


[Chap. II. 

compassion moves to sueconr such as are in distress, 
to visit signifieth to succour one, as Jer. xv. 15, James 
i. 27. 

Both these words, mindful, rUil, are also applied to 
punishment and judgment. 

We shewed before that to be mindful of, and to 
remember, arc interpretations of one and the same 
original word. Now, God is said to ' remember 
iniquity' in judgment, and so to 'visit sins,' Jer. 
xiv. 10, Hosea viii. 13 and is. 9. 

But the persons visited, or the cause of visiting, or 
some circumstance or other, will apparently demon- 
strate what kind of visiting is meant, whether in mercy 
or judgment. 

It is most evident that the former kind of visiting 
is here intended. 

This latter word of rkilinf/, added to the former of 
being mindfiiJ, sheweth that, as God had this man in 
mind, so he was careful to aflbrd him all needful 
succour, and to testify all good respect to him, as is 
manifested in the words following. We are to be 
mindful of, and oft to go unto, and look upon such 
things as are dear unto us, and which we have in 
high account, so as God's special love of this man is 
herein set out. 

Sec. 57. Of Christ's being made low. 

In the seventh verse there is an exemplification both 
of Christ's low estate, and also of God's mindfulness 
of him, and gracious visiting of him. 

He still continues his apostrophe to God, to whom 
he saith, ' Thou niadest him a little lower,' &c. ; so as 
both the low degree, and also the high advancement 
of Christ and his mystical body, is ordered by God. 
God maketh low ; God setteth up on high, 1 Sam. 
ii. 7, Ezek. xvii. 24 ; should not this make us con- 
tent, that God ordereth our estate ? Job i. 21. 

Both the Hebrew, imDnn ,i IDn, deficit, and Greek 
word, riXdrzuaa:, ab iXarrota, mintio, translated ' made 
lower,' impleth the failing of a thing from that which 
it was before. The Hebrew word is used to set out 
the failing of the waters when Noah's flood decreased, 
Gen. viii. 4 ; and, negatively, it is applied to the 
widow's oil that did not fail, 1 Kings xvii. 14, 16. 
The Greek word is used of the Baptist, who said, ' I 
must decrease,' iXaTroZoSai, John iii. 30. Thus may 
this most fitly be applied to Christ, who, by reason of 
his incarnation and passion, is said to ' descend,' Eph. 
iv. 9 ; to ' come dowii,' John vi. 38 ; and to ' make 
himself of no reputation,' Philip, ii. 7. This he did 
by the appointment and will of his Father, who is 
here said to ' make him lower.' And this he did to 
accomplish all works of service and sufl'ering that were 
requisite for our redemption and salvation. 

Sec. 58. (]/ Christ's being made loirer than angels. 
That the humiliation of Christ might not be stretched 
fur, two limitations are here annexed : 

One, of the persons; the other, of the time or 

The persons below whom Christ was put are here 
styled angels. 

The Hebrew word, D'n^X, is one of God's titles ; and 
by many thus translated, ' Thou madest him lower 
than God ;' but that title is also frequently attributed 
to men, and to angels, as hath been shewed before, 
Chap. i. Sec. 70. 

The main scope of the apostle, and his particular 
application of these persons to angels, ver. 9, plainly 
sheweth that that Hebrew title here belongeth to 
angels. Much hath been spoken in the former chapter, 
and in the beginning of this chapter, about the excel- 
lency of Christ above angels ; wherefore, to prevent 
what might be objected against that excellency, by 
reason of Christ's human nature, of the infirmities 
thereof, and of his suft'erings therein, it is granted, 
that indeed he was 'made lower than angels,' yet so 
as that mean condition which he underwent might be 
a means of bis advancement, even in his human nature, 
above angels ; to demonstrate thereby, that that means 
was 60 far from impeaching his greatness, as it made 
way thereto, and amplified the same. 

Besides, in mentioning angels, who are spiritual 
substances, he implieth that his human nature only 
was so humbled and made low ; so as he was not made 
lower than any other creatures besides angels. This 
is one limitation of Christ's humiliation. 

Yet if we consider that he who is ' the head of all 
principality and power,' Col. ii. 10, infinitely better 
than angels (as hath been shewed. Chap. i. Sec. 41), 
was made lower than angels, and became such a man, 
such a Son of man, as is intended in the former verse, 
we shall find that this degree of Christ's humiliation 
is a matter of the greatest admiration that evi r was 
given. Never was the like, never shall, never can, 
there be the like pattern given. Angels and men may 
stand amazed hereat. 

Who now should not be content to be abased to any 
low degree whereunto the Lord shall subject him ".' It 
is required that ' this mind be in us that was also in 
Christ Jesus,' Philip, ii. 5. He that hath made Christ 
low, hath power to make us low also. If we willingly 
submit ourselves to his pleasure in abasing us, he will 
also exalt us in due lime. 

Sec. 59. Of Christ 'hut little' loiver than the angels. 

Another limitation is of the time or degree of Christ's 
humiliation. I nse this disjunction of time or degree, 
because the Greek word used by the apostle, ^ia'/_!i ", 
hath reference to both ; to the time, and is trans- 
lated ' a little while,' Luke xxii. 58, and ' a little space,' 
Acts V. 34. To the quantity, Job vi. 7, Heb. xiii. 22. 
The Hebrew word, UJJD, used by the psalmist, hath, 
for the most part, reference to the degi'ee or measure, 
and is translated little, as Ps. xxxviii. 16, ' A little that 
a righteouB man hath,' &c. Yet is this Hebrew word 

Ver. ti-8.] 



sometimes also used to set out the time, as Dent. vii. 
32, ' The Lord will put out those nations by little and 
little,' that is, some at one time, and some at another. 

On the other side the Greek word also is put for 
measure, as John vi. 7, ' Take a little.' Our English 
translators have observed that the Greek word may 
signify either time or measure, in that they put one in 
the text, and the other in the margin, thus, ' a little 
lower,' or ' a little while inferior.' 

Both these acceptions may well stand, and be applied 
to the point in hand. For Christ's humiUation may 
well be said to be a httle in mensure and in time, and 
both these simply and comparatively. 

1. Simply, because for measure it was no other than 
is 'common to man,' av6auirrr,og,anA for continuance it 
was, at the furthest, but from his conception to his 

2. Comparatively, it was but light in measure, 
having reference to his almighty power ; and but short 
in time, having reference to his eternity. 

Christ verily, as a surety for sinners, underwent the 
wrath of God and curse of the law. Gal. iii. 13, which 
was so heavy a burden as it troubled his sonl, John 
xii. 27, made him ' exceeding sorrowful to the death,' 
Mark xiii. 3-4, and it cast him into such an agony as 
• his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling 
down to the ground,' Luke xxii. 44. It made him 
once and twice and again thus to pray, ' mj' Father, 
if it be possible, let this cup pass from me,' Mat. xxvi. 
89, and to cry out and say, ' My God, my God, why 
hast thon forsaken me ?' Mat. xxvi. 46. In these re- 
spects, if ever any on earth were such an one as the 
fore-mentioned Hebrew word signifieth, a miserable man 
in a desperate and incurable case, Christ, as a mere 
man, according to human strength, was in that his 
bitter agony. Yet in regard of the union of his divine 
nature with the human, that agony was neither des- 
perate nor incurable, but tolerable and momentary. 
He well endured it, and freed himself from it. Thus 
was it but little in regard of measure and time. 

Christ' humiliation was thus moderated, because it 
it was not for his own destruction, but for the salvation 
of others. In relation to his bitter agony, it is said 
that ' in the days of his flesh he offered up prayer and 
supplication with strong crying and tears : and that he 
was heard in that he feared,' Heb. v. 7. 

By God's ordering his Son's estate in bis sufferings, 
we may rest upon this, that he will answerably order 
the sufferings of the members of Christ, so as they 
shall neither be too heavy nor too long, they shall be 
but little in measm-e and time. This the apostle thus 
expresseth : ' Our light affliction, which is but for a 
moment,' &c., 2 Cor. iv. 17 : and again : ' There hath 
no temptation taken you, but such as is common to 
man ; and, ' God will not suffer you to be tempted 
above that you are able; but will, with the temptation 
also make a way to escape,' 1 Cor. x. 13. 

Their sufferings are by God inflicted, not in hatred. 

but in love; not for their destruction, but for their 
instruction. This is a forcible motive to patience. 

Herein hes a main difference betwixt the afflictions 
of Christ's members and others. Though God correct 
the former, yet his mercy shall not depart away from 
them ; but from others it may clean depart, 2 Sam. 
vii. 15. 

Sec. 60. Of God's croniiiiuj Chrht nith glory and 

The point which the apostle principally aimeth at, 
is the excellency of Christ, which he doth here set out 
two ways : 

1. Singly in this phrase, ' crowned with glory and 

2. Relatively in this, ' set him over the works, &c. 
To shew the ground of this exaltation of Christ, 

the apostrophe to God is still continued thus : Thou 
crownesthim, liTiDVn, igrifidiiuiiac avrov. See Sec. 55. 

This metaphor of crowning h;ith reference to a royal 
dignity. To crown is properly to set a crown upon 
one's head ; and that act declareth one to be a king. 
Thus it is said of Solomon, ' Behold king Solomon 
with the crown wherewith his mother crowned him,' 
Cant. iii. 12. Of Christ's roval dignitv, see Chap. i. 
Sec. IOC, 111, 112. 

Of God's conferring upon Christ that royalty where- 
unto he was advanced, see Chap i. Sees. 119, 149. 

This metaphor of crowning may also have reference 
to Christ's labours and travails in his lifetime ; and to 
the reward which God gave him after he had fully ac- 
complished all, and gotten an absolute conquest over all 
his enemies. In public undertakings, the champion 
that hath well finished his task, and overcome, was, in 
way of recompence, crowned. Hereunto alludeth the 
apostle in this phrase, ' They which run in a race run 
all ; but one receiveth the prize. They do it to obtain 
a corruptible crown,' 1 Cor. is. 24, 25. Thus Christ, 
after he had run his race, and overcome, was crowned 
by his Father. To this tendeth that which is said of 
Christ, Philip, ii. 8, 9, ' He humbled himself, and be- 
came obedient unto death, even the death of the cross. 
Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him.' 

Thus may all the members of Christ expect, after 
they have finished their course, and overcome, to be 
crowned. The apostle, with strong confidence, ex- 
pected as much, for thus he saith, ' I have fought a 
good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the 
faith ; henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of 
righteousness,' 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8. With the expectation 
hereof do the apostles incite Christians to hold out in 
doing the work of the Lord, 1 Peter v. 4, and in en- 
during temptations, James i. 12 ; for he that can and 
will perform what he hath promised, hath made this 
promise, ' Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give 
you a crown of life,' Rev. ii. 10. 

To amplify that royal dignity, those two worls, 
'/lory, honour, are added. 



Glory is oft put for the cscoUeiicy of a thing (see 
Chap. i. ver. 8, Sec. 19), so as this dignity was the 
most excellent that an}' could be advanced unto. The 
Hebrew word, ^13^, (jloria, according to the notation 
thereof, 133, ijiuris fuit, iraporteth a ponderous or j 
substantial thing, opposed to that which is light and j 
vain. I 

The Greek word, 56~a [box'su, tio^a, stattti), sets out \ 
that which is well spoken of, or is of good report, and 
a glory to one. 

The other word, honour, "lin, ornaiit pli^, oniatus, 
decor, honor), in Hebrew implieth that which is comley 
or bright. It is translated beauty, Ps. ex. 8. 

The Greek word 7-;/i^ (a rhtv, in honore sen in pretio 
habere), intendeth that a due respect be given to such 
as we have in high account. Where the apostle ex- 
horteth to render unto others their due, he thus ex- 
eniplifieth it, ' honour to whom honour is due,' Rom. 
xiii. 7. The duties, therefore, which inferiors owe to 
their superiors are comprised under this word honour; 
as the duty of servants, 1 Tim. vi. 1 ; of childi-en, 
Eph. ix. 2 ; and of subjects, 1 Peter ii. 17. This, 
then, sheweth that as Christ is most excellent in him- 
self, so ho is highly to be esteemed by others. Hon- 
our is due unto him, therefore honour is to be yielded 
to him, Ps. xlv. 2, 8, 11, 17. We honour kings 
crowned with gold ; shall we not honour Christ 
crowned with glory ? These are tit epithets to set 
out the royal dignity of Christ. They shew him to be 
most excellent in himself, and to be highly esteemed 
by others. When the apostle saith of Christ, ' God 
hath exalted him, and given him a name which is 
above every name,' he sets out his (jlonj ; and where 
he addeth, ' that at the name of Jesus every knee 
should bow,' he sets out his honour. By tliis the 
ignominy of the cross is taken away. 

Sec. Gl. Of dominion ijircn to Christ. 

God contented not himself that he had advanced 
the foresaid man to a royal dignity, and that to the 
most excellent that could be, but also added dominion 
and jurisdiction unto him. For it is further said, in 
the apostrophe to God, ' and didst sot him over the 
works of thine hands.' 

This copulative and here joineth together the dis- 
tinct parts of Christ's advancement. I 

In this phrase, ' thou didst sot,' which is the inter- 
pretation of one Greek word, xarisTr^ea;, there is some 
difference from the Hebrew, in7*y'Dn, doininari fecisti 
rum, which is thus translated, ' thou madest him to 
Lave dominion.' 

The Greek word is somewhat more general than the 
Hebrew. It signifieth to appoint, or to set, or place, 
as Heb. V. 1. Every high priest is ordained,' xaOia- 
rarai, conslituilur, or appointed. And James iii. 0, 
' The tongue is set in our members,' or ' among our 

But the Hebrew word more especially signifieth to 

rule, as Gen. iv. 7, ' Thou shalt rule ovei him,' 
13"X't3n. And in the third conjugation, ' to make to 
rule,' or to give power to rule,' as Dan. xi. 39, ' Ho 
shall cause them to rule,' D7't;'On, doniinari faciei eos. 
This conjugation is in the text in hand used by the 
psalmist. "WTien the preposition which signifieth over, 
iiri, is added to the verb that signifieth la set, as in 
this text it is, it intendeth as much as the Hebrew 
word doth, namely, to be set over others to rule them, 
or to be appointed to rule, or to be made to rule. So 
it is oft translated : Mat. xxv. 21, 28, ' I will make 
thee ruler over many,' irri rrof./.in a; y.ara(Srri<fji. This, 
then, implieth an higher degree of advancement, which 
is authority and rule. 

This point is further amplified by the extent thereof, 
in this phrase, ' over the works of thy hand?.' 

Of the meaning of this phrase, see Chap. i. Stcs. 
132, 131. 

The diflcrence betwixt this phrase, ' works of thy 
hands,' in this place, and the former, is this, that here 
it is taken in a larger extent than there. There it 
comprehended only the heavens ; but here all manner 
of creatures, both above and below, not any at all ex- 
cepted. The indefinite expression of ' the works of 
God's hands ' intends as much. 

This is further confirmed in the next verse by this 
general particle nil, ' all things,' catra, whereof see 
Sees. 07, 68. 

Sec. 02. Of the suhjeclion of all things to Christ. 

Ver. 8. To make Christ's rule the more absolute, 
this is further added, ' Thou hast put all things in 
subjection under his feet.' This is the rather added 
to make up that part of the assumption which seemed 
to be wanting, ver. 5. The whole assumption was to 
have been this, ' To Christ he hath put in subjection 
the world to come, but to angels he hath not put it 
in subjection.' The latter part is there set down, the 
former here ; at least in the full sense, though not in 
the very words : for instead of the world to come, he 
here saith all things, which is more than that. It is 
a logical and true principle, that under the greater, 
the less is comprised. Now, all things may well bo 
accounted the greater in reference to tht world 

Again, where he there said, unto them, he hi r 
saith, under his feet, which impheth a greater degror 
of subjection on their part who are put under, and of 
dominion on his part under whose feet they are put. 

This phrase, tinder his feel, implieth that they arc 
brought as much under him as any can be brought. 
They are not beside him, as the princes stood beside the 
king of Judah, Jer. xxxvi. 21, but under him ; not 
under, his hand, as soldiers under the hand of their 
captain, 2 Sam. xviii. 2, but under his feet ; not a/ 
his feet, as the ten thousand that went at Barak's feet. 
Judges iv. 10, but under his feet. Lower than under 

Ver. 6-8.] 


one's feet cannot au}- be put. Thus, therefore, do the 
people of God express the subjection of Gentiles under 
them : Ps. slvii. 3, ' He shall subdue the people un- 
der us, and the nations under our feet.' It doth 
withal imply that there is no fear of auj- creatures 
freeing themselves from subjection under Christ. 
They who are under one's feet are kept down from 
rising up against him. 

The phrase applied to Christ's enemies, implieth 
an utter subduing of them, and his just indignation 
against them, as hath been shewed. Chap. i. Sec. 154. 

Not enemies only, but all of all sorts are thus put 
in subjection under Christ, which intimateth that all 
yield obedience unto him ; some as his enemies, per- 
force, others wUlingly, Ps. ex. 2, 3 ; so as Christ's 
dominion is not a mere titular matter. As he hath 
power to command, so subjection is yielded to his 

It is therdfore a point of egregious folly to be like 
untj those who sent this message after this Lord, 
' We will not have this man to rule over us,' Luke 
xix. 14. All are put. under his feet; will they, nill 
they, they shall be subject unto him. ' Who hath re- 
sisted his will ?' Rom. ix. 19. 

In the days of his flesh, fishes, Luke v. G, winds, 
sea, Mat. viii. 27, diseases, Luke iv. 39, the worst of 
men, John ii. 15, and xviii. G, and devils themselves, 
Mark i. 28, were all subject unto him. Mark what 
a gentile said of the commanding and overruling 
power of Christ, Luke vii. 7, 8. 

As it is our duty, so it will be our wisdom, volun- 
tarily to submit to Christ, and to yield willing obe- 
dience to him. 

This is the property of his people, Ps. ex. 3. Thus 
shall we make a virtue of necessity. We are put 
under Christ's feet. There is therefore a necessity of 
submitting. But free and willing subjection is a virtue. 

Sec. 63. 0/ humiliation the way to exaltation. 

All the fore-mentioned branches of Christ's advance- 
ment, which are here, and Isa. liii. 12 ; Eph. iv. 10 ; 
Philip, ii. 10, and in sundry other places inferred 
upon his humihation, aftord unto us sundry consider- 
able observations, as, 

1. That working and sutfering are the ways to glory 
and honour. 

2. That works of service and sutl'ering were requisite 
for man's redemption and salvation, ver. 10. 

3. That God was mindful of his Son in his meanest 
and_ lowest estate (Sec. 55), accordipg to that which 
is written of the Son in relation to his Father, ' Thou 
will not leave my soul in hell ; neither wilt thou sufiVr 
thy Holy One to see corruption. Thou wilt shew mo 
the path of lift',' &c., Ps. xvi. 10, 11. 

4. That all the members of Christ's body have good 
ground to be confident, that after they have done and 
endured what God shall call them unto, they shall be 
recompensed with a crown of glorj-, 1 Peter v. 4. 

Christ therefore is to be looked on, as well advanced 
as debased ; in his exaltation and in his humiliation ; 
in heaven at his Father's right hand, as well as on 
the cross, or in the grave; crowned with glory, as well 
as with thorns, Heb. xii. 1. 

Thus will our faith be better settled and more 
strengthened, as Stephen's was, when he 'saw the 
Son of man standing at the right hand of God,' Acts 
vii. 56. 

Thus shall we with much patience, conteutedness, 
and cheerfulness, do and endure what God by his pro- 
vidence calleth us unto ; knowing that, ' If we sufler 
with Christ, we shall also reigu with him,' 2 Tim. ii. 

Sec. 64. Of the resolution o/Heb. ii. 6, 7, and first 
part 8th. 

Ver. 6-8. But one in a cei-tain place testified, saying. 
What is man, thai thou art mindful of him ? or the 
son of man, that thou visitest him ? Thou madest him 
a little lower than the ant/els ; thou crownedst him with 
glory and honour, and didst set him over the works oj 
thy hands: thou hast put all things in subjection under 
his feet. 

This test is a testimony taken out of Ps. viii. 4-6. 

The sum of it is, Christ's exaltation. 

About it two points are observable : 

1. The manner of bringing m the testimony. 

2. The matter contained therein. 
The manner is manifested two ways : 

1. By an indefinite pointing at, 1, the penman, one; 
2, the place, in a ceitnin place. 

In the matter two points are distinctly demonstrated : 

1. The low degree /rom which Christ was exalted; 
'2, the high degree to which Christ was exalted. 

That low degree is set down, 1, simply, ver. ; 2, 
comparatively, ver. 7. 

In the simple consideration of Christ's low degree, 

1 . The titles under which it is couched. 

2. The manifestation of God's tender respect to him 

The titles are two : 1, man ; 2, son of man. 

The manifestation of God's respect is in two phrases : 
1, mindful ; 2, visit. 

In the comparative expression of Christ's low de- 
gree are noted, 

1. The persons. 

2. The point. 

The persons are of two sorts : 

1. The efiicient or author who put him under, God, 
implied in this apostrophe, and under this relative 

2. The object or persons under whom he was put, 

The point or comparison itself declares, 

1. The degree of humiliation, lower. 

2. A restraint or limitation thereof, little. This 



[Chap. U. 

hath reference both to the measure, and also to the 
continuance of bis humiliation, Uttle in measure, little, 
or short in time. 

In the high degree whcrcunto Christ was advanced, 
two things arc noted : 

1. The person that exalted him. Even the same 
that humbled him, lliou. 

•2. The kind of advancement. This cousisteth of 
twn parts : 

1 . Dignity ; 2, authority. 

His dignity is, 

1 . Propounded in this metaphor, croicned ; so as it 
was roj-al. 

2. Amplified, and that two ways : 

1. By the excellency of that crown ; civn-ii »/ glonj. 

2. By the esteem of others ; honour. 

:•?. His authority is manifested two ways : 
] . By his jurisdiction over others. 
■-». By others' subjection to him. 
His jurisdiction is set out, 

1. By the kind of it, set over. 

2. By the subjects over whom he is sot, the works 
oftliine hands. 

Others' subjection is set down, 

1. By the persons or things suljjected to him, all 

2. By the low degree of his subjection, under his 

Sec. 65. 0/ the instructions raised out of Hcb. ii. G, 
7, and former part of the 8th, 

I. To alleije a proof of a point, is as much ns to allege 
the point itself. This I gather from the note of an 
assumption, di, hut. For in ordinary course this 
should have followed, ' But unto Jesus he hath put 
in subjection the world to come.' Instead thereof, 
the apostle produccth a testimony of Scripture that 
proves as much. 

II. Sacred Scripture receives no tiulhority front the 
penman thereof. This is one reason why the apostle 
nameth not the psalmist, but saith, ric, • one.' See 
Sec. 52. 

III. It is sujHcient to ipiote the words of Sciipture. 
This is suflicient, though no book, nor chapter, nor 
vei-se be quoted. See Sec. 50. 

IV. J'he Old Testament testi/ieih of Christ, 3;.=/Aac- 
Tusaro. See Sec. 51. ' ' \ 

V. Man of himself is a mean, mortal, and miserable ', 
creature. The Hebrew word translated man, intends ! 
thus much. See Sec. 54. 

VI. .yan comes of man. Every one is a ' son of [ 
man,' i/i; avrfstiTou, and descends from Adam. See 
Sec. 54. 

VII. Christ was a mean man. This title man is 
hero especially meant of Christ. See Sees. 54, 59. 

Mil. Christ was horn of man. Even he also was 
a son of man. See Sec. 54. 

IX. Nor Christ, nor any of his members arc ever 

out of God's mind. He is mindful of man, /iifivrisxri. 
Christ, the head, is here to be considered with all 
his members. See Sec. 55. 

X. Ood had an especial care of Christ and of his 
members. He visited them, Jir/«£Tr»|. See Sec. 

XI. // is God that maketh low. This apostrophe, 
' Thou hast made him lower,' f,y.uTTa<!a.:, is directed to 
God. See Sec. 57. 

XII. Christ mis made low. This positive is com- 
prised under the comparative, lower. 

XIII. The Lord of angels was made lotver than 
angels. This relative him, aurov, hath reference to 
him which is the head of all principality and power, 
Col. ii. 10. 

XIV. Christ's abasement was but a small abase- 

XV. Christ was humbled but for a short time, S^ayy 
ri. These two last doctrines arise out of this particle 
of diminution, little. See Sec. 59. 

XVI. CJirist's exaltation followed upon his humili- 
ation. The order of setting the one after the other 
intimateth as much. 

XVII. The same Goi that made Clirist low, highly 
advanced him. The apostrophe made to God about 
Christ's humiliation, is continued to God about 
Christ's exaltation. 

XVIII. Christ is advanced to a royal estate. God 
crowned him, iaTspdvueev. 

XIX. Christ is advanced to glory, dC^a. See Sec. 

XX. Honour, riij.n, accompanieth glory. See Sec. 

XXI. Christ hath authority added to his dignity. 
See Sec. Gl. 

XXII. Christ's authority is over God^s creatures, 
even the works of his hands, /.ariarriTai M ra. i^ya. 
See Sec. Gl. 

XXIU. Every creature is put under Christ. This 
general, all things, rraura,, intends as much. 

XXJV. Creatures are under Christ as low as can be. 
This metaphor, under his feet, demonstrates as much. 
See Sec. 02. 

Sec. GO. Of the citent of this word ' all things.' 

Ver. 8. For in that he put all in subjection under 
him, Ac left nothing that is net put under him. Bui 
now we see not yet all things put under him. 

The apostle having largely and faithfully cited the 
very words of a divine testimony to confirm the ex- 
cellency of Christ, he proceedeth to declare the mean- 
ing thereof in such particulars as most concerned the 
party intended. 

The first particle, /"«)•, yaj, impheth an explanation 
of that which gooth before ; as if he had said, David 
there speaketh of Christ, for this is the meaning of 
his words. 

Herein lieth the force of the apostle's argument : 

Ver. G-8.] 



David saith, All things are put under the feet of the 
man of whom he speaketh ; 

But all things are put under the feet of none but of 
Jesus : 

Therefore none but Jesus cnu be the man of whom 
David speaketh. 

If any creature at all be exempted from that general 
all thiiif/s, Christ is not absolutely supreme. 

To shew that the force of the argument lieth in this 
general, all things, the apostle resumes the word of 
the psalmist thus : ' In that he put all in subjection 
under him.' 

In this repetition, instead of under his feet, this in- 
definite phrase is used, wider him, which is in effect 
as much as the former ; for they who are absolutely 
put under one, are put under his feet. A man's feet 
are part of himself. The former is the more emphati- 
cal, but it was sufficient once to express that em- 

It cannot be denied but that this general, <dl, hath 
in sundry places restraints or limitations. 

1. It restrains to all kinds and sorts of things, as in 
this phrase, ' All things continue as they were from 
the beginning of the creation,' 2 Peter iii. 4. Many 
millions of particulars have perished, as of men, 
beasts, fowls, fishes, plants, minerals, &c., but yet the 
kinds of them remain. 

2. It is used synecdochically, as where the woman of 
Samaria saith, ' He told me all things that ever I did,' 
John iv. 29 ; she means many secret things. 

Where the word is taken in these or in any other j 
respects improperly, it may be discerned either by i 
some circumstance of the text, as where God saith he 
' will destroy all flesh,' Gen. vi. 17, and that ' all flesh 
died,' Gen. vii. 21, the context sheweth that such as 
were in the ark miast be excepted ; or by some other 
scripture, as this general, ' The blood of Christ 
cleanseth from all sin,' 1 John i. 7 ; hath an excep- 
tion of total apostasy, Heb. vi. G ; of the sin against 
the Holy Ghost, Mat. xii. 32 ; and of final impeni- 
tency, Luke xiii. 3. But where there is nothing in the 
text, nor in any other part of Scripture, nor in com- 
mon reason and understanding, to limit this general, 
it is to be taken in the largest extent, as John i. 3, 
Mat. si. 27, and in this place. 

Obj. The psalmist seems to restrain this general to 
things living on the earth and in the waters ; for he 
doth give instance in these particulars : ' All sheep 
and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field, the fowl of 
the air, and the fish of the sea,' Ps. viii. 7, 8. 

Ans. He doth not restrain it to those creatures, but 
only exemplifieth it in them. Now, for an exemplifi- 
cation, it is sufficient to reckon up some particular in- 
stances, though all be not mentioned. Where the 
apostle reckoneth up seventeen fruits of the flesh, he [ 
addeth this clause, and .such like, to shew that there 
were many other besides those seventeen, Gal. v. i 
19-21. I 

Particular instances of some generals are so many 
as we may say of them what the evangelist did of 
Christ's works, ' There are also many other, the 
which, if they should be written every one, I suppose 
that even the world itself could not contain the Isooks 
that should be written,' John xxi. 25. 

2. The psalmist, alluding to Gen. i. 26, and ix. 2, 
resteth in those particulars which are there mentioned. 

3. As Moses, so the psalmist thought it sufficient 
to exemplify the dominion of man over such sensible 
creatures as were visible, and might be seen and ex- 
perimentally known to be put under man. 

4. The psalmist doth implicitly intend Christ, but 
the apostle plainly, directly, and explicitly speaketh of 
him : and his main scope was to advance Christ above 
all invisible creatures, even angels themselves. There- 
fore it concerned him to shew the uttermost extent of 
those all thin/fs, which he doth in this phrase, ' He 
left nothing that is not put under him,' that is, he in- 
cludeth and compriseth every creature, invisible or 
visible, above or below, celestial or super-celestial, 
terrestrial or sub-terrestrial, not angels, not devils ex- 

Sec. 67. 0/ all things jnd binder Christ. 

This phrase, ' not put under,' is the interpretation 
of one Greek word, ufvn-oray.rov, decompositum, which 
I find in three other places of the New Testament, and 
translated ' disobedient,' 1 Tim. i. 9; ' unruly,' Titus 
i. 6, 10.» 

The Greek word, as here taken, is most properly 
used of oxen, horses, and other beasts which will not 
be brought under the yoke. In other authors, the 
word is used to set out such as are sui juris, of them- 
selves, subject to none, or under the command of none. 
In this sense it may fitly be here taken ; for in refer- 
ence to Christ there is not any creature so of itself 
as it is not under his power, government, and com- 

If it be taken in the former sense, it implieth thus 
much : there is none, be he never so refractory and 
stubborn, but is under the command of Christ, Mat. 
viii. 8, 9. And if otherwise they will not, they shall 
be forced to obey, as Mark i. 2'7. See more hereof 
Sec. 62. 

Because the point most questioned was about the 
persons or things put under Christ ; therefore the 
apostle yet further insisteth on that general all, and 
sheweth that it must be taken without limitation or 
exception of any. For this cause, by way of explan- 
ation, he addeth this clause, ' He left nothing that is 
not put under him,' that is, no creature is exempted 
from subjection under Christ. 

Sec. 68. Of subjection of all things den.'el 1o anij 

Against the extent of the foresaid subjection of all 
» TiTTuy. See Sec. 43. 



[Chap. II. 

things, the apostle produceth an objection in these 
words, ' But now wo see not yet all things put under 

There are seven words in that objection which carrj- 
an especial emphasis. 

1. But, &s, see ver. G, Sec. .50. This is an adver- 
sative conjunction, which oft implieth an objection, 
as Rom. iii. 5, ' ISut if our unrighteousness,' .tc. So 
here it intendeth an objection ; and such an one as in 
the matter of it cannot be denied to be true. 

2. Xoir. This conjunction is ordinarily used to 
set out the time present ; yet it is sometimes used as 
a mere supj)lemeut, or complement ; as Now then, Go 
to now. What now: so 1 Cor. xii. 1,2. Thus in Ilebrow, 
liny, Ps. ii. 10 and xxxix. 7. The Grecians use to 
put a note of diflVrcuce on this particle : when it sig- 
nifieth the time present, they use to put an accent 
over it, v\iv, as John iv. 23 ; but when tliey use it for 
a supplement, they set it down without any accent, 
n.». Here it is accented with a circumflex ; and it 
setteth out the time present ; namely, the time of our 
pilgrimage, while here we live on earth, even those 
days of our flesh, as the apostle styles this time, 
Heb. V. 7. 

3. Koi lift. These two words are but one in Greek, 
(ii/«raj ; and it useth to have reference to some remark- 
able matter or time ; as to Christ's suH'ering, .John 
vii. 6, 8, 30 ; to professors' martyrdom, Heb. xii. 4 ; 
to the full consummation of all things, 1 .John iii. 2. 
To that time, namely, to the continu.ance of the world 
nuto the last day, it hath reference in this place. 

4. We xee, iiw//.iv. This is here to be taken of 
seeing with the eyes of the body ; as where an angel 
saith of Christ, ' There shall ye see him,' o^isSi, Mat. 
xxviii. 7. In the passive it implieth a clear manifes- 
tation, as Heb. ix. 28, Sec. 142, ofSr,nirai. Of differ- 
ent kinds of seeing, see Sec. 72. 

It here intendeth a visible experience or proof of a 
thing ; and it implieth that men are hard to believe 
things which they see not ; because they did not 
visibly see all things under Christ, they deny it so 
to be. 

5. All thiii/is, ra <:rdvT%. This is to be taken in 
the largest extent ; no creature exempted ; as was 
before shewed, Sec. C6. 

fi. I'ul miller, i'rorsray/i'iva, see Sec. 43. This is 
to be taken of the lowest degi-ce of subjection ; even 
under one's feet ; as hath been before shewed. Sec. ()7. 

7. Jlini, au7!^. This relative hath an indefinite 
reference to him that was styled iiicai, ver. G, even as 
if he had said, to any man. 

No natural man out of Christ was ever so advanced. 
As for believers, who are true members of Christ, 
though in Christ, as they are united to him, they 
have a right to all things : ' All things are theirs,' 
1 Cor. iii. 21-23, yet ' now we see not all things 
put under' any of them. ' It doth not yet appear 
what we shall be," 1 John iii. 2. Vfe here, as heirs. 

are under tutors. This world is a place of probation. 
It becomes us to wait for the glory that is to come. 

Thus the apostle hath laid down the objection to 
the full; as if somewhat more largely he had thus 
expressed it : It hath not in this time of hfe, nor will 
be while this world continueth visibly seen, that all 
things, without any exception, have been put in sub- 
jection to any one man. 

The apostle denieth not the truth of anything in 
this objection, in regard of the matter thereof, but 
granteth every clause therein. Only he denieth the 
consequence inferred thereupon, which is this, that 
therefore all things are not put under Jesus. The 
falsehood of this inference is manifested in the next 

It was not without cause that the apostle here pro- 
duced this objection ; for an objection against a truth 
gives an occasion to him that loveth, and desireth to 
maintain that truth, to answer it ; and a pertinent and 
a proper answer doth more clear and prove the truth, 
so as truth many times receives advantage from objec- 
tions made against it. It is therefore nsual with the 
penmen of sacred Scripture to propound and answer 
objections. Ezek. xii. 22, &c. ; and xviii. 2, &c. ; Rom. 
vi. 1, &c. ; 2 Peter iii. 4, &c. 

Sec. 69. Of Climl\ 

fur exceeding all 

The foresaid objection being in the matter and sub- 
stance of it true, dotli much amplify the dominion of 
Christ. For thereby it plainly appeareth, that Christ's 
dominion is such an one, as never any had the like. 
Experience giveth proof to the truth hereof. 

' Solomon rcigneth over all kingdoms from the river 
Euphrates unto the border of Egypt,' 1 Kings iv. 21 ; 
and ' Ahasuerus, from India even to Ethiopia, over 
one hundred and twenty-seven provinces,' Esther i. 1. 
Hut Christ's dominion hath no limits nor bounds. 

Nebuchadnezzar was a ' king of kings ;' his domi- 
nion was ' to the end of the eai-th,' Dan. ii. 37 and iv. 
22. The Lord gave to Cyrus all the kingdoms of the 
earth, Ezra i. 1. All the world was taxed by Ca;sar 
Augustus, Luke i. 1. But these phrases, 'the end 
of the earth,' ' all kingdoms of the earth,' * all the 
world,' are synecdoehically used, the whole being put 
for a part. Besides, no part of their dominions ever 
reached unto heaven, as Christ's doth. That which 
is said of Nebuchadnezzar's greatness reaching [unto 
heaven, Dan. iv. 22, is hyperbolical. 

Sec. 70. Of the prijie's usurped power over earth, pur- 
f/atory, hell, and henren. 

We may here take notice of the intolerable an-o- 
gancy of the pope of Rome, who challengeth an uni- 
versal jurisdiction in earth, purgatory, hell, and 

1. On earth he takes him to be, not only a mo- 
narch over the catholic church throughout the whole 

Vek. 9.J 


■n-orlil, but also to have power over all kingdoms, to 
set up and put down kings. The pope gave the West 
Indians to the Spaniards. Not only those flatterers 
and deifiers of the pope,' who lived before the Jesuits 
{who as cunning refiners undertook to allaj' the gross 
and palpable blasphemies of former papists, the sub- 
stance whereof the.y themselves maintained), but also 
Bellarmine himself,- one of the most subtle refiners, 
avoucheth, that the pope hath power to change king- 
doms ; and to take them from one, and confer them 
upon another, as the ehiefest spiritual prince. 

2. Concerning purgatory, it is said,' that the pope 
if he would might empty all purgatory. 

3. Coucerning hell, it is said,^ that though the pope 
should thrust an innumerable company of souls into 
hell, none may judge him for it. 

4. Concerning heaven, they comprise a supreme 
power of putting into, or casting out of heaven under 
the keys, which, papists say, Christ gave to Peter 
alone, and in Peter to his successor the pope. There- 
upon the pope takes upon him to canonize, and make 
glorious saints in heaven whom he pleaseth. 

The 8th Psalm (out of which the foresaid testimony 
is taken) is by sundry papists applied to the pope ; 
and also the first verse of the 24th Psalm. Doth not 
he who assumeth to himself these, and other things 
higher than these, exalt himself above all that is called 
God ; and therein shew himself to be plain anti- 
christ ? 2 Thes. ii. 4. 

Sec. 71. Of the resolution and observations of part 
of the eighth verse. 

8. For in that he ]'iit all in subjection under him, 
he left nothinri that is not put under him. But now 
ire see not yet all thinijs put under him: 

In this text is laid down the difi'erence betwixt 
Christ's dominion and others'. 

Hereof arc two parts : 

1. The extent of Christ's dominion. 

2. The icstraint of others' dominion. 

The former is set out by an explanation of that 
divine testimony which he had produced. Here then 
we may observe, 

1. A citation of the text itself. 

2. The explanation thereof. 

In the citation there is observable, 

1. The nianer of quoting it, thus, For in that. 

2. The luatter. Wherein four distinct persons are 
to be noted : 

1. The aaent, he put . 

2. The patients, all. 

' .Joli;iii. Capist. Panorrait. AlLan. Jacobat. Gratian. Joan. 
<lo Pacif. 

' liellarm. (U Rom. Pont. lib. v. cap. vi. — Papa potest mu- 
lare regna, et uni auferre, et alteri conferre, tanqnam sum- 
mtis princi'iLs spirilualia. 

" Pajift, si vellet, posset totum Purgatorium evaeuare, 
Jo/im. A „i/el. 

• Gratian. HO; Pcllarm. de Sanct, Beat. lib. i. cap. ix. 

3. The low degree, in subjection under. 

4. The person under whom they were put, him, 
that is, Christ. 

The explanation is in these words, ' He left nothing 
that is not put under him.' This shews the full ex- 
tent of all. 

The restraint of others' dominion is here set down 
by way of objection, yet so as the matter contained 
therein is not denied. Hereof see Sec. 68. 

In this objection observe, 1, the substance; 2, the 
circumstance thereof. 

The substance is, 1, generally intimated in this 
adversative conjunction, but, &i. 

2. It is particularly expressed, now we see not, &c. 

In that expression is set down, 

1. The main point objected, all things not put 
under him, axirf to. rravra uTorira.yij.iva,. 

2. The proof thereof, ire see not, i^(Zfji.iv. 

The circumstance concerns the time in two English 
words, now, get, o'J-co. 

The observations hence arising are these : 

I. There is a great difference hetwLvt Christ's domi- 
nion and others'. This ariseth from the general 
scope of this text. See Sec. 69. 

II. Points questioned must be clearly propounded. 
This ariseth from the inference of this explanation 
upon the former testimony, implied in this causal 
particle, /o)-. See Sec. 6G. 

III. It is God that puts one under another. This 
relative he hath reference to God. See Sec. 57. 

IV. Creatures are under Christ. They are put iu 
subjection under him. See Sec. G7. 

V. Creatures are as low as can be under Christ. 
This phrase, under him, is as much as under his feet. 
See Sec. 62. 

VI. No creature at all is exempted from siiljection 
under Christ. ' He left nothing that is not put under 
him.' See Sec. 67. 

VII. Objections against a point may he produced. 
This particle hut intendeth as much. See Sec. 68. 

VIII. Experience of all ages is a good proof. This 
phrase, ive see not, intends as much. Withal it im- 
plies another point, viz., 

IX. 3Ien hardly believe that which they see not. 

X. In this luorld no man ever had an absolute mon- 
archy. These particles, noio, yet, set out the time of 
this world. This phrase, not all things under him, 
denies an absolute monarchy. See Sec. 69. 

XI. The fidness of saints' glory is not here discerned. 
See Sec. 63. 

Sec. 72. Of seeing Jesus. 

Ver. 9. But tve see Jesus, who icas made a Utile 
lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned, 
with glory and honour ; that he by the grace of God 
should taste death for every man. 

The answer to the former objection is here so 
plainly and fully set down, as thereby it evidently 



LChai'. II. 

appears what mmi was meant in the fore-quoted testi- 
mony, namely, Jesus, who is expressly named, and 
proved to bo the only man that was there intended. 
This answer is brought in by way of assumption, as 
this assuming note hul declareth, see Sec. 50 ; or, to 
explain the passage more clearly, it may be brought in 
with discretive notes, thus : though we see no other 
man, yet wc may discern Jesus so and so exalted. 

The word here translated, we sec, j3xi-o/j,tv, is some- 
times put for bodily sight, sometimes for spiritual. 

If the sight here in this verse mentioned be taken 
for bodily sight, it must be applied to the witnesses 
of Christ's resurrection, whereof mention is made, 
1 Cor. XV. 5-7, and of his ascension, Acts i. 9, 10, 
and to the visible evidences which he gave of his su- 
preme power in heaven. Acts ii. 33, and iv. 10, and 
ix. 5, &c. 

But all these visible evidences were accomplished 
before the time of the apostle's writing this epistle. 
And the apostle here speaking in the present tense of 
a present and continued sight, must needs be under- 
stood to speak of a spiritual sight. Though our 
English use one and the same word, namely, see, in 
the objection and in the answer; yet in the Greek 
there are two words differing in sense and syllables. 

The former is taken of the sight of the body. See 
Sec. 68. 

This latter, of the sight of the mind, Heb. iii. 19, 
Rev. iii. 18. 

Both the Greek words are oft used in the one and 
the other sense. The former word, ogdu, sets out the 
sight of the mind, Heb. xi. 27, James ii. 24 ; and 
this latter, /3Xfc-w, sets out the sight of the body. Mat. 
xi. 4, and xii. 22. 

But here it must be taken for the sight of the mind ; 
for Jesus is crowned with glory in heaven, where men 
on earth see him not. 

That we may the better discern how men are said 
to see Christ in glory, it will not be unseasonable to 
set out the different kinds of sight expressed in 

There is a sight of the body, and of the mind : 
both these are exercised on earth and in heaven ; on 
earth, ordinarily and extraordinarily. To exempUfy 

1. All among whom Christ conversed in the da)-8 
of his flesh on earth, saw him with their bodily eyes 
after an ordinary manner, Mat. viii. 34. 

2. Stephen and Paul saw him with their bodily 
e3'es after an extraordinary manner. Acts vii. 50, 
1 Cor. XV. 8. We do not read of any other that saw 
Christ after his ascension. 

3. All of all sorts shall see Christ with their bodily 
eyes at the day of judgment, Mat. xxiv. 80, and 
xxvi. 04. 

4. Glorified saints shall see him with a beitifical 
vision in heaven, Rev. xxii. 4. 

The sight of the mind cousistoth in two things : 

1. In understanding things to be as they are, 
though they be invisible to the bodily e3'e, John ix. 39. 

2. In believing what they conceive to be true, Heb. 
xi. 27. 

Thus, as the body, so the soul hath two eyes, 
which are knowledge and faith. The former is here 
I especially intended , yet the latter is not to be excluded ; 
for true Christians believe what they know of Christ. 
As in Greek, to express the two fore-montioncd kinds 
of sight, there are two distinct words ; so also there 
are the like in sundry Latin translations, and might 
also in our English be distinguished, by translating 
the former thus, ' We see not ;' the latter thus, ' We 
perceive.' This latter word is so translated, 2 Cor. 
vii. 8. 

This metaphor of seeing, is used in spiritual matters, 
because we are as much assured of them, as if we be- 
held them with our bodily eyes : ' We believe, and 
are sure,' saith Peter, John vi. G9. Believers are as 
sure that Christ is now in heaven, at God's right 
hand, crowned with glory and honour, as Thomas was 
that Christ was risen from the dead, when he saw 
Jesus before him, and put his hand into Christ's side, 
John XX. 27, 28. 

Nothing can be more sure than that which God's 
word aifirmcth. Believers, who lived before Christ 
was exhibited, were in their souls certain and sure of 
everything that God had foretold concerning the Mes- 
siah. In this respect Christ saith, ' Abraham rejoiced 
to see my day ; and he saw it, and was glad,' John 
viii. 50. How much more may believers be sure oi 
those things which in God's word are revealed of the 
glory of Christ. Of such, saith Christ, ' Blessed ai-e 
they that have not seen, and vet have believed,' John 
XX. 29. 

As for this particular of Christ's being crowned 
with glory, it is testified by four evangelists, and by 
all the apostles whose writings are come to our hands ; 
and by the gifts that Christ conferred on sons of men, 
whether extraordinary. Acts ii. 83, and iii. 10, or 
ordinary, Eph. iv. 8, &c. Well, therefore, might tl .^ 
apostle say of himself and other believers, ' Wc f. 
Jesus.' They did as well know that Christ in beav> 
was crowned with glory, as they, who on earth saw i:, 
knew that he was crowned with thorns. 

What may be thought of them that live under the 
light of the gospel, whereby the groat mysteries ot 
Jesus Christ are fully and clearly revealed, and yet, 
if they be demanded, whether ever they saw Jesus 
crowned with glory, and sitting at God's right hand, 
and making intercession lor us, will be ready to an- 
swer, after such a manner as the Ephesians did. Acts 
xix. 1, 2, wc have not so much as heard of any such 
thing'? What may be thought of such, but that ' the 
god of this world hath blinded the minds of them 
which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel 
of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto 
them ' ? 2 Cor. iv. 4. If they be blessed, who have 

Ver. 9.] 


not seen, and yet have believed, John xx. 29, surely 
the case of those who do not now see Jesns crowned 
with glory and honour, must needs be a most wretched 

As for us, who can say, with this blessed apostle, 
' We see Jesus crowned,' what cause have we to bless 
God for this evidence of his good providence, that our 
Saviour, after all his sufferings, being entered into 
glory, that glory should be so clearly revealed, and 
we to see him crowned with glory ? Christ, who is 
in heaven, is to us on earth invisible, in regard of 
bodily sight ; yet by faith we see him, which is enough 
to work in us such a spirit as Moses, Heb. xi. 27, and 
Stephen had. Acts vii. 56. 

Let us therefore make use of this spiritual sight, 
till we come to the beatifical sight of Jesus. 

Sec. 73. Of this title Jesus. 

The person of whom the apostle here speaketh is 
here styled by his proper name Jesus, 'Ijjffoub, which is 
the Greek expression of Jeshua, and signifieth a sa- 
viour. Jesiis,^ in Hebrew, is the same that Saviour 
is in English ; so as these two phrases, ' Jesus, which 
is called Christ,' Mat. i. 16, and ' a Saviour, which 
is Christ,' Luke ii. 11, intend one and the same thing. 

This name Jesus was by God himself given to bis 
Son ; for before the conception of Christ, an angel 
from God thus saith to her that was to be his mother, 
' Thou shalt call his name Jesus,' Luke i. 31 ; and 
again, after he was conceived, but before his birth, it 
was said to his reputed father, ' Thou shalt call his 
name Jesus,' Mat. i. 21. Actually it was given to him 
at his circumcision, Luke ii. 21, as|our name nseth to 
be given to us at our baptism. 

By this name he was called in bis infancy, Mat. 
ii. 1, Luke ii. 27; in his childhood, Luke ii. 43; in 
his youth, Luke ii. 52 ; in his man-age. Mat. iii. 13; 
so all his lifetime : by friends, John i. 45 ; foes, John 
xviii. 5, 7 ; countrymen, John vi. 42 ; aliens, John 
xii. 21 ; at his death. Mat. xxvii. 37 ; after his death, 
and that by angels. Mat. xxviii. 5, Acts i. 11 ; by 
evangelists, Luke xxiv. 15; apostles, Rom. viii. 11; 
yea, and by devils. Acts xix. 15. 

This title Jcst(s is a most honourable title, intimat- 
ing that full salvation which he bringeth to his people. 
The angel that brought the message of his birth and 
name rendereth this reason thereof, ' He shall save 
his people from their sins,' Mat. i. 21. In this respect 
he is styled ' A Saviour,' Luke ii. 11 ; ' Our Saviour,' 
2 Tim. i. 10 ; ' The Saviour of the body,' Eph. v. 23; 
' The Saviour of the world,' John iv. 42"; ' The Saviour 
of all men,' 1 Tim. iv. 10; yea, 'salvation' itself, 
Luke ii. 30. 

By the name Jesus people were put in mind of that 
great end of his coming into the world, namely, to 
save them. 

Yet the envious Jews under this name scorned and 
' VK'in' ab V^\ salvavil. 

derided him, by adding his country thereunto ; thus, 
' Jesus of Galilee,' ' Jesus of Nazareth,' Blat. xxvi. 
69, 71 ; and in scorn this title was set over his head, 
' This is Jesus,' &c., Mat. xxvii. 37. 

The apostle, therefore, in setting forth the excel- 
lency of Christ, oft useth this name Jesus. It is 
oftener used alone, without any addition, in this epistle 
than in any other one epistle, that these Hebrews 
might be kept from that base conceit which their 
countrymen had of Jesus, and move them to have 
him in high esteem. 

There are two whom the Seventy in the Old Tes- 
tament style Jesus ; namely, Joshua the son of Nun, 
Josh. i. 1, and Joshua the son of Josedech, Haggai 
i. 14. Both these were accounted saviours of Israel, 
in regard of temporal deliverances, and therein were 
types of Christ. 

In the New Testament, where mention is made of 
Joshua, be is styled Jesus, as Acts vii. 45, Heb. iv. 8. 
There is mention of another also called Jesus, Col. 
iv. 11, who, being a Jew, was, as is probable, in 
Hebrew called Joshua. 

The apostle had before called Christ the ' Son of 
God,' ' the first begotten,' ' God,' ' Lord,' which are 
titles proper to his divine nature. But here he 
speaketh of his excellency as man ; and thereupon 
giveth him that title which setteth out the distinct 
reason why, being God, he assumed man's nature ; 
namely, that he might be a fit and able Saviour of 
man : fit, as he was man ; able, as he was God. 

Well may this title Jesus, in regard of the significa- 
tion of it, be given unto Christ. For, 

1. He was a true Saviour, Heb. viii. 2, not a typical 
Saviour, as Joshua and other like saviours, Neh. 
ix. 27. 

2. He was a most /we Saviour : ' According to hia 
mercy he saved us,' Tit. iii. 5 ; 'not for price,' 1 Pet. 
i. 18. 

3. He was an all-sufficient Saviour. He satisfied 
divine justice, assuaged divine wrath, endured the in- 
finite curse of the law, overcame death, hell, and him 
that had the power of them, ver. 14, Rev. i. 18. 

4. He was an unirersal Saviour ; the Saviour of all 
that are or shall be saved, 1 Tim. iv. 10. 

5. He was a total Saviour. He saveth soul and 
body, 1 Cor. vi. 20. 

6. He was an everlasting Saviour. He brings all 
that believe in him to everlasting life. As he is, so 
he was from the beginning, and ever will continue so, 
Heb. xiii. 8, Rev. xiii. 8, Heb. vii. 24. 

7. He was a perfect Saviour, Heb. vii. 25. He 
leaves nothing simply in the case of salvation for any 
other to do. 

8. Ho is the only Saviour, Acts iv. 12, Isa. Ixiii. 5. 
On these grounds it becomes us, 

1. To consider the need that we have of a Saviour. 
This will make us inquire how we may be saved, 
Acts xvi. 30. 




[Chap. II. 

2. To fly to Christ for salvalion. He invites all so 
to do, John vii. 87. Ho casts away none that come 
unto him, John vi. 87. 

3. To trust on him, Acts xvi. 81, 1 Tim. iv. 10. 

4. To rqjoice in him, Luko i. 47. 

5. To bless God for him, Luke i. G8. 

fi. To serve him who saveth us, Luke i. 74, 75. 
7. To do all in his name. Col. iii. 17. 
Of this title Jesus, joined with the other, Christ, 
see Chap. iii. 1, Sec. 2'J. 

Sec. 74. Of applying the testimony. 

That it may the more evidently appear that Jesus 
was especially intended in the foresaid testimony, the 
apostle applieth to him both that low estate to which 
the man mentioned by the psalmist was humbled, and 
also that high estate whereunto he was advanced ; and 
both these in the very words of the testimony : the 
former thus, ' Who was made a little lower than the 
angels ;' the latter thus, ' crowned with glory and 
honour.' The meaning of both these hath been before 
declared. See Sec. 57. 

This high exaltation of Christ is here again brought 
in, to prove that 'all things were put under him;' 
for the lirst particle of this verse, but, hath reference 
to the exaltation of Christ, as if they had been thus 
joined together: ' But we see Jesus crowned with glory 
and honour.' The thing questioned in the former 
verse was this, ' We see not yet all things put under 
him.' To that, in way of opposition, the apostle 
addeth this, ' But we see Jesus crowned.' This 
crowning of Jesus is a clear demonstration that all 
things are put under his feet, for h sheweth that he 
hath dignity and authority over them all. And it is 
here again, upon the mention of Christ's suffering, set 
down, to take away the scandal of Christ's cross ; for 
Christ crucified was ' uuto the Jews a stumbling- 
block, and unto the Greeks foolishness,' 1 Cor. i. 23. 
But the glory of Christ after his sufl'ering made his 
Bulfering to be accounted no despicable matter, but 
rather most glorious, it being the way to a crown of 
glory and honour. 

To shew wherein Jesus was made lower than angels, 
this phrase is inserted, ' For the suflering of death.' 

The preposition translated/))-, bia, is diversely used 
in the New Testament. It is sometimes set before 
the genitive case, and then it signifieth the efficient 
cause, aud that principal, as Rom. i. 5 ; or instru- 
mental, as Mat. i. 22 ; or the means whereby a thing 
is effected, as Acts v. 12. In all these senses it is 
translated by. See Chap. iii. IG, Sec. 164. 

Sometimes it is set before the accusative case, and 
is translated for ; then it signifieth the final cause, as 
Mat. xiv. 8, 9 ; and in this sense it is sometimes 
translated because, as Mat. xiii. 21. In the next verso 
both cases are joined to it, so as it signifieth both the 
final and the efficient cause. Here it is joined with the 
accusative case ; but the sentence is so placed between 

the humiliation and exaltation of Christ, as it may 
refer to either. Some refer it to the one, some to tho 

It being referred to Christ's humiliation, implieth 
the end of his being made less than angels, namely, 
' for death,' that he might sufl'er death, or that he 
might die. For Jesus, as God, was eternal, immortal, 
and could not die ; but as man he was mortal, he 
could, he did die. 

Some place Christ's humiliation below angels in 
his death, and thus translate it, ' lower than the angels 
by the sulleriiig of deatli.' Our English giveth an 
hint of this, by putting this diverse reading in the mar- 
gin, thus, ' or, /))/.' But the accusative case, with 
which the preposition is here joined, will hardly bear 
that interpretation. 

Again, others refer this clause, concerning Christ's 
death, to his exaltation, thus : ' We see Jesus, for the 
sufl'ering of death, crowned:' which is as if he had said. 
Because ho sufl'ered death he was crowned, &c. 

If this be taken of the order or way of Christ's 
entering into glory (namely, that after he had suffered 
death, he was crowned with glory), it well agreeth with 
other scriptures, which thus speak : ' Ought not Christ 
to have sufl'ered these things, and enter into glory ?' 
Luke xxiv. 20 ; 'He became obedient to death, where- 
fore God also hath highly exalted him,' Philip ii. 8, 9. 
But thereupon to infer what papists ' do, that Christ, 
by his passion, merited his own glorification, is no just 
consequence, nor an orthodox position. For, 

1. The Greek phrase noteth the final rather than 
the meritorious cause. 

2. The glory whereunto Christ was advanced, was 
due to him Ijy virtue of the union of his human nature 
with his divine.^ 

3. The glory whereunto he was advanced was too 
great to be merited. 

4. It impaireth the glory of Christ's passion, to say 
that hereby he merited for himself, implying that he 
aimed therein more at his own glory than our good. 

5. It lesseneth God's love to man, as if God should 
give his Son to sufl'er, that thereby he might attain 
unto another glory than he had before. 

G. Christ going out of the world thus prayeth : ' 
Father, glorify thou me with thine own self, with the 
glory which I had with thee before the world was,' 
John xvii. 5. How was that merited in the world 
which he had before the world was ? 

7. The Rhemists themselves,^ and other papists, 
acknowledge that Christ was, sti-aight upon his de- 
scending from Heaven, to be adored by angels, and 
all other creatures. 

I suppose that the main scope of the apostle is, to 
set out the end of Christ's being made lower than 
angels, namely, that he might be a sacrifice to expiate 

' lUiem. Annnt. on this place. 

' See Domest. Dut., Treat, i. on Ejih. v. 25, sec. 32. 

' Uhem. Annot. on Heb. 1. 16. 

Ver. 9.] 


man's sin ; and thereby to make reconciliation betwixt 
God and man. 

In this respect the first interpretation is the fittest, 
namely, that Christ was made man for this very end, 
that he might die. This is most agreeable to the 
proper meaning of the phrase and mind of the apostle. 

Thus do many ancient and later divines ' take it. 
This is a second proof of Christ's true manhood, 
namely, his death. See Sec. 1. 

Sec. 75. Of Christ's being iiuin to die. 

Had not Christ assumed a human nature, which 
(in the substance, and sundry infirmities thereof) is 
inferior to the angelical nature (which is spiritual and 
incorruptible), he could not have died. To imagine 
that as God (' who only hath immortality,' 1 Tim. vi. 
16) he should die, would imply the greatest contradic- 
tion that could be. God is a spirit of spirits, more 
free from any corporal infirmity and from death than 
any created spirits can be. Yet to effect what Christ 
did by his death, he that died must be God. For 
Christ died not as a private person to pay his debt, 
but as a surety for man, and a redeemer of man. 
For man therefore he was to satisfy infinite justice ; 
to remove the insupportable curse of the law ; to break 
the bonds of death ; to overcome the devil, that had the 
power of death. No single creature could do all these. 
Immanuel, God with us, God made man, died, and 
by death efl'ected whatsoever was requisite for man's 
full redemption. As by being man he was made fit 
to sufi'er, so that manhood being united to the Deity, 
was made able to endure whatsoever should be laid 
upon it, and thereby also an infinite value, worth, and 
merit was added to his obedience, for it was the obe- 
dience of him that was God, but in the frail nature of 

Behold here the wonder of wonders. Christ under- 
takes a task above the power of all the angels, and to 
effect it he is made lower than angels. If ever power 
were made perfect in weakness, it was in this. 

Sec. 76. Of Christ's sufferings.' 

The apostle here addethsufi'ering to death (for the suf- 
fering of death),' to shew that it was not an easy, gentle, 
light departure out of this world, but a death accom- 
panied with much inward agony andoutwnrd torture. 

This word in the plural number, sufferings, is fre- 
quently used in the New Testament, both to set out 
the manifold sufferings of Christ, as 1 Pet. i. 11, and 
also the sufferings of Christians for Christ's sake, as 
Rom. viii. 1 8. The singular number, siffering, is used 
in this only place, but collectively it compriseth under 
it all that Christ endured, 'either in body or soul. To 
demonstrate the truth hereof, the apostle with an 

' Clirys. in Hob. ii., Horn, iv.; Theod. in. loc; Aug. contr. 
Maxim, lib iii. cap. xviii.; Ambr. BuUin. Bez. Sun. PareuB. 
s See Sec. «6. 

' Aia ro viHu.ei d var^ai^ potior. 

emphasis thus expresseth the kind of his death, ' even 
the death of the cross,' Philip ii. 8, which was a cursed 
death, Gal iii. 13. 

This will yet more evidently appear, if to Christ's 
external sufl'erings be added the sufferings of his soul, 
see Chap. v. 7, Sec. 38. A prophet saith, that 
' his soul was made an ofiering for sinners,' Isa. liii. 
10. This was manifested by an inward agony, con- 
cerning which he himself thus saith, ' My soul is ex- 
ceeding sorrowful unto death;' with strong crying and 
tears, he thus prayeth, ' my father, if it be possible, 
let this cup pass,' yea, again and the third time he fell 
on his face, and prayed in the same manner. Such 
was his agony, as ' his sweat was as it were great drops 
of blood falling to the ground.' So great was his 
agony, as an angel is said to appear unto him from 
heaven strengthening him. When he was upon the 
cross, he cried with a loud voice, saying, ' My God, 
my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?' Do not these 
effects further prove that the apostle had cause to add 
suffering to Christ's death, and to style it, ' suffering 
of death.' 

All this was to keep us from suffering what by our sins 
we had deserved. For ' Christ hath redeemed us from 
the curse of the law, being made a curse for us,' Gal. 
iii. 13. Who is able to ' comprehend the breadth, 
and length, and depth, and height of Christ's love to 
us, which passeth knowledge '? Eph. iii. 18, 19. 

What now should not we do and endure for Christ's 
sake, thereby to testify our love to him ? 

Sec. 77. Of this reading ' irithout God.' 

The proper end of Christ's suffering is thus ex- 
pressed, ' that he by the grace of God should taste 
death for every man.' 

This conjunction, that, is a note of the final cause, 
as Mat. V. 16. What in special that end was, is 
shewn in this phrase, ' for every man.' Hereof see 
Sec. 83. 

The chief procuring cause is here said to be, ' the 
grace of God.' It appears that some of the ancients ' 
read the clause otherwise than now we read it, though 
it be confirmed by a constant consent of all Greek 
copies as we now have it. 

That other reading is thus, ' that, %wg;'5 ©sou, sine 
Den, without God he might taste death.' The Greek 
words, %ag;s &ioii, gratia Dei, translated grace, in the 
nominative case, and tvithout, are somewhat like. They 
difl'er but in one letter. Thence might the mistake 
arise. For some have here taken grace in the nomi- 
native case, for Christ who died ; as if he had said, 
' that the grace of God might taste death for every 
man.' He called him grace who tasted death for the 
salvation of all, saith one ;'' and the Son is called the 

' Ambr. de fide ad Grat. lib. ii. cap. iv.; Fulgent, and 
Trasimund. Keg. lib. iii. cap. xx.; Vigil, contr. Eutych. 

* Jesum gratiam nominat qui pro omnium salute gustavit 
mortem. — Amhr. defide ad Grat., lib. ii. cap. iv. 



grace of God the Father, saith another.' But the 
word used by the apostle is of the dative case, so as 
hereby the likeness of the Greek words is taken away, 
and the mistake appears to be greater. 

The sense wherein the fathers used this phrase, 
vilhoiit God, was this, that though Christ consisted of 
two natures, divine and human, yet he suft'ered only 
in his human nature, his deity did not suffer. 

But Nestorius, a notorious heretic, and his followers, 
inferred from those words, uiihuui God, that Christ's 
human nature was a distinct person of itself, and so 
suffered without God, not united to God ; for they 
held that God and man in Christ were two distinct 

Thus we see what advantage is given to heretics by 
altering the words of Scripture. 

Sec. 78. Of God's grace the cause of Christ's death. 

To come to the true reading of this text, which is 
this, ' by the grace of God.' Grace is here put for 
the free favour of God. Thus it is oft taken in the 
holy Scriptures. See Chap. iv. 10, Sees. 90, 97. 

AH blessings tending to salvation, yea, and salva- 
tion itself, are ascribed thereunto : as election, Kom. 
xi. 5 ; redemption, Eph. i. 7 ; vocation, 2 Tim. i. 9 ; 
justification, Rom. iii. 24 ; salvation, Eph. ii. 8. 

It was therefore of God's grace that Christ was 
given to man, and that he did what he did, and en- 
dured what he endured for man, John iii. 16, Eph. 
ii. 4, 7. 

There is nothing out of God to move him to do 
anything : ' He worketh all things after the counsel 
of his own will,' Eph. i. 1. See more hereof, Sec. 
87, and Chap. iv. 16, Sec. 97. 

As for man, there can be nothing in him to pro- 
cure so great a matter as is here spoken of, at God's 

By this it is manifest, that God's free grace, and 
the satisfaction that Christ hath made for our sins, 
may stand together.- Christ's satisfaction is so far 
from being opposite to the frecness of God's grace, as 
it is the clearest and greatest evidence that ever was, 
or can be given thereof. More grace is manifested in 
God's not sparing his Son, but giving him to death 
for us, than if by his supreme authority and absolute 
prerogative ho had forgiven our sins, and saved our 
souls. We that partake of the benefit of Christ's 
death, nor do, nor can make any satisfaction at all. 
For God to impute another's satisfaction to us, and 
to accept it for us, is more grace; and that the rather, 
because he that is true God, even the proper Son of 
God, made that satisfaction. 

Thus wo see how, in working out our redemption, 
divine grace and justice meet together, and sweetly 

• Gratia Doi Patria appcllalur Filius, eo quod nobis a Deo 
Patre gratii sit datus, et quod gratis pro nol)i3 mortem susti- 
nuit. — Primaa. 

» See Chap. ix. 7, Sec. 43. 

kiss each other : justice, in reference to the Son of 
God, who hath satisfied God's justice to the full ; 
grace, in reference to us, who neither have made, nor 
can make, any satisfaction at all. 

Learn hereby to ascribe what thou hast or hopest 
for to grace, and wholly rely thereupon. It is the 
surest ground of comfort, and safest rock of confidence 
that poor sinners can hare. 

Paul ascribes all in all to it, 1 Cor. xv. 10, 1 Tim. 
i. 14. He takcth all occasions of setting it forth, yet 
never satisfieth himself therein. He styleth it ' abun- 
dance of grace,' Rom. v. 17 ; ' Exceeding abundant 
gi-ace,' 1 Tim. i. 14 ; ' Riches of grace,' Eph. i. 7 ; 
' Exceeding riches of grace,' Eph. ii. 7. 

Let us be like minded. Lot us acknowledge the 
grace of God to us, and ascribe all the good we have 
thereunto. Let us so deeply meditate thereon, as we 
may be ravished therewith. Let us so apply it to 
ourselves, as we may render all the praise of what we 
have, or are able to do, to this grace of God. 

Had it not been by the grace and good pleasure of 
God, no violence, or force of man or devils, could have 
brought Christ to die. Did be not with a word of his 
mouth drive back those that came to apprehend him ? 
John xviii. 6. He could have had more than twelve 
legions of angels to defend him, Mat. xxvi. 53 ; he 
was ' delivered by the determinate counsel of God,' 
Acts ii. 23 And this God did upon his free grace 
and good will towards man. This moved Christ to 
' lay down his life,' John x. 18; and to 'give himself,' 
Eph. V. 25. 

Sec. 79. Of tasthiff. 

The evidence of the grace of God here specified is 
thus expressed, ' That he should taste death,' &c. Of 
tasting, see Chap. vi. 4, Sec. 83. 

To taste is the proper act of that sense which is 
called tastr. Thereby is discerned the savour of thingn, 
and men distinguish betwixt sweet and sour, fresh and 
salt, and other like difterent tastes. Job xii. 11 ; 2 Sam. 
xix. 35. In sacred Scripture it is taken two ways. 

1. Indefinitely, for the participation of a thing, and 
that affirmatively, (' The ruler of the feast^tasted of tho 
water that was made wine ;' that is, he drank it, John 
ii. 9) ; and negatively, ' None of them shall taste of 
my supper;' that is, shall eat thereof, Luke xiv. 24. 

2. Exclusively, by way of diminution, implying a 
small quantity. This also aflirmatively (' I did but 
taste a little honey ;' that is, I took but a little quan- 
tity, 1 Sam. xiv. 29) : and negatively ' Taste not,' 
Col. ii. 21 ; that is, take not the least quantity. 

In the former sense it is taken for eating, and so 
translated. Acts x. 10, and xx. 11. 

In the latter sense it is opposed thereunto : ' When 
he had tasted thereof, he'would not drink,' Mat. xxvii. 
84. Eating and drinking in this case iutendeth the 
same thing. 

It is ot^t, in the New Testament especially, meta- 

Yek. 9.] 


pborically used, and applied both to things comfortable, 
(as to ' the heavenly gift,' ' good word of God,' Heb. 
vi. 4, 5; and ' graciousness of God,' 1 Pet. ii. 3), and 
also to such things as are grievous, as to that which of 
all things is most bitter unto natural men, namely, 
death : ' They shall not taste of death,' Mat. xvi. 28 ; 
so John viii. 52, and here. 

The ground of this phrase may arise from the an- 
cient custom of the Grecians in putting men to death, 
which was by giving them a cup of poison to drink.' 
In allusion hereunto death is styled a cup (especially 
death inflicted by men, accompanied with some horror), 
and suft'oring death a drinking of that cup, John xviii. 
11 ; Mat. XX. 22, 23. 

It was usual with the prophets so to set out God's 
judgments under this metaphor of a cup, a cup being 
metonymically put for the liquor in the cup, which in 
this case is taken to be bitter and deadly, Isa. li. 17-22 ; 
Jer. sxv. 15, 17, 28 ; Ezek. xxiii. 31, &c. To drink, or 
taste of such a cup, is to partake of the grievous and 
bitter thing that is intended thereby, whether it be 
death, or any other affliction or judgment. 

The liquor in the cup, whereof Christ is here said 
to taste, is plainly expressed to be death. How bitter 
bis death was, hath been shewed before. Sec. 76. 

Sec. 80. Of Christ's tast'wg death. 
Christ suflering death is here set out under this 
metaphor of tasting, in three respects. 

1. In that he did truly and really partake thereof. 
The history of his passion, punctually set forth by 
four evangelists, which are four authentic witnesses, 
gives abundant proof hereunto. He was our surety, 
and took our sins on him, and undertook to make full 
satisfaction for them. To do this he must of neces- 
sity partake of death, even such a death as he did 
suffer. This real suffering of Christ is to be held as 
an undeniable ground of faith. 

2. In that Christ was not swallowed up of death. 
For he was but three days under the power of death, 
and in none of those days did he ' see corruption,' 
Acts ii. 31. In both these was Jonah a type of Chi'ist, 
Jonah i. 17 and ii. 10 ; Mat. xii. 40. This doth 
much strengthen our faith, in that our surety, who 
did really partake of death, did yet but taste thereof. 
He was not utterly destroyed thereby. 

3. In that he began to us in that cup. A physician 
will himself taste of the potion that he hath prepared 
for his patient, to encourage his patient more content- 
edly and readily to drink it up. For by the physician's 
first tasting of it, the patient is assured that there is 
no hurtful thing therein, but that which is good and 
wholesome. Even so Christ tasting death, encourageth 
believers to submit unto it. It is said of the unicorn, 
that he putting his horn into the water, draws out all 
tho poison thereof, and then other beasts drink of it 
after him. Thus from Christ's death it is that the 

I Plato in Phrcilone- 

sting of death is pulled out (1 Cor. xv. 55, 56). His 
tasting of death hath seasoned and sweetened death 
unto us, so as that which was sharp vinegar and bitter 
gall to him, is sweet wine to us. Thus it is sot out in 
the Lord's supper, Luke xxii. 20. It is a cup of con- 
solation, Jer. xvi. 7 ; of benediction, 1 Cor. x. 16 ; of 
salvation, Ps. cxvi. 13. 

Sec. 81. Of Christ's dyiiui for every man. 

The persons for whom Jesus tasted that bitter cup 
of death, are set forth in this indefinite phrase, for 
every man. This collective phrase in the singular 
number, is answerable to tho general in the plural 
number, for all, 2 Cor. v. 15. It was before noted 
(Sec. 66) that this general or indefinite particle, all, 
or every one, admits limitations. In this ease of 
Christ's death, it must needs be limited. For in 
another place Christ saith, ' I lay down my life for the 
sheep,' John x. 15 ; but every man is not of Christ's 
fold, nor one of those sheep. It is said again, ' He 
shall save his people,' Mat. i. 21 ; of this number every 
man is not. He ' gave himself for the church,' Eph. 
V. 25 ; of which society none are but the elect. Christ 
made intercession for those for whom he died, Kom. 
viii. 34. But he prays not for the world, John xvii. 9. 
They for whom he died are redeemed. Rev. v. 9 ; but 
Christ hath redeemed men out of every kindred, and 
tongue, and people, and nation ; not every one in 
each of these. From redemption follows remission of 
sins, Col. i. 14 ; but all have not their sins pardoned. 
The Father gave some out of the world to Christ, 
John xvii. 6. 

This universal particle, all, or every one, must 
therefore have here some limitation ; as on all hands 
it is granted to have in these words of Christ, ' I, if I 
be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto 
me,' John xii. 32. 

Limitations are such as these : 

1. In regard of distinct sorts and kinds of persons. 
So is the general particle limited. Gen. vii. 14 ; Mat. 
iv. 28 ; Luke xi. 42. 

2. In regard of the universality of the elect. These 
are they of whom Christ thus saith, ' All that the 
Father giveth me, shall come unto me : and him that 
Cometh unto me I will in no wise cast out,' John vi. 
37. God's people have their fulness, and in the elect 
there is a kind of special universality; so as the whole 
world may seem to be redeemed out of the whole 

3. In regard of the indefinite offer of the benefit of 
Christ's death to every one, none excepted, Isa. Iv. 1, 
Rev. xxii. 17. 

4. In regard of the sufficiency of the price. Christ's 
death was sufficient to redeem every one. In this re- 

• Habet populus Dei pleutitudinem suam. In electis 
specialis quajdam ceusetur univevsitas : ut de tolo mundo 
totus raundus liberatus videatur — A7nbros. de vocal. Oent. lib. 
i. cap. iii. 


[Chap. II. 

spect it is said, ' The blood of Christ cleanseth from 
all sin,' 1 John ii. 7. 

5. In regard of the impotency of all other means. 
There is no other means to redeem man but the death 
of Christ ; so as every one that is redeemed is re- 
deemed by his death. In this respect saith the Lord, 
' I am the Lord, and beside mo there is no Saviour,' 
Isa. xliii. 11. Where in a city there is but one 
physician, wo use to say, all that are sick are cured 
by him, meaning all the sick that are cured. 

Sec. 82. Of God's impartiality. 

This in general verilieth that which was of old 
afiBrmed by Moses, Deut. x. 17; byElihu, Job sxxiv. 
19; ly Jehoshaphat, 2 Chron. six. 7; by Peter, Acts 
X. 35; by Paul, Rom. ii. 11, and sundry others; 
namely, that ' with God is no respect of persons.' 
All sorts, in all nations, whether male or female, great 
or mean, free or bond, learned or unlearned, rich or 
poor, or what other outward diflerence may be betwixt 
them, all arc alike to God. 

By this may every one be bold to apply Christ's 
death to himself. Hereof see more in The Whole Armour 
of God, on Eph. vi. 16, treat. 2, of faith, sees. 29, 
80, &c. 

Sec. 83. Of Christ's dying for us. 

The end of Christ's death being thus set down, for 
every one, sheweth that it was man, even man's good 
for whom and for which Christ died, Rom. v. 8. His 
birth, his life, his death, were all for us children of 
men. A prophet, who was a son of man, thus setteth 
out Christ's birth: ' Unto us a child is born, unto us 
a son is given,' Isa. ix. G. And an angel speaking to 
sons of men, thus : ' Unto you is born a Saviour,' 
Luke ii. 11. The obedience of Christ's life was also 
for us, Rom. v. 19 ; so he died for us,' 1 Thes. v. 10. 
The like is said of his burial ; for in regard of the 
benefit which we receive from Christ's burial, we are 
said to be buried with him, Rom. vi. 4, Col. ii. 12 ; 
yea, ho was ' made sin for us,' 2 Cor. v. 21, and ' a 
curse for us,' Gal. iii. 12. For us he vanquished the 
devil, Heb. ii. 14. The hke also of his resurrection, 
Rom. iv. 25 ; of his ascension, John xiv. 2 ; of his 
intercession, Rom. viii. 84 ; and of his abode in 
heaven, John xvii. 24. All is for us. 

Good gi-ound we have hereupon to apply, as other 
things of Christ, so especially that which is here in 
particular expressed, his death ; and to rest thereon, 
as on a satisfaction for our sins, and as the means of 
pullbg out the sting of death, 1 Cor. xv. 55, and 
making it a sweet sleep to us, 1 Thes. iv. 14, 15. 

Sec. 84. Oftlie resolution o/ Heb. ii. 9. 
But lie see Jesus, uho was made u little lower than 
the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory 

' Seo ver. 15, Stc. 148. 

and honour ; that he by the grace of God should taste 
death for every man. 

The sum of this verse is, the end of Christ's 

This is set down by way of answer to the objection 
propounded in the former verse. The objection was 
against the supreme authority of Christ over all 
creatures. Of the objection, see Sec. 68. 

The answer hath reference unto two branches of 
the objection : 

One concerns the person intended ; which was man, 
meaning a mere man. This the apostle so yields 
unto, as notwithstanding he afErmeth Jesus, who was 
more than man, to be so highly exalted as is mentioned 
in the testimony. 

The other concerns the evidence alleged against the 
foresaid supreme authority, which is thus set down, 
' we see not yet,' &c. 

This he answereth, by a distinction of sights, to 
this purpose : Though with bodily eyes we can see no 
such matter, yet we may with the eyea of our soul. 
See Sec. 72. 

In setting down the foresaid end, two points are 
distinctly expressed : 

1. A description of Christ's humiliation. 

2. A declaration of the end thereof. 

Christ's humiliation is set down by the low degree 
thereof; and that comparatively in reference to angels, 
thus, ' lower than angels.' Hereof see Sec. 64. 

The end is, 1, generally propounded; 2, particularly 

In the general is declared, 

1. The end itself. 

2. The consequence that followeth thereupon. 
The end itself is, 

1. Propounded in this word, death. 

2. Aggravated by this epithet, suffering. 
The consequence following was exaltation. 

This is, 1, propounded in the metaphor of a crown ; 
which implieth a royal dignity. 

2. It is amplified two ways : 

(1.) By the excellency of that crown, in this word 

(2.) By the esteem that others have of it, in this 
word honour. Of these two words, see Sec. 60. 

In the particular esemphfication of the end are set 

1. The manner of Christ's partaking of death, in 
this metaphor taste. 

2. The causes thereof; which are two : 

1. The procuring cause, ' the grace of God.' 

2. The final cause, ' for eveiy man.' 

Sec. 85. 0/ doctrines raised out o/ Heb. ii. 9. 

I. Olijections against truth are to be answered. Thus 
such clouds as obscure truth will be removed. Thus 
may men be kept from forsaking the truth. This 
particle btU intendeth the doctrine. See Sec. 68. 

Ver. 10.] 


II. Christ is the Saviour uf man ; for he is Jesns. 
See Sec. 73. 

UI. Things super-celestial may be seen. Super- 
celestials are such as are above the stars, even in the 
highest heaveu, where Jesus hath abode ever since 
his ascension. There may we now see him, namely, 
with the eyes of the soul. See Sec. 72. 

IV. Truths invisible are most sure to believers. 
They are believers of whom the apostle thus saith, 
' we see.' See Sec. 72. 

Of doctrines raised out of these words, ' made a 
little lower than the angels,' and out of these, ' crowned 
with glory and honour,' see Sec. 65. 

V. Christ vxis incarnate, that he might be a fit 
sacrifice. See Sees. 74, 75. 

VI. Christ suffered unto death. His death is here 
expressly mentioned. 

VII. Christ's death was with great suffering. It is 
here styled the suffering of death. See Sec. 76. 

VIII. Oreat glory folloived tipon Christ's great 
suffering. This phrase, the ' suffering of death,' im- 
ports great suffering ; and this, ' crowned with glory,' 
great glory ; and the order of setting down these two 
shews that the latter followed upon the former. See 
See. 74. 

IX. Christ's high dignity giveth f roof of the subjec- 
tion of all things under him. The apostle here proveth 
that subjection by Christ's dignity. See Sec. 74. 

X. God's free grace was the procuring cause of 
Christ's suffering for man. This is here directly set 
down. See Sec. 78. 

XI . God's grace and Christ's merit may stand to- 
gether. See Sec. 78. 

XII. Christ was not swallowed up of death. 

XIII. Christ actually and really died. 

XIV. Christ began the cup of death to us. These 
three last doctrines arise from this metaphor taste. 
See See. 80. 

XV. Christ died for all, of all sorts. See Sec. 81. 

XVI. Christ died not for himself. See Sec. 74. 

XVII. God is no respecter of persons, for he gave 
his Son for all men. See Sec. 81. 

XVIII. 3Ian's good was the end of Christ's suffer- 
ings. See Sec. 81. 

Sec. 86. Of the respect wherein 'it became God' 
that his Son should be man, and suffer for man. 

Ver. 10. For it became him, for whom are all 
things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many 
sons unto glory, to make the Captain of their salvation 
perfect through sufferings. 

The first particle of this verse, yaj, for, shews that 
it is added as a reason of that which goes before. In 
general, it is a third reason to prove that Christ was 
man. See Sec. 1. In particular, it declareth the 
reason of the last clause of the former verse, which 
is this, ' By the grace of God Christ tasted death for 
every one.' If the question be asked, Why God's 

gi-ace chose that way to redeem man ? here is a ready 
answer : ' It became him' so to do. 

The Greek word E^gsTs, translated became, is di- 
versely used. 

1. It implies a necessity of doing this or that, as in 
this phrase, ' Such an high priest became us, who is 
holy,' &c. Heb. vii. 29. It was necessary that we 
should have such an one ; no other could serve the 

2. It implies a duty, as in this phrase, ' It be- 
cometh us to fulfil all righteousness,' Mat. iii. 15. It 
is our duty so to do. 

3. It implies an answerableness or agreement of one 
thing to another, as in this phrase, ' Speak thou the 
things which become sound doctrine,' Tit. ii. 1 ; that 
is, as are agreeable thereto. 

4. It implies a decency, comeliness, and glory of a 
thing, as in this phrase, ' Which becometh women 
professing godliness,' 1 Tim. ii. 10. He there speaketh 
of women adorning themselves with good works ; and 
this is a decent and comely thing, the beauty and 
glory of professors. Thus it is here taken ; for never 
did anything more make to the glory of God than his 
making of his Son lower than angels, that he might 
taste death for every one. 

We read, that upon the first news of Christ coming 
into the world, a multitude of angels thus praised God, 
' Glory to God in the highest,' &c., Luke ii. 14 ; and 
Christ himself, when he was going out of the world, 
thus saith to his Father, ' I have glorified thee on 
earth,' John xvii. 4. And upon his suflering, Christ 
said, ' Father, glorify thy name ;' and the Father thus 
answered, ' I have both glorified it, and will glorify it 
again,' John xii. 28. All this was in relation to 
Christ's humiliation, even unto death. 

Sec. 87. Of God's glcn-g in giving his Son to die. 

If we take a view of God's special properties, we 
shall find the glory of them so set forth in Christ's in- 
carnation and passion, and the redemption of man 
thereby, as in nothing more. I will exemplify this in 
five of them. 

1. The power of God hath been often manifested by 
many wonderful works of his since the beginning of 
the world. The book of Job and book of Psalms do 
reckon up catalogues of God's powerful and mighty 
works; but they are all inferior to those works which 
were done by the Son of God becoming man and 
dying ; for hereby was the curse of the law removed, 
the bonds of death broken, the devil and his whole 
host vanquished, infinite wrath appeased. The Son 
of God did all this, and much more, not by arraying 
himself with majesty and power, but by putting on 
him weak and frail flesh, and by subjecting himself to 
death. Herein was strength made perfect in weak- 
ness, 2 Cor. xii. 9. 

2. The wisdom of God was greatly set forth in the 
first creation of all things in their excellent order and 



[Chap. II. 

beauty, and in the wise government of them ; but 
after that bj- sin thej- were put out of order, to bring 
them into a comely frame again was an argument of 
much more wisdom ; especially if we duly weigh how, 
by the creature's transgression, the just Creator was 
provoked to wTath. To fiud out a means, in this case, 
of atonement betwixt God and man, must needs imply 
much more wisdom. For who should make this 
atonement? Not man, because he was the trans- 
gressor ; not Grod, because he was oflcuded and in- 
censed. Yet God, by taking man's nature upon him, 
God-man, by suffering, did this deed ; he made the 
atonement. God having revealed this mystery unto 
his church, every one that is instructed in the Chris- 
tian faith can say. Thus and thus it is done. But had 
not God, by bis infinite wisdom, found out and made 
known this means of reconciliation, though all the 
heads of all creatures had consulted thereabout, their 
counsels would have been altogether in vain. We 
have therefore just cause, with an holy admiration, to 
break out and say, ' Oh the depth of the riches both 
of the wisdom and knowledge of God,' Rom. xi. 33. 

3. The justice of God hath been made known in all 
ages by judgments executed on wicked sinners ; as the 
punishment of our first parents, the drowning of the 
old world, the destroying of Sodom and Gomorrah 
with fire and brimstone, the casting off the Jews, the 
casting of wicked angels and reprobate men into hell 
fire ; but to exact the uttermost of the Son of God, 
who became a surety for man, and so to exact it as in 
our nature, he must bear the infinite wrath of his 
Father, and satisfy his justice to the full, is an in- 
stance of more exact justice than ever was manifested. 

4. The t7-ulh of God is exceedingly cleared by God's 
giving his Son to die, and that in accomplishment of 
his threatening and promises. 

For threatening, God had said to man, ' In the day 
thou eatest of the tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil, thou shalt surely die,' Gen. ii. 17. How could 
God's truth have been accomplished in this threaten- 
ing, and man not utterly destroyed, if Christ had not 
died in our nature ? 

For promise, the first that ever was made after 
man's fall was this, ' The seed of the woman shall 
bruise the serpent's head,' Gen. iii. 15. As this was 
the first promise, so was it the ground of all other 
promises made to God's elect in Christ. Now God 
having accomplished this promise by giving his Son 
to death, how can we doubt of his truth in any other 
promise whatsoever. Tho accomplishment of no other 
promise could so set out God's truth as of this; for 
other promises do depend upon this, and not this on 
any of thom. Besides, this is the greatest of all other 
promises. We may therefore on this ground say, 
' He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him 
lip for us all, how shall he not with him also freely 
give us all things ?' Rom. viii. 82. 

5. God's mem/ is most magnified by sending his Son 

into the world to die for man. ' The mercies of God 
are over all his works,' Ps. cxlv. 9 ; but the glass 
wherein they are most perspicuously seen is Jesus 
Christ made man, and made a sacrifice for man's sin. 
This is set out to the life : ' God so loved the world, 
that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever 
believeth in him should not perish, but have everlast- 
ing life,' John iii. 16. 

Sec. 88. Of the necessity of Christ's being man to 

On the fore-mentioned grounds, there was a neces- 
sity of Christ's suffering. In this respect a must is 
attributed to that which is here said, it became. So 
saith Christ of himself, he ' must sufler,' Mat. xvi. 21 ; 
and ' thus it must be,' Mat. xxvi. 54 ; ' The Son of 
man must be lift up,' John iii. 14 ; ' Ought not Christ 
to have sutiered those things ? ' Luke xxiv. 56. 

This may serve to stop the mouths of such con- 
ceited persons as are ovcr-busj- in inquiring after God's 
supreme high prerogative, namely, whether he could 
not by virtue of it have forgiven man's sin, without 
any such satisfaction, and by this grace received him 
to glory ? 

Since ' it became God' to take this course, and that 
the Holy Ghost saith, ' It must be so;' man, ' who 
art thou that repliest against God ? ' When God's will 
is manifested, it is over-much curiosity to dispute about 
his prerogative. Moses hath set down a singular rule 
for us to order our reasonings by, which is this, ' Those 
things which are revealed belong unto us,' Dout. xxix. 
29. It may be that these grounds, it became him, it 
must be, are expressed to prevent all further disputes 
about this point. 

It much becomes us who look to partake of the 
benefit of that which became God so to order, to be 
very circumspect over ourselves, and to take heed that 
we pervert not that to God's dishonour which so much 
became him. They pervert it who take occasion from 
God's grace in giving his Son, and from tho satisfac- 
tion which his Son hath given for our sins, to continue 
in sin. This is it concerning which the apostle, with 
great indignation and detestation, saith, ' God forbid,' 
Horn. vi. 2. This is to ' turn the glory of God into 
lasciviousness,' Jude 4. This is to tread under foot 
the Son of God,' &c., Heb. x. 29. What greater 
aggravation can there be of a sin than this ? 

Sec. 89. 0/ these jihrases, 'for uhom, bij uliom, are 
all thin/is.' 

These phrases, ' for whom,' 5/' 'it, ' are all things,' 
and ' by whom,' di' ou, ' are all things,' have reference 
to God, who gave his Son to death ; and by them he 
is described. 

These two prepositions, /o/-, ////, are the interpreta- 
tion of one Greek word, dia, which is the same that in 
tho former verse is translated /oj- ('for the suffering,' 
dia TO caifjj.aa). The variation of the cases joined to 

Ver. 10.] 


the preposition varietli the interpretation. ' Hereof 
see Sec. 74 ; of the Greek noun, see Sec. 76. 

The former, di' ov, sets out God as the final cause, 
for whose glory all things are. In this sense it is said, 
' The Lord hath made all things for himself,' Prov. 
xvi. 4; namely, for his own glory. To this very 
purpose saith the apostle, ' All things are to him,' s/'; 
auTbt, Kom. xi. 36. These prepositions, ha, for, and 
£/'5, to, intimate one and the same thing, which is the 
end. Thus the woman is said to be made, hia. rhv 
avd^a, ' for the man,' 1 Cor. xi. 9 ; which is, for the 
man's sake, for his good, Gen. ii. 18. The Greek 
phrase, il; avr'ov, which signifieth to him, is translated 
for him, chap. i. 16. To make this more clear, our 
English often addeth this particle, sake, which is a 
note of the final cause ; as, bia tyiv ^aaiXhav, ' For 
the kingdom of heaven's sake,' Mat. xix. 12; Bia to 
civof/,d. /Ml), ' For my name's sake,' saith Christ, Luke 
xxi. 17 ; dia. to hayyiXiov, ' For the gospel's sake,' 
1 Cor. is. 23. 

The latter phrase, Si' oJ, hij ivhom, sets out God as 
the efficient, and creator of all. In this sense this 
phrase is appHed to Christ : ' By him were all things 
created,' Col. i. 16. 

It is also applied to his blood, as to the procuring 
cause of redemption : ' He hath purchased the church 
with his own blood,' Acts xx. 28. 

This general, to, 'xavTa, ' all things,' is to be taken 
in the largest extent that can be, nothing at all ex- 
cepted. So it is taken John i. 3, Col. i. 16, Heb. i. 3, 
and in other places where mention is made of creation 
and providence. (See more of this general, Sec. 66.) 
Here it is expressly mentioned, to shew the ground of 
God's putting all things in subjection under Christ's 
feet ; even because ' all things were for him, and by 
bim.' God had power to dispose all things as he 
would, because all things were ' by him.' He made 
all. And he had a right so to do, because all were 
made ' for him ;' even for him to dispose of them as he 
would. See Sec. 37. 

These phrases, /oc him and bi/ him, have reference 
both to creation and also to providence. For ' God 
worketh hitherto,' John v. 17, namely, by his provi- 
dence; and thereby all things are preserved, Ps. cslvii. 
8, 9; and ordered, Ps. xxxiii. 13, &c. 

In the foresaid description of God, the final cause, 
for irhom, is set before the efficient, bij whom,, to 
shew what it was that God put on to make, preserve, 
and govern all things. Surely he put himself on ; 
he aimed at himself, even at his own glory. That all 
things might he for him, all things were bi/ him. 

Ah things being for God, we also, all we have, and all 
we can do, ought to be for him : ' Glorify God in your 
body, and in your spirit, which are God's,' 1 Cor. vi. 
20. ' Whether yo eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, 
do all to the glory of God,' 1 Cor. vi. 31. See more 

' Accusative, S; »>■; genitive, 5; oJ. 

hereof in my Explanation of the Lord's Prayer, entitled 
A Guide to (/o to God, petit, i. sec. 30, 81. 

All things being by God, it is our duty to acknow- 
ledge that ' in him we live, move, and have our being,' 
Acts xvii. 28 ; and that as all things were created, so 
they are preserved and governed by him. Job xxxviii. 4, 
&c., Ps. civ. 2, &c. ; and thereupon to fly to bim in 
all our needs, distresses, and dangers. 'To call upon 
him, and depend on him for every good thing ; to com- 
mit our souls, bodies, states, endeavours, even all that 
we have, to him ; to be content with every event ; to 
submit all our purposes to his will ; and for all things 
to bless him. Job i. 21 

We ought the rather to be thus minded, because 
God doth nothing but what becometh him. This 
description of God, ' for whom are all things, and by 
whom are all things,' is added to this motive, ' it 
became him,' to shew that there is a comeliness in all 
things done by him : ' He hath made everything beau- 
tiful in his time,' Eccles. iii. 11. Wherefore, though 
we can see no reason of God's doings, yet we may see 
good reason to account them the best. 

This title, bij whom, having reference to God (as 
also Eom. xi. 36), giveth a full answer to the Arians, 
who from this phrase, ' All things were made by him,' 
John i. 3, infer that the Son is inferior to the Father, 
and his instrument in making the world. 

Sec. 90. Of sons in relation to Christ. 

This clause, in bringinrj many sons unto glory, seem- 
eth by our English translators to have reference to him 
who is described in the former words, namely, to God. 
Surely the thing itself may well be applied to God, 
and imply a reason why it became God to make his 
Son perfect through sufferings, even because his pur- 
pose was to bring many other sons to glory ; and the 
best way to bring them thereunto was by his Son's 

This is a good and congruous sense, but the con- 
struction of the Greek words will not bear it ; for the 
antecedent, aurif}, to which this relative in that sense 
should have reference, is of the dative case ; but the 
relative, ayayona, is of the accusative, of which case 
the word translated captain, tov a^yjr/ot, is. Now, it 
is without all question that Christ is meant under that 
word captain ; therefore, in grammatical construction, 
this act of bringing many sons to gloi-y is to be applied 
to Christ. 

Thus it sheweth a reason why Christ himself passed 
by suffering unto glory, namely, that thereby he might 
bring many sons to glory. Both references tend to 
the same scope. The latter attributes that act to the 
Son which the former doth to the Father. In this 
there is no great incongruity; for the Father and Son 
are one in essence, mind, will, and work : ' What thing 
soever the Father doth, these also doth the Son like- 
wise,' John V. 19. 

Against the reference, of 'bringing sous unto glory,' 



made to Christ, it is objected that the persons here 
said to be brought tb glory are called Christ's inlhren, 
ver. 11. If they be his brethren, how can they bo 
his sons ? 

Alls. 1. They are not called his sons in relation to 
Christ, but indefinitely sons; so as it may be thus 
explained, Christ brought many sons of God to glory. 

Alls. 2. The same persons that in one respect are 
called Christ's brethren, may in another respect be 
called his sons. How saints are called Christ's 
brethren, see Sec. 106 ; they are called his sons in 
these respects. 

(1.) As Christ is ' the everlasting Father,' Isa. ix. 
6, thus he hath given them their being, and adopted 
them into his family. 

(2.) As the Father hath given all his elect unto 
Christ, to bo nourished and nurtured by him ; thus 
they who were nurtured and instructed by ancient 
prophets are called ' sons of the prophets,' 2 Kings 
ii. 3. In like manner, and on the same ground, the 
elect of God are called Christ's sons. They whom 
ministers beget unto the Lord are called their sons, 
Philem. 10, much more they who are saved by 
Christ may be called his sous. 

(3.) As Christ bears a fotherly affection to them ; 
loving them as sons, taking an especial care of them 
as of his sons, purchasing an inheritance for them, 
and doing all the good he can for them. 

The sons of God and the sons of Christ are all one, 
even such as are adopted and regenerate ; for by the 
grace of adoption, and by the work of regeneration, 
we are made the sons of God, and heirs of glory, Rom. 
viii. 15-17, 1 Pet. i. 3, 4 ; these are ' sanctified and 
cleansed with the washing of water by the word,' Eph. 
vi. 25 ; these ' have washed their robes, and made 
them white in the blood of the Lamb,' Kev. vii. 11 ; 
and thus are they fitted for glory. 

Boast not of any title to glory till thou hast evidence 
of thy sonship, that thou art adopted and born again: 
' The son of the bond woman shall not be heir with 
the son of the free woman,' Gal. iv. 30. 

How may we have evidence that we are sons ? 

Alts. By the Spirit, Kom. viii. 14. The Spirit 
worketh two things. 

1 . An earnest desire of God's fatherly favour. Gal. 
iv. 6. 

2. A careful endeavour to please and honour God, 
Col. i. 10, Mai. i. 0. The former is a fruit of faith, 
the latter of love. Hence arise grief for the provoca- 
tions of God's wrath, and indignation at the dishonour 
done to God. 

By these evidences we may know that we are the 
sons here meant, and having that assurance, no doubt 
can be made of obtaining glorj'; for Christ undertaketh 
to bring such to glory. In this respect salvation, by 
a kind of property, is said to be theirs, for Christ is 
styled ' the captain of ilieir salvation.' All sons, and 
none but sons, shall be saved : Jcfus ' shall save bis 

people,' Mat. i. 21 ; he is ' the Saviour of the body,' 
Eph. V. 23. ' If children, then heirs,' Rom. viii. 1'7, 

not otherwise. 

With much confidence may sons rest upon such a 
father as Christ is, to be much pitied and succoured in 
all their distresses, to have all their wants supphed, 
to be tenderly dealt with in all their weaknesses, to be 
sufficiently provided for with all needful good things, 
to be safely protected against all dangers, to have 
whatsoever may be expected from such a father. 
Consider, on the one side, the love and care of natural 
fathers to and for their children, yea, and of apostles 
too for those whom they begat by the gospel ; and, on 
the other side, well weigh how hr Christ exalteth all 
those fathers in power, wisdom, and goodness, and 
you shall find just cause with confidence to rest on 
him at all times, on all occasions. 

By virtue of this relation, it becomes ns all, who 
account om-selves to be in the number of God's elect, 
and to be given by him as sons to Christ, it becomes 
us every way to shew ourselves to be Christ's sons, 
even in our inward disposition, and also in our out- 
ward conversation, and thereupon to love him and fear 
him, to reverence and obey him, in all things to please 
him and honour him, to depend on him for all needful 
good things, and to be content with that condition 
wherein he sets us, and with those gifts of soul, body, 
or state that he is pleased to bestow upon us. In a 
word, what duties soever in God's word are required 
of sons as sons, we must conscionably perform to 
Christ, whose sons we are. 

That these duties may be performed according to 
the extent of the persons whom they concern, wo must 
take notice that as all sorts and conditions of men, 
great and mean, rich and poor, young and old, so also 
both sexes, male and female, are comprised under this 
relative sons; for that is the nature of relatives, to 
comprise both under one, as under this title men, in- 
defiuitely used, women also are comprised, and under 
bnthivn sisters also. To manifest this, the other 
relative daughters are oft expressed, as, ' Ye shall be 
my sons and daughters,' 2 Cor. vi. 18. 

Sec. 91. 0/ lite multitude of lliem that shall be saced. 

The sons before mentioned are said to be toXXoI, 
'many;' though this include not all the sons of 
Adam ; for ' they that have done evil shall come forth 
unto the resurrection of damnation,' John v. 29, and 
this Captain of salvation will say to multitudes at the 
last day, ' Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting 
fire,' Mat. xxv. 41, yet this includcth a very great 
multitude. For it was in relation to these sons, who 
are the spiritual seed of Abraham, that God said to 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, ' Thy seed shall be as 
the stars of heaven, and as the dust of the earth,' Gen. 
XV. 5, xxvi. 4, xxviii. 14. And the prophecies of mul- 
titudes to come in are meant of these sons, such as 
these : ' Many people shall say, Let us go np to the 

VliR. 10.] 



house of God,' Isa. ii. 3, Mic. iv. 2 ; ' Many shall 
come from the east and west,' &c. Mat. viii. 11 ; and, 
' My righteous servant shall justify rnany,' Isa. liii. 11 ; 
' The Son of man came to give his life a ransom for 
many,' Mat. xx. 28; 'His blood is shed for many,' 
Mat. xsvi. 28; 'By the obedience of one shall many 
be made righteous,' Kom. v. 19. In particular, John 
saith, ' I beheld, and lo, a great multitude, which no 
man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and 
people, and tongues, stood before the throne,' &c. 
Rev. vii. 9. All these were the sons here mentioned. 
See Chap. vi. 14, Sec. 107, and Chap. is. 22, Sec. 

Obj. It is oft said that few are chosen, few enter in 
at the strait gate, Mat. vii. 14, xx. 16. Hereupon 
the flock of Christ is styled ' a little flock,' Luke xii. 
32, and they are styled 'a remnant,' Isa. i. 9 ; 'a 
tenth,' Isa. vi. 13; ' a vintage,' Micah vii. 1, and they 
are resembled to those few that were in the ark when 
the whole world was drowned, and in Sodom when 
the four cities were destroyed with fire and brimstone. 
See Chap. xi. 7, Sec. 32. 

Ans. Comparatively they are indeed but few, in 
regard of the multitudes of evil ones that ever have 
been, and ever will be in the world. But simply con- 
sidered in themselves, they are very, very many. 
When Elijah thought that he alone had been left, the 
Lord gave him this answer, ' I have reserved to my- 
self seven thousand,' Rom. xi. 3, 4. 

This is a matter of great comfort, in regard of the 
multitudes that perish, that there are also many that 
shall be saved. 

It is also a great encouragement to inquire after the 
way to salvation, and to use the means sanctified for 
attaining thereunto. There is ' a fountain opened ' 
to cleanse us from sin, Zech. xiii. 1. Let us not fear 
that it will be dried up because many go to partake 
thereof. Be rather encouraged to go with those many 
thereunto. Fear not that heaven will be filled up, for 
there are ' many mansions,' John xiv. 2. A poor 
man long waited at the pool of Bethesda, though the 
time of cure was but at a certain season, and only one 
could be cured at that season, John v. 4, 5, &c. ; but 
the pool for salvation cureth at all times all that go 
into it. We read of three thousand converted by one 
sermon, Acts ii. 41, and five thousand by another. 
Acts iv. 4, and it is after this registered that ' multi- 
tudes of believers were added to the Lord,' Acts v. 14 ; 
and that ' the number of disciples was multiplied,' 
Acts vi. 1 ; and that ' the churches were estabUshed 
in the faith, and increased in number daily,' Acts 
xvi. 5; and that many thousands' of Jews believed. 
Acts sxi. 20, besides the Gentiles that embraced the 

After those days, yea, and in these our days, have 
the churches of Christ wonderfully increased. 

A strong inducement this is, both to ministers to 
' Tixkai fiu^iiiis, fti^ixt, decern millia. 

preach the gospel, and also to people to attend there- 
upon, in that there are many sons : and they must all 
be brought to glory. 

Sec. 92. Of ' bringing' sons to glory. 

It is said of those many sons, that by Christ they 
are brought to glory. 

The verb ayayo^ra, translated brought, is diversely 
used, as, 

1. To go of one's self, even upon his own voluntary 
motion ; as where Christ saith, ayu[/.iv, ' Let us be 
going,' Mat. xxvi. 46. 

2. To be led by another, butwiUingly: thus An- 
drew brought, ijyayiv, Simon to Jesus, John i. 42. 

3. To be brought forcibly, as men use to bring ma- 
lefactors to execution. ' There were also two other 
malefactors led, liyono, with Jesus to be put to death,' 
Luke xxiii. 32. 

4. To bring such as are no way able to go of them- 
selves : thus the good Samaritan brought, nyuyiv, 
the man that was wounded and left half dead, to an 
inn, Luke x. 34. 

That we may the better discern how this word 
bringing is here used, we are to take notice that the 
sons here said to be brought, are neither able nor 
willing of themselves to go to glory. Christ therefore 
bringeth them thither by certain degrees. 

1. He quickeneth them that are dead in sins, 
Eph. ii. 1, 5. 

2. He sheweth them the way wherein they may 
come to glory. For ' he is the true light which light- 
eneth every man that cometh into the world,' John 
i. 9. Thereupon he thus saith of himself, ' I am the 
light of the world : he that followeth me shall not 
fall into darkness, but shall have the light of life,' 
John viii. 12. 

3. He goeth as a guide before them ; for he is that 
good shepherd that ' goeth before his sheep, and the 
sheep follow him : for they know his voice,' John x. 4. 

4. He communicates his Spirit unto them, whereby 
they are so enlightened, as they discern the way 
wherein they should walk, Eph. i. 8, 9, and enabled and 
persuaded to walk therein, ' For the law of the Spirit of 
life in Christ Jesus hath made us free :' and ' As 
many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the 
sons of God,' Rom. viii. 2, 14. 

Christ's bringing sons to glory, informs us in these 
two principles : 

1 . Man cannot of himself go to glory. 

2. Christ can and will bring all the elect to glory. 
' We have no suflicieucy of ourselves, but our suffi- 
ciency is of God,' 2 Cor. iii. 5. ' As the branch can- 
not bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine : 
no more can ye, except ye abide in me,' saith Christ 
to his sons, John xv. 4. 

Sec. 93. Of the glory of heaven. 

That whereunto Christ bringeth his sons is here 


[Chap. II. 

styled (jlon/. Hereby is meant that happy estate 
which is purchased by Christ in heaven. This estate 
is oft set out by this epithet ; as Kom. viii. 18, 2 Cor. 
iv. 17, 1 Ktcr T. 1, 10. 

Glori/ is a transcendent word, and compriseth under 
it all manner of excellencies. The iniiuite excellency 
of God himself, and of his divine attributes, is termed 
glory ; as, ' the glory of God,' Acts vii. 55 ; ' the glory 
of his majesty,' Isa. ii. 10, 21 ; ' the glory of his 
power,' 2 Thes. i. 9 ; ' the glory of his grace,' Eph. 
i. 6. In this respect, where the apostle would to the 
uttermost that he could, commend, and set forth the 
excellency of the Son, ho doth it thus, ' who is the 
brightness of his Father's glory ;' see Chap. i. 
Sec. 19. 

There is an especial emphasis in this word glonj, as 
it is here used. It goeth beyond the superlative de- 
gree, and implieth more than most glorious. It com- 
priseth under it whatsoever may be counted glorious ; 
and that in the most eminent kind and degi-ee that 
can be. 

In heaven is the God of glory. Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost. In heaven is that Son of God incarnate, 
advanced to the highest glory that can be ; there he 
is crowned with glory. 

Heaven itself is the most bright and beautiful place 
that ever God made. The sun itself is not so bright, 
nor so full of light. There is that ' light which no 
man can approach unto,' dccoV;roi/, 1 Tim. vi. IC. 

There shineth forth the brightness of God's glory 
in the fulness of it. There the brightness of angels 
(a little part whereof amazed men on earth, as Dan. 
viii. 17, Luke i. 12 and ii. 9) is most conspicuously 
manifested. There Christ's glorified body (whose face 
on earth did shine at his transfiguration, as the sun, 
Mat. xvii. 2), continually shineth out. There also are 
the glorified saints, whose bodies shall bo fashioned 
like unto the glorious body of Christ, Philip, iii. 21. 
They shall there shine as the firmament, as the stars, 
Dan. xii. 8 ; as the sun. Mat. xiii. -13. 

If joy and delight, if honour and dignify, if full sa- 
tisfaction of all good things, may add anything to glory, 
full satisfaction is to be found in heaven. 

The glory of heaven is set out by all signs of glory : 
as ' an inheritance in light,' Col. i. 12 ; ' the riches 
of the glorj' of that inheritance,' Eph. i. 18 ; ' an in- 
heritance, incoiTuptible, undefiled, and that fadeth 
not away,' 1 Peter i. 4 ; 'a crown of life,' James i. 12 ; 
' a crown of righteousness,' 2 Tim. iv. 8 ; 'a crown 
of glory,' 1 Peter v. 4 ; ' God's throne,' Mat. v. 34 ; 
the ' thrones of his glory,' ]\Iat. xix. 28 ; ' a throne of 
the majesty,' Hob. viii. 9 ; 'the kingdom of God,' 
1 Cor. vi. 9 ; ' the kingdom of heaven,' Mat. viii. 11; 
and ' an everlasting kingdom,' 2 Peter i. 11. 

The estate, then, which is in heaven reserved for 
saints, must needs be a most excellent and glorious 
estate. The apostle, in setting out the glory of it, 
uscth an high and transcendent expression, 2 Cor. 

iv. 17, for he styleth it ' a weight of glory.' It is not 
like the glory of this world, light, frothy, vain, like 
hail or ice, which in the ban Jling melt ; but sound, 
solid, substantial, and ponderous, and that not for a 
short time, but for ever. It is an ' eternal weight,' 
without date, without end ; and to shew that this 
glory exceeds all degrees of comparison, he uses an 
emphatical Grecism, which addeth hyperbole to hy- 
perbole ; which, because other tongues cannot word 
for word express to the full, they are forced to use 
words and phrases which exceed all comparison : as 
' wonderfully above measure ;'' ' above measure ex- 
ceedingly ; - ' exceedingly exceeding ;' ^ or, as our 
English, ' a far more exceeding weight of glory.' Of 
this glory it may well be said, ' eye hath not seen, nor 
ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of 
man,' 1 Cor ii. 9. It is not therefore without cause 
that the apostle prayeth, ' That the eyes of our under- 
standing may be enlightened, that we may know what 
the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints 
is,' Eph. i. 18. ' For it doth not yet appear what we 
shall be.' When Paul was caught up into this glory, 
he heard unspeakable words, aiirira Iti/iara, which it 
is not lawful for a man to utter," 2 Cor. xii. 4. 

To this glory doth the only begotten Son of God 
bring his adopted sons, to shew both the magnificence 
of his Father, and also the value of his own merit. 

The magnificence of a great monarch is manifested 
by the greatness of the gifts or honours that he con- 
ferreth. ^^^len Pharaoh would honour Joseph, ' he 
set him over all the land of Egypt,' Gen. xii. 41. So 
did Nebuchadnezzar to Daniel, Dan. ii. 48 ; and Darius 
also, Dan. vi. 2, 3 ; and Ahasuerus to Haman, Esther 
iii. 1, and to Mordecai, Esther viii. 15. 

As for the price whereby such an inheritance, as is 
comprised under this word f/lon/, it must needs be 
more worth than all the kingdoms of the world, and 
the glory of them, because the glory hero intended 
far surpasseth them all. I reckon that this present 
world is not worthy to be compared with that glory. 

One reason of setting out the future estate of saints 
under this iitle fflory, may be to shew that all things 
below are but base, vile, and contemptible in compa- 
rison of it. 

Who would not, who should not, long after this 
glory, even more than an heir after his inheritance ? 

Did we seriously sot before us an idea or represen- 
tation of this glory, we should undoubtedly say, 
' Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of 
God,' Luke xiv. 15 ; or as Peter, at the transfigura- 
tion of his Master, ' It is good to be here,' Mat. 
xvii. 4. Is it good to be there ? Then inquire after 
the way that may bring us thither, and walk in it. 
' Strive to enter in at the strait gate,' Luke xiii. 24. 
Do as our Captain did, ' endure the cross, and de- 

' Miro supra modum. — Erasm. 

' Supra modum in sublimitatc. — Viily- Lat. 

' Exccllenter excellens.— /?«a. 

Ver. 10.] 


spise the shame, for tho glory that is set before us,' 
Heb. xii. 2. ' The suflbrings of this present time are 
not worthy to be compared vfith this glor}',' Kom. 
viii. 18. No labour, no pains, no suflerings, can in 
this case be too much, and his glory will abundantly 
all. In saying glory, I say enough. 

Sec. 94. Of Christ's contimdn(i to bring i(s to glory. 

The participle bringing {ayaymTo., ah liyoi, duco), 
implies a leading one willingly, not by force. Acts v. 26. 
Thus Christ bringeth his sheep into his fold, John x. 
16, for it is thus added, ' They shall hear my voice.' 

It implieth also a kind of tender and gentle leading. 
It is applied to them that brought sick and weak ones 
to Christ, Luke iv. 40, and to him that brought one 
half dead to his inn, Luke s. 34, 

The joining of this act of bringing, with the end, to 
glory, i'lf bo^av ayayuna., setteth out a continuance 
of Christ's act till he have accomphshed his intended 
end. He ceaseth not to lead and carry us on till he 
have set us in glory. 

This phrase of bringing to, is oft used to set out the 
continuance of an act. It is said of the pitiful 
Samaritan, who had compassion on a succourless man, 
that ' he brought him to an inn,' Luke x. 34, and that 
a centurion took order that Paul should be brought 
to a castle. Acts sxiii. 10. He feared lest Paul should 
have [been] pulled in pieces of the multitude; therefore 
he would nothave him left till he were safe in the castle. 

Thus Christ will not leave us in this world unto our 
Bpiritual enemies till he have brought us to glory. It 
is his promise, never to ' leave us nor forsake us,' 
Heb.xiii.5, but to 'confirm us unto the end,' lCor.i.8. 

On this ground saith the apostle, ' I am confident 
of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good 
work in you, will confirm it unto the day of Jesus 
Christ,' Philip, i. C. And Christ saith of himself, 
' Him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out,' 
John vi. 37. In this respect, Jesus is styled ' the 
author and finisher of our faith,' Heb. xii. 2. For, 

1. ' This is the will of the Father, that of all which 
he hath given unto Christ he should lose nothing, but 
should raise it up again at tho last day,' John vi. 89. 

2. His love is unchangeable, John xiii. 1. 

3. He is faithful, and will do what he hath pro- 
mised, 1 Thes. V. 24. 

Admirable is the comfort and encouragement which 
hence ariseth, in regard of our own weakness and 
proneness to come short of this glory ; and also in regard 
of tho many stumbling-blocks which lie in the way, 
and of tho many enemies that oppose us and seek to 
binder us in our endeavour after glory. Our comfort 
and encouragement is, that Christ hath undertaken to 
bring us to glory, and none can hinder what he under- 
takes ; so as we may and ought to ' hope to the end for 
the grace that is brought unto us in the revelation of 
Jesus Christ,' 1 Peter i. 13. This we may do tho 
more confidently, because the ground of our confidence 

is not in ourselves, who are mere sons of men, but in 
the Son of God. 

In regard of ourselves, we may 'not be high-minded, 
but fear,' Rom. xi. 20, but in regard of Christ, we 
may be persuaded, ' that neither death, nor life, nor 
any other thing shall be able to separate us from the 
love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord,' Rom. 

Sec. 95. Of Christ the Captain of our saltation. 

To encourage us to our course to glory, he that 
undertakes to bring his sons thereunto, is styled ' the 
captain of their salvation.' 

By salvation is meant the very same thing that was 
comprised under glorg, even our future happiness. 
Why it is called glory, was shewed Sec. 93'; why sal- 
vation. Chap. i. Sec. 159. 

The root a^xf}, from whence the Greek word, ao^rj- 
yo;, translated captain, is derived, signifieth both a 
beginning, principium, and also a principality, im- 
perium. AJiswerably the word here used [signifieth 
both a captain, that goeth before and leads on his 
soldiers ; and also an autlmr and first worker [archi- 
tectus), of a thing. It is translated ' author,' Heb. 
xiii. 2, and ' prince;' as, ' prince of life,' Acts iii. 15. 
The author of life, who hath purchased and procured 
it ; and the guide, who leadeth us thereto, going in 
the way before us. 

To shew that Christ is the author and worker out 
of our salvation, these two words prince and saviour 
are joined together. Acts v. 31. Thus this word here 
translated captain, is four times, and only four times, 
used in the New Testament ; in all which, both signi- 
fications, namely, captain and author, may be implied, 
and both may well stand together. The author of a 
thing may be a guide and leader of others thereto. 
So is Jesus in reference to salvation. 

To shew that Christ is the author of our salvation, 
another word, which properly signifieth a cause, even 
the eificient cause, is attributed to him, and translated 
'author of salvation,' ainoc, Heb. v. 9. Yea, he 
is styled salvation itself, ro (Twtjjo/ov, Luke ii. 29. On 
this ground was the name Jesus given him. See Sec. 
73. See Chap. v. ver. 9, Sec. 50. 

That Christ also is our captain and guide to salva- 
tion, is evident by other metaphors attributed to him 
in reference to salvation ; as a shepherd that goeth 
before his sheep, John x. 2, 4, 14 ; a mediator that 
presents men to God, 1 Tim. ii. 5 ; an high priest, 
who is for men in things appertaining to God, Heb! 
V. 1 ; a nay in which one goeth to a place, John xiv. 
6 ; yea, a neiv and living way, Heb. x. 20 : new, in 
that there never was the hke Ijefore ; living, in that it 
puts life into them that walk therein, and brings them 
to eternal life. 

Christ is our captain, both to direct us, and also to 
encourage us. We of ourselves are blind in reference 
to spiritual and heavenly things ; we know not the 


[Chap. II. 

vf ay ; we cannot see it, we cannot walk in it without 
a guide. The eunuch who was asked, if ho understood 
what ho read, answered, ' How can I, except some 
man should guide me ?' Acts viii. 31. 

Christ is a ?(///i/, to shew us the wa}-, John viii. 12, 
and a .7i<i</c, to lead us along therein, Luke i. 79. 

Wo are also full of fears and doubts ; but Christ 
going before us puts spirit, life, and resolution into 
us. The speech of Abimelech, ' What ye have seen 
me do, make baste and do as I have done,' Judges 
ix. 48, put life into his soldiers, and made them 
readily do the like. So did a like speech and practice 
of Gideon, Judges vii. 17. For this end, therefore, 
thus said Christ to his disciples, ' I have given you 
an example, that ye should do as I have done to you,' 
John xiii. 15. 

Let us therefore take courage, and being instructed 
in the right way, and led on by so skilful a guide, so 
valiant a captain, so tender a shepherd, so merciful 
an high priest and a mediator, so gracious with the 
Father, let us ' look unto Jesus, the author and 
finisher of our faith,' Heb. xii. 22 ; ' let us go boldly 
unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, 
and find grace to help in time of need,' Heb. iv. 16. 
Doubt not of entering into glory, having such a captain. 

Sec. 96. Of Christ' ssuferimjs.^ 

Concerning this captain, it is further said, that he 
was ' made perfect through sufferings.' 

In the former verse, the apostle used this word in a 
singular number, 'zahiiia, because he restrained it to 
Christ's death, and added it as an epithet thereunto, 
rh 'iraSrijj.a toZ ^amTov, to shew that Christ's death was a 
suffering death, accompanied with much inward anguish 
and outward torment. But here the plural number 
is used, 6/a rraOrifjidruit, to intimate all Christ's suffer- 
ings, from his entering into the world to his going out 
of the same. For they were all ordered by God, and 
all tended to the very same end that is here intended, 
namely, the bringing of sons to glory. 

I suppose it hereupon meet to take a brief view of 
the many kinds of Christ's sufferings. 

General heads of Christ's sufl'eringsare such as these: 

Christ's sufl'erings were either co-natural, such as ap- 
pertained to his human nature ; or accidental, such 
as arose from external causes. Of such endurances as 
were co-natural, see Sec. 169. 

Accidental crosses were either such as was assaulted 
withal, or were inflicted upon him. 

Many were the temptations wherewith he was as- 
saulted, both by Satan and also by men ; yea, and by 
God himself. 

Satan tempted him to most horrible sins, as, diffi- 
dence, presumption, and idolatry, Mat. iv. 8, 6, 9. But 
nothing did cleave to him thereby. The purity of his 
nature was as a sea to a tiro- brand, which soon quench- 
eth it. Christ's purity was as clear water in a glass, 
' See Spc. 7fi. 

which hath no dregs, no filth at all in it ; though it be 
shaken never so much, yet it remaineth clear. Christ 
Faith of hicnself, ' The Prince of this world cometh, 
and hath nothing in me,' John xiv. 30. It is evident 
that Satan tempted Christ, after those fierce assaults 
in the wilderness. For at the end of them it is said, 
' When the devil had ended all his temptations, he 
departed from him for a season,' Luke iv. 13. This 
phrase /or a season, implieth that Satan afterwards 
set upon him again. And this phrase, ' The prince 
of the world cometh,' John xiv. 80, being spoken a 
little before the time of Christ's death, further sheweth 
that the devil set upon him again. These temptations 
of Satau were no small sufl'erings. 

Christ was also tempted by men, and those both 
adversaries and friends. The Pharisees and Sadducees, 
and others like them among the Jews, oft tempted 
him, as Mat. zvi. 1, and xix. 8, and xxii. 18 ; John 
xviii. 6. 

His disciples also tempted him, as Peter, Mat. xvi. 
22 ; and James and John, Mark x. 85 : and Thomas, 
John XX. 25-27. These temptations, from his disciples 
especially, could not but much trouble him. Witness 
the sharp rebuke that he gave to Peter, Mat. xvi. 28. 
Yea, the temptations of his adversaries]the Jews, stirred 
up anger in him, and grieved him much, Mark iii. 5, 
and viii. 12. 

Finally, Christ was tried and proved, and in that 
respect tempted by God himself, as by the Spirit of 
God, when he was ' led up of the Spirit into the wil- 
derness to be tempted of the devil,' Mat. iv. 1. And 
by the Father, who so withdrew his assistance and com- 
fort from him, as forced him to cry out and say, ' My 
God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?' Mat. xxvii.46. 

Afflictions inflicted on him were very many. For 
order and distinction's sake, they may be considered in 
his non-age, man-age, and time of death. 

In his non-age these may be accounted sufferings. 

1. His mean birth, in the stable of an inn, where 
he was laid in a manger, Luke ii. 7. 

2. His flight in the night time into Egypt, upon 
Herod's prosecution. This was aggravated by the 
slaughter of all the infants in Bethlehem, and in all 
the coasts thereof. Mat. ii. 14-16. 

3. His parents' offence at his abode in Jerusalem, 
Luke ii. 49. 

What alHictions he endured all the time of his private 
life, who knoweth ? 

In his man-age his aftlictions were greater, as mani- 
fold prosecutions, and that with a purpose to have 
destroyed him. Thus was he prosecuted by his own 
countr}-men, Luke iv. 29 ; and by the common sort, 
John viii. 59 ; the rnlers, priests, pharisees, sent 
officers to take him, John vii. 32 ; Herod threa- 
tened his life, Luke xiii. 31. By reason of these pro- 
secutions, he was forced sometimes to pass through 
the middle of them, so as they could not discern him, 
Luke iv. 30, John viii. 59: sometimes he hid himself. 

Yer. 10.] 



John xii. 3G ; sometimes he fled from country to 
country, and from town to town, as, John iv. 3, 4, 
from Judea to Samaria, and through it to Galilee, 
from Nazareth to Capernaum, Luke iii. 31, from Jeru- 
salem to the place beyond Jordan, John x. 40. 

His greatest afflictions were about the time of his 
death, when the hour of his adversaries and power of 
darkness was come ; Luke xsii. 13. These maybe 
drawn to two heads. Outward in body ; inward in 
soul. Of these see Sec. 76. 

Sec. 97. Of Christ made perfect hj suffering. 

Christ by his suffering is said to be made perfect. 
The Greek word nXuQecci, according to the notation 
of it, signifieth to finish or accomplish a thing,' to put 
an end unto it ; or to perfect it. The Greek noun 
riXoi, finis, whence this verb is derived, signifieth 
an end, chap. iii. 6. For that which is brought to an 
end, so as there is no further proceeding therein, is 
said to be perfected, and that is accounted to be made 
perfect which is fully and absolutely done, so as no- 
thing needeth to be added thereto. Hence the adjective 
translated perfect, riXeiog, Mat. v. 48, and the substantive 
translated ;)c/;/<;c(io«, teXs/o'dis, Heb. vi. 1, Luke i. 45. 

This word is variously translated. As, 

1. To finish a thing, John iv. 34, Acts xx. 24. 

2. To fulfil what was foretold, John six. 28. 

3. To make perfect, Heb. x. 1-14, and_xii. 28. 

4. To consecrate, Heb. ii. 28, that is," to set apart 
to an holy use, and that with special solemnity. The 
Greek Septuagint do use this woi'd in this sense, Exod. 
xxix. 9, 22, 26, 29, 33. The Greek fathers ^ do apply 
this term to initiating persons bybaptism, whereby they 
were solemnly consecrated and brought into the church. 

5. To die ; and that as a sacrifice ofiered up to God, 
Luke xiii. 32. In this sense Greek fathers apply this 
word to martyrdom. 

Not unfitly in every of those senses may it here be 
taken, at least every of those acceptions give gi-eat 
light to that which is here spoken of Christ. For, 

1. Christ by his sufieriugs finished that work and 
Batisfaction which was on earth to be done. There- 
fore on the cross he said, ' It is finished,' John xis. 30. 

2. By his sufierings were sundry prophecies ful- 
filled, Luke xxiv. 25-27, 45, 46. 

3. By his sufferings Christ was made a full and 
perfect redeemer, Heb. vii. 26. Nothing needed more 
to be added thereunto. 

4. By his sufferings Christ was solemnly consecrated 
to be our everlasting high priest, Heb. vii. 28. 

5. By his sufferings to death Christ was made an 
offering for all sins, even a true, real, propitiatory 
sacrifice, Heb. x. 10. 

The scope of the apostle in this place is to remove 
that scandal of Christ's suft'erings, whereat both Jews 

1 See Chap. v. 9, See- 34. 

2 Diniiys. Arcopag. Grrg. in Jfacab. Lucaii. Euseh. Hist. 
Eccl. lib. V. 

and Gentiles stumbled. For this end he here sheweth 
that Christ's sufl'erings turned more to his glory and 
ignominy.^ They were honourable ensigns and solemn 
rites of advancing him to glory. 

For by his sufferings he vanquished all his and our 
enemies ; he gloriously triumphed over them all ; he 
satisfied the justice of God, and pacified his wrath ; 
he reconciled God and man, and merited remission of 
sins and eternal salvation ; yea, by his sufl'ering he 
became a pattern and guide to us, and made the way 
of sufl'ering passable for us to follow him therein, so as 
we may thereupon pass it through more easily. 

Though Christ were ever perfect in himself, yet for 
bringing us to glory much was wanting till he had 
finished his sufl'erings, but thereby all that wanted 
was supplied, and he made perfect. Wherefore, 
glorious things are spoken of the cross of Chi-ist, as 
1 Cor. i. 18, Gal. vi. 14, Eph. ii. 16, Col. i. 20, and 
ii. 14, 15. 

Who now that duly considereth the end of God in 
suffering his Son to suffer what he did, will be ashamed 
of the cross of Christ ? It becomes us rather to glory 
therein, as the apostle did, Gal. vi. 14. 

Great reason there is that we should so do, for in 
Christ's humiliation consisteth our exaltation ; in his 
cross, our crown ; in his ignominy, our glory ; in his 
death, our hfe. 

That we may thus do, we must behold Christ's suf- 
ferings, not with the eye of flesh, but of faith. Jews 
and Gentiles beholding Christ with no other eye than 
the eye of flesh, despised him by reason of his suft'er- 
ings ; for flesh can see nothing therein but folly, base- 
ness, ignominy, contempt. But faith beholds wisdom, 
victory, triumph, glory, and all happiness. 

As this afl'ords matter of glorifying in Christ's suf- 
ferings, so also of contentment, patience, comfort, re- 
joicing, and glorying in our own sufferings for Christ's 

God hath appointed sufferings the highway and 
common road for all his to enter into glory thereby. 
Acts xiv. 22. 

As thereby he maketh the head conformable to the 
members, ver. 14, so the members also conformable to 
the head, Philip, iii. 10. 

Christ's blood was that holy oil wherewith he was 
anointed to be a triumphant king over all his enemies, 
and this oil is like that which was poured on Aaron's 
head and descended down upon his body, Ps. cxxxiii. 2. 
It pleased the Lord that the holy consecrating oil of 
suffering, which was poured on Christ our head, should 
descend upon us his members, that we should thus also 
be consecrated and made heirs of salvation. We 
ought therefore even to rejoice therein, as kings' sous 
when they are consecrated and made princes or dukes. 
Thus have the prophets and apostles done : they re- 
joiced in their sufl'erings. Mat. v. 12, Acts v. 41. 

' Qu. ' Cliriat's sufferings anl ignominy turiieJ more to 
liis glory'?— Ed. 


[CnAP. Jl. 

This Christ requirelb, Mat. v. 12. Oft do we read of 
Paul's glorying in his chains, bonds, and imprison- 
ment, Eph. vi. 20, Acts xxviii. 20, 2 Cor. xi. 23. 

Thus have martyrs embraced the stake whereat they 
have been burnt with joy, and kissed the chains where- 
with they were bound. 

Among other arguments to move us both patiently 
to bear, and also joyfully to embrace the cross, let 
this be thought on, that it is the oil to anoint us for 
a kingdom, and an honourable rise to settle us on a 

Sec. 95. 0/ the resolution of the tenth verse of the 
second chapter. 

The sum of this text is a reason of Christ's suffer- 
ings. This is, 1, generally propounded ; 2, par- 
ticularly exemplified. 

In the general, 1, the gi-ound ; 2, the equity of the 
point is declared. 

The ground is in this phrase, ' It became him.' Here 
is implied, 

1. The principal author in this relative him. 

2. The procuring cause whereby that author was 
moved. This was the decency of the thing, it became. 

The equity of the reason is hinted in a description 
of the author. He is described by his relation to 
creatures, and that two ways : 

1. As the supreme end,/o/- tcliom. 

2. As the efficient, by uhom. 

Both these are amplified by the extent of the cor- 
relative, all thinps. 

In the particular exemplification is set down the 
main point, that Christ sufiered. About it is declared, 

1. A description of him that suffereth. 

2. A declaration of the end of his suflerings. 
lie is described by two undertakings : 

1. By bringing others to glory. 

2. By being a Captain of their salvation. 
In the former three points are expressed : 

1. Christ's act, bringing. 

2. The subjects or persons, sons. 

These are amplified by their multitude, many. 

3. The end to which they are brought, filori/. 

The latter hath reference to the main reason, it be- 
came God, and shews what it was that became him. 
In setting down whereof is noted, 

1. God's act, to make perfect. 

2. The person made perfect, Captain of their salra- 
lion. Here consider, 

First, Christ's office, Captain. 

Secondly, The end whereunto, sah-ation. This is 
amplified by the persons to whom salvation belongeth, 

Thirdly, The means whereby he was made perfect, 
through suffering. 

Sec. 99. Of the observations gathered out q/Heb. ii. 10. 
I. Qod ii'fls the principal author of Christ's suffer- 

ings. This relative him hath reference to God. See 
Sees. 37, 78. 

II. It iras most meet by the sufferings of the Son of 
God to save sons of men. This phrase, 'It became 
him,' proves this point. See Sec. 8C. 

III. All things are for God's glory. This phrase 
for whom intends so much. See Sec. 89. 

IV. All things are ordered by God. This phrase 
by whom intends so much. See Sec. 89. 

V. God aimed at himself in making and governing 
all. The order of these two phrases, /or whom and 
by whom, implies thus much. See Sec. 89. 

VI. Saints are sons. So they are here called, and 
that in relation to Christ and to his Father. See 
Sec. 90. 

VII. Saints' future estate is a most gloriotLs estate. 
They shall be brought to glory. See Sec. 93. 

VIII. Christ brings saints to glory. This act is 
here expressly apphed to him. See Sec. 92. 

IX. Christ leaves not his till they be settled in heaven, 
for he undertakes to bring them to glory. See Sec. 94. 

X. 31any shall be saved. This is here set down 
almost in the same words. See Sec. 91. 

XI. Christ is our Captain. This is here taken for 
granted. See Sec. 95. 

XII. It is salvation that Christ leadeth his unto. In 
this respect he is here styled the Captain of our sal- 
vation. See Sec. 95. 

XIII. Salvation is proper to sons. It is here styled 
their salvation. Sec. 90. 

XIV. Christ's siiferings were many. See Sec. 96. 

XV. Christ by sufering was solemnly advanced to 
glory. See Sec. 97'. 

XVI. Christ by his sufferings made up whatsoever 
u-as requisite to bring man to glory. See Sec. 97. 

Sec. 100. Of the conformity of tlie Son of God and 
saints in suffering. 

Ver. 11. For both he that sanctifieth and they who 
are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not 
ashamed to call them brethren. 

This verse is here inferred as a confirmation of 
that which goeth before. This causal particle, yas, 
for, implieth as much. It confirms the main point in 
hand, namely, that Christ was true man ; and it is 
added as a fourth proof thereof. See Sec. 1. 

It hath also an immediate reference to the last 

clause of the former verse ; and sheweth a reason, 

why it became (iod to make perfect the Captain of our 

salvation through sufferings ; even because he and we 

I are ' all of one." 

Herein lielh the equity of Christ's suflerings, that 
therein and hereby he might be like to us. For ' in 
all tilings it behoved him to be made like unto his 
brethren," ver. 17. Christ was herein of Moses his 
mind ; he would sufl'er affliction with his people, Heb. 
xi. 25. He would not go another way to glory than 
they did, with whom he was of one. Thus much 

Ver, U. 


doth the inference of Christ being one with us, upon 
his sufferings import. 

This doth exceedingly commend unto us the love 
of Christ, and it demonstrateth an equity of our suf- 
fering with him and for him ; for we also are of one 
with him. Hereby shall we gain assurance to our 
own souls, and give evidence to others, that we are of 
one with him, namely, by our willingness to be con- 
formable to him, and to drink of that cup whereof he 
hath drunk, as he said to his disciples, Mat. xx. 23. 

Sec. 101. Of sanctifyinq, and the divers hinds thereof. 

This first clause, lie tluit sandifieth, is a description 
of Christ, and that in relation to the members of his 
mystical body, who are said to be sanctified. 

To sanctify, according to the Latin notation, sancti- 
ficare (from whence our English is translated), is to 
make holy. So dolh the Hebrew in the third conju- 
gation signify, t^"^p^, snnctificin-it . The Greek word 
also ayia^m, which the apostle here useth, intendeth 
as much. It is derived from a root that signifieth a 
sacred thing,' worthy of good account, a thing hon- 
oured, and highly esteemed, being freed from such 
blemish as might dishonour it. The Greek word 
translated holy- is from the same root. 

To sanctify, is an act attributed to the Creator and 
to creatures. 

1 . To the Creator, in reference to himself and others. 

1. To himself, two ways. 

(1.) In manifesting the excellency of his power, 
justice, and other attributes, Ezek. xxviii. 22, and 
xxxviii. 23. 

(2.) In vindicating his righteousness from unjust 
imputations, Ezek. xxxvi. 23. 

2. To others. 

(1.) In a real conferring of holiness upon them, 1 
Thes. V. 23. Thus each person in the sacred Trinity 
is said to sanctify, as the Father, Jude 1 ; the Son, 
Eph. V. 2G ; the' Holy Ghost, llom. xv. IG. 

(2.) In setting apart to sacred employments. Thus 
God sanctified bis Son, John x. 36 ; and the Son 
sanctified himself, John svii. 19. Thus God sanctified 
men, Jer. i. 5, beasts, Num. viii. 17, and other things, 
Exod. xxix. 44, yea, and times too. Gen. ii. 3. 

2. To creatures this act of sanctifying is attributed, 
as to men and others. . 

Men arc said to sanctify God, themselves, other 
men, and other things. 

1. Men sanctify God two ways. 

(1.) By acknowledging his excellencies. Mat. vi. 9. 
(2.) By an undaunted profession of his truth, 1 Pet. 
iii. 15. 

2. Men sanctify themselves, by preparing themselves 
to perform holy services holily, 1 Chron. xv. 14. 

3. Men sanctify other men. 

' S.Z,u seu H^s/ixi, venero. lude Sym;, res sacra, res veneratione 

' Uinc iyms aancliis, lioly. See Chap. iii. Sec. 6. 

(1.) By being God's ministers, in setting them apart 
to sacred functions. Lev. viii. 30. 

(2.) By preparing them to holy services, Exod. xix. 
10, 1 Sam. xvi. 5. 

(3.) By using means of reconciliation between God 
and tlacm, Job i. 5. 

4. Men sanctify other things. 

(1.) By employing holily such times and things as 
are holy, Exod. xx. 8. 

(2.) By using means that others may observe holy 
duties aright, Joel i. 14. 

(3.) By dedicating and consecrating them to the 
Lord for his service. Thus under the law men sancti- 
fied houses and lantls. Lev. xxvii. 14-lG. 

Other things, besides men, are said to be sanctified 
two ways. 

1. Typically, as sundry rites under the law, Heb. 
ix. 18, Mat. xxiii. 17-19. 

2. Ministerially, as the word and prayer uuder the 
gospel, 1 Tim. iv. 5. The word, by giving us a war- 
rant for what we use or do ; prayer, for obtaining a 
blessing thereupon. 

Sec. 102. Of Christ sancti/yinf/. 

This act of sanctifying, here mentioned, properly 
belongeth to Christ, and that as he is God-man, the 
mediator betwixt God and man. He is by an excel- 
lency and property styled a sanctifier, ' He that sancti- 
fieth,' because in most of the fore-named respects he 
may be said to sanctify. 

1. Christ, in reference to himself, sanctifieth. ' I 
sanctify mj^self,' saith he, John xvii. 19. As the 
Father set him apart, and deputed him to be a priest 
and sacrifice for men, so he voluntarily undertook what 
his Father deputed him unto : ' He offered up himself,' 
Heb. vii. 27; ' He gave himself,' Eph. v. 2; ' By this 
will are we sanctified,' Heb. x. 10. 

2. He sanctified the Lord God (as we are enjoined, 
1 Pet. iii. 15), in that ' he made a good confession be- 
fore Pontius Pilate,' 1 Tim. vi. 13 ; I have glorified 
thee on earth,' saith he to his Father, as he was going 
out of the world, John xvii. 4. 

3. He sanctifieth others, and that sundry ways. 
(I.) In setting men apart to sacred functions, ha 

gave some apostles, and some prophets, &c., Eph. iv. 

(2.) In furnishing men with gifts: when he ascended 
up on high, he gave gifts unto men, Eph. iv. 8. 

(3.) In purging men from their pollutions. Hereof 
see Chap. i. 3, Sees. 27-29. 

(4.) In enduing them with sanctifying graces : ' Of 
his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace,' 
John i. 10. Thus is he made sanctitication to us, 1 
Cor. i. 30. 

(5.) In being a means of reconciliation betwixt God 
and us, verse H. What Job did to his children after 
their feastings. Job i. 5, Christ doth continually by his 
intercession, Heb. vii. 27. 




[Chap. II. 

(6.) By taking us into a conjugal society with bim- 
Belf, Eph. V. 31, 32, we are sanctified to him, as the 
unbeliever is sanctified to the believer, 1 Cor. vii. 14. 

(7.) In dedicating and consecrating his church to 
God as first fruits, James i. 18. 

The apostle, by ascribing this act of sanctifying to 
Christ, gives us to understand that he is the author 
of his church's sanctification, 1 Cor. i. 80, for Christ 
is the only all sufficient head of the church. As all 
life, sense, motion and vigour, descends from the head 
to all the members, so all manner of spiritual life and 
grace from Christ. ' God gave not the Spirit by mea- 
sure to him,' Johu iii. 'Si, for ' it pleased the Father 
that in him should all fulness dwell,' Col. i. 19. There 
is in Christ's death a mortifying power, whereby ' our 
old man is crucified with him,' Horn. vi. 6 ; and there 
is in his resurrection a quickening virtue, that like as 
Christ was raised up from the dead, so we also should 
walk in newness of life, Kom. vi. 4. 

How this act of sanctifying is attributed to the Fa- 
tber also, and the Holy Ghost, and to the word and 
ministers thereof, see Domest. Dut. on Eph. v. 30, 
treat, i., sec. 7G. 

Wo are the rather to take notice of this, that Christ 
undertakes to be a sanctifier, that in all our needs we 
may have recourse to him for grace. Thus we are 
invited to do, Isa. Iv. 1, Mat. xi. 28, John vii. 87. 

That we may receive grace from Christ, we must be 
well informed in the means which he hath sanctified to 
sanctify us. These are his holy ordinances : in special, 
his word, and prayer, 1 Tim. iv. 5. As we find any 
sanctifying grace wrought in us, we ought, with thank- 
fulness (as the tenth leper did, Luke xvii. 16), to 
acknowledge from whence it cometh ; and withal, we 
ought to use what we receive to the glory of him that 
hath sanctified us, 1 Pet. ii. 9. 

Sec. 103. Of those v-ho are sanctified. 
■ The co-relative which answereth to the fore-men- 
tioned sanctifier, is comprised in this phrase, ' they 
who are sanctified.' This passive ianctifiei sheweth 
that this is a privilege conferred on them. They were 
not so by nature, they were not so of themselves ; 
even they were of the common stock, of the polluted 
mass, no better than the worst. Of such saith the 
apostle, ' We were by nature the children of wrath, 
even as others,' Eph. ii. 3 ; ' Wc ourselves also were 
sometimes foolish, disobedient,' &c., Tit. iii. 8; in 
regard of natural condition, ' there is none righteous, 
110 not one,' Rom. iii. 10 ; such were they of whom 
the apostle saith, ' But ye are sanctified,' 1 Cor. vi. 11. 

This givelh evidence of the free grace of God, and 
it doth much commend his love. It is a means to 
strip us of all self-boasting, and to humble us deeply. 
It is an especial ground of giving all praise to God. 

The same word in the passive, ay/a^o'.asio/, is here 
used that was before in the active, ayia^uv, so as in 
the same respect wherein Christ sanctificth any, they 

are sanctified. Particular instances are such as fol- 
low : 

1. They are by Christ set apart and deputed to be 
kings and priests, Rev. i. 6. 

2. They are by Christ enabled to those functions 
and services whereunto they are set apart, Eph. iv. 7. 

3. They are by Christ purged from their pollutions, 
Heb. i. 3. 

4. They are endued with all needful sanctifying 
graces, 1 Cor. i. 7, John i. IG. 

5. By Christ they are reconciled unto God, Col. i. 21. 

6. They are espoused to Christ, 2 Cor. xi. 2. 

7. They are as first-fruits to GoJ, Rev. xiv. 4. 
They who are thus sanctified are the elect of God, 

called by the gospel, and so ti'ue members of the mys- 
tical body of Christ. 

Under this act of sanctifj'ing and being sanctified, 
all the graces whereof here in Christ we are made par- 
takers are comprised, so as to be sanctified, is to be 
perfected, Heb. x. 14. 

These relatives, sanctifier, sanctified, joined toge- 
ther, give evidence of a conformity betwixt the head 
and members of the mystical body in holiness. As 
the head is, so will he make his members to be. As 
he is holy, so shall they be. 

This is a great inducement unto us, to use the 
means sanctified of God for efl'ecting this work of 
sanctification. For Christ performeth what he under- 
taketh, in that way, and by those means, which are 
sanctified thereto. Wherefore, as Christ is the sancti- 
fier, so use the means wherein he useth to sanctify ; 
' aud as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy 
in all manner of conversation,' 1 Pet. i. 15. 

Sec. 104. 0/ the Son of God and sons of men being 

The two fore-mentioned relates, sanctifier and sancti- 
fied, are said to be ' all of one.' The Greek word in the 
case here used, s; hoz, and translated of one, is com- 
mon to all genders. Some, therefore, take it in the 
masculine, and refer it to God, as if this were the 
meaning. The Son of God and saints are all of God. 
This, in the general matter, is a truth, but not a truth 
pertinent to the point in hand ; for the apostle allegeth 
here this union as a reason why Christ was man, and 
sufliered for such and such, namely, because he and 
they were ' of one.' But it cannot be truly said that 
he was man, and died for all that were of God, in that 
they had their being of God. In this sense, not only 
men, but angels also, and all other creatures (for whom 
Christ neither took upon him man's nature, nor un- 
dertook to suffer), are of God. 

Others apply this one to Adam, of whom, as concern- 
ing the flesh, Christ came, Luke iii. 23, 88. This also 
is a truth ; but I suppose it to be more agreeable to 
the apostle's scope to take this particle oj one in the 
neuter gender, as if it were thus expressed, ' of one ■ 
stock,' and that for these two reasons : j 

Ver. 1].] 


1. The Greek particle sx, translated of, is properlj' 
a note of the material cause. 

2. This must have reference to the sanctified as well 
as to the sanctifier ; for ' all are of one.' As the sancti- 
fier is of the same stock whereof the sanctified are, 
so the sanctified of the same whereof the sanctifier. 

In the former respect, that human nature whereof 
the sanctified are is the stock whereof Christ also is ; 
and the spiritual nature whereof Christ is (called the 
divine nature, 2 Peter i. 4), is the stock whereof the 
sanctified are. In this respect such are said to be ' of 
Christ's flesh and of his bone,' Eph. v. 26, which 
phrase is mystically and spiritually to be taken. In 
relation to this spiritual being, sanctified ones are 
styled spirit, John iii. 6 ; and they are said to be ' in 
the Spirit,' to be ' after the Spirit,' to ' mind the things 
of the Spirit,' and to ' walk after the Spirit;' and the 
Spirit is said to ' dwell in them,' Rom. viii. 4, 5, 9. 

Of this mystical union betwist Christ the sanctifier, 
and saints the sanctified, see more in Domest. But. 
on Eph. V. 30, treat i. sec. 70, &c. 

This general particle all, 'xavnc, as it includes the 
bead and the body, so it compriseth under it all the 
members of that body. If it had reference to the 
head and body only as to two distinct parts, he would 
have said both are of one, rather than all, for all com- 
priseth more than two. But because the body con- 
sisteth of many members, and all the members are 
sanctified, he fitly and properly useth this general all, 
and thereby gives us to understand that all that are 
Christ's are partakers of the same spiritual being. 

This is evidenced by Christ's prayer, ' that they all 
may bo one,' kc, John xvii. 21. The metaphors 
whereby the union betwixt Christ and saints is set out, 
give further proof hereof, as head and members, 1 Cor. 
xii. 12, vine and branches, John xv. 5, shepherd and 
sheep, John x. 14. Now, members, branches, and 
sheep are all of one ; so are brethren also, which title 
is used in this verse. 

This union of all should work unity, unanimity, 
amity, charity, sympathy, and condescension to them 
that are of low estate, and a willingness to be conform- 
able to them that suffer for Christ and his gospel's 
sake. Of this mind was Moses, Heb. xi. 25. 

Sec. 105. Christ's doing things tiponjust cause. 

From the fore-mentioned union of Christ and saints, 
the apostle maketh this inference : ' For which cause 
he is not ashamed to call them brethren.' Because he 
and saints were of one, he called them brethren. 

This note of inference, /or tohirh cause, sheweth that 
Christ would do what he had cause and reason to do. 
Christ being sent to save that which was lost. Mat. 
sviii. 11, and to give his life a ransom for many. Mat. 
XX. 28, for this cause he would not desire to be freed 
from that hour, John xii. 28. 

For this cause he acknowledged before Pontius Pilate 
that he wasa king, Johnxviii. 37. Forthis cause Christ 


to God among the Gentiles, Eom. xv. 9 ; for 
this cause is he the mediator of the New Testament, 
Heb. ix. 15. 

Were we of this mind, how many excellent works, 
much tending to God's gloi-y, our own and others' 
good, would be willingly performed, which are now 
wholly omitted ! Most are so far from being of Christ's 
mind herein, as they do the things that are evidently 
without cause : ' They transgress without cause,' Ps. 
XXV. 3. David much complaineth of wrongs done to 
him without cause, Ps. xxxv. 7, and Ixix. 4, and cix. 
3, and cxix. 78, 161. Christ maketh such a com- 
plaint, John XV. 25. 

Let us advisedly and seriously consider what cause 
there is for us to do such and such things, and as there 
is cause, do them. 

Sec. 106. Of Christ and saints being brethren. 

In that which is here inferred one thing is taken 
for grant, another is expressed as a consequence fol- 
lowing thereupon. 

The thing taken for grant is a relation betwixt 
Christ and saints ; namely, that they are brethren. 

Of the divers acceptions of this word brother, see 
Chap. xiii. Sec. 8. 

The relation betwixt the Son of God and sons of men 
is a mixed relation, partly natural, partly spiritual. 

Natural is, that the Son of God became a son of 
man, descending, according to the flesh, from the 
same stock that we do, even from Adam, Luke iii. 
23, 38. 

Spiritual is, that sons of men are made partakers of 
the divine nature ; for in that vei-y respect wherein 
' he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are of 
one,' they are also brethren. 

Thus this relation is properly betwixt Christ and 
saints; for though Christ assumed the common nature 
of man, yet all men are not made partakers of the 
divine nature. This is proper to the regenerate, who 
are born again, and that of God, John i. 13, and 
adopted as children into God's family, which is the 

Of such as these saith Christ, ' Behold my brethren,' 
Mat. xii. 49 ; ' Tell my brethren,' Mat. xxviii. 10 ; 
' Go to my brethren,' John xs. 17 ; and more gene- 
rally at the last day Christ giveth this title brethren to 
all his elect, whom he setteth at his right hand. 
Mat. XXV. 40. 

As this gives evidence of the low condescension of 
the Son of God, so also of the high exaltation of sons 
of men ; for the Son of God to be a brother to sons 
of men is a gi-eat degree of humiliation, and for sons 
of men to be made brethren with the Son of God is 
an high degree of exaltation ; for Christ's brethren are 
in that respect sons of God, heirs of heaven, or kings, 
not earthly, but heavenly ; not temporary, but ever- 
lasting kings. 

Behold the honour of saints. Men count it an 

[Chap. II. 

honourable privilege to be allied to honourable per- 
sonages. Such matches are much aflected. But all 
alliance with men are but baseness to this. Who can 
sufficiently declare the excellency of the Son of God. 
Besides, this is no titular, but a real privilege. By 
virtue hereof God is our Father, John xx. 17; we 
have a right to all that is Christ's, 1 Cor. iii. 22; and 
we are co-heirs with Christ, of the heavenly inherit- 
ance, Rom. viii. 17. 

Herewith wo may uphold ourselves against all the 
scoffs and scorns of the world, and against all outward 

Quest. May we, by virtue of this relation, call the 
Son of God our brother ? 

Atts. We Imvo no example of any of the saints that 
ever did so. They usually give titles of dignity to 
him, as Lord, Saviour, lialeewer, &c. Howsoever the 
Son of God vouchsafe this honour unto us, yet we 
must retain in our hearts an high and reverent esteem 
of him, and on that ground give such titles to him as 
may manifest as much. Inferiors do not use to give 
like titles of equality to their superiors, as superiors 
do to their inferiors. It is a token of love in superiors 
to speak to their inferiors as equals ; but for inferiors 
to do the like, would be a note of arrogancy. 

See. 107. Of ' calling brethren . 

Christ is said to call them brethren. To call, in 
this place, jcwXe/V, is not a mere nominal, titular, or 
complimental word, but very cmphatical. It implieth 
an open acknowledgment of a thing, and a free pos- 
session thereof. Thus God said of the Gentiles, ' I 
will call them my people,' Rom. is. 25, that is, I will 
before all the world declare and profess that they are 
my people, and acknowledge them for my own. Thus 
is this word taken, Mat. v. 9, 19 ; and in the nega- 
tive, saith the prodigal to his father, ' I am no more 
worthy to be called thy son,' Luke xv. 21 ; and Panl, 
' I am not meet to be called an apostle,' 1 Cor. xv. 9. 
The prodigal was his father's son, and Paul was an 
apostle ; but both the one and the other thought him- 
self unworthy to be acknowledged such as they were. 

Christ, where he vouchsafeth a dignity and privi- 
lege, will openly acknowledge it. ' Behold my bre- 
thren,' saith he to his disciples. Mat. xii. 49. Such will 
he confess before his Father which is in heaven, Jlat. 
X. 32, and before the angels of God, Luke xii. 8, 
Rev. iii. 5. He giveth a good proof hereof, sitting on 
his throne of glory, where he saith to all his brethren, 
' Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom,' 
Ac, Mat. XXV. 34. 

Thus ought we to call and acknowledge one another 
according to those relations wherewith God hath knit 
ns one to another. 

Sec. 108. Of Christ's- ' not In'in,, ashamed' of his 

To shew that tlio meanness and manifold imperfec- 

tions of children of men shall be no impediment to 
Christ's gracious and glorious acknowledgment of them 
to be his brethren, it is here further said, ihat ' he is 
not ashamed to call them brethren.^ 

The root, r'o aisyj,:, fceilitus, from whence the Greek 
verb, translated ashamed, is derived, signifieth filthi- 
ness. Thence a noun, aiayjjtr}, pudor ob turpia, signi- 
fying shame at some unbeseeming thing, is drawn ; 
as where Christ saith to him that aflected the highest 
room, ' Thou begin with shame, /xsr' u.ieyjnrii, to take 
the lowest room,' Luke xiv. 9 ; and again, ' that the 
shame of thy nakedness do not appear,' Rev. iii. 18. 
Now shame is a disturbed passion upon conceit of 
disgrace. From that noun the) simple verb, a.i<syjj- 
vo/j.ai,piidejio, which signifieth 'to be ashamed,' ariseth. 

The word here used, i'Traieyivo/iai, valde pmlefio, is 
a compound, and the composition addeth emphasis. 
When it is affinnatively used, it signifieth to be much 
ashamed. ' What fruit bad you then in those things 
whereof you are now ashamed,' IrruisyLnak ? Rom. 
vi. 21. True converts are much ashamed of their 
sins past. When it is negatively used, it signifieth to 
be nothing at all ashamed ; as where the apostle saith, 
' I am not ashamed, i-aiayuvofiai, of the gospel of 
of Christ,' Rom. i. 16. So it is also used in reference 
to sufferings for Christ, 2 Tim. i. 8, 12, IG. This 
very word is applied to God in reference to such as 
bcHeved on him, ' God is not ashamed to be called 
their God,' Heb. xi. IG. God was not at all ashamed 
of that relation which was between him and them ; 
nor is Christ at all ashamed at this title brethren, in 
reference to himself and saints, notwithstanding his 
own infinite excellencies and men's meanness, base- 
ness, and filthiness in themselves. 

This is one special point wherein Christ manifesteth 
himself to be ' meek and lowly in heart.' 

We ought to learn of him so to be, Mat. xi. 29. 
All ages cannot afl'ord such a pai-allel. Abraham's 
example in calling Lot brother, Gen. xiii. 8 ; and Jo- 
seph's, when he was advanced to be next unto the 
king, in acknowledging his brethren, Gen xlv. 4 ; and 
Moses, when he was accounted Pharaoh's daughter's 
son, acknowledging the Hebrews to be his brethren, 
Exod. ii. 11, and iv. 18, were very rare; but no mora 
comparable to this of Christ, than the light of a dim 
candle to the bright shining of the sun. 

This pattern of Christ is the rather to be noted, be- 
cause it stripped such as are ashamed of their rela- 
tions to others of all excuse. Some husbands are 
ashamed of their wives when they are raised to high 
dignities ; some children in like cases are ashamed of 
their parents ; some servants of tbeir masters, and 
so in other relations. Can any bo more highly ad- 
vanced than Christ ? Some are ashamed of the mean- 
ness and disparity of those to whom 'ny some bond of 
relation they are knit ; might not Christ have been in 
this respect much more ashamed of us ? 

But what shall we sav of those that are ashamed of 

Ver. 12.] 



Christ's brethren, even in this respect, because they 
are his brethren, and make a sincere profession of the 
true faith '? Oh more than monstrous impudency ! 
Yet thus are husbands, wives, parents, children, and 
others ashamed of their wives, husbands, children, 
parents, and others, even because they profess the 
faith, and are called Chi-ist's brethren. 

This respect of Christ to his brethren is a great 
encouragement and comfort to such as are despised 
and scorned by men of this world for Christ's pro- 
fessing of them. 

The greatest impotency' and arrogancy in this kind 
is to be ashamed of Christ himself. Yet it was fore- 
told that some should hide their faces from him, Isa. 
Hii. 3. Fearful is the doom that Christ doth thus 
denounce against such : ' Whosoever shall be ashamed 
of me, and of my words, in this adulterous and sinful 
generation, of him also shall the Son of man be 
ashamed when he cometh in the glory of his Father, 
with the holy angels,' Mark viii. 38. 

Sec. 109. Of the resolutions and observations of 
Heb. ii. 11. 

The sum of this verse is a reason of Christ's suf- 
fering in man's nature, which was a conformableness 
to other men. 

Two points are herein observable : 1, the substance 
of the test ; 2, a consequence. 

In the substance two things are expressed : 1, a dif- 
ference betwixt Christ and saints ; 2, an union. 

The ditierence is, that one is an agent, ' he that 
f auctifieth ;' the other a patient, ' they who are sanc- 

In this union is noted, 1, the kind of it, of one : 
2, the extent, all. 

The kind of union is a common stock. This ad- 
mits a double consideration. 

1 . The stock whereof Christ is one with us ; that is, 
the human nature. 

2. The stock whereof we are one with Christ ; that 
is, the divine nature. 

The consequence is, 1, generally intimated in this 
phrase, ' for which cause ;' 2, particularly expressed. 

In the particular is noted, 1, a relation, brethren ; 
2, a manifestation thereof. 

In the manifestation is set down, 1, the 'means 
whereby it was manifested, called ; 2, the grounds of 
manifesting it, not ashamed. 

Observations hence arising are these : 

I. Union is a cause of conformity. The causal par- 
ticle for, whereby the union of Christ with saints is 
inferred as a reason of his suffering in man's nature, 
intends that which is here observed. See Sec. 100. 

II. Christ sanclifieth men. In this respect this style 
is given him, ' He that sanctifieth.' See Sec. 102. 

III. Saints were as others. The word sanc^i^ecZ pre- 
supposeth as much. See Sec. 103. 

' Qu. ' Irapudency'? — Ed. 

IV. Such as are Christ's are sanctijiel. This is 
here clearly expressed. See Sec. 103. 

V. Christ is of the same stock whereof others are. 
In this respect he is ' of one.' See Sec. 104. 

VI. Saints are of the same stock whereof Christ is. 
In this respect they are ' of one.' See Sec. 104. 

VII. All saints have the same spiritual being. All 
are of one with Christ. See Sec. 104. 

VIII. That for which there is cause must be done. 
See Sec. 105. 

IX. Christ and saints are brethren. See Sec. 106. 

X. Christ acknow'edgeth such as are his. To call 
is to acknowledge. See Sec. 107. 

XL Christ accounts relations betwixt him and saints 
to be no disc/race unto him. He is not ashamed thereof. 
See Sec. 108. 

Sec. 110. Of the aposth-'s testimony from Vs. xxii. 22. 

Ver. 12. Saying, 1 will declare thy name unto my 
brethren, in the midst of the church will I siny praise 
unto thee. 

This text is here alleged as a proof of that respect 
which Christ manifested to his sanctified ones, in 
acknowledging them to be his brethren. The proof 
is taken from a divine testimony. Of this kind of 
proof, see Chap. i. Sees. 46, 65. 

The first word being a participle, Xtyoiv, saying, shew- 
eth a dependence of this verse on that which went im- 
mediately before, and such a dependence as gives an 
evidence of the truth thereof ; and in that respect it 
is an apparent proof of it. It hath reference to Christ 
calling men brethren ; for in this testimony he doth 
expressly call them so. 

This testimony is taken out of Ps. xxii. 22. That 
psalm is a most clear prophecy of Christ. Many pas- 
sages therein are directly applied to Christ in the New 
Testament ; as, 

1. This clause in the very beginning of the psalm, 
' My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?' 
Mat. xxvii. 46. 

2. This in the seventh verse, ' All they that see 
me laugh me to scorn ;' they ' shake the head,' Mat. 
xxvii. 39. 

3. This in the eighth verse, ' Ho trusted in the Lord, 
let him deliver him,' Mat. xxvii. 43. 

4. This in the sixteenth verse, ' They pierced mine 
hands and my feet,' John xix. 37, and xx. 25. 

5. This in the eighteenth verse, ' They part my 
garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture,' 
Mat. xxvii. 35. 

6. This in the two-and-twonticth verse, ' I will de- 
clare thy name,' &c., is here in my text. 

This psalm, as it sets out the sufi'erings of Christ 
to the full, so also his three great offices. His sufferings 
are copiously described fi-om the beginning of the psalm 
to ver. 22. 

The prophetical office of Christ, from ver. 22 to ver. 



[Chap. II. 

That which is foretold about his vows (ver. 25,) 
hath respect to his priestlj' function. lu the rest of 
the psahii the kingly office of Christ is set forth. 

All the distinct points of that psalm were accom- 
plished in Christ. It is g;»thored from the title, that 
this psalm was to be sung every morning in the 
temple, to support the hope of God's people in the 
promised Slcssiah. 

This testimony therefore is most pertinently pro- 
duced to prove the point in hand, and Christ himself 
is here brought in to be the utterer and publisher 
thereof, as an evidence that he called men his brethren. 

As this testimony proves that point in particular, 
BO in general it proves the main point, that Christ 
was man ; and it points at Christ's prophetical office, 
for which it was requisite that he should be man, as it 
was foretold, Deut. xviii. 18. Thus it is a fifth argu- 
ment to demonstrate that point. See Sec. 1. 

It doth withal render a reason why it was requisite 
that the Son of God should be a son of man, namely, 
that he might 'declare God's name unto his brethren,' 
■who were sons of men. 

In quoting this testimony, the apostle holds close 
to the words of the prophet. A little difl'erence there 
is in our English translation, but that little is more 
than needed. For 'congregation,' here is 'church;' 
both these words intend one and the same thing. For 
' praise,' here is ' sing praises.' The Hebrew word 
signifieth both. The psalms which used to be sung 
have their name from this root.' 

There is in one word a difl'erence betwixt the LXX 
and the apostle, but the word in the one, hrijr,au(Lai, and 
the other, arrayyikH, signifieth one and the same thing. 

Sec. 111. 0/ Christ's dechninrj God. 

The word dnayyikSi, which the apostle here usoth, 
translated declare, is more cmphatical than birr/r,<!o!J.ai, 
that which the LXX useth. This is a compound 
word. The simple verb ayyi'hXu signifieth to make 
known or declare. From it is derived the word 
angel, ayyiXot, which in the general signifieth a mes- 
senger sent to declare his mind who sent him. 

The verb admits sundry compositions, every of 
which adds much emphnsis. As, 

1. To explain, or clearly and fully to declare a 
thing. ' When the Messiah Cometh, he will tell, a.\iayytXu, 
us all things,' John iv. 25, namely, fully and clearly. 

2. To divulge and spread abroad. ' That my name 
might be declared, iiayyiXrj, throughout all the eai'th,' 
Rom. ix. 17. 

8. To celebrate or shew forth. ' Ye do shew, 
xaTayy'OXiTi, the Lord's death,' 1 Cor. xi. 20. 

4. To shew forth or make evident. 'Show forth, 
f^ayytiXriTi, the praises of God,' 1 Pet. ii. 9. 

5. To profess : openly and freely to declare. ' Pro- 
fessing, iiTayyt\\ofx.iKxi;, godliness,' 1 Tim. ii. 10; and 
to promise. ' God promised,' Tit. i. 2. 

' Dvnn ab 77n in Hiphil. Laudavil tancle. 

6. To command or enjoin. 'I command,' 'za^ayy'O.Ku, 
saith the apostle, 1 Cor. vii. 10. 

7. To shew beforehand, or foretell, 'rreoxaTtiyyuXi, 
Acts iii. 13-24. 

8. Among other compounds, that which is here 
used by the apostle wants not his emphasis, for it 
imports a declaring of that which is for that end re- 
ceived. This is the word which Christ useth to John's 
disciples. 'Shew, a.rra.yyii}.aTe, John again those 
things which yc do hear and see,' Mat. xi. 4. This 
also is the word which the apostle twice useth in this 
manner : ' We have seen it, and shew it unto you. 
That which we have seen and heard declare wo unto 
you,' 1 John i. 2, 3. 

Two points arc here intended under the full sense 
of this phrase, ' I will declare.' 

1. Christ had from another that which he delivered 
to others. The preposition a-o, with which the Greek 
verb is compounded, implieth as much, and other 
places of Scripture do expressly shew who that other 
was, namely, he that sent him, even his Father. For 
thus saith Christ : ' My doctrine is not mine, but it is 
his that sent me,' John vii. 16 ; and ' I speak to the 
world those things which I have heard of him that 
sent me ; as the Father hath taught me, I speak these 
things,' John viii. 26-28. This is to be taken of 
Christ as God's minister and messenger, and that in 
our nature. 

2. Christ concealed not that which his Father 
appointed him to make known ; he declared it. The 
psalmist by way of prophecy bringeth in Christ affirm- 
ing as much of himself, thus, 'I have preached 
righteousness,' &c. I have not hid thy righteousness 
within my heart ; I have declared thy faithfulness 
and thy salvation : I have not concealed thy loving- 
kindness and thy truth,' Ps. xl. 9, 10. Yea, Christ 
himself pleadeth this as an evidence of his faithfulness 
to his Father, while he was on earth, thus, ' I have 
manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest 
me,' etc., 'for I have given unto them the words which 
thou gavest me,' John xvii. 6-8. For indeed this is 
an especial point of faithfulness, and ' Christ was 
faithful to him that appointed him,' Heb. iii. 2. 

In both these is Christ a precedent and pattern to 
us, and we ought in both these to be faithful to him 
that hath appointed us. See The ]\'hole Armour of 
God, on Eph. vi. 19, treat, iii. part vii. sec. 180, &c. 

Sec. 112. Of Christ's declaring God's name in man's 

That which Christ declared, is here said to be the 
name of God, for it is God, even his Father, to whom 
Christ here saith, ' I will declare thy name.'' 

Under the name of God is comprised everything 

whereby God hath made himself known unto us. See 

more of God's name in my Explanation of the Lord's 

Prayer, entitled, A Guide to go to God, sees. 20, 21. 

■ Of name of God, see Chap. xiii. 15, Sec. 144. 

^ I 

Ver. 12.] 


This phrase, / will declare llnj name, impHeth that 
Christ maketh known whatsoever is meet to be known 
of God, so much of God's excellencies, and so much 
of his counsel as is to be known. Thus is this title 
name used, John xvii. 6, 26. That which the apostle 
saith of himself, might Christ say most properly, and 
in the largest extent, ' I have not shunned to declare 
all the counsel of God,' Acts xx. 27. For this end did 
Christ take upon him to be the prophet of his church, 
and that in our nature. He was that prophet in two 

1. Because none else knew the name of God ; none 
else knew God's excellencies and God's counsels. 
Thus much is intended under this phrase, ' No man 
hath seen God at any time,' John i. 18 ; and under 
this, ' No man in heaven, nor in earth, neither under 
the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look 
thereon,' Rev. v. 3. 

2. Because Christ to the full knew all ; ' for in him 
are hid all the treasui-es of wisdom and knowledge,' 
Col. ii. 3 ; thereupon it is said, ' The only begotten 
Son which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath de- 
clared him,' John i. 18; and, 'He hath prevailed to 
open the book and to loose the seven seals thereof,' 
Rev. V. 5-9. 

This Christ did in our nature, because we were not 
able to endure the brightness of the divine Majesty to 
speak unto us : witness the affrightment of the Israel- 
ites at hearing God's voice in delivering the law, Exod. 
XX. 19. This reason is rendered of God's making his 
Son a prophet in our nature, Deut. xviii. 15, 16. 

Of the difference betwixt Christ and others declar- 
ing God's will, see Chap. i. Sec. 14. 

The duty hence arising is expressly laid down by 
Moses, thus : ' Unto him ye shall hearken,' Deut. xviii. 
15 ; and by God himself thus, ' Hear ye him,' Mat. 
xvii. 5. See more hereof Sec. 5 ; and Chap. iii. 1, Sec. 
25 ; and ver. 7, Sees. 77, 78. 

How can we now hear Christ ? 

Alls. 1. Many of Christ's sermons and instructions 
are recorded by the evangelist, so as in well heeding 
them we hear Christ. 

2. Christ instructed his apostles in all things need- 
ful for his church to know. For thus saith he to 
them, ' All things that I have heard of my Father, I 
have made known unto you,' John xv. 15 ; and Christ 
commanded his apostles ' to teach people to observe all 
things whatsoever he had commanded them,' Mat. 
xxviii. 20 ; and so they did, ver. 3, 1 John i. 3. Yea, 
Christ gave pastors and teachers after them, and en- 
dowed them with gifts sufficient for the building up of his 
church, Epb. iv. 11, 12 ; and these stand in Christ's 
stead, 2 Cor. v. 21 ; and Christ speaks in them, 2 Cor. 
xiii. 3. Hereupon saith Christ, ' He that receiveth 
whomsoever I send, receiveth me,' John xiii. 20. Thus 
we see how Christ may be hearkened unto in all ages, 
even to the end of the world. 

Of Christ's being a preacher, see ver. 8, Sees. 22-24. 

Sec. 113. Of appropriating Chnst's prophetical office 
to his brethren. 

The special persons for whom Christ was a prophet 
are styled brethren, and that in relation to Christ 
himself ; for thus he himself calls them. Of this rela- 
tion, see Sees. 106, 107. 

Express mention is here made of this relation, to 
shew who they be for whom in special Christ took 
upon him to be a prophet, namely, for his spiritual 
kindred. These are the babes to whom the mysteries 
of the gospel are revealed. Mat. xi. 25 ; these are 
they to whom it is ' given to know the mysteries of 
the kingdom of heaven,' Mat. xiii. 11 ; these are they 
of whom Christ in his preaching said, ' Behold my 
mother and my brethren,' Mat. xii. 49. For these 
and these alone are given to Christ. Of these thus 
saith Christ, ' I have manifested thy name unto the 
men which thou gavest me out of the world ' ; ' I have 
given unto them the words which thou gavest me.' ' I 
have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it,' 
John xvii. 6, 8, 26. 

Quest. Why did Christ himself preach to all of all 
sorts ? and why commanded he his disciples ' to teach 
all nations, and to go into all the world, and preach the 
gospel to every creature ? ' Mat. xxviii. 19, 20, Mark 
xvi. 15. 

Ans. For his elect's sake, which were here and there 
in every place mixed with reprobates, as good corn is 
mixed with tares, and solid grain with chaff. The elect 
only receive the benefit of Christ's prophetical office ; 
others are more hardened thereby. Mat. xiii. 13-15. 

Hereby such as are kindly and effectually wrought 
upon by the ministry of the gospel, wherein Christ's 
prophetical office is executed, may know that they are 
Christ's brethren, chosen of God, given to the Son of 
God, heirs of eternal Ufe. 

Sec. 114. Of Christ's prophetical office setting forth 
God's praise. 

Another branch of Christ's prophetical office is thus 
set down : ' In the midst of the church will I sing praise 
unto thee.' 

The addition of this clause to the former, gives us 
to understand that Christ's prophetical office tended 
to the setting forth of the praise of God, as well 
as to the instructing of men in God's will. Here- 
upon saith Christ to his Father, when he was going 
out of the world, ' I have glorified thee on earth,' John 
xvii. 4. 

As his love to man moved him to undertake the 
former, so his zeal of God's glory put him on to the 

Those two duties, of mstructing man, and praising 
God, belong to all faithful prophets of the Lord, and 
they ought to aim at both. Yea, they are both so 
linked together, as they can hardly, if at all, be 
severed. For he that declareth God's name aright 
unto men, doth therein set forth God's praise ; and 

COLliE ON HKBUi;\\> 


he whose heart is set upon setting forth God's praise, 
will declare his name to men, because thereby God's 
praise is set forth. 

Sec. 115. Of situjing praise. 

This phrase, I iidl siivj praise, is the interpretation 
of one Greek word. The root, u/jlhiv, celcbrare, signi- 
fieth to celebrate one's praises. Thence proceedeth 
a noun, '6/ivo;, which signifieth an hymn or song in 
in one's praise. The heathen used to set out an ac- 
curate form of praises, especially of the praises of 
their gods, under this word hijmti. It is twice used 
in the New Testament, Eph. v. 19, Col. iii. IC. And 
in both places it is joined with psalms and spiritual 
songs. Psalms, ■J^d^./i.ot, were such as are found in 
the book of Psalms ; hymns, y,u,toi, such as were 
composed in special for the praise of God ; songs, 
didai, such as were metrically and artificially penned. 
Because such songs for the most part were light and 
lascivious, he addeth this epithet, ' spiritual,' to teach 
Christians to take heed of wanton songs. 

From that noun Iti/nni, the verb here used by the 
apostle, VIJ.HT11, is raised. It implieth two things : 

1. The matter of duty, which is the setting forth of 
God's praise. 

2. The manner of praising him, cheerfully, melo- 
diously, with singing. 

Of praising God, namely, what it is to praise him, 
for what he is to be praised, and why this duty is to 
be performed, see my ^.i-yj/dHfl/fon o/the Lord's Fraijer, 
entitled, .-1 Guide to go to God, sees. 238-240. 

Of solemn praise and manifestation thereof, and un- 
satisliedness therein, see The Saints' Sacrifice, on Ps. 
cxvi. 12, sees. 1,85,80, 108. 

The prime, principal, and proper object of praise, 
whom Christ would praise, was God. It was God to 
whom he thus directed his speech, ' I will praise 
Ihec' See The Saints' Sacrific., on Ps. cxvi. 12, 
sec. 79. 

St. Paul in another place thus bringeth in Christ 
performing this duty : ' For this cause I will confess 
to thee among the Gentiles, and sing unto thy 

Christ in his lifetime accomplished that which was 
by the psalmist foretold of him, and that according 
to the literal sense of the word, ' He sang praises to 
God.' The very word of the test is used, where it is 
said of Christ and his disciples, ' They sang an hymn,' 
Mat. xxviii. 30. 

This practice of Christ doth not only justify and 
warrant this manner of setting forth God's praises by 
singing, but also commends it much unto us. For 
Christ's practice of an imitable duty is a great com- 
mendation of that duty. We are oft exhorted to be 
followers of him. 

As this duty is here commended, so it is also ex- 
pressly commanded, Eph. v. 19, Col. iii. IG. 

Good warrant there is for performing this duty pri- 

vately, alone, or in a family, and publicly in a con- 

This direction, ' Is any man merry? let him sing 
psalms,' James v. 13, warrants singing by one alone. 

Paul and Silas their singing of psalms. Acts xvi. 25, 
warrants singing by two or three together. 

The fore-mentioned practice of Christ and his dis- 
ciples singing after supper, Mark xiv. 26, warrants 
singing in a family. 

And this phrase, ' When you come together, every 
one of you hath a psalm,' 1 Cor. xiv. 26, impUeth 
the Christian's course in singing psalms publicly in 
churches. Hereunto tendeth the mention of a church 
in this text. 

This manner of setting forth God's praises, even by 
singing, is frequently mentioned in the last book of 
the New Testament, which foretelleth the then future 
estate of the Christian church. Rev. v. 9, and xiv. 3, 
and XV. 3. 

They therefore straiten this duty too narrowly who 
restrain it to the pedagogy of the Jews. Then indeed 
it was more frequently used, especially with all manner 
of musical instruments. For then even the external 
man needed more outward and sensible means of 
quickening it. 

Singing was under the law so highly accounted of, 
as he that was said to be a man after God's heart, 1 
Sam. xiii. 14, hath this title, as an high commendation 
given unto him, ' The sweet psalmist of Israel,' 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 1. 

Though singing be not now altogether so needful in 
regard of the external rite and manner of quickening, 
as it was under the law, yet is it not under the gospel 
needless or useless. For though Christians be men, 
in reference to the non-age of the Jews, yet are they 
not made perfect while here they live. This is the 
privilege of those saints that arc taken out of this 
world. Thev are ' spirits of just men made perfect,' 
Heb. xii. 23. 

Where the apostle exhorteth to be ' filled with the 
Spu-it,' he addeth thereupon, ' speaking to yourselves 
in psalms and hymns,' itc, Eph. v. 18, 19. Hereby 
he gives us to understand that it comes from the fulness 
of the Spirit, that men are enabled to sing and make 
melody in their hearts to the Lord. 

Many benefits accrue from this evidence of the ful- 
ness of the Spirit in us. 

1. The spirits of men are thereby more quickened 
and cheered ; and so they are made more cheerful and 
ready to praise the Lord. This makes our praising 
of God to be more acceptable to him. Hereupon David 
exhorteth to 'make a joyful noise unto God,' Ps. Ixxxi. 1. 

2. Others are hereby exceedingly affectfid, and their 
hearts and spirits stirred up to give assent unto our 
praises, and together with us to sing and praise the 
Lord. Hereupon saith the apostle, ' Speak unto your- 
selves in psalms,' Eph. v. 19. 

8. An holy zeal of God's glory is manifested hereby. 

Ver. ] 2.] 


and hereby men testify that they are not ashamed to 
profess and set out the holy came of God, so as many 
may take notice thereof. In singing, our tongue doth 
sound out aloud the praises of God. This holy zeal 
did he express, who said, ' I will give thanks unto thee, 
Lord, among the heathen : and sing praises unto 
thy name,' Ps. xviii. 49. 

This being a lawful and useful duty, we ought not 
to be ashamed of performing it. In churches men will 
sing, because all or the most so do ; but in families 
how few do it ! They fear I know not what brand of 
preciseness in performing family duties. They are 
rare Christians that make conscience of making their 
house a church. They who are negligent herein, keep 
away much blessing from their house, but by per- 
forming household duties of piety, God's blessing is 
brought to a family, as it was to the house of Obed- 
Edom while the ark was there. The practice of Christ 
in singing psalms with his family, is sufficient to move 
us to do so. 

Sec. IIG. Of cheerfulness hi praising God. 

By singing praise, cheerfulness in performing the 
duty is intended. This the psalmist thus expresseth, 
' My mouth shall praise thee with joyful lips,' Ps. Ixiii. 
5. Thereupon he exhorteth to ' make a joyful noise 
unto God,' Ps. Ixvi. 1. 

As God loves a cheerful giver, 2 Cor. ix. 7, so a 
cheerful setter forth of his praise. A cheerful per- 
formance of duty argueth a ready and willing mind, 
and this doth God highly accept : ' Take,' saith the 
Lord, ' of every man that giveth willingly with his 
heart,' Exod. xxv. ; ' Whosoever is of a willing heart, 
let him bring an oticring to the Lord,' Exod. xxxv. 5 ; 
' The people of Israel rejoiced, for that they offered 
willingly : because with perfect heart they offered will- 
ingly to the Lord ;' ' As for me,' saith David, ' I have 
willingly offered all these things : and now have I seen 
with joy, thy people to offer willingly unto thee,' 1 
Chron. xxix. 9-17. Now praise is an especial ofl'ering 
to be given to God, Ps. cxvi. 17, Heb. xiii. 15 ; we 
ought therefore in performing this duty to quicken up 
our spirits, as the psalmist did,Ps. Ivii. 7, 8. 

Sec. 117. Of Christ's praisinrj God in the midst of 
the church. 

To manifest yet further the holy zeal of Christ in 
praising God, the place of his doing it is thus set out, 
' in the midst of the church.' 

The Hebrew and the Greek word translated in the 
psalm conrjrcrjation, and here church, signify one and 
the same thing, and admit a like notation. 

The Hebrew root ?np, conr/repare, signifieth to 
gather together; thence a noun, ^np, congref/citio, which 
signifieth a congregation, or a company of people as- 
sembled together. Both verb and noun are thus joined, 
' They gather the congregation together,' hnpn 17np'l 
Num. XX. 10. 

The Greek root xaXuv, vocare, signifieth to call ; the 
compound ixxuXih, evocare, to call out. Thence the 
word here translated church, ixxXr^aia., ccetus erocatus, 
and congregation. Acts xiii. 43, in general signifieth 
an assembly of people. The assembly of those hea- 
then that cried up their Diana, in Greek is set out by 
the same name that is here translated church, Acts 
xix. 32, 41. Assemblies used to be called out of their 
houses or habitations to assemble or meet together. 
Hereupon when an assembly is dissolved, every man is 
said to return to his house, 1 Kings xii. 24. 

For the most part the Greek word is by the pen- 
men of the New Testament appropriated to an assem- 
bly of saints, namely, such as profess the gospel. Such 
assemblies are our churches, not only by reason of 
their calling and coming out of their private houses 
to one assembly, but also by reason of their calling 
out of the world, or out of that natural, corrupt, and 
miserable condition wherein they were conceived and 
born. In this respect they are oft styled, ' The 
called,' as Eom. i. 7, 1 Cor. i. 2, 9, Mat. ix. 13. For 
then are we made actual members of the church, when 
we are efl'ectually called. 

In common use this word church is metonymically 
put for the place where such assemblies meet. Thus 
the word sijnafjogue (which signifieth the same that 
church doth) is put for an assembly, and so translated, 
James ii. 2 ; and for a congregation, Acts xiii. 43. It 
is also put for the place where people assemble, as this 
phrase implieth, ' He hath built us a synagogue,' Luke 
vii. 5. 

Here in this text, church is put for an assembly of 

That which is principally here intended is, that 
Christ would set forth God's praise publicly, among 
the people of God, not in a private corner, or among 
a few of them, but in the midst of them, so as all 
might hear. It was Christ's usual course to make 
choice of those places where most of God's people 
were assembled, that he might spread his Father's 
name the further. When he was but twelve years old, 
he sat in the temple among the doctors, Luke ii. 46 ; 
at every feast, when all the people of God assembled 
together, he went to the temple, and there preached 
among them ; he went also to their synagogues on the 
Sabbath days, Luke iv. 16, because there many people 
used to assemble ; the like he did at other times, and 
in other places where there were presses of people, 
he used to preach unto them, Luke v. 1, Mat. v. 1, 
Mark ii. 2. But not to insist on more particulars, 
Christ thus saith of himself, ' I spake openly to the 
world : I ever taught in the synagogue and in the 
temple, whither the Jews always resort : and in secret 
have I said nothing,' John xviii. 20. 

This he did upon very weighty causes. As, 
1. To shew that he was not ashamed of his calling, 
or of his doctrine. He was not like those that 'creep 
into houses, and lead captive silly persons,' 2 Tim. iii. 


[Chap. II. 

16, who labour to sow tares of schism and heresy se- 
cretly, when and where the Lord's seedsmen are absent, 
as the enemy did, Mat. xiii. 25. 

2. To shew his desire of doing the most good he 
could. The greater the number of people that heard 
him were, the more might reap the fruit of his 

8. To shew his zeal for the glory of his Father. 
The sounding forth of God's praise in assemblies 
among much people greatly maketh to God's glory, in 
that many may thus be brought to know God, to ac- 
knowledge him, and to join in praising him, 1 Cor. 
xiv. 25. 

The apostles, after Christ's time, imitated their 
master herein : ' Peter and John went up together 
into the temple at the hour of prayer,' Acts iii. 1 ; then 
did the people assemble themselves in the temple : 
' Paul and Barnabas went into the synagogue on the 
Sabbath day,' Acts xiii. 14. By this means the 
churches increased exceedingly. In this regard the 
apostle professeth that he was ' not ashamed of the 
gospel,' but that he was ready to preach it at Kome 
also, Rom. i. 15, 16. As he had preached it in other 
populous places, so would he also in that city, which 
was the most populous place of all the world at that 
time. We ought to be followers of them, even as they 
also were of Christ, 1 Cor. xi. 1. 

The foresaid practice of Christ is of use to stir up 
people to frequent public assemblies where God's 
praise is sounded forth, that so they may join with 
such as sing praises to God, and reap the benefit of 
the mysteries that are there revealed concerning God's 
name. Christ hath promised his presence in such 
places, Mat. xviii. 20. See Chap. iii. 1, Sec. 27. 

Sec. 118. Of the apostle's Jit application of a divine 
testimony to Christ. 

Ver. 13. And again, I irill put my trust in him. 
And again, Behold I, and the children which God hath 
given me. 

In this verse two other evidences of Christ's pro- 
phetical office and of his human nature are set down. 
The former is the ground of that encouragement which 
Christ had to hold out in executing his office, which 
was his confidence in God, declared in a divine tes- 
timony ; the latter is an eflicct of that his office. 

Because the manner of bringing in this proof is like 
the former ; both of them being taken out of the Old 
Testament, he thus joineth them together, ' and again.' 
Of this transition see Chap. i. Sec. 77. 

In opening the former scripture, four questions are 
to be resolved. 

1. Whence the testimony is taken. 

2. How fitly it is applied to Christ. 

8. How truly it proveth Christ's human nature. 
4. How pertinently it is inferred on the execution 
of Christ's prophetical office. 

For the first, this phrase, ' I will put my trust in 

him,' is in many places of the Old Testament, espe- 
cially the book of Psalms. 

But there are two places, at either of which, or at 
both which, the apostle may have an eye. 

One is Psalm xviii. 2, where the words of this text 
are according to the Jlebrew. 

Ohj. The Seventy have not in their translation of 
that place the very words which the apostle here 

Ans. 1. Penmen of the New Testament do not al- 
ways tie themselves to the words of the Seventy ; in- 
stance Mat. ii. 6, 15, 18; no, nor this apostle, in- 
stance chap. iii. 9. Evangelists and apostles were not 
translators of the Old Testament; they only took 
proofs out of the same ; for which purpose it was 
enough to hold the true sense and meaning of the 
Holy Ghost, though they expressed it in other words. 

Alls. 2. The very words which the apostle useth 
are also used by the Seventy in the said psalm, as it 
is registered 2 Sam. xxii. 8. 

The other place whereunto the apostle may have an 
eye is Isa. viii. 17. There the Seventy use the very 
same words which the apostle here doth, though our 
English thus translate them, ' And I will look for 

Quest. Can one proof be taken out of two places ? 

Alls. Yea, if they set down one and the same thing, 
and that in the very same words. The evangelists, in 
quoting a testimony, oft name prophets in the plural 
number, as Mat. ii. 5, 23, John vi. 45, Acts xiii. 40. 

This, duly weighed, taketh away the ground of that 
dispute which is betwixt expositors about the place 
out of which this testimony should be taken. Some 
affirm that it is taken out of Ps. xviii. 2, others out 
of Isa. viii. 17. Arguments pro and con are brought 
on both sides. But I suppose that this dispute might 
have been spared ; for, to come to the second point, 

2. Both the psalmist and the prophet Isaiah may 
be fitly applied to Christ. 

In that psalm there are sundry points that can be 
applied to none properly but to Christ; as this, ' Thou 
hast made me the head of the heathen,' ver. 48; and 
this, ' As soon as they hear of me, they shall obey 
me : the strangers shall submit themselves to me,' 
ver. 44 ; and this, 'He sheweth mercy to his anointed, 
to David and to his seed for evermore,' ver. 50. 

Besides, these words, ' Therefore will I give thanks 
to Ihee among the heathen, and sing praises unto thy 
name,' ver. 49, are expressly applied to Christ, Rom. 
XV. 9. 

(Jhj. The title of Psalm xviii. sheweth that in 
special manner it concerned David, being his ' song 
when the Lord had delivered him from the hand of all 
his enemies, and from the hand of Saul ;' and it is set 
in the history of David's life (2 Sam. xxii. 1, &c.), to 
shew that it concerned him. 

Alls. It cannot be denied but that this psalm con- 
cerned David, and is fitly pat among his acts, for he 

Vee. 13.] 


was the author and editor thereof. In this respect it 
might justly have been registered in the history of hia 
life, though it had been wholly prophetical, even a 
mere prophecy of Christ. Neither can it be denied 
but that the title intendeth it to be meant of David ; 
for the psalm is in part historical, and concerneth 
David himself; yet to us he was a type of Christ. 
That which in the history concerned David as a type, 
may in a mystery concern Christ as the truth. Be- 
sides, that scripture which in some parts of it is only 
historical (as Ps. xl. 12), may in other parts be only 
prophetical, and appliable to Christ, as Ps. xl. 6, 7. 
The like is observed in 2 Sam. vii. 12-14. As for 
the other place, namely, Isa. viii. 17, that chapter 
also may be typical, and concern the prophet who 
wrote it, and Christ also the truth of the type. Sun- 
dry passages of that chapter are in the New Testament 
applied to Christ, as that in ver. 13, ' Sanctify the 
Lord,' 1 Pet. iii. 15; and that in ver. 14, ' He shall 
be for a sanctuary,' 1 Pet. ii. 4; and that in vers. 14, 
15, ' He shall be for a stone of stumbling,' &c.. Mat. 
sxi. 44, Luke ii. 44, Rom. ix. 32, 1 Pet. ii. 8 ; and 
that in ver. 18, ' are for signs and wonders in Israel,' 
Luke ii. 34, Heb. x. 33 ; and that in ver. 18, ' Be- 
hold I, and the children whom the Lord hath given 
me,' here iu this text. Seeing so many points of that 
chapter are applied to Christ, why may not this also — 
' I will put my trust in him' — which is in the midst 
of them, be applied to him ? Thus we see how fit a 
reference this testimony hath unto Christ, as it is 
taken both out of Ps. xviii. 2, and also out of Isa. 
xviii. 18. 

3. It proves Christ to be a true man, in that, as 
other men, he stood in need of God's aid, and there- 
upon, as other sons of men, his brethren, he puts his 
trust in God. 

4. It is also pertinently inferred upon the execution 
of Christ's prophetical function, in that it shews the 
reason why he declared God's name to his brethren, 
and why he would sing praises to God in the midst 
of the church, and be neither ashamed nor afraid so 
to do, namely, because he put his trust in God. 

Sec. 119. Of Christ's putting his trust in God. 
_ The Hebrew word which the Psalmist useth, HDn, 
signifieth to rest upon one, to be preserved and kept safe 
by him. The bramble, therefore, in the parable thus 
useth this word, ' Put your trust in my shadow,' IDn, 
Judges ix. 15; a noun thence derived, nono, is trans- 
lated refuge, Ps. xlvi. 1, and in sundry other places. 

In Isa. viii. 17, another Hebrew word is used, 
*n'1p1 ; but that which signifieth the same thing, and 
by the Septuagint, is translated as here in this text, 
and in 2 Sam. xxii. 3. 

The noun derived from this verb, nipn, sj)es, signi- 
fieth hope or trust, and so it is oft translated by our 
English, as Ps. Ixxi. 5, Job iv. 6. 

The Greek phrase used by the apostle carrielh 

emphasis, 'isoixai m'TroiDuv st/ aurif : it implieth trust 
on a good persuasion that he shall not be disappointed. 
It is translated confidence, Philip, vi. 6. Word for 
word it may here be thus translated, ' I will be con- 
fident in him.' 

The relative him hath apparent reference to God, 
Ps. xviii. 2, Isa. viii. 18, so as Christ himself, being 
man, rested on God to be supported in all his weak- 
nesses, and to be enabled to go through all his under- 
takings, and well accomplish them. 

He had many enemies, and was brought to very 
great straits, Ps. xviii. 8-5 ; yea, he and his were 
' for signs and wonders,' even ' in Israel,' Isa. viii. 18; 
yet he fainted not, but put his trust in the Lord. His 
greatest enemies gave testimony hereunto, saying, ' He 
trusted in God,' Mat. xxvii. 43. Though they said 
it in derision and scorn, yet it was a truth. 

This was further manifested by the many prayers 
which time after time he made to his Father, Heb. 
ix. 7. 

He didthe rather put his trust in God, and mani- 
fest as much, that he might, in his own example, 
teach us what to do in our manifold straits. Thus, 
when he was assaulted by the devil, he repelled his 
temptations by the word of God, Mat. iv. 4, vii. 10, 
that he might thereby teach us how to resist the 

Christ, as man, well knew his own insufficiency, 
and the all-sufliciency of God. Were we thoroughly 
acquainted with our own impotency, and well instructed 
in God's omnipotency, we should herein imitate 
Christ; and in testimony thereof, in all straits fly 
unto God,! and in all straits pray and say, as Je- 
hoshaphat did, ' We know not what to do ; but our 
eyes are upon thee,' 2 Chron. xx. 12. 

The description of him in whom Christ putteth his 
trust, Ps. xviii. 2, and that before and after the mani- 
festation of his confidence, declareth the sure ground 
that he had to put his trust in God. The description 
is set down in sundry metaphors, as ' rock,' ' fortress,' 
' strength,' ' buckler,' ' horn of salvation,' ' high 
power,'' and ' deliverer,' set out the impregnable 
power of God, and shew how sure and safe a refuge 
he is to those that fly to him, and put their trust in 
him. See more hereof in The Whole Armour of God, 
on Eph. vi. 10, sees. 4-6. 

The inference of Christ's confidence upon his bold- 
ness in singing praise unto God in the midst of the 
church, sheweth the reason of that his boldness; even 
because be put his trust in God. 

Confidence in God drives out all fear of man, and 
shame by reason of man. So much doth he testify 
who said, ' My soul trusteth in thee ;' and thereupon 
added, ' I will sing and give praise,' Ps. Ivii. 1,7; 
and again, ' In God I will praise his word, in God I 
have put my trust ; I will not fear what flesh can do 
unto me,' Ps. Ivi. 4. This was it that made prophets, 
' Qu. ' tower '?— Ed. 

[Chap. II. 

apostles, nnd other faithful ministers so bold as they 
were in sounding forth God's praises. They trusted 
in God. 

Surely we may try and prove ourselves, and give 
evidence to others of our confidence in God. If fear, 
ehame, or any by or base respect to man, keep us 
from an open setting forth of God's praise, we do not 
put our trust in God. 

Sec. 120. OJ the apostles Jit application of Isa. 
viii. 18 to Cliiist. 

The apostle addcth a third testimony to prove the 
same point, as is manifest by repeating the second 
time this phrase, ' and again.' See Chap. i. Sec. 77. 

The testimony is this, ' Behold, I, and the children 
which God hath given me.' This, without all ques- 
tion, is taken out of Isa. viii. 18. In words there is 
a full agreement between the Hebrew original, and the 
Greek translation thereof, and the apostle's quotation ; 
so also in the sense, for the prophet bringeth in this 
sentence as a prophecy of Christ. Many things which 
were historically true of the prophet in that chapter, 
may typically be applied to Christ. This was before 
in part declared. Sec. 118, and may more fully be 
cleared by taking a view of the particular passages of 
the prophet in that chapter. 

In that chapter, two main points are set down. 

1. A denunciation of judgment against the wicked. 

2. A promise of mercy and safety to the righteous. 
The former is set down from the beginning of the 

chapter to the 10th verse. 

The latter from thence to the end of the chapter. 

In laying down the promise, the prophet taketh his 
rise from the highest, safest, and surest ground of all 
comfort, namely, the proposed Messiah, ver. 14, con- 
cerning whom, he declareth what should be the events 
that would fall out at his coming, and that both in 
regard of the wicked and of the righteous. The wicked 
should stumble and fall to their utter destruction ; 
the righteous should be established for ever, ver. 
14, 15. 

For a further confirmation of these things thus fore- 
told, the prophet is commanded to bind up the word 
of God among the disciples, that so it might be kept 
close from the incredulous and remain among the 
faithful, ver. IG. Hereupon the prophet profcssoth, 
that notwithstanding God's just indignation, conceived 
against the house of Jacob, he will continue to look 
for help from the Lord, and trust in him, ver. 17 : so 
did Christ. 

To 8hew the ground of his confidence, Christ is 
brought in offering himself, and all those who believed 
on him, unto his Father, notwithstanding that they 
were in the world accounted wonders and monsters. 

Thus these words being properly intended of Christ, 
are fitly by the apostle applied to him. 

Others take them properly meant of the prophet 
himself, and that in regard of his function, in which 

respect they may be applied to all the ministers of 
God; and if to all, then most especially to Christ, the 
chiefest and head of all. Thus the apostle's applica- 
tion of this testimony to Christ, may by just conse- 
quence be sound and good. 

I rather incline to the former application of the 
words, by way of prophecy, for three especial reasons. 

1. Because sundry other passages of this chapter 
are so applied in other places of the New Testament, 
as was before shewed. Sec. 118. 

2. Because the latter phrase of this testimony — 
' whom the Lord hath given me' — is oft, and that very 
properly, in other places applied to Christ, as John 
vi. 89, G5, and xvii. 6, 8, 9 ; but we never read it in 
a spiritual sense spoken of any other prophet or 

3. The apostle's allegation and application is with- 
out all question much more pertinent, if the words be 
taken as a prophecy. 

Sec. 121. Of Christ's being one with saints. 

The foresaid testimony being applied to Christ, 
giveth proof of his human nature, and shews him to 
be one with us, and that in three respects. 

1. In that he ranketh himself in the number of 
saints, saying, ' Behold, I, and the children ;' and so 
presenteth himself with the rest of God's children unto 
God, as to a common Father of them all; according 
to that which elsewhere he saith, ' I ascend unto my 
Father and your Father,' &c., John xx. 17. 

2. In that he presenteth himself unto God as his 
minister, who had faithfully fulfilled the task which 
was committed to his charge. Hereupon it followeth 
that he was inferior to his Father, who appointed him 
a prophet. 

3. In that the nature of relation, intimated in this 
word children, implieth that he is of the same nature 
with them ; for father and children, properly taken, 
are all of the same nature. 

Sec. 122. 0/lhc efficacy of Christ's prophetical office. 

Olij. This relative children may have reference to 
God the Father who gave them, as well as to Christ 
who bought them. 

Ans. It may not be denied but that saints are 
God's children as they are regenerate, John i. 13, 
1 Peter i. 3; and as they are adopted, Rom. viii. 
15, 10. But the prophet and apostle do both speak 
of Christ's proi)hctical office; and, to shew the power 
thereof, these children are brought in, as begotten by 
Christ's word and ministry: and in this respect they 
ai-e styled children in reference to Christ. 

The prophet Isaiah maketh mention hereof, to 
shew, that notwithstanding the infidelity, obstinacy, 
and apostasy of the greater part of them which pro- 
fessed themselves the people of God, Christ, by his 
gospel should so work upon all those that were given 
nnto him by his Father, as they would all hearken 

Ver. 13.] 


unto his voice and follow him, till, all being gathered 
together, both he and they should be presented unto 
God his Father. 

To this very purpose is it here also applied by the 
apostle, to shew the power and efficacy of Christ's 
prophetical office ; that notwithstanding he took upon 
him man's weak nature, and met with many obstacles, 
yet through the help of God, in whom he trusted, he 
should bring many children with him to glory. 

Sec. 123. Of the manner of quoting a tc.vt. 

Concerning the expression of this testimony, it may 
seem to be an imperfect sentence, because the latter 
part set down by the prophet, is left out in this quota- 

Ans. So much is quoted as served to the apostle's 
purpose, and in the quotation of a text so much is 
sufficient. Compare Mat. iv. 1-5, IG, with Isa. ix. 1, 
2, and you may observe the like. The apostle quoteth 
only these words, 'and to thy seed,' Gal. iii. 16, 
which make not a full sentence, yet they were enough 
to his purpose. 

2. This sentence, as quoted by the apostle, is a 
full proposition ; for this note of attention, behold, 
compriseth under it that which maketh the words 
joined with it a full proposition, as Mat. xii. 18. 

3. The verb substantive, which would make up this 
sentence, useth to be understood, and so it is, Isa. 
viii. 18. 

Sec. 124. Of this particle hfikiAA. 

This title, behold, idou, useth to be prefixed before 
remarkable matters. 

It is a note of demonstration, of attention, of ad- 

1. Where a matter worthy to be seen, or earnestly 
desired, is to be seen, this particle is premised, as if 
it were said, Behold it is here before you ; or. Behold 
it is here to be seen. Thus it declareth the evidence 
of a thing, as where it is said, 'Behold there came 
wise men from the east,' Mat. ii. 1. And so it is a 
note of demonstration. 

2. \\Tien a matter that deserves more than ordi- 
nary attention is delivered, men used to premise this 
particle behold, as when Christ uttered that excellent 

• parable, that setteth down the different kinds of 
hearers, he thus begins ' Hearken, behold,' Mat. iv. 8. 

8. When a strange and wonderful matter, that will 
hardly be credited, is delivered, we thus express it, 
behold; as, 'Behold I shew you a mystery,' 1 Cor. 
XV. 51. That mystery was a gi-eat wonder indeed; 
namely, that ' we shall not all sleep.' 

Here the word behold may be taken in all those 
three respects. For, 

1. It doth point out and plainly demonstrate, who 
they be that may with confidence present themselves 
to God, namely, Christ and his children. 

2. It shews that it ia a point well worthy to bo 

marked, that Christ should take of sons of men to be 
his children, and present them to his Father. 

8. It is that which causeth wonder to all the world. 

In a word, this note behold implieth that the point 
here noted is a very remarkable point, worthy of all 
acceptation, 1 Tim. i. 15. Of all mysteries, the 
mysteries that concern Jesus Christ are the most 
remarkable. This note therefore, behold, is frequently 
set before them, both in the Old and New Testament, 
as Isa. vii. 14, and xxviii. 16, and xxxii. 1, and xlii. 
1 ; Zech. iii. 8, and ix. 9; Mat. xii. 41; Luke ii. 34; 
Jude ver. 14 ; Rev. i. 7, 18. They are therefore with 
the more diligence to be attended unto, and with the 
greater care to be heeded. See Sec. 5. 

Here in particular this particle, behold, setteth out 
a matter of admiration, which was done to the astonish- 
ment of the world. This is further manifest by the 
prophet's adding this clause, ' are as signs and won- 
ders.' For the greater part, even of those among 
whom Christ exercised his prophetical office, rejected 
his ministry. ' He came unto his own, and his own 
received him not,' John i. 11. Yet, notwithstanding 
the obstinacy of the greater part, Christ himself per- 
sisted in exercising his function, and they that were 
given him of his Father, hearkened to his word, 
believed and obeyed the same, and so followed him, 
as he presented them with himself to his Father. 
This was the wonder, and thereupon it might well be 
said behold. 

Oh that ministers and people would so carry them- 
selves, as in this respect to be as signs and wonders ; 
and all to say of them, behold. When all flesh was 
con'upt before God, Noah remained upright. Gen. vi. 
9, &c. Joshua professeth, that though all Israel 
should serve other gods, he and his house would 
serve the Lord, Joshua xxiv. 15. Though Elijah 
knew none to remain faithful with the Lord but him- 
self, yet he remained very zealous for the Lord, 1 
Kings xix. 10. When many that followed Christ 
departed from him, the twelve disciples abode with 
him, John vi. 68. These, and others like to them, 
have been willing to make themselves signs and won- 
ders in all ages by cleaving close to Christ. 

This is a point of trial, whereby our faithfulness 
may be proved. If we shrink from Christ for the 
world, as Demas did, 2 Tim. iv. 10, or for persecu- 
tion, as they who are resembled to the stony ground, 
Mat. xiii. 21, or because the doctrine of the gospel 
seemeth hard and harsh, as the Capernaitans did, 
John vi. G6, or for any other by-respect, we have 
not that courage and confidence, as may cause others 
to say of us, Behold. 

Sec. 125. Of Christ's going with those whom he led 
to God. 

This pronoun of the first person, 7, hath respect to 
the San of God, who very elegantly, by a double 
rhetorical figure, is here brought in speaking to his 


[Chap. II. 

Father, and that by way of rejoicing for the good 
success of his ministry, ' Behold I and the children,' 
&c. As if be had said. Here am I, Father, whom 
thou didst send out of thine own bosom from heaven 
to earth, to gather thine elect out of the world. I 
have done that for which thou sendest me, ' Behold, 
here am I and they.' 

This is a speech of much confidence, arising from 
his faithfulness, crowned with good success. This 
made him with much cheerfulness present himself to 
God. Thus did the two faithful servants cheerfully 
appear before their Lord, to give up their account. 
Faithful servants may be assured of the Lord's 
gracious approbation and bountiful remuneration. But 
on the other side, slothfuluess and unprofitableness 
makes servants afraid to appear before their Lord. 
See all these exemplified, Mat. xxv. 20, &c. 

What an encouragement is this for ministers of 
God's word and other servants of the Lord, to improve 
to the best advantage they can, the talent which the 
Lord hath committed to them, that with confidence 
they may say to God, ' Behold L' 

Of Christ's faithfulness, sec more on chap. iii. 2. 

This express mention of himself, 'Behold I,' 
Bheweth that he would not send others to God with- 
out himself : herein he shews himself to be that good 
shepherd that ' goeth before his sheep,' John x. 4. 
In this respect he is styled the ' Captain of their sal- 
vation,' ver. 10. See Sec. do. 

He would not leave them till he had presented them 
to his Father, to be settled in that inheritance which 
he had purchased for them. 

This is a worthy pattern for all that have a charge 
committed to them, to abide with them, to be an ex- 
ample unto them, not to leave them, or send them 
away to the work of God themselves alone ; but to go 
with them, and hold out with them, so as every one 
that hath such a charge may say, as our head here 
doth, ' Behold I.' In doing this we shall save our- 
selves as well as others, 1 Tim. iv. 16. The apostle 
had an especial care hereof, as appearcth by this his 
profession, ' I keep under my body, and bring it into 
subjection, lest that by any means, when I have 
preached to others, I myself should be a cast-away,' 
1 Cor. ix. 27. 

What a miserable thing is it for ministers to be 
like them who built the ark wherein Noah and his 
family were prescn-ed, but they themselves perished. 

To prevent this, in preaching to others we must 
preach to ourselves ; from our own hearts to our own 
hearts. For in exercising our ministry we sustain a 
double person ; one of a preacher, another of a hearer. 
They who so do in their approaching to God will say, 
' Behold, I.' Of inciting ourselves to that whereunto 
we stir up others, see Sec. 4. 

Sec. 126. 0/ Christ's bringing others to God. 

The Lord Christ thought it not enough to present 

himself to his Father, but he brings others also, whom 
he joins with himself by this copulative and. Thus 
in that powerful prayer which at his going out of the 
world he made to his Father for himself, he joins 
those whom his Father had given unto him, and saith, 
' I pray for them which thou hast given me, for they 
are thine.' ' Neither pray I for these alone (meaning 
his disciples), but for them also which shall believe 
on me through their word,' John xvii. 9, 20. 

For their sake Christ came into the world. For 
their sake he sanctified himself, John xvii. 19. For 
their sakes he became poor, 2 Cor. viii. 9. For their 
sakcs he did and endured what he did and endured. 
See Sec. 83. 

Herein Christ manifested his zeal of God's glory 
(for the more were brought to God, the more glory 
redounded to God), and also his good respect to others, 
for it was a singular benefit, an high honour, to bo, 
by and with Christ, presented to God. He thus 
makes them partakers of his own glory, John xiv. 3, 
and xvii. 21, &c. 

They whose hearts are inflamed with a zeal of God's 
glory, and filled with love of their brethren, will he 
like-minded ; they will endeavour to lead on others 
with them in such courses as may bring them to God. 
Such a magistrate will say. Behold I and my subjects ; 
such a minister, Behold I and my people ; such a 
father. Behold I and my children ; such a master. 
Behold I and my servants ; such a tutor. Behold I 
and mj' pupils. So others that have charge. 

Such, as they honour God and do good unto others, 
60 they do much promote their own glory. For 
' They that be wise shall shine as the brightness of 
the firmament ; and they that turn many to righteous- 
ness as the stars for ever and ever,' Daniel sii. 3. 

Of inciting others to go along with us in duty, see 
The Saints' Sacrifice on Ps. cxvi. 19, sec. 120. 

Sec. 127. Of the efficacy of preaching the gospel. 

This bringing of others to God is here brought in 
as an cflcct of Christ's prophetical office, and mani- 
festeth the eflicacy of the gospel, whereby all that be- 
long to God are brought in to him. Though by 
nature they bo dead in bin, yet the sound of Christ's 
mighty voice piercclh into their cars and heart. 
Hereupon saith Christ, ' The dead shall hear the 
voice of the Son of God ; and they that hear shall 
live,' John v. 25. 

Wo have an evidence hereof in Christ's ministry 
while he lived on earth ; for saith ho to his Father of 
his disciples, ' 1i\Tiilo I was with them in the world, 
I kept them in thy name,' John xvii. 12. 

The eflicacy also of Christ's prophetical ofiice hath 
been manifested since his ascension, by the ministry 
of his apostles and of their successors in all ages. 

This is a forcible motive to incite us ministers to 
be diligent in declaring God's name and preaching the 
gospel. We may rest upon it, that our labour shall 

Ver. 13] 


not be in vain. The efficacy of Christ's prophetical 
function since his ascension, hath been very great. 
All that belong to God shall by the preaching of the 
gospel be brought to God. Though there be many 
incredulous and obstinate, yet Christ hath his children, 
and they will receive our word. If it were duly 
weighed, what an honour it is to be spiritual fathers, and 
what recompence follows thereon, it would certainly 
put on ministers to preach the gospel with all diligence. 
This also may be a motive to people, to give good 
heed to the preaching of the gospel. As this is to be 
done, in regard of the excellency of the teacher (as was 
shewed before, Sec. 2), so also in regard of the effi- 
cacy of the gospel. ' Hear, and your soul shall live,' 
Isa. Iv. 3. For ' the word of God, which liveth and 
abideth for ever,' is an ' incorruptible seed,' out of 
which men are ' born again,' 1 Peter i. 23. 

Sec. 128. OJ Christ's children. 

They who are brought in to God by the gospel, are 
styled childi-en, 'sa.ihia, and that in relation to Christ, 
as he was a prophet, and begat them by the gospel, 
as was shewed Sec. 122. 

This very title is given by Christ to his disciples, 
John xxi. 5. According to the Greek notation, it 
signifieth such as are instructed. A Greek word, Ta;- 
h'iuu, that signifieth to instruct, is thence derived. The 
Greek word here used is a diminutive,' and translated 
'little children,' Mat. xviii. 3, and xix. 13, 14, for 
little children are specially to be instructed, ' train 
up ' (or instruct, l^n, inslrue.) ' a child,' Prov. xxii. 6. 
The LXX use the same word, Tai&Tov, there in the 
singular number, which the apostle doth here in the 

Other ministers, who are means of converting men, 
which is a spiritual begetting of them, are styled 
'fathers,' 1 Cor. iv. 15, and they who are begotten 
' sons,' 1 Cor. iv. 14, or children. The Greek word, 
rizna, there used by the apostle, signifieth such as 
are begotten, for it is derived from a verb, rhiru, pario, 
gigno, that signifieth to bring forth or beget. 

The very word used in this text, '^aibia, is also put 
for such as are begotten by the ministry of men, and 
translated 'little children,' 1 John ii. 13, 18. 

If they who are instructed by men (who are but 
' ambassadors for Christ,' and instruct in Christ's 
stead, in whom Christ speaketh, 2 Cor. v. 20, and 
xiii. 3), are called and accounted their children, much 
more justly are they to be called and accounted 
children of Christ, who is the highest and chiefest 
doctor ; and by whose word and Spirit they are most 
properly begotten. 

Of this relation betwixt Christ and saints, his 
children, see more on Sec. 90. 

Sec. 129. Of God's power to exact an account. 
The reason of Christ's bringing the foresaid children 

* vaTff inde ^aiilov. 

to God is thus expressed : ' Which God hath given 
me.' The reason is taken from God's commending 
them to Christ's care. The argument may be thus 
framed : 

They who are commended by the supreme Lord to 
be fitted for and presented to himself, must be so pre- 
sented to him ; 

But God, the supreme Lord, hath committed such 
and such to Christ to be so presented to himself ; 

Therefore Christ so presents them. 

There are four words in this reason, every of which 
carry emphasis. 1. This title, God. 2. His act, 
hath given. 3. This relative, which. 4. This other 
relative, me. 

1. The express mention of God in this reason, m- 
tendeth a high supreme sovereignty which he hath 
over all, and a power which he hath to impose a task, 
and exact an account of well employing the same ; 
hereupon Christ putteth a must upon himself about 
doing the work that he which sent him appointed him 
to do, John ix. 4. 

This made him so willing and forward therein as 
he made his meat to do the same, John iv. 34. And 
he pleaded as much before his Father, John xvii. 4. 

Concerning others, even all of all sorts, evidence is 
given of God's committing a charge to them, and 
exacting an account of them, in the parable of the 
talents, for therein the Lord appointed to every ser- 
vant his task, and taketh a particular account of each 
one, rewarding the faithful and punishing the unfaith- 
ful. Mat. XXV. 14, &c. 

The parable of the steward gives further evidence of 
God's sovereignty in calling men to an account, Luke 
xvi. 2, and the apostle's frequent mention of the ac- 
count which we must all give to God, Rom. xiv. 12 ; 
2 Cor. V. 10 ; Heb. xiii. 17 ; 1 Peter iv. 5, 

This is a strong motive to provoke us unto all dili- 
gence and faithfulness in improving, to the best ad- 
vantage that we can, the talents that we have. They 
are given to us by him that hath a sovereignty and 
absolute power over us ; that can and will call us to an 
account; that can and will abundantly reward the 
faithful, and take sore revenge of the unfaithful. Mat. 
XXV. 23, 24, &c. See Chap. iv. 18, Sec. 39. 

Sec. 130. Of God's free giving. 

2. The act here attributed to God in this word given, 
'iduKiv, manifesteth God's free grace. For to give is 
an act of favour and grace ; it is opposed to meriting, 
purchasing, exchanging, or returning a valuable con- 
sideration. That which is bestowed upon merit, pur- 
chase, exchange, or any like consideration, cannot 
properly be said to be given. 

This word is oft used to set out the free grace and 
favour of God to man ; and that in bestowing his Son 
upon him. ' God so loved the world, that he gave his 
only begotten Son, &c.,' John iii. 16 ; Christ expressly 
declareth this to be the ground of any one's coming to 



[Chap. 11. 

him : ' All that the Father giveth me shall como to 
me,' John vi. 37, 39. All things that saints have, or 
can hope for, are freely couferred upon them ; ' the 
Lord will give grace and glorj',' P.s. Isxxiv'. 11 ; 'The 
Lord will give a crown of righteousness, ' 2 Tim. iv. 8 ; 
' It is your Father's good pleasure to give you the king- 
dom,' Luke xii. 32. 

To make this the more clear, the apostles oft use a 
verb, ^uii't^iaiai, gratis donare, which is derived from a 
noun, '/a^i;, gratia, that signifieth free grace, and is 
translated ' freely to give,' Rom. viii. 32, 1 Cor. ii. 
12 ; and frankly to forgive, Luke vii. 42. 

Though Christ, being given, meritelh for us remission 
of sins by his blood, and purchased the heavenly in- 
heritance, Acts XX. 28 ; Eph. i. 7-14 ; yet to effect 
those things for us, Christ was freely given to us, and 
we to him. See more hereof. Sec. 78. 

Sec. 131 0/ Ood's power in choosing or refusing 
uhoin. he u'ill. 

3. The parties given to Christ arc comprised under 
this relative trhich. This relative hath reference to the 
children before mentioned. Those children are a pecu- 
liar people : ' All are not children,' Rom. is. 7, 8. Nor 
are all given by God to Christ. That there is a set and cer- 
tain number given to Christ, is evident by sundry pas- 
sages in the praj-er which Christ made to his Father at 
his going out of the world. Eight several times is this 
word given there used, and that to set out God's free 
grace therein, John xvii. 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 24. 

God being the supreme sovereign over all, hath 
power to choose or refuse, to take or leave whom he 
will. This the apostle exemplifieth by a comparison 
taken from a potter, Rom. ix. 21. Surely there is in- 
finitely a far greater difference between the Creator 
and creatures, than between a potter and claj'. This 
power of God over creatures doth the apostle in that 
chapter plentifully prove, both by divine testimonies 
taken out of the Old Testament, and also by other solid 

Let not, therefore, any dare to open his mouth and 
plead against God, because ho useth this his prero- 
gative in choosing some and leaving others. This use 
of this great mystery doth the apostle thus press : ' 
man, who art thou that rcpliest against God ? Shall 
the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast 
thou made me thus? 'Rom. ix. 20. If we cannot fathom 
the depth of this mystery, nor discem the equity 
thereof, let us impute it to the shallowness of our ap- 
prehension, and cry out with the apostle, ' Oh the depth 
of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of 
God,' Rom. xi. 83. Far be it from us to impute any 
unrighteousness to God ; it should seem that in the 
apostle's time some in this case did so. For the 
apostle in reference to such thus saith, 'What shall we 
say then ? Is there any unrighteousness w ith God ? ' 
With much indignation doth the apostle thus reject that 
conceit: ' God forbid,' Rom. ix. 14. 

Sec. 132. Christ the weans of bringing all good to 

4. The relative me hath reference to Christ ; for it is 
Christ that saith. Behold I, &c. God being to make 
choice of a peculiar people, that they might be vessels 
of mercy and glory, commended them to his Son, to 
be fitted and so brought thereunto. Where it is said 
God loved the world, it is added, he gave his only be- 
gotten Son, &c., John iii. IC. All the blessings whereof 
we are made partakeis, are conferred upon us in and 
with Christ. We are chosen in Christ, made accepted 
in him, we have redemption in him, Eph. i. 4, G, 7 ; 
we are reconciled to God by him. Col. i. 20, 21 ; 
justified by his blood, Rom. v. 9 ; called by him, 
1 Peter v. 10 ; sanctified in him, 1 Cor. i. 2 ; saved 
thi'ough him, Rom. v. 9, 10. This course of bringing 
men to glory by Christ, doth very much amplify divine 
mercy, and sundry other divine properties, as hath 
been "shewed. Sees! 87, 88. 

Behold here the difference betwixt the execution of 
that part of God's decree which rcspecteth man's sal- 
vation, and of that whereupon foUoweth man's condem- 
nation. The benefit of the former is wholly out of 
man, and only in Christ. Christ doth whatsoever is 
meritorious to bring the elect unto salvation. The 
issue of the other is altogether in man himself, who 
meriteth by sin his own damnation. 

The former is to be observed to strip man of all 
boasting, and to make him give all the glory to God. 

The latter to clear and justify God, and to lay all 
the blame on man. 

Sec. 183. 0/ leslraining the benefit of Christ's ojjics 
to the elect. 

The whole reason thus set down, m7ii(7i God hath 
given we, implieth a restraint of the efficacy of Christ's 
prophetical office to them alone whom God hath given 
him. It iutondeth that all they shall partake of the 
benefit o f Christ's prophetical office, and thereby be 
brought to God, and none but they. To the like pur- 
pose saith Christ, 'All that the Father giveth ma shall 
come to me,' John vi. 87. This phrase is both ex- 
tensive and exclusive, it extendeth itself to every one 
of God's elect, who are given by God to Christ, and 
it excludoth all but them. So much is intended by 
this phrase, 'As many as were ordained to eternal lilo 
believed,' Acts xiii. 48. All they, and none but they. 
This exclusive restraint Christ doth somewhat more 
expressely set down, where ho saith to his disciples, 
' Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the 
kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given,' Mat. 
xiii. 11. See more hereof, Sec. 113. 

The special reason hereof is thus rendered by Christ 
himself: 'Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in thy 
sight,' Mat. xi. 20. Andagain,'It is your Father's good 
pleasure to give you the kingdom,' Luke xii. 32. See 
more hereof. Sec. 37. 

That which is here intended of the restraint of the 

Ver. 13.] 


efficacy of Christ's prophetical office, may be applied 
to the restraint of the benefit of his other offices ; yea, 
and of all that he did aud endm-ed for man. All is 
restrained to the elect whom God hath given to bis 
Son; see Sec. 81. Yea, it may also be applied to the 
efficacy of the gospel preached by Christ's ministers. 
Their ministry is effectual only to the elect, Acts 
xiii. 48. 

Quest. Why then is the gospel preached to all, even 
to reprobates as well as to the elect ? 

Ans. 1. Because these cannot be discerned one 
from the other here in this world. 

2. Because these are here in this world mixed to- 
gether, as wheat and chaff in the barn. 

3. To make the reprobate the more inexcusable. 
By the efficacy of the gospel, men may know that 

they are the elect of God given to Christ, and shall 
be eternally saved. 

They who reap any benefit by the ministry of the 
gospel ought not to attribute it to any wit, wisdom, 
conceit, memory, or other parts of their own, but only 
to the good pleasure and gift of God. The praise 
which Christ gave to bis Father in the behalf of 
babes, Mat. xi. 25, must, such as are effectually 
wrought upon, much more give imto God in behalf 
of themselves, and say, ' Not unto us, Lord, 
not unto us, but unto thy name give glory,' Ps. 

CSV. 1. 

A due consideration of this point will keep us from 
spiritual pride and arrogancy, and make us humble 
before God, and thankful unto him. See more hereof 
Sec. 162. 

Sec. 134. Of the resolution o/Heb. ii. 12, 13. 

Ver. 12. Satjing, I will declare thy name unto my 
brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise 
unto thee. 

Ver. 13. And again, I will put my trust in him. 
And again, Behold I and the children which God hath 
given me. 

The sum of these two verses is a description of 
Christis prophetical office. This is here brought in as 
a confirmation of Christ's human nature, wherein he 
executed that function. See Sec. 1. 

In this description two points are considerable : 

1, The inference ; 2, the substance. 

The inference in this word saying, in particular 
verifieth that which was asserted in the words im- 
mediately preceding, namely, that Christ was ' not 
ashamed to call men brethren.' 

The argument may be thus framed : 

He that saith of men, ' I will declare thy name 
unto my brethren,' is not ashamed to call them 
brethren ; 

But Christ saith of men, I will declare thy name 
unto my brethren ; 

Therefore Christ is not ashamed to call men 

The substance containeth a proof of Christ's pro- 
phetical office, about which we may observe, 

1. The kind of proof ; 2, the point proved. 

The kind of proof is a divine testimony. Of this 
kind there be three particulars : 

1. The CMCution thereof, ver. 12. This is taken 
out of Ps. xsii. 22. 

2. The ground of Christ's courage in executing it, 
ver. 13. This is taken out of Ps. xviii. 2. 

3. The efficacy thereof, ver. 1 3. This is taken out 
of Isa. viii. 18. 

1. The execution of Christ's prophetical office con- 
sists of two parts : 

1. To declare God's name. 

2. To sing praise to him. 

In the former, four particulars are expressed : 

1. The prophet, I. 2. The act, uill declare. 3. The 

subject matter, thy name. 4. The object to whom, 

my brethren. 

In the latter, four other particulars are expressed : 

1. The same person or prophet, I. 2. Another 
act, which is to sing praise. These two words are 
the translation of one Greek word. 3. The person 
whose praise be would set forth, unto thee. 4. The 
place where he would do it, in the midst of the 

2. The ground of Christ's courage was his confi- 
dence. Here is expressed, 

1. The connection of this with the former, in this 
phrase, and again. 

2. The main proposition. Herein are three par- 
ticulars : 

1. The kind of confidence, pi(J <rust. 2. The per- 
son who doth put his trust, I will, saith Christ. 
3. The person on whom, in him, namely, God. 

3. The efficacy of Christ's prophetical office was in 
fitting those for God who were given to him. Here 
also are expressed as before, 

1. A connection of this with the former, and again. 

2. A proposition. Wherein observe, 

1. An evidence of the power of Christ's ministry ; 
2, the reason thereof. 

In the evidence are set down, 

(1.) An act, which demonstrateth the evidence in- 
timated in this particle, behold. This intendeth a 
presenting unto God such as were fitted for him. 

(2.) The persons presenting, in this pronoun, I ; 
and presented, in this relative, children. 

The reason is taken from a trust committed unto 
Christ in these words, ' which God hath given me.' 
Here observe, 

1. The kind of trust, given. 

2. The truster, or person that committeth the trust, 

3. The trusted, or persons that are given, in this 
relative which. That hath reference to children. 

4. The trustee, or person who is entrusted, in this 
pronoun me, which hath reference to Christ. 



[Chap. II. 

Sec. 185. Of obsenations raised out of Heb. ii 
12, 13. 

I. A divine testimony is a sound proof. See Chap 
i., Sees. 4G, Gl. 

II. Christ was a prophet. He himself here saith, 
' I will declare,' which is an act of a prophet or 
preacher. See Sees. Ill, 112, and 23, 24. 

III. Christ received what he delivered. He de 
livered nothing of his own head. See Sec. 111. 

IV. Christ delivered what he received. He con 
cealed nothing. The word declare inclndeth both 
these. See Sec. 112. 

V. Christ made Jcnotvn what ivas to le knoton of 
Ood. The name of God intends as much. See Sec. 

^^. Christ executed his prophetical office in man's 
nature. The main scope of the apostle in this place 
is to set forth Christ's human nature, and what he 
did therein. See Sec. 112. 

YII. Saints are Christ's brethren. See Sec. lOG. 

YIII. Christ's brethren do especially partake of the 
benefit of Christ's prophetical office. To them in 
Bpecial he saith, ' I will declai-e God's name.' See 
Sec. 113. 

IX. Christ ivas careful to set forth his Father's 
praise. This phrase, zmto thee, hath reference to God 
the Father. See Sec. 114. 

X. God is i^raised by singing. Therefore Christ 
professeth to sing praise. See Sec. 115. 

XI. God is to be fraised with cheerfulness. Sing- 
ing implieth a cheerfulness of spirit. See Sec. 116. 

XII. God is to be praised in great assemblies. ' The 
midst of the church ' implies a great assembly. See 
Sec. 117. 

XIII. Divers testimonies may be produced to prove 
the same point. Here the apostle useth this phrase, 
' and again,' in reference to a former testimony. See 
Chap. i. 

XIY. Christ himself trusted on God. He here ex- 
pressly professeth as much. See Sec. 119. 

XV. Christ is one vnth us. See Sec. 121. 

XVI. Christ's ministry ^vas powerful. See Sec. 

XVII. Mysteries of Christ are remarhable. ' This 
particle behold intends so much. Sec Sec. 124. 

XVIII. Christ brought others to God. Sec. 12G. 

XIX. Christ accompanied those whom he brought to 
God. See Sec. 125. The connection of these two 
words, /, children — I and my children, — intends the 
two la?t points. 

XX. The ministry of the gospel is effectual. The 
presenting of children to God is here brought in as a 
demonstration of the eflicacy of the gospel. See Sec. 

XXI. Saints are Christ's children. So they ai-e 
here called. See Sec. 128. 

XXII. Ood hath power to exact an account. Be- 
cause God gave these children to Christ, Christ, to 

make up his account, brought his children to God. 
See Sec. 129. 

XXIII. God freely bestowed men on Ciirisl. This 
word given includes frecness under it. See Sec. 130. 

XXIV. God hath power to choose and refuse whom 
he will. This act of giving is here restrained to 
children. See Sec. 131. 

XXY. Christ is the means of all good to men. To him 
are thev given who are brought to God for good. See 
Sec. 132. 

XXVI. Tlie elect alone partahe of the benefits of 
Christ's offices. These are they who are given to 
Christ, and by Christ brought to God. See Sec. 133. 

Sec. 13G. Of the transition betwixt verses IZand 14. 

Ver. 14, 15. Forasmuch then as the children are 
partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise 
took part of the same ; that through death he might 
destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the 
devil ; and deliver them who through fear of death 
were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 

From the prophetical office of Christ, which he 
exercised in his human nature, the apostle proccedeth 
to set down special acts of his kingly office, which he 
also performed in the same nature. 

Very elegantly doth the apostle pass from the one 
point to the other. For upon the mention of children 
belonging to Christ, the apostle taketh occasion to 
shew that Christ would be of the same nature whereof 
they were, though it were a fi-ail and infirm nature ; 
even ' flesh and blood.' 

The inference of this latter upon the former point, 
is set down in two particles, ' forasmuch then,' both 
which intend a reason. The former word Its/, trans- 
lated ' forasmuch," is also translated with this causal 
particle, ' for that,' chap. v. 2, and ' so then,' chap, 
ix. 2G, and x. 2 ; and also with this, ' because,' chap, 
vi. 13, andxi. 11. 

The other particle, oSv, properly signifieth therefore ; 
and so it is translated, even joined with the same 
particle that here it is, thus, ets; aJv, ' seeing therefore,' 
chap. iv. G. 

It is evident hereby that the Son of God became a 
eon of man for their sake whom God had given to 

Of the Son of God being one with sons of men, 
see Sec. 104. 

To declare that in the conformity of Christ to others, 
the apostle intends the same persons whom ho men- 
tioned before, he useth the very same words, rrai&la, 
children, in both places. Of this title children, see 
Sec. 128. 

Sec. 137. Of this phrase, 'flesh and blood.' 
That wherein Christ is here said to be conformable 
to these children is styled ' flesh and blood.' 

Flesh in Scripture is used properly or tropically. 
1. Properly, for that part of the man which covereth 

Ver. U, 15.] 



the bones, and is covered with skin ;' through which 
the veins, nerves, sinews, arteries, and other ligaments 
of the body do pass. 

Thus doth Job distinguish flesh from skin, bones, 
and sinews, John s. 11. Thus distinguished, it is a 
Boft substance made of blood coagulated. 

2. TropicaUy, flesh is used sundry ways ; as, 
(1.) By a synecdoche ; as when it is put, 
[1.] For the whole body, distinguished from a man's 
Boul : ' The dead bodies of thy servants have they 
given to be meat unto the fowls,' &c., 'the flesh of 
thy saints unto the beasts of the earth,' Ps. Issix. 2. 
[2.] For the person of man, consisting of body and 
BOul : ' All flesh shall see the salvation of God,' Luke 
iii. 6. 

In these two respects flesh is attributed to Christ ; 
namely, in reference to his body, 1 Peter iii. 18, and 
to his whole human nature, John i. 11, 1 Tim. iii. 

[3.] To a man's wife, who is styled his flesh. Gen. 
ii. 23, and by rule of relation to a woman's husband. 
For man and wife are said to be one flesh, Mat. xis. 5. 
[1.] For such as are of kin. St Paul thus styles 
those that were of the stock from whence he came, 
' Them which are of my flesh,' Rom. xi. 14. 

[5.] For a neighbour : ' Hide not thyself from thine 
own flesh,' Isa. Iviii. 7. 

Kinsmen and neighbours are of the same flesh ; the 
former more near, the latter more remote ; therefore 
both are called flesh. 

[6.] For all creatures clothed with flesh : ' God 
giveth food to all flesh,' Ps. cxssvi. 25. 
(2.) By a metonymy, as when flesh is put, 
[1.] For corruption : ' That that is born of the flesh 
is fleah,' John iii. 6. Flesh in the latter place is put 
for corruption of nature. 

[2.] For infirmity. Thus horses are said to be 
flesh, Isa. sxsi. 3, in regard of their weakness ; and 
in this respect are opposed to spirit. 

[3.] For outward appearance : ' Ye judge after the 
flesh,' John viii. 15 ; that is, as things outwardly 

Corruption, weakness, outward show, are but ad- 
juncts or accidents, which belong to men's bodies, 
which are flesh. 

(3.) By a metaphor, as when flesh is put, ^ 
[1.] For abrogated ceremonies. This the apostle 
intends, where he saith, ' Ai'e you now made perfect 
by the flesh?' Gal. iii. 3. 

[2.] For human excellencies : ' We have no con- 
fidence in the flesh,' Philip, iii. 3. He means thereby 
such prerogatives as men esteemed excellencies, and 
used to boast in them. 

These and other like things are as flesh alone, with- 
out spirit; which'consume, putrefy, and vanish to 
nothing, as mere flesh doth. 

' 2if5 fitrall TtZ ii^/ixTsi [xai toS irriZ. — Arist. de Hist. 
Animal, lib. iii. cap. xvi. 

Flesh is here put for the human nature ; and that 
as it is accompanied with manifold frailties. 

By way of diminution, blood is added thereunto, 
' flesh and blood.' 

Blood is a liquor consisting of the four humours ; in 
it life and spirit is conveyed through the whole body. 
The philosopher saith that blood is the matter of the 
whole body.' 

By a metonymy, blood is put for life and for 
death : for life, because it is the means of life. Gen. 
ix. 4 ; for death, because upon shedding of blood 
death foUoweth, Gen. xxsvii. 26. Compare Ps. Ixxii. 
14 with Ps. cxvi. 13. In this respect Christ's blood 
is put for his death, Rom. v. 9, Eph. ii. 13. 

By a metaphor, blood is put for the corruption of 
nature, John i. 13, Ezek. xvi. 6. 

Blood is here joined with flesh, to shew that quick 
flesh is here meant ; flesh that hath blood in it, and 
by reason thereof is subject to many infirmities, yea, 
and sensible of them. 

As good blood is the nourishment of the flesh, and 
makes it quick and fresh, so the distemper of blood 
causeth many maladies in the flesh. By the wasting 
of the blood the flesh consumeth. 

Fitly are these two, ' flesh and blood,' joined to- 
gether. I find them thus joined five times in the New 
Testament: here; Mat. xvi. 17; 1 Cor. sv. 50; Gal. 
i. 16; Eph. vi. 12. 

Flesh and blood thus joined, set out in general 
man's external substance, which is visible and sensible, 
and in that respect opposed to spirit, Luke xxiv. 39. 
In particular, ' flesh and blood' is put, 

1. For man's earthly disposition, and incapacity of 
heavenly mysteries ; so as of himself he can neither 
know them, nor malse them known. Thus ' flesh and 
blood' is opposed to God, who is omniscient, and re- 
vealeth what mysteries he pleaseth to whom he will. 
Mat. xvi. 17, Gal. i. 16. 

2. For man's weakness. Thus it is opposed to 
principahties and powers, Eph. vi. 12. 

3. For mortality, whereunto our sins brought us. 
Thus it is opposed to glorified bodies, 1 Cor. xv. 50. 

Here it is used in the general acception of the 
phrase, nsfesh was noted before to be used, namely, 
for human nature, subject to manifold infii-mities. 

Flesh and blood, as it is a visible substance, so it is 
gross, heavy, drowsy, subject to hunger, thirst, cold, 
heat, pain, wearisomeness, sickness, fainting, yea, 
and death itself. 

In regard of the outward visible part, a man is little 
better than a brute beast, which is also flesh and 
blood, Eccles. iii. 19. Sundry beasts, in sundry ex- 
cellencies, appertaining to flesh and blood, go beyond 
men; as in bigness, swiftness, strength, vigour of 
several senses, as of sight, hearing, smelling, tasting, 
touching, and other like endowments. 

1 a/'^at Sxv irri rxtTci rau fd/taTis. — Arist. depart. Animal., 
lib. ii. cap. iv. 



[Chap. II. 

That flesh and blood is such as bath been shewed, 
it came first from sin ; for sin brought death, and 
all manner of infirmities are concomitants to death. 

This is a point most worth}- their due and serious 
consideration, who are or may be pulled up by reason 
of their reasonable soul, or any abilities thereof; or 
by reason of the comely feature, beauty, strength, or 
other excellencies of the body ; or by reason of vic- 
tories over enemies, successes in their endeavours, 
honours, dignities, revenues, stately palaces, sump- 
tuous houses, or any other like things. Notwith- 
Btanding these or any other hke excellencies, they 
who lay claim to those excellencies are bnt flesh and 
blood. Flesh and blood are in this case hke the pea- 
cock's black feet : when her gay feathers are in her 
eye, she struts up herself in beholding them ; but 
when her eye is cast on her black feet, down falls her 
gay feathers. A due consideration of flesh and blood 
would take away all proud conceits of any outward 
excellencies. Considering all others are as we are, 
fleeh and blood, what folly is it to trust in man, Isa. 
xxxi. 3, or to fear man ? Isa. li. 7, 8. 

Sec. 138. Of saints being flesh and blood. 

Of the foresaid flesh and blood, Christ's children, 
that is, such as being elected and given by God to 
Christ, and thereupon redeemed, called, justified, and 
sanctified, are here said to be partakers, xiy.oniLvrtxs. 
The Greek verb is derived from a root, -/.onb:, that 
eignificth common, and it impheth to have a thing in 
common with others. Thus, as the children are here 
said to be ' partakers of flesh and blood,' so the Gen- 
tiles are said to be ' partakers of the Jews' spiritual 
things,' h.oisw'.r,<!aLv, Rom. xv. 27; that is, all to have 
them in common, one as well as another. 

Concerning this common condition of children, 
apostles, who were eminent among these children, 
thus say of themselves, ' We also are men of hke 
passions (o^o/oTat)£?j) with you,' Acts xiv. 15. 

Regeneration altcreth not the outward constitution 
or condition of men. Sin did not alter man's sub- 
Btance, for Adam, after his fall, retained that body 
and soul, with the several powers and parts of each, 
which he had before. So regeneration took not away 
flesh and blood in the substance thereof, nor the com- 
mon infirmities of it. 

Indeed, transgression altered the good quality that 
was in man's body and soul, namely, the integrity, 
the holiness and righteousness in which ho was 
created after God's image. So regeneration altcreth 
man's evil disposition and corruption wherein he was 
conceived and born, but not his outward condition or 
constitution. ■\Vhethor he were tall or low, fat or 
lean, healthy or sickly, strong or weak, straight or 
crooked, fair or foul, rich or poor before his regenera- 
tion, he remains the same afterward for aught that 
regeneration doth to the contrary. 

The Lord will have his children to retain, as others, 

flesh and blood, and remain subject to all manner of 
infirmities, for sundry weighty reasons. 

1. That they might not, by reason of any spiritual 
privileges, be too much puffed up ; for the children, 
while here they live, are too prone thereunto, 2 Chron. 
xxxii. 25, 2 Cor. xii. 7. 

2. That in God's presence they might the more 
abase, yea, and abhor themselves. Job xl. 4, and 
xlii. G. 

3. That they might learn to lay forth their misery, 
and plead their weakness before God, Job. vi. 12. 

4. That they might take heed of provoking God's 
wrath against themselves, who ai'e but flesh and blood. 
Acts ix. 5. 

5. That they might have the more compassion on 
others, Heb. v. 2, Gal. vi. 1. 

G. That they might be the more circumspect over 
themselves, 1 Tim. iv. IG. 

7. That they might be more careful in using all 
means needful and useful for flesh and blood, Eph. 
vi. 10-12. 

8. That they might the better discern what cause 
they have to exercise the duty of invocation, Ps. 
cxvi. 2, yea, and of gi-atulation too, for God's support- 
ing, as he doth, such as are flesh and blood. 

9. That thev may more confidently depend on God, 
2 Chron. xx. 12. 

10. That they might not rest on man for revelation 
of divine truth. Mat. xvi. 17. 

These, and other like ends, instruct us in so many 
duties arising from this our condition, that we are 
flesh and blood. 

Sec. 139. Of Christ's be inj flesh and blood. 

The conformity of Christ to his children is thus 
expressed : xal a'j^-k crasarXjic/w; fime^s rSn avruiv, 
' he also himself likewise took part of the same.' 
Every of these words have their emphasis. 

1. This copulative, y.at, also, hath reference to the 
children before mentioned : ' he also ;' he, as well as 
they. Though there were an infinite disparity betwixt 
Christ and his children, yet he refused not conformity 
with them, or otherwise this copulative also, or and, 
may be translated even, ' even he,' which is a note of 
special emphasis. 

2. This reciprocal pronoun, uvto;, himself, hath 
reference to Christ's cminencv, and it implieth that 
he that was true God, the Creator, Preserver, Re- 
deemer, and Father of those children, sufl'ered not his 
infinite excellency to be any hindrance to this his low 
condescension. ' He himself.' 

3. The Greek word ca:a'!r'>.r,elii;, translated lihe- 
iii'sc, implieth a nearness to one. The root whence it 
sprouteth, TJXa;, siguifieth near. A word of the same 
stem is used in this phrase, ' nigh unto death ' (caja- 
'nXriffiov), Philip, ii. 27. The adverb here used is not 
elsewhere found in the New Testament, but in other 
Greek authors it is frequent ; by them it is oft joined 

Ver. 14, 15.] 


with another word (o.ao'/iij) which more expressly set- 
teth out the same thing that this doth. That other 
word is oft used in the New Testament, and joined 
with this copulative xa;, also ; as where Christ saith, 
raura xa! 6 uihi ljjj.oiag toii!; ' These also doth the Son 
likewise,' John v. 19. By comparing that place with 
this text, we may observe, that he who himself also 
was likewise equal with God, did also himself likewise 
take part of the same nature with man. 

4. The word, //.erisy^i, here translated ' took part,' 
is another than the former, xexo/iwi/^jze,. translated 
' are partakers.' The former implieth that all of all 
sorts were by nature subject to the same common 
condition ; but this other intendcth a voluntary act 
of Christ, whereby willingly he took upon himself to 
be like his brethren. He teas before; he was true 
God, eternal, all-sutficient, and needed not in regard 
of himself to be as the children were. A hke word to 
this is used, ver. 16, ' betook on him,' i-TriXa/j.Zdnrai. 
See Sec. 159. 

The Greek word in the latter place, //.iTie^i, accord- 
ing to the notation of it, signifieth to have with, or to 
have of that which another hath. Christians are said 
to be partakers of the Lord's table, one with another 
to receive the benefit thereof, 1 Cor. x. 21. They 
who mutually partake of the same commodity are 
called partners, ij,irtjyji, from the same original, Luke 
v. 7. See Chap. iiL^Sec. 17. 

5. This relative, rSi/ a'jrm, ' the same,' hath refer- 
ence to ' flesh and blood.' The relative is of the 
plural number, to shew that it ineludeth both ; for 
the one and the other is of the singular number, but 
both joined include the plural. 

This doth emphatically set forth Christ, not only 
to be true man, but also subject to all manner of 
frailties, so far as they are freed from sin, even such 
as accompany flesh and blood, as was before shewed, 
Sec. 137. 

Behold how low the Son of God descended for us 
sons of men ! Herein appeared love. 

How ought this conformity of Christ, to take part 
of flesh and blood, quicken us up to take part of that 
divine nature, whereof an apostle speaketh, 2 Peter 
i. 4, that so we may be like him in those excellent 
graces wherein he made himself a pattern to us while 
he was on earth : as in meekness and humility. Mat. 
xi. 29; in love, Eph. v. 2; in forgiving others, Col. 
iii. 13, in compassion, Luke x. 37; in patience under 
sufferings, and contempt of the world, Heb. xii. 2. 
Christ's conformity to us was in much meanness, ours 
to him is in much glory. Upon this ground doth the 
apostle press a like exhortation, Philip, ii. 5. What 
if we be called to conformity with Christ in suffering, 
in bearing reproach, or undergoing ignominy for right- 
eousness' sake ? ' The servant is not greater than 
his master,' Mat. x. 21, 25. The head, who was him- 
self full of glory, vouchsafed to take part of flesh and 
blood, that he might suffer for flesh and blood ; shall 

then the members think much to be conformable to 
their head in anything that he shall call them to ? 

Sec. 140. Of heresies against the apostle's description 
of Christ's hwiwn nature. 

This description of Christ's human nature, ' he also 
himself likewise took part of the same,' meets with 
sundry heresies that have been broached against the 
human nature of Christ. 

The Proclianitesi held that Christ came not in the 
flesh at all. How then did he take part of the same 
flesh and blood that we have ? 

The Maniehees^ maintained that Christ was not in 
true flesh, but that he shewed forth a feigned species 
of flesh to deceive men's senses. If so, then did he 
not likewise take part of the same with us. 

The Cerdonians^ denied that Christ had flesh at all. 
This is like the first heresy. 

The Valentinians* taught that Christ brought a 
spiritual and celestial body from above. Then did 
he not likewise take part of the same flesh and blood 
that we do. 

The Apollinaristb^ say that Christ took flesh without 
a soul. Among other arguments, they produce this 
and other like tests, where mention is made only of 
flesh and blood. But the apostle here speaketh of the 
visible part of man ; comprising the invisible part, 
which is his soul, by a synecdoche, under the visible, 
which is flesh and blood. But this phrase, ' he also 
himself likewise took part of the same,' sheweth, that 
as our flesh and blood is animated with a reasonable 
soul, so also Christ was. By the like reason they 
might say that Christ's body had no bones, because it 
is said, ' The word was made flesh,' John i. 14 ; yea, 
by the like reason they might say, that the Israelites 
which went down into Egypt had no bodies, because 
it is said of them, ' all the souls,' Gen. xlvi. 15. 

An ancient father" attributed this heresy to the 
Arians also, and for refutation thereof produceth all 
those texts of Scripture which make mention of the 
soul of Christ, whereby he proveth that Christ had a 
soul as well as a body. 

The Ubiquitarians^ hold that the divine properties, 

' Proclianita) Christum non in carne vcnisse dicunt — 
August, de Hceres. ad Qmdvull Detm. Hwre. CO. 

' Maniclisei, Christum non fuisse in carne vera, sed simu- 
latara spcciem carnis ludificandis humanis sensibua prs- 
buisse. — Ibid. Hcer. 46. 

3 Cerdoniani ncgant Christum habuisse carnem. — Ibid. 
Hcer. 21. 

■• Valentiniani asserunt Christum a profundo spiritale 
vcl cceleste corpus secum attiilisse. — Ibid. Hcer. 11. 

^ Apollinaristte dicunt Christum carnem sine anima sus- 


-Ibid. Hcer. 55. 

^ Aug. contr. Serm. Arian- cap. ix. 

' Uliiquitarii atiirmant Christum secundum humanara 
naturam potentise divinre, id est, omnipotentife, participera 
factum esse ; et scientis infinitae, id est. omniscientife : et 
Cliristi corpus esse ubique prxsens. — Eckhnrd. fascic. con- 
trov. Theol, cap. vi. q. x. 


[Chap. II. 

as omnipolencj, omnisciency, omnipresence, &c., are 
in the human nature of Christ; which, if so, Christ 
took not likewise part of the same flesh and hlood 
that we do. The hko may be said of popish transuh- 

There are other sorts of heretics, namely, the Sa- 
mosatenians,' who broached this heresy, that Christ 
then only began to be, when he came endued with 
flesh ; whereby they imply that he was not before. 
But this phrase, ' he took part of the same,' sheweth, 
that he was before he took part of flesh and blood. 
' Our divines form a like phrase to infer the eternity 
of the word. The phrase is this, ' In the beginning 
was the Word,' John i. 1. Because the Word icas in 
the beginning, it is necessarily implied, that he did 
not then first take his beginning, but was before. 

Sec. 141. 0/ Christ's deslroyin/f the devil. 

The end of Christ's assuming his human nature is 
thus set down : ' that through death he might destroy 
him that had the power of death.' 

The general end is implied. That which is ex- 
pressed is an end of that end, or a mighty effect that 
followed thereupon : which was to destroy the devil. 

The general end was to die. For if he had not 
been flesh and blood, ho could not have died. 

This general end is implied under this phrase, 
' through death ;' as if he had said, that he'might die, 
and by death destroy the devil. Of Christ's being 
man, that he might die, see Sec. 75. 

The powerful efl'ect which was accomplished by 
Christ's death (which was also a special end why he 
died), was the destruction of him that had the power 
of death. 

The primary root whence the word translated destroy 
is derived, is a noun, 'i^yov, that signifieth a uvrk ; as 
where it is said that the Son of God was manifested, 
' that ho might destroy the works, ra isyu, of the 
devil,' 1 John iii. 8. Thence is derived a "verb, which 
signifieth to work. ' He workcth, Joya^sra;, the work 
of the Lord,' 1 Cor. xvi. 10. But a privative particle 
being added, the noun signifieth networking,' or idle. 
Mat. XX. 3. And another compound added there- 
unto signifieth to make void: Rom. iii. 31, 'Do we 
make void, xaraiyou//,iv, the law?' or to make of non- 
efl'ect : Rom. iv. 14, ' the promise made of non- 
effect,' y.aTfjcyrjTai. And thereupon to bring to 
nought : 1 Cor. i. 28, ' to bring to nought, xaraey^ot), 
things that arc.' And to destroy: 1 Cor. vi. 13, 
' God shall destroy,' xaTasyf,c!ei, &c. 

By the aforesaid derivation and various significa- 
tion of the word, it appeareth that it doth not always 

' Papisin? a.sserunt por consecrationem panis ct vini con- 
versionrm fieri tolius substantial pania, in substantiam cor- 
poris Cliristi domini nostri : et totius substantia) vini, in 
substantiam sanguinis ejus — Concil. Trident. 8 Sfas. cap iv. 

' Samo;ateni docent, ab eo duntaxat tempore quo Chris- 
tns carno prieditus advenit, esse cajpisse. — Fpip. adv. har. 
torn. ii. lib. ii. ' afyttii qxiati ii(yain. 

signify to annihilate a thing, and bring it utterly to 
nought ; for the devil that is here spoken of still re- 
tains his being and substance, and ever shall retain it, 
both for the greater terror of the wicked, and also for 
his own greater misery. But it implieth that he is so 
vanquished, as he shall never prevail against the mem- 
bers of Christ. In this sense is this very word used, 
where the apostle sailb, that the body of sin is de- 
stroyed, 7(.ara^yri6^ , Rom. vi. 6. It cannot be denied 
but that ' the devil, like a roaring lion, walketh about, 
seeking whom he may devour,' 1 Peter v. 8; and that 
many of God's children are so bufl'eted and ensnared 
by him, as they may seem to be overcome of him ; 
which Cometh to pass partly by their own fault, in 
that they do not manfully stand against him, but too 
slavishly yield unto him ; and partly, by, God's wise 
ordering the matter, for the better proof of the graces 
which he bestowed on his children ; but yet this ever 
hath been, and ever shall be, the issue, that he never 
prevaileth against God's children ; but that they in 
all assaults remain conquerors. This was foretold of 
old, where, speaking to the devil of Christ, the seed of 
the woman, the Lord saith, ' it shall bruise thy head,' 
Gen. iii. 15. The devil assaulted Christ himself, but 
prevailed not. For after Christ had said, ' Get thee 
hence, Satan,' the devil left him. Mat. iv. 10,11. It ap- 
pears afterwards, about the time of Christ's last suffer- 
ings, that the prince of this world came again to assault 
Christ, but, saith Christ, ' He hath nothing in me,* 
John xiv. 30. That phrase sheweth, that the devil 
could not prevail against Christ. Neither could he 
prevail against Job, though he had liberty to do what 
he could do against Job himself, and against all that 
Job had (Job's life only excepted), Job i. 12 and ii. 6. 
He desired to sift Peter as wheat ; but vet ho could 
not make Peter's faith to fail, Luke xxii.'Sl, 32. To 
this tends this phrase, ' The prince of this world is 
judged,' John xvi. 11 ; and this, ' the prince of this 
world shall be cast out,' John xii. 31 ; and this, Christ 
'led captivity captive,' Eph. iv. 8; and this, 'He 
hath spoiled principalities and powers,' kc, Col. ii. 15. 
For such is Satan's might, compared unto men, such 
his malice, as if he were not thus destroyed, no flesh 
would be saved. 

Hereby we have evidence of the provident care of 
our Captain, who, knowing what flesh and blood is, 
and what our enemies are, hath first himself van- 
quished them, and then provided sufficient armour 
for his children to stand safe against them, Eph. vi. 
12, kc. 

This is a groat comfort against the terror of the 
devil. Many fearful and terrible things are written of 
him in the Scripture. Observe, in particular, how he 
is described, Eph. vi. 12. But this, that he is de- 
stroyed by our Captain, who did take part of flesh and 
blood, is a great comfort to us, who are flesh and 

This also is an encouragement to stand against him. 

Vee. 14, 15.] 



and to resist. He is an enemy spoiled. Hereupon 
anapoftle tbus encourageth us : ' Kesist the devil, and 
he will fly from you,' James iv. 5. There is assur- 
ance of victory to such as believe. If Satan get the 
upper hand, it is by reason of our timorousness and 
want of faith. As the ancients by faith ' were made 
strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the 
armies of the aliens,' Heb. si. 3-1, so may we in this 
spiritual combat with the devil. The phrase of Christ's 
' leading captivity captive,' Eph. iv. 8, is spoken of 
our spiritual enemies, and implieth that they are as 
captives chained, so as Christ lets them out and pulls 
them in as it pleaseth him. If he sufler any of them 
to assault any of his children, he himself will order 
the combat as seemeth good to himself. He will sufler 
them to fight so long as he seeth cause ; if he espy an 
enemy ready to get an advantage, he will quickly pull 
him back. This is a great encouragement. 

Sec. 142. Of that death whereof the devil hath power. 

He that Christ so destroyed is here said to ' have 
the power of death.' 

Death here is to be taken in the uttermost extent, 
and to be applied to all kinds of death, temporal, 
spiritual, and eternal ; for he was the original cause 
and first author of sin, by which all these kinds of 
death came upon man, Rom. v. 12. 

By sin mortality seized on man, for God at first 
made man's body immortal. 

By sin man forfeited that image of God wherein 
consisted his spiritual life, Eph. ii. 1. 

By sin man made himself guilty of eternal damna- 
tion, Rom. vi. 23. 

This extent of death giveth evidence of the mali- 
cious and mischievous mind of Satan. As in general 
he aimed at man's destruction — he was a murderer 
from the beginniug — for death is the destruction of a 
thing, so he extended his malice as far as he could, 
even to body and soul, and that in this world and the 
world to come. He contents not himself to annoy the 
body, and that unto death, but also vexeth and per- 
plexeth the soul. Instance his dealing with Saul, 
1 Sam. xvi. H; yea, he seeketh the eternal damna- 
tion of man's soul and body. Thus much is com- 
prised under this phrase, ' he seeketh whom to de- 
vour,' 1 Pet. V. 8. 

Sec. 143. Of that kind of power which the devil hath 
over death. 

The Greek word rh xgaro;, whereby Satan's power 
is set forth, is somewhat emphatical. It is twelve 
times used in the New Testameut, and in every of 
those places, except this, attributed to God, so as for 
the most part it sets out a divine and almighty power, 
even the power of him that saith, ' See now that I, 
even I, am he, and there is no God with me : I kill, 
and I make alive,' Deut. xxxii. 39, 1 Sam. ii. 6. He 
it is of whom it is said, ' after he hath killed, he hath 

power to cast into hell,' Luke xii. 5. He that said, 
' I have the keys of hell and of death,' Rev. i. 18, was 
true God ; therefore here it sets out a subordinate 
power given by God to him that hath it, ' Power was 
given to him that sat on the pale horse,' Rev. vi. 8 ; 
for as Christ said to Pilate, ' Thou couldst have no 
power at all against me, except it were given thee from 
above,' John xix. 11, so the devil could have no power 
at all, except it were given him from above. But the 
power that is given him is a great power, for power of 
death must needs be a great power. What is stronger 
than death, which overcometh all living creatures 7 
Who can stand against death ? 

In regard of the greatness of the power of the devil, 
a woe was denounced ' to the inhabitants of the earth 
and of the sea ;' and this reason is rendered thereof, 
' for the devil is come down unto you, having great 
wrath,' Rev. xii. 12. 

Sundry are the respects wherein the devil may be 
said to have the power of death. 

1. As he is the executioner of God's just judgment. 
He is in this regard as an hangman, who may be said 
to have the power of the gallows, because he hangeth 
men thereon. 

2. As he is like an hunter, fisher, fowler, or falconer. 
He hunteth, fisheth, and fowleth for the life, not of 
unreasonable creatures only, but also of reasonable 

8. As he is a thief, and continually layeth wait for 
blood, and seeks the precious life of man's body and 

4. As a continual tempter, to allure or drive men 
into sin, and thereby to death. Herein he spared not 
Chi-ist himself, Mat. iv. 1, &c. As at first he dealt 
with the first man, so ever since hath he dealt with 
his whole posterity. This moved the apostle to say, 
' I fear lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled 
Eve through his subtilty, so your mind should be 
corrupted,' 2 Cor. xi. 3. 

5. As he is an accuser of men (hereof see more, 
Sec. 145), and as an adversary to press God's just 
law against men, and to call for judgment against 

6. As he is a tormentor ; for when he hath drawn 
men to sin, he afii-ighteth them with the terror of 
death and damnation. 

In general, nothing is more terrible than death. 
In this respect death is called the king of terrors, 
Job xviii. 14. 

This kind of power, namely, of death, attributed to 
the devil, 

1. Sheweth wherein his strength especially lieth, 
even in doing mischief and bringing men to destruc- 
tion. ' His power is to hurt men.' In this respect 
he hath names of destruction given unto him, as ' in 
Hebrew Abaddon, and in Greek Apollyon,' Rev. is. 
11, and he is styled a murderer, John viii. 44. 

2. It manifesteth the vile slavery and woful bondage 



[Chap. II. 

of the devil's vassals. They serve him who hath the 
power of death, and doth what he can to bring all to 
death. What can any expect from him but death ? 
The task that he puts on them is sin, the wages which 
he gives is death, Rom. vi. 23. Herein such as, 
having been rescued out of his power, retain a linger- 
ing mind after it again, are worse than the Israelites, 
who, having tasted of manna, lusted after the fish, 
cucumbers, melons, leeks, onions, and garlic that 
they had in Egypt, and said, ' Let us return into 
Egypt,' Num. xi. 5, and xiv. 4. Such arc all they as 
are not truly regenerate, but remain in their natural 
estate, though they profess the faith. 

3. It is an incitation unto those to whom this kind 
of power is made known, to be more watchful against 
Satan, more manful in resisting him, and the better 
prepared against his assaults. Hereof see more in 
The Whole Armour of God, on Eph. vi. 12, treat, i. 
part iii. sec. 2, &c. 

4. It warneth all of all sorts to renounce the devil 
and all his works, to come out of his Babel, to come 
into and abide in the glorious liberty of the sons of 
God, which Christ hath purchased for us, and to re- 
nounce Satan's service. As the devil hath the power 
of death, so Christ hath the power of life, John vi. 
39, 40. 

5. It amplifieth both the glory and also the benefit 
of that conquest which Christ hath gotten over him 
that hath the power of death. The glory of that vic- 
tory appearcth herein, that he hath overcome so potent 
an enemy as had the power of death ; the benefit 
thereof herein appears, that he hath overcome so ma- 
licious and mischievous an enemy as exercised his 
power by ail manner of death. Hence ariseth the 
ground of this holy insultation, ' death, where is 
thy sting?' 1 Cor. xv. 55. He who had the power 
of death being destroyed, death now can have no more 
power over them that are redeemed by Christ. Hereof 
see more. Sec. 148. 

Sec. 144. Of Christ orercomiiii/ the devil by death. 

The means whereby Christ overcame him that had 
the power of death, is expressly said to be death. To 
achieve this greatand glorious victoiy against so mighty 
and mischievous an enemy, Christ did not assemble 
troops of angels, as he could have done. Mat. xxvi. 
53, and as ho did, Rev. xii. 7, in another case, nor 
did he array himself with majesty and terror, as Exod. 
xix. 16, «S:c. ; but he did it by taking part of weak 
flesh and blood, and therein humbling himself to 
death. In this respect the apostle saith, that Christ 
' having spoiled principalities and powers, made a 
ehow of them openly, triumphing over them in the 
crosB,' meaning thereby his death. The apostle there 
resemblcth the cross of Christ to a trophy whereon 
the spoils of enemies were hanged. Of old conquerors 
were wont to hang the armour and weapons of ene- 
mies vanquished on the walls of forts and towers. 

To this purpose may be applied that which Christ 
thus saith of himself, ' If I be lifted up from the 
earth, I will draw all men unto me,' John xii. 32. 
Hereby he signifieth both the kind of his death and 
also the power thereof : the kind under this phrase 
lifted tip, namely, upon the cross ; the power under 
this, / uill draw all men unto me, shewing thereby that 
he would rescue them from Satan to himself. 

Christ, by his death, oflered himself up a sacrifice, 
whereby such a price was paid for our sins, as satisfied 
God's justice, pacified his wrath, removed the curse 
of the law, and so spoiled Satan of all his power, 
wrested his weapons oat of his hands, set free those 
whom he held captive, and brought himself into cap- 
tivity. Thus was he as a bee that had lost her sting, 
which might buz and make a noise, but could not sting. 

Christ also by his death hath clean altered the origi- 
nal nature of our death, which was a passage from this 
world into Satan's prison, even into hell itself, where 
his vassals are tormented ; but now it is made a pas- 
sage into heaven, where he hath nothing at all to do, 
so as thereby believers are clean out of his clutches, 
so as he cannot so much as assault them. This being 
done by Christ's death, thereby is the devil spoiled of 
his power. This God thus ordered : 

1. To accomplish that ancient promise to the seed 
of the woman, which was Christ, and threatening 
against the serpent, which was the devil : Gen. iii. 15, 
' It shall bruise thy head,' that is, Christ should 
utterly vanquish the devil. The means whereby that 
should be accomplished was this, ' Thou shalt bruise 
his heel,' Gen. iii. 15. By the heel is meant Christ's 
mortal body, which was bruised by death. 

2. To deliver man by satisfying justice. Had the 
devil been by an almighty power vanquished, justice 
had not thereby been satisfied. 

3. To magnify the power of the conquest the more ; 
for divine power is made perfect in weakness, 1 Cor. 
xii. 9. 

4. To bring the greater ignominy and shame upon 
the devil ; for what greater ignominy than for an 
enemy to be vanquished in his own kingdom, and that 
with his own weapon. The strongest and sharpest 
weapon that Satan had was death, and by it he did 
most hurt. Christ dealt in this case as Benaiah did 
with an Egyptian, he plucked the spear out of his 
hand, and slew him with his own spear, 2 Sam. 
xxiii. 21. 

5. To take away the ignominy of the cress of Christ. 
Jews, pagans, and all infidels scoff at our crucified 
God ; but this glorious victory which Christ by his 
death obtained on the cross, sheweth, that it is a 
matter of much glory and much rejoicing. The apostle 
apprehended so much hereof as comparatively he 
would glory in nothing, saving the cross of our Lord 
Jesus Christ,' Gal. vi. 14. 

6. To put a difference betwixt Christ's death and 
the death of all others, even of the best of men. The 

Vek. 14, 15.] 



death of others is only a freedom from troubles of soul 
and body, and an attaining unto rest and glory, which 
is by -virtue of Christ's death. Christ's death is a 
conquering death, a death that tends to the advantage 
of all that believe in Christ. 

7. To take the old wily serpent in his own craft. 
Satan laboured at nothing more than to bring Christ to 
death; he used scribes, pharisees, priests, rulers and 
people of the Jews, yea, Judas, Pilate, and his sol- 
diers, as his instruments herein. They thought all 
sure if Christ might be put to death ; but Christ's 
death proved Satan's destruction. Thus God ' taktth 
the wise in their own craftiness,' Job v. 13. 

On these and other like gi-ounds, may we look upon 
the cross of Christ as the Israelites, when they were 
stung with fiery serpents, looked on the brazen serpent, 
Num. xxi. 9 ; Christ himself teacheth us to make this 
application, John iii. 14, 15. 

Sec. 145. Of exempUfying of an indefinite point. 

That none might mistake the apostle about the 
person that is said to be destroyed, he explains him- 
self, as this phrase roxtTian, that is, sheweth. That 
phrase is used in interpreting a strange word. Where 
the apostle had used this Hebrew word Aceldama, he 
addeth, ' that is, the field of blood,' Acts i. 19 ; and 
in clearing an ambiguous word, where the apostle had 
used this phrase in me, he addeth, ' that is, in my flesh,' 
Rom. vii. 18 ; and in opening the sense of a mystery, 
or an obscure sentence, this mystery, ' In Isaac shall 
thy seed be called,' is thus opened, 'that is, they which 
are the children,' &c., Rom. ix. 8; and in exemplify- 
ing such things and persons as are indefinitely pro- 
pounded, as here in this phrase, 'that is, the devil.' 

Power of death may be thought to appertain to God, 
to whom belong the issues of death, Ps. Ixviii. 20, 
and so indeed it doth, as he is the high supreme Lord 
over all, and judge of all. Lest, therefore, any should 
overmuch spend their thoughts about him who is here 
said to be destroyed, the apostle plainly espresseth 
whom he meaneth. Herein he doth as Esther ; after 
she had indefinitely complained to the king of one 
that had sold her and her nation unto death, upon the 
king's inquiry who it was, she plainly and directly 
answered, 'The adversary and enemy is this wicked 
Haman,' Esth. vii. 6. 

Sec. 146. Of the devil an accuser. 

This title didioXog, devil, in the Greek signifieth an 
accuser. It is derived from a root, ISdWtiv, that sig- 
nifieth to cast, as John viii. 7 ; thence a compound, 
diaQdXXiiv, which signifieth to strike through, meta- 
phorically to accuse, Luke xvi. 1. An accusation falsely 
and maliciously made striketh a man, as it were a dart, 
through the heart. The noun &id^oXoi is oft trans- 
lated ' a false accuser,' as 2 Tim. iii. 3, Tit. ii. 8. 
Thus this title devil setteth out this disposition, which 
is to be a false and malicious accuser. To prove as 

much, another word, xar^yo^oc, which more properly 
signifieth an accuser, is attributed to him. Rev. xii. 
10. That word in Greek is derived from arootayoga, 
forum, which signifieth a place of judicature, and a 
noun compounded and derived from thence signifieth 
such an one as in such places useth to accuse others, 
and plead against them, Actsxxiv. 8, John viii. 10. 

The title avHdiKog, adversary, attributed to the devil, 
1 Pet. V. 8, intendeth as much ; the root dixn, lis, 
from whence the Greek word is derived, signifieth 
strife, contention or suit of law ; thence a compound 
verb avTidixuv, which signifieth to stand against one in 
suit of law. He who doth so is properly termed an 
adversary, who pleads against one in a court of justice, 
or in any other public assembly, and to prejudice the 
cause, raiseth false accusations and forgeth unjust 
crimes against him. Such an one was Doeg, 1 Sam. 
xxii. 9, against whom David penned the fifty-second 

Never was there, nor ever can there be, such an 
accuser as the devil : ' as his name is, so is he.' He 
spareth none, nor ever ceaseth to accuse. He accused 
God to man. Gen. iii. 5 ; and man to God, Job i. 9, 
10; and man to man, 1 Sam. xxii. 9; and man to 
himself, as Mat. xxvii. 4, 5. These two latter instances, 
of Saul and Judas, are the rather applied to the devil, 
because that the Holy Ghost doth expressly note that 
an evil spirit, even the devil, came upon the one, 1 
Sam. xvi. 14, and upon the other, Luke xxii. 3. 

Behold here by what spirit false accusers and forgers 
of unjust crimes against the children of God are guided : 
I may say of all them as Christ did of the Jews, ' Ye 
are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your 
father ye will do, '^ John viii. 44. 

Sec. 147. Of all the devils combined in one. 

That which is here said of the devil in the singular 
number, is to be extended to all the infernal spirits. 
They are indeed many, for so they say of themselves, 
' We are many,' ]\Iark v. 9 ; and we read that the 
devils made an host to fight against Michael and his 
angels, Rev. xii. 7. All that host consisted of devils. 
If at once there were a whole legion in one man 
(which is computed to contain about C66G) how many 
are there in all the world besides ? for we may suppose 
that no man is free at any time, but hath devils about 
him to solicit him to sin. The innumerrible number 
of good angels hath been noted before, Chap. i. Sec. 
73. It is indeed probable that there are not so many 
angels that fell as stood, yet they that fell might be 
also an innumerable company ; but they are here and 
in sundrj' other places set down as one devil. The 
reasons hereof may be these. 

1. Devil is a collective word, and compriseth under 
it all the evil spirits; as Jew, Gentile, Turk, &c. 

2. They are all under one head ; for we read of a 
' prince of devils,' Mark iii. 22, and the name devil 
is given to this one head, as is clear by this phrase, 


[Chap. II. 

•The devil and his angels,' Mat. xxv. 41. Under 
the head all the members are comprised, as under 
Israel all that descended from Israel. 

3. All the evil spirits concur in one mind, and aim 
at the same end ; and thereupon are all counted as 
one devil. 

4. Their forces are so united and combined, as if 
they were all but one. Thus it is said, ' That all the 
children of Israel went out, and the congregation was 
gathered together as one man,' Judges xx. ]. 

This word devil, being here thus comprehensively 
taken, doth much amplify the power of Christ in sub- 
duing all the power of hell. And it givcth evidence 
of our freedom from all our spiritual enemies. And 
it is a strong ground of confidence to rest on Christ, 
and not to fear any fiend of hell. 

Sec. Id8. Of Christ's vanquishing the devil for our 

Ver. 15. And deliver them tvho through fear of 
death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 

Both the copulative particle, xal, and also the set- 
ing down of this verb deliver, aTaXXa^jj, in the same 
mood and tense that the other verb destroy, xarao- 
ynari, in the former verse was, sheweth, that that act 
of destroying the devil, and this of delivering us, do 
both tend in general to the same purpose ; namely, to 
declare the ends of Christ's assuming oiu- nature, and 
subjecting himself therein to death. One was to 
destroy the devil; the other to deliver us. 

This latter is set down in the latter place, be'cause 
it is also an end of the former. For this end did 
Christ destroy the devil, that he might rescue and free 
us from the power of the devil:' as Abraham de- 
stroyed those enemies that had taken Lot captive with 
the rest that dwelt in Sodom, that he might deliver 
Lot and the rest of the people from those enemies. 
Gen. xiv. 14 ; and as David destroyed the Amale- 
kites, that he might deliver his wives and children, 
and others that were taken by them, out of their 
hands, 1 Sam. xxx. 9, &c. Man, by yielding to the 
devil's temptations. Gen. iii. G, became his slave, 
and was in bondage under him, as the apostle sheweth 
in the words following. It was therefore for our 
liberty that Christ vanquished the devil in the man- 
ner that he did, rather than for his own glory. 

So implacable and unsatiable an enemy was the 
devil, as he would not let us go but perforce. Christ 
therefore thought it not enough to satisfy God's justice, 
and pacify his wrath ; but he would also vanquish that 
implacable enemy, and so deliver us out of his hands. 
This therefore was an end of the former end. Our 
deliverance was the end of destroying the devil. 
Christ's death was for us and our good ; see Sec. 83. 
Thanks, therefore, to thee, Saviour, that hast de- 

' Gratiaa tibi Christo Salvator, quod tarn potentem ad- 
versarium noBtrum dum occideris occidisti. —Ilier. ad Ueliod. 
Epitaph. Nepot. 

stroyed so mighty an adversary of ours by thine own 

Sec. 149. Of natural men's fear of death. 

The miserable condition here intended, is said to 
be ' fear of death.' Death here is taken in as large 
an extent as it was, Sec. 142, namely, for temporal, 
spiritual, and eternal death. Death, even death of 
the body,' which is a separation of the soul from the 
body,^ is by the heathen counted the most terrible of 
all things,^ and the greatest of all evils ; every Hving 
thing shunncth death ;* this they do naturally, upon a 
desu-e of preserving their being, and love of life. On 
this ground it was that Satan said to the Lord, ' Skin 
for skin, and all that a man hath will he give for his 
life,' Job ii. 4. This works in men a fear of death. 

Fear is a disturbed passion, arising from the ex- 
pectation of some evil which he would shun. For the 
Greek word cometh from a verb ^ that signilieth to 
flee from ; and this word here used by the apostle, is 
sometimes put for flight. Men use to llee from such 
tilings as they fear; and if men could, they would 
flee from and avoid death. Death, therefore, being 
taken to be the greatest of evils, and man continually 
expecting it, must needs fill man's heart with fear, 
even fear of a bodily death. Of fear of man, see Chap. 
13, Sec. 84. But to such as are instructed in the 
nature of sin, which addeth a sting to death, and in 
the resurretion of the body, and the intolerable and 
everlasting torment of body and soul in hell, death 
must needs be a far greater fear, till they have some 
assurance of theii- deliverance from if. For death, as 
it was first inflicted for sin, is the very entrance into 
eternal damnation ; how then can the thought and 
remembrance of death be but very dreadful ? It was 
fear of death that made Adam and Eve to hide them- 
selves from God's presence when they heard his voice 
in the garden, Gen. iii. 8. This was it that made 
Cain say, ' My punishment is greater than I can 
bear,' Gen. iv. 13. This made Nabal's heart to die 
within him, 1 Sam. xxv. 87. And it made Saul to 
fall along on the earth as a man in a swoon, 1 Sam. 
xxviii. 20. This made Felix to tremble when he 
heard Paul preach of the judgment to come, Actsxxiv. 
25. Fear of the second death makes kings and great 
men, yea, and bondmen too, cry to the mountains to 
fall on them, and to hide them from the face of him 
that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of 
the Lamb, Rev. vi. 15, 16. Surely there is nothing 
more difficult than not to fear death.* The conscience 

Plat, in rhaedo. ' 3«n«r»f ^»P!{«;t«t«>. 

• Omnia res vivens fugit mortem. — Aug. de lib. arbit., lib. 
ii. cap. iv. 

• fifitfiii, / gio; proeter Med. rififict. Indo fi^is, fuga, 
limor. ftHiii,, lerribilis Hob. x. 27, 31. 

• Nihil difficilius est quam non metucro mortem. — Avg. 
de Quan. animec, c. 88. 

Ver. U, 15.] 



of mea nnregenerate doth bring in a bill of indict- 
ment against them, and convince them of rebellion 
against the great Lord ; they are in that respect as a 
malefactor who is arraigned and condemned, and 
liveth in fear of the gallows, and is much disquieted 
therewith, taking no joy or comfort in his food, sleep, 
or any way else. An evil conscience to the soul is 
as the gout or stone in the body, which tortureth it 
in the midst of feasts, pastimes, and greatest merri- 
ments ; yea, it is like the handwriting that appeared 
to Belshazzar, Dan. v. 5, 6. 

Obj. It is said that ' the houses of the wicked are 
safe from fear,' and that ' they die in full strength, 
being wholly at ease and quiet.' Job xxi. 9, 23. 

Am. 1. All otherjoy only is from the teeth outward 
(as we speak) they have no true, sound, inward joy; 
they have not the ground of true joy, which is an 
assurance of God's favour in Christ. 

2. Their joy is but short: 'As the cracking of 
thorns under a pot, so is the laughter of fools,' Eccles. 
vii. 6. 

3. Many times it falleth out, that when they seem 
to be very jocund, there is some inward terror in the 
soul: ' Even in laughter the heart is sorrowful,' Prov. 
xxiv. 13. 

4. Their joy is inconstant, they have their fits of 
anguish and vexation. Lam. v. 15. 

5. All their joy is but as in a dream ; like him 
' that dreameth he eateth, but when he is awake his 
soul is empty, '^Isa. xxix. 8. His rejoicing ariseth from 
the slumbering of his conscience, which for the time 
ceaseth to terrify him. 

6. A man may be so intoxicated, and as it were 
made drunk with earthly conceits, as he may end his 
days in a foolish pleasing conceit ; as a thief made 
drunk may die in a desperate merriment, and that 
under the gallows. Heretics may be so intoxicated 
with their errors as to suffer death for them with 
much seeming joy ; ambitious persons may, with an 
outward glory, cast themselves into the jaws of death, 
as Marcus Curtius ; ' but albeit no effects of fear 
appear in such, yet because the cause of fear is not 
taken away, they cannot be truly said to be freed 
from fear ; if not before, yet at the great day of judg- 
ment shall their fear break forth and their trembling 
appear. In which respect saith Christ, ' Woe unto 
you that laugh now, for j'e shall lament and weep,' 
Luke vi. 25 ; 'Go to now, ye rich men, weep and 
howl for your miseries which shall come upon you,' 
James v.,1. 

Woful, woful in this respect, must needs be the 
state of unregenerate men, for nothing can seem 
blessed to him over whose head terror doth always 
hang. Damocles, a flatterer of Dionysius the tyrant, 

' M. Curtius equo quam poterat maxime exornato insiflens 
armatumseinspecum immisit. — T. Liv., Deci.lib. vii. Nihil 
ei beatum est cui semper aliquis terror impendeat. — Cic. 
Tusc. q. lib. V. 

said to his face, that he was the happiest man in the 
world, and made mention of his wealth, and power, 
and majesty, and abundance of all things. Hereupon 
the tyrant set that flatterer in a royal estate, at a table 
furnished with all dainties, and attended upon as a 
king, but with a heavy sharp sword hanging by a horse- 
hair over his head ; this made him quake and tremble, 
and desire to be freed from that estate. Thereby was 
declared how miserable a thing it is to live in con- 
tinual fear. Some see it, and are in that respect the 
more terrified, others are the more senseless but not 
the less miserable. 

There is no cause to envy a natural man's condition, 
though he abound never so much in wealth, honour, 
pleasure, or any other thing that the natural heart of 
man desireth. Who would envy Dives his condition, 
that duly weigheth his end ? Luke xvi. 19, &c. This 
is it which the psalmist forewarneth us of, Ps. xxxvii. 1. 
David, in his own example, sheweth how prone we are 
hereunto, Ps. Ixxiii. 3, &c. ; and therefore we had need 
to be the more watchful against it. 

Sec. 150. Of a natural man's bondage. 

It is here further said that <p6Qijj 'bavdrou, metu mor- 
tis, ' through or by fear of death, they are subject to 
bondage.' The terror with which unregenerate per- 
sons are afflicted is aggravated by a kind of bondage 
whereinto it brlngs-them ; for the fear of death is like 
a scourge, which keeps them that are under it in 
bondage, so as they dare not speak, nor stir, nor at- 
tempt anything for theii' freedom. They who are in 
such a manner under the lash, as we speak, are in a 
miserable bondage. 

The word dovXiia, translated bondar^e, is a relative ; 
it hath reference to a superior power which keeps one 
in awe. The noun &uXos, whence it ariseth, signi- 
fieth a servant. Servant,' according to the master to 
whom he hath relation, implieth a dignity or a slavery. 
' A servant of God,' Titus i. 1 ; 'of the Lord,' Luke 
i. 38; 'of Jesus Christ,' Rom. i. 1, are honourable 
titles : but ' a servant of sin,' Eom. vi. 20 ; ' a ser- 
vant of corruption,' 2 Peter ii. 19 ; and ' of the devil,' 
Eph. ii. 3, are base and servile titles. So the verb to 
serve is taken in a good and in a bad sense, as to serve 
the law of God and the law of sin, Rom. vii. 25. 

But the word here translated bondage, being five 
times used in the New Testament, is always taken in 
a bad or base respect, as here, and Rom. viii. 15, 21 ; 
Gal. iv. 24, and v. 1. 

The bondage here meant is spiritual, under sin and 
Satan ; it compriseth under it a miserable anxiety and 
perplexity of mind, upon a continual expectation of 
death and damnation. 

The word 'ivc^oi, translated subject, intendeth such 
an one as is bound or fast tied to a thing. The verb 
whence it is derived, £V£;^Eff()£, is translated 'entangled,' 

' Of the notation of Servus, see Domestic. Dut. on Eph. vi 
5, treat, i. sec. 124. 



[Chap. II. 

Gal. V. 1. Here is implied such a subjection as a man 
cannot free himself from it. It is translated ' guilt,' 
Mark xiv. 64, 1 Cor. xi. 27, James ii. 10. He that 
iB guilty of a penalty is bound to undergo it. 

To the same purpose this very word is five times 
translated ' in danger of,' as Mat. v. 21, 22 ; Mark 
iii. 20. Such danger is intended as he that is in it 
cannot free himself from it ; like that wherein Joseph 
was, being cast into a pit, Gen. xxxvii. 24 ; and wherein 
Jeremiah was in the dungeon, Jer. xxsviii. 6. 

Sec. 151. 0/ the continuance of a tnan's bondage all 
his life. 

The aforesaid thraldom is aggravated by the con- 
tinuance thereof, expressed in this phrase, ' all their 
lifetime.' There is a special grrecism which intendeth 
a continuance of the aforesaid fear and bondage even 
so long as a man liveth, and that without intermision. 

Quest. How can any be said to be delivered from 
that to which they are subject or fast tied unto all 
their lifetime ? 

Ans. This continuance ail their lifetime is to be 

1. Of the time wherein men lived before they were 
delivered, even all the time of their life wherein they 
were in bondage. 

2. Of such as never were, nor ever shall be, de- 

8. Of the time of the bondage here intended. It 
is not for a set determined time, as an apprenticeship, 
but of a time without date, as of a bondslave. 

This continued subjection to bondage doth further 
set out the miserable condition of natural men, who are 
in perpetual bondage. The apostle setteth it forth 
under a fit type, which was Agar, who, under a type, 
representeth the mother of all born after the flesh. 
Of her it is said, ' She gcndereth unto bondage ;' and 
again, ' She and her children are in bondaoe,' Gal. 
iv. 24, 25. 

Well weigh the masters under which such are in 
bondage, and it will evidently appear how woful a 
plight they are in. 

1. They are scrs-ants of sin, whose wages is death, 
Kom. vi. 17, 23. 

2. They are ' of their father the devil, and the 
lusts of their father they do. He was a murderer 
from the beginning,' John viii. 44. 

8. They are in bondage under the law. Gal. iv. 8 ; 
and that in regard of the rigour thereof, James ii. 10, 
and of the curse thereof, Gal. iii. 10. 

4. They are children of wrath, Eph. ii. 3, even of 
God's wrath, which is an insupportable burden. 

5. They shall come forth to the resurrection of 
condemnation, John v. 29. This is it that will make 
them put themselves in the dens and in the rocks of 
the mountains, &c., llev. vi. 15, 16. 

A due consideration of a natural man's bondage is 
of great force to beat down all high conceits that he 

may have of himself. What if he be as great a con- 
queror as Alexander was, as highly promoted as Ha- 
man, as deep a politician as Ahiihophcl, as rich as 
Dives, as mighty as Goliath, as comely as Absalom, 
yet so long as he remains in his natural condition he 
is a very base slave ; God, as a just and severe judge, 
will exact the uttermost of him, which, because he 
performeth not, his wrath will lie heavy upon him. j 
The law will bo as a bond or obligation against him, ' 
the devil ready to arrest him and cast him into the 
prison of hell. Everything that the natural man en- 
joyeth makes his bondage the worse : the ambitious 
man is made the greater slave by his honours, the 
rich man by his wealth, the voluptuous man by his 
pleasure, the politician by his wit ; so others by other 

Sec. 152. 0/ deliverance from spiritual bondage. 

From the foresaid evils, fear of death and bondage, 
deliverance is procured by the Lord Jesus. 

The verb ai7a>.}.aS,r,, translated deliver, is a com- 
pound. The simple verb aA>.aVr£;v signifieth to 
change, 1 Cor. xv. 51, Gal. iv. 20. The compound 
a.';ra>.XarTiri signifieth to change from, namely, from 
one state or condition to another. They who, having 
been in bondage, are delivered, are changed from one 
state to another, from a miserable condition to a 

Three times is this compound word used in the New 
Testament, and in every of them it intendeth such 
a change or deliverance, as here, and Luke xii. 58, 
and Acts xix. 1, 2. 

This deliverance pre-snpposeth a former miserable 
condition. Men are not said to be delivered from a 
good and happy condition : they are willing to con- J 
tiuue and abide therein ; but from a bad and miser- j 
able condition to be delivered is acceptable to any one. ] 
As when the Israelites were delivered from the Egv-p- 
tians, Exod. xviii. 10 ; and men from their spiritual 
enemies, Luke i. 74. Such a deliverance is that which 
the apostle here speaketh of, a deliverance from the 
worst bondage that any can fall into. Where the 
apostle, in reference to this bondage, thus complain- 
eth, ' wretched man that I am, who sliall deliver 
me from the body of this death '?' he himself gives | 
this satisfaction, ' I thank God through Jesus Christ ! 
our Lord,' Rom. vii. 24, 25. That for which he 
thanks God is, that Christ had delivered him from the 
foresaid bondage ; which ho further coufirmcth in 
these words, ' There is now no condemnation to them 
that are in Christ Jesus,' Rom. viii. 1. That redemp- 
tion which is frequently attributed to Christ intendeth t 
this deliverance. 

The word hir^usic, which most usually setteth out 
that redemplion, is derived from a verb, >.uu, soho, 
which signifieth to loose or unbind one. Now, there 
is a double bond whereby men may be said to be 
bound. One is the bond of law, as an obligation 

Ver. U, 15.] 



wherebv a man stands bound to pay a debt. See 
Chap. iii. 12, See. 62. The other is a bond of vio- 
lence, as when a man is bound by cords, chains, or 
other like means. Acts ssii. 30. 

In the former sense men arc redeemed by payment 
of the debt, which is a point of justice. Thus Christ 
is said to ' redeem us by a price,' which was his own 
'precious blood,' 1 Peter i. 18, 19. In this respect 
another word, ayosd^;rj, is used, which signifieth to 
buy: and we are said to be bought, rj/ooaff^Jlffs, 1 Cor. 
vi. 20 and vii. 23. Thus Christ bought us of his 
Father ; and by giving his blood for our redemption, 
satisiied the justice of his Father. 

In the latter sense men are redeemed by might and 
force. This is an act of power. Thus Christ overcame 
that tyrant that held us in bondage, and so delivered 
us. JEereof see Sec. 111. 

This deliverance is here amplified by the extent of 
it, for the benefit thereof extended to all of all sorts. 
This is implied under these indefinite relatives, ' them, 
who,' roirou;, 'iaoi. The correlative in Greek, onoi, 
implieth a generality. It is translated sometimes 
' as many as,' Mat. xiv. 36 ; sometimes ' all they 
that,' Luke iv. 40 ; sometimes ' whosoever,' Luke 
ix. 5. 

This indefinite particle doth not intend that every 
one that was subject to the foresaid bondage was de- 
livered ; but that there were none so deeply implunged 
therein, and so fast held thereby, but might be delivered 
by Christ. Of Christ's dying for every man, see Sees. 
81, 82. 

Of all deliverances, this here spoken of is the most 
admirable in the kind, and most beneficial to us that 
partake of the benefit thereof. Was the Israelites' 
deliverance from the Egyptian bondage, or from the 
Babylonish captivity, a benefit worthy to be kept in 
perpetual memory ? Surely then much more this. 
There is as great a difference betwixt them and this, 
as betwixt a tyrant that is but flesh and blood, and 
principalities and powers, as betwixt earth and hell, 
as betwixt temporary and everlasting. The diflerence 
is greater than can be expressed, whether we consider 
the bondage from which, or the means by which, we 
are delivered. This deliverance was it which made 
that good old priest which had been dumb, when his 
mouth was opened, thus to praise God : ' Blessed be 
the Lord God of Israel : for he hath visited and re- 
deemed his people,' Luke i. 68, &c. 

How ill doth it become those who think and profess 
that they are delivered, to walk as slaves who are not 
delivered. With p-eat vehemency thus doth the apostle 
protest to such : ' This I say, and testify in the Lord, 
that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles,' &c., 
Eph. iv. 17. Having changed our master, it is most 
meet that we should change our service ; the law of 
nature and of nations requireth as much. ' Ye were 
sometime darkness, but now are j-e light in the Lord; 
walk as children of light,' Eph. v. 8. This was the 

principal end for which Christ ' delivered us out of the 
hand of our enemies,' namely, ' that we might serve 
him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before 
him, all the days of our hfe,' Luke i. 74, 75. We 
may not therefore any longer be servants of sin, Rom. 
vi. 12 ; nor of Satan, 1 Peter v. 9 ; nor of men, 1 Cor. 
vii. 23. They who do so make void that for which 
Christ hath taken flesh and blood, and therein by death 
destroyed the devil. 

Sec. 153. Of the resolution o/Heb. ii. 14, 15. 

Ver. 14. Forasmuch then as the children are par- 
takers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took 
part of the same, that through death he might destroy 
him that had the power of death, that is, the devil. 

Ver. 15. Ajid deliver them ivho through fear of 
death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 

In these two verses is a description of Christ's 
kingly office. 

■rhis is set out by two effects accomplished by his 
death, so as a further proof is herein given of Christ's 
human nature united to his divine. 

Two points are hereaboats observable: 

1. A connection of Christ's regal function with his 
prophetical, in this i^hrase, ' Forasmuch then as the 
children are partakers of flesh and blood.' 

2. The demonstration of this royal power. 

The connection sheweth a reason why Christ exer- 
cised his kingly office in man's nature, namely, because 
the children which God had given him were so. 

In setting down this reason observe, 

1. The relation of the persons at whose good he 
aimed, the children. 

2. Their constitution, flesh and blood. 

3. Their participation therein, are partakers. 

In the demonstration of Christ's royal power is set 

1. The nature wherein he exercised it. 

2. The acts whereby he manifested it. 
About the foresaid nature is set down, 

1. The person that assumed it, he himself. 

2. The kind of nature, the same. 

3. The manner of assuming it, he took part. 

4. His resemblance therein to others, also, likewite. 
The acts of his royal function are two : 

1. A conquest, ver. 14. 

2. A deliverance, ver. 15. 

In setting down the conquest we may discern, 

1. The manner of expressing it; by way of a final 
cause, that he might. 

2. The matter whereof it consisteth. This setteth 

(1.) The kind of conquest, destroy. 
(2.) The means whereby he accomphshed it, by 
death . 

(3.) The enemy conquered. He is set out, 

[1.] By his power; him that had the pouer of death. 

[2.] By his name, devil. 



[Chap. II, 

The second act of Christ's ro3-al function is set out 
as the former. 

1. By the manner of expressing it, which is by way 
of a final cause, implied in this copulative, and, as if 
he had said, ' And that he might.' 

2. By the matter whereof it consisteth. Herein is 
set down, 

(1.) The kind of act, deliter. 

(2.) The extent thereof, them iiho, or whosoever. 

(3.) The parties delivered. These are described by 
that miserable condition wherein they were before 
they were dehvered. This condition is set out two 
ways : 

[1.] By that fear wherein they are, aggi-avated by 
the object thereof, death. 

[2.] By that bondage wherein they were. This is 

First, By the straitness of the bond, subject, or 
fast held. 

Secoiully, By their continuance therein all their 

Sec. 154. Of (lie dbservatinns collected out oj Heb. 
ii. 14, 15. 

I. Mans nature is of a frail constitution. It is flesh 
and blood, visible, sensible, mutable, mortal, corrup- 
tible. See Sec. 137. 

II. Saints are of the same constitution with others. 
By the children are meant saints, and these are said 
to be partakers of flesh and blood. See Sec. 138. 

III. The Son of God became man. This relative, 
he himself, hath reference to Christ's eminency, even 
as he was God. See Sec. 58. 

IV. Christ voluntarily became man. This word, 
took part, implieth as much. See Sec. 139. 

V. Christ would partalie of the very same nature 
that others had. So much is expressed under this 
phrase, the same. See Sec. 139. 

VI. Because the rest of God's children %oere flesh and 
Hood, Christ would therefore be so. This is gathered 
from these words, forasmuch, also, lileivise. See Sec. 

Vn. Christ hath vanquished Satan. This word, 
destroy, is a word of conquest. See Sec. 141. 

VIII. Satan hath the power over death. The very 
words of the text declare thus much. See Sec. 113. 

IX. Doubtful pioints are to be explained. This 
phrase, that is, is a phrase of explanation. See Sec. 

X. Satan is an accuser. This is gathered from the 
notation of the Greek name translated devil. See 
Bee. 146. 

XI. Christ by death vanquished him that had the 
power of death. So much is expressed in the very 
words of the text. See Sec. 144. 

XU. Christ assumed man's nature to destroy man's 
enemy. He was flesh and blood that he might destroy 
the devil. See Sec. 139. 

XIII. Christ conquered Satan to deliver man. The 
copulative particle and intends as much. See Sec. 

XIV. 3Jen naturally dread death. This is here 
taken for grant. See Sec. 149. 

XV. Han's natural estate is a bondage. This also 
is hero taken for grant. See Sec. 150. 

XVI. 31an is fast held in his bondage. The Greek 
word translated subject intendeth as much. See Sec. 

XVII. 3Ian is a slave all his life long. How this 
holds true is shewed. Sec. 151. 

XVIII. Christ hath delivered his from their natural 
bondage. This is here necessarily implied. See Sec. 

XIX. There are none so fast held in bondage but 
may be delivered by Christ. See Sec. 152. 

XX. Fear of death is a very bondage. They that 
fear death are here said to be subject to bondage. 
See Sec. 150. 

Sec. 155. Of the transition betwixt Christ's princely 
and priestly function. 

Ver. 16. For verily he took not on him the nature of 
angels ; but he took on him the seed of Abraham. 

This verse is here inserted as a fit transition be- 
twixt the princely and priestly ofiice of Christ. It 
hath reference to them both, as an especial reason of 
the one and of the other. In reference to the former, 
it sheweth a reason of the two fore-mentioned acts of 
Christ's kingly office. Why he destroyed the devil, 
and why he delivered man that was in bondage ; even 
because he took not on him the nature of angels, but 
the seed of Abraham. The first particle, ya^, for, 
intendeth as much. In reference to the latter, which 
is Christ's priestly function, this verse layeth down 
the ground of all the particulars following, ver. 17, 
18. He wasTmade like to his brethren ; he was a 
merciful and faithful high priest, &c. Even because 
' he took on him the seed of Abraham.' 

The Greek conjunction in, translated rerily, is a 
compound. The simple is a note of asseveration or 
ratification ; it is translated doubtless, 2 Cor. xii. 1, 
which is all one as this word verily. The particle coD 
3^57611, with which it is here compounded, pointeth at 
some place. In that respect it may be thus translated, 
he nouhere took on him : So the vulgar Latin,' and 
our ancient notes. Thus it may have reference to the 
Old Testament ; whereunto the apostle hath oft re- 
ference, as chap. j. 5, &c., and in this chapter, ver 6, 
12, 13. In this sense it may imply that the Scripture 
nowhere testifieth of Christ that he took on him the 
nature of angels, i^c, and therefore it may be inferred 
that he did not take the nature of angels on him. 

Whether we take this word as a note of asseveration, 
or as pointing to the Old Testament, the same sense 

' Nunquam, Yulg. Lai. In no place, Ancient Eng. Trantlat. 

Ver. 16.] 


remaineth ; for both ways it addeth emphasis to the 
negative, 'he took not.' 

Sec. 1 50. Of the meaning of this word, ' he took 

The Greek word s-riXafiQanrai, thus translated,' he 
took on him,' is compounded of a verb, Xafj,l3d:iiv, that 
signifieth to take, Mat. xiv. 19, or to rcccirc, Mat. vii. 
8 ; and a preposition f W, which hath various significa- 
tions : as at, Luke xsiii. 40, to, John xsi. 11, )'/(, Mat. 
xxii. 2, upon, John xix. 19, and sundry others. 
Answerably words compounded with that preposition 
divers significations. Thus this word in my text 

1. To catch one being ready to perish. Mat. xiv. 81. 

2. To take one that cannot see, to lead and direct 
him, Mark viii. 23. 

3. To take one to him for his good, Luke xiv. 4. 

4. To lay hold upon one against his mind, Luke 
xxiii. 2G. 

5. To lay fast hold on a thing which he would not 
lose, 1 Tim. vi. 12. 

6. To take one kindly by the hand, to testify a desire 
of confederacy with him, Heb. viii. 9. 

In all these significations may this word here be ap- 
plied to Christ in reference to man. For, 

1. Christ catched man being ready utterly to perish. 

2. He took man stark blind, to open his eyes. 

3. He took man full of sores, to cure him. 

4. When man was unwilling to come, Gen. iii. 8, 
Christ took him. 

5. Ho laid fast hold on man, and would not let him go. 

6. Most kindly he took man by the hand, and en- 
tered into covenant with him. 

Yea, further, he took man's nature upon him. Thus 
do most interpreters, both ancient and modem,' here 
expound this word. So do our English translators. 
This phrase, the nature of, is not in the Greek original; 
but implied under that word, took on him, and it is in our 
English, as in other translations, inserted, more fully 
to express the meaning of the Greek word. 

Indeed, many expositors, both of former and later 
times, do take this word in this text properly to 
signify Christ's apprehending or laying hold on man, 
when man would have run away from him ; but withal 
they do infer that for that end Christ assumed man's 
nature. So as herein all agree, that Christ as- 
suming our nature is here intended ; only some would 
have it properly intended in the meaning of the word, 
others would have it implied by just and necessary con- 

The Greek word imXaij.Zanrai is of the present tense, 
' he taketh,'yet for perspicuity's sake it is translated in 
the preterperfcct tense, ' he took,' for it is usual in the 
Hebrew dialect to put one tense for another : as the 
present for the future, Zech. ix. 9, to shew that 

' Ambros., Chrysost., Calvin, Beza, Pareus, aliique- 

divine promises of future good things, are as sure and 
certain as things present. So here the present tense 
is put in for the preterperfcct, which signifieth the time 
past, to represent a thing past as ever in doing. This, 
therefore, is an elegant and emphatical Hebraism. 

Sec. 157. Of Christ not assuming the nature of angels. 

Of angels we have largely spoken on Chap. i. Sec. 
81, &c. 

This phrase, ' he took not angels,' is here set down 
in opposition to that kind of nature which Christ as- 
sumed to him. This particle of opposition, aXXa, but, 
intends as much. 

It shews that what Christ did not for angels, he did 
for man ; and what he did for man, he did not for 

This negative, ' he took not on him the nature of 
angels,' is here premised for weighty reasons. 

1. In reference to the fifth verse, where it is said 
that ' God put not in subjection unto the angels the 
world to come.' Here a reason thereof is shewed ; 
namely, because Christ was not one with angels, he 
took not upon him their nature. 

2. It giveth an instance of God's sovereignty and 
justice. For God hath power to leave sinners in that 
miserable estate, whereunto they have implunged them- 
selves, and justly may he so do, for thus injustice hath 
he dealt with the angels that sinned. ' The angels 
which kept not their first estate, but left their own 
habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains, under 
darkness, unto the judgment of the great day,' Jude 6, 
2 Peter ii. 4. 

3. To amplify God's mercy to man. It is a very 
great amplification of mercy, that it is such a mercy 
as is not extended to others, though those others stood 
in as much need thereof, Ps. cxlvii. 20. 

4. It demonstrateth more fully the kind of nature 
which Christ assumed ; that it was not an angelical, 
a spiritual, a celestial nature, as some heretics have 
imagined. See Sec. 140. 

This word angels is indefinitely to be taken with re- 
ference to all sorts of angels, good or bad. It sheweth 
that the good angels had not so much honour con- 
ferred upon them as man had, namely, to be one with 
Christ. In this respect even the good angels are in- 
ferior to saints, for they are sent forth to minister for 
them, Heb. i. 14. 

It sheweth also that evil angels have not that mercy 
' unto them which men have, namely, to have 
the Son of God in their nature, a Saviour, to save 

This negative, that ' Christ took not on him the 
nature of angels,' refutes the opinion of the Chiliasts 
or Millennaries, who hold that the very devils shall be 
released out of hell after a thousand years. None can 
be freed but by Christ ; but with Christ they have 
nothing to do. See more hereof in my Treatise of the 
Sin against the Holy Ohost, sees. 29-81 . 



[Chap. II. 

Sec. 158. Of ohjcctiom against this truth, ' Christ 
took not on him the nature oj awjeh,' answered. 

Ohj. 1. Christ appeared unto men in the shape of 
an angel, Exodus, iii. 2, G ; Judges xiii. 3, 17, 18. 

Ans. Though it were the Son of God that appeared 
unto men, and he he called an angel, yet that shape 
wherein he appeared was not the shape of an angel, 
but rather of a man ; neither was that the true human 
nature of Christ which he afterwards assumed, but 
only a visible human nature which he assumed for 
that present time and use. 

Obj. 2. Christ is expressly called anqel, Isa. Isiii. 
9; Mai. iii. 1. 

Ans. He is so called, not in regard of his nature, 
but of his office. So men are called angels, Kev. i. 20. 

Ohj. 8. Christ is called ' the head of all principality 
and power.' Under these words angels are comprised. 

Ans. Christ is indeed the head of angels, but not 
by virtue of any mystical union, but by reason of that 
pre-eminency which he hath over them. Thus is he 
said to be ' iar above all principality,' &c., Eph. i. 21. 
And also by reason of that authority he hath over 
them, Heb.'i. 6, 7, 11. 

Obj. 4. Christ is said to ' gather together in one all 
things which are in heaven and on earth,' Eph. i. 10. 
By ' things in heaven ' are meant angels. 

Ans. 1. It is not necessai-y that angels should be 
there meant, but rather glorified saints. 

2. If angels be there meant, the gathering of them 
together is not to be taken of an union with Christ, 
but rather of a reconciliation betwixt angels and men, 
or of the establishing of the good angels that fell 

Sec. 159. Of the privilege of bcUercrs above angels. 

To shew that that very mercy which was not vouch- 
safed to angels was vouchsafed to men, the apostle 
doth not only use this particle of opposition, dXXa, 
but (which Solomon in like cases frequently usoth, as 
Prov. X. 2), but also ho rcpeateth the same word 
again, wherein the grace not granted to angels is com- 
prised, which is this, £T<Aa/i£av£ra/, ' he took on 
him.' So as to man was granted that which was not 
vouchsafed to angels. Of that gi-aco see Sec. 157. 

This is such an evidence of God's peculiar respect 
to man, as it made the angels themselves desire to 
behold the riches of God's mercy herein, 1 Pet. i. 12. 

If to this general we add other peculiar exomphfi- 
cations of God's mercy to man, over and above that 
which he shewed to angels, we shall more clearly dis- 
cern the exceeding greatness of God's favour to man. 
Some particulars are thcige. 

1. Christ is given a Saviour to lost man, Luke ii. 
11. No Saviour is afl'orded to angels. 

2. Men are as members of one body, mystically 
united to Christ their head, so as they altogether, 
with the Son of God, are one Christ, 1 Cor. xii. 12. 
No Buch honour is vouchsafed to angels. 

8. All things are put in subjection to man, not eg 
to angels, vers. 5, C, &c. 

4. Men shall judge the angels, 1 Cor. vi. 3; angels 
shall not judge men. 

5. Angels are ' ministering spirits sent forth to 
minister for them that shall be heirs of salvation,' 
Heb. i. 14; men are not sent forth to minister for 

Some make the reason of that difi'erence which God 
put between men and angels to be this, that all the 
angels fell not, and thereupon they infer that Christ 
need not take on him the nature of angels for the 
good angels' sake, because they were but a part ; for 
he will take the nature for all, or none. This reason 
cannot hold, in that he took man's nature for the 
good and benefit only of ' the seed of Abraham.' See 
Sec. 102. 

Others put the reason of the foresaid difference 
between men and angels in the heinousness of the sin 
of angels, and thereupon they aggravate the sin of 
angels by sundry circumstances : as, that they were 
the more excellent creatures ; that they had more 
light of understanding ; that they first sinned ; that 
they were not tempted to sin as man was ; and that 
they tempted man, and so were murderers of man, 
John viii. 44. 

I will not essay to extenuate any of these aggrava- 
tions ; but this I may boldly say, that these and other 
like reasons, taken from difference in creatures, much 
derogate] from the supreme sovereignty of God, who 
thus saith, ' I will be gracious to whom I will be 
gracious : and I will shew mercy on whom I will shew 
mercy,' Exod. xxxiii. 19. That which about God's 
sovereignty exercised on man and man, in reference 
to the elect and reprobate, is distinctly set down by 
the apostle, Rom. ix. 21, &c., may not unfitly be ap- 
plied to his sovereignty exercised on men and angels : 
' Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same 
lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another 
unto dishonour ?' &c. ; ' Is it not lawful for me,' saith 
the Lord, ' to do what I will with mine own ?' This, 
then, is the reason that we must rest upon, ' So was 
God's good pleasure.' He would not shew that mercy 
to angels which ho did to men. 

Of God's peculiar love to man, see my treatise en- 
titled, A Plaster for the Plague, on Num. xvi. 46, sec. 
34, 85. 

The privileges which God hath given to men more 
than to angels aggravateth their dotage who adore 
angels. Therein they dishonour God, in giving to 
creatures that honour which is due only to the Creator, 
and they do too much debase themselves, in dejecting 
themselves below those above whom God hath ad- 
vanced them. A good angel would not accept of such 
adoration, Rev. xix. 10, and xxii. 8, 9. 

The foresaid privilege doth further aggravate man's 
backwardness about the things that make to the 
honour of God. God having honoured men above 

Ver. IC] 



angels, equity and gratitude require that men should 
endeavour to honour God more than the angels do ; 
but they fail so much herein, as they come very short 
of other creatures in glorifying God. Behold the 
heavens, they ' declare the glory of God,' Ps. six. 1. 
The whole host of heaven constantly keepeth that 
course wherein