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Full text of "The ark of the covenant opened, or, A treatise of the covenant of redemption between God and Christ, as the foundation of the covenant of grace. : The second part. Wherein is proved, that there is such a covenant. The necessity of it. The nature, properties, parties thereof. The tenor, articles, subject-matter of redemption. The commands, conditions, and promises annexed. The harmony of the covenant of suretiship made with Christ, and the covenant of reconciliation made with sinners wherein they agree, wherein they differ. Grounds of comfort from the covenant of suretiship."





/A^vruty f. / Qv\fiuyuu 

^ #ijw 

J be Ar\ of the Covenant Opened-, fabl 
Or, A J 


Of the 





God and Chrift, as the Foundation of the 
Covenant of Grace. 

Wherein is proved, 

That there is fucha Covenant. 

TheNeceffity of it. 

The Nature, Properties, Parties thereof. 

The Tenor, Articles, Subjeft-matter of Redemption. 

The Commands, Conditions, and Promiles annexed. 

I The Harmony of the Covenant of SuretiQiip made 

with Chrift, and the Covenant of Reconciliation 

made with Sinners : wherein they agree , wherein 

they differ. 

^Grounds of comfort from the Covenant of SuretiQiip. 

Written by a Minifter of the New-Teftament. 

L N D O N, 
Printed for -7bd. Varkburft at the Bible and three Crowns in Chetyftde, 
near Mercers Cbappel, 1677. 


R E A D E R. 

THE two only things thatpould induce any 
one t a give his Teftimony and Recom- 
mendation unlo Difconrfes that are 
publifhed for fublick ufe, are the im- 
portance of the Argument treated on> 
and the nfeful judicious handling ofit^ in thofe Dif- 
conrfes. Whatever elje may be 7 or ufually is jpoken 
unto, on fitch occasions , is a diversion from what 
ought to be intended \ and what is expeffed by all 
them who give fuch Prefaces the perufal. But both 
thefe in the enfuing 'Difconrfes feem to be fitch > and 
fo ftated , as to render any Recommendation of mine 
in this way needlefs and fuperfluous. For the Ar- 
gument treated of bei*g the Covenants of God with 
Chriji the Mediator, and with the Church in bim> 
there are none who have any acquaintance with 
Chriftian Religion 3 or care of their own Souls , 
but muji 9 and will, acknowledge to be of the great- 
eft weight in it felf and highefi concernment unto 

A 2 them 

To the Reader. 

them. For the DoCtrine hereof, or the truth herein, 
is the very -Center wherein* all the lines concerning. 
the Grace of God and our own duty, do meet } where-- 
in the whole of Religion doth confift. Hence unto the 
unaerjlaxding, Notions, and Conceptions, that men 
have ofthefe Covenants of God , and according as 
the Dcdrine of them is Jiated in their minds , 
their Conceptions of all other facred Truths , or 
Doftrines, are conformed. And therefore as they 
who have right apprehenftons,a;sd a true underfiami- 
ing of thefe things, cannot in th\ ufe of- diligence ', 
and the means appointed thtrtkfU, fipjstly milia^e 
the Truth in any other point of weight in the whole 
compafs of Religion '•> fo thofe who unhappily fall 
under mifapprehen r yt zbout them, do generally either 
fuSuaU in thei** own minds about all other Evan- 
gelical Truths , or do corrupt aficl pervert the whole 
Doffrine concerning them And i reon alp depends the 
regulation of all our intire Chrijiian pratf/fe or Obe- 
dience, as all will Ack&owledg who have an) fytowledg 
of thefe things. It feems therefore altogether need- 
left, that there J/jould be any new Recommendation 
of the fubjeft- matter of the enfuing Difcourfes^ unto 
thofe who ferioufly mind their own Spiritual and Eter- 
nal concerns 5 and as unto others , it is to no purpofe 
to declare the worth and nature offuch Pearls unto 
item. As for the manner of the Declaration or 
handling of thefe facred Truths in the enfuing Dif- 
courfes , the known Abilities, Piety , Learning, and 
Judgment of this Author, with that leafure he had 
to add his laji thoughts and confldtrations unt othem, 
are fufficient to give the Sober Reader an expeffa- 
Hon of as muchfatisfa&ion as he ts like to meet withal 


To The Reacfer. 

in endeavours of this nature. I cannot there- 
fore but judg that there is little need oftbkAttejia* 
Hon which I ant defred to give unto this excellent 
and ufeful Treatife. Howbeit^ that I may not feent 
wholly to condemn my felf in what I do, Imufi ac 
hpowkdg that therewere fome reafons which induced 
me to comply with the defire of the worthy Fublijher 
of it. My long Chrijlian acquaintance^ and friend- 
flnp with the Author , made me not unwilling to tefiifie 
my Refpetfs unto him and his Labours in the Church 
of God \ now he k at Rejt^ for whom I had fo great 
an efteem whilfi he was alive. And whereas the whole ' 
Dejign and end of my felf as unto others, is to pro- 
mote the kpowledg of the truths of the Gospel of our 
Lord tfefus Chrifti and the pra&ifeofthem $ J knew* 
not, but that with fo me at leaji, this occajional word 
might one way or other conduce unto that end. Ijhall 
therefore briefly and plainly give an account of my 
thoughts concerning this Dijcourfe^ which I have with 
fome diligence and great fatisfaStion perufed, Very 
many learned and godly perfons have laboured in the 
fame fubj eft unto the edification of the church : I 
intend them only who agreeing in the truth as to the 
fubllance of it, may yet differ in fome conceptions 
about it^ or the way of Explanation of it* For 
it is not unufejul that the fame truths efpecially that 
which is offo great importance as is what concerneth' 
the Covenant, be varioufly handled by many, according 
unto the meajure of the gift of Chrifi which they have 
received? fo whereas we know all hut in part, if we 
have^ as we ought to have, a continual fen fe of the 
imperfeUion of our kpcwledg, none ought to be of 
fended if they meet with, fame difference in Concepti- 

To the Reader.' 

ens and Expeditions about things of lejfer moment ;, 
among^ofe whp agree in the fubfiance of what they 
dopropofe ;.Jerfe& Harmony, and Vniverfal Agree- 
ment in all things, is the priviledg only ofthefacred 
Writers who were Divinely infpired. But from the 
firft day that the management of Religion was in 
the Providence of Godentrujied with them who had 
not an infallible Guidance , there is an apparent evi- 
dence of fuch differences as thofe we fpeal^of amongji 
them all ••> even the befi and wifeji of them. We may 
therefore allow them all their jufi Commendation 
who have laboured diligently in the invejiigation of 
the Truth although fome of them have not efcaped 
various mijiai^es about it* Nor is it fpoken with 
any reflection on the endeavours of others who have 
written on this fubjeCf, when I do freely declare my 
judgment^ That for Order , Method , Perfpicuity in 
treating p andfolidity of Argument y the enfuing Dif 
courfe exceedeth whatfoever fwgle Treat ife I have feen 
written with the fame dtfigns ** it alfo is entirely 
compliant with the ,Doffrine of the Gofpel, in what is 
afferted in it. Three things may be expeSed in 
difcourfu of this nature D or however the fubjeS 
requires that they may be attended unto. I 

!• A diligent declaration of the Truths in and from 
its proper principles ) with afohd confirmation there- 

2. A praciical improvement of the Truth fo de- 
clared and demon/irated. 

3. A vindication of it from dire& oppofition againjl 
it, or the corruption of it by a Mixture of fa Ife notions 
and apprehenftons about it, efpeci ally fuch as wherein 
C-hrifuan PracJif is nearly concerned. 


To the Reader.' 

Eachofthefe the Reverend and Leaned Author 
of the enfuing Difconrfe had A* efpecial regard unto h 
and how he hath (Uncharged himfelf in them all, will 
quickly appear unto every judicious and attentive 
Reader. I am fur e Ijfjall not -offend in wjjhingthat 
others may find the fame fat isfaBion in their perufal, 
as 1 have done. Wijl)^ J heartily do alfo , that as 
many of thofe as can with convenience D who dejire 
a good and fafe Guide in thefe important truths, in 
m the declaration whereof fo'inanf have run into 
ex tr earns , even unto the hazard of the Souls of 
Men, and would have their hearts excited unto 
their praUife, would furnijh themfelves with what 
is here tendered unto them. For I find that in 
what is DoStinal in the whole Difcourfe , wherein 
a great and excellent part of the Myfiery of the 
Gjfpel is unfolded, the Reverend Author hath fully 
weighed, not only what can be faid in the confir- 
mation of what he offer ts, hut alfo what can be faid 
againfi it, or befe* up in competition with it, car- 
rying on the truth with fuccefsful Evidence , and 
clear Demonjiration. And as unto what is fraUi- 
col, as he had the experience of it in his own Soul, 
fo there is nothing wanting that might give the 
feverals infijied on , a due imprejjion on the Minds 
and AffeCtions of others. Soundnefs in DoSrine , 
Gravity in Speech, ConviSion in Argument , Power 
in Exhortation , Clearnefs and Perfpicttity in Or- 
der, with a nervous Untwtexture of Scripture- 
7ef?i monies and Re df ok, throughout the whole , all 
evidencing their fpring in this work^ to have been, 
Zeal fo* the Glory of God, Love of the Truth, and 
Companion towards the Souls of Men, do in my judg- 
ment . 

T° ^ e Reader. 

mint animate and fill up thefe difcourfes from the 
Beginning unto the End. that they may be blefed 
unto the benefit and advantage of them who defire t» 
be edified in the truth that it after Codlinefs , is , 
the earnefi Prayer efr 


Thy Servant in the 

Work of the Gofpel, 

John Owen. 



Chap. I. 

OF the foundation of the covenant ofGrace? or of the co- 
venant of Redemption ', where 'tis i . Proved, that 
there is fuch a covenant between God and Chrift, P. i. 
I. Proof ', fromlfo. 59. 20,21, p. 2. 2. Proof \ from 
PfalmSp. p. 1. 3d. Proof j from Scriptures, which hold forth 
all the JEffentials and Requifites for making up a formal Cove- 
nant , to be betwixt God and Chrift, p. 5. The necejfary Requi- 
fites unto the ejfence of a Covenant,^ % 6. That they are to be 
found betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, ib. ( 1 ) Confent and 
agreement between God and Chrift about this thing, p. 6. 
( 2 ) Propofals made by Jehovah to Chrift, p. 7 : And Chrift s 
confent to the fe prepofals, p. 12. (3) That there is reftigies 
to be found between God and Chrift, of all things required to 
explicit e formal covenanting, p. 1 6. ( 1 ) Commands , with 
Promifes , p. 17. ( 2j Promifes with conditions , ibid. 
( l) Conditions with confent, p. 18. (4) Confenting,with 
performing, ibid. ( 5 ) Asking, aid giving, p. 19. 
( 6 ) Works, Wages, ibid. 4. Proof, from the Offices, Em<- 
ployments, Trufts, Towers, Authorities and Relations , which 
Chrift did bear in order to his peoples Redemption , p. 20. 
The Covenant between Jehovah and thrift evinced to be the 
foundation of the Covenant made with us* p- 26« 

{a/ Chap, 

The Contents. 

Chap. II 
Of the necejpty of the covenant of Redemption ', and I. Wh it 
kind of neceffity for the being of this Covenant, p. \ I. Three 
Questions about itrefohed, p. 32. And the extr earns on either 
hand confidered, p. $6. (2) In what refpetls, or to what in- 
tents it isneceffary: 1. For the honour of God', confidered^ 
1 . Effentiatly, as to his Nature and Attributes, p. $9. 2. Per- 
y*?*^/, as to the diflintl fubfiftences of the ,perfons of the Trini- 
ty } and the dilUnct Offices of the three Perfons, p. 40. 2. The 
good of the ranfomed and redeemed people, p. 42. And that y 

1. To ujher in the new way of Life by the G of pel. 2. That 
the Gofpei covenant with us, might he purely of Grace, p. 43. 

3. To advance our falvation, p. 44. 4. TL*? the fountain of 
our falvation might be out of our felves. 5. For our eftablijh- 
ment under the new Difpenfation, p. 45. 6. for the bettering 
of our bleffednefs and glory, p. 47. 7. For having in readi- 

-nejs a Phyfician before we Jhouldbe fick^ 8. For cutting off all 
occafion of boafiing from man. 

Chap. III. 

The nature of the covenant of Redemption, ma?>ifefted. 1 . The 
various eternal Alls of the Will of God, that concurred to 
make up this Agreement : 1 . Defignrtion of the perfon. 2. Fit- 
ting of him. $. Calling of him. 4. hive [ling him, p. 51. 
_j Sending him. On the other part, Chrifi s confent and com- 
pliance, p. 52* 2. The diflinBion and order of thefe .atts of 
his Will : 1. According to the fut writ ion of things, p. 54. 2. As 
to his execution of them. 3. As to the end. 

The Properties 0) the covenant of Redemption are, 1. Freedom^ 
p. 57, 2. 6> , : * •* />, p. 60. 3 . Eternity^ p. <S j. 4. Equality 
ift parties an&conditions, p. 67. 5. 0/-^r,p. 70. 6. Stability. 

The parties cf this stern.il tra.ifaclion about Rede^ihn, Jq- 
hov&h and Chri}?, p. 73. /^n? f#ey *re r# be confide red, fnewn 
in thefe aff rations : 1. Tfcjg fc 6W £f 0/? both fides of thu Co- 
venant , yet not to be confidercd the fame way on both parts. 

2. The Covenant is tranfacled with Chrifi perfonal : not Chrifi 
myftical . p. 74. $. TheCovr^ntw^: voi mad- with Chrifi, as 
God: t but as God-;;- ;.:?, p. 75. 4. Chrifi woi cho fen Lord- Me- 
diator, and we ehofeh in him , before he is a f arty covenanting with 
J; hovah about ow Redemption, p. 78. Chap. 

The Contents. 

Chap. IV. 

The fub)ec~b -matter and Articles of the covenant of Redemp- 
tion concluded between God and Chrifl, were, I . Whofhould be re- 
deemed, p. 80. 2. Who flwuld be the Redeemer y p.8 1 . i.What 
the Redeemers work; 4. When it jhould be done, p.82. 5. How 
to be apply ed, p. 8 3. 6. What reward for his work^, p. 84. 

7. What fhould be the mutual affurances for performance of the 
Articles agreed on, p. 8 ^ . The conditions and engagements re- 
quired of Chrifl by the Covenant , opened in eight affertions, 
p. 86. 1. All the commands of the Covenant , and conditions-, 
ibid. 2. All the conditions of the Covenant, were voluntary alls 
of Chrifl 's WilL 5. They were certain conditions, p. 87* 4. They 
Were works, p. 88. 5. The conditions of the covenant of Sure- 
tijhip made with Chrifl , did fully anfwer the intent of the co- 
venant of Works, p. 89. 6. Neither Chrifl s active nor paffive 
Obedience are to be excluded from making up the adequate con- 
dition of the coven-ant of SuretiJJup , ibid. 7. The conditions 
required of him, and performed by him, were meritorious, p. 90. 

8. The condition of the covenant of Suretifhip is more general,viz. 
his whole u dertaking, p. 9 1. Or more fpecial and formal \ his 
whole Obedience both atlive and paffive, p . 9 2 . 

The encouraging conditions made to Chrifl by God, of eight 
forts :■ i. Such as relate to the Offices, Authorities, Trufts and 
Powers, that were covenanted to him for the doing his wo fkj, p. 94* 
2. Such as relate to the Gift and habitual Endowments , necef- 
fary for performing this wor^, p. $6.' 3. Such as relate to his 
fupport in execution of his Office, p-97- 4. Such as relate to 
the fuccefs of his wor\ of Redemption, p. 99. 5. Thofe that 
relate to his Fathers acceptance of his work,, p. iok. 6. Thofe 
that relate to his reward for his Work,, p. 104. 7. Thofe that 
relate to -Inter eft, p. IQ7. 8. Thofe that, relate to the whole 
defign and intent of his Suretifhip, p. 108. 

Chap. V. 

The harmony of the covenant of Suretiflrip made with Chrifl, 
and the covenant of Reconciliation and Grace made with finners : 
They agree together 7 1. In their rife from Free 'grace , p.i 1 3. 

(a 2) a. In 

The Contents. 

% In their defign, the redemption of loft people, p. 114. 3. In 
that Chrift is the grand Inftrumwt of both, ibid. 4. They 
are both commen fur able with Gods election of the parties with 
whom he made the Covenants, p. 115. 5. The principal ends ef 
both, are the fame , ibid. 6 . The advantage of both redounds 
to us : the honour to the Lord. 7. There is exchange of places 
between Chrift and his redeemed feed in both, p. 11 6. 8. In 
many properties, free, gracious, fare, p. 11 7. 

They differ, 1 . In their rife ; one came from grace in both 
parties: the other not, p. 1 17. 2. In the property of Eternity. 

3. The parties are different*, in one, Jehovah and Chrift , in 
the other , Father , Sm and Spirit , and loft /inner s, p. 118. 

4. The covenant of Redemption is equal , that of Reconciliation 
unequal, p. 1 1 9 5. In the covenant of Redemption, there was no 
Mediator; in thai of Reconciliation there is, 6. The Promifes 
of the two Covenants are different, p. 120. 7. Threatnin^s 
are annexed to the covenant of Reconciliation, 8. Ihe com- 
mands and conditions of them are differ ent^^. 121. 9. The 
covenant of Redemption tarried not for our confent to ma\e it 
an actual covenant: the other does, p. 122. 

The two Covenants are con]oyn'd together by a five-fold con- 
nexion: 1, By an infeparable connexion, p. 123. 2. By an 
infallible connexion, j. An injuperahle connexion, p. 124. 
4. By a fecret and hidden connection. 5. By a beautify! con- 
nexion, p. 125. Their connection illuftrated by a Similitude, 
p. 127. 

Chap. VI. 

The grounds of comfort refulting from the covenant of Sure- 
tijhip to thofe who are in the covenant of Reconciliation : 1, The 
original of Gods covenanting with us, is an eternal compact be- 
tween Jehovah and Chrift, p. 128. 2. The fame love of the 
Father and Chrift, now drawing thee into the New Covenant , 
hath been in action for thee in Eternity. 3 . Our Redemption 
and Salvation hath little of our Will, and much of Gods gra- 
cious Will in it, p. 129. 4. By the covenant of Suretijhip, 
the fountain of life and falvation , lay cut of our fslves, in 
Chrift. 5. By the covenant of Suretijhip, our Rights aid Char- 
ters, the Promifes, are in a furer hand than our own, p. 130. 

The Contents. 

6. By the covenant of Suretijhip , Chrifi and the Believer are 
in a manner in one Writ, p 1 $ 1. 8. By the covenant of Sure- 
tijhip , all the hard conditions lay upon Chrifl , p. uj, 

9. That in the covenant of Suretijhip, the Believer is under- 
taken for by both the parties, Jehovah and Chrifi, p. 1^6. 

10. The Believer is in a fure and confirmed Eft ate, p. 137. 

11. Whatever Chrifl did in that Covenant , it was for m: 
and we did it in him, p. 138. 12. By that Covenant , be- 
fides all other Attributes , the Juflice of God is for the Believers 
falvation. This, 1. Is an argument to anfwer all temptations 

from our frailty, inconfiancy,&c* p. 140. 2. Admire and 
findy the depths of Love in Gods Covenant, p. 142. 3. Learn 
how needful the knowledg and perfwafion of Chrifl s Suretifliip 
for Hi, is, p. '143- 4. Nothing more necejfary to engage our 
hearts to ftudy faith and hololinefs, p. 144. 

Chap. VII. 

Concerning the Mediator of the New Covenant -, and, l.Of 

his Name , what it fignifies, p. 145. Chrifi called Mediator 

m a four-fold account : I. In refpetl of his V erf on. 2. Office. 

3. Fitnefs and qualification* 4. His actual inter pofing, p. 147. 

1. Through him was the Covenant fir ft moved. 2. Through 

him was the bnfinefs begun and ended in the Councel of God. 

3 . Through him were we reprefented in his tranfatlion with 

his Father, p. 148. 4* Through him God did fir ike hands 

with us. 5 . Through him the Covenant is fulfilled, 6 . Through 

him came the news of it. 7. Through him is the My fiery mads 

manifeU in the he arts of his people, p. 149. 8. He paid the 

price to Juflice for us, 9. Through him is peace made. 

10. Through him the hleffings of the Covenant are apply ed to 

ms* 11. Through him we receive thefe hleffings, p. 150. 

12. Through him was the Covenant with m confirmed. 

1 3. Through him are our hearts engaged to the bargain, ,'p. 151. 

14. Through him is the Covenant made firm and fi able, llfes, 
1. 1 he mifery of thofe under the covenant of Works y 2. The 
hleffednefs of Believers under the covenant of Grace. 3. Since 
Chrifi is Mediator , he mufi be employed and acknowledged, 
p. 152. 

' Chap. 

The Contents, 

Chap. VIII. 

Concerning the neceffity of a Mediator } and the reafons 
why the Covenant is eftablijh'd in the hands of a Mediator , 
of three forts, p. 15$. 

( l ) Refpetting Gods Glory ', I . The glory of his Honour. 
2. The glory of his Wifdom. $, The glory of his Goodnefs, 
p. 154. 4. The glory of his Juftice,?. 15$. 

(2) Reafons ref petting Chrifl ; 1. In refpeclofhis Offices , 
King, Prieft, and Prophet, ibid. 2. His Power. 3. In 
refpetl of the dependence we have on him.. 4. In refpetl of 
his fole working the whole bufinefs, p. 156. . 

( 1 ) Sort of reafons , rej peeling the creatures good, nega- 
tively i and affirmatively : Negatively, 1. Without the Media* 
tor, we could have had no faving-knowledg of God, p. 156. 
2. No union between God and man. . $ . No communion with 
God. 4. 2{o conformity to God. Affirmatively : 1. A foun- 
dation is laid for a higher happinefs to be recovered in* Chrift, 
than was loft in Adam, p. 157. \% There is a better fecurity 
of that happinefs. 3. Solid grounds of Confolation. Uies : 
I. This clears one difference between the covenant of Grace, 
and that of Works, wherein was no Mediator, p. 158. 2. From 
the neceffity of a Mediator , be convinced of your need of a 
Mediator, p. 159. $. Carry it as thofe that need a Media,- 
tor, p. 160, 

CHap. IX. 

Concerning the prfon of the Mediator of the New Cove*- 
nant, p. 16.1 : called, 1. The Word of God, p. 162. 2. The 
brightnefs of his Fathers glory, p. 163, 3. The exprefs I- 
mage of his Fathers perfon, p. 1 64. 

I. Chrift hath in him a glorious refemblance of the excel- 
lency and Attributes of the Father. 2. It is by Chrift that ail 
thofe Excellencies of God are revealed to us, p. 164. Three 
things in God are difcovered in Jefus Chris! . 1* The Attri- 
butes of God \ Wifdom, Goodnefs, Mercy, Power, Soveriagnty, 
Juftice, Holinefs: All-fufficiency , Patience, Faithfulnefs, Ma- 

" i, p. 166Y 

* The 

The Contents. 

2, The diftinB fubfiftences of the perfons of the Godhead, 
p. 171. 

3. The diftinB Offices of the three T erf oris : I. The Atts 
of the Father, plotting and making the covenant with Chrifi 
Mediator. 2. The ABs of Jefus Chri ft undertaking. 3. The 
Alls of the Spirit. 

Chap. X. 

Concerning the Office of the Mediator', and 1. Of his cal- 
ling to it j p. 174. 2. By whom he wax called, by God the 
Father, p. 1 75. 3. When he wo* called to it : 1. In refpell 
~*f his designation to the Office , it is Eternal, p. 176. 2. In 
rejpeEb of his furniture for , and being invefied in his Office , 
it is in time, p. 1 77. life 1 . Wonder at Gods eternal Love 
in calling Chrift, and his voluntary fubmiffwn to it. life 2. 
To eftablifh our faith in the prevalency of Chrisls Mediati- 
on , ibid. life 3. Shews the neceffity of receiving the Me- 
diator . Ufe 4. Is comfort to Believers. 

Chap. XL 

Of Chrifts qualification for the Office of Mediatorfhip ^ and 
1. Of his taking our nature upon him,- p. 179. Where, 1. Is 
to be conftdered the reality of it, p. 180, 2. His condejc end- 
ing- love in it, p. 181. 3. The exaltation of our Nature , 
p. 183. 4. How Qhrifis taking cur Nature, is the great 
qualification of him for his Mediator (hip, p. 1 8 5. 1. He muft 
he God: for man could not fatisfie for fin, p. 186. 2. He 
muft be Man , becaufe he mn fir ft and in our (had : and be one 
with us,&c p. 187. 3. The reaj'ons why he muft be God 
and Man, in one per f on, p. 188. 

Chap. XII. 

Several Qwftions refolvtd concerning Chrifts taking our Na- 
ture upon him •, Why God the Father, or the Holy Ghoft, too\ not 
our Nature, but the Son? p. 1 89. 2 . Why muft the Son of God be 
not only Man, but the Son of Man, the fed of the Woman? p. 191. 
3 Why did not the Son ofGodtakf Adams nature in Innocency ,but 


The Contents, 

vthenitwas corrupted? p. 192. 4. Why muft our Mediator be 
born of the feed of Abraham? and when? p. 194. 5. why 
muft our Mediator he made under the Law ? p. 195. 6. Why 
was the Son of God horn of a Virgin, and not a marriedWo- 
man ? p. 196. 7. Why is Chrift made Man in the fulnefs of 
time, and not fooner nor later? p. i97» The Vfes, p. 198. 

Chap. XIII. 

Of Chrift s VnElion , another qualification of him for his Of- 
fice - the fir ft part of which is his Anointing to thefe Offices 
of Prophet, Trie ft, and King, p. 20 1. The neeeffity of them 
in him, p. 202. The ufe of them in our Mediatory p. 204. 

3. The concurrence of them for the end of his Mediator pipy 
p. 209. V.fes x y. 215. 

Chap. XIV. 

The fecond part of Chrift s VnBion, viz. as it relates to his 
qualifications' for the work^ : I . Of his VnElion in general, 
p. 22 1. 1. It was the fame with the V notion of Believers y 
p. 224. 2. It was without meafure, p. 223*. 3. As to the 
time of his Vnfhion } it was from the fir ft Vnion of his two 
Natures : 4. The extent of his VnBion : it reacheth to all 
the parts of his Mediatorfhip, p. 226. Vfes of it, p. 227, 

Chap. XV. 

Of the Requifites in a Mediator , which are eminently in 
Chrift : and I . Of the Requifnes of fitting him for his Trufl - 7 
as 1. A Mediator mufl he a perfon that muft have inter ~ 
eft in both parties, 2. He mufl he trufl ed by both par- 
ties. 3. He mufl be well ajfetled to both parties, p. 230. 

4. He muft have power over both parties. 

( 2 ) Requifites relating to the managing fuch a workj As, 
1. He muft be a condefcending perfon % p. 231. 2. He mufl 
he Mollifying, p. 232. 3. He muft be Affable , p. 233. 
4. Meeh^and long-fujfering, p. 234. 5. Merciful and ten- 
dr-hearted, p. 235. 6. He muft be potent enough to com- 
pafs his undertaking) p. 236. 7. Faithful to* the intereft of 


The Contents. 

both parties in the Mediation, p. 2$8. 8. He muftbe a wooer 
of both the parties, to bring them in friendjhip together ', p.2$p, 
9. Couragious to undergo difficulties and oppofitions, p. 240 . 

Some other properties in our Mediator qualifying him for his 
Wrk.i not found in any otfer Mediator : as 1. His Onenefs with 
both parties between whom he mediates, p. 242. 2. He never 
declines the work^ of Mediation for any. 3 . He is always at 
hand) and ready, p. 24$. 4* -^ perjetual Mediator, p. 244. 
Several Vfes, ibid. 

Chap. XVI. 

Of Chrifts execution of the Office of a Mediator : 1 . He doth 
it according to both Matures : proved by fix Reafons, p. g.5 1. 
2. Chrift hath executed this Office ever fine e the beginning of the 
World, p.255. 3 . Jcfus the Mediator executeth his Office as weft 
in his eft ate of Exaltation, as Humiliation, p . 2 5 7 . A Que ft ion, 
whether the tsfngcls have any jhare in Chrifts Mediation*. An- 
fwered, p. 259. 1 he execution of Chrifts Mediator jhip, redu- 
ced to five Heads, p. 262. 1. To prepare a way for mans co- 
venanting with God, p. 26$. 2. To bring thetletl within the 
bond of the Cov$nant, r $. 264. 3. To enable whom he bringeth 
into the covenant opijrace*, to perform the Duty of the Cove- 
nant, p. 266. 4. To keep them from falling away from that 
blejfed Eft ate, p. 267. 5. To bring them to the height of that 
blejfednefs he hath appointed for them, p. 269. 

Chap. XVII. 

Grounds of comfort and fupports of Faith , arifing to Belie- 
vers from Chrifts Mediatorjhip ; 1 . To thofe who are convinced 
ef enmity betwixt God and them, and defire Reconciliation, 
p. 272. 2. To Believer s>> who are come to God through him, 
p. 27 j. $. It reacheth to' all the evils wherewith Believers 
can be affiiftci, ibid. Grounds of comfort : if we confider, 

1. The ¥ erf on who mediates, he is one with the Father: 

2. The ? erf on with whom he mediates; his relation to the Me- 
diator, and the per Jons he mediates for, p. 277. 3. The Per- 
fo%s for whom he mediates ; 9ur nearnefsto the Mediator and 

The Contents. 

to God by him. 4. The caufe for which he mediately therigh 
teonfnefs and honourablenefs of it, p. 278.. 

Chap. XVIH 

Of the Relations that Chrift fuftaineth in the covenant of^ 
Grace, viz, A witnefs of the Covenant : 1. The Witnefs wit*>- 
neffed, p. 299. 2. The Witnefs witneffing : 1. An Eye* 
mtnefs, p. 302. 2. An ailing Witnefs. -3. He did declare 
all he f aw, heard, and atted, about it, p. $0 3. Three My Se- 
ries declared by him: 1. The myflerie of the G 'off el-covenant, 
p, 304. 2. The my ft erie of Chrift, p. 305. 3. The myftt- 
ry of the Gofpel-righteoufnefs , and the way of juftifying Sin- 
ners, p . 3 06. Several My ft erie s in this Right eoufnefs ; 1 . The 
imputation of it: 2. In the Inftrument^vh . Faith. 3. In the 
imputation of it, with reference to thePerfons to whom it is imputed. 

( 4 ) Chrift is the witnefs of the Covenant , who confirmeth 
the truth of all that is contained in it, p. 3 07. Viz. Command^ 
Vrotnifes, Conditions , Threatnings ., Prediclwns and Excepti- 
ons, p, 398. 5. Uks of this, p. 3:13.- 



'Another Relation Chrift bears in the Covenant, viz. the me f 
jenger of the Covenant, p. 325. Where, 

(1) The import of the name, Meffenger, or Angel of the 
Covenant, p. 326. 

(2) In what refpetls. it is applicable to Chrift, p. 327. 
l. In regard of the truft committed to him in the matters of the 
Covenant. 2. In regard of his pains and travel wit^ p. 328. 

(l) Betwixt whom doth Chrift travel as Meffenger of the f 
Covenant, p« 3. 30. 1. Chrift is in fome refpetl a Meffenger 
betwixt God± and\ah\the viftbls multitude to whom the Cove-'- \ 
napt is offered, and the, G of pel preached, p. 331. 2. More 
fpecially between God and his cho fen. 3. To many Hypocrites 
and Reprobates, p. 332. 4. To the multitudes unto whom the 
Gofpel is preached, p. 333. 

(4) Whofe Meffenger : whether of one or both parties , in 
reffetl of delegation^ and w iff on, an& fubor dination ; but of 


The Contents. 

one, in fefpeB of his bufinefs, labour in it, and Ambaffage a- 
bout it, and correfpondence with both : he is a Meffenger of both 
parties, ibid. 

f 5 jl About what bufmefs be is Meffenger, viz. all thing* 
appertaining to the Covenant : I. As to the making it, p. 35 5. 
2. The maintaining and preferring it, p. 3 36. 3. The renew- 
ing and eft abliflring of it, p. 357. 

(6) Confider the Properties of the Angel of the New Cove- 
nant * 7 1. He is faithful, p. 5 38. 2. An atlive diligent Mef- 
fenger. 3. A fweet Meffenger, p. 339. 4. An accurate Re- 
porter of his Meffage. 5 . Mortified to hit own honour and cre- 
dit, p. j 40. Two Vfes of this, ibid. 

Chap. X(X. 

Another Relation Chrift bears in the Covenant , is that of a 
Servant, p. 349. To under ft and this : confider, 

(ijTln what refpcBs this name is given to Chrift : il In re- 
gard of his Office. 2. In regard of his condition of Humilia- 
tion. $. In regard of his Truft. 4. In regard of his Work. 
5. In regard of his Wages. 6, In regard of his Spirit of Fear 
he was fnbjettto, p. 3 50. 

(1) How he came under this Covenant-Relation: 1. The 
Lords choice or Call. 2 . His own Love. 3 . His free Confent. 
4. His compact and Covenant engaged him, p. 353. 

( l) Whofe Servant Chrift was in the bufinefs of the Cove- 
nant*. i.Gods. 2. Ours. 3. Servant to both: with fome diffe- 
rences, p. 354. 

(4) What kind of fervict ? belongs to Chrift by his Covenant-re- 
lation? 1. The great eft ever was pit on man, Redemption and 
Salvation. 2. The hardeft piece of workj, p. 356. 3. An ho- 
nourable Service^ he ferved as King. 4. The moB kindly fer- 
vice from Love, p. 357. 

f 5) What was the fervice Chrift did in the bufinefs df the 
Covenant? it was all that Chrift had in commiffibn to do in 
our Nature, from the time of his receiving a Commiffion to be 
the Mediator of the Covenant , to the time of his delivering up 
the Kingdom to his Father, p. 358. Two Vfes of this , p. 

(b 2) Chap* 

The €ontentr. | 

Chap. XX*- [hap ' %X 

Chrift the Surety of the Covenant , p. 08. To open this , it 
is confidered, 

( I ) Of the name and thing : the fever al figni feat ions of the 
Hebrew wordy yfy, Ghnarab, p. $69, which anfwers to the 
Greek, tyywt , p. 371. and Sponfor, p. $72. The nature of 
this Suretifhip: 1. It is a ground of 'Truft, p. 372. z. It im- 
ports fever al things i 1. Obligement for another : and that 
2. Voluntary. $. Vnion of parties y p. 37;. 4. Communion 
between the Debtor and Cautioner. 5. The fubftitution of one 
in the room of another. &. A conjunct Obligation of Surety and 
Debtor to the Creditor, p. '374. 7. Imports either irrefpon- 
fabtenefs in the Debtor , or diftruftfulnefs between Creditor and 

(l) Suretifhip of divers kinds among men, perfectly re* 
fembling Chifts Suretifhip, p. 3 75. 

Affertions for clearing the Covenant-Relation, p. $79. 
1. Man confidered in the fecond Covenant, hath as much need 
of a Surety, as a Saviour. 2. Chrifts furetijhip was not only 
a voluntary act, but an actalfo of abfolute Sever aignty, p. 379. 
4. When man was broken , Chrifl unrequefted , undertook for 
him to fatisfie his Creditor. 4. £hrift died not only for our 
good, but in our fie ad, p. 380. 5. Chrift the Surety , and 
broken man, the Debtor, are one in Law, p. 581. 6. Nei- 
ther the Creditor nor Law can exacl fatisfatlion of Surety and 
Debtor, p. 382. 7. Chrifts furetijhip was a mixture of ju~ 
ftice and grace. 8. Chrifts furetijlnp was not private. 
9. Chrift in his undertaking, had his Fathers Bond of relief 
and warrandice, p. 38 5, 10. All Chrifts Offices are founded 
•n his furetijhip, p. $84. 

($) How came he to be furety of the Covenant? God made 
him fo : which imports, I. Something in God, viz* his decree. 
2. His anointing him. $. Inve fling him, p. 385. 2. Some- 
thing on Chrifts part, viz. His condefc ending, z. His enga- 
ging his faith to do what he agreed. $. His performance of 
thefe things, p. 387. From this furetijhio of Chrift for his 
P'eple, arifeth a fourfold Relation, founded on it ; 1. A na- 

The Contents. 

tnralMation. 2. A legal Relation. h A federal Re* 
Utiort. 4. A myftical Relation, p. 388. 

(4) For whom Chrift is engaged at Surety of the Covenant: 
fomepremiffestothe Anfwer$.i9$. Anfwer, J. Negatively, Not 
for all mankind, 2 . Nor for all thofe within the vtfible Church, 
p. 35x5. Affirmatively: Chrift undertakes for the Elect only, 

($) For what Chrift is engaged by his Suretifhp. Some di- 
ftintiions fpeahjng the extent of his undertaking. I. Chrift is 
Surety for his people, in his ft ate ? and in his alliens, p. 397. 
2. He was fo in earth, and is fo in heaven, p. 398. 3. In 
our-ftead, and in our behalf, p. 401, 4. On Gods part to man, 
and mans part to God, p. 402. h For God to man, engaging 
to make good all the promifes thereof to us, p. 402. 2. For 
mans part to God } which lies in three things. The firft re- 
lates to the violation of the Law, and broken covenant of > Works ', 
p. 404. which comprehends two things ', 1. His fur rogation in 
ourplace. 2. His fatisf action,^. op ^. The > 2. Relates the condi- 
tion and commands of the New Covenant. 1 , He isfurety to God 
for our performance of the Commands of the New Covenant , p. 
406. 2. He is an engager to make thefe things that are required 
of us, pofftble and certain in the performance, p . 408. 3 . He is 
engaged to give habitual Grace, and aclual Influences, p. 409. 

1. Bowing our will. 2- To preferve thefe Habits, p. 410. 
3< For our exercifing habitual Grace. 4. For the livelinefs of 
our Graces. 5. For the increafe of the habits of Grace, p. 
411. 6% To ftir us up when heavy. Five affertions clear 
this; that Chrift m engaged for our obeying the preceptive part 
of the Law, p. 412. The third part of Chrift s Suretijhip 
for man to God , relates to his undertaking for the perfons of 
the Elect : 1. For the indempnity of all the El eel, p. 418. 

2. Far their good behaviour . 3. For their appearing before God 
at laft, 4. For compleating whatever concerns their falvation, 
p. 4iQ# 5. For compleatly delivering them. 

(6) Some things that commend Chrift s Suretijhip, 1 . That 
he rendered him f elf their Surety J>e fore they needed him, 2. That 
he entred on it fo freely. 3. The great danger of his under- 
taking, p. 420. 4. That he engaged for a party which defer- 
ved no pity, p. 421.. j; That he engaged for a people he could 
expert no fatisfaclion from, p. 42 1. 

(7) Wherein Chrift s Suretijhip differ eth from bonds of cauti- 
onry among men, in eleven things, p, 422.- (18) The •■ 

The Contents. 

(i). The. advantages believers have by- Cbrifts Shmijhip. 

1. Exemption from the Law and hand of Juftice? p. 427. 

2. the New and better Covenant-ftate. 3. Oar perfeverance 9 
And flMity inii, p. 428. 4. An ability to perform the con- 
ditions of the Covenant , p. 429. 5. Boldnefs in diflreffes to 
lay oar weight on him. 6. In refpsft of temptations, preven- 
tm & ftandwg againfl, or delivering from them, 

Ufes. i. Ground of Comfort ;, p. 431. 2. Ufe. Expoftula- 
tion with believers and unbelievers ; p. 432. 3. life. Tryal 
whether Chrift liath undertaken for you, p. 434. 4. life. This 
Dotlrine confirms many Articles of Faith: 1. Free Election^ 
p. 435. 2. The Sovtraignty of Grace. 3. Ferfeverance f 
p. 436. 5. Ufe. Serves to anfwer Ml temptations? difcourage- 
ments ,and do ubtings in believer s, p*437. 6. life. Exhortation 
to believers? p. 440. 7. life. Put not. any thing in Chrijis place 
as Surety for yon, 


Of Chrifis being the Teflator in the Covenant of Grace : 
where, 1. Of the name and relation. It imports a per fon dy- 
ing. 2. A perfon invefted with pojfejfwn and right to fome 
efiate, p. 445. 3. A power in him tc difpofe of what he pof- 
feffeth. 4. A Deed* $. An attual difpofing of his goods , .p. 

(2) What was the defign of his being T eft at or in the Cove- 
nant. 1 . That he might add a new title to believers. 2. To 
declare his free Grace. 3. To ratifie believers titles to Co- 
venarit-blejfings. 4. To make way . to the pojfejfwn of them? p. 

• 447- 

(3) How this defign is accomplijht in thrifts bearing this 

relation in the fever al inflames, p. 44.8. 
4. Vjes made of this, p. 450. 

Chap.XXIH. ^Xll 

Be fides the relations Chrifi bears in the Covenant : he is 
the Covenant it felf-^ which imports, 1. The abridgu^thc 
whcU Covenant in Chri\ Mediator. 2. The commttw^the 
vrhils bufwefs by God to him, p. 45 3. Chrift is all the Cpve- 

a nt, 

The Contents. 

ftAtitj I. Originally, p. 454. 2. Trim wily. 3. Eminently , 
p. 455. 4. Virtually. 5. Exemplar ily^ p. 45 6. 6. Compre- 
henfively, p. 457. f2) The J um of the Articles of the Cove- 
nant is in Chrift, p. 4.58. ( $) The fum of the mutual flip Hiation is 
in Chrift, p. 459. (4) Chrift is the fum of all the PromifeS) 
p. 460. 

(5) Chrift the fum of all the properties of the Covenant, p. 
461. 1. Freenefs. 2. Everlaftingnefs. 3. Of the order of 
it. 4. ...It's ftability. 5. It's perfection. 6. lis fatisfatfori- 
nefs, p. 46 3. 

(6) Chrift the fum of all Covenantbleffngs. I. Eminently. 

2. Comprehenfively. 3. Vltimitely, p. 465. 4. Virtually, po 

life. 1. Of reproof, 1. To f/w/e w&0 feek^ fomething elfe. 
2- T0 f/w/e fto feek^ fomething more than Chrift, p. 466. 

3. To thofe that feek^fomething lefs. 4. To thofe that wrangle 
about circumftances, to the prejudice of the marrow of the Gof 
pel, p.4^7- 

life. 2. To difcover how we fall jhort of giving Chrift his 
place in the Covenant, p. 467. 

life. 3. Of tryal, whether you are in the covenant of 
Grace, p. 468." Try this ± 1. By your divorcement from ldofs 7 
pi 469- 2. By consenting to the mutual tye of the Covenant. 
3. By your fubjeclion and fubmijfion to Chrift, p. 470. 4. By 
your fatisfatlion with, and acceptation of the whole bargain. 
5. By accounting duties your priviledges. 6. By your equal 
endeavours after holinefs and heaven f ^4^1. 7. By being 
humbled and provoked to holinefs, by the knowledg of your be- 
ing in Chrift. 8. By your valuing of Chrift, p. 472. 

life. 4. To teach us to obferve more of Chrift, in whatever 
we fee appertaining to the Covenant, p. 473. 

life. 5. E or commending Chrift to you. 1. See the-neceffty 
of him. 2. Learn the way hove \to come to God, p. 474. 3. Be 
perfwaded to take him that is given for a Covenant of the peo- 
ple, p. 475. 4. Take him, and make ufe of him •* for all the 
Covenant, p. 476. 

Uie. 6, For comfort to believers, ibid. 


Of the Foundation of the Covenant of Grace , or 
of the Covenant of Redemption. Where , 
i. 'Tis proved that there is fucb a Covenant 
vrith Chriji. 2. That this is the foundation 
of the Covenant made with us. 

AS the Covenant of Grace hath its rife from God only, 
and from Grace *, fo 'tis founded and bottomed upon 
nothing in us, but upon God's Covenant with Chrift, 
whom he gave for a Covenant of the peofle, Ha. 49. 8 j 
whom he layed in Zion for a foundation , a fure foundation^ 
Ifa. 28. 16. The Covenant made with us, did fpring out of the 
Covenant made with Chrifl ; and as 'tis commonly diftinguifhed, 
the Covenant of reconciliation , whereby we are actually reco- 
vered and reconciled unto God, is bottomed upon the Covenant 
of Redemption ; or as others fpeak , the Covenant offuretijhip , 
whereby the recovery, redemption and reftitution of fallen man, 
was tranfa&ed betwixt God and Chrift. I fhall therefore fpeak 
a little of the Covenant of Redemption , to make way for the 
better underftanding of the whole Treatiie of the Covenant 
of Graces and particularly what relates to Chrift the Mediator. 
And, I', That there is a Covenant betwixt God and Chrift } 
though the name of this myfterious tranfattion, which we call 
the Covenant of Redemption and Suretifhip , be not found in 
the Scripture , in fo many words (which may be among the 
reaibns why moft Writers have been filent about the thing) *, 
yet the thing it felf being fo evidently held 
forth in the Scripture, that the Socinians who F ' Soclni ^ <*e Ser- 
enervate and ftudy to make void the Suretilhip vac * * 2 ' ca ?' l6 ' 
©f Chrift, yet do not deny a Govenant wherein he is Surety 

B or 

2 Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. 1. 

Sakmarfh of free- or -Mediator-, as they underftand his Sureti- 
Gract. obf, 6. & fhip. And the Antinomians , who upon the 
i 8 * a *r matter do own no Covenant of Grace pro- 

Serm.t '" P erI Y fo calIed i made with us » Y et the Y 

» J. ' , do acknowledg a Covenant betwixt God 

5acerd? Chrift? and ^ nr ^- The Armenians alio acknowledg 
p. 1 6, 17. the fame, though in a fenfe different from 

Mr. Rntkerf. Treat, ours. The Scriptures (I lay) being fo very 
oj thtcovinint.y.2. p re gnant in this proof, I fhall the more brief- 
E. Bud Gofp. Co ly diipatch it, and refer the Reader to what 
venanr, p. 29' k written of it by others, every way more fit 

to open this myfterie, than I am. 
The fir ft proof I take from I fa. 59. 20, 21, And the Redeemer 

fiall come to Zion, and, unto them that turn from 
&£a££ trtnfctfwninJacobJaitktheLordrAsforme, 
c# - this is my Covenant with them faith the Lord ,&c. 

Where we read of a Covenant betwixt the 
Lord and the Redeemer, that was to come unto Zion, which 
can be no other but the Covenant of Redemption. For clear- 
ing of this , Confider 1 . That he to whom the Lord f peaks 
there, muft be Chrift and no other •, For 1. Tis he only, whofe 
feed have the Spirit and Word enfured unto them f, for the feed 
of no Church-Society upon earth hath the Spirit and the 
Ordinances appropriated and enfured unto them , only Chrift's 
feed have the promife of the Spirit and the Word appropriated 
and enfured unto them for ever, Gal. 3.29, And if ye be 
Chrifis, then are ye Abrahams feed , and heirs according to the 
fremife. And the Churches feed have this Promife and Cove- 
nant only in fo far as they are Chrift's feed , I fa. 44. 3, I will 
four my fpirit upon thy feed, and my bleffing upon thy off-fpring. 
2. Becauie 'tis Chrift only, who hath in ftore the Spirit which 
is given to all his feed '-, though all Chrift's feed receive of the 
fame Spirit of the Lord, yet it cannot be faid of any of them, 
nor of the Church in general, that their feed receive the Spirit 
that is upon them, or in them * 7 to wit, by communication of 
any part of the meafure and proportion given to them *, but of 
Chrift's only, who received not the fpirit by meafure, Joh>$. $4. 
Nor can it be faid, My fpirit that is upon thee fnall not de- 
fart from thy feed, Gal* 4. 6. And becaufe ye are Sons, God hxth 


Chap. L Of the Covenant of Redemption. % 

fent forth the fair it of his Son into your hearts, crying Abba, father, 
2. Let it be confidered, that this is not only a Covenant 
made with Chrift ; but it muft needs be the Covenant of Re- 
demption: For although, i. There be mention here made of 
his feed , which are not Parties in the Covenant of Redemp- 
tion } yet nothing is iboken to them, but only to Chrift, and 
of them, as a party not treated with, but about whom there 
was treaty and Covenant 'twixt God and Chrift ; for ftiil the 
ipeech is to Chrift in the fecond peribn , upon thee, thy feed, 
and thy month, ckc* 2. Although there be here mention of a 
Covenant with them that turn from ungodlineis in Jacob , and 
of Promifes concerning the feed of Chrift *, yet that amounts 
to no more, than that they are the fubjeft matter of the Co- 
venant tranfacled betwixt God and Chrift ; and that the Cove- 
nant with them fpringsout of the Covenant with him , and is 
therefult and execution thereof. So that I take the meaning of 
the words, This is my Covenant with them, my fair it that is upon 
thee, &c to be, This is my Covenant that I have made with, 
thee upon their account, and for their behoof, or the Cove- 
nant that I have made with them , to wit , virtually, when I 
covenanted with thee, and made promifes to thee for their be- 
hoof :, the refult whereof, fhould amount unto a Covenant with 
them actually* And I fay, it can be no other upon the matter 
but the Covenant of Redemption : i. Becaufe 'tis made with 
the Redeemer that fhould come out of Zion, or with Chrift as 
defigned Mediator and Redeemer in the counfel of God, long 
before he came in theFlefh. 2. Becaufe 'tis a Covenant about 
the Redemption and recovery of theEleft people of God, who 
are the only fubjeft matter treated about in this Covenant*, as 
appears from the Text, v. 20, 21. 

2. Proof, I take from PfaL 8y, where the Covenant made 
with Chrift is held forth as the Original, Foundation and 
Eftablifhment of the Covenant made with his feed ♦, and Chrift 
is fpoke of under the name of David, with whom he changes 
Barnes in the Scripture , and who was a type of Chrift in many 
things, but eminently in the Covenant that God made with 
him, and that he was a publick p&rfon , and a King by Co- 
venant, v. 1, I have made a Covenant with my chofen. God 
having chofe Chrift, for performing the work of Redemption, 

B 2 * did 

4 Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. I. 

did make a Covenant with him. Two things being cleared in 
that Pfalm, it will amount to a full proof of the point in hand: 
i. That the Covenant fpoken of there, is made with Chrift. 
2. That it is the Covenant of Redemption that is here in- 
tended. For the firft , that the perlbn fpoken of under the 
name of David, and with whom the Covenant was made, is 
Chrift and no other, is evident from leveral expreflions which 
are peculiar to Chrift's Perlbn and Kingdom , and cannot be 
applyed to David, further than he was a type of Chrift; This 
David is the mighty one upon whom God laid the help of his 
people, v. 19. Tis he upon whom the enemy fiallnotexaft,v. 22. 
Tis he who is higher then the Kings of the earthy v. 27.. whole 
feed endures for ever-, and his throne at the days of heaven , and 
to all generations ; v. 4, 29, 36, 37. 'Tis he who is diftinguifhed 
from his feed by this difference , that they may fin and be 
chaftifed, v. go*, which cafe is not put of himfelf, but only of 
his leed*, 'tis he, by the force and vertue of whole Covenant, 
his finful feed are not caft out from Covenant-kindnels , 
*« lb 44> 35- an d this could be no other but Chrift: And to 
put the matter out of queftion , the Covenant and Promifes 
made here, v. 27 , and in the parallel-Scripture , 2 Sam, 7. 14, 
are applyed unto Chrift, Heb- 1. 5. 

2. That this was the Covenant of Redemption, which God 
faith he made with his chofen David, i. e. Chrift, may be ga- 
thered alio from the Text, u It is the Covenant by which 
Chrift is conftituted a Servant, and engaged in the Service of 
the Lord about our Redemption , v. 4, / have made a Cove- 
nam with my chofen, — David my fervant. 2. 'Tis the Cove- 
nant by which the help of the People of God is laid on Chrift, 
as a mighty, potent, refponfal perlbn, able for the work, v. 19, 
I have laid help upon one that is mighty. 3. Tis the Covenant 
by which Chrift is a King and a Prieft , and is defigned and 
deftinated, called and feparated unto Offices for the work of 
Redemption, v. 19,20, 26,27, / have exalted one chofen out of * 
the people ,mth my oyl have lannointed him, &c. 4. 'Tis the Cove- 
nant by which Chrift received commands to fulfil his offices , and 
to depend upon God in the doing of the work, ^.27. He gallery 
unto me, my Father, and my God, thou art the rock^ of my Salvation. 
5. 'Tis the Covenant by which Chrift had peculiar promifes made 


Chap.T . Of the Covenant of Redemption. 5 

Unto him, of affiftance for the work of Redemption, and help t<r 
the people of God, v. 21, Adine arm aljo flail flrengthen 
him, &c. of glorious victory, v. 23,/ will beat down his foes, eke. 
and exaltation, ^.27, I will make him my firflborn, higher than 
the Kings of the earth. Of a feed and ofr-fpring to endure for 
ever, v. 29, His feed alfo will I make to endure, &c. Now this 
could be no other but the Covenant of Redemption *, for by no 
Covenant is Chrift engaged in this Service , called unto thefe 
Offices, undertaker of the Peoples help, receiver of fuch 
commands and promifes,c£r. but by this Covenant of Suretifhip. 

Objett. If it be faid, That here are many things ipoken 
which relate to Chrift's feed , and which do belong to the 
Covenant of reconciliation ; fuch as the keeping Covenant-kind- 
nefs and mercy with Chrift's feed, &c. 

AnfSNz are not to conceive of the Covenant of Redemption in 
fuch an abftravtcd confideration and notion, as if the things tran- 
fatted in that Covenant made with Chrift,had no relation to, nor 
connexion with the Covenant made with us^but upon the contra- 
ry , we are ftill to keep in mind the great affinity and connexion 
that is between thefe two Covenants, and as the Apoftle reaibns 
from the one to the other , 2 Cor. 6. 2, For he faith, I have 
heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of falvation have 
1 fnccouredthee. Where he looks upon what God laid to Chrift 
" concerning us , and the hearing of him for us, as ipoken for 
our encouragement, to apply to him in the improvement of the 
day of Grace. Yet I fay of this Scripture * 9 1. Here is nothing 
ipoken of Chrift's feed and people, as parties, with whom God 
deals in this Covenant , and upon whom he layeth any com- 
mands, nor to whom directly he maketh anypromiies, (except 
what may be gathered confequenter & in obliquo) which things 
muft needs be in the Covenant of reconciliation. 2. Whatfoever 
is fpoken here concerning Chrift's feed and people, 'tis only of 
the force of the Covenant made and fworn with Chrift, hav* 
ing influence towards the eftabliffiment of friendfhip with them, 
and toward their perfeverance in a Covenant-ftate :, becaufe 
of God's tranfac"t ions with Chrift ', wherein they were compre- 
hended, and by which they and their interefts were difpofed of. 

The third Proof, I take from thefe Scriptures which hold 
forth all the effentials and rcquifites for making up a formal 


6 Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. I. 

Covenant, to be betwixt God and Chrift:, which Texts 
though they ipeak not explicitly of the name of a Covenant \ 
yet they do explicitly hold forth the thing. 

TheArgumentinform is this : Where all things neceflarily 
required unto the efTence and being of a Covenant for matter 
and form, are to be found \ there muft needs be a Covenant. 
But betwixt God and Chrift in the matter of our Redemption, 
all things neceflary unto the efTence of a Covenant are to be 
found : Therefore there muft needs be a Covenant betwixt God 
and Chrift about the work of Redemption, which we call the 
Covenant of Suretiflup or Redemption. The major is manifeft and 
undeniable: -I come therefore to confirm the minor. Concern- 
ing which, I fhall firft tell you what are the necefTary requi. 
fites unto the efTence of a Covenant, and then give plain Scrip- 
ture-proof that thefe were betwixt God and Chrift. 

i . It is generally acknowledged by the Doctors of the Law, 

that the agreement or confent of two or more Parties upon the 

lame thing, maketh a Paction •, and that Pro- 

tllpian deP»Ukit. pofals upon the one part, and a confent upon 

L.Vatliim &L.i. the other , makes a formal Covenant, though 

r"L **v" :,>„„. there were no condition or reftipulation. 
Cic. 2. at nieit, T> -11 i i r ii 

Panomit. 21. parte But more particularly and above all que- 
fupsr. Primotit.de ftion, where there are Propofals, Commands, 
Pacf. Cap. Ami- or Promifesupon the one part , with condi- 
gomis. t - ons required upon the other, and a confent 

Ait** infiit. Moral. unt0 5 or acceptation ot thele Propoials, with 
p.^.bi. dePoIlicic. the conditions required upon the other part,. 
C 1. & 1. 6. c. 3. or where there is a reftipulation of conditions 
upon the other part , there muft needs be a 
Contractor Covenant, not only materially and virtually , be- 
caufe there is all the effentials of a Covenant *, but formally and 
explicitly , becaufe there are all the formalities of explicite 

2. It is manifeft, that all thefe things are to be found betwixt 
Jehovah and Chrift, concerning the work of Redemption. 
1. There is a confent and agreement betwixt God and Chrift 
about this very thing, which amounteth to a Paction, Zech.6. 1 g. 
The Lord 1 peaking of that ineffable myfterious Oeconomy and 
difpenlktion of thebufin-els of man's Redemption and Salvation, 



Chap. I. Of the Covenant of Redemption. y 

as the lame is tranfa&ed in thecounfelof God's Will *, biddeth 
him tell us , that the counfel of peace fh all be 
between them both- to wit, between the Lord Sec Pemble on 
r tt n if i r • ./ Zech. 6. 12. & Jo. 

of Hop, and the man whoje name is the cocc.di<fvML<i 
Branch, v. 12 *, betwixt them was the bufineis seft. 88.' 
plotted, confulted and concluded j to the fame 
purpoie are thefe Scriptures that tell us of the agreement of 
the Lord's Will , and Chrift's Will in this affair :, it was his 
Father's Will to fend him, Joh. 6. 40, And this is the mil of him 
that fent me, bxAAtt. $. 26, Vnto you firfl, God having raifed 
up his Son Jefus, fent him, &c. and it was Chrift's Will to be 
fent, Heb. 10. 9, Then [aid he, Lo,lcome to do thy will, Joh. 6. 38, 
For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will , but the 
will of him that fent me ', it was his Father's will that he fhouid 
lay down his life, and it was his will alio, Rom.%. 32, He that 
fpared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us alL Joh. 1 o. 18 , 
No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of my felf : I have 
power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This 
Commandment have I received of my father ; it pleafed the Lord 
to bruife him, If ai . 5$. 10. and it pleafed him to be bruifed, 
Jfai. 50.6, I gave my back, to the fmiters, and my cheeks to them 
that plucked off the hair : / hid not my face from pame and fpit- 
ting. Still there was an agreement. 

2. We find clear^yeftiges in the Scripture of Propofals made 
by Jehovah unto Chrift, concerning his Will about the work of 
our Redemption*, and of a confent and agreement upon Chrift's 
part unto thefe Propofals ; whereby he declares his will to be 
commenting to his Father's Will. The firft, to wit, Propofals 
made by God to Chrift, we readPp/. 110. 1, The Lord [aid 
unto my Lord , fit thou at my right hand , until I make thine 
enemies thy footftool', and Pfal. 2. 7, 8, / will declare the decree, 
the Lord hath [aid unto me , thou art my Son , this, day have I 
begotten thee. Asl^of me and I will give thee , the heathen for 
thine inheritance , and the uttermoft parts of the earth for thy 
pojfeffwn. That thefe Scriptures contain Propolals, ismanifeft'-, 
and that they are Propofals made by Jehovah to Chrift, ap- 
pears by the Holy Ghofts afferting it, Aft. 1$. 33, Cod hath 
confirmed the fame unto us their children, in that he hath raifed 
up Jefus again, as it is alfo written in the fee on d Ejalm, Thou 


8 Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. I. 

art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. Heb. i. 5, For unto 
xvhxh of the Angels , [aid he at any time , Thou art my Son, 
this day have I begotten thee. But all the difficulty is, to make 
it appear, that thefe Propoials belong to the eternal tranfa&ion 
and Covenant of Redemption. To this end 'tis to be obfer- 
ved, 1. Th.it whatsoever is revealed in thefe Scriptures con- 
cerning the things that were between God and Chrift, God 
laid and propounded it unto Chrift long before his coming 
in the flefh , and therefore it muft needs relate to iiich tranfa- 
clions as were betwixt God sfii Chrift in the couniel of his 
Will from all eternity. 2, Though the accomplishment of 
thefe things be applved by the Holy Ghoft, unto the refurre- 
<ftion of Chrift, All. 15. 33, and to the exaltation of him in 
his humane nature, Heh. 1. 5-, that doth not make againftthe 
transacting of them by an eternal Covenant, where firft thefe 
Propoials were made*, but on the contrary, it doth ftreng- 
then whit is here afferted *, becaufe the accomplifhment of 
thefe things is declared to be that which God had revealed in 
the old Teftament to have been faid long before by him to 
Chrift. Therefore alio the lame Scripture is brought as an 
evidence of Chrift's being confecrated by his Father unto the 
offices which he did bear for the work of our Redemption, 
Heh. 5. 5, So alfo Chrifl glorified not himfelf to be made an high 
Priefl ; but he that faid unto him, thou art my Son, to dcy have 
I begotten thee,&c. So that the declaration of the Sonfhip of 
Chrift, this day I have begotten thee , is not to be underftood 
of an hodie Atem'uatis , a day of eternity , and of the eternal 
generation of the Son of God (as many of the Ancients, and 
of the Schoolmen 'under (land it) and indeed, if it fhould be 
yielded to be ipoken of an eternal Sonfhip, I fhould unci erftand 
it of that eternal adoption and defignation of Chrift by his 
own content in the counfel of God's Will , to a new Sonfhip 
for the work of Redemption, whereby he voluntarily became 
the Hi ft born of many brethren, and an obe 'ient Son even unto 
death, Phil. 2. 8 r, and whereby he confented to take a new 
Covenant-light unto God, as his Father, and his God by Cove- 
nant, Heb. 1. jyr*-/ W// be to him a father, and he flail be to 
me a fon. And we know it is not unufual in Scripture , to 
ftiie adoption unto a iucceflion in office , by a Sonfhip and a 


Chap. I. Of the Covenant of Redemption. f 

begetting; therefore Salathiel is laid to be begotten by Jetho- 
niah, Mat. i. 12, becaufe he fucceeded him in the King- 
dom. But fince the Holy Ghoft applies it diftin&ly to 
Chrift's refurreftion, All. 13. 33, and to the exaltation of 
him in bis humane Nature, when he had humbled himfelf as 
.an obedient Son unto the death of the Crofs, and having by 
hirnfelf purged, our fins , fate down on the right hand of the 
Majefty on high-. Neb. 1. 3, 4, 5. 'tis lafeft for us to hold clofe 
to that meaning of the words , 77?^ day have I begotten 
thee, which was the accomplifhment of that which God had 
faid to Chrift long before, in the tranfatlion of the Covenant 
of Redemption, when Chrift was fet up from everlafting , be- 
fore his works of old) &c. Prov. 8. 22, 23. and when the De- 
cree was patted , which was not declared till long after, 
Pf z. 7. Now this day of Chrift's exaltation in his humane 
Nature at his reiiirrettion , which was the fulfilling of what 
God faid to him , when he was by eternal deftination 
and decree, called and fet a part unto the work of Redemp- 
tion, and unto the offices, which as Lord Mediator, he did 
bear, is fitly called the day wherein he was begotten; upon 
feveral accounts : 1. Becauie in this day he was declared 
to be the Son of God, Rom. 1.4, And declared to be the Son 
of God , with power , according to the fpirit of holinefs, by the 
refurrettion from the dead, t« opt$ivT& J/« .06*. The Syriack^ 
reads it , Qui cognitm eft *, the word fignifies, demonftrated, Chryfoft. Mam. 
manifefted, or definej to bz the Son of God; as moft Learned f oc f^l*£ 
men render it. Though Bellarmineh rendering of the word with & & c . 
the vulgar Latine y for which he contends, would alio fit our 
purpofe, who was predefttnated to be the Son of God', which 
rauft be meant, of iuch a Sonfhip as he took upon him in time, 
or rather of the execution of God's Decree, containing 
his being manifefted in the flefh by the terms of the Cove- 
nant of Suretiihip (if we read it predeftinated) and not of 
his eternal generation; becauie as Efthins fays upon the place, 
Predeftination does not relate unto that which was from eter- 
nity, but to future things only. 2. Becaufe on this day of his 
reiurreaion, there was in refpefi: of Chrift's humane nature, 
a fecpnd entrance into life, the Grave being a fecond womb, See Dr. ft*»i 
from which he came forth unto life (as his Mothers womb was m *d Anaot.' 
the firft, from which he came forth unto life, inrefpe&of his on */■ 2 * 

C humane 

TO Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. T. 

humane nature^ i'o he was begotten, or brought forth in this 
day, by a new birth out of the womb of the grave *, hence 
the refurreftion is called Tra.\tyyiviifi&) renafcentia , a new or 
See GtrJWfecond binh,Matth, 19.28. 3. Becaufe the day of ChrirVs 
mm. h locum* refurre&ion, was the day of veiling, inaugurating and inflalling 
him in his Regal Office and Authority in our nature s this is 
the day whereof it's laid, Thou art my Son, this day have I be- 
gotten thee 5 becaufe this was a Coronation-day, a day of exal- 
tation oi him in his humane nature, and of constituting him, 
and fetling him in his offices in a moft glorious manner, againft 
all oppositions as the context of that Pfalm bears, v. 6, 7, 
Yet have I fet my King Hpon my holy hill of Ston. I will declare 

the decree* And Heb. 1. 3,4, 5, When he had by him/elf 

purged our fins, fate down on the right hand of the Majefly on 
high. Being made fo much better than the Angels , as he hath 
by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they: For 
nnto which of the Angels faid he at any time, Thou art my Son, 
this day have I begotten thee. It was a cuftom among the Ro- 
mans, that the Emperors had two Nat ales, or birth-days, 
kept j the one was Natalis Imperatoris, the birth-day of the 
Emperor, to commemorate his coming into the world. The 
other was Natalis Imperii , the birth-day of the Empire , to 
commemorate his advancement to the Imperial Dignity. The 
feaft of commemorating the building of Rome, was called 
Palilia *, and this title was by decree given of Cains the Em- 
fueton mCalig. peror, his advancement to the Empire , Decretum eft ut dies 
S ■& quo cepiffet imperium Palilia vocaretur. There is alfb mention 

. made of anothers, Natalis adoptionis, the day of his adoption, 
JdTnT **i* his civil birth-day, Kid. Aug. and then of Natalis Impe- 
rii, the birth-day of his Empire, ///. id. Aug. And of Vefpa- 
TmtusBiik Jlan his recorded, that Primta principatus dies in pofterumcele- 
Kb. 2. 'bratus, the firft day of his Empire was celebrated after- 


3. Tis to be obferved concerning the Propofals before- 
mentioned, which I laid are made by Jehovah to Chrift, 
that the Scriptures cited, do diftinguift betwixt the propound- 
ing of thefe things which God faid to Chrift, and the pub- 
lishing or promulgation thereof, Pfal. 2. 7, I will declare the 
Br. Ftemtnoud decree ) or as as a late learned Annotator reads it, Iwilltellof* 
decree or Covenant ', that is, I will f>ubli(h and manifeft that 


Chap. I. Of the Covenant of Redemption. 1 1 

which was fometime a great fecret, kept betwixt God and 
Chrift; but now is declared and opened up, Pfal.x^. 14, The 
fecret of the Lord is with them that fear him , and he will foew 
them his Covenant. Col. 1.26, Even the myflerie which hath 
been hidden from- ages and generations 3 but now is made manifeft 
to his Saints. And what is the fecret that is now declared 
plainly ? even that which follows : The Lord faid unto me, 
thou art my Son — aik^ofme,&tc. i.e. God laid to Chrift, or 
made this Propoial to him, thou art the only fit petfon for 
undertaking this work of Man's Redemption, and I deftinate 
and appoint thee for it : Now therefore ask , and have the 
nobleft rewards that can be devifed, only do the work. I 
fay then , here is but a declaration of that which was laid 
and done, concluded and traniacled by Propofals 'twrxt God 
and Chrift in his Decrees, and the Couniel of his Will. 

4. 'Tis obfervable that the Hebrew word here ufed and tran- vid. Tap fa 
flated Decree , pn Chokj, comcth from a root that fignifies Vhcjfarum fa 
originally, fcribere, de fcribere, ftatuere, to write, engrave, ira-? 4 ^PjPH c "*- 
dain, anoint, &c. and ib proportionably is the Noun fignifying forcher "^" 
many things^ not only a Law, Statute, and Ordinance ; but^. in voce 
alio a Patt or Covenant ; a writing fubferibed with the parties pn cbo\. 
hands, &c. And in this place it's rendered a Covenant by the Vid. Bibl.Poly- 
ChaldeeParaphraft. Recitabo Patt urn, the LXX here render it^ /flf ' in locm * 
irtQrctyjjuL, an Order and Agreement ; and (b moft of the ancient 
Interpreters following the Targnm, render it God's Statute, Buxtorf.imV. 
his Patt or Covenant-, and 'tis obferved by a great Hebrean,^- ¥lalmH ^ m 
that this word among the Talmudifls is often put for the qua-P* 8l8a 
lity, condition, or nature of any thing ; and if lb, here 'tis 
the nature, quality and condition of God's decretal Covenant 
with Chrift. But further , befides the affinity that is among 
thefe notions 0$ Statute, Decree, Agreement, Patt, Cove- 
nantee, the word pn that is here ufed, is in the Scripture 
fometimes promifcuoufly or fynonimoufly ufed with the word 
n H3 — that is uiually rendered Covenant. Compare Jer . \ 1 . 
35, 36. wither. \\. 20, &c In both which places God's Or- 
dinance and Covenant with the day and night isfpoken of, to 
illuftrate the liability of his Covenant with his people in 
Chrift, and there you will find the words pn and nH3 
Statute or Ordinance and Covenant, promiicuoufly ui'ed ', and 
the fame thing which is called God's Ordinance of the day and 

C 2 night, 

12 Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. I. 

nighr, or of the Sun and Moon, Jer. 31. 35, 36. is called his 
Covenant with the day, and his Covenant with the night, 
Jer. 3 3. 20 ; the meaning of both we are to gather from 
tvLBibU ?oly-6*»- 1. 16. &S.22. &y. 11, 12, 1 3. the Chaldee Paraph, in 
:/§*.-*! (mm*, both theie places renders the different Hebrew words Pattum 
& Prffikr, Paction or Covenant-, and the Syriack^ renders both 
the words admini fir at tones, a word comprehenfive of both theie 
notions of God's Oeconomy and difpenfations. 

Befides the Scriptures before-mentioned, we read alfo of God's 
Propofalsto Chrift, concerning the work of man's Redemption, 
If a. 42. 6, 7, I the Lord have called thee in Right eon] ne fs , and 
will hold thine hand, and will keep thee , and give thee for a Cove- 
nant of the people for a light of the Gentiles. To open the eyes 
oj the blind , to bring out the prifoners from the prifon , and 
them that fit in darknefs out of the prifon-honfe . And 49. 5, 6, 
And now faith the Lord that formed me from the womb to be 
his fervant, to bring Jacob again to him j though Ifrael be not 
gathered, yet Jhall I be glorious in the eyes of the Lord, and my 
God jhall be myftrength. And he faid, it is a light thing that 
thou Jhouldfl be my fervant, to raife up the tribes of Jacob, and 
to reftore the preferved of Ifrael. I will alfo give thee for a 
light to the Gentiles, that thou may ft be my falvation to the ends 
of the earth, &c. which things no man can reaibnably doubt 
to be fpoken by Jehovah to Chrift, and to contain Propofals 
concerning the Redemption and Salvation of his ele& 

2. Let us in the next place confrder , where we find Scrip- 
ture proof for Chrift's conlent unto thefe Propofals , made 
by Jehovah to him, which amounteth to a Covenant ? We find 
Chrift's conlent and agreement, and that before the beginning 
of the world) unto the Propofals made to him by Jehovah-con* 
cerning this work of Redemption , and the office which he 
was called unto for that erred!:, clearly infinuated , Prov.S* 
22, 23, 24, The Lord poffeffed me in the beginning of his way 9 
before his works of old. I was fet up from ever la fling from the 
beginning, before ever the earth was. When there were no depths 
I was brought forth, when there were no fountains abounding with 

water. 30. 31, Then I was by him as one brought up with him, 

and I was daily his delight , rejoycing always before him. Re* 
joycing in the habitable part of his earth , and my. delights were 


Chap. I. Of the Covenant of Redemption. 13 

withthe Sonsof men. Where we find the fubftantial , eternal 
wifdom of God, Jefus Chrift declaring fiich a plenary volun- 
tary chearlul conient to undertake the work of our Redemp- 
tion, that when he was in the Counfel of God let up and 
defigned unto the office and glory of the Lord Mediator and 
Redeemer*, he took pleaiure and iatisfa&ion before-hand, not 
only in his people not yet created, above all the works of his 
hand, who were to be the fatisfying fight that fhould be given 
him for the travel of his Soul fas the Lord faith, I fa. 53. li .)\ 
but he took pleaiure alio in theie parts which they were to 
inhabit, in every bit of ground that was to be the bounds of their 
hakitation'm the times appointed, AEb. 17. 26. 

But yet more explicitely, read his conient to the Propofals 
made by Jehovah to his Son Chrift, Pfal.^o. 6,7,8, Sacrifice 
and offering thou didft not defire, mine ears haft thou opened \ burnt 
offering and fin offering haft thou not required. Then faid I, 
Lo J come ; in the volume of the book^ it is written of me, I delight 
to do thy will O my God *, yea-, thy law is within my heart. With 
Heb. 10. 5, 6, 7, Wherefore when he cometh into the world , he 
faith ^ facrifce and offering thou wouldft not., but a body haft 
thou prepared me. In burnt offerings and facrifices for 'fin ', thou 
haft had no pleafure. Then faid I, lo I come •, in the volume of the 
boook^it is written of me, to do thy will-) O God. Concerning 
theie Scriptures, let us obferve ibme things for clearing the 
point in hand *, to wit, Chrift's confent and agreement unto 
Propofals made to him by Jehovah. And 1 . It is manifeft that 
the words are ChrilVs words*, for the Apoftle makes Chrift, 
not David to be thefpeaker here, Heb. 10. 5, Wherefore when 
he cometh into the world, he faith, i.e. Chrift faith; for it is of 
Chrift's facrifice, and his offering himfelf that the Apoftle hath 
been fpeaking. 2. Tis as manifeft that Chrift fpeaketh theie 
words to God, to Jehovah • therefore he faith, Pfal. 40. 8, and 
Heb. 10. 7. 9, 6W,and O-my God. 3. The words prefiippofe 
fomething fpoken and propounded by God to Chrift, unto 
which theie words are ananiwer : there are four words in the 
Text which carry this plainly, that there was fomething that 
he, *'. e. Jehovah de fired and required as a pleafing fatisia&ion to 
him, above all typical Sacrifices, fomething which Chrift calls 
his fathers will and his command,^ will,0 God ; thy law, O God, 
to which he gave an aniwer, then I faid, &c. 4. That the 


14 Of the Covenant of Redemption* Chap, h 

thing concerning which he makes anfwer to God here, was 
upon the matter, i. Some Propofal, for the performance 
whereof, God had prepared and fitted him, by his Incarnation 
and afiurning our nature :, A body thou haft prepared me or 
fitted me ; and by his taking on a will that might bow to the 
will of God, Mine ears thou haft opened. 2. 'Tis an anfwer 
to the Propofal of a bufinefs unto which Chriit was called, 
which was the fathers will and command to him, to do thy will 
and thy law, O God. $ . 'Tis an anfwer and return to God con- 
cerning fomething that was concluded and agreed betwixt God 
and Chriit before-hand ; and therefore is faid to be written m 
the volume of thy book. 4. 'Tis fomething, which however it 
was contracted and recorded before - 7 yet was not to be fulfilled 
until the due time, when he cometh into the world , not till the 
time of his Incarnation. 5. 'Tis fomething that divine Juftice 
required for a iatisfattion , and which no Sacrifices could a- 
mount unto •, which is held forth in the oppofition of this 
command to the negation of all iatisfa&ion by other Sacrifices. 
Sacrifice thou haft not required, but, &c. and this was no other 
but the obedience of his own Son, and the giving his Soul an 
offering and Sacrifice for fin to iatisfie the Juftice of God , 
If*. 5 1. 10, Tet it pleafed the Lord to bruife him, he hath put 
him to griefs when thou fialt make his foul an offering for fin, 
he fhall fee his feed, he Jhall prolong his days, xmd the pleafure 
of the Lord jhall profper in his hands. 

5. Confider the aniwer that Chriit gives here,how it amounts 
unto a plenary confent and agreement unto the will and pro- 
pofal of his father unto him, which is a Covenant of Redemp- 
tion or Suretifhip, i. e. that he will undertake and do the work 
of our Redemption, according to his fathers will. 

1. I fay Chrift's anfwer bears a confent, a willing confent, 
Lo I come ; Chrift fids himfelf before God in readinefs to do 
his-»Father'swill, to be our Surety and Saviour, 'tis an expref- 
fion not unlike t hefe of Ifaiah and Samuel, whereby they ex- 
prefTed their free confent and readinefs to obey the call of God, 
J fa. 6.8, Then faid I, here am I, fend me ; in the Original it is 
behold me, or lo me-, whichisequivolentto Lo I come; orlfift 
my felf ready to obey thy command, to do thy will, to run 
thy errand, j Sam. 3. 10, SpeakLord, for thy fervant heareth, 
* e. doth fill himfelf ready to obey. 

2. Chrift's 

Chap. I. Of the Covenant of Redemption. 1 5 

2. Chrift's anfwer bears a fubmiflive humble content, Mine 
ear haft thou opened, or bored: there feemsto be an allufionto 
a Ceremony that was ufed toward the Servant that would 
not have his liberty, but loved his Matter lb, that he would 
not go out free from his Service, when he might according to 
Law, in the feventhyear: whereof fee Dent. 15. 12, to 17. & 
Exod. 21. 6. So the opening or boring of the ear is, not only 
a fign of hearkening and obedience, as thePhrafe is ufed con- 
cerning Chrift, Ifa. 50. 5, The Lord God hath opened mine ear, 
and I was not rebellion neither turned away back^ But it notes 
alio his taking on the form of a Servant, fuch as had their 
ears bored, in token of their fubmiffion to ferve when they % 
might have been free. In place of this Phrale, the Apoftle fays, 
A body thou haft prepared me : giving a perlpicuous interpre- 
tation of the opening of the ear, that it related to Ghrift's 
Incarnation, and the principal end thereof , which was that he 
might be found in the form of a Servant, to obey and do the 
will of his father, as one who by his own confent was nailed 
and pinned to his Service in the work of Redemption, 
ThiL 2. 7,8, But made himfelf of no reputation , and todk^upon 
him the form of a fervant, and was made in the likenefs of men. 
And being found in fafhion as a man , he humbled himfelf and 
became obedient unto death , even the death of the Crofs. 

3. Chrift's aniwer bears a content given in contemplation 
of a fatisfa&ion to divine Juftice -, and therefore he mentions 
the Law of God, and the things that God required, and offers 
himfelf to undergo thefe •, for this he did propofe to himfelf, 
that offended divine Juftice might have an honourable fatisfa- 
ftion , and that the Law might have obedience in him, 
Gal. 4.4, 5, But when the fulnefs of the time was come, God 
fent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law : To 
redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive 
the Adoption of fons. Zech. 1 3. 7, Awake, O fword,againftmy 
jhepherd, and again ft the man that is my fellow, faith the Lord 
of hofts, fmite the flupherd. Gal. $. 13, Chrift hath redeemed 
us from the curfe of the Law, being made a curfe for w- 

4, Chrift's aniwer bears a compleat and plenary corifent, . 
which is every way apted unto the Propofals made to him : 
for he offers himfelf to fulfil the Z^w (to which he voluntarily 
fubje&ed himfelf) in the exact rigour thereof 7 in every thing 


1 6 Of the Covenant of Redemption* Chap. L 

that is written in the booh^of the law y Gal. .$. 10. he offers him- 
f elf to perform the utmoft degree of obedience to the Will of 
God, to do thy, willy O God; yea, to do not only according 
to what -is written in the book of the Law, but according 
to the indenture and contract betwixt God and him, to which 
Iunderftand the vohtme of the bookjieve mentioned, chiefly to 
relate ^ ibppofing the agreement betwixt God and Chrift about 
the work of man's Redemption, and all his undertakings to be 
written as it were in a Book or Roll, in thatienfe that the 
Scripture fpeaks of a book of life, and the Lambs book of life, 
and the writings therein, Rev. 13.8. & 15.8. & 2 1.27. 

5. Chrift's anfwerbearsa chearful conient to the Propofals 
made by God to him, / delight to do thy willy God, and thy 
law is within my heart , becauie his heart was to the bufineis, 
and a defign ol love acted him all along his undertaking and 
performing the work of our Redemption, Joh. 1 3. i, having 
loved his own \ therefore he took plealiire in the work *, there- 
fore it was his delight, Prov.S. 51, Re joy ring in the habitable 
part of his earth, and my delights were with the fons of men. 
Luk.22. 15, And he J aid unto them, with defire I have de fired 
to eat this pajfeover with yon before I fnffer. I conclude then, 
that this conient upon Chrift's part to his Father's Propofals, 
makes a Covenant betwixt Jehovah and Chrift. 

$. Befide the former two , which according to the opinion 
of Jarifls amount to a Fattion , and a Contrail, or virtual 
Covenant , and I think .alio to a formal explicite Covenant ; 
there is alfo veftiges to be found betwixt God and Chrift of all 
things required unto explicite formal Covenanting. 

Let us therefore enquire a little, 1. What are the requifites 
of formal explicite Covenanting. 2. What veftiges of thefe are 
to be found betwixt Jehovah and Chrift. 

1. The peculiar propriety of formal explicite Covenanting, 
ftands in ftipulation and reftipulation, in Conditional Propo- 
fals, commands, tenders, orpromifes upon the one part*, and 
the accepting , contenting , or performing of conditions re- 
quired, upon the other part : When the Propofals of what- 
soever quality and kind they be, are exprefly conditional, and 
the conditions propounded and required, are exprefly accepted 
and agreed unto, there is a formal explicite Covenant, even 
in the molt ftricl: and rigorous acceptation of the word Cove- 

Chap. I. Of thaCovenant of Redemption* T 7 

nant. Hence the Jurifts confine mutual contra&s and explicate Siil0 ^ jkJtitU 
Covenant?, within the cornpafs of thefe few words, Dontdes,& Jure lib. 6. 

r • r > j r • r ■ Uj Qufft.2. Art. I. 

facto Ht facias , do nt facias-, facto nt aes. > Q ^ ^ j Hm 

2. That there be clear footfteps of iiich dealing and Tranfa- . .^; ^ voc e^ 
ttions betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, may appear from theie^. 
inflances •, all which evince ftipulation and jreftipulation •, Con- 
ditions upon the one part and upon the other ; Conditions given 
and taken. 

1 . Betwixt Jehovah and Chrift there are Commands with Pro- 
mifes, holding forth what was the Will of God to Chrift, in 
the matter of man's Redemption; and what he (hould expecl: 
from his Father for doing that work, and obeying his WiH, 
J oh. 6, 39,40, This is the fathers willy — and this is the will of 
him that fern me. Zech. 6. 12, 13, — Behold the man whofe name 
is the Branched he fhall grow up out of his place, and he fhall build 
the temple of the Lord — and the counfel of peace fhall be between 
them both. Mich. 5.4,5, And he fhall ft and and feed in the ftrength 
of the Lord> in the majefty of the name of the Lord his God , and 
they fhall abide, for now fliall he be great unto the ends of the 
earth. And this man fhall be the peace when the Affyrian fljall 
come into our land. Ifa.42, 1,2, $,4. — He flmll bring forth 
Judgment to the Gentiles. He fliall not cry, nor lift up, nor caufe 
his voice to be heard in the ftreet. A bruifed reed f hall he not 
breaks and the fmoakjng flax fliall he not quench ; he flja 11 bring 
forth Judgment unto truth. And if a command with a threat- 
ning annexed , which had a promife in it implicitely, did a- 
mountto a Covenant in God's dealing with man in his inte- 
grity, by a Covenant of works (as is acknowledged by all 
Divines)*, Gen. 2. 17, But of the tree of the knowledg of good 
and evil, thou fl) alt not eat of it : for in the day that thou e ate ft 
thereof, thou fljalt fur ely die : Sure, commands with explicite 
promiies, fuchas are betwixt God and Chrift, do amount to a 

2. Betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, there are Promifes with Con- 
ditions ', I fay Promiies with Conditions (not abfolute promiies) 
read I fa. 53. 10, 11, 12, — When -thou fhalt make his foul an 
offering for fin, he fhall fee his feed, he fhall prolong his days, 
and the pleafure cf the Lord fhall prof per in his hand: He fliall 
fee of the travel of his foul, and fliall be feitisfitd. By his know- 

D ledg 

1 8 Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. L 

ledg flail my righteous fervant juftipe many , for he jhall bear 
their iniquities. Therefore will I divide him a portion with the 
great, and he flail divide the fpoil with the flrong , becaufe he 
hath poured out his foul unto death , and he was numbred with 
the tranfgreffors , and he bare the fin of many <> and made inter- 
teffwnfor the tranfgreffors- Now Promifes with Conditions,are 
promifes with re-promiflions, or conditions upon the one part, 
and upon the other ; this is a declaration of what God will 
do , and what he doth require,, which is a formal Covenant , 
and is plainly reducible to that which the Jurifts call Do ut fa- 
cias, facio utdeSy&c. 

3. There is betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, not only Commands 
with Promifes annexed, and Promifes with Conditions annexed ^ 
but which is yet more, Conditions with confent, a formal con- 
sent and voluntary yielding unto the Propofals which were 
made unto him by Jehovah ; and this is without queftion, a 
formal explicite Covenant, confiding of ftipulation and refti- 
pulation, propounding and ani we ring, or accepting, demand- 
ing, and yielding or confenting : he receives a command from 
his Father to lay down his life , and he willingly confents, 
Joh. IO. 18, No mantakethit from me, but I lay it down of my 
felf'j I have power to lay it down , and I have power to take it 
again. This commandment have I received of my father. His 
Father propounds his Will to him, and makes offer of fair con- 
ditions, and he accepts, lfa.*\. \o,—-When thou flait make his 
foul an offering for (in , he flail fee his feed , he flail prolong 
his days , and the pleafure of the Lord flail profper in his hand. 
Heb. 10.5,7, Wherefore when he comethinto the world, he faith, 
facrifice and offering thou wouldefl not, but a body haft thou pre- 
pared me. Then J aid J, Lo I come, in the volume of the book, 
it is written of me y to do thy will, God. Here is a formal ex- 
plicite Covenant. 

4. There is betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, Confenting with 
Performing *, not only a mutual agreement upon the things to be 
done by Chrift, and to be done to Chrift ; but a real perfor- 
mance of the mutual conditions agreed upon betwixt them : 
and this is more than a confummate Covenant, this is the ful- 
filling of an explicite Covenant, and the acknowledgment of 
both parties, that it was mutually covenanted, and that the 
conditions were obferved, and were performed on both fides: 


Chap. L Of the Covenant of Redemption. * 9 

Joh. 17. 4, / have finijhed the work^whichthou gave ft me to do> 
faith Chrift : and his Father iaith , I fa. 42. I, Behold 
my fervant whom I uphold, mine eleft in whom my foul delight eth, 
I have put my fpirit upon him, and he jhall bring forth Judg* 
ment to the Gennlss, Phil. 2. 8, y, And being found in fajhion 
as a man, he humbled himfelf, and became obedient unto death, 
tven the death of the Crofs. Wherefore God alfo hath highly 
exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name. 
There is a reciprocation of Covenant-performances. 

5. There is betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, asking and giving: 
the Father asketh a fatisfatlion to his Juftice for the fins of all 
the Elect , If a. 5$. 10, It pleafed the Lord to bruife him, he 
hath put him to grief: and the fatisfaction which his Father 
asked, was, that he fhould make his foul an offering for fin : 
and Chrift yieldeth and giveth the fatisfac~tion which was 
asked, Pfal. 4.0. 6, Lolcome, faith he, to do thy will. Iia. 5 3-S* 
But he was wounded for our tranfgrejfions, and he was bruifed 
for our iniquities: the chafiifement of our peace was upon him^ and 
with his ft ripe s we are healed. 

Again, Chrift asketh of his Father a reward and fatisfaclion 
for the travel of his Soul in that great work of our Redemp- 
tion and Salvation : And his Father gives it him according to 
the encouraging : Propofals , whereby he had invited him to 
the undertaking fo great a work, Pfal, 2.8, Ask^ofme, a?id 
I Jhall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the utter- 
mo ft parts of the earth for thy pojfejfion. Iia . 55. 11, He jhall 
fee of the travel of his foul, andfljall be fatisped. Joh. 17.4, 5, 
/ have glorified thee on earth, I have finijhed the workjwhich thou 
gaveftmeto do : And now^O father, glorifie thou me with thine 
own felf, with the glory which I had with thee before the 
world was. This kind of asking and giving on both fides , 
amounteth to a formal explicite Covenant : here is emptio & 
venditio, which is a Covenant ftrictly fo called. 

6. There is betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, wo rJ^ and wages : 
there is working propounded upon the one part, and under' 
taken upon the other :, and a reward promifed upon the one 
part, and expected upon the other ; craved upon the one part, 
and payed upon the other ^ and this is a formal Covenant itri«flly 
fo taken, Ad fimilitudinem contractu inter operarium & locato- 
rem operis~— inter her urn & fervum, not unlike the manner of 

D 2 Cove- 

20 Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. I. 

Covenants betwixt the work-man and work-mafter , betwixt 
the Servant and his Lord. Here is indeed, do ut faoias, facio 
Mt des y I give this upon condition you do that, and I do this 
upon condition you give that. 

I lay, there was working and rewarding 'twixt God and 
Chrift, and that by no neceflity of nature, but by a voluntary 
compaft ', his work and reward are both propounded to him, 
Ifa. 53. 1 1, 12, He fljall fee of the travel of his foul, and Jh all 
be fatisfied : by his knowledg jhall my righteous fervant jaslifie 
many •, for he Jhall bear their iniquity. 'Therefore will J divide 
him a prt ion with the great , and he jliall divide the jf oil with 
the ftrong, becaufe he hath poured out his foul unto death , and 
he was numbred with the tranfgrejfours, and he bare the fin of 
many, and made intercejfionfor the tranfgrejfours. And 49. 3,6, 
And faid unto me. Thou art my fervant , O Ifrael, in whom I 
will be glorified. And he faid, it is a light thing that thou 
ftiouldft be my fervant to raife up the tribes of Jacob , and to 
reftore the preferved of Ifrael : I will alfo give thee for a light 
to the Gentiles, that thoumaift be my falvation unto the end of the 
earth. And agreed unto by him, Joh. 10. 17, Therefore doth my 
father love me, becaufe I lay down my life, that I might take it 
again. Heb. 10.7, Then faid I, lol come, in the volume of the 
booh^ it is written of me, to do thy will, O God. Therefore we 
find upon the one part and the other , God promifing a re- 
ward, and Chrift expefting it : Ifa.<$$. 12, Therefore I wilt 
divide him a portion with the great, with Ifa. 49.4, Surely my 
judgment is with the Lord , and my work^with my God. Again, 
we find God propofing the reward for Chrift's encouragement 
in fo hard a work , and Chrift eying the reward under alf 
difcouragements, Pfal. no. 7, He jliall drinks of the brooks in 
the way, therefore jhall he lift up the head; with Heb. 12.2, 
Looking unto Jefui the Author and finijher of our faith , who 
for the \oy that was fet before him, endured the Crofs , defpifng 
the jhame, and is fet down at the right hand of the throne of 
God. We find alio Chrift craving his reward, and challenge 
ing it as due to him, Joh* 1^.4) / have glorified thee on earth, 
I have pmjhedthe work^ which thou gave ft me to do. And his Fa- 
ther paving the promife^ reward, Phil. 2. 8, y, Wherefore God 
Alfo hath highly exalted hi*n, &c. 

The fourth Proof of a Covenant betwixt Jehovah and Chrift; 


Chap. I. Of the Covenant of Redemption. 21 

I take from trie Offices, Jmployments, Trufts , Powers , Autho- 
rities, and Relations, which Chrift did bear, and wherewith he 
was vefted for doing the work of his peoples Redemption : 
All and every of thele prove ftrongly an eternal Covenant and 
Compart betwixt Jehovah and Chrift : I put thefe together , 
that the proofs may be more ponderous than numerous *, I fhall 
therefore, i. Reckon up fome particulars that fall under this 
head, each whereof might afford a particular proof, and then 
draw an argument from them. 

i. His Offices and Employments ; Chrift is Lord Mediator 
of the New Covenant, Heb. 8. 6, & o. 1 5. He is Lord Ambaffa- 
dor and Meffenger of the Covenant, Mai. 5.1. He is the Lord's 
Shepherd and his Servant in the work of Redemption,-^/?. 1 3 .7. 
Ifa.4.2. 1. Not by nature, but by condefcenfion and agreement, 
to be in thefe employments. Chrift Mediator is a King, not by 
nature but by Covenant and Agreement, he receives a difpen- 
fatory Kingdom, Pfal. 2. 6, Yet have J fet my king upon my holy 
hill Z ion. Aft. 2. l<$, God hath made the fame Jefpu both Lord 
and Chrift. Heb. 1 . 2, — whom he hath appointed heir of all 
things, by whom alfo he made the worlds. Pfal. 8 p. 27, Alfo I 
will make him my ftrft born , higher than the kings of the earth. 
Chrift is a Prophet and a Teacher of his people, not by nature 
but by appointment, Act. $.22, ForMofes truly faid unto the 
Fathers, a Prophet JIm 11 the Lord your God raife up unto you of 
your brethren like unto me, him flail ye hear in all things what- 
fbever he fhall fay unto you. If a. 55.4*7 Behold, I have given him 
for a witneft to the people. Chrift is a Prieft not by nature, but 
by divine appointment, and that in the way of agreement and 
content , Heb. 5.4, 5, 6, And no man taketh this honour unto 
himfelf, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron. So. alfo Chrift 
glorified not himfelf to be made an high prieft * 9 but he that f aid unto, 
him, IhonartmySon, today have I begotten thee. As he faith 1 
alfo in another place^ 'Thou a? t a prieft for ever after the or den 
of Meuhifedec. And 7. 21, — The Lord (ware and will not 
repent, thou art a Prieft for ever , after the order of Mel- 

2. The like I fay of the Trufts, Powers, and Authorities, 
that Chrift Mediator had, concerning the work of his peoples 
Redemption \ how came his name to be in our bond, and he to 
take upon him to perform the condition of the Covenantor 


22 Of the Coven&nt of Redemption. Chap, 7. 

-works ? how came he to be under the Law, and to fulfil the 
Law ? Sure it was not by nature ,nor by any neceflity of nature - 7 
but by divine appointment, and by his own voluntary yielding 
to it, which is Compact '■, fo Jefm was made fur ety,Heb. 7. 22 ' v 
and made under the law, Gal. 4. 4 *, how came he to have the dif- 
pofing of the eternal interefts of all men ? Sure he had this 
truft and authority by agreement with his Father, who laid it 
upon him, and he freely received it, Job. 5. 22, for the Father 
judgeth no man fait hath committed all \udgment to the Son : ck 17. 2, 
As thou haft given him power over all fiejh, that he frould give eter- 
nal life to as many as thou haft given him. How came the keys of 
the houle of David, to lye upon his fhoulder ? the great truft 
and management of all affairs relating to his Church and Peo- 
ple ? undoubtedly this was by Compact with Jehovah, who 
laid this truft upon him , I fa. 22. 2 1, 24, And the key of the 
houfe of David will I lay upon his froulder , fo he frail open and 
none frail frut, and he frail frut and none frail open. And I will 
faften him. as a nail in a fur e place, and he frail be for a glorious 
throne to his fathers houfe. And they frail hang Upon him all the 
glory of his houfe, the offspring and the iff He, all veffels of fmall 
quantity, from the veffels of cups, even to all the veffels of flagons. 
Rev. 1 . 7. — He that hath the key of David, he that openeth and no 
man frutteth, andfrutteth and no man openeth. 

$. I affirm the lame alio of Chrift's Covenant-relations to 
God and to his people : Though God the Father was the Father 
of our Lord JefusChrift by eternal generation, and he is the 
natural Son of God *, yet who can declare how God is the God 
and Father of our Lord Je fns Chrift, but by Covenant? 
1 Pet. 1. 5, God foretold this Covenant-Intereft of Chrift's, 
Pial.89.26, He frail cry unto me, thou art my Father, my God? 
andtherock^of my Salvation - ? with Hcb. 1. 5, For unto which 
of the Angels faid he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have 
I begotten thee. And again, I will be to him a Father, and he 
flmltbe to me a Son. And Chrift frequently owns that Covenant- 
compellation , Mat. 27. 46, My God , my God , why haft thou 
forfakjn me. Rev. 3.12, Him that overcometh will I make a pillar 
in the temple of my God, and he frail go no more out , and 1 will 
write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the City of 
my God, which is new Jerufalem, which cometh down out of hea- 
ven from my God , and I will write upon him my new name. 


Chap. I. Of the Covenant of Redemption* 23 

Joh. 20. 17, fifta faith unto her, touch me not, for J am not yet 
afcended to my Father *, but go to my brethren and fay to them y 
J afcend unto my Father and your Father , and to my God 
and your God, 

From all which I draw but this one Argument *, Chrift who 
did bear all thefe offices, employments , trufts and relations, 
for the work of our Redemption,, he had all thefe things (I fay^) 
either by fome neceflity that could not ftand with his own free 
confent ^ or elfe he did bear thefe offices, employments,, trufts 
and relations by his own willing confent, and they were of his 
own voluntary taking up. Now 'tis fure he was not Media- 
tor, nor Surety, nor MeiTenger of the Covenant, norafervant 
in that affair, by any neceflity that was repugnant to his own 
free confent. I fay no neceflity that was repugnant to his own 
free confent; becaufe there was, 1. Some kind of neceflity that 
Chrift fhould travel in this work, in regard of the Decree of 
God, and Divine Predetermination, that a fatisfa&ion fhould be 
made unto his Juftice, and that man ftiould not be laved with- 
out this fatisfa&ion interveening ^ which- decree is in order of 
nature, and in that kind of priority, that is in our way of con- 
ceiving of God's eternal decrees, antecedaneous to God's Co- 
venant with Chrift : Therefore the Scripture giveth us ground 
to fay, that God flrft chofe Chrift to this work of Redemp- 
tion, and then made a Covenant with him, PfaLSg. $, I have 
made a Covenant with my chofen. 2 . We find that Chrift having 
taken upon him thefe offices, trufts, employments, &c before- 
mentioned, was under a blefled , holy neceflity, to fulfil the 
things belonging to his offices and trufts *, and therefore the 
Scripture faith, it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, 
Heb. 2. 17. and it behove dChrifl to fuffer, Luk. 24. 46. and he 
mufl needs go thorow Samaria, joh. 4. 4. J mufi workjhe workl of 
him that fent me, Joh. 9- 4. But neither of thefe neceflities was 
any ways repugnant to hi sown free confent and willingnefs to 
bear thefe offices and trufts : For the firft neceflity in regard of 
the decree of God, that decree being the couniel of his own 
will, as well as his Fathers 5 there was not thereby any neceflity 
upon him, repugnant to his own free content. And the fecond 
neceflity of doing the. works of him that, lent him, being a ne- 
ceflity which he voluntarily took upon him by his willing under- 
taking the truft of being Lord Mediator, there was not there- 

2^f Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. I. 

by anvimpofing upon his free confent, Joh. 10. 17,18, There- 
fore doth my Father love me, becaufe I lay down my life that I 
might take it again. No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down 
of my felf. 1 have power to lay it down, and I have power to take 
it again. Phil. 2. 8 , And being found in fafrion as a man, he 
humbled him felf unto death, even the death of the Crofi. 

Yet I 1 ay , there was not upon Chrift afoy neceflity repug- 
nant to his free and willing afting, in the taking upon him theie 
offices, trufts, relations, &c* 1 .becauie there was no compelling- 
neceffity, fuch as is upon a man bound hand and foot ; there was 
no fuch neceflity upon the Lord to fend Chrift, and to lay thele 
offices upon him \ for he is a mod free foveraign Agent, above 
counfel, and much more above compulfion, Ifa.4.0. 1$, Who 
hath directed the fpirit of the Lord, or being his Counfellour hath 
taught him f Pfal. 1^5.6, Whatfoever the Lord pie afed, that did 
he in heaven and in earth, in the feas, and all deep place. And 
he was not bound to change the Law-dilpeniation into a new 
one of Grace *, Therefore is the thing that was laid upon Chrift, 
fo often called the will of him that fent him, Joh. 6. $9, 40. Nei- 
ther was there any fuch neceflity upon Chrift to take thefe 
offices and employments, he could not be compelled to lay down 
his life, Joh. 10. 18, No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down 
of my felf : I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it 
again ; this Commandment received I of my Father. Phil. 2. 6. 8, 
Who being in the form of Cod, thought it not robbery to be equal 
with God. And being found in faflnon as a man, he humbled him- 
fclfy and became obedient unto death, even the death of the Crofi. 

2. There was no natural ueceffity, fuch as that of the Sun to 
give light, and the fire heat*, fure there was no fuch neceflity of 
God's fending of Chrift*, God did not by any natural neceflity 
lend forth Chrift ; nor was the Son of God under any natural 
neceflity to undertake the work of our Redemption, for God 
might have done other wife, he might in juftice have profecuted 
the Covenant of works', yea, there was no kind of neceflity up- 
on God to fend, or upon Chrift to go this errand, abftra&ing 
from his own Decrees, andthepurpofe of his Wi\\,Eph. 1.5,6, 
Having yredefiinated m unto the adoption of Children by Jefus 
Chrift to him felf, according to the good pie a fure of his will : to 
the praife of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us ac- 
cepted in the beloved. Rom. 9, 20, 21, Nay, but man, who 


Chap. I. Of the Covenant of Redemption. 25 

art thou , that replyeftagainft God 1 Jh all the thing formed fay t s 
him that form edit j why haft thou formed me thus ? Hath not the 
potter power over the clay-, of the fame lump to make one vejfel unto 
honour y and another unto difhonour f 3, There was no moral 
neceffity, not lb much as any command, motive or inducement 
without himfelf , either upon God to lay this employment upon 
Chrift, or upon Chrift to take it upon him, and to undergo the 
work •, for God might have lent his Son or not fent him, as plea - 
led him*, there was not fo much as a moral caule inducing him to 
it, Joh. 3. 16, For God fo loved the world that he gave his only 
begotten Son , that whofoever believeth on him ftould not perijli, 
but have everlafting life. Rom. 5. 6,8, For when we were yet 
without ftrcngth, in due time Chrift died for the ungodly . But God 
commendeth hi* love towards us-, in that while we were yet fmners y 
Chrift died for us. And Chrift might have refilled to undertake 
the work, or he might have agreed as pleafed him •, for who 
could have laid a command upon him, if the defign of love that 
was in his heart had not a&ed him to a confent ? Phil. 2. 6,8, Who 
being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with 
God. Jlnd being found in fajhion as a man, he humbled hw- 
f elf unto deaths even the death of the Crof. .It refts therefore 
that all thefe offices, employments, trulls, authorities, and 
Covenant-relations, that Chrift did bear, were undertaken and 
undergone by his own free confent *, and if they were by his free 
confent, this confent was either his own motion without the con- 
lent and agreement of Jehovah concurring in councel with him, 
for the carrying oh the work of our Redemption - 7 or tHTs was 
tranfkcled and done in the counfel of God, by the knowledg> 
will, confent and agreement of God with Chrift. Now the 
Scripture is plain and expreis, that all the offices, trufts, autho- 
rities, employments and Covenant-relations which Chrift did 
bear, were notufurped, were not taken upon him without di- 
vine ordination and appointment, without his Father's confent 
and command v but that he was defigned , chofen and called 
thereunto. See Prov. 8.2$, / was Jet up from everlafting 9 
from the beginnings or ever the earth was. Joh. 5. 22, For the 
Father judgethnoman, but hath committed all judgment unto the 
Son. Ifa.42. 1,6, Behold my fervant whom I uphold'-, I the 
Lord have called thee in righteoufnep. And 40. I , $ 9 — The Lord 
hath called me from the womby from the bowels of my mother hath 

E he 

26 Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. I. 

he made mention of my name. — Thou art my fervant, O Jfrael, in 
whom I will be glorified. Hcb. 5. 5, 6 , So alfo Chrifl glorified 
not himfelf to be made an high priefl * ? but he that faid unto him, 
Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee. As he faith alfo in 
another place, Thouart apriefi for ever, after the order of Mel- 
chifedec. A&. 3. 26, Vnto yen fir ft, God having raifed up his 
Son Jefus, fent him to blefi yon, in turning away every one from 
his iniquities. Pfal. 40. 6, Sacrifice and offering thou didfi not de- 
fire, mine ears haft thou opened :, burnt offering and fin offering hafi 
thou, not required, &c. I conclude therefore, that all theie offi- 
ces, trufts, powers, and Covenant-relations which Chrift did 
bear, being upon him by mutual agreement and conient betwixt 
Jehovah and Chrift:, all and every one of them doth prove a Com- 
pact and Covenant betwixt Jehovah and Chrifl. 

He who defireth more proofs of this Covenant, and to have 
further light therein * 7 let him read Jo. Cocc. Summa doclrina de 
foedere, ch. 5. ariciNir.Rutherf. Treat, of the Covenant, Part 2. 
ch. 6. And Fr. Robert's, Cods Covenants with Man , Book 2. 
ch.2. Seel:. 3. 

Now that this Covenant betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, was 
the foundation of the Covenant made with us, may be evinced 
by thefe particulars. 1. If this Covenant of Suretifhip had not 
been concluded betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, there could never 
have been anyCovenant-dealing with us upon terms of Grace^for 
fuppole this Covenant had not been, the Lord fhould then have 
prolecuted the Covenant of works, and followed a courf e of Ju- 
ftice aflfinft all Mankind,the dore fhould have been fhut for ever 
againft all condefcenfions, and all Gofpel ways of Grace. There- 
fore we find theApofHe reckons the change of Law-difpenfation, 
and life by the tenor of the Covenant of works, into a new way 
of Grace,to have its foundation^riginal and rile from Gods gra- 
cious eternal tranf action with Chrift. 2 Tim. 1 .9, Who hathfaved 
us and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works\ 
but according to his own purpofe and grace , which was given us in 
Chrift Jefm before the world began. 

2. God's Covenant-dealing with us upon the terms of Grace, 
is nothing elfe but the execution of that which was from eterni- 
ty decreed, tranfc&ed and concluded by God's Compact with 
Chrift •, and therefore the Covenant of Suretifhip muft needs be 
che foundation of the Covenant with us, even as all Decrees 


Chap. I. Of the Covenant of Redemption. 

and Laws are the foundation of the execution following there- 
upon : this will appear more fully and clearly when we come to 
fpeak of the tenor of the Covenant of Redemption , and the 
things therein tranfafted : at prefentthis may fuffice, i. That 
whatloever Covenant-favour and Grace is tendered tc us by the 
Golpel-Covenant, and effectually apply ed unto us by the Spi- 
rit of the Lord, that waspromifed to Chrift,and to us in him_i 
yea, and plighted in him for our accountby the Covenant made 
betwixt Jehovah and him - as appears from the Scripture before- 
mentioned, 2 Tim. 1.9, According to his own purpofe and 

grace, which was given us in Chrifi before the world began ', with 
Tit. 1.2, In hope of eternal life , which God that cannot lye, promi- 
sed before the world began. 2. Whatfoever Covenant-Condi- 
tions of one kind or another •, whether Faith, the eminent Gof- 
pel-condition, or other Gofpel-obedience required of us, or to 
be performed upon our part ; all thefe were undertaken by 
Chrift's aft of Suretifhip in the Covenant betwixt God and 
him, and were eniured to him by Jehovah, to befuccefsfully 
performed. SetEph. 2. 10, For we are his workmanfiip crea- 
ted in Chrifi Jefus unto good works, which God hath before ordained, 
that we Jhouldwalkjn them. 2 ThefT. 2. 1 3, But we are bound to 

five thanks alway to God, for you brethren, beloved of the Lord ; 
ecaufe God hath from the beginning chofen you to Salvation, 
through fanllif cation of the fpirit , and belief of the truth. 

Ifa. 53.1 1, And the pleafure of the Lord fliall pro/per in his 

hand. He ft all fee of the travel of his foul, and ft all be fat is fed *, 
by his knowledg fliall my righteous fervant jufiifie many , for he 
ft all bear their iniquities. 

3. In peribnal Covenanting with God, and the engaging of 
particular Souls to him, in the way of the Covenant of Grace ; 
Chriil's Suretifhip is the ground of all proceeding : til! this be 
eyed, and in fome meafure believed , there is no poll' Dility of 
advancing one ftep toward a new Covenant-ftate : for how can 
fallen broken man (who underftands his condition to beiiich) 
think of dealing with God, unlefs he bring a Cautioner with 
him } or how (hall he bring to God Chrifi, afurety of the better 
tefiament, who hath not heard of and beloved his eternal aft of 
Suretifhip, Rom. 10. 14, How then (hall they call on him in whom 
they have not, believed ? and how ft all they believe in him of whom 
they have not heard ? and how ft all they hear without a preacher ? 

' E 2 This 

2-8 Of the Covenant of Redemption. Chap. I. 

This Covenant of Surtifhip therefore mud needs be the founda- 
tion of the Covenant of Grace and reconciliation;, hence 'tis 
that David and HezekUh flee to this a& of Suretifhip, and lay 
the weight of their dealing with God on it, Pfal.119. \2i,Be 

furety for thy fervant for good. Ilk. 38. 14, Lord, I aw op- 

frejfed, undertake for me. 

4. The Covenant made with us , hath its (lability from the 
Covenant of Suretifhip made with Chrift , and therefore this 
muft be the foundation of that ; I fay, upon the ftability of the 
Covenant made with Chrift, doth depend the ftability of the~ 
Covenant with us j becaufe that (lands firm and fore, therefore 
cloth this (land faft alio-, therefore the mercies of the Covenant 
with us, ar e fur e mercies, and the promifes of the Covenant are 
yea, and amen ', becaufe they are the fare mercies of David, which 
were firft promifed to Chrift, Ifa. 55. $. and becaufe the pro- 
mifes were madetous*'tffc, 2 Cor. 1.20, For all the promifes 
of God in him are yea, an din him are amen. Therefore the Co- 
venant made with us is an everlafting Covenant , becaufe of the 
Covenant by which he was given to his people , J fa. 53. 1, 4, 
/ make with you an everlafting Covenant, even the fur e mercies-of 
David. Behold I have given him for a witneft of the people, a 
leader andcommander of the people : therefore our faith, and per- 
feverance, and falvation are lure, asfure as Heaven and Earth can 
make them, becaufe of the ac"l of Chrift's Suretifhip , and his 
undertaking for them *, becaufe they hang upon Chrift's fulfill- 
ing his Covenant of Suretifhip with God, and upon condition 
of his doing the werkthat his Father gave him to do, Joh. 17. 
4, 8. 15. 24, / have glorified thee on earth, I have finifoed the 
worl^which thou gavefl me to do .'-—For I have given unto them 
the words which thou gave ft me , and they have received them.. 

1 pray not that than jhouldft taks r ^ em mt °f f ^ e world * r 

bht that thou jhouldft ktep them from the evil — Father I will, 
that they alfo whom thou haft given me, be with me where I am. 
Mat. 16. 18, — And upon this roc\zjwill /build my Church, and 

■ the gates of hell foallnot prevail again ft it. 

5. The Holy Ghoft's leading us lb frequently in the Scrip- 
tures, from the Covenant made with us, in all the force, 
efficacy, ftability, eternity, (landing, and perfeverance thereof, 
to look up to the Covenant of Suretifhip made with Chrift*, 
k a clear demonftration that this Covenant made with us 


Chap. I. of the Covenant of Redemption. 2,9 

depends upon the Covenant mack with him ; and that the Co- 
venant made with .Chrift, is the foundation and ground of 
the Covenant made with us. Read-Ez^. 16. 60,61, Never-, 
the left I will remember my Covenant with thee in the days of 
thy youth, and I mil efiablijh unto jhee an everlafting Cove- 
nant. Then thou jhal'r remeynber thy ways , and be afliamedy 
when thon jlialt receive thy Sifters, thine elder, and thy younger ', 
and I will give them unto thee for daughters \ but not by thy 
Covenant. Where the efficacy of the Covenant made with 
us, is hanged, not upon that fame Covenant, but another; 
to wit, that made with Chrift : And Ifa. 22. 22, 2 $ , And 
the key of the houfe of David will I lay upon his Jboulder , for 
he jhall open, and none foall JJjut, and he (liall fiwt and none 
fiall open j and I will faflen him as a n ail in a fur e place, and 
he Jhall be for a glorious throne to his fathers houfe, ckc Where 
under a type of Eliakimh truft , the fixing of Chrift in the 
Covenant isftated, as the ground of all the gracious efficiency 
thereof; and PfaL 89. $ $, $4, Neverthelefs my loving kjndnejs* 
will I not utterly take from him , nor fuffer my faithfulnef to 
fail My Covenant will I not breaks nor alter the thing that 
is gone out of my lips. Once have 1 fworn by my holinef, that 
I will not lye unto David. The eftablifhment of the Cove- 
nant with s Chr id's fmful feed (there fpokeofby the name of 
David and his feed^J, is reduced to the Covenant , the fworn 
Covenant with Chrift, as the ground and foundation there- 
of, whom' God laid in Zion for a fure foundation ^ to 
the intent that he who believeth may not make hafle, nor 
be fuddenly removed from his Faith and fteadfaftnefs ;* 
J fa. 28. 16. 


gfi Chap, II. 

CHAP. 1 1. 

Qf the necejptyofthe Covenant of Redemp- 
tion, And \. What kind ofnecejpty for 
the being of this Covenant, i. In what 
KefpeStf 5 or to what Intents it is ne- 


Hen we i'peak $f the neceflity of the Covenant of Re- 
demption or Suretifhip, we are cautioufly to under- 
Aquin.Sjww. i.ft an ^ that necefTity. The School-men diftinguifh a threefold 
Part. g. ip. neceflity. i. A moft perfect and abfohite necejfity^ or a fimylc 
An. 3 necejfity, when a thing is lb, that it cannot not be, nor be other- 

^ U j S in , 5w *wife, and that by the power of any Agent whatfoever. 
Seft i. ^^B^-Xhisneceff^ybei^ge^ not t0 tne Covenant of Redemption, 
nor to any other the free afts of the will of God*, for if fo it 
had pleaied God, he might have not entered that Covenant 
with his Son} for it was not abfolutely neceflary that man fhould 
be redeemed : God might have patted by man as he did the 
Apoftate Angels :, which choice of objects, to be redeemed by 
Chrift , is mentioned for aggravating God's love to man, 
Heb. 2. 1 6, For verily he took^not on him the nature of Angels \ 
but he took^ on him the feed of Abraham. 

This neceflity belongs only to the divine Nature, which is 
moft perfect, and cannot by any Agent whatfoever, be brought 
not to be*, or to be other, orotherwife than he is, Jam. i. 17, 
— with whom is no variablenefiy neither foadow of turning. 2. A 
natural necejfity, when any thing floweth neeejfarily and meerly 
from the principles of nature *, and thus the fire burneth, and 
theftone defcendeth. Now the Covenant of Redemption is 
not neceflary by this natural neceflity •, for God did not enter 
in Covenant with Chrift as the fire burns, neceflarily, and natu- 
- rally •, for, 1. Then it had been impoflible for God not to have 
fhewed mercy upon fallen man, and that in this very way of 
Redemption by Chrift ; for natural Agents cannot but aft ac- 
cording to their natural properties ", but it is manifeft from 


Chap. II. the Covenant of Redemption* 31 

God's pafling by the fallen Angels, that he might have faffed 
by man alio in his fulfill ftate. 2. If Gc either purpo- 

sed in himfelf, or exercifed juftice or mercy, or both (which is 
inconfiftent, implicant,and impoflible) by this natural neceflity, 
then (his juftice and mercy being infinite) he iliould have ihewed 
mercy upon all, or exercifed juftice upon all \ he fhould either 
have punifhed all that finned to theutmoft, as foon as they had 
finned, or he fhould have (hewed mercy upon all, as foon as 
there were qualified objects for mercy : the reafon is obvious, 
becaufe all natural Agents work to the utmoft they can. 
3. Then there fhould have been no Compact nor Covenant be- 
twixt Jehovah and Chrift ; for fuppofing fucha natural necefii- 
ty, wedeftroy freeconfent and agreement, which is effential 
to this Covenant , and is proved in the foregoing Chapter. 

3. There is an hypothetical neceflity which arifeth from God'? 
ordination and appointment •, or as others call it, a neceflity of 
confeqnence *, when any thing is neceflary upon fuppofition of 
fome other thing j and this is not an abiblute neceflity in the 
things themfelves, and their immutability ; but a limited refpe- 
tlive neceflity , upon connexion of one thing with another. 
Again, this limited refpedive neceflity fas Mr. Anth. Bargef^-porti-mot 
well obierves) is fometimes from the efficient caufe , becaufe Juftif. Part 2. 
he is thus and thus difpofed ; as when 'tis faid, there mutt beSerm. u. 
her e fie s, 1 Cor. 1 1, 29. That is, partly in regard of the efficient 
caufe (although the Text mentioneth there only the final caufe), 
becaufe there will be Ignorance and Pride always in men. 
2. From the material caufe: Thus death is neceflary and inevi- 
table, becaufe we have principles of corruptibility within us. 

$. From the formal caufe, becaufe that is immutable and urn 
changeable. 4. From the final caufe fuppofing fuch an end. 

When we fpeak of the neceflity of the Covenant of Sureti- 
fhip or Redemption, it is this third and laft kind of neceflity 
we mean; it was hypothetically and refpe&ively neceflary only 
that God fhould enter in Covenant with Chrift :, to wit, upon 
fuppofition of fome other thing that God had decreed and pur- 
pofed in hirafelf. And here let us a little enquire, 

Quefl. 1. What were thefe things which God's entering irr 
Covenant with Chrift doth fuppofe ? 2. What was the necef- 
fity of a Covenant betwixt God and Chrift, luppoiifcp-Tnefe 
things ? 3. Whether this hypothetical and refpecTive njceflity 


32 Of the Nccejfity of Chap. II. 

of a Covenant with Chrift, flowed only from the final caufe, 
from the ends which God had purpofed inhinfelf, or from the 
efficient caufe alio, that is, from God's natural propenfion to 
Juftice or Mercy ? 

Anfw. i. The Covenant of Redemption wherein God en« 
tered with Chrift, did proceed upon fuppofition of thefe things 
mainly ( I do not fay only , nor do I determine the order of 
the things fuppofed ). i. This Covenant fuppofeth that God 
had purpofed in himielf, and decreed eminently to glorifie him- 
felf in the way of juftice and mercy , Rom. 9. 22,23, What if 
God willing to fliew his wrath, and to make his power known, 
endured with much long-fujfering the vejfels of wrath fitted to 
deftruttion ? And that he might make known the riches of his 
glory on the vejfels of mercy which he had afore prepared, unto 
glory I 2. This Covenant fuppofeth that God had purpofed 
and decreed, that there fhould be objects qualified, and fit for 
the glorifying of both thefe Attributes ; and this was abfo- 
lutely neceffary to that purpofe, both quoad exercitium & quoad 
Jpecific -ationem atlpa, inrefpeftof the exercife of the aft and the 
lpecification and manner of it. For to fome properties in 
God there is required no objeft, and to others no qualifica- 
tion of the objeft. To God's Omnipotency there is required 
no objeft, becaufe it makes its objects *, and to God's Wifdom 
there is required no qualification in the objeft ', for he can order 
every thing to a glorious end . Yet to God's mercy and juftice , 
ad extra, there are not only required objefts , but objefts fo 
qualified, either with Grace or Sin, as Mr. Burgefi obferves. 
Therefore the Covenant of Redemption doth iiippoie the pur- 
pofe and decree of God about the creation of man, in a bleffedj 
Votf. •/ Juftif. but mutable ftate, and his fall from his Primitive blefTednefs and 
p. 1. p. 10$. firft Cove nant-ftate, into Sin; that there might be objefts and 
&p.2. p. ^'qualified objefts for glorifying the Attributes of mercy and 
juftice, upon which the Apoftle in the place before-mentioned, 
Rom. 9. 22, 2$. calls vejfels of mercy , and vejfels of wrath. 
5. The Covenant of Redemption fuppofeth God's purpofe and 
free decree, ib far to follow his Covenant- truth and juftice upon 
man, as not to acquit him without a fatisfaftion to Juftice in 
his own perfon, or by a liirety of the fame kind that finned, 
Heb. 9. 15, And for this caufe he is the Mediator of the New 
Teflamenty that by means of death for the redemption of the 


Chap. II. the Covenant of Redemption. S3 

tranfgrejfions that were under thefirft teftament , they which art 
called might receive the promife of the eternal Inheritance. 4. The 
Covenant of Redemption iiippof eth that God had purpoled to 
have in Mankind the»objec1:s for glorifying both thefe Attri- 
butes of mercy and juftice, that he would not punifh all fin 
with eternal death ; nor yet let all go unpunifhed *, but would 
manifeft his juftice in ibme objects, and the riches of his Grace 
in others, Rom.?. 22,25. 5- The Covenant of Redemption 
fuppofeth that God had choien Chrift firft to do the work of 
Redemption, by fatisfying juftice, and entreating mercy, 
Pf#l> 89. $, / have made a Covenant with my chofen. And 
Heb. 2. 17, Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like 
unto his brethren , that he might be a merciful and faithful high 
prieflin things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the 
fins of the people. And that he had choien the veflejs of mercy 
in him, unto grace and glory, Eph. i.4>$> According as he 
bath chofen us in him before the foundation of the world , that 
we Jhould be holy and without blame before him in love. Having 
predeftinated us unto, the Adoption of children, by Je fit* Chrift. 
uuto himfelf, according to the good pleafure of his will* I fay 
thenihls fuppofitis, thtfc and fuch like things being fuppofed, God 
enters in a Covenant with Chrift. 

Queft.2. But iuppofing that it is decreed, that divine 
juftice (hall be iatisfied \ and that the truth of the threatning 
of the Covenant of works , fhould be verified upon man of- 
fending, or upon a iiifficient fiirety : iiippofing alfo that Chrift 
is defignedinthe counfel of God unto this work of redeem- 
ing loft man, by performing a fatisfa&ion to the juftice of God ; 
It is yet a queftion , What needed the Covenant of Redemption 
or Suretifhip betwixt God and Chrift ? Might not the work 
have been done without any Compact, Covenant or Agreement 
betwixt the Father and the Son ? 

Anfw, I (hall only here give a fhort anfwer ; , referring tlr 
more fall and particular iatisfattion of this queftion unto the' 
latter part of this Chapter, wherein I have purpoled the 
handling of the particular ends and iritents for which the 
Covenant of Redemption is neceflary y For pf efent I fay, 1. It 
might iuffice that God decreed, and plainly revealed that the 
iutisfa&ion which his juftice will have for fm , and which Chrift 
has given, was agreed betwixt them by a Covenaat : and fo in 

F refpeft 

5 4 Of the Neeefitjr of Chap, ft 

refpett of infinite wifdom , which worketh by deep counfel, 
and doth nothing without a reafon, it was necefTary ? becaufe 
God thought fit that it fhould be fo , he pitched upon this 
way. But befide this , 2. Whatfoever n£ ceflity was in regard 
of infinite wifdom , that loft man fhould be redeemed , fin 
fhould not be pardoned without a fatisfaclion , that Chrift. 
ihould be our Redeemer, and fhould come and give thatfatis' 
faction: the lame neceffity alfo requires a Covenant betwixt 
God and Chrift, foe carrying on that work in the way of 
Agreement; ib thai if a Mediator, a Saviour and Redeemer > 
a Surety, a ranfomwere neceflary , in regard of infinite wif 
dom, which found out this Goipel-diipeniation and new way of 
life, then was a Covenant of Suretifhip and Redemption necef- 
lary alfo in the fame refpccT. 3. The work of Redemption 
performed by Chrift, was iuch as could not be.undertaken and 
performed without a Covenant^ for it required commanding 
and obeying, fending and going, asking and receiving, work- 
ing and rewarding,all which imported fuppofe fuperiority and 
inferiority, or fubordination, which could not be betwixt the 
Father and the Son, who is equal vpith Cod? Phn\2.6, unleis 
that by Agreement, Compact, Confent and Covenant ? the Son 
of God had humbled him f elf ^ and became obedient unto death? 
even the death of the Cro$, Phil. 2. 8. The work of Redemp- 
tion unto which Chrift was defigned in the counfel of God, 
required feveral offices, employments, trufts, and relations to be 
iiiflained by him (whereof I hinted fomething in the foregoing 
Chapter) which not being efTential to the Son of God , nor 
belonging to him by any natural , abfolute, or immutable ne- 
ceffity *, upon fuppofal of the decree of God, that the -Son 
fhould do the work of Redemption , there was a neceflity of 
Confluence, that there fhould be a Covenant of Redemption 
and Suretifhip *, that by the Father's calling and command , and 
by the Sons confent and agreement, making up a voluntary 
Compact, the Son of God might bear thefe offices, and trufts, 
and relations, which otherwife he fhould not have born, 
//i.42. 1.6, Behold my fervant whom J uphold? mine eltttin 
whom my foul delighteth^ — J the Lord have called thee in right e- 
optfnsfs? and will hold thine hand. Pfal. 2. 7, / will declare the 
decree, the Lord hath [aid unto me? thou art my Son? this day 
havt I begotten thee* Heb. 5. 5,6, So alfo Chrifl glorified not 


Chap. II. the Covenant of Redemption. 5 5 

himfclf tobemade anhighpriefl, b m he that J aid unto him. Thou- 
art my Son , to day have I begotten thee. As he faith alfo in 
another 'place , Thou art a priefi for ever after the order of 

jQueft> y Whether did this Hypothetical neceflity of God's 
■cnteringin Covenant with Chrift to pay a raiiibm $ or as others 
ipeak, this neceflity of coniequence, flow only from a finall. 
caufe*, to wit, God's ends which he purpofed in himfclf •, or 
from the efficient caufe alfo •, to wit, from juftice in God that 
could not remit fin without fatisfa&ion ? 

Anfvo- i. Concerning the neceflity of God's covenanting 
-with Chrift, in refpeft of the ends which he purpofed in him- 
felfj thereisnoqueftion : Which were, i. The fupream end, 
to glorifie his mercy and juftice } I mean his declarative glory, 
that (hints ad extra j not the efTentiai glory of God , whereby 
he was infinitely glorious from eternity, and fhould eternally 
be eflentially glorious , though neither Man nor Angel, nor 
any other ohjeft of his glory had been created. This is the 
glory fpokcn of in thefe Scriptures, Prov. 16. 4, The Lord hath 
made all things for him f elf, yea, even the wicked for the day of 
evil. Eph. 1.6, To the praife of the glory of his grace wherein 
he hath made m accepted in the beloved. 2. The iubordinate end 
(which alio is a medium or means for advancing the fupream 
end) the Redemption and Salvation of his ele& people,, to be 
"brought about in fuch manner as might manifeft and declare 
the glory of juftice and mercy both , in faving fome , not all, 
andpafling by others, upon whom he had purpofed to declare 
■hi- juftice ; and in laving thefe whom he purpofed to redeem, 
in fuch a way as juftice might be iatisfied, and mercy alio en- 
treated, Rom, $.24, Being jaftified freely by his grace, through 
the Redemption that is in Jefm Chrift. Eph. 1 . 7, In whom we have 
Redemption through his blood, the forgivenefs of fins seconding to 
the riches of his grace. It is manifeft, I fay, that in regard of 
thefe great ends, the Covenant of Redemption made with 
Chrift was necefiary^ God having purpofed in procuring ouu 
5alvation,to glorifie his mercy and juftice,a Mediator and Surety 
behoved to be engaged ; and there being (In regard of infinite 
wifdom which determined it ) none fp fit as the Son of God ; he 
muft needs be engaged by his own content, and by a Covenant - 
agreement with Jehovah. 

F 2 j^ But 

3 6 Of the Necefity of Chap. II. 

j^ But here is the queftion about the neceflity of the Cove- 
nant of Suretifhip in regard of the efficient caufe •, to wit, whe- 
eler or not there was any neceflity of nature or natural efTential 
juftice in God, which required this way of Suretifhip and Re- 
demption neceffarily, in regard that he could not pardon fin 
Without a fatisfa&ion ? 

X Concerning this queftion , two reafbns mainly prevail 
fife. iMiu col. *tfth me to be fparing in the agitation of it. I. The great diife- 
tmtmjt, z,^-renccof Judgment that is among the Orthodox in this point; 
birt.w. Error Several Learned men holding God's Juftice in punifhing and 
y °a,' P £' ^ correcting fin to be fo natural, that he cannot but punifhit, or 
xm^dHb 9 \2J tQ ^ lxt ^ l% ^^ l<>:[ ^ otherwise he fhould deny himfelf, and his 
Broth, animad. own nature . 

in Vorh. Mar* Again, there are others that hold, if God be confidered ab- 
fi ;\ ** Fer '' folutely in regard of his power, and not upon a fuppofition of 
tbotin p <ol X ^ IS ^cree, which is cU fatto, to let no fin go unpunifhed } but 
507. • t0 punifh it either in the Peribn, or in his Surety : In this ablb- 

lutefenfe they fay God might freely have remitted fin without 
Aug. Strm. 3. any iatisfaOion.- 

& S "ib* ' D "de 0thersa E ain ^ ave followed a middle way, and by fome di- 
7rin!i\?' cap. ftin&ions have ftudied to reconcile the difference j which whe- 
10; Calv. in ther they reach the end or not* yet have (hewed a good ipirit 
Toh. 15. -15. in the endeavours. 

T ™ ilT * vln f' 2. Becaufe it leems the lefs ufeful to difpute about the poffi- 
^• x f V g ^;bility of another way of taking away fin, and latisfying the 
kard. cm & °f tne Law, f 1Ilce whatfoever God might have done , yet 

he hath plainly revealed that he hath decreed and pitched upon 
4tr. Burg. Trut this only way, that he will not pardon fin without a price and 
ma. W/.f at isfaaion. 

p.2*p.io4, c. ^ or m y own .p 00r apprehenfions of this point \ 1 . I look up- 
on the Socinian opinion in this matter as extream, and of dange- 
rous confequence :, for they deny Juftice and Mercy to be 
Properties or Attributes of God,, making Juftice (or as they 
call it, Anger) no property in God :, but the meer voluntary 
effe& of his Will*, denying any fuch Juftice in God ,. whereby 
hepropends to punifh fin, and making it wholly arbitrary,, to 
punifh, or not to punifh. Upon this foundation they build , 
that Chrtft did not die by way of latisfaftion * 7 at leaft there 
ibid. U ? . lt was no neceflity of it : The arguments ufed by Mr. Burge$'\x\ 
8^107, &c! ' confutation of the Sotinian opinion, are thu6 far cogent, that 


Chap. U. the Covenant of Redemption. 37 

they conclude juftice to be a natural property in God (under- 
ftanding the word natural for that which floweth from nature *, 
yet by the help of free will)*, and that God's punifhing of fin, 
is not meerly from his Will. And indeed the Scriptures which 
hold forth fin, as not only contrary to God's holy Law, but. 
alfo contrary to his holy Nature: I mean morally contrary to 
him, though not phyfically, Heb. 1.13, Thou art of furer eyes 
than to behold evil , andcanfl not laok^on iniquity : and which 
attribute the punifhing of fin, not only to the juftice of his 
Law , but to the righteouiheis and juftice of his Nature, 
Ffal 11. 7, For the righteous Lord loveth righteoufnef , bis 
countenance doth behold the upright. Rev. 16. 5 , And 1 heard 
the Angel of the waters fay , Thou art righteous , O Lord. Thele 
alfo which reckon punitive juftice among his attributes, when 

his name was proclaimed , Exod. $4. 7, and that will, by no 

means clear the guilty. Thefe Scriptures and the like (1 lay) 
have weight with me to reckon juftice among the properties of 
God, and to believe that his punifhing fin is not meerly from 
his will. 

2. It is another extream, to infer hence, thatbecaufe juftice 
is in fomefenfe a natural property in God, and his punifhing of 
fin is not meerly from his will ; therefore God punifheth fin by 
neceflity of nature, and cannot but punifh it, or require flitis- 
faclion, more than he can deny his own Nature, or ceaie to be 
God. Againft this affertion,the Reaibns brought by Mr.Ruther- Tnat - °fl hs Co " 
ford (to which I refer the Reader) do ftrongty conclude. ^cK™ 

3. I conceive that thefe extreams may admit of abatement* 
without prejudice to the Lord's Soveraignty, and the abfolute 
freenefs of his grace , or without derogation from the fatis- 
fattion of Chrift , and the refpeftive neceffity thereof. For, 
1. Suppofing that God doth not punifh fin by any natural ne- 
ceflity, and that he doth not punifh fin, nor require any fatisfa- 
&ion by any neceflity of juftice *, yet this can be no advantage to 
the Socinian fuperftru&ion , who conclude that then there was 
no neceflity of Ghrift's dying by way of iatisfaclion , fince 
God hath plainly revealed that he will not pardon fin, without 
a fatisfaftion andanattonementmade •, and this decree of his 
doth infer an hypothetical neceflity of Ghrift's dying by way of 
iatisfaclion. 2- Suppofing that juftice , punitk'e juftice, be 
natural to God, and among his properties, .it will not necefia- 


38 Of tie Necejptj of Chap. IL 

rily follow (upon fuppofition of the being of fin) that God 
punifheth fin by neceflity of Nature and Juftice , more than it 
will follow , that becaufe Ptfe natural to man" to fpeak , to 
laugh, &c. Therefore he fpeaks , he laughs from neceflity of 
nature j for he doth thefe things moft freely; and notwithftand- 
ing it is natural to him to laugh or ipeak, he might notwith- 
ftanding never laugh nor fpeak, as pleafeth him. For if io, 
i. Then his juftice fhould carry him to punifh fin without any 
moderation:, that is, to punifh fin as foon as ever it is commit- 
ted, to punifh fin to the utmoft degree of punifhment, to pu- 
niih fin in every Soul that finneth, without mercy fliewed to any, 
and in the fame Soul that finneth, not in a Surety :, becaufe natu- 
ral Agents work to the utmoft they can. 2. Becaufe the natu- 
ral properties of God, as they are efTential to him, do not ib 
much as require any objects ad extra (though the manifeftation 
of thefe do require objects), for God fhould have been infinitely 
and eternally wife, holy, good , juft, &c. though there had 
never been any creation of Men or Angels ^ and if thefe do not 
neceflarily require objects, then far lefs exercife of acts*, fo that 
it will not follow , if Juftice be natural to God, then he muft 
punifh fin by neceflity of Nature. 3. If we (hall place juftice 
among thefe properties in God , the objects whereof may be 
laid to be neceflar v (which muft be underftood in refpett of the 
exercife of acts about thefe objects *, otherwife nO natural pro- 
perty in God neceflarily requires any object adextra); yet the 
objects fuppofed, the acts are not, even then neceffary by any 
abfolute neceflity of nature^ but only by a hypothetical necef- 
fity, fuppofingthe decree of God that gave thefe objects a 
being, and ordered their being, qualified objects for exercifing 
juftice or mercy upon, according to his plcafure, which work- 
eth all things according to the counfel of his will ^ and if lb, 
her* is no punifhing of fin by neceflity of nature. 4. Suppo- 
1. M04. ** m § J uftice to be natural to God in that fenfe that Mr. Burgefi 
' ' aflerts it, and fuppofmg the objects thereof to have a being *, 

yet lure he doth not punifh fin by neceflity of nature , as the 
fire burns-, fince the exercife of Juftice, yea, the choice of ob- 
jects upon which he will exercife it, are liibjected to his free will 
and foveraignty ; as is manifeft from Rom. 9. 18, Therefore hath 
he mercy on whom he will have mercy ; and whom he will ', he har~ 
deneth. Rev. 4. 11, Thou art worthy, Lord, to receive honour 


Chap. II. the Covenant of Redemption. 39 

and glory y and power ; for thou hafl created all things , and for 
thy pleafure they are and were created. Whereas natural neceffity 
excludes freedom both in the principle of aftion, and the a& 

Having now fhewed what kind of neceflity there was for 
the being of the Covenant of Redemption betwixt God and 
Chrift:, and that the neceflity does mainly refpecl: the final 
caufe and ends which God had purpofed in himfelf : Let us 
in the next place confider particularly to what intents and pur- 
poles it was neceffary that God fhouid enter into a Co- 
venant of Suretifhip and Redemption with his own Son 

Thefe intents and purpofes may be reduced to two 
chief heads j fuppofmg that God had purpofed in himfelf to 
glorifie his mercy and Juftice in procuring our Salvation * 7 the 
Covenant; of Suretifhip and Redemption was neceffary 
for both thefe ends andpurpoies : i. For the honour of God. 
2. For the falvation and good of his choien people *, both 
which were attained through the Covenant made betwixt God 
and Chrift. 

1. For the honour and glory of God.:, I mean, the declara- 
tive glory of God, that fhines ad extra y or the manifestation of 
his glory , as the fame is fhewed forth and manifefted in his 
dealings with the Creatures , whereof fcz.PfaL i$>. i, Thehea- 
vens declare the glory of God. Exod. 15. 11, Who is likf unto thee y 
O Lordy amongji the Gods ! who is like thee, glorious in holinefs 7 
fearful in pratJeSy doing wonders ! Not his effential glory that 
fhines ad intra y whereby he was infinitely and eternally glori- 
ous, before any the works of Creation and Providence •, and 
fhouid have been glorious eternally , though thefe had never 
been, Prov.%. 22.~-$Oy The Lord poffe fed me in the beginning 
of his way y before his worlds of old.—SThen J was by him as on* 
brought Hp with him , and I was daily his delight , rejoycing al- 
ways before him. 

1 fay, the being of this Covenant of Redemption, was necef- 
fery for the declarative glory of God \ whether we cofifider 
God effemially or perfonally . 

1 . For the glory of God confidered effentially , or in regard 
©F his glorious nature and effence, or his natural eilential, attri* 
tut***, I mean, hiswiidom, goodnefe, juftice, mescy, fiuth- 


41 Of the UcceJJtty of Chap. If. 

fu!nef>,'on\ And that, i . For glorifying thefe unkerfally, even 
all and every one of his attributes , all which received a new 
and glorious luftre, through the Covenant of Redemption, and 
God's fending of Chrift to do that work which fliould never 
have been known nor manifefted on Earth, nor in Heaven , but 
in the face of Jefus Chrift, and by virtue of God's Covenant- 
dealings with him about our Redemption ; therefore faith the 
Apoftle, 2 Cor. 4. 6, For God who commanded light to firine out 
of darknef, hath finned in our hearts , to give the light of the 
kgowledg of the glory of God in the face of Jefus Chrift. There- 
fore alio Chrift is called the brightneft of his glory, Heb. 1. j. 
Chrift Mediator is thebrightnefs of the glory of God , in and 
through whom , his glorious attributes and nature was made 
conipicuous , and the declarative glory thereof had a more 
glorious luftre, than by all the works cf Creation and Provi- 
dence befide : upon the fame account alfo Chrift is called the 
Image of the invifible God, Col. 1. 15, becaufe the glorious 
excellencies of God (otherwife invifible) are glorioufly revealed 
by him, and to be feen in him. I pais this here in a word, re- 
ferring a more particular confideration thereof to that part 
of this fubjecYmatter that concerns the Mediator's perfon and 
office. 2. For the glorifying of thefe harmonioufly, that the 
harmony of attributes in God might be manifefted in this 
tranfa£Hon;to wit,how fweetly mercy & juftice did meet, when 
peace and righteoufnefs , Law- demands and Gofpel-condeicen- 
tions, LaW'feverity and Gofpei-lenity did meet together, and 
were made friends by this Covenant, PfaL 85. 10. 11, Mercy 
and truth are met together , righteoufnef and pace have tiffed 
each other, &c. For by this means God brought forth to heaven 
and earth, and all the Creatures, the glorious harmony of 
Juftice, Truth, Mercy, Power, Wilcrom, Grace, Rev. 5. 12,' 1 $, 
Saying with a loud voice, worthy is the Lamb that was flain> to re- 
ceive power, andwifdom, and riches, andftrength, and honour , 
and glory, and bleffing. And every creature which is in heaven 
and on the earth, and under the earth, and fuch as are in the 
fea, and all that are in them , heard /, faying , Bleffing , honour, 
glory, and power be unto him that fitteth upon the throne , and unto 
the lamb for ever and ever . 

2. This Covenant of Redemption was neceflary for the glory 
of God considered perfonatty; and that, 1. I11 regard of the 


Chap. II. the Covenant of Redemption. 4 l 

diftinftfubfiftencesand glorious peribns of thetdefTed Trinity. 
2. In regard of the diftjrwfr offices of the three peribns , all 
which were glorioufly manifefted in God's Covenant-dealings 
with Chrift. I lay, the greateft declarative glory and clearefi- 
manifeftation of the diftintt lubfiftences and Peribns of the God- 
head, and of the diftinft offices of thefe Perfons in the ever- 
glorious and bleffed Trinity, that ever the world law or heard 
of, was in God's Covenant-dealings with Chrift about the work 
of our Redemption \ for where are there any fuch clear difco- 
veries of thefe great myfteries to be found, as in God's federal 
dealings with Chrift^ and the Scriptures which reveal the fame ? 
God was but darkly known in the diftincl fubfiftences and offi- 
ces of the Perlons of the Trinity, till this light -of his Covenant 
with Chrift did break forth \ but in God'siending his Son, and 
the Son's undertaking and offering himfelf willingly to his Fa- 
ther, to do this work*, and the Holy Ghoft's exercifmg the 
power of the Godhead, fitting and enabling him, the man 
Chrift Jefus,to do the work \ there was a glorious manifeftation 
of the diftin&ion of Perfons in the Godhead, and of the offices 
of thefe Peribns , (whei^of alio more particularly afterward^). 
See 7/^.42. 1, Behold my ferv ant whom I uphold , mine elect in 
whom my foul delighteth ; 1 have put my jpirit upon him , he 
Jhall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. Heb. 9. 14, Hove much 
more Jhall the blood of Chrift, who through the eternal Jpir it, of- 
fered himfelf without Jpot to God, purge your con fcience from dead 
works to ferve the living God? And 10. 7, Then faid I, Lo, 1 
come, in the volume of the bookjt is written of me, to do thy will, 
OGod. Pfoi. 2. 7,8, I will declare the decree, the Lord hath 
faid unto me, Thou art my Son , this day have I begotten thee, 
Ask^of me, and J jhall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, 
an dthejatermo ft parts of the earth for thy pojfejfion. Joh.14. 26, 
But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghoft, whom the Father, will 
fend in my name, he flail teach, ym all things, and bring aH . 
things to your remembrance , whatfoever I have faid unto you. 

Mai. 3. 16, 17, And he faW the [pirit of God descending like 

a dove r and lighting upon him : And lo, a voice from heaven fay- 
ing, This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleafed- y and 
fuch like Scriptures.. Yea , fo much was the Covenant betwixt 
God and Chrift aboufour Redemption for the glory of God , 
even confidered perfonally j that thereby (Wide the glory 

G that 

4a Of the NeceJJitjr of Chap. IL 

that was common to all the three Perfons) there did accrue a 
peeuliar glory ts> the diftinft Perfons of the Godhead, in regard 
of their diftintt offices and working in this bufmefs of Redemp* 
tion^ a peculiar glory to the Father, who gave Chrift, and 
who fent him upon this bufinefs, and bleffed us in hira, even 
a peculiar honour to the Father from the Lord Mediator and 
Redeemer, Joh. 8. 49, But I honour my Father , faith Chrift ; 
and a peculiar honour to the Father from the ranfomed and 
redeemed People , 1 Pet. 1. $, BteJfedbetheGod and Father of 
unr Lord Jefus Chrifl , which according to his abundant mercy 
hath begotten hs again into a lively hope by the refurretlion of 
Jefus Chrift from the dead. A peculiar honour to the Son, to 
Chrift the Lord Mediator, and that both upon earth and in hea- 
ven, a peculiar glory to the Lamb that wrought the Redemp- 
tion, unto which his Father appointed him, Joh. 5. 22, 2-3, For 
the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment to the 
Son : That all menjhould honour the Son, even as they honour the 
Father; which the Son claimeth, Joh. 17. 1,4, Thefe words 
fpoke Jefvu, and lift up his eyes to heaven-) and f aid. Father the 
hour is come, glorifie thy Son, that thy Son alfo may glorifie thee ; 
I have glorified thee on the earth, I havejinijhed the workjwhich 
thou gave ft me to do. And which is payed to him in heaven, 
Rev. 7. 10, Saying, Salvation to our God which fitteth upon the 
throne, and to the Lamb. And 5.9, And they fing a new fong, 
faying, thou art worthy to take the bool^, and to open the feals 
thereof \ for thou waft flain, and haft redeemed us to God by 
thy blood, out of every kindred , and tongue , and people , and 
nation. A peculiar glory unto the eternal Spirit, by whom the 
Son of God offered himfelf without Jpot to Gody Heb. 9. 14 ; and 
to whom the effectual application of the purchafed Redemp- 
tion by peculiar office belongs, 1 Cor. 6.11, Andfuch were feme 
*>f you; but ye are wajhed, but ye are fantlified, but ye are 
juftified in the name of the Lord Jefus, and by the fpirit of our 
God. Joh. 6.61, It is the fpirit that quickeneth. Gal. 4. 6, 
And becaufe ye are Sons, God hath fent forth the fpirit of his 
Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, father. 

2. The good of the ranfomed and redeemed people, required 
♦hat their Redemption fhould be tranfa&ed in a Covenant be- 
twixt God and Chrift ; and to this intent, and for this end it 
was neceffary, 1. To introduce andufher in the new way of 


Chap. H. the Covenant of Redemption. 4? 

life thoroW the Gofpel-difpenfation , which could never have 
come to light, nor have appeared upon the ftage to ac*i any 
thing, if God had not by his eternal trarife&ions with Chrift, 
in whom he found a ranfome, made way for the taking down the 
tranfient-time-difpenfation of Law and Works , which was 
only to continue and ftand a Court of righteoufnefs for a (horr 
fpace •, andfo opened a door for free Grace to take the Theatre,' 
and to ad its part more nobly than; 'the Law-diipeniatioh that 
was firft upon the ftage. And this, Hay, was ufhered inland 
it was neceflary that way fhould be made for it, by God's 
Covenant-dealings with Chrift, in whorn his Juftice had a fatis- 
feaion-, elfethe Law-difpeffition of ^Mf ks and Nature had 
kept the Stage for ever, and there had been no Court wherein 
<Jrace fits upon the throne, and'wherein Sinners might plead 
iFighteotiiheis and life on Gofpel-tefms. Chnft's faying from 
eternity, L6^ home to M thy will, OGod, Pfal. 40. 6. And 
deliver him fr 6m going down to the pit ^ I have found a ran fom % 

Cocc. t>i 

for tte<^&&i$t$itik dFatio\ena1it'o|rrVe^laceI; Thrice**- 
it is that the Apoftle ftates the rife' of fife and immortality 
that isbrought to light by the Gofpel, upon the eternal' fcede- 

nbw'wade mdnifeft by' the appearing of our Saviour 'Jefm Chrift, 

his dwnSoninthel^neJicffafktfBJh: atttt I for fin condemned ft 
wthefiejh'.. } J ■ J 

2. The Covenant of Redemption Wtfjft God and Chriii 
r our good, that the Covenant of life ancj 
s in the way of this Gofpel-diftenfgtion,«ni£ht 

the farer is the Covenant. Buthereallis of the' Lord; and of 

G 2 his 


44 Of the Neceffitj of Chap. II. 

his gracious will, all is trania&ed betwixt God and Ghrift, and 
man is not lb much as prefent at the firft trania&ion of the 
Covenant, as he was at the Covenant of works - 7 here he is 
neither at the beginning , nor end of it • I mean , that end 
which it had in God*s federal dealings with Chrift, where the 
Redemption and Salvation of the elect was a concluded bufmefs, 
and the condufion tarried not , nor was fufpended for man r s 
confent ; fure this was pure Grace, this was all Grace, eminent 
Grace, when there was nothing of the Creature $ no, not fo 
much as acting in a vital formal manner , as now we a& under 
the application of this Covenant, by thefe gracious a£ts which 
are efficiently from God *, but there, all was the gracious free 
will of God, without any thing of the Creatures will •, furely 
that was eminent fignal Grace, and the better for us, 2 Tim. 1 .p; 
Who hath faved us, and called us with an holy, calling, not accord- 
ing to our works, but according to his own purpofe and grace , 
which was given us in. Chrift Jefusjbefore the world began Eph. 2. 10, 
For we are his workgianftrip, created in Chrift Jefm unto good 
Works, which. God hath before, ordained, that we ftouldwalk^irt: 
them. Eph. 1.4, 5, According as he hath chofentu in him, before 
the foundation of the world , tlrat we jbculd be holy and without 
blame, before him in love : Having predeftinated us unto the Adop- 
tion of djildren, by Jefus Chrift to hlmfelf, according to the good 
pleafure of his will. 

' 3. A Covenant betwixt God and Chrift- about our Salvation 
and Redemption was necelTary , that the bufinefs of our Salva- 
tion might be far advanced ^ ere it come to our working at it 
With fear and trembling : and if our working out that which 
is left to be done by us, for our own Salvation, be with fear and 
trembling, when by this Covenant of Suretifnip we are fet be- 
yond the poflible rea,ch of aclualperifhing*, O what fhouldour 
working for Salvation have been without this Covenant of 
Suretifhip, but endlefs, frurdefs toiling, with defparation ! 
but by the Covenant of Redemption , our Salvation is far. ad- 
vanced, before our little finger be at the work; nay,, it is in 
fome reip^^nifh.^d, all the hard labour is over, Juftice is fatif- 
fied, the (tren^th of oppofition. is broken , and we have only 
ftroVen forces', ah-d a Ixaten adveriary to deal with y we have. 
UttL -nore to do but to ftand and fee him work Salvation for 
w£'i and apply his furchated Redemption •, and yet we have wprk. 


Chap. IF. the Covenant of Redemption. 4.5 

enough to keep us in continual exercife, about the duties of holi- 
nefs and faith,//*/. 2. 12. 2CV.7. 1. iPet. 1. 5, 10. 3W7.17.4, 
/ have fnijhed the work^which thou gave ft me to do. And 1 6. 1 1 , 
— +of judgment } becaufe the Prince of this world is ytdged. 
Heb. 12. 2, Looking nnto Jefus the Author and finijher of 
#*r faith. 

4. A Covenant betwixt God and Chrift about our Salvation, 
was neceffary, that the ipring and fountain of the life of Salva- 
tion to us, might He out of our felves :, by the Covenant of 
works, the fpring of life and blefTedncfs to man , lay in him- 
felf •, all his tfeafure and ftore was in his ftock of habitual Grace ^ 
bu t no w by this Covenant of Suretifhip, the water-cock is in- 
deed within our own hearts : I mean, Faith, by which we draw 
life and vertue out of Chrift, and through which he conveys it 
unto us •, but the fountain and well-head lyes on high : for by the 
Covenant of Redemption , God was carrying on a defign of 
love to his ele& people*, and this was part of the contrivance, 
that our Covenant-ftate through Chrift's Suretifhip might be 
Fountain-Love and Grace :, a ftate of favour fetled and bot- 
tomed in the fountain of life and grace, Chrift: Whereas 
Adam's firft Covenant-ftate was but Ciftern-Graee , that did 
not run continually with a fpring of living waters, to afford 
frefh fupplies", the ftock of habitual Grace was to him like 
water in the Pitcher or Ciftenr, but by Chrift's Covenant of 
Suretifhip,- Grace is to us, as water in the Fountain, that can- 
never run dry : J oh. 1. 16, And of his fulneft have all we recei- 
ved, and grace for grace. And 4. 14, But the water that I 

{hall give him y fhall be in him a well of water ff ringing up into 

everlaftin? life. And 14.- 19, becanfe I live, ye fialllive alfb. 

2 Cor .9.0, And God is able to make all grace abound towards you, 
that ye always having alfujficiency in all things \pnay abound to every 
good work^ 

5. This Covenant of Suretifhip was neceflary for our efta- 
blilhment. un4er this new difpeniation * that our Rights might 
be in a lurer hand than our own : Man is a mutable thing, and 
free-will is a tottering uncertain thing , as experience hath 
taught*, but Chrift is a'fure foundation *, and holding of him, 
or rather in him, is a lure tenure ; the Rights and Charters that 
are under his cuftody, are well kept : And therefore God who 
inftituted this difpeniation, did for the better fecuring of the 


47 Vftbc Neceffitj df Chap. IL* 

believers interefts, enter into Covenant with. a mighty refponfat 
peribn,even Chrift^and coniblidates ourCovenant-right inChtift 
our head, anddidtruft to his keeping and aniwering ail the in- 
tents of the Magna Chart a, the great Charterof the Gofpel- 
■ covenant j hence it is that the Covenant of peace made with 
us, is a fure Covenant , becaufe'tis thus ordered} Chrift acled 
that bufineis in the Covenant of Redemption } there were mu- 
tuaf- affurances given between the Father and the Son, which 
makes all Covenant-dealing with us lure, and holds all faft, 
Pfal. $p. $4, 35, My Covenant will I not breaks nor alter the 
thing that is gone out of my lip. Once have 1 /worn by my 
holme ft, that I mil not lye unto David. Hence 'tis, that the 
bleflings and mercies of the Gofpel^covenant , are iiire mercies ; 
becaufe there was concluded- Articles about them in this Cove- 
nant of Suretifhip, when Chrift treated for his heirs and chil- 
dren not yet born nor created, Ifa. 55. Sj4,-r-And I will 
make an ever lafting Covenant with yon, even the Jure mercies of 
David. Behold, I have given him for a witneft to the people, a 
leader and commander to the people. Heb. 2. iy, — Behold f y and 
the children which God,hath given me. Joh. 6. $.0,40, And this 
is the fathers will which bath fern me*. that -of all which he hath 
given me+ I jhould lofe nothings but fiould raife, it urp at the lafi- 
day. And this is the will of him that fent me, that every one 
which feeth the Son, and believeth on him > may have everlafting 
l{fe } and 1 will raife him up at the lafl day. , O what ftrong and 
everlafting coniblation hath God allowed upon his people 
fromtheie immutable and everlafting grounds ! Heb* 6. 17, 18, 
}fherein God, willing more abundantly to fiiew unto the heirs of 
promife the immutability of his counfely confirmed it by an oath.* 
That by two immutable things, in which it wasimpoJftblefprGod 
to lye, we might have a ftrong confolation, who have fled for refuge 
to lay hold upon the hope Jet before us. 2 Theff. 2. 16, Now 
our' Lord Jefus Chrift himfelf,and God, even our father which hath 
loved us, and hath given us everlafting confolation^ and good hope, 
through grace, &c 

C\ This Covenant with Chrift,was neceflary - ? not only for the 
eniuring our bleffednefs by this new Gofpel-diipeniation • but 
for the bettering of tba.t blefledneis and glonous ftate unto 
which we are advancec) by this Covenant . I fay, the blefTed- 
nefs, the glory, thjp heaven of the redeemed people , of the 


Chap. II. the Covenant of Redemption. 46 

many Sons, who are by the force of this Covenant brought t$ 
glory, Heb.2. 10 , is better than the reward and crown of 
blefTedneis which man fhould have enjoyed by the tenor of the 
Covenant of works ; and this bettering, it hath from Chrift's 
Covenant of Suretifhip withGod,which was the chief caufe why 
this Gofpel-difpenfation is a better Covenant than that of the Law 
of works •, and the promifes thereof are better promifes, and 
the crown and heaven thereof a better crown •, even becauie 
Chrift is in this Covenant, and the foundation of it was laid in 
his Suretifhip •, by this means the blefTedneis and heaven of this 
Covenant is bettered : For, 1 . It is the glory of new heavens, 
created of purpofe for the refidence of the, redeemed, in the 
company of him that redeemed them by his own blood , 
Z Pet. 3. 1 $, Neverthelef, we according to his promife, lool^for 
new heavens , and a new, earth , wherein dwelleth righteoptfnejt. 
Rev. 2*1. 1, 5, And If aw a new heaven and a new earth , for the 
fir ft heaven and the fir ft earth were pajfedaway, and there was no 
more fea* And he that fate upon the throne , faid , Behold, I 
makg all things new. Joh. 14. 2, 5, In my Father's honfe are many 
manpons, &c. And if I go and prepare a place for yen, I will 
come again and receive yon unto my felf\ that where I am, there 
ye may be alfo. Whereas the bleflednefs and glory of man by Mr. Ball rruu 
the Law-Covenant (if it was any thing beyond an immortality of the Covenant. 
of blefTedneis and enjoyment or God in an earthly Paradiie-,£ 2 * ^/l\t 
which is queftionedby Tome) fhould yet have been in this old U^Tbif^! " 
or firft heavens, not in thefe new ones. 2. It is the glory ofAfr.Baxt.^J&a- 
a Paradife wherein is the tree of life, and the river of the water ^/^ P« $• 
of life, which were not Ingredients of the Law-glory j neither 
were placed in the firft Paradife. Rev. 2.7, To him that over - 
cometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midft 
of the Paradife of God. And 7. l j y -~~and Jhall lead them unto 
living fountains of waters. And 22. \,2, And he Jhewed me 
a pure river of water of life , clear as criftal, proceeding out of 
the throne of God, and of the Lamb. In the midft oftheftreet of- 
it, and of either fide of the river was there the tree of life, which 
bare twelve manner of fr nits, and yielded her fruit every month', 
and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the Nations, 
3. Itfra heaven and glory where the new Song is Tung, and 
wheretheMufitiansareall redeemed, and where the meeting 
of thefe redeemed ones to fing together, is the Tweeter, that 


4$ Of the Necejfitji of Chap. If. 

they once were ail loft, and that they came ont of tribulation 
and a Land of fighing, I fa. $5. 10, And the ran famed of the 
Lord Jhall return and come to-Zion with fongs and everlafting 
joy upon their heads *, they jhall obtain \oy andgladnef, andforrcw 
and fighing flail fee away. Rev. 5. 9, And they fung a new 
fong, faying^ Thou art worthy to takg the book^ and to of en the 
feats thereof^ for thou wafl Jlain, and haft redeemed us to God 
by thy blood out of every kindred , and tongue , and people , and 
nation. But there fhould not have been any new Song> nor 
redeemed Muficians in the glory and heaven of Law-dilpenfk- 
tion. 4. It is a heaven and glory wherein all the Inhabitants 
wear crowns ; for Chrift hath made them kings unto God, and to 

hi* Father, Rev. 1 . 6. And 2. 1 o, Be thou faithful unto death f 

and I will give thee a crown of life \ but there fhould have been 

no crowns worn in thefirftParadife; nor fhould the hapjpinefs 

thereof have amounted fo highasa crown and a throne.; there 

being no occafion for it, nor any promiie to that effeit. 5. It 

is a heaven and glory, where the Inhabitants are all conquerors, 

each hath a palm in his hand, in fign of his victory, Rev. 7. 9, — 

cloathedwith white robes, and palms in their hands ; this Garland 

fhould not have been in the firft Covenant-glory ; where there 

was no fighting, there could be" no victory , at lead over the 

world, and fin and death. 6. It is a heaven and glory, where 

all the Inhabitants are cloathed with long white robes, and with 

fine linnen clean and white, Rev. 7. 1 3, — What are thefe which 

Are arrayed in white robes, and whence came they I And 19. 8, 

jindto her was granted, that fl)e Jlmdd be arrayed in fine linnen^ 

clean and white : for the linnen is the righteoufnefi of Saints } 

but there fhould have been no fuch robes in the Law-heaven : 

whatfoever fhining-beauty and whitenefs fhould have been on 

Adam's skin, yet there Thould have been there no garments of 

glory, no righteoufnefs fhould have been worn there, but that 

which fhould have been of our own working. 7. It is a heaven 

wherein there is a throne for the Lamb , where the man Chrift 

in our nature is upon the throne, where the greateft beauty of 

all the Kingdom, and the moft highly exalted perfon, is the man 

Chrift^ where the Lord Mediator is the glorious light of all the 

Land, Rev. 3. 7, he that openeth and no man flsutteth+and 

Jhutteth and no man openeth . And 21.22,23, And I faw no tem- 
ple therein j for the Lord God almighty and the lamb, are the 


Chap, II. the Covenant of Redemption. 49 

temple of it. And the City had no need of the Sun, neither of the 
■Moon to jhine in it *, for the glory of God did lighten it) and the 
Lmb is the light thereof And -f. 1 2, Worthy is the lamb that Was 
fain , to receive power , and riches, andwifdom, and ftrength,and 
glory, and honour, and ble fling; there was no ilich glory in the 
rirft Covenantor in the heaven thereof :, which no doubt fhould 
have made it lefs glorious, and fpeaks forth the greater glory of 
this latter Covenant- happineis. 8. It is a heaven that was pur- 
chafed at a dear rate, that was the price of blood \ for which 
Chrift payed a condign price, i Pet. i. 18, 19, For as much at ye 
know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things , but 
With the preciom blood of Chrift as of a lamb without blemifti, and 
without Jpot -, but the Law-heaven and glory? fhould have been 
obtained at an eafier rate*, working,without the price of blood, 
fhould have done that bufinels-, the different price fhews the 
different value, y. It is a heaven wherein is a lovely and nume- 
rous afTembty, a fair myilical body, whereof Chrift is the 
head, and whereof each redeemed Soul is a member. O fo lovely 
a Company with the Captain of their Salvation ! lb glorious a 
body with their glorious head 1 fo beautiful a bride with lb fair 
a husband ! fuch a lovely couple, iiich a body corporate, fuch a 
compleat fociety, when Chrift myftical is perfected, and all the 
members compared together, and joyned unto their glorious 
and blefTed head ! Eph. 4. 1 1, Till we all come in the unity of the 
faith, and of the knowledg of the Son of God, unto a per f eft man^ 
unto the me afar e of the ft at ure of the fulnefs of Chrift. . And 5. 27, 
7 hat he might pre fent it to him] elf a glorious Church , not having 
jpot or wrinkle, or any fuch thing *, but that it fhould be holy and 
without blemifh. Heb. 12. 2$, To the general a ffembly and church 
of the firft born, which are written in heaven, and to Godthejudg 
of all, and to thefpirits of ytft men made per feci * 7 And to Jefus 
the Mediator of the new Covenant. Rev. 19. 7, Let us be glad 
and rejoyce , and give honour to him *, for the marriage of the 
Jiamb is come, and his wife hath made her felf ready. But there 
fhould have been no fuch body-corporate in the Law-heaven, no 
iuch myftical body of Chrift, no marriage of the Lamb, nor any 
melodious re joycing at thatfolemnity. I conclude therefore, that 
the glory,and crown,and heaven of theCovenantofiledemption, 
is b.etter,and v fitrmore glorious, than fhould have been the lot of 
man* by Law-righteoufhefs and works, without ChrhTsSure- 
tifrip. H 7. This 

50 Of the Necejfity oft he Covenant, &c. Chap, II. 

7. This Covenant was necefTary, for having in readinefs a 
Phyfitian, before we fhould be tick *, God forefaw and had de- 
creed man's fall, and his rifing again *, and he well knew that it 
would be a wretched hopeleis condition, for man to provide a 
Phyfitian to himielf, and to have him to feek when his* fickneii 
fhould be defparate *, he therefore by a forefight and providence 
of pure, foveraign, free, tranfeendent Grace, did provide one ; 
and indeed it was neceilary for our good, that it fhould be fo \ 
for had man fallen fick of fin , before this Covenant for 
fending a healer to him, he had died ere the core could 

8. This Covenant was necefTary for cutting off all matter 
and occafion of felf-gloriation from man in his own Redemptioa 
and Salvation ', for if the bufinefs of our Redemption and Sal' 
vation was tranfa&ed , concluded , done and ended betwixt 
Jehovah 2sA Chrift, without our knowledg or confent, before 
we had a Being *, what have we to boaft of ? If the agreement 
ahout the price to be payed and accepted, tarried not for man ; 
wherein can we glory that we have contributed to our own 
happinefs ? zTim.i. 9, Who hathfavedus, and called hs with 
an holy calling , not according to owe works , but according tQ 
his own purpofe and grace which was given us in Chrifl Jefm 
before tfre world began .Eph.2. io^For we are his workpanfoip crea- 
ted in Chrifi Jefus unto good work*-, which God hath before ordain- 
fdjhat we fiould walkjn them. 1 Joh. 4. 10, 1 9, Herein is love? 
not that we loved God ; but that he loved us, and fern his So# to k* 
the propitiation for qht fins.—*W6 love him , bscatife be firfi 

' ' . . " ' ! ■ "*» ■ 


Chap. III. \ 5* 


Of the Nature , Properties, and Parties of the 
Covenant of Redemption. 

THE general Nature of this Covenant is common to it, 
with ail other Covenants \ whatibever different peculi- 
arity they have, this is effential and common to all Covenants , 
they are Agreements : and this is an eternal tranfa&ioh and 
agreement betwixt Jehovah and the Mediator Chrifl, about the 
work of our Redemption. 

The peculiar propriety of its nature, will appear by enquiring 
a^Kttle into* I. The various eternal a&s of the will of God that 
concurred to make up this agreement. 2. The diftinttion and 
order of thefe eternal a£s of his will, and the right manner of 
our conceiving of them. 

i. Suppofing, as we have faid before, that God purpofedm 
hifflfelf not to lave man without a fatisfa&ion to his Jufticet 
Thefe eternal ails of the will of God, or rather the things which 
we conceive under thefe various acts, and their denominations 
among menffor we need not mul tiply a&s in this matter , but fp$ 
the helping our own underftanding) did concur and meet toge- 
ther in this agreement. I. The defignation of a Perfon to do 
this work ; there muft needs have been a Perfon fet apart and 
defigned from eternity unto the doing of the work of Redemp- 
tion, and this Perfon was the Son only •, not the Father, nor the 
Spirit, iJVr. 1.20, Who verily was fore-ordained before the 
foundation of the world \ but was manifefled in thefe laft times for 
you. 2. The preparation and fitting of the Perfon fct ap?rtto 
take our Law-place, and room, that Juftice might finite him 
in our ftead •, which alio was by an eternal a£t of the will of God 
decreed, that the Son of God fhould be Immamel y Cod with us, 
or God made manifeft in theflefh,\fa . 7. 14. 1 Tim .3.16, and unto 
this incarnation o* the Son of God, his own words have refe- 
rence, as unto the grand qualification whereby he was defti- 
nated before-hand, that he might be in a capacity to do this, 
Vior^Jtifeb. 10. $ y A body baft thou prepared me* 3. The calling 

H 2 of 

] 1 Of the Nature of Chap. II L 

of the Perfon defigncd : calling is an a£l different from defolia- 
tion, 'tis fomething further. Chriftwas by : n eternal act of 
God's will called to this work, and that long before he came 
into the world, Pfal. 89. 1 9, Then thou f pake fl in vifion to thy 
holy One, and f aid ft, I have laid help upon one that is mighty, 
I have exalted one chofen out of the people . And I fa . 42. 6, / the 
Lord have called thee in righteoufnef, and will hold thine hand, 
And will keep thee, and give thee for a Covenant of the people, for 
a light of the Gentiles, Heb- 5. 5, So alfo Chrifi glorified not him- 
(elf to be made an highpriefi ; but he thatfaid unto him, Thou art 
my Son, to day have J begotten thee. 4. The inverting of the 
Perfon defigned, with offices, powers and authorities, for the 
doing of this work, fuch as his Mediatory-office, and the powers 
and authorities thereunto belonging, which was notfufpended 
until the time of his actual diichargeof the offices of King,Priert, 
and Prophet *, but by an eternal acl of the will of God, he was 
fet up and verted with thefe offices and powers from everlafting, 
and had the glory of thedefrgned, called , inverted Mediator; 
as he plainly infinuates, Prov. 8. 23, I was fet up from evcrlafi- 
ing, faith Wifdom ; feveral Expoiltors render it, / was called, or 
I was annointed. Joh. 1 7. 5, And now, O Father , ghorifie thou 
me with thine own felf, with the glory which I had with thee be- 
fore the world was. 5,. The million of the Son, Chriftdefigned, 
fitted, called,, inverted for this work, was alio by an eternal 
actiathe counfel of God,fent to do this work j he had a folema 
eternal, authoritative miflion, a command to go, and was bid- 
den go *, he had the will of God by an eternal act or commiffion 
given out to him concerning all this work, long before he was 
actually made under the Law ; to which he hath refpeel:, when 
he faith, Lo, J come to do thy will, God, Heb-io. 7. even that 
will of God that was in the book of his eternal decrees, 
Joh. 6. 39 , And this is the Fathers will which hath fent me. 
And 10. 18, This Commandment ha& I received of my Father : 
But in all thefe, we do notfo much multiply the diitinclion of 
acts, as we take notice of the diftin&ion and difference of 
Phrafe uted by the Holy Ghoft, fpeaking of this myrterie in the 
Scriptures. Upon the other part, there concurred unto this 
agreement , an eternal perianal confent and compliance upon 
Christ's part, unto all thefe eternal acts of the will of God } 
for Chrifi God) equal with the Father, does not begin to con- 


Chap. IN* the Covenant cf Redemption. 53 

fent and agree unto any thing in time , nor can the eternal Son 
©f God will any thing in time, which he did not will and confent 
unto from eternity. But Chrift wasprefent with the Father, 
and did from eternity confent and agree to thefe eternal acls. 
1. To the defignation of himlelf to be the perlbn that fhould 
fatibfie the Juftice of God , he heartily acquiefced and offered 
himfeif , he faid, Lo, I come to do thy will, Heb. 10. 5, 7. He 
poured out his SohI unto death. Ha. 5$. 12. 2. He contented 
unto the putting himfeif in that low capacity that the working 
of this work required , Heb. 2. 7^ Thou madeft him a little 
lower than the Angels ; to leave the throne of glory , and come 
down to his footftool, there to be in difgrace ; the Lord of the 
Law, to be made under the Law-, Gal. 4. 4. the holy one that 
knew no fin, to be madeintheHkenefi of ftnful flejij, Rom. 8. 5. 
Phil. 2. 6, 7, 8, Who being in the form of God, thought it not 
robbery to be equal with God. And being found in fajhion as, 
a. man, he humbled himfeif, and became obedient unto death, even 
the death of the Crofs. 3. He consented and agreed unto the 
eternal aft of his calling to this work ^ no iboner was it his Fa- 
thers will thai he fhould travel in the bufinefs, but it was his 
aJfo.. He was as a ready Servant, whole ear was bored in token * 
of his love and willingnels to' ferve his Matter, when he might 
have been free, Pfal. 40. 6, Mine ears haft thou opened or bored. 
Ifa. 50. 5,6, The Lord hath opened mine ears , and I was not re- 
bellious, neither turned away back: 4- He contented to the ta- 
king on thefe offices and trufts that the work of our Redemp- - 
tion required *,there was no force nor conftraint upon, no necefTi- 
ty of nature that he fhould ftep in betwixt the difagreeing par- 
ties, that he fhould ftep into the fire that we had kindled, that . 
he .fhould make himfeif a Sacrifice for our fins , that he fhould 
receive a difpenfatory Kingdom ; but frankly and freely he con- 
tented to do all thefe th^gs, Job. \o. 18, No man takcth my 
life from me *, but I lay it down of my felf. Joh. 1 7. 2, As thou j 
haft given him power over all fiefl), that he fhould give eternal life t9 
as many as thou haft given him. Pr ov *. 8. . 2 $, / < was fet up from ■ 
everlafting,from the beginning, or ever the earth was. 5. He con- • 
tented unto his mfTion, his Father's fending of him , and was - 
well content to go that errand *, yea, to hearty was his content, 
that he took delight in it, Pfal. 40. 8, ./ dtlight to do thy will, . 
Q my God; yea r thy Law is- within my heart. Joh. 4. $4 ; J*fas*\ 


54 ^ Of the Nature of Chap. HI} 

^u>£ unto them , my meat is to do the mil of him that fent me, and 
tofimjh his wo>\. And to all thefe things he gives a perfonal con- 
fent from eternity, and with fo much delight, that he folaced 
himfelf, and took pleaiiire in the future accomplishment of thefc 
eternal afts of the will of God concerning the Sons of men, 
Prov. 8. 23, 50, 3 1 , / was fet up from everlafting, from the 
beginning, or ever the earth was. Then I was by him as one brought 
up with him y and J was daily his de tight , rejoycing always before 
him: Rejoycing in the habitable part of his earthy and my delights 
were with the Sons of men. This is the nature of this eternal 
tranfaclion, which will appear alfo more clearly afterward from 
the tenor of this Covenant, with the reciprocal engagements of 
the parties. 

2. Concerning the diftinclioft and order of thefe eternal 
acts of the will of God , and for preventing grots and unbe- 
coming thoughts of them *, I give thefe cautions. 1. All the 
a&sof God's will, his decrees, and eternal tranfa&ion with 
Chrifl:, are in regard of God, one moft firnple and pure a& of 
his will '■) but in legard of our conceptions of them , who cart- 
not take up many particular a&s together in one^ they are di- 
ftinguifhed and exprefled fo in the word, that we may take 
them up diftineT:!y : The Lord in his way of exprefling thefc 
great myfteries of the counfel of his will, accommodating him- 
felf to our way of conceiving things : we are therefore accord- 
ingly to take heed how we conceive of the diftinttion of a&s 
in the eternal counfel of God's will. 2. When we fpeak of the 
order of thefe eternal ael:s, we mean only the order of Nature, 
and which of thefe a&s are to be conceived by us antecedaneous 
to the reft in that refpecV, for there is no order of time, no 
priority nor pofteriority of that kind among the decrees of 
God, and ads of his will, which are all eternal. 

$. We are to conceive of this order (which only agreeth to 
the decrees of God) according to thefe rules: 

1. According to the futurition of things*, that is, thefe 
decrees and eternal a&s of the will of God about things ad extra 
without, which do luppofe the futurition of things about which 
thefe decrees are pad; thefe decrees (I fay) do necefTarily fiip- 
pole lbme other a&s of the will of God antecedent to thefe in 
order of nature , whence the things fuppofed in that decree^ 
had their futurition *, for 'tis to me above queftion,, thai things 


Chap. III. the Covenant of Redemption* $ $ 

which did not exift from eternity,had their/uturition no where, 
but from the decrees of God's will, which made them future 
things before they exifted ; neither is it poflible that God could 
foreiee any thing as future, before his decree, and ibme act of 
his will gave it futurition *, whatioever the device of Scientia 
media, tell us to the contrary. And according to this rule, we 
fay , the decree of God's entering in Covenant with man , 
whether by Law or Grace , does iuppofe ibme antecedaneous 
aft of the will of God ( in order of nature ) concerning 
the Creation of man , fome decree whence man had a fu- 
turition, and exifted in the prefcience of God as a future 

2. We may conceive of the order of the decrees of God, 
according as he orders things in execution, by that rule fo much 
madeufe of by the Learned Dr. Twifi } Qnodpriw eftininten-'Xmft. VhL 
tione yofterm eft in executione & contra : that which is rlrft in the£ r * f/ * & P* 
intention of God, is laft in the execution } and that which is laft r# * DiVin ' 
in the intent, is firft in the execution. Underftand this rule, a* 
that Author doth , without lubordination of the co-ordinate 
means whereby God intended to make himfelf glorious in the 
way of mercy and juftice ; and according to this rule, we fay 
that Gcd firft decreed the glorifying of his mercy and juftice 
upon all mankind , before he decreed any thing concerning his 
creation,. or his fall: for the creation and fall of man, were 
firft in execution , before juftice and mercy was glorified 
in him. 

}. Another rule (which-alfoisacpalificationoftheformer) 
is, that thefe eternal acls of the will of God which rejpicinnt 
finem, relate to the end, are in this • ind of order before •, thefe 
a&s of his will which rejpicimt media relate unto the means 
which lead unto thefe ends, Et iilud cfuodbabet rati cm em finis eft 
prim , tjHod vero hafoe ifrationem medU' left pofterws *, And that 
which hath the place of tbc enct, istheifirft ? and that which 
hath the place of the mean, is laft in order among the eternal 
afts of God's will. And this rule holds not only with refpeft 
to the fupream and chief end i, to wit, God's glorifying of him- 
felf h the way of manifefting his mercy and ju^ice , which is 
firi 1 in order among the eternal 'afts'of the will of God rela- 
ting to man*, and all f he other arts of his will , concerning the 
creation, fall, fending of Chrift, &c± (which are co ordinate 


5^ Of the Katun of Chap. III. 

meanstn refpect of this fupream end, to which they are fubor- 
omate): Thefe, I lay, are porter ior in this kind of order, amono 
the decrees of God, and eternal acts- of his will j but this rule 
holds alio hi refpect of that iubordination that may be con- 
ceived among thefe acts of the will of God, about the creation 
and kill of man, and the fending of Chrift (which are co-ordi- 
nate means in re.ipccl.of thi iupream end before-mentioned) - 7 
yetbecaufe one of thefe may have, the place of an end, with 
refpect to another of thefc fame co-ordinate means, which may 
be alfo a means for carrying on fome next immediate end, as well 
as the Iupream ultimate end *, as the .Salvation of the elect is a 
mean fublervient to the great end of glorifying Grace , and yet 
maybe, and is alfo, an end of God's lending Chrift*, [b that 
the lending of Chrift, bbothameanlubordinate to the glory 
of Grace, and the Salvation of God's elect people. Now, I 
. fay, which way foever we look .upon thi acts of God's wili 
about the glorifying of his juftice and mercy on Mankind , we 
are dill to conceive of the eternal acts of his will , that reipect 
ihe ends which he has propofed to himfelf , .both Iupream and 
fubordinate, as firft in order ", and thefe acts of his will that 
relate to the means, as laft : for God firft purpofed the end, then 
* the means that lead to it. 

By this time it may appear that there is no great caufe to con- 
tend for the order and diftinction of thefe eternal acts of the 
will of God-, that concurred to the making up this eternal tran- 
fact ion betwixt Jehovah and the Mediator, fince they are all 
co-ordinareactsof the counfcislJiiiMvill, and means for the 
carrying on the glory of his marry! -and juftice in laving man. 
This much ismanifeft, i. That the Covenant of Redemption 
made with Chrift, doth iuppofe other eternal acts of the will of 
God, about the laving of man uv t^ie w^ of fatisfaction to. 
juftice, &c. whereof .Ivhavefpoken before, Cha.p+2. 2. That i 
rhe designation, calling, and eternal tfiiflion of the Son of Grid 
todo this work, muftin order be before the; perfon defigned 
and called, gave his actual confent, and clofed the bargain from 
eternity. And if any will contend about the. order of theie 
eternal acts before-mentioned , I do not fee why we may not 
fitly conceive of them in this order, defignipg,. fallings fir'ting y \ 
tnvefting, fending of Chrift j thefe were 't,he eternal atitspfthe 
will ofGod,. which were entertained- by the Son of God. 

mth confent and delegation. The 

% m - 

Chap. III. thcCovcttant of ktdewption* 57 

The Properties of the Covenant of Redemption, are, SeeMr.iwfcp/.- 
Freedom, Graciouihefs , Eternity, Equality, Order, ^^t ' 2 
Stability. \ c . ia .' V 

1. The Covenant that was tranfafted betwixt Jehovah and. 
Chrift, was a moft free Covenant : it was an aft of meer liberty 
and foveraign freedom. There was eminent freedom upon both 
(ides, in both the parties Covenanting. 1. Upon the Father's 
fide fabftrafting from his own decrees and purpofes) , it was 
free to Jehovah to have followed a drift Law-courfe according 
to the rigour of the Covenant of works ; or to follow a Goip.el- 
way of mitigation and condefcenfion as pleaied. him •, it was 
free to him to fend, or not to fend a Saviour to f uffex for man ? 
to take a fatisfaftion by a Surety, or only in the Soul that finned, 
as pleaied him. 2. Upon Chrift's part, it was as free to him to 
be a luffering Redeemer and Surety, or nor,, as pleafed him y 
to undertake the work of our Redemption, or not to under- 
take it i to humble himfelf unto this feryice, or not *, to go this 
errand, or not, as pleafed him. Hence 'tis oblerved,that it was Jo, Cocc. Sum- 
o therwife with the fccond- jidam, than with the firft; foritwas™ DUf - jj*;' 
not free to Jdamto withdraw from, or to deny iubjeftion to^/ c 5 ' Sc "*' 
the firft Covenant '•> neither could he withdraw; himfelf from the 
Law of Nature, nor flight the promife thereof, without the 
violation of that Law : "but the Son of God was free, and tyed 
by no Law antecedent to his own confent., . 

This Property of the Covenant of Redemption, is eftablifhed 
and confirmed, i.Fromthefe Scriptures which attribute this 
traniaftionto the free pleafure and foveraign freedom 7 of bath 
parties, the father and Chrift :, therefore the Scripture fpeak- 
ing of God's eternal traniaft ions with Chrift about our Re- 
demption, doth fo frequently call them, deeds and afts of will, 
and of the Father's pleafure •, and that the whole procedure 
was according to his good flea/are./, and the pleafure of his mll y 
Eph. I. 5. 9. And Col. 1. 19, It pleafed the Father that in him 
fjonld all fdnefs dwell. 2 Tim. 1.9, according to his pnrpofe 
and grace, &o And upon the other part, Chrift's conceflions 
in this matter, are attributed to his meer will and liberty, 
ThiL 2. 6,-7, 8j Who being in the form of God, having the very 
fame divine effence which the father hath, thought it not robbery 
to be equal with God •, counted it no uiurpation to carry himfelf 
as God, equal with the Father \ made himfelf of no refutation \ 

1 t** frcd y 

58 Of the freedom of Chap. I H 

freely, and of his own accord, be humble dhmfelfc not ufing 
nor manifefting the glory that wascompetent to him, anJtook^ 
nyon him the form of a fervant\ he took upon him a real fer- 
vice in the uiTumption of the humane nature, for the ends he 
ailumed i^andwasmadeinthelikenefofmen ; and inthisfervice 
he did behave himielf, as other men , and futably to that em- 
ployment, and not as equal with God, which was his natural 
condition; and while he was in that habit and condition, he 
obeyed urn o the death of the Crop. All this he afted with emi- 
nentfreedom En time \ and confented to with like freedom from 
eternity, where he freely took upon him whatfoever he a&ecl 
within time. 

2. If it was free with God, whether he would give to man a 
Being, and whether he would conclude this in the counfel of 
his will from eternity", or not, as pleafed him - fure it was 
alfo free to God whether he would fend a Saviour to him 
when he fhould be loll , or not , as pleafed him : Now 
'tis manifeit. that it was free with God, whether he would ib 
much as give toman a being->for he was under no neceflity to cre- 
ate the World, or Men, or Angels, all which are for his plea- 
sure*, and therefore are whatfoever they are, by his pleafure, 
Rev. 4.. ii, Thou haft created all things , and for thy pleafure 
they are and were created. 

I. If it was free to God from eternity , whether he would 
chufe objects in Mankind , to magnifie his Grace and Mercy 
upon, when he had purpoied to create Angels and men •, or whe- 
ther he would let them all perifh , and not take^ny of their 
natures upon him ; then the Covenant of Suretnhip hath this 
property of freedom*, but it is manifeft that it was free with 
God from eternity, whether he would recover any of the race 
of fallen man, or not, as pleafed him -, fincehe wasnomoretyed 
to Men than to Angels, to whom he fent no Saviour when they 
fell, nor hath defigned any of the fallen Angels unto Redemp- 
tion, 2 Pet. i. 4, For if God fpared not the Angels that firmed? 
but cafl them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of dark^ 
nefs, to be referved unto the day of Judgment. Heb. 2. 16, For 
verily he took^ not on him the nature of Angels rj but he took^ upon 
him the feed of Abraham. It remains therefore, that the Cove- 
nant of Redemption is an ac"l of foveraighty and freedom upon 
God's part who defigned a Redeemer, and upon Chrift's part 
who confented unto the defignation. 4- This 

Chap. III. the Covenant of Redemption. 59 

.4. This Property of the Covenant of Redemption is further 
confirmed, by the negation and removal of all things contrary 
to ibveraign freedom. 1. There was nothing from himielf 
(abftrafting from his own decrees, and love-defigns) that could 
trench upon the freedom of this eternal act of his will - for there 
was no neceflity of nature upon Jehovah , nor upon the Son of 
God, that did determine God to enter in this Covenant (as is 
already cleared). 2. There was nothing from without that 
could trench upon the freedom of this eternal a£t ; as nothing 
could neceflarily determine , io neither compel nor conftrain 
Godtolayfuchalerviceuponhis own Son Chrift, nor himta 
undertake it *, For 1 . This transaction having been from eterni- 
ty, it was a concluded bargain before the creatures had a being* 
Pro v. 8. 23, / was fet tip from everlaftingy from the beginning, 
or ever the earth was. 2. Put cafe they had then had a being -, 
what could the bejng of Men and Angels, and all the works of 
his hands have trenched upon the ibveraign freedom of their 

Makers will and actings ? for who hath reffted his will? hath 

not the potter power over the clay i Rom. 9. 19, 21. 3, The Fa- 
ther and the Son were not only free from all natural neceflity 
and outward compulfion *, but alio from all hire, allurement or 
motive from any thing without their own will, there was no- 
thing in man, no not foreieen, that could allure or move*, far 
lef s hire the Father to give Chrift, to engage him in this work, . 
nor. Chrift t® engage his name in our bond 5 fince he well forefaw 
what it would coft him : It's true he values his feed as a fatisfy- 
ing return of his travel, I fa. 5 3. 1 1* He jhall fee of the travel 
of his fouly and jhall be fatisfied *, but befide that, there is no 
proportion betwixt his work, and this poor wages : was man a 
price for the Lord of glory to work for ? or was he a reward for 
him to wreftle for ? could he be hired for io low a wager , if 
the foveraign freedom of his own will had not a£led him? 
Confider, 1 lay, who gave this price to- the Lord -.did man 
give himfelf to the Lord, or did the Lord give his elect people 
to Chrift from eternity, and afterward he is the firft giver alio ? 
Now there can be no hire given by man to the Lord, unlefs he 
were the fir ft giver, Row. 11. 35, For who hath fir fl given to-him^ 
and it jhall be recommenced to him again I 1 Chr. 29. 14 , Of 
thine own have we given thee. Jer. 30. 21, And I will caufe 
him to draw neer , and he jhall approach unto me • for who is 

' I 2 he 

60 Of the Gracioufnefs of Chap. IH. 

he that ewawth his heart to approach unto me , faith the 
XM» .'!'? : 

2. Another Property of this Covenant is Gracioufnefs it Ts 
not only the Covenant tranfatted withus,the Gofpel-Covemnt, 
that is, pure Grace:, but this alio that was tranlatted betwixt 
Jehovah and Chrift, even while it was vet in hispurpofe, and as 
it was the eternal acl of his will, is frequently called x*?'' 
IvfcKHty Grace and his good pleaftire, or gracious plea/are, Eph. I . 
5, 6, 9. 2 Tim. 1.9',- his purpoje and grace. 1 Now Gntci6u J 
is attributed to the Covenant of Redemption, in a far other 
fenfe than 'tis attributed to the Covenant of reconciliation : 
For, 1. Gracioufnefs is attributed to the Covenant of Redemp- 
tion, in regard of both Parties tranf acting 5 it was pure Grace 
that determined both the Parties, and engaged them both *, the 
Father to tend, and the Son to come-, andthis Grace was equally 
in both the Parties, and did fhine equally and by way of effi- 
ciency in them both, Zech. 6. 11, The court fel of peace was be- 
tween them both. But gracioufnefs is attributed to the Cove- 
rant of reconciliation V becaufe of the fhining glory and acti- 
vity of the Grace of God through Jeius Chrift, that is therein 
manifefted \ which Grace is in us fubje&ively •, and though the 
acts thereof be ours in a vital formal manner * 7 yet it is from 
God byway of efficiency , and it is his Grace, not ours, from 
which the Covenant hath its name of Grace, Tit. 2. it. i Tim.i. 
14. Eph. 1. 6, 7. And 2. 5, 7,8. 1 Cor. 15. 10. 2. Graciouf- 
nefs is attributed to the Covenant of Reconciliation *, not only 
in regard of God's making fucha Covenant with us ', but alio 
in regard of the tenor of that Covenant, and whole difpenfa- 
tion '-, the promifes , conditions and reward therein is all pure 
Grace ^ as the fame is oppofed unto, and contra-diftinguilhed 
fromwerks, which fignifie nothing in that Covenant, as it is a 
Court of Righteoufnefsand Life, Eph. 2. 8, 9, For by grace are 
ye faved through faith-, and that not of 'your fehes y it is the gift 
of God. Notofwork£-> left any man Jhonld boafl. But of this 
Covenant of Redemption, Gracioufnefs is a property there- 
of; mainly, becaufe of the reafons following *, but not becaufe 
the whole tenor thereof, as well the conditions as promifes were 
pure Grace confidered as fuch, and coDfra-diftinguifhed from 
works: For though pure Grace made this Covenant ofRedemp- 
tion j yet the condition thereof upon both fides were works. 

1. Chrift 

"Chap. 1IT. the Covenant 6f Redemption. 6t 

i . Chrift is a doer and fulfiiler of the Covenant of works moft 
exactly in all points, both the command, and the curie and pe- 
nalty of the Covenant, is fatisfied by him ; this is works , and 
this was the condition required upon his part, Heb. 10. y,Then 
faidl, to I come, in the volume of the booh^it is written of me , U 
do thy will, O God. Gal. $. 13, Chrifl hath redeemed us from 
the curfe of the Law, being made a curfe for us. 

2. Chrift as a doer and obedient fulfiller of the Law, hath a 
reward in Juftice by the promiie of this Covenant : For (' I 
humbly conceive) he had his reward of debt, and merit, ha- 
ving payed a condign price to the Juftice of God \ therefore his 
reward is due to him, by commutative Juftice, Phil. 2. 7, 8, But 
made himfelf of no refutation, and took^ upon him the form of a 
fcrvant, and was made in the hkenefl of 7 man ', And being found 
in faflnon as a man , he humbled himfelf ', and became obedient 
unto death, even the death of theCrofs ; wherefore Godalfo hath 
highly exalted him, and is craved by him , Joh. 1 7. 4, 5, / have 
glorified thee on earth, I have finijhed the work^which thou gave ft 
me to do. And now, O Father , glorifie thou me with thine 
own felf 

But Gracioufnefs is attributed to the Covenant of Redemp- 
tion. 1. Efficiently, or in regard of the efficient caufe there- 
of; the ipring whence it came was Grace , pure Grace, and 
nothing elie made it and gave it a being } it was not only an att 
of will, pleafure, freedom and foveraignty *, but an a& of 
gracious will, and the good pleafure of his will, that made it, 
Eph. 1. 5. Col. 1. 19. 

2. Gracioufnefs is attributed to this Covenant ultimately, 
in regard that the ultimate end and fcope thereof is the mani : 
fefting the glory of the richnefs and freeneis of Grace •, tis a 
defign of Grace that is driven and carried on in the Covenant 
of Redemption , Eph. 1.6, To the praife of the glory of his 
grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved. 2 Tim . 1 .9, 
Who hath faved tts , and called us with an holy calling ; not 
according to our works , but according to his own purpofe 
"and grace which was given us in Chrifl Jefus before the 
world began. 

^Gracioufnefs is attributed to the Covenant of Redemp- 
tion, becaufe Grace was in it fundamentally *, the whole contri- 
vance and diipenfation of Grace is bottomed upon this eternal 


62 Of the Gracioufnefs of Chap. III. 

tranfaction, and turns upon the hinge of this Compaft betwixt 
Jehovah and Chrift - t therefore all the mercies and faithfulriefs 
of the Lord that we are made to ring of within time, are laid 
upon this foundation, Tfal 8p. i, 2, u I mil frig of themir- 
ctes of the Lord for ever , with my month will I make known 
thy faithf nine fi to all generations. For I have J "aid , mercy 
ft) all be built np for ever , thy fait hf nine fs Jhalt thou efta- 
blijh in the very heavens. I have made a Covenant with 
my chofen. 

4. Gracioufnefs may be attributed to the Covenant of Re- 
demption, becaufe Grace was here originally ; for here the flrfV 
draughts of pure, foveraign, free Grace, and the unfearchable 
riches thereof, were drawn and portrayed ; here is fountain- 
Grace, and from thence came the ftreams ; here were the be- 
ginnings of that noble defign of Grace laid , and from hence . 
did th^y come forth , Col. 1. 26,27, Even the myfterie which 
had been hid from ages and from generations * 7 but now is made 
manifefl to his Saints. To whom God woald make known what is 
the riches of the glory of this myfterie among the Gentiles, which is 
Chrift in y oh , the hope of glory. 

5. Gracioufnefs is attributed to the Covenant of Redemp- 
tion, becaufe Grace is here comprehenfvely *, even all that God 
hath been driving and acting upon the fpirits of his people, by 
the Gofpel-covenant and Ordinances thereof, and the work of 
his Spirit fince the beginning of the world *, and all that he fh&ll 
do, until the day that the ranfomed and redeemed company be 
perfected } even the whole plot of Grace,, is all comprifed in 
this eternal tranfaelion with Chrift, and to it are we led as the 
comprehenfion of all Covenant-grace and mercy, J fa. 55. ^, 
Incline your ear and come unto me, hear, and your foul [hall live , 
andlwillmfMe with yon an everlafting Covenant, even the fare 
mercies of David. 

6. Gracioufnefs is attributed to this Covenant,becaufe Grace 
is here eminently z, and indeed if the comparifon might be fitly 
made, pure Gofpel free Grace is more in the Covenant of Re- 
demption, than in the Covenant of Reconciliation -, for 'tis in* 
the Covenant of Redemption principally , as water is in the 
fountain ', and in the Covenant of Reconciliation by participa- 
tion, andconfequentially \ becaufe God was in Chrift, reconci- 
ling the world to himfelf by that Covenant j therefore he is now 


Chap. TIL 'the Covenant 'of ^Redemption* 63 

in Chrifl: reconciling the world to himfelf by this Covenant of 
reconciliation, 2 Cor, 5. 19,20,21 , God was in Chrifl recon- 
ciling the world unto himfelf, not imputing their trefpaffes unto 
them , and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. 
Now then we arc ambajfadors for Chrifl , as though God did 
befeech you by us, weprayyouinChrifls flead, be ye reconciled 
unro God ', for he hath made him to be fin for us, who knew no fin, 
that we might be the right eoufnef of God in him. 

7. Gracioufnefs is attributed to the Covenant of Redemp- 
tion, b:caufe Grace was therein exemplarily ; for hereby God 
did aft Grace in Chrift, and made him a Samplar, and the firft 
copy of free Grace to all his brethren, feed and heirs, that they 
might (hare with him, upon whom the firft a&s of eternal Co- 
venant-love, and Grace fell, and that God might fhew forth in 
him a pattern of Covenant-dealings, and out-letting of Cove- 
nant-favour and promifes, Pfal. 89.26, He (hall cry unto me, 
*hoh art my father y my God, andtherock^ofmy falvation. With 
Heb. 1.5, For unto which of the Angels f aid he at any time, thou 
art my Son, this day have I begotten thee f. And again, I will be 
to him a Father , and he jhall be to me a Son. Gal. 4. 6, And 
becaufe ye are Sons , God hath fent forth the fpirit of his Son 
into your hearts , crying^ Abba, father. Col. 1. 18, And he is 
the bead of the body, the Church, who is the beginning, the flr ft -born 
from the dead, that in all things he might have the preheminence. 
Rom k 8. 17, And if children , then heirs, heirs of God , and 
fint-heirs with Chrifl, if fo be that we fuffer with him, that we 
may be alfo glorified together. 

g. Another Property of the Covenant of Redemption, is 
Eternity : For, 1 . Both the Parties are eternal, the eternal God 
who is from c-verlafling to cvcrla fling, Deut. 3 3. 27. and the 
eternal Son of God, whofe eternal jwn^r and Godhead, Rom. i . 
20 , is equal with God his Father. Phil. 2. 6, And whofliall declare 
his generation ? Ifa. 53.8. Joh. 1. 1,2, In the beginning the 
word was, and the word was with God, and the word was God, the 
fame was in the beginning with God. Rev. 1.8, I am Alpha and 
Omega, the beginning and the end, faith the Lord • which is, which 
was, and which is to come. 

2. The union o£ the two natures in the Perfbn of the Re- 
deemer, which was tranfa&edin this Covenant, is an eternal 
Union V I mean, the humane nature, which was from eternity 


€\ Of the Eternity of Chap. Ilf. 

deftgned unto -a fubftantial union with God*, being once aftumed, 
Hands in that fubftantial union for ever ', ib that it is impoflible 
that the perfonal union which was transacted in the Covenant of 
Redemption, can be diffolved unto all eternity: for 'tis unque- 
stionable that Chrift fhall ftand glorified in our nature in heaven 
for ever •„ for even there is a throne for the man Chrift , for the 
Lamb flain, for evev^Rev. 22. 3, But the throne of God, and of the 
lamb, flail be in it, Aft- 17. 31. 

3. The New Covenant-relations which were eftablifhed be- 
twixt Jehovah and Chrift, by this Covenant of Redemption, are 
eternal relations, which fhall never .ceafe, Heb. 1. 5, For unto 
which of the Angels f aid he at any time , Thou art my Son , th. s 
ds.\. hav: I begotten thee ? And again ', / will be to him a Father, 
a?:d he flail be to me a Son. This Covenant-relation (I fayj 
whereby God is the God and Father of our Lord Jeius Chrift, 
and wherebv he hatha new Sonfhip , iPet. 1. 3, Bleffedbe the 
Cod an dF other ef our Lordjefus Chrift : Even this, fhall ftand 
eternally; therefore Chrift f peaking of the promiied glorious 
ftateof his people in heaven,dotlifour times own that Covenant- 
relation to his Father, even with refpeel: to his and their being 
together in his Kingdom, Rev. 3. 12, Him that over cometh^will 
1 make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he flail go no more 
out : and 1 will write Hpon him the name of my God, and the name 
of the city of my God, which is new Jerufalem, which comet h down 
cut of heaven from my God ; and I will write upon h'un my new 
name. And if our Covenant-relation to God which did ipring 
out of his, fhall ftand, and not ceafe in our glorified ftate in 
heaven, much-more his, Rev. 5. 10, Arldhaftmade us unto our 
GodKings and,? Hefts, and we flail reign on the earth .There the re- 
deemed Muficians, that have the new Song in their mouths,own 
their Covenant-relation to God, and the Covenant-compella- 
tion, cur God., is a note in their new Song. 

4. The .offices, which Chrift did take on by this Covenant, are 
eternal offices, fuch as fhall never ceafe, and whereof he fhall 
never be.divefted *, that his Mediatory-office, his Kingdom and 
Priefthbod, are parjtakers of the eternity of this Covenant, is 
plain Scripture, Ln\. 1. 33, And he flail reign over the koufe of 
Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there .flail be no end. 
Heb. 1.. 8, But unto the Son, he faith, thy throne, O God, is for 
ever and ever, afcepter of righteoufneft is t'he fcepterofthy ki*g- 


Chap. III. the Covenant of Redemption. °5 

d$m. And j. 6, Thou art a prieft for ever , after the order of 
Melcbifedec. And 7. 25, Wherefore he is able alfo to fave them 
to the utter wo ft that come unto God by him, feeing he ever Uveth to 
make imercejfton for them. The only queftion is, whether or 
not this Covenant (hall then ceafe , and Chrift's Mediatory- 
office fhall then ceafe, when Chrift (hall render up the Kingdom 
to the Father? \Cor. 15.24^020. 

Concerning the full anfwer whereof , I refer the Reader toRutherf. Tmt. 
what is written by Mr. Rutherford upon that queftion : For my °f thecovenant, 
part it fatisfies me, that I fee veftiges in the Scripture. 1. That P* 2 * c * x 2t 
after the laft Judgment, there (hall be noufe of ilich exercife p * 
and afts of ChrirVs Mediatory offices , as King, Prieft , and 
Prophet to his Church as we are now under in this laft Oeco- 
nomy and difpenfation of the Covenant of Grace *,becaufe there 
(hall be no fm then, nor any enemy unfubdued •, Chrift having 
perfected his people, and prefented them without ipottoGod, 
Eph. 5. 27. and having fubdued all his foes, and broken allop- 
pofition to his Kingdom , and the elecl people being brought 
out of danger , fo as they need no Temple or Ordinances, 
Rev. 2 1 . 4. 22. 1 Cor. 15.25. 2. That Chrift Mediator (hall 
unqueftionably ceafe from, and leave off fuch atts and exercife 
of his Mediatory-office, as his body the Church hath no need 
of-, he (hall be no Mediator of Reconciliation then, becaufc 
there (hall be no fin then , no Mediator to apply his death , or 
to interceed for finners, for there (hall be no finners •, he fhall 
be no Mediatory King then to beat down his foes and oppofers 
of his offices *, for there (hall be none, when he fhall have put 
down all rule j and all authority and power, 1 Cor. 15. 24. that 
is , all Magiftracy and Government that now is , either in 
Church or State . j. It is manifeft that after the laft Judgment, 
there (hall be a change of the Oeconomick government, and 
thatChrift (hall render the ^^owOeconomick or di(penfatory, 
to his father : but after what manner this change of government 
(hall be, I do not fo clearly underftand : whether it (hall be only 
by Chrift'« rendering an account to his Father of his deputed * 
and delegated charge, having now (aved all the ele£t, and lub 
dued all the rebels; or if it (hall be by laying 4own his-Com 
million, no more to rule in th« former way of government ? or 
whether the government (hail be fo changed, as the Father, Son, 
and Spirit,fhall immediately govern tkc glorious Church, which 

K feems 

66' Of tie Eternity of Chap. ItL 

leems to be infinuated , Rev. 21. 22, 23, And I faw notemple 
therein ', for the Lord God almighty arid the Lamb are the temple of 
it. Andthe City had m need of the Sun, neither of the Moon to 
Jhine in it *, for the glory of God did lighten it y and the Liamb is the 
light thereof. 1 Cor. 1 5. 28, that Godmay beallin all. 4. That 
Chrift frail not then leave off to reign as Mediator, even 
when the fore-mentioned change is made - 7 yet he remains the 
fubftantial glorified head of his myftical glorified body for ever, 
who (ball appear eternally for us, as a pledg of the fatisfattion 
once given, whofe preience is a fpeaking token of the ftanding 
Confederacy and Peace betwixt God and us , in whofe righte- 
ouihefs we ftand cloathed before God-, in whofe tranfaftions 
and acting in the work of Redemption, God is eternally well- 
pleafed, and by whole Covenant we ftand and reign with him 
eternally and indefedlibly in a confirmed glorified ftate : elfe, 
1. To what end fhall Chrift ftand glorified in our nature in hea- 
ven for ever ? 2. Why is the Lambs throne in heaven eternal ? 
Rev. 22. 3. 3. Elfe what means the Lambs lervants in heaven 
forever? Rev, 22. 3. and the new Song that is to the Lamb in 
heaven for ever, Rev. 5. 12. and 7. 10. 4. Elfe what meaneth 
the Lambs being in the midft of the glorified company , his 
leading them, being a temple, and a light unto them ? Rev.j. 1 7. 
and 2 1 . 22, 2 3 . Sure the Lord Mediator as a glorified tead of 
his glorious body in heaven, a&eth as Mediator, though not as 
he a&eth now *, and though we cannot well determine what fort 
of leading, and what difpenfatron of influences from him are 
there ( and no wonder if his union with us and headfhip over us 
even here, be a myfterie, the knowledg whereof is referred to 
his coming again, Job. 14.20,- At that day ye fhallknovo that I 
am in my father ', and you in me, and I in you): yet the Lambs 
throne there, and his leading the redeemed, and being a light 
aad temple to them, proves his peculiar headfhip to them. 
5, The bkffings purchafed by this Covenant of Sureti(hip , are 
partakers of eternity, they are eternal bleflkng* : the Redemp- 
tion obtained by the Mediator, is eternal Redemption ', Heb. 9. 12. 
and eternal \ Inherit ance^Heb. o. 15. and eternal life. Tit. 1.2. 
eternal Salvation y Heb. 5. 9. eternal Glory , 1 Pet. 5. 20. You fee 
then, that eternity is a property*ofthe Covenant of Redemp- 
tion, and that many things belonging to it are partakers of 
eternity: la a word, it is a Covenant which was traniacled 


c Chap. lit the Covenant of Redemption. $7 

from eternity, before the foundation of the world was laid *, it 
is as old as the Ancient of days ; ib that we cannot reckon the 
beginning thereof, Frov. 8.2$, / was fet up from ever lafting, 
from the beginnings or ever the earth was : and which (hall endure 
throughout eternity *, for the righteoufnefs of this Covenant, 
even the Surety-righteoufnefs of Chrift the Redeemer, (hall be 
worn in glory for evermore, by all the redeemed people *, and 
through the force and vertue of the blood thereof, (hall the 
glorious Church ftand and reign for ever, Rev. iy. 8, And to her 
was granted that flie (hould be arrayed in fine linnen, clean and 
white; for the fine linnen is the righteoufneft of Saints* And 5.9, 
And they fung a new fing, faying , thou art worthy to take the 
book^ and to open the feals thereof i for thou waft jiain, and haft 
redeemed m to God by thy blood out of every kindred y and tongue y and 
people, and nation, 

4. Another Property of the Covenant of Redemption, is 
equality : They who diftinguifh Covenants into equal and un- 
equal Covenants j by equal Covenants they underftand fuch 
wherein there is equality in the parties or conditions, when the 
parties ftand in equal terms, and do agree upon equal or like 

No Covenant betwixt God and meer Man, can properly and 
ftrictly be called an equal Covenant', neither the Covenant of 
works made with man in his integrity , nor the Covenant of 
Grace made with fallen man *, for befide the infinite diftance and 
inequality of the parties , there is no proportion betwixt the 
terms and conditions given and required in thefe Covenants : 
And upon ftricl: examination, there are but few equal Cove- 
nants betwixt man and man *, for it is rare to find the condition 
and affairs of Parties entering in Covenant in fuch an equal 
poife, as that the inequality of their condition, and the mo- 
ment and exigent of their affairs, does not influence the , 
terms and conditions of their Covenants, -fo as to render them 

But iure the Covenant betwixt Jehovah and Chrift,is an equal 
Covenant. 1. This Covenant was betwixt parties equal*, I do 
not fay that the Man Chrift, or Chrift Mediator was equal with 
God ; for in this refpect there was an inferiority and fubordina- 
tion unto which Chrift humbled himfelf ', by giving his aclual 
confent in this Covenant unto the designation of him to be the 

K 2 Perfon 

£8 Of the Equality of Chap. III. 

Perfon that fhouid do the work of our Redemption • but con- 
sidering Chrift as the eternal Son of God, and antecedently to 
his actual confent to humble himfelf j yea , and after that con- 
ient too, confidering Chrift the fecond Perfon as the natural Son 
of God , the parties traniatling this Covenant (though not 
quatenw, as they were confidered in this Covenant- tranf attion) 
were equal in Power, Greatnefs, Wiidom, Honour, &c. as 
hath been before fhewed from Phil. 2. 6, Who being in the form 
of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God. Joh. 10.29, $0, 
My Father which gave them me, is greater than all — I and my 
Father are one. 

2. This Covenant was betwixt equal parties, when they ftood 
in equal term, and were at a perfect freedom to chufe or refufc , 
to give confent to this Covenant or refufe it, as pleafed either 
party; these may be fometimes equality betwixt parties cove- 
nanting •, yet the inequality of the condition and freedom at the 
time of tranfacling, may render the Covenant betwixt them 
unequal ', as when the one party is not at freedom, is concluded 
by ibme preflure or neceflity that is not upon the other party - 7 
hence often the terms are unequal : but in the Covenant of Sure* 
tiihip (whatfoever inequality and fubordination was fubiequent, 
by the tenor of this Covenant) at the time when it was trania- 
&ed from eternity, the parties ftood both on equal terms, and 
were at perfect freedom to tranfaft or not , as pleafed either 
(as I have already proved)*, there was nothing in the condition 
of either party ( abftrac"ting from the purpofe of the parties 
own will, ana the defign that atted them, which was common 
to both) that could conclude either party to enter into fuch a 
Covenant (If I may call a tranf a&ion that had no beginning, 
by the name of entering a Covenant in regard of our manner of 
conceiving thereof) *, for this Covenant was not only confented 
to by Chrift, a perfon equal with God •, but by him being in the 
form of God, Phil. 2. 6, 7, that is, while he ftood in equal terms 
with God, and was under no neceflity to be found in the 
form of a fervant, till he humbled himfelf, and made himfelf of 
no reputation, &LC 

3. The defign that afted both parties in this tranfaclion, Was 
equal *, for it was one and the fame, a defign of love a&ed both 
the Father and the Son ^ the carrying on a purpofe of Grace and 
defign of love which God had laid upon hiseleft people, acted 


Chap. HI. the Covenant of Redemption. 6$ 

Jehovah in fending Chrift to do this work of Redemption , and 
in making him Surety for his people •, and the lame defign alio 
acled Chrift in his contenting to take our Law-place, and in his 
coming accordingly to a& our part, Joh. }. 16, For Godfo loved 
the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that vphofoever believ- 
eth in him Jhould not perijh , bnt have everlafting life. With 

Gal. 2. 20, / live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved 

me, and gave himfelf for me. Even this Love-defign which 
took up the delight and the thoughts of both the patties equally, 
and wherewith both parties were lblacing thcmfelves in the 
works without themfelves •, when as yet there was no world, 
nor Inhabitants thereof created, Prov.S. $i, Re)oycmg in the 
habitable part of hit earth, and my delights were wUh the 
fons of men, 

4. This Covenant of Suretifliip was made upon equal or like 
conditions and terms*, there was an equality betwixt the ftipula- 
tionand reftipuiation ; the conditions promifed to Chrift, and 
thefe required from him by this Covenant ', not that worthlefe 
man was a wager for God to work for*, for he was far below the 
price that love put upon him. But underftand it thus, 1. There 
was an equality of Juftice betwixt the conditions on the one 
part and the other •, punitive Juftice could exatt no more of 
man, by the curie of the broken Covenant, than that which 
Chrift fuffered as his Surety, Gal. $. 1 j, Chrift hath redeemed us 
from the curfe of the Law, being made a cur fe for Hi ', and remune- 
rative Juftice could give no lets to his perfect obedience unto the 
Law cf works, than the righteoufnefs and life whicbhe pur- 
chafed, Rom.S.j.j That the riglneoufnef of the Law might be 
fulfilled in tit. 2. There was an equality of proportion or merit 
betwixt the conditions required from, and performed by Chrift, 
by venue of this Covenant , and the conditions promifed and 
performed unto Chrift by this Covenant. Not a merit and ia- 
tisfaclion upon Chr id's part de congruo (as the Schoolmen r> ur and lik a 
lpeak) whereby the friendfhip and love of the party injured &m. 21i qwft?L 
doth accept of that which h not equivalent to the offence , 
which Vorftiiu calleth God's Divine acceptation (which proper- 
ly had no place here , though the friend (hip and love betwixt 
God and Chrift, be iuchas renders any thing done by him, ac- 
ceptable )-^ but a merk and fatisfaction de condigno, there 
being a juft and equal proportion betwixt the fault committed, 


7C Of the Equality of Chap. III. 

the fatisfa&ion given , and betwixt the reward promifed and 
given to Chrift, and the obedience required from and performed 
by him, Joh. 17. 4, 5, / have glorified thee on the earthy I have 
fmjhed the work^ which thou gave ft me to do. And now, O Fa- 
ther, glorifie thoH me with thine own f elf. Phil. 2. 7, 8, But 
made him f elf of no refutation, and took^upon him the form of a 
fervant, arid was made in the likeneft of man. And being found 
in faftrion as a man y he humbled him f elf. ~-Where fore God hath 
highly exalted him, &c 

5. The advantage redounding to both parties by this Cove- 
nant is equal $ I mean, the glory and honour of this tranfa&ion *, 
for no other profit and goodneis can redound unto the all-iuffi- 
tient good, Job $5.7, If thou be righteous , what give ft thou 
him? or what receiveth he of thine hand ? Pfal. 16. 2, $, — My 
goodneft extendeth not unto thee : But to the Saints that are in the 
earth, and to the excellent , in whom is all my delight. I fay of 
the Covenant of Suretifhip, that though the profit is ours, and 
extendeth only to the redeemed people \, yet the advantage of 
honour and glory, doth equally reach both the parties tranfa- 
cting in their own order \ for thereby there is a peculiar honour 
of our Redemption and Salvation to God, the Author thereof, 
who gave Chrift, and fent him to work this Redemption ; and a 
peculiar honour to Chrift Mediator, to the Lamb the grand 
Jnftrument that wrought it, and whofe foul travelled in it. So 
that the honour accrewing hereby is not peculiar to any one of 
the parties, but parted betwixt them, Joh. 5.2$, That all men 
jlmuld honour the Son, even as Hoey honour the Father. Rev. 7. 10, 
And cryed with a loud voice, faying , Salvation unto our God 
which fitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb. 

5. Another Property of the Covenant of Redemption^ order: 
that which is laid of the Covenant of Reconciliation, that it's 
ordered in all things *, is eminently true of the Covenant of Re- 
demption: It is a well-ordered Covenant^ and how can it be 
made otherwife., fince he that made it is the Gcd of order, 
1 Cor. 14. 3 1. and Godonlywife, 1 Tim. 1. 17. who knew well 
how to contrive the comely order which he defigned . Th e or- 
der of this Covenant doth chiefly confiftin thele two things. 
1 . In God's beautiful contriving and ordering the methods and 
ways of our Redemption and Salvation. 2. In his comely order- 
ing and adapting thcie Methods of Redemption to anfwer the 


Chap* HI. the Covenant of Redemption. ft 

ends and intents , which were purpofed and propofed in this 
tranfaftion. Under the firft of thefe , I comprehend, i. His 
ordering and fending of a Saviour and Redeemer to fallen man. 
2. His ordering the things that the Peribn defigned fhould do 
andfuffer for purchafing this Redemption. 3. His ordering 
the means whereby the purchaied Redemption fhould be ap- 
plied to the Redeemed people. 4. His ordering the efficacy of 
means towards the ends purpofed by him, that there might be 
no mifgiving in all the matter. Under the fecond, I compre- 
hend God's ordering, 1 . That the fatisfaction of Divine jultice 
fhall be, by a Surety. 2. That the iatisfaclion of the Surety 
fhall meet with, and fully come up to the demands of the Law 
and Covenant of works , by his obeying the command , and 
bearing the curfe. $.That the Sureties fatisfa&ion fhall ftand for 
the broken man's ; he taking our Law-place upon him,and acting 
our part. 4. That Juflice fhall be fo fatisfied, as mercy be alfo 
entreated •, that the means and methods of Redemption, may 
anfwer the intent of God , to glorifie thefe two attributes, 
Juftice and Mercy, in Man's Redemption. I do not fay that 
the beautiful order of this Covenant confided in thefe things 
only *, but in thefe, and the like ; which will appear further,when 
we come to fpeak of the lbbje&-matter of this Covenant, and the 
things that were therein concluded. 

6. Another Property of the Covenant of Redemption , is 
ftability^ God's Covenant with Chrift is an immutable, invio- 
lable tranfaclion j and all the things therein concluded are firm 
and unalterable, nothing thereof can fail 'j for, 1 . It is tranfa- 
&ed in the unchangeable counfel of God's will , where all the 
decrees and conclufions are unalterable , Neb. 6. 17, Wherein 
God willing more abkndantly to fliew unto the heirs of promife, the 
immutability of his r counfel 9 confirmed it by an oath. 
Ifa. 14.27, For the Lord of hofls hath purpofed , and who 
fhdidifannut it t 

2. It muft be an inviolable Covenant, being tranfacted be- 
twixt two parties who have all imaginable Properties that 
can enlure their dealings and transactions, and render them firm \ 
For it is, 1. Betwixt God unchangeable, with whom there is no 
variable nef^ norjhadowof turning Jam. 1. 17. I am the Lor d^ 
I change not^ Mai. 3. 6. And Jefta Chrifi , the fame yefterday^ 
and to day 9 and for ever, Heb. 1 3 . 8. 2. It is betwixt God tte 


72 Of the Eternity of Chap. I If. 

ftrengthof ffrael, who u not as the fon of man , that he fliould 
repent, i S*m. 15.29. who hath fworn to Chrift, and will not 
repent, Heb. 7. 2 1 . and Chrift Jefus, in whom all the promifes 
ol God are yea, and amen, 2 Cor. I. 20. 5. It is betwixt the 
true God, Jer. 10. 10. the Godof tr nth, D cut. 32.4. and Jeius 
Chrift, who is the truth it {elf, fob. 14. 6. 4. It is betwixt the 
faithful God which keepeth Covenant , Deut. 7. y. who abideth 
faithful, and cannot deny him f elf, 2 Tim .2. 15. and Jeius Chrift 
the faithful wit ne ft, Rev. 1. 6. 

$. This muft be a fure and inviolable Covenant, being a fworn 
confirmed Covenant *, for God hath not only fworn and con- 
firmed his Covenant with us, but he hath alio confirmed this 
Covenant with an oath, and fworn to Chrift , Pfal.So. 35, 
Once have J fworn by my holinef, that I will not lye unto Lavid. 
Heb. 7.21, For thofe Pr lefts were made withvnt an oath, but this 
with an oath, by him that faid unto him, The Lord fware, and 
will not repent ; thou art a Trie ft for ever, after the order of MeU 
chifedee. Now the Argument ufed by the Apoftle, from the 
confirmation of a Covenant, to the (lability thereof, holds good 
and firm of this Covenant alfo (though it be not the thing 
principally intended therej, Gal, $. 1 5, Though it be but a man's 
Covenant, yet if it be confirmed) no man difannulleth or addetb 

4. Stability and Inviolablenefsmoft eminently agree to that 
Covenant •, for which, and becauie of which the Covenant of 
Reconciliation made with us is firm, fure, and inviolable. Now 
'tismanifeft, that the (lability of that Covenant fprings out of 
this ^ and the inviolablenefs of the one, is given by the Holy 
Ghoft, for the ground and caufe of the (lability of the other • 
SeePjfc/.8o. 3$, $4> 35, j6, Neverthelef)myloving^ndneftwiU 
I not utterly take from him , nor fuffer my faithfulneft to fail. 
My Covenant willl not break,, nor alter the thing that is gone 
out of my lips. Once nave J fworn by my holinef, that J will 
not lye unto David. His feed Jhall endure for ever , and his 
throne as the Sun before me. Ifa. 55. 3,4, I will make an evtrlaft- 
ing Covenant with) 'ou, even the Jure mercies of David* Behold) 
I have given him for a witneftothe people) a leader and comman* 
der to the people. 

5. This Covenant is above thepoflible reach of all caufes or 
^occafions whatfoever , that render Covenants unftable and un- 
certain ; 

Ghap. IIL the Covznwt of RedmpiM* f% 

certain v for here,' ft There can be no place in either of the 
parties for unskilftilnefs nor rafhnefe, in contriving or entering 
this eternal Compaft, being the deed of parties, whofe under- 
ftanding cannot be fearched out, If a. 40. 28, the depths where- 
of are to be admired, Row. xl. I 1, O the depth of the riches 
both of the wifdom and knowledg of God ; whofe fooiijhnefs is 
wifer than men ! 1 Cor . 1. 25. who doth all his matters by coun- 
feland eternal deliberation, Eph. 1. 11, whoworketh all things 
after the counfel of his mil. Nor, 2. Is there place in either of 
the parties for unrighteoufnefs, Rom. 3.5,6, Is god unrighteous ti 
Cod forbid : nor for inconftancy or unfaithfulnefs (as is already 
proved) or any other thing that is contrary to Covenant-keep- 
ing. 1 . Nor is there any weaknefs or wearying in either of the 
parries to perform their undertaking , againft difcouragement 
and oppofition that ftands in the way of performing what is mu- 
tually engaged ; no fuch thing is incident to Jehovah, Luk. 1.37, 
For with God nothing jhall be impoffible. Ifa. 40. 28, The creator 
of the ends of the earth faint eth not, neither is weary. Nor can 
Qirift Mediator be impeached of fuch things, jr/^.42.4. He 
fyaU not fail nor be difcour aged, till he have fet judgment on the 
earth } and the Ifles fall wait for his Law. And 63.1 , tra- 
velling in the great ne ft of his fir 'ength : J that fpeak^in right eouf- 
nef, mighty tofave. 

. The Parties in this eternal traniaft ion about the work ofRe- 
cbnvption,' were Jehovah on the one part ; and the only Son of 
God on the other part.. That thefe were the parties, and thefe 
only, is generally acknowledged - 7 and it is plain Scripture, 
Pfal. 89. 3, / have made a covenant with my chofen. Heb. I. 5, 
For unto which of the Angels faid he at any time , Thou art my 
Son, this day have I begotten thee ? And again, I will be n him a 
Father, and he Jhall be to me a Son. And 5. 5, 6, So alfoChrifi 
glorified not himfelfto be made an high prieft , but he that faid unto 
him, thou art my>Son, to day have J begotten thee . As he faith alfo 
in another place, thou art a yrieftfcr ever, after the order ofMel- 
chifedec. And 10. 5,7, Wherefore when he cometh unto the 
world, he faith , facrifioe and offering thou would ft riot \ but a 
body haft thou prepared me. Then faid 1, lo , I come (in the' 
volume of the boosts writtedofme) to do tkywill^ tfh^Tity? 
difficulty lyeth in theri^uridtfiftanding how thefe parties are 
to be confidered: for clearing whereof, I (hall 1 lay dowftfour 
Aflertians. L jtfferu 

74 Of the Parties of Chap. IIF. 

Ajfert. I. Although God be on both fides of this Cove- 
nant ' 7 yet God is not to be the iame way confidered upon both 
parts of the Covenant ; for upon the one part God is to be con- 
sidered ejfentially , and it is opm ejfentiale y an aft common to all 
the three Perfons of the Godhead. The one party covenanting 
is Jehovah; God h common to all the three: upon the. other 
part the Son of God is to be confidered personally, an acl: pe- 
culiar to the Son of Gody thefecond Peribn ; elie there could 
be no diftinftion of -parties, no diftinftion of confents , and 1 
confequently no Covenant of Redemption, no compact about 
that work -, and according to this diftinftion, we are to under- 
stand the Scriptures before-mentioned . 

AJfert. 2.. The Covenant' of Redemption is tranfafted with 
Chrift per final, not with-Chrift. tnyftical :, not with the ekft: 
Company, but fingly with the Captain of Salvation , not with 
the head and body, the Church*, but with the chofen head, 
unto whomGod promifed and had appointed a numerous feed, 
that fhould become a body to him. It was made with Chrift, 
not as. a public k perfon, reprefenting many ; but as an eminent' 
chofen peribn, chofen .-out among his brethren, Pfal. 89. ip, 
L have laid help upon one that is mighty, I have exalted one chofen ' 
cut of the people. Heb. 5. 1, For every high priefi taken from 
among men, is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that 
he m/iy ojfcr both gifts and facri fees for fin ; for though the my- 
fticaf body of Chrift were to reap the benefit of this tranfa- 
ftion j yetthey were not parties in the tranfafting their own 
Redemption. The Covenant of peace, kindnefs, reconcilia- 
tion and life, . was indeed made with Chrift my ftical, head and 
members 5 with him as" a publick perfon, reprefenting all his 
feed and heirs that were chofen in him*, but the Covenant of 
Redemption was not fo. 

■Th'dethirigs confirm this Aflertion.. 1. The work and bufi- 
nefs tranfafted by this Covenant,was peculiar to Chrift's perfon, 
the fatisfying divine Juftice, by paying a price*, the aft of 
Suretifhip,.and taking the broken-man's Law-place, &c- Sure 
this was peculiar to Chrift perfonal. 2. • It was he to whom a 
feed of his own begetting, comprehending ail. the eieft, was 
promifed r, to whom a bride and a j body, whereof he fhould bi 
head and husband, with whom this Covenant was tranftfted. : * 
Now this was Chrifts perianal ; for it could not be, that God ' 


Chap. IIL the Covenant of Redemption. 75 

promifed this feed to the feed $ he did not prpmife a people to 
themfelves :, but to Chrift their cbpfen head. 3. By this Cove- 
nant, God did prbmife'and give the headfhip to Chrift over, 
that body, and did veft him with powers and authorities futa- 
ble:, even with all power in Heaven and Earth : Now the 
head/hip and thefe great Authorities, were neither promifed 
nor given to the head and body, to Chrift my ftical *, but to 
Chrift perfonal. 4. Chrift plainly claims the work of this Co- 
venant to himfelffmgly and perfonally confidered, and leaving 
out all others, even his own body, as having no acceflion to 
this that he was fingly engaged in , Heb. 2. 10, For it became 
him, for whom are all things , and by whom are all things ; m 
bringing many Sons to glory , to make the Captain of their Sal- 
vation per ft A through fujfering. And 5. 9, And, being made 
perfect J he became the Author of eternal Salvation unto all them 
that obey him. Joh. 17-4, I have glorified thee on the earthy I 
have finijhed the workjvhich thou gave ft me to do. Ifa. 6 3 . 3 , 1 have 
trodden the wine pre ft alone , and of the people there was none 
with me. 

After f. 1. The Covenant of Redemption which was tranfa- 
£ted with Chrift perfonally confidered, even with the only Son 
of God, the fecond perfon : was not made with Chrift God \ 
but with Chrift God- man, the perfon tranfafting with Jehovah, 
was not the Son of God, confidered as God, as the natural Son 
of God ; but confidered as God-man, as Mediator*, this : Cove- 
nant w r as ftricken with Chrift t« 9ii^f»ff«,' not w ao>». 
And i . That it was not made withChrift God, or confidered as 
the natural only Son of God, ismanifeft: For, 1. Chrift God »• 
could not be under the Law- 2. Norreprefent man, and take / 
his Law-place. 3. Nor can Chrift God fuffer and pay a price 
ofblood. 4. Nor coulctiDfrfiftf God receive a Million and 
Mandates *, . he could not be a Meffenger, nor be fen| , if we 
fpeak properly. ' 5. Nor to Chrift God could there be promifes 
made, or any reward given, &c. Thefe,and manyluchinftances 
may ferve for eftablifhing the negative part of this Aflertion , to 
wit, that the Covenant of Redemption was not made with 
Chrift God : befide , that this will receive further con- 
firmation by eftablifhing the affirmative part of the Af- 
fertion. . 

2. The Covenant of Redemption was made with Chrift 

L 2 God- 

; .. 

7£ Of the Partus inr Chap. III. 

God-wan : For, I. In this re{pe& only, Chrift could make a 
party diftinft from the other party covenanting ; to wit, Je- 
hovah 5 it could not have been a Covenant except there Jiad 
been two parties agreeing together. Now Chrift God, the 
fecond perfon, could not conftitute a party covenanting diftinft 
from God considered eflentially, as common to all the three, 
Father, Son and Spirit, Joh. 10. 30, / and my Father are one : 
It was therefore Chrift Goc'-oian, that made the Covenant of 
Redemption. 2. Chrift had a will diftinftfrom Jehovah's will, 
only as he was God-wan : for as God, his will is one and the fame 
with his Father's will, ahdundiftinguifoed from it, Joh. 1. 13, 
Not of the will of man *, but of God. Now where there is a Co- 
nantbetwixttwo, there muft be two wills, elfe how can there 
be any agreement or ccnfent of two ; for confent is an ad of 
the will : It follows therefore, that the Covenant was made 
with Chrift God-man, fmce in this refpeft only, there are two 
wills meeting , confenting, and agreeing on the lame thing. 
3. In what refpett only Chrift had a will capable of bowing, 
yielding, and obeying, in that refpeft he is to be confidered in 
the Covenant of Redemption \ whereby he voluntarily yielded 
to do thefe things, which no natural neceflity obliged him to, 
Heb, \o. 7, Then J aid I, lo, J come (in the volume of the boof^ 
it is written of me) to do thy will, O God. Now it is evident, that 
Chrift only as he was God man, had a will capable of bowing 
and yielding, Mat- 16. 39, Neverthelefs, not as 1 will ,* but as 
thou wilt '•) for the will of Chrift as God was not capable of bow- 
ing and yielding-, for who hath re fi fled his will? Rom. 9. 10. 
the Covenant therefore was made with Chrift God-man. 4. In 
what refpeet Chrift was inferiour to God, or fubordinate to 
him, and did receive offices, truft, miflion, commands, &c. and 
did obey : In that refpecl only , was the Covenant of Redemp- 
tion ftri£fcen with him *, for by the tenor of that Covenant he 
did all theie things, Joh. 10. 18, This commandment have J re- 
ceived of my father. And 6. 38, 39, For I came down from 
heaven, not to do mine own will , but the will of him that fent me. 
And this is the fathers will that hath fent me. And it is mani- 
feft, that in this refpeft only, Chrift as God-man is inferior to 
God , Joh. 14. 28, My Father is greater then I •, for Chrift 
God is equal with his Father, Ffal. 2. 6. It follows therefore 
neceiTarily> that the Covenant of Redemption was made with 

m Chrift 

Chap. TIT. the Covenant of Redemption. 77 

Chrift: God man. 5. In this confideration only as Chrifl: is 
Ged-man, the conditions and fatisfa&ion performed by him, 
are performed by one party, and accepted by another*, in this 
reipeft only there is fending and coming, asking and receiving, 
commanding and obeying, giving fatisfattion and receiving it ', 
for if Chrift be confidered as God, then there could be no per- 
forming and accepting of fatisfattion *, for fo the party giving 
and receiving , fending and going , working and rewarding, 
being the fame, all Jatisfaction is taken away *, for the party 
the fame every way, cannot be the giver and receiver of the 
fatisfavtion 5 fo all diftinclion of parties is taken away, and 
confequently all Covenant-dealings enervated. 6. The Cove- 
nant of Redemption muft be with Chrift God-man , in regard 
that the fatisfa£Uorfrequired upon God's part to be performed 
by Chrift, and undertaken by him, was fuch as might ftand in 
Law for our fm. Now it is not imaginable how the fatisfaction 
of Chrift God j could meet with the curfe of the Law of 
works that had gone forth againft man, Gal. 4. 4, 5, But 
when the f nine ft of time was come , God fent forth his Son % 
made of a woman, made under the Law, to redeem them that were 
under the Law , that % we might receive the Adoption of Sons. 
It refts therefore, that it was a fatisfaction undertaken by God- 
wan in the Covenant (^Redemption, 7. In that confideration 
that Chrift was Surety^r his people, and Mediator betwixt 
God and man -, in the fame confideratien was the Covenant of 
Suretifhip and Redemption made with him *, for he could not 
be a Suret^a one refpeft, andacl: himfelf unto it in another •, 
but it is vmm Scripture that it was not Chrift God that was 
Mediator and Surety •, but Chrift God-man , 1 Tim. 2. 5, For 
there is one God, and one Mediator between God and man, the man 
Chrifl; Jefw. Heb. 7. 22, By fo much was Jefus made fnrefy of 
a better teflament. 8 . In what eonfideration Chrift did perform 
the Covenant of Redemption, in the famerefpeft he is to be 
confidered as a party'Undertaker (for no man can probably think 
that one party undertook, and another performed); but it is 
above queftion, that Chrift God-man did perform this Covenant, 
and fulfil the conditions, therein required, iTim. $. 16, And 
without controverfe, great is the myflerie of Godlinef, God was 
manifefted in the fiejh , jnftified in the fpirit , fe en of angels , 
preached unto the gentiles, believed on in the world, received up 


78 Of the Parties in Chap. II{. 

into glory. Gal. 4. 4, But when the f nine $ of time w/u 
cove- God fent forth his Son made of a woman , made under 
the Law. Rom. 8. $, For what the Law could not do in that 
it was weakjhrough the flejh , God fending his own Son in the 
iilgnefi of ftnful fleft , and for fin condemned fin in the JleJJj. 
I conclude therefore, that with Chrift God man was the Co- 
venant of Redemption made. Befides thele arguments, many- 
more might be framed, from the particular commands, condi- 
tions and-promiies of the Covenant of Redemption, which are 
competent only to Chrift God-man, and no ways to Chrift God. 

From this which hath been faid of Chrift confidered as God 
and as God-man, we may anfwer the queftion, How thejuftice 
of Godcanhavealatisfac"tion from," and by a perfon or party 
who is God? Anf i.-If Chrift God had^een the party with 
whom the Covenant of Redemption had been tfanfac"ted, then 
indeed the party giving, and the party receiving the fatisfa&ion, 
had been the fame. But the Covenant being made with 
Chrift God-man, a perfon different from offended God efTen- 
tially confidered:, lb it is another party that makes the fatis- 
"' faction, than the party which was offended, and doth receive 
the fktisfacl:ion. 2. Chrift God-man in one perfon , having 
man's nature that offended, united into a perfonal union with 
the Godhead *, was thereby fitted fo to ftand in our place, and 
upon our fide, as a party different fr#m God, that he might 
therein fatisfie wrath, and therein merit by making a full and 
real compenfation to offended Juftice. 3 . Chrift God-man , 
who makes the fatisfattion as he is God, being one with the 
Father, while he fatisfies the Father's Juftice, h^itisfieshis 
<own ; but as he is God-man, being a party diro'ent from 
the Father, he is by the Soveraignty of free Grace given to be 
a Surety *, and the fatisfa&ion which he makes in our Na- 
ture as our Surety, is accepted by his Father, as by another 

Affert.Of. Chrift was chofen and predeftinated Lord Me- 
diator, and we are chofen in him before he is a party cove- 
nanting with Jehovah , about the work of our Redemption : 
I fay, i. He is firft in order, in the eternal purpofe of God, 
deflgned and fet apart to do this work, before he 1 gave an 
aclual confent unto the Covenant of Suretiftiip. This followeth 
neceflarily upon the former Aftertion •, for if the Covenant 


Chap. III. the Covenant of Redemption. j$ 

be made with Chrift God-man , with Chrift Mediator 
betwixt God and man , then he muft needs be Mediator 
by fome eternal ad of the counfel of God antecedent in 
order of nature to this Covenant with him , which is made 
with him confidered as God to be made manifeft intheflefh. 
2. I lay, not only- Chrift is choien *, but we alio are chofen 
in him, unto the fruit of that great labour and fervice which 
he was defigned to undergo *, for a Covenant of Suretifriip and 
Redemption, does not only iuppoie a Redeemer and Surety 
predeftinated to be undertaker for a loft people ^ but alio a 
people defigned to be partakers of the Redemption which he 
was to work. So%at I fay, this Covenant that was made with 
Chrift God ^#,doe$fuDpoie Chrift's headfhip,and our member- 
fhip by eternal predefflnation, and by a co-ordination, which 
maybeexpreis'din this order*, firft, the choien head, and then 
the body, God did not not firft chufe a body x and then 
had a head to feek for them •, nor did he chufe a head to be 
Without a body, or as one that knew not of a body for that 
head ; but Election, which was the firftaft of God's Iove*n 
eternity, fell firft upon Chrift, whom God did chufe to be the 
head of his body the Church , and the Captain of Salvation 
to all the choien company r, and having chofen him, he chuied 
us in him, as our head, and as the firft-born of the elect houfe 
and family, Rom. 8.29, For whom he did foreknow , he alfo did 
predefiinate, to be conformedto the ImageMhis Son y that he might 
be the fir fl- born among many brethren . Epn . 1.4, -According as he 
hath chofen m in him, before the foundation of the world 5 that we 
{hould be holy i and without blame before him Move* 


._ tk. -±- 


8o ~ Chap. IV. 


Of the tenor , Articles , and SubjeSl-matter 
of the Covenant of Redemption ; or of 
the Commands 5 Conditions, and Promifes 

TH E Subjeft-matter and Ankles of the Covenant of Sure- 
tifhip, which were agreed and concluded betwixt Jehovah 
and Chrift by an eternal Compact fwhiclialfo may be divided 
into commands, conditions, :andpromifes of that Covenant^, 
were mainly thefe feven. Who fhould be the Redeemed ? Who 
the Redeemer ? What his work ? When to be done ? How to 
be applied ? What his reward ? And what affurance- given be- 
twfxt the parties for mutual performance ? 

Now becaufe fome of thefe Articles may feem to be the fame 
upon the matter, which I have before after ted to be fuppofed as 
antecedent in order of nature to the Covenant of Redemption * 
Let it be reraembred , that they may well be fuppofed in our 
manner of conceiving thereof, as antecedent in God's purpofe^ 
and yet be Articles of ^iis Covenant , and fall under Chrift's 
actual content , which^akes a clofed Covenant about them : 
for it is not repugnant, that the fame thing be concluded in the 
eternal purpoie of God's Will , and in his eternal agreement 
with Chrift. 

i. By this Covenant it was agreed betwixt Jehovah and 
Chrift God-man, who fhould be the Redeemed people :, there 
was a definite certain number of Redeemed ones agreed upon , 
for whom Chrift fhould pay a price *, he was not Surety and 
undertaker for all Mankind, nor for all the vifible Church to 
whom the Gofpel fhall be preached*, for his undertaking is no> 
wider nor larger than his dying, purchafiog Redemption, bear- 
ing Iniquity , Praying, &c. thefe being of equal extent an* 
efficacy: for whom Chrift was undertaker to his Father, for 
them he dyed, andpurchafed Redemption by his death*, for 
tHem he did pray and make interceflion, &c. Now 'tis ma- 


Chap. IV. the Covenant of Redemption. 8 1 

nifeft that he did not purchafe Redemption, and make intercef- 
fion for all Mankind ; but for a chofen people, Heb. 9.15, And 
for this canfe he is the Mediator of the New Teftamem , that by 
means of death for the redemption of the tranfgreffions that were 
under the firftTeftament, they who are called might receive the 
fromife of eternal inheritance. Joh. 17-9, / fray for them , / 
pray not for the world , but for them that thou haft given me • for 
they are thine. Neither was Chrift undertaker for a people un- 
der any general notions or qualifications (fuch as them that 
fliould believe in him, or the like), not knowing definitely who 
the peribns were : but he was Surety and undertaker only for 
the elecl, and for a definite number of people, who were by 
number and name given to him by his Father, and received by 
him, to be redeemed by his blood *, which doth plainly appear 
by the defcription of the Redeemed people, who are ordinarily 
called thofewhom the Father gave unto Chrift Joh. 1 7. 5,6,9, 1 1. ck 
6. 57) 19' and who were chofen in him,TLph. 1.4. and whofe names 
are written in the book, of life, and in the Lambs book^of life - 
as if the Father, who gave them to Chrift , had kept one 
record of their number and names , and the Lord Me- 
diator, who undertook for them, had kept another \ Rev.iQ. 12. 
and 21. 27. 

2. By this Covenant it was agreed betwixt Jehovah and 
Chrift, who fhould be the Redeemer ; I fay, it was agreed who 
fhould be the peribn to undertake this great work of Redemp- 
tion and Salvation for thefe elec*t people -, for although we may 
conceive that Chrift was predeftinated unto this work before his 
actual confent ', yet we muft conceive the agreement is by his 
own actual coni en t and compact with God . See the agreement 
andconfent of both the parties, that Chrift fhall be the Lord 
Je hovah his iervant in this work, If a* 49. 5,6, And now faith 
the Lord that formed me from the womb to be hisfervant, to bring 
Jacob again to him *, though Ifrael be not gathered, yet Jhall I be 
glorious in the eyes of the Lord, and my God ftiall be my ftrength. 
And he faid, it is a light thing that thou jhonldft be my fervanty 
to raife up the tribes of Jacob, and to refiore the preferred of Ifrael', 
J will alj ogive thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou may ft be my 
falvation unto the end of the earth- And under this part of the 
agreement,! comprehend, 1. The defignation of the perfon who 
fhall be the redeemer,that it fhall be the fecond perfon,theSon of 

M God 

82 The Matter of Chap. IV. 

God only, not the Father, nor the Spirit, Ifa* 59. 20, Andthe 
Redeemer fh all come to Zion, and unto them that turn from tr an f- 
greffion in Jacobs faith the Lord. A&. $. 26, Vntoyoufirft, God 
having raijed up his Son , fent him to blefl yotiy in turning away 
every one of 'you from his Iniquities, 1 Joh. 4. 9, God fent his only 
begotten Son unto the wsrla\ that we might Ike through him, 
2. The conftituting of that Peribn, Surety and Mediator to take 
that place upon him, which the work of our Redemption did 
require, Heb- 7. 22, By fo much was J* fat made a furety of a 
better teflament, 3. The confent and agreement of Chrift to 
both thefe, to be the perfon that (hall work this work, and to 
be fubftitute in this place for doing the work, Heb. 1 0. 7, Then' 
faid /, Iq I come {in the volume of the boof^ it is written of me) 
to do thy willy God •, thus did the Creditor and the Cautioner 
ftrike hands together. 

$. By this Covenant it was agreed betwixt Jehovah and 
Chrift, What fhould be the Redeemer's work •, or what fhould 
be the price that he fhould pay , and the fatisfa&ion that he 
fhould make to divine Juftice, for the fins of the elecl that were 
given to him , under this, I take in, 1 . The concluding betwixt 
the parties, that Chrift (hall take upon him our Law-place and 
room, and in order to that his taking our nature upon him, that 
Juftice might reach him in our ftead and place, Gal. 4. 4, 
God fent forth his San made of a woman, made under the Law. 

2. That Chrift as our Surety fhould dye, and lay down his life 
for us,that he fhould pay for us the whole fura that was owing } 
even all that the Law and Juftice could exaft of the broken 
man, Joh. 10. 18, No man takerh it from me \ but J lay it down 
of my f elf . Rom, 8. 3, God fending his own Son in the liken eft 
of finful flefhy and for fin condemned fin in the flejh. Gal. 3. 1 $, 
Chrift hath redeemed us from the curfe of the Law, being made 
acurfefor us ^ this is at length held forth,//**. 53-5, 6, 7,10,12. 

3. That the payment and fatisfa&ion that fhould be made to 
Juftice, by our Surety in our nature, and in our room, fhould 
be accepted as our payraent,and as a condign price for our right 
to Heaven, Heb, 9. 15, And for this caufe he is the Mediator 
of the new Teflament , that by means of death for the redemp- 
tion of the tranfgreffwns that were under the fir ft Teflament , they 
which are called might receive the promife of eternal inheritance. 

4. By this Covenant it was agreed betwixt Jehovah and 


Chap. IV, the Covenant of Redemption. -§? * 

Chrift,whatfhould be the term of paying this price, and ma- 
king this fatisfattion to Juftice. A time and term-day is conde- 
scended upon, fuch as 1 eemed fit to infinite wifdom to appoint, 

Cah^. 2, 4, until the time anointed of the Father- — but when 

the fulnef of the time was come. Heb. 9. 10, 1 1, until the time 
cf reformation . But Chrift being come , an high priefi of good 
things to come. Dan. 9. 26, And after three fcore and two weeks. 
fhallMeffiab be cutoffs but not for himfelf I fay, though the 
price was agreed upon from eternity, yet God in his wifdom 
thought fit to put off the time of actual paying this price, till 
the Redeemer that fhould come out of Zton fhould be long 
waited for, Luk± 2. $8, — andjpakf of him to all them that looked 
for redemption in Jerufalemfiut though the payment was fufpen- 
ded till the fulnefs of time; yet neither Chrift's a&ing as Media- 
tor, nor the force of the biood of this Covenant ', but in contem- 
plation of the price to be payed at the.time appointed by theFatber^ 
he was the Lamb fain from the foundation of the world^Rcv. 1 5. 8. 

5. By this Covenant it was agreed betwixt Jehovah and v 
Chrift , how the Redemption wrought by him fhould be ap- 
ply ed to his elec~t people. And under this, I comprehend,. 1 .The 
eternal appointment of the Gofpel-Ordioances , efpecialiy the 
Covenant of Grace and Reconciliation, as means by divine ap- 
pointment, fitted to give the knowledge of the Redeemer, and 
of the Redemption and Salvation wrought by him , Luk^ 1 . 77, 
^78, 7p, To give knowledg of Salvation unto his people , by the 
remiffion of their fins : Through the tender mercy of our God y 
whereby the day-fpring from an high hath vifited us *, To give 
light to them that ft in darkgef? and in. the Jhadow of death? to 
guide our feet in the way of peace. 2. The conclufion , that the 
Gofpel fhould be preached to all Nations ^ that for the ElecYs 
fake it might come unto all the Societies of men in the world, 
among whom there are any of the redeemed ones, Pfal. 110.2, 
The Lord jhall fend the rod of thy frength out of Zton , rule 
thou in the midfl of thine enemies. \. The appointment of the 
times and feaibns, and of the particular Inftruments that fhould 
carry the Gofpel to the bounds of each ele& Soul's habitation, 
that it might meet with them, Alt. 1 7. 26, 27, And hath deter* 
mined the times before appointed? and the bounds of their habitation. 
That they fwuld feekjhe Lord? if haply they might feel after him y 
an^fndhim? though he be not far from every one of w. Accord- 

M 2 ing 

84 7J&e Matter of Chap. IV. 

ing as we fee it brought to pafs in the execution , fo it was con- 
cluded from eternity, Alt.%.19. and 1.6, 17. and 9. 15. and 
18. 9, 10. 4. The pouring out of the Spirit to make the 
Golpel-ordinances and means of Salvation effectual to the Re- 
deemed people *, this alfo was comprehended under this Article 
of the agreement, that this fhould be procured by him, for his 
elect people, Joh. 16. 7,8, Neverthelefl I tell yon the truth, it 
is expedient for you that I go away •, for if I go not away , the 
Comforter will not come unto you ', but if I depart, J will fend 
him unto you. And when he is come , he will reprove the world of 
fin , and of right eoufnef, and of judgment, Pfal. 1 10. 3, Thy people 
fliall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holinefi 
from the womb of the morning. 

6. By this Covenant it was agreed betwixt Jehovah and 
Chrift, what fhould be the reward and wages that he fhould 
have for this great Service , for working the work of our Re- 
demption ; his reward and wages in the general Notation there- 
of, vras 9 askjtnd have ; it was a grant of whatfoever he would 
ask of God for fo great a work and fervice ^ his recompence 
was at his own asking, Pfal. 2. 8, As\^ of me , and I fliall give 
thee, &c. and according to his own heart , full con- 
tent and fatisfaction , I fa, 53.11, He fliall be fatis- 
fied, &c. but more particularly, his reward and wages, which 
was all his own asking, comprifed thefe three things ( which 
fpeaks thefe particulars to have been much upon his heart, and 
inhisdefign). 1. That he fhould have a feed, and a people \ 
that for all his labour he might have a redeemed people : when 
he had his reward and fatisf action at his own asking, he made 
the redeemed ones, his end 5 his asking, his fatisfaction *, this 
was the refult of his tranicendent love, that he might be Imma- 
nuel , God with m \ that he might enjoy his poor worthlefs 
people, I fa. 53. 10, il, Tet it pleafed the Lord to bruife him, 
he hath put him to grief : when thou fli alt make his Soul an of- 
fering for fin, he fliall fee his feed , he fliall prolong his days y 
and the pleafure of the Lord fliall pro/per in his hand. He. 
fliall fee of the travel of his Soul, and (hall be fat is fed. 2. That 
he might have a Crown to himfelf •, I mean, a peculiar glory of 
being Lord Mediator and Redeemer , and of working this 
great work \ and this he had in Heaven before the foundation 
of the world, even fince the eternaldefignation and deftination 


Chap. IV. the Covenant of Redemption. 85 

of him unto this work ; for thenceforward he was the Lamb of 
God flain from the foundation of the world. Rev. 1 $.8. And 
was fet up from everlafting, Prov .8.23, and was glorified with 
the Father , not only with the eflential glory that is common 
to all the three peribns, which was obicured in his humiliation 
for the work of Redemption * 7 but alio with a peculiar glory, 
as Lord Mediator, which he had with him before the world began, 
Joh. 17. 5. and this glory he fhall have in Heaven, throughout 
eternity, even after the laft Judgment, there fhall be in Heaven 
a peculiar throne , and glory following y and a peculiar long 
to the Lamb , whereof read Rev. 22. 3. and 7. 10, 17. and 5.9. 
3. That he might have a crown and throne for each of thefe 
redeemed ones, whom he took for a iatisfa&ion to his Soul, 
their crown, and throne, and robes was part of the reward and 
wages that he wrought for, and asked of his Father, Joh. 17.24, 
Father, I will that they alfo whom thou haft given me, be with me 
where I am, that they may behold my glory which thou haft given. 
me. And 14. 3, I will come again and receive you unto my felf, 
that where I am, there ye may be alfo. Luk . 12. 32, Fear not little 
flock;, for it is your father* $ good pleafure to give you the King" 
dom. Rev. 5.21, To him that over cometh will I grant to fit in my , 
throne withme^ even as I alfo overcame, and am fet down with my 
Father in his throne . 

7. By this Covenant it was agreed betwixt the parties, what , 
fhould be the mutual aflurances given betwixt the parties for 
the performance of the Articles agreed upon. - There needed , 
no Solemnities betwixt parties who knew one another, and 
trufted one another fo perfectly *, but for our lakes , that we , 
might be helped to conceive of this eternal inviolable tranla- 
£Hon : Therefore upon the one part, 1 . Jehovah giveth his word 
and faithful promife unto Chrift, Ffal. no. 1, The Lord faid. 
to my Lord', and not his faithful promife only, but his -oath, 
alio, Pfal.89. 35, Once have I fw or n by my holinef, that I will . 
mt lye unto David. Heb.7.21, For thofe priefts were made without.^ 
an oath, but this with an oath , by him that faid unto him, The . 
Lordfwore, and will not repent , Thou-art a prieft for ever, after, 
the order of Melchife dec. 2. Upon the other part, Chriftdoes 
not only give his word of promife and conient to do this work, , 
Ffal. 40. 6, Sacrifice and offering thoudidft not de fire, mine. ears- 
haft thou opened, burnt offering and finroffering haft thou not re~ 

quired \ , 

B5 The Conditions required of Chriji in Chap. IV. 

quired, &c. But he alio comes under a Jndicial and Law-acl of 
Suretifhip, whereby he did from eternity acl himfelf, in the 
volume of the book^ of God's eternal Records, that he would ful- 
fil all his undertaking, Heb. 10.7, Then [aid I, lolccme^ in the 
volume of the book^ it is written of me , to do thy mil , O God. 
And under this acl: of Suretifhip, I comprehend, 1. His eternal 
confent to take our Nature and Law-condition upon him . 2. His 
plighting of his faith and truth to acl: our part , and to anfwer 
the Law, and Demands of Juftice in our Law-place and condi- 
tion. 3. His eternal agreement that by his own confent a ju- 
dicial acl: fhould be put upon him , and ftand in record for ever 
in Heaven, and irt the volume of books that are there, that this 
perfon had voluntarily undertaken, and promifed by ftriking 
hands with Jehovah^ to anfwer all demands of Law and Juftics 
againft his eleel: people. 

Having offered the before-mentioned fum of the Articles 
concluded and agreed upon in the Covenant of Redemption be- 
twixt Jehovah and Chrift :, 1 come in the next place to diftribute 
and divide that fum , and the things compriled under it, into 
the reciprocal and mutual engagements of the parties covenant- 
ing-, to wit, 1. What were the commands and conditions hid 
upon Chrift, and voluntarily yielded unto by him, in the Co- 
venant of Redemption. 2. What the promifes and engage- 
ments that were given to Chrift by the fame Covenant. 

And, 1. Concerning the commands, conditions and engage- 
ments, which were required of Chrift Mediator by the Cove- 
nant of Suretifhip : I (hall in thefe eight Aflertions open the 
nature of them, and what they were. 

Affert. 1. AH the commands of the Covenant of Redemp- 
tion, are conditions*, and are to be confidered as fuch^ when 
they are laid upon Chrift, who came not under commands, but 
upon terms and conditions. It is not fo in God's Covenant- 
dealings with us, all the commands of the Gofpel are not to us 
conditions of righteoufnefs and life (unlefs we underftand con- 
ditions in a very large and improper fenfe) •, neither is it of the 
effence of commands laid upon us to be conditions-, for God 
oweth nothing to our obedience, nor is he obliged to make any 
promifes to it *, but the commands of the Covenant of Redemp* 
tion are all of them conditions of that fame Covenant : For, 
1. They are commands, to the obedience whereof, promifes 


Chap. IV. the Covenant of Redemption* 87 

are n\ade, I fa. 5$. 12, Therefore will I divide him a portion 
with the great , and he foall divide the [foil with the ftrong, be- 
caufe he hath poured out his foul unto deaths and he was num- 
bred with the tranfgreffors , and he bare the [in of many , and 
made interceffion for the tranfgreffors. 2. They are commands 
unto which Chrift yielded upon terms, Phil. 2. 7,8, But made 
himfilf of no reputation , and tooh^ upon him the form of a fer- 
vant, and was made in the likenefof man. And being found in 
fafluon as a man , he humbled himfelfr and became obedient 
unto deaths even the death of the Crofi j therefore God hath highly 
exalted htm* k 

Affert. 2. All the conditions of the Covenant of Redemp- 
tion , both thefe more general of obeying the Law, and ful- 
filling all righteoulhefs, Mat. 3. 15, For thus it becometh tt$ to 
fulfil allrighteaufnefi; and the more ipecial condition of laying 
down his life, were voluntary free at"ts of Chrift's will and infi- 
nite love, wherein he was aclred by no neceflity , without his 
own free confent, Joh. 10. 18, No man takethmy life from me , 
but I lay it down of my felf^ 1 have power to lay it down, and 1 
have power to tak* it again ; this commandment have J received of 
my Father. 

Affert. 3. All the conditions required of Chrift, and under- 
taken by him m the Covenant of Redemption, were eniiired and 
certain conditions, there was 110 hazard of failing, nor coming 
fhort upon his part in any the commands or conditions of that 
Covenant : therefore it was laid of him, Ifa. 42. 4, Hefhallnot 
fail j nor be difc our aged till he have fet judgment in the earth. 
Three things evidence this. 1 . The peribnal union of the two 
Natures, exempted the man Chrift from all hazard and poflibi^ 
lity of finning or coming fhort in the obedience of any command 
or condition required of him. 2. Chrift as man had the Spi- 
rit above meafure, and the confirming Grace which is given to 
ele£l Angels in their head Chrift} he had not only thepromiie 
of the Spirit and heavenly influences to all duties and conditions 
required of him *, but he had thefe actually, even from his Mo- 
thers womb, Ifa. 42. 1, Iwillputmy fpr it upon him. Ifa. 11. 2, 
The Spirit of the Lord fhall re fl upon him. $. There were no 
threatnings in the Covenant of Redemption (though there were 
promifes) j becaufe there was no hazard of Chrift's failing in the 
conditions thereof -, nor poffibility of his falling fhort of the 
promiled reward. Affert. 4. 

83 The Conditions required of Chrijl in Chap. IV. 

Affert. 4. Although it was eminent pure Grace that made the 
Covenant of Redemption ; yet the conditions thereof required 
from Chriit, were works j it was doing , not believing , that 
was required of him , Rom. 5. io> By the obedience of one flail 
many be made righteous. Joh- 9.4,/ mnjl work^the works of him 
that fent me. 1 acknowledg there was a kind of faith required 
of Chrift-man, which cannot be excluded the conditions of 
this Covenant. ( underftanding conditions in that large ienfe as 
comprehending all thefe tyes, obligations and duties which the 
man Chrift took upon him, by taking on our Nature, and our 
Law-place) * 7 whereof he maketh profefTion , If a. 50. 7, For 
the Lord God will help me , therefore flail I not be confounded *, 
therefore have I fet my face like a flinty and I know that I flail 
not be aflame d. And Pfal. 16. 8, / have fet the Lord always 
before me *, becanfe he is at my right hand y I flail not be moved ,&c. 
compared with Act. 2. 25, for David fpeaketh concerning him , 
I fore f aw the Lord always before my face ; for he is on my right 
hand, that I flonld not be moved. And Heb. 2. 13, I will put my 
truft in him. But, i .This faith profefTed by Chrift, was faith of 
another kind, than that faith which is the condition of the 
Gofpel-covenanttous*, it was the faith of dependance and re- 
lying on God, foraffiftance and acceptance in doing the work, 
which- was the eminent condition of the Covenant of Suretifhipr, 
but not -a faith whereby he went out of himfelf to rely on ano- 
ther for righteoufnefs ; it was works, not Grace; not the Evan- 
gelical Inftrument , but the att and work of faith, 2. This 
faith profefled by Chrift, was upon another account, and for 
another ufe \ it was a debt which the holy humane nature of 
Chrift, being a creature, owed unto God j a debt, I fay, fuch 
as did not exclude that from being meritorious, and part of his 
fatisfa&ion (fince it was part of his obedience taken on by vo- 
luntary compact) no more than his being made under the Law, 
whereby he was debtor to fatisfie the penalty thereof, did ex- 
clude his fuffering from being fatisfa&ory *, yet he was not by 
this kind of believing juftified , and conftituted righteous, by 
•any righteoufnefs received by his faith , or imputed to him *, 
as we are juftified by faith. 3. This faith profefTed by Chrift, 
was neither the whole condition of the Covenant of Suretifhip, 
nor the chief and eminent part of it (as (hall be made to appear)*, 
butatmoft it could amount to no more of the condition of 


^Chap. IV, the Covenant of Redemption. $? 

hisSuretifliip, than fuch a faith of dependency in Adam be- 
fore his fall , fhould have been in the conditional part of 
the Govenant of works that was made with him , and 
that was but one fingle aft and work of righteoufnefs ; 
which was a foiall part of the condition of that Covenant- 

AJfert. 5. The conditions of the Covenant of Surety • 
(hip made with Chrift, did fully and perfectly aniwet 
the intent of the Covenant of works * 7 and that in both 
the parts of it copulatively , which did but alternatively 
oblige manjfor the Law does not oblige man in an abiblute fenfe, 
both to perfect doing and iufFering, but to one of them j for if 
we keep the Law,we are not obliged to fuffer, Gen. £. 1 7, But of 
the tree of th? knowledg of good and evil, thou ft alt not eat of it \ 
for in the day thou eatefi thereof thou ft alt fur ely die. But Chrift 
by the conditions of the Covenant of Redemption , 1 . He is a 
full doer and obedient fulfiller of the commands thereof in all 
points, Mat. 3. 15, For thus it behoveth us to fulfil all righteouf- 
nefi. 2. He fully iiiffers the penalty of that Covenant, and 
fatisfies for the broken commands thereof, I fa. 53.5,6, He 

was wounded for our tranfgrefifions The Lord Laid upon him 

the iniquity of u4 all. Hence, \ . By the conditions of this Co- 
venant which he performed, he had right to Law-juftification, 
and life eternal , even by the Law of works j for the righte- 
oufnefs which he wrought was perfect Law-righteoufnefs, 
though the imputation of it to us be an act of Grace *, and our 
receiving it by faith , make it Gofpel-righteoufnefs to us , 
1 Joh. 1. 7, But if we walk^in the light as he is in the light , we 
have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jefus Chrift his 
Son cleanfeth us from all fin. Compared with Rom. 4. ^, But 
to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that jufiifieth the un- 
godly, his faith is counted for righteoufnefi. 

AJfert. 6. Neither Ghrift's active nor paflive obedience are to 
be excluded from making up the adequate condition of the 
Covenant of Suretiihip : For, 1 . The man Chrift his paflive 
obedience could not have amounted unto a iatisfaction for us, 
if by his active obedience, his habitual and actual conformitv 
unto the holy Law of God, he had not been fuch a high priefi 
as became us, as is holy, harmlefi, &c. Heb. 7. 26. 2. Although 
Chrift as man was obliged to obey the Moral Law *, yet confi- 
dering that he voluntarily took that obligation upon himfelf, 

N and 

90 The Matter of Chap. IV. 

and being Lord and Law-giver, he made himfelf under the Law 
by this Covenant of Suretifhip. I do not fee how his obedience 
to the Law can be excluded from among the conditions of this 
Covenant. $. The whole courfe of ChriftVs obedience, from 
his Birth to his Grave , by doing and differing, is to be confi- 
dered as the doing and iufrering of fo excellent a perfon who 
was God-man •, and lb all thefe being a&s fo excellent , and fo 
undue (except by voluntary condelcenfion), they muft needs 
be fuch conditions as were part of the price payed by him. 
4. The obedience of Chrift, and all that he did in obedience to- 
the Law, being performed by him in the ftate ©f his humilia- 
tion in which he was , whatfoever he was , for hs^ 2 Cor. 8. % 
for your fakes he became foor *, all thefe muft have refpeft of con- 
ditions of his Covenant with Jehovah , which he performed 
for us. 

Affert. 7. The conditions of the Covenant of Redemption 
required from Chrift,and performed by him, were meritorious ; 
that is, they were not confequent conditions, which denote on- 
ly a connexion and order betwixt the thing promifed, and the 
condition required *, but they were antecedent conditions, when 
the condition is the caufe of the thing promiied \ as in contracts 
of Juftice, where one thing is given for another. So the con- 
ditions of this Covenant performed by Chrift, did by order of 
ftritt ]uftice, and )ure emptionis, claim the reward that was pro- 
mifed and covenanted with him , to be given to himfelf the 
head, and to his elect people, in whole ftead he fatisfied Juftice 
by paying their debt with a price of blood } hence it is that he 
craves the reward to be given, and that in Juftice, for the work 
he had done, J oh. 1 7. 4, 5, 24, / have glorified thee on the earthy 
I have finiflied the work^ which thou gave ft me to do. And now, 

O Father, glorifie thou me with thine own [elf. Father , / will 

that they alfo whom thou haft given me, be with me where lam , 
that they may behold thy glory which thou haft given me - for 
thou lovedft me before the foundation of the world. Hence it 
$ alio, that his Advocation is grounded upon Juftice, and he 
{lands in Heaven, Jefus the righteous, 1 joh. 2. 1. who being 
nowjuftified and acquitted of the debt that he took upon him 
by his bond of Suretifhip , whereby he was made fin, and made 
a enrfe for us, 2 Cor. 5.21. Gal. ^.13. He pleads now the me- 
at of blood- 


Ctiap. IV. the Covenant of Redemption. 9 X 

Affert. 8. The condition of the Covenant of Suretifhip, is 
either more general and adequate, or more fpecial and formal ^ 
and accordingly we muft aniwer the queftion , when 'tis asked, 
what was the condition of this Covenant i An fa. i . The gene- 
ral adequate condition of the Covenant of Suretifhip can be no 
narrower than Chrift's whole undertaking ; fo that whatfoever 
he undertook to do, whether in his own perlbn, or inhispeo 
pie ^ for carrying on, and perfecting the work of Redemption 
from beginning to end, muft be part of the conditions required 
at his hand •, whereof read Pfal. 40. 6, to 1 1 . compared with 
Heb. 10. 5, to 1 1 *, all which may beiummed up in fix compre- 
henfive heads, 1. Chrift's accepting the grand charge of this 
work of Redemption, even the Mediatory-office that was put 
upon him ^ he receives the keys of the houfe of David, the truft: 
and weight of the loft, but elect world ; and all the burthen 
and care of them is devolved upon him, with this office, Ifa. 22. 
22, 24, And the ksy of the houfe of David will I lay ttpon hit 
Jhoulder ', fo hejhall open, and none Jhall Jhut *, and he fall jhutj 
and none Jhall open : And they fall hang upon him all the glory 
of his Father's houfe, the offspring and the iffue • all veffels of 
fmall quantity, from the veffels of cups, even to all the veffels of 
fiaggons. 2. His taking our nature upon him , and that not in 
its primitive virgin integrity, but when it was at the worft •, it 
was a condition of this Covenant, that Chrift fhould humble 
himfelf to take on him the likenefi of ft nfulflejh, Rom. $. $ , that he 
fhould take the fame nature that offended divine Juftice, even 
the fame flejh and blood, whereof the children are partakers, 
and no other, Heb. 2. 14. $. His taking our Law-place, was 
another condition ^ not our nature only, but our Law-place 
and room *, that is, to put his Soul in our Soul's ftead, that the 
Law of God might reach him , who otherwife could not be 
reached by the Law ; and that. Divine Juftice executing the 
curfc and penalty of the Law, might fmite him, as the guilty man 
being by his own confent , and his bond of Suretifhip become 
legally the debtor and finner f though not intrinfecally), 
Gal. 4. 4, made under the Law, and made fin form, 2 Cor. 5. 2 1. 
though he knew no fin. 4. His acting our part, not in a fcenick, 
but in a real manner *, he came upon the ftage to represent o^ir 
perfon, and in our nature and Law-place he really acted our 
part*, and this was another condition required of him , who 

N 2 per- 

9* the Matter of Chap. IV. 

perfectly obeyed the command of the Law, and fuffered the 
threatning thereof for us, even all that Juftice had threatned to 
infliit upon the offender and tranlgreflbur of the Law,GW. 3. 1 3. 
"he was made a curfe for us , Ifa. 55.5, the chaftifement of our 
-peace was upon him , &c . 5. His ta-ing a new Covenant-right 
unto God his own Father, and not to God only, but to heaven^ 
and glory, and all the New-covenant bleflings, whereby the 
Covenant-right and rites of his redeemed people might be con- 
folidated in him, as their head \ and whereby he might for ever 
carry their names and interefts before his Father, as being there 
reprefented by him, Ffal. 89. 26, He Jball cry unto me, thou, 
art my Father , my God, and the rock^ of my Salvation. Heb. 2. 
11. 13, For both he that fanBifieth, and they who are fantli fed , 
are all of one \ for which caufe he is not ajhamed to call them bre- 
thren. And again, 1 will put my truft in him\ and again, behold 
1, and the children which thou haft given me. And 9.24, For Christ 
is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the 
figures of the true , but into heaven it fclf, now to appear in the 
prefence of God, for us. 6. His effectual application of the Re- 
demption purchaied by his Suretifhip unto all his redeemed 
ones. And under this, I comprehend Chrift's undertaking for 
the pouring out of the Spirit, to fend to them his Spirit, to 
draw them to him,to caufe them to believe ek receive his Surety- 
nghteoufnefs,to keep them in his favour and love, to caufe them 
t.opedevere,to prefent them perfefted,and without fppt to God, 
Joh. 15. 26, But when the Comforter is come, whom J will fend 
unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth , which fro- 
ceedcth from the Father , he jhallteftifieofme. Joh. 1 2. \2,And 
if I be lifted up from the earth , I will draw all men* unto me. 
"(oh. 6. 37, All that the Father giveth me [hall come to me : and 
him that cometh to me , I will in no wife caft out . Joh. 6. 39,40, 
And this is the Father's will that hath fent me, that of all which 
he hath given mt, I fiould lofe nothing, but flwuld raife it up at the 
laft day. And this is the will of him that fent me, that every one 
which feeth the Son, and bclievcth on him, may have everlaftmg 
life, and I will raife him up at the laft day. Joh. 14. 3, And 
ff 1 go and prepare a place for you , / will come again and 
receive you unto my felf, that where I am , there ye may 
be alfo. 

2. But if ye enquire after the formal condition^ the Co- 

Chap. IV, the Covenant of Redemption, , 93 

venant of Suretifhip •, I fay it was hte whole obedience a&ive 
and paflive , even unto death , Phil. 2. 8, and became obedient 
unto death, even the death of the crop \ though the fpecial, prin- 
cipal eminent condition of this Covenant may be referred to 
the principal, eminent , laft aft of his obedience to that fignal 
fpecial command of laying down his life for the ele<ft, Joh. 10. 18, 
No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of my felfc I have 
power to lay it down-, and 1 have power to take it again :, phii com- 
mandment have I received of my Father. For, 1 . This Cove- 
nant being a bargain betwixt Jehovah and Chrift, of buying a 
people to God; then the whole price and ranfom told down and 
paved for them, muft be the formal condition of that Covenant, 
whereby we are bought with a price, 1 Cor. 6. 20. 1 Pet, 1 . 18, 19, 
For as much as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corrupt 
tible things, as filver andgold, from your vain converfatwn recei- 
ved by tradition from your Fathers : but with the precious blood 
ef Chrifl , as of a Lamb without {pot , and without blemijla. 
2. Chrift was under a fpecial explicite command for the per- 
formance of this condition of laying down his life ', as is clear 
from Joh. 10. 18, and Chrift was under a fpecial aft to obey 
this command, as himfelf acknowledges , Heb. 10.7, Then 
faid I, lolcome , in the volume of the beck^it is written of me, 
to do thy will, O my God-, and therefore we may well call it 
the fpecial condition of the Covenant of Suretifhip. 3. This 
lolemn acl: of obedience, in offering himfelf a Sacrifice to death 
for our fins, is the condition of his bond of Suretifhip, that is 
moft notifed by the Holy Ghoft, and frequently referred unto - 7 
as may be gathered from Heb.y. 14, 15,26, How much more 
fljall the blood of Chrisl , who through the eternal Spirit offered 
himfelf without jpot to God, purge your confeiences from dead 
works, to ferve the living God. And for this caufe he is the 
Mediator of the New Teftament , that by means of death for 
the Redemption of the tranfgreffions that were under the firft Te- 
ftament , they which are called might receive the promifc of eternal 
inheritance. — but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared 
to put away fin by the facripce of himfelf Rom. 8. 1, — God 
fending his own Son in the likenefi of finful fie fin , and for fin 
condemned fin in the fie fl?. And therefore when we fbeak of 
the condition of the Covenant of Suretifhip, this is to be held 
the fpecial eminent condition thereof. 4. The Father "of our 


94 ?% e Conditions required of Chrift in Chap. IV,, 

Lord jefus Chrift ftates the condition of this Covenant upon 
this eminent iblemn aft of his obedience, even his making his 
foul an offering for fin, &c. for-vent which he makes the great 
promiies of his glorious reward, J fa. 5 $. throughout. 5. Our 
Lord Jefus Chrift himfeif does own this as the ipecial condi- 
tion of his Coovenant of Suretifhip , and that both at his 
entringinto the world, Heb. 10. 5,7, Wherefore when he cometh 
into the world, he faith, facrifice and offering thou wonldft not\ 
but a body baft thou p re pared me. Then faidj, lo I come, in 
the volume of the boohjit is written of me y to do thy will, O God : 
And about, or at th* time of his leaving the world 9 when he 
had fulfilled, or was about to fulfil all his undertaking and con- 
ditions to his Father, Job. 17.4, / have glorified thee on the 
earth , / have finijlied the worh^ which thou gave ft me to do. 
With 1 p. 50, When Jefus therefore had received the vinegar, 
he f aid, it ufinifhed, and he bowed his head, and gave up 
the ghoft. 
StiMr Huthctf. Thefe being the fum of the conditions required from Cht 1ft, 
Trut.'ofthcco- and undertaken by him-, let us enquire alio after the promiies 
vinant, p. 2. made to Chrift, and the encouraging-conditions that were 
ch. 11. And raa de to him by Jehovah, for undertaking fo hard a work 
Mr. Robert* as was tn e redemption and recovery of loft man : Thefe were 

C, 2. °* ei 8 nt * 0rtS * 

The firftkindof promifes made to Chrift in the Covenant 
of Redemption, were fuch as relate to the offices, authorities, 
trufts and powers that were covenanted to hiro, for the doing 
of this work. 1. I lay, Jehovah promifeth to inveft Chrift 
with offices iutable to that great work of Redemption, to 
make him Lord Mediator of the new Covenant ', to make 
him great Lord Ambaflador, that he might go and travel in 
that bufineis of our Redemption ; to make him a King, a Prieft, 
and a Prophet,for effecting this bufinefs, Pfal.i 10. throughout, 
The Lord f aid to my Lord, fit thou at my right hand,^-he foall 
judge among the heathen, — the Lord hath fworn^ and will not 
repent , thou art a Prie& for ever, Ifa.49. 6. And 42. 6,7, 
J will alfo give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou may ft 
be my Salvation unto the ends of the earth, — to open the blind 
eyes, Sic. Pfal. 2. 6, 7 , Tet have J fet my King upon my holy 
hill ofZion ; I will declare the decree, the Lord [aid unto me, &c. 
2. God did not only promife to inveft Chrift with offices and 

■trufts ^ 

Chap. IV. the Covenant of Redemption. . c/5 

trufts •, but with authorities and powers alio , with headffiip 
and power of judgment over Men and Angels, that fhall make 
them all bow to him, Rom. 14. 10. II, We [hall all ft and before 
the judgment feat of Chris! *, for it is written. As I live, faith 
the Lord., every knee jhall bow to me, and every tongue ft) all con- 
feft to God* He was not a titular King or Prieft , nor a 
fcenick one, a King upon a ftage-, but a King upon a throne, 
Luk± 1. }2, 11, And the Lord God ft) all give unto him the 
throne of his father David. And he fhall reign over the houfe 
if Jacob far ever, and of his kingdom there jhall be no end. A 
King that had power to bow the hearts of his Subjects, and 
to crufh the greateft Heads and Rulers in the world that op- 
pofe him , TfaL 110. $. 5, 6, Thy people ft) all be willing in the 
day of thy power. — 7 he Lord at thy right hand ftiall ftrike through 
kings in the day of his wrath. He ftudl ]udg among the hea- 
then, he ft all fill the places with the dead bodies, he jhall wound 
the heads over many countries. And 2. 9, Thou ft) alt breaks 
them with a red of iron, thou ft)alt daft) them in pieces like a 
potter's vejfei And 45. %, 4, 5, Gird thy fword upon thy thigh, 
Omofh mighty, with thy glory and thy majefty. And in thy ma- 
jefty ride profperoufty, becaufe of truth andmeeknefs, an d right e- 
eufneft, and thy right hand Jhall teach thee terrible things. 
Thine arrows are ftiarp in the heart of the kings enemies, 
whereby the people fall under thee. A perfonin offices, who 
had all judgment committed unto him, who had power given him 
over, all flejh, Joh. 17. 2. and all power in heaven