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Full text of "The works of Thomas Goodwin"

BX 9315 .G66 1861 v. 5 
Goodwin, Thomas, 1600-1680. 
The works of Thomas Goodwin 







W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, D.D., Professor of Theology, Congregational 
Union, Edinburgh. 

JAMES BEGG, D.D., Minister of Newington Free Church, Edinburgii. 

THOMAS J. CRAWFORD, D.D., S.T.P., Professor of Divinity, University, 

D. T. K. DRUMMOND, M.A., Minister of St Thomas's Episcopal Church, 

WILLIAM H. GOOLD, D.D., Professor of Biblical Literature and Church 
History, Reformed Presbyterian Church, Edinburgh. 

ANDREW THOMSON, D.D., Minister of Broughton Place United Presby- 
terian Church, Edinburgh. 

(Sentral ©bftor. 
REV. THOMAS SMITH, M.A., Edinburgh. 







%ixii 'Sjimait 



VOL. V. 
















Pag I 

God the Father's eternal counsel and transaction with Christ, to 
undertake the work of redemption for man, considered as 
fallen, ....... 3 

Chaptee I. ...... , 3 

Exposition of the words of the text. Design of the gospel. 
Excellency of the knowledge of it. The highest attain- 
ment to see the gospel in its original. 

Chaptee II. ...... , 7 

Some observations premised. To the Father the reconcilia- 
tion is made, and to him the affair is chiefly attributed. 

Chaptee III. ....... 11 

What as to our salvation was done by God the Father from 
all eternity. Meaning of that phrase, ' God was reconcil- 
ing us in Christ.' God's resolution and purpose to recon- 
cile some of the fallen sons of men to himself. His 
motives. His love in thus designing salvation to us 
magnified by several considerations. 

Chaptee IV. ....... 14 

God, in pursuance of his design to save sinners, exercised 
his wisdom to contrive the fittest means of accomplish- 
ing it. Though God might have pardoned sin without 
satisfaction, yet he would not ; and the reasons of it. 

Chaptee V. . . . . . . . 17 

Necessary that a full and complete satisfaction should be 
made, which we being unable to pay, divine wisdom 
thought of another person to undertake, and to do it for 
us. God's justice contented with this commutation of 
the person. 


Chapter VI. ...... 18 

Difficulty to find out a person of strength egual to so high an 
undertaking. Neither angels nor men could have found 
out a fib person. God manifest in the flesh for redemption 
of man, a mystery above all the thoughts of angels or men, 
and worthy only of God's wisdom to find out. 
Chapter VII. ...... 20 

A greater difficulty to overcome, how to give him for us. 
The depths of God's love here seen, as of his wisdom be- 
fore. Free choice that he made thus of his Son to be a 
redeemer. Appointed his Son to death for us. 
Chapter VIII. . . . . . . 24 

Christ's acceptance of the terms which God the Father pro- 
pounded to him. His wilhngness in the undertaking, 
whence it proceeded. The elect redeemed by Christ first 
God the Father's, and by him given to Christ to save 

Chapter IX. ...... 27 

Upon Christ's accepting this agi-eement, God the Father en- 
gages to bestow all the blessings which he should purchase 
to those redeemed by him. AH these blessings promised 
to us in Christ fi"om all eternity. 
Chapter X. . . . . . . . 30 

Reason that all these blessings are said to be given to us of 
pure gi'ace.;^ 

Chapter XI. ...... 31 

Upon the conclusion of this covenant of redemption, the 
greatest joy in heaven. 


The sole and peculiar fitness of Christ's person for the work of 

redemption, ...... 34 

Chapter I. ....... 34 

The fitness of Christ's person for the work of a Mediator, its 
influence to make it successful. 

Chapter II. . ....,, 37 

Was necessary for our Mediator to be God. 

Chapter III. ....... 41 

Of the three persons in the Godhead, the Son fittest to bo 

Chapter IV. ...... 44 

Necessary our Mediator should be man ; the angelical nature 
not proper for this work. 

Chapter V. . . . . . . . 48 

That our Mediator should be both God and man in one 



Chapter VI. ...... 61 

The two natures, the di^ano and human, how united into one 
person, Christ, God- man. The Son of God took oui- whole 
nature, both soul and body. 

Chapter VII. . . . . . . 50 

Fit that Christ should be such a man as to be like us in 
the matter and substance of his body, and hke us in his 
production and birth. Reasons. Christ, though born of 
a woman, yet without sin. Why man, and of the Jewish 

Chapter VIII. ...... 62 



The falness of abilities which ai-e in Christ to accomplish the 
work of our redemption, which are impossible to be found in 
any other person, ..... 68 

Chapter I. . . . . . . . 68 

The all-sufficient abilities to accomplish our redemption, de- 
monstrated from God the Father's calling him to it. 
From God's engaging also to furnish him with abilities. 
From Christ's undertaking it. From the greatness and 
excellency of his person. Reasons which induced God to 
fix on this way of salvation. Objection answered. 

Chapter II. . . . . . . . 75 

In Christ alone sufficient ability to take away sin. Weak- 
ness and insufficiency of any creature for this work proved 
by an enumeration of particulars. Blood of all sacrifices 
could not have such an efficacy. We were unable to 
satisfy God by any thing which we could sufier or do. 
All the saints as unable to help us in this case. Beyond 
the power of angels themselves. 

Chapter III. .....*. 81 

The most perfect creature could not be our redeemer. 
Utmost extent to which the power of any creature can 

Chapter IV. ....... 84 

Inability of the creature to redeem us demonstrated from the 
nature of the satisfaction. 

Chapter V. . . . . . . . 91 

No creatures could make that satisfaction which an injured 
God required. 

Chapter VI. ....... 101 

Christ hath made full reparation of all which was lost by 
sin. Glory of the law by him recovered. God's image 


Chapter VII. ...... 103 

Christ hath repaired the loss of honour which God sustained 
by sin. Satisfaction in point of honour, how to be mea- 

Chapter VIII. ...... 108 

"What Christ did for satisfaction brings more honour to God 
than ever sin had done dishonour. Glory which redounds 
to God from his assuming human nature, and in such a 
low condition, and meanest circumstances. 

Chapter IX. ....... 112 

Christ's satisfaction not only a diminishing of his glory, but 
despoiling him of it. He did this willingly. His person 
the subject of this debasement. 

Chapter X. . . . . . . . 117 

Greatness and supereminent worth of this satisfaction as per- 
formed by such a person. 

Chapter XI. ....... 125 

There is all in the satisfaction made by Christ which justice 
can require. Pleas which may be framed against the sin- 
ner, all answered in what our Eedeemer hath performed. 

Chapter XH. ...... 131 

Pleas which the law can make against a sinner fully answered. 


Christ's willingness to the w(^'k of redemption from everlasting 

tiU he accomplish it. . . . . .137 

Chapter I. . . . . . . . 137 

Two things to be considered in the obedience which Christ 
performed, the wiU and the deed. From all eternity he 
expressed his willingness to undertake the work. 

Chapter II. . . . . . • . 141 

Renewed his consent as soon as he came into the world. 
His human nature from his first conception agreed to it. 
This apparent from Ps. xxii. 

Chapter III. . . .... 147 

That appellation, Jesus the Nazartte, explained. 

Chapter IV. . . . . . . .149 

Nazarites of the law types of Christ. 

Chapter V. . . . . • • • 152 

Christ how presignified as a Nazarite by these types. The 
parallel between him and Sampson. 

Chapter VI. . . . • • _ • • 158 

Christ called a Nazarite though not born in that city. 

Chapter VII. . . • • • ... * ^^^ 

Prophecy of Christ, Isa. xi. 1, Jer. xxiii. 5, and Zech. iii. 8, 
fulfilled in Christ a Nazarite or inhabitant of that city. 

contents. ix 

Chapter VIII. .... • . 164 

As Christ expressed his will and consent in the dedication of 
himself to the work, so shewed his wilHugness in all the 
parts of the performance. 

Chapter IX. . . . . . . .166 

Did not shrink at the approach of his greatest sufferings, his 


Christ's actual performance of our redemption. In the general 
he gave himself for us. The particular parts of our redemp- 
tion are, That he was made sin and a curse ; and by his 
death obtained a victory over Satan, whereby he delivers us 
fi'om his slavery ; and hath performed all righteousness 
which might answer the law for us. And that Christ, as 
our gi-eat Shepherd, takes care to preserve and secure us 
safe thus redeemed and freed by him, . . . 172 

Chapter I. . . . • . . . .172 

God presently, on man's fall, making the discovery to him 
of a Redeemer, Adam transmitted the knowledge of him 
to his posterity, and he was accordingly proposed to the 
faith of the patriarchs. 

Chapter II. . . . . . . .174 

Christ gave himself for us to redeem us. What is implied 
in that expression. Greatness and value of such a gift. 
Christ giving himself a high testimony of his own pecu- 
Uar love to us. 

Chapter III. ...... 180 

Christ made sin and a curse for us. In what respect Christ 
was made sin for us. Uses. 

Chapter IV. ...... 188 

How Christ made a curse for us. Suffered the curse of the 
moral law. 

Chapter V. ...... 192 

Particulars of the curse which Christ endured. Infirmities 
which sin hath brought upon us. A painful, wretched 

Chapter VI. .... . . 196 

The sufferings of Christ immediately foregoing his cruci- 
fixion, described in an exposition of John xviii. 1-21. 

Chapter VII. ...... 215 

Exposition of John xviii. 1-21 continued. 

Chapter VIII. ...... 223 

Christ taken and bound as the victims used to be to the 
altar. Influence of this his binding on our being loosened 
from these chains of sin. 

Chapter IX. ..... 240 

Peter's denial of Christ. An addition to his sufferings. 


Chapter X. ...... 250 

Account of Christ's examination before Caiaphas. 
Chapter XL ...... 262 

The last suflferings of Christ coming to his death. Both 
the shame and torments to be considered. 
Chapter XII. ...... 269 

The extremity of pain which Christ endured in his body. 
Harassed day and night, without a moment's rest. Crowned 
with thorns, torn with rods, and crucified. 

Ch.u>ter XIII. ...... 271 

The greatest of all Christ's sufierings, those of his soul. 
Causes of those sorrows. Greatness of those suiierings. 
Wherein they did consist. How it could consist with his 
being the Son of God, to be forsaken of God, and to 
bear such extremity of his Father's wrath. 
Chapter XIV. ...... 286 

Uses of Christ's being made sin and a curse for us. 

Chapter XV. ...... 295 

Victory which Christ gained over Satan by his death. 

Chapter XVI. ...... 299 

Christ's ^reat concern and interest to destroy the power of 
Satan. Conquest which he had over him by his death, 
and his open and glorious triumph after the victory, ex- 
pressed in Col. ii. 15. 

Chapter XVII. ..... 

The victory which Christ obtains over the devil, in us, 
and by us. First promise in Gen. iii. Believers, by the 
virtue and strength of Christ, conquerors over the devil. 
The several ages of Christians considered from 1 John ii. 
13, 14. By Christ believers prevail against Satan as to 
the accusations of them, which he brings before God. 
Christ and the saints at last defeat Satan's designs, as he 
is prince of this world. 

Chapter XVIII. ...... 831 

Victory of Christ and his saints over the devil before and at 
the day of judgment. 

Chapter XIX. . . . . . . 337 

Christ's fulness for our justification. Wherein justification 
consists. The whole righteousness which is in Christ 
imputed to us. 

Chapter XX. . . . . . . 349 

The perfect hoUness of Christ's nature imputed to a believer. 

Chapter XXI. . . . • . .352 

Not only legal but evangelical righteousness excluded from 
bearing any part in justification. Phil. iii. 9 explained. 

Chapter XXII. ...... 366 

God appointed Christ to be the Great Shepherd. Care and 
diligence of Christ in discharge of this ofiice. 





Of Christ our high priest as entered into the holy of holies in the 
heavens. How wo are to treat and converse with God, and 
Christ Jesus under the notion of his being our high priest, 
and being entered into the holy of holies. And of our having 
libortj' to enter thither to him, and to converse with him 
there through faith in prayer, .... 378 

Chapter I. ...... 878 

Chi-ist om* great high priest, the greatness and excellency 
of his priesthood. 

Chapter II. ...... 388 

The words of the text, Heb. s. 19-22, explained. 

Chapter III. ...... 394 

Privilege of believers under the New Testament to enter 
into the highest heavens by faith, and with the appre- 
hension of faith. Invitation so to do. Dispositions re- 
quired to make them meet for such a heavenly converse. 

Chapter IV. ...... 397 

Privilege of behevers under the New Testament compared 
with those of believers under the Old Testament. 

Chapter V. ...... 403 

A fair and open invitation to enter into heaven when we 
pray. In such a manner as those that are thither entered. 

Chapter VI. ...... 405 

Particular invitements unto communion with God and Christ. 

Chapter VII. ...... 413 

Exercise of faith in prayer. 

Chapter VIII. ...... 418 

Another exercise of faith in prayer. The scapegoat. 

Chapter IX. ...... 423 

Occasional sacrifices for particular sins. 

Chapter X. ...... 427 

The general atonement made for all sins once a year. 


Hec. XII. 25-29, Haggai II. 5-9, . . ,439 



Eph. n. 14-16. ...... 465 



Heb. X. 4-7, 481 


Col. I. 20, .601 


Sermon I. ...... 521 

Sermon II. >•.••• 533 

Sebmon in. ..«.•. 540 








By Tho. Goodwin, D. D. 

Printed in the YEAR, M. DC. XCIL 

-^JJ-fjV^ ■ 'v-^ 



.«^-. ""^io^. 

S.Y. ^ 



(rocJ </ie Father's eternal counsel and transactions with Christ, to undertake the 
ivork of redemption for man, considered as fallen. 


The exposition of the words of the text. — What is the great design of the gospel. 
— The excellency of the knowledge of it. — The highest attainment is to see 
the gospel in its original, those eternal transactions between God the Father 
and God the Son for the salvation of man. 

And all things are of God, ivho hath reconciled us to himself bg Jesus Christ, 
and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation ; to ivit, that God was in 
Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not vrqutting their trespasses unto 
them ; and hath committed to us the ivord of reconciliation. — 2 Cor. V. 
18, 19. 

These words do summarily tell us what is the argument of that great mys- 
tery of the gospel, as it concerneth sinners, viz., reconciliation. There- 
fore he styles it the ' ministry of reconciliation : ' that is the title he gives 
the doctrine of it ; and withal further explains this, ' To Avit,' says he, ' that 
God was in Christ, reconciling the world ; ' and so the foot of the angels' 
evangelical song, wherein they sung forth the main end of Christ's nativity, 
was reconcihation : Lukeii. 14, ' Glory to God in the highest, and on earth 
peace, good will towards men.' This reconciliation consists of two parts, 
peace and good will. 

The full scope of the words you may conceive, as I have cast them into 
this frame ; and withal, what also is the sum of all the discourse upon them. 

First, The word reconcile imports the whole of mankind to have been 
once created in an estate of amity and friendship with God. For to recon- 
cile, is to make friends again, and argues former friendship. And this sets 
and hmits the subject of these eternal transactions between God the Father 
and the Son, to have been man considered as fallen. 

And secondly, the whole lump of man being fallen off from God into a deep 


rebellion, and become of the clevil's side and faction, God, \vho is infinite in 
love and rich in mercy, bearing everlasting and secret good will to some of 
these now become rebels, in all ages hath maintained certain lieger ambas- 
sadors in the world, to treat with this rebellious rout, and to conclude a 
peace betwixt them and him : 2 Cor. v. 20, ' Kow then we are ambassadors 
for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us : we pray you in Christ's 
stead, be ye reconciled to God ; ' and hath furnished them (as all other am- 
bassadors use to be) with a large and gracious commission, the title of 
which is, ' The ministry of reconciliation ; ' ' And hath given to us the 
ministi-y of reconciliation,' ver. 18. The sum of which commission hath 
these two principal parts. 

1. On the part of him, to publish and proclaim his royal and gracious 
intentions towards them. For when two are at variance, there can be no 
hope of peace and reconciliation, unless the party wronged and injured 
shew an inclination (at least) to listen to an agreement. Now as to that, 
he hath empowered and commanded them with all confidence and credence 
to declare ; 

First, That whereas they might conceive him most unjustly to be averse 
to the very motion of it, that yet he, for his part, is not only contented 
and inclined to listen to an agreement, but is and hath been ever so fully 
willing and desirous of it, that he hath made it as it were his chief business, 
and as that which he hath plotted to bring about ; and that he for his 
part hath been reconciling the world to himself by Christ. ' God was in 
Christ reconciling,' yea, and from everlasting hath been. And though all 
things else are of him, as ver. 18 he prefaceth unto this, yet this mainly 
above all other things. Take the whole of them, ' All things are of God, 
who hath reconciled us.' He hath been (as it were) totus in illo, wholly 
bent upon this of all things else. And whereas it might yet be thought, 
that he being so just, and having declared himself so jealous a God, sensible 
of the least injury, so tender of his glory, and jealous of the least violation 
or wTong done thereto, that he therefore would require and propound to have 
full satisfaction from them first, as the condition of his and their accord 
and agreement ; which that they, or any other creatm*e for them, either 
were able or wiUing to perform, was utterly out of all hope. Therefore, 

Secondly, He bids his ambassadors declare, that as to that point men 
need not trouble themselves, nor take care about it ; .for he himself hath 
further been so zealously afi"ected in this business, that he himself hath 
made full provision, and took order for that aforehand, and done it to their 
hand ; ' He hath been in Christ, reconciling the world ; ' that is, in hun 
and by him, as a mediator, and umpire, and surety between them and 
him, this great matter hath been taken up and accorded. For he 
and Jesus Christ his only Son have from all eternity laid their counsels 
together (as I may so speak w^ith reverence), to end this great difierence ; 
and they both contrived and agreed, that Christ should undertake to satisfy 
his father, for all the wrong was done to him, all which he should take 
upon himself, as if he were guilty of it ; ' he was made sin,' 2 Cor. v. 21, 
that is, a surety and a satisfaction for it. And God the Father, upon it, is 
60 fully satisfied, as he is ready not only not to impute their sins to them, 
ver. 19, but to impute all Christ's righteousness to them, and to receive 
them into favour more fully than ever they were. ' He was made sin, that 
they might be made the righteousness of God in him.' 

2. The second part of our commission is what conceras men, the parties 
to be reconciled ; and God hath given us, his ambassadors, full power and 


authority to deal witli men about it, and to strike up the compact and per- 
fect this agreement into a fall and iinal issue and end, with charge to tell 
this message indefinitely to all and every man in the world ; and that 
founded upon this ground, that reconciliation is to bo obtained from God 
for some in the world : and thereupon to exhort all and every one that hears 
it to be reconciled. And men accordingly are to seek it as thus revealed 
to them by us ; and these exhortations are to be entertained by them, as 
if God had exhorted and persuaded them thereunto. So ver. 20, ' Now 
then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us : 
we pray _you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God.' 

And this, my brethren, is the gospel, which is the best news that ever 
ear heard, or tongue was employed to utter, which took up God's thoughts 
from all eternity, and lay hid in his breast, and which none knew but his 
Son and Spirit ; a news so blessed and worthy of all acceptation, which 
as soon as it brake out, heaven and earth rang with joy again : the angels 
could not hold, but, as ambitious to be the first relaters of it, posted down 
to earth to bring the news of it: Luke ii. 13, 14, ' And suddenly there 
was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and say- 
ing. Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will towards 

And this being committed unto us to be the dispensers of it, this makes 
our very feet beautiful in the eyes of broken-hearted sinners : Rom. x. 15, 
' And how shall they preach, except they be sent ? as it is written. How 
beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring 
glad tidings of good things !' This makes our caUing envied (if possible it 
were envy should befall those blessed spirits), envied of the angels them- 
selves, to whom God hath not betrusted this glorious embassy, the most 
honourable employment that ever creature dealt in: Heb. ii., ' The law was 
given by angels,' ver. 2 ; ' but God hath not put into subjection to the 
angels the world to come, whereof we speak' (speaking of the gospel, ver. 5), 
for which Paul brings in that long and famous thanksgiving, 1 Tim. i. 
11, 12, ' According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was 
committed to my trust. And I thank Jesus Christ our Lord, who hath 
enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry.' 
He accounted that the greatest mercy which Jesus Christ (next his own 
salvation) had shewn him, and wherein he made him a pattern of his super- 
excelling grace, that he committed the gospel to his trust, which of all other 
doctrines tend the most to the good of men : 1 Tim. i. 15, ' This is a faith- 
ful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the 
■world to save sinners ; of whom I am chief.' Tit. iii. 7, 8, ' That, being 
justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of 
eternal life. This is a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou 
afiirm constantly, that they which have believed in God might be careful to 
maintain good works. These things are good and profitable unto men.' 
What things ? See ver. 4, even this doctrine of salvation ; ' and these 
things,' saith he, ' I would that thou affirm constantly,' ver. 8. For this 
is the power of God unto salvation ; as Rom. i. 16, ' For I am not ashamed 
of the gospel of Christ : for it is the power of God unto salvation, to every 
one that believeth, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek,' i. e., it is the 
most powerful and prevailing means to subdue the rebellious hearts of 
men, and overcome them ; and whereas the preaching of the law makes 
men often sturdy, this proclamation of pardon and reconciliation brings 
men in as voluntaries, and that by troops; Luke xvi. 16, ' The law and 


the propliets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is 
preached,' (that is, the gospel), ' and every man presseth into it.' Inti- 
mating that before, when the law was most preached, and the gospel but 
sparingly (and but as a parenthesis, as it were), there were few brought 
in ; but the gospel brought them in by heaps and multitudes (for so the 
opposition there stands), with which men were so taken and aflfected, that 
glad was he that could get in with pressure and crowding. 

And therefore we likewise freely profess to you, that these things we 
would affirm constantly (were men fitted, broken, and humbled), and preach 
in a manner nothing else, for it is the sum and upshot of our ministry, as 
the title is given it in the text, ' the ministry of reconciliation.' And we 
would desire to know nothing among you but Christ ; as Paul speaks to 
the Corinthians, 1 Cor. ii. 2, ' For I determined not to know any thing 
among 5-ou, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified :' and this chiefly, Christ 
as crucified to reconcile you, crucified before j'our eyes in the gospel. 
Gal. iii. 5, ' He therefore that miuistereth to you the Spirit, and worketh 
miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing 
of faith ?' And as for you, your work, rh hyov, is to believe ; ' This is the 
w^ork of God' (says Christ, John vi. 29), ' to believe in him whom God 
hath sent.' So our to s^yov, our work, is to preach him to you whom God 
hath sent, that you may believe in him ; and therefore we account it our 
misery that we are fain to spend the most of our time in making ourselves 
work, as in preaching the law we do ; and are fain to come with the great 
hammer of the law, and break all your bones in pieces, that we may then, 
as it is in Isa. Ixi. 1, ' preach the gospel, and bind up the broken-hearted.' 
It is tiresome to us that we must take men by the throats, and arrest them 
by the law (as we do), in the name of the great God, and haul them to 
prison, and there shut them up ' under the law,' as the apostle's phrase is, 
Gal. iii. 23, that then we may bring them Christ's bail, and by preaching 
the gospel, proclaim ' liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison 
to them that are bound;' as the allusion is, Isa. Ixi. 1, ' The Spirit of the 
Lord God is upon me ; because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good 
tidings uuto the meek : he hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, to 
proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that 
are bound.' 

And we do withal protest before God and men this day, that when we 
come to preach it, we yet tremble to do it more than any doctrine else ; 
for we are afraid that men should lie still in their sins : those that are 
di-unkards should be drunkards still, and unclean still, and lest those 
who withhold the truth in unrighteousness (their consciences telling them 
that they live and lie in known sins), lest they should go on to do so still 
after the delivery of it ; which if they shall do, they had better have been 
in hell than in the assembly of saints to hear the gospel. We tremble 
therefore at it, as knowing that men cannot hear it and disobey it, but 
under an extraordinary curse, oftentimes a final one, and such a one as 
Christ cursed the fig-tree with when he said, ' Never fruit grow on thee 

But to come unto that which is my main and principal intendment, and 
scope of this text, and which is the first and original part of the gospel, 
viz., the everlasting transaction which the Father had with his Son, in call- 
iuT him to the work of redemption of us men, considered as sinners. Other 
pieces of the gospel, as those on Christ's part, his fitness for the work, his 
ability and perfonnance, in being made sin and a curse, do in their due 

Chap. II. j of christ the mediator. 7 

place follow upon other texts. Cut attend at present unto the fountain and 
original of tlieui all, unto that which sets all the wheels going from eter- 
nity ; the story of which, were it hut for the antiquity thereof, is well worth 
the hearing, heing withal the greatest intei'course and treaty, about the great- 
est afl'air, between persons of the highest sovereignty and majesty, that ever 
was transacted either in heaven or earth, or ever will be. And accordingly, 
the highest form or rank of Christians, termed ' fathers,' have for their 
attainments this mark and character set upon them, ' to know him that 
was from the beginning,' as the highest pitch of all : 1 John ii. 14, ' I have 
written unto you, fathers, because ye have known him that is from the 
beginning. I have written unto you, young men, because ye are strong, 
and the word of God abideth in you, and ye have overcome the wicked one.' 
The apostle speaks with some allusion to what is the glory of old men, and 
so suitably of old men in Christ. They use to boast of knowing things 
that are of antiquity and of elder years, as having fallen under their obser- 
vation, as it is the property of young men to boast of their strength and 
vigour : Prov. xx. 29, ' The glory of young men is their strength, and the 
beauty of old men is the grey head,' i. e., their wisdom ; which lies in their 
grey heads, and which ariseth from their having the prospect of former 
times. John, therefore, coirespondently commends strong men, grown up 
in Christianity, for their strength, as the peculiar excellency of that age in 
Christ. ' You are strong' (says he), ' and have overcome the wicked one.' 
But he commends fathers in Christ for their knowledge in things most 
ancient ; and because the story of him that was from the beginning is the 
ancientest of all other that ever was, it is therefore made their excellency 
to know it, and is commended to their stud_y ; and the knowledge of the 
eternal transactions of God the Father for man's salvation is the highest of 
their attainments. 


Some observations premised. — That it is to the Father the reconciliation is 
made, and to hi)n the affair is chiefly attributed. 

Ere I come to the particulars of these transactions between God the 
Father and the Son for our salvation, I will premise some general observa- 
tions out of the text, which shall make way for what follows. 

The great business of reconciliation (as I said) is both the subject of the 
gospel and of this text, which tells us of those two great persons by whom 
this great business was transacted, and brought to such a pass, as men may 
come to be reconciled, and fiiends with God again ; and what they are, 
that is, God the Father, the party wronged and injured, and Christ the 
means of reconciliation, the umpire and mediator between both : ' God was 
in Christ reconciling the world.' 

By God is therefore meant a distinct person from Christ ; for in the for- 
mer w^ords it is said, that ' he hath reconciled all things to himself by Christ.' 
And that person is the Father, as other scriptures tell us. 

Obs. 1. That the Father is the person to whom reconciliation is made. 
Not but that it is made to the rest also. But, 

First, Because he being the first person, the suit against us runs in his 
name especially, though it be the quarrel of all the rest of the persons, and 
the injury done against all the rest. Thus in colleges, and such common 


societies, their suits against others are commenced in some one's name, as 
the master's or the hke, whose name is used for the whole ; and so this 
common quarrel and suit of trespass, which the whole Trinity hath against 
us, is commenced in God the Father's name for all the rest ; and therefore 
Christ is said to be an ' advocate with the Father,' 1 John ii. 1, as the party 
betrusted to take the atonement, and make an end of the quarrel in the 
name of all the rest. And, 

Secondhj, Because as creation is attributed to the Father especially, so 
the covenant of works, the law, the covenant we were created under, being 
a covenant made especially with the Father in the name of the rest, there- 
fore sin, which was the transgression of that covenant, is said to be, as it 
were, especially against him ; for in the dispensation of that covenant he 
ruled immediately. And as the sins against the second covenant are said 
to be in a more especial manner against Christ and the Holy Ghost, so those 
against the first, which occasioned the performance of reconciliation, are 
said to be against the Father. Because therefore the transgressions of the 
first testament, as they are called, Heb. ix. 15, are especially said to be 
committed against him, therefore he takes upon him as the person especially 
aggrieved, and so the reconciliation is said to be made to him. 

Thirdhj, And further, because the other two persons have other distinct 
offices in the work of reconciliation. I he Son he is to transact the part of 
a mediator, as the person by whom reecnciliation is to be performed; and 
the Holy Ghost, he is to make report of that peace and atonement made, 
and shed abroad the love of both. Kom. v. 5, ' And hope maketh not 
ashamed ; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy 
Ghost, which is given unto us.' He speaks of God's love in reconciling us : 
ver. 8, 9, 10, * But God commendeth his love towards us, in that, while we 
were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, being now justified 
by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. For if, when we 
were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son : much 
more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.' Therefore, the Father 
he bears (if any such part) the part of him that receives into favom-, and to 
whom we are to be reconciled. 

To illustrate this, we are in the same sense and respect said to be recon- 
ciled to the Father, in which we are taught especially to pray to the Father, 
' Our Father,' &c. For the Son and the Spirit do bear other parts in our 
prayers : the Son, he is the master of requests, the intercessor, in whose 
name therefore our prayers are to be made. The Holy Ghost, he is the 
inditer of our prayers, and helper of our infirmities ; Rom. viii. 26, 27, 
' Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities : for we know not what we 
should pray for as we ought ; but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for 
us with groanings which cannot be uttered. And he that searcheth the 
hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh interces- 
sion for the saints according to the will of God.' Therefore the Father, he 
is expressed as the party we pray unto ; and thus it is in like manner in the 
business of reconciliation. It is the Father to whom it is and was to be 
made, and therefore by him to be first promoted and set on work. 

Obs. 2. Observe in the second place, that as he is made the special per- 
son to whom the reconciliation is made, so the whole business is in an 
especial manner attributed to him. 

Though it be done and performed wholly by Christ as the mediator, yet 
the Father is he who sets all on work, and is said to reconcile by Christ to 
himself. It is not only that Christ hath been about reconciling us to him, 


but that be hath been a-vcconciling na to himself, and that in Christ, as 
having the first, and chief, and main hand in the work, as well as being the 
person to whom reconciliation is made. 

God the Father was not as other parties injured, that use to carry them- 
selves as mere passives in an agreement when it is to be wrought ; who, 
though they are at length brought to it, yet they will not seem to conde- 
scend to have any hand in it, or to be the first movers or the seekers of it. 
But God the Father carried himself otherwise in the reconciling of us ; he 
is active in it, he moves it and sets it on foot, and useth his interest in his 
Son for the eli'ecting of it. In general he is said especially to do two things. 

First, He it is that draws the platform of all the works that the other 
two persons do put their hand to effect. Christ says, that he himself doth 
nothing but what he sees the Father first do ; John v. 19, ' Then answered 
Jesus, and said unto them, Veril}^ verily, I say unto you. The Son can do 
nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do : for what things soever 
he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.' So that he, the Father, is 
the great plotter and contriver, that draws the draught ; for it is added, he 
shews all to the Son : ver. 20, ' For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth 
him all things that himself doeth : and he will shew him greater works 
than these, that ye may marvel.' As David the father drew, and gave 
Solomon the son, the pattern of the temple which he was to build, so God 
gave Christ the platform of reconciliation, of the temple his church, when 
he would have it built. The platform is especially attributed to him, the 
effecting of it to the Son ; and therefore Christ calls them the works which 
the Father hath given him to finish : John v. 86, ' But I have greater 
witness than that of John : for the works which the Father hath given me 
to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father 
hath sent me.' 

And, secoudlif, he not only draws the platform of them, how he would 
have them done, but the first purpose and resolution to have them done, 
that is attributed to him also. Therefore Christ resolves all into his Father's 
will; ' Even so. Father: it seemed good in thy sight,' Mat. xi. 26. And 
so this mystery and draft of reconciliation is called ^the ' mystery of his will ;' 
Eph. i. 9, ' Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according 
to his good pleasure, which he hath purposed in himself.' The mjjstenj, 
because he draws the plat ; and of his uill, because he resolves thus and 
thus to have it done ; who is said, ver. 11, 'to work all things according 
to the counsel of his will.' His counsel draws the draught, and his will 
resolves thus to have it done ; and all this is there especially attributed to 
the Father. 

Obs. 3. That he is not only made to have the first hand in it, but a uni- 
versal hand in it also. ' All things are of God, who hath reconciled us to 
himself.' And all things in the business of salvation and reconciliation are 
from him ; that, as it is said of Christ in the matter of creation, that ' all 
things were made by him ; and without him nothing was made,' &c., John 
i. 3, so Christ says, that he ' can do nothing, but what the Father fii'st 
doeth,' John v. 19. 

So as we find, that all in the matter of reconciliation is attributed both 
to Christ, and also to God the Father, which makes it indeed a great 
mystery, that all should be attributed to both ; so that we are beholden to 
both for all. 

Christ is said to be ' all in all' unto us, Col. iii. 11 ; and yet all that he 
is to us, he is to us of the Father. 1 Cor. i. 30, ' But of him are ye in 


Chi-ist Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, aad 
sanctification, and redemption.' 

As, first, all blessings and benefits we have by Christ are of the Fatlier, 
as the first donor and giver, though by Christ ; as Paul blesseth him for 
blessing us with all spu-itual blessings in Christ : Eph. i. 3, * Blessed be 
the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us witli all 
sj)iritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ,' Chiist is indeed wisdom 
and righteousness, which contains all that our needs require. But who 
made him all these ? He is not any of these, not the least of these, but 
as the Father hath made him unto us wisdom, &c. 1 Cor. 1. 80, 'Who 
is made to us of God,' kc. So as all is to be attributed as much to him 
as to Chi-ist. 

Yea, all we have, and all we are in Christ, is said to be of him ; ' Of him 
ye are in Christ Jesus,' in the same place. We are indeed in Christ, but 
yet of God in Christ. He gives all the being we have in Christ, all our 
subsistence in him, to which those blessings belong, that we are first in 
Chi'ist, and then have all blessings in him. He attributes all this to be of 
the Father. 

Now how all this is to be attributed to both, St Paul hath elsewhere taught 
us, using this veiy distinction, 1 Cor. viii. 6, ' The Father, of whom are all 
things, and we in him ; and one Lord Jesus Christ,' as mediator, ' by whom 
are all things, and we by him.' By and of puts the distinction, which we 
have observed. 

Yea, and thirdly, Jesus Christ as mediator, is all and wholly of him the 
Father, and by his appointment. Whatsoever he is or hath as mediator, 
is ordained to him by the Father. Therefore Christ is said to be his king : 
Ps. ii. 6, ' Yet have I set my King upon my holy hill of Zion.' And Christ 
is called his servant too : Isa. xlii. 1, ' Behold my servau* whom I uphold ; 
mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth : I have put my Spirit upon him ; 
he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.' And it is said also, that 
God the Father appointed him a priest : Heb. iii. 1, 2, ' ^\^lerefore, holy 
brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High 
Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus : who was faithful to him that ap- 
pointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house.' And it was God 
the Father who raised him up as a prophet : Deut. xviii. 15, ' The Lord 
thy God will raise up rmto thee a prophet fi'om the midst of thee, of thy 
brethren, like unto me ; unto him ye shall hearken.' And therefore, too, 
Christ is styled an heir of his appointment : Heb. i. 2, ' Hath in these last 
days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, 
by whom also he made the worlds.' 

Yea, fourthly, whatever Chi-ist did for us, in doing or sufiering, it was 
what his Father appointed him. All that he was to do, Luke ii. 49, and 
all he was to sufier. Acts ii. 23, it was his Father's cup, and he mingled it. 

Yea, fifthly, all the gloiy he hath as mediator, the Father is said to give 
him, John xvii. 22. And though it be no robbery for him to be equal with 
God, yet that gi"eat name he hath, God is said to have given him. Philip, 
ii. 6-11, ' "^Tio, being in the foiTQ of God, thought it not robbery to be 
equal with God ; but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him 
the form of a sei-vant, and was made in the likeness of men : and being 
found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto 
death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God also hath highly 
exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name : that at 
the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things La 

Chap. III.j of curist tue mkuiator. 11 

earth, and things under the earth : and that every tongue should confess 
that Jesus Clirist is Lord, to the gk)ry of God the Father.' 

And the reason of all this is that which is given there, even ' the glory 
of the Father.' The end of Christ's great name, and all that honour we 
are to attribute to him is, * to the glory of God the Father,' vcr. 11. 
Though Christ hath a name above every name, which we are to magnify 
and adore, yet all this his .lame is to the glory of the Father, who hath 
the revenue of all. And therefore when the Lord Jesus Christ gives up 
his dispensatory kingdom to his Father, as mediator, God shall be * all in 
all : ' 1 Cor. xv. 28, * And when all things shall be subdued unto him, 
then shall the Son also himself be subdued unto him that put all things 
under him, that God may be all in all.' Why? Because all was originally 
from him, therefore all shall end in him, and he shall be all in all. 


What as to our salvation was done by God the Father from all eternity. — The 
mea)u)ig of that phrase, ' God was reconciling us in Christ.' — That God 
took tip a strong resolution and purpose to reconcile some of the fallen sons 
of men to himself. — His motives were not any thing in us, but purely his 
love, and his delight in mercy. — His love in thus designing salvation to us 
magnified by several considerations. 

These things being premised, we come now to shew what God the Father 
hath done towards this business of recouciUation, how far he hath advanced 
it and set it forwards. 

Now the main of his work was transacted secretly from everlasting, as 
we have it here also expressed to us, 1 Cor. v. 19, ' God was in Christ.' 
He had said in the former verse, He hath actually reconciled us, believers, 
by Jesus Christ ; but yet lest they should think that this was a business 
begun of late to be done by him, then when Christ died, and they w^ere 
converted, he further says, that he hath made it his main business from 
all etei-nity, ' God was in Christ reconciling the world.' 

And to this purpose the alteration of the phrase is observable, that speak- 
ing of actual reconciliation, as performed by Christ, and applied to them 
who were now believers, he saith, ' He hath reconciled us by Jesus Christ,' 
Bia Ii^aou XoiOTc-j ; but, speaking of this transaction from everlasting, he says 
iv Xpiijm, ' God was in Christ reconciling the world.' 

And it is the observation of a great divine,- though not upon this text, 
yet putting the difference between these two phrases, of what God is said 
to do in Christ and by Christ, as in many places they are used ; that when 
God is said to reconcile in Christ, or the like, it implies and notes out 
those immanent acts of God in Christ ; the preparation of all mercies and 
benefits we have by Christ, from him, and laying them up in him really 
for us in Christ, as in our head, in whom God looked upon us when we 
had no subsistence but in him ; when God and he were alone plotting of 
all, framing of all that was after to be done by Christ for us, and applied 
unto us. But the particle by whom imports the actual performance of all 
this by Christ, and application of it to us, Eph. i. 3, 4, ' Blessed be the 
God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all 
spii'itual blessings in heavenly places in Christ :' ver. 4, ' According as he 

* Zanchy. 


hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should 
be holy and without blame before him in love.' We are said to be blesced 
with all spu-itual blessings in Christ, so that God was then a-justifj'ir^ us 
in him, a-reconciling us in him. 

And further to enlarge this notion, we may observe these three phrases 
severally used — in Christ, fur Christ, and ihrourjh Christ. 

1. In Christ, as here and elsewhere. 

2. For Christ, as to you it is given to suffer for Christ : Philip, i. 29, 
' For unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on 
him, but also to suffer for his sake.' 

3. Through Christ, as I am able to do all things through Christ : Phihp. 
iv. 13, 'I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me.' 

1. When he says in Chiist, he speaks of Christ as of a common head, 
whom God looked at as such, when he endowed us with all blessings in 
him, by way of a covenant with him for us. 

2. For Christ notes out Christ as the meritorious. cause, for whose sake 
we obtain those blessings, for he was to purchase them. 

3. And the third notes out Chiist as the efficient cause, that dispenseth 
that grace, as a king, to us. 

Let us thei-efore first begin with what God the Father hath done, who 
was the chiefest in that secret transaction between him and Christ from 
everlasting, which is the groundwork of all in the gospel, which is therefore 
said to have lain hid in God : Eph. iii. 9, ' And to make all men see what 
is the fellowship of the mj'steiy, which from the beginning of the world 
hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ.' 

And we will begin at that which was the spring and fii*st moving cause of 
aU in him, and that is, his will and good pleasure. 

First, He took up a strong purpose and resolution to reconcile some of 
the sons of men to him, though they would or should turn rebels against 
him ; and this purpose began from him, and in him first. Hence the 
gathering together of all in one, that is, the uniting and knitting his church 
to himself in one head, who were scattered from him. The gaining and 
winning them in again is said to be the mystery of his will, and attributed 
to his good pleasure, whereof he gives no reason, but a purpose taken up 
in himself, even according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in 
himself: Eph. i. 9, 10, ' Having made known unto us the mystery of his 
will, according to his good pleasure, which he hath purjiosed in himself:' 
ver. 10, ' That, in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he might gather 
together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which 
are on earth, even in him.' Which he hath purposed in himself, that is, 
whereof there is no other motive nor first mover or occasioner, but him- 
self, and this is there attributed chiefly to the Father. 

To say no more ; this he resolved upon, and would have effected, and 
this with infinite delight in the project of it, so as he should be gladder to 
see this business effected and brought about, than any that ever he should 
set his baud unto ; his heart was more in it than in all things else. ' All 
things are of God,' but this above all. 

Aid it was a great matter that he should pitch so peremptorily and re- 
solutely on this course rather than any other, for he might have took up 
other purposes enough suitable and advantageous to his ends, but this 
pleased him above all other. Col. i. 19, 20, ' For it pleased the Father, that 
in him should aU fulness dwell,' ver. 20 ; ' And (having made peace through 
the blood of his cross) b}' him to reconcile all things unto himself ; by him, 


I sav, •whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven.' For these 
enemies he could have clestroj^d, and have been ghjrified in their just de- 
struction. He was able enough to bear the loss of souls. AVhat is it to 
him that the nations perish ? He should not have weakened himself a whit 
by cutting olf all the rebels, as kings do, whose glory consists io the multi- 
tude of their subjects. Neither had he any need of friends ; he was happy 
enough afore they were, and could be as happy still without them. And if 
he would have friends, had he not the angels ? tliat were constant friends 
to him, to delight in. One would think he should have prized their friend- 
ship more for the faithfulness of it ; and if he had a mind to others, he 
could have created new ones. But out of these very stones he would have 
a new generation raised up, a seed of well-willers, or a generation of chil- 
dren to Abraham. And yet as God offered to Moses, he might have done 
in this our case. Num. xiv. 12, ' I will smite them with the pestilence, and 
disinherit them, and will make of thee a greater nation, and mightier than 
they.' God might have made tlie offer of all greatness and glory to Christ, 
and as for us, might have destroyed us one and all, and have packed us all 
to hell for rebels. He had prisons enough to have held us, which kings 
often want in a general rebellion ; yea, and he would have been glorified 
in that our just destruction also. There was therefore no necessity put 
him upon this resolution, but his good pleasure, which was in himself, 
which made him say within himself of the sons of men, as in allusion to 
what is in Jer. viii. 4, ' Shall they fall, and not arise ? shall he turn away, 
and not return ? ' His mind lingered after them, and he is glorified more 
in the services than the sufferings of men ; and he had angels enough 
already, thousand thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousands, and 
he would have some men that should see his glory, bless him, and be 
blessed of him. He loves variety ; to have two witnesses at least, he 
creates two worlds, heaven and earth, in them two several sorts of reason- 
able creatures as inhabitants ; upon them he would shew two several ways 
of salvation, and all to shew his manifold wisdom : Eph. iii. 8-10, ' Unto 
me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I 
should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ ; ' 
ver. 9, ' And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, 
which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created 
all things by Jesus Christ : ' ver. 10, ' To the intent that now to the prin- 
cipalities and powers in heavenly places might be known by the church the 
manifold wisdom of God.' And if you would further know. What should 
be the reason of this strange aff'ection in our God, why ? The Scripture 
gives it. 

Our God being love, even love itself, 1 John iv. 16, ' And we have 
known and believed the love God hath to us. God is love ; and he that 
dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him.' Our God loving, 
where he sets his love, with an infinite love as himself is, which love of 
all things else in him he loves to shew the utmost of, and of all works, 
works of love have the most delight in them, therefore mercy is called his 
delight, his darling : Micah vii. 18, ' Who is a God like unto thee, that 
pardoneth iniquity, and passeth by the transgression of the remnant of his 
heritage ? He retaineth not his anger for ever, because he dehghteth in 
mercy.' Our God being thus love, and mercy his dehght, he would gladly 
shew how well he could love creatures, he was most glad of the greatest 
opportunity to shew it; therefore he resolves upon this course, to reconcile 
enemies, whatsoever it should cost. And the more they should cost 


him, the gladder should they* be. The making of a thousand new friends 
could not have expressed so much love as the reconciling one enemy. To 
love and delight in friends, who had never wronged him, was too narrow, 
shallow, and slight a way. He had heights, depths, breadth of love : Eph. 
iii. 18, ' May be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, 
and length, and depth, and height.' Which heights and depth of love he 
would make known, and which nothing but the depths of our miseiy could 
have drawn out. 

And that this is the reason, see Rom. v. 8, 10, ' But God commendeth 
his love towards us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.' 
Ver. 10, ' For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the 
death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his 
life.' God commends his love towards us, that whilst we were yet enemies, 
he gave his Son for us, not to be born only, but to die. Both our being 
sinners, and his giving his Son, commends or sets out his love ; and that he 
might commend it, he pitcheth on this course. And that this love should 
be pitched upon men, not the angels that fell, it yet further commends 
his love. There were but two sorts of sinners whose sins could be taken 
away ; and of the twain, who would not have thought but the fallen angels 
should have been propounded first, and have passed more easily ? They 
were fairer and better creatures than we ; and if he regarded service, one 
of them was able to do him more than a thousand of us. When he had 
bought us, he must be at a great deal of more ti'ouble to preserve and tend 
us, than we were able ever to requite in service and attendance upon him. 
He must allow us much of our time to sleep, and eat, and to be idle in ; 
to refresh our bodies, and tend us as you would tend a child ; rock us 
asleep eveiy night, and make our beds in sickness ; Ps. xli. 3, ' The Lord 
will strengthen him upon the bed of languishing : thou wilt make all his bed 
in his sickness;' and feed us himself in due season. Whereas the angels, 
they could stand in his presence day and night, and not be weary. And, 
besides, the nature of the angels had been a fitter match a great deal for 
his Son. They are spirits, and so in a nearer assimilation to him. "Who 
ever thought he should close to match so low as with us ? All this makes 
for us still the more love, for it was the more free. And the more unlikely 
it is that he could love such as we, the more his love is commended. The 
less we could- do for him or for ourselves, the more it would appear he did 
for us. He is honoured more in our dependence than our service. He 
hath regard to the lo\\Tiess of his spouse and handmaids, and lets the 
mighty go, principalities and powers ; he loves still to prefer the younger, 
and make the elder serve them. Bom. ix. The angels are ministering 
spirits for their good. Among men he culls out still the poor, the foolish, 
not many wise or noble ; and he makes as unlikely a choice amongst his 


That God, in jytirsnance of his gracious design to save sinners, exercised his 
ivisdom to contrive the fittest means of accomplishing it. — Though God 
might have j^ardoned sin without satisfaction, yet he icould not; and the 
reasons of it. 

As God's purpose was thus strongly bent upon the salvation of men, so 
his wisdom and counsel were exercised about the means whereby it might 

» Qu. 'he"?— Ed 


bo effected ; and it is a business tbat requires tbe depths of bis wisdom. 
We silly men set upon many projects, wbicli at first view delight and ailect 
us ; and we are hot upon them, which yet upon consultation we find not 
feasible, and so leave them, meeting with such difficulties in them as we 
know not how to compass them ; though when the heart is fully set upon 
any business, it will set wit and invention a- work to find out all means that 
wit can reach to. 

Now, as God's strong purpose and delights wei-e in this great work, so 
also his depths of wisdom were in it also. Therefore God's will is said to 
have counsel joined with it, to work all by counsel, Eph i. 11. He works 
all by counsel, to efiect and bring to pass what his will hath pitched upon, 
and the stronger his will is in a thing, the deeper are his counsels about 
it ; and this business, as he resolves to have it carried, will prove such as 
will draw out his depths of wisdom. 

And therefore as you have seen his will thus strongly pitched upon it, 
as his highest and deepest project, to manifest the dearest affection in him 
to the utmost, so you shall now see his wisdom soar as high (indeed in- 
finitely) out of our sight, thoughts, and imaginations, to find out a corre- 
spondent means, not only to effect it, but in eflecting it to shew both love 
and wisdom, and give full satisfaction to bis justice, which was infinitely 
beyond the reach of any created understanding to have found out. 

There was one way indeed which was more obvious, and that was, to 
pardon the rebels, and make no more ado of it ; for he might if he had 
pleased have ran a way and course of mere mercy, not tempered with justice 
at all. He might have pardoned without satisfaction. I will not now dis- 
pute it ; only this I will say for the confij-mation of it, to punish sin being 
an act of his will, as well as other works of his ad extra, may therefore be 
suspended as he himself pleaseth. To hate sin is his nature ; and that sin 
deserves death is also the natural and inseparable property, consequent, 
and demerit of it ; but the expression of this hatred, and of what sin 
deserves by actual punishment, is an act of his will, and so might be 

But besides that this way would not manifest such depths of love, though 
thus to have pardoned one man had shewn more love than was shewn to 
all the angels who never sinned ; it also was not adequate and answerable 
to all those his glorious ends, and pui-poses, and other resolutions in this 
plot, which he will be constant unto, and make to meet in it (and it is 
the proper use of wisdom to make all ends meet) ; and God will not break 
one rule or purpose he takes up ; and he hath other projects afoot besides. 

First, He meant to give a law, whereof he will not have the least iota to 
perish or be in vain ; Mat. v. 18, ' For verily I say unto you. Till heaven 
and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in nowise pass from the law, till 
all be fulfilled.' Which law might both discover what was sin, and what a 
heinous thing it was, and shew by a threatening the punishment which it 
natm'ally doth deserve, and what the sinner might expect in justice from 
him ; this was necessary, for where there is no law there is no sin ; Rom. 
V. 13, ' Sin is not imputed where there is no law.' And otherwise there 
should have been no sinner actually capable of punishment. 

Secondhi, Giving this law he takes upon him to be a judge, and the 
judge of all the world ; for in the very making of the law he declares him- 
self to be so. 

Thirdly, If so, then he is engaged upon many strong motives to shew 


his justice against sin in that punishment he thi-eatened ; though still in 
that he is judge of all the world, and maker of the law, he could if he 
pleased forbear to execute those threatenings (seeing a note of irrevocation 
was not added to them) ; for he that made the law may repeal that part of 
it, yet most strong motives these are to execute them. 

For is he not the judge of all the world ? And is it not a righteous thing 
with God to render vengeance ? 2 Thess. i. 5, 6, ' "Which is a manifest 
token of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted worthy of 
the kingdom of God, for which ye also sutler : ' ver. 6, ' Seeing it is a 
righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble 
you.' ' And shall not the Judge of all the world do right ? ' Gen. xviii. And 
is he not therefore to set a copy to all judges else, being judge of all the 
world ? Primum in quolihet genere , est mensura reliquorum. And is not he 
an abomination to him, that justifies the unrighteous and condemns the 
innocent '? Prov. xvii. 15, These may not dispense with the laws, because 
they are but his justices ; and though he might dispense, being the supreme 
judge, yet if all the world be his circuit, and he means to condemn the 
angels by the law, and shew his justice on them, how will he clearly over- 
come when he judgeth them ? as it is in Rom. iii. 4. Stop their mouths, 
as it is at the 19th verse, if he shews not his justice against those sins he 
pardons. And though he might say to them, Pay what you owe ; what is 
that to you? yet even the men he pardons, and pardons to that end to shew 
his mercy, would esteem sin less, and pardon less, if it were procured and 
obtained lightly ; and should sin, which is the greatest inordinacy, and would 
not be brought in compass in his government, which doth order all things, be 
left to its extravagant com-se, and passed um-egarded, and escaped as fi:ee 
as hoUness ? 

And again, are not all his attributes his nature, his justice as well as 
mercy ? his hatred o: sin, as well as the love of his creature ? And is 
not that nature of his pure act, and therefore active, and therefore provokes 
all his will to manifest these his attributes upon all occasions ? Doth not 
justice boil within him against sin, as well as his bowels of mercy yearn 
towards the sinner ? Is not the plot of reconciliation his mastei-piece, 
wherein he means to bring all his attributes upon the stage ? And should 
his justice, and this expressed by a law, keep in and sit down contented, 
without shewing itsslf? No; and therefore he resolves to be just, and 
have his justice and law satisfied, as well as to justify the sinner ; Rom. 
iii. 26, ' To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness : that he might 
be just, and the justifier of him that beUeveth in Jesus.' And as to run a 
course of mere rigorous justice pleased him not, so likewise nor to stretch 
the pure absolute prerogative of mercy. Wherefore some of the fathers 
have, after the manner of men, brought in mercy and justice here pleading; 
the project of mercy was his delight, as mercy is, Micah vii. 18. And he 
had resolved above all to shew it. But then justice also is his sceptre, 
whereby he is to i-ule, and govern, and judge the world. Wherefore his 
wisdom, as a middle attribute, steps in, and interposeth as a means of 
mediation between them both, and undertakes to compound the business, 
and to accommodate all, so as both shall have theii" desire and aims, their 
full demonstration and accomplishment. 



To the effecting of oil the drsirpis, both of justice and mercy, it teas necessari/ 
that a full and complete saliiifaclion should be made, u/iich ne being unable 
to pay, divine ivisdoin thought of another person to undeitalce and to do it 
for us. — That God's justice is contented uith tJiis commutation of the 
person, since hereby that attribute is more glorified, and all the ends of the 
law answered, than if we the offeiulers had in our own jjersoas suffered the 
due punishment of sin. 

This accomplishment of all the designs, hoth of justice and mercy, must 
be by satisfaction, by full and adequate ransom, d\riXvT^oi> ; 1 Tim. ii. 6, 
* Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time ; ' which is 
reddiiio aquivalenlis pro aquivalenti, which the sinner of himself would never 
have been able to perform. There is no thinking of it ; Rom. v. G-8, 
' For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the 
ungodly.' Ver. 7, ' For scarcely for a righteous man will one die : yet 
peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.' Ver. 8, ' But 
God commendeth his love towards us, in that, while we were yet sinners, 
Christ died for us.' We are said to be without strength, and it is there 
brought in, as the great demonstration of Christ's love in dying for us, 
when we were yet without strength. And if nothing we are, much less 
anything we have or can offer ; the blood of bulls and goats is not able ; 
it is not possible to take away sin by it : Heb. x. 4, ' For it is not possible 
that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins.' Add to them 
all the creatures that are the appurtenances of man, which man hath to 
give, as gold, silver, precious stones, not the whole world of them would 
do. For nothing less noble than man can be a sufficient surety for man's 
life, which sin deprives us of. All such things are not worth a soul, which 
is to be lost for sin, said he that paid for one ; Mat. xvi. 26, ' For what is 
a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul ? or 
what shall a man give in exchange for his soul ? ' And as it is in Micah 
vi. 7, ' Will the Lord be pleased with rivers of oil? nay, with thy firstborn 
of thy body for the sin of thy soul ? ' There is no proportion ; God would 
never have turned away so fair a chapman, if his justice could afford so 
cheap a commutation. And as not rivers of oil, so nor rivers of tears, which 
(as all other actions that come from us) are defiled, and become but as 

His wisdom therefore thought of a commutation, so as that that satis- 
faction should be performed by a surety in our stead, who might be a me- 
diator and umpire, and who might take our sins upon himself, and upon 
whom God might lay the iniquity of us all, Isa. liii. 6, and exact the punish- 
ment, as Junius reads it; that might become a surety : Heb. vii. 21, 22, 
' For those priests were made without an oath ; but this with an oath, by 
him that said unto him, The Lord sware, and will not repent. Thou art 
a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec ;' ver. 22, ' By so much was 
Jesus made a surety of a better testament;' that might make satisfaction, 
being made sin ; 2 Cor. v. 21, ' For he hath made him to be sin for us, who 
knew no sin ; that we might be mude the righteousness of God in him.' 
That being ' made of a woman, might be under the law,' Gal. iv. 4. ' But 
when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, 
made under the law,' and who so might give and expose himself as a ransom 
and dvriXur^ov, a sufficient adequate satisfaction. 

And his justice will be content to admit of such a commutation, and that 

VOIi. V. B 


such a satisfaction should be performed by a surety in our stead. For 
when all parties are satisfied, and no wrong is done to any, justice may 
well be satisfied. For if the parties undertaking it be willing, volenti -non 
Jit injuria, and the great undertaker having power over that thing which he 
ofiers to lay down for satisfaction, being lord of it, no other one is wi'onged. 

Neither is the party to be satisfied wronged, if he that undertakes it be 
of ability fully to satisfy and to fufil what he desires, and if, being the law- 
giver, he be wiUing to assent to this act of his, and to accept it. For, being 
Lord of his own law, he may dispense with the letter of it, if so be those 
holy ends, which his counsel had in making it, be accomplished and attained; 
and if the reason of the law and lawgiver be satisfied, then is the law. Now 
the ends and gi'ounds of gi'V'ing God's law were to declare and shew forth 
his justice, and hatred against sin wherever he found it. Now his justice 
and hatred of sin is as fully manifested when punishment is executed upon a 
party assuming our sins on himself, and undertaking to be a surety, as if 
the sinner himself were punished ; if not more, in that ]te doth but un- 
dertake it for another, and yet is not spared. As God is said to hear our 
prayers, and fulfil his promise, when he answers to the groimd of our 
prayers, though not in the thing ; so are the cries of sin, or* justice against 
the sinner, answered, and God's threatenings fulfilled, when anot'ier is 
punished, becausj all the ends of the lawgiver are fully accomplished. 
It is true, the tenor and litter of the law is dispensed with, but not the 
debt ; that is as fully exacted as ever. It is but a dispensation of the party 
obliged, not of the obligation itself, or of the debt, or of the reason why the 
debt is exacted. It is not wholly secundum lef/em, nor yet contra, bvBi Kara 
vofjbov b-odi Kara vo/xou, dX'/M ii-so v6/j,ov y.al i/-£g \/ofj.ov,f it is a saying no less 
solid than elegant, and therefore the more elegant, because it was anciently 
used in another case. And although the law doth not mention or name a 
surety, and the malefactor's single bond be only mentioned therein, and the 
threatening dhected against him, and his name is only in the project, be- 
cause the law in itself supposeth as yet none else guilty, and can challenge 
none else, yet if some other, that is lord of his own action, subject himself 
to the law willingly, which will of his is a law to him, and the lawgiver 
himself, that is lord of the law, accepts this, as seeing the same ends shall 
be satisfied for which he made the law ; in this case the law takes hold of 
the surety or undertaker, and he may let the malefactor go free. 

And now that his wisdom hath found a course and way of mediation 
between his justice and his mercy, j-et who is there in heaven and earth 
should be a fit mediator, both able and wilhng to undertake it, and faithful 
to perform it ? 


The great difficulty ivas, to find out a person of strength equal to so high an 
undertaking. — Neither angeh nor men could have found out or presented a 
fit person. — God manifest in the flesh, for redemjit ion of man, teas a mxjstery 
above all the thoughts of angels or men, and was worthy only of God's wisdom 
to find out. 

The difficulty is still behind, a mysteiy so gi'eat as would have nonplussed 
heaven and earth, angels and men, Nodus Deo vindice dignus. So as if 

* Qu. ' for ' ?— Ed. 

t That is, ' Neither against the law nor according to the law ; but above the law 
and for the sake of the law.' — Ed. 

Chap. VI. J of christ the mediator. 10 

God had referred it to a consultation of men and angels, and empanncllcd all 
intelligible natures upon tbis grand jury for to save men, and ofiered but thus 
ftiirly ; though none of you can do it, yet find you but out the way and person, 
and I will set my power to the eli'ecting of it ; they would have returned in 
a verdict and bill of L/norMtius. After millions of years' consultation, their 
thoughts would not have presumed to have waded into this depth, so far as 
to think that justice might dispense in the least measure with so holy a law, 
and admit a commutation. 

But impossible it was they should have thought of the person that should 
give full satisfaction to his justice, it passed all created powers to perform 
it (as I shall shew when I shall shew Christ's ability to this work), and 
as it passed their power to eflect it, so their skill and reach. We who 
could never have found out a remedy for a cut finger, had not God pre- 
scribed and appointed one, could much less for this, it being a case of such 
difficulty. The devils they could not imagine any way, no more for us than 
for themselves, and therefore tempted man, thinking him when he had 
sinned sure enough, and hell gates so strongly locked, that no art could find 
or make a key to open them, or power to break them open. Adam, poor 
man, he trembled, and knew not which way to turn him, and thought God 
would have flown upon him presently. The good angels, they know it but 
by the church : Eph. iii. 10, ' To the intent that now unto the principalities 
and powers in heavenly places, might be known by the church the manifold 
wisdom of God.' In this strait God himself aforehand set his depths of 
wisdom a-work to find out one, in and by whom all things might be accom- 
modated, and out of those infinite depths found out and invented a way and 
means of eii'ecting our reconciliation, even in the incarnation and dealu of 
his own Son. Before the wound given, he provided a plaster ; and to aiiude 
.0 Abraham's speech, provided a sacrifice unknown to us, and a sufficient 
remedy to salve all again, which otherwise had been past finding out. 

For the assumption of our nature into one person with the Son of God, 
was a thing thought credible when revealed, because possible, yet hardly so 
conceived, even by Mary, when it was told her by the angel : Luke i. 31, 
* How can this thing be '?' says she. There is nothing in all the works of 
nature to make a correspondent example for it; yea, nature denies such a 
composition, to confound heaven and earth. All other religions abhor it. 
It was the great stumbling-block of the Jews, as they object it to him : John 
X. 33, ' The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone tliee 
not ; but for blasphemy, and because that' thou, being a man, makest thy- 
self God.' 

But suppose that mystery had been made known, as some say it was, to 
the angels, that Christ in our nature should be a head, a mediator of union, 
the stomaching of which, say some, was their fall ; yet to have imaginid 
him a mediator of reconciliation, and that he should satisfy God for us, 
and be made sin and a curse, they would have trembled to have thought it, 
if God had not first said it. Nay, when Christ told his apostles what he 
-was to sufier, their thoughts seemed to abhor it ; ' Master, spare thyself,' 
says Peter: Mat. xvi. 21, 22, 'From that time forth began Jesus to shew 
unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jei'usalem, and suffer many 
things of the elders, and chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and be 
raised again the third day ;' ver. 22, ' Then Peter took him, and began to 
rebuke him, saying. Be it far from thee, Lord : this shall not be unto 

This invention therefore God's wisdom alone is to have the glory, of and 


therefore it is called, ' the hidden wisdom of God, as in a mystery :' 1 Cor. 
ii. 7, ' But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden 
wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory.' The chief 
piece of which mystery is God manifest in the flesh : 1 Tim. iii. 16, * And, 
without controversy, great is the mystery of godliness ; God was manifest 
in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, 
believed on in the world, received up into glory ;' which, had God not re- 
vealed, none could ever have reached, for it ' lay hid in God :' Eph. iii. 9, 
' And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from 
the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things 
by Jesus Christ.' 

And which when revealed is, without controversy, so great a mystery, 
1 Tim. iii. 16, that the very revelation of it is the greatest argument that 
can be brought to prove the truth of our religion ; for all men that under- 
stand it, must and will with amazement acknowledge and confess, that so 
great a plot could not have been hatched in the womb of any created under- 
standing. As sin was our invention, Eccl. vii. 29, so Christ alone was God's; 
and therefore Christ is called, ' The Wisdom of God,' which is not spoken of 
him essentially as second person, but mcwifesiative as mediator, because in 
him his wisdom to the utmost is made manifest. 


When God's idsdomJiacl found outa Jit person, yet since this must he his only 
Son, here was a greater difficulty fur him to overcome ; how to give him for 
us. — The depths of God's love here, as of his tvisdom before, seen in not 
spxiring his own Son, but exposing him to all the rigours of justice, which 
would not make the least abatements. — It ivas of free choice that he made 
thus of his Son to be a Redeemer, to which he was not obliged or necessitated. 
— He appointed his Son to death for us, and laid his injunction and charge 
on him to perform this his ivill. 

Now the person is found out, and the way clear how it should be done, 
which difliculty his wisdom hath expedited ; yet the finding out the person 
hath brought a greater with it ; for if none but he that was his Son could 
do it, and though a Son, yet if he become a surety, justice will not have 
him spared. ' He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for 
us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things ? ' Justice 
would abate nothing ; ' Without blood there is no remission,' and not the 
best blood of his body would serve, but of his soul too. He must bear our 
sins : Isa. liii. 5, ' But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was 
bruised for our iniquities : the chastisement of our peace was upon him ; 
and with his stripes we are healed.' He must pay God in the same coin 
we should, and tlierefore must ' make his soul an oflering for sin : ' Isa. liii. 
10, 11, ' Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him ; he hath put him to grief: 
when thou shalt make his soul an oflering for sin, he shall see his seed, he 
shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his 
hand. He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied : by his 
knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many ; for he shall bear their 
iniquities.' And if he be made sin, he must be made a curse ; and which 
is more than all this, God himself must be the executioner, and his own 
Son the person who suflers, and no creature could strike stroke hard enough 


to make it satisfactory. JTany a tender mother hath not the heart to soo 
her child whipped, much less to whip it herself, although she knows it to 
he for its own profit and good, when it is in fault ; hut God hero in this 
case must put his Son to grief, Isa. liii. 10. 

To find out the way to accomplish it, and the person hy whom, drew out 
hut the depths of his wisdom ; hut now, if the business go forward, it will 
draw out the depths of his love. It cost him but his thoughts afore, now 
it must cost him his Son, the Son of his love. If it were to sacrifice worlds 
for us, he could have easily created millions, and destroyed them again for 
us ; as he gave nations for their sakcs, Isa. xliii. 4. But what ? To sacri- 
fice his only Son, here was the ditliculty. 

And if this be the only way (God might have said), bury the invention of 
it in eternal silence ; let it never be made mention of or come to light, that 
ever there were such a thing ; let it here die, rather than Christ die ; and 
therefore though his heart was much set upon this project, yet this might 
likely have dashed all, that nothing should serve but the death of his Son ; 
his will might be more set upon this business of reconciling us, than ever 
on any, but yet not upon such terms as these. He might be glad to see 
it done, yet not to cost so dear. 

Behold therefore and wonder, and stand aghast ! He takes this way to 
choose, and chooseth Christ to this work ; and thus to choose him was God 
the Father's work, and indeed a work of wonder. Isa. xlii. 1, ' Behold my 
servant, whom I uphold ; my elect, in whom mj' soul delights.' And so 
Mat. xii. 18, ' Behold my servant whom I have chosen, in whom my soul 
is well pleased.' That ever these two should be put together in one sen- 
tence, — SciL, ' In whom my soul delights,' Avith this, ' Behold my servant 
whom I have chosen,' to such a harsh and difficult a business ; j'et that was 
the very reason of this choice, therefore he chooseth him, and therefore it 
is mentioned with it ; for the more he loved him, the more love he should 
shew in giving him for us. 

And observe it. It is made an act of choice in him, full and free. He 
had other wa3fs ; at least, he was no way necessitated unto this. He might 
have destroyed us, and lost nothing by us. He might have pardoned us, 
and shewn more love therein than unto millions of new created friends. 
Yea, suppose a creature could have satisfied, yet he takes this way to choose ; 
it suits with the utmost extent of all his ends. If the sacrifices of bulls 
and goats could (as they could not), have taken away sin, yet these ' thou 
wouldst not,' says Christ, Heb. x. 8, ' but a body hast thou fitted me. He 
takes away the first ' (says the apostle, Heb. x. 9), ' that he may establish 
the second.' That is, he layeth aside all other means (if other could be 
supposed), and chooseth this, and however resolves to take this course ex 
ahundanti ; and as in making his promises it is said, Heb. vi. 17, ' God 
being willing more abundantly to shew to the heirs of salvation the immu- 
tability of his counsel, confirms them by an oath,' which puts an end to all 
controversies ; ver. 16, ' And because he can swear by no greater, he sware 
by himself.' So say I in this : What if God, ex ahundanti, if upon supposi- 
tion other means could have done it ; yet out of his abundance of love to us, 
whom he thinks he can never love enough, nor to shew his love, do too 
much for ; what if he means to give his Son because he cannot give a 
greater, and so at once to give the gi-eatest instance of his love and justice : 
of his love, in that he is not only content to commute the punishment, but 
lay it on his Son ; of his justice, in that he will not only punish sin in us, 
but even in him. He will not spare his own Son, Rom. viii. 32, and so he 


will make sure work indeed, and put an end to all suppositions, fears, yea, 
possibility of miscarriage ; a way whereby to accommodate all things so 
fully, as all conveniences requisite to this work should concur, yea, abound 
indeed in Christ's alone mediation. The demonstration of which doth de- 
pend upon the second part of the story, when we hear what Christ did do 
to the ellecting of it. 

So as it is, and may be a great question, whether God hath shewn more 
love in pitching on this way, when by other means he might have saved us 
if he would ; or if no other means could be had, and God was confined to 
this, yet that God would do so much rather than we should not be saved ? 
We could have had pardon without Christ, yet to have not pardon only, 
but Christ also, this is infinitely more. The pardon of sin is a greater gift 
than millions of worlds ; but to have pardon through Christ, and Christ 
with the pardon, though but of one sin, is more than the pardon of worlds 
of sins. 

And, further, consider what he chose Christ unto ; ' He appointed him 
to death,' as the apostle says of himself in another case. Therefore Peter, 
1 Pet, i. 18, 19, speaking of our redemption by his blood ; ' which (says 
he) was verily foreordained before the foundation of the world.' So as he 
chose him not as a head only, but as a lamb to be slain : Rev. xiii. 8, 
' And all that dwell on the earth shall worship him, whose names are noi 
written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the 

I have elsewhere * shewed how he was appointed to be an heir ; but 
there is some dignity in that, and yet it was a humiliation in him to take 
that by appointment which was his own by natural inheritance ; but to be 
appointed to death so long afore, and to such a death, and there was not 
a circumstance in it but his Father appointed it, that it should be thus 
shameful, thus painful, &c.,this was love indeed ; Acts ii. 23, 'Him being 
delivered by the determinate counsel of God, ye have crucified and slain.' 
All was done by the determinate counsel of God. He not only secretly de- 
termined it, but which is more, called him to it, moved him in it himself 
to undertake to do all this ; for calling and election of us are two distinct 
things ; and so in the designing of Christ to this office, they are to be con- 
sidered apart. 

Now the Father was not only the contriver and designer, but had the 
heart (such M'as his love to us) to be himself the first propounder also of 
it to him, and withal to tell him he was to be the executioner, or he should 
not be satisfied by him for sin. And who should break this to Christ, and 
persuade him, or bring him off" to be willing to it ? No creature had inte- 
rest enough in him, to be sure. None of us did ever speak to him to die, 
nor no creature mentioned it for us ; for none durst so much as to think it. 
Who did then ? His Father owns it as his own work ; Isa. xlii. 6, ' I 
have called thee in righteousness ; ' and it was necessary he should. Both 

First, Christ was not to begin to offer it of himself. That conceit of 
Bernard's, bringing Christ in ofiering himself for poor man (as he doeth), 
saying, ' Take mo, sacrifice me for them,' hath no ground, for he doeth 
nothing but what his Father propounds ; John v. 19, 20, ' Then answered 
Jesus, and said imto them. Verily, verily, I say unto you, the Son can do 
nothing of himself ; but what he seeth the Father do : for what things soever 

* In the ' Discourse of the Knowledge of God the Father, and his Son Jesus 
Christ.' In 2d volume of his Works.— [Vol. IV. of this edition.— Ed.] 

Chap. VII. J of ciirist the mediator. 23 

ho doetb, these also docth the Son likewise. For the Father lovoth the 
Son, unci shcwoth him all things that himselt' doeth : and he will show him 
greater works than these, that j'e may marvel.' Ho is the second person, 
aud all motions are to begin and come from the Father, who is the first 
person. And as to this particular, Christ speaks in this wise, John viii. 
42, ' I came from God, neither came I of myself, but my Father sent me.' 

Secoudh/, It being au olHce, aud an oflice of priesthood, he was to be 
appointed to it. Hob. v. 4, 5, ' No man takes this honour to himself, but 
ho that was called of God, as was Aaron. So also Christ' (though he had 
all excellencies and abilities in him) ' glorified not himself to be made an 
high priest for us.' 

God therefore called him to it ; and this as making it his own business, 
as he was pleased to account it, and as such commended it to Christ, and 
therefore Christ calls it his ' Father's business:' Luke ii. 49, ' And he said 
unto thorn, How is it that ye sought me ? Wist ye not that I must be about 
my Father's business ?' 

Aud now will you see how and in what manner it was he called him, and 
be amazed at it, to see how earnest he is in it. See his own words (as the 
Holy Ghost, the great secretary of heaven, who alone was by at that great 
council, hath recorded it), Heb. v. 5, 6, ' So also Christ glorified not him- 
self to be made an high priest ; but he that said unto him, Thou art my 
Sou, to-day have 1 begotten thee. As he saith also in another place. Thou 
art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedec ; ' where we find the 
very words he spake to him recorded, ' He that said to him. Thou art my 
Son, this day have I begotten thee, says in another place,' which records 
another passage then spoken, ' Thou art a priest for ever, after the order of 
Melchisedec' The Holy Ghost brings in both these, and joins them to- 
gether, and brings that which was in the first as the argument or motive 
which God used to him to persuade him, when he moved him to it. He 
that said, ' Thou art my Son,' says, ' Thou art a priest ' also, to shew the 
ground of authority which ho urgeth in it. He that was his Father, and so 
had power to appoint his Son his calling (as other parents have), appointed 
him as his begotten Son thus to be a priest. And therefore he tells him, 
in the first speech, that he is his Son, and he begat him ; and therewithal 
wooes him, that as he was his Son, and he his Father, and puts him in 
mind of all that mutual love which was between them upon so high a rela- 
tion ; and so much the higher, by how much the thing communicated was 
greater, in that he was God by his begetting him ; that therefore and there- 
upon he would take on him this so hard and harsh an undertaking. He 
calls him indeed, and speaks (as if he meant not to be denied) in the highest 
language of a father, and useth his whole interest in that, mentions the 
deepest obligation, and he notes out the time ; it was on his birthday, ' This 
day have I begotten thee.' As parents often dedicate their children, when 
first born, to such and such a calling, as Hannah did Samuel to the priest- 
hood, so doth God his Son. Yea, he is yet more earnest, he laid his express 
command on him, John x. 18, though the other mentions the most com- 
manding argument and relation of all other, viz., as he was his Son, All 
obedience as due on Christ's side, and authority on his Father's, are spoken 
in such a word. Yea, and yet to shew more vehemency and earnestness, 
he adds an oath to it, Heb. vii. 21, ' He swore he should be a priest,' and 
when he hath done, records it. ' It is written of me,' and that sv xnpaKihi 
To\) jSiZXiou, in the first page, or beginning of the book of his decrees ; yea, 
and puts his seal to it, ' Him hath the Father sealed,' John vi. 27. By 


all which he precludes him from a refusal, to prevent all supposition of 

God the Father, you see, hath done all that lies in him, and yet no more 
than was necessarily required to this work, as was in part said before, and 
may be further observed out of the 10th verse of the 10th chapter of the 
Hebrews, wherein he says, ' We are sanctified through his will, through the 
offering of the body of Christ ; ' having reference to that his will of calling 
him, before expressed in that 5th chapter, without which Christ's offering 
had not been satisfactory, or of force to sanctify us. 


CJirisf^ acceptance of the terms ivliich God the Father propounded to him for 
man's redemption. — That his iviUinijness in the undertaking proceeded not 
only from the love he had for us, but from that uhich he did bear unto his 
Father, and his desire to obey him, and to perform his ivill. — That the elect, 
redeemed bij Christ, were first God the Father's, and by lam given in trusf" 
and charge to Christ to save them. 

Now the next thing to be considered is, how this motion takes with Christ's 
heart, which his Father makes, and what he says to it, how he answers it 
again, and how willingly. And this is as necessary as the former ; for 
besides that it could not be forced on him ; for, John v. 26, ' the Father 
hath given him to have life in himself, and so to have power over his life.' 
John X. 18, 'I have power over my life, and none can take it from me.' 
Besides that, if it came not of him freely, it had not been satisfactoiy ; for 
satisf actio est redditio voluntaria, it must be a voluntary payment ; and as our 
disobedience was free, so must his satisfaction be. Though he had at last 
yielded, yet if he sticks at it we are undone, if he makes but an objection. 
And is it not infinite love he should not, being he was the party to 
undergo so much debasement? How did the eldest son's stomach rise, 
when but the fat calf was killed for the prodigal ? But the eldest, only 
begotten Son of God, must sacrifice himself for enemies (not the sacrificing 
of worlds would serve, whereof he could have created enough), and yet not 
a thought did arise contrary to his Father's will. So his own words, in 
answer to the former call of his Father, do shew, ' Lo, I come to do thy 
will, God,' Heb. x. 7. The psalmist, from whence the words are bor- 
rowed, hath it, ' I delight to do thy will,' Ps. xl. 8. ' Lo, I come ' (says 
Christ) ; I am as ready, as forward, God, as thou to have me ; not will- 
ing only, but glad ; I delight to do thy will. As the sun rejoiceth to run 
his race, so the Sua of righteousness to run his, for he was ' anointed with 
the oil of gladness above his fellows,' Ps. xlv. 7. He was as glad to do this 
work as ever he was to eat his meat : John iv. 34, ' Jesus saith unto them, 
My meat is to do the will of him that sent me, and to finish his work.' 
' AVith desire' (saith he) ' have I desired it:' Luke xxii. 15, ' And he said 
unto them. With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before 
I suffer.' He longed as much, and was as much pained, as ever woman 
with child longed to be delivered, till this work was accomplished. Luke 
xii. 50, ' But I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how am I straitened 
till it be accomplished.' 

It was well for us that his Father struck thus strongly in. For, take the 


business in itself, you know how unwclcomo it must needs bo to Christ : 
' F.athcr, if it bo possible ' (says he), ' let it pass ;' yet because it was his 
Father's will, he submits, ' Not my will, but thine be done,' Mat. xxvi. 39. 
As it was his Father's will, he had no reluctancy, neither would simply all 
our cries or mediation have ever moved him, no more than straws can movo 
a mountain ; but that it was his Father's will, it was enough. For besides 
that reason for it, John x. 30, ' I and my Father are one ' (saith he), and 
so have one will and agree in one, there is another thing in it most pre- 
valent, seeing that his Father entreats him thus to do it. The Father re- 
solves to hear him in all things ; and should not he then hearken to his 
Father, especially when his request is made upon his birthday (' This day 
have I begotten thee '), when all requests are rendered more easy and facile 
to be granted ; as Herod on his would give to the half of his kingdom ? 
What, and as he was his Father and he his Son, — ' Thou art my Son,' — • 
this overcame him. John x. 17, 18, Though he had life in his own hand, 
yet (says he) I lay it down, because my Father loves me. Surely his 
Father being so earnest in it, he ^YOuld not deny him, especially when he 
added a command to it. This is the reason he likewise gives, John x. 
18, 19, * I have power to lay down my life, and this command I have re- 
ceived of my Father.' It had stuck with him from the first, and he remem- 
bered it still. His Father had power (as other fathers have, to dispose of 
the calling of their sons) to dispose of him ; and though he was so great a 
Son, equal to so great a Father, yet, being a Son, he is not exempted from 
obedience. Philip, ii. 8, ' And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled 
himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.' 
Heb. V. 7, 8, ' Who in the days of his flesh, when he had ofi'ered up prayers 
and supplications, with strong crying and tears, unto him that was able to 
save him from death, and Avas heard in that he feared : though he were a 
Son, 3'et learned he obedience by the things which he suffered. And when 
his Father shall add an oath to it also (that is an end of all controversies 
between man and man, Heb. vi. 16, much more between the Father and 
Son), and last of all sets his seal to it, it must stand good, for his seal 
stands sure, 2 Tim. ii. 19, there is no breaking of it ; and therefore all these 
made Christ fully willing. 

And this is therefore to be in a more especial manner taken notice of ; 
that we may consider for whose sake principally Christ did die, and under- 
take it, and thus see whom so much we are beholden to. Though Christ 
did it out of love to us, 3-et chieflj' for his Father's entreaty and command, 
and out of love to him. So Christ says, John xiv. 31, ' That the world 
may know that I love the Father, and that as he gave commandment, so I 
do.' He spake this when he was to go to suffer, for, saith he, ' Arise, let 
us go hence.' 

In the sixth place, as his Father recommended the business to him, so 
also he gave especial recommendation of the persons for v/hom he would 
have all this done ; for he gave those of the sons of men unto Christ whom 
he would have reconciled, and this with a charge to bring them to salvation. 

Hence Christ, when he was to offer up himself, he commits and com- 
mends them at his death again to his Father and to his love, upon this 
great ground and motive, that he himself gave them first to him ; alleging 
that he himself came to have a share in them, by his gift and commenda- 
tion: John xvii. 6, ' Thine they were, and thou gavest them me.' A strange 
gift it was, which he must yet pay for, and must cost more than they were 
worth, and yet he takes them as a gift and favour from his Father ; which 


also when he head bought, he hkewise begged at his Father's liands, in John 
xvii. 20, 21, 24. 

And observe that they were first his Father's ; first thine, and then mine 
by thy gift ; and this was not a late or new acquired projjriety of God's in 
them, but an ancient one, which Christ puts him in mind of, ' Thine they 
were.' So that as the Father gave him his work he was to do, ver. 4, so 
he gave to him the persons for whom he should do it ; ver. 6, so as both 
things and persons, ' all things whatsoever thou hast given me, are of 
thee,' ver. 7. As he doeth nothing of himself, but what he sees the Father 
do ; so as mediator (and though mediator) he saves not a man but whom 
his Father did give him, nor puts a name in more than were in his Father's 
bill. John vi. 37, 38, ' I came not to do mine own will, but the will of 
him that sent me.' And this is spoken in relation, not to the business 
only he was to do, but of the persons also that were to be reconciled ; for 
it follows, ver. 39, ' This is his will, that of all which he hath given me I 
should lose none.' And they are not said to be then given to Christ only 
when they are called and begin to believe, but before, even from everlasting 
(of which transaction we now speak) ; for, John vi. 37, ' All the Father 
givcth me shall come to me ;' therefore the}^ are not then said first to be 
given when they came, but before. 

And hence, by reason of his Father's giving of them to him, he calls 
them his sheep, and that before they are called, which as yet were not of 
the fold, but which were yet to bring in ; John x. 16, ' And other sheep I 
have, which are not of this fold : them also I must bring, and they shall 
hear my voice ; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.' Yea, and 
he calls himself such a shepherd, whose own the sheep are ; John xvi. 2, 
3, 4, ' They shall put you out of the synagogues : yea, the time cometh, 
that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service. And 
these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the 
Father, nor me. But these things have I told you, that, when the time 
shall come, ye may remember that I told you of them. And these things 
I said not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you.' Ver. 11, 
12, ' Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged. I have yet 
many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now.' He was 
owner of them (as all shepherds are not), and delighteth to use a phrase of 
propriety. His own sheep they are. How his own, but by gift from his 
Father, and by special love and care of his own ? And their names he knows. 
John X. 14, ' I am the good Shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known 
of mine.' As God by name is said to know who are his ; and therefore 
their names are said to be written in the Lamb's book as well as in his 
Father's : Eev. xiii. 18, ' Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding 
count the number of the beast : for it is the number of a man ; and his 
number is six hundred threescore and six ;' yea, they are written in his 
heart. And as the high priest had the names of all the tribes written on 
his breastplate, so had Christ the names of all his written in his heart, by 
a pen of adamant, by the will of his Father, written with ever-living and 
everlasting love ; so as the letters can never be worn out. 

And as he gave them to be his, so also with a special charge to bring 
them to salvation, to lose not one of his tale and number. John vi. 38, 39, 
' This is my Father's will, who sent me,' says Christ, ' for which I came 
down from heaven, that of all that he hath given me, I should lose nothing.' 
As Laban required his tale of Jacob, so doth God of Christ. When he 
sent him he gave him that charge, ' This is the will of him that sent me.' 

Chap. IX. , of ciiiusx the mediator. 27 

I come with this errand, charge, and message, which therefore Christ had 
still iu his eye, yea, and looks at it as a duty enjoined him ; * Them I must 
bring,' sa3's he, John x. 10, which hath relation to that command laid on 

And as Judah became a surety to Jacob his father for his younger 
brother Benjamin, to bring him safe to him out of Egypt — Gen. xliii. 9, ' I 
will be a surety for him, and if I bring him not unto thee, and set him not 
before thee, let me bear the blame for ever ' — so did Christ for his younger 
brethren, whom God, through him as their captain and chief leader, would 
bring to glory: Heb. ii. 10, 11, 'For it became him, for whom are all 
things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to 
make the Captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings. For both 
he that sanctiheth and they who are sanctified are all of one : for which 
cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren.' Who therefore had the 
charge of conducting them, and to that end he took flesh, and in regard to 
it gives an account to his Father of them ; ' Behold I and the children 
which God hath given me.' And you may observe how careful he was in 
this his account, and how punctual in it : John xvii. 12, ' Those thou gavest 
me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition.' He 
is exact in his account, as appears in that he gives a reason for him that 
was lost, that he was a ' son of perdition,' and so excuseth it ; and to this 
end God also gave him, as he was mediator, power over all flesh, that he 
might be enabled to give eternal life to those God gave him : John xvii. 3, 
' And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and 
Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.' 


That upon Christ's accepting this agreement, God the Father, to reward him, 
engages to bestow all the blessings xvhich he should purchase to those redeemed 
by him. — That all these blessings of grace and eternal life were j^romised to 
us in Christ from all eternity. 

Christ thus willingly undertaking to die, and to fulfil his Father's will, 
his Father, to gratify him, enters into a covenant with him, and binds him- 
self to him to bestow the worth and value of all his obedience in all spiritual 
blessings (both of grace and glory, which that his death should purchase), to 
those whom he had given him, and that he and his children should have it 
out in everlasting revenues of grace and glory. As Christ undertook to 
God, so God undertakes to Christ again, to justify, adopt and forgive, sanc- 
tify and glorify those he gives him. All the blessings his love intended, 
Christ was to purchase them ; and all the blessings Christ's death did pur- 
chase, he promiseth Christ to bestow on those whom he purchased them 
for, so as his labour should not be in vain. 

This 3'ou maj^ observe out of manj' places ; as, in general, Isa. liii. 10-12, 
* Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him ; he hath put him to grief : when 
thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall 
prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. 
He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied ; by his know- 
ledge shall my righteous servant justify many ; for he shall bear their ini- 
quities. Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall 
divide the spoil with the strong ; because he hath noured out his soul unto 


death : and he was numbered with the transgressors ; and he bare the sins 
of many, and made intercession for the transgressors ;' where God makes a 
promise imto Christ that he should see his seed, and see the travail of his 
soul, and should be satisfied ; for my righteous servant shall justify many, 
and thus because he underwent so much sorrow and grief so willingly, as 
it is in the former part of the chapter, and the joy of this was it that made 
him undergo it so willingly : Heb. xii. 2, * Looking unto Jesus, the author 
and finisher of our faith ; who for the joy that was set before him, endured 
the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the 
throne of God.' And that his joy was this, that he should prolong his 
day3, and though he died in the travail, yet should see the travail of his 
soul ; as though a woman be in great pains, yet her joy is, that a man- 
child is brought forth into the world. And so it was with Christ ; his joy 
is, that many children should be brought to glory, and by this he should 
be satisfied, namely, that many should be justified by him, as it follows 
there (for nothing else will satisfy Christ), ' and that he should divide the 
spoil with the strong ; because he poured out his soul to death,' ver. 12. 
That is, he triumphed over hell and death, and by the conquest spoiled 
principalities and powers, and obtained heaven and everlasting righteous- 
ness, by which himself is notof himself made the richer. God therefore allows 
him to divide it and give it away to others. And God considered also how 
that in this work he was his servant, ' My righteous servant,' says he, 
* shall justify many.' He was his servant, and did his business in it, and 
should he have no wages nor rewards ? Yes he should ; and the only 
reward he seeks for, is the salvation and justification of his elect, and of 
those whom God hath given him. And therefore we find this very cove- 
nant bargain-wise struck up, and by way of a most elegant dialogue 
expressed to us, Isa. xlix., which chapter is, as I may call it, the draught 
of the covenant, or deed of gift, betwixt Christ and his Father for us ; 
wherein Christ first begins and shews his commission, as the ground of 
the treaty between them ; intimating unto his Father that he had called 
him to this great work : ver. 1, ' Listen, isles, unto me ; and hearken, ye 
people, from far ; The Lord hath called me from the womb ; from the bowels 
of my mother hath he made mention of my name.' And fitted him for it : 
ver. 2, ' And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword ; in the shadow 
of his hand hath he hid me, and made me a poHshed shaft ; in his quiver 
hath he hid me.' He therefore expects what fruit and reward he should 
have of all his sufferings. 

His Father offers (as it were) low at first, and mentioneth but Israel 
only as his portion ; ' Thou art my servant, Israel, in whom I will be 
glorified,' ver. 3. Then he, as thinking them too small an inheritance, too 
small a purchase for that great price, foreseeing the hardness of their 
hearts, and how few of them would come in, not worth his coming into the 
world for, so that it the gleanings of them were all, he says, ' He should 
labour in vain, and spend his strength for nought,' ver. 4. Though, how- 
ever, he satisfies himself with this, ' My work is with thee, Lord,' &c. ; 
namely, that his main end of undertakmg it was for his Father's sake, and 
in obedience unto him. 

God therefore answers him again, and enlargeth and stretcheth his cove- 
nant further with him : says he, ' It is a light thing that thou shruldest be 
my servant, to raise up the tribes of Israel,' ccc. ' I will give thee for a 
light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation to the ends of the 
earth,' ver. 6. And, ver. 8, ' I will give thee for a covenant to the people,' 

Chap. IX.] of curist the mediator. 29 

&c. God, you see, makes this covenant with him, to save both Jews and 
Gentiles, as the reward of his death. 

And this compact you have also expressed, Ps. ii. 7, 8, where, after he had 
called him to this ollice (which then he calls the decree, ' I will declare the 
decree : Thou art my Son ; this day have I begotten thee'), he subjoins this 
covenant made upon it. ' Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for 
thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.' 
And this was shadowed out by that famous covenant made with David for 
his seed, for an eternal kingdom : Ps. Ixxxix. 4, 5, ' Thy seed will I estab- 
lish for ever, and build up thy throne to all generations. Selah. And the 
heavens shall praise thy wonders, Lord : thy faithfulness also in the con- 
gregation of the saints.' And ver. 28, 29, ' My mercy will I keep for him 
for evermore, and my covenant shall stand fast with him. His seed also 
will I make to endure for ever, and his throne as the days of heaven.' 
Which covenant was made with David, as a type of Christ, and is to be 
meant as spoken of Christ ; and that covenant too made by God with him 
for his spiritual seed. That covenant is called ' the sure mercies of Da\'id,' 
and is applied to Christ as that spiritual David ; Acts xiii. 34—37, * And as 
concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to 
corruption, he said on this wise, I will give you the sm-e mercies of David. 
Wherefore he saith also in another psalm. Thou shalt not suffer tliine Holy 
One to see corruption. For David, after he had served his own genera- 
tion by the will of God, fell on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and 
saw corruption : but he, whom God raised again, saw no corruption :' who 
therefore is called David, as here and elsewhere ; and that oath God made 
to David, shewed the everlasting oath and covenant made to Christ for his 
seed : Ps. cxxxii. 10, 14, ' For thy servant David's sake, turn not away the 
face of thine anointed. The Lord hath sworn in truth unto David ; he will 
not turn from it ; of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne.' 

And hence further to confirm this, we find, Titus i. 2, that ' eternal life 
is promised afore the world began ;' which is to be understood in relation 
to this covenant. A promise then was made ; that is, an expression of an 
engagement, which is more than a purpose, for a promise is an expression 
of a purpose ; and to whom can this be understood to be made so long 
afore but to our head Christ ? And we were then looked at by God only 
as in him ; to whom therefore for us he promised to give eternal life as the 
fruit of his death. This very covenant, therefore, that God struck with 
Christ for us, this was the promise meant ; which was, that as he should 
die, so he would as certainly bestow the fruit and revenue of his death in 
glory on those he gave to him. 

So as though God had never expressed any promise to us, yet having 
made it to Ckrist for us, he would have performed it ; therefore he adds, 
God that cannot lie hath made this promise ; and further says, that as 
before all worlds he made this promise and covenant with Chi'ist, so in due 
time he hath further manifested this his word by preaching, &c. All the 
promises that now are revealed are but the manifestation of that gi'and 
promise; but copies, as it were, of that which was made to Christ, in whose 
breast the original of our records are kept, and the application of those 
promises to us is but the writing out the counterpane* of what was done 
in heaven. As all promises are made in him, so all promises were first 
made to him, and to us as one with him. Therefore, saj's the apostle, 
* Not to seeds, as of many, but to seed, as of one, which is Christ,' Gal. 
* Tliat is, ' counterpart.' — Ed. 


iii. 16, who in our name, and for us, took a deed of gift from God the 
Father, for all blessing we are to enjoy, before the world was. And there- 
fore also, 2 Tim. i. 9, ' Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy 
calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose 
and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus, before the world began.' 
There is grace spoken of as given us in Christ ere the world began, which 
place explains the fonner ; for as the former sajs it was promised, so this, 
that grace was given us, and as then promised to Christ for us, so then also 
given us in Christ, God looking on us as one with Christ. Which promise 
is made upon that his promise to his Father, to give himself for us. The 
sum of all is : his Father promiseth to him to give all spiritual blessings in 
him, and then makes a deed of gift to him for our good and use ; even as 
goods may be given to and by a feofi'ee in trust for one that is yet not born. 
And so our life is said to be ' hid with Christ in God ; ' and so it was from 
everlasting there laid up by God with Christ. 

And hence also we find that all blessings which God in time bestows are 
said to be given in Christ, ere they are actually to us. So Eph. i. 3, 
' God hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in Christ.' So his pur- 
pose of saving us is said to be purposed in Jesus Christ : Eph. iii. 10, 11, 
' To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly 
places, might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God, accord- 
ing to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord.' 
So to be reconciled in Christ here in the text. So, speaking of our re- 
demption, he says, ' which is in Christ Jesus;' Rom. iii. 24, ' Being justi- 
fied freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ.' 
So all grace is said to be given in Christ, 2 Tim. i. 9, before the world 
was.* So 2 Tim. i. 1, ' Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, 
according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus.' The promise of 
life is said to be in Jesus Christ. Now^ the phrase notes out a transaction, 
an endowment of all these on us, not first immediately in ourselves, but in 
Christ for us, and on us in him. 

Hence likewise in Scripture we read of promises, not only conditional, 
that he that believes and repents shall be saved, but also absolute ; as that 
in Jeremiah, ' This is my covenant, to give them a new heart and a new 
spirit, and they shall walk in my commandments,' Jer. xxxi. 33, wherein 
he undertakes to fulfil the conditions themselves ; and that covenant must 
needs be made with Christ first, and mediately for us ; and he only knows 
for whom it is made, even for those his Father gave him. 


What is the reason that thour/h we receive all these blessings by Christ, and on 
the account of his merits, yet titey are said to be yiven to us of pure grace. 

And upon this covenant made with Christ, and compact between God 
and him for us, comes it, that all things we have by Christ, though pur- 
chased by him, are yet said to be by grace, as well as by Christ's merits, 
because they are bestowed by a compact with Christ, by virtue of which 
compact his merits are accepted for us ; so that though Christ laid down 
a price worth all the grace and glory we shall have, yet that it should be 
accepted for us, and all that grace bestowed on us, comes from this com- 
* Vide Alliau. Ora. iii. cont. Avianos. 


pact and covenant made by God witli Christ to accept it for us. And tho 
acceptation of it for us depends as much on that covenant made with Christ 
as on his merits. Therefore, Heb. x. 10, our sanctification and salvation 
is ascribed as much to God's will and covenant with Christ (of which ho 
spake, ver. 7) as to Christ's offering himself ; for he says, ' By which will 
we are sanctified, through the offering of the body of Christ.' And there- 
fore, as it is said that Chi-ist died, so also it is God that justifies ; Rom. 
viii. 33, ' Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect ? It is God 
that justifieth ; ' justifies freely by his grace; Horn. iii. 24, ' Being justified 
freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus Christ.' Though 
Christ hath laid down a sufficient price, and equal to the guilt of our sins, 
yet that God justifies us for it is an act of grace. Why ? Because the 
acceptation of it for us was out of covenant ; and therefore our divines say 
against the Jesuits, that his merits are merits ex compacto, and not which 
absolutely could oblige God to us. Though they be equal to our demerits 
by sin, yet it is only that relation that they had to this covenant made with 
Christ which gave acceptation to them for us. 

And the reason is, because to satisfy for another, especially in corporal 
punishments, requires the compact and willingness of the party to be satis- 
fied, to accept it for him that should else undergo it. Let the satisfaction 
be never so equivalent to the wrong, yet without a covenant of the party 
to be satisfied it may be refused. Therefore umpires use to bind the parties 
in bond to stand to their word ; Quando aliiid offertur qiiam est in ohliga- 
lione, satisfactio est recusuhiUs, say the schoolmen. So Ahab ofteredNaboth 
as good a vineyard ns his own, yet he might refuse it, as he did. This 
covenant therefore which God made with Chi'ist, to bestow all the merits 
of his obedience on us, which he called him unto, is the main foundation 
of all our happiness. As it obliged and engaged God firmly to us in Christ, 
so it makes all that Christ purchased to be of grace. Though he paid an 
equivalent price to what we should have done, and much more, yet it is 
accepted for us out of a covenant of grace. And therefore in Rom. v. 17, 
though the apostle shews and proves that there is more merit in Christ's 
obedience to justify than in Adam's sin to condemn, yet the imputing of 
it to us he calls ' abundance of grace, and the gift of righteousness.' 
Though it was an abounding righteousness, yet there was an abounding of 
gi'ace to accept it for us, and it is derived by way of gift. 

And the ground of all is because of this covenant made by God with 
Christ for us, upon which the acceptation of all depends. 


That upon the conclusion of this agreement or covenant of redemption., there 
was the greatest joy in heaven ; the divine persons exulting in the delightful 
thoughts, that so many wretched, lost creatures should be effectually saved. 

And now our reconciliation being brought to this blessed issue by God 
the Father and his Son, their greatest delights have been taken up with it 
ever since, so as never in like manner with anything else. There was 
never such joy in heaven as upon this happy conclusion and agi'eement. 
The whole Trinity rejoiced in it (which is the last thing, and the coronis of 
this discourse), they not only never repented of what they had resolved 
upon ; ' he swore, and would not repent,' Heb. vii. 21 ; but further, their 


cliiefest deliglits were taken up with this more than in all their works ad extra 
God's heart was never taken so much with anything he was ahle to effect ; 
so as the thoughts of this business, ever since it was resolved on, becamd 
matter of greatest delight unto them. 

This you may see, Prov. viii. 30, 31, ' Then I was by him, as one brought 
up with him : and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before him; re- 
joicing in the habitable part of his earth ; and my delights were with the 
sons of men.' Where you have that curious question in part resolved, 
what God did before the world was made ? How that eternity was run 
out, and what the thoughts and delights of the great God most ran on ? 
You have it resolved by one that knew his mind, and was of his council, 
the ' mighty Councillor,' as being the Wisdom of his Father, as he is there 
styled that was before God made the world, Prov. viii. 22, 23, ' The Lorr* 
possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old. I was 
set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was.' 
' Then was I' (says he, ver 30) ' all the while by him,' that came out of 
his bosom, John i. 18, and who therefore compares himself in this Prov. 
viii. to a child brought up with the parent : ' so was I ' (says he) ' brought 
up with him.' And what did they together ? Two things. 

1. They delighted one with and in another, the Father that be was able 
to beget such a Son like him, and of equal substance with himself : ' I was 
daily his delight,' and he mine, ' rejoicing always before him.' And this 
was and would have been delight enough to them, though no creature had 
ever been made. 

2. But, secondly, next to that, what did they delight in most ? It fol- 
lows, 'rejoicing in the habitable parts of his earth; and my delight was 
with the sons of men.' And observe it, that next to those internal, essen- 
tial, and personal delights each in other, the greatest and dearest unto 
those two divine persons were their delights in ' the sons of men ;' of all 
God's works ad extra, in these they most took pleasure. 

Now, what is it concerning them should afford God and Christ such 
thoughts so long aforehand, but this plot concerning them of reconciling 
them again ? For to look and foresee them all at one clap turned rebels 
against him, and view them mustering together in troops against him, this 
could minister none but sad and disconsolate thoughts, and it pained him 
at the heart to think of it : Gen. vi. 5, 6, ' And God saw that the wicked- 
ness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the . 
thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented the Lord 
that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.' 
What was it delighted him then ? Men delight only in their friends, not 
enemies- Was it in them then, as they were at first created in a state of 
fiiendship, that God was pleased ? No. Then there were but a couple to 
delight in ; but this delight is said to be ' in the sons of men,' all the earth 
over, ' in the habitable parts of the earth,' which implies he had some in 
all parts inhabited who were the desire and delight of his eyes. And be- 
sides, that first friendship was not worth the thinking of, it lasted so little 
while, and ended in so great and general a breach. These delights then 
were most in this, to think that he should win to him and gain the love of 
these accursed rebels whom he himself loved so dearly, and that he should 
shew that his love, by an unheard of way, that should amaze angels and 
men, to take away their sins, and reconcile them to himself again by the 
incarnation and death of his Son ; and tie them to him by an everlasting 
knot, ■svhich their sins should not untie again, nor separate from that hia 

Chap. XI.] of Christ the mediator. ,33 

love. This took up his delights (in the plural) ; ho delighted to think of 
it again and again ; his double delights (as some paraphrase it) were in 
this, insomuch as he glads himself with the continual thoughts of it again 
and again. Which may appear by another scripture added unto this, 
which tells us how his thoughts did run upon this so dear a design to him 
(speaking after the manner of men), above all else, and that they were 
taken up with it ; as it useth to be with us, when we are deeply affected 
with anything. So Ps. xl. 5, ' Many,' says he, ' are the wonderful works 
that thou hast done, and thy thoughts to us-ward cannot be reckoned.' 
His mind hath ran on them from everlasting, that his thoughts cannot be 
numbered. Thei-e are many works of wonder which he hath done for us, 
which hath exercised these his thoughts towards us, but above all in this 
we have been speaking of; therefore he passeth by all other works, and 
mentions this very transaction, and calling of, and covenant with, his Son, 
which we have all this while been speaking of, as that wherein these his 
thoughts have been most spent and exercised with delight. So ver. 6-8, 
' Sacrilice and oflering thou didst not desire ; mine ears hast thou opened : 
burnt- ofi'ering and sin-ofi'oring hast thou not required. Then said I, Lo, 
I come : in the volume of the book it is written of me, I dehght to do thy 
will, my God : yea, thy law is within my heart ' 

And by all this you see that our salvation was in sure hands, even afore 
the world was ; for God and Christ had engaged themselves by covenant 
each to other for us, the one to die, the other to accept it for us. 

And though Christ was yet to come and die, yea, and though there 
were not one word of promise written that was made to us expressing 
God's mind, yet this everlasting obligation made all sure that it should 
be done. 

So as had I no other news to tell you, and could not secretly assure you 
of these passages from everlasting, they might be enough to persuade and 
over-persuade you to come in for mercy and grace with him ; but much 
more when it shall be further told you, what Christ hath done to the ac- 
complishment of all this, and what fulness was in him for it, which makes 
up the second part of this glorious story. 

VOL. V, 



The sole and peculiar fitness of Christ's person for the worlc of redemption. 

For verily he took not on him the nature of anr/eJs ; but he took on him the seed 
of Abraham. — Wherefore in all thinffs it behoved him, to be made like vnto 
his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things 
pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the peopile. — 
Heb. ii. 16, 17. 


Tliefitiuss of Christ's person for the work of a mediator, hath a great influence 
to make it successful and prosperous. 

Ix the first chapter, the apostle shewed that our mediator was God, and the 
Son of God. In this second, he shews that he is man also, and a man made 
of the same lump with other men, and flesh and blood as well as we. And 
he knits up all with this, that thus it behoved him to be, that he might be 
a priest to reconcile us to the Father. That therefore which these two 
chapters drive at, is to shew the personal fitness, in all relations and respects, 
that was in Christ for the work of mediation between God and us. A point 
therefore to be insisted on, because it is the drift of these two whole chapters, 
and is mdeed the foundation of all that follows, concerning his ofiices and 
works ; which therefore he mentions not here only, but had intimated it 
before, in ver. 10. To which we may add that in Heb. vii. 26, ' For such 
an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from 
sinners, and made higher than the heavens.' So that his singular fitness 
for this work is a thing that the Scriptures would have us to take special 
notice of, and which God aimed at in choosing him unto it, for, 

First, In general, to give a reason or two of it. Fitness in the person 
that goes about a matter of reconciliation, is more behoveful and available 
to further it, than all the means and satisfaction besides that can bo made. 
For reconciliation is a matter of fi'iendship, and therefore it is to be wrought 
in a fi-iendly way, and a word from a fit person will ofttimes more prevail 
to efi'ect it, than k gi'eat ransom from, and much entreaty by another. ' How 
forcible are right words !' as Job says — fit words, rightly placed and ordered, 
but especially when from a fit person ; the person adds grace and accepta- 
tion to them. 

Secondly, In reconciling us, God likewise had a special regard to this. 
He aimed not only to have satisfaction made to his justice, and so to be 
sure to have an equivalent ransom, but that he might be fully pleased. He 
would have it carried on in the most pleasing and suitable way that might 
be, that so his mind might receive full content in it, and that his love might 
rest in it with delight, and that his wisdom also might infinitely please itself 


ill the sweet harmony, the consent, and the fit accommoclations of all things 
in it ; to see all aptly meet and accord for the making of his covenant, as 
it might be sure, so ordered in all things (as the phrase is, 2 Sam. xxiii. 5). 
But above all, that this conlluence of fitness should be especially in tho 
person that was to perform it ; one that should be most pleasing to himself 
and most fit for the business, even so fit, as none fitter. Thus the apostle, 
in the text, giving the reason why God made him the ' Captain of our salva- 
tion,' and appointed him to suifer : ' It became him,' says he, ' for whom and 
by whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the Captain 
of their salvation perfect through sufierings ;' that is, seeing this work of 
redemption was the grand plot and master-piece of him who is both the 
efiicient and end of all things, and that the bringing of many sons to gloiy 
■was of his works and ends the master-piece, it became him therefore to 
take such a course to do it as was worthy of him, and as might most 
of all and best of all suit with all his ends, and with that work which con- 
tains all his other works eminently in it. And therefore it was meet for 
him to make choice of the fittest person that could be found in heaven or 
earth to be his captain, and to make him, in saving us, as perfect as was 
possible, as full and complete a Saviour in his person and in his works as 
could be. And that nothing might be wanting in him which might be 
thought fit for him who was our Saviour to perform, he was to sutler the 
utmost of sufierings, rather than he should not be a full, perfect, and com- 
plete Saviour ; ' God made him perfect through sufierings ;' for (as Christ 
tells his disciples, Luke xsiv. 4) ' it behoved him thus to sufier.' And it 
was his speech to John, Mat. iii. 15, ' Thus it becomes us to fulfil all 
righteousness.' And surely that God, who did all things else in a due pro- 
portion, in weight and measure, and this, in his works of an inferior kind 
and mould, the works of creation (wherein we yet see he hath artificially 
suited one thing to another), will much more in this transcendent work of re- 
demption cause the greatest harmony to meet in the plot and contrival of it. 

And so I come to the point delivered, namely. 

That there is a fulness of fitness in the person of Christ for this gi'eat work 
of reconciliation between us and God. 

First, I say, ' In the person of Christ.' For although in the works of 
his mediation there may a great correspondent fitness be observed, and a 
harmonious proportion, both in relation to the benefits they are to procure 
for us, and between themselves (as was before observed), yet we must now 
in this head bind ourselves only to the fitness in his person ; and therein 
also carefully sever such considerations as tend to discover his fulness of 
abilities for this work, many of which are apt to fall under this head. 
Which notwithstanding we will keep as immixed as we can from these, which 
argue his fitness, and reserve those other for a second head. 

Seconclhj, There is not only ' a fitness,' but a ' fulness of fitness ;' so that 
suppose others besides him had been able, yet none so fit, or in whom there 
is an universal concurrency both of fitnesses and abilities. And therefore 
he is designed out for this work with an emphasis : Col. i. 20, ' And (hav- 
ing made peace through the blood of his cross) by him to reconcile all things 
unto himself; by him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in 
heaven.' ' By him, by him, I say ;' and so ' in him ' is with the like emphasis 
repeated, as denoting him to be eminently fit above all others, in Eph. i. 
10, ' that, in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he might gather 
together in one aU things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which 
are on eai-th, even in him.' 


This? premised, we will proceed hv degrees, and we shall find, that there 
was nothing in his person but what fitted hi in for this work. 

Consider what he was before he took our nature ; what this he was, 
mentioned in the IGth ver., ' He took,' &c. For he was a person of him- 
self ere he took our nature. And this refers to the first chapter, where the 
apostle shews that he was God, and the Son of God : Heb. i. 3, 5, ' Who, 
being the brightness of his glory, and tlie express image of his person, and 
upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself 
purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high ;' ver. 
5, ' For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, 
this day have I begotten thee ? And again, I will be to him a Father, and 
he shall be to me a Son ?' And thus it behoved him to be, that was our 

It behoved him to be God. It was not fit that any mere creature 
should have the honour to be the mediator and reconciler. Could we sup- 
pose that a creature had been able to have performed it, yet it h?,d been no 
way fit. The honour of this place and office was too transcendent for any 
mere creature ; and nothing is more unseemly and uncomely than an office 
of dignitv and honour misplaced, as Solomon tells us. And this crown of 
honour woukl not have fitted and sat w dl on any creature's head. An 
honour T call this office, and that the most transcendent ; for to be a priest, 
was to be taken out, and separated from, and above other men, to draw 
nigh to God for them; Heb. v. 1, 'For every high priest, taken from 
among men, is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may 
ofier both gifts and sacrifices for sins.' And therefore it is such ' an honour' 
(says he at the 4th ver.) ' as no man takes to himself, but he that is called 
of God, as was Aaron.' And yet, what was the high priesthood of Aaron 
in comparison with this ? A mere shadow ; not so much as an image of 
it, as is said of the types of the law : Heb. x. 1, ' For the law having a 
shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can 
never with those sacrifices, which they ofiered year by year continually, 
make the comers thereunto perfect.' It was but as the office of a king-at- 
arms in comparison of a real king indeed. And therefore this priesthood, 
to otter real satisfaction, is accounted such a glory, as Christ himself (though 
full of all infinite perfections, and in whom the fulness of the Godhead 
dwells) took not upon him till he was called ; as chap. v. ver. 5, ' So also 
Christ glorified not himself to be made an high priest ; but he that said 
unto him. Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.' The phrase 
used is, that ' he glorified not himself to be made an high priest,' &c. It 
is not an honourable office only this, by which phrase Aaron's is expressed 
to us, but it is glorious. He being to be not an ' high priest ' only, but to 
be ' a great high priest :' chap. iv. 14, ' Seeing then that we have a great 
hi<7h priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us 
hold fast our profession.' Yea, it is so glorious as is fit for none but the 
King of glory, who is the only wise God. Which therefore, as it is so 
glorious, as Christ, till caUed unto it, takes it not on him, so it is so tran- 
scendent a glory, as God will not bestow it on, or call any to it, but him 
who is God. ' My glory' (says God) ' I will not give unto another,' Isa. 
xlii. 8. And this office he accounts part of it. Road the words going 
before (and which occasioned that speech), and you shall find that they are 
spoken of the bestowing this office upon Christ, and the glorifying him by 
calling him to it : ver. 6, 7, ' I the Lord have called thee, and will give thee 
for a covenant,' &c. And then follows, ' My glory will I not give unt(? 


another.' As God will not give his praise and worship to graven images 
(as in the words following), so nor this glory to any creature, not to any 
other but to one who is God equal with himself. And consider but that 
one main end and consequent of his mediiition there expressed, that he 
was to be made a covenant for the people ; that is, the founder and striker 
up, and mediator of a new covenant for us (as he is called, Heb. ix. 15) — • 
yea, a surety, not only of a new covenant, when an old one is made void, 
but of a ' better covenant' (as he is called, Heb. vii. 22), ' established upon 
better promises' (as it is Heb. viii. 6) — a better covenant than the angels 
stand under, who yet are the most glorious of all the creatures. And there- 
fore ' he hath obtained ' (says the text there) ' a more excellent ministry, by 
how much he is the mediator of a better covenant :' not brought into a 
better covenant, or made under a better covenant (which is our happiness), 
but the maker of that better covenant itself, yea, so as to be made that 
covenant ; and it will be evident that it was not fit for any mere creature to 
undertake so great an office. 


That it ivas iiecessary for our mediator to be G'jd, — '-He coidd not otherwise 
have been presoit at the making of the etermd covenant of redemption. — 
None bat God could have the pniver to bestow such great blessings as are 
those of tJie covenant. — None but God could be the obj'ct of our trust, faith, 
and hope, and obedience. — Nom but God could be sufficiently able to succour 
us at all times. 

That Christ the Son of God was the only fit person to be the mediator, 
will appear plainly to us upon these considerations : 

I. If you consider that it was fit that he who thus made a covenant for 
us should be present at the making of it, and at the first striking of the 
bargain, and should be privy to the plot, and know the bottom of God's 
counsel in it, and the depth of all his secrets, and should know for whom 
and what he was to purchase, and upon what conditions ; now then this 
plot and covenant, having been as ancient as eternity, even an everlasting 
covenant, and it being requisite that God should have om- mediator by him 
from eternity, with whom he might strike it for us, and also that he should 
know all God's secrets, and be admitted into all his counsels from eternity, 
therefore no creature could be capable of this. * For who of them hath been 
his counsellor ?' And who knows his depths of election, which are past 
finding out ? as Rom. xi. 33, 34, ' the depths of the riches both of the 
wisdom and knowledge of God ! how unsearchable are his judgments, and 
his ways past finding out !' ver. 34, ' For who hath known the mind of the 
Lord ? or who hath been his counsellor ?' God may say to all the creatures 
as he said to Job, Where were you when the plot of redemption was laid, 
and the platform thereof drawn, and the book of life penned, and the names 
of my redeemed ones put in ? None but he whose name is ' Wonderful, 
Counsellor, The mighty God, and everlasting Father,' as Isa. ix. 6, was 
capable of all this ; which names of his are put into that promise of him as 
mediator, because it was requisite that our mediator should be all this. 
And now he being tl e mighty God, he might be of counsel with God from 
eternity, he was present at the first pricking down our names, nnd foreknew 
all God's choice. He stood at God's elbo.v and consulted vith him whose 


names to put in (' Then I was by him,' says he, Prov. viii. 30), and so 
became their everlasting Father, begetting them in the womb of eternal 

II. If we consider the conditions of the covenant, no mere creature was 
fit to undertake them ; neither those on God's part, nor those on ours. 

1. Not those on God's part. Was it fit that a mere creature should be 
God's executor, and have power to leave such legacies, as the promises of 
heaven, pardon of sin, &c., are ? Without whom, and without whose blood, 
all those promises had been of no force, but had been nothing worth ; as 
Heb. ix. 15—18, ' And for this cause he r's the mediator of the new testa- 
ment, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that 
were under the first testament, tliey which are called might receive the pro- 
mise of eternal inheritance.' Ver. IG, ' For where a testament is, there 
must also of necessity be the death of the testator.' Ver. 17, ' For a tes- 
tament is of force after men are dead : otherwise it is of no strength at all 
whilst the testator liveth.' Ver. 18, ' Whereupon neither the first testa- 
ment was dedicated without blood.' Was it fit that a mere creature's hand 
and seal should be required to God's own will and testament, or else it 
could not be of force ? Certainly it was too much. And therefore the 
apostle, ver. 14, having shewed how Christ ' by the eternal Spirit ofiered 
up himself ' (that is, by his Godhead, &c.), he adds, ver. 15, 'For this 
cause he is the mediator of the new testament.' Hence it was that he 
became the founder of it, that he was ' the eternal Spirit,' God immortal, 
else he had not been capable of being mediator of such a testament ; a 
testament also, whereby he not only was to undertake to make satisfaction, 
and to make good all God's legacies, but to make good in us the condi- 
tions on our part, by writing the law in the heart. For that is the new 
covenant, as Heb, viii. 10, 11, ' For this is the covenant that I will make 
with the house of Israel, after those days, saith the Lord ; I will put my 
laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts ; and I will be to them 
a God, and they shall be to me a people :' ver. 11, ' And they shall not 
teach every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying. Know 
the Lord : for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest.' And if 
the mediator had not engaged to do this, God would not have dealt with 
him, for he will make sure work in the covenant, since it was to be a cove- 
nant ordered in all things, and sure ; 2 Sam. xxiii. 5, ' Although my house 
be not so with God ; yet he hath made with me an everlasting covenant, 
ordered in all things, and sure : for this is all my salvation, and all my 
desire, although he make it not to grow.' And what creature could do 
this ? Or was it fit that God should put so much trust in any creature, who 
' finds folly in his angels, and puts no confidence in his saints ? ' God would 
not vouchsafe to treat or trade with any mere creature, upon so high and 
deep engagements, nor enter into partnership with them, to share alike, as 
in that covenant thus made God and the mediator of it were to do. 

2. The part which we bear in the covenant, and our actings in it, ren- 
dered it unmeet that au}^ but the Son of God should have the administration 
of it committed to him. For, 

First, If we consider what is the business and acts of our faith, it will be 
evident that it was fit and requisite that our mediator should bo such a one 
as we might rely upon, and trust in. Now was it fit that any mere ci'eature 
should be made and set forth to us as the object of our faith ? And yet it 
is that faith which is the most suitable condition for the covenant of grace ; 
as Piom. iv. 10, 'It is therefore of faith, that it might be by grace ; and sure 

Chap. II. j of ciikist the mediator. 39 

to all the seed.* And that faith must pitch upon our mediator as upon a 
corner-stone laid by God, as a sure foundation (as Paul and Potcr speak), 
so as he that belicveth niis^ht not come to be ashamed : 1 Pet. ii. 6, ' Whore- 
fore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief 
corner stone, elect, precious: and he that belicveth on him shall not bo 
confounded.' Would it then have been, or could any arm of flesh have 
thus secured us, or under-pi'opped our hearts ? Or was it fit that any crea- 
ture should be propounded to us, as the object of our faith as justifying, and 
so be ' set forth as a propitiation throush faith in his blood,' and mediation ; 
and so we to be justified by faith in him (as the apostle's expressions are in 
Horn, iii.) ? No, this is an honour not fit to be put upon any creature ; 
no, not on all the anj^els and saints. Take, not Peter only (on whom the 
papists say the church is built), but the whole church and family of God in 
heaven and earth, and we say indeed, that ' we believe the catholic church,' 
but not ' in the catholic church ; ' we believe only in God, and i)i Jesus 
Christ. Any creature had been too weak a foundation to build the faith of 
the church upon ; they could not have borne the weight of it. And there- 
fore, 1 Tim. iii. 16, when the apostle had said, ' God manifested in the 
flesh,' he adds, * believed on in the world,' for if he who was manifest in 
the flesh had not been God, he could not have been the object of faith. 
And, indeed, it was fit for us that we should have one whom we might fully 
trust, and whose sufficiency might answer all our fears. For if a creature 
had been our mediator, we would have been afraid of a miscarriage in the 
business, as there was such a cause of fear whilst the concern was in the 
hands of our father and head, Adam ; and we should still have feared that 
the devil might overcome us and him again ; and though he had held out 
many years, yet we would have been afraid that one day he might fail and 
have perished. Besides, we should continually have feared, that the guilt 
of our sins would revive again in our consciences, for conscience being sub- 
ject to God only, no mere creature therefore could still it, or purge it ; but 
it is the eternal Spirit alone that can do it, as the apostle shews, Heb. ix. 
14, ' How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the etei'nal 
Spirit oflered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead 
works to serve the living God ? ' And it is God alone that can subdue 
iniquities : Micah vii. 18, 19, ' Who is a God like unto thee, that pardoneth 
iniquity, and passeth bj' the transgression of the remnant of his heritage ? 
He retaineth not his anger for ever, because he delighteth in mercy.' Ver. 
19, ' He v>-ill turn again, he will have compassion upon us ; he will subdue 
our iniquities ; and thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea.' 
Therefore, to take away all fears, it was fit that our reconciler should be 
God. And therefore, Isa. xxxv. (throughout which the coming of Christ is 
foretold) ver. 3, ' Strengthen you' (says the prophet) 'the feeble hands,' 
&c., . . . ' say unto them that are of a fearful heart. Be strong, fear not : 
behold, your God will come with vengeance,' namely, to destroy the enemies 
of your salvation ; he says it again, ' God will come with a recompence ; ' 
and then again he speaks it, ' he will come and save you ;' and he goes on 
to shew his kingdom, ver. 5, 6, 7, ' Then the eyes of the blind shall be 
opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped.' Ver. 6, ' Then shall 
the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing : for in the 
wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert.' Ver. 7, 
* And the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs 
of water : in the habitation of dragons, where each lay, shall be grass, with 
reeds and rushes.' Any other saviour would have needed salvation himself, 


except him who is salvation itself, and so Christ is called : Luke ii. 28-30, 
* Then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said,' ver. 29, 
' Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word : ' 
ver. 30, ' For mine eyes have seen thy salvation.' 

The second condition is obedience, even that we should wholly give up 
ourselves to his service for ever, which also comes in in our indentures, and 
is mentioned in the covenant on our parts, and which, out of thankfulness, 
we could not but perform, as a due to him that should be our mediator. 
For he that should have reconciled us must have bought us, and so deli- 
vered us from death and hell ; and if so, we must then by all right and 
equity have been his servants for ever. Now surely, God would not have 
us so obliged to any mere creature, as wholly to serve and obey it ; and 
therefore it was fit that none but God himself should save and buy us out ; 
1 Cor. vii. 23, * Ye are bought with a price : be not the servants of men.' 
To prevent which inconvenience, God himself would redeem us, that we 
might serve none but him : ' Him only shalt thou serve,' for it is his due. 
The apostle also judgeth it an equal thing that men should live to him who 
died for them, to redeem them from death. Thus, 2 Cor, v. 14, 15, ' We 
thus judge,' saith he, ' that in that he died for all, they who live should not 
henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him who died for them.' It was 
therefore no way fit that any mere creature should be employed in this 
work. It was fit that none should do so much for us, but only he who made 
us ; for to justify us, and to restore us out of this miserable, lost condition, 
was more than at first to create us. For our misery was worse than a not- 
being ; and should it ever be said that a creature had done as much for us 
as God did at the first ? 

Thirdhj, Besides all this, would we not have had such a Saviour (to 
choose) as might know our hearts, and be able to succour us ? on whom 
we might rest securely, that he knows God's mind, and searcheth the deep 
things of him, and who is his counsellor ? And therefore, when he speaks 
to us kindly, we may be sure God means us good, and in whose face we 
may read God's mind. Would we not have such a Saviour as might have 
an unlimited power over all flesh to defend us, so that nothing shall be able 
to withstand our salvation ? As John xvii. 2, ' As thou hast given him 
power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast 
given him.' Now such an one must be God, who can save not only the 
body, but the soul too. All the creatures, as they can destroy the body 
only, so they can save the body only ; and of the two it is more easy to 
destroy than to save. When the people of Israel were to be led into 
Canaan, and so to be carried through the wilderness, and through many 
enemies and difliculties, they hearing (Exod. xxxiii. 2) that an angel should 
go before them, and drive out the Canaanites (ver. 3), and that God would 
not himself immediately go up with them, it is said, that ' all the people 
mourned because of this;' yea, and Moses also (at the 12th verse) was 
fearful of a mere angel's conduct, his heart was not secured thereby, as it 
would have been if God himself would have been pleased to go with them. 
And therefore he says to God, ' Thou hast not let me know whom thou wilt 
send with me.' And yet God had told him that an angel should. But 
Moses seemed not to understand God, but would have had another answer. 
Thus, when we are fearful and cannot trust to the conduct or undertaking 
of one employed for us, we use to say, to a friend that puts it oS" and sends 
another. You leave me. and send I know not whom with me ; that is, one 
that I am not secure of, one in whose sufliciency I cannot rest for the per- 

Chap. 111. J of cuuist thk mediator. 41 

formance. And this therefore (ver. 4) is called ' evil tidings.' In Exod. 
xxiii. 20, before this, there was an angel promised to go before them, namely, 
Christ the angel of the covenant, who indeed was God (for, ver. 21, he says, 
' My name is in him'), and then the people's hearts were quieted. So 
that some think that this other angel in the 23d* chapter was but some 
mere created angel, whom when they heard to be substituted in God's stead 
to be their leader, then they mourned ; and then Moses also complained. 
However, if it were the same angel, yet they understood it and conceived of 
it to be a creature, and not the Son of God. By which you see that the 
people desired that no creature, no, not an angel, should be their leader 
(though one angel could destroy a host of men in a night), but they would 
have God himself or none. And so if w^e had been to have chosen a 
* captain of our salvation,' a head and governor ' to bring us unto glory,' 
as the apostle speaks, Heb. ii. 10, and withal had known that there was 
speech iu heaven of, and so a possibility, of having the Son of God for this 
cm* captain, how would we have said as he did of Goliath's sword, ' There 
is none like to this saviour ! ' Or as they of Joseph, ' Can we find such 
another one as this ? ' And on the contrary, if God had instead of him 
sent but an angel to redeem us, how would we have mourned, as the people 
there did, and as John did. Rev. v. 4 ; and have said as Moses., ' We 
know not whom thou wilt send with us ' ? We will therefore conclude 
with that which God speaks, Isa. xliii. 11, 'I am the Lord, and besides me 
there is no Saviour.' 


OJ the three persons in the Godhead, the Son is the fittest to he mediator. — 
What are the reasons of it. 

We have seen it was meet our redeemer should be God, and the God- 
head itself cannot become a redeemer but as subsisting in a person, one of 
three. Now which of the three so fit as is the Son ? The oath and 
decree of God makes the Son to be appointed to this office. And the 
reasons of the fitness and meetness of this second person are : 

First, If we consider the relations of the three persons among themselves, 
he is of all the fittest to undertake this work. 

1. It was meet the ibioiiJ^aTa, or the proper titles by which the persons of 
the Trinity are distinguished, should be kept and preserved distinct, and no 
way confounded. He that was to be mediator it was meet he should be the 
Son of man, the son of a woman as his mother, as I shall shew anon ; and 
this title and appellation will fithest become him that is a Son (though of 
God) already ; and it was not fit there should be two sons, or two persons 
in the Trinity to bear the relation or title of sons. For instance, that 
the Father shovild in any respect be said to be a Son, or to have a mother, 
or call David or Abraham father, was most improper ; so as this would not 
become him. And so in like manner it was as unfit for the Holy Ghost, 
who himself was to have the hand in his conception, to be called a Son ; 
but that the Son of God should is not improper, for he is a Son already. 

2. It was meet that the Son of God should be this mediator, that the due 
order that is between these three persons be also kept. The Father is the 
first, the Son the second, the Holy Ghost the third ; and he that is to be 

» Qu. '33d'?— Ed. 


mediator must be called to it, and sent by another person, therefore the 
Father is not to be mediator ; for both the Son and the Holy Ghost being 
from the Father in subsisting, are not to send the Father, who is the first. 
And as the order of their subsisting, so of their working ; and therefore the 
Holy Ghost, he likewise being the third person, cannot so fitly be mediator; 
for though he might be sent from the Father and the Son, as he proceeds 
from both, j'et his work and task is to work from the Son, and to take off 
his work wrought first, as the Son is to take from the Father : John 
V. 19, 20, ' Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say 
unto 3"ou, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father 
do : for what things soever he doth, these also doth the Son likewise. For 
the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doth : 
and he will shew him greater works than these, that ye may marvel.' And 
as in order of subsisting, the person of the Spirit proceeds from him, so in 
order of working, his work is from the Son's work , ' He shall take of mine,' 
says Christ, ' and shew it to you;' John xvi. 13—15, 'Howbeit when he, the 
Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth : for he shall not 
speak of himself : but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak : 
and he will shew you things to come. He shall glorify me : for he shall 
receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you. All things that the Father 
hath are mine : therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall shew 
it unto you.' And therefore he that is to be mediator to redeem must 
be the Son, who may send the Holy Ghost to apply his work, who, being 
the last person, is to appear last in the world, and take the last work, 
which redemption is noi, but the application of it. And therefore, 

3. The Father is the person to whom the redemption is to be paid in 
the name of the persons ; to whom the reconciliation is made by the re- 
deemer ; and the Holy Ghost is he that most fitly should apply that redemp- 
tion unto us the redeemed. Therefore the redemption itself fitly falls to 
the Son's share. 

And secondhj, As thus to preserve the due decorum among the persons, 
so also in respect of the work itself, it was most proper to him. 

1. He being the middle person of the three, bears the best resemblance 
of the work, to be a mediator, to come between for us, to the other two. 
Herein the work and the person suit. He was from the Father, and the 
Holy Ghost from him, and it is he in whom, as it were, the other two are 
united, and are one, and so he is not* able to lay hands on both. As the 
nature of man is a middle nature between the whole creation, earthly and 
heavenly ; and as for one and the same person to be both God and man 
was a middle rank between God and us men ; so is the Sou of God a 
middle person between the persons themselves. 

2. It best suited all the particular benefits of redemption, and the ends 
thereof. Many divines, for the demonstration of this, allege that the second 
person being that Word by whom all things were made, as Heb. i. 2 and 
John i. 3, that therefore it was fit for him to restore all ; and it is certain 
that in those places his working all things is alleged on purpose to shev/ it 
was meet he should be the restorer of them. It becomes him who hath 
such an interest in the first building, that he should found them anew and 
repair them. It is alleged also that he was the life of man in innocency : 
John i. 4, ' In him was life, and the life was the light of men ;' and there- 
fore he was fittest to restore that new life. Eph. ii. 1, ' And you hath he 
quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sius.' Ver. 5, ' Even when we 

* Qu. ' he is ' '?— Ed. 

Chap, m.] of cheist the mediator. 43 

were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ (by grace ye arc 
saved).' Also that he being the image of God, therefore to restore it in 
man when it was fost, the best way was to set forth the original image, and 
to bring our decayed unage to this to be conformed. But I allege not these 
to this purpose, as not being certain whether these things are spoken of 
him, considered simply as second person, or as foreseen and decreed to bo 
God-man (as I have elsewhere* shewn), which design, besides the work of 
redemption, served to all these ends and purposes. But I shall mention 
one, which is the main end of his being mediator, and for the bestowing 
which redemption maketh way ; that is, adoption, and maldng us sons, 
which is made one of the gi'eatcst benefits of all other, Eph. i. 5. Now it 
is certain that to convey this to us, of all persons the Son was the fittest ; 
Gal. iv. 4, 5, ' God sent forth his Son, made under the law, to redeem them 
that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.' 
"Where there is a double antithesis or opposition : (1.) Christ a Son, to 
make us sons ; (2.) Christ made under the law, to redeem us that were 
under the law. We were slaves under the law ; who then was so fit to 
redeem us as the King's Son ? We were servants ; who then so fit to con- 
vey sonship as the eldest Son ? And to sinners convey sonship he could 
not, till they were redeemed, as that place shews. God was to be a Father 
to us, and in whom or for whose sake so fitly as for his Son's, through our 
union and marriage with him ? Heaven and the glory of it is called adop- 
tion : Piom. viii. 23, ' And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the 
first-fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting 
for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body ;' and to bestow this 
on us by a right of inheritance, for whom was it so proper as for God's own 
Son, the heir of all things ? This is manifest further by these scriptures : 
John xs. 17, ' I go to my Father and to your Father;' and ' In my Father's 
house are many mansions,' John xiv. 2. As if he should have said, I am 
his eldest Son, I can bid you welcome thither. And so in Rom. viii. 17, 
* Ye are heirs and co-heirs with Christ ;' and in many the like places. 

Some divines say that no person else could have been mediator, because 
sonship was to be derived to us ; for nothing, say they, is communicated 
by grace to us but is first in the Godhead, or in some person in the God- 
head, who is made ours, and so it is derived through fellowship with him. 
Thus we are made wise because God is wise, holy because God is holy, and 
we made partakers of the divine nature, which is the image of what is in 
God. Now therefore, in like manner, if we be sons, it must be through a 
sonship found in one of the persons, and our communication with that 
person, and so we are made sons because he is. I will not say it could 
not have been otherwise ; sure I am it was fittest and comeliest it should 
be so. 

And also that we should be accepted graciously, and beloved of God, 
which of ourselves, without a mediator, we could not be ; who so fit as the 
Son to make us thus accepted, who is the first beloved, the Sen of his love, 
as he is called. Col. i. 13, ' Who hath delivered us from the power of dark- 
ness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son.' But the 
Holy Ghost proceeds from both per modum amoris, and so is rather the re- 
flection of love of both, wherewith God loves his Son and himself also. 

Then the Son was fittest to be the mediator in respect of all those offices 
that belong to the performance of this great work. 

* In the ' Discoiirse of the Knowled.cje of Gnd the Father, and his Son Jesus Christ.' 
In 2d Vol. of his Works.— [In Vol iV. of this Series.— Ed.] 


As First, If we regard the office of high priest, who so fit as the Son, the 
eldest Son, to be so ? it being the birthright of the eldest in the family, by 
the law of nature, to be the priest. Therefore, Heb. v., to prove that he 
was a priest, the apostle presently cites that saying out of the second Psalm, 
' Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee,' as being all one with 
that other which follows, quoted out of Ps. ex., ' Thou art a priest for ever.' 
And especially when the work of oux salvation and his mediation was to be 
transacted by intercession ; none so fit to be an advocate with the Father 
(as John speaks) as Jesus the Son. 1 John ii. 1, ' My little children, these 
things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an 
advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.' 

Secondly, If we consider the office of being a prophet, none so fit for this 
as the Word and Wisdom of the Father ; therefore, Heb. i. 1, it is said that 
in the last days God hath spoken by his Son. Who so fit to break up 
God's counsels as the mighty Counsellor, and next in counsel to himself? 
• None hath seen God at any time ;' but it follows, ' The only begotten Son, 
who is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him,' John i. 18. 

Aad so, thirdly, for the kingly office, none so fit as the heir, as sons use 
to be ; none so fit to have all judgment and the kingdom committed to him 
as God's Son. 

And last of all, if we consider the inauguration into these offices and 
work of mediation, it was by an anointing, as all those offices of old were. 
He was to be the Messiah, and God's Anointed ; now the Father (as was 
meet) was to be the Anointer : so Acts iv. 27, ' For of a truth, against thy 
holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, 
with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together ;' and 
the Holy Ghost was to be the oil with which he was to be anointed above 
his fellows ; as it is expressly. Acts x. 38, ' How God anointed Jesus of 
Nazareth with the Holy Ghost, and with power : who went about doing 
good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil ; for God was with 
him.' So as in this respect none bat the Son was capable of these offices, 
and to be Messiah or the Anointed one ; and so accordingly he was conse- 
crated a priest for ever. 


That it was necessary our mediator should be man. — Tlie reasoiu ivhy the an- 
gelical nature would not hare been proper for this work; and therefore why 
Christ assumed not that, but the nature of man. 

That which next is to be demonstrated is, that if Christ be a mediator, 
he must be something else than mere God or second person ; as the text 
saith, ' He took to himself the seed of Abraham.' 

For, first, if he be a reconciler he must become a priest, and ofier up 
something by way of satisfaction to God ; so Heb. viii. 3, ' Every high 
priest is ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices : wherefore of necessity he 
must have somewhat to offer ; ' and that which he ofiers must needs yet be 
greater than all things but God. For nothing else would be a sacrifice 
great enough to expiate sin ; and therefore that which he offers must some 
way be himself, for otherwise there could nothing be greater than all 
things, and yet withal something else than God. And therefore still it is 
said, ' he offered himself.' But if he be God only, he cannot be sacrificed 
lior offered up. 

Chap. IV.] op christ the mediator. 45 

And again, secondly, if he be God only, he should reconcile us to his 
own self; but he that is a reconciler must be some way made diverse from 
him unto whom the reconciliation is made, for he is to be a surety to him ; 
and therefore Christ being made man, he, as 'oix.ovoij,r/.ui;, or ministerially 
considered, is diverse from himself as (pvaixuig considered, viz., as he is 
the Son of God, and so is fit to become a party between us, and to recon- 
cile us to himself. 

And, third!;/, if he be a reconciler and mediator, he must become some 
way subject to God, and less than God ralione officii ; as he says, * My 
Father is greater than I,' John xiv. 28, for he must subject and submit 
himself, and be obedient, and be content to be aiTested by the law. He 
must become an intercessor and entroater, and so become subject, as 
Christ did, who, when he was equal with God, humbled himself: Phd. ii. 
0-8, ' Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal 
with God : but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form 
of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men : and being found in 
fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, 
even the death of the cross.' 

Now, then, if he must take up some creature or other, it must be a 
rational creature ; and therefore there being but two sorts of creatures 
reasonable, angels and men, they are both mentioned in the text as those 
that only were capable and fit for this assumption. The disputes of some 
hchoolmen, that the Son of God might have assumed any creature, though 
unreasonable, into one person with himself, are in a manner blasphemous. 
And, to be sure, if such an assumption bad been possible, yet unfit. 

First ; for his person, for which we see the reasons of the schoolmen, for 
there was reason that he that is taken up to this glory should be capable 
of knowing and loving God. 

And secondly ; and above all, for this work, for he must be holy : Heb. 
vii. 26, ' For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, un- 
defiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens.' Such 
a high priest became us as was holy, he should not fulfil the law else. 
He must love God, for love is the fulfilling of the law. He must have an 
understanding and a will. He must be full both of grace and truth : of 
truth in his understanding part, of grace in his will. And he was to be- 
come obedient to God for us, and to have a holy will ; for the will of the 
Godhead could not have become subject. 

Now, then, seeing there are but two rational natures, angels and men, 
that can stand for this place, it is to be considered which of these two is 
the fitter. 

Now, consider this fitness as it relates to the person of the Son of God 
simply so considered ; and so the nature of angels was a fairer match for 
him by far. But an angel, though a more fit match for him who is a 
Spirit, and they spirits, and so there is a nearer assimilation, and which 
he would have assumed and united to himself (for his soul, when separate, 
was still united to him) ; yet it was not so fit for this business to reconcile 
us, therefore he says, Heb. ii. 16, at no hand he took their nature. He 
supposeth it possible, he would not else have instanced in it, but he by no 
means supposeth it as fit ; for ' it behoved him to be made hke unto his 

First, It was not so fit for us that he should assume the angelical nature, 
it was not so fit, 

1. That we, being the persons to be reconciled, should be beholden 


to a stranger, but to a Icinsman of our own nature. It was a law in Israel 
that their prince should not be a stranger ; and it was meet to take place 
in this, that one should not be a mediator who is a stranger. 

2. That the relations that were to be between us and him might be 
founded upon the greatest nearness, and so more natural and kindl}', it 
was meet that the mediator should be of the same nature with us. 

(1.) He that reconciled us was to be head to us; and it was fit the head 
and the bod}^ should be, as near as could be, of the same nature, homo- 
geneal, not diverse, else there would be a monstrosity in it. 

(2.) We were to be made sons in him, and he to be our brother, and 
therefore to be of the same nature. Cant. viii. 1. 

(3.) He was to be a husband to us, and man and wife must be of tha 
same nature, that she may be bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. 

3. That he might more natm-ally love us more, and we him, it was fit 
that he should take our natui'e. Likeness is the cause of love. Brethren 
that are like each other, love more than the other of the brethren use to 
do ; therefore God made man in his image at first, that so he might be the 
nearer object of his love. But if he will take up our natm^e also to him- 
self, how will this raise his love yet higher ! His end in reconciling was 
to make us like himself, and therefore he made himself like to us, and we 
being to partake of a divine natm-e from him, he partakes of a human 
nature with us ; and therefore he was made in the likeness of man. Kngs, 
whom they love, they use to apparel like themselves ; their favourites were 
so of old. As men are to love men better than angels, because made of 
one blood, and God did it on pui-pose ; so Christ seeing his own nature in 
us, and that we are given him, cannot but love us the better ; he cannot be 
averse to his own flesh and blood. 

Secondly, An angel's nature would not have been so fit for the business 
or work itself; for, 

1. Seeing that justice permitted a commutation, it was but comely that 
yet justice might be satisfied in all other points as near as possibly might 
be. It was but fitting that satisfaction should be made in the sameness of 
natui-e at least, seeing it could not be by the same individual persons. 
This reason seems to be rendered, Bom. viii. 3, ' For what the law could 
not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son, 
in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh.' 
He took the likeness of sinful flesh, to condemn sin in the flesh. Also 
this was meet, that the very same nature that was contaminated and 
defiled might be cleansed and purified, that they who are sanctified, and 
he that sauctifieth, might be of one natm-e : Heb. ii. 11, ' For both he 
that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified, are all of one : for which 
cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren.' 

And, 2. Seeing that we fell by the sin of a man, God (that in his wisdom 
and justice loves like proportion to be made up, himself making all things 
in due order and measm'e) ordained that we should be redeemed by a man. 
This reason is intimated 1 Cor. xv. 21, ' Since by man came death, by man 
also the resurrection of the dead ;' and so by the like parallel reason, seeing 
by man came sin, by man came redemption ; the like proportion the apostle 
also holds forth, Bom. v. 15-18, ' But not as the ofience, so also is the 
free gift. For if thi-ough the ofience of one many be dead ; much more the 
gi-ace of God, and the gift by grace," which is by one man, Jesus Christ, 
hath abounded unto many. And not as it was by one that sinned, so is 
the gift : for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift 


is of many offences nnto justification. For if by one man's offence death 
reigned by one ; much more they which receive abundance of grace, and 
of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ. There- 
fore, as by the oHence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation ; 
even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto 
justification of life.' 

Thirdly, If we consider the obedience which the mediator was to perform 
for us, it was not fit he should be an angel. For, 

1. He was to fulfil the whole law, and every iota of it, and that in a 
double respect. 

(1.) For our righteousness. 

(2.) For our example. 

Now in either of these respects an angel was not so fit ; for the angels 
were not capable of fulfilling so many parts of the law as a human nature 
is. An angel could not perform the ceremonial, as to be circumcised, &c. ; 
nor half the moral, as to be subject to parents, to be temperate, sober, to 
sanctify the Sabbath, &c. But it became him that was our mediator (as far 
as possibly might be) to fulfil all (that is, every part of) righteousness. 

2. He was to fulfil all this righteousness by way of example, Socinug 
he would make it all the intent of Christ's coming into this world (but 
blasphemously) ; yet this was requisite, that Christ should set us the greatest 
example of holiness. 1 Peter ii. 21, 'He left us an example that we should 
follow his steps : who, when he was reviled, re\dled not again, nor was guile 
found in his mouth.' He was to be a visible example ; now so an angel's 
obedience could not have been. He was to be a perfect example and copy 
— Follow me as I follow Christ, says Paul, 1 Cor. xi 1 — now so an angel 
could not have been. All duties of obedience that are performed in the 
body, as we are men, they are not capable of; the second table is cut 
off to them ; their obedience is only spiritual, and the duties of the first 

As thus an angel's nature only could not have fulfilled that law we were 
to have fulfilled, so much less could it have suffered what was requisite. 
They could have endured God's wrath indeed, but not that other curse which 
went out in the letter against us ; they could not die, not retui'n to dust, and 
bodily death was threatened, ' To dust thou shalt return.' They had no 
body and soul to be separated by death, and therefore could not be a sacri- 
fice for sin, for without blood there is no remission : Heb. ix. 22, ' And 
almost all things are by the law purged with blood ; and without shedding of 
blood is no remission ;' for without blood it had not been extensive, a full 
redemption. Now the angels have no blood to lay down nor shed. 

Lastly, It was not so fit that we should be reconciled by angels, but by 
one in our own nature, that so the devils might be the more confounded. 
Now seeing the devil had out of malice rained man's natm-e, God would 
have man's nature to destroy the works of the devil, as 1 John iii. 8, ' He 
that committeth sin^ is of the devil ; for the deril sinneth from the begin- 
ning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might de- 
stroy the works of the devil.' And God, to the devil's confusion, would have 
him led captive by one who is man. So Heb. ii. 14, * He took the nature 
of man, that he might by death destroy him that had the power of death.* 
It is a reason given of his assuming it. If this gi'eat act had been done by 
an angel, the devil might have said he had met with his match, and so was 
foiled ; but to have it done by a weak man, one that was once a babe, a 
suckling, this was a mighty confusion of him. And thus it is noticed in 


the 8th psalm, which is apphed to Christ, ' Out of the mouths of sucklings 
thou hast ordained strength, that thou mightest still the enemy and avenger,' 
Ps. viii. 2. And this very confusion and revenge upon Satan, who was the 
cause of man's fall, was aimed at by God at first ; therefore is the first promise 
and preaching of the gospel to Adam brought in rather in sentencing him 
than in speaking to Adam, that the seed of the woman should break the 
serpent's head, it being in God's aim as much to confound him as to save 
poor man. 


Tliat it was Jit that our mediator sliould he both God and man in one person, 
that so he viif/ht partake of the nature of both parties, and be a middle per- 
son between them, and Jill tip the distance, and briny the.n near to one another, 
— That he might be in a better capacity to communicate unto us his benefits, 
and that he might be capable of pierforniin<j what our redemption required. 

"We see then how much it behoved Christ to be man as well as God, and 
indeed both, for a mediator is a mediator between two. Gal. iii. 20 ; and 
those two between whom a mediator must go, were God and man ; and 
therefore it is said that there is but one mediator between God and man, 
the man Christ Jesus, 1 Tim. ii. 5. And this was most fit ; for, 

First, Hereby he participates of both natures, and so his person doth 
bear a resemblance of the work in general. Mediation was the business, 
and who so fit as a middle person ? Therefore, fii'st, he became medins, a 
middle person, and then a mediator ; fii'st medius, then medians — a middle 
person in regard of participation of both natures, and then a mediator in 
regard of reconciliation and reconciling both natm-es. And a middle person, 
not in order only, as men are between angels and beasts, and as a middle 
rank of men are between those above them and under them, but of partici- 
pation, as having the natures of both. A middle person not in place only, 
as Moses when he stood between God and the people, Exod. v. 5, but in 
person. A medium, not only between God and us, but one with God and 
us, and symbolising with both. Therefore our divines say, that mediatio 
operativa is founded, and hath influence from his mediatio substantialis, that 
his works of mediation, whereby he mediates for us, ariseth from his per- 
son, that they arise from both natures, so as both natures have an influence 
into all his works, and they are the works of both, so that he might be totus 
mediator, a whole, entu-e mediator, in his person and in his works. 

And, secondly ; Hereby he is of equal distance and diflerence from both ; 
as he is God he difl'ers from us, as he is man he difters from God. Yea, 
and as he is mediator he takes on him a diflering person as it were from 
himself, and what he is essentially, as being only the Son of God ; for he 
became lesser than himself in his office, and emptied himself, and so is a fit 
mediator between us and himself also as he is the Son of God, Biffert Filius 
incarnatus, or/.ovo/xr/.us, a seipso <pvaix.cijg. The Son incarnate difiers minis- 
terially from what himself is naturally. As we say in philosophy, Una et 
eadem res a seipsa diversa est, mudo et ratione. One and the same thing is 
diflerenced from itself by a difi'erent modus, or manner of existing. 

Thirdly; Hereby he is indiflerent also between both, so as not to take part 
with the one more than with the other, ready to distribute to both with 
unequal hands their due, and be faithful to both : Heb. ii, 17, * That he 

Chap. V.] of christ the mediatob. 4U 

might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to 
make reconciliation for the people.' Lo here are the matters both of God and 
man refeiTed to him, for the cause of both was to be committed to him, Ta 
a^os &ebv, and ra rrfog ri/Mcig, therefore he partakes of both, and is distant from 
both, as a middle thing participates of both extremes, and toucheth both. 

Fourthly ; He was to make peace between both, and take away hostihty, 
therefore he takes pledges both out of earth and out of heaven. He takes 
the chief nature on earth and the chief in heaven, thereby to still the enmity, 
and to part us who were fighting each against other, we against God, and 
God against us. Now having our nature and God's, he had two hands 
able enough to part us, he could take hold of God's strength, and hold his 
hands, as it is Isa. xxvii. 5, and so make peace ; and having our nature, 
he had a hand to take hold of our hands also. 

Fifthly ; He is hereby able to draw near to both, and bring both toge- 
ther, and so make us one; for is not he fit to do this, that is both God and 
man ? He joins om* nature first with God in his own person, and makes 
both one there, that so God and man becoming one in person, he might 
the easilier make God and man one in covenant. God and man were at 
division, and when he would make utnimque unum, he becomes et unum ex 
utroqiie. He by this means is in a fi'iendly way able to treat with both, 
and hath a hand to shake with both. He is become ' the man God's fel- 
low,' Zech. xiii. 7. K he had been God's fellow, and not the man God's 
fellow, he might have drawn near to God, and yet we have been never the 
nearer ; and yet if not more than man, and so God's fellow (which no mere 
man could be) he could not have approached to God; as Jer. xxx. 21, 
' And their nobles shall be of themselves, and their governor shall proceed 
from the midst of them ; and I will cause him to draw neai", and he shall 
approach unto me : for who is this that engaged his heart to approach unto 
me ? saith the Lord.' "VMio but he could have engaged his heart, or 
assumed the boldness to have drawn near unto God "? And yet withal he 
being the man God's fellow, we may draw nigh to him, and come to God 
by him, as the phrase is in the epistle to the Hebrews ; for why, he comes 
out of the midst of us, as in the same Jer. xxx. 21. Thus Heb. iv. 15, 16, 
' For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling 
of our infirmities ; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet with- 
out sin. Let us therefore come boldy unto the throne of grace, that we may 
obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need.' And Heb. x. 
21, 22, ' And having an high priest over the house of God ; let us draw 
near with a time heai-t, in full assurance of faith, ha\'ing our hearts sprinkled 
from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.' 

Sixthly ; He could hereby communicate the benefit of all he did for us 
unto us, which without it had not been done, Participavit cle nostra, id com- 
municaret suum : He partakes of ours, that he may communicate to us his. 
We are to participate the divine nature, 2 Pet. i. 4, and therefore he takes 
part of oui's. If we were to have righteousness from him, it was fit our 
own nature should be the fountain : John xvii. 19, ' For their sakes I 
sanctify myself that they may be sanctified ; ' I, that is, my deity, sanctifies 
myself, that is, my human nature, which he calls himself, because it was one 
in person with himself. It was fit that that nature that sinned should be 
sanctified to ' condemn sin in the flesh,' Kom. viii. 3. And hence it is the 
benefit of his righteousness is not extended to angels, because he that sanc- 
tifies and them that are sanctified are of one, Heb. ii. 11, which he and 
angels are not ; and therefore his merits reach not in a proper and direct 

VOL. V. D 


YfRj unto them. The intense worth indeed of his benefits ariseth from his 
abilities and sufficiency personal, but the extension from his so proper fit- 
ness that he was a man, and therefore reacheth only to men. 

Seroithhj ; That which he was to do for us required he should be both 
God and man. For consider but the principal parts of the work that he 
was to do, and it was fit that he should be both, that what did not become 
the one nature the other might do. 

1. He was to keep and fulfil the law, and be subject to it, and to merit 
by keeping it. Now if he had not been man he could not have been sub- 
ject to the law ; therefore he was made of a \Yoman, and made under the 
law ; first, therefore, made of a woman, that so he might be under the law : 
Gal. iv. 4, ' But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his 
Son, made of a woman, made under the law.' And if he had not been 
God, he could not have merited for us by that his keeping the law, for he 
had done but what was required and what was a due, and so it could have 
reached but to himself, for all creatures, when they have done all they can, 
are but unprofitable seiwants ; and he that merits must do it by his own 
strength, for otherwise ' what hast thou that thou hast not received ? ' 

2. He that is our mediator must die and overcome death, for he was to 
rescue us from death, and destroy him that had the power of it. Now if 
he had not been man, he could not have died ; therefore he took such a 
body as we have that he might die ; he could not have tasted of death else : 
Heb. ii. 9, ' But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels 
for the suflcring of death, crowned with glory and honour ; that he by the 
grace of God should taste death for every man.' Ver. 14, ' Forasmuch 
then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise 
took part of the same ; that through death he might destroy him that had the 
power of death, that is, the devil.' And if he had not been God he could 
not have raised himself: Rom. i. 4, ' And declared to be the Son of God 
with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from 
the dead :' therefore, John x. 18, 'I lay down my life,' saith he, * and take 
it up again.' 

(1.) He had not had a life to lay down if he had not been man, for the 
Godhead could not die. 

(2.) If he had not been God he could not have merited by laying it 
down. It must be his own, not in the dominion of another ; now the lives 
of creatures are not their own, and therefore their laying of them down 
cannot merit. 

(3.) He must have it in his own power ; if another could take it away 
he could not have merited, for it must be a voluntary laying it down, 
and there is no mere man but another may take away his life from him if 
God prevent not ; but Christ, having his life wholly in his own power, 
resigned it, therefore that centurion said he was God, Mat. xxvii. 54. 

(4.) He could not else take it up again. None ought to die but man ; 
none could give up his life, and reassume it, but God : he had the passive 
power to die, as man, the active power, to die of himself, as God. 

(5.) And so for endm-iug the wrath of God ; if he had not been man he 
had not had a soul to be heavy to the death ; and if he had not been God 
it had died through heaviness, if the Godhead had not upheld him that 
upholds all things. 

(G.) Also he was to be a judge : and that he could not be unless he had 
been God ; and also an advocate : and that he could not be, unless he had 
been man. 



How the two natures, the divine and human, which are so different, are 
united into one person, Christ God-vian. — That the Son of God did not 
assume a human person, but the nature. — The reasons why a human person 
could not have been assumed. — It tvas our ivhole nature which the Son of 
God took, both soul a)ul body. — The reasons uhich made this necessary. 

And now that we Lave the reasons that he was to be both, you will ask 
how can this be that he should be both ? The text resolves it, and says, 

* He took to himself,' Heb. ii. 16. The meaning is, he did take man's 
nature into one pei'son with himself. He not only took on him, but to 
him, \-~t\a[jJZaMTat, assumpsit ad. Assutnpsit nan hominem jiersonam., scd 
hominem in personam ; he took not the person of a man, but man to be one 
person with himself. ' He took the seed of Abraham ' to himself, that is, 
to subsist in himself, not of itself, and to have his subsistence communi- 
cated to it ; this nature being as an appendix, as a part of him subsisting in 
him, but communicating the subsistence of that divine person to the human 
nature that they are personally one, as truly as soul and body joined be- 
come one man ; and therefore the phrase is, that this second person was 

* made flesh:' John i. 14, * And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt amonc 
us (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father), 
full of grace and truth.' Though God dwells in the saints in heaven, and 
fills them with his fulness as a cause efiicient of all their glory and their 
chiefest good, yet they are not so united as that God can be said to be made 
the saints ; but Christ may be said to be made man, and to be as essentially 
man as he is God ; made, not as the water was made wine, and ceasing to 
be water, but both natures remaining distinct, are made one person, so as 
both became one Lord and one Christ ; there is one Lord, 1 Cor. viii. 6, 

* But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and 
we in him : and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by 
him ; ' God and man personally one. So 2 Cor. v. 14, ' For the love of 
Christ constraineth us ; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then 
■were all dead.' One is said to have died for all, that is, but one person, 
though there were two natures, God and man, j^et but one person of both. 
That as in the Trinity there are three persons in one nature and Godhead, 
so here are two natures, one in person and subsistence (the manner of 
which union hath no similitude in nature to express it by), so as in the 
concrete the man Christ may be called God, and the Son of God (so Luke 
i. 35, '■ That which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God'), 
though the manhood cannot be called the Godhead. And then this second 
person is said to dwell in that nature : Col. ii. 9, ' The fulness of the God- 
head ' is said to ' dwell in him bodily ; ' and so notes out a permanent 
union, not God to dwell in him only by his graces, but the Godhead is said 
to dwell in him, and the fulness of the Godhead to fill that human nature, 
as fire fills the iron that is in it=;= — and not to dwell in him as in the saints 
by grace, and as being their portion, uniting himself to them as an object 
they love, as God is said to be all in all in the saints in heaven, and as the 
Spirit dwells in us, sanctifying, &c., and as the same Spirit dwells in Christ, 

■ — substantially dv;elling in him, (rw//.ar;xw5 ; that is, not only in a body, 

noting out the subject in which, but the manner, personally, bodily. Now 

the Grecians put trw/xa to express a person, ffw/y-ara iroWa. r^i(psiv. And so 

« Qu. ' that it is in ' ?— Ed. 


Thucydides, ou/Maai 'xokiij.uv. As the Hebrews put soul for person : Exod. 
i. 5, the souls came out of the loins of Jacob ; the Grecians use the word 
body, so that bodili/ is personaJhj. 

God communicates his presence to all creatures, his gi'ace to the saints ; 
but the Son of God communicates his personality, his subsistence, to the 
man Christ Jesus — this is the highest communication, for his nature is 
communicable to none but the three persons — so as our nature and Christ's 
person is one ; not in office only, as two consuls or bailiffs in a town, that 
have a joint commission ; not as man and wife only, who are in a relation 
one flesh ; not spiritually only, as Christ and we his members are one spirit, 
as the head and members are one ; but they are personally one. So as 
when we see a man, we say, there is such a man, such a person ; so when 
you shall see Christ at the latter day, you may say as John doth, 1 John 
V. 20, ' This is the true God, and eternal life.' 

God is the princijnum of subsistence to all, but in Christ he is the termi- 
nus subsistendi, yet not so as if the personal property were communicated 
that is incommunicable, as to be begotten of God, and to subsist of itself, 
but that the second person becomes a foundation of subsistence to the 
human nature of Christ, as an oak is to the ivy. 

Now to shew the grounds why this was fit (which is the proper scope of 
this discourse) why this union was requisite, and fitted him for the work of 
mediation. Had he not been thus God and man^ he could not have been 
mediator. For, 

1. It being necessary he should be God and man, and remain perfectly 
God and perfectly man, and the Son of God, and the same person that he 
was, therefore they could no way else be united to do us good ; for they 
could not the one be changed into the other, for God was immutable ; and 
it was impossible that the nature of man should become the natui-e of God, 
since the essence of the Godhead is incommunicable. And if they had been 
so united as that a third person out of both had been made, as when the 
elements are made one in a man's body, as the soul and body make one 
man, besides the impossibility of it, it had not served this turn. For he 
that redeems us must be God and man, therefore there is no way but that 
the personality of the second person be communicated to the human, both 
natures remaining united in one person ; it cannot be more nor less. If the 
personality of the Son of God had been communicated only by power and 
grace, &c., then his actions had been of God as the author or efficient, but 
not actions of the person of the Son of God, as his personal actions, which 
should have received a worth fi-om him. 

And, 2. This will fit us well ; for now all that Christ as God doth, the 
man Christ shall be said to do for us, that so it may be ours ; and all that 
Christ man doth, Christ God shall be said to do, that it may have an infi- 
nite merit in it. For as there is a communication of the personality of 
Christ to the manhood, so of acceptance of all the human nature doth : 1 
Pet. iii. 18, ' For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the 
unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but 
quickened by the Spirit.' And therefore the blood shed shall be called the 
blood of God, as well as the man is called the Son of God : so Acts xx. 28, 
' Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the 
Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he 
hath purchased with his own blood.' And so the Lord of glory is said to 
be crucified : 1 Cor. ii. 8, ' Which none of the princes of this world knew : 
for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.' 

Chap. VI.] of christ the mediator. 53 

And as the person is one, so the redemption, and all that both did, became 
one work of mediation, and one is said to die for all, Christ as one, God 
and man ; so as, when he offered up the human nature as a sacrifice, he 
may be said to offer up himself, for it is himself, and he poured out his own 
soul : Hcb. ix. 14, * How much more shall the blood of Christ, who, through 
the eternal Spirit, ofi'cred himself without spot to God, purge your con- 
science from dead works, to serve the living God ? ' Isa. liii. 12, ' Therefore 
will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with 
the strong ; because he hath poured out his soul unto death : and he was 
numbered with the transgressors ; and he bare the sin of many, and made 
intercession for the transgressors.' 

Now then, if this manhood be assumed into one person with the Son of 
God, then it could not remain a person of itself; and so the text also inti- 
mates, calling him * the seed,' Heb. ii. 16, as not a person, but a human 
nature ; so as though he took our natm-e, and an individual particular 
nature, yet that nature was not a person. Therein indeed his human 
nature differs from ours ; but that difference is not in any part of the sub- 
stance of om' natures, but only in a complement of being, or rather a 
modification of being, a difference in the manner of subsisting : it is no more. 

(1.) The nature is the same for being and substance. 

(2.) It is an individual nature. 

But (3.) it is not a person of itself apart for subsistence, for that is pro- 
perly called a person that subsists in itself ; though we all have our being 
in God, and exist by him as in a cause thereof, yet we do not subsist as 
one with him as a person ; that is, we are persons apart and alone of our- 
selves, and God and we are two persons, but our natm-e in Christ is one 
with God, and in God. 

The reasons of this are two. 

1. It was not indeed possible that a person (as the second person was) 
should assume another person, subsisting of itself, into personal union with 
him : it had been a contradiction, and therefore it is impossible. For that 
two persons, remaining two, should become one, is a contradiction ; even 
as to say of an accident (the nature of which is to subsist in a substance), 
that it subsists in itself, is a contradiction. Now to be a person of itself is 
to subsist of itself alone ; this is the condition of its subsisting as it is a 
person ; and therefore here in the IGth verse of this Heb. ii., when he speaks 
but by way of supposition of the second person's assuming the natm-e of 
angels, he doth not say, he took not on himself ' an angel,' but ' not of 
angels,' that is, the nature of angels ; for to have assumed the person of an 
angel had been a contradiction, and so such a phrase of speech was not fit 
to have been used so much as in a supposition. 

2. As it was not possible that the second person of the Godhead should 
take the person of a man into union with himself, so it was not fit (the 
demonstration of which is that which I in this discourse did aim at) for the 
work of mediation. For although it was necessary for that work that he 
should be an individual particular man as we are, particularly existing — 
for else he could not merit, nor act, nor suffer, for all merits and actions 
are of individuals — yet if he had subsisted of himself, and been a person 
of himself as man, all that merit and actions of obedience would have been 
but for himself. If he had been a person of himself apart, so his merits 
would have been for himself apart ; and he subsisting in his own bottom, 
and in himself as a person, must have stood by his own obedience, and so 
all his obedience would have been but enough for himself, and have been 


shut up in himself, and confined to himself. But he having an individual 
nature of man as we all have, without a propriety of subsistence, all his 
obedience may be common for all others, and as many as he shall please to 
communicate it unto may have a share in it. It may be a common salva- 
tion, as it is called Jude 3, ' Beloved, when I gave all diligence to writo 
unto you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you, 
and exhort you, that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was 
once delivered unto the saints.' For our nature in him, as it is human, is 
not circumscribed or enclosed with a proper subsistence of its own, but lies 
like a field unenclosed, not hedged in with personality, as all our natures are. 

And to this purpose observe the phrases whereby the Scripture expresseth 
this nature assumed by the Son of God, which are such as do imply, that 
that which was assumed was only a human nature, and not a person. As 
when it is said, ' He took the seed of Abraham,' Heb. ii. 16, not a person, 
but ' the seed,' our nature. Semen est intimum suhstant'uj!, the quintessence 
of nature, but notes not out a person. So the Word is said to be made- 
flesh ; that word flesh noteth out but one nature assumed, not a person ; 
and therefore the apostle speaking of Christ, he makes him the person, and 
his flesh or human nature but as an appendix : Rom. ix. 5, ' Whose are 
the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over 
all, God blessed for ever. Amen.' And so in Luke i. 35, ' And the angel 
answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and 
the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee : therefore also that holy 
thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.' The 
angel there speaks of Christ's human nature, which was to be born of Mary, 
not as of a person but as of a thing, in the neuter gender : ' That holy 
thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.' And 
besides, he, the man Christ, could not have been called the Son of God if 
he had been a person apart of himself, for one person is not predicated of 
another ; the husband cannot be called the wife, though most nearly united, 
for they are two persons. And therefoi'e likewise Christ himself, when ho 
was to take our nature, speaking of that which was to be assumed, saith, 
Heb. x. 5, * A body hast thou fitted me ;' vie notes out the person, the 
other is but a body assumed ; so he calls it, because himself as God was 
the person ; this was not a person but the nature of man, therefore he calls 
it a body, and so Col. i. 22, ' in the body of his flesh through death, to pre- 
sent you holy and unblameable, and unreprovable in his sight :' it is h no 
6ujij.aTi TTjg au^xog, in that body of his flesh. 

But though he subsisted not as an entire person, yet it was fit and neces- 
sary that he should be a whole and perfect man entire, so as though he 
took not a person on him, yet he took our whole nature for substance, eveiy 
way as perfect as ours, in all the parts of it, both of soul and body : ' He 
was made like us in all things,' says the apostle, Heb. ii. 17. There was 
nothing wanting essential to either, or for the perfection of either part of 
our nature, for he will be like us in all things, in all members of our bodies, 
and faculties of our souls. It is called flesh indeed, and a body, but yet 
lest only a body should seem to be meant, he elsewhere is called ' a man,' 
' the man Christ Jesus,' as having all belonging to a man ; and he is called 
' that man' in Acts xvii, 31 : ' Because he hath appointed a day, in the 
which he will judge the world in righteousness, by that man whom he hath 
ordained ; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath 
raised him from the dead.' He had a perfect body as ours, and a soul, 
and both united, and so was a whole man. 

Chap. VI.] op christ the insDUTOB. 55 

1. For the body, Col. i. 22, it is called ' the body of bis flcsb.' They 
tbougbt bo bad been a spirit, but in opposition to tbeir conceit, * It is I,' 
says bo. Mat. xiv. 27 ; ' and feel,' says bo ; ' batb a spirit ilesb, and blood, 
and bones ?' Luke xxiv. 39. And tbis was fit, tbat tbc similitude of our 
union migbt be tbe nearer, and tbat wo mi^qbt be truly culled ' members of 
his body,' as being ' of bis flcsb and of bis bones :' as Epb. v. 30, ' For wo 
are members of bis body, of bis flcsb, and of bis bones.' Also because bo 
was to reconcile us ' in tbe body of bis flesb tbrougb deatb,' Col. i. 22, by 
bearing our sins upon bis body on tbe tree : 1 Peter ii. 24, ' Wbo bis own 
self bare our sins in bis own body on tbe tree, tbat we, being dead to sin, 
should live unto righteousness : by whose stripes ye were healed.' If he 
had not had the body of a man, he could not have been fastened to tbe tree, 
nor endured our sorrows, the pains of death. And again, as all our mem- 
bers are weapons of unrighteousness, therefore he was to take them all, to 
sanctify all to God, and make them weapons of righteousness. 

And that body did not want a soul, for his ' soul was heavy unto death,' 
Mat. sxvi. 38. And it was meet it should be so, for first the chief suit and 
threatening for sin was against the soul : ' The soul that sins shall die,' Ezek. 
xviii. 20 ; therefore he must ' pour out his soul to death,' Isa. liii. 12, and 
it is the redemption of the soul that is precious : Ps. xlix. 8, ' For the 
redemption of their soul is precious, and it ceaseth for ever ;' that is the 
chief thing to be redeemed, and tbat is so precious, as nothing but a soul 
could be a fit price. He was made like us therefore, that he might succour 
us in all respects : Heb. iv. 15, ' For we have not an high priest which 
cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities ; but was in all points 
tempted like as we are, yet without sin;' Heb. ii. 17, 18, 'Wherefore in 
all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might 
be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make 
reconciliation for the sins of the people. For in that he himself hath suf- 
fered, being tempted, he is able to succour them tbat are tempted.' And 
now om* greatest temptations are in our souls, and therefore be had a soul 
to be tempted in all things, sin only excepted ; and so he knows how to 
pity our souls, and the distress of them, and he joys to be a ' shepherd of 
our souls :' 1 Peter ii. 25, ' For ye were as sheep going astray ; but are 
now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.' 

And then, 2, both body and soul must be united, else the body could not 
die ; for bodily death is the separation of soul and body, and that was 
threatened against us, and therefore to be executed on our mediator ; and 
therefore when he died, it is said, ' He gave up the ghost,' Mat. xxvii. 50. 

And be must be a whole, perfect man, for this reason too, because he was 
to be a priest and a sacrifice both, and the priests in the law were to be 
perfect men in all parts of their bodies. If they had any blemish, they 
were not to be priests. And so the sacrifices were to be whole burnt- 
ofl'erings, therefore a whole man was to be ofiered up by the Son of God. 

And he being to redeem the whole man, it was fit he should take the 
whole human nature. All that was lost was to be saved by him : Luke xix, 
10, * He came to seek and to save that which was lost.' There was not 
that thing in man that was lost (as all was), but he saved it, and therefore 
took the whole of man into union with himself. 



Tliat it was not only fit that Christ should he man, hut such a man as to be 
like us in the matte)' and substance of his body — And to be like us in his 
production and birth, to be born of a ivoman, as ive are. — What are the 
reasons of this — What is the reason why Christ, though born of a woman, 
is yet idthout sin. — Why he is man, and of the Jewish nation. 

Now seeing he was thus to be a man, let us consider what manner or kind 
of man every way qualified was fittest in this business, and we shall find 
that such a man did God every way make him ; for he must have a human 
nature fitted for him on purpose : Heb. x. 5, ' Wherefore when he cometh 
into the world, he saith. Sacrifice and ofiering thou wouldest not, but a 
body hast thou prepared me.' 'A body hast thou fitted me,' so some read 
it, adaptasti, fitted him with a body for the purpose. And indeed if for all 
other works God chooseth out fit instruments, then surely for this great 
work of all works else ; and accordingly divines call his human nature 
instrumentum Deitatis, the instrument of the Godhead. It is not every kind 
of body wiU fit him for this purpose of reconciling. Some schoolmen have 
thought that not any other human nature but that which was assumed could 
have been assumed ; sure I am a greater fitness could not have been in any, 
and all to make up this his personal fitness for a mediator full, that in him 
all fulness might be found to dwell. 

Now concerniag what qualifications are to be in him for this work, we have 
this general rule given us here in Heb. ii. 17, ' That it became him in all 
things to be made like to us who were his brethren ; ' so as the liker he 
should be to us, the fitter mediator he should bo for us, and that for the 
very reasons before mentioned, that because justice admitted of a commu- 
tation, it would yet come every way as nigh to have a full and proportion- 
able satisfaction as could be. As satisfaction must be made in a nature of 
the same kind, by man, not an angel, so in such a nature a man as should 
be as near akin to us, and like us, as the matter would possibly pennit, 
so as the business of reconciliation be not hindered nor evacuated by it ; 
for then he should have lost his end. 

First, Whereas he might have been a man of the same nature with us, 
consisting both of body and soul, and yet have been created immediately, 
as Aadm was, out of nothing, yea, or out of matter in heaven (as some do 
dream), as his body itself is now heavenly and spii'itual, and therefore 
called ' the heavenly man,' 1 Cor. xv. 48, 49 : yet that he may be like to 
us, he will take human nature of the same lump with ours, and out of which 
ours is taken. So here in Heb. ii. 14, ' He took part of the same ; ' the 
same flesh and blood that we have ; and again, ver. 11, ' Both he that 
sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one : ' he says, not only 
that both are one for nature and kind, but all are ' of one,' that is, one lump 
and mass, that so he might be a little the more akin to us, our countrv'- 
man, being made of the same earth we are of. If he had been made of 
heavenly matter he had been countrj-man to the angels rather, for heaven 
is their countiy ; yea, he had been utterly a stranger to us, though of the 
same nature ; as a man di'opped from heaven would be, as some conceive 
Melchisedec his type to have been. And the reason there given is proper 
and pertinent, for he was to sanctify us ; and he that sanctifies and they 
that are sanctified it is meet they should be ' of one.' The ground of this 

Chap. VII.j of chmst the mediator. 57 

reason is taken from that of the Lcvitical law, by which the first-fruits sancti- 
fied the whole lump or mass which those fruits were taken out of ; and they 
by this sanctiticd the rest, because they were of the same lump or mass, as 
it is expressed, Rom. xi. IG, ' For if the tii-st-fruit bo holy, the lump is 
also holy: and if the root be holy, so are the branches.' They were not only 
of the same species of creature that the rest were of, but growing out of the 
same earth that the rest of the fniits did. Now Christ, as he is called 
' the/n//7 of the womb,' Luke i. 42, so the ' first-fruits,' : 1 Cor. xv. 20, 
' But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first-fniits of them 
that slept ; ' which, though spoken of the resurrection only, yet holds in 
all, even to his very natm-e. He is in all things wherein he is like us the 
first-fruits, and therefore is to be made like us in all, that he might be the 
first-fruits. And he was to sanctify others of mankind ; and this he had 
not so fitly and coiTcspondently, according to the law of nature, done, had 
not both they and he been all of one And besides God meant not to create 
anew any of mankind, and therefore he made woman of man rather than of 
nothing, intending to make out of Adam all which he meant to make, even 
Christ and all. But then, 

Secondly, He might have been made of the same lump, if made of some 
man, in that manner as Eve was out of Adam, made of a rib, or some such 
part of mankind. But he resolves to come nearer yet, and to be made as 
like in all things as may be, and therefore he will be made of the same 
kind of matter that we all ai'e made of, even of seed, which is the quint- 
essence, the elixir of man's natui'e, intimiim sitbstantm ; and therefore the 
first title and appellation he was known by unto the sons of men was ' the 
seed of the woman : ' Gen. iii. 15, 'And I will put enmity between thee 
and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed ; it shall bruise thy 
head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.' So Acts xvii. 26. God hath made 
mankind all of one blood, that so they might love one another ; and he will 
have this man that is to be om* redeemer to be of the same blood, that is, 
of seed, which is the blood of man concocted to an height, and therefore he 
is not only called a man, but the ' Son of man,' Mat. xvii. 12. Eve, 
though made out ol man, was not filia hominis, a daughter of man ; nor 
Adam, though a man, yet not a son of man ; no. In the genealogy, Luke 
iii. 38, Adam is called the son of God ; but Christ is to be the Son of man 
as well as man, and that by being made of seed, which all men are made 
of; and so inHeb. ii. 16, ' He took not the nature of angels, but the seed 
of Abraham.' And the reason is given in the next verse here, that he 
might call us brethren, and not be ashamed of us. A brother is more 
than of the same nature, it notes one made out of the same blood. And 
God would have the same blood run in his veins that runs in ours. And 
this fitted him the more to be a redeemer, and to have right to do it by 
the Levitical law also, for it was proper to a brother to redeem, and a 
stranger could not : Levit. xxv. 25, 'If thy brother be waxen poor, and 
hath sold away some of his possession, and if any of his kin come to redeem 
it, then shall he redeem that which his brother sold.' So that the church 
comes to have her wish : Cant. viii. 1, ' Oh that thou wert as my brother,' 
&c. For so Christ is. Yea, 

Thirdhj, He will come yet nearer, evon in the manner of his production, 
or being made a man, as like as may be to that of ours, as near as possibly 
might be, so as not to take infection. He will be made of seed, even by 
a conception, and lie in the womb, and grow up there, from a tear, a drop, 
by degrees, as man doth, and be bom, and be a suckling as we, as Ps. 


viii. 2 speaks of him, and therefore he is called the fruits of the womb : 
Luke i. 42, 'And she spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art 
thou amouc; women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.' And more 
expressly, Luke i. 31, ' Thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth 
a son,' speaking to Mary. You see Christ is like to us in being produced 
both by the same way, and to he in the same place, that secret and dark 
chamber that all mankind lies in. Conception is the groundseil (as I may 
caU it) of our natm-e, which sin had infected, and it was rotten and cor- 
rupted, and from it the leprosy was spread over all the walls of this build- 
ing : * In sin my mother conceived me,' says David, Ps. li. 5, and Christ 
coming to repair and restore us from the very foundation, sanctifies that 
veiT way of production, conception, and consecrates the curious room and 
privy chamber that all mankind lies in. Man is said by the psalmist to be 
curiously wi-ought ' in the lower parts of the earth,' Ps. cxxxix, 15 ; and 
Christ descends even thither, that so he may ascend the higher. He takes 
his flight thus low, in that he ascended, he descended first into these lower 
parts of the earth, which surely is pai"t of the apostle's meaning, in com- 
paring it with that psalm : Eph, iv. 9, 10, ' Now that he ascended, what is 
it but that he also descended fii"st into the lower parts of the earth ?' ver. 10, 

* He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, 
that he might fill aU things.' And that we may be where he is, as he 
prays, John xvii. 24, he will condescend for a while to be where we were, 
enclosed in the womb. And that we may come to his place, his mansion- 
house in heaven, his Father's house, he wiU first come down to our place, 
oui" mother's house, for such is the womb. And therefore he is still called 
'the seed of the woman,' and 'made of a woman;' Gal. iv. 4, 5, 'But 
when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a 
woman, made under the law ;' ver. 5, ' To redeem tbem that were under the 
law, that we might receive the adoption of sons ;' to the end that he might 
be fitted to redeem us. This reason is expressly added there, ' that he 
might redeem us that were under the law.' And this woman was yet a 
virgin, as you shall see by and by, ' A vu'gin shall conceive :' Isa. vii. 14, 

* Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign ; Behold, a virgin shall 
conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.' One reason 
of it, besides that which I shall anon give, might be, that God would take 
a new course in the rearing up this human nature, diflering from what was 
taken afore. If he had made him out of man, or the rib of a man, so ha 
had made the woman before ; if out of nothing, so he had made the first 
man before. But to make him of a woman, and the seed of the woman, by 
conception, without man, this was a new thmg in the earth, as the prophet 
speaks, Isa. xhii. 19. And God herein kept some further correspondency 
also with man's sinning, that (as was observed before) as by a man came 
death, so by man should come the resurrection ; God observed a propor- 
tion in it. So here, a woman afore destroyed us, and was ' first in the 
transgi'ession ;' nevertheless, both she and we shall be saved by her child- 
bearing, or that child- beaiing (as some interpret that place, 1 Tim. ii. 15). 
And Adam laid all the blame on the woman (reflecting withal on God) : 
Gen. iii. 12, ' And the man said. The woman whom thou gavest to be with 
me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.' And therefore God presently, 
to meet \rith him, says, ' The seed of the woman,' not the man, shall break 
the sei-pent's head ; as if he had said. Thou hast laid the fault on me for 
giving thee a woman, because she hath been the occasion of thy fall ; but 
I will be even with thee (but it is in mercy, as God's revenges on his chil- 

Chap. VII.] op cheist the mediator. 59 

dren arc). Thou slialt liavo cause to thank me more for this woman, than 
thou now hast clone ; for ' the seed of the woman shall break the serpent's 
head ;' and so doth God reprove him, and for his unthankfulncss puts the 
honour upon the woman. 

()l)J. Yea, but now in ihefoiirth place, you will say, this kindred is too 
nigh, he had better have married our nature farther ofi", and at a greater 
distance ; for thus he is in danger to be made sinful. Doth not the 
psalmist say, ' In sin my mother conceived me,' Ps. li. 5. Doth not the 
apostle say, ' And such an high priest became us as was separated from 
sinners'? Heb. rii. 2G. Why, then, the work of our redemption will be 
spoiled by this way of conception of Christ, and he be uniitted for the 

But for answer, though there is a concipiet, yet not a f/enitiis est ; though 
there is a conception, yet not a generation. It is conception upon genera- 
tion defiles, Man begets in his image, but Christ was not begotten, but 
conceived only. He comes so near, you see, that it is but the cutting of a 
hair keeps him from being infected ; and so though he will have the same 
substance, yet separate from sinners, as there the separation means quantum 
ad cuJpam, as to sin ; non natnram^ as to nature. And therefore though he 
will be conceived in the same place we are, and be of the same substance with 
us, yet not after the same yvaj ; and it is not the substance that defiles, or 
the place, but the way of framing our natures. We are framed by genera- 
tion of man and woman, he but by conception only of a woman, but made 
by the Holy Ghost ; so in our Creed, ' conceived by the Holy Ghost ;' so in 
Luke i. 25, ' The Holy Ghost shall overshadow thee ;' and Mat. i. 20, ' That 
which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.' Not G<Kioij,arr/.uig, but 
dr]/Miov^yr/.ug, as the builder framing and forming his body. Therefore it is 
not said he was begotten of a woman, but made of a woman, non r/enitus, sed 
/actus, and therefore he is called ' The man from heaven,' though the matter 
of his body was from earth, 1 Cor. xv. 47, 48. And to this purpose it is 
observable, that Heb. x. 5 is with difference spoken of Christ's human 
nature and ours, * A body hast thou prepared me ;' that is, God did it, and 
not man by generation, which is the ordinary way of producing men, and 
the only way of conveying sin. The parents, they are therefore said to beget 
a man, not because they afford matter and stuff, but because there goes a 
forming power, vis j^lcstica, as philosophers call it, that doth prepare the 
matter, form it, and, to use the word which is here, doth -/.araprrC^n, articu- 
late it for the soul, which is the utmost they do, and for which they are 
said to beget, and wherein the \eYj form alls ratio of generation lies. Accu- 
rately therefore to distinguish this production of the human nature of Christ 
from the ordinary, though he useth the same word, that signifies the manner 
of making our bodies by way of articulation, yet he expresseth it as done 
by another hand, ' Thou hast prepared it,' the Holy Ghost performing that 
which the vis ylastica, or forming power, in all other generations useth to do. 
Luke i. 35, ' And the angel answered and said unto her. The Holy Ghost 
shall come upon thee, and the power of the highest shall overshadow thee : 
therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called 
the Son of God.' That though the matter is the same, and this formed 
by articulation, as ours is, yet it is done by the power of the Most High, 
and therefore exempted from sin ; therefore he adds, ' That holy one that 
shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.' For because genera- 
tion by men is the only way of conveying sin, and theformalis ratio of genera- 
tion hes in that vis plastica, whereby a parent forms the birth (as philosophy 


teacheth), therefore his body, though made of the same matter, seed, that 
ours is, and that seed articulated into the same shape ours is, yet because 
by another hand, ' the jDower of the Most High,' therefore he is a holy one 
separate from sinners, his body being a tabernacle which * God pitched, not 
man,' Heb. viii. 2. Not of this building, not built as man's is, not by the 
same hands, as Heb. ix. 11, * But Christ being come an high priest of good 
things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with 
hands, that is to say, not of this building.' Man reared it not, nor jointed 
it, nor framed it, but ' A body hast thou (0 God) prepared.' And therefore 
this body was of a virgin without a father, that as Melchis6dec is said, Heb. 
vii. 3, to be without father and mother, so Christ as man was without 
father, and as God without a mother, who is therefore the stone cut out of 
the same quarry with us, but ' without hands,' Dan. ii. 45, that is, the help 
of nature, or by a man. And it was necesssary ; for, 

1. Otherwise his human nature had been a person (the inconvenience of 
which you heard afore) for terminus generationis est persona. What is pro- 
duced by generation is a person. And, 

2. He had otherwise had two fathers, which nature abhors, that one per- 
son should have two fathers. 

And in preparing this nature of Christ, the Holy Ghost sanctified that 
matter, and purified it, as goldsmiths do gold from the dross. And his 
business being to part sin and our flesh, it was fit he should take such 
flesh as, though once sinful, yet now sin was parted from it. It is gene- 
ration defiles, for that which is born of the flesh is flesh, John iii. 6, and 
that as from a man, by whom sin is conveyed ; but it follows in the same 
place, that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Now, of Christ it is said 
that which is conceived in thee is of the Holy Ghost : Mat. i. 20, ' But 
while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared 
unto him in a di'eam, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take 
unto thee Mary thy wife : for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy 
Ghost.' It is not the matter nor the place we are conceived in defiles, but 
the being begotten by a man in the ordinary way of nature, upon which 
the law of nature seizeth, by which a man is to beget in his own likeness. 
And therefore the difierence of the phrase used here in Heb. ii. 11, of 
Christ and us ; and that in Rom. v. 12, speaking of om- coming from 
Adam, is observable. Here, in Heb. ii. 11, Christ and we are said to be 
' of one,' that is, of one lump ; but the phrase that is used, Rom. v. 12, 
when the apostle speaks of the propagation of original sin, runs thus, ' By 
one man sin entered,' because all came by and of that one man. And 
therefore though Christ be made a Son of Adam, Luke iii. 38, as made of 
that substance and matter derived from him, yet not in regard of the same 
way of conveying that matter, by fleshly generation of a man, which is the 
natural channel of conveying his image and original sin. And yet. 

Fifthly, To make up this disproportion, he will in all other respects be 
yet the more like to us ; and seeing he must not take sinful flesh, yet he 
will take the likeness of sinful flesh, as Rom. viii. 3, ' For what the law 
could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own 
Son, in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh.' 
He partakes of flesh and blood, Heb. ii. 17 ; and by flesh and blood are 
meant infirmities of all sorts, he excepts sin only, a body passible ; he 
might have had a body exempted from all sufierings or misery, but he 
would not. And this assumption of frail flesh was the first part of satis- 
faction for sin, and the condemning sin in our flesh is attributed to it, 

Chap. VII. J of cheist tue mediator. CI 

Kom. viii, 3. He took not indeed personal infirmities, as sickness, but 
what were common to man's nature ; bo did bear dolores nostras, our 
griefs, not of John or Peter, not such evils as came from the particular 
sins of men, but such as llowed from the common sin of man ; nor such 
as do spring from sin, as not despair, though fear ; and those he took was 
to shew his love, and as they were part of the curse, that he might be able 
to pity us, and that he might sufl'er and die and feel the pains of death, in 
all which he was left to infirmity ; as you have it, 2 Cor. xiii. 4, ' For 
though he was crucified through weakness, yet he livcth by the power of 
God : for we also are weak in him, but we shall live with him by the 
power of God toward you.' And so in this text, he was ' partaker of flesh 
and blood,' that is, of the infirmities of man's nature, as well as of the 
natm-e ; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of 
death, that is, the devil. If he had not taken this frail flesh, he could not 
have died. 

Hitherto you have heard every way what manner of man he was, and 
such as in all respects was fittest for him to be, in all things. But there 
are two things yet to be added, and both such as will make him yet fitter. I 
add them that j^ou may every way see a fulness in it. Therefore, 

Sixthly, Man's nature, you know, was diversified into two sexes, male 
and female. Now, which of the two was the fittest for him to assume ? 
And this is a distinct consideration from all the former. Of the two, a 
male was fittest ; and such was he. It is not so directly in the text, and 
yet all that is spoken of him runs in the masculine gender, him and he ; 
and so this is included: Mat. i. 21, 'Thou shalt bring forth a son,' and, 
ver. 25, ' she brought forth her first-born son ;' and so Luke ii. 22. For 
he was to be our high priest, and consecrated to God as holy, and so 
thereby to sanctify his brethren, as Heb. ii. 11 hath it; and so was the 
first male child by the law, which is on purpose noted, Luke ii. 23, ' Every 
male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord.' And again, 
all his other ofiices required it. He was to be a prophet, and to teach 
God's will first, Heb. ii. 2, 3, and for ever to be in the great congregation; 
and a woman is not to teach in the church. He was to be a king, and to 
rule his church ; and a woman is not to usurp authority over the man. 
He was to be a husband, and his church a spouse ; and only a male could 
fitly bear that relation. And besides all this, there was this further har- 
mony in it, that as by the male, the man, not the woman, sin is said to 
enter into the world, Eom. v. 19 ; so by the man we should be restored. 
And thus indeed both sexes came to share in this honour — the male, in that 
Christ himself is a man ; the female, in that she yet was the instrument 
of bringing him forth into the world. He is of the woman's seed, but of 
man's sex, that so both male and female might be all one in Christ Jesus. 

There is now but one thing left, and that is, seeing God hath appointed 
several bounds to man's habitation, though all are made of one blood, of 
what country or kindred of men was it fittest for our Redeemer to be of ? 
God pitched it on what of all was fittest, that he should be ' of the seed of 
Abraham.' This Heb. ii. 16 you see also hath it; and so I could not but 
take notice of it. As he took the nature of man, not of angels, so he took 
the seed of Abraham more eminently than of any other nation ; although 
he had by some of his progenitors Gentiles' blood in him, yet he was of 
Abraham in a lineal descent: Rom. ix. 4, 5, ' "Who are Israelites, to whom 
pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving 
of the law, and the service of God, and the promises ;' ver. 5, * Whose are 


the fathers, and of -whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over 
all, God blessed for ever. Amen.' I will not mention any other reason 
of this, but what is proper to set out his fitness the more for this work- 
It was well for us that he took Abraham's seed, for so in him all nations 
were blessed, as was the promise, Abraham being father of all the faithful. 
But especially he was thereby engaged to keep the whole law for us ; for 
Abraham's seed were all to be circumcised, and he that was circumcised 
was a debtor to the whole law : Gal. v. 3, ' For I testify again to every 
man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do the whole law.' And 
so the law will take hold of him, and so hereby he was made under the 
law ; and this was one reason why he was a male child also, for they only 
were circumcised. Thus you see Christ hereby engaged to keep the law 
for us, yea, to satisfy for sin ; for the ceremonial law was a bond against us, 
which he must cancel and destroy. 


The Uses. — Since God hath thus fitted us icith a Mediator, we viay he assured 
that he will fit us with all other things. — L,et us choose Christ to he our only 
Saviour, and trust in none but him. — Is he God ? — Let us not then fear or 
doubt. — Hath he taken our nature ? — Let us admire his love in this, and 
consider our oim privilege. — Let us endeavour to fit our natures all that we 
can for fellowship with him. 

We will now come to uses of all this. And surely the doctrine of Christ 
will aftbrd many ; for his person is the most useful of any in heaven and 
earth. I deferred the uses until the last, that so you might view the frame 
of the doctrinal part, as set together without separation. 

I. The first uses shall be from this. That God chose him to be mediator, 
because of his fitness above all other. 

1. Hence learn and be assured, that that love which thus fitted thee 
with a Saviour, will much more fit thee with all other things which thou 
hast need of. Thou shalt have the fittest condition, the fittest calling, the 
fittest yoke-fellow, the fittest estate, ' food convenient,' as Agar speaks : 
God will fit thee in everything. Thus he sought out a * meet help ' for 
Adam, Gen. ii. 20. The fulness of fitness in Christ to be a saviour is a 
pawn for fitting and suiting thee with all things else ; for he that gave 
Christ gives all besides : Rom. viii. 32, ' He that spared not his own Son, 
but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give 
us all things ?' And believe that as aU things do meet in Christ, and 
nothing is wanting that may make him a fit and meet saviour for thee, so 
all things shall conspire, all things shall suit and kiss each other ; sins, 
afilictions, mercies, yea, all God's dealings shall work together for thy good. 
Be quiet therefore, and trust him in all ; ' lean not,' as Solomon says, ' to 
thine own wisdom,' Prov. iii. 5. Thou knowest not what is fittest for 
thee, as the sons of Zebedee did not when they asked for a place that was 
not fit for them. The phj'sician knows what is fit for his patient better 
than he himself does ; and so does God. He takes measure of thy spirit, 
and knows the composition of it ; and so orders his prescripts accordingly. 
We cannot judge what is fit for us, God only can. If thou hadst seen 
Christ in the flesh, poor and despised (as he was whilst on earth), thy 
carnal heai-t would have judged him as unlikely and as unfit a man to be 


tho saviour of the world as the Jews did ; Isa. lii. 14, ' His conntcnanco 
was so marred.' Thou wouklst never have thought that a carpcutur's son 
shoukl huild God a church ; that a man unlearned should be the prophet 
of God's people. The Jews refused him as an unfit stone to be laid in 
their building, whom God had yet hewn out on purpose, as being only fit 
to be made ' the head stone of the corner,' as a stone elect and precious : 
Isa. xxviii. 10, * Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I lay in Zion 
for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner-stone, a sure 
foundation : he that believeth shall not make haste ;' 1 Pet. ii. 6, 7. And 
as much mistaken are men in judging of their own condition. 

2. Is Christ cveiy way so fit a saviour ? Then choose him, and rest in 
him alone. It is necessaiy that a saviour you should have ; for otherwise 
you perish , and it is as necessary that you should have Jesus Christ, or 
else you must have none : for there is, there can be, no other. But yet, sup- 
pose you should have your choice of many, nay, suppose there were as 
many saviours as men to be saved (as many as the papists would make), 
yet he so transcends, that if ye all knew him, you would all make choice of 
him, and refuse all others. As ' who is a god like to our God ? ' so, who 
is a saviour like to our Saviour ? Isa. xliii. 11, ' There is none besides him.' 
What do you therefore mean, to stand demurring and deliberating whether 
you should take him or no for your Lord and Iving, as the most men do ? 
Do you look for any more such Christs, or can you have a better, a fitter 
saviour ? Let this encourage you also to be willingly subject to him. 
What greater motive can there be to this, than that of all princes he is the 
fittest to be thy king (and none fit to be king of saints but he), and of all 
husbands he is the fittest to rule over thee ? It grieves no man, nor do 
any think much to be subject to such a governor as all men with one con- 
sent acknowledge to be most fit for them : * The people rejoice,' says Solo- 
mon, ' when the righteous are in authority,' Prov. xxix. 2. No\V that the 
Lord Christ is Iving, ' let the earth rejoice, and the multitudes of the isles 
be glad,' Ps. xcvii. 1. 

II. The second sort of uses may be taken from this, that our sa-s-iour is 

1. Is he who is thy saviour God ? Then fear not to commit thyself to 
him. ' Thy God is thy saviour.' K ' God will justify ' (though there were 
no mediator), 'who should lay anything to thy charge?' Rom. viii. 33. 
Surely none would open their mouths against you ; ' The Lord that chooseth 
Jerusalem rebuke thee,' said the angel unto Satan, Zech. iii. 2 ; but if God 
will also be thy mediator, and die for thee, then much more art thou safe : 
* Who shall condemn ?' as the apostle says, ' It is Chi'ist that died.' Do 
you know and consider who he is that died for you ? It is even ' Christ 
that died,' Rom. viii. 34 ; who in the beginning of the next chapter, he 
tells them, is ' God over all, blessed for ever.' " ' In his days Judah shall 
be saved,' Jer. xxiii. 6. It shall be so, says the prophet, ' for his name is 
Jehovah our righteousness.' ' Say to the feeble of heart. Fear not : for your 
God will save you,' Isa. xxxv. 4. When princes will themselves in person 
go into the field, how doth it encourage their subjects and soldiers ? Now 
Jesus Christ, who is God, came down into the field himself : ' Who is this 
that comes from Bozrah ?' Isa. Ixiii. 1. ' It is I,' says Christ, ' that am 
mighty to save.' The heathens thought that if their gods should but come 
down, they were sure of the \actory. Now God came down, and was found 
amongst us as a man, and is become a ' Captain of salvation,' Heb. ii. 10 ; 
therefore let fear have no entertainment with you. 


Only in the second place, 

2. If lie be God ; altliougli this may raise your hearts not to fear dis- 
couragements (I speak to you whose hearts are set to be saved), yet it may 
withal strike the greatest and most awful dread upon your spirit, and pro- 
voke you to fear this your saviom-, and not to deal presumptuously with 
him, nor to slight him, and play fast and loose with him, thinking you may 
have salvation at any time. No ; he is God ; and ' God will not be mocked,' 
Gal. vi. 7. You must carry yourselves towards him as towards God him- 
self. Because Christ came to be a saviour, and hath a nature so full of 
meekness, therefore men think to deal with him as they please. But, as 
God elsewhere says, Ps. xlvi. 10, ' Be still, and know that he is God.' 
Therefore, when God sent him before the Israelites, Exod. xxiii. 21, he 
bade them ' beware of him, and provoke him not ; for,' says he, ' he will not 
pardon your transgressions ' (that is, he will not pardon you upon any other 
than gospel terms and limits) : ' for my name is in him :' that is, he is God 
as well as I, and therefore will not suifer you to he in such sins as cannot 
stand with the rules in his word, and yet pardon you. Think not to deal 
so with him. He will save you upon no other terms than I myself would 
by him. And therefore the apostle, when he had shewn how Christ was 
God as well as man, in the first and second chapters to the Hebrews, to 
the end that ' he might be a faithful high priest to God,' as well as ' a mer- 
ciftd high priest to men ' (ver. 17 of the second chapter), that is, such a 
saviour as was not so made up all of mercy to men, but that withal he is 
as faithful to God. From this therefore the apostle in the third chapte'- 
makes this use, and bids them ' consider what an high priest they have ' 
(ver. 1), who was and will be ' faithful to God that appointed him,' ver. 2. 
And he bids them to consider this, to this end, not to neglect the present 
opportunity of salvation, and think to put Christ off for the present, and 
come in to him when they please, in that he is so merciful a saviour. But 
(says he, ver. 7) consider, that as ' the Holy Ghost says, To-day, if ye will hear 
his voice, harden not your hearts ;' so take heed how there be in you an 
evil heart, to depart from him, he being ' the living God,' ver. 12. Re- 
member how he dealt with the Israehtes in the wilderness (his Father's 
name being in him), and how he sware against them, and said, ' They 
should not enter into his rest.' Bead the whole chapter, and you will find 
this use made of it, as by the apostle elsewhei'e it is. So, 1 Cor. x. 4, 5, 6, 
I would have you, brethren, says he, ver. 1, to consider that our fathers 
had Christ for their captain, as we have (ver. 4), and they had him ofiered 
unto them in the ordinances ; but they tempting him, ' with many of them 
God was not well pleased ;' that is, Chi'ist was not well pleased (for, ver. 9, 
they are said to have tempted Christ), and he, being God, ' destroyed them 
in the wilderness.' For in that he was God, he would not be so dealt 
withal by them. These things therefore are examples unto us (as he there 
concludes that discourse), that we may know and consider what a saviour 
we have to deal withal : who, as he is man (and therefore you might expect 
all mercy from him), so he is God also, and will be faithful unto God to 
save men, but this upon his Father's own conditions. And if we seek not 
salvation according to his own rules, he will take part with his Father 
against us, for his Father's name is in him. And yet, 

3. Withal we may fetch this ground of encouragement against the guilt 
of great sins for time to come, that he is God, therefore able to pardon us. 
Were he mere man, though he had our nature, yet he would not endure us. 
So much mercy as serves to pardon us, never entered into the heart of any 

Chap. YIII.] op christ the mediator. (55 

mere creature : ' I am God, not man, thcrcforo you sons of Jacob are not 
consumed.' But the human nature of Christ being united to the Son of 
God, his will in pardoning doth accompany the divine will, and goes alon" 
Avith it ; and as in all acts else, so in forgiving, it is able to hold pace with 

III. A third sort of uses are taken from this, that he who is God hath 
took our nature, our whole frail nature, unto himself, in that humbled way 

1. Admire we the love of God towards us, which (if ever it was shewn 
in anything) is shewn in this ; and therefore this is made the great act of 
love, his ' emptying himself,' and ' becoming nothing,' as it were, that he 
being equal with God, ' took upon him the form of a servant.' Solomon 
made a wonder of it, that he whom ' the heavens of heavens cannot con- 
tain,' should vouchsafe to dwell in * temples made with hands,' 1 Kings 
viii. 27. But this is nothing to his being personally united to the human 
nature, and to dwell bodily and personally in it, and so to be made one with 
the house in which he dwells, and which he himself built, that is, he to be 
made a creature, who made all creatures. It is to be admired that God 
would ever have it said that a creature was God, and that God is become a 
creature ; yet so it is said, John i. 18, ' The Word was made flesh.' For 
him to be made a creature is more than for us to become nothing, or for an 
angel to become a worm. It is therefore made a mystery, a great mystery, 
that all stand aghast at, as well angels as men (and this o;xo?.6you/yJ^w;, even 
with one consent), that ' God should be manifest in the flesh : ' 1 Tim. iii. 
16, ' And, without controversy, great is the mystery of godliness : God was 
manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto 
the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.' And if he 
be made a creature, let him be made the best of creatures, an angel, there 
being such nobleness in them above what is in us. Their perfections are 
the measure of om's, and our perfection is expressed but by being like to 
them. Our estate in heaven is to be wj ayyiXoi, ' as the angels.' Like- 
wise the cbiefest wisdom in any man is but as an angel's (as it is said of 
David). They for their substance are spirits, and therefore in a nearer 
degree of assimilation unto God, they are the fitter matches for him who is 
a spirit. Again, if he will assume anything of ours, let it be our souls only, 
for our bodies are 'vile bodies,' Philip, iii. 21. But such was his love to 
us, that he will take both, because he means to redeem both, and to make 
our bodies glorious like his own body. And how doth the apostle in this, 
Heb. ii. 16, set forth his love in this, that ou hri'xov, * at no hand he took 
upon him the nature of angels,' though he could have done it easily, and 
with more personal honour, but he would ' in no wise ' entertain a thought 
of it. Such was his love to us, that he refused that match, his heart being 
fixed on us. He lets ' principalities and powers' go, and ' hath respect to 
the lowness of his handmaid,' Luke i. 48, the mean estate of our nature. 
But yet, if he take our nature, let him take it at its best, whilst in a state 
of innocency ; let him marry it in its prime, and (as the high priest was to 
do) when it is a virgin uncoi'rupted, unpolluted with sin or misery, or rather, 
let him take it such as it is now in heaven, all glorious. But he will, out 
of his love to us, take our nature on him when it is at the worst, and then 
make it glorious, and us like him. When we are traitors, and out of favour, 
he will marry flesh and blood out of our stock and kindred, so to bring us 
into favour again. Was it not unparalleled love in Jonathan then to love 
David, when he was in disgrace with his father ? Much more would it have 



been for him, out of his love to David, as then to have married one of his 
children. How exceeding much more then is the love of Christ towards us ? 

2. For all which, as we should admire his love, so withal we should consider 
our privilege by having our nature so advanced. What a pawn and pledge 
of love is it to us, to have one of these bodies of ours made more glorious 
than all the angels ? To whom charge is given, when he ' comes into the 
world,' to ' worship and adore him,' Heb. i. G. Who is to have them, and 
all things else put under his feet, and is to be their Lord and judge, and 
they all but to be his guard. What a prerogative is it that our nature should 
be in him made higher in court than any queen can be in the court of any 
king ; and thus it is, seeing he is one in person with God, not in conjugal 
relations only, and the rest of his brethren are advanced to be his queen, 
and the angels to be but his and her guard and servants. And as this is 
the privilege of our nature, so some of the ancients have thought, that the 
revealing of God's purpose in it unto the angels before their fall was the 
occasion of the same, and that their casting out of heaven was a punishment 
of their proud stomaching of the honour done unto our nature, that it should 
be advanced so far above them (as the apostle speaks, Eph. i. 21). And 
it should teach us not to dishonour and defile this nature (which God hath 
so honoured) with intemperancy, uncleanness, or any base or noisome lusts. 
It also may encourage us to come with boldness to the court of heaven and 
throne of grace, for that our nature is chief in favour there. Heb. iv. 14, 
' Seeing we have so great an high priest passed into the heavens, let us hold 
fast our profession.' And seeing he was man, ' touched with our infirmities, 
let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of gi'ace, that we may find 
grace and mercy in time of need.' When one of a kindred is advanced and 
made a favourite at court, how will every one of his alliance (though never 
so far ofi") challenge kindred of him, and seek favour by him, and hope to 
be advanced too ? And Christ is ' not ashamed' of us, his poor kindred ; 
but being allied to us by his nature, he deigns to call us brethren, and is 
grieved that we come no oftener to him, with petitions of favour to be put 
up by him. And he not only called us brethren, when himself was with 
us in a poor estate here below, and lived in our houses amongst us, but 
likewise when he was risen again, and thereby entered into possession of 
his kingdom. Even then the first message that he sent, and the first words 
that he spake, were those in John xx. 17, ' Go to my brethren, and say unto 
them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father,' &c. You see his pre- 
ferment alters him not ; after his resurrection he calls them brethren. We 
should therefore improve this our affinity and kindred with him ; he took 
it on him for that very purpose. And, 

3. In that he took upon himself such a human nature as should be every 
way fit for the business of mediation that he was to perform for us, let us 
endeavour to fit ourselves all that we can, for communion and fellowship 
with him. The reason why we live here absent from him so long, though 
contracted to him already, is, to be fitted for his bed in heaven, and for 
everlasting embraces. Even as Esther was a long while preparing for 
Ahasuerus his bed, so are we here in preparing for glory ; as it is, Rom. 
ix. 23, ' And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels 
of his mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory.' The bride dresseth 
herself here in this life ; Rev. xix. 7, ' Let us be glad and rejoice, and give 
honour unto him : for the man-iage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath 
made herself ready,' and prepares to meet her Lord, with whom she must 
live for ever. And look, as he took our nature, let us take his ; labour we 

Chap. VIII. J op cheist the mediatob. c,j 

to be changed into his image, being made partakers of the divine nature. 

As ho took our whole nature, to save the whole of it, so let us consccrata 
the whole to him, and ' be sauctiticd throughout in body, soul, and spirit ;' 
as 1 Thcss, V. 23, ' Cleanse we ourselves from all pollution of flesh and 
spirit,' soul and body, 2 Cor. vii. 1. And as he came as near in likeness 
to our nature (as was shewn) as possibly he could, in conception, in birth, 
and in everything, yet so as ho might avoid sin, so should we come as near 
to him as is possible. Be we ' like him in all things.' In his power and 
prerogative indeed we cannot ; they are as incommunicable to us, as our 
sin was to him ; but in gi-aces and in holiness we may, in meekness and 
humility we may. And as he took up our infirmities, so take we up his 
cross ; be. we willing to be ' made conformable to him in suflerings' for him. 
And as his human nature subsists whohy in the second person, losing its 
own proper personal subsistence to be one with him, and to become a fit 
instrument together with him of our salvation ; so be we content to lose 
ourselves and our own personal j^roprieties, to subsist only in him and to 
him, and to be for ever serviceable unto his glory. 



The fulness of abilities which are in Christ to accomplish the work of our 
redemption, which are impossible to he found in any other person. 

For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. 
Wherefore, when he cometh into the world, he saith. Sacrifice and offering thou 
wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me: in burnt-offerings and sacrifices 
for sin thou hast had no pleasure : then said I, Lo, I come {in the volume 
of the book it is written of me) to do thy ti'ill, God. Above, xchen he 
said, Sacrifice, and offering, and burnt-offerings, and offering for sin thou 
wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein ; ivhich are offered by the law ; 
then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, God. He taketh away the first, 
that he may establish the second. By the which will ive are sanctified, through 
the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. — Heb. X. 4-10. 


The all-sufficient abilities to accomplish our redemption, demonstrated from 
God the Father's calling him. to it, ivhich he ivoidd never have done had 
not he known him able. — Fro7n God's engaging also to furnish him ivith 
abilities. — From Christ's undertaking it, ivhich he did upon the knowledge 
which he had of himself, as equal to the great p)erformance. — From the 
greatness and excellency of his person, icho, being God-man, is able to do 
anything. — The reasons which induced God to fix on this tray of salvation, 
to be by the blood of his Son. — An answer to that objection, how God is 
said to pardon us freely by his grace, when yet he requires full satisfaction 
to be made. 

Having at large laid open that sole peculiar fitness which is in Chi'ist for 
the work of reconciliation, we will now come to discover likewise that all- 
sufficient fulness of abilities in him for the accomplishment of this great 
work, in all particulars required to it. Which, first, in the general, your 
faith may be helped in the persuasion of by these demonstrations. 

Deiiwnstration 1. Because God the Father did call him to this great work. 
And had not Christ been fully able to bring you to heaven, without all pos- 
sibility of miscarriage, God would never have pitched upon him. Man may 
sometimes choose one for a place of office and honour, who yet is not suffi- 
cient to discharge it, because they are mistaken in men's abilities ; but God 
could not be mistaken, but must needs know, that Jesus Christ was able 
to "0 through without miscarrying, and therefore he pitched upon him. 
In Ps. Ixxxix. 19, ' Then thou spakest in vision to the Holy One, and saidst, 
I have laid help upon one that is mighty ; I have exalted one chosen out 

Chap. I.] op christ the mediatob, G9 

of the people.' That whole psalm is a prophecy of Christ, under the type 
of David, and hath in it much of the gospel, which is called ' the sure mer- 
cies of D.ivid.' The state of the people of Israel when David came to the 
crown (if you take the psalm of the type David) was a shattered state ; 
Israel was a racked people, all was distracted, tottering, and broken ; Saul 
their king, and Jonathan his son, slain ; themselves overcome and routed by 
the Philistines; their religion, state, and all were desperate and staggering; 
but God chose David, an able governor, to restore all, and so ' laid help on 
one that was mighty.' In Ps. Ixxv., David speaking of his comin^ to the 
government and kingdom, ' when I shall receive the congregation,' ver. 2, 
adds, ver. 3, 'The earth' (namely, the land of Judca), 'and all the inha- 
bitants thereof, are out of course : I bear up the pillars of it.' Now, he 
therein was a type of Christ (who often in the prophets is called David) ; 
for when we were without strength, being captived by Satan, forlorn and 
undone, and no creature able to help us, then did God ' lay help on one 
that was mighty ; ' that is, he laid the task of saving us upon Christ, who 
was able to do it. Thus also, Heb. vii. IG, ' He was made a priest, not 
after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless 
life ; ' that is, he was armed with power to execute the office of priesthood 
for ever, and to overcome all difficulties ; and therefore he is said to have 
been made after the power of an endless Ufe, and not after the law of a 
carnal commandment, as other priests were. And, ver. 18, the apostle 
says their office was weak, and not able to bring things to perfection. 
Those priests were not able to satisfy God, nor to carry on the work ; but 
Christ had the power of an endless life, because Christ had power to lay 
down his life and take it up again, to survive the encounter of his Father's 
wrath, and then to live for ever, and intercede for us, and so to go through- 
stitch with the work, and without once fainting, much less succumbing or 
sinking under it, or failing in bringing it to its full perfection. 

Demonst. 2. In that God called him, he undertook to make him able ; 
for besides that God knew Christ to be able, and therefore called him, it 
may be farther said, that in calling him he undertook to make him able. 
Men, if they find one not able for an office to which he is called, cannot 
give him abilities ; but God, when he gives a call, gives likewise abilities. 
Thus of Christ it is said, Isa. xlii. 1, 4, 6, ' Behold my servant, whom I 
uphold ; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth : I have put my Spirit 
upon him : he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. He shall not 
fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgment in the earth : and the 
isles shall wait for his law. I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, 
and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant 
of the people, fjr a light of the Gentiles.' ' Behold my servant, whom I 
uphold,' saith he; ' mine elect, whom I have called in righteousness.' That 
is, I have both called him to this office, and that in righteousness. I have 
not forced it on him, nor put him upon this hard task unwillingly. (1.) 
He is my elect ; I chose him of all that ever were or shall be. (2.) I have 
called him in righteousness ; that is, he being not unwilling to undertake 
it, but consenting to it. And (3.) I promised faithfully to stand by him, 
and not to leave him in it. And (4.) He being my servant in it, therefore 
certainly' I will uphold him through it, as it is, ver. 6. God promiseth 
that he will ' hold his hand,' that he sink not (even as Christ held up Peter 
by the hand fi-om sinking), and will keep him so as (ver. 4), ' he shall not fail 
or fall short' to accomplish the work of mediation, in the least tittle ; nor 
shall he be discouraged, or (as it is in the original) broken (and yet he was 


to undergo that, whicli would have hroken the backs of men and angels, 
and have pushed them all to hell), but he shall be backed with all the power 
that God hath, even that he hath who made the heavens (as it follows, 
ver. 5), which he mentions as engaging all that power in it. 

Demomt. 3. Christ was willing to undertake it, and therefore surely he 
knew himself able to go through with it, for otherwise he would never have 
undertaken it. A wise man will not undertake an enterprise which he ia 
not able to manage and go through with ; and Christ much less, he being 
the Wisdom of his Father. He will not do as a foolish builder that sets 
upon a work which he is not able to finish. What wise man will enter 
into bond for another, for more than himself is worth, and so run a hazard 
of Ij'ing in prison all the days of his life ? Surely no wise man will do 
this ; and much less would Christ undertake to be our surety, if he had 
thought himself insufficient to pay ; therefore certainly he knew that he 
was able to perfect and consummate the great work of our reconciliation 
before he took it upon him. 

Demmist. 4. In that he is God as well as man, therefore he must needs 
be able for any undertaking, be it never so hazardous. If it had been pos- 
sible for his Father to have forsaken him (as he complained that for a time 
he did), and afibrd him no succour, no support, but leave him to himself, 
nay, do his utmost against him, and make known against him the power 
of his wrath (as indeed he did), yet he is able alone to uphold himself, for 
that the * fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily in him,' Col. ii. 9, and 
therefore there was an impossibility of miscaniage, as you have it, Acts 
ii. 24, 'It was not possible that he should have been held under the pangs 
of death.' If anything would have held him, it would have been death 
and hell ; for then his power was put to it to raise himself; but it was impos- 
sible that he should be held by them, because he was God. It is one of 
his gi-eat names, Isa. ix. 7, that he is the mighty God : therefore he is 
mighty and able to save himself and others. 

Now the particulars of all that salvation whereunto this all-sufficiency of 
his is required, are many ; as (not to name all) to make your peace, par- 
don your sins, bring you into favour, send his Spirit into your hearts, to 
change them, and dwell there for ever, to subdue your enemies, defend and 
keep you blameless unto the great day, and then to raise you up, and glo- 
rify you for ever. 

But the foundation of all these lies in that all-sufficiency that was found 
in Christ to satisfy for sin and to justify sinners ; for by that satisfaction 
sin was removed, which before did separate between God and us, and was 
a hindrance of all blessings from descending upon us ; for there cannot 
be so much as peace whilst sin remains ; and by Christ's satisfaction sin 
being removed, then likewise all the blessings wherein salvation consists, 
and which God's free favour intended to bestow, were also purchased by 
him. And however that the application of all be performed by degrees, 
yet the purchase of all was laid in that one satisfaction of his, ere he 
offered to set a foot out of the grave. And therefore, Heb. x., he is said, 
* by that one offering' (which was the great and last payment), ' to have for 
ever perfected those that are sanctified;' that is, to have done all that 
which was to be done for that blessed estate of perfection which he was to 
bring them unto. The all-sufficiency of which satisfaction is that particular 
subject that we are now to handle, the opening of which we reduce to 
these two heads : 

I. More generally ; That in Christ, and him alone, there was an all- 

Chap. I,j of christ the mediator. 71 

sufficiency or fulness of abilities to bo found, to satisfy for sin, and to jus- 
tify sinners. 

II. More particularly ; That all the several particular parts of, and what 
is requisite to complete the justification of a sinner, are fully found in 
Christ's satisfaction : so that there is in it a fulness and perfection of parts 

I. For the first of these, viz., That in Christ, and in him alone, there is 
an all-sufficiency to satisfy for sin, and to justify sinners, I will (as a 
ground for it) take for my text Hcb. x. 4-10, ' For it is not possible that 
the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. Wherefore when he 
Cometh into the world, ho saith, Sacrifice and oliering thou wouldcst not, 
but a body hast thou prepared me : in burnt- oflerings and sacrifices for 
sin thou hast had no pleasure. Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of 
the book it is written of me) to do thy will, God. Above, when he said, 
Sacrifice, and offering, and burnt-offerings, and oflering for sin thou wouldest 
not, neither hadst pleasure therein (which are ofi'ered by the law) ; then said 
he, Lo, I come to do thy will, God. He taketh away the first, that he 
may establish the second. By the which wall we are sanctified, through 
the oflering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.' 

For the opening of this point out of these words we will proceed by 
degrees, first premising such observations as shall make way for the clear- 
ing of it. 

Obs. 1. You see that the project that he mentioneth is the taking away 
of sins ; and nothing had been more easy for God to have done. He might 
have taken away the sins by taking away the sinners, and so have made 
short work of it, taking them both out of the way at one stroke, by which 
course he might have caused sin to cease, as Ezekiel speaks, Ezek. xxiii. 48. 
But this is not his meaning ; for his pui-pose is, so to take away sins as 
the sinners might stand still ; that is, that they might stand in judfunent, 
and be justified in his sight. There are some even among sinners whom 
he bears a secret good-will unto, and hath done so from everlasting ; but 
their sins have separated between him and them, and he would fain sepa- 
rate their sins as far ofl' from them, that so he might draw near to them, 
and communicate himself fully and freely unto them. And because sin is 
a bm-den which they can neither stand under nor throw ofi themselves : — ' a 
wounded spirit who can bear ? ' — and fui'ther, they can never give thanks 
enough for his benefits received, much less satisfy for sins ; therefore he 
resolves to have them took off, as the word d:paioiT\i seems to signify. 

But then again, for to take away sins only is but half the design. The 
4th verse indeed mentions no more, because the ' blood of bulls ' could not 
do so much ; yet that same ' will of God,' mentioned in the 7th verse, had 
a further aim, not only to take away sins, that he might not hate us, but 
further to give us such a righteousness as for which he might have more cause 
to love us than ever, and loving to delight in us. His will meant not only 
peace or pardon to us, but grace and favour. It was as they sang, Luke 
ii. 14, ' Good\i,-ill towards men,' as well as ' peace on earth.' His will is 
to have us adopted and graciously accepted, as well as pardoned : E2)h. i. 
6, 6, ' Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus 
Chiist to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, to the praise 
of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the 

But then again, thus to have taken sins oflf from them might have been 
done by a sole, free act of pardon passed from him, and he needed not to 


have made any more ado about it. I dare not say the contrary, as some 
are bold to do ; for this reasou sways with me, namely, to pmiish sin being 
but an act of his will (as all his other works ad extra are), and not of his 
nature; for what is the reason else that he sometimes suspends the punish- 
ing of wicked men, out of the riches of his forbearance ? It is because to 
punish them is but an act of his will. If it were an act of his nature, then 
whosoever sinned should die for it immediately ; but it being an act of his 
will, he may suspend it, as he oftentimes doth. And if for a while he thus 
forbears, why might he not have done so for ever, and so wholly pardon ? 
Surely there is no reason to the contrary. To hate sin indeed is an act of 
his nature, but to express his hatred by punishing is an act of his will, and 
therefore might be wholly suspended. And that which yet further confirms 
me in it is, that Christ, when he prayed that ' the cup might pass from 
him,' Mark xiv. 36, uscth this argument, ' All things are possible to thee.' 
The thing he entreated for was, that the cup might be taken away; and he 
intimates this as the ground of his prayer, that it was possible to God, 
that notwithstanding he was resolved to have the world saved, yet to have 
that end of his brought about another way, though in view there is none 
that we know of but this. Now there was a truth in this, else Christ 
would not have used it as an argument to this purpose. The impossibility 
lay only in God's will to have it done by Christ's satisfaction, and no 
■way else ; which therefore Christ submitted unto — ' not my will, but thine 
be done ' — only natm-e in him, to shew its averseness to that cup as simply 
in itself considered, sought a diversion. And to shew that there was 
another way, he useth this as the gi'eatest argument, thereby the more 
to set forth his and his Father's love, that he yet underwent this most 
difficult one. 

Obs. 2. Therefore, secondly, observe in the general, that for to take away 
sins God takes means into consideration. Why else do bulls and goats 
come into consideration here ? He means not to use his sole prerogative 
in it, but to do it fairly; and though by a bare act of his will he might 
have done it, yet his will working by counsel, Eph. i. 11, he thought it not 
so fit to do it. The apostle therefore speaks of blood here, and in Heb. 
ix. 22, 23, he also says, that ' without blood there is no remission.' He 
will have blood for satisfaction ; and, ver. 23, the apostle makes it a 
necessity that there should be sacrifices, yea, better sacrifices than the 
blood of bulls and goats. It was necessary (says he), not absolutely, but 
in regard of God's resolution to satisf}^ justice. And therefore the heathens 
offered sacrifices to pacify their incensed gods ; this thought being innate 
in every man's nature, that God must be satisfied, the reasons of which 
(namely, why God requii-ed satisfaction) I shewed in that first part of the 
story of the gospel* (in God's eternal transaction with Jesus Christ), only I 
will now but use the ground of it which lies ia the text itself. 

1. Consider that the project is to take away sins (as hath been shewed); 
and then for to make way for the manifestation of this it was necessary to 
give a law, which might both discover what sin was, and how heinous ; 
and also shew by a threatening annexed, that punishment which it naturally 
deserves, and what the sinner might in justice expect from God. This was 
necessary; for otherwise, ' where there is no law there is no transgression;' 
at leastwise * sin is not imputed where there is no law,' Rom. v. 13, and 
then there would have been no sins actually capable of mercy, or none to 
pardon. Now then, upon God's giving this law, he ipso facto takes upon 

* Qu. ' Glory of the Gospel' ? In Vol. IV. of this series of his works. — Ed. 

Chap. I.] of christ the mediator. 73 

him to be a jnclge, and the judge of all the world ; for in the very making of 
the law he declares himself to be so. So then he is engaged, upon many 
strong motives, to shew his justice against sin, in punishing it according as 
he had threatened (as I then shewed). 

2. Consider that if he hath satisfaction it must be perfect and full ; for 
why else is the blood of bulls and goats here rejected, and that with an 
impossibility ; — ' It is not possible that they should take away sins ' — but 
because his end was to have perfect satisfaction? It is true he might have 
accepted of that for an acceptilation (as they call it), which should not so fully 
have answered his justice ; for if he might have pardoned without any satis- 
faction at all, then certainly he might have accepted of so much or so little. 
If he might wholly pardon he might then abate, and take but something. 
And the reason of it is the same with the former ; for it being an act of his 
will, he might (as Christ said) ' do what he would with his own ; ' he might 
forgive all or require all ; forgive part or require but part. Though full 
satisfaction be not given, yet the laws of men use to give some damages, 
though never so little, unto the party wronged ; though not for satisfac- 
tion, yet for an acknowledgment of the injury. But God will have satis- 
faction to the full, or none at all. He stands upon it, and therefore it is 
that the' apostle saith, that the blood of bulls and goats cannot possibly take 
away sin. If God had only required an acknowledgment of that satisfaction 
which a sinner was to make him, he might then have accepted of the blood 
of bulls and goats to satisfy his justice. But on the contrarj^ in Rom. iii. 
26, he declares himself to have ' set forth Christ as -a propitiation, that he 
might be just, and a justifier of him that believes in Jesus.' And if he 
speaks of justice in it, surely an imperfect satisftiction is not worthy to have 
that name put upon it. In like manner the Scripture speaks of a price 
paid to redeem us, which argues it to be special justice; the word redewption 
itself (which is so frequently used) doth likewise argue it ; and it differs 
from buying but in this, that it implies a buying anew that which was one's 
own before, but yet by a price ; so that this justice of God came to set a price 
that it would have ; and if justice sets a price it will have a -full one. We 
use to say. What I give I give, but what I sell I sell. When men indeed 
are frightened for lack of money, they will sell their goods at any under 
rate ; but God was no way necessitated ; he could have improved his glory 
another way, and in the mean time have lost nothing by us. Therefore if 
God will sell, and his justice sets the price, he then will have his full 
price ; he will make a wise bargain, and not see our ransom undervalued. 
That phrase in 1 Cor. vi. 20, ' Bought with a price,' may seem to be a 
tautology, and as if one should say, ' He speaks with his mouth; ' for if they 
be bought, they must needs be bought with a price. But there is an emphasis 
in the phrase ; the word price is added to note that he hath bought them 
indeed, and over-bought them, and that he hath paid for them, and that a 
full price. Therefore, 1 Tim. ii. 6, it is called uvtIX-jt^ov, that is, a ransom 
every way answerable and adequate. And besides these reasons intimated, 
add these : 

(1.) All God's works are perfect in their kind, Deut. xxxii. 4. God 
loves not to do things by halves ; if therefore he goes about to shew his 
justice, he will do it perfectly or not at all. 

(2.) If God should have required something that was not fully satisfac- 
tory, then the sinner relieved would have been apt to have thought and 
spoken of it as if it had been fully such, and would have been ready to 
have upbraided God therewith, as being not so much beholden unto him 


for cutting off part of the payment due. We see how conceited proud 
nature is of its own performances ; and notwithstanding that God, to con- 
vince it of its own inabihties, has set forth his Son as making so transcendent 
a satisfaction, yet it would needs esteem that httle which it is required to 
do, merely as an acknowledgment of thankfulness, to be in lieu of satisfac- 
tion, and accordingly it stands upon it ; and we have much ado to break 
ourselves of this conceit. How much more then would we have done this 
if God had required no other ? 

(3.) As to prevent the false conceits of our hearts, so also for the full 
quiet and security of our spirits, God did ordain that there should be a full 
satisfaction made, that so we might have perfect peace in our spirits, as it 
is Isa. xxvi. 3, ' Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed 
on thee ; because he trusteth in thee ;' and trust perfectly upon it, as 
1 Peter i, 21. If it had been an imperfect satisfaction, the soul of man 
would still have been solicitous and doubting, it would still have been prying 
and questioning whether God would have accepted it or no, fearing it had 
not been full enough. Wherefore, as to take away our unthankfulness, so 
to prevent our infidelity, it was to be a perfect satisfaction, even such as his 
justice shall require no more at our hands. 

Quest. But a question may here arise. How can God be said to pardon 
freely by his grace, when yet his justice requires a full satisfaction ? 

Ans. The answer is, that both may well stand together. And therefore 
we have both joined together : Bom. iii. 24, 25, * Being justiiied freely by 
his grace, through the 4-edemption that is in Christ.' And clearly to solve 
this doubt, consider, 

1. That it is of gi'ace that this satisfaction is transmitted, and translated 
from us unto another ; which satisfaction, when it should come from another 
for us, God was no way bound to accept of; and yet he doth accept it 
fi-eely. To illustrate wdiich, there is this difference between satisfaction for 
damage in goods, and for injuries in point of honour (which is the thing 
wherein God accounts himself mainly wronged), that satisfaction for goods 
(which we call restitution) may be performed for the debtor by another per- 
son, and stand as good and valid as if himself had done it. But if it be to 
be made in point of honom*, or that the punishment be to reach the life of 
the party wronging, then to commute or transmit it, it was a matter of free 
grace and pardon. 

2. It was free grace unto us, however, because we were wholly spared. 
All is freely remitted to us, although he ' spared not his own Son,' as it is 
said, Rom. viii. 32, and especially in that this was done to this end, that 
he might spare us. A type of this were those two goats in the old law, 
whereof the one was sacrificed, and the other let go free, and was called the 
scape -goat. And although mercy would not have been so much shewn in 
accepting what was a defective and imperfect satisfaction from ourselves, as 
if mercy had wholly and alone supplied and made up all, yet it was shewn 
as much in accepting what another performed for us (though that satisfac- 
tion was never so perfect) as if it had wholly forgiven it. 

8. If furthermore we consider, that it was his Son from whom this satis- 
faction was exacted, one so dear to him, and one who of himself was free 
from all such obligations, and put upon it by God, the more to shew his 
grace, this makes it to be mere gi-ace ; and indeed the more grace, by how 
much the satisfaction was greater. And therefore God is said ' to commend 
his love in this, that Christ died for us,' Bom. v. 8. And Eph. i. 7, we 
are said ' by him to have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness 

Chap. II.] of cheist the mediator. 75 

of sins, accorcling to the riches of his grace.' Had Christ been one nearer 
to us than to him, or had he been wholly a stranger to God, it might then 
have been esteemed to have less of grace in it ; but in that he spared not 
his own Son, that he might spare us, this makes grace the more to abound 
in it, though the satisfaction be never so perfect. 


That in Christ alone there was sufficient ability to take away sin. — Tlie weak- 
ness and insufficiency of any creature for this work demonstrated. — That it 
is for the greater honour of Christ to effect that, which none could do besides 
him. — The insufficiency of any creature loroved by an enumeration of par- 
ticulars. — That the blood of all sacrifices could not hare such an efficacy.- — 
That ice rrere unable to satisfy God by anything which tee could suffer, or 
do. — That all the saints are as unable to help v^ in this case. — That it is 
beyond the jjower of angels themselves. 

These observations having been sent before to make way, we come now 
to the main point at the first'propounded, viz., That in Christ, and in him 
alone, there is an all-sufficiency of abilities to take away sins ; and that 
seeing God stood upon a full and perfect satisfaction, he alone was able to 
effect it. Which proposition we will branch out into two, and those both 
of them founded upon the text. 

I. That it was not possible for any of the creatures to have made satis- 
faction, and to have taken sins away. 

II. That in Christ's offering up himself as a sacrifice, there was an all- 
sufficiency to do it. 

I. The creatures could not satisfy God, nor take away sin. The hand- 
ling and proving of this tends so much the more to set forth and advance 
Christ's all-sufficiency. As therefore, in shewing his fitness, we made it ap- 
pear that his office was fit for no creature, but only for himself, so now in 
declaring his abilities for this office, we will shew that none besides him 
was able to perform it. And for proof of this, we need go no further than 
the apparent drift and scope of this text, and of this epistle, which as it is 
to shew the perfection of Christ's oblation once oflered, so it was withal to 
shew the weakness of all other offerings, even of those appointed by God 
himself under the old law ; and to that end, comparing them all along with 
this sacrifice of his Son, In which comparison you may observe, 

1. That a sufficient worth and value was the thing that God stood upon, 
(as hath been said). So Heb. ix. 23 : 'It Avas therefore necessary that the 
patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these ; but the 
heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.' The apostle 
speaks of the worth and betterness of sacrifices, ' better sacrifices than these.' 
So he speaks of a sacrifice that should perfect them for whom it was oflered : 
Heb. X. 14, ' For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are 
sanctified.' And chap. vii. 26, 27, he mentioneth abilities to save, as being 
required in him who was our high priest : Heb. vii. 25-27, 'Wherefore he 
is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, 
seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.' Ver. 26, ' For such 
an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from 
sinners, and made higher than the heavens ;' ver. 27, ' Who needeth not 


daily, as those high priests, to oflfer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and 
then for the people's : for this he did once, when he offered up himself.' 

2. You may observe, all other sacrifices were laid aside as weak, and 
wanting of this worth and value. So the apostle saith, ' The law made 
men high priests who had infii'mities :' Heb. vii. 28, ' For the law maketh 
men high priests which have infirmity ; but the word of the oath, which 
was since the law, maketh the Son, who is consecrated for evermore.' 
There was an infirmity and a weakness that accompanied all the sacrificcrs 
and sacrifices. And for this weakness of theirs, there was a ' disannulling 
of that commandment,' for the ' weakness and unprofitableness' of it, ver. 
18. And Heb, ix. 9, he tells us, ' They could not make him perfect who 
did the service,' and also that all those sacrifices, as they could not make 
the ofierer himself that did the service perfect, much less could they make 
them perfect for whom they were offered : Heb. ix. 9, ' Which was a figure 
for the time then present, in which were offered both gifts and sacrifices, 
that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the 
conscience :' Heb, x, 1, ' For the law having a shadow of good things to 
come, and not the yoyj image of the things, can never with those sacrifices, 
which they offered year by year continually, make the comers thereunto 
perfect,' All which argues, that God would have such a satisfaction as 
should make men perfect, that is, should be fully able to satisfy his justice, 
and their consciences. And therefore also here in the text God is brought 
in, consulting about, or considering and weighing all other sacrifices ; and 
when he had found them all too light, the text says, he laid them all aside, 
and pitched upon, and established this of Christ, And therefore you see 
this profier of Christ, ' Lo, I come,' comes in after God's refusal of all 
others as ineffectual ; ' then said I, Lo, I come :' Heb. x. 5-7 ' Wherefore, 
when he cometh into the world, he saith. Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest 
not, but a body hast thou prepared me :' ver. 6, ' In burnt-offerings and 
sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure :' ver, 7, * Then said I, Lo, I 
come (in the volume of the book it is written of me) to do thy will, God.' 
Thus Gal, iii, 21, 'If there had been a law that could have given life, 
righteousness had been by the law,' The apostle speaks as if God would 
have taken that, or any other course, if it could have been sufiicient. And 
Gal. ii, 21, ' Do I frustrate the grace of God ?' says he, ' If righteousness 
be by the law, then Christ died in vain,' What he says of the law may be 
said of all means else, if any other could be supposed. The same reason 
that is there given against the law (namely, that the grace in Christ's dying 
and justifying us, would be frustrated) holdeth as well, to exclude the sup- 
posed jDossibility of any other means to make us righteous. For by that 
reason it appears, that God's aim and end in Christ's dying was to advance 
the glory of his grace, which consists in having the monarchy and sole pre- 
rogative in saving sinners attributed unto it ; the height of whose honour 
and eminency is this, that it alone reigns, and hath nor could have any 
competitor therein. And therefore if there could be supposed to be any 
other means, Christ's death would then lose something of its peculiar gloiy ; 
which if it should, he would account himself to have died in vain ; for the 
glory of his aim had been defaced and frustrated, and his end in his account 
as good as lost. As it is the excellency of God, that he is God alone, and 
there is none besides him, so of Christ, that he alone is our saviour, and 
that there is none besides him. But take this as still spoken in opposition 
to all creatures only ; for otherwise that former supposition, that God could 
have pardoned us by a mere act of grace without Christ's satisfaction, doth 

Chap. II.] op christ the mediator. 77 

not detract from this glory of Christ's death, -which is not to take away from 
free grace, and to be accounted in comparison of it, the principal and only 
saviour. Christ is content that the free grace of his Father should share 
with him in it, and himself to be in this work God's servant. But this 
competition of Christ is with all other means by creatures ; the excluding 
the possibility of which to perform our redemption, makes Christ solo heir 
to this kingdom and monarchy of grace, which is destructive of the domi- 
nion of sin, and so endears his death to us : ' He hath a priesthood that 
passeth not away,' Heb. vii. 24, as the high priest did by reason of death. 
But he dies not ; and his office is such, as if ho should lay it down, there is 
not any creature in heaven or earth that could take it up. The fullest trial 
and manifestation of this is made in a case of less diliiculty (which evidently 
reacheth this of satisfaction), in the fifth chapter of the Revelation, where, 
as a prologue to that ensuing prophecy (which begins chap, vi.), there is a 
solemn proclamation made by a strong angel, who ' spake with a loud voice,' 
ver. 2 (as that which might come to the hearing of all creatures) : and the 
matter of this proclamation was this challenge, ' AVho is worthj^ to open the 
book' (namely of the Revelation, which was sealed in the hand of God, 
that sat upon the throne, ver. 1), ' and to loose the seals thereof? And 
there was none ' (so it is in the original, that is, no reasonable creature ; 
we read * no man,' but that is too much limited), man or angel, ' in heaven, 
or in earth, or under the earth, that was able to open the book, or so much 
as to look thereon.' And John was at this discouraged, and ' wept much,' 
ver. 4, as thinking, here must be an end of all, and that he should have no 
further vision. But God did premise this on purpose to shew the difficulty 
of the work, and to spoil all creatures of the glory of it, and the more to 
set off and make illustrious the sole power and worth that was in Jesus 
Christ for this work ; even as men in their fictions use to do, when they 
would gi-eaten some one man, whose story they write. For after this non- 
plus and dejection, a stander-by comforts him, and bids him ' not weep : 
for lo, the Lion of the tribe of Judah hath obtained to open the book,' &c. 
And presently a lamb comes, approacheth the throne, and takes the book 
out of his right hand, ver. 6, 7. And upon that all the chorus of twenty- 
four elders and four beasts (who are there the church representative of 
saints on earth), do fall down before the lamb, and set this crown of glory 
upon his head alone, with this new song and shout, ' Worthy art thou,' &c., 
and thou alone ; unto which the angels give a respond of praise, ver. 11, 
12, and heaven, and earth, and all creatures, echo to it, ver. 13. Now how 
much more might all this solemnity have been used about satisfaction to be 
made for sin ? To approach the throne, and take the book, and open it, 
was far less than to have the heart to break through an army, and approach 
God in his fury and fulness of wrath for sin, and to sustain that wrath, and 
satisfy it by overcoming it. And this is more than intimated in that very 
chapter ; for (ver. 9) the elders in their song do attribute this power of 
Christ to open the book, unto the merit of a far greater work done, even 
this of our redemption, and Christ's satisfaction for sin : ' Thou art worthy,' 
say they, * to take the book, because thou wast killed, and hast redeemed 
us to God by thy blood.' And how far off then will all creatures be found 
to be, and how short of worth and power to redeem a sinner by their blood, 
who were all not worthy so much as to look on that book, much less to 
open it, not worthy to reveal this redemption, much less to effect it ? Than 
which there cannot be a stronger proof for this my assertion. Thus much 
in general. Now secondly, 


II. To demonstrate this by an induction and an enumeration of all par- 
ticulai' means, wliich may be any way supposed able to help us. 

1. First, Take the blood of bulls and goats, and add to them all the 
creatures -which man is lord of, and which are his to give ; yet this whole 
world of creatm-es would not be a sufficient sacrifice for sin. In Micah vi. 
7, there is one comes ofi" with a good round price, 'Will the Lord be pleased 
with thousands of rams, or with thousands of rivers of oil ? or shall I give 
my fii'st-born for my transgression ?' And nature is apt to be thinking of 
such sacrifices. But if justice could have afi"orded it so cheap, God would 
not have turned away so fair a chapman ; yet he there turns him away. 
One reason for which is there intimated, namely, that sin is the sin of the 
soul, but aU these are but the appui-tenances of, or at the highest, but 
fniits of the body : ' Shall I give the fruit of my body for the sin of my 
soul ?' The soul, which is lost and forfeited by sin, is (as Christ says) 
more worth than a whole world. Mat. xvi. 26. Yea, the Ufe of the body is 
more worth in a man's own estimation than aU that he possesseth ; ' All 
that a man hath wlU he give for his life,' Job ii. 4 ; but the ' redemption 
of the soitI is ' yet much more * precious,' as the psalmist speaks, Ps. 
xlix. 8. And as a king's ransom is more than another man's, so is the 
redemption of the soul, which in worth exceeds all creatures, more than of 
all other creatures besides. And yet further, the sin of the soul cannot be 
recompensed by the loss and saciifice of the soul itseh ; for by sin the glory 
of God sufiers detriment, but by a soul's loss the good of a creatm-e only is 
damaged. It is a rule cuiTent in cases of moraUty and justice, that the 
injmy of a supreme order is not made good by things of an inferior rank 
unto it. "\Miat recompence will the forfeiture of a murderer's goods give 
to a man for his ^ife, or for that of his fi'iends ? WTiat satisfaction can 
money give for a dishonour cast upon a man's good name, which Solomon 
says is ' better than riches' ? Prov. xxii. 1. So what is the fruit of a man's 
body (as it is in Micah vi. 7) to the sin of his soul ? Yerily there is no 
proportion. Yea, it falls short in the estimation of a man's own conscience. 

Unto this disproportion the apostle adds another, Heb. ix. 23, that the 
blessings to be purchased and obtained by this satisfaction are heavenly ; 
but all such sacrifices as these are but things earthly ; and therefore better 
sacrifices than these are required. All such external sacrifices are but 
enough (if enough) to sanctify the ' pattern of heavenly things ;' that is, 
the types of the law ; and this too, but only as they were ' shadows of things 
to come.' Wherefore ' it was necessaiy that the heavenly things themselves ' 
(the substance) ' should be purified with better sacrifices than these.' Now 
grace is heavenly, and pardon of sin must come fi'om heaven, even out of 
God's bosom ; and will God (think we) exchange heavenly commodities for 
earthly treasures ? 

Again, the apostle adds a third disproportion unto these, Heb. ix. 14, 
all such sacrifices cannot reach to the conscience. We have consciences to 
be purged, and what are such outward things to pm*ge a man's conscience ? 
As plasters outwardly apphed cannot reach to benefit the heart or lungs ; 
so neither can these reach the conscience. They might sanctify the out- 
ward man (as he there speaks), to purge away a ceremonial outward un- 
cleanness, but not the inward, Jer. ii. 22, ' Though thou wash thee with 
nitre, thy iniquity is open before me,' says the Lord. AU these could not 
satisfy a man's conscience, much less God's justice. Therefore those that 
were exercised in sacrifices, their consciences were unquiet, as both the 
Jews' and heathens' were. 

Chap. II.] of christ the mediator. 79 

2. As for ourselves, thoro was no hope that ever we should satisfy God 
by aught that cither we can do or suflcr. 

(1.) Not by suflering anything. And for this, take the highest instance. 
If there were any hope to satisfy by sufferings, it would be by the sufler- 
ings of men in hell, because they are the utmost and the most extreme 
punishment that are threatened as the reward of sin, and whereby God re- 
covers all that may be had out of the creature. A man would think that 
after millions of years expired, the torments which men there sufler should 
satisfy for sin ; but they do not. Those eternal flames in which their 
souls are scorched do nothing purify or diminish the stain of one sin : they 
may indeed destroy the sinner, but they can never take away the sin ; for 
therefore it is that they shall for ever suffer. He must for ever remain to 
be punished, because for ever he remains a sinner. And it is also a certain 
and sure rule, that nulla ptena nocentls est pcccati deletiva; no punishment 
of a person nocent is deletive of sin. The sin can never be taken away or 
blotted out by it. 

(2.) Nor by doing ; for, 

First; We are not able by all our works to satisfy our own consciences, 
which still prick us in the midst of them ; much less can we satisfy God, 
who is greater than our consciences. In Rom. v. 6, the apostle gives us 
all up for desperate and past recovery ; ' When we were without strength,' 
says he, ' Christ died for us.' W^e had no strength left us wherewith to do 
anything ; neither could all the strength that the law could put into us, by 
quickening and exciting our consciences to do good works, anything avail 
us. So, Rom. viii. 3, the apostle tells us, that ' what the law could not 
do, for that it W'as weak through the flesh,' that Christ came to do. If 
anything had been done by us, it must have been by the help of the law in 
om* consciences, directing, inciting, and carrying us on to obedience. But, 
saith he, our corruption still weakeneth the power of the law, that it cannot 
do any good upon us, in us, or by us. As when nature is spent, physic is 
said to do no good through the weakness of the patient, so nor the law 
through the weakness of the flesh. And therefore it follows, there being 
no help in ourselves, ' God sent his Son in the similitude of sinful flesh, 
and condemned sin in the flesh.' Neither, 

Secondhj; Axe we thus weak"only, but also ungodly ; and so are all our 
works. There is not only a weakness in all that the flesh can do, but also 
a wickedness or enmity ; so that ' they who are in the flesh can never please 
God ;' as Rom. viii. 8. Yea, it is impossible they should, for their works 
are all defiled ; and though they were good, yet, 

Thirdlij; They could not bring our persons into favour. For sin, breaking 
the first covenant, by the tenor of which our works did keep our persons in 
favour ; hence we have forfeited aU honour to our persons for ever, and so 
unto all our works also, that look, as traitors when their persons are con- 
demned, all their works are void in law, so are ours. So that if we could 
suppose ourselves to love God, yet dllectio ilia nos quidem face ret dilectores, 
sed non dilectos ; though thereby we might be called lovers of God, yet they 
could not make us beloved of him again. 

Fourtldij ; As we have forfeited all favour to our persons for ever, so we 
have forfeited too the having any graces, or gifts of grace, whereby we might 
be supposed to come into favour. For sin hath put in a bar against us, 
this being the eternal demerit of it, that the former grace be never more 
bestowed upon any of that former interest ; for it is wholly made void unto 
all ends and purposes. And therefore, ere ever new grace be bestowed, the 


guilt, and forfeiture, and desert of sin must be forgiven ; and how can we 
ever come to obtain that for ourselves ? 

Fifihhj ; If that demerit be cut off by free pardon, and grace be anew 
bestowed, then that grace becomes a new favour, for which alone we can 
never be thankful enough by the power of all the grace we receive. We 
run into a new debt, which we can never requite or satisfy for, much 
less by that can we pay our former debts. Therefore, 

Lastly; Grace received anew, though in and through Christ, it may 
indeed come to please God, as a token of our thankfulness (and so it doth), 
yet can it never so much as justify us. The graces of godly men made 
perfect in heaven shall (it may be) be as much and more than that of the 
angels. Now then, suppose it such in this lifj, jet all that grace would 
not justify us, because we once forfeited all of it, and the receiving of it 
now were a new mercy. The gi'ace of them who are in heaven may indeed 
please God, but it cannot justify them, and therefore much less could it 
ever come to satisfy God for sin. And besides, dehitum peccati est wfi- 
nitum, the debt and guilt of sin is infinite, because against an infinite God. 
Graces would be but finite, because in us, and because ours, who are finite 
creatures, as our graces also are. So then, you see, ourselves could not 
make God any satisfaction. 

3. If you go to all the saints, they are unable to help you ; Mat. xxv. 1, 
2, 8, 9, ' Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten vngins, 
which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegrori;'. :' ver. 2, 
' And five of them were wise, and five were foolish :' ver. 8, ' And the 
foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil, for our lamps are gone out :' 
ver. 9, ' But the wise answered, saying. Not so, lest there be not enough 
for us and you ; but go you rather to them that sell, and buy for your- 
selves.' The foolish virgins go to the wise, and say, ' Give us seme of 
your oil,' that is, of your grace. They would have had some of the others' 
graces to help them, but the wise virgins answered, ' No, lest there be not 
enough for us and jow. ; but go you rather and buy of them that sell.' The 
saints then (you see) have gi'ace little enough for themselves ; all the grace 
they in heaven have is little enough to save them, and all the grace they 
have is borrowed, and cannot justify themselves, much less therefore can 
it satisfy for another. The papists, who so much extol works, though they 
say, indeed, that good works do merit for the saints themselves, yet not 
that they can satisfy for another. 

4. Go from them to the angels. If they were a grain lighter, they would 
be found too light, and their kingdom would depart from them, and them- 
selves would be stripped of all their happiness. They need confirmation 
in their estates themselves ; it is well that they keep their own standing, 
and their heels fi'om being tripped up. All they can do in obedience to the 
law, they owe it ; and how can one debt be paid with another ? God says 
of them. Job iv. 18, * that he finds folly in them.' If God's curious 
eye inquire and search into them, they will be found defective of that holi- 
ness which he desires, though they be the works of his hands, and though 
they have such a holiness as is the perfection of their natures ; and (so far 
as such creatures can be), they be perfectly righteous. But yet if they 
be compared to that holiness wherewith God is delighted, and that which 
the curious eye of his purity would require, he finds a folly in them. And 
therefore they need not only a mediation of union to confirm them in grace, 
but fm-ther, for this end, that God may be pleased with them and their 
works ; he being so curious, that but for a mediator (whose holiness wholly 

Chap. HE.] op ohbist the mediator. 81 

satisfies his exact eyo), ho would be pleased with no works of his own 
hands whatever, but would rend, and tear, and throw all away, as not yet 
worthy enough of him, even as curious artists do their best draughts, as 
not satisfied with them. Yea, if the angels were but one grain wanting, 
scruple not to say, they would bo cast down, yea, fall down, and become 
devils. And therefore how can all that they can do be able to help you, 
seeing they have little enough for themselves ? 

So you see, upon a survey of all particulars, that no creature could make 
satisfaction to God for sin. 


That the most perfect creature, though having all the perfections of Christ's 
human nature, yet could not he our redeemer. — The utmost extent to which 
the power of any creature can reach, to save himself or others, which yet all 
fall short of that which ivas to be performed for our redemption. 

Add to all these the utmost supposition that can be made, of the most 
transcendent perfection of grace that may possibly be bestowed upon any 
mere creature. Take the supposition which some of the schoolmen have 
made, that as God appointed Adam, a mere creature, to convey and derive 
grace to all his posterity, so if we with them suppose, first, some one 
mere creature as a head, appointed to satisfy for sin, and' convey grace to 
sinners (as Christ doth) ; and, secondly, suppose this mere creature filled 
with as much grace habitual as Christ had, as much love, humility, &c., 
only that grace of union to a divine person set aside, which so transcend- 
ently elevates all in him above created perfections, and then such a suppo- 
sition cannot be denied. Thirdly, Suppose a transcending degree of favour 
and glory appointed as the reward of that grace, more than is boiflie 
towards all other creatures ; yet though this creature should lay down all 
that glory, quit itself of all that happiness, and subject itself to all those 
torments which Christ's soul underwent for us, to the end that our punish- 
ment might be cut ofi", and we brought unto favour, all this could no way 
deal with justice to satisfy for sinners, and restore them to favour. Which 
now we will endeavour to make good from those more near and intimate 
demonstrations, which hold forth in them the true grounds why no mere 
creature can satisfy for sin, upon no supposition, how high soever. By all 
which the superabundant grace and glory of Christ will the more appear, 
whose cause herein we plead, and who pleadeth ours in heaven. 

And, first, to make the clearer entrance, and the better explication and 
stating of this point, let us consider and examine how far the graces of a 
mere creature, how great soever, have gone, or can go, to advantage and 
promote either the owner of them, or another, in the way of salvation ; and 
so see the utmost extent of their abilities, and where they have and must 
fall short. Which will likewise afford us evident demonstrations how far 
short they come of satisfaction for sin, or justifying of a sinner. 

I. Let us see what they can do for the owner and possessor of them. 

1 . They can and do justify the possessor of them, if he have never sinned. 
Thus the grace and works of the angels do justify them before God ; which 
yet is much for God to accept of, for he ' seeth folly in his angels ; ' yet 
this privilege he vouchsafes to their own grace. And thus to be justified, is 

VOL. V. F 


no more than to be accounted righteous before God's tribunal, and so worthy 
to live in his sight, and by means of it to enjoy their present condition 
of happiness. And thus Adam's grace in innocency did justify him : God 
by his law and ordination pronouncing him righteous by it (whilst he con- 
tinued in it), as wanting nothing which his law required in him for happiness 
and life. And though grace in Adam and in the angels did, by a natural 
law and just ordination of God, justify them before him, so as, God look- 
ing on their works, did pronounce them righteous in his sight, according 
to his law, yet this law or ordinance was founded upon no other obliga- 
tion from God than the ordinances and laws of providence towards other 
creatures, even such as the ordinances of day and night (as he speaks of 
them) ; and so it was but such as when God saw all the creatures which 
he had made keep the ordinances which he had set them in, he pronounced 
that they were all good, namely, in their kind. Gen. i. 31, they continuing 
(as the psalmist says, Ps. cxix. 91) according to their ordinances. So 
whilst man continues in the ordinances which God hath set him in, he 
pronouuceth him good in his kind, that is, righteous ; righteousnsss being 
his proper goodness, and such to him, as the proper goodness of all crea- 
tures are in their kind unto them. And as this righteousness was due to 
him, and so created in him, not by merit, but as the native perfection 
without which he could not be a man, so was this pronouncing of him 
righteous (and to be in God's favour whilst he continued in that goodness) 
not due of merit (for what can we do towards it ?), but only as a due appro- 
bation and suitable reward and consequence of his goodness, meet for God 
to bestow, according to that special law of natm-e which God had created 
him in. And so I understand that same ex debito, Rom, iv. 4, where the 
apostle, speaking of the covenant of works (which was the covenant of 
nature), he says, ' the reward was of debt, not of grace ; ' that is, there was 
a reward that was a natural due to it (which is opposed to mere grace), 
which notwithstanding is not of merit, nor could that deserve it at God's 
hands ; only it was meet and due, in a natm'al way, that God should so re- 
ward it. 

2. The grace of such a mere creature can preserve itself, and increase it- 
self. Therefore Christ compares it unto mustard-seed, the least of all seeds, 
which yet grows up to be a great tree ; and so the stock that Adam had he 
might have kept, by the power that God had given him. As Adam might 
have maintained his bodily life unto eternity by food, so his spiiitual life 
by keeping the law — ' do this and live.' So that grace in a pure creature 
before the fall might possibly have kept its station. Yet, 

3. It could not, nor cannot absolutely confirm and establish such a crea- 
ture in a state of justification, which is a further thing than simply to jus- 
tify, as to give perseverance in grace is more than to give grace. Thus 
the angels, though always they be justified by their own grace, yet no acts 
of their own did, or could, procure a confirmation in that grace, or strength 
and security that they should not, nor could not, fall. It is an incommuni- 
cable property of Jehovah not to change, and to have no ' shadow of turn- 
ing,' James i. 17. It is therefore judged by all divines that this benefit 
they have by Christ. 

4. Much less can the grace of a mere creature (or ever could) merit a 
higher condition ; to do which is more than to confirm the continuance of 
the present condition. Adam could not earn a condition of a higher rank, 
nor by all his works have bought any greater preferment than what he was 
created in. To compass it was ultra siiam splneram, above his sphere; he 

Chap. III.J of christ the mediator. 83 

could never have done it. As, for instance, ho could not have attained 
that state in heaven which the angels enjoy. What says Christ ? * When 
you have done all you can, say. You are unprofitable servants,' Luke xvii. 
10. This he could no more do than other creatures by keeping those their 
ordinances can merit to be ' translated into the glorious liberty' which they 
wait for, and shall have at the latter day. The moon, though she keep all 
her motions set her by God never so regularlj% yet she cannot thereby 
attain to the light of the sun as a new reward thereof. And thus no more 
can any pure creature of itself, by all its righteousness, obtain in justice a 
higher condition to itself. And therefore the angels, by all their own 
grace, have not to this day earned a better condition than they were 
created in. And yet all this falls short of satisfying for sin, as we shall 
see anon. 

II. We have taken a view of all that which all the grace of a mere crea- 
ture can do for the owner of it ; let us now> secondly, see what it can do for 
another. And, 

First, We may safely say, it can avail less for another than for the person 
himself. For what it doth for another it doth by virtue of what it first doth 
for itself. If it brings another into favour, it must needs be much more 
beloved itself. 

Secondhj, We grant that it might have been a means of conveying right- 
eousness, through God's goodness and appointment of it, unto another. 
For so Adam's grace should have done to all his posterity. For as he 
falling we now inherit his sin, so if he had stood we by the same law 
should have had his righteousness conveyed unto us ; and so much indeed 
may the grace of a creature that never fell do for another. But then take 
in these cautions with it. 

1. That other must be one who also never fell, it could not do thus for 
those that were once sinners, though it might convey righteousness to an- 
other that never sinned. 

2. Though a creatm-e that never sinned might have a stock of righteous- 
ness convej'ed from another (as we should have had from Adam), yet that 
creature must still continue to be justified by its own righteousness, besides 
by what was conveyed from that other (even as well as the conveyer him- 
self was by his own righteousness to have lived), and so might notwith- 
standmg have fallen away. For Adam's righteousness, and the imputation 
of it, would not alone have been sufiicient to justify us eternally ; but our 
justification must have been continued by our own righteousness. For as 
although we have Adam's sin conveyed to us, yet we are condemned for 
our own sins besides, and not only for his ; so Adam's righteousness being 
conveyed to us, we must afterwards have had, and must have continued to 
work, a righteousness of our own. He was only a means to give us a 
stock wherewith to begin, all which we might have spent, and it was likely 
we should. 

So that, in the last place, to draw up all, by a comparison from the less 
to the greater, it will appear how far short the power of grace in mere crea- 
tures doth come of satisfying for another's sin. You see how little it can 
do for itself ; and it must needs be able to do less for another than for it- 
self, and less for a sinner than for either. It may justify itself, and the 
possessor of it may actually live by it, but not so another. For though 
that other maj^ have righteousness conveyed to him at first, yet he must 
ever after live upon his own. The creatures' grace cannot confii-m itself 
in a perpetual state of justification for time to come, much less merit a 


better condition. But to satisfy for sin is beyond all those ; it is as much 
as to merit a better condition, and more. 

(1.) It is as much, for satisfaction hath to do with justice as well as 
merit ; for to merit is to do that which justice itself shall count truly 
worthy of such a reward. And so to satisfy is at least to offer that for a 
satisfaction, which justice itself ofiended cannot but think worthy to be ac- 
cepted in recompence. The one undertakes to deserve of justice reward- ^ 
ing, the other to pacify and fully content justice ofiended. And, 

(2.) It is more ; and therefore the papists themselves, who say that a 
man's own grace may merit for himself, yet deny it to be able to satisfy 
for another's sin. And reason is for it ; for, 

First ; In meriting a better condition, a man earns but of another's goods, 
and undertakes to do something worthy of a better reward ; and there is in 
it but eomparatio rei ad rem. But in satisfying for injuries, he undertakes 
to repair personal wrongs ; which it is so much harder to repair, as men 
love their own persons more than their goods. A poor man may earn some 
of a nobleman's goods by a day's work ; but can never satisfy him for a 

tSecondhi ; To satisfy for sin is more than to do something worthy of a 
higher and better condition ; because there is a greater distance between a 
sinner's estate, and justification to be attained, than is between the estate 
of one already justified, and a higher condition of favour ; such as was be- 
tween the estate of Adam and that of an angel. There was not such a gulf 
(as Christ says) or distance between Adam's earthly state and theirs, as is 
between an offender and the favour of God ; which by his ofience is wholly 
forfeited. He when innocent was much nearer the most glorious condition 
which any creature was capable of. Even as a good subject, though never 
so poor and mean, who yet never ofi'ended, is nearer the dignity of a duke, 
and more capable of it, than one who is a traitor, and so hath forfeited not 
only his honour, but his life and the privilege of a subject. 


The inability of the creature to redeem us, demonstrated from the nature of the 
satisfaction. — First, That which the law required, a creature coidd not 
answer for us, neither in obeying the precept, nor sufferinrj the p>enalty. 

This premised, we will now more distinctly consider whereunto satisfac- 
tion must be made, wherein it must consist, and according to what it is 
to be proportioned. 

There are two to be satisfied before ever a sinner can be justified, viz., 
God and the law. For as the evil of sin is expressed by its enmity unto 
both these (as Rom. viii. 7, where the flesh is said to be ' enmity against 
God and his law '), so answerably may the satisfaction that is to be made 
for it be measured out by both. I confess that both come to one ; for 
satisfy the law, and you satisfy God, and so e contra : yet we may take the 
distinct consideration of each as a help in the search, and for the finding 
out wherein true satisfaction for sin is to consist. 

First ; For the law. No mere creature could satisfy that for us, or make 
compensation for sin, as it is the transgression of it. 

1. In general ; let us measure satisfaction by the worth of the law, and 
of every iota of it, which sin doth what in it lies to make void and of none 

Chap. IV.] of ohrist the mediator. 86 

effect. In Ps. cxix. 126, ' They have willingly,' says David, * destroyed thy 
law:' that is, what they did tended to destroy it; though yet it doth it 
not : for not one iota of it shall pass. Now seeing satisfaction is redditio 
(cquirah'iitis pro (rqnivaJeuti ; that which is given in way of restitution must 
bo of an equivalent worth to that which is endamaged ; what therefore can 
any mere creature have to render to God, equivalent to this his law ? For 
is not the least tittle of the law worth heaven and earth, and so all in it, 
even saints and all, because God's prerogative lies at stake in it ? Is it 
not the rer/ula, the pattern, yea, the original copy of all the grace which the 
saints have ? For all grace is but the copy of the law. And doth it not 
command all that is in them ? What have they then to be deprived of that 
is worth it ? 

2. Let us more particularly consider those special debts which the law 
requires satisfaction in and for ; which, according to the two main parts of 
the law, are answerably two. As all laws, so this, hath. 

First, A preceptive part, ' Do this and live ;' and this requires exact 
obedience to every tittle of it. 

Secondly, A penal part. If we trespass in the least, it exacts a punish- 
ment ; and that is, eternal death. 

Now therefore when we transgi'ess in the least, we hence first grow into 
a double debt, and become debtors to both parts of the law ; and the reason 
hereof is, because sU. laws require both. So the laws of men do ofttimes 
require not only restitution and satisfaction to be made to the party wronged ; 
but they enjoin a further punishment as a satisfaction to the law itself, 
which was contemned and broken. And therefore in many cases, though 
no hurt be done, the trespasser failing of his purpose, yet the law takes 
notice of the attempt, and punisheth him for it ; because therein the law 
is contemned. For in such trespasses against men there is a double wrong : 
the one to the party injured, whose goods or honour is impaired ; and the 
other to the law, which is scandalised by it. And so he is not only to 
satisfy for the personal damage, but also for the public oflfence, and the 
vitiosity of the act in breaking order ; and so a double satisfaction is to be 
made. Thus also it is in debts : for there is both the principal, and the 
forfeiture also. So likewise in the Levitical law, when a man had wronged 
his neighbour in goods, he was to do two things ; not only to make resti- 
tution due to the party wronged, and that double at least, as part of a punish- 
ment also, but he was to satisfy the law besides, and to offer sacrifice. And 
in case of debt, before instanced, until a man hath paid it, he is to lie in 
prison, to satisfy the law. 

(2.) We having sinned, do owe satisfaction to God in respect of his law ; 
and that in a double relation and respect : first, on our parts ; secondly, 
on God's part. 

First, On our own. As we are creatures, we owe him service ; and as 
we are sinners, we owe punishment. 

And Secondly, On God's part. We owe satisfaction to him, both as he 
is our lord, our creator, and owner, that hath right to us ; and also as he 
is our lawgiver. 

[1.] As he is our lord he hath a right to us, and as a creditor he gave 
us ourselves and graces : and we are his goods, and so do owe him active 

[2.] As he is our lawgiver, so he hath the right of a judge, to whom for 
our neglect we do therefore owe punishment. For God hath over us both 
jus crediti or domlnii, and jiis rectoris ; he is lord of his law, and lord of 


US ; and we are his subjects, and also his servants ; and there is in equity 
very good grounds for both debts. For we owe him subjection for his 
benefits bestowed, although there were no law : but then in regard of his 
vTs^o^yj, his transcendent excellencj', he is our lawgiver and judge ; and so 
he might give us these laws, though it could be supposed that we had no 
such benefit from him, 

Ohj. And [3.] Whereas it may be said that the bearing the punishment 
due to the ofi'ence against the law, may seem to stand for that debt of obe- 
dience to the law ; — 

Ans. The answer is, that it is clean otherwise ; for we owe both punish- 
ment for sin past, and obedience also. And the reason is evident, namely, 
in that punishment for sin is but an appendix to the law, and not that 
which the law chiefly intends ; for it principally aims at obedience, and 
docs therefore indeed threaten punishment to keep the creature to obe- 
dience ; and therefore to endure the punishment is no satisfaction to the 
law. As though a debtor should live in prison all his lifetime, yet he should 
be in debt still ; and therefore could not be said to satisfy the law, because 
the principal intent of the law is to recover a man's goods. So that we are 
for ever bound to God by a double debt, a debitum pcenff, a debt of punish- 
ment, and a debitum ncgligenticc, a debt of neglect ; both which are to be 
satisfied for. 

Now for neither of both these debts can either we ourselves, or any crea- 
ture for us, ever satisfy God. 

(1.) Not we ourselves ; for we can never discharge the debt of active 
obedience, though God should exact no more ; for part of it is neglected 
already ; and you may as well call back time that is past, as satisfy for 
what is past, jjecause we are bound to God for our whole time, even to 
eternity. If an apprentice were bound to his master for ever, and he ran 
away at any time, he can never satisfy his master for his time lost. If he 
were bound indeed but for seven years, then he might afterwards serve out 
his time, though he ran away for a while. 

(2.) Nor can any mere creatm'e be ever able to give satisfaction in our 
stead, upon the same grounds. It is true indeed, that a mere creature 
might perform and undergo this and all other kind of obedience that the 
law requires, both active and passive ; but not so, as that both, or either of 
these obediences so performed by it, should be satisfactory to the law for 
us, or stand us in stead. We will prove this, of each severally, and of both 
jointly. And first of either of them singly. 

[l.J The active obedience performed by any mere creature for us could 
not discharge or satisfy that debt of active obedience which we owe to God, 
so as we should have any benefit by it. Such a creature may indeed per- 
from it, so as to profit himself (as Job speaks. Job xxxv. 8), but not so as 
to profit us and himself by way of satisfaction. The reasons of which are, 

First, Because his whole self, and all he can do, is in all respects whoUy 
and altogether subject to the law already for himself, and he can plead no 
privilege of exemption whereby he should be any way free from this total 
subjection to the law. And therefore the law commanding him, and all the 
relations and respects that are in him, all that he can do is Uttle enough 
for himself to satisfy the law. This is the reason which the saints them- 
selves give to put others off" with (for I would not give j'ou school reasons 
herein, but scriptm-e reasons) : Mat. xxv. 8, 9, the wise virgins said to the 
foolish, when they came to them for oil, ' We have little enough for our- 
selves,' All the money which any creature can make, will but serve to 

Chap. IV.] of ohrist the mediator. 87 

satisfy what the law requires for himself, and he hath nothing over and 
above what the law can challenge, to bcnciit another. ' Do this, and live,' 
says the law to all that are ' under the law,' and altogether under it. And 
it is as much as they can do to live by the law themselves. They have 
little enough for themselves, and nothing over. And this reason holds as 
fully in the best creature that can be supposed to have never so much grace 
(set that of hj'postatical union aside, which is Christ's sole prerogative), as 
it doth in that creature that hath never so little. For all the grace that 
any creature hath, be it of never so large a revenue, he holds by the same 
tenure, namely, the tenure of the law, that one of never so low a degree of 
grace doth hold his by. And the law doth as fully exact all he can do, as 
being his own debt, as it doth the other's. Even as a man that hath never 
so much land, if his tenure from the lord in chief be the same by the law 
with that of another man who possesseth but a cottage ; and the conditions 
of both are to pay the whole revenue (their own mere and bare subsistence 
set aside), the former is as much disenabled to pay another's rent as the 
latter, though he hath never so great revenues. In this case he that hath 
the least hath no lack ; for God accepts what a man hath, and he that hath 
never so much hath nothing over. There is an equality or proportion, as 
the apostle speaks in another case. 

If we consider the ground of the law's thus requii-ing the whole, it will 
afford a fm'ther reason. The ground why the law requires this, lies in two 
things : 

1. That whatever the creature hath, it hath received it from God : And, 

2. So received it, and upon such terms as to give an account of it. So 
as after it is given, God still challengeth a right in it, as being wholly his. 
Hence all that a mere creature hath, or can have, it owes to God. 

1. Because it hath it wholly from God; and therefore God challengeth 
all again, and obligeth the creature as a debtor to him for the benefit 
received. And then withal there cannot any respect of propriety be found, 
which a mere creature can challenge, in what it hath received, as having a 
title to it, distinct from that which God claims to himself ; but all is wholly 
and alone his. And therefore the creature can never lay out anything for 
another, which it can call its own stock, and say. This is mine to dispose 
of, and I have enough besides to account with God for myself another way ; 
for ' what hast thou,' says the apostle, ' which thou hast not received ?' 
1 Cor. iv. 7. 

And, 2dly, it receives all from God so as to give an account, as a mere 
steward unto him. So the apostle Peter speaks, ' A steward of the mani- 
fold grace of God,' 1 Peter iv. 10, and so accountable to him for all. Now 
it is as impossible for a mere creature to satisfy God for another's debt, or 
he is as unable to do it, as the steward can undertake to pay his master for 
his fellow- servant's debt, out of the money his master hath betrusted him 
with. For what can be in this case given is the master's own already, and 
in having all resumed, the master hath no more than what he should have ; 
this being a certain rule and principle in equity, that it is impossible to 
satisfy another man with what is wholly his own already. And upon this 
ground doth the Lord refuse sacrifices for sin, even because they are all his 
ah-eady ; ' All the beasts of the forest are mine :' Ps. 1. 8-11, ' I will not 
reprove thee for thy sacrifices, or thy burnt-offerings, to have been con- 
tinually before me ; ' ver. 9, ' I will take no bullock out of thy house, nor 
he-goats out of thy folds :' ver. 10, ' for every beast of the forest is mine, 
and the cattle upon a thousand hills.' Ver. 11, ' I know all the fowls of 


the mountains ; and the wild beasts of the field are mine.' Therefore 
David, 1 Chron. xxix. 14, acknowledge th it mercy enough that God would 
but accept of their offerings for themselves : ' What are we that we should 
offer thus freely even for ourselves ?' He considers both God's transcen- 
dent excellency in himself, and that total dependence which they had on 
him for all ; as it follows, ' Of thine own have I given thee,' and how can 
that satisfy the debt ? Sin indeed is our own, which we owe for ; but 
obedience, that is not om- own, but comes fi'om the grace of God, and from 
his enabling. Indeed, if God had given us grace, as friends give gifts 
each to other, to do what they please with them, without requiring any 
account of them, then we might have payed him with that which he hath 
given us. But he gives grace to us as he does talents unto seiwants. And 
therefore he requires answerable service and improvement of those talents, 
of which he takes account according to the number given ; and if they be 
not well used, he takes them away. ' And v*hen we have done whatever 
we can, we are unprofitable servants too,' Mat. xxv. 14 to 30. And it is 
impossible for one who is wholly a servant, to satisfy his master for the 
debt of another. Inter servum et dominum nulla interciorit justUia, says 
Aristotle, speaking of mere servants as in those times, because such a 
servant is pars domini, part of his master's goods. And herein let the sup- 
position made hold good, as, let the creature have never so much grace, so 
much the more is he disenabled to satisfy for another ; for the more gi'ace 
he hath received, the more service is required from him ; ' Much is required 
from him to whom much is given,' Luke xii. 48. Yea, the obligation upon 
himself is the greater, and binds him to do so much the more ; and there- 
fore he can as little, yea less, spare anything for another, as he that hath 

In the second place, for passive obedience, that cannot be satisfactoiy 
for another. For, 

1. Even so much passive obedience as any creature can undergo, is in 
itself in strict terms of justice due unto God from the creature, though not 
as a punishment, yet as a trial of obedience, if he should be pleased to lay 
it upon the creatm-e. How else could Paul wish himself ' accursed from 
Christ for his kinsmen and brethren' the Jews ? Rom. ix. 3 , and this as 
a duty surely. For he did not supererogate therein, nor do more than God 
might require. It was no more than what was due unto him. 

2dly. Both of these obediences must be jointly performed by him that 
undertakes to satisfy ; and it is impossible for him so to perform both. 

(1.) Both must be perfomied jointly ; for passive obedience alone would 
never pay both debts. To cast a man into prison pays not the creditor, 
and punishment is required by God as he is the judge of the world ; it is 
jus rectoris, and we owe obedience to him besides, as he is a creditor. And 
though God be content with passive obedience from those in hell, because 
it is all he can get of them, yet he is not satisfied with it, and therefore 
they are for ever to abide there. It is true that he improves it to his 
glory, in that it shews the various ways of his manifestation of his attributes 
upon creatures ; but yet, simply in itself it would not satisfy it. Further- 
, more, the threatening of punishment is (as was said) but the appendix of 
the law, not the primary intent of the lawgiver ; and therefore God doth 
not simply dehght in it, nor is he satisfied -svith it. 

(2.) There is an impossibility that any creatm'e should perfonn both of 
them jointly and together, which it must do if it satisfy. For from that 
creature, though never so excellent, an eternity both of active and passive 

Chap. IV.] of christ the mediator. 89 

obedience would be exacted ; and he could not dispatch or end cither, nor 
perfonn both together. If the obedience that is set him might be ended, 
or if both could be performed together, he might satisfy ; but the law exacts 
both for ever of us. And therefore the psalmist midies the redemption of 
the soul too precious for any creature to meddle with, Ps. xlix. 8, giving 
this reason why a man ' cannot redeem his brother ; so precious is the re- 
iemption of a soul, and it ceaseth for ever ;' that is, it shall never bo ac- 
eompUshed ; so the phrase is taken elsewhere. The work is so precious, 
tis it requireth eternity to do it in. So that that which the best of creatures 
should do, or suffer for us in any finite term of time, would not satisfy for 
what was due from us to eternity, but it doth require yet a further and in- 
finite worth in the obedience to be added to supply that eternity, and it is 
an utter impossibility to perform both together for ever. Look, as it is im- 
possible to ' serve two masters, but that a man must lean to the one, and 
neglect the other,' Mat. vi. 24, so it is impossible for the creature to caixy 
along both these obediences together. For when he were obeying the 
■whole law, how could he at the same suffer ? And when he were suffering, 
how could he obey the whole law ? All the graces then exercised would 
have been only patience, and all little enough to afford him that ; there 
would have been no room for the exercise of other gi'aces. And as God 
calls us not to do and suffer at the same time, for both cannot stand to- 
gether, so neither could any creature do and suffer at the same time for 
us. If indeed he could first despatch the active part, and then encounter 
the torments due unto us, and despatch them also, then there might be hope ; 
but this he cannot ; and to perform both to eternity is impossible. 

But yet by making as free and large concessions as are imaginable, fur- 
ther to shew the impossibility of it, suppose that passive obedience and 
suffering for us would stand for both debts ; and suppose also, that if their 
lives went for om's, they then might satisfy as well as we can, seeing theirs 
are as good as ours ; and therefore, if eternal death in us be a satisfaction 
to God's justice (which if it be not so, God then loseth by sin, and then he 
would not have let it come into the world), then it might be so in them for 
us, and we be fi-eed, yet consider the inconveniences that will follow : 

1. They must always be satisfying, and it could never be said, ' It is 
finished.' They must lie by it till they have paid the uttermost farthing, 
which they can never do, no more than we ourselves can ; and so they could 
not take away sins from us, for we could not have an acquittance till the 
debt were paid, we could not be justified till our surety were acquitted. 
Therefore, ' if Christ had not risen,' says Paiil, ' we had yet been in om* 
sins,' 1 Cor. xv. 17. And therefore the psalmist says, of the redemption 
of the soul by any creatm-e, Ps. xlix. 8, ' it ceaseth for ever,' that is, shall 
never be accomplished, but shall always be a-doing, and never ended, and 
BO, we never be the better, nor the nearer having our bonds cancelled. 
And this is the reason why sacrifices were rejected, even because every year 
they were still forced to offer them : Heb. x. 1-4, ' For the law having a 
shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can 
never with those sacrifices, which they offered year by year continually, 
make the comers thereunto perfect : ver. 2, * For then would they not have 
ceased to be offered ? because that the worshippers once purged should have 
no more conscience of sins ; ' ver. 3, ' But in those sacrifices there is a 
remembrance again made of sins every year ; ' ver. 4, ' For it is not pos- 
sible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins.' And, 
Ter. 11, it is said, that ' they stood daily offering the same sacrifices.' 


2dly.. Suppose yet farther, that God, to whom eternity is but as one in- 
stant, should give us in our bond, when the other had entered in his, because 
though it be to eternity a-paying, yet to him it were as good as paid in 
hand presently. Suppose this, yet notwithstanding, one just man or angel 
could satisfy but for one of us. Life could go but for life, and ' a tooth 
for a tooth,' as the law runs ; and so he must sacrifice as many creatures 
as good as we are for ever, as he meant to save of us men. That one 
creature's obedience would not, as Adam's righteousness, have extended to 
many, for that was a favour, but this a debt. And we cannot pay many 
bonds with one sum which is due for one ; for every one is a distinct debt 
and obligation. 

3dly. If we gi-ant all this, yet what creature would have had so much 
love in it towards us as willingly to sacrifice itself for us ? "Which it must 
fully do, or else it cannot be satisfaction ; for satisfactio est redditio volun- 
taria, says the school. The apostle, Rom. v. 7, says, that * peradventure 
for a good man some would dare to die.' Mark it, he makes a peradventure 
of it, and it must be for ' a good man ;' that is, one profitable to him, as 
they expound it ; and seeing death is poCsgwi' tpoQi^urarov, he must be very 
hardy and daring that would do it. i3ut to encounter God's wrath, who 
dares do it? Jer. xxx. 21, ' And their nobles shall be of themselves, and 
their governor shall proceed from the midst of them ; and I will cause him 
to draw near, and he shall approach unto me : for who is this that engaged 
his heart to approach unto me ? saith the Lord.' The prophet there making 
a promise of Christ to be a mediator, and one that should be able to draw 
nigh to God, he gives this reason, ' For who is there that engageth his 
heart to draw nigh to me ?' As if he had said, none else durst have stepped 
in, to encounter me for you ; especially, not for enemies both to God and 
themselves. There is need of a mediator to reconcile us and the angels, 
as that place in the Eph. i. 10 may seem to imply, where the apostle says, 
that ' God made known unto us the mysteiy of his will, that he might gather 
together in one all things in Christ, which are in heaven and earth :' 
making us, as friends to himself, so one to another ; and if so, then ante- 
cedently, they could not be the reconcilers. And further, the holier they 
were, the less must they needs love us ; and so not of themselves would they 
ever undertake such work for us. 

4thly. Suppose yet fui'ther, that any had so much love, or would have 
been so hardy to venture, as with Paul to wish they may be accursed ; yet 
if they were in hell but half an horn-, they would repent themselves, and 
wish themselves out again, and so it had been spoiled for ever being satis- 
faction, which must throughout be voluntary, as our disobedience was. And 
therefore God would not trust to their help in so weighty a business, wherein 
his own will was so engaged. It is said in Job iv. 18, ' Behold he puts no 
trust in his servants.' Which though he might in ordinary works of 
obedience, yet he will never rely on them for so gi-eat a matter. He finds 
folly even in the angels, they are mutable. He trusted one man once for 
all, only in matter of obedience to his law, which was easy and sweet to 
him ; but see how he failed and left all, and that upon no great or strong 
temptation. He therefore will never hazard the second Adam to be a mere 
creature in a matter of punishment, which that he may be willing to undergo, 
he must be fed with some dehght or hopes of ease. No ; he will make sm'e 
work now. 

5thly and lastly. Suppose any creature had been so full of excellency, as 
that the sufierings of it alone could have been satisfactory for all that God 

Chap. V.] of christ thk mediator. 91 

meant to save, and according to the supposition formerly made, that he 
ha-s-ing more grace than all mankind, and so, being made heir to more glory 
than all mankind besides, would have been content to lay all aside, and to 
have subjected himself for ever to undergo all our punishments ; yet con- 
sidering all this must have been done by him, in obedience unto God, and 
for his sake (for otherwise it could not have been accepted, in that satis- 
faction for another must be voluntary on both parts, both on his that under- 
takes it, and also by the consent and acceptation of him that is wronged), 
if the case had thus stood, then this inconvenience would have followed, 
that a creature should have been obedient unto God, yea, and performed 
the highest obedience unto God, whom yet God never should have had an 
opportunity to reward, because he was to be in hell for ever. And God will 
never be so behind-hand with any creatm-e that shall do him service, much 
more so great a service as this would be. 


That no creatures could make that satisfaction which an injured God required.- 
They cannot compensate the ivrong done to him by sin, nor repair the loss 
of his honour. 

We have seen what satisfaction the law requires, and how far the crea- 
ture would fall short of that. Let us, secondly, now see what satisfaction 
God requires. And although re ipsa, in the thing itself, it comes all to one 
to satisfy God and to satisfy his law, and both these heads be really coin- 
cident, yet our understandings may take a distinct consideration from each, 
which win serve the better to clear this point. 

Now to make way for the demonstrations I inteni, let us define in gene- 
ral what satisfaction is, and wherein it is to be made. 

Satisfaction in general is, when so much clear emolument ariseth to the 
party wronged, as was impaired by the trespass committed. Now all such 
damages to be repaired do usually consist either in goods or honour ; and 
satisfaction for goods is usually called restitution, but satisfaction for honom* 
is it which is more properly called satisfaction. 

Now we may consider a wi'ong done to God both these ways, and an 
answerable satisfaction requisite. 

First, For that of goods ; though it be a thing which God doth not much 
reckon, yet something is considerable about it ; and therefore the prodigal's 
wild com'se is expressed and aggi'avated by this, that he spent his father's 
* goods and substance in riotous living,' Luke xv. 13. Therefore also God 
compares himself to a householder, who commits goods and talents unto 
his servants, to be by them improved. Mat. xxv. 14, and who, when he 
reckons with them, doth count up their waste and expense thereof upon 
their lusts ; and therefore they are said to * consume them upon their 
lusts,' James iv. 3, that is, so to engi'oss them to themselves, and as it 
were consume them, that God gets nothing by the things which he hath 
made. By reason of sin he hath no profit by those creatures which sin- 
ners have committed to them, and the world becomes loss unto him. 
And though God stands not much upon this (as neither vdU. I stand long 
upon the handling of it), yet this much is soon demonstrated, that no 
creatures were ever able to make satisfaction for losses of this kind : they 


are not able (as Esther said in another case) to make good, or ' countervail 
the king's loss,' Est. vii. 4. 

Now, to instance in some particulars : 

1. Sin b}^ a forfeiture had quite destroyed this world, if Christ had not 
upheld it. And can all the graces in the creatui'es make another, or up- 
hold this from falling ? Surely no. 

2. It blotted grace out of the heart of man ; and can the power of all the 
creatures make one dram of grace ? Yea, could we so much as have lighted 
our candles, that were blown out, at their tapers ? Surely no. 

3. By sinners the law was destroyed also : Ps. cxix. 126, ' They have 
destroyed thy law.' Now, if you would set a price upon the law, one tittle 
of it is more worth than heaven and earth. 

4. Through sin was much service due unto God lost. For that we may 
reckon amongst goods, as a master doth the service of an apprentice. Al- 
though all sinners should presently cease to offend God any more, yet still 
God hath lost so much service from them for the time past. Now all mere 
creatures being God's servants, and owing all their endeavours and services 
unto him for themselves, no one of them therefore can do two men's work, 
because they owe all they can do for themselves, and so they can never 
repay that loss of service past. God did hire mankind into his vineyard 
for all eternity ; and though we could suppose they had not committed any 
positive sin, yet if God had but only lost so much service from them, and 
the sin of that neglect had annihilated them (and it doth as good as anni- 
hilate them to God, and therefore he accounts and calls them lost ; as the 

• lost sheep,' the * lost son,' &c.), and then, if God had come to have 
entered into terms with any mere creature for these losses, and should have 
said. Give me but the creatures you have spoiled, make me a new world, 
for your sin hath spoiled this, and ' subjected it to vanity i' had any of 
them power to have done it ? Surely no. When God would confute Job's 
contending with him, he doth but ask him, whether he could make the 
least creature, yea, or being made, command it: 'Thou!' (says God) 
' where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth ?' Job xxx\dii. 4. 

* Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days, or caused the day- 
spring to know its place ?' ver. 12. ' Out of whose womb came the ice ?' 
ver. 29.' ' Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds' (and bid them rain), 
' that abundance of waters may cover thee ? Canst thou send lightnings 
that may go, and say unto thee. Here we are ?' ver. 34, 85. And though 
thou canst do none of all this, yet dost thou contend with me ? * Let me 
see' (says God) ' what thou canst do,' Job xl. 7, 8, 9. If thou couldst 
make or command the least creature, then ' I will confess to thee that thine 
own right hand can save thee,' ver. 14. Can all the angels in heaven (as 
powerful as they are) make one hair of thy head ? Can they set ordinances 
in heaven ? Job xxxviii. 33. The philosophers feigned them to be but the 
movers of those wheels and orbs, not the founders of them. They cannot 
set the clock, much less make it. And can they make grace, or can they 
make the law whole again, which sin had broken ? 

But the truth is, that herein God expected not, nor is he capable of any 
satisfaction or restitution of goods, for * none can be profitable to him,' 
Job xxii. 2, 3. When that formahst thought to oblige God by sacrifices ; 
' If I were hungry' (says God), ' would I tell it thee ?' Ps. 1. 12. ' The 
world is God's, and the fulness thereof,' says the apostle, 1 Cor. x. 26. 
And again, ' Who hath given to him, and he shall be recompensed ?' Eom. 
xi. 35. No ; it is glory only that the creature is capable to give him. So 

Chap. V.] of christ the mediator. 93 

it follows there in Ps. 1. 15, ' Thou shalt glorify mo.' God is not as a 
king, whose tribute lies as well in goods as in honour ; but all the tribute he 
expecteth or exacteth from the creature consists in honour, for that is the 
end of all his works. He made all things for his glory ; ' I formed it,' 
says he in the prophet, ' for my glory,' Isa. xliii. 7. ' Of whom, and to 
whom, are all things, to whom be glory for ever,' says the apostle, Rom. 
xi. 36. And . herein also, though it be most true that the creature can 
contribute nothing to God's essential glory, yet to his manifcstative glory 
it may, and doth ; at least the creature may take from it, as by sin it doth. 
And the reason is, because this kind of glory is revealed in and by 
creatures. Now it is in this that God expects satisfaction, and that this 
satisfaction in point of honour does much more infinitely transcend the 
power of any creature, is the thing which I am now to demonstrate. 

Let us therefore in like manner come to the particulars wherein God's 
honour sufters by sin, and shew how irrecompensable the injury therein is 
by creatures. 

1. If it were no more than to satisfy for that tribute of honour left 
behind-hand unpaid, for the neglect of that homage due to God, and which 
is to come in by our service of him, what a quarrel must it needs breed, 
not to be composed or taken up by any creatm'e ! You know, kings that 
have homage due to them from other kings, their equals, though the 
tribute itself, or thing to be paid, be small, yet if it be neglected, what 
wars and stirs hath it bred, merely because it is a matter of honour 
neglected ! Hence also the neglect of paying a small acknowledgment 
(suppose a pepper-corn, or the like), or of doing some petty service yearly, 
do ofttimes forfeit great estates, because they are acknowledgments of 
honour to the lord of whom the tenants hold ; and so being omitted, they 
are neglects of an honour that is due. Now, the like slight being offered 
towards God, how great a wrong doth he account it ; if no more, yet be- 
cause there is a neglect of his honour in it ! If indeed the terms of our 
service between God and us did stand upon free mutual conditions of bar- 
gain, as when fi'eemen are hired, and work only for wages, who if they 
neglect a day's work, it is but calling in so much of their wages, and they 
are even again with him that hired them ; if it were thus between God and 
us, the matter were easier to be reconciled ; but it carries a dishonour with 
it, such as ■ are those neglects of service to a great prince, which service is 
not due by any bargain for wages, but out of subjection, or as to a lord 
by way of knight-service, not out of love only and liberty, but out of re- 
spect and homage. God is desirous of nothing but honour from you, and 
all the honour the creatm-es can give him is too little for him ; it satisfies 
not, neither answers to his vast desires of being glorified, nor to the dues 
of his most glorious excellency. And therefore if any be behind-hand un- 
paid by any of his creatures, it is a loss by creatures irreparable, for they 
render no overplus to make it up, and he cannot but account it so much 
loss to him ; and should they now do what they can, still God would want 
of his due. 

2. Satisfaction is to be made for honour debased also ; for sin casts a 
soil of disgrace and debasement upon the honour which God hath, and 
goes about to despoil and rob him of it. It is said, Rom. ii. 23, ' In 
breaking the law thou dishonourest God ; ' there is a dishonour cast upon 
him by it, yea, it toucheth upon the height of his honom* ; which will 

(1.) In that every law of his is backed with his prerogative, and is a 


note of his absolute sovereignty ; James iv. 12, 'There is one lawgiver, 
who is able to save and to destroy ; ' that is, he is the supreme potentate 
of all the world, the absolute Lord paramount ; and this is shewn and 
declared in giving his law, and is therefore answerably denied by the crea- 
ture in every breach of every law, to which every sin is an affront. 

Now, as amongst men, kingly authority being the summity, the supre- 
macy, the transcendency of all honour-, therefore the law hath so fenced it, 
that whatsoever is immediately directed against it, or is a denial of it, is 
rebellion, and crimen Ima majestatk ; and to disgrace a king's personal per- 
fections is not so much, nay, to speak dishonourably of the personal imper- 
fections of a king, dishonom-eth him not so much as to oppose his kingly 
power and dignity ; as to say that kings are not so learned or so vahant as 
many other men, this is not in account so high a dishonour to them, be- 
cause it toucheth not upon their sovereignty and princely dignity, for they 
may notwithstanding be acknowledged and obeyed as kings. But whatever 
tends to impair and blemish that their prerogative and dignity, is held to 
be the height of dishonour, as kingly authority is the sublimity and top of 
honour. So now in breaking the least law of God, we do deny the sove- 
reignty and kingly authority of God. To despise any of God's works, and 
slight them, is a dishonour to the Maker, as Solomon says ; but to slight 
his law is more, because that his transcendent excellency and kingly autho- 
rity is thus engaged in it. Some of the schoolmen fondly reason to diminish 
and lessen the heinousness of sin, sajdng that all the evil of sin lying simply 
in this, that it is the breach of God's law, therefore it is not properly an 
injury to God, no otherwise than as a thing contrary to his will; as when 
a master commands a servant to do a thing, and he doth the contrary, and 
so, though indeed he displeaseth his master thereby (as doing a thing con- 
trary to his command), j-et, say they, it is no injury. But they do not 
consider that not only God's will is engaged in his law, but also his 
supreme authority, the law being made by his prerogative, and by the 
same prerogative backed and commanded. Kings indeed, in their laws, do 
not lay all the weight of their authority upon every law, but God doth. 
And therefore every sin is not only a transgression of his will, but a debase- 
ment of the sovereignty of his will. Hence in the promulgation of God's 
laws there runs this preface, ' I am the Lord thy God ; ' therefore do this, 
Exod. XX. 1. So that his sovereignty is slighted in every sin, and in it 
there is a contempt of his crown and dignity. 

Sin is not only a dishonour to him simply as he is a supreme lawgiver, 
but unto all his other personal glorious perfections. Every contempt of the 
authority of a prince reflects not upon his personal virtues, but sin reflects 
upon all God's excellencies; as upon his goodness, &c., for men seek that 
happiness and goodness in the creature which is to be had in God alone, 
and so profess him not to be the chiefest good. There is no attribute upon 
which a disgrace is not cast by the sins of men ; yea, and therefore they 
tend to make him no God: Titus i. IG, 'In their works they deny God.' 
Traitors may aim to unking a prince, and to that end rebel against him, 
and yet their treason not reach unto his life. But God's sovereignty, and 
perfection, and glory are himself, and his life, the least detraction from 
which is to destroy the whole ; for qnicquhl est in Deo Dem est, whatever is 
in God is God himself. It is true indeed that in the event those hurt not 
God, no more than snow-balls thrown against the sun can hurt it. God 
dwells in light which darkness cannot approach or touch. Sin hurts him 
no more than grace benefits him. But yet injuries and dishonour's are not 

Chap. V.] of christ the mediator. 95 

measured iu morality by the event only, but by what is the terminus, the 
thin^ they tend to ; which is to un-God the great God, and despoil him of 
all his titles. To resolve to kill a king is accounted treason, as well as to 
do it, and so punished for such ; therefore Solomon did put Adonijah to 
death. Even as he who hates his brother is counted a murderer, 1 John 
iii. 15, so he who hates God is a murderer of God. Now, every sinner is 
said to hate God, Rom. i. 30, peccatum est Deicidiinn. It is trae that 
physically sin is but piivatio honifiniti, of that good which we might have 
iu God, not haul ui/iiuti, or Dei, not the privation of God as in himself, 
but as he is to be participated by us. Yet as the astronomers call the 
interposition of the moon between the earth and the sun the eclipse of the 
sun, though the sun doth really lose no light by it, but only the earth ; 
yet because it makes the face of the world below to be as if there were no 
sun, it is therefore commonly called the eclipse of the sun, and not of the 
earth ; so may it be said of sin. It is in the guilt of it a privation of God, 
and of his glory, and of his law ; because, though indeed and in truth we 
onl}' are the losers, yet it makes to us as if there were no God, as if God 
had no being ; and so it may be said to be the eclipse of his being, viz., 
to us. Therefore men are said to 'live without God in the world,' Eph. 
ii. 12, and without the law, 1 Tim. i. 9 ; and to be ' deprived of the glory 
of God,' as being not manifested in them nor by them, Rom. iii. 23. 
Now, if it be so that the sinfulness of sin thus lies in so great a dishonour 
to so great a God, what satisfaction can then be made for the demerit of 
it by all the creatures "? For in this respect it transcends in evil, and out- 
weighs all the goodness that is either in the persons or graces of all the 
creatures. Indeed it is true, if we take sin physically, as it is a privation 
of the contrary habit of grace and of oui- good only, that then it hath no 
more evil in it than gi-ace hath goodness ; for as sin separates from God — 
' Your iniquities have separated you from me,' Isa. lix. 2 — so grace draws 
the soul neai'er to God, and so makes a man as happy as sin makes him 
miserable : ' To draw near to thee is good,' says the psalmist, Ps. kxiii. 
28. But this is not that special evil in sin for which satisfaction is re- 
quired, as neither is it the chief matter of our repentance for sin ; for no 
man satisfies for an evil done to himself, neither is it sin's having so much 
evil in it against us that hinders a mere creature from satisfying ; which 
notwithstanding was that that misled some of the ancient schoolmen, who 
upon that ground thought a pure creature might satisfy for sin ; all their 
reasons ninning upon the evil of sin as a privation of gi-ace, and of God to 
us only, and as he is oui- good ; not considering that over and above it is 
an evil against God himself: Jer. ii. 19, 'It is an %vil and a bitter thing 
to forsake God.' And sin is accordingly called ' enmity against God,' 
Rom. viii. 7, and ' a provoking the eyes of his glory,' Isa. iii. 8. It is 
likewise said to be against him : so says David, Ps. Ii. 4, ' Against thee, 
thee only have I sinned.' He looked not so much at the wrong to Bath- 
sheba and Uriah, as at the dishonom* done to God ; and this is the eminent 
evil to be considered in sin ; for as God is the chiefest good, so himself is 
the measm-e of aU other good and evil. Now, then, the evil of sin lying 
thus in so great a dishonour unto God himself, no creature can make 
amends for it. For, 

1. Dishonom', which reflects upon a person of worth, cannot be satisfied 
for but by a person equally worthy and honourable ; for the satisfaction 
must be made by restoiing of honour again, and that will depend upon the 
honour and worth of the party honouring. The restoring of honom- is to 


be measured by the same rule, and weighed at the same balance, that the 
honour of the person dishonoured is measure by. As, therefore, honour is 
in itself a personal thing, so the repairing of it again depends upon the 
personal -worth of him that goes about to repair it. Were vfe and God 
equal, so as there were as much worth in us to honour him withal, as our 
dishonouring of him comes unto, then indeed, if we went about some way 
to restore again that honom* that was impau'ed by us, we might perhaps 
satisfy for it. And yet the law is so tender of dishonour, that in case of 
defamation it is not enough for a person equally honourable to submit, and 
to say as much for a man as he hath said against him ; that is accounted* 
satisfaction ; but the law enjoins a penalty besides. But however, the re- 
storing of honour being a thing personal, doth therefore depend upon the 
honour of that person who is to restore it ; for ho7ior est in honorante, 
honour is in him that honoui's ; the meaning of which saying may weU be 
this, that honour depends upon the worth of the party honouring. There- 
fore we see that honour fi'om a mean peasant is not esteemed or accounted 
of by one that is highly noble. And hence it is, that wrongs in point of 
honour offered by inferiors to superiors do oftentimes transcend satisfac- 
tion. It is not so in goods ; a poor man may satisfy a king in goods, in 
case he be able to restore, as well as another. And the demonstration of 
of this is, that the best way of satisfaction to be made by such inferiors 
being to submit themselves, and that submision being a due fi'om them 
already, and no more than the distance of their ranks calls for, it therefore 
reacheth not to satisfaction. And thus it is in common esteem, and that 
founded upon what is in the things themselves, and not upon common 
opinion only. And therefore it is evident, that though the creature 3 should 
do that which might bring in as much gloiy to God as was lost, yet, because 
of the distance and disproportion that is between the persons, it would never 
satisfy. The aggi-avation of a dishonom* ariseth not so much fifom the fact 
as fi'om the disproportion between the persons ; for honour is not inter res, 
but personas, it concerns not things, but persons. To strike, or offer 
to strike at a magistrate (though we hurt him not), the heinousness of the 
fault lies not so much in the fact, as in the disproportion between the 
persons. Therefore though in the old law ' a tooth for a tooth ' was satis- 
faction enough between private men, yet not so in case of hurting a magis- 
trate, or stiiking a man's parent, which was death by that law, because of 
the dishonom* done to them thereby. So upon the same ground, for a mad 
man to strike the king is death by our laws, not in respect of the fact or of his 
intention, but in regard of the transcendent honour of the person of a king, 
and the disproportion tnd inferiority that'^is in him that strikes him. Now the 
disproportion between God and us is so infinite, that it makes our sinning a 
dishonour altioris ordinis, of a higher kind than is recompensable by creatures. 
And to enlarge this demonstration further. If no creatm-e can make unto 
God a reparation of goods (as was shewn), then much less can it make 
satisfaction for his glory impaired. For goods are extrinsccal to a man's 
person, and therefore the loss of them a man less regards ; yea, the greater 
spirit a man is of the less he cares for goods ; and indeed the wrong therein 
becometh less ; even as to wrong a poor man in his goods is worse (because 
of his need) than to wrong a rich man ; bnt the gi'eater any one is in spirit the 
more he regards honour, and that far above his goods. Men wiU lose their 
blood rather than suffer a hair of honour to perish ; which disposition, 
though it be often set wrong in men, yet it is a spark of God's image, and a 
* Qu. ' is not accounted ' '? — Ed. 

Chap. V.] op christ the mediator. 97 

resemblance of what is in him. God can bear the loss of creatures and 
worlds, and never be touched with it ; but he will not lose one ray of 
honour. For glory is a personal thing : it is the lustre of his person which 
he carries and wears about him ; and it is intrinsecal to him, which goods 
are not ; and therefore God is willing to lose creatures, thereby to gain the 
more gloiy. So he casts away the most of men and angels for his own 
glory. ' My glory,' says God ' I will not give to another,' Isa. xlii. 8. But 
his goods he doth : ' He gave the earth and all the fulness thereof unto the 
sons of men,' Ps. cxv. 16. He gives worlds and kingdoms away even to 
the basest of men (says Daniel, Dan. iv. 17), but he will part with none of 
his glory, that is proper to himself, unto any of them. Of all the goods he 
possesseth, his children are the dearest unto him ; he ' gives nations for 
them,' Isa. sli. 2, and once he gave his Son for them ; they are ' the apple 
of his eye;' and he that toucheth them, toucheth the apple of his eye. 
But his glory is dearer to him than all his children, for ' he formed them 
for his glory,' as the same prophet there also says, Isa. xliii. 7. How hard 
is it to pacify jealousy when a man's spouse is deflowered : ' It is the rage 
of a man, and he wdll not regard any ransom,' as Solomon says, Prov. vi. 
34, 35. How hard then must it needs be to pacify God, who is said to be 
jealous of nothing but his honour ? 

Again, 2. Though it be but the manifestation of God's glory, which hath 
a soil and a reflection cast upon it by sin, not his essential gloiy (which 
loseth nothing by sin, as it gains not, nor is increased by all the works that 
Christ or God himself hath done), yet not all that the creatures can do is worth 
the least beam of that his glory as it is to be manifested. For that is the 
end for which they were all made, and is therefore better than they. And 
besides, all they can do to the advancing of it they do owe it already ; and 
God stands not in need of them to manifest it ; he could have let them re- 
main in the womb of nothing, and have raised up others to glorify him. 

3. In that sin strikes at God's being, what is there in the creatures that 
can make amends for it, they being but shadows of his being, and he the 
substance, whose name alone is / am ? The over- shadowing, therefore, of 
the eclipse of his being is more than the destruction of ours. 

Obj. Yea, but you will object, and say that the grace of a mere creature 
may seem to vie with all the evil that is in sin, and this in point of honour. 
For as sin is against God, so grace, though but in an impure creatm-e, can 
say, ' I am for God ; ' and as sin sets up another god, so this grace glorifies 
God as God. Now God being the object of both, why should they not 
alike set a worth or a demerit upon what is done, and God accept of grace, 
which is for him, as much as condemn and punish sin, the aggravation of 
the sinfulness of which is, that it is against him ? 

A71S. For answers unto this : 

1. Though it be true that sin hurts him no more than grace benefits him 
(in that God is capable neither of benefit nor hurt) ; even as clouds take no 
more from the sun than candles add to it ; and therefore in Job xxxv. 6, 7, 
it is said, ' What dost thou to him if thou beest righteous, or against him 
if thou sinnest ? ' For nothing is opposed to God immediately, but only to 
him in his works. As no darkness can obscure the sun itself, though his 
beams it may intercept, so sin may dim the manifestative glory of the 
Father of lights. Yet as we measure not kindnesses or injuries by the event, 
but by what they are in the acts themselves (as treason is not punished 
according to the event, but according to the nature of the act plotted or 
purposed), so are we to do by sin. 

VOL. V. Oc 


And, 2. If we compare the ingi'edient qualifications considerable in the 
one, and in the other, as the one is an injury and the other an act of obe- 
dience, we shall find a great disproportion between them. For, 

(1.) If an injury is accounted more e\i\ and blameworthy than all kind- 
nesses praiseworthy and to be accepted, then when the injury is an undue 
act of us, unworthy of all the obligations between us and another whom we 
wrong, when it is causeless, and when the kindnesses we do are all due 
from us, herein Ues the disproportion which makes the obliquity of the 
injury of sin the more transcendent. All the obedience we perform is due 
fi'om us to God : ' You do,' says Christ, ' what you ought to do,' Luke 
svii. 10. But in this (as Christ again says), ' we hate God without a cause,' 
John XV. 24, 25. And ' what iniquity have you found in me,' says he, 
' and for which of all my perfections or kindnesses to you, do you sin against 
me ? ' John x. 32. Now it is this inequality that lies between the one and 
the other, that makes the obliquity of the one to exceed the goodness of the 
other. As for examjjle : for a child to love his father, though it be good 
and commendable, yet in so doing he doth but his duty, and even what 
nature teacheth to do ; therefore this is not so praiseworthy, as to hate his 
father is odious, for he therein goes against his kind, there is an unnatural- 
ness in it ; and, therefore, we see that one such act does more discommend 
one to men, than all former acts of dutiful and loving obedience do or can 
commend him. The being due does diminish of the praise and commenda- 
tion of what is good : ' If you love those that love you ' (says Christ, Luke 
vi. 88, 34), 'what thanks have you ? ' No reward attends such a love, 
although it be good, because it is a due and suitable act ; but ' love your 
enemies,' says he, unto whom (in regard of any obligation to them) nothing 
is due, and ' then your reward shall be great ; ' this is praiseworthy indeed. 
I may tmn this speech and say, that to obey God, and love him, and exalt 
him as God, though it be good, yet what is it but what is due from you, 
and that which all obligations tie you to ? ' "What does God require of 
thee, man,' says Moses, 'but to love and fear him?' Deut. x. 12. He 
requires but what is reasonable and due. Now to do all this is not thank- 
worthy, for if you knew him, you could not choose but love him ; but to be 
rebellious to him, to be an enemy to one so good and so glorious, and one 
lAiio whom you are so much beholden, this is unsufferable. 

(2.) As in regard of the undueness of the act, as from us to God, there 
is a gi'eater obliquity in sin than goodness in grace, so in regard of God 
also. Though the act of a creature obeying God doth intend glory to him, 
as much as a sinner doth intend dishonour to him, yet the sin is more, and 
that in regard of him who is the object of both. For, 

[1.] All the honour which we can give God is but his due already. We 
do but attribute that to him which is his own already, and that independ- 
ently without us. What do we in being holy and obedient ? We exalt him 
as God ; why, he is God already, whether we exalt him or no, yen, what 
we can do this way falls short of that which is his due in himself, for, Nehem. 
ix. 5, ' He is above all blessings and praises.' But the very formalis ratio 
of sinning against him, is to set up another god, and so to attribute that to 
him which is not, or that which is below him, that is thereby to affix a new 
title of disgi'ace upon him, utterly unworthy of him. As for the eye to call 
the light beautiful and glorious, and to admire it, what is it but only to 
speak that of it which it is akeady ? But for the eye to call light darkness, 
this is de novo to coin and put a disparagement upon it, and sin is a new 
invention of our own, as Ecclesiastes speaks, Eccl. vii. 29, to dishonour 

Chap, V.j of christ the mediator. 99 

God. Thus unbelief makes God a liar ; and what a wrong is that ? It is 
not recompcnsablo by all our acts of faith iu believing that he is true ; for 
to believe so, is but to declare what is his already ; but the other is the 
invention of a falsehood obtruded upon him by men. For one to speak 
truth is but little or no commendation, for a man speaks but what is ; but 
to tell a lie, is to invent a new thing that is false, and therefore how odious 
and shameful is it. Now, every sin is a lie concerning God, * changing tha 
truth of God into a he,' Rom. i. 25. It declares that of God which is not. 
And to be the inventor of new gods, or of false things of God, what an evil 
is it ? Again, to love God and honour him, is a thing duo to his name — 
' Give him the praise due to his name,' Ps. xxix. 2 — and his excellency chal- 
lengeth it. Now to love goodness, what is it ! So to love God ; but what 
an incongruity is it to hate goodness ? For subjects to honour their king, 
whose title and prerogative is independent upon them, is not so much to 
him, as it is a dishonour for one man to disparage his title, and to go about 
the setting up of another king. Now God's glory is in and from himself , 
and therefore he hath reason to account it more dishonour to him, that one 
man should rebel, than honour to him, that all should obey him. When I 
honour him, his honour ariseth from himself, not me ; as the gloiy of the 
sun shining in the water is not from the water, but from the sun. So 
when we reflect glory on God, that glory ariseth not out of what we do, 
but is in himself already. But the dishonour of him is wholly in us. We 
are the sole inventors of it, and there is no such thing extant, except in a 
sinner's heart. 

[2.] Add to this, that all the grace wherewith we glorify God is not a 
man's own, but sin is wholly his own ; so John viii. 44, when he sins, he 
sins sx rou lliov, from his own ; and so in Jude 16, their lusts are called 
their own ; and, Eccl. vii. 29, they are said to be our inventions. 

Again, [3.] If the compass and measure be taken of that dishonour which 
sin tends unto, there will be found a wider distance between the two terms 
of its reach, than there is of the honour that the creature can give to God, 
or than it doth extend itself unto. For the measure and compass of the 
dishonour is plainly this, to make the great God no God ; these are the 
terms the least sin stretcheth itself unto, in the scope and tendency of the 
act, though not in the event, nor in the intention of the sinner. But when 
the creatures glorify God, though they should ' glorify him as God,' as far 
as the creatures can do it, yet if you take the measure of the utmost eleva- 
tion of his glory by them, there still remains an infinite distance between 
the honom' which they aim to give him, and what is in himself, so that it 
falls so far short, that it is infinite goodness in God to accept it. 

As the conclusion therefore of this answer, and closure of this discourse, 
I will super-add these few demonstrations drawn from the effects, to shew 
clearly, and confirm this, that the least sin transcends in evil the worth of 
all created graces, which puts all out of question, and makes the whole 
demonstration undeniable ; for satisfaction being reductio ad aqualia, a 
reducing of things to an equality, therefore if all their graces cannot make 
so much goodness as shall counterbalance the evil of sin, it is impossible they 
should ever satisfy. Now that they do not, appears by these demonstrations. 

First, One sin, when it is committed by the best of creatures, prevails 
more with God to condemn him, than all his righteousness to justify him. 
If one of the angels did never so much, so great, so long service, yet if, 
after millions of years, he sinned in the least, all the forepast service would 
be forgotten. As a favourite that hath done much service at com-t, or iu 


the wars ; if, after all, lie should be found guilty of one treason, that one 
act would put a blot upon all his former services, and render them nothing- 
worth. If a man doth not all things, yea (more than that) ' continues not 
in all things,' he is accursed, Gal. iii. 10. Now if sin were not more evil 
in God's judgment (whose judgment is righteous) than all obedience is 
good, then this could not be. It is not as the pharisees dreamed, that men 
should be justified, if their good works were more than their sins ; as if 
their good works being weighed, and found exceeding the other in number, 
they should therefore carry it ; no, a world of good works will be found too 
light for the least dram of sin. 

Secondly, The demerit of sin is more than the merit of goodness can be, 
for that the evil that is in sin does truly deserve death ; not only in relation 
to, or by virtue of, a penal law arbitrarily given, or out of a voluntaiy com- 
pact and agreement between God and the creature, but in its own nature. 
That threatening, * Thou shalt die the death,' is not added ex compacto only, 
neither depends it merely upon an outward declaration of God's will, but 
further, sin is such an evil as, in the nature of the thing, deserves death, 
and that immutably. Therefore that oi/ialu/j^a rou &sov, that judgment of 
God written in all men's hearts, says that ' they who do such things are 
worthy of death,' Rom. i. 32 ; and so also Rom. vi. 23, ' The wages of sin 
is death.' But if you put all the grace in the world together, it cannot 
merit at God's hands his favour. God may out of his bounty oblige him- 
self by a promise to reward it, but it is not out of the worth of the thing. 
So it follows there, in that Rom. vi. 23, ' The gift of God is eternal life ;' 
you see what an apparent difierence the apostle puts between the one and 
the other. In like manner, Luke xvii. 10, it is said, ' When you have 
done all,' if you could suppose you had done all, yet ' you are unprofitable 
servants :' for God's right over us is founded upon his excellence ; and 
accordingly, om* obligation to serve God is not from his benefits only, but 
from a due unto his own excellencies. And therefore, although there were 
no reward for our service, yet service were due from us. So says Aristotle : 
If any man transcendently excel all others, that man is to be king over 
them, and they are bound to serve him. Yea, and therefore the privilege 
to justify a man is separable from our graces (as in men sanctified by the 
gospel), but so is not condemnation from sin. And therefore, although sin 
in the godly redounds not in the event to the persons, to condemn them, 
by reason of Christ's righteousness imputed, yet all that righteousness 
makes not but that sin in its own nature deserves death ; and so they are 
to judge themselves for it, as worthy to be destroyed. But all the gi'ace 
that is in them doth not only not justify them ipso facto ; but it hath wholly 
and for ever lost that privilege. Which argues that it is not seated in the 
nature of grace to justify, as to demerit death is seated in the nature of sin : 
for then, though the effect might be retained, yet that property would be 
inseparable from it. 

And Thirdhj, That the strength of sin was gi-eater than that of grace, ap- 
pears by this also, that it is able to expel grace out of the heart, as it did 
out of Adam's ; but all the grace of all the creatures could not restore it. 

Fourthlij, It is counted more mercy to pardon one sinner, than goodness 
to reward and save all the angels. More riches are attributed even to God's 
mercy and patience towards wicked men, than to his simple goodness to- 
wards other creatm'es innocent, though never so holy. 

Chap. VI.] of chbist the medutob. 101 


Tluxi Christ hath made full reparation of all which uas lost by sin. — The glory 
of the law, which sin had darkened, is by him perfectly recovered. — And 
God's image, tdiich sin had defaced in man, is more fully restored in him. 

We have seen the power of all the creatures set up, and at a loss as to 
this, the greatest and most difficult business that ever was set on foot, viz., 
the taking away of sins. Let us now come to lay open that fulness that is 
in Christ for this work ; before which all these difficulties that have been 
put, and all our sins likewise, will vanish and melt away, as clouds before 
the sun. A fulness it ia that answers to every defect, and to every parti- 
cular objection made. I will begin with that satisfaction that is to be given 
to God ; for in the wi'ong to him doth the principal knot and difficulty he. 

First, If God should stand upon satisfaction to be made, in point of goods 
(which yet, as I said, he doth not), Christ hath therein abundantly made 
amends. Which although he reckons not as any part of his satisfaction, 
which only consists in his obedient humbling of himself, yet it may be con- 
sidered as part of the surplusage and redundancy of it. Let justice come 
and bring in her bill of damages, and see if Christ hath not abundantly 
given satisfaction for them : as, 

1. Will the complaint be of the loss, spoU, and waste made of the world, 
and of all the creatures therein, and of the unjointing that fi'ame, unto the 
danger of the destruction of it, which no creature is able to repair or to 
uphold ? Then let it withal be remembered that he that had undertook to 
satisfy God had his hand in making this old world, and ' without him it 
had not been made,' John i. 3. It is a consideration that both that evan- 
gelist, and the author to the Hebrews (Heb. i. 2), as likewise the apostle 
to the Colossians (Col. i. 16), do all suggest to this very purpose, thereby 
to shew Chiist's ability to satisfy for sin. And if God would yet further 
desii'e new worlds to be made him for satisfaction, Christ could make enough. 
And it may be further pleaded, that this world (as we see) stands and con- 
tinues still, notwithstanding all the sins committed in it, and that justice 
had destined it to present ruin the first day that man should sin. Now 
whose power is it that upholds it ? Is it not Christ's, whose very word is 
able to underprop it '? So Heb. i. 3, ' Upholding all things by the word of 
his power ;' who with one hand holdeth his Father's hands from destroying 
this world, and with the other upholds it from tottering. Yea, if it were 
no more but this, that he who made the world would vouchsafe to admit 
himself into it, and become a part of it ; and that he whom God did never 
make nor create, but from eternity begat, would be ' made flesh,' and be- 
come a creature and servant (which was an addition to God's goods, and 
worth all that he had made besides), this might make reparation for all 
such damages. And again, at whose expenses are all things here main- 
tained ? Are they not at Christ's ? The Father did as it were deny to lay 
out any more power or patience in upholding the world, till he should be 
paid for it ; and did not Christ undertake this, and at his due time lay 
down a price that fully bought it ? who is therefore called the ' Lord that 
bought,' 2 Pet. ii. 1, as wicked men, so all the world. And that he who 
made the world, and is joint-heir with God, and hath as much right to it as 
he, should, to satisfy him, lay down his right, put himself out of all, and 
then take it up upon a new title, when it was his before, so buying what 


himself made, and what was his own : that he should become poor, even 
not worth the ground he went on when he came into the world, and should 
suffer himself not to be owned (as John speaks), yea, to bo cast out of the 
vineyard, as one that had nothing to do with it ; will not all this make 
amends, will not this poverty rise to great riches ? The apostle Paul tells 
us so. Wherefore this may well make satisfaction to God for goods lost. 

2dly, If justice complain of the law defaced, and as it were abolished by 
sin ; if she plead that through it the righteous law is made void, and of 
none effect, and so bring it in, in this inventory of wasted goods, considered 
only as It is a copy of God's will, an expression of his holiness, an effect of 
his wisdom, and monument of the same, the least iota of which is so pre- 
cious, as not all in heaven and earth can make amends for its loss : — should 
justice make this complaint, then let the reply be, that our Redeemer's head 
was in the making of that law ; and that the hand of him who was the 

* Mighty Counsellor,' did guide the pen that wrote it in Adam's heart at 
first ; and further, that himself is the substantial image of God, and the 
TgojTorwTrov of the law. And besides, when it was lost, and no copy on earth 
to be found, he it was that wrote it in the consciences of men fallen. In 
which sense the apostle John says, that it is he who * enlightens every man 
that comes into the world,' John i. 9. And because that was but an im- 
perfect copy, it was he that further delivered the law, of which David says 
it was perfect : Ps. xix. 7, ' The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the 
soul : the testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple ;' and 
renewed it on Mount Sinai, Gal. iii. 19. And in the fulness of time him- 
self came, and vindicated it from all corrupt glosses in his preaching, ful- 
filled it in his life, and in fulfilling it, writ it out again with his own hands, 
and so set a more perfect copy than ever was extant in the hearts and lives 
of angels. ' I came not to destroy the law,' says he, ' but to fulfil it.' 
Yea, and if all the copies of the law that are in the world were burnt, they 
might be all renewed in his story, insomuch that he is reckoned a new 
founder of it. ' A new commandment' (says the apostle, 1 John ii. 8), 

* write I unto you,' and so the apostle Paul speaks of ' fulfilling the law of 
Christ,' Gal. vi. 2. * Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law 
of Christ.' Yea, and suppose, that that covenant (which is the first story 
and copy of God's will and wisdom) had been utterly lost (like as some of 
Solomon's books were), yet he by his works of mediation makes a new 
story of another wisdom infinitely more glorious, viz., the gospel, whereof 
he is the sole founder, and of whom it is written as being the subject of it, 
the least line of which is worth all the law, so that the angels stand amazed 
at the ' ti-easures of wisdom' that are to be found therein, being deeper than 
ever were revealed in the law. The law, that ' came by Moses, but grace 
and truth came by Jesus Christ,' John i. 17 — a new volume of truths, 
which had not been true, if he by his blood had iiot made them so. 

3dly, Though God's image be lost by sin, yet he is such an image of 
him, as the very sight and beholding of him renews it, and change th men 
into the same image : 2 Cor. iii. 18, ' But we all, with open face beholding 
as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from 
glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.' Yea, the image which he 
renews is a better image than that of Adam's, it is of a higher strain and 
key, and raised by higher motives. 

4thly, As for loss of service, to repair it, ' He took on him the form of a 
servant,' Phil. ii. 7. And such a servant he was, as was not to have been 
hired amongst all the creaturee. They all could not do the work that he 

Chap. VII.j of chbist the mediator. 1U3 

did ; ' The government of tlic whole world is upon his shoulders,' Isa. ix. 6. 
He caseth his Father of it for the present, and when ho hath brought him 
in infinite revenues of glory, ho will at last ' deliver up the kingdom to him,' 
1 Cor. XV. 2-1, with a greater surplusage than else would have been had out 
of tliat begun course of providence taken up at the creation. And if j-ou 
will not reckon that as part of satisfaction, yet consider the service he did 
in the priest's office, wherein God acknowledged him his servant. He des- 
patched more work in those thirty-three years wherein he lived, yea, in 
those three hours wherein he sulfered, than over w^as or will be done by all 
creatures to eternity. It was a good six-days work when the world was 
made ; and he had a principal hand in that, neither hath he been idle since ; 
' I and my Father work hitherto,' says Christ, John v. 17. But that three 
hours' w^ork upon the cross, was more than all the other. Eternity will not 
have more done in it, than virtually was done in those three hours ; so as 
that small space of time was rh vZv (cternUatis. As they say of eternity, that 
it is all time contracted into an instant, so vras all time, past, and to come, 
into those few hom'S, and the merit of them. For he then made work for 
the Spirit, and indeed for all the three persons, unto eternity. He then did 
that which the Spirit is writing out in grace and glory for ever, yea, and 
all that ever was or will be done towards the saints, was then perfected : 
' He perfected for ever them that are sanctified, by that one ofiering :' Heb. 
X. 12, 14, ' But this man, after he had oflered one sacrifice for sins for ever, 
sat down on the right hand of God ;' ver. 14, * For by one offering he hath 
perfected for ever them that are sanctified.' 


That Christ hath repaired the loss of honour which God sustained by sin. — 
Satisfaction injJoint of honour being to be measured by the excellency, dignity, 
and reputation of the person satisfying. — Christ being God-man, in this re- 
spect makes the greatest which could be. 

But the greatest evil of sin lies in the injury by it done unto the honour, 
and sovereign glory, and to the person of God himself, which is the thing 
that makes sin so heinous, that the difficulty of satisfying God herein is 
insuperable by all the creatm'es (as hath been shewed), unto which, not- 
withstanding, we shall see Christ is as much enabled, as we have seen him 
to be unto the former, to make amends for the damage which God sustained. 

Honour (as was said) being a personal thing, and a due resulting out of 
personal perfections, answerably therefore satisfaction therein is fundamen- 
tally to rise out of, and to be measured by, the personal worth, dignity, ex- 
cellency, and reputation of the person who undertakes to satisfy. Where- 
fore, as the foundation of this great demonstration, let us consider briefly 
the personal worth of Ckrist our sm'ety, as from whence all his satisfaction 
receives its force and value, and so we will go on to shew what his person 
hath done to make amends therein ; and then by comparing (as we go along) 
both what he is, and what he hath done to satisfy, with what is in the dis- 
honour done to God by sin (which is the thing to be satisfied for), you wall 
see all the disproportions that have been mentioned and can be thought of, 
to make sin so above measure sinful, exceeded, and wholly overcome. Now 
as a ground-work to this, I will take but that one place ; — 

WIio, being in the form of God, thought it no robbery to be equal with God: 
but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, 


aiid icas made in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion as a man, 
he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of thecivss. 
—Phil. ii. 6-8. 

A place full and adequate to my scope, wherein (you see) the apostle 
argues the efficacy of Chi-ist's merit, and the worth of it, from hence, that 
being equal with God, •\az., in glory (as the opposite to he humbled himself 
shews), he should be humbled ; and that he should humble himself, and be- 
come obedient, &c., and all for the glory of God the Father. Every word 
is weighty, and speaks satisfaction ; and that he, so great a person, for 
greatness of glory equal with God ; for right to glor\^, one that thought it no 
robbery to challenge it ; for the kind of gloiy which was his due, it was not 
accidental, but substantial, ' being in the fonn of God ;' that he should be 
emptied of all, and lay aside that honour, which was due unto him, yea, 
sufl'er all his glory to be debased, and his honour laid in the dust, and him- 
self to be humbled to the gi'eatest and basest of evils, death, and of all deaths 
the most shameful, * the death of the cross,' and not humbled passively 
only, but that he should vohmtarily ' humble himself, and become obedient,' 
and that the object of this subjection should be but actions only, not* himself, 
his person, so as all that he did or suffered reflected on himself, and his 
person was humbled in all ; and all this, to recover God's honour lost, 
it was ' to the glory of God the Father' (as the closure of all hath it) ; surely 
all this (as you will see) must needs make a full amends. 

Now for the clearing of this point and demonstration, whence it is that 
this satisfaction ariseth, I will proceed by degrees, until a full satisfaction 
shall rise up to all your apprehensions, in a way of just reason, as there 
did unto God himself, by that one oblation of Christ himself for us. 

And, first, let us consider the worth of the person, upon which the worth 
of the satisfaction doth depend. And to the manifesting of this, consider 
we first, that Christ had an essential glory, as he is God, which was the 
foundation and groundwork. This I need not insist upon, all knowing it, 
and taking it for granted, though divers interpreters judge it not to be that 
glory which the test doth directhr and in the first place intend, yet to be 
ultimately supposed, as that which is the original gi'ound of all that oriental 
transcendent glory, which as God-man he parted withal, for satisfaction to 
God, And though it be true that this glory of his, as he is merely God, 
cannot be debased or diminished, and so can never properly become the 
matter of satisfaction for sin, but it is another glory, which I shall speak of 
presently, is the matter of it ; j'et this is it that was the cause and rise of 
that God-man's glory, and that doth give the original worth and value to 
all that Christ did or suffered. You shall still find that the Scriptm-e puts 
the efficacy of his actions upon the worth of his person ; for, indeed, it is 
the dignity of the person that dignifies the work. God had respect first to 
Abel, then to his sacrifice, for the sake of Abel. Therefore, in a proportion, 
the more worth and esteem the person is of with God, the more worth the 
actions are. And therefore, as the worth of Christ's person was infinite, 
so must the worth of his actions be. His person raiseth his actions in 
statum sibi similcm, unto a state suitable to himself, as a king doth his 
children to a state answerable to his own. And as the human nature, being 
personally united to the Godhead, is raised unto a transcendent privilege 
by virtue of that union, which no other creatm-e hath, so the actions 
thereof do, by virtue of the Godhead, come to have similem statum, they 
are raised to a proportionable state also. And as the human nature is 
* Qu. ' not actions only, but' ? — Ed. 

Chap. VII.] of ohrist the mediatoe. 105 

sanctified through that union with the divine, with a sanctification beyond 
that of habitual graces (as the schoolmen have rightly observed and de- 
scried), so the actions thereof are deitate perfusa, they have a divinity in 
them. As the human nature of Christ, by reason of its union with tho 
Godhead, hath more worth and dignity communicated to it than is or 
could be in all creatures — * in all things he had tho pre-eminence,' Col, i. 
18 — and therefore when he comes into the world, it was said, • Let all the 
angels worship him,' which honour no creature must have ; so his actions 
and graces are translated into as high a rank of dignity, above the graces 
and actions of creatui-es, and this by his person, even as his very human 
nature is exalted above the rank of all creatures. And this makes his blood 
to be precious blood indeed, in that it is the ' blood of God,' Acts xx. 28. 
The worth of this person being substantial, it doth se totuni tramfundere, it 
trausfuseth, or rather casts its whole worth upon his actions, to the utmost 
of it. And as all the fulness of the Godhead is said to dwell in (Col. ii. 9), 
and to be personally communicated to, the manhood, making it as glorious 
as a creatm'e can possibly by God be made, so the whole person doth cast 
a glorious brightness or lustre, and reflecteth upon the actions he doth in 
that nature all that personal worth that is communicable. And surely this 
will equal the proportion of evil that is in our sins ; for as the oifence was 
against an infinitely glorious God, so the works done to take away the 
ofience were wi-ought by one as infinite. And as the chiefest accent* of the 
offence lies in this, that it was against an infinite majesty, so the greatness 
of the satisfaction made lies in this, that it was performed by the mighty 
God ; which proportion could never have been filled up by any creature 
who was not God, satisfaction in point of honour depending upon the equal 
worth of the person honouring, and the person dishonoured. And though 
the human nature (which is in itself finite) be the j^r'mcipiurn quo, and the 
instrument by which and in which the second person doth all that he doth ; 
and therefore answerably the physical being of those actions is but finite 
in yenere entis, yet all those articles being attributed to the person who is 
princlpiuyn quod, the principle which doth, and unto which all is to be 
ascribed (for adiones stmt suppositorum, actions are attributed to the persons, 
because that is said only to subsist), therefore the moral estimation of them 
is from the worth of the person that performs them. And thus though the 
immediate principle, the human natm-e, be finite, yet the radical principle, 
the person, is infinite. And both natures being one in person, what the 
one is said to do or sufier, the other is said to do and suffer ; and therefore 
his blood is called * the blood of God.' Yet this is not so to be understood 
(nor was it necessary unto satisfaction to God) as if the worth of the actions 
of this person should be as infinite as the person is, essentially and sub- 
stantially ; for Christ's merits could not be infinite, as God's attributes are ; 
but it is enough to satisfaction, that they might be valued such in a moral 
estimation ; for thereby it holds an answerable proportion unto the evil of 
sin. For as the evil of sin is said to be infinite morally only, and in repute, 
and objective, as it is against an infinite person, and not essentially infinite, 
as the object of it is ; so answerably the satisfaction that it requires to be 
made for it, needs not to be essentially and physically infinite (for that were 
impossible), but it is enough if it be, as sin itself is, morally such, and in 
its value such, which then it will arise to be, when the person that per- 
forms it is infinite ; and so this will come to be subjectively infinite, as 
from an infinite person, as sin is objectively infinite, as against an infinite 
• Qu. ' asceut ' ?— Ed. 


God. And such a person is the second person in the Trinity, and such 
therefore is his righteousness, it being the righteousness of him who is God. 

But, sficondh/, although this essential glory of the Godhead gives the worth 
and value to all the actions that Christ did, yet in itself it was not capable 
of being debased, nor he of being emptied of it ; nor could this therefore 
properly become the object matter which should be oifered up to God for 
satisfaction. For as, in our sinning, God's essential glory is not nor 
cannot be injui-ed by us, but it is wronged only in the shine and lustre of 
it, in the putting of itself forth before us creatures, or the manifestations of 
it (wherein though the essential glory of his Godhead is not obscured, but 
the manifestation of it only, yet the injury reflects upon that his essential 
glory, because that was it that was manifested), so in like manner is it in 
Christ's satisfaction. Christ's essential glorj, as he is only God, could of 
itself alone never have satisfied for sin ; for satisfaction in point of honour 
being to be effected by the lessening of glory in the satisfier, to give glory to 
him that is to have satisfaction, thence therefore the essential glory of the 
Godhead (which cannot be impaired of itself), if it remained unmanifested, 
it could never satisfy. But if this second person, putting himself forth to 
be manifested, will suffer himself to be obscured in that glory which is due 
to him when he comes to manifest himself, this indeed wiU come in to be 
fit matter for satisfaction. 

For, thirdhj, if the Godhead of Christ had gone about to manifest itself 
in works only, or such ways as are common to the other persons of the 
Trinity with himself, as by creating of worlds, making of laws, &c., he 
had not by those ways satisfied neither ; because the other persons had had 
as joint an interest in all such kind of manifestations as himself had, and 
the obscui-ement of him in such manifestations had reflected equally upon 
the other two persons as upon himself. Wherefore over and above that 
his essential gloiy, he must have a manifestative glory, an outward, visible 
brightness of glory, and that also such as must become personal, and pro- 
per, and peculiar to him, so as to none of the other persons ; that as it may 
be capable of being obscured, so also that obscurement of it may reflect 
upon his person, and upon it alone. 

Therefore, /o!/r^/i7^, the Son of God, if he make satisfaction for sin, must 
necessarily be supposed fii'st to take, or to have taken on him the nature of 
some reasonable creatui'e, either of mankind or of the angels, into personal 
fellowship with himself; which would be both a peculiar way of manifest- 
ing himself and of his glory not common to the other two persons, and 
would also draw in all his personal excellencies into such an engagement, 
as that, both in the manifestation of himself in that nature assumed, his 
personal glory may be interested, and also, in the obscm'ement and clouding 
of Jhimself in that manifestation, all these his excellencies may be said to be 
abased likewise, and so come to reflect upon the whole person himself, who 
is thus glorious, and upon all that is in him : and thus fitly come to make 
a full satisfaction. 

Now, in the fifth place, let us consider what a manifestative glory is due 
to the Son of God, if he assume a creatm'e into one person with himself. 
And herein consider we, that that nature or creature which he shall assume 
(be it man or angel) must by inheritance exist in the form of God, Phil, 
ii. 6 ; which ' form of God' I here take not to be put for the essence of 
God, as neither is ' the fonn of a servant,' in the following sentence, taken 
for the nature of man simply considered, but for that debased appearance 
in which he in our natm'c came into the world, not as a Lord, glorious, but 

Chap. VII.J of chbist the mediatob. 107 

covered with infirmities ; and this expression seems to be all one with that, 
Rom. viii. 3, ' He came in the likeness of sinful flesh.' And so in like 
manner the * form of God' here, is that God-like gloiy, and that manifesta- 
tion of the Godhead, which was, and must needs be due to appear in the 
nature assumed; ior funn is put for an outward appearance and manifesta- 
tion, in respect of which Christ, as God-man, is called * the brightness of 
his Father's gloiy,' Heb. i. 2. Brightness (you know) is not the substance 
of light, but the appearance of it. And so also he is called ' the image of 
the invisible God,' Col. i. 15. The meaning of which is this, that whereas 
God's essential glory is invisible (for ' he dwells in light that no man can 
approach unto,' 1 Tim. vi. IG). Christ assuming our human nature, 
becomes the image of it, and so makes it visible to us, God having stamped 
all his glory upon his face, that we might see it in him : 2 Cor, iv. 6, ' For 
God, who commanded the Hght to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our 
hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the gloiy of God, in the face 
of Jesus Christ.' So that if the Son of God will assume our nature, then 
it will follow that unto that nature there is due a God-like gloiy, so much 
transcending all creatures, that all might plainly see and say, certainly that 
natm-e is united to God ; sui*ely that man must needs be God as well as 
man : Hence, 

1. He was to be endowed with privileges answerable to the dignity of 
the person assuming that natui-e ; for if that nature becomes one in person 
with the Son of God, he becomes one in the privileges of the person also, 
and so that nature is to have a glory, ' as of the only begotten Son of God' 
(as the evangelist speaks, John i. li), proper and peculiar to him. And 
so, besides that essential glory of his Godhead, there will necessarily be 
due to that person, in that natm-e assumed, a more manifestative glory 
shining foi-th, than could have arisen to God any other way ; for God mani- 
fested in the flesh personally, must needs have (as his due) more manifesta- 
tive glory, and so manifest more of the essential glory of the Godhead, than 
God manifested in all his other works, be they never so transcendent : even 
as there is more honour due unto a king, if he in person shew himself, than 
if his arms only be set up, or proclamation be made in his name. And in this 
respect Christ God-man may be said in a safe sense to be ' equal with God,' 
as here in the text, not in essence, but in a communication of privileges : 
that as God hath life in himself alone, and it is a royalty incommunicable 
to any mere creature, so this Son of man, when once united thus unto the 
Godhead, is also said to ' have life in himself,' John v. 26, this equahty, 
or idoTYig, not being to be understood of equality in proportion, but of like- 
ness, and is all one with that which Zechariah speaks of his manhood, 
when he calls him * the man God's fellow,' Zech. xiii. 7, one in joint com- 
mission with him. And thus Christ himself interprets it, John v., when 
the Jews, looking at him as a mere man, had objected it unto him as blas- 
phemy that ' he made himself equal with God ;' ver. 18 (it is the same 
word that is here used in the text), Chi-ist answered them, ver. 19. And 
you find that his answer runs upon this, that even as he was Son of man 
(which was it that made them to stumble so at his former words), his privi- 
leges were such by the union with the second person, that he had a true 
kind of partnership with God the Father in his privileges, and such as did 
arise to a likeness, though not to an essential equality: so ver. 19. It is 
true (says he), ' The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he sees the 
Father do ; and yet whatever things he doth, these also doth the Son like- 
wise.' And so, he goes on to shew, that he could do hke things to his 


Father, and how he was to be honoured as his Father, ver. 23 ; and had 
life in himself, as his Father had, ver. 26 ; and had all judgment com- 
mitted to him, &c. And that he might be understood to speak this of 
himself as God-man, he expressly adds, ' Because he is the Son of man,' 
ver. 27. 

2. And hence, secondhj, unto the Son of God thus dwelling in a human 
nature (when it shall be first assumed), all this honour and glory is due : 
it is proper to him ; and therefore it is here said in the text, ' he thought 
it no robbery' for him to challenge it. Yet of all things God is tender of 
his glory ; ' I will not give my glory to another,' Isa. xlii. 8. But Christ 
God-man dares challenge such a glory as we have been speaking of, as his 
due, and it is no robbery for him to do it, because it is his right. As, is 
worship to be performed unto God ? So it is to be given to Christ as 
dwelling in a human nature : Ps. xlv. 11, ' He is thy Lord, worship thou 
him.' Yea, ' let all the angels worship him,' when he comes into the 
world, and so as considered with his manhood, Heb. i. 6 : and ' Worthy 
art thou' (say the saints and angels, and all creatures) * to receive honour 
and glory;' and so ' they fiall down before him,' Rev. v. 12. And therefore 
this high character of him is put in, 1 Cor. ii. 8, that ' they crucified the 
Lord of glory.' He was Lord, and possessor of all the glory that God 
hath, for as his Father hath given him to have life, so glory in himself also, 
as in that John v. And here in the Philippians he is said to exist in this 
glory, Phil. ii. 6, not that his human nature had this glory actually put 
upon it at first (for he was born as we are, and took upon him the form of 
a servant) ; but because thus to exist in this glory was his due, from which 
he could not be put by ; so as, if God would ordain him to subsist per- 
sonally in a human natui-e, it was his due to have existed thus gloriously 
in the foi-m of God, and not in the form of a servant, which is put in to 
shew how the form of a servant was merely arbitrary in him, in that another 
form was due to him, and in respect of that dueness is accounted as really 
existent, with an existency of right (for it should so have done), which is a 
real existency ; even as one that is born a king, though he for some end 
take on him a mean condition, jei he being born a king does so exist, and 
it prejudiceth not his right all that while, for it is innate and bred with his 
existing. And therefore the Scripture speaks of Christ even as Son of man, 
as if as Son of man he had been in heaven, and had come down : not that 
actually he had been there, but because it was his right to have been there 
the first moment of the assumption of that nature. Thus John iii. 13, 
' And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from 
heaven, even the Son of man who is in heaven.' He (you see) says, that 
he is in heaven. 

Thus much shall suffice to have shewn the foundation of satisfaction, 
jfrom the qualifications and requisites in the person. 


What this excellent and glorious person did for satisfaction, brings more honour 
to God than ever sin had done dishonour. — The glory ivhich redounds to 
God from this persons condescending to assume human nature, and that too 
in such a low condition, and meanest circumstances. 

Now to come to the second head proposed, namely, to shew what it is in 
or of such a person that may become, or is the matter of this satisfaction 

Chap. VIII.] op christ the medutob. 109 

oflfered up to God, for the debasement of his glory by sin. To clear this, 
I will first shew what it is that God reckons not upon for satisfaction in 
this person ; what God cuts ofl' from the account, because he would be sure 
to have full satisfaction in specie, in kind, which will also serve the more to 
set forth the fulness, the abundancy of Christ's satisfaction, when God 
accepts not of what might have been so accounted, but stands upon more ; 
which Christ performs to him. 

As, 1. The very condescending of the second person, who natively and 
essentially is so great, to assume man's nature, although in this form of God 
described, invested with all that manifestative glory spoken of, and this 
from and upon the first moment of his assuming it ; if this act of assuming 
had been done and undertaken principally in order and with intention to 
satisfy God, by bringing in a new glory to him, gi-eater than that which he 
lost by him, and this without the least humbling of himself; I ask, why 
might not this in just reason have been accounted satisfaction ? 

For (1.) he had thereby lessened himself to give glory to God. For in 
that assumption, and in that communication of himself to a creature, he 
takes on him such relations as do in some respects abate of the height of 
his native personal glory, as he is considered merely as second person ; 
and in respect to this assumption, he is made less than what before he was. 
For now it may be said of him, as it was by himself, that ' his Father is 
greater than he,' John xiv. 28, whereas he might have kept himself in a 
foil equality to him in all respects for ever, and to have had no such dimin- 
ishing respect affixed to him. 

And (2.) by this voluntary act alone he had brought in unto God a new 
and further revelation of the Godhead than ever was obscured by sin ; and 
it is certain that he had never assumed man's nature, and thus lessened 
himself, but that so he might manifest the glory of the Godhead in such a 
manner as otherwise it never should have been. Therefore for him thus 
to lessen himself, to the end to manifest and exalt the glory of the Godhead 
the utmost way it could be, or more than otherwise it should have been, 
might not this make amends for the glory that sin would take from God ? 
And the reason of this is, that satisfaction being a return of as much glory 
as was lost, and that by this means (if no other were added) more mani- 
festative glory would come in unto God than either was or ever could have 
been debased or impaired by sin, why therefore might it not have been 
accounted satisfactory, if it had been ordered simply unto this end ? And 
further also, even this would have seiTcd to fill up many of those dispro- 
portions found in the evil of sin. For as the evil of Adam's sin (which 
was the first sin) lay in this, that he who was a creature aflected and 
aspired to be as God — He is become as one of us, said God, Gen. iii. 22 — 
so Christ's obedience, in assuming our nature, would herein have answered 
it, that he that is God becomes a creatiu'e, and on the other side is become 
as one of us men ; so to bring in a new honour unto God. So that, look 
how high our nature would have ascended, so low doth he descend ; and 
as sin is a tm^ning from God to the creature, so in this act the Creator de- 
scends from the height of his glory to become a creature, and join himself 
in a nearer union with us than wherein we in sinning affected to join our- 
selves to the Creator. 

And then again, 2. All the works and actions which, in that nature thus 
assumed, in this height of glory that becomes due to it, he will set himself 
about to work, and to shew forth the glory of the Godhead of his Father, 
and of himself ; even these also, by reason of that worth which his personal 


perfections do contribute unto them, might haply be estimated sufficient to 
give satisfaction in point of honour, though no further debasement be laid 
upon our nature in him. As suppose that he would have done nothing 
therein but work miracles, utter his treasm'cs of wisdom, shew forth his 
holiness and power, &c. ; yet these being from a person so infinitely glori- 
ous, have therefore an infinite worth in them all, even as all his actions, 
now he is in heaven, have ; for the person is infinite, and he it is that gives 
this acceptance and this lustre to them. And these would also have brought 
more glory to God than was lost, and so would have countervailed our sins. 
For all the actions that he doth, and all the glory that he hath now he is 
glorified, are all ' to the glory of God the Father ' (as this text hath it), and 
therefore if in all that he had ever done he had as directly glorified himself 
as now in heaven, jet all of those actions being fui'ther and besides, to the 
gloiy of God the Father, they might superabundantly have made amends 
for the dishonour that sin brought him. 

But God reckons all this not as any part of that satisfaction which we 
are a-seeking after. He accepts not simply the assumption of our nature, 
though never so glorious, and he accepts it not, although it were a lessening 
of the second person. In the Scripture I find nothing for it, and what God 
reckons not satisfaction to him, we must not account such. Neither do I 
affirm it, having only pleaded what might be argued (and what haply God 
might have reckoned), thereby the more to advance that satisfaction which 
Christ hath performed in this human nature ; the like whereof I did when 
I discom'sed the point of satisfaction for goods. It is indeed the foundation 
of satisfaction, and makes way to it, but is not a part of it. And so the 
actions of him now glorified in heaven, though they have so much worth in 
them, yet God reckons them not to be a part of satisfaction ; for that was 
all fijiished here in his humbled estate, ere ever he ascended. 

And the reason of this, why this assumption of our nature in a glorious 
condition, or the actions thereof, are not mentioned in Scripture as any part 
of satisfaction may be ; both because the sole end of Christ's assuming our 
nature, quoad suhstantiam vnjsterii, for the substance of this mystery, was not 
(as I have elsewhere* shewed) the redemption of man ; but there were other 
ends, which taken all together are as great as this, if not greater ; as, the 
manifestion of God to the utmost. God could not have been manifested 
to the utmost, but by lessening one of the persons of the Trinity by an 
hypostatical union ; as also because God would make the subject of all the 
parts of satisfaction to be Christ, God-man, and not the second person 
simply so considered, and therefore he must be suj)posed ordained to assume 
man's natm'e, ere he becomes a fit subject for satisfaction. But the act of 
assuming our nature is the act of the second person, merely so considered ; 
and so, though done in order to satisfaction, as being the foundation of it, 
yet is not a part of it. And thus all this glory spoken of being due to the 
person in this nature, and so to shine forth in this nature ; for him to lay 
it aside when he assumes this nature, and for him then to take the form of 
a servant, instead oi this glorious form and manifestation of the Godhead ; 
this draws the manhood also into the merit of such a debasement, because 
a greater glory was due unto him ; and he might be truly said to exist in 
his glory whenever that natm-e was assumed, for so he ought to have done, 
and it might have been stood upon. 

So then, the first ingredient into this satisfaction lies in the laying aside 

* In the ' Discourse of God the Father, and his Son Jesus Christ,' Book iii., chap. 
1, 2, 3, 4, in the second volume of his Works. [Vol. IV, of this Edition. — Ed.] 


the glory duo to the second person when ho should dwell in a human na- 
ture ; and mstead thereof, taking on him the form of a servant, and tho 
likeness of men, or of ' sinful flesh,' as Rom. viii. 8, that is, fi-ail flesh, 
subject to infirmities and miseries, as ours is here. And so the total sum 
of that satisfaction which God reckons of as such, is hero also cast up first 
and last to have been, the taking the foi-m of a servant, humbling himself, 
being emptied, or of no reputation, and becoming obedient in his life, and 
this to the death of the cross, as being the last part of this payment. And 
this (you will see) will in so great a person amount to and become tho 
matter of a full and just satisfaction indeed, even to a flowing over. Which 
is the second thing in this head we inquire and seek for. 

In the second place therefore, positively to lay down and define wherein 
Christ's satisfaction unto God for sin in point of honour lies ; it is in brief 
this, viz., Christ's voluntary laying aside all the glory that was due to his 
person in his human nature assumed, and his submitting himself to the 
utmost debasement due to sinners, in pure obedience to his Father, thereby 
to restore and return glory unto God for the diminishing of it by sin. This 
God required, and this Christ performed, and this is satisfaction indeed, 
even to flowing over. God in his demanding satisfaction stood so much 
upon his glory, that, 

1. He would not be contented with the mere lessening of this great per- 
son, in assuming our nature glorious ; but he will have him take upon him 
(as this text hath it) the form of a servant, and be found as men here on 
earth, even clothed with the same frail condition of passible nature that sin- 
ful men are found in ; nor, 

2. Will he be contented with such actions from Christ in that nature 
debased, whereby Christ might seek and shew forth his own glory imme- 
diately and directly — ' I seek not my own glory ' (says Christ, John ix. 50), 
' but the glory of him that sent me ' — but he will have him perform such 
actions, and submit to such sufierings, as shall take away glory from him, 
and obscure and veil his glory due to him. He will have him take the 
form of a mere servant, and become wholly obedient, and not be for him- 
self at all ; who yet might think it no robbery to seek his own glory directly 
with God's. Nor, 

3. Will God be satisfied to have this his gloiy a little veiled, and in some 
parts clouded ; but he will have him robbed and spoiled oi all manifestative 
glory whatsoever due unto him. He will have him emptied, or made of no 
reputation, as it is here ; the Messiah shall have nothing left (as Daniel 
speaks, Dan. ix. 26), not a grain or mite of the riches of his glory which 
he could call his own, as God doth. Yea, if there be any debasement worse 
than other, he will have him obedient to it, even to death ; and if any death 
be more shameful than other, he will have him submit to it, even the death 
of the cross. And, 

4. God will have all this come from him willingly, heartily, and freely. 
He is not only thus to be humbled, but he must ' humble himself,' as the 
text also hath it ; who indeed was so great that no other could do it, with- 
out his own free consent ; and all this to the gloiy of God the Father. 

And ere we go any further, do but think with yoiu-selves that if a per- 
son, such as in the first head hath been described, who is equal with God 
in glory, will, to glorify God and exalt him, not only condescend to lessen 
himself, and that so much as to have it said, the second person is made a 
creature ; but will further, at the command of his Father, lay aside even 
that glory which is still due to him when thus made man, yea, even empty 


himself wholly of all that gloiy personalty due to him, and take on him the 
form of a servant instead thereof; and yet further, will actually become 
obedient in the performance of all such actions, not only which it was meet 
so great a person glorified in heaven should employ himself in, and shew his 
own, and his Father's glory jointly in, but such as men on earth shew their 
subjection in, both as mere creatm'es and as sinners ; yea, and not only so, 
but will be obedient to the utmost of sufferings, even to death, and to the 
most shameful and ignominious death, the death of the cross ; and will per- 
form all this voluntarily, with an intention of mind and will, directing all 
to this sole end, so to make God alone glorious by and through his own utter 
debasement and obsciu'ement, falling down thus low to exalt and set God 
up thus high, by his having so great a person, and in himself so glorious, 
thus obedient to him, and lowered for his glory's sake ; I appeal even to 
the justice that is in all men's hearts, if it doth not both equalise the dis- 
honour done to God by sin, and also bring in a greater overplus of glory 
than was taken from God by it, and so make a full amends. 


Tlie xirincipal matter of Christ's satisfaction was not only in a diminisJmig of 
his glory, but despoiling him of it. — And that he did this xiillingly, hg 
humbled himself. — And that his ijerson was the subject of this debasement 
and humiliation. 

But to speak yet more distinctly, the matter of his satisfaction lies in these 
three things principally, all which are in the text. 

I. That it was not only a lessening of his glory, but a despoiling and 
emptying him of it, or a making him of no reputation. 

II. That this was voluntary in him; he humbled, actively; it is not said 
he icas humbled, passively. 

III. That the subject of this humbling was himself, considered both as 
the subject- author of all this obedience, and also as the subject-matter in- 
volved in this obedience and debasement : ' he humbled himself.' 

I. It was an emptying himself of glory to glorify God ; which, in the 
strictest way that justice can i-equu-e, becometh properly and truly satisfac- 
tion in point of glory debased. To clear this, let us consider the difference 
between giving honour simply, and giving satisfaction for honour. We give 
mutual honour to one another without debasing ourselves, as inferiors to 
superiors, and superiors to inferiors, by mutual uncovering of the head each 
unto other. But if satisfaction in point of honour be strictly stood upon, 
then some acts of humbling are exacted from the party that is to satisfy, 
even a taking down of the glory of the one, to restore it to the other ; ex- 
amples whereof we often see, by the sentence of such courts as deal in jioint 
of honour and the restitution of it. Now to make use of this in the point 
in hand. A mere creature indeed cannot give the simple tribute of glory 
that is due unto God, but by humbling itself some way, either in obedience 
or worship ; all the acts of which have a humbling of the creature in them. 
Thus the angels cover their faces, and cry, ' Holy, holy, holy,' &c., and the 
elders cast down themselves and their crowns, and cry, ' Worthy art thou 
to receive honour and glory.' And the reason is, because of the transcend- 
ent distance and disproportion between God and mere creatures ; his glory 

Chap. IX.j of christ the mediator. * 113 

being so high and sovereign, that they cannot show forth tho greatness of 
it, but by veihng their own glory before him. Thus the distance between 
kings and ordinary men, being in the institution of it so high and sovereign, 
the greatness of their majesty and glory cannot be held forth but by their 
subjects debasing of themselves, and falling down before them. And in 
this respect, the creature's debasement could never have satisfied for God's 
honour lost and impaired ; because all its debasements are but suitable ways 
to give and shew forth that gloiy of God which is simply due from them 
although they had never sinned. But Christ, though he were lessened in- 
deed (as became God-man), yet still, this man being one person with God, 
and so God as well as man, and so being by right of inheritance in joint 
commission with his Father, and set up in such a kind of equality, as hath 
been shewn, hence, as two kings in joint commission for the government 
of a kingdom, and by a like right, though they give glory each to other, 
yet not by debasement of their glory ; so nor was Christ to have done, as 
now in heaven he doth not, where, though he intercedes for us, yet more 
regio, as a king, ' sitting' (not kneeling, as on earth) ' at God's right 
hand ; ' and st'do regio, in the language of a king — ' Father, I will,' as 
John xvii. 24. It is not performed in away of a humbling debasement, 
though in a way that argues a lessening of him. And thus he might have 
kept his state and majesty, as now in heaven he doth, and have given glory 
to God for ever, upon such terms, and by such ways, as should withal have 
held forth his own glory jointly and as directly as his Father's. Thus, at 
the latter day, when he comes to judge the world, he will come in his full- 
est glory, and ' every knee shall bow to him, to the glory of God the 
Father ; ' this being his due, that he should be honoured together with his 
Father : ' That all should honour the Son ' (says Christ, speaking of that 
judgment committed to himself), ' even as they honour the Father,' John 
V. 22, 23. Thus indeed he might (as now he doth) have glorified God. 
But then all this in him would not have been satisfaction for the impairing 
and diminution of God's glory by sin. This is no way to be effected (no, 
not by Christ), but by a humbling, a lowering, a debasement, an emptying 
himself of glory, to restore it to his Father. For look, as in point of goods 
restitution is not made but by a parting with some of that man's goods that 
is to satisfy, to be added to his who is to be satisfied, so in point of 
honour, if satisfaction for dishonour (which is a taking away of honour, or 
reflecting disparagement on him who is dishonoui-ed) be to be performed, 
there must in like manner be a taking away of, or a parting with, honour 
and glory in the satisfier, done for the injured person's sake, to give again 
unto the dishonoured, so as his glory shall be made up, or shewed forth by 
the other's debasement. For else it ariseth not to a proportion, which is 
the rule of justice in such cases. Therefore, nothing but a debasement can 
make a fall amends for a debasement ; but when so, then a proportion is 
observed ; and honour can never be repaired but out of another's honour 
impaired, for it must be paid in its own coin ; and in this case, you cannot 
repair a loss to the one, but you must impair it to the other. And this is 
the true reason why Christ, now he is glorified in heaven, though he be as 
full of action and employment as ever, and all to the glory of his Father, 
as much as those actions were which he performed here below ; yet all 
that now he doth in heaven hath not a meritoriousness in it, nor is it ac- 
counted of as being satisfactory for sin, as what he did here below was ; 
yet all those actions have an infinite worth in them, in respect of the person 
performing them, considered merely as an agent_and efficient cause of them; 

VOL. V, H 


and they are infinitely acceptable to God (as glorifying him) to other ends ; 
but still, they arise not to answer the proportion that in justice satisfaction 
requires. For though they are the actions of Christ considered as an in- 
ferior, and one made less, and that in order to the glorifying of God, yet 
so as he still having a right to be glorified with God in all jointly, and as 
dii-ectly as God himself is to be glorified, and accordingly, all these actions, 
as immediately holding forth his own glory as his Father's ; therefore, 
though God reckons and accounts of them as a glorifying oi" himself, yet 
not as a satisfaction to himself for his glory impaired, because Christ is 
not humbled in any of them, so as by a debasement in them to give glory 
unto God, but does now share with God in the tribute of glory that comes 
in, as being his due. But here on earth he abated of, and hid his gloiy ; 
he was emptied of it, to the end that thereby what was lost to him might 
accrue unto God ; which debasement does truly and properly become fit 
matter for satisfaction. 

II, That which gives worth and acceptation to this debasement of his, to 
make it satisfactoiy, is, that himself, or his person (so great a person), is 
included in it : 'He humbled himself and became obedient ; ' and so, this 
obedience of his, being in such a way of debasement, does di-aw and take 
into it all his fore-named personal perfections, to contribute an infinite 
dignity, worth, and satisfactoriness unto all he did or sufi'ered ; and this, 
from the consideration of himself as being included therein, and so in a 
double respect and relation giving a double gift unto his obedience, as I 
may so speak. 

1. If his person be considered as the worker and efiicient cause of all he 
did or suflered, and withal, as the root fi-om whence it sprung, and as the 
subject author of all those graces and seK-denials, this gives a worth to his 
obedience and sufi'erings. 

2. As his person and all his excellencies are yet further involved as the 
materiale, the subject matter itself of this his obedience, as that which he 
offered up in all that he either did or sufi'ered, so the honour of his person 
not only gives an influence of worth into his works of obedience, as he is 
the efiicient of them, but further, in that his honour was reflected upon in 
them all, and he debased himself therein. And thus his person is doubly 
enwrapped in all he did ; and therefore, in the text, it is said, ' He humbled 
himself and became obedient ; ' that is, in his actions of obedience himself 
was humbled and made subject. There is a reduplication, he and him- 
self, noting that they came from his person, and that they again reflected 
upon his person, and were not only proceeding fi-om x>ersona infinita, 
in an infinite person, but are circa personam iiijinitam, concerned about 


1. Kow for the fii'st ; Consider him but as the subject author of them ; 
and yet even so, all his gi-aces and actions, in his person thus humbled, 
receive an infinite value and worth from him. Therefore the efficacy of his 
righteousness is put upon this, that it was the righteousness of God and 
our Saviour, that is, our Saviom- who was God. So 2 Peter i. 1, ' Simon 
Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained 
like precious faith with us, through the righteousness of God and oui- Saviour 
Jesus Christ.' And though this relation of his actions unto his person 
simply and alone considered in Christ as glorified, God accounts not satis- 
faction, yet they coming fi'om Christ as humbled, he accepts of all his graces 
and actions, not only as having an infinite worth in them, but also as part 
of satisfaction. And to that end he considers this in them, that thev are 

Chap. IX. J op christ the mediator. " 115 

all from a person so infinite, and in that respect they add a distinct worth 
to that satisfaction, which thus humbled he performs, from this other that 
follows ; which is, 

2dly, That his person is further to be considered as the materkde, the 
matter of all his obedience, namely, in this respect, that his person was 
debased in all that obedience of his, so that it came to pass, that this his 
obedience was not only accepted because the offerer of it, the sacrificer, was 
a person of that worth, but also in that himself and his glory became the 
sacrifice and offering itself. He not only gave honour to God by his actions, and 
with his graces ; but did also therein give away his own honour, the honour 
of his person. I will make this plain to you by a place of Scripture, namely, 
Heb. ix., where that that gives weight and efficacy to his blood to ' purge, 
our consciences' (which all the sacrifices in the world could never have 
done, as the apostle says, verses 13, 14), is made to be this, that ' through 
the eternal Spirit he offered up himself,' as the 11th verse concludes. 
Whence observe, that he, viz., his person with his Godhead, was considered 
not only as the offerer (which those words import, ' through the eternal 
Spirit'), or as the author of that action of sacrificing, as the priests were 
of those sacrifices of the law (which is the first consideration mentioned 
in the former part of this distinction), but besides, himself was the thing 
offered, as those words shew, ' offered up himself.' So that that action had 
a double respect to his person, both as the subject author and as the matter, 
both as the sacrificer aud as the sacrifice. The priests, they offered indeed, 
but it was the gifts which people brought, so as therein the priest was cue 
thing, and the sacrifice another ; but here Christ was both offerer and offer- 
ing ; there the giver was one thing, and the gift another ; but here Christ 
was both the giver and gift : Eph. v. 2, ' Who hath loved us, and given 
himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God.' And this is that which 
the Scripture mentions to have given a further infinite over-balancing weight 
of merit and satisfaction, and distinct from the former, unto all that Christ 
did, namely, that in all he still gave away himself. They were not mere 
actions from him and in him, but such as included himself as given, and 
humbled in them. This, as the places above mentioned, so that in Heb. 
. 3 does plainly shew, ' having by himself purged our sins ;' mark it, not 
by actions merely from him, but by himself humbled in these actions and 
sufferings. And therefore the same author to the' Hebrews puts the main 
value upon himself considered as the person offered, and not only on him- 
self considered as the offerer ; and indeed he distinctly mentions both. For 
throughout the 7th chapter he shews that it was necessary he should be 
the priest, the offerer, that should sacrifice, and so appease God's wrath, 
shewing oppositely, the insufficiency of the Levitical priests, although their 
sacrifices had had no defect, and so concludes, that ' such an high priest 
became us,' &c., ver. 26 ; and yet because all the merit lay not in the bare 
person of the priest as an offerer, had not the sacrifice itself been answer- 
able, therefore he further shews in the 9th and 10th chapters, the worth 
of that sacrifice also which by this our high priest was offered, which was 
no other than himself. And this the apostle shews as considered apart by 
itself from the former consideration ; and therefore in like manner he oppo- 
sitely shews the weakness and unworthiness that was in all the Levitical 
sacrifices and things offered, as he had formerly done of those offerers, 
chap, vii., still mentioning the worth of that one sacrifice of himself; shew- 
ing that he was also the person offered, and that tliat was it which gave that 
super-eminent worth to his offering, to take sins away. And it is plain 


that the apostle considers both these, for he argues the perfection of his 
satisfaction from both. 

Now to clear this distinction by comparing an instance or two together ; 
when Christ wrought a miracle, turning water into wine, this was an action 
from him merely as the author of it, and wherein he humbled not himself, 
which therefore made up no part of satisfaction. It was from him, but it 
reflected not thus upon, nor included his person thus in it. But when he 
was circumcised, and became obedient to his parents and to the law, all 
these actions, as they were from his person, so also they included in them 
the humiliation of himself, and had therefore the whole worth of the person 
who did or suflered them communicated unto them, as being included in 
them, and as reflecting upon the whole honour of his person in a way of 
debasement ; for his glory is himself. Therefore in all his obedience, doing, 
and sufiering, his glory being reflected upon, or debased, his person is said 
to be involved in the matter of it, as a king's honour is, when he doth an 
action that debaseth himself. 

Or if you will yet more accurately consider how many ways himself or 
his person was included in this, then in a word to sum up all. 

1. His obedience was from an infinite person as the cause thereof. 

And, 2, performed likewise in himself as the immediate subject thereof; 
the difi'erence between which two is evident ; for the Holy Ghost, who is 
God, when he prays in us, and helpeth our infirmities, and makes inter- 
cession for us, though he be the efficient of the prayers made, yet these are 
not wi'ought in himself, but in us as the subject of them, and therefore are 
called our prayers. And hence these actions of his in us have not this gi-eat 
worth in them, though he be the author of them. But Christ's satisfaction 
and intercession were not only efi'ected by him, but further, were performed 
in himself as the subject in whom the action doth reside, and to whom it 
appertains for ever. 

3. It was not only performed by him, and in him, but himself was the 
matter of the obedience ; ' he gave himself.' And so near an aUiance of 
his obedience unto his person, must needs every way add an infinite worth 
unto it. Thus much for the second requisite to the matter of satisfaction. 

ni. Now, in the third place, add this other also, that all his obedience 
and humiliation was voluntary and arbitrary. 

1. Voluntary, ' He humbled himself;' which I know is included in what 
hath been even now said in that second head fore -mentioned ; yet something 
there is, that the distinct notion of it addeth to all the former, and it is a 
necessary requisite in satisfaction, which cannot be without it. Wherefore 
all that Christ did was voluntarily done by him ; ' he humbled himself.' 
For submission and obedience forced, or to give honour to another out of 
constraint, can never satisfy, but rather prejudiceth it. And as honour 
sought for by the person himself who is to be honoured is not honour (as 
Solomon saith), so constrained submission in the person honouring another, 
redounds not to the honour of him who is to be honoured, and so not to 
satisfaction. And therefore among other defects in the satisfaction to arise 
from the punishment of men in hell, this is justly to be reckoned one, that 
all that submission and punishment of men and devils is not voluntary, but 
forced. But now, this of Christ's was voluntary ; ' he became obedient.' 

Yea, and 2, it was voluntary in a further consideration than can be at- 
tributed to the obedience of any creature, in that it was arbitrary in Christ 
as well as voluntary. He might have stood upon it by reason of his pre- 
rogative and equality with his Father, and was at liberty whether he would 

Chap. X.] op christ the mediator. 117 

do that which he did, or not do it. And this the text intimates, when it 
prcmiseth unto this his obedience, that he was existing ' in the form of God,' 
and * equal with God ;' that is, he might have stood upon his terms not to 
have subjected himself in any such way of humiliation ; yet ' he humbled 
himself, and became obedient.' The ci-eature's obedience, though never so 
voluntary, cannot thus be said to be arbitrary ; ' A necessity lies upon me 
to preach' (says Paul), ' and woe is unto me if I do it not ;' and yet he 
preached willingly. It is a due from them, but not so from Christ. And 
this added unto it, makes it fully and properly satisfaction. And thus much 
for this second head, the matter of this satisfaction. 


The greatness and super-eminent worth of this satisfaction, as performed by such 
a person. — That hence the acts of his obedience exceed in goodness all the evil 
that is in sin, and that therefore they make full reparation, since they honour 
God mare than ever sin had disJwnoured him. 

Now having thus seen the excellencies of the person who was to satisfy, 
Christ God-man, which excellencies have an influence into the worth and 
merit of this satisfaction made, and having also viewed the ingredients into 
the matter of this satisfaction for the dishonour d«ne unto God, I will now 
come to rear upon these as foundations, demonstrations of the super-emi- 
nency that must needs be in the materials of such a satisfaction performed 
by such a person ; which makes the third and last head propounded. And 
whereas there were presented many insuperable mountains of difficulty, 
that lay in the way of all the creatures to satisfy for sin, which they could 
never pass over or remove ; and such vast gulfs of disproportions between 
God's dishonour and debasement by sin, and all the creatures' abilities to 
repair and restore it, by reason of the distance between God himself and 
them, such that nothing in or from them could ever make up or fill ; you 
shall now see all and every one of those mountains overtopped and levelled, 
and before this our mediator, Christ God-man, become a plain, all those 
chasms and chinks being filled up, and the way of satisfaction made so even 
and plain, that our faith may pass over it, and walk in it, assisted and sup- 
ported even with reasons deduced from principles of justice and equity; and 
so all the principles of understanding in us may come to see and receive 
full satisfaction in this satisfaction of his. 

In making of this reddition, I shall not be able exactly to keep unto the 
same method I held in the beginning of this discourse, viz., to bring in the 
mention of every particular of this satisfaction, in the same order that I 
marshalled each of those particulars of the creatm-es' non- satisfaction, so as 
to set the one against the other in a parallel rank. For the disposing of 
such materials as do follow in the way of a natural consequence one from 
the other, must be suited unto the matter itself, not in an artificial, but 
according to the natural dependence wherein one thing may appear to arise 
from another. Hence, therefore, when I was to shew the creatures' inabi- 
lities, I so ranged and placed those things that should demonstrate, and in 
such an order, as might, by the consequence that one thing held upon 
another, best set forth the creatures' insufficiencies, which therefore was 
most suitable to that subject. And accordingly, now that I am to speak of 
the abiUties that are in Christ, I must present the fulness of them in each 


of those particulars so as will best suit with this subject, by setting forth 
one particular after another, as they arise from or depend each on other : 
arguing in an orderly yvny from ^Yhat is to be considered in him that makes 
this satisfaction, to make it by degrees rise up to its height and fulness ; 
yet so as there shall be no particular ground of difficulty that made it 
impossible for the creatui'es to satisfy, that shall be left out unsatisfied in 
these demonstrations of the fuhiess of Christ's satisfaction, although not in 
the same method that in the fonner part was observed. 

The first and lowest consideration, from whence I shall begin to argue 
this satisfaction of his, is that which was in the former head given, viz., 
that himself, or his person, is to be considered as the subject of all his graces 
and obedience. And lot us first see how much even this will contribute 
towards the satisfactoriness of his obedience, and equalise the evil and dis- 
honour by sin, and how far it will carry this on. 

You may remember how, in the fii'st part of [this discourse, viz., the 
demonstration of the creatures' inabihty to satisf}', I shewed both how far 
short the graces of a mere creature, never so pure and innocent, do fall, as 
not having any worth in them, more than to justify themselves, and that by 
God's appointment too ; and likewise how much sin exceeded in evil the 
goodness and worth of all mere creatures' graces, and that they did no way 
so much honour God as sin dishonoured him. Now let us from this first 
consideration, that so infinite a person is the subject of grace and obedience, 
shew both, 

1. How much their graces are exceeded; and, 

2. Also the evil of sin thereby. 

1. These his humbling graces (as I call them), for such only are matter 
of satisfaction, and his actions of obedience springing therefrom, infinitely 
excel those of mere creatures, conceive them never so vast and large. That 
which makes grace more excellent than any other creature, and so is the 
true measure of the greater or lesser worth in grace or holiness, is that it 
is the participation of the divine nature. Now take but an estimate in your 
thoughts of the vast difference between the participation of the divine nature 
in Christ, which makes his graces and obedience accepted, and that in mere 
creatures. The participation of the divine nature in the grace of creatures, 
is but by way of a mere shadow, likeness, or similitude, something resem- 
bling ; and so the worth thereof is but such as you would have of the picture 
of a king, that is somewhat like him. But the grace of union (as divines 
call it, and that in way of distinction from Christ's ovra. graces habitually 
considered, as well as from those in mere creatures) which derives worth 
into Christ's graces and obedience, is a kind of communication of the God- 
head itself personally united, and so diffusing answerable worth and accepta- 
tion afore God into the actions of human nature thus united. The difference 
herein is such, that whereas in mere creatures, standing afore God under a 
covenant of works, and the covenant by mere right of creation is no other, 
it is merely their graces and actions that make their persons accepted in 
such a covenant, and they have no worth from the person at all whose 
graces they are, but the person from them. Now, contrarily, the graces 
and actions of Christ do not dignify the person so much, as the person them. 
So that look in a proportion how much his person exceeds all the creatures, 
so much in their capacity, and measure, and in a moral value, must his 
graces and actions of obedience excel all theirs. It is true, that for kin^* 
his grace and ours are and would be the same, for ' of his fulness we receive 
grace for grace,' John i. 16. But look, as what a transcendent distance 


there is between the worth and excellency that is put upon the body and 
the actions thereof in a man (by reason of that eternal soul that dwells in 
it, and is substantially united to it), and the actions of a beast, so that one 
and the same kind of earth is made capable of, and is to be a partner of 
eternal life, and of heavenly glory, by reason of the soul in a man, whereas 
that in a beast is ordained but to a life of sense. Look in like manner how 
those actions are ennobled (comparatively to those of beasts), wherein the 
members of man's body are employed as weapons of righteousness, so that 
they are actions of eternal consequence, and acceptation with God. Now 
an infinitely greater transcendent distance is there between the worth which 
the person of Christ doth communicate to the human nature, and the actions 
thereof, or of his person therein (it being thereunto substantially united), 
and the worth which the person of mere creatures, though supposed to be 
as full of habitual grace as Christ himself, can communicate to their actions. 
Though for metal they had been the same that Christ's were, yet wanting 
this royal stamp of the Deity upon them, they had not been coin that would 
have passed for paj'ment and satisfaction. His glory is substantial, and 
communicates its worth to the utmost to all and every action, so far as 
the act is capable, even as the whole king's image is stamped upon three- 
pence as well as sixpence ; yet sixpence is of more value, because the 
matter is capable of more ; and so one action of Christ was capable of more 
worth than other, yet so as in them all there was an infinite moral dignity 
from the person. And again, as all the Godhead in all his fulness is said 
to dwell in him and his person, so all the whole worth that the substantial 
excellency of the person can translate is in like manner stamped upon all 
his actions. And though the human nature, which in itself is finite, be the 
2mncijnum quo, the instrument of all, by whom and in whom the second 
person doth all he doth, and therefore answerably the physical being of 
those actions is but finite, in fjenere entis, take them as created productions ; 
yet all Christ's actions being attributed to the person who is principium quod 
(for actiones sunt suppositorum, actions are attributed to and said to be of 
the persons that perform them, because that is said only to .•-ubsist), there- 
fore the moral estimation of them is infinite. And though the immediate 
principle, the human nature, be finite, yet the radical principle, the person, 
is infinite, and they being one in person, what the one is said to do, the 
other is said to do also ; and therefore Chi-ist's obedience is called ' the 
righteousness of God,' and the obedience of God. 

2. Yea, secondly, his graces do for this respect so far exceed any that are 
in creatm'es, that their goodness (as, Ps. xvi. 2, it is called) equals the 
utmost evil can be supposed in sin. For as the offence is against an infinite 
glorious God, so the holy works are wrought by one as infinite. And as 
the highest accent of the essence of sin lies over this head, that it was 
against an infinite majesty, so the greatness of the satisfaction herein lies, 
that it was performed by the mighty God. "Which proportion could never 
have been filled up by any creature who was not God ; satisfaction in point 
of honour depended upon the equal worth of the person honouring and 

Yet it is not so to be understood, nor was it necessary, that the worth of 
the actions should be as infinite as the person, essentially and substantially. 
For Christ's merits could not be infinite as God's attributes are, nor so 
loved by God as his attributes are, but that they are so in a moral estima- 
tion was enough. For look, as though sin was infinite, yet not so essen- 
tially, so justice required not an obedience essentially and naturally infinite, 


but personally infinite, which Christ's is, it being the righteousness of him 
that is God. 

The second thing propounded to be proved was, that his graces and 
actions of obedience did exceed in goodness the utmost evil that was in sin, 
which we saw no creature's graces did, or can be valued to do. 

1. In the general, the evil of sin lies in this, that it is committed against 
the great God, and that God is the object of it : so as the utmost aggrava- 
tion of the evil of sin is taken at the highest but from the worth of the 
object, God and his glory, against whom it is committed ; but the worth of 
all his graces and actions being taken from the person, the subject, the 
efficient, from whom they do proceed, look how much more reason there 
is that the person, who is the author and subject of his actions, should 
convey more worth to his own actions than a person who is but an object 
of another's action can do to the action of that other, so much doth his graces, 
having a person that is God for the subject of them, exceed the evil of sin 
that is against God, the mere object thereof. For the subject conveys 
worth to his own actions, as the father conveys nobleness to his child ; his 
child inherits it from him, and so an action doth worth from the person 
from whom it is natively derived ; but that worth, and so that evil too, 
which it hath from the object is but extrinsecal and borrowed, and therefore 
the denomination of actions is taken rather from the subject than the object. 
As when a man understands an angel never so perfectly as the object of his 
understanding, it is called human knowledge, because man is the subject 
of it, and it is his knowledge ; though the object it is conversant about be 
an angel, it is not called angelical knowledge. So by the same reason 
actions derive more proper worth and merit (for both worth and denomina- 
tion arise from the same root) from the person from whom they come, and 
in whom they are, than from the person unto which they tend. And there- 
fore though sin be done against God as the object, and so is heinous, yet 
because this satisfaction was made by God as the subject of it, therefore it 
is more meritorious than sin can be demeritorious. This satisfaction sucks 
more nobleness from the subject of it, which is the root it grows upon, than 
sin can take evil and blackness from the external shadow the Father of 
lights casts upon it by the sinner's eclipse of him. And the reason is, 
because all participation is founded upon union, mutual relation, and con- 
junction, and the more remote and fm-ther ofl" the union and relation is, 
the less a thing participates from it. Now the relation and conjunction 
between the act and the object is but extrinsecal, it is an external conjunc- 
tion that is between them, such as is between a man's eye and the sun, 
they remain strangers still ; but the relation, conjunction, and kindi'ed, that 
is between a person and his actions, is nearer, it is intrinsecal, such as is 
between the sun and the beams that flow from it, which is yet nearer when 
the person himself is included in the matter of the very action, as in this 
of Christ it is, whose person is intrinsecally included as the necessary part 
of the satisfaction itself. Now if this, that God is but the object of sin, 
doth cast such a heinousness upon the acts of it which come from us, if 
such a remote far off extrinsecal relation and conjunction brings forth so 
much demerit, and makes sin to abound in sinfulness, what will the satis- 
faction which comes from so great a person as Christ, God-man, and 
includes that person as a part of the satisfaction itself, how will this nearer 
union and relation between this person and his actions beget worth and 
dignity in them ? 

But then add to this further that other consideration mentioned, which 

Chap. X.] of christ the mediator. 121 

will mako a second head of tliis demonstration, that himself was not only 
the subject of his gi-aces and actions of obedience, but that himself and his 
personal worth were included and involved therein as the matter also of the 
satisfaction (as I shewed at large) ; hereby it comes to pass that the evil of 
sin is again afresh exceeded to a flowing over. For as the relation between 
the act and the subject from whom, and in whom, is more near (as is said) 
than between the act and the object, so the subject matter, the materiale of 
the action circa quam hath a nearer affinity than the subject in quo, for it 
includes it, enwraps it into itself. And so did all Christ's obedience enwrap 
his glory in it and robbed him of it, and so he sacrificed it to God ; and 
hereby God comes to have honour paid him double, over and over, not only 
honour returned him from a person as honom'able and glorious as himself, 
which makes it infinite, and more than ever sin took from him, for honor 
est in Jionorante, actions of honour take value from the person ; and as one 
king may render honoui* to another when as yet he keeps his state, so might 
Christ have honoured God, manifesting himself in a glorified condition. 
But God hath not this single but a double subsidy and tribute of honour ; 
he will have Christ lay down his glory to glorify him, he will have the for- 
feiture, and not the principal debt only. And as Christ's obedience redupli- 
cates upon his person, he humbled himself, so the honour due to God is 
reduplicated also, so that as the apostle says, there is superfluity in his 
satisfaction, 1 Tim. i. 14. For as if when he who was the Lord of so many 
worlds became poor for us, it must needs purchase infinite riches, as the 
apostle speaks, so if he who was equal in glory to God will debase himself 
at God's command, to glorify and give honour to him, and give up his own 
glory to add as it were to his Father's, what honour must needs redound 
to God thereby ? John xvii. 3, 4, * Father' (says he), ' give me the glory 
which I had ere the world was ; I have glorified thee on earth ;' as if he had 
said, I have laid aside the gloiy which I had afore the world was, all this 
while, and which was all this while my due, have left heaven and come to 
earth, and all to glorify thee on earth, ' Now glorify me,' &c. Christ 
reflects upon, and draws and includes all his glory to contribute and impute 
this double worth and satisfaction to his obedience. 

And to make this demonstration the more full and satisfactory, let us 
more particularly consider what was that special damage and injury sin 
did unto God. It was (as I shewed) the obscuring of the gloiy of God, 
and reflecting dishonour to him. Now then let us but weigh together, as 
it were, in two scales, that exceeding weight of the glory of Christ, who was 
debased, with the glory of God the Father, which was obscured by sin, 
satisfaction being a reducing things to an equality, and a making of amends 
in what is lost or endamaged ; and if it be in point of honour, it is requi- 
site that as much and as great an honour be debased to make restitution, 
as was reflected upon or taken away. And here you may remember that 
satisfaction in point of honour doth depend upon the worth and reputation, 
of the person that satisfies for it ; and what was the worth of Christ in his 
personal dignity I have spoken to, what is meet for the point in hand. And 
from thence it is evident that such worth of the party honouring, equally 
balances all the dishonour which sin had thi'own upon God. 

But, 2dly, as was also shewed, this satisfaction of Christ is not simply a 
giving honour to God, but a giving away his honom' to make God's gloi^ 
the more illustrious. Now, therefore, Christ made all his honom- a sacri- 
fice to God (I shewed how himself was the matter of the sacrifice), and 
therein indeed might especially be said to sacrifice himself, and to humble 


himself, and it is the principal meaning of those expressions, for his glory 
is himself. As a king, consider him as a king, and his gloiy is himself, 
for his being a king is whoUy matter of honour, and consists in nothing 
else ; and therefore we use the word ' His Majesty,'' for the king ; so God is 
called ' the God of gloiy,' Acts vii. 2 ; and ' the Father of glory,' Eph. i, 17 ; 
and Chi'ist, ' the Lord of glory,' 1 Cor. ii. 8 ; and the Jews paraphrasti- 
caUy use to say, ' the glory of God,' to express God himself; and we also 
in ordinary speech, speaking of a man of worth doing anything dishonour- 
able or unworthy of him, we say, ' he doth below himself,' for his honour 
is himself; and to any spirit that is noble, it is a nearer thing than wives, 
children, goods, or whatever. Now all this in men is but a spark of that 
image in God and Chi'ist ; and in Scripture phrase it is said of God, that 
* he made all things for himself,' that is, for his honour. And though 
the honour that he hath by it is but a manifestative honour and extrinse- 
cal, yet because himself is interested in it, and it is his, therefore it is 
called himself, and he is as tender of it as of himself, ' My glory I will not 
give to another,' Isa. xlii. 8. 

Now, therefore, let us come to weighing, and put these two glories in the 
scales, God's obscui-ed by sin, and Chi-ist's debased for sin. 

A double glory God hath. 

1. The one essential, the glory of the Godhead in itself. 

2. A manifestated glory unto us. And the fii'st is reflected upon by sin, 
the other detracted from. 

And Jesus Chiist, the second person, God-man, hath answerably a 
double glory, as was shewn, the one essential and equal to that of his 
Father ; the other due to be manifested in and upon his assumption of our 
natui-e. Now look, whatever can be said of the proportion of dishonour 
done to either of these glories by sin as concerning God, the like may be 
said of the debasement done to and performed by Christ, in respect of both 
those his glories also. 

And fii-st compare we the reflection and shadow cast upon then- essential 
glory on either side, and at least the scales will be even. The essential 
gloiy of God, although it cannot really be impaired by sin, yet it is reflected 
on by sin, and so that that gloiy which is impaired (as his manifestative 
is), being a peculiar belonging to his person, and indeed is himself (as was 
said), hence all the essential gi-eatness that is in God is taken into aggra- 
vate the guilt of sin, and hence there is a denomination given to our acts 
of sinning, as if they were destroying and dishonouring the Godhead ; as 
Rom. i. 23, speaking of the sm of idolatry, ' They changed,' says he, ' the 
glory of the incon-uptible God into the image of a coiTuptible man, and 
creeping things.' He speaks as if they had utterly destroyed the Godhead, 
and turned him into a creature ; thus a denomination is given to sin, as 
reflecting on the eternal Godhead and essence of it. 

Now, then, to answer this evil in sin, and make all even, it must be 
remembered what was afore said, that Christ that was debased was God, 
and his glory essentially equal to his Father ; and that though that his 
essential glory was not impaired, yet all the debasement of his person in 
the human nature reflected as much upon that, as that of sin doth any way 
upon God's. When he appeared in our flesh, I may say, he changed the 
glory of the incoiTuptible God into the image, yea, the reaUty, of a crucified 
man, a malefactor, the scum and dung of the earth, yea, a wonn and no 
man. And as sin hath a denomination, as it it did thus and thus to the 
essential Deity itself, so hath Christ's sufierings a denomination of reflect- 

Chap. X.] of cheist the mediator. 123 

infT on his Godhead in all its sufferings ; it is called ' the blood of God,' 
Acts XX. 28, and God may be said to have died, and to have been crucified; 
and so it is said, ' They killed the Prince of life,' Acts iii. 15, and 'cruci- 
fied the Lord of glory,' 1 Cor. ii. 8, Now then all that substantial glory 
of his comes in (as was said) as the foundation, to give worth to all he did 
or suffered, as reflected upon hereby. For as no creature could have satis- 
fied, because they have no radical internal worth to fill up this dispropor- 
tion, theirs is but a borrowed and extriusecal glory ; so if Christ had had 
no other, if indeed his glory had been but a borrowed glory, extrinsecal and 
but by representation, and but as called God, as kings are in name, not 
really and substantially (as the Arians and Socinians teach), then his being 
himself made 'of no reputation,' when his glory lay but in reputation, 
would have had no satisfaction in it, God, who had a substantial glory 
reflected on by sin, would never have regarded or accounted of receiving 
any honom- from the humbling of such a one. What is it to have a king- 
at-arms, or one that doth but personate a king, crouch unto a king ? "WTiat 
glory is it to the sun to have the stars to puU in their gloiy, and be put 
out, and not to shine, whenas all their glory is borrowed from itself? The 
creatures, although they may rob God of glory, and reflect dishonour upon 
God, and seem to eclipse him by sin, yet they can add no gloiy to him, as 
the moon, which receives light from the sun, may inteipose between it and 
the earth, but she can noway add to the sun's brightness, or make it more 
illustrious, no, not although she disappears in the presence of him, and looks 
pale. And no more would all the debasements of the creature, though 
directed and intended to give glory unto God. But if there were another 
sun as glorious as this, and you should see it hide its brightness in this 
sun's presence, as if not worthy to shine together with it, that the sun 
might alone appear ; or if you should see a king as great in majesty as ours 
come and leave his kingdom and royalty, and debase himself to honom* our 
king, what an honour adds this to the king, whenas it would not be so 
much for a subject to do this. (And this makes the pope's glory so extra- 
vagant and transcendent, that kings give their gloiy and power to him, and 
kiss his feet.) Now so did Christ lower his glory to God's, when he was 
equal in substantial gloiy to him. All the glory of the creatures is but 
accidental, put upon them as garments are, they shine alienis radiis, as 
stars with another's beams. Thus in kings, all their glory is accidental 
to their persons, therefore Chiist says, the glory of the lilies exceeded 
that of Solomon, Mat. vi. 29, because it was native and inbred in compa- 
rison of his. But Christ's is glory substantial, residing in his person, as 
light in the body of the sun. Accidental glory, such as in kings, doth not 
give a worth to all their actions ; they sleep, eat, drink, &c., as other men, 
and these actions are no more royal in them than in other men ; they do 
not all they do as kings ; but where substantial glory dwells, it transfaseth 
a value into every thing that is done ; and therefore Christ's glory, being 
his essence (as he is God), it diffuseth a royalty on all his actions, and 
so the least debasement of him to give gloiy to God, how infinite a 
value must it put upon it ! He having (as I shewed out of the text) an 
equal glory to his Father, and so his condescension makes at least the 
scales even. 

But then there are even in this respect some considerations that make 
the reflection of dishonour on Christ's substantial glory, greater than that 
by sin on God's, and so to outweigh it. 

1 . Because the creatures' act is but a tendency, or at most an attempt to 


eclipse this glory of God, and therein falls short in comparison ; for it is hut 
as if a mote should go about to eclipse the sun, when the sun shines round 
about it still. But these debasements of the Son of God, equal with God, 
are real, and they being arbitrary and done by himself, and from himself, 
are therefore greater and deeper than what the creatm'e could any way 
effect, for he himself, that is God, debaseth himself. 

2. Yea, and secondly, there is a personal glory proper to the second per- 
son as such, which was lessened and reflected on, besides his essential 
glory, as I may so distinguish it. For there is an essential glory common 
to all three persons, the gloiy of the Godhead, which is properly the object 
of sin ; and few or no sins are peculiarly against that proper personal glory 
of any of the persons apart. When we sin, we sin no more against the 
Father, than against the Son and Holy Ghost ; and even that sin against 
the Holy Ghost is rather against the effects of the Holy Ghost than against 
his person distinctly considered of by the sinner. Now then, in this de- 
basement of Christ, there was not only a reflection on his Godhead, as it is 
common to him with the other two persons, but that personal glory proper 
to him, as he was the second person, was in a further peculiar manner re- 
flected on ; and this in every debasement of his. Yea, that personal glory 
was in some respect lessened. For besides that his Father was greater than 
he in a true sense, upon the assuming of man's nature, he was also made 
less than other men, and the terminus or subject of this lessening or dimi- 
nution was truly the Son of God. For although it cannot be said that the 
Godhead sufiered, yet of the second person it may now truly be said, he 
sufiered as well in, as that he was made, flesh. Now the personal glory of 
the other persons is not debased or lessened by sin, because they do not 
personally manifest themselves : but the second person did personally 
manifest himself, and present himself to men ; and his person was 
made the sole butt, mark, subject, terminus of all the dishonour done 
the Godhead in him. His person was singled out to bear it, and be the 
sole receptacle thereof ; so as he being thus debased, this dishonour re- 
flected on his person and the glory thereof, besides what in common fell 
upon his essential glory, his Godhead, and so he came to have a further 
and more special debasement than the Godhead had by sin= 

But then, in the second place, let us make the comparison between the 
obscuring the manifested glory of God detracted from by sin, and the dis- 
honour done to Christ's manifested glory, which is the second thing, and you 
will find his losses in that manifestative glory that was due to him to ex- 
ceed God's losses in the dishonour done to his. For as was said, the 
manifestative glory due to Christ at his appearing in the flesh personally, 
must needs be more than what the Godhead any other ways could have 
ever manifeisted in effects, be they never so transcendent. As more honour 
is due unto a king if he appears in person than if his arms only be set up, 
or proclamation be made in his name, or than unto his picture or coin, so 
by the like reason unto ' God manifested in the flesh' (as it is said of Christ, 
1 Tim. iii. 16) a greater manifestation of glory is due than unto God, but 
manifest in his works, as Rom. i. 10, 20 ; and so more was to have shone 
in Christ, the express image of the invisible God (as Col. i. 15, and Heb. 
i. 3), than in God's works, which are but the footsteps of the invisible things 
of God ; or in his law, which is but the shadow of his glory : Heb. x. 1, 
* For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very 
image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offer year by 
year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.' Now that manifested 

Chap. XI. j of christ thk medutor. 125 

glory of God's (of which alone properly and really sin is the obscurer and 
the detracter from) is but that which shincth in his law, which we sin 
against, or as he is manifested to us in his works ; and this glory due to 
shine in Christ's person manifested in the human nature must needs infi- 
nitely transcend the glory of all those, yea, and in his person doth now 
shine more of the Godhead dwelling in him than in all his own works of 
redemption wrought by himself, which yet exceed those of creation wrought 
by God. And therefore, that he should empty himself of all that glory due 
to him the first hour he assumed our nature, he must needs lose more than 
God did or ever can come to lose by sinners, and so the satisfaction in 
that respect doth superabound. Yea, and this manifestative glory was as 
truly his due as his Father's glory was due to him, or ought to have been 
given the Father by us his creatures, either upon the manifestation of 
his glory in his works or holy law, in which the Godhead shined ; for 
because such a glory was his right, therefore all that great name or 
dignity he hath above the angels he is said to have * by inheritance,' 
Heb. i. 4. 


That upon the whole it is evident that there is all in the satisfaction made by 
Christ which justice can require. — An enumeration of the several pleas which 
may he framed against the sinner, and how they are all answered by what our 
Redeemer hath performed. 

Now these general grounds of satisfaction for sin being laid, if justice wiU 
yet contend, or Satan, or the sinner's conscience, dare to avouch or produce 
any of those particulars which were found in sin, so transcendently sinful 
as exceeded all the creatm'e's satisfaction, I make proclamation here in 
open com't, and do challenge heaven and earth, things visible and invisible, 
to bring in their bills and aggravations of a sinner's sinfulness; and they 
shall see a just, and full, and particular discharge unto highest satisfaction. 
And for a trial we will go over all those particular damages in honour which 
afore were mentioned, and require satisfaction for them, and you shall see 
that what Christ hath done, will in all things punctually and particularly 
make amends for them. 

First, If we reckon honour due to God left behind unpaid, which all the 
creatures are never able to restore, because all they can do is due for them- 
selves, and therefore they cannot afi'ord an overplus of glory to repay what 
is lost, yet Christ is able to make amends. For he who was thus glorious 
to the highest degree (and it was his due by inheritance), he laid aside his 
honour, ' made himself of no reputation,' so the text says, yea, emptied him- 
self of all, became vain, left himself disrobed and despoiled of all : * I am a 
worm and no man,' says the psalmist, Ps. xxii. 6, of him ; he made him- 
self nothing, became nothing, not in being or substance, but in account and 
reputation. It is said of Herod and his men, they did set him at nought, 
made nobody of him ; and when we saw him ' we esteemed him not,' says 
the prophet, speaking concerning the Jews' usage of him. Is. liii. 3. Yea, 
they called it blasphemy in him when he but meekly challenged his own, 
and told them for their good he was the Son of God. If God should reckon 
what manifestation of glory all those that have, or shall sin against him, had 
been able, or ought to have brought in to him, and which through their 


negligence and omission is now for ever lost, it will be found to hold no 
proportion unto what was to have been manifested in Chi'ist God-man the 
first lioui" of his assumption. For when he had assumed our natui'e per- 
sonally, there must needs be a- greater brightness (as the author to the 
Hebrews styles it, Heb. i. 3), a more glorious gleam or issuing forth of 
splendour was to accompany and shine forth in that nature so united, than 
could possibly result to God out of all other ways of revealing himself what- 
ever. Because they all are of a lower kind, and inferior unto this. This is 
a manifestation of the Godhead altioris ordinia, of a superior kind and order 
to all other. If himself personally appears, his gloiy must also appear as 
the glory of the only begotten Son of God. But he suffered all this utterly 
to be veiled and clouded, though sometime, perchance, as it were, a beam 
broke forth through a cranny, that, as John says, ' we saw his glory, as 
the only begotton Son of God,' John i. 14. Which yet was rather to make 
them believe what he was, than any way to glorify himself; but otherwise, 
he stole into the world as a prince disguised, and lived as an exile, debarred 
and kept fi-om wearing the crown of glory, which should have been set upon 
his head the first horn*. He stood out of his glory for three and thiiiy 
years, which was due to him as soon as he was conceived, therefore it 
comes in, ' Jesus was not yet glorified,' John vii. 39. What ! not yet ; 
not after thirty-three years' dwelhug in flesh and debasement ? Why, to 
stay for his crown one hour, in that one hour he should lose more than 
ever God could lose, in all that the creatures could aftbrd him, in aU those 
ways he had manifested himself to them by, unto eternity, or in any other 
way than by the assumption of a creatm-e he could ever shew. And yet, I 
say, this glory was his due the first minute ; for when he came into the 
world, when he first landed, it is proclaimed, ' Let all the angels of God 
worship him,' Heb. i. 6, and even as much was due then as he now wears 
in heaven, or as he put forth 'on the holy mount.' He hath not increased 
his personal glory by his own merits ; nil meruit sihi ; in that respect he 
deserved as great and high a name for personal glory as he hath now in 
heaven, for the great name he hath by inheritance, Heb. i. 4. I say, per- 
sonal glory as much was his due the first day ; for I confess there is a glory 
shines out of his works of mediation, and a glory of his ofiices, which is 
additional to his personal glory due unto his person. If a ruere creature, 
that had done never so much sei*vice to God, had been content to have 
stood out of that glory, which, as a reward, God had promised unto him, this 
would not have satisfied for God's loss of honour by sin, as this of Christ 
doth ; for, besides that the loss of the creature had not been equal to what 
God lost, as his was (as hath been shewn), even more than God could other- 
wise expect in his manifestation in his works ; the glory due to that creature 
as a reward of its service being but by promise, out of favour, could never 
have come up to satisfaction. But the glory due to Christ was by inheri- 
tance descended to him, when once united to God, by natural right, so as 
though he was man, j-et that man being one in person with the Son of God, 
is not to be reckoned the adopted Son of God, but the natural Son of God ; 
and so his gloiy was answerable, not borrowed, but natural to him and by 
right ; not as one who holds it by promise only, but as inheriting it. ' We 
saw his glory, as of the only begotten Son of God,' John i. 14 ; a glory 
that was proper to him, such as he who was the Son of God must neces- 
sarily have, and that by inheritance, as his right. Thus much for the first 
part of the bill — honour lost to God. 

Well, but justice will plead yet further damage, not only of honour omitted 

Chap. XL] of christ the mediator. 127 

find neglected to be given, but of honour robbed, stolen from God and given 
away to creatures, and so debased ; ' Changing the gloiy of the incorrupt- 
ible God, into an image made like to con-uptiljle man and fowls,' &c., llom. 
i. 23. Now, behold, Christ did that which well may make amends, for he 
not only emptied himself, and stood out of honour, but humbled himself to 
the death of the cross ; which, besides the pain, had also the highest shame 
accompanying it, put upon his person in it ; therefore we find both joined, 
Heb. xii. 2 — ' He endured the cross, and despised the shame.' And now, 
bring in all the objections and aggravations of dishonour done to God, and 
see them all equalled and exceeded in his debasement. 

First, Doth the evil of sin lie in a dishonour done by such base creatures 
as we are, to a God so glorious? And is it indeed the infinite disproportion 
between him and us makes the guilt thereof so heinous ? Why, if this per- 
son, so gi-eat as Christ was, and whose essential gloiy is equal with his 
Father, if he will subject himself to the lowest debasement that is possible, 
so as between that his glory, the glory of his person, and this his debase- 
ment, shall be as great a distance every way found as between the creatures 
and the glory they are able to give to God, or God to receive from them ; 
this must needs answer to, and fill up the disproportion. But there was a 
greater distance ; for he that is equal with God, takes ' upon him the form 
of a servant,' and will subject himself to God ; and if that be not low enough, 
he subjects himself to the basest of creatures, yea, and will fall lower yet, 
to the basest condition of creatures, yea, as low as hell itself, and for sub- 
stance endm-e the same anguish which the damned there do ; and shall not 
this make amends ? If sin hath ofi'ended God's glory as far he can be 
ofiended, quantum offendibilis est, he subjects himself quantum suLjicibilis est, 
as far as he can be subject. If sin exalts a creature above God, in lieu of 
it God will debase himself below all creatures, and of all conditions take 
the basest ; will not this hia falling so low rise up in all apprehension to 
highest satisfaction ? 

Again, Secondly, If you say God's prerogative and sovereignty is afironted 
by every sin ; Christ, though he can stand upon his prerogative as much a,s 
God, being equal with him, yet he lets it fall, lays it down, yea, stands and 
holds up his hand at a bar as a malefactor. Yea, it is that vei-y prerogative 
of his, and his being a king, that was the greatest exception which they had 
against him, r/loriajit crimen, his glory is turned into his shame; he is con- 
demned to death for an usurper and an impostor, for saying he was the 
Messiah, and king of the Jews. It was written as the title on his cross, of 
what he sufiered for ; and though he tells them that he was a king, and 
above a king, which was that good confession which Paul puts Timothy in 
mind of, w^hich he made afore Pilate, yet Pilate thinks himself a better man 
than he : ' Have I not power to condemn thee ? ' And will not Christ, thus 
divesting himself of all his royalty, in like manner make amends ? 

Thirdhj, Is not only God's prerogative, which he backs his law with, 
contemned, but all his glorious pei-fections sHghted and denied, as his 
wisdom, holiness, &c. ? So were all the excellencies in Christ debased, 

1. His person was debased ; ' He said he was the Son of God ; let God 
save him if he will have him,' say they of him when he hung on the cross. 
Mat. xxvii. 43. 

2. All his offices are blasphemed. 

(1.) Prophetical ; ' Prophesy to us,' say they in a jeer when they bufieted 
him, Mat. xxvi. 68, ' and tell us who it was that smote thee.' He will one 
day tell him that did it, at the day of judgment! 


(2.) Also, his kingly office ; Mat. xxvii. 42, ' If he be the king of Israel, 
let him come down,' said they, mocking him. 

And (3.) his priestly office also ; ' He saved others, himself he cannot 
save,' say they in despite, Mat. xxvii 42. They say this when he was doing 
that veiy thing they mocked him for, namely, saving others ; it was his 
business he hung upon the cross to finish. 

As thus his person and offices, so all his attributes suffered contempt. 
Though he was the Wisdom of his Father, and discovered more than ap- 
pears in all the works of creation and the law, yet how is he slighted as 
unlearned ! He knows not letters (say they, John vii. 15). And who are 
his followers ? None but the people that know not the law, John vii. 49. 
And how is Moses preferred before him ! John ix. 29, ' As for this feUow, 
we know not whence he is.' So how do they scoff at his omniscience, ' Tell 
us who it is that smote thee,' Mat. xxvi. 68. As if when they had blinded 
him, and covered his eyes, they thought they had hoodwinked his aU-seeing 
eye also. He that is truth itself is counted a deceiver of the people ; yea, 
he that is holiness itself is reckoned amongst transgi'essors, Isa. hii. 12, 
yea, the greatest of sinners ; and this not by men only, but by God him- 
self, by whom he was made sin that knew no sin, 2 Cor. v. 21, so that by 
imputation he was the gi-eatest sinner that ever yet the world had, as Luther 
used to speak. He was made, as it were, a sink into which the guilt of all 
sin was di'ained : ' The iniquities of us aU did meet in him,' Isa. liii. 6. 
His body on the tree was made the centre of all sins, as so many lines 
coming in upon him from the circumference of all ages. Yea, and he was 
not only to be accounted a sinner by others, but he was himself to do such 
actions whereby he ipso facto acknowledged himself such, as to fulfil the 
ceremonial law, to be cu'cumcised, &c., which was our bond, whereby we 
acknowledged oui'selves debtors to the law ; and he set his hand to it, as 
acknowledging the debt. And now methinks he that was holiness itself 
should least of all have brooked this dishonour. What ? Made sin ! Why ? 
It is that which he only hates, which his pui'e eyes abhor to look upon, and 
yet he must quietly bear the name of it, and take upon him the guilt of it, 
as if it were his own ; a greater indignity than for the chastest woman to 
be called a whore. I wiU say no more but this ; he that was the great 
God was called devil, and content to put it up. 

Lastly, The being and life of God makes sin most odious, as being that 
which sin, in the natm^e of the act, tends to take away fi'om God : for (as 
was said) as he that hateth his brother is a mm'derer, 1 John iii. 15, so he 
that hateth God is a mm-derer of him (though it doth him no hm-t) in the 
attempt or rather tendency of the act, though not in the attempt or inten- 
tion of the sinner ; and therefore the life of all mere creatures will never 
make amends, no more than the life of a traitor ever can for murdering 
his prince ; only it is all the satisfaction that can be had. And so in hell 
God takes their Uves for it, because it is all that can be gotten. But now 
come we to Christ ; he of whom it is said that he * hath life in himself,' 
John V. 26, and is the ' living God,' is content really to be mm-dered and 
put to death. Murderers (says Peter to the Jews, Acts iii. 15), ' ye have 
killed the Prince of life ;' and Paul says, ' They crucified the Lord of glory,' 
And though it was but in the flesh that he was crucified, as Peter elsewhere 
distinguisheth, yet the life he laid down was the hfe of his person ; and as 
it is called the blood of God which was shed, so this was the life of God 
which was taken away ; therefore, John x. 17, 18, Christ there calls it his 
life ; — ' I have power to lay down my life, and take it up again.' None could 

Chap. XI. j op christ the mediator. 129 

say so much but he who was God, but he who is the Lord of Hfo ; and it is 
more plainly expressed, 1 John iii. IG, ' Hereby we perceive the love of 
God, because he laid down his life for us.' It was the life of God, and that 
in so true and real a sense, as therein the utmost of his love appeared. Yea, 
further, he not only died, but death held him a while under it, as a con- 
queror of him, therefore, Rom. vi. 9, death is said to have once had domi- 
nion over him. Now this true and real laying down of his life must needs 
be more satisfactory unto God than the attempt, or rather tendency, that is 
in the act of sin to take God's life away can be reputed heinous. 

You may remember, when we did set forth (in that first part of this dis- 
course) sin's sinfulness, and the evil of it against God, wherein it was that 
it exceeded all the goodness of the creature (which yet was for God, as well 
as sin is said to be against God), we pitched it upon this, the undueness of 
the act of dishonour done to God by the creatures ; whereas all the honour 
their graces bring in to him, is due from them towards him. Now there- 
fore let us see if, even in this particular, the evil of sin be not exceeded by 
Christ's satisfaction also, that nothing may be omitted that may satisfy a 
sinner's reason about the all-sufficiency of this satisfaction. This undue- 
ness of the act of dishonour was the highest and utmost aggravation of 
man's sinfulness, and did cast the balance, and was found to weigh heavier 
than all the creatures' goodness. Now let us put Christ's debasement of 
himself into the balance with it, and we shall see it far over-balanced even 
by this, that all this debasement of his to glorify God was infinitely more 
undue ; which naturallj^ riseth thus to all men's apprehensions. 

1. In that it was such a way of giving honour to God by him, as God 
himself could no way challenge as his due from the second person towards 
him ; for he was equal with him. He did owe indeed (as all the persons 
do one to another, a mutual honour) an honour unto God, even as kings 
mutually honour one another ; yet still but as equals use to do. And if as 
man, being made inferior to God, he owed subjection, yet still not in this 
way of debasing himself. He honoured his Father, and his Father the Son, 
from all eternity ; for as they love one another, so they give honour one to 
another. But that God should have honour this way, by having his Son, 
a person his equal, become inferior to him, and obedient, and that so far as 
to death, and to profess that he did it freely at his command, this was in 
itself more than could be challenged, as due from him, by God, and there- 
fore must needs be a full amends for any dishonour thrown on him by sin. 
It is as if the king of Spain should come out of his own kingdom, and ad- 
mit himself into this of ours, and subject himself to our king and his laws, 
thereby to make our king seem greater ; what an honour were it to him ! 
More than all his subjects can do to him all sorts of ways in which they 
can be subject. 

And 2. As Christ's debasement was thus undue, in respect that God 
could not exact it from him but by his own voluntary compact, so most of 
all undue it was, if we consider that which so often hath been inculcated, 
viz., the glory that himself could challenge as his due, and that by right of 
inheritance ; and how great that was, and how due it was, hath been de- 
clared ; and for him to be so debased, how infinitely undue was it in this 
respect also ! Of sin's undueness it may be said, ' Hear, heavens ; and 
hearken, earth ;' that men should sin and rebel against the great God, 
so undue an act it is, and unworthy of the creature. But when we think 
or speak of this debasement of the Son of God, equal with God, to whom 
so much glory is due, stand astonished at it, all you angels and men ; 

VOL. v. I 


and with mere amazement fall and slirink into your first nothing, to think 
that ever it should be said, and be a truth, that the great God, the Lord of 
gloiy, should be crucified, the Lord of life killed. I appeal to j'ou all, if 
this be not an act infinitely more unworthy, and as much out of course, 
more horrid to the thoughts of men and angels, than sin can be supposed 
to be. That a base creature should sin against God, it is a thing to be 
wondered at indeed as a strange indignity ; but j'et the creatures, if they 
know themselves, may well know, yea, and fear, that they being but crea- 
tures, they may do it too soon, as the best of them did ; and it was a won- 
der rather that any stood. But that the Lord of glory should be thus 
debased and killed, no creature durst have thought it, if they had conceived 
it possible ; but it is so abhorrent as it could never have entered into their 
thoughts, had not God done it ; and it is marvellous in our ej-es. 

And lastly, That sin may have nothing left to boast of, and that we may 
omit nothing that mayor hath been any way pleaded about sin's sinfulness, 
but see it out-pleaded, and cast, and exceeded by this satisfaction of Christ's, 
let us put into the balance likewise those evil eifects mentioned also in that 
first part of this discourse, whereby the heinousness of sin was demonstrated 
to transcend the goodness of the creatures' graces in any effects of their 
goodness : you shall find the effects of Christ's righteousness to abound far 
above them. 

For, first, his actions, by reason of the dignity of his person, do please 
God more than sin can displease him. For if our works, although full of 
sin, are yet, by reason of our union with Christ as our head, made so ac- 
ceptable as to please God more than the sin in them doth displease him, 
how must his own works be accepted, wrought in himself, in our natm'e 
hypostatically united to him ! 

Secondly, And therefore if sin hath that inseparable evil (as was said) in 
the nature of it, that where it is found it condemns all, though the crea- 
ture had been in former times never so righteous, nor never so long such, 
so hath Christ's righteousness that inseparable royaltj^ to save and justify, 
though sins be never so great and many. So Eom. v. 17, he compares 
both the one and the other : ' If condemnation came by one man's dis- 
obedience, how much more shall, by an abundance of his righteousness, 
justification be unto life ? ' So as if he will impute this righteousness, and 
account it to the ugliest sinner in the world, then by virtue of the imputa- 
tion he cannot but justify him, and pronounce him as wortby of eternal 
life as the greatest and the holiest angel in heaven. For this righteousness 
claims it by the merit of it, when once the sinner can call it his. And 
although one sin spoils and makes void all the good in any creature, though 
it hath been of never so long continuance, yet his righteousness, on the 
contrary, is sin-proof for time to come, and hath the worth of his person, 
who is the gi-eat God, to give power to it to prevail against all sins past, 
present, and to come ; it is an ' everlasting righteousness,' Dan. ix. 24, 
such as which sinners can never spend or evacuate. And if sin take away 
the justifying power from grace, his righteousness takes away the con- 
demning power from sin : ' There is no condemnation to them that are in 
Christ;' for it ' condemneth sin itself.' Rom. viii. 1, 3, 'There is there- 
fore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk 
not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.' Ver. 3, ' For what the law could 
not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in 
the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin condemned sin in the flesh.' 



That all the pleas ichich the law can mulic ariainst a sinner are by this satis- 
faction of Christ also full D answered. 

And now we have shewn such abundant satisfaction given to God in 
point of his honour, the law niethiuks may well sit down and never so 
much as mention the debt that is its due. Yet if the law will needs brin» 
in her bill also, there will be found satisfaction full enough for its claim 

And first, in general, what is the law ? The will, word, and command 
of the great God. Well, but Christ is the Word of his Father in a higher 
and more glorious sense ; the original of this word and law. This is but 
the copy of what is substantial in him ; he is therefore called 6 /-(jyog, ' the 
Word,' John i, 1. Yea, and is not Christ the maker and the giver of that 
law ? Gal. iii. 19. And if he that made the law will be ' made under the 
law,' as, Gal. iv. 4, he was, and enter into bond to the law, and give the 
law power over him, as a servant and an apprentice to it, make himself a 
debtor to it and fulfil it, will not this make amends ? We might make very 
short work with the law's suit but by calling for her bond, which once she 
had to shew against those Christ died for. Therefore let the law shew and 
bring in that bond into open court. She returns answer, that she hath it 
not ; we find then that it is ' taken out of the way,' Col. ii. 14. But how, 
and by whom ? Not surreptitiously, and by stealth, or by force and vio- 
lence, but openly in the face of the com-t of justice. And by whom ? 
Christ blotting it out, nailing it to his cross, and ' triumphing openly,' says 
the 15th verse, and before the judge's face. The moral law, that was the 
creditor, and the bond which God appointed the Jews to give in, whereby 
to acknowledge the debt, was the ceremonial law ; therefore says the aj)ostle, 
'he that is circumcised' (upon which the bond was entered into, and 
sealed) ' is a debtor to the whole law.' Now, in token that the debt is 
paid, we find the bond cancelled ; and now she hath nothing to shew against 
believers so as to condemn us, and this is evidence sufiicient. But yet if 
the law, or any legal conscience, would notwithstanding have further satis- 
faction, and put us to prove and shew how the particular debts due there- 
unto were paid and discharged, both that of service to be done, acd fulfil- 
ling all the law, by active obedience, and then by passive obedience also, 
and know how the punishment and cui'se threatened was undergone, the 
particular discharge is yet upon record. Christ hath done both fully ; and 
what he hath done and suffered hath that in it which the obedience and 
suff"erings of no pure creature could have had, nor could have satisfied as 
his hath done. It is a point I shall speak of after, when I shall shew the 
fulness of parts that is in his obedience ; yet I shall say a little now, and 
enough to stop the law's mouth, for this is but a ruder draught of what 
more particularly we will fill up. 

First, He fulfilled the law in service and obedience perfonned unto it for 
the space of thirty-three years : John viii. 29, ' I do always the things that 
please him.' The text too says, 'he was a servant,' and obedient usque ad 
mortem, until death, Philip, ii. 8, and therefore all his life. He there men- 
tions that obedience in lieu of service due by us ; and although creatures 
could fulfil the law, yet they could not perform it for us, and for themselves 


too, because the law requires all they can do for themselves, and what they 
do is not their own ; but what Christ doeth shall stand for both. To go no 
further now than the text for clearing this ; — 

First, Though as Christ was man, the law required obedience of him for 
himself, when once he is become a man, and had once assumed our nature, 
yet being before his assumption equal with God (which the text on purpose 
mentions to shew the worth of his obedience), and at his choice to have 
continued free for ever from all subjection ; that he should take upon him 
voluntarily this condition of a servant (as the phrase ' he became obedient ' 
importeth, and he was servus /actus, non natus, so Gal. iv. 4, 'made under 
the law'). This act of such a person, and thus free, doth make all the 
obedience he upon this performed, to stand both for himself and for others 
also ; for the righteousness the manhood performed, his person had no need 
of. And then again the assumption of this nature was agreed on by cove- 
nant, and this by a more ancient law and decree made in heaven ere there 
were any creatures extant to give the moral law unto ; whereby it was 
agreed that the service he did in that nature should justify others ; so Isa. 
liii., ' My servant shall justify many ; ' though a servant, yet his service 
was not for himself, but others. And again, though as a man he is sub- 
ject, yet that man is personally united to the Godhead, and so partakes of 
all his royalties, whereof one is to be Lord of the law. Mat. xii. 18 ; * and 
therefore his fulfilling the law is truly the obedience of God, the Lord 
thereof, as well as his blood is the blood of God. The creatures have no 
relation or privilege whereby they can plead exemption from the law, but 
so can he ; but all that the creatures have is necessarily and wholly sub- 
ject, and therefore all which they can do is only for themselves. But his 
person is equal with God, and in that relation (which over-balanceth all 
other) is free and subject, not necessarily, but voluntarily, and that by a 
covenant made on purpose, the condition whereof was to assume the nature 
and the form of a servant in it, merely to justify others ; and therefore will 
stand good for us against the law. Jehovah, that hath no need of acquisite 
righteousness, is our righteousness, Jer. xxiii. 6. And, 

Secondly, Though creatures could not by their active obedience satisfy 
for another, because what they did was not their own, nay, it was but bor- 
rowed, yet he could say his soul was his own (as we use to speak) and that 
his life was his own, which no creature could say ; they cannot say their 
service is their own, and grace their own. And this propriety in what he 
had, did, or suflered, the Scripture often puts an emphasis upon, as that 
which conduceth to satisfaction, as when it is said he washed us with his 
own blood, Rev. i. 6. And * I will lay down my life, and take it up 
again ; ' and, John xvi. 14, ' he shall receive of mine.' And though, as 
some of the schoolmen object, Christ's human nature and all his actions 
were sub dominio Dei, under the dominion of God, as creatures, and God 
had an interest in them, yet this human nature, and all that it could per- 
form, was in another relation so peculiarly the second person's own, as it 
was not the other persons', namely, his own by personal union, which pro- 
priety was incommunicable to the other persons. Habitual grace, though 
it was the work of the Holy Ghost, Luke i. 35, yet due unto the human 
nature when united as its own ; and as the human nature was to be called 
not the adopted Son of God, but the natural, so the grace in that human 
nature might be called, now it is united to the Godhead, co-natural to him. 
And though the first grace of union was mere grace, yet that grace was 
* Probably a misprint for Mark ii. 28. — Ed. 

Chap. XII.] of christ the mediator. 183 

vouchsafed to the human nature, not the divine, subsisting in the second 
person, who as such is the person who owneth all both graces and actions 
in the human, and is the proprietor of them ; and he it was who was lessened 
by that assumption. Yea, and besides, when once that human nature is 
assumed, then all the dues and rights of that person, as to be full of grace, 
and Lord of glory, &c., was due and proper to him as the only begotten 
Son of God : John i. 14, ' And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt 
among us (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of 
the Father), full of grace and truth.' And grace was not given to him as 
a mere servant to give account of, but he entered upon it as a Lord ; for if 
he be ' the Lord of glory,' as 1 Cor. ii. 8, then the Lord of grace too ; and 
he is not as Moses, as a servant, but as a Son in his own house, Hcb. iii. 
5,6; and so there are these great and just respects upon his obedience, 
that it was free, and his person not subject to that law which he ful- 

And whereas the creatures must have gone over their works again and 
again to eternity, done nothing but written the blurred copy of their obe- 
dience, copy after copy, in their lives, and so have made nothing perfect, 
there is in Christ a fulfilling of it but once by him, which will serve for that 
eternal debt of active obedience. And as by once offering of himself, Heb. 
X. 14, so by one righteousness and obedience, Rom. v. 18 ; that is, once 
gone over, he is able to justify us for ever. And therefore he tells his 
apostles, a little afore his death, that he had now but one thing to do, and 
that was to drink of the last cup ; and how do I long, says he, till it be 
accomplished ! And at his death he tells his Father, John xvii.*4, ' I have 
finished the work which thou gavest me to do.' And so he having des- 
patched the active part, he had space enough left to undergo the passive, 
which, as I shewed in the first part of this discourse, no creature was cap- 
able of. Nay, further, he can do both at once : in obeying, suflfer ; and in 
suffering, obey ; and each successively, so as God shall be no loser by the 
one or the other, and in the end can say of both, 'It is finished.' Thus 
much for the debt of active obedience. 

Secondly, Now, if we come to passive obedience, we shall find that he 
was able so to undergo it, as shall put that worth into it, as it shall soon 
be finished, and be yet satisfactory. 

First, Whereas no creature could have so much as borne the imputation 
of sin (which yet was necessary to satisfaction), for it would have withered 
and shrivelled up all their grace, because their grace is all but washy stuff, 
and but as a gilding by gold slightly overlaid ; now Christ's grace is sub- 
stantial, it was as gold itself, therefore it was sinproof. He can be made 
sin, and yet his grace continue, as ours doth not, when Adam's sin is 
imputed. Grace maintains itself in him, not by a covenant of works, but 
by the personal union and the rights thereof, and so can bear the guilt oi 
all our sins, and his grace never a whit the worse for it ; his person ia 
unpeccable, and so uncapable of hurt by the imputation of sin. 

Secondly, The life and comforts thereof, which he lays down, and sacri- 
ficeth, is his own. His life is not due to God, as is the creatures', for it is 
given him ' to have life in himself,' John v. 26. ' And I have power over 
my life to take it up and lay it down,' says he. God, that hath power over 
life and death, hath not power over his : John x. 17, 18, ' Therefore doth 
my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again.' 
Ver. 18, ' No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have 
power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command- 


ment have I received of my Father.' So as whatever he loseth in suffering 
for us shall be his own, he will not borrow anything to suffer with, but all 
he offers is his own, as it must be, if it be a mediating death. He was able 
to offer up himself, and so be his own sacrifice, altar, and priest ; he bor- 
rowed nothing ; and this all at once ; and this no creature could do. 

1. He being God, was able to be his own priest, and in dying offered up 
himself to God, and needed no other priest : so Heb. ix. 14, ' through his 
eternal Spirit he offered up himself.' Yea, and 

2. He finds a sacrifice also, which was in a true respect his own, a 
respect wherein it was not God's, himself offering up his bodj', Heb. x. 10, 
and pouring forth his soul an offering for sin, Isa. liii. 10. And, 

3. He is the altar himself: Heb. xiii. 10, 'We have an altar whereof 
they have no right to eat, which serve the tabernacle.' And so he offers 
all upon his own cost, and boiTows nothing. 

Tliirdh/, Now in the last place, let us take a brief survey of all those 
inseparable inconveniences (mentioned in the first part of this discourse) 
which we found to attend upon and clog the passive obedience of all mere 
creatures, if they should presume to undertake it, and you shall see them 
all to melt away, and come to nothing before his fulness. As, 

First, The creatures would very hardly have so much as dared to die and 
undergo it for us : Piom. v. 7, ' For a good man peradventure one would 
dare die :' Jer. xxx. 21, ' Who hath engaged his heart,' says God, ' to draw 
nigh unto me ?' No crea'.ure durst do it, but only, ' this one that shall 
come out ^"the midst of you' (as there) ; ' he shall draw near to me.' He 
durst encounter with his Father's wrath ; he hath the hardiness to encounter 
with it, and to bear it and not be broken. The wrath of God it broke the 
backs of angels, but, Isa. xlii. 14, ' My servant,' says he, * whom I uphold, 
shall not be broken.' Again, 

Secondly, Will he be overcome with it, or always satisfj-ing ? No ; where- 
as if any of the creatures had had the boldness to undertake it, yet they 
must have been always satisfying, and so we should never have come to 
have our bond out ; but Christ will bear it, so as to come at last to say, 
' It is finished,' as he did say at his death. He that was to be our mediator, 
was to rise again as a conqueror over death, to overcome hell, God's wrath, 
and not lie wrestling under them to eternity ; for if he had lain by it, and 
had been kept in prison, so long the debt had not been paid. If ever 
therefore he will justify us by his death, he must overcome and rise again, 
else we should still be in our sins, as 1 Cor. xv. 17, ' And if Christ be not 
raised, your faith is vain ; you are jet in your sins.' And this no creature 
could ever do, God's wrath would have held him tugging work to eternity, 
and they never have risen again from under it. He that overcomes that, 
must be as strong as God himself. Yea, and he must do this himself, by 
his own power too. It was not enough to be raised up, as Lazarus was, 
by the power of another ; that will not serve to satisfy for a sinner. For 
that power that raised him, must first satisfy and overcome God's wrath, 
eluctate, and break open the prison doors. Now if another power than his 
own had done it, that party that helped him had been in part the mediator, 
and so not he. But Christ being God, he is able to do all this, and to do 
it by his own power. For, 

1. Being God, he was backed with that power that was able to raise him 
up, and to loose the pains of death ; yea, and it was impossible he should 
be held thereof, says Peter, Acts ii. 14. Those pains of death there men- 
tioned were fi'om the wrath of God, which would have stayed all the creatures 

Chap. XII.] op cnnisT the mediator. 135 

in tbo workl for* ever rising; and the place implies that those pains would 
not have let him go till they were loosened and overcome ; foi' if possil)lo, 
they would have held him ; but being he was God, it was not possible ; but 
he takes hell-gates, like another Samson, and throws them oil" their hinges, 
carries them away, and swallows up death in victory. 

2. He could raise himself up ; * Destroy this temple,' says he, John ii. 
19, and ' I have power to raise it up,' I myself. The body could not raise 
itself, nor the soul have joined itself to that body ; therefore if he had been 
but mere man, he could never have done it, but that Spirit, the eternal 
Godhead, could : 1 Peter iii. 18, * He was put to death in the flesh,' that is, 
his human nature, ' but quickened in and by the Spirit,' that is, his God- 
head united thereunto. And he will thus overcome, not by mere power, 
by force, but in a way of justice, so as justice itself shall willingly let him 
go free, as being itself first satisfied. Yea, he will overcome upon such 
terms that it shall be unjust to hold him any longer, unjust, and so impos- 
sible in that sense also ; for he will in a few hours pay the whole debt, 
undergo the whole wrath due ; that which the creatures' strength could 
endure but by drops (and therefore endures it ever), he will be able to bear 
at once, so as justice itself shall say, It is finished, and I am satisfied. 

And further, when he hath despatched it, there will be time enough left, 
even an eternity of time, to reward him in, and to be glorified with the glory 
he had before the world was. This was another inconvenience attended 
the creatures' satisfaction, that it must always be a-satisfying, and so should 
never have been rewarded ; which God would never put any creature to, 
for then he should require and accept the highest obedience from a creature 
whom he should never have time to reward for it. But Christ can so 
satisfy as there will be time enough to reward him in. Yea, and he needs 
but a little time to satisfy in, and then he will survive and live again to call 
for his reward : ' He shall prolong his days, and see his seed, and be 
satisfied,' Isa. liii. 11. And therefore in this text we read of ' a great name 
above every name,' which as a reward God gave him for his being obedient 
unto death, Phil. ii. 9. And, 

3. Thirdly, Will his satisfaction serve but one sinner (as also I shewed 
would be the case if creatures had performed it ; yea, God must have 
sacrificed as many innocent creatures as he meant to save sinners) ? No ; 
Christ's satisfiiction will sei've for worlds, Rom. v. 17, 18. He is able to 
bring in such abundance of righteousness as abounds to many. 

4. And in the last place, to crown the conclusion of this discom'se with 
an additional weight of glory, that is more than all that hath been spoken. 
What will there be but just enough in this his obedience to make satisfac- 
tion for sin, and procure peace for sinners ? The creatures they could not 
have done so much. No ! But his will not only satisfy and make peace, 
but also reconcile, make friends : Col. i. 20, ' And, having made peace 
through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto him- 
self ; hj him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven.' 
His righteousness will not only pacify vengeance, but there is enough in it 
to bring us into favour with God. The worth and grace of his person is 
such, and he so beloved, as it makes us, though sinners, graciously accepted 
in his beloved, Eph. i. 6, brings us into a degree of favour infinitely greater 
than ever, and more lasting. He is the natural Son of God, the beloved in 
whom God's soul is well pleased; and his love being conveyed to us through 
him, it falls upon us with more strength and ferA'om' than ever. And also 

* That is, ' from.'— Ed. 


this offering up himself was so sv/eet a smelling sacrifice to God (as Eph. 
V. 2), that although God expressed never so much anger against Christ as 
when he hung upon the cross, yet he was never so well pleased by him as 
then ; nay, he was more pleased than he had been displeased with all the 
sins the creatures have or can commit. The damned spirits their punish- 
ment satisfies not ; vengeance can never suck out blood enough ; and yet 
if what they did could satisfy, it would never rise so high as to please God, 
never be of worth enough to bring them into favour again. But here when 
first vengeance had sucked its full, and falls off satisfied, then the favour of 
his person, the willingness of his obedience, purchaseth an overplus, a re- 
dundancy of merit, a surplusage of riches, ' unsearchable riches,' Eph. iii. 8, 
not only able to pay our debts the fii'st day (and that is the least part of the 
benefit by it), but enough besides to purchase heaven itself as a portion for us, 
the favour of God. Yea, as much there is of it as we can spend or take out 
in glory to eternity. God had large thoughts of great and glorious bless- 
ings to be bestowed upon his people, and the righteousness of Christ is as 
large in merit as God's heart in purposes, adequate thereto ; therefore the 
apostle makes God's grace and Christ's righteousness of equal extent, so 
that what God intended to be bestowed, his righteousness hath purchased: 
Kom. V. 17-20, ' For if by one man's offence death reigned by one ; much more 
they which receive abundance of grace, and of the gift of righteousness, shall 
reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.' Ver. 18, ' Therefore as by the offence 
of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation ; even so by the 
righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of 
life.' Ver. 19, ' For as by one man's disobedience many were made 
sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.' Ver. 
20, ' Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where 
sin abounded, grace did much more abound.' Yea, the merit of this his 
obedience is so great, as it shall never be rewarded to the full ; the saints 
shall not have to eternity the full worth of it out in glory. 

Chap. I.] of chbist the mediator. 187 


Christ^s willingness to the ivork of redemption from everlasting till 
he accomplish it. 

But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year. 
For it is not jwssible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away 
sins. Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and 
offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou j^i'epared me: in burnt 
offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure ; then said I,Lo, 
I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me) to do thy will, God. 
Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and offering 
for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein (which are offered 
by the law) ; then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, God. He taketh 
away the first, that he may establish the second. By the which ivill we are 
sanctified, through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all, — 
Heb. X. 3-^10. 


That there are two things to be considered in the obedience which Christ per- 
formed, the will and the deed. — That from all eternity he expressed his 
willingness, in his consent to undertake the work. 

As in all our obedience there are two principal ingredients to the true 
and right constitution of it, the matter of the obedience itself, and the prin- 
ciple and fountain of it in us : whereof the one, the apostle calls the deed, 
the other, the will — which latter God accepts in us, oftentimes without, 
always more than, the deed or matter of obedience itself — even so in 
Christ's obedience, which is the pattern and measure of ours, there are 
these two eminent parts which complete it. 

I. The obedience itself, and the worth and value of it, in that it is his, 
so great a person's. 

II. The willingness, the readiness to undertake, and the heartiness to 
perfonn it. The dignity of the person gave the value, the merit to the 
obedience performed by him. But the will, the zeal in his performance, 
gains the acceptance, and hath besides a necessary influence into the worth 
of it, and the virtue and efficacy of it to sanctify us. All which you have 
in the text. The ' ofiering up the body of Jesus : ' there is the matter. 
The 'obedience of him to death:' there is the will by which he offered it 
up : * by which will.' As calling not only for a distinct, but a more emi- 
nent consideration, and both necessarily concurring to om- sanctification 
and salvation; ' By which will we are sanctified.' Now the stoiy of his 
willingness to redeem and save, or the will by which we are sanctified, is a 
story of four parts. 


1. Of his actual consent and undertaking tlie work, made and given to 
Ms Father from everlasting. 

2. The continuance of that his will to stand to it from everlasting, unto 
the time of his incarnation and conception. 

3. The renewal of this consent when he came into the world. 

4. The stedfast continuance of that will all along in the performance, 
from the cradle to the cross. 

And 1. As to his voluntary undertaking it 'afore the world was.' In 
the handling and discovery of those transactions of God the Father with him 
about the work of redemption, I have spoken something of Christ's willing- 
ness and consent, as it was there necessary ; for else I could not have set 
forth the issue and conclusion of that treaty made by the persons shewing 
themselves ; yet so as I reserved enough to make it a distinct head, when 
I should come to Christ's part. And so I here begin with it ; for it was 
then, as was said, left by God the Father with him, and did wholly lie 
upon him. 

It was necessary that Christ's consent should be then given, even from 
everlasting, and that as God made a promise to him for us, so that he should 
give consent again unto God. Yea ; and indeed it was one reason why it 
was necessary he that was our mediator should be God, and existent from 
eternity, not only to the end he might be privy to the first design and con- 
trivement of our salvation, and know the bottom and the first of God's mind 
and heart in it, and receive all the promises of God from God for us, but 
also in this respect, that his very consent should go to it from the first, 
even as soon as his Father, should design it. And it was right meet it should 
be so ; for the performance and all the working, operating part was to be his, 
and to lay* all upon his shoulders to execute, and it was a hard task, and 
therefore reason he should both know it with the first, seeing he was extant 
together with his Father, and should also from the first contrivement by his 
Father give his consent to it. It was fit that both his heart and head should 
be in with the first. And jow have all in one Scripture, Isa. ix. 6, where, 
when Christ is promised, ' Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given,' 
observe under what titles he is set forth unto us : ' Counsellor, the mighty 
God, the everlasting Father.' Where everlastingness, which is affixed to 
one, is yet common to those other two. The ' everlasting Counsellor,' as 
well as ' everlasting Father ; ' for he was both Counsellor and Father, in 
that he was the viif/hti/ God, and all alike from everlasting. For, being 
God, and with his Father as a Son from everlasting, he must needs be a 
Counsellor with him, and so privy unto all God meant to do, especially in 
that very business, for the performance of which he is there said to be given 
as a son, and born as a child, and the etfecting of which is also said to be 
laid wholly on his shoulders. Certainly in this case, if God could hide 
nothing from Abraham he was to do, much less God from Christ, who 
was God with him from everlasting. And as he was for this cause to 
be privy to it for the cognisance of the matter, so to have given his actual 
consent likewise thereunto : for he was to be the father and founder of all 
that was to be done in it. And in that very respect, and in relation to that 
act of will then passed, whereby he became a father of that business for us, 
it is he is styled the ' everlasting Father,' and that from everlasting d parte 
j)Ost. For it is in respect of that everlastingness he is God, and so father 
from everlasting, as well as God from everlasting ; a counsellor for us with 
God, a father of us, and our salvation. God's counsellor, because his wis- 
* That is, 'lio.'— Ed. 

Cu-vp. I.J OP cnmsT the mediator. 139 

dom -was jointly in that plot and the contrivcment of it : and father hoth of 
lis and this design, because of his will in it, and undertaking to cfl'ect it. 
In that his heart and will were in it as well as the Father's, he was there- 
fore the father of it as well as God, and brought it to perfection. 

I acknowledge the Scripture is more sparing in recording that hand and 
will that the Son of God had in it as from everlasting. And I have long 
apprehended this to be the reason of it ; because his will is so necessarily 
and naturally resolved into his Father's will, they having but one will be- 
tween them (as I have elsewhere alleged it upon this very argument), but 
chictly because what was done as in the point of our salvation from ever- 
lasting, it is and was the proper honour of God the Father ; and so the 
concurrence of the Son is swallowed up in the Father's contrivements about 
it ; and the rather also, because the Son hath manifested his willingness so 
abundantly in the very performing it, which necessarily imported and re- 
quired this everlasting consent of his, and argues it. Hence so little is 
explicitly said of it. But as the w^ork of redemption performed in time is 
attributed to the Son, so these works from everlasting to the Father. And 
therefore all the speech is of what he then did ; how he made promise to 
Christ, and blessed us in him with all spiritual blessings, and sware he 
should be priest upon the veiy day he begat him, in Heb. v., which refers 
both to his eternal generation and call to the office of priesthood, from the 
same everlasting, as well as to that in time. 

Yet there are two things said elsewhere, that imply Christ's full consent 
given from everlasting, in answer unto that oath of God. For it is not 
barely said, as in that place, that he w^as 'made a priest' passively, as dedi- 
cated onlj^ by his Father to the priesthood, that might have been supposed 
to have been without his own actual consent given ; like as parents, from 
the births of their children, have dedicated them to the ministiy, or the like 
calling, as Hannah did Samuel without his knowledge ; and thus also 
Sampson was a Nazarite. But it was not so here, that his being made a 
priest then by his Father, is elsewhere interpreted by his being made a 
' surety of a covenant.' So Heb. vii., by comparing the 21st and 22d 
verses together. In the 21st verse that oath is mentioned, ' The Lord 
sware and will not repent. Thou art a priest.' And this is interpreted by an 
inference from it, ver. 22, * By so much was Jesus made surety of a better 
testament.' Now, this oath, though it was recorded and uttered by David, 
Ps. ex., after Moses' law supposed given, as the last verse of that chapter 
insinuates, yet we elsewhere find this covenant to be called an everlasting 
covenant, and the everlasting gospel, as Piev. xv., as that which had been 
made and lain hid in God from everlasting, d ^Jrtfte post, as the apostle, 
speaking of the gospel, plainly insinuates, Rom. xvi. 25, 26, ' The mystery 
kept secret since the world began ; but now is made manifest, according to 
the commandment of the everlasting God,' which special attribute of 
eternity is there given God, to signify that though he had ' kept it secret 
since the world began,' and but now revealed it, yet he had framed and 
contrived it from everlasting and afore the world. And it is certain, that 
as all promises in the word are but the copies of God's promises made to 
Christ for us from everlasting, so these oaths and covenants recorded in the 
word are but the copy of that oath and covenant struck betwixt God and 
Christ from everlasting. These the extracts, those the original. 

Now, then, if the intent of God's oath was to make a covenant of it, and 
not only a promise but a covenant, then Christ's consent is manifestly im- 
ported. If it had only been called a promise from God, that would not 


necessarily have implied Christ's consent, though it would have implied his 
existence or being then, as I have used to argue from that place, Titus i. 2, 
* In hope of eternal life, which God that cannot lie promised before the 
world began.' But it being called further a covenant, it doth import two ; 
for as a mediator is not of one but two, so a covenant is always the consent 
of two, and not of one only ; it cannot be a covenant else. You use to 
say, to every bargain two woi'ds must go ; the meaning is, the consent of 
two parties. So to every covenant ; it had not been a complete covenant 
else. If God had sworn to it ; yea, if Christ himself had been secretly 
willing, yet if by his consent expressed it had not been struck up, it had 
not been a covenant. A purpose also it might have been called, but not a 

Yea, and let me further improve it. If Christ had not fully and perfectly 
consented, it had not been a perfect covenant. Yea, and if he had not at 
first propounding of it (which was from everlasting) come off to it, without 
taking any time to deliberate, it had not been an everlasting covenant ; that 
is, from everlasting. 

But (which is more) the second person did so fully engage himself, that 
God calls him not only his covenanter, but his covenant. It is in that place, 
Isa. xhx. 8, out of which I have elsewhere shewed how the covenant was 
struck dialogue -wise. You may see there how it was driven ; and after he 
had shewn upon what considerations Christ came off to it, he thereupon in 
the 8th verse calls him his covenant. 

And if it be objected that a covenant may be made without the consent 
of both parties, for God says, ' This is my covenant,' when he promiseth 
to give to us (who had not then consented) a ' new heart,' &c. 

Yet for answer, consider that this promise alleged was necessarily made 
fij'st to Christ for us, and was driven covenant-wise with him ; and in that 
respect it is that it becometh to be called a covenant ; as thus it respects 
us, because indeed made with him for us first, and so made known unto us. 
The meaning is, that therefore it is that God promiseth on his part to give 
us a new heart, because Christ promised afore to him, for his part, to work 
redemption for us, otherwise it could not have been called a covenant till 
we had consented. 

Then (2.) the word, ' He was made a surety,' doth argue it also, for that 
evidently imports an undertaking on Christ's part : and so as the oath was 
God's, so the suretyship was Christ's. And a surety, 'E77U05 is a plighter 
of his troth, by ' striking hands,' as the phrase in the original, Prov. xxii, 26. 

Now 2. for the second interval of the continuance of that his wiUingnesa 
fi'om everlasting unto the time of his coming to perform it, that is as evident 
also out of Prov. viii. 30, which shews how his delights were in it all the 
while ; and therefore his heart was more especially set upon it than all 
works else. But this I have also spoken unto elsewhere. 

Chap. II.] of ohrist the mediator. 141 


That Christ renewed his consent as soon as he came into the world. — That his 
human nature from his first conception agreed to it. — That this is apparent 
from the scope and intent of the twenty-second Psalm. 

But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance again made of sins every year. 
For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away 
sins. Wherefore, when he cometh into the icorld, he saith, Sacrifice and 
offering thou wouldst not, but a body hast thou prepiared me. — Heb. X. 3-5. 

The other two parts of his willingness come now to be handled. 

I. His willingness and consent renewed, when he came into the world, 
to perform what he had undertaken and covenanted for from everlasting. 

II. The constant and fixed postm-e of his will, and heartiness in the work 
all along, during his lifetime, and in his death, till he had finished it, John 
xiii. 1. I shall not need to pursue this any further than unto his death, 
for the rest of his work in heaven was pleasant work, and but as the reaping 
the joyful harvest of his seed sown in tears. 

The first I call the will of dedication, or consecration of himself by a vow 
to this great work, then solemnly made and given when he came into the 
world ; the latter, the will of execution or performance. The first is hke 
the dedication of the temple, which was his type, and was a most glorious 
action, and fundamental to all that followed ; and calls for an answerable 
regard and observation from us. The dedications of the outward temple, 
the type of his body, the tabernacle made without hands, were the most 
solemn actions recorded in the Old Testament. And the first dedication 
had to accompany it the greatest hecatombs and sacrifices that ever were 
afore or after, joined with a large, set, and powerful prayer, composed by 
Solomon, and upon record. The other by Zerubbabel had a yearly feast, 
called the ' feast of the dedication,' to celebrate the memorial of it. But 
' a greater than Solomon is here,' and a more glorious dedication of that 
temple, which was the glory of that second, as Haggai had foretold, Hag. 
ii. 9. What sacrifices of prayers should we then ofi'er up to God upon the 
news thereof? 

I. For the first, Christ's willingness and renewed consent when he came 
into the world. These words hold forth eminently two things concern- 
ing it. 

1. The time of Christ's dedicating himself. 

2. The dedication itself. 

1. The time you see is at the very instant of his coming into the world, 
to undergo this great work and service. * When he comes into the world, 
he says,' &c. This must needs be observed (as it is) a great and mighty 
secret, that the very words that God the Son then used to God the Father, ' 
at the moment of his incarnation (when he was to take our nature, to be- 
come flesh, and appear in this world as a part thereof), should be recorded, 
which words were before known alone to the three persons ; which yet the 
Holy Ghost, the gi'eat secretary of heaven, hath vouchsafed to reveal unto 
us ; for the great concernment of them, as to our salvation, so to our know- 
ledge thereof. The words were first uttered by David, prophetically of 
Christ, Ps. xl. 6, 7, and the apostle not only interprets them of Christ, but 
adds that which David mentioned not. David speaks not a word of the 


time tlicat the date of tliis speech should be at, viz., when he should come 
into the world. No ; this is one of Paul's secrets, revealed to him by the 
Holy Ghost, and could have been known from no other hand. You have 
the like speech recorded of the Father's to Christ, when he came first to 
heaven, by the same David, though the time thereof is more clearly hinted 
there, in the words themselves, Ps. ex. 1, ' The Lord said to my Lord, Sit 
thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.' 

The great inquiry next will be, who this / was, in Ileb. x. 7, that should 
then utter it ? Whether the second person only, as now being to take 
up our nature, or withal, the human natui'e concurring with him in that 

1. That it was the speech of the second person, then existing, is evident. 
For it was spoken when the Holy Ghost was framing the body or human 
nature in the womb ; * A body hast thou fitted me : lo, I come.' For he 
is the person, the vie, and the /, that took up that body into one person 
with himself. He was more concerned than that human nature, and gave 
more away by his incarnation and the sufferings that followed ; and there- 
fore his willingness was the more requisite and eminent, and to that end 
recorded for om- comfort. Thus at the instant when the human nature was 
a-making, and so was not capable as 3'et to give consent, yet had the great 
and total sum of glory due to it upon its union with that person, given 
away for thirty-three years to come, by him that was indeed the person that 
assumes it. Then did the second person (that is the person to whom all 
actions are attributed) express his readiness and willingness, ' Lo, I come.' 
And to shew he did it the most deliberately, and consulto, as we say, it is 
prefaced how he had taken aforehaud consideration of all ways else ; and 
now that his Father had took a summaiy of all other means, that might be 
in pretence to redeem mankind, and how all would prove invalid, giving 
one instance for all the rest, as of which the experiment fully has been 
made, namely, sacrifices and burnt- offerings ; and so by that one instance 
for all other, at once declaring that all creature sacrifices would be too hght, 
and of no value : ' Sacrifices and burnt- ofierings thou wouldst not.' And 
be speaks withal as one who had consulted his Father's decrees, ' the volume 
of that book ' written in heaven, wherein all our names are written, Heb. 
xii. 23, and had there seen all the whole work set down, and every tittle of 
God's will he was to perform or suffer. And now when it was come to the 
very moment of time set down, the fulness of time, Christ the Son ofiers 
himself to perform every jot of it ; and doth not so much as stay expecting 
his Father's answer in return, or that he should speak anew to him about 
it, or move him in it, but prevents him. He says, ' Lo, I come ;' as car- 
rying all this in his heart written there, and precisely remembering the 
time, the moment ; for you see himself is only here to speak to his Father. 

So then you have the speech which at that instant not only the angel 
spake to his mother on earth, Luke i. 28-38, but here also that which 
the Son spake in heaven. And it speaks all willingness, yea, heart and 
zeal not to fail a moment, ' Lo, I come to do thy will, God.' And it is 
with an Ecce, ' Lo and behold ' how ready I am to do it. 

2. It is worth our next inquiry what consent, and when it was, that the 
human natm'e, that body which he assumed, actually did first give. 

(1.) It was necessary that this human nature should likewise consent 
and be willing ; for as it was a distinct nature from the divine, so it had a 
distinct will, and also it was concerned, being to be made the subject of all 
the sufferings, the sacrifice to be given away and ofl'cred up, as the 10th 

Chap. II.] of christ the mediator. 143 

verse hritli it. It is necessary that it consent too, when it is able to put 
forth an act of consent, and of a deliberate will. The fundamental consent 
was the divine person's, and the act of assuming our nature, and coming 
into the world, and writing his name among crefitures, was solely and singly 
the act of the divine person. But yet there is to be an accessory consent 
of the human nature, now married into one person with the divine, con- 
cerning this. 

(2.) The question will be about the time, whether at his first coming into 
the world this consent was actually given ; or, that the consent of the 
human nature was included, as of one under age, in the consent of the 
divine person, the Son of God. 

For answer ; how soon, and when first, the human nature gave his con- 
sent, is hard to say. 

1. This may safely be affirmed, that as soon as, or when first he began 
to put forth any acts of reason, that then his will was guided to direct its 
aim and intentions to God as his Father, from himself as the mediator. And 
look, as in infants' hearts, if they had been born in iunocency, there would 
have been sown the notion of God, whom they should first have known in 
and by whatever they knew else ; and the moral law being w)itten in their 
hearts, thej' should have directed their actions to God and his glory, through 
a natural instinct and tendency of spirit ; the principal law written in their 
hearts then, and wherein holiness consists, being to direct all to God and 
his glory. Thus it was in Christ when an infant, and such holy principles 
guided him to that, which was that will of God as to him, and to be per- 
formed by him ; and which was to sway and direct all his actions and 
thoughts, that were to be the matter of our salvation and justification, which 
were to be exerted according to the capacity of reason, as it should grow 
up more and more. Hence therefore this law, from the very first of his 
acting intelligentlj', must move and predominantly carry all along with the 
motion of it, as the j^iimtim vwhile doth all the rest of the spheres. And 
look, as it would have been necessary that the law of love to God, and 
aiming at his glorj', should have acted all thoughts and imaginations rational 
in infants in innocency, or they had not acted holily, as parts and pieces 
of mankind ought to do, when they acted, so Christ, being not only a man 
that had the law of holiness in him, but also the Messiah or mediator 
by special office and calling, and accordingly had that special law of 
his office written in his heart, it was as necessary to the performance 
of that office, that all thoughts and acts of understanding, &c., should 
be directed to God by him from the first, as works and parts of mediation, 
as it was for him, as a man, to address them all unto God's glory, as parts 
of holiness or righteousness. For else he had not discharged his office and 
calhng from the first, nor had those first dawnings and actings of his will, 
thoughts, and affections, been involved and included as parts and pieces of 
his mediation, as the other parts of his obedience afterwards were. But 
now what Christ did when a child, hath a meritoriousness in it, as well as 
what he did when he was a man giown ; and also what he suffered, his veiy 
circumcision is made influential into our sanctification, through the merits and 
virtue of it, as well as his after being baptized when thirty years old. And 
therefore for certain his actions, which proceeded from will and understand- 
ing from the first, had in their proportion the same meritorious influence. 

The Twenty-second Psalm, which was peculiarly made for, and in the 
name of Christ, doth expressly and directly tells us not only that God tf ok 
him out of the womb, and that he was cast upon God from the womb, 


ver. 9, 10, the latter of which may be passively understood of God's care 
of him ; but further, ' Thou didst make me hope when I was upon my 
mother's breasts,' ver. 9. ' And thou art m}' God from my mother's belly ;' 
or, as Ainsworth reads the words, ' The maker of me to trust at my mother's 
breasts.' Which words cannot be understood only in a passive sense, but 
do import acts of faith miraculously drawn forth from him to God as his 
God. As also those words, ' Thou art my God,' may well be taken to import 
how he had owned and relied upon him as his God from his mother's womb, 
shewing how that then he had owned him as his God, with an act of faith, 
as truly as in ver. 1, when he cried out, ' My God, my God,' &c., when on 
the cross. 

But that I insist on is to observe to this purpose the coherence of his 
words all along afore, as also in this passage. Christ had pleaded ' their 
fathers trusted in thee, and were delivered,' ver. 4, 5 ; and ver. 8, he 
alleged how that that his faith upon God as his God, and as a Father to 
him, as his only begotten Son, and the Messiah and Saviour of the world, 
was the thing he was reproached and upbraided with now when on the cross : 
ver. 7 and 8, ' All they that see me laugh me to scorn : they shoot out the 
lip, they shake the head, saying. He trusted on the Lord that he would de- 
liver him : let him deliver him, seeing he delighted in him.' I say, this 
was the reproach cast on him in particular, viz., how that he had with con- 
fidence given out and taken upon him, as being the Son of God and Messiah, 
and for his trusting on God under that special relation to him, was the 
thing they jeered. Thus it is expressly, in the citing of that place by 
Matthew, Mat. xxvii. 43, ' He trusted in God ; let him deliver him now, if 
he will have him : for he said, I am the Son of God.' Now then, in the 
next verses of the psalm, he allegeth in answer to his reproach, ' Thou 
didst make me hope at my mother's breasts.' Which in its coherence is 
as if he had said, did the fathers trust thee with that faith, as men thine 
elect use to trust thee withal ? Why, lo. Lord, I began to trust thee 
sooner than ordinarily any of them do, or ever did, even at the breast when 
an infant ; and, Lord, thou hearest them mock me, that I trusted I was 
thy only begotten Son ; and now. Lord, this was the very thing thou causedst 
me to trust and have assurance of, when at my mother's breasts. Yea, 
and I did it then in that sense, and with that faith I now on the cross do 
call thee my God withal, as being that beloved Son of thine, my Father and 
my God, in whom thou delightest. And with this faith it hath been that I 
have owned thee as my God all along, even from the veiy womb. 

Now then, if Christ had an actual faith then on God as his God, answer- 
able to his personal interest in and relation unto God as his God, and so 
in his proportion such as holy men have in their measure, and from their 
interest in God as adopted sons, suitably to their condition and estate 
when they come first to believe ; then that faith in him must needs in time 
rise up to faith and apprehension of him, as a Father to him, as the only 
begotten, the Messiah. For else his faith had fallen short of that object of 
it which was proper and peculiar to him and his state and condition. And 
if this be at all wondered at, that Christ's human nature should do it so 
soon, Christ himself tells it here as a wonderful work of God towards him 
in that human soul of his, in that he celebrates God as the maker of him 
to trust, or ' thou causedst me to trust then,' and thou that drewest me out 
of the womb, and didst miraculously form me there, didst draw my soul then 
to believe in thee as my Father. 

Neither are these mine apprehensions alone upon this place, but the 

Chap. II.] op christ the mediator. 145 

same I have found to be in one late learned commentator* on the words, 
who says, Nos himc version de Christo interprelaiiuir, in quo cum ah instanti 
concept ionis fuerunt omnes thesauri sapientiw. et scienticc ahsconditi, potuit ah 
instanti concept ion is omnem suam curam et spetn, ul homo, in nno I)eo fiyere 
et hcare. Christ having in him, from the instant of his conception, all the 
treasures of his wisdom and knowledge hidden in him, it might be so, that, 
from the instant of his conception, he as a man might fix and place all his 
care and hope in God alone. And to that end he quotcth also this place, 
Heb. X. 7, my text, ' When he came into the world, he says,' &c. 

Now there are two speeches in the 40th Psalm more proper to apply to 
the soul of that human nature assumed. 

1. * My ear hast thou bored through,' is appliable more properly to the 
human nature than to the divine ; and so to be understood to be the voice 
of the human natui-e rather than of the divine. 

Now, what is it to have an ear bored through ? It is to be made will- 
ing and obedient to do God's will, as a servant is to do his master's. You 
know how that one that was purely a servant, and for ever such, he had 
his ear bored, Exod. xxi. 6. This was typical. He that had his ear bored 
through gave his consent first, which is implied in those words, ' And if 
the sei'vant shall plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my childi-en, 
I will not go out free.' If he would be free, he was to forsake his wife 
and children, which were a motive to many to live as a servant with them. 
The human nature now united might have stood upon it, not to enter into 
any service ; that is, as in respect of his own prerogative, being taken up 
into an equality with God. But, says Christ, I love my Father, and there- 
fore I will serve him in the work of redemption : John xiv. 31, * That the 
world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father gave me com- 
mandment, even so I do.' He also loved his wife, his spouse, his church, 
&c. He will have her live with him, he must serve for her company, and 
he loves his children particularly (as that speech imports, ' Lo, here am I, 
and the children thou hast given me'). This moved Christ to serve, as 
Jacob did Laban : Eph. v. 20, ' Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ 
loved the chui'ch, and gave himself for it.' He should not have her society 
else, as himself speaks : John xii. 23, 24, ' Except the Son of man die, he 
must abide alone,' or be in heaven alone, without his church's company. 
Neither is it the phrase only that complies with this sense, but you have 
another scripture doth manifestly apply this phrase to Christ, in this sense 
of willing obedience : Isa. 1. 5, ' The Lord God hath opened mine ear, and 
I was not rebellious, neither turned away back.' Do you know his voice 
that speaks it, and about what ? It is your Saviour's. I will give you a 
comfortable token you shall know it by : ver. 4, ' The Lord God hath 
given me the tongue of the learned, that I should know how to speak a word 
in season to him that is weary. He wakeneth morning by morning, he 
wakeneth mine ear to hear as the learned.' You know who afterwards 
said of himself, ' Come to me, all ye that are weary, and I will ease you,' 
Mat. xi. 28, as you have it in the margin. And will you know what the 
work was for which God had opened his ear ? ' And I am not rebellious,* 
says he. It was the hardest piece of it, to which of all other, if to any, he 
should have been unwilling. It follows, ver. 6, ' I gave my back to the 
smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair ; I hid not my 
face from shame and spitting.' Read Matthew the 26th and 27th chapters. 
But is that all, that he was not rebellious or refractory to it, his ear was 
* Muia in Ps. xxii. 9. 

VOL. V. K 


bored, he di-ew not his back away? Xo : 'I give my back to the smiters,' 
&c. It was his own free act, as elsewhere it is said, Gal. ii. 20, * He gave 
himself.' And whereas the servant in the type had but one ear bored 
through, of Christ the psabnist says in the plui-al, ' My ears ' (so it is in 
the original) ' hast thou bored through,' to note an abundance, an overplus 
of willingness ; as when we say, a man hears of a thing with both ears, it 
notes he hears of it, and hears of it again. Christ was all ear, to shew he 
was aU obedience. His eai* bored is put for the whole : as the apostle in- 
terprets it, ' A body.' 

2. There is another speech argues this consent to have been the human 
nature's also, when he says, speaking of his willingness, ' Thy law is in my 
bowels ; ' written there habitually fi-om the womb, which cannot be meant 
of the divine natm'e. And yet even when he assumed this human nature, 
the law of God, and this special law of the mediatorship, was written there. 
That phrase shews (as I said at first) that it was by instinct, such as natu- 
rally it would have been in infants in innocency. Now, this is more than 
simply to l«ive an ear bored, to give consent ; it is to have his law made 
natural to him. And it is in the midst of the bowels, in the will, the afiec- 
tions, that are the centre of the soul, and the middle of it. But the apostle 
speaks this of him when coming into the world. And these speeches being 
manifestly proper to the human soul and will, and being compared with 
these passages of the 22d Psalm, they aU together do strongly argue that, 
in a miraculous way, the human soul of Christ did then give up itself to 
this whole work. 

And so to conclude this, look as his mother consented to the angel's 
message before she conceived of him : Luke i. 31, says the angel, ' Thou 
shalt conceive, and shalt call his name Jesus.' And in the middle of his 
delivei7 of it, she had not as yet conceived him, for, ver. 35, he says still 
in the future, ' The Holy Ghost shall come on thee, and shall overshadow 
thee,' &c. And when the angel had done his message, ver. 38, * Mary 
said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord ' (I give myself up to him) ; ' be it 
unto me according to thy word.' And so thereupon she conceived of him ; 
for, Luke ii. 21, it is said, ' his name was called Jesus, which was so 
named of the angel before he was conceived in the womb.' And therefore, 
till the angel had done his message, she conceived not of him, and so not 
till her own consent was given. And as God had hers that she might be 
freely the mother of him, so in like manner God, it would seem, had the 
consent of that reasonable soul of Jesus presently after his coming, and 
being made the Son of God. And so was fulfilled that which in the pro- 
phecy was foretold he should utter: Isa. xlix. 1, ' God hath called me from 
the womb,' as well as made mention of his name (Jesus) from his concep- 
tion ; as it follows there, ' From the bowels of my mother he hath made 
mention of my name.' T^Tiich, though spoken of others (as of Cyrus), it 
imports but God's ordaining him from that time to that work; yet we may 
apply it to Christ, considering all that is said afore ; as also that this is 
not passively spoken of him, as that of Cyrus and others, but is recorded 
as to be uttered by himself, 'The Lord hath called me from the womb,' &c. 
It may import more, even how Christ did then answer his call, and gave 
up himself to this work ; but of this more anon. 

And thus again, as his conception was at Nazareth, Luke i. 26, so he 
was every way Na ^aja/o;, a Nazarite, given up to God from the womb, 
given up by the second jjerson that assumed that nature, given up by the 
human nature, the soul of it assumed, by a miraculous work of God, as 

Chap. III.] of christ the mediator. 147 

was bis conception itself, given up by bis motber also, who assents to all 
that the angel said of him, to have such a child to be conceived in her: ' Bo 
it according to thy word,' stiid she. Lastly, a Nazarite by God's own dedi- 
cation and separation of him then to it, in the message of the angel, which 
was sent by him. 


Shewinr/ the mystery of that appellation given him, * Jesus the Nazarite,' to 

have been, that he ivas thus dedicated from his very conception to this great 


And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might he fulfilled 

which was sjjoken hy the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene. — Mat. 

II. 23. 

There was no name more ordinarily and familiarly given to Christ, and 
that by all sorts of persons, than this, ' Jesus of Nazareth,' and ' Jesus the 
Nazarite.' It was given him by the Jews, John xviii. 5, 7, Mat. xxvi. 71; 
by angels: (1.) the bad, Mark i. 24; (2.) the good, Mark xvi. 6. Yea, 
this appellation obtained so among all, that it was put by Pilate, the 
Roman Governor, into the superscription upon the cross, in all three lan- 
guages, ' Jesus the Nazarite,' John xix. 19 ; and was further used by his 
apostles, as glorying to own him under that title after his ascension ; so 
Acts ii. 22, and chap. iii. 6, iv. 10. Yea, and himself, after his ascension, 
doth from heaven decipher himself thereby : Acts xxii. 8, ' I am Jesus 
(o 'Na^u^aTog) the Nazarite.' 

Now it so fell out, in the providence of God guiding the idiom or manner 
of speech in that language, that a Nazarene or Nazarite signified both an 
inhabitant of the city Nazareth, as also one that by profession and vow was 
peculiarly separated and dedicated to God. 

The Jews, as they gave this name unto Jesus, intended no other thing 
thereby than that he was an inhabitant of and dweller in the city of Naza- 
reth ; as you say a Londoner, noting out an inhabitant of the city of Lon- 
don. And so it is given to Christ, 'tia^a^rivhg, Luke iv. 34, compared with 
John i. 46, where it is tov a.'jb Na^ags^, that is, one of the inhabitants of 

But Matthew tells us that God had a further design in guiding those Jews 
to this appellation, to hold forth a higher mystery, namely, that this was 
the great Nazarite, vowed and separated unto him, of whom all the vota- 
ries or Nazarites of the Old Testament were types. And therefore he is 
termed by Matthew and others 6 Na/^upawg, the great Nazarite, those having 
been his shadows, even as he is called the last Adam, 1 Cor. xv. 43 ; the 
true David, Acts xiii. 34. 

The words of Matthew to this pui-pose are these, Mat. ii. 23, ' And he 
came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth,' which was the only occasion 
why the Jews termed him Jesus of Nazareth, or Nazarene ; but it had this 
mystery further in it, ' That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the 
prophets,' of him that was to be the Messiah, ' that he shall be called,' that 
is, be, * a Nazarite.' 

Now, under the Old Testament, the writers of which are generally called 
the prophets, all that were dedicated or consecrated unto God b:y vow of 


their parents from their birth, or that separated themselves unto God in a 
special vow of holiness and obedience above others of their brethren, these 
were termed Nazarites ; as Joseph, Gen. xlix. 2G, ' The blessings of thy 
father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors, and to the 
utmost bounds of the everlasting hills they shall be on the head of Joseph, 
and on the crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren.' 
And Samson also, Judgee xiii. 5, ' For, lo, thou shalt conceive and bear a 
son, and no razor shall come on his head ; for the child shall be a Naza- 
rite unto God from the womb.' And whoever he was that vowed his per- 
son to God, and not his goods only, was by the law called a Nazarite : 
Num. vi. 2, ' Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When 
either man or woman shall separate themselves to vow a vow of a Naza- 
rite, to separate themselves to the Lord.' All which were acted as types 
and shadows of the dedication of himself, to be after this made by this 
great votary, who was the substance of them in this particular, as in all 
things else he was of all his other forerunning types, in what was attributed 
to them. 

There may other royal qualifications and characters of Christ the 
Messiah fall into this, that he was called a Nazarite, as will in the cur- 
rent of this discom'se appear ; but this of his being vowed to God was 
the great and main thing intended thereby, as Joseph and Sampson and 
others were. 

The main difficulty herein is, how the examples and the law of those 
Nazarites should be esteemed prophecies of him, as Matthew here says, 
' That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets.' 

It is a known and a taken-for- granted truth, that those names and 
things spoken of the eminent types of Christ, are by the evangelists and 
apostles given unto Christ, whom they prophetically signified, as more truly, 
and in a more transcendent manner, belonging to him than unto the per- 
sons themselves to whom they were first given unto ; as eminently fulfilled 
in him, yea, and as more really intended of him than of them, as appears 
by many instances of the like kind. 

Thus when Paul to the Hebrews would prove Christ to be the Son of 
God, in that peculiar manner as never man, yea, nor angel, ever was : Heb. 
i. 4, 5, ' Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inhe- 
ritance obtained a more excellent name than they. For unto which of the 
angels said he at any time. Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten 
thee ? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a 
Son ?' He would here prove that Christ's name given him in the Old 
Testament, was * the Son of God,' and so the Son as no angel. He cites 
a speech spoken of, and to Solomon, ' And again I will be to him a Father, 
and he shall be to me a Son.' Now where are these words to be found, 
or how come they to be meant of Christ ? The words are only found, 
2 Sam. vii. 14, 1 Chron. xxii. 10. No way can be devised but this, that 
what God speaketh of Solomon is more properly intended of Christ ; De 
Solomone vera, more than de Solomone mero. David's Son was but a sha- 
dow. Yea, and which is stranger, he quotes it to prove that Christ the 
Messiah was the Son of God in such a transcendent manner as Solomon 
was not, even tbat he was the only begotten Son, whereof Solomon's son- 
ship was but a shadow. This and many the like must be resolved into 
this general rule, that what is attributed to the type his shadow, must 
needs be in a more divine and super-eminent manner ascribed to him the 
substance. For if so excellent persons in their highest excellency were 

Chap. IV.] of christ the mediator. 149 

but his tj^cs, then what aro those excellencies in him, a person so divine ? 
I might exemplify all this more clearly in the apostle's quoting, and that as 
a proof too, what was said of the first Adam, that he was an earthly man, 
a living soul, to fore-prophesy Christ's super-excelling dignity of his being 
the Lord of heaven, a quickening Spirit, a second Adam : 1 Cor. xv. 44, 45, 
' It is sown a natural body ; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natu- 
ral body, and there is a spiritual body. And so it is written, The first 
man Adam was made a living soul ; the last Adam was made a quickening 
Spirit.' And multitudes of other instances might be given ; as that in 
Hosea xi. 1, ' Out of Egypt have I called my Son,' quoted by Matthew in 
this chap. ii. ver. 15. Now then parallel this of Matthew, concerning 
Christ his being a Nazarite, with that of his being a Son under the type of 
Solomon, and a second Adam, &c., and you will readily say as Matthew 
here. This name of Nazarite was commonly given him, that it might be 
fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets. He shall be called a Nazarite. 
So as, although there were no other scriptures in the prophets to foresignify 
this thing, than these which were his tj-pes, yet that alone is sufficient to 
call for Matthew's -TrXri^odfi , 'that it might be fulfilled' ; yea, and the name 
and thing more eminently fulfilled in him than it was in them ; and he a 
more transcendent votary, made more holy and more sanctified than 
they all. 


That Samscn, and other Nazant.es of the law, were types of Christ the great 
Nazarite, ivho dedicated him to the holy work of redemption. — By what 
rules and reasons we may judge that Christ vias in this respect typified by 
those Nazarites. 

Two things here are to be foi'ther inquired into. « 

I. By what it doth appear that Samson and Joseph, and those by the 
law of vows that were Nazarites under the old law, were therein types of 
our Jesus, termed the Nazarite. 

II. How he, being a Nazarite, or a devoted person, from his very con- 
ception and education in his younger years, was fore-signified, and how 
fitly and correspondently his being termed a Nazarite fi-om the city Naza- 
reth (which Matthew alfirms) falls in herewith ; as also by what a won- 
derful providence it came to pass that this great and important title of the 
Christ, Nazarite, should commonly and ordinarily be given him by the 
Jews themselves, they intending it only to signify that he was an inhabi- 
tant of the city Nazareth, and but to vilify him ; but God intending it fur- 
ther to signify his dedication and consecration to the work of redemption 
from his conception, and all along in his education, Nazareth being the 
place of both. 

I. To clear the first, viz., How Samson and other vowed Nazarites 
appear to be types of Christ. 

1. In general, even by the same rule that we know Adam and Solo- 
mon to have been types of him, and that what was said of them is to be 
applied to him, who yet ai-e nowhere in the Old Testament called his 
types. And as we receive the testimony of Paul, that so apphes it from 
them, so we may here do this of Matthew by the same warrant ; though 
we had no other special application of these types unto Christ in the Old 


The general mle which the apostles went by, and which the Jews them- 
selves assented unto, and their teachers taught them, was, that whatever 
eminent and extraordinaiy excellency was found in any of their ancestors 
renowned in the Old Testament, or in the ceremonial law, that all such fore- 
signified the Messiah to come, as the perfection and centre of them. Thii 
themselves acknowledge of David, who yet was not styled a saviour oi 
deliverer, as Samson and Joseph are expressly termed, which was also 
the eminent character and work of our Jesus ; this I say they acknow- 
ledge of Melchisedec, David, Solomon, the high priest among the Jews, 
their kings, &c. Then if it be so, that special institution of the Nazarite 
must mean the like. And the reason is undeniable ; for what excellency 
was it that a Nazarite, a votary under the old law, took upon him the pro- 
fession of? Why a peculiar and more singular holiness, separation, con- 
secration of their person unto God, in some special service which they 
were by vow or dedication obliged unto above their brethren, which they 
expressed by a peculiar strictness in abstaining from wine, and the like, 
which others did not. Thus Num. v. 2-5, ' Speak unto the children of 
Israel, and say unto them, Allien either man or woman shall separate 
themselves to vow a vow of a Nazarite, to separate themselves unto the 
Lord ; he shall separate himself fi-om wine and strong drink, and shall 
di'ink uo vinegar of wine, or vinegar of strong drink, neither shall he diink 
any liquor of grapes, nor eat moist gi'apes, or dried. AH the days of his 
separation shall he eat nothing that is made of the vine-tree, from the ker- 
nels unto the husk. All the days of the vow of his separation there shall 
no razor come upon his head ; until the days be fulfilled, in the which he 
separateth himself unto the Lord, he shall be holy, and shall let the locks 
of his hair grow.' He shall be holy, that is, peculiarly, singularly holy. 
Now then, if civil excellencies in public persons were types of him, as 
kings, &c., then sacred much more, and that of special holiness and conse- 
cration to God above»any other. 

PecuUar holiness, whether real or ceremonial, did make a Nazarite ; 
therefore, in Num. vi. 8, he is called ' holy to the Lord.' And a Nazarite 
is translated by the Septuagint ayioz, a holy man ; especially they were 
termed such, when these were joined with their being saviours and de- 
liverers of the people of God. All such were eminently, and must be 
acknowledged, types of him that was to be the great saviour and deliverer 
whom the Jews expected. 

2. Particularly, to give the reasons for it. 

(1.) Joseph, both for his excelling in holiness above his brethren, as also 
his eminent advancement over them, was an apparent type of Christ. 

[l.j For holiness. It might seem by the stoiy he was devoted thereto 
from his yoimger years, when his brethren were vain and wicked, which is 
discovered in the story by this, that when he was seventeen years old, he, 
detesting their sinful ways, brought the report thereof unto his father, 
being a reprover of his brethren, for which his brethren hated him. That 
other, of his dignity, is more apparent. For these reasons he is twice 
called a Nazarite. 

First; By Jacob, his father, in his prophecy, for so that his last speech 
.concerning his son was, Gen. xlix. 26, ' The blessings of thy father have 
prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors, unto the utmost bounds of 
the everlasting hills ; they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the 
crown of the head of him that was separate from his brethren.' In the 
original it is, ' That was a Nazarite among his brethren.' 

Chap. IV.] of christ the medutor. 151 

Sccondh/: And then by Moses it is again repeated, as of mystical im- 
portance, Dent, xxxiii. 16. And in this last place, the Septuagint hath it 
h^aahig et a.hi\:p')7;, ' He was glorious above his brethren.' And added 
unto this was (as you all know) Joseph, his being a saviour, and so ac- 
knowledged by Jacob. And he was so, upon record, in the bringing the 
first fruits, acknowledged by all his posterity : ' My father was a Syrian 
ready to perish,'* and who saved them? Joseph. And the Gentile 
Egyptians, they also acknowledged it, Gen. xlii. 2, ' Thou hast saved our 
lives.' And he was one separated, singled out by God, and sent afore to 
t^ave them. Joseph was beloved of his father, so Christ is the beloved ; 
Joseph was blessed above all, and his house in him. Gen xlix. 26, Deut. 
xxxiii. 16, so we are blessed in Christ. Eph. i. 3, ' Blessed be the God 
and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual 
blessings in heavenly places in Christ.' Joseph was carried into Egypt, so 
Christ too : Mat. ii. 15, ' Out of Eg}-pt have I called my Son.' Joseph 
sold to the Gentiles, was a saviour to the Jews and Gentiles, so Christ too. 
Joseph was suddenly advanced out of prison, Christ in prison. Is. liii. 8, 
taken out of prison, and then ascended. Joseph in his advancement for- 
gives, so Christ on the cross ; and when he came first to heaven, as a 
testimony thereof, he converted three thousand of the Jews that had cruci- 
fied him. Joseph's brethren bow to him ; and of Christ it is said, * All 
knees shall bow to him.' 

And because that this title Nazarite was, in Joseph's example, used to 
design and note out one that excelled his brethren, and was a ruler over 
them, as Joseph was ; hence further, the word Nezer and Nazer was after 
used to express the oil and mitre that consecrated the priest, also the crown 
that was set upon their kings ; so as their kings, prophets, and priests were 
Nazarites all of them in the type. Thus the mitre on the high priest's 
head, in which holiness to the Lord was written, Ex. xxix. 6, is called 
Nizri; and chap, xxxix. 30, the oil that anointed his head, Lev. xxi. 12, is 
called 'the holy oil,' and the word for holy there is Nezer. And the diadem 
of the king is termed by the same name Nezer, 2 Sam. i. 10, Ps. Ixxxix. 4, 
and Ps. cxxxii. 18, as being a sign of his separation from his brethren. 
So, then, this name seems to set the mitre and crown upon Christ's head. 
In plain words, they were all Nazarites, kings, priests, and prophets. 
Now, take in all these, and I am sure you must have prophets enough that 
came in to call him Nazarite, in recording the stories of these his types ; 
those that call him 'Holy, holy, holy,' as angels do, Isa. vi., or seeing his 
glory, as Dan. ix., call him 'most holy,' those who call him separated; 
Heb. vii. 26, ' anointed,' as Joseph, ' with oil above his brethren,' Heb. i. 
9 ; a person sanctified to his works, as he speaks of himself, when to die, 
John xvii. 19. What need I quote any more ? All these express his 
being a Nazarite. 

(2.) Of Sampson, it is yet more expressly said, Judges xiii. 15, that he 
should be called ' a Nazarite to God from the womb.' And to what end 
was that separation of his from the womb made, and he marked out thereby ? 
It follows, ' He shall begin to save or dehver Israel out of the hands of 
the Philistines their enemies.' And he killed these enemies, and de- 
livered that people without weapons, by the jaw-bone of an ass, a con- 
temptible instrument for such a slaughter ; and at last died out of an 
heroicness of spirit, by an extraordinary warrant, for it was eflected by an 
extraordinary strength renewed upon him ; and so he was a greater con- 
* Deut. xxvi. 5. — Ed. 


queror in his death than in all his life. You know how easy and natural it 
is to find all these in our Jesus. But how his being consecrated from the 
womb was a type of Christ (that is the main intended by me), I shall ex- 
plain in the second head. 

In the mean time, the result of these two types is to represent Christ as 
a Nazarite, eminently for these three things. 

1. Excelling holiness and strictness of life, which was the law of 

2. Dominion or i-ule over their brethren, as then* kings and priests were, 
and Joseph, and Sampson, judge of Israel. 

3. Being a saviour and deliverer from death and enemies. ' Sampson 
began to deliver,' &c., Judges xiii. 15. 

Now, all these are found to have met in our Chi-ist, as is the import of 
that ordinaiy. appellation given him, 'Irisovg Na^aga/og, Jesus of Nazareth, 
or the Nazarite, which are usually coupled together. 

1. Jesus is the name of Saviour given him at his conception: Mat. i. 21, 
* Thou shalt call his name Jesus : for he shall save his people from their 
sins.' And then Nazarite imports his being separated to that work, namely, 
to save, as in that speech of the angel he was declared to be, whilst his 
conception at Nazareth was efiecting in the virgin's womb. 

2. For holiness. The first time that we read of, wherein he was called 
Jesus the Nazarite, was by Satan, Mark. i. 24, and Luke iv. 34. And 
there, by the providence of God, this is added and confessed by that evil 
spu'it, ' I know who thou art, the holy one of God, that eminent holy one, 
of whom all other eminent holy ones were types,' which was the import of 
the name Nazarite. Now, compare this with what is said of Samson, 
his type. Judges xiii. 5, ' He shall be a Nazarite unto God,' or ' of God;' 
and the Septuagint translates Nazarite sometimes aywc, one holy ; and so 
to be an holy one of God, and a Nazarite to God, is all one. But of 
Samson, his being his type in his conception, more hereafter. 

3. His being king. Go to the cross, you find it written there, * Jesus 
of Nazareth,' or, ' the Nazarite, King of the Jews.' 


How Christ was presignified as a Nazarite by these types. — The 2}(irallel be- 
tween him and Samson. — How God having thus in the tyj^e foretold that 
Christ shoidd he a Nazarite, so tvisely ordered it, that both his conception 
and education should be there, that so that name Nazarite, as an inhabitant 
of that city, viight belong to him. 

Now follows the second head, which hath two things in it. 

1. How his being a Nazarite, or devoted person from his very concep- 
tion, and education in his younger years, was foresignified in any of these 

2. How it came to pass that, though he was called a Nazarite by the 
Jews as in their common language, noting forth only an inhabitant of 
Nazareth, as Matthew tells us, this should yet withal fall in and serve to 
fulfil God's intention of his being called a Nazarite, as was by these pro- 
phetical types foresignified ; and by what a wondeirful providence this was 
brought about, so to fulfil the prophecy. 

1 , For the first ; take the type of Samson, and see how exactly parallel 

Ch.\P. v.] op CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. 158 

it falls out to foresignify Christ's being a Nazarito from his conception. 
Let us but seriously compare the history of both. 

Of Samson, Judges xiii. 2, 8, 5, ' And there was a certain man of Zorah, 
of the family of the Danites, whose name was Manoah ; and his wife was 
bai-ren, and bare not. And the angel of the Lord appeared unto the 
woman, and said unto her, Behold now, thou art barren, and bearest not : 
but thou shalt conceive, and bear a son. . . . For, lo, thou shalt conceive, 
and bear a son ; and no razor shall come on his head : for the child shall 
be a Nazarite unto God fi'om the womb ; and he shall begin to deUver 
Israel out of the hand of the Philistines.' 

Of Christ, Luke i. 2G-31, ' And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel 
was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, to a virgin 
espoused to a man, whose name was Joseph, of the house of David ; and 
the virgin's name was Mary. And the angel came in unto her, and said, 
Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee : blessed art thou 
among women. And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Maiy ; for thou 
hast found favour with God. And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy 
womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus.' 

(1.) Observe Samson's wonderful separation from his conception. An 
angel is sent to foretell it. The prophecy of an angel is recorded : so it is 
in Christ. 

(2.) Both appearances of the angels are afore the conception of either. 

(3.) As the angel is sent to a woman utterly barren, to shew Samson's 
conception should be extraordinary, as to an extraordinary end, so Gabriel 
is sent to a virgin, who without man's copulation with her had a womb far 
more barren and incapable to conceive a child than Samson's mother's was. 
And therefore to strengthen her faith the angel tells her, ver. 36, 37, ' Be- 
hold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age : 
and this is the sixth month with her that was called barren. For with God 
nothing shall be impossible.' 

(4.) The messages sent at and before their conception, to both, concerning 
these their sons, ax'e parallel. 

[1.] That he be a Nazarite of God, that is, holy and consecrated to God 
from the womb (yea, from his conception, and therefore his mother was 
warned not to drink wine nor strong drink from this time afore his concep- 
tion, nor whilst she bore him) unto the very day of his death. Now of 
Christ, it is at and from his conception, Luke i. 35, ' The Holy Ghost shall 
come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee : 
therefore also that holy thing, which shall be born of thee, shall be called 
the Son of God.' Now a Nazarite of God, and one holy unto God, were 
all one ; as hath been said. 

[2.] In that the work which each of these were separated unto is declared 
alike at their conception, as to be saviours of the people. Of Samson it 
is said, ' He shall begin ' (as being Christ's type) ' to save Israel out of the 
hands of the Philistines.' And as expressly of Christ it is said by the 
angel, Mat. i. 21, 'She shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his 
name Jesus ; for he shall save his people from their sins.' Not to insist 
on this addition which some make, that Herod a Philistine was then king, 
and the Jews subject to Christ,* when this message was delivered of Christ, 
as in Samson's time they also were. 

[3.] And lastly, how Christ was a Nazarite until the day of his death 
from the womb, as of Samson it is said, I need not shew. That one text 
* Evidently a mispriut. I suppose ' liim.' — Ed. 


speaks it, ohediens usque ad mortem, obedient until death, all his life long, 
Philip, ii. 8. Only take this, that at his conception at first, those three 
fore-mentioned characters or designments of a Nazarite were declared by the 
angel. 1. Jesus a saviour. 2. The holy one of God. 3. His dignity and 
pre-eminence over all : ' Luke i. 31, 32, ' Thou shalt conceive in thy womb, 
and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. And he shall be 
great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest ; and the Lord God shall 
give unto him the throne of his father David.' To which the types, both 
of Samson the judge, and Joseph the ruler, do fully answer. Thus also 
again at his death, those all meet in the inscription on the cross, ' Jesus 
the savioui', of Nazareth,' or ' Kazarene,' the holy One, ' king of the Jews.' 
For the second particulai-, viz., how it was ordered by God that the Jews 
should call Jesus a Nazarite ; three things are worthy our notice in it. 

1. That God in his all-wise counsel so ordered it, that the name or title 
Nazarite, which in the Greek is Na^wsa/bg, should be used in the common 
language of the Jews to express an inhabitant of the city Nazareth, which 
word also had been singled forth by God to express a Nazarite to himself, 
one holy and consecrated to himself. It was, as many other words are, 
vox ffquiroca, that had two senses equally and vulgarly in use. Fuit turn 
nomen r/entiUtium, turn religiosum, as Latimis, or Aars/Vog, signified both an 
inhabitant, or one born in Italy, an Italian, so denoting a man's country ; 
and was anciently used to signify one that adhered to, and was one of the 
popish religion, as distinguished from that professed by the Greek churches, 
or now by the protestant. And this was foretold by Irenseus as the title of 
antichrist his followers, long before that division was made ; he thus inter- 
preting the mystery of the number 666, Rev. xiii. 18. So now Eomanus, 
a Roman, may and doth import one either dwelling or born at Rome, or 
one of the Romish religion. Or as if a child of an Englishman that had 
been of the separation at Amsterdam, and educated or born there, should be 
termed an Amsterdamian, it would import at once both the place whence 
he came and where he dwelt ; as also (as commonly it doth) that he was of 
that profession which the English separatists did hold forth there. Multi- 
tudes of such instances are producible, and thus it fell out here. 

Now that this word Na^wsa/bg was then used to express both, I judge 
more evident. 

(1.) In that we are sure that Na^waaro; imported an inhabitant of Naza- 
reth ; for Matthew, who gives him that style, directly pointeth us unto that 
sense and signification of the word : for he says, ' He carne and dwelt in 
Nazareth : that it might be fulfilled.' He was called a Nazarite, as being 
vulgarly so styled from that city ; yea and therefore it was that the Jews 
in scorn so called him, to defame him from that city, which was so vile and 
mean, as no good was thence expected ; and therefore much less he that 
was to be the Messiah should come forth from thence. Also this appears 
in that in another evangeUst, speaking at a time afore that name was given, 
he is called 6 aero tou Na^ass^, ' one of the city of Nazareth.' 

Then [2.] The scripture or prophets nowhere speaking of Christ's dwell- 
inff in the city Nazareth, the fulfilling of the prophecies must be found in 
th?s, that this word Na^apa/"oc hath some other mysterious signification, 
which should be proper and eminent in him that was the true Christ. Now 
this title Na^a»a/6; is in the same letters and syllables thereof a Nazarite, 
or one holy and separate to God. For the Septuagint, translating the 
Hebrew word for Nazir or Nazarite into the Greek, do stUl use this word 
with the same syllables and letters, only they sometimes use a, ^a, Na^asa/bg, 

Ch.U>. v.] of CHRIST THE MEDIATOR. 155 

sometimes tj, or ^jj, 'iJa^rioa.Tog, whereas Matthew, w, iJa^uaaTog, and that is 
all the ditl'erence. 

And this those of an opposite opinion ohjcct, that because Matthew useth 
the letter u, whereas the Septuagint useth a, that therefore it is not the 
same word which they use to signify a Nazarite by. To which the answer 
is ready. 

For 1 . In that the Septuagint themselves do vary it, sometimes writing 
it with a, sometimes with ri, yet in each they alike intended to signify a reli- 
gious Nazarite. I say, if they alter a into tj, in either intending the same 
word and the same signification, it may bear as well this other alteration 
of u), it being but a matter of diverse pronunciation, as Grotius observes, 
and not a diversity of the word itself, which in differing dialects, when the 
word is the same, is ordinary in languages, as we see in the Scottish and 
English tongue (which I mention for inalgar illustration). Yea, the ancient 
fathers make another alteration, writing it with / : so Eusebius, Epipha- 
nius, and Nazianzen, terming them Nazireans or Nazirites. 

But 2. We all know that nothing is more usual than, in translating a 
word out of one language into another, to change a letter ; as Miriam in 
the Hebrew, the Greeks into Maria, Schemuel, Samuel, and the like. And 
the Syriac, which was the language Christ and the Jews did then speak, 
did ordinarily in pronouncing the Hebrew, turn a into w : so as Nazareth 
after the Hebrew pronunciation was Xasoreth in the Syriac. Now Matthew 
in the Greek did incline and conform the termination or sound of the word 
to the Syi'iac rather than to the Hebrew, the Syriac being then in use. And 
so Xazorean, or Nazarite, is all one with Nazarite. 

3. I omit to retort, that those of the other opinion that would have Christ 
here called by Matthew Na^wsa/o;, from Netzer, the title in Hebrew which 
Isaiah gives to Christ, Isa. xi. 1, ' Of the branch,' is far remoter in sound 
and letters by far. And besides that that is a substantive word, this of 
Na^w|a?oj is an adjective. But of this afterwards. 

It is objected, 2. That Christ is also called Jesus Na^aajjvo;, the Nazarene, 
as well as Na^aja7&;, the Nazaraian. But Nazarene was not used (say they) 
to signify a Nazarite. 

And it is answered again, that if Nazarene and Nazaraian (that I may 
in the English vai'iation express it) signified both one, where his city's name 
is intended, as it is evident they did, then why not both these words also 
be as promiscuously used for a religious Nazarite, when it is evident that 
one of them was used to express it, viz., his being a Nazarite? There is 
nothing more usual in all languages than to make such variations, in names 
of religion as well as other, and yet so as they are still but one word in 
signification ; as we say sometimes a Grecian, sometimes a Greek, and 
both signifying either his religion or his countiy ; a Roman, a Romanist, 
a Calvinian or Cahinist ; so if you will, a Nazarite, a Nazarean, is all one. 

And 2. Matthew that holds out to us this mystery, he calls him Nazaraian, 
or Nazarite, not Nazarene ; so in this place, and so constantly elsewhere. 
And thus the inscription on the cross (as in John also) and not the other 
word Nazarene at all. So as Matthew intended to hold forth his being a 
Nazarite, as well as of the city Nazareth. 

The second thing to be noted is, that as Christ was to be a Nazarite 
from his conception (as in his type of Samson it was foresigned), and also 
in his younger years of education, as well as when he died, so God in his 
providence ordered it, that the city Nazareth, from whence he should by 
the Jews be called a Nazarite, was not only the very place of his education, 


but also of his very conception ; and this is sedulously noted (to complete 
this mystery) unto us in the story of his conception : Luke i. 26, 27, ' In 
the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent fi'om God unto a city of Galilee, 
named Nazareth, to a vii-gin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, 
of the house of David ; and the virgin's name was Mary.' So then, though 
Bethlehem was the place of his birth, yet this Nazareth, from whence he 
had his name of Nazarite, was the place of his conception, to shew he was 
a Nazarite fi'om his very conception, which hath been the point I have 
pm'sued. And as it was the place of his conception, so of his abode and 
education, until he put himself forth into the world, and appeared as the 
Messiah. This you have, Mat. ii. 22. 

Now, yet further, to add unto Matthew's '!rXrt^u6fi, and to make up his 
fulfilling of prophecies yet more full, it was foretold by the prophet Jere- 
miah that his coDC-'ption should be in one of the cities of the ten tribes,* 
which the story here in Matthew tells us was Nazareth. The prophet 
Micah had, before Jeremiah's time, foretold that the city of his birth 
should be Bethlehem, which the tribes of Judah and Benjamin gloried in, 
and therefore despised the other ten. The pharisees understood this, as 
you read in the evangelists, when Herod puts the question to them. But 
that any of the cities of the twelve f tribes should have any honour of his 
residence, much less the gi'eatest honour of the laying the foundation of 
this tabernacle which God, not man, reared, viz., his very conception, 
they never so much as dreamed of this, especially not of that region or 
part of the ten tribes, Galilee ; and above all the cities in GaUlee, not out 
of that barren, desert place of all other, viz., ' Shall Christ come out of 
Galilee?' say they, John vii. 41. And again, ver. 42, 'Hath not the 
scripture said. That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the 
town of Bethlehem, where David was ? ' And again, ver. 52, ' Search, and 
look : for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.' Not so much as a prophet, 
much less the Messiah, the great prophet. And yet it was apparent, that 
one of their prophets, Jonah, was a Galilean, 2 Kings xiv. 25. Gath- 
hepher was a city of the tribe of Zebulon, compared vnih. Josh. xix. 13, 
which Zebulon was a part of Galilee, Isa. ix. 1. 

But as for that city of Nazareth, they are yet more confident that Christ 
should not come thence : John i. 46, ' Can any good come out of Nazareth? ' 
And out of this confidence it was that they styled him so ordinarily ' Jesus 
of Nazareth' in scom, as ima.gining that alone did carry a confutation and 
evidence in it that this man of all else could not be the Messiah. So con- 
fident are men often of some one unanswerable argument against a great 
truth, when on the contraiy it proves to be the greatest evidence of that 
truth, as in this case it fell out. But, lo, how Jeremiah had foretold how, 
though Bethlehem was to be the place of his birth, yet one of the cities of 
the ten tribes, and that in Galilee, should be the place of his conception 
(which is the thing in hand), as Isaiah had also that Galilee should be of 
his preaching. Read Jer. xxxi. 21, 22, ' Set thee up waymarks, make 
thee high heaps : set thine heart towards the highway, even the way which 
thou wentest : turn again, virgin of Israel, turn again to these thy cities. 
How long wilt thou go about, thou backsliding daughter ? for the Lord 
hath created a new thing in the earth, a woman shall compass a man.' 
Jeremiah, as you know, lived till the Babylonish captivity, and had fore- 
told how the captive Jews should again have liberty, by Cyrus his procla- 
mation, to inhabit then own land, when Cyrus should give them liberty 
* Jer. xxxi. 21, 22.— Ed. t Qu. ' ten ' ?— Ed. 

Chap. V.] of chkist the mediator. 157 

as Isaiah had foretold, and as he promisoth Judah : ver. 23, 24, * Thus 
saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, As yet they shall use this 
speech in the land of Judah, and in the cities thereof, when I shall bring 
again this captivity. The Lord bless thee, habitation of justice, and 
mountains of holiness. And there shall dwell in Judah itself, and in all 
the cities thereof together, husbandmen, and they that go forth with flocks.' 
Also God courteth Ephraim, or the ten tribes, who had been long afore 
dispersed, to return with the tribes of Judah into their cities also, which 
they should then have free liberty to do. And to invite and allure them 
to it, they had the prophecies of their Messiah to them both, * the delight 
and joy of each,' Mai. iii. 1, and glory of the people of Israel; and how 
each should come to have a share in him, the one in his birth, the other 
in his conception. 

1. Of his birth ; that it should be in those parts the two tribes inhabit 
he prophesies : Jer. xxxi. ver. 15-17, ' Thus saith the Lord, A voice was 
heard in Ramah, lamentation, and bitter weeping ; Rachel weeping for her 
children, refused to be comforted for her children, because they were not. 
Thus saith the Lord, Refrain thy voice from weeping, and thine eyes from 
tears : for thy work shall be rewarded, saith the Lord ; and they shall come 
again from the land of the enemy. And there is hope in thine end, saith 
the Lord, that thy children shall come again to their own border.' Now, 
this properly and exactly relates to the story of his birth, for being born 
in Bethlehem, which was on the confines of Judea, near Ramah, his birth 
there was the occasion of the slaughter of many of Rachel's, the mother of 
Benjamin, her great-gi'andchildren there in Ramah, and also of Judah in 
Bethlehem. You all know how Matthew applieth this to his birth : Mat. 
ii. 16-18, ' Herod sent forth and slew all the children that were in Beth- 
lehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, accord- 
ing to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men. Then was 
fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying. In Ramah 
was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning ; 
Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they 
are not.' And to comfort her, he tells her, that together with these lamen- 
tations and throes of hers, the Messiah's birth (who was the hope of Israel) 
should be attended into the world, which would sweeten these sorrows in 
the end or issue, to the hearts of the rest of the elect, which were to come 
out of their loins in those times, and then to dwell in those cities. And 
so this birth of the Messiah, to be in their quarters, was worth this sorrow, 
and abundantly recompensed it, and was a sufficent invitation for Benjamin 
and Judah to return to their cities. 

2. Then, secondly, he applies himself to Ephraim, or the other ten tribes, 
as it is expressed, ver. 18-20, and invites them by this argument to turn 
again with Judah into their cities, that the conception of the Messiah 
should be in their quarters, and in one of their cities, as his birth was to 
be in the other: ver. 21, 22, 'Turn again, virgin of Israel, turn again 
to these thy cities. How long wilt thou go about, thou backshding 
daughter ? for the Lord hath created a new thing in the earth, 
a woman shall compass a man.' His meaning is, that this share and 
interest they and their regions should have in the Messiah, that in one of 
their cities this strange and unheard-of thing in the earth, and which the 
first creation knew not, should be; a woman, and a woman alone, without a 
man, should encompass a man in her womb, and conceive that Gehar, that 
strong man, that Son of man, the Christ. Now, this he alleging as ao 


argument to return unto their cities, his scope must be, that in one of 
their cities this great thing should be done. Now, then, turn we again to 
Luke i. 26, and the region, province, or shire in which this fell out was 
Galilee, and the city in that country this of Nazareth : ' In the sixth month 
the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Naza- 
reth.' So then, in a manifest contradiction to the Jews, here is some good 
thing, yea, our chiefest good, comes out of Gahlee ; and Nazareth, it was 
the place of his conception. 

Yea, and to view how all things meet yet more fully, as Samson was 
from his conception proclaimed a Nazarite, and the eminent type of Christ 
in this of his, so as in allusion thereunto, the word which Jeremiah there 
useth of Christ's conception hath an eye unto Samson, his type herein. 
It is not simply that a woman shall conceive a man, but Gebar, a strong 
man, that strong man of whom the strongest man that ever the world had, 
Samson, was but a shadow, a man filled with strength to overcome all our 
enemies, and to lift hell gates off their hinges, and to carry them up the 
mountains, as Samson did. Thus much for the second thing. 


Eovo God wisely ordered it that the Jens shoidd call Christ a Nazarite, 
though he was not really horn in that city. 

The next thing to be noticed is, that God having in these types foretold 
lie should be a Nazarite ; and also in his wise disposement forelaid it, that 
an inhabitant of Nazareth, and a Nazarite devoted to be more eminently 
holy and a saviour, should by one and the same word be signified in vulgar 
use ; yet further stand and admire that wonderiiil providence of his, whereby 
he brought it about that the Jews themselves should upon occasion of this 
city come unawares to give him this name, so to fulfil the prophecies which 
themselves read and understood not. 

Let it be, 1, considered, that oui' Christ was not to take up the outward 
legal and ceremonial profession of a Nazarite among the Jews, which his 
forerunner John Baptist and Samson did. No ; as he professed not him- 
self to be legally a priest, that is, after the order of Aaron, so nor to be a 
Nazarite, having a vow upon him according to the tenor of their law, but 
came secretly and unknown to fulfil the substance and reality of both. Now 
how should this name then come vulgarly to be given him ? . No other way 
but by his having had his known and constant abode from his infancy in 
that city Nazareth. Then, 

2. Consider how contingent a thing that was to fall on't.* The seat of 
the seed and progeny of David by inheritance, and according to their 
genealogy, was Bethlehem by Jerusalem, far removed fi'om Nazareth in 
Galilee. But Herod then reigning, who was jealous of all that might pre- 
tend to be heu's of that crown he then wore, these the true heu's, Joseph 
and Mary, were forced to skulk and retire themselves to these remoter parts 
of Galilee, as the seat of then* dwelling ; and hence it fell out that this his 
conception fell out to be in Nazareth. Well but, 

3. That his conception (so secret a matter) was at Nazareth, the Jews 
ordinarily would not have known or considered ; nor was it (as it is not) 
the manner of men to give the name of one's countiy to the place he was 

* Qu. ' out ' '? — Ed. 

Chap. VI.j of ciirist the mediator. 169 

conceived. Yea, God ordered that so as, had not Matthew related it, the 
Jews nor we would never have heeded it ; for as soon as she had conceived, 
the angel having told her, to the end to confirm her faith, that her cousin 
Elisabeth, who had been so long barren, had also conceived a son : Luke 
i, 36, ' And, behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son 
in her old age : and this is the sixth month with her^ who was called barren ;' 
it is said at ver. 89, 40, ' That Mary arose in those days, and went into 
the hill-country with haste, into a city of Juda ; and entered into the house 
of Zacharias, and saluted Elisabeth.' And this they did to rejoice and 
congratulate each the other. But this performed, Mary returned to Naza- 
reth, as intending to lie in there, but was just against the time of her 
deliveiy hurried to Bethlehem, by reason of a decree that came forth from 
Augustus the emperor, ' that all the world should be taxed,' Luke ii. 1. 
And the law of that nation was, as ver. 3, ' All went to be taxed, every one 
into his own city.' Hence therefore it came to pass, as ver. 4, 5, * That 
Joseph also went up fi-om Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, 
unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem (because he was of the 
house and lineage of David), to be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being 
great with child.' And this providence was to fulfil the prophecy of the 
place of his birth at Bethlehem ; which yet not being their constant place 
of abode, and his coming thither but transient, it still cast a blind amongst 
the Jews, that though he was so bom at Bethlehem, they accounted him as 
a constant inhabitant of the other place Nazareth. For we read, ver, 39, 
that ' when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, 
they returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth.' 

Well but, 4, there is yet a far greater contingency falls out, utterly to 
prevent his being called a Nazarite from this city, though hitherto the city 
of his parents' abode. For unless they had abode there, and he with them 
the greater part of his life, the Jews had never come to have given him this 
name. Herod being disappointed by the wise men to bring him word of 
the town where he was born, meant to make the most exact inquiry after 
this child, that the power and sagacity of so subtle a king could make, to 
find him out to destroy him. And, lo, no sooner was Joseph returned to 
his city Nazareth, Mat. ii. 13, but ' an angel appeared to Joseph in a 
dream, saying. Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee 
into Egyjjt, and be thou there until I bring thee word : for Herod will seek 
the young child to destroy him.' Which indeed further strengthens the 
point in hand, and shews him to have been that true Nazarite, of whom 
Joseph was the type, in this respect, that when young he was driven into 
Egypt, as Christ also was. And then again in his return, to fulfil another 
prophecy spoken of by Hosea, ' Out of Egypt have I called my Son,' Mat. 
ii. 15. But when in Egj'pt Joseph's heart was weaned from Nazareth, 
which was a place of his abode but out of necessity and fear of Herod. 
And the angel having told him that ' they were dead which sought the 
child's life,' he came, as is evident by ver. 22, with a purpose to go into 
Judea ; but hearing that Archelaus, and not his brother Herodias, had 
obtained the rule thereof, and knowing him to be bloody as his father, it is 
said, ver. 22, ' But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judea in the 
room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither.' And then also 
being over and above this fourth time * warned ' (as it follows) ' by God in 
a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee,' clean beyond his inten- 
tion and inclination. And upon this occasion, and this alone, it was that, 
as it follows, ' He came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth,' and bo from 


that time made his constant abode there ; that by this means this ' might 
be fulfilled ' (we have all this while been treating of) * which was spoken by 
the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarite.' 

For, lastly, upon this occasion, this city being now his continued seat of 
his education and life tiU he was thirty years old, the Jews who inquired, 
and were curious and diligent enough, and did know from whence he came, 
they out of scorn and malice did give him this title, Jesus, ' Jesus the 
Nazarite,' or ' of Nazareth.' And this they gave him in contempt, as being 
in then- account a base and unworthy place, so baiTen, as it was a proverb 
among them, ' Can any good come out of Nazareth ?' And the devil, he 
Btin-ed them up to it, himself (say some) first giving him that title, Mark 
i. 24 ; howsoever he with the first seconds it ; and he did it on pui-pose to 
divert the thoughts of the Jews from inquiring after his buih at Bethlehem, 
they all cried it up to have been at Nazareth. Then it was generally given 
out thus by the people, Mark x. 47, Luke xviii. 37 ; and as his fame grew, 
this name spread also. And that it was out of scorn appears also by this, 
that as Tertullian saith, unto his time they caUed the Christians !^fazarites, 
as also Galileans. But lo, what Satan and the Jews designed out of the 
greatest malice, God made use of the malice of man to attribute to him one 
of the greatest characters of his being the Messiah, which was to be a Naza- 
rite, and holy unto God by a vow from his conception, which had been 
wrought also in that city. Thus also he ordered Caiaphas, out of malice, 
to say, ' One man must die for the people,' to hold forth a just acknowledg- 
ment, that Christ by his death should be the saviour of that people, and of 
aU the elect of God in. the world. He ordered Pilate to say, and not recall 
it, that he was ' King of the Jews,' which he did in scorn ; but God thereby 
proclaimed him his king to aU the world in these three general languages, 
Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. 

Some object against this interpretation given, that it is nowhere written 
he should be called a Nazarite ; nay, nor were Joseph and Samson so 

The answer is, that these two phrases in Scripture are all one, ' to be,' 
and ' to be called.' So when it is said, ' He shall be called the Son of the 
Most High ;' that is, ' He shall be the Son of the Most High.' ' He shall 
be called the Lord our righteousness.' And so it was true both of Sam- 
son and Joseph, that they icere Nazarites, and are expressly said to be 
separated ; and it is more true of Christ, that he was such. 

Again it is objected, that Matthew says ' by the prophets ;' whereas 
Moses, that wrote Joseph's stoiy and the law, is distinguished from the 
prophets ; nor was he that -nTote the story of Sampson, in Judges, a pro- 
phet : and therefore this allusion cannot be to these. 

The answer is easy. 

1, That although in stricter sense only they are termed prophets that 
wrote those books of prophecy, as Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the small prophets, 
hence you read of Moses, the law, and the prophets, as distinguished ; yet 
again, in other scriptm-es, the title of prophet is given to all the sacred 
writers of the Old Testament. 2 Pet. i. 19, the whole is termed * a word 
of prophecy.' And ver. 20, 21, it is styled ' prophecy of the scripture,' 
as inspired by the Holy Ghost ; so as all scripture, inspired immediately 
by the Holy Ghost, is termed prophecy : so Heb. i. 1, * God spake in old 
time by the prophets,' and then cites the books of Samuel and Chronicles ; 
ver. 5, ' I will be to him a Father,' &c. ; Acts iii. 24. Samuel, who 
wrote a story, is termed a prophet ; and all the wiiters of Scripture from 


his time are termed prophets ; and, vcr. 21, all arc called holy prophets, 
which have been since the world began. 

2. And as to this particular, the thing in hand, it is evident that both 
Jacob and Moses, whilst thcj- spake this of Joseph the type of Christ, were 
then a-prophesying as truly as any of the prophets. Jacob professeth so 
to do in the beginning of his speech, Gen. xlix. 1, ' That I may tell you 
what shall befall you in the last days.' And as evident it is that Moses, in 
that his repetition of Joseph's being separated from his brethren, Deut. 
xxxiii. 16, did then also by the spirit of prophecy bless and foretell what 
should befall him. And then for that other, of Samson, it is delivered as 
a plain prophecy, even before his conception, how he should be a Nazarite, 
who was therein a type of Christ. And this, though uttered by an angel, 
is recorded by a sacred writer, that records it as a prophecy aforehand 
given. And thus much of Christ's being vowed and consecrated from his 


That another proplieey of Christ, Isa. xi. 1, Jer. xxiii. 5, and Zech. iii. 8, is 
fulfilled in Christ a Nazarite, or inhabitant of that city. 

I must not conceal, to ingratiate this, another known fair and pregnant 
interpretation or allusion held forth by many interpi'eters to another prophecy 
of him : and I would if there were a thousand of them more, if possible, to 
fall in into everything about him. For the more such lines of prophecy 
about our Jesus meet in any one centre, the more ascertained we are that 
he is that Messiah that was then to come, and the Scriptures are thereby 
discovered to be the more mystical, and himself illustrious. It is evident 
that Matthew, whilst he says that he was spoken of hj ivophets, not prophet, 
had more in his eye than one^ yea, and prophecies perhaps more than of 
one sort ; and so there will be a tXj^^w^jj, as Brugensis* observes. 

Now this other interpretation affirms this name Nazaraian to be an allu- 
sion to that mystical and metaphorical name of Netzer ; that is, the plant 
or branch, given him by Isaiah. Chap. xi. 1, ' And there shall come forth 
a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots.' 
Seconded by Jeremiah, chap, xxiii. 5, ' Behold, the days come, saith tho 
Lord, that I will raise up David a righteous Branch, and a I^ing shall reign 
and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.' And 
chap. XXXV. 15. And thirded by Zechariah in two places, chap. iii. 8, 
' Behold, I will bring forth my servant the Branch.' And especially chap, 
vi. 12, ' Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, saying. Behold the man wlijse 
name is The Branch ; he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build 
the temple of the Lord.' And the name, say they, of the city Nazareth in 
Hebrew was Netzer, or Natsoreth, a city of plants (that abounded there, say 
they), as Jericho was called a city of palms. f So this of gritis. And an 
inhabitant of it, in the Syriac language, then in use, was Noseraio. So 

* Lucas Brugens. in locum. 

t To name towns from what more eminently groweth and aboundeth therein is 
usual to this day in those eastern countries, as Herbert in his Descriptions of Persia 
notes : as Shyras, a town of milk ; Whormoote, a town of dates ; Deagardow, a towa 
of walnuts, &c. In his first edition, p. 60. 

VOL V. ^ 


then let us make an apostrophe unto the Jews. You might, Jews, come 
to ken and know your Messiah, among other accompHshments of prophecies, 
by this one, that he whom your prophet calls ' the Plant,' * the Branch,' it 
comes to pass to fulfil that prophecy, that he dwelt at Nazareth, which hath 
its name from plants ; so on purpose afore-designed by God, because it was 
to be the renowned habitation, and place of education and conception of 
him whom yom* prophets had proclaimed the ' top Branch of all your Israel.' 
And the same providence so disposing it, that whilst you call him Nazarene, 
and Jesus of Nazareth, you therebj' fulfil this prophecy (though not aware 
of it), o^vning him, that thereby he should be the branch ; ' The plant God's 
own right hand had planted.' By which name the prophets had foretold 
he should be made famous by yourselves, whilst you styled him, ' A man 
of Nazareth.' Yea, and the prophet Zechariah seems, under that his name, 
* The Branch,' to point us withal to this place, where this Branch should 
gi-ow ; ' The man whose name is The Branch shall grow out of his place,' 
meaning this city Nazareth, where he had his conception and gi'owing up ; 
referring to his education, which was there also until he went forth to 
preach : and that foretold too in these following words, ' And he shall build 
the temple of the Lord ' (speaking to Zerubbabel his type, who built the 
second temple) ; fulfilled in our Christ, who says, ' I will build my church 
of the new testament.' Which when he went first to lay the foundation of 
by preaching the gospel, providence disposed so of it that he went out from 
Nazareth, his place and city, as the 4th of Matthew hath it. So then what 
Matthew here says, ' He dwelt in Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled. He 
shall be called a Nazarite,' a dweller in a Branch town, answers to what 
Zechariah says, chap. vi. 12, ' Thus saith the Lord of hosts. Behold the 
man whose name is The Branch : and he shall grow up out of his place, and 
he shall build the temple of the Lord.' 

But this interpretation hath its lameness, so as, though it may be taken 
in as an allusion, yet not so literally as the former, much less only or ade- 
quately fitted to Matthew's quotation here. For, 

1. It cannot undoubtedly be proved that the city Nazareth had its name 
from Kctzer, plants. For that town was so obscure, as the name of it is 
not recorded in the Old Testament, which should decide it. Nor doth 
Zechariah here use the word Netzer for ' Branch,' as Isaiah doth, and that 
but once, as prophesying of the Messiah. He useth the word Semah, as 
also those other prophets mentioned do. So as if we should entertain that 
to be Matthew's whole or main scope, we put ourselves upon but one scrip- 
ture or prophecy, namely, that of Isaiah, who in the letters doth only use 
that word Netzer, all the rest a far difi"ering word. Now when Matthew 
here says that by being called a Nazarean from the city Nazareth the pro- 
phecies were fulfilled ; it is a matter of sameness of names or words that 
must be intended, to be found in those scriptures which are thus said to be 
fulfilled. Now the name or word Netzer is nowhere else given him but in 

Again, that word, as used by the prophet of him, is a noun substantive 
(as we say), a Plant or Branch ; but the title here mentioned by Matthew, 
to be found in the scripture answering to it, is a noun adjective, signifying 
an attribute or qualification belonging to him. 

But, my brethren, is it not pity that these two interpretations should 
strive in the womb of this text, the one against the other, if it were possible 
to reconcile and take in both ? For then you will be sure to have prophets 
enough wait and attend upon the accomplishment of it. 

Chap. VII.J op ohrist the medutor. 168 

There have been of those of old, and of late, havo endeavoured to tako 
in both and reconcile them, whilst others argue wholly for the one, to ex- 
clude the other. So &, Lapido, Cartwright, and Jackson, and Ilierom of 
old, as appears by comparing his comment on Mat. ii. 23, and Isa. xi. 1. 
So as that if we respect the name Nazoraios, as Matthew gives it in the 
letters and syllables thereof, that of Christ being a Nazarite doth carry it 
clear. Yet so as withal there may be an allusion to make it the more full 
unto Isaiah's Nctzer, or Christ's being the Branch ; especially considering 
the name of the city was obscure, and not mentioned in the Old Testament, 
and so uncertain, whether written by ts, or z, by tsade, or zayn, Notsereth, 
or Nazareth, primitively in the Hebrew. And if written by ts, yet that letter 
ts being often turned in pronunciation and writing into z, whereof Drusiua 
and Grotius, and others give many instances ; and so in that respect well 
serving, or complying with either interpretation. And it being the Holy 
Ghost's manner, in things of this nature, to have a vast and comprehensive 
aim, and by way of allusion in fulfilling prophecies to take more ways than 
one, I confess I am therefore easily induced to eye and give an ear to both 

Only I must withal put in this profession or caution as to my judgment, 
that if these two cannot be found to stand together (which I see not but 
they may), that if I must lean to one interpretation rather than the other, 
I should unto the first, as I have presented it, of Christ his being a Nazarite, 
the holy one of God, or consecrated unto God. And I do prefer upon all 
accounts that unto the other for these, reasons, besides what hath been afore 
argued and said. 

1. He is called a Nazarite from the city, which is evident by Matthew 
and other evangelists' testimony. If the question came, whether of the 
two that city's name was Notseroth or Nazareth, so whether taken from 
Netzer, signifying the branch or fpiff, or from Nazari, signifying a person 
vowed to God, it is clear that the latter carries it both in that first of 
Matthew and the other evangelists, who write the name of that city in the 
Greek with z, not s, Nazareth, and not Nasareth, or Notseroth. And secondly, 
that it is as evident that if, according to the analogy of each of those tongues, 
you would translate that word from Hebrew into Greek, if in the Hebrew 
that city's name had been Netsereth or Netseroth (from griffs and plants), 
then in Greek it must have been written Nasoreth with s, or double ss, sTjiLa ; 
for rg in the Hebrew is in the Greek rendered by s, not z, that is, by aTy/j^a, 
s or ss, not by ^-^ra, as Melchitsedec in Hebrew is rendered MeJchisedec, 
by Paul to the Hebrews. Tsion is translated in the Greek Sion ; so Tsabhooth 
is Sabboth, &c., whereas all the evangelists do constantly write the name of 
that city Nazareth with z, but not one Nasareth. And again, on the other 
side, when the Hebrew word is with zain, then the Greek writes ^'/jra or z, 
as in the words Zabulon, Zacharias, and Beelzebub. 

And again, that this city should have its name from plants or trees grow- 
ing there, and to be eminently renowned for such, is more improbable, 
because Zebulon, in which it was seated, was a deserted place in darkness 
(as the prophecy and evangelists tell us*) ; and on the contrary renowned 
for such by the Jews, as that usual proverb of theirs shews, ' Can any good 
come out of Nazareth?* a place so barren and vile above all other places, 
as that no good, no not of any kind, was growing there, or expected thence. 
For which cause perhaps this flourishing plant, the Messiah, is said by 
Isaiah to ' grow out of a dry ground,' Isa. liii. 2, even with an 63^6 to the 
unfruitfulness of this place ;md city. 

* See Heiiisiiis in Mat. ii. ult. 


2. If the importance of these two mysteries pleaded for on each side be 
weighed, this of his being a Nazarite, in the sense given to have been in- 
tended, ditpiius est (as a Lapide says) is of the more worth in the importance 
of it, that only referring to a metaphorical expression of his being a 
' Branch,' and at the highest notes out our engrafting into him as branches 
into a graJS^ But this other denotes his personal holiness as God-man, his 
being dedicated and consecrated to God, separated and sealed by God to 
the work of redemption, which is the foundation of all ; and many other 
mysteries, as his kingly and priestly offices, all far more glorious than the 
other, as in the sequel will appear. This will be found most comprehen- 
sive, and to take in all the prophets. 

3. If we regard the prophecy itself, this name of his, Nazarite, is not in 
metaphorical words, but in clear and express types, who, as being his 
types, and for that very end were called Na^a^a/b/, Nazarites, as men in a 
special manner above the rest holy, separate, dedicated, and consecrated to 
God, or men crowned with a peculiar excellency above others. And so the 
Septuagint sometimes translates it ayioi, sometimes a(puj^ici/jbsm, separated, 
kcTiipavcj)n,hoi, crowned. Now, if they which were his types were called so 
in all these senses Nazarites, then he in them was much more styled so, 
and signified thereby to be the reality, the substance, of what they were 

But still I conclude, as I said before, that I wish and hope that both 
may stand, aud I would there were a thousand more such, of so great a 
variety and comprehensiveness. 


That as Christ expressed his will and consent in the dedication of himself to 
the tcork, so he shewed his cheerful willingness in all the parts of the per- 

You have had the former part of this gi'eat story, his dedication of him- 
self at his conception. The last part follows, to see how he made good 
his vow from the first to the last act thereof, ' obedient to the death.' I 
need take no text for it, the New Testament gives everywhere testimony 
thereof. It were infinite to give you all the passages that argue this his 
willingness and zeal throughout the whole of his life and at his death. I 
shall lay afore you but some more eminent and obvious. 

It is observable that the very first words you have recorded as uttered 
by himself, and that when a child, at twelve years old, yea, and that but 
one speech neither ; and this that I am now a-speaking was the sum and 
eminent import of it : Luke ii. 48, his mother seems to chide him, that 
without their privity he had stayed behind, and put them to that sorrow 
and trouble in seeking him, and not knowing what was become of him. 
What is Christ's answer ? Ver. 49, ' Wist ye not that I must be about 
my Father's business ? ' As if he had said. It is true you are my parents, 
and I have been subject to you hitherto in your particular affairs, but do 
not you know I have another Father higher than you, who hath com- 
manded me, by virtue of my office of mediatorship, other manner of busi- 
ness to be done by me than to attend on you, and wherein I am not to 
take counsel or direction from you, or ask leave of ycu ? For I am not 
an ordinary son : ' Wist ye not I was about my Father's business ? ' h ToTg 

Chap. VIII.] of christ the mediator. 166 

roZ irctT^lg, * in the things or affairs of my Father,' who is my Father after 
another manner than you are, and therefore my business is another manner 
of business than of other children. I am the Christ, the Messiah, and at 
these years do understand myself well enough to be so ; and I have a 
spiritual work to do, enjoined me by my Father, which all other obliga- 
tions, though at these years, must give way to. And as elsewhere it is, 
*As the Father commands me, so do I,' as John xiv. 31. His will and 
law is written in my heart from a child ; I am engaged to do his will, to 
perform the office of a mediator, the Messiah, whereof one part is the pro- 
phetic office, to teach and to instruct. And to give a specimen or an evi- 
dence of it, I have now by his command (this being my first coming up to 
the temple, my Father's house, where I am to preach hereafter many a 
sermon) been ;imong the doctors arguing with them, ver. 46. It would 
seem the first time he came, according to the law, to the feast ; the manner 
being at twelve years to put a difierenoe between a child and a youth, that 
the males of that age should go up to the temple. Malachi had told he 
should, as a messenger of the covenant or prophet, suddenly come to his 
temple: Mai. iii. 1, 'Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall pre- 
pare the way before me : and the Lord whom ye seek, shall suddenly come 
to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in : 
behold, he shall come, saith the Lord of hosts.' And when he comes first, 
he will come as a messenger or declarer of the covenant, though but at 
twelve years of age. As God shewed Moses that he himself was that 
deliverer to his people (long afore he delivered them) by one act of ven- 
geance upon anEg}^ptian, so God gave demonstration that this was the angel 
of the covenant in the temple, almost twenty years afore he came to exer- 
cise that function ordinarily. But that which I observe out of it is to the 
point in hand, that at twelve years old, and long afore, the human nature 
understood full well his office, and his being the mediator, and did direct 
his actions to that aim and level. He acted as the Messiah unto his 
Father, as his Father in another manner than he is the Father of men or 
angels, and had the law written in his heart at his conception in his eye. 
To do his will he was careful of, yea, delighted to do that will : I was about 
my Father's business : yea, I ought to be (says he). This is the original 
obligation and undertaking my ear was long since boi*ed through to do, viz., 
this his will. I am not mine own, nor yours, but his servant ; I must be 
in his business. And though now you have a more eminent instance of it 
at twelve years, you might have perceived it long ago, if you had observed 
my carriage, and how I have directed my aims ; therefore, you see, he 
blames them : * Wist you not that I was in my Father's business ? ' And 
the word umi h To7i, to be in the things of his Father, imports his being 
wholly in them. And though his Father did not ordinarily, or perhaps 
had not afore this his appearing at the temple, set him about business ex- 
traordinary, or other than such as a child subject to parents useth to 
be (as, ver. 51, it is after this said of him that he was subject to them), 
yet he had been in all his course in the things of his Father, and had car- 
ried himself as one that walked by a higher principle of obedience to God 
than other men were bound to. And this they might have observed, else 
he would not have blamed them for not considering it. And the word 
iimi is to be wholly and continually given up to it, as men in an office 
ought to be. As Rom. xii. 7, 8, ' Or ministry, let us wait on our minis- 
tering ; or he that teacheth, on teaching ; or he that exhorteth, on exhorta- 
tion : he that giveth, let him do it with simplicity ; he that ruleth, with 


diligence; he that sheweth mercy, with cheerfulness.' 1 Tim. iv. 15, 
* Meditate upon these things ; give thyself wholly to them ; that thy pro- 
fiting may appear to all.' That which we translate, and rightly too, ' give 
thyself wholly to them,' is the like phrase, h rou-oig 'io6i, ' be in these 
things.' So then Christ as now, so from his infancy, had been wholly in 
the things of his Father, and as mediator, directing all obedience as such 
to him ; and not only acting holily, as a child sanctified from the womb, 
but mediator-like ; and he delighted to do it, and shewed so much at his 
first undertaking. This is the first speech, and it is an early one you 
have of him, and it imports it. In a word (Christ says), ' He that sent 
me is with me,' namely, always ; ' and I do always those things that 
please him,' John viii. 29. And he had done so always from his infancy, 
and directed all to him as a Father that had sent him on that spiritual 
woik. And the Father hath not left me alone, but guided me from the 
first thus to do (says he) ; for of his guiding him to do his will he there 

Why should I be large in rehearsing to you all his other speeches which 
might argue this, how that it was his meat and drink to do the will of God ? 
John iv. 34, ' Jesus saith unto them. My meat is to do the will of him that 
sent me, and to finish his work.' He was hungry, and yet zeal and desire 
to do God's will in saving of souls, swallowed up the sense of that hunger 
and faintness. He delighted to do God's will more than ever hungry man 
did to eat his meat ; and not only at this time, and for this fit, but to do all 
the rest of the work to the last, to perfect and to complete every part of it. 
So it follows, 'and to finish or perfect his work.' So then, all his time 
afore, he had made it his meat and drink, as much as now, and for all 
years to come, the same zeal was in him, even to the whole, from first to 
last, as the word perfecting implies. And in all this he still directed his 
obedience as mediator, looking at all he did, not only as obedience due in 
common as from other men, but as it was the work designed by him that 
had sent him, and sealed him to this work : see John vi. 38, ' For I came 
down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent 
me.' Still, you see, he fulfils that primitive obhgation of his, ' I delight 
to do thy will, God.' Yea, it is not only said, as here, that it was more 
to him than meat to do his will ; but further to express his zeal in it, in 
another place at another time, this his zeal is said to have ' eaten him up,' 
his strength, and spirits, and all. He was eaten up, and devoured there- 
by : it swallowed up all his intentions, as the wrath of God is said to have 
drunk up Job's spirits : John ii, 17, ' The zeal of thy house' (and of thy 
glory concerned in it) ' hath eaten me up,' says Christ. 


That he did not shrink at the ajjproach of his greatest sufferings, his death, but 
shewed a cheerful resolution to the very last moment. 

Let us instance further, in that which was the hardest piece of his work, 
and the finishing of all, his sufierings at his death. 

1. Afore he came to undergo it a good while, see the frame of his 
spirit ; Luke xii. 50, ' I have a baptif3m to be baptized with ; and how am 
I straitened till it be accomplished I' He knew the bitterness of that bap- 

Chap. IX.J of christ the mediatoh. 1G7 

tism to be such as no creaturo was able to be baptized with it : Matt. xx. 22, 
' But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to 
drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism 
that I am baptized with ? They say unto him. We are able.' Yet, says 
he, ' How am I straitened till it be accomplished.' How much I cannot 
express ; and I am straitened that my desire and longings are delayed, and 
they straiten and contract the heart. Never woman desired more to be 
delivered, than he to have finished that work ; to have gone over that brook, 
that sea of wrath, he was to be sunk over head and ears into. 

Upon a time when Christ began first to declare the greatness of his suf- 
ferings — Mat. xvi. 21, * From that time forth, began Jesus to shew unto 
his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things 
of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised 
again the third day' — Peter took him (that is aside, as a friend out of 
love) and began to rebuke him, that he would spare himself, and not pro- 
voke the pharisees by zeal ; and ' be it far from thee, Lord' (says he), that 
never deservedst it, that art the Saviour of men, goest up and down doing 
good, this shall not be to thee. But how did Jesus take this ? One would 
have thought he should have taken it lovingly. Absolutely, we never did 
see Christ so angrj^, and take a thing so ill. It is said, ver. 23, ' But he 
turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan ; thou art an ofience 
unto me : for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that 
be of men.' The word (ST^a(pslc, translated ' h^ turned,' it imports not so 
much the turning of his body to him, as the turning and change of his 
countenance unto a paleness or redness, as when a man's blood is up, or 
when he is moved with anger and indignation. And what said he ? ' Get 
thee behind, Satan.' There was never such a word came forth of those 
lips afore or after, given to a saint, as Peter was. All was because he 
touched him in what his spirit was most eager for ; as anger swells and 
riseth against what comes in the way and current of men's desires, even as 
a strong stream against what would stop it. And Christ adds, * Thou art 
an ofience unto me ! ' An oflence is properly an occasion of stumbling. 
Now Christ's holy nature was not capable of such an occasion of stumbling, 
or being drawn to sin, as ours is ; yet Peter's speech had that tendency in 
it, to divert him from that great work his heart was intent upon. Then at 
another time Peter would be meddling to rescue him by the sword, John 
xviii. 11. And though he then received a milder answer from Christ, ' Put 
up thy sword into its sheath ;' yet still you may thereby see how strongly 
his heart continued set upon the work of redemption that was undertaken 
by him, and designed to him ; ' The cup which my Father hath given me, 
shall I not drink ?' Every word speaks the eagerness and strength of his 
will and resolution therein. Interrogations in that case argue the greatest 
vehemency. But this belongs to the next particular : namely. 

When he came to perform that last part of his obedience, his sufferings 
to death, 

1. As the time drew nearer and nearer for him to take his last journey 
to Jerusalem, not having many months or days to live, and knew also all 
that would befall him there, as he had told Peter and his disciples ; the 
evangehst Luke says of him, chap. ix. 51, ' When the time was come he 
should be received up ' (namely, by means of that cruel death, unto glory), 
' he stedfastly set his face to go up to Jerusalem.' I will not dispute 
whether it was his last journey (which I rather think with Grotius), or that 
it was half a year afore, as others ; but two journeys to Jerusalem are after- 


wards mentioned by Luke (which yet argue not that his disposition, here 
recorded occasionally, should not be intended of his last journey) ; for Luke 
tells things not strictly in order of time, but of occasions (as Grotius hath 
observed). However this all do and must acknowledge, that the scope of 
this passage was to shew that Christ now toward his end hardened himself, 
and in all his deportment (which is expressed by face there) set himself to 
manifest so much, that nothing did or should divert him. Yea, and this 
was ohseiwable in him more than at former times ; for, ver. 53, it was 
obseiTed by a whole city of the Samaritans, who therefore received him not : 
' And they did not receive him, because his face was as though he would 
go to Jerusalem.' 

Hence the exhortation from Chi'ist's example, suffering resolutely for us : 
1 Peter iv. 1, is this, ' Forasmuch as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, 
arm yourselves likewise with the same mind ;' a strong resolution, causing 
a man's mind as boldly and venturously to encounter difl&culties, as strong 
armour doth embolden a man's mind to rush into battle. So then Chiist 
armed himself, steeled his heart, as we use to speak. 

And then w*hen he was to eat his last supper, to eat his last (as we use 
to speak), so it is called, Luke xxii. 16, see what vehemency of desires he 
utters, ver. 15, ' With desire have I desired to eat this passover with you 
before I suffer ;' that is, how have I longed with the most passionate desire 
for the arrival of this last night and meal that I must make, that it would 
come and hasten, as all men are apt aforehand to do for that which their 
hearts are set upon. And that to have been his reason is evident by what 
follows, ver. 16, ' For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the 
vine, until the kingdom of God shall come :' the thing signified by the 
passover, the redemption of the world by my death. This is to be my last 
drink I shall drink with you ; and now my death comes on, by which you 
and the world shall be saved and redeemed. 

And again, when he knew Judas was to go out to betray him, he said, 
' Do what thou dost do, quickly ; ' John xiii. 27, 30, as soon as thou 
wilt, for I am ready and resolved. He dares him, and hastens him to it 
to shew his own resolvedness. And when he was gone out he claps his 
hands (as it were) for joy, and utters his joy and triumph in it, ver. 81, 
* Therefore when he was gone out, Jesus said. Now is the Son of man glori- 
fied, and God is glorified in him.' For he reckoned the stroke now as good 
as struck, the thing now as good as done, that he should be cinicified. For 
the instrument that was to set all a-work was gone out about it, and he 
calls his death, his being glorified, because it was the foundation of all 
that glory himself and his elect were to have. How bitter soever it proved 
afterwards, his heart at present was filled with joy for the thoughts of the 
approach of it ; he looks upon it as his wedding day, his coronation day 
(as in more respects than one it proved) ; as Solomon's heart is said to be 
fiUed with joy in the day wherein his mother crowned him. And that so 
he esteemed it, you have another place to the same purpose, John xii. 23, 
24, 28, ' Now the hour is come that the Son of man should be glorified,' 
which is spoken out of the same passion of spirit as the former ; as if he 
had said, Non-, even now is the time, the longed-for hour, so long longed 
for, come, wherein I shall be glorified, and do that most glorious work for 
which I came into the world. ' For this hour I came into the world,' as 
ver. 27. And this he speaks in relation to his death, so in the 2-lth verse, 
as also ver. 27, 28, and 32 evidently shew. It is true, he was struck with 
terror and trouble at his entrance into it (for here the first thunder- clap 

Chap. IX.j of ohrist the mediator. 169 

that struck him did begin), so ver. 27, ' Now is my soul troubled,' and so 
troubled, as he adds, ' What shall I say? Father, save me from this hour?' 
But withal, he renews and recovers that which had been his constant re- 
solution and pursuance. ' But for this cause came I to this hour.' It was 
a consideration he took in to hearten himself unto it ; that he had gone 
so fiir, and was now come to it, and should I now recoil ? And what was 
it did glad him, even in the midst of this his trouble ? 1. That his Father 
should be glorified. ' Father, glorify thy name. Then came there a voice 
from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.' 
2. That thereby souls should be saved, which, in ver. 24, he gives this account 
of, ' Except a corn of wheat ' (to which he compares himself, who was to be 
the root of multitudes to spring out of him), ' die, it abides alone ; ' as he 
otherwise must have done in heaven. ' But if it die, it bringeth forth much 
fruit ; ' which further, ver. 32, 33, he expresseth, 'I, if I be lifted up from 
the earth, will di-aw all men to me. This he said, signifying what death he 
should die.' 

After this he maketh a long sermon to his disciples, when Judas was gone 
forth to act his fatal design ; and Christ, to lose no time, in the mean while 
enters into a long and large sermon to hearten his disciples, recorded in 
the ensuing thu'teenth and fourteenth chapters of John. And it is greatly 
observable, how that in the midst of his sermon, in the tenor of his discourse 
coming to that which most of all did move him to that work, namely, his 
Father's love, you have the passage, John xiv. 31, 'But that the world may 
know that I love the Father ; and as the Father gave me commandment, 
even so I do. Arise, let us go hence.' He would needs in all haste be 
gone, as if he had overslipped his time of Judas his meeting him with his 
trained bands, and so they would miss of him. He sits upon thorns (as 
we use to say of one that thinks the time long), for he breaks off" in the 
midst of a discourse, which he assumes again (as if he had forgotten him- 
self), though two chapters afterwards, the fifteenth and sixteenth. Of all 
works else, preaching, and preaching his last too, his heart was most in ; 
and 3'et he makes a start in the midst of a sermon to be gone, to be taken 
and crucified : ' Arise, let us go hence.' He looked on the glass, and saw 
it was not yet run out, and he sits down again, and preacheth another 
sermon of the vine and of the branches, occasioned by what he had been 
administering, the sacrament of his supper, his blood, so signified by the 
blood of the vine. Well, when that sermon and his latter prayer, chap, 
xvii., was done, it came to the very point of his bitter execution, he stays 
not till their pursuivants and Judas with his trained bands should find him 
out; but as the eighteenth chapter teUs us, he offers himself as a sacrifice 
iato their hands (for so all sacrifices were to be brought to the door of the 
temple by the person that sacrificed), and so to be offered up. And all 
this he did willingly and knowingly aforehand of what should come to pass, 
chap, xviii. 4. And these things the eighteenth chapter of John doth 
punctually and setly relate, from the first verse to the ninth : ' When 
Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the 
brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his dis- 
ciples. And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place ; for Jesus 
ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. Judas then, having received a' 
band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh 
thither with lanterns and torches and weapons. Jesus therefore, knowing 
all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, 
Whom seek ye ? They answered him, Jesiis of Nazareth. Jesus saith 


unto them, I am he. And Judas, which betrayed him, stood with them. 
As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and 
fell to the gi'ound. Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And 
they said, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus answered, I have told you that I am 
he ; if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way : that the saying might 
be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou givest me have I lost 

We had sinned against knowledge, and he suffers with a full cognisance, 
and an aforehand deliberation of all that was to befall him. And further 
(to make us apprehensive of this his will in it), he tells Peter, when he 
would needs vainly and weakly attempt to rescue him, Mat. xxvi. 53, 
' Thmkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall pre- 
sently give me more than twelve legions of angels ?' Alas ! he needed not 
so great a party ; his owti word, ' I am he,' John xviii. 8, struck them all 
backward, and might have done dead ; and ver. 11, * The cup which my 
Father hath given me, shall I not di'ink it ? ' 

He never shewed any sign of reluctancy, till in the garden he saw 
what was indeed in that cup his Father did present him with, even his 
wi'ath, and being made a cui'se. And to shew what the nature of a man 
in itself might in such a case do, namely, shew his abhorrency of so high 
an endurance, and merely to let us understand so much, to the end we 
might see his love (for it was meet we should by something understand 
how much he was put to it), he thereupon cries out, ' Father, if it be 
possible, let this cup pass.' But as he had, John xii. 27, so here his 
Father's will quiets all again. And the whole mind of this passage is but 
to shew, 

1. His averseness, as to the thing in itseK simply considered, because of 
the bitterness of it ; and, 

2. That the whole ground of his submitting notvdthstanding thereunto 
was his Father's will ; and, 

3. How that, notwithstanding his will stood to it as high as ever, yet 
only upon that gi-ound, ' Not my will, but thy will be done.' 

When they had him in the high priest's hall, scorning and bufi'eting of 
him ; as he had set his face, as you heard, afore his sufferings to go to 
Jerusalem ; so now the prophet uttering it in his person, tells us how he 
steeled his heart thereagainst also : ' I gave my back to the smiters, and my 
cheeks to them that plucked off the hair : I hid not my face from shame 
and spitting. For the Lord God will help me ; therefore shall I not be 
confounded : therefore have I set my face like a flint, and I know that I 
shall not be ashamed.' 

Lastly, 'UTaen he hung upon the tree, and had enough to have provoked 
so great a spii"it, so empowered as he was with the sovereignty of heaven 
and earth to have relieved himself, and to have commanded those nails to 
have given way, he could have taught them better obedience than to 
detain their Lord in so gi'eat sufferings a moment ; and that which did and 
might have provoked him farther to have shewn his power to rescue him- 
self, was their cruel mockings of him added to all his sufferings, ' Come 
down' (say they), 'thou that savest others, and we will believe thee.' 
"Well, he still hangs quietly there. 'He endured the cross' (Paul says), 
' and despised the shame,' Heb. xii. 1. When in the grave, all the power 
of death could not keep him there, for he had done his work. But love 
kept him on the cross, and nailed him there with stronger nails than men 
or devils could have driven in. 

Chap. IX.] op Christ the mediator. 171 

Alas ! He could, as Samson, whilst they mocked him, have broke down 
the pillars of heaven about their ears, and himself have stood erect from 
out the ruins of it. In the sixteenth Psalm (made of him) he blesseth God 
for having given him that counsel to persist in his resolution to die, and 
keeping the purpose of it fixed in his heart during all those nights in which 
he had to do with his Father afore his sufierings. If he, I am sure we 
much more, have cause to bless God for giving it, and him for following it. 
Even so, Jesus blessed ! Amen. 



Chrisfs actual pei^formance of our redem^otion. — In the general, he gave him- 
self for us. — The paHicular j^arts of our redemption are, that he was 
made sin, and a curse ; and by his death obtained a victory over Satan, 
whereby he delivers us from slavery ; and hath performed all righteousness 
which might answer the law for us. — And that Christ, as our great shep- 
herd, takes care to p)reserve and secure u^ safe, thus redeemed and freed by 

Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time. — 1 Tim. II. 6. 


That God pi-eseritly , on man's fall, making the discovery to him of a Redeemer ^ 
Adam transmitted the knowledge of him to his posterity, and he was accord- 
ingly proposed to the faith of the piatriurchs. 

Though believers, before tbe coming of Christ, had in their faith but some 
obscure glimmerings of Clxrist the Redeemer, j'et they had real apprehen- 
sions of such a person to come. And there were certainly some outward 
glimmerings and rays, in the things appointed to represent Christ shining 
through that vail. For the difference that the apostle puts, when he 
handles and compares the point of both and each of those dispensations, 
ours and theirs, seems to import so much in saying, that ' we behold 
with open face the glory of the Lord,' 2 Cor. iii. 18 ; implying that they 
had some darker, obscure, confused gleams and apprehensions darted into 
their minds thereof. It is true the person was then veiled indeed, and hid 
in cloudy and dark expressions and representations, that were but shadows ; 
even as we read of Moses, that his face was covered with a veil, to signify 
thus much. And Moses being as their mediator then, and face being put 
in Scripture for person, we may say that Christ's person was then obscured ; 
and yet with such a veil as did not utterly darken all perceivance of his 
gloiy. It is true, indeed, that they knew not the individual person, who 
he was to be, as now we do, and is necessary for us to do ; as Christ told 
the Pharisees (who lived under the light of his gospel and miracles), ' unless 
you believe that I am he, you shall die in your sins.' But that there was 
one of the sons of men, that was to come, who should be a dehverer, this 
the saints that were saved generally then knew. Although the vulgar 
Jew stuck in the letter, as at this day, the veil being on their hearts, as 
2 Cor. iii. 15. It is not now on Christ's face, chap. iv. 4, 5, but upon 
men's hearts. 

I shall begin my proof with the first promise in paradise, which appa- 
rently was, that a son of Eve, the seed of the woman, was to come, that 

Chap. I.] of christ the mediator. 173 

should have power to break the serpent's head : that is, in plainer lan- 
guage now said, ' who should destroy the works of the devil,' 1 John iii. 8, 
or as it is in the epistle to the Hebrews, chap. ii. 14, ' "Who should destroy 
him that had the power of death,' and save and deliver from him that had 
just that very day brought sin and death into the world, and thereupon had 
the power of death. And therefore also that person promised was to be 
more than a mere man, or mere creature. For how otherwise could he 
have power to overcome and destroy and break the power of those fallen 
angels ? yea, and which was more, of God's law, that threatened death ? 
Now are we to be saved by the knowledge and faith of this person, as Eve 
(to be sure) first was by the faith on him, and then we. And the neces- 
sity to salvation of that knowledge appears in the case of our first parents. 
For why else did God thus hastily, in the cool of the evening of that very 
day wherein they had sinned, discover this, but that the knowledge of it 
was necessaiy to their salvation ? And the same necessity must be sup- 
posed to hold for the salvation of others that were to be saved after them. 
And therefore the knowledge of a redeemer was delivered unto them, to be 
transmitted down to their posterity. Adam also li-ving nine hundred and 
thirty years and upwards into that first world, and a godly seed and race 
being reckoned from him unto the flood, and those our first parents being 
godly, and having been the causes of transmitting sin to all their posterity, 
were the more engaged and obliged, and accordingly zealously moved, to 
derive down the knowledge of that means, whereby themselves had been 
recovered, by the which their posterity might be saved also ; and it were 
strange to think that they should not. And that, de facto, they did so 
deliver it, besides what the story in Genesis doth relate of the religion pro- 
pagated in those times, there were some footprints remaining among the 
heathen of Eve's fall, by name,* of the serpent's venom and infection, for 
which they made a collision and bruising of serpents, and of a seed, Jovis 
Incrementum, as Virgil calls him, who should be a restorer and confounder 
of the devil. Such memorials were left and found among the heathens, 
though so defaced, as they could not be saved by them, they wanting a 
spiritual light to accompany that knowledge. It would be, therefore, I say, 
unreasonable to think that those who after were to be saved, should be 
utterly kept by God from the inkhng and knowledge of that first promise. 
For there was no other promise (which we read of extant) whereby those 
might be saved that were saved. 

Now that which I would have observed upon that original promise, is, 
that there are but two eminent things that promise consists of, First, the 
deliverance and salvation from the serpent's power, which is the break- 
ing the serpent's head. And the second is, that a person, one of the sons 
of men, should efiect this, and break his head. Concerning this my pre- 
sent argument proceedeth. 

The all-wise and gracious Lord first saw and conceived the knowledge of 
such a person necessary for the bringing of the sons of men in to him, as well 
as of his grace to save them, and therefore contented not himself to make 
barely a promise of deliverance. And the necessity lies in this, that the 
guilty conscience of the sinner, rightly apprehensive of what the heinous- 
ness of sinning against God is, and of God's wrath for sin is, even a 
• consuming fire,' hath not the boldness to approach to God in its own 
person, in its own sin, but hides himself, as Adam did. Nor would man 
dare to approach to him without a mediator promised to him. As is evident 
* 'See An Unregenerate Man's Guiltiness,' &c., Book ix., chap. 4. 


from the people of Israel's desire, that Moses should approach to God for 
them ; and upon which Moses received the promise of a prophet to come after 
him, like unto him. This also caused Job to wish a day's-man betwixt 
God and him, Job. ix. 33. And how natural conscience awakened dictates 
to men the necessity of a mediator, we have an instance in that Highlander, 
who hearing Mr Robert Bruce inveighing against those sins, of which he 
knew himself guilty, his conscience being deeply touched, said, ' Ise give 
him twenty cows to gree God and me.' Poor man ! He felt the power 
of God's word on his soul from that man's ministry ; and he thought him 
to have acquaintance with God, and thought that he might be able to 
reconcile God to him again. Thus the first grand charter granted to Adam 
held out the person of Christ as a potent victor over Satan, and mediator 
for man. 

Now this was also succeeded with sacrifices offered to God. Witness 
Abel, of whom you read, Heb. xi., which way of worship to God sin alone 
brought in, and which the state of innocency knew not of. And these 
pointed unto an atonement ; and by the saving faith upon the Messiah to 
come, who had been held forth in the aforesaid promise, was Abel accepted, 
which Cain wanted, Heb. xi. 


That Christ gave himself for us to redeem us. — What is implied in that ex- 
pression. — We should duly consider the greatness and value of such a gift. 
— Christ giving himself is a high testimony of his own jyeculiar love to us. 

I have at large shewn the free willingness that was in Christ to perform 
the work of a redeemer for us, which also these words sufficiently import, 
* He have himself.' He was not passively given up by his Father, but it 
was a free act of his own ; and so gifts are. 

We have likewise discoursed the fulness of his abilities and capacities to 
make satisfaction, and purchase redemption, which no mere creature was 
capaole of, but that his power, being God-man, was as great as his heart was 
free. Let us now come to the performance, the price, the ransom itself as 
it is here declared to be, a giving himself. Towards the general opening of 
this we may observe. 

I. How Paul delights in this expression ' he gave,' or ' offered himself 
up,' both in the frequency of using it, Eph. v, 2, 25, Titus ii. 14, Heb. 
ix. 14, 'offered himself;' and Heb. i. 3, 'purged away our sins by himself ;' 
Phil. ii. 7, ' emptied himself.' As also in that, when that holy apostle, 
with application, speaks of Christ's love unto himself, and would set it out 
to the highest elevation, to affect his heart most deeply, he then useth this 
expression, ' who loved me, and gave himself for me,' Gal. ii. 20. 

II. That what other scriptures do parcel forth in particulars of what 
Christ gave, this one sums up in this total, as comprehensive of all else. 
The Scripture elsewhere, yea, the Lord's supper, doth set it forth by piece- 
meals': his blood in the wine, his ' precious blood shed to redeem us,' 1 Pet. 
i. 19 ; his body in the bread, * this is my body which is given for you,' Luke 
xxii. 19 ; his Jiesh or whole man, ' I give my flesh for the life of the world,' 
John vi. 51 ; his life; ' I give my life for my sheep,' John x. 15 ; his 
said, ' poured out as an offering for sin,' Isa. liii. 10 ; his giving up all his 
estates and riches, and becoming poor, 2 Cor. viii. 9 ; his leaving father 

Chap. II. of christ the mediator. 175 

and mother, Eph. v. 81, 32, compfircd. Whatever, I say, other scriptures 
oil the Lord's supper do by parcels inventory forth to us, all and each of 
these, this one word, ' he gave himself,' doth at onco, by the great, sum- 
marily comprehend. For to say himself, to be sure was his all. 

III. He gave, he gave away ; for what is given as a price or ransom (as 
this in the text), as also to give himself as a sacrifice, as Eph. v. 2, this is 
purely a giving away, whereby the giver sufi'ers so much real loss and 
damage to purchase that redemption. And so the sacrifice was burnt and 
consumed to ashes, there was perfectly so much loss to him that offered it, 
as what is given comes to ; and so in giving away his riches, he is said to 
have become poor thereby, 2 Cor. viii. 9, and to have nothing left to him- 
self, Dan. ix. 26, and that he emptied himself, Phil. ii. 7, 8. There was 
nothing that was gain to him, but he sufiered for the present loss of it, as 
to his present use and advantage. 

IV. Himself was that which was given away. Not his only, or what was 
his, but himself; not sua but se (as Paul said, ' I seek not yours, but you') ; 
so here Christ gave away not only to, 'idia, what were his own (as proper 
goods and chattels are said to be a man's own), extrinsecal to him (and 
thus the whole creation is said to be to Christ, John i. 11), but it is him- 
self, his very person, or what was personally his, whatsoever was most in- 
trinsecally his own, intimum suiim, and what was, as himself, unto himself 
most dear and precious, and innate. This is therefore an extensive word, 
and draws in all of himself (as we shall see anon), the whole of himself, all 
that could be made of himself, all that he could rap or rend, as we say, that 
could possibly any way be made away from himself. This in the general. 
As for particulars, I shall confine myself to such things only as are in 
Scripture or common speech termed ones self, and which, according to the 
dialect of the Scriptures, about Christ's person, are in a more special manner 
deemed himself. Now what is it that may be, and usually is, called a 
man's self? 

1. A person's doings, works, operations, and actings, which are the fruits 
that proceed from and grow upon one's self; these are reckoned a man's 
self. Thus when a servant gives up all his actions and service, all his 
time, and what he can do, that all this should be to his master's use, though 
suppose that master hath not power over his life, or goods, yet in that case 
he is said to let himself, to sell himself, to give himself up, to that man's 
use and service, to be managed all by his master's appointment and com- 
mand. Or if (suppose) out of love and friendship to another, one employs 
his whole time and labours, and suffers all his actions to be ordered for the 
other, though not in way of service, but as a friend ; yet in this case he may 
be said to give up himself when he is all that while of no use to himself, or 
to his own private and personal advantages. Whereas otherwise it is the 
nature of self to work for itself. In this case a man is rightly said to give 
over himself, when his operations are thus to be disposed of by another. 
The philosopher says, that ' that day a man is made a servant or slave to 
another, he loseth half of himself,' half of his reason and thoughts (such 
was the condition of servants then, especially slaves), they being ordered, 
disposed of, and subjected to another's will. When Ahab is said to have 
' sold himself to work wickedness,' it was by giving up his works, and 
actions, and ways, to the dominion and power of sin, as a lord and master 
over him. And on the contrary, the obedience we owe to God in ' keep- 
ing his commandments' is called 'the whole of man,' Eccl. xii. 13, be- 
cause it exacts and takes up the strength and might, and the whole in man 


as given up in it, if rightly performed as it ought. Now in this sense, the 
whole of Christ might be justly said to be given away, and he to have given 
himself ; for all his actions, and whatsoever he did, were wholly at the 
direction of another, for, and on our behalf, and not his own ; and accord- 
ingly were wholly directed by him to that end, to serve us according to his 
appointment : ' I came not,' says he, ' to do mine own will, but the will of 
him that sent me,' John vi. 38. The Father gave him every jot of his 
works ; and I have finished it, says he. It is his speech at the last of what 
he had done in this world, from first to last, in John xvii. 4. And so in 
doing only such works as the Father gave him, he gave away himself to his 
Father first, and therein to us also. For that work being all, in the earn- 
ings of it, wholly for our behoof and advantage, he is withal as truly said 
to have given himself for us. He was hereby a perfect servant to his 
Father for us, yea, and ours also. And this also doth Christ in that one 
single passage. Mat. xx. 28, give us the sense and interpretation of, ' The 
Son of man came not to be ministered unto,' as Lord of all, ' but to minis- 
ter, and to give his life (as in and by dying, so through the whole course 
of his hfe by serving) ' a ransom for many,' that is, for us. He professeth 
every where that he was not at his own dispose, and so not his own : ' I 
came not to do my own will ;' how often do you meet with it from him. 
He was not his own, or himself (as we use to speak in that case) in any 
thing he did here, who yet was himself (by his native right) most free, and 
had the prerogative to act all for himself, and of glorifying himself another 
way than this. But this privilege he laid down wholly at his Father's 
feet, and took up all by a new commission from him, to act all according 
to his will, and not his own, in order to our salvation. And therefore when 
he came to die, he says, ' As the Father giveth me commandment, so do I. 
Arise, let us go hence,' John xiv. 31, 

2. A person may be said to give himself, when he gives up the comforts 
of his life ; and therefore denying a man's self is interpreted by Christ, a 
forsaking lands, houses, father, mother. And life is put in for the comforts 
of life, as when it is said, that 'Life lies not in abundance,' the meaning is, 
the comfort of life doth not. Now all the comforts of this and the other 
life did Christ part withal first or last, even unto the light of the sun itself, 
the common privilege of mankind, which was darkened when he was a-crucify- 
ing. And then all the joys and comforts of the other world Christ parted 
with for a time. When it was his due to have been in heaven glorious, he 
left heaven and all its glories. And then death, which is, as we know, a 
privation of all worldly things, put a period to all his enjoyments of this life. 

3. His manhood of human nature, consisting of soul and hodj, is called 
himself, and is meant by giving his flesh for the life of the world, John vi. 51 ; 
that is, the whole human nature, in distinction from his Godhead, and 
second person as God, as is noticed in those very words, ' my flesh, which 
I will give ;' and the giving of the life thereof, as John x., is justly termed 
the giving himself. And so Heb. ix. 14, the sacrificing thereof (which was 
a whole burnt-ofl^ering) is termed the ' ofi'ering up himself.' He ' offered 
up himself by the eternal Spirit,' that is, by his Godhead, who is that Spirit 
which quickeneth that human nature. This Spirit was the oflerer, and the 
manhood the sacrificer,* and yet that sacrifice is called himself, even as the 
body of a man is called the man, so in vulgar speech ; and Mary, John 
XX. 2, calls the body of Christ, which she thought dead, ' the Lord.' But 
then the soul is much oftener styled the person ; but take body and soul 

* Qu. ' sacrifice ' ? — Ed. 


both, as united into one man, and tho oflforing of both, as so united, that 
to bo sure is the offering of one's self. And in this sense tho Scripture, 
especially that epistle to the Hebrews, opposeth that himself, that is, his 
human nature, to all other sacrifices wherein priests offered up things that 
were not themselves, but things extrinsecal to their persons, as the blood 
of bulls and goats. And as when the idolatrous and superstitious Jews 
offered up their children to Moloch, the fruit of their bodies, the offerinf^ 
up of such things was not in any sense a sacrifice of themselves. But God 
being made flesh, that is, the second person, the Son, taking a human nature 
into one person with himself, hence, though he offered but that human nature, 
yet in opposition to such foreign offerings, he is said to have offered up himself, 
though the Godhead were not oflered up, even as the soul or the person of a 
man might be said to do, that offers up but his body a sacrifice, and so but 
his bodily life, though his soul he doth not, and cannot offer ; and in this 
opposition to things foreign to a person, it is said Heb. ix. 14, compared 
with verses 11-13, ' But Christ being come an high priest of good things 
to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, 
that is to say, not of this building ; neither by the blood of goats and calves, 
but by his own blood, he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained 
eternal redemption for us. For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the 
ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth to the purifying of the 
flesh ; how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal 
Spirit offered 7tj?«se?/ without spot to God,' &c. Wherein he doth compare 
Christ, who was God's high priest, with their high priests, sajdng, that they 
offered but the blood of bulls and goats, things that could in no sense be 
called themselves, but he offered up himself; and more clearly, ver. 25, 
where his offering himself is opposed to the high priests' offering other 
creatures and not themselves, in these words, ' nor yet that he should offer 
himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year ivith 
blood of others,' aT/j^a aXkor^iov, others' blood. So that the blood of bulls 
and goats, or, by the same reason, the blood of other men (if there had been 
such sacrifices) as suppose of children, offered up by father and mother 
(which God required not, though the idolatrous Jews practised it), yet all 
still had been but the blood of som8 other thing than himself, aJn,a aXkor^iov ; 
but this offering of Christ in opposition was of himself, as that text hath it, aJ/Mu, 
auToj as also Rev. i. 5. 

Now then, if you ask what that was which was the sacrifice, and yet is 
reckoned himself, 10th chapter to the Hebrews ver. 5 resolves us that it 
was that body or human nature, both soul and body, prepared to be that 
sacrifice : ' Wherefore, when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and 
offering thou wouldst not, but a body hast thou prepared me.' So then this 
is a third sense wherein he offered himself. 

Use. Let us set a value upon this gift and ransom, according to the dig- 
nity of it. It was the greatness of the price is set forth hereby (that he 
gave himself, which is the express scope of this text in Timothy, and Mat. 
XX. 28), to shew the inestimable value of the gift. It was once said of a 
great bargain, or sale and purchase made by the great, and in the lump, 
between two great personages, that the one bought and the other sold, they 
knew not what. And truly, although God knew, and Christ knows, what 
the price comes to, yet we for whom it was given can never know nor esti- 
mate it to all eternity. Oh, never ! nor can we comprehend what this 
reacheth to, ' Christ gave himself.' It is an unknown gift and ransom this. 
* What is his name, or his Son's name,' says Agur, Prov. xxx. 4. * Canst 

VOL. V. M 


thou tell ?' And as little canst thou tell, what this giving himself amounts 
to ; thou mayest as well ' bind the waters in thj' gannent, and ascend to 
heaven,' &c., as Agur there speaks, as fathom to the bottom this depth, and 
sound what an infinite treasure lies sunk therein. It is himself, none but 
himself that disbursed and pailed with it, knows what of himself went from 
him, when he gave himself. None knows the worth of himself, but himself, 
Rev. xix. 12. His ' name' is such, as it it said, * none knows but himself.' 
None but himself that disburseth it can tell what of himself he parted with, 
and went from him to make up this payment ; none, I say, but he and his 
Father, unto whom it was he gave himself, and who set and took the price 
and made the bargain for our redemption, know the value. We use to set 
out things of the gi-eatest worth and the vastest sums amongst men, by ' a 
king's ransom.' It is worth a king's ransom, so 3'ou use to say, in saying 
which you suppose to yourselves some great king taken captive and prisoner 
by a potent enemy able to retain and keep him ; and how that then his 
whole kingdom (as the law and manner is) contributes and gives a ransom 
worthy to restore him to his throne again. And that is estimated also 
according to what proportion his kingdom may be judged to be in riches, 
or their prince in glory and dignity. Oh ! what a value then would be set 
upon a king's becoming a ransom himself, yea, of the gi*eat God made one 
person with om* nature, and of his giving himself a ransom, who is the King 
of kings. If God sets a value upon each hau* of his children's head (which, 
to express with esteem, they are said to be numbered by him), then of 
what esteem with him (think we) must needs eveiy thing of Christ's, every 
hair of his head be, who is the head, worth all the saints themselves, aU the 
saints together, who are but the body to him ? 

There is yet a more special reflection in this speech, ' He gave himself,' 
as it is in a special manner a setting forth the proper and peculiar love of 
Jesus Christ himself in this matter ; proper, I say, to himself, as distin- 
guished fi-om the Father, and his love in giving him also. Nothing is or 
could be more expressive of a love, and the greatness of it, than to say, ' He 
gave himself.' You may therefore observe that they are often joined to- 
gether ; and where this of giving himself is mentioned, there the other, his 
love, also is spoken of. Yea, and this is pui-posely mentioned, as the 
gi'eatcst thing by which his love could be set out. This conjunction we 
find again and again, Eph. v. 25, ' As Christ loved his church, and gave 
himself for it,' And a second time by Paul, Gal. ii. 20, ' "\Mio loved me, 
and gave himself for me.' The highest signification and e\idence of love 
that is found amongst men, is that in a husband towards a wife, that he 
gives himself to her, and so giving himself, he gives all things with himself, 
that there needs no more be said or added to signify love. But lo ! here 
is more, not only Christ giving himself, his whole self to his church, as a 
husband doth, but a giving himself /or his church, as Eph. v. 23, 25. 
And that is it the apostle would make impression of upon us, as the gi-eatest 
demonstration of his love to his church ; that when she was captived to sin 
and everlasting miseiy, then he gives himself for her, to save her, as it 
follows there. We adore and admire his love ; his love in giving himself 
to us, %hen by the application of redemption he is made ours by grace. 
And how great a favour is this to the saints, that live in communion with 
Christ daily, which they feel in the sweets of a real enjoyment of such a 
person, so great, so lovely ; which they accordingly take in by the most 
exquisite spiritual sense, that the presence and gift of such a person requires 
of them. 0, but how great must his love be in giving himself for them 

Chap. II.] op christ the mediator. 179 

so long ago, before they were ! although the application of him to them was 
the end of it. And whereas this transaction of giving himself, they know 
but by hearsay, and relation of the scriptures, it was what he did for them 
* in himself (as the phrase is, Col. ii. 15). And so they take it in but by 
faith. Yet when Christ himself is applied to thy soul, then put but both 
together, and let the distinct apprehension of each meet in any one's heart, 
that hath a principle of love to Christ in him ; and what an infinite of lovo 
to us will the joint stream of them arise to ! Himself given, his whole self, 
yea, and doubly given ; given to us in application, and that not enough, but 
given for us first in redemption ; and so given over and over — each of 
which givings is enough to overcome and confound (with a love's confusion) 
the stoutest, hardest heart of any, yea, of all believers, when they come to 
comprehend these things. And it was Paul's prayer for the Ephesians, 
chap. iii. 17-19, ' That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith ; that ye, 
being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all 
saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height ; and know 
the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge.' Some interpreters would 
have it, that the apostle should speak all that of the height and depth, &c., 
of the love of Christ to us, because that doth follow so immediately. I dis- 
pute not that now ; but this I will say, that although the Father's love in 
other respects exceeds, and is therefore to be extolled for the height, and 
depth, &c., of it, and is in other scriptm-es set forth accordingly, in that 
it was the original of all (for it was he that made choice of the persons that 
shall be saved, contrived and designed all the grace and glory which each 
person so chosen shall have ; yea, and his love is also commended to us, 
in that he gave his only begotten Son, &c., Rom. v. 8, John iii. 16), yet 
still let me say it, that Chi'ist's love hath this whereby it excels, and which 
is peculiar to him in this matter, that it was he alone that gave himself. 
The Father gave not himself. He gave but a Son indeed, yet as a person 
distinct from himself. And for a father to give a son who is dear to him 
is love ; but for him that is given to give himself, this in that respect speaks 
higher. That speaks a strain of more intimacy of love than the Father's is 
in that respect ; although his Son were never so dear and near to him, and 
inward with him. But on Christ's part it was himself, and what was proper 
to himself in distinction from the Father, that that was given by himself. 
It was he that bare the brunt, that paid the price, out of what was not his 
only as appurtenances of him, but even out of himself. As therefore, when 
God would swear, ' because be could swear by no greater, he sware by him- 
self ;' so Christ, when he would give a gift to express and shew his love, be- 
cause he could give nothing greater, he gives away himself, and that over 
and over. We are to render to each of those persons that love and honour 
which is due to them, as the apostle speaks of men in another case, Rom. 
xiii. 7. And look in what particular thing or respect the love of each of 
them is proper to each, our affections of love and honour should accordingly 
uprise and apply themselves to render a suitable return, that is, to give to 
the Son what is the Son's, and to the Father what is the Father's. Let 
us therefore bring all of what Christ hath done home to our hearts, under 
that very respect and consideration that it was he that gave himself, &c. 
And then withal, let all that can be said to commend the Father's love, let 
it all come in upon our hearts ; as his giving a Son, an only begotten Son, 
one in essence and eternal fellowship with himself, as he is God with him ; — 
' My Father and I are one ;' — and then let us meditate on God's giving his 
Son, considered as he is God-man, in that God chose and designed him as 


such chiefly and principally, and in the first place for his own peculiar de- 
light, as he says of him, Isa. xlii. 1, ' Mine elect, in whom my soul delights.' 
Even that glory which was to be in him, as God-man, was an object in 
itself more lovely, and dearer unto God for him to please himself with, and 
to take delight in, than milHons of worlds, yea, than all that which he could 
have made. And therefore for God the Father to part with such a Son, to 
give such a Son, and all the glory of his, in which he so much delighted, 
was infinite love. But yet stiU even all this wiU serve the more to com- 
mend the love of Christ the Son to us, that himself was given by himself. 
I say, in that respect it will be the more heightened on his part also, that 
he should part -ndth such a Father that so loved him, and his own glory at 
once. In and from the Old Testament we find the love of the Father is 
greatened to us by giving men or nations, when j'et they were most wicked, 
and so most hateful to God of themselves ; to give them for a ransom for 
his people. And it is used by God himself as an argument of infinite love, 
Isa. xliii. 4. So as still his love is gi'eatened to us by all ; and it is he, 
and none other, even this Chi'ist (who is God) of whom Isaiah speaks these 
very things, both in the one place and the other which I have cited. It 
is he of whom he says that ' All the nations are but as the di'op of a bucket 
to him.' Compare for this but ver. 3, 9, 10, 11, of that 40th chapter, 
with the 12th, 15th, 17th verses, and you will see all these words are 
spoken of him. what a gift was this then ! How much more cause have 
we to say, than the apostle of the Corinthians' collection for the saints, Oh ! 
blessed be God for this unspeakable gift. 


It is lyroved in the general, that Christ was made sin and a curse for ns, be- 
cause he, redeeming us uho icere under the law, must become that ivhich we 
were in the account and judgment of the law. — That how Christ ivas made 
sin for its demonstrated and explained in what respect he %ms so. — -Uses 
drawn from the doctrines. 

It is said. Gal. iv. 4, 5, that ' God sent his Son, made under the law, 
to redeem them that are under the law.' Now, whatever Christ redeemed 
us from, he was himself made for us ; redeeming us from it by being made 
it. He that made the law, was made under it for us. Both he and we 
were under the law ; but with this difierence, we were born under it, but 
he was made under it, by a voluntaiy covenant freely undergoing it. To 
be * under the law' is to be subject to all that the law is able to say or do. 
So we use to express the condition of a subject, saying he lives under the 
laws. And so the apostle expresseth it, Rom. iii. 19, ' What the law says, 
it says unto them that are under the law.' So that whosoever is under 
the law, whatever the law is able to say and exact, to him it says and of 
him it requires it. And if Christ will be made under the law for sinners, 
the law will have full as much to say to him as unto sinners themselves ; 
that is, as he is their imdertaker. 

And the law hath more to say to sinners than to any other creatures. 

1. It can accuse them, and call them sinners to their faces. It can 
arraign them, and lay all their sins to their charge, and will not leave out 
one tittle in that indictment. It can say, Thou art a blasphemer, thou an 
adultei-er, thou a drunkard, &c. It does not, it will not, spare at any time 
to speak this. 

Chap. III.] of chbist the mediator. 181 

2. It can call them cursed for all tlioso sing : Gal. iii, 10. ' Cursed is 
every one,' Sec. 

There is the accusing power of the law, and there is the condemning 
power, as appears by the law in our own consciences : Rom. ii. 15, * it 
accuseth,' and, ver. 1, 'it condemneth.' And so you have both a witness 
to accuse and a judge to condemn in your own breasts, which (as the 
apostle saith) shews but the effect of the law, which in itself it will do, 
much more to them that know it in the rigour of it. If therefore ho who 
is our Redeemer will come under the law for sinners, the law will say as 
much to him as it had to say to us, give him as ill language, exact as 
hard measure from him as from us. The law is backed with God's jus- 
tice, and so will not respect or spare the greatness of Christ's person, if he 
once come under it. As we are creatures, and he our surety, it will as 
boldly command him to keep the commandments on our behalf, as it 
would us. Look what it would have said to us as we were sinners, it will 
as boldly and as freely speak, and speak out against him, only with this 
differing respect of reverence to him, as by himself voluntarily made under 
it, whereas we were born slaves under it. 

That therefore this clamour of the law might be fully stopped, and we 
redeemed and freed from whatever the law had to say against us, Christ 
was made all that we had made ourselves. 

As, 1. were we sinners ? Christ, that was made under the law, was 
made sin for us, 2 Cor. v. 21, that sin might ' not be imputed to us,' ver. 
19. Again, were we accursed ? Christ is made a curse for us, to redeem 
us from the curse of the law. Gal. iii. 13 ; that so, by his being made sin, 
we may say, ' Who shall lay anything to our charge ? ' Eom. viii, 33 ; and 
by his being made a curse, we may as triumphantly say, ' Who shall con- 
demn ? Christ hath died,' Rom. viii. 34. So as, though but the one is 
here mentioned, yet we will handle both. W^e will both shew how he was 
made sin for us, and how he was made a curse for us. Indeed, neither of 
these places do mention both distinctly ; but yet either place includes and 
supposeth both. He had not been made a curse, if he had not first been 
made sin. He could not be made sin, but he must likewise be made a 
curse, the consequent of sin. They are two strange words to be spoken 
of God's Son, and such as it had been blasphemy for us to speak, if God 
himself had not spake them first. And now that he hath spoken them, we 
had need take them in a right sense, or else they will be blasphemy in 
our thoughts still. 

1. Christ was made sin for us, 2 Cor. v. 21. By sin some have under- 
stood only an offering for sin ; and then to be made sin there, and a curse 
here, comes all to one. I confess it is sometimes so taken, as the ofierings 
in the Levitical law are called sin ; but it is not so here, but truly and 
more plainly for the guilt of sin. And the reasons why it must be so 
meant here are, first, because that which sin is here opposed unto is right- 
eousness : ' He was made sin, that we might be made the righteousness of 
God in him.' Now, by the righteousness of his made ours, is here meant, 
not only the benefits which his righteousness deserved and purchased, but 
his very fulfilling the law ; so Rom. viii. 4, ' That the righteousness of the 
law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the 
Spirit.' Therefore (as the law of opposition carries it) his being made sin 
is not only his being made the punishment, the curse that sin had deserved, 
but even the very guilt and breach of the law itself was made his, even as 


his righteousness was made ours. And. how this came about, we shall 
shew presently. 

SccoHcUi/, He was made sin, which he ' knew not,' that is, not experi- 
mentally, he was not conscious and guilty of it in his own person : ' he 
was made sin, who knew no sin.' Now, if" only punishment for sin were 
here meant, this were not true, for he experimentally knew what punish- 
ment for sin was as fully as we do : Heb. iv. 15, ' We have an high priest 
that was touched with the feeling of our infirmities,' and touched to the 
quick too. His soul knew full well what it was to suffer for sin ; hut he 
knew not what sin, the breach of the law, was. He knew not Avhat it was 
to act sin ; and yet this which he knew not he was some way or other made, 
even made the guilt of sin. 

It is time to explain how, lest any of your thoughts run too far. The 
text helps us in it. As we are made his righteousness, so he was made 
our sin. Now, we are made his righteousness merely by imputation, that 
is, all his obedience to the law is accounted ours, is reckoned ours, even as 
if we had fulfilled it, though we knew none of it. It was fulfilled, not by 
us, but in us, Eom. viii. 4. He fulfilled it, not we ; so that there was an 
exchange made, and all our breaches of the law were made his ; our debts 
put over to him, that is, reckoned to him, put upon his score. That is 
all ; let your thoughts therefore go no further. It was ' we that like sheep 
went astray,' and not he, and yet 'the Lord laid on him the iniquities of 
us all,' Isa. liii. 6. And to be made sin in this sense is but to be charged 
and accused as a sinner, and not made really so by committing it. As we 
use to say, when we would accuse and prove one to be a thief, we say, I 
will make a thief of you ; that is, not make you steal, but prove you to be 
such. So this making here is but God's reckoning him as a transgressor. 
That phrase is used ver. 12 of Isaiah liii. : ' He was numbered amongst 
the transgressors,' reckoned such by God and men. By imputation then 
he was counted as one that hath broken the law. And yet (to free j'our 
thoughts from the least mistake) though by imputation, yet not such as 
whereby we were made sinners in Adam, which was by imputation, but 
originally. Now, Christ was not so made our sin. That which is imputed 
may be said to be imputed either by derivation, or else by voluntary assump- 
tion, or willing taking it upon one. Now, Adam's sin, though it was but 
imputed to us, yet it was by derivation, and by a natural and necessary 
covenant. But oar sin, though to Christ it was imputed, yet not by deri- 
vation, but by a willing, fi-ee undertaking or taking them oft" from us, and 
by a voluntary covenant. So that, although he was made sin, jet in that 
he was freely made so, therefore that imputation stained not him, nor his 
nature ; but he remained holy, undetiled, and separate from sinners ; 
whereas the imputation of Adam's sin stained and depraved us his pos- 
terity. For though that sin of his was but imputedly made ours, yet so 
as we, being one in him, are truly said to have sinned in him ; and there- 
fore his sin is ours, because we committed it, and sinned in him, Rom. v. 
12. But of Christ we must abhor to think so. Nay, in this doth the im- 
putation of his righteousness to us difler from the imputation of our sins 
to him, that his righteousness is so imputed to us as we, by reason of that 
covenant between God and him, may be said to have fulfilled the law in 
him, and the law is said to be fulfilled in us, because we were in him ; but 
not so are our sins imputed to him. It cannot be said in any sense, he 
was made sin in us, but /or m only, or the sin which was committed first 
in us, and by us, considered in ourselves, was made his ; for though we 


wore in him, yet not be in us : for tbo root bears the branches, and not 
the branches the root. 

Having thus shewn how it was, and in what sense, we will now shew, 

I. By Scripture. 

II. By Reason. 

I. By Scripture. And here take the instance of the scape-goat, over 
whose head the sins of the people were confessed (Lov. xvi. 21) by Aaron's 
putting his hand upon it ; therein acting the part of God the Father, ' lay- 
ing the iniquities of us all upon Christ,' and translating them from the 
people. To which those phrases in Isaiah liii. do refer. And this was in 
respect of leaving the guilt of their sins, not the punishment of them, upon 
him. For to express and hold forth Christ as made an offering for sin, 
that other goat was sacrificed ; but the scape-goat was ordained to hold forth 
Christ's bearing the guilt of our sins, for that goat was carried away into a 
land of separation, or a place inaccessible. And so Christ, whom John 
saw as the ' Lamb of God, bearing the sins of the world,' carries away our 
sins, to an utter abolishing of them fi'om before the face of God, so that, 
(as it is in Jer. 1. 20) ' they shall be sought for, but not found,' they being 
taken away, as the phrase of the New Testament is. Christ had them put 
upon him when he was baptized, d/^wi/, suscijjiens, j^ortans, aiiferens ; and 
principally when he was upon the cross, as 1 Peter ii. 24, ' Who his own 
self bai'e our sins on his body ' (that is his human nature) on the tree.' 
So Heb. ix. 28, ' Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many,' and he 
shall appear the second time ' without sin,' Therefore, now thi« time he 
appeared (to John) canying the sins of the world, but being risen, justified 
from all those sins, he shall appear without the guilt of them lying upon 
him. And accordingly, when he was in this life, he demeaned himself as 
one that had been a sinner, as in appearance such. The flesh he took had 
' the likeness of sinful flesh,' Rom. viii. 3. The foreskin of his flesh was 
cii'cumcised, as if he had been bom in sin. So his mother was purified, 
Luke ii. 23, 24, and offered an offering, as if she had conceived him in sin; 
and Lev. xii. 2, 6, this was a sin-offering, namely, for that sin which their 
seed was brought forth in. And as in those rites at his birth, so in his 
whole life he submitted to the ceremonial law, the intent of which was to 
be puUica confessio, and hke to penance, whereby they were to profess 
themselves sinners, and to stand in need of a mediator, and so thrice a year 
he came unto the temple, &c. All which, if he had not some way been 
made a sinner, he ought not to have done, for he should thereby have pro- 
fessed that which was not. Yea, in those confessions, those passionate 
psalms made for him, we find him acknowledging of sin as his own. This 
will appear by some passages in those psalms which are prophetically made 
of Christ, and utter the inward addi'esses of his soul unto his Father. And 
of all the psalms, or other prophecies of this nature, there is no one except 
the twenty- second, which can challenge more passages in so small a space, ap- 
plied expressly unto Christ in the New Testament, than the sixty-ninth psalm. 
In ver. 4 we have it, ' They hated me without a cause.' This we find aj^plied 
by Christ himself, as prophesied of himself, John xv. 25. Again, we have it 
ver. 9 of that psahn, ' The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.' This you 
have in like manner, John ii. 19, applied unto Christ. Moreover, the next 
words of that 9th verse, ' The reproaches of them that reproached thee are 
fallen upon me.' Lo, you have them applied by Paul as expressly unto 
Christ, Rom. xv. 3. Again, that passage, ver. 21, ' They gave me gall for 
my meat, and in my thirst they gave me vinegai- to drink ; ' you know both 


the story and the application of it by the evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and 
John. Then that other passage that follows, ' Let their table be made a 
snare,' you have it applied accordingly unto the Jews that crucified him, for 
their crucifying of him, Kom. xi. 9. 

Now then, so many of these being so applied, why should not those others 
also be so applied ? as when it is said, ver. 4, 5, ' Then I restored that 
which I took not away ; God, thou knowest my foolishness, and my 
guiltiness is not hid from thee.' How fitly do these words express the im- 
putation of sin to him. It was a proverbial speech, when a man suft'ered 
innocently as to his own person, to say that ' He restored that which he 
took not,' and so Christ on the cross is brought in here speaking. For as 
Isaiah tells us, * He bore our sins ; ' with Oh in the next verse of the psalm 
he confesseth as his own, having taken them upon him. ' God, thou 
knowest my foolishness' (that is my sin, as foolishness it is usually taken), 
' and my sins are not hidden from thee.' Which is plainly in other words 
that which the apostle says of him, 2 Cor. v., ' He that knew no sin was 
made sin.' The like you have in the fortieth psalm, ' Sacrifice and burnt- 
offering thou wouldst not; Lo I come,' &c., ver. 6, 7, which how it is 
applied to Christ you may read in Heb. x, neither can it well be applied to 
any other. Yet, ver. 12, he says, ' My iniquities take hold of me.' He 
calls them his, not by perpetration, but by a voluntary assumption, and by 
imputation, reckoning them as his. So Isaiah liii. 6, ' He laid on him the 
iniquities of us all.' In the Hebrew it is, ' He caused to meet in him the 
iniquities of us all.' He was made the great ocean, into which the guilt of 
all our sins did run. 

II Now, second, for the reason of it. 

1. He was not only an inier-mmcius (as Socinus would have him), or one 
that came as an extraordinary messenger between God and us, but he was 
sjjonsor, a surety. So Heb. vii. 22, such as Judah undertook to be for 
Benjamin, Gen. xliii. 9, ' I will be surety for him and bring him to thee, or 
let me bear the blame for ever.' Or such as Paul was to Onesimus, Phil. 
xviii. 19, 'If he hath wronged thee, or owes aught,' says he, 'put it on my 
account ; I will repay it.' Just so doth Christ engage himself unto his 
Father for us. If they have wronged thee in any thing, put it on my 
account, reckon it to me, and I will repay and satisfy for it. A surety, 
whose name is put into a bond, is not only bound to pay the debt, but he 
makes it his own debt also, even as well as it is the principal's, and he may 
be sued and charged for the debt as well as he. And so Chiist, when he 
once made himself a surety, he thereby made himself under the law, and 
so put himself in the room of sinners, that what the law could lay to their 
charge, it might lay to his. 

2. And, secondly, there was a necessity, that if he would take our 
punishment upon him, and so satisfy justice, he should first take on him 
the guilt of our sins, ' for the judgment of God is according to truth.' The 
party whom God punisheth for sin, must be some way found guilty of that 
sin, or else judgment proceeds not according to right rules. Guilty, not by 
inherency, yet by imputation and account. For as we can have no interest 
in any benefit merited by Christ, but we must first be partakers of the 
righteousness that purchased it, that must first be made ours, and then his 
benefits ; so if Christ will be made a curse for us (which is the demerit of 
sin), he must first be made sin. And therefore Isaiah, in the 53d chapter of 
his prophecy, when at the 4th and 5th verses, he had said that Christ our 
surety was not punished for himself, but ' bore our griefs,' &c., that is. 

Chap. III.] of Christ the mediator. 185 

those that wo should have borne, and * was wounded for our transgressions,* 
lie., he then goes on to clear it how it was done: * wc,' says he, ' as sheep 
had gone astray, but God laid upon him the iniquity of us all,' that is, he 
ha^ang first charged upon Christ our sins, which we in our persons com- 
mitted, when once they were thus laid upon him, God's justice then wounded 
him for them. Unjust it is not, that a person righteous should suffer for 
an unrighteous man (Peter affirms it, 1 Peter iii. 18) ; but then the un- 
righteousness of that man must be laid upon him and made his. 

Thus in general. 

But when we say Christ was made sin, what sin was it that he is made, and 
that was thus imputed to him ? Was it sin in the general only, and in the 
abstract evil of it ? Surely more ; for how that should be imputed in the 
universal notion of it, is hard to conceive, though it is true that he appre- 
hended the evil thereof more fully than all mankind ever did, or shall do. 
The Scripture seems to speak more, and as if he bore particular sins ; so 
all these fore-mentioned places have it. As 1 Peter ii. 24, ' He bare our 
sins in his own body on the tree, that we being dead to sin,' &c., so over 
the scape-goat were the particular sins of the congregation confessed. And 
so in those fore-mentioned psalms he speaks as of multitudes of iniquities, 
and ' innumerable evils ' that compassed him about and came over his head. 
And as Christ bare sins (in the plural), and innumerable sins, so he bare 
the sins of all, and every particular man he died for; so. Is. liii. 6, ' God 
caused to meet in him the iniquities of us all,' he being made as the 
common drain and sink into which all the sins of every particular man do 
run, and the centre in whom they all meet ; and that meeting implies an 
assembly of particular sins. 

Again, if he bare the particular sin of every man he died for, what were 
they ? Gross sins only, and those which were more eminent for guilt ? 
Why not all and every one, both small and great ? For where shall we 
set the limits ? Why may it not be thought, that as there was a bill of all 
the persons he died for given him (for Christ died not for propositions only, 
to make them true, but for persons, and therefore is said to ' know his 
sheep by name,' John x. 3), so also that he had a bill of their particular 
sins, so as not one sin was left out unreckoned to him. Adam had not a 
bill of our persons, for his sin is naturally derived to as many as shall 
come of him ; but Christ died out of love to persons, and that out of a 
voluntary covenant ; and so it was necessary that all their names should be 
enrolled and given him, as himself says, John xvii. 6, ' Thine they were, 
and thou gavest them me.' And as their persons, so all the sins of all 
those persons, they were all to meet in him, and to be laid to his charge. 
And there are these reasons for it : 

1. God was to deal in justice with him (as was said), and as a surety he 
was to satisfy to the uttermost farthing. And if so, it was meet he should 
have an account, and know the several items of what he paid for. 

2. Therein it was that he shewed more love in dying for one than for 
another ; as for Mary more than another, because he bare much for her, 
and more than for another ; which caused her to love him more. And how 
is it that a great sinner is more beholden to Christ for his dying for him 
than a small sinner is, but by his bearing more sins for the one than for 
the other, and so suffering more for him ? Which if it had been carried in 
a confused and general manner, and as it were in a sumvia totalis, without 
the distinct reckoning of particulars, is hard to conceive how it should be. 

3. It was needful, that so a sinner might say with boldness, as Kom. 


viii. 33, ' Who shall lay anything to my charge.' Ne aliqmd, not the least, 
because that qidcqiiid, whatever it was, it was laid to Christ's charge. 

And if it now be asked, how this could be, that so many millions of sins 
should be distinctly considered by him in his sufferings, I answer, 

1. He that is OlD/? (as Daniel calls him, Dan. viii. 13). 7s qui hahet 

oinnia in numerato, he who hath all things before him at his fingers' ends, 
and as it were in ready coin ready told over, could easily keep a distinct 
account of all our sins. 

2. He who now is in heaven, knows all that is done here below as a man, 
and hath all the businesses of the world in his head and guides them, and 
hath all the accounts of the world by heart, so as he is able (as at the latter 
day he will) as man exactly to give unto every man his accounts, both 
receipts and expenses, and that to the utmost farthing ! For every work 
shall come into judgment before the man Christ Jesus, be it good or evil. 
And Peter tells us, he is ' ready to judge both quick and dead,' all that are 
alive, and all that are dead. He who can do all this, is able to keep a 
particular account of all the sins which he expiated ; and if he did not as 
man know all things here below (which in themselves are but finite, though 
to us innumerable), how as man were he experimentally able to compas- 
sionate all his saints upon all occasions, and in all their sufferings (as he 
is said to do, Heb. ii. 18, and iv. 16) ? If now in heaven his understanding 
as man be thus enlarged and vast, why, when he descended into hell (as 
when our sins were reckoned to him he did), should he not be able as well 
to take in all and every particular sin of his elect for whom he died ? Yea, 
this stretching of his understanding then, thus to take in all men's sins, 
did prepare it for that vastness which it now hath in heaven, even as our 
humiliation makes way for comfort and consolation. Lastly, if Satan could 
shew him all the glory of the world in the twinkling of an eye, as it were, 
why might not God shew him aU our sins in as full a manner, and set them 
in order before him ? 

Use 1. See the immense love of Christ unto his elect, in that he would 
not only be made a curse, but sin too for them ; which he being holiness 
itself, must needs be most abhorrent of such an imputation. That which 
we most hate, how do we abhor the imputation and name of ! That excel- 
lency which we most affect, what an insufferable injury do we count it to 
be blemished in ! For a chaste and undefiled maid to be counted a whore, 
how nearly would it touch her, how deeply affect her ! But for holiness 
itself to be ' numbered among transgressors,' for God to be called devil, 
yea, prince of devils, how beyond all expression insupportable must it 
needs be ! 

2. Learn we to confess and take upon us our sins in particular. Men's 
sorrow for sin is usually general and confused. They acknowledge they 
are sinners, &c., but Jesus Christ's sonl could not escape with a general 
charge (as that he stood in the room of sinners) ; but the particulars are 
charged on him. As he says of our persons to his Father, ' Thine they 
are, and thou gavest them me ;' so maj'est thou say to him as concerning 
thy sins. Mine they are, and thou tookst them on thee. And if Christ took 
them on him to satisfy for them, thou must at least take them on thee to 
humble thee. 

3. If thou canst not confess all thou art guilty of (as thou canst not), 
yet comfort* thyself with this, that Jesus Christ knew all particulars to 
satisfy for them, and so entreat the Lord to cleanse thee from thy secret 

Chap. III.] or christ the mediator. 187 

sins, which were not hid from him. What the apostle speaks to terrify 
hypocrites, that * God is greater than their hearts,' and knows more by 
them than they can do by themselves ; that may we consider to our comfort, 
that Christ is greater than our hearts, and knows more of our sins by us 
than all we do, yea, and knew them to take them off from us. 

4. Make use of Christ's blood and satisfaction, not for thy sins in the 
lump, but for particular sins, because he satisfied for particulars. Not only 
spread the plaster over all, but lay particular plasters of his blood to par- 
.ticular sins. And as in crossing a writing which you would not have read, 
you not only draw lines but also rase and scratch out every word in 
particular, that it might not be read, so apply Christ's satisfactiou, and 
his being made sin to every tittle and circumstance in sins more heinous, 
and go over them again and again with cross lines of Christ's blood, espe- 
cially in two cases. 

(1.) When a new sin is a-fresh committed. Christ is a fountain to wash 
us eveiy day (Zech, xiii. 2) from those daily pollutions that befall,us. 
This was typified out in the old law, when they brought sacrifices upon 
every particular occasion. Even so should we (not ofter up as the papists 
in the masses) but put God in mind of Christ's sacrifice for particular sins 
committed. So 1 John ii. 1-3, ' If any man sin, we have an advocate with 
the Father,' and he was the propitiation for those sins. Or, 

(2.) W^hen a sin stares a man in the face much, as David's murder did 
in his, when he said it was ' ever before him ; ' in this case have recourse 
to this, that Christ did bear it, and apply Christ's bearing of it unto the 
guilt still as it riseth. And as you lay aqua fortis upon letters of ink to eat 
them out, so still be a-dipping the hands of thy faith in Christ's blood, and 
through faith applying of that blood to the sin. This do in every prayer 
and in every sacrament, and thou shalt secretly find the horror of it 
diminish, and those letters of guilt wherewith it was written in thy con- 
science, grow paler and dimmer till they vanish. 

6. It may serve to strengthen thy faith against particular sins by this, 
that Christ bore them. Say and plead to Christ when thou beggest par- 
don, Was not this sin in the number ? And as we make it a great uphold- 
ing to faith, to consider that God knew afore what we would be, and that 
we would sin, and yet chose us, and that therefore no sins will put him oflf, 
so we may as well make use of this like consideration, that Jesus Christ 
also, when he died for us, knew what we would be, and what our sins would 
be, and yet refused not our bill of sins, nor our names given in to him, but 
bare all those sins of ours in his body on the tree. And if he had meant 
to have refused thee for thy sins, he would have done it then. When a 
new sin is committed, we are apt to be amazed, and to call all in question. 
If indeed thou couldst commit a sin wdiich God and Christ had not known ; 
if any sin were or could be now new unto Christ, then it might trouble thee ; 
but there is none that is so, but even this sin that troubles thy conscience 
so was amongst the rest. 

6. See the fulness and completeness of justification, together with the 
way of dispensing it. 

(1.) The way of dispensing it. We think with ourselves. How shall the 
righteousness of Christ come to be made mine ? Shall I, a sinner, ever 
become righteous ? what a wonder were this ! Yet behold, a gi'eater 
wonder is here ; Christ who is righteousness itself ' was made sin, that so 
we might be made the righteousness of God in him.' 

(2.) See here the completeness of justification. All sins are laid to 


Christ, that we might say, Ne aliquid, not the least thing shall be exacted of 
us — Who shall lay any thing'? &c., Rom. viii. 33 — and that we might with 
boldness come to a particular reckoning with God, nothing fearing that any 
exception can be made, or that the least sin was left out of the catalogue 
which Christ had of them, that should yet remain unpaid for. We may see 
here the absoluteness of God's pardon, in that, to make sure work, Christ 
was made sin, and took upon|^him the guilt of all our transgressions to answer 
for them ; so that God gave us an absolute discharge. Thus, ver. 21, 
' Not imputing their trespasses to them ; ' but looking for payment at 
Christ's hands, who was made sin for them. In law both the principal 
and the surety use to stand bound ; but God here did from everlasting 
secretly (as it were) cancel our bond, and keeps Christ's only, and there- 
fore it stands Christ in hand to see our sins answered for. And in that he 
shall appear without sin, it should comfort us that we shall do so in like 

7. It may teach us how to mourn and be troubled ; not for punishment 
only, but for sin as sin also. Christ in satisfying for them not only bare 
our punishment, but our sins also, which are things distinct from our 
sorrows. And therefore we in sorrowing for sin should as distinctly mourn 
for sin as for misery, the effect of it. 

8. Those that are the greatest sinners should mourn most for sin, and 
love Christ most ; and this, because he hath borne their sins, and more of 
their sins than of others. They are to ' love much,' not simply because to 
them ' much is forgiven,' or that Christ pardons them much, and so passeth 
a greater act of grace in pardoning them than he does to others, but be- 
cause Christ paid more for them, he underwent and suffered more that their 
sins might be forgiven, than for other men. Mary loved much, because 
much was forgiven her, Luke vii. 47. But Paul goes farther, thereby exalt- 
ing the grace of Christ, that he came into the world to save sinners, ' whereof 
I am chief,' says he, 1 Tim. i. 15. As a natural son is more bound to a 
mother than an adopted son can be, because he, besides his education and 
inheritance, was moreover born in her womb, and she underwent many 
painful throes for him (and the harder her labour is with any, the more 
they should love her) : so we are bound to love Christ, not simply for for- 
giveness, but also for that he bore us in his soul, and our sins, and had a 
harder labour of it with some of us, who were greater sinners, than he had 
with many others. 


How Christ was made a curse for us. — That it was the curse of the moral laiv, 
and the whole substance of what it threatened. — Argumeiits to prot'c that 
Christ suffered it. 

We have seen how Christ was made sin ; let us now see how he was 
made a curse. The other was but by imputation, but this by infliction. 
He was made sin, who knew not what it was to sin ; but in being made a 
curse he knew it to his cost ; it entered into his soul and bowels. To ex- 
plain this a little ; 

1. This curse was not merely the curse of the judicial law, or of a male» 
factor hanging upon a tree ; for the curse which he was to redeem us from 
was the curse of the moral law, not of the judicial. It was not the curse of 
such a malefactor's death before men, but before God ; for from that curse 

Chap. IV.] op christ the mediator. 189 

wo were to be recleemed, and therefore that cnrso was he made. And Gal. 
iii. 10, 13, we have it expressly thus: ' The law says, Cursed is every one,' 
&c. It is true that this hanging on a tree (on which judicial punishment 
a curse was pronounced) was made the figure of Christ's being cursed 
with the curse of the moral law ; but that was the cm-se which Christ wag 
made, and therefore, Deut. xxi. 22, God aforehand typically accursing that 
death (as aiming at his Son), says of him that hangs ou a tree, that he is 
accm'sed before him. So that his Son, whom this aimed at, was not only 
cursed before men, in that he was put to such an accursed death, but 
was also cursed before God with the curse of the moral law, whereof the 
apostle brings this as the sign and proof, that that death which in the judi- 
cial law only was accursed, was executed upon him. 

2. The curse of the moral law, spoken of ver. 10, is opposed to blessing; 
and as the blessings of God are the matter of his promises, so curses are 
the matter of his threatenings. Blessings are conveyed by promises, 
curses by threatenings. The threatenings of the law are the cannons, and 
the curses in them are the bullets. And as whom God blesseth, he blesseth 
with all blessings ; so whom he curseth, he curseth with all cursings. As 
there is a fulness of blessings in the gospel (as Rom. xv. 29), so the moral 
law is full of all curses, which notwithstanding Christ underwent. 

3. The curse contains in it the avenging wrath of God, and is more than 
a bare punishment from God. As God's favour is the life of all blessings, 
so God's avenging wrath gives weight to all curses. The saints are 
punished in anger, but not cursed in their chastisements, because they are 
inflicted on them out of love. But here we must warily distinguish between 
loving the person punished, and punishing that beloved person out of love. 
God, though he loved the person of Christ when he punished him, yet he 
punished him, not out of love, but wrath. When he punisheth the saints, 
he both punisheth persons beloved, and also out of love, which stirs up 
anger. But he punisheth Christ out of wrath, and therefoi'e he was made 
a curse. His person was beloved, but he being made sin, to that end to 
bear the full punishment due to sin, God theretore out of wrath punisheth 
sin imputed to him. Not God's wrath, but an anger arising from love, is 
it that chastiseth us ; but it is not so with Christ, the wrath of God was 
poured forth on him. Which yet dift'ers from his punishing of wicked 
men> whose persons he hates, and whom he punisheth out of wrath also. 
But though he loves Christ's person, yet he punisheth sin in him out of 
pure wrath, and lets justice fly upon him to have its full pennyworths out 
of him ; he lets wrath suck the blood of his soul, till it falls off, as the 
leech when it is filled, and breaks. 

So that, put all these three considerations together, that Christ was made 
the curse of the law moral, not judicial only ; that the curse thereof contains 
in it all curses ; and that those curses are laid and set on with God's wrath ; 
and this will be the doctrine ; — 

That the whole curse that our persons were subject unto from the law, 
Christ underwent to redeem us from it. For, 

1. That curse which we were redeemed from he was made ; but we were 
redeemed from the whole curse ; therefore he was made, or underwent, the 
whole curse. 

2. That curse which contains all curses in it Christ was to be made for 
us ; now such is the cm-se of the moral law. For as the least breach of the 
law is copulative, and he that offends in one is guilty of all, so are the curses 
of the law : he that is cursed with any one is cursed with them all. As there 


is a fulness of blessings, so of curses. As therefore a blessed man is called 
vir beatitiulinum, a man of blessednesses, Ps. i. 1, as being blessed with all 
blessings, Eph. i. 3, ' Being heii* of all the promises ;' so he that is cursed is 
exposed to all curses ; and so was Christ, and therefore he is called vir do- 
loriim, a man of sorrows, as being the centre of them (Isa. liii. 3). And as 
all our sins met in him, so all our sorrows ; and from his birth all the great 
ordnance of God's curses were ready charged with \\Tath, and bent against 
him, and were all in their order discharged, and let off upon him. And 
therefore not his suffering, but his sufferings, are mentioned by Peter, 1 Pet. 
iv. 13. ' Being tempted ' (not in one, but) ' in all things wherein we were, 
sin only excepted,' Heb. iv. 15. In universali hominw/i miseria immersm, 
says Bernard : tujv oXuv Tag crai'-ag •/.ard^a.c hiaoi'/irai, says Justin MartjT.* 
He wholly took upon him all the curses of all ; he was wholly and fully 

Now to give some reasons of it ; 

1. The first shall be, because he was become a debtor to the whole law 
by voluntary suretyship (as was said) for us, and therefore was circum- 
cised, and so made under the law ; and therefore that whole cm-se and 
punishment which the law required he was to undergo, ere the law would 
free him. And for this reason, when he was to suffer anything, as well as 
to do am'thing, you shall find him speaking in the language of a debtor, 
that could not now evade it. So John iii. 14, ' The Son of man must be 
lifted up :' thus likewise Mark viii. 31, Luke xxiv. 26, and Mat. xxvi. 54, 
' These things,' says he, ' the Son of man ought to have sufl'ered.' He 
was now entered into bond, and it was his duty to pay even the utmost 
farthing. It is not the custom or manner of the law to aljate anything ; and 
therefore he undergoes the whole curse, or we are not freed. 

2. God dealt with him in justice, and justice was that which he was to 
satisfy ; which could not be till he had borne the whole i^unishment due to 
sin. Rom. iii. 25, 26, '"Whom God hath set forth to be a jDropitiation 
through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of 
sins that are past, through the forbearance of God ;' ver. 26, * to declare, 
I say, at this time his righteousness ; that he might be just, and the justi- 
fier of him which believeth in Jesus.' Compared with Rom. viii. 33, ' Who 
shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect ? It is God that justifieth.' 
This justice is shewn in our redemption : for Christ redeemed us not vi, 
sed JHstitia, so in that Rom. iii. 25 ; and not 2^o^<^statii-e, out of his prero- 
gative and greatness, bearing us out by mere favour, without satisfying 
justice ; but rationahiliter, by a way of equity, sahis justitice reffulis ; by 
paying dvriXvr^ov, a coiTespoudent ransom, even in proportion, a tooth for 
a tooth, as the law required, 1 Tim. ii. 6. He was not only to make inter- 
cession, but satisfaction. As he is called ' an advocate ;' 1 John ii. 2, so 
also ' a propitiation :' he has paid for the favour which he now intercedes 
for. And as he is called an intercessor, so (Rev. v. 6) ' a Lamb slain ;' and 
by bearing our whole punishment, he made his intercession more prevalent. 
Yea, I will lay down this for a conclusion, ere I go any further : that Christ 
was dispensed with in nothing. Justice abated him nothing of that punish- 
ment which was due to us. It regarded not the gi-eatness or dignity of his 
person, to spare him in the least. So that if there had been anything 
necessarily to have been undergone for satisfaction, which was not com- 
patible with his person, he must not have undertook it. For justice (if 
God go that way) wiU have its full due, or nothing. And the reason is 

* Justin Martirr contra Tryphonem. 


evident ; for if Christ had been abated in anything, he might have been 
abated in one thing as well as in another, and so in all. But he says it 
was necessary for him to suffer ; and the same necessity lay on him to 
suffer all that was due, as well as anything at all. 

But you will say, Did not the dignity of his person avail to some abate- 
ment, so as one drop of his blood might have served ? The answer is, that 
indeed the dignity of his person did add an infinite merit to everything he 
suffered; but not so that any particular should be abated. Again, this his 
dignity conduced to the acceptation of his sufferings for many persons ; that 
what that one person did should be for many (as Paul says) ; but it struck 
off no part of the debt, or of the things to be paid. It caused that that one 
payment should stand for many ; but not that a farthing of that payment 
should be wanting. But ere we go over any of the particulars, we must 
answer an objection ; which is this. That there were many particular evils of 
punishments which were ingredients in many of our cups, which yet he 
never tasted of, as sickness and distempers of body ; for his body saw no 
coiTuption, neither before death nor after. And many like particular 
branches of the curse which befall men for sin he met not with. ' Not a 
bone of him was broken.' How then did he satisfy for the whole cm'se ? 
Yea, hell itself, and the eternity of its punishments, the worm of conscience, 
despair, &c., he endm-ed not ; how then underwent he the whole curse 
following upon sin ? I answer, 

1. (In general) Know that the wrath of God is the whole curse ; it is the 
total sum of all curses, it is the curse in solido, in gross. And as a pay- 
ment, consisting of many farthings, may be made in one piece of gold, so 
all particular cm*ses may be undergone in bearing that one gi'eat curse, the 
original of curses, for otherwise the angels now in hell should not undergo 
the whole curse, seeing many miseries that befall men here they are not 
capable of. The wrath of God is either expressed mediately, in particular 
punishments, or immediately upon the soul. Now this immediate wrath 
eminently contains all mediate crosses in it. The cup of the Lord's wrath, 
which Chi-ist drank up, is said to be full of mixture ; for all evils were strained 
into it. If therefore it can be proved that Christ underwent the whole 
wrath of God, it may be said that he underwent all curses, although he had 
endured none of the miseries of this life. Which (among other interpre- 
tations I have elsewhere given) may perhaps be the intendment of those 
words. Mat. viii. 17, where the evangelist quotes out of Isaiah, that Christ 
' bare our sicknesses ;' and so by virtue of that his bearing them, he healed 
them. The meaning whereof is not, that he bare the sicknesses of the 
body, but that he, sustaining the wrath of God, which was more than the 
gout, stone, or whatever else, might be said virtually to bear them all, and 
by virtue of that heal them. And so in that place, Isa. liii. 10, the phrase 
translated ' bruising him ' is by some read, ' He, or his soul, was made 

2. It is in his passive obedience as it is in his active, when it is said he 
fulfilled every iota of the law ; the meaning is not, that he performed every 
duty ; for he performed not the duty of a husband to a wife, or of a magis- 
trate, &c., in this world ; but in fulfilling the law of love (which was the 
sum of the law), he fulfilled all. So in his passive obedience, l-y under- 
going the wi-ath of God, he underwent the sum of the curse, the curse in 

3. It is in temporal curses as in temporal blessings. Many particular 
good things may be withheld, when yet God ' withholds no good thing 


from his children,' in that he vouchsafes them his favour, which is better 
than all ; and so makes up all temporal promises an hundredfold. Thus 
is it in temporal curses ; it was not necessary that Christ should endure 
each particular, if he endured God's wrath ; he fulfilled the whole in under- 
going that. 


An enumeration of the particulars of the curse which Christ endured. — That 
assuming our nature, he took also those infirmities which sin hath brought 
upon MS. — That a painful ivretched life being the curse of our first father's 
sins, the life of Christ answerably was filled with miseries and sorrows. 

Now for the particulars of this curse, it were endless to go over all those 
that he endm'ed. We will therefore have recourse to, and instance only in 
that fii'st curse which was laid on that first Adam, and in his name upon 
aU his posterity, as we find it recorded. Gen. iii. 17-19, ' And unto Adam 
he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast 
eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying. Thou shalt not eat 
of it : cursed is the ground for thy sake ; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all 
the days of thy life :' ver. 18, ' Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth 
to thee ; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field :' ver. 19, 'In the sweat 
of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground ; for out 
of it wast thou taken : for dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return.' 
Compared with chap. ii. 17, ' But of the tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil, thou shalt not eat of it : for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou 
shalt surely die.' And to shew how all the particulars of the curse there 
mentioned were by him undergone will sufiice, that cm'se being indeed the 
sum and epitome of curses, as the Lord's prayer is of prayers. 

It consists of three parts : 
^■' 1. The frailties man's nature became subject to, tending in themselves 
to death and dissolution : ' dust thou art, &c.' The curse then seizing on 
him wasted his body and spirit, and made both subject unto fi-ailties, and 
to be of a mouldering nature : ' Thou art dust,' says God, ' and to dust 
thou shalt return i' 

2. The miseries and sorrows which man's nature meets with, until he 
returns unto dust ; which are either, 

(1.) The labour and travail he must take to get his living, expressed * by 
eating his bread in the sweat of his brow ;' sweat being put (by a synech- 
doche) for all the labour and travail that man is bom unto, ' as the sparks 
fly upwards,' Job v. 7 ; or, 

(2.) The sad and cross events and accidents which befall men from the 
creature, in the course of occurrences and various passages of God's pro- 
vidence : in that all creatures are at enmity ; the earth brings forth thorns, 
the forests wild beasts, &c. 

3. The thu-d part of this curse is death ; both bodily, * to dust thou 
shalt return,' and of the soul, ' dying thou shalt die.' 

Now to go over all these, and shew how they were undergone by Christ, 
and how from the cradle to the cross the curse followed him. 

It seized on him in the fii'st assumption of the human nature : which 
was dust as well as our nature is, and subject to the same frailties. The 
simple assumption of the human nature was no part of the curse, and there- 

Chap. V.] of ciirist the mediator. 1U3 

fore is nowhere represented to us as such in the Scripture. It was a con- 
descending indeed to take it, though at first it had been as glorious as now 
it is in heaven ; but it was no part of the curse. And therefore when the 
Scripture speaks of his abasement in assuming our nature, it speaks of it 
imder the investment of frailties ; as in Philip, ii. 7, 8, where it is said * he 
humbled himself,' &c., in taking the form of a servant, that is, the nature 
of man as now made servile and debased, which is therefore expounded in 
the next words, * and was found as a vian,^ in the likeness of man. And 
so being found, ' he humbled himself,' &c., and therein, in that he was not 
only a man, but such a man as we, his body of the same metal, mouldry, 
and weak as ours is : herein became his humiliation. So likewise, Rom. 
viii. 3, 4, in that ' God sent his Son in the likeness of sinful flesh,' it is 
indeed made part of his satisfaction, so ' to condemn sin in the flesh.' But 
otherwise simply to assume our nature, though it was the foundation of all 
his satisfaction, yet it was not reckoned as a part of it ; and though it was 
that which formerly gave the value to it, yet was it not part of the dis- 
charge. I confess it to have been a minoration or lessening of him in some 
respects ; for let him take our nature how he will, never so gloi'ious, yet 
then it will be said of him, ' My Father is greater than I,' which cannot be 
said of the Holy Ghost ; yet this is not satisfaction ; the assuming our 
nature simply considered is not part of the curse. Again, that it was an 
action merely of the second person ; but satisfactory acts are of Christ 
God-man, and so he must be supposed to be God- man first. That the second 
person would undertake to lower himself so that he might be capable of 
making satisfaction (which without assumption had not been) is the foun- 
dation of the merit of it ; but materially is no part thereof. But in that 
this flesh assumed was frail, that makes the assumption of it to be satisfac- 
tory ; in that he was found hungiy, weary, sleepy, sad and heavy, ignorant 
of many things, &c., in that he was ' tempted in all,' and after that manner 
that we are, Heb. iv. 15, these frailties were to be accounted as part of 
satisfaction. And though he bare not all our frailties personally, as not 
sickness — for his body ' saw no corruption,' neither after nor before 
death, for it would have interrupted and hindered him in the work of our 
salvation — yet in sympathy and pity he bare them all ; and in that sense 
fore-mentioned, that place, he hare our sicknesses, may be understood, he 
having a heart soft, and framed to compassion ; therefore, when any of his 
elect were sick, and brought unto him, he by a feeling pity took their griefs 
on him, and so freed them. Diseases also, being rather personal than com- 
mon infirmities, it was not absolutely necessary that he should bear them. 
But ' he bare our sorrows,' Isa. liii. 4, even oui-s in common. 
Secondly, For the miseries incident to man's life ; and herein, 
1. For his eating his bread in the sweat of his brows (besides that it was 
in so eminent a manner fulfilled at Christ's death, as it never was in any 
man ; for in drinking that cup he sweat dodders of blood), how eminently 
was it fulfilled in doing his Father's will when he lived a public life, tra- 
velling over, and preaching in all towns and villages ; his zeal for God's 
house eating him up, and wasting his spirits, together with his watching 
whole nights, and many nights together, to pray, &c.; and when he lived a 
private life, in following a calling of a handicraftsman, and living upon it 
alone (for his parents were poor, as appears by their ofi'ering a poor man's 
offering, a pair of tm'tles). So that by his daily labour he got his food 
from hand to mouth (as we say), he never working any miracles to supply 
his own necessities ; but as, when in his public life, he depended upon 

VOL. V. N 


what was ministered unto him, so, when in his private life, he lived by his 
labour. Those who knew his education, and for whom haply he might 
have wrought, those of his own countiy, who, ver, 3, are said to have 
known his brethren and sisters, and himself particularly — those did not 
only call him the carpenter's son, but more expressly, the carpenter ; so 
Mark vi. 1-3. And it is noted that, at twelve years old, he disputed 
with the doctors, which was God ' his Father's business ; ' so that after- 
wards he ' was obedient to his parents,' Luke ii. 51, that is, doing their 
business, and helping them in their trade of carpentering ; this 51st verse, 
relating to what the evangeUst before had said, ver. 49, thereby intimating, 
that as in that other work of disputing he had been about his heavenly 
Father's business (which ver. 49 shews), so that now he was answerably 
employed in his earthly father's work (which the 51st verse declares, say- 
ing, ' he was obedient to his parents '). * 

2. For sad occurrences and events befalling him from the dispensation 
of providence, and the enmity of the creatui'es, there were more befell him 
than ever befell any man. He was vir dolorwn, a ' man of soitows,' which 
did all wear and waste him, as gi-iefs use to do us, so that in the'judgment 
of those that saw him, he looked nearer fifty years old than thirty, as that 
known speech may seem to import. Furthermore, we never read that he 
once laughed in his lifetime. And, 

(1.) For the enmity of the creatures, — besides that in a literal sense the 
earth might be said to bring forth thorns and briars to him, to such a pur- 
pose as scarce ever befell any man, namely, to crown his temples with them ; 
— at his birth, he is denied a lodging in a common inn ; then, the wilderness 
denies him bread for forty days, the fig-tree affords him no fi'uit, and the 
sun withdraws its light from him. The fathers have many pretty interpre- 
tations of that great echpse, but more witty than solid. The truth is, it 
was an evidence of God's anger, and of the enmity of all the creatures. Is 
it in the sunbeams to aflbrd some glimmering comfort to a man in misery? 
They are denied him. Can darkness add to one's distress, and render it 
more horrid ? Why, he is enveloped with a Cimmerian darkness, and that in 
the very meridian and mid-day. Yea (the which was never denied to any but 
to a man in hell), a drop of water to quench his thirst may by no means 
be gi-anted him, but instead thereof, shai-p vinegar, which their cruelty and 
scorn do hand unto him. 

The sea and winds were once arising up in arms against him, but that 
he made use of his prerogative and extraordinary power to quell their fierce- 
ness. And then at the last he was by all left, and by one of his disciples 
betrayed, which how it grieved him the psalmist foretold. Then, 

(2.) For sad and cross events from the dispensation of God's providence. 
He met with those which gi-eat spirits account the most sad and heavy. He 
was crossed ere he was crucified, even through his whole life ; as, 

[1.] By a mean and poor birth and breeding, which was often cast in his 
teeth : ' Is not this the carpenter's son ? ' 

[2.] By a poor outward condition. He was not a beggar indeed, for then 
he had not fulfilled the judicial law, that there should be no beggar in Israel ; 
but poor he was : ' for our sakes he became poor.' It appears his parents 
were poor ; for at the purification of Mary, they ofiered only a pair of 
tm'tles, which (according to the law) were to be the offering of the poorer 
sort. Again, he wrought daily ; surely, therefore, it was for his living. 
And further, he had nothing at his death to leave his mother, and therefore 
it was that he bequeathed the care of her unto John. Now, how heavy a 

Chap. V.j of ohrist the medutor. 196 

clog is poverty to a great spirit, and how does it keep him under ;- it puts 
a contempt upon the greatest virtue, and prejudices the most solid wisdom 
against esteem. ' No man regarded that poor wise man.' 

[3.] By a mean calling. Thirty years lived he in a mechanic trade, and 
that no better than of a carpenter. Now, for him to be hid under chips, 
who was born to sit upon the royal throne of Israel ; for those hands to 
make doors and hew logs that were made to wield the sceptre of heaven 
and earth ; and that he who was the * mighty counsellor ' should give his 
advice only about squaring of timber ; what an indignity, what a cross is 
this ! Do but think with yourselves what an affliction it would be to a 
professor of divinity in an university, to a privy councillor, or (much more) 
to a prince, for thirty years together to be put to cart and plough. 

[4,] By company unsuitable to him, which to a great and noble spirit is as 
great a burden as anything else whatsoever. For him who from everlasting 
enjoyed the sweet society of his Father in heaven, and might there have 
for ever had it ; for him to leave such company, and come down to earth, 
and here converse with sinners ; how harsh and unpleasing must it needs 
be to him. And therefore the apostle might well say, ' Christ pleased not 
himself,' Rom. xv. 3, meaning it of his company. To a man wise and holy, 
there is nothing more burdensome than the company of men ignorant and 
sinful ; and the best company he had were his apostles, who, how ignorant 
were they ! Even so far, that they lay as a burden upon his spirits, inso- 
much that once he cries out, * How long shall I suffer you, men of little 
faith,' or wisdom ? Mat. xvii. 17. They being so incapable of what he 
said or taught, that most would have been lost, had not his Spirit after- 
wards brought all unto their remembrance. And, besides their ignorance, 
they were men clothed with infirmities and sins, and more gross corruptions 
of foolish ambition and contention. What a burden, therefore, must they 
needs have been to him who was holiness itself! Yea (to conclude), every 
man was a briar and a thorn unto him (as the prophet speaks), and he 
went through the world against the stream of a perverse and crooked gene- 
ration, and was a contention to the whole land where he came, which 
therefore contradicted, opposed, and reviled him, &c. And therefore it is 
reckoned among his sufferings, that ' he endured the contradictions of 
sinners,' Heb. xii. 3, which was so heavy unto Jeremiah, that it made him 
weary of his life : ' Woe is me,' says he, ' my mother hath born me a man 
of contention to the whole earth,' Jer. xv. 10. So Elias complains that he 
was 'left alone,' &c., and thus was it with Christ in his times ; yea, all the 
sins he saw or heard became crosses to him, and went to his heart ; so 
Rom. XV. 3, where those words are applied to Christ, ' the reproaches of 
them that reproached thee ' (speaking of God) ' are fallen upon me.' All 
the blows that blasphemers at any time gave his Father, he takes upon his 
spirit. And what a life then must he needs live, whose soul was so right- 
eous ? If Lot's soul were vexed, how must his needs be, whose spirit was 
so tender of his Father's glory ? 

* * Nil hatit infelix paupertas durius in se, 

Quam quod ridiculoa homines facit.' — Juvenal, Sat. 8, v. 158. 



What were the sufferings of Christ, as bearing the curse of our sins, more 
immediately foregoing his crucifixion, described in an exposition of the first 
21 verses of the 18t,h chapter of John's gospel. — A garden teas the place 
where he had his first agonies, and was apprehended. — The reasons why 
such a place was appjointed and chosen by him. — The first 9 vo'ses ex- 
plained, and observations raised from them. 

The eighteentli chapter of John's gospel, and that which follows, do con- 
tinue the stoiy of the sufferings of our Lord and Saviour Christ, as they 
are recorded by that apostle, who, writing after all the other evangelists 
were dead, or at least the last of them all, he inserteth divers things which 
they had omitted, as by comparing the one with the other will easily 

Chi'ist, you know, had three offices : he is the prophet, he is the priest, he 
is the king of his church. His prophetical office he exercised in his doc- 
trine while he was here below, in those sermons and prayers which John 
and the other evangelists record. Which, when he had finished, he goes 
forth to his sufferings, to exercise his priestly office also, to offer himself up 
a sacrifice for his people. And now being ascended into heaven, he there 
exerciseth his kingly office, in ruling his church, and in ruling the nations 
in order to his church, and so he will do to the end of the world. 

John xviii. ver. 1, ' When Jesus had spoken these words, he ivent forth with 
his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he 
entered, and his discipjhs. 

When Jesus had spoken these words. "Which hath a more special relation 
to that last prayer of his, and that last sermon which he made, recorded 
by John. Vv'hen he had fortified his own heart by prayer, and prepared 
himself to die ; when he had instructed his disciples, and spoken all those 
truths that he came into the world to speak, and laid a foundation of 
comfort for them, and had put up prayers for them, and confirmed and 
strengthened their hearts ; when he had fully done his duty ; when he had 
spoken these words, he cheerfully goes forth to the place his Father had 
appointed him to be taken in, and giveth himself up to be sacrificed, and 
to lay down his life for them. 

He went forth. And he went forth with his disciples. What was the 
reason that Chi'ist went forth, to be taken abroad ? Why would he not be 
taken in the city, in Jerusalem, in the chamber where he ate the passover, 
where he might have stayed if he would ? 

He went forth, first, that he might give his enemies the more free scope 
to take him, for they feared the people, which was always the great objec- 
tion against their laying hold on him ; therefore, that that impediment 
might be removed, he chose to go out of the city, to a place in the fields, 
in a garden, where they might have full opportunity to apprehend him and 
to cany him away in the night, without the knowledge of any. And, secondly, 
he did it that his disciples might the better escape ; for had he been in the 
city, there might have been a hurly-burly, and so his disciples might have 
been in danger. 

And he went forth also with his disciples. First, to teach them this les- 
son, that they are likewise to leave this world and to give themselves up as 

Chap. VI.] of ohkist the mediator. 197 

men that arc to suffer with him and for him ; that as ho himself suffered 
without the f;ate (for the beginning of his sufForiugs, those sufferings that 
were the sullerings of his soul, his inward sufferings, when he first encoun- 
tered with his Father's wrath, they were in the garden, which was without 
the gate, as well as those upon mount Calvary, which were eminently the 
sufferings of his body), so they also were to go forth with him : Hob. xiii. 
12, 13, ' Jesus, that ho might sanctify the people with his own blood, 
suffered without the gate. Let us go forth therefore unto him without the 
camp, bearing his reproach. For here have we no continuing city,' &c. And 
likewise he carried his disciples \vith him, that they might be witnesses of 
his passion and sufferings more or less, as well as of his resurrection. And 
he would have his disciples with him too, that he might shew his power the 
more in preserving them ; for as it follows afterwards, he doth but speak 
the word, ' Let these go,' saith he, (which was a word of commandfrom Christ, 
as he was a king), and there was none that so much as offered to lay hands 
on them. He carried them out with him also that they might see their 
own weakness and inability to suffer (for they all forsook him and fled), 
that so they might depend the more upon his strength ; for so oftentimes 
God doth, he brings us into danger on pmpose, as to shew his power in 
delivering us, so to teach us to depend upon him for ability to suffer. And 
lastly, he went forth with his disciples, that he might shew them an example 
that one day they must suffer with him and for him, as they did all after- 
wards more or less ; only John indeed escaped martyrdom, yet he suffered 
much, for you know he was banished into the isle Patmos. 

Over the brook C'edron. This brook divided Jerasalem and mount Olivet, 
as Josephus saith. It was on the east part of the city, as mount Calvary 
was on the west, the two places of sufferings : his taking was in the one, and 
his crucifying was in the other. He suffered in the east and in the west ; 
and so indeed the gospel hath reigned, as the sun doth, fi-om east to west. 
It is called the field of Cedron, 2 Ivings xxiii. 4, and the valley of Cedron, 
because it was an obscure, darksome, shady place, and not because that 
cedars did grow there, as olives did upon mount Olivet (which is a mistake 
of some), but it had its name from the dai'ksomeness of the place. 

Why did God in his providence order it that Christ should go over this 
brook Cedron ? It is a cu-cumstance which only John records, for all the 
other evangelists omit it ; and as interpreters observe, John doth seldom 
mention any particular ckcumstance, upon which any emphasis is put, but 
there is a mystery in it. 

We read in 2 Sam. xv. 23, that David and his men went over this brook 
Cedron, mom-ning and lamenting, when Ahithophel, his familiar friend, had 
betrayed him, and Absalom his son sought his life. 

Now our Lord and Saviour Christ, whose type David was, this very thing 
is fulfilled in him ; for Ahithophel typified out Judas : that you have in 
Ps. xH., ' The man,' saith he, ' that did eat with me, that was mine equal, 
we took sweet counsel together,' &c. Da\id spake this of Ahithophel in 
this very journey of his, and it is applied unto Judas in John xiii. 18. 
Now as David's life was then sought after, so was Christ's now ; and as 
David went over with his companions, so did Christ with his disciples. As 
Ahithophel betrayed him, so did Judas betray Christ ; and as David went 
over with a sad heart, so Christ tells his disciples, that his soul was heavy 
unto the death. 

And that you may see the allusion to be yet more fuU, in Ps. ex. 7, 
(which is plainly and clearly a psalm of Christ), it is said, ' He shall drink 


of the brook in the way, therefore shall his head be lifted up.' He was to 
sit at God's right hand till his enemies were made his footstool, as you have 
it ver. 1 ; but before he cometh to be thus exalted, he must drink of the 
brook in the way, he must go over this Cedrou with a sad soul : for the 
truth is, all the while he was a-going his heart was heavy, and it increased 
in his going much more. He shall drink of the brook in the way ; not that 
he drank of the water of this brook Cedron, but it typified out those sufi'er- 
ings which lay in his way to heaven. 

Where teas a garden. This was the place where he had that sad encounter 
with his Father's wi-ath, which made him sweat drops of blood. The soul- 
sufferings of Christ we eminently read of to have been in this place. Now 
the fields that adjoined to this Cedron, and that which did border upon this 
place of the garden (which Matthew calls Gethsemane), was that place which 
the Jews called Gehenna, or Gehinnom, or hell, because that Josiah had 
cursed that place, 2 Kings xxiii. 4, and because that there the great slaughter 
was done upon the Babylonians, and afterwards upon the Jews. And it was 
the place which they afterwards called Tox)het, and it is the only word they 
had for hell after the Babylonian captivity. It was an execrable place ; and 
into this place did Christ come ; for indeed our Lord and Saviour Christ, he 
did, in his soul, in respect of the sufferings of it, descend into hell. Now 
there was a mystery also in this. Adam he was the most eminent type of 
Christ, so he is called, Rom. v. 13, and in 1 Cor. xv. And the type holds 
in this, for when we have a ground that such a thing is a type, we may 
apply it to such particulars as we find suitable. Adam's fall, you know, was 
in a garden ; Satan there encountered him, and overcame him, led him and 
all mankind into captivity to sin and death. God now singleth out the 
place where the great redeemer of the world, the second Adam, should first 
encounter with his Father's wrath, to be in a garden, and that there he 
should be bound and led away captive as Adam was. He fighteth with 
Satan upon his own ground (it became him so to do) ; and here he gives 
the first great overthrow to his kingdom, and to the kingdom of sin and 
death. God did suit it so, as indeed he did suit many things in that par- 
ticular of the fii-st and second Adam. Because (says he, 1 Cor. xv. 21) 
' by man came death, by man came also the resurrection.' Because by a 
temptation let in at the ear man was condemned, therefore by hearing of 
the word men shall be saved. ' Thou shalt eat thy bread in the sweat of 
thy brows,' that was part of Adam's curse ; Christ he sweat drops of blood 
for this, it was the force of that curse that caused it. ' The groimd shall 
bring forth thorns to thee ; ' Christ he was crucified with a crown of thorns. 
Adam his disobedience was acted in a garden, and Christ both his active 
and passive obedience also, much of it was in a garden ; and at the last, as 
the first beginning of his humiliation was in a garden, so the last step was 
too ; he was buried, though not in this, yet in another garden. Thus the 
type and the thing typified answer one another. 

Into the nhich he entered, and his disciples. StiU there is an emphasis 
put upon this, that his disciples were with him. It is not only said, that 
he went forth with his disciples, but that he entered into the garden with 
his disciples, who were to be witnesses of what he suffered, and for tho 
reasons mentioned afore, as also to shew that he had no other guard but 
them. So much for the first verse. 

Verse 2. * And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place; for Jesus 
c/ttinies resorted thither icith his disciples.' 

Chap. VI.] of christ the mediator. 100 

Our Lord and Saviour Christ, ho knew he should be taken, and taken 
by Judas, a disciple, and that that was the place appointed by his Father 
wherein he shcjuld be taken ; for the 4th verse tells us, ' Jesus knew all 
thii)f;s that should befall him.' He knew that Judas would be there that 
night, and therefore, like a valiant champion, he cometh into the field first, 
afore his enemy. He goes thither to choose, and singles out this place on 

In this place Christ used to pray most, especially a little before his suf- 
ferii^'^s ; for in Luke xxi. 37 it is said, that ' in the day time he was 
teaching in the temple ; and at night he went out, and abode in the 
mount that is called the mount of Olives. And all the people came early 
in the morning to him in the temple, for to hear him.' This was but a 
matter of seven days before he was crucified ; for Christ, when he saw that 
he must die, and that now his time was come, he wore his body out ; he 
cared not, as it were, what became of him, he w'holly spent himself in pray- 
ing and preaching. He was preaching in the day time, and that early in 
the morning in the temple, and at night he abode in the mount of Olives ; 
and there sometimes he spent the w^hole night in prayer privately, and 
sometimes he took his disciples with him, as now he did. 

In this place, which had been a place where Christ received a great deal 
of heavenly refreshment from his Father in prayer, where he had immediate 
converse with him, in that place of all others must Christ be fii'st attached, 
and there must be the beginning of his sufferings. For so indeed God did 
deal with Christ ; he would have all things that were most comfortable to 
him embittered to him. This was the place of his repose, where he had 
sweet refreshings from God ; and this must be the place where he must 
encounter w^ith his Father's wrath. He sweat his bloody sweat in this 
place where he had so often prayed. 

And he likewise knowing that this was the place in which he should be 
taken, made it the place where he prayed most, that every thing might 
put him in mind, and strengthen him when he came to sufier, to comfort 
him and to help him, as indeed circumstances of time and place do. If 
a Christian would choose where he would be taken and hauled to punish- 
ment for Christ, it should certainly be in his closet, or in a place where he 
had prayed most. 

Christ had oftentimes afore evaded suffering ; he would shift places on 
purpose ; as in John iv. 1, ' "When the Lord knew how the Pharisees had 
heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John, he left 
Judea, and departed again into Galilee', he flew from them ; and so in 
Luke iv. 29, when they led him unto the brow of the hill whereon the city 
was built, that they might cast him down headlong, he passed through the 
midst of them, and escaped away. But now when his last hour is come, 
and he knew it was the hour appointed him by his Father, now he goes to 
the veiy place where he knew Judas, that should betray him, would come. 

You shall find this eminent observation in the story as John relates it, 
differing from all the other evangelists : he endeavours to hold forth in a 
special manner the willingness of Christ to suffer. Other evangelists hold 
forth other circumstances of his suffierings ; but you shall find all along 
that John is especially diligent in holding forth the willingness of Christ to 
off'er up himself, which he doth by all sorts of circumstances, as in the sequel 
will appear. Here it appears by this that (as I said before) he goes first 
into the field ; he goes to the place which he used to go to, and which 
Judas knew to be the place, and he knew too that Judas would be there. 


It was a matter of tlio greatest moment to hold forth this wiUingness of 
Christ to offer up himself, of any other. For there are two necessary 
things that were to be concurrent in the sufferings of Christ to make it 
satisfactory for us : the one is the eminency and worth of his person. Had 
he not been God as well as man, his obedience would never have satisfied 
God. But the second is a free-willingness to undergo what he did ; for we 
sinned wiUingly, therefore Christ, when he comes to suffer, he must suffer 
as willingly. It is as great and as essential an ingredient to give force and 
eflficacy to his sufferings, as the worth of his person. Therefore, in Heb. 
X. 7, 8, you will find a great deal of emphasis put upon this : ' Lo, I come 
to do thy will, God ;' ' by which will' (saith he) ' we are sanctified.' 
Both the will of God the Father, and the willingness of Jesus Christ thus 
to sacrifice himself, was that great circumstance, or more than a circum- 
stance, upon which oixr salvation depends, and the acceptation of that 
offering of his. Christ, therefore, to shew his willingness, he goes to the 
place where he knew Judas would come ; he went thither on purpose ; put 
himself on this temptation, on purpose that he might put himself into 
their hands. It was indeed by the commandment of his Father ; for so 
you shall find, John xiv. 31, 'As the Father gave me commandment, even 
so I do. Arise,' saith he, * let us go hence ;' let us go to the place where 
I must be taken. 

That which we find of circumstances in the sufferings of Christ, may 
oftentimes help us in circumstances of our sinning. Dost thou tempt 
thyself to sin ? put thyself upon occasions of sinning ? and is that an 
aggravation of thy sinning ? Thou hast this to help and relieve thee in the 
sufferings of Christ, that he put himself upon the occasion of being taken, 
put himself upon that temptation. 

And it may move thee to shun and avoid the occasions of sin, for Jesus 
Christ, that he might suffer for thee, avoided not the occasion of suffering ; 
he goes to the very place in which he knew he should be taken. 

Also those things which had been comforts unto Christ are (through the 
merit of our sins, which do turn blessings into curse) turned unto Christ 
into a bitterness. The place where he had praj^ed, and been refreshed, 
there is his agony and encounter ; a garden turned into hell. His sweet 
communion with God there is now turned into wrestling with God's anger 
falling on him here ; and now through it, on the contrary, we may expect 
curses turned into blessings ; and the worst of dealings from God to us to 
be sanctified to our greatest spiritual advantage and comfort. 

It is said that ' Judas also knew the place.' Take notice here of the 
hard-heartedness of the heart of Judas. He had all that time since he 
received the sop, yea, all the way he went (which was a pretty way from 
the city), to think upon what he was about to do, that he was going to 
betray his master, the Saviour of the world, in whom he had for a time 
believed. Yea, he had that place to strike his conscience ; it being the place 
where he himself had been often with Christ, and present at many a good 
prayer, and many an excellent sermon, which he had heard from no less 
than the Messiah. Whose conscience almost but would have smote him ? 
Yet so hard, so obdurate is the heart of Judas, that he dares out-face all 
those prayers and sermons, and to come to that very place to lay hold of 
his master, and to betray him with a kiss. 

An obdurate heart will break through all sort of circumstances and con- 
siderations that may keep him from sinning ; so Judas doth here. 

And we may learn to aggravate our sins by such circumstances, whereof 

Chap. VI.] op cueist the mediator. 201 

we shall find many in our lives, if we study our own sinful ways, that God 
doth suilbr to fixll out to keep us from sinning, that notwithstanding such 
ou-cumstanccs and considerations, yet we should break through all such 
difficulties and sin against God ; this should make our sin out of measure 
sinful to us. It was a circumstance that much increased the sin of Judas, 
that he knew the place where Christ used to resort with his disciples (going 
thither often for freedom's sake of prayer), that yet ho would go thither 
and there betray him. 

Verse 3. * Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from, the 
chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and 

Judas then, having received a band of men, &c. Judas did not desire this 
band of men ; he did but ofier to betray him. It was the chief priests and 
Pharisees that desired them ; they went to Pilate (who was the Roman 
governor), and told him they had a seditious person to take, and implored 
his help and assistance ; and so he let them have a band of men. And yet 
it is said that Judas received them ; it is all laid upon him, because in 
Acts i. 16 he is called their guide ; he was the leader of this cursed band 
that took our Lord and Saviour Christ ; he was the foreman in it: there- 
fore all is laid on him more than upon them ; he is still branded in a pecu- 
liar manner, ' Judas the traitor,' ' Judas which betrayed him.' All, I say, 
is chiefly laid upon him ; for the truth is, Christ took this act of his more 
heinously at his hands, that had been his disciple and a professor of him, 
than he did either of the Pharisees or of the Roman soldiers, and his end 
was accordingly. And therefore Paul, in 2 Cor. xi. 26, when he makes a 
catalogue of his sufierings, he mentioneth those which he had from false 
brethren as the worst and chiefest. 

The eminent observation that I make out of these words is this, that 
here is both a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees. 
The band of men was the Roman band ; for the Romans having conquered 
that city, the civil power was in their hands, and Pilate the governor under 
them kept a band of men about him, which he lends at their request unto 
the Pharisees and chief priests, to go with their own officers to help to take 
Christ. All along this story you shall find that there were two sorts of men 
that God would have, in his providence, to have their hands imbrued in the 
blood of Christ from first to last. Here is a Roman band, and the officers 
of the chief priests and Pharisees : here is the civil magistracy, and here is 
the ecclesiastical state ; for as the civil power was in the Romans, so the 
ecclesiastical power was in the hands of the chief priests ; the Romans, not- 
withstanding their conquest, leaving them to the rites of their religion still. 
They would not trust the Roman band alone to do it, for they knew 
they were not such enemies to Christ ; but they sent their own ministers 
and servants (and some evangelists tell us that some of the Pharisees them- 
selves were there) to attend them, and see the thing done. The soldiers, 
poor men ! they went about they knew not what ; they went to take him 
as a seditious person, and an enemy to Caesar ; little thought they that 
the Messiah of the world was there. This, I say, you shall find in the story 
all along, that two sort of powers were stiiTed up against Christ. Here was 
both Jews and Gentiles : ' Why doth the heathen rage, and the people 
imagine a vain thing ?' Ps. ii. 1. Both concur here. Here is a band of 
Romans, and officers of the chief priests ; the heathen and the people of 
the Jews. Christ, as he did die both for Jews and Gentiles, so likewise he 


would have both Jews and Gentiles to have a hand in his death. And 
therefore let us not say onh^ that the Jews shall look upon him whom they 
have pierced, but the Gentiles also shall look upon him whom they have 
pierced. God would have the Gentiles have a hand in it as well as the Jews. 
And not only so, but he would have both the civil and ecclesiastical state 
to join in the sufferings of Christ ; for the Pharisees and chief priests they 
were the ecclesiastical state, they make use of the magistrate, for his assist- 
ance, to lay hold of our Lord and Saviour Christ. 

Theij come thither niih lanterns, andtordtex, and uith u-eapons. Although 
it was full moon then, and therefore the moon did certainly shine, yet, to 
make sure work, they come not only with torches, that use to give great 
lights, but with lanterns, that their lights might not be blown out with 
the wind, and all to seek him, that they might be sure, if he did not hide 
himseh", to find him, or if he did hide himself, to seek him out with their 
hghts. And they came wdth weapons, too, though they knew he was but a 
poor man to see to ; but they came with weapons, because they were afraid 
of the people, and because that Judas had told them how his master had 
often escaped from them before, as when he was brought to the brow of the 
hill, &c. ; therefore now to make sure work, both to find him and to carry 
him away, they come forth with these. 

Cm- Lord and Saviour Christ, he had dealt with them at other weapons ; 
he had often disputed with the scribes and Pharisees ; and the truth is, he 
had always been too hard for them. But now they come and deal with him 
at a weapon they thought he should not be too hard for them at ; they come 
upon him wdth torches and with weapons, and by force they set upon him. 
And that indeed is the manner of those that oppose the church in all ages. 
As they dealt with Chi'ist, so they do with his people, and will do to the end 
of the world. 

Verse 4. ' Jesus therefore, hiouing all thhir/s that should come upon him, 
u-ent forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye V 

Still you see the evangelist John holds forth, in an eminent manner, the 
wilhngness of Christ to suffer ; for that is the thread he spins throughout 
this whole stoiy, because indeed so much depends upon it. He tells us 
that Christ knew all things that should come upon him. He did not come 
to this place unawares ; no, he knew that Judas knew that he usually re- 
sorted thither, and he knew that Judas would come thither, as well as he 
knew that he should betray him, and therefore he comes thither on pur- 
pose. And he comes thither fii-st ; and being there, as soon as the band 
and the officers came, he went forth of his own accord, and said unto them, 
' Whom seek ye ? ' He knew all things : he might have hid himself, and 
evaded his being taken, as he had often done before. No. 

There is a case which intei-preters here put, whether this example of 
Christ's be for om- imitation, whether we should thus expose ourselves to 
suffering, choose thus to suffer, or rather decline and avoid suffering in a 
lawful way, by lawful means ? 

The answer is clear. We have divers examples of Christ's avoiding suf- 
fering ; as that in John iv. 1, when he did but hear that they knew of him, 
and knowing their malice, he went and removed to another place. So like- 
wise when he was young, and Herod sought his life, he was carried into 
Ef^'pt. And then again, when they brought him to the brow of the hill, 
he escaped. All which examples strongly hold forth, that we may use all 
lawful means of escaping suffering. But when he knew that his hour was 

Chap. VI.] of christ the mediatoh. 203 

come in which ho must be taken aside, and it beinff by compact between 
his Father and him, for so it was he covenanted with God to suffer, it be- 
came him to show the fullest and most ready obedience to his Father that 
could be, to go to the place where he must be attached, to offer himself to 
them as a prey, to provoke them : ' Whom seek ye '?' Now herein Christ's 
case and ours in suffering doth certainly diffur ; we do not know what shall 
befall us, as Christ did ; for if we did, we ought not to evade our suffer- 
ings, as Christ did not ; but because we are ignorant of what shall come 
upon us, we are to serve the ways of a providence, ways of escaping that 
are lawful. 

Observe fi'om hence, Jirst, this. Christ, you see, did not only suffer will- 
ingly, but knowingly ; and as his putting himself willingly upon suffering, 
and into the opportunity of being taken, may help us against our having 
tempted ourselves (which is a great aggravation of om' sinning), so likewise 
oui' Saviour Christ's suffering thus with knowledge, deliberately, knowing 
all circumstances, is a consideration may help us against our sinning know- 
ingly. Hast thou sinned presumptuously against knowledge ? Our Lord 
and Saviour Christ he suffered as deliberately, h-e suffered with the gi'eatest 
knowledge that could be. There was not only the greatest will in his suf- 
ferings, but to make up that will more eminent and conspicuous, there was 
also the greatest knowledge ; he knew all that should befall him, yet he 
went forth and offered himself. 

Secondly, Did Christ know all that he was to suffer ? Certainly then 
he knows all that we are to suffer. Did he know his own sufferings on 
earth ? Certainly he knows ours, now he is in heaven. The things we 
are to suffer, they are called in Col. i. 24, ' the after- sufferings of Chiist ;' 
certainly, then, he knows them. Therefore though thou knowest not what 
shall befall thee in such or such a course as thou takest in professing his 
name, yet comfort thyself in this, that Christ knows it. And as he, know- 
ing all things, ventured himself, so do thou, upon the confidence that he 
knows all things that shall befall thee. Ventm-e thyself too, and trust him 
and his knowledge for the ordering of all things for thy good, as well as he 
trusted his Father to do with him what he would. It is our comfort, I say, 
that Jesus Christ knew all his own sufferings ; he certainly, therefore, knows 
all ours. ' I know thy labour and thy patience,' saith he. Rev. ii, 2. He 
takes notice of it, therefore fear not the things you shall suffer ; give your- 
selves up unto his providence, trust his knowledge, for he knows what 
shall befall you. 

It would be miserable for us to know what we shall undergo in this world, 
for the thoughts of it aforehand would hui-t us ; the anxiety of it would 
trouble us ; it is better for us to be ignorant of it. But Christ he had 
strength in him, he could know what he should suffer and foresee it, and 
yet keep his mind quiet and composed ; as you see he did till it came to the 
very instant. And it was necessary too that he should know all he was to 
sutler, because he suffered by compact with his Father, which makes a great 
difference between the sufferings of Christ and ours. 

Now he, knowing all that he should suffer, he went forth, and said to 
them, ' Whom seek ye ?' 

Once they would have made him a king, and then he hid himself; but 
when he comes to be a king crowned with thorns, and knew he should be 
so to save us, then he hides not himself, but he goes forth to them. Adam, 
as I said, was his type in his sinning in the garden ; but in this they are 
unlike, Adam hides himself, and God was fain to seek him out. But here 


our Lord and Saviour Christ, to shew his willingness to be found, stepped 
forth, and said unto them, ' Whom seek ye ?' He provokes them rather 
to lay hands upon him than otherwise. And so much for the fourth 

Verse 5. ' They answered Jiim, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesiis saith unto them, 
I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood loilh them.' 

From hence interpreters do observe — and I think rightly — that both these 
Roman soldiers, and also these officers of the high priest, at their first 
approach to him, did not know him by sight ; no, nor Judas neither ; for 
it is said Judas stood with them when he asked them, ' Whom seek ye ?' 
Afterwards, indeed, he was the first that went to him, and kissed him, and 
said, ' This is he.' He asked them twice the same question, and they answer 
both times, ' Jesus of Nazareth,' which clearly argues, that they did not know 
him to be the man. Therefore some think there was a piece of a miracle 
in this, that he struck them with blindness, as the Sodomites were that 
beset Lot's house, or as the servants of the king of Syria were that came 
to take Elisha. Others think that their eyes were with-led by a miracle, as 
the eyes of those tvro disciples that went to Emmaus were, so that though 
they had often seen him before, and heard him preach, yet now they could 
not know him. But, however, it is exceedingly likely that these soldiers 
did not know him, for the Romans regarded not the gospel, nor did they 
regard the Jewish religion. So far were they from knowing of him, and the 
officers it is likely they were such as had not heard him. Therefore you 
may observe this by the way, that the rage of men against the people of 
God, it is of those that are ignorant of them ; as these here were ignorant 
of Christ, and these the chief priests and Pharisees set to take him. 

They answered, Jesus of Nazareth. They do not say they sought Christ, 
for they did not own him as such, but they call him by the name of the 
place of his birth, and by the name of his country. And Christ owns it : 
* I am he,' saith he. Aid he owned that name from heaven when he spake 
to Paul : Acts ix. 5, ' I am Jesus of Nazareth whom thou perseeutest.' 
"Why did he not say, I am Christ? He speaks to Paul's apprehension, — I 
am he whom thou knowest and hast heard of by the name of Jesus of Naza- 
reth. He shewed himself to be Christ indeed in his appearing ; but to 
shew who he was that Paul persecuted, he said, ' I am Jesus of Nazareth ;' 
for had Paul persecuted him as Christ, he had sinned against the Holy 
Ghost ; but he persecuted him only as Jesus of Nazareth. So did these 
poor men, they did not know him to be Christ, only they came to take one 
Jesus of Nazareth. 

Jesus saith unto them, I am he. We should boldly hold forth our profes- 
sion. When we are asked, Ai-e you a Christian ? Yes. Eusebius reports 
of one that, being asked divers questions, as what country he was of, and 
the like, he always answered, * I am a Christian,' to shew his boldness in 
his profession ; so Christ here, ' I am he.' 

And Judas also, which betrayed him., stood with them. This is noted, first, 
to shew that Judas was struck backward as well as the rest, for all that 
company that was together fell to the ground, as you shall see in the next 
verse. Christ had struck an arrow through his conscience, dashed him, and 
certainly aimed at him in the confounding of these more than all the rest. 
Therefore it is added, ' and Judas also stood with them ;' for special con- 
fusion shall befall them that profess Christ, and afterwards fall away. 

This miserable man (secondly) was wont to stand amongst the disciples, 

Chap. VI. ] of christ the mediator. 205 

but now ho stands where he shall stand at the latter day, amongst those 
that are reprohates, and the crueifiers of the Lord of life ; that as it is said 
in Ps. cxxv. 1, * The righteous shall be like mount Zion, but those that 
work iniquity, God shall lead them forth with the workers of iniquity,' In 
the end the Lord doth discover them ; he will bring them into that di-ove ; 
they shall fall to that side their hearts are with ; they shall stand amonf^st 
them in the issue and end (for God in his providence orders it), with whom 
they shall stand for ever. And this God doth usually fulfil upon wicked 
men, though they have a temporaiy work upon them ; and though for tho 
present they profess the name of Christ never so much, yet at last they 
stand — and it is a fatal standing — to sever themselves from tho people of 
God, and betake themselves to that side that are persecutors, or otherwise 
corrupt. So Judas doth here : he stands among Gentiles and officers of the 
Pharisees and chief priests, an epitome of reprobates, and so he shall stand 
at the latter day. God will lead forth all men that do work iniquity with 
the workers of iniquity. To go on. 

Verse 6. ' As soon as he had said unto them, I am he, they u-ent baclcward, 
and fell to the groimd.' 

Here you see the confusion that did befall them, from the power of 
Christ, afore such time as they did lay hands upon him. It is prophesied 
by David in Ps. xxxv. 4, as a curse upon his enemies, and the Septua- 
gint there use the same word that is here : ' Let them,' saith he, ' be turned 
backward.' It is a phrase that noteth out confusion, and Christ fulfilleth 
it here upon these Jews in the very letter. ' They went backward, and fell 
to the gi'ound.' 

And he doth not simply say they fell backward, but it is evident he puts 
it upon the power of Christ, that did cavTse them to fall backward ; for it is 
said, ' As goon as he said, I am he,' (or, as others read it, ' He therefore 
said, I am he,') ' they fell backward.' 

My brethren, there was never such a thing done in the world. Tell me 
in any story that ever any king, Alexander the Great, or the greatest mon- 
arch that ever was in the world, with a word of his mouth, did, against men's 
wills, make them fall backward to the ground. Had they fallen forward, it 
might have been thought other force behind them had thrown them down ; 
or it might have been thought they had worshipped him in a counterfeit 
way, as afterward they did at his arraignment. But to fall backward at 
the speaking of a word ! In the word of this king, what power was there ! 
And therefore some of the ancient fathers that are interpreters, they say 
that of all the miracles that ever Christ did, this was one of the greatest. 
Some indeed have pitched upon that miracle of his when he whipped the 
buyers and sellers out of the temple, and said, ' You make my Father's 
house a den of thieves.' But assuredly this was a greater than that, for 
there Christ had some kind of weapon, here he had none. He was then, 
when he did that, surrounded with people that applauded him, for they 
had newly brought him into the city with triumph, the children crying 
Hosannah to him ; but here he had none to take his part when these bands 
came out against him, but eleven poor disciples. There he had to do but 
with poor men that sold turtles and doves, here with soldiers armed, that 
came, out on purpose to take him ; yet at one word he throws them down. 
He doth but say, ' I am the man,' wherein he offers himself to them, which 
makes the miracle the stranger, that that voice which did invite them to take 
him, that very voice should throw them backward to the ground. 


Now, the reasons why our Lord and Saviour Christ deals thus with them 
before he would be taken are these : 

First, Because he would shew them that he was God, gives them this 
sign of his divinity. And the truth is, if you observe it, he did all along 
in the course of his life, with his weakness, mingle some specimens of his 
power and Godhead. Thus when he was a child in the cradle, as an evi- 
dence of his Godhead, there came kings, three wise men out of the East, 
to worship him ; when he was tempted in the wUderness by Satan, he is 
succoured by angels ; and here, when he comes to be bound, and to be 
carried away to be crucified, he first strikes them that were to do it back- 
ward with a word of his mouth. It is made the property of God alone to 
consume men with his breath. Job iv. 9 and Dan. x. 17. Now, Christ shews 
himself to be God by this, he doth but say, ' I am he,' and they are confounded. 

Oh, my brethren, if there was this power in the words of Christ in an- 
swering but a question when he was in the form of a servant, what power 
will there be in his words when he shall come to judgment ! What power is 
there in that word by which the whole world is upheld, as the apostle saith, 
Heb. i. 2. 

He did do it, secondly, that they might have some space to repent, that 
they might have something to strike them, to occasion their repentance. 
.And you see no outward means, no, not miracles, will work upon the hearts 
of men, if God do not strike them with his Spii"it. And you see likewise 
that men, though their consciences strike them in the very act of sin, and 
strike them deeply (as this must needs do their consciences here, especially 
Judas his), yet they w'ill go on. As Balaam, he went on even against the 
hair as we say, and so did these. 

But the chief reason why Christ thus confounded them, and struck them 
backward first before he would be taken, is that which .Jphn (as I said afore) 
eminently and visibly holds forth, namely, to shew that he was wilhng to 
Bufler ; no man had power to take his life away, they had not power so 
much as to lay hands on him, they fall down first. All the world might 
think, and so might they think too, that if with his breath he thus stnick 
them to the ground, with the same breath he might have struck them into 
the ground, nay, struck them to hell, never have suffered them to rise 
more ; he needed never to have been taken by them. But when once he 
had shewed that it was in his power not to be taken, when he had struck 
their consciences, then he doth willingly give himself up iuto their hands ; 
but he would do this fii'st. 

And what words are they by which he doth confound them thus ? They 
were mild words ; no more than this, ' I am he.' Yea, you shall find else- 
where that by these veiy words he comforted his disciples at other times ; 
as when he walked upon the sea, ' Be not afi'aid,' saith he, ' it is I,' or ' I 
am he.' And after his resurrection, when he comes into the room where 
his disciples were, he saith, ' I am he ; ' and here now he useth the very 
same words to his enemies, to the gi'eatest ten-or in the world. The vei-y 
same words which Christ speaks, and which we his ministers speak, being 
his words, that are unto some a savour of life, they are unto others a savour 
of death. He strikes them dead here, as it were, with the very same words 
that he put life and comfort into his disciples by. At the latter day, when 
Christ shall appear, the very same look, the verj' same presence of his, that 
wiU be nothing but grace and sweetness to his childi'en, and fill all their 
hearts with joy, will be horror, and amazement, and confusion to his ene- 
mies, and fill aU their hearts with teiTor. 

Chap. VI.] of christ the mediator. 207 

And then another observation I may make from hence is this, that as in 
this apprehension of Christ, before they prevailed over him, he strikes them 
with terror, so wicked men do seldom meddle with the people of God, to 
persecute them, or apprehend them, to condemn them or the like, but 
Christ strikes terror in their consciences for so doing. As it is in Ps. 
xiv. 4, ' They eat up my people like bread ; ' they eat them up so heartily, 
and seem to be so greedy and so mightily hungry after their blood, and 
after their hurt, that one would think they have no knowledge : ' Have tho 
workers of iniquity no knowledge,' saith he, * that eat up my people as they 
eat bread ? ' that they fall so fast to them as they do ? But what saith 
the next verse ? ' Then were they in gi-eat fear, for God is in the genera- 
tion of the righteous.' And in Philip, i. 28 the apostle bids them, when 
they suffer, to carry it with a confidence, and to be nothing terrified by 
their adversaries ; which, saith he, ' is an evident token unto them of per- 
dition, but to you of salvation, and that of God.' His meaning is, that 
when men do cany things confidently, being in a right way, usually God's 
Spirit doth bless that confidence to a double end. First, He seals up sal- 
vation to them that sufi'er for him ; even while they suffer he breaks in 
upon their spirits, and fills their hearts with assurance. And, secondly, 
he breaks in also upon the hearts of the persecutors, and strikes them with 
terror. ' It is a sign,' saith he, that is, a present sign, there is from God, 
as to you that suffer, inward joy and comfort ; so there is oftentimes terror 
in the hearts of wicked men that persecute you, which is as it were the 
first-fruits of hell and of perdition. And so here Christ, to shew that he 
will one day throw them to hell, he flings them to the ground now. Eccle- 
siastical stories tell us that the very heathens themselves, though they knew 
not what they did when they persecuted the Christians, they had oftentimes 
terrors in themselves while they were executing their cruelty upon the people 
of God. 

And then again, out of this verse, observe this, that the church may pre- 
vail against the enemies thereof, and make them fall, and yet those enemies 
may recover and fall upon the church again. Men that shall fall upon the 
church, and prevail against it, they may for a time fall before it. These 
very men that God had designed to take Christ, they fall backward first, 
and they fall backward terrified and amazed ; yet they rise up again, and 
take him. So is it oftentimes with the body of Christ here on earth, the 
enemies sometimes are greatly prevailed against, confounded, that one 
M'Ould think they should never rise more ; yet, as Jeremiah saith, ' These 
wounded men shall rise up every man in his tent, and take the city.' 
These men, you see, that thus fell backward and were confounded, they 
were the men that took Christ ; for when Christ had done, and shewed 
them that he was the Messiah, he gave himself up to them. So it is, and 
will be, to the end of the world. 

Yet you may take it as a certain sign that they shall fall one day ; as this 
was here, it was a sign that they should fall into ruin and destruction, but 
they must do their work first. If God come down and help his church, and 
appear in his power, as here Christ doth, I am sure his enemies will foil 
backward ; though his enemies, I say. may rise again and take the city. 
Yet it is a help to our faith that that God that came down as a lion thus, 
and they were scattered, shall ruin them in the end, that is certain. It 
is the prophet's expression, when they are all preying like a company of 
wolves upon the sheep, 'He shall come down like a lion,' and they will 
all run away presently. Thus, you see, at this day Christ came but down 


amongst them, and said, ' I am he,' and you know how they all crouched 

We see likewise the way that Jesus Christ useth to confound his enemies ; 
it is with his breath, it is with his word. As soon as he had said, ' I am 
he,' or therefore when he had said, ' I am he,' they fell backward. Still 
Christ is said to do all his great businesses with a word of his mouth. 
There is a sword in his mouth that kills them. And in Isa. xi. 4, he 
strikes them with the rod of his mouth ; and antichrist is to be destroyed 
with the spirit of his mouth, and the brightness of his coming. As it was 
the word of Christ that confounded his enemies here, so it is that word 
shall confound them to the end of the world. And if they have any other 
enemies about their ears besides the word, it is because the word stirs them 
up. It is the word that works in the hearts of men, and makes them 
enemies to the enemies of God, and brings them upon them. It is the 
vengeance of the word which the people of God execute upon wicked men. 

You see likewise, when Christ will appear, what a little thing daunts his 
enemies. It is but a mere word, * I am he,' and they fall backward to the 
ground. But to go on. 

Verse 7. 'Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And theij said, 
Jesus of Nazareth.' 

When they were thus fallen down and risen again, perhaps they went up 
and down like amazed and confounded men to seek him ; therefore he comes 
to them, and asketh them, ' Whom seek ye ?' 

This second question carries a mighty conviction, a mighty triumph with 
it over their consciences ; as if he had said, I have told you who I am ; and 
I have told it you to purpose, have I not ? Have you not learned by this 
time who I am, when your hearts are so terrified, that j^ou all fell do^vn 
before me, a poor man ? They had been taught by wofol experience who 
he was, when he blew them over, flung them down with his breath ; and it 
might have turned to a blessed experience had God struck their hearts, as 
he did their outward man. But still they will not call him * Christ' for all 
this, they call him but ' Jesus of Nazareth.' 

You see the desperate hardness of the hearts of wicked men, and it is in 
experience true, no means, no convictions, no miracles, will work upon them. 
One would have thought that this should have struck the spirits of any 
men in the world, that a poor man with his breath should cause them to 
fall down backward, they should be afraid, and not have dared to have laid 
hold on him. They were afraid indeed afore, that's the truth on't, they 
had a suspicion that there was more than a man in him ; why else had 
they the Roman soldiers and all their officers armed with weapons ? And 
you see how he falls upon them but with his word, yet still they are 
hardened. A man would wonder, when there are such evidences of God's 
taking part with his truth, such providences of God, punishing those that 
go against his people, yet that men should go on still. Nothing will soften 
the hearts of those that are resolved in wickedness. There is one instance, 
and it is to me a mighty one, of the desperate hardness of men's hearts, 
and that is, of the men that did watch at the grave of Christ. Chiist had 
foretold that he would rise again the third day, and the Pharisees, after he 
was buried, they come to Pilate, the governor, and say they, This impostor 
said he would rise again the third day, therefore let us make sure work 
with him, and let us have a stone rolled upon his grave, and set men to 
guard it ; and so a watch was set. Now while they were sitting to watch 

Chap. VI. j op ohrist the mediator. 209 

him, there comes a great earthquake, and an angel descends from heaven 
and rolls away the grave-stone, and was so droacllul to these keepers that 
they fell down, and became as dead men, whereby it is evident that from 
heaven there was a testimony of his resurrection. They go and tell their 
masters, the chief priests, all these things that were done ; they bid them 
hold their tongues. ' Say you ' (say they to them) ' that his disciples came 
by night, and stole him away while wo slept,' and we will satisfy the 
governor, and secure you. Though Christ, even by the testimony of their 
own men, had fulfilled what he himself prophesied, and it was plainly 
evident to them, yet they hired the soldiers to tell this lie, though the lie 
contradicted itself (as some have observed) ; for how could they tell his 
disciples had stolen him away, when they were asleep ? To this desperate 
hardness do the hearts of men come ; therefore never think that tmth, or 
reason, or anything, will prevail upon wicked men ; all the means and 
miracles in the world will not do it, unless God persuade Japhet to dwell 
in the tents of Shem. In Kev. xvi., when the fourth vial was poured out 
upon the sun (which is thought to be that execution that is now in the 
world upon the house of Austria, or whatever it is), it is said, that * though 
men were scorched with great heat, yet they blasphemed the name of God, 
and repented not to give him glory.' And when the fifth vial comes to be 
poured out (which is the vial upon the city of Rome, the seat of the beast, 
and it may be some of it is begun to be fulfilled, the httle seats of the beast 
are begun to be removed), it is said, ' The kingdom was full of darkness, 
yet they gnawed their tongues for pain, and blasphemed God, and repented 
not of their deeds.' Men that are resolved in their wickedness come to 
such desperate hardness, that they never repent, let what will fall out. 
Those that harden themselves against Christ shall be hardened. So much 
for the seventh verse. 

Verse 8. * Jesiis ansivered, I have told you that I am he ; if therefore ye seek 
me, let these go their imy.' 

Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he. There is a great deal of 
majesty in this speech, a great deal of exprobration ; ' I have told you,' 
saith he, and I think that I have told you with a witness, ' that I am he.' 
As was said of the river Jordan, * What ailest thou that thou fleddest back ? ' 
So it might be said of these men, What do you ail that you fall backward 
at a mean man's only saying, ' I am he ' ? a mean man in appearance. 
It is as if Christ had said, you say you seek for Jesus of Nazareth ; I have 
told you that I am he ; why did you not then lay hold upon me ? Was it 
a divine power that struck you dead first ? Then be warned by it ; I am 
the same man ; upon your peril be it if you lay hold upon me. Yea, Christ 
did intimate thereby that they could not know him, unless he himself had 
helped them to himself. He said again, ' I am he ;' they knew not who 
was he. 

Which still also argues his willingness to sufier, that he should twice put 
himself upon them, twice say that he was the man. They being as blinded 
men (for so indeed they were), he might have escaped if he would ; but he 
is so far from that, that he provokes them by a double question to know 
him. He would not be taken by Judas his sign at first, but by his own 
voluntary resigning of himself up, for that is the thing (Christ's willingness 
to sufier) which John doth eminently endeavour to hold forth in this story. 

My brethren, these men took pains to seek Jesus Christ to damn them- 
selves ; had they bestowed the same diligence to seek him as a saviour, 

VOL. V. 


tbey micflit have been saved ; had they took the same pains to seek hia 
favour that here they took to seek him to crucify him, he would have mani- 
fested himself unto them. There is no man that seeks Christ, but in the 
end he saith unto him, ' I am he.' And if they have lost their knowledge 
of him (as many oftentimes do), he saith it the second time, ' I am he,' and 
provokes their hearts to know him. To all seekers of him he doth so, 
whether they be those of the left hand, such as these that sought him 
to crucify him, or those of the right hand, that seek him to be saved by 

There is one general observation that I shall give you here, upon the 
occasion both of this miracle and that of healing Malchus his ear ; for he 
did both these miracles afore they apprehended him, as the context evi- 
dently argues ; and although Matthew and Mark relate the stoiy of Peter's 
cutting off Malchus his ear after his being apprehended, which indeed they 
do by way of narration, yet it is clear by Luke and John that it was before ; 
for when his hands were bound it was not a time for him to put forth his 
hand to heal him. Our Saviour Christ did not put forth any more miracles, 
or gave any more signs of his divinity now ; but after they had taken him, 
he is as calm as a lamb. Before, indeed, he doth two things : he terrifies 
their consciences by casting them backward ; and he healeth him who, like 
an enemy and a wretch, came to attach him, and it seems was the first that 
laid hands on him. 

Ohs. The observation I make from hence is this : You shall find this to 
be true in experience, that when you are entering into a sin, then will God 
use that means that he meaneth to apply to keep you from it ; he doth 
usually do it then ; but after you are entered into it, then your hearts are 
let go on. So indeed it was here with these men ; Christ useth two means, 
and notable ones too, two gi-eat miracles, before they took him, to strike 
their consciences, in a way of judgment the one, in a way of mercy the 
other. But when once they had laid hold of him and got their prey, he 
leaves them to their- own hearts' lusts. So he deals with wicked men, and 
in experience you will find it true. Therefore, let this be the use of it : 
observe what God saith to your hearts, what means he useth to your spirits, 
when you are entering into any great sin. If you neglect cleaving to God 
then, and making use of those means, you are in danger never to be re- 
covered, but to be left to that sin. And so much for that general observa- 
tion upon these miracles of Christ. 

//" tlierefore ye seek me, Jet these (fo their way. Whilst Jesus Christ was 
ready to be taken, he takes upon him hke a king. If you will have me, 
saith he, here I am ; but I charge you do not meddle with one of these, 
touch not mine anointed, let them go. 

The words are to be considered, first, as they are a command from 
Christ ; they are not a matter of compact or agreement only with them, or 
of humble suit, ' Let these go their way ; ' but he speaks as a king, as one 
that had conquered them before ; he had thrown them backward before, 
they had felt of his power, 'Let these go their way,' saith he. And that 
it was a command doth seem to be manifest by this, by the words that fol- 
low, 'That the sayiug might be fulfilled which he spake' (in his praj'er), 'Of 
them that thou hast given me I have lost none.' As he bad prayed and 
had assurance from God of it, so now he gives forth a command about it. 
For assuredlj', otherwise, those which did command those officers to take 
Christ, did command them to take his disciples also; their hatred was 
extreme gi-eat against the disciples as well as against the master. And 

Chap. VI.J of ohrist the mediator. 21 1 

therefore, when all the disciplos forsook him and fled, although there was 
time enough, to show that Christ's power kept tlicm from taking them, yet 
when there was a certain young man that i-ose up, and came out in his 
Bhirt in the night, and did but follow him when he was taken and led away, 
they laid hold upon him, thinking him to bo a disciple; and he was fain to 
leave his linen cloth that was about him, and to ily from them naked. 
Therefore certainly they had as full a purpose to have taken any that 
countenanced him, any disciple, as Christ himself, but only here he speaks 
to them as you see, * Let these go their way.' 

And by virtue of this command it was, that though Peter did provoke 
them after these words the most that could be, by drawing his sword, and 
falling upon a servant of the high priest's, and strikes off his ear, which 
could not but mightil}' enrage them, yet the command of Christ must stand ; 
he had hold of their hearts, he charged them that they should not meddle 
with them, and they durst not lay hands on them. Peter endangered him- 
self and all his brethren, that after Christ had said this, he should fall 
upon them, and strike them with his sword; so that though they had no 
malice against the disciples before, yet this drawing of swords and striking 
off an ear, could not but extremely provoke them ; 3'et, I say, Christ's com- 
mand must stand. And Peter, after this, he comes into the high priest's 
hall, and there was challenged again and again, yet this word of Christ, 
' Let these go,' stood. And John afterward, he comes and stands about 
the cross, sees him crucified ; they had no power to meddle with him, 
Christ's word stood still, 'Let these go.' It is as if Christ should have 
said. Well, I will suffer you to take me ; but as I have shewn you, by 
throwing you to the ground, that you cannot take me unless I please, so 
still, here I am, ' if j'ou seek me, let these go.' 

Ohs. 1. Observe from hence first, it is a command from heaven, from 
Christ, that doth deliver his people in all dangers whatsoever. Men could 
not be in a greater danger than these disciples were in, nor were there ever 
any men more malicious than these were, yet we see they are preserved hy 
virtue of this word of Christ's, ' Let these go.' In Ps. cv. 14, 15. Though 
they were strangers, saith he, and though the other were kings, and had 
power enough to hurt them, yet he suffered no man to do them wrong. 
God from heaven spake to their hearts, ' Touch not mine anointed, do my 
prophets no harm ; ' so doth Christ here speak with the same authority, 
* Let these go.' 

Ohs. 2. Observe from hence, as the power of Christ to deliver us in all 
dangers, so his willingness to preserve us. He voluntarily resigns himself 
up to be taken ; but as for his disciples, ' Let these go,' saith he. Was he 
thus willing to put himself in our stead, when he was here on earth ? Do 
you think that now he hath suffered and is gone to heaven, where he is to 
intercede, to reap the fruit of his sufferings, that he doth not say to his 
Father upon all occasions, ' Let these poor souls go, I have suffered for 
them' ? If, when he was crucified in weakness, he put forth such a power 
to deliver his people in so great a danger as these were in, certainly you 
may trust him upon all occasions to deliver you, now he is glorified much 
more; unless there be some peculiar reason, some peculiar decree of God's 
(as there was for Christ himself), that the Father hath appointed us a cup 
for to drink, and that neither shall not be till the time come. These 
apostles they w^ere afterwards to suffer ; yet Christ, because their time was 
not yet come, gives this charge to those that took him, ' Let these go.' 

This being said concerning the command itself, we will consider the rea- 


sons why Christ did preserve his disciples at this time. The reasons are 
clearly these. 

1. To shew that he could have saved himself if he pleased : for he that 
saved others could have saved himself; he that so with authority did command 
them to let these go, could have commanded them to have let himself go. 

2. He would shew that he alone was to suffer. In this work (saith he) 
I will have none to be my companions. I stand now in their stead, and 
their sins are laid upon me, therefore meddle not with these, ' Let these 
go.' As David said, 'Let thy hand be upon me and my father's house,' so 
doth Christ say, Let your hands be upon me, let the sword of God awake 
against the shepherd, but not against the sheep. You know it was the 
prophecy of Caiaphas, * It is meet that one man should die for the people ; ' 
therefore, if you seek me, saith Christ, I am that one man, let these go. 

3. Christ meant to employ them in other services : they were to preach 
the gospel to all the world, and when they had done they were to suffer. 
He had other work for them to do, and until that were done, 'Let these go.' 

4. They were not yet fit to suffer. Christ he knew the weakness of their 
spirits ; it is true he could have given them power, but according to an 
ordinary course, had they been called to suffer now, in that state they were 
in, tliey would have all done as Peter did, denied him ; for you see they all 
fled away from him presently, as soon as he was taken, they would never 
have held out, the business was too strong for them to undergo at the pre- 
sent. And that this is the reason is clear by the next words, ' That the 
saying might be fulfilled which he spake. Of them which thou hast given 
me I have lost none,' implying that if they had been put upon suffering 
now, they had been lost, their souls would have been undone, they would 
have denied him. This Christ foresaw, and therefore prevents then- suffer- 
ings, and so the occasion of their falling so grossly. Therefore, to preserve 
them every way, both their bodies and their souls, saith he, ' Let these go.' 

The observations from hence are these : 

Obs. 1. You may see the great care of Christ; when he was .to suffer, 
one would think his thoughts should have been wholly taken up about him- 
self. No ; you see he doth not mind himself, his care was to preserve his 
disciples : ' Here am I,' saith he, ' let these go.' Was Christ so careful of 
his disciples when he was to undergo so great an encounter ? How much 
more doth he take care of his saints now he is in heaven. 

Obs. 2. Christ is careful to bring us but then to suffer, when he means to 
fit us for suffering, and when we shall be able to suffer, and if need be, and 
so much only as shall need be. That place in 1 Pet. i. 6 contains a pro- 
mise in it, speaking of sufferings : ' Wherein,' saith he, ' you greatly rejoice, 
though now for a season, if need he, you are in heaviness,' &c. He will 
not, unless there be need, bring temptations upon you. If Christ had laid 
sufferings upon them now, they had not been able to have suffered : you 
see Peter foreswore him upon the assault of a maid, how much more would 
he have done so, if attached and brought before the high priest. It is 
Christ's manner not to call us to suffering till we can suffer, nor to 
lay more upon us than we are able to bear. You know the promise in 
1 Cor. X. 13. 

Obs. 3. They that are of public use, for whom God hath work to do, till 

the time appointed in which God will have them suffer, they shall escape 

abundance of dangers of sufferings. The truth is, had these Jews seized 

upon Christ and all his disciples at once, they had made sure for* the gospel 

* That is, ' they would have prevented.' — Ed. 

Chap. VI.J of cdrist the mediator. 213 

ever to havo been propagated, according to what God had appointed, for 
he had chosen these men to be witnesses and preachers of it, there had 
been none left but Paul to preach. They might have crushed the gospel in 
the very shell, had they taken Christ and all the apostles at once. No ; 
saith he, ' Let these go.' So long as God hath work for men to do, he will 
preserve them from being taken and seized upon, and ruined by their ene- 
mies. Let no man, therefore, that is in any work and service for God, 
fear; he shall never be cut off till such time as his work be done, and then 
to be cut off" it is no matter ; he shall not be sent for out of the harvest till 
he hath reaped that God hath appointed to reap by him. ' Go tell that 
fox, Herod' (saith Christ, Luke xiii. 31), ' Behold, I cast out devils, and I 
do cm-es to-day and to-morrow ;' and I will do it in spite of him ; he shall 
not be able, for all he is a crafty, wily fox, with all his cunning, to take me. 
* I will work to-day and to-morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.' 
Till I have accomplished all my work, till the time come that my Father 
hath appointed me to suffer in, I will go up and down freely, let him do 
his worst ; and when I have done I will suffer, for I have vowed to do 
it. So here, * Let these go,' saith he, I have work for them to do, I must 
send them abroad into all the world, do not touch a hair of them ; no more 
they did. So much for the 8th verse. The reason of this is given in the 
next words. 

Verse 9. * That the saying might be fulfilled ivhich he spake ^ Of them which 
thou gavest me have I lost none.^ 

You must not take these words as spoken by Christ, but it is the com- 
ment that John, who wrote this gospel, putteth upon Christ's speech imme- 
diately foregoing ; and he openeth, through the revelation of the Spirit of 
God, the true reason why that command of Christ did take place, that 
the disciples were let go, because, saith he, that Christ had prayed even 
just befoi-e, in the 17th chapter ; for, if you read that chapter, you shall 
find that Christ, in that solemn prayer which he puts up to his Father, 
saith, ' Those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, 
but the son of perdition.' This prayer he had put up just afore, and you 
see what present need there was of having it answered. 

I ahall give you two general observations from this. 

Ohs. 1. We had need to lay up prayers every day before we go abroad 
and do our business ; for indeed we do not know what dangers may befall 
us afore we come in again. Christ here, if he had not prayed just afore 
that all his apostles might be kept, they might have been in danger ; for a 
great danger they came into, but the efficacy of that prayer kept them. 

Ohs. 2. How soon are prayers answered ! Christ had put up this 
prayer but even just before ; and as some think, he did pray as he came 
along out of the chamber where they did eat the passover, and that he 
uttered this prayer to his Father walking from thence. For in the last 
verse of the 14th chapter, saith he, ' Arise, let us go hence ;' therefore 
they conceive that his sermon mentioned in the 15th and 16th chapters, 
and his prayer mentioned in the 17th, were all uttered as he went along 
from the chamber to the brook Cedron. However, certainly it was not long 
before, perhaps not above half an hour ; and here you see it answered, the 
thing he prayed for is fulfilled ; ' Let these go,' saith he, and it was done 
accordingl}", they did not touch one of them, ' That the saying might be 
fulfilled which he spake. Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none. ' 
In Dan. ix, 3, 21, you shall find that Daniel set himself to pray whenas 


the evening sacrifice began, and there was a commission presently given td 
the angel to come and give him an answer. Prayers, my brethren, are 
presently heard ; so was Christ's here, he had an answer presently. So 
much for the general observations out of these words. 

Now the only question for the opening the words lies in this. Those 
words of Christ's in the 17th chapter — ' Those that thou gavest me I 
have kept, and none of them is lost' — seem to have been put up for the 
keeping them, in respect of the salvation of their souls, whereas this here 
(which it is applied unto) is spoken only in respect of the preservation of 
their bodies, in appearance ; ' Let these go,' saith he, let them escape for 
this time. It is most certain that what our Saviour Christ spake in that 
place, referi-eth principally to the salvation of their souls ; what is the rea- 
son, then, that here it should be applied to this dehverance of their bodies, 
to a temporal deliverance ? 

My brethren, all the promises in the Scripture are to be taken in the 
largest sense that may be. As we say of privileges and favoui's, they are 
to be intei-pvcted in the largest sense, so are all the promises. That pro- 
mise made to Joshua, ' I will not leave thee, nor forsake thee,' is referred 
only to the carrying of him on in that war ; yet all the elect may apply it 
to all sorts of distresses, not only that God will never leave them nor for- 
sake them, in respect of bodily deliverances, but in respect of their souls 
also. So here, on the other side, that which Christ speaks of their souls 
is extended to their bodies too, and they reap the fruit of it in that respect. 

And it argues this too, that that God that saves thy soul, out of the 
same love saves thy body too ; therefore interpret it so, for so John doth 
here ; what was spoken in the 17th chapter of their souls, he applies it 
here to their bodies. Will God save thy soul ? Certainly he will deliver 
thy body. When we seek spiritual things much, in the height of our 
spirits, then doth God answer us also in temporal things. And as by the 
virtue of Christ's resm-rection we shall be raised up at the latter day and 
saved, so by virtue of the same resurrection we shall be preserved here in 
the world ; the same power that shall raise us up then, works for us lesser 
dehverances now. Paul, in 2 Cor, iv. 10, speaking of the many dehver- 
ances he had from temporal dangers, he attributes it all to the resurrection 
of Christ : ' We are' (saith he) ' troubled on every side, yet not distressed ; 
cast down, but not destroyed, &c., that the life of Jesus might be made 
manifest in our body.' So here, though Christ did not in his prayer intend 
so much the preservation of their bodies as their eternal salvation, yet their 
deliverance from this so great a danger was a fruit of that prayer. The 
same prayer that saved their souls saved their bodies too ; and it was a 
pawn and pledge to them that their souls should be saved, because the vir- 
tue of that prayer wrought a deliverance for their bodies out of so eminent 
a danger ; for who would not have thought but that they should all 
have been taken, seeing they laid about them so as they did ? And it 
was in answer to Christ's prayer; one would have thought it had been but 
an ordinary providence, that they were so greedy of Christ that they let 
the disciples slip away. No ; it was an answer to prayer made but a while 

Obs. 1. ObseiTe from hence, that of all things else in the world, the 
greatest care that Jesus Christ hath, it is to preserve all his saints, not to 
lose one. For he comforts himself in the seventeenth chapter, that of those 
God had given him, he had lost none, but he that was designed to perdi- 
tion by God himself; and here it is repeated again, and you see what care 

Chap. VII.] of chkist the mediator. 215 

he takes for tlieir preservation. My brethren, it would trouble Jesus Christ 
to eternity (I may say it with boldness) if he should lose one soul that he 
died for. Are the hairs of your head numbered ? Certainly your persons 
are numbered, and Christ will not lose one of his tale, nor a finger of his 
body ; nay, though thou beest but as a little tip of his finger, or as his little 
toe, he will have a care to save thee. When he makes up his jewels, he will 
not lose any, not the least of them. ' Lo, here am I,' saith he, ' and the 
children thou hast given me,' Heb. ii. 13. ' And this is my Father's will, 
that of all those he hath given me I should lose none, but raise them up at 
the latter day,' John vi. 89. 

Obs. 2. And observe this too from hence, that Jesus Christ he can keep 
us in the very midst of his enemies. He gives his disciples here a pass 
(as I may call it) ; when there was a band of Roman soldiers, divers of the 
chief priests, and elders, and officers from them, all about him and his dis- 
ciples, ' Let these go,' saith he. And all to fulfil this, ' Of those thou hast 
given me have I lost none.' It is because he rules in the midst of his 
enemies. Jesus Christ shewed his power before, in confounding these 
Jews and the rest, by throwing them backward ; and now he shews his 
power as much in preserving his disciples in the midst of them, and so he 
will do to the end of the world. ' He knoweth how to deliver the godly 
out of temptation,' 2 Peter ii. 9. He hath the art and skill of it, and the 
power of it too, for he awed their hearts here when he said, ' Let these go.' 

Obs. 3. Lastly, ministers likewise should have the like care, that none of 
those that are committed to them perish, for so Christ as a good shepherd 
had. And so much for the ninth verse. 


The tenth and eleventh verses explained, ivith suitable observations raised from 
them. — The iviUingness ivhich Christ expressed to come to die, and he made 
a sacrifice, and would have nothing to hinder it. 

You shall find this (that I may give you a general preface to the opening 
of the words of this tenth verse, and those that follow) that the evangelists 
in setting down the story of Christ's sufferings, they do diligently insert the 
behaviour of his apostles, how they carried themselves. It was an ill time, 
brethren, for disciples to sin, wdien their master was to be taken ; and yet 
I know not how many sins of theirs are mentioned. They were fast asleep 
at that time when he was in his greatest agony. One would think that at 
that time above all other they should have watched with him, when he was 
entering into his sufi'erings for their sins. And now when he was to be 
taken, you see into what a miscarriage Peter runneth, what a furious rash 
act he performs. If Christ had pleased, he might have kept them from all 
these sins, he had power enough to have done it, but he would not. What 
is the observation from hence ? 

Obs. 1. That Jesus Christ may be present with a man's spirit, and pray 
for him too (for he had prayed for these that they should be kept from the 
evil of the world), and yet that man run into sin. If Christ, when he was 
here upon earth, did not keep his people from falling into manifold sins and 
eiTors, do not think much if sometimes thou art left to sin against him- 
He made good use of it, he did bring glory out of it ; this same rash act of 
Peter's here, it was an occasion of two things : first, of illustrating the power 


of Christ the more in keeping of them, according to the command he gave, 
' Let these go ; ' for who would not have thought but that they should all 
have fallen upon Peter and the rest, and have killed them presently, a com- 
pany of rude soldiers and officers armed ? Yet they meddled not with 
them. And it was an occasion of Chinst's shewing his goodness in healing 
the man's ear, and of shewing a miracle. And this be assured of, that Christ 
will work good out of all thy sins, as he did here glory to himself out of this 
sin of Peter's. 

Ohs. 2. That God may leave his people to sinning even at that time when 
he is doing the greatest things for them. But I shall pass that now, because 
we shall have occasion to speak of it in the following discourse. To speak 
therefore a little more particularly of this act of Peter's. 

Verse 10. ' Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it, and smote the high 
priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name teas Malchiis.^ 

You read in Mark xiv. 31, that the disciples, they did all vow that they 
would live and die •s^'ith him, as we say ; they all promise him that if he 
were taken that night, they would lose their lives in his defence, that they 
would ; and Peter above the rest he was the forwardest, Whoever leaves thee, 
saith he, I will not leave thee. Now these disciples, having thus engaged 
themselves, when they saw that their master would be taken, they asked 
him, ' Lord, shall we smite with the sword ?' So Luke tells us, chapter 
xxiii. 39. And yet, poor men, they had but two swords amongst them all. 
And Simon Peter, as he had been the forwardest man in promising to assist 
Chiist, so he is the forwardest in striking, for before Christ gave them an 
answer whether they should smite or no, he out with his sword and strikes. 

Peter, having a sword. There were two swords in the company, as Luke 
hath it. Chi'ist indeed had said a few hours before, ' He that hath a sword, 
let him take it ; ' but he intended it in another sense, and therefore they 
mistook him. However probable it is that the}^ knowing Christ was to be 
betrayed that night, they carried out their swords to fight, having promised 
to do so before ; which may be one occasion of Peter's having a sword ; but 
Josephus and others say (and it is as likely too), that those that came up 
to the feast (as these did), they travelled through woods and wildernesses, 
and so were in danger of wild beasts, or thieves, or the like, and therefore 
they earned swords with them ; and besides, it was the manner and custom 
of the Galileans especially to wear swords, as hath been observed by some. 
Some intei-preters hence observe that it is lawful to wear defensive weapons, 
which the anabaptists of Germany did use to deny. There is the clearest 
evidence for it here, for they did not only wear swords, but Christ bids them, 
if they had no swords, to sell their garments and buy swords ; so says Luke 
chap. xxii. 36. And when Peter had done this mischievous act, in di'awing 
his sword and striking the high priest's servant, Christ did not bid him fling 
it away, but only to put it up again into his place. 

In this action of Peter's there was something good and something bad. 

Something good. It is evident first that there was a great deal of zeal 
and love to his master. He was encouraged to it likewise, because he had 
seen his master to throw them all upon the gi'ound afore him ; thought he, 
though we be but eleven, and have but two swords, we may venture, for 
GUI' master will assist us. There was a confidence, a faith, in the power of 
Christ. And it would seem also that what he did was upon warrant, as he 
thought ; for at the passover Christ had said, ' If any man have a sword let 
him take it.' He spake it indeed to another purpose (as I said even now), 

Chap. VII.J of christ the mediator. 217 

but Peter might take his ground from thence, misunderstanding his master's 

There was something bad and sinful likewise in this action, viz., 

1. That Peter did rashly fall upon this act; for the disciples having asked 
Christ whether they should draw, before ever Christ answered, ho out with 
his sword and falls upon the man. Peter had a bold and a rash and sudden 
spii'it, as appeared, as by a world of carriages of his toward Christ, so by 
this, which was as rash an act as could be ; and it was a folly for him to 
do it ; for what was he and ten more, that had but two swords amongst 
them, to encounter with all that band of men that came with weapons to 
take Christ ? 

2. That he went about to hinder our Saviour Christ from dying. That 
is clear to be a sin by Christ's reproof of him ; for saith he, ' Shall I not 
drink of the cup that my Father hath commanded me to drink of?' Wilt 
thou hinder me ? Wilt thou go contrary to God's will ? Thou didst tempt 
me once before, ' Master, spare thyself ; ' and now thou wouldst keep me 
from dying for thee and all thy brethren. 

3. That whereas a lawful power had seized upon Christ (a lawful power, 
I say, though they did it not lawfully), he would lift up his sword against 
the magistrate, who had sent these men to take him. 

4. That he did endanger all the rest of the disciples to have been pre- 
sently hewn a-pieces, but that the force of those words, ' Let these go,' 
hindered it. 

5. The truth is, there was an injustice in it, Christ having as it were 
made a bargain with them : ' Here am I,' says he, ' let these go ; ' it was 
injustice in Peter to fall upon them. 

Ohs. 1. Comfort to those that have bold, and rash, and sudden spirits. 
Hast thou a rash, a sudden, spirit ? That rashness is sinful, for Christ re- 
proves it in Peter; yet comfort thyself: Peter, that great apostle, was a man 
subject to the same infirmity. Yet take heed of walking rashly : Lev. 
xxvi. 40, ' If you walk contrary to me ; ' so we translate it ; but I remem- 
ber Junius translated it, ' If you walk rashly with me, I will walk rashly 
with you.' If we walk rashly with God, though he love us and will pardon 
us, yet he may walk rashly with us again, give us a blow afore we are 
aware, come with some casual kind of cross or other upon us. God is 
pleased to spare Peter, for he doth not animadvert for every fault ; yet 
in that place of Leviticus, he expresseth what be will do upon men's rash 

Obs. 2, See here the spirit of Peter, how valiant and bold he is, runs 
into the midst of a band of men, and strikes amongst them ; but, alas ! he 
did it out of a human courage and valour, because he had said he would die 
with Christ. This poor man afterwards denies Christ upon the charge of a 
damsel ; he was afraid of a maid, and yet here he encounters a company of 
armed men ; he shewed his courage with his sword, when he would not do 
it with his tongue, as Calvin saith. Let us have never so much greatness 
of spirit natm-ally, if we come to any spiritual sufiering, and have not grace 
to assist us, our natural spirit will not help us in it. Certainly this act 
of Peter's proceeded from his natural spirit and human valour that he 
had, but when he comes to be put to it to suffer in a spiritual way, Peter 
shrinks back. 

Obs. 3. Good men may carry on a good cause extreme indiscreetly. In 
appearance this was as good cause to ventui'e one's life in as possibly could 
be, yet how indiscreetly doth Peter manage it ! He managed it worse than 


they did that came- to take Christ, for you see they did not fall upon the 
disciples at all, which a thousand to one but they had ; whereas Peter, con- 
trary to Christ's agreement with them, falls upon them. As Abimelech 
said unto Abraham, ' I am more righteous than thou,' in that act : so the 
truth is, these men were in this respect more righteous than Peter. In 
managing a good cause, godly people commit such errors as this was, and 
then all the world takes notice of it. They might have blamed Christ and 
his disciples, and said, they were a company of rebellious, froward fellows, 
and the rest of them are like these. This might have been laid to Christ's 
charge, through Peter's indiscretion. 

Obs. 4. Our Saviour Christ would not have Peter venture his life this 
way. He knew he was better at preaching than at fighting, therefore he 
would have him reserve himself for that, and therefore he bids him put up 
his sword. It had been well for this kingdom if some had ventured them- 
selves in a way of counsel rather than fighting. Christ, I say, had other 
work for Peter. It is good for a man to lay out his life in that which he is 
best in. Peter, who was designed for an apostle, that had so many precious 
notions committed to him, for him to venture his life in such a rude manner, 
it was a great fault. 

Obs. 5. Although Christ was an eminent person, the Saviour of the 
world, yet Christ would not have Peter fight for him against the magistrate, 
as in this Peter did, because it was against the authority of the magistrate. 
The sword is committed peculiarly to the magistrate : as Piom. xiii., ' He 
bears not the sword in vain ; ' he bears the sword, not thee;-'- thou mayest 
defend thyself in a private quarrel if set upon, but here came out the 
authority of the magistrate to attach Chi'ist ; and in such a case thou 
art not to hft up thy sword. ' Put up thy sword again into his place,' saith 

And yet it was the best cause, one would think, that ever was to fight in. 
If a man might fight merely for religion, I say merely for religion, here 
had been the greatest colour for it in the world. ^Tiy ? It was to save 
the life of Christ, the Lord of the world ; and to fight for the hfe of Christ 
is more than to fight for the truth of Christ ; yet no, saith Christ, • Put up 
thy sword again,' trust me to manage my own cause. Religion may bo- 
fought for as it is become a civil right and liberty of a state, for so it be- 
cometh when it is enacted by the power of that state ; but merely and simply 
to fight for religion, there is no warrant in the word of God for it. To 
fight for Christ's life was not warrantable for Peter. 

Christ tells him withal (as in other evangelists), ' He that kills with the 
sword shall be killed with the sword ;' he that will fight in a quarrel that is 
not warrantable, he himself shall be found out one day. But I rather think 
the meaning is, thou needest not trouble thyself to avenge my quarrel upon 
these men, for the sword shall find out this nation for putting me to death ; 
for so you know it did, the Romans came and took away their city and 

Obs. 6. Lastly, When God hath made a promise, and given forth his 
word, though tlijre may many things fah out to overturn it, yet it shall 
stand. Christ hath said, ' Let these go.' Peter, you see, had like to have 
spoiled all ; he goes and runs into a riot which might have endangered them, 
yet notwithstanding the word of Christ doth stand. When God hath made 
a promise of deliverance, there shall those things fall out that one wotild 
think would hazard the performance, and that through men's own default, 
* That is, ' not thou.' — Ed. 


yet God will bring about the deliverance. So much in the general for this 
act of Peter's. 

And he smote the hirjh priest's servant, and cut off his rirfht ear; the 
servant's vaiue tvas ]\lalchm. This servant of the high priest's, it seems, 
V\as the first man that stepped forth to lay hold upon Christ, and therefore 
Peter encounters him first, for as yet they had not taken Christ ; for the 
text saith afterwards, ' Then the captains and the band took Jesus.' It 
seems, therefore, I say, that this man was the forwavdest of the company, 
■which he did either to please his master, or perhaps he was the officer to 
serve the arrest upon him in a formal way, as we do. Peter now falls 
upon him first, and cuts ofi' his ear. Some think it was but the tip of 
his ear, for so the word signifies sometimes, but there is no ground for that, 
for Luke he calls it the whole ear. 

He saith the servant's name was Malchus, which some fetch from the 
Hebrew root, which signifies one bought. Because as he was a servant, so 
perhaps his master had bought him with his money, or otherwise obtained 
him to be his servant. And as Cuiaphas, his master, was (as appears by all 
the story) the gi-eatest enemy of Christ, so this Malchus was the forwardest 
of all the rest to attach Christ. The obedience of the servant to the master 
in Scripture, is expressed b}^ lending the ear, and by boring the ear ; and 
therefore for his doing this out of obedience and zeal to his master, this 
punishment befalls him. But I pass over that. 

Peter cut off' his ear. It is certain that Peter aimed at his head, to have 
cleft that down, but God in his providence directs the blow so, that no more 
hurt was done but the cutting oti' the ear. It is strange it should not hit his 
shoulder, yet you see God guided it so that it did not. 

Ohs. The observation I have from this is only this, that God in his 
providence guides and directs blows, and all such casual things as these are. 
Such passages of providence there are, in guiding the motions of men's 
hands, and the motions of the creatures, oftentimes for the preservation of 
us in dangers. And how manifold experiences have we had of them ! Who 
almost is there but in their lives have been either near being killed, and 
God hath come in by his providence, guiding and directing such accidents 
and occurrences, that they have been preserved ! Especially those that are 
soldiers, they have found strange kind of shots that have been made, and 
how near they have come to kill them, and yet they have missed. Or else 
they have been near killing others in a casual way, and God in his provi- 
dence hath prevented it. I say it is every man's case almost ; we may see 
man}' examples of the providence of God in this kind. We see it here 
towards Peter, and it was a mighty providence ; for had Peter killed this 
man, had there been a murder committed upon him, there had been such 
a ground of quarrel that they would have fallen upon all the disciples, and 
certainly have cut them to pieces ; but Christ had prayed that they should 
go away free, therefore God in his providence guides Peter's blow, so that he 
strikes ofi" nothing but the ear, though he aimed at his head ; and Christ 
heals that ear too, that so his disciples might be all saved and delivered. So 
much for the tenth verse. 

Verse 11 . ' Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: 
the cup ivhich my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it V 

I have observed something before upon Christ's bidding him put up hia 
sword, therefore I shall say little of it now. Jesus said unto Peter. Why 
unto Peter ? For in Luke he speaks to them all not to draw their swords : 


* Suffer you thus far,' saitla he. But as he spake to them all, because they 
all asked him whether they should draw, so more particularly and person- 
ally to Peter, because he had sinned and did actually draw his sword ; for 
that is the manner of Christ, to reprove those, and to have those reproved 
in a peculiar manner, that sin more peculiarly. He bids him put it up ; 
he doth not bid him not to wear it, or not to use it, but to put it up only. 
But of that before. 

The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it ? In Mat. 
xxvi. 51-54, you shall find that Christ useth other arguments to his disciples 
to be quiet and to put up their swords. ' How shall the scriptures be ful- 
filled,' saith he, ' that thus it must be ?' that is one reason. What need I 
care for your help, ' cannot I pray to my Father, and he shall presently give 
me more than twelve legions of angels ?' and, ' all they that take the sword, 
shall perish with the sword.' All these doth Christ give as reasons to them 
to be quiet. But the apostle John, writing after all the other evangelists, 
inserts what they omitted ; and he mentioneth here another reason, and, 
indeed, the highest reason of all the rest, ' Shall I not di'ink,' &c. 

From whence take this general observation, that there may be many 
motives and reasons in one action, many considerations that may keep a 
man from sinning in one action, though there be one more principal than 
all the rest, as this was the principal in Christ. 

But why doth he use this argument to Peter more than to all the rest ? 

Upon a double ground. 

1. Because it had been Peter's sin to hinder him from suffering. And you 
shall see how his heart still rose against Peter for it. He had once before 
said, ' Master, spare thyself.' Christ calls him Satan for it ; and he never 
called any of them Satan but Judas : ' Get thee behind me, Satan,' says he 
to Peter (Mat. xvi. 28). He saw Satan in it. And now again, when he was 
to enter into his sufierings, Peter's zeal was so high that he would have 
rescued him out of their hands if he could, and have kept him from suffer- 
ing ; therefore Christ in a special manner speaks to him. 

Ols. To hinder one in any good, to hinder one in suffering when 
God calls him to it (though out of a foolish pity), how great an evil is it t 
With what a slight eye did Peter look upon this thing of Christ. He 
thought it was only a carrying of him to prison, and that the life of a man 
should be taken away. He saw not into the bottom of it ; he was ignorant 
of the scope of all this, viz., that it was the saving of the world. Peter, 
though otherwise a good man, and a believer, he understood it not. 

2. Christ speaks this to Peter, not only to lay open his sin in hindering 
him, but to lay open his own spirit. ' The cup which my Father hath given 
me, shall I not drink ?' He doth not say, A necessity is laid upon me to 
drink this cup. He doth not say simply. My Father hath commanded me 
to drink it, but ' Shall I not drink it ?' It is a speech that implies that his 
spirit knew not how to do otherwise than obey his Father, as if there were 
such a natural principle in him, such an instinct that he could not choose 
but do it. Even just as Joseph said. Gen. xxxix. 9, * How shall I do this 
great wickedness, and sin against God ?' So Christ here, The cup which 
my Father hath given me, how shall I but drink it ? It implies the highest 
willingness that can be. For still you shall find this to be John's design, 
to hold forth the willingness of Christ to sufler ; that is his project. There- 
fore he singles out a speech that the other evangelists omit, which most of 
all holds it forth. He mentions not the necessity because of the law and 
because of his duty, or because the scriptures must be fulfilled. Others 

CuAr. \1I.J OF cnmsT the mediator. 221 

had done that ; but shall my Father give me a cup, and shall I not drink 
it ? He doth here shew that ho doth fulfil the commandment more out of 
love than any other principle, that he was led by the gi-eatest spirit of 
ingenuity that could be, for I know not a speech of gi-cater ingenuity than 
this is, ' The cup that my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it '?' 

My brethren, to fulfil the law of God out of a principle of love and in- 
genuity, it is a higher way of fulfilling it than merely to aim at the letter. 
Christ indeed had an eye to the command, yet that was not it that princi- 
pally moved him. It is true, saith he, there is a necessity laid upon me, 
and the Scriptures cannot else be fulfilled, yet above all this I have a prin- 
ciple in me that moves me. It is my Father, he hath commanded this cup 
to me, how shall I not but di-ink of it ? There is a further principle than 
merely obedience to the law that leads on a godly man, and led on Jesus 
Christ to obedience. For love, it is the fulfilling of the law; so it was in 
Christ, and so in his apostles, and in all his saints. 

You read in other evangelists, that when Christ was in the garden, but 
a matter of half an hour before, he had earnestly prayed to his Father that 
this cup might pass. But when once God had set it on upon his spirit that 
it was his will that he should drink it, and that it was impossible in respect 
of his decree that it should pass from him, when God, I say, had intimated 
this to him in prayer, and he had submitted to it, then he says, ' Not my 
will, but thy will be done.' Now, you see how firm and strong his reso- 
lution w^as. He that had prayed against it before, when once he knew 
God's will, and submitted to it, now he longs to di-ink of it : ' Shall I not 
di'ink,' saith he, ' of the cup that my Father hath given me ? ' Will you 
have me go and overthrow the answer I have had of my prayers ? Shall 
I break that resolution I have taken up and expressed in my prayer ? 
Shall I not drink of the cup, when I have yielded and submitted to my 
Father ? 

When thou seest God's will determined, or when God hath cast thy heart 
in prayer one way, and he calls thee to suffer, and hath brought thy heart 
to yield. Oh ! learn then to keep thy heart in that frame, to continue thy 
resolution, have no more risings against it ! Christ, you see, had not but 
the highest ingenuity that ever was to it. 

Therefore now, you that seek to God at any time by prayer for anything, 
and you have an answer, you have a resolution drawn forth in prayer, you 
have a bent, a bias of spii'it clapped upon you in seeking God in some par- 
ticular business, keep to it, hold to it. It is a mighty engagement to have 
had a man's spirit so and so framed in prayer, when a man can say, I have 
been afore God in prayer, and my spirit hath submitted, and I have been 
brought to such a resolution. Oh! take heed of breaking such resolu- 
tions ! You have the highest engagement in the world to continue in 
them. Therefore, when you pray, mind those engagements that are in 
yom* hearts to God in prayer, and keep to them. Christ he came new 
from prayer now ; he had prayed that the cup might be removed, when 
God had once set it upon his spirit that it was his will he should drink of 
it, and he had submitted to it, and resolved upon it, you hear of no more 
complaints, yea, you hear complaints on the contraiy, that he should be 
hindered in doing it. How often, my brethren, do we come before God, 
and express ourselves against such and such a sin, we submit ourselves to 
such and such a way of self-denial, but when we are come from before 
God, how do our minds alter ! You see Christ's did not in the greatest 
point that ever was ; when he once had submitted, saith he, I have sub- 


mitted, and ' shall I not drink it ? ' He had not the least rising thought 
against it afterward. We come and engage ourselves against such a sin to 
God in prayer, and go away with our eyes scarce dry, aud are tempted to 
it again. Oh ! how should we think with ourselves, Shall I do that which 
I have prayed against ? which I have engaged myself against ? This was 
Christ's case here : ' shall I not drink it ? ' saith he. Nay, it is more em- 
phatical, * The cup that my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it ? ' 
He turns the words, the phrase is set in such a posture as hath the most 
emphasis that can be. 

The cup uhich mij Father hath f/icen me. His passion is called a cup ; 
so he himself calletla it. Mat. xx. 22 and Mark x. 38, ' Ai-e ye able to drink 
of the cup that I shall drink of ? ' speaking of his passion. And it is called 
a cup, not only because it was his demensum, the portion that was allotted 
him by his Father ; for the manner of the ancients in feasts * was to set 
every man his cup, or portion of drink that was allotted him> by his trencher, 
as it were ; as we now set bread, so they had every one his cup, every 
one his quantum or portion. And so indeed in Scripture, any portion of 
affliction or suflering that God doth set out to men, it is called a cup ; as 
in Jer. xxv. 17, ' I took the cup, and I did give it from the Lord into the 
hands of all the nations, and made them all to drink of it.' So in Ezek. 
xxi. 31—33, and in Hab. ii. 16. And in many other places you have the 
cup put for the portion or measure of an affliction. But, I say, he calls it 
a cup, not only because it was his portion, but I rather think that which is 
in this place aimed at is, that it was his meat and drink to do the will of 
his Father. For, you see, Christ is hearty in submitting to his Father : 
It is the cup, saith he, which my Father hath given me, which speech (as 
I said afore) expresseth the highest wilhngness. Now, in John iv. 3-1, he 
saith, ' My meat and drink is to do the will of my Father, and to finish his 
work ;' and he looks upon this cup, when once he had prayed over it, as 
that which his Father had given him to di'ink ; and therefore as it was 
meat for him to do his will, so it was drink to him, it was pleasant to him 
(in some respect sweetened by an angel) to take this cup and drink it off. 

Obs. 1. First you see the sovereignty of God, to dispose of what cup he 
is pleased you shall have in your lifetime ; which, you see, Jesus Christ 
here submitteth unto. For a cup it is not only taken for a portion of evil 
things, but for a portion of good things ; and God disposeth unto several 
men several cups, and of several sizes, as he pleaseth. It is certain that 
the bitterest cup that ever was was disposed of unto Jesus Christ, therefore 
no man needs complain. 

Obs. 2. Secondly, Christ did not look to what the Jews did, or the 
Roman band that was with them, that were now round about him, he eyes 
not them ; but still he looks to God, eyes him : ' It is the cup which my 
Father hath given me.' Peter, you see, he looked only at the Jews as his 
adversaries. No ; Peter (saith he), it is my Father's cup, there is a higher 
hand in it. So should we do in all our actions ; as Job did w^hen he said 
(Job i. 21), * It is God that hath given, aud God that hath taken away.' 
* God hath bid him curse,' saith David of Shimei, 2 Sam. xvi. 10 ; ' there- 
fore what have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah?' So here Christ 
carries himself. This is from my Father (says he), I will not have to do 
with these Jews ; it is true I fall into these men's hands, but it is the 
counsel of my Father ; as Acts ii. 23. This Christ looks to ; and so, I 
say, should we do in aU our sufferings. 

* Stuckius' Antiq. Convival, lib. iii. c. 13. 

Chap. VIII.] op christ the mediatob. 223 

Obs. 3. Thirdly, It is the cup which my Father hath given me. Christ 
in his sulleriiigs doth not look upon God as a judge. Nor do not you, my 
brethren, in any of your alUictions. Suppose you see the atlliction answer- 
ing your sin, yet look not upon God as a judge in it, but as a father. It 
is the cup which my Father hath given me, saith he ; and we are to be 
conformable to him in afUictions. The greatest and bitterest suflerings be 
sweetened to us, looked upon as coming from a father. It was so with 
Christ ; when he looks upon this as a cup given him by his Father, ho 
looks upon it as his drink, and it is a pleasure to him to drink it oO'. 

Obs. 4. Fourthly, Every man hath a set portion of atlliction, every man 
hath his cup. It is the cup my Father hath given me to drink. Christ 
himself had his cup, his set quantity ; he had a cup that was answerable 
and proportionable to the sins of those he suffered for ; God put in a 
quantity for every man's sin, and Christ drank it off to the bottom ; the 
sins and the wrath due for them was all wrung into this cup which Christ 
drunk off, and drunk off heartily. If thou hadst drunk off that cup, there 
had been eternity in the bottom, and thou couldst never have wrung out 
the dregs of it ; but he drinks it off' heartily, and he thinks much of Peter 
that went about to hinder him of it : ' Shall I not drink of the cup which 
my Father hath given me ? ' 

How is his Father said to have given it him ? 

By decreeing it aforehand ; for he had not yet taken it : he had entered 
into it indeed, he had tasted of it in the garden, but he was going on to 
taste more of it ; and that cup which his Father by his decree allotted to 
him, he willingly takes and submits to it. 

And let me add this, whatsoever cup it be that God in thy life affords 
thee, take it, and go drink it off heartily ; for whether thou wilt or no, if 
it be a cup he hath given thee, thou shalt drink it. In Jer. xxv. 15, ' Go, 
saith God, to all the nations, and say unto them all, Drink ye of this cup ; 
and if any of the nations shall refuse to drink it, tell them, that my people 
have drunk it, therefore the}^ shall di-ink it.' Do not therefore only make 
a necessity of it, and because of a necessity submit, but do it out of that 
ingenuity that Christ did here ; he did not submit merely out of necessity, 
but with all the willingness in the world, * The cup which my Father hath 
given me, shall I not drink it ? ' 


How Christ was taken and bound bij those ivho came to apprehend him, and 
was thus led away by them, as the victims, or sacrifices, used to be to the 
altar, — That even this his binding hath an infi.uence on our being loosened 
from those chains, wherein sin hath fettered us. 

Now beginneth the first of Christ his outward sufferings, his sufferings 
from men ; he had suffered from his Father before, in the garden, where 
now he was, when he sweat drops of blood. 

Verse 12. • Then the band, and the captain, and officers of the Jews, took 
Jesus, and bound him.' 

In these words thero are two things considerable : 

1. The persons taking. 

2. The person taken. 


The persons taking, are the band, and the captain, and the officers of the 

The person taken, is Christ himself. 

And then here is what they did with him, they took him, and they bound 
him, ' Then the officers, and the captain, and the band took Jesus, and 
bound him.' 

It is said that all of them took him. Certainly all of them at that instant 
could not lay hold upon him ; but his being taken is ascribed unto them 
all, because they all rushed upon him at once with a violence. His throw- 
ing of them down backward afore had made them afraid, therefore they 
break forth with violence, and they did all environ him and compass him 
about, and in that respect it is said they all took him. 

You shall find in Ps. xxii. (which psalm we may indeed call a crucifix, it 
being as clear a story of the crucifying of Christ as Mat. xxvi. is) ; in that 
psalm, the fii'st thing in the stoiy of his suflerings mentioned there (for the 
rest are prayers) is, ' Many bulls have compassed me, strong bulls of Bashan 
have beset me round,' so ver. 12. And again, ver, 16, 'Dogs have com- 
passed me, the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me.' The title of that 
psalm (as some out of the Hebrew read it) it is ' the hind of the morning ; ' 
so he calls himself, and they like so many hounds here came round about 
him in a ring to apprehend him : ' Dogs,' saith he, ' have compassed me,' 
which hath an allusion to the title of the psalm. 

Here is likewise, you see, a particular mention of the persons, here is the 
band, and the captain, and the officers of the Jews ; both Jews and Gen- 
tiles, which I shall give you obsei-vations upon anon. 

There is one particle, which is a very small one, but there is much in it: 
Then. ' Then the captain, and the band, and the officers of the Jews took 
Jesus.' Some read it (and rightly too) ^Therefore the captain,' &c. Why 
therefore ? Because that he had afore ofiered himself willingly to them, 
they could not else have taken him. There is a great deal of emphasis in 
that little particle, as there is in every tittle of the Scripture. 'No man,' 
saith he, John x. 18, 'is able to take my life from me except I lay it down.' 
These men whom he had thrown down to the ground had never been able 
to have laid hands on him, had he not expressed himself willing. ' Have 
I not told you,' saith he, ' that I am the man ? ' And he shewed his will- 
ingness too in his expression to Peter, ' Shall I not drink of the cup which 
my Father hath given me to drink ? ' And ' therefore the band, and the 
captain, and the officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him.' 

All the other evangelists do not tell us that they bound him when they 
fijst took him. Matthew tells us indeed, chap, xxvii. 2, that they sent him 
bound from Caiaphas, the high priest's hall, to the common hall to Pilate. 
But that he was bound at the first taking, and that by them that took 
him, we are beholden to John for this circumstance. Now, the reasons of 
their binding him (I speak now by way of historical interpretation of the 
words) are these. 

1. Because Judas had bid them (as Matthew tells us) to hold him fast, 
' Whomsoever I shall kiss,' saith he, ' that same is he, hold him fast,' 
Mat. xxvi. 48. For Judas he knew the power of Christ, he was privy to 
his going through the midst of a whole press of men when they would have 
thrown him down from off the brow of a hill ; therefore, saith he, when 
you take him, hold him fast ; and therefore they bind him, and they took 
him and bound him with that cruelty, that the disciples all ran away. 

2. They bound him likewise as one that was worthy of death, and so 

Chap. VIII.] of christ the mediator. 225 

thereby to prejudge his sentence. Such the Jews did use to bind, as 
Jerome says. And it was that which is mentioned, vcr. 2-4, as one great 
ingredient that had influence into Peter's denial of him, and persisting in 
it the second time, that ho was sent bound from Annas, and continued still 
bound afore Caiaphas, and so thereby saw there was no hope for him of 
life, and so the more easily drawn and tempted to deny him. 

3. They bound him likewise that they might cast shame upon him, that 
they might lead him bound, which was proper to malefactors. And, 2 Sam. 
iii. 33, 34, David's speech of Abner implies it : * Died Abner as a fool, as 
a malefactor ? Thy hands were not bound, nor thy feet put into fetters.' 
Now our dear and blessed Lord and Redeemer, he died like a vile person 
in outward appearance ; his hands and his feet were bound, at least his 
hands were bound. And that which might further move them to deal in 
this manner the more violently with him, was the fetters that he had cast upon 
them. And therefore in Ps. ii. 1-B (which Peter quoteth in Acts iv. 25, 
and applies to the crucifying of Christ), he mentioneth that as the reason : 
' Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing ? ' They 
are mightily provoked ; why ? ' Come let us break their bands asunder.' 
Christ and his disciples had extremely bound them and their consciences ; 
now they are even with him, they clap fetters and bands upon him. 

4. They did it likewise in a way of trophy ; and therefore you shall find 
in Mat. xxvii. 2, when they had bound him, they led him away fi'om the 
high priest's house, in a kind of triumph, to Pilate the governor. 

So you have the historical opening of the words, ' They took Jesus and 
bound him.' And in all this, and so likewise in whatsoever befell Christ in 
his sufferings, there was a further mystical meaning, which I term so in 
respect of those hidden ends in it. Therefore in the next place we will con- 
sider what was the mystery of all this. There was nothing befell Christ in 
his passion, but it was both to fulfil prophecies, and it was for something 
answering thereunto in us as the cause thereof ; and in the merit of it, and 
the benefit by it redounding to us, it hath a suitable influence into some- 
thing about ourselves. 

First, All that befell Christ was to fulfil the types and prophecies that went 
of him. The great and most eminent type of Christ in his sufferings was 
Isaac, who was the son of the promise, as Christ was the promised seed. 
And in Heb. xi., the apostle makes him a figure of Christ's resurrection ; 
and as in his resurrection, so in his offering to death. Now the fixst thing 
that Abraham did to Isaac, when he was to offer him up as a sacrifice, was, 
he took him and bound him ; so saith Gen. xxii. 9. And Christ here, 
whom Isaac typified, in his death as well as in his delivery from death, was 

The sacrifices of the old law, they were first led bound to the priest, and 
then bound to the horns of the altar, and there slain. So was Christ here. 

And so for Christ his taking ; for I here put both together. The ark was 
a type of Christ, and that you know was taken by the Philistines ; so is 
Christ now. 

Adam, he likewise was his type. There was an allusion in the sufferings 
of Christ in the garden, unto the first temptation in a garden. Adam, you 
know, sinned in a garden. Christ he suffered in a garden ; there doth the 
agony meet him, and there he was taken. And what was the first outward 
act of sin ? How was it put forth ? Gen. iii. 6, * The woman took of the 
fruit of the tree' (having first plucked it off" with her hands), ' and gave it to 
her husband, and he took it and did eat thereof.' In answering to this, 

VOL. V. P 


Christ, the second Adam, his hands are bound while he was here in the 
garden. And as his being bound, so also this his being taken by them 
was foresignified. Thus in Mat. xxvi. 56, when it is said they took him, 
it is added, ' That the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.' Now 
do but look in the margin of your Bibles, what scripture is quoted there ? 
What is the place of Scripture that the translators of the Bible refer to in 
that verse ? You shall find it to be Lam. iv. 20, and there it is said, ' The 
breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the Lord' (the Messiah, the Christ, 
for so anointed signifies in the Hebrew, the Christ of the Lord), * he was 
taken in their pit, of whom we said, under his shadow we shall live among 
the heathen.' This book of the Lamentation, though it was made upon 
occasion of the captivity, yet because the foundation of the captivity Vi'as 
laid in the taking away of that good king Josiah — for after his death that 
people had never a good dajs they never thrived — so that book relates to 
him. And it is clear that the Lamentations were made in relation to Josiah, 
as well as to the captivity, by that in 2 Chron. xxxv. 25, ' And Jeremiah 
lamented for Josiah' (and these Lamentations in this book, you know, are 
the Lamentations of Jeremiah) ; ' and all the singing men and the singing 
women spake of Josiah in their lamentations to this day, and made them 
an ordinance in Israel, and behold they are written in the Lamentations ; ' 
that is, in the book of the Lamentations. Now of Josiah it is said, ' He 
was taken in their pit,' so we translate it ; but others, and the Septuagint 
agrees Avith it too, ' He was taken in their sins.' The sins of that people 
were the cause of his death, which is said to be in the valley of Megiddo, 
2 Chron. xxxv. 32. 

But whether is Josiah a type of Christ or no, that our translators should 
refer the taking of Christ to the fulfilling of this prophecy in the Lamen- 
tations ? 

For that you have Zech. xii. 10, 1 1 . He saith there, that he ' will pour upon 
the house of David, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of prayer 
and supplication' (speaking of the time when they should acknowledge 
Jesus Christ to be the Messiah) and (saith he) ' they shall look upon me 
whom they have pierced' (meaning the Messiah), ' and they shall mourn for 
him,' &c. And ver. 11, ' In that day shall there be a great mourning in 
Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon, in the valley of Megiddon.' 
Now that mourning there was for Josiah, for there he was taken and arrested 
with a deadly wound, whereof he died, and was taken and slain in the sins 
of that nation, and to that do our translators refer us ; and you see he was 
a type of Christ too, he had kept a passover, as Christ had done, a little 
afore this. They promised themselves to live safely under his shadow, even 
as the disciples promised themselves that Christ would presently restore the 
kingdom unto Israel ; but he was taken in our sins, and our sins were the 
bands that fettered him. 

SecondJi/, As all this was done to fulfil the tj'pes and prophecies of him, 
so we shall see that our deserts were the cause of it, and that his being 
bound hath an influence to loose us from something with which we were 
bound. For there was nothing befell Christ in these sufferings, nothing was 
done to him, but what answers to something which we had done, and which 
was to be done toward us. 

1. Our sins were the cause of his binding. Therefore in Ps. xl. (which 
also is a psalm of Christ, for it is, part of it, quoted by the apostle in Heb. x. 
and applied uuto Christ, ' Sacrifices and ofi'erings thou wouldst not have'), 
saith he at ver. 12, ' Innumerable evils have taken hold upon me; mine 

Chap. YIII.] of christ the mediatob. 227 

iniquities have compassed me about.' It is jilain, my brethren, that Christ 
speaks this psalm of himself; ho reckoned all our sins as his own, and by 
virtue of our sins encompassing us about, and taking hold of us (which in 
the garden they did) it is, that these men take hold of Christ, and bind 
him, he standing now in our stead. For the truth is, Christ he could, like 
Samson, have broken all these cords asunder. What weakened him ? It 
■was because he was fettered with our sins. ' Mine iniquities,' saith he 
(confessing ours to be his), ' have taken hold upon me ;' and therefore these 
came all about him like bees, like dogs, and seize vspou him. We were 
Satan's captives, therefore was he theirs. In sinning against God we break 
all bands, as the expression is, Jer. v. 5, therefore is he bound. Our sins 
took hold of him first, and then the band and the officers had power to take 
him and bind him. 

2. Consider the answerable fruit and benefit of it arising to us. Hereby 
we were all bondslaves to sin and Satan : 2 Peter ii. 19, ' Of whom a man 
is overcome, of the same is he brought in bondage.' We were led captive 
by Satan at his will, so saith the apostle, 2 Tim. ii. 26, Rom. vii. 23. Sin 
it ensnareth a man : Prov. v. 22, ' His own iniquities shall take the wicked 
himself, and he shall be holden with the cords of his sins.' And we were 
not only in the bands of iniquity (as the expression is Acts viii. 23), but we 
should have been reserved, as the devils and his angels are, in chains of 
darkness. Such an expression the Scripture hath in the epistle of Jude : 
ver. 6, he saith, ' The angels which kept not their first estate, he hath re- 
served in everlasting chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great 
day ;' and Peter, Epistle 1, chap. iii. ver. 19, speaks of spiiits in prison, 
which were once disobedient in the days of Noe. Chains of the everlast- 
ing wrath of God, and of guilt, should have bound us over to the great day, 
bound, and bound hand and foot, as you have it in Mat. xxii. 1 3, ' Take him, 
and bind him hand and foot, and cast him into everlasting darkness.' This 
was our condition ; and now because we are bound with these chains, to 
the end that we might be set free and loosed from them, is Christ bound. 
For it is a certain rule, what should have been done to us, something cor- 
respondent was done to Christ ; and the virtue and excellency of his person 
was such, though it was done to his body, it bringeth us freedom from the 
like due to our souls ; and by his being thus bound and led, he himself 
afterward, when he ascended, led captivity captive. You have a place ex- 
press to this purpose, and it is a place that plainly speaks of Christ, for it 
is applied unto him by the apostle in 1 Cor. xv. 55 ; the place is Hosea 
xiii. 14, ' I will ransom them from the power of the grave ; I will redeem 
them from death : death, I will be thy death ; grave, I will be thy de- 
struction.' But what goes before this? See ver. 12, 'The iniquity of 
Ephraim is bound up.' God had bound up Ephraim and his iniquity to- 
gether for hell ; saith he, I will ransom them. And how doth he ransom 
them ? The truth is, by being bound himself; he standeth bound before 
God his Father (for he deals with his Father in all this, he doth not deal 
with the Jews here), and in God's intentions, those fetters that were to be 
laid upon us were laid upon him, and so he cometh to free us by virtue of 
himself being bound ; and thus as we should have been arraigned before the 
judgment- seat of God, so was he before Pilate. The analogy holds all along 
in his sufferings. 

Therefore you shall find the scripture follows this metaphor. In Zech. 
ix. 10, he tells us, by the blood of the covenant we are delivered, being 
prisoners of hope. And in Isa. Ixi. 1, and Luke iv. 18, he is said to be 


* anointed to preach liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison 
to them that are bound.' And the like you have in Isa. xlii. 7, ' I have 
given thee for a covenant of the people, &c., to bring out the prisoners from 
the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house.' Hence 
is it that, when he comes to convert a man to God, he is said to bind the 
strong man ; Mat. xii. 28. Whence is it that Christ hath this strength in 
him (I mean meritoriously) ? Because he himself was bound ; it is by 
virtue of that that the strong man is bound. 

3. Lastly, Will you consider the heart of Christ all this while ? For under 
his sufferings it is good to consider that. Certainly Christ's heart was sen- 
sible of his sufferings in every particular ; none was ever so sensible as he. 
Why, you shall find how his heart took it, by that speech of his whilst they 
were a-binding of him. Matthew tells us, chap. xxvi. 65, that he said to 
the multitude at that time, ' Are ye come out as against a thief, with swords 
and staves for to take me ? I sat daily with you teaching in the temple, 
and you laid no hold on me.' And now they did. And Luke he tells us 
further, chap. xxii. 52, ' Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of 
the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Are ye come out, as 
against a thief, with swords and staves ?' Wliat ? to bind me as a thief? 
To deal so dishonestly with me ? This is mentioned as a thing that grieved 
him, and soaked into his very soul. The dishonour of it did. So to be 
bound and led was most dishonourable. Thus 2 Sam. iii. 33, 34, David, 
when he lamented over Abner, expresseth it, ' Died Abner as a fool dies ?' 
That is, as a bold person, a malefactor, by justice, and law convicted : 

* Thy hands were not bound, nor thy feet put into fetters,' as of malefac- 
tors it was used to be ; yet this was done to Christ : his hands were bound 
in, as of a bold person, and so he was led to death. So in Judas his be- 
traying of him, W^hat ? thou ? saith he, my familiar friend, that didst eat 
bread with me, dost thou lift up thy heel against me ? That was it that 
did sink into his spirit. And in that Ps. xl. 13, you shall see how this 
act of theirs pierced his soul, ' Mine iniquities have taken hold upon me ; 
innumerable evils have compassed me about, so that I am not able to look 
up.' His iniquities took hold of his very soul, while they were encompassing 
him about like dogs. And Ps. xxii. 12, ' Be not far from me, for trouble is 
near.' He saw them coming. All this affected the heart of Christ ; for 
the psalms lay open his heart, as the evangelists do the outward story. 
So much now both for the historical opening of the words, and also for that 
which is the mystery of it. I will now come to an observation or two from 
all this that was done to our Lord and Saviour Christ, and from the persons 
that did it. 

Obs. 1. First, from the persons that did it, they are, you see, all here 
enumerated, ' The band, and the captain, and the officers of the Jews.' 
And Luke saith, there were some of the chief priests there (and by chief 
priests were meant the heads of the Levites, of which there were twenty- 
four), and the captains of the temple, as well as the captain of the Koman 
band, and some of the elders of the people. And it is said of them all, that 
they took him (though all could not lay hold on him), because they all 
consented to it, because they all gathered round in a ring about him, that 
he might not escape. Observe, that God takes notice particularly of every 
one that has any hand (yea, he doth ascribe the act to them if their con- 
sent be but to it) in persecuting his people, as he did here of these that 
persecuted Christ, for there is the same reason of both ; they are all named, 
all the sorts of them are enumerated. He takes notice of any one that 


doth but cry Aha ! at any thing that is done against a child of God ; as Edom 
that cried Aha ! and poor Tyrus, in Ezok. xxvi. 2, because she cried Aha ! 
and said she should be replenished, she should have the trade now Israel 
was destroyed, God takes notice of it, and threatens ruin to her for it. 

Obs. 2. But, secondly, God did so order it, that in all the sufferings of 
Christ, both Jew and Gentile had a hand in them, in every particular action 
that did befall him. Here was the captain of the Roman band, and the officers 
of the Jews, and here were the high priests and elders of the people, at the 
taking of him ; both the ecclesiastical and civil state. So likewise when 
he was condemned (for the evangelists carry it along through all the story), 
there was Pilate the governor, he must have a hand in it ; and there was 
Herod that was the king of Galilee, he was sent to him also ; and there were 
the Roman soldiers ; and there were the high priest and the rest of that 
Sanhedrim. Ecclesiastical state, civil state, Jews, Gentiles, all have a hand 
in every particular of the suffering of Christ. 

Obs. 3. Thirdly, Fi'om the consideration of Christ's being bound, 
take this meditation : let no affliction (for all afflictions are called bands by 
the apostle : ' Remember those that are in bonds, as if ye were bound with 
them,' Heb. xiii. 3), let no band, I say, be thought too much by you. Be 
willing to be bound for Christ, if he call you to suffer ; you see he was will- 
ing to be bound for us. And never let the vileness of the persons trouble 
you, which indeed would even make one's stomach rise, that such should 
have to do with a man ; consider the Lord of life was apprehended and 
bound by the basest and vilest sort of men ; for commonly such are those 
that are employed in such offices. He was taken by the rude soldiers, that 
certainly handled him rudely and with violence ; for it is said in Zech. 
xiii. 7, ' I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered.' 
Now they all ran away when he was bound, therefore they smote him. 

Obs. 4. And then again consider, while Christ was bound, all that 
whole city, the Pharisees and the Jews, they were free. Whilst wicked 
men do enjoy all liberty and freedom, the church is bound ; so Christ him- 
self was. 

Obs. 5. And then further, we should therefore prize all the liberty 
and freedom that the gospel affords us, because they are all fruits of 
Christ's being bound ; Christ's being bound was it that purchased all our 

Obs. 6. Lastly, Let the bands of his love draw our hearts, for, as I said 
afore, he could have broken all these cords, as Samson did those with which 
he was bound ; but the cords of love bound him as well as the cords of our 
sins. It was these cords fastened him to the cross, more than the nails ; 
yea, and bound him there more than our sins did,* or else he would never 
have suffered himself to be bound. As Paul went up bound in the Spirit 
to Jerusalem, bound up in the bands of love, which made him willing to 
be bound outwardly, therefore he calls himself the prisoner of Christ, and 
to have the bands of Christ upon him, to be the bondman, the vinctus of 
Christ ; so doth Christ, he is bound with the cords of love, so they are 
called : Hosea xi. 4, ' I drew them with the cords of a man, with the bands 
of love.' Oh let the love of Christ bind us and constrain us (as the phrase 
is 2 Cor. V. 14), to bring every high thought into subjection, into captivity 
unto him ; so he was for us. And so much for this first cii'cumstance, or this 
first beginning of the outward sufferings of our Lord and Saviour Christ, his 
being bound : * And they bound him.' 

* Qu. ' our sins bound him more than the cords did ' ? — Ed. 


Verse 13. * And they led him away to Annas first: for he was father-in- 
law to Caiaphas, which nas the liigh priest that same year.' 

The ScriiDture doth put much, as upon his being bound, so upon his being 
led away. And, mj' brethren, as we go along in opening of these sufferings 
of Christ, carry in your thoughts still the person to whom all this was done ; 
it was our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Every thing he did in a way of 
suffering, how great must it be, think you, when nothing befell him but what 
was appointed him by his Father, and that in relation to the taking away of 
our sins ! 

They led him away. The truth is, his being led up and down is noted in 
the story as one eminent thing in his suffering, and therefore is not to be 
passed by. Those that have made the topography of Jerusalem and those 
places, do account it to be seven miles that he was led up and down fi"om 
first to last afore he was crucified, which was an exceeding gi-eat indignity 
to him. They hurried him first from the garden to Aunas's house ; from 
thence (as another evangehst tells us) he was led to Caiaphas ; Matthew 
tells us he was led from thence to Pilate, to the common hall ; from Pilate 
he was led to Herod ; from Herod he was led back to Pilate again ; from 
Pilate, when he had sentenced him, he was led to the cross. Thus was our 
Lord and Saviour Christ tossed up and down, and there is particular men- 
tion made of them all, which could not choose but put him to a great deal 
of pain and trouble. 

And, my brethren, do but consider, do but think of any person that is a 
person of worth, that should be hurried thus up and down from place to 
place, with his hands manacled, all the people following him, using all 
manner of indignities to him ; think of one that you praise and value, either 
for the gospel's sake or otherwise ; I say, do but think of such a one, and 
then behold our Lord and our Saviour Christ in all his tossings and leadings 
up and down. I remember there is this expression in one of the psalms,* 
' I am as a grasshopper,' saith he, because he was thus hurried and tm-- 
moiled from place to place, his heart was sensible of this. 

But what is the mystery of this ? For still let us look to the inward 
part of it, as well as to the history of itself. 

First, There was a type in it, for every sacrifice was first led to the high 
priest, and then offered. Lev. xvii. 5. So Christ, being to be made a sacri- 
fice for sin, he is carried to the high priest. In the wny he goes to Annas, 
indeed, but afterwards from him he was led to Caiaphas, who was high 
priest that year. And to make up the type more full, which is a thing ex- 
ceedingly observable, it is said in Is. liii. 7, that after our sins were laid 
upon him, and that the iniquities of us all did take hold on him, ' he was 
led as a sheep to the slaughter.' Now you must know that the garden from 
whence he was led stood at the foot of the mount of Olives, beyond the 
brook Cedron ; and the gate which was next to that place, through which 
he was to go into the city, was called the sheep-gate, for it was nigh the 
temple, which stood on that side of Jerusalem ; and the sheep and oxen (but 
especially the sheep, for they sacrificed most of them) that were to be sacri- 
ficed, were fed in the meadows and fields of Cedron ; and from thence they 
■were led through that gate to the temple to be sacrificed, which therefore 
was called the sheep-gate. To make up the type therefore more full, and 
that you may see how the Scripture opens itself in these things, he is led 

* It is not easy to ascertain the expression that the author refers to. There is 
on such expression in our version, nor do we know of any that could be so rendered. 
— Ed 

Chap. VIII.J of christ the mediator. 231 

as a sheep to the slaughter, to be a sacrifice for sin (for so the prophet saith 
he was), even through the shcep-gato. 

My brethren, 'all we like sheep have gone astray' (so the prophet saith), 
and because we had taken our wills in sin, and went whither we would, 
therefore Christ is bound and led away. It was all because of our wander- 
ings. He was led away as a sheep to the slaughter, therefore, in Heb. xiii, 
20, it is said he was brought back again, he having been first led away as 
here to death, as he was brought back again through the resurrection ; it ia 
a phrase that hath relation to his being led away. 

How are we tossed to and fro, hurried up and down with divers lusts, 
with every wind of our inordinate atlcctions ! Our Lord and Saviour Christ 
was therefore led from place to place, posted up and down. 

And in all these leadings of his, God still would have both the civil and 
ecclesiastical state to have a hand and some interest in every sort of his 
sufferings. He was led to Annas, that had been high priest, and then to 
Caiaphas, that was the present high priest — they were the chief of the church, 
as it may be called — and then to Pilate, the Roman governor, and then to 
Herod, the king of Galilee. All the powers that were then in Jerusalem 
and over Jerusalem, and in those countries, he was brought afore them all, 
that they might all have a hand and a concurrence in his ruin, that God 
might make his sutlerings every way complete, that all these might cast 
dishonour and disgrace upon him. For as honour depends upon the 
honourer — that is truly honour when a person of worth honoureth one — 
so God would have the disgi-ace and contempt that was cast upon Christ 
to depend upon the worth of the persons that dishonoured him. There- 
fore, whatever was excellent in that state, either of kingly power or ecclesi- 
astical, whatsoever pretended to wisdom or justice, or learning, or religion, 
God ordered it that all these should have a hand in the condemnation of 
Christ, and so they had. The eminency of learning and religion was 
amongst the chief priests, they professed it and pretended to it; of justice, 
in Pilate ; of excellency and kingly power, in Herod. All these concurred. 
Therefore, if the saints in after ages find that they are condemned by all 
sorts, let them not wonder at it. 

And, lastly, he was led out of the garden, whither he used to go for the 
enjoyment of communion with his Father (for the evangelists say that to 
that place he did often resort to pray) ; and indeed it was his paradise, 
where he had infinite sweet fellowship and communion with God. Now, 
as Adam was driven out of the garden, out of paradise, where he had 
communion with God, as a punishment for his sin, so is our Lord and 
Saviour Christ led out of this garden, which, I say, was to him a paradise, 
and carried to die and to offer up himself a sacrifice for sin. And so much 
now for his leading : ' they led him.' 

To Annas first, for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, which was the high 
priest that same year. 

For the opening of the historical meaning of these words, I shall do two 

1. Shew who this Annas was, as the text here holds him forth. 

2. Open the reasons why he was led first to him. 

1. Who he was. Josephus, who writes the story of these times, calls 
him Annanas. Certainly he was the greatest man amongst the Jews (of 
a Jew), and of the most illustrious family, which will appear thus. He 
himself had been high priest formerly: so you have it, Luke iii. 1, 'In 
the fifteenth year of Tiberius, Annas and Caiaphas being high priests, 


the word of tlie Lord came unto John,' &c. And the high priest was the 
supremest officer, and in highest place among the Jews, though the Ro- 
mans had the cinl power in theu* hands. Here, you see, his son-in-law 
Caiaphas, who married his daughter, or otherwise his son-in-law, was high 
priest after him, himself still living ; and after Caiaphas, Josephus tells us, 
that Eleazar, a son of his own, was high priest also. So that his family 
was the gi'eatest family among the Jews that lived at Jerusalem, being 
thus greatened by having the high priesthood successively amongst them, 
for so they had ; therefore, in Acts iv. 2, you read of Annas and Caiaphas, 
and John and Alexander, and as many as were of the kindred of the high 
priest, were gathered together against the apostles at Jerusalem. They 
followed their old trade still ; and as they had their hands imbrued in the 
blood of Christ, so in the apostles' too. Now, to this man is oui* Lord and 
Saviour fu'st brought. 

2. 'V\Tiy brought to Annas first ? Some say because he being so great a 
man, and his house lying in the way to Caiaphas (as indeed it did, if we 
may believe the new description of Jerusalem, and the relation of those 
that have visited it, for they say we have fii'st shewn you the house of 
Annas, and then the house of Caiaphas), he was therefore led thither fii'st. 
But surely that is not all the reason. It is a circumstance not mentioned 
by any of the evangelists but by John, and therefore here must be some 
other ground for their leading of him first to the house of Annas. For we 
read in Mat. xxvi. 57, and in Mark xiv. 53, that all the chief priests, and 
the elders, and the scribes, were assembled at Caiaphas his house, attend- 
ing the issue of Judas his plot, and waiting when Christ should be brought 
thither. For them therefore to interrapt then- going directly to Caiaphas 
his house, where all the council was set, and to carry him first to the house 
of Annas, it must needs be for some special reason. To me therefore there 
ai'e these two reasons of it. 

The fii'st is that which is expressly mentioned by John himself here in the 
text, for (saith he) he was father-in-law to Caiaphas ; which implies that 
Caiaphas, either because he honoured his father-in-law, who was the head 
of that great family, had given some secret order to the officers to lead him 
fii'st thither, or rather indeed, because they would gratify that great man, 
who was the chief of them that had been high priests, and withal because 
they would gratify Caiaphas too, whom they knew they should please by 
doing this honour to his father-in-law. They earned him to him as a sight, 
as a spectacle. Lo, here we have him that is the great enemy to the high 
priest's office, that would subvert the law, and pull down the temple; this 
is the prey we have looked long for. And as in a way of gratification Pilato 
afterward sent him to Herod, so in a way of like gratification he is here 
earned to Annas fii'st, sent to him as a gift to cheer and glad his heart. 
As in Rev. xi. 10, in allusion to the death of Christ (for that chapter 
carries on that allusion), speaking of the witnesses being killed in that 
place where our Lord was crucified, he saith, * They shall rejoice over 
them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another, because these 
two prophets tormented them ; ' so here, when they had gotten Christ, that 
had tormented them so, they were so glad they had got him, that in mer- 
riment Caiaphas gives order to have him carried to Annas, as a gift and 
gratification to him ; and so Pilate sent him to Herod. Thus to shew 
their joy and triumph, they send our Lord and Saviour Christ thus bound 
from one to another. Lo, here is the man that would destroy the law, and 
then all our honour must down; we have him now fast enough. For in- 

Chap. VIII.] of curist the mediatob. 233 

deed there is nothing that more pleaseth the revenge of people malicious 
against Christ or against his saints, than to see them in their hands, and 
to see them under, and to see them down. ' Come,' say they in Ps. ii. 3, 
' let us break their bonds, and cast away their cords from us.' And cer- 
tainly this cu'cumstancc is on pui-pose mentioned by John, as an a"<Trava- 
tion of the suflerings of Christ, that they not only carried him to the high 
priest, but to gi'atify this wi-etched man, that was his desperate and most 
deadly enemy, whom they knew not only hated him, but that of all other 
men this sight of Christ being taken and bound would be most acceptable 
to him, they carry him to his house fii'st of all. This, I say, aggravateth 
the sufferings of Chi-ist the more. 

But, secondly, he was carried thither also that there might be an appro- 
bation visible before all the people, of Annas his approving of the fact, he 
being the gi'eatest family of all the rest amongst the Jews. Therefore the 
24th verse of this chapter tells us, that Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas 
the high priest ; that was all he did ; he did not command them to unloose 
him, but approved what they had done in taking and binding him, and in 
a way of approbation sent him bound to the high priest's hall, which was 
a matter of great prejudice unto Christ, and served a little also to take the 
envy off from Caiaphas. 

My brethren, what a great deal of do is here about a poor man, in view 
a cai-penter's son ! And how glad were the great ones of the world when 
they had got him down ! And so it hath been in all ages, the getting down 
of a poor saint, it hath been the greatest glory to men carnal, as if they had 
done so great a matter. "V^Tien they have gotten the witnesses down, as 
one day they will, they make meny and send gifts one to another. The 
poor disciples all this while were a- weeping, while they were making meny ; 
so Christ himself said it should be : John xvi. 20, ' The world shall make 
meny, but you shall weep.' 

If therefore at any time we should be made spectacles unto men for 
Chi-ist's sake, and should be thus sei-ved as Christ was, than which there 
is nothing more grievous to a great spiiit, for misery and shame is more 
than death to a king, and Saul would not fall into the hands of the Philis- 
tines, lest they mock me, saith he, 1 Sam, xxxi, 4 ; if, I say, any of us 
should be so sei*ved, made a spectacle to angels and men, as the apostle 
saith, 1 Cor. iv. 7, do but remember how they led our Lord and Saviour 
Christ up and down as a trophy, as a sight to cheer and gratify those that 
were his enemies. So much for this, that he was sent to Annas first, that 
was father-in-law to Caiaphas. Of Caiaphas it is said. 

He was high priest that same year. There are some that would make both 
Annas and Caiaphas to have been high priests together, because in that 
place, Luke iii. 2, it is said that John did baptize in the time when 
* Annas and Caiaphas were high priests.' But the meaning of that is this, 
that they were high priests in their order ; in the beginning of John's 
preaching Armas was high priest, and after him succeeded Caiaphas. 

But why is it said he was high priest that same year ? 

It is a thing which John obseiweth, and none else. He useth that phrase 
by way of emphasis; you have it twice repeated in the 11th chapter: 
ver. 49, * Caiaphas being high priest that same year;' and ver. 51, ' He 
being high priest that year.' And you see it noted here, and noted with an 
emphasis. Now that it should be twice noted in one chapter, within the 
compass of two or thi-ee verses, and here again, there must be some spe- 
cial reason for it. It is not that the high priest's office did go year by 


year, as mayors in incorporate towns do with us, a new one cliose every 
year. It is clear by the story of Josephus, that Caiaphas was seven years 
(some say more) high priest. It is therefore added, ' He was high priest 
that same year,' tliough he was more years besides, yet it fell out that he 
should be high priest that year, when under his authority, and by his 
power in a more esj)ecial manner, and by his counsel, the Lord of life 
should be crucified. 

And yet withal, 2. It is to note and to hold up this before our eyes, the 
great corruption that was about the priest's oflice when Christ was cruci- 
fied ; for in Num. xxxv. 25, and so in Josh. xx. 6, you shall find that 
according to God's institution the high priests were not to be removed, but 
he was to continue in that office during his life. And likewise he was to 
be the eldest son of the family of Aaron. Now to shew that this was out 
of course ; for the truth is, the Jews being oppressed by the Syrian kings, 
and afterwards by the Romans, they sold the high priesthood as them- 
selves pleased, and put in new ones as often as they would, contrary 
to the institution of God at first ; to shew, I say, the corruption that was 
then amongst them, this is particularly noted with an emphasis, ' Caiaphas 
was high priest that same year, though Annas, that had been high priest, 
was yet alive.' 

To give you an observation or two fi'om this. ' He was high priest that 
same year :' and if you read John xi. 51, ' By reason that he was high priest 
that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation. 

The observation I make from thence is this : that if a man be in a place 
that is an office instituted by God, though he came into it corruptly, and 
is not such a one as ought to be in it, yet whilst he is in it, God doth 
more or less accompany him according to his own institution. This 
instance here is clear for this ; for it is certain that the high priests then 
were not lawfully called to that office ; for there were three circumstances 
which made their calling unlawful (I do not say unlawful in itself for the 
substance, but unlawful for the act of calling) : 1. They were not of the 
tribe of Levi, and of the eldest sons of Aaron ; for so the institution was, it 
should have gone by birth, as in Exod. xl. 15. 2. They had not the place 
for their lives, but were changed and altered at pleasure. B. They were 
chosen by the Roman praetors, and by Pilate the Roman governor, and so 
it was ordinarily bought and sold for money. Yet notwithstanding Christ, 
he comes to that worship which this high priest performed, though he came 
into the place corruptly; and the acts which he performed (he being in the 
room of the high priest) were valid. I say, the acts he performed as high 
priest (though unlawfully called), when he went into the Holy of holies 
every year, they were acts of worship, and they were valid. Why ? Because 
the office itself was a place of God's institution. For otherwise Christ had 
not had opportunities to have fulfilled the whole ceremonial law, if that the 
going in of this high priest into the Holy of holies had not continued and 
been in use ; but it is clear it continued ; for it is said, Paul went up to 
the feast, that is, the great feast, when the priest went into the Holy of 
holies. Christ, you know, he was to fulfil the whole ceremonial law, which 
he could not have done if he had not come to that feast which was once a 
year, for there was a curse upon him that did not, his soul should be cut 
off from the congregation ; and upon that day the high priest went into the 
Holy of holies, and performed those great acts of worship, that was to be 
done. If Christ had not been present at this feast, and at these perform- 
ances, he had not fulfilled the law ; surely, therefore, when the high priest 

Chap. VIII.] of chkist the mediator. 235 

was doing bis office, Christ was present, and did communicate in this case 
with this priest, and with these Jews ; and yet this man had not a hiwi'ul 
calHng to the high priesthood, for the manner of it ; but because for the 
substance of his calhng it was hiwful, and be was in that office, the acts 
he did were vaUd. Even as it is in the laws of this kingdom ; aUbough 
Richard the Third came into the place of being king unLawfully, yet because 
when he was in it, it was that hiwful place settled by this state, tbcFefore 
the carls that he made, or the barons, or the acts of parliament that he 
confirmed, they were all valid ; for whilst he was in that place, the place was 
it (being that which was settled by the law) that gave a validity to all such 
acts of his. So it is here. And therefore let it never be said, that because 
ministers are not oftentimes so called to their places as they ought to be, 
come not in so rightly as they should, by the choice of those whom it 
depends upon, that therefore the}' are not lawful ministers ; — lawful in this 
sense, that the acts they do are valid, and are ministerial acts. And indeed 
it were a hard case if the lawfulness of all men's being baptized, or receiv- 
ing the sacrament, or the like, should depend upon the lawfulness of the 
man's being called to his place. It depends upon the office that Jesus 
Christ hath instituted in his church, and so far forth as there is anything of 
his institution, he will follow it with his blessing. The ordinances of 
Christ, the validity of them doth not depend upon the lawful call of the 
minister ; and therefore it is no argument to say, such a man had an unlaw- 
ful calling to the ministry in that place where I was baptized, therefore my 
baptism is invalid. For the act and manner of his call may be unlawful, 
yet he being in that place, he is for those acts a lawful minister of Christ, 
and his acts are so accounted by God. So it was here. Caiaphas being 
in the room of the high priest, the acts he did were acts of the high priest, 
and were valid. And yet further, to shew that God himself respected him 
as high priest, God put into his mouth that prophecy ; therefore it is said 
in John si. 51, ' This spake he not of himself, but being high priest that 
year, he prophesied.' So that God himself was with him as high priest, 
though for the manner of his calling to this place he was not lawfully and 
truly the high priest. 

06s. 2. Then, again, another observation that I may make from hence is 
this. This Annas, it is said, was father-in-law to Caiaphas. You see now 
by this, how dangerous it is oftentimes to the souls of others to be linked 
in affinity with men that are carnal and wicked. How many a man's soul 
is undone by his father-in-law, or perhaps the father-in-law by the son : or 
the husband by the wife, and the wife by the husband. In all likelihood 
these two here, Annas the father-in-law, and Caiaphas the son-in-law, are 
both mentioned as having drawn one another into this great conspiracy 
against our Lord and Saviour Christ, and joining the more heartily in it, 
the one engaging the other in this wicked design. And therefore men 
should very much consider into what families they marry, for if into a 
wicked family, it may be an occasion of much evil to them. Men are drawn 
to much wickedness, or strengthened in much wickedness, by their rela- 
tions, as Annas and Caiaphas were here for the crucifying of Christ, having 
this relation of father-in-law and son-in-law. 

Obs. 3. Lastly, these two, Annas and Caiaphas, they are here noted out 
in a peculiar manner above all the rest of the Pharisees, as the most emi- 
nent enemies, and those that did most malign our Lord and Saviour Christ. 
Observe that God takes special and particular notice of those that are the 
most eminent enemies of Christ and his saints. Still you see Annas and 


Caiaphas are mentioned : certainly it is according to their hatred ; these 
two had a deeper malignity against Christ than other of the Pharisees 
had ; and therefore you read of them again in Acts iv. 6. Annas the 
high priest, and Caiaphas, and John, and Alexander, they are all reckoned 
up, they had their hands imbrued in the blood of Christ, and they 
go on ; and that is the curse of it, that the same men should finish up 
their iniquity, by laying hold of the apostles too. And in a more special 
manner you see there is an emphasis put upon Caiaphas, for it is said, 
' He was high priest that same year.' It is noted out as the greatest cm-se 
that could befall that wretched man, he having so much malignity in his 
heart against Christ, that it should be his lot to be then high priest, when 
he had opportunity enough to vent it. So that men of much malice against 
the people of God, to them doth God give oftentimes most power, and 
dignity, and ability to do most mischief. Caiaphas he is put into the high 
priesthood, and the providence of God ordereth it so that this man had a 
more special enmity against Christ, as the next words imply : ' It was he 
that gave the counsel that one man should die for the people,' and that man 
must be Jesus Christ. And so I come to handle that. 

Verse 14, * Noiv Caiajihas ivas he that gave counsel to the Jews, that it was 
expedient that one man should die for the people.' 

It implies that Caiaphas was the first man that made the motion to have 
Christ put to death, and that with the strongest and most taking plausible 
reason that could be supposed. 

In handling this verse, I shall do two things. 

1. Open the words. 

2. Give the reasons why they are brought in here. 

1. And, first, to open the words. ' Now Caiaphas was he that gave coun^ 
sel to the Jews, that it was expedient for one man to die for the people.' 
The words, you see, refer to an act formerly done by him. You are there- 
fore to have recourse to John xi. 49, 50, where you shall find the same 
thing recorded ; only there it comes in as a prophecy, here as a counsel 
given by himself. ' You know nothing ' (saith he there ; he speaks it like 
a carnal proud high priest, as if he only had knowledge, taking the glory 
of this counsel to himself), * nor consider that it is expedient for us that one 
man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not. And 
this ' (saith John) ' spake he not of himself, but being high priest that year, 
he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation.' And yet that he did 
speak this of himself too, is clear by these words in the text; for it is 
brought in here as his great sin, and a brand is put upon him for it : This is 
he, saith the text ; even as a brand was put upon Ahaz, 2 Chron. xxviii. 22, 
* This is that king Ahaz,' so, this is that wicked Caiaphas ; this is he that 
was the fu-st contriver, the first man that made the motion, that gave the 
counsel to have Chi'ist put to death. 

It is strange that one and the same act should be from the Spirit of God, 
and called prophecy, and said not to be spoken of himself, and the same act 
to be of himself, and called counsel, and one of the gi'eatest sins that hath 
been committed. But the meaning is this, that however he had a most 
wicked end in this speech, yet notwithstanding, the Holy Ghost (before he 
was aware) guided his tongue to speak (though he knew it not) that which 
was a truth, and indeed a prophecy. ' He spake this not of himself,' saith 
John, that is, not knowing or intending to prophesy, for as it came from 
him it was spoken out of spleen, and malice, and hatred unto Christ. And 

Chap. VIII.] op christ the mediator. 237 

yet he took upon him to speak like a high priest ; * You know nothing at 
all,' saith ho ; I am now the high priest, and I deliver this to you as an 
oracle, ' that it is expedient for one man to die for the people ; ' and tho 
Holy Ghost intended his words should be spoken as the high priest. ' This 
he spake not of himself : but, being high priest that year, he prophesied ; ' 
not that the high priests used to prophesy, or that he himself used to pro- 
phesy, but being high priest that year, an emphasis lies in that, wherein 
Christ was to be crucified, God raised up that ordinance of high priesthood 
above the ordinary use of it, he being the highest person in that state. 
And you see he delivers it as a state axiom, and yet with extreme cunning : 
' It is fit,' saith he, ' that one man should die for the people.' He doth 
not say that it is fit that Jesus should die (he doth not express it so at first), 
or that this man should die, who is a rebel or a blasphemer, ' but it is fit 
one man (let it be him or any one else) should die for the nation ' ; and 
what is one man's life to the nation ? And so consequently he implies, 
that seeing it is this man's lot to disturb the state, and to endanger it by 
bringing in the Romans amongst us, it is fittest that he should die, rather 
than the people should perish. And yet if you mark it (to shew the 
wickedness of his speech yet further), though he puts a public face upon 
it, and pretends the preservation of the nation, yet the thing he aimed at 
was the preservation of the clergy only ; and that moved him so much. 
Saith he, ' You consider nothing at all, that it is expedient for us that one 
man should die.' ' It is expedient for us,' that is his expression ; for us 
that are or shall be high priests ; our calling will down unless this man be 
taken out of the way. 

So much for the opening of the words. 

Now, secondly, to give you the reasons why he (having said it before in 
chap. xi. 50) brings it in again here in this place. 

1. It was to set a brand of maliciousness more eminently upon this 
Caiaphas than upon any man else ; and to shew also what an accursed 
man he was in this, that the motive or the reason that should stick with 
them all, why they should so fixedly resolve to kill Christ (for, you must 
know, this speech was first spoken at a consultation they had about taking 
of him), should come first from him. To set, I say, a note and a brand 
upon Caiaphas in a more eminent manner, is this circumstance here by the 
Holy Ghost inserted, he being the most desperate and malicious enemy of 
Christ amongst all the Pharisees ; for certainly God chose out the wickedest 
man among all the Jews to be in the place of the high priest that year, 
that he and his father-in-law, Annas, should eminently have their hands in 
his crucifying. 

2. It likewise comes in here to shew upon how slight gi'ounds our Lord 
and Saviour Christ was crucified ; it was merely but upon politic considera- 
tions (as to them), and that upon but imaginary suppositions neither, that 
the nation must perish else ; for so as it came from Caiaphas it was meant, 
though God guided it to be a prophecy. And so it clears the innocency of 
Christ so much the more, that the high priest himself, in his counsel about 
putting him to death, should only go upon this pohtic reason, that it was 
fit one man should die for the nation. They only did it as a state busi- 
ness, and that, I say, but upon a mere imagination that the Romans would 
else come and take away their place and nation. 

3. It is premised unto all the other sufterings of Christ that follow, and 
it is inserted here in that passage of the story of his leading to Caiaphas, 
to shew that there was no equity to be expected in all their proceedings 


against him Why ? Because they had resolved, before ever they took 
him, to put him to death, and that upon a state consideration ; and there- 
fore they would be sure to keep to their own resolutions, whether he were 
innocent or not innocent, whether they could convict him or not convict 
him. And Caiaphas having spoken so peremptorily, ' Ye know nothing at 
all, neither consider that it is expedient for one man to die for the nation,' 
he being the great oracle in this business, he would certainly prosecute 
Christ, according to his own words ; therefore there was no favour to be 
expected. And to this end also doth the Holy Ghost record it here. 

4. But to me the chiefest reason is this. You know it was foretold of 
Christ that he should not die for himself; so you have it in Isa. liii. 4, 
* Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows : yet we did 
esteem him stricken of God and afflicted ; ' so did the apostles and those that 
beheld him. It was not for himself that he was stricken and afflicted ; no, 
there was something else in it, it Avas for others : ' He hath borne our griefs 
and carried our sorrows, and he was wounded for our transgressions,' &c. 
Now, to the end that you should not only have a word of Scripture for this, 
but a testimony also even from the mouths of the Jews, and from the 
mouth of the high priest himself for it, hence, therefore, is the Holy 
Ghost so diligent to record this passage, ' that it is expedient that one man 
should die for the people ; ' which, though Caiaphas meant one way, God 
meant another way ; and therefore it is added, ' and not for that nation 
only, but that he should gather together in one the children of God that 
were scattered abroad.' And therefore, as it was a counsel in Caiaphas, it 
was a prophecy in God. And so 3'ou have the reasons why this passage 
comes in here. Now to give you some observations out of it. 

Obs. 1. You see here what mischiefs and sins state policy ofttimes puts 
great men upon. How much state interests prevail to move men against 
the saints, and the purity of religion. State policy here was the cause of 
the death of Christ. And j^etthis very act of theirs, in crucifying the Lord 
of life, brought mischief upon the state. Here is Caiaphas, he brings the 
most authentic state axiom that was ever brought. It is but a small 
matter, saith he, it is but one man's life, and it is better for one man to die 
than the state should perish. He did it, I say, out of the greatest worldly 
wisdom that ever man did, and yet you know what followed. By this we 
may come to understand that place in 1 Cor. ii. 8, where, speaking of the 
crucifying of Christ, saith he, ' We speak the wisdom of God in a mys- 
tery, which none of the princes of this world knew ; for had they known 
it, they would not have crucified the Lord of life ; ' but, saith he, as for 
the wisdom of this world, and of the princes of the world, it comes to 
nought, for (as it is, chap. iii. ver. 19), ' The wisdom of this world is fool- 
ishness with God, for it is written, he taketh the wise in their own crafti- 
ness.' By the princes of this world it is evident that he means the Jews, 
the Pharisees, and the ralers, Pilate and Herod, and the rest that put 
Christ to death ; this great Sanhedrim here, Annas and Caiaphas, and their 
fellows, and Pilate ; for he went on the same worldly principle too, for 
whenas the Jews told him that if he did not put Christ to death he was not 
Caesar's friend, the text saith, ' Therefore when Pilate heard that saying,' 
Go crucify him, saith he ; it was state policy did it. They all thought they 
were so wise in putting Christ to death upon this state axiom ; and it was 
a fair one. This wisdom, saith the apostle, came to nought ; God made 
the wisdom of the world foohshness ; for, alas ! were ever men befooled as 
these men were ? For this very crucifying of Christ was their ruin, that 

Chap. VIII.] op christ the mediator. 239 

brought the Romans upon them. Yea, if you read Jcsephus and others, 
you shall find that that which strengthened them to rehel against the 
Romans was their ver}' looking for the Messiah, and the prophecies they 
had, that about that time the Messiah should come. 

Obs. 2. A second observation that I make upon this is this, that a state 
is not to put a man to death merely and simply for the public good, unless 
he is an offender. For here this state maxim the Pharisees and Pilate took 
up, and used as the great plausible argument to the people ; yet it being 
against a man's life, supposed innocent (whether they knew him to be the 
Christ or not), it is noted as a high and mighty injury, and as an act of 
the greatest injustice in them. It is the greatest instance this that can be, 
that no evil is to be done that good may come by it. An innocent man is 
not to be put to death, nor innocent men to be injured or wronged (if they 
be innocent) for a public good. A man's life is not to be taken away merely 
to save a state. Indeed, if a case of necessity lie, so as that a man offer 
himself freely up for the saving of a state, as some noble Romans have done, 
that is another matter ; but to condemn a man to death simply to save a 
state, ought not to be. 

Obs. 3. You may observe, that carnal men, when they would prevail 
with others to do anything, they 'ndll speak to their very lusts. All their 
hearts here were on fire against Jesus Christ ; Caiaphas now speaks the 
highest reason to the lusts of the Jews that could be, invents a reason upon 
■which they should put him to death, a most plausible one, colours it over 
so cunningly as might take with all the people. It is better, saith he, that one 
man be put to death, than that the whole nation should perish ; he knew 
this would move them all, and all that is in them. I say he gave counsel 
to their lusts ; and so you shall have carnal men to do, speak to men's lusts, 
and vent then- own lusts too, vent their own malice ; for so Caiaphas did. 
* It is expedient for us,' saith he, for us that are the priests, but puts it 
upon the people, ' that one man should die for the people.' 

Obs. 4. Observe hence likewise, what a dangerous thing it is to be the 
first mover in any great wickedness. Here you see Caiaphas, because he 
was the first that gave counsel against Christ, he is noted out in a way ol 
eminency, with this brand upon him, ' This is he that gave counsel that it 
was expedient for one man to die for the nation.' He did it cunningly and 
plausibly, but God for all that took notice of it, and lays this great load upon 
him, ' This is the man.' Therefore, I say, to be the first mover and leader 
in a wicked business, as Annas and Caiaphas was in the great business of 
crucif\-ing Christ, is a dangerous thing. And you see one wicked, cunning man 
wiU carry the whole. Caiaphas here spake such great reason, that he carried 
them all ; but such men, of all others, that are the counsellers in evil, and 
that are the first counsellers in evil, though they glory and pride themselves in 
it — as certainly as this man did, ' You know nothing at all,' saith he — such 
men will God brand, as he branded him here, and their damnation shall be 
great at last. Poor Caiaphas, there was another that gave counsel that 
Jesus Chi-ist should be put to death afore thou didst, and that was God the 
Father ; for in Acts iv. 28, ' Both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles 
and the people of Israel, were gathered together, for to do whatsoever thy 
hand and thy counsel determined before to be done.' There was not only 
his wisdom, his counsel, but his hand, his power in it, though it was the 
greatest sin in the world. Yea, God the Father had given counsel to Christ 
himself to do it, before ever Caiaphas had spoken : Ps. xvi. 7, ' I wiU bless 
the Lord, who hath given me counsel.' And what was the counsel he 


pave him ? He bade him die for his people, and he would raise him up; 
and therefore ' my reins instruct me in the night season,' saith he ; that 
night when he was in the garden, and when he was before Pilate, God's 
counsel was to him to do it, beforehand, and he blesseth God, that gave 
him that counsel. This psalm is a psalm in relation to Christ, and it is 
spoken of his death and resurrection. 

Obs. 5. Lastly, observe this, that oftentimes the speeches of great per- 
sons (as of fathers concerning their children, &c.), which they do not speak 
prophetically, as in theii* intentions, yet they are so in the event. As 
Homer brings in the di'eam of Agamemnon. So Pharaoh dreamed, and 
Nebuchadnezzar dreamed. Yet oftentimes princes and others do utter 
speeches that have a prophetical meaning in them in the conclusion. It is 
dangerous therefore for a man to curse himself, to wish this or that upon 
himself, for whilst thou dost it in a coiTupt passion, out of a corrupt heart, 
God may tui-n it to a prophecy ; therefore take heed of such speeches upon 
all occasions. And so much for this 14th verse. 


Peter's denial of Christ. — That this was an addition to his sufferings. 

There is a great question among interpreters (which I will handle very 
briefly, because I will not trouble you much with difficulties), whether all 
this that follows concei^ning Peter's denial, and the high priest's asking 
Christ of his disciples and of his doctrine, was done in Annas his house, or 
in Caiaphas his ? All yield that there were some things done in Caiaphas 
his house, and that he was led to Caiaphas, and that from Caiaphas he was 
led to Pilate, and from Pilate to Herod ; but some would have what is 
brought in here of Peter, and the examination of Christ concerning his 
disciples and doctrine, to have been in Annas his house, and by him. But 
the case is clear in other evangelists that it was not. For we read in all 
the other evangehsts, especially in Matthew, that Peter's denial was in 
Caiaphas his house. And John here saith expressly that Caiaphas was 
high priest that same year, and that Peter's denial was when he got into 
the palace of the high priest, and that the high priest asked Jesus of his 
disciples and of his doctrine. Now though Annas was lather-in-law to the 
high priest, yet it was Caiaphas that was the high priest ; therefore all this 
must needs be done in Caiaphas his house, and not in Annas his. The 
plain meaning then is this, that whereas Annas was father-in-law to Caiaphas 
the high priest, they led him therefore first to his house ; but when Annas 
had seen him, they (without Annas doing anything to him at all that we 
read of) led him away to Caiaphas ; and though his leading to Caiaphas be 
not mentioned here, yet it is mentioned at the 24:th verse, where it is said, 
' Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.'. So that, I 
say, all these things were done in Caiaphas his house, and not in Annas 
his ; and therefore there is none of the evangelists but John that mention 
anything of Annas, because, indeed, there was nothing done in his house ; 
only they brought him unto him because he was Caiaphas his father-in-law, 
for to see him ; and when he had seen him, he sent him directly to Caiaphas ; 
the very words, * to Annas first,' impHes this. And the truth is that C}Til, 
an ancient Greek father, he brings in even here, afore he comes to the 15th 
verse, ' Annas he sent him bound to Caiaphas,' and in the copies that he 

Chap. IX.] of christ the mediator. 2-11 

had and had seen, those words were found. And Beza inclines to that too, 
and thinks it was an omission in the writer, and that it ought to be here 
inserted. So much now for the solving of that question ; and so I come 
to the words of this 15th verse. 

Verse 15. * And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. 
That disciple ivas known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the 
door, and hrought in Peter.'' 

It is the beginning of the story of Peter's denial of Christ, which denial 
of Peter's is intermingled by all the evangelists with the suficrings of our 
Lord and Saviour Christ ; and I think it is done on purpose, first, to illus- 
trate the sufferings of Christ ; for certainly this denial of Peter's did some- 
thing add to Christ's sufferings ; that at that very time when he was asked 
of his doctrine and of his disciples, one of his greatest and most eminent 
disciples should be denying of him (for so you see the context runs), which 
Christ knew, for in the end he looked back upon Peter, and shewed his 
grief for him, and that he took notice of him, and of what he had done. 
And, 2, the evangelists do it also for this purpose, to shew the great love 
of Christ, that though Peter and the other disciples were a- sinning, espe- 
cially Peter, for he sinned most greviously, Jesus Christ went on in his 
work, went on to suffer even for those sins that they were then committing. 
And as Christ knew what Peter was a- doing then, and yet went on to suffer, 
so he knew what thou wouldst do against him, and yet suffered for thee. 
But to come to the story. 

There are in all the evangelists recorded three several denials of Christ, 
and that by Peter ; and as I go along I must compare the one with the 
other, and shew that there is no contradiction in what the evangelists 

In the words here, from the 15th verse to the 19th, you have two 
eminent things to be considered. 

1. The introduction, or the story that delivers how it came to pass that 
Peter did get into the high priest's hall, which was the occasion of his 

2. The denial itself. 

1. First, For the story how Peter got in. John waiting* after the other 
evangelists, still labours to insert some circumstances which they had 
omitted. Now none of the other evangelists tell us how Peter got into the 
high priest's hall ; they tell us indeed that Peter followed his master afar 
off, but this great circumstance, which was a preparation to his denial, how 
he got in, and with what difficulty, it is only recorded by John. And there 
is a great deal to be observed in it. But first I shall open it historically, 
and then give you the observations as I go along. 

Simon Peter foHoived Jesus. The other evangelists tell us that he followed 
Jesus afar off. But I shall not speak of that circumstance, intending to 
keep principally to what John here saith. It was certainly a mixed action 
in Peter, that is, an action mixed of love and of fear, of grace and corruption. 
For that he followed him argues that he had a love in his heart to Christ ; 
yet there was fear mixed with it, for he walketh after him afar off. 

The question is here, whether Peter sinned in this, in his going to the 
high priest's hall ? 

Assuredly he did; For, 1. Christ had expressly told him, Mat. xxvi. 2, 
that he should suffer at that passover ; therefore it was unbelief in him to 

Qu. ' writing ' ? — Ed. 

VOL. V. Q 


follow him after he was apprehended, to see the event of it, as Matthew 
tells us he went for that reason. And, 

2. Christ had taken order, when he was first taken, that his disciples 
should be kept safe, and let free. ' Let these go,' saith he, which was inti- 
mation enough that they were unable to sufl'er ; for it follows, ' That the 
word which he had spoken might be fulfilled, of those thou hast given me 
have I lost none ;' implying that if they had then been put to sufler, they 
had been lost, for they were weak and unfit for suffering, and it was not the 
mind of God to strengthen them to suffering at that time. And therefore in 
John xiii. 36, saith Christ, ' Whither I go thou canst not follow me now, but 
thou shalt follow me afterwards.' Thou canst not follow me now, for thou art 
not able to follow me, neither will my Father strengthen thee to follow me ; 
but afterwards he followed Christ, even to the cross, for, as ecclesiastical 
stories tell us, he was crucified as his master was. But yet the meaning of 
that place is, that as Christ went to heaven in a way of suflering, so he told 
him that he should follow him thither, but he should not follow him pre- 
sently in the like way of suffering. And besides, 

3. Christ had plainly and fully told him that he would deny him. Now 
for him, having been thus warned by Christ, and having had experience of 
his own fearfulness — for having struck off the high priest's servant's ear, he 
fled away amongst the rest ; and it was not likely that he should be more 
valiant and courageous in the high priest's hall, amongst soldiers and officers, 
than he had been in the garden — for him, I say, notwithstanding all this, 
to be venturing, and to put himself upon that temptation, it was certainly a 
sin. But still, I say, grace will work with corruption ; his love unto Christ 
wrought with his fear, and then the words that he had spoken himself, those 
courageous stout words, ' I will die with thee rather than deny thee,' those 
rise in his mind, and put him upon going after Christ to see the issue of the 
business ; and perhaps he hoped that he might happily get in with the 
crowd, and so not be seen. 

Ohs. 1. The observation that I make from hence by the way, is this, That 
we should not put ourselves upon occasions of suffering or danger, till such 
time as God calls us. It is unwarrantable, and it is sinful so to do. It was 
so in Peter. 

Obs. 2. As it is unwarrantable to put ourselves upon occasions of suffer- 
ings, so it is dangerous for us to tempt God by putting ourselves upon 
occasions of sinning ; to go to the door, as it were, where a man shall be 
drawn in to sin, as Peter here ; he follows, and he goes to the door, and 
stands without, hankering to see what shall be the end of it. I say it is a 
dangerous thing for us to put ourselves upon occasions of sinning, to tempt 
God, for then you see by this of Peter what the issue is ; when Peter tempt- 
eth God, then doth God suffer Peter to be tempted, he leads him indeed 
into temptation. 

But Peter had not got in for all this, had it not been for an unhappy pro- 
vidence to him ; for so I may call it in respect of his sin, though God 
intended good by it. For the story tells us that another disciple went along 
with him, and that disciple, being known unto the high priest, went in with 
Jesus into the palace of the high priest. This is brought in here on pur- 
pose to shew how Peter got in, for otherwise there is no reason of mention- 
ing this going in of the other disciple. The providence of God would that 
here should be two disciples eye-witnesses of Christ's sufferings in the high 
priest's hall, from whom the rest might have the relation of it. There was 
Peter and another disciple. He is called a disciple, for that was the name 

Chap. IX.J op ohrist the mediatob. 243 

that was given to Christians in Christ's time, and so in the Acts of the 
Apostles, till they came to Antioch, for then they were first called Chris- 

There is a question amongst interpreters who this other disciple was. 
Some say (and many good interpreters) that it was John, and the reason 
they give is this, because John in this epistle * when he speaks of himself, 
he styles himself ' that other disciple,' and never mentions his name, as in 
John XX. 30. But you shall find that where John speaks of himself, though 
he conccaleth his own name, and saith ' that other disciple,' yet he adds 
withal, ' whom Jesus loved ;' so you have it in the same 20th of John, ver. 2 
i>ut now that addition is not put to this disciple, but it is another dis- 
ciple which was known to the high priest. And besides, to me there is 
this great reason that this other disciple was not John, because there is no 
likelihood (but the contrary seems much more probable) that John should 
have so much knowledge and familiarity as this disciple apparently had, 
both with the high priest himself, and so, by virtue of that acquaintance and 
greatness with him, an interest in his family also ; so that he could com- 
mand or order to have Peter let in. Now John was a poor fisherman, that 
lived in Galilee, a country remote from Jerusalem, and came but up with 
Christ at the feast ; for Christ did not live ordinarily at Jerusalem, but 
always after the feast went down again into Galilee, the place of his usual 
residence ; unless he preached sometimes up and down in the country ; and 
when he went, his disciples went with him ; therefoi-e it is not likely that 
he should have such interest in the high priest's house. And then again, 
if it had been John, he would certainly have been questioned as well as 
Peter, neither would he himself have ventured in, being so well known as 
it is said this other disciple was. And the Syriac translation favours this 
opinion, that it was none of John, for it reads it thus, imus ex aliis, one of the 
other disciples, not being one of the twelve. And it was a disciple, though 
known to the high priest, yet certainly he was not known to be a disciple ; 
for had he been known to be a disciple, doubtless they had fallen upon him 
as well as upon Peter, for all his favour with the high priest. And it bad 
been brought in as an argument to Peter, that he was a disciple, because he 
was helped into the hall by another disciple ; but you see it is not, only they 
allege that Peter was one of them that was in the garden, &c. But the 
truth is, when the Holy Ghost hath concealed who this disciple was, why 
should we go and say. Who is it ? 

Obs. From hence I will give you this observation, that Christ he had 
other disciples besides his apostles ; many hidden ones. You shall find in 
John xii. 42, that among the chief rulers thei'e were many that believed on 
him, but because of the Pharisees they did not confess him. And in 
Acts i. 15, there were a hundred and twenty that met together. So that 
there were more disciples than the twelve, yet there were many that appeared 
not, as Nicodemus, that came to Jesus by night ; and they did not appear 
till after his death. Christ hath many hidden ones that are a long time 
putting themselves forth in profession. "We see it in experience ; it hath 
been known that men have been long converted, and lived privately in the 
family, before they made an open profession. And so now, many are 
favourers of the cause of Christ that do not shew themselves ; but shew 
themselves they will in the end. This man here, though he would not pro- 
fess himself openly, yet when he saw a disciple, he would do him a good 
turn, as he thought he did Peter in having of him mto the high priest's house. 
*Qu. " Gospel ?"— Ed. 


The text saith, this other disciple was kno-wn to the high priest. The 
reason why this expression is used, is, to shew that it was a hard thing to 
get in unless a man had acquaintance, and it was likewise a gi'eat favour to 
come into this Sanhedi'im, yea, this very acquaintance of the high priest him- 
self, as it is thought, was not admitted into the inner room where Christ 
was ; for their proceedings against Christ were secret and hidden, they 
would not have this court kept openly, for the people to see their juggling 
dealing. Peter, you see, could not get in but by favour of this disciple who 
was known to the high priest, though unknown to us. 

Ohs. From thence we may obseiTe, that we should not presently censure 
a man, that he is not holy or the like, because he holds correspondency, or 
it may be some intimacy or acquaintance, with men that are carnal ; for 
there may be reason why he doth so, and yet he may be a holy man, as 
this disciple certainly was, and yet kept his correspondency with the high 
priest. I will not justify in all things the act itself, but we should not 
esteem men, or think that therefore they are ungodly, for even that judg- 
ment may deceive us. 

Now this disciple he went in with Jesus, that is, he went in with the 
crowd of the officers, and the band of men that went in with Jesus. 

He went into the palace of the high priest ; into the outward court, so it 
is in the original. The question is, whether Peter and the soldiers that 
were about the fire and the like were in one room, and Christ in another ? 
That which breeds' the scruple is that in Mat. xxvi. 69, it is said that Peter 
sat without in the palace ; which seems to argue that Chiist was in one room 
and he in another. 

The answer is clear, that they were both in one room, that is evident, 
because the other evangelists tell us that Christ looked back upon Peter. 
Now it is not to be thought that Christ came out to look upon him when he 
denied him. Therefore that which is the reconciliation of it is this : whereas 
it is said he was in the lower part of the hall, the meaning is plainly this, 
that the high priest and his fellows, they sat in a place more high advanced 
by steps or so, all within the same walls, and in the lower part of it there 
was a fire, where Peter and the rest stood ; and so Christ being called before 
them there, he might eminently look over all the room. 

Verse 16. ' But Peter stood at the door ivithout. Then went out that other 
disciple, u-hich was known unto the high priest, and spake %into her that kept 
the door, and brour/ht in Peter.'' 

That other disciple, perceiving that Peter stood vrithout, and knowing him 
to be a disciple, and bearing love and goodwill to him, befriends him, goes 
to her that kept the door, and as some think, betnists her with this secret 
that Peter was one of Christ's disciples, which made her so confidently 
afterward charge him, as you know she did ; and so upon this speech he 
gets in. 

Peter stood at tlie door icithout. As I said before, it was an unwarrant- 
able action for Peter to follow Christ ; he had had warning about his deny- 
ing of him before, yet you see ho would not awa}", but though he found 
the door shut upon him, yet there he stands ; and as he followed Christ in 
confidence of his own strength, so here in the same confidence he stands at 
the door, waiting for an opportunity to get in. My brethren, it is a certain 
rule and truth, that though another man may sufier for Christ out of a 
heroic spirit, out of some carnal grounds and ends, yet God will not per- 
mit those that are his own children to suffer for him upon such grounds ; he 

Chap. IX.] of christ tue mediator. 215 

■will rather give them up to a denying of him, till such time as they are fitted for 
a true and real suffering; and so he did Peter here. Above all things, there- 
fore, we should by this example learn to take heed of venturing in ways of 
suffering out of our own strength, for so Peter did ; he went forth in his own 
strength, and you see what the issue of it is. 

Well ; Peter, you see, by the help of his fiiend, gets in. The observa- 
tions that I make upon all tliis story of letting in Peter are these. 

Obs. 1. Observe the workings of God's providence about this sin and 
denial of Peter's. The providences of God they were many ; I shall men- 
tion them here. 

(1.) He could not get in : * Peter stood at the door without.' Here now 
God in his providence at first did put an impediment, a bar to Peter's 
attempt, stopped him in going on to that which should be the occasion of 
his sin. Peter ho should have taken this for a warning, he should have 
observed the providence of God in hindering him, but he would not. In 
any way or course wherein we find that God in his providence doth put 
impediments, it should strike our hearts ; and we should look upon it as 
a call and warning from God to examine our grounds in going on in that 
way. If indeed we find our ways such as are warranted by the word, or 
that our consciences are clear in it that it is a duty, and that we are called 
to it, then, let there be never so many impediments, we are to go on in it. 
But otherwise, in a doubtful way, if a man finds impediments, let him 
observe that providence. If Peter had done thus when he found the door 
shut, he had not sinned thus against Christ as he did ; but he still stands 
at the door, tempting of God, and therefore doth God in the end suffer 
him to be tempted. 

(2.) But yet, though Peter was thus stopped for a while, there comes (after 
he had tempted Providence) the fairest and clearest providence to bring him 
in to the high priest's hall that could be. Peter spake not to this disciple 
to let him in, but he, spying of him, goes out and brings him in. So that, 
on the other side, we are not in businesses to go merely by providences, 
for you shall find that oftentimes providences do lay fair for occasions of 
sinning. Here was as fan- and as clear a providence to bring Peter into 
the high priest's haU, where he should deny Christ, as could be ; nay, the 
providence was so fair, that one would think that God called Peter into 
the hall. We are apt ofttimes to measure our ways by providences much ; 
but never believe the works of God unless thou hast a word of God first 
for thy way, for God doth lay snares, especially when men tempt him. 
"V\Tien Jonah was to go to Nineveh, and instead of going thither, ran away 
from God to go to Tarshish, he had the fau'est providence that could be, 
for he found a ship that was fitted and all ready to go to Tarshish ; he 
might now think, here is a providence serves me as fit as can be. Ay, but 
he went against the word of God. And the truth is, so doth Peter here ; 
and therefore, I say, never be ruled by the providences of God, unless thou 
hast the word of God, for the providence of God doth as equally and in- 
differently lay temptations for men as it doth facilitate their way in what 
he would have them do. In things which are not God's way, you shall 
have providences fall exceedingly fair ; and in things that are God's way, 
you shall have many impediments to the contrary, to try your faith. 

"When Peter now did thus get in, he thought it certainly a vei-y great 
favour and courtesy, and a special privilege, that he should, according to 
his desire, see the issue of things ; for he went for that end, as Matthew 
saith. And his friend certainly intended to do him the greatest kindness 


and favour that could be. There are snares that lie oftentimes in the 
courtesies and kindnesses of friends. For so there is in this ; he did it as 
a kindness, and the other thought it a favour , but the truth is, it was a 
great snare, and in the end it proved a fatal business to Peter, as being the 
occasion of that great and famous denial of his master. 

It is strange likewise that Christ, who could tell him he should deny him, 
would not bid him take heed of the high priest's hall. He could have done 
the one as well as the other. He, that knew all things that should befall 
himself, knew what should befall Peter, how it was he should deny him. 
But yet Jesus Christ, he being God as well as man, he was not obliged to 
give Peter that caveat ; but though he knew it, and suffered it for his o^vn 
glory, yet it is no warrant for us to do so. God may permit sin, he knows 
how to punish it, and how to get glory out of it, and he himself is not de- 
filed by it ; but we are not to permit others to sin. And so much for the 
16th verse, and for the introduction into Peter's denial. I come now to 
the denial itself. 

Verse 17. ' Then saith the damsel that kept the door imto Peter, Art not 
thou also one of this mans disciples ? He saith, I am not.' 

That a damsel should be the door-keeper to the high priest, some say 
(and indeed many of the best interpreters) it was ex more ffentis, from the 
custom of the country. Thus, in Acts xii. 13, you read that when Peter 
knocked at the door, that a damsel went and opened the door ; for it was 
her place so to do. And in 2 Sam. iv, 6, in the Septuagint it is in the 
feminine gender ; it is not in the Hebrew indeed, but the Septuagint, that 
ancient translation (which shews it was the custom of the country), inserts 
these words, and the woman that was the doorkeeper was winnowing of 
corn. I speak it only for this, to shew the reason why a damsel kept the 
door of the high priest. But others say (and probably too) that the reason 
why this damsel kept the door, was because that all the servants were now 
busy, and taken up in attending one way or other ; the keeping of the door 
therefore for the present was committed to this maid. But I take it that 
the first is the truth, that it was the manner of the country ; it being 
strengthened by those two instances. However it fell out, certainly God 
ordered it in the greatest providence that could be. For of all men you 
know how confident Peter was, and how he had said, ' Though all men 
forsake thee, I will not forsake thee.' He goes forth in his own strength ; 
he had out of his valour cut off the ear of the high priest's servant, falling 
upon a whole multitude of men, he alone and one other ; for there was but 
two swords amongst them. God therefore ordei'ed it in his providence, 
that he would confute the pride of Peter this way, that his weakness might 
be seen to all posterity, and made the more famous : at the speaking of a 
poor silly maid, he denies his Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ ! 

Then said the damsel unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this man's dis- 
ciples? The evangelists they do all reckon up three several sorts of 
denials that Peter had ; yet if you compare the first in Matthew, and the 
first in Mark, and the first in Luke, with this fu'st in John (which all must 
be accounted to be but one), the story seems to be exceeding different, if 
you either consider what the evangelists record her speeches to have been 
unto Peter, and of Peter, or of what his speeches were unto her. Li 
Matthew, chap. xxvi. 69, the speech she there useth to him is, ' Thou also 
wert with Jesus of Galilee,' that is, thou as well as others. In Mark it is 
thus, ' Thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth;' now Nazareth, j^ou know, 

Chap. IX. J of christ the iiediatok. 2-t7 

xas a city in Galilee. And in Luke, chap. xxii. 56, her speech is not to 
Peter, hut to them that stood by, and it was thus, ' This man also was with 
him.' Now here in John it is a differing speech from all these, ' Art not 
thou also,' saith she, * one of this man's disciples ?' And as her speeches 
recorded by the evangelists do varj', so you shall find that his speeches to 
her vary as much. For in Matthew, chap. xxvi. ver. 70, it is said, ' He 
denied afore them all, saying, I know not what thou sayest.' It is the 
highest kind of negation that can be ; the meaning of it is, I am so far from 
belonging to him, that the truth is, it is strange to me that you should ask 
me any such question ; I do not know the least of him ; as if he had never 
heard of the man before. And so in Mark xiv. 68, * I know not, neither 
understand I what thou sayest.' And in Luke xxii. 57, ' "Woman, I know 
him not.' Now here, in John, being asked, whether he was his disciple ? 
he saith, ' I am not.' How shall we reconcile this ? 

The reconciliation is very easy, for they are several speeches of hers, and 
several speeches of his, whereof some evangehsts record some, and others, 
others. And it seemeth to have been thus (that I may hang and pin them 
altogether) : this maid she first says to the standers by, ' This man also 
was with him,' as Luke hath it ; and then she turns to Peter, and says, 
' Are not thou one of this man's disciples ?' as John here hath it ; and 
then she peremptorily affirms it, that she upon her own knowledge had seen 
him with him, ' Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee,' as Matthew and 
Mark have it. Now she, using several forms of speeches, some to the 
standers by, and some to himself, at the first asking him the question 
only, afterward peremptorily affirming it, this is it which draws out those 
several answers from Peter, according to the several occasions ; which all 
the evangelists severally record, and all these make but this first denial of 

Others cast it thus (which comes all to one) that she did first ask Peter 
the question, as John hath it here, ' Are not thou one of this man's dis- 
ciples ?' as he came in at the door. He answered, ' I am not.' After- 
wards going to the fire where Peter sat, and as Luke hath it, seeing him 
by the Hght thereof (for so it is in the original), and as the text there saith, 
viewing of him wistly, with fixed eyes, thought she, I have seen you afore 
now, and seen you with him. And now she doth not go and ask him, ' Art 
thou not one of this man's disciples ?' but she plainly saith, ' Thou art 
one ;' and she tells the standers by so too, ' This man' (saith she to them) 

* also was with him ;' and therefore Matthew tells us, that he denied before 
them all, spake as loud as he could, that they might all take notice of it, ' I 
know not,' saith he, * what thou sayest.' 

You may likewise see the working of the providence of God even in this 
too ; as, namely, that such a woman as had seen him some time or other 
with Christ, should now keep the high priest's door ; for indeed that seems 
to be plain, that she speaks of her own knowledge : ' Thou also,' saith she, 

* wast with him,' that is, thou didst converse with him ; so Matthew and 
Mark have it. And the truth is, that the coherence here in John evidently 
carries it so, for here at the 17th verse we translate it, ' Then saith the 
damsel;' but in the original it is, ' Therefore saith the damsel,' the coherence 
whereof is plainly this, that she having observed him to be spoken for to be 
let in by a disciple, being at the door, minds him not so much at first, but 
afterwards eying him more wistly by the hght of the fire, having formerly 
seen him, she peremptorily challengeth him : ' She therefore saith unto him,' 
&c. Now, I say, here was a providence of God, that that woman (it mps be 


none of all the family else had observed him), that she should be at the door 
and take notice of all these things, that she should come to challenge him, 
and did challenge him, or else he had not been challenged. Others of them 
bring other arguments, that his speech bewrayed him, and that they saw 
him with Jesus in the garden ; but the providence of God so ordered it, that 
of all the family she should be the woman that kept the door, who had seen 
him and knew him to be with Christ. At fii'st indeed she did not know 
him so perfectly, therefore she only puts the question to him, ' Ai't not thou 
one of this man's disciples ?' But afterward viewing him more strictly, and 
that by the light of the fire, she comes to know him, and challengeth him 
in a peremptory manner. So that God's providence did still strongly work 
in this great business to discover Peter. To get him in, it vsrought much, 
and now it works as strongly even for a discovery. And you shall see 
other passages of providence afterward in the story, and how strongly they 
wrought too. And so much now for the historical opening of the words of 
this verse. 

I will give you but an observation or two, and so pass on. 

Obs. 1. You see that as God would have it manifested that all sorts of 
people, Jew and Gentile, civil state and ecclesiastical, all these sorts were 
against our Lord and Saviour Chiist, so all sexes too. There is this damsel 
here, and another damsel afterward, as Matthew and Mark have it, that fall 
upon Peter, and challenge him for being his disciple. 

Obs. 2. You see likewise the weakness of Peter ; he was but asked by a 
damsel, and at the first but in a secret way, for I take it this speech here 
in John, \^hich occasioned his fii'st denial, was when he came in at the door; 
it was then that she asked him, ' Art not thou one of this man's disciples ?' 
A damsel, you see, foiled him ; he that was not long before so extreme eager, 
that he promised he would die with Christ, that he would never leave him, 
that he would not, promised it three times ; he that in the garden was so 
valiant as to cut oft' Malchus his ear, in defence of his master ; this man 
being left to himself, at a private question that a damsel makes him, falleth 
into this great lie, which afterwards he seconded with further and greater 
protestations, as we shall see in the story. If that God doth leave us, what 
poor creatures are we ! That that Peter who had naturally so bold a spirit, 
so great a natural com-age, one that was a rash and a ventm'ous, a bold 
and a daring man, as appears by all his actions, especially by that in the 
garden, when he cut oft' the high priest's servant's ear ; he that was so 
bold afterward from the Spirit of God, when the Holy Ghost comes upon 
him ; this Peter, when he is left to himself, neither natural courage doth 
assist him, but at the whispering of a maid you see what a lie he tells ; 
neither doth the Holy Ghost help him, who yet did dwell in his heart. 
What poor creatm'es are the most com'ageous of men, if God leave them ; 
they will fall short not only of the gi'ace that is in them, and of the power 
of the Holy Ghost that is in them, but of that natural boldness which they 
have, for so Peter did. 

Obs. 3. When was it that Poter thus foully and grossly denies his master ? 
It was then when our Lord and Saviour Christ was entered into his suffer- 
ings ; when he was arraigned, and arraigned for him, for his sins, before 
the high priest. Then when om- Lord and Saviour Chi-ist was about to do 
the greatest favom* and mercy that ever was done for creatures, and for 
Peter amongst the rest, then God ordered it that Peter should sin, and sin 
thus foully and gi'ossly. It was a very great aggravation of his sin, even 
this, for so the cii'cumstance of time is to any sin. If that, at the same time 

Chap. IX.j of cheist the mediator. 249 

that a friend is contriving, or taking pains for me, or doing anything for mo 
of the gi'catcst moment, saving my life, begging my i)ardon, if I should at 
that time wrong my friend most, how would that heighten my unkindness ! 
This was Peter's case. Yet you see Christ goes on with his work for all 
that. He knew Peter was a-denying of him, yet that did not make him 
withdraw his neck from suffering for Peter. Great sins against God, when 
he is doing us very great mercies, should exceedingly break our hearts, as 
it did Peter's here ; he went out afterwards, and wept bitterly. Whenever 
we do sin, Jesus Christ is interceding in heaven for us. Our sins do not 
hinder him from going on to intercede, as Peter's sinning here did not hinder 
him from going on to suffer for him. 

Ohs. 4. And then again, Peter being asked whether he was one of his 
disciples, answers, ' I am not.' He doth not deny Christ to be the Messiah 
of the world, only he saith, ' I am not one of his disciples.' Yet Christ 
had said, ' Thou shalt deny me.' He denied, indeed, that he belonged to 
him. For any man to slink out of the profession of Christ when he is 
called to it, or out of any truth of his, though he deny not that Christ is 
the Messiah, and that Christ is come in the flesh, or the great points of sal- 
vation, yet it is a denial of Christ. And so much now for the 17th verse. 

Verse 18. ' And the servants and officers stood there, who had made afire 
of coals [for it ivas cold), and they ivarmed themselves; and Peter stood with 
them and ivarmed himself.' 

The scope of this relation is only this, to shew the occasion of Peter's 
second and third denial, which John afterwards tells us of. For though 
his second denial comes not in till the 25th verse, yet this story here is 
related as a preparation thereunto : that the weather being cold, the ser- 
vants and officers were not scattered up and down, but were all gathered 
together in a ring, and cluster in the midst of the hall about the fire, and 
Peter he was in the midst of them ; and therefore, if there were notice taken 
of Peter, all must take notice of him, one as well as another ; and hence it 
came to pass that Peter was so mightily afraid, that he went on to deny his 
master, with oaths and curses, as afterward you read in the story. It was 
to shew the publicness of his sin, for Matthew saith, ' he denied before 
them aU,' for they were all gathered together in a heap, and Peter in the 
midst. But to open it a little. 

They had a fire of coals ; of wood already burned or kindled, to avoid 
the smoke, because the fire was in the midst of the hall, as Luke hath it. 

For it was cold, which might seem strange, because those countries are 
hot, and it was in the spring time, for it was in March. But this is easily 
resolved, for you must know that in those countries, as there is an extremity 
of heat in the day, so there are oftentimes in the spring, as well as in the 
winter, exceeding cold nights, especially after rain. And it was that night 
especially a cold night, and that was the reason of the fire. 

The observations I make out of these words are only these two. 

Obs. 1. It is said that it was a cold night. Now this night, which thus 
occasionally fell out to be more cold than ordinary, it was that night in 
which Christ sweat drops of blood in the agony of his spirit when he was in 
the garden. For that agony of his was not many hours afore this befell 
him ; for after he had supped, he made a long sermon and a long prayer, 
and then went into the garden, and from thence they fetched him out (all 
this was within night) ; and afore the first crowing of the cock this denial of 
Peter's fell out. It is noted, therefore, by interpreters, as a circumstance 


to greaten the agony of Christ, and to set forth the extremity of his suffer- 
ings, that in a cold night he should sweat drops of blood, which was con- 
traiy to nature, and must proceed, therefore, from that great anxiety and 
perplexity his soul was in. It is brought, I sa}^ by divines as an aggrava- 
tion and evidence of those great soul-suiierings of Christ, more than from 
the fear of death, that in a cold night he should thus sweat drops of blood. 
It is noted upon that, though it comes in here upon another occasion, viz., 
that it being cold, there was a fire, and Peter stood there to warm himself, 
as he might lawfully do, but that he stood in the midgt of temptations, and 
in the midst of tempters. 

Obs. 2. Peter stood in the midst of them ; so Luke hath it ; for now he 
was in, and having once denied him to the damsel, to the end he might not 
further be known, he goes and shrinks in amongst the crowd, thinking to 
hide himself; and there he stands amongst the enemies of Christ, who 
being all full of malice did certainly speak evil of him, and talked their 
pleasures of him ; but he, standing b}', w^as forced to be silent, said not a 
word, sufiered all to pass in silence, which was a kind of a denying Christ. 
And so, Peter having sinned thus far, God gives him up still to more sin. 
It is a dangerous thing, my brethren, without a special call of God, to be in 
ill company, especially in evil times. Peter being amongst these enemies 
of Christ, it was the occasion of his being challenged, and that was the 
occasion of this great sin he fell into. In evil times, if a man be in such 
company, either he must be silent, or if he speak, they will be ready to per- 
vert his speech, to put him upon a temptation. We should therefore avoid 
all needless societies with carnal people. Take heed of coming into high 
priest's halls ; you see into what inconvenience it drew Peter to. And so 
much for this first denial of Peter's, which I have historically laid open. I 
come next to the examination of Chiist, in the nineteeth, twentieth, and 
twenty-fii'st verses. 


The accountof Chrisfs examination before Caiaphas, in the nineteenth, twentieth, 
and one-and-ticentieth verses of this eif/hteenth chapter of John. — We now 
come to the other part of Christ's sufferings recorded in this chapiter, and 
that is a strict examinaton of him. 

* The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine. Jesus 
answered him, I spake openly to the imvld ; I ever taught in the synagogue, 
and in the temple, uhither the Jews always resort; and in secret have 1 said 
nothing. Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, tvhat I have 
said unto them: behold, they know uhat I said.' — John xviii. 19, 20, 21. 

Here begins a third part of Christ's sufferings recorded in this text. 
You have first his having been taken, and so bound, and then led to Annas 
his house in a triumph of glory ; now, here is the third, his coming to 
Caiaphas his house (for Annas had sent him bound to Caiaphas), who is 
called the high priest, because he was that year the high priest, though 
others had the name also, for they still retained the title, though they were 
out of the office. And being here, they fall to examining of him about his 
disciples, and his doctrine. Other evangelists tell us of their examining of 
him, and bringing in witnesses against him, concerning some speeches he 

Chap. X.J of christ the mediator. 251 

spake about the temple, and about his own office, and his being the Messiah ; 
but this examination here, which certainly was the first they began with, 
and was as the prodwmus to all the rest, no evangelist hath it but only 

The time was (some twenty-one years before) when Christ, being but 
twelve years old, had asked them, and posed the doctors in the temple; and 
he was then (as he saith) about his Father's business, putting forth then 
some beams of the Godhead dwelling in him. And now he is before them 
in a state of ignominy, and he is asked and examined as a delinquent, as 
a malefactor, as a heretic and seditious person ; and he is about his Father's 
business in this as well as in the former. 

And by the way here, afore we come to the particular opening of these 
verses, let us consider who it was that vas thus examined. It was he that 
■was the great prophet prophesied of by Moses, that should come into the 
world, of whom ii was said, that whosoever would not hearken to the words 
of that prophet which he should speak, he should surely be put to death. 
Clean contraiy now, he being come into the world, he is examined as a false 
prophet, that they might find cause of putting him to death. He that was 
the truth itself, is examined and charged with false doctrine. He that was 
the prince of peace, and came and preached peace (as it is, Eph. ii. 17), he 
is charged with rebellion, and accused to have preached sedition. But, to 
come to the words. 

The high priest then ashed Jesus. 21icn, or therefore. Some translate it 
therefore, and so it hath relation to what is said in the 13ch and 14th 
verses, where John speaks of the high priest, and brandeth him to be the 
man that gave the first counsel that Christ should die for the people. And 
now they having resolved to put him to death, therefore the high priest 
asked him of his doctrine and of his disciples, seeking by questions to 
ensnare him, that so they might have some plausible ground for his con- 
demnation. Others they translate it then, and so the meaning is this, that 
whilst our Lord and Saviour Christ was examining concerning his dis- 
ciples, then was one of his disciples a-denjang of him ; whilst he was called 
in question for them, and it was made an occasion of his suffering, then 
was Peter commit Ling that foul sin. You see the love of our Lord and 
Saviom* Christ. 

The hifjh rriest asked him; — as being the mouth of that great assembly, 
the Sanhedrim, of all the elders and the priests who were met together at 
his house. For you must know it did belong to the high priest, and to 
that assembly of elders, to decide all controversies of doctrine that did 
arise, and to make inquiry into heresies and false doctrines, as appears by 
that place in Dent. xvii. 11—13, therefore now to deal with Christ about 
his doctrine, had it been in ary thing false or untrue, it had not been 
unlawful for the high priest to have done it. But see the iniquity of his 
and their proceedings. They proceed altogether against and without law, 
for they do not lay any false doctrine to his charge, they bring no witnesses 
that this and this he had said, but merelj-, after the manner of the Inquisi- 
tion, ask him questions to ensnare him ; whereas there should have been a 
complaint made first unto him, and he should have brought forth the evi- 
dences, and not go and wire-draw (as I may express it) and examine him 
npon interrogatories, and so to get something from himself; this was alto- 
gether beyond his commission. 

He asked him, it is said, of his doctrine and of his discijjles. The scope 
of the high priest in this question must be a little considered, for that will 


give us light into it ; what end it was that the high priest had in it ; and 
what end likewise it was that God had in it. 

The end and scope of the high priest was twofold. 

It was first, (as I hinted before), to fish out of Christ whether or no he 
had taught such doctrine as should come within the compass of that law in 
Deut. xiii. 5 ; for as I said, this great Sanhedrim, the councU of the high 
priest, and the rest of his fellows, had especially to do in the case of a false 
prophet. Now there, in Deuteronomy, the law is this, ' If a prophet arise 
that shall revolt fi'om the Lord your God' (as it is in the margin), teach 
men to apostatize h'om God, ' who brought you out of the land of Egypt, 
and set up auj' other god, that prophet shall be put to death.' Now because 
that Christ had set himself up to be a prophet, yea, and more than a pro- 
phet, to be the Son of God, they would have ensnared him by asking him 
questions of what he had taught, that so according to the law they might 
put him to death as a fiilse prophet. And because that in that law (as 
appeareth ver. 6), not only a false prophet was thus to be put to death, but 
if any one did secretly entice another, saying, ' Let us go and serve other 
gods' — even as now secretly to persuade any to popery is death by the 
lav/ of this land, — so it was to turn from the true God, or to turn to any other 
god ; this the high priest had an eye upon, and would have gathered it out 
of Chi'ist himself, as appears b}'^ Christ's answer, in which he quits himself 
from any such practice of enticing any secretly, ' In secret,' saith he, 
have I said nothing.' 

And, seconcUij, another end the high priest had was this. They were 
resolved he should be put to death, and they would therefore fain have 
gotten something out of him that should be matter or cause of death, and 
that by the judgment of Pilate. For you must know that all matters of 
controversy in their own law Pilate would not meddle withal ; but if it 
touched upon anything that concerned the Roman state, either raising of 
sedition, or that did touch upon Caesar, denying of him to be king, &c., of 
that Pilate was exceeding jealous (and that they knew), and about that ho 
meddled, as being within his cognisance as the P^oman governor. You 
shall read in Luke xiii., that Pilate had mingled the blood of the Galileans 
with their sacrifices : he killed a great many of them while they were sacri- 
ficing. What was the reason ? Pilate did not regard sacrifices nor sacri- 
ficing, and all the schisms that were in that church Pilate took no notice 
of them, but he let all the sects amongst them enjoy their liberty ; why doth 
he kill these Galileans ? Look in Acts v. 37, and you shall find that there 
was one Judas of Galilee, that, in the days of the taxing, went and drew 
away much people after him, raised sedition, and taught that it was not 
lawful to pay tribute and taxes to Caesar. This was it that made Pilate to 
fall upon a remnant of these Galileans that came up to Jerusalem to wor- 
ship, and to do it even while they were a-sacrificing. Now, therefore, that 
which this Caiaphas did fish for was this, to have matter to accuse Christ 
unto Pilate, for having done as that Judas did, drawH much people after 
him in a way of sedition. Therefore he tries now if he could get anything 
that might di'op from his own mouth, out of which he might frame an accu- 
sation ; and therefore the doctrine which he especially aimed in this ques- 
tion was. Whether he were the Son of God or no ? And hence is it that we 
find in Luke xxiii. 2, when they came to accuse Christ before Pilate, the 
thin" they urge upon Pilate against him is this, ' He forbiddeth to pay 
tribute unto Caesar, saying that he himself is a king;' and (ver. 5), ' He 
Btirreth up the people, teaching thi'oughout all JewTy, beginning from Galilee 

Chap. X.] op christ the mediator. 253 

to this place.' They would insinuate to Pilate that he had gone up and 
down teaching this doctrine, and gathering disciples after him, to make a 
head against the Romans, as being king of the Jews. They put all upon 
this interpretation,* and this was it that Caiaphas, in his questioning Christ, 
fished for ; and thus doth Gerrard interpret the words. And that is the 
reason that Pilate still saith, ho found no cause in the man to put him to 
death ; for Pilate did not meddle with their controversies concerning mat- 
tors of their religion, not he ; but if it were a matter of right or wrong, as 
Gallio said, a matter of sedition, then he meddled with it. This, I say, 
■was the second thing that Caiaphas aimed at in his asking Christ about his 
disciples and his doctrine, namely, to find out, if he could, that he had 
taught a doctrine of rebellion, and did go about to draw disciples in a sedi- 
tious way after him ; which you see is insinuated to be his scope in 
Christ's answer. You have gone into corners (saith Caiaphas) and into 
woods, and spread your doctrine in secret, and have taken cunning ways 
to draw disciples after you. No ; saith Christ, whatsoever I have said I 
have said publicly ; ask them that heard me what I have delivered, for I 
will not accuse myself. 

The end that God had in this, why he should be examined about his 
disciples and his doctrine, it was, 

1. To shew that he should suffer for having disciples, that those whom 
he died for the owning of them should be part of his crime for which they 
put him to death. Which is a circumstance mightily setting out the love of 
Christ unto us. 

2. To shew what it was that they chiefly maliced him for, it was for 
having disciples, which was the work of his ministry. And yet they them- 
selves had disciples, for there was nothing more common (as all men know) 
than for the several sects which were among them (and there were multi- 
tudes of them) to have their several disciples, and liberty was given to them 
so to do ; yet his disciples, of all the rest, they maliced ; and though they 
themselves had all the power, yet that vexed them, that he should have any 
disciples at all. 

And they asked him of his doctrine also, as one that had taught new mat- 
ters, and had not followed the traditions of the elders in all things, but had 
corrected them in a great many of their false glosses by which they misin- 
terpreted the law. 

Neither do they ask him at all of his miracles ; not a word of them. 
Whatsoever made for him, that they meddled not with, but whatsoever 
might any way make against him, that they might fish anything out of, of 
that they make inquiry ; for his miracles were they that confirmed him to 
be the Messiah, and confirmed his doctrine. They asked him of his 
doctrine, as that which was contrary to the law of Moses, and as one that 
brought in innovations ; and they asked him of his disciples, as one that 
brought in sedition ; but that which confirmed the truth of both they speak 
not a word of. For that is the natui'e of corrupt men, that which makes 
for the truth in any cause or business, they let that pass in silence, not a 
whit of mention of that. * Believe me,' saith he, ' for my works' sake.' 
He still confirmed his doctrine by miracles ; they would not so much as 
consider of them, but only barely asked him of his disciples and of his 
doctrine. ' They asked him of his disciples, and of his doctrine.' 

What is the answer now that Christ makes ? It is not to the matter of 
what Caiaphas said or asked him. He declareth neither what his doctrine 
was nor what disciples he had. Only he deals with them warily, as with a 


cunning adversary, one that was skilful to destroy. He would not go and 
accuse himself, but refers what he had taught to their proof, for it was 
matter of fact. • If I have taught anything,' saith he, * ask them that 
heard me.' And he answers nothing about his disciples at all, for if what- 
soever he had taught had been sound and good doctrine, there had been no 
guilt iu drawing disciples after him. And whereas Caiaphas in his exami- 
nation did insinuate that he had gone about in a cunning way to draw dis- 
ciples after him, he clearly wipeth oif that challenge : he never went about 
deceitfully to sow tares whilst others slept ; he never enticed any one 
secretly to any doctrine which he had not publicly taught, but tells them 
that he did always aftect publicness, and he expresseth his affectation of 
publicness in his doctrine by all sorts of expressions. This in the general. 

' 1 spake openly to the tvorkl, I ever taugjit in the synagogues, and in the 
temple, whither the Jews alicays resort; and in secret have I said nothing.'' 

I shall first open the words, and then shew you Christ's scope in this 
answer of his, as I shewed you their scope in their examination. 

First, To open the words. You see our Lord and Saviour Christ answers 
them fully, and he answers them sharply : ' I spake openly.' The word is 
'KaihriSM, and it hath a twofold meaning. 

1. That for the place where he spake or preached, it was open; so the 
word is taken, John xi. 54, where it is said, that ' Jesus walked no more 
openly,' that is, in public view. 'I spake openly;' that is, I did not 
seek corners to preach in, or to deliver my doctrine. 

2. It signifies that he did speak plainly his mind; he spake out; he did 
not go about the bush, as we say. So the word is used, John x. 24, 'If 
thou be the Christ, tell us plainly ' (it is the same word that is used here) ; 
tell us plainlj^ with a j^ctrresia, with a freedom and plainness, whether thou 
be the Christ. And they themselves once gave that testimony of him, that 
he was regardless of any, and cared not who knew his mind ; so Matt. xxii. 
16, ' We know thou regardest no man's person, but wilt speak the truth 
plainly.' So he had ever done. ' I spake openly ; ' that is, what was in 
my heart about the truth, I spake it plainly. 

And then as he had spoken openly and plainly, so to the world : ' I spake 
openly to the world,' saith he ; that is, to all sorts of men, for so tvorld is 
taken. He did not restrain what he taught to a few disciples only, but he 
told it to the people also, as the Syriac translation hath it. As when a man 
publisheth a book, he publisheth it to the world ; so saith Christ, * I spake 
openly to the world.' 

And this, saith he, I have ever done. It hath been my custom from the 
beginning, as oft as I had any occasion, to speak publicly. It was so at 
the first; for in Mark i. 21, when he began first to preach, * He entered 
into the sj'uagogue and taught.' 

' / ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temp)le, ivhither the Jews always 

There were those two places of public preaching, which he took occasion 
to preach in, and he instanceth in both. I have taught my doctrine in all 
the several sorts of public audiences that are amongst the Jews. First, 
he instanceth in the temple, that is, in Solomon's porch, for that was the 
great place where they used to speak to the people ; and therefore when 
Christ is said by one evangelist to walk in the temple, another saith, he 
walked in Solomon's porch, whither all the Jews did resort (for so some 
read this, whither the Jews always resort), or as others, whither the Jews 
out of all quarters did resort. Which by the way may be an answer to that 

Chap. X.] of christ the mediator. 255 

which is said, that there were such mnltitude of believers in Jerusalem, 
that they could not meet all in one place. Certainly there were mighty 
audiences amongst the Jews, consisting of many thousands, when they 
came up to the feast, unto whom Christ preached ; therefore at one time 
in the feast it is said that Christ (to the end they might all hear) * lifted up 
his voice and cried, He that is athirst, let him come unto me and drink.' 
There they all met, and in that respect he had opportunity to preach to 
many thousands at once, for all the Jews, it is said, came thither ; and so 
that was fulfilled which was spoken of him, Ps. xl. 10, ' I have not con- 
cealed thy word from the great congregation.' 

The synagogues (which he instanceth in likewise) did differ from the 
temple thus, that the synagogues they had only moral and natural worship 
in them, not ceremonial. The temple had ceremonial worship, it was made 
■principally and especially for that, yet so as that prayer and preaching, &c., 
was exercised in it too ; but in the sjTiagogues there was only prayer and 
preaching, and the moral and natural worship of God, which is to be for 
ever, and they were for that use only. Now under the gospel, that which 
God hath made to be the seat of all worship, it is not so much the imita- 
tion of the temple or representative worship, but it is the imitation of the 
synagogues (for so particular congregations and churches are) ; and there- 
fore in James ii. 2, ' If any man come into yom* congregations ' (the word 
is, 'into your synagogues') 'with a gold ring,' &c. And in Heb. x. 25, 
* Forsake not the assembling of youi-selves together ;' it is, assembling 
together in a synagogue. Yet though, for the matter of it, the congi-egations 
now be as the synagogues then, which therefore have only moral worship, 
yet for the privileges and for the promises, they are called temples too, the 
meetings of the saints in the New Testament are. Every synagogue now, 
that is, every assembly of the saints, have the promises of the temple made 
to it. ' You are a temple built up to God,' saith the apostle, ' acceptable 
to him by Jesus Christ.' ' I ever taught in the synagogue and in the 
temple.' The doctrine which he had to deliver, he hath chosen all sort of 
ways to make it public. And he addeth a negation besides. 

In secret have I said nothwg. These words you have spoken of the great 
God in Isa. xlv. 19, which he that is God applies here unto himself. 

But how is it said that he taught nothing in secret ? for in Mark iv. 10, 
when he was alone, he preached to his disciples. And he made a long 
sermon here (which John recordeth), at the passover, and he did it when 
nobody was by but his disciples. And in Mat. xvi. 26, he charged them 
that they should tell no man that he was the Messiah. And many instances 
might be given of his often preaching privately ; how then doth he say, 
' In secret have I said nothing ' ? 

Certainly our Saviour doth not contradict himself or the truth. But this 
speech of his doth not refer to the act of preaching only, as if it had been 
unlawful for him to teach in private, but refers to the matter, ' I have said 
nothing in secret' ; that is, I know nothing that ever I have spoken unto 
any in private, but I have spoken it publicly ; I was never shy or chaiy ot 
my doctrine ; I never feared the face of any man ; neither cared I if all the 
world heard me, but I have ever declared the mind of God to the full, and 
done it with all the freedom of mind that could be. And then likewise the 
scope of that speech is this, that he had not two sorts of doctrine, which 
they would have charged him with ; that he held forth his best doctrine in 
public to the world, that so he might gain applause from the people ; and 
another private doctrine which he reserved to himself, and taught it only to 

256 OF ciirasT the mediatok. [Book V. 

his disciples. No ; Christ was so far from it, that if you read that place in 
Mark iv., and compare the 10th and 21st verses together, you shall find 
that though ^Yhen he was alone he did indeed explain a parable privately to 
his disciples, and so make a sermon of it, yet what saith he at the 21st 
verse ? ' Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed ? 
There is nothing hid which shall not be made manifest.' And look in Mat. 
X. 26, you shall see his meaning to be this : though I have opened this 
parable to you in private, and so preached a sermon privately, yet what I 
have said in your ear, do you go and preach it on the house-top. So that 
Christ professeth the highest plainness and openness that could be, of 
whatsoever he held, and he had that spirit that scorned to reserve himself, 
to deliver one thing in private and another in public. And then he had 
this third scope also, that he was ready to defend what he had taught, if 
there were any man that could lay anything to his charge. I know nothing, 
said he, that ever I spake in private, but I spake it openly ; therefore if any 
man can accuse me, I am here ready to defend it. This is the scope of 
his speech. 

Our Lord and Saviour Christ, you see, he doth not answer a word con- 
cerning his disciples. What was the reason? 

1. Because it was lawful for him, according to the custom that was 
amongst the Jews, to have disciples. The Pharisees they had so uncon- 
trolled ; and the Sadducees had so : and you know what great contention there 
was between those two sects ; so the Essenes, so the Nazarites, so the 
Herodians, and so others. And Christ he might as well justify the one asi 
they the other. 

2. It needed not : for if he could justify his doctrine, he might justify his 
having disciples. If his doctrine were sound and true, there was no guilt 
in this that he had disciples. 

3. He would say nothing concerning them, because he would take all 
upon himself, he alone would suffer. Others give this reason : because his 
disciples had forsaken him, or because he would not betray them, therefore 
he would not tell who they were. And they observe this from it, that men 
should not betray others when they are asked of them, as here Christ did 
not his disciples. But I take the second to be the truer reason, namely, 
that he standing to the justification of his doctrine, his gathering disciples 
that makes no crime. 

There is only this question a little more largely to be insisted upon, 
whether that all private preaching, that is not in public assemblies, be 
unlawful ? 

1. It is the objection that the papists urged against the churches of Christ 
in their first Keformation (as Beza hath it in his sermons upon the passion). 
They say, saith he, that we preach in chimney-corners. But what saith 
Calvin ? It is, saith he, a childish argument to go about to prove by this 
answer of Christ's to Caiaphas, that in some cases men should not preach 
the word of God in private ; for Christ's scope in this speech is not to jus- 
tify the lawfulness or unlawfulness either of the one or the other, but only 
to shew what course he had held, and to rebuke the impudent malice of his 
adversaries ; for otherwise Christ had preached not only in the synagogues, 
but in a ship, and in mountains ; and whenas the Jews went about to sup- 
press him, you shall find that he withdrew himself with his disciples into a 
desert place, and he did so a long time. And the disciples themselves did 
the hke for fear of the Jews, as in Acts i. 14 and Acts xii. 12. 

2. But, secondly ; there is this may be gathered out of it too, as the scope 

(Jhap. X.] Of cumsT the mediatob. 257 

of Christ, and that justly : that no man should go and spread a doctrine 
privately, which he will not own and preach publicly, or own before all the 
world ; for so our Saviour Christ did. It was not but that he taught 
privately, and so his apostles did too ; but as they taught privately, so 
they did teach also in the temple, and never scrupled to do it. It is the 
property of wisdom (as it is Prov. i. 20, 21) to utter her voice in the streets, 
and to cry in the chief places of concourse, and in the city to utter her 
words. It is the devil's practice to sow tares in the night whilst men slept. 
And the apostle, in 2 Tim. iii. 6, speaks of a sort of men that creep into 
houses, and pervert silly women. And it is certainly a sign of falsehood, 
and argues a lie, to conceal men's minds, or to speak that in private which 
they will not do in public. Error and falsehood always shun the light. Our 
Saviour Christ, you see, scorned to speak anything in private, which he had 
not publicly vented, and he was ready to give an account of it ; and so did 
the apostles too ; and although they held their meetings, in times of perse- 
cution, privately, yet so as what they preached privately, they did not fear 
to profess publicly. And it is the genius of the trath, and of them that do 
profess it, so to do. The gospel is hght, and it seeks no comers, and it 
ought to seek no corners, but ought to be spoken publicly ; Acts v. 20, 
' Go, stand and speak in the temple all the words of this life.' It was 
Christ's charge to the apostles. 

3. Therefore, in the third place, I remember Beza gives this answer : 
The papists, saith he, need not object to us, that we seek comers to preach 
in ; for, saith he, we desire nothing more than all that ever we preach or 
hold, to preach it to all the world. And so much now for answer to that 

Now, the scope of Christ in this 20th verse (to touch that a little) is this. 
You see he doth not answer directly to what Caiaphas asketh him ; Caiaphas 
would have had something that he had taught out of him, that so he might 
ensnare him, which was against the law ; for by the law he was not thus to 
sift him, but to have produced witnesses. Christ therefore tells them that 
he had taught what he held in public, and so puts them upon the proof, 
refers them to what he had delivered, which they were (if they counted it 
heresy) to bring proof of. And, secondly, if I have disciples, saith he, I 
have not gathered them by any secret whisperings or creeping into houses, 
but it hath been by preaching publicly ; and if I have preached anything 
publicly, and gathered disciples by it, you yourselves may convince me of 
what I have taught, and here I am to answer it. So that I say, Chi-ist he 
doth not go to answer punctually to what the high priest asked him, for he 
would not give that advantage to so cruel an adversary ; but here I am, 
saith he. They ought to have produced witnesses in a matter of fact as 
this was. And so much for the 20th verse, the opening of it. I shall open 
likewise the 21st, and then give you observations out of them altogether. 

* Why askest thou me ? ask them which heard me, uhat I have said unto 
them: behold, they know ichat I said.' 

Our Lord and gaviour Christ, as he had cleared himself in the former 
words, so here he gives the sharpest reproof, which the high priest to the 
uttermost deserved, for his unjust proceedings against him ; for they were, 
according to their law, to prove everything by witnesses. Christ, though 
he stood at the bar, yet he would shew the greatness of his spirit, he speaks 
home, you see, and sharply. It became him so to do ; he speaks not rail- 
ingly or revilingly, but that which shewed both the injustice of Caiaphas, 
and that he himself, though he stood there before them as a malefactor, 

VOL. V. a 


was not a whit dejected. Do you ask me, saith he ? I never spake any- 
thing privately, but in public, and if there be a fault in gathering disciples, 
the fault must lie upon my doctrine ; and if there be anything in my doc- 
trine, you have the world to witness against me, for I have taught openly 
in the synagogue and in the temple ; and do you ask me ? And do you 
begin now to ask me ? Have j^ou not excommunicated my disciples, and 
made a law that whosoever confesseth me shall be cast out of the syna- 
gogues, and have cast them out because they followed my doctrine ? As 
you never yet refuted my doctrine, and now you bring no witnesses about 
it, do you ask me, that have dealt so injuriously with me and my disciples ? 
And not only so, but you have bound me, and brought me hither to j'our 
bar, and have nothing to lay to my charge ; but what I am accused of, 3'ou 
would get out of my own words. Do you ask me in a matter of fact what 
I have preached, that so you might ensnare me out of my own sayings ? 
Do you ask me ? Will you have me to accuse myself ? The law allows 
me this liberty, not to accuse myself; no man by the law is to be judged 
without witnesses. Produce them. * Why ask you me ? Ask them that 
heard me.' 

Obs. It is not irreverence to magistrates to defend ourselves in such 
cases as these are. Christ doth not stand upon his points as the Messiah, 
but as a subject to that state. And men ought to shew great boldness of 
spirit in such cases. So the apostles. Acts v., '"WTiether it is better to obey 
God than man, judge you.' And Paul saith, Phil. i. 28, that such bold- 
ness is a token of perdition to the adversaries, and of salvation to the people 
of God. 

Ask them that heard me. This shews his innocency. I do not desire 
you, saith he, to ask my friends only ; ask my enemies, the worst I have, 
any one that hath heard me, that can testify anything ; here I am ready to 
defend it; if they will frame up any accusation, I will answer it. 

Behold, theij know what I have said. That same behold hath an emphasis 
with it. Some interpreters very probably conjecture, that he did point to 
their own officers, who had former^, when they were sent by their masters 
to entrap him, given this testimony of him in John vii. 46, that 'never 
man spake like him ; ' and that therefore he did insinuate this in his speech, 
and perhaps did more largely explain it ; for the Holy Ghost records but 
the sum of things ; and so now ho gives the greatest justification of himself 
that can be : saith he, your own officers (pointing at them) that stand here 
at the bar holding of mc, many of those can tell what I have delivered ; I 
have those to justify me, for they said never man spake as I did, therefore 
ask them, and never stand asking of me. It is a mighty reproof. I am so 
free in myself, and stand so innocent and so resolved in that truth that I 
have spoken, that let your own servants and ministers be called, and let 
them speak. And so you have the answer of Christ in this 20th and 21st 
verses. I shall now give you some observations, and so conclude this story 
of Christ's sufferings, which were antecedent to his being scourged, crowned 
with thorns, and crucified. 

Obs. 1. You may observe that the high priest doth not find fault with 
Christ nor with his disciples, for that they had taught without authority. 
In another case, when he whipped the buyers and sellers out of the temple, 
they asked him, ' By what authority doest thou these things ? ' But here 
they do not lay that to his charge. Certainly they would have silenced him 
long afore for his preaching, if it had not been allowable by the custom of 
that country. The truth is, that though none but the priests and Levites 

Chap. X.J of chkisx the mediator, 259 

that were skilful in the law were to preach, yet divers others did, and were 
permitted so to do in that state, if they were gifted. The Pharisees did so, 
and so did Paul, who was a Pharisee, and sat at the feet of Gamaliel ; and 
yet he was not of the tribe of Levi, but of the tribe of Benjamin. And 
Christ himself did not take upon him to preach simply as he was the 
Messiah, as holding that forth for his warrant, though that was warrant 
abundantly for him. And when they come to condemn him, they do not 
quarrel with him for that, but for the matter of his doctrine, whether yea 
or no he did teach these and these points, which they would have known 
from himself, and therefore they asked him of his doctrine, 

Ohs. 2. You see they object no vice against Christ, only his doctrine to 
him (lor otherwise Christ was innocent), and his having disciples. Observe, 
then, that his professing Christians should herein imitate their master, that 
when they come to sufier, they may no way suffer as evil doers ; that they 
may suffer for nothing but the doctrine they have held forth, the disciples 
they have kept company with, the profession they have made, that it may 
be barely and merely the truth of their religion they suffer for, 

Obs. 3, Still the great charge in all ages that they go about to lay, as to 
Christ, so to his people, it is heresy, and it is sedition. This they would 
have fastened upon Christ, charging him with heresy in his doctrine ; with 
sedition in gathering disciples to disturb the state, as Theudas and others 
that you read of in Acts v. ; and therefore they ask him of his doctrine, 
and of his disciples, and they would have fetched that out from himself, 
that when he had gathered disciples enow he would presently have rebelled. 
This they would have made Pilate believe. Both these, heresy and sedi- 
tion, in terminis, were laid to Christ's charge. 

Ohs. 4. In that Chi-ist answers nothing about his disciples, we may ga- 
ther this (which indeed I hinted afore), that if the doctrine be good, as to 
the having disciples that do embrace it, there is no guilt in that. If Christ 
had done it seditiously indeed, which was it they endeavoured to la}^ to his 
charge, therein there had been a guilt. Look of what kind the doctrine is, 
of that kind the disciples must be. If the doctrine be right, there is no 
danger that disciples embrace it. Therefore Christ, in Mat. xxviii. 20, 
bids them make disciples, not to themselves, but to the truth, to their 

Obs. 5. Observe, that even these men here accused themselves in accus- 
ing Christ. There were several of them had several sorts of disciples, but 
what themselves went on in and agreed in amongst themselves, that they fall 
upon Christ for; for this is manifest by all the stories of the Scripture, and 
by their own Rabbins, that in those times it was free to gather disciples. 
There were three eminent sects among themselves, that still agi'eed in 
temple worship ; there were the Sadducees, that denied the resurrection, 
against the Pharisees, and the Pharisees against the Sadducees ; there 
were the Herodians likewise; there were the E&seni; there were the Naza- 
rites. All these were amongst the Jews ; and it is evident that after the 
time of the Maccabees, yea, after the captivity of Babylon, there was a 
permission of great differences in point of doctrine amongst them. Yet 
when the true Messiah cometh to teach his doctrine, and to make disciples, 
they fall upon him for that which they themselves practised. Here were 
many Pharisees here present that were sectaries (that is the truth on it), 
but what was a commendation, and tolerable in them one to another, that 
must not be suffered in Christ ; for men will bear anything but the truth. 
They themselves (saith the apostle in the Galatians) would constrain ^ou 


to be circumcised and to keep the law, yet they themselves do not keep the 
law. It is constantly so in experience ; they that are 02:)posers of the truth 
always do so. The papists they suffer a world of differences amongst 
themselves, they suffer even Jews that are opposite to Christ, and who 
blaspheme him ; but any that do profess but the least of protestant doc- 
trine or worship, how do they oppose them ! The Pharisees, you see, did 
the like, though there was a world of division amongst themselves, and 
they had a liberty to differ in matters of doctrine, and in matters of a high 
nature too ; yet when it comes to the truth, there they would not permit 
Christ either to teach any doctrine differing from them, or to have disciples; 
which yet they themselves allowed, both in themselves and others. 

Obs. 6. Those that were the greatest corrupters of doctrine (for these 
Pharisees and the high priests were those that had coiTupted the doctrine 
of religion by their traditions, as Christ intimateth often in his speeches), 
they are they that are here most zealous in the matter of doctrine, who 
themselves, I say, had been the greatest corrupters of it, and had drawn in 
their several waj^s several disciples after them, as the manner of those 
times was. 

Obs. 7. This very speech of Christ may teach us this, to take heed of 
perverting the speeches of men. For this speech of Christ, if you do not 
take the scope he aimed at, is subject to perversion. He saith that in 
secret he had taught nothing. Now all the stories of the evangelists shew 
that he had taught much in private ; but (as I have shewed you) his mean- 
ing is this, I have not one kind of doctrine that I teach privately and an- 
other that I teach publicly. He doth not so much refer to the act as to 
the matter. 

Obs. 8. Though they had authority to examine men's doctrines, yet here 
lay the evil of their examining Christ, that they should have done it upon 
complaints first brought before them. It is still as controversies do arise. 
It was not that the Sanhedrim went and made so many doctrines unto 
which they would tie men, and they must preach no other ; that power 
even those amongst the Jews had not. It was lawful for men to inter- 
pret the Scripture, and that not only by the rule the Sanhedrim set out ; 
but indeed if any controversy did arise upon the spreading of a doctrine, 
then it belonged to their cognisance, as appeareth by Deut. xvii. If a 
false prophet arise, and if there wei'e any controversy between blood and 
blood, case and case, or interpreting Scripture, the thing was to be referred 
unto them, and it was examinable by that council. But that men should 
be limited in their doctrine to what all the councils in the world should 
say, this is not the rule. It was not the rule among the Jews themselves, 
although that Sanhedrim had that authority which no council ever had 
since the world began, for it was by divine institution. Therefore, I say, 
they do not find fault with him because he had not come to know what 
doctrine he should teach as from them, but that he taught a doctrine con- 
trary to God's law. They indeed acted beyond their authority, to proceed 
by way of examination ; they should have done it by wa}'' of charge. 

Obs. 9. You see the freeness of truth and innocency ; it is able to appeal 
even unto enemies, unto any, to defend itself. And therefore as we should 
so preach, so we should so walk, as we may freely and boldly appeal unto 
any, for so Christ doth here : ' Ask them that heard me,' saith he. 

Obs. 10. Oftentimes doctrines and opinions are condemned by prejudice, 
and upon hearsay only. This Caiaphas and manj^ of those rulers, they 
had not heard Christ; no, the greatness of their places kept them from 

Chap, X.] of christ the mediator. 261 

that, as oftentimes great places keep men from the means, from that which 
should save them ; but their oificcrs heard him, and by the report of mali- 
cious and malignant spirits, Caiaphas and the rest were thus informed. 

Ol)s. 11. Lastly, it is the law of God, and indeed the law of nature and 
equity, that there should not be an oath ex officio ; that is, that men should 
not be proceeded against, either in chui'ch or otherwise, by a bare exami- 
nation of themselves, till such time as witnesses have brought an accusa- 
tion against them. As in Acts xxv. 27, ' It seems to me unreasonable ' (it 
was the speech of a heathen) ' to send a prisoner, and not withal to signify 
the crimes laid against him.' That rule which is given concerning an elder 
is true concerning every brother also, though the instance is only in an 
elder, as one whose credit should be more than another's : 1 Tim. v. 19, 
* Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three wit- 
nesses.' I do observe this difference, my brethren, and it is very notable: 
when afterward the high priest doth examine Christ of this truth, whether 
he was the Messiah, and when he was punctually asked whether he was 
the Son of God or no, he answers plainly, I am. But when he would ex- 
amine him about matter of fact, not about the matter so much what he 
taught, as that he had taught thus and thus, which might be proved by 
witnesses, then Christ referreth it to witnesses, and would not answer him- 
self. And the reason of the difference to me holds forth this great truth, 
that no man is to refuse if he be positively asked whether he hold this or 
that opinion or no. Or if he be asked an account of his faith, or demanded 
what his judgment is in such or such a thing, he is freely to tell it, espe- 
cially if they that ask him have authority. It is a thing in which Christ's 
example is held forth to Timothy by the apostle Paul, that he witnessed a 
good confession before Pilate and the high priest, 1 Tim. vi. 13. A man 
is to give an account of his faith to any that will ask him ; let him look to it 
though, whether it be to ensnare him or no. But if any shall come and say, 
I preached such a thing, which is matter of fact (for as it is preached it is 
matter of fact), and there are witnesses that can clear whether I did or no, 
in that case the way is not to proceed by examination of me, but to pro- 
duce the witnesses, and so to proceed ; for no man is bound, in matter of 
fact, to accuse himself. This I take to be the difference of Christ's answer 
in this, when the high priest examined him about his doctrine, that is, 
asked him whether he had not preached thus or thus ; saith Christ, If I 
have preached thus or thus, prove it ; there are witnesses enough, I refer 
myself to them ; I will never tell you what I have preached : go to them 
that heard me, and bring them hither, and then examine me, and I shall 
give you an answer. But when he came positively to ask him whether he 
held this or no, whether he was the Messiah, he answered clearly and 
plainly ; for no man is to refuse to give an account of his faith, though it 
endanger his life, if he be called to it. But for matter of fact, whenas it 
may be proved by witnesses (and all such things may be proved by wit- 
nesses, though it be matter of doctrine), a man is not to accuse himself. 
It was the proceeding in that great oath that you are now freed from, 
which, as it was a great oppression, so it is a great mercy to this kingdom 
that it is taken away.* And whereas they used to allege that Christ 
accused himself, the case is different ; it was not what he had preached in 

* There were many oaths imposed in those times ; hut I suppose the reference is 
to the oath imposed by the Convocation in 1640 (sometimes called the Et Cetera 
Oath), and declared illegal by the Parliament in 1641. See Eapin's History, vol. ii. 
pp. 321 and 380, or any other history of the period. — Ed. 


matter of fact, but in matter of opinion and judgment. But as to the 
matter of fact, ' Askest thou me?' saith he. 'Ask them that heard me.' 
And this is the law of nature, and this is the law of the Jews ; and this 
was Christ's dealing with a cunning and wary adversary that sought his 
life ; and this, you see, he stands to. I have taught, saith he, where all the 
Jews come ; I have taught in the temple, taught in the synagogues, taught 
before all the world ; and now have you brought me hither, having bound 
me, and cast me and my disciples out of the synagogues, and ask me what 
I have preached ! Here was the most unjust and unequal proceeding in 
th?. world ; yet thus they did with Christ, and the disciple is not above his 


The last sufferings of Christ coming to his death. — Both the shame and 
torments are to he considered in them. 

We have seen our Lord Christ a man of sorrows and sufferings through 
the whole course of his life ; we have seen him betrayed, apprehended, 
seized on as a criminal, and brought to examination and judgment ; and all 
these were the fruits of his being made sin and a curse. Now the next part 
and conclusion of the curse, unto which all the other tend, as so many small 
rivulets into the ocean, is death ; and that, 

1. Natural, of the bodj^: 'To dust thoushalt return,' Gen. iii. 19, which 
phrase notes out the separation of soul and body. So Eccles. xii. 7, it is 
expounded, ' Dust returns to the earth, and the soul to God that gave it.' 

2. Death spiritual, of the soul : ' Thou shalt die the death,' Gen. ii. 17, 
which words intimate a double death, even another death besides that o; 
the body, and bej'ond it. Now, 

1. I shall shew how Christ was made a curse in his enduring a bodily 
death ; the circumstances whereof do all of them yet add unto the curse 
thereof. You see that death in itself (whether natural or violent) is by 
God's first sentence on Adam made a curse for sin. And thus is the death 
of every man who dies not in the Lord. But- yet further, whereas there 
was but one particular kind of death that was in a more eminent manner, 
of all deaths else, the most accursed — and that was ' hanging upon a tree' — 
even that did Christ undergo, so that to be sure he might bear the ex- 
tremity of the curse herein. And that kind of death was not accursed by 
God's law and doom only, but was also esteemed to be a curse among the 
Gentiles. Thus it was among the Romans, who, when they would curse 
any man unto whom they owed ill wll, they expressed it by this, Abi in 
viaiam crucem; that is, I would thou wert crucified, or Mayest thou die the 
death of the tree. Equivalent to which is that way of cursing taken up by 
ill tongues among us, when they say, ' Go and be hanged,' &c. 

In that his last suffering the death of the cross (which was the epitome 
of all), two things are eminently to be considered by us : 

(1.) The shame of that death, and the circumstances of it. 

(2.) The pains of those suflerings, and the death itself, which is the 
sepai-ation of soul and body, and the conclusion of all. And unto these 
may the chief of those his sufferings, either preparatoiy unto, or at his 
death, be reduced. The apostle, in Heb. xii. 2, draws them to these two 
heads : 

Chap. XI.] of christ the mediator. 263 

[1.] Enduring the cross, wliich includes both the pains of his suflfering, 
and death itself. 

[2.] The shame that accompanied it, in those words, 'despising the 
shame.' And Christ himself, particularly summing up all that was to be 
done to him, and that was foretold of him by the prophets (as he says), 
Luke xviii. 31, ' Behold, we go to Jerusalem, and all things that are written 
by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished.' The 
main particulars of which, all, he after mentions : ver. 32, 33, he expresseth 
it in these words, ' The Son of man shall be delivered unto the Gentiles, 
and shall be mocked, and spitefully entreated, and spitted on ; and they shall 
scourge him, and put him to death ; ' which particulars, if you will reduce 
them to heads, do fall into these two : 

1. The shame, expressed in three particulars : (1.) Mocked. (2.) Spite- 
fully entreated. (3.) Spitted on. 

2. The pains, laid down in two things : (1.) Their scourging him. (2.) 
Their kilUng him. 

And accordingly we find two especial epithets of excellency mentioned of 
Christ, when his suflferings are mentioned by the apostles, on purpose to 
aggravate those sufferings from the worth of the person that underwent 
them : — the first, that ' they killed the Prince of life : ' so says Peter, Acts 
iii. 15 ;^ the other, that ' they crucified the Lord of glory : ' so Paul, 1 Cor. 
ii. 18 ; the first serving to illustrate his dying, that they should kill the 
Prince of life ; the second, the shame of his death, that they should crucify 
the Lord of glory — the apostle mentioning his glory, together with his 
crucifying, so to set out the shame of that death above all other, and also 
as an evil to be considered in his death, as great as death itself, and greater. 
And accordingly in respect of death he is called ' the Lamb slain,' Rev. 
xiii. 8, and in respect of shame he is called ' a worm and no man,' Ps. xxii. 
6, being trodden on by all men, and his life of so poor a value with them, that 
they made no more of it to kill him than to ti'ead a worm to death, which 
to do no man hath the least regret. And accordingly also, Heb. vi. 6, the sin 
of apostates from Christ is set out by their doing (so far as in them lies) 
that unto Christ, which the Jews, that put him to death, did to him at his 
crucifying. It is set out by these two things : 1. That ' they crucify to 
themselves the Son of God afresh ; ' secondly, that * they put him to an 
open shame.' And so I reckon this of shame with the curse of his death, 
because they are thus linked together by the apostles ; and also because 
indeed, in all death, shame is a part of the curse (and therefore it is said, 
the body is ' sown in dishonour,' 1 Cor. xv. 43) ; but especially in Christ's 
death, for it was more than dying, the kind of death being the shame- 
fullest. And though shame be not mentioned in the words of the curse of 
our first parents, yet the first fruit, and so the first appearance of the curse 
(that we read of) even in them, was shame and fear ; it is said, ' they were 
ashamed,' &c. And so I come, 

1. To the shame of this death. It is a great question, whether shame 
or death be the greater evil. There have been those who have rather 
chosen death, and have wiped off a dishonour with their blood. So Saul 
slew himself rather than he would fall into the hands of the Philistines, 
who would have insulted over him, and mocked him as they did Samson. 
So that king, Jer. xxxviii. 19, rather chose to lose his country, life, and 
all, than to be given to the Jews, his subjects, to be mocked of them. And 
we see that many malefactors that are to le condemned to die, and though, 
dying as malefactors, any sort of death hath shame in it, yet to avoid a 


degree of shame in death, they out of the greatness of their spirits choose 
a death that is much more painful, as to be pressed to death, rather than 
this same hanging on a tree, which unto this day is, in men's esteem, of all 
deaths else, the most ignoble and ignominious. Yea, confusion of face is 
one of the greatest miseries that hell itself is set forth unto us by. There 
is nothing that a noble nature more abhors than shame ; for honour is a 
spark of God's image ; and the more of God"s image there is in any one, 
the more is shame abhorred by him, which is the debasing of it; and so the 
greater and more noble any one's spirit, the more he avoids it. To a base, 
low spirit, indeed, shame is nothing ; but to a great spirit (as to David), 
than to have his ' glory turned into shame,' as Ps. iv. 2, is nothing more 
grievous. And the greater glory any one loseth, the greater is his shame. 
AVhat must it be then to Christ, who because he was to satisfy God in point 
of honour debased by man's sin, therefore of all punishments else he suf- 
fered most of shame ; it being also (as was said) one of the greatest punish- 
ments in hell. And Christ, as he assumed other infirmities of our nature, 
that made him passible m other things — as to be sensible of hunger, want 
of sleep, bodily torments, of unkindnesses, contempt — so likewise of dis- 
grace and shame. He took that infirmity as well as fear ; and though he 
had a strength to bear and despise it (as the author to the Hebrews speaks), 
yet none was ever more sensible of it. As the delicacy of the temper of his 
body ma le him more sensible of pains than ever any man was, so the great- 
ness of his spirit made him more apprehensive of the evil of shame than ever 
any was. So likewise the infinite love and candour of his spirit towards 
mankind made him take in with answerable grief the unkindnesses and 
injuries which they heaped upon him. And if to be abhorrent of shame be 
a spark of God's image, so as where more of that image or of glory is in 
any one, the more abhorrent he is of shame ; yea, if even those in hell are 
confounded with it (they there still retaining so much of God's image in 
them), then what must so much shame and contempt be unto Christ, who 
was and is ' the brightness of his Father's glory, and the express image of 
his person ' ? Heb. i. 3. Such an image of him as no mere creature is 
capable to be ; all which he considered and took in, well knowing what and 
who he was, and this before his sufferings. So John xiii. 3, and also when 
he was both at Pilate's and at the high priest's bar. As therefore the 
highest lights have the deepest shadows, so all his ' glory being turned into 
shame,' it made his shame the deeper and the greater. 

Now if we go over all the particulars of this his shame, never was any 
shame like unto it. There was nothing but shame, and that the utmost 
that could be, in all the passages of his sufferings. 

This shame I shall set forth to you by these two generals (which will con- 
tain several particulars under them) : 

1. Their mocking and spiteful entreating of him. 

2. Other circumstances, that, through God's providence, were ordered to 
accompany his misusage and death, tlaat served to heighten the shameful- 
ness of them. 

1. For their cruel mocking and shameful usage of him, the very words 
that Christ, in Luke xviii. 32, expresseth it in the general by, are very em- 
phatical. The one sa'Traiy^drjCirai, which we translate, • He shall be mocked,' 
in the derivation of it, signifies ' to make a child of one.' They made a child 
or fool of him by their actions and dealings with bim. Like unto which is 
the word that is used of Herod's mocking of him, Luke xxiii. 11, s^ovOsr/jsac, 
' he made no body,' or * nothing of him.' The other word, bQ^iGOyiasrai, 

Chap. XI.] of christ the mediator. 265 

principally respectetli contumelious speeches, and injurious despiteful railing 
at ; viSoi'g, noting out the highest kind of injur}', and that done out of a 
despite. It is the same word whereby the sin against the Holy Ghost is 
expressed, Heb. x. 29, and is there translated ' doing despite.' Now for 
him whose name is / a»i, to whom all beings are but shadows, for him to 
be made nothing of, for him who is the ' Everlasting Father' and the * wis- 
dom of God,' for him, I say, to be made a child of, what an intolerable 
shame is this! ' Died Abner as a fool dies P said David of him. Truly 
through their usage of him Christ died no otherwise. 

But I rather come to those several particular ways wherein they express 
that extreme contempt and despiteful mockage of him ; as, 

(1.) Their putting several apparels upon him in derision ; one while 
arraying of him in purple, another while in white, then shifting him into 
his own clothes again, thus making him ridiculous to all that saw him. 
[Jnmeetness and unsuitableness of apparel is matter of shame. Jehoshua 
the high priest appeared in ' filthy apparel,' Zech iii. 3, and so Christ our 
high priest, being clothed with all our sins. For one to be led about in a 
fool's coat, what a shame is it ! Yet thus was he served. 

(2.) Their using jeering and mocking gestures. Because he had said he 
was a king, they therefore make a May-game king of him ; and, 

[1.] They crown him with a crown of thorns. 

[2.] They put a reed in his hand for a sceptre (though his sceptre was a 
* sceptre of righteousness,' Heb. i. 8), to shew how powerless and weak a 
king he was, who had a kingdom and sceptre as easily broken as a reed. 
And therefore, to demonstrate his weakness the more in respect of any such 
kingdom as he assumed a title unto, they strike him with his own sceptre, 
which is to a king the same disgrace, and much more ignominious, as for an 
able scholar to have his own argument retorted on him to his own confuting 
and confusion ; as for a valiant man to have his weapon taken from him, 
and with it to be beaten. 

[3.] They hoodwink and blindfold him, and hide his face. Now cover- 
ing the face is a gesture of shame ; Jer. xiv. 3, it is said, ' They were 
ashamed and covered their heads.' Then they smite him, and when they 
have done it, they in scorn ask him. Who smote him ? because he took on 
him to be a prophet. 

[4. j They smite him both with their hands and with their rods . both are 
mentioned. And majus dedecus est vianu feriri quam gladio ; no noble spirit 
can brook a box on the ear, or buffet, but takes it in more disgrace than 
a wound honourably given. And therefore Micaiah, you know, was smitten 
on the cheek by the lying prophet, as a token ol disdain ; for to smite with 
the hand or fist argues subjection in the party smitten. 

[5.] They in mockery kneel to him, and salute him as they did their 
Cajsar, ' Hail, king of the Jews.' To him whom all the angels (when a 
child) did worship — ' Let all the angels of God worship him,' Heb. i. 6 — 
to whom ' every knee shall bow, both that is in heaven, and in earth, and 
under the earth ;' to him do they in scorn bow the knee, and then as flout- 
ingly salute him with an ' All hail, king,' &c. The greater reverence is 
given in a disgraceful way, the greater the disgrace is ; for shame is glory 
turned into inglory or shame. 

[6.] They spit on him ; and it was not one or two of them that did this, 
but many, as it is said. Now this is the greatest indignity that may be. 
If a father spit in his daughter's face (who yet is an inferior to him), * shall 
she not be shut up ?' (says God, Num. xii. 14), in that he hath disgraced 


her. And Isa. 1. 6, Christ is brought in, saying, ' I hid not my face from 
shame and spitting upon ;' they are both Hnked together. The face is the 
noblest of the exterior parts of man, as in Avhich God's image doth shine 
forth, and is therefore called ' the glory of God,' 1 Cor. xi. 7. Now there- 
fore for it to have an excrement, with which men will not defile a clean room 
they tread on, cast upon it, what a disgrace is it ? And if so, how much 
more, then, for that face to be spitted upon, in which the ' light of the glory 
of God' shines far more immediately and more plentifully, 2 Cor. iv. 6. 
And how disgraces of this nature must needs work upon a spirit so high and 
so full of glory as his was, we may see (and yet but a glimpse of it neither) 
by the heart of that king (one of our own), who, being deposed, and by night 
removed, was in his journey shaved, to the end he might not be known, and 
set upon a mole-hill instead of a chair of state, and washed with puddle- 
water, in the midst of which he burst out into this pathetical speech, ' I will 
yet have clean water to be washed with ;' and foi'thwithhe shed many tears, 
which in ri^Tilets distilled down his princely cheeks, and cleansed them 
from that filth wherewith the puddle-water had sullied and besmeared them. 
What heart would it not affect to read this storv of a king ? And how much 
more did it afiect his own heart '? And yet what was he to Christ, who in 
the midst of all their misusage of him knew well what a kingdom he was 
bom unto ! as himself told Pilate. 

[7.] They unbare him and make him naked, and then whip him ; and 
both these to his shame. Nakedness, you know, is shameful ; and, there- 
fore, our first parents, when they were naked, were ashamed. And then for 
whipping, it was a punishment inflicted upon none but slaves and villains, 
never upon a fi-ee-born Roman. Therefore how afraid were the whippers 
of Paul when they heard that he was a Pioman. And mastir/ia (or one that 
is subject to whipping), and a base villain, are all one. Now the reason 
why they might whip Christ was, that he had taken upon him the foim of 
a sei-vant ; and so they whipped him, as we use to do runaways, which Peter 
alludes to, speaking to servants, and setting before them Christ's example, 
* We like sheep had gone astrav, and by his stripes were we healed,' 
1 Peter ii. 24, 25. 

[8.] They mock him and abuse him by giving him gall before, and 
vinegar after he was upon the cross, to quench his thirst with. Which 
therefore Christ is brought in mentioning, as being sensible of the scorn of 
it, Ps. Ixix. 21 (which psalm is a psalm of Christ). 

[9.1 They wag their heads at him when on the cross, and gape with their 
mouths ; which is, first, a gesture of despising : so, Isa. xxxvii. 22, it is 
said of Sennacherib, that Zion had ' despised him and shaken her head at 
him.' Secondly, it is a gesture of detestation. So, Jer. xviii. 16, it is said 
of Israel, that ' every one that passeth by her shall be astonished and wag 
his head at her.' Thirdly, it is a gesture of scom. So, Lam. ii. 15, 
it is said, ' they hiss and wag their heads' (at Jerusalem), 'and say. Is 
this the city that men call the perfection of beauty, and joy of the whole 

[10.] They mock and jeer him by the most contumelious words that 
could be — i^sisSriSiTai, ' He shall be opprobriously reviled,' Luke xviii. 32 — 
yea, they blasphemed him. First, In all his offices : as, fii'st, prophetical ; 
they blindfold him, and smite him, and then bid him prophesy who it was 
that smote him. Christ will one day tell him that did it who it was. 
Second, priestly ; he saved others (say they), let him save himself. ^Vhy, 
he was even then a-saving others by bearing their misusage ; he was then 

Chap. XI.] of christ the mediator. 267 

a -doing that for which they mocked him. Third, kingly ; 'If,' say they, 
' thou be the king of Israel, then come down,' &c. Thus they mock all 
his offices. So, 

Secoiulhj, His person, and his being the Son of God ; * He trusted in 
God' (say they), ' and said he was the Son of God ; let God now save him 
if he will have him.' And (which is strange) in these and the like speeches 
they use the very same words that in Psalm xxii. were foretold should be 
used by them ^hen he should be crucified. > For these words of theirs you 
have there recorded, ver. 8 ; so that, as Paul afterward told them, they 
fulfilled the prophecies, whilst they ridiculed him. Yea, 

Thirdly (Which is an inhumanity unheard of before or since). They mock 
at his very prayers, which he makes out of the deepest bitterness of spirit 
that ever creature spake out of, and which were full of the saddest com- 
plaints that could be uttered, when he cried out most bitterly, ' Eli, Eli, My 
God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ?' They put it off, and turn it 
into a scofl', as if they understood it not : ' He calls for Elias,' say they in 
scorn ; as if he had prayed unto a creature, unto Elias, instead of the living 
God: and 'let us see,' say they, ' if Elias will come and help him.' In 
Heb. xi., among other persecutions of the martyrs, cruel mockings are 
mentioned as none of the least, reproaches being to the soul (as the 
psalmist expresseth it, Ps. Ixiv. 4) as the pricking of a sword. Now was 
there ever such cruel mockings as these heard of? Christ complains in 
Ps. Ixix. 26 (for it is a psalm of him), ' They persecute him whom thou 
hast smitten.' When God had smitten him, and he in bitterness cried, 
' Eli, Eli, My God, my God,' they turn it to Elias. Take the most hateful 
malefixctor that ever was, one that hath been the most flagitious traitor to 
his prince and country that ever pestered the earth, and so had rendered 
himself most abominable and odious to all mankind ; yet, let him come to 
die for it, and though the rage and fury of men make them not to compas- 
sionate his tortures, as being far less than his desert, yet still for his soul, 
as it stands in relation to God, they wish well to it, and that it may be 
gaved ; their malice rageth not to jeer at the prayers he makes for the 
salvation thereof. Nay, men are even ready to afford comfort and help 
unto, and to further such a man's faith, and to join in prayers with, and for 
him. But these Jews scoff" at Christ's very prayers. They speak what 
they are able to make him despair. If ever the devil was abroad, and the 
malice of hell in the hearts of men, it was at that day. 

In the second place, add unto all these misusages those circumstances 
that accompanied both his death and mockings, to heighten his shame the 
more. God contrived all things so to fall out as to make his shame above 
measure shameful, as our sin had been above measure sinful; he heaped 
shame upon shame upon him. 

The fu'st circumstance here observable is that of time. All this was done 
to him at the most public time that could be chosen out ; even at the pass- 
over, when all the males came up to Jenisalem, and many strangers with 
them, to celebrate that feast — a concourse like our commencement at our 
universities, or like the most general assembly you can imagine. 

Second is, the circumstance of place. Which, 

1. For the publicness of it, was at Jerusalem, the head city of Jewry, a 
stage the most eminent upon which to be made a spectacle to men and 
angels. ' Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem' (said two of his disciples 
unto himself), ' and hast not known these things ?' Luke xxiv. 18. ' These 
things were not done in a corner' (as his disciples said). And when God 


would shame David, he cast in this circumstance to aggi'avate it ; ' Thou ' 
(says God) ' didst it secretly, but I will punish it before this sun.' 

2. (More specially and restrictly) For the infamousness of the place ; he 
was crucified at Golgotha, a place of skulls, as ignominious as our Tyburn. 
The place had a reproach in it; therefore, Heb. xiii. 13, 'Jesus sufi'ered 
without the gate,' says the apostle ; ' let us therefore go forth to him without 
the camp, bearing his reproach,'' namel}', of sufiering in such a place. It 
shewed he was an outcast, rejected of men, and as dung cast out. 

3. For the persons that mocked him, they were persons of all sorts ; 
kings and rulers, Herod and the elders, the priests and soldiers, together 
with the multitude of common people that followed him, and that passed 
by occasionally, yea, the very thieves themselves that were crucified with 
him. Now the baseness of the persons that contemn one doth add to the 
contempt. Therefore you shall find Job complaining. Job xxx. 1-10, that 
those that were younger than he, and whose fathers he would have disdained 
to set with the dogs of his flock, did mock him ; they are (says he, ver. 8, 
9) the children of villains, more vile than the earth they tread on, and now 
I am their song, yea, their by- word,' &c. ' Rsproach ' (saj's Christ in 
one of the psalms made of him) * hath broken my heart,' Ps. Ixix. 20. 

4. The death itself was also the most shameful ; even ' the death of the 
cross ;' which for his disciples to preach and profess, had in the eyes of all 
the world a shame in it. Therefore Paul, Gal. v. 11, calls it ' the ofi'ence 
or scandal of the cross.' And if that were a shame, to profess a crucified 
God, what a shame was it then for God himself to sutfer such a death.' 
The cross was so shameful, that therefore none of all the meanest and 
basest of the people could be procured so much as to carry it ; so that they 
were fain to compel Simon of Cyrene unto it. And it was the custom ever 
after to call such as carried a malefactor's cross, Crucigeri, as a brand of 
disgrace. And for himself to carry it (as he did), was such an addition of 
ignominy unto his death, as for a malefactor to go all the way to the gallows 
with a rope about his neck. 

5. All this was aggravated also by the persons that sufi'ered with him, 
and their saving one of their lives before his. A comparative contempt is 
more than a simple one. As, 

(1.) That he should be crucified between two thieves, as if he were the 
prince of them. It is made an heightening circumstance of his shameful 
death (in Isa. liii. 12), that ' he was numbered amongst the transgressors.' 

(2.) (Yet farther) That Barabbas, the most infamous thief, seditious 
person and murderer that was in that nation (and so a proclaimed enemy 
unto that state), should be voted to live by the common voice of all the 
people, and this when with the same breath they cry, ' Let Jesus be crucified, 
let him be crucified.' Pilate put them upon choosing one of these two, 
and set Jesus in the comparison with Barabbas, on purpose to get Jesus 
saved, not thinking they would be so shameless as to prefer him to Christ, 
who was a murderer as well as a thief, and one that had made himself 
odious unto them all, and whom by their law they were not to pardon or 
sufier to live. Yet they are content to bring both the blood he had shed 
(by sparing him), and Christ's also, upon then- heads, by crucifying him, 
rather than to deliver him that was innocent. Thus much for the shame 
of his death and sufi"erings. 

Chap. XII.] of chkist the mediator, 269 


The extremity of pain which Christ our Redeemer- endured in his body. — His 
heinrj harassed day and night uilhout a moment'' s rest. — His being crowned 
uith thorns, torn uith rods, and at last crucified. 

The second thing to be considered is the pains and dolours thereof, 
which are all sorts of ways set forth to us in his story. 

1. Immediately afore his death, Avant of sleep, not that whole night only 
which preceded his crucifying, in which he was kept waking in the high 
priest's hall, but three or four nights afore, as Brugensis computeth them. 
He in preparation to his passion, and being now to leave the world, spent 
those nights in praj^er on mount Olivet, and on the days did teach the 
people in the temple after his coming into Jerusalem : so towards his end, 
pouring forth his spirit as a sacrifice to God and his people, ere he was 
oflered up as the sacrifice. He knew his tabernacle was now to be dis- 
solved, and he spared not himself, whom God afterwards spared not, days 
and nights wearing out himself in private prayer or preaching. Luke's 
words are these : Luke sxi. 37, ' And in the days' (it is in the plural) ' he 
was teaching in the temple, and in the nights he went out and abode in the 
mount' (that is, the whole nights, as abiding implies) ' that was called the 
mount of Olives.' This was his wonted custom for the time after he came 
into Jerusalem, confirming by his example what in the words afore he had 
taught his disciples, verse 36, ' Watch ye therefore, and pray always,' &c. 
And then, ver. 30, it follows, ' And all the people came early to him in the 
morning' (that is, every morning of those nights, as knowing his manner 
and wont) ' for to hear him.' These incessant prayers without rest must 
needs bring a strong body low in spirits, and weary it out. The fourth 
night, which was Thursday night, he was apprehended after those long 
sermons made to his disciples, which John hath recorded, and that solemn 
prayer put up, John svii. 

2. That night and next day they hurried him up and down seven jour- 
neys from one place to another (the Messiah had no rest, that those that 
were weary might have rest in him) according to the compute, of six miles 
and a half, or seven miles. 

3. Whilst he was that last night in the high priest's hall, they smote him 
with the palms of their hands (which are bones, as our translators render 
that of Matthew, chap. xxvi. 67), saith Matthew; and with their fists, saith 
Mark, and both often ; others add with rods, as the word gacr/'^s/v signifies, 
derived from gacr/g, a rod ; and these on his mouth or face. 

4. He had a crown of thorns plaited on his head, where the nerves ten- 
derest of sense do meet. To harrow men with thorns is made a high and 
gi-ievous torture and punishment, Judges viii. 16. Gideon, when by sense 
he would teach the men of Succoth, by sense and sore experience to do no 
more so wickedly, it is said, that ' he took the elders of the city, and thorns 
of the wilderness, and briars, and with them he taught the men of Succoth.' 
This croA^-n of thorns was kept upon his head all the time, both in his way 
to the cross, and whilst on the cross, which pierced those veins and sinews 
on the temples and forehead, and caused his face, besmeared also with dust 
in his travel to the cross, to be (as the prophet speaks) more marred than 
any man's, Isa. lii. 14. 

5. Add to this weariness and faintness of spirits, which appeared in the 


carryinf^ of his cross. There was that one thing only, wherein they seemed 
to pity him, in caUing to another to help him, Simon of Cyrene. But the 
truth of the thing was, that he having watched and spent himself so many 
days and nights together, he failed so much that they feared he would have 
fainted, and so expired ere he came to the place of execution, and so they 
should have missed of their designed malice in crucifying of him. We have 
wearied him with our sins, and this made him weaiy and ready to faint. 
Oh, come to him, all ye that are weary and heavy laden. 

6. He was whipped and scom-ged, which was twice, once by Pilate's 
command, and that to the end to move compassion in the Jews, that so he 
having suffered so cruel a punishment as was sufficient to assuage their 
malice, and to satisfy for any crime they could in their own imagination 
think him guilty of, who in Pilate's had deserved nothing of death, they 
might relent and cease to desire his being crucified. And when he had 
scourged him, he brings him forth to pubHc \-iew, and cries, ' Behold the 
man !' And after that he was again scourged (as John relates it), as of 
custom the Romans used to do those whom they crucified. And these 
strokes were laid on, not by the Jews, who by their law were limited not to 
exceed forty stripes, but by the Roman soldiers, who had no bounds set 
them, but gave as many and as cruel ones as their barbarous nature 
pleased, unto an abject man, designed and condemned to the highest 

7. He after all was crucified. The evangelists aggravate not that in the 
circumstances of it ; only say, ' he was crucified ;' but much is shut up in 
that one word — the cruelty of that death being known in those days, and 
by the relation of it in stories, and by those who have made a collection of 
it, of the manner of it, in these days. The apostle Paul put this emphasis 
upon his death, ' To death, even the death of the cross,' Phil. ii. 8, crucia- 
tus, or the pains of the cross, being commonly used by the Romans (among 
whom this death was frequent) to express the sharpest pains and tortures. 
The manner of which was, 

(1.) The cross, the person to be crucified was being affixed unto, being 
laid upon the ground, his hands and feet were stretched out as far as they 
could extend, and then nailed in the hands and in the feet unto the cross ; 
which the Psalmist, Ps. xxii., expresseth by digging holes (foclentnt) in his 
hands and feet, ver. 16, as the vulgar translation reads it. In the hands 
and feet the nerves again meet and centre, and so they are of the most 
exquisite sense. Then, 

(2.) The rearing up the cross with the man nailed on it (whilst on the 
ground), and fixing the cross in the hole which was digged for it, with a 
violent jog to fix it in the earth, as was their manner; this exceeded all 
the torments of our racks. In the 22d Psalm, ver. 14, 15, himself tells us 
that it loosened all his bones, or my bones dispart themselves. And it is 
not only said, as ver. 17, ' I may tell all my bones,' he hanging naked, but 
further, ver. 14, ' All my bones are out of joint.' 

(3.) And thereon they hung till death, tlaeir arms and hands bearing the 
weight of their whole bodies, so as they died of mere pains (and thus Christ 
huncT on the tree. Acts v. 30), exhausting their spirits. For a man to hold 
his hands but stretched out, what a trouble is it. Moses could not for a 
day do it, but was lain to be supported. 

(4.) And this put them into an exquisite fever, as such pains do, as 
appeared by his thirst, as Ps. xxii. 15, ' My strength is dried as a potsherd, 
and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws.' 

Chap. XIII.J of christ the mediator. 271 

The last (of bodily sufferings) is death itself, which is the separation of 
soul and body : unto this the curse reached ; and it was not his pains or 
shame or hanging on a cross that would satisfy, unless he also breathe out 
his soul. This was necessary ; ' unless the corn fall into the ground and 
die' (it is Christ s own similitude, John xii. 24), ' it abideth alone.' So he, 
unless he had died, had been (of mankind) in heaven alone. He was also 
to be the founder of a will and testament, and that is not of force until the 
death of the testator ; he must therefore die : Ileb. ix. 16, 17, ' For where 
a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator. 
For a testament is of force after men are dead ; otherwise it is of no 
strength at all whilst the testator liveth.' And he was to be the death of 
death, Hosea xiii. 14. And it is a general rule, what he procured virtue 
for in man's behalf, he did it by undergoing the same. Yea, he thereby 
made death a dead and ineffectual thing, -/.araBy/jgavTog rh ^dvaroy, destroy- 
ing death, 2 Tim. i. 10. This was held forth in the type. Num. xxxv. 28, 
in that the murderer or manslayer was then set free from his prison, the 
city of refuge (which was a confinement to them) when the high priest died, 
but not till then. Nor should we have been set free unless our High Priest 
had died. Now for his soul and body thus to part, and for the Son of 
God, united to both personally, to continue that union unto that dead car- 
case of his body laid in the grave, what a debasement was it, besides all 
considerations else that belong to this head. 


The greatest of all Christ's suffenngs icere those of his soul. — What were the 
causes of those sorivws. — The greatness of those sufferings. — Wherein they 
did consist. — How it could consist u-ith his being the Son of God, to be for- 
saken of God, and to bear such extremity of his Father's urath. 

But yet, though we have seen the woe and curse in this life due to us by 
sin passed over and sustained by Christ ; and secondly, the curse cf bodily 
death undergone too ; yet (as the Revelation to another purpose speaks) 
there is a third woe, which a guilty conscience fears more than all the other, 
and which is the curse of curses, ' Thou shalt die the death.' ' Two woes 
are passed ; behold, a third woe is yet to come,' which is the great and main 
curse of the law that is to be undergone (as the text sa,js) before the law be 
fulfilled. For as the life promised — ' Do this and live' — is more than to 
live bodily, or as a beast doth, or rationally, as men do ; it being to live in 
communion with God, as angels do ; so, * Dying thou shalt die' is more 
than the bodily death and returning unto dust. And as that life promised 
is the favour of God — ' Thy favour is better than life,' Ps. xxxvi. 3 ; 
' With thee is the fountain of life,' Ps. Ixiii. 9, says David — so this death 
here threatened is from the wrath of God, which therefore is put for hell 
and death ; as when it is said, ' We are saved from wrath to come,' 1 Thess. 
i. 10 ; ' This is the second death,' as it is called, Rev. xx. 6. And it is 
the original curse, the fountain of curses ; whereas the death of the body, 
and all miseries of this life, are but the streams. This is the pure curse, 
without mixture, as it is called in the Revelation ; the other is the curse in 
the dregs, mingled and conveyed by creatures. All other curses light upon 
the outward man first, and upon the soul but at the rebound, and at the 
second hand, only by way of sympathy and compassion ; but the immediate 


and proper subject of this curse is the soul and spirit : * Indignation and 
wi'fith, tribulation and anguish upon every soul that doth evil,' Eona. 
ii. 9. And this is the sum of all curses, and instead of all the rest. And 
therefore Paul, when he would express his willingness not only to die bodily, 
but to endure hell also, for his brethren, as Christ had done for him, he 
expresseth it by this, ' I could wish myself to be accursed from Christ,' 
(Rom. ix. 3) ; that is, to be separated from all the comfort I shall have by 
him, and endure that wrath that is due unto me, though undergone by him 
for me. Which wish of his may help us to understand how far Christ was 
made a curse for us ; for it was the love of Christ which constrained Paul's 
heart unto this wish ; and his meaning was to undergo that for his brethren 
in Christ, which Christ underwent for him, and so far as Christ underwent 
it, without sin. And so far as Paul wished it without sinning (for he spake 
it in Christ, and in the Holy Ghost, as ver. 1), so far might and did Christ 
undergo it without sin also. His meaning therefore was not that he was 
content to be cut ofi' from being a member of Christ, and so to have no in- 
fluence of grace from Christ derived to him. No ; that had been a sinful 
■wish, and not from the Holy Ghost. But his meaning is, that he could be 
content to lose that portion of comfort which was to be had in the enjoying 
of Christ, and so undergo that displeasure from him which was due unto 
his sins, by feeling the effects of it in anguish and pain, &c. Thus when 
it is said, that Christ was made a curse, not only in bodily miseries, but in 
his soul also, the meaning is not that the hypostatical union was dissolved, 
or the influence of divine grace restrained, but only, that in regard of com- 
fort he was ' forsaken' of God, and felt the fearful effects of his anger due 
to our sins, without sin and despair. 

In like manner, when it is said, Christ underwent this curse also, ' D3'ing 
thou shalt die,' the meaning is not that Christ's soul did die the second 
death : the Scripture speaks it not, neither are we to speak it ; but thus the 
Scripture expresseth it, that ' his soul was heavy unto death,' Mat. xxvi. 37, 38. 
It is spoken of this curse of his soul, which did not work death in it, but 
a heaviness unto death, not extensive so as to die, but intensive, that if he 
had died it could not have suffered more. As Jonas is said to be * angiy 
unto death,' Jonah iv. 10 — that is, he thought that misery and cross for 
which he was angry to be even as great an aifliction as death itself, and so 
he could out of his anger wish for death — so Christ's heaviness was as great 
as theirs that undergo that death ; yet die he did not ; it was but ' unto 
death,' as Onesiphorus was said to be ' sick unto death,' or as a woman in 
travail is said to be at the point of death, because if she were a-dying, she 
could not have more pain. There is such another phrase, Acts ii. 24, where 
it is said, that Christ ' was raised up, God having loosed the sorrows of 
death,' uBlvac:, the throes of death, of which it was impossible he should be 
held. It is evident that it is spoken of his soul ; for if it were spoken of 
bodily death, there were no sorrows that remained on his body in the grave, 
to withhold it from rising again. No ; these sorrows died when he died, 
and were then ended, and so could not be said to be upon his body, to 
hinder it from rising. Again, it is not absolutely called death, but * the 
sorrows of death ;' that is, the same pains and throes that dying men's souls 
have, he felt. And it is observed, that the same phrase that is used to ex- 
press the sorrows of hell, 1 Thess. v, 3, the travail of a woman (so Ps. 
xviii. 4, 5, the pangs of hell, or birth-throes, as the word signifies), the 
same phrase [udivag] is here used, signifying the throes of a woman in 
travail, and having reference to that phi'ase in Isaiah liii. 11, * He shall see 

Chap. Xni.] op ohrist the mediator. 273 

of the travail of his soul.' His sonl, and not his person, is there properly 
meant, for it is spoke as of a part of himself, ' He shall see of the travail of 
his soul.' Those pains were indeed birth-throes to us, they tending to our 
life, but in him they were the sorrows of death. And so in this he bare the 
woman's curse in his soul, as well as Adam's curse in his body ; as he did 
eat in sweat, so he brought forth in pain, and in sorrows unto death ; but 
yet such as did not kill his soul, it died not, for he was to live to see his 
seed, and have joy in his soul for them for whom he had had most pain : 
so it is in Isa. liii. 10. For, thirdly, these sorrows did not ' hold him ;' 
had they held him, then indeed he had died. And the reason why he died 
not, was not that he had not the same throes and stabs that use to kill 
others ; for they are therefore called the sorrows of death, because they 
were the same which kill all men's souls in hell ; but he was too strong 
for them, nature was too potent in him, and life too vigorous ; otherwise 
that which he underwent was enough to have killed out of hand all men 
and angels ; but him they could not hold, it was impossible. Yet, fourthly, 
they were loosened, not so as never to have hold of him, or as if he never 
came in to them (as Bellarmine trifles) ; no, he was in them : (as Ps. 
cxxiv. 7), * His soul escaped as a bird out of the snare : the snare was broken, 
and he was delivered.' The devils they are reserved in chains too strong 
for them, Jude 5, but he, like another Samson, brake these ropes, these 
cords. So Ps. xviii. 5, 6, where the sorrows of hell are called cords, for the 
same word, v3n, signifies both, and so the Chaldee Paraphrast reads it. 

And yet, fifthly, because these were truly the pains of death, therefore this 
delivery of his soul from them is called a resurrection ; and the greatest 
wonder of his resurrection is ascribed to this ; for the main power of the 
resurrection was seen in raising his soul, because it conflicted with such 
sorrows. For his soul had a resurrection as well as his body, which Peter 
also, to shew he means it here, does distinctly mention. Acts ii. ver. 27. 
God's promise was, that he would not ' leave Christ's soul in hell ' ; that 
is, under the pressures of these sorrows ; there is the resurrection of 
his soul from the sorrows of death expressed ; ' nor sufier the Holy One 
to see corruption ;' there is the resurrection of his bodj" from the power of 
the grave, both which make up that greater resurrection of his there spoken 
of. For to raise a soul from the terrors of God's wrath, does as much de- 
serve the name of a resurrection, and more, as to raise a dead body. There- 
fore, says Heman (suffering these terrors in his soul), ' I am like the slain 
that lie in the grave, and wilt thou shew wonders to the dead ? shall the 
dead arise and praise thee?' Ps. Ixxxviii. 6, 10. And this resurrection 
Christ's soul had before it went out of his body : for after it went out, it 
went to paradise, and encountered not with the pains of death ; but before 
it left his body, it did, and was rescued. And therefore, after that long 
conflict, for three hours' space, whilst the curtains of the woi'ld were close 
drawn, and ail was hushed up in darkness, during which time he had 
struggled with these sorrows and with God's wrath, which towai'ds the 
conclusion he manifests by that bitter expression, * My God, my God, why 
hast thou forsaken me ?' after that conflict (I pay) he cries out, ' It is 
finished ;' which some divines think not to have reference to the work of 
redemption, that that work was finished. Ko ; for that was not as yet 
finished, his bodily death being a part of it, as also the piercing of his side, 
and laying of him in the grave ; but the meaning is, that now the great 
brunt was over, that cup which he so feared was drunk off, his soul was 
VOL V. s 


come out of its eclipse, as the sun did then also out of its darkness, -which 
was a shadow or sign of this in his spirit ; unto this it is that those words 
refer. And that which seems to confirm it is that when first these kind 
of sorrows fell on him in the garden, the evangelist notes it, saying, that then 
his soul began to be heavy ; and now when they went off him, he shews, 
that then it was finished. 

As therefore we, who are his members, have a double resurrection in our 
souls whilst they are in our bodies, John v. 25, ' The time now is,' &c., and 
in our bodies, at the latter day, ver, 29 in the same chapter; so had 
Christ : one of his soul from the terrors following the guilt of sin, the sor- 
rows of death upon the cross ; the other of his body from the grave the 
third da}% which was a manifestation of the first. And answerably those 
sorrows may be called a kind of death, at least the sorrows of death, in the 
same sense that bodily dangers and distresses are called dying, as Paul, 
being in jeopardy every hour, is said to ' die daily,' 1 Cor. xv. 31 ; and so 
in that sense, and no other, may he be said to have undergone this curse 
of dying the death. Therefore, Isa. liii. 9, we have his deaths in the 
plural mentioned, not his death only : ' He made his grave with the wicked 
in his deaths.' So in the original. And in his bearing these sorrows of 
death was the curse abundantly fulfilled, although he did not die the second 
death ; for that wrath, which is the cause of the second death in others, he 
underwent ; and those sorrows of death, which that cause produceth, he 
bore ; though the same event followed not, his soul died not, as theirs 
through weakness doth. 

Having thus explained and fitted these phrases to our hand, we will now 
come to the particulars of the sufl'erings of his soul, which are merely and 
properly such, and which, as that curse seizeth on wicked men by degrees, 
so did seize on him by degrees, towards his end. The first mention we 
have of them is in John xii. 27, four days before his passion, when on the 
sudden he breaks forth, ' Now is my soul troubled ; and what shall I say ? ' 
He then saw the storm a- coming, and a black cloud rising, which troubled 
him ; and in the expectation of it, he saw so much to be troubled at, as he 
knew not how to express it, but cries out, ' "V\^lat shall I say ? ' 

The second degree was in the garden, as both Mat. chap. xxvi. from 
ver. 3G to the end, Mark xiv. from ver. 32 to 51, Luke xxii. 40, and John 
xviii. 1, 2, do set it down. There it was where the storm overtook him, 
ere ever he fell into the hands of Judas or the high priest, and he began 
to feel some drops of it ; and indeed the sorrows that there seized on him 
were such as fetched blood from him ere these his enemies approached him. 
Whereby was shewn, that he had other and gi-eater miseries to encounter 
with than from men. And whereas, for all his bodily soitows, we hear not 
one groan from him, as neither for his wounding with the crown of thorns, 
with nails, &c., but ' as a sheep that openeth not his mouth, so was he 
led to the slaughter,' Isa. liii. 7 ; yet here, in the very entrance into these 
sorrows, we hear him lamenting : Mat. xxvi. 38, ' My soul is heavy unto 
death.' He names, and as it were lays his finger on, the part affected, 
which was not his body, but his soul ; it was there where his grief lay. 
And we have many words and expressions which may help us to see into 
his grief what it was. Amongst which, the first and lowest expression is 
XwrnloSai, Mat. xxvi. 37. He had said before, that he was troubled : and 
we read not so much as of the least trouble of his for outward pains ; but 
now it is said, he became sorrowful. It was no pain of his body could 
make his great spirit sorrowful. Sorrow is more than pain, as joy is more 

Chap. XIII.j of chkist the mediator. 275 

than delight. Beasts arc never 6orro\vful properly, and yet they have all 
sorts of pains of the body, which touch not their souls with a reflection, and 
60 cause sorrow. The cause of Christ's sorrow reached his reasonable soul, 
which is the proper subject of sorrow, and not the inferior, but the superior 
part also. Yea, Tully restrains the word tristis to sorrow for the punish- 
ment of sin and wickedness : j)oena sceleris tristis est. And yet this is but 
the lowest degree, but the beginning of soitows, which, notwithstanding, 
reached as deep- as any kind of worldly sorrow could do ; for even David's 
soiTow or aflliction for his son Absalom is expressed by the same word. 
Now there were two things which made his soul to be thus sorrowful. 

1. The sins of the world imputed to him and charged on him. 

2. The curse or wrath of God upon him for those sins. 

1. First, the sins of the world came in upon him; and therefore, ver. 38, 
he is not simply said to be sorrowful, but -rrisi/.vzog, which word signifies an 
encompassing about with sorrows, as David often expresseth it : ' The sor- 
rows of hell encompassed me about,' Ps. xviii. 5. His soul was plunged 
into them over head and ears, so that he had not so much as a breathing 
hole. For intention, this sorrow was unto death, and for extension, all the 
powers and faculties of his soul were begirt, besieged, and imprisoned ; and 
this expression is especially used in respect to om* sins taking hold of him. 
So Ps. xl. 12, 'Innumerable evils encompass me about: mine iniquities 
take hold of me.' It is spoken by Chiist as in his suft'eiings, for of him is 
that psalm prophetically made. So that, I take it, this phrase tss/ak-o; 
hath a more proper respect to the charging of our particular sins upon hun, 
Tvhich began to encompass him, or (as Isaiah's phrase is, Isa. hii) 'to meet 
in him,' to come about him from every quarter. His soul was so environed 
and shut up in sorrows (or in prisons, as Isaiah's phi-ase, Isa. liii. 8, is), 
that he had not a cranny left for comfort 1o come in at. Gal. iii. 23, 
the law is compared to a prison, in which men under the guilt of sin are 
shut up ; and so was Christ. Now, no temporal mercies do so environ an 
ordinaiy man's spii-it, but that there is some hole left to take breath at. 
But sin can do it ; and much more all the sins of the world, which now at 
once did meet at and beset Christ's soul. As Heb. xii. 1, sin is said to be 
that which ' easily besets us,' and so do both the power and the guilt of it. 

2. Secondly, there is yet a further expression used by another evangelist, 
that respects the terrors of God's wrath, seconding and following upon this 
his apprehension of our sins, and it is in Mark xiv. 33, ' He began to be 
sore amazed,' h.&aixZi7a&ai, which is a third expression used concerning his 
trouble. Our translation rightly renders it ' sore amazed,' for Sa/Xos/V 
signifies to be amazed ; but sz added, signifies the extremity of that amaze- 
ment, such as when men fall into it, their hair stands on end, and their 
flesh trembles. It signifies ' to be in horror.' No sooner hath these our 
sins presented themselves to him, as being our surety, but that withal 
thunder and lightning from God do presently strike him, and his wi-ath 
and cui'se for them suddenly arrests him ; this was it that put him into 
such an amazement as contains in it both fear and horror. His Father is 
presented unto him as an angry judge brandishing his sword of justice. 
And as the delivering of the law made Moses tremble, so the curse of the 
law made Christ ; ' I quake and tremble,' says Moses, or (as David ex- 
presseth it) ' My flesh trembleth because of thy judgments,' Ps. cxix. 120. 

Now, in the third place, follows the ellect of both these two (namely, the 
imputation of our sins, and the inflicting of God's wrath), which was an 
abriiio'/ia, an exceeding ' heaviness ' upon him. "VMiich word, both Mat., 


chap. xxvi. 37, useth, saj-iiig, '/i^^aro a.brjfj.ovsTv, which is translated, * He 
began to be very heavy ; ' and the same in Mark, chap. xiv. 33, where it in 
hke manner follows that former expression of his being amazed. Now, 
this word imports first the deep intention of his mind, so as to be wholly 
taken and swallowed up with sorrow and amazement, and even to be 
abstracted from his own thoughts, and to forget all comfort whatsoever, 
being wholly intent and thinking upon nothing else but God's wrath, with 
which he was to encounter — so full, so adequate an object is sin and the 
wrath due unto it, even broad enough for Christ's understanding to be 
wholly taken up with it. And therefore he hath the thoughts of our sal- 
vation, as it were, struck out of his mind for a time ; all his powers being 
so occupied about, and possessed with these doleful sights presented, that 
they forget their own functions. Some have put a further emphasis upon 
the word, as noting out, not only an abstract